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Full text of "The history of Camden county, New Jersey"









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HISTC) R^ 






CAMDEN COUNTY, 



NEAA^ JERSEY. 



By GEO, R. PROWELL. 



Member Historical Societi/ of Penmytvanit 



ILLUSTRATED. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
L. J. RICHARDS & CO. 

1886. 



PREFACE. 



The evident want of a comprehensive history of Camden County and the encouragement given 
by many prominent citizens whose opinions were consulted in regard to that need, induced the pub- 
lishers to undertake the task of preparing this volume. The promises made by the people of the 
county were generously fulfilled. After a year's diligent, faithful and well-directed effort, the book 
has been completed. It is now presented for the consideration and criticism of the intelligent 
reader, believing that it will meet his entire approval. Every effort has been made to prepare a 
work acceptable to its patrons, creditable alike to its author and the publi.shers, and worthy of the 
dignified name of history. 

Great credit is due the Hon. John Clement, of Haddonfield, whose efficient aid and wise 
counsel were of inestimable value during the whole period of the preparation. His interest in local 
history was inspired by his intelligent father, and being a lineal descendant of one of the first settlers 
of West Jersey, he was naturally impelled to continue his investigations. The knowledge which he 
possesses in this field, was acquired after long and diligent research among original records and 
innumerable authorities. 

Among the publishers' corps of writers were Edington P. Fulton, now on the editorial stafl'of the 
Philadelphia Times, Alfred Mathews, Austin N. Hungerford, J. L. Rockey, Edgar O. Wagner, Captain 
Frank H. Coles and Frank J. Richards. Dr. John R.Stevenson, of Haddonfield, prepared the chapter 
on medicine. Rev. F. R. Brace, the chapter on education and Hon. Edward Burrough the history of 
Delaware township. Benjamin M. Braker contributed material for the chapters upon Camden and 
Gloucester cities. Acknowledgements are due Peter L. Voorhees, Esq., for valuable suggestions, S. H. 
Grey, Esq., and Colonel S. C. Harbert, for the use of files of early newspapers, to John W. Wright, 
Colonel Robert B. Hull, Isaac C. Martindale and Howard M. Cooper, Esq., and to the members of the 
press and the clergy of the county. .» 

In concluding these few lines a word concerning the department of illustrations, which supple- 
ments the literary contents of the volume, is not out of place. The illustrations consist largely of por- 
traits of some of those men who have been, or are, prominent residents of the territory to which this 
volume is devoted. These portraits, with the accompanying biographical sketches, form a feature 
which is sometimes the subject of ill-considered criticism, on the ground that they are of persons living. 
Nevertheless, in the judgment of the publishers, and of a great many persons who have given the 
matter careful consideration, the department is one which should neither be omitted nor limited by the 
insertion of the portraits and sketches of those only who are deceased. When it is borne in mind how 
swiftly the stream of life and time sweeps on— how quickly the present glides into the past— there will 
be few to find fault with this department ; and when a score or more of years have elapsed — when the 
generations now marching in the front, and in the closely succeeding ranks, shall have passed away, 
this feature will be invaluable, serving as the best reminder of some of their most conspicuous and 
honored characters, to those who remain. 

G. R. P. 
Philadki.phia, Nov., 1886. 



CONTENTS. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



CHAPTER I. 
Topography and Botany 1-1 

CHAPTER II. 
The Indians ■1-16 

CHAPTER III. 
Karly Colonial History 17-24 

CHAPTER IV. 

The Friends in West Jersey 24-30 

CHAPTER V. 

Early History of Old Gloucester 30-35 

CHAPTER VI. 

The Frtnch and Indian War 3.5-36 

CHAPTER VII. 

The War of the Revolution 36-77 

CHAPTER VIII. 

The War of 1812-14 77-86 

CHAPTER IX. 

The War with Mexico 86-89 

CHAPTER X. 

The War for the Union 83-17t< 



CHAPTER XI. 

The Erection of Camden County 179-186 

CHAPTER XII. 

avil List 186-196 

CHAPTER XIII. 

The Bench and Bar of Camden County 196-237 

CHAPTER XIV. 

A History of Medicine and Medical Men 237-308 

CHAPTER XV. 
Education 308-319 

CHAPTER XVI. 
The Frees 319-330 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Authors and Scientist 330-339 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

PubUc Internal Improvements 340-359 

CHAPTER XIX. 
Navigation and Ship-Building 360-385 

CHAPTER XX. 

Agriculture 385-395 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Old Grave- Yards 395-400 



CITIES, BOEOUGHS AND TOWNSHIPS. 



CHAPTER I. 
THE CITY or CAMDEN. 
Introduction — Early Settlements and Subsequent Transfers of 
Land on the Site of Camden— Karly Settlements and Trans- 
fers of Land on the Site of South Camden— First Town 
Plan of Camden— Coopers Hill— The Kaighn Estate— Fet- 
tereville— Stockton— Kaighnsville 403-424 

CHAPTER II. 
MUNICIPAL HISTORY. 
Incorporation — Supplements to Charter — New Charter — The 
First City Hall -The New City Hall— Civil List— Water 
Departmuut—Fire Department 426-444 

CHAPTER III. 
EARLY BUSINESS INTERESTS OF CAMDEN. 
Camden in 1815— Camden in 1824 — Assessmentof 1834— Manu- 
facturing Industries and Interesting Facts— Pleasure Gar- 
dens—" Sausage Weaving." 444-4.54 

CHAPTER IV. 
BANKS AND BANKING. 
The First Bank in New Jei-sey- State and National Laws Gov- 
erning the Banking System — The National State Bank of 
Camden- The Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank— The First 
National Bank— The Camden Safe Deposit Company — The 
Camden National Bank 454-467 

CHAPTER V. 
RELIGIOUS HISTORY OP CAMDEN. 

Newton Friends' Meeting— Methodist Churches— Baptist 
Churches— Protestant Episcopal Churchefe- Presbyterian 
Churches— Lutheran Churches— Churches of the United 
Brethren in Christ— Church of the Evangelical Association 

Young Men's Christian Association — Roman Catholic 

Churches 467-497 

CHAPTER VI. 
THE SCHOOLS. 
Early Schools in Camden— The Public-School System— The 
New Era— Progress since 1879 — Newton Debating Society 
— The Worthington Library — Private Schools— West Jer- 
sey Orphanage 497-507 

CHAPTER VII. 
THE MANUFACTUIIING INDUSTRIES. 
Iron Works — Lumber Interests of Camdon— Oil Cloth Manu- 
factories-Woolen and Worsted Mills— Miscellaneous In- 
dustries— Carriage-Making— Shoe and Morocco Factories. 507-538 



CHAPTER VIII. 
MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS. 

The Post-Offlce— Marke^House8— The Bead Family— Insur- 
ance Companies — The Gaslight Company — The Street 
Railway- The Telephone— Building and Building Asso- 
ciations—Drug Interests— Old Military Organizations- 
Cemeteries— The Tornado of 1878— The Cyclone of 1885— 
Hotels 538-558 

CHAPTER IX. 
SECRET AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 

Free Masonry — The Independent Order of Odd Fellows — 
Knights of Pythias — Improved Order of Red Men — Knights 
of the Golden Eagle— Ancient Order of United Work- 
men — Brotherhood of the Union — Order of United .Ameri- 
can Mechanics — Independent Order of Mechanics — Mis- 
cellaneous Societies 558-581 

CHAPTER X. 
GLOUCESTER CITY. 

Topography — Early History — Fort Nassau— Gloucester as a 
County Seat— County Courts and Public Buildings— The 
Original Town and Some of its Inhabitants — A Deserted 
Village — An Era of Prosperity Arrives — Incorporation and 
City Government— Manufacturing Interests — Religious 
History — Schools— Societies— Gloucester as a Pleasure Be- 
sort— The Fox Hunting Club— Fisheries 582-607 

CHAPTER XI. 

THE BOROUGH OF HADDONFIELD. 

Early History— Francis Collins, John Kay, Timothy Matlack, 
Jacob Clement, Samuel Clement, Thomas Perrywolb, 
Thomas Rodman, Hugh Creighton, William Griscom, 
Benjamin Hartley — Local Incidents of the Revolu- 
tion— Haddonfleld in 1826 and 1835— Friendship Fire 
Company— Old Taverns— The Post-Office — Library Com- 
pany—The Friends- Baptist Church— Methodist Church- 
Episcopal Church— Presbyterian Church— Schools— Busi- 
ness Interests— Societies G08-GS5 

CHAPTER XII. 
THE TOWNSHIP OF HADDON. 
Early History of Old Newton Township — Notes from Town- 
ship Records — Thomas Sharp's Account of the Newton 
Settlement- Old Nowton Friends' Meeting— Schools— 
Camden and Philadelphia Race-Course— CoUingswood— 
Westmount 686-654 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XIII. 
THE TOWNSHIP OF WATERFORD. 

Topography— The Matlack Family— The CoUius'— Organiza- 
tion— Gleutlale M. E. Church— Gibbsboro'— Lucas Paint 
Works— Church of St. John in the Wilderness- Berlin— 
*' Long-a-Coming" — Business Beginnings — Societies — Li- 
brary— Churches- Berlin Cemetery— Village of Atco — So- 
cieties and Churches— Chesilhurst-Waterford Village — 
Churches — "Shane's Castle," the Woos Brothers and the 
Beginning of Catholicism 

CHAPTER XIV. 
THE TOWNSHIP OF GLOUCESTER. 
Description — Early Settlers — The Tonilinsons, Albertsons, 
Bates, Cathcarts, Heilmans, Howells, Thornes and others 
— Civil Organization — Villages of Kirkwood, Linden- 
wold, Clementon, Watsontown, Brownstown, Davistown, 
Spring Mills, " the lost town of Upton " and Chews Land- 
ing — The Chew Family — Blackwood — The Wards and 
Blackwoods— Old Hotels — Stage Lines — Churches — Socie- 
ties — Education 

CHAPTER XV. 
THE TOWNSHIP OF WINSLOW. 

Character of the Township — Set off from Gloucester — List of 
Officers — Villages of Sicklerville, Williamstown Junction, 
Wilton, Tansboro\ Cedar Brook, Braddock, Bine Anchor, 
Ancora, Elm, Winslow Junction and Winelow — Glass 
Works — Societies — Friends' Meetings and Churches , . . 



CHAPTER XVI. 



THE TOWNSHIP OF CENTRE. 



Surface andSoil— Early Settlers and Descendants— The Huggs, 
Brownings, Hillnians. Hinchmans, Thornes, Glovers and 
Later Comers- Civil History— Village of Snow Hill— Soci- 
eties— Churches — Magnolia — Guinea Town— Mount Eph- 



CHAPTER XVIT. 

THE TOWNSHIP OF DELAWARE. 

Civil Hi story ^AfTaira of the Township during the Civil War 
—List of Officials— Mills-Early Settlers— The Howells, 
Coopers, Champions, Collins, Burrows, EUis, Heritages, 
Kays, Matlacks, Shivers, Stokeses, Davises, Frenches and 
others— Old Houses— Ell ieburg— Bat esvi He 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
THE TOWNSHIP OF STOCKTON. 

Its Separation fromDelaware— Jurisdiction over River Islands 
-Early Settlement— The Coles, Spicers, Woods, Willards, 
Nicholsons, Morgans, Budderows, Fishs, Homers, Brown- 
ings, Starns, Osiers and others— Bethel Methodist Episco- 
pal Church — Old Taverns — Schools — Fisheries — Pavouia 
-Wrightsvilie— Cramer Hill— Dudley— Me rch^n*- " 
Stockton— Delair — Manufacturing Interests ^ 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Albertsou, Chalkley 072 

Albertsoi), Samuel 616 

Andrews, J. E 301 

An Old Stage-Ooach 345 

Anthony, H. B 635 

Autographs, early settlers in Gloucester township 677 

Autographs, early settlers in Stockton township 742 

Autographs, early settlers, Newton township G49 

Autographs of Early Settlers 425 

Autographs of English Noblemen 24 

Baird, David 518 

Bartine, D. H 295 

Beatty,I.C 526 

Boll, Ezra C 393 

Bennett, Volney G 616 

Bergen, C. A 229 

Bergen, M. V 228 

Braddock, Elwood 632 

British stamp 38 

Browning, A. M 158 

Browning, Maurice 528 

Brown, David B 192 

Brown, Davids 590 

Burrough, Edward 194 

Camden Water-Front 403 

Campbell, Geo 557 

Carpenters' Hall 41 

Chew, Sinnickson 322 

Church, Broadway Methodist Episcopal 470 

Church, First Baptist 477 

Church, First Presbyterian 488 

Church, North Baptist 480 

Church of Immaculate Conception 496 

Chureh, Second Presbyterian 491 

Church, St. John's Episcopal 486 

9 

Church, Third Methodist Episcopal 408 

Clement, John 212 

Clement, John, Sr 214 

Coffin, William 698 

Coles, C. B 516 

Coley, Benjamin D 121 

ColUngs, E. Z 394 

Cattell, AlexanderG 763 

Cooper, Beiy "44 

ix 



Cooper, Benjamin W 743 

Cooper Hospital 264 

Cooper, James B GO 

Cooper, John 466 

Cooper, Joseph W 458 

Cooper, Dr. Richard M 455 

Cooper, Richard M 271 

Cooper, W. B 743 

Cooper, William D 218 

Cramer, Alfred 758 

Croft, Howland 524 

Cuthbert, J. OgJen 654 

Davis, Thomas II 136 

Davis, Thomas W 400 

Delaware Indian 5 

Delaware Indian Family 7 

Do Vries, David Pietersen 18 

Dialogue, John H 384 

Douges, John W 293 

Bstaugh House 647 

Evans, Ellwood 737 

Fetters, Kichard 422 

Fitch's First Steamboat 360 

Fitch's Second Steamboat 361 

Fitzgerald, Wilson 579 

Fitzsimmons, P. J 497 

Flint knives 9 

Fort Mercer 50 

Fort Mifflin 48 

Fowler, P. H 593 

Francine, Louis R 156 

Frazee, Andrew B 372 

Fredericks, Henry 514 

Gatzmer, W. H 370 

Gettysburg Monument 145 

Gill, John 456 

Great Central Fair Building 163 

Grey, Philip J 320 

Grey, S. H 226 

Gross, Onan B 290 

Haines, Joseph M 712 

Hall, New City 429 

Hansen, William C 159 

Heath, Kobert P. S 193 



LIST OF TLLUSTKATIONS. 



Hendry, Charles D 2G7 

Heulinge, Israel W 457 

HiUmaD, Samuel S 633 

Hoe of Gray Flint 10 

Horsfall, Charles K 140 

Howell, Joshua B 154 

Hudson, Honry 17 

Hylton, J. Dunbar 747 

Hylton, J. Dunbar, Kesideuco of 748 

Independence Bell 36 

Independence Hall 47 

Indian autographs 16 

Indian Fort 8 

Jones, Franks 437 

Kifferly, Frederick 534 

Kirkbride, Joel P 671 

Knight, E. C 641 

Lippiucott, Joshua 459 

Livermore, Jonas 464 

Lucas, John 658 

Map (boundary) of East and West Jersey 23 

Map of Camden 419 

Map of Camden County 1 

Map of operations on the Delaware 49 

Map, Thos. Sharp, 1700 638 

Martindale, Isaac C 337 

Mead, Wm. T 548 

Michellon, F. F 435 

Middleton, F. P 580 

Middleton, M. F 302 

Morgan, Randal E 185 

Mortar and pestle 8 

Mnd Island, 1777 52 

New County Court-Houso 184 

Old-Time Doctor 238 

Ornamental pottery, flint, etc 10 



Parker, Joel 

Parsons, Stephen 

Piece of steatite 

Pratt, Jesse 

President's chair and desk, upon which the Declaration of In- 
dependence was signed 

Read, Edmund E 

Read, John S : 

Read, Joseph J 

Reeve, Augustus 

Reeve, Benjamin C 

Reeve, Richard H 

Ridge, James M 

Bightmire, William H 

Roe, David, Sr 

Rose, Wilbur F 

Rulon, Elwood 

^exton, William 

Sheets, John A. J 

Shults, John S 

Soldiers in 1812 

Soldiers' Monument 

Stanton, L. N 

Starr, John F 

Stevenson, John R 

Stockham, Charles 

Stocks and pillory 

Taylor, H. Genet 

Taylor, Othniel H ; 

Thompson's Hotel and Fisheries 

Tomlinsou, Ephraim 

Vessel of potterj' 

Voorhets, Peter L 

William Peuu's burial-place 

William Penn's coat of arms 

WileoD, George E 




TLA N T I 



HISTORY 



CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



CHAPTER I. 

TOPOGRAPHY AND BOTANY. 
TOPOGRAPHY. 

Camhen County has a front on the Del- 
aware River often miles, and extends sonth- 
easterly about thirty miles to the line of 
Atlantic County. Timber Creek, from the 
river, bounds it on tiie southwest to the head 
of the south branch of that stream, and by a 
short land line to the head of Four-Mile 
Branch, and down the whole length of that 
stream to Great Egg Harbor River and 
thence down that river to the Atlantic 
County line. On the northeast Pensaukin 
Creek from the river bounds the county to 
the source of the south l)ranch, and by a line 
across the country to near the head of Mullica 
River, or a branch thereof, known as Atco 
Atco, and thence down the stream to where 
Atlantic County makes a corner near Atsion. 

The streams running out of the hills are 
rapid, yet the volume of water has been 
materially diminished by thegradual removal 
of the timber from the upland and swamps. 
The effect of the tides from the Delaware 
River in these streams is felt for ten or 
twelve miles inland, although its flow is 
hindered by mill-dams in many places. The 



land in parts is hilly and rolling, but no part 
is so flat or level but that it can be readily 
drained. The highest point, as appears by 
the gradients of the Camden and Atlantic 
Railroad, is near Berlin, and shows an eleva- 
tion of one hundred and ninety-six feet above 
low tide-water at Camden. There is a 
gradual rise from the river southeasterly un- 
til it reaches the highest point at or near 
Berlin, and all the streams running north- 
westerly to the river find their sources in 
that region. The same features exist on the 
southeasterly slope, and the streams that drain 
their waters into the Atlantic Ocean, originate 
near the same place, thus making the region 
about that town the water-shed for a large 
extent of country. It may therefore be seen 
that the springs of water that come to the 
surface near Berlin find their way to the 
Delaware River by Timber Creek, Coopers 
Creek, Pensaukin Creek and Rancocas 
Creek on the western slope of the county, 
while the sources of Great Egg Harbor River 
and of Mullica River and their tributaries, 
which drain the eastern slope and emj)ty into 
the Atlantic Ocean, may be found near the 
same place. 

Timber Creek is navigable for vessels of 
light draught to Chews Landing, about ten 
miles from its mouth, and Coopers Creek 

1 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY. NEW JERSEY. 



to Coles Landing, about the same distance. 
Pensaukin C-reek is available for the same 
purpose to the dam at the junction of the 
north and south branches of that stream. 
Along both sides of these water-courses are 
extensive tracts of low, marshy laud, upon 
which the tide leaves a fertile alluvion de- 
posit, and which, when banked and drained, 
makes valuable meadow, while towards the 
heads of the streams good water-jiowers have 
been made and u.sed for milling and manu- 
facturing purposes. Black, yellow and 
green marl is found in the belt that crosses 
the county in a northeasterly direction, and 
for building purpo.sesa red sandstone is found 
in many localities, generall)' in thin layers 
near the surface, but occasionally in thick, 
compact bodies. Loam suitable for moulding 
purposes is found in some of the hills along 
the streams and clays for brick-making 
and pottery crop out in various places. 

BOTANY. 

To outline the flora of .so small a section 
of country as is usually embraced within 
county lines would ordinarily furnish but 
little matter of interest, and where an excep- 
tion to this general rule is known it becomes 
not only proper, but very desirable, to have it 
so appear, in order to obtain the most com- 
plete local history that can be prepared. That 
this exception is realized in Camden County 
is made abundantly manifest. 

It is well known that the State of New 
Jersey, with its surface of seven thousand 
five hundred and seventy-six square miles, 
furnisiies greater opportunities for the study 
of a varied flora than almost any other State 
or district of similar size in the whole United 
States. The more elevated or mountainous 
section in the north gives a somewliat sub- 
alpine flora ; the southern counties receive, by 
tlu! wasiiiug of the waves from the shores of 
the Southern States, and by the birds in their 
migratory flights northward, the seeds of 
many strictly .southern plants ; the eastern 



section supports the usual marine flora, and 
the western the usual fresh-water flora, while 
a section of the interior of the more southern 
counties give us what is elsewhere known as 
the " pine barrens of New Jersey," furnish- 
ing a peculiar vegetation, one unlike that of 
any other State of our Union. 

O. R. Willis, in his " Catalogue of Plants 
growing without Cultivation in the State of 
New Jersey," says of these floral features, — 
" The difference of elevation from the south 
towards the north gives a wide range of 
temperature, .so that while in the northern 
boundaries of the State plants are found 
common to New England, the southern and 
coast regions yield the vegetation of Eastern 
Virginia. 

" The whole western border is washed l)y 
the Delaware River, fed by tributaries from 
Pennsylvania and New York, bringing to 
its banks the seeds of a vast territory north 
and west of it. Its eastern shores are washed 
by the Hud.son River and the Atlantic Ocean, 
wafting the seeds of many lands to the allu- 
vial plains which skirt its eastern bounda- 
ries. Its varied soil is another remarkable 
feature of this State : limestone in the north, 
accompanied by iron and peat, marl, alluvial, 
arenaceous and clay deposits; with red shales 
and heav}' loam, impregnated with iron, in 
the middle ; while in the south and east loose 
sands, i)eat and sphagnous bogs and green 
sand deposits alternate with patches of loam, 
in which clay more or less predominates. The 
wonderful variety of soil, the differences of 
elevation and tlie wide range of temperature 
combine to give rise to one of the most varied 
and remarkable floras of the Western Conti- 
nent. The cedar swamps, with which the 
pine regions are besprinkled, are the homes 
ofthemo.st beautiful and remarkable indi- 
viduals of the flora of the temperate zones. 
There the pogonia, the liabenaria, the or- 
chis, the arethusa, the cjilopogon and the 
.sarracenia flourish; while tiie forests of the 
north and middle are adorned with the lir- 



BOTANY. 



iodendron, the magnolia, tiie ilex, the kal- 
inia and the rhododendron." 

Among those who early gave attention to 
botaniciil investigation in this distriet, or who 
i)ecame qnite familiar with its flora, may be 
found the names of Bartram, Collins, Kalm, 
Miehaux, Schweinitz, Barton, Piirsh, Xnttall, 
r)uraud and others, many collections of New 
Jersey plants being scattered through the 
herbaria of Europe as well as of America. 
The conditions they found have, in the lapse 
of many years, been very much changed. 
The marshy ground along the Delaware Riv- 
er just south of Camden, and running back 
into the country for some distance, was a 
noted place to visit in those early botanical 
days, many of the rarer plants of this section 
l)eing found therein, some decidedly of a 
soutiiern range, and which of late years have 
not been met with at all. Near Haddonheld 
is another locality, where recently has been 
collected a species not heretofore known to 
occur north of Virginia. The townships of 
Waterford and Winslow extend into the 
" pine barren " region, above referred to, 
where the rare and beautiful plants which 
characterize its flora may be found. On the 
banks of Little Timber Creek may, in shel- 
tered places, still be found plants of a more 
northern habitat, and this is, perhaps, the onlv 
place south of Trenton where they occur. An 
enumeration of these species would greatly 
interest persons scientifically inclined, and 
there are many such devotees among us, but 
it would be too voluminous to be inserted 
here ; suffice it to say that many of these 
plants, which are to be found described in the 
various text-books of botany, are yet qnite 
local. This section has been so thoroughly 
explored that very few species new to science 
have been detected within the past thirty- 
five yeai-s. 

