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A Narrative Account of its Historical Progress, 
its People, and its Principal Interests 

BY " 








The present history of Calhouu county, resulting from the combined 
labors of editor and publishers through a period of more than a year, 
is herewith offered to the public. The design has been to present a com- 
prehensive, accurate and readable narrative and work of reference, and 
to this end have the labors of all concerned been directed. The work has 
divided itself into two parts, the historical and biographical, and the 
biographical matter, while essential to the history, has been placed in a 
separate volume where it will not obstruct the general reader. As stated 
in the original prospectus, all data for this section of the work has been 
offered, before publication, in typewritten form for correction by the 
persons concerned. 

As to the historical part, the editor must assume full responsibility, 
since the publishers have granted him entire freedom in this department. 
In a sense it will be seen that the editor has done little more than place 
in orderly arrangement the flowers that others have plucked from the 
historic highway, or that he has but welded into a historic chain of events 
the links that others have forged. One of the most difficult things to 
determine was what to admit and what to omit ; hence criticism both as 
to what the work contains and what it fails to contain is expected. 

To the associate editors, John H. Kellogg, M. D., President Samuel 
Dickey ; Judge William H. Porter ; I\lr. Edward C. Hinman and Mr. 
William J. Smith, the editor wishes to express his appreciation of their 
cooperation and valuable aid. Likewise, does he desire to express his 
oliligations to the many individual contributors of articles which add so 
much to the historic value of the work. In not a few of these articles is 
tliere evidence of that painstaking research which for all time will give 
a historic interest to the work and be of invaluable assistance to him 
who, in the years to come, will do for a future generation that which 
this work has undertaken to do for this. Acknowledgment is made for 
valuable suggestions offered and for courtesies extended by Mrs. Perry, 
assistant secretary of the Michigan State Pioneer Society; as also for the 
information gained through the publications of the society named. On 
matters relating to Michigan they are indeed a mine of historic wealth. 

The editor invites attention to what may be termed the Civil war 
chapters of the work. The preparation of these consumed much time and 
required no little labor. More than one hundred volumes relating to the 
Civil war were carefully consulted. The result is believed to be, for the 
space allowed, a very complete setting forth of Calhoun county's part 
in the struggle for the preservation of the Union. 

The editor wishes to acknowledge the uniform courtesies extended by 
the publishers. In the preparation of the work they have cheerfully 
afforded every available facility. 

All the mechanical features of the work, including the paper, the 
type, the illustrations and the binding, fully meet the promises hehl out 
and are worthy of a publication of much wider dissemination than this 
can possibly have. 


No one is so well aware of the defects and shortcomings of this work 
as the editor, but if, despite these, it has made a substantial contribution 
to the history of Calhoun county ; if it shall serve to give to its people a 
better knowledge and consequently a better appreciation of the places, 
persons and events that have helped to make up its historical features, 
and if it shall be of assistance to some future editor in the preparation 
of a like work, the labor expended will not have been in vain. 

Washington Gardner. 



Michigan Under the French Flag 1 

Michigan Under the British Flag 8 

Michigan Under the American Flag 5 


Michigan to the Close of the War of 1812-1814 7 



Material Development — The Territorial Roads 9 



Calhoun and Calhoun County — Lmfortant Year for the County 
and Marshall — Rapid Growth of County and County Seat — 
Public and Private Buildings — First County Court House — A 
New Court House Needed — A New Jail — The Calhoun County 
Home — County Officers 15 




Marshall Men and Measures in State and National History (by 
John C. Patterson) — Battle Creek as a Station on the Under- 
ground Railway (by Charles E. Barnes) — The Underground 
Railroad (by Burritt Hamilton) — Calhoun County Agriculture 
(by J. H. Brown) — Roads and the Improvement of Roads. ... 29 



Bank of United States op America — Wild-Cat Banking — A National 
Currency — Old National Bank of Battle Creek — The First Na- 
tional Bank op Battle Creek — The First National Bank op 
Marshall — Central National Bank, Battle Creek — City Bank 
OP Battle Creek — Merchants Savings Bank op Battle Creek — ■ 
The Commercial and Savings Bank, Albion — Albion State Bank 
— First State Bank op -Tekonsha — Athens State Bank 104 



Albion College (by Delos Pall) — (I) Its Early History — (II) Its 
Early History Continued — (III) Early History, Third Period — 
(IV) The Past Thirty-Five Years — Ideal Character op the 
College — (V) Products 117 



Michigan Public School System — Leading Calhoun County Educa- 
tors — Rural Schools op the County (by Frank D. Miller) — 
Register op State and County Officers — Dr. Delos Fall — Village 
Schools (by Frank D. Miller) 142 

The Indians 158 



The Washingtonian JIovement — AVashingtonianism in Battle Creek 
— The Red Ribbon Movement — The Women's Christian Temper- 
ance Union — Legislation 160 




Albion and Athens Townships — Athens Village — Battle Creek 
Township (by Mrs. Laura Ringes) — Bedford and Burlington 
Townships — Village op Burlington — Clarence, Clarendon, Con- 
SHIP AND Village — Homer Banks — Lee, Leroy, JIarengo, ]\1ar- 
SHALL, Newton and Penfield Townships — A Few Pioneer Ex- 
periences — Sheridan and Tekonsha 164 



Presidents of the United States — Governors of LIichigan Territory 
— State Governors — Federal Officials from Calhoun County — 
Delegates to Constitutional Conventions — State Officials 
from the County — Members of the State Senate — Representa- 
tives OF Michigan Legislature — Circuit and Probate Judges — 
Sheriffs, County Clerks, Treasurers, Registers of Deeds, Prose- 
cuting Attorneys, Circuit Court Commissioners, Surveyors, 
Drain Commissioners, Commissioners op Schools, and Coroners — 
Population and Property Valuation 217 



Early- Settlement of Marshall (by Mary Wheeler Miller) — Land- 
marks OF Marshall (by Amelia Frink Redfield) — -The Cholera 
Scourge (1832) — Marshall Banks — Manufacturing in Marshall 
— The Calhoun County Agricultural Society 228 



Marshall as a Municipality (by Craig C. Miller) — Water System — 
Description and Valuation of Plant — ^Electric Lighting and 
Power Plant — Description and Valuation of Plant — Sewerage 
System — Electric Railroad — Paving and Roads — Hospital and 
Library — The Marshall Postoffice (by William H. Arthur) — 
M.UISHALL Public Schools (by Gertrude B. Smith) — The Press 
OF Marshall (by J. M. ilosEs) — Lawyers of jMarshall, Past and 
Present (by Hon. Herbert E. Winsor) 254 



The Celebrated Crosswhite Affair — Calhoun County Veteran 
Battalion (by H. IT. ^Milijdr. Colonel) — C. Colegrove Post No. 166, 
G. A. R. (by H. H. Miller, Post Patriotic Instructor) — Dulcenia 
Home (by W. J. Dibble) 279 




Trinity Episcopal Church (by Louis S. Joy, ]M. D.)— First Presby- 
terian Church of ^Marshall — First Methodist Episcopal Church 
OF Marshall (by Mrs. Mary F. B. Stephenson)— Catholic 
Church — First Baptist Church — First Evangelical Lutheran 
Zion's Church 293 



Sands McCamley and Ezra Convis — The First School in Battle 
Creek — Churches — Manufacturing Interests — Battle Creek 
Sanitarium — Railroads — Fire Department — Battle Creek and 
Its Municipal Government — Battle Creek A City — Postoffice 
(1877-1912)— The Public Schools op Battle Creek (By Eva 
Warriner) — The Battle Creek Press (By George B. Willard) — 
Early Bar (By Charles E. Thomas) — The Charles Willard 
Library (By Mrs. Fannie Brewer) — Battle Creek in the Civil 
War (By A. B. Simpson) — Farragut Post, G. A. R. — Farragut 
Relief Corps No. 4 (by Mrs. Jennie Jones) 311 



Banks and Banking (by Charles Austin) — Thresher and Engine 
Industry — Steam Pump Industry — American Steam Pump Com- 
pany — Advance Pump and Compressor Company — Duplex 
Printing Press Company — Battle Creek Prepared Food In- 
dustry 353 



Birth of Battle Creek Sanitarium — Enter Dr. J. H. Kellogg — 
Change of Name — First Sanitarium Buildings — Fire of 1902 — 
New Main Structure — Courses and Means of Treatment — Train- 
ing School for Nurses — Educational Work — A Purely Philan- 
thropic Institution — Haskell Home for Orphans and Destitute 
Children — Nichols Memorial Hospital and Charitable 
Union 369 




The First Presbyterian Church — First Baptist Church — ^St. Thom- 
as Church — First Methodist Episcopal Church — j\Iaple Street 
M. E. Church — Upton Avenue M. E. Church — -The Seventh-Day 
Adventist Tabernacle — Independent Congregational Church — 
First Church of Christ Scientist — Immanuel Apostolic Holi- 
ness Church — German Evangelical St. Paul's Church — Literary 
AND Secret Societies of Battle Creek (by W. R. Wooden) — The 
Woman's League — Young Men's Christian Association (by Wil- 
LLiM S. Potter) — Women's Christian Temperance Union (by Mrs. 
W. S. Keet, Calhoun) 394 



Coming of the Peabodys — The Finches — Jesse Crowell and What 
He Did for Albion — The Eslows — William H. Brockway — James 
Monroe — Coming of the Gales^Albion Malleable Iron Plant, 
ETC. — Albion College — Flood op 1908 — Albion National 
Bank 415 



Public Improvements (by Adrian F. Cooper) — City Officials (1885- 
1912) — Albion Public Schools (by AV. J. McKone)— The Press 
of Albion (by William B. Gildart) — Albion Post Office (by A. D. 
Baugham) — Albion Attorneys — City Hoseit.\l (by Mrs. A. J. 
Brosseau) — Banks and Bankers of Albion (by Arthur C. Hud- 
nutt) — The Gale Manufacturing Company (by L. E. White) — 
Albion IVL\lleable Iron Company (by Raymond H. Gardner) — The 
Union Steel Screen Company (by George E. Dean) — The Cook 
Manufacturing Company (by L. J. Wolcott) — National Spring 
AND Wire Company 429 



First Baptist Church — Methodism in Albion (by Edwin N. Parsons) 
— First Presbyterian Church (by Mrs. Samuel M. Reed)— St. 
John's Catholic Church — German Evangelical LuTHER.iN 
Salems Church — St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church- 
First Church of Christ Scientist— F. W. Hollingsworth Post 
No. 210, G. a. R. (by Levi S. W^arren)— Woman's Relief Corps- 
Woman's Christian Temper.vnce Union (by Mrs. Mary Brock- 
way Dickie) 458 




The Mexican War — The Civil War — First War Fund Subscribers — 
First Western Regiment at the Front — Troops Raised in State 
AND County — Press and Church for the Union — The Grand 
Muster-Out — Money for the War — Historical Authorities Re- 
lied Upon 480 



First Michigan Enters Virginia — At First Bull Run — Calhoun 
County' Officers and Privaj'es — Second, Third and Fourth Regi- 
ments — Histories of Regiments From the Sixth to the Twen- 
tieth, Inclusive — Twenty-fourth to the Twenty-eighth Regi- 
ments and the Thirtieth Infantry — First JIichigan Engineers 
AND Mechanics — Rowland's Engineers — First ^Michigan Sharp 
Shooters — Berdan's First and Second United States Sharp 
Shooters — Company I — Western Sharp Shooters — First Michi- 
gan Colored Infantry — Forty-second and Forty-fourth Illinois 
Infantry 489 



First to the Eleventh Cavalry Regiments, Inclusive — "Merrill 
Horse" — The Formation op the "Merrill Horse" (by Captain 
George H. Rowell) — Complete List of "Merrill Horse" — In 
the First Michigan Regiment Light Artillery — Miscellaneous 
Organizations 553 



Official Data — Volunteers Outside op Company D — Calhoun Coun- 
ty IN the Spanish-American War (by Colonel William H. 
Hatch) — Company D Ordered into Camp — Leaves for Tampa, 
Florida— Transport "Florida" Disabled — In Camp at Fernan- 
dino — Starting for Home — Welcome Home — Roster of Company 
D— Captain D. E. W. Lyle 597 


Abbey, Samuel I., 1242. 
Aekley, RoUin D., 655. 
A corner in one of the greenhouses, Bat- 
tle Creek Sanitarium (view), 386. 
Adams, William D., 276. 
Addington, De Witt C, 1367. 
Advance Pump & Compressor Company, 

Adventist Tabernacle (view), 403. 
Agriculture, primitive, 93. 
Albion City Hospital. 440. 
Albion College Chapel (view), 120. 
Albion College, mention, 117, 119, 136, 
426; early history of, 117; third period, 
126; past thirty-five years, 130; ideal 
character of college, 136; faculty, 141. 
"Albion Leader," 437. 
Albion Malleable Iron Company, 450. 
Albion Malleable Iron Company (view), 

Albion Malleable Iron Plant, 424. 
Albion, mention, 19, 415, 429; attorneys. 
431, 438; city officials, 430; public 
schools, 433; first pavement, 430; first 
postoffice, 437; churches, 458. 
"Albion Mirror." 435. 
Albion National Bank, 427. 
"Albion Xews-Leader," 436. 
Albion Postoffice. 437. 
"Albion Press,"435. 
"Albion Recorder." 436. 
Albion State Bank, 113, 444. 
Albion Township, 21, 164. 
Albion Woman's Relief Corps, 475. 
Allen, Heman G.. 999. 
Allen, Howard V., 899. 
Alvord, Austin W.. 346, 1136. 
American Medical Missionary College, 

American Steam Pump Company, 317, 

American Steam Pump Company (view), 

Andrews, Charles S., 807. 
Andrus. William, 1109. 
Annis, Frederick, 439. 
Anthony dairy farm (view), 211. 
Anti-slavery sentiment, 74. 
Anti-war matters, 279. 
Argubright, Charles J., 719. 
Arndt, August E., 1337. 
Arnold, George E., 647. 
Arthur, William H., 261. 
At first Bull Run, 490. 

■Atliens Bee," 169. 

Athens Hardwood Lumber Company, 168. 

"Athens News," 168. 

Athens State Bank, 116. 

•Athens Times," 168. 

Athens Township, 20, 21, 165. 

Athens village, 167. 

Austin, Charles, 353, 609. 

Austin, liJdward, 651. 

Avery, A. F., 892. 

Avery, Chauncey H., 751. 

Baader, A. J., 1246. 

Babbitt, Allison, 1215. 

Babbitt, Mrs. Beatrice, 1215. 

Bailey, John W., 1225. 

Baker. Warren D., 1245. 

Baldwin, ,Tohn, 1269. 

Ball. ClKul.s 0.. 643.,:;liaiii. Aitliur D., 1157. 

liaiik-- and liaiikors of Albion, 441. 

I'.aiiks aii.l banking. Battle Creek, 353. 

I'.ankt". banking and bankers, 104. 

Bank of United States of America, 105. 

Barber, .John C, 1127. 

Ilarnes, Charles E., 82, 613. 

r.arnes. George S., 1099. 

Barney, Fred W., 724. 

Bathrick, George H., 611. 

Bathrick, Grace M., 1121. 

Bathrick, Freeborn W., 610. 

Battle Creek in 1861 (view), 322. 

Battle Creek Cereal Food Company. 366. 

•Battle Creek Champion," 332. 

•Battle Creek Daily Journal," 332. 

Battle Creek Health Food Company. 367. 

•Battle Creek Journal," 333. 
Battle Creek jMachinery Company, 357. 
Battle Creek, mention, 19, 21, 311; first 
grist mill in, 171; a city. 323; as a 
station on the underground railway, 
82; first school in, 314; fire depart- 
ment, 320; churches, 31S, 394; in the 
Civil war, 343; municipal government, 
323; postoffice, 335; prepared food in- 
dustry, 365; press, 331; first post- 
master, 19. 
Battle Creek Public School Library, 339. 
Battle Creek Sanitarium, 319, 366, 369. 
Battle Creek Sanitarium (view), 318. 

Battle Creek Sanitarium in isii6 (view). 



Battlfe Creek S'aiiitai-ium in 1876 (view). 

Battle Creek Township, 21, 169. 
Battle Creek Townsliip Grange Ko. 66. 

Battle Creek Township soldiers, 173. 
Battle of Fallen Timbers, 4. 
Battle of the Thame.s, 9. 
Baugham, Arthur D., -137. 
Beach, Asahel, 920. 
Beach, Cholett C. 922. 
Bechman, Henry F., 633. 
Beck, Ira A., 850. 
Bedford Township, 173. 
Behling, Alfred C. 1233. 
Bentley, Benjamin K., 1094. 
Bentley, John E.. 1055. 
Berdan's First and Second United States 

Sharpshooters, 546. 
Berdan's Sharpshooters roster, 546. 
Black Hawk war, 158. 
Blair, Governor, 486. 
Blair, Homer C, 1323. 
Blake, Garrett D.. 1017. 
Blanck. Aaron E.. 1165. 
Bliss, Charles K., 1340. 
Bliss, Leroy R., 1183. 
Blosser. Eliner, 760. 
Blue, John, 1063. 
Bobo, Walter T., 707. 
Bock, Charles F., 805. 
Bock, Frank F., 806. 
Bock, Robert G., 726. 
BoUes, Julia D., 858. 
Bolles, Myron, 901. 
Booth, Edson D.. 1142. 
Bosley, William E., 892. 
Bowen, Eugene A.. 667. 
Boyd, William, 1141. 
Bradley, Charles E., 671. 
Brant, Joseph, 3. 
Brewer, Charles D.. 10S7. 
Brewer, Charles D.. 1139. 
Brewer, Chauncy JI.. 1084. 
Brewer, Fannie," 339. 
Brewer, Francis W.. 1088. 
Briggs, Myron L., 1199. 
Brockway, AVilliam H., 125, 421, 456. 
Brockway, M^illiam H. (portrait), 422. 
Brokaw, Joseph M., 636. 
Brokaw, Mary D., 637. 
Bromberg, Henry A., 792. 
Brown, Benjamin D., 1327. 
Brown, J. H., 93. 

Brown Memorial Hospital, Marshall, 261. 
Brown, William H., 272. 
Bryant, Hannah W., 1173. 
Bryant, Myron J., 1279. 
Bryant, Niles, 812. 
Bullen, George T., 697. 
Bunnell, Henry A., 876. 
Burkley, George, 1291. 
Burlington, 175. 
"Burlington Echo," 215. 
Burlington Township, 20, 21, 175. 
Burnham, Dorr B., 1072. 
Burnham, Mark H., 1073. 
Burt, Harry E., 960. 
Bush, Sumner 0., 1134. 
Butcher, Thomas H., 658. 

Butler. Hiland G.. 676. 
Byrne. John F., 1276. 

Cadillac. 2. 11. 

Cahalan. Rev. Father James, 850. 

Caldwell, Helen N., 390. 

Calhoun County Agricultural Society, 

'Calhoun County Democrat," 272. 

Calhoun County Fair, 253. 

Calhoun County Home, 27. 

Calhoun County, important year for, 21; 
agriculture, 93; bar, ^37; first bank in, 
246; sixteen companies in Civil war, 
488; in the Spanish-American war, 
599; seventh in population, 26. 

''Calhoun County Patriot," 235, 369. 

Calhoun County Veteran Battalion, 282. 

Calhoun, John C, 18. 

Calkins, Marcus M., 1339. 

Callahan, John H., 1220. 

Camp at Fernandino, 601. 

Carnev, :\Iaurice P.. 619. 

Carter, Hosea B. G., 1184. 

Carus. Arthur E.. 1036. 

Cary. William R.. 1239. 

Case. Xcwton P., 855. 

Case. Randall 7... 966. 

Cassctlr, Lot lie L., Memorial Library 

12, 51, 66, 


Cass. I.owi 

Catholes. 96. 

Catholic church, Marshall, 306. 

Cavalry and artillery, 553. 

Cavanagh, Howard W., 801. 

Central National Bank, 354. 

Central National Bank of Battle Creek, 

Ceresco. 199. 

Ceresco Farmers' Club, 186. 

Chandler, Zachariah, 70, 79, 282. 

Chapin, George E., 1026. 

Charitable Union of Battle Creek, 389. 

Chautauqua courses. Battle Ci-eek Sani- 
tarium, 385. 

Cholera scourge at Marshall (1833), 245. 

"Chronicle," 335, 371. 

Churches, Battle Creek, 315; Marshall, 
293; Albion, 458. 

Circuit court commissioners, 235. 

Circuit judffes. 324. 

Circuit vidf'r, 17. 

Citizens' Electric Light Plant, 184. 

City attorneys. Albion, 431. 

City Bank, 354. 

City Bank of Battle Creek, 111. 

City clerks, Albion, 431. 

City officials, Albion, 430. 

City treasurers, Albion, 431. 

Civil war, 481. 

Civil war infantry, 489. 

Clapp, Frank W., 862. 

Clarence Township, 176. 

Clarendon Township, 178. 

Clark, E. Josephine, 133. 

Clark, Homer W., 639. 

Clark, Warren J., 1053. 

Clark, William J., 1050. 

Clough. John P., 1177. 

Clute, Homer A., 1013. 


Cobblestone schoolhouse erected 1849 
(view), 202. 

Coburn, William G.. 1003. 

Colburn, Carl A.. 1283. 

Cole, Levant, 711. 

Coleprove, Calvin, 284. 

Colegrove, C, Post. No. 166, G. A. E., 284. 

Coleman, Hammond .T., 1305. 

Collier, Cliarles P., 1233. 

Collier, Victorv P.. 1154. 

Collier, William W., 1135. 

Colonial House. 243. 

Coming of the Gales, 423. 

Coming of the Peabodys. 416. 

Commercial and Savings Bank of Albion. 

Commercial and Savings Bank of Mar- 
shall, 247. 

Commissioner of schools, 151. 152. 226. 

Committee on federal relations, 55. 

Company D ordered into camp, 599; 
roster" of, 604. 

Comstock, Oliver C. 144. 

Connor. William, 1088. 

Conversational Club. 408. 

Convis, Carlton E.. 1160. 

Convis, Ezra, 312. 

Convis Township. 21, 179. 

Cook Manufacturing Company, 425, 455. 

Cook, Ray H., 1042. 

Cooper, Adrian F., 429, 1274. 

Cooper, Frank. 808. 

Cooper, John C, 1023. 

Corey, Elbert, 1172. 

Cornell, William E., 782. 

Coroners, 226. 

Corpening. Clifton L., 933. 

Cortright. David W., 1071. 

Cortright, Fred S., 1130. 

Cortright, Merrick E., 1162. 

Cotton, Fred D.. 1175. 

Covinty clerks, 224. 

County commissioner of schools, 145. 

County name, 18. 

County officers. 152. 

County officers for 1912, 28. 

County road system, 100. 

County school examiners, 152. 

County tax, 101. 

Court, Frank W., 906. 

Court, James, 905. 

Courthouse, first, 24. 

Courthouse, Marshall (view), 236. 

Courtright, Andy J., 911. 

Courtright, Ray, 910. 

Cowles, Eri, 1164. 

Cowles, Ryan B., 766. 

Cox, Edward, 1096. 

Crapo, Governor, 486. 

Crary, Isaac E., 30, 31, 41, 45, 142, 146, 
158, 263. 

Cronin, Harry L., 856. 

Cronin, Thomas L., 856. 

Crosby, Miss, 182. 

Crosby, J. E., 907. 

Crosswhite, Adam, 52, 58. 244, 279. 

Crosswhite ease, 52, 62, 279. 

Crowell, Jesse, 418, 437. 

Crowell, Jesse (portrait), 419. 

Culver, Adelbert, 439. 

Culver, Allen M.. 438. 
Ciirtis, Miles S., 831. 
'■Daily Chronicle," 269. 
"Daily Journal." 333. 

Daily, Mrs. Dulcenia, 288. 

Daily, Mrs. Dulcenia (portrait), 200. 

Dean. George E., 453. 

Dearing, H. M., 442, 

Death of Ellsworth, 4S9. 

De Bow, Charles C, 1259. 

Decker, Garrett, 1077. 
Docker, .T. Newton, 1078. 

Dcikcr. Johannes. 039. 

Decker. Ruth A., 640. 
IVniinq-. Frank E., 1133. 

■•Democratic Expounder," 235, 269. 

Dcnman. Henry B., 340. 

Dcnnison. Edward J., 278. 

Description and valuation of water plant, 
Marshall, 255. 

Dibble, Charles P., 1316. 

Dibble, Frank J., 1291. 

Dibble, Philo, 1315. 

Dibble, AV. J.. 287. 

Dickev, Anderson G., 1105. 

Dickev. Dwight C. 994. 

Dickie. Mary B., 476. 

Dickie. Samuel. 138. 1322. 

Dickie. Samuel (portrait), 139. 

Dobbins. Dale M.. 1196. 

Dobbins, James L., 847. 

Dobbins, Samuel V., 247. 842. 

Dockry, William E., 66S. 

Doolittle, Ralph S.. 964. 

Doty, Elmer E.. 845. 

Drain commissioners. 226. 

Dulcenia church, 287, 

Dulcenia Home, 287. 

Dulcenia Home (view). 288. 

Dullam. Robert E., 996, 

Duplex Printing Press Company, 360. 

Durham, William B.. 734. 

Dykemann, George A., 1138. 

Early bar of Battle Creek, 336. 

Early hotels, 23. 

Early mails, 17. 

Eaton, Samuel R., 686. 

Eckford Township, 20, 21. 180. 

Educational history; Michigan public 
school system, 142; leading Calhoun 
County educators, 144; rural schools of 
Calhoun County, 145; county commis- 
sioner of schools, 145; state and county 
officers, 152; village schools, 154, 

Eells, Calvin B., 953. 

Eells, Willard S., 953. 

Egeler, Fred W., 859. 

Eighth Michigan Cavalry, 567. 

Eighteenth and Nineteenth Michigan In- 
fantrv roster, 517. 

Eldred, "Nelson. 1057. 

Eldred, Willard H.. 1060. 

Electric lighting and power plant, Mar- 
shall, 257. 

Electric railroad, 259. 

Elementary agriculture, 153. 

Eleventh Michigan Cavalry, 574. 

Elks. The, 410, 

Ellis. Charles L.. 992. 

Ellis. Mrs. Henrietta. 994. 


Ellis Publishing Company, 994. 

Emancipation Proclamation, 83. 

Emery, Reuben J., 1015. 

Emmett Township, 182. 

Engle, Frank W., 1164. 

Engle, James A., 1197. 

Erie & Michigan Telegraph Company, 

The, 431. 

Estes, Franklin E., 1069. 

Etson, Charles H., 917. 

"Evening Chronicle," 369. 

Evolution of the temperance cause, 
Washingtonian movement, 160; Wash- 
ingtonianism in Battle Creek, 161; Red 
Ribbon movement, 163; Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union, 163. 

Exchange Hotel, 33. 

Exemption laws of other states, 50. 

Exemption policy, 47. 

Failing, Charles A., 1289. 

Fall, Delos, 117, 118, 145, 146, 153, 1208. 

Farragut Post, G. A. R., 346. 

Farragut Relief Corps, No. 4, 349. 

Farrington, William H., 716. 

Federal census of 1832, 13. 

Federal officials from Calhoun County, 

Fell, William I., 642. 
Ferguson, Tenner, 438. 
Fifth Michigan Cavalry, 561. 
Finch, James, 417. 
Finch, Robert Y., 417. 
Finches, The, 417. 
Finlay, William H., 673. 
Pinley, Clellan A., 1131. 
Fire department. Battle Creek, 330. 
Fire department, Battle Creek (view), 

First bank organized, Battle Creek, 353. 
First bank in Calhoun County, 346. 
First Baptist church of Albion, 458. 
First Baptist church. Battle Creek, 395. 
First Baptist church, Marshall, 308. 
First Church of Christ, Albion, 468. 
First Church of Christ, Battle Creek, 405. 
First county superintendent of schools, 

First Evangelical-Lutheran Zion church, 

Marshall, 310. 
First frame house in Marshall, 339. 
First grist mill in Battle Creek, 171. 
First Infantry, Calhoun County officers 

in, 491. 
First Masonic lodge. Battle Creek, 409. 
First Methodist Episcopal church. Battle 

Creek, 398. 
First Methodist Episcopal church, Mar- 
shall, 303. 
First Michigan Cavalry, 553. 
First Michigan Colored Infantry, 549. 
First Michigan Engineers and Mechanics, 

534; roster, 536. 
First Michigan Infantry, 489. 
First Michigan Regiment roster, 491. 
First Michigan Regiment Light Artillery, 

First Michigan Sharpshooters, 541. 
First National Bank, 347. 
First National Bank of Battle Creek, 108. 

First National Bank of Marshall, 109. 
First Presbyterian church of Albion, 464. 
First Presbyterian church of Battle 

Creek, 394. 
First Presbvterian church of Marshall, 

First road surveyed, 98. 
First rural delivery service, Albion, 437. 
First schoolhouse in the county, 146. 
First school in Battle Creek, 314. 
First school on Goguac Prairie, 173. 
First school teacher, 146. 
First State Bank of Tekonsha, 114. 
First war fund subscribers, 483. 
First western regiment at the front, 483. 
First white man settler, 19. 
Fishell, Andrew J., 1257. 
Fisher, Frederick G., 844. 
Fisher, George B., 694. 
Fisk, Guy, 741. 
Fiske, Lewis R., 135, 130. 
Fiske, Lewis R. (portrait), 131. 
Flagg, Eli W., 1034. 
Flint, Allison J., 1103. 
Flood of 1908, Albion, 436. 
Flynn. John J., 1331. 
Fo'ley, John E., 277. 
Ford, Albert N., 891. 
Forks of the Kalamazoo, 416. 
Formation of the Merrill Horse, 578. 
Fourth Michigan Cavalry, 560. 
Fourteenth, Fifteenth and Sixteenth 

Michigan Regiments, 513. 
Forty-second Illinois Infantry. Calhoun 

County men in, 551. 
Forty-fourth Illinois Infantry, Calhoun 

County men in. 553. 
Foster, William J., 833. 
Founder of public school system, 31. 
Fox, Samuel, 1030. 
Francisco, Henry E., 754. 
Frazer, David H., 1008. 
Fredenburg, Oscar J., 1045. 
Fredonia Township, 31, 186. 
Free Will Baptists. 176. 
French, Edwin, 733. 
French settlers, 15. 
French, Thomas, 1354. 
Frink, Isabella W., 866. 
Frink, Norris J., 865. 
Fruin, William S., 1103. 
Fugitive slave law, 71. 
Funk, Fred J., 1181. 
Furner, Charles B., 664. 

Gage, Fred W., 1006. 

Gage, William C. 1006. 

Gale, Fred C, 696. 

Gale, George, 433, 447. 

Gale Manufacturing Company, 424, 437. 

Gale Manufacturing Company (view), 

Gale. 0. Harry, 1325. 
Gale, Orlando C, 447, 1333. 
Gardener, Nelson B., 439. 
Gardner, Beriah P., 804. 
Gardner, Fidelia B., 804. 
Gardner, Louis E., 936. 
Gardner, Raymond H., 450. 
Gardner, Washington, 462, 1350. 
Gardner, William, 1119. 

Garlinghouse, Abraham A., 1111. 

Ganett, Frank B., 1014. 

Gartner, Carl F., 675. 

Gatchell, Charles W., 1061. 

Genebach, George J., 1046. 

General banking law, 106. 

German Evangelical Lutheran Salems 

church, Albion. 467. 
German Evangelical St. Paul's church, 

Battle Creek, 407. 
Gething, Joseph W.. 680. 
Gibbs, Maurice S., 1280. 
Gilbert, Ada, 475. 
Gilbert, Henry F., 1288. 
Gilchrist, Charles, 644. 
Gildart. William B., 435. 
Gillis. Charles H., 1170. 
Giltner vs. Gorham, 66. 
Glau, Edward F., 761. 
Glau, John A., 761. 
Glau, William, 938. 
Godfrey, Willoughbv L., 685. 
GolT, J. R., 613. 
Goguac lake, 173. 
Goldup, Henry, 990. 
Goodale, Martin H., 979. 
"Good Health," 385. 
Goodrich, Frederic S.. 1312. 
Goodrich, John C, 1062. 
Goodwin, Louis P., 618. 
Gordon, J. Wright. 272. 
Gorham, Charles E., 1320. 
Gorham, Charles T., 58, 61, 68, 75, 79, 

247, 280. 
Governors of Michigan Territory, 218. 
Governors of the state of Michigan, 219. 
Graff. William F., 861. 
Grand march in gymnasium (view), 371. 
Grand muster-out, 486. 
Grand Trunk shops, 184. 
Grant, Edgar II., 875. 
Grant, Loring. 119. 
Grant, Royal F.. S76. 
Graves, Arthur L.. 1193. 
Graves, Benjamin F., 273. 
Green, Charles C, 849. 
Green, James, 1009. 
Green, William H., 1061. 
Greenough, James B., 277. 
Grohens, Albert P., 722. 
Guernsey, Jonathan, 973. 

Haag, John N.. 1328. 
Haddock, George W., 962. 
Hafford. George C, 1186. 
Haigh, George C, 1021. 
Hale, Hiram F., 1299. 
Hale, Walter F.. 863. 
Hall, Don F., 663. 
Hall, Fred S., 766. 
Hall, Homer, 764. 
Halladay, Frank E., 890. 
Halladay, Henry, 645. 
Halladay, John F., 890. 
Halladay, Will E., 1284. 
Hamilton, Burritt. 87, 1256. 
Hamilton. William T., 988. 
Hammond. William H., 752. 
Hampton, Ernest C, 746. 
Harmar, General, 3. 
Harrington, James W., 1236. 

Harrison. William H., 7. 

Hart, Ray E., 1199. 

Harvey, George W., 1027. 

Haskell, Carolina E., 388. 

Haskell Home for Orphans and Destitute 

Children, 388. 
Hatch, Jesse M.. 278. 
Hatch, William H., 599. 
Ilaughey, James R., 928. 
Haughey, Luke R., 877. 
Haughey, W. H., 880. 
Haughey, Wilfrid, 1120. 
Hayes, Patrick, 715. 
Hayes, Stephen M., 1050. 
Hayes Wheel Company, 425. 
Haynes, George A., 1134. 
Health and Efficiency League, 385. 
Hebble, Andrew C., 1243. 
Ilelmer, Andrew, 1107. 
Helmer, John, 1106. 
Helmer, William A., 1108. 
Henry, James, 820. 
Heyser, Frederick J., 654. 
Heyser, John, 918. 
Hickey, Manassah, 159. 
Hicks, George C, 1234. 
Hicks, Richard R., 914. 
Hicks, William E., 825. 
High school, Albion (view), 434. 
High school, Homer (view), 190. 
Hill, Eugene H.. 1066. 
Ilinman, Clark T., 121. 
Ilinman, Edward C, 836. 
Hoag, William S., 1202. 
Hobart, William W., 62. 
Hobbs, Le Vant D., 810. 
Hodges, Lewis S., 1275. 
Hoffman. William R.. 1038. 
HolVmaster, Peter, 688. 
IlolVmaster. Rillie F., 690. 
Hoffmaster, William M., 690. 
Hollingsworth. E. W., 471. 
Hollingsworth. E. W.. Post No. 310, G. 

A. R.. 469. 
Holton, Electa C, 939. 
Holton. Luther H., 939. 
Holton, Samuel M., 940. 
Homer banks, 191. 
Homer Township. 20, 31, 188. 
Homer village, 189. 
Homestead exemption law, 48. 
Hooker, Frank A., 274. 
Ilornberger, Albert J.. 731. 
ITornhergcr, Christian, 783. 
Hotohkiss, Calvin J., 1020. 
Hough. Edward F., 1018. 
Houghton. Euler G.. 763. 
"Household Magazine." 271. 
Houvener, Peter J., 740. 
Howard, Bert, 731. 
Howard. Camer A.. 732. 
Howard, George, 1339. 
Howard, George M., 1230. 
Howell. Alvares E., 1101. 
Howland's Engineers, 540. 
Hoyt, Awra A., 789. 
Hoyt. Frank, 768. 
Huiibard, Deville. 1314. 
Hubbard. Lawrence P.. 1004. 
Hubbard, Owen L.. 1206. 
Hudnutt, Arthur C, 441. 


Hudson, Polydore, 19. 

Huggett, Harry B., 1054. 

Huggett, Henry C, 1047. 

Huggett, James H.. 701. 

Huggett, Jesse, 1332. 

Hughes, D. Darwin. 274. 

Hughes, James P., 1126. 

Hull, William, 7. 

Humphrey. Leonard. 1311. 

Hungerford, Cyrus B., 1313. 

Hunt, William C, 928. 

Hurd, Isaac N., 229. 

Hurd, Jesse A., 1184. 

Hussey, Erastus, 68, 77, 79, 82, 87. 

Hutchins, Delos, 757. 

Hyatt, Charles D.. 1201. 

Immanuel Apostolic Holiness church. 
Battle Creek, 405. 

Improvement of roads, 98. 

Independent Congregational church. Bat- 
tle Creek, 404. 

Indians, 158. 

Influence of the Crosswhite case, SO. 

Jacobs, Henry F., 835. 

Jail, New, 26. 

Jefferson avenue, north, in 1866 (view), 

Jefferson, Thomas, 44. 
"Jeffersonian, The." 333. 
Jenkins, George W., 952. 
Jennings, James M.. 770. 
Jersey cattle on Sutfln farm (view), 185. 
Jocelyn, George B. (portrait), 129. 
Johnson, 158. 
Johnson, Amos jM.. 1306. 
Johnson, Bray. 736. 
Johnson. Oliver C, 981. 
J»nes, Almon 0., 649. 
Jones, Jennie, 349. 
Joslyn, Victor H.. 775. 
Joslyn, William N.. 635. 
"Journal of Education," 271. 
Joy, Louis S.. 293. 
Judges of probate, 224. 

Kane, Charles N.. 868. 

Kapp, August, 1308. 

Katz, Charles H., 1067. 

Katz, Fred, 750. 

Katz, Frederick. 1249. 

Katz, Rufus F.. 1025. 

Katz, William C, 1044. 

Keep, Edward P.. 1260. 

Keet, Angle D.. 413, 854. 

Keet, Walter S., 853. 

Kelleher, Grace A.. 627. 

Kelleher, Thomas A., 628. 

Kelleher, Timothy J., 637. 

Kelley, Robert J., 1152. 

Kellogg, Ella E., 1350. 

Kellogg, J. H., 369, 384, 1346. 

Kessler, W. S., 450. 

Ketcham, Eliza, 146, 

Ketchum, Sidney, 19, 230, 263, 415. 

Kidney, William, 1043. 

Kiefer, George H.. 984. 

Kimball, Arthur H., 951. 

Kimball, Arthur S., 794. 

Kimball, Marion B., 952. 

Kimball. Otis F., 1176. 
King. Philander M., 771. 
King, William L., 1302. 
Kingman, Albert C, 829. 
Kingsley, A. Floyd, 773. 
Kirkland, Bertram C, 1372. 
Kirkpatrick, AVilliam. 725. 
Kirschman, Robert H., 1151. 
Kistler, Charles E., 768. 
Klawiter. William C, 1068. 
Kline. Walter D., 799. 
Knapp. Everett G.. 1310. 
Knight. Andrew, 945. 
Knight. Willard A., 826. 
Knights of Pythias. 409. 
Knights Templar. 409. 
Kraft. Arthur J.. 1150. 
Krenerick, Will A., 848. 
Kulp, George B., 405. 

Ladies' Library Association, 408. 
Lamb, Alger, 964. 
Lamb, Bert, 964. 
Lamb Brothers, 964. 


i;., 117^ 

]•:.. 882 


Lanili. - 

La iiont, ilyron. 1139. 

Lamphier, Edgar L., 1097. 

Landmarks of Marshall, 239. 

Lane, Charles J., 1334. 

Lane, James. 1333. 

Lang, Phineas H.. 949. 

Langrell. James W.. 1281. 

Larmour. James J.. 816. 

Latta, Alfred. 1223. 

Latta, Frank H.. 1323. 

Laupp, Will. 985. 

Lawrence, Wilford B., 1140, 

Lawyers of Marshall. 372. 

Leach, Arthur E.. 1110. 

Leading Calhoun County educators, 144. 

Lee, Frederick. 1332. 

Lee Township, 192. 

Lehmann. Henry, 1016. 

Leland. Rosco G.. 1365. 

Leonard, Otis A., 1248. 

Leonard, William H., 1185. 

LeRoy Township, 20, 194. 

Leslie, William F., 1024. 

Leverance. May, 1336. 

Lewis, Charles W., 1081. 

Lewis, Edwin C, 696. 

Lewis, Edwin S.. 1010. 

Lewis, Harvey E., 737. 

"Liberty Press," 332. 

Lincoln, Abraham, 79. 

Literary and secret societies of Battle 

Creek. 408. 
Lookwood, Glenn E., 997. 
Loud, Rienzi, 438. 
Luff, Edwin H.. 1303. 
Lutz, Jacob, 965. 
Lyle, D. E. W., 604. 

MaoGregor, Archible E., 653. 
Mack, Alva P., 1351. 
Mack, Edward C, 1250. 
Main building erected 1903-03, Battle 
Creek Sanitarium (view), 373. 


Main street, north. Tekonslia (view). 

Manby, John H., 90S. 

Manchester, Caleb, 630. 

Manchester, Charles E.. 631. 

Manchester, Elias C, 629. 

Mansion House, 235. 240. 

Manufacturing in Mar.shall. 247. 

Manufacturing interests. 22. 

Manufacturing interests. Battle Creek, 

Mapes, Harry, 781. 

Maple Street Methodist Episcopal church. 
Battle Creek. 399. 

Marble, Ephraim. 149. 

Marengo Township, 20, 31. 197. 

Markey, Eugene L., 661. 

Marks" Herman C, 1012. 

Marsh, Erastus S., 773. 

Marsh, James W.. 867. 

Marsh. Walter P., 998. 

Marsh. Wayne D.. 866. 

Marshall as a municipality. 254. 

Marshall, city of, 21. 199." 

Marshall Furnace Company (view), 251. 

Marshall House, 242. 

Marshall. Jay L.. 718. 

Marshall Light Guard. 483. 

Marshall Jlen and Marshall Measures, 
29, 51. 

Marshall, mention, 19, 23; public and 
private buildings. 23; founding of, 238; 
early settlement of, 228; landmarks of, 
3.S9; first frame house in, 239; Pres- 
byterian church organized, 342; Catho- 
lic church, first reverses of, 242; 
cholera scourge at (1833), 345; banks, 
246; manufacturing, 347; Calhoun 
County Agricultural Society, 353; 
water system, 255; postoffice, 261; 
public schools. 263. 

"Marshall News," 251. 

Marshall public library. 261. 

"Marshall Republican," 370. 

"Marshall Statesman," 370. 

"Marshall Times," 235, 269. 

Marshall Township, 21, 199. 

Marshall Union school, 36. 

Marshals, Albion, 431. 

Marx, Joseph S., 1250. 

Mason, Stevens T., 14, 31. 

Mason, William H., 336, 666. 

Material development of Michigan, 12. 

Mayors, Albion, 430. 

Mayors, Battle Creek, 325. 

McBeth, Alonzo E., 620. 

McBeth. Josephine. 622. 

McCamley, Sands. 311, 312, 326. 

McCamly, Mark. S09. 

McCartv. George U.. 1271. 

McClintic, Wesley W., 1129. 

McCurdy, Asa C", 702. 

McCutcheon, Arza L., 1341. 

McDermid, Charles C, 201. 873. 

McFadden, William J., 1331. 

Mclntyre. Abram R., 833. 

McKenzie, Charles F., 830. 

McKinney. John, 1085. 

MeKone, W. J., 432. 

McMillan, James, 134. 

McMillan Labratory (view), 135. 

MiMillen, Benjamin F., 737. 

-Mead, Lewis R.. 963. 

-Mead. Marion, 872. 

.Mellen, George W.. 737. 

Memorial Hospital, 369. 

Merchants Savings Bank, 354. 

Merchants Savings Bank of Battle Creek, 

Merrill Horse, 488, 577, 581. 
Merrill. Lewis, 577. 
Merritt, Charles. 896. 
Merritt, Elizabeth M. C, 898. 
Jletcalf, Abraham T., 1216. 
Mctcalf. Foster M.. 681. 
llothodisra in Albion, 458. 
Mexican war, 481. 
Michigan admitted to Union, 14. 
Michigan and Calhoun County in war, 

Michigan Central R. R., 212. 
Miihisan Central K. R. Co., 247. 
-Michifian in its primitive statehood, 15. 
Micliigan to the close of the War of 

1812-1814. 7. 
Michigan public school system, 142; 

founder of system, 31. 
"Michigan Tribune," 332. 
Michigan under Governor Cass, 9. 
Michigan under the American flag, 5. 
Michigan under the British flag, 3. 
Michigan under the French flag, 1. 
Michigan University, 35, 39. 
Military matters, 379. 
Miller, Charles J., 748. 
Miller, Charles 0., 377. 
Miller, Craig C, 254. 
Miller, FraTik D., 145, 154, 860. 
Miller, Henry H., 955. 
Miller, H. M., 282. 
Miller, Howard W.. 1180. 
Miller, Louis C, 278. 
Miller, Mary W.. 228. 
Miller. Richard J., 1278. 
Mills, William C, 909. 
Milton Township, 21. 
Miner, James A., 274. 
Minges, Erwin G., 777. 
Minges, Frank, 777. 
Minges. Orlow A.. 776. 
Miscellaneous organizations, 595. 
Modern way of threshing (view), 252. 
Mohler, Zaehariah B., 1193. 
Money for the war, 487. 
Monroe. George, 438. 
ilonroe. James, 423. 
Jloore, L N.. 1040. 
Morgan, Benjamin F., 774. 
Morgan, William, 1212. 
"Morning Enquirer," 334. 
Morrissey. Rev. Father, 306. 
Moses, J. M., 269. 
Mountecr. Edwin M., 1353. 
Mumaw, Piatt A., 986. 
Alurdock, Ezra B., 959. 
Murphy, James W.. 1330. 
Murphy, Robert, 730. 
Murray, Adelbert J., 934. 
Mustard, James H., 799. 

National Bank of Albion, 442. 
National Bank of Battle Creek, 353. 



National banks. 107. 

National currency, 107. 

National Exchange Bank, 443. 

National House, 33. 

National Spring & Wire Company, 435, 

Nature Club, 409. 

Neale Family, The, 1393. 

Neale, George F., 1396. 

New courthouse, 26. 

New high school, Battle Creek (view), 

New high school building, Athens (view), 

New main structure. Battle Creek Sani- 
tarium (view), 372. 

Newton Township, 300. 

Nichols and Shepard, 33, 355, 356. 

Nichols. Edwin C, 355, 744. 

Nichols, John, 33, 743. 

Nichols Memorial Hospital, 389. 

Nichols Memorial Hospital (view), 390. 

Nichols Memorial Training School of 
Nurses, 391. 

Ninth Infantry, 504. 

Ninth Michigan Cavalry, 573. 

Ninth Michigan Infantry roster, 505. 

Noble, Alonzo, 1318. 

Noneman, William G., 985. 

Normal school of physical education. 384. 

North, Walter Harper, 824. 

Northwest Territorj', 5, 12. 

Nowlin. Frank E., 1314. 

Noyes, Horace A., 275. 

Noyes, Lucius G.. 275. 

Noyes. Willard R.. 1328. 

Nye, Edgar F., 1150. 

O'Brien, Thomas J., 275. 

Observatory, Albion College (view), 135. 

O'Callaghan, D. S., 617. 

O'Donoughue, Willoughby, 443. 

Official and statistical — Presidents of the 
United States (1789-1913), 217; gov- 
ernors of Michigan Territory, 218; 
governors of the state of Michigan, 
319; federal officials from Calhoun 
County, 321; state officials from the 
county, 232; representatives of Michi- 
gan legislature, 223; population and 
property valuation, 326; population of 
Calhoun County (1837-1910), 327; 
population by townships and cities, 

Official data, 597. 

Old and new high school, Marshall 
(view), 364. 

Old Brooks mansion (view), 340. 

Old National Bank of Battle Creek, 108. 

Old red schoolhouse, Albion (view), 433. 

Old stone barn, 350. 

Old time sawmill, 331. 

Oldest building in Battle Creek (view), 

Onen, Bernard J., 888. 

Only old style sawmill left in county 
(view), 331. 

Ordinance of 17S7, 5, 66, 143. 

Organizer of the public school system of 
Michigan, 38. 

Ornamental Concrete Stone Company, 

Outdoor swimming tournament. Battle 

Creek Sanitarium (view), 382. 

Page, Egbert E., 1118. 

Palm garden, Battle Creek Sanitarium 

(view), 379. 
Palmiter, William H., 1198. 
Parker. H. B., 1339. 
Parlin, Charles A., 738. 
Parmeter, Edward L., 1253.' 
Parsons, Edwin N., 458. 
Passengers, underground railroad, 88. 
Pathmaster, 95. 
Patterson, John C, 39, 377. 
Patterson, John C. (portrait), 30. 
Paul, Homer J., 1337. 
Paving and roads, 360. 
Paxton, John, 1037. 
Payne. Victor T., 787. 
Peabody, Tenney (portrait), 416. 
Peebles, James M., 935. 
Peek, Judson C, 854. 
Pennfield Township, 301. 
Perine, William H., 1342. 
Perkins, George W., 1221. 
Perrin, Horace J., 247. 
Perry, James W., 933. 
Perry, Oliver H., S. 
Peters, Albert E.. 781. 
Phelps, Willard C. 1074. 
Phillips, Albanus M., 851. 
Phillips, Benjamin W., 1240. 
Pierce school, 269. 
Pierce, John D., 30, 35, 38, 45, 142, 146, 

Pioneer experiences, 303. 
Pioneer outfit, 16. 
Pioneer schoolmaster, 146. 
Pitte'e, Lyman, 883. 
Ponto. Frank, 989. 
Porr, William J.. 1335. 
Porter. William H.. 376, 841. 
Post, C. W., 317, 1304. 
Postmasters, Battle Creek, 326. 
Postum Cereal Company, Ltd., 367. 
Potter, W. S.. 394, 410. 1330. 
Powers, Herbert A., 797. 
Powers, James M., 1007. 
Powers, Walter S., 795. 
Pratt, Abner, 376. 
Prepared food industry, 317. 
Presidents of the United States, 217. 
Press of Albion, 435. 
Press of Marshall, 269. 
Preston, Almon E., 646. 
Price, Austin, 999. 
Prosecuting attorneys. 225. 
Pryer, Charles J., 937. 
Public improvements of Albion, 429. 
Public library. Battle Creek, 339. 
Public schools of Battle Creek, 328. 
Puflf, Jesse, 750. 
Put!', Paul, 755. 
Puffer, Elsworth H., 1303. 
Purely philanthropic institution. A, 386. 
Putman, Willard N., 790. 

Radford, Charles F., 1315. 
Radford, Elbert J.. 747. 



Railroads. Battle Creek, 319. 

Randall. Earle W., 659. 

Randall, Edwin A., 1032. 

Randall. Harvey X., 1261. 

Randt. Henry, 701. 

Ranger. Charles JI.. 1161. 

Rapp. Russell \V.. 75.1. 

Rathbun, Frank U.. 1145. 

Rathbun, Stephen J.. 114S. 

Reade, J. Lyman, 869. 

Reagan. Jolin H., 614. 

Reasoner. Daniel. 1182. 

"Record." 333. 

Recorders, Battle Creek, 325. 

Redfield. Amelia ¥., 239. 

Red Ribbon itovement, 162. 

Reed. (Mrs.) Samuel M., 464. 

Registers of deeds. 225. 

Religious and trade journals. Battle 

Creek. 335. 
Remington. Fred 0.. 832. 
Representatives of Michigan legislature. 

Republican party, 80. 
Retallick. Newton E.. 704. 
Reynolds. John C. 915. 
Richard. Gabriel. 12. 
Richardson, Frank W., 739. 
Ringes. Laura. 109. 
Roads, 98. 
Robinson building, Albion College (view). 

Robinson, Lote C. 1031. 
Roe. Miss Jessie. 920. 
Roe, Robert A.. 919. 
Roe, Robert P.. 871. 
Rowell. George H., 578. 
Royal Arch >}asons, 409. 
Ru'ndle. George, 901. 
Rural mail carriers, Battle Creek (view), 

Rural schools of Calhoun County, 145. 
Ryan, Charles W., 864. 

Sabin, Leland H., 827. 

Saint Clair, General, 3. 

St. John's Catholic church, Albion, 466. 

St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran church, 
Albion, 467. 

St. Thomas' church. Battle Creek, 396. 

Sands, Theodore E.. 838. 

Sawdy, Ernest C, 843. 

Sawyer, Charles E., 913. 

Schoder, Katharine M., 729. 

Schoder, William J., 728. 

School lands, 32. 

School of Home Economics, 384. 

School statistics, 152. 

Schools. 263. 

Schram. Ingram W., 1244. 

Schroder. Lewis M., 941. 

Schroder. Sherman. 944. 

Schumacher. Fred W.. 1326. 

Schwark, Henry J.. 1169. 

Sebastian, L. P.. 1247. 

Second family that came to Albion (por- 
trait), 418. 

Second Michigan Cavalry, 555. 

Second Jlichigan Infantry, 345. 494. 

Second Michigan Regiment roster, 495. 

Sellers. Clarence W.. '633. 

Sellers. John \V.. 1002. 
Sellers. Solomon, 632. 
Servis. Germain. 1258. 
Seventeenth Michigan Infantry, 514; ros- 
ter, 515. 
Seventh Day Advcntists. 366. 
Seventh-day Adventist Tabernacle, 402. 
Seventh Michigan Cavalry, 563. 
Shaffer, Del A., 1039. 
Sharpshooters roster. 542. 
Shearman, Francis W., 273. 
Slie.ld. Xelsnn A.. 12S7. 
ShriKinl. Mrn-itt ().. ];;57. 




niiin. I|nu;,i-d B.. lose. 


iiMin. Nrl.nn j.;.. ins5. 


1«.H„1 |',V->." 21,i. 


.N. I.roMard J., 1341. 


[i. .Jos,.|.!.. 092. 


|., Tliomas ,1.. 691. 


|i. W. Samuel. 693. 


iiak. r. Charles J., 665. 


tli'ir. Henry A., 874. 


v. Solomon. 12. 


IS. David. 721. 


in. Jcshua. 728. 

Simpson. A. B.. 343. 

Shiclinr, Collin, 883. 

SiiK-lflr. Martin A., 983. 

Siiicx. Thomas H., 128. 

Sincx. Thomas H. (portrait), 127. 

Sixth Jlichigan Cavalry, 561. , 

Sixth Michigan Infantry, 498; roster, 

Skelle'nger. W. R.. 1282. 
Sleight. Raymond D., 791. 
Smith. Albert H., 1298. 
Smitli, Calvin. 229. 
Sniitli. Cvrenins C, 904. 
Smith. Ellis R., 1124. 
Smith. Frank E., 931. 
Smith, George S., 948. 
Smith, Gertrude B.. 263. 
Smith, John J.. 1298. 
Smith, John M. C, 1314. 
Smith, John T.. 1213. 
Smith, William J., 819. 
Snyder, Henry V., 784. 
Snyder, Isaac. 1029. 
Snyder, Jay C. 950. 
Snyder, John C, 982. 
Snyder. John J.. 1082. 
Snyder, William H.. 1286. 
Soldiers' Monument. Battle Creek, 344. 
South Battle Crrek Baptist church, 172. 
Soutliwifk. rliMilcs R. AV.. 900. 

Spencer, Benjamin F.. 1156. 

Sperry, J. Byron, 1167. 

Sprague, Raymond. 760. 

Sprague. Thomas W., 758. 

Spring. Franklin B.. 840. 

Stace, Francis A.. 276. 

Stage. Jesse C, 1028. 

Staples, Hiram, 673. 

Stark. Alonza D., 748. 

Stark. Charles A., 1156. 

State officials from the coutity, 222. 



state senate, members of, 223. 

Stations on underground railway, 84. 

Steam pump industry, 357. 

Stecker, Otto H., 1327. 

Stephens, Charles M., 714. 

Stephens, John H., 713. 

Stephenson, Mary F. B., 303. 

Sterling, Frank G., 1194. 

Stetson. .John C, 278. 

Stevens, Bertram B., 1307. 

Stevens. Samuel. 684. 

Stewart. Charles E.. 861. 

Stewart. Hugh P.. 828. 

Stewart. Louis E., 834. 

Stockwell. Charles F.. 119. 

Stone Hall, 241. 

Stone, I. L.. 361. 

Stone, Ray C, 1195. 

Strong, Marie R., 1120. 

Strong. Samuel D., 1104. 

Stuart, Mrs. F. C, 1056. 

Stuart, Walter M., 1057. 

"Sunday Record-Journal." 333. 

Superintendents of common schools, 152. 

Superintendents of public instruction, 

Surveyors. 226. 
Sutherland. Daniel, 734. 
Swain, David L., 762. 
Swamps, 96. 

Swank, Lutellus L., 648. 
Sweeney, George W., 1338. 
Swift, Theodore W., 1051. 
Sylvester, .William J., 779. 

Talmage, Leslie, 1277. 

Taylor, Dow M., 823. 

Taylor, William E., 831. 

Teeters, Samuel S., 1132. 

"Tekonsha News," 213, 215. 

Tekonsha Township, 21, 213. 

Temperance Advocate, 371. 

Temperance legislation, 163. 

Tenth Michigan Cavalry, 574. 

Territorial roads, 13. 

The Great Ordinance. 6. 

"The Herald," 436. 

"The Statesman," 335. 

Third and Fourth Infantry, 498. 

Third Michigan Cavalry, 559. 

Thirteenth amendment, 77. 

Thirteenth Michigan Infantry, 511; ros- 
ter, 512. 

Thirtieth Michigan Infantry, 534. 

Thom, John M., 1178. 

Thomas, Charles E., 336, 1079. 

Thomas, Matthew C, 903. 

Thomas, Sidney, 277. 

Thompson, Stephen W., 917. 

Thresher and Engine industry, 354. 

Tiffin, Edward, 10. 

Titus, Samuel J., 895. 

Township histories, Albion, 164; Athens, 
165; Battle Creek, 169; Bedford, 173; 
Burlington, 175; Clarence, 176; Clar- 
endon, 178; Convis, 179; Eekford, 180; 
Emmett, 182; Fredonia, 186; Homer, 
188; Lee, 192; LeRoy, 194; Marengo, 
197; Marshall, 199; Newton, 200; 
Pennfield, 201; Sheridan, 310; Tekon- 
sha, 212. 

Township schools, 165. 173, 180, 181, 190, 

Training school for nurses, 383. 
Transport "Florida" disabled, 601. 
Treasurers. 225. 

Treatment, Battle Creek Sanitarium, 375. 
Treatv of Paris, 2. 
Treaty of 1795, 4. 

Trinity Episcopal church, Marshall, 293. 
Troops raised in state and county, 484. 
Truant officers, 152. 
Tucker, Cash L., 1306. 
Tuttle, Alfred H., 893. 
Twelfth Infantry, 507. 
Twelfth Michigan Infantry roster, 508. 
Twentieth Michigan Infantry, 517; ros- 



Twenty-eighth Michigan Infantry, 529. 
Twenty-fifth Michigan Infantry, 524; 

roster. 526. 
Twenty-fourth Infantry, 524. 
Twcnty-sixtli and Twenty-seventh Mich- 

i^iiii Infaiitiv roster, 529. 
Tweiity-tliinl Infantry. 524. 
Two white oak trees (near Athens), 

(view). 166. 

round railway. 82, 
City Local," 215. 


'Union City Register," 2 
Union Grange, No. 292, ] 

Union sentiment, 485. 

Union Steam Pump Company, 317. 

Union Steel Screen Company, 435, 453. 

University of Health, 380. 

Upton Avenue Methodist Episcopal 

church. Battle Creek, 400. 
Upton, .James S., 1121. 

Van Arman, John H.. 1211. 

Van Nocker, James W.. 1001. 

Van Tuvle, James C, 756. 

VanZile," Philip T., 275. 

Vary, Clarence G., 1075. 

Vernon, Michael H., 617. 

Verona, 183. 

Vester, William R., 1304. 

Vibrator thresher, 355. 

View of main dining room. Battle Creek 
Sanitarium (view), 376. 

Views— Chapel, Albion College, 120; Rob- 
inson building, Albion College, 122; 
observatory, Albion College, 125; Lot- 
tie L. Cassette Memorial library, 134; 
McMillan laboratory, 135; two white 
oak trees (near Athens), 166; new 
high school building, Athens, 168; 
David Young farm house, 171; Jersey 
cattle on Sutfin farm, 185; high 
school. Homer, 190; cobblestone school- 
house erected 1849, 202 ; Anthony dairy 
farm (near Albion), 311; Main street, 
north, Tekonsha, 214; only old style 
sawmill left in county, 231; court- 
house, Marshall, 236; the old stone 
barn, old stage depot, a relic of stage 
days, Marshall, 250; Marshall Furnace 
Company, 251; the modern way of 
threshing, 252; old and new high 
school, Marshall, 264; Dulcenia hoihe, 
288; Jefferson avenue, north, in 1866, 
317; Battle Creek Sanitarium, 318; 

fire aepartment. Battle Creek, 321; 
mills mill inamifiicturing establish- 
ments of Battle Creek, 1861. 323; old- 
est building in Battle Creek, 334; rural 
mail carriers, Battle Creek, 327; new 
high school. Battle Creek, 329; old 
Brooks mansion, 340; Willard library. 
Battle Creek. 341; soldiers' monu- 
ments. Battle Creek, 344; American 
Steam Pump Company, 358; Battle 
Creek .Sanitarium. 368; grand march 
in gymnasium, 371 ; main building 
erected 1903-03. 373: main dining room, 
376; Battle Creek Sanitarium in 1876, 
377; palm garden. Battle Creek Sani- 
tarium. 379; Battle Creek Sanitarium 
in 1866, 381: outdoor swimming tour- 
nament, 383; a corner in one of the 
greenhouses, 386; Nichols Memorial 
Hospital, 390; Adventist tabernacle, 
403; Y. M. C. A. building. Battle 
Creek, 411; old red schoolhouse, Al- 
bion, 433; high school, Albion, 434; 
Gale Manufacturing Company, 448; 
Albion Malleable Iron Company, 451. 

Village schools. 154. 

Volunteers outside of Company D. 59S. 

Watlle. William. 1255. 
Wagner. John. 1266. 
Wagner, -lohn A., 1367. 
Walbridge. John J., 930. 
Walbridge, Robert M., 930. 
Walker, Charles E.. 894. 
Walkinshaw, James E., 1048. 
Walter, George C, 616. 
Walter, Lizzie M., 617. 
Ware, William E., 1188. 
Warner. Wareham. 418. 
Warner. Willard H., 1338. 
Warren. Frank A., 1283. 
Warren, Levi S., 469, 1321. 
Warriner. Eva, 338. 
Warsop, Ervin A., 1255. 
War times, 96. 
War with Spain, 597. 
Washingtonian movement, 160. 
Waterman, Adolphus C, 969. 
Waterman, Henry B.. 968. 
Waterman. John B., 972. 
Water system, Marshall, 355. 
Watson," John, 1285. 
Wattles, Jervis H., 886. 
Wayne, General. 3. 
Webb, Caleb, 1101. 
Webb, Fred H., 1363. 
Weeks, Burr L., 670. 
Weeks. Monfort D.. 438. 
Weeks, Ralph, 1301. 
Weeks, Ward S., 664. 
Weickgenant, Jacob, 622. 
Welcome home, 603. 
Wells, Fred, 815. 
Welsh, James M., 439. 
Werstein, Leopold, 800. 
Wesleyan Seminary and Female Colle- 
giate Institute. 120. 
West. Edmond C. 1335. 
"Western Citizen," 332. 
"Western Health Reform Institute," 370. 
Western sharpshooters, 5.47. 
"Western Statesman," 270. 


7 79, 


Wet Prairie. V, 

Wetzel. Kiank 

Whalon. .John, 1093. 

WhalcTi. Thomas F.. 1093. 

Wheelock, Charles H., 710. 

Wheelock, Frederick A., 440. 

Wheelock, Moses W., 707. 

Wheelock, Sarah W., 709. 

Whitbeck, George S., 991. 

Whitbeck, Henry E., 990. 

White. Arthur J., 1143. 

White, Gilbert B., 1019. 

White. L. E., 447. 

Whitney, Harlan K., 978. 

\Miitney, Henry A., 975. 

Whitney, William W., 941. 

Wild cat banks, 246. 

Wild cat banking, 105. 

Wildey, Clark E., 803. 

Willard, Charles, 341, 1116. 

Willard, Charles, Library, 339. 

Willard, George, 1112. 

Willard, George B., 331, 1115. 

Willard library, liattle Creek (view), 

Williams. Arthur B.. 808. 
Williams, Howard II.. 440. 
Williams. Isaac L.. 1289. 
Williams. L. C, 859. 
Willis, Edward F., 1307. 
Willis, Stephen H., 1173. 
Wilmot proviso, 51, 78. 
Winsor, Herbert E., 272, 277. 
Winter, John. 1163. 
Wirt, George P., 818. 
Wisner, Robert P.. 1064. 
Wolcott, H. J., 455. 
Wolcott. L. J.. 455. 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 

163, 409, 413, 476. 
Woman's Club, 408. 
Woman's League, 408, 410. 
Woman's Relief Corps, 283, 474. 
Wood, Abram L., 1098. 
Wood. John V., 780. 
Wood, Luke B., 1065. 
Wood, Melville J., 1318. 
Wood. William D., 641. 
Woodbrid-e. William, 13. 
Woollen, Andrew, 912. 
Wooden, W. It,, 408. 
Woollen. William R., 987. 
Woodruir, Frank G., 1070. 
Woodruff, (ieorge. 273. 
Woolnough, Walter W., 857. 
Woolsey, George S., 699. 
Wright, Orin J., 609. 

Yankees. 16. 

Year Book of Albion College, 117. 

York, George H., 1228. 

Young, David, farm house (view), 171. 

Young Men's Christian Association, 409, 

Y, M. C. A. building. Battle Creek (view), 


History of Calhoun County 


Three different national flags have waved in recognized authority over 
wliat is now the State of Michigan. That of France for 156 years, that 
of Great Britain for 20 years and that of the United States for 129 
> ears. In 1607, or but one year after the English sailed up the James 
River, landing at Jamestown and affecting there the tirst permanent 
English settlement in America, the French ascended the Saint Lawrence 
and established the first permanent settlement of the French in the New 
World. Fourteen years later, the Pilgrims landed from the Mayflower 
on the shores of Plymouth Bay. From these three fountains opened 
in the New World, there was destined to flow three mighty streams of 
influence affecting severally and unitedly every part of the North 
American Continent. 

It is our purpose to treat liriefly the second of these as most affecting 
Michigan in the order of time. Three motives seemed to dominate the 
French in their coming to America — first, the love of adventure on the 
part of a few resolute and ambitious men who sought to explore unknown 
parts of the northeastern section of America, to plunge into the wilder- 
ness and search out the great lakes, the mighty rivers and the lofty 
water falls and over all to raise the standard of their sovereign and 
claim the soil as subject to the government of France. Another class, 
moved by the love of gain, came in the wake of the explorers hoping to 
find, as many did, rich rewards for the perils and privations they 
endured. The third class was composed of priests, mostly of the Jesuit 
order, who, fired with a zeal which no hardship could abate and no 
sacrifice quench, plunged into the trackless wilderness searching out tlie 
haunts of the wild men of the woods and, having found them, counted 
not their lives dear unto themselves if they could but bring the savage 
warriors to accept the Prince of Peace and pattern their lives after the 
Man of Galilee. While the results seemed meager and not at all com- 
pensatory of the efforts put forth, it still remains that the story of the 
hardships passed through, the, privation endured, the tortures patiently 
borne for His sake, and finally the sacrifice on the altar of self-immola- 


tion in the name of the jMaster, constitute one of the most thrilling 
chapters in the history of our conmion country. 

While the French attempts at colonization were not a success, for 
reasons which do not come within the scope of this work to discuss, it 
is but fair to say that the foot prints of explorer, of trader and priest 
are still traceable from the Raisin to the Straits and from the Straits to 
the Saint Joseph ; that the nomenclature derived from the French rivals 
that from the Indian in our state ; and that so long as ]\Iarquette, Cadillac, 
Saint Iguace, Sault Ste Marie, Ponchartrain and Detroit remain, the 
influence of the heroic and devoted men who lived and wrought under 
the French regime will abide a living force within the borders of our 
State, constant reminders of the heroic people who lived and endured in 
the days of its primitive history. The rival claims of the French and 
English explorers; the sharp competition between the traders of the 
two nations with the Indians, particularly in furs ; and the enlistment on 
the one side or the other of the friendship and warlike aid of the 
powerful Indian tribes whose habitations bordered on the Great Lakes ; 
the jealousies and resulting clashes between the colonists, that fringed 
the Atlantic seaboard from the Penobscot to the James with their constant 
extensions toward the interior, with those of the Saint Lawrence and 
the Great Lakes, were sure to arouse to action the respective home goveni- 
ments, jealous of their real or assumed rights and relations of their 
children on this side the seas. Harrassing encroachxnents with threatened 
invasions and counter invasions resulted in the inevitable. The student 
of history is not surprised to see columns of marching troops under 
English commanders heading north and northwest through the forests, 
leaving the settlements behind them, nor counter columns of French 
soldiers headed southward ; each and every column on both sides accom- 
panied by the ferocious and blood-thirsty savages as accepted allies. 
The unbroken wilderness repeatedly resounded to the clash of arms, 
and Crown Point, Ticonderoga, Fort DuQuesne, Fort Frontenac and 
Fort Niagara are enrolled among the places for which brave men 
struggled and baptized them with their blood. Upon the Plains of 
Abraham, adjacent to Quebec, in September, 1759, the decisive battle 
was fought. Wolfe, the commander of the British troops, fell upon 
the field where his soldiers were victorious, while Jlontcalm, commander 
of the French, died a few days later of wounds received in the engage- 
ment, but not until the city, in defense of which he gave his life, had 
been surrendered to the triumphant enemy. A year later Montreal 
capitulated to the British arms. In due time the Treaty of Paris 
followed and the French power was broken and its flag forever furled 
on the North American Continent. 


With the ratification of the Treaty of Paris, Great Britain claimed 
sovereignty over all North America, save a strip to the southeast held 
by Spain and to the Louisiana country in the southwest. The nuitter- 
ings of discontent which were heard in some of the colonies on the 
Atlantic seaboard, even while the struggle was yet on with the French 
along the Canadian border, grew in scope and intensity until the tlame 
of war blazed up at Lexington and Concord and burned with increasing 
intensity through seven weary years from Bunker Hill to Yorktown. 
The treaty of 1783 between Great Britain and America, whereby the 
former granted independence to the latter with jurisdiction over certain 
defined limits of territory which latter embraced the present state of 
^lichigan, did not result in the immediate withdrawal of the British 
troops, nor bring peace and repose to the inhabitants residing in what 
is now the Peninsular State. 

AVhen the line of the Great Lakes was agreed upon as the international 
boundary, it was expected that the military posts held by Great Britain 
within the United States would be surrendered, l)ut instead, she not 
only continued to hold them, but her agents and representatives 
encouraged, if they did not aid, the Indians in their declared purpose 
to make the Ohio River the northwest boundary of the United States. 
To make good this purpose, the great Shawanese Chief, Joseph Brant, 
who had held a commission in the British army during the Revolution and 
who was a man of very unusual talents and possessed of some education, 
formed an alliance of the tribes of the six nations viz : the Ilurons, 
Ottawas, Miamis. Shawanese, Chippewas and Cherokees. with the Dela- 
wares and Pottawattomies and the Wabash Confederacy to resist the 
encroachments of the Whites noi-th and west of the Ohio River. In the 
endeavor to carry out this purpose there is abundant evidence that the 
Indians were encouraged and alietted by conspicuous British officers, 
both civil and military. Repeated councils were held with the repre- 
sentatives of these various tribes, but were unavailing to effect a per- 
manent settlement. 

Three different military expeditions were sent against the i)owerful 
Indian confederation. The first, led by General Harmar in the fall of 
1790, met with defeat : the second, by General Saint Clair in the follow- 
ing year, met with most disastrous results; but the third, under the 
leadership of General AVayne. was correspondingly successful. The 



power of the federation was broken at the battle of Fallen Timbers, 
August 20, 1794, after which the savages were ready to sue for peace. 
Accordingly chiefs in large numbers met at Greenville, Ohio, in the fall 
of 1794, where after a long consultation a treaty was agreed upon between 
these savage leaders and General Wayne. It was signed by all 
the Chiefs in Council and resulted in the cession of a vast domain of 
territory to the Whites and in terminating any serious trouble with the 
Indians in the northwest until the war broke out with Great Britain in 

In the mean time the Treaty of 1795 negotiated by John Jay and his 
associate members brought about the evacuation of all forts and the 
withdrawal of all British troops from within the American boundary. 
This was to be done on or before the eleventh day of June, 1796, and on 
the eleventh day of July following the American flag was far the iirst 
time raised over Detroit. This was twenty yfears after the opening of 
the Revolution and nearlj^ thirteen years after the surrender of Corn- 
wallis and the treaty that acknowledged American Independence. 


A L-oufusioii of claims by individual States to territoiy lying north 
of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania presented a perplexing 
problem to the Colonial Congress. ^lany of these claims were based 
upon assumed rights under royal grants and charters prior to the 
Revolution. The different States of the Confederacy gradually came to 
see the wisdom and the justice of surrendering these claims and ceding 
to the general government the territory west of certain definite limits 
which had been gained by common sacrifice and treasure during the 
war for independence. So it gradually came about that all the territory 
north aud west of the Ohio River, within the treaty limits, was brought 
under the jurisdiction of the United States. This Northwest Territory, 
as it was called, embraced all of the present states of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. AVhile at the time we are considering 
there were a good many people living within the limits named, there 
was no form of government ; hence it devolved upon tiie Congress, repre- 
sentative of all the people, to make provision for the control and govern- 
ment of this vast and soon to be generally inhabited region. 

Out of this situation confronting the Congress, there was evolved the 
celebrated Ordinance of 1787. So important was this ordinance and so 
inseparably associated with the future welfare, not only of ^Michigan 
and the northwe-st, but of the whole country, that we deem it proper to 
quote some of its salient features. It ma.v be said "'tliat a comprehensive 
plan was first evolved and reported in 1784 by a committee of which 
Jefferson was chairman: later this was modified by a committee of wiiich 
^Monroe was chairman and was still further amended and finally reported 
in Jul.y, 1787, by Nathan Dane, of Massachusetts, and passed on the 
13th of the same month by a unanimous vote of all the States then 
represented in Congress. This ordinance became a sort of constitution 
for the Northwest Territorj*. Among other things, it provided for not 
less than two nor more than five States to be created out of the territory ; 
that a temporary government in each of these should be administered by 
a governor, a council of five, a secretary and a court of five judges, all 
to be appointed by Congress. "When a certain population should be 
reached, then representative government should begin and a House of 
Representatives should, with the Governor and the Council, make a 
Legislature. When this state was reached, a delegate might be sent to 
Congress." Among other things, the Ordinance declared that "Religion. 


morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the 
happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall be forever 
encouraged," and as an earnest of good faith, the 16th section in everj- 
township of land was set apart for the support of public schools. In 
Michigan at this time the proceeds from the sale of school lands amount 
to something over five millions of dollars, which is held by the State as 
a trust fund upon which interest is annually paid for the support of 
the public schools. Freedom of religious worship was stipulated in the 
Ordinance. Considering the times and the provocations, the paragraph 
relating to the Indians speaks well for the fathers of the Republic. It 
declares that "The utmost good faith shall always be observed toward 
the Indians; their lands and property shall never be taken from them 
without their consent; and in their property, rights and liberty they 
shall never be invaded or disturbed unless in just and lawful wars 
authorized by Congress; but laws founded in justice and humanity 
shall from time to time be made for preventing wrongs being done to 
them and for preserving peace and friendship with them." 

It is doubtful if any member of Congress realized the tremendous 
import of the brief paragraph relating to slavery or deemed it possible 
that seventy-five years later in a great civil war, when the perpetuity of 
the government itself should hang in the balances, it should tip the 
scales in favor of the Union. The paragraph in ciuestion declared: 
"There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said 
territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crime whereof the party 
shall have been duly convicted." 

A plan of civil government, freedom of religious worship, provision 
for public schools, the prohibition of slavery and justice and humanity 
toward the Indians are salient points in this immortal instrument. 

Bancroft, the historian, calls it "The Great Ordinance." The late 
Chief Justice Cooley of our State says that "No Charter of Government 
in the history of any people has so completely stood the tests of time 
and experience." 

The distinguished Senator Hoar, of Massachusetts, put it on a plane 
with the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. The his- 
torian, Sehouler, says, "The Ordinance of 1787 deserves to rank among 
immortal parchments, both for what it accomplished and what it inspired. 
Nor would it be wild hyperbole to opine that, save for the adoption and 
unflinching execution of that ordinance by Congress in early times, 
the American Union would ere today have found a grave." 


The withdrawal of the British from American soil, under the treaty, 
left the way open for settlement aiid improvement of ^liehiufan which, 
aft^r Ohio was made a State in 1802. became a part of the territ«iy of 
Indiana with William Henry Harrison, afterward President of the 
United States, as Governor. 

In 1805 the territory of Michigan wa.s created and set apart from 
Indiana with General "William Hull, of Massachusetts, as the first 
territorial governor. There was but little gain in population, in enter- 
prise or development in the earlier yeai-s of the last century. In the 
entire territory of ^lichigan down to 1812, it is estimated there was 
not to exceed 5,000 white people, while Detroit, thougli a hundred and 
eleven years had passed since Cadillac had first established a settleuient 
there, contained but 800 Europeans. Several things contributed to this 
slow growth. It had been originally settled by the French and not the 
English and had drawn its life from French rather than 
sources. After the Kevolution conditions remained practically the 
same with British garrisons holding the forts on American soil along the 
frontier, with a wide expanse of unbroken forest lying between the 
settlements of the Americans t-o the south and southeast and the fringe of 
French settlements along the border of the north and northwest. There 
were by land no roads worthy of the name and no boats of carrying 
capacity on the lakes. As a result, the country known as the territory 
of I\Iiehigan remained for years practically at a stand still. 

There was also a twofold menace to the ^lichigan settlements. The 
one, was the British troops stationed near the border on the one side 
and the Indians in sullen and hostile mood on the other, both under con- 
ditions that might at any time arise and unite to overcome the Ameri- 
cans and devastate the settlements. 

On the 18th of June, 1812, the Congress declared war against Great 

One of the moves of the enemy was to capture Detroit, the most 
important post on the frontier. The authorities at Washingon showed 
lamentable lack of foresight and enterprise in view of the fact that they 
were the initiators. While Governor Hull was making his way through 
the wilderness of Ohio to his post at Detroit with a considerable foi-ce 
of troops, the British Commander in Canada, through inexcusable 
neglect on the part of the American Secretary of War, was first apprised 
of the fact that war had been declared and by that knowledge entered 


the contest at an advantage that resulted in the surrender of General 
Hull and his entire force with the town of Detroit to the British General 
Brock, on Sunday morning, August 16, 1812, less than two months after 
the declaration of war. This surrender of the most important post on 
the American frontier, without the firing of a single shot, was a dis- 
graceful and humiliating act, which brought, upon the Americans shame 
and ridicule at home and abroad. General Hull was tried by Court 
Martial and sentenced to be shot, but with a recommendation for execu- 
tive clemency, which resulted in his permanent retirement to private 
life and the spending of the rest of his days in a vain effort to repair 
his shattered reputation. 

Included in the surrendered forces under Hull was a young Colonel 
of Infantry, named Lewis Cass, who indignantly snapped his sword 
blade as a helpless protest against the action of his superior officer. He 
was destined to be, for a hundred years at least, the most conspicuous 
character developed by the commonwealth and to do more for the 
upbuilding of a great state than any other one person. 

A sequel to the surrender of Detroit was the invasion of northwestern 
Ohio by the British under General Proctor, of unenviable fame. The 
march of the American forces to counteract that advance made in the 
icy days of January, 1813, resulted in the frightful massacre on the 
river Raisin which, for atrocity, has no parallel in the annals of Michigan 
and few in those of the entire country. But disastrous and in part dis- 
graceful to the American Arms as the war had thus far been, better 
days were coming. 

During the winter of 1812-13 and the spring following, a young lieu- 
tenant of the navy named Oliver Hazzard Perry had been entrusted with 
the task of creating a navy on the Great Lakes that should be able to 
compete with the British ships in those waters. So well did young 
Perry meet the conditions imposed by his government that in the 
following August he sailed from his improvised ship yards in the harbor 
at Erie, Pennsylvania, with a squadron of two brigs, two schooners and 
a brig that had been earlier captured from the British, and on the 
10th of the following September a decisive engagement took place off 
Put-in-Bay, Lake Erie. "We have met the enemy and they are ours," 
said Perrj' in announcing the result. It not only thrilled Americans 
then but will start the red blood bounding through the veins of every 
patriot as long as the flag floats over the nation. 

While Perry was capturing the British fleet on Lake Erie, General 
Harrison was moving toward Detroit with a large force of infantry and 
cavalry. The enemy withdrew to Canada. Harrison followed and 
on the 5th of October, 1813, the decisive battle of the Thames was 
fought in which the British, under Proctor, were badly defeated. 
Tecumseh, his great Indian ally who bore a commission as Brigadier 
General in the royal army, was killed and his followers driven in con- 
fusion or captured on the field. 

This battle ended the war in this section of the country. The con- 
fidence of the Indians in their British friends was broken forever. 
Michigan was redeemed and the flag again floated without dispute over 
the lower peninsula, to be followed in the upper with the signing and 
proclamation of the Treaty of Ghent in the following year. 



Material Development — The Territorlvl Roads. 

Lewis Cass, who, on October 29, 1813. was appointed by President 
JMadison Governor of the territory of ^liehigan, was born in New Hamp- 
shire in the year 1782. His fatlier, who had l)een an officer in the 
army, brought his wife and several children, of which Lewis was the 
oldest, to ^larietta, Ohio, then on the frontier, in the year 1800, when 
the future Governor of Michigan was eighteen years okl. Shortly after 
coming to Marietta, he began the study of law in the office of IMr. R. J. 
Meigs, who was afterward Governor of Ohio. At twenty-one he was 
admitted to the bar and following a practice of many young lawyers, 
he soon became a candidate and was elected Prosecuting Attorney, then 
later a member of the legislature. In 1812 he was commissioned 
Colonel of an Ohio regiment and soon after was on his way to the scene 
of action near the Canadian border. During the war he so acquitted 
himself as to gain the rank of Brigadier General and at its close, as 
we have before stated, was made Governor of the Michigan territory. 

Henceforth, his life is inseparably associated with the commonwealth, 
he did so much to shape and develop in its formative period. 

The Battle of the Thames was decisive in so far as the lower peninsula 
of ^Michigan was concerned. The Indians, however, were a constant 
source of apprehension to the settlers. To the task of removing that 
element of danger and consequent uneasiness. Governor Cass early set 
himself. He succeeded in negotiating a number of treaties, the com- 
bined effect of which was to secure the transfer of most of the aborigines 
to the west of the ^lississippi River. 

The chief undertaking to which Cass addressed himself was to build 
up the waste of war, Americanize the population, induce an infiow of 
people from the states, and in tiie wake of material development and 
progress lay the foundations secure and strong for a great and pros- 
perous State in the American Union. It is estimated that at the close 
of the war of 1812-14 there were not in the territory of Michigan to 
exceed 5,000 white people. For nearly fifty years the population had 
not materially increased. In 1810, Detroit though 109 j'ears old and 
then, as now, the metropolis of the State, had but 1,400 people. In the 
entire territory outside of Detroit there were but 4,762. The settlements 
fringed the eastern border from ^Monroe, or Frenchtown as it was then 


called, to Fort Gratiot with an occasional settlement as far north as 
Mackinaw and even to Sault Ste Marie. With the exception of some 
venturesome traders, the inhabitants were almost wholly French. The 
interior to the west, south and southwest for two hundred miles was an 
unbroken and, save hy the savages, an uninhabited wilderness. There 
were no roads worthy of the name west and north of the Ohio, while no 
steamboats navigated the waters of the Great Lakes. All these were 
serious obstacles to overcome, but the greatest blow to the governor's 
ambition came from an unexpected quarter and from within the house 
of his friends in the shape of a report by Surveyor General Tiffin to 
the Commissioner of the General Land Office, in November, 1815. 

The Congress, in anticipation of war and as an inducement to men 
to enlist, had, in 1812, provided for a government survey of six million 
acres of land "suitable for cultivation," two million of which was to be 
located in the territory of Michigan and to be known as military bounty 
lands for the reward of soldiers who cared to make entry. 

To Edward Tiffin, a former Governor of Ohio and afterward Surveyor 
General, was committed the task of having the surveys made and reports 
upon the same transmitted to the government at Washington. In his 
report he says: "I annex a description of the country which has been 
sent me and which, I am informed, all the surveyors concur in * * * 
I deem it my duty to give you the information, believing that it is the 
wish of the Government that the soldiers should have, as the Act of 
Congress proposed, lands fit for cultivation and that the whole of the 
two million acres appropriated in the Territory of Michigan will not 
contain anything like one-hundredth part of that quantity, or is worth 
the expense of surveying. Perhaps you will think with me, that it will 
be proper to make this representation to the President of the United 
States, and he may avert all further proceedings by directing me to 
pay off what has been done and abandon the country." 

Then follows a description of the military lands in Michigan terri- 
tory, a part of which, in view of what is now seen, is deemed of sufficient 
interest to reproduce here. ' ' The country is, with some few exceptions, 
low wet land with a very thick growth of underbrush, intermixed with 
very bad marshes, but generally very heavily timbered with ash, cotton- 
wood, oak, etc. From these, continuing north and extending from the 
Indian boundary line eastward, the number and extent of swamps 
increase with the addition of the number of lakes from 20 chains to two 
and three miles across, many of them having extensive marshes adjoining 
their margins, sometimes thickly covered with species of pine called 
'Tamarack,' and other places covered with a coarse, high grass and 
uniformly covered from six inches to three feet, and more at times with 
water. The margins of these lakes are not the only places where 
swamps are found, for they are interspersed throughout the whole 
country, and filled with water as above stated and varying in extent. 
The intermediate space between these swamps and lakes, which is prob- 
ably near one-half the country, is, with a very few exceptions, a poor, 
barren, sandy land on which scarcely any vegetation grows except very 
small scrubby oaks. In many places that part which may be called dry 
land is composed of little short of sand hills forming a kind of deep 


basins, tlie hottmii of iiuiiiy of wliii-li arc coiniiosi'd nl' a iiiarsli similar 
to those above deseribed. Tlu' streams are generally narrow and ver\- 
deep eompared witli tiieir widtii, the siiores and bottoms of wliieli are. 
with a very few exeeptions, swampy beyond deseriptiou and it is with 
difficulty that a place can be found over which horses can be conveyed." 

How different is the description written 114 years earlier by Cadillac, 
the founder of Detroit. Referring to the scenes along and adjacent 
to the Detroit River, this native son of France said: "The borders of 
the strait are vast prairies and the freshness of the beautiful waters 
keeps the banks always green. Natural orchards soften and bend their 
branches under the weight and (|nantit.v of their fruit toward the 
mother earth which has produced them. The ambitious vine, which has 
never wept under the pruning knife, builds a thick roof with its large 
leaves and heavy clusters, weighing ilown the top of the tree which 
receives it and often stifling it with its embrace. The woods are full of 
game: the forest trees are straight as arrows and of prodigious size: 
above them the courageous eagle soars looking fixedly at the sun; the 
swans in the river are so numerous that one might take for lilies the 
reeds in which the.y crowd together and the fish are none the less 
delicious for their great abundance." The latter is not only much the 
prettier but much the truer picture. Her forest trees, "straight as 
arrows and prodigious in size," converted into boards and shingles and 
lath, until approximatel.v exhausted, long placed her among the foremost 
of lumber producing states. The product of her orchards and her 
vineyards, in (luantity and quality, have carried her fame as a fruit 
producing state to every part of the home land and even be.vond the 
seas. Her "poor, barren and sandy land in the intermediate spaces 
between the swamps and lakes" has produced inore wheat per acre 
than any other state in the Union, while in quantity she has ranked 
fourth among the great wheat growing states of the Nation. This land, 
of which not more than one acre in a hundred, would ever be "fit for 
cultivation" has given ^lichigan a most creditable rank among the 
leading cereal states, while neither Cadillac nor Tiffin dreamed of the 
uncounted millions of dollars that la.v sleeping the centuries away in 
her beds of iron and copper ore and in her deposits of salt and coal. 

Cass knew something of the possibilities of the embryo state and that 
knowledge laid under tribute all the resources of his being, personal and 
official. Though the soil of the state iiad been aspersed aud the govern- 
ment's official seal of condemnation put upon it, though the tides of 
emigration sweeping westward were dellected and passed by Michigan, 
he was nothing daunted. He put forth his best efforts to secure govern- 
ment aid to the territory to build roads, where only Indian trails 
traversed the wilderness. These efforts were rewarded by roads, crude 
it is true, but nevertheless roads surveyed and somewhat improved, 
leading through the forests to the westward and southward, eastward 
and northwestward. He caused to be made known the territory's many 
advantages and when inquiries from home seekers began to multiply, 
secured the establishment of a Government Land Office in Detroit, the 
first in the State. 

Following these sucfpssful efforts within the territoi-y was the intro- 


duction of steam navigation on the Great Lakes above the falls of Niagara. 
One steam boat followed another until there was a daily line between 
Buffalo and Detroit. About this time the Erie Canal was put in com- 
mission and an all water route was open from New York and western 
New England to ilichigan. The tides of emigration, which now set 
toward the peninsular territory, caught in their flow much of the best 
blood and brains of the northeastern states of the Union. Intelligent, 
resolute and courageous young men and women in large numbers came 
into Michigan to lay the foundations of a new commonwealth. 

]\Iatkbial Development 

While material development and improvement was going on in a 
most gratifying way, Governor Cass was not unmindful of the necessary 
political changes that should accompany them. Out of the original 
Northwest Territory, of which Michigan was a part, Ohio had been made 
a State in 1802 ; Indiana in 1816 and Illinois followed two years later. 
From 1818 to 1836 the Territory of Michigan embraced all of Michigan 
and all the territory now known as Wisconsin and Minnesota east of the 

Prom 1810 to 1820 the population of the territory nearly doubled. 
When Governor Cass came into office, the first system of government 
under the Ordinance of 1787 was still in vogue. Under that system the 
Governor and Judges, all appointed by the President, were supreme 
within the limitations of the Ordinance of 1787. In 1823 the second 
step in territorial government was taken when the people elected by 
popular vote eighteen councilmeu from which nine were selected by the 
President and by him recommended to the Senate for confirmation. 
The territory remained under tlie Governor and Council, appointed and 
confirmed as stated, until 1827 when the exclusive power of choice was 
given to the people. This last step carried the people to the third 
grade in territorial government. In 1819 the Territory was given the 
privilege of electing a delegate to Congress. 

William Woodbridge, of Detroit, was chosen. He was succeeded, 
after one term, by Judge Solomon Sibley, of the same place, and he in 
turn by a Catholic priest in the person of Gabriel Richard, who took 
his seat December 8, 1823. Pather Richard was born in Prance and 
educated for the priesthood. He came to Detroit in 1798, where he 
built St. Ann's Church. He was popular with all classes. He was not 
only a loyal and devoted churchman but an energetic and public spirited 
citizen. He published the first newspaper ever printed in JMiclugan, 
was much interested in education and helped to lay the foundations of 
the State University. While he served but one term in Congress, he 
proved in Washington, as in Michigan, a useful friend of the new and 
rapidly developing territory. In 1832 he fell a victim of the cholera 
epidemic which that year raged with great virulence in Detroit and other 
parts of the territory. Pather Richard is the only Catholic priest in 
Michigan that ever served in the Congi-ess of the United States and 
though nearly ninety years have passed since that service was rendered. 

HISTORY OF CAiJiorx corxTY i:i 

his inoinory is still fragrant to all llicliigaii people who know of his 
worth and works. 

Another evidence of the growth and development of the Territory 
was evidenced by the organization of new counties. Wayne was tiie 
first county organized by Governor Cass in 1813, and at that time 
embraced the whole territory of Michigan. In 1817 President Monroe 
paid a visit to Detroit and soon after, Monroe County was organized and 
named in honor of the then chief executive. A year later IMacoinb was 
organized and named in honor of the General. Then followed in quick 
succession Jlackinac, Oakland, St. Clair, Lenawee, Sanilac, Saginaw and 
Shiawassee, all up to 1822 inclusive. These county organizations tell, 
better than anything else the trend of population, very little of which 
had to that time penetrated the interior, but followed mainly the water 
courses of the eastern section. The intluences were at work, however, 
which would soon change this. The building of 

The Territorial Exjads 

did much to open up the new Territory to settlers in the interior. The 
tirst of these ran from Detroit to the foot of the rapids on the Maumee 
River at what is now Perrysburg, Ohio, at that time considered as a 
part of Michigan. 

The bill authorizing the survey and construction of this road was 
gotten through Congress during the term of Father Gabriel Richard 
an,d was the first of the territorial roads built in ^Michigan. In 1826 
the Government made provision for the survey and construction of 
additional roads, notably from Detroit to Fort Gratiot, from Detroit to 
Saginaw Bay, and from Detroit to Chicago. One territorial road ran 
from Detroit west via Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor, Jack.son and Marshall; 
another passed through the southeastern counties. In 1832 Congress 
passed an act to authorize the surveying and laying out of a road from 
Detroit to the mouth of the Grand River on Lake ^lichigan. Laterals 
were constructed running from different parts to intersect with the 
main lines. Settlers in large numbers followed the opening of these 
new roads, postoffices were established at many points in the interior 
and new counties were organized. Here again, by the names of the 
new* counties formed, do we see the course of the immigrants seeking 
homes in the territory. Jackson, Calhoun, Hillsdale, Branch, Cass, 
Berrien, Kalamazoo, Van Buren, Saint Joseph, Ingham, Eaton and 
Bany were organized by 1829. It will be seen that this gave two tiers 
of organized counties entirely across the lower part of the State and a 
third one nearly so. 

The federal census of 1832 gave the population of ^Michigan as 
32,538. Governor Cass in 1831 was made a member of Jackson "s 
cabinet. George B. Porter, of Pennsylvania, was appointed to succeed 
him, while John T. ilason. of Virginia, was named as Secretary to 
succeed William Woodbridge, who had long held the office under 
Governor Cass. This latter office of Secretary derived its importance in 
a large part from the fact that in the absence of the Governor the Secre- 
tary acted in his place. Governor Porter did not arrive in .Miilii^'aii 


for nearly a year after his appointment and in the interval Mason acted 
as Governor, but he soon resigned and went abroad and President Jack- 
son appointed Stevens Thompson Mason, the Secretary's son, to succeed 
his father and so it came about through favoritism in appointments that 
ilichigan's acting Governor was under twenty-one years of age. Pro- 
tests to the administration at Washington were made in vain. The 
younger Mason held his place as Secretary and continued to act as 
Governor notwithstanding his youth. Subsequently he was appointed 
Governor of the Territory. 

In the meantime the desire for statehood was growing among the 
people and in 1834 took form in the shape of a memorial to the Congress 
by the Territorial Council for the passage of an act to enable them to 
proceed to form a state constitution and organize a state government. 
A long drawn-out controversy with Ohio over the southern boundarj' 
of ]Michigan, which involved during its course the President, his cabinet, 
both Houses of Congress, together with the Governors and people of 
the two states as parties to the controversy, not only delayed the admis- 
sion of Michigan into the Union but at one time threatened a serious 
Collision of arms by the immediate disputants. Congress finally settled 
the difficulty by granting Ohio's claim of the ten mile strip in dispute 
and giving to Michigan in lieu thereof the Upper Peninsula. In the 
meantime Michigan had held her convention, framed a constitutton, 
elected a Governor and other state officers, a legislature, two United 
States Senators and a member of Congress. The machinery of state- 
hood was all constructed and set up but could not be put in motion 
until Congress said the word. This was done on the 26th day of January, 
1837, when Michigan was duly admitted as the twenty-sixth State into 
the Federal Union. 



Calholn and Gai^houn County — Important Year for the County 
AND ^Iarshall — Rapid Growth of County and County Seat — 
Public and Private Buildings — First County Court House — A 
New Court iIouse Needed — A New Jail — The Calhoun County 
Home — lounty Officers. 

it is doubtful if any state in the great middle west was more fortunate 
than Miclngan in the charaeter and quality of her pioneers. Except 
the French, wnose holdings were almost entirely confined to the river 
front from Monroe to Saint Clair where they had existed for more than 
a hundred years with little of material progress and comparatively 
slight increase ni numbers, there were few foreigners. Nearly all the 
new comers arter the second war with Great Britain were from New 
England, New York and Ohio. Among these were many men and 
women of education and refinement who sought to better their material 
condition in the new State bordered by the Great Lakes. Nearly all 
were without means, who had everything to make and little to lose; 
hence they were willing to subject themselves to the hardships, privations 
and toil inseparable from pioneer life in the -fii-st half of the last century. 

The French settlers may be said to have constituted a class by thein- 
seives and of these the late Chief Justice Cooley has given the following 
interesting picture: "' French farms may almost be said to have lined 
the river from the mouth of the Detroit to Lake St. Clair; their houses 
fronted upon the road which ran along the river bank, ;in<l llicre was 
only a narrow belt of cultivation behind them, bordered by dense forest 
in which wolves, bears and other wild animals still ottered pasliiiie to 
the sportsmen. The agriculture of the farmers was of the most primitive 
character, the plow, except the share, was of wood, with a wooden wheel 
on either side of the long beam ; the one small to run on the land side 
and the other larger to run in the furrow. Oxen were attached to this 
plow by a pole which had a hinged attachment ; they were not yoked 
but the draught was by thongs or ropes fastened about their horns. A 
little two wheeled cart into which was fastened a pony, or perhaps a 
cow or steer, was the principal farm vehicle. The early farmers did 
not appreciate the value of manure in agriculture and removed it out of 
their way by dumping it into the river. Tlie houses for the most parr 
were a single s\oyy witli ;i plain vei'anda in front and here in pleasant 



weather would gather the household for domestic labor and social recrea- 
tion. The houses of the wealthier classes were of hewed logs, with a 
large chimney occupying the space of a room in the center and a garret 
hung with festoons of drying or dried fruits, pumpkins, garlic, onions 
and medicinal and culinary herbs. The family wash was done at the 
river and the pounding of the clothes was with a little hand mallet, after 
the method of their ancestors from time immemorial. Everywhere the 
spinning wheel was in use and the madam, with just pride in her deft- 
ness, made the clothing for the family. The kitchen was a common 
gathering-room for the family, who liked to see the cookery going on 
with pots and kettles and spiders in an open fire place. Around many 
of the old houses and yards were pickets of cedar, ten or twelve feet 
high, which were originally planted for defense against the Indians. 
The only fastening to the front door of the house was a latch on the 
inside which was raised to open the door by a strip of leather, or deer's 
hide, run through a Irole in the door and hanging down on the outside. 
When the latch string was drawn in, the door was fastened ; but so 
marked an indication of distrust or inhospitality was seldom witnessed 
as no one, not even an Indian, would be guilty of so great a breach of 
propriety as to lift the latch and cross the threshold without permission 
of the owner. The family, when leaving the house temporarily, did not 
therefore deem it necessary to fasten the door." 

The Yankees, as all Americans were called, found their way into 
Michigan by the Erie Canal to Buffalo, thence across the Lake to Detroit, 
or by the military road up through the wilderness from Ohio. The 
entire household effects were generally conveyed in a single wagon drawn 
by oxen. The wife and mother with the small children rode while the 
husband and older children trudged along on foot. If fortunate enough 
to possess a cow, she was carefully tended and gently led by some 
member of the family. A canvas covering extended over the entire 
length of the wagon, usually projecting outward both in front and rear 
and supported by wooden bows or stays. This covering protected the 
household effects and during storms served as shelter for those members 
of the family fortunate enough to get under it. 

With this outfit many families came into the wilds of Michigan 
seventy and eighty years ago, whose descendants are among our most 
successful and prominent citizens. At that time the main roads were 
at best but an excuse for highways. Oft times the team or wagon or 
both would sink into the mire, necessitating long delays in getting 
extricated. A week or ten days were consumed in journeying as far west 
from Detroit as Calhoun County. 

When the "location" was finally reached, the wife and smaller 
children slept in or under the wagon while the logs were being cut 
and built into a cabin. Shingles were rived from blocks or bolts of 
wood and laid in place for a roof without nails, held down by the 
weight of poles laid transversely to the pitch of the roof. A fireplace 
that occupied the larger part of one end of the cabin was built up of 
mortar and stone with the flue constructed of sticks made into a sort 
of crib or stack laid up in mortar and plastered on the inside to protect 
from fire. The fireplace served for heating the house and cooking the 


food. A craiic lasleiU'd at one side of tlir lircplace swuiij; foi-\vard to 
receive its Ijiirdcn of pots ami kettles and llieii back over the l)la/.iiijj 
fire that the contents might be boiled. Spiders and skillets were placed 
on the hearth in front where they were heated by means of coals drawn 
from the tire. No more delicious bread was ever eaten than that baked 
in the skillet with its close fitting cover j)rotecting the contents within 
while the live coals were drawn beneath and piled on to]>. Potatoes 
were baked by covering them with ashes and piling on these the hot 
eoals. To get the delicious flavor of the tubers, no better way of cooking 
them has ever been devised. Salt pork was the staple meat for which 
fish and game were occasionally substituted. A floor for the cabin 
home often awaited the erection of a mill, the cutting and hauling of 
logs and their conversion into boards. This, .sometinu's i'e(|uired months 
of time and in the meanwhile the family lived ;ind ate and slept on tiio 
ground fioor. 

While without stalwart anus wciv felling the 1rces, cutting and 
rolling the logs into hcajts and jiiling the brush for burning pi-e])aratory 
to jilowing and seeding, within loving hands were rocking the cratUe 
and getting the meals for hungry and happy husband and children who 
with each setting sun saw the pioneer's amliition for a home more nearly 

The clothing, both for adults and eliildivn. was made at hoinc and 
from the plainest material. For outer garments Kentucky jeans met 
the requirements of the men and calico of the women. Children went 
bare-footed from the time frost left in the spring until it came again in 
the fall. 

flails were both infrequent and irregular, while it cost twenty-five 
cents in postage to carry a letter from ;\Iicliigau to New England. There 
were no daily papers. The weeklies were small in size, unattractive in 
make up and meager in contents. The schools, supported by rate bills, 
were of short duration, usually three months in a year, and primitive in 
every way. Reading, writing, grammar and arithmetic w'ere looked 
upon as the essentials, more than these as superfluous. In winter, 
spelling and singing schools were conuuon sources of conuuunity profit 
and amusement, Quiltings for the women, husking bees and raisings 
for the men and dancing parties for both sexes were utilized for i-ecrea- 
tion and social develojiment. 

Churches were few and far l)et\\een. The log school .served 
as a place for both intellectual and religious instruction. The circuit 
rider usually made the rounds of his preatdiing places once in four 
weeks and then only for a single service. To the appointed place of 
worship, people would come up in every direction from out of the 
woods, some on foot, some on horseback and some in wagons or carts 
drawn by oxen. 

The young people courted, loved, married and were given in mar- 
riage. Almost every wife became the mother of children. Domestic 
scandals were very rare. Divorces were practically unknown. Health, 
happiness and a reasonable degree of prosperit.v attended the pioneers 
who felled the forests, cleared and fenced the fields, planted the orchards 
and vineyards, constructed the highways and bi-idges, built the homes 


and schools and churches and in these laid the foundations of the civil- 
ization which the later generations have inherited. 

Calhoun and Calhoun County 

Anticipating the early completion of the public surveys of the south- 
western part of the State and the final extinguishment of the Indian 
claims to some portions of the unsurveyed lands, the Legislative Council 
of 1829 set off twelve counties, which included all the land west of the 
principal meridian and south of the fifth township north of the base 

The names given to most of these counties clearly indicate flie ruling 
party at the time, both at Washington and in Michigan. One was called 
Jackson after the then President of the United States; another Calhoun 
after the Vice President ; Van Buren was named after Jackson 's Secre- 
tary of State ; Ingham was named for the then Secretary of the Treas- 
ury ; Eaton, for the Secretary of War ; Branch, for the Secretary of the 
Navy; Barry, for the Postmaster General; Berrien, for the Attorney 
General and Cass, for the then Governor, but, who in 1831 became 
Secretary of War under Jackson. 

All of these men, sc closely identified with Jackson and his ad- 
ministration, filled to a greater or lesser degree the public eye during 
the first half of the nineteenth century. Except Jackson only, no one 
was so long conspicuous and no one exercised so great an influence upon 
the republic as John Caldwell Calhoun, South Carolina's most eminent 
son, after whom Calhoiui County was named. The son of an Irish im- 
migrant, whose mother, ilary Caldwell, was the daughter of a Pres- 
byterian clergyman also from Ireland, the future statesman, was born 
in South Carolina in 1782, the same year as Webster and Cass, two of 
his distinguished contemporaries. Calhoun graduated with honor from 
Yale in 1804 and after three years devoted to the study of the law, 
was admitted to the bar of his native State. Soon after his admission 
he was elected a member of the South Carolina legislature ; at 29 years 
of age he became a member of Congress ; at 35, Secretary of War under 
President Monroe ; at 42, Vice President during John Quincy Adams ' 
administration and held the same office during the first four years of 
Jackson's. He was for a short time Secretary of State under Ty- 
ler. At 51 he entered the Senate, the arena on which he won his 
most enduring fame. His name will be forever linked with those of 
Webster and Clay as one of the "Great Triumvirate." 

Calhoun was the leader, if not the originator, of the nullification 
school of statesmen. He was the most conspicuous advocate of his 
time, of the proposition that the Constitution of the United States was 
a compact, an agreement and that secession is a constitutional right 
inherent in the states. Of a very high order of intellect, of great purity 
of character and from his standpoint of view, an ardent patriot, many 
still believe that he exercised a baneful influence upon the Republic. 

On the 29th day of October, 1829, the Legislative Council of the Ter- 
ritory of Michigan enacted that so much of the country as lies south of 
the base line and north of the line between townships four and five. 


south ot'tlio liasc liiir ami west iiT (lie line bctwi'uii raiiijcs tlirci' ami lour, 
west of the iiu'ridiaii ami uast of the liuc hctwet'U raiiK''^ cijilit ami nine 
west, 1)6 and tlie same is hereby set off inio a sei)(>ratc iMuiuty ami the 
name thereof shall he Calhoun. 

Settlers soon followed the setting apart of the county. Onee the 
white man having looked upon the beautiful ""oak oi)enings," the 
fertile soil, the clear running streams with their natural water power 
sites, the numerous erystal water lakes already alive with fish, and the 
magnificent forests abounding with game, he not only coveted for him- 
self a part of this inheritance but everywhere he went he advertised its 
beauty and its advantages. 

The first white man to settle, permanently, in Calhoun County was 
Sidney Ketchum. lie came from Clinton County, New York, in August, 

1830, and located land at the "forks" of the Kalamazoo River, now 
the site of the City of Albion, and also at the .iunction of Rice Creek 
with the Kalamazoo, at what is now the City of ^larshall. At that time 
the United States Land Office for this section was at Monroe and there 
in the month of October, 1830, Noble ]\IeKinstrj' and Ephraim Hanson 
entered lands covering respectively the water power at Jlarshall and 
Albion. Mr. Ketchum subsequently bought the land at both locations. 
These were the only entries made in Calhoun County in 1830. In the 
early days a good dam site was regarded as exceedingly important, for 
by it power could be conserved that would grind the corn into meal 
or the wheat into flour or saw the logs into boards. The first two would 
feed and the last house and shelter the pioneer and his family, hence 
dam sites were everywhere sought and seized upon by the early comers. 

The year 1831 found the entries in Calhoun County increased fifty- 
fold over the preeeeding. Among the new comers vv'ere George Ketchum, 
Lucious Lyon, Isaac N. Hurd, H. II. Comstock, John Bertram, A. L. 
Hayes, Rev. John D. Pierce, Rev. Hobart Randall, Isaac E. Crai"y and 
H. P. Wisner, who located laud in or near what is now the city of 
Marshall. It is worthy of note that in this little group of immigrants 
standing on the verge of civilization were a future United States Senator, 
a member of Congress and a State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 
Jonathan Wood entered the 160 acres which became the original village 
site on which the county seat was subsequently located. In tlie same 
year, Sands McCamley, George Redfield, John J. and Daniel G. Gurnsey 
settled in or very near what is now Battle Creek. Goguac prairie was 
a strong competitor with ilarshall and Battle Creek for settlei-s, for in 

1831, David, Jonathan and Isaac Thomas and Isaiah Goddard located 
in that promising section. In 1832, Samuel Convis, Moses Hall with 
others found their way to Battle Creek. A little later came Ezra Con- 
vis, Polydore Hudson, who became Battle Creek's first Postmaster. p]ach 
succeding year there were additions to the little settlements at Marshall 
and Battle Creek. 

Alliion shares with ilarshall the distinction of having one of the 
two first land entries made in Calhoun County. Both entries were made 
October 16, 1830. In 1831. Darius Pierce entered a quarter section on 
which the main part of Albion now stands. Sidney Ketchum 's holdings 
in Sheridan township, now a part nf Albion Cit\-. with of Pierce 


and Harrison were bought by Tenney Peabody of the State of New York. 
In the early spring of 1832, Peabody arrived with his family, accom- 
panied by Charles Blanchard. 

While the pioneers were coming in considerable numbers to ilarshall, 
Battle Creek and Albion, other parts of the county were by no means 
passed by. In 1832, Henry and Richard McMurtrie, Powell Grover and 
William Wintersteen, all from Pennsylvania, settled within the limits 
of the present township of Homer. In the same year last named, Henry 
Cook located on what is now known as Cook's Plains, northwest of Ho- 
mer Village but in the present township of Eckford. The same year 
also, Anthony Doolittle, coming direct from Ohio, though originally from 
the State of New York, settled in what is now the township of Claren- 
don. In 1832, there came to Homer, Milton Barney, a most enter- 
prising and useful citizen. He entered a large tract of land on a part 
of which the beautiful Village of Homer now stands and which also enj- 
braced the valuable water-power still in use, on which he built a saw 
luill and a grist mill ; he built the first store building and ran the first 
store; put up and ran the first hotel and served as the lirst Justice of 
the Peace. The settlement for which he had done so much was originally 
called Barneyville. Timothy Hamilton, Henry Stanchell, Richard Nor- 
ris, Frederich R. Hatch, Samuel W. Hamilton, James Parsons, Chauncey 
Lewis, Cornelius Fish, and others made their way to Homer and 
vicinity and that section of the County improved rapidlj'. 

The southwestern part of the County received its first influx of pio- 
neers in 1S31. It was in this year that xVlfred Holcum, Benjamin F. 
Ferris, Warren Nichols, and his brothers Ambrose and Oi'thorial, Asahel 
Stone and Isaac Crassett settled in the township first called Berlin, now 
Athens. At that time it embraced the present townships of Athens, 
Burlington and LeRoy. Others soon followed and shared with these 
hardy pioneers the privilege of building up what is today one of the 
finest sections of Calhoun County. 