Of introduced plants, those whose home is 
in other parts of the world, (Jamden County 
has more than a full share, owing to circum- 
stances which are not likelv to affect anv 



other county in the State. Isaac C. ^[artin- 
dale, of Camden, who is probably better ac- 
quainted with the flora of this section of New 
Jersey, and the localities where its rare plants 
may be found, than almost any other person 
now living, and who has of late years given 
special study to the introduction of foreign 
species and the geographical distribution of 
plants, says that the past twenty-five years 
has given a large influx of these. Nearly as 
far back as 18(30 the late Charles F. Parker, 
of Camden, and himself", while botanizing on 
the Pennsylvania side of the Delaware, de- 
tected a number of European plants growing 
on heaps of ballast that had been unloaded 
from vessels, most of which were not enum- 
erated in the text-books of North American 
botany, and as a new field for investigation 
was thus opened, the whole of the Delaware 
River front, both in New Jersey and Penn- 
sylvania, was carefully examined during the 
succeeding years, and the character and hab- 
its of the plants studied, it was found that 
many of the species of European origin were 
evidently from the middle se-ction of the con- 
tinent, anil a close investigation developed 
the fact that large quantities of coal oil were 
being shipped from Philadelphia to the sea- 
j)ort towns of Germany and those along the 
Mediterranean Sea; so large a trade had 
s])rung up in this enterprise within a few 
vears that many sailing-vessels were engaged 
in its transportation. Many cargoes of coal 
oil were thus shipped, and if no freight could 
be obtained for a return, the vessels came 
back in ballast, which was largely unloaded 
in the southern part of the city of Camden, 
where scores of acres of low, mai-shy land 
existed. This ballast material of coui'se con- 
tained many seeds of plants, which in due 
season vegetated, and thus furnished, as it 
were, a new link in Flora's chain on Ameri- 
can soil. Occasional vessel-loads of ballast 
(^ame from other parts of the world — some 
from Africa, Eastern Asia, South America 
and the West Indies. A few California 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



plants have also in this way been brought 
to our doors. 

It is well known that during the War of 
the Rebellion many vessels were engaged in 
carrying supplies to ports on the South At- 
lantic seaboard and to the Gulf States. As 
no return cargo could be obtained, vast quan- 
tities of ballast were used. Much of this in 
time reached here also, and in consequence 
a large number of strictly .southern plants 
were introduced. Partial lists of these have 
from time to time appeared in the scientific 
periodicals of the country, and Mr. Mai'tiu- 
dale, we learn, is at present engaged in the 
preparation of a complete history of this de- 
partment of his favorite study. 

Of the foreign plants thus introduced, 
numbering perhaj)s hundreds of species, many 
never appeared but once, others maintained a 
foothold for a few years and then disap- 
peared, whilst a large number of species have 
been found year after year, showing that 
while an unusual combination of circum- 
stances may have led to their introduction, 
they have nevertheless come to stay, often 
rooting out the native plants and absolutely 
taking possession of the soil, in fair illustra- 
tion of the old story of the survival of the 
fittest in the race for existence. The intro- 
duced element being more vigorous, obtained 
the mastery, and the native was obliged to 
yield possession, an exact repetition of the 
history of the settlement of the country by 
the European nations, where the foreigners 
held posse.ssion and the native American In- 
dian, proving to be tlie weaker vessel, ha.s 
been gradually pushed farther and farther 
inland. 

The greater part of the soil of Camden 
County being easily cultivated, the trees have 
been largely removed ; hence the acreage of 
forest has become very small and little of 
especial character in this line now exists that 
requires mention at our hands. The original 
timber has all been cut off and now but i'ew 
trees of large or unusual size remain. The 



wooded sections of the most eastern town- 
ships have for years furnished very largely 
the supply of charcoal for the Philadelphia 
markets. Immeu.se numbers of hoop-poles 
were also shipped to those engaged in the 
West India sugar and molasses trade. The 
white cedar swamps have also furnished 
thousands of cedar rails annually for ship- 
ment to other sections, but the great demand 
for these articles has nearly exhausted the 
supply and these branches of industry are 
almost destroyed. 



C H A P T E R I I. 



THE INDIAN^ 



Early historians, probably through lack 
of study of the literary remains of the pio- 
neers and settlers of the seventeenth century, 
have very much too liberally overestimated 
the number of Indians in New Jersey at the 
time when the first settlements by the whites 
were made here. In this error they but 
shared the once common belief that the abo- 
rigines of North America three hundred 
years ago were a powerful and numerous 
])eople. Recent investigations have proved 
the inaccuracy of this belief. 

The historian Robert Pond estimated the 
uunil)er of fighting men of eighteen given 
tribes east of the Mississippi River at twenty- 
seven thousand nine hundred, and total num- 
ber of souls one hundred and thirty-nine 
thousand five hundred. An historical ac- 
count printed in Philadelphia of Colonel 
Bouquet's expedition in 17(i.3 against the 
Ohio Indians, asserts that there were then 
fifty-six thousand five hundred and eighty 
fighting men of such tribes as the French 
were in connection with in Canada and the 
We,st. Assuming this number to be one- 
fifth of the population, they would have 
had at that date two hundred and eighty-two 
thousand nine hundred in the territorv now 



THE INDIANS. 



embraced in the United States. According 
to the figures of the Indian Bureau of the 
government, there are now about two hundred 
and seventy-five thousand Indians in the 
United States, or within a few thousands of 
as many as ever roamed over the area now 
embraced within the States and Territories. 
Statistics and careful investigation have thus 
shattered the romance of the extinguishment 
of the Indian race, upon which innumerable 
patlietic tales have been founded. The con- 
ditions of Indian life were in every way op- 
posed to the rapid increase of population. 

All the collateral evidence goes to sustain 
the theory that if Hendrick Hudson could 
have made a census of the Indians in Schey- 
ichbi (their name for the territory almost iden- 
tical with the present State of New Jersey), 
he would not have counted many more than 
two thousand when, in 1609, he and his com- 
panions iu the "Half-Moon " skirted the coast 
of what is now New Jersey. Master Evelin, 
writing in 1690, used this language : " I doe 
account all thelndiansto be eight hundred;" 
and Oldmixon, in 1708, computed that they 
had been reduced to one-fourth that immber. 
Evelyn and Oldmixon were below the mark, 
but they were much nearer it than those 
writers who have spoken of the " teeming 
tiiousands " of red men. Such miscalculations 
are largely traceable to circumstances which, 
in their turn, are a revelation of the physical 
condition of Scheyiehbi when the white man 
was moving to plant his dominant standards 
upon its soil. The State of New Jersey is so 
rich in Indian relics that hasty observers 
came to the conclusion that it must have 
supported a conij)aratively dense Indian po])- 
ulation. " So abundant were the Indian 
villages," says Charles C Abbott, in his 
" Stone Age in New Jersey," " that almost 
every brook tiiat harbors a fish has now 
lying among the pebbles on its bed or in the 
turf upon its banks flinty arrow-points or 
delicate fish-spears." \Mieu it is remem- 
bered that these remains are in a great pro- 



portion those of tribes that came to New 
Jersey iu the seasons for hunting and fishing, 
and had their permanent locations beyond, its 
confines, we understand the great attractions 
of the region for a primitive people, and also 
the source of the errors that have been made 
in enumerating the Indians of New Jersey 
two centuries ago. To them and to the 




strangers who foraged in it from the North 
and West it was a land of plenty and 
tiitness. The streams were well supplied 
with fish, and the forests and the plains with 
game. The recession of the glaciers had left 
a soil that so easily absorbed rain that it 
made quick and prodigal return for the work 
of the red husbandman, who cultivated In- 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



dian corn, pumpkins and beans. The inlets 
of the bay and sea were opulent with oysters 
and clams, and when the Indians had eaten 
of these luscious bivalves their shells were 
useful for conversion into wampum. 

They were of the great Lenni Lenape 
nation, which then occupied the central por- 
tion of what is now the United States, and 
were hemmed in by the Natches, south of 
the Potomac River, and the Iroquois, uortli 
of the southern border of New York. They 
had sacredly preserved that curious tradition 
of an origin in the far West, of a march to 
the eastward, a joint victory with the Iro- 
quois over the Allegivi (Allegheuies) in a 
terrible battle and the final establishment of 
a new home upon the shores of the ocean 
from which the suu rises. The myth has 
long ago been resolved into an incident of 
the suu or fire worship commoti to prehis- 
toric faiths. 

Indian Traditions. — A writer in the 
" History of Philadelphia," published in 1880, 
gives the following interesting, though fanci- 
ful, traditions relating to the origin of our 
Aborigines : 

" As to their origin as members of the human 
family, they liave divers legends. They claim to 
have come out of a cave in the earth, like the 
woodchuck and the chipmunk, to have sprung 
from a snail that was transformed into a human 
being and taught to hunt by a kind of Manitou, 
after which it was received into the lodge of the 
beaver and married the beaver's favorite daughter. 

" In another myth a woman is discovered hover- 
ing in mid-air above the watery waste of chaos. She 
has fallen or has been expelled from heaven, and 
there is no earth to offer her a resting-place. The 
tortoise, however, rose from the depths and j)ut his 
broad shield-like back at lier service, and she de- 
scended u|)on it and made it her abode, for its dome- 
like oval resembled the first emergence of dry land 
from the waters of the deluge. The tortoise slept 
upon the deep, and round the margin of his sjiell 
barnacles gathered, the scum of the sea collected and 
the floating fragments of the shredded sea-weed 
accumijlated until the dry land grew apace, and 
by and by there was all that broad expanse of land 
which now constitutes North America. The 
woman, weary of watching, worn out with sighs for 



her lonesomeness, dropped ofi" into a tranc|uil 
slumber, and in that sleep she dreamed of a spirit 
who came to her from her lost home above the 
skies, and of that dream the fruits were sons and 
daughters, from whom have descended the human 
race. Another legend personifies the Great Spirit 
under the form of a gigantic bird that descended 
upon the face of the waters and brooded there until 
the earth arose. Then the (ireat Spirit, exercising 
a creative power, made the plants and animals 
and, lastly, man, who was formed out of the integu- 
ments of the dog, and endowed with a magic arrow 
that was to be preserved with great care, for it was 
at ouce a blessing and a safeguard. But the man 
carelessly lost the arrow, whereupon the Great 
Spirit soared away upon its bird-like wings and 
was no longer seen, and man had thenceforth to 
hunt and struggle lor his livelihood. 

" Manabohzo, relates the general Algonkin tra- 
dition, created the difl'erent tribes of red men out 
of the carcasses of ditt'erent animals, the beaver, 
the eagle, the wolf, the serpent, the tortoise, etc. 
Manabohzo, Messon, Michaboo or Nanabush is a 
demi-god who works the metamorphoses of nature. 
He is the king of all the beasts; his father was the 
west wind, his mother the moon's great-grand- 
father, and sometimes he appears in the form of a 
wolf or bird, but his usual shape is that of the 
gigantic hare. After Maiuibohzo masquerades in 
the figure of a man of great endowments and 
majestic stature, when he is a magician after the 
order of Prospero; but when he takes the form of 
.some impish elf, then he is more tricky than .\riel 
and more full of hobgoblin devices than Puck. 

" Manabohzo is the restorer of the world, sul)- 
merged by a deluge which the serpent-Manitous 
have created. He climbs a tree, saves himself and 
sends a loon to dive for mud from which he can 
make a new world. The loon fails to reach the 
bottom ; the muskrat, which next attenipis the 
feat, returns lifeless to the surface, but with a little 
sand from which the (4reat Hare is able to re- 
create the world. 

"In other legends the otter and beaver dive in 
vain, but the muskrat succeeds, losing his life in 
the attempt." 

Students of the Aryan legends regarding 
the creation of the world and the Eastern 
mythology (concerning the birth of demi-gods 
by the union of a supernatural man witli a 
female human being, will detect at once the 
kinship of the myths of the Occident with 
those of the (Orient. How far thev aid in 



THE INDIANS. 



cicterniiiiiiio- the (iriij;in of the American In- 
fliiiiis on the Asiatic platean is a (jiiestion 
which ethnologists arc still busily ilisciissino;. 

The Lenxi Lexapk, (Hi Dk.i.awark In- 
dians. — The name Lenni Lenape signifies 
"original people," and came to l)e applied to 
the river upon which they dwelt, until the 
English decided that the name of the river 
should be the Delaware. They 
translated the Indi;m generic title 
into Delaware also. With the Iro- 
<piiiis tiic J^elaware formed the 
Algon(juin division of the abo- 
rigines, and were at its head ; but 
not later than the middle of the 
seventeenth century they surrend- 
ered their primacy at the dictation 
of the Iroquois and accepted the 
humble place of a subordinate 
nation. In this condition they were 
bound to abstain from war and in 
return they were protected from 
invasion. The pacific relations 
which existed between them and 
the Europeans in New Jersey is 
[)artially cx])lainable by their vir 
tual abandonment of the belliger- 
ent attitude which had been their 
normal status. 

Along the Delaware, from the 
mouth of the bay northward on 
the eastern side, were perha])s 
twenty sub-divisions of the Lenui 
Lenape people. The names which 
have been preserved are in some 
instances generic and in others 
merely indicate thelociilities. Isaac 
Mickle, in his " Reminiscences of ( )ld 
Gloucester County," hands down those of the 
iSewapoo.ses, Sicounesses and Naraticons apvn 
Raccoon Creek, the Manteses or Mantas on 
Mantua Creek and the Arniewamexes or 
Arwanies on Timber Creek. These la.st- 
named must have extended their pcssessions 
over the present limits of Camden County. 
There are no reasons to suppose that they 



ditVcrcd in mux' wav from their rieigiil)()rs of 
the Lenape. .Vccording to I'astor (Jam- 
paniiis, in his " History of New Sweden," ' 
thty constructed their lodges '.>y placing a 
bark roof upon poles, and when they desired 
t(i fortify a village they made a palisade of 
l<igs and dug a ditch on the outside. They 
could fashion ruile household utensils of [xil- 




nl.l.AU A I.I. IMUAN I AMII \ . 



tery and they made dishes of bark and cedar 

' "The Indians uf this region had no lowns or fixed 
plnees of habitation ; they mostly wander around from 
one place to another and generally go to those phioes 
where they think they are nio^t likely to find the means 

of support When they travel they carry their mats 

with them wherever they go and fix them on poles, 
under which they dwell. When they want fire they 
strike it out of a piece of dry wood, of which they find 
plenty." 



HTPTORY OF CAMT>EN' OOTTNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



wood and wove baskets of withes. They 
were utter strangers to the uses of metals 
until they learned of them from the Europe- 
ans, but of stones they made arrow-heads and 
spear-heads, a queer sort of a " i2;ifl " for 




V\ 1M>M\ loKr 



catching fish, war-clubs, hatchets, axes, dag- 
gers and pestles and mortars, with which 
they pounded corn into meal or clay into 
paint. The neolithic or new stone 
i m piemen ts and weapons unearthed 
throughout tiiis county belonged 
to the Ijenape Indians, just as the 
paleolithic or older and ruder stone 
tools did to the unknown people 
who preceded them and perished iT 

without leaving any records. 
Their Religious Belief 

and other characteristics. 

The Indians worshipped a Great J 

Spirit under various forms, but 

the dance was their sole religious 

ceremonial. The nature of their 

belief in a Supreme Being has 

never been more clearly illustrated 

than in the following letter wintten 

to a friend about I 7 4G by Conrad 

Wei.ser, well known in the early history of 

Pennsylvania as the great interpreter of the 

Indian language : 

" If by religion peopio mean iin iissent to certain 
creeds or tlie observance of a set of religious du- 
ties, as appointed prayers, singing, preaching, 
baptism or even hcathonisli worsliiji, then it may 



be said the Five Nations (Iroquois Indians) and 
their neighbors have no religion. But if by relig- 
ion we mean an attraction of the soul to God, 
whence proceeds a confidence in and hunger after 
the knowledge of Him, then this people must be 
allowed to have some religion among them, not^ 
withstanding their sometimes savage deportment. 
For we find among them some traits of a confi- 
dence in (rod alone, and sometimes, though but 
seldom, a vocal calling upon Him." 

Weiser then cites the case of an Indian 
who accompanied him upon one of his jour- 
neys, and who, on being rescued from a fall 
over a great precipice, exclaimed, — 

" I thank the great Lord and Governor of this 
world in that He has had mercy upon me and has 
been willing that I should live longer." 

A few days later, when Weiser himself 
was in danger of death, the same Indian ad- 
dressed him thus, — 

" Remember that evil days are better than good 
days, for when we suffer much we do not sin ; sin 
will be driven out of lis by sutt'ering; but good 





MourAi; ANi' rixiLi:. 

days will causi^ lutn to sin, and Ctod cannot extend 
His merry to them; but, coiilrariwise, when it 
goeth evil with us God hath compassion on us." 

Again, when, in 17(50, a immber of Inditiiis 
came from Wyalusing to I'hiladelphia to 
confer with {governor Hamillim on various 
subjects. Chief Papomutn is recorded iiy 



THE INDIANS. 



9 



Conrad \\'eiser to iiavc said to the (iover- 
uor, — 

" [ think on (nnl who made us. I want to be 
instructed in His worship and service ; the great 
(xod observes all that passes in our hearts and 
hears all that we sav to one another." 




FI.IXT KNIFE. 

s>. l.v:! iricln's. 



FLINT KNIFE. 

fi by y'/i inches. 



( )!' coiir.s(^ all these Indians whom he 
( I notes had derived .some religions ideas from 
tlu'ir commniiication with the whites : they 




l'AHri,Y DRlt,I,KI) PIECE OF STF.ATirF. 

had, in fact, superimposed these impressions 
upon the vague aud misty idealism which 
formed the basis of their original devotions. 



If tlie word had liecii invent<'d in Weiser's 
day, he might have entitled them Pantheist*. 
It must he kept steadily in mind, however, 




f'EUEMOXI.\L STONE Ol- 



that Indian sentimentalism concerning the 
supernatural was very apt to yield to entice- 
ments, to plunder, bloodshed and debauchery. 
Vet they became skilled theological contro- 
versialists, if we are to place reliance upon the 
alleged reply of an Indian chief to a Swedish 
missionary who preached upon original sin 
and the necessity for a mediator, at Cones- 
toga, Lancaster County, Pa., in 1710. The 




H.VNI'-.M-VDE AND FINGER- .MAliKEII VESSEL OF 
POTTERY. 

story runs tiiat the missionary was so puzzled 
by the Indian logic that he requested the 
University of Upsal to furnish him with a 
confutation of it. The Indian speech, trans- 
lated from the Latin in which the worthy 
cleric embalmed it, is in part as follows : 

"Since the subject of his (the missionary's) er- 
rand is to persuade us to embrace a new doctrine, 
perhaps it may not be amiss, before we offer him 
the reasons why we cannot comply with his re- 



10 



HISTOKT OF CAMPEN COTTNTT, NEW JERSEY. 



quest, to acquaint him with the grounds and prin- 
ciples of that religion which he would have us 
abandon. Our forefathers were under a strong 
persuasion, as we are, that those who act well in 




BY 51 INCHES. 



this life shall be rewarded in the next, according 
to the degree of their virtue; and on the other 
hand, that those who behave wickedly here will 
undcr<;o such punishments hereafter as are propor- 




HORNBLENDE AX 



POLISHED FLESHER. 



tionate to the crimes they are guilty of. . . . We 
think it evident that our notion concerning future 
rewards and punishments was i-ither revealed im- 




iKOUVKli HAMMER 



mediately from heaven to some of our forefatliers 
and from them descended to us, or that it was im- 



planted in each of us at our creation by the Cre- 
ator of all things. . . . Does he believe that our 
forefathers, men eminent for their piety, constant 
and warm in the pursuit of virtue, hoping thereby 




ORNAMENTAL l>()lll,K\. (.ROOVED HAMMER. 

to meet everlasting happiness, w-ere all damned? 
Does he think that we, who are their zealous im- 
itators in good works, earnestly endeavoring with 
llio crcntost riniimspiction to tre.ad the paths of 




FLESHER WITH HANDLE 



lEIiCED RECORD 
TABLET. 



integrity, are in a state of damnation? . . . The Al- 
mighty, for anything we know, may have commu- 
nicated the knowledge of Himself to a difterent 
race of people in a different manner. Some say 




BIRD AND TORTOISK I'lPE. iU.AClC FLINT KNIFE. 

they have the will of God in writing: be it so; 
their revelation has no advantage above ours since 
both must be equally sufficient to save, otherwise 
the end of the revelation would be frustrated. . . . 
Then say that the Almighty has permitted us to 




FLINT PER- DrcK.S HEAD PIPE. 
FOBATOR. 



FLINT SKIN 
.SCRAPER. 



remain in fatal error through so many ages is to 
represent Him as a tyrant. How is it consistent 



THE INDIANS. 



11 



with His justice to tbroe litV upon a race of mor- 
tals without their consent and then damn them 
eternally without opening the door to their salva- 
tion? . . . Are the Christians more virtuous, or 
rather, are they not more vicious than we ? If so, 
how came it to pass that they are the ohjects of 
God's beneficence, while we are neglected? In a 
word, we find the Christians much more depraved 
in their morals than ourselves, and we judge of 
their doctrines by their conduct." 

Different style.s of paintiiifj; the body aud 
face were adopted for feastiujj and for war, 
and tattooing- with charcoal for perniaueut 
ornament and for inscribing the " totem," or 
representative animal or sign upon the indi- 
vidual. The totems also served to distin- 
guish the tribes : as, for instance, tho.se which 
occupied New Jersey south of the IMuscon- 
etcong Mountains were the Unarais, or tur- 
tle, and the Unalachtgo, or wolf, between 
whose territories there .seems never to have 
been any definite delineations. The men 
were warriors, hunters and fishei's, while the 
women tilled the soil and performed all the 
domestic aud household work. 

William Penn, in a letter to Henry Savell, 
dated Philadelphia, 3()th of Fifth Month, 168;5, 
affirms that " the natives are proper and 
shapely," and that he had " never found 
more naturall sagacity, considering them 
without y" help — I was almost going to .say 
y° spoyle of tradition." But in comparing 
the testimony of all the pioneers who record- 
ed their impressions, the conclusion is evi- 
dent that the primitive Indian was charac- 
terized by the same vices tiiat mark his 
descendants in our time. 

The red inhabitants on the banks of the 
Delaware possessed a willingness to l)e at 
peace with the white man, if the white man 
would permit. In proof of their early pa- 
cific disposition, it is pertinent to introduce 
here the evidence of Thomas Budd, who was 
a party to the conference held at Burlington 
in 1668. The whites were fearing an attack 
by the Indians, because the latter were re- 
ported as l>eing angered at the whites for 



having .sold tlieni matcii-coats infected with 
small-pox. The chiefs were asked to a meet- 
ing with the settlers, and when it took place 
one of them .spoke in behalf of all in the fol- 
lowing lofty strain, as reported by Budd, and 
believed not to have been corrupted by any 
modern improvements upon his text : 

" Our young men may speak such words as we 
do not like nor approve of, and we cannot help 
that, and some of your young men may speak such 
words as you do not like, and you cannot help 
that. We are your brothers, and intend to live 
like brothers with you; we have no mind to have 
war; . . . we are minded to live in peace. If 
we intend at any time to make war, we will let you 
know of it and the reason why we make war with 
you; and if you make us satisfaction for the inju- 
ry done us, for which the war was intended, then 
we will not make war on you ; and if you intend 
at any time to make war on us, we would have you 
let us know of it and the reason, and then if we do 
not make satisfaction for the injury done unto you, 
then you may make war on us, otherwise you ought 
not to do it; you are our brothers, and we are wil- 
ling to live like brothers with you ; we are willing 
to have a broad path for you and us to walk in, 
and if the Indian is asleep in this path, the Eng- 
lishman shall pass by and do him no harm ; and if 
an Englishman is asleep in this path, the Indian 
shall pass him by and say, ' He is an Englishman, 
he is asleep ; let him alone, he loves to sleep.' " 

Budd was so moved by this eloquent and 
amicable demonstration that he added, — 

" Tlie Indians have been very serviceable to us 
by selling us venLson, Indian corn, peas and beans, 
fish and fowl, buck-skins, beaver, otter and other 
skins and furs; the men hunt, fish and fowl, and 
the women plant the corn and carry burthens. 
There are many of them of a good understanding, 
considering their education, and in their publick 
meetings of business they have excellent order, 
one s[)eaking after another, and while one is speak- 
ing all the rest keep silence, and do not so much 
as whisper to one another. . . . The kings sat on 
a form and we on another over against them ; they 
had prepared four belts of wampum (so their cur- 
rent money is called, being black and white beads 
made of a fish shell) to give us as seals of the cov- 
enant they made with us ; one of the kings, by 
consent and appointment of the rest, stood up and 
spoke." 

It is interesting to compare the above with 



12 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUxXTY, NEW JERSEY. 



the instructions issued by the lords proprie- 
tors to Governor Philip Cartei-et, February 
10, 1664,— 

" And lastly, if our Governors and Councellors 
happen to find any Natives in our said Province 
and Tract of Land aforesaid, that then you treat 
them with all Humanity and Kindness and do not 
in anywise grieve or oppress them, but endeavour 
by a Christian carriage to manifest Piety, Justice 
and Charity, and in your conversation with them, 
the Manifestation whereof will prove Beneficial to 
the Planters and likewise Advantageous to the 
Propagation of the Gospel.'" 

It is a matter of no little (lifliculty to sift 
the truth from the voluminous tales of the 
Swedish, Dutcli and English chroniclers who 
were among the first voyagers and settlers. 

It happily remained for the more .sober 
and prosaic clerks who came up the Delaware 
before and during Penn's days to temper 
with a regard for truth the temptation to ex- 
travagant writing. Easily first among these 
was Rev. John Campanius, Swedish chaplain 
of Governor Printz, who resided on Tini- 
cum Island, near the mouth of the Schuyl- 
kill, from 1642 to 1648, and was in his 
leisure hours much of a rover on both sides 
of the Delaware. Writing of what he saw 
of the natives in those six years, he said, — 

" Their way of living was very simple. With 
arrows pointed with sharp stones they killed the 
deer and other creatures. They made axes from 
stones, which they fastened to a stick, to kill the 
trees where they intended to jJant. They culti- 
vated the ground with a sort of hoe made from the 
shoulder-blade of a deer or a tortoise shell, sharp- 
ened with stones and fastened to a stick. They 
made pots of clay, mixed with powdered mussel 
shells burned in fire. By friction they made fire 
from two pieces of hard wood. The trees they 
burnt down and cut into pieces for fire-wood. On 
journeys they carried fire a great way in punk, or 
sponges found growing on the trees. They burned 
down great trees, and shaped them canoes by fire 
and the help of sharp stones. Men and women 
were dressed inskins ; the women made themselves 
under-garments of wild hemp, of which they al.so 
made twine to knit the feathers of turkeys, eagles, 
etc., into blankets. The earth, the woods and the 
rivers were the provision stores of the Indians; for 



they eat all kinds of wild animals and productions 
of the earth, fowls, birds, fishes and fruits, which 
they find within their reach. They shoot deer, 
fowls and birds with the bow and arrow ; they 
take the fishes in the same manner ; when the 
waters are high the fish run up the creeks and re- 
turn at ebb. tide, so that the Indian.s can easily 
shoot them at low water and drag them ashore. 

" They eat generally but twice a day, morning 
and afternoon ; the earth serves them for tables 
and chairs. They sometimes broil their meat and 
their fish; other times they dry them in the sun or 
in the smoke and thus eat them. They make 
bread out of the maize or Indian corn, which they 
prepare in a manner peculiar to themselves : they 
crush the grain between two gre.at stones, or on a 
large piece of wood; they moisten it with water 
and make it into small cakes, which they wrap up 
in corn leaves and thus bake them in the ashes. 
They can fast, when nece.ssity compels them, for 
many days. When traveling or lying in wait for 
their enemies they take with them a kind of bread 
made of Indian corn and tobacco juice to allay 
their hunger and quench their thirst in case they 
have nothing else on hand. The drink before the 
Christians came into this country was nothing 
but water, but now thev are very fond of strong 
liquors.' Both men and women smoke tobacco, 
which grows in their country in great .abundance. 
They have, besides corn, beans and pumpkins, a 
sort of original dogs with short, pointed ears. . . . 
When a Christian goes to visit them in their 
dwellings they immediately spread on the ground 
pieces of cloth and fine mats or skins; then they 
produce the best they have, as bread, deer, elk or 
bear's meat, fresh fish and bear's fat, to serve in 
lieu of butter, which they generally broil upon the 
coals. These attentions must not be despised, but 
must be received with thankfulness, otherwise their 
friendship will be turned to hatred. When an In- 
dian visits his friend, a Christian, he must alw.iys 
uncover his table at the lower end, for the Indian 
will have his liberty ; and he will immediately 
jump upon the table and sit upon it with his legs 
crossed, for they are not accustomed to sit upon 
chairs ; he then asks for whatever he would liketo 
eat of" 

Smith, in liis " History of New Jer.sey," 
gives in more detail and interest than 

' It is believed to be a fact, and a remarkable one too, 
that the North American Indians are, with the excep- 
tion of the Kskimo, the only people on the face of the 
globe who did not make for themselves some intoxicat- 
ing or stimulating liquor. 



THE INDIANS. 



13 



any otlicr writtT, facts relating to the 
>;ocial life of the Indians who dwelt on the 
east bank of the Delaware. The subjoined 
deseriptiou may be accepted as a faithful 
picture of the Armewauie.xes, a local name 
for a small tribe who for a time inhabited the 
locality of the city of Camdeu and gave to 
the supposetl island site of the city tlie name 
of Aquikanasra : 

" It was customary with the Indians of West 
Jersey, when they buried their dead, to put t'araily 
utensils, bows and arrows and sometimes wampum 
into the grave with them. When a person of note 
died far from the place of his own residence they 
would carry his bones to be buried there. They 
wa,shed and [jcrfumed the dead, painted the face 
and followed singly, left the dead in a sitting posi- 
tion and covered the grave pyramidically. They 
were very curious in preserving and repairing the 
graves of their dead and pensively visited them; 
did not love to be asked their judgment twice 
about the same thing. They generally delighted 
in mirth ; were very studious in observing the 
virtues of roots and herbs, by which they usually 
cured themselves of many bodily distempers, both 
by outward and inward applications. They be- 
sides frequently used sweating and the cold bath. 
They had an aversion to beards and would not 
suffer them to grow, but plucked the hair out by 
the roots. . . . Their young women were orig- 
inally very modest and shame-fiiced, and at mar- 
riageable ages distinguished themselves with a 
kind of worked mats or red and blue bags inter- 
spersed with small rows of white and black wam- 
pum, or half-rows of each in one, fastened to 
it and then put round the head down to near the 
middle of the foi'ehead. The Indians would not 
allow the mentioning of the name of a friend after 
death. They sometimes streaked their faces with 
black when in mourning, but when their aflairs 
went well they painted red. They were gre.at ob- 
servers of the weather by the moon, delighted in 
fine clothes, were punctual in their bargains and 
observed this so much in others that it was very 
difficult for a person who had once failed herein to 
get any dealings with them afterward. 

"Their language was high, lofty and sententious. 
Their way of counting was by tens : that is to say, 
two tens, three tens, etc. ; when the ninnber got 
out of their reach they pointed to the stars or the 
hair of their heads. 

" Their government was monarchical and succes- 
sive, and mostly of the mothers' side, to prevent a 



spurious issue. Thrv eomnionly washed tbcir 
children in cold water as soon as born, ainl to make 
their limbs straight, tied them to aboard and bung 
it to their back, when they traveled ; they usually 
walked at nine months old. Their young men mar- 
ried atsi.xteen or seventeen years of age, if by that 
time they had given sufficient jtroof of their man- 
hood by a large return of skins of animals. The girls 
married at thirteen or fourteen, but stayed with 
their mothers to hoe the ground, bear burdens, 
etc., for some years after marriage. The marriagi; 
ceremony was sometimes thus : the relations and 
friends being present, the bridegroom delivered a 
bone to the bride, she an ear of Indian corn to 
him, meaning that he was to provide meat, she 
bread. 

"Some tribes were comraendably careful of their 
aged and decrepit, endeavoring to make the re- 
mains of their lives as comfortable as they could. 
It was pretty generally so, except in desperate de- 
cays ; then, indeed, as in other cases of the like 
kind, they were soiuetimes apt to neglect them. 

" The native Indians were grave, even to sadness, 
upon any common, and more so upon serious, occa- 
sions ; observant of those in company; of a tem- 
per cool and deliberate ; never in haste to speak, 
but waited for a certainty that the person who 
spoke before them had finished all he had to say. 
Their behavior in public councils was strictly de- 
cent and instructive; every one in his turn was 
heard according to rank of years. Liberty in 
its fullest extent was their ruling passion ; to 
this every other consideration was subservient. 
Their children were trained up so as to cherish 
this disposition to the utmost; they were in- 
dulged to a great degree, seldom chastised with 
blows and rarely chided. They dreaded slavery 
more than death. Companies of them frequently 
got together to feast, dance and make merry ; this 
sweetened the toils of hunting ; excepting these 
toils and the little action before described, they 
scarcely knew any." 

TjiEiR GovER^^^rENT. — A rough sort of 
communal system was the basis of Indian 
politics and government. Elach tribe held 
its lauds in oonunon, and all its males took 
part in any council that was to decide ques- 
tions pertaining to the public weal. The a<l- 
ministration of government was a matter far 
from being confided to the chiefs or sachems 
alone. Charles Thomson, secretary of tlie 
Continental Congress, whose fragmentary 
" Es.say upon Indian Affairs" is invaluable, 



14 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JEKSEY. 



points out that a nation was composed of a 
number of tribes, families and towns united 
by relationsiiip or friendship, each having a 
particular chief. These components of the 
nation were united under a kind of federal 
government, with laws and customs by which 
they were ruled. Mr. Thomson adds — 

" Their governments, it is true, are very lax, 
except to peace and war, each individual having 
in his own hand the power of revenging injuries, 
and when murder is committed, the next relation 
having power to take revenge by putting to death 
the murderer, unless he can convince the chief's 
and the head men that he had just cause, and by 
their means cau pacify the family by a present 
and thereby put an end to the feud. The matters 
which merely regard a town or family are settled 
by the chiefs and head men of the town ; those 
which regard the tribe, by a meeting of the chiefs 
from the several towns; and those that regard the 
nation, such as the making war or concluding 
peace with the neighboring nations, are determined 
on in a national council, composed of the chiefs 
and head warriors from every tribe. Every tribe 
has a chief or head man, and there is one who pre- 
sides over the nation. In every town they have a 
council-house, where the chief assembles the old 
men and advises what is beat. In every tribe there 
is a place, which is commonly the town in which 
the chief resides, where the head men of the towns 
meet to consult on the business that concerns them ; 
and in every matter there is a grand council, or 
what they call a council fire, where the heads of 
the tribes and the chief warriors convene to de- 
termine on peace or war. In a council of a town 
all the men of the town may attend, the chief opens 
the business, and either gives his opinion of what 
is best, or takes the advice of such of the old men 
as are heads of families or most remarkable for 
prudence or knowledge. None of the young men 
are allowed or presume to speak, but the whole as- 
sembly at the end of every sentence or speech, 
if they approve it, express their approbation by a 
kind of humor noise in unison with the speaker. 
The same order is observed in the meetings or 
councils of the tribes and in the national councils." 

L.\TER History of the Delawares. — 
The declining days of the Lenni Lenape or 
Delaware Indians began with their accej^tance 
of neutrality at the dictation of the Inxjuois, 
as already alluded to. From thence onward 
they decreased in numbers and importance 



until the year 1 742, wlieii, at the instance 
of the Governor of Penusylva?iia, they 
were ordered by the Iroquois sachems to re- 
move westward from their domain in the 
Delaware Valley. How completely they were 
under subjugation to the sturdy braves of 
the Xortli, tlie form in wliich the command 
was issued to them attests. They were, when 
they ventured to remonstrate, told that they 
were women and liad no rights in the land 
except by the consent of their masters, and 
wei'e menaced with extermination if they re- 
sisted. Sadly they obeyed and removed into 
the interior of I'eunsylvania, where they were 
subsequently joined by their kindred, the 
Shawanese, from ^'irginia, and by some frag- 
ments of Maryland and other tril>es. There 
they recovered somewhat of tlieir ancient 
spirit ; they made war upon the whites, and 
after the Revolution they formed a combina- 
with Eastern and Ohio tribes, which forced 
the Iroquois to remove the stigma of neutral- 
ity and womanhood from them. 

This compulsory migration was not so 
thorough, however, but that it failed to in- 
clude some scattered bands south of Trenton, 
in this State. In 1749 Governor Belcher 
wrote that they amounted to no more than 
sixty families; but three years prior (juitc an 
alarm had been created by reports that a 
large number of Indians from the northeast 
had come into New Jersey with a view to 
stirring up tlie natives to bloodshed, or as al- 
lies of white insurgents who had organized 
to resist enforcement of the laws respecting 
land-titles. The panic was short-lived, it 
soon appearing that the errand of the stran- 
gers was to listen to Kev. Braiuerd, the fam- 
ous missionary, who was then preaching in 
Monmouth County. Among these visitors 
was the Delaware chief Teedyuscung, who 
had come down from the Susquehanna 
Valley. 

The Last Indians of New Jersey. — 
In 1755 the Indians who remained on the 
West Jersev side of tlie Delaware manifested 



THE INDIANS. 



15 



much restlessness because of irapositious upon 
tliem and the occupation by whites of lands 
which they had not sold. In 1757 laws were 
passed for their protection, but were of such 
little eifect in restoring order that from May, 
1 757, to June, 1758, twenty-seven murders 
of whites were committed in West Jersey by 
the Minisinks.' In October of the latter year 
(loveruor Hernard, through the intervention 
of Teedynscung, obtained a conference at 
pjaston, Pennsylvania, with the Indians who 
had not sold out their lands. The whole of 
tile remaining titles were then extinguished 
tor the consideration of one thousand pounds, 
except that there was reserved to the Indians 
tiie right to fish in all the rivers and bays 
south of the Raritan, and to hunt on all the 
uniuclosed lands. .V reservation of three 
thousand acres was provided for them at 
Edge Pillock, ]?urlington County, and here 
the sixty individuals, who were all that re- 
mained of the race that once possessed the 
soil, were located, and there they and their 
descendants dwelt until 1802, when they 
joined the Stockbridge tribe at New Stock- 
bridge, New York. Thirty years later a revival 
of the claim that they had not been suffi- 
ciently compensated for their ancient hunting 
and fishing privileges in New Jersey led to 
the mission of Shawuskukhkung, a Christian 
Indian, who had been educated at Princeton 
( 'ollege, and by the whites given the name of 
Bartholomew S. Calvin. He presented a 
memorial to the Legislature, which agreed to 
pay the Indians their full demand of two 
thousand dollars, although it was clear that 
the previous settlement had been intended to 
be final. In a letter to the Legislature on the 
passage of the bill, Calvin wrote, — 

'"The final act of official intercourse between the 
State of New Jersey and the Delaware Indians, 
who once owned nearly the whole of its territory, 
has now been consummated, and in a manner 
which must redound to the honor of this growing 
State, and, in all probability, to the prolongation 

' New Jersey Historical Collections, page Gl. 



of tlie existence of a wasted yet grateful people. 
I'pon this parting occasion I feel it to be an in- 
cumbent duty to bear, the feeble tribute of my 
praise to the high-toned justice which, in this in- 
stance, and, so far as I am acquainted, in all former 
times, has actuated the Councils of this Com- 
monwealth in dealing with the aboriginal inhab- 
itants. 

"Not a drop of our blood have you spilled in 
battle ; not an acre of our land have you taken but 
by our consent. These facts speak for themselves 
and need no comment. They place the character 
of New Jersey in bold relief and bright example to 
those States within whose territorial limits our 
brethren still linger. Nothing but benisons can 
full upon her from the lipsofaLenni I^enape. 
There may be some who would despise an Indian 
benediction ; but when I return to my people and 
make known to them the result of my mission, the 
ear of the (Ireat Sovereign of the universe, which 
is still open to our cry, will be penetrated with the 
invocation of blessings upon the generous sons of 
New .Tersey." 

Wamitai. — Tlic following (piotatiims 
from works i.ssued by the publishers of this 
book iire of special interest : 

" Wampum passed as current money between 
the early whites and Indians. There were two 
kinds of it, the white and purple. They were both 
worked into the form of beads, generally each 
about half an inch long and one-eighth broad, 
with a hole drilled through them so as to be strung 
on leather or hempen strings. The white was 
made out of the great conch or sea-shell, and the 
purple out of the inside of the mussel shell. These 
beads, after being strung, were woven by the wo- 
men into belts, sometimes broader than a person's 
hand and about two feet long. It was these that 
were given and received at their various treaties as 
seals of friendship ; in matters of less importance 
only a single string was given. Two pieces of 
white wampum were considered to equal in value 
one of the purple." — " Hi.itonj of Montc/omn-ij 
Omiifij:' 

" There is enough concurrent testimony to war- 
rant the conclusion that the original purpose of 
wampum was exclusively mnemonic. It was a 
sort of »i«Ho;v'a teclmica, like the knotted cords of 
the ancient Peruvians, and doubtless, if the Indi- 
ans had had intelligence to word it out, a system 
of written language could have been constructed 
of wampum bead figures as exi)ressive as that of a 
single code and more serviceable than the Runic 
arrow-head writing of the Northmen. Wampum 



1(1 



HISTOUr OF CA^rrEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



was given not only as a present and a conrteons 
reminder, but also as a threat and a warning. 
Thus, when, at Lancaster, Pa., in 1747, the chiefs 
of the Five Nations forbade the Lenapes to sell 
any more land and ordered them to remove to the 
interior, they emphasized the command by hand- 
ing them a belt. As money, its use came about in 
this way : It was a memorandum of exchange, of 
business transactions. Pa.ssyuud, of the Munsis, 
agreed to let his daughter marry the son of Se- 
canee, of the Unamis, and to give with her a 
dowry of .so many beaver skins, in return for which 
Secanee's son was to hunt so many days for Passy- 
und. How liind the bargain and prove it? By 
making a mutual note of it in the exchange of 
wampum. That particular belt or string vouched 
for that particular transaction. Menanee, on the 
Allegheny, agrees to sell to Tamanee, on the Del- 
aware, a dozen buflalo robes for forty fathoms of 
duffle, with buttons, thread and red cloth to orna- 
ment. A belt is exchanged to prove the transac- 
tion. But that cannot be completed until the 
goods are exchanged. The next step is easy : to 
put a certain fixed value on each bead, so that 
when Tamanee pays a belt to Menanee for his 
robes, Menanee can at once hand the belt over to 
the trader who has the goods and get from him the 
duffle and the trimmings. Viewed in this light, 
wami)um takes rank as an instrument of a-s various 
and important uses as any ever employed by man. 
It is as if the rosary of the pious Catholic were 
suddenly invested witli the powers of a historical 
monument, a diplomatic memorandum and a busi- 
ness ' stub ' book, a short-hand inscription system 
which is equally understood by tribes of every 
variety of language and dialect, a currency of uni- 
form value and universal circulation in the ex- 
change of a continent, a bank of deposit, a jewelry 
and personal ornament, all in one. There is no 
parallel instance in all the economic history of 
mankind of an article so utterly useless and value- 
less in itself acquiring such a wide and multifari- 
ous range of derivative values and uses."— " //w- 
fiirij (if Phil'idrf/ihiii." 



Indian Autographs. — The following are 
characteristic specimens of Indian autographs, 




EARLY rOLONTAT, FTTSTORY, 



17 



r H A P T E K III. 

EARLY COI.ONIAI, HISTORY. 

The First Navigators — Royal firanis — Settlements of 
the Dutch, the Swedes and the English — New .Ter- 
eey Established — Division of the Province into East 
and West Jersey. 

England, Holland and Sweden each hore 
a part in the discovery and colonization of 
New Jersey, and their claims so overlapped 
each other that bloodshed and diplomatic 
complications marked the progress of events 
from the first attenjpt at settlement within 
the province, in 1623, nntil its final conquest 
l>y the English, in 1(>64. The forty years 
intervening witnessed the coming of people 
representing three different nations, the 
conversion of the proprietorship of mnch of 
the land from the Indians to the whites, the 
founding of towns on either bank of the 
Delaware and the laying of the foundation 
of the civilization and enlightenment that 
now prevails. The English claim to the 
possession of this territory grew out of tiie 
voyages of John and Sebastian Cabot, who, 
acting under commission from Henry VII., 
sailed along the coast from Newfoundland to 
about the latitude of Cape Hatteras in HOT- 
OB. They bore the I'oyal authority to plant 
the banner of England on any undiscovered 
lands, and occupy them in the name of the 
crown, but as they took no steps towards 
planting a colony to establish English du- 
ininion, the way was thus left open for tlie 
conflict of claims to the .sovereignty of the 
territory that subsequently occurred, although 
the English position was sought to be 
affirmed in the New England and Virginia 
patents of King James I. 

The DiTtH. — ^The next claim in the 
order of time was that of the 'Dutch. Uu 
August 2S, 1609, Henry Hudson, an English 
seaman in the service of the Dutch East 
India Company, entered the mouth of Dela- 
ware Bay, but ditl not sail up it because of 
finding shallow water and sand-bars, which 



he thought rendered navigation unsafe. He 
was, therefore, the discoverer of this estuary 
of the ocean, as well as of New York Rav 
and tlic Hudson Eiver, and it was upon his 
achievements that the Dutch very justly 
based their claim to the regions binding upon 
the North (Hudson) River and the Delaware, 
or, as they termed it, the Zuydt (South) River.' 
Hudson's report of his expedition up the 
Delaware was not calculated to cau.se the 
Dutch to turn their commercial eye toward 
this region, and all their enterprise in this 
direction was turned toward Manhattan. 
Captain C^ornelis Hendrick sailed up the bay 
in 1615-16 and encountered some of the 




HENRY HUnSON. 

Minaqua Indians in the neighborhood of 
Christiana, from whom he purchased some 
furs. This was the beginning of the trade 
that was soon to induce the colonization of 
the river-shores. The Dutch States-General 

' The Dutch claim to what is now New Jersey was 
further increased by the voyages of Captain Block and 
Captain Jacobse Mey. When they rendered an account 
of their discoveries, the company by whom they had 
been employed caused a full report of the voyages, 
with a map of the countries that had been explored, to 
be laid before the States-General, with an application 
for the privileges allowed in the late edict of the State 
to all discoverers. Accordingly, on the 1 1th of October, 
1B14, a special grant was made in favor of the ccmipany. 
They were to have the exclusive right to vi.sit the lands 
and navigate the streams described, ".situate in America 
between Sew France and Virginia, the sea-coasts of 
which lie between tlie fortieth and forty-Hfth degrees of 
latitude, and whicli iire now named New Netherland." 



18 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



iu 1621 chartered the West India Company, 
with especial commercial privileges, and in 
1623 this corporation dispatched a ship under 
command of Captain C^jrnelius Jacobse Mey, 
with settlers fully provided with means of 
subsistence, and a large stock of articles for 
traffic with the red men. He landed some 
of his people on the Hudson, and with tlie 
remainder entered the Delaware, and it is 
from him that Cape May takes its name.' 

Mey fixed upon a place for a settlement 
at Hermaoraissing, at the mouth of the 8as- 
sackson, the most northerly branch of the 
Gloucester River, or Timber Creek, " from 
the great quantities of curious timber," says 
Gabriel Thomas, " which they send in great 
floats to Philadelphia." (?) Here he built a 
stockade of logs and named it " Fort Nas- 
sau," iu honor of a town in the circle of the 
Upper Rhine, iu Germany. This was the 
first atten]|it to establish a settlement upon 
the eastern bank of the Delaware and in 
West New Jersey.'' 

A body of men remained at Fort Nassau 
to carry on trade with the natives, but cotem- 
porarv records are almost a blank as to their 
history while there. It is probable that the 
fort was alternately occupied or deserted as 
the demands of trade required. In a legend- 
ary channel the information is couveyed that 
Mey succeeded in opening intercourse with 
the natives and that the communication be- 
tween them was such as to give rise to feel- 
ings of cimfidence and kindness. 

In 1633 De Vries found the Indians in pos- 
session of the post. The Walloons, whom they 
had placed there, had returned to Manhattan, 
(New York), having been taken off by one 
of the vessels which the Dutch annually sent 
around from New York Bay. Van Twiller, 

'Dr. Mulford's " History of New Jersey" makes it 
appear that about the time of Hendrick's voyage to the 
Delaware, Mey made a similar trip from New Amster- 
dam, and then named the Cape. Imt there is no evidenee 
that he landed at any point, and he certainly iiiiide no 
attempt to found a settlement. 