Marengo township enjoys, with others above named, the distinction 
of being among the first settled. Seeley Neal, whose land entry dates 
June 16, 1831, built the first log house put up in the township. It was 
located on the south side of the territorial road on Section 37. Col. John 
Ainsley, Erastus Kimball, Joseph Ames, Thomas Chisholm, Alfred D. 
Wright, Elijah A. Bigelow, and Nathan Pierce all came the same year. 
The fine water-power at Marengo was utilized in running a saw mill as 
early as 1835. . A grist mill was put in commission in 1839. The timber 
being gone, there was no longer use for a saw mill, but the grist mill, 
though not the original, is still grinding wheat and corn for the customer 
who waits for his grist as in the early days. In 1831, Reuben Abbott, 
from Erie, New York, became the first white settler in the township of 
Sheridan. He was soon followed by Orris Clapp, Chandler Church and 
M. J. Lathrop. The first land entered in what is now Eckford Town- 
ship was by Osheo Wilder in the winter of 1831. Mr. Wilder, who was 
a native of IMassachusetts, came direct from Rochester, New York, with 
his family in 1832. In Lower Eckford a dam was constructed across 
Wilder Creek — named in honor of the first settler — and a saw mill was 
built, which served the people of that section for many .years. 


The first settler in Fre.loiii;i tdwiiship wms Tlidiiias I'.iirhiiKl. Mr. 
Burlaud was born and reareii in Yorkshire. Knirhind. and in ISlil ciinie 
from there with several other families and settletl a year latei- in the 
township above named. John Huston. Sr., who eanie with his family 
from New Hampshire in 1833, was the second settler in Fredonia. lie 
was followed by Ezekial Blue from the State of New York. 

Similar eonditions prevailed in several other townships. From ls:{(), 
when Sidney Ketehum first eame. to 1835, large ninnbers of ])ioneei-s 
eame into the county and located lands and built homes, scattering it 
is true, in nearly every section of the county. Lands were cleared, 
homes were built, fields were fenced, crops wei-e raised, orchards were 
set, mills were put in, roads were surveyed and the first rough work 
done to make them passable. An industrious, contented and happy 
people saw with pride and satisfaction the inci'easing results of their 
toil and sacrifice. 

Import.wt Year for tiik Cm ntv and IIausiiai.l 

The first settlement of the whites in Calhoun County was made at 
what is now the city of ^Marshall, in the spring of 1831. On the 2!)tli 
of August of the same year, the village plot of ilarshall was received for 
record in the Register's office in Kalamazoo and on October 17, 1831, 
l)y proclamation of Governor I'oilei' ;ittested by Stevens T. Mason, 
Secretary. ^Marshall was officially (Icclarcd to be the County Seat of 
Calhoun County. 

The exact location was at a point in the line deviding sections twen- 
ty-five and twenty-six in township two South, range six West, on or very 
near the centre of the west half of the northwest quarter of Section 
twenty-five, and the east half of the northeast quarter of Section twenty- 
six, being northeast distant about three miles from the guographical 
centre of the County. Streets and alleys were dedicated for public use ; 
a s(|uare for the Court House : a lot for a jail ; another for a seminary 
and four church lots, one of which was for the Presbyterian, one for the 
Fpiscopal, one for the ilethodist Episcopal and one for the Baptist, were 
designated and set apart for the purposes named. 

Rapid Growth of County and Coitnty Seat 

The County of Calhoun, according to the United States survey, em- 
braces twenty townships; each township, thirty-six sections and each 
section, six hundred and forty acres of land, consequently there are 
460,800 acres in the county. Of all this acreage there remained unsold 
on July 1, 1837, less than seven years after the first entry was made 
and but six years from the coming of the first permanent settlers, 
44.(10(1 /icres. In the meantime, the town.shii)s of ^Marshall, Milton, now 
Battle Creek. Convis. .Marengo. Sheridan. Albion, Homer, Eckford, Te- 
konsha, Athens and Burlington had been organized. A number of 
villages, notably Battle Creek. Homer. Albion and ^Marengo, were giving 
promise of a future. A dozen flouring mills were in operation or being 
built, and twenty-one saw mills compli'tcd oi- in pi-or-es.s of constru<-ti()n. 


Bridges were being built and roads laid out and improved. Farms were 
being rapidly cleared up and comfortable dwellings for the people and 
barns for the stock were being put up in nearly all parts of the county. 
Enterprise and enthusiasm characterized the people of that period. At 
the November election of 1836, there were 704 votes polled for a re- 
presentative to the State Legislature. This of itself indicates a remark- 
able influx of settlers, when the distance from the older and settled 
portions of the country and the difficulties of transportation are con- 

Marshall was the best advertised town west of Detroit. Resourceful 
and resolute men of means were staking their fortunes here and the 
evidence of their faith and enterprise were everywhere visible. Brainy 
and educated young men saw here a promising future. Cultured and 
refined women gave an unwonted social atmosphere to a place so new 
and so remote from the centers of civilization. Speculators, trafficking 
in promises and predictions never to be fulfilled, boomed the place 
beyond any possibility of realization. Marshall was, on paper, made 
the head of navigation on the Kalamazoo. Lithographs were sent broad 
cast, portraying steamboats moored at her wharves or arriving and de- 
parting laden with cargoes and passengers. There was a general belief, 
and with very good ground for it, that when the capitol was removed 
from Detroit, as it was sure to be at no distant day, Marshall was the 
heir apparent. It was located by the enterprising and visionary specu- 
lators long before the members of the legislature had taken final action. 
"Capitol Hill" was plotted and the lots thereabout sold at fabulous 
prices, when it is recalled that but a short time before land was bought 
in the same locality at one dollar and a half per acre. 

A college was projected ; a Board of Trustees chosen ; money so- 
licited locally and in the Bast; a building erected and furnished; a fa- 
culty selected and the school opened and classes instructed, and ]\Iar- 
shal'l would probably today be an important seat of learning had not 
the institution in its infancy been killed in the house of its supposed 

Manufacturing interests of various kinds located at IMarshall in an 
early day, using the valuable water-power whenever it could be done to 
advantage. Aside from the saw mill put up in the summer of 1831 by 
ilr. George Ketchum, and the grist mill erected by the same gentleman 
in 1832, there was started in 1833, by II. W. Pendleton, a plant for the 
iiianufaeturc of furniture, chairs and Cabinet work. In 1835, F. A. 
Kiii!:sl)ury succeeded to this line and did an extensive business. A 
riaxsrrd oil mill, the first of the kind in the State, was built in 183.5 at 
a cost, witli its ec|nipment, of six thousand dollars. In 1836, Charles 
and W, C, Dickey began the manufacture of fanning mills and carried 
on the business for many years. In the same year, Lansing Kingsbury 
and Josiah Lepper built, at Marshall, the first foundry in Calhoun 
County. In 1839 Nathan Church began the manufacture of sash doors 
and blinds. Some ten years later he greatly enlarged the plant, using 
steam power. A factory for wool carding and cloth dressing was among 
the early enterprises. There were two foundries for the making of 
stoves, mill gearing and hollow jjlows. Threshing machines were made 


in ilai-shall at an early date. Among those engaged in this line of 
business was Mr. John Nichols, one of the founders of the well known 
Nichols and Sheperd concern at Battle Creek. As early as 1840, the 
manufacture of wnaons was extensively carried on liy Holland, Adams 
and Rymes 


in Marshall kept pace with, if they did not lead in, the general ad- 
vancement of the town and county. In the spring of 1833 the "Ex- 
change Hotel", a two story frame building which stood upon the corner 
of State Street and ilarshall House Square, took the place of the 
double log house which had previously served as a public hostelry. In 
1833, the National House was built, the first brick structure erected in 
the county, and opened on January 1, 1836. The opening by mine 
host, Andrew Mann was long remembered as, up to that time, the most 
pretentious social event in the history of the County. This was in the 
days of rivalry between "Upper" and "Lower" town, as the two 
sections of the village were designated. Not to be outdone by "Lower" 
town, the ^Marshall House Company, under the lead of Sidney Ketchum, 
built the ]\Iarshall House in 1838. The house cost thirt.y thousand 
dollars. It was elaborately finished and finely equipped. At the time 
it was opened, it is said to have surpassed any hotel in the State and, 
indeed, in the whole northwest. It was for many years a noted resort 
by the traveling public. It was rather an inspiring sight, before the 
days of railroads, to see the coach with six foaming steeds, advancing 
on the canter under the crack of the driver's whip, dash up to its 
portals and discharge its heavy load of passengers. In the days when 
pai ly feeling ran high, when the fires were unconsciously being kindled 
that in later years tlaiiied up in civil war, the ilarshall House was head- 
quarters for ^Vhigs from all parts of the State and the National served 
the Democrats for a like purpose. Tliey were also the rallying points 
for the rival east and west end factions, as long as that feeling of rivahy 
survived. Churches and private residences were built that were not 
surpassed, if equaled, between Detroit and Chicago. 

It is not surprising that a town of such promise in a new and growing 
State and on one of the main lines of travel to the developing west, should 
arrest and hold more than its full share of enterprising spirits of all 
professions and lines of business, and that the place, all things con- 
sidered, should have a phenomenal growth. In tiie summer of 1837. only 
six yeara after the first rude shack wiis put up at the conHuenee of Hiee 
Creek and the Kalamazoo, tiiere were in the village of -Marshall "two 
printing offices, seven lawyers, seven physicians, four clergymen, two 
surveyors and civil engineers, three churches, viz., a ilethodist Epis- 
copal, an Episcopal and a Presbyterian, three hotels, seven dry goods 
stores, four grocery and provision stores, one drug store, two bakeries, 
two watch and jewelry shops, one chair factory, one fanning mill 
factory, one cabinet factory, one tin and cooper shop, one furnace, four 
blacksmiths, two wagon and eaiwiage factories, two tailors, one inillineiy, 
two shoemaker shops, one livery stable, one flouring mill and one saw 


mill aud two more of each kind erecting." The inhabitants of jMarshall 
at this time numbered about twelve hundred. 

The First County Court House 

It is not surprising that a county growing so fast in wealth and po- 
pulation should feel the need of a Court House and jail. Accordingly, 
"At the first session of the State Legislature, convened in the winter 
of 1836-37, an act was passed authorizing the Board of Supervisors to 
borrow twelve thousand dollars with which to put up county buildings. ' ' 
Previous to this, the Courts were held in the school house or at any of the 
hotels. The Board of Supervisors at their annual meeting in October, 
1836 voted to erect county buildings and instructed their clerks to 
ascertain what terms could be had for a loan of the authorized amount. 
In January, 1837, the Board met again and the clerk reported no loan 
could be had, as the county was restricted by the act of the Legislature ; 
whereupon the supervisoi's petitioned the assembly to extend their 
powers and allow them to negotiate the loan upon such terms and rate 
of interest as the Board should deem advisable. In March, the super- 
visors applied to the Superintendent of Public Instruction for the loan, 
and S. S. Alcott was appointed superintendent of the construction of 
the county buildings and given full power to contract for material 
and labor and adopt a plan in outline for the building as presented by 
Supervisor Wright. The loan, however, was not effected until July, 
when it was obtained of the Superintendent of Public Instraction and 
Henry J. Phelps, Moses Hall and Chaiies Olin appointed a building 
committee. Another draft of the proposed building was adopted and 
the bar and the bench invited to appear before the Board and make 
suggestions as to any alterations deemed desirable. The loan was se- 
cured at seven per cent. The l)uilding was to be constructed of Marshal] 
sandstone for the foundation and of brick for the superstructure. 

The corner-stone was laid on the 22nd day of July, 1837. The address 
attending the ceremonies of the corner-stone laying was delivered by 
^Ir. S. H. Preston. We subjoin herewith a brief extract in which he 
said: "The rapid progress which Calhoun County has made in popu- 
lation, in cultivating the soil, in improving its extensive water power, in 
affording encouragement to the mercantile and mechanical interests, 
in fosterinc' religion and learning by establishing churches and schools, 
is ti'uly flattering to the enterprise of the first settlers of the county. 
To till' mind of the stranger, when he takes into consideration its recent 
settlement, it nuist afford pei'fect astonishment." 

The building was ready for occupancy in 1838, but instead of twelve 
tliousand as was originally intended, it cost between twenty-five and 
thirty thousand dollars. 

The county having secured a new and comparatively expensive Court 
House, it proved not so easy to get a jail and sheriff's house. In Homer, 
the sentiment was so strong against it, that at a public meeting called, 
pursuant to notice, to consider the propriety of remonstrating against 
the project of building a jail aud jailor's house for the county, the 
following resolutions were passed as the judgment of the meeting: 


"Resolvi'd: That, wiicreas the County of L'iilluniii having raist-d a 
large sum of money for building a Court House, and having partly 
finished cells for criminals, it would be unjust to lay further burdens 
on the inhabitants, at this time, for building a .iail and jailor's house. 

'■Resolved; That it is the opinion of this meeting tiiat the true policy 
would be to finish the cells already conuiieuced for criminals anil if 
necessary a room for debtors and not let them out for any other purposes. 

'■Resolved; That while we recognize the doctrine that the inajmity 
should govern, we also claim the i)rivilege of being iicai'd wln'u our in- 
terest or the interest of the County is at issue. 

■■Resolved; That ilessrs. Thornton, Dorsey, Smith and Stevens be 
a committee to learn the amount of taxes assessed for County 
in the years 1837 and 1S:}S and the amount of money loaned to the 
County, also the cost of the court house and report these facts at a 
future meeting." The above proceedings were published on January 
16, 1839. 

^laishall. alive to what it conceived to be the interest and welfare 
of the City and County, was proclaiming the importance of building 
a jail and a jailor's house, and at an adjourned meeting of its citizens 
at the National Hotel, with Philo Dibble in the chair and Sidney S. 
Alcott acting as Secretary, adopted the following action : 

■■Resolved; As the sense of this meeting, that a good, permanent and 
secure County jail is an indispensable auxiliary to the Courts of Justice 
and that witliout it one of our most valuable and cherished rights and 
privileges as citizens of a free government is lamentably depreciated. 

■■Resolved; That we discard the oi)inions of those who think it more 
economical to pay taxes to thieves, house breakers and conterfeitei-s, 
than to lawfully constituted collectors of the assessments, which have 
the common protection and safety of the community for their object. 

'■Resolved; That we deem it the duty of the County Commissioners 
to proceed forthwith to mature a plan for such jail and to take the neces- 
sary steps to raise the funds for building one the approaching season, 
and proceed to put the same under contract to be completed as .soon as 
may be." 

The last of the above set of resolutions was published January 18, 
1839. The outcome of the agitation for and against was, that provision 
was made to care for prisonei's in the basement of the Court House, 
which for many years served as a jail. This jail was built of squared tim- 
ber, put up inside of one of the rooms in the basement. During the 
term of the late Colonel Charles W. Dickey as Sheriff, there was a general 
escape of the prisoners, nine in number. They managed, by heating 
the iron at a stove that stood in the corridor, to burn through the logs 
and burn off the lock-fastenings. They also burned out the staples 
in an oak log to which one of their number was confined. 

A New Court House Needed 

The foundations of the old Court House proved too weak \i> sii]ipoit 
the walls. The structure became very- defective and unsightly. It was 
furthermore regarded' as unsafe. On the 24th <lay of October. ^^~^2, 


the Board of Supervisors adopted a resolution submitting to tlie people 
the question of building a new Court House to cost $50,000.00. The 
question was passed upon by the people at the spring election in 1873. 
The total number of ballots cast was 5,311, of which a majoritj' of 475 
was in favor of the proposition. On the second day of May, Robert 
Huston, A. E. Preston and S. J. Burpee were appointed a committee 
on plans and specifications, and on the first day of July, plans were 
presented by E. E. Myers, an architect of Detroit. These plans were 
adopted and a building committee consisting of Supervisors Huston, 
Preston, Loomis, Hutchinson, Cook and Graves was appointed. 

The building was completed in 1875 and cost, ready for occupancy 
with furnaces, furniture, carpets, superintendence and labor of building 
committee, the sum of fifty-four thousand six hundred and eighty-eight 
dollars and twenty-five cents. The building is still an ornament to the 
City of Marshall and a credit to the county. The outside basement 
walls are built of boulder stone, from the concrete bottom of the grade 
line; above the grade line and between the base course and the water, 
Marshall sandstone ; all other cut stone is of Ohio sandstone. The out- 
side face walls are all pressed brick. The building is rectangular in form 
with pro,iections on the north, front and rear and has a total area of 
about forty-five hundred square feet. The corners, antes, window caps 
and sills are of cut stone and the whole surmounted by a neat cupola. 
The building is finished in ash, butternut and black walnut. The Court- 
room occupies the upper floor with the necessary rooms for consultation 
purposes. Fireproof vaults are provided for the County Clerk, Register, 
Treasurer and Probate Judge in their respective otifices. 

A New Jail 

The second jail was a brick structure, separate and apart from the 
Court House, with accommodations for the sheriff's family in the lower 
and for about thirty prisoners in the upper part. It was located very 
near where the present jail now stands. 

The jail in use at this time was built in 1869. It is constructed of 
brick, stone and steel. Besides providing quarters for all the prisoners, 
it furnishes a good home for the sheriff and his family. The cage room 
is 50 by 53 feet with six cells. Each cell is designed to care for six men. 

In 1901 an addition was built on to the strui-fure. This addition 
furnishes an office for the sheriff, and a plaec for Circuif Cniiit piisDuers 
serving time. This has a capacity for twenly-two. There is provided a 
padded cell for the insane which is localiMJ just nlf from the office. 
There are also two cells for women, occupying a (lilCciciit part of the 
building and removed from close proximity fd tlir iikMc prisoners. 

The total nuiiilnT ol' pi-isoners received for the year ending June 30, 
.1911, was 665. Whili- Calhuun County ranks seventh in population, in 
the number of prisdiicrs I'cci'ived during the year named it is eleventh. 
Of the 665 prisoners there wciv Imi iinu. males and one female under 
eighteen years of age. In the iniinli. r of prisoners charged with high 
crimes and misdemeanors flu' counly ranks tenth. While in the number 
of prisoners the county is eleventh, in the total cost for board, clothing. 


medical atteiulaiu-t', IraveliLig exijcnscs iiu-ui'i-i'd in iuvestigatinf:^ and 
taking j>risoners to jail and in taking prisoners to penal and rel'orniatory 
institutions it ranks twenty-seeond ; the total expense for the entire year 
being but $5,260.00 Food is furnished the prisoners by the sheriff at 
a stipulated price per meal. This [iriee, in this year, li)12 aggregates 
but .$2.61 per week per prisoner, being among tiie very lowest among the 
counties of the state. 

The Calhocn Coknty Home 

On the 20th day of Decendier, 1849, the Board of .Supervisors bought 
13-t acres of land two miles northeast of ilarshall for a county poor 
farm, paying for the same two thousand dollars. At that time the dis- 
tinction between township and county poor was abolished and all the 
inmates were made a county charge. The home was openetl on Sep- 
tember 20, 1850, when seventeen inmates were admitted. The original 
building was a frame structure and was put up in 1850-51. Additions 
were made from time to time as the necessities required. The main 
building was heated by hot air furnaces. In the earlier years not only 
the poor but the insane, the feeble minded and the homeless and neg- 
lected children were cared for here. Gradually the state has provided 
for all but the first named class in institutions specially adapted to 
their care. But the Board of Supervisors makes an annual appropria- 
tion for the support to the county's indigent insane in some one of the 
state hospitals and also for support of the criminal insane in the state 
hospital at Ionia. 

In 1890 a brick Imilding was jiut up. costing $10,000.00. In 1904 a 
new county home was built of brick at a cost of $25,000.00. This 
building is steam heateii, and is lighted by electricity. A beautiful 
maple grove stands a little way in front of the home, while between it 
and the main building is a well kept lawn with tiowers and shrubbery, 
giving a homelike air to the exterior, while within the inmates are made 
as comfortable as possible. Generally speaking, the beneficiaries of the 
home are elderly people of whom about two-thirds are men and one- 
third women. There are in tiie home a few young men and women who 
are mentally deficient. 

The Superintendents of tlie Poor in their repoit for tile fiscal year 
ending June 30. 1911, say that the Board of Supervisors made an appro- 
priation of $18,000.00 for the support of the poor, $3,000.00 for the 
support of the insane, and two hundred dollars for support of the 
criminal insane. Out of the $18,000.00 for the support of the coun- 
ty's poor, $8,283.00 was disbursed to the cities and townships. Out 
of the latter sum the only townships in the county that did not draw any 
aid from the poor fund were Battle Creek and Clai-ence. Fredonia town- 
ship drew but six dollars and Sheridan township but six dollars and fifty 

The coiinty farm will average fairly well with the general run of 
farms in the county. It is stocked with horses, cows, hogs and poultry. 
Last year, 1911. the farm raised 550 bushels of potatoes and 15 tons of 
hay. The procei-ds of sales fi-om the farm for the year aiiioiiiiti'd lo 


$616.69. The men in charge of this responsible trust are known as 
the Superintendents of the Poor. At this time they are: Henry A. 
Whitney; Prank Laberteaux, Albion; David Walkinshaw, Marshall. 

County Officers 

The Calhoun county officers in 1912 are as follows: Circuit Judge, 
Walter H. North; Judge of Probate, William H. Porter; Sheriff, La 
Verne Fonda; County Clerk, Ray E. Hart; Register of Deeds, C. Howard 
Daskam; County Treasurer, George S. Barnes; Prosecuting Attorney, 
Robert Kirschman ; Assistant Prosecuting Attorney, Edward R. Loud ; 
Circuit Court Stenographer, Roy E. Eldred ; County School Commis- 
sioner, Frank D. Miller; Drain Commissioner, L. C. Williams; Circuit 
Court Commissioners, A. N. Ford, Battle Creek, Charles 0. Miller, 



Marshall IMen and JIeasures in State and National History (by 
John C. Patterson) — Battle Creek as a Station on the Under- 
GROL'ND Railway (by Charles E. Barnes) — The Underground 
Railroad (by Burritt Hamilton) — Calhoun County Agriculture 
(by J. H. Brown) — Roads and the Improvement of Roads. 

Marsilvll JIen and ^Marshall Measures in State and National 
History *i 

By John ('. Paftcrson 

P^ineison has said, "An institution is the lengthened shadow of one 
man." It can with equal propriety be said that a beneticent achieve- 
ment and a progressive reform are the lengthened shadow of some effi- 
cient leader seemingly raised up for the purpose, whose influence on 
mankind is beyond measure. Marshall has had several, such leaders, 
men who have formulated measures, perfected governmental policies and 
have set in motion political forces which have brought forth results 
and have produced consequences of far-reaching magnitude. While as 
citizens of ilarshall, we cherish a local pride in claiming them as pioneer 
citizens of our city, we cannot claim them as all our own, for their work, 
infiuence and achievements were not confined to our city, county or 

*Note iy the Editor: — The above article will well repay a oareful reading by 
every would-be well-informed citizen of the county and of the state. It treats not 
only of a number of the county's most prominent citizens of a former generation; 
of measures which in their influence, reaching far beyond the limits of the county 
and of the state have become nation wide in extent and permanent in character. 
The article was originally prepared for the historical collection of the Michigan 
Pioneer Society. 

The author, the Hon. John C. Patterson, recently deceased, was a native of Cal- 
houn county, having been born in the township of Eckford in the year 1838. Ho 
graduated from Hillsdale College in 1864, receiving the degree of A. B. in curvu.. 
and in 1867 from the law department of Union University. N. Y. His professional 
life was spent in the city of Marshall. As a lawyer, he took high rank among the 
attorneys of the county. He was long a member of the Board of Trustees of his 
Alma Mater and for two terms was a member of the State Senate. Mr. Patterson 
was a man of high pei'sonal character and greatly esteemed by his fellow-citizena 
of the county. It is said that the preparation of the above article occupied his 
leisure time for more than two years. 

1 Delivered at midwinter meeting, .Jan. 13, 1900. 



State, but have been rendered, exercised and felt over the United States, 
and in fact over the whole world. This city, this State, this nation and 
the world at large are under lasting obligations to Isaac E. Crary,^ the 
founder of the public school system of ^Michigan, to John D. Pierce,^ 
the organizer of the said public school system and the father of the Home- 
stead Exemption Law of I\lichigan, and to Charles T. Gorham, Oliver 
C. Comstock, Jr., Asa B. Cook, Jarvis Hurd, John M. Easterly, George 
Ingersoll, Herman Camp, Randal Hobart, Platner iloss, William Parker, 

Hon. John C. Patterson 

Charles Berger, James Smith, Hovey K. Clarke, Erastus Hussey and 
other citizens of Marshall, in arousing sentiments, directing influences, 
and in starting forces into action which eventually overthrew American 
slavery. It is not to be forgotten that many other workers were labor- 
ing for the same end, and for years had been preparing the way ; but the 
acts, counsel and influences of these Marshall m*en can be traced directly 
in a continuous course and by a connected chain of events into measures, 
and organization which eliminated African slavery from our land. It 
is the purpose of this paper to trace the little leaven while it was leaven- 
ing the whole lump, and to follow its influences and acts to final results. 

2^ee sketch, Vol. XIV, p. 282, this series. 

3 See sketch, Vol. XXXV, p. 29.5, this series and Bingham Biographies, .582. 


Isaac E. Craky, 
The Founder of the Public School System ol' .Michi<;aii 

Isaac E. Crary was au influential nieiuber of the constitutional con- 
vention of 1835 which formulated our first state constitution. As chair- 
man of the Committee of Education, he drew up, reported and secured 
the adoption of the article on education in that instrument which, for 
the first time in American history, provided for the separate department 
of public instruction in the state government, with a constitutional officer 
at its head and which, for the first time in our history, provided that the 
title of section sixteen in each township, reserved in the ordinance of 
1785 and consecrated by the ordinance of 1787 for the primary schools, 
should be vested in the State as trustee for the perpetual support of the 
common schools throughout the State, and which also, for the first time 
provided that the title to the university lands should be vested in the 
State as trustee, and that the income therefrom should become an endow- 
ment fund for the maintenance of the state university. These provisions 
not only applied to the lands already granted but to all lands which 
should afterwards be granted to the State. 

In this article on education, which in the final arrangement became 
Article X of the constitution of 1835, conceived, formulated and reported 
by Isaac E. Crary, the separate department of education with an execu- 
tive officer at its head, was established, the broad scope of public instruc- 
tion was provided for, and the financial foundation of our public school 
system was secured. This article is now and always has been the Magna 
Charta of our public schools.* Few persons have any adequate concep- 
tion of the broad scope and far-reaching influence of this article. 

Isaac E. Crary was the founder of the public school system of Michi- 
gan. This proposition is not in accord with the popular opinion and is 
in conflict with much that has been published, and the original documents 
must be appealed to in order to determine his real historic status. On 
the fourth daj' of April, 1835, Isaac E. Crary was elected a delegate from 
Calhoun county to the constitutional convention to convene on the 11th 
of Ma.y following. On the 13th of May, Mr. Crary in convention moved 
a standing committee on education.'' On the 14th of ^lay, Mr. Crary 
was appointed chairman of such committee." On the second day of June 
he reported the article on education" and on the fifth day of June the 
said article without material change was adopted by the convention.* 
On the 23d day of June, Mr. Crary was appointed a member of the com- 
mittee on the ordinance submitting the said constitution to Congress,^ 
and on the 24th day of June, the said ordinance was reported and 

•» Keport of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1880, pp. 297, 31.5; History of 
the University of Michigan, Hinsdale and Demmon, pp. 17, 18. 

5 Journal of Constitutional Convention of 183.5, p. 18. 

6 Journal of Constitutional Convention of 1835, p. 26. 
' Journal of Constitutional Convention of 1835. p. 88. 

8 Journal of Constitutional Convention of 1835, pp. 120-126. 

9 Journal of Constitutional Convention of 1835. p. 218. 


adopted by the convention. This ordinance, recognizing the then exist- 
ing policy of vesting the title of the school lands in the township, pro- 
posed a new policy and required that the title of the school lands be 
vested in the State as trustee for the support of the schools throughout 
the State as one of the conditions for admission into the Union. This 
proposed tenure of primary school lands would change the uniform 
practice of the federal government during its entire existence, and this 
provision was inserted in such ordinance by Mr. Crary to secure a change 
of such policy and to vest the educational lands in the State by con- 
gressional enactment as provided for in said Article X of the constitu- 

The constitution and accompanying ordinance^" were formulated and 
adopted by the convention in May and June, 1835, and three thousand 
copies were immediately published and distributed broadcast throughout 
the Territory. Thus these three new measures which have since revolu- 
tionized public school matters in this country were published to the 
world in the summer of 1835." This constitution was ratified by the 
people of the Territory on the first Monday of October, 1835, and at the 
same election IMr. Crary was elected a member of Congress. He went 
to Washington at the opening of the following session of Congress relying 
on the constitution as the foundation for his credentials, biit in conse- 
quence of the boundary controversy, he was not seated for over fifteen 
months thereafter. The said constitution and accompanying ordinance 
were submitted to Congress by the President on the ninth of December, 
1835.^- On the fifteenth day of June, 1836, Congress "accepted, rati- 
fied, and confirmed" tlie said constitution and thereby adopted Mr. 
Crary 's system of land tenure, but it took no action on the accompany- 
ing ordinance.'^ In the supplemental act of June 23, 1836, Congress 
rejected said ordinance as a whole, but it made a counter proposition 
to Michigan which contained Mr. Crary 's system of vesting the title of 
educational lands. '■' 

IMr. Crary, though not given his seat in Congress, was in Washington 
guarding and guiding this new measure. While working with the com- 
mittee, having charge of the legislation of Michigan's admission to the 
Union, fortunately the work of drawing up the ordinances of June 15th, 
and of June 23rd, 1836, were assigned to Mr. Crary. He discreetly 
drew the said ordinance of June 15th so as to obtain the assent of 
Congress to the provisions of said Article X of the constitution, and 
on the rejection of said ordinance he carefully drew the counter propo- 
sition to Michigan in the act of June 23rd so as to again secure the same 
result. ^^' Mr. Crary 's influence is apparent upon the face of these meas- 

i» Journal of Constitutional Convention of 1835, pp. 219-220; Public Instruction 
and School Laws of 1852, p. 17. 

11 Journal of Constitutional Convention of 1835, p. 221. 

12 The Old Northwest, Hinsdale, p. 330. 

13 U. S. Laws, 1835-1859, p. 337; 1 Brightly 's Digest of the U. S. Laws, 1789 to 
1859, p. 614; 5 U. S. Statutes at Large 49. 

14 9 U. S. Laws, 1793 to 1859, p. 397; 1 Brightly 's Digest of U. S. Laws, 1789 to 
1859, p. 615; 5 U. S. Statutes at Large 59; Mich. Pioneer and Historical Colls., Vol. 

vir, p. 21. 

15 Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, Vol. I, p. 40 ; Cooley 's History 
of Michigan, p. 320. 


HITS. Fortuiiiitc iinlecd, wiis it Toi- .Mirhigan iuul for the cause of i)ul>liL' 
instriK-tiou, that ^Ir. C'rary was iu Wasliiugtoii and secured l)y eougres- 
sional compaet his great uieasures embodied in the article on education 
in the constitution of 1835. This counter proposition of C'ongress to 
Michigan, containing the said ordinance of June 23rd, so far as the 
tenure of educational lands was concerned, was accepted by the legisla- 
ture of :Miehigan, July 28th, 1836.'" In this manner, the titles to the 
primary school lands and seminary lands were secured and forever 
vested in the State as trustee for the maintenance of sucrh schools and 
university, by constitutional enactment and by congressional and legis- 
lative compact long before January 2(ith, 1S37, when Michigan was 
formally admitted into the Union. 

Mr. Crary's policy of vesting the title of the primary scIkkjI lands in 
the State, as trustee for the people of the State at large, changed the 
policy of vesting the title of such school lands in the several townships 
to aid the schools therein, which had for fifty years lieen uniformly 
followed by the fedtTMl ^ovciiiuient. The ordinance of 1785 for the first 
time reserved schoul himls fdi- jiublic purposes, reserving section sixteen 
in each township "lnr tlic niaiiitenance of the public schools within such 
township." In Ohio antl Indiana, the primary school lands in each 
township had been "granted to the inhabitants of such townships 
for the use of schools."" 

Such lands in Illinois had been "granted to the inhabitants of such 
townships for the use of schools. "'* 

The school lands of ^Michigan were excepted from sale by the act of 
March 2(3th, 1804, as "section sixteen shall be reserved in each township 
for the support of schools within the same."'" 

]Mr. Grary clearly realized the weakness and dangers of the federal 
policy. He was also familiar with the barren and disastrous results of 
that policy in the other states previously organized out of the Northwest 
Territory.-" He conceived, formulated and secured the adoption of a 
polic}' which avoided the weakness and dangers of the old S3'stem and 
secured the inestinuible benefits of the new. Time and experience have 
demonstrated the wisdom of the Crary or the Michigan policy — it has 
been accepted and followed by the federal government, and by all the 
states receiving primary school lands, which have since been admitted 
to the Union.-' 

Congress adopted this system of land tenure in its magnificent grant 
for agricultural colleges. July 2. 1862, vested the title in such lands in 
the several states as trustees, and re(iuired that the proceeds thereof be 
perpetually reserved as an endowment fund and that the interest thereof 
should forever be used for the "endowment, support and maintenance" 
of such schools.^- 

16 Laws of Michigan for 1836, pp. 39, 49. 

IT 2 U. S. Statutes at Large, 173, and 3 U. S. Statutes at La 

IS 3 U. S. Statutes at Large, 428. 

19XJ. S. Laws, 1789-1818, p. 598. 

20 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1880, 

21 Mich. Semi-Ontennial Address, Sill. pp. 199, 20(1. 

22 12 V. S. Statutes at Large. .103; 2 Brightlv's Digest of V 


Thus Isaac E. Crary though dead, rendered invaluable services in 
securing the endowment for the Michigan Agricultural College. Mr. 
Crary 's great measure, for the first time set down in Section 1 of Article 
X of the Constitution of 183.5, providing for au independent department 
of public instruction with a constitutional officer in the State govern- 
ment, has been copied by nearly all the states, and the Federal Bureau 
of Education is an outgrowth of this measure. Mr. Crary 's wise states- 
manship not only secured aud provided for our magnificent school funds, 
but being followed by other states, it has been the approximate cause of 
securing the magnificent school funds in those states adopting his system. 
The seminary or university lands in Ohio were conveyed directly to the 
universities or companies, receiving such lands for the purposes of the 
universities and the title was never vested in the State. Such lands 
in Indiana and Illinois were respectively "vested in the legislature of 
said State to be appropriated solely to the use of such seminary by said 
legislature."--' One township of our university land was excepted from 
sale by said act of March 26, 1804, as a township ' ' for the use of a semi- 
nary of learning." 

It will be observed that in these states, the seminary and university 
lands and the proceeds thereof were placed in a general fund, available 
for any seminary or university purpose whatever in the discretion of 
the legislature. Mr. Crary secured a radical change in the nature of these 
funds. Section 3 of Article X of the constitution of 1835 provided that 
the proceeds from such lands "shall be and remain a permanent fund 
for the purpose of said university. ' ' The ordinance of the constitutional 
convention setting forth the conditions upon which the Territory was 
willing to be admitted into the Union provided that the university lands 
should be conveyed to the State and "shall be appropriated solely for 
the use and support of such university in the manner as the legislature 
may prescribe," and the congressional ordinance of June 23rd, 1826, in 
the counter proposition to Michigan used the language above quoted. 
These words were written by Isaac E. Crary and were crystallized into 
constitutional enactment and congressional compact by the magic of his 
genius. These words converted the general funds under the Indiana and 
Illinois policy into a specific and perpetual endowment fund for the 
Michigan university. 

This endowment fund sustained the university for thirty years of its 
most critical history, and enabled it to make a name, and to acquire a 
fame as a great educational institution, which attracted to it and over- 
whelmed it with students and compelled the legislature to, come to its 
relief and provide means to accommodate the ever increasing hosts of 
students from all over the world, knocking at its doors for admission. 
Jlichigan university thus founded and endowed, to-day not only stands 
in flic fii-st rank of such institutions, but is the acknowledged model of 
all the tloiii-isliing state universities in the west. 

It must not be forgotten that Mr. Crary completed his great work for 
education in the constitutional convention and Congress prior to June 

at Large 220, 428; 1 Brightly 's Digest of Laws of 1815-1819, 



2(itli, lS3(i. Where was John 1). Pi.'iee. the alleged louiuler vi the j)ul)lie 
school system, during the time tliat ^Ir. Crary was doing this work? 
He was an ohseure missionary in the wilds of JMichigau, unknown out- 
side the little hamlet where he resided and hy a few scattering pioneers 
in the vicinity, who were fortunate enough to receive liis ministrations. 

Mr. Crary gave to Michigan three measures which have produced 
our magnificent school system, viz-. 

First — He created a centralized department of public instruction with 
a constitutional officer at its head in the state government. 

::>'rc<>nd — He vested the entire primary school funds in the State to be 
held by the State as trustee and re(iuircd the income thereof to be appor- 
tioned for "the support of schools throughout the State" forever. 

Third — He converted a general fund, available for any university pur- 
pose into a specific endowment fund for Michigan university, and vested 
the title of .such funds in the State as sole trustee and required the in- 
come thereof to be perpetually used for the maintenance of said univer- 
sity. Mr. Crary grasped the prin(>iple that centralization was essential 
for prompt and effectual power, and he incorporated that principle into 
his measures for educational supervision, tenure of educational lands 
and administration of educational funds. While the department of edu- 
cation was borrowed from the centralized Prussian system, ^Ir. Crary 
adapted it to a republican form of local self-government. In the tenure 
of educational lands, he rejected the assumption that the township was 
the unit of all government, and that the township meeting was the source 
of all political power, which up to his time, had molded the federal 
policy ; and he made the State sovereign over the public schools and of 
educational funds. Truly ilr. Crary po.s.sessed the understanding to 
conceive, the wisdom to direct and the hand to execute the essential 
elements of successful statesmanship. 

The work and statcsiiiMnshi|i of Isaac E. Ciary have thus far been con- 
sidered in his legislative ca])acit\-. as a iiu-mlicr of the constitutional con- 
vention of 1835 and as an unseated member of the first session of the 
Twenty-fourth Congress, but his subse<|uent laboi's and achievements in 
executive statesmanship were no less bi-illiant and far-reaching in in- 

Having created the office of snperintendeut of juiblic instruction, as. 
a further service to the cause of education. .Mr. ('iai\- sought a fit man. 
to fill that office, and from the great uuiss of the unknown, he selected 
Reverend John 1). Pierce and secured his appointment as such officer to 
execute the great educational work he iiad laid out and began. Mr. 
Crary not only created the office i)ut he also created the officer, and 
thereby made the great achievement of John D. Pierce a possi])ility. 
Undoubtedly had it not been for his acquaintance with Mr. Ci-ary. Jolin 
D. Pierce would never have been known as an educator. .Michigan and 
the world are indebted to the influence and sagacity of Isaac E. Crary 
for the great achievements of John D. Pierce in the educational domain. 

Mr. Crarj- was a member of the first board of regents of the state 
uuiversity and served from 1837 to 1844. He helped locate, organize, 
open and govern the university during its early struggle for existence, 
lie was the only man on the oi-iginal board of i-egents who had made 


schools and colleges a special studyr"* and he rendered invaluable serv- 
ices in preparing the curriciilnm of study and providing for the teach- 
ing department.--^ He was a cd-lahoivi- with Mr. Pierce for four years 
in establishing and building up tlii^ institution, and as a regent, he 
labored for the university for years after .Mr. Pierce had retired from 

In 1842, Mr. Crary was a member of the state house of representatives 
and as the chairman of the committee on education, he prepared and 
made a report which being adopted by the li'gisiatuiv pi-dtcctcd the uni- 
versity funds and retained the supiT\isi(in of the ilep:ii'1nient of public 
instruction over the institution and saved it from thieateuiug danger. 
Mr. Crary was also a member and speaker of the same house in 1846, and 
here again he labored to build up, and to perfect the public school sys- 
tem of the State. 

The ]\Iarshall Union School was one of the first graded schools organ- 
ized in the State. Isaac E. Crary as a leading member of the old, and 
as the most influential member of tlit new, school board, rendered serv- 
ices which few men could render in organizing, opening, and putting 
that school in successful operation and in developing the union school 
system. He was one of tlie ajrcat leaders in the evolution of the present 
d;i.\' liiii'i school system, out of ilie pi'imary, graded and union schools of 
his time, wiiieh now at ])nblie I'Xpense. performs the work of the old 
time private teacher, acailcmy, seminary and branches of the university. 

ilr. Crary was a leading member, president pro-tern and chairman of 
the connnittee on judiciary department in the constitutional convention 
of 185(1. Here again his wisdom and influence were felt in expanding 
and perfecting the great school system which he had established in 
Article X of the constitution of 1885. John D. Pierce was also a lead- 
ing member of this convention and here the two great apostles of pub- 
lic instruction of Michigan were alile to provide for their long cherished 
free school system, which was unattainable at an earlier date. Isaac 
E. Crary, as we have seen helped to fornnilate the only two constitu- 
tions this State ever had. and he left the impress of his influence upon 
both instruments. 

Mr. Crary was a member of the state board of education from 1850 
to the time of his death. May Sth, 1854. His connnanding intiueuce as 
leader and executive officer was felt in the organization, opening and 
putting of our first normal school at Ypsilanti. It will be remembered 
that at that time, normal schools were somewhat unusual, that this 
was the first scliool of the kind established in the west and that many 
questions came up for solution. 

While the separate department of public instruction was borrowed 
from the Prussian system, the tenure of educational lands from the 
constitution of New York, -^' and the mode of administering public school 
funds from the constitution of Connecticut."^ Mr. Crary combined these 
wise measures and founded a composite public school system in JMich- 

21 History of tlie University of Micliigan, Hinsdale and Demmon, ]i. 30. 
=5 History of Higlier Edueation in Michigan, MoLaugliliu. p. 39. 

26 New York Constitntion of 1821, Section 1 of Article VII. 

27 Connectient ('nnstifiitii)ii c.f ISIS. Article VI tl. 


itriiii. «iii,-li lias never luvn ,.x,.ell,Ml aii.l whieli lias siiire lu'cii iiiiiwrsally 
adopted and will ho followed as a preeedeiit Tor eeiituries to eoiiie. 

The original doc-uiiR'nts show that IMr. Crary formulated the legisla- 
tion and founded the puhlie school system of ]\Iichigan, that he was the 
leading organizer of our high seliool and normal school system, and that 
he was the most eompeteut and influential regent in organizing the 
university, and yet, how many of his uneounted beneficiaries give him 
credit for his great public services? Has not the distinction due liim 
been awarded to another? 

Why has John D. Pierce in reeent years been so generally called the 
■■■ouuder of the public school system of .Michigan? This honor does not ap- 
pear to have been awarded him during the lifetime of ^Ir. Crary. An 
able article appeared in the Di'iifcratic Renew of July 1838, upon the 
public school system of Michigan, citing Hon. Lucius Lyon,-'* a member 
of the constitutional convention of 1833 and the United States Senator 
from ilichigan a.s authority. That writer gave a complete outline of the 
system and praised Mr. Pierce for his work in organizing the schools 
under such a system, but he did not give to him the position of founder of 
such system.2'' The reserved and reticent Isaac E. Crary, so far as I 
have been able to find, has left no written account of his great life- 
work. John D. Pierce, long after ]\Ir. Crary 's death, published his ver- 
sion of their joint and several labors. It is usual for autobiographers 
to make their subjects prominent. While with justifiable egotism Mv. 
Pierce expressed an honest pride in his part of tlie work, he did not, 
however, claim to be the founder of the school system of Michigan, and 
his paper clearly established the fact that Mr. Crary was the founder. 
;\Ir. Pierce gave Mr. Crary equal credit with himself, as a private citizen, 
in approving the Prussian system of an independent department of pub- 
lic instruction in the state government, and also approving the mode 
of vesting the title of the primary school and university lands in the 
State as trustees for such schools and university.^" 'Sir. Pierce gave ;\Ir. 
Crary the exclusive credit as a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion, of drawing, reporting, and securing tlie adoption of the article on 
education in the constitution of 1835. lie also gave Jlr. Crary, as a 
mendjer of Congress, the exclusive credit of drafting the several ordi- 
nances for the admis.sion of Miciiigan into the Union. ]\lr. Pierce gave 
Jlr. Crary the exclusive credit of converting the educational ideals, 
which they had discussed and jointly approved, into enduring constitu- 
tions and effective statutes. He also gave Jlr. Crary the exclusive credit 
of securing his appointment as the first superintendent of public instruc- 
tion in any constitutional government." • 

Upon receiving his appointment, Mr. Pierce comiiieiieed his work in 
the educational field. He filed his first official report and incseiited the 
accompanying mea.sure to the legislature on the filth day nf .laiiiiary. 
1837,-'- measures were passed and approved .March IStli. L'nth and L'lst, 

28 For sketch, see Vol. XIII, p. 325, this series. 
=9 2 Democratic Eeview, p. 370. 

30 Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, Vol. ] , 

31 Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, Vol. 1, 

32 Public Instrnction and School Laws of 18.52, p. 3E 


1837. s-' These dates show that ^Ir. Crary had laid the foundation, and 
had secured the funds. for the public school sj^stem, long before Mr. 
Pierce began his work in the field of public instruction. Prior Tempore 
Prior Jure. 

A local editorial published two days after his death sa.ys: "In 1835, 
General Crary was elected from this county, a member of the constitu- 
tional convention. He was in that body, chairman of the committee 
on education, and had drafted Article X of the constitution, which pi'o- 
vides for the appointment of superintendent of public instruction ; made 
it imperative on the legislature to encourage the promotion of intellec- 
tual, scientific and agricultural improvements; made the proceeds of 
all the lands that had been, and should be granted to the State for the 
support of the schools a perpetual fund, the interest of which was to 
be inviolabl.y devoted to the supjiort of schools; provided for a system 
of primary schools and for the establishment of libraries, and made the 
funds arising from rent and sale of lands granted for the university 
also a perpetual fund. These educational provisions were greatly in 
advance of the times. Gen. Crary had made the subject of education a 
study, and the State is indebted to him for the wisdom, which has re- 
sulted so greatly to the benefit of our people, in the consolidation of 
the school fund and the establishment of tlie school system. His interest 
in the subject never flagged. He was as devoted to the subject and to 
the system in which he was intrumental in establishing, at the day 
of his death, as he was when he drafted the provisions of the constitu- 
tion. He has been constantly connected with the system, too, as a legis- 
lator, as a member of the board of regents, member of the board of 
education, of which he was president, and of the school inspector, 
moderator and director in the district where he resided. He was one 
of the founders of the Union School of the village and had charge of 
the location and erection of the building. In all these capacities he 
showed a zeal in the cause which never tired, a spirit of devotion in the 
interest of the rising generation which commanded the respect and won 
the esteem of all. "^-i This article gives an impartial summarj- and a 
just estimate of his public services, and it clearly indicates that Isaac 
E. Crary was regarded by his contemporaries as the founder of the public 
school system of ^Michigan. 

John D. Pierce 

The Orsaiii/cr of the Public School System of Michigan 

John I). Piiicc \\as the organizer of the public school system of Mich- 
igan. The original documents must also determine the truth of this 
proposition. The constitution of 1835 provided for the appointment of 
a superintendent of public instruction, "whose duties shall be prescribed 
by law." Section three of an act of the legislature approved July 26, 

33 Laws of ]So7, pp. 102, 116-209. 

34 Marshall Statesman, May 10, 1854, Vol. XV. No. 37. 


1836, entitled, "An ad to detine the duties of the supcrinteiideiil oL' 
public instruction ;uul other purposes" contained the foUowiiig ])ro- 
vision he shall "jirepare and digest a system for the organization and 
establishment of common schools and a university and its branches. "■'■'■ 
Governor ilasou in his annual message to the legislature, January '2. 

1837. said "The superintendent of public instruction will report to you 
a system for the government of the University of Michigan and for the 
organization of the public schools of the state."-'" The superintendent's 
report was made to the legislature January 5th, 1837,*' and it discussed 
plans and prices for the sale of primary school and university hnids. 
modes of investing the money, and it also recommended and explained 
plans for the organization of the primary schools and university of the 
State.*** It submitted three bills to the legislature providing for such 
plans. The first measure, approved ]March 18tli, 1837, was entitled "An 
Act to provide for the organization and government of the University 
of iliehigan. "*" The second measure, approved March 20th 1837, was 
entitled "An Act to provide for the organization and support of primary 
schools.'"^" The third measure approved March 23rd, 1837, was entitled 
"An Act to provide for the disposition of the University and primary 
school lands and for other purposes. "^^ These several acts were amended 
in June, 1837, and the amendatory acts contained the same titles. '- 

These titles indicate the scope and purpose of the statutes, and Mr. 
Pierce's official life was spent in carrying out their provisions. These 
statutes provided for the organization of the common schools and the 
state university. They authorized and required the superintendent of 
public instruction to sell primary school and university lands, and 
to use the proceeds in the organization of the primary schools and the 
university. Mr. Pierce's authority and official work were confined to the 
field of organization of a public school system out of materials already 
furnished, and upon a foundation already laid by Mr. Crary. Ex-Super- 
intendent of Public instruction, Francis W. Shearman, a co-temporary 
and neighbor of both Jlr. Crary and Mr. Pierce and for a time asso- 
ciated with ]\Ir. Pierce as editor of the Journal of Education, declared 
in the presence of the writer, that Isaac E. Crary was the founder and 
that John D. Pierce was the organizer, of the public school system of 
Michigan, and in his historic sketches of such system, he outlined the 
evidence and detailed the fact which supported such classification. ^^ 
Professors Ten Brook, McLaughlin, Hinsdale, Demmon, Gower, Sill, 

35 Laws of 1836, p. 50. 

36 Governor's Annual Message, IS37, p. 12; Public Instruction and Scliool Laws 
of 1S52, p. 22. 

3" Eeport of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1880, p. 302. 

3s Eeport of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1880, p. 23. 

39 Laws of 1837, p. 102. 

*o Laws of 1837, p. 116. 

41 Laws of 1837, p. 209. 

4= Laws of 1837, pp. 308, 316, 324. 

43 Eeport of the Superintendent of Public Instruction for 1850, p. 56 et sequitor; 
Public Instruction and School Laws of Michigan, 1852, pp. 12-15, 29-37; Eeport 
of Superintendent of Public Instruction for 1880, p. 300 et sequitor; Bust's His- 
tory of Calhoun County (1869), p. 41; Evart 's History of Calhoun County from 
1830-1877, p. 25. 


Putnam and other discriminating writers, relying upon the original 
documents for authority, also detail facts which lead clearly to the same 

The organizer of a great public school system is not without honor. 
A Cornell, a Rockefeller or a Stanford can endow, but it requires the 
wisdom and the genius of a White, a Harper, or a Jordan to success- 
fully organize a university. Alexander Plamilton could formulate, but 
only a John Marshall could interpret the Federal Constitution and 
make it a living force. John D. Pierce was a constructive statesman 
but his fame as such depends upon his achievements in behalf of our 
system of homestead exemptions, as disclosed by the debates and journal 
of the constitutional convention of 1850, but not as the founder of our 
public school system in 1835. This will be more fully referred to here- 

It is conceded by all that Mr. Pierce entered upon his educational 
work at a later date, and that he used the materials already provided 
and built upon the foundation already laid by Mr. Crary. With these 
facts admitted, and with the original documents extant, what a marvel 
it is, that the title of the founder has been withheld from Mr. Crary, 
and that it has so genei'ally been awarded to Mr. Pierce. One writer 
says: "Rev. John D. Pierce aided by Hon. Isaac E. Crary, was the 
founder of our educational system. "^^ The record shows that Hon. Isaac 
E. Crary was the founder, subsequently John D. Pierce was the organ- 
izer of such system. The biographers of ]\Ir. Pierce — Part II., entitled 
"John D. Pierce was the founder of the Michigan School system" — say, 
"Some people hold that Mr. Crary never received his due recognition for 
the share he had in the establishment of our school system, and that 
he, rather than Mr. Pierce, should get the credit for the plan. A good 
deal of investigation has persuaded us, that there is no real ground 
for such belief. "^5 That conclusion could not have been founded upon 
the original documents. Another writer says: "John D. Pierce is conced- 
ed, and justly, to have been the founder of the Michigan school sys- 
tem."^'' Others, among whom are men of eminence, have embraced and 
proclaimed the same historical heresy. Did these writers examine Article 
X of the constitution of 1835 and the authentic records cited? Is it 
true in fact, that history is merely an accedited fable? This continent 
was discovered by the enterprise and genius of Christopher Columbus, 
and yet it imjustly bears the name of a subsequent explorer. I submit 
that the records of the constitutional convention of 1835 and the his- 
tory of the first session of the 2-l:th Congress, together with the legisla- 
tive records of 1836, aud 1837 of this State, not only disprove the 
quotations above made, but that they establish beyond all controversy, 
that Isaac E. Crary was the founder of the public school system of 
Michigan, and that such a system was founded long before John D. 
Pierce entered upon his educational career, or had any official existence. 

After his appointment to office, Mr. Pierce commenced the work of 
organizing the public schools and the state university, out of the ma- 

** Miehigan Pioneer and Historical Coll., Vol. V, p. 45. 

45 Life of John D. Pierce, p. SO. 

40 Michigan as a Province, Territory and State, Vol. III. 


terials I'liniishcd liiiii, and upon the roiunlatioii alrrady laid and ac- 
cording to tlic i)hms outlined in Article X of the stale eonstitutiou. 
He threw his great soul and magnetic intluence into the work, lie in- 
spired governors, legislators, school officers and people with his own 
earnest enthusiasm, and he was accepted and followed as prime leader 
in the enterprise. He drew the primary school law of 1837, borrowing 
freely from the public school system of New York, and from other 
states. ^' He formulated bills for the re-organization of the state uni- 
versity and for the management and disposition of educational lands. 
He had the tifty years of experience of Thomas Jetfersou in the evolution 
and establishment of the University of Virginia before him as an aid. 
It will be remembered that Jetferson was not only the father of the 
University of Virginia, but he was also the father of the American sys- 
tem of state universities. The official reports of Mr. Pierce were able 
and convincing, and his recommendations were promptly adopted by 
the legislature. He was a gifted and successful organizer, and for four 
years and a half in that capacity Mr. Pierce rendered invaluable serv- 
ices to the State and to the cause of education. 

Isaac E. Crary was known in public affairs in his native State before 
coming to Michigan. Dr. Bushnell, in his lectures on Historic Persons 
of Connecticut, comments upon ilr. Crary 's public life and then adds, 
"He has now gone to help found a new state in the west.''^" ]\lr. Crary 
studied at Amherst, ^^ and he graduated at Washington College, now 
Trinity in 1827.''" He was a sound thinker, a close observer, an able 
lawyer, and a close student of sociological and governmental affaii-s.^' 
He had devoted much time and thought to tlir schools and colleges and 
had made much research in educational and kimlicd suli.jccts. The large 
collection of pamphlets, papers, reports, letters and addresses by schol- 
ars and statesmen, upon these subjects and the collection of college 
catalogues made by ilr. Crary and now in the possession of the writer, 
clearly show that he was deeply interested in these subjects and that 
he was far in advance of his time. He studied the Prussian system of 
public instruction before he commenced his great work. Cousin 's'^ 
Digest of that system had been translated ami published in this country 
and at this time, was being examined and discussed by progressive 
educators and thinkers throughout the country. • • 

*- Revised Statutes for New York for lS2t), Chap. XV. 

•»8 Mieh. Pioneer and Hist. Coll., Vol. XiV, p. liSO. 

*» Catalogue of Collegiate Institute, Amherst, Mass., 1S23, p. 91. 

50 History of the University of Michigan, Hinsdale and Deninion, p. 174. 

51 Mich. Pioneer and Hist. Colls., Vol. XIV, p. 28.5. 

52 Victor Cousin was a Frenchman, born in Paris, Nov. 28. 1792, who taught and 
lectured in the Sorbonne. In 1831 he was commissioned by the government to 
visit cities in Germany for the purpose of studying their educational systems. 
This resulted in a series of reports to the minister, published as "Rapport sur 
Petat de 1 'Instruction Publique dans quelque pays de I'Allemagne et particuliere- 
ment en Prusse. " They were translated by Mrs. Sarah Austin in 1834 and spread 
about the United States. He took part in the politics of his times, was apparently 
in sympathy with the monarchy under certain constitutional safeguards. The last 
few years of his life were spent quietly at the Sorbonne. He died at Cannes, .Ian. 
13, 1867. He bequeathed his library to the Sorbonne. 

53 Report of John A. Dix, Commissioner of Common Schools of New York, 1S3B 38. 


Perhaps no man in the territory in 1835 was better equipped to take 
charge of the educational interests of the people that Mr. Crary,^^ and 
the convention, recognizing the fact, readily followed his leadership and 
promptly adopted his measures. Traditions tell us that after his election 
as delegate, (April 4, 1835) until the convention met May 11, 1835, Mr. 
Crary devoted his time in preparing himself for his work in convention. 
He made careful research and sought light and infonnation from all 
available sources. It was during this period that the well-known con- 
versation was had with Mr. Pierce sitting on a log north of the old 
court house in Marshall. Isaac E. Crary laid the foundation of the 
public school system in Michigan, broad and deep in the adamant of 
the constitutional enactment and cemented it with congressional com- 
pacts, long before John D. Pierce entered the educational field. If John_ 
Harvard by donating seven hundred pounds sterling and a library of 
three hundred volumes to a struggling institution — if Elihu Yale by con- 
tributing five hundred pounds sterling to another institution — if Ezra 
Cornell by giving five hundred thousand dollars to establish "an in- 
stitution where any person can find instruction in any study," and if 
Leland Stanford by providing a few million dollars to endow still an- 
other institution, are entitled to be called founders of the institutions 
respectively bearing their names; why should not Isaac E. Crary who 
secured the primary school funds now amoimting to nearly six million 
of dollars, and who obtained the endowment fund of the state univer- 
sity now amounting to over half a million dollars, be awarded the dis- 
tinction of being the founder, not only of the primary and secondary 
schools of the State, but also of being the founder of the University 
of Michigan ? 

While the fame of Isaac E. Crary for two-thirds of a century has 
been dimmed by the grotesque fabrications, sarcastic abuse and dramatic 
ridicule of Thomas Corwin,^^ have not his own beneficiaries treated him 
more un.iustly, and more cruelly than did his great political antagonist 
in 1840? Have not the people of Michigan overlooked his achievements 
and ignored the fame of her most viseful statesman, and by common 
accord awarded another the honor due him? 

A casual observer, in comparing the work of these two great men, 
might well consider Isaac E. Crary as the architect and John D. Pierce 
as the builder of our educational structure. Mr. Crary was more than 
the architect, he not only laid the foundation and drew plans and speci- 
fications, but as regent of the university, member of the local school 
board and as member of the state board of education, he rendered invalu- 
able services in building and developing our great university and in 
establishing and perfecting our grand system of normal and high schools. 
He provided for school libraries and for instruction in agriculture in 
the constitution of 1835 and for free schools in the constitution of 1850. 
Mr. Crarj^ was therefore both architect and builder. He labored in the 
educational field long before Mr. Pierce entered it and he toiled years 
after Mr. Pierce had retired. 

6* History of Higher Education of Michigan, by McLaughlin, 150. 
55 Thomas Corwin, for slieteh, see Vol. XIV, p. 280, this series. This attack was 
made upon Crary in the House of Eepresentatives, Feb. 15, 1840. 

HISTORY OF cALiiorx corxTY 4:5 

The iuriueiK-e of Mr. Crary's statesinausliip has aliV'e-ted imiro li\cs, 
controlled more destinies, diffused more knowledge, created more living 
institutions, and has advanced and enlightened civilization more than 
that of any other citizen of Michigan. Every rural schoolhouse, every 
high school building, every normal school edifice and every university 
hall not only in Alichigan, but also in other states copying his system, 
and every agricultural college in the Union are the results, and existing 
monuments of his life work. Today three fourths of a million of school 
population of this State are I'eceiving or are entitled to receive the 
benefits of the primary school fund which he secured for them. To-day 
myriads of high school, normal school and university students in this 
and other states are receiving benefits of his policy. Every person, 
living or dead, who has ever received instruction in any of the public 
schools of iMichigan or in any other states adopting his system, is a debtor 
to him. The numberless millions of children and students of the future, 
who shall receive instructions in any of these public schools, will be under 
lasting obligation to him. Mr. Crary's beneficent purposes, and his 
exalted ideals were revealed in his address dedicating the first state 
normal school edifice by these words, "I do dedicate this building to 
the People of the State of Michigan, and to promote the great cause 
of education — the cause of man — the cause of God." '^^ Shall we not 
preserve the perishable traditions of his fame and make them immortal? 

Has not his widow, Mrs. Belona Crary Frink, in giving his portrait 
to be hung in the capitol, where the present and future generations can 
became familiar with the features of the statesman, who did so much 
for them, made a priceless gift to the State? 

While Isaac E. Crary, as founder of the most comprehensive and com- 
plete system of public instruction ever devised deser\'es to be held in 
immortal remembrance, his name has almost been forgotten and his 
fame has almost been buried in oblivion. Not a county or a township, 
not a city or a village, not a school or a postoffice in Michigan, and not 
a professorship in the normal school or in the unversity he founded 
now bears his name. I would not detract from the fame of John D. 
Pierce. As an organizer, he deserves lasting remembrance. I simply de- 
mand exact justice for Isaac E. Crary. Fiat Justitia Ruat Coelum. 

The fact that great un.justiee has been done him is the cause and the 
excuse for the argumentative length of this part of the paper. 

Let the inaccuracies of the past be rectified, the unspeakable in.juries 
alread.y done to the memory of Mr. Crary, so far as possible be redressed, 
and let future writers go to the original documents for their facts. Ex- 
Superintendent of Public Instructions Delos Fall has well said "There 
are three names which every teacher in Michigan should learn to pro- 
nounce in logical order and with due appreciation of their worth and 
the great part they played in the formation of this State : Victor Cousin, 
Isaac E. Crary and John D. Pierce."-'^ Cousin should be honored as 
interpreter, Crary as the founder and Pierce as organizer of tlie Prussian 
system of public instruction on the western continent. 

58 Public Instruction of Mich., 1S53, p. 80. 

5- Introduction to the Life of .Tohn D. Pierce, p. 2. ^ 


Wlieu impartial historians shall eai-efully cousider the original re- 
cords, and the chronology of the public services of these two great men, 
and their respective class of honors shall be correctly determined, the 
honor of founder of the public school system of Michigan will be awarded 
to Isaac E. Crary, and that of organizer to John D. Pierce, then and 
only then, will ample justice be done the name of Isaac E. Crary. Then 
indeed will be fulfilled the prophecy of the eloquent George C. Bates, 
who said, "The life and public services of General Crary will remain a 
monument to his memory, when all that Corwin has done or said to 
benefit the world is buried in oblivion." ^^ 

Justice demands that his portrait be assig-ned to a prominent place 
in the gallery of Michigan's most eminent statesmen. Hoping that the 
progressive statesmanship of Isaac E. Crary may be recalled, his .just 
fame be restored, and liis name handed down to posterity, as the 
"Founder of the Public School System of Michigan," I leave his fame 
in the custody of the State which he served so ably and so well. 


The system of uniting the primary, secondary and higher schools at 
public expense, and under the state control was not originated by the 
founders of our school policy. This policy existed in the Prussian code, 
but that system provided for the teachint;' nl' the Catholic Catechism to 
the children of Catholic parents, mid I lie 1c:iching of the Lutheran 
Catechism to the children of Lutlici-aii pnii'iils, thus recognizing the 
union of the church and state ; while our system was independent of the 
church. Thomas Jefferson ^o i^^^ labored for years to combine these 
grades of secular schools under state control and at public expense for 
Virginia before our school fathers (•iiiiiiiicnccd tlieir work. Thomas . 
Jefferson was the first educator on this coiitinciit to work for an in- 
stitution of higher education exclusivciy undci' the state government, 
divorced rrinii ecclesiastical influence and control. It had long been the 
estalilishfd prjicfiee of the sectarian organizers to establish and to sus- 
tain dcnoiiiinational colleges as a rule of church polity, to educate their 
clergj', their workers for religious purposes and for church extension. 
Jefferson endeavored to establish and maintain a university independent 
of the church to educate citizens, legislators, .judges, executives and 
statesmen for national service and progress. He was the first to en- 
counter "ecclesiastical opposition directed against the proposed non- 
sectarian university," and to meet tlie prevailing notion that higher 
education should be under the control of the church. That practice had 

58 Mich. Pioneer and Hist. Colls., Vol. XVIT, p. 349. 

59 Thomas Jefferson spent the late years of his life in devising a scheme of edu- 
cation which would embrace all the children of his native state. He was assisted 
by his friend Joseph C. Cabell, a member of the senate of Virginia. Cabell car- 
ried out all of Jefferson 's plans. He induced the legislature to expend $300,000 
in the work of construction and to appropriate $15,000 as a yearly support to the 
institution. Jefferson personally superintended every detail of construction and in 
March, 1825, the institution was opened with forty students. At the beginning of the 
second year there were 177 students. 


long been followed, iiuil it was tlie prevaiiiiiu;- sentiment of his day. In- 
deed that sentiment still exists, and in spite of our numerous popular 
state universities, it is a mighty power in the eollegiate world. 

To-day, obedient to that sentiment, a large number of the students en- 
rolled for tlie baehelors" degree roiiienini; institutions of the country 
are in the so-ealled denominatimiiil ((illcucs and institutions founded, 
built up, and maintained by rclii;iciiis organizations or private dona- 
tions. It Avill be retiieiiibiTcd that in 1JS17 when Judge "Woodward was 
formulating bis ('atlicilipistciiiaid or "University of ..Miehigania," and 
when the governor and .iiulgvs of the Territory in 1821 were formulating 
their charter for the ' ' University of Michigan, ' ' "for the purpose of edu- 
cating youths," Thomas Jefferson and Joseph C. Cabell were laboring 
to estal)lish the University of Virginia. Jetferson labored forty years 
for that institution, and he is not only the father of the University 
of Virginia but he is also the father of the state \iniversity system of 
America. "We are nnder greater obligation to him as an educator than 
as the author of the Declaration of Independence, while the form and 
rhetoric of that innnortal decnment were his, the sentiment and sub- 
stance were paraphrased from the Virginia Bill of Rights previously 
formulated by Georuv Masun,''" (the great uncle of JMichigan's first 
governor). The Ann rican s.xstem of state universities was an evolution 
from the constructi\r slalrsmanship of the Sage of jMonticcUo. At hrst 
these universities were opposed as Godless, sacrilegious and dangerous, 
and ^Ir. Jefferson was denounced as an infidel. 

Isaac E. Crary and John D. Pierce were familiar with 'Siv. Jefferson's 
struggles in the Old Dominion, and of the charges nuide against him, 
before they commenced their work in Michigan. They too, in re-organ- 
izing the university, were compelled to contend with the prevailing .senti- 
ment and establish precedents, of having higher education iinder eccle- 
siastical control. Both were eminently qualified to battle with custom. 
As layman ^Ir. Crary was known as a stanch churchman, and as a 
clergyman. ]\lr. Pierce was extensively known as an orthodox missionary, 
and both had the entire confidence of the religious people. Mr. Pierce, 
however, after he was appointed superintendent of pulilic instruction 
was compelled to abandon and oppose a denominational institution 
which he had taken an active part in establishing, to be consistent with 
his state imiversity policy. The Presbyterians of the State in 1835 had 
organized [Michigan College, "^ and 'Sir. Pierce labored earnestly to raise 
funds for that institution and was active in secui'ing its location at 
Marshall. The trustees of this college on the 20th day of October, 1837, 
resolved that "in the opinion of the board it is not expedient for the 
friends of the enterprise to engage in advancing the interests of the 
University of ^Michigan or its branches by pecuniaiy patronage or other- 

«" George Mason, for sketch, see Vol. XXXV, p. 60.^. this series. 

»i Michigan College, later called Marshall College, was chartered in 1.S38 and 
liberally endowed by citizens of the village of Marsliall. It was incorporated as 
Marshall College, April 16, 1839. The Rev^ John J. Cleaveland, Presbyterian divine, 
was president from 1839-1843, and then retired, having brought the college into high 
repute both at home ami abroad. See sketch. Vol. XXX, pp. 52S-349, this series. 


wise." '^- llr. Pierce at that time had been engaged on the public school 
system for about a year, and had filed his first report the January 
preceding, and this resolution was the result. Michigan College was in- 
corporated under the name of Marshall College in 1839, and Mr. Pierce 
signed a spirited remonstration against granting a charter. Marshall 
College, then under the gifted leadership of the Rev. John P. Cleaveland, 
D.D., was a rival of the Michigan University. In his first report, Mr. 
Pierce, disapproved granting charters to denominational colleges and 
recommended that the exclusive power of conferring degrees be given to 
the university, which policy with scarcely an exception was followed for 
a quarter of a century. Unlike Jefferson, Messrs. Crary and Pierce were 
able to successfully meet and overcome to a large extent the sentiment 
and prejudice against a Godless college without being denounced as 
infidels and corrupters of the morals of youth. 


The achievements of John D. Pierce, as a constructive statesman were 
not confined to the domain of education, but were extended into other 
fields of progress no less beneficial and lasting. Mr. Pierce was a 
thinker, a philosopher and philanthropist as well as a statesman. From 
the existing laws and conditions of society, he could reason out new 
measures and conditions for the benefit of mankind. He had experi- 
enced the anxieties of the head of a family under overwhelming financial 
misfortune, when the law permitted imprisonment for debt and allowed 
the creditors to turn the unfortunate debtor, wife and helpless chil- 
dren into the street without food or shelter, and to take the wife's 
property to pay the husband's debts contracted before marriage. His 
love for humanity caused him to grapple with the problem and to seek 
a remedy for the misfortune. In 184.5, standing on the streets of Detroit 
with the late William H. Brown, of Marshall, ilr. Pierce called his at- 
tention to the large number of people passing to-and-fro on the street 
and remarked, "'All these people have a God-given right to live. If they 
have a right to live, it follows that they have a God-given right to a 
domicile, to a home, a place in which to live. If .society protects the life of 
a debtor, it should protect the home of a debtor, for himself and his 
family. If life is sacred, the home of the family, the unit of society, 
the foundation of all government should be sacred. Without a home, 
life is not worth living, and good citizenship cannot be expected. 
Humanity and patriotism demand that the home should be protected 
from Shyloek ci'i'ditors. misrortune and improvidence." 

This was the thcinc (if discussion between the pioneer minister and 
pioneer lawyer of .Marshall Tor hours. Thus ilr. Pierce was elabora- 
ting his measures for relief long before the statute was formulated. He 
enlarged upon the principle that a man's home is his castle, his refuge, 
his sanctuary and seems to have elaborated from his own brain a method 

62 History of Olivet College (Williams), 150-15.5; Record and Papers of Marshall 
College in the Mich. Pion. and Hist. Colls.; Public Instruction and School Laws, 
1852, pp. 38-44. 


of protecting and preserviug it. Tiio law I'or imprisoument for debt had 
been abolished in 1839, and the statute exempting personal property 
from execution, substantially as it now exists, was enacted in 1842, but 
the home was still subject to alienation for debt in Michigan. i\Ir. Pierce 
was a member of the state house of representatives in 1847, and he 
introduced a bill to exempt the homestead from execution, but it failed 
to pass. He was elected to the next legislature, and he again introduced 
his exemption measure, and through his personal intiuenee secured its 
passage. It became the homestead law of 1848, which was the tirst 
homestead exemption law adopted in any of the northern states, and 
John D. Pierce became the father of the homestead exemption policy of 
Michigan. This law provided that a homestead of forty acres in the 
country, or one lot in any city or village, with a house thereon owned 
and occupied by any resident of the State shall not be sold on execution 
or any final process of court to satisfy any debt upon contract made 
after July 3d, 1848. While the law required amendments to perfect it, 
it established the principle and contained the substance of the constitu- 
tional provision and law as it now exists. The Michigan homestead ex- 
emption law introduced the subject, and it was discussed throughout 
the land, and it became the model for many states. Mr. Pierce was not 
satisfied to leave the sancitity of the home simply to legislative enact- 
ments. He was a delegate to the constitutional convention in 1850 and 
was appointed chairman of the committee on Exemptions and Rights 
of JIarried Women. This gave him an opportunity to strengthen his 
great measure and to fortify it by constitutional safeguards. Jlr. Pierce 
formulated, and on the 25th day of June, 1850, introduced as a minority 
report of that committee, substantially what now exists as Article XXI 
of our state constitution."-' Three members of the committee concurred 
in the report. The other four members of the committee reported against 
the exemption policy in the majority report made July 17, 1850.''^ The 
exemption policy having come up for discussion on the 30th of July in 
the convention, Mr. Pierce, as the author of the measure, supported it 
and discussed its sentiments and philosophy with great earnestness, 
ability and eloquence. Among other things, he said: "The measure now 
under consideration is one of great interest to the people of the state. 
The subject is one that has come home to every family." He referred to 
the Hebrew code, which every seven years cancelled all debts, and to the 
exemption of the fee of real estate from alienation ; while the creditors 
could seize the use of the land for a time, but once in every fifteen years, 
the land returned to the owner, as "a code provided for every man and 
his family," and with this single exception in the histoi-y of the race, 
the legislation of the world has been for the incidentals pertaining to 
human life rather than for man himself. "Humanit.y has been wronged, 
outraged, down-trodden, and the whole care of the legislation has been 
bestowed upon property, and its representative, money. ^lan and the 
family have l)een disregarded and turned out as vagabonds by due 
course of law. If anything on the face of the eartii needs civilizing, it 

83 ConTention Debates of Michigan, 1850, p. 240. 
ti« Convention nehatps of Mii-hiran. ]s.")i), p. 4L'.s. 


is legislation. The spirit of aggressive capital is aggressive. It has no 
limit, no boundaries controlling the legislation of the world, it has been 
-resistless in sway. It never tires, it never sleeps, soulless, remorseless, 
merciless, conscienceless, it presses forward regardless of the dying and 
the dead. Legislation is beginning to relax its iron grasp and is already 
in the process of civilization. So man is above money. In all the 
exigencies of business, the changes of fortune are over-turning the affairs 
of life. It is just that man and family should not bear the entire burden 
of misfortune, and mone.y and capital which are less than man. wholly 
escape. Let wealth bear the burden and humanity be spared. The home- 
stead should be free, inviolable. No man, no woman, no child, no family 
should be driven from the home because the hand of adversity presses 
them. The state is bound to protect, not to crush. Free religion, free 
schools, free trade and free homes are essential elements of liberty. The 
home must he inviolate, or liberty is but a name, and freedom a mockery. 
Man without a liome is an outcast. lie has been robbed of his birth- 
right l)y tlie strong arm of government under the control of wealth. 
Man has a natural right to the free use of the air, it is essential to 
his existence. So is water, he cannot exist without it. The same is true 
of light. Man would droop and die without it. But the right 
to these essential elements is no more clear, no more certain than the 
right of man to a place on this earth. This right is clearly inalienable. 
To deprive any man ni' any family of a home and turn tliem out as 
vagabonds under any jin-tcnse whatever is t\Tanny. It is tyramiy of 
the most atrocious rliai-ncter. A man without a home, what is he? 
Robbed of his birthrigiit, he becomes an outcast, and is made so by 
law. If society, il' the state has a right to do this, it has a rij.'ht to put 
him out of the way, he with his family have no liusiiiess to lixc '" '•'-• These 
extracts show the character of the speech. Seldom if e\er has so forci- 
ble, able and convincing an argument been made in supijort of any 
measure in the legislative history of the state. Tlie ma.iorit>- report of 
the committee was annihilated, and as a result, on the second of August 
the minority report was aihipled liy an (i\-er\\lieliiiiim' iiKi.joi'ity in the 
convention, and the llonies1e;i(l ivxciuiitioii Law as diawii 1)\- .\li-. Pierce 
became Section XXI of our stale eonstitulion. The priiu-ipU' was adopt- 
ed for all time. Thus by means of the humane foresight, masterly effort 
and progressive statesmanship of John D. Pierce, the sanctity and 
security of evei\v home in Michigan was guaranteed by constitutional 
enactment. During this historical debate, the honor of being the father 
of the Homestead Exemption Act and of the policy in IMichigan was 
repeatedly conceded to Mr. Pierce."'' 

In this great effort, Jlr. Pierce was aided and supported not only 
by the vote and counsel of his great associate in the educational fields, 
Isaac E. Crary, but also by his neighbors. Nathan Pierce and Milo Soule, 
of Marengo, and William V. Morrison, of Albion, his colleagues from the 
county in the convention. 

The ITomestead exemption policy was adopted by the legislature 

«5 Convention Debates of Michigan, 1850, pp. 656-66], 
«» Convention Debates of Michigan, 1850, pp. 6.57-660. 


March 'i'ltli. 1S4S. and it was inserted in tlie new i-onstitulion, Au^nist 
2nd, 1850. Jlieliigan was tlie first free state to adopt the measure, and 
practically was the pioneer in that hmnane legislation. But other 
states, perceiving the wisdom and benefits of this i)rogressive measure, 
have copied our statute and constitution in rapid succession, xintil now, 
the home and the family are protected from misfortune and improvi- 
dence by this policy in almost every state. Pennsylvania and Vermont 
adopted this policy 1849; ^Maine, New York, and Ohio in 18r)0; New 
Hampshire, ilassachusetts, Illinois and Iowa in 1851 ; Indiana and 
Louisiana in 1852 ; and the federal government in 1862. Many other 
states have exempted homesteads by legislative enactments from sale on 
execution for payment of debts; and to-day, in over forty states in the 
Union, the home and family are protected by the humane measure, so 
thoughtfully evolved and formulated, so progressively presented and so 
earnestly and ably advocated by John D. Pierce sixty yeai'S ago.''" 

John 1). Picrcr was without question, the aullioi' and fathrr of tlie 
homestead exeuiptiou laws of Michigan, and tlie ilicliigan policy was 
copied in substance by nearly all the other states. But history does 
not sustain the claim that he was the originator of the policy. The 
principle upon which homestead exemption laws rest is claimed to be 
the dictate of enlightened public policy. "The system is an evolution 
from Christian impulses, patriotic devotion and wise statesmanship." 
Mr. Pierce in his effort was inspired by these motives and not by prece- 
dent. It will be remembered that in 1820, Thomas Benton opposed the 
practice of selling public lauds for money and advocated the policy of 
distributing them to actual settlers. Said he in the Senate : ' ' The free- 
holder is the natural supporter of a free government. Tenantry is 
unfavorable to freedom. The tenant has in fact, no country, no hearth, 
no domestic altar, no household gods. It should be the policy of re- 
publics to nuiltiply their free-holders." This was the policy of that 
great statesman in 1820.''* John D. Pierce perfected Benton's concep- 
tion and policy of statesmanship by making the home of the free-holder 
inalienable for the payment of debts, and the Benton policy as perfected 
by the Pierce safeguard, was adopted as the free homestead laws of the 
United States in 1862, and is now the law of the land, and the "free- 
holder hearths, domestic altar and household gods," thanks to the 
statesmanship of Benton and Pierce, are safe and beyond the reach of 
misfortune and improvidence. 

The Republic of Texas in 1839, adopted the first homestead exemi)- 
tion law on this continent."^ This short-lived republic has therefore 

6T American Law RegLster (It. S.), Vol. I, pp. 641-765, Vol. X, p. 156; 2 Cyclo- 
psedia of Political Science, Political Economy and United States History, p. 462; 
Thompson on Homesteads and Exemptions, note 2 of reference; 51 New Hamp- 
shire Reports, pp. 252-261, Barney vs. Lamb. 

08 Benton's Thirty Years in tiie Senate, Vol. I. pp. 103, 104; 2 Cyclopa'dia of Po- 
litical Economy and tjnited States History, p. 463. 

09 2 Cyclopsdia of Political Science and Political Economy and United States 
History, p. 465; 14 Texas Report, p. 599, Cook vs. Coleman. 


contributed at least one measure of progressive statesmanship of lasting 
benefit to mankind. It was drawn by some master legal mind, possessing 
that comprehensive foresight and sagacity which can only be acquired 
by long experience and careful study. It is a model, so far as it goes, 
that has not yet been excelled. As the first Homestead exemption law of 
the land, and as the contribution of a former American republic to 
human progress, it is entitled to a place in this paper. The following is 
the complete statute: 

An Act, entitled "An act to exempt certain property therein named 
from execution. " Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the Republic of Texas in Congress assembled : That 
from and after the passage of this act, there shall be reserved to every 
citizen or head of a family to this republic free and independent of the 
power of a writ of Scire Facias or other execution issuing from any 
court of competent jurisdiction whatever, fifty acres of land or one town 
lot including his or her homestead and improvements not exceeding five 
hundred dollars in value, all household and kitchen furniture (provided 
that they do not exceed in value two hundred dollars), all implements 
of husbandry (providing that they do not exceed fifty dollars in value) 
all tools, appurtenances and books belonging to the trade or profession 
of anj^ citizen, five milch cows, one yoke of work oxen or one horse, 
twenty hogs and one year's provisions; and that all laws and parts of 
laws contravening or opposing the provisions of this act, be, and the 
same are hereby repealed. Provided, The passage of this, act shall not 
interfere with contracts with parties heretofore made. 

John M. Hansford, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
David G. Burnet, 
President of the Senate. 
Approved Jan. 29, 1837. Jlirabeau B. Lamar.'o 

The state of Mississippi adopted a homestead exemption law January 
22, 1841, and Georgia adopted such an act December 11th, 1841."! 
"While these acts antedate the ]\Iichigan law, a comparison shows that the 
latter was not copied from the former. Mr. Pierce seems to have grasped 
the principle and to have formulated the law as an evolution from his 
own heart and brain. The homestead exemption law is of recent origin 
and one of the numerous modifications of the severity of the common 
law that has been adopted during the existence of our State. These laws 
had no place in our law reports until 1851. And they had no name or 
place on the law digests until 1856.''2 Tj^g homestead exemption laws in 
the various states vary in amount, quantity and value. Some attach as 

'0 Mirabeau B. Lamar, brother of Lucius Quintus Cinciunatus Lamar, the jurist, 
was born in Louisville, Georgia, Aug. 16, 1798, and died in Richmond, Texas, Dec. 
19, 1859. In 1835 he emigrated to Texas and was active in its movements for 
independence. He filled many military and political offices and in 1838 was chosen 
president, serving until 1841. During his presidency Texas became a recognized 
republic. Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography. 

"11 American Law Register (M. S.), 645. 

72 1 American Law Register (M. S.), 642. 


a vested right. Others vest upon ehiiniiiig- such rights. Some are 
secured by legislative euactment and others by constitutional provision, 
but all are based upon the same plan and arc intended to presel•^'e the 
home and to protect the family as a rule of public policy, and such 
measures have the approval of enlightened civilization. 

How few realize what blessings they have received and under what 
lasting obligations the}' are to this pioneer citizen of Marshall. Today, 
nearlj' three millions of people of ]\Iichigau live in their homes, as their 
fathers for sixty years have lived, secure under the protection conceived, 
formulated, and obtained for them by the genius and statesmanship of 
John D. Pierce. Today nearly eighty million American citizens live in 
tranquil and secure homes as a result of the measure of JMarshall's 
pioneer benefactor. How many who have passed away, how many who 
are residents of foreign provinces adopting his system, and how many 
generations to come, are and will be his beneficiaries! He rescued the 
home, that pound of fiesh nearest the heart, from the power of the .soul- 
less, heartless, exacting creditor. This homestead exemption policy has 
developed more resources, added more production, accumulated more 
wealth, secured more patriotic free-holders and at the same time has 
caused more tranquility, avoided more anxiety and produced more 
happiness in our country than any other measure. Time would be too 
short to enumerate all its blessings. John Howard Paine embalmed the 
home sentiment in song, "Home, Sweet Home," which has immortalized 
the author. John D. Pierce enshrined the home itself with all its senti- 
ments, with all its shrines and witli all its household gods in protecting 
statutes and in shielding constitutional enactments, wliich together with 
his achievements for education, should immortalize his name as the guar- 
dian statesman of the home, the family and the school. 


Small causes soimtimes produce great results, and local events often 
project forcis that destroy institutions and revolutionize nations. Such 
an event occ-uriid in Alarshall, January 26, 1847. An attempt will be 
made to glance at that event, state the issue therein joined, mention 
some of the parties, designate some of the fields of contest, and trace 
it to its final results. It will be remembered that African slavery then 
existed under the law of fifteen^ states of the Union, recognized by the 
Federal Constitution as it then existed, and was protected by the Fugitive 
Slave Law of 1793. The ilexican war, brought on and prosecuted to 
extend slave territory, was in progress, and that Wilmot Proviso, a 
measure to limit slave territory, was then pending and being debated in 
Congress. The federal government was in control of the slave power. 
Lewis Cass was seeking the nomination for President from tlie Demo- 
cratic party and was endeavoring to win the support of the slave states. 
The underground railroad extending from ^lason and Dixon's line to 
Canada, under the management of slave-hating Quakers and liberty 
loving Puritans, was in active operation; transportation for fugitive 
slaves was free. Such were the conditions when the drama herein out- 
lined was enacted. 


Adam Crosswhite, his wife and four children born in Kentucky, and 
one child born in ilichigan, had for some time been living in a little 
cottage on East Mansion street in Marshall near the outskirts of the 
village. The parents and the four older children were fugitive slaves 
and under the laws of Kentucky, were the property of one Francis Gilt- 
ner of Carroll County, that State, while the youngest child born in 
Marshall was free under the laws of Michigan. Crosswhite was a 
mulatto, his mother a slave and his father, his first master. He was 
tall, a man of marked physique, intelligent, industrious and a good 
citizen. He had purchased his home and was paying for it by install- 
ments. If not the original George Harris of Uncle Tom's Cabin, he 
)>elonged to the same type of manhood and he had made many friends 
in the little hamlet. About forty colored people, some slave and some 
free-horn then lived in the village. Rumors had been atloat and fears 
had been entertained that this family would be kidnapped or captured 
and returned to bondage, which resulted in an understanding l)etween 
;\Ir. Crosswhite and his friends that sliould such an attempt be made, 
he should fire a gun as an alarm and that all should be on the alert. 

In Deceml)er, 1846, a young mau hy the name of Francis Troutman 
came to Marshall as a stranger and claimed to be a lawyer looking for 
a desirable location. He remained in town some time, and a suspicion 
was aroused that he was a slave-hunter on the track of fugitive slaves 
from labor. These apprehensions disturbed the tranquility of the little 
Puritan village, and developments were awaited in solicitude. 

On the 26tli of January, 1847, about four o'clock in the morning, 
Francis Troutman. David Giltner, Franklin Ford, and John S. Lee of 
Kentucky, heavily armed, and Harvey M. Dixon, of ilarshall, a deputy 
sheriff went to the Crosswhite home to seize the family under the 
Fu-ilivc Sl.iNc l>ii\v (if 171)3 and return tlinu 1o bdiuhmv. ' It was long 
licfoiv 111,' liulit (.f d;iy. but Adam Ci-,iss\\iiit.' was <iii .uuard. and seeing 
the would-lif captiii-s approaching, he fii-ed tin' signal shot, '■heard "round 
the world." and stood sentinel at the door. He refused to submit to 
arrest, and his wife refused to open the barricaded door. The slave- 
hunters broke open the door by force, and hunting out the terrified 
children from their hiding places, were hurrying to drag them away. 
Meanwhile, in response to the signal shot, friends and neighbors, white 
and lilack. by the scores were rushing to the spot "like Clan-Alpine 
warrinr rnmi Scottish heath at the signal whistle of Roderick Dhu," and 
surriiiiiiilcd pursuer and pursued alike. Moses Patterson, the colored 
auction licll-ringer of the village on horse at the utmost speed galloj^ed 
through the streets frantir.illy ringing his bell and shouting the alarm. 

The whole village was at nm-c aroused. The response was so cpxick, 
so spontaneous and so n\t'i'\\iieliiiiiig, that the slave-hunters were dis- 
concerted ; they hesitated and stood at ba.y in the presence of two hun- 
dred or more determined freemen. No further efforts were made to take 
the family away by force, and resort was had to arguments. 

Here commenced the final Jiattle bi'twi'cn slaNcry and freedom. Here 
met the Cavalier and Puritan, liei-c' the sliM'piim iiiHuences were aroused 
and here the pa.ssive forces were unfelteied, vi\ilied and put into action. 


Avbieh i-oiitiimed the irropressiblo confliL-t in different i'oniis, luid on 
different fields, in an unbroken succession until the final triunipb. 

Francis Troutnian. the champion of slavery, led tiie forensic attack. 
and demanded that the citizens should disperse, and that he shmild 
be permitted to take the parents and the four older children, back to 
Kentucky, citing the Federal Constitiition and statutes as his Ic^al 
authority to do so; and making no claim to the child bora in ilichigan. 
but he proposed to tear it from its mother's breast and leave it without 
parental care. This demand and appeal from the spokesman for the 
master was responded to in various ways by the numerous spokesmen 
for the slaves. Sinn., icspimded with defiant sneers, derisive pcisonali- 
ties, sarcastic ridimlc ;inil Imwls of contempt. Some replied that sl;i\ri-y 
was a local system and did not exist in iliehigan and that under the 
ordinance of 1787, and the state constitution the parents and children 
were free. Some answered that the Federal Constitution and the Fugi- 
tive Slave law of 1787 did not apply and gave no authority to kidnap 
their citizens. Some declared that these persons had a God-given right 
to freedom, which no human law could take away. While other vehe- 
mently proclaimed law or no law. these citizens should not be dragged 
back to bondage. All were united in this jiurjuise that thi'se shn-i's would 
not be taken back to Kentucky. 

Resolutions were discussed, offered and re.jected or adopted as if in 
a \ew England town meeting, until late in the morning. No actual 
force was used and no personal violence was inflicted, l^ndoubtedly 
this was due to the fact that Gen. Gorham, Dr. Comstock, ilessrs. Cook, 
Ihird, Easterly, IngersoU and other citizens of commanding influence 
while earnestly endeavoring to persuade the slave-hunters to abandon 
their efforts to seize and remove the fugitives and thereby avoid oc- 
casion for violence and blood-shed, counseled moderation and kept more 
impulsive citizens under control. Had it not been for their presence 
and disapproval, the men from the south, w'ifhout doubt would have 
been decorated with tar and feathers and furnished with free transporta- 
tion out of town on a rail, as was proposed by some. How this kind- 
ness was requited will hereafter appear. 

During the discussion, a colored man attempted to enter the house,, 
and Troutman, standing at the door, drawing a pistol, drove him back. 
Complaints were made against the Kentuckians for breaking down the 
door, and against Troutman for drawing a deadl.y weapon, before 
Randal Hobart, a .justice of the peace. They were an-ested and led from 
the fugitives' door to answer the charges, and the fugitive slaves were 
left among their friends. 

On the hearing of the case, John Van Arman," ■"• the celebrated ci-iminal 
lawyer, then residing in ilarshall, volunteered to plead the bondsman's 
case. The cowardly attack at night, the curse of slavery, the gifts of 
freedom, and the proposition to tear the mother's breasts from the lips 
of the babe, furnished ample themes and inspiration for the gifted ad- 
vocate. His eloquence and his scathing arraignment of the defendants 
has seldom been equalled. The defendants were convicted and fined, and 

TsSee skct.-li. Vnl. XI, p|i. L-sl--Sfi. 


Troutniau was held for trial iu the higher eourt. That day's experi- 
ence convinced these men that ilarshall was iu earnest and without 
unnecessary delay they left for home. 

Upon the removal of the slave-hunters from their midst, the crowd 
dispersed and the fugitives dropped out of sight. Under the guidance 
of George Ingersoll, they were piloted to the stone mill in the south- 
eastern part of the villagfe then carried on by him, and were secreted 
in the garret dxiriug the day. Isaac Jacobs, the colored hostler at the 
Marshall House, hired a team and covered conveyance of William W. 
Smith, and George Ingersoll, and Asa B. Cook saw the family carefully 
stowed away in the conveyance and between nine and ten o'clock that 
evening started for Jackson. The next train for Detroit left Marshall 
early in the morning. It was arranged that the fugitives should be in the 
background at Jackson when the train arrived, and that Mr. Ingersoll 
should be on the train. If the slave-holders were not aboard he would 
be standing on the rear platform of the train, which was to be a signal 
for the family that the coast was clear and that they should board tlie 
train. The tall figure of George Ingersoll was stationed on the rear 
platform of the train the next morning as the train pulled into Jackson. 
The fugitive family was secreted in the wood-yard, and seeing the 
auspicious signal, boarded the train. Mr. Crosswhite paid for the con- 
veyance to Jackson and the fare for himself and family on the car to 
Detroit, oiit of money he had accumulated. On taking the train at 
Marshall, Mr. Ingersoll who was an out-spoken Abolitionist, ascertained 
that Henry A. Tillotson, a Cass Democrat holding the position under the 
Democratic state administration was in charge of the train as con- 
ductor. He feared that the conductor would thwart his plans. Observ- 
ing A. 0. Hyde, of Marshall, an Anti-slavery Whig on the train, he dis- 
closed his plan and fears to him. Mr. llych' advised taking the con- 
ductor into their confidence, and re(iu('s1iiii;- liiiii to collect fare, ask 
no questions and keep mum. This was taitlifully carried out, and the 
Abolitionist, Whig, and Democrat, all citizens of Marshall, defied the 
inhuman fugitive law, and risked its penalties to help the slave to secure 
his liberty. George Ingersoll as guardian and liberator, led the way 
and guided the foot-steps of Adam Crosswhite and family until he saw 
them safely landed beneath the British flag of Canada, where their 
shackles dropped off. 

The excitement in ^Marshall subsided, and business was resumed. But 
the drama proposed to be acted, and the object lesson of the heartless 
cruelty and inhumanity of African slavery could not be forgotten, nor 
could its influence be overcome. The liberty-loving sentiment of the 
community was aroused. Convictions ripened into purpose, and pur- 
pose ripened into active determination to limit and destroy the curse. 

The baffled and enraged slave-hunters returned to Kentucky, and were 
received as heroes and martyrs. Public meetings were held, their in- 
sults and treatment were rehearsed, the citizens of JIarshall were de- 
nounced on the platforms, and in resolutions as Abolitionists, traitors 
and barbarians; Carroll County and the whole south was aroused to 
the highest pitch of frenzy. The proceeding's of these public meetings, 
and pamphlets relating to the incidents of the "Abolition Mob" at ]\Iar- 


shall, in extravagaut terms were widely distributed, pro-slavery books 
were written in the most intlanimatory language and were sent all over 
the south. The matter was laid before the legislature of Kentucky 
and Francis Troutman made afifidavit of his version of the Abolition mob 
of ^Marshall, which was referred to the committee on Federal Relations. 
This committee took the matter under consideration, and on the 1st of 
March, 1847, made a report containing a finding of facts, resolutions 
denouncing the citizens of ilarshall, asking redress from the legislature 
of ^Michigan, and requiring the Senator and Represenatives of Ken- 
tucky in Congress to secure the passage of a more stringent fugitive 
slave law, with the severest penalties under the Constitution. The 
report was adopted and sent to the Govei-nor of ilichigan, and to Henry 
Clay and his colleagues in Congress. This report was the first legisla- 
tive demand for the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. Pursuant to the man- 
date of the legislature of Kentucky, issued on the exaggerated state of 
facts at ;Marshall set forth in the affidavit of Francis Troutman, Henry 
Clay brought forth the fugitive slave law of 1850 as a part of the com- 
promise scheme. Seldom has the action of a state legislature been so 
fruitful and foreseen, and far-reaching results. Therefore the said re- 
port and affidavit is inserted in full at this point: 


"The committee on Federal Relations to whom was referred the pro- 
ceedings of a meeting of the people of the counties of Trimble and 
Carroll, in relation to a recent Abolition mob in the town of ^Marshall 
in the state of ilichigan, have had the same under consideration and 
submit the following report: It appears to the satisfaction of the com- 
mittee that one Francis Troutman was employed as agent and attorney 
in fact for Francis Giltner of the county of Carroll, to go to said town 
of Marshall in the state of ^Michigan to reclaim, take and bring back 
to the state of Kentucky certain fugitives and run-awa.y slaves, the 
property of said Giltner; and said Troutman proceeded under the au- 
thority thus given him, to the said town of Marshall for the purpose 
of reclaiming and bringing home to the owner the slaves aforesaid; 
and whilst endeavoring to arrest said slaves, a mob composed of free 
negroes, run-away slaves and white men to the number of two to three 
hundred, forbade said Troutman and those who accompanied him for 
that purpose to arrest and take into their possession the slaves aforesaid, 
and by their threats, riotous and disorderly conduct did pi'event Trout- 
man and those who accompanied him for the purpose, from taking into 
their possession the slaves aforesaid. Your committee regret that the 
citizens of the town of ^Marshall in the State aforesaid, have thus acted 
and conducted themselves; such conduct and such outrages committed 
upon the rights and citizens of the state of Kentucky, or any other 
state in the Union, must necessarily result in great mischief, and are 
well calculated and must, if persisted in by the citizens of Jliehigan or 
any other free state in the Union terminate in breaking up and destroy- 
ing the peace and hamiony, that is desirable by every good citizen of 
all of the states of the I'liion, should exist between the several states. 


and is in violation of the laws of the United States and the constitu- 
tional rights of the citizens of the slave states. The affidavit of said 
Troutman is appended to this report and made part hereof, marked (A) 

Be is resolved by the General Assembly of the commonwealth of 
Kentucky, That the legislature of the state of IMichigau be and is hereby 
respectfulljr, but earnestly requested to give the subject consideration 
which its importance demands, and to take such action thereon as in 
the judgment of said legislature, is deemed proper and right, with a 
view to maintain that peace, amity and good feeling which ought to 
exist between the citizens of the states of Michigan and Kentucky and 
for the purpose of enabling the citizens of Kentucky to reclaim their 
run-away and fugitive slaves to the state of ]\Iichigan. 

Resolved further. That our senators and representatives in Congress 
be requested to turn their attention to the subject embraced in the fore- 
going report and resolution, and urge upon the consideration of Con- 
gress the importance of passing such laws as will fully enable the citi- 
zens of the state of Kentucky and other slave states, to obtain and 
reclaim their slaves that may run away to the free or non-slave-holding 
states of the Union; that they also declare by said laws of the severest 
penalty for their violation that the Constitution of the United States 
will tolerate. 

Resolved, That the governor be requested to forward to the governor 
of the state of .Michigan a copy of foregoing report and resolutions with 
the request that he sulimit the same to the legislature of his state, for 
its consideration and action ; that he also forward a copy of the same to 
each of our senators and representatives in Congress. 

Approved JMarch 1, 1847. 

(A) The Affidavit of Francis Troutman. 

The affiant states that as the agent and attorney of Francis Giltner, 
of Carroll County, Kentucky, he pi'oceeded to the town of Marshall 
in the county of Calhoun, and state of .Michigan, and in company with 
the deputy sheriff and tlirec Kcntuckians. on tlie morning of the 27th 
of January, went to the house in which he found six fugitive slaves, the 
property of Giltner. The slaves were directed to accompanj^ us to the 
office of a magistrate; some of them were preparing to obey the sum- 
mons, but before 1lii' affiant I'ould get them started, he was surrounded 
by a mob, which liy its \-iolent threats, menaces and assaults, prevented 
the removal of llie slaves to the office of the mayisl rate, Afifiant di- 
rected the sheriff time after time, to discharge his duty, and he as often 
made an effort to do so ; but so great was the excitement and violence 
of the mob, that the officer was afraid to seize the slaves. Resolutions 
were offered by some of the influential citizens of the town which were 
calculated greatly to excite and encourage the negroes and abolition 
rabble, who constituted a jiart of the mob. The negroes engaged in the 
mob were estimated at irom fort>- to fifty, many of wdiom are fugitive 
slaves from Kentucky as al'tiani was infoi'med and believes. The num- 
ber of persons engaged in the mol) wei'e variously estimated at .from 
two to three hundred. .VII the resolutions ottered by those engaged in 


the moll were sustained by general aeelaniatioii : iiianv of the niijl) 
pledged their lives to sustain them, and at the same time had guns, 
clubs and other weapons in their hands, with whieli to execute their 
purposes. Atfiant contended for some hours with the mob, and still 
insisted on taking the slaves before the magistrate for trial, but the 
intiuential men in the mob told affiant that there was no need of a 
trial, and that an.y further attempt to remove the slaves would jeopard- 
ize the lives of all who might make such an attempt, and they were de- 
termined to prevent affiant from removing the slaves from town, even 
if he proved his right to do so : they stated further that the public was 
opposed to southerners reclaiming fugitive slaves, and that although 
the law was in our favor, yet public sentiment must supersede the law 
in this and in similar cases. Affiant then called upon some of the most 
active members of the mob to give him their names, and inform him 
if they considered themselves responsible for their words and actions 
on that occasion. They promptly gave their names to affiant, and he 
was told to write them in capital letters and bear them back to Ken- 
tucky, the land of slavery, as evidence of their determination to persist 
in the defense of a precedent already established. 

The following resolution was offered : 

Resolved. That these Kentuckians shall not remove from this place 
these (naming the slaves) by moral, physical or legal force. It was 
carried by general acclamation. Affiant then directed the sheriff to 
summon those leading men in the mob to assist in keeping the peace ; he 
did so, but they refused their aid, and affiant understood them to say that 
they would assist in preventing the arrest of the slaves. A consultation 
was then held liy eight or ten of the mob, out some distance from the 
main crowd, as to whether affiant might take the slaves before a magis- 
trate ; the decision was in the negative, and the following resolution was 
then offered : Resolved. That the Kentuckians shall leave the town in 
two hours; (some penalty in event of failure to do so was attached, 
which affiant does not recollect). It was sustained by the unanimous 
vote of the mob. A warrant for trespass was then issued and served 
upon the sheriff, affiant and company. We stood trial. The magistrate, 
who was an Abolitionist, fined us $100. A warrant was then taken out 
against affiant for drawing a pistol upon a negro and telling him to stand 
back when said negro was making an attempt to force himself upon 
affiant and into the house where affiant had the slaves. On trial, affiant 
proved his agency and that the slaves were the property of Giltner. for 
whom he was acting as agent, yet the court recognized the affiant to 
appear at the next circuit court for trial, ilany were the insults offered 
the affiant by the leading men of the mob, who informed him at the 
same time that it was .just such treatment that a Kentuckian deserves, 
when attempting to recapture a slave, and that they intended to make 
an example of him that others might take warning. That there had been 
attempts by slave-holders to reclaim slaves in their town, but that they 
had always been repulsed and always shall be. The insults .offered affiant 
as a private individual, were treated with contempt, Init such as were 
offered him as a Kentuckian, during the time of the mob and progress 
of two davs trial which succeeded, were resented in such a mannei- as 


this affiant believed tlie lionor, dignity and independence of a Kentuck- 
ian demanded. Given under my liaud this 15th daj^ of Febr., 1847. 

F. Troutman. 
(Franljlin County seal.) 

Personally before the undersigned, a Justice of the Peace for said 
county, this day came the above named Francis Troutman, who made 
oath in due form of law, to the truth of the statement set forth in the 
foregoing affidavit. Given under my hand this 15th day of February, 

H. WiNGATE, J. P. 

Acts of Kentucky Legislature for 1846-47 (published by the state 
printer, pages 385-6-7 and 8). 

In connection with Troutman 's affidavit, the version of the affair by 
Gen. Charles T. Gorham (1872) and William P. Hobart (1908) are also 

Hon. Charles T. Gorham: 

Diiring the winter of 1847, there stood on the property now owned 
by ]\Ir. James T. Downs, in the eastern part of the city, a humble dwell- 
ing. The house was located near a grove. A colored family occupied 
the place. The history of that family forms the subject of this sketch. 

Adam Crosswhite was born in Bou^-bon County, Kentucky, October 
17, 1799. His father was, under the laws of that State, his master, 
his mother being, at the time of his birth, a slave. At an early age, 
Adam was given by his father to his half-sister, as a servant. ]\Iiss 
Crosswhite afterwards married Ned Stone, a notorious slave-dealer, 
who if not the original Simon Legree of "Uncle Tom's Cabin" might 
have been, so similar were his life and character to those so graphically 
portrayed by Mrs. Stowe. Stone retained possession of the boy Adam 
for a time and then sold him to a man named Troutman for $200. When 
twenty years of age, the boy was traded off to one Frank Giltner, who 
lived in Carroll County, and with whom he stayed until forty-five years 
of age. When twenty-two Adam married, and at the age of forty-five 
was the father of seven children. At that time he became aware of 
Giltner 's intentions to sell a portion of his family. Watching his op- 
portunity, he obtained a skiff' and with his family, pushed off' for Madi- 
son, Indiana. There he was received by the underground railroad 
managers and sent north. At Newport, Indiana, the pursuers came upon 
the party, by that time swollen into a flock of twenty. ^ The fugitives 
were hidden by Quakers and protected for many da.ys. 

An incident is related of how a young friend disconcerted the hunt- 
ers. He represented himself as a slave-hunter and gained their confi- 
dence. Assuring them that he knew of the hiding place, he took the 
party, just at night, into a dense swamp, and leaving them on some 
slight pretext, failed to return. The party was lost in the woods all 
night, thereby relieving the poor slaves of considerable anxietJ^ 

Crosswhite was compelled to leave his wife and two children at tliis 
place and push on. His experience from Indiana into Michigan, and 


his wife's experience five weeks later, might he written np to form an 
interesting hook. Sucli is a rapidly traced history of tiie occupants 
of the little house ahove referred to. Crosswhite was known as an 
industrious, quiet man. He had paid a portion of the purchase i)rie(' 
for his place. 

Earlj' in the winter of 18-46-47, there came to ilarsliall a \ouug man 
who represented himself as a lawyer. lie did not make known his 
business, but strayed through the town as if undecided about his 
permanent residence here. There was at that time residing here a man 
named Harvey Dixon, a deputy sheriff, whom the stranger seemed to 
take an interest in. Evidently some work was to be done and Dixon 
was the chosen tool. The stranger was Francis Troutman, grandson 
of the former owner of Adam Crosswhite and his business in Marshall 
was to recover the fugitives. He had obtained a knowledge of their 
whereabouts through a friend to whom it chanced (to what a remote 
cause do we trace great events) Mrs. Crosswhite had unwittingly reveal- 
ed her history. Troutman was uncertain of the identity of all the chil- 
dren and employed Dixon to impersonate a census collector and ascertain 
the required facts. This Dixon did. it is alleged for the modest sum of 
five dollars. 

In the meantime it became noised about so as to reach Crosswhite, 
that a systematic attempt was to be made to carry the family off. 
Troutman and three as dark brown rascals as one would care to meet, 
arranged with a liveryman to have a team ready on a given night at 
12 o'clock. The liveryman left word at the stable that the horses 
were not to be sent until he gave orders. Orders were not given until 
towards morning. Crosswhite was prepared to meet his enemies. It 
was understood that a gun was to be the signal for the assembling of 
his friends. Earl.v in the morning before it was light, Crosswhite saw 
the team coming towards his house. He fired a gun in the air and 
awaited outside his house for the approach of the men. There were four 
in the party. Jlrs. Crosswhite answered the summons to open the 
door with a stout refusal to do so. Two men then sought to persuade 
Crosswhite to go with them, saying that they had come to arrest them 
and wanted him at the .justice's office down town. They offered to carry 
him and his family to the office in a wagon. This subterfuge did not 
work. In the meantime about two hundred persons had assem])led and 
were ridiculing the slave-hunters. The four men were armed to the 
teeth, but were too cowardly to use forcible means to take the i-un- 
aways. Troutman .said there was one child he did not want, but the 
rest he demajided, as they were fugitive slaves. This speech was re- 
ceived by laughter by the crowd. When it was understood that it 
was proposed to take the mother and leave the infant, the crowd may 
have used threats against the four men, hut that is a disputed point. 

Later in the morning, Charles T. Gorham, Jarvis Ilurd, 0. C. Com- 
stock, Jr.. and others went to the scene of trouble. They took no part 
in the proceedings, but listened to the harangue of Troutman, who was 
offering resolutions to the effect that "as law-abiding citizens." the 
people would not interfere with his taking Crosswhite off. The fact of 


their jiresence was enough to satisfy Troutman. He obtained their 

Finally the crowd went down to the Jlarshall House. Crosswhite ap- 
peared on the streets and was advised to prosecute Troutman. This he 
did. The attacking parties were arrested and fined. i\Ir. Van Arman 
appeared in the prosecution. Later in the day George IngersoU cjuietly 
obtained funds and sent the family to Jackson in a lumber wagon. At 
Jackson, the family entered the cars and were carried to Detroit, from 
whence they went to Canada. Troutman and his friends went to Ken- 
tucky, vowing vengeance upon the men who had aided in the liberation of 
the slaves. The vows made by Troutman were destined to be fulfilled, 
although it is probable that the loud-mouthed boastings of his party 
while here were more for effect than in earnest when uttered. Fate 
set her seal upon the acts of the marauding party and followed it with 
an unrelenting assiduity. 

Troutman related the incidents of his defeat in IMarsliall to his friends 
at home. So indignant were they that steps were taken to convene 
a town meeting, the object of which was to insist upon the "observance 
of the laws," In due time, the town meeting was held. At it Trout- 
man grossly misrepresented the ^larshall affair. The citizens of this 
place were described as armed ruffians who resisted the execution of 
the laws of the country by force. The out-growth of the town meet- 
ing, was a county meeting-, tlic object of which was similar to the pri- 
mary assembly. Here again I he story of the "northern outrage" was re- 
peated, with graphic cmlifllisliiiicnts. With the increased size of the 
meeting grew the ])0]nilai' indigiuilidii and the falsehoods of Troutman 's 
friends. Troutman saw thai tln'i'c was im turning back from the course 
he had taken and was dcici mined to cairy Ids point by dint of continued 

From Ihc county meeting, the matter was taken to the legislatui-e 
of Kcninrky, and there an appropriation was made to prosecute the 
leaders of the "mob." Troutman, who saw there was no alternative, 
accepted the commission of returning and teaching the cursed north- 
erners their duty. ^Messrs. Pratt & Crary were retained, in fact nearly 
;dl 1lic hiwyi'is and lawyei's' clerks in this section of the country were 
retainiMJ liy Troutman. He was a shrewd fellow and immediately set 
to woi'k 111 niiinufacture evidence to support the stories he had cir- 
I'uhiti'd in Kentucky, and upon the strength of which, the slaie appro- 
])riation was made. For several weeks Troutman remainnl in town. 
His method of work was to meet some man who Wijs easily inllui'nced 
and ask him if he remendiered hearing Dr. Comstock or Air. Cm ham 
or Mv. Hurd say .so-and-so on the .lay of the "riot." The I'elinw wmild 
partially recollect such speeches. Later at another intervie\v, th,. I'ellow 
would be positive, and finally he was ready to go upon the stand and 
swear to such language. The man Dixon was Troutman "s right,.bo\ver. 
When siifficient testimony had been obtained to warrant trial, suit was 
brought in the United States Court in Detroit. The defendants num- 
bering a dozen or more at first, then dwindled down to three, C. T. Gor- 
ham, Jarvis Hurd and O. C. Comstock. The trial began in the latter 
part of 1847 and lasted three weeks. The jury disagreed. 


III 1S48, the s.'coiul ti-i.-il iH't^an. Pmiuineut DciiKicrati.- |Kilit ici;iiis 
WL-iit 1o oiu' of tlie (Icrciulanls, iiaincly Charles T, ( uii'liain, wlm was 
at that time a Deiuoerat, and declared tluit althonuh iiersonally rrieiidls- 
to him, they wanted tlie case to go against the tlefenchuits. Lewis Cass 
was at that time candidate for president, and tlie politicians wanted, 
"at that particular time," as they expressed it, the south to under- 
stand that Detroit and i\Iichigau sympathized with the sluve-liolding 
element. They were willing to prostitute themselves and commit an act 
of gross injustice to a pei-sonal friend in order to secure the southern 
vote. They assured the defendants that, should the case be decided 
against them, the Democrats would assist in paying the hills. 