'' See history of Gloucester City. 



then the Governor of the New Netherlands, 
restored the fort and was accused of incur- 
ring extravagant expenses in this reconstruc- 
tion. The Dutch made some use of it for 
trading [)urposes until 1650 or 165L, when 
they concluded that it was too far up the 
river to be of much value and so destroyed 
the stockades and buildings, Vau Twiller 
ordering Commis.sary ArentCorssen to .select 
the site for another structure on the river. 
In 1635 it was attacked by the English, who 
failed to capture it from its vigorous Dutch 
defenders. The Swedes repeatedly denied 
that the Dutch had any fort on the Delaware 
in 1638, but against their assertions can be 




iiA\iii i'n:ii:i!^i\ I'l: \ kies. 



placed the Dutch accounts of expenditure 
for the maintenance of Fort Na.ssau charged 
for that year in the West India Company's 
books. There was certainly enough of a 
garrison in the fort to repiirt at once and pro- 
test against the Swedish settlement at Chris- 
tiana in April, 1638. Four years later the 
garrison consisted of twenty men and the 
fort was continually occu|)icd thenceforwitrd 
until the Dutch destroyed it. 

The exact site of this historic jilace is not 
determinable 'and the original Indian name 
of the spot cannot be given, but among the 
tribes who surrounded it were the Arwames, 
who hunted game and took fish where are 
now the towus and farms of Camden County. 

The claims of tli(> Hollanders upon West 



EARLY COLONIAL HISTOKV. 



19 



New Jei>ey was wt'akt'iu'tl l)ecatise tliey lia<l 
more important business to attend to. The 
I'nr trade of the Delaware had dwindled into 
insignificance in comparison with the splen- 
did spoils of" conquest upon the sea and in 
South America. The AVest India Company 
in two years paid a dividend of" fifty per 
cent, from the capture by its ships, which 
were duly commissioned as men-of-war, of 
Spanish silver-laden galleons. It was the 
era of Dutch supremacy on the ocean ; the 
era also in which the canny and brave Hol- 
landers invaded South America and, after the 
capture of Bahia and Pernambiico, in Bra- 
zil, aspired to the conquest of the whole 
continent. The neglect to cultivate the field 
open to them on the Delaware brought 
al)out very momentous consequences, one of 
which was no less than the entrance of the 
Swedes. William Usselincx, the founder of 
the company, was one of its very few mem- 
bers who did not lose sight of the rich op- 
portunities on the Delaware in the successes 
of Dutch victories elsewhere. He made a 
failure in endeavoring to bring his business 
associates to his way of thinking, and in 
ltj'24 he abandoned them, and, transferring 
his field of endeavor to Stockholm, inspired 
that wise statesman, King Uustavus Adol- 
plius, of Sweden, with the idea of forming a 
Swedish West India Company. 

Yet all the .sagacity did not depart from 
Holland when Usselincx went to visit the 
Swedish King. John De Laet, Killian A'an 
Rensselaer, Samuel Godyn, Samuel Bloni- 
niaert and other rich men^iants of Amster- 
dam had received word from Isaac Do Ra- 
sieres, secretary to Peter Minuet, predecessor 
of Van Twiller as Governor of the New 
Netherlands, that while the Dutch were 
being compelled, through fear of the Indians, 
to concentrate at New Amsterdam (New 
York), there was a chance for a vast land 
speculation on the Zuydt River. They se- 
cured from the States-General a feudal con- 
stitution, which gave them great privileges of 



land acquisition outside of Maiihatlan Island, 
and they f"ormed an agreement l)y which 
Godyn and Blomuiaert became the proprie- 
tors of a tract of land thirty-two miles long 
and two miles deep, "from Cape Hculopen 
to the mouth of a river." They took into 
partnership David i'ietersen De Vries, and 
in 1031 sent Captain Heyes to the Delaware 
in the ship " Walrus." The latter established 
on the Horekill Creek, where the town of 
Lewes now stands, a colony called Swanuen- 
dael (the N'alley of Swans), and constructed 
Fort Oplandt for their protection. Heyes 
placed Gilliss Hossett in command, and 
then, crossing to the Jersey shore, bought 
from ten chiefs there, on behalf of the Godyn 
and Blommaert .syndicate, a block of terri- 
tory extending twelve miles northward along 
the bay from Cape May, and the same dis- 
tance inland. In May, 1632, De Vries was 
ready to set sail fi'om the Texel for the Del- 
aware, when the news was brought him that 
the garrison of Fort Oplandt, some thirty 
men, had been massacred by the Indians. 
Arriving otf SwannendacI in the following 
December, he found it utterly destroyed, and 
the remains of men and cattle mingled with 
the charred fragments of the block-house and 
palisade. He was told that an Indian chief 
had stolen the Dutch coat-of-arms, ei-ected in 
front of the f"ort ; that, to appea.se the whites, 
the Indians had brought them tiie head of 
the robber, and that the tribe, of which he 
was a member, had slaughtered the colonists 
in revenge. De Vries' journal demonstrates 
that he placed no confidence in this story, 
i>ut explained the massacre by attributing to 
the Dutch shocking perfidy and cruelty in 
their dealings with the Indians, and in the 
treatment of their .squaws, that had provoked 
the latter to inflict a fearful punishment.' 
De Vries accepted this melancholy and 

' AcooriUng lo .'\crelius and UiulorUunck, the garri- 
son remaining in Fort Nassau were also massacred by 
the Indians when tliey slaughtered the people at Fort 
Oplandt. 



20 



HISTOr.Y OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NKW JERSEY. 



.sanguinary event as terminating for the time 
being all schemes of colonization on the Del- 
aware, but he did what he could to restore 
confidence by negotiating the first treaty of 
peace ever concluded with the Indians and 
propitiating them with gifts. Trading with 
them for furs as he advanced, he, on January 
10, 163.'5, cast anchor on the bar of Jacques 
Eylandt (Windmill Island), opposite where 
the city of Camden is now built. For much 
of the winter his ship was held in the river 
by the ice, and when released, in March, he 
ran down the coast to Virginia, and then re- 
turning to the Delaware, embarked his com- 
patriots along its shores and turned the prow 
of his vessel homeward. Thus was relin- 
quished the Dutch enterpri.se of colonization 
on this .stream, and Indian possession of it 
remained unbroken until the Swedes came, 
in 1638, except for the occasional occupancy 
of Fort Nassau by trading parties who came 
southward from Manhattan. There remained 
nothing to show for the ambitious eiforts of 
the West India Company except what little 
profit had been made in the trade in furs. 

The Swedes.— Upon the settlement of 
the Swedes at Tinicum, under Governor 
John Printz, a few families cros.sed to the 
east side of the river and made a settlement 
called Elfsburg, now in Elsinboro' towusliip, 
Salem County. Another settlement was 
made on Raccoon Creek, in filouoe.ster Coun- 
ty, where now the village of Swedesboro' 
stands. This settlement became the chief 
post on the east side of the Delaware. It 
grew and prospered, antl its people purchased 
titles to the lands of the proprietors under 
the grant to the Duke of York. A few 
tamiiies of Swedes also settled at the mouth 
of Woodbury Ci'eek, but they remained there 
only a few years. 

In the limits of what is now Camden 
County a few Swedes settled and remained 
for a short time at Fort Eriwomac, after its 
abandonment by the adherents of Sir Ed- 
mund Ployden, and from that time to the 



occupancy of the territory under the grant 
to the Duke of York, March 12, 1664, it 
remained in the possession of the Indians. 
A few Swedes remained in the lower part 
of Gloucester County. 

The English. — The occupancy of West 
Jersey by the Engli.sh was under Sir Edmund 
Ployden, who, June 21, 1634, received a let- 
ter from Charles I., ICing of England, for 
all that territory lying between New Eng- 
land and Maryland. In this, as in most 
early grants, no regard was paid to previous 
claims, and in 1664 it was entirely ignored 
by the King in the grant to the Duke of 
York. 

The government of the territory under 
the grant to Ployden was vested in him, and 
he styled it the province of New Albion. 
Some of his friends, among whom were Cap- 
tain Young, Robert Evelyn and thirteen 
traders, left England soon after the grant 
was obtained,' and sailed for the new territory. 
They came up the Delaware River and landed 
at the mouth of Pensaukin Creek (now 
in Stockton township, Camden County), 
where were living a few families of Indians 
under a chief by the name of Eriwomac. At 
this place a fort was built, which was named 
Fort Eriwomac, where the settlers remained 
four years, expecting that Ployden would 
.send over to them a colony of settlers. In 
the meantime he formed a government in 
England to take po.ssession of the province. 
A colony, in 1636, .sailed up the Delaware 
River about sixty miles, to near what is now 
the town of Salem, and settled there. 

A numljer of " Knights and Gentlemen " 
chose Beauchamp Plantagenet to select a 
site for them to establish a colony in New 
Albion, and they were combined with Ploy- 
den U> raise the energies of the latter's com- 
pany. To excite the greater interest, an 
order of knighthood was instituted, which 
should have for one of its objects the con- 
version of the Indians to Christianity. Their 
title was " The Albion Knights of the Con- 



EAHLY COLONIAL HLSTORY. 



21 



version of tlie Twenty-tliree Kings," tlie 
designation having reference to the nnmLer 
of Indian chiefs supposed to exercise sway 
in the province. But this ambitious project 
came to naught, and PKjyden and Plaiitagenet 
made no second visit to tiie Palatinate, as 
New Albion was officially styled. Their 
operations are by no means clearly recorded, 
but wiiat is positively known of them in- 
vests them with a fascination for students of 
the secrets of history. 

The .settlers at Fort Kriwomac became 
disheartened in waiting for the earl, and 
after four years abandoned the fort and 
settled above and below it,' along the shores 
of the Delaware. 

Evelyn soon returned to England and 
wrote a glow'ing acvount of the country, 
urging the earl to visit the country and 
take with him " three hundred men or more, 
as there is no doubt but that he may doe 
very well and grow rich." Plantagenet 
laid out the territory on the banks of the 
Delaware into manors and named them 
VVatcessit. The manor embracing what is 
now Salem County was chosen and set apart 
for the earl. It was described by Plantag- 
enet as being on " the Manteses plain, which 
Master Evelyn voucheth to be twenty miles 
broad and thirty long, and fifty miles 
washed by two fair navigable rivers, of three 
hundred thousand acres fit to plow and 
sow corn, tobacco, fiax and rice, the four 
staples of Albion." Three miles from 
Wateessit lay the domain of Lady Barl)ara, 
Baroness of Richneek, adjoining Cotton 
River (Alloway's Creek), " so named of six 
iiundred pound of cotton wilde on tree grow- 
ing." The historian of Albion added that 
this property wa.s "of twenty- four miles 
compasse, of wood, huge timber trees, and 
two feet black mould, much desired by the 
Virginians to plant tobacco." The earl 
came to the manor in 1641 and remained 

't-ee history ol Stockton toWDsbip. 



here with him, and they '' marched, lodged 
and cabinned together among the Indians" 
for seven years. When he published his 
book, in 1648, it was with the object of 
furthering a project for the emigration of 
the " viscounts, barons, baronets, knights, 
gentlemen, merchants, adventurers and 
jiianters of the hopeful colony," wlio had 
bound themselves in England to .settle three 
thousand able, trained men in the Palatine's 
domain. But they failed to fulfill their con- 
tracts, perhaps because in the convulsions at 
home that were forerunners of the execution 
of Charles I. and the establishment of the 
Protectorate under Cromwell, enterprises in 
the New World were dwarfed out of sight. 
Nothing more is known of Ployden and New 
Albion, for a new class of contestants was 
about to fill the stage. 

New Jersey Established. — The Duke 
of York, on casting about for court favorites 
high in rank and wealth to whom to assign 
some fra(;tions of the territorial succession 
made him by thecrown, selected Lord Berkeley 
and Sir George Carteret, to whom he convey- 
ed tlie laud specified as follows : 

"This indenture made the three and twentieth 
day of June, in the sixteenth year of the Raigne 
of our Sovereign Lord Charles the Second, by the 
Grace of God of England, Scotland, France and 
Ireland, King, Defender of the faith — Anno 
Domine 16(54. Between his Royal Highness James 
Duke of York and Albany, Earl of Ulster, Lord 
High Admiral of England and Ireland, (Nonstable 
of Dover Castle, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, 
and Governor of Portsmouth of the one part ; 
John Lord Berkeley, Baron of Stratton, and one 
of his Majestie's most honorable Privy Council; 
and Sir George Carteret of Sattrum, in the county 
of Devon, Knight, and one of his Majestie's most 
honorable Privy Council, of the other part, Wit- 
nesseth that said James Duke of York, for and in 
consideration of the sum of ten shillings of lawful 
money of England, to him in hand paid, by these 
presents doth bargain and sell unto the said John 
Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, all that 
tract of land adjacent to New England, and lying 
and being to the westward of Long Island : Bound- 
ed on the east part by the main sea, and part by 
Hudson's River, and hath upon the west Delaware 



22 



HISTORY OP CAMDEN COUNTV. NEW JERSEY. 



Bay or River, and exteiideth soutlnvaid to the 
main ocean as far as Cape May, at the mouth of 
the Delaware Bay, and to the northward as far as 
the northernmost branch of said Bay or River 
of Delaware, which is in forty-one degrees and 
forty minutes of latitude, and worketh over tlience 
a straight line to Hudson's River — which said tract 
of land is hereafter to be called by the name or names 
of Nova Ca?sareaor New Jersey." 

The name was given in honor of Sir 
George Carteret, who in 1649 was Governor 
of tiie Isle of Jersey, and had made a most 
gallant defense of it for the Royalists. He 
was treasurer of the navy and vice-chamber- 
lain of the King's household under the 
Restoration. Being detected in peculation, 
he was eventually expelled from the House 
of Commons in 1669. 

The grant to Berkeley and Carteret was a 
conveyance of the powers of government as 
well as of the rights of property, and they 
thus became rulers as well as owners of the 
country. On February lU, 1664, they issued 
the first Constitution of New Jersey, which 
continued in force until the province was di- 
vided, in 1676. It was entitled '• The Con- 
cession and Agreement of the Lords Propri- 
etors of the Province of New Caisarea or New 
Jersey to and w-ith all and every of the ad- 
venturers and all such as shall settle or plant 
there." It provided for a government com- 
posed of a Governor and Council and 
General Assembly. The Governor was ap- 
pointed by the Proprietors and he selected 
six Councillors at least or twelve at most, or 
any even number between six and twelve. 
These constituted the General A.ssembly, with 
the addition of a representative body to l>e 
chosen by the jjeople, as follows : So soon as 
the proprietors' commission should be re- 
ceived in the province, a writ should be is- 
sued by the Governor for the election of 
twelve deputies by such inhabitants as were 
freemen or the chief agents of others. Hut 
so soon as parishes or other divisions of the 
pi*ovin(;e should be made, the inhabitants or 
freeholders of the several divisions should by 



writ meet on each 1st of January and choo.se 
freeholders for each respective division, to be 
deputies or representatives of the same, which 
body of representatives, or a major part of 
them, should, with the Governor and the 
Council, compose the General Assembly. 
Of the general scope of the form of govern- 
ment thus set up. Dr. Mulford, in his " His- 
tory of New Jersey," says, — 

" It embodied many of the principles which be- 
long to the most liberal institutions. It gave 
entire exemption to the people from all taxation, 
except .such as their representatives should as- 
sent to, and as a further security of property, it 
gave to the Assembly the full control over all 
the expenditures of government. Freedom of 
conscience and worship was secured to every one 
who should conduct himself as a peaceable citi- 
zen. The lands of the province were distributed 
to the settlers for a quit-rent of half a penny per 
acre, not to be paid until 1670. Justice was to be 
administered by tribunals erected under popular 
authority, and an additional security against the 
arbitrary exercise of power was given by the con- 
cession of an unlimited privilege of appeal or pe- 
tition. . . . By the increase of numbers in the 
representative branch of the General Assembly 
the popular element would have finally acquired a 
degree of strength that must have given it a con- 
trolling intiuence, but the actual working of the 
plan did not entirely agree with its general the- 
ory." 

iSiinidtaneousiy with signing tlie " Conces- 
sions," the jjroprietors appoiutefl Philip Cart- 
eret, a brother of Sir George, Governor of 
New Jersey, and in August, 1665, he landed 
at a place to which he gave the name of 
Elizabeth, in honor of his sister-in-law, 
Lady Carteret. 'i'his was the first perma- 
nent settlement in the province. He found 
trouble on his hands at the moment of his 
arrival. Colonel Nicholls, who had been 
l)laced in charge of aflairs at New York by 
the Duke of York, had already exerted au- 
thority over New Jersey, which he had 
named Albania, and under his plan of settle- 
ment, parties had ac(|uired from the Indians 
titles to the Elizabethtown tract and the 
Monmouth patent, which later was the fouu- 



EARLY COLONIAL HISTORY 



23 



(lation of Middletuwii iiiul Shrewsburv. He 
entertained exalted notions of what lie might 
accomplish in " Albania '' and argued flu- 
ently with the dnke for the revocation of the 
Berkeley and Carteret grant, and while he was 
compelled to surrender New Jersey, he sowed 
the seeds of ultimate dissension and confu- 
sion, but he could not prevent Phili]i Carteret 




MILES K 
BOI^NPARY MAP OF EAST AXP WEST .lEESEY. 

from taking possession of the new settlement. 
Elizabethtown was made the ca]>ital of the 
colony ; Newark was founded ; flourishing 
hamlets appeare<l on the shores of the bay as 
far south as Sandy Hook. 

From July ^0, 167;5, to February 9, l(i74, 
New Jersey was again in the possession of 
the Dutch, in consequence of the surrender 
of New York to the Dutch fleet. They had 
just put a government in Achter Kol, as 



they named the province, on a working basis 
when the treaty of peace between England 
and Holland restored the country to the 
former. King Charles II. issued a m w 
patent to the Duke of York, covering liic 
same territory as that of Ujljo, and the duke 
executed a new conveyance t<i Sir (icorge 
( 'arteret, Lord Berkeley having, on ]\Iarcii 1 S, 
lfi73, sold the whole of his right and title to 
the ])rovince. But just previous to making 
the deed to Carteret, the duke gave a com- 
mission to Edmund Andros as fiovernor of 
the whole country from " the west side of 
Connecticut Eiver to the east side of I>('la- 
ware Bay;" and tliis duplicity ot' the 




WILLIAM TENN S COAT OF ARMS. 

duke's, the exactions of Andros and the 
sale made by Berkeley gave rise to much 
trouble. Carteret defended his claim against 
Andros, but Berkeley sold his interest in New 
Jer.sey to John Fenwick, to be held in trust 
for Edward Byllynge. 

I^hilip Carteret, in l(i71, resumed the gov- 
ernment of the province. He was opposed 
in every act by Andros, who kept the colony 
in an uproar. Carteret was finally arrested 
and taken to New York for trial. In the 
mean time Byliinge made an assignment of 
his ])roperty to William I'enn, ( iawen Laui-ie 
and Nicholas Lucas, who were ])rominent mem- 
bers of the Society of Friends in England. 



24 



HISTOHY OF PAAIPEX COFNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Penn and his associates applied to 8ir George 
Carteret anrl secured assent for a division of 
New Jersey so tiiatthe interests of the Friends 
and that of Carteret would be separate. The 
line of division was drawn from the south- 
ern point of land on the east side of Little 
Egg Harbor to a point on the Delaware in 
the latitude of forty-one degrees and forty 
minutes. The part east of the line remained 
to Sir George Carteret as sole proprietor and 
was named " East New Jersey." The part 
lying between the line and the Delaware was 
called " West New Jersey " and passed under 
the control of William Peun and his associ- 
ates. 

Governors of NE^^ .Iersev — Chrono- 
logical List. 

GOVER>'«JRS OF EAST JERSEY. 

Philip Carteret 1665 to I118I 

Robert Berkeley 1682 to 168.=) 

Thomas Rudyard, Deputy-Gov 1683 

Gawen Lawrie 1683 

LordNiel Campbell 168.5 

Andrew Hamilton 1692 to 1697 

.leremiah Basse 1698 to 1699 

GOVERNORS OF WEST JERSEY. 

Samuel Jennings, Deputy 16S1 

Thomas Oliver, Governor 1684 to 168.") 

John Skein, Deputy 168.5 to 1687 

William Welsh, Deputy 1686 

Daniel Coxe 1687 

Andrew Hamilton 1692 to 1697 

Jeremiah Basse, Deputy 1697 to 1699 

Andrew Hamilton, Governor 1699 till surrender 
to the Crown in 1702. 

EAST AND WEST JERSEY UNITEP. 

Lord John Cornbury, Gov 1703 to 1708 

John Lovelace (died in office) 1708 

Richard Ingolsby, Lieut.-Gov 1709 to 1710 

Gen. Andrew Hunter 1710 to 1720 

William Burnet 1720 to 1727 

.Tohn Montgomery 1728 to 1731 

Lewis Morris 1731 to 1732 

William Crosby 1732 to 1736 

John Hamilton 17.36 to 1738 

The above were also (4(ivernors of New York at 
the same time. 

SKl'ARATi; Iliu.M MCW VoKK. 

LewisMorris 1738 to 1746 



John Hamilton 1746 to 1747 

.lonathan Belcher 1747 to 1757 

John Reading 1757 to 17.58 

Francis Barnard 17.58 to 1760 

Thomas Boone 1760 to 1761 

Thomas Hardy 1761 to 1763 

William Franklin 1763 to 1766 



REVOLUTIONARY AND STATE liOVERNMEN 

William Livingston 1776 to 

William Patterson 1790 to 

Richard Howell 1792 to 

John Lambert, Vice-Pres. of Council 1802 to 

.loseph Bloomfield ...' 1803 to 

Aaron Ogden 1812 to 

AVilliam S. Pennington 1813 to 

Malilon Dickerson 1815 to 

Isaac H. Williamson 1817 to 

<Tarret D. Wall (declined'! 

Peter D. Vroom 1829 to 

Samuel Southard 1832 to Feb., 

Elias P. Seeley 1833 to 

Peter D. Vroom 1835 to 

Philemon Dickerson 1836 to 

William Pennington 1837 to 

Daniel Haines 1843 to 

I'XDER NEW fONSTITfTION. 

Charles C. Stratton 1845 to 

Daniel Haines 1848 to 

George F. Fort 1851 to 

Rodman M.Price 1854 to 

William A. Newell 18.57 to 

Charles S. Olden 1860 to 

.Joel Parker 1863 to 

Marcus L. Ward 1866 to 

Theodore F. Randolph 1869 to 

Joel Parker 1872 to 

Joseph D. Bedle 1875 to 

Gen. George B. McClellan 1878 to 

George C. Ludlow 1881 to 

Leon Abbett 1884 to 



T. 

1790 
1792 
1801 
1803 
1812 
1813 
1815 
1817 
1829 
1829 
1832 
1833 
1834 
18.36 
1837 
1843 
1844 



184S 
1851 
1854 
1857 
1860 
1863 
1866 
1868 
1872 
1875 
1878 
18S1 
1SS4 
1X87 



CHAPTER TV. 

THE KRIEXP.S IX WEST JER.SEY. 

Nearly all of the people who lived on the 
territory now embraced within the county of 
Camden and of the most part of West Jersey, 
for one hundred yearsafter the first settlement 
was made, were members of the Society of 




n^a- 



(ThF, UlKK (IF YoKK — JaMKS II.) 



-UBTd 



(iSlK (;E<)K<iK CAKTARKT.) 
(SlE John BKKKliLEV, I'UOPR. 





•y^. 



(Sir EiiJUNii Axuros.) 
(Edwafp Byllynce, I'RKrR.) 



LfA^ ■ (c>^^r^^^^^/ 



/ 



(Thomas Codrin(;t()n, Propr.) 



d9W/ 




T 



Gov. P. Carteret. 




(EpWAKfi Hyue, Lord Viscount CoRXBi-RY.) 



(Gov. KOBERT BaRTLAY.) 




(Lord Neill Campbell 




(KOUERT VAlTtiUELLIX, PrOPR.) 



26 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Friends. They were the representative people 
of the western division of the colony and 
for many years controlled the TiSgislativp 
Assembly. Their history in this province, as 
well as in that of Pennsylvania, is franght with 
much interest and instruction. 