The case came for trial and was defended by Judge II. II. Emmons, 
J. F. Jo.v and Theodore Romeyn. After a hard fought struggle, the 
case was decided as Cass wanted it to be, for the slave-huntei's. The 
defendants were required to pay about $1,900 and costs. The men who 
were so auxious to serve Cass's interests failed to remember their prom- 
ises to help, but in that trying hour, when pecuniary injury was heaped 
upon wounded friendship, Zachariah Chandler ,'^-' Alanson Sheley'^" and 
other prominent men stepped forward and in the name of justice, con- 
tributed largely and unexpectedly to the defendants. 

The equities of the case were not considered by the court or jury. 
As illustrative of the lamentable condition of society in reference to the 
question of slavery, and the subservience of northern men to the will 
of the soiith, we state that one of the jurors (a Whig) afterwards said 
to ;\tr. Gorhain that it was extremely unpleasant to at least a portion 
of the jury to bring in a verdict against the defendants, but that they 
had concluded that it was best to do so. on account of the popular senti- 

They knew that the case would be carried to the higher courts in 
the event of a verdict for the defendants, and if there, the result would 
be disastrous. It was better to oud the matter in Detroit. The de- 
fendants saw that an appeal was woisc than folly. Justice was indeed 
l)liiided to their case. There was no |iossiliility of obtaining a verdict 
in their favor, for at that time delendaiils could not testify in their 
own behalf. The only method of proi'cdure was the impeachment of 
complainant's witnesses, and nothing further in that line could be done 
than had been accomplished in the two trials in Detroit. The barter 
of principle by the Democratic element was illy appreciated by the people, 
however. Cass was defeated and Zaehary Taylor elected to the presi- 

The case did not stop at the end of the trial. It was written on the 
scroll of Fate that the seed sown in the soil of Marshall should bear 
abundant fruit. Henry Clay took the case into the Senate chamber and 
there advocated the necessity of a moi-e stringent fugitive slave law. 
The riotous ( ?) scenes enacted near the humble cabin of Crosswhite re- 
ceived national consideration. The law of 1793 was too lenient. Jlr. 

VI See Vol. XXII, p. 381 and Vol. Ill, p. I.SO. this series. 
'5 See Vol. XXII, pp. 194 and 3S6, this series. Mr. Shelev married 
Drurv in 1831 and was the father of eight i-liiMren. 


Clay took a personal interest in the matter for the reason that Cross- 
white was known to him, the farms of Clay and Giltner being near each 
other and the circumstances of Crosswhite's flight and subsequent trials 
at Detroit being known to him. 

The result of Clay's efforts was the passage of the Fugitive Slave 
Law of 1850, the most damnable law that ever received the sanction of 
the American Congress, and which lies a bar-sinister athwart the 
escutcheon of Fillmore '" and Taney.' ' The law was the straw which 
broke the camel 's back. The people of the north would no longer endure 
the arrogant demands of the south. The history of the sviceeeding 
years was written in blood. The wave of destruction which grew frooi 
the ripple caused in Marshall swept over the country. The names of 
the few noble men who fought the earlier battles for freedom, and the 
million brave souls who faced death for the sake of principle are mem- 
tioned with reverence whenever the theme is broached. The martyrs, 
Lincoln and John Brown, head a glorious list of fallen heroes, and the 
stain of slavery has been obliterated from the Nation's tablet by the 
crimson hand of war. 

Of the three men who defended their rights before a biased tribunal, 
Charles T. Gorhanij'^s 0. C. Comstock''^ and Jarvis Hurd all sleep the 
long sleep that knows no waking.'^f 

The Crosswhite Case 

William W. Hobart: 

A little over sixty years ago, Mai'shall, Michigan, was and had been 
for years an important station on the "under-ground railroad," that 
mysterious abolition organization by whose aid, manj^ thousands of 
negro slaves achieved liberty "before the war." For those times, the 
Abolitionists were comparatively strong in and about both Battle Creek 
and Marshall. I recall to mind that such a man as Erastus Hussey >*> 
and Jabez Fitch 's- were open and avowed Abolitionists, Fitch being the 
Liberty Party's candidate for governor, in several state campaigns. 

For several years, some of these fleeing slaves would drop oft' at Mar- 
shall, and finding employment and not being disturbed, would acquire 
holdings on the outskirts of the town until they formed quite a settle- 

"li Millard Fillmore became president of the United States on the death of Presi- 
dent Taylor, July 10, 1850. One of the first achievements of his administration 
was the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, thereby losing the support 
of a large portion of his northern followers. 

"7 Roger Brooke Taney succeeded John Marshall as chief justice of the United 
States in March, 1836. In his decisious he upheld and supported the Fugitive 
Slave Law. 

'8 Gorham, see sketch, Vol. XXXI, p. 27, this series. 

'9 Comstock, see sketch. Vol. XXVI, p. 365, this series. 

so Marshall Statesman, 1893, numbers 18, 19; see also Marshall Statesman, Janu- 
ary, 1847, and December 15, 1905; Evart's History of Calhoun County, 1877, p. 
23; Life of Zaehariah Chandler, p. 75. 

81 See sketch, Vol. XIV, p. 79, this series. 

S2 Deacon Jabez S. Fitch built the Presbyterian church at Marshall. See sketch, 
Vol. II, p. 239, this series. 


ment, which was known to the unregenerate as ' ' Nigger Town. ' ' To this 
negro settlement, about 1845, I think, there came Adam Crosswhite and 
his family, consisting of his wife and three or four children. Several of 
the children attended the district school. I know that the oldest son 
attended the same school that I did. I was a histy lad of thirteen years 
and he was two or three years older. I remember that I struck quite 
an intimacy with young Crosswhite, who confided to me under a pledge 
of secrecy that he and his family were fugitives from slavery in Ken- 
tucky, and having reached Marshall on the "Underground" on their way 
to Canada and certain freedom, had stopped off for a few days at the 
negro settlement, where finding some old Kentucky friends, and being 
offered employment, they concluded to locate. The denizens of the set- 
tlement appeared always to be apprehensive as to their safety, as young 
Crosswhite told me several times that suspicious looking white men 
had been loitering about "Nigger Town," but as they disappeared and 
nothing came of their spying, confidence was measurably restored. 

One of the characters that infested Marshall in those days was an 
old darkey, that from his vocation, we boys called "Old Auction Bell." 
As I remember, he was about six feet tall and lame and rode an old 
under-sized Indian pony. AVhen mounted he cut a most ridiculous fig- 
ure, with his height increased by the tallest stove-pipe hat that he could 
get hold of, and his feet just clearing the ground. His business was 
to ride through the streets of the town and announce auction sales 
or "wondoos" as he called them. Mounted on his faithful steed, he rode 
ringing a dinner bell, at the same time yelling at the top of his voice, 
"Auction Bell! Auction Bell! Auction Bell!" until reaching a con- 
venient corner, he would stop and announce to the atmosphere or to any 
one who might be listening, that at such and such place, Mr. Blank 
would offer for sale to the highest bidder, the following — and here 
would follow a description of the articles to be sold, clothed all in the 
rich imagery of the Ethopian imagination. 

Early one morning in the fall of 1846, if my memory serves me right, 
shortly after I had risen, I heard the old darkey's bell and he yelling 
in evident fear and excitement, "Auction Bell! Auction Bell!! Auction 
Belli!!" We were about sitting down to breakfast. My father said 
"What in the world can be the matter with old Auction Bell? It's too 
early for one of his 'wondoos.' " So we went out to ascertain. As 
he came opposite to us the old Auction Bell reined his pony and poured 
forth the wildest and weirdest story that it has ever been my fortune 
to listen to. I am only sorry that my memory does not .serve to render 
it in his own vernacular. The upshot of it all was that "The slave-catch- 
ers from Kentucky had made a descent upon the negro settlement, and 
backed by deputy United States ^Marshal Harvey Dixon, had drawn 
pistols, knocked down negroes, shot at others, wounding some, kicked 
in dooi-s and had seized the whole Crosswhite family and were prepar- 
ing to take them back to slavery." The old fellow fairly frothed at 
the mouth during the recital of his lurid tale. 

At the breakfast table, I asked my father if he was going out to the 
negro settlement to see the excitement. He replied "No," that he was 
the justice of the peace, and as such, a committing magistrate, and if 


Auction Bell's story was half true, warrants would be applied for, and 
that he should go directly to his office and directed me to go to school 
and avoid all scenes of excitement. 

But what healthy, fearless and adventurous fourteen-year-old boy 
could resist such a "call of the wild." As soon as I could slip away 
unobserved, I made a bee-line for the negro settlement, and there found 
excitement enough and to spare. x\side from the "Hoi PoUoi" there 
were many of jMarshalUs most substantial citizens, among them, 0. C. 
Comstock, Charles T. Gorham, I think George IngersoU and Lansing 
Kingsbury and others whose names have escaped me. The slave-hunters 
still had the Crosswhite family in duress, but were surrounded by an 
angry and excited crowd, which was not chary in expressing its opinion 
or its threats. The central and most important figure was Frank Trout- 
man, a young Kentucky lawyer, who was the agent and the nephew of 
the owner of the Ci'osswhitcs. and jxissilily a relation of the fugitives, 
as their name was i-ci-taiiily im iiiisniiiiicr. Troutman was a tall, hand- 
some Kentiickian of twi-nly-livc or thirly years. With him were three 
or four fellows of the type made familiar to us later, by Mrs. Stowe, 
in her description of Legree and the slave-catchers who chased Eliza 
across the Ohio; low-browed, truculent looking liomhrcs. Amidst all 
the excitement, Troutman never lost his head. When any of the lietter 
class of citizens came to expostulate with him. telling him that in view 
of the excitement and the passion aroused, it would be suicidal for him 
to attempt to remove the fugiti^^s, he would take their names and ask 
them if they threatened him witli violence if he attempted to remove 
his property. This of course they dischumed, but called his attention 
to the threat and demonstrations of irresponsible parties over whom 
they claimed to have no control. By the time the county officers arrived 
with warrants Lssued for exhiliiting weapons in a rude and threaten- 
ing manner, assault and battery, breaking into hoiises and various other 
offenses, Troutman had his notebook pretty well filled Avith the names 
of substantial citizens, and what they had said to him under excitement, 
and this book was a very important factor in securing a vi-rdict for 
the plaintiff in the case of Giltner vs. Gorham et. al., in tlir I'nited 
States District Court for the state of Michigan. When the slave-catch- 
ers were arrested and removed, the Crosswhites were left practically 
unguarded and free, and the Abolitionists lost no time in getting them 
on the "under-ground railroad" and running them into Canada. 

Whenever I could, I attended my father's coiirt when he was examin- 
ing Troutman and his men for violations of Michigan law, when at- 
tempting to get the Crosswhites. They were held for trial before the 
higher court, notwithstanding that in those days, my father was a sound 
Jacksonian Democrat though in 1860 he voted for Abraham Lincoln. 
In 1865 in reading the debates of the last Congressional Record on the 
last fugitive slave law, passed in 1849 or 50, I was intensely amused 
to find my democratic father, denounced by a tire-eating southern con- 
gressman as a Michigan Abolitionist. Justice of the Peace, for holding 
Troutman and his cohorts for trial nmlii' llic .^fil■lligan law. The Cross- 
white ease was simply one of the fevciish indications of that inevitable 
conflict between the north and the soulh whicli culminated in the elee- 

HISTORY OF oALiiorx corxTV 


ilii, the gv^ 
of tivasuv, 

•o. .Miiivli 

■at civil Will 
■ and tlu' I'r 

l:)tli. IIHKS. 

•. tlie 

of Die sla 

iir of 


a lis of 






San Fi 

l"'iancis Troutinan and his associates, witii their own cars, heard tiie 
sentiment of freedom, fearlessly expressed, tliey iiad heeii arraigned 
before a eourt of justice in scathing terms, they had been convicted and 
punished for their misdemeanor, and they had returned liome threaten- 
ing vengeance to fire the southern heart. The people of Kentucky liad 
also taken an ob.ject lesson in public opinion, and discovered a meiuiee 
to the institution of slavery and considered means to preserve it. 

Troutman returned to Marshall in May, following, not to capture 
slaves, but to look up evidence, retain counsel and to prosecute ]\Iar- 
shall men for rescuing the fugitives. He exploited the action of the legis- 
lature of Kentucky on the affair, and asserted that his state was his 
backer, and had appropriated money to prosecute the men involved, to 
the extreme extent of the law, and to make an example of them to deter 
other abolition mobs. Pratt & Crary of Marshall were employed as 
local attonie.ys, and on the first da.y of June, 1847, a suit was com- 
menced in the circuit court of the United States for the District of 
.Michigan, in an action of trespass against Charles T. Gorham, Oliver 
C. Comstock. Jr.. Asa B. Cook, Jarvis Hurd, John M. Easterly, George 
Ingersoll, Herman Camp, Randal Hobart, Platner iMoss, William 
Parker, Charles Berger and John Smith for rescuing Adam Crosswhite 
and his wife and four children, claiming large damages. The first 
eight defendants named were among the leading business men of Mar- 
shall, and the last four were prominent colored citizens. The declara- 
tion filed contained seven counties, and was very lengthy. Separate 
suits in actions of debt were also commenced at the same time in said 
court bv Francis Giltner against Oliver C. Comstock, Jr., Asa B. Cook, 
Jarvis Hurd. John ]M. Easterly, Charles T. Gorham, George Ingersoll 
and Randal Ilobart to recover the five hundred dollars penalty under 
the provision of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793, then in force for 
"knowingly and wilfully, etc., — obstructing and hindering — claimant's 
agent — in seizing and arresting — said fiigitives from labor" and "for 
rescuing such fugitives." AViiile these penal suits were never tried, and 
were afterwards discontinued, at that time they iiiteiisilied the feeling 
of the community. Anti-slavery men began to consider \\,iys and means 
to limit and cripple the institution. There always had heen a strong 
anti-slavery sentiment in Miciiigan. and an overwhelmiiig ma.iority of 
all i)arties approved the Wilniot Proviso. ^'^ On the 13th of February, 

s" During the preliminary negotiations of peace witli ilexieo in 1846, David Wil- 
mot, a jurist practising law in 1834 and member of Congress from 1845 to 1851, 
offered an amendment to the bill to purchase lands from Mexico, ' ' That as an ex- 
press and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any territory from the republic 
nf Jlexico b.y the X'nited States, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever 
exist in any "part of said territory." It was adopted by the House l)ut failed of final 
action. It was the basis of the organization known as the l"ree-Soi! partv, in 1S4S 
and of the Kepublicaii pMrtv in IS.'iG. Harper's Cvclopedia of rnitcd Slates llistorv, 
Vol. X, p. 394. 


1847, the Democratic legislature endorsed and adopted this resolution; 
"Resolved, That in the acquisition of any new territory, whether by pur- 
chase, conquest or otherwise, we deem it the duty of the general gov- 
ernment to extend over the same the ordinance of seventeen hundred 
and eighty-seven, with all its rights, privileges and conditions and im- 
munities. " s^ It will be remembered that the ordinance of 1787 here 
referred to provided "that there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary 
servitude in said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crime 
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted." The language 
of the Wilmot Proviso was copied from this ordinance. On the 13th 
of January, 1849, the legislature again "resolved that we are in favor 
of the fundamental principles of the Ordinance of 1787," — and "we 
believe that Congress has the power, and that it is their duty to prohibit 
by legislative enactment the introduction and existence of slaves within 
any of the territories of the United States, now or hereafter to be 
acquired. ' ' ^^ These resolutions indicate the sentiment of the masses 
at that time. Lewis Cass had always indorsed this old Jeffersonian doc- 
trine until 1847. He was then seeking the nomination of the Democratic 
Party for president, and wanted the support of the south. On the 30th 
of December, 1847, he wrote his celebrated Nicholson letters, and de- 
clared that ' ' a great change had been going on in the public mind upon 
the subject (Wilmot 's proviso), in my own mind as well as others, and 
that doubts are resolving themselves into convictions that the principle 
it involves should be kept out of National legislation and left to the 
people of the confederacy in their respective local governments." This 
shameful repudiation of the policy of restricting slavery in the terri- 
tories secured the nomination of Lewis Cass for president May 22nd, 

1848, but it drove thousands of Wilmot Proviso Democrats from the 
party, and caused his defeat at the election. It forced anti-slavery men 
to unite on some practical method of restraining the slave power, and 
added new force to the anti-slavery cause. On the 28th of June, 1848, 
the case of Giltner ts. Gorham et al. came on for trial at Detroit be- 
fore Hon. John McLean,*« a Justice of the United States Supreme Court 
sitting as Circuit Judge, and a jury was sworn. Abner Pratt and John 
Norvell appeared for the slave-owner, and Hovey K. Clarke, Theodore 
Romeyn, Halmer H. Emmons and James F. Joy appeared for the citi- 
zens. The names of the attorneys indicate that the case was closely con- 
tested, and that it was a battle of giants. But the trial was something 
more than a legal battle; it was also a political battle waged in the 
court room. If the slave-holder could not recover for his slaves in De- 
troit, the home of the Democratic candidate, how could that candidate 
expect to receive the vote of the slave-holders in the south. Never before 
or since in this State, has such a powerful, persistent and subtile 
political influence been exerted on court, counsel, parties, witnesses 
and jury, as was exerted on this trial. The courtroom and the commu- 

84 Laws of 1847, p. 194. 

s-' Laws of 1849, p. 362. 

SI! John McLean was the first United States circuit court judge for Michigan. 
He held that office from 1836-1862 and was succeeded by- Judge N. H. Swayne. 
Farmer's History of Detroit and iliohigan. 


uity were wroiiglit up to the most intense degree of silent interest dur- 
ing the long trial. While this influence, which was felt, not seen, was 
exercised to win votes for Gen. Cass in the south, it alienated from him 
votes at home. The charge of the court was long and laid down the law 
as it then existed. Gerrit Smith came from New York, and volunteered 
to argue the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793 before 
the court, but counsel for the defendants, fearing the effect upon the 
jury deemed it inexpedient to have so rabid an Abolitionist take part 
in the trial, and such service was declined. The following syllabus of 
the charge indicates the rules of law laid down to guide the juiy. 

(1) "It is under the constitution and acts of Congress only, that the 
owner of a slave has the right to reclaim him in a state where slavery 
does not exist." 

(2) "There is no principle in a common law, in the law of nations 
or of nature which authorize such a recaption." 

(3) "A parol authority by the master to his agent, is sufficient to 
authorize a seizure of a fugitive from labor. ' ' 

(4) "To make a person liable for a rescue in such a case, he nmst 
act 'knowingly and willingly.' " 

(5) "But this knowledge that the colored personis a fugitive from 
labor is inferable from circumstances." 

(6) "To everyone who mingles with the crowd, it is not neces- 
sary that the agent should state on what authority he proceeds. It is 
enough that he states it generally." 

(7) "And one of a crowd, who interposes by manual force or by en- 
couraging others, by words, to rescue a fugitive is responsible." 

(8) "But he does not make himself responsible where he endeavors 
to allay the excitement and prevent a breach of the peace." 

(9) "The agent, in seizing a fugitive from labor, acts under the 
sanction of law. no warrant being necessary." 

(11) "Where a rescue is made by the continuous action of a crowd, 
anyone who took a part in the course of action is responsible, and may be 
sued with others who participated at a different time in the same action. ' ' 

(12) "A female fugitive from labor, having had a child during her 
residence in a free state, on an action for her value and for the value of 
her hu.sband. etc.. on a charge of rescue against the defendants, the court 
held, as the child was not claimed in the declaration, the question 
whether the claimant had a right to it and a control over it. was not 
necessarily involved in the case." 

(14) "An expression by the agent of the plaintiff that he should 
not pursue the slaves, is no abandonment of his right of action."^' 

This is one of the first cases under the statute that was tried, and it 
became a leading case. The charge was as fair an interpretation of 
the law as it then existed, and was as favorable to the defendants 
as the rules of law would permit. The defendant's onlv hope of Sue- 
s' 4 McLean, 402. Giltner vs. Gorhani, et al. 


cess was based upon the auti-slavery sentiments of the jury. The law 
as interpreted by the court was a revelation to the parties, and to the 
people at large. It was quoted and discussed at the fireside, in the 
pulpit, on the platform, on the stump and in the press throughout the 
land. For the first time, freemen realized that they were made the un- 
willing tools of the slave-holder and were compelled by law, under 
penalties of ruinous fine and imprisonment to restore the fleeing slave to 
his pursuing master. A bitter hatred of slavery was aroused and a de- 
termination to limit and cripple the institution was created. On the 12th 
of June, 1847, the .jury disagreed and was discharged. The trial had 
been followed with intense interest both north and south. 

The defendant, Charles T. Gorham was well-known, and a man of 
wide influence. He had always been a Democrat and a political ad- 
herent of Gen. Cass. After witnessing the cruelties of slavery in his own 
town and after facing the infiuenee of the slave-power in court, like 
Gen. Cass upon the Wilmot Proviso, "a great change came over his 
mind," and repudiating the pro-slavery platform of his party, announced 
his hostility to that institution. Re.jecting the extreme radicalism of the 
Garrison Abolitionists, and the nullifying measures of the Liberty Party 
of the day and seeking practical methods he advocated the exclusion 
of slavery from the territories, as the best means of attack. From that 
time until slavery was destroyed, Charles T. Gorham waged a relent- 
less warfare willi head and heart, with tongue and pen, with hand and 
])uisc. ill iiiiiiiiripal, legislative, county, congressional, state and na- 
tiiiiial coiixcuiiDiis. at the hustings and at the polls, in private and in 
official life, in every practical manner against the accursed institution. 
He was ably and elo(|uciifly su|ii>i>i-ted by Hovey K. Clarke, the local at- 
torney in the case, who had similar political antecedents. Under their 
leadership, ^Marshall and Callioun County became an important center 
of intluenee in the anti-slavery movement. A call for the celebrated 
Buffalo convention had been made to meet on the 9th day of August, 
1848. While these Marshall men did not attend this convention in per- 
son, they were ably represented. Erastus Hussey of Battle Creek, a 
staunch Quaker Abolitionist, and an active superintendent of an im- 
poitant division of the Under-ground Railroad, and Austin Blair of 
Jackson, also counsel in the suit, and a radical anti-slavery man, had 
w;itcheil the ])roceedings of the case from the fugitives' door to the 
disagreement of the .iury, with a personal interest, and had been in 
constant touch, and in freciuent consultation with Gen. Gorham and 
his associates during that time, and had been aroused by the Cross- 
white affair. It was at the request of Charles T. Gorham, Hovey K. 
Clarke and other citizens of Marshall that they should attend the con- 
vention, represent the anti-slavery men of this vicinity, and help organ- 
ize a national party on an anti-slavery platform. Tliese men attended 
that convention and took an active part in organizing the Free-Soil 
Party, which was the first national party organized to restrict the ex- 
tension of slavery in a constitutional way and eventually to desti-oy it, 
which prepared the way for the organization of the party of Lincoln 
years after. The 8th and IGtli planks of the platform adopted are as 
follows: "Resolved, That we accept the issues which the slave-power 


has forced upon us. ami to tlieir demand for more slave states, and 
more slave territory, our ealm hut final answer is, no more slave states, 
and no more slave territory. Let the soil of our extensive domain be 
kept free for the hard.v pioneers of our o\un land, and the oppressed and 
banished of other lands, .seeking homes of comfort and ticlds of enter- 
prise in the new world." 

(16) "Resolved, That we inseril)(> on our l)anner: 'Free Soil. Fn-e 
Speech. Free Labor and Free Jlen,' and under it we will tight on, and 
fight forever until a triumphant victory sliall reward our exertions." 

The declaration of independence of ^Marshall men, made by words and 
deeds at the fugitive's door and now enrolled in a party platform, and 
proclaimed to the waiting world. Under the leadership of these men, 
the anti-slavery factions in Calhoun Count.y were organized and were 
induced to support tlie anti-slavery candidate for Congress. As a re- 
siilt the democratic candidate was defeated in 1848 and William 
Sprague. a F'ree-Soil Whig was elected. He was one of the Free-Soilers, 
who under the lead of Joshua R. Giddings, held the balance of power 
between the Whigs and tlie Democrats in the 31st Congress. As in 
1844 the Libert.y Party drew off enough anti-slavery whig votes to de- 
feat Henry Clay, the favorite son of Kentucky for president, so in 
1848 the Free-Soil Party drew off enough Wilmot Proviso Democratic 
votes to defeat Lewis Cass, the favorite son of ^Michigan for president. 
Had it not been for tlie agitation, the awakening and the influence of 
the Crosswhite affair tlie results would have been different. 

The ease of Giltner vs. Gorham et al. came on for the second trial 
in the United States court at Detroit before Hon. Ross Wilkins,^'* .judge, 
and a .jury drawn and empaneled by a Democratic United States mar- 
shal, was sworn on the 10th day of November, 1848. The case was again 
closely contested, and on the 5th da.v of December, 1848, a verdict was 
rendered in favor of Francis Giltner, for the value of Adam Crosswhite, 
his wife and four children assessed at the sum of $1,92(5 damages with 
costs of suit to be taxed against Charles T. Gorham, Oliver C. Com- 
stock, Jr., Jarvis Hurd, George IngersoU, Herman Camp, Platner JIoss, 
Charles Berger and James Smitii, the suit having been previously dis- 
continued as to defendants Cook, Easterly, Hobart, and Parkei'. The 
taxable cost of tlic suit was heav.v, numerous depositions had been made 
in ^Marshall ; the <lep()sitions of slave-dealers in Kentucky had been taken 
to prove the value of this man and woman and their four children and 
scores of witnesses had lieen subpoenaed and kept in attendance at 
Detroit during the two long trials. At that time. Roger B. Tane.y, after- 
wards of Dred Scott decision fame, was Chief Justice of the United 
States Supreme Court, and a ma.iority of the associate .justices were 
slave-holders, or pro-slavery men. An appeal offered little or no promise 
of relief and the learned attorneys for the defendant could point out no 
errors in the ruling or the charges of the court, as the law then existed 
which would .justifv an appeal. The only recourse was to pay this 

88 Ross Wilkins was the first ilistrict .imlge of tlip Unitod States at Detroit, hold- 
ing that otRee from 1836-LS70. He was sui-reeded by .John W. T.ongyoar. I'.armer's 
History of Detroit and ilichigan. 


judgment and heavy bill of costs. Some of the defendants had no prop- 
erty, and the financial burden to satisfy this judgment fell principally 
upon the defendants, Gorham, Comstoek, and Hurd. These men have 
been compelled to defray the greater part of the expense of defending 
the suit, and ruin seemed certain. 

Zachariah Chandler, then a stirring merchant of Detroit, had attended 
the trials and watched the Crosswhite affair from its inception at Mar- 
shall until the final verdict. His sturdy anti-slavery sentiments were 
aroused. His keen political instincts enabled him to discover and trace 
the pro-slavery influences brought to bear upon the trial, and being 
satisfied that Mr. Gorham and his associates were victims of unjust laws, 
, enforced by the slave-powers he called on Mr. Gorham at his hotel and 
made his acquaintance. He voluntarily made himself a party to the 
suit and assumed a share of the burdens. He promised and afterwards 
paid, and raised a handsome sum of money toward the judgment and 
thereby relieved some of the defendants from financial ruin. Thus 
commenced the warm personal friendship between the sagacious, radical 
and rash Zachariah Chandler and the sagacious, conservative and cau- 
tious Charles T. Gorham, which continued until death, and which contri- 
buted largely to the elevation and influence of both men in political life. 

These Marshall men united the enemies of slavery, and under their 
leadership in 1849, Charles Dickie was elected to the Senate, Erastus 
Hussey, Hovey K. Clark and Nathan Pierce to the House, all radical 
Abolitionists or pronoiinced anti-slavey men, and Calhoun County had 
a solid anti-slavery delegation in the legislature of 1850. The county 
took a leading position in opposition to the institution of slavery and 
maintained it until slavery was no more. 

As Lexington and Concord preceded the Declaration of Independence 
and Yorktown, so Marshall preceded the Buffalo convention, the organ- 
ization under the oaks at Jackson and the Emancipation Proclamation, 
Appomatox and the Thirteenth Amendment. The sons of the brave men 
of Lexington and Concord at Marshall in 1847, were more altruistic 
than were their sires in 1775. The sires risked their liberty and prop- 
erty for themselves, their kindred, their posterity. The sons risked 
their liberty and their property, not for themselves, their kindred, and 
their posterity, but for another, an alien race, a race of slaves. The sons 
were braver than their sires. ■ The sires were unknown, disguised as 
Indians and went at night when they defied the tyrant's law and threw 
the tea into Boston Harbor. The sons were known, undisguised, and 
went in the light of day when they defied the tyrant 's law and loosened 
the bondsman's chains. When the voice of tyranny asked for their 
names, quick and distinct came the response from one "Charles T. Gor- 
ham. Put it down in capital letters, and take it back to Kentucky to 
the land of slavery as a warning to others and a lesson to you," from 
another, "Oliver Cromwell Comstoek, Jr. Don't forget to put down the 
'Ji;nior' as I don't want my father to answer for my sins," from an- 
other, "James ^I. Easterl.y" from another, " Jarvis Hurd," and from an- 
other, "Asa B. Cooke." (Brave men were they.) (In the slave-holder's 
declaration filed in court, while the names of the other defendants were 

iiryTOKY OF CAi.iiurx COIXTV 71 

printed in italit-s. Uie name of Chark'S T. Goi'liaiu was [jriiitcd in capilal 
lettei-s. ) 

While the enemies of African slavery were organizing and eoncentrat- 
iug their force upon measures to cripple the institution in JMichigau, the 
friends of that institution were equally active in Kentucky. The cou- 
stitutioual eouveutiou of 18-49 inserted a clause in the state constitu- 
tion declaring the right of property in slaves to "be befoi-e and higher 
than any constitutional sanctions. ' ' The Blue-grass State seems to have 
antedated Seward in announcing the "higher law" doctrine. As before 
stated, Francis Troutman's vei'sion of the Marshall affair had been laid 
before the legislature of Kentucky and the legislature had instructed their 
Senators and members of Congress to secure further guarantees for the 
reclaiming of fugitive slaves. Henry Clay was a pei-sonal friend of 
Francis Giltner, and being familiar with the whole Crosswhite affair he 
took a personal interest in the case. On the 29th of January, 1850, 
Mr. Clay introduced into the United States Senate his celebrated com- 
promise resolution, demanding a more "effective fugitive slave law." 

In the heated discussion of the so-called compromise measures, in their 
various forms and phases in Congres.s from January 29th until Septem- 
ber 18th, 1850, when the fugitive slave law was signed by the president 
Marshall and IMarshall men were ever upon the lips of the champion 
of slavery. Gen. Gorham, Dr. Comstock, Rev. Randal Hobart, and other 
old line Democrats were denounced as Abolitionists and negro thieves. 
]\Ien of high standing and culture were branded as vagabonds, villians 
and robbers. The abusive tirades were repeated and enlarged upon by 
the pro-slavery press, and on the pro-slavery stump north and south, 
and Marshall became the cynosure of the whole land. This intemperate 
discussion of the Troutman version of the "Abolition mob" as he termed 
it, was gratif.ying to the south, but it was consolidation of the free-soil 
sentiments of the north. The Crosswhite case, a.s it has been shown, was 
the proximate cause of the obnoxious Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. That 
case demonstrated the fact that the less stringent law then in force, 
could not be enforced in the liberty-loving communities of the north, 
and the arrogant south undertook to intimidate the north with lieavy 

The fugitive slave law was prepared by the most radical pro-slavery 
champion. It provided for numerous United States Commissioners to be 
appointed, gave them the power of .judge to remand men to slavery, 
deprived the alleged slave of his own testimony, right of jury trial and 
habeas corpus. It gave the commissioner a ten dollar fee if he decided 
for the master, and a five dollar fee if he decided for the slave. United 
States Marshals were required to make arrests, and if they refused, they 
should be fined $1,000 and be made to pay for the slave. The Marshals 
and Commissioners could call upon by-standers to assist in making 
captures and if a citizen refused he could be imprisoned six months, 
fined $1,000 and made liable for $1,000 damages. This despotic law 
violated every human impulse and made the usual Christian courtesies 
a crime, and in fact made every man, woman and child a slave catcher 
at the request of the master. This infamous law designed to protect 
the institution of slavery was overruled and produced an irresistible 


wave of anti-slavery sentiment and opposition, which dehiged the whole 
land and undermined the institution itself. Public sentiment was so 
strong in Marshall in 1847 that the old law could not be enforced, and 
now that same sentiment, more earnest than ever, would not enforce 
the new. It was boldly announced in private and in public, in the 
press, in the pulpit, on the platform, and on the floor of Congress that 
freemen would not enforce the law. The sentiment of the people was 
expressed by the resolution of a Massachusetts mass meeting in these 
words, "Law or no law, constitution or no constitution, union or no 
union, the hospitality of ^Massachusetts will never be violated by the 
delivery of a fugitive from oppression, to tyrant's again." This law 
had shocked the moral sensibility of the whole north, it had added new 
fuel to the anti-slavery flame, and tended to unite all factions against it. 

The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 developed an unexpected force which 
fired the hearts of freemen everywhere, and hastened the doom of 
slavery. That law caused the graphic delineation of the evils of slavery 
in Uncle Tom's Cabin. The author of that narrative had abstained for 
years from all consideration of the subject of slavery, but when she 
learned of the cruel, un-Christian and inhuman provision of the statute 
and heard men contend that it was the citizen's duty to enforce it, she 
tells us in her concluding chapter that she could "only think that these 
men and these Christians cannot know what slavery is ; if they did, such 
a question could never be opened for discussion," and from this arose 
a desire to exhibit it in a living dramatic reality. Thus this cruel law 
has awakened and inspired its own Nemesis. The gifted author com- 
menced gathering material and perfecting her plan, and in June, 1851, 
the publication of that mighty political narrative was commenced as a 
serial, in the National Era. an anti-slavery paper published at Wash- 
ington and was continued until April, 1852. Some of the personal ex- 
perience of Adam Crosswhite and wife in fleeing from bondage are 
woven into that story. The narrative in the National Era was read and 
re-read. Nearly half a million copies were published in book form in 
rapid succession, and scattered all over the north and the English-speak- 
ing world. It was cjuickly translated into twenty different languages, 
and it has done more for universal freedom than any other, if not all 
other causes combined. It was dramatized and put on the stage and 
acted all over the north. It revealed the horrors of slavery, touched the 
great heart of humanity, and united the people in one common pur- 
pose to limit and destroy the curse. Hnd it not been for the Fugitive 
Slave Law of 1850, Uncle Tom's Cabin would never have been written, 
and the evils of slavery would not have been thus revealed. 

In 1852 the Whig and Democratic parties, both blind and oblivious 
to the swelling tide of anti-slavery sentiment, accepted the Fugitive 
Slave Law of 1850 as a finality, and promised to enforce it. There had 
been for a long time a strong anti-slavery sentiment in the Whig Party. 
The writer, when a boy, heard Gen. Cass prophesy that the Whig Party 
would eventually be abolitionized. This surrender to the slave-power 
drove hundreds of Whigs out of the party, and its doom as a national 
party was sealed. After the old parties had made their nominations 
and announced their pro-slaverj' platforms, the Free-Soil Party held 

HISTORY ov CALiiorx CorXTV 73 

a coiiveution and iioiniimted .John V. Hale of New Hampshire, tor pi'esi- 
deut and George \V. Jidiau of Indiana for vice-iM-esiih'nt. Tlie i)latl\)i'iii 
contained these planks. 

(6) "That slavery is a sin against Goil, and a crime against m;in, 
whieh no human enaetment or usage ean make right, ami tiiat Ciiris- 
lianity. humanity and patriotism alike demand its abolition. 

(7) "Tliat tiie fugitive act of 1850 is repugnant to the eonstitution, 
to the priueiples of the eommon law, to the spirit of Christianity, and to 
the sentiments of the eivilized world ; we therefore deny its force on 
the American people and demand its immediate and total repeal. 

(21) "That we inscribe on our banner 'Free-Soil, Free-Speech, Fi'ee- 
Labor, and Freedom,' and under it will tight on and tight ever, until 
a triumphant victory shall reward our exertions. ' ' 

The sentiments of JIarshall men, as expressed by words and deeds 
at the fugitive door in 1847, were here again proclaimed in a national 
platform. The agitation continued, but the pro-slavery party triumpheii 
at the election. The foes of slavery were as yet unwilling to repudiate 
old party atifiliations, and unite in a national crusade for lil)erty. The 
chastening of another pro-slavery scourge w^as required. 

Slavery liad been prohibited from all the territories lying north of 
tliiitx-six (li'>;ri('s and thirty minutes north latitude in 1820 by the so- 
called .Missnuii Compromise. This act was copied from the ordinance of 
1787. excluding slavery from the Northwest Territory. The Wilmot Pro- 
viso followed the same principle, and the principle had been repeatedly 
applied. The slave-power determined to break down this barrier and to 
repudiate this Jeff'ersonian policy. A bill was pending in the Senate to 
organize the Territory of Nebraska. Senator Archibald Dixon of Ken- 
tucky, on the 16th of January, 1854, introduced an amendment to repeal 
the law passed in 1820 as a solemn compact between the slave and the 
free states. Then commenced the discussion of the Kansas-Nebraska 
Bill. Lewis Cass, 1847, as we have seen, in his Nicholson letter, repudi- 
ated the principle of excluding slavery from the territories by act of 
Congress, and endorsed the policy of allowing the people of the Terre- 
tory to determine whether slavery should or should not exist. Thus 
the doctrine of popular sovereignty was proclaimed. Under the leader- 
ship of Stephen A. Douglas, this doctrine was endorsed by the pro- 
slavery party, and in the discussion continued on this issue. The most 
earnest debate of modern times ensued in Congress, in the press, in the 
pulpit, on the stump, and by the fireside. The bill i-epealing the re- 
striction of slavery passed the Senate March 3d, the House ilay 24, 
and was signed by the President iMay 30th, 1854. The Democratic 
party had thus repudiated the principles of its founder. Then com- 
menced the struggle between the friends of slavery and the friends of 
freedom in Kansas. The application of the principles of popular sover- 
eignty in the territories on the slavery issue, meant force against force — 
war between the contending parties actually existed. John Brown was 
a product of that struggle, and his subsequent raid on Harper's Ferry, 
but a subsequent guerilla skirmish resulting from the war in Kansas. 
The bad faith of the slave power, the hot discussion, the bloody struggle 


and the bitterness resulting therefrom caused men to seek a practical 
remedy — an end of the eonHict. 

The anti-slavery sentiment in Michigan was intense, and anti-slavery 
men were now ready to act. Marshall men took the final lead in start- 
ing the crusade against slavery. Hovey E. Clarke, chairman of the 
State Central Committee and Erastus Hussey then of Marshall with 
others called a mass meeting of the Free-Soil party to meet at Jackson, 
Februarj^ 22, 1854. All who favored the national free-soil platfonn of 
1852 were invited to this convention. Hovey K. Clarke was chairman 
of the committee on resolutions and drafted the platform adopted by 
the convention. Erastus Hussey was also a member of the committee 
on resolutions and a member of the committee on nominations. The 
resolutions denounced the proposed repeal of the Missouri compromise 
and endorsed the free-soil platform of 1852. Kinsley S. Bingham was 
nominated for governor, Nathan Pierce for lieutenant-governor and 
Hovey K. Clarke for attorney-general. Numerous addresses were made 
before the convention. Halmer H. Emmons of Detroit, afterwards 
United States eii-cuit judge, an anti-slavery Whig, was called out for 
a speech. He endorsed the platform, commended the nominees of the 
convention, expressed the earnest desire that before election day, all 
friends of freedom might stand upon one platform, and pledged to resist 
the extension of slavery. Mr. Emmons made a powerful speech in favor 
of union, which, like the speech of Patrick Henry in the Virginia con- 
vention of 1775, carried everything before it and inspired men on to 
action. As Patrick Henry inspired "the first general recommendation 
for a general congress by any public assembly" in 1774, so Halmar H. 
Emmons made the first appeal in a state convention for united actions 
in 1854. Messrs. Clarke and Emmons as counsel for the JIarshall men 
in the slave suit, had been aroused and inspired by that drama. This 
speech and Mr. Emmons' influence was a power in bringing about har- 
mony and united action all over the State. Seth Lewis, the editor of 
the Marshall l^tatesman, reflecting the local sentiment, all through the 
Kansas and Nebraska discussion, contended that it was the duty of 
citizens to vote for none but anti-slavery men. Charles M. Bordwell 
was elected supervisor of Eekford.and Charles D. Holmes of Albion, 
in April, 1854, on the anti-Nebraska ticket, and the States7)ian advocated 
the union of all anti-slaverj' men in a new party. A mass meeting of 
Calhoun citizens met at Marshall. May 30th, 1854, and under the leader- 
ship of Erastus Hussey, Hovey K. Clarke, Charles T. Gorham, Nathan 
Pierce, George Ingersoll, resolved: "That waiving all previous party's 
preferences we are willing to unite and co-operate with all the friends 
of freedom, in an eternal war against the extension of slavery in the 
United States." It endorsed the nominee of the Jackson convention, 
approved the mass meeting of the freemen called to meet at Kalamazoo 
on the 21st of June and appointed a committee of three from each town- 
ship for the purpose of organizing anti-slavery men. Joseph Warren, 
editor of the Detroit Tribune during the Kansas-Nebraska debates in 
Congress, like his illustrous namesake, Dr. Joseph Warren, in the 
Boston Gazette in yeai-s preceding the war for independence published 
editorials of masterly boldness and earnestness to arouse the friends 


of freedom to aetion. aiul to unite all the enemies of slaver\- upon one 
platform and under one party. The iuHuence of the Detroit Tribune, the 
leading state paper of the Whig party cannot be over-estimated, in 
moulding public opinion. Other papers in the State republished these 
articles and supi)lemented the cause ; meanwhile Horace Greeley, the 
master leader of the political movement was urging it on in his mighty 
editorials in the Xcw York Tribune and scattering them broadcast 
throughout ]\lichigan and other northern states. Zacbariah Chandler, 
the Whig candidate for governor in 1852, contributed his Herculean 
strength, and traveled all over the State to organize an anti-slavery 
party. His intiueuce wrought great results and his political opponents 
gave him the sobriquet "of the traveling agent of the new Abolition 
party." On the 25th of May, a ringing call was made for a mass meet- 
ing of all the citizens opposed to the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, 
to meet at Kalamazoo in a mass convention the 21st of June follow- 
ing, ilen of all parties met at this convention. Hovey K. Clarke was 
again chairman of the connnittee on resolutions and drew the resolutions 
adopted. These resolutions denounced the repeal of the Jlissouri Com- 
promise and reaffirmed the Free-Soil platform of 1852. They also recom- 
mended concentration of the anti-slavery forces, offered to withdraw 
the ticket nominated at Jackson and surrender their organization, as 
means to an end, and authorized the appointment of a committee of 
sixteen to carry out this purpose. Ei'astus Hussey was also a member 
of the committee of resolutions and a member of the committee of six- 
teen to withdraw the ticket. 

Mr. Clarke made a telling speech in favor of his resolutions and they 
were enthusiastically adopted. The action of this committee under the 
leadership of ilarshall men, cleared the way for the union of the Abo- 
litionists. Free-Soilers, Wilmot Proviso Democrats, and Anti-slavery 
Whigs into one organization. Men of all parties saw the way clear and 
went to work in earnest. 

A call "inviting all our fellow citizens, without reference to former 
political associations, who think that the time has arrived for a union 
at the north to prevent liberty from being overthrown and down-trodden, 
to assemble in mass convention on Thursday, on the 6th of July next, 
at one o'clock P. M." signed by more than ten thousand freemen of the 
State had been issued. Charles T. Gorham, Hovey K. Clarke, Erastus 
Hussey and over one hundred other Marshall men signed this call and 
two hundred citizens of Calhoun Count}' attended this convention. In 
the organization of the convention, Charles T. Gorham was vice-presi- 
dent, and a member of the committee, to nominate candidates. Erastus 
Hussey was a member of the committee on platform. The first Republi- 
can platform, denouncing the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, de- 
manding the repeal of the Fugitive Slave Law, and taking a decisive 
stand against the extension of slavery was unanimously adopted. The 
committee of the Free-Soil party appointed at Kalamazoo for that pur- 
pose withdrew its ticket nominated on the 22nd of Februar.y, and sur- 
rendered its organization and the Free-Soil party became immerged 
in the Republican party. Thus under the oaks at Jackson was organ- 


ized the mighty Republican party*^" and it commenced its immortal 
career for liberty and humanity. !\Ir. Gorham rendered most valuable 
service on the nominating committee, and especially in bringing forward 
the name, and securing the nomination of Kinsley S. Bingham^" for 
governor. Mr. Bingham had been a Democratic member of Congress, 
and was the only member from this State who had the courage to refuse 
to follow the leadership of Gen. Cass and vote for the Wilmot Proviso. 
He had been read out of the Democratic party for that reason. This 
nomination was most fortunate. Gov. Bingham was a man of rare poise, 
and as an organizer, harmonizer and vote-getter and political leader, 
he never had a superior in the State. As governor and United States 
Senator, the state of Michigan can look to him as a model. It had 
been expected that Hovey K. Clarke would be the nominee for attorney 
general, but the nominating committee concluded, that the name of 
Jacob M. Howard, 8' a former member of Congress, would draw more' 
votes from the Whig party, and as that party had not yet announced 
its course, he was nominated with the hearty approval of ilr. Clarke. 
The nominating committee had a most delicate and difficult duty to per- 
form in reconnnending a ticket, made up of AVilmot Proviso Democrats, 
anti-slavery Whigs, Pree-Soilers, and Abolitionists, so as to meet the 
approval of all factions. This duty was most faithfully and wisely per- 
formed, and the report was unanimously adopted by the convention. 
While Michigan was the first state to organize the new anti-slavery 
party, the same causes existed elsewhere, and other states quickly fol- 
lowed in her footsteps. The ticket thus nominated was elected by a 
large ma.jority in November. The success, the influence and history of 
the party thus organized is known of all men. 

The Calhoun county convention of the Whig party, to nominate dele- 
gates to the state Whig convention met at Marshall, September 30th, 
1854, and appointed delegates and instructed them to vote against the 
nomination of a Whig state ticket. The Whig convention to nominate 
state officers met at ^Marshall on the 4th of October. 1854. This con- 
vention determined not to nominate a state ticket, endorsed the princi- 
ples and policies of the Republican party and issued a stirring address 
to the Whigs to unite and work to stop the extension of slavery. This 
was the end of the Whig party in Michigan. It completed the fusion 
of the anti-slavery men in the State. For earnest patriotism, devoted 
to the liberty and union of purpose, these men can only be compared 
with the men in the Congress of 1776, and in the Federal Constitutional 
Convention of 1787. The resolutions of the Free-Soil conventions at Jack- 
son and Kalamazoo were drawn by Hovey K. Clarke and the platform 
of the Republican convention was drawn by Jacob il. Howard. The 
resolutions and addresses of the Whig convention were drawn l)y James 

so See Michigan in Our National Polities, by A. D. P. Van Biiren, Vol. XVII, pp. 
254-266, also The Eepubliean Party, a True History of its Birth, by Albert Wil- 
liams, Vol. XXVIII, p. 478, this series. 

90 See sketch, Vol. XXXV, pp. 475-478, this series. 

"1 See sketch. Vol. XXXV, pp. 462-464, this series. 


Van Dyke,'-'- As liold d.n-lai'ation of priiu-iplrs, a.s I'anicst ccnsfrratiuus 
to liberty, as patriotic t-alls to duty, as rallying appeals for action, as 
assurances of harmony and unity, and as pledges to return to the 
Jetfersonian policy of restricting slavery, these papers were master- 
pieces. These declarations of principles and policies were published, 
ratified and followed throughout the north. They performed the func- 
tions of a second declaration of indeiiendence. As the name of Jefferson 
is immortalized for penning the Declaration of Independence in 1776, so 
should the names of Clarke, Howard, and Van Dyke be immortalized 
for penning the second declaration of independence in. 1854. 

The Crosswhite case set JIarshall men thinking and aroused their 
love of liberty and hatred of slavery. They were the pioneers in the 
movement and did much to give JMichigan the honor of organizing the 
Repiibliean party, which destroyed slavery. Similar intiuences were at 
work in other states, and similar organizations were speedily formed. 
Mr. Gorham was elected a delegate to the Philadelpihia convention in 
1856, the first national convention of the party, but by mutual agree- 
ment, Zachariah Chandler, his alternate took his place. History has 
its curiosities and its paradoxes. From the same exciting cause, ^lich- 
igan took a bold stand against slavery and organized to destroy it while 
Kentucky had become the leading state to extend the curse and to 
preserve its existence, iliehigan would nuike freedom national, and 
slavery sectional, while Kentucky would make slavery national and 
freedom sectional. ^Michigan men advocated and formulated a platform 
to limit and destroy the evil, while Kentucky senators introduced and 
advocated the Fugitive Slave Law, and the act to repeal the IMissouri 
Compromise. Michigan was the first state in the union to fonii ;iu 
effective organization for the destruction of slavery, and Kentucky was 
the last state in the Union to abolish it. ^lichigan was the second 
state in the Union to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, '•'■■ and Kentucky 
was the first to reject it. 

The state ticket nominated ubder the oaks at Jackson and a Reimbli- 
can legislature was elected in 1851. Erastus Husse.y, then of ]\Iarsliaii, 
was elected to the senate. P"'ederal officers were accustomed to detiiin 
federal prisoners in the different jails, prisons and penitentiaries of the 
various states, and fugitive slaves were sometimes thus detained. The 

32 James A. VanDyke was born in Franklin Co., Pa., a few miles north of the 
Maryland line. He graduated from Madison College, Uniontown, Pa., at the age 
of nineteen and after studying law at Chanibersburg, Pii., uiid n:ii;i'istnun, .Md., 
came to Detroit in 1834. He wa.s adniittiM I,. tl»> li;ir tli;it \..,i mi! ,: I-:;:, fiuioi'd 

a partnership with Charles \V. Wlii|,|.l,'. Tlir s; • \r:ii' li, „ili |i,-- 

noyers, who died .July 10, IStlli. He \v;is in |Mrl iirrslii|', willi i:. I ' . I I ' i ■ .i ■,. Ihilinar 
H. Emmons and was general i/ounsel uf llic .MiL-hijiuu I' li.ali.i.n i oiii|iany 
until the date of his death, May li", 1S55. See Karly Bench and Bar of Uetroit, 
by Robert Ross, p. 20.5. 

»:' Thirteenth amendment. Pep. T. "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude 
except as a punislnn. i ' 1' n whereof the parly >hall li;nc \trr,i duly con- 
victed, shall exist in i ■ l -iirs or any place snl.ici-i t.j tlirir jni i-diction. " 

"See. II. CouLi' I' II 'I ' <■ power to enforce this Mitiilc liv ai'iiiippiiate legis- 
lation." This amen.i'i . ■ i i i- (i.iimsed by Congress, Feb. 1, ]^lir,. and declared to 
have been ratified by (ui-nty-scvcn of the thirty-six states, Pec. is, ]S(i.",. 


duty of reclaiming fugitive slaves under the Fugitive Slave Law of 
1850 had been granted to federal offieers, some of whom, were provided 
for that purpose solely. The law was so repugnant to northern senti- 
ment, that the people demanded all possible relief from their state legis- 
lature, and what is known as personal liberty laws were passed by 
many states. The states of Vermont, Rhode Island and Connecticut 
passed such laws in 1854. Erastus Hussey formulated and introduced 
such a bill in the legislature of Michigan, which under his leadership, 
with the support of Austin Blair, became a law, February 13, 1855. 
This law made it a duty of the prosecuting attorney at state expense, 
to protect persons charged with being fugitive slaves, gave such fugitives 
the right of trial by jury, the right of habeas corpus, and the right of 
appeal; and it prohibited the use of any jail, or any prison in the 
state for detaining fugitives. It required the evidence of two witnesses 
to establish the fact of servitude, and it provided heavy penalties for 
seizing free persons. The old-time conductor of the under-ground rail- 
road had now become an anti-slavery legislator and he formulated laws 
for the fugitive. Maine and Massachusetts adopted similar laws the 
same year, Wisconsin and Kansas in 1858, Ohio in 1859, and Pennsyl- 
vania in 1860. These laws undertook to restore to the fugitive from 
labor under state authority, some of the rights taken from him by the 
federal law. They threw obstacles in the way, and made it more diffi- 
cult for the master to recover his slaves. Some of the northern states 
claiming that the law of 1850 was unconstitutional, treated it as a 
nullity, and did not pass personal liberty bills. If the federal govern- 
ment had authority under the constitution to adopt the Fugitive Slave 
Law of 1850, doubtless these personal liberty measures were nullification 
laws. These laws and the prevailing repugnance to the measure made 
it difficult to enforce the federal act. The personal liberty laws of the 
north were influential, as hereafter shown, in the action of the south. 

Lewis Cass had for many years been Michigan's most distinguished 
citizen. In his struggle for the presidential nomination he repudiated 
the Jeffersonian doctrine of the Wilmot Proviso in 1847, and had ac- 
cepted the untried doctrine of popular sovereignty. This unfortunate 
change secured his nomination in convention, but caused his defeat, at 
the election. His legislatui-e iiad twice endorsed the Wilmot Proviso 
and commanded his support. But he could not consistentl.v retreat. In 
January, 1850, while discussing a resolution favoring the organization 
of a territorial government for California, it was manifested that he 
demurred to the resolutions of the legislature of 1849 and he intimated 
that if the legislature persisted he would resign his office as senator. 
Gen. Cass was the idol of his party in Michigan, and on the 2nd of 
April, 1850, the legislature passed resolutions requesting the senators to 
retain their seats and relieving them from such instructions.''^ This 
action of Gen. Cass and of the legislatui-e on the slavery question raised 
a storm of indignation in the State. His servility to the South had 
made bitter political enemies at home. A radical anti-slavery man was 
demanded to take his place, in the Senate in 1857. Charles T. Gorham 

s* Laws of Michigan, 1855, p. 41c 


aimoiuiced himself as favoring Zacliariali Cliaiullcr as the man 1o he sent 
to the Senate from JMiehigan to meet the tire-eaters antl douiiiieei-ing 
senators from the South. He worked constantly and elteetively to this 
end. No man in the State did more perhaps to elect Zaeliariah Chandler 
than did Gen. Gorham. The great influence and achievements of 
Senator Chandler in behalf of Michigan, the cause of liberty, and 
humanity, might not liave been made possible, had it not been for his 
influential and efficient friend from ^larshall. Under the influence of 
these men, Calhoun County always supported and held up the hands of 
that stalwart statesman and leader. 

As we have seen, the fugitive slave law provoked the pei'sonal liberty 
laws. The personal liberty laws were in turn to provoke another move- 
ment in the South. The party organized under the oaks at Jackson to 
stop the extension of slavery had elected Abraham Lincoln, president. 
On the 20th of December, 1860, South Carolina in convention passed 
the ordinance of secession, and on the 24th of the month, announced 
the personal liberty laws of Michigan above mentioned, with similar 
laws from other states, as a reason for such action. This reason had 
more force than all other excuses combined. Eleven other states fol- 
lowed South Carolina for the same reason. Secession brought on the 
War of the Rebellion. The war of the Rebellion brought forth the 
Emancipation Proclamation of 1863, resulted in the surrender of the 
slave-power at Appomattox in April, and secured the 13th amendment 
to the Federal Constitution in Dei'eml)er. 186.3. 


Though young men and comparatively unknown in 1847. Charles T. 
Gorham, 0. C. Comstock, Jr., Asa B. Cook, Jarvis Hurd, George Inger- 
soll, Hovey K. Clarke and Erastus flu.sse.v, in subsequent years, became 
widely known and exerted commanding influences. A glance at their 
efforts and their achievements in the great social reform of their day 
has been attempted. They voluntarily became the champions of the 
slave when to be called an Abolitionist was the vilest term of contempt 
in political parlance. But their experience was not uni(iue. Other 
slaves were captured and rescued in the north. Other communities 
released the captive from his captors. Other men were compelled to 
pay the burdensome price. Other municipalities were aroused by the 
exhibition of cruelty and inhumanity of the peculiar institution in their 
midst, and other freemen have bravely toiled, and sacrificed to cripple 
and destroy the curse, but I find no other event from which such direct 
and far reaching consequences resulted and which aided so much, in 
the evolution of measures for and against slavery, and which eventually 
destroyed it, as did the impromptu town meeting held at the fugitives' 
door in ^larshall. Pu])lic sentiment was prepared, the time was ripe 
for action, the opportunity came and these men embraced it, and began 
their work. They formulated measures, organized forces and inaugu- 
rated a warfare against the extension of slavery, and continued the eon- 
test until the institution was destroyed. Who can estimate the ulti- 
mate results of their sacrifice and labors? Their names sliould be 


remembered, and their memories should be cherished as brave leaders, 
heroes and martyrs in the cause of freedom. 

Francis Troutman, the champion of slavery, angered and threatening 
revenge, hastened home from that meeting and made complaint to the 
slave-holders and legislature of Kentucky. That legislature demanded 
relief from the state of Michigan. It required their senators and 
representatives in Congress to obtain greater security in their property 
in men. Pursuant to this legislative mandate, Henry Clay introduced 
the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. That cruel law aroused the sleeping 
hatred of the North, and brought forth Uncle Tom's Cabin, that political 
drama which awoke the sleeping world. The fugitive slave law pro- 
voked the personal liberty laws in the northern states. These laws were 
assigned as the cause of secession, secession was the cause of the Re- 
bellion, and the Rebellion caused the destruction of slavery. 

The Republican party formulated the measures, controlled the policies 
and assisted by the loyal people of all parties, destroyed the institution 
of slavery. The Republican party was first organized in the state of 
Michigan. Charles T. Gorhain, Asa B. Cook, George Ingersoll, Erastus 
Hussey, Hovey K. Clarke, Austin Blair, Halmar H. Emmons and 
Zachariah Chandler were among the leaders and most iutiuential organ- 
izers of that party. Without tln-se sag;ici(ius. persuasive and influential 
men, this party would not and in fai-1 could not have been organized. 
Each had been interested in tlir Ci-osswliitc case as a party, counsel or 
contributors. These men had witiics,-. ! some of tlie evils of the institu- 
tion at their own door, had hMltlcd with the arrogant slave power in 
court, had spent time and money cxtorlcd liy 1lic cruel system. 

What an experience to arouse hoslilit.N to llir iiistituliou of slavery! 
What a school to educate stalwart Iicmucu : Tlicsc Marshall men, one 
and all, have left their impress upon the institutions of our country. 
Tlic Crosswhite case influenced the political course of all. Without 
attempting to describe the effects upon each party, let its effect upon 
one indicate its influence upon all. As a citizen, it made Charles T. 
Gorham an organizer, and supporter of the Free-Soil party in 18-iS, and 
of the Republican party in 1854-. As a delegate to the Republican 
national convention it caused him lo vote fur tlie reuomination of 
Abraham Lincoln in 18G4: and for the nomination of I'lysses S. Grant 
in .1868, and as state senator. Minister to the Hague and as Assistant 
Secret;u-y of the Interior, on the issues of slavery or freedom, it in- 
spired his whole official life. 

The iullueuce of the Crosswhite case was not confined to ilarshall 
or to ^Marshall men alone. Its influence in the cause of liberty was not 
local but national. It aroused the genius of Halmar H. Emmons and 
inspired him to fire the hearts of freemen in 185-t, and affected his 
brilliant career at the bar in behalf of freedom and on the Federal 
Bench. If traiisci ilied the inbred love of liberty of Austin Blair into the 
Buffalo platl'oiiii of 1848 and into the Republican platform of 1854. It 
made him the great war governor of JMichigan, enabled him to discover 
Gen. Phil Sheridan"'' and send him forth as a champion of freedom, 

••''> Phil. H. Sheridan was commissioned by Ciuv. Blair, eolouel of the Second Michi- 
gan Volunteer Cavalry, May 25. 1862. 


it trained him to make ^lichigan a citadel of strength of Abraham 
Lincoln in the great crisis. It educated the fearless Zach Chandler to 
defy the arrogant repi-esentatives of the slave power in the Senate before 
the war, it nerved him to sustain the immortal Lincoln in his super- 
human task, it inspired him to wield a mighty intluenee for liberty and 
union during the war. These men, and men of their type, after the 
Democratic party had surrendered to the slave power, in 1854, took is- 
sue on the slavery question, and organized a party to restrict slavery, 
and in due time to remove the dangerous and irritating curse from the 
land. This organization first made Kansas and Nebraska free, in Spite 
of the broken pledges of the slave power and the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise. It paralyzed the force of the fugitive slave law, defying 
the despotic* demands of the master, following the impulse of Christian 
brotherhood, championed the cause of the slave. It grappled with the 
hydra-headed moster of secession, and preserved the Union. It throt- 
tled rebellion and emancipated a race, it removed the irritative curse of 
slavery from American policies, and the whole world is glad. Now no 
hostility exists between ilichigan and Kentucky, the apple of discord 
had been removed and both remain under the old ilag in fraternal amity, 
as members of the same, but a regenerate Union. Truly on that winter 
morning at ^Marshall. Adam Crosswhite "tired the shot Jieard around the 


Time will not permit of a sketch of other Marshall men and mea.sures 
of historic value, in the progress and evolution of the State and nation. 
Pre-eminent among our influential citizens, I recall the names of J. 
Wright Gordon,^" senator, lieutenant-governor, governor and diplomat, 
Edward Bradley,^" senator and member of Con> ; (ii'orge C. Gibbs, 
representative and supreme court reporter; Alnici' Piiilt.'"* representa- 
tive, senator, judge of the supreme court and iliiilomat; Heni-y W. 
Taylor, representative, .judge and publicist; Ilovey K. Clarke, repre- 
sentative, political organizer, supreme court reporter; Oliver C. Com- 
stoek, Sr., divine, member of congress and superintendent of public 
instruction ; Francis W. Shearman, journalist, superintendent of public 
instruction and historian of our public school system; Jabez S. Fitch, 
the pioneer anti-slave advocate : Charles Dickey, representative, senator 
and United States marshal during the war; John P. Cleaveland, the 
eloquent divine and earnest educator; Nathaniel A. Balch, the inspiring 
teacher, lawyer and legislator ; Thomas B. Church, the gifted advocate 
and moulder of constitutions; Jabez Fox, journalist and anti-slavery 
leader and organizer ; Parsons Willard, legislator and governor of Indi- 
ana, Morton C. Wilkinson, United States Senator from Minnesota, who 
have been influential actors in forming and fostering our public school 
system, our exemption laws, abolition of the death penalt.y and im- 
prisonment for debt, securing the rights of married women, the aboli- 

sh See sketch, Vol. XI, p. 274, this series. 

9' See sketch. Vol. XI, p. 275, also Vol. XXXV, p. 472, this series. 

98 See sketch, Vol. XI, p. 278, this series. 


tion of slavei-y and other reforms of the day. I am not able to name 
all who are worthy of mention. Hoping that some more efficient worker, 
and more eloquent pen may record their worth and work and rescue their 
names from oblivion, I leave them now. 

Battle Creek as a Station on the Underground Railway ^ 
By Charles E. Barnes - 

There is an institution now only known in history as the Under- 
ground Railway. This society, or system, as it should be more properly 
called, came into existence in 184:0 in the midst of the famous Harrison 
campaign, and was organized by Levi Coffin, of Cincinnati, a Quaker. 
It was a league of men, almost all of whom were Quakers, who organ- 
ized a system for spiriting away and conducting runaway slaves from 
Kentucky, Tennessee and other slave states, through to Canada. These 
men were enthusiastic Abolitionists, who devoted their time to watching 
for fleeing bondsmen, ferried them in rowboats in the night-time over 
the Ohio River, and then started them to the first Underground Rail- 
way station, thence from station to station until they arrived in Detroit, 
where they were ferried over the river in rowboats to Canada — and 
freedom. The workings of the Underground Railway were a great 
mystery to the people because of the secret manner in which everything 
was conducted. Slaves strangely disappeared and nothing was heard 
of them until reported to have been seen in Canada. None of the 
methods was known to the public. These slaves were conducted from 
the Ohio River to Canada as it shot through a hollow tube. This imag- 
inary explanation of how the fugitives reached Canada is what gave 
origin to the name "Underground Railway." 

The main route, known as the Central Michigan line, passed through 
Battle Creek. There was another route through Michigan via. Adrain. 
Mrs. Laura Haviland had charge of the latter line. She resided either 
at Adrain or Tecumseh, and conducted a school for colored girls. The 
station at Battle Creek was one of the most prominent centers of the 
work in Michigan, and was in charge of that famous old Quaker, Erastus 
Hussey,'^ who spent his time and money freely in assisting the colored 
people to Canada. There was no graft in those days. The work was 
done because of a love for mankind, and a sense of duty from a moral 
purpose. Like all Quakers, he would not recognize laws that sanctioned 
slavery — they were man-made laws; he ooeyed only divine laws. Dur- 
ing the existence of the Underground Railway, which was continued 
from 1840 to the issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation by Lincoln, 
i\Ir. Hussey secreted and fed over 1,000 colored persons, and then sent 
them through to the next station, which was at IMarshall.^ 

Realizing that the history of this institution, particularly of the 

1 Bead at midwinter meeting, Albion, January, 1909. 

2 Charles E. Barnes died at his home in Battle Creek, Oct. 17, 191: 
Hussey. Sketch, Vol. XIV, p. 79, this series. 

'Marshall Men and Marshall Measures," preceding article. 


work in Battli' Creek, was oi' more tlian loeal iiii]K)rlMiire, and sliDuld 
be preserved, the writer visited ilr. Iliissey iu ^lay, 1885, and made a 
record of his story, which is reproduced in his own words : 

"One day in 1840, when I was in Detroit on a business trip, a man 
by the name of John Cross, from Indiana, called at my house in Battle 
Creek and inquired for me. He was very anxious to see me, but would 
not tell even my wife what he wanted. My wife sent for Benjamin 
Richard, who worked for Jonathan Hart, but neither would he confide 
the object of his visit to him, and so departed. I was in Detroit three 
or four days. After my return home I received a letter from Cross. 
He wrote me that he was establishing a route from Kentucky and Ohio 
to Canada through which escaped slaves could be conducted without 
molestation and wanted me to take charge of the station in Battle 
Creek. This was the first time that I had ever heard of the Under- 
ground Railway. I preserved Cross's letter for many years as a relic, 
but it is now lost. This is how I commenced to keep the station liere. 
At that time there was only five anti-slavery men in Battle Creek be- 
sides myself: Silas Dodge who afterward moved to Vineland, N. J.; 
Abel Densmore, who died in Rochester, N. Y. ; Henry Willis, Theron II. 
Chadwick and a colored man by the name of Samuel Strauther. The 
colored ^Masonic lodge was named after him — Strauther lodge No. 3. 
Other anti-slavery men came afterward to this place among them Dr. 
S. B. Thayer and Henry J. Cushman, who built the old fiouring mill 
opposite tiart's mill. He was an earnest worker. He moved to Plain- 
well. There was Charley Cowles, a young man who was studying medi- 
cine with Drs. Cox and Campbell. Also that good worker, Dr. E. A. 
Atlee, and his son-in-law, Samuel S. Nichols, in Jonathan Hart's store. 

In Battle Creek township were Harris, William McCullom, Edwin 

Gore and Herman Cowles ; in Penfield, David Boughton, and in Emmett, 
Elder Phelps. 

"Our work was conducted with the greatest secrecy. After crossing 
the Ohio River the fugitives separated, but came together on the main 
line and were conducted through Indiana and Michigan. Stations were 
established every fifteen or sixteen miles. The slaves were secreted 
in the woods, barns and cellars during the daytime and carried through 
in the night. All traveling was done in the dark. The stationkeepers 
received no pay. The work was done gratuitously and without price. 
It was all out of sympathy for the escaped slaves and from principle. 
We were working for humanity. When I first accepted the agency I 
lived in a wooden building on the present site of the Werstein & Halla- 
day block (now Larkin-Reynolds-Boos block) opposite the Williams 
house (now Clifton house). Before the present block was built the 
old building was occupied as a livery stable by J. L. Reade, and be- 
fore him by Parcel Brinkerhoff as a second-hand .store. There was the 
Underground Railway station. This building was constructed l)y 
August P. Rawson in 1836 or 1837, and when I bought it, it was occu- 
pied as a cabinet shop by John Caldwell, our villag(> marshal, father 
of James T. Caldwell, the undertaker. I repaired the Iniilding and oc- 
cupied the front as a store and used the upstairs and the rear lower 
end for my dwelling. Here I secreted tiie runaway shivcs. After tlie 


Union Block was built, just adjoining this building on the west (the 
first brick block erected in Battle Creek) I frequently secreted them 
there. In 1855 I moved to my new home on the present site of the 
Seventh Day Adventist College. It was reported that the cellar under 
this house was built with secret places expressly for the purpose of 
hiding the fugitives. This was not strictly true. I will guarantee, 
however, that if anj' slaves were secreted there that they were never cap- 
tured. We did not assist as many of them as formerly, because a 
shorter route had been opened through Ohio, by way of Sanduskj' and 
thence to Fort Maiden and Amherstburg. 

' ' I can 't tell about the stations in Indiana. The route came into Jlich- 
igan to the famous Quaker settlement near Cassopolis. The leader was 
that good old Quaker, Zachariah Shugart,^ also Stephen Bogue and Joel 
East. At Cassopolis, Parker Osborn was the agent. The next station was 
Schoolcraft, iu charge of Dr. Nathan Thomas. Then came Climax, 
with the station a little ways out of the village. I think the man there 
was called William Gardner. Battle Creek came next. Jabez S. Finch 
was the agent at IMarshall and was a gentleman with plenty of means 
and stood high in the community and the first nominee on the Liberty 
ticket for governor. Of course, he was not elected, but we always there- 
after called him governor. Then came AUiion and Edwin ]\I. Johnson. 
I have forgotten the name of the agent at I'arma, liut I think that it 
was Townsend E. Gidley." He was not strictly identified with the 
Liberty Party, but always rendered assistance in furthering the escape 
of the slaves. 

"At Jackson were three agents: Lonson Wilcox, Norman Allen and 
one that I cannot remember. In the large places we had more than one 
man, so that if one chanced to be out of town another could be found. 
At ^liehigan Center, Abel F. Fitch ' was the man. He was one of the 
men involved iu litigation many years ago with the Michigan Central 
Railroad. I have forgotten the name of the agent at Leoni also the 
one at Grass Lake. At Francisco was Francisco himself who was a 
good worker. At Dexter we had Samuel W. Dexter and his sons. At 
Scio was a prominent man — Theodore Foster, father of Seymour Foster 
of Lansing. At Ann Arbor was Gu.y Beckley, editor of the Signal of 
Liberty, the organ of the Liberty party, who publi-shed the i^aper in 
connection with Theodore Foster. At Geddes, was John Geddes, after 
whom the town was named, and who built a large flouring mill there. 
He was an uncle of Albert H. Geddes of this city. I can't tell the 
names of the agents at Ypsilanti or Plymouth. At the former place the 
route branched, leaving the Michigan Central for Plymouth. Sometimes 
they went to Plymouth from Ann Arbor. From Plymouth they fol- 

5 These Quakers had made a settlement at Young's Prairie, had establislied a 
school and were prospering. A few Kentucky fugitive slaves had made their homes 
among them and were highly respected. See story of ' ' Raid in Michigan ' ' in 
Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, pp. 366-73. 

Townsend E. Gidley. See Vol. XIV, p. 402, this series. 

7 It -was Abel F. Fitch who was involved in the railroad conspiracy case and 
died during the trial. 


lowed the Kiver Rouge to Swart burg', then to Detroit.^ The principal 
man iu Detroit was Horace Hallock, also Silas ^1. Holmes ami Saiiiiiel 
Zug. They were men who eould be relied upon. 

"We had passwords, the one eonnnonly used being: "(Jan you give 
sheltei" and protection to one or more persons?' This was addressed to 
the agent by the person or persons looking for a place of safety. 1 
usually drove the fugitives through to Marshall myself, in the night, 
but often got some one to go with me. Isaac Mott, then a boy, worked 
for me, and used to frequently take the slaves through. Sometimes 
others ^vent. I used my own horse and buggy. 

"It was just four weeks after John Cross had appnintiMl mo agent 
that the first fugitives came. They were two men, \Villi;iiii Colriiiau and 
Stephen Wood. These men came through under lictilidus iianies and 
always i-etained them. This the fugitives frequently did. While Cole- 
man and Wood were yet secreted at my house Levi Coffin, the originator 
of the Underground Railway, and John Beard, a Quaker minister, came 
thi-nugh on the route. They were a committee appointed by the Quakers 
of Indiana to visit the colored people of Canada and to learn how they 
were succeeding, and to ascertain what assistance they w'ere in need of. 
They went home on the other route, and so I did not see them on their 
return. Coffin was acquainted with Wood, and Beard with Coleman. 
The two colored men, when they saw their old friends, were overcome 
with joy. By the way, I never met John Cross until eight years after- 
ward, at the great Free-Soil convention at Bu<¥alo. Some of the slaves 
were frightened upon their arrival, while others were full of courage 
and joy. From one to four usually came along together. At one time 
forty-five came down upon us in a bunch. It was when the Kentucky 
slave owners made a raid upon the slaves at the famous Quaker settle- 
ment in Cass County. One night a man by the name of Richard Dilling- 
ham came to my house and informed me that there would be forty-five 
fugitives and nine guards here in two hours. What to do I did not 
know. ]\Iy wife was sick in bed. I met Abel Densmore, then Silas 
W. Dodge and Samuel Strauther, and we talked the matter over. We 
had to act quickly. Lester Buckley owned a small unoccupied dwelling 
house on the rear of the lot where J. M. Caldwell's block now stands 
(the present site of J. J\I. Jacobs' clothing store). Buckley was a Whig, 
but sympathized w-ith us. He said that we could have the use of the 
building. There happened to be a stove in the house. I got some wood 
and then went over to Elijah T. ]\Iott's mill, on the site of the present 
Titus & Hicks fiouring mill, and he gave me sixty pounds of flour. Silas 
Dodge went to a grocery store and bought some potatoes and Dens- 
more got some pork. We heard them coming over the West -Main 
street bridge. Everybody had heard of their coming and every man, 
woman and child in the city was upon tlic street and it looked as if a 

sin Detroit a societj- was formed to aij the refugees. Among the most active 
v.ere Alaiison Shele.v, Horace Hallock, Samuel Zug and the Eev. C. C. Foote. They 
purchaseil a tract of land ten miles from Windsor and parceled it into farms of teii 
of fifteen acres each. These were given to refugees, many of whose descendants are 
still living in Wimlsor. Drlmit Tribune. Dee. 27, 1889, O'bituarv of Samuel Zug. 


circus was coming to town. It was a lovely moonlight night. There 
were nine white men witli them who acted as guards. Ahead of them 
rode Zach Shugart, the old Quaker, with his broad-brinnued white hat 
and mounted upon a fine horse — he always had good horses. He met me 
in front of my house and shook hands with me. I told him of my ai'- 
rangements. He took off his white hat and with a military air and 
voice said : ' Right about face ! ' They all about-faced and marched down 
to the house and took possession. The nine white men stopped at the 
hotel and our friends eared for their horses. The darkies cooked their 
own supper of bread, potatoes and pork, and as they were very hungry 
they relished it keenly. The next morning the majority of them went on 
to Canada, but a few remained, who became honored citizens and well- 
known. Among them were "William Casey, Perry Sanford, Joseph Skip- 
worth and Thomas Henderson. 

' ' I expected every day to be arrested, but I escaped all legal proceed- 
ings. Once word came that thirty armed men were on their way to 
capture the slaves in Battle Creek. Dr. Thayer and myself had 500 bills 
printed, stating that we were prepared to meet them, and advised them 
to stay away. Many persons condemned me for this and I made enemies. 
Dr. ]\Ioffit said that it was treason against the government. I sent the 
bills along the railroad by an express messenger by the name of Nichols, 
who was in sympathy with us. He threw the bills off at every station. 
At Niles he met the party of southerners on the train coming east. They 
read the bills and turned back. The Quaker station in Cass County 
and the ones at Schoolcraft and Battle Creek, were well-known through- 
out the south as the headquarters for many escaped slaves and the 
names of the men who kept the stations were equally well-known. 

"I could tell hundreds of interesting incidents. One day a slave 
woman who had been here about a week was assisting my wife with 
her work when a party of slaves drove up. Among the number was a 
daughter whom she had not seen in ten -years. The recognition was 
mutual and the meeting was a very affecting sight. One slave with his 
wife and two children were overtaken by the slave catchers in Indiana. 
The fugitive put up a hot fight with the southerners while his wife and 
children escaped to the woods. In the fight the negro was shot in 
the leg. The men brought him back to the hotel, and while they were 
eating their dinner they left him in charge of the landlord's young son. 
The little fellow whispered to the darkey, 'Uncle, do you think that you 
can run? If so, the woods are- only forty yards away. You had l)etter 
run. ' And he did, although badly wounded in the leg. When the slave 
catchers came out from dinner and found that the fugitive had escaped 
they were furious and their rage knew no bounds. The little hoy looked 
very meek and said that he was not strong enough to stop such a great, 
big man. The slave ovei-took his family at Schoolcraft and they came 
on here together. He was suffering severely from his wound, but I 
hustled him and his family through to Canada. 

"There had been a barber working here for some time by the name of 
Jim Logan. He was a dandy sort of a fellow. One day a fugitive and 
his wife came to my house for shelter. He had been a slave of Wade 
Hampton, and so we called him by that name. Hamilton worked about 


here for three days. Oue day while we were at dinner Jim Logan came 
walking in. The colored woman gave a shriek, jumped from the table 
and almost fainted away. She and Jim had been engaged to be married 
in Kentiieky, but not having heard from him in two years she married 
Wade Hampton. 1 eould fill a book with incidents." 

To his position as liatth' Creek agent for the Underground Railway, 
which was one of ((Hisiaiil excitfincnt, resulting in the most unexpected 
happenings, Mv. Ilnss( y acMeti th<' strenuous life of editor of the Liberty 
Press, the state organ of the Abolitionists of Michigan, printed in this 
city. The feeling against the paper became so strong that the building 
in which it was printed, old Eagle Hall block, located on the present site 
of the block on p]ast iMain street, now occupied by J. JM. Jacobs, the 
clothier, was set on fire and burned on the night of June 9, 1849, and 
all of the printing material destroyed. The persecutions of this old 
Abolitionist editor and the vicissitudes of the paper would make a stoiy 
in itself. 

After selling his beautiful homestead to the Seventh Day Advent- 
ists for the site of their college building, Mr. Hussey erected a com- 
modious residence on the corner of North Washington avenue and Man- 
chester street, now owned by W. K. Kellogg, where he died, January 
21, 1889, after an eventful and useful life. Mrs. Hussey, who sympathized 
with and assisted her husband in his anti-slavery work, passed away 
I\Iarch 22, 1899. The sole survivor of this prominent pioneer family 
is the daughter, Mrs. Susan Hussey, who resides on Oak Lawn farm, 
west of the city, on the interurhan line. Mrs. Alice B. Stockham, of 
Chicago, famous as the author of "Tokology," was brought up in the 
family of ^Ir. and ^Irs. Hussey. 

The UxDERCRorxD Railroad 
By Btirrlli Ilaniilloii 

'Sly lamented friend, Charles E. Barnes, interviewed the ex-editor of 
the Liberty Press — that grand old Quaker, Erastus Hussey — in 1885. 
Mr. Hussey was then in his eighty-fifth year. Twenty-seven years 
later, the writer visited ]\Irs. Susan T. Hussey, daughter of Erastus 
Hussey and sole survivor of that family, and, curiously enough, she also 
was then in her eighty-fifth year. The result of Mr. Barnes' interview 
appears in Vol. 38 of the Jlichigan Pioneer and Historical Collections. 
The result of my interview is embodied in the present article, which 
is merely supplemental to his. No one will dispute that our information 
has been derived from witnesses of strong mentality and liighesf char- 

It may be of service to future historians to know that Susan T. 
Hussey, daughter of Hon. Erastus Hussey, Battle Creek station master 
of the Underground Railroad and sometime member of the ^Michigan 
Legislature, became the wife of Hon. Erastus Hussey, a gentleman 
of highest worth, sometime member of the Assembly of New York. That 
jMrs. Hussej-'s father and her husband possessed identical names and 
titles is a coincidence C|uite cajiable of producing confusion. The fore- 


going statement will explain why the daughter of Mr. Hussey, Battle 
Creek's most noted Quaker (and once its mayor) is referred to as 
"Mrs." Hussey in this article. Her mother's name, of course, was 
Mrs. Hussey also — Mrs. Sarah E. nusse3^ — but of this devoted Quaker 
heroine, the limitations of this article forbid mention, save that her able 
pen and dauntless spirit augmented the power of the Liberty Press, the 
leading and official Abolitionist paper of Michigan. 

The writer had long enjoyed the friendship of Mrs. Susan T. Hussey. 
She willingly discussed those events which had been of consuming inter- 
est during the impressionable period of her life. She spoke unhesita- 
tingly, clearly, and so eloquently that all repeated here seems lame and 
halting. Her words were history — its fire, its tears, its heroisms, its 
victories. The poise of her erect form, the iiash of her fervid, dark 
eyes, the expression of her noble countenance, the music of her low 
voice — all lost in this transcription — vividly typified the spirit, the cour- 
age, the moral power, the broad philanthropy, which made the story 
of the Underground Railroad a chapter in the records of liberty. 

In 1840, before IMichigan 's first steam railway had pushed its primitive 
tracks half-way across the state, another carrier — a so-called railroad — 
without a car, a rail or a pay-roll, was conducting a growing tralific 
between the Ohio river and Detroit. This line was known as the ' ' Un- 
derground Railroad," because its operations were inscrutable as the 

The passengers over the Underground Railroad were of one class — 
fugitive slaves. They traveled in one direction — toward Canada. There 
was no demand for return-trip tickets. These ijeople, lash-marked and 
hound-hunted, were fleeing from "the land of the free" to escape slavery. 
Across Michigan their route lay, first, to a settlement of Quakers, near 
Cassopolis, and thence eastward through Schoolcraft, Climax, Battle 
Creek, Marshall, Albion, Parma, Jackson, Ann Arbor, and the other 
towns along that line of the road, to Detroit. The stopping places along 
the line were called "stations." The managers of the traffic were 
known as "conductors." These officials were very popular, for they 
collected no fares from their passengers. Moreover, each conductor 
supplied food, shelter and transportation, without charge, to those 
committed to his care. The operations of the Underground Railroad 
were in direct violation of federal law; but, as railroads go, perhaps 
this was no unique distinction. 

From 1793 until the beginning of the Civil war, there had been 
United States statutes requiring the surrender of fugitive slaves. Slieh- 
igan was not in sympathy with tliesc laAvs. Since the ordinance of 
1787 there had been no such thing as lawliil shive-holding on ilichigan 
soil. In 1855 our legislature openly (•(HKlciiincd slavery in strongest 
terms. The Fugitive Slave law passed by Congress in 1850 was roundly 
denounced by prevailing sentiment in this state. And with reason. 
That law attempted to make slave-catchers of the citizens of free states. 
All persons were charged with the duty of assisting in the capture of 
escaped bondmen. The testimony of two witnesses was sufficient to 
authorize the surrender of a negro to any claimant. No jury trial was 
demandable, and the negro was not permitted to testify. This law 


the uoiuliK'tors of the Umlergrouiul J{;iilro;i(l deticd and viohitetl. No 
word of justitieation is ueeessary. Until the raee fails — until the luiiiiau 
heart ceases to respond to the ery of mortal misery, who shall arise to 
coudenui these liberators whose unselfish toil autieipated Liueoln "s 
master-stroke by many years? 

In the early days of the Underground system, critics were nut few. 
Many of these were people of influence. For example. Dr. .Inlin .M. 
Balcombe (Battle Creek's second postmaster) looked upon the work of 
the conductors with outspoken disfavor, ilore than once he said to his 
friend, Erastus Hussey: '"l^rastus, 1 don't believe in slavery, but this 
business of spiriting away negroes to Canaila is a trespass upon property 
rights. ' ' 

"Friend Balcombe," the vigorous (Quaker "conductor,"" persistently 
replied, "that statement is unworthy thy character. Do bills of sale 
cover human souls? Is the law of man above the law of God? Am I 
to be the keeper of a covenant between Congress and infamy?"" 

It remained for "Old Agnes," an ebony-black refugee, to convince 
Dr. Balcombe of his error. "Old Agnes" had been the joint property 
of two white men — men too poor to own more than a half-interest each 
in a slave — and these exalted proprietors of human "property" had 
taken turns in maltreating her. Her back and lower limbs were a 
network of bone-deep scars. When she reached the Battle Creek station 
— the home of Erastus Hussey — almost her first request was for a knife 
with which to perform upon her festering wounds some rude surgery. 

What had been her offense ? Not that she was debased : according 
to her light she was a Christian; according to her opportunity, she was 
a woman of rare mentality. Though unable to read, she had memorized 
and could repeat accurately a great portion of the scriptures. Without 
a guide, save the north star, she had pushed her way northward, alone, 
by night, four hundred miles toward freedom. Her offense was that 
she did not love her masters who beat her with a sled-stake. 

"Old Agnes" had reached the age at which nature demands rest. 
Her hair was snowy-white. Across her forehead was a deep groove pro- 
duced by the strap of a water cask, for she had been a beast of burden — 
a water carrier. When her hopeless steps had become rheumatic and 
slow, her humane masters "ghigered her up a bit" by beating. The 
last time they applied the remedy they overdid it — they beat her until 
she could not walk. The remainder of the story is given in her own 
words, as remembered and quoted by ^Irs. Hussey : 

"Soon's 1 got so"s 1 could git aroun', I maiked up my miu" to run 
away Norf. De fust night 1 only got a couple ob mile into de woods. 
Lawdl Lawd ! I kept a-prayin' in my misery. Sen' me a sign to show me 
I's agwyne to git free. I looked an' lissened, but dey waaut no sign. 
I kep' on prayin', for I knowed He'd hear. 

"By-um-by, 'way oft', dey wuz a soun'. I know"d what dat wuz — it 
wuz de houu's on my trail. I know'd dey wuz trained to tear niggers to 
pieces. But I jus' kep' right on prayin': Lawd, sen' de sign! Sen" de 
sign ! 

"Dem houn's was agittin" i-lost — pow'ful clost. 1 stood up an' lifted 
my ban's an' prayed: Lawd. ef you don' sen' de sign quick, it's agwyne 


to be too late! But I warn't afeard, bekase I wuz in de ban's of de 
Lawd. I stood still, prayin ' in my heart. De houn 's rushed up, snarlin ' 
an' yelpin'. Den dey stopped, suddent like, an' crep' up to me, whim- 
perin'. Dey squirm aroun' my feet, an' dey rub dey haids against. me, 
an' dey licked my ban's ; but dey didn' try to do no barm. Den dey 
went tearin' off into de woods an' didn' come back no mo'. Praise de 
Lawd! He had gabe me my sign. He had promised to set me free — 
an' bear I is." 

As Mr. Barnes has said, the Underground Railroad was organized 
by Levi Coffin, a Quaker of Cincinnati. This occurred in 1838. Prior 
to that time, escaping slaves were afforded no systematic aid. Under 
the encouragement of Levi Coffin and his associates, lines were established 
through Ohio, New York and Pennsylvania, as well as across Indiana 
^nd southern Michigan — all leading to Canada. It is estimated that not 
less than 30,000 slaves in all made good their escape over these various 
routes. At times the traffic was so heavy that the resources of the 
conductors were severely taxed. Mrs. Hussey relates an incident which 
serves to illustrate this fact. It is as follows: "One night in the fall 
of ISii, 1 was awakened by a peculiar, mournful murmur of voices 
proceeding from the street in front of my father's house. (We were 
then living in a building which stood on East Main street in Battle 
Creek, on the site now occupied by the Werstein block). I knew the 
sound. I bad heard it often before. It was the frightened, half- 
wbispered conversation of colored refugees. 

"My father and mother were away from home for the night. I was 
then a girl of sixteen. I knew that something must be done. Hastily 
rising and going to tlie window, I saw a group of thirty negroes — twenty- 
six men and four women — standing near the door. I roused the household. 
Wlit'ii the waiting fugitives found that my father was away they were 
greatly distiirlH-d. for tliey bad relied upon bim for food and protection; 
but when tlics- found tluit "Miss Susan" was at home their spirits re- 
vived. I was known all along the Underground road, clear down to 
Kentucky. I invited the poor people to come in. We boiled great 
cauldrons of coffee for them, and, with some contributions from neigh- 
bors, I managed to supply them with plenty of food. Then I gave 
them a note to Jaliez 8. Fitch of ^Marshall, and sent them on their way, 
for it was night — their time for traveling. As they filed out, the men 
all shook my hand and thanked me, and the women all embraced me and 
blessed me. Our large baking of the day before had disappeared, and 
our night's rest had been destroyed, but the gratitude of those poor 
people was pay enough." 

Fugitive slaves, during their passage over the Underground Railroad, 
were in a state of constant terror. This was due to the nervous strain of 
night travel and the ever present dread of pursuit. Lest this fear be 
unjustly construed as cowardice, another story from Mrs. Hussey is 

"Old Nancy was a refugee who liked Battle Creek so well that she 
remained there, regardless of the chances of capture. She bad a son 
named Peter. When (he war broke out, Peter enlisted. One da.v word 
came that Peter bad lieen shot while in the line of duty — a cannon liall 


had erushed his t-hest. When the sad news was eonveyed to Okl Nancy 
she was leaning over a tub busily engaged with the week's washing. IShe 
paused a moment, and said: 'Praise de Lawd I's raised a son to be de 
defender ob his country.' Then as she resumed the rythmieal scrubbing 
of the clothes on the wash-board, she repeated, over and over again, in 
perfect time with the swaying of her body: 'Thank God — he didn't run ! 
Thank God — he didn't run!" 

No fugitive slave was ever retaken from the Battle Creek station. 
There were, however, times of grave alarm. Kuniors of impending at- 
tack by armed slave owners were not infrequent. The Underground 
Kailroad operatives always acted upon the principle that, "Eternal 
vigilance is the price of liberty." The community was at all times alert 
to catch the premonitions of danger. As an illustration of this it is 
related that, on a certain memorable night, when news of approaching 
Southerners was peculiarly threatening, twenty or thirty men stood 
guard at Battle Creek, prepared to resist force by force. 

On such occasions the negroes were relied upon as dependable allies. 
Long after midnight, during the anxious hours just mentioned, Erastus 
Hu.ssey, while making his rounds of inspection, stopped at the cabin 
occupied by Nancy Stevens. He found the old negress seated by an 
open fireplace. The end of a long-handled shovel, heated red-hot, glowed 
among the coals. Nancy explained: "I ain't got no gun, an' I wouldn' 
know how to shoot ef I had ; but I does know how to use a hot shobbel — 
an' I's got one." 

The hour was suitable for story-telling, and Nancy related enough 
of her personal history to sustain a statement suggested by the glowing 
shovel. "Hot? Co'se it's hot. But dat shobbel ain't so hot as I'd like 
to hab it to use on blaster Tom. I'd be willin' to go to hell, honey, 'deed 
I would, if I could stir up de fire down dare under him. What hab he 
done? I wants to tell you. He sol' my ole man down de Red ribber 
country, an' den he killed my pore boy Joe. Dat's what he done. Joe 
had went to git up de cows one mawnin'. Dey wuz fros' on de groun' 
an' Joe's feet got coU. Master Tom foun' de boy standin', gittin' his 
feet warm whar de cows had been layin' down. Joe wuz gone a long 
time. I kept lookin' fer him an' lookin' fer him down de lane. De 
cows come up, but no Joe. Arter a while I see somethin' that looked 
like a big dawg, creepin' along, creepin' along, comin' up de lane. I 
looked an' looked, but I couldn ' make out what it wuz. Den .somethin' 
jus' toU me it wuz Joe^<'reepin ' on his ban's an' knees. I never 
stopi)ed till 1 got to him. Lordy ! Lordy ! It wuz Joe shore 'nufp — 
crawlin' home, a gash in his belly whar ^Master Tom had kicked him 
with a spur, an' his innards draggin' on the groun'. I picked him up 
an' toted him home, an' nussed him, an' cried ober him, but — dat night he 
died." This is an unadorned tale of nuirder. Its truth is undoubted. 
It is typical of slavery. The irresistable appeal of disclosures such as 
this kept the managei-s of the Underground Railroad nerved to action. 

Across the Detroit river lay Canada and safet.v, but danger of cap- 
ture menaced the fugitives to the very water's edge. Mrs, Hussey re- 
lates an incident illustrative of this fact. A wealthy southern jjlanter had 
freed two .shives— a m-gro woman and her daugliter. Tlif dausrlilcr was 


of transeendaut beauty, without visible trace of negro blood. Indeed, it 
is said, her relation to her former master was that of closest kinship. 
We shall call her the "Beautiful Girl," for so she is remembered by those 
who saw her. When the planter died, his son refused to recognize the 
Beautiful Girl's manumission. He chose to hold his half-sister as a 

In Kentucky, at this time, there was a fearless man who bore the 
peculiar name, Wright Maudlin. His parents and his neighbors were 
slave holders. His sympathies were with the slaves. Secretly he co- 
operated with the Underground Railroad as a spy, scout, guide and con- 
ductor. This gratuitous employment was extremely hazardous. Had 
his neighbors discovered his activities, they would have shot him like a 
dog. But he defied danger: "No bullet," he said, "will ever pierce 
Wright Maudlin's skin." 

It was this man who rescued the Beautiful Girl from worse than death 
and brought her north, by the underground route, to Battle Creek. 
Here she remained at the home of Erastus Hussey for a few hours. Pur- 
suit was hot upon the trail. Although the poor girl was upon the verge 
of nervous exhaustion — pitiably frightened by the danger of recapture, 
and worn by the terrible strain of enforced and continuous travel — the 
stay could iiot be long. After a few hours of rest she was disguised 
as "an old woman and bundled into a top-buggy. With Wright Maudlin 
dressed as a farmer and acting as driver, the flight toward Canada was 

Again and again, upon seeing portentous clouds of dust approaching 
along the road, the two escaped to the privacy of some friendly wayside 
farm house. Maudlin had passed that way before and knew where 
safety lay. At last as the outskirts of Detroit were reached, four mounted 
horseiuen were observed following at a gallop. The Beautiful Girl 
was instantly in a frenzy of terror. ]\Iaudlin turned to her and said: 
"I have a knife in my belt. If you make any outcry I shall kill you. 
I shall not permit you "to fall into their hands alive. " This violent threat 
had the desired effect. The girl became calm. In a moment the horse- 
men rode up — two on each side of the carriage — and peered in. This 
moment was the crucial test of the girl's nerves. She uttered no sound. 
Her sunlionnet shaded her face. The riders saw only an indifferent 
appearing female and an old farmer. The latter pointed across the 
fields with his whip and cried out in a high key: "Me an' the old woman 
is out land-lookin'. Do you know of any good farms for sale 'round 
here?" The horsemen rode on without answering. 

As the carriage lumbered along Woodward avenue, a man on the side- 
walk raised his hat and wiped his forehead with a white handkerchief. 
This motion did not escape the watchful eye of Wright Maudlin. He 
understood the secret signal. It meant: "I am a friend. Follow me." 
No word was spoken ; no look of recognition was exchanged. The horse 
and carriage moved steadily along down the street toward the water 
front. Here their silent guide entered a boat-house. A moment later 
Wright Maudlin and the Beautiful Girl followed him. A row-boat and 
two oarsmen were in waiting. The girl was passed into the boat; tlie 
rowers gave way with a will : the skiff' with its precious freight shot 


toward Canada. Hardly had mid-streain of iIh- Drtroit livcr Ihcii t;ainctl. 
before a body of horsemen galloped u\) to the hoat-lKuisc door — tlireo 
minutes too late. The Underground Railroad had salVly dclivcrtMl tlie 
Beautiful Girl to freedom. 

Thus the great work was carried on during a (luartn- ol' a riMilury. 
When services were needed, they were donated. When provisions were 
required, they were contributed. No books of account were kept ; there 
was nothing to be repaid. Contributions amounting to fortunes went 
into the cause. Thousands of negroes were passed through I\Iichigan 
into Canada — how many we may never know. No record was ever 
made. Indifferent alike to the blame or praise of their own day, and of 
the future, the heroes of the Underground Railroad were content to 
accept tlie joy of their good work as that work's complete reward. 

Calhoun County Agricultuke 

Bu J. H. Brown 

Agriculture in its most primiti\-e form was practiced by the first and 
early settlers in Calhoun count\'. Even those sturdy pioneers who came 
here from the eastern states had to do their farming largely by means 
of the axe, spade and grub hoe. In their eastern homes they enjoyed 
what they called conveniences and even luxuries. They used oxen and 
horses and could plow fields of moderate size without constantly meeting 
stumps and grubs in the furrow. But cultural methods in the earl.v 
days were extremely crude in this new county. 

Very few of the old pioneers are now living. The present generation 
has no adequate conception of the extreme hardships endured by the 
majority of the first settlers in southern ilichigan. It is doubtful if 
hundreds and thousands of the young men and women now enjoying 
life on the improved farms of this county could make a living or even 
keep body and soul together could they W translated back to the times 
and conditions that existed lici-e \vlien the lirst real settlers came into 
the wilderness. 

And even the axe, spade and grub hoe were crude and more or less 
awkward to handle compared with the fine tools of the present day. 
The first farmers found plenty of need of the blacksmith and a few 
of these old country shops are still left in the form of tumbled-down 
shacks here and there by the road side. The first settlers generally were 
farmers from necessity, no matter what their previous vocation had 
been in York state or waj^ back east. The first thing needful was to 
get something to eat. Some brought along sufficient to last for a spell 
of greater or less duration, but the majority quickly looked for a place 
to scratch dirt and put in a few seeds. And the much desired scratching 
places or patches were nughty few and far between. In those days the 
saying, "Root hog, or die," was literally adopted and practiced by 
everybody who amounted to anj'thing. 

There were some places in Calhoun county where the timber had 
been burned and spots of more or less open prairie where settlers found 
it less difficult to prepare a seed bed and grow a little wheat, potatoes 


and a limited variety of ' ' garden sass. ' ' The oak openings were gener- 
ally preferred as the soil was usually a heavy loam and easier to break 
up. But it is a wonder today why so many pioneers selected the hilly, 
stony, heavy timbered land in preference to the level openings that were 
mostly heavy fertile soil and comparatively free from stone. 

Some of the first settlers came here and started a home in the wilder- 
ness, then went back east for their families. Some had wives and 
gi'own children, while others left a young wife or sweetheart while they 
got things started by clearing up a patch of ground on their claim and 
then building a one-room log cabin. These cabins were quickly con- 
structed. Trees of small size, from ten to fifteen inches in diameter, 
were cut down near the site selected. They were straight and each 
individual log extended the whole length or width of the cabin, except 
where the doors and windows were located. There was usually but one 
door and a small window made in a single opening in the center of the 
front wall. Another door and window was provided on the back side 
and frequently a window was set in each end. This was the prevailing 
style or architecture and material provided for the first farm homes in 
Calhoun county. 

When the logs had been cut there were sometimes log rolling bees, 
if any neighbors were within a few miles, and the plan of changing work 
helped out wonderfully. The shanty raising was frequently less than a 
day's work. The ends of the logs were notched enough so that the 
cracks might be reduced to a minimum and these were usvially plastered 
with "mud" enough to keep out the most of the rain and wind. The 
roof was very crude, covered with "shakes," and the floor made up of 
broad flat pieces of timber riven from the central portion of logs and 
dressed down by a broad axe and adz. The puncheon floor and shake 
roof was very common in the cabins of this county for years after the 
first settlers came. 

The biggest job the farmer had was to cut down trees enough to make 
a clearing. It was hard work and many of the logs were rolled together 
and burned as soon as they had seasoned out. There was no use for the 
timber and it was destroyed on every farm and claim as fast as the trees 
could be cut up and piled in big heaps with the smaller limbs and brush. 
I can remember seeing hundreds of these piles burning in almost every 
direction. As fast as a little clearing was made it was broken up with a 
sort of home-made breaking plow, with possibly a straight coulter or 
knife for cutting off the roots in line with the landside. The plowed 
ground was very rough and it was slow and tedious work fitting any 
sort of a seed bed with a yoke of oxen. The stumps, grubs and big 
roots bothered all day long over nearly every square foot of ground, and 
the strongest pioneer farmer was mighty glad when night came so he 
could lie down and rest a few hours. 

The first "harrows" were made of strips of hard wood bolted together 
and iron teeth about one inch square were inserted. Both the A-shape 
and square drags had to be made very stout to stand the catcliing of 
roots and snags. The blacksmith had plenty of custom from far and 
near and he became an expert in his line. With the crude tools, anvil 


and forge of those ibiys farm tools wvix' coiistnicteil tliat aiT a woiuKt 
to the present day blauksmith. 

A little wheat, oats, corn, buckwheat and potatoes were grown on 
almost every clearing, and a small garden patch near the house furnished 
a good living for the pioneer farmer who was a hustler. Some of the 
shiftless settlers would have starved had it not been for their wives or 
neighbors. Very often the settler's wife did more work, in doors and 
out, and was the mainstay of the family, no matter how inany babies 
came into the home. In those early days it was a common thing to see 
the women folks doing the hardest kind of work clearing up the land 
and breaking up the soil. They took an active part in cultivating the 
growing crops, this laborious work being done mostly with a crude and 
heavy hoe or pick-axe. 

The farmer's wife was frequently an adept in handling the scythe 
and grain cradle. There were plenty of grub roots and stumps in the 
way and it was very slow work getting over an acre of ground. On 
nearly all the clearings there were yokes of oxen and women learned to 
guide them around by using the "haw" and "gee" formula, aided with 
a good stout whip-stalk, lash and cracker. In fact, it would have been 
impossible for the pioneers to have succeeded in conquering the wilder- 
ness of Calhoun county, had it not been for the "women folks." 

For juany years there was little elTort to make money by growing 
wheat to sell as the leading crop of the small farm clearings. It was 
mighty hard work to get enough to eat sometimes oif from these small 
patches, but the pioneer and his family stuck to the .job through thick 
and thin until more and more acres of the claim was cleared of timber 
and brush. A few had horses, but a single team and one yoke of oxen 
made up the motive power on even the largest farms in some sections of 
the county until the time of the Civil war. 

The wagons were more or less substantially made ; quite heavy 
gear, and narrow tires were the rule. The old territorial road through 
Calhoun county and other main roads were almost impassable in places 
in the spring and late fall. The low places across marshes and each 
side of many small streams were sometimes filled in with logs and brush 
before hauling on dirt and gravel. It was an almost daily occurrence for 
one to get a wheel stuck in a deep mud hole, and the narrow tires made 
such holes deeper. But even in those days some good roads were built 
by the pioneers. 

Each township later on was divided into road beats and put in 
charge of a pathmaster. Road beds were made by plowing a backfurrow 
from each side into the middle of the road. Prom one to a dozen teams 
would plow all day on a mile or half-mile strip and the center of the 
track would sometimes be left very high and narrow. Each team, wagon, 
plow and man would count a day's work, and any present-day labor 
iinion would have been pleased with the extremely short sessions of the 
farmers each forenoon and afternoon on the job, with connnittee meetings 
under a shade tree and in fence comers every half hour, more or less. 

As the years passed by the farms gradually increased in number 
in various sections of the county. ;\Iore ground was cleared and wheat 
became the principal crop. Settlements and villages had grown rapidly 


into towns and there was considerable demand for all farm products 
for home consumption, with the exception of wheat. Long before the 
Civil war it was a common daily occurrence in the late spring, during the 
fall, and for weeks at a time, to see strings of teams and wagons loaded 
with twenty to twenty-five bags of wheat waiting at the elevators to un- 
load. The wheat buyer frequently was the biggest and most important 
man in town. He stood on the corner and watched the loads coming 
in on the main roads. Sometimes he had no competition and would 
pay a little less than the wheat was worth in the market. When there 
was a good demand for wheat and prices were going up, with two buyers 
in competition, it was interesting to stand on the street and watch tho 
loads come into town. Sometimes they would be met several blocks out 
and two buyers would .jump on the same load. This kind of a per- 
formance delighted the owner of the wheat, for he knew he would get a 
little more money than he expected when he left home. Sometimes 
the two buyers would agree on a price and hold it down for the day, 
thus forming the first sort of a "trust" and stifling competition. The 
farmer usually started for town with his load of wheat ^vithout even 
knowing what the prevailing market jDrice for the day might be. After 
delivering the first load he would sometimes contract for several more 
at a stated price. 

During ''war times" the farmers of Calhoun county had plenty of 
excitement in selling wheat in Battle Creek, Marshall, Albion and other 
points where there was a railroad station and elevator. Wheat took 
big jumps in price and reached three dollars and over on certain days of 
the greatest activity in this cereal. A telegram would sometimes reach 
the wheat buyer after he had opened a bag, inspected a handful and 
made a "bid" to the farmer. The farmer would have his eye opened 
all the time and could generally tell how the price was going by watching 
the buyer as he glanced over the telegram. Before that bag of wheat 
was tied and laid down on the road the owner might be offered from five 
to fifteen cents per bushel more than the first bid made when the bag 
was lifted on end 

Those were strenuous days for the farmers of this county and manj' 
pages of this history might be devoted to the experiences of the pioneer 
farmers and the street wheat buyers There were all sorts of tricks in 
vogue or tried by a few on both sides. Short weights were claimed 
by the farmer frequently, and occasionally the elevator man would find 
a heavy stone rolling into the hopper. Later on farmers began buying 
scales and then weighed the wheat at home. This was a most desi^ble 
plan and soon stopped much of the complaint regarding shoi't weights. 
And yet there were some farmers who became "tired" of weighing at 
home and let the scales stand in the corner and rust. These were the 
farmers who were always complaining "bout siithin or other" going 
wrong with everybody but themselves. 

There are many hundreds of acres of land in Calhoun county today 
that are practically worthless for farming purposes, same as elsewhere 
in Michigan. Swamps and "catholes" are plenty in places and they are 
well distributed in the various townships. Others have been drained 
in the years gone by and made available for growing certain crops. 


Some of this kind of land is now the most valuable of all and is worth 
one hundred dollars and more per acre in the market Measures have 
recently been taken to drain a large section of low land in the northeast- 
ern portion of the county that will ultimately increase the value of that 
land in the neighborhood of nearly a million dollars. 

It was a gradual change from wheat growing as the leading farm 
product to that of dairying. Wonderful yields of wheat were grown 
on the hundreds of fine farms in the county from before the war until 
about 1880. The general plan on many farms before that time was to 
"summer- fallow" at least one field. This was usually well covered with 
a good growth of red clover, sown the year previous. Soon after planting 
corn the plow would be started in the clover lot. Frequently it took 
two teams, or one span of horses and a yoke of oxen, to haul the walk- 
ing plow through heavy clay loam soil and turn under the rank growth 
of clover. The knife coulter later gave way to the little plow or 
".jointer." This was first bolted to the beam and cut a shallow and 
narrow furrow in line with the landside of the plow. The effect was to 
cut and turn the sod and clover over enough so tliat all trash disappeared 
under the furrow as it laid over on, and against, the preceding one. 

The summer-fallow was plowed before commencing the wheat harvest, 
if possible. At odd spells the plowed ground was harrowed and culti- 
vated alternately until seeding time in September. If the ground be- 
came very weedy sheep were turned on, as nearly every farmer kept 
some sheep in those days. It was during that time that the spring 
tooth harrow appeared. The wood frame was of a V-shape and the 
flat spring teeth were fastened on the under side with steel clamps and 
short bolts. Before this implement appeared the summer-fallows were 
cultivated with a tool made in Battle Creek and very popular in those 
days. There were several kinds on the market and a nice clean fallow 
depended on the thorough use of one of these tools. Some had rigid 
legs and breakages were frequent on stony ground. At seeding time 
the summer-fallow on many Calhoun county farms was the pride of the 
owner. The ground would be thoroughly compacted underneath, while 
the surface soil was very smooth and mellow. Not a weed could be 
found and the drill hoes deposited the seed at just the right depth. There 
would be plenty of moisture and the seed would germinate and show 
green sprouts above the surface in less than a week, sometimes. The 
tap root and laterals would all remain in the upper two inches of soil 
and there would be no danger from the upheaval by frost the following 
spring. Under other conditions of seed bed treatment the tap root 
would go down several inches and he broken oi¥ by freezing and thawing 
of the upper layer of soil. 

After 1880 wheat growing began to decline in this section of the 
countr.v. The yield kept diminishing from (various causes. Dairying 
was beginning to increase rapidly on the farms around the larger towns 
and cities and corn gradually becanw the leading crop in order to more 
cheaply feed the increasing herds of cows. From that time to the 
present the acreage and yield of corn has increased until now corn is 
"king," instead of wheat, in southern Michigan. 

As dairying increased it was found that the fai-incr wlio kcjit cows 


must produce the largest possible quantity of the best quality in order 
to maie the greatest profit. And the milk must be secured at the least 
possible expense in production. Naturally, under these conditions, the 
leading dairy farmers of the county found that the silo was a valuable 
adjunct in securing the best and cheapest succulent feed the whole year 
round. Fifteen years ago there were about a score or more silos in 
the county, while now they can be counted by the scores in every neigh- 
borhood and township. 

At the present time there are not enough of many of the various 
Mnds of farm products grown in Calhoun county to supply the demand at 
home. Our products are more diversified now, and yet the farmers 
must hustle, study, plan and secure greater yields from their farms to 
furnish our own population enough to consume in the years to come. 
The cities and villages are increasing in population and the country 
residents are decreasing in number. Each acre of Calhoun county must 
be made to produce more than ever before, and there are some farmers 
who are accomplishing this mueh-to-be-desired result. Intensive farm- 
ing is being studied and practiced in spots. Smaller farms are now 
more in demand as help is difficult to secure and the farmer and his 
family are doing more of the work with their own hands with the aid 
of the latest and best modern farm machinery. 

Wonderful changes have taken place all through the county during 
the last fifty years. Fine farm houses and barns can be seen on the 
great majority of the farms along every highway. Years ago trees were 
planted along the roads and on the lawns, and it is a pleasure now to ride 
in an automobile and view the landscape in every direction. Many of 
the farm homes are finer than the average city residence and are supplied 
with the various modern improvements that have been found to make the 
country home convenient, highly enjoyable and even luxurious. 

When the farmers ride into the city with their horses and carriages, 
or automobiles, it is difficult to distinguish them from city business men 
on the streets. Their wives and children dress as well and make fully an 
good an appearance as the city lady. The sons and daughters on the 
farms of Calhoun county are securing a better education in the schools 
and colleges than the young people in the city. In the years to come the 
farmer and his family will continue to rank well with the city resident 
and both classes will intermingle in a social as well as a business waj' more 
than ever before. 

Roads and the Improvement of Roads 

It is now almost one hundred years since General Cass as Governor 
of the Territory began to interest himself and the people in the ques- 
tion of roads in Michigan. That sagacious statesman saw that if the 
interior was to be reached, settled and developed there must be some 
semblance of roads. It is greatly to the credit of Governor Cass that 
he succeded in accomplishing so much in this respect during his admin- 

The first road surveyed through Calhoun County was ordered by the 
legislative council of the Territory of iMiehigan on November 4, 1829. 


The survey began ""in the Chicago road at or near the inii of Timothy S. 
Sheldon in the township of Plymoutli in the village of Wayne, thenee 
west on the most direct and eligible route through village of Ann Arbor, 
by Samuel Clements, to Grand River where the St. Joseph trail crosses 
the same and also through the Cohgwagiac, now spelled Goguac, located 
in Battle Creek township, and Grand prairies, thence westerly on the 
most eligible route to or near the Paw Paw to the mouth of the St. 
Joseph River, Michigan." The Commissioners to establish the road 
were Seeley Neale, of Panama, afterward of Jlarengo township, Calhoun 
County, and Orrin White, of Ann Arbor and Jehial Enos, of Grand 
Prairie of the Kalamazoo. In March, 1831, the legislative council ap- 
proved the survey and established the same as a public highway. 

In 1832 roads from Battle Creek to the mouth of the Kalamazoo 
River and from Blissfield to IMarshall were laid out and established. The 
Commissioners on the second survey were Isaac N. Swayne, Sidney 
Ketchum and Isaac E. Crai-y. 

In 1833 a road running from Jackson, then called Jaeksonburg, via 
Spring Arbor, Homer. Tekonsha, Burlington and on through the south- 
west part of the State was established. In the same year a road was laid 
from ^larshall to Grand Rapids and one from Marshall to Coldwater 
and one from Hillsdale, via Jonesville, to ]\Iarshall. 

From the early surveys to the present time, every improvement upon 
the Indian trail with its long detours over the line of least resistance: 
every betterment of the blazed track of the surveyor which led by short- 
est route across unbridged streams and almost impassable morasscp 
every bridge put up ; every causeway built and every mile of corduroy 
laid ; every valley raised ; every hill lowered ; in a word, every improve- 
ment which enabled the farmer to haul his produce to market with the 
least strain on his horses and the least wear and tear on his wagon ; 
everything done to facilitate the traveler on his way has added to the 
happiness and contentment of the rural dwellers, to the value of the 
farms and to the general prosperity of the country. No equal amount 
of money invested has paid a larger dividend or been distributed among 
so many people as that expended in the betterment of the public high- 

The old world long ago realized the importance of this cjuestion and 
the roads built centuries before our republic had an existence are still 
monuments to the skill and enterprise of the ancients. Modern Europe 
has done much to improve lier highways and the roads in England and 
on the Continent are a never ceasing delight to the local builders and 
users as well as to the tourists from all lands. 

In the older sections of our own country long strides have been taken 
in the betterment of public highways. Every traveler over the country 
roads in New England speaks of their beauty and perfection. The 
people of New York and Pennsylvania have spent large sums in this 
direction. Ohio and Indiana, our near neighbors, have spent many 
millions on road improvement and every mile of good road built creates a 
demand for more as they see the great advantage, particularly to the 


The people of Michigan are awakening- to the importance of this 
movement. Recent legislatures have taken action and have put upon the 
statute books laws designed to encourage by standardizing different types 
of road construction varying in cost per mile, by requiring that the 
work be done in a thorough and systematic manner under competent 
directors and by so distributing the cost that every tax payer shares in 
the payment of all roads built and accepted by the State. This move- 
ment is so new in our State and so imperfectly understood and its 
general adoption is so sure to leave a visible and enduring landmark from 
which the future will measure progress that we feel justified in treating 
the subject somewhat at length. 

The County Road System Submitted 

On the eleventh day of October, 1911, at a regular session of the 
Calhoun County Board of Supervisors, E. H. Puffer submitted the 
following : 

Whereas, it is deemed advisable by the Board of Supervisoi-s here 
assembled that a change in the method of constructing highways be con- 
sidered, therefore, 

Be It Resolved : That the question of adopting the County road sys- 
tem be submitted to a vote of the electors of the County of Calhoun at 
, the general election to be held on the first day of April, 1912. 

iloved by E. H. Puffer and supported by P. E. Strong that the 
matter be laid on the table and be made a special order on Wednesday, 
October 18, at 10:30 o'clock A. M. 

The Board of Supervisors was called to order at ten o'clock A. M., 
October 18, 1911, by Ralph S. Doolittle, Chairman. On roll call mem- 
bers answered to their names except John Cotter, Reuben Drinkwater, 
Bert Milbourn, Charles Gillis, D. C. Salisbury and C. H. Clute. 

It was moved by E. H. Puffer and supported by E. F. Hough that the 
Good Roads Resolution be taken from the table. The motion prevailed. 
Moved by E. H. Puffer and supported by E. E. Simmons the adoption 
of the report. 

Mr. Puffer called to the attention of the Board that Mr. Bryant was 
present and requested that he be allowed to address the Board on the 
question of good roads. After listening to Mr. Brvant, the aye and nay 
vote was called for upon the adoption of the resolution with the follow- 
ing result: Ayes; G. J. Ashley, Julius Crosby, F. W. Culver, Ralph 
Doolittle, A. Emmons, R. E. Eldred, Antone Egeler, George T. Fuller, 
James J. Fahey, Julius S. Hall, William T. Hamilton, E. F. Hough, 
Burton Hunt, Otis A. Leonard, John Lidaner, C. W. Lewis, Frederick 
Katz, Charles Kilmer, L. Monroe, John H. Manby, J. K. O'Hara. E. H. 
Puffer, Milton Reed, H. J. Schwark, Frank E." Smith, E. E. Simons, 
F. E. Strong, C. E. Wildy, Erwin Warsop, James E. Walkinshaw, 
Thomas Celinsky; Nays, Ralph Erskine, Thomas Hunt. The vote stand- 
ing thirty-one ayes and two nays. The Chair declared the resolution 


The County Road System Adopted 

In aeeordaiK'e with the atifiniiative action of the Board of Supervisors, 
the question of adopting the County road system was siihniitted to a vote 
of tlie electors of the County at the general election held on the first 
day of April, 1912, and carried. The vote of the Supervisors ratified by 
the people places Calhoun County in the list of forty-four progressive 
counties in the State which have already adopted the County system. 
Elmer Thompson, Frank ^Mahrlc and George Peet have been appointed 
a Board of Count.y Road Coiiimissioners. On the first Monday in April 
next, their successors will be elected by the people to serve two, four 
and six years respectively from the first day of ^lay, lill:^, and tliere- 
after one Commissioner shall be biennially elected for tlie full term 
of six years. 

The law provides that "any road heretofore laid out, or any part 
thereof, shall become a Count.y road if the Board of County Road Com- 
missioners shall at any time so determine." It further provides that 
after service and publication of such determination "the Board of 
County Road Commissioners shall have sole and exclusive jurisdiction 
and control of such roads so embraced within such determination, and 
the township or inuiiicijijdity within which the same is situated shall be 
relieved of all I'espoiisibility therefor." 

The law. section li), further provides that the "Board of County 
Commissioners shall have authority to grade, drain, construct, gravel or 
macadamize, any road under their control or to place thereon any other 
form of improvement, which in their judgment may be best, and may 
extend and enlarge such improvements; they shall have authority to 
construct bridges and culverts on the line of such road and to repair 
and maintain the roads, bridges and culverts; they shall have all the 
authority in respect to such roads, bridges and culverts which is inves- 
ted in highway olificers in townships. ' ' 

In determining the County tax, section 20 says: "On or tiefore the 
first day of October of each year the said Board of County Road Com- 
missioners shall determine upon the amount of tax which in their judg- 
ment shall be raised for such year in said County for the purposes afore- 
said, specifying and itemizing the roads and parts of roads upon which 
such moneys are to be expended, stating the amount asked for each of 
such roads. * * * Such tax shall not exceed two dollars on each one 
thousand dollars of assessed valuation according to the assessment roll of 
the last preceding year in counties where such valuation is, (as in Cal- 
houn, Ed.) more than twenty millions of dollars." At the annual meet- 
ing of the Board of Supervisors in October, the determination of the 
County Road Commissioners for their consideration and if a n;ajority of 
the Supervisors approve the same, then "such tax shall be apportioned 
among the several townships and cities of said County according to 
their equalized valuation." 

The law provides in section 21, that the "said Board of County 
Road Commissioners shall have no power to contract indebtedness for 
any amount in excess of the moneys credited to such Board and actually 
in tlie hands of the County Treasurer. Provided, that the board may 


incur liability upon contracts after a tax is voted to an amount not ex- 
ceeding three-fourths of the said tax." Even the Supervisors cannot 
contract indebtedness or issue bonds to raise money for the construction 
and maintenance of roads without first submitting the proposition to 
and receiving the endorsement of the electors of the County at a general 
or at a special election called for that purpose. 

The law further provides, section 28, that "The Board of Super- 
visors of any County, which has adopted or may hereafter adopt the 
County road system, may, upon petition of ten freeholders residing in 
each of the several townships, incorporated cities and villages in the 
County, submit the question of rescinding the vote by which it was 
adopted and the resolution to submit and all proceedings thereto, shall, 
as nearly as may be, follow the forms and manner of proceedings pro- 
vided for voting on the question of adopting the County road system." 

When any County votes to rescind the action whereby it adopted the 
County road system, "this act shall cease to be operative except for the 
purpose of completing work under contract at the time of such re- 

The rewards allowed by the State are $250.00, $500.00, $700.00 and 
$1000.00 per mile, the reward varying with the style and cost of con- 

The People the Masters 

A careful reading of the laws relating to good roads will show that 
the people are the real masters of the situation. There can be no Coun- 
ty road system instituted in any County without the expressed assent 
of a majority of the people, and the system when once adopted, can be 
rescinded at any time by a majority vote of the electors. 

The rate of taxation for road improvement under the County system 
is limited by law. In Calhoun County, it having more than forty million 
dollars of assessed valuation, the tax cannot exceed, it may be less, two 
mills on the dollar. It will be seen that if a man's property is assessed 
at $1,000.00 he would pay $2.00 good road tax. If a farmer or city 
dweller is assessed at $5,000.00, he would pay a road tax of $10.00 a 

The Board of Supervisors controls the entire system. Not a mile of 
road can be built nor a dollar raised by taxation, for this purpose, with- 
out their approval. The Board of County Road Commissioners are the 
servants of the Supervisors and the Supervisors are the servants of the 
people; any member of the board being subject to recall at any spring 

The advantage of the system is greatly with the farmer. For under 
the County Road law, all County roads end at the corporation line of 
cities and villages, whereas the burden of taxation for the building of 
such roads is divided between the State, cities and villages and the agri- 
cultural property ; whereas under the law as it was, the burden falls en- 
tirely on the agricultural property. 

Tlie law provides that no township can build more than three miles 
in any one year and receive therefor a state reward; but the County 


system makes continuous main roads with no breaks at the township 

It is worthy of note that if a County does not adopt the County 
road system, it submits to a State tax for tlie good of those who do, 
without any direct benefit to itself. 

Of the forty-four counties in Michigan which have, up to this time, 
1912, adopted the County road system, not one has submitted or pro- 
posed to submit the recall, while a number, seeing the great benefits de- 
rived, have asked that the maximum tax be imposed. 

If the County road system shall continue in force through a series 
of years, it will gradually work a revolution in the condition of our 
highways ; it will make the farm home more accessible and more desirable 
as a place to live ; it will beautify and cause more of the urban people 
to come in contact with and enjoy the country, and last but not least, 
it will advance the value of all farm property. 



Bank of United States op America — Wild-Cat Banking — A National 
Currency — Old National Bank of Battle Creek — The First Na- 
TioNiiL Bank of Battle Creek — The First National Bank op 
Marshall — Central National Bank, Battle Creek — City Bank 
op Battle Creek — Merchants Savings Bank of Battle Creek — • 
The Commercial and Savings Bank, Albion — Albion State Bank 
— First State Bank of Tekonsha — Athens State Bank. 

Banks, as places where money is deposited for safe keeping and where 
loans for a consideration are made, are among the most ancient institu- 
tions of which we have knowledge. The children of Israel, according 
to the Book Exodus, 22 :25, not only had banks but indulged in exacting 
excessive interest. The money changers flourished in the time of our 

Banking reached a high stage of development among the Grecians 
and the Romans. Bankers in Greece and Rome seem to have exercised 
nearly the same functions as those of the present day, except that they 
do not appear to have issued notes. They received money on deposit to 
be paid on demand by checks or orders or at some stipulated period, 
sometimes paying interest for it and sometimes not. Their profits arose 
from their lending the balance at their disposal at higher rates of in- 
terest than they allowed the depositors. Among the ancients, as in our 
days, bankers were highly esteemed and great confidence was placed in 
their integrity. 

With the revival of civilization, banking reappeared as one of the 
business customs. The bank of Venice is said to antedate all others in 
Europe. Banking was' not introduced into England until the 17th 
century. The Bank of England, which has long been the principal bank 
of deposit and circulation in England and, indeed, in Europe, was 
founded in 1694. Among other things under its charter, the corpora- 
tion is "prohibited from engaging in any sort of commercial under- 
taking other than dealing in bills of exchange and in gold and silver." 
Since 1833, the notes of the Bank of England are a legal tender every- 
where in that country, except at the bank. The Bank of England does 
not allow, either at its home office in London, or at any of its branches, 
any interest on deposits. 



Bank of United States of America 

lu 1816, Congress passed an act authorizing the establishing of the 
Bank of the United States of America with a capital of tiiirty-five 
millions of dollars, divided into three hundred and fifty thousand shares 
of one hundred dollars each. Seventy thousand shares, amounting to 
seven millions of dollars, were subscribed and paid for by the United 
States government and the remaining two hundred and eighty thousand 
shares remained to be subscribed for by individuals, companies or cor- 
porations, but no individual, company or corporation could subscribe 
for more than three thousand shares. The subscribers to the stock were 
created a coi-poratiou and body politic by the name and style of "The 
president, directors and company of the Bank of the United States," 
For the management of the affairs of the corporation, there were twenty- 
five directors, five of whom were appointed by the President of the 
United States, by and with the advise and consent of the Senate. This 
bank in the course of the years hccjiiuc entangled in politics, it was one 
of the storm centers of rn'sidciit .lackson's administration, and finally 
on June 15, 1836, an act was passed by Congress in efliect repealing its 
charter. The government deposits were shortly after withdrawn and the 
Bank of tlie United States went out of existence. 

Wild Cat Banking 

Previous to the Civil War, it had been the uniform practice of the 
different States to allow banks to be established for the issue of notes, 
payable in specie on deinand. In eases where the liability of share- 
holders in banks was to be limited to the amount of their shares, they 
had up to 1838 to be established by the local legislatures. Charters, 
however, were easily obtained, and banks became comparatively numer- 
ous. Paper currency was issued in greater volume than in any other 
country. From 1811 to 1820, 195 banks in the different States failed 
and ruin and distress followed in their wake. 

The "Wild Cat" banking and the disastrous panic of 1837 were long 
remembered by the people of that day, while the historic recital of them 
seems almost incredible to the later generation. There were a number 
of causes that contributed to the universal wreckage in the country at 
large and in particular to Michigan, which historians agree was the 
worst hit of any State in the Union. 

The complete payment of the national debt, the accumulation of a 
relatively large surplus and the subsequent division of this surplus 
among the States, contributed to the wild spirit of speculation, every- 
where prevalent from ]\Iaine to Michigan. The withdrawal of deposits 
from the National Bank and the placing of them in a large number 
of State banks, made money easy to obtain and being eagerly availed of 
was another contributing cause to the speculative epidemic which seemed 
to seize all classes and conditions of people. Legislatures and legislation 
partook of the prevailing .spirit among the electors. ^lany schemes of 
internal improvements were devised. Some of them possessing real 


merit, but. mostly ahead of their times, others were reckless, extravagant 
ajid inexcusable under any conditions. 

Michigan had a most virulent ease of the prevailing disease. In 
1837, the legislature passed what was termed the General Banking Law. 
The declared intent of this law was to allow competition, where is was 
charged there had been a monopoly enjoyed by a few individuals. The 
law allowed any ten freeholders, with a capital of not less than fifty 
nor more than three hundred thousand dollars, to associate themselves 
together and form a banking corporation. Scarcely had the act gone 
into effect, when the panic of 1837 burst upon the country. The fifteen 
old banks, then doing business in the State, suspended specie payments. 
Though the legislature had been called in special session, and though the 
Governor had reviewed the situation with alarm, he did not recommend 
nor did the legislature, acting on its own initiative, repeal the General 
Banking Law. The result was that while existing banks were in a 
state of suspension, new banks were being organized in every part of 
the State. Forty-nine banks were organized before the legislature on 
the third of April, 1838, suspended the act. Doubtless a good percent- 
age of them were organized in good faith and with honest intent, but 
with others the base deceptions resorted to, the dishonest devices inven- 
ted to mislead the people and evade the plain provisions of the law, 
could leave no room to doubt the purpose of their promoters. These 
dishonest speculators on the credulity of the people succeeded in foisting 
a million dollars of worthless money upon the general public, Large 
sums were sent by these fake banks into other states for circulation. 
"While at home there was a sharp decline in prices of every commodity. 
Wheat, for example, dropped from two dollars and fifty cents to one 
dollar a bushel ; other farm products in like proportion. Distrust seized 
upon the people. Every kind of busines seemed paralyzed. All classes 
suffered, but laboring men and farmers, particularly, were made to feel 
the ill effects. The happy but deceitful illusion of manufacturing money 
with the printing press and creating prosperity by a constantly depre- 
ciating currency, even to the point of worthlessness, followed the usual 
fate of the over-inflation. Our older people still remember the days of 
"Wild-cat" banks and "Wild-cat" money, as a delirious dream from 
which they awoke to a horrible reality. 

This was aggravated by the fanciful schemes of internal improve- 
ments recommended by the Governor and undertaken by legislative en- 
actments. The first Constitution declared that "Internal improvements 
shall be encouraged by the government and to this end, it shall be the 
duty of the legislature, as soon as may be, to make provision by law for 
ascertaining the proper objects of improvements in relation to roads, 
canals and navigable rivers." In obedience to this supreme mandate, 
the first session of the legislature, after its admission to the Union, pro- 
vided for three lines of railroad extending across the State; for two 
canals connecting the eastern and western waters of the State; the 
construction of a steamboat canal around the falls of the Saint Mary's 
River at the ' ' Soo " ; to improve the Grand River from its mouth to 
Lyons, in Ionia County, and to build a canal with locks around the 
rapids at what is now Grand Rapids : the improvement of the Kalamazoo 


River from its iiioiitli to Kalaiiia/.oo, and the Saint Joseph Kiver was to 
be improved from its mouth to Union City, in liraneh County. Surveys 
were made, estimates were given, and on a number of the pi'ojects work 
was begun. The State's share of the surplus from the General Govei*n- 
ment, with other available funds, was exhausted. A tive million dollar 
loan, duly authorized and partly negotiated, was used and still none of 
the great undertakings were completed, and some but little more than well 
begun, when the speculative bubble burst. In addition to the enter- 
prises entered upon the State, there were not less than twenty-four 
railroads and navigation companies, projecting lines in all directions 
and designed to connect nearly every village of any consequence with 
the main system. These were to be constructed by private corporations, 
chartered for the purpose. Among the many projects of this period of 
rampant speculation and of internal improvements was the building of a 
ship canal from Union City to Homer to connect the waters of the Kal- 
amazoo and Saint Joseph Rivers, and another from Kalamazoo to Dex- 
ter, which should unite the Kalamazoo and the Huron Rivers. With this 
object in view, surveys were actually made and favorable reports re- 
turned by the engineers. 

Under the then existing conditions, the period of "Wild-cat" bank- 
ing was in perfect harmony with the times. Public and private credit 
sank to the lowest ebb. The recovery was a slow and tedious process. 
There was some compensation however, in the fact that the General 
Government, the State legislatures, the private corporations, the banks 
and the public at large had each and all learned lessons not soon to be 

A N.\TioNAL Currency 

One of the incidents of the Civil War was the establishment of a 
National Currency. Congress not only provided for the currency, but 
it passed an act to secure such by a pledge of United States Stocks and 
to provide for its circulation and redemption. In the midst of financial 
stress, during the terrific conflict. Congress assumed to give corporate 
powers not to one bank, as had been done earlier in the century, but to 
many. Indeed, National Banks were established in every part of the 
country, sufficient to meet the demands of business. 

Whatever constitutional questions were raised at the time or since, 
and with which we have here nothing to do, it still remains that the 
people have never had a currency of such universal acceptance, with- 
out question, anywhere in the United States. Since the resumption of 
specie payments, our National currency has been received at its face 
value over the counter of every banking establishment of repute on the 
globe. Confidence and stability in financial transactions everywhere 
attest the faith of the people in our banks and in the banking system. 
Occasionally through some local mismanagement or some betrayal of 
trust, banks fail and the people lose, but this is the fault of individuals 
and not of the system. Our banks, with rare exceptions, are safe places 
of deposit. Our bankers, as a rule, are upright and competent men, 
worthy of the confidence the people in them. The banks and 
bankers of Calhoun County are not an exception to the rule. 


We append hereto a list of the banks now doing business in the 
County in the order of their founding, giving the National banks pre- 
cedence, with a statement of the condition of each as appears from the 
last published report. 

Old National Bank of Battle Creek 

The old National Bank of Battle Creek, successor to the private bank 
of Loyal C. Kellogg, started in July, 1851, was organized under the Na- 
tional bank act in June, 1865, application for a permit having been made 
on the preceding 28th of March. At a meeting of the stockholders, the 
following were elected Directors : David Miller, William Andrus, Thomas 
Hart, Loyal C. Kellog, Henry D. Hall, William Wallace, and William 
Brooks, who chose Loyal C. Kellog, President; Thomas Llart, Vice- 
President; Charles M. Leon, Cashier; William Andrus, Secretary of 
Board of Directors. 

We submit herewith the first Statement of the Condition of the 
"Old National" as published in the Battle Creek Journal, October 2, 
1865. This is believed to be the first public Statement of Condition to 
be made by any bank in Calhoun County. 

First National Bank op Battle Creek 

Statement of condition October 2, 1865: — 

Notes and Bills Discounted $ 17,721.16 

Overdrafts 3,057.43 

Banking House $8,000.00 

Furniture and Fixtures 2,084.13 

Expenses 841.20 10,925,33 ' 

Premiums 1,834.29 

Remittances and other Cash Items 1,846.04 

Due from National Banks 28,281.72 

Due from other Banks and Bankers 23,719.53 

U. S. Bonds Deposited to Secure Circulation 45,000.00 

U. S. 7-30 Treasury Notes 3,950.00 

Circulating Notes of other National Banks 2,145.00 

Circulating Notes of State Banks 63.00 

Specie 119.54 

Legal tender $5,015.00 

U. S. 6 per cent Notes 5,180.00 

Fractional Currency 372.84 

U. S. Internal Revenue Stamps 281.00 10,848.84 


Capital Stock paid in $80,000.00 

Circulating Notes 30,000.00 

Due Other Banks 62.23 


Exchange $ 123.38 

Interest 505.21 

Deposits 38,821.06 


Present Offioer.s and Directors of the Old National Bank (1912) :— 
Directors: Edwin C. Nichols, President, Pres. Nichols & Shepard 
Co.; Charles Austin, Vice-President; Charles E. Kolb, Pres. Union 
Steam Pump Co. ; S. J. Titus, Titus & Hicks ; Lew B. Anderson, Treas. 
Ad. Pump & Coinp. Co.; A. B. Williams, Attorney -at-Law ; C. C. 
Beach, Treas. Nichols & Shepard Co. ; John Ileyser, Supt. Union Steam 
Pump Co.; H. J. Smith, Vice-President; L. J. Karcher, Cashier. 

Statement of condition at close of business, September 4, 1912: 


Loans and Discounts .^^2,374,370.58 

U. S. and other Bonds 1,349.457.62 

Securities 20,492.47 

Cash and Due from other Banks 581,627.64 


Capital Stock $ 200,000.00 

Surplus and Profits 143,159.08 

Circulating Notes 200,000.00 

U. S. Government Deposits 4,037.28 

Other Deposits 3,778,751.95 

The First National Bank of Marshalt, 

was organized August 5, 1865, with Charles T. Gorham as President. 
The following is a list of the officers and directors of this bank on this, 
the 7th day of October, 1912: Charles E. Gorham, President; Frank 
A. Stuart, Vice-President; Charles II. Billings, Cashier: Glenn E. 
Grant, Assistant Cashier. Directors: Charles E. Gorham. Samuel F. 
Dobbins, Charles II. Billings, George W. Leedle. Cliarlcs H. (iaiiss, 
James L. Dobbins. Frank A. Stuart. 

Report of condition at the dose of business. Sci.tciiilxT 4. 1912:— 


Loans and Discounts $3117,27(1.51 

Overdrafts, secured and unsecured 4.fi27.17 

U. S. Bonds to secure circulation ]ll(i,(l()(i.(l(» 


Other Bonds to secure postal savings. ..$10,000.00 . $10,000.00 

Bonds, Securities, etc -408,074.44 

Banking house, furniture and fixtures 13,000.00 

Due from National Banks (not reserve agents) .3,050.00 

Due from State and Private Banks and Bankers, 

Trust Companies and Savings Banks 5,153.36 

Due from approved reserve agents 86,148.26 

Checks and other Cash Items 3,169.00 

Notes of other National Banks 1,385.00 

Fractional Paper Currency, nickels and cents.... 130.05 
Lawful money resei've in bank, viz; 

Specie $46,045.50 

Legal Tender Notes 500.00 46,545.50 

Redemption fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 per cent 

of circulation) 5,000.00 


Capital Stock paid in $100,000.00 

Surplus fund 25,000.00 

Undivided profits, less expenses and taxes paid. . . . 43,454.27 

National Bank Notes outstanding 100,000.00 

Individual Deposits subject to cheek 628,301.38 

Demand Certificates of Deposit 95,599.14 

Postal Savings Deposits 1,198.50 


The Central National Bank op Battle Creek 

This bank commenced business with a capital stock of $200,000.00, 
on the 21st day of November, 1903. The following is a list of its present 
officers and directors with the exception of Mr. L. W. Robinson, who died 
August 21, 1912: Edward C. Hinman, President; Frank Wolfe, Vice- 
President ; Carroll L. Post, Vice-President ; Howard B. Sherman, Vice- 
President ; Frank G. Evans, Cashier ; William W. Smith, Assistant 
Cashier; E. D. Albertson, Assistant Cashier; David Miller, Auditor. 

Directors: C. W. Post, Chairman Postum Cereal Co., Ltd.; Edward 
C. Hinman, Pres. American Steam Pump Co. ; H. B. Sherman, Pres. H. 
B. Sherman Mfg. Co. : L. W. Robinson, Dry Goods ilerchant ; Carroll L. 
Post, Viee-Chairman Postum Cereal Co., Ltd. ; H. P. Stewart, Attorney, 
of Stewart & Sabin; Leopold Werstein, Vice-Pres. American Steam 
Pump Co. ; G. L. Gilkey, Capitalist, Kalamazoo ; Frank Wolf, Vice- 
President ; Prank G. Evans, Cashier. 


Coudenst'd repoi't. SepteinhiT 4, 1912: — 


Loans aud Bonds )i;:j.S81,!J!)L()6 

Banking House, Furniture and Fixtures 19, 785. '25 

Cash and Due from Banks 633,843.55 

U. S. Treasury Account 15,000.00 


Capital $ 300,000.00 

Surplus and Profits 164,916.83 

Circulating Notes 300,000.00 

Deposits 3,785,703.03 


The City Bank of Battle Creek 

This bank was organized in 1871 with a capital stock of .$50,000.00. 
The original incorporators were: Richmond Kingman, Alonzo Noble, 
Benjamin F. Graves, Victory P. Collier, John F. iMoulton, Nelson Eldred, 
Elijah W. Pendill, Clement Wakelee, Henry J. Champion and Roldon 
P. Kingman. 

The following constitute its Board of Directors in 1912: F. A. All- 
wardt, H. F. Bechnuiu, S. B. Cole, L. A. Dudley, Charles C. Green, N. 
E. Hubbard, Frank J. Kellogg, M. :Maas, George W. Mecham and E. R. 

Officers: Charles C. Green, President; E. R. ^lorton, Vice-President 
and Cashier; F. A. Allwardt, Second Vice-President; N. E. Hubbard, 
Third Vice-President; N. Y. Green, Assistant Cashier. 

Condensed statement at the close of business, September 4, 1912 : — 


Loans and Mortgages $1,468,963.05 

Overdrafts 604.24 

Real Estate, Furniture and P'ixtures 35,044.30 

Items in Transit 203.69 

Cash on Hand and in Banks 400,205.70 


Capital $ 100,000.00 

Surplus, Undivided Profits 37,620.73 

Deposits 1.767.400.25 



Merchants Savings Bank of Battle Creek 

was incorporated March 28, 1895, with a capital stock of $50,000.00. 

The first officers of the bank were : Prank Turner, President ; A. M. 
Minty, Vice-President; Scott Field, Cashier. The directors were: A. 
M. Minty, Frank Turner, P. Hofifniaster, I. Amberg and Scott Field. 

The following is a list of the officers and directors at the present 
time: A. M. Minty, President; Prank Turner, Vice-President; H. A. 
Rowles, Cashier. Directors: A. M. Minty, Frank Turner, A. O. Jones, 
R. P. Hoffmaster, F. H. Boos, M. Lafever, H. A. Rowles. 

The last statement of the condition of the bank shows a capital stock 
of $50,000.00 and a surplus of .$55,000.00, as follows : 

Condensed report of condition at the close of business, September 4, 
1912 :— 


Loans and Mortgages $1,316,945.97 

Cash on Hand and in Banks 283,162.23 

Banking House, Furniture and Fixtures 27,325.00 


Capital Stock $ 50,000.00 

Surplus and Undivided Profits 55,823.49 

Deposits 1,521,609.71 

The Commercial and Savings Bank of Albion 

This bank was organized on the 30th day of September, 1893, with 
a capital stock of $35,000.00. Its present, 1912, officers and directors 
are as follows : Homer C. Blair, President ; W. C. Marsh, Vice-President : 
Charles G. Bigelow, Cashier ; Charles S. Loud, Assistant Cashier. 

Directors: Samuel Dickie, Washington Gardner, Homer C. Blair. 
Edward R. Loud, L. J. Wolcott, W. C. ilarsh, Benjamin D. Brown. 
Charles G. Bigelow. There is one vacancy. 

The following report shows the condition of this bank on the 4th 
day of September, 1912 : 

Report of condition at the close of business, September 4, 1912 : — 


Loans and Discounts, viz: 

Commercial Department $177,078.46 

Savings Department 20,350.00 $197,428.46 


Bonds, Mortgages and Securities, viz : 

Commercial Department ^ 12,0l)U.0() 

Savings Department 171.1'21.27 .-H83,121.27 

Premium Account $ (iOO.OO 

Overdrafts l,42(i.7() 

Banking House 5,40().0() 

Furniture and Fixtures 2,150.U0 

Other Real Estate 3,210.00 

Items in transit 9.216.03 


Commercial Savings 
Due from banks in 

reserve cities $ 9,982.05 $22,536.55 

Exchanges for clearing 

house 2,933.35 

U. S. and National 

bank currency 8,100.00 11,000.00 

Gold Coin 230.00 

Silver Coin 2,744.35 268.00 

J^ickels and cents 498.63 27 

$24,488.38 $33,804.82 58,293.20 
Checks and other Cash Items 157.92 



Capital Stock paid in $ 35,000.00 

Surplus Fund 16,000.00 

Undivided Profits, net 5,550.61 

Commercial deposits subject to check. .$143,798.51 
Commercial Certificates of Deposit. . . 32,878.37 

State Monies on Deposit 2,500.00 

Savings Deposits (book aects.) 225,276.09 404,452.97 


The Albion St.vte Bank 

was organized :\Iarch 29, 1895, with a capital stock of $50,000.00. Its 
present officers and directors are: Eugene P. Robertson, President; 
W. S. Kessler, Vice-President; Seth Hyney, Cashier; T. N. Brockway, 
Assistant Cashier. 

Directors: O. A. Leonard, S. Y. Hill, W. H. Rodenbach, G. W. 
Schneider, George T. Bullen, D. :\r. McAuliffe, W. S. Kessler, D. A. 
Garfield, Eugene P. Robertson. 

Vol. 1—8 


Report of condition at the close of business, September 4, 1912 : — 
Loans and Discounts, viz: 

Commercial Department $160,863.08 

Savings Department 26,200.00 

Bonds, Mortgages and Securities, viz: 

Commercial Department 20,000.00 

Savings Department 170,886.35 

Premium Account 402.50 

Overdrafts 3,795.88 

Furniture and Fixtures 1,500.00 

Items in transit 1,081.29 


Commercial Savings 
Due from banks in reserve 

cities $15,582.64 $16,597.08 

Exchanges for 

clearing house 3,398.'29 

U. S. and National 

Bank Currency 6,307.00 6,000.00 

Gold Com 910.00 9,000.00 

Silver coin 2,174.05 

Nickels and cents 185.73 

28,557.71 $31,597.08 $ 60,154.79 


Capital Stock paid in $ 50,000.00 

Surplus Fund 10,000.00 

Undivided Profits net 13,855.42 

Dividends Unpaid 50.00 

Commercial deposits subject to check $101,197.59 
Commercial Certificates of Deposit . . 41,353.80 
Savings Deposits (book accts.) 228,427.08 370,978.47 

The First State Bank op Tekonsha 

This bank was established -as a private bank in 1877, by Allen & 
Johnson, and incorporated as a State Bank, March 20, 1902, under the 
name of First State Bank. 


The followiug is a list of the present ofBcers and directors: E. P. 
Keep, President : R. E .Waldo, Vice-President ; B. G. Doolittle, Cashier ; 
F. D. Rice, Assistant Cashier. 

Directors: E. P. Keep, R. E. Waldo, H. N. Randall, E. W. Randall, 
Ed. Dean, James Proctor, B. G. Doolittle. 

Report of the condition at the close of business, Sept. 4, 1912. 


Loans and Discounts, viz : 

Commercial Department $ 84,769.31 

Bonds Mortgages and Securities, viz : 

Commercial Department 8,806.75 

Savings Department 31,839.02 , 


Overdrafts 2.30 

Other Real Estate 2,500.00 

Due from other Banks and Bankers 1,000.00 


Commercial Savings 
Due from Banks in 

resei-ve cities $19,596.01 $4,000.00 

Exchange for 

clearing house 463.73 

U. S. and National 

Bank Currency 5.876.00 1.000.00 

Gold Coin 270.00 1,000.00 

Silver Coin 1,057.85 167.00 

Nickels and cents 81.85 .96 

$27,345.44 $6,167.96 $33,513.40 
Checks and otlier Cash Items 138.82 



Capital stock paid in $30,000.00 

Surplus Fund 4,250.00 

Undivided Profits, net 909.77 

Commercial Deposits subject to check. .$36,969.82 
Commercial Certificates of Deposit .... 52,433.03 

Savings Deposit, (book accts) 20.670.74 

Savings Certificates of Deposit 17.:!:i(;,24 127,409.83 



Athens State Bank 

In January, 1911, the Farmers State Bank and the Athens State and 
Savings Bank, both of the village of Athens, merged their interests, 
since which time the consolidated bank has been doing business as the 
Athens State Bank. At the present time, October, 1912, its capital is 
$30,000.00, and surplus $6,000.00, with total assets over $160,000.00. 

Officers : Frank G. Woodruff, President ; George W. Brokaw, Vice- 
President; Fi-ank E. Estes, Cashier. 

Directors: Abram L. Wood, John A. Stanton, Frank G. Woodruff, 
George W. Brokaw, Fred A. Bower, F. E. Estes, Earle D. Albertson, 
Lauren T. ]\Iorris, Frank AVolf, S. W. Lehr. 



Albion College (by Delos Fall) — (I) Its Early History — (II) Its 
Early History Contini-ed — (III) Early History, Third Period — 
(IV) The Past Thirty-Five Years — Ideal Character of the 
College — ( V) Products. 

By Delos Fall 

(I.)— Its Early History. 

The Year Book of Albion College has kept the following or a similar 
paragraph at the head of its general statement for a good many years, 
an emphatic reminder to all ilethodists of a most important and far 
reaching fact : "In the year 1833, certain prominent residents of the 
territory of Michigan, Rev. Henry Colclazer, Rev. Elijah IT. Pilcher and 
Benjamin H. Packard, I\I. D., resolved to inaugurate a movement for the 
establishment of an academy of higher learning in Jliehigan." 

This sentence of thirty words does not in itself seem to carry great 
significance, but to the thoughtful reader, to one wlio habitually reads be- 
tween the lines, there can be seen the great and enduring monument of 
these three men, a monument higher and grander than could possibly 
by suggested by costly marble or granite erected in sonic city of the dead. 
In this monument are involved all the good inlluciiccs (■\(it( il li\- Alliiim 

College through all its history of now nearly seventy years. Il tains 

the fruitage of all the lives that have been educated here, all the incen- 
tives for higher and more forceful living wliich have entered into the 
activities of all who have in any way been connected with the institution, 
founders, trustees, agents, faculty, patrons, parents, students, the 
church and the state. This thought cannot be further elaborated, but 
let the reader .spend a moment of reflection concerning the weighty 
content of the statement. 

This monument is an enduring one ; it can never lie destroyed and will 
remain through all the coming years. The key to this suggestion is 
found in the word "resolved:" "these men resolved to inaugurate a 
movement." Back of the resolution was an inspiration. Whence the 
inspiration? The answer is plain. These Christian men were inspired 
of God to thus plan to supply the church with the necessary factor of 
education without which it would be impotent to fulfill its great mission. 

* We are gratifiefl to present a somewhat extended sketch of Albion College, the 
only institution of collegiate grade in the County. The character and extent of 
■work done in the past, its present condition and its possibilities in the future .iustify 
space given. Prof. Delos Fall, author of the article, is well qualified to prepare it. 
For more than a third of century, he has helil an important chair in the Faculty of 



Furthermore, let no one insinuate that Albion College will ever do 
anything but make persistent and constant progress to an ever increasing 
sphere of influence. The college can not retrograde, it can not stand 
still for the reason that in the original instance it was divinely inspired. 
Resolutions were submitted by these men to the Ohio annual con- 
ference, which body then had jurisdiction over this territory. The sub- 
■ ject was favorably considered, and a committee was appointed to further 
the project. An act of incorporation was obtained from the legislative 
branch of the territorial government, dated March 23, 1835, by which 
a school under the name "Spring Arbor Seminary" was located in the 
village of Spring Arbor, Jackson County, on the site of an old Indian 

Prof. Delos P.vll 

For sometime nothing further was done. No buildings were ever 
erected at this place and the school was never opened; the conditions 
were discouraging and some of its friends were ready to abandon the 
enterprise. It should lie i-eniembered, however, that this was before 
Michigan became a state, licl'div the appointment of the first state super- 
intendent of public intriutii)ii and liefore there was any formal organiza- 
tion of a school system. It must Ite considered that all movements having 
as their end the building up of the kingdom of God on the earth proceed 
slowly and especially in the time of their initial history. 

In spite of a common traditicm to the contrary, Methodism has always 
attached very great imi)oi-(,iii(c \n education and has ever been in the 
van of progress in the fsiaiilisliimiit of schools of learning. Born in a 
college, she could not do 

the Institution and he is thoroughly familiar, not only with its history, but its spirit 
and ainis. He has known personally, nearly all the instructors and others of whom 
he makes mention. Besides being an erudite scholar, successful teacher and writer 


In the meantime the young and growing village of Albion, 
through some of its most enterprising citizens, made a proposition for the 
removal of the school to that place. This received the endorsement of 
the ilichigan annual conference, which had been formed by division of 
the Ohio conference, and the state legislature, in 1839, amended the 
charter, giving it the corporate name of Wesleyan Seminary, making 
the proposed change of location, and reconstructing the board of trustees. 

In the autumn of 1S39, Rev. Loring Grant, who had been a prominent 
minister in western New York, was appointed agent and entered upon 
the difficult task of raising funds for the erection of a seminary building. 
A system of scholarships was adopted which gave the holder four years ' 
tuition in the school on payment of one hundred dollars. This gave 
money for the building but nothing for payment of salaries of teachers. 

The corner-stone of the tirst building was laid in June 1841, which 
was completed in time for the opening of the school in November, 1843. 
It was a plain structure 50x100 feet and four stories high, made of brick 
and stuccoed to represent stone. Rev. Charles F. Stockwell, A. M., a 
graduate of iliddletown university, was appointed principal, who, with 
an earnest corps of teachers, entered upon the work of instruction. Stu- 
dents in large numbers flocked to the school and much educational 
enthusiasm was awakened in the church. The patronage was not con- 
fined to the Methodist church, but was general. During this period 
several young men prepared for college who subsequently reached 
places of high distinction. 

It is not a difficult task to read and interpret the underlying thought 
of these founders of Albion. They saw that such a school would inevit- 
ably become the center and nucleus for the production of denominational 
enthusiasm; here would be gathered into a focus the intiuence of the 
church, and here could be gained the interest and power to render 
efficient aid in extending church enterprises. It is the glory of Albion 
College that it has always strongly supported missionary and evangelistic 

At the same time, while it insisted that fundamental and essential 
Christianity was a vital factor in higher education, and that there must 
be free opportunity for Christian culture in the life of the college stu- 
dent, it never could he said that the college was open to the charge of 
sectarianism in any sense! 

Albion was and remains earnestly and aggressively Chi-istian, but 
not narrow or sectarian. Its government and spirit are religious but 
it imposes no sectarian tests. It was founded by the church ; it is under 
the control of the church; the majority of the board of trustees are ap- 
pointed by the Detroit and ^liehigan conferences; the trustees are re- 
quired to make an annual report to these conferences of the condition, 
needs and work of the institution ; the conferences appoint visitors to 
the college who are required to report to the appointing bodies the re- 
sult of their inspection. 

Albion is a school of liberal arts and not a theological school. The 
Bible is studied in the Hebrew, tlie Greek and the English, but there are 
no theological tests and no religious exactions beyond regular attendance 

of repute, he has been a man of affairs among men. He was long a member of the 
City Board of Education ; alderman in the City Council ; twelve years a member of 
the State Board of Health ; four years State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 


upon chapel exercises each school day and at church on the Sabbath, 
giving the students their choice of place of worship. 

Albion is not a theological school, and yet every graduating class 
contains a considerable number of young men who have heard the call 
and have consecrated themselves to the work of the ministry. This 
course on their pax't is in exact harmony with the advice of the bishops 
who say that as between a full four years ' college course and a shortened 
college course supplemented by one in a theological school, the former 
is very much to be preferred. 

In addition to those who are preparing for the regular ministry there 
is maintained a students' volunteer missionary band consisting of a large 
number of 3'oung men and women who are preparing themselves for 
the foreign missionary work. 

Thus it is true to-day, as in the past, that a very large number of 
the pulpits in Slichigan are filled by men who have been trained in Al- 
bion College, and thereby is demonstrated the fact that the school is 

the strong right arm of the church, making its influence felt in every 
charge and placing every member of the Methodist church under un- 
deniable obligations to aid in giving it adequate support. 

(II.) — Its Early History Continued. 

A second period in the development of the school at Albion began in 
18-19 when by an act of the legislature the charter was amended creating 
a female college under the corporate name of "Wesleyan Seminary and 
Female Collegiate Institute," and authorizing the school to confer de- 
grees only upon women. This action was somewhat anomalous, and re- 
versed the traditional method employed, which almost universally con- 
sisted in providing for the higher education of young men, leaving the 
young women out of the account. In other words, co-education, the 
education of both sexes in one institution, has come into existence 
thi'ough long discussion with old prejudices and theories of education. 
In the present case the boys might be members of the college classes, but 
they could not graduate with a degree. 

a member ami Secretary of the State Board of Education; a member of the Conven- 
tion that framed our present State Constitution and in that convention -was chairman 
of the Committee on Education and Educational Institutions. 


The course of study was exteuded and made inoi-e regular, requiring 
work up to about the close of the sophomore year in our best colleges for 
young men. The educational demands were thought to be of a higher 
standard than in the female colleges in other states at that time. The 
appliances for instruction were considerabl.y increased, especially in 
chemistry and physics. 

The institution continued under tins chai'ter for eleven years, from 
1850 to 1861. During this time the degree of JI. A. S. was conferred 
upon 117 young women. Let the reader pause here and interpret the 
letters designating this degree. He will look in vain in the list of ali- 
breviations in the unabridged dictionaries of our time. It is sujiposed, 
of course, that the worthy women who received this degree can readily 
translate it, "^Mistress of the Arts and Sciences." ilany of these women 
became quiet prominent in public work, and some are to-day occupying 
distinguished positions. 

A second building of about the same dimensions as the first was 
erected in 1852. This was burned to the ground in the autumn of 1853, 
and was rebuilt the ne.xt year, although somewhat reduced in size. 

The board of trustees of the female college might have been com- 
posed of women, but it was not. Rev. A. M. Fitch was president; Ed- 
ward JlcClure, first vice-president ; C. ^l. Cobb, secretary ; Joseph 
French, treasurer; the other members being G. L. Foster, E. H. Pilcher, 
R. Sapp, H. Packard, 0. C. Comstock, Benjamin Faxon. E. J. House, 
and L. D. Crippen. 

The faculty were Rev. Clark T. Iliniiian. A. .M.. president and jiro- 
fessor of moral and intellectual science; Rev. E. W. .Merrill. A. M., 
professor of ancient languages and elocution ; Rev. Norman Abbott, A. 
M., professor of mathematics ; Rev. L. R. Fiske, A. B., professor of 
Natural science; Lsaac C. Cochrane, professor of primary English liter- 
ature ; ]Miss Sarah Hurst, principal of female department and teacher 
of modern languages and fine arts; Jlrs. Mary E. Church, teacher of 
music; Joseph Chandierlain, teacher of Indian department: Josejih 
French, steward ; Rev. W. H. Brockway, general agent. 

During the year 1850 there were 355 students in attendance. It 
will be noticed that the course of study was essentially the old, traditional 
classical course with a modest introduction of the subjects of science, 
modern languages and English. The department for the instruction of 
Indians was unique and suggestive of the early missionary spirit of the 
institution. The catalogue of that year made the modest statement for 
the musical department that "Lessons will be given on the piano and 
melodeon." It takes a half-dozen pages of the modern college year book 
to make adequate announcement of instruction in piano-forte, voice, pipe 
organ, violin, violoncello, orchestral instruments, chorus, oratories, can- 
tatas, concerts, recitals, et cetera. 

Rev. Clark T. Hinman, D. D., a minister of inspiring eloquence and 
of great pulpit power, was principal of the seminary for four years and 
president of the collegiate institute for three years, from 184(i to 1853. 
He was afterwards largely instrumental in founding the Northwestern 
University at Evanston, and became it.s first president. 

For the following very vivid and interesting account of one phase 


of Albion's history, the writer is indebted to the Rev. M. A. Daugherty, 
who was for several years the very able field agent of the college : " It 
may be of interest to recall a chapter of its history in the transition from 
the Albion Seminary and Wesleyan Female College to Albion College. 
This required a change in the charter. One of the features of the re- 
vised charter was unique, and born of the unfortunate experience of the 
institution in getting into debt. It was the creation of a new corporation, 
distinct from the board of trustees, to hold and invest all the funds con- 
tributed for endowment, making it impossible for the trustees, no matter 
how great their necessity, to use a dollar of the endowment fund for 
current expenses. 

"That matchless man, Clark T. Hinman, when president of the insti- 
tution, had raised an endowment fund of $100,000 by the sale of scholar- 
ships entitling the owner to free tuition for one pupil forever. Every 

RoBixsux Building 

$100 represented such a scholarship. The principal was to be invested 
and held a sacred trust forever, and the interest only to be used for 
current expenses. The fund was partly cash, and pArtly in notes, given 
for scholarships, on which the makers paid ten per cent annual interest 
till it suited them to pay the principal. The income was scanty, the 
wants of the school plenty and pressing. The trustees had money in 
hand belonging to the endowment fund. To be sure, it was a sacred 
trust, and they had solemnly promised never to pervert it. But it was 
needed so badly, and they must cither have money or close the school. 
They were good men, true fiifiids nf the church and the college, con- 
fronting as they saw it, a great (lihMiinia, one horn a closed school, the 
other a pei'version of a sacred fund. They made the fatal mistake of 
selectiiii;' the latter. They borrowed the endowment fund, as they said, 
and intended to repay it. But wants accumulated so fast, income was so 


iu;uk'(|uato,*tliey were ik'wv able to pay. Having eiitei-ed u|)oii this fatal 
policy, it was easy to eoutinue it, aud this they did till all cash was iu 
hand and all notes that they eould collect were used up. The eud had 
come. The institution was without means, and w'hat was far worse, 
was left without many friends, and with an army of open enemies or 
indifferent constituents. The college and its managers were covered 
with odium. Every prominent minister and layman in both confer- 
ences had scholarships, anathemas for the trustees, and hostility or cold- 
ness for the institution itself. Meanwhile a poorly-paid but heroic 
faculty had kept the doors open and taught all who came. The north 
and central buildings had grown dilapidated, the grounds unsightly, 
being uniuclosed and dug into pits to get gravel to mend the ways of 
the village. The walls of the north building were up and- roofed, and 
had been for some years, but inside unfurnished, and outside unsightly, 
'lehabod' was written everywhere. 

"This was the state of things that confronted its friends in 1865. 
Its friends of to-day have no such conditions to face. They have a 
public sentiment widely sympathetic, a condition highly respectable, 
resources not what they should be, but equal to good work, a hopeful 
and splendid outlook, and halls crowded with promising young men and 
women. Had it not been for such men a.s Owen, Preston. Sheldon, Gale 
and others among the laymen, and Cogshall, Hrockway, Fitch, Jocelyn, 
Perrine, Gillett, Smart, Clements, Reed and others among the preachers, 
but for their heroism and devotion. Albion College would have found its 
grave in 1865 or before. But 1866 was the centennial year. The friends 
of the college succeeded in carrying through l)Oth the Michigan and De- 
troit conferences a resolution to celebrate the centennial of iiethodism 
in America by raising -iilOO.UOO for the endowment of Albion College. 
Each conference appointed a committee to plan and supervise the effort. 
Albion was asked to raise $25,tK)U as the condition on which the institution 
was to remain at Albion. 1 know well the plans of the Michigan con- 
ference for I was chairman of its committee and the laboring oar and 
supervision of the work fell to me. AVe had the cause presented to the 
people at every appointment and contributions solicited. We also em- 
ployed Rev. Thomas Lyon to canvass every charge, and to his thorough 
and skillful work was largely due our success. Albion raised her .+l'.").()0() ; 
the .Michigan conference raised in addition about $55.00(1 and tin' De- 
troit conference about $20,000. and thus Albion College hatl her first 
$100,000 of endowment. 

"In 1867 it was determined to appoint a financial agent. The insti- 
tution was not much in debt, but without means to pay teailicis or 
repair buildings. The endowment fund was mostly in notes scatfcnd all 
over the state and needed attention. The trustees and my eoiitVii'iuc 
asked for my appointment. Bishop xVmes, against my earnest protest, 
complied. The endowment fund committee also made me their agent, 
to collect and look after the notes and interest on them, and to i)ay the 
taxes and make sales of the real estate that had been conti-iliuted to 
this fund. 

"The first necessity was money to pay the teachers. Churches iu 
every part of the state, in town and country, were visited and help 


asked, and a healthy sentiment created. The preachers and the people 
nobly responded and current expenses were met without debt or borrow- 

"The next thing pressing was money to repair and .rejuvenate the 
north and central buildings, and complete the south building and enclose 
and grade and ornament the grounds. A meeting was called at Central 
church, Detroit, at which it was resolved to raise $10,000 for this pur- 
pose. This sum was pledged after considerable effort. It had been 
conditioned on raising the whole or none. A meeting of the trustees 
was called, to which every subscriber to the fund was invited to show 
that the money was pledged, and to determine how it should be expended. 
At this meeting it was resolved to borrow $10,000 to be paid from this 
$10,000 fund when collected. To this there was much oppo.sition as a 
dangerous step. It was the camel 's nose. But the needs were so press- 
ing. Our appearance was so truly shabby and humiliating that pride 
overrode prudence, and the debt incurred. The $10,000 was collected 
slowly ; subscribers given time, if they requested it, as we had the money 
for the improvements. But interest at ten per cent was enlarging the 
debt, some subscribers failed, and the subscription, though a good one, 
failed to pay all the principal and interest of the loan, and thus was 
created the nucleus of a debt tliat has haunted and burdened the insti- 
tution for thirty years. But with the $10,000 the college put on fine 
new clothes, and when the south building was linished and our new 
chapel was ready to dedicate, a Methodist state convention was largely 
attended. The hospitality of Albion was severely taxed. It proved a 
most important and epoch-making occasion. 

"The prime object of this convention was to consider how the endow- 
ment fund could be increased by another $100,000 though ostensibly to 
dedicate the new chapel and swell the now rising tide of public favor. 
After much discussion liy llic strong men of both conferences, clerical 
and lay, in which all achiiittcd tlu- college needed and deserved it, that 
prince among good men, Uavid Preston, arose, and in his direct and 
laconic style, said: 'If Bro. Daugherty will raise $50,000 from not over 
fifty men, I will pledge myself to raise $60,000 from the rest of man- 
kind.' Bro. Daugherty said he could and would do it. The doxology 
was" sung, and amid great rejoicing the first Methodist state convention 

' ' The $50,000 was pledged before the next ensuing session of the con- 
ference by less than fifty persons. In this work the agent was assisted 
by Rev. Seth Reed a part of the time. Bro. Preston arranged to have a 
collection taken in every cojigrcgntion in Imth conferences on the same 
Sunday, and to have the result icportcd In liim jjromptly. He flooded 
the ]Methodist churches with larts and exhortations printed and sent 
out by tens of thousands, elu(|ueut and brotherly appeals. They greatly 
stimulated interest in the college, but the result was disappointing. 
Only a fraction of the $60,000 was thus gained. But nothing daunted, 
he took the field in person and called to his assistance the agent and 
others, and pressed the canvass till the whole sum was raised. And thus 
Albion College gained her scediid .-l^liiojiCO. 

"The men most closelv connected with the history of the institution 


in tliust' (lays wvvv sure that (lod had iircd of it and was ph-inninj^ f,,,- it 
a great futuru. Some of them were mig'hty men ot prayer, and all 
plainly saw and aeknowledgeil ids guiding hand anil favoring providence. 
Some still linger to behold and rejoiee in what they helped to do, but 
most of tiiem with joy eestatie look down upon it from the golden 
towers of the New Jerusalem. " 

Rev. L. R. Fiske, of this faeulty, after teaching for some time in the 
Michigan Agricultural College, and serving the church as pastor with 
great distinction, became tiie presitlent of Albion College in 1877, con- 
tinuing in his office with great efficiency for full twent.y years. 

Of the young men who attended the school at this early time, and 
who here prepared either for college or for life, may be mentioned the 
Hon. Wirt Dexter, a very eminent Chicago lawyer; General Clinton B. 
Fisk, the soldier, statesman, and philantropist of blessed memory ; Hon. 
Sterling ^Morton, secretary of agriculture under President Cleveland; 
Judge John W. McGrath, once a member of the supreme court of Mich- 


igan; Rev. Arthur Edwards, the forceful and influential editor of the 
Northwestern Christian Advocate for so many yeai-s ; Hon. Ashley Pond, 
a noted lawj-er of Detroit, and others. Dr. Edwards once told the writer 
of his great delight in finding in the records of the Clever Fellows' So- 
ciety, one of the leading literary societies of the school, the statement of 
his election to the first office ever conferred upon him by the vote of his 
fellow men. 

It would require volumes to be written to adequately set forth the 
self-sacrificing labors of many of the men and women who gave the best 
they had for the upbuilding of the institution. One man may be men- 
tioned here as a typical example of the spirit manifested by many others. 

The services of William H. Brockway for Albion College covered a 
period of nearly forty years as agent, member and president of 
the board of trustees, treasurer, and chairman of the executive com- 
mittee. Born in Vermont in 1813, he came to Jliehigan in 1831, and 
very soon was licensed to preach the gospel. He is said to have been the 
first Methodist preacher licensed in the state. He was first appointed 
to the Huron mission, including Ypsilanti, Detroit, and Monroe ; next 
to Mt. Clemens: then the Saginaw mission; back to the Ypsilanti cir- 


cuit, and finally to the Lake Superior mission for ten years, serving 
during the most of this time as chaplain at Fort Brady, Sault Ste. Marie. 
He came to Albion in 1848 and began his service as presiding elder of 
Indian missions for lower Michigan, as pastor at South Albion, and at 
the same time as agent for the college. He was also an active business 
man, building houses and stores in Albion and superintending the 
grading of the branch of the Lake Shore railroad from Jonesville to 
Lansing. He was active in public affairs, member of the state house 
of representatives, state senator, a trustee and president of the village. 
During the Civil War he was commissioned by Gov. Austin Blair as 
chaplain of the Sixteenth Michigan Infantry. He was later one of the 
founders of Bay View. Such a man of action was W. H. Brockway ; one 
who knew the hardships of pioneer life, and by a self-reliant and coura- 
geous spirit conquered all the difficulties he was called upon to face. 
And it is safe to say that of all the interests which engaged the service 
of this rugged character, the one all absorbing ambition of his heart was 
to contribute to the prosperity of the school at Albion. All his life 
long he was devoted to its service. His enthusiasm and loyalty were 
communicated to others, and so the good work goes on. 

(III.)— Early History. Third Period. 

The original act of the legislature which gave life to a Methodist 
school at Albion was the granting of a perpetual charter which can 
never be set aside for another. It can only be amended, and that must 
' be done by the legislature acting under a concurrent resolution of both 
house and senate. 

In 1861 the charter was again amended, granting general college 
powers and changing the corporate name to Albion College. The courses 
of study were at this time greatly enlarged with the set purpose of 
making them equal to the best of our American institutions. Such a 
spirit has been fostered from that day to this, and to-day the college 
challenges comparison as to the thoroughness of the courses offered. 
Of course there cannot be as wide a range of courses as at a larger insti- 
tution, but in the character of such as are offered the standard is high. 

The first class, graduating from the college in 1864, consisted of three 
young ladies. Misses Phebe W. Barry, Minnie A. Grimes and F'ranc M. 
Sanders. Their college education apparently did not unfit them for mat- 
rimony, for the records show that they became the wives respectively 
of Lewis B. Agard, Fred W. P^llis and J. N. Nichols. The class of 1865 
contained three graduates, young men, William E. Ambler, Henry Gib- 
son and John IM. Rice. The institution thus began a true period of 
co-education, supplying equal educational advantages to both sexes. 

Four other denominational colleges had already been established in 
Michigan : Hillsdale College, founded by the Freewill Baptists in 1855 ; 
Kalamazoo College, Baptist, also in 1855; Olivet College, eleven years 
earlier under the supervision of the Congregational church, and Adrian 
College, Methodist Protestant, 1859. The state had also provided a 
university, thus affording the young people a choice of the institutions 
they would attend. Among these schools there never has been anything 



bordering upon antagonism or bitter rivalry, Init on the otlier hand the 
most helpful and mutual stinuilation to excellent work which the existence 
of so many schools would naturally make. The state, in maintaining a 
university, does not intend to supplant or discourage the founding of 
church colleges, nor does it intend to become a competitor. In this early 
day a sharp distinction was made between the religious and the secular 
school, with so much of popular favor and emphasis placed upon the 
former that even the university maintained early morning prayei-s, 
every day in the week, for several years. Today the basis of compar- 
ison is broadened by the addition of another factor involved in the idea 

Rev. Thomas H. Sinex, D. D. 

of the small college versus the large one. Let the friends of the small 
denominational college take comfort and courage in the fact that in high 
educational quarters the trend of opinion is largelj' to the conclusion 
that in its tinal product, considered from the standpoint of character, 
forcefulness and efficiency, the small college has nothing to fear in com- 
parison with those institutions which number their students by the 

The legislative act of 1861 named the following as members of the 
board of trustees : George Smith, president ; S. W. Walker, first vice-presi- 
dent ; jManasseh Rickey, second vice-president ; ^Yilliam Farley, treas- 
urer; E. Holstock, E. H. Pilcher, W. E. Bigelow, A. M. Fitch, William 


Bort, J. C. Blanchard, W. H. Johnson and Clinton B. Piske. These 
constituted a body corporate to be known as Albion College. These men 
were well known and representative men, members for the most part of 
the Michigan conference. Some had been students of Manasseh Hickey. 
It is related that he had a favorite place in "Brockway's woods" where 
he went daily for his "private" devotions, but that in his enthusiasm 
and with his tremendous voice he could be heard for miles around. The 
writer well remembers when, as a boy, he sat in his home and heard Mr. 
Hickey preach in the ]\Iethodist church some distance away. 

The faculty at this time were: Rev. Thomas Sinex, D. D., president 
and professor of moral philosophy and political economy; Rev. C. C. 
Olds, A. M., professor of natural science; John Richards, A. M., pro- 
fessor of ancient languages ; Miss Julia F. Robinson, principal of female 
department and teacher of French and fine arts; Miss Charlotte Innes, 
assistant teacher ; Henry Meakin, professor of music. The whole number 
of students in 1861 was 200. 

In 1865 the legislature was again appealed to and steps were taken to 
place the college on a better financial basis. By this act John Owen and 
E. G. Merrick of Detroit and E. J. Connable of Jackson were constituted 
an "endowment fund committee" to receive, hold in trust and invest 
all moneys contributed for the endowment of the college, and to pay 
to the trustees semiannually all interest accruing therefrom. The great 
struggle through which most institutions of learning pass is the effort 
to procure funds to meet current expenses. Colleges which do not de- 
pend directly on the state or which do not exist through private benefi- 
cence are badly crippled in their work unless endowed. Only a small 
revenue can be obtained from students' fees. 

The board of trustees at this time, 1865, were : James W. Sheldon, 
president; Martin Haven, first vice-president; S. W. Walker, second 
vice-president ; A. M. Fitch, treasurer ; George Smith, Julius D. Morton, 
S. Clements, David Preston, A. Billings, William Bort, W. H. Brock- 
way and J. S. Tuttle. Rev. Israel Cogshall was agent. 

The members of the faculty were: George B. Jocelyn, D. D., i:)resi- 
dent and professor of mental and moral science ; Rev. W. H. Perrine, 
A. M., professor of natural sciences and fine arts; W. H. Shelley, A. M., 
profe.ssor of Latin and Greek languages ; ilrs. Livonia B. Perrine, A. M., 
professor of mathematics; Miss Rachel Carney, M. S., preceptress and 
professor of modern languages; ]\Iiss Juliet Bradbury, 21. S. A., and Miss 
Elizabeth Hollingsworth, teacher of instrumental music. 

During the period vigorous efforts were made to establish a permanent 
endowment fund. After much consultation a plan was devised and set 
in operation by which the people of Albion an vicinity were to raise 
$25,000 and the Jlethodist public in the remainder of the state $75,000 
thus providing $100,000 in all. The greater part of this was realized. 

Man.y of the names already recited are worthy of a much more ex- 
tended notice that can be given them here — strong, stalwart i\Iethodists 
who stood in their lot and place and assisted in the carrying on of this 
most important work. Among these will be remembered William H. 
Perrine for his great ability and strong and manly virtues. He was born 
at Lyons, N. Y., Oct. 8, 1827, of Huguenot extraction. He worked his 





way through Hiilsdali' ('ollci;v l)y Icarliing jiiid pn-aching. Whik- in 
college he was stationed at Soutli Allnoii aiul -lacksoii, and after gradua- 
tion he served as pastor at Hastings, Detroit, Adrian, Ann Arbor, Flint, 
Lansing, St. Joseph and Albion. October 7, 1854, he married iliss L. 
E. Benedict. I\lrs. Perrine filled the chairs of languages and mathe- 
matics, and also acted as preceptress with great ability. In 1858 and 
again in 1868 ilr. and Mrs. Perrine visited Europe and the holy land. 
In 1871 be received the degree of doctor of divinity from Albiou College. 
lie was a forceful and intluentiaj meiiiber iif sex-cral general conferences 
and was a conspicuous person in cburcii affairs. 

Ke\'. Gk(.ikge B. Jocelyn 

The greatest credit, however, for lifting the college out of its period 
of great discouragement be given to the sagacity and executive 
efficiency of Dr. George B. Jocelyn. Born in New Haven, Conn., he 
lived a strenuous life and died a comparatively young man at the age 
of fifty-three. His biographer says that when be came to the presidency 
of the college he found it out of money, out of credit and out of friends. 
He left it with its finances on a sound foundation and larger in amount 
than anj' college in Michigan. His previous life bad fitted him to become 
a successful college president. At twenty years of age he had conducted 
a select school at X'inccnncs. Iiiil. Attc: \\ai<ls be was jilaced in charge 


of the preparatory department of Vincennes university, which position 
he held until he was called to New Albany and opened a JMethodist 
college. In 1853 he was elected professor of mathematics and natural 
sciences in Whitewater college, and in 1855 to the presidency of the 
same institution. In 1857 he was appointed pastor at Des Moines, Iowa, 
and in 1859 to Burlington. In 1861 he was elected president of the 
Iowa Wesleyan university, Mt. Pleasant, Iowa. 

In 1864 he was elected president of Albion College and transferred 
from the Iowa to the Detroit conference. Resigning the presidency in 
1869 he was transferred to the Michigan conference and stationed at 
Division street. Grand Rapids. In 1871 he was re-elected president at 
Albion, which position he continued to hold until his death, Jan. 27, 
1877. He was a man of commanding presence and possessed large en- 
dowments of brain and heart, and "cultured by long continued literary 
and educational pursuits, he stood among the abler and more efficient 
educators of the church. ' ' His friend and associate, Dr. W. H. Perrine, 
said of him: "As a preacher in power of thought, perspicuity of 
style and impressiveness of manner, he had but few superiors. The 
ringing clearness of his voice, the ease and naturalness of gesture, to- 
gether with his commanding logical vigor and lively play of imagination, 
gave him as an orator at all times unusual strength, and, when the con- 
ditions were most favorable, an almost resistless power. ' ' 

(IV.)— The Past Thirty-five Years. 

Albion as Seminary, Female College and College of Liberal Arts has 
had nine principals and presidents as follows: Rev. Charles F. 
Stoekwell, A. M. ; Rev. Clark T. Hinman, D. D. ; Hon. Ira Mayhew, LL. 
D., ex-superintendent of public instruction ; Rev. Thomas H. Sinex, D. 
D., during whose incumbency the school became a college; Rev. George 
B. Jocelyn, D. D. ; Rev. J. L. G. McKeown, D. D. ; Rev. William B. 
Silber, Ph. D. ; Rev. Lewis Ransom Fiske, D. D., LL. D., and Samuel 
Dickie, LL. D., the present president. 

The present era in the history of Albion College may properly be 
said to begin with the incoming presidency of Dr. L. R. Fiske, who came 
to Albion in 1877. He knew the institution well, having filled the chair 
of natural science for three years after his graduation at Ann Arbor. 
Since that time he had ripened in culture, scholai-ship and experience 
by having filled a similar position for three years in the state normal 
school, the chair of chemistry in the Agricultural College, and by his 
work in the best pulpits in Michigan, including full terms in Jackson, 
Ann Arbor and Detroit. For three years Dr. Fiske was editor of the 
Michigan Christian Advocate, twelve years a trustee of the board of 
education of the M. E. church, six times member of the general confer- 
ence, a member of the ecumenical conference held in Washington in 
1891. He held an honored place among the educational forces of the 
state and the church, having been president of the Michigan state teach- 
ers' association in 1889, and president of the college association of the 
^Methodist church. 

Dr. Fiske therefore seemed to be the logical choice of Michigan 



^Methodism I'or tliu responsible task oT atlvaiiciiiy; and strengthening the 
work and the intluenee of tlie college. He found a small faeulty, all of 
whom were more or less tinged with tliseoiiragement regai'ding the future 
of the school. A courageous exception to tiiis statement should be 
made in the case of Rev. Rollin C. Welch. A. M., professor of Greek. 
There was also a painfully palpable lack of support on the part of the 
great church which had already spread over the commonwealth, and 
which in other directions was showing remarkable strength and vigor. 

The important question which faced President Fiske at the beginning 
of his administration was to find the real source and reason for this lack 

Rf:v. Lewis Ransom Fiske 

of support, and in a very heroic and altogetiier philosophic manner the 
suggestion was made that the school itself, in its course of study, its 
faculty and its equipment, was not worthy of the patronage of the 
church. The remedy for this lay in the hands of the faculty, and at 
this point the president manifested great wisdom in grailually surround- 
ing himself with a faculty of young men selected from the graduates of 
the best universities and colleges of the country, men having training and 
enthusiasm for their special lines of work and a determination to make 
of the college a school which should connnand the approval and patron- 
age of all who might seek a thorough and well rounded education. The 


selection of this faculty was the distinctive feature of the first third 
of President Fiske's administration. 

During the year 1892-3 the faculty was constituted as follows : Lewis 
R. Fiske, president; Carl B. Scheffler, director of conservatory; Mrs. 
W. H. Skillman, preceptress; Washington Gardner, public lecturer; 
Robert S. Avann, secretary; Rev. L. R. Fiske, D. D., LL. D., John 
Owen professor of intellectual and moral philosophy ; Delos Fall, jM. S., 
David Preston professor of chemistry and biologj' ; Carl B. Scheffler, 
piano, harmony, and counterpoint; Samuel D. Barr, A. "SI., W. H. Brock- 
way professor of mathematics; Robert S. Avann, A. il.. Ph. D., Latin 
language and literature; Frederick Lutz, A. M., modern languages; E. 
Josephine Clark, A. M., teacher of Latin ; Charles E. Barr, A. M., Ezra 
Bostwick professor of astronomy and acting professor of biology ; Rev. 
Washington Gardner, A. M., biblical history and literature; Dwight B. 
Waldo, A. M., Henry M. Loud, professor of history; Rev. Frederick S. 
Goodrich, A. M., John Morrison Reid, professor of Greek language and 
literature ; Jennie A. Worthington, piano and harmony ; Francis C. 
Courter, drawing, perspective, and painting ; Mrs. H. W. JMosher, decora- 
tive painting; Jennie M. Whitcomb, piano and history; Robert E. 
McNeill, voice culture; Cora Travis, piano and voice; Charles L. McClel- 
lan, principal of commercial department; John M. Pearson, piano and 
organ; Jennie E. Lovejoy, A. B., teacher of German; Rose A. Ward, 
violin ; Mrs. Eva Steele, shorthand and typewriting ; Smith Burnham, 
Ph. B., teacher of history ; Julia A. Herriek, A. B., teacher of English ; 
Carrie M. Bolster, piano; Rev. B. S. Taylor, M. D., librarian; Charles 
E. Barr, A. M., registrar. 

The names of these young eollegiates should be mentioned ver.y 
modestly for the reason that some of them are still with the institution, 
having given the greater part of their lives in the service of the college 
and the church. Professor Samuel Dickie came to Albion the same 
year as Dr. Fiske from the superintendency of the schools at Hastings. 
He was then, as he is now, a most worthy and forceful son of the college, 
having graduated from AUiion in 1872. That he is now the highly suc- 
cessful president is the natural sequence of having entered so vigorously 
into the life of his Alma ilater through all these years. The writer 
of these lines was the next recruit, coming in 1878 from the principalship 
of the Flint high school, a graduate of Michigan university, and at pres- 
ent professor of chemistry. 

Who of all the long generations of students from 1871 to 1906 will 
ever forget Miss E. Josephine Clark, A. M., the strong, sturdy, noble 
woman who labored so long and devotedly for the institution? Always 
on the right side of every question, her work as a teacher and the 
influence of her life as a Christian woman will endure forever. Other 
women who have labored with great efficiency but for shorter periods 
of time have been Mrs. Ella Hoag Brockway, Ph. j\I., ^Miss Rena A. 
Michaels, Ph. D., Miss Hernietta Ash Bancroft, Ph. D., and our present 
beloved dean of women, Mrs. Helen Knappen Scripps, M. A. 

In the third year of President Fiske 's administration, Fred M. Tay- 
lor, Ph. D., came to the institution fresh from graduation at North- 
western univei-sity and post graduate work at Ann Arbor, and all who 


have watched his career will ;ii,'i't'i' that in I'orcefulness ami vi'i-satility of 
suggestion, together with his untiring euergj-, his work in Imililing 
coui-ses of study and reforming and developing the methods of tlie 
school, he has never heen excelled. He was strong in all the activities 
of the college, the church and the town as well. As a magnetic and 
inspiring teacher of history and economics, a resourceful and successful 
Sunday-school superintendent and a wise legislator in the citj' council, 
his work will always fill a large and important place in the annals of the 

Next cam.' th.' elder Barr. SamuH 1).. a uradnatr ,)f Williams Col- 
lege, a former deputy superintcntlent of puljlic instruction of New 
York and a principal of the high school in Cleveland. Genial and 
warm-hearted, with a beautiful type of religion and a great love for 
young people and their symmeti'ical development, an accurate knowledge 
of all branches of mathematics and great enthusiasm in teaching, he 
quickly became a great favorite among the students and a powerful and 
influential member of the faculty. He had been elected to the chair of 
mathematics in his own Williams College, but chose to come to Albion. 
He died in 190-4, sincerely mourned by every lover of the institution. 

The name of Robej-t S. Avann, Ph. D., first appeared in the year-book 
in 1883, as professor of the Latin language and literature. He was a 
graduate of Boston university^ and brought to the college the strength 
of a mind stored with the learning of the ancients. He was deeply and 
profoundly religious, and performed his work well in the building of a 
new and more enduring foundation for the school he loved so well. He 
died a sadly tragic death by the wasting away and gradual loss of his 
bodily powers; his mind, however, remaining strong and his faith un- 
swerving to the very end. 

Some historian of the future will properly portray the important 
and lasting work of those who have been with the college for a long 
series of years, and who are still active and efficient niendjers of the 
faculty — the scholarly Frederick Lutz, A. ^l., Lift. D., a graduate and 
former instructor in Harvard university, professor of the modern lan- 
guages; the painstaking and accurate scientist, Charles E. Barr, A. M., 
a graduate of Williams College, and now professor of biology ; the 
devoted scholar and preacher, Preilerick Samuel Goodrich, A. 'SL, D. 1)., 
professor of Greek and the English Bible, a graduate of the Weslcyan 
Tni versify of jMiddletown, Conn. 

Early in 1897, at the close of a rounded out twenty years of si ivici' 
as President of the College, full of honors and having the resi)c<t and 
esteem of all citizens of Michigan, Dr. L. R. Fiske gave notice of his 
retirement to private life and to the accomplishment of some literary 
tasks which he had long contemplated. Three notable books, — Today 
and Tomorrow. Choosing a Life-work and ^lan Building — were written 
and published and other work pro.iected. In the winter of 1901 he 
made an extended visit to his son, visiting in Denver, and while there 
contracted an illness which caused his death. His contribution to the 
cause of education had been a large one and was duly appreciati'd In- 
all his co-workers as well as by the State at large. 

The school is still taking on the gi-aduates of the famous universities. 


those already meBtioned, the faculty contains representatives of 
Wisconsin University, Chicago University, Columbia, Michigan, DePauw, 
and others. Of all this line of teachers it may truthfully be said that 
they have never ceased to be students either in sympathy with their 
students or in original investigations in their special subjects; all have 
sacriiiced their hopes of preferment in higher and better places for 
their love of Albion. 

During these .years the college has steadily grown in its material 
equipment. The three buildings erected before this time were not 
adequate to carry on the work of the growing and expanding school, 
and there have been added five others: the astronomical observatory, 
containing a fine and complete etiuipment for practical astronomical 
work; a gymnasium building; a chemical and physical laboratory, 
erected through the generosity of the late lamented Senator James 
McMillan, and not exjielled in appliances for thorough work anywhere 
in institutions of our grade ; a library, the beautiful memorial building 

Lottie L. Cassette Memorial, Library 

erected by Mrs. Lottie Gassette in memory of her daughter ; and Robin- 
inson Hall, the recent gift of our esteemed brother, George O. Robinson, 
containing ample recitation rooms and a modern biological laboratory. 
More than a passing notice should be given to the generous gift of 
Senator James ilcilillan of twenty-five thousand dollars for the erection 
of a building for the housing of the chemical department. Through the 
influence of Hon. Washington Gardner. i\Ir. JIclMillau had become inter- 
ested in the College. The letter wliicli he wrote conveying the gift to 
the Board of Trustees is histoi'i<ally vahuihle in that it gives a vivid 
picture of the thought and mctliud of a man in this and numerous other 
notable benefactions, who tliercl)y showed himself to be a princely and 
at the same time a rational and considerate giver. 

"Senate Chamber, Washington, D. C, June 17, 1892.— Rev. Wash- , 
ington Gardner, Albion College. — My Dear Sir: Replying to your 
letter of j'une 15, in which you suggest that I increase my subscription 
to Albion College from five thousand to twenty thousand dollars, the 
entire sum to be used to build a chemical laboratory, I would say that 


I have thot the matter over verj' carefully. The result is tiiat 1 cau 
not think of any way in which the sum you name could be spent to better 
advantage than the building of a laboratory at Albion College. The 
promotion of the study of physics and chemistry strongly commends 
itself to my judgment and besides I have a high opinion of the valuable 
work done by Albion College. 

' ' It gives me pleasure, therefore, to authorize you to say to the Trus- 
tees at the meeting on Tuesday that they are at liberty to cause plans 
for a twenty thousand dollar building to be prepared during the coming 
autumn, the building to be completed during the .year of 1893. 1 will 
provide the money as payments may be required. 

"Very cordially yours, 

"James ilciliLLAN." 

The above gift was subse(|uently increased to twenty-five thousand 




LJI ■HH^^^^^^nvBln 



McMillan Laboratory 

One other incident in connection with this gift is of interest. The 
money for the building was promptly furnished but at considerable 
embarrassment to the donor. It was during the height of the financial 
panic of 1893 when practically all of the money of the country was 
locked up in the vaults of banks and quite inaccessible even to the 
wealthiest of men. Mr. JIcMillan related the fact that to obtain the 
last ten thousand dollars he walked the floor at night, anxiously wonder- 
ing where the cash could be obtained. It was finally paid to the writer 
of these chronicles in two notes of five thousand dollars each, given by 
the Hocking Valley Railroad and endorsed by the Peninsula Car Co., 
and James Mc^Iillan. These notes were finally discounted and cashed 
bv the Preston National Bank of Detroit, the final decisive consideration 


being that as Methodists they were sympathetically inclined toward the 

One most essential phase of Dr. Fiske's work was done when these 
men and resources were brought together. The faculty nnist now work 
out the problem and make the proper readjustment to the new relations 
which the college should sustain to the rapidly moving nineteenth cen- 
tuiy and the most startling developments of the twentieth century. We 
must, therefore, once more traverse in our thought the past thirty years 
in order to discover the true .spirit and genius of the school and to make 
a study of its aims and standards ; we must make answer to the question 
as to the various factors which will correctly define the place and func- 
tion of the Christian college. What is or ought to be the character of 
Albion College? 

Ideal Character op College 

(1) Albion College demands the highest standard of admission and 
requirements for graduation and the best work done between these two 
points which the progress of knowledge and the art of education affords. 
To have a low standard is to invite defeat, to choose anything but the 
best in methods or in courses of study would be suicidal. It required 
some courage in an early day to bring our preparatory course up to the 
full measure of the courses in our best high schools, but the work was 

(2) No college can be made worthy of the name unless there are 
provided resources and appliances comparable to those of the best of 
other institutions of equal rank. Colleges established by Christian peo- 
ple, if they ought to exist &t all, ought to be as well or better endowed 
and eciuipped than those founded by the state. No college can be self- 
supporting. It is all wrong to expect men, however well trained, to 
do good work on a poor salary and poor equipment. 

(3) Another indispensable necessity of Albion College is a clear 
and pronounced conviction that everything in and about it shall be con- 
trolled by religion. The institution must be saturated through and 
through with this force ; teachers must be Christians with bright relig- 
ious experiences, not "pious," but frank, genuine, sincere, business-like, 
thus appealing to young people. 

(4) A successful Christian college should have and foster a course 
of conduct in its students which is of the highest order, to the end that 
true and noble character may be developed. It is pleasant to record that 
so far as Albion College is concerned the days of hazing are gone ; lawless- 
ness no longer rules. A student senate has lately been organized for 
the purpose of maintaining a proper public sentiment in this direction. 

(5) Another condition which is indispensable to the success of such 
an institution is a conscientious, broad-minded and generous support of 
all the good work which is carried on in the college on the part of the 
community in the midst of which the college is placed. The fact is that 
Albion College is supported by the people of Albion. They have at 
different times given liberally to the finances of the school ; they support 
public lecture courses, athletics and the like. 

(6) No really successful school was ever made without genuine, 


generous ami hearty eutlmsiasm ou tlie part of all who are in any way 
eouneeted with it. This must be true of I'aeulty and studeuts. patrons, 
ministers and conferences. Each must do his part — the teacher must 
teach, the student must study and grow; the patron must encourage, 
mainly by sending his sons and daughters to be educated; the church 
must pay. Exaiiiiuing each of these specifications it can be said that 
Albion College possesses as good teachers as can be found in any scliool ; 
a high order of scholarship is reached by our students; our natural 
constituency of patrons do not all encourage and the membership does 
not as a rule pay as it might. Ten cents per member in ^Michigan given 
to the college would mean an addition to its annual income of $10,000, 
which is equivalent to an addition to the endowment fund of $200,000. 

I V. ) — Products. 

Continuing the in(iuiry already raised as to the reason why the college 
had not been better supported by the Alethodist public, it may be urged 
that from the standpoint of a strong, aggressive faculty, the failure 
was not in the work done ou the campus. A necessary corollary to 
this statement is one which the faculty and its aggressive president were 
obliged to face, namely, that an enlarged corps of instructors made 
necessary a greatly increased expenditure of money with the result that 
the institution was plunged into debt. However, Dr. Fiske's faith 
in the liberality of the members of the church was so gi-eat that he 
fearlessly continued to build up his faculty, increase the volumes in 
the library, build and equip laboratories and in every way strengthen 
the work which he saw was so necessary to be done. From the stand- 
point of every thoughtful, considerate lover of higher learning he was 
perfectly justified in doing as he did. It is doubtless true that nuich 
of sadness came into his later life by the fact that the public did not 
generously respond to his efforts. Some one else, other than the writer, 
should also enter into these records some appreciative word of the self- 
sacrifice of the faculty as they voluntarily agreed to a reduction of salar- 
ies by which the deficit was met. 

No criticism, then, should be aimed at the debt or the acts which 
made it necessary. Dr. Fiske was successfully accomplishing his ap- 
pointed task. The institution was wonderfully (|uickened into new life 
and rapidly rose to the complete respect of all other colleges and univer- 

In 1881-2 the new faculty made some very radical clianges in the 
course of study, bringing the school up to date in even- respect. It made 
its bid for increased student patronage. _ The attendance that year was 
199 in all departments, the preparatory 'classes greatly exceeding those 
of the college. The outcome of this new departure was looked for with 
great anxiety. The result was not disappointing. Students began to 
come in large numbers. The freshman was no longer recruited 
from simply our own preparatory school, but from the best high schools. 
The inci-ease was most marked in the college department, as it should 
be. In 1893-4 the attendance had risen to 629. The increase in the 
college itself was nearly 600 per cent. Albion was manifestly jirosper- 


ing most satisfactorily in its internal management. The graduating 
classes were large and the students easily found their way into prom- 
inent positions. 

Rev. John P. Ashley, D. D., served the college as its president from 
January 1, 1898 to February 1, 1901. During his term progress was 
made in certain directions : the athletic field was acquired ; a pipe organ 
purchased for the chapel ; and steam heat was installed in the three main 

Samuel Dickie, LL. D., was elected acting president in February, 
1901, and was elected to the permanent presidency in June 1902. He 
has served most acceptably and successfully in that office from that time 
to the present writing. He was thoroughly conversant with the college 
in all phases of its life, having been intimately and officially connected 
with it for a long series of years — as student, member of the faculty, 
member of the Board of Trustees, and chairman of the endowment fund 
committee. The firet important task which confronted him was the 
clearing away of the great debt which had been incurred through the 
previous administrations. Although no part of the endowment fund had 
been used for current expenses, it still remained that to care for the 
interest on a debt which now had grown to be one hundred thousand 
dollars, required the earning of a like amount of the permanent endow- 
ment fund. With great energy and tact. President Dickie aroused the 
interest of the friends of the institution, who responded promptly and 
liberally, with the result that on December 31 there was secured in cash 
and good securities the sum of $103,400 and the school was free from 
debt. Strange as it may seem, it is nevertheless true, that the payment 
of this debt had a marked effect in bringing the college and its natural 
constituency into closer and more harmonious relations than ever before. 

The financial problem is one ever present in the management of any 
live, growing, ancl expanding institution of learning, and so it will ever 
be with Albion. Recognizing this fact. President Dickie has taken a 
second notable step in the present year of 1912. Mr. Andrew Carnegie 
had promised to give twenty thousand dollars when the college, through 
its friends, should show him eighty thousand additional, the entire sum 
to be placed in the permanent endowment fund. This has been most 
successfully accomplished, thus placing the school upon a much better 
financial foundation. 

The best proof of the efficiency of a school of learning is to be found 
in the after life and influence of the graduates, and in this respect 
Albion challenges the most rigid scrutiny. In the very nature of the 
case there are many lines of activity towards which the typical graduate 
of Albion does not naturally tend. The characteristic atmosphere of a 
Christian college puts within the spirit and purpose of its student a 
consideration of those occupations which have as their predominating 
factor the thought of combining the highest degree of usefulness with 
that of the struggle for place and competence. An increasingly large 
number of the graduates become teachera in our public schools ; several 
are college presidents ; two of the four state nonnal schools of Michigan 
have graduates of Albion at their head, others are leading members in 
the faculties of a large number of normal schools ; dean of the faculty of 


Samuel Dickie, LL. D. 


science in the Illinois State University ; associate professor of astronomy 
in Chicago Univei*sity; professor of education, Chicago University; 
professor of geology in the Woman's College, Baltimore; instructor in 
astronomy in Indiana State University; professor of chemistry and 
another professor of biology in Denver University ; regent of the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin; bursar of New York University; a large number of 
principals of high schools; a still greater number of successful city 
superintendents of schools. 

Albion has a long and honorable record in the number of missionaries 
sent to foreign lands, South America, China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, 
Africa, the Philippines, iMexico, Bulgaria. Many are doing philan- 
thropic and charitable work in our large cities ; some study medicine and 
others go into the law. Some of our graduates have amassed wealth and 
more of them could do so were they so inclined and had they not learned 
the spirit and blessedness of a life of sacrifice for others. Wherever 
they are located they are certain to be centers of influence, the leading 
and effective men and women in their respective communities. A fair 
pi-oportion of every graduating class find their way into the ministry, 
and this in spite of the fact that Albion is in no sense a theological school. 
The writer once asked in a business session of the Michigan Conference 
that all those who were educated at the state university to rise to their 
feet. Three men responded to the invitation. He then asked that all 
who had had their training at Albion, in whole or in part, to do the same. 
A very large proportion of the conference rose in testimony of the power 
and influence of our church school And so time would fail me to tell of 
Cole, Darling, Northup, Eiddick, Stonex, Gillette, Mount, Ward, Whit- 
wam, Hallenbeck, Jones, Wilcox, Allman, Bancroft, Buell, George, Lau- 
bach, Hunsberger, Varion, Daniels, Taylor, Davids, Mosher, Desjardins, 
Cai-rier, John Buell, Loomis, McKoy, Jno. A. Bready, Chase, Healy, 
Moon, Wolfe, J. C. Cook, William T. Cook, Slather, MacCarthy, Scripps, 
Hipp, L. E. Lovejoy, Brown, Floody, Holmes, Weldon, Armstrong, 
Owen R. Lovejoy, Warren Palmatier, Dodds, Ellet, Williams, C. E. 
Allen, Camburn, Coffin, Crampton, S. B. Ford, Newman, Phelps, Whit- 
man, E. Allen, Deal, Griffin, Johns, Perrin, Colvin, Goodyear, Kendrick, 
Kobayashi, Leeson, ]\Iaywood, MacDonald, Seeley, Simmons, Burnett, 
Pearce, Tullar, Miner, Rondenbush, Simmons, Steward, Whitney, Foy, 
Gosling, Healey, Meader, Rhodes, Silverthorne, Cottrell, DeViney, T. 
H. Martin, McAndrew, Price, Cleaver, Hazard, Kyes, Lawrence, Pollok, 
Becker, Critchett, Norcross, Reuseh, Day, Johnston, Merrill, Lancaster, 
Quant, Yinger, R. T. Baldwin, Field, Lescohier — these all and others, 
who through faith have subdued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, were 
valiant in fight and have obtained a good report. Those mentioned 
above are full graduates of the college, and a multitude of others ought 
to be mentioned who did not graduate, but who are today the strength 
of our ministry. 

At the present time Albion is very strong in most of its departments. 
There is an imperative need for two or three additional chairs, and it is 
needless to say that the college will always need more money and re- 
sources. The writer believes that there is no place in the wide world 
where money will go so far and do so much as that which is placed in the 


endowment fund of a Christian college. Does tlie olnucli at la rye iukIit- 
stand that money so placed can never be expendeil, but is set at work 
repeating itself over and over while the institution endures? A hun- 
dred or a thousand dollars, earning five percent interest, will repeat it- 
self ever}- twenty years whether tiie donor is dead or alive; whetlier he 
is generous at the present time or not; whether he regrets his former 
gift or is ghid of it. This is the exceeding precious consideration eoii- 
cerning every gift made to the college. 

The year book of the college for 1911-12 shows the following names 
of those who at that time were members of the Board of Trustees and 
the Faculty. 

Board of Trustees: Samuel Dickie, ex-officio; Rev. D. H. Ramsdell, 
D. ^I. Christian, Rev. William Dawe, James 11. Simpson, Rev. C. W. 
Baldwin, Durand W. Springer, Rev. D. D. jMartin, M. L. Cook, Rev. 
John Graham, E. K. Phelps, Edwin N. Parsons, Rev. Hugh Kennedy, 
Frank A. Fall, Rev. Luther Lovejoy, Charles M. Ranger, Robert W. 

Faculty: Samuel Dickie. 'SI. S., LL. D., John Owen, professor of 
philosophy; Delos Fall, Sc. D., LL. D., David Preston, professor of 
chemistry; Frederick Lutz, A. M., Litt. D., professor of modern lan- 
guages; Charles Elisha Barr, A. M., jirofessor of geologj' and biology; 
Frederic Samuel Goodrich, A. M., D. D., alumni professor of the English 
Bible, acting professor of Greek language and literature; i\lrs. Helen 
Kuapiien-Scripps, A. ^I., dean of women, instructor in English literature ; 
Frederic Coe Demorest. A. .M., D. D., professor of Latin ; Charles Henry 
Woolbert. A. ]M., professor of English and oratory (W. Scott Brown chair 
of Belles Lettres) ; Clarence Wilson Greene, A. M., Ph. D., professor of 
physics ; Frank Tracy Carlton, A. M., Ph. D., professor of economics and 
acting Henry M. Loud professor of history ; E. Roscoe Sleight, A. M., 
W. H. Brockway, jtrofessor of mathematics, acting Ezra Bostwick, pro- 
fessor of astronomy ; John Zedler, A. ^1., associate professor of motlern 
languages; Frank W. Douglas, A. M., assistant professor of chemistry; 
Eleanor T. Avann, A. M., assistant professor of Greek; Charles Albert 
Langworthy, A. B., instructor in English; Harlan J. Cozine. director of 
eon.servatory, instructor in voice and the art of siiii;iiii;: liiiymoiid L. 
Havens, head of piano department, pianoforte; T. St,iiilc,\ Sl<iiiiier, head 
of organ department, pedal organ, musical history ami IIkmmv; John H. 
IMartin, head of orchestral department, violin and orchestral instrumeiit.s ; 
Elam Agnes Blackman, instructor in piano ; Nema Phipps, instructor in 
piano: ^Myra C. Salisbury', insti'uctor in voice; George L. Griswold. 
principal of commercial department : ]\Iilton H. Northrop, teacher of 
shorthand and typewriting: Sarah Estella Woolsey, instructor in art: 
Walter S. Kennedy, athletic director; Esther H. Auten, A. B., director 
of physical education for women ; Rosa Ball, B. S., librarian, and instruc- 
tor in library methods; Jennie Columbus, president's secretary. 



Michigan Public School System — Leading Calhoun County Educa- 
tors — Rural Schools op the County (by Frank D. Miller) — 
Register of State and County Officers — Dr. Delos Fall — Village 
Schools (by Prank D. Miller j. 

The real importance of men's lives is measured, not so much by what 
they appear to accomplish in the day and generation in which they live, 
as by the influences they set in motion that affect for good or evil the 
generations that come after them. Pleasured by this standard, two of 
the most influential men in the history of Michigan ; men whose influence 
will be a positive force for good as long as the Commonwealth endures, 
lived in Calhoun county. The one, a graduate of Brown University 
and of an Eastern Theological school, came to ilarshall when it had but 
two shacks and one unfinished double log house, as the accredited repre- 
sentative of the American Home Missionary Society. The other, a native 
of Connecticut, a graduate of Trinity College of that state, a lawyer 
of two years' practice at the bar of his native state, who came to Mar- 
shall soon after the missionarv. 


jMichigan Public School System 

These two men, the Rev. John D. Pierce and Isaac E. Crary, attorney- 
at-law, lived for a time beneath the same roof and amidst their rude sur- 
roundings soon found that they had much in common, and early became 
fast friends. About this time the tide of immigration had set in strongly 
toward the then territory of JMichigan and soon there was talk of State- 
hood. Men of the intellectual equipment, experience and observation, 
not to say ambition, of Pierce and Crary could hardly be otherwise than 
interested in the progress of events that were rapidly tending toward the 
formation of a new state. 

Both men were much interested in education, which had been greatly 
neglected in the territory. About this time there chanced to fall into 
the hands of Mr. Pierce, a translation of the report of the Prussian 
school system, made by Cousin to the French Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion. Both Pierce and Crary read the report and mentally compared 
notes. j\lany an interesting discussion these two cultivated men had 
over the importance of education in the prospective new state. IMr. 



Pierce speaks particularly of one long conference he and Crary had one 
Sunday afternoon, seated on a log on the hill north of the court house. 
The tree beneath which they sat still stands in the yard of the home of 
the late General Charles T. Gorham. Before their conference had 
adjourned, tentative outlines of a proposed public school system were 
agreed upon. 

Crary was a member of the convention that met in 1835 to frame a 
State Constitution, and in the assignment of committee positions, was 
made chairman of the Committee on Education, and as such, drafted the 
educational provision in our iirst constitution. Among other things, 
provision was made for a State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
an office hitherto unknown in the United States. He was to be nominated 
by the governor and confirmed by Iwth houses of the legislature. 

The Constitution having been adopted by the people, Stephen S. T. 
Mason was elected the first governor, and Isaac E. Crary the first mem- 
ber of Congress from the new state of Michigan. On his wa.y from Mar- 
shall to AVashington to take his seat in Congress, Crary stopped in De- 
troit, the then seat of state government, and had a long conference with 
Governor ^Mason on state matters. During the conference, Crary called 
the attention of the governor to the special qualifications of his friend, 
Pierce, for the position of Superintendent of Public Instruction. So 
favorably impressed was the governor by Crary 's representations, that 
he sent for Pierce to come to Detroit and after a somewhat protracted 
interview, he decided to nominate him to the legislature for the office 
of Superintendent of Public Instruction, which he subsequently did and 
the nominee was unanimously confirmed by both houses of the legis- 

The Ordinance of 17S7 provided tliat a section of land should be set 
apart in every township in each of the five states that were subsequently 
formed out of that territory, and the proceeds of sale devoted to school 
purposes. In other states the land had been at the disposal of the 
township authorities, and in many cases had been dissipated and so, fallen 
far short of what the framers of that celebrated ordinance had intended. 
Crary had conceived a different method of disposing of the funds arising 
from the sale of these lands. AVhile at Washington awaiting the tardy 
action of Congress in admitting the state before he could take his seat, he 
was in frequent conference with the committee charged with framing the 
act of admission, and was courteously invited to make such suggestions as 
he might deem best to have incorjiorated. It was at this time that Crary 
succeeded in getting all public school lands put under control of the 
state and as a result we now have over five millions of dollars, proceeds 
from the sale of school lands, as a permanent fund held in trust by the 
state, the interest on which is to be forever used in support of the puhlic 
schools of the state. Congressman Crary was also instrumental in secur- 
ing seventy sections of the [)ublic lands for the support of the university. 
For his statesmanlike foresight and accomplishments, he has put Michi- 
gan under perpetual obligation to him. Crary and Pierce were also 
influential members of the Constitutional Convention of 1850, the latter 
being chairman of the Committee on Education. 

It may not be ii]api)rnpriatc in this place to give an estimate of this 


public servant by one who has enjoyed exceptional opportunities of know- 
ing and judging of the public men of the state for more than half a 
century. "If," says Homer Barber, "I was called upon to express an 
opinion as to who was the most useful man to the state and its people 
for all time in official life among the able and «minent delegates and 
representatives and senators in Congress during the formative period 
of our institutions, and especially in shaping our educational system, for 
he procured the grant of seventy-two sections of land for our State 
University, the choice would fall upon Isaac E. Crary." 

The legislature passed a resolution requiring the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction to prepare a plan for the organization and support 
of primaiy schools, a plan for a university with branches, also a plan 
for a disposition- of the primary and university school lands and have 
it ready to submit to that body when it met in January, 1837. Pro- 
foundly impressed witli the importance of the work committed to him, 
Supiiiiili'iKlciit Pi(M-i-('. scion after his contirmation, set out on a journey 
east\\,ii-(l with a virw (if consulting with the most eminent American 
ediuiitors of ihe time. After his return, he drew up a plan as required 
ami siiliiiiiltcd it to the legislature when it again convened and by which, 
with a lew slight changes, it was adopted. 

The report embraced three general divisions as follows: — 

First: Organization and support of the primary schools. 

Second : Re-organization of the university. 

Third : Disposition of university and jjrimary school funds. Under 
this plan, the common schools of the state were re-organized. Designs 
for school Imildings and apparatus and township libraries were part of 
the general plan. There was a great dearth of teachers and to meet 
this want, a system of secondary schools was recommended, which 
should serve as preparatory schools for the university and for the train- 
ing of teachers. Tender the Constitution of IS.'iO, the s mdary schools 

were done away witli. academies flourished for a liiiii\ wiii'ii these gave 
way to the normal and tlie high school, with tin- iini\ci'sity :is the undis- 
puted centre and crown of our state educational system. Pleading with 
the legislature to adopt his recommendation to have in the university 
one great central institution supported by the state, he said, " It is to be 
l)oi'ne in mind that the policy now adopted is destined to affect the 
literary character and standing of the state, not only for the time of the 
present generation, but so long as the republic and its institutions shall 
be preserved." He further declared that "an unenlightened mind is 
not recognized by the genius of republican institutions." Again he 
said, "Our government proceeds from the people, is supported by the 
people and depends upon the people." This declaration was made years 
before Jlr. Lincoln's oft quoted saying that, "Ours is a government of 
the people, liy the people and for the people." It will be seen that 
the same thought underlies both and that the sentences have the same 

Leading Calhoun County Educators 

Oliver C. Comstock. of ilarshall, served as State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction from 1843 to 1845. He, in turn, was succeeded by 


Ira Mayhew, of Albiou. Fraui'is W. SlK'annan, loiii; one of .Marsliall'.s 
most proiniuent citizens, was the last person to hold tiiis iiiijxjrtant 
office under the Constitution of 1835, which provided that this oflicer 
should be appointed by the governor and confirmed by botli houses of 
the legislature, ami the first to hold it under the Constitution of LSJil, 
which provided he should be elected by the people. ^Ir. Slu>anaau 
served from 184!) to 1854 inclusive. In 1854 Ira IMayhew was elected 
and served from 1855 to 1858 inclusive. It was forty-two years before 
another Calhoun County iiuiu was chosen to this office. 

In the fall of 1900, Professor Delos Fall, of Albion College, one of 
the best kuown educators of the state, was elected State Supei-intendeut 
of Public Instruction, and filled the office with great acceptability from 
January 1, IfMH, to January 1, 1905. Professor Fall was a meinber 
of the convention that framed the Constitution of 1909, and as such, 
served as Chairman of the Committee on Education. It is a singular and 
unusual distinction that has come to Calhoun count.y, not so much that 
tive of her citizens have been chosen to the important office of State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction and whose aggregate tei-ms of 
service to 1912 equal one-third the entire life of the state under the 
three Constitutions, unparalleled as that is; as in the fact that in the 
convention that framed the Constitution of 1835 Isaac E. Crary was 
chairman of the Committee on Education, that in the convention that 
framed the Constitution of 1850 John D. Pierce was chairman of a like 
committee, and that in the conventiou that framed the Constitution of 
1909 Delos Fall was chairman of the Committee on Education. These 
three men, all from Calhoun county, have, in the order named, probably 
done more to shape the educational system of the state than any other 
like number of men in all its history. Add to this the fact that credit 
is given to George Willard. of Battle Creek, for causing the door of 
the university to be opened to women, and we think it may be said, with- 
out exaggeration and without boasting, that for all time, from an educa- 
tional point of view, the state of Jlichigan has been placed under obliga- 
tion to Calhoun county. 

Rural Schools of C.vlhoux County 

Bi) Frank D. Miller 
County Commissioner of Schools 

The educational history of Calhoun county must necessarily be a his- 
tory of progress. While Michigan was still a territorial possession, 
Calhoun county was the home of John D. Pierce, a man of keen intellect, 
and a prophet who had faith in his gift of prophecy. To him was 
intrusted the initiatory work in education in the First Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1836. He was an advanced thinker and many of the doctrines 
which he was unable to work out at that time have since become effective. 
He maintained that it was an obligation on the part of the state to suffer 
none to grow up in ignorance, and that the state had the right to require 
the education of all children and youth, both for the welfare of the in- 


dividual instructed and the security of the state. Mr. Pierce believed 
that ' ' the most perfect organization of the entire system in all the varied 
departments of instruction must fail of securing the desired results 
without a sufficient number of competent teachers." To this end it 
was advised that every teacher in the public schools should be given a 
regular course of training. He also recommended district libraries. 
While these theories were much in advance of the educational sentiment 
of those times, they were seeds sown in fertile soil and have been nurtured 
and brought to a degree of maturity through the earuest efforts of other 
educators, prominent among whom were Isaac E. Crary of Marshall, who 
had the honor of being chairman of the Committee of Education in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1835, John D. Pierce of Marshall, in 1850, 
and Prof. Delos Fall, of Albion, former Superintendent of Public 
Instruction of the state, who held a similar position in the Consti- 
tutional Convention of 1908. 

Calhoun county was indeed fortunate in its pioneers. Immediately 
after building their own rude homes and doing what clearing and sowing 
that was necessary to insure them an existence, they turned their atten- 
tion toward erecting schools. When we consider that Sidney Ketcham, 
the recognized pioneer of Calhoun county, first settled here in 1830, yet 
that in May, 1832, a school house had been built and school was in ses- 
sion, and that within six years there were from one to four schools in 
each organized township in the county, we cannot fail to honor them for 
their strength of purpose and achievements. 

The first school house in the county was built in May, 1832, on what 
is now Mansion street in the city of Marshall. This school house was 
used for school purposes, as a church, and as a town hall, all territorial 
elections being held there until after the adoption of the Constitution 
when Michigan became a state. The first school teacher was Eliza 
Ketcham. A school house was erected in Battle Creek in the fall of 
1834, at the cost of eighty dollars. Warren B. Shepard, sometimes 
called the Pioneer Schoolmaster, was the teacher during the winter of 
1834-5, and in 1836 a school hovise was erected in Fredonia township, 
about eighty rods west of where the Houston district school house now 
stands. Janette Baldwin was the teacher and the late John Houston was 
the only pupil. It is related that Miss Baldwin, whose home was near 
Brace Lake, in Eckford township, blazed the trail from her home to the 
school house by tying strings of calico on the bushes. The following 
year, 1837, Miss Baldwin taught the first school in what is now No. 4 in 
Eckford. Among other early organized schools we note the following: 

1833, first school in Emmett township, with Cynthia Maynard as teacher; 
Cook's Prairie, Clarendon, in 1833, Timothy Hamlin, teacher; private 
school in Sheridan township on the Horace Bidwell farm, in 1832, with 
Mr. Bidwell 's daughter, Ursula, teacher; first school in Athens on Sec. 
34 in 1833, with a Miss Acres as teacher; on Goguac Prairie in 1834, 
Arantha Thomas, teacher; on E. Kimball's farm in Marengo in 1833, 
Mrs. Skinner, teacher; and on the Chisholm farm, same township, in 

1834, with S. Powers, teacher; on present site of No. 3, Eckford in 1834, 
with W. N. Wilder, teacher ; in Homer township, J. Cross taught in 1835 
and Hannah Leach taught the same year in school located in the village ; 


No. 6. Tekonsha. was tlio location of tlic first school tlistrict in tliat 
township ; in 1837, ^lary Buckingham taught the first school in Burling- 
ton where the high school is now located, and Polly Lee had charge of 
the school at Abascota the same year; John Mains taught the first school 
in No. 4, Clarendon, in 1837 ; Sarah Root, the first in Convis in 1838. 

We find no records of the organization of any schools in Leroy town- 
ship previous to 1838, when the inspectors met and organized nine dis- 
tricts, each containing four sections. The inspectors were D. N. Bush- 
nell and Polydore Hudson. 

In 1828, Congress had passed an act setting oft' the sixteenth section 
of each township for school purposes, but at that time land was so cheap 
that little was realized from the sale of the school lands. With houses 
to build, land to clear, roads to make and streams to bridge, it was im- 
possible for the attention to be given to education that otherwise would 
have been given. Up to and including 1836, there were but 39 organized 
townships in the state, eight of which were in Calhoun county, and fifty- 
five school districts with an enrollment of but 2,337 pupils in the entire 
State. The adoption of the Constitution in 1836 gave impetus to the 
educational movement so that four years later, in 1840, we find there 
were 324 organized Townships with a total of 1,506 school disti'icts, en- 
rolling 49,850 pupils. At this time, the average length of the school 
year was 4 4-10 month, while the average pay for the male teacher was 
$15.61 per month and for the female teachers was $1.27 per week. The 
teachers "boarded around. " The average age of the male teacher ranged 
from 17 to 20, while the ages of the female teachers ranged from 14 to 
17 yeai-s. 

In 1850, the average length of the school year was five months, and 
the average pay of the male teachers had been diminished to $14.00, while 
the average for female teachers had increased to $6.00 per month. 

A limited tax could be imposed by the ciualified voters and assessed 
upon the property of the district for building purposes, repairs, ap- 
pendages, etc., but not one dollar could be collected for the support of the 
teacher, w'ith the exception of the small primary fund, and the teacher 
had to be paid by money collected by the Rate Bill. Form of Rate Bill 
and Warrant are herewith appended : 

Name of person No. days Amount of Fees Amount for 

sending to school sent school bill fuel Total 

Chas. Miller 312 $3.15 $0.15 $1..50 .$4.80 

Fred Smith 104 1.05 .05 .50 1.60 

"To the Assessor of School District No Township of : — 

You are hereby commanded to collect from each person named, the 
several sums set opposite their names, within the next six days after 
date of delivery hereof : and upon the collection of the same, or any part 
thereof or at the expiration of the time allowed therefor by law to pay 
over the amount so collected by you (retaining five per cent for your 
fee) to the order of the Director of said District, countersigned by the 
Jloderator thereof; and in ease any person therein named shall refuse 


on demand, to pay amount on said Rate Bill for which he is liable, you 
are to collect the same by distress and sale of chattels of such persons, 
wherever found in counties in which said district is situated, having 
first published said sale at least ten days by posting up notices in three 
public places in the Township where such property is to be sold. 

"Given under our hands this dav of A. D. 

A B 


C D 

' ' Moderator. ' ' 

The moneys collected by the Rate Bill was about equal to the pri- 
mary money, in many districts, and in some cases it exceeded the 
amount of money received from the State. 

Many schools at this time and even for many years later had made 
no provision for regularity of attendance ; for uniformity of text books ; 
for any form of graduation or definite plan of visitation. The houses 
were crude, poorly lighted, poorly equipped, poorly ventilated. Yet 
notwithstanding all the hardships the people had undergone — the finan- 
cial panic of '37, disease, etc. — they still insisted on having a better 
system of schools and Calhoun County's three representatives, ]\Iessrs. 
Pierce, Crary and Morrison, went into the Constitutional Convention of 
1850, and were instrumental in having the Constitution so amended that 
a free school must be maintained in every district at least three months 
during the year. There was a provision, however, that arranged that the 
Legislature should provide for such schools within five years, so it was 
actually seven years before any results were secured. 

As the Constitutional Convention of 1850 practically closes one epoch 
in the educational history and commences another, for comparison, we 
quote from the report for the year ending May, 1851, as given by the 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Francis W. Sherman : 
Number of districts, 150; number of children on census list, 6,403; 
number of children attending school under four years of age, 92 ; num- 
ber of children attending school over 18 years of age, 231 ; whole num- 
ber who have attended school during the year, 5,049. Whole amount of 
wages paid the teachers in the County, $7,757.55. Amount raised by 
rate bill, $3,556.43 ; primary money received, $2,983.36 ; raised for 
building purposes, $7,759.60 (a union school building was built in ]Mar- 
shall during this year, which is included in this amount) ; support of 
school, including teachers, $3,355.87; mill tax assessed, $1,401.53; aver- 
age length of school year in rural districts, five months. Average length 
of school year in union schools, thirt.y-five weeks. The average salary 
of teachers $11.35. (Board for rural teachers cost from $.75 to $1.25 per 
week, while in the village it cost from $1.25 to $1.75). 

Notwithstaiuling the fact that the Superintendent of Public In- 
struction had, through his reports, announced that it was not obligatory 
for any one to board the teacher, practically all the teachers "boarded 
around." In connection with the system of "boarding around", an 
amusing incident is a matter of record in the Board of Supexwisors ' Re- 
port of 1874 and 1875, where the Superintendent of the Poor submitted 


bills for two aiicl three weeks' board for school teachers. In some dis- 
tricts this plan of "boarding around" continued in vogue until the early 

The SupiTiutcndciil of I'ublic Instrurtion ivcdinnicndi'd to tlie 
Constitutional Convention that the schools be made free, and after dis- 
cussing the various plans proposed by the members of the Convention, 
the source of revenue for the primary schools was agreed upon as follows : 
First, the income from the primary school fund ; Second, a tax of two 
mills upon each dollar's valuation of taxable property in the township; 
Third, a tax not exceeding one dollar a scholar, voted by the districts 
and collected by the township : Fourth, the rate bill to make up any 

Previous to this time there had been no close supervision of schools, 
but a Law was enacted, making the Chairman of the Township Board 
of School Inspectors (said Board being composed of the Township Clerk 
and two School Inspectors) inspector of the schools of his township, 
and reciuiring him to visit these schools at least one each term. The 
Board of School Inspectors examined and licensed all teachere in the 
Public Schools. The good resulting from this supervision became quickly 

This system of inspection continued until 1868, when the Board of 
School Inspectoi-s was discontinued, and Captain Ephraim Marble, now- 
living in Jlarshall. was elected the first County Superintendent of Schools 
of Calhoun county in 1867. which office he held for two years, when he 
was succeeded by Rev. Bela Fancher (now deceased). Rev. Fancher 
held the office for four years and was followed by Bertrand F. Welch, 
said to be the oldest living teacher in Michigan, and now lives in Mar- 
shall. It was the duty of these county superintendents to examine all 
candidates for teachers' certificates visit all schools at least once a year, 
and consult with the teachers as to the best mode of instruction and dis- 
cipline. They were paid by the Board of Supervisors, who fixed their 
salary per diem for actual time expended. 