The' Society. OF Friends, or Quakers, 
arose in England about the middle of the sev- 
enteenth century, a time of considerable reli- 
gious excitement, when the honest-hearted were 
aroused hy the general prevalence of vice and 
immorality in which the King and court were 
but examples. The term Quaker ()".e., Trembler) 
was first used in 1650, and was given to the 
Friends in derision by Justice Bennet. of 
Derby, because George Fox, the founder of 
the society, bade him and his companions to 
tremble at the word of the Lord. Its ap[>li- 
cation was further induced by the fact that 
some of the early preachers and others trem- 
bled violently when under strong religious 
exercise. They even accepted the name 
Quaker, so far as to style themselves " the 
people called Quakers " in all official docu- 
ments intended for puV)lication to the world 
at large. The early form of marriage cer- 
tificates contained the expression " the people 
of God called Quakers," but in 1734 the 
Yearly Meeting for Pennsylvania and New- 
Jersey agreed " that ye words ' of God ' and 
' called Quakers ' be left out of that form for 
the future." In 1806 the expression was 
changed to the " religious society of Friends." 
Some of their principal characteristics, as 
differing from other professing Christians, 
wa.s in opposition to all wars, oaths and a 
paid ministry, or grace of God, which is. 
given to every man as a guide to salvation. 
Cireorge Fox says, moreover, " When the Lord 
sent me forth into the world, he forbade me 
to put off my hat to any one, high or low, 
and I was required to thee and thou all n^en 
and women, without any respect to rich or 
poor, great or small, and this made tlic sex 
and professions to rage, but the Lord's power 
carried me over all to His glory, and many 



came to be turned to God in a little time, 
for the heavenly day of the Lord sprang 
from on high and broke forth apace." 

For refusing to pay titiies in England, the 
goods of Friends were taken to many times 
the value; for absence from the national 
worship twenty pounds per month was im- 
posed, and when brought before the courts, 
the oath of allegiance was tendered to them 
as a pretext, upon their refusal to disobey the 
injunction " swear not at all," for the impo- 
sition of further penalties. Meetings of the 
Friends were broken up, and in many cases 
they were shamefully abused. The sober, 
upright lives of Friends were a constant re- 
proach, and aroused the hatred of many 
around them. It is probable that fully one- 
half of their sufferings were due to this 
cause, as their persecutors certainly cared lit- 
tle for religion. 

In 1659 a petition was presented to Parlia- 
ment, signed by one hundred and sixty-foi'.r 
Friends, offering their own bodies, person for 
person, to lie in prison instead of such oi' their 
brethren as were under confinement and in 
danger as of theii- lives therefrom. More 
than two hundred and fifty died in prison, 
and while some in England were sentenced to 
banishment, it was only in New England 
that a few were hung and others had their 
ears cut off. 

Their Emigration to America. — Per- 
secutions were continued with more or less 
severity until the accession of William and 
Mary to the throne of England, when an act 
of toleration was pjissed in 1689. Prior to 
this, however, many Friends had sought a 
home for religious liberty in M;issachusetts, 
Long Island and New Jersey, and when 
William Peini established his colony, in 1682, 
it was but natural that a large number 
should have been attracted thitiier. The first 
settlement of Friends in New Jersey was at 
Salem in 1676, and at Burlington in 1678. 

A few of the early settlers within the 
present limits of Camden Comity c*une here 



THE FRIENDS IN WEST JERSEY. 



from Burlington settlement, and from that 
source obtained authority for the organization 
of their religious meetings.' 

The little notice taken of the interests of 
William Penn in New Jersey and of his con- 
nection with the initiatory steps for colonizing 
the territory and establishing a form of gov- 
ernment, is a noticeable feature in the writ- 
ings of his biographers. This may be ac- 
counted for by the willingness of his admir- 
ers to subordinate everything to his success- 
ful efforts ill founding a colony of his own, 
which soon overshadowed the sparse settle- 
ments on the east side of the Delaware River, 
which had been planted by and were under 
the patronage of John Fenwick. It was more 
than seven years before he received the grant 
for Pennsylvania that Penn became interested 
in the effort to establish in America a colony 
where Friends could enjoy with freedom the 
dictates of their conscience. 

' Plans of KrcaxiZation. — The orgauization luul 
subordination of the Meetings of Friends are as follows : 
One or more Meetings for worship constitute one Pre- 
parative Meeting ; one or more Preparative Meetings 
constitute one Monthly Meeting ; several Monthly Meet- 
ings constitute one Quarterly Meeting ; several Quarterly 
meetings constitute one Vearly Meeting, which is an in- 
dependent body; yet the ditl'erent Yearly M«etings 
maintain more or less of corresponilence with each 
other. 

The Preparative Meetings are held monthly, and 
generally in the month prior to the regular Monthly 
Meetings, for the preparation of reports and other busi- 
ness to be presented thereat. The Monthly Meetings 
are the principal executive brancli of the Society for the 
exercise of the discipline over members. Regular and 
voluminous reports of the proceedings are recorded, as 
well as records of births, deaths and marriages. " In- 
dulged " Meetings for staled periods are held by sanc- 
tion of Monthly Meetings; but all Meetings subordinate 
to are established permanently by authority of the 
Quarterly Meetings, and these in turn by the Vearly 
meeting. 

The first Meeting established in what is now Camden 
County was the old Xewlon Meeting. There are at 
present four meetings in the county, — Haddontield 
Meeting, Newton Meeting and Hicksite Friends' Meet- 
ings in Haddontield and in Camden. Sketches of each 
of them are given in the history of the places in which 
they y re situated. 



When Lord Berkeley (on March 18, 1<)7;5), 
as mentioned in the preceding chapter, con- 
veyed to John Fenwick his individual moi- 
ety of New Jersey, for reasons which do not 
appear, the right was questioned by the cretl- 
itors of Edward Byllyuge, a brewer of West- 
minster, Loudon, at that time in.solvent, they 
suspecting that Edward Byllynge h:id paid 
for the grant with money justly due to them. 
After much controversy between John Fen- 
wick, Edward Byllynge and Edward Byl- 
lynge's creditor.s, William Penn was called 
upon to act as arbitrator; who, after careful 
examination and inquiry, decided that John 
Fenwick was entitled to but ten parts, and 
that he (Fenwick) should convey the ninety 
parts of said territory to such persons as 
should be chosen as trustees for the benefit 
of Edward Byllynge's creditors. Thecreditors, 
who were mostly Friends, pres.sed Penn into 
their service as one of the trustees in the sale 
of these lands and in the payment of Byl- 
lynge's debts, the others being Gaweu Lau- 
rie and Nicholas Lucas. On February il, 
167-?, John Fenwick made conveyance of the 
ninety parts to said trustees, reserving ten 
parts whereon was planted his colony. In 
the discharge of the intricate duties which 
his position as trustee imposed upon him, 
Penn's sense of justice and fair dealing was 
often displayed, as were also his foresight and 
business penetration. The records of the 
times prove that while thus engaged he ren- 
dered many valuable services not incident to 
his stewardship, and also helped to frame a 
form of government acceptable to adventur- 
ers, that met the wishes of the owners as 
well. 

During these days the leading and more 
thoughtful members of the Society of Friends 
were casting about them for some " new 
country " where the adherents to their relig- 
ious belief could be at peace, and where their 
persons and estates would be secure from the 
hands of those who, under the color of law, 
excused their shameless pei-secutions. " The 



28 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



plautations in America," as heretofore stated, 
were attracting some attention, and the re- 
ports from there as to climate and soil were 
good. William Penn was at that time a 
prominent and influential member of the So- 
ciety, and being one of the trustees of Byl- 
lynge,New Jersey was naturally lookefl to as 
the spot where their wishes could be real- 
ized, and in its settlement they became inter- 
ested. 

The primary object was to sell the iantl to 
colonists, or the debts of Edward Byllynge 
could never be discharged, and to prompt 
Friends to avail themselves of the opportun- 
ity which now offered, a form of government 
had to be established and promulgated cm- 
bodying the fundamentals sought for, but not 
so much at variance with the home policy as 
to be rejected by tliose in authority. This 
was a delicate task, and yet a necessai v one, 
for this wilderness country had few induce- 
ments to cause people to break up their homes 
and settle here. Pa.ssing over the Concessions 
and Agreements pnblislied by Berkeley and 
Carteret, in 1664, as applied to the whole 
territory of New Jersey, " The Concessions 
and Agreements of the proprietors, freehold- 
ers and inhabitants of the province of West 
New Jersey in America," as made in 1676, 
show the success of William Penn and his 
associates in their first efforts to establish the 
true basis of a representative government by 
placing the fountain of power in the people. 

These " concessions," contained in forty- 
four chapters, are the best evidence of the 
broad views and liberal sentiments of the 
framers whose ol)ject was to secure those who 
came within their operation and control 
against the encroachments and abuses from 
which they were then suffering. No one can 
reiid them without being convinced that men 
of strong minds and decided purpose only, 
could so well j)ut their intentions into words. 

Touching the vital question of ta.xation 
the subject was met in this plain and direct 
manner : 



" They are not to impose, or suffer to be 
imposed, any tax, custom or subsidy, tollage, 
assessment, or any other duty whatsoever, 
upon any color or pretence, how specious 
soever, upon the said province and inhabit- 
ants thereof, without their own cousent first 
had, or other than what shall be imposed by 
the authority and consent of the General As- 
sembly, and that only in manner and for the 
good ends and uses as aforesaid." 

And again, that of " the exercise of their 
consciences in matters of religious worship," 
is neither vague nor ambiguous. 

" That no man, nor number of men upon 
earth, hath power or authority to rule over 
men's con.sciences in religious matters; there- 
fore it is consented, agreed and ordained that 
no person or persons whatsoever within said 
jH'ovinceat any time or times hereafter, shall 
be any ways, upon any pretence whatever 
called in (piestion, or in the least punished 
or hurt, either in person, estate or privilege, 
for the sake of his opinion, judgment, faith 
or worsliip towards God in matters of relig- 
ion, but that all and every such person and 
l)ersons may from time to time and at all 
times freely and fully have and enjoy his and 
their judgments, and the exercise of their 
consciences in matters of religious worship 
throughout all the said province." 

In these "concessions and agreements " al- 
most every detail necessary to the jiroper 
working of a new system was anticipated 
and provided for, and, as was demonstrated, it 
only needed a sufficient number of settlers in 
the colony to warrant its success. 

To say that William Penn had neither 
partnorlotin the production of this docu- 
ment would be to ignore all knowledoe of 
the man, and his subsequent life .of useful- 
ne.ss devoted always to the advancement and 
benefit of his fellow-creatures.' 

' William I'enn afterwards became proprietor of the 
Province of Pennsylvania, and with his further history 
every intelligent reader is familiar. After a life of 
jrreat usefulness, he died on the 30tli day of the Fifth 
Month, 17 IS, in the 74th year of his age. Ilig remains 



THE FRIENDS IN WEST JERSEY. 



29 



Not one of tlie New England States, nor 
New York nor Virginia was qnite equal to 
W^est New Jersey in its love and practice of 
jierfect religious toleration. Under the dom- 
inant ideas of the Friends governing here, 
no man was asked for or about his creed 
when otfering himself as a candidate for 
public office. Never before, anywhere else 
that we know of, was there set to the world 
such an example of absolute and harndess 
toleration. The Puritans did noble things 
for liberty; the Hollanders did nobler; but 
the Friends, as far as their influ- 
ence extended, did noblest. ' 

The authors of this remarkable 
Constitution addressed the Society 
of Friends of England, recom- 
mending the province, and invited 
them to emigrate to it. The in- 
vitation was not in vain, and before 
the end of the year 1(J77 a colony 
of more than four hundred Friends 
found homes in West Jersey, and 
many moi'e during the years im- 
mediately succeeding. When tin' 
shi[>s bearing the Burlington im- 
migrants in the year 1(J78, arrived 
in the Delaware the agent of An- 
dros, at New Castle, reijuired them 
to pay duties at that point, but 
Sir William Jones decided this to 
1)6 illegal, and the claims of the Duke of York 
on West Jersey were then withdrawn and 
the Friends were left in the full enjoyment of 
independence. In November, 1G89, Sauuiel 
Jennings, the Deputy-Governor of West Jer- 
sey, convened the first General Assemldy, 
and the Friends met together to make their 
own laws. They reaffirmed the Concessions, 
declared all races and religions equal, forbade 
imprisonment for debt and the sale of ardent 
spirits to the red men, demanded that lands 
be acquired from the Indians by purchase, 

were interred in the burying-groim J surrounding Jor- 
daus Friends' Metting-Hou.ie in Buckinghamshire, Eng- 
land. 



and permitted that a criminal might be par- 
doned by the person against whom the offense 
was committed. 

William Penn and eleven other Friends pur- 
chased the province of East Jersey in 1G82. 
Robert Barclay, of Scotland, author of a book 
entitled " Barclay's Apology," was appointed 
Governor for life, and the whole of New 
Jersey was then controlled by the Friends. 
During Barclay's administration there was a 
large immigration of S(»tch and Irish Friends, 
who eanie to tliis province to find freedom. 




W I I.I.IA.M I'l.NN 



I.I IM.M. I l..\l 1,, 



The fir.st settlers of these people who pur- 
chased lands in what is now Camden Coun- 
ty, obtained shares in the proprietary right 
of Edward Byllynge's trustees about 1677, 
and a few years later they came to this coun- 
ty and located. The line fixed between 
East and West Jersey, July 1, 1076, pro- 
vided that the territory of the province be 
laid off into ten precincts, which, however, 
were not so laid off until January 14, 1681, 
old style. At that time Daniel Leeds was 
surveyor-general of the Province and was or- 
dered by the commissioners to divide the 
river-front of the Delaware from Assanpink 
to Cape May into ten equal parts, running 



30 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



each tenth "so far back iuto the woods" as 
to give it an area of sixty-four thousand 
acres. This was accomplished, and the third 
and fourth tenths extended from the river 
Crapwell, or Pensauivin Creek, on the north 
to tlie river Berkeley, or Oldmaus Creek, on 
the south ; each of the tenths laid out as above 
mentioned were also divided into tenths, 
and were each called a share of propriety. 
Many of the Society of Friends had fled from 
the persecutions to which they were subjected 
in England to Dublin, Ireland, and their at- 
tention was attracted to the new country by 
the exciting troubles between Edward Byl- 
lynge and John Eenwick, and on the 12tli of 
.\pril, 1677, Robert Turner, Robert Zane, 
Thomas Tliackara, William Bates and Joseph 
Sleight, all of Dublin, with the exception of 
William Bates, who was of. the county of 
Wickloe, Ireland, purchased one whole share 
of propi'iety of the trustees of B>'llynge, 
which included tiie right to locate within the 
limits of \\'est Jersey. The proprietors of 
West Jersey then set aside for this colony of 
Friends the third tenth, which was from tliat 
time called the third or Irish tenth.' In the 
years 1681-82 it was ])rovided that each 
tenth on wliich there were settlements should 
send to the Assembly ten delegates. Tiie 
third or Irish tenth having at this time 
passed to the occupancy of the Dublin col- 
ony, seven of them were chosen to represent 
the district, viz. : William Cooper, Mark 
Newbie, Henry Stacy, Francis Collins, Sam- 
uel Cole, Thomas Howell and \\'illiam 
Bates. The fourth tenth was not represented, 
as few, if any, English people wei'e at that 
time within its limits. This Assembly met 
yearly until 1685, when, by reason of con- 
fusion arising from the attempt of Byllynge 
to assume the government, the Assembly did 
not meet again until November .'5, 1692. 
From tlie first landing of the I)utch, in 

' A furtber accouut of the settlement of this colony 
will be found in the history of Haddon township, in this 
volume. 



1623, to 1682 no permanent settlement of 
the English had been effected within the lim- 
its of what is now Camden County. The 
foregoing has brought us down to the time 
when the inhabitants of the third tenth and 
fourth tenth in the Province of West Jersey 
was represented in the Legislative Council of 
the State, from which time begins the early 
history of old Gloucester County, as given in 
the succeeding pages. 



C H A P T E R V. 

KARl-Y HISTORY OF OI,l> (iLOftESTEK. 

TuK preceding chapter described the royal 
grants and the occupation under them, of the 
Dutch, the Swedes and the English, from 
the grant of 1621 to the settlement of the 
Dublin colony on the third or Irish tenth, 
which comprised the territory now embraced 
in Camden County. Soon after the meeting 
of the Assembly in November, 1685, the 
proprietors, freeholders and inhabitants of 
the third and fourth tenths, who had been 
subjected to many inconveniences for the 
transaction of public business by reason of 
the distance from the county-seat of Burling- 
ton and Salem, met at Arwames (Gloucester 
Point), pursuant to public notice, on the 26th 
of May, 1686, during the administration of 
Governor Samuel Jennings, and, after much 
discussion and mature deliberation, adopted 
a Constitution for the government of the ter- 
ritory lying between Pensauken Creek and 
Oldmans Creek, it being the third and 
fourth tenths, to which tliey gave the name 
Gloucester County ; it thus became the only 
county in West Jersey organized directly 
through the action of its own people. This 
Constitution [irovided for the holding of courts 
at Gloucester and Red Bank, and for the elec- 
tion of county officers. It also prescribed the 
details of legal practice and provided for the 
recordiny-of the marks of hogs and cattle. The 



EARLY HISTORY OF OLD GLOTtCESTER 



31 



erection of Gloiioe.^ter County by the aiitliority 
of the inhaliitants within its bounds was con- 
firmed by the General Assembly of the prov- 
ince in 1694. Its boundaries were not defi- 
nitely defined and it is evident from au act 
of Assembly, passed the same year the erec- 
tion of the county was confirmed, tliat it did 
not extend to the sea-coast, as the act referred 
to provides that the few settlers residing at 
Egg Harbor siiall be under jurisdiction of 
Gloucester County until there shall be a suf- 
ficient number to constitute a county. In 
January, 1709, an act was passed more 
clearly defining the county boundaries, and 
in that act Egg Harbor and its vicinity were 
embraced in Gloucester County. Its bounds 
were given as follows: "Gloucester County 
begins at the mouth of Pensaukin Creek; 
thence up the same to the fork thereof; thence 
along the bounds of Burlington County to 
the sea ; thence along the sea-coast to (ireat 
Egg Harbor River ; thence up said river to 
the fork thereof; thence uj) the southernmost 
and greato'st branch of the same to the head 
thereof; thence in a direct line to the head of 
( )ldmaus Creek ; thence down tiie same to 
the Delaware River to the place of begin- 
ning." In 18.S7 Atlantic County was erected, 
as contemplated in the act of 1694, out of 
the sea-coast townships, and in 1844 the 
townships of Camden, Waterford, Newton, 
Hnion, Delaware, Gloucester and Washing 
ton, then constituting a part of Gloucester 
County, were erected into the new county of 
Camden, which was named after the city de- 
signed to be its county-seat. 

Extracts from Gloucehtei; County 
REOonns. — -The first court for the original 
county of Gloucester was held at Gloucester 
in September, 1686, with Justices Francis 
Collins, Thomas Thackara and John Wood 
on the bench. The sheriff's jury list included 
the names of William Hunt, William Jiates, 
William Alvertson, William Ijovejoy, Henry 
Wood, Jonathan Wood, John Hugg, James 
Atkinson, Thomas Sharp, Thomas Cliaun- 



ders, (leorgc Goldsmith, .lohn Ladde, Daniel 
Reading, John Ithel, John Hethell, Thomas 
Mattliews, WiHiam Dalboe, Anthonv N'eil- 
son, John Matsoii, Tliomas Bull, Jolin Tay- 
l<ir, William Salisbury. Matthew Medcalfe 
and William Cooper. The findings of this 
court are evidence that after the adoption of 
the Arwames ConstitutioTi the people of 
Gloucester ('ounty considered themselves an 
independent government, with the power to 
levy taxes, fix boundaries, etc. The Decem- 
ber court at Gloucester in 1687 presented 
two Burlington officers for conveying accused 
persons out <if its jurisdiction for trial at 
Bnrliugtou, and compelled one of them to 
make apology. This difficulty was caused by 
a dispute concerning county lioundaries. The 
grand jury, at the February Session of the 
court for the same year, ordered the first tax 
to be laid, levying a shilling for every hun- 
dred acres of land, two pence for each head 
of cattle, a tax of two pence on each freeman 
having neither land nor cattle and an addi- 
tional head tax of one shilling on all men not 
possessed of such property. Taxes were 
made payable in money or produce, and an 
increase in double the amount could be dis- 
trained for in case of delinquency. Taxes 
continued to be laid by the grand jnrv till 
1694, when the power was vested bv Pro- 
vincial Assembly in a quorum of the countv 
justices, " with the advice, concurrence and 
assistance" of the grand jury. In 171:1 
this power was vested in the justices and 
chosen freeholders, where it remained until 
the organization of the Board of Freeholders 
of the members from each township, on Feb- 
ruary 13, 1798. From a taxing act passed 
in 1750 it appears that there were then in 
the county fourteen stores and shops, twenty- 
seven mills, five ferries and more than 
twenty-five taverns. 

The first murder trial was a ca.se of infan 
ticide which occurred in 1701, but the court 
record docs not show what penaltv was 
inflicted on the defendant. 



32 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COTTNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



The ease was tried l)y the (iovenior, Lord 
Cornlmry, in person, and on December 19tli 
the following record was made : 

" We, the Grand Jury of the County of Glouces- 
ter, doe order eighteen pence to by twelve bushels 
of charcoal for the prisoner, and two pounds two 
sh'llings to by three match coats for the prisoner's 
use so long as she hath occasion for it, and then 
to be reserved for the County's use. We allow 
seven shillings and sixpence to the clerk for five 
warrants to the collector to gather the above tax. 
We further allow Matthew Metcalfe twelve shil- 
lings and six pence for defraying the Lord Corn- 
tiury's retinue's expenses when he was lately at 
(Gloucester, and six shillings to John Siddons for 
a Coffin for the murthered child, and six shillings 
more we allow him by discount of his old tax in 
1694 for bringing the Justices and Coroner to 
Gloster. Wc allow eight pounds four shillings and 
four pence for defraying the Lord Cornbury's and 
his attendance's cxpciiccs when he was lately at 
Gloucester." 

Among the earliest marriages recorded in 
the connty was that of Samuel Taylor and 
Elizabeth Ward, on January 13, 1687, and 
(ieorge \\'ard and Hannah Waynwright, on 
November 17, 1697. The first birth re- 
corded was that of the child of John and 
Jane Burroughs, of Gloucester River, March 
14, 1687. 

Tiie earliest recorded meeting of justices 
and freeholders was held on the 5t]i day of 
the Second Month, 1715. The justices pres- 
ent were Richard Bull, John Inskeep, 
George Lawrence and John Rambo ; the 
freeholders, John Kaighn, Peter Long, John 
Ladd, Jacob Clement, Joseph Cooper, Jaco- 
bus Collin and John Shivers. They pro- 
vided for the building of a new prison and 
court-house by a tax of eighty pounds, and 
made another levy of fifteen pounds to pay. 
bounties for the destruction of wolves, {lan- 
thcrs and red foxes. The sum of thirty 
pounds was ordered raised in 1716 for the 
same purposes, and in 1717 the board levied 
a tax of ten pounds for completing the 
pri.sou, twenty pounds for wolves, panthers 
and red foxes, and seventy jKiunds foi- Tim- 



ber Creek bridge. Assessors, collectors and 
conunissioners were apj)ointed to carry the 
action of the board into effect. At the 
meeting of November 1, 1721, the sheriff, 
Josiah Kay, was allowed James ]\Iore's 
horse, saddle and brass pi.stol for executing 
the man, who seems to have been convicted 
of highway robbery, and £9 8.s. for 
executing Christiana Boff, the murderer 
of her child. In the minutes of the 
board on May 3, 1750, Samuel Harrison, 
the sheriff, brought in a bill of £17 12s. for 
whipping James McBride and for executing 
John Johnson, John Steward and Ebenezcr 
Caral. On this claim the following entry 
w as made : 

" The Board, taking sd bill into Consideration, al- 
low for ye Kopes and diging ye Graves, 14s. 8 ; & 
for ye rest are of Opinion yt its ye Sheriff's Office 
to see ye Law Executed upon Convicts ; and as 
they kn(nv no Law yt Intitles him to any Pay for 
ye Execution of his Office in Such Case, think, 
therefore, it would be a ill Presedent and not 
warrentable in them to allow said Bill or any of ye 
like kind." 

The court and jury seem always to have 
had a lively sense of their diguity and 
to have been jealous of maintaining it. On 
June 1, 1702, Nathaniel Zane was fined ten 
shillings for his "affront, Abu.se and under- 
vallueing of ye forman of ye Grand Jury;" 
and on December 1st, Jeremiah Bate was fined 
thirty shillings " for several Contcuiptuo.se 
and ReHccting, Abusive Expressions u.sed to- 
wards ye Bench ;" but " upon his humble sub- 
mission to ye Bench and desire of tforgetful- 
ness, ye same is remitted and forgotten." 
An instance of tlie anxiety of the Friends, 
who were the j^i'iucipal settlers of Glouces- 
ter, to purge the community of all question- 
able characters, was the case of Amos Nich- 
olson, who, having come into the town of 
(Jrccuwich, was presented by the grand 
jiuy, June 2, 17U1, as " being a man of ill- 
fame," and required to leave the township or 
give security to indemnify the townshi]) 
airainst his l)econiin<r a dauirerous or trouble- 



EARLY HLSTORY OF OLD GLOUCESTER. 



33 




some neighbor. A vagrant negro, liaving 
been hroiiglit into court September 1, 1701, 
by tlie sheriff, wlicse cliarges amounted to 
i'l Ss , the ntgio \\ i^ oukud to be sold for 
two years to any 
one who wouUl 
piy tlie cliarges, 
his master having 
the j)rivilege of 
itclaiming him 
by making the 
^uiie disburse- 
ment. 
The stocks, the pillory and the whipping- 
jiost were used in Colonial days for the 
punishment of criuiinals on various occasions. 
They were doubtless brought into use under 
the authority of the old 
(iloucester courts. The 
punishment by the pil- 
lory was severe and ex- 
cruciating, the criminal 
being placed in a stand- 
ing position. It was not 
uncommon for men to 
swoon under the pain of 
the pillory or the stocks. 
The system by which 
assisted immigrants per- 
formed service in return 
for the payment of their 
passage-money to this 
country was in full force, a: 
minute of the court's j)roceedings of March 
2, 1701 : 

'■ (tiirtith Morgan makes complaint agst a Ser- 
vant woman of her deserting of his Service ye 1st 
of Instant. The servant appearing and alledging 
that lier passage was paid in Seotland, she eame 
I'rom, and tliat she was not any servant ; npon 
which ye sd Griffith produces an order of Chester 
Court, in Pensilvania, for her service of five years 
to one E. Evan, &c., and his assignment to ye sd 
Griffith. Whereupon ye Bench order that ye sd 
Servant perform her time of Servitude, according 
to ye sd assignment." 

The township and county boundaries were 




appear? 



thi.- 



determined in 17<)1, liichard Matlack, 
Henrv Wood, John Hinchman, Wm. Davis, 
James Whiteall, Joshua Jjord, Francis Bat- 
ten and Jacob Spicer having been appointed 
by the Board of Freeholders, on ALay l.'?th, 
to have the work done. They employed 
as surveyor Samuel Clement to run the 
line, and his completed work was sub- 
mitted to the board at the September meet- 
ing. In 1764 Surveyor Thomas Denny 
ran and marked the lines between Gloucester 
and Salem Counties. He was, himself, a 
member of the commission charged with the 
undertaking, his associates being Francis 
Battin and Geoi'ge Flanigan. In the fol- 
lowing year the arms belonging to the 
county were, by order of the justices and 
freeholders, divided into four e(iual lots and 
delivered to John Hinchman, John Mickle, 
Samuel Harrison, John Hider, Alexander 
Randall, George Flanigan, Michael Fisher 
and John Sparks, who, pursuant to in.struc- 
tions, sold them and turned the proceeds into 
the county treasury. 

Public Building.s. — A jail was built 
at Gloucester in 1689. (See history of Glou- 
cester City). Courts were held in taverns 
and private houses until 1696, when a 
court-house and jail as one building was 
erected, which, with additions and repairs, 
was used until 1786, when it was destroyed 
by fire, and a majority of the Hoard of Free- 
holders voted in favor of erecting new 
structures instead of repairing the old ones, 
aud agreed to petition the General Assend)]y 
for an act to erect new Ijnildings at such a 
place as shall be designated by a majority of 
the people of the county at an election to be 
held for that purpose. 

WoODBt'RY HECOMKS THK CoI'N'IY-SkAT. 

— Notwithstanding that there is no iccorded 
evidence of the matter, it is a generally ac- 
cepted belief that the election was held, that 
the people voted to locate the new building at 
Woodbury, and that this decision transferred 
the countyseat from Gloucester to that town. 



34 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



On August .'5, 178G, James Brown, John 
Jessop and Samuel Hugg were constituted 
"to agree with the workmen and purchase 
materials for the building of the gaol and 
court-house at Woodbury," and a tax of 
j£108 6s. 8c/. was ordered to defray the ex- 
pense. At the meeting of the board, ou Sep- 
tember 29, 1786, the board accepted John 
Bispham's offer of a lot at Woodbury, and 
James Wilkins, John Wilkius and Joseph 
Reeves were appointed a committee to survey 
the lot and receive the deed, for which they 
were authorized to ])ay fifty pounds. When 
the managers' accounts were finally passed, 
on Juue 18, 1790, it was found that the cost 
of the court-house and jail had been more 
than twelve thousand dollars. The interior of 
the house is now very much like what it was 
when first built. The stonecolumns, steps, etc., 
in front were added many years ago, and the 
steeple and belfry have been more than once 
rebuilt. 

Joshua L. Howell, Phineas Lord, John 
Blackwood, John Brick, John E. Hopkins 
and John Thorn were commissioned, on No- 
vember 24, 1797, to buy a lot at Woodbury 
and erect a building for the keeping of the 
records removed from Gloucester. This 
structure has been occupied since 1820 as the 
surrogate's office, while the building then 
erected for the surrogate has been made the 
clei'k's office. 

Woodbury, the seat of justice of Glouces- 
ter County since its removal from the town 
of Gloucester, in 1787, and the place where 
the law was dispensed to the citizens of what 
is Camden County, previous to its erection in 
1844, is located at tiie head of navigation on 
Woodbiiiy Creek, and was ])robably settled 
as early as 1681. liichard Wood took up 
laud a mile iiirther down the creek in tiiat 
year, and some time between then and 16s4 
his brother made a home on the present site 
of the town. The Woods came froni some 
one of the many towns in England named 
Bury, and hence the derivation of the name 



of the new settlement.' In 1688 four hun- 
dred and thirty-two acres of land on Wood- 
bury Creek were surveyed for Jonathan 
Wood. From that date until the War of 
the Revolution the place is destitute of any 
history that has been preserved, but the inci- 
dents of the military movements in 1777 in 
the neighborhood go to show that it must 
then have had a poi)ulation of two hundred 
or more. During the winter of 1777, Loi'd 
Corn wallis had his headquarters in the resi- 
dence now occupied by the family of tlio 
late Amos Campbell, and the doors and cup- 
boards still bear the marks of the British 
bayonets used in forcing them open. In 1815 
the town had grown so as to re(piire four tav- 
erns for the local and traveling trade ; it had 
also seven merchants and three physicians 
and there were seventy-one dwellings. 
Among the leading citizens then were James 
Roe, John C. Smallwood, John M. Watson, 
John Mickle, Robert K. Matlack, Thomas 
Jefferson Cade and Benjamin I'. Howell. 
The oldest dwelling-house now standing is 
the Joseph Franklin residence, which was 
built in the early part of the eighteenth cen- 

' " It seems tlie little colony soon became short of 
provisions and none being nearer than Burlington, the 
male colonists slarted off in canoes for that place to ob- 
tain some. A storm prevented their return as soon as 
expected, — the provisions left for the women were ex- 
hausted, — and the poor creatures, overwhelmed with 
grief, looked fur nothing but starvation in a strange 
land with none of their kindred near to soothe their 
dying momeiiK. Thus they were grouped together at 
the bend of the creek, watching with tearful eyes the 
flowing tide and listening in vain for the sound of the 
returning paddles, when an Indian woman appeared on 
the opposite bank, saw they were in trouble and 
stopped. By their signs she understood their wants 
and then disappeared in the shade of the forest. In 
an hour or two (for she bad gone several miles) she 
returned loaded witli venison and corn bread. These 
she placed on a long piece of bark and, walking a good 
wny to tidcward, set it afloat and gave it a push across. 
It came to where tlio white women were and its contents 
saved their lives ; for their husbands returned not for 
such a length of time that but for her, starvation would 
have been inevitable.'' — New Jersey Historical Collcc- 
tinns. 



THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 



36 



tiu'v. Woddhiiry was iiicorponiteil as a bor- 
ongli in l<So4 and as a city in 1870. In- 
cluded in the old organizations of citizens 
were the Fox Hunting Clul), established in 
1776 ; the Library Company, instituted in 
1794 ; and the Whirligig Society, which was 
organized in 1809 " with authority to sup- 
press all riots and whirligig all gamblers, 
showmen and such characters as are com- 
monly called Fair Plays." The Friends 
erected a meeting-honse in 1715 or 1716, and 
the Presbyterians had a log church in 1721. 
The Methodist ICpiscopal Society was organ- 
ized in 1S03 and the African Methodist 
Episcopal in 1817. 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 

ALTHOiKiii New Jersey was at no time 
seriously threatened by the war which Eng- 
land waged with the French and their In- 
dian allies in North America, and whicii 
may be said to have virtually begun in 1749, 
and continued until the utter defeat of the 
French and the treaty of peace in 1763, 
the meagre information which has been 
preserved of her action demonstrates that she 
was in no wise backward to obey the calls 
for troops to serve against the common foe.' 

' Oue of the scanty references to this epoch is con- 
tained in Wickes' '' History of Medicine in New Jersey," 
which says : " We date a positive advance in medicine 
in New Jersey from the French and English War. . . . 
New Jersey raised a complement of 1000 men, tiiiilt 
barracks ai Burlin^on, 'I'renton, New lirunswick, 
Amhoy and Klizabethtown, each for the accommodation 
of oOO men. It maintained this complement for the 
years 1708, '5'.l and 'CO, and in the two succeeding 
years furnished 000, besides men and officers for gar- 
rison duty. These popular measui'es furnished the 
school much needed for training a soldiery to be avail- 
able for the defence of American liberty a decade after- 
ward, and for the training of medical men no less. 
The physicians who were commissioned as surgeons and 
surgeons' mates, being brought into association with 
the British officers, were led to kuow their inferiority, 



The conflicting territorial clainis of England 
arid France on the American continent, the 
long-standing animosity of the two people, 
and the competition between the French and 
English frontiersmen on the upper tribu- 
taries of the Ohio River explain the out- 
break of tJie war. In 1746 New Jersey 
was required to furnish five hundi'ed men 
for service under the English flag, and in 
response six hundred and sixty offered 
themselves for enlistment. Again, in 1755, 
the Assembly resolved to raise and equip a 
battalion of five hundred men, and an excess 
])resented themselves for enlistment. When 
the enemy reached the country west of the 
Delaware, New Jersey received many refugees 
who had been driven out from their homes, 
while her wealthy citizens bore a large part 
of the expense in raising troops to defend the 
western border. It is said tliat one thousand 
were sent from the colony after the surren- 
der of Castle William, on the .southern shore 
of Lake George, and three thousand more 
were put in readiness to march should occa- 
sion require. During 1758, 1759 and 1760 
the colony kept her complement full of oue 
thousand men in the field, and in 1761-62 
six hundred, besides a company of sixty-four 
for garrison duty during the latter year. 
The annual expense of this military estab- 
lishment is represented at forty thousand 
pounds." 

We are not allowed to suppose that any 
considerable proportion of these troops came 
from the Camden vicinage, or even that old 
(rloucester County was largely re|)re.scnted 
in the ranks. A hundred and thirty years 
ago Southern and Western Jersey was too 
Sparsely jjopulated to be of great value as a 

and were stimulated to improve their opportunities of 
practice and of intercourse with their more cultivated 
compeers." 

'' Cushing's " History of Gloucester County." Mul- 
ford's History says: "New Jersey had raised, at 
different periods, near X'300,000, and for a great part 
of the time had maintained a force of 1000 men, be- 
sides particular bodies for special services.'' 



36 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



recruiting ground ; and, moreover, more tlian 
half tlie people were Friends and forbidden 
by their religions principles to engage in 
warfare. In and around Haddonfield linger 
traditions of the departure of a small squad 
or two, to join the forces at the front, but 
the very names of these volunteers have 
perished, and if any of them distinguished 
themselves in the combat against tiie French 
and their savage allies, they have i)assed to 
the roll of unsung heroes. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THK MAR OF THp; REVOIJTTION. 

In the War of the Revolution New Jersey 
bore a conspicuous and honorable part, and 
the county of Gloucester, of which C'anulen 
C^ounty then formed a part, is fertile in his- 
torical associations of that eventful period. 
A faithful effort has been made to portray 
them in the succeeding pages of this chapter 
and weave around them every interest which 
their importance demands, as well as to show 
the relation of the State and county to that 
ever memorable war. Gloucester County 
furnished a large number of soldiers who 
joined the patriot army, participated in nu- 
merous battles and won many brilliant 
achievements. 

Causes OF the WAR.-The colony of New 
Jersey shared with her sister colonies that 
devotion to the crown at the termination of 
the Frencli and Indian War which William 
(iriffith has so lucidly described in his " His- 
torical Notes oi' the Aincrican Colonies and 
Revolution."' 

'This is a rare .and invalimblc book. It was designed 
by the oullior as an introduction to his " Law Kegis- 
ter," hut he died before its completion. It was pub- 
lished by his executors in 18;!(i, and after it was 
printed some controversy arose between the persons 
concerned, in consequence of which the entire edition, 
wiili the exception of six copies, was destroyed. One 
of tliose saved is in the possession of Judge .John ('lem- 



" At the close of the war (of 1756) between Great 
Britain and France, tenuinatetl by the Treaty of 
Paris, in 17G3, the British Colonies of North 
America were attached to the mother-country by 
every tie which could add strength to the con- 
nection; by the sympathies of a common extrac- 
tion and history and the more endearing atfections 
and solicitudes which Howed from domestic affini- 
ties and private interests, encircling and blessing 
all. . . . The recent war, so glorious to both 
in its prosecution and results, so peculiarly Ameri- 
can in its origin and objects, and in which they 
co-operated in so many arduous military enter- 
prises, had inspired mutual respect and a warmth 
of attachment unfelt before ; there was a conti- 




INTlKPKXnr.NCE BELL. 

dence also reposed by the colonies in the all'ec- 
tionate disposition and mighty power of the 
mother-country, unrestrained by any fear or jeal- 
ousy : — George III., then in the third year of his 
reign, by the splendor of the British arms in all 
quarters, the extension and security which war had 
given to his realms and by his vast military and 
naval superiority, with an e.xtent of manufactures 
and commerce unequaled, was universally deemed 
the most powerful monarch at that time in Europe, 
and highly poi)ular in all bis dominions. 

"This flattering scene, however, was soon to be 
changed; those sentiments and interests wliicli, if 

ent, of Haddonfield, by whose kind permission tlie use 
of the work was accorded to the writer. 



THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION. 



cultivated, might have long (though not always) 
letained the colonies a jiart of the British empire, 
were suddenly extinguislied by the folly and ar- 
rogance of British ministers : men ignorant of 
human nature, and in government, and deaf 
to admonition and experience — fortunate indeed 
for America and mankind I — but aflbrding a 
solemn lesson to every people who repose a blind 
confidence in the talents or virtues of particular 
men, however popular or whatever be their pre- 
tensions. 

" The triumphs of the war and the promised 
blessings of peace and concord were at once for- 
gotten and lost in sordid views to revenue — views 
ecjually hostile to justice and to policy. Not 
satisfied with the monopoly of the whole product 
of American industry and trade, expended for her 
manufactures and articles of consumption, in- 
creasing beyond calculation, silently pouring 
millions into the lap of England, her infatuated 
ministers resolved to force upon the colonies a 
system of internal taxation, limited only by the 
will of a British Parliament, prescribing its 
objects, its extent, continuance and means of 
collection, without the consent or participation of 
millions of British subjects doomed to bear the 
burden and the disgrace. No choice was prottered 
but submission or resistance, and the colonies did 
not hesitate; they resolved that no power on earth 
should wrest from them property and the fruits of 
their toil and industry without their consent. 
This was the origin of the most extraordinary 
revolution on record, and upon this issue did the 
contest turn." 

The colonists claimed that to them, as well 
as to any other subjects of the crown, l>e- 
longed immnnity from all taxation, except 
.such as they might assent to, either directly 
or by the representatives they had ciiosen, 
and the people of West Jersey had stood 
u]K)n this ground in resisting the attempt of 
(lovernor Andros to impose custom duties 
upon the commerce of the Delaware as early 
as 1680. But first the cr<i\vn and then 
Parliament insisted upon the power to tax 
tlie colonies as they plea.sed, and they made 
the cost of the war with France a special 
pretext for enforcing this claim, becau.se, as 
the ministry argued, the war had been of 
American origin, and in its prosecution the 
niother-couutrv had accumulated an enor- 



mous debt t<>r tlie )>r()tecliiin of licr domains 
on this side of the Atlantic. Tlie enact- 
ment of a duty on stamps was curried in 
I'arliament March 22, ITlio, and William 
Coxe was appointed the collector of New 
Jersey. Mas.sachusetts ])ropo,se(l a Congress 
of Commissioners from all the colonies, to 
meet for cousultation in New York on the 
first Tuesday of October. The New Jei-sev 
As.seml)ly received the Massachusetts cii'cnlar 
Juue 20, 17C5. William Franklin,' the 
Governor, was in so much the opposite of his 
patriotic father as to be a firm ally of the 
crown, and he influenced the Hou.se, which 
was on the eve of adjournment, to return a 
hasty and ambiguous answer, which gave 
rise to a sharp correspondence between the 
(iovernor and Hou.se. He contended that 
the House had taken the Massachusetts jiro- 
posal into " deliberate consideration," and 
had " unanimously resolved against connect- 
ing on that occasion." The Hou.se declaivd 
(July 27, 1776) that the Speaker agreed to 
send members to the intended Congress, 
but that he changed his mind upon .some 
advice that was given to him, and that this 
sudden change of opinion displeased manv 

' William Franklin was a natural son of Dr. Ben- 
jaiiiiQ Franklin, and was born about the year 1730. 
His father had but one other son, Francis Folger. who 
died when a little more than four years old. William 
was carefully educated, aided his father in his philo- 
sophical experiments, and through his influence was at 
an early age appointed clerk of the Assembly of I'enn- 
sylvania, and postmaster of Philadelphia. In ITSlJ, 
when he was about twenty years of age, his father was 
appointed the agent for Pennsylvania (and afterwards 
of New Jersey) in Kngland, and the son had leave from 
the Assembly to resign his office of clerk that he might 
accompany him to London. Upon his arrival there 
he entered the Middle Temple to prepare himself for 
practice as a lawyer in Philadelphia, and was iu due 
time called to be a barrister. Afterwards he received 
from the University of 0\ford the honorary degree of 
Mahter of Arts. 

In 17G2, having ingratiated himself with Lord Bute, 
then the principal favorite of the King, through his 
influence, without the solicitation of his father, he was 
appointed Governor of the province of New Jersey, an 
office then much sought for. 



38 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



of'tlie Hoiisp, who, seeing the matter dropped, 
were indiiferent to it. But they said that 
the letter of the House was not such as 
the Governor represented it, and that if tlie 
strong expressions mentioned were used, an 
alteration must have been made, and they 
intimated that Governor Franklin had been 
instrumental in making it. 

The Legislative Assembly considered their 
action, and at a convention called at Am- 
boy by the Speaker they chose Joseph 
Ogden, Hendrick Fisher and Joseph Borden 
delegates to the Congress, which met in New 
York at the appointed time and formulated 
the memorable petitions to the King and 
Parliament that were a warning of the com- 
ing u])rising. When the AssemlJy recon- 
vened in November, it approved the action 
of the Congress, and the House declared that 
a.s the Stamp Act was utterly subversive of 
privileges inherent in and originally secured 
by grants and concessions from the crown of 
Great Britain to the jieople of the colony, they 
considered it a duty to tliemselves, their con- 
stituents and posterity to leave a record of 
their resolves upon the journal. 

Stamp Officer Coxe resigned, declaring 
that he would never act under the law, and 
organizations of the "Sons of Liberty" were 
formed, who bound themselves to march to 
any part of the continent at their own ex- 
pense to support the British Constitution in 
America, by which opposition to the stan)p 
tax was meant. As the use of all but stamp 
paper was forbidden in legal transactions, a 
period of much confusion ensued, during 
which the courts were closed and business 
almost suspended ; but in February, 176(5, a 
meeting of the members of the Jersey bar at 
New Bnniswick resolved to continue their 
practice regardless of the statute; the public 
offices and tiie courts were reopened and tlie 
people resumed the transaction of aft'airs. 
When tiie General Assembly met in June, 
tiie members were officially informed by the 
Governor of the repeal of the obnoxious act. 




BRITISH STAMP. 



nn<l tliey joined in an address to the King 
and Parliament expressing gratitude for the 
abrogation of an "impolitic law." 

Whatever hopes might have been enter- 
tained that this concession meant future just 
dealing with the colonies were doomed to 
disappointment. The repeal of the Stamp 
Act had been accomplislied by an affirma- 
tion of the right of 
Great Britain to bind 
the colonies in all 
eases whatever, and 
thegovcrnment soon 
proceeded to act on 
thatassumption. In- 
creased numbers of 
British soldiers were 
quartered upon the 
people, who were re- 
quired to furnish 
them with fuel, bed- 
ding, candles, small beer, rum, etc. When 
the requisition was laid before the New Jer- 
sey Assembly, in June, 176G, the House 
directed that provision be made according to 
the former laws of the colony, and then in- 
formed the Governor that they looked upon 
tlie act for ([uartering soldiers in Ameri(!a to 
be virtually as nuich an act for laying taxes 
as the Stamp Act. It was followed in 17()7 
by the enactments levying duties on imports 
of glass, paper, paste-board, white and I'cul 
lead, ])aintei's' colors and tea into the colonial 
j)orts, and authorizing the King to appoint 
in America commissioners who .should have 
entire charge of the cu.stoms and the laws 
relating to trade. 

Ma.ssaclui.setts again led the column of 
resistance, and her circular letter was ])re- 
sentetl to the New Jer.sey House April 15, 
1768. The House made a suitable reply 
and also adopted a respectfid address against 
taxation without representation. On Decem- 
ber (i, 1769, it pas.sed resolutions condemn- 
ing tlu! threat of the royal authorities to 
transport to England for trial persons ac- 



THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION. 



39 



riiscd of crinios in tlie colonii's, and also 
approved tlie resolution of the niercliants to 
cease to import British luerchaiidise until 
the offensive duties were repealed. Tlie 
duties, except that on tea, M'ere repealed in 
1770, Init this by no means satisfied the 
Americans. 

On February 8, 1774, the Assembly of 
New Jersey resolved "that a Committee of 
Correspondence and Incjuiry be appointed to 
obtain the mo.st early and antheutie intelli- 
gence of all acts and resolutions of the Brit- 
ish Parliament, or the proceedings of admin- 
istration, that may have any relation to, or 
may affect the liberties and privileges of His 
Majesty's subjects in the British colonies in 
America, and to keep up and maintain a 
correspondence with our sister colonies, re- 
specting these important considerations ; and 
that they occasionally lay their proceedings 
before the House." The committee named 
in the resolution were James Kinsey, Stephen 
Crane, Hendrick Fisher, Samuel Tucker, 
John Wetherill, Robert Friend I'rice, John 
Ilinchman, John ilehelm and Edward Tay- 
lor. The Gloucester County members were 
Messrs. Price and Hinchman. Governor 
Franklin strove to minimize the significance 
of this action. '' I was in hope.s," he wrote 
to Lord Dartmouth on May 31 st, "that the 
A.ssembly of this Province would not have 
gone into the measure; for though they met 
on the lOtli of Noveml)er, yet they avoided 
taking the matter into consideration, though 
trc(juently urged by some of the members, 
until the 8tli of February, and then I believe 
they would not have gone into it but that 
the As.seml)ly of New York had just before 
resolved to appoint such a committee, and 
they did not choose to appear singular." 