One of the great hindrances to good school work during these periods 
was the lack of suitable text books. One of the Superintendents 
above mentioned informed the writer that in one school visited by him 
an entire class had no readers, excepting the New Testament, which they 
were using in their reading classes. Ofttimes there were as nmny 
different text books as there were pupils in a class. 

Another of the great hindrances to the district school \\(}ik was the 
fact that there was no uniformity in the course of study and the children 
were allowed to take up the study that pleased their fancy most with- 
out reference to the practical side of the matter. The more advanced 
educational minds ])egan thinking of the advisability of adopting a uni- 
form course of study and the enacting of a law that would tend to 
bring about a uniformity of text books. This agitation brought good 
results, for a few years later they saw their ideas realizpd. 

The people, having become dissatisfied with the County System of 
Supervision, which they believed to be very expensive for the results 
secured, returned to the Township System in 1875. The vi.sitation of the 
schools was again placed in the hands of the Chairman of the Board of 


School Inspectors of the various townships, who met once each year and 
elected a member for the County Board of Teachers Examiners, each 
member to hold for a term of two years. It became the duty of the 
Board of Examiners to conduct the examination of all teachers of the 
County. We are unable to find a complete record of the examiners thus 
chosen, but find that Capt. Ephraim Marble, Miss A. R. Camburn, and 
S. G. Gorsline all served at sometime during this period. 

In 1887, the law again changed with reference to the visitation of 
schools, taking the work out of the hands of the Township School In- 
spectors, and placing it in the hands of a County Secretary, who was to 
be chosen by the Judge of Probate and the two members of the County 
Board of School Examiners. Report made by this Board to the Board 
of Supervisors on the 17th day of October, 1887, is herewith given in 

'■'To the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Calhoun County: — 
Acting under the requirements of the new law, the Board of School 
Examiners of this County met with the Judge of Probate at this oifiee 
the 28th day of September, and elected Mr. R. A. Culver secretary of 
such Board for the ensuing year ; fixing his salary there for at $1,300.00. 

"They also instructed such secretary to visit in person or by such 
assistants as he might select, each school in the county, at least twice a 
year; to ascertain the conditions of such school and success of its 
teachers; to note the conditions of the buildings and surroundings; to 
counsel with the school boards azid advise as to any necessary improve- 
ments; to keep a record of such visits and make a yearly report of the 
same to the Chairman of the Board of Township Inspectors, of the 
several townships at their annual meeting on the first Tuesday in 

' ' Said Board to also require that the whole time of such secretary be 
devoted to the work, and the supervision of the schools be made as 
thorough as possible. 

"To accomplish this work the board have agreed upon the following 
estimates, as necessary in their judgment to pav for the same : Salarv 
of Secretary, .$1,300.00 ; Pay of Board of Examiners, $200.00 ; Pay of 
assistant visitors, printing, stationery, postage, room rent and janitor, 
$300.00; Total .$1,800.00 

"All of which is respectfully submitted, 

" (iliss) A. R. Camburn, chairman. 
"S. G. Gorsline, 
"R. A. Culver, secretary." 

From this time forward the scliools advanced with rapid strides. 
Mr. Culver had the honor of being one of a committee of five who 
planned the first State Manual Course of Study, which was approved by 
the Superintendent of Public Instruction and by him placed in every 
school district in the state. While the course as laid down was not man- 
datory, it brought about immediate results, and a general approval of 
a common course of study for all district schools. 31r. Culver held the 
position of Secretary for a term of foiir years, when the law again 


changed, and provided for a County Commissioner of Schools. The first 
Commissioner was appointed by the Board of Supervisors to serve one 
year, after which he was to be elected by the people at the regular 
spring election for a term of two years. 

On June 22, 1891, Mr. Arthur G. Randall of Tekonsha was appointed 
the first County Commissioner of Schools for Calhoun County, and twice 
re-elected by popular vote of the people. The law relative to the elec- 
tion of County School Examiners having also been changed, provided 
that the examiners should be chosen by the Board of Supervisors. At 
a meeting held June 22, 1891, the Board selected Mr. Chester L. Williams 
of Lee and Mr. Edward L. ilcPherson of Burlington to act as County 
Examiners for a term of two years and one year respectively. 

Mr. Randall's ability as a Commissioner was recognized by an ap- 
pointment on the committee of five to draft the Second State Manual 
Course of Study, and he was also appointed a member of the State 
Teachers Reading Circle Board. He was educated in Hillsdale College ; 
had had a long and successful experience as teacher; as business man; 
as editor and publisher and he entered into his work with such earnest- 
ness that he could not fail to inspire enthusiasm in both teachers and 

Mrs. Emma S. Willits was elected Commissioner in the spring of 
1897. She is a graduate from Albion College and is a lady of more 
than ordinary culture and refinement. She was a successful teacher, 
having taught in some of the best high schools in the state. She made 
an excellent Commissioner and is now the efficient Deputy County Treas- 
urer in this count}\ 

Ernest Burnham succeeded Mrs. Willits in 1899. He was educated 
in the rural schools, Battle Creek high school, and Albion College. He 
was City Editor of the Albion Recorder at the time he was elected. 
Mr. Burnham was a student of Sociology and as such drew attention of 
the state authorities who offered him the chair at the head of the Rural 
Department of the Western Normal at Kalamazoo in 1904. 

That the state was fortunate in its choice is evidenced by the rapid 
growth of the department. He took his degree from Columbia in 1911. 
Dr. Burnham still takes an active interest in the educational affairs of 
the county. 

At the resignation of Mr. Burnham, in 1904, the writer of this sketch 
and present incumbent. P. D. Miller, was appointed to fill the vacancy 
and has twice been re-elected. IModesty prevents further comment other 
than to state that I attribute any success I have had, to a great extent, 
to the solid foundation, educationally, laid by my predecessors. 

At the time the office of County Commissioner of Schools was insti- 
tuted, the salary was determined by a sliding scale, depending on the 
number of schools under the Commissioner's jurisdiction. The minimum 
salary, in this county was $1,200.00 and the maximum was .$1,800.00, 
with all necessary office expenses. The Board of Supervisors fixed the 
amoimt at $1,200.00, with no allowance for traveling expenses. In 1903 
the length of the term was increased from two to four years, and the 
salary was raised to $1,500.00 per year; in 1908 an extra allowance of 


$150.00 was voted by the Board of Supervisors for traveling expenses and 
two years later the salary was raised to $1,800.00 per year. 

Register of State and County Officers 

Superintendents of Public Instruction, elected from Calhoun County : 
John D. Pierce, 1836-1841; Dr. Oliver C. Comstoek, 1843-1845; Ira 
Mayhew, 1845-1849; Francis W. Sherman, 1849-1854; Ira Mayhew, 
1854-1858; Delos Falls, 1901-1905. 

Twenty-two of the seventy-six years since Michigan became a state, 
Calhoun County has furnished the Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Chairmen of Committee on Education in Constitutional Conventions : 
Isaac Crary, of Marshall, in 1836, John D. Pierce, of Marshall, 1850, and 
Delos Fall, of Albion, in 1909. 

Superintendents of Cominon Schools for Calhoun County : Ephraim 
Marble, 1869 ; Bela Fancher, 1869-1872 ; Bertrand F. AVelc'h, 1873-1874. 
Secretary of Board of Examiners: Rufus A. Culver, 1887-1891. 

County Commissioners of Schools : Arthur G. Randall, 1892-1897 ; 
ilrs. Enuiia S. Willits, 1897-1899 ; Ernest Burnham, 1899-1904 ; Frank D. 
Miller, 1904. 

County School Examiners: Ephraim Marble, ; Miss A. R. 

Camburn, ; S. G. Gorsline, ; Miss Lizzie Cook, ; 

Chester E. Williams, 1892-1894; E. L. McPhersou, 1892-1895; F. W. 
Arbury, 1894-1896 ; Guy Fisk, 1895-1897 ; Albert II. Wlntakcr. 1896-1898 ; 
J. H. Atwood, 1897-1899; Kassen Richardson, 18!»S-]:i(l(l ; F. D. Miller, 
1899-1904; A. J. Flint, 1900-1906; E. L. McPlierson, 19(14-1909; B. J. 

Rivett, 1906-1907; Josiah Phelps, 1907 ; Maude Blair, 1909-1911; 

E. L. McPherson, 1911 . 

County Truant Officers: Vern G. Gibbs, 1905-1906; S. M, Reed, 1907- 
1910 ; Wm. Gray, 1910 . 

Truant officer is appointed by the Commissioner and receives $3.00 
per day and expenses for time actually expended. 

There are 158 one room school buildings, and seven graded schools 
in the County with a combined teaching force of 193 teachers. There 
are about 200 teachers employed in the cities, making a total of about 
400 teachers in the County. 

The following Statistics were taken from the last report made to tlie 
Board of Supervisors in October 1911 : 

No. of teachers under the jurisdiction of Commissioner 193 

No. of teachers employed who had no previous teaching experience. 44 

No. of County Normal graduates employed 47 

No. of State Normal graduates employed 17 

No. of visits made by Commissioner during year 360 

No. of pupils on census list in rural districts 4412 

No. of pupils on census list in village schools 951 

Cost of instruction in rural districts $51,757.55 

Cost of instruction in village schools $16,366.50 

Average length of school year in rural districts S mo. 16 days 

Average salary per month in rural schools $39.30 


Average length of year in villages !• iiki. 14 days 

Average salary of village teaeiiers (per month) .t.")2.(jr) 

No. of pupils who wrote the eighth grade diploma examination. . . . 410 

No. of pupils who reeeived diplomas lM7 

No. of eases investigated by Trmuit Officer '27A) 

No. of truancy notiees siTvcd 184 

There are 155 frame, 25 brick and S stone school houses iu the rural 
districts. Two districts just organized, where frame buildings will be 
erected. Nearly all the rural schools are equipped with wall maps, 
dictionaries, globes and other necessary appendages. At least 90 per 
cent of the rural schools are well equipped and fully 75 per cent have 
the Stars and Stripes displayed in, or over the building during the 
sessions. The library money is used for library purposes, so at present 
95 per cent of the rural schools have working libraries. More attention 
is being paid to the choice of books; teachers and officers are now being 
furnished with approved lists from which to make their selections. 

Drawing and manual training have been introduced in many of the 
rural schools with excellent results; the annual exhibit, along these lines, 
in connection with the County fair is evidence of the good woi'k being 
done. Elementary Agriculture is receiving more and more attention 
each year in the schools and will be made a part of the course for eighth 
grade pupils, for intensive study, for the first time this year. Boys and 
Girls' Agricultural Clubs are being formed in connection with the 
schools and are finding the work very interesting. At the Agricultural 
Association meeting in ^larshall in 1912, the Boys and Girls' Agri- 
cultural Club from the Aurand district in Tekonsha. won the Sweep- 
stake for the best Agricultural exhibit on the grounds. 

Dr. Delo.s Fall. 

The Educational History of Calhoun County and the State of ]\Iich- 
igan would be incomplete without the mention of our honored resident. 
Dr. Delos Fall, who served two terms as Supei-intendent of Puljlic In- 
struction. Dr. Fall is truly the friend of the rural ilistiicts, ,iiid to him 
we are indebted for much of the rural pro.uifss ih,it h;is Immmi made in 
recent years. Dr. Fall recognized that the State instit\itinns were pre- 
paring teachers for the city schools at the expense of the rural districts, 
as many of the best rural teachers left their school, took Nornud courses, 
but failed to find their way back to the i-ural schools after receiving theii- 
training. He therefore, was not only instrumental in having rural school 
courses placed in the State normals where rural school teachers could be 
trained, but he also provided for the organizing of County Normal train- 
ing classes in the counties, where it is possible for young people to take 
a year's training for their important work, at a very small expense. 

When these laws became effective, there were but two normal trained 
teachers in the rural schools of the'eounty. Today more than one third of 
all the rural teachers in the county are graduates from one of the State 
Normals or from the county Normal, and a goodly pi'opoi'tion of the 
others have taken summer school work at one of the State Normals. ])v. 


Fall appeared personally before the Board of Supervisors in 1904 and 
argued the advisability of organizing a County Training class in this 
county. The Board acted favorably, and Miss Eva Warriner, of Battle 
Creek, was elected principal and took charge of the class the following 
year. Miss Warriner has given us some very excellent teachers during 
the eight years she has had charge of the work 

Now, kind reader, we have traced, somewhat briefly, the development 
of the rural schools, from the organization of the first school, in 1832, to 
the present. We have seen the passing of the old log school houses with 
the plank seats, thatched roofs, rude equipment, and in their stead we 
find well equipped, more modern buildings. The rate bill outlived its 
usefulness and, thanks to the newly enacted tuition, it is now possible 
for each child in the state to have free school from the time he enters 
the chart class, until he completes the high school course. No longer 
does the old song. "Readin' and "ritiu and 'rithmetie, taught to the tune 
of a hickory stick, ' ' apply to our schools, for today it is possible to get 
a good practical education in the home district and the "Hickory" is 
almost an unheard of accessory in school work. Pupils now attend school 
the entire school year, as taught in the districts, and follow a regular 
course of study, instead of attending a few weeks, as they did in pioneer 
times. Untrained teachers of fourteen years are no longer permitted to 
take the place of the real trained teachers of today. The prophecy of 
that great educator, John D. Pierce, has really been worked out and 
while we honor his memory, we should not forget those other great 
Calhoun county educators, who have taken such prominent parts in 
shaping school "legislation as Dr. Oliver C. Comstock, Ira Mayhew, Fran- 
cis W. Sherman and Delos Fall, all of whom have held the responsible 
position of Superintendent of Public Instruction, nor should we fail to 
pay homage to those brave pioneers, who boldly struck out into the wil- 
derness, forded streams, endured untold hardships, and carved out their 
fortunes in this, the best county, in the best state, in the best country on 
the face of the earth. 

Village Schools 

By Frank D. Miller 

There are seven village schools in the county, employing thirty-five 
teachers. Three of these schools have the regular twelve grades in their 
courses and the remainder have but ten. East Leroy has been set off into 
a separate district and will build a three room school building. Two 
rooms on the ground floor will be used for school purposes after January 
1, 19i;i and one room on the second floor will be used for lecture room, 
assemblies, etc. The district has bonded for $3,000.00 for a new building 
which is now in the course of construction. Wlien completed we will have 
eight village schools. 

The Ceresco school property is valued at $2,000.00. The building is 
in a good state of repair and is well equipped. Two hundred sixty-three 
volumes of well selected books are found on the shelves of the school 
librarv. Last year, the enrollment was fifty-five and two teachers drew 


$810 for niue months' work. There is a good healthy school sentiment 
in tlie district. 

Bedford village school was organized in the home of John P. Ames 
on the sixth day of November, 1842. School has been maintained in the 
district, each year since that date. There are 83 pupils on the census list, 
seventy-seven of M-hom, with four non-resident pupils, were enrolled last 
year at a cost for instruction (two teachers) of $810.00. The school 
building has seen many years service and naturally shows the wear. 
There has been considerably agitation, during the last few years in favor 
of a new school house but the proposition has been defeated each time it 
has been brought to a vote. 

Burlington was laid out as a village in 1842, but five years before a log 
school house had been built where the present frame house now stands 
and JMary Buckingham was the teacher. In 1838 the district was legally 
organized by the board of school inspectors consisting of E. A. Hayden, 
Jonah Bradish and Lorenzo Escanback. 

In 1869 the district was graded and a two room building was built, 
which building is still doing service for the district, although it was 
found necessary to divide the lower room, making three rooms instead of 
two. The last census list contains seventy-six names of children living 
in the district, fifty-five of whom with six non-resident pupils attended 
school. Three teachers are employed at a cost of $1,220.00 for nine 
montli 's work. Six hundred and forty books, including many good refer- 
ence books, are in the school library. The school has a fair e(iuipmeiit. 

Urbandale has just completed a tine $14,000.00 scliool building, which 
was dedicated October 4, 1912. A fine banquet was served by the ladies 
of the district, in the main room of the building, to about four hundred 
people. Twelve years ago Urbandale had not been plotted and one 
teacher taught fourteen pupils in the "Little White" school house. 
Since that time a two room building was built in the district, but was 
outgrown and a small church was secured by the board of education and 
a third teacher employed. One hundred and thirty-two pupils attended 
school in the district, last year. 

The building is well equipped ; teachers are among the best in the 
county; school board is progressive; patrons and entire community be- 
lieve that the best is about right for Urbandale, and the school naturally 
must get excellent results with such environments. Three teachers are 
employed at present with good prospects of the fourth being added before 
the close of the year. 

Tekonsha has always taken an active interest in education. From the 
time Chloe Ann Mead, later ;\Irs. Harvey Kennedy of Clarendon, taught 
school in the old plank school house, with but a dozen pupils in 1837. to 
the present, with Superintendent P. I. Wise and six very efficient as- 
sistant teachers, with an enrollment of one hundred and ninety-seven 
pupils. Tekonsha has been found in the front ranks educationally. A 
tine two stor>' brick building was built in 1873 to which an annex was 
erected in 1910. The school property is now valued at $30,000.00. 
School is maintained thirty-eight weeks each year at a cost of $3,400.00 
for instruction. It has a full high school of four years: is on the 
"accepted list" of the higher educatiouHl instittitions of tiic state. The 


pupils take an active interest in literary work, holding weekly meetings 
where (juestions of living interest are discussed; best authors are read 
and the principles in oratory and debate are given proper attention. 
A high school paper is published each month of the school year by the 

District No. 2. Athens, where the village now stands, was legally 
organized December 31, 1837, by the school inspectoi-s of the township, 
at the home of Alfred Holcome. (School had ])een maintained for about 
three years in the old log school house but it was in the nature of a 
private school. ) Alfred Holcome was given the contract to build a school 
house which was to be eight-square, with portico in front, and to contain 
two fire-places in the middle of the, house. House was to be twenty-two 
feet in diameter, with eight-feet posts and was to be completed by the first 
of the following October, for the contract price of $300.00. Asahel Stone, 
the moderator, donated the lot upon wliicli tlic house was erected. 

A fine $35,000.00 school building' was riveted in 1911. It is conceded 
to be one of the best, if not the best, seliool building for the town the size 
of Athens, in the state. Superintendent C. S. Harmon with seven assist- 
ants has charge of the one hundred and ninety-seven pupils who are now 
attending school in the district. Fifty-three non-resident pupils are 
found in the high school. The l)uilding is eiiuipped with a good working 
library of seven hundred and eighty well seh^eted volumes, physical and 
chemical laboratories, gymnasium, and a fine athletic field adjoining the 
school property. The cost for insti'uelinn. last year, was $4,300.00. The 
school was recently placed on the \nii\i'i'sit\- list. They are leaders in 
athletics, having won the state high school baseball championship for the 
last four years. - 

In 1839 Miss Sarah Babcock taught the first school in the village of 
Homer, with an enrollment of fifty pupils, in an old building which had 
been fitted up for that purpose. 

In 1842 $300.00 was voted to build a new school house. This build- 
ing was completed in 1843 and served the district twenty years, but 
finding that two schools could not be supported in a place of the size, 
at the annual meeting in 1863 it was voted to purchase the academy 
which had been organized as a select school in 1854, for the use of the 
district for the sum of $2,000.00. In 1864 a graded school was organized, 
which has since met the re(iuirements of the thriving village. In 1890 
a fine modern brick building was erected. The committee in charge 
did not let the expense stand in the way of any improvement that would 
add to the efficiency of the school or the comfort of the teachers and 
pupils. Each room is so arranged that the light comes from the back 
and left, while the black boards are in front and to the right. 

The equipment consisting of physical and chemical laboratories, 
libraries and all school appendages are excellent. The school has been 
approved by the visiting professor from the U. of M. The total cost of 
the school, last year, was $10,672.30 of which $5,475.00 was for teachers' 
wages. Two hundred and fifty-nine pupils attended school in Homer 
last year, forty-one of whom were non-residents. Superintendent A. J. 
Flint, a Calhoun rural school product, who later graduated from Homer 
and then took his professional course at Ypsilanti. has charge of the 


school and is exerting a grand influence over the pupils. He is a student 
.of human nature and his knowledge of ' ' Boy Nature ' ' is apparent on the 
athletic field, on the streets, in the homes and wherever his boys con- 
gregate. He is their leader in the Boy Scouts, and in their division of 
the county Y. M. C. A. Where the boys go, Flint is invited and Flint 

Ten teachers are employed in the schools. 


The Indians furnish an interesting but comparatively colorless chap- 
ter in the history of Calhoun county. From about 1800, the Pottawat- 
tomies occupied the lower part of Michigan territory. A remnant of 
this once numerous and powerful tribe still live near the village of 
Athens, in the southwest part of the county. 

In the second war with Great Britain, the Chippewas were friendly 
to the United States, while Ottawas and Pottawattomies were hostile; 
but in later years the last named tribe assumed and maintained a very 
friendly attitude toward the Americans. 

In the Black Hawk War of 1832, that in which Abraham Lincoln 
served as Captain, the Sacs sent their runners among the Pottawattomies 
of Calhoun and other counties in the southern part of Michigan, seeking 
an alliance against the whites. The Indians in this section for a time 
seemed restless and sullen. The latter attitude particularly gave rise to 
the rumor that they were about to go on the war path. The citizens were 
apprehensive of trouble and it was deemed best to take some precaution- 
ary steps. Accordingly, a meeting of citizens, a sort of council of war, 
was called in Marshall. It was held in one room of a double log house, 
in the spring of 1832. It resulted in organizing, anning and equipping 
a company from the county, which soon after marched away to partici- 
pate in the anticipated war. The captain was Isaac N. Hurd, a native 
of New York state, and by education a civil engineer. He was among 
the comers to ilarshall. Isaac E. Crai-y was chosen second lieuten- 
ant. Crary was a young man who had recently come into the then wil- 
derness of southern Michigan. As credentials to the pioneers who had 
preceded him, he brought a college diploma from his Alma Mater, and 
a certificate of membership of the bar of his native state. Fortunately 
the war was of short duration and the soldiers from Calhoun County 
did not get beyond their native state. They were soon back and follow- 
ing their accustomed pursuits. 

An interesting character among the Indians at this time and to whom 
there attached a pathetic interest was one Johnson, a white man, who, 
when a little child, was stolen from his parental home somewhere in 
Kentucky and carried away by the Indians into the northwest country. 
Growing to maturity among his captors, he married an Indian girl, who 
became the mother of several children. In his later years, it became 
known from whence he had been taken as a child. He was induced to 



return ou a visit to the home of his childhood. Endeavor was put forth 
to get him to return and live among the people of his own race; but 
nothing could induce him to abandon those who had so long been his 
associates and companions and some of whom were bound to him by the 
ties of blood. He lingered among them till the end of life and dying, 
was laid to rest in the Indian burying ground near Climax. 

A mission and school was long maintained in the vicinity of Athens. 
The R€V. Manassah Hickey, one of the early students at the Wesleyan 
Semiuaiy, now Albion College, and still well remembered by the older 
generation in our midst, preached among them for years. ^Ir. Ilickey's 
sister, who was also educated at Albion, was the Principal of the school. 
A number of Indian maidens from the Pottawattomie tribe were educa- 
ted at Albion. One of them, who is reputed to have become a very skill- 
ful interpreter, was later Preceptress of the school for her people. 

As a rule, the Indians in Calhoun County were friendly to the whites. 
When not under the influence of the red man's "fire water" (the white 
man's whiskey), they were kind and genei'oiis, accomodating and help- 
ful to the early settlers. As a race, here and elsewhere, all things con- 
sidered, they were more sinned against than sinning. 



The Washingtonian ^Movement — Washingtonianism in Battle Creek 
— The Red Ribbon IMovement — The Women's Christian Temper- 
ance Union — Legislation. 

It is a long stride in temperance reform from the j'ear 1804 when 
Benjamin Rush, of Phihulelphia, published an able paper on "An In- 
quiry into the Eifects or Ardent Spirits on the ;Mind and Body," and 
the year of 1912 when in Jlichigan the battles are fought by counties, 
and many of them successfully, in favor of the absolute prohibition of the 
liquor traffic within their boundaries. The way of temperance reform 
has been a tortuous one. liut however crooked, however many seeming 
reverses, the trend has been constantly forward. It was not until 1808 
that the first temperance society was organized in the LTnited States. 
At that time a pledge was exacted that would by no means satisfy the 
orthodox temperance people of t.oday. 

A new standard was set up and the flag planted far in advance of 
the then existing battle line, when the Rev. Dr. Lyman Beecher, father 
of Henry Ward Beecher and of Harriet Beecher Stowe, introduced and 
successfully carried through a resolution in the Congregational Associa- 
tion of ]Massachusetts against the then prevailing custom of ministers 

The Washingtonian ]Movement 

had a very humble and obscure origin but its beneficent influence was 
far reaching and in a way permanent. A tailor, a carpenter, a black- 
smith, a coach maker and a silver plater, each and all hard drinkers, 
were on the evening of April 3, 1840, assembled in a tavern on Liberty 
Street, Baltimore, partaking of their usual potions, when they fell to 
discussing the temperance question. The same evening in a nearby 
church a minister was delivering a lecture on that theme and it was 
agreed by four of the number, that they would go and hear what was 
said and return and report. They went and on coming back made a 
favorable report. Before they went to their homes that night it was de- 
termined to form a temperance club and one of their number was deputed 
to draw up a pledge and present for consideration on the following Mon- 
day evening. When they convened at the appointed time and place, the 
following was presented and adopted : ' ' We, whose names are hereunto 



annexed, desirous of forming a society for our mutual benefit, and to 
guard against a pernicious practice, which is injurious to our health, 
standing and families, do pledge ourselves as gentlemen, that we will 
not drink any spirituous or malt liquors, wine or cider." 

They called their organization "The Washingtoniau Society." That 
little cluster of men in Baltimore "set the clock of temperance reform 
ahead, a quarter of a century." It was the beginning of the first great 
temperance revival in our country. It led to many thousands of men in 
all parts of the country abjuring the drink habit and becoming total 
abstainers. Many of the most eflfective and famous temperance advocates 
the cause has had were from the ranks of men who had been addicted to 
strong drink. 

"The Washingtoniau movement struck ^Michigan in 1841 and spread 
from town to town converting great numbers by the irresistible power of 
its advocates. Never before had there been such an awakening in this 
county. A cry went forth, an alarm sounded out like a tire bell in the 
night, arresting the drinker in his downward career. * * * There 
was no disagreeing or separating into opposing parties in regard to the 
plan or means used in suppressing the rum traffic." 

WAsiiix(.iT()xi.\xisji IN Battle Creek. 

A well known .Michigan writer of the last generation says, "One of 
the memorable incidents in the history of Battle Creek is the introduction 
of Washingtonianism in that village in the winter of 1841-42. IMar- 
shall had succumbed to the reform and had sent three of her representa- 
tive citizens to carry the glad tidings to the neighboring village of 
Battle Creek. The meeting was held in the ^Methodist church and it was 
crowded to its utmost capacity to seat those who came. The first speaker 
was Thomas Gilbert.* 

He represented that class of gentlemen who take the "occasional 
glass." His speech was direct and forcible. He said the habit of taking 
the occasional glass would lead to taking one much oftener and that to 
the drunkard. The next speaker was Bath Banks, ^larshall's main 
liquor dealer. He said he had abandoned the liquor business. AYash- 
ingtonianism had opened his eyes to the evil of liquor selling and now 
eveiy time he turned the faucet the gurgling of the liquor .sounded to 
him like cutting men's throats. The last speaker was jMr. Robert Hall, 
a farmer living near iMarshall. He stated in plain and honest words 
the reason of his conversion to temperance. He had been for years an 
habitual drunkard. He had gone home drunk one winter evening on 
his ox sled. His faithful beasts had taken him to the door of his house, 
but they could do no more. When discovered by his family he was near- 
ly frozen to death. He said when he came to ^Marshall and settled on 
a fanu they called him j\Ir. Robert Hall. He began to tipple and they 
called him "Bob Hall." Tippling led to deeper drinking, and they 

* Mr. Gilbert was for many years after one of the foremost citizens c 
Eapids, dying a few years ago universally resiieeted by the citizens of tha 


called him "Old Bob Hall." He became an occasional druntard, and 
they called him "Old Hall." Finally he became a gutter drunkard 
and they called him "Old Alco-Hall." 

Marshall had not only signed the pledge herself but she had sent her 
representatives to Battle Creek and other places in the county where 
they introduced the new gospel and set the work to going. From Battle 
Creek there went out Erastus Hussey, Dr. John L. Balcom, William H. 
Coleman and others to proclaim the new way and secure signers to the 
pledge. The whole county was stirred by the earnest advocates and 
large numbers forsook the drink habit forever and the cause of tem- 
perance took a long step in advance through the intiuence of the Wash- 
ingtonian movement. 

Interest in the cause of temperance was kept alive by the formation 
of local temperance societies and by the tours of able and eloquent ad- 
vocates of the cause. In 1849 a great impetus was given the cause by 
the visit to America of the famous Irish priest and apostle of temperance, 
the Rev. Father Theobald Mathew. As a temperance advocate he had re- 
markable success in Ireland. In this country he not only taught Catholics 
but Protestants as well the wonderful power of personal influence when 
brought to bear on the drinker. Father Mathew 's societies were every- 
where formed and through the impulse given by tliis remarkable ad- 
vocate vast numbers of people were induced to abandon the "cup" and 
many young men were so influenced as never to form the habit of drink- 
ing intoxicants. 

The Red Ribbon Movement 

In 1876 a wave of temperance swept over the county and, indeed, the 
whole State under the leadership of Reynolds and the red ribbon. Every 
signer of the pledge was designated by the sign of a red ribbon. That 
badge became very popular. None were too proud nor too great to wear it. 
It seemed to take on new influence and new honor every time it was seen 
in the lapel of the coat of a reformed drunkard and of these there were 
large numbers. 

Michigan has furnished several advocates of the temperance cause 
of more than local reputation. Among these may be mentioned the Rev. 
John Russel, who was long the foremost leader in our State. Robert E. 
Frazer, of Detroit, who came to the front during the red ribbon move- 
ment, was an advocate of rare power and very effective in pleading 
with his fellow men. The Michigan man of widest reputation among the 
temperance leaders of national prominence at this time, 1912, is Samuel 
Dickey of our own county, now and for some years past, President of 
Albion College. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union 

Perhaps the longest sustained and most effective influence for tem- 
perance in these later years originated in a crusade organized among the 
women in the little town of Hillsboro, Ohio, in 1874. What was supposed 
to be but a local and spasmodic protest against the saloon became, after 


it had spread through tlie various states. Jliehigau ainoug the number, 
and exhausted the impulse that gave it the appearance of a revolutionary 
force, a well organized, disciplined and effective power under the name 
of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. The Union is made up 
of a body of Christian women, drawn together from the various churches, 
whose common bond is the promotion of temperance and the prohibition 
of the saloon. The organization is national in its scope, having local so- 
cieties in all the principal cities and towns. It is self-perpetuating. 
Deaths, removals, nor discouragements seem not to effect it. With 
cumulative force it moves resistlessly forward. It is a power that must 
be reckoned with by all who undertake to estimate influences that make 
for or against the cause of temperance in this country. 


The cause of temperance legislation not only in Michigan but in many 
other states in the Union, has been exceedingly varied. It has had almost 
as many phases as Joseph's coat is supposed to have had colors. Laws 
have been enacted providing for state prohibition, county prohibition, 
township and ward prohibition. These have been amended, repealed 
or re-enacted in some other form. The courts have been resorted to and 
contested cases carried to the Supreme Court of the United States. Bat- 
tles have been waged on the hustings, at the ballot box, in the legisla- 
tures and the congress. These battles have been fought at times under 
partisan and again under non-partisan banners. Jlen have rallied at 
times around the standards of moral suasion and the signed pledge, 
again around regulation by license or tax and the enforcement of law 
and again by absolute prohibition. At other times the ardor of the people 
has blazed up and spread like a consuming tlame and again they have 
seemed to lose all interest. All men recognize the evils of intemperance 
but they differ greatly as to the best method of coping with those evils. 

Michigan tried prohibition from 1853 to 1875. In the winter and 
spring of 1886-87, another state wide contest was held that aroused the 
entire coinmoiiwealtli. At the spring election a total of 362.775 votes were 
cast, of these 178,4:70 were for prohibition and 184,305 against, the 
ma,iority against being but 5,835. In that election Calhoun county cast 
5,458 for and 3,424 against, or a ma.iority of 2,034 for. Under the 
present law, known as county option, the county has fluctuated. In 
1909 the county was carried under the local option law by 9] ma.jority 
and the prohibitory law was in force within the county for two years. 
In 1911 an appeal was again taken to the people and the returns showed a 
majority of 25 for license. At this writing, 1912, the county is again 
under the license system, but petitions are being circulated asking the 
board of supervisors to again submit the (juestion to the people of the 
county at the spring election of 1913. 



Albion and Athens Townships — Athens Village — Battle Creek 
Township (by Mrs. Laura Ringes) — Bedford and Burlington 
Townships — Village of Burlington — Clarence, Clarendon, Con- 
SHIP AND Village — Homer Banks — Lee, Ler^iy, ^Marengo, JMar- 
shall, Newton and Penfield Townships — A Few Pioneer Ex- 
periences' — Sheridan and Tekonsha. 

Albion Township 

By the surveyors' description, Albion township is known as township 
3, range' 4 west. In 1834, by an act of the territorial legislature, it 
was comprised within the township of Homer. In pursuance of an act 
of the legislature, April 1, 1837, it was organized as Albion township. 
The surface of this section is in general undulating. The soil is a rich 
black loam well adapted to the cultivation and production of grains, 
fruits and grass. The Kalamazoo river entering the township from the 
southwest. Hows towards the northeast and uniting at Albion with the 
east branch forms an excellent water power. The latter was a determin- 
ing factor in originally locating the site of the present city of Albion. 
There are a number of small lakes in the township ant! many never 
failing springs. 

The pioneers made no mistake when they selected Albion township 
as the locality in which they would make homes for themselves and their 
descendants. The township too was fortunate in the class of men and 
women who constituted the early settlers. The influence of the Robert- 
sons, the Ilowells, the Holmes, the Knickerbockers, the Kinneys, the Far- 
leys, the Balls, the Sheldons, and later the Andersons, the Parsons, the 
Havens, and many others both among the earlier and later comers, has 
done much to make Albion township one of the best and most desirable 
residential sections of the county. Minard and Garfield Farley, grand- 
sons of David Farley, one of the prominent early settlers, have dem- 
onstrated the value of an education in agriculture, and particularly in 
the knowledge ;iiid cultuic nf IVuits. The renovation of old orchards, 
the care of the new. tlie jxM-l'ecliiit;- of the quality and the increase of the 
quantity of fruit by these young men have demonstrated possibilities 
before scarcely believed. 



AYhile the towiisliip li;is no \ill;i^c. iioi- rliuivli, nor liioii school williin 
lier present limits, her elose proximity tti Albion eity, to Homer niul 
Concord places all these within easy reach of her people. Many of her 
sons and daughters are graduates of the high school or the college or 
both, while the average degree of intelligence, morality and religious 
character make her people to rank in these resjiects among the foremost. 

The Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad traverses the town- 
ship from the southwest to the northeast nearly through the center of 
the town diagonally. The ^Michigan Central touches its Iwrders on the 
northeast while the Cincinnati Northern passes through the .southwest 
corner, and the Air Line road runs within a few rods of the southeast 
corner. The interests and history of Albion township have always been 
closely related to those of Albion city and Homer village, which are 
treated more fully elsewhere. For many years the township has furn- 
ished to both city and village named some of their formost citizens. 

Athens Township 

One of the earliest sections settled in Calhoun county was that por- 
tion embracing what is now Athens township. Originally it included 
LeRoy and Burlington townships. Probably no finer prospect was held 
out to the pioneer than that which Athens presented. About one-si.\th 
of its area was fine prairie. About ten sections were heavily tindiered 
with whitewood, black cherry, black walnut and oak. In the way of 
timber it is said there was nothing better in the county. That which 
was not prairie or heavily timbered was beautiful stretches of "oak 
openings," presenting to the early comers the appearance of an extended 
park. At certain seasons of the year the wild flowers added much to the 
charm of the scenery. 

The principal streams are the Nottawasepi and Pine creeks, wiiich 
unite on section 29 and form a large tributary to the St. Joseph wliii'h 
they enter in Kalamazoo county a few miles below. 

It was in the month of June, 183L that the three Nichols brothers, 
viz : Warren, Ambrose and Othorial, together with Benjamin F. Ferris, 
Alfred Holcomb, Isaac Crossett, Asahel Stone and a Mr. Brown, came 
into the township and located their claims on what is now called Dry 
Prairie. During the summer, houses were built of hewn logs and shelter 
for the limited quantity of stock was provided before winter set in. 
These resolute men and women seemed abundantly satisfied with the 
progress they had made in the short time since they had come into the 
new country and the future appeared full of promise. All eagerly an- 
ticipated the coming of spring, the planting of crops and development 
of their lands. While in the midst of this work suddenly a pall fell 
upon the people of the entire section. They had read of the ravages the 
cholera was making in the east and among the troops eni'oute to the 
scene of the Black Hawk war in the west, but had no thought the dread 
disease would search out their little colony so secluded and distant from 
the routes of public travel. Their consternation can be imagined when 
at the close of a sultry day in June, 1832, just a year from tlieii- first 
coming, a report spread through the settlement that the malad.N- which 


all feared but which no one thought would come, had entered the home 
of Warren Nichols. It laid its hand with fatal touch on five members in 
a family of eleven. Father, mother and three daughters followed each 
other in quick succession until there were five vacant chairs in the home 
and five new graves on the fann that now lies within the corporate 
limits of Athens village. Isaac Crossett was another numbered among 
the victims and his body was cared for and buried by Alfred Holcomb 
and Benjamin F. Ferris in a grave which is also within the present 

Two White Oak Trees, Near Athens 

village limits. The gloom which hung over the settlement was not lifted 
during the entire summer. 

The year 1833 brought reinforcements from the east. Among others 
who came about this time were Hiram Doubleday from New York, 
Peter Beisel from Pennsylvania and Lot Whitcomb from Vermont. 
The two last named in the year 1835 built the first saw mill in the 
township. About 1837 came Francis A. Mann, who with Asahel Stone 
were political factors of importance in the town for many years. Each 
was the leader of the" opposing factions and many a battle royal was 
fought on the local political arena. 


The first postoffice in the township was kept by Lot Whitcomb. 
Later there were established a number of postoffices, but under the free 
rural delivery system these have all been taken up. Athens village has 
the only postoffice in the township. This office has been for several years 
in the presidential elass. Newton E. j\Iiller, the first postmaster to be 
appointed by the i>resident, has conducted the business in a manner 
satisfactory to both government and the people. 

Athens is still the home of the Pottawattomies, a reumaut of 
the ancient tribe that possessed this fair land long before the white man 
ever looked upon it. Only a few, about sixty, are left where once there 
were many. Peaceful, fairly industrious and reasonably prosperous, the 
traits of their race considered, they form an interesting link in the chain 
that binds the present to a fast fading past. 

The first township meeting was held in 1835. At that meeting Hiram 
Doubleday was chosen moderator and Benjamin F. Ferris, clerk. All 
persons residents of the township were declared to be lawful voters. 
Henry C. Hurd was elected supervisor; Benjamin F. Ferris, township 
clerk: George Clark, Granville Beardsley and William Adams, assessors; 
Franklin C. Watkins, collector; Isaac Watkins and Richard Tuck, di- 
rectors of the poor; Horton Warren and F. C. Watkins, constables; 
Alfred Holcomb and Robert McCamly, fence viewers; Isaac Watkins 
and Joseph Watkins, pound masters; John C. Ferris and David Dexter, 
overseers of highways. 

Athens Village 

One of the best towns of its size in southern Jlichigan is the village 
of Athens. It was incorporated in 1896. William Lehr was the firat and 
Elmer E. Overholdt, the present president. The village has a fine electric 
lighting plant operated by the Athens Will and Power Company. The 
power is developed from the Nottawasepi river which runs through the 
town. The streets are well lighted by two large Tungsten burners on 
every corner. There is also a fine water system installed some six years 
ago, by which excellent drinking water is furnished the citizens and 
fire protection afforded to property. Its school house is probably not 
surpassed by that in any community of a like number of people in the 
state. For several years past, the young men of its high school have 
given the school and town a state reputation in the field of athletics 
defeating nearly all comers, whatever the size of the school or town 
they represented. The several churches of the village are housed in 
substantial structures and both the pulilie services and the Sunday 
schools are well sustained. Athens has one bank which is in a sound 
condition. It has an excellent class of business houses and its merchants 
and business men generally are prosperous. One steam railroad, the 
Goshen-Miehigan branch of the ^Michigan Central, constructed in the 
year 1888, runs from Battle Creek on the north to Goshen, Indiana, on 
the south. The proposed electric line from Coldwater to Battle Creek 
will ran through Athens. The line is promoted by the JFichigan-Indiana 
Traction Company. There seems to be strong probabilities that this 
road will be built at an early day. 



The Athens Hardwood Lumber Company is one of the important 
industries of the village, employing at some seasons of the year as high 
as twenty-five men. It is the only band mill in southern Michigan. 
The Athens Creamery Company is one of the successful concerns of the 
town. Two large grain elevators, one owned by P. I. Simons, of Jack- 
son, with S. W. Lehr as local manager, meet the wants of the rich farm- 
ing community all about. Wood and Woodruff, local lumber dealers, 
carry one of the largest and finest assortments in .southern ^Michigan. 

Its generally well-to-do people live in comfortal)le homes. Its side- 
Avalks are as good, and there are as many miles of them in proportion to 
the number of inhabitants, as will be found in any village in the state. 
Its shaded streets and well kept lawns give a general atmosphere of 
homelikeness to the village. 

New High School Building, Athens 

The Atliens News was the first newspaper to be printed in the village 
and was established by McDowell Brothers, of Mendon, in 1880. The 
plant was brought in by wagon, for Athens had no railroad until 1888. 
This paper was very small in size and survived but a short time. 

The Athens Times was established in 1883 by L. H. Love, who printed 
a four page 8 x 12 sheet on a .job press, for a number of years when it 
was enlarged to a five column quarto and later to a six column ciuarto, 
only two pages of which were printed at home. Mr. Love owned the 
paper, with the exception of a few brief intervals, until June, 1908, 
when his health failed and he sold to H. 0. Eldridge, who sold to George 
H. McMillen, August 1st of the same year. The hand equipment was at 
once discarded for a modern power plant and the Times now prints 
four pages at home and enjoys a splendid advertising and job printing 
patronage, while the subscription list has almost doubled. Mr. Love, to 
whose pluck and ability the Times owes its existence, died in February, 


1909. He was a printer of the old school and his versatility as a writer 
made him a capable eountry editor. 

Only one paper ever arose in Athens to compete with him, tiie 
Athens Bee, which was established in 1896, by Jerome F. Gulp, with 
his son-in-law, R. H. Newman as editor. This paper lived tor seven or 
eight years and suspended publication, the plant being sold to Vieksburg 
pai'ties who moved it to that city where it formed the neucleus of the 
plant now used by the Vieksburg Herald. 

The Times is independent so far as politics are concerned. 

B.\TTLE Creek Township 
By Mrs. Laura Binges 

Battle Creek township which wa.s formei'ly included in the original 
township of ^Milton, was established bv the act of the legislature in 

The first township meeting was held at the home of Samuel Convis, 
wlio was elected the first township clerk. 

Samuel Convis came from New York state in 1832, making the 
.journey with an ox team. He located land on the present site of Battle 
Creek where there was at that time but one settler. 

The first settlements made in Battle Creek township were on 
Goguac prairie in 1831, the settlers being attracted hither by the easily 
cultivated and fertile prairie land. 

Among the first pioneers was Josiah Goddard who purchased the 
farm on section 15 later owned by David Young. The only surviving 
member of the family living near is ^Mrs. William Reese of Battle Creek. 

Calhoun Goddard, son of Josiah Goddard, was the first white child 
born in the township in 1833. 

Isaac Thomas settled on section 14 in 1831 and erected the first log 
house in the same year. This house was burned by the Indians the fol- 
lowing year. ilr. Thomas plowed the first soil within the limits of the 
township in 1832, and sowed the first grain in 1833. 

Dorrance Williams came here in 1828, when he was employed by the 
U. S. government in surveying the land included within the present 
limits of Battle Creek towTiship. He selected a fractional quarter of 
section 14 where he settled in 1831. This farm is now owned by William 
J. Foster. 

■'Uncle" John Stewart. Sr.. ])ought of Dorrance Williams the farm 
now owned and occupied liy William J. Foster. Here Mr. Stewart 
planted the first apple orchard in the township, of which thirteen trees 
are still standing in 1912. 

The death of Mrs. John Stewart which occurred in September, 1832, 
was the first death in Battle Creek township. 

The first marriage solemnized in the township was that of John 
Stewart, Jr., and Miss Anser, which was celebrated on Goguac prairie 
March 6, 1833. 

Henry C. Eberstein. a native of Germany, who with his family started 
for America in 1832, in June. 1833, arrived on Goguac Prairie, and set- 


tied on section 15 on a farm now occupied by his son Charles and 
daughter Lillian. Here he was identified with the growth of the com- 
munity until his death in 1885, when he was the oldest pioneer of the 

Aaron Moorehouse located on a farm of one hundred and sixty acres 
in section 26, which he entered from the government in 1835. These 
letters patent were signed by Martin Van Buren, and the land has never 
been transferred, but descended to the original owner's daughter, and 
at her demise to her son Gilbert Nichols of Battle Creek, who is the 
present owner. 

In 1835 Asa Langley settled in section 26 on a farm later owned by 
Cassius Pearl. In 1837 he built the first saw mill of the township which 
was discontinued in 1860. 

Also in 1835 came Anson Mapes who located in section 30 where he 
resided for forty years, and died there in 1875. And Andrew Reese, 
who was born in Massachusetts in 1790 and who came here in the fall of 
1835. He settled on the Reese road where he lived until his death 
which occurred in 1875. He was survived by a widow and ten children. 
The only living members of the family are Mrs. Flora Burrell of Battle 
Creek, and John Reese who lives on a farm east of the city. 

To this fei'tile prairie also came Joseph Young with his mfe and 
nine children in 1835. He bought the laud which was later owned by 
his eldest son, David, and now is owned and occupied by a son of the 
tliird generation. Myron Young. On this farm Joseph Young built the 
tii-st stone house in the township in 1841. This house was burned in the 
summer of 1910. Joseph Young operated his farm until 1861, when he 
moved to Battle Creek, where he lived until his death which occurred 
in 1878, at the age of 87. 

David Young who came here with his parents from the Empire state, 
in 1835, did his share in the pioneer work of the neighborhood. He 
^^atched the city of Battle Creek grow ' ' from a village of one house and 
that a log cabin. ' ' Mr. Young was ninety -two years old at the time of his 
death which took place in 1909 on the old homestead. 

Dr. John Beach and his wife Harriett, natives of Vermont, in the 
summer of 1835 purchased a quarter section of land in the southwest 
part of the township. Dr. Beach wished to discontinue his medical 
practice and had chosen the piirsuits of farming in hopes of recovering 
his health. However it was soon learned that he was a physician and so 
great was the demand for his professional services that he could not 
refuse. There was at that time only one physician in Battle Creek, and 
he had no horse, so that his calls were limited to walking distance. 
The remaining large territor.y extending north to Bellevue, west to 
Comstock, and east to Marshall, was visited by Dr. Beach who traveled 
on horse back. There was no medicine to be purchased hereabout in 
those days, so after the supply which he brought from the east was 
exhausted. Dr. Beach had recourse to the products of the forest. This 
overwork exhausted his physical strength, and brought on lung trouble 
which caused his untimely death. 

After the death of Dr. Beach, his widow erected in 1849 the first 
brick house in the township. This was occupied by herself and son, E. 


Darwin, until shu ilied in 1882, having reaelu'd nearly four score .years. 
This farm was held by members of the family until the spring of 1!)1"2 
when it was sohl by Carl P. Heaeh, grandson of the subject. 

Allen Willard first settled in the neighborhood of Dr. Beach in 183G. 
He later bought the Hemes Sweet place, on the east side of Lake 
Gogiuic. Here he quietl.v spent the evening of his life passing away in 
1876, at the age of eighty-two. Mr. AVillard was a man of rare intelli- 
gence and scholarly habits. He possessed an ardent love for literature, 
and made a thorough study of the New Testament and the Constitution 
of the United States. He was survived bv two sons, George and Charles, 
who became prominent and influential citizens. 

In this part of the township in 1836 also settled Deacon Heman 
Cowles who purchased on section 36 the farm now owned and occupied 

Photo by J. H. Bro^ni 

David I^oung Farm House, Completed Jily 4, 1841. Burxed in 1911. 

by his grandson, Fred W. Cowles. "Deacon"' Cowles was a man of 
more than ordinary intelligence and decision of character. He felt com- 
plimented to be called an abolitionist when others looked upon it as a 
disgrace. He was prominent in affairs both religious and educational 
until his death which occurred at the age of eighty-three years. He lies 
buried in the South Battle Creek cemetery. 

The first grist mill was erected by Abraham Minges in 1862. The 
first flour ground l)etween its stones was made into biscuits by Mrs. 0. 
Amadou for the wedding of her daughter Eugenia to the builder of the 
mill. j\Ir. Minges operated the mill two years and sold it to one George 
Jones. The property has been in the possession of several individuals, 
now being owned and operated by the widow of the late George Yanger 
and her sons, Leon and Harry. It is also used as a cider mill and is a 
useful enterprise in the community. 

The brick manufacturing plant now the property of Jasper Adams 


is the oldest enterprise in the township. The laud in which the elay 
deposit is found was entered from the government in 1831 by Aranthus 
Thomas. The clay was not used for manufacturing purposes until the 
property was purchased by Simon Carr in 1839. In 1840 ^Ir. Carr 
began the manufacture of brick by means of the crude hand molds, 
and for twelve years he carried on this business. They were well made 
however, for the first brick houses in the township were built of his 
brick and are still standing, occupied and in a state of excellent preserva- 
tion. In 1851 the projierty was sold to Lyman Godfrey and S. D. 
Crane, BIr. Godfrey becoming sole owner the following year. For thirty 
years Mr. Godfrey operated the plant with the hand mold method, until 
1882 when the property was purchased by Jasper Adams. Mr. Adams 
installed machinery and equipped it with modern methods of drying and 
burning. For a time from 1885 until 1890 the yard was run by the 
firm Adams and Ilall Brothers, Charles and Henry Hall, builders and 
contractors of Battle Creek, ^h: Adams again resumed the business 
alone and continued with the manufacture and sale of brick until 1903, 
when he closed the plant because of broken health, the yard at tiuit time 
having been in operation for nearly seventy years. 

Three railroads cross the township, the Michigan Central which 
passes across the northeast corner, and its southern branch, called the 
Goshen Division of the Michigan Central, crossing the southern part of 
the township with a Hag station and side track at Adams brick yard. 
This branch line was constructed in 1889. The third line, the Grand 
Trunk, cxlciuls across the western portion nearly the entire length north 
and soutii. It lias a Hag station and side track at Renton. This railway 
was comi)h'1c(l in lS(i!). 

The fii'st scIkkiI was taught on Goguac Prairie in a small log sciiool 
bouse, by Aranthus 'i'lidiiias in 1S33 or 1884. Among the scholars were 
mcinln'i's of the Strwart. (Idddard, Thomas, and Conway families. In 
1S.")S this scIkkiI house was (lis|)lacc(l for a brick building which is the 
present district No. '■', of the township. 

The first religious meetings were held by the Methodists at the 
of Daniel Thomas as early as 1833, when the gospel was preached by 
Rev. :\Ir. Hobart of :Marshall 

The South Battle Creek Baptist church was the first recognized 
religious society. This was organized by Rev. John Harris, in 1839, and 
was legally instituted in 1842. The meetings were held in private 
houses until 1847, when the present church building, a neat frame 
structure, was erected. Rev. Harris was the first pastor and Solomon 
Case the first deacon. A Sabbath school was organized about the same 
time and was sustained for over sixty years. 

The Battle Creek Township Grange No. 66 was organized September, 
1873, at the home of Nathaniel Chilson. ilr. Chilson was the first 
master, which office he held several .rears. Other charter members were 
Charles Merritt, E. :\I. C. Merritt, :\Iiles Townsend, Hattie Townseud, 
Alonzo Robinson, Hattie Robinson, H. L. Munn, L. K. Phelps. I. W. 
Caine, 'Slyva. Caine, Chester Chilson. Daniel Caine, iliss I. V. Chilson, 
J. A. Robinson, ]\Iiss Delie Chilson, Mesdames D. Phelps, H. A. Chilson, 
H. M. Chilson, and James M. Haryhan. 


For several years the grange meetings were held in various halls in 
the eity of Battle Creek, then for a time they iiiet in the South Battle 
Creek Baptist eluireh. In 1899 the present grange hall was built, near 
the prairie road on a lot purchased by the grange joining the No. 3 
school district. The grange hall is equipjDed with election booths, antl is 
used for other town meetings. 

Battle Creek township gave loyally her sons to the cause of the rnion 
in the Civil war. The names of those who served are as follows: Anson 
Beckley (mustered out 18(35, still living) ; Leuo AV. Bloss, (mustered out 
1865, now dead) : Thomas J. Cook, (discharged for disability, still 
living) ; Judd Cummings, (deceased) ; Lansing Fairchild, (deceased) : 
Jasper Gregory, (deceased) : Walter Gregory, (still living) ; Thos. Jen- 
nings, (deceased) ; Philetus Karr, (deceased) ; Capt. James B. Mason, 
(resigned Lieut. Col. 11th ^Michigan Cavalry, killed) ; George ilcCul- 
lum. (discharged for disability, 18()4r, now dead) ; DeWitt .Miller: James 
Miller, (discharged at expiration of service 1865) ; John .Aliller; AVilliam 
JMiller, (killed at Nashville, Tenn., 1863) ; P. B. .Alitchell, (mustered out 
September, 1865, still living) ; Henry Oldfield, (deceased) : Spencer Old- 
field, (still living); Eugene Perry, (deceased); Samuel I'ugsley, (mus- 
tered out September, 1865, (still living) ; Wm. Picauld, (deceased) ; 
James Robinson, (mustered out August, 1865) ; Robert Sharp, (de- 
ceased) ; High Stewart, (uuistered out November, 1865). 

Those who represented the township in the late Spanish-American 
war were: A. Shirley Adams, Vernon E. Cummings, and Earl M. Perry. 
These young men were in active engagement in the Battle of San Juan 
Hill. All returned uninjured but in poor health because of the un- 
sanitarj' conditions of the island. 

Goguac Lake is an interesting feature of the township because of its 
historical interests, and its value as a sunnner resort. The Indian name 
was Goghawgiac — spelled Gogoguae by the pioneers. It is located in 
section 14, 22, and 23, and is connected with Battle Creek by an electric 
line. Along its shores are hundreds of cottages, which afford ((uiet 
resting places for busy city dwellers during the summer months, when 
it is an active scene of the outdoor sports of nature lovers and pleasure 
seekers. Traces yet remain of an Indian mound which is located on the 
lake's border directly west of AVard's Island, and once i)\-er its watei's 
glided the bark canoe of the red men. 

BkL)F( )RD Towx.ship 

This is the most populous township in the county, numbering by the 
census of 1910, 2,076. This increase in population is largely due to the 
thriving village of Urbandale, a suburb of Battle Creek but lying within 
the township of Bedford. 

We take pleasure in submitting the following interesting historical 
matter pertaining to Bedford township, furnished by Mr. C. E. Bradley. 
It not only shows how and what town business was done in Bedford 
seventy-three years ago, but it shows also who were the then male resi- 
dents, all of whom were pioneers and helped to make Bedford's history. annual township meeting held at the of Josiah Gillx'rt 
on the 1st dav of April. 1S;)9. 


The meeting was organized by appointing Caleb Kirby, , moderator, 
and John Meachem, Joseph Kirby, Erastus R. Wattles and John L. 
Bolkeom, inspectors of the meeting, who, having qualified, appointed 
Lucian M. Weaver, clerk. 

The meeting then proceeded to vote for township ofBcers which re- 
sulted as follows: Supervisor, Caleb Kirby; town clerk, John Meachem; 
treasurer, Isaac Sutton ; assessors, Schuyler Goff, John P. Ames, Harvey 
Cooley; collector, John Armstrong; school inspectors, John Meachem, 
Caleb Kirby, Abraham Lockwood; directors of the poor, Isaac Sutton, 
Jacob Frost; commissioners of highways, Isaac Sutton, Erastus R. 
Wattles, Stephen H. Carman; justices of the peace, John P. Ames, one 
year; John Meachem, two years; George B. Hamilton, three years; Noah 
P. Crittendon, four years ; constables, John Armstrong, John Hamilton ; 
overseers of highways, district No. 1, John Stringham ; district No. 2, 
Solomon Tupp; district No. 3, Jacob Stringham; district No. 4, John 
Meacham ; district No. 5, Harvey Sam ; district No. 6, Josiah Gilbert ; dis- 
trict No. 7, Thomas H. Thomas ; district No. 8, John Hamilton ; district 
No. 9, Schuyler Goff. Voted that there be a pound erected in the center 
of the town, also that John Meachem be pound master. Erastus B. Wat- 
tles M'as appointed deputy township clerk, April 3, 1839. 

"At a meeting of the township board held the 18th day of April, 
1839, the following vacancies wci'e ttlled by appointment: Josiah Gilbert, 
overseer of highways in district No. 6 ; Erastus B. Wattles, school inspec- 
tor in place of Abraham Lockwood, who neglected to qualify. 

' ' To the Clerk of Calhoun County : We do certify that we believe 
the persons herein named possess the requisite qualifications for jurors for 
the year 1839, viz : Abraham Frost, Noah P. Crittendon, David Stillson, 
Joseph Kirby and Lucian M. Weaver. 
"Bedford, May 25, 1839. 

"H. Cooley, 
"J. P. Ames, 

"Schuyler Goff, Assessors. 
"John Meachem, Town Clerk. 

"Voted : That the sum of $200 be raised for the purpose of liuilding 
bridge across the Kalamazoo river in district No. 9. 

"Voted: That no boars over three months old shall run at large, 
with a penalty of one dollar to be collected of the owner by any person 
who shall prosecute for the same. 

"Voted: That a map be procured from the Land office for the use 
of the assessors. 

"Voted: That the next township meeting be held at the liouse of 
John Meachem. 

"We, the undersigned inspectors of the towaiship meeting, held on 
the 1st day of April, 183?, do hereby certify that the foregoing is a cor- 
rect statement of the proceedings of said meeting. 

"John S. Bolkcom, 
"e. r. w.\ttles, 
"John Meachem, 

■■Jo.^EPH KiRnY. 


"At a meeting of the township board liekl on the 22nd daj- of June, 
1839, the following compensation was alluw^'d to towTiship officers: town 
board, to\\ii clerk, treasurer, each member one dollar per day ; assessor, 
highway connnissioner, each one dollar and tifty cents; collector, five 
per cent on gross footing on assessment roll, ten i)er cent on state tax 
for 1838. Incidental expense for year $349.67. Building bridge, $200.00. 

"Joux JIeaciiem, Town Clerk." 


is located in the .southwest part of Calhoun county ; its southern boundary 
meets the north line of Branch county, with Tekonsha on the east, Newton 
on the north and Athens on the west. The government surveys designate 
the township as town 4 south, range 7 west. The southern half of the 
township is described as "very level, intei*spersed with beautiful plains, 
well watered by small streams and is generally free from stone, the soil 
being a sandy loam, in places mingled with clay." The northern por- 
tion of the to^\^lship is more uneven. "Wet Prairie" in the northeast 
corner is a very fine level tract of land. The Saint Joseph river enters 
the towiiship from Tekonsha, flowing through section 24, by the village of 
Burlington and continues in a southwesterly direction until it enters 
Branch county, through section 38. Some of the earliest and finest 
farms in the township were located on either side of this stream. It was 
on section 26, in the valley of the Saint Joseph, that Eleazer McCamley. 
the earliest pioneer, settled with his family in the year 1832. Richard 
Tucker, another of the early comers, settled on this same section 26. It was 
on this section the first log house in the township was built by Mr. Tucker. 
Joseph Sanders, a Vermonter by birth, but a New Yorker by adoption, 
came from the latter state in the fall of 1833 and settled on Section 24. 
He was one of the last of the early pioneers to pass away and is still 
well remembered by the older residents of the towiship. In 1834, two 
brothers, William and Ansel Adams, came with their widowed mother and 
invested largely in land lying in sections 23 and 24, buying the water 
power where the village of Burlington is now located, and building 
there in 1837 the first saw mill in the township. Here, too, was erected 
the first grist mill by Rufus Osborn, in 1861. The first tavern in the 
to^\^lship was built of logs about 1835 and stood within the present 
limits of Burlington village. The first bridge of any consequence in the 
township was over the Saint Joseph, built in 1838 by the Adams brothers 
and did good seVvice for thirty years when it was replaced by a new one. 

\'lLI,A(iE DF HrRI,IX(iT(lN 

The village of Burlington was surveyed and platted by William and 
Ansel Adams in 1842, and incorporated in 1869. The fii-st frame house 
was built by these brothers and which they and their mother occupied. 
It was here that the first store opened; here, too, the Baptists in 1841 
built the fiz-st house of worship in the township ; the first school house was 
opened in 1837, the school being taught by Miss Mary Buckingham. 


Here, too, was established a post office which is still serving the people, 
sending out mail by rural carriers daily to all the farmers round about. 
The* Methodists early came into the town and the Burlington circuit 
supplied the people at Abscota, Clarendon, Tekonsha, Lyon Lake and 
Eckford with preaching services. 

The Free Will Baptists organized in 1840. The Seventh Day Ad- 
veutists came into Burlington in 1857 and in 1861 effected a church 
organization which resulted in erecting in 1876 a neat frame church. 

The village of Abscota is located on Wet Prairie, a fine agricultural 
section in the northeast part of the towaiship. Until taken up on the 
introduction of rural free delivery, a postoffice was maintained at this 
point. A village church, store, school, blacksmith shop and other con- 
veniences that go with the country village, are maintained here. 

Among the more prominent of the early day pioneers was Homer C. 
Hurd, who came into the township in 1834 and settled on the southwest 
quarter of Section 27. Mr. Hurd served for eight years on the Board 
of Suijervisoi-s and four years represented the county in the State legis- 
lature. Theron Hamilton, another of the comparatively early settlers, 
served the county as probate judge from 1864 to 1869 inclusive. Besides 
those already named, there may be mentioned David Dexter, Zachariah 
Thomas, Cornelius Kii-kendall, John L. iMeserole, David Ripley, Reuben 
Van Fleet, G. P. and Elijah Olnistead, James Pendill and Luther Wilson, 
all of whom came about 1835. From 1886 to 1840 many more came, 
among them, Edwin A. Hayden, who was long a prominent citizen in 
the county, holding as he did various couuty offices; Allen Wood, A. 
McWithey, Josiah, Brodish, Sylvanus Reed, Gilbert B. Murray, E. N. 
Edmonds, Anson Strong, Lewis Miller, F. Burnett and Alonzo Colliers. 
These, with others e(iually worthy, have helped to make tiie Burlington 
township of today what it is, for they cleared the farms from which 
others reap, they built the homes in which others live, they planted the 
orchards from which others eat the fruit, they built the churches in 
which others worship. They are held in honor by the later generation, 
as they should be. 

The "Air Line" Railroad, a branch of the Michigan Central, built in 
1870, crosses the southeast coi-ner of the towoiship. Burlington station 
is about one and a half miles from the village. 

Clarence Towxsiiip 

In the extreme northeast corner of Calhoun county is located the 
township of Clarence. According to the United States government sur- 
vey it is designated as town 1 south, range 4 west. Originally it was 
confederated with Lee, Sheridan and Marengo. This was done by an 
act of the territorial legislature in the year 1834. 

It was not until the spring of 1836 that Benjamin P. Gillette, the 
recognized pioneer of Clarence, settled with his family on sections 23 
and 24 in the southeast part of the township. The same year there 
came C. W. Clapp, Andrew Bell and Archibald Green, all locating in 
the same vicinity as Gillette, while Cook Tyler, William B. Noble, John 
Austin, Frank and John Dyer settled the following year in the central 


and eastern portions, hi 18;!8 Y. Jl. Hatch located in the south west on 
section 30. About llic same time I). Y. Carrier located on section 7 in 
the northwest part of the township. It was in 1838 that Judge Theron 
Hamilton. Norris Barnes, Abram Hadden and Samuel Sellers, the last 
named the first blacksmith in the township, came to make homes in 
Clarence. The first house built at the head of Duck Lake was of hewn 
logs put up in 1845 by Jacob Nichols. For years a remnant of the 
Pottawattomies living in that vicinity were his only neighbors. These 
Indians were peaceable and gave no particular trouble to the "pale 
face" comers, except they were inveterate borrowers. 

The first celebation ever held in Clarence was on the Fourth of 
July, 1835. The inhabitants of the township rallied at a designated meet- 
ing place at the head of Duck Lake and w'hen a count was made there 
was found to be present just fourteen persons. But these loyal sons 
of a patriotic ancestry found pleasure and satisfaction in commemorating 
an event dear to every true American. The Declaration of Independence 
was read by C. W. Clapp and an address given by Judge Hamilton. 

In 1848, Jesse Crowell and others, having purchased a large tract of 
timber in the north part of the township, erected a saw mill at tlie foot 
of Duck Lake and began the manufacture of lumber. This mill was de- 
stroyed by fire but in 1860 ^Villiam Leonard built another. In 1863 a 
JMr. Bolles put up a steam saw mill in the northeast part of the town. A 
store was opened at the foot of the lake near the location of the saw mill 
and ever since the people have had the conveniences it affords. Schools 
were early established and have been well sustained through all the 
years since i\Iiss Reliance Dixon, afterwards ^Irs. Oliver S. Bell, taught 
the first school in the township, about 1839. Chui-ch services have l)een 
held and Sunday schools maintained in school houses. 

The first town meeting was held at the home of Norris Barnes in 
1838, at which the following were chosen to office: Andrew Bell, super- 
visor; Cook Tyler, town clerk; A. M. Green, treasurer; "W. B. Noble. 
C. W. Clapp, Samuel Sellers and A. P. Bell, justices of the peace; Non-is 
Barnes, A. M. Green and W. B. Noble, assessors; A. C. Bell, Y. M. Hatch 
and Roswell Barnes, highway commissioners; W. B. Noble, C. W. Clapp 
and Norris Barnes, school inspectors; Andrew Bell and John Austin, 
overseers of the poor ; O. S. Bell, collector, and Messrs. Bell and Bennett, 

The township of Clarence has long been noted for its lakes, marshes 
and springs. Prairie Lake is situated in the southwest part of the 
township. A little north and east of this is a chain of six lakes, all 
connected by Rice creek and are its main source of water supply. Duck 
Lake is situated a little north of the center of the township and nearly 
midway east and west. This is the largest body of water in the town- 
ship and one of the largest in the county, covering as it does about seven 
hundred acres, being a mile and a half long by three-quarters wide. The 
banks are generally high, affording fine building sites for cottages. In 
these later years the lake has developed into quite a summer resort. 
Quite a large number of cottages have been erected and people from 
Albion. ^larshall. Charlotte. Eaton Rapids and Olivet resort there dur- 
ing the summer and early fall months. The beautiful sheet of clear, 


pure water; the grove covered banks that border it; the fine fishing it 
affords and the pure invigorating air, lend a permanent and potent 
charm to this locality and have made Clarence one of the best known 
purely rural townships in the county. 

Clarendon Township 

But for minor local diflferences the early history of Albion, Homer, 
Clarendon and Eckford is essentially the same. The rugged pioneers 
in each and all of these townships were young men and women, largely 
from the state of New Yoi-k. They were generally possessed of courage, 
enterprise and thrift. It was these qualities that enabled them to pull 
out from the old home settlements in the east, brave the dangers and hard- 
ships of the long and tedious journey and settle down with all the at- 
tending discomforts and privations of a new and isolated country and 
slowly but surely clear the forests, fence the fields, plant the orchards 
and vineyards, build and improve the highways, construct the houses 
and barns, the schools houses and churches and rear their children in 
comfort and in a moral and religious atmosphere, leaving not only 
worthy descendants but leaving the world better for having lived and 
wrought in it. All honor to the pioneer fathers and mothers who left 
us so good an inheritance. 

The Doolittles, the Cooks, the Keeps, the Balentines, the Rogers, the 
Flints, the Humestons, the Perines and many others equally worthy to 
be enumerated, whose united efforts have served to make Clarendon one 
of the best townships in Calhoun county, deserve to be remembered. 

Although Anthony Doolittle came in May, 1832, and settled in the 
northeast corner of the township, and David L. Hutchinson in the fall 
of the same year; Loren Keep and Erastus B. Enos, Alonzo H. Rogers, 
Timothy Hamlin, who married Elizabeth Doolittle (theirs being the 
first marriage in the township), Calvin Rogers with his wife and five 
children, Calvin Heath, A. B. Bartlett, George W. Hayes and a number 
of others who came during the four or five years after Doolittle 's arrival, 
it was not until 1838 that the township was organized and given the 
name of Clarendon ; it is said because so many of the early comers were 
from the town of Clarendon, Orleans county. New York. 

According to the United States government surveys, the township 
is town 4 south, range 5 west. Except in the northeast part, the township 
was generally covered with a thick growth of heavy timber of various 
kinds, the maple being in abundance and affording an annual supply of 
sugar and delicious syrup. The soil is of excellent quality, comparing 
favorably with that of the best townships in the county. The St. Joseph 
river enters the town from the south on section 36 and flowing in a north- 
easterly direction nearly to Homer, turns west and leaves it on section 
18 by the way of Tekonsha. This stream is small and narrow but in an 
early day afforded power for one or more saw mills. There is compara- 
tively little marsh or waste land in the township. The "Air Line," a 
branch of the Michigan Central Railroad, completed in 1870, traverses 
the north central part of the towu from east to west. Clarendon Sta- 


tion is located about two miles northeast of the center of the town and 
from which much of the surplus products of the fine farms are shipped. 
The fii"st town meeting was held in 1838, of which Aaron B. Bartlett 
was chosen chairman and Timothy Hamlin, clerk. Truman Rathhuru 
was elected supervisor; Timothy Hamlin, township clerk; Horace B. 
Hayes, John Jlain and Ira Sumner, assessors; Charles B. White, col- 
lector; Samuel Blair and Cornelius Putnam, directors of the poor; 
Alonzo H. Rogei-s, George W. Hayes and Elijah Andrus, commissioners 
of highways; John ^lain, Ira Sumner and Horace B. Hayes, school 
inspectors; Truman Rathburn, William Cooper, John Main and Ira 
Sumner, justices of the peace. The first school in the township was 
taught on Cook's prairie in 1833. The first religious society was or- 
ganized by the Presbyterians in 1838. Meetings were held in school 
houses until a log church was built on the southeast quarter of section 
18, which was used for a number of years. The Methodists organized 
in 1840 and held services in a log house built by Lewis Benham. A 
frame church was built some time between 1840 ajid 1850. The young 
men of Clarendon responded nobly to the call of their country during 
the Civil war, leaving a record of which the township will ever be proud. 

CoNvis Township 

The township of Convis was named after General Ezra Convis, one 
of the most prominent and widely known of the early residents of south- 
em ^Michigan. He was the first representative to the state legislature 
from Calhoun county and was the first speaker of the Michigan House of 
Representatives. While serving in the legislature, he introduced a bill 
to organize and name the central township in the northern tier in Cal- 
houn county, but before action had been taken upon the bill, General 
Convis died, as the result of an injury received in the accidental over- 
turning of a sleigh, and his successor, out of compliment to the deceased 
legislator, had the town named Convis. 

Although Sanford Chaffee, the recognized first settler, did- not come 
into Convis until the spring of 1835, such was the rapid arrival of home 
seekers that a sufficient number had located here to warrant the organiza- 
tion of the township in 1837. James Lane, William Newman, and Paul 
Moss, all Englishmen, were among the early comers. David Beers 
settled in 1836 on section 24 and about the same time Asahel Hawkins 
settled on the .same section. Hawkins and family came from Saratoga 
county. New York. 

Among others who came in 1836 were Hiram and Elisha Brace, 
Jesse Smith, George Bentley, T. J. Van Geisin, Jasper Haywood, 
Philander Brooke, Wessel Smith and Granville Stowe. In 1837, B. 
Austin, Ira II. Ellsworth, William Kinyon, Levi Rowley, Leach S. 
Loomis, Allen ^lattison, Nathan Chidster and Levi Eaton were among 
those who came to make homes in Convis. James Walkinshaw and 
family, consi.sting of wife and four children, came to ^larshall direct 
from Scotland in 1842 and some five or six years later moved on to a 
farm in Convis township, where he became one of the largest land owners 


and most prosperous farmers in the county. He took an interest in 
public affairs, was a Republican in politics and in 1876 was elected a 
member of the Michigan legislature. 

The men aliove named and others like them found Convis township 
rather uninviting in the northwest section, because of the hills and in 
the southwest because it was low and marshy and much of the whole 
heavily timbered. Notwithstanding these barriers, they entered upon 
the task of overcoming them and how well they succeeded will be seen 
by a visit to that township, with its beautiful and well stocked farms, 
its many excellent homes, fine barns, thrifty orchards and its happy, eon- 
tented people. 

Schools were established in 1838, the first year after the township 
was organized and have ever since been well maintained. Many of the 
young men of Convis in the Civil war times entered the service and 
fought heroically for the preservation of the Union. Some were buried 
where fliey frll, some died of wounds received in battle and some in 
prison. Some returned home wounded and maimed and have ever since 
been sufferers on account of service rendered their country. 

EcKFOKD Township 

^lany well informed people think Eckford is the finest purely agri- 
cultural township in Calhoun county and some go so far as to claim that 
it is not sin|i,iss(Ml in the state. Without discussing comparative merits, 
it is cert;iiii 1 the intelligent pioneers who came from the states of New 
York, JMassacliusclls. Pennsylvania and Connecticut in the thirties and 
located ill this township, showed excellent judgment. There is relatively 
little waste land. Its soil is uniformly of excellent quality. Its surface 
is gently undulating, affording good drainage without damage from soil 
washing. It is abundantly watered by natural springs, lakes and rivers so 
that while it is noted for its grains, grasses and fruits, it is particularly 
adapted to stock raising. Brace lakes in the northwest part of the 
township are beautiful sheets of water, not onl.y affording fine fishing 
but the east lake is utilized by resorters, a number of cottages having 
been built on the beach. The Nottawa creek crosses the southwest cor- 
ner of the township and flows in a general westerly course until it empties 
into the Kalamazoo river. Wilder creek takes its rise in the southeast 
part of the township. It makes a detour into Albion township, then 
returns into Eckford, flowing in a northwesterly direction across the 
township, entering Marengo at the northeast corner of section 5, and 
Anally emptying into the Kalamazoo. In an early day it afforded power 
for a saw mill. 

Oshea Wilder was the earliest and at the same time one of the most 
prominent settlers in Eckford. It was in 1831 that he came and located 
all but the northwest quarter of section 8. In the fall of 1832, he came 
with his «dfe and seven children, six sons and one daughter, and settled 
on the stream that now bears his name. Mr. Wilder was a Massachusetts 
man by birth, having removed from Gardiner, in that state, to Rochester, 
New York, from which place he came to Michigan. I\Ir. Wilder was an 
active and an enterprising citizen. He served as a soldier in the war of 


1812. He was ii surveyor ;inil \v;is iniicli .■inployrcl in thai work all.'i- 
coining to MifliigMii. lie Imilt tlic tii-sl hotel in Eckl'ord and one of the 
lease conditions was tiiat no l)ai- shoidd he connected with it. lie huilt 
the first saw mill, platted a viila^'e ni lower Eekford, huilt a hiacksmitii 
siiop and enijiloycd a smith, put u]) a huilding for the making of wagons, 
also a chair factory. A mail route having heen instituted from Jones- 
ville to Marshall, a post office was established at lower Eekfortl in IM.'Sf), 
and Mr. Wilder was made postmaster. The mail over the route from 
Jonesville to Marshall, via lower Eekford, was iirst carried on horse- 
hack, then with a horse and huggy and finally to accommodate the in- 
creasing number of travelers as well as carry the mail, a four horse 
stage route was put in opei'ation. This stage route was the connecting 
link between the Lake Shore and ^Michigan Central Railroads. 

In the spring of 1882, Henry Cook, who the year before came into 
Washtenaw county from New York, removed to the prairie in the south- of Eekford and that portion of the township has ever since lieen 
known as Cook's Prairie. Mr. Cook was for many years regarded a.s 
one of the leading men of the county. He served in a number of offices 
of trust ; in 18;^9 he was a member of the legislature. He was for many 
years a prominent member of the Presbyterian church at Homer. In 
18:^2, Charles K. Palmer came fi-om Rochester, New York, and settled on 
the open plain in section 1!) and this section has ever since Ijeen known 
as Palmer's Plains. Palmer, in later years, lost his life on Lake Erie. 

The township was mostly .settled during the years from 18:52-:i6. 
Among others who came about this time were Edward L. Rogers, Charles 
Olin, Jeremiah Hinkle, jNIedad Hordwell, John Kennedy, Thomas J. 
Walker, Samuel Whitconib, Elijah Cook, Henry Caldwell." Lionel Udell. 
Joel H. Marsh, William Herrick and Silas Comstock. These were followed 
by Daniel D. Dunakin, David Patterson, Eli T. Chase, Anthony Rogers. 
John Lusk, Sr., Joseph Otis, Augustus Lusk, Ralph Dibble and George 
White. These men did nuich to give Eekford township the enviable 
position it occupies in the county. 

Schools were early established and have always been well sustained. 
A considerable number of her young men and women have been students 
in the colleges at Hillsdale, Albion^ Olivet and at the state university. 
Churches were organized by the Free Will Baptists in 1835, in 18:5!) In- 
the Presbyterians and in the same .year by the Jlethodist P^iiiscojjal 
church. In this year, 1912, Eekford is distinguished above any other 
purely rural township in Calhoun county for its tine churches and its 
excellent roads. It has not now and never has had a .saloon within its 
borders. A number of her leading men were enrolled as abolitionists 
when to be such meant contumely and reproach. Among her citizens 
who have been honored with positions beyond the limits of the county 
are Henry Cook, Daniel Dunakin and Lote C. Robinson, each and all of 
whom have served in the Michigan legislature. John C. Patterson, born 
and reared in Eekford, served two terms in the Michigan state senate. 

The township was organized in 1836 and was named Eekford at the 
suggestion of Oshea Wilder, who had in England an esteemed friend of 
that name. Wilderville is the only village in the towniship. It is located 
on the railroad running from Toledo to Allegan. This road enters the 


township at the southeast corner and running diagonally, departs from 
it at the northwest corner. Besides this road within the township, Mar- 
shall, Albion, Homer and Marengo are each and all so situated that fine 
shipping facilities are afforded the people of this township. 

Eckford's record in the Civil war was most creditable to the patriotic 
spirit of the township and will ever resound to her honor. 

Emmett Tovs^nship (1830-1912) 

By Miss Crosby 

This township belonged to the confederation of townships originally 
organized under the name of Milton. At the session of legislature 1837- 
38, it was set off and organized into a separate township and called Cady. 
The name was not satisfactory, for we find that the followdng resolution 
was passed at the first township meeting: "Resolved, that the honourable 
legislature of this state be, and is hereby, requested to change the name of 
the township from Cady to Andover. ' ' On examination there were found 
to be three other to\raships in the state by that name, so nothing was done 
affecting a change until during the legislative session of 1839-40, when 
the name Emmett was given it, in honor of Robert Emmet, the Irish 

The earliest settlement within present boundaries was made by Jere- 
miah Gardner, June 7, 1831, on section 14. All of Mr. Gardner's descend- 
ants are dead and the place is now owned by George Perrett, of Marshall. 

Mr. Gardner kept the first postoffice and the mail was delivered in 
a knapsack, by a man named Kennedy. This postoffice was called 
Andover. In 1834, a stage route was established and Milton Barney 
was the driver between Battle Creek and Marshall. The route extended 
from Chicago to Detroit, but in 1900 the rural free delivery was estab- 
lished, forming a network of routes from Ceresco and Battle Creek. 

Among those first settlei-s from '31 to '36 were Estes Rich on section 
12, Henry L. and Benjamin Dwinell on section 23, Daniel Guernsey on 
sections 6 and 7, Es(iuire Hall. Esq., on 7, Stephen Warren on sections 
14 and 15, Jacob Spaulding on section 29. 

I\Ir. Rich erected the first log house on his land on section 12. It is 
now, after undergoing several repairs, owned by Mary J. Sayres, and is 
one of the most venerable landmarks remaining. 

Messrs. Dwinell came from Auburn, New York. They were promi- 
nently identified with the development of the township. They opened 
the first farm when they sowed two acres of wheat which turned out 
exceedingly smutty. 

In 1833 they, with the help of Robert Wheaton, erected a primitive 
bridge of poles over the Kalamazoo river, at the place now called Wheat- 
field. This was then called White's Station, but later was changed when 
people found out about the surrounding wheat growing land. A mill 
was erected and for many years was the only one used by the people 
in that part of the township, in 1908 a magnificent new iron bridge was 
erected and the mill and adjoining land was sold to the Citizens' Electric 
Light Co., of Battle Creek. 

IIlSTOliY OF CAIvlIorX CorXTY • 183 

Tlic land wliich was owned by Daniel Guernsey is now part of Post's 
addition in the city of Battle Creek. What became of Mr. Guernsey was 
never known. • 

The tirst graveyard was laid out and donated by Miehael Spencer 
on section 14, in the fall of 1835. The first interment was that of Stephen 
Warren, who died June 11, 1835, and was buried temporarily on his 
farm, later his remains wei-e dug up and re-interred in the newly laid 
out burying ground, where they still repose. The old farm on section 14 
is still owned by the Warren estate, but the part on section 15 iS owned 
by Julius Crosby and has been for the past twenty years. 

As at the present day, education was cared for as early as possible 
and it is found that a log school house was erected in the Spencer neigh- 
borhood in 1833. Miss Cynthia Maynard, sister of Colonel Maynard one 
of the old pioneers of Marengo township, taught it during the winter of 
1833 and 1834. Not until 1876 and 77 was the township divided into 
districts. At present date there are ten districts and it is expected that 
there will be eleven in 1913, because of the talked of division of the 
Raymond district on section 8. 

Before any churches were erected in Battle Creek, some of the families 
of Emmett held religious services, which were conducted by Rev. Merrill, 
as early as 1834. Some of the regular attendants were Ira Warren and 
wife, Benjamin Dwinell and wife, Estes Rich, and i\Iichael Spencer and 
wife. No regularly organized church existed in the present limits of the 
township, because all of the citizens gave liberally toward their respective 
churches in Battle Creek. At the present writing, there is no regularly 
organized church in the township, but in the Raymond district on section 
8, Sunday school is held eveiy Sunday afternoon at 2:30, and there 
is always a large attendance. Some of the ladies who are and have been 
willing workers toward making the. service successful are, Mesdames 
William Hall. Vivian Moore. Mort Nye, George Brininstool, Sara 
llitiw iicil and E. Case. As in former days, the citizens all have their 
respfctive churches in Battle Creek and there' they attend. 

In 1836 the village of Verona was surveyed and laid out by General 
Ezra Convis. It holds (juite an important history of this vicinity as 
having been for two or three years a rival of the then strugging village of 
Battle Creek. It has even been asserted that had General Convis lived. 
and brought his interest as a member and speaker of the House of 
Representatives to bear, the terminus of the railroad would have been 
there instead of at Battle Creek and it would have stood now as a city 
instead of a mere hamlet. 

A grist mill was erected there in 1S38 liy John Stuart and Jolm Van 
Arman, who was later the great crimiiuil lawyer of Chicago. The original 
Imilding still remains after sustaining many additions and repairs, and 
until last year was used as a gi'ist mill, when it was sold to the Connnon- 
wealtli Power Co. 

During the years 11)1)0 and 11)03. the intcrnrlian line was built 
through this township. This i-oad i-uiis from Kalamazoo 1o Jackson. 
Detroit and Toledo and the jicojilc in Emmett townshij) ilo not feel thai 
thev are country folks anynmi-c. It is onl\- a few minntcs' ride to P.attlc 


Creek or Marshall and a few hours' ride will take them to Detroit or 

There are three other roads running through the township. The 
^Michigan Central, Grand Trunk and D. T. & M. The assessed valuation 
of the electric road, alone, is .$40,000.00. 

The Grand Trunk shops were built in Emmett in 1909 on sections 
5 and 8. The main shops cost upwards from $3,000,000.00. Here from 
four to five hundred men are employed. The men with their families 
came here and as there were not enough empty houses near the shops, 
they built homes on section 5, on what is now Brownlee Park. This led to 
the laying out of more parks and suburbs. At present there are ten. 
They are namely : Grand View Gardens on section 9, Eastdale on section 
9, Green Acre on section 10, Wattles Park on section 10, Greenwood Park 
on section 8, Greenfield Park on section 5, Wooden "s Park on section 18, 
Morgan Park on section 18, Sunrise Heights on section 18, Brownlee on 
sections 5 and 8, 

The Citizens' Electric Light Plant have all of their property, motors 
and water power in Emmett, their assessed valuation being upwards from 

We find the following minutes of the first road in the township of 
Emmett, in the early records on file in the township clerk's office: 

' ' Beginning at a stake set in the centre of the road running westerly 
to the bridge across Battle Creek near its conjunction with the Kalamazoo 
river, on section 7, in town 2 south, of range 7 west, 2 rods east of the 
section range line; thence running south parallel with the said section 
7, towards south range 7, west, 2 rods from said line ; 50 chains and 50 
links to the centre of the territorial road running through Goguac Prairie. 

"Ezra Convis, Surveyor, 

"Asahel Lowell, 

' ' Isaac Thomas, Commissioners of Highways. ' ' 

This road is now paved and is Battle Creek's Main street. 

During the last five years, five miles of state road has been built going 
southeasterly from Battle Creek, and passes Beadle Lake. Said lake is 
Emmett 's favorite resort, partly because of the beauty of the resort, but 
mostly on account of the geniality of the host and hostess, Mr. and Mrs. C. 
E. Kistler. They own a fine store and lunch room there and have boats 
to let, and they do everything in their power to make one's stay there a 
never-to-be-forgotten one. 

In 1838, Emmett township was noted for its wheat-raising capacity, 
and at that time White's Station was changed to Wheatfield. Some of 
the prominent men of that time who raised wheat and grains were Loomis 
Hutchinson on sections 27 and 34, William Neubre on sections 27 and 
34, Thomas Knight on section 13. At the present time there is very 
little done toward raising grains. The money-makers now specialize in 
the gardening or dairy business. Some of the leading gardeners being 
Ernest Chilson on section 8, Ray Panning on section 24, A. A. Peck on 
section 4, and James Blankon on section 9. Ernest Chilson is the oldest 
and most experienced gardener and has greenhouses built for winter use. 



The leading dairyinen are William T. Sackrider on seel ion 14, .loliii 
Cronkhite on section !), Charles Ilntchinson on seetiini '21. and Ka\ l-'an- 
aing on section 24. 

In 1888 a town meeting was held at Jeremiah Gardner's, on Monday, 
April 2. ^Michael Spencer, was chosen moderator and Samnel Kohinson, 
clerk of said meeting. Present, David H. Daniels, justice. 

The following resolutions were then adopted. 

■'Resolved, that fence four and a half feet high, well iiiadc of sub- 
stantial materials shall he lawful fence. 

"Resolved, that we raise fifty dollars for relief of the poor. 

■■Resolved, that we raise fifty dollars for the support and re]iaiiing of 
bridges in said township. 

■■Resolved, that our supervisor be instructed to present to flic town- 
ship of Milton a claim for our reasonable share of all money and prop- 
erty- belonging to oriuinal townsliip of ]\Iilton. 

■ .' 

-Ikh-ev C 

■■Resolved, that the supervisors of (.'alhoun county be authorized to 
borrow twenty-eight hundred and eighty-eight dollars to finish the coui't 
house at Marshall. 

■■Resolved, that the legislatuie of this state be ami is hereby re- 
quested to change the name of this township from Cady to Andover. 

■■Resolved, that each and every overseer of highways shall be fence- 
viewer and pound master and his owti yard a pound." 

'■The following pensons were then elected overseers of highways in 
their re.spective districts: j\Iichael Spencer, district No. 1 ; Asahel Beach, 
district Xo. 2 ; Anson Inman, district No. 3 ; David N. Salter, district No. 
4 ; Otis Williams, district No. 5 ; Samuel Robinson, district No. 6 ; 
George Beau, district No. 7 ; Samuel G. Wallace, district No. 8 ; Augu.stus 
Mather, district No. 9; Truman Allen, district No. 10; Arly N. Craw- 


ford, district No. 11 ; Daniel Wooden, district No. 12; William Newman, 
district No. 13 ; Alanson Cantine, district No. 14. 

"On canvassing the ballots, the following persons were found to 
have been elected officers of the township of Cady for the ensuing year : 
Levi Morton, Supervisor ; Samuel Robinson, Township Clerk ; Asa 
Lowell, David Howell and Samuel G. Wallace, Justices of Peace ; David 
W. Gibbs, Collector; Michael Spencer and Asahel Beach, Directors of 
Poor; Samuel G. Wallace, David Calkins and Caleb 0. Ferris, Com- 
missioners of Highways; David Howell, Fordyce Rhoades and Robert 
Adams, Inspectors of Schools; David Gibbs, John Lowry, George More- 
house, John DeGroat, Kenyon Johnson, John Rhoades, Constables ; Asa 
Lowell, N. Salter and Smith Berry, Assessors. 

"Resolved, that the next annual meeting shall be held at the house 
now kept by Moses Lowell. 

"Michael Spencer, Moderator, 
"David H. Daniels, Justice, 
"Samuel Robinson, Clerk." 

The towiiship has always been a Republican one, and has only been 
Democratic for live years since 1892. During that time some of the 
leading men have been: Ray Fanning, two years treasurer; Charles 
Kistler, clerk ten years and highway commissioner four years; Clayton 
Strait, highway commissioner three years; John Cronkhite, clerk one 
year and treasurer for two years ; Jake Paul, treasurer one year ; George 
Blake, treasurer two years and clerk three years; and Julius Crosby, 
supervisor twelve years. At the present time, Charles Hutchinson is the 
supervisor. It might be well to say here that his father, Loomis, held 
that office from 1865 to 1875. Some of the leading Democrats are William 
Hall, George Reese, Charles Eyre, Ransom Markham and Eri Cowles. 

The Union Grange, No. 292, was organized during the month of 
March. 1.S74. Some of the first members were, John Woodworth, Mrs. 
Whiting lluti-liinson. Theresa Johnson, Mr. and i\lrs. A. JM. Sharpsteen, 
and Herbert Jlerchant. The society owned a hall where they held all 
of their meetings. 

In 1892, a club was organized under the name of the Ceresco Farmer's 
Club. Some of the first members were, Mr. and Mrs. John Reese, Mr. 
and Mrs. Ned Hough, Mr. and Mrs. John Woodworth, Mr. and Mrs. 
Melzar Canright, Mr. and Mrs. E. B. Mills, Mr. and Mrs. Orson Avery, 
Mr. and Mrs. George Brininstool, Mr. and ]\Irs. Mort Nye, Mr. and Mrs. 
Julius Cidshy, Mr. and Mrs. Ransom Markham. ^Ir. and Mrs. Herbert 
]\Icr(hanl jiiid Mr. and Mrs. L. L. Lewis. All of these members, except 
Mv. Lewis, are living and still attend the club and have built it up until 
now there are 200 members, and this club is the largest in the state. 
The meetings are held the last Wednesday in every month at the re- 
spective houses and after a picnic dinner, a fine literary program is en- 
joyed and some topic of the day is discussed. 

Fredonia Township 

Fredonia is noted for its fine farms, its beautiful lakes and its excel- 
lent churches. Among its numerous lakes may be mentioned Lyon, one 


of tlie most beautiful autl iicst known sheets of wafci' in the i-oiint\'. Its 
watei's which are deep and put-e abound witli fish, lis high aiul wooded 
banks fui-nish delightful loeatious for cottages, which are utilized by 
season resorters, while the fine grove overlooking the lake furnishes a 
popular place for holding large gatherings of the people. Cedar, Long 
and Fish are other lakes of considerable size in the township, while the 
Nottawa Creek with its characteristically low marshy banks flows from 
the south, north and out into Newton through the west central part of the 
town. Originally, Fredonia was abundantly supplied with a flne growth 
of hard wood tindier; red, white and burr oak; ash, black and white, 
maple and elm predominating. The surface is generally level, except 
in localities in the west part where it is rolling. The soil, as a whole, 
is of good (iualit.y, some parts being exceptionally fine. There are, in 
Fredonia, farms which for beauty and fertility are not surpassed in 
the county. 

The township is designated l\v tlie United States surveyors as town 
3 south, range 6 west. It was organized in 1838. The first town meet- 
ing was held at the home of Ebby Hyde on the second day of April, 
1838, when officers for the new township were chosen. John Houston 
lieing the first supervisor, an office to which he was several times chosen, 
and Putnam Root the first clerk. 

Tlionias Burland is the recognized first pioneer. Born and reared 
in Yorkshire, England, he with his wife and three daughters left that 
country in 1831 and in May, 1833 settled on section 24 in the town- 
ship of Fredonia. 

On the flrst day of October, 1833, John Houston left Rochester, New 
York, to which place he had previously moved from Hanover, New 
Hampshire, where he was born, with his wife and three children for 
Michigan, arriving at the place in November, settling on section 9, 
whicli was ever after his home. Upon the section named he built the first 
frame house in the town. 'Sir. Houston died in October, 1869, at seventy- 
five years of age. To the day of his death he was regarded as one of the 
leading men of the town. His son, John Houston, was sheriff of Cal- 
houn county, for four years a member of the ^liehigan legislature and 
vice-president of the City National l>ank of ^Mai'shall. Joel Houston 
who now resides at the old home, is otie of tlie honored citizens of the 

Among others of the early settlers in Fredonia was Ezekiel Blue, 
who, in 183-4, located on section 13, where his son Peter now owns 200 
acres. Stephen Maynard came in 1836 and settled on section 12, south 
of Brace Lake, near the Eckford township line. Caleb Tilton came from 
Massachusetts and in 1834 located on section 2. In 1836 John B. Fre- 
denburg l)rought his family from Orleans county, New Yoi'k, and set- 
tled on section 23. ilr. Fredenburg was three times elected supervisor. 

Besides those above mentioned, there nuiy be named among the early 
settlers, Thomas P. Briggs and family, who settled on section 35 in the 
year of 1836 ; Frank B. Wright, came to Marshall in 1836, but did not 
locate in Fredonia until some years later. David Jagor came with his 
family from Sussex county. New Jersey, in Decendier. 1836, and settled 
on section 36. He liecame one of the more lu-ominent citizens of the 


county, being four times elected to tlie otifice of supervisor. Ebby Hyde, 
father of the late A. 0. Hyde of Marshall, settled in 1835 on section 3. 
It was at his house that the first town meeting was held in 1838. G. G. 
Collins, Oliver Bailey, Solomon Platner, David Aldrich, Edward M. 
Kingsbury, Putnam Root, Hiram Carey, Thomas Chambers and Arnold 
Markhain, all deserve to be mentioned among the pioneers and early 
.settlers in Fredonia and who helped to make the town what it is. Schools 
and churches from the beginning have found a congenial atmosphere 
and have thrived in the town, they in their turn doing much to make 
the later generations worthy of the former. 

Homer Township 

The township of Homer is located in the southeastern portion of the 
county. It has an undulating surface. Generally speaking, the soil 
is fertile. Originally it was in part a plain "oak openings," much of 
which was cleared and upon which the Indians raised maize. Other 
portions were heavily timbered with maple, beach and ash. while oak 
and some hickory were found on the hills and slopes. A number of small 
lakes are located in different parts of the township. The Kalamazoo 
river enters the town at the east side and fiowing in a northwesterly 
direction deflects to the north at Homer village and from there flows 
in a northeasterly direction. This stream furnishes excellent water power 
at different points and it was the water power that determined the loca- 
tion of Homer village. 

Homer was fortunate in the number and character of its early settlers. 
In this respect it compares most favorably with Marshall, Battle Creek 
and Albion. What Jesse Crowell was to Albion, Sidney Ketchum to 
Marshall and Sands ]McCanily to Battle Creek, Milton Barney was to 
Homer. It was in 1832 that ]Mr. Barney came from Lyons, New York, 
and entered a large part of the land on which the village of Homer now 
stands, including the water power of the Homer mills. In 1833 he 
brought his family, and that year he built a log house near the site of 
the Homer mills. About this time he laid out a plot for a village, which 
then, and for some time after, was called Barneyville. Mr. Barney built 
the first saw mill and also the first gi-ist mill. These were constructed 
by mechanics, whom Barney had induced to come west. He also built 
and run the first hotel. He built, stocked and conducted the first store. 
He gave the plot of the ground, two acres in area, for a cemetary. He 
was president of the first bank, started in Homer in the year 1837. It 
was first located in his store, but in the following year the directors put 
up a fine brick structure in the central part of the town. The first town 
meeting was held at the home of Mr. Barney in 1831. He was one of the 
prime movers in the pro.iect to connect the waters of Lake Michigan 
with those of the Detroit River and Lake Erie by means of a ship canal, 
following in its general course the channels of the Saint Joseph and 
Huron Rivers. Surveys were made, levels were struck and the project 
regarded so feasible, that a favorable recommendation was made by the 
engineers. At one time it really looked as though Homer might be an 
important point on the line of a ship canal connecting the waters of 


two of our grt'iit iiilaiul seas. That it was not altogether visiouary may 
i)e inferred from the fa<'t that for some time there has been before eon- 
gress a bill to build a ship eanal through southwestern ^Miehigan. north- 
ern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, which shall intermingle the waters 
of these same two lakes. It is not among the impossible things and some 
day the dream of the Homer fathers may be realized though with another 

By aet of the legislative eouneil in 1834, the township of Homer 
was organized with an area of twelve mile square. For judicial purposes 
this tract embraced the present townships of Homer, Albion, Eckford and 
Clarendon. The early settlers bunched their holdings, resulting in the 
formation of settlements in diiTerent sections with Homer as a sort of 
center. ^Vhat for many years was known as the Pennsylvania settle- 
ment on the plains northeast of Homer was begun in 1832, when Henry 
and Richard ^IcBIurtrie and Powell Grover, all single men, came in from 
Pennsylvania, entered land and put up log houses. The same year 
Willam Winter came and having located his land in the same neighbor- 
hood, went back to Pennsylvania, and in 1833 brought his family and 
stock with him. The descendants of these hardy pioneers still possess 
more or less of the original holdings of the ancestors. 

In 1834 came Cornelius Fisher and with him six sons, viz : Philip, 
^latthias. John, Benjamin, Enoch and Joseph, instituted what has since 
been known as the Fisher settlement. About the same time came John 
Kerns and his sons Jeremiah and Aaron, and James ^IcGregor and 
Abram Kehl. These led the way for others and the building up of a 
thickly settled and prosperous community. It was in 1832 that Henry 
Cook, of Cayuga county. New York, came via Homer and located on 
what for many years has lieen known as Cook's Prairie, in Eckfoi'tl 
township, and started a settlement, which in the course of the years lias 
exercised great influence on the county. About the same time Anthony 
Doolittle came up from Ohio and selected a location a little to the west 
of Homer, in what is now the township of Clarendon. 

It 183-1 Timothy and Elihu Leach located three miles to the south- 
east. In 1836 Joseph Gibbs, Andrew Dorsey, John M. B. Weatherwax, 
Dr. George B. Blair, Elery P. Potter and Rufus Hall became residents 
of the township. In 1837, David Burt, Arza Lewis, Hiram Smith, Ed- 
ward Henderson, David L. ^Mahoney and Jliehael Jliller were valuable 
acquisitions to the rapidly increasing population. "The Jaynes Settle- 
ment" was instituted in 1838 by the brothers David, John, Huntington 
and Eleazer Jaynes, W'ho located in the southwest part of the township. 

These sturdy pioneers, with others who have not been named but 
equally worthy, laid secure and strong the foundation upon which their 
descendants, with the later comers, have built up one of the most pros- 
perous and intelligent townships in the county. 

Homer Village 

To Jlilton Barney is due the credit of selecting the site for the 
village of Homer, which was incorporated in 1871. Time has proven the 
wisdom of that selection. For beauty of location it is not surpassed in 



the county. For the character of its business blocks, its tine churches 
and superior schools, its excellent class of private homes, its spacious 
and well kept lawns, its finely shaded streets and long stretches of well 
constructed and durable sidewalks, it will bear favorable comparison 
with many much larger places. The superior electric lighting plant, 
which was established in 1890 and its recently, 1911, installed system of 
water works, place within the reach of all its people the enjoyment of 
what are termed modern improvements. 

Three lines of railroad make it very accessible. The "Air Line" 
of the Michigan Central system runs from Jackson to Niles, connecting 
with the main line at both of these places. The Lake Shore and Michigan 

High School, Homee 

Southern gives a direct line to the capitol of the state and on to the 
northeast ; to the south it not only intersects the main line at Jonesville, 
but gives direct service to Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Cincinnati, Ohio. 
The third road runs from Toledo at the southeast, to Allegan at the 
northwest. This last named road gives access to the ports on Lake 
Michigan and through Toledo a fine outlet to the markets of the East. 
The water power located by Barney and conserved by a fine cement dam, 
recently built, is now as it was eighty years ago, one of the most valuable 
of the village assets. 

Education has from the first been encouraged in Homer. As early 
as 1845, through the enterprise of some of its leading citizens, the 
classical studies were taught in the then village. In 1856 its people 
erected a brick building to be used as an academy. Later, this became 
the home of the high school and that in turn gave place to a modern 
high school building, erected in 1890, that is rarely equalled in any com- 
munity of like size. A study of that portion of this volume treating 


on the war for the Union will show that Homer in that iriiii;il pciiod 
acted well its part. The memories of her heroes of IStil-lif) will stir tlie 
patriotic blood of her youth for generations to come. 

The TuwNtiiiip's Public ;\Ien 

It is not surprising that a community of the intelligence and charac- 
ter of those composing the township and village of Homer should be 
recognized beyond local limits and from time to time her representative 
citizens be called to public service. In this regard Homer has been ex- 
ceptional, when the number of her people is considered. In 1888, An- 
drew Dorsey served the county as a member of the Michigan House of 
Representatives. In 1840, Harvey Cook was chosen to the same honor- 
able office. In 1848, Hiram Smith was elected and in 1855, Daniel Duna- 
kin. William Cook served the people of the county and the state in 
the same capacity from 1861 to 1864, during the Civil war period. 
George H. French, a name still much honored in Homer, was state 
senator from 1861 to 1864, inclusive. It is a Ittle singular and at the 
same time to her great credit, that Homer should have furnished during 
the critical period of the war, both the senator from this district and the 
member of the State House of Representatives. William Cook served 
in the senate from 1875 to 1877, and Arthur Bangham, then and for a 
long time previous a resident of Homer, but now and for some years 
a citizen and postmaster of Albion, ably represented this district in the 
senate from 1901 to 1904. M. H. Lane, for many years editor and still 
owner of the Homer Index, served as probate judge of the county 
for a period of eight years. Perhaps no one thing better indicates the 
standing of Homer, village and township, in the county than tins list 
of men chosen from her people to serve the county and state in re- 
sponsible positions. 

Homer B.\nks 

The first bank of Homer, which also bears the distinction of being the 
first bank of its kind in the state of Michigan, was known as the Farmer's 
Bank of Homer, incorporated August 19, 1837. Its president was Milton 
Barney, and cashier Asahel Finch, Jr., with ]\Iilton Barney. Hiram 
Smith, N. D. Skeels, Henry Cook, Arza Lewis, Leonard Stowe, Walter 
Wright, and John Burt as directors. It was what was known in those 
days as a "Wild Cat" bank, pure and simple, but did a flourishing busi- 
ness during its three short years of life. Mr. Andrew Dorsey, an old 
time resident of Homer, has in his possession several pieces of the "cur- 
rency" floated by the institution during the time it did business. The 
bank first commenced operations in the rear of Milton Barney's store, 
but later erected a brick building on the site now occupied by the Calhoun 
State Bank. 

The next bank to be started in Homer, of which we have any record, 
was that of Thomas Lyon, opened in March 1870 and known for many 
years as the "Exchange Bank," later as Thomas Lyon & Co. In 1891, 
Mr. Lyon organized and incorporated the First State Bank of Homer 
with a capital stock of $25,000, later increased to $35,000. he being its 
president. E. P. Allen, Earl J. Fellows, and W. I\I. Kellogg acting as 


cashiers at different periods. In 1896 the First State Bank absorbed the 
Farmer's State Bank, and in 1897 it was dissolved and succeeded by the 
Homer Banking Co., with Thomas Lyon, Lottie L. Lyon and J. W. 
Breakey as co-partners. This institution was later absorbed by the 
Calhoun State Bank, Mr. Lyon having died in April, 1898. In speaking 
of Mr. Lyon and his banking enterprises one speaks largely of both the 
banking history and the progress of the town during the twenty-eight 
years of his life there. Naturally a progressive, and optimistic as to the 
future of his adopted home he threw himself into the task of building 
up his own business and that of the town, and many of Homer's finest 
buildings are the direct result of his handiwork and foresight. 

In 1875, Albert V. Parks and Wells Pratt .started a private bank 
known as Parks & Pratt and did a flourishing business for a number of 
years, finally closing their doors in the summer of 1888. 

The firm of Andrus & Webster opened a banking office in May, 1887. 
the firm being composed of Albert Andrus and William J. Webster. In 
1892 they incorporated as the Farmer's State Bank with .$15,000 capital, 
Geo. W. Aldrich, president, Albert Andrus, vice-president, and W. J. 
Webster, cashier, and were absorbed by the First State Bank in August, 
1896. Again in December, 1896, the same parties started another private 
bank under the firm name of Webster & Andrus, and conducted a very 
successful business until March 1. 1911, when they sold out to the 
Homer State Bank. The latter bank, capitalized at $20,000.00 with Fred 
S. Cortright as president, Geo. D. Cleveland, vice-president, and Frank 
J. Dibble, cashier, continued to do business at the same stand until ab- 
sorbed by the Calhoun State Bank. July 29, 1912. 

The latest and only liaiikiiifi' institution in Homer at the present time 
was originally startetl ;is ;i priv;itc bank in the old Raby building at the 
west end. Dr. E. M. Nix. a proniinciit physician, and vice-president of 
the Boies State Savings Bank, of Hudson, Jliohigan, with his son-in-law. 
Earl J. Fellows, opened up for business on ihireh 28, 1898, under the 
firm name of Nix & Fellows, E. J. Fellows acting as manager. Dr. Nix 
died in the fall of 1901. and Mr. Fellows organized and incorporated the 
Calhoun State Bank in Februaiy. 1902. taking over the business of the 
old firm. The bank was capitalized at $20,000 with E. J. Fellows, presi- 
dent, William A. Lane, vice-president. Marcia J. Nix, ]Mabelle C. Fellows 
and Rollo E. Goodrich as directors and stockholders. R. D. Gardner 
acting as cashier. Both institutions have met with signal success and have 
enjoyed to the fullest extent the confidence of the people of the com- 
munity, and the Calhoun State Bank bears the distinction of having 
absorbed both its original competitors. At the present time the capital 
stock is $30,000 with surplus of $6,000 and resources of over $375,000.00. 
Officers and directors are E. J. Fellows, president; John C. Snyder, 
vice-president; R. D. Gardner, cashier; John Hoffman, R. E. Goodrich, 
C. R. Church, and A. E. Hunter. Elbert L. Andrews is assistant cashier. 

Lee Township 

In the north tier of townships and lying between Clarence and Convis, 
is located the township of Lee. Originally nearly one-half of the township 


was taken up by the "Tamarac Swamp," which ran through its centre. 
Much of this swamp has been drained and is now under cultivation, the 
drained part constituting some of the best land in the county. The town- 
ship, aside from the swainp was originallj', heavily timbered with oak, 
beach, maple, ash, whitewood and basswood. Much of it was tine saw 
timber, but the difiii-ulty of transportation caused some of the best timber 
iu the county to be cut and burned in log heaps that the land might be 
cleared and cultivated. 

There are several small streams in the to\^'nship. Of these. Big creek 
takes its rise near the centre and flows northeast into Eaton county ; 
Indian creek crosses the northwest corner. A southern branch of this 
stream rises in School lake and Lake of the Woods, which together with 
Purdy lake are situated in the western part of the township. 

No railroad touches the township at any point. Geuei-ally speaking, 
the public highways are in good condition and afford aveniies over which 
the abundant products of the farms are transported to the markets. 

The earliest comers into Lee township were Amos Hadden and 
Nicholas Stanley. In the spring of 1835 they entered and occupied a part 
of section 36 in the southeast part of the town. Two unusual tragedies 
befell the Stanley family. One of these is perhaps the most pathetic 
incident in the history of the eountv. 

One evening in the fall of 1837, hearing the tinkling of a cow bell a 
short distance from his home, Mr. Stanley sent his six year old son to 
drive in the cows. In tlie gloom of the evening the cows came walking 
leisurely up to the house but no child with them. The deepening shadows 
already enveloped the woods. Repeated calls brought no reply from the 
child and a hurried and frantic search by members of the household was 
unrewarded. For three days all the settlers in that immediate section 
searched the woods, covering an area of ten miles, but no trace of the lost 
child was found. At last, but a half mile from the home he had left 
buoyant with pride at the manly errand he was sent to do, the little 
fellow was found in a sitting posture at the foot of a tree cold in death. 
Alone in the forest he had perished with cold and hunger and fright. 
The services attending his burial were the first of a religious nature held 
in the township of Lee. The Rev. Mr. Hobart, of Marshall officiated. For 
many years in all that region the cry of the children was hushed by the 
recital of the story of the lost child. 

In January. 1838, a second tragedy occurred in the Stanley home 
when the father of the lost child was killed by the caving in of a" well. 

In 1836, Abram Hadden, a brother of Amos, settled in the to^^^lship. 
In 1839, Benjamin Thomas located in the north central part of the 
to^^Tiship. B. S. Ward, D. P. Wood. Joseph Gardinier, Stephen Aldrich, 
F. Garfield, John Weaver, T. S. Havens, Charles R. Thomas, Jesse Ackley 
were among the early comers and helped to make possible the Lee town- 
ship of today. 

In 1836, a saw mill was built on Indian Creek by Sidney S. Aleott, 
who had located much of sections 6 and 7. The mill was operated for 
a number of years. Later it burned and was never rebuilt. It was tlie 
only water power mill ever operated in the tOAvnship. 

In 1844, the ''Dover Company" was formed by G. W. Pwycr and 


others. This compauy purchased a large tract of timber in the vicinity 
of what is now the village of Partello. The company began the erection 
of a mill and some time after their failure to complete it the property 
was bought by J. R. Partello, who put up a saw mill in place of the 
one begun but which had fallen into decay. Within a year or two after 
completion, the mill was destroyed by fire. A like fate awaited its suc- 
cessor and no other was built. In 1856, a mill was erected at Lee 
Centre by Messi-s. Fisher and Bean. It was operated by a Mr. Greenough 
in the manufacture of lumber and stoves. This mill burned in 1862 
and was rebuilt as a stove mill only. 