Action of New Jer.sey. — The Governor 
inisrepre.sented the temperof the peopleof New 
Jersey. On the recejition of the news that 
the British Parliament had closed the ])ort of 
Boston to all eonimerce, because of the 
llirowinu; into the harbor of one of the 



cargoes of tea, which the government was 
endeavoring to induce the ])eo]>le to accept 
by rescinding the export duty of I'Id. per 
pound, while retaining the import duty of 
od. j>er pound, " the Colony of New Jersey 
broke out in a simultaneous blaze of indig- 
nation from Sussex to Cape May, and im- 
mediate measures were taken to organize the 
various counties into a cond)ination of the 
friends of liberty which should secure 
prom[)titude and unity of action thniughout 
the province." ' 

The Boston Port Bill was appointed to go 
into operation June 1, 1774, and, in accord- 
ance with the recommendation of Virginia, 
the patriots observed it as a day of mourn- 
ing. On that day the Committee of Corre- 
spondence and Inquiry held at New Bruns- 
wick what was probably their first meeting, 
and, according to the authority of Dr. Mul- 
ford, in his " History of New Jersey," they 
replied to the communication that had been 
received from Massachusetts, expressed their 
.sympathy with the people of Boston and 
condemned in strong terms the course of the 
ministry. A letter written by one of the 
members, under date of the 2d, says, — 

"I returned yesterday from New Brunswick, 
where six of our committee met. We answered tlie 
Boston letters, informing them that we look on 
New Jersey as eventually in the same piedieamont 
with Boston, and that we will do everything which 
may be generally agreed on. We have signed a 
request to the Governor to call the General A.sseni- 
bly to meet at such time as his Excellency may 
think proper before the 1st day of August ne.\t. 
Our committee is well disposed in the cause of 
American freedom." 

Governor Franklin wrote to Lord Dart- 
mouth from Burlington June LStli, — 

" I have likewise had an application made tome 
by some of the members of the Hou.se of Kejue- 
sentatives to call a meeting of the (xeneral .A.ssem- 
bly in August next, with which 1 have not and 
shall not comply, as there is no publick busines.sof 

' Cliarles D- Deshler's ail'li'ess tu the New Brunswick 
IlisLoi-ical Club, Decciiibcr Ui, 187'). 



40 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



the province whicli cuii make such a meeting 
necessary." 

The disaffection of the CTOvernor and his 
refusal to assemble the Legislature made it 
necessary for the jieople to speak out through 
the medium of their town-meetings. These 
were held in nearly all the counties at the 
call of leaders of the culminating revolution- 
ary movement. The purpose was to organize 
and direct the impulse of resistance to 
British encroachments, to acquaint the people 
with the total imperilment of their liberties 
and particularly to select delegates to a 




Thirty Dollars. 

THE Bearer is, en 
titled to recci-ve Thirty 
Sfianljh milled D O L 
LARS, or an ejua 
Sum in Gold or Silver, 
according; to a Refo 
haUonoi CONGRESS 
of the 14th "January^ 
1779- 

20 Dollars. 



(•(.IXTINENTAL I'l'llUKNCY. 

general congress of deputies from the .several 
colouics, which the A'irginia House of Bur- 
gesses had pn)po.sed should be held to form a 
])i;ui of union and devise measures for tiie 
puliiic welfare. 

In June, 1774, William Peartree Smith, 
ciiairman of the New Jersey Committee of 
Coi'respondence and In(]uiry, conducted a 
correspondence with tiie Mas.saeluisetts ('om- 
mittee, in which lie tendered material aid for 
the people impoverished by tlu; closing of 
Boston to comuKii'ce, and inquired whether it 
had better take the shape of clothing, provi- 
sions or cash. The Massachusetts men re- 
plied thai cash would be most acccphiblc. 



Dr. Fithian, in a communication in the 
^\'oodbury Constitution, says, — 

" In the County of Gloucester committees were 
ajipointed in each of the townships to receive 
donations ' for the relief of our sutfering brethren 
of Boston,' and a general treasurer (Joseph Ellis) 
was appointed, who was authorized to procure a 
place to store the provisions that should be 
furnished, and the sum of £534 in money was at 
one time ordered to be paid on account of subscrip- 
tions."' 

The first of these meetings for the purpo.se 
of electing delegates to meet in a General Con- 
gress was held on June 6, 1774, at Lower 
Freehold, Monmouth County, and 
the next at Newark, on the 11th. 
The latter meeting issued a circu- 
lar calling attention to the opjires- 
sive measures of Parliament, and 
set forth that as the neighboring 
colonies were prepared for a Con- 
gress, and as the New Jersey As- 
sembly was not likely to be in 
■session in time to answer the end 
proposed, it was jiroper and im- 
portant that meetings should be 
held in the counties to appoint 
committees that would, in con- 
junction, act in unison with the 
sister colonies. 

The County Committees thus 
chosen met at New Brunswick 
on the twenty-first of July, with .seventy- 
two delegates in attendance, and organized by 
the election of Stephen Crane as chairman and 
Jonathan D. Sargent as clerk.' Kesolutions 
were passed declaring that the proceedings of 

' "Thereajipearstobe nowhere any record of anieeliug 
held in dlouccster County to appoint delegates to the 
New Brun.swick convention. Vet the county was rep- 
resented in that body by Hobert Friend Price, if by no 
other delegate or delegates, and the tenable theory is 
that he at least was elected at some meeting of the cit- 
izens of the county, of which no mention is made in 
contemporary annals. Price's name occurs on jiago 103 
of (iriffith's " Notes on the American Colonies," as a 
member of the Committee that signed the credentials 
of the delegates to the Oeneral Congress. 



THE WAR OF THK RKVOLUTIOX, 



41 



I'arliauH'iii wiili res|)ect to IMassarluisetts, 
•' s(j violent ill themselves and so trnly alanu- 
iiiH' to the other colonies (many of which arc 
e([iially exposed to ministerial vengeance), 
render it the indispensable duty of all 
heartily to unite in the most proper measures 
to procure redress for their oppressed coun- 
trymea, now suffering in the cominon cause ; 
and for the re-establishment of 
tiie constitutional rights of 
America upon a solid founda- 
tion." James Kiusey, William 
Livingston, John De Hart, Ste- 
}>hen Crane and Richard Smith 
were chosen to represent New 
Jersey in the Congress which 
met at Carpenters' Hall on 
Sept. 5, 1774. They joined 
heartily iu its general declara- 
tion of rights and its recom- 
mendations for aid to the dis- 
tressed people of Boston. Their 
doings were approved by the 
General Assembly of the colony 
in January, 1775,' in the flice 
(jf the condemnatory message of 
Governor Franklin, who in- 
sidiously strove to pnavoke the 
jealousy of the Assembly by the 
argument that the New Briins- 
wick convention had, by ap- 
pointing the delegates to the 
Colonial Congress, usurped the 
powers which belonged to the 
Assembly alone. The Assera- 
i)ly answered by re-ap[)ointing 
these very delegates, but they ( 

followed the recommendations 
of the Governor to present the (Town with still 
another remonstrance against its impositions 
upon the colonists. Franklin saw that the 
(lay of reconciliation was past. He said in a 
supplementary message, — 

'"Such members as were Friends excepting only to 
such ])arl9 aa seemed to wear an appearance or might 
have a tendency to force, as iucousisteut with their re- 
lijliiius principles." — don/on n" llislnrii nj A'nr Jrrsri/." 



"It is now ill vain to arj;ne, as you have, with 
the most uncommon and tmnccessary prcc'ipita- 
tion, give in your entire assent to that dostruitive 
mode of proceeding I so earnestly wariuKl you 
against. Whether after .such a rcsohuion the pe- 
tition you mention can be exi)ected to produce 
any good efiect, or whether you have consulted the 
true interests of the people, I leave others to de- 
termine." 




ARPEN'TERS' HALL, I'lIlLADKLI'HIA. 

During the winter of 1774-7-") Parlia- 
ment, in obedience to the crown and the ;ul- 
luinistration of Lord North, and dcs|>it(' the 
warnings of Chatham and Burke, went on 
with a stubborn resolution to crush the col- 
onies. Boston wa.s the objective-point of 
their repressive programme, :uid tiie btittle 
of Lexington occurred on April l!l, 1775. 



42 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



()u May 2d the New Jersey Committee of 
Correspondence met at New Brunswick, hav- 
ing been informed that " tlie embattled fann- 
ers " had fired the sliot that was lieard 
around the world. There were present Hen- 
drick Fisher, Samuel Tucker, Joseph Bor- 
den, Joseph Jliggs, Isaac Pearson, John 
Chetwood, Lewis Ogden, Isaac Ogdeu, Abra- 
ham Hunt and Elias Boudinot. They in- 
structed the chairman 

"To immediately call a Provincial Congress to 
meet at Trenton the 23d day of this instant, to 
consider and determine sucli matters as may then 
and there come before them ; and theseveral conn- 
ties are hereby desired to nominate and ajipoint 
their respective deputies for the same as speedily 
as may be, with full and ample powers for such 
]iurposes as may be thought necessary for the i)e- 
culiar exigencies of this province." 

Gloucester County was j)ronipt in its I'e- 
sponse to this notice. The proceedings were 
as subjoined in Dr. Fithian's notes, — 

"At a meeting of a majority of the Committee 
of Correspondence for the County of Gloucester, 
on the 5th day of May, 1775, — present, Samuel 
Harrison, chairman ; John Hinchman, John 
Cooper, John Sparks, Joseph Ellis, Joseph Low, 
Isaac Mickle, Joseph Hugg. 

"In consequence of intelligence received I'rom 
the Committee of Corrcsjiondence from New 
Brunswick, and at their request, the committee 
above named have taken the same into considera- 
ation, and do unanimously agree and think it our 
indispensable duty in this alarming crisis forth- 
with to request a meeting of the inhabitants of 
the county for the purpose of choosing members 
to meet at the Provincial Congress at Trenton on 
the 23d day of this instant, May. 

" Ordered that the clerk get a number of no- 
tices immediately printed and disperse them 
throughout the country — that a person be sent 
express to Egg Harbour with part thereof and 
alarm the inhabitants of the consequence thereof 
and the necessity of a meeting. 

" By order of Committee. 

" Joseph Huci(i, Com. Clerk." 



" In Committee, ordered that every member of 
this Committee meet at the house of William 
Hugg, on the 18th inst., by 10 o'clock, A. m., and 
that notice issue for this purpose, to which time 
this Committee is adjourned. 

" By order of Committee, 

" Joseph Hf(;G, Clerk. 



" Committee met pursuant to adjournment, on 
the lOth inst., at the house of William Hugg — 
present, Samuel Harri.son, John Cooper, Joseph 
Ellis, .lohn Sparks, Isaac Mickle, Doc. Vanleer, 
.loseph Cooper, Peter Chccsenian, .luseph Hugg. 



"At a meeting of a very respectable number of 
the inhabitant-s of this county, on the ISth day of 
Jlay , 1775, pursuant to a notice from the Committee 
of Correspondence for that purpose. 

" At said meeting the inluibitants taking into 
consideration the intelligence communicated from 
the Committee of Correspondence of New Bruns- 
wick, do unanimously 

" Re-folve, That it is highly necessary that there 
.should be a Provincial Congress held at the time 
and i)lace apjiointed by the said Committee, and do 
unanimously 

" Rewire and agree that seven persons be chosen 
for said service to represent this county. 

" And accordingly Robert Friend Price, John 
Hinchman, Elijah Clark, Esqs., and Messrs. .lohn 
Cooper, Joseph Ellis, John Sparks and Joseph 
Hugg were unanimously chosen to continue for 
twelve months, and anj' three or more attending 
said meeting to be a sufticient representation. 

" Ordered, That the members attending from 
this county do use their endeavors, when met in 
Congress, to confirm and reappoint the delegates 
appointed by the General Assembly of this Prov- 
ince. 

" Ordered, That the instructions drawn by Mr. 
Cooper for said Provincial Congress be taken by 
the members of this county to said Congress lor 
their own guide — but not to be publi-shed. 

" On the question being jmt, whether the Cuni- 
mittee of Observation be authorized to carry into 
execution the resolves of the Provincial Congress, 
and to perform such services as the emergency of 
the case nuiy require, it was resolved iieiii con. 

" By order of the county, 

" Jo.s. HlHiO, 

" Clerk" 

The.se Committees of Observation and In- 
spection were fornu'd in each county of tlic 
colony, 'i'hcii' title specifics liic duties witli 
wiiicii tliey were charged. 

The First I'.ROviNciALCoM(iREss()F New 
JiuisKV. — The I'rovineial Congress assem- 
bled at Treiiloii on May 2.'kl, 1775, the dele- 
gates in attendance from (iloiicester County 



TIIK WAR OP THE REVOLUTION. 



43 



heiiio- Jdlui ( 'oopor, Elijnli Clark and .loliii 
Sparks, llesolutions were ])assed that one 
or more companies of militia be raised in oaeh 
townsliip or corporation, tiiat all men between 
the ages of sixteen and fifty be enrolled by 
the committee, and that the officers of the 
re(|iiisite number of companies combine them 
into regiments. To meet the expense, ten 
thousand pounds of paper or " Proclamation " 
money was ordered to be raised, of which the 
proportion of Gloucester County was £7(33 
8s. 2d. This Congress sat eleven days, and 
was reconvened at Trenton on iVugust 5th, 
in consequence of the battle of Bunker Hill 
and Washington's siege of the British forces 
in Boston. To this meeting there came, as 
the representatives of Gloucester, John 
Sparks, Joseph Hugg, Joseph Ellis and 
Elijah Clark. It was resolved to raise and 
organize a number of troops equal to about 
twenty-six regiments and to enforce the col- 
lection of ten thousand pounds tax ordered at 
the May session, it appearing that many 
obstacles had been encountered in the col- 
lection, and that in a great number of in- 
stances payment had been avoided or refused. 
For this military levy Gloucester County 
was required to furnish three battalions, and 
she was j)laced third among the counties in 
precedency of rank, in which Essex was first 
and Salem second. Besides providing for 
this organization an armament, this Congress 
resolved to enroll four thousand minute-men, 
" who shall hold themselves in constant 
readiness, on the shortest notice, to march to 
any place where their assistance may be re- 
quired for the defence of this or any neigh- 
boring colony." Gloucester's proportion of 
this force was four comj)anies of sixty-four 
men each. The August session lasted until 
thelTth, and before adjourning the Congress 
appointed as a Committee of Safety, — Hend- 
rick Fisher, Samuel Tucker, Isaac Pearson, 
John De Hart, Jonathan D. Sergeant, A zariah 
Dunham, Peter Schenck, Enos Kelsey, Joseph 
Borden, Frederick Frelinghuyscni and John 



Schucman. When this Congress was not in 
session this committee wielded extraordinary 
and almost unlimited jiower as the executive 
branch of the government. 

The Second PuoviNciAr, Coxoress of 
New Jersey. — At its August session the 
Provincial Congress had provided for a new 
election of deputies from the counties, and 
under this provision (iloucester County chose 
John Cooper, Joseph Ellis, Thomas Clark, 
Elijah Clark and Richard Somei's, who, with 
forty-five other delegates, formed the Second 
Provincial Congress, which convened in its 
first session, at Trenton, October 3, 1775. 
Further legislation was enacted for the col- 
lection of the ten thousand pounds tax by 
distraint and sale of the property of de- 
linquents, and for the enrollment in the 
militia of all able-bodied male inhabitants of 
the jirovince, between the ages of sixteen and 
fifty years (except those whose religious prin- 
ciples forbade them to bear arms), their 
muster, equipment and instruction in military 
tactics under the command of proper officers. 
This law was singular in requiring that each 
enriJled man should provide himself with a 
musket, a sword, a tomahawk, a cartridge- 
box and knapsack. The raising of troops 
and the finding of funds wherewith to fit 
them out taxed the ingenuity of the Congress 
during this and the succeeding session of 
Fei)ruary, 1776, and on the 20th of that 
month a bill was passed for printing <£"j(),- 
000 5.S-. of fiat money, which it was ordered 
should pass current until December 21 , 1 7ill .' 
For redemption of this issue, a sinking fund 
of £10,000 In. annually from 1787 to 175)1 
was provided, and an allotment of payments 
was made among the counties. Gloucester 
was assessed tor £7(i3 2s. M. each year for 
the five years. 

The fifty thousand jiounds was divided in- 
to e(|ual ]iarts to be expended by commis- 
sioners for the Eastern Division and the 

'This money was renlcnned at Is. fid to the dollar. 



44 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEIY 



Western Divi.sion "for the use of the colony." 
William Tucker, Abraham Hunt, Joseph 
Ellis and Alexander Chambers were made 
commissioners tor the Western Division. 
The commissioners were directed to purchase 
three thousand stand of arms, ten tons of 
gunpowder, twenty tons of lead, one thousand 
cartouch-boxes, medicine-chests and chirur- 
gical instruments, four thousand tents, two 
thousand blankets, a train of artillery to 
consist of twelve pieces, and axes, spades and 
other entrenching tools. They were also in- 
structed to furnish the troops with one 
month's subsistence, at one shilling per day 
per man, or provisions to that amount if 
necessary, provided that the expense did not 
exceed one thousand four hundred pounds in 
value ; and one month's pay for tiie troops 
when called into actual service, provided that 
the Continental Congress did not make pro- 
vision for the same, and j^i'ovided that the 
pay of such troops did not exceed four thou- 
sand pounds in value. The recruitment of 
the two battalions which Congress at its pre- 
vious session had ordered to be raised had 
proceeded successfully and with rapidity. 
Lord Stirling had been commissioned colonel 
of the command raised in East Jersey, and 
William Maxwell colonel of the West Jersey 
battalion, which was ordered to the vicinity 
of the Hudson River and mustered into the 
Continental service in December, 1775. 

The Third Congress of Delegates. — 
In the meantime the old Colonial Legislature 
of New Jersey had been holding intermit- 
tent sessions and receiving protests from 
Governor Franklin against the doings of the 
Provincial Congress, which had, in tiict, 
superseded it. He had prorogued it from 
December (J, 1775, to June ."5, 1776, but the 
December meeting was its last. When tlu' 
new or Third Provincial Congress met, in 
June, 1776, it declared that Franklin had 
" discovered himself to be an enemy to the 
liberties of this country, and that measures 
ought to 1)C immediately taken for securing 



his person, and that from henceforth all pay- 
nienls of money to him, on account of salary 
or otherwise, should cease." Pursuant to 
these resolutions, and in compliance with the 
directions of the Continental Congress, 
Franklin was arrested and sent to Connecti- 
cut, where he remained a prisoner until the 
end of the war, when he sailed for England. 
He resided in that country until his death, 
enjoying a pension from the Engli>li govern- 
ment. 

The Congress which met in June had 
been elected in pursuance of the resolution 
adopted l>y its predecessor on March 2, 1776, 
"that there be a new choice of deputies to 
serve in Provincial Congress for every 
county of this colony on the fourth Monday 
in May, yearly and every year." Thus was 
established regular annual elections of depu- 
ties instead of the special elections called, as 
they had previously been, at the pleasure of 
Congress. Gloucester County elected as 
delegates John Sparks, John Cooper, P^lijah 
Clark, Joseph Hugg and Joseph Ellis. The 
Congress convened on June 11, 1776, at 
Burlington, with sixty-five members, five 
from each of the thirteen counties. On June 
28th there was submitted "a petition fi'om the 
officers of the militia of Gloucester, appointed 
to raise men for the Continental service to 
reinforce the troops now in New York, set- 
ting forth that fifteen shillings a week is not 
sufficient to defray their expenses in enlist- 
ing said men, and requesting that this Con- 
gress would make such further allowance as 
may be reasonable and necessary.'" 

Adoi'tion of the Fir'^t State Cox- 
STiTUTiox. — The Continental Congress, on 
May 10th, recommended to the Assemblies 
aud conventions of the colonies to adopt such 
governments as should, in the opinion of the 
representatives of the people, best conduce to 
the happiness and safety of their constituents 
in particular aud jVmerica in general. The 
preamble declared that every kind of govern- 
ment under the (-rown should be suppressed. 



THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTIOX. 



45 



On the "iltli tlic New Jersey Congress ap- 
pointi'd Messrs. (ii-eeii, Cooper, Sergeant, 
Elmer, Ogden, Hnglies, Covenlioven, 
Synuiies, Condict and Dick to prepare a 
draught of a Constitution, which was reported 
on the 26tii and adopted on July 2d, two 
days before the Declaration of Independence 
l»y the Continental Congress. In the pre- 
amble to that document it was declared 

" Th;U all ;iuthority claimed by the King of 
Great Britain over the colonies was by eonipaet 
derived from the people and held of them for 
the common interests of the whole society ; 

"That allegiance and protection are in the 
nature of things reciprocal ties, each ecjually de- 
pending on the other and liable to be dissolved 
by the other being refused or withdrawn ; 

"That the King of Great Britain has refused 
protection to the good people of these colonies by 
assenting to sundry acts of Parliament, has made 
war upon them for no other cause than asserting 
their just rights; hence all civil authority under 
him is necessarily at an end, and a dissolution of 
government has taken place. And also the more 
effectually to unite the people and to enable them 
to exert their whole force in their own necessary 
defense; and as the honorable, the Continental 
Congress, the supreme council of the American 
Colonies, has advised us to adopt such government 
as will best conduce to our happiness and safety, 
and the well-being of America generally ; 

" We, the representatives of the colony of New 
Jersey, having been elected by all the counties in 
the freest manner, and in Congress assembled, 
have, after mature deliberation, agreed upon a 
set of charter rights and tlie form of a Consti- 
tution." 

Tiiis Constitution fell somewhat short of a 
full assertion of independence, and contained 
a clause providing that if a reconciliation 
should take place between Great Britain and 
her colonies, the instrument should become 
null and void. Gordon, in his " History of 
New Jersey," attributes the introduction of 
this clause to the influence of Samuel Tucker, 
j>resident of the Congress. He says, " The 
doors of retreat were kejtt open by the fears 
of the President, who, a few months af'tci', 
claimed the clonuMU'v of tiic enemy, witii 
whom this clause trave him an interest." 



By this instrument (lie government was 
vested in a Governor, JiCgislutive Council and 
General Assembly. The Council and Assem- 
bly were to be chosen yearly by the people, 
and they were in joint convention to annu- 
ally elect the Governor. On July 17th the 
New Jersey Congress ratified the Declaration 
of Independence pronnilgated at Philadel- 
phia, and on the next day it changed its own 
name to that of " The Convention of the State 
of New Jersey." An election for a Legisla- 
tive Council and an Assembly was held on 
the second Tuesday of August, 1 770, and the 
members convened at I'rincetou on August 
27th. In the Council, Gloucester was rep- 
resented by John Cooper, and in the House 
by Richard Somers and Robert F. Price. 
William Livingston was elected the first Gov- 
ernor under the new Constitution. The Leg- 
islature succeeded to the powers and functions 
of the Provincial Congress and the Conven- 
tion of the State of New Jersey, and contin- 
ued to exercise those powers and functions as 
a permanent body. 

New Jersey AS THE Seat of War. — 
The movement of the British array, under 
command of General Howe, from Boston, by 
way of Halifax, to the vicinity of New York, 
the route of Washington's forces at the battle 
of Long Island, August 27, 1776, the evac- 
uation of New York by the Americans and 
the capture of Fort Washington, ou the Hud- 
son, by the British on November 15th — these 
were the events which led to Washington's 
retreat into New Jersey. With his dimin- 
ished columns he fell back to New Bruns- 
wick, where he hoped to make a stand ; but 
the terms of the New Jersey and Maryland 
Brigades and the Pennsylvania Flying Camp 
were about expiring, and neither arguments 
nor threats could prevent the men from dis- 
banding and returning to their homes. The 
remnant of the army, with Lord Coi-nwallis 
liaras.sing its rear, arrived at Princeton on 
December 1st, and thence ])assed on to Tren- 
ton, where it crossed the Delaware into Pcnu- 



46 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



svlvania on tlie Stii. Ueiiifoi'cwl \i\ 8iilliv;ui 
and Gates, Washington recmssed tlu' Dela- 
ware on Cliristmas night and effected the 
surprise and defeat of Colonel Rahl's Jles- 
sian contingent of the Britisli forces. 