Scarcely had pioneers of Lee got their own cabin homes under roof 
before they began preparation for the education of their children. The 
first school house in Lee township was built in 1839 on land o^^^led by 
Amos Hadden and situated in the southeast corner of the township. 
The fii-st school in the northern part of the township was opened in 1845. 
Miss Sophia Stowell, who subsequently became the wife of Henry Crit- 
tenden of Albion, and who for many years was one of the elect ladies of 
that city, was the first teacher. With the increase of population and 
wealth, the school advantages of the town have improved and the children 
of the township, though there is no populous centre, do not have to go 
away from home to get the rudiments of an education. 

In 1845, a Sunday school was organized in a school house on section 9. 
Two years later there was formed at Lee Centre a of six members 
which was the nucleus of the church which has ever since existed there, 
and soon after a house of worship was built. 

At Partello a well sustained church exists. At Rice Creek church 
facilities are afforded to all in that section who wish to attend. 

Lee township was organized in 1840 and the first annual town meeting 
in the township was held at the home of F. Garfield, on the 6th day of 
April of that year. Mr. Garfield was chosen chairman and Sidney S. 
Alcott, clerk for the day. The following named officers were then duly 
elected: Supervisor, John Weaver; Town Clerk, F. Garfield; Treas- 
urer, Jesse Ackley ; Collector, Benjamin Thomas ; Assessors, F. Garfield, 
Amos Hadden, Stephen Aldrich; Justices, F. Garfield, T. S. S. Holmes, 
Amos Hadden, Charles R. Thomas; Overseers of Highways, Amos Had- 
den, Charles Thomas, F. Garfield, Jesse Ackley, Oliver Thomas; School 
Inspectors, Amos Hadden, Stephen Aldricli, Benjamin Thomas; Poor 
Masters, John Ackley, William Garfield; Constables, John Clough, E. 

LeRoy Township 

It is claimed by some that this township was called LeRoy at the 
suggestion of David C. Fish, formerly of a town of that name in New 
York. Another historical claim is that to Mr. and Mrs. David C. Fish 
was born August 26, 1836, a son whom they called LeRoy, and was 
thought to be the first child born in the township, and in recognition of 
that event the proud mother suggested to Silas Kelsey, who had done 
much to get the township set off and organized, that the name of her 
first born son be the name given the township, which was accordingly 
done. But when the name LeRoy was recorded and published and the 


reason for its selection given and the date of the birth of LeRoy Fish 
given, along came the parents of Charles E. Baker, residents of the same 
township, and claimed that their son was born two months and nine days 
before baby Fish; and before either of these boys, the ancient chrono- 
logists sav Esther A., daughter of Mr. and Mi-s. Martin Cole, was born, 
May 1. 1836. 

Whatever is the e.\aet truth as to name and the reason given for 
choosing it, certain it is that the township called LeRoy was first 
known only by the surveyors' description as town 3, south, range 4, 
west, and that for several years it belonged to a confederation of which 
Athens, Burlington and Newton were co-members, and that not until by 
an act of the legislature of 1837-38 was it organized and named as above 

There is said to be an unusual diversity of soil in this township. On 
the west bordering on Kalamazoo county, there were beautiful burr oak 
plains and again some heavily timbered lands. The soil in this section 
was of the best. When the first settlers came, they found a large marsh 
extending through the central part of .the township, running from the 
south in a northwesterly direction. Much of the low ground having 
been drained is now rated among the best land. This swamp or marsh 
divided the town into two sections, so that almost from the beginning 
it has been known as East and West LeRoy. There are but three 
small lakes and no streams of an.y consequence in the township. 

The first settler in the township was William Bishop, who located on 
section 6 in the northwest corner. David C. Fish made a permanent set- 
tlement on section 1, in 1836. In this same year came Heman Baker, 
who located on section 7 ; Timothy Kelsey, Jonathan Sprague, wife, six 
sons and two daughters, settled on section 2. In 1837 among others who 
came were Dudley X. Bushnell, wife and two .sons, accompanied by Silas 
Kelsey. John H. Bushnell, T. B. Bamum. John E. Mulholland, Isaac 
Hiscock, Polydore Hudson, who had been living for some years in Battle 
Creek, and Harlow Burdick all came into LeRoy some time during the 
year 1837. 

Silas Kelsey is said to have erected in 1837 the first frame house in 
the town and in 1850 Chester Cole built the first brick house. The first 
school in the town was taught by iliss Hannah Sprague, daughter of 
Jonathan Sprague, in 1837, in district No. 1. The first saw mill was built 
on Pine Creek, by Jeremiah Drake and John Coats, in 1837. Truman 
S. Cole built a steam saw mill in 1847. This mill was destroyed by 
fire in 1856 and was never rebuilt. In the last named year a second 
steam saw mill was built by Andrew J. Quick at Quick's Corners. The 
first postoffice in the township was established in 1851 and Truman S. 
Cole was the first postmaster. Later an office was established in East 
LeRoy. but since the establishment of the rural free delivery, there has 
been no postoffice in the township. The first burying ground in West 
LeRoy was laid out in 1840 on land donated by Silas Kelsey. The first 
burying ground in East LpRoy was laid out in 1839-40 and was donated 
by Joshua Robinson. What is said to have been the first death in the 
township was a tragedy. In the spring of 1838 the clothes of Miss 
Harriet Kelsey, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Timothy Kel.sey, accidently 


caught fire and before assistance could be rendered she was fatally 
burned, death resulting in a short time. The fatality cast a gloom 
over the settlements all about. 

The people who first settled in LeRoy township did not leave their 
religion behind them when they came to Michigan. As early as March 
14, 1837, a Presbyterian church was organized, the meeting for that pur- 
pose being held in Climax. At a meeting held Januai-y 25, 1840, it 
was voted unanimouslj' to change the name of the church from the First 
Presbyterian Church of Climax to the First Presbyterian Church of 
LeRoy. The ecclesiastical relation Mas changed from the Kalamazoo to 
the Marshall Presbytery. In March, 1846, by mutual consent of the 
official members, it was changed to the Congregational Church of LeRoy. 
This was under the pastorate of the Rev. Asa Bushnell. Many of the 
foremost citizens of the town have been enrolled as members of this 
church, among them may be mentioned Jonathan Sprague, Heman Baker, 
Silas Kelsey, William A. Sawyer, John H. Bushnell, Dudley N. Bush- 
nell, F. E. Bush, H. P. Nichols and S. 0. Bush, and their influence for 
good is still felt in the town. 

Here as elsewhere in Calhoun county, and in Michigan generally, the 
Methodists Avere early on the ground. A class was formed in 1837 and 
regular sen-ices were held when there were not more than sixtj' white 
people living in the township. In 1856 a circuit was created in LeRoy 
and preaching was sustained at East, West and South LeRoy. Houses 
of worship, which are a credit to the town and its people, have been 
built at West LeRoy and East LeRoy. Among the people of LeRoy who 
have been identified with the ilethodist Episcopal church may be men- 
tioned Ammou Mills, Thomas Sprague, Lyman R. Hall, Benjamin F. 
Morgan, R. Stanton, il. Canright and Joseph M. Fish in the east part of 
the town in the west part ili's. Caroline McNary, Francis Clark, 
Benjamin Griswold, Ammon Mills, Jr., Daniel Reasoner, Charles N. 
Farmer, D. W. Lay, L. Cole and S. N. Hyde. Sabbath schools have al- 
most from the beginning been maintained at each and all the churches 
named. In the moral and religious character of its people, LeRoy has 
always ranked among the foremost in the county. 

In the days when to be called a "Black Abolitionist" was as hateful 
an epithet as could be hurled at one, there were those in LeRoy township 
who counted it an honor to be openly known as anti-slavery men. As 
early as 1840, Caleb Smith, J. H. Bushnell and Silas Kelsey stood up 
and" were counted, by their votes, as the avowed friends of the slaves 
and the enemies of slavery. On the 4th of July, 1842, there was held 
in a grove on the farm of Silas Kelsey, a gathering of people from all 
over the county, and for many years was spoken of far and near as the 
"big meeting," which was addressed by Dr. Bennett, an eloquent anti- 
■ slavery orator. The sentiments proclaimed certainly gripped the com- 
munity, for it will be an everlasting distinction for the township of 
LeRoy that it was the first in the United States to give a majority in 
favor" of the abolition of slavery. When the war, that was waged for 
the preservation of the Union, but resulted also in the destruction of 
slavery, broke out, LeRoj''s sons were true to their fathers and struggled 


on the battlefield for the triumph of the seutiments that iu (■hikllmod 
they had first enunciated at the fireside. 

JMabengo Township 

JMarengo shares with ^Marshall the distinction of being the oldest 
settled community in the county. On the 16th day of June, 1831, four 
entries of land M'ere made in the township by the following persons, viz : 
Seelej- Neal, Asahel Warner, Elijah Crane and A. Drestin. Colonel 
John Ainsley and Erastus Kimball on the -Ith of July. Joseph Ames, 
Thomas Chisholm, Alfred D. Wright, Elijah A. Bigelow, Nathan Pierce 
and Francis Phillip, all in the year of 1831. Several in this list came 
into local prominence. Nathan Pierce served in both the house and 
senate of the Michigan legislature. Seeley Neal "was one of the com- 
missioners appointed to locate and surve.y the Territorial road. Alfred 
Killam and ^Melaucthon J. Bagg came iu May, 1832. Loren Maynard 
came in 1833 and put up a commodious log house on Section 23, and for 
nearly a dozen years kept tavern ; his place being noted for hospitality. 
Maynard had a strong bend toward public life, serving at different times 
as postmaster, supervisor, sheriff and state senator. Dr. R. B. Porter, 
a graduate of Castleton College, Vermont, who came into the township 
in 1836, was the pioneer physician. Dr. Porter had an extensive prac- 
tice. His professional services were called for not only in Marengo, but 
in Sheridan, Eckford, Clarence and Albion. He was the father of 
William H. Porter, the present probate judge of the county. Judge 
Porter was the first uative ilareugoite to graduate from college. 

Several of the men above named were iu consultation, about the time 
the township was organized, as to what name should be given. The choice 
seemed to lay between ilarengo and St. Cloud, with final selection of the 
former name. Originally the township embraced what now constitutes 
the townships of ilarengo, Sheridan, Clarence and Lee. This was in 
accordance with the action of the Territorial council of 183-i. By the 
surveyors' notes Marengo was known as township 2 South, Range 5 
West and by action of the state legislature of 1836-7 the four 
townships above named were all organized as independent units. Excel 
lent soil characterizes the land as a whole. The surface is rolling. The 
Kalamazoo river flows from east to west through the southern half, 
while Rice creek comes down into the township from the northeast as 
if to enter the Kalamazoo, but takes a sudden turn and flows to the south 
west, later forming a junction with the Kalamazoo at Marshall. 

Seeley Neal, whose family consisted of himself, wife and ten children 
built the first white man's house in the township. It was a log structure 
located on section 27 and on the south side of the Territorial road. It 
was nearly on the spot where later Colonel John Ainsley built his home, 
which is well remembered by many of the older settlers. The excellent 
water power in the township was early taken advantage of. In 1835 
George Ketchum built a saw mill on Rice creek. A flouring and grist 
mill was built on the Kalamazoo river near ^Marengo village iu 1839. 
While that mill was destroyed by fire, another was built, and grists 
now are ground at the ]\Iarengo mill as in the early days. :\Iareug(i had 


its boom in 1836-37. A plot was made and recorded, many buildings 
some public and others private, were put up. The speculator got in his 
work here, and when the financial collapse came, Jlarengo's ambitious 
outlook for the future went with it. In the year 1834, George W. Patti- 
son began teaming between Detroit and Alarshall, and for a number of 
years he was the main dependence of the community, both as to freight 
and passengers. 

George W. Drj^er, with his family, arrived in the fall of 1833 and was 
the first justice of the peace in the village being appointed in 1835 by 
Stevens T. Mason, who was then acting governor. Messrs. Pattison and 
Dryer brought in the first stock of dry goods and groceries in 1834, which 
they sold in a short time to Harris and Austin. Pattison and Dryer then 
engaged in the stock business, buying considerable numbers of cattle 
both in Illinois and ftidiana and bringing them to Jlichigan, where they 
found a ready market among the large numbers of new comers from the 
East. The township was long known for its fine quality of blooded 
sheep, and it is still one of the best stock townships in the county. 

The first school in Marengo opened in the year 1833, in the house 
of Amos Kimball. In 1834, S. Powers taught in a house erected on the 
land of Thomas Chisholm. The first school house in ^Marengo village 
was put up in 1836, on the site of the present brick structure, and Miss 
Sarah Dennis was the teacher. 

The fii*st religious services held in Marengo were conducted by the 
Rev. Randall Hobart, of Marshall, who, as a local preacher in the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church performed a great deal of gratuitous service of a 
religious character in an early day among the people of the county. In 
1853 there was built in Marengo village a Union church, a frame struc- 
ture, forty by fifty feet in size. The leading contributors to the build- 
ing fund of this church were : John Evans, S. G. Pattison, G. W. Dryer, 
R. B. Porter, Milo Soule, Alden Boughton, Augustus Lusk, Loren May- 
nard, Jacob Gardinier, Joseph Otis, O. D. Rogers, William Hewitt and 
William Hoskins. The donors are all gone, but the building, which their 
generosity made possible, still stands. It has been kept in good repair, 
and promises for many years to come to serve the people of ^larengo 
as a place of public worship, to hold Sunday school, and from which to 
bury their dead. ]\Ien, who do these things for those who come after 
them, are worthy of remembrance. In 1842 a Methodist Protestant 
church was formed at Rice creek, near where the four townships of Ma- 
rengo, Sheridan. Clarence and Lee corner. A house of worship was built 
in 1853 and for sixty years it has furnished a meeting place for those 
living in that section, who are religiously inclined. 

A postofifice was established in the winter of 1831-32, Seeley Neal 
being the first postmaster. The mail was frequently brought by the Rev. 
Elijah H. Pilcher, a well known pioneer preacher in the Methodist Epis- 
copal church. It was carried by him without compensation and simply 
as an accommodation. Sometimes it was brought by travelers, who are 
journeying westward through the place. The office being located on the 
Territorial road, made it very convenient for the volunteer carriers to 
both, bring and take the local mail. At this time the township, except 
the village of ^Marengo, is well cared for by rural carriers. 


The first annual town meeting was held on the first ]\londa\' in April, 
1833, at the home of Seeley Neal. Joseph Ames was chosen iluiirinan 
and Seeley Neal, clerk, pro tern. The following named were duly elected 
the first town officers: Seeley Neal, supervisor; Harmon Xeal, clci'l<; Al- 
fred Killam, Reuben Abbott and Seeley Neal, assessors; Joseph Ames, 
Seeley Neal and Benjamin Wright, road conunissioners ; Harmon Neal, 
constable and collector; Joseph Ames and Reuben Abbott, directors of 
the poor ; Joseph Ames, overseer of roads. Those were great days for the 
politically ambitious. Every man was sure of an office, and some had 
two or three thrust upon them. 

It will be seen by reference to the chapter on the Civil wai', that 
Marengo has an enviable record in that titanic struggle. She not only 
put up her full quota of soldiers, but some of the bravest and most dis- 
tinguished men furnished by the county went from within her bor- 
ders, ilarengo township has a record in war and in peace, for which 
her people need make no apologies. 

^Marshall Township 

The history of ^Marshall City and township are so interrelated as to 
important events and the personnel having to do with them that the 
chapters elsewhere treating of various phases of the city covers nuicli 
of the township. There are some things pertaining to the township that 
should be perpetuated. 

As is generally known, Marshall, by authority of the Territorial 
council, originally embraced all of Calhoun county. It was named in 
honor of the great chief justice, John ]Marshall, who probably never had 
a superior if, indeed, an equal in the place he long filled in the highest 
court of our land. The various townships now composing the county, 
were gi-adually set off, and Marshall township, with its 36 sections 
of splendid laud, well watered and well drained, took its place as one of 
the twenty township units that now compose the county. It so remained 
until 1859, when a block, two miles square, embracing the whole of sec- 
tions 25 and 26, the south half of sections 23 and 24 and the north half 
of sections 35 and 36, was set off and included in the corporate limits 
of the City of Marshall. 

The township is generally level. Originally it was timbered with 
white and burr oak. The soil is a rich sandy loam, fertile and adapted 
to the growth of grains and fruits, such as are grown in this climate. 
The Kalamazoo river and Rice creek unite within the corporate limits 
of ^Marshall city, and flowing westward, leaves the town.ship at Cereseo 
village. A fine water power exists at Cereseo, which has long been 
utilized for milling purposes. A saw mill was erected there as early as 
1838 and the following year John D. Pierce, Joseph Frink and S. S. 
Alcott built a flouring mill at the village at a cost of $30,000.00. This 
mill was built of stone and fell down. In 1854, Charles T. Gorham had 
it rebuilt and later it burned. E. ]\Iorse and Co. had it rebuilt in 1860 
and again it burned. In 1876 it was again rebuilt, this last time by 
H. J. Perrin. The last time it seemed to be a siiecess. 

The first settler in the county was a Mr. Fuller, who came in 1830 


and erected, about three miles north of the present City of Marshall, the 
first house in the county. John Bertram, in 1832, built on the Seminary 
lands, which he had bought of Samuel Camp, the first frame house in the 
county. Bertram also put up the first frame barn in the county. Thomas 
Knight came to the county in 1832, as did Henry Failing, who afterward 
removed to Tekonsha. Thomas Knight and Daniel AVoolsey were among 
the early comers. These, with othere of the pioneer settlers, helped to 
make Marshall township one of the garden spots of Michigan. Aside 
from the district schools, which were early established and have been well 
maintained in the township, the youth have had the advantage of the 
Marshall grade and high schools. So, too, the people have largely relied 
on ilarshall City for church privileges. 

Marshall and Ceresco furnish excellent shipping facilities, as the 
Michigan Central and what was termed the Cincinnati, Jackson and 
Mackinaw railroads run through both these places. Besides these, the 
electric interurban third rail system, running from Jackson to Kala- 
mazoo, affords hourly passenger service, besides an avenue, by which 
much freight is carried. Marshall township, the oldest in the county, 
maintains her early prestige for the intelligence, thrift and culture of 
her people. 

Newton Township 

This township takes its name from Newton, Massachusetts, at the sug- 
gestion of Benjamin Chamberlain, who was a native of the old Bay 
state and a resident of the own of Newton, near Boston. By the 
Government survey, the town is known as town 3 South, Range 7 West. 
Newton probably had more acres of heavy timber and fewer of "oak 
openings" and plains, than any other township in the county. Because 
of this condition, it is believed, the township was slow in settling. The 
pioneers generally avoided the heavy timbered lands because of the hard 
work in clearing and the delay in getting pi-oductive farms. The Not- 
tawa creek is the only stream that travei-ses the township, and this is 
not large enough to afford water power for mills. There are no lakes 
of any considerable size in the township. The soil is excellent and once 
cleared produced excellent crops. 

The early settlers in Newton were principally from western New 
York. As a class they were hardy and resolute and determined to better 
their condition in the new country and to make homes for themselves, 
and their children. They built log houses for themselves and log houses 
for school and church purposes. One of the first things they sought was 
the education of their children, and closely allied with this was the 
moral and religious insti-uction, that came from the introduction 
of public worship, hence the preacher was welcome and there was 
no objection to using the school houses as places in which to hold religious 
services. People sunk their denominational differences for the common 
good. Not onl.y the preaching services, but Sunday schools and the 
bible classes were well attended. 

Granville Beardslee, accompanied by his wife and two daughters, 
came from Rochester, New York, in the fall of 1831. He was the first 
settler in the township, locating on section 1 and 12 in the northeast 


corner. ]Mr. Beardslee had about -100 acres, which he converted into an 
improved farm with good buildings and orchards. Jeri-y and Asa Wood- 
ward came in 1835, and located on section 3. George Smith settled on 
the south line of the town in 1833 on a very choice piece of land. His 
sons, Stephen, George and Henry, located in the same neighborhood and 
each and all became possessed and excellent farms. Harvey Smith 
settled near the center of the town and died on the same farm in 1863. 
He rendered the township a valuable service, by bringing in improved 
breeds of stock. George and John Cameron came about the same time 
as Harvey Smith and located near him. John and James Hardin came 
in 1835, and settled in the east part of the town. Benjamin Chamber- 
lin was one of the early comers, locating on section 15, in July, 1836. 
He gave much attention to the cultivating of fruit, in which he was very 
successful. He was one of Newton's esteemed and valuable citizens. 
Moses Gleason was another who figures conspicuously in the early history 
of the township, serving at different times as jiistice of the peace and 
Supervisor. Stephen Graham, John Pearl, John Van Fleet, Daniel Mer- 
ritt, James Dowling, Eleazer Donnelly and Asa Phelps may be listed 
among those who labored in the eai-ly days to largely make Newton 
township what it is now. The sons of these and other pioneers went out 
to do heroic service in the war for the preservation of the Union. 

Pennfield Township 

Bij C. C. McDermid 

This township lying immediately north of the city of Battle Creek, 
is intersected by the Battle Creek river and its tributary, Wanondagua 
creek. The soil is generally of glacial origin, brought with its accom- 
panying boulders from the Lake Superior region. The river bottoms 
are wide and fertile, especially on the western side of the main stream, 
the uplands equally productive for general crops and superior for finiits, 
with a somewhat liberal sprinkling throughout the township of lighter 
lands for which the profitable use has not yet been discovered. 

Several of its lake are of rare beautj', and are becoming much fre- 
quented summer resorts. Generally they show well defined ancient 
beaches and wave washed banks, proving their pre-historic level to have 
been much higher than the present. 

The common occurrence of flint arrow points, knives, drills, scrapers, 
and the stone axes, hammers, pestles and other like tools of unknown 
antiquity, prove the township to have been liberally inhabited, or at 
least roamed over, by an active energetic race ages before the coming 
of the white man, quite possibly even before the Indian race. 

The township was covered when white settlement began with an 
abundant and sturdy gi'owth of trees, oaks, five or more varieties, white 
wood, black walnut, hickories, beeches, butternut, several elms, ashes, 
sycamores or buttonwoods, with abundance of lesser varieties. 

The whole of Great Britain has but ten varieties of pative trees; 
the little township of Pennfield at least four times that number. 

The sycamore is reckoned our largest ]\Iichigan tree (with white 


wood and black walnut close seconds), but it commonly grows hollow, 
a mere shell, the enormous empty hearted deceiver M'hen cut in sections 
making for the pioneer the best and cheapest of "smoke houses" for his 
hams and bacon. 

Wild flowers were and now are abundant where not exterminated by 
pasturage and cultivation ; there being at this late day thirty or more 
varieties of native orchids alone. 

The entire region was annually burned over by the Indians, that 
brushwood might not conceal their game, so that the early settlers found 
a vast open glade through which one might drive in any direction and 
easily examine any promising location. 

The first land entry in this to\vnship (then a part of the larger town- 
ship of Milton) was made December 10, 1831, Albert H. Smith filing on 
a part of section 29, afterwards owned and occupied for many years by 
Col. Wm. C. Fonda. Mr. Smith never became an actual settler. 

Avery Lamb and Gen. Ezra Convis (the first speaker of the Michigan 
House of Representatives) made entries in 1834. 

The first actual settlement was made in 1835, by Estes Rich from 
Massachusetts, who broke the first ground for crops in the spring of 
that year, on a part of section 32, later owTied and occupied from 1836 
to his death by Samuel Convis. 

Mr. Rich put thirty acres in crops his first year 1835, twenty being 
wheat, the first in the township, and his log house being the first building 

The next year, 1836, settlers came in rapidly, some twenty-five families 
in all, prominent among whom were Samuel Convis, section 32 ; Samuel 
D. Moore, section 27 ; John Wolf, section 3 ; Henry Parsons, section 9 ; 
David Bouton, section 10 ; Jason Evans, section 2 ; John Cooper, section 
33 ; W. K. Adams and son, section 20 ; John S. Adams, Barnabas 
Newton, section 15; Joseph P. Markham, .section 36; William Hicks, 
section 17 ; and William C. Fonda, section 29. 

The first frame house in the township was built by Samuel Convis 
in 1838. He also built its first frame barn, 32 by 45 feet in size. 

The first brick house was built by Samuel D. Moore about 1845. 

The first white child born in the township was Palmyra Wells, Feb- 
ruary, 1836, in the log house of her father, Joseph E. Wells, on section 36. 

The first white boy born here was Isaac Lamb, December 22, 1836, 
the anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers at Plymouth, 

The first death was that of youthful Emeline Weare, in the fall of 
1836, at her father's house on section 36. 

William G. Wheaton and Ainanda Parker were married at the house 
of Anson Sharpsteen on Section 36, in the autumn of 1837, the bride 
being a sister of Mrs. Sharpsteen. 

Thomas G. Bird and Betsy Knowles were also married in the winter 
of the same year, these beng the fii'st two weddings in the township. 

The first school was taught in the spring of 1838, by Miss Lucy Y. 
Hicks, daughter of William Hicks, later becoming Mrs. Daniel S. 
Chase. The school was held in a log tenant house on the farm of John 


Wolf, the pupils beiug George aud William Raymond, Charles Paddock, 
Ann Eliza, Sophia and Hannah W. Wolf. 

The first permanent school house, named the "Cobblestone" from 
the material of its construction, was built in 1849, and bids fair to 
prolong its usefulness for at least a century to come. It ha.s an inter- 
esting history which was fittingly celebrated in August, 1911, by a re- 
union of all its pupils, teachers, and early neighborhood settlers who 
could be reached, to the delight and instiiiction of all who could attend. 

A Few Pioneer Experiences 

At an early period of the settlement of northern Pennfield a transient 
settler was suddenly taken with violent illness. The nearest ph.ysician 
was Dr. Asahel Beach, 2 miles east of Battle Creek. David Bouton 
started on foot and at night (there being no horses in the settlement) 
found the doctor, who al)solutely refused to go to the patient, but sent 
two bottles of medicine to meet the case. When Mr. Bouton staggered 
back the rest of his eighteen mile trip, more than half asleep at times, 
nearly dead with weariness, yet in mortal fear of breaking his precious 
bottles, to find the patient sweetly sleeping and serenely comfortable, in 
vastly better condition than the tired messenger ! 

His remarks on the ease, if any, are not of record. 

The great infiux of settlers in 1836-37 and the consetiuent scarcity 
of breadstuifs came near bringing actual starvation to those in the inte- 
rior of the state before the small crop of 1837 could be harvested and 
ground. Flour rose to $20.00 a barrel and was hard to get even at that 
enormous price. Mi-s. John Wolf dried in her oven a few sheaves of half 
ripe wheat, a few quarts of which were hastily threshed, ground in her 
coffee mill and made into food for her suffering family. 

David Bouton took as soon as possible with ox team to the nearest 
mill, at Marshall, small grists for himself and neighbors, only to be told 
there were five days grinding night and day ahead of him, and he must 
wait his turn. 

He replied with decision that his people were starving and the grain 
must be ground at once; that he should stay by the miller until it was 
done. He "sta.yed liy" and morning found his grists ground and on 
their way home. 

William Hicks left home telling his family (a wife and eight chil- 
dren) that he was going for flour and should not come back till he found 
it. Fortunately he soon met a load coming in from abroad, bought one 
hundred pounds with his last ten dollars, being permitted to buy so 
much only as a favor on account of his urgent need. 

In 1836 Mr. Hicks traded his land in Hillsdale county where he had 
shortly before located, for a part of section 17, Pennfield, now owned by 
Silas E. Woodworth. 

A log shed open on one side was the only building on the new prem- 
ises, but Mr. Hicks promptly came to stay. Reaching Battle Creek 
with his family and its few belongings, he went ahead with the family 
cow, his New York bred sons Solomon, 16 years of age, Chauncey, past 
13, and John Y., 11, tied the cow to a corner of the shed, gave the boys 


the family rifle, told them to keep a bright tire through the night, then 
hastened back to his remaining family at Battle Creek. With the 
darkness came the howling and snapping wolves eager for the terrified 
and frantic cow and hardly less frightened boys; the gun could not be 
made to shoot, but they kept the wolves at ba3' and the cow from break- 
ing away until daylight. Possibly the night was not long, nor the morn- 
ing welcome ! 

It is told of Mrs. Wm. C. Fonda, one of the settlers of 1836, that she 
was left alone of an early evening in their unfinished log house, the door 
not having been hung, but onlj' temporarily set in place. The Colonel had 
that day slaughtered a supply of meat. Happening to look out, Mrs. 
Fonda was stai'tled to see a horde of Indians waiting near, evidently at- 
tracted by the meat within. She cautiously moved the door and reached 
for the ax standing just outside, when the door fell to the floor with a 
tremendous noise. The Indians vanished as by magic, and were seen 
no more ! 

The township was set off by the legislature from the previously 
existing township of ^lilton, in tiie spring of 1838. 

The name Pennfleld was chosen at a township meeting on motion of 
Joseph P. Markham; three names being proposed for choice, Pennfield, 
Plainfleld and Springfield; the name adopted being in honor of Wm. 
Penn, founder of Pennsylvania. 

The first election was held at the school house in Verona village, a 
part of which was within the township. It resulted in a tie on super- 
visor between R. E. Knight and Jabez Lamb, while John S. Gifford was 
chosen town clerk by one ma.jority over Samuel D. Moore. 

Other officers were elected as follows: Justices of the peace, Eli 
Morey, Henry Parsons; assessors, David Bouton, Henry Parsons; com- 
missioners of highways, John L. Paddock, Stephen M. Aldrich, Joseph 
E. Wells; overseers of the poor, Eli Morey, Asa Weare; collector, George 
Lowree; constables, Elijah M. IMorey, John L. Paddock; school in- 
spectors, Rodney ^McAllister, John S. Gifford, R. E. Knight. 

A second election was held for supervisor, which also resulted in a 
tie, and a third likewise. The equally popular contestants then drew 
"cuts" and Warren Joy M'on the prize. On account of these tie votes 
and the failure of several officers to qualif}% a full set was not secured 
until ]May 8, 1838. 

"Barney" Newton and his sons Erastus R. and Seymour, in addi- 
tion to improving their own extensive farm, ran for several years a 
"breaking" outfit consisting of 6 to 10 yoke of oxen, with two or more 
drivers hitched to an enormous plow of pioneer construction, the coulter 
and share often resharpened by the blacksmith. 

The Newtons thus "broke" for others hundreds of acres, and made 
possible the immediate raising of crops as soon as the timber could be 
cut and bui-ned. 

Small use then for what would now bring a fortune! Erastus R. 
and his son Fred Newton moved a few years since to Oklahoma, jointly 
bought and improved a fine farm and are now on "Easy street." 

The first sermon preached in the town was by elder Elijah Crane 
at the house of George Lowree ; where regular services were afterwards 


held every four weeks until the building of a school house in the vicinity. 
The tii-st resident local preacher was Samuel D. Moore ; later ones 
George Lowree and ilatthew Atmore. Preaching has been supplied by 
the ^I. E. church .at one or more of the township school houses with 
little iutermissiou since the earliest settlement. At least three "classes" 
or local organizations of that denomination have existed here, now 
consolidated into larger churches with handsome and commodious houses 
of worship. 

The Congregationalists also held services for many years, preaching 
being supplied from Bedford by Revs. E. M. Shaw, Scotford and Mc- 
Farland; and later from Bellevue and Olivet. A church organization 
was formed about 1864-5 which lasted many years but does not now 

Rev. George Willard, afterward for many years editor of the Battle 
Creek Journal, member of congress, and of the United States Monetary 
Commission, also preached at the Hicks school house for a considerable 
period about 1864-5. 

The only church edifice in the township is the Methodist Protestant, 
in the western part, where an active and vigorous organization holds 
its services. 

The Methodist Episcopal denomination has two neat and comfortable 
churches just across the street from the township ; the Base Line 
Methodist Episcopal on the north, and the Union Methodist Episcopal 
at Markham's Corners near its southeast corner, both of which are well 

All three were completed and dedicated in 1909. 
Many early settlei-s brought from their old homes seeds of the apple, 
from which orchards were grown, in due time grafted to choice varieties, 
some still bearing good crops. 

Peaches soon fruited from the "pits" brought from New York, one 
of the earliest plantings being on section 25, on the farm of Ahira Beach, 
father of the late Joseph P. Beach, for many years prominent in town- 
ship affairs. 

At the first bearing of these trees (of a large yellow clingstone va- 
riety), a sister of the late John Cooper, and others, visited the family 
when the peaches were half grown. The immature fruit was so attractive 
and so admired by the fruit hungry visitors that jMrs. Beach cooked a 
liberal supply, which was so highly appreciated that she picked more to 
be taken home, greatly to the disgust of the youthful J. P., who could 
hardly endure seeing so nuich good fruit eaten before it was ripe ! 

George Errington had on section 26 the first extensive orchard of 
peaches, with an interesting history. 

]\Ir. Errington and a brother were English printers in the employ of 
Harper and Brothers, the eminent New York publishers. In prepara- 
tion for becoming farmers and fruit raisers they hired a boy to go 
through Wall Street (where none but the best peaches were eaten) and 
pick i\p once a week all the "pits" he could find. These in due time 
were brought to ^Michigan, planted on the farm about 1844, and proving 
to have the unusual peach trait of reproducing their exact kind, soon 
made an orchard wonderful for beaut.v, productiveness, and quality. 


People came from far and near in the fruiting season to see and share 
the luscious product, fairly overrunning the premises, and making life 
a burden to the owners and young family. Sales were made at home 
for Jackson, Kalamazoo and all intermediate points; the peaches in fact 
sold themselves. 

The descendants of these trees, reproduced generatio.n after genera- 
tion from the seed, still exist and retain in large degree their original 

John Cooper, one of the 1836 settlers coming from ]\Iaryland, was not 
pleased with the old style shovel plow universally used here for culti- 
vating corn and potatoes, but wanted one like those of "Maryland, My 
Maryland," a much better implement. He wrote to his old home for a 
full and accurate description of the tool; then in company with Joseph 
P. Beach, J. P. Markham and George Errington, its plan was studied out 
from the i-eturn letter, a drawing made by Mr. Errington, the wood work 
by 'Sir. .Markham, the iron work by John Nichols, founder of the Nichols 
and Shepard Thresher Works, at his foundry at Battle Creek. 

This joint product of the several gentlemen's efforts became the pat- 
tern from which were built many hundred "double shovel plows" to the 
mutual profit of manufacturer and farmer, being the standard tool for 
many years. 

Grain cradles were made at an early day and in considerable numbers 
by Joseph P. Markham and a Mr. Johnson, all the world's wheat and 
similar grains being harvested at that time by the original "Armstrong" 
reapers and binders. 

The first reaping and mowing machines were introduced in 1861, by 
Alexander Gordon and Samuel Couvis. 

Improved farm machinery rapidly came into use during the war 
period, 1861-5, largely on account of the scarcity of farm help. 

Henry Willis, a most original and energetic pioneer, an all around 
man of vim and push, settled at St. Mary's lake in 1855, built the first 
saw mill in the township in 1856, cleared large tracts of land, erected 
extensive farm buildings, including houses for numerous employes, car- 
ried on general farming and brick making operations on a liberal scale, 
employing in his niunerous local enterprises a large number of men. 

He also built and equipped an extensive water cure establishment on 
the banks of the charming lake in 1858, which was managed by Dr. 
H. A. Peterman, later of ^Marshall, until its destruction by fire in 1863. 

Both tliis township and the city of Battle Creek owe much to the 
ability, energy and public spirit of Jlr. Willis. 

The entire state of ^Michigan sent to the front as soldiers in the Civil 
war one man for every eight of its entire population, old and young, 
male and female. Of this enormous proportion of its best, most pro- 
ductive, and manly sons, Penntield supplied its full share. 

In a pecuniary way, it supplemented national and state bounties to 
volunteers by liberal township subscriptions and appropriations, and 
cared for the dependent families of those who fought its battles at the 

The township invariably voted as its sons fought ; there was never a 
"fire in the rear" as in some northern localities. 


The home burden of farm and household \v;is also luavy with so 
many aetive producers gone, leaving double duty to those I'cinaining, yet 
every home found time and material to send ilelieaeies and eomforts 
the government i-ould not supply to the sick and wounded, and good 
cheer to all. 

And when "the cruel war was over" it has cheerfully supi>orted in 
common with the entire loyal states, the most liberal system of pensions 
the world has ever seen. 

A complete list of her soldiers, and tletailed record of their heroic 
and honorable part in the war may he found elsewhere in this history. 

The Chicago and Grand Tnink Railway runs north easterly through 
the township following the general course of the Battle Creek stream. 
Its central portion was originally built by the Peninsular Railway Com- 
pany of Battle Creek about 1868-9. For a long time its power equip- 
ment consisted of a single pony built locomotive, with rolling stock 
corresponding. The irreverent dubbed it the "Triweekly" road, ex- 
plaining that it tried weekly to make the up trip, and tried to get back the 
next week. It had no turntable, and for years its trains were pulled one 
way by its little engine running head first, and on the return trip by 
the same engine running "tail first." 

The state went wild on railroad aid legislation about this period, and 
some twenty acts were passed by the legislature authorizing the issue of 
bonds in aid of as many proposed roads by the cities, towns and villages 
through which they were to pass. 

This township held a special election to vote on a proposal to l)ond 
itself for ten thousand dollars to aid the contemplated road, the vote 
being taken at an open air mass meeting, after an address bj' the presi- 
dent and promoter of the road, not strictly according to the modern 
Australian ballot system, but by a division, each side successively passing 
before tellers, who differed on their count, but declared the proposition 
carried by a small majority. The anti's claimed that many illegal votes 
were given that these decided the day against them. At the next town- 
ship election party lines were forgotten, and a hot fight ensued between 
railroad aid and anti-railroad aid partisans, the one side claiming an 
illegal and fraudulent election, the other the disgraceful repudiation of 
a contract. 

The anti's won. 

Litigation ensued which was in due time decided by tlie Sui>reme 
Court in another case, the court holding all taxation for raili'oiid aid 
or similar purposes unconstitutional and void. 

The road ultimately became part of the Grand Trunk system ; has 
})een double tracked and made first class in every respect, and is now 
one of the main through lines from Chicago to the seaboard. 

Pennfield Grange No. 85 was organized October 6, 1873, with thirty- 
one charter members. George C. Hicks heading the list, and remaining, 
with his wife Mary Hicks active members to this day. It has a fine 
hall, grounds and outbuildings, has been and is an active and efificient 
factor in promoting intelligent agriculture, education, mutual help in 
all good enterpri-ses. 

The order as a whole has long been in advance of average public 


sentiment, has led in movements for the Australian ballot system, now 
universally adopted, for free rural delivery of mail, the greatest boon 
of recent times to the farmer and to the general public ; has long favored 
direct popular election of United States senators, the parcels post, pri- 
mary nomination of public officials, and other important reforms just 
on the verge of accomplishment. 

In all these directions Pennfield Grange as a part of the united and 
effective whole has done and is doing its full share. 

Its first more important officers were Silas E. Woodworth, master, 
Richard Keeler, secretary; Richard S. Pool, lecturer. Its present ones 
Frank B. Garratt, master; Miss Clara E. JMcDermid, secretary; Miss 
Alice Cronk, lecturer. 

There is also a flourishing Farmers Club in the township, its presi- 
dent being Philip Bowers, secretary Mrs. Minnie Collier. 

On special and unusual lines has been the work of Silas E. Wood- 
worth on his farm on sections 17 and 20. 

Coming from western New York in 1866, he planted in that year the 
first vineyard of Concord grapes in the state, three acres, and seven 
additional acres two years later, 10 acres in all 

The soil and climate proved excellent for the purpose, the trimming 
and cultivation were thorough, the demand gratifying. 

The grapes sold at times as high as fifteen cents the pound, and the 
average price for the first eight years was eight cents the pound at 

In 1882 he planted the first Niagara grapes in the state; 400 vines 
costing $1.50 each; $600 in all; the trimmings each year to be re- 
turned to the Niagra Grape Company, the corporation controlling the 
propagation and sale of the new wonder. Wise men shook their heads 
at the risky enterprise but the result proved Mr. Woodworth 's good judg- 
ment and foresight. Brightens and other choice vai-ieties were added as 
the market gradually demanded, and the new enterprise proved a grand 
success for both producer and consumer, until at present grapes are 
cheap as apples, and all may enjoy them at trifling cost in cash or labor. 
In 1868 Mr. Woodworth planted the first extensive pear orchard in the 
county, 200 trees, dwarfs and standards alternating. 

The dwarfs produced a crop in four yeai-s, holding on until the 
larger, slower growing standards came into bearing, when having passed 
their usefulness they were removed to give room for the ' ' standbys. ' ' 

In 1892 ]\Ir. Woodworth introduced the Jersey cow ; the first herd in 
the township, increasing to twenty-six in number, devoted to producing 
milk and cream for market, his entire product being sold to the Battle 
Creek Sanitarium for seventeen years. • 

An early test of his milk by the state veterinarian gave 5.6% butter 
fat, which at that date was utterly unbelievable by the local milk in- 
spectors — "no cow living could give so rich milk" — and only repeated 
tests in their presence could convince them. 

i\Ir. Woodworth also built eighteen or more years ago the first silo 
in the township, and one of the first two in the county, George Perry of 
Battle Creek township building another the same year. 

Mr. and Mrs. Woodworth still own the farm and retain at a good ripe 



age its general oversight ;iiul iiiaiiageinent. in well earneil comt'ort and 

No adequate history of the township ean be written witliout hon- 
orable mention of the late Samuel G. Gorsline. 

Born in Wayne county, N. Y., 1830, he settled with iiis family 
and other relatives near the Cobblestone school house in 1867 ; was 
recognized at once by his eonimunity as a man of rare intelligence, 
broad sympathies and sterling worth ; was successively teacher,, town- 
ship clerk, supervisor, highway commissioner, township superintendent 
of schools, member of county board of school examiners for many years, 
doing efficient and permanent work in every position. 

He was a man of unusual range of abilities and accomplishments 
up to date farmer, successful stock feeder, enthusiastic horticulturist 
and botanist, a skillful and valuable helper in accident, sickness or 

Photo by 1. H. 

CoBBiL'-roNr S( 11 

He was a prime mover and helper in every good work in his neigh- 
borhood and vicinity : occasional preacher, twenty-five years and more 
superintendent of his home Sunday school, zealous and efficient in larger 
fields of effort. 

He had a rare gift for reaching and influencing the young people 
he knew or met. and no assembly or gathering was not the better for 
his presence and help. 

No other citizen has left a stronger or better impress on the township. 

The first bridge built was that across the Battle Creek stream, south 
of the present town house, generally known as the jMcAUister Dridge, 
which was built by Samuel D. Moore. 

The township being intersected by two large streams, the Battle 
Creek and the AVonondagua. has a liberal number — six considerable 


bridges, which were originally built of wood, and rebuilt about once 
in fifteen years, until recently first class modern and permanent ones, 
five of steel and one of cement, have been successively erected, all built 
by the Illinois Bridge Co. 

An interesting feature of the township is the Flowing Wells on sec- 
tion 33, developed for a water supply, and forty-three acres purchased, 
by the city of Battle Creek, but not yet connected with its water 

They are five in number, two of six inches diameter, three of eight 
inches, varying in depth from 95 to 150 feet, mainly in the ]\Iarshall 
Sandstone, the drill striking numerous pockets or openings in its down- 
ward course. 

The wells were tested in 1905 by five large traction engines driving 
centrifugal pumps, and yielded eight million gallons per day for ten 
days, without being pumped to their fullest capacity. The largest 
amount of water used by the city for all purposes in any one day has 
only reached about four million gallons, hence the wells already sunk 
seem to be amply sufficient for the entire city supply for years to come. 

In ciuality the water has less than the average hardness, is very cool 
and clear, vmrivalled for culinary and drinking purposes. It is ex- 
tensively used for a drinking water in preference to the city supply 
from Goguac Lake, although available only as bought from water wagons 
run by private enterprise, or taken away by the parties using it, in 
bottles and .jugs. 

The first experimental well was sunk in 1904, and the property 
bought by the city in 1906. 

The writer gratefully acknowledges generous and kindly aid in the 
preparation of this brief history, from numerous friends interested in 
recording and preserving the honorable story of this sample section of 
our great state — ^liehigan. 

Sheridan Township. 

Sheridan is in the eastern tier of townships in Calhoun county and 
lies next north of Albion. A considerable portion of Albion City, in- 
deed all lying north of the centre of Michigan avenue, was originally 
a part of Sheridan township and the history and development of the 
latter is closely related to that of the former. 

Sheridan, as designated on the maps of the old United States survey, 
is Town 2 South, Range 4 West. The surface is generally undulating 
and in some parts hilly. The soil is a gravelly loam. Wheat, corn, 
beans and potatoes are staple products. Much attention has been given 
to the raising of fine quality of stock. The Kalamazoo river enters the 
township at the City of Albion and flowing in a northwesterly direc- 
tion leaves it at the northwest corner of Section 31. Rice creek traverses 
the township from east to west through the central portion, passing 
out of the towaiship in the northwest part of Section 30, and a little 
later unites with the Kalamazoo at Marshall. Winnipeg Lake, in the 
western; Jlontealm, in the southwest, and Hall's Lake, in the central, 
are beautiful sheets of water which, under favorable conditions, still 


reward the p.-iticiif fislici-m.-iii. The Idwiisliip was ori^iini/nl in April, 
183(5. A infetiug lor tlial puri)ose wa.s liukl at tlie lioiiic of ]{ciibeu 
Abbott ou the farm now owned by Keubeu J. Emery. Abbott's place 
was located on Section 20 on the Territorial road leading from Tletroit 
throngh Ann Arbor, Jackson, Marshall and on to the west. A])bott kept 
a tavern which for years was one of the landmarks to the westbound 
traveler. He also kept the postottice known in the primitive days, 
before Albion had an existence, as Waterburg, to which as late as 
1838 the Albion people came for their mail. It was at Abbott's that 
the pioneer citizens of the township came to hold their first towTi 
meeting ou the day and date last above named. At that meeting 
Orris Clapp was called to the chair and William M. Pearl and Daniel 
Rossiter chosen clerks. There being no ballot box, the hat was passed 


and each man entitled to vote cast his ballot, which the clerks counted, 
reporting their findings to the chairman, who immediately announced 
the result. In this way Chandler M. Church was elected supervisor; 
Howell Bidwell, to^\^l clerk; Orris Clapp, William C. Whiti^ and Reuben 
Abbott, assessors; William M. Pearl, Daniel Rossiter, ^Martin Tichnor 
and Howell Bidwell. justices of the peace; J. W. Hicks, collector; 
William C. White and Chandler M. Church, over.seers of the poor; 
Phineas Spaulding, M. J. Lathrop and Daniel Rossiter. commissioners 
of highways; W. C. White, J. P. ("onrad. commissioners of schools; 
J. W. Hicks, Phineas Spaulding and Cyrus Dutton. constables; Reuben 
Abbott and William C. Harding, fence reviewers. 

Of the above named pioneers, we find that Reuben Abbott was the 
first to locate in the township, coming from Erie, New York, with his 
family, in the month of September, 1831. He entered land on sections 
29 and 30 and built a log house of the very generous dimensions of 
sixteen by twenty-two feet. Soon after (■()iii])leting this, the structure 


was enlarged and the house opened to the public. In the same year 
came Orris Clapp and settled on section 31. In 1833, Chandler Church 
came and made a permanent location on section 33. The same year 
M. J. Lathrop settled on what is now the well known Billinghurst prop- 
erty. In 1835, Martin Tichnor entered two hundred acres on sections 
26 and 35. In the same year Joel Doolittle, Phineas Spaulding and 
John P. Conrad were enrolled among the permanent settlers. The 
year 1836 witnessed an unusual influx of home seekers, among them 
Mark Crane and Caleb Lewis, who founded some of the well known 
families of tlie later years both of Sheridan and Albion. 

The ^Michigan Central Railroad enters the township at Albion and 
passes westward through almost the entire southern portion. Thi 
Lansing branch of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern enters at 
Albion and passes through the southeast corner of Sheridan township. 
The iliehigan United Electric Railway system parallels the M. C. R. R. 
through the town. By these three lines, excellent shipping facilities 
are afforded as well as ways of travel that make all points easily ac- 
cessible to the people. 

The people of Sheridan have pursued a steady, even course. There 
are no very rich and no very poor in the tovsmship. With rare excep- 
tions all are comfortably circumstanced. Only $6.50 was drawTi by 
the township from the poor fund of the county during the entire year 
of 1911. 

There are no cities, no villages, no high school and no church in 
the township, but the advantages which these afford are easily obtain- 
able at Albion. The average of her people do not suffer by comparison 
with those of other townships in the county. 

Tekonsh.v Township 

The towusliip of Tekonsha, located in the soiitlieasteni ])art of Cal- 
houn county on the Air Line of the ilichigan Central Railway, was 
organized in 183(i and constitutes one of the most prosperous divisions 
of the county. It is well watered by the historic St. Joseph river and 
numerous small lakes which add beauty to the landscape as well as fur- 
nishing excellent sport for anglei-s. • It is a fine grain and stock raising 
country, and is noted for excellence in these branches of agriculture. 
The railroad was completed in 1870 with the assistance of a $15,000 
bonus voted by the township. 

The pretty village of Tekonsha is located on the old Jackson and 
White Pigeon territorial road and on the site of a Pottawattomie Indian 
village, of which some relics are still preseiwed, and from whose chief, 
Tekonquasha, the town takes its name. 

The first location of land in the township was made by Darius Pierce, 
May 29, 1832, and included the site of the village, but the first actual 
settler was Timothy Kimball, who built a log house near the site of the 
present saw mill in 1833. The original plat of the village was laid in 
1836, but it was not incorporated until 1878. The survey included 528 
lots on the north side of the river with Jackson avenue as the main street. 
The first hotel was built of tamarac logs in 1835, and in 1837 the present 


Blake House was linished and designated "'Tekonslia House.'' The 
proprietor was Samuel Hemenway, who was also the town's first mer- 
chant. The mill raee was completed in 1887 and the saw null built. 
In 1837 the postotifice was established and a mail route laid out from 
Coldwater to ilarshall. The first blacksmith shop was started by Cor- 
nelius Osboru, who later removed to California. 

A school house was built on the northeast part of the village plat in 
1837 of planks sawed at the mill. Another school building was built 
later, and in 1873 the present fine building was erected at a cost of 
$12,0U0. In 1910 a wing was built on the south side of the building at 
a cost of .$2,800 to accommodate the growing school, and such is its thriv- 
ing condition that another addition will soon be necessary to keep pace 
with the increasing attendance. 

The flour mill, now owned by the A. II. Randall Mill Co., was 
erected by Dr. Campbell Waldo, about 1850. The same gentleman 
started various industries here, including a select school taught by 
his son, C. G. Waldo. 

A private bank was organized in 1877 by Allen & Johnson, which 
in 1892 was made a state bank with a capitalization of $30,000. It is 
one of the most reliable banking institutions in the state. The first 
newspaper was issued December 7, 1878, by James Gribbeus and was 
knowii as the Tckonsha News. Later proprietors of the paper were 
A. G. Randall and T. F. Robinson, J. A. Harsh and B. F. and Lillian 
C. McMillen. 

Horace Merriman was the first supervisor of the township and 
Oetavius C. Lyon w-as the first president of the village. 

A Methodist mission was established as eai'ly as 1832, which was a 
part of the Coldwater and later of the Burlington mission circuit. The 
name of the charge was changed to Tekonsha in 1864. The foundation 
of the church was laid in 1867 and it w'as completed in 1869. Rev. 
James W. Reid was the first pastor after the dedication of the build- 
ing. The Tekonsha charge at present embraces also the parish at 
Lyon lake, which also owtis a fine church building. 

The Baptist church was organized July 19, 1838, with forty-one 
members. The first clerk of the church was A. N. Bradley. The frame 
church, which is now- the substantial home of the society, was dedicated 
May 25, 1870. 

The Presbyterian church was organized March 24, 1847, by Rev. 
Lewis ilills, a delegate from the presbytery at Marshall. He became the 
pastor, dividing his time between Tekonsha and Clarendon. The first 
church was a frame structure built in 1853 and was later succeeded 
by a handsome brick edifia-. 

The principal industries of the town today are the A. H. Randall & 
Son Flouring and Saw Mills, the poultry packing plant of H. N. 
Randall and the various grain and stock buying firms, which make 
Tekonsha one of the best markets in all these lines in southern Michigan 
and the best shipping point, considering its size, on the Air Line 

The streets are well lined with concrete walk, heavily shaded hy 
stately maples and well lighted. 


The tow'u has every reason to be proud of its record in the great 
eivil eontliet of 1861-65. After reading the names of Tekonsha citizens, 
who helped Michigan to furnish her (luota of soldiers for the preser- 
vation of the Union, one cannot hut realize, tiiat the hamlet and country- 
side was all but stripped of its male population to aid the Federal 
authorities prosecute the war. Recruits were sent to every branch of the 
service, who served in great battles and historic campaigns with courage 
and fortitude, and with credit to themselves and to their commands. 
Among the commissioned officers were Captain Charles Carrick of the 1st 
Michigan Infantry, First Lieut., George Granger, and Second Lieut. 
Josiah Hammond of the 28th Michigan Infantry. The first named was 
promoted from the ranks for conspicuous gallantry on the field of l)attle. 

;\[ain Street, North, Tekonsha 

Perhaps the town's principal figure in the great rebellion was Brig. Gen. 
William II. Hammond, who held his commission as a general officer from 
the state government. As a member of the state "military contract 
board" he was one of those instrumental in organizing the first troops 
sent from ^Michigan to take part in the disastrous battle of Bull Run, 
and was highly complimented by his superiors for his zeal and aliility 
in helping to organize and equip the Michigan regiments all through the 
war. He was quarternu^ster-general of the state by appointment of 
Governor Blair, from 1868 to 1865, and was the first man to hold that 
position. He seems, however, to have been little known in the village, 
his home having been in tlie northwestern part of the township. There 
remain with us about twenty veterans of the Civil war, nearly all of 
whom are members of Wortli Post, G. A. R. 

Tekonsha has contributed her portion to the civil as well as to the 
military liistory of the state. Dr. Campbell "Waldo, one of the most 
prominent of tlie early settlers, and a physician of repute, was elected 


to the state senate in 1848. He had previously been an assemblyman in 
the state of New York. George H. French, who was also an early settler, 
but who removed from Tekonsha in 1848, was elected to the state senate 
in 1860, and introduced as a war measure the first resolution asking for 
the abolition of the slaves. It passed both houses. In 1863 he introduced 
a resolution, unanimously adopted, to provide for perpetuating the 
memory of Michigan's falleh soldiers in an imperishable " Roll of Honor." 
Harvey Randall was also a member of the lower house, taking his seat 
in 18()7. These honors again came to Tekonsha in 1885, when Alva D. 
Eldred was elected representative, and later, in 1899, when Edward P. 
Keep assumed the office. 

The first banking institution Tekonsha ever had was organized as a 
private bank by S. B. Allen and John Johnson in 1877 and continued 
as a private bank till 1902. On April 1, 1902, it was reorganized under 
the banking laws of the state as the "First State Bank" of Tekonsha, 
with the following board of directors: S. B. Allen, John Johnson, F. E. 
Allen, H. W. Cushman, A. D. Eldred and E. P. Keep ; S. B. Allen, presi- 
dent ; John Johnson, vice president ; F. E. Allen, cashier ; II. W. Cush- 
man, assistant cashier. During the year 1903 the bank lost two directors 
by death. S. B. Allen and A. D. Eldred. In 1904 the following were 
elected directors: John Johnson, F. E. Allen, II. W. Cushman, R. E. 
Waldo, B. G. Doolittle and E. P. Keep. John Johnson was elected presi- 
dent ; E. P. Keep, vice president; F. E. Allen, cashier; H. "W. Cushman, 
assistant cashier. During that year llr. Johnson moved to California 
and in 1905, F. E. Allen was elected president; E. P. Keep, vice presi- 
dent ; H. W. Cushman, cashier. These officers held the offices for two 
years, when Mr. Allen and IMr. Cushnuin moved away. It 1907, the 
following were elected directors : B. G. Doolittle, R. E. Waldo, H. N. 
Randall, E. W. Randall, Edwin Dean, J. H. Proctor and E. P. Keep, 
who elected E. P. Keep, president; R. E. Waldo, vice president; B. G. 
Doolittle, cashier; T. D. Rice, assistant cashier; and these officers have 
held their positions ever since. 

The bank was capitalized at !|;;5( ).(»(!().( id. surplus $4,500.00. It does a 
general commercial and savings bank liusiiicss, its deposits range around 
$150,000.00, and is in a very prospemus i-ondition. 

The Tekonsha Ncirs, an independent weekly, was establislied in 1878 

by James Gribbens, and the first paper was issued of that year. 

Mr. Gribbens soon disposed of tlie paper to C. W. Iliggins and went 
to Chicago, where he operated a job printing plant, but later entered 
the postal service, in which he has served for more than twent.v years. 
Mr. Higgins disposed of the plant about 1881 to Arthur G. Randall 
(later county commissioner of schools), and Thomas P. Robinson, who 
is now publisher of the Union City Register, weekly. The plant was 
operated by them until 1885, when they removed to Union city, where 
they pulilislied four newspapers, namely the Cnion Cifij Luceil, Tekonsha 
News, Biirlinijton Echo and Shencejoel Press. A printer wast then kept 
at both Tekonsha and Slierwood, to gather news and set the t.vpe, which 
was then locked in a wooden case and carried to Union city every press 
day. Early in the nineties these publications were leased to Justin A. 
Harsh, but a destructive fire soon occurred, which seriously crippled the 


plant. Finding it impraetiL-al to continue all of the publications. Jlr. 
Harsh moved the plant back to Tekonsha, and thereafter published only 
the News and the Burlington Echo. In 1897 he was appointed post- 
master, which position he held for twelve years before removing to his 
present home in Deary, Idaho. Mr. Randall resumed control of the 
paper on Mr. Harsh 's appointment to the postmastership, later leasing 
it to his son, Fred. A. Randall, now of Detroit, who was associated for 
a time with Claude Phelps, later of Three Rivers, in its management. In 
May, 1905, Mr. Harsh bought the paper of the heirs of A. G. Randall, 
and for nearly two years it was operated under lease by Ben F. McIMillen, 
one of the present proprietors. In April, 1907, it pased into the hands 
of B. F. and Lillian C. JMcMillen, who have since published it. Mr. 
McMillen was also appointed postmaster, .January 15, 1909. The paper 
has a circulation of 700, and enjoys an excellent job and advertising 
patronage, which seems to become better with each succeeding year. 
Circulating, as it does, in an unusually thrifty and populous farming 
community, it is recognized as a power and influence in its own par- 
ticular field. 



Presidents of the I'xited States — Governors of ^Iicihgan Territory 
— State Governors — Federal Officials from Calhoun County — 
Delegates to Constitutional Conventions — State Officials 
FROM the County — Members of the State Senate — Representa- 
tives of Michigan Legislature — Circuit and Probate Judges — 
Sheriffs, County Clerks, Treasurers, Registers op Deeds, Prose- 
cuting Attorneys, Circuit Court Commissioners, Surveyors, 
Drain Commissioners, Commissioners of Schools, and Coroners — 
Population and Property Valuation 

The follownng lists relate to federal, state and couuty officials : 

Presidents of the United States (1789-1913) 

George Washington, 1789-1793; Federalist; residence, Virginia; 
age, 57. 

George Washington, 1793-1797; Federalist; residence, Virginia; 
age, 61. 

John Adams, 1797-1801; Federalist; residence, Massachusetts ; age 

Thomas Jett'erson, 1801-1805; Democrat; residence, Virginia; 
age, 58. 

Thomas Jefferson, 1805-1809 ; Democrat ; residence, Virginia ; 
age. 62. 

James Madison, 1809-1813; Democrat; residence, Virginia; age, 58. 

James Madison, 1813-1817; Democrat; residence, Virginia; age, 62. 

James ]\Ionroe, 1817-1821; Democrat; residence, Virginia; age, 58. 

James Monroe, 1821-1825 ; Democrat ; residence, Virginia ; age, 62. 

John Quincy Adams, 1825-1829; Coalition; residence, Massachu- 
setts; age, 58. 

Andrew Jackson, 1829-1833 ; Democrat ; residence, Tennessee ; 
age, 62. 

Andrew Jackson, 1833-1837 ; Democrat ; residence, Tennessee ; 
age, 66. 

Martin Van Buren, 1837-1841 ; Democrat ; residence New York ; 
age, 55. 



William II. Harrison,' 1841; Whig; residence, Ohio; age, 68. 

John Tyler, 1841-1845; Whig; residence, Virginia; age, 51. 

James K. Polk, 1845-1849; Democrat; residence, Tennessee; age, 50. 

Zachary Taylor, 1849-1850; Whig; residence, Louisiana; age, 65. 

Millard Fillmore, 1850-1853; Whig; residence. New York; age, 50. 

Franklin Pierce, 1853-1857; Democrat; residence, New Hampshire; 
age, 49. 

James Buchanan, 1857-1861 ; Democrat ; residence, Pennsylvania ; 
age, 66. 

Abraham Lincoln, 1861-1865; Republican; residence, Illinois; 
age, 52. 

Abraham Lincoln," 1865; Republican; residence, Illinois; age, 56. 

Andrew Johnson, 1865-1869; "Republican; residence, Tennessee; 
age, 57. 

Ulysses S. Grant, 1869-1873; Republican; residence, Illinois; age, 

Ulysses S. Grant, 1873-1877 ; Republican ; residence, Illinois ; age, 

Rutherford B. Hayes, 1877-1881; Republican; residence, Ohio; 
age, 55. 

James A. Garfield,-' 1881 ; Republican ; residence, Ohio ; age, 49. 

Chester A. Arthur, 1881-1885; Republican; residence. New York 
age, 51. 

Grover Cleveland, 1885-1889 ; Democrat ; residence. New York 
age, 48. 

Benjamin Harrison, 1889-1893; Republican; residence, Indiana 
age, 56. 

Grover Cleveland, 1893-1897; Democrat; residence. New York 
age, 56. 

William McKinley. 1897-1901 ; Republican ; residence, Ohio ; age, 54. 

William RIcKinley,^ 1901; Republican; residence, Ohio; age 58. 

Theodore Roosevelt, 1901-1905; Republican; residence. New York 
age, 43. 

Theodore Roosevelt, 1905-1909; Republican; residence, New York 
age. 47. 

William Taft, 1909-1913;, Republican; residence, Ohio; age, 51. 

Governors of Michigan Territory 

General William Hull, Governor; appointed March 1, 1805. 
Stanley Griswold, Secretary and Acting Governor, 1806. 
General William Hull, Governor; appointed April 1, 1808. 
General William Hull, Governor, "' '' ; appointed January 12, 1811. 

1 March 4, 1841, to April 4, 1S41. 

^ March 4, 1865, to April 15, 1865. 

» March 4, 1881, to September 19, 1881. 

4 March 4, 1901, to September 14, 1901. 

o Court martialed at Albany, January 3, 1814, for his surrender of Detroit, 
August 16, 1812, and sentenced to be shot. Sentence remitted. 

6 Hull's appointment would have expired in 1814. The territorial records were 
destroyed by the British at the capture of Detroit, so that we have no official data on 
that point. 


Reuben Atwatter, Acting Governor; 1811-12. 

General Lewis Cass, Govenior; appointed October 29 181:5. 

General Lewis Cass, Governor; appointed Janiiary 21, 1817. 

William Woodbridge, Secretary and Acting Governor; appointed 
August 17, 1818. 

General Lewis Cass, Governor; appointed January 24, 1820. 

William Woodbridge, Secretary and Acting Governor; August 8, 
1820 to September 18, 1821. 

General Lewis Cass, Governor; appointed December 20, 1822. 

William Woodbrige, Secretary and Acting Governor; September 
29, 1823 to May 28, 1825. 

General Lewis Cass, Governor ; appointed December 22, 1825. 

William Woodbridge, Secretarv and Acting Governor; August 31, 
1826; October 3, 1826; July 25, 1827. 

General Lewis Cass, Governor; appointed December 24, 1828. 

James Witberell, Secretarv and Acting Governor; January 1, 1830 
to April 2, 1830. 

General John T. Mason, Secretary and Acting Governor ; September 
24, 1830 to October 4. 1830; April 4 to May 27, 1831. 

Stevens Tiiompson Mason. Secretary and Acting Governor,'' August 
1, 1831 to September 17, 1831. 

George B. Porter, Governor ;^ appointed August 6, 1831. 

Stevens Thompson Mason, Secretary and Acting Governor ; October 
30, 1831 to June 11, 1832 ; May 23 to July 14. 1833 ; August 13 to August 
28, 1833; September 5 to December 14, 1833; February 1 to February 
7, 1834. 

Stevens Thompson Mason, ex officio Governor as Secretary of Ter- 
ritory ;•'' appointed July 6, 1834. 

Charles Shaler:" appointed August 29, 1835. 

John S. Iloi'nei', Secretarv and Acting Governor:^ Septemlicr 3, 

Governors of the State of Michigan 

(Under the Constitution of 1835.) 

Stevens Thompson ilason. Governor; inaugurated Novcmebr 3, 

Stevens Thompson Mason, Governor; inaugurated January 1, 1838. 

pjdward ^Mundy, Lieut, Governor and Acting Governor ;8 April 13 to 
June 12, 1838 ; September 19 to December 9, 1838. 

= On the resignation of General Cass, August 1, 1831, whii was appoiiitoil sec- 
retary of war by President Jackson, July, 1831. 

4.1)ied July" 6, 18.34. 

s Henry D. Gilpin was appointed governor by President Jackson, Xoveniber .5, 
1834, but the nomination was rejected. No otiier appointment was made for the 
office, while Michigan was a territory, 

'•To supersede Mason as secretary, but tlic a|ip(pintment was dc<-lined. 

' Vice Shaler, resigned. Appointed secu'lary of WiscoTisiii territory by Presi- 
dent Jackson, Jlay 6, 1836, 

* During the absence of the govenior. 


William Woodbridge, Governor;- inaugurated January 7, 1840. 

James Wright Gordon, Lieut. Governor and Acting Governor; Feb- 
ruary 24, 1841. 

John S. Barry, Governor; inaugurated January 3, 1842. 

John S. Barry Governor; inaugurated January 1, 1844. 

Alpheus Felch, Governor ;•' inaugurated January 5, 1846. 

William L. Greenly, Lieut. Governor and Acting Governor; March 
4, 1847. 

Epaphroditus Ransom, Governor; inaugurated January 3, 1848. 

John S. Barry, Governor; inaugurated January 7, 1850. 

(Under the Constitution of 1850.) 
Robert McClelland, Governor; inaugurated January 1, 1851. 
Robert McClelland, Governor ;■* inaugurated January 5, 1853. 
Andrew Parsons, Lieut. Governor and Acting Governor; March 8, 

Kinsley S. Bingham, Governor; inaugurated January 3, 1855. 
Kinsley IS. Bingham, Governor; inaugurated January 7, 1857. 
Moses Wisner, Governor; inaugurated January 5, 1859. 
Austin Blair, Governor; inaugurated January 2, 1861. 
Austin Blair, Governor; inaugurated January 7, 1863. 
Henry H. Crapo, Governor; inaugurated January 4, 1865. 
Henry H. Crapo, Governor; inaugurated January 2, 1867. 
Henry P. Baldwin, Governor; inaugurated January 6, 1869. 
Henry P. Baldwin, Governor ; inaugurated January 4, 1871. 
John J. Bagley, Governor; inaugurated Januarj' 1, 1873. 
John J. Bagley, Governor; inaugurated January 6, 1875. 
Charles M. Croswell, Governor; inaugurated January 3, 1877. 
Charles M. Croswell, Governor ; inaugurated January' 1, 1879. 
David H. Jerome, Governor; inaugurated January 1, 1881. 
Josiah W. Begole, Governor; inaugurated January 1, 1883. 
Russell A. Alger, Governor; inaugurated January 1, 1885. 
Cyrus G. Luce, Governor; inaugurated January 1, 1887. 
Cyrus G. Luce, Governor; inaugurated January 1, 1889. 
Edwin B. Winans, Governor; inaugurated January 1, 1891. 
John T. Rich, Governor; inaiigurated January 1, 1893. 
John T. Rich, Govei-nor; inaugurated January 1, 1895. 
Ha^en S. Pingree, Governor; inaugurated January 1, 1897. 
Hazen S. Pingree, Governor; inaugurated January 1, 1899. 
Aaron T. Bliss, Governor; inaugurated January 1, 1901. 
Aaron T. Bliss, Governor; inaugurated January 1, 1903. 
Fred M. Warner, Governor; inaugurated January 2, 1905. 
Fred M. Warner, Governor; inaugurated January 12, 1907. 
Fred M. Warner, Governor; inaugui-ated January 1, 1909. 

(Under the Constitution of 1909.) S. Osborn, Governor; inaugurated January 1, 1911. 

= Resigned Feb. 23, 1841. Elected senator Feb. 3, 1841. 

3 Eesigned March 3, 1847. Elected United States senator Feb. 2, 1847. 

■* Eesigned March 7, 1853. Appointed Secretary of the Interior bv President 


Federal Officials from Calhoun County 

Members of Congress. 

24tli Cougiess; Isaac E. Crary,i Marshall, 1835-1836. 
25th Congress; Isaac E. Crary,-' Marshall, 1837-1838. 
26th Congress; Isaac E. Crary,- Marshall, 1839-1840. 
30th Congress; Edward Bradlev', :\Iarshall, 1847. 
43rd Congress ; George Willard, Rattle Creek, 1873-1874. 
44th Congress ; George Willard. Hattle Creek. 1875-1876. 
56th Congress ; Washington Gardner, Albion, 1899-1900. 
57th Congress ; Washington Gardner, Albion, 1901-1902. 
58th Congress ; Washington Gardner, Albion, 1903-1904. 
59th Congress ; Washington Gardner, Albion, 1905-1906. 
60th Congress ; Washington Gardner, Albion. 1907-1908. 
61st Congress; Washington Gardner, Albion. l!l()l)-1910. 
J. Wright Gordon, Marshall; United States Consul to Pernambnco. 
Abner Pratt, Marshall ; United States Consul to Honolulu. 
Charles T.' Gorham, Marshall ; United States Minister to the Hague. 
Charles T. Gorham, ^ .Nlarshall ; Assistant Secretary of the Interior. 
Charles Dickey, Marshall; United States Marshall for Michigan, 

Ira Mayhue, Albion; United States Collector of Internal Revenues. 

Delegates to 1835 Constitution Convention. 

Isaac E. Crar>'. 
Ezra Convis. 
The delegates to this convention were elected Ajnil 4, 1835, in pur- 
suance of an act of the territorial council of January 26, 1835. Con- 
vened at Detroit, i\Iay 11, and ad.journed June 24, 1835. The consti- 
tution as framed was adopted by tiie people in October, 1835. there 
being 6,299 yeas and 1,359 nays. It remained in force as the funda- 
mental law of the state until the constitution of 1850 went into effect. 

Delegates to the 1S50 Convention. 

Isaac E. Crary. 

Milo Soule. 

William V. ^Morrison. 

John D. Pierce. 

Nathan Pierce. 
The delegates to this convention were electeil May ti, 1850. On the 
3rd of June following, convened in Lansing, and on August 15th ad- 
journed. The constitution as framed by this convention was submitted 

Delegate representing the entire Territory of .Miiliigiin. 
'■ Represented the whole State in Congress. 
Died enroute to Washington. Xever qualifieil. 
Asst. Secretary under i)arts of administrations of both Grant and Hayes. 


to the people on Nov. 5, 1850, and was adopted by a majority of 26,736 
votes. It remained in force until the constitution of 1909 went into 

Delegates to the 1907-08 Convention. 

Edwin C. Nichols, Battle Creek. 
Delos Fall, Albion. 
Tlie delegates to this convention were elected September 17, 1907. 
Convened at Lansing, October 22, and cDiiiiilcted the revision March 3, 
1908. The new constitution was .submittiMl to the people November, 1908, 
and was adopted by a vote of 244. Tor) to l:iii,7s:5. 

State Opfici.\ls fruji the County 

Lieutenant Governor: James Wright Gordon, Battle Creek, 1840- 

Secretary of State: Washington Gardner, Albion, from March 20, 
1894, to January 1st, 1899. First appointment by Governor John T. Rich, 
to fill vacancy. 

State Treasurer: "Victory P. Collier, Battle Creek, January 1871 to 

Superintendents of Public Instruction: (Appointed under the con- 
stitution of 1835) : John D. Pierce, Marshall, July 26, 1836 to 1841; 
Oliver C. Comstock, jMarshall, May 8, 1843 to 1845; Ira Mayhew, Al- 
bion, April 17, 1845 to 1849 ; Francis W. Shearman, Marshall, March 
28, 1849 to 1850. 

Superintendents of Public Instruction, elected under the constitution 
of 1850: Francis W. Shearman, IMarshall, 1851 to 1854; Ira Mayhew, 
Albion, 1855 to 1858 ; Delos Fall, Albion, 1901 to 1904. 

Members of the State Board of Education, appointed under the consti- 
tution of 1835: Isaac E. Crary, .Marshall, .March 29, 1850 to March 20, 

Elected under the constitution of 1850: Isaac E. Crary, Marshall, 
Nov. 2, 1852, died during tenn of office; George Willard, Battle Creek, 
Nov. 4, 1856, for 6 years; William J. McKone,i Albion, April 3, 1905. 

Elected under sthe eousitution of 1909 : William J. ]\IcKone, Albion, 
April 5, 1909, for 6 years. 

Regents of the University : Isaac E. Crary, ^Marshall, March 21, 1837 
to 1847; George Willard, Battle Creek, January 31, 1864 to December 
31, 1865; George Willard, Battle Creek, January 1, 1866 to December 
31, 1873; Victory P. Collier,i Battle Creek, March, 1877; Victoi-y P. 
Collier, Battle Creek, January 1, 1878 to December 31, 1885. 

Commissioner of Labor Statistics: Joseph L. Cox,2 Battle Creek, 
April 29, 1897 to 1900. 

Members of the State Senate (from 1835 to 1911 inclusive) : Charles 
Austin, Battle Creek, 1883, 1885; Arthur D. Bangham, Homer, 1901, 
1903 ; Edward Bradley, Marshall, 1843 ; William H. Brockway, Albion, 

Appointed to fill vacancy. 

' Appointed by tlie governor. 


1855; Frauk W. Clapp, Battle Creek, 1893, 1895; Victory P. Collier, 
Battle Creek, 1865, 1867; William Cook,i Homer, 1875, 1877: Philip 
H. Emerson,- Battle Creek, 1871, 1872, 1873; John C. FitzGerald, 
Marshall, 1869, 1870; George H. French, Homer, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864; 
James Wright Gordon, .Marshall. 183!); Charles T. Gorham, ilarsiiall, 
1859; Henry Hewitt, Marshall, 1842 ; William F. Hewitt,'' Marshall, 
1874 ; Albert C. Kingman, Battle Creek, 1909 ; Loren iMaynard, Marengo, 
1846, 1847 ; Perrv .Mavo, Battle Creek, 1887 ; Sands McCamlv, Battle 
Creek, 1839, 1840; John C. Patterson, Marshall, 1879, 1881, 1882; Nathan 
Pierce, Marengo, 1853, 1857, 1858; Abner Pratt, Marshall, 1844, 1845; 
Campbell AVal'do, Albion, 1848, 1849. 

Secretary, State Senate : Lsaac W. Wilder, ilarshall, 1855 to 1857. 

Representatives of Michigan Legislature, who served from Calhoun 
county from 1835 to 1911, inclusive: Isaac C. Abbott, Pine Creek, 1863, 
1864;" Charles Austin, Battle Creek, 1881, 1882; John L. Balcombe, 
Battle Creek, 1851; John Barbour, Battle Creek, 1846; Joseph P. Beach, 
Battle Creek. 1865; William E. Boslev, .Marshall, 1905; William Boyd, 
Albion, 1901 ; William H. Brockway. Albion, 1865, 1871, 1872 ; George 
I. Brown, Battle Creek, 1871. 1872; Chester Buckley, Battle Creek, 1857, 
1858, 1863, 1864; Philo H. Budlong, Marshall, 1875; Abner E. Campbell, 
Battle Creek, 1848; James H. Campbell, Marshall, 1879, 1881, 1882; 
Frank W. Clapp, Battle Creek, 1875; Benjamin Clark, Albion, 1869, 
1870 ; Darius Clark, Mai-shall, 1851 ; Hovey K. Clarke, .Marshall, 1850 ; 
Henry A. Clute, Marshall, 1897, 1898; Ezra Convis,i Battle Creek, 
1835 to 1836, 183 (; Asa B. Cook, Marshall, 1857, 1858; Hervey Cook, 
Homer, 1840; WiUiam Cook, Homer, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864; Isaac E. 
Crary, Marshall, 1842, 1846; Will A. Crosby, Battle Creek, 1899, 1900; 
Miles S. Curtis, Battle Creek, 1889; Charles Dickey, Marshall, 1859; 
Andrew Dorsej^ Homer, 1838 ; Daniel Dunakin, Homer, 1855 ; Alva D. 
Eldred, Tekonsha, 1885, 1887 ; Fenner Ferguson, Albion, 1849 ; John W. 
Fletcher, Marshall. 1877; William J. Foster, Battle Creek, 1901, 1903; 
George C. Gibbs, Marshall, 1839; Justus Goodwin, Burlington, 1839, 
1843; Justus Goodwin, Union City, 1842, 1847; Henrv C. Hall, Battle 
Creek, 1889; Moses Hall, Battle Creek, 1844; Talman W. Hall, Battle 
Creek, 1855; Jonathan Hart, Battle Creek, 1840; Patrick Hart, Battle 
Creek, 1893; Martin Haven, Albion, 1867; Andrew L. Hays, Marshall 
1845; Eben F. Henderson. Battle Creek, 1861, 1862; James Henry 
Battle Creek. 1907, 1909; Frederick F. Hoaglin, Albion, 1887, 1889 
Norton P. Hobart, Athens, 1849; John Houston, Marshall, 1875; Br 
ley P. Hudson, Marshall, 1853; Homer C. Hurd, Union City, 1855 
1861, 1862; Erastus Hussey, Battle Creek, 1850; Loomis Hutchinson 
Ceresco, 1869, 1870; Richard Keeler, Battle Creek, 1877; Edward P 
Keep, Tekonsha, 1899, 1900 ; Newell J. Kelsey, West Le Roy, 1883 : Wil 
lard A. Knight, Battle Creek, 1905; Sands McCamlev,- Battle Creek. 
1837, 1843; George R. McKay, Marshall, 1865; Orlando Moffatt, Battle 

1 Vice Lewi.s Durkee, deceased. 

2 Resigned before extra session of '74 aud succeeded by Wni. F. Hew; 

3 Vice Philip H. Emerson, resigned. 

■> Died February 27, 1837, and succeeded by Sands McCamley. 
■'• In 1837, vice Ezra Convis, deceased. 


Creek, 1849 ; James Monroe, Albion, 1857, 1858, 1859 ; Ephraim W. Moore, 
Battle Creek, 1897, 1898 ; Charles Olin, Marshall, 1841 ; John R. Palmer, 
Albion, 1853; John D. Pierce, Marshall, 1847, 1848; Nathan Pieree,i 
Marengo, 1850, 1851; Abner Pratt, Marshall, 1863; Almon E. Preston, 
Battle Creek, 1857 ; Harvev Randall, Tekonsha, 1867 ; George Robertson, 
Albion, 1879, 1881, 1882; Lote C. Robinson, Eckford, 1903; Solon E. 
Robinson, ilarshall, 1873, 1874; Rodolphus Sanderson, Battle Creek, 
1865. 1873, 1874; James Sheldon, Albion, 1844; James F. Smiley, ilar- 
shall, 1895; Hiram Smith, Homer, 1848; Stephen F. Snyder, Marshall, 
1883, 1885 ; Eli L. Stillson, Battle Creek. 1845 ; Henry W. Taylor. ;\Iar- 
shall, 1847; John Wagner. East Le Roy, 1869, 1870; James Walkinshaw, 
Marshall, 1877; George Willard, Battle Creek, 1867; George E. Willitts, 
Mai-shall. 1907; James Winters, Pine Creek, 1853; Walter W. Wool- 
noiigh, Battle Creek, 1859. 

Speakers of the House of Representatives, from 1835 to 1911. in- 
clusive: Ezra Couvis, Battle Creek, 1835 to 1836; Isaac E. Crary, 
Marshall, 1846; Charles Dickey ,2 aiarshall, 1859. 

Circuit Judges: William A. Fletcher. 1833-1836; Epaphroditus 
Ransom. 1837-1843; Alpheus Fetch, 1843-1845; George Miles, 1846- 
1850 ; Abner Pratt, Calhoun County, 1850-1857 ; Benjamin F. Graves, 
Calhoun County, 1857-1866; George Woodruff, Calhoun Countv, 1866- 
1876; Phillip 't. VanZile. 1876-1878; Frank A. Hooker. 1879-1893; 
Clcnirnt Smith. 1893-1901; Herbert B. Winsor, 1901-1903; Joel Hop- 
kins, 1903-1905; Walter H. North, 1906-1912. 

Judges of Probate : James P. Greeves, 1834-1835 ; Henry P. Phelps, 
1836-1844; Horace P. Noyes. 1845-1857; Joseph C. Frink, 1856-1860; 
Martin D. Strong. 1861-1864; Theron Hamilton. 1865-1867; Eden F. 
Henderson, 1868-1873; Charles Dickey, 1874-1878; George Ingersoll, 
1879-1896; William A. Lane, 1897-1904; George W. Hamm, 1905-1908; 
William H. Porter, 1909-1912. 

Sheriffs: H. C. Goodrich, 1837-1838; Loren Maynard, 1839-1842; 
Charles A. Church. 1843-1844; Charles Dickey, 1845-1848; Joseph 
Hollon. 1849-1850; James Monroe. 1851-1852; Artemas Doane, 1853- 
1854; Harvey M. Nixon. 1855-1858; Marcus D. Crane, Albion, 1859- 
1862; John Houston, 1863-1866 ; William C. Richfield 1867-1868; Wil- 
liam L. Busk, 1869-1870; William Richfield. 1871-1872; David R. 
Smilev, 1873-1876; John C. Barber, 1877-1880; Samuel I. Henderson, 
1881-1882; Loral C. Kellogg. 1883-1884; John C. Barber, 1885-1888; 
Alonzo K. Prentice. 1889-1892; David Walkinshaw, 1893-1896; Wil- 
liam D. Stone. 1897-1898; H. R. Williams. 1899-1902; Charles B. 
Furner, 1903-1906; Frank A. Graham, 1907-1910; LaVerne Fonda. 1911- 

County Clerks: Mar\'in Preston, 1837-1838; John A. VanHorn. 
1839-1844 ; Edwin A. Hayden, 1845-1846 ; John Meachem, 1847-1850 ; 
Erastus Hussey, 1851-1854; Samuel S. Lacev. 1855-1860; Levi Mosher. 
1861-1864; William Howard, 1865-1868; S. P. Brockway. 1869-1872; 
John E. Stetson. 1873-1876; Charles C. McDermid. 1877-1880; William 

Took his seat Feb. 7. 1839, as successor to Calvin Smith, ileoeaseil 
Speaker pro tempore. 


F. Neale, 1881-1884; Leonidas H. Brockway, 1885-1888; William J. 
Gregg, 1889-1896; Edward Austin, 1897-1902; Frank E. McNary, 
1903-1906; Rav E. Hart, 1907-1912. 

Treasurers: Marvin Preston, 1833-1835; Sidney S. Alcott, 1836- 
1842 ; Milo Soule, 1843-1848 ; Preston Mitchell, 1849-1852 ; J. B. Cook, 
1853-1854; Preston Mitchell, 1855-1856; Silas W. Dodge, 1857-1862; 
Eden T. Henderson, 1863-1866: Henry W. Hemstead, 1867-1872; Earl 
Smith, 1873-1878; Wellington Bidweli, 1879-1882; George S. Woolsey, 
1883-1886; James W. Wood, 1887-1890; Ephraira Marble, 1891-1894; 
Edwin N. Parsons, 1895-1896; Abram C. Wisner, 1897-1898; Guy 
Fiske, 1899-1902; Irvin A. Doolittle, 1903-1906; Frank J. Dibble, 
1907-1910; George S. Barnes, 1911-1912. 

Registers of Deeds: Randall Hobart, Marshall, 1835-1838; Ira Til- 
lotson. 1839-1846 ; Joseph C. Frink, 1847-1848 ; Robert B. Porter, 1849- 
1850: Joseph C. Frink, 1851-1852; Stephen Gilbert. 1853-1^54; George 
IngersoU 1855-1856 ; F. S. Clark, 1857-1860; John T. Ellis, 1861-1864; 
Henrv P. Cook, 1865-1868; William F. Neale, 1869-1872; Charles D. 
Holmes. 1873-1876; Stephen F. Snyder, Marshall. 1877-1882; Earl 
Smith. 1883-1886; Frank B. Snyder. 1887-1888; Albert H. Geddes, 
1889-1892; Newell J. Kelsev, 1893-1896; Bvron E. Cole, 1897-1898; 
C. H. Daskam. 1899-1902; Charles 0. Ball, 1903-1906; C. H. Daskam, 

Prosecuting Attorneys: Cephas A. Smith, 1833-1835: S. H. Pres- 
ton, 1836-1838; George C. Gibbs, 1838-1839; D. L. Johns, 1840-1841; 
Edward Bradlev, 1842 ; George C. Gibbs, 1843-1845 ; William C. Row- 
lev, 1846-1848 ;" Abner Pratt, 1849-1850; Hovey K. Clark, 1851-1852: 
Charles S. Mav, 1853-1854: W. H. Browai, 1855-1858; Levant C. 
Rhines. 1859-1862: John C. Fitzgerald, 1863-1866; Joseph C. Lodge, 
1867-1870; James A. Miner, 1871-1874; Frank W. Clapp, 1875-1878; 
Fred M. Wadleigh. 1879-1882; William H. Porter, 1883-1884; Joseph 
S. Noves, 1885-1887: Herbert E. Winsor, 1888-1890; John E. Folev, 
1891-1892; O. Scott Clark. 1893-1896; Leslie E. Clawson. 1897-1898; 
J. M. Hatch. 1899-1902; J. L. Hooper, 1903-1906; Louis E. Stewart. 
1907-1908: H. W. Cavanagh. 1909-1910; R. H. Kirsehman, 1911-1912. 

From the organization of the county in 1833 to the adoption of 
the constitution in 1850 the prosecuting attorneys were appointed by 
the governor ; after that elected by the people. 

Circuit Court Commissioners: George C. Gibbs, 1853-1854; George 
Won.lfuff, isr>r)-l,s(i(): Sidney Thomas, 1861-1862; George Woodruff, 
1m;:;-1S(;(k James 1'.. Greenough, 1863-1864; Joseph G. Lodge. 1865- 
1866; James A. iliner. 1867-1870; Phillip H. Eramerson, 1867-1868; 
Rienzi Loud. 1869-1870; Moses D. Russell. 1871-1876; William D. 
Adams, 1871-1878; Herbert E. Winsor, 1877-1880; Eugene M. Con- 
verse, 1879-1882; M. D. Weeks. 1S81-1S82; Charles E. Thomas, 1883- 
1884; Joseph S. Noyes, 18S:;-1SS4; Stephen S. Hulbert, 1885-1886; 
George H. Southworth, 18S.-,-lSSS; (i,.orge W^ Mechera, 1887-1892; 
Jesse M. Hatch, 1889-1892; .Al. [). Weeks, 1893-1896; Geo. W. Nichols. 
1893-1896; L. E. Clawson. 1894-1896; E. R. Loud. 1897-1900; Henrv 
P. Lewis, 1899-1902; L. E. Stewart. 1901-1902; J. L. Hooper. 1903- 
1906; Adrian F. Cooper, 1903-1904; J. Howard Green, 1905-1906; 


Walter H. North, 1907-1910; Walter L. Cornell, 1907-1910; Lawrence 
S. Page, 1907-1910; Albert N. Ford, 1911-1912; Charles 0. Miller, 

Surveyors: Edwin A. Hayden, 1841-1842; Cyrus Hewitt, 1843- 
1844; Cyrus Robertson, 1845-1846; Cyrus Hewitt, 1847-1848; Cyrus 
Robertson, 1849-1850; Cyrus Hewitt, 1851-1852; Cyrus Robertson, 
1853-1854; CvTus Hewitt. 1855-1858; Globe D. Lewis, 1859-1860; 
Loren Wing. 1861-1862; John Meaeham, 1863-1864; David H. Miller, 
1865-1866; William A. Sweet, 1867-1872; David A. Lichenor, 1873- 
1876; Benjamin F. Wells, 1877-1880; Globe Lewis, 1881-1882; James 
M. Giffor, 1883-1884; Benjamin F. Wells, 1885-1886; George Marsh, 
1887-1888; James M. Gifford, 1889-1890; Uriah M. Gifford, 1891-1892; 
Pratt A. Cortright, 1893-1904; Edward Hoyt, 1905-1906; Arthur H. 
Chase, 1907-1912. 

Drain Commissioners : George Johnson, 1870-1871 ; William A. 
Sweet, 1872-1873; Otto L. Johnson, 1874-1875; George Marsh, 1875- 
1876; J. H. Laberteaux, 1882-1883; B. F. Wetherbee, 1886-1888; A. 
D. Eldred, 1889-1891; Uriah Gifford, 1892-1893; Jacob Blind, 1893- 
1897 ; Charles B. Mead, 1898-1901 ; Edward D. Dickinson, 1902-1910 ; 
L. Chester Williams, 1911-1912. 

Commissioners of Schools: A. G. Randall, 1891-1897; Emma S. 
Willitts, 1897-1899; Ernest Burnham, 1899-1904; Frank D. Miller, 

Coroners: Granville Stowe. 1841-1842; James Winters, 1841-1842; 
Granville Stowe. 1843-1844; Wright J. Esmond, 1843-1844; Wright 
J. Esmond, 1845-1846; H. B. Tud, 1845-1846; James D. Potts, 1847- 
1848; Charles Harkins, 1847-1848; Nathan Davis, 1849-1850; Aaron 
Ismond, 1849-1850; John Houston, 1851-1852; Silas Sheffield, 1851- 
1852; John Barbour, 1853-1854; Nathan Chidister, 1853-1854; David 
H. Miller, 1855-1856; Benjamin Chamberlain, 1855-1856; Traeey H. 
Swarthout, 1857-1858; Reuben E. Waldo, 1857-1858; John F. Hinman, 
1859-1860; Isaac Beers, 1859^1.S6(); Alanson Graham, 1861-1862; George 
McAllister, 1861-1862; Isaac Beers, 1863-1864; Charles .AI. Bardwell, 
1863-1864: Thomas Knight, 1865-1866 ; Ira Nash, 1865-1866 ; Moses B. 
Russell, 1867-1868; Willoughby O'Donoughue. 1867-1868; John S. 
Evans, 1869-1870; Alanson Graham, 1869-1870: Sylvcslci- S. Granger, 
1871-1872; Zeno Gould. 1871-1872; Peter Kot-htT. IsT.i 1^74; Willougli- 
by O'Donoughue, 1873-1874; W. O'Donoughue, 1875-187G; Tracey^C. 
.Southworth. 1875-1876; Morgan J. Alexander, 1877-1878; Tolmaii W. 
Hall, 1877-1878; Elias Hewitt. 1879-1880: Zeno Gould, 1879-1880; 
Elias IlHwitt. 1881-1882; Charles Rowe, 1881-1882; Alex. H. Briggs, 
],ss:i-lSS4; William Howard. 1883-1884; Mvron Jov. 1883-1884; Devillo 
Iliil.lijird, 1S83-1884; Alex. H. Briggs, 1885-1886; Elias Hewitt, 1885- 
18SU; Elias Hewitt, 1887-1888; Alex. H. Briggs, 1887-1888; Thomas H. 
Briggs, 1889-1892 : Elias Hewitt, 1889-1892 ; H. M. Merrill, 1893 ; Leon 
Gillett, 1893. 

Population .\nd Property V.vluation 

Calhoun county ranks seventh in population, being surpassed by 
Kalamazoo, Bay, Houghton, Saginaw, Kent, and Wayne, in the order 


Valuation ol' taxjililc propi-rty as I'scimated liy the Slali' Imaid of 
Tax CoininissioiU'i's in l!K)(i, $42,!):{7.S()() ; a,s (.Miualizi'd liy I'.oai-d of Su- 
pervisors in l!l(!ti, $4(t.401.',:i71 : as cM|u,-ilizcil by Statr ISoard of K(|ualiza- 
tion ill 1906, $41.U0U.Ul)(). 

Feroeiitago of state tax ])aitl liy county aci-ording' to iMiuali/alioii of 
1906, .02364. 

Aggregate of state tax in 11)10. >)illl.80y.58. 

In 1910, of all the counties in tlie state Calhoun was surpasseil in ag- 
gregate of state* tax only by Saginaw, $117,263.75; Kent, $299. 976. 93 ; 
Houghton, $381,788.81 ; anil Wayne, $970,834.43. 


1837 7,959 1874 35,655 

1840 10,599 1880 38,452 

1845 15,769 1884 41,585 

1850 19,162 1890 43,501 

1854 22,517 1894 47,472 

1860 .29,564 1900 49,315 

1864 30,770 1904 52,963 

1870 ; 36,569 1910 56,638 


Divisions 1864 1874 1!)10 

Albion, Village and Township 2,251 2,614 



Athens, Village and Township 1,032 

Battle Creek, Township 1,078 

Battle Creek, City 3,856 

Bedford, Township 1,323 

Burlington, Township 1,128 

Clarenee, Township 892 

Convis, Township 945 

Clarendon, Township 1,060 

Eokford, Township 1 ,017 

Emmet, Township 1,160 

Fredonia, Townslii]) 869 

Homer, Village and Township 1,173 

Lee. Township 912 

LeRoy, Township 1.194 

.Marengo. Township 84/ 

JIarshall. Towii'^hi]) 1.076 

.Marshall. City 4.192 

Xewtoii. Township 957 

Penntield, Townshii) 999 

Sheridan, Township 1,487 

Tekonsha, Township 1,040 





























S8( 1 


1 .046 


1 029 

















Early Settlement of Marshall (by Mary Wheeler Miller) — Land- 
marks OP Marshall (by Amelia Frink Redfield) — The Cholera 
Scourge (1832) — ]\L\.rshall Banks — Manufacturing in Marshall 
— The Calhoun County Agricultural Society 

The following articles relate mostly to matters conueeted willi llie 
early times of the village and city of Marshall which resulted in its 
firm establishment as a progressive municipality. 

Early Settlement op Marshall 

By Mary Wheeler Miller 

Tlie accounts of the taking up of a wild, unoccupied region of ter- 
ritory, and the settlement of the same are ever of thrilling interest, yet 
how much deeper is the interest to us, if the story of how cultivated, 
intelleetnal men and women went into the wilderness, sulidued the land, 
aiid made homes for themselves and their posterity, be the recounting 
of events in the lives of our own forbears, and that, to us, the region 
brought a civilized state by them, bears the hallowed name of ■'home." 

Historically, the story of the settlement of Marshall over eighty 
j'ears ago, is one of notable intei-est, the hardships and conditions of a 
life in the wilderness having been met bravely and courageously, by 
men and women whose distinguished traits made the town, for many 
years, the most important in tlie state outside of Detroit. 

Because of the idea, prevalent ninety years ago, that Michigan was a 
land of swamp, unfit for settlement, the western tide of immigration 
had avoided its borders; it had even escaped the encumbrance of 
soldier bounty lands. The Territorial Governor, Lewis ]\L Cass, (term 
1813-1831) did much to destroy the popular illusion regarding iAIich- 
igan, and to his efficient administration is due the rapid settleiiipnt of the 
country after 1830. Under him two roads were opened across the 
territory; the "Chicago Turnpike" which began at Detroit and termi- 
nated at Chicago and had been worked at government expense, and 
the "Territorial Road" which diverged from the Chicago road at or 
near Ypsilanti, passed directly west to the mouth of the St. Jo river 

(roOT Note. The territorial road is marked in Marshall by a boulder placed 
by the Mary Marshall Chapter, D. A. E.) 



aud had only been surveyed and marked. Both roads followed deep 
cut Indian trails, and over them came the immigrants to settle the new 

Of the great beauty of Jlit-higan in its virgineal state all early set- 
tlers agree. The Indians burned all underbrush every fall, and this 
kept the country like a vast park; at intervals the giant forest trees, 
shading a beautiful greensward, which, in the spring was covered with 
many hued flowers. It is said of Jabez Fitch and Littlejohn, that upon 
beholding the beauty of the scene for the first time, they knelt aud offered 
a prayer to the God of the Universe. 

It' was in the summer of 1830 that Mr. Sidney Ketchum of Peru, 
Clinton county, New York, decided to visit the territory of Michigan. 
He was provided with letters of introdvxction to Gov. Cass, and landed 
in Detroit in August. Having obtained all possible information, he 
proceeded into the interior aud at Ann Arbor pi-ocured the aid of two 
men who had some knowledge of the country. They went west over 
the Territorial Road, and at Jackson found several newly erected log 
houses. Pushing further west, they reached the junction of Rice creek 
with the Kalamazoo river. Here, having determined that both streams 
posses.sed good water power, and having bought up floating claims which 
might interfere with ownership rights, Mr. Ketchum located his claims. 
Because the land was not yet subject to entry, Mr. Ketchum arranged 
with a certain ilcKinstry of Scliooleraft. for a commission of .$75.00 
to locate the land for him upon the opening of the land office in 
^Monroe the following October. McKinstry did locate these lands, Octo- 
ber 15th, 1830, but in his own name. Mr. Ketchum subsequently pur- 
chased them, the deed bearing date ilay 11, 1831. 

Late in the fall of 1830 two young men, Isaac X. Kurd a civil 
engineer, and Calvin Smith a lawyer, were seeking in Calhoun county 
for a suitable location, and upon hearing that the lands at the junction 
of Rice creek and the Kalamazoo river had been located, they con- 
cluded that that would be a proper site for a county seat. They, to- 
gether with Hon. J. Allen, procured floating claims, and laid these 
claims on the map at a certain point between two eighties belonging 
to two different sections. This was the site of the old Calhoun county 
court 'house, now the West End Park. Sidney Ketchum, hearing of 
this, ha,stened back from the east, bought Allen's share in the pro- 
posed county seat, and then returned to bring his family out to their 
new home. 

In the .summer of 1831, Messrs. Hunl and Smitli. the owners ol' two 
thirds of the county seat, procured a survey and platting of the same. 
The government required that before the proclamation should be is- 
sued declaring this point the seat of justice for Calhoun, that the 
following conditions should be complied with ; the relinquishment on 
the part of the owners of the land, for public use of the alleys, streets, 
and squares to be used for public buildings. Upon Mr. Ketchum 's 
return from New York this Avas arranged. The new seat of justice 
was named Marshall in honor of John Marshall, then chief justice of 
the United States, who was a warm and respected friend of Mr. Ket- 
chum 's. Among the property released was the court house square 


(now the West End Park), four church lots, for the Presbyterians, 
Methodists, Baptists and Episcopalians; also a lot was put aside for 
a seminary and one for a jail. 

The first settler to arrive was Mr. George Ketchum. He was a man 
of strong frame and well balanced mind, accustomed to carrying on 
a diversity of business and of control of men. lie arrived in Marshall 
the 18th of April, 1831, accompanied by a gang of men to build mills. 
These were Horace P. Wisner, Solomon Allen, White Ketchum, a cousin, 
John Kennedy, and Larson Ball. IMr. Ball brought his wife, and she 
was for some time the only white woman here. The journey out from 
Detroit over the Territorial Road was made with ox-teams, over almost 
impassable, bridgeless highways, and took eleven days. There was no 
house in the county at the time, the place being a veritable wilderness. 
Mi-s. Ball slept in the wagon and cooked on the ground till a house 
could be built. This first house in Calhoun county was of logs, twenty- 
six feet long, 20 feet wide, and one and one-half stories high, and was 
located on Rice creek. 

After the erection of the house, work was commenced on the saw 
mill; this was on Rice creek somewhat east of where the "White Mill" 
now stands. The building of this saw mill was in progress when Dr. 
A. L. Hays arrived the next month. May, 1831. Dr. Hays selected 
three lots on the south side of the river, put up a shanty, and with the 
help of a hired man put in a few acres to corn and potatoes. The 
planting being accomplished, he built a log house, and returned P^ast 
for his familv. 

Of the first religious service in the new settlement we have the ac- 
count from the pen of Rev. John D. Pierce who writes; "Arriving at 
Marshall the last of June, I found one or two shanties, and a double 
log house partly done. Next day. being the Sabbath day, July 1, 1831, 
by consent of the owner the meeting was appointed. The entire com- 
munit.v assembled, not one of the settlers was absent. When the con- 
gregation came together it numbered about twenty-five. Some present 
were non-residents in search of locations, land lookers they were called. 
The novelt.v of the scene induced all to attend. There was one con- 
gressman, and one judge from the East, and others were uien of learning 
and intelligence. At that time there were three white females *in the 
county, two in Marshall and one twelve miles west. I never preached 
to a more attentive congregation. This was the first Christian assembly, 
and the first sermon ever preached in that region for hundreds of miles 
in extent, where the red man and his companion hunter, the wolf, had 
roamed free for ages." 

Mr. Sidney Ketchum returned in July with his family, consisting 
of his wife, five children, parents, and a young sister. Here in this 
true camp in the wilderness, did this little band of men and women 
labor assidously, hewing the forest trees to make themselves homes, wrest- 
ing from nature the wherewithal to live. 

Sidney Ketchum is described as a man of commanding presence, an 
air of confidence and honesty, and a ready command of most convincing 
language. He was called by the Indians "The Great White Chief." 
Marshall, in its building, owes much to Mr. Ketchum 's ability and enter- 


prise. In September, 1831, Dr. A. L. Hays arrived with his family, 
his house being on the south side of the river, between the stone 
brewery and the ((uarry. They harvested the crop of corn and pota- 
toes that the doctor had plantecl befoi-e leaving in the spring, and had a 
plentiful crop of each. This was the first raised in the town. Peter 
Chisholm had a shanty about a mile further down on the same side 
of the river, but after the birth of his little daughter, Helen M., the 
first white child to be born in the county, he removed to the town 
(or where it was to be), thus leaving the Hays the only white family 
living between the Kalamazoo and St. Jo rivers. Here they lived 
during the \dnter of 1831-32, and here their son Luther H. was liorn 
January 17. 1832. the first white male child born in our eountv. 

Only Old Style Saw Mill Left 

On the third of September, 1831, the saw mill was finished, and 
its benefit to the settlers can hardly be estimated. Up to that time 
the pioneers were living without flooi-s, and often without doors, to 
their houses. The houses were covered with bark, shakes (split shingles) 
or split logs. This, too, be it remembered when the woods swarmed 
with Indians and wild beasts. On the completion of the mill, George 
Ketchum returned to bring out his family. Mrs. Ketehum writes: "We 
were ten days coming from Detroit in a lumber wagon. At Sandstone 
creek iMr. Ketchum carried us across on his back. On the evening of 
November 2, we arrived in Marshall, a howling wilderness. Wolves 
and bears were our nightly visitors." 

During 1831, Isaac N. Hurd, Lucius Lyon, H. H. Corastock and 
John Bertram located twelve parcels of land in Marshall township, and 
during that year John I. Guernsey, Stephen Kimball, Sidney Alcott, 
Thomas and Peter Chisholm, Henry Cook, Heniy Faling, Ezera and 
Samuel Conors, Nathan Pierce, Nathan Barney, Polodon Hudson, 


Thomas J. Hurlbert, Asabel Warner, Thomas Burland, Thomas Knight, 
S. G. Crossman, Oshea Wilder. Dowena Williams, Josiah Godard, Rev. 
John D. Pierce, and many others came to the county. Upon Rev. 
Pierce's return wdth his family the community urged them to make 
Marshall their home instead of proceeding farther west as had been 
their intention, and Mr. Pierce writes, "as an earnest of their good- 
will and wishes they gave me one of two village lots on which the 
double log house was built. (This lot was the second from the north- 
east corner of Mansion street and Kalamazoo avenue.) I paid the 
man who built it a fair compensation, and in this house, for two years, 
meetings were held nearly every Sunday. There remained during the 
winter about sixty persons." Since the double log house was the most 
commodious in the little settlement, it speedily became a stopping place 
for travelers and land lookers. With all her aristocratic training 
Mrs. Pierce was a frugal house wife, and she saw a way to add a 
honest dollar now and then to the income of her missionary husband, 
and many were the settlers who paid tribute to the good accommoda- 
tion of the Pierce home. 

Among the ari-ivals in 1832 were Rev. Hobart, a Methodist preacher, 
Dr. Luther Wells Hart, a physician, Isaac E. Crary, George E. Fake, 
Marvin Preston, Charles D. Smith, Reuben White and others. 

In May 1832, an historical event was the founding of the Con- 
gregational church, formed mih seven members, Stephen Kimball be- 
ing its first deacon. 

During this month of May, too, there occurred a terrible fright to 
the settlers when the alarm was given that the fierce "Black Hawk" 
with his "braves" was on the war path, and that death and destruc- 
tion would mark their trail. It was indeed appalling news to the 
little band of colonists all unlearned in Indian warfare. A meeting 
was called, and it was decided to send forth all available men to meet 
the savages. Accordingly, two days later, twelve men. armed with 
rifles, their blankets packed and provisioned, started forth. George 
Ketchum was chosen first in command, Isaac E. Crary, second. On 
the company's arrival at Prairie Ronde, they found Col. Daniels, com- 
mander of the district, and learned to their relief that there was no 
immediate danger. This ended the "Black Hawk war" as far as 
Marshall was concerned, but the fear and feeling of insecurity caused, 
remained long with the settlers. 

In July, 1832, the cholera scourge broke out in the little settle- 
ment, out of the seventy inhabitants eight died, and many were stricken. 
The first victim of the dread was Isaac N. Hurd. He died at 
the home of Mr. Pierce about sundown, and was buried that same 
night, by torchlight, on his own land. The seven other cholera victims 
(among whom was the gifted Mrs. Pierce) were buried by him. This 
land was deeded by Mr. Kurd's heirs to the village for burial purposes 
and M'as used as a cemetery till 1839. It was located west of Linden 
street, between State and Hanover. 

Despite these gloomy events the town had advanced in improve- 
ments, and continued to grow. 

The mail was received from Detroit regularly once a week, and 


George Ketehum was the tirst postmaster. It is said tlie mail was kept 
first in the clock and then in a cigar box. 

In the spring of 1832 the tirst school house, a frame building, was 
erected, and stood on the second lot west of the Presbyterian church 
(northwest corner Eagle and Mansion streets) and Miss Eliza Ketehum 
was its tirst teacher. However, during the previous year, when a loft 
was the best school room that could be provided, instruction had been 
given the few children of the settlement by a Miss Brown, who had 
been called from Ann Arbor for the purpose. The first pioneers, being 
people of learning and culture, recognized the importance of early in- 
struction for the young, and had thus provided for it. The new school 
house was also used for religious meetings, Mv. Pierce and Mr. Hobart 
preaching alternately. 

In 1832, the first dry goods store was established by Charles D. 
Smith. He arrived with a box of dry goods, and u.sed the same box 
for a counter in a little room ten by twelve feet. 

In 1832, also, the first regular tavern was built in Jlai-shall. (Rev. 
Pierce's having been a "house of hospitality" as boarding houses were 
then called). It was a frame building built by Sam Camp the pro- 
prietor, who called it the "Exchange Hotel." It was located where 
the stone barn now stands, and was afterwards (Icslrnycd liy fire. 

In 1833, Sidney Ketehum laid out an addilimi Id I lie \ill.ijiv. recorded 
as the "upper village of Marshall" which was diifdly cast nT the village 
fii-st planned ; this included all land east of Division and Jefferson 
streets, from that time there existed, in the rapidly growing town, a 
sharp rivalry between the two factions; everything was fought over, 
the location of hotels, school house, mills, bank. An amusing incident 
of the rivalry is related regarding the starting of the first l)ank in 1836. 
The west end magnates were Dr. Hays, Sam C. Camp, Charles D. Smith, 
S. S. Alcott and others; those of the east end were the Ketehum 
brothers. The books were opened at the National Hotel, and stock 
was being subscribed by the west enders (juietly, no one appeai'ing 
from the east end till toward evening, when, just before the closing of 
the books, George Ketehum came, in, took vip the book, and began to 
subscribe for himself and his friends various amounts of stock, and to 
pay into the hat, the receptacle for the first cash instalment the five 
per cent, of the sul)scriptions demanded on the same. The subscrip- 
tions grew apace, the money accumulated in the hat till the west enders 
])egan to grow alarmed as they saw the Ketcluims ;nid their adherents 
getting control of the stock. Whereupon Smitii snatched file book from 
under Ketehum 's arm, but Ketehum reached for tlie ileposits whicli he 
retained, and the work was suspended. The matter was compromised by 
Ketehum 's securing a controlling interest. The bank was built just inside 
the line of the plat of the lower village. It was chartered under the 
safety fund system. Sidney Ketehum was the first and only presichmt, 
and George S. Wright was its first cashier. Its capital was $100,000, and 
it continued to do business till October 15, 1840, when it ceased opera- 

Marshall was a lively, and interesting place in those booming days 
before the panic of 1837. The town, which had a good chance of be- 


coming the capital of the state attracted large numbers of college bred 
men, and was long considered the most intellectual place outside of 
Detroit. (The bill to locate the state capital at .Maishall actually 
passed the senate by a majority of fourteen, but by undue influence it 
was thrown out of the lower house by a majority of two). The town 
also derived no small amount of prospective importance from the fact 
that a college was incorporated, and steps were taken to prepare for 
its early erection. A beautiful tract of land was purchased, a primary 
building put up, and for a short time occupied for school purposes. 
The Rev. John D. Cleveland was elected president of the college, was 
upon the ground, devoted to the enterprise, and surely deserved suc- 
cess. (The primary building was located on the second lot north of 
the northeast corner Mansion and High streets.) An institution was 
incorporated about the same time for the higher education of females, 
and a building erected on the lot east of Sidney Ketchum's, called a 
Female Seminary, which was occupied some two or three years, and 
then with the college, utterly failed. Neither came to their end from 
want of appreciation of their advantages. Init because they were jire- 
maturely started. 

The two centers of the to\vn's activity were the court house square 
in the lower town, and the Marshall house square in the upper. On the 
former, in 1836, was erected the first brick building in the county, 
the National hotel, built by Aiulrew Jlann. who opened it with the 
first formal ball ever held in Marshall, on January 1, 1836. (Messrs. 
George Bentley and Nathan Benedict came on in 1834 to do the carpenter 
work on this hotel.) 

Isaac E. Crary built, on the court house square, the first pretentious 
house in Marshall. It was a fi-ame building, the first to be plastered in 
the county. In 1836, Chauncey ]\I. Brewer and Charles T. Gorham, 
opened a general store on the north of court house square and carried 
on a thriving business here till 1838 when they bought the lot on the 
northwest corner Eagle and State streets and erected the first brick 
store in the lower village. This was called the Eagle store, and gave 
the name to the street passing east of it. This partnership lasted till 
1840, when Mr. Gorham retired to establish a bank, which is still con- 
tinued under the name of the First National Bank, by his son and is 
the oldest continuous banking business in the state. Upon Mr. Gor- 
ham 's withdrawal Jlr. Brewer took in his two bi-others-in-law, John 
Dusenbury and Edward Butler, and the firm continued under the 
name of Butler, Brewer and Dusenbury, till 1845. Mr. Brewer con- 
tinued it alone till 1870 then his sons C. D. and E. G. Brewer took 
the business. It bore this firm name till 1890 since which time Mr. 
E. G. Brewer has continued the business with the exception of the 
years 1897-98. A wonderful set of ledgers are in possession of Mr. 
Brewer, having been kept continuously since 1836. They are of his- 
torical value to the town, as it was Mr. Chauncej' Brewer's custom, to 
jot down under the proper dates anything of town importance that had 
taken place. 

Other merchants of 1836 were Charles P. Dibble, afterward owner 
of Sidney Ketchum's Mansion House, Schuyler and Wallingford, H. H. 


Comstoc-k (tlnigsi. Hutlcr ami Dust'ubury. ill-. >Mi-('all was \hv first 
tailor, anil Ke\-. Hovarl his tirst custoiuer. 

Ou December 7, 18:!ti the first newspaper of tlie county luaile its 
appearance, called the Cdllioiin Vottntij Patriot, edited by II. *'. liuncc. 
In 184() it was changed to tlie Dmunralii- Expounder. 

December 16, 1886, the Marshall Times came out, edited liy (i. J. 
Greves; it was the first Democratic, but subseiiuently changed its politics, 
took tlie name of The Rcpubliean, and afterwards that of The SUihsinaii. 
(Both papers continue to the present day, the Esponndi r lieing known 
as the CItronieIc and the statesman by the same name.) 

ilarshall was incorporated into a village, October 2S, IS:)!, wiih 
the following officers. Sidney S. Alcott, president; Cyrus Hewitt, 
recorder, and Chauncey M. Brewer, treasurer. 

Another historical event of 1837 was the dedication of the Episcopal 
church which was finished in the autumn of that year. The church 
occupied the site wiiere now stands the Lutheran church, and was the 
frame structure now used as a blacksmith shop on Hamilton street. 

During the stirring times when Michigan was being admitted to 
statehood, occurred the formulating and founding of Michigan's public 
school system, by two of Marshall's talented men of learning, Rev. 
John D. Pierce, and General Isaac E. Crary. It had its inception one 
summer afternoon wlien the two men, warm friends of education, sat 
on a log discussing the future of the new state to be. 

The spot where occurred tlie birth of the idea of our w'onderful 
school system is appropriately marked with a boulder placed by the 
Mary Marshall Chapter, D. A. R.. It is on Chas. E. Gorham's lawn, 
which at that time, was a wooded hill, north or the court house. 

The improvement of the upper town went on with the same rapidity. 
In 1838 the Marshall House Co. (Sidney Ketchum, president, Geo. S. 
Wright, secretary) built the ilarshall, a very elegant and pre- 
tentious hostelry, planned by the architect who built Trinity church, 
N. Y. This was by far the finest hotel in Michigan, iluch improvement' 
having been made in the passes over marshes and streams on tlie Terri- 
torial road, a line of stages had supplanted the wagons, and these made 
three trips out from Detroit each week for delivery of mail and passen- 
gers. Zenas Tillotson ran the stage line from Jackson to Niles, and it 
was indeed an event, when these coaches, gay with yellow paint, and 
drawn by four and six liorses, with great tooting of horns and flourish 
of whip, drew up before the hospitable doors of the Marshall House. 

In 1838 Mr. Sidney Ketchum built his beautiful ilansion House, 
which has given the name of Mansion to the street on which it stands, 
and also the same year, built for the ilethodists a fine stone church ou 
east Green street. The first service was held in this church in December, 
1838. Previous to that the service had been held at Mr. Ketchum 's home 
and later in the school house. 

Calhoun county was organized for judicial purposes by an act of 
Territorial legislature, ilareh 6th, 1833. The first session of the circuit 
court, held in Xovem))er, 1833, was presided over by Judge W. A. Flet- 
cher, and Eleaser ;\IcCainly, associate. A grand and petit .jury was 
summoned, with Oshea ^Vilder foreman. All discharged for want of 



business. This session and those following, were held in the frame 
school house, until the tirst eourt house for Calhoun county was erected, 
in 1838. This was a substantial and pretentious colonial brick structure, 
built with an expense of from $25,000 to $30,000. It stood in the court 
house square, now the West End park, faced east, and had, at front 
and rear entrances, the colonial portico with pillars. The roof was 
topped by a square cupola. Unfortunately, the foundation used wa.s 
the .soft Marshall sandstone, which proved inadequate for its support, so 
that, in the late sixties, it was condemned and abandoned. The fol- 
lowing is an extract of the sketch made of the statistics of the county, 
and placed in the cornerstone of the first eourt house, July 22, 1837. 
"In the village of Marshall there are at present two printing offices, 
seven lawyers, seven physicians, four clergymen, two surveyors and 
civil engineers, three churches, Methodist, Episcopal and Presbyterian, 
three taverns, seven drygoods, four grocery stores, one drug and medicine 
store, two bakeries, two jewelry shops, one chair factory, one fanning 
mill factory, one cabinet factory, one tin and copper, one furnace, four 
blacksmiths, two wagons and carriage, two tailors, one millinery, two 
shoemakers, one livery stable, one flour mill and one sawmill in operation, 
and one of each in building. ' ' 

From its organization the Calhoun county ))ar was composed of men 
of rare intellect and brilliancy. It is said of Marshall that no town of 
its size in the world has had so many notable n:en practice before its bar 
— men who were to occupy places of eminence and honor in state and 
nation. ^lany of the finest political speakers lectured within the old 
eourt house walls, or, in times of great mass meetings, from under the 
giant elm before its portals. This tree still stands, and is rightly re- 
garded by ^lar.shall's citizens as an historic elm, as sheltered by its 
branches, such men of renown have spoken as Cassius M. Clay, Thos. 
E. Ilendrix, of Indiana ; Benjamin Butler ; Wm. E. Seward also addressed 
a political meeting, but from the porch of Mr. Sidney Ketchum's house. 
It was a great event, the da.y had been elaborately arranged, and Mrs. 
Kingsbury writes of how her father, the proud marshal of the day, was 
discomfited by the running away of his horse, who bore the irate 
officer far from the gala scene and threw him into the marsh, where the 
high school now stands. 

Because of the culture and intellect of its settlei's, Marshall's social 
life, from the very beginning was characterized by a refinement and ele- 
gance not usually found in frontier life. We have an interesting account 
of a social event in 183f), from the pen of ]\Irs. Joseph Frink, who was 
Miss Bellona Pratt. "In November, 1839, two weeks after our arrival 
in ]\Iarshall, Jlr. Sidney Alcott, a former Rochester man and a friend 
of father's (Judge Abner Pratt), and of Judge Lee's, who came west 
with us, gave a very large party in honor of fallier and Judge Lee. 
The guests were composed of old and young. Among the num])er were 
three young married couples, the brides in their i)ridal robes, ;Mr. and 
Mrs. Chas. T. Gorham, ilr. and Mrs. David Wallingford and Mr. and 
jMrs. J. C. Frink. I must say that I have never seen any more style and 
refinement at a party since. At eight o'clock, coffee and cake were served 


dining room below. The game consisted of "wild turkey, prairie chicken, 
quail, etc. All the serving was done by colored waiters." Mr. Aleott's 
house still stands north w-est corner JIansion and Grand streets. 

In 1841 the town was again visited by a scourge, this time in form 
of a fever, which was attributed to the overflowing of the millpond, 
causing malaria from the stagnant pools. Application was made for 
the I'emoval of the dam, but the indignant owner refusing, the people 
took the matter into their own hands. On Sunday morning, the day 
and hour being chosen with the idea that the owner would be in church, 
it was demolished. The irate owner appeared on the scene while the 
work was in progress, and trouble ensued, but at last a compromise was 
effected, a race dug, and the cause of illness destroyed. 

An important building erected in 1843 was the Presbyterian church, 
located on the north side of main street, in the center of the block be- 
tween Eagle and Division streets. It was of colonial design, built of 
brick, with pillars in the front. Here many brilliant ministers preached 
the word. Rev. Calvin Clark, J. P. Cleveland, John Wilder, Samuel 
Hall, Jas. Trowbridge, Wm. McCorkle, Livingston Willard, P. F. Ford, 
and others. 

The next step of importance in the town's development was the en- 
trance of the ^lichigan Central Railroad in 1844. The railroad, then 
owned and constructed by the state, had reached Jackson in 1841 At 
that date negotiations were started for the grading and l)ridging of the 
road from Jackson to JIarshall, ])ut the road was not completed to this 
point till August, 1844. On the 10th day of that month, amidst great 
excitement, the firat train came in to town. ^Ir. John Bean remembers 
the occasion distinctly. The conductor of the first passenger train was 
Zenas Tillotson, who, upon the advent of the railroad, discontinued his 
stage line. 

It 1848 the first telegraph office was established by 1lie Erie and 
Michigan Telegraph Company. 

The famous old frame school house, so long the seat of intellectual 
life, scholastic, theological and .iudicial, having served as schoolhouse. 
church and court house, was deemed to have outlived its usefulness, and 
'a new school house decided upon. The question of location was settled 
liy i»laciiii; it exactly between the school districts, which had been coiii- 
hincd. even tliougli that position was in the midst of the marshiest marsh 
possible. So, in 1817. a new red hi'ick school house was built, where now 
stands the Central buildiu":. 

This same year occurred iii'i-lia]:)s as interesting an event as ever 
touched Marshall's village life, in tliat it proved nation wide in its effects, 
namely "The Crosswhite affair." The recounting of this has, very 
properly, been given by the granddaughter of the Mr. Gorham who 
bore so conspicuous a part in the event. ^March 7th, 1859, ilarshall was 
organized into a city, with Clias. P. Dibble, mayor; Elias Hewitt, re- 
corder; Jonas B. Conklin. treasurer. 

During her thirty years of village life, ^Marshall had figured largely 
in the affairs of the state. 

Mr. Sidney Ketchum, the founder of the town, the mighty moving 
power of all the financial matters of that early period, became hopelessly 


involved during tlie panic following the issuance of the siieeie circular 
by Andrew Jackson. lie made a manly effort to retrieve his lost 
fortunes by buying and seeking real estate in New York city, but fortune 
frowned on him, and in his decrepitude and age he returned to the 
theater of his successes, to find a resting place for his weary body. He 
died September 16, 1862. 

In closing the history of ^Marshall's village life I give a list of names 
of some of her citizens, who gave largely of themselves to community, 
state and nation. 

In the bar were: Hon. J. Wiight Gordon, ex-governor of ^Michigan 
and U. S. consul at Pernambuco; Hon. Edward Bradley, congress- 
man ; Judge Albert Pratt, circuit and supreme judge and consul to Hono- 
lulu under Buchanan; Judge Robert Cross; John Van Annan, the great 
criminal lawyer of Chicago; Hon. Parson AVillard, ex-governor of In- 
diana; Geo. C. Gibbs, first reporter of the supreme court; Hon. Walter 
Hayes, congressman from Iowa; Gen. Isaac B. Crary, who, with Rev. 
John D. Pierce was the founder of the Michigan school system ; Wm. P. 
Greenough, professor in Harvard college and publisher of Latin text 
books, and Hon. Thos. J. O'Brien, minister to Japan and later to Italy. 
Of other occupations and professions: Rev. J. D. Pierce, first superin- 
tendent of public instruction in the U. S. ; Hon. Victory P. Collier, state 
treasurer; Hon. Chas. T. Gorham, minister to The Hague, afterward 
assistant secretary of the interior at Washington and acting secretary 
for a time under Grant and Hayes ; Hon. Chas. Dickey, U. S. marshal ; 
Hon. Digby Bell, commissioner of the land office; Hon. ^Montgomery 
Gibbs, attache at the court of France; John P. Merrell, rear admiral 
U. S. N. 

Landmarks op ^Iarshall 

By Amrliii Friiik Kcdfield 

I have been asked to write a brief paper on the landmarks of Marshall. 
These are not many, but are worth recording for the benefit of the sur- 
prisingly large number of people who seem to know nothing of our 
early history, or of the intei'esting events that have taken place in this 
old town. 

Long ago the old log houses l)\iilt by George Ketchuni and his 
party in 1830, and the lo^' iion^^e of Dr. A. L. Hayes across tin- river have 

In 1831. Rev. John D. Pierce, a Congregational missionary, came and 
built a double log house on the lot where Mr. Manlius I'dfetl's house 
now stands. This was an important center, serving as mceliiii; house and 
post office, but of this there are no remains. 

The first frame house of any pretentions was that built by Isaac E. 
Crary. ]Mr. Crary 's second wife, in writing her recollections, says- it 
was the first plastered house in the village. Here Jane Elizabeth 
Crarj', daughter of Judge Horatio Plickok, died aged thirty-two years, 
her obituary appearing in the first i.ssue of the Statesman, September 
12, 1839. i have a copy of the obituary before me now and it is very 
(luaint. The old house stood on the north side of Main street near 


the West End park until last year when it was removed. Part of it 
stands back of the double house of Mr. Hoeltzel. The Statesman is 
still running as a daily paper. 

The first brick building in the county was the National hotel, still 
standing near the West End park and known as the Dean flats. This 
w'as opened January 1, 1836, by its proprietor, Andrew Mann, with a 
ball which was attended by people from miles around. Col. ilann also 
provided the dinner for the first Fourth of July celebration, in 1836. 
The table was graced with roast pigs set every eight feet flanked front 
and rear with wine bottles. In 1835, Judge James Smith of Canan- 
daigua and Mr. Montgomer.y Schuyler came to Marshall together, and 
Judge Smith in writing of his experiences says: "At Detroit we and 
several other passengers took an open wagon called a stage and after 
jolting along two days and two nights, through mud and swamps, on 
what was then known as the Territorial road we reached IMarshall 
about sunset of a chilly autumnal day. The stage landed us at the 
only public house in the lower village (undoubtedly the National 
hotel) and the landlord met us at the door. On seeing the load of 
passengers dismount, instead of greeting us with a welcome, he began 
to storm about and e.xclaimiug angrily that he wished 'every steam- 
boat on Lake Erie would burn up or sink." He declared he did not 
want any more people to stop with him, for his women folks were worn 
out already with extra work. Tired and hungry as we were, we were 
somewhat dismayed by this inhospitable demonstration and began to 
wonder where we could find food and shelter for the night. But some 
of the more experienced passengers pleaded with the irate landlord 
and presented our needy condition so persuasively that he finally con- 
sented to see what he could do for us, and after some delay a plain 
but plentiful supper was spread before us and in due time we were 
provided with beds which we occupied in couples.'" 

Sidney Ketchum built in 1831 a log cabirf on the lot where he 
afterwarcls built his brick house. Here he gave the first social party 
given in the county. Every person in the town was invited including 
babies, and most everyone attended. Mrs. A. L. Hayes, in writing 
of it later said: "It was a fine entertainment and the companv were 
well appearing, and well dressed. It would not disgrace Marshall or 
any other town at the present day." In 1837, Mr. Ketchum built the 
first brick dwelling house in town. It was called the Mansion House 
and soon gave its name to the street on which it stood, Mansion street. 
This house is now the home of Mr. William J. Dibble. After Mr. 
Ketchum moved away this house was used as a young ladies' seminary. 
I liave a folder sent out in 18.5.") advertising the school. 

"Young Ladies" Institute, Boarding and Day School 

"The Mansion House and ample grounds surrounding it, formerly 
owned by Sidney Ketchum, Esci., have been purchased for the purpose 
of establishing a boarding and day school under the direction of Mr. 
and Mrs. H. A. Pierce, principals. . . . The position of Marshall 
being a central point between Detroit and Chicago, renders it easy of 


access from all towns both east and west. Situated in one of the most 
beautiful and healthful towns in the west, amidst a society fliat has 
always been distinguished for its refined, elevated, and highly inoi'al 
character . . . this institution is most confidently (•(immciidcd In 
public favor." 

Deacon Lord also put up a brick dwelling at the same time, and 
a very fine one it was for the day. This house is now owned by IMr. 
William Lewis and is situated on the corner of State and IMullieri'y 

The old school house that stood just east of the present home of 
Mr. Edgar G. Brewer was the scene of the first connnunion celebrated 
in the county. A two days" meeting was held by the ^Metiiodists. June 
6 and 7, 1832. the Rev. Pilcher of the Tecuraseh circuit had charge. 
The Congregational church was organized in 1832, by Rev. Pierce. 
At the first meeting May 20, twenty-five persons were in attendance. 
They met in the log school house as did also the Episcopalians later. 
In 1895, it was serving as a barn, but has since been removed. 

From the time of the foundations of the to\^^l were laid it was ex- 
pected that ^Marshall would be the capital of the state. The bill fulfilling 
this pledge actually passed the senate by a majority of fourteen, l)ut 
as is reported, by influence it was thrown out of the lower house, de- 
feated by a majority of only two. We still have our Capitol hill in the 
southeastern part of town. 

Stone Hall, at present the home of Mr. Wm. F. Church, was one 
of the earliest houses built in town and is still one of the most beau- 
tiful homes. It was begun in 1837 by Dr. Andrew L. Hayes, the first 
physician of the county. The lumber was drawn from Allegan, and 
the stone taken from our celebrated sand stone quarry. Luther Hayes, 
■who was the first white boy born in the county, died here in 1847, and 
Walter I. Ha.ves, afterward congressman from Iowa, was born here 
in 1841. In 1853, Walter Hayes begged his mother to write a poem 
about the house which she did ; much of it is of intimate family affairs, 
but much is of local interest, though not a masterpiece as a poem. She 

' ' There are many locust trees about the home we love 
From which we named the place, we call it 'Locust Grove.' 
The roof in front is supported Isy five pillars all of white. 
They form a pleasant portico where we often sit at night. 
The two parlors are in front with four windows to the floor 
Each opening on this portico and answering for a door. 
Thou hast played here in the deep shade when thy heart was full of glee 
Here too thou often sat upon thy father 's knee. 
While he told thee of the olden times when the wolf and bear 
Roved over these plains and cha.sed the timid deer. 
He told thee of the Indian, too, who gave» the friendly hand 
To the white man, who ungrateful drove him from his land." 
Etc. etc. 

The first brick block built in the village is now standing on Exchange 
street, back of the G. A. R. hall. It contained the first hardware store 
in the county. This was opened in 1836 by David Wallingford and 


Montgomery Schuyler, the hitter afterwards dean of Christ Churcli 
cathedral in St. Louis, Missouri. 

The Calhoun County Patriot, aunouueed January 18, 1839: 

"Marshall House 

"We have the pleasure of aunouneiiig to our friends al)road, and 
tlie travelling public that this large and elegant hotel has been com- 
pleted and on Saturday last was opened by Mr. W. L. Merrifield, with 
a sumptuous public dinner." This hotel built by the Marshall House 
Company was most elaborately furnished, costing about 51530,000.00. It 
surpassed at any time any hotel in the northwest and was a noted resort 
for years. It was originally quite a handsome building, with fluted 
columns, and balconies, and is said to have been planned by Mr. Upjohn, 
the architect of Trinity church of New York. One wing is still standing 
facing East End park and is occupied as a dwelling by ^Irs. Belle Perrin. 
During the winter of 1830-7 the few Episcopalians got together 
and the village was canvassed to ascertain what amount could l)e raised 
toward the building of a church. Lay services were being held in the 
old school house. The same spring the bishop of that diocese, Samuel 
MeCoskrj% visited Marshall and preached in the school house which 
was the second service of the church in the village. Dr. Schuyler 
writes, "That was a glad day for the little band of churchmen, when 
they were ready to present to the bishop a neat and tasteful church for 
consecration." When the new Episcopal church was built, 1861, tlie 
little church was taken by the German Lutherans and used by them 
for many years. It is now standing on Hamilton street and is used 
as a blacksmith shop. I have alwaj's understood that the marriage 
of Miss Bellona Pratt, daughter of Judge Abner Pratt, to Gen. Crary, 
was the first marriage to take place in the old church. ]Miss Pratt 
was the second wife of Gen. Crary and after his death became the 
second wife of Joseph C. Frink. 

In June, 1836, Chauncey M. Brewer and Chas. T. Gorham arrived 
in Marshall and immediately opened a general store. In 1840, Mr. Gor- 
ham withdrew and went into the banking Irasiness, and Mr. Brewer 
continued with the store which is still run by his son, Edgar Brewer. 
This is the oldest continuous business in the town and probably in the 

The first services of the Roman Catholic faith were held in 1837, 
when Father ]\Iorrisey came from Northfield to take charge of a funeral. 
After this he came six or eight times a year, by stage or on horseback 
to conduct services. No church was built until 1842. The first altar 
was obtained from Saint Ann's church in Detroit, then the cathedral. 
It is a valuable relic and is preserved in the chapel at St. Mary's 

The Presbyterian church was organized Juiie 21, 1841, in the 
Marshall Academy, which stands at 53 High street, directly back of 
Mr. Clinton Cook's residence. Rev. Elias Child acted as moderator, 
and James P. Greaves as clerk, with thirty-eight members from the 


Cougregatioual clmruli as eliartur lueinliers. For soiur time cliiircb 
services were held iu the eourt house that stootl in tlie cily paric. la 
1842, Jabez Fitch built a brick colouial church on Main street. This 
the society bought after ]\Ir. Fitch's death and used it until the present 
edifice was built in 1872. It was too bad that the old building was 
torn down as it was ({uaint and pretty. It is perhaps a sign of progress 
to desire something better than we have had before but it has its un- 
pleasant side if we judge from a sentimental point of view. 

The Colonial house, now owned and occupied by .Mr. Charles E. 
Gorham, was built about 1840, by Jabez Fitch of New York. It is said 
to have been designed by liicharcl Upjohn the noted New York architect. 
Mr. Charles T. Gorham bought the place in 1851 and it was the scene 
of many gaieties ; every governor of the state down to Pingree was en- 
tertained in the house as well as Charles Tappau, first president of 
the university of Michigan, Dorothea Uix, Senator Chandler, \V. A. 
Howard, lion. E. B. AVashburu, ambassador to France, lion. John J\l. 
Francis, ambassador to Austria and Greece, Hon. Thomas O'Brien, 
present ambassador to Konie, and many others. In 1861 the first mili- 
tary company raised iu town, Company I, First Infantry, was enter- 
tained by Mr. and Mrs. Gorham at a lawn party. Devillo Hubbard was 
captain, Selden Gorham was first lieutenant. Mrs. Gorham presented 
each man with a Testament as a parting gift. At the west side of the 
place near the front enti'auce is a large oak tree under which Rev. John 
i'ieice and General Crary were wont to sit on a log and discuss tlicir 
plans for a school system. They were both educated men interested in 
educational affairs and conversant with the best systems at that time in 
use in' the world. Mr. Crary, as chairman of the committee on educa- 
tion in the first constitutional convention (1835) introduced the article 
relating to education which was adopted by Gen. Crary 's suggestion 
to Governor ^lason. Rev. Pierce was made superintendent of public 
instruction, the fii-st one in the United States. This system as adopted 
was much in advance of the thought of the day and no commonwealth 
makes provision more broad or thorough for the general education of the 
people. The newer states of the union have been glad to follow the 
example of Michigan. Gen. Crary and Rev. Pierce are both l)uricd in 
our beautiful Oaki'idge cemeterj', the grave of the latter being marked 
with a simple shaft given by the school children of Michigan. Another 
intiicsting monument is that over the grave of Isaac Newton Hurd, 
the liist jii rson to die in the town. He was buried on his own lantl 
near the river. After the Marshall cemetery on Oak Ridge was opened 
in 183!J. his body was moved, as was that of Mrs. Pierce and others. The 
inscription on his monument says: ""P^rected to the memniy of Isaac 
N. Hurd, who was born at Arlington, Vermont, September 4, 1804, and 
died at this place of cholera, July 21, 1832. 

■ ' Early and sudden was Xejiton 's fate 
Severe and awful death his visit paid. 
His thoughts went forth to meet him on his \\;lv 
And GaJ-ety forgot it was to die. ' ' 

During the winter of 1847, there stood on the proiterty now owned 
by Mrs. Marvin Ferguson, a humble dwelling. A colored himily uauied 


Crosswhite occupied the house. Adam Crosswhite was born in Bourbon, 
Kentucky, October 17, 17!I9. Ilis father was under the laws of the 
state his iiuisIim-, iiis mother being at the time of his birth, a slave. 
At an c;irl,\ .luv. Adam was given to his half sister as a servant. Miss 
Crosswhite iillcrwaid married Ned Stone, a notorious slave dealer, who 
if not the original Simon Legree, of "Uncle Tom's cabin," might have 
been, so similar were his life and character to those so graphically por- 
trayed by Mrs. Stowe. Stone retained possession of the boy for a time 
and then sold him to a man named Troutman for $200.00. When twenty 
years of age the bo.v was traded off to one Frank Giltner, with whom he 
stayed until forty-five years of age. At that time he was married and 
had seven ehiklren. Becoming aware that Giltner was going to sell part 
of his fiimily he watched his opportunity, obtained a skiff and with his 
family pushed off for .Madison. There he was received by the under- 
ground railroad managers and sent north. Crosswhite "s experiences in 
reaching Michigan might be written into an interesting book. In Marshall 
he was known as a quiet, industrious man. Earl.v in the winter of 1846 
there came to Marshall a young man, who represeuteil liiniself to be a 
lawyer in search of business, but in fact was Giltiiei's repi-eseiitative in 
identifying his fugitive slaves, and planning their recapture. He did 
his work well through artifice and with the help of aid which he hii-ed 
in Marsluill. but he did not succeed in perfectly concealing his plans. 
The abduction was finally attempted, early on the morning of Januarv 
27, 1847. Cro.sswhite saw their approach and succeeded in giving an 
alarm. Though there was no violence the crowd gave the men to under- 
stand that they would not allow the slaves to be taken. Finall.\- Trout- 
man met the remonstrances with a demand for their name. One of them 
replied, "Charles T. Gorham, write it in capital letters." Another 
replied, "Oliver Cromwell Comstoek, Jr. Take it in full so that m.v 
father will not be held responsible for what I do." Another was Jarvis 
Hurd. These were well known citizens of pecuniary responsibilities. 
Later in the day George Ingersoll took the family to Jackson in a wagon 
and sent them on the cars to Canada. In a few days the Kentuckians 
returned to their state which was soon aflame with wrath at this "North- 
ern outrage."" Finall.v the state made an appropriation for the prose- 
cution of all concerned in the escape of the Crosswhites. Troutman 
returned to Michigan in the summer of 1847 and brought action to 
recover the value of the rescued slaves in the United States court 
against a large number of defendants. The case as tried was practically 
a prosecution of Messrs. Gorham, Comstoek and Hurd. The trial lasted 
three weeks, and the .jurv disagreed. In 1848 the second trial began. 
Prominent Democratic politicians went to ilr. Gnrhani. who at that time 
was a Democrat, and declared they were personally friendly to him, 
but they wanted the case to go against the defendants. Lewis Cass was 
candidate for President, and the politicians wanted at that particular 
time, as they expressed it, the South to understand that Detroit and 
Michigan sympathized with the slave-holding element. The case came 
to trial, was ably defended by Judge H. H. Enfmons, J. F. Joy and 
Theodore Romeyne. After a hard-fought struggle the case was decided 
as Cass wanted it to he. for the slave hunters. The defendants were 

UIS'I'OUV OF CAMlorX ('orXTY 245 

miuiird to pay about $1,000.00 and costs. Heiuy Clay look the case 
into the senate and there atlvocated the neL'es.sit\ ol' a iiioic sliiu^cnl 
fugitive slave law. Tlie ■■riotous scenes ( ?) " enacted near the humble 
cabin of Crosswhite, received national consideration. History tells the 
rest. Mr. Clay took a personal interest in this matter as the Giltner 
and Clay plantations were near each other. The result of Clay's effort 
was the passing of the fugitive slave law. After the trial the Cross- 
whites returned to Marshall. Living in Battle Creek a few years ago 
was an old negro bootblack, Ben Crosswhite, who, when asked, "What 
did yon have to do with the war?" would rejdy, " 1 was the cause of de 
war. ' ' 

The Cholee.^ Scourge .\t M-iRSH.\Li. (1832) 

The worst scoiirge that ever visited Calhoun eouuty came sutldeiily 
and unexpectedly in the summer of 1832. On the morning of July 
20, the little settlement at ^Marshall was startled by the report that 
Isaac N. Kurd, one of the founders of the village, was sick with the 
cholera. At noon on the 19th, he moved among his fellow pioneers in 
the fullness of health and strength. At sunset on the 2()th, after an 
illness of twenty houi-s, he was dead. A eotifin was hastily construeted and 
a grave dug. Under a nnirky sky and through a gently falling I'ain, 
guided by the flickering light of rude torches, men bore his body in 
silence and laid it to rest in the first grave that opened in Calhoun 
county to receive the white man's dead. One after another was stricken 
with the dreadful malady until every house had its sick and every 
family its dead. 

In this time of calamity, among those sought to relieve the sick and 
comfort the dying was the wife of ^Ir. John D. Pierce, a Congregational 
missionary. She was a refined and cultured woman who had come less 
than a year before with her husband and two small children to .share 
in the labor and the honor of laying the foundations of a new civiliza- 
tion in intelligence, morality and religion. Returning weary and faint 
after ministering to the sick, she was seized almost at once by the fatal 
disease. All uigiit long, the anxious husband stood a lonely vigil by the 
side of the suffering wife, ministering to her wants as best he could, 
while in the sauie room the babes slept, all unconscious that death with 
hurrying step was coming to lay his icy hand upon their motlier. Just 
as morning drew liack the curtain of the night, the gentle spirit took 
its departure and the husliand without food or rest began at once, with 
his own hands, to prepare the body for its burial, while liis uncared 
for babes cried for the mother whose ears could no longer hear their 
call, nor hands labor to relieve their wants. While two others lay in an 
adjoining room suffering agonies peculiar to the disease, the body of 
Mrs. Pierce, without religious fonu or ceremony, was borne to the grave 
that waited to receive it. 

Among others in the community, were three brothers from Kentucky. 
One of these fell mortally ill and the other two, after making hurried 
arrangements for his burial, mounted their horses and fled from the com- 
munity, never to return. Cliildren and youth and parents, all felt its 
l)lighting touch. The school house was turned into a hospital for the 


sick aud the hillside into a graveyard for the dead. Some left the 
stricken comnumity in the fliglit of fear aud terror; others hearing 
back to eastern homes and friends the children bereft of father or mother 
or both. For weeks, the pall of gloom hung over the stricken communitj^ 
and for years, conversation was hushed as its frightful memories were 

In Athens township, the ravages of the same disease struck terror 
to the bravest hearts in that new and growing settlement. There, the 
lives of five in a single family, father, mother aud three sisters, went 
out with startling suddenness. Exaggerated reports of the conditions in 
Marshall and Athens spread through all the regions around about and 
in all of these, lirave men and courageous women waited with fear and 
trembling, not knowing when, or where, or to whom the dread specter 
might appear. It is still regarded as the gloomiest period in the history 
of the county. 

il.\RSH.\LL H.VNK.S 

The fii"st bank in Calhoun comity was chartered in 1836. It was 
located in ^larshall and was capitalized at .'jilOO.OOO.OO. Sidney Ketchum 
was president and George S. Wright, cashier. It closed its doors Sep- 
tember 15, 1840, and ceased to do business. This bank M'as started in 
the days when the rivalry between the east and west end, or "upper 
town" and '"lower town" as the two sections were called, was intense. 
The business men of the town having determined that Marshall ought 
to have a bank, it became a very live (juestion as to where the institu- 
tion should be located. Dr. Hayes, S. Camp, S. S. Alcott, Charles D. 
Smith, with other prominent "west end" citizens felt they ought to have 
the say as to location. The books were opened at the National House 
and the stock was being subscribed very quietly but very generally by 
the west enders, and everything seeihed to be going as they wished. 
Towards evening, however, and just before the closing of the books, 
George Ketchum of the "east end" came in, and taking up the book, 
looked it over, after which he took his seat and began to subscribe for 
himself and friends various amounts of stock and to pay into the hat, 
the receptacle for the first iustallment, the five per cent of the subscrip- 
tion demanded on the same. The subscriptions grew apace and the 
money accumulated in the iiat until the west enders saw the Ketchums, 
Sidney and George, with their adherents getting control of the stock, 
whereupon Smith seized the book at the same time Ketchum reached 
for the deposits, which he succeeded in retaining, and the organization of 
the bank was temporarily delayed. Later the matter was compromised 
l)y the Ketchums securing a controlling interest, a bank building was 
erected just inside the line of the plat of the lower village where in diic 
time the Calhoun county bank opened for business. 

In the year 1837 "wild cat" banks were instituted in Marshall. 
Battle Creek and Homer. The Bank of Marshall was capitalized at 
$400,000.00. Its president was Horace Brace and Joseph C. Frink the 
cashier. The bank's place of business was in the new court house in 
1838; but before New Year's day, 1839, the Bank of Marshall was 
adrift in the sea of irredeemable paper money and never after found a 




mooring. Its doors wore permanently closed to business. The people 
learned a costly lesson and the folly of those days has never been 

Charles T. Gorhani and Horace J. Perrin carried on the banking 
business in Marshall as private concerns for many years. Indeed, after 
the failure of the Calhoun County bank in 1840 there was no regulai'ly 
chartered bank in Marshall until 1863, when the Bank of JMichigan was 
organized under the state banking law, with a capital of $100,000.00. 
Joseph Sibley was president and William Powell cashier. In 1865 it 
was re-organized as the National Bank of Michigan, with Horace J. 
Perrin president and William Powell cashier; Manlius Man, Samuel S. 
Lacey, Enos Church and J. M. Buckley, directors. At the re-organiza- 
tion, the capital stock was fixed at $100,000.00 which in 1874 was in- 
creased to $200,000.00. In later years this bank went into voluntary 

The First National Bank was organized August 5, 1865, and com- 
menced doing business on the 9th day of the following October. Charles 
T. Gorham, president; Charles P. Dibble, vice-president; George S. 
Wright, cashier; William R. Schuyler, George B. Murray, Asa B. Cook, 
Pratt A. Spicer and Devillo Hubbard, members of the first board of 
directors. Although its first president and all the other officers and 
directors at the time the bank was organized are long since dead, the 
institution has never failed to open its doors on time for business in 
the more than forty-seven years of its existence as a national bank. 
It was never on a sounder financial basis that at this time. On the 
retirement of General Charles T. Gorham, the first president, he was 
succeeded by his son Seldon, and upon the latter 's death in October, 
1902, he was succeeded by his younger brother Charles E. Gorham, 
who has since been the directing head. A full list of the present officers 
and directors with a statement as to the status of the bank will be found 
with the other banks of the county in the article entitled "Banking, 
Bankers and Banks." 

Another of the strong and sound financial concerns of the county is 
the Commercial Savings Bank, of Marshall. This institution was or- 
ganized May 9, 1902, by William J. Dilible and Winthrop T. Phelps. 
The capital stock at organization was $50,000.00. The original board of 
directors was composed of the following gentlemen in addition to the 
two above named: E. G. Brewer, M. S. O'Keefe, W. E. Bosley, George 
Perrett. John Powell, John Wiseman and Thonms L. Cronin. The 
present board of officers and directors together wdth a statement of the 
bank's condition will be found elsewhere. There have been no changes 
in the original board of directors except those caused by death. 


Bij sSamurJ F. Dnhhlns 

Soon after the Michigan Central Raili-oad Company extended their 
line through to ^larsliall in 1844. they erected shops for such work as 
pertained to niaintainance of equipment and rolling stock, repairing 


cars, engines, etc. These shops were enlarged previous to 1850 and at 
that time Joseph Caywood was master mechanic until after 1852. 
He was succeeded by Charles Sweet and Mr. Newhall. Amos Wilson 
also had charge for some time. 

Julius Engleman, at present one of our oldest citizens, came here 
from Detroit and built the smoke hoods of the round house, which was 
situated on the present site of the Michigan Central freight ware house. 
He .ilfcrwards erected a 40 H. P. stationary engine, all of the work 
being done here in .Marshall, which was quite a piece of mechanism at 
that time. 

These shops were maintained twenty-three years and over, during 
which time they employed seventy-five to one hundred and twenty men. 
They were removed from ^Marshall to Jackson June 8, 1873. 

During the period 1858-1870 several factories were in operation in 
ilarshall, mostly situated in Perrinville, where the present water and 
electric light plant is located. 

A large paper mill was situated on the site now occupied by the 
Borough & Blood Buggy Co. Adjacent to this was a spring factory 
owned by Horace J. Perrin, who also operated a saw and plaster mill and 
bank on the west side of South Marshall avenue, just south of the Michi- 
gan Central Railroad. He also operated a large twelve stone Houring 
mill on the east side of the street and at one time a flouring mill at the 
corner of Exchange and Mill streets, on Rice creek. All of these facto- 
ries were run by water power and employed in all aliout fifty men. 

Jas. L. Dobl)iiis was at that time proprietor of a large building and 
contracting Ijusiut'ss occupying a factory just east of the large Perrin 
flouring mill. Mr. Dobbins erected most of the best blocks and churches 
in our city and employed about sixty men. 

A fire May 4, 1872, destroyed nearly all of these industries and they 
were not rebuilt. 

jMarch 1, 1870, Messrs. Jas. L. Dobbins and Wm. Phelps embarked 
in the manufacture of a furnace, which was patented by Mr. Phelps, 
and we may say that this business was very successful from the start 
and is still in existence, being now under the control of Messrs. Wm. R. 
Simons and Geo. W. Leedle, who purchased the business from the for- 
mer owner.s in the spring of 1911. They changed the corporate name 
to The Simons-Leedle Furnace Company. Capital $25,000 and employ 
in all fifteen to twenty men. 

In 1873 Julius Engleman was proprietor of a foundry and machine 
shop at the junction of Hanover, Exchange streets and Marshall 
avenue. ^Mr. Engleman melted two heats per week of about two ton 

Adjacent to this property were also smaller shops, a carriage and 
wagon shop by Hoffman, Hiller & Vogt; one by Adam Rimes; black- 
smith shop on the west side of the street by Theo. Welch, also a black- 
smith shop owned and occupied by J. C. Egeler at the corner of Green 
and Exchange streets, which was operated continuouslv by ]Mr. Egeler 
from 1858 to 1908. 

All of the above employed from twenty to thirty-five men. 

Chas. E. Brooks owned and operated a flouring mill at the corner 


of Exchange and Hanover streets, and was later engaged in the manu- 
facture of flour at the corner of South ^Marshall avenue and Mill sti-eet. 
Messrs. Crane & Hurd owned and operated a very large tlour mill 
covering the period of 185(3 to 1884 of about 225 barrels daily capacity. 
This mill was situateil cast and north of the Michigan Central depot 
and was at that time one of the largest mills, if not the largest, in Michi- 
gan, employing from thirty to fifty men. 

Peters Bros. & ilurray also owned and operated the "Warreu" Hoe 
Factory adjacent to the Michigan Central Railroad, opposite Locust 
street. This factory was operated from ISid to lS7(i, i'tii])loying tweut.\- 
to twenty-five men. 

In 1872 a foundry and machine siiop under the management of 
Geo. A. BuUard was started on the corner of South Kalamazoo avenue 
and Spruce street, and the business gradually grew into one of ^lar- 
shall's largest industries. Mr. Bullard manufactured furnaces for Jas. 
L. Dol)bins from 1874 to 1882 and for Messrs. Edgar H. Grant and 
Samuel F. Dobbins from 1882 to 1888, at which time he also manufac- 
tured stoves, school and church furniture, agricultural implements, etc., 
at times employing as high as one hundred men. Mr. Bullard disposed 
of his furnace business to ilessrs. Grant & Dobbins in 1888 and retired 
from active business in 1909 and sold his manufacturing plant to 
Chas. I. Murdock and Chas. W. Dobbins, the present owners. 

A small wagon and carriage shop owned and operated by Wm. L. 
Page on the site just east of the present location of the stone barn, 
gradually grew into one of ^Marshall's best manufacturing plants, the 
business being established in 1869; incorpoi-ated in 1890 and re-incor- 
porated in 1893 with capitalization of $50,000, and has run continu- 
ously ever since ; Wm. L. Page, president and general manager ; p]gbert 
E. Page, secretary and treasurer. They manufacture a line of buggies 
and high grade vehicles, which have gained a wide reputation, and 
employ on an average of seventy-five men. They own and occupy a 
large three-story brick factory 60 x 400 feet on South Kalamazoo 

The Borough & Blood Buggy and Vehicle Company are also one of 
^larshall's present industries, the business having been established by 
W. J. Borough in 1902 and afterwards incorporated with capital stock 
of $35,000. AVm. E. Bosley, president ; W. H. Arthur, vice-president ; 
Anna M. ^IcDermott, secretary and treasurer ; A. T. Norton, manager. 
They have about thirty employees. This firm started their business in 
the plant formerly occupied by the Royal Cycle Works at the corner of 
Spruce and iladisou sti'eets and in 1911 moved into a handsome new 
plant erected by F. A. Stuart on thr site occupied liy tlic ]iapcr mill 
in Perrinville. 

The Lambert Marliine Company cmjilny a force of twcnty-ti\c men. 
Their factory is located on South Madison street and they manufacture 
machinery of all kinds for roasting cotit'ee, peanuts and cereals. This 
factory was formerly occupied and managed by Nelson Church and 
Franklin Edgerton. who manufactured sash doors and blinds and did 
a large building and contracting business. Messrs. Franklin Edgerton 


& Sons succeeded Messrs. Church & Edgerton in the manufacture of 
building supplies. 

The Foote Axle Company manufacture ball-bearing axle burrs and 
quick shift couplers. F. M. Foote, president. 

The Wolverine Temperature Regulator Company (Wells & Kelley, 
proprietors) manufacture automatic heat regulators for furnaces, 
steam and hot water. They o\v-ii and occupy a factory 'on Exchange 
street, between State and Green streets. 

When the Cincinnati, Northern & JMiehigan Railroad Company 
built their line from Toledo to Allegan in 1884 their shops were located 
in Marshall. Since then the road has changed hands and is now con- 
trolled and owned by the Michigan Central with tliirty-tive to fifty 

January 1, 1894, George Curren Bentley, with others, founded The 
Marshall Wagon and Windmill Co.. incorporated with capital stock of 

The Stone Barn, Old Stage Depot, A Relic of Stage" Days, Marshall 

$25,000. In 1896 .Mr. Bentley and liis son. Rupert, purchase J interest 
of the other stock holders, continuing the business until April 9, 1903. 
This firm manufactured wagons, windmills, etc.. and employed twenty- 
five to forty men. 

The C. E. Brooks Rupture Appliance Company manufacture ap- 
pliances for ruptures and this firm owns and occupies the Brooks Block 
on Main street, corner of South Exchange and have from thirty to fifty 

C. E. Gauss manufacturers Gauss' Celebrated Catarrh Remedy, and 
occupies the Gauss building on the south side of Main street, between 
Jefferson and Eagle, and have from thirty to fifty employees. 

F. A. Stuart, numufacturer of Stuart's Famous Dyspepsia Tablets 
and other proprietary medicines, occupies the Stuart Block a large 
handsome building on the east side of Jefferson street, between Green 
and State streets. This building is also the home of the Statesman Print- 



ing establisluiu'iit and tliert- ari' cinplnx rd in llic two imlusliics alxml 
fifty people. 

The Pyramid Drug Company maniilacture proprietary medicines, 
and oeeiipy offiee and building at the corner of Hamilton and State 
streets, under the management of Wni. F. Church and employ fifteen to 

The John R. Smyth Printing Company, Standard Printing Com- 
pany, Marshall News and Evening Chornicle are also industries of Mar- 
shall, as is the J. E. White Publishing Company, authors printers and 

In the winter of 1881-1882 Messrs. Edgar H. Grant and Samuel F. 
Dobbins entered into a co-partnei-ship for the manufacture and installa- 
tion of warm air furnaces, which was afterward called the Marshall 
Furnace Company, and in the year 1889 the partnership was dissolved 

^Marshall Fl'unace Company 

and JMr. Grant and Wm. E. Bosley commenced the manufacture of fold- 
ing bath tubs. They did a thriving business for several years and in 
1909 the business was incorporated into the Peerless Fixture Company, 
manufacturers of bath tubs, store and counting room fixtures, located 
on the west side of South Kalamazoo avenue, and is today one of Mar- 
shall's most sul)stantial industries employing on an average of forty 
men. Wm. E. Bosley, president; Royal F. Grant, secretary and 

31r. S. F. Dobibns took up the furnace business from the year 1889. 
gradually increasing the same until the year 1908 and during this period 
occupied a part of the Geo. A. Bullard shop and afterwards (1895) a 
factory located at the .iunction of P^xchange and ]\Iarshall avenue, 
which was formerly occupied by Julius Engleman and John Adams. In 
June, 1908, this business was incorporated with $100,000 capitalization 
and in 1910 increased to $150,000 and in January, 1912, moved into its 
new hrick and steel constructed plant located on west Hanover street. 



This is one of Marshall's largest and most substantial industries, oc- 
cupying the finest exclusive furnace factory building in the world :ird 
employing from one hundred to one hundred and forty men. Samuel F. 
Dobbins, president and general manager; Clias. W. Dobbins, vice-presi- 
dent and manager of sales; Claude S. Stout, secretary and publicity; 
Herbert J. Ward, manager of installation ; Gage II. i5obbiiis, superin- 

The city of ^Marshall has owned for several years its electric light 
and water power plant. The electric light plant cost about $50,000 and 
uses 450 H. P. in its operation. It is operating 150 arc street lights, of 
2000 candle power, a number of arc lights for mercantile purposes and 
several thousand incandescent lights for business and residence lighting. 


The water power plant, which cost about $50,000, is also operated 
by the water power which runs both plants, supplying over 120 fire 
hydrants and furnishes its citizens with water for private consumption 
at the lowest rates. 

This same water power was formerly used by H. J. Perrin and 
others to run their industries in Perrinville, and it was greatly im- 
proved when the city of Marshall took it over for municipal purposes. 

The Calhoun County Agricultur.vl Society. 


The Calhoun County Agricultural Society was organized in 1858 un- 
der an act of the state legislature to authorize the formation of county 
and town agricultural societies for the encouragement and advancement 
of agricultural, horticultural, nianufacturer.s' and mechanics' arts. 


The charter members of the society were : S. P. Wormley, M. H. 
Moulthrop, Tracy M. Southworth, Milo Soule, E. C. JMauchester, II. A. 
Tillotsou, Johu Houston, C. D. Holmes, E. II. Lawrence, Bradford 
Arthur and C. P. Dibble. 

Annual exhibitions have been given b.y the society on the fair grounds 
in ilarshall each year and eacli succicdiiig show has proven an improve- 
ment and enlargement over tlir pivicdiiii;- one. In this year of 1912, the 
society, after an experience of ups and downs covering a period of sixty- 
four years, rates among the staunch county fair associations of the Wol- 
verine state and the attendance each year is growing in volume and the 
receipts increasing correspondingly. 

The Calhoun Count}- Fair is among the best known in the country; 
its scope being very broad, competition having been thrown open to the 
world in 1908, it having been determined at that time that a fair, in 
order to advance with the times, must not confine its efforts to a single 
county or locality. 

Not only does the soiicty conduct a veiy fine agricnltui'al exhibit 
each year, but harness races of a high oi'der are given over one of the 
best half-mile speedways in the United States. 

The present officers of the society are : B. K. Bentley, jDresident ; R. S. 
Scott, secretary; E. E. Simn\ons, treasurer. 



Marshall as a Municipality (by Craig C. Miller) — Water System — ■ 
Description and Valuation of Plant — Electric Lighting and 
Power Plant — Description and Valuation op Plant — Sewerage 
System — Electric Railroad — Paving and Roads — Hospit.\l and 
Library — The Marshall Postofpice (by William H. Arthur) — 
Marshall Public Schools (by Gertrude B. Smith) — The Press 
OF Marshall (by J. M. Moses) — Lawyers op JIarshall, Past and 
Present (by Hon. Herbert E. Winsor). 

]\Iarshall as a Municipality. 

By Craig C. Miller. 

The iiuuiii-ipal development of Marshall has been gradual and sus- 
tained. From its hirth as an organized community by the incorporation 
of the village October 28, 18;}7, to its elevation to the position of a place 
among the cities of Michigan February 25, 1859, by special act of the 
legislature approved February 14, 1859, its career was one of steady 
progress and the position as one of tlie important centers of activity of 
the state was gained in a marked degree. 

The high development attained by the village and its inhabitants 
at the date of the merger into a city is well shown by the progressive 
tone of the inaugural address delivered by Hon. Charles P. Dibble, the 
first mayor. In it he calls attention to the importance of a systematic, 
efficient and economical conduct of civic affairs and lays much stress 
upon the importance of proper roads and streets. He says: "It has 
been said that the roads of a country and the streets of a city are accurate 
tests of the degree of its civilization and that cities and towns, where 
dense population and manufacturing industry make them the best mar- 
kets for farming products, are enabled to extend themselves indefinitely 
by roads alone, which supply the place of rivers." In this address he 
also calls attention to the necessity for a proper water supply and ex- 
presses himself as much impressed with the responsibility of the office 
to which he has had the honor to be elected. 

From the date of its incorporation as a city to the present time 
Mai'shall has steadily gained in the advarjtages and public benefits 
that it offers to its inhabitants, and although not a city of large popula- 



tiou, takes just pride iu the degree of development it has attained along 
public service lines, and offers an example of municipal ownership of 
public utilities that may be studied with protit by its sister cities. 

Marshall at an early period was connected with the outside world 
by excellent stage routes that later gave place to the more modern 
railroad, and is now in the favored position of being located upon the 
trunk line of the Michigan Central Railroad, and also upon a branch of 
the same railroad extending from Allegan and making trunkline con- 
nections at Toledo, in the state of Ohio. It is also located upon one of 
the best equipped electric railroads in the state that gives its patrons 
excellent service both east and west. 

W.\TER System 

In 1856 the village council negotiated for a water supply, either by 
logs or pipes, but nothing came of the pi^oposed system. 

In 185!) the matter was again urged by Mayor Dibble as has been 
noted and in 1860 experimeuts were made on artesian wells. However, 
nothing was accomplished until 1872 when a system of wells was estab- 
lished, thirty-three in number, located iu various parts of the city, from 
which water was procured for fire protection. 

Nothing, however, was done towards a water supply until 1888, when 
the present system was inaugurated by private capital ; a pumping sta- 
tion being erected, the Avater forced into a standpipe from whence it 
found its way through mains to the various parts of the city. 

In August, 1894, the company failed and was placed in the hands 
of a receiver. In 1898 the entire plant was acquired by the city and is 
now operated in an efficient manner as a municipal plant. 

The water is procured from flowing wells and is of excellent quality, 
furnishing the city with an inexhaustible supply of pure water for all 
purposes. ]\Iains are being extended a.s demands retiuire. 

The water works system of ^Marshall, together with the electric light- 
ing and power plant, is managed by three commissioners appointed by 
the mayor; they are termed "The Board of Commissioners of the Electric 
Lighting and Water Works Department," and have full charge of the 
conduct of the same. The.y employ a superintendent who has immediate 
charge of both systems to which he devotes his entire time. 

The annual report of the connuissioii under date of April 8, 1912, 
covering a period of one year, from April 1, 1911, to April 1, 1912, as far 
as it appertains to the water works system, is worthy of study, and the 
essential features of the same are here given, and will prove of interest 
to all interested iu the subject. 

Descru'tion and A'aluatiox op Plant, April 1, 1911. 


City treasurer— bank $2,391.14 

Customers ledger 531.65 

Hydrants— 104— standard two nozzle 2,496.50 


Machinery — 2 Worthington steam pumps, 1,000,- 

000 gals, capacity in 24 hours each; 1 Deane 

power pump, 1,700,000 gals, capacity in 24 

hours; 1 100 h. p. Induction motor $ 7,500.00 

Mains— 12 miles, ranging from 12-in. to 2 ft 32,238.18 

Meters— installed, owned by city 353.70 

Pumping station building, including outbuildings 10,000.00 
Real estate at pumping station and lot where 

.standpipe is situated 1,000.00 

Sundries, ledger 61.40 

Standpipe, 100 feet high by 20 feet in diameter, 

capacity 31,416 cubic feet 2,839.39 

Supplies, miscellaneous, ifsed in opei'ation of plant 

to be sold 792.25 

Supplies— office 65.61 

Tools at pumping station and office 144.58 


Bonds $49,000.00 

Capital stock- plant 9,679.14 

Interest 815.00 

Surplus fund 920.17 

$60,414.31 $60,414.31 
Cash Statement. 

Cash on hand April 1, 1911 $ 2,391.14 

Cash received during year from all sources 10.004.68 

Cash disbursements $9,045.84 

Cash on hand April 1, 1912 3,349.98 

$12,395.82 $12,395.82 
Rates for Water. Meter rates ranging from 10 to 20 cents per thou- 
sand gallons. Rates charged to the cit.v for hydrant rental, $2.75 each per 
month, or $33.00 per hydrant per year. 

Statement of Pumping Operations 

Water pumped K. W. H. 

in gallons used Earnings 

April, 1911 . . . .' 9,311,540 8,520 $ 85.20 

May 15,825,833 13,340 133.40 

June 15,557,500 12,725 127.25 

July 18,379,442 15,125 151.25 

August 15,516,135 13,210 132.10 

September 15,957,500 12,000 120.00 

October 12,250,000 10,500 105.00 


$ 95.30 










November ll.OliO.OOO 

December 11,690,000 

January, 1912 15,161.271 

February 11,480,000 

March 12,530,000 

Total 164,719,221 133,250 $1,332.50 

Electric Lighting and Power Plant 

Marsliall was early in possession of a gas plant owued and operated 
by private capital, furnishing gas for private and public lighting. 

The establishment of an electric lighting plant was first agitated 
in 1890, and later was established by a commission appointed by the 
mayor, consisting of George H. Southworth, Esf(., William H. Elston 
and R. B. Fletcher. This was the foundation of the present equipment. 

The electric lighting, as well as the water works department, is in 
charge of Philip S. Joy, as superintendent, and the present board of 
commissioners consists of R. P. Grant, chairman; Collin Sinclair and 
F. S. Deuel; to their efficient management, as well as to that of the 
.superintendent, is due. in a great measure, the present excellent condition 
of the plant, making it possible for the citizens of Marshall to enjoy 
exceptionally low lighting and power rates. 

The commission have within the past year replaced, on State street, 
the overhead lighting system with the boulevard post lighting system. 
Posts bearing five lights, the upper one of 100 Watt ilazda and the four 
lower ones of 60 Watt Mazda each, have been placed at a distance of 66 
feet apart on either side of the street and around the West End park, 
adding greatly to the appearance of the city. besides giving abundant 
. light, and is pronounced by many to be the finest system in the state. 

This improvement cost about $5,000.00 to install and was entirely 
paid for from the profits of the electric plant. The system will un- 
doubtedly be extended to other parts of the city and gradually super- 
cede the overhead lighting. 

Power is also furnished to the various industries of the city at 
reasonable rates. 

I here (|uote from the annual report of the commission, covering a 
period of one year, from April 1, 1911, to April 1, 1912, which is made 
in conjunction with the water works report, as the best manner of show- 
ing the present condition of the plant and the service rendered the cit.v 
and citizens, and attention is called to the same as an example of what 
has been and still is being accomplished along lines of economical and 
affective public service. 

Description and Valuation of Plant, April 1, 1911. 

Arc lamps— street $ 1,323.00 

Arc lamps — commercial 118.80 


City treasurer — bank $ 2,942.66 

Customers ledger 1,494.19 

Dam and waterways 26,138.29 

Line consisting of all overhead wire, approxi- 
mately 46 miles of feeders and 18 miles of 
are lighting circuits, poles and pole fixtures. . 16.14:5.93 
Machinery and electrical apparatus, consisting of 
line shaft, gear wheels, pulleys; 1 General 
Electric direct connected revolving field, 250 
K. W. generator; 1 Fort Wayne belted gener- 
ator of 187 K. V. A. capacity, both gener- 
ators 2,300 volt 60 cycles; 3-phase arranged 
for synchronizing at switchboard; also two 
General Electric 9 K. W. exciters and one 
Fort Wayne 7 K. W. exciter, switchboards 

and instruments 9,383.86 

Meters '. 5,379.10 

Power housebuilding 4,251.48 

Real estate flowage rights 17,000.00 

Supplies — office, including all fixtures 1,209.36 

Supplies — including all mateiual to be used in 

operation of plant and fixtures to be sold .... 2,923.73 

Sundries ledger . .' 558.23 

Transformers 2,973.69 

Tools at power house and office 215.56 

Wheel house and race, including water wheel 
e((uipraent, consisting ot' two Leffel Special 
50-foot wheels, 1 Sampson 45-foot wheel, 1 
Sampson 50-foot wheel with curved draft 
tube, all dexeloping 664 ho7'se power 10.702.52 


Capital stock— plant $87,983.73 

Bonds 14,200.00 

Interest 774.67 

.$102,758.40 $102,758.40 

Light and Sundries Cash Statement. 

Cash on hand April 1, 1911 $ 2,942.66 

Cash received during year from all sources 23,276.07 

Cash disbursements $20,950.18 on hand April 1. 1912 5,268.55 

$26,218.73 26,218.73 

Cost of Operating and Maintaining Street Lamps. 

19.625 K. W. Del. post lighting cost per K. W. .01465 $ 287.50 

177,360 K. W. Del. street lights cost per K. W. .01465 2.598.32 


Carbous $ ^r>.^2 

Globes 2:5.4:5 

Repair to loops and wires 101 .cSl 

Repair to line are circuit 66.08 

Trimming 1 10.54 

Depreciation on are lamps, $1,:323.00 — 10 per cent 1:52. :50 

Depreciation on station transformers and switchboard — 10 per 

cent 72.00 

Depreciation on line, poles, cross arms, and fixtures — 10 jier cent 5:50.2:5 

Summary of Percentages. 

Per cent loss — total generation 1754 

Average price received per K. W. total generation 0233 

Average price received per K. W. commercial delivery 0407 

Cost per K. W. on total generation 01602 

Net cash cost per K. W. Del 0144 

Net depreciation cost per K. W 0048 

Total net cost per K. W 0193 

Average price received per K. W. pumping station 01 

Average price received ]ier K. W. producing and delivering 01465 

Rates for Lighting. 

Residence per K. W. H $0.05 

Business and factory per K. W. II 04 

Minimum rate per month 50 

10 per cent discount if paid before flu- 16th of month following 
reading of meters. 

Price received per year for each arc light 35.00 

Price received per year for each street Tungsten light 10.00- 

Se\vekac!E System 

Until 1899 .Marshall was without a system of sewerage. On MnwU 
13th of that year a resolution was introduced into the common council 
providing for the construction of an adequate system not to exceed in 
cost the sum $25,000.00, and on April 3d the question of bonding the city 
for that amount was submitted to the people, and was carried. 

The system was constructed by contract and cost about $25,000.00: 
of this y<i was paid out of the general sewer fund, and I's was raised by 
assessments spread upon property benefitted. 

Great benefit has been derived by the city from the same ; it has been 
found adequate in all respects and is being extended as rapidly as 
needed. The construction work of the extensions is carried on by the city 
under direction of the city marshal, arid the property benefitted is 
assessed for benefits. 

Electric Railroad 

In 1899 the common council granted a franchise for the const rue 
tion of an electric stri'(4 raili-oad over and upon the streets of tlic city^ 


the road to extend from Battle Creek on the west to Jackson on the 
east, a distance of about forty-seven miles, and upon the completion of 
the same Marshall was placed in closer communication with the neigh- 
boring cities, and enjoys the privilege of excellent transportation fa- 

The system now extends fioiu Kalamazoo to Detroit and through 
service is maintained at friMnuiit intervals which includes passenger, 
express and freight, while local service connects the city with the 
adjacent farming region. At Detroit connections are made with various 
electric roads and also connections may be had at various other points, 
greatly facilitating travel and ease of communication. 

Paving and Roads 

Following the advice of its tirst mayor, Marshall is alive to the 
importance of proper streets, and I'oads leading to the city. Until 1902 
no paving had been done and State street, the main business street of 
the city, was in a bad condition. On June 23, 1902, a resolution was in- 
trotluced into the connnon council providing for the paving of State 
street through the business portion, and for submitting to the people a 
proposition to bond the city for the sum of $25,000.00 for that purpose. 
The question was voted upon at a special election held July 29, 1902, 
and was carried. 

The work was done by contract costing about $35,000.00, of which 
$16,103.40 was raised by special assessment. 

The contractors performed their duty in a creditable manner, and 
Marshall now enjoys the benefit of a well paved business street that 
adds much to the appearance of the city. 

There has just been completed, under contract with the city, a slag 
macadam i-oad leading from the south eutl of ilarshall avenue east to 
the city limits, where it connects with a macadam road just completed 
in the township of ^larengo through the generosity and public spirited- 
ness of Mr. Frank A. Stuart ; this road in turn connects with a macadam 
road extending into the township of Eekford, making in all over five 
miles of state reward road extending in a southeasterly direction from 
the city. 

During the present year of 1912 steps are to be taken to provide 
the city with a surface sewerage system, which when completed will 
render the paving of the balance of the streets a task of comparative 
ease, and it is believed that the near future will see the work of paving 
extended to all parts of the city. 

The expense of sidewalk construction is divided eually between the 
numicipality and the individual, and in consequence Marshall is well 
provided with walks and more are being added yearly. Curbing has 
been installed along a large per cent of the property, and the streets 
present, in the main, a trim and well kept appearance, which is enhanced 
by the excellent condition of the lawns. 

The census of 1910 gave Slarshall a population of 4,282 a. slight de- 
crease from the census of 1900, however in no other respect has the city 
lost ground, and as a place of residence it is unsurpassed. Rents are 


moderate aud the cost of living low. As a factory eity it possesses many 
advantages that are being In-ought to tiie attention of the pnhlie through 
the Marshall Board of Commerce. Broad streets abundantly shaded by 
elm, maple and oak. together with the care and pride taken by the 
citizens in their homes, add materially to the attractiveness of a city 
favored as it is as to location, and a number of small pai-ks under the 
charge of the park commission enhance its beauty. 

Much is being done by the women of the city towards the cultiva- 
tion of civic pride, and they are entitled to much credit for what they 
have accomplished, their efforts are being met with a hearty response. 
The Monday Club, an organization composed of representative women, 
has recently appointed a civic improvement committee and is co-operating 
with the city park commission in laying out and improving the waste 
places of the municipality. 


Through the generosity of the late Charles P. Brown the city is to 
be the fortunate possessor of an hospital, to be called tlie Brown IMe- 
morial Hospital, and steps are now being taken towards the forming 
of an organization to carry out the conditions of the bequest. 

A public library is in the course of erection at a cost of alioul 
$13,000.00, the greater part of which was raised by subscription : it will 
be supported by a tax as provided by the statutes of the state, and is in 
charge of a library l)oard appointed liy the ^layor. The present board 
consists of Frank A. Stuart, president; C. H. Billings, secretary; Mi-s. 
William J. Dibble, :\Irs. V. A. Lepper. Hon. Herbert^ E. Winsor. E. C. 
Way, Samuel Warren, Dr. Roberts and Craig C. Miller. 

Marshall's bonded indebtedness is at present $88,000.00, and this is 
divided as follows, viz: Water works bonds. $49,000.00; electric light 
bonds, $14,000.00; sewer bonds, $24,000.00; paving bonds, $1,000.00; 
and the valuation of its property for taxing purposes is $2,463,875.00. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that ^larshall as a municipality 
possesses marked advantages not aiforded by cities of far greater area 
and population, and has solved many of the problems that are causing 
great annoyance to its larger sisters. 

The Marsuai.l P(1sti>ffice 

Bij WiUiau, II. Arthur 

The first postoffice in Calhoun county was established in ^Marshall 
in 1832, George Ketclnnn being appointed post master. .Air. Ketchum 
kept the postal matter for the settlement in a cigar box. The mail was 
brought in on horse-back and came semi-occasionally until the post- 
route was established in 1836, from Jackson via ^Marshall to Centre- 
ville, when the mail was brought once a week for some time, then semi- 
weekly and finally daily. 

Rev. John D. Pierce succeeded .Mr. Ketchum. and kept the office in 
his double log house on the site of the residence now occupied by 


Manlious M. Perrett on [Mansion street. Mr. Pierce utilized his clock 
case for a receptacle for the postal matter without detriment to the 
time piece, the pendulum having full swing without interference from 
the mail. 

Charles D. Smith next succeeded to the appointment, being named 
by President Jackson and reappointed by President Van Bureu, hold- 
ing the otKee for about six years. Emerson T. Wakefield succeeded 
Mr. Smith for a short lease of power, holding the office only six months, 
and James IM. Parsons came in under the tirst President Harrison for 
a term of three and a half years. During Mr. Parson's incumbency 
there was an attempt made to remove him from office, and three hun- 
dred of his fellow citizens, irrespective of party, remonstrated against 
his removal and paid him a high compliment for efficiency and non- 
partisanship in his conduct of the office. 

Zenas Tillotson served as postmaster four years under Polk, and was 
succeeded by George S. Wright for a like period under Tyler and Fill- 
more. Dr. J. H. ^lontgomery carried oif the prize for eight years under 
Pierce and Buchanan, then stepped aside for Seth Lewis, w-ho was ap- 
pointed by Lincoln and held the office for five and half years. James 
Monroe was appointed by President Johnson, but had hardly warmed 
his seat, when at the end of six months, S. S. Lacy came in for two 
years. Herbert A. Read was then the incumbent under Grant for five 
years, being succeeded by Samuel J. Burpee, who held the office for 
ten years. W. R. Lewis was then appointed, holding the office for one 
year, and being succeeded by S. S. Lacy, who after five years of service 
gave \vay to Stephen F. Snyder, who served four years. Next came 
Charles T. Fletcher for a term of four years. Wm. H. Ai'thur was next 
appointed and he held the office longer than any predecessor, twelve 
years and four months. The present incumbent, J. P. Hughes, took 
over the office October 1, 1910. 

The following statistics are given through the courtesy of the present 
assistant postmaster, L. B. Albaugh, who has been connected with the 
post office since 1885. At that time the office was in the second class 
with a postal revenue of about $8,000 per annum, the office force con- 
sisting of postmaster S. S. Lacy, assistant postmaster J. M. Moses and 
two clerks. In 1889 the receipts decreased to below $8,000 and the office 
fell back to the third class. It jiunped up to the second class again the 
following year and in 1900 it advanced to the first class. In 1898 the 
receipts of the office had increased sufficiently to warrant the then 
postmaster Arthur in securing free delivery which was inaugurated 
with three carriers. Within the next few years the volume of business 
assumed such proportions that five more clerks and two city carriers 
were added to the force. 

The revenue for the past year, ending March 31, 1912. was 
$4:9,402.44; number of money order transactions, 10,588. For the first 
quarter of 1912 there is shown a marked increase over the preceding 

The present office force consists of the postmaster, assistant post- 
master, superintendent of mails, seven clerks, five city carriers, eight 
rural carriers. su1i carriers, sub clerks and special delivery messenger. 


The office is largo mid 
volume of business. 

/.'// < 1(1-1 ntiU n. S 1,1 nil 

When, ill the I'lii'ly part of the nincterutli century, the new west 
called upon the east for valiant men and true to eome and take posses- 
sion of her forests and beautiful plains, her lakes and rivers, there was 
ready and happy response. From his home in central New York in IH'M). 
Siduej' Ketchum heard the call and slowly wended his way westward 
to the oak openings of central [Michigan, and JMarshall's history was 
begun. Following closely, came a goodly company of men and women, 
whose ambition, energy and culture were ideal forces in forming an 
ideal commonwealth ; among them were Rev. John D. Pierce and (Jen- 
eral Isaac E. Crary — men whom not only ilarshall but all Michigan is 
proud to honor, the founders and supporters of that ideal system of 
education which has given ^Miehigan the proud distinction of being the 
"Educating State." 

Scarcely had the home been established in the little log cabias of 
the new settlers than the thoughts of these pioneers from the east land 
turned to the establishment of a school, for they well knew that the youth 
of today is the citizen of tomorrow, and that upon the intelligence, 
integrity and patriotism of its citizens depends the life of the state. 
The first school, of less than a dozen pupils, was held in a little loft for 
want of a better place and was presided over by iliss Ann Brown 
whom ]\Ir. Sidney Ketchum sent to Ann Arbor to procure — and the 
school ma'am became a factor of the village life. In 1832 the pioneer 
school house was built, the first in the county, a little frame building 
on Mansion street near the Presbyterian church, and school was called 
to order by iliss Eliza Ketchum. This building served not alone for a 
temple of wisdom, it was then the only church, the town hall, the court 
house, in short the general rallying place of all public assemblies, where 
equal attention was given to law, politics, religion and letters. 

About this period American students began to return from Germany 
bringing with them new educational ideas. Cousin's report of the 
Prussian school system was published and found its way to this little 
Michigan hamlet and to the log cabin home of Rev. John D. Pierce 
where General Isaac E. Crary, a graduate of Trinity College and a 
warm friend of education, was an honored inmate. Thus two of ]\Iar- 
shall's earliest nobilit^'. men of distinguished talents and great force of 
character, were brought into close relationship and given a rare op- 
portunity to the fundamental principles deemed important in 
laying the foundations of the state. "Of especial interest to them." 
wrote Rev. Pierce in 1875, "and most carefully con.sidered was the im- 
portant question of education which should embrace a complete school 
system from the lowest grade to the highest — from the primary school 
to the university — which, if possible, should be made a distinct liranch 
of the government with a special officer who should have the whole mat- 


ter in charge, and thus keep its importance before the public mind," 
and that measures to establish and preserve an ample school fund 
should be carefully taken. 

So we honor that historic day in the summer of 1834 when these 
two. Rev Pierce and Gen. Crary, met under the branches of the now 
classic oak in the lawn of the Gorham home and with true wisdom, rare 
inspiration and judgment, planned the ideal school system which has 
placed Michigan in the foremost rank of the educational life of our 
country. But they were not content with mere dreams and plans. In 
the first convention that met "to clothe our beautiful peninsula with 
powers of independent sovereignty," ilr. Crary, as chairman of the 
committee on education, aided and advised by liis friend Rev. Pierce, 
inti'odueed a resolution which became a law of tlie commonwealth — "a 

Old AM) Ni;\v Iluui Scinini.. .Makshaij, 

law the most wholesome," it is said, "that at that time had lieeu incor- 
porated into the constitution of any state of the Union" — and the 
public school of Marshall of 1912 is the outgrowth of their noble work. 

On the second day of October, 1837, in the little pioneer schoolhouse, 
was held the first annual school meeting under the new law, a record 
of which we find preserved in an old volume, yellow and musty with age. 
David L. Johns had the honor of presiding. The election of officers for 
the ensuing year resulted in the choice of H. P. Wisner, moderator; 
Stephen Kimball, assessor and collector, and Ira AVood, director. "After 
which it was resolved to raise certain sums of money for certain pur- 
poses: — to wit, the sum of ninety dollars for support of a district school, 
two hundred dollars for the repair of the school house, for fire wood, etc., 
etc., ten dollars for the purchase of books for the district library." 

In quaint, old-fashioned script bearing the date of October 1st, 1841, 
we find a record of the books used by the fifty students who attended 
school during the school year of three months, — DaboU's Arithmetic, 


Smith and KirkhaiiUs Grammar, Olney and Parley's Geograph\-, Par- 
ley's First History, Eclectic Reader. Elementary Spelling Book. A lirm 
foundation upon which is builded the course of study that now admits 
our students upon diploma, not only to the University of Michigan, but 
to nearly every college of tlie land. We turn the pages of the old jour- 
nal and tind in the records of subsequent meetings name after name of 
the pioneers of our city, worthy men and true, who dai-ed to face the 
problem of school taxes, rate bills, debts, buildings, etc.. — problems that 
never would stay settled even to the present day. All honor to those 
worthy sires who even in their earnestness "builded better than they 
knew." General Isaac E. Crary, John D. White, D. N. Salter, Joseph 
Lord, N. H. Humphrey, Randall Hobert, F. W. Sherman, Geo. Wood- 
ruff, 0. C. Comstock. Asa B. Cook. James A. Way, Chas. P. Dibble- 
names recorded now in marble in our beautiful Oakridge, but more 
enduring in the educational life of our town. In 1850 and later we find 
the names of Honorables C. T. Gorham, Hovey K. Clark, J. T. Vernor, 
A. 0. Hyde, S. S. Laeey, J. H. Montgomery, Geo. IngersoU, H. A. Noyes, 
J. C. Frink and others — all prior to 1863 when our venerable record 

In the early days of its history Marshall consisted of two hamlets, 
called the upper and lower villages, one at the east chislo'rd aioiind 
what was the old Marshall House, and the other at the wis) \\ hose ((iiter 
was the present west end park. On September 28, 1847, llie scliodi dis- 
tricts Nos. 1 and 2, being in the upper and lower villages, were united, 
which union made necessary the erection of another school house to suc- 
ceed the second built in 1833-44, a small brick structure known as the 
"Long school house" still standing one block east of the Central building. 
Now the records show meetings thick and fast, special, general, private, 
public, resolutions made, passed, rescinded as the debate waxed warm 
upon the site of the new school house, for the rivalry between the various 
factions and the two villages still was great. At last notices were posted 
in the most public places, of a school meeting to be held in the "Long 
school house" on the 15th of March, 1848, to consider three ((uestions: 

First. To establish a site for a school house. 

Second. To vote a tax for a building, and improving the grounds. 

Third. To determine whether a classical department shall be added 
to the school. 

Think of attacking those Have (|uestions in one meeting. On the 
appointed evening the taxable inhabitants assembled. Isaac E. Crary 
in the chair. 

First. The question of a site was put, and after a long discussion, 
arguments pro and con, by a vote of forty-three to twelve, it was decided 
that the sqiiare we now occupy be chosen as a suitable place for the 
new school temple, and that the district board be authorized to purchase 
the same if the same could be had for the sum of five hundred and 
twenty-five dollars. 

Second. It was resolved that a tax of one thousand dollars be 
raised to build the school house and improve the grounds. 

Third. That a classical department be added to the school at the 
earliest possible moment. 


The meeting then adjourned. 

Thus it was that in the center of the town, in the midst of a sciuare 
of primeval bog unoccupied save by its native amphibians and adorned 
only by the rushes and flags bordering its deep ditches, was Ijuilt the 
new school house over sixty years ago, E. T. Gregg architect, 0. P. 
Austin, Benj. Drake, contractors; contract price, five thousand three 
hundred fifty-seven dollars and ninety-one cents. Two stories, rect- 
angular in form, two front doors on the ground, long windows and 
projecting cornices, with a little belfry from which rang out the sum- 
mons to long hard tasks, but without the fountain, trees or flower beds 
of the old time township picture. The inside walls of white-washed 
brick, softly tinted by smoke, were adorned only by well punched maps 
and pencil cartoons, wooden blackboards extended across the front of 
the rooms with sheep-skin erasers and lump chalk, long benches around 
the sides, double desks with fatiguing stool seats "deep carved with 
many initials," and a melodeon to discourse sweet sounds at morning 
chapel. This is the picture on memory's walls. 

Here, on September 28, 1849, the school was first organized as a 
graded or union school under, the law of the preceding ilarch. The 
trustees, Honorables I. E. Crary, 0. P. Austin, C. P. Dibble, Ira Woods, 
Asa B. Cook, moderator, James A. Way, director, W. R. McCall, assessor. 
Thus within twenty years from the time the first pioneers of Marshall 
had set up their household gods in the log cabins they rolled up had 
their patriotism, ambition and love of knowledge established in their 
chosen home that grand institution whose influence should have power 
over all the life of the community. Under date of October 13, 1857, we 
find the first mention of school classification into primary, secondary, 
grammar and high, with report of thirty-three students in the high 
school. This classification continuing under various names until recent 
years when the division became primary, grammar and high, each con- 
sisting of a course of four years. So the early visions of Rev. Pierce 
and General Crary were being realized. 

Among the teachers whose nolile work was so well done and whose 
names were household words over a half century or more ago, we find 
those of Mr. Safford, as principal in the old "Long school house" 
in the early forty's; Mr. Joseph N. Wescott, a noted instructor from 
the east wlio was chosen principal in 1850 and was the first to occupy 
that position under the new organization; Mr. and Mrs. H. A. Pierce, 
whose drills in language, science and mathematics were indeed master- 
pieces; Mr. Tenny and his gifted wife; Mr. Reade ; ponderous J\Ir. 
Graves, and in 1861 Mr. W. S. Perry, later a superintendent in Ann 
Arbor, and many others equally efficient. 

High school life was now tending towards its modern form. It 
was a sort of transition period. The thirty-three pupils increased in 
number, though still counted with those in the grammar department. 
The three R's were still in evidence in the class program, but side by 
side with Greek, German and geometry, for a classical depai'tment had 
been instituted in 1848. Rhetorieals were held every Friday afternoon, 
where orations on Caesar and compositions on Hope delighted the ears 
of admiring friends, with an occasional dialogue for variety. Exami- 


uations were oral ami pulilic. fveryhody came, a special (■(nuiiiillee 
appointed for every class. Think of that, high school studcnis. and in 
mid-summer too. After the examinations came the annual exhiiiition, 
a program of which, dated August 7, 1857, is still extant. That the 
youth of those days were well endowed with literary ahility is showi 
conclusively hy the fifty-eight numbers there recorded. 

The little people now demanded special attention to their wants 
and in 1860. amid the feeling of unrest throughout the nation and the 
mutterings of war around the land, three primary buildings were erected 
in wards one. two and four at a cost of eight thousand dollars. Sheldon 
Smith, architect, E. 0. Crittenton, superintendent of construction. 
These artistic two-room Iniildings kno\ra as the "East Ward," "West 
Ward" and "Capitol Hill," each with a beautiful spacious play ground, 
have been a special ornament to the town for over fifty years, and 
with the ""Park" building erected in the third ward in 1872 at a cost 
of twelve thousand five hundred dollars, have been the earliest school 
homes of Marshall's proud "manor born" citizens — the Mecca of their 
childish hopes and among the dearest memories of their childhood's 

It is now 1868, and again comes up the old familiar (|uestion of a 
new building for the oldci' students, for the life of the town has out- 
grown the old prison looking- edifice of 1847. The gentlemen of the 
board to whom the impoi'tant undertaking of the erection of the new 
building was given were Houorables C. P. Dibble, C. T. Gorham, D. 
Darwin Hughes, E. F. Henderson and George Ingersoll, and well they 
kept their trust. Mr. Dibble was chosen chairman of the committee 
on building, and to the important duties of his position he gave his 
valuable time, business sagacity and personal devotion. In return for 
his services the board voted him the sum of five hundred dollars which, 
with the patriotic generosity of the Dibble spirit he returned to the 
district as the "Dibble Prize Fund," the income of which is given to 
the school each year to be used in a manner determined by the board, 
and to which we owe many of the beautiful pictures which adorn the 
walls of the various rooms. 

On a memorable day in April, 1870, the new building was dedicated, 
a proud day for Marshall, for this new temple, imposing, commodious, 
erected at a great expense of nearly seventy thousand dollars, fitted 
with every convenience then known to the builder, was the result of the 
earnest thought of a people devoted to culture, progress and patriotism. 
A briefless .young attorney, whose only alma mater was the Marshall 
high school we have described, was chosen to deliver the dedicatory 
address, and so masterly was the maiden effort of Mr. T. J. O'Brien 
that that day marked the first step in the brilliant career of one of the 
most popular lawyers of the state and one of the most successful am- 
bassaclors of the United States. 

Now that the building was complete, classification of .schools and 
course of study determined upon, interest began to center upon develop- 
ing special work. The laboratory system of instruction was introduced 
in the science department, and new apparatus added to the electrical 
machine of old time days and the compound microscope given to the 


school by Mr. D. D. Hughes. The library whose nucleus was derived 
from the ten dollars voted to the purchase of books in 1837 received 
attention, Mr. W. J. Dibble, for years one of the most efficient directors 
of the schools, gave proof again of the family interest in the school 
and came to its aid, until today the classic lore purchased in 1837 has 
grown to three thousand volumes. The library has a room of its own 
and is one of the chief factors of the school. In April, 1870, the bell 
iirst rang out for school in the new building with Mr. Henry N. French, 
superintendent, one of the foremost educators of the state, to whose 
twelve years of service so much of the present efficiency of the school 
is due. 

The preceding year there went out into the world the first formal 
graduating class, three young gentlemen well fitted to be the advance 
guard of Marshall's graduates, Herbert E. Davis, Henry M. Haskell 
and Clarence S. Joy, each choosing for himself one of the learned pro- 
fessions in which he has gained deserved success. Each year a new 
class has followed them out into the field of life until now over six 
hundred students liave taken their diplomas from the Marshall high 
school and gone out into the world to do their share of its work. — All over 
the bi-oad land and over the seas, into Europe and tlie far east and 
the distant islands, have the ^larshall students wended their way. 
Many of them have gained an honored name for themselves and their 
alma mater. We find them in the pulpit, at the bar, at the teacher's 
desk and in the physician's office, in the army and in the navy, in 
literary, political and ))usiness life, in the social world and in the home, 
and everywhere we are proud of them. 

It is 1900, the old century is passing, the new is almost here, 
the high school of thirt.y-three students has become nearly two hun- 
dred; crowded class rooms, inefficient laboratories and general incon- 
venience for pi-operly doing the work now required in the high school 
is apparent everywhere, and a demand for a special building is the cry 
of its friends. Again the school board is face to face with the old 
problem, skillfully they meet it, and the new high school building of 
1900 is erected at a cost of twentj'-five thousand dollars. Its spacious 
halls, fine assembly and class rooms, well equipped laboratories, manual 
training and art rooms, special li])rary with reading tables, where 
students come daily for reading and research work, and everywhere 
every modern convenience, attest well the patriotism of Marshall's citi- 
zens. Manual training classes are now established in every grade and 
added to the art department, so our boys and girls go out from the 
school with hand and eye as well as brain well trained to do good work 
for themselves and for the world. The eoiiuty normal school is made 
a part of the system where teachers are prepared for rural school 
work. The whole a grand accomplishment of a great design worthy of 
its far sighted noble originators and worthy of the true patriotic citi- 
zens who gladly support and sustain it. 

In 1911, three-quarters of a century after that historic summer day 
when Michigan's ideal school system was first formulated under the 
branches of one of ilarshall's grand old oaks, a beautiful building was 
erected to take the place of the old "East Ward," now inadequate for 
school purposes. This new school home, ei-ected at a cost of fifteen 



thousand dollars, with every modem convenience and luxury for the 
little people, even to inside play rooms for stormy days, artistically 
finished and adorned with beautiful pictures, is appropriately dedicated 
the "Pierce school" in honor of Rev. John D. Pierce, the "Father of 
the Educational System." 

Thus Mai-shall proudly does special honor to one of her noble pioneer 
citizens whose life and work was an honor to himself, to his chosen 
home, and to the world. 

The Press of .Marshall 

Jill J. M. Moses 

The first newspaper published in Calhoun county was the Calhoun 
Countij Patriot, issued by Henry C. Bunoe. the first number appearing 
October 2, 1836, ^Ir. Bunce being editor and publisher. It was an eight 
column folio containing considerable reading matter considering the 
size of the place and the methods then in use for collecting news. Mr. 
Bunce was acting for a stock company Init later he bought the other 
stockholders and became sole proprietor. January 1, 1841, Francis W. 
Shearman became associate editor, and the name was changed to The 
Di iiiorratic Expounder and Calhoun County Patriot. The motto of the 
publisliers as printed under the heading was "War to the Knife and 
Knife to the Hilt in Defense of Democratic Principles." Mi-. Bunce 
continued as publisher until 1850 when he was succeeded by Chastaiu 
JIann and Jabez Fox. Mr. Fox soon after retired and L. G. Noyes 
became part owner and editor of the paper. He continued in that ca- 
pacity until his death in June, 186-1, from which time Chastain 
ilann continued as sole proprietor until his death in the spring of 
1873. Francis W. Shearman who had retired as editor when Jlr. Noyes 
bought an interest in the paper again assumed editorial coiitiol wlien 
.Mr. Noyes passed away and continued in that capacity until the death 
of JIi-. ^lann. Mr. Shearman was appointed superintendent of public 
instruction in 1849 and was elected to the office in 1851, being the first 
man to be chosen by the people to fill that office. He was re-elected in 
1853. Upon the death of Chastain ]Mann the paper was purcluised l)y 
Samuel S. Lacey, who became editor and proprietor. Mr. Lacey was one 
of many Republicans who followed Horace Greeley into the Democratic 
party. He conducted the paper along the liberal Republican line, but 
after a few years came out as a full fledged Democrat. ]Mr. Lacey con- 
tinued as publisher until 1875 when he leased it to Z. H. Dennison. and 
later to R. I). Buchanan who continued to run it until October, 1881, 
when J. M. ^Moses became publisher, Mr. Lacey continuing as editor with 
the different puiilishers. In 1885 Mr. Lacey having been iippoinfed 
postmaster .=old the paper to the ClironicJe Publisliing C()iii|i;iiiy. iiiid 
the E.rpound(r was consolidated with the Daihi Chroniili. fKuriwhicli 
office its publication wms continued until December. 19()!l. when it was 
consolidated with the Evening Chronieli . 

The Marshall Times was started by .bihii (ircev.-s scun jjftcr tlie 
Patriot appeai-ed but the field was liiiiitcil and it did not live long. 


The- material used for printing the Times was purchased by David L. 
Johns and in the fall of 1837 he launched the Marshall Republican, 
advocating the principles of the Whig party. The Republican lasted 
until after the campaign of 1838, and then passed quietly away. The 
next applicant for public favor in the newspaper world was the West- 
ern Statesman, which appeared Sept. 12, 1839, with Seth Lewis as 
editor and publisher. The paper continued as the W<st( rn S/atesman 
until October 12, 1841, when it was changed to The Mnrsluill Statesman, 
by which title it is still issued as a weekly paper. Seth Lewis continued 
as editor and publisher until January 1866, when he sold out to Bissell 
& Burgess, who conducted the paper for three years when W. R. Lewis 
took Mr. Bissell's place and Burgess & Lewis were at the helm until 
April, 1872, when Setii Lewis again took charge and continued until 
January, 1873, when Morgan Bates assumed control as editor and pro- 
prietor. Mr. Bates, during his stay in Marshall inaugurated several re- 
forms, one in particular, which he advocated and finally carried through, 
was an ordinance prohibiting cattle from running at large in the 
streets. This provoked the enmity of a large number of people who 
owned cows, but after they saw the good effects of the law, were strong 
supporters of "Sir. Bates. In 1878 the property passed to the estate 
of Seth Lewis, and was leased to 0. C. Tompkins. ]\Ir. Tompkins ran 
the sheet two years, when W. R. Lewis and J. M. ]\Ioses took charge. 
Mr. Moses retired in October, 1881, to become publisher of the Ex- 
pounder, and Mr. Lewis continued as editor and publisher until 1892, 
when he sold out to T. G. Stevenson, of Ionia. Mr. W. H. Arthur, who 
had been associated with Mr. Lewis for a few years assumed charge 
of the paper after ]Mr. Stevenson purchased it, and he continued to 
have full control until 1896, when the paper passed into the hands of 
W. J. Gregg and W. II. Arthur. During the time ilr. Stevenson was 
the owner, he had other interests, which took his entire time, so that he 
was in Marshall only occasionally and Mr. Arthur was given a free 
hand to run the paper, according to his own dictation. The partner- 
ship between Mr. Gregg and ilr. Arthur was a brief one, and in 1897 
ilr. Gregg retired, having sold his interest to E. B. Stuart. ]\Ir. Arthur 
was appointed postmaster in 1899, and soon after his appointment, 
Howard E. Pratt, who was then living in Ypsilanti, became associated 
with the paper as city editor. He continued in that capacity until De- 
cember, 1901, when he purchased ]\Ir. Arthur's interest, and became 
one of the publishers and editor. About this time the Statesman 
Publishing Co., was formed, the incorporators being E. B. Stuart and 
H. E. Pratt. These gentlemen continued to conduct the paper and a 
large job printing business, until July, 1905, when Mr. Pratt retired, 
having sold his interest to F. A. Stuart. In the summer of 1886, a daily 
edition was started, but it lived only about a month and was discon- 
tinued. In May. 1911, the Evening Statesman was launched and is 
now being published along with the weekly. The stock of the States- 
man Publishing Co., is owned equally by E. B. Stuart and F. A. 
Stuart, but the latter does not give any of his time to the paper, so that 
Mr. E. B. Stuart has full control and dictates the policy of the paper. 


When the daily edition was started, W. H. Arthur again associated 
himself with the paper as editor; he retired after a few mouths. 

Among tile early writers on the Expounder were Hon. Isaac K. 
Crary, the founder of the school system in Michigan, Rev. Joliii D. 
Pierce, D. Darwin Hughes and others, while J. 0. Balch and K. A. 
Tenney were contrihutors to the colunnis of the Statcsnia)!. 

The Jounial of Education was publislied in ^Marshall in 1838-40, and 
had a genei-al circulation about the state, F. W. Shearman being editor. 
The Trmpeniner Advocate was another paper that had an existense in 
1841, Dr. O. C. Comstock l)eing editor. 

The Family Journal, a literary paper, was published by Martin V. 
Wagner in 1870-71, and later sold to S. S. Woods, of Newburg, X. Y., 
publisher of the Household Mofinzim . 

August 13, 1879, the first number of the Daily Chionicle appeared, 
with F. W. Houghton and Z. II. Deuison as editors and publishers. It 
was a small four-page sheet, three columns to the page, the columns 
being about twelve inches long. It was started as a morning paper, 
but soon after changed to an afternoon sheet. A daily paper in a town 
on 5,000 people was an unheard of proposition in those days, and the 
wise ones predicted a short life for the Chronicle. While the field was 
not a wide one, the publishers were not to be daunted by a few adverse 
criticisms, and continued in the even tenor of their way, and soon 
the Chronicle came to be recognized as one of the fixtures of the city, 
and its opinions on matters in general were looked for at all times. 
Messrs. Boughton & Denison continued to publish the paper until 
1885, when Mr. Dennison retired and ]Mr. Boughton associated himself 
with Samuel S. Lacey in the publication of the Chronicle and Expounder. 
]\Ir. Lace.v retired a year later and Mr. Boughton was at the head of 
both papers until April, 1888, when he sold out to J. ^M. JMoses. Mr. 
Boughton went to Grand Rapids, where he became editorial writer on 
the (Irand h'apids Press, a position which he held until his death, which 
occurred in the sunnner of 1911. During the time the paper was under 
the control of Boughton & Denison it was enlarged at different times, 
until it became a five column folio, of the regulation size. After it 
passed into the hands of ^Ir. Moses, he enlarged it first to a six column 
folio, and later to a seven column folio. When the paper was first 
started it was printed on a Universal .job press, the press being run by 
foot power. After a few years a small Hoe cylinder press was installed, 
and when it became necessary to enlarge to a seven colunni paper, a 
large two revolution Campbell was purchased, and two years ago the 
business of the paper had increased to such extent as to make the in- 
stallation of a duplex jiress possible, and one was purchased of the 
Duplex Printing Press Co., of Battle Creek, the Chronicle being the 
first paper at the county seat to have a press that i)rints from a roll 
and delivers papers printed and folded at the rate of 4,000 copies an 
hour. The Chronicle was also the first paper in Marshall to install a 
standard linotype, one of the latests models being put in in 1909. J. 
M. Moses continued as the sole publisher until 1908, when his son. Frank 
R. Moses, acquired an interest, and now looks after the business end of 


the paper. In 1910 the name was changed to The Evening Chronicle, 
and it is still known by that title. 

The Calhoun County Democrat, published by Henry Banner, made its 
appearance in 1890, but as the Democrats lost the national election that 
year, the paper ceased to exist soon after the fall election. 

The next paper to make its appearance was the Marshall News, 
which started in March, 1898. George E. Willetts was editor and a 
stock company, headed by A. C. Wisner, were publishers. The News 
was started to help along the silver cause in the vicinity of the county 
seat, as the fusion ticket, advocating the Bryan policy had been success- 
ful in the county in 1896, and it was hoped to perpetuate the cause 
in the county by the means of the News. In the fall of 1900, a daily edi- 
tion was started, which is still in the field. J\Ir. Willetts continued at the 
head of the paper until Januai-y, 1805, when it was sold to W. A. Lane 
and D. W. Knickerbocker. A few months later ilr. Lane retired from 
active duty and D. W. Knickerbocker became editor and publisher, the 
paper being owned by him at the present time. 

Marshall probably has the distinction of being the only city of less 
than 5,000 population in the world with three daily newspapers. 

In tlie early days a number of school papers were published, but 
none of them survived any great length of time. 

Lawyers of Marshall, Past and Present 

By Herbert E. \yinsur 

Hon. William II. lirown was born in Pomfort, near Norwich, New 
London county. ( (iiiiicclirut, December 9, 1812. He was educated in 
Plaintield Acadiuiy and in Yale College law school. He then went to 
Utica, New York, where he continued his law studies and later came to 
Marshall, where he was admitted to the bar in 1839. In 1854, Mr. 
Brown was elected prosecuting attorney for Calhoun county and was 
re-elected in 1856. He was assistant United States district attorney, 
which office he held seven years. For a number of years after he came 
to Marshall, Mr. Brown was the only attorney in the city. In later 
years he was associated as partner with John VanArman, Robert Cross, 
who was formerl}' a partner of Caleb Cushiug, and later was in partnei'- 
ship with James B. Greenough. Mr. Brown was a noted character 
in the legal history of Marshall ; a man of mai'ked personal appear- 
ance, standing over six feet in height, and was eminently social and 
genial in disposition. He was a man of letters and possessed one of 
the largest private law libraries in Miciiigan. Mr. Brown was for a 
long time president of the Calhoun County Bar Association and took 
great pleasure in the progress and culture of the bar of the county. 

Hon. J. Wright Gordon was born at Plainfield, Windora county, 
Connecticut, in 1809. He was a noted politician and a gentleman of 
thorough culture. He was a graduate of Harvard college and after 
his graduation was for a time professor at Geneva, New York. While 
in Geneva he studied law and was admitted to the bar in New York. 
In 1835, j\Ir. Gordon established himself permanently in Marshall, 


]\Iichigan. He was elected second lieutenant governor of Michigan and 
after the election of Gov. Woodbridge to the United States Senate, 
Mr. Gordon became acting governor. He accepted the consulship to 
South America under President Taylor, hoping that the change of 
climate would restore his failing health, but he died at his official post 
in 1849. Sir. Gordon was a man of great natural ability and force 
of character and won distinction as a lawyer, public speaker and poli- 
tician. He was an active worker in the Whig party. 

Hon. Benjamin F. Graves was probably mentioned in the list of 
la\\Ters living at Battle Creek. He was circuit judge for a number 
of years and presided over the court at JIarshall, but was a resident 
of Battle Creek. He was elected to the supreme court of the state. 

The Honorable George Woodruff was born in Bingbamton, New 
York. July 4, 1807. He was the son of a farmer. He graduated from 
Hobart college. New York, at the age of twenty-two. While in college 
he was confirmed in the Episcopal church. After his marriage to Miss 
Augusta Schuyler, he moved to Michigan in 1837. In 1846 he was 
elected county judge, holding the office two terms, when the new constitu- 
tion threw him out. 

In 1866, he was elected circuit judge, having been previously ap- 
pointed by the governor to fill vacancy in the circuit. At the expira- 
tion of the term, he was re-elected by a large majority. Owing to his 
advanced age, this was his last term. He was a great lover of the 
classics ; a constant reader of the Latin and Greek authors. 

He was a man of marked patriotism. All his boys went into the 
army at the outbreak of the Civil war. 

He died on the 13th of May. 1887. lacking but a few weeks of being 
eighty years old. 

In an obituary written at that time, he is described as "One of 
the men who helped to lay the foundations of the state, and did nnu'li 
to rear the splendid commonwealth in which we live." The obituary 
further adds that "Judge Woodruff' was a patriot, a scholar, a highbred 
gentleman. WHiile a man of stern integrity, he was a good friend and 
neighbor, honored and loved by all who knew him." 

Hon. Francis Willitt Shearman, one of the pioneers of the Marshall 
and Calhoun county bar, was born in Vernon, Oneida county, New 
York. June 20, 1817. He was graduated from Hamilton college in 
1836 and came to ^Marshall almost immediately after his graduation, 
and was admitted to the bar. In 1837, he entered the government 
service under Hon. Henry Lawrence Schoolcraft, his uncle, then Indian 
agent for the Northwest. In 1838, he was married to Caroline S. 
Williams, the daughter of Stalham Williams, a prominent banker of 
Utica, New York. Seven children blessed their union, two of whom 
are now living. Lawrence Schoolcraft Shearman of Minneapolis, Minne- 
sota, and 'Sirs. Frances C. Page, of Marshall. 

In 1839. Sir. Shearman repaired to Washington on public business, 
acting at the same time as Washington correspondent for the Detroit 
Free Prcxx. in which capacity he won a national reputation as a public 

Upon the urgent solicitations of Hon. John D. Pierce, then super- 


intendent of public instruction, I\Ir. Shearman returned to Marshall to 
take up the duties of assistant superintendent of public instruction, and 
the publication of the Journal of Education. 

In 1840, Mr. Shearman became editor of the Democratic Expounder, 
one of the leading Democratic journals of central Michigan, with the 
principals of which party he was ever an unswerving and earnest sup- 

As a writer, he was polished, forcible, independent and aggressive, 
and as a public speaker he excelled. 

In 1846, Mr. Shearman was elected associate justice of the county 
court with Judge Hall of Battle Creek, which office he held until 1848. 

In 1849 and again in 1851 he was elected to the office of superin- 
tendent of public instruction for Michigan, and his services in this 
office, as shown in his several annual reports, constitute a most noble 
monument to the name and fame of Judge Shearman. The report for 
year 1852, which was at that time the most comprehensive and valuable 
work on our primary school system then extant, was widely sought 
by other states, and quoted as authority upon this subject. It gave a 
mighty impulse towards the adoption and perfection of the school system 
both in Michigan, and in other states, and it is justly due to say that 
during his superintendency Michigan's superior school system assumed 
the efficiency which characterizes it today. In addition to above men- 
tioned public service. Judge Shearman held the office of justice of 
the peace for about thirty years. 

Judge Shearman passed away at his home in Marshall, December 
7, 1874. 

Hon. Frank A. Hooker was a resident of the city of Charlotte, Eaton 
county. He presided for three terms as circuit judge of the fifth judicial 
circuit and held court at Mai-shall. 

Hon. James A. Miner was born at Marshall, September 9, 1842. 
After graduating from the Lyons Institute he commenced the study 
of law in the office of Gov. Baker of Clinton, Iowa. On his return to 
Marshall he resumed his studies in the law office of H. A. and L. G. 
Noyes and later in the office of John C. Fitzgerald. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1863. Mr. Miner was appointed United States commis- 
sioner for the eastern district of Michigan, in 1868. In 1866, he was 
elected circuit court commissioner and re-elected in 1868. In 1870 he 
was elected prosecuting attorney and re-elected to that office in 1872. 
In Januai-y, 1876, Mr. Miner formed a law partnership with Francis 
A. Stace, now of Grand Rapids. He was appointed United States 
judge for Utah and served until Utah was admitted to the Union. He 
was then elected as one of the supreme court judges of LTtah and oc- 
cupied that office for four years. Mr. Miner was possessed of remark- 
able tenacity of purpose and executive ability of no common order. 

D. Darwin Hughes was born in Camillus, New York, Febraary 1, 
1823 and came to the state of IMiehigan in 1840. He was admitted 
to the bar in Calhoun county in 1846 and commenced active practice of 
his profession. The law firm of Hughes, "Wooley and Hayes was' for a 
long time one of the strongest law firms in the state. Mr. Wooley 
afterwards died and Mr. Hayes removed to the state of Iowa. From 


the time of coniiueucing active practice at Marshall until he removed 
to the city of Grand Rapids, a number of years afterwards, his repu- 
tation as a lawyer gradually extended until his entire time was devoted 
to the trial of legal eases. At Grand Rapids he was at the head 
of the well known linn of Hughes, O'Brien and Smiley and was for 
a number of years general counsel for the Grand Rapids and Indiana 
Railroad Company. It is said that his greatest strength was in the 
argument of purely legal questions before the court. His arguments 
were complete, graceful and strong. Upon the whole he was fully 
entitled to rank as he did, as one of the ablest lawyers of the northwest. 
He died on the 12th day of July, 1883, at Grand Rapids Micliigan. 
For a more full report of this man see 51st Mich. Rep., page 25. 

Hon. Thomas J. O'Brien was born July 3. 1842, on a farm in Jack- 
son county. His parents were good old Irish stock and emigrated to 
Michigan in 1837. IMr. O'Brien was educated in the district schools of 
Jackson county and the high school of Marshall. He began the study 
of law in his ISth year and completed his law studies in the University 
of Michigan and was admitted to the bar in 1854, when he was twenty-one 
years of age, and soon after entered into a law partnership with J. C. 
Fitzgerald at ^Marshall, Michigan. This partnership was continued for 
a number of years, when Mr. O'Brien removed to the city of Grand 
Rapids and became a member of the firm of Hughes, 'Brien and Smiley, 
consisting of D. Darwin Hughes. Thomas J. O'Brien and ^I. J. Smiley. 
This copartnership continued until the death of Mr. Hughes. Mr. 
O'Brien was then appointed general counsel for the Grand Rapids and 
Indiana Railroad and remained such until President Roosevelt appointed 
him minister to Denmark, and he has continued in the diplomatic service 
since that time, serving very acceptably and successfully as minister to 
Japan, and now as minister to Italy is residing at Rome. Mr. O'Brien's 
career makes him one of the honored sons of Michigan, of whom we are 
all justly proud. 

Hon. Horace A. Noyes was born in Prescott, Chenango county, New 
York, February 20, ISio. He completed his legal course at Perrington, 
New York, in 1833 and was admitted to the bar in Rochester. He 
practiced law for a time at Plymouth, Michigan, and later opened a 
law office in Marshall, where he was a.ssociated with his brothers, Nathan 
and Lucius and William H. Porter. In 1835, Mr. Noyes was elected to 
the legislature and in 1844 elected probate judge of Calhoun county, serv- 
ing twelve years. In 1857, Judge Noyes resumed his place at the bar and 
was employed in many important cases. He was regarded as one of the 
ablest legal advisers in the city. He possessed a genial disposition and 
a large, unselfish nature. He died April 20, 1877. 

Lucius G. Noyes was a brother of Horace A. Noyes and was in part- 
nership with him up until his death, in 1864. Mr. Noyes was proprietor 
of the Marshall Erpoitiuhr and for a number of years was its editor. He 
possessed fine legal ability and was an indefatigable worker in attending 
to the Inisiness of the law firm. 

Hon. Philip T. VanZile lived in Charlotte, Michigan. He was judge 
of the circuit court of the fifth judicial circuit for two teinis and pre- 


sided over the court at Marshall during that time. Judge VauZile is 
now one of the circuit judges of the county of Wayne at Detroit. 

Francis A. Stace was born in the Borough of Lewes, Sussex, England, 
June 2, 1884. He devoted much of his time to reading law up until 
1862, when he was admitted to the bar of Calhoun county. Mr. Stace 
was elected justice of the peace, which position he held bj' re-election 
for eight years. He was educated in the Church of England, but with his 
mother joined the church of Rome in 1848. Pie became a citizen of the 
United States in 1862. In politics Mr. Stace was a Democrat. He has 
had great success as a lawyer, especially in chancery cases. He has 
lately become the author of Stace 's Chancery Forms and Practice. Mr. 
Stace is now engaged in the active practice of his profession at the city 
of Grand Rapids. 

Williana DeForrest Adams was born the 25th day of June, 1839, 
in the township of Burlington, Calhoun county, Michigan. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of the township where he resided and the 
high school at Coldwater. Later he attendeil Albion college. lie com- 
menced the study of law in 1863, in the law office of Sidney Thomas in 
Marshall, and afterwards completed his law studies in the office of 
Hughes and Wooley. Mr. Adams was admitted to the bar on the 28th 
day of November, 1869, and soon after his admission formed a law part- 
nership with Sidney Thomas in Marshall and l)egan the practice of law. 
Later he left that firm and formed a jiartnership with Ira E. Randall, 
which continued for a short time. .Mr. .\il;iins continuing his practice 
alone. In 1870, he was appointed dipulN cullcftor of revenvie of the third 
district of Michigan. He was elected justice of the peace and circuit 
court commissioner, which office he held three terms. In 1869 ]\Ir. 
Adams was appointed United States commissioner for the sixth circuit 
of the eastern district of Michigan, which office he held as long as he 
lived. Mr. Adams was a mason and in polities a Republican. He was 
a man of fine ajipearance and address and well read in the law. He was 
leading counsel in the Perrin litigation. 

Hon. Abner Pratt was born in Springfield, Otsego county. New York, 
October 27, 1801. His educational advantages were very limited. He 
read law in Batavia and afterward went to Rochester and commenced 
the practice of law, where he remained until ls:;i). He came to Marshall 
in 1839. Mr. Pratt was elected to the leui<Liiiiii in 1S4."> and again in 
1862. In 1858 he was appointed consul to Honolulu In- President 
Buchanan. He was a member of both the supreme and circuit courts. 
Mr. Pratt was resolute and imperious in his manner, an able lawyer and 
good judge. 

Hon. William H. Porter was born in Marengo, Calhoun county, Mich- 
igan, September 27, 1839. He was educated in tiie common schools and 
a graduate of Kalamazoo college in 1859. He later entered the law de- 
partment of the University of ilichigan, graduating in 1862, with the 
degree of bachelor of laws. He was admitted to the Washtenaw county 
bar in the fall of 1862. He then went to Marshall and entered the office 
of H. A. and L. G. Noyes in April, 1865, the firm being Noyes and Porter. 
This continued up until 1877, when Judge Noyes on account of failing 
health retired. Mr. Porter was mayor of Marshall five years and city 

IIIS'I'OK'V OF CALIlOi N col N'l'V l'77 

attorney Iwrlvc years. iriciiil)ri' of tlic scIkkiI l»iai-(l lliiily yrai's. In 1S,S4. 
1r' \va.s\'lrctr(l jirosccutin-- attorney of the county of Callionn and con- 
tiniUHl in tin- active practice of law until lie was eleeteil judK'' of jn'oliale 
in VMS. .Mr. Porter is a student, an energetic worker and lias a liijih 
rank among the members of the legal profession. 

Sidney Thomas was admitted to the bar at JMarshall. He was cir- 
cuit court commissioner of tlie county for one terra. He practiced law 
but a short time in the county, liut removed to Chicago, where he prac- 
ticed law for a number of years before his death. 

James B. Greenough came from one of the eastern states in the sixty 's 
and was at one time co-partner of William H. Browai. On the dissolu- 
tion of the firm ho jiracticed law alone for two or three year's and was 
then called to a iirofessoislii]) in Harvard university, where he remained 
until his death. Mr. (Jicenough was a man of exemplary habits, literary 
in his character and a close student. 

Charles 0. Jliller was born in the township of Marengo, Calhoun 
county, on the 20th day of November, 1859. He was educated in the 
public schools of Marshall and later entered the law department at the 
university of Michigan, graduating in 1888. He then entered the prac- 
tice of his profession at ^larshall, forming a co-partnership with his 
brother Louis C. Miller. Mr. Miller is a Republican in polities, sei-ved 
as deputy county clerk for a long number of years, also justice of the 
peace for seven years and city attorney one year. He is now in the active 
practice of his profession at Marshall. 

John C. Patterson was born in Eckford, Calhoun county, March 27, 
1838. He was educated at the Wesleyan Seminary at Albion and Hills- 
dale college, from which he graduated in 1864. He then entered the 
Albaliy law school and was admitted to the bar at Albany, New York, in 
1865. Later he came to Marshall and on the 2d of December, 1867, be- 
came a member of the tirm of Brown and Patterson, which firm continued 
in active practice for a long number of years. Mr. Patterson served four 
years in the state senate, which was his only political office. Mr. Pat- 
terson has liravel.v won his high standing at the bar in an arena where 
learning and ability alone could secure it and where diligence and fidelity 
alone could retain it. 

Herbert E. Winsor was horn at Sterling Hill, Connecticut, October 
22, 1850. His school days were passed in LaSalle county, Illinois, where 
his parents moved when he was a child. He became a student at Hills- 
dale college, graduating in 1873. He took up his residence in Marshall 
and was admitted to the bar in 1875. In 1876 he was elected circuit 
court connnissioner, and served two terms. He was also prosecuting at- 
torney for the county two terms. When Calhoun county was set aside 
as the thirty-seventh judicial circuit, he was appointed circuit judge by 
Gov. Bliss, April 4. 1901. He is now engaged in the active practice of 
his profession at ^Marshall. 

John E. Foley was born at Homer, February 28, 1852. He attended 
school in Homer and for a time in Hillsdale College. In August, 1875, 
Mr. Foley entered the law- office at Miner and Stace, at Marshall, and 
was admitted to the ])ar in Jlarch, 1877. He liecame a member of the 
firm of Geer and Foley in 1878. Mr. Foley ser\'ed as city attorney 


several years. He i^as elected justice of the peace and pi-osecuting 
attorney. He now resides in the city of Detroit.. 

John C. Stetson was born in Bangor, Franklin county, New Yoi-k, 
October 30, 1845. He studied law in Marshall with Joseph G. Lodge 
and completed his studies with John C. Fitzgerald. Mr. Stetson was 
county clerk for three terms. In 1871 he was admitted to the bar and 
in 1877 began the practice of his profession. He later removed to 
Chicago where he still resides. 

Edward J. Dennison was born at Marshall September 29, 1874. He 
studied law in the office of R. S. Lockton and later with John C. Pat- 
terson. He wa.s admitted to the bar in 1900 and immediately began 
the practice of his profession at Marshall, where he resided until 1911, 
when he removed to the state of California and is now located in Los 
Angeles. He was a Democrat in politics. Mi'. Dennison was justice of 
the peace and also city attorney for two years. 

Jesse Monroe Hatch was born in the township of Lee, in Calhoun 
county, Michigan, May 27, 1858. He was educated in the public schools 
of Marshall and studied law in the office of Willis S. Geer. He gradu- 
ated from the law school of the university of Michigan in the class of 
1880. After completing his course he continued his law studies in the 
office of Judge Woodruff in the city of Marshall and after one year open- 
ed an office and has been engaged in the practice of law ever since. He 
is now associated with his two sons, Jay Warren Hatch and Blaine Wil- 
lard Hatch, two young lawyers. Mr. Hatch was elected prosecuting at- 
torney two terms and served one term in the state legislature. 

Louis C. Miller was born in Marengo township, Calhoun county and 
■educated in the schools of Marshall and the law school at Ann Arbor, 
from which he graduated in 1882. He immediately entered the practice 
■of law in Marshall. He was appointed county clerk, serving from 1SS2 to 
1888, and as circuit court commissioner one term, alderman of the city 
for three terms and supervisor of the first ward of the cit.y four years. 
He was elected as chairman of the board of supervisors one year. He 
died in 1911. Mr. Miller was a man of large ability and had a strong 
and earnest personality. 



The Celebratkd C'kdsswuite Affair — Caliioin County Veteran 
Battalion (by II. II. ^Iiller. Colonel) — C. Colegrove Post No. 166, 
G. A. R. (BY II. II. ]\Iiller. Post Patriotic Instructor) — Di'lcenia 

IIo.Mli (BY W. .1. DlBBI.K). 

In tliis rhaptcr mic grouped a cfleliralctl slavery rase, wliieli long pre- 
I'l'ded the Ci\il wai'. Yarious iiiilitarY and patriotie matters, and the 
founding of a splendid benevolence by a CiYil war woman. 

The Celebr.vted Crosswhite 

About the year eighteen hundred, there was born in Bourlion county, 
Kentucky, a mulatto child, the son of a slave mother by her master, who 
was a white farmer. Su])sequently the father of the child gave hiin to 
his half sister, a Miss Crosswhite, who named her slave brother Adam 
Crosswhite. Some time after, Miss Croswhite married a slave owner 
named Stone, who sold young Adam for two hundred dollars to P"'rancis 
Giltner, a planter in Carroll count.v, Kentucky. 

In 1843, at which time Adam had a wife anil four children, lie learned 
that his master contemplated selling part of his family. He thei-eupon 
determined to attempt escape with his wife and children. He succeeded 
in getting them all across the Ohio river, but twice they narrowly avoided 
capture by pursuers, which was only prevented by the friendly 
aid of some Quakers, who got them aboard of the "Underground Rail- 
road," and started on their way north. In making their escape, the 
family became separated, but later all came together at Marshall. -Michi- 
gan, where the.v lived a quiet, industrious and frugal life, and were 
gr,flduall.v paying for the little cabin home in which they lived, situated 
in the eastern part of the city, not far from the line of the present Inter- 
urban railroad. 

Something of their past becoming known, an unfiiendl.v s]iirit re- 
ported their whereabouts to their master in Kentucky, whereupon lie took 
measures to see if the report was indeed true. It was in tiie late fall 
of 1846, that the slave owner's emissary arrived in Marshall. By false 
pretenses, he gained access to the home and the confidence of the Cross- 
whites, wliere be satisfied himself that the occupants wei-e. with the ex- 
ception of a babe boi'n in Marshall. tln> fugitives he was looking for. 



Returning to Kentucky with his information, Giltner authorized certain 
persons to proceed to ilarshall, arrest the escaped slaves and bring them 
to their master. 

It was in the early morning of January 26, 1847, that one, Trout- 
man, a nephew of Giltner, and three other Kentuckians, accompanied 
by a deputy sheriff named Dickson, went to the Crosswhite home and 
proceeded to carry their puri^ose into effect. During the parley about 
going before the justice, and while the mother was getting the children 
ready to go out on the cold winter morning, it had become noised around 
the town and people began to gather aliout the Crosswhite cabin. The 
number increased until, according to testimony later given in a United 
States court, there had assembled from one hundred and fifty to three 
hundred people, and numbering among them some of the foremost 
citizens of the place. In the crowd were several negroes, who threatened 
to resist by force the taking of the Crosswhite family, brandishing clubs 
and kiiixcs and assiuniug menacing attitudes toward the Kentuckians, 
wlieriMi|>(iii the lattci- drew their pistols and prepared for defense. The 
deputy slici'itt arrested several, and the excitement increased as the crowd 
grew in number. During the turmoil it was proposed by someone in the 
crowd to give the visiting Kentuckians two hours in wliicli to leave town ; 
someone else suggested that they be prosecuted for house-breaking and 
kidnapping if they did not go, and still another that tlie\- should he tarred 
and feathered if they remained. 

Troutman, Giltner 's nephew and principal agent, a l>rinlit , young 
lawyer, caught the attention of the crowd and iiieseut<'(l I lie Idllowing: 
"Resolved, That I as agent of Francis Giltner of Cari'oll county, Ken- 
tucky, be permitted peaceably to take the family of Crosswhite before 
Shearman, a .justice, that I may make proof of property in the slaves, 
and take them to Kentucky. ' ' But one or two votes were heard in sup- 
port of the resolution, and these presumably, by the Kentuckians assist- 
ing Troutman. 

In the meantime, Gorham, Comstoek, Kurd, Easterly and others, 
seeing the state of public mind assured Troutman, that he could not 
take the Crosswhites, it was alleged that at this .iuncture Gorham said, 
"You have come here after some of our citizens and you cannot have 
them." Dr. Comstoek said, "You cannot take them by moral, physical 
or legal force, and you might as well know it as last, and the 
cjuicker you leave the ground, the better for you." Whereupon Gen. 
Gorham offered the following: "Resolved, That these Kentuckians shall 
not take the Crosswhite family by virtue of moral, physical or legal 
force." This resolution was passed bj' general acclamation and atten- 
ded by much noise. 

In the midst of the general confusion, Troutman proceeded to take 
the names of certain parties in the crowd, and first that of Charles T. 
Gorham; as he did so, the General said, "Put it down in capital letters." 
Coming to Dr. Comstoek and asking his name, the Doctor replied, 
"Charles Cromwell Comstoek, Jr. Put down the .iunior, .so as not to 
confuse my father with me." AVhile this was going on, a warrant was 
issued for the arrest of Troutman on a charge of assault and battery, 
whereupon he was taken into custody. The trial lasted parts of two 


days. Ill the iiieantiiiie, the C'rosswhitfs witi^ cm ihcii' way In ('aiuida, 
whore they sul)se(iueutly arrived, and w lirn' they wimt iin Inii^cr in iVar 
of lieiiig molested by slave liuuters or taken liaek into liondagc 

Troutmaii was released from custody, when he and his associates I'l'- 
tiirned to Kentucky, where a full leport was made antl wide puhlicity 
given. The whole state of Kentucky became iutiamed by the reported 
"outrage coiiiniitted at .Marshall. Michigan." A mass meeting was held 
by the (.-itizeus of Trimble and Carroll counties, of sutifieieiit influence, 
to bring the whole matter to the attention of the Kentucky legislature, 
where the subject was referred to a Committee on Federal Relations. 
The committee, on the affidavit of Troutman as to the facts in the case 
at ^Marshall, lecited these as a sort of preamble, in which they said, 
"The Committee on Federal Relations, to whom were referred the jiro- 
ceediugs of the people of the counties of Trimble and Carroll, in relation 
to a recent abolition mob in the town of ]\larshall, in the state of ^lieh- 
igan, have had the same under consideration, and submit the following 
report : 

"It appears to the satisfaction of the committee that one, Francis 
Troutman, was employed as agent and attorne.y in part for one, Francis 
Giltuer, in the county of Carroll, to go to the said town of J\larsliall, in 
the state of Michigan, to reclaim, take and bring back to the state of 
Kentucky, certain fugitive and run-away slaves, the property of said 
Giltuer; that said Troutman proceeded under authority of law thus 
given him, to the said town of ^larshall, for the purpose of reclaiming 
and bringing home to the owner the slaves aforesaid; and while en- 
deavoring to arrest said slaves, a mob composed of free negroes, run-away 
slaves and white men, to the number of from two to three hundred, for- 
bid said Troutman, and those who accompanied him for that pur]iose, 
to arrest and take into their possession the slaves aforesaid, and l)y their 
threats, riots and disorderly conduct, tlid prevent said Troutman, and 
those associated with him for that purjiosc. from taking into thcii' po.s- 
se.ssion the slaves aforesaid." 

Following the report is a series of resolutions, one of which is 
addressed to the legislature of Michigan, one to the senators and repre- 
sentatives in congress, and one to the governor of Kentucky, requesting 
that the resolutions be sent to the governor of the state of ilichigan and 
to the senators and members in congress. The resolutions were passeil, 
duly authenticated by the great seal of the state and forwarded as di- 
rected, accompanied by a lengthy affidavit by Francis Troutman. 

On December 20, 1847, the report and resolutions of the general 
assembly of Kentucky on the .Marshall affair were reported in the senate 
of the United States and referred to the committee on the .judiciary and 
ordered printed. .Alay 3, ISiS, in the senate of the United States, Senator 
Butler from the judiciary committee, submitted his report, which was 
ordered printed and Kt.OUO additional copies were ordered printed for 
the use of the senate. 

From the legislative point of view, the result of the whole affair was 
the strengthening of the law of 1793, having for its object the recapture 
of escaping slaves. It also exerted an important influence in favor of 
the passage of the famous Omnibus bill, fathered and supported by i\Ir. 


Clay, at that time a senator from Kentucky, in which was a paragraph, 
embodying the famous fugitive slave law. That law and its attempted 
execution exerted a powerful influence in precipitating the war of 1861- 
1865, which resulted in the abolition of slavery wherever the constitu- 
tional authority of the United States extends. The legal aspect of the 
case engaged national attention. In June, 18-48, in the city of Detroit, 
before Justice ]\IcLane, a distinguished member of the federal bench, 
there was brought to trial, Gorham, Comstock, Hurd and others, for pre- 
venting the capture of escaped fugitive slaves. Troutman had returned 
from Kentucky with plenty of money, and an imposing array of council 
to engage in a battle royal, this time in the legal forum. The interests 
of the defendants were looked after by equally able attorneys. In the 
first trial, the jury, after being out all night, reported a disagreement, 
and were discharged. The second trial took place in the following No- 
vember, in which the jury rendered a verdict for the plaintiffs for 
$1,926.00, the estimated value of the slaves, and costs. . 

The case not only attracted state wide but national attention. Among 
those who took an especial interest in the trial was Zachariah Chandler, 
then a prosperous merchant and rising political power in Detroit. 
Chandler, at that time a man of thirty-five, was thoroughly in sympathy 
witii the defendants in the trial. He was a stranger to -Mr. Gorham, but 
fie sought him out and made his acquaintance. When the verdict was 
rendered, he tendered material aid in paying the costs of the trial. From 
that time. Chandler and Gorham were fast friends to the end of life. 
Gorham had always been a Democrat, but when the Republican party 
was born under the oaks at Jackson, he allied himself with it and never 
after departed from it. In later years, when Mr. Chandler was a Sena- 
tor of the United States and a power in national politics, Mr. Gorham 
was appointed, by President Lincoln, minister to the Netherlands, a 
diplomatic post of honor and dignity, which post he filled with great 
acceptance to the government he represented, and with entire accept- 
ability to the Netherlands. Later, when Mr. Chandler became secretary 
of the interior during the administration of President Grant, IMr. Gor- 
ham was made assistant secretary. iMr. Gorham long survived most of 
his distinguished contemporaries, dying at an advanced age, lionored and 
esteemed l)y all who knew him. 


By H. M. Miller, Colonel of BaUalion. 

From official records of the state, Calhoun county sent to the front 
in 1861 to 1865, twelve companies of infantry, seven companies of 
cavalry, tiirce eompanies of sharpshooters, two companies of engineers 
and lueilijinics. two companies of artillery, with one comr)any of colored 
infantry, which gave tlie county rank with the five best counties of 
Michigan, furnishing largest number of soldiers during the war. 

In the year 1890. the survivors of these companies completed the 
organization styled "The Soldiers and Sailors Calhoun County Veteran 


Battalion" of whirli all lionoralily disrliargvd soldiers and saihirs iiiav 
become members. 

The offieers of the battalion are as follows: Colonel, Lieutenant 
Colonel. Major. Surgeon. Adjutant Chaplain, (Quartermaster, Sergeant 
Jlajor, Quartermaster Sergeant, and an executive conunittee. 

"The Woman's Relief Corps" auxiliary to the Grand Army of the 
Republic, togetiier with the "Sons of Veterans," who must soon take 
their fathers' place, and on whom rests the responsibility of perpetuat- 
ing their memories, are earnestly enjoined to take part in all I'eunions 
in that fraternal spirit, known only to those whose interests are so closely 
interwoven as to be identical. 

The first annual reunion was held on the fairgrounds at Marshall, on 
August 19. 20 and 21. 1890 with tine weather, good attendance, gootl 
success and a hopeful future. The organization was formed for the 
purpose of strengthening the ties that bind comrades to each other, lo 
enjoy the fellowship of the living and to unite in the tender memories 
of the dead. At every reunion, comrades are sure to meet comrades, who 
marched together, elbow to elbow, fifty years ago and w-ho in those days 
proved to be the greatest actors on scores of battle-fields, from Sumter 
to Appomattox, amidst the most aw-ful scenes of suffering and death, 
that was ever witnessed by man. Such meetings are enli\(Micd by pa- 
triotic enthusiasm ; the memories of hard fought battles and w tar,\ ni^lits 
of marching crowd upon the mind, and there is apparent solciiui thought 
due to the sight of so many gray-haired comrades and to the rapid flight 
of time since 1861, w-hen all were young and strong. The enjoyment of annual reunions proves to be a ])leasant memoi'y to the soldiers 
in their declining years. 

The battalion pos-sesses a beautiful silk banner. i)urchascd in IDIH, 
l)y the quartermaster at a cost of !}!3r).()(), with funds belonging to file 
battalion, which is proudly unfurled on all battalion occasions. 

The comrades rememlier well when fifty years ago secession raised her 
traitorous hand to strike down that banner and President Lincoln called 
for volunteers, to defend it and the nation, and how it was the flag and 
the lessons it had taught that caused the loyal sons to leave their homes 
and all that they held dear to rally to its defense, and who became the 
greatest heroes on fields of battle, that the world has ever known. 

All reunions of the battalion are held each year at 6. A. R. Hall in 
^larshall, were after the business session and noon banquet, an interest- 
ing camp-tire is held, consisting of short addresses, stories, songs, and 
recitations. These occasions are most enjoyable. 

The last roster of the battalion in 1911 contains the names of ninety 
soldiers, forty-three Sons of Veterans and seventy -six citizens, who i)nr- 
chased badges. 

In 1899, the roster contained the names of 288 soldiers and l(j citizens. 

In 1901, it contained 124 soldiei-s. 

In 1908, it contained 173 soldiers and 181 citizens. 

In 1908. the roster contained 141 soldiers and 60 citizens. 

The battalion had on its rolls some of the most respected, honored 
and eminent men in the county. The following is a partial list including 
the names of past commanders of the battalion. 


The Hon. Washington Gardner, 65th Ohio Infantry, past department 
commander, ex-secretary of state and former congressman third district. 

Col. George W. Stone of Albion, present department commander. 

Hon. Perry Mayo, Second i\liehigan Infantry. 

Hon. H. A. Chite, ^Merrils Horse. 

Col. 0. A. Janes, U. S. pension agent, Detroit. 

Patrick Kelley, former lieutenant governor. 

The following are past eomiiianders of the battalion: Colonel C. E. 
Shumway. Marshal]; Colonel W. H. Janes. Homer; Colonel C. T. Smith, 
Albion; Cobincl Jas. C. Hall, Battle Creek; Colonel Ephraim Marble, 
.^hiishiill ; Colonel S. N. Hall. Hurlington ; Colonel II. L. Carpenter, 
Atliciis: ( 'olonel E. E. Palmer. M. D., Albion; Colonel David Walkinshaw, 
.Maish.ill : Colonel William Dowsett, Battle Creek; Colonel Arthur Phil- 
lips, .Marshall; Colonel S. S. French, Battle Creek; Colonel H. A. Clute, 
.Marshall; Colonel Edward Cunningham, Battle Creek; Colonel C. F. 
Walters, Marshall; Colonel F. T. Dennison, Battle Creek; Colonel H. F. 
Gilbert, Albion; Colonel C. E. Ilillis, Battle Creek; Colonel J. H. Steph- 
ens, Battle Creek; Colonel 0. G. Hubbard, Albion: Colonel H. H. Miller, 
Marshall (1912.) 

C. CoLEGKOVE Post, No. 166, G. A. E., Marshall 
By H. H. Miller, post patriotic instructor. 

The name "Colegrove" calls to mind memories of the past, which 
denote patriotism to the utmost sacrifice, and bring pride and pleasure 
to every comi-ade of the post as well as to every citizen of Marshall. 

Every post is named after some brave and loyal hero, who has passed 
away. Calvin Colegrove, who enlisted at Marshall, in April, 1861, was 
the first Michigan soldier to lose his life in the service of his country, 
falling while carrying Ihi- tlag into b:ittle on the historic held of ^Manasses, 
June 27, 1861. 

It is said that his body rests in an unmarked and unknown grave on 
the battlei.eld ol Bull Run with tiiousands of the nation's heroes, yet 
his memory has been perpetuated by his comrades, and will endure as 
long as C. Colegrove Post shall survive. 

The original charter of the post was granted July 30, 1883, and 
contained twenty-two names of members, fifteen of whom have since 
answei'ed their last roll-call. 

The idsiei- of the post now contains but sixty living members out of 
240, wh(] have siuiied thi' roster. The "roll of honor'' contains the names 

of 242 soldi.. IS buried 111 the .Marshall eemetei'ies. 

In till' year IIHIL' the ])((st dedicated lis new hall, which was built in 
the East End park by the Grand Army of the Republic and the Woman's 
Relief Corps, at a cost of $3,000, which was donated by them and the 
generous citizens of Marshall, to be used liy them as long as it is needed. 
The hall in a large, one-story brick lniildiiie. thirty feet wide by sixty 
feet long with a basement for the diiiiuK room and kitchen, with the 
interior of the whole nicely decorated and well furnished. 

HISTORY OK cAi.iioix (■o|■^'l'^• -jsr, 

A heav}- mounted field piece and a triangular pile of large shells. 
which were donated by the Government, adorns the front lawn. 

The city gave a nice lot in Oakridge cemetery to the soldiers and 
beautified it by placing upon it as a monument one mounted siege mortar 
and four triangular piles of large shells, one at each corner of the lot. 

At the head of every grave is placed a beautful, white marble marker 
with the name, regiment and company engraved thereupon. 

The post has a fine relief corps attached to it. The lo.xal wnmcii, 
who compose that organization, are always ready to encourage and assist 
the'lioys in lilue. They hold joint ban(|uets and social entertainments 
in the iudl, which is beautifully and appropriately draped in the national 
colors, and on the walls are hung portraits of prominent generals and 
other choice pictures. 

Patriotic instruction is being energetically brought to the attention 
of the schools by the post and corps. Lincoln's Gettysburg address and 
many flags have been presented to them and never before has Memoi'ial 
day been .so well observed. An inspiring feature last year was to sec so 
many ciiildren with flags marching in the procession and assisting the 
gray-haired veterans in decorating the graves of the soldier dead. 
Earnest eiforts oC the post are being properly directed with good results 
in the organization towartis the promotion of "Fraternity, Charity and 

The following are the past commanders of the post since organization : 
C. E. Shunnvay, J. S. Stout (dead). W. B. Mead (dead), D. Walkinshaw, 
T. X. Wright (dead), Jolm Cuzzins. Ephraim Marble. H. H. Benjamin. 
H. IL Miller. J. M. Getcl ell (dead). IL A. Clute, C. F. Walters, John 
R. Ro.'. S. H. Sliotwell. Aithur Pliillips. S. \V. Thomp.son. 

Ro>TKR OK t'u.■^T 

Oliarles Huughtoii; lank. Privab' 1 ; coiniiuuKl. 20 .Mirli, inft.; service, 
5 1110. 

Franklin Billings; rank. Private C ; command, 1'4 Midi. Lilt.; serv- 
ice, 4 mo. 

Wm. IL Bordine : rank. Private II; command 2 Mo. C'av. : service, 
11-. mo. 

Stanley Brooks; rank, Corii. E; cuinmand ti Midi. Inft.; service, 
13 mo. 

John Cuzzins; laiik. ('a|it. Co. I; command, 5(1 Ills. Inft.; service. 

3 yr., 10 mo. 

Geo. Cushman ; rank. Private Co. A; command. 2') Midi. Lift.; 
service, 3 vrs. 

Henry" A. Clute; rank. Private Co. A; eomniand, II. .Merrills' Horse; 
service, 34 mo. 

Jas. Caffrey: rank. Private Co. E.; eoiniiiaiKl. l'4 .Midi. Inft.; siTviee, 

4 mo. 

R. Z. Case: rank. Private Co. II; eoiiiiiiainl. V2 .Mi.-li. Iiifl.; service, 
4 yrs. 5 mo. 

Frank \V. Dickey; rank. .Maj.; commaiid. 2(1 .Midi. Cav. ; service, 
20 mo. 


Chas. Doty. 

John Detric-h : rank. Private A; eoiiiniaud. 11 Mich. Cav. ; service, 
24 1110. 

Cyremus Dalley. 

Leonard Engelter; rank, Corp. 1); eoiniiiand, 28 llieh. luft. ; serv- 
ice, 18 mo. 

Chas. L. Pish ; rank. Private I ; coinniand 6 ilich. Inft. ; service 
50 mo. 

George A. Gibbs; rank, Private C; command, 57 and 128 Ohio Int't. ; 
service, 3-1 mo. 

Samuel P. Garrison; rank. Private K; command, 9 Mich. Inft. 

Cline Gregg; rank. Private H; command, 134 Ind. Inft.; service, 
31/2 mo. 

Geo. Harrington ; rank. Private U. S. Navy ; 18 mos. 

Will. C. Hunt: rank, (iiiiasd); command, "24 ]\Iieh. Inft!; service, 

3 mo. 

C. E. Hillis: rank. Private Co. E. ; command, 67 Ohio Inft.; service, 
19 mo. 

Abram Ilasbrouck ; rank. Private I ; command, 20 Mich. Inft. 

William Kidney ; rank. Private 'SI -. command, 2 Mich. Cav. ; service, 
47 mo. 

Joseph P. King: rank, Co. D; coiiiinand, 4() ]\Iass. Inft.; service, 9 mo. 

Chester Kidney ; rank, Private Co. II ; command, 1 ^lich. Cav. ; 
service, 2 yrs., 1 mo. 

Charles J. Lane ; rank, Hospital Steward and Surgeon U. S. A. ; 
service, 53 mo. 

Martin Link; rank. Private K; coiuiiiand, 1 ;\Iich. Light Arty; 
service, 18 mo. 

Chas. Langridge. 

S. Lyndon. 

E. ]Marble: rank, Capt. Co. V- coiiimaiui. !) ]\Iieh. Inft.; service, 
37 mo. 

Marcus Morton ; rank. Private C ; command, 28 ]Mich. Inft. ; service, 

4 yrs. 

H. H. Miller; rank. Private C; command, 3 Mich. Cav. 2 and Lieut. 
Artillery 4 V. S. H 'y- ; service, 41/2 yrs. 

Samuel Marsh; rank, Corp. C; command, 107 Ohio Inft.; service, 
391/2 mo. 

Joseph MufiHv ; rank. Private L; command. 7 ^lich. Cav.; service, 
10 rao. 

Perry ilayo ; rank, Corp. C ; command, 2 Mich, Inft. ; service, 38 mo. 

Wm. MePadden; rank. Private Co. I; command, 20 Mich. Inft.; 
service, 36 mo. 

John Marsh; rank. Sergt. Co. M; command, 2 ^Mich. Cav.; service, 
44 mo. 

Herman E. Newton; rank. Private P; command, 9 .Mich. Inft.; 
service, 7 mo. 

Warren Newton ; rank. Private G ; command, 9 Mich. Inft. ; service, 
19 mo. 


Charles J. Prior; rank. Private E: .■oiiuiiaml. B .Midi. Heavy Arty.; 
service, 17 iiio. 

Jas. Paxton; rank. Private K; .■oniniaml, 1.") .Mieli. Inlt.; service, 
51/1 mo. 

"Arthur J. Pliillips: rank. Corp. K ; couiniand, 17 Mich Inlt. ; service, 
3 vrs. 
■ John R. Roe; rank. Private Co. H ; couunaiul 2d U. S. S. b. ; service, 

Rudolph Rohr; rank. Private Co. C; eoiiimand, 1st N. Y. .Alounted 
Int't. ; service, 4 mo. 

Stephen Riley; rank. Private Co. D; 28 :Mieh. luft. ; service, 2ii mo. 

Charles Robinson; rank. 2d Lieut. Co. K; command, 4 Mich. Int't.; 
service, 15 mo. 

Daniel Shellenberger ; rank. Private A; command, 8 .\lich. ( av. ; 
service, 4 mo. 

Geo. G. Smith: rank. Private F; command, 20 Mich. Inft. ; service, 
3 yrs. 11 mo. 

" Samuel B. Shotwell ; rank. Private Co. G ; command, 78 N. Y. ruft. ; 
service, 38 mo. 

Richard Town ; rank. Private I) ; command, 12 .Mich. Inft. ;' service, 
11 mo. . , 

Stephen W. Thompson; rank, Corp. P; command, o .Mich. ( av.; 
service, 34 mo. 

Bornt Van Zant : rank. Private F; command, !) Mich. Inft.; service, 
6 mo. 

John H. Van Arman ; rank. Private II; command 9 .Mich. Inft.; 
service, 6 mo. 

Henry Walkinshaw ; rank. Private I; command. 20 Mich, liitt. ; 
service, 32 mo. 

David : rank. Private M; command, 2 -Mo. Cav. ; .service, 
10 mo. 

Geo. Fred Waltz; rank. Private .V; command 8 .Mich. Cav.: service, 
6 mo. 

Myron M. Wright: rank. Private A: command, 8 .Alich. Cav.; serv- 
ice. 9 mo. 

^Vm. .\. Waltz: rank, saddler :M ; command. 2 Mich. Cav.: service, 
3 vrs., 10 mo. 

' John :\I. Wahl; rank. Private K : command, 20 .Mich. Inft.: .service, 
8 mo. 

John C. Waltz; rank. Corp. L; counnand. 8 .Mich. Cav.; service, 
6 mo. 

Edson Treadwell: rank, Corp. 1: command, 20 Mich. Inft.: service, 
3 yrs. 91/0 mo. 

DuLCENiA Home 

By W. J. Diblle. 

On the twenty-fifth day of May, 1820, at the home of Robert and 
Elizabeth Ennis Church, in Rushville township, Monroe county. New 
York, was born Dulcenia Church. 


In 1836 she removed with her father's family to ]\Iarengo, Calhoun 
county, Michigan, and assisted in establishing a new home in the then 
wilderness, on the farm now owned by Edwin S. Lewis. Tn 1840 Miss 
Church was united in marriage with Hiram Daily, also of Marengo. 
Three years afterwards Mr. Daily died, leaving the young widow with 
a baby boy. Then eommeneed a hard struggle to wrest from the world 
a living for herself and .son, to properly educate the son and to make 
provision for the future. 

• The son was educateil in tlic Albion public schools and tlic Albion 
Seminary, now college. 

Before he had graduated from the seminary the Civil war lii-okc out 
and, answering his country's call, he enlisted in the Third JMicliigan 
Volunteer Infantry, dying of disease at City Point, Va.. InUowiiig the 

DuLCENiA Home 

peninsular campaign, one of the early martyrs in that fearful struggle 
that ended in the preservation of the Union and the freedom of the 

Now a widow and childless Mrs. Daily secured a position in one of 
the Government departments in "Washington. 

There she worked for fourteen years. 

During the war she assisted in relieving the sufferings of the freed 
men, who flocked to Washington in large numbers, and in finding them 
homes in the North. 

During these fourteen years of unflagging industry and most pinching 
economy she accumulated a modest competency. 

The later years of her life she traveled widely in America and Europe 
seeing much of the social conditions in the different countries. She 
died at the home of her sister in Grand Rapids, September 15th, 1894. 

Such a life, full of single-handed struggle and achievement, had 


shown Mrs. Daily the hard side of woman's life and the dark picture of 
advancing years for those of her sisters who had not been as successful 
as she in wrenching a competency from a reluctant world. In 1883, Mrs. 
Daily made her will in which she provided for the establishing of a home 
for aged women and liy codicil, from time to time, she elaborated the 
idea until in 18!)-4 the last codicil was added. 

The finished will then provided that the bulk of her estate be held 
in trust by two trustees until such time as the citizens of Marshall should 
organize a corporation to be known as "The Dulcenia Home for Aged and 
Indigent Females,"" for the purpose of building and maintining a home 
for aged and indigent women, residents of Michigan and over sixty years 
of age. 

The home was to be built in Marengo township, adjacent to the terri- 
torial road, betw-een the west town line and the corners near the late 
residence of Thomas Chisholm. 

If the people of Marshall failed to perfect an organization capable 
of carrying out the conditions of the will of Mrs. Daily mthin five years 
after the probating of the will, then the trustees were to pay the money 
to the Home for Aged Women of Providence, Rhode Island. 

When steps were taken by the citizens of Marshall to form the pro- 
posed organization, it was found that there was no law under which 
a corporation could be organized able to carry into effect the provisions 
of the will. It was therefore necessary first to prepare and introduce 
into the legislature a bill covering the case. The bill was entitled, "An 
Act authorizing the incorporation of homes for aged, infirm or indigent 
men and women." It was passed by the legislature and approved by 
the governor ^March 23, 1897, and is still in force. Under this act the 
"Dulcenia Home for Aged and Indigent Females" was incorporated 
July 18, 1898. 

The first trustees were Marvin Ferguson, George A. Bullard, M. S. 
'Keefe, H. L. Day, A. 0. Hyde, F. A. Stuart, W. T. Phelps, L. F. Page 
and George H. Southworth. 

May 15th, 1895, S. V. R. Lepper, executor of the will of Mrs. Daily, 
turned over to W. J. Dibble and S. V. R. Lepper, the tiiistees mentioned 
in the will, the residue of ]\Irs. Daily's estate amounting in cash and 
mortgages to $26,791.87. 

After the home association was organized a friendly suit was started 
in the Circuit court by it against the trustees under the will to determine 
the competenc.y of the association to receive the money and properly carry 
out the wishes of Mrs. Daily. This suit was not contested by the heirs 
of Mrs. Daily or the Providence Home for Aged Women who were made 
parties to the suit. In accordance with the decree of the Circuit court 
the trustees, February 27, 1899, turned over to the treasurer of the home 
the entire fund amounting to !}!31, 677.06. Before the home could be in- 
corporated it was necessary under the law to secure a cash subscription 
of at least twenty-five hunclred dollars. At the time of the incorporation 
this subscription .amounted to $3,220.00 and subsequent subscriptions 
were made so that by January 28, 1901, the home had received from such 
gifts $8,872.60. The eight acres of land upon which the home is located, 
was donated by the owners and the value of the land is included in the 


above amount. Subsequent to the gift of the present site of the home the 
sisters of Mrs. Daily generously offered to give the home the Church 
homestead of 160 acres, in Marengo, provided the home was built and 
maintained thereon. 

The house was built in the years 1899, 1900 and 1901 and was ready 
for occupancy in September of 1901. 

The trustees were fortunate in securing the valued services of Miss 
Sarah D. Parsons for the first matron and to her wise initiative is due 
much of the subsequent success of the home. Mrs. Isabella Parker Hart 
was the first guest. 

Since the opening thirty-two have been received into the home, ten 

.>4^*^'' ' * 

^Irs. Dulcenia Daily 

of whom have died and five withdrawn, leavnig seventeen now in the 

The average age of the ten who have died was 851';. years, and of the 
seventeen now in the home 7514 years. 

The association has received several liandsome beciuests. Mrs. Emma 
Fallace of Coldwater willed her estate, some three thousand dollars, to 
the home, but owing to a legal contest made by the grand-daughters the 
matter was compromised and the home received $750.00. Miss Mary C. 
Norris of Albion bequeathed to the home her estate on condition that the 
home pay an annuity to her sister as long as the sister lived. Under 
the generous will of Miss Norris the home received the Norris farm of 
one hundred and sixty acres of fine land in Tekonsha and thirty-three 
hundred dollars in cash. 

]Miss Susan Jones of Chicago, handsomely remembered the home v/ith 
a legacy of $5,000.00, but owing to a contest of the will this matter is 
still in the courts. 


Mrs. Isiuu- II. Wliitiiioiv iv(|iu'sti'(l that two huiuli-c.l dolhii's be jiaid 
to the hoiiH' from her estate and the gift was received 

lu Jlay. 1903, occurred a very bad cyclone that completely demol- 
ished the barn, removed about half of the roof from the house and 
inflieted other damage, costing the home over two thousand dollars to 
repair the loss. Fortunately no one was injured. 

From the last annual report of the treasurer of the association we 
find that the home now has property valued at !fi58,788.38, invested as 
follows : 

Buildings and grounds !);17,768.3o 

Furniture and fixtures 2,000.00 

Mary C. Norris farm 7,000.00 

Stock on Norris farm 400.00 

Mortgages 31,171.53 

Notes 158.56 

Cash 289.9-t 


The clergy and doctors of Marshall have been generous in kindly 
services for the home and many other friends have made presents that 
have been highly appreciated, all the more perhaps because they came 

Such has been the good fortune of the home that the trustees have 
never had to appeal to the public to "make up deficiencies" or "raise the 

It has been the policy of the trustees to live within their means and 
to add to the institution as fast, and no faster, than they have the funds 
to pay the way. From the beginning it has been the aim of the trustees 
and matrons to make the home not an iii.^titutio)i but a home in every 
sense of the word. 

The house is built cruciform with wide airy halls crossing each other, 
each room opening off the hall and also to the outside air and sunshine. 
Each guest has a pleasant room and each declares that her room is the 
best. Only in one instance has there been any desire to change rooms. 

The guests are free to go and come as they wish, the only restriction 
being that they must leave the key to their room with the matron and 
tell her where they are going and when they will return. The home is 
strictly non-sectarian but is not non-religious. A short service of prayer 
and praise is hekl every morning to which all are invited but none arc 
compelled to come. The various ministers of Marshall have kindly held 
fre(iuent services Sunday afternoons at the home assisted many times 
by the musical people and children of their congregations. These kindly 
attentions are greatly appreciated. JIany of the home family have been 
active members of the W. (". T. U. or Women's Relief Corps, and these 
organizations in Marshall and Albion occasionally have meetings at the 
home, after the order of basket picnics that are pleasant and profitable for 
all. These gatherings are apin'oved of and encouraged by the manage- 

The home has a very jjlcasant leading room, the large table being 
loaded with the latest jiapcrs and magazines and the shelves with yood 


books. These A\dth books from the Ladies" Library afford plenty of read- 
ing for all. Many evenings the entire household will gather in the 
library and enjoy together some good book which one of the number will 
read aloud. 

Thus the family idea is encouraged to grow and peace and happiness 
increase with it. Thanksgiving and Christmas are observed, as they 
should be in all good families, when feasting and mirth go hand in hand. 

In summer the spacious verandas afford pleasant resting places for 
the enjoyment of the pure air and the beautiful scenery up and down 
the valley. Many of the ladies enjoy having flowers of their own, so 
those who wisli can have their little plot for favorite flowers. These, 
with the growth of shrubs and trees, are fast turning this once bare hill- 
top into Dulcenia Home the Beautiful. 

As fast as the management is able it pui-poses to enlai-ge the usefulness 
of the home. There is room on the property for many more buildings. 

Would it not be a beautiful act if some pei-son, following the example 
of Mrs. Daily, would leave a fund for a home for aged couples ? Such a 
home would be a lasting moniiment to the donor and would bring hap- 
piness and peace to many a stranded brother and his faithful wife. 

Dulcenia Daily's life struggle is past. Her ashes lie in peace under a 
costly marble on the hill in Oakridge, but her noblest monument is on 
■ that other hilltop where stands Dulcenia Home, for there happy hearts 
raise to" God glad hymns of praise for the noble work that she has 



Trinity Episcopal Ciiurch (by Louis S. Joy, M. D.) — First Presby- 
terian CinBCii OF :\L\rsiiali- — First Methodist Episcopal Church 
OF Marshall (by ]\Irs. Mary F. B. Stephenson) — Catholic 
Church — First Baptist Ciiurch — First EvANiiELicAL Lutheran 
Zion's Church 

The following sketches of the churches of Marshall bespeak for the 
place worthy advantages of a religious nature which are a prime necessity 
in any desirable residence community. 

Trinity Episcopal Church 

Bij Louis S. Joy, M. I). 

It was ill llie year 1836 that the first cliurcii service according to the 
use of the Book of Common Prayer was held by a visiting clergjinan, 
Rev. Charles B. Stout, in the village of Marshall, then numbering three 
hundred inliabitants. During the winter of this year and the following 
winter (1837) the village was thoroughly canvassed to ascertain what 
amount could be raised toward the building of a church. In the spring 
of 1837, the good work had progressed so far that a parish was organ- 
ized and ^Montgomery Schuyler, then a hardware merchant in the village 
of ^Marshall, and J. W. Gordon, afterward governor of ^Michigan, were 
chosen wardens and Dr. J. H. ^Montgomery, Bradley K. Crissey, Sydney 
A. Alcott, C. T. Gorham and Andrew ^lann were elected vestrymen. 

La.y services were held in the school house. The same spring the 
bishop of the diocese, Samuel A. McCoskry, visited I\Iarshall and 
preached in the school house, which was the .second service of the church 
held in the village. And, though at this moment the financial crash of 
1837 was wrecking hundreds of fortunes, especially in the western states, 
this group of churchmen, fired by the words of the bishop who seemed to 
have had an unusual gift of inspiring others to do God's work, deter- 
mined not to turn back from their undertaking. 

"The building of the church was immediately entered upon and 
prosecuted with such earnestness and diligence that early in the autumn 
it was completed. That was a glad day for the little band of church- 
men when they were ready to present to the bishop a neat and tasteful 


church for consecration. It had been built at a cost of over $2000.00, 
chiefly by the wardens and vestrymen, none of whom were rich, and 
hence at much sacrifice of time and money to the few who engaged in 
it. And yet it was gladly met and cheerfully endured by them, grate- 
ful that it had pleased God to give them the ability and willingness to 
contribute. ' ' 

This church building was afterward sold to the Lutheran congrega- 
tion and was situated where their beautiful new church now stands. 
This Siune building is now used as a shop and was moved 'to south 
Hamilton street near State street. 

Services were kept up in the little church for a couple of months or 
so and then lay services were held until the calling of the first rector. 
Rev. Samuel Buel, in February, 1838. Mr. Buel remained nearly two 
years, resigning in October, 1839 and afterward oecui)ying the position 
of Professor of Systematic Divinity in the General Theological Semi- 
nary in New York City, which position he occupied for many years. 

At the time that Rev. Mr. Buel left there were twenty-eight names on 
the list of communicants. For the next year and a half Rev. W. N. 
Lyster held monthly services ; on other Sundays lay services were held. 

On May 27, 1841, the vesti-y of Trinity Church extended a call to 
the Rev. Montgomery Schuyler to become a rector. He was one of the 
foundere of the parish, had served as a lay-reader and had begun his 
studies for the ministry while yet a business man in -Marshall. During 
the rectorship of Rev. Mr. Schuyler the Sunday school was doubled in 
number and the congregation grew to such an extent that the church 
had to be enlarged. In the spring of 1884 Rev. Montgomery Schuyler 
resigned his successful rectorship to go to Grace Church, Lyons, New 

June 3, 1846, the annual diocesan convention was held in Trinity 
Church, Marshall, ilichigan, presided over by Rt. Rev. Samuel Allen 
McCoskry, first Bishop of ^Michigan. J. Wright Gordon and Dr. John 
H. ;Montgomery represented the local church in this convention. Rev. 
E. A. Greenleaf was at this time rector of the church though his resigna- 
tion had been tendered "from causes wholly beyond my control" as he 
writes in his report tendered as rector to this convention. 

In 1849 Rev. Hiram Adams was rector. At this time there were 
81 communicants upon the list. 

In 1850 the parish was without a rector, 88 communicants were 
reported by Daniel Hudson, warden. 

In 1851 Rev. A. Guion was rector. 

In 1852 Rev. Henry N. Strong became the rector. Rev. Jlr. Strong 
remained as rector until 1858. 

In the year 1854 Rev. Strong in his report to the convention records 
the death of General Isaac E. Crary, who, he states, is a great loss to 
the church as he was a liberal supporter and member of the vestrj'. 

In 1858 Rev. Charles Jones became rector and he remained until 
1860 when Rev. S. S. Chapin was called to the rectorship. 

Bishop McCoskry in his convention address of this year notes for 
April 15, 1860 — "I preached in Trinity Church, Marshall, and con- 
firmed thirteen persons. The services were held in a large hall, filled 


to overtlowing with the most attentive liearers. It was one of the 
pleasantest service I ever held in this parish." 

In the Bishop's address under date of June 27, 1861, he writes: 
"I kid the corner stone for a new church edifice for Trinity Parish, 
]\Iarshall. The congregation had disposed of their old church l)uilding, 
as it did not meet their wants. The sum i-eceived, with a liberal sub- 
scription from the members of the parish, will enable them to erect one 
of the most beautiful stone edifices in the diocese. A large number of 
the elerg\^ aided rae in the pleasant work, several of whom made ad- 
dresses on the occasion. I also confirmed six persons." 

In the rector's report to the convention of 1863, Eev. S. S. Cliapin 
writes: — "If a punctual attendance upon the services of the churdi and 
sacraments are an indication of temporal and spiritual prosperity, or 
if unity of feeling and action are truthful witnesses, there is great 
cause for thanksgiving to Almighty God, for there are few parishes 
where the spirit of peace reigns more felicitously than in Trinity 
Church, Marshall." 

In the Bishop's address to the convention under date of JIarcli 16, 
1864, he writes: — "This was my first visit to this parish since they had 
occupied their new church edifice. It is most substantially built of 
stone. The pews are of black walnut and the whole arrangement of 
chancel and nave is in entire keeping with the architectural symmetry of 
the whole building. I felt thankful that we had in the diocese such an 
architect as Mr. Lloyd of Detroit, who had not only raised such monu- 
ments of his skill and taste, but had done so much to aid the devout 
worshipper in an humble and reverential approach to God." It is but 
fitting to here record the faithful and accurate carrying out ai the 
architect's specifications by the contractor, Mr. Nathan Benedict. 

The substantial manner in which the church was built and the way 
it is standing up in the face of time is a splendid monument to that 
loyal churchman Nathan Benedict, even though his name does not 
appear anywhere in or about the edifice. 

Rev. S. S. Chapin's rectorship terminated in 1866 and he was suc- 
ceeded in 1867 by Rev. John K. Dunn. In his report to the convention 
Mr. Dunn writes: — "On the 6th day of April, 1867, I entered upon my 
present charge, and although the parish has been without the services 
of a peraianent pastor for a large part of the past year I am happy to 
be able to report that everything promises well. The pews have readily 
rented at advanced prices, the congregations are large and well sus- 
tained and a great degree of interest is manifested by young and old 
in the truths of religion and the claims of the church. With the help of 
his true hearted parishioners the rector has strong hopes, under God, 
of being enabled to accomplish a good work in this portion of the Lord's 
vineyai-d. He has also the pleasure of reporting that the seminary for 
young ladies in this city, under the charge of the ilisses Bacon, will 
hereafter be conducted as a church school of the higher order, under the 
spiritual supervision of tlie rector of the parish. The school is already 
in successful operation with competent instructors and with present 
accommodations for a hundred boarding pupils in a large, commoilious 
building furnished by the generous munificence of a citizen of Mar- 


shall. It is the design of the faithful ehurchwomen who have it in 
charge, who have had a large experience as teachers and have an exten- 
sive acquaintance with the best systems of eastern church schools, to 
make it a thorough church institution, and to bring the influence of the 
church to bear alike on the minds, hearts and manners of the pupils." 
The building used for this school was then owned b.y H. J. Perrin and 
known as the JIarshall House. A portion of it now standing is used 
as a dwelling house by "Mys. Lewis Perrin. 

Mr. Dunn remained about two years and he was followed by Rev. 
Wm. H. Moffett. Jlr. Aloffett's rectorship was also short (less than two 
years) but he had one of the largest confirmation classes ever con- 
firmed up to that time (20). In his report to the convention of 1870 
he writes: — "During the year an attempt was made to organize the 
members of the congregation for work among the poor, for chvirch ex- 
tension, for missions, etc., and a society was formed called the 'Parish 
Union.' As only a few of those whose help was desired showed any 
real interest in the movement it was found impracticable to carry out 
the full design and after a few months it was thought expedient to give 
up the organization altogether. I place here for permanent record some 
of the results of its short but useful existence. A church school of 
primary grade was established and carried on for three full terms with 
a degree of success that was unlooked for and with most beneficial effects. 
The school is now continued in charge of a thoroughly competent teacher 
and the attendance is limited only from lack of room. Other members 
of the Union gave their special attention to the decorations of the 
altar. No Sunday or festival has gone by without giving some evi- 
dence of their care and devotion. A super-frontal and red and white 
frontals, all beautifully embroidered, have already been obtained. The 
work on the white frontal, all done by one hand, is particularly beau- 
tifid, a fit ornament for the holy place. The Union has paid neces.sary 
repairs on the furnace and contributed liberally towards buying a new 
one. Under its direction also the Christmas decorations were prepared 
and a splendid Christmas tree for the children of the parish. Alto- 
gether the Union has raised for parish purposes $396.2.3 of the amount 
reported above." (.$3,553.85.) 

In 1871 Rev. Geo. P. Schetky, D. D., became rector. He reports to 
the convention as follows: — "A new organization has recently been in- 
stituted, under the name of 'The Ladies Church Aid of Trinity Parish.' 
This society is instituted for the purpose of aiding its members, through 
mutual co-operation, prayer and advice, in doing with system and order, 
under the direction and guidance of the divinely appointed ministry, 
such works of love for Christ's Church as poor and Christian women 
may engage in. As a part of such works, a committee has been appointed 
to collect weekly mite subscriptions for the parsonage fund. A bi- 
monthly paper is issued by the rector as a Parochial Record having 
for its object the increase of a general interest in all Parochial matters, 
and an incitement to the more earnest and united work in all things 
connected with the church. It is also designed to serve as a medium for 
communicating matters of information and suggestions in regard to 
parochial affairs and interesting items of diocesan and missionary infel- 


ligeuce. Tliere are gratifying indications of the Divine Blessing upon 
the several departments of pastoral and parochial work. The parish is 
united aud harmonious and all its affairs are in a prosperous condition. 
The attendance of Holy Communion during the last six months has 
averaged more than one-half of all the communicants. 'Cottage Lectures' 
were held weekly at private houses during Lent, with large attendance, 
and we trust spiritual benetit. On the first Sunday after Easter the rector 
opened a mission school at the Fourth ward school house, Capitol Hill. 
There has been an average attendance of fifty pupils, aud the enterprise 
is increasing in interest. The teachers assisting the rector are all mem- 
bers of the Bible class. ' ' 

Li the rector's report to the convention of 1872 is the following: — 
"By an exchange of the old organ which had been in use nineteen years, 
and from the avails of a legacy by the late ^liss Harriet M. ilann, we have 
purchased a new and superior instrument, full, rich and powerful in 
tone, as well as pleasing in (juality and built with reference to en- 
largement at some future time. The mission school in the Fourth ward 
is steadily increasing in interest. The faithful labors of tliose associated 
with me in the good work are evidently appreciated by the class of 
children whom they are instrumental in training in the ways of our 
Holy church." 

Our congregation very generously contributed an amount exceeding 
five hundred dollars in addition to supplies in large quantities of pro- 
visions, wearing apparel, etc. for aid to the sufferers by the calamitous 
tires in Chicago, Wisconsin and our own state. 

In the year 1873 one of the most important conventions of the 
diocese of Michigan was held in Trinity Chui-ch, Mai-shall. By a vote 
of the clergy of 39 to 16 and a vote of the lay delegates of 53 to 17 it 
was decided to divide the diocese of Michigan into two dioceses. 

In the rector's report to this convention is the following: — "The 
larger proportion of removals from the parish finds its cause in tiie 
transfer of the railroad shops to Jackson, which occurred shorth' before 
the convention. A still further reduction from the same cause may be 
expected, but with the introduction and establishment of other branches 
of mechanical skill (of which there is now some expectation) we may 
hope for accession and a proportionate return for our losses. It wiil 
be seen from the foregoing statement of contributions that the Ladies 
Church Aid Society has been actively employed during the past year in 
adding to the parsonage fund. The mission school under the superin- 
tendence of 'SI. H. H. Meriam (whose removal from among us we 
greatly regret) has continued to exercise a very happy influence upon 
the children who are evidently much interested in the instruction 
imparted by the faithful corps of teachers who there aid me in that 
truly missionary work." 

The rector reports to the next convention as follow.s — "The year 
past has been one of continued disaster to the parish in the losses we 
have sustained by removals. Our finances have been, as a natural con- 
secjuence seriously affected, and plans for church work, especially tlie 
erection of a parsonage, have been suspended. The is free from 
debt. In our vei-y interesting mission-school I have had the assistance 


of several j'oung ladies of the parish. In years to come the labor in that 
field, bestowed in humble faith, must produce blessed results." 

Dr. Schetky resigned from Trinity church, Marshall, to go to Bay 
City and he was succeeded by Rev. H. B. Whittemore who remained 
until June 30, 1880. The wardens made the following report to the 
convention of this year: "The Rev. II. B. Whittemore resigned the 
rectorship of the parish June 30, 1880. Rev. ]\I. S. Woodruff officiated 
for us for the first month. We then had lay reading for three months 
in the morning and Rev. J. T. ]Maerath officiated for us at evening 
service save one Sunday each by Rev. H. J. Cook, Rev. M. Noble and Rev. 
J. E. Walton. The Rev. J. E. Walton entered upon his duties as rector 
the first of November. 

J. H. M. 

C. P. D. 


The rectorship of Mr. Walton was the longest, most peaceful, most 
happy, most prosperous and the most spiritually uplifting of any within 
the writer's memory. It was indeed a benediction to have him walk the 
streets of IMarshall. His influence upon the church and in the com- 
munity will be felt for many years to come in the lives of those who 
were so fortunate as to have been under the benign influence of his 
eloquent and soul-inspiring sermons. It was not only the scholarly 
preaching that moved one, but it was the consciousness that behind the 
sermon was a life that was living every word that he uttered and this 
fact made his sermons ablaze with pentecostal fire. 

During his rectorship in 1885 the pretty and commodious rectory 
was built at a cost of $3,400.00. 

Rev. J. E. Walton remained until 1887 when he resigned, much to 
the regret and against the wishes of the parish but from a belief on his 
part that a change would be for the best interests of the parish. 

Mr. Walton was succeeded by Rev. Wm. Morrell who remained as 
rector until 1890 when the Rev. Wm. H. VanAntwerp became the 
rector. The rectorship of Dr. VanAntwerp was a very successful one 
from every point of view, the church prospering under his leadership. 

Dr. VanAntwerp was succeeded in 1894 by the Rev. Sidney Beck- 
with who remained until 1898 when the vestry again called back their 
former beloved rector, Rev. J. E. Walton. 

Rev. Mr. Walton's second rectorship lasted until 1902 when the 
Rev. C. 0. S. Kearton took charge of the parish. In 1904 Rev. Mr. 
Kearton received a call to the diocese of Albany and having resigned 
the parish the Rev. W. J. W. Bedford-Jones became the rector. During 
the rectorship of Rev. Mr. Bedford-Jones the beautiful chapel and parish 
house were built (1905 ) an account of which is given a little later in this 

In the year 1908 Rev. Frederick Hewitt took charge of the parish 
and had a very prosperous rectorship of three years. During his rector- 
ship the parish house debt was paid off and the Way Memorial organ 
placed in the church. Mr. Hewitt was succeeded in 1911 by the Rev. 
John Hartley, Ph. D. Of this unfortunate period in Trinity's history 


the less said the licttci-. Dr. Hartley's resignation took effect September 
30, i;)12. and it is iKipt'd that the parish will speedily regain its former 
position after that date in spite of the terriiile condition liotli spiritn- 
ally and temporally in whieh he left it. 

No sketeh of Trinity church would be complete without a rcrcrencc 
to the various and numerous beautiful memorials ei-ected therein hy the 
faithful supporters and builders of the parish. In so far as I am able 
I win mention these memorials in the order of their presentation to the 
church though it is largely from mcmoi'v that T do so, as I have no data 
at present at hand. 

The first memorial placed in the church (it has been there as far 
back as 1 can remember) was the Schuylei- memorial window, probably 
placed when the church was built. It was placed in memory of Anthony 
Dey Schuyler and Sarah A. Schujder, his wife, and given by their sons 
and daughters. Rev. Montgomery Schuyler D. D., the second rector of 
the parish, was one of the sons as were also Wm. R. and Anthony 1). 
Schuyler, who were active in the work and growth of Trinity church 
and were members of the vestry and delegates to the Diocesan conven- 
tion. The window is of rich stained glass and contains several churchly 
symbols in colore. 

During the rectorship of Rev. Dr. Schetky, his daughter Lena passed 
away. The doctor, when the chancel was being rearranged, rebuilt the 
prayer desk and gave it as a memorial of his daughter, who had been 
a great deal of help to him in his work at the Mission Sunday school 
on Capitol Hill. It is made of black walnut and is now placed in the 

The beautiful decorations of the chancel of the church, the carved 
oak reredose, the handsome chancel windows, are the gift of the Dibble 
family in memory of their beloved father, who was one of the original 
subscribers to the new church, and who served as vestryman and junior 
warden for many years. Their reredose is a beautiful piece of oak 
carving, very churchly in design (it was designed by ]\ir. Lloyd of 
Detroit, the architect of the church) and is surmounted by handsome 
stained glass windows, each of the windows representing by symbols 
one of the four gospels, ilatthew, Mark, Luke and John. The Dibble 
family also contributed a perpetual fund of .$2,000.00 (by the care- 
ful management of Jlr. W. J. Dibble now amounting to .$2,400.00), the 
income of which, after keeping the chancel in repair, is to be applied 
in the running expenses of the church as directed by the vestry. This 
fund is known as the Hetty J. Dibble Memorial Fund, and was given 
in her memory. There is also a most beautiful and artistic window to 
the memory of .Mrs. Hetty J. Dibble, and represents Christ among the 
doctors in the temple in one of the windows, and the raising of the 
daughter of Jairus in the other window. Tiie coloring in this window 
is especially beautiful. 

In the year 1884 .Airs. .Mary T. Curtiss left by will .$1000.00 toward a 
rectory. $1000.00 towarti a chapel, and $l()0().0b, the interest on which 
was to be divided equally between mi.ssions and the poor of the parish. 
The $1000.00 for the rectory was used during the rectorshij) of Rev. 
, J. E. Walton by the vestry toward building a rectoiy for that beloved 


rector. The interest on the second thousand dollars has been used 
annually for missions and for the rector's alms fund equally. 

By the careful management of Mr. W. J. Dibble, for many years 
treasurer of the church, the chapel fund increased so that in 1905 it 
amounted to considerably over five thousand dollars, when the vestry 
called a special meeting of the parish, at which time they were authorized 
to proceed with the building of a parish house and chapel. ]Mr. J. M. 
Eedfield was employed as architect and drew the plans and the beauti- 
ful building used as a parish house and chapel was constructed of stone 
from the same quarry that supplied it for the church. The corner 
stone of the parish house was laid by Bishop Gillespie on Sunday, May 
6, 1905, at 4 p. m. On the platform were the vestry, Sunday school, work- 
men on the building and ]\irs. J. C. Prink and Mrs. Mary Wheeler. Mrs. 
Prink was present in a similar way when the corner stone of the church 
was laid in 1861. The contractor for this building was Mr. 0. J. Reniger 
who, under the careful and painstaking supervision of Mr. Geo. H. 
Southworth, brought the building to a splendid finish. As a token of 
their appreciation of his work the vestry, acting for the parish, presented 
Mr. Southworth with a slight token. 

The children and widow of Dr. J. H. ^Montgomery presented the 
parish as a memorial to that beloved physician and for many years 
senior warden of the parish, a very expensive and handsome lecturn. 
It is made of solid brass and is in the form of an eagle. They also pre- 
sented a beautiful solid silver alms-basin most exquisitely carved. 

A sterling silver paten and chalice having a solid gold bowl was 
given by the daughters and widow of Dr. Anthony D. Schuyler, in 
memory of one who was foremost among the workers in the church and 
who served many years on the vestry. 

The handsome marble font and baptistry, situated near the chapel 
entrance to the church, was given by Misses Anna S. R. Eastman and 
Grace R. Eastman, to the memory of their mother Anna Louise Schuyler 
Eastman. It is a beautiful piece of marble carving. 

The massive brass pulpit was the gift of C. S., L. S., C. R. and P. S. 
Joy, and is given in the memory of their father and mother. Dr. Henry 
L. Joy and Caroline Schuyler Joy, and their brother Dr. Douglas A. Joy. 

The exquisitely carved and handsome white marble altar was given 
in memory of ilar.y R. iloutgomery, wife of Dr. J. H. ilontgomery, by 
her daughters Anna Louise Montgomery Fisk, ]Mary R. Montgomery 
Livingston and her son Charles II. ilontgomery. 

There is a beautiful memorial window, representing Jesus, Martha 
and Mary, Mary at Jesus' feet taking the better part, which is given in 
memory of Manlius Mann and his wife, Parmelia Mann, presented to 
the church by the daughters, j\lrs. VanVechten and Mrs. George Perrett. 

The credence table was given by the Misses Sarah and Grace Schuy- 
ler in memory of their sister, Helen Schuyler, who died when a little 
girl many years ago. 

The magnificent and expensive organ, which is very beautiful in tone, 
having 28 speaking stops and two manuels and a console with pneumatic 
action, was given in 1906 by Mr. Edwin C. Way to the greater gloi-y 
of God and in loving memory of James A. Way (for many years a leader^ 


of the choir and a iiU'iiUn-r of the Vfsti-y) iiiid Anna .M. Wa.v. ilir paiviits 
of the donor. 

The beautiful little solid hrass prayer desk was given \>y Mr. and 
Mrs. George R. Perrett, in loving memory of their young son Richard, 
who died at the age of seven years. 

One of the last niciiiorials to lie i)laced in Trinity is the artistic win- 
dow, placed there hy .Mrs. .Mary Wheeler ]Miller in memory of her mother, 
Mrs. Mary Eliza Brewer Wheeler. The window was matle in Kngland 
and represents Christ the Good Shepherd. He has left the flock (ninety 
anil nine I in the wilderness and i.s returning with the one lost on his 
shoulder. The coloring is beautiful and is a tit companion with the nu- 
merous other memorials in the church. 

A little over a year ago. 1911, the church was left by the will (t! the 
late Miss Susan M. Jones the sum of $2,000.00, to be invested by the 
vestry and the proceeds to be used for the assistance of the poor of 
the parish. This legacy has not been received as yet, owing to a contest 
of the will by a distant relative. But as there is no apparent foundation 
for breaking the will, the vestry of the church are looking Idi'ward to 
receiving the legacy in the not distant future. 

First Church uf M.ussh.vll 


The First Presbyterian church of Marshall was organized in "Mar- 
shall Academy" June 26, 1841, by Rev. Elias Child, of Albion "a mem- 
ber of Marshall Presbytery." 

This church was the outgrowth of a Congregational church organized 
Maj', 1832, bj' Rev. John D. Pierce and over which he presided until 
1836 when he was appointed superintendent of jniblic instructioln. 
Marshall was then a hamlet of about ten families. 

In 1841 this church dissolved and thirty-si.K of its communicants be- 
came charter members of the newly organized Presbyterian church. 

For a time the new church found a- home in the coui't house. 

The first elders elected were Laban J. Aylsworth, Joseph J. J^ord and 
Ira Nash, the last two named being also chosen deacons, and Mr. Ayls- 
worth being elected permanent clerk of the session. 

The moving spirit of the organization of the church was Rev. John P. 
Cleveland, D. D., of the First Prcsbytci'ian church of Detroit, who was 
a kinsman of the late Ex-Presiden) (;r(i\er Cleveland. 

It was the intention of Di-. Clcvilaiid to found a college in .Marshall. 
but it never reached beyontl the prcjjaratory department. 

After two years of faithful service as pastor, and being suddeidy 
bereft of a loving and faithful wife, he resigned, and was followed by 
Rev. Charles E. Lord, a good man, but very eccentric and absent minded, 
of whom it is said that he once forgot when the Sabbath ila.v came, and 
remained at home weeding his carrots and onions, while his pious parish- 
ioners solemnly assembled for public worship and siicnt an houi' wmidei- 
ing what had become of their under-shepherd. 

His oddities were a perennial source of amusement, especially to the 


more uugodly part of the community. Rev. Samuel H. Hall, a man of 
winning personality and of splendid executive ability, wras the next 
pastor, and his nine years of faithful service outranks in length all who 
preceded or have come after him. During his pastorate the old church, 
the cornerstone of which had been laid May 11, 1843, was completed, and 
the debt incurred thereby was finally paid after much hard work. 

Next came Rev. James H. Trowbridge, who remained two years 
(1854-56), and he was followed by Rev. James Vincent, who remained 
about one year. 

Rev. William A. McCorkle, D. D., was the next pastor, and four 
years later he was succeeded by Rev. Livingston Willard, who served the 
church until October 18, 1868. 

Then came Rev. F. F. Ford, a brilliant preacher, a man of pronounced 
literary acquirements and of reputed great wealth, who remained about 
two years, being followed by Rev. Francis M. Wood. 

It was during J\Ir. Wood's pastorate that the present stately church 
edifice was erected, and was then considered to be the finest church in 
Michigan, out-side of Detroit. The corner was laid July, 1872, and the 
building was completed and occupied two years later. 

Following Mr. Wood came Rev. William A. Rice, who remained a 
little more than a year being compelled to resign on account of ill health. 

Rev. E. P. Johnson was then called, and was with the church six 
years, his pastorate being one of the most successful and fruitful in the 
history of the church. Dr. Johnson at the present time is, and for many 
years has been, connected with Rutgers' College, New Brunswick, New 
Jersey, as an instructor. 

He was followed by Rev. H. M. Morey, who was a strong and vigorous 
preacher, especially successful among young men. For two yeai-s, and 
beginning in 1890, Rev. W. W. Curry was the pastor, and was followed 
by Rev. E. W. Rankin, a very talented and scholarly young man, who 
served the church two years and resigned to take a post-graduate year 
at Princeton Seminary. 

In 1895, Rev. George F. Hunting, D. D., ex-president of Alma Col- 
lege, became pastor and so continued until 1899, when, owing to failing 
health, he was compelled to resign, sadly realizing that his active work 
for the Master was forever done. 

Of Dr. Hunting it has been said that "he had the simplicity of a 
child, but the intellect of a giant. He was possessed of the rugged 
strength of a man united to the sympathetic tenderness of a woman. In 
his early life he was an officer in the regular United States army and 
received the high encomium of his superior officers as being "the ideal 
Christian soldier." 

His death occurred in Marshall in April, 1891. 

Then came Rev. Joseph Hamilton fresh from Princeton Seminary, a 
.splendid specimen of muscular Christiauity — genial, happy hearted, 
hopeful and helpful, a prince of good fellows and a successful fisher of 
men, who resigned in 1903 to accept the larger responsibilities of the 
Memorial church of Newark, New Jersey. 

During his pastorate a magnificent $2,500 organ was purchased and 


placed in the chnreh, the women of tlie church (of course) being the 
inspiring cause and moving spirit in the enterprise. 

Kev. J. R. .Mitchell. D. D., followed Mr. Hamilton and faithfully 
served the church until 190t), when he resigned, taking a pastorate at 

Soon after the removal of Dr. Metchell, Rev. S. Conger Hathaway was 
installed and still remains pastor of the church, his efficiency being evi- 
denced by the fact that he has added to the membership nearly one hun- 
dred names, and the financial condition of the church is good. 

During the 71 years of the life of this church, there have been seven- 
teen pastors and forty-eight different elders, the present eldership con- 
sisting of the following named persons : Joseph Cunningham, Henry J. 
Day, Dr. Geo. B. Gesner, Cyrus J. Goodrich, Geo. A. O'Keefe, A. H. 
Washburn, H. E. Winsor and William J. Gregg the last named being 
clerk of the session. 

FiR.'^T ^Iethodist Eri.^ct>p.\i- Chirch of .M.vkshall 

Bij Mrs. Mary F. B. Stcphrnsoii. 

Sidney Ketehum is the recognized pioneer of Calhoun county. He 
was a man of great energy and determination. Having come to its loca- 
tion in the summer of 1830 from central New York, he was among those 
who strove to build \ip Marshall by every means at his command and 
was the original proprietor of the village. He surveyed and laid out the 
upper village of Marshall and was one of the four owners of the lower 
village. In the early part of August, 1831, the family of Sidney Keti-hum 
arrived, as also dicl Randall Hobart, a carpenter by trade and a local 
preacher of the ]\I. E. church. 

On the 14th of August ]\Ir. Hobart preached in the log house of Sid- 
ney Ketehum, which had neither doors nor windows, and only partially 
floored with split planks. His text was I Peter, ii chapter, verses 4-5. 
"At the session of the Ohio conference in September, 1831, Elijah H. 
Pilcher and Ezekial S. Garrit were appointed to Tecumseh circuit 
which, starting at Ann Arbor, went to ]Marshall, thence south to Cold- 
water, thence east to Clinton, thence north through Manchester and 
Saline to Ann Arbor, making nearly four hundred miles of travel to be 
performed every four weeks, and to preach '27 times regularly at the 
same time." I quote from the journal of the preacher: (Bro. Pilcher) 
"Oct 4th, rode 23 miles to ^larshall. a new place. Today, in crossing 
marshes, my horse got mired down twice, so that I had to get into the 
mud and water and help him out. I had to cross one creek, which was 
so narrow, that a man could step across it in most any place, where it 
was not worn by teams crossing it, but when I rode into it my horse 
sank into the mire and water, so that the water came over the top of the 
saddle. Reached Marshall late in the afternoon, wet cold and tired. 
October 9. Preached twice in the private residence of Sidney Ketehum. 
This is the first visit they had had from an itinerant ; through Randall 
Hobart, a local preacher, had been here a few weeks and had preached a 
few times. He has come to settle here." Mr. Pilcher was followed in two 


weeks by his colleague, Mr. Garrit. On the 6th of November, at Mr. 
Pilcher's next visit, he organized a class of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, with the following members: Randall Hobart, leader; Ruth Ho- 
bart, his wife ; Sidney Ketchum and Catherine, his wife, and Seth and 
Eliza Ketchum, six in all. Curtis Goddard was P. E. on the district, which 
included all of Michigan, and was called Detroit. Meetings were held, and 
divine service performed at the house of S. Ketchum until June of the 
following year, when they were removed to the school house, then partl.y 
finished. The first love feast and communion service held in the county 
was at a two days' meeting held in this school house June 16 and 17, 
1832, by E. H. Pilcher, preacher in charge, assisted by Rev. Wm. Fowler 
of Genesee conference of New York, who was made an elder and conse- 
crated the elements, Mr. Pilcher being only a deacon. The original class 
had been strengthened by additions by letter and on trial, so that at the 
time of the conference in September, 1832, there were fifteen members. 
This was a very large increase, considering the circumstances, for the 
settlement had been almost depopulated by the cholera, which had pre- 
vailed so fearfully at this place during the early summer of 1832. At 
the Ohio conference of 1832 the circuit was divided, and this part was 
called Calhoun and Branch. Andrew Dixon was appointed missionary, 
and James Gilruth P. E. In September, 1835, E. H. Pilcher and Fred- 
erick A. Leborn were appointed missionaries, but E. H. Pilcher did not 
travel it for want of health. This year the circuit was confined prin- 
cipally to Calhoun county. The district was also divided, and Henry 
Colclazer made its P. E. The society in Marshall had continued to wor- 
ship in the school house, dividing the time with the Presbyterian society. 
In the month of November, 1835, a meeting was called to take into con- 
sideration the propriety of building a Methodist church in Marshall. 
At the meeting it was resolved to attempt to raise $3,000 to build a 
brick church, -40 feet by 50 feet in size and one story high, with basement. 
Sidney Ketchum subscribing $1,000, and giving the lot on which to 
erect the church. Subsequently it was resolved to increase the sub- 
scription to $5,000. Mr. Ketchum subscribing $2,000. In the spring 
of 1836 the Michigan conference was created. In the summer of 1836, 
nothing having been done toward erecting the church, further than ob- 
taining a subscription for part of the amount proposed, Sidney Ket- 
chum commenced the church and enclosed the same at an expense of be- 
tween $8,000 and $10,000 and donated it together with the lots on which 
it was erected, to the Methodist Episcopal church. Of Sidney Ketchum 
the ^Methodists of ilarshall can ever say, as did the elders of the Jews of a 
certain centurion, "he is worthy, for he loveth our nation and hath built 
us a synagogue." In September, 1836, Elijah Crone was appointed to 
the circuit, it no longer receiving support from the missionary fund. 
Marshall appears in the conference minutes for the first time in 1837. 
Previous to that time is was embraced in Calhoun mission, taking the 
name of the county rather than the village. In the year 1837, the Pres- 
byterian society having completed for themselves a house of worship, 
left the occupancy of the school house to the Methodists. In December, 
1838, the ]\Iethodists occupied the basement of the new church, which 
was located .iust east of the present brick one. It had a long flight of 


steps ou the outside, which the worshiper had to eliiub in order to reaeh 
the main entrance to the auditorium. At each end of the vestibule were 
narrow winding stairs, leading to the choir loft or gallery, which ex- 
tended across the end of the church. Instead of a pipe or cabinet organ, 
it was a little nielodeon that furnished the instrumental music. The 
basement had one entrance, and that, an outside one, on the east side of 
the church. In the northwest corner of the basement was one small 
room, which served as class room, primary room and kitchen. In 1869 
this stone church was remodeled at an expense of $9,000. The people 
pledged liberally and sacrificed much in order to meet their ol)ligations. 
It was dedicated October 16, 1869, and burned the following Februaiy. 
The only relics saved was the pulpit, five pulpit chairs, the little nielo- 
deon and the bell, which fell among the ruins, but did not break. The 
real cause of the fire still remains a mystery. There was a rumor of a 
choir-rehearsal on that evening, and a dog, belonging to one of the mem- 
bers of the choir, was seen to escape from the church during the tire. 
The dog was supposed to have been accidentally left in the church with 
a lighted lamp, and in its efforts to make its escape, tipped over the lamp, 
which exploded and caused the fire. The ^Methodists then met and wor- 
shipped for one year in the Academy of Music, now known as the Em- 
pire theater. In the meantime, with the $6,000 insurance they received, 
they commenced building the present brick church. As soon as it was 
enclosed and the basement ready for occupancy, they worshiped there 
until the auditorium was completed and dedicated, June 29, 1873. The 
church cost $12,000. After purchasing a small pipe organ for $500, they 
then had an incumbrance of $4,000 in the form of a mortgage, with inter- 
est at ten per cent. The ladies held socials and suppers semi-monthly, 
served dinners at the fair grounds during the county fair, labored and 
sacrificed in many ways to pay the annual interest of $400 on the mort- 
gage. This trial lasted for seven long, weary years. In 1880, not being 
able to pay the interest, the holder of the mortgage foreclosed and the 
church was closed. Five of the brethren, anxious to save the furniture, 
(which was not included in the mortgage) went in the shades of evening, 
and with hayracks conveyed it into the country, where they stored it 
against a time of need. The church without the furniture was of no use 
to the one who held the mortgage. The land was given by Sidney Ket- 
chum, on which to build the Methodist Episcopal church, and, when 
not needed for tliat purpose, was to be given back to his heirs. Even the 
parsonage could not lie rented, as the deed took in the upright and one 
foot into the sitting room. The Methodists had a minister, but no house 
in which to worship. The Baptists had a church, but were without a 
minister at that time, and kindly olfered to house the Methodists, if they 
would minister unto them. The offer was accepted and the two socie^^.'cs 
met and worshiped together until JIarch, 1881, when the ^lethodists 
moved back into their church and began soliciting pledges from 
citizens and from the more prosperous societies of the district. They 
also prayed daily for one hundred days, that their efforts might he at- 
tended with success. Jesse Gillett, the .janitor, rang the bell for prayer 
every day at noon — once the first day, twice the second day, and so on 
for the one hundred days. The one hundredth day was Sunday, July 


4, 1881. On that day the people assembled for the morning service, after 
which the roll was called, and they responded by placing the amount they 
had pledged on the altar. $4,500 was laid on the altar and later taken 
over to one of the banks and placed into its vaults for safe keeping, 
until the following Monday, when the mortgage was paid, the church 
financially redeemed from all indebtedness. In 1893, the Methodists 
were again tried by fire. This time it was their parsonage. It caught 
at high noon from a bonfire, set in the yard just back of the parsonage. 
The wing was badly damaged. They sold what was left of it for $100, 
and with that, and the $400 insurance, and pledges of money and labor, 
they built the present commodious parsonage at a cost of $1,700. 

On Chrismas morning, 1904, their organ failed to respond and Rev. 
Adam Clarke suggested that each member make a Christmas offering 
or some pledge that morning toward a new organ. They complied with 
his request, and on Sunday, preceding Easter, dedicated a new pipe 
organ, (costing $1,500) without a cent of indebtedness. Their member- 
ship is 265. 

Catholic Church 


The first priest to minister to the Catholic settlement in Marshall 
was Rev. Father Morrissey, who came about eight or ten times a year on 
horseback or stage from Jackson, Ann Arbor and Detroit. His first 
visit was the time of the organization of the village, October 28, 1837. 
The population of Marshall at that time was about two hundred, the 
Catholics numbering twenty-five. It was on this occasion that the first 
mass was said in Marshall, in the house of Michael McKenna, East Green 
street. When Father Morrissey was transferred from Northfield to Wis- 
consin, Rev. Thomas Cullen was appointed to care for the extensive ter- 
ritory, with headquarters at Ann Arbor. At various intervals Father 
Cullen came to ilarshall, saying mass in different places, notably in 
the court house, an old Congregational church and an old oil mill. In 
1850 there were over one hundred Catholics in Marshall, and the necessity 
of a new church was realized. The site of the present church buildings 
(Eagle and Green streets), was procured. A contract was made to 
build a new church at a cost of $1,800. Pews were added to the church 
furnishings in a short time. An altar, which is now in the chapel of St. 
Mary's cemetery, was purchased from St. Ann's Parish, Detroit. 

In the fall of 1852 Father Hennessy, who had lieen assisting Father 
Cullen, was appointed the first resident pastor of .Marshall. To his care, 
besides the parish of Marshall, were committed the missions of the sur- 
rounding country. The chief of these were Albion and Jackson to the 
east, Eaton Rapids and Charlotte to the north. Battle Creek and Kalama- 
zoo to the west. The same territory is now, in the year of 1912, cared for 
by sixteen resident priests. In 1S53 the church was dedicated by Rt. 
Rev. Peter Paul LeFever, of Detroit, under the title of the Immaculate 
Conception of the Blessed Virgin i\Iary. The expected definition of the 
dogma of the Immaculate Conception was at that time claiming the at- 
tention of the world, and hence the appropriateness of placing the church 


uudor that title as a six'cial iiianitVslatidii and prnrlainali.iii of tin- 
Catholic faitli. 

May 15. 185'), Father Ilciuicssy was called to Detroit, and assumed 
charge of St. Patrick's I'ai'ish, which had .just been erected in that city. 
Father Hennessey was succeeded by Father P. C. Koopinans, a native 
of Belgium. 

About May 16. lS5ti. Fath.-r Knopmans piuvlias,.,! and .•nmplctcd an 
unfinished building for a parochial school. The school was opened Octo- 
ber 7, of the same year. Miss Ann Ilannigan being the first teacher. 
Mrs. M. A. Staee. Arthur Stace and Francis A. Stace were later teachers. 

September 28, 1864, three Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of ]\Iary 
from ^lonroe, Mich., assumed charge of the school. January 15, 1867, 
Father Koopmans resigned the parish and .joined the Jesuit order. Dur- 
ing Father Koopmans' regime a plot of sixteen acres for cemetery pur- 
])oscs was purchased for $800. The land w'as bought in 1866. Father 
Koopmans was succeeded by Rev. C. ^I. Frain. Father Frain remained 
in charge until October 15, 1868, and was succeeded by Rev. Desire 
Callaert. pastor of Stoney Creek, near Monroe. In 1874-75 a neat brick 
church, costing $4,000, was built in the mission of Albion. In 1876 tlif 
Sisters of Providence began teaching the parish school, succeeding lay 
teachers and the Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. They re- 
mained in charge until 1880, and were succeeded by lay teachers, return- 
ing September 1883. 

January 1, 1877, Rev. AVm. Fierle took charge and remained pastor 
until ^lay 1879, when Father Callaert again became pastor. He was 
transferred to Manistee, Mich., September, 1881, and was succeeded by 
Rev. :\I. P. Milligan, who resigned in April 1882. Rev. P. A. Kaart, 
S. T. L., then took charge and continued as pastor until the time of his 
death, February 12, 1908. To his zeal and energy the parish is indelited 
for all its present buildings. Church, school, rectory and hall were all 
built by him. 

Father Baart's administration was by far the most successful in the 
history of the parish. A practical man in temporal affairs, fearless in 
his undertakings and indomitable in courage, withal simple in manner, 
kindly but firm in his relations with his people, his personality and work 
will remain impressed upon the parish for years to come. 

Outside the city of ]\lai-shall he en.joyed a national and to a ccitain 
extent international fame as Canonist. His counsel in ecclesiastical law 
was sought by bishops and priests from all parts of the country. Even in 
Rome he was held in high esteem ftt the time of his death. It 1883 
Father Baart completed the new parochial lirick school. In 1884 he built 
the pastoral residence. June 13, 1888, work was begun for the erection 
of a new church. October 21, of the same year the corner stone was laid, 
and October 27, 1889, the church was dedicated. In July, 1890. St. 
;\lary's church of ^Marshall was made an irremovable rectorship. Father 
Baart being its first irremovable rector. Henceforth, when the parish 
becomes vacant, the pastor to be appointed must stand an cxaiinnation 
before the diocesan examiners. 

During Father Baart's rectorship, he was assisted li>- Kcvs. .S. O'llarc. 
1884; L. Brancheau. 1886; R. J. Sadlier. 1887; Thomas Ilcnncssev, 


1887 ; M. Fleming. 1890. In 1900, Father Baart with the assistance of 
a few friends and without any cost to the members of the parish, erected 
a beautiful brick hall for entertainments. This stands today as a pre- 
cious memorial of his love and devotion to the parish. His remains 
rest beneath the chapel in St. ilary's cemetery. 

His successor was Rev. James Cahalan, who was transferred from 
Hillsdale 1908. All the affairs of the parish have been moving smoothly 
and successfully since his appointment. There is a membership of about 
180 families. 

First B.\ptist Church. 


lu January 1840, the few Baptists of ilarsliall and ^larengo held a 
meeting at the residence of James Winters, in Marengo, to consider the 
practicability of founding a church. At this meeting six persons were 
present. Another meeting was called at the house of Calvin Sudden, 
in ilarshall, on the first day of February, and the same persons were 
present. Subsequently meetings were held at the same place on P"'ebru- 
ary 15th and 29th, and a conclusion reached to hold another meeting at 
the old school house on Mansion street, on the 7th day of March, which 
was attended by 22 persons, who then concluded to organize a church. 

Rev. T. Z. R. Jones, a missionary, was present and assisted in the 

The following are the names of the constituent members of the 
church : D. N. Salter and his wife Sophia ; Calvin Sudden and his wife 
Louise ; J. Rundel and his wife Fanny ; Josiah R. Hendryx and his wife 
Eveline ; Charles Rodes and his wife Betsy ; Ebenezer N. Narramer and 
his wife Sarah : Suraney Sudden, ^Mary J. Shaw, Harriet Dannis, Salina 
Walker, Elmira Willard, Julius F. Sudden, Rachel Banksan, Minera 
Calkins, Smith Senns and Content Sudden. 

At this meeting Rev. T. Z. R. Jones was requested to become pastor 
and accepted the call. 

A resolution was passed, calling a council for recognition, and the 
following churches were invited to send delegates: Canstock fnow Ka- 
lamazoo), 1st and 2d; Milton, (now Battle Creek), South Battle Creek, 
Concord, Albion, Jackson, Jonesville and Climax. The council convened 
on the 8th day of April and recognized the church, installed ilr. Jones as 
pastor of the church and elected David N. Salter and Edwin McWithy 

At this time the church had no place for holding their meetings. 
Their services seem to have been held at the court house and at the 
school house on Mansion street and in private homes. The prayer and 
conference meetings were very generally held in private houses, until 
after the completion of the church in 1851. 

The Sunday-school did not become a permanent organization until 
some years afterwards. From the organization of the church until 
December, 1841, the Sabbath meetings of the church were held alternate- 
ly in Marshall and Marengo. On December 12, Mr. Jones resigned the 
pastorate, and Rev. W. A. Bronson was called, who accepted at a salary 
of $300. 


During the year 1842 iiieetiugs were held in an old scliool house on 
Mansion street. In January, 1843, it was decided to hold weekly Sun- 
day services in ^lai'shall, and a building was secured, which was erected 
as a Congregational clnii'cli and stood on the south side of Green street, 
between Eagle and Jctl'cr.son streets. 

On the 20th day of May, this year, the name of the church was 
changed to the Baptist Church of ^larshall, the brethren at Marengo 
taking letters and organizing a branch at that place, which aftenvards 
became extinct. 

Rev. :Mr. Bronson resigned on July 15, 1843, and the church had no 
regular pastor until i\Iay 1, 1846. During this time about fifteen women 
and five men attended the services. On June 16, 1844, a Sunday-school 
was organized, and J. L. Johnson, a teacher in the public schools, was 
elected superintendent. Josiah R. Hendiyx, ^Mary J. Shaw, Alzina Rich 
and George Ingersoll were the teachers. 

Beginning in the month of ^lay, 1845, meetings were held for a year 
in an old brick school house, now standing west of the residence of 
William Martin. 

In May, 1846, Rev. Wm. Dickens became pastor of the church and re- 
mained until August 26, 1848. In April, 1847, the church changed its 
place of holding meetings to the second story of the building now known 
as the Tontine hotel. In June, 1848, the church had a membership of 45. 

After the resignation of Mr. Dickens in 1848, the church had no 
regular pastor until 1850. During this time Rev. Dr. Comstock, state 
superintendent of public instriiction, often supplied the pulpit. 

In July, 1850, Rev. L. II. Moore, l)eeame pastor at a salary of $200 
from the church and $200 from the home missionary society on the con- 
dition, that the church should proceed to build a church edifice. 

This was the beginning of substantial prosperity for the church. In 
1850 a lot was secured and the building, which the church now occupies, 
was commenced and enclosed the same .year and completed the following 
year at a cost of $7,000, but leaving thechurch with a debt of $3,000. 

The completion of the church was an occasion of much re.i'oicing, al- 
though it took ten years to pay off the debt. In the year 1853 the church 
became selfsupporting without the aid of the home missionary society. 

In May, 1854, the members living at or near Ceresco asked for letters 
of dismission and organized a church at that place. This was the second 
colony sent off by the Marshall church. 

In September, 1856, Rev. L. D. Palmer became pastor of the church 
at a salary of $500. 

In August, 1862, Rev. Palmer resigned to accept a call to the Jackson 

The church en.ioyed a season of prosperity under the administration 
of Mr. Palmer, and additions to the membership were frequent. 

The last of the church debt was paid in December, 1864. while the 
church had no pastor. After the resignation of Mr. Palmer the church 
was without a regular pastor most of the time, until June, 1869, when 
Rev. S. R. Gilbert became pastor of the chui-ch and remained until June. 
1871. This was followed by the pastorates of Brethren Ferris, Srashall, 
Pattergill. Taber, Dunn, Whitcomb. Burnstead; Tate, Smith and Bailev. 


Rev. H. D. Allen became pastor of the church January 1, 1902, and 
remained until May 30, 1904. Rev. I. N. DePuy was called as pastor 
of the church December 1, 1904, and resigned November 6, 1910, to 
accept the pastorate of a Chicago church. 

The present pastor of the church. Rev. A. W. Brown, was called to 
act in that capacity January 1, 1911. Rev. Brown, who was formerly 
assistant pastor of the Fountain street church of Grand Rapids, is 
doing an excellent work here, the church being united and prosperous, 
and enjoying a slow but steady growth. 

The present officers of the church are as follows : Pastor, Rev. A. W. 
Brown ; church clerk, Charles O. Miller ; church treasurer, W. A. Powell. 
Deacons: George S. Woolsey, Daniel A. Osborn, Chas. 0. IMiller, Loyal 
Williams, Mrs. C. H. Vasy and Maria Leusell. Trustees: E. E. Simmons, 
Henry Kratzer, Clarence McMillan, W. A. Powell, E. B. Stuart and E. 
L. Perrin. Sunday-school superintendent: Henry Kratzer. Presi- 
dent of the Aid Society : Mrs. C. E. Easterly. President of the Women's 
Mission Society : Inez L. Miller. President of the Dorcas Society : Mrs. 
Clara Treadwell. President of the B. Y. P. U. : Miss Nettie Thunder. 

The present membership of the church is 220. 

First Evangelic.vl-Lutheran Zion Church 

The Evangelical Lutheran Zion congregation at Marshall was or- 
ganized in 1856 by the Rev. Spring, ^vith about 40 Lutheran families. 
In 1860 the congregation purchased the Episcopalian church and prop- 
erty, and after making several changes in the church edifice, it was 
dedicated as a Lutheran church to the service of the Divine God. 

In 1901 the congregation erected the present magnificent church 
building, for the sum of about $12,000.00 — corner Eagle and Green 

The parsonage was built in 1867 and remodeled in 1910 with all 
modern facilities. 

In 1906 the church celebrated her fiftieth anniversary with appro- 
priate services. 

The congregation supports the missions of the German Evangelical- 
Lutheran Synod of jMissouri, Ohio and other states. 

It now has a membei-ship of about 90 families, making nearly four 
hundred baptized and confirmed members. Sunday-school, 85 pupils; 
teachers, 10; Ladies' Aid Society, 110 members. 

The services are being held in both the German and English lan- 

The church accepts all canonical books of the Holy Scripture as the 
revealed word of God, making it her rule of faith and life. 

Since 1897 the present Pastor, Rev. Chr. Hidenreich. has had charge 
of the church. 



Sands McCamley and Ezra Convis — The First School in Battle 
Creek — Chi-rches — Manufacturing Interests — Battle Creek 
Sanitarium — Railroads — Fire Department — Battle Creek and 
Its Municipal Government — Battle Creek A City — Postoffice 
(1877-li)12) — The Public Schools of Battle Creek (By Eva 
Warriner) — The Battle Creek Press (By George B. Willard) — 
Early Bar (By Charles E. Thomas) — The Charles Willard 
Library (By ^Irs. Fannie Brewer) — Battle Creek in the Civil 
War (By A. B. Simpson) — Farragut Post, G. A. R. — Farragut 
Relief Corps No. 4 (By Mrs. Jennie Jones) 

Battle Creek, wliieli at this time, (1912,) contains within her mu- 
nicipal boundaries fully one-half of all the people living in Calhoun 
county, owes its location to the confluence of the Battle Creek and 
Kalamazoo river at this point. It was the water power and its possibili- 
ties together with the generally attractive appearance of the vicinity that 
determined Sands ilcCamley, conceded to be the foremost as well as one 
of the first pioneers in this city, to locate here. 

It was in June. 1831, in company with George Redfield, that McCam- 
ley went to the Land Ofifice, which had been opened that month at 
White Pigeon, to make an entry that should cover at least a part of the 
site where this city now stands. On arriving there he found that others 
besides himself had been favorably impressed with the location of the 
future city and that J. J. Garnsey, together with Lucius Lyon and 
Robert Clark, the last two government surveyors had marked it for 
entr^-. Lyon and Clark would sell their claim for one hundred dollars. 
As between Garnsey and ]McCamley it was agreed that the former should 
enter eight hundred and thirty-seven and forty and one hundredth 
acres, all lying within what now constitute the township and cit.v of 
Buttle Crick. The purchase price was at the rate of one dollar and 
twiiity-livc c-uts per acre. It was further understood and agreed that 
Siiiiils ,M((';iinley and Daniel G. Garnsey, the latter a former member of 
congress from the .state of New York and who later became a prominent 
citizen of Rock Island. Illinois, were to share it equally with him on 
payment of their proportion of the cost. They, with their families, were 
to meet in Detroit the following October when J. J. Garnsey was to 
Muit-elaiiii to tlie otliei' two and give to each a title t.i an limlivided 



third of the whole. It was further agreed that all should come on and 
begin operations, each placing two thousand dollars in the bank with 
which to commence the work of developing the property. McCamley 
reached Detroit at the time agreed upon as did J. J. Garusey and his 
brother-in-law, Sackett, and their wives, but they said they had been to 
look at the place and could not dive there. The result was that the 
entire undertaking as planned failed. The year 1831 did not close 
promisingly for the future Battle Creek. In 1832, Samuel Convis, who 
owned an interest in the Garnsey purchase, came and erected the first 
log house in what is now the city of Battle Creek. In the spring of the 
same year iloses Hall journeyed from Vermont to Battle Creek and 
purchased land for himself and for his brother Talman W. Piloses 
Hall was one of the pioneers who left a permanent impress upon the 
community. He is said to have been a man of "commanding figure and 
noble appearance and a self poise that was admirable. ' ' He was a. man of 
profound religious convictions. Was one of the founders of the Presby- 
terian church and a staunch member and liberal supporter to the day of 
his death. He served one term in the state legislature and for many 
years was a justice of the peace and an acting magistrate at the time of 
his death, 'May 12, 1860. Among others who came into Battle Creek in 
1832 were Polydore Hudsou, the firet postmaster, Roswell Crane, John 
Conway and the Langley brothers. It was in March, 1833, that Na- 
thaniel Barney came from Chautauqua county, New York. He is listed 
as one of the original proprietors of Battle Creek. The wife of General 
Ezra Convis was his daughter. He was one whom men long delighted 
to remember for his genial nature and kindliness of heart. He wa.s ap- 
pointed postmaster in 1834. For many years he dispensed hospitality 
to the traveling public and "Barney's Tavern" though kept in a log 
house was quite as well known then as the "Post Tavern" is now. 

Sands McCamley and Ezra Convis 

Judge Sands McCamley, who had lived for a time on the Nottawa 
prairie from which he soon removed to iMarshall, living there at the time 
of the cholera scourge, by which dread disease his wife was attacked but 
happily recovered, returned to Battle Creek in 1835, and became a per- 
manent resident. It is perhaps strictly within the truth to say that 
McCamley was the most conspicuous and the most useful of the early 
day comers to this city. The late Hon. George Willard says of him and 
his time, "The year 1835 displays to our view, as we look back upon the 
past, a much busier scene than the incipient city had ever presented 
before. Judge McCamley having bought an equal and undivided half 
of the original Garnsey purchase in February, 1834, and having re- 
moved here the following winter, was now ready to commence opera- 
tions. General Convis havmg control of the other half, the understand- 
ing was that Judge McCamley should have control of the whole water 
power, upon the condition that he would improve it. Of the proposed 
village they were to be the proprietors. The day was approaching when 
the people were actually to have a town. A body of twenty or thirty 
men including many sons of Erin, were engaged in building the long 


race which in its day, and under the ciir>iinstancfs uikIit w Inch ;il! mum 
works were then of necessity completed, was a iiionuiiient ol' noble en 
terprise. While that work was advancing, the first saw mill was in pro- 
cess of erection. In November of that year the water was let into tiie 
race and the victory was won. The saw mill made the frosty woods to 
echo with its incessant movement anil oni- worthy friend, Judge ilcC'ain- 
ley, began to witness in reality what he had seen in imagination in 
June, 1831, as he stood liere with Mr. Redfield and longed to make the 
waters of the Kalamazoo provide the forces for establishing at this point 
one of Michigan's great centers of manufacture and trade. Ilis efforts 
were increasing for the advancement of Battle Creek and his name will 
long live in its histon' as one of the city's greatest benefactors. Judge 
McCaraley was the first state senator from the district of which Battle 
Creek was a part. It has been said of him that "he was possessed of a 
strong, clear intellect, a sound judgment, a resolute purpose and had the 
sagacity to see the right thing to be done to bring about a successful 
enterprise whether of a public or of an individual enterprise." 

General Ezra Convis may be regarded as Judge McCandey's closest 
competitor for first place among prominent men who lived in this part 
of Calhoun county in the late thirties. He came from Silver Creek, 
Chautauqua county, New York. His first visit to Michigan was in 1832, 
in company with Nedibiah Angell. They prospected above Battle Creek 
and other parts of the county but the general did not become a perma- 
nent settler until 1834. "He at once became interested in the affairs of 
the young colony and took an active part in its enterprises. He, in 
connection with Mr. Barney, his father-in-law, became owner of one-half 
of what is known as the Garnsey purchase," the tract of over eight 
hundred acres before referred to. This furnished a new and inviting 
field for one of Mr. Convis' active turn of mind, and he began the work 
in earnest. In taking views of the region about his new home, he found 
a desirable location some mile and a half above the mouth of the 
Battle Creek, which included the rapids in the stream at that point. 
Here he at once saw that a water power could be obtained and also 
that in this locality there was the making of a town. He selected eight 
acres covering the water power and began to see visions of a prospective 
town. He bought other lands in the vicinity. 

In 1835 General Convis sold his one-half interest in the Garnsey 
property and gave his interest in the water power to Sands McCamley, 
provided he would improve it. 

He now turned his attention to building up a town on his purchase 
north of Battle Creek. Under his management he soon began to see 
the village of Verona springing up about him. There was at Verona, 
in 1837, .iust about the same development as at Battle Creek. In those 
days at Verona, Deacon David N. Salter was running the saw mill; 
Colonel Stewart had built a grist mill; AVillard Mills and Ashley, 
worked at tailoring; mechanics at their trades; David Caldwell kept 
the tavern and he and his brother, John, had a cabinet shop ; David H. 
Daniels, Sylvester ^lills and Jeremiah Teed were selling dry goods as 
were Brown and Brigham; Dr. Rhodes was attending the sick and Felix 


and Gillespie did the pettifogging." It will be seen that in the days of 
which we speak, Verona was no mean competitor of Battle Creek. 

On the admission of the state into the Union, General Convis was 
elected a member of the state house of representatives, of which body 
he was chosen speaker. He was re-elected for a second term. It was 
while in attendance on the sessions of the legislature, then sitting in 
Detroit, during the winter of 1837-38, that he received an injury re- 
sulting in his death. It seems that with a number of other legislators 
he was invited by Mr. Ten Eyck, a famous landlord of that time, to 
attend the wedding of his daughter about ten miles from the city. On 
the return of the party, the sleigh was overturned and the General so 
badly injured that he died shortly after in Detroit. The CaUioun 
County Patriot, of Marshall, in its issue of ]\Iarch 4, 1837, in comment- 
ing on the death of General Convis, said, "He came to Michigan in 1834, 
was elected a delegate to the state convention, which formed the con- 
stitution and was a member of the last legislature. The house ap- 
pointed him their speaker. He was re-elected to the present legislature 
by a large majority. He was justly regarded as a very useful member 
and at this time his death is a loss to the county and state and is 
irreparable to his family." 

Among others who came to Battle Creek in 1834 and 1835 were 
Warren B. Shepherd, Josiah Gilbert, Joseph Farnsworth and David 
Salter. This same year came also the pioneer merchants of Battle 
Creek, William H. Coleman and David H. Daniels. Rev. Robert Adams, 
the first Baptist minister, and John Marvin, the first blacksmith, were 
valuable additions to the growing population. 

The First School in B.vttle Creek 

Was taught by Warren B. Shepherd in the winter of 1834-35. A 
tax of sixty dollars had been levied and raised with which to build a 
log school house, which stood on the corner of ilain and East Canal 
streets. This school house did duty for three or four years and in it 
the children and youth of the city were taught. Among them were 
enrolled some of the foremost men and women of the generation next 
after the pioneers. In his later years, Schoolmaster Shepherd delighted 
to tell of his pupils who had come to local prominence. 

Following the log school house was a nuich larger and more preten- 
tious structure which cost five Inmdred dollars. In 1850, after a good 
deal of agitation for and against, it was hnally decided to build a three- 
story brick school house at a cost of six thousand dollars. This building 
did duty for twenty years. It was in 1870-71 that the Central building 
was erected at a cost, building and grounds, of one hundred thousand 
dollars. This fine and roomy structure, at the time it was built was 
one of the largest and best equipped union school buildings in the state, 
served the city for high school purposes for nearly forty years, when 
the present high school building, which will compare favorably with 
any in the state, was erected. 

At that time, I. L. Stone, A. M., now the liead of the great Duplex 
Printing Press plant, was the able and successful superintendent. 


The Ciiriu'iiEs of Battle OiiEEK 

Followed in rapid siict't'ssion upon tin* niaterial and educational de- 
velopment of the plaee. The .Methodist Episeopal chureh was the first 
to enter the town as a permanent religious institution. It was in 18;5t) 
that a elass was formed by the Kev. Asa Phelps. Mr. Phelps was a 
soldier during our seeond war with Great Britain. Some yeai-s after 
the war, he was converted and joined the Methodist Episcopal ehurcli, 
and later became an ordained minister in that denomination. He came 
to .Michigan in IS'Si, first settling at Bellevue. In 1886 he removed to 
the township of Enuuet and in the same year organized a .Methodist 
elass of seven members in Battle Creek. Mr. Phelps preached the first 
sermon, services being held in the log school house. The first house of 
worship was a small frame structure built in 1841. In 1840, this church 
was sold to the colored Baptists and a new brick structure costing 
twenty-five thousand dollars was built and which did good service until 
the present beautiful and commodious house of worship was erected 
some two or three years ago. 

Among the pioneers who early came to Battle Oreek were a iiunibcr 
of members of the Baptist church. Services were held in the log sciiool 
house until better facilities could be afforded. The Rev. William Tay- 
lor, the pioneer Baptist minister of Schoolcraft, is credited with preach- 
ing the first sermon by a member of that denomination in this city. It 
was in 1849 that the Baptists built their first house of worship in Battle 
Creek. In 1872 a fine new building was erected at a cost of twenty-five 
thousand dollars. 

The old log school house was in 1836 the birthplace of the united 
Congregational and Presbyterian church. The local members of these 
two Christian bodies, after due consideration and discussion of the 
subject, unanimously resolved to form a church on the plan recom- 
mended by the general assembly of the Presbyterian church and the 
association of congregational churches of Connecticut in 1801. This 
plan seems to have been very equitable, tor when the letters of member- 
ship were submitted they were exactly equal in numbers. In January, 
1842. a committee was raised "to superintend the building of a meeting 
house." A site was selected and by the fall of 1843 the building of the 
edifice had so far progressed that worship was held in the basement. 
A little later the church was completed and the Rev. Alexander Tratter 
was called to the pastorate. It would seem that certain prominent mem- 
bers of the church participated in the election excitement of 1844 to a 
degree which carried tiiem beyond their proper Christian bearings. 
Under date of November 21, of that year, there appears a confession 
signed by six of the prominent members expressing regret for "having 
been engaged in betting on the election" as "inconsistent with the 
spirit and principles of the Christian religion, a species of gambling 
pernicious in its influence on society, to be frowned upon and discoun- 
tenanced by all good men and ("hristians generally." In the membership 
of this church have been enrolled the names of some of the most influ- 
ential men in the historv of Battle Creek. Among them are IMoses 
Hall. Talman AV. Hall. f)avi(l IT. Daniels. Jchn S, Van l'>runt. Philt 


Gilbert, S. W. Leggett, W. H. Coleman, Samuel Flagler, William H. 
Skinner, and B. F. and H. T. Hinman. This union organization served 
the purpose of the membership of both denominations for a long time, 
but the union was iiltimately severed and the adherents of each now 
worship in their own church. Aside from the larger cities, the Independ- 
ent Congregational church has, on Maple street, one of the finest houses 
of worship in the central west, while the Presbyterians are well housed 
and prosperous. 

The first service held by members of the Episcopal church was about 
the year 1839, conducted by the Rev. F. H. Cummings. At that time 
there were but three or four Episcopalians in Battle Creek. The Rev. 
M. Schuyler came in 1841 and under his ministration the interest and 
numbers increased. In April, 1842, Bishop Samuel ]\IcCaskry came 
and held service in the ^Methodist Episcopal church, when six persons 
were confirmed. There were several visiting clergymen and the occa- 
sion was deemed a very important one as bearing on the future of that 
church in this city. On the seventh of August, following, a parish was 
organized. In 1843, a call was extended to the Rev. R. A. Cox at a 
stipulated salary of two hundred dollars a year. On the eleventh of 
June, 1848, "a neat and substantial church building," haying been 
completed, was dedicated by Bishop McCaskry. In April, 1855, the 
Rev. George Willard was called from Coldwater to the rectorship of 
the church in Battle Creek, at a salary of six hundred dollars. A more 
complete history of this parish is found elsewhere. On the roll of its 
membership in the years gone by are, among many others, the names of 
Samuel W. MeCamley, W. M. Campbell, John Stewart, E. L. Stillson, 
W. M. Campbell, C. S. Gray, J. F. Hinman, C. S. Merrell, Victory P. 
Collier, and C. F. Bock. The church now has a fine property on iMaple 
street, originally built iu 1876 at a cost of twenty five thousand dollars. 

The Adventists began to hold services in 1854 in a small frame house 
sixteen by twenty-four in size. They now have, on Cass street ad- 
jacent to MeCamley park, in the western part of the city not only the 
largest auditorium in the citj' but one of the largest in seating capacity 
of any house of worship iu the state. 

The Catholic church was organized in 1860. For a time the members 
worshipped in a little church built and first occupied by the Society of 
Friends. The Catholics have now one of the finest church properties 
and strongest parishes in the city. 

The above named are the oldest in point of settlement and among 
the most prominent in the city. These with others are treated more at 
length in another chapter. 

Battle Creek has her full quota of secret, fraternal, literary and 
social societies and clubs. These are elsewhere set forth. 

Manufacturing Interests 

Nothing has contributed so much to the rapid increase in popula- 
tion, to the accumulated wealth and the general prosperity of the city 
as the manufacturing industries. Many of those operating in the ear- 
lier years have ceased to exist but these interests, as a whole, have never 


been of such inaguitudu as uow. It so liappeus that tlie oldest of tliese 
is the most important. It is now sixty-four years siuce the Nichols and 
Shepard Vibrator Threshing Machine plant began to do business on 
west Canal street. It was in 1869 that it built the plant it now occu- 
pies at the junction of the Michigan Central and Grand Trunk Railroads. 
The Advance is another very important concern that manufactures 
along the same line. This plant was recently purchased by the M. 
Rumley Company, of LaPorte, Indiana. It will continue to be operated 
in this city by its new owners, who have already increased its produc- 
tive capacity. The Duplex Printing Press plant, at the head of w'hich 
is I. L. Stone, is an exceedingly important industry. Its output is sold 
not only in all the large cities of the United States but in those of every 
country not only in Europe but in the Far East. 

Jefferson Avenue, North, ik 1866 

The American and the Fnion Steam Pump Companies and the H. B. 
Sherman Manufacturing Company are among the solid concerns of the 
city. Each company has a large domestic, besides a vei-y considerable 
export trade. 

The prepared food industry which at one liiiit- seized not only 
Battle Creek luit the country for miles around with a sort of craze, 
during which many plants were built and most of them started, much 
money invested and the most of which was lost, has settled down to a 
staple business which is carried on by a very limited number of con- 
cerns of this class. The success of Mr. C. W. Post, the acknowledged 
head of the Prepared Food industry, has been phenomenal and has 
made Battle Creek, ^Michigan, known in every hamlet in the land. The 
Toasted Corn Flake Company, at the head of which is Wm. K. Kellogg, 
is another concern of this class which is doing a large business and seems 
to be on a soldid foundation. These are some of the more important 




of the present day industries of Hattle Creek, but tliei'e are many others 
in a prosjierous condition and well deserving of mention. Unitedly they 
have made Hattle Creek one of the most widely known eities of its size 
in the eountry. Among the present day eaptains of industry in Hattle 
Creek may be mentioned Edwin C. Nichols, William H. ]\Iason, Irving 
L. Stone, Edward C. Iliumau, Chai-les W. Post, C. E. Kolb, William 
K. Kellogg, Howard H. Sherman and L. H. Anderson. Tiiese men 
have each and all done mueh to place Battle Creek in the front rank 
of the manufacturing eities of Michigan. 

But the one institution that lias given Battle Creek its widest fame, 
that brings more people within the gates of the city and from a more 
extended area and sends them away grateful that they came, is the 

Battle Creek Sanit.\rium 

Its inception, development and gi'owth are covered by the time of 
one life and that life we tnist not yet far spent. The Sanitarium is 
largely the product of the genius of John H. Kellogg, though he has 
now and has had in the past the help of many able assistants building 
up and carrying forward the work of the institution. It nevertheless 
remains, that to Dr. Kellogg more than to any other one man does the 
city of Battle Creek owe the fact that it has the largest single health 
giving plant in our own or any other eountry ; that its head is an author 
of wide repute and a surgeon of international reputation. The Battle 
Creek of the future will think of John H. Kellogg, M. D., as one of the 
great men of his time, one of the benefactors of his race. 

These, with others whose names might with propriety be hung in 
this cluster, together wuth the bankers who stand at the head of her 
solid and secure financial institutions, her merchants and business men, 
her enterprising press, her able bar and her well conducted schools, 
have caused Battle Creek to outstrip many of her competitors of the 
earlier years and to place her in the forefront of the enterprising and 
growing cities of her class. 


Battle Creek is fortunate in having the service of two important 
trunk lines of railroad. The ]\Iichigan Central entered the city in 
December, 1845, and as it is one of the oldest so it is probably the most 
important of any that passes through our state. 

The Chicago and Grand Trunk is another great traffic ai-tery 
traversing the state from a northeasterly to a southwesterly direction. 
It puts Battle Creek in direct touch with the Atlantic seaboard at 
Portland, ilaine, and through the empire city of Chicago, with the 
great west. A third line running from the southeast to the northwest 
gives the city a direct outlet to the east through Toledo and by way of 
Lake ilichigan to the northwest. A fourth line gives access to the Lake 
Shore and Michigan Southern and other systems to the south. Besides 
these steam lines, there is a third rail electric road, one of the best in the 
middle west, which with its connections gives hourly service from De- 


tioit through Battle Creek to Kalamazoo. An extension of the system 
is now being built from Kalamazoo to Grank Rapids, where it will con- 
nect with a line already in operation from the last named city to 
Rluskegon. A second interurban electric line has been surveyed and 
the right of way secured from Battle Creek to Coldwater. It is hoped 
that the work of construction will soon be commenced. Prom every 
point of the compass these various lines give waj'S out from, as well as 
ways into. Battle Creek. Locally the people are served by a well man- 
aged electric urban line. 

PiRE Department 

The Battle Creek fire department is not without a historj'. The high 
character of its personnel from the beginning to the present writing, 
together with its great work at different times in saving both life and 
property, commend it to the favor of all our people. 

The original Tempest No. 2, hand engine company, was organized 
August 2, 1856, while Battle Creek was yet a village of a few hundred 
people. On the day named, a public meeting of citizens was held to 
organize a fire company. Chester Buckley presided and L. H. Stewart 
acted as secretary. A temporary organization was perfected by the 
election of N. Fillis as foreman; Victory P. Collier, afterward state 
treasurer for two terms, was assistant and C. H. Stewart, secretary. At 
a meeting of the company held August 12, the following were elected 
permanent officers and "Tempest" selected as the name of the new 
company : Foreman, John Nichols, founder and president of the Nichols 
and Shepherd Company; first assistant, John J. Wheeler; second as- 
sistant, George Hyatt; third assistant, W. G. Morehouse; secretary, 
N. Fillis ; treasurer. Victory P. Collier. 

From its organization to the outbreak of the Civil war, this company 
maintained a leading position among the volunteer fire companies of 
the state. The company took part and won victories in the old time 
state tournaments. 

Among the names on the roll besides those already mentioned, we 
find W. W. AVooluough, long one of Battle Creek's most prominent citi- 
zens ; Edwin C. Nichols, the present president of the Nichols and Shep- 
herd Company: William H. Neal ; David Shepbard ; George W. Hyatt; 
Thomas Hart: James C. Halladay ; P. H. Barnes; W. H. Green; S. S. 
French, who became a surgeon ; L. H. Rhines, who rose from the rank 
of captain to that of colonel and fell at the head of his regiment in 
one of the many engagements before Petersburg, Virginia; George C. 
Barnes, who became a major of volunteers and gallantly gave his life 
in battle for his country ; Cornelius B.yington, who also rose to the rank 
of major and while commanding his regiment in a desperate assault on 
the enemy during the siege of Kuoxville was mortally wounded, falling 
into the hands of the enemy and dying a few days after; Captain 
George C. Knight; Lieutenants, Charles Galpin, George Hicks, M. Pish 
and Sergeants, Martin Wagner and Richard H. Freeleigh, all members 
of old Tempest No. 2. 

During the Civil war No. 2 disbanded. It was not until 1872 that 



another volunteer ((Hiipaiiy was organixi'd with Charles H. Jeffers as 
t'orenian; James Fiiile\-. liist assistant; and Lewis Williams, second 
assistant; secretary, II. Phelps; and A. A. Ellsworth, treasurer. This 
company came to be regarded as the model fire company of the state. 
It repeatedly carried off the first prize at state tournaments, its victo- 
ries heralding the name of Battle Creek through the commonwealth. 

On the eleventh of May, 1863, the common council appointed a 
committee with authority to purchase a Button and Blake steam lire 
engine. The committee reported they had selected such engine, weigh- 
ing four thousand four hundred pounds, which, with a hose cart and 
eight hundred feet of hose, the city could purchase for five thousand 
dollars. The committee was authorized to buy the same. In 1874 the 

Fire Department 

Goguac Hook and Ladder Company was organized and equipped with 
one thirty foot practice ladder, one scaling and two extension ladders 
and eight Babcock extinguishers. 

This year, 1912, the equipment, strength, personnel and cost of the 
department is as follows: No. 1 Station — W. P. Weeks, chief; Charles 
II. Ireland, assistant chief; D. P. Kibby, captain; N. J. Hicks, lieu- 
tenant; and fourteen full paid firemen. One motor car for the chief; 
one combination ehemical engine and hose motor car; one combination 
pumping engine, chemical engine and hose motor car; one (>") ft. aerial 
hook and ladder truck, three horse. 

No. 2 Station — George W. Collins, captain; A. V. Fuller, lieutenant; 
four full paid firemen. One combination chemical engine ami hose 
wagon, horse-drawn ; one extra first size steam fire engine, 1,000 gallons 
per minute, horse-drawn. 

No. '■] Station — E. E. Sager, captain-. F. ^I. Huggett, lieutenant; 


three full paid Hi-fiiifii. One coiuliiniition i-lR'iiiic;il ciiiiiiic aiul liose 
wagon, horse-drawn. 

No. 4 Station — W. II. Fisher, eaptaiu ; R. B. Burnhaiii, lieiitenaut ; 
three full paid tirenien. Oue eonibination eheniieal engine and hose 
wagou, liorse-drawn ; one third size steam tire engine, 500 gallons per 
minute, horse-drawn. Gamewell Fire Alarm system with 92 street 
boxes; 10,000 feet 2\U inch cotton rubber lined tire hose. The yearly 
maintenance of the department $-40,000.00. 

Battle Creek and its ^Ilnicipal Government 

"The village of Battle Creek was tirst surveyed in 1835 by General 
Ezra Convis assisted by John ^leaehem, though no regular plot was 
made from that survey. During this year ilessrs. Joseph, Abraham and 
Isaac Merritt and Jonatiian Hart purchased the interest of General 
Convis and the year following, in conjunction with Sands McCamley, 
engaged the service of Samuel D. Moore, a practical civil engineer to 
re-survey the village and make a plot of the same, which was accordingly 
done." In 1837 the connnunity at Battle Creek contained an estimated 
population of four hundred. At that time it had six stores, two taverns, 
two saw mills, two flouring mills, two machine shops, one cabinet fac- 
tory and two blacksmith sliops. There was an air of thrift and enter- 
prise about the village that gave promise of a future. In 1850 the 
tirst charter was obtained aiul Battle Creek became an incorporated 
village. AVilliam Brooks; Charles ]\Iason, two years; Edward ("ox, 
.M. D.; R. T. ;\Ierrill, two years; Chester Buckley, two years; Jonathan 
Hart ; Leander Ethridge, appointed the same year to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the death of Mr. Hart, served as presidents. During tiie 
same time the office of clerk was filled by Isaac C. ]\Iott ; Dwight May ; 
Leonard H. Stewart, two years; Charles S. Gray, resigned July 13, 
1854; Eli L. Stillson. appointed to fill vacancy; Joseph Dodge; William 
F. Xeal ; Cornelius Byington and William F. Neal. 

Battle Creek A City 

Such was the growth, development and prospects of the town that in 
the winter of 1858-59 a public meeting was called to consider the 
advisability of procuring a new charter and adopting a city government. 
The proposition was regarded favorably and a committee consisting of 
Leonidas D. Dibble, ]\Iyron H. Joy and Walter W. Woolnough was 
appointed to draft a charter for the