Although after the Trenton victory the 
American commander retired to his strong 
position on tiie Delaware shore, he had by no 
means relin<juished his ambition to repossess 
Western New Jersey, and at once began jirep- 
arations for a second expedition. He again 
marched to Trenton on December 30th. Gen- 
eral Maxwell, who on the retreat through the 
State had been left at Morristown witli his 
brigade, including the Gloucester troops, was 
ordered to advance through New Brunswick, 
as if threatening: an attack, and harass all 




president's chair and rui. dlsk icdn \\hi('h 

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 
WAS SIGNED. 

the contiguous posts of the enemy as much as 
po.ssible. On the night of January 2, 1777, 
Washington, after the skirmish on Assanpink 
Creek, swung round the British flank to the 
rear, reached Princeton at earl}' dawu of the 
3rd, defeated and dispersed Colonel I\Iaw- 
hood's force of three regiments, and was safe 
among the hills of the Upper Raritan while 
Coruwallis was lumbering along in an inef- 
fectual pursuit. He had to mourn the lo.ss of 
the gallant General Mercer, who fell in the 
first assault at Princeton, and whose body 
bore the marks of sixteen British bayonet 
wounds. 

Washington's brilliant achievements were 



nee<led to revive the jwtriotic spirit of New 
Jersey, which previously had been fast suc- 
cumbing to the advance of the foe. Howe 
had offered pardon and protection to all who 
would abandon the national cause and renew 
their allegiance to the King. Until Washing- 
ton rolled back the tide of disaster, more 
than two hundred people within the State 
were daily abjuring their loyalty to the 
American government. "The two Jersey 
I'cgiments," M'rites CJordon, " which had 
l)een forwarded by General Gates under 
General St. Clair, went off to a man the 
moment they entered their own State." The 
I^egislature had moved from Princeton to 
Burlington, and thence to Pittstown and 
Haddonfield, where it dissolved on December 
2, 1776. Samuel Tucker, chairman of the 
Committee of Safety, treasurer and judge of 
the Supreme Court, vacated his offices and 
swore fealty to the crown. The whole num- 
l)er of the people of New Jersey who took 
advantage of Howe's proclamation is stated 
at two thousand seven hundred and three. 
But the victories of Trenton and Princeton 
lightened up the gloomy horizon ; citizens 
found that Howe's protections did not save 
them from the depredations of the Hessian 
soldiery, who overran the State and spared 
neith(U'age nor sex from outrage and ])lunder ; 
what the earnest recommendations of Con- 
gress, the zealous exertions of Governor Liv- 
ingston and the ardent supplications of 
Washington could not effect, was produced 
l)V the rapine and devastiitions of the Royal 
forces. The whole coiuitry became instantly 
hostile to the invaders, and sufferers of all 
parties rose as one man to avenge their per- 
sonal injuries. With his quick insight, 
Washington i)ereeived that this was the 
moment for the recovery of New Jersey. 
From his headquarters at Morristown lie 
issued, on January 25, 1777, a proclamation 
giving all j)ers()ns who had accepted ]}ritish 
protection thirty days in which to re])air to 
the nearest headquarters of the Continental 



TIIK WAR OF THE RKVOLUTIOX. 



47 



service, and llieii to siirri'iidcr tlieir papers 
and receive full pardon for their i)Mst olleiises. 
'J'lie aiteruative offered them was to retire 
with their families within the Britisli lines 
or be regarded a.s adherents of the King of 
(ireat Britain and enemies of their eountrv. 
The result was most satisfaetory. Hundreds 
of timid inhal)itants renewed their allegian('e 
to America, the most dangerous Tories were 
driven out and the army was largely in- 
creased by volunteers and by the return of 
many of its veterans who had deserted dur- 
ing the dark day? of the previous November 
and r)ecember. 

The American army moved to 
the neighborhood of Bound Brook 
on May 28, 1777, and on June 
1 Jth the British retreated towards 
Amboy, but hurried back from 
thence with the expectation of :i' 
tacking Washington at Quibbl. 
town (Newmarket), where he ha<l 
taken up his position. At Wo( " 1 
bridge, on June 20th, Lord Corn 
wallis drove back Morgan's Iv.in 
gers and Stirling's troops, In 
tliev held them in cheek long 
enough to permit Washington to 
retire to his stronghold near Bound 
Brook, he being too weak to 
undertake battle in the open field. The 
ISiitish returned to Amboy, \vhere they 
crossed to Staten Island ; and during the 
remainder of the war New Jei'sey was not 
again so completely overrun with marauders 
and British troops, although many parties 
entei'ed it for pillage from hostile camps in 
adjoining States. Washington crossed the 
Delaware to Philadel[)hia ; Howe took his 
army around by water from New York to 
l'iiiladel|)hia by way of the Chesapeake anil 
the Klk Kiver; and by defeating Washing- 
ton at the Brandy wine, on September lltli, 
and at ( iermantown, on October 24th, he se- 
cured po-sessioii of l*hiladelj)liia forthewinter 
that the |iatrints .-pent at N'alley Foi-ge. 



In September, 1777, Continental C'ongress 
moved from Phiiadel]ihia to the town of 
York, I'a., where for the nine succeeding 
months, until June of 177.S, that historic 
band of patriots held their deliberations, 
when, upon the retreat of the British across 
New Jersey, they returned to I'hiladelphia. 

The Battle ok Red Bank. — The first 
engagements of the Revolution fought upon 
the soil of Gloucester County w-ere the bat- 
tle of Red Bank, October 22, 1777, and the 
skirmish at Billingsport, which jtreceded it 
bv a few days. For the protection of the 
l)claware, the Americans had liuilt Fort 




iNDEPE.NDE.xei: UALL, iiui-Aiij:i-riiiA, IN !,,(;. 



Mifflin, a strong redoubt, with i|uite exten- 
sive outworks, on the marshy island on tiie 
Pennsylvania side, just below the mouth of 
the Schuylkill. Foi-t Mercer, an ci|nally 
good work, was ])laced on high gi-oinid at 
Red Bank, on the New Jersey shore, and in 
the river channels, under <over of the fiic of 
the batteries, were sind< ranges of strong 
frames with ii-on-pointed wooden spikc^s, 
which were calculated to be impassable to 
vessels. At Billingsport, tiiree miles Ix'iow, 
on the New Jersey side, a tiiird fort was erect- 
ed, and the channel between it and Uillings' 
Island was again closed by r/ifraiix-df-fr/Kr. 
'i'o clear the wav for his licet and liir the 
entrance of supplies into I'hiiadelphia, it wa.> 



48 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



necessary for Howe to open the river, and he 
accordingly ordered Captain Hammond, with 
the frigate " Roebuck " and several other 
vessels, around from the Chesapeake. Ar- 
riving in the stream below Billingsport, 
Hammond reconnoitered and came to the 
conclusion that he might force a passage 
through the obstructions if a land force 
would engage the fort. The scheme seemed 
feasible to Howe, and he detailed to execute 
it, two regiments of infantry, nnder Colonel 
Stirling. Crossing the river from Chester, 
Stirling fell furiously upon the inferior gar- 
rison of the fort, which was not fiuished, 
who spiked their cannon, set fire to their 
barracks and fled in disuiay. The English 




FORT Mirri.IN 

■inui-rn-ilimbt, li h h i lnj^h li\ 



l.ilill. 1..V M.MitivMor, witli indeliUtlon^ uhcii Hit wilillei-sl..iilL 1 lli.'ir 
kettloB (this Willi was piorceJ Willi louii-hoU s tm luinketij) , c i: c c 
hlock-limise, Imilt iif wood, with loop-lioks mv\ mounting four 
l.iwi'Snf i5iiinnn cildl, two on the lonoi pUtfonn , d rf ti b H uu:ks ; 
'' . .■ Htiitkuili-a ; /// trosil i& Loup , g g luMi-es On the south siile 
were two-story pieces of battery, mounting three ciinuon. 

(■(iin|)lctcd the d('in(i]i(i<iii of the works, while 
(';i|itain ilaiiiiiKiiul made a passage through 
tlic (ilistriictioiis wide eiiuugli to permit the 
s(|u;uli'iiii of six iiicii-of-war to sail tiirough 
and up to H.tg Island, where tliey anchored. 
Lossing's " Fieid-Bt)ok of the Revolu- 
tion," .say.s, — 

" Howe iiowdetunuiiicd Lo make a general sweep 
i)f' all the Ainerieati works on the Delaware, and 
lircparatory therulu he called in his oiitpo.sts, and 



concentrated his whole army near to and within 
Philadelphia. Two Rhode Island regiments, be- 
longing to General Varnum's brigade, under Col- 
onel Christopher Greene, garrisoned the fort at 
Red Bank, and about the same number of the 
Maryland Line, under Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel 
Smith, occupied Fort MitHin. The American 
fleet, consisting chiefly of galleys and floating 
batteries, was commanded by Commodore Hazel- 
wood. It was quite as important to the Ameri- 
cans to maintain these forts and defend the river 
obstructions as it was to the British to destroy 
them. It was, therefore, determined to liold them 
to the last extremity, for it was evident that such 
continued possession would force Howe to evacu- 
ate Philadelphia." 

Washington's letter of instructions to Col- 
onel Greene, dated (Mober 7, 1777, displays 
his solicitude that Fort Mei'cer should be 
held. He wrote, — 

" I have directed General Varnum to send your 
regiment and thatof Colonel Angell to Red Bank by 
a route which has been marked out to him. The 
commaudofthatdctachment will, of course, devolve 
upon you, with which you will proceed with all ex- 
pedition and throw yourself into that place. When 
you arrive there you will immediately communicate 
to Cidonel Smith, commander of ihegarrison at Fort 
^litfliu, and Commodore Hazehvood, commander 
of the fleet in the river. You are to co-o[i#rate 
with them in every measure necessary for the 
defense of the obstructions in the river, and to 
counteract every attempt the enemy may make for 
their removal. You will find a very good ibrtitiea- 
tion at Red Bank; but if anything should he 
requisite to render it stronger, or ])roportioii it to 
ihesizeofyourgarrison, you will havcit done. The 
cannon you will stand in need of, as much as can be 
spared, will be furnished from the galleys at Fort 
Mifflin, from whence you will also derive supplies 
of military stores. I have sent Captain Duplessis, 
with some ollicurs and men, to take the innnediate 
direction of the artillery for your garrison. He is 
also to superintend any works that may be neces- 
sary. If there be any deficiency of the men for 
the artillery, the security of the garrison will 
require you to assist them in the few additional 
ones from your detachment. You should not lose 
a moment's time in getting to the place of your 
(Kstiiuitioii and making every preparation for it.-> 
defense. Any delay might give the enemy an 
opporliniity of getting there before you, which 
could not fail of beiiiir mo.'it fatal in its conse- 



THE WAR OF THE REYOLrTTON. 



49 



f|uences. Ft' in the progress of your marcli yon 
should fall in with any detachment of the enemy, 
bending towards the same object and likely t(i 
gain it before you, and from intelligence sho\ild 
have reason to think yourself equal to the task, 
you will by all means attack them and endeavor by 
that means to disappoint their design. 

" I have written to General Newcomb, of the 
.Jersey militia, to give you all the aid in his jiower, 
for which yon will accordingly apply, when neces- 
sary. Upon the whole, sir, you will be pleased to 
remember that the post with which you are now 
intrusted is of the utmost importance to America 
and demands every exertion of which you are 
capable for its security and defense. The whole 
ilefense of the Delaware absolutely depends upon 
it ; consequently all the enemy's hope of keeping 
Philadelphia and finally succeeding in the object 
of the present campaign." 



was an elder among Friends, yet the url)anity an<l 
politeness of the German soldier so won upon him 
that he was kindly remembered ever after. The 
inhabitants, however, suffered much from the dep- 
redations of the common soldiers, who wantonly 
destroyed their property and endangered their 
lives. The presence of an officer in a house was a 
protection against them, and every family sought 
out rme, with the promise of good entertainment 
without cost, that it might be saved from destruc- 
tion. These troops regarded the American people 
as semi-barbarous, and that to destroy their prop- 
erty was nothing more than they deserved. . . . 
The sad defeat that attended theui, and the death 
of their commanding officer, completely demoral- 
ized them and they returned in detached bodies, 
begging shelter and food of those they had so illy 
treated. The transportation of the wounded 
can.sed much trouble, ami as a detachment ap- 




Howe entrusted the capture of Fort Mer- 
cer to ( 'ount Donop, a Hessian officer in tlie 
British service, and gave him four battalions, 
comprising twenty-five hundred H&ssian vet- 
erans. They crossed the Delaware at C'oop- 
ers Ferry on October 21st, and inarched that 
evening to Haddonfield. 

Judge Clement says, in his '' Revolution- 
ary Reminiscences of Camden County," — 

" The last encampment of the Hessian troops 
under Count Donop, before the battle of Red Bank, 
was in Haddonfield. It was across the street, near 
the residence of John Gill (where now stands the 
residence of the late .John Gill, Esq.), extending 
some distance into the fields. In this house Do- 
nop had his head(|Uarters, and although tin- owner 



proached Haddonfield a farmer living near the 
road was, with his horse and cart, pressed into the 
service to carry some that were unable to walk 
further. The appearance of armed men so terri- 
fied the farmer that he neglected to fasten down 
the front part of his vehicle, and when rising a 
hill near the village, the weight of the men was 
thrown on the back of the cart, and all were pitched 
headlong into the road. The swearing of the sol- 
diers in German, and the protestations of the farmer 
in English, made things no belter ; but after many 
threats the vehicle was properly secured and the 
journey completed, much, no doubt, to the comfort 
of all concerned. Becoming better acquainted 
with the people, and finding the country nuich in 
need of settlers, many (Hessians) deserted and re- 
mained, afterwards becoming thrifty people and 
good citizens." 

Before daylight on the morning of the 
22d the Hessians left Haddonfield, but as 
the .\ni<'rican pickets had destroyed the 



50 



HIBTOEY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



lower bridge over Tiral)er C'reek, they were 
obliged to cross four miles above, at the pres- 
ent Clement's bridge, and, because of this de- 
lay, were not in front of Fort Mercer until 
near noon.' Donop halted his command on 
the edge of the woods to the north of the 
fort and sent forward an officer with a flag 
and a drummer, who summoned the garrison 
to surrender. " The King of England," he 
proclaimed, " orders his rebellious subjects 
to lay down their arms, and they are warned, 
that if they stand the battle, no quarters 
whatever will be given." This threat of the 
massacre of vounded and prisoners did not 
daunt the Americans, Colonel (Jreene reply- 
ing: " We ask no quarters, nor will we give 
any." On the receipt of this defiant answer, 
they hastily threw up an earthwork within 
half cannon-shot of Fort Mercer, and at a 
quarter before five o'clock advanced a battal- 
ion on the north front under cover of a brisk 
artillery fire. Reaching the first entrench- 
ment, which they found abandoned, but not 

' The Marquis de Chastellux, the author of " Travels 
in North America,'' visited Fort Mercer in company 
with General Lafayette and M. du Plessis Mauduit, the 
Duplessis mentioned in Washington's letter to Colonel 
Greene, who was a highly capable French engineer and 
artillerist. Chastellux wrote : " The bank of the Dela- 
ware at this place is steep ; but even this steepness al- 
lowed the enemy to approach the fort under cover and 
without being exposed to the fire of the batterie.^. To 
remedy this inconvenience, several galleys, armed with 
cannon and destined to defend the clieeaux-de-frise, 
were posted the whole length of the escarpment and 
took it in reverse. The Americans, little practiced in 
the art of fortifications, and always disposed to take 
works beyond their strength, had made those at Red 
Bank too extensive. When M. du Mauduit obtained 
permission to be sent thither by Colonel Greene, he im- 
mediately set about reducing the fortifications by inter- 
secting them from east to west, which transformed them 
into a large redoubt nearly of a pentagonal form. A 
good earthen rampart raised (o the height of the cor- 
don, a /o,'(.spand an abatis in front of the fosse consti- 
tuted the whole strength of this post, in which were 
placed three hundred men and fourteen pieces of can- 
non." The authors of the "New .Jersey Historical Col- 
lections" assert that a great portion of the garrison 
were negroes and mulattoes and all were in a ragged, 
destitute condition. 



destroyed, they imagined that they had driven 
the Americans away, and, waving their hats 
and with shouts of victory, rushed toward 
the redoubt, led by the officer and drummer 




FORT MERCER. 



70BT 



«ERCER, AT 1 



BANK. NKV 



References. 
L 'Knd of the tort at which the HeeaialiB entered, 
i. Small ditch, cross embankment and location of the mas^ked bat- 
tery. 
'. Remains of the liickory-tree used during the battle a« a flag staft. 
). Ruins of a brick wall in the middle of the artificial bank.— Rate- 

:. Count Donop'* grave. 
^ Louis Whitall's house, 
i. Monument, erected in 182'.t. 
\. Pieasure-houee. 

, Marks of the trenches in which the slain were deposited. 
V. Road the Hessians marched to the attack. — Reeve's old road. 
,. Tenant House, 
il. Road to Woodbury, 
s". Direclionof Fort Milllin. 
). Farm Road. 
NoTK. — The works represented extend al>i)ul il.''0 yarrls in ii right 



who had previously communicated with 
Greene under the flag of truce. According 
t(} the account given by the Marquis de 



THE WAR OF THK REVOLUTIOX. 



51 



C'liastellux, who received it from ]V[. du Pies- 
sis Maudtiit, " they had ah'eady reached the 
abatis and were endeavoring to tear up or 
cut away the branches wiien they were over- 
whelmed with a shower of musket-shot, 
which took them in front and flank ; for, as 
chance would have it, a part of the courtine 
of the old entrenchment, which had not been 
destroyed, formed a projection at this very 
part of the intersection." M. du Mauduit 
had contrived to form it into a sort of ca- 
poniere (or trench with loop-holes), into which 
he threw some men, who flanked the enemy's 
left and fired on them at close shot. Officers 
were seen every moment rallying their men, 
marching back to the abatis and falling 
amidst the branches they were endeavoring 
to cut. Colonel Donop was particularly dis- 
tinguished by the marks of the order he 
wore, by his handsome figure and by his 
courage. He was also seen to fall like the 
rest. The Hessians, repulsed by the fire of 
the redoubt, attempted to secure themselves 
by attacking on the side of the escarpment, 
but the fire from the galleys sent them back 
with a great loss of men. At length they 
relinquished the attack and regained the 
woods in disorder. 

" While this was passiug on the north side, an- 
other column made an attack on the south, and 
more fortunate than the other, passed the abattis, 
traversed the fosse and mounted the berm, but 
they were stopped by the fraue.s, and M. du Mau- 
duit running to this post as soon as he saw tiie 
tirst assailants give way, the others were obliged 
to follow their example. They still did not dare, 
however, to stir out of the fort, fearing a surprise, 
but M. du Mauduit, wishing to replace some pali- 
sades that had been torn up, he sallied out with a 
few men and was surprised to find about twenty 
Hessians standing on the berm and stuck up 
against the shelf of the parapet. These soldiers, 
who had been bold enough to advance thus far — 
sensible that there was more risk in returning 
and not thinking proper to expose themselves — 
were taken and brought into the fort. M. du 
Mauduit . . . again sallied out with a detach- 
ment, and It was then that he beheld the deplora- 
ble spectacle of the dead and dying heaped oue 



upon another. A voice arose from these carcases 
and said in English : ' Whoever you are, draw me 
hence.' It was the voice of (colonel Donop. M. 
du Mauduit made the soldiers lift him U|) and 
carry him into the fort, where he was soon known. 
He had his hiji broken, but whether they did not 
consider his wound a-s mortal, or that they were 
heated by the battle and still irritated at the men- 
aces thrown out against them a few hours before, 
the Americans could not help saying aloud, ' Well, 
is it determined to give no quarter?' ' I am in 
your hands,' replied the colonel. ' Vou may re- 
venge yourselves.' M. du Mauduit had no diffi- 
culty in imposing silence and employed himself 
only in taking care of the wounded officer. The 
latter, perceiving he spoke bad English, said to 
him : ' You appear to me a foreigner, sir ; who are 
you?' ' A French officer,' replied the other. 'Je 
suis content,' said Donop, making use of our lan- 
guage, ' Je meurs entre les mains de I'honneur 
meme ' (I am content ; I die in the hands of 
honor itself)" 

Donop was first taken to the Wliitall' res- 
idence, just below the fort, and afterwards to 
the home of the Lowes, south of Woodbury 
Creek, where he died three days after the 
battle, saying to M. du Mauduit in his last 
moments : " It is finishing a noble career 
early ; but 1 die the victiiu of my ambition 
and the avarice of my sovereign." To Col- 
onel Clymer he said : " See in me the vanity 
of all human pride ! I have shone in all the 
courts of Europe, and uow 1 am dying here 

' Mickle iintl Lossing insist on the trutb of the aiieu- 
ilote concerning Mrs. .Ann Whitall. It runs that when 
the battle begun she was spinning in an upper room of 
the house. She had refused to leave it. Presently a 
shot from one of the British vessels crashed through 
the wall and lodged in a partition near where she was 
sitting, whereupon she carefully removed her wheel to 
the cellar and continued at her work until the wounded 
were brought to the house and she was called upon lu 
attend thenj. The Whitalls were Friends and their 
peace doctrines were incomprehensible to Du Mauduit. 
He thought jMr. Whitall was a Tory and therefore or- 
dered his barn torn down and his oi'chard destroyed. 
The old house stands a short distance south from the fort 
and close to the river-bank. It is a brick structure, 
and is now one hundred and thirty-eight years old, as 
appears from the dale of its erection cut in the north 
end, where the characters "J. A. W." (.lames and 
Anna Whitall) may still be seen. 



52 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



on tlie banks of the Delaware in the house 
of an obscure Quaker." 

The loss of the Americans was fourteen 
killed, twenty-seven woundcil and a captain 
taken prisoner while reconnoitering. Some 
of these casualties were due to the burstinu; 
of a cannon in the fort. The Hessians lost 
Lieutenant-Colonel Mingrode, three captains, 
four lieutenants and near seventy privates 
killed, and Count Donop, his brigade-major, 
a captain, lieutenant and upwards of seventy 
non-commissioned officers and privates wound- 
ed and made prisoners. The Hessians' slain 
were buried in the fosse south of the fort. 
Count Donop was interred near the spot 
where he fell and a stone placed over him witii 



(then ill the British service), at Red Bank, on tlie 
22d Octo., 1777. Among the wounded was found 
their commander, Count Donop, who died of his 
wounds and whose body lies interred near tlie spot 
where he fell." 

This is the inscription on the we.st side, — • 

" A number of the New Jersey and Pennsylva- 
nia Volunteers, being desirous to perpetuate the 
memory of the distinguished officers and soldiere 
who fought and bled in the glorious struggle for 
American Independence, have erected this monu- 
ment on the 22d day of Octo., a.d. 1829." 

After their overwiielmiug repulse the Hes- 
sians retreated hastily towards Coopers Fer- 
ry. The main body went by way of Clem- 
ent's Bridge, .some by way of Blackwood- 
towii, and .some by Chews Lauding, near 




MTD ISL.iND, 17 



the iu.scription, ''Here lies liuricd ( 'ount 
Donop." 

Greene's defense of the fort was highly ap- 
plauded and Congress ordered the Board of 
War to present him with a handsome sword, 
which was sent to his family after the War, 
he having been murdered b)- Tory dragoons 
under Colonel Delaucy at hi.s quarters near 
Crotou River, Westchester County, N. Y. 
( )n the anniversary of the battle of Red 
Bank in 1829 a marble monument, which 
had been erected by the contributions of New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania Volunteers, was 
unveiled within the northern line of the out- 
works of the fort and within a few feet oi' 
the margin of the Delaware. On it.^ soutli 
side was inscribed, — 

"This mouunient was erected on the 22d Octo.. 
1829, to transmit to Posterity a grateful remem- 
brance of llie Patriotism and gallantry of Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Christopher Greene, who, with 401) 
men, conquered the Hessian army of 20U0 troops 



where, it is slated on tlie aiilliority of Miekle, 
they were met by a company of farmere' 
boys and held at bay for some time. This 
detachment had with them a brass cannon, . 
which they are supposed to have thrown into /I 
Timber C)reek at Clement's Bridge. ^y 

Judge Clement has recently made the fol- 
lowing addition to his reminiscences : 

"Martin Cox, a blacksmith, who plied his call- 
ing at Chews l^anding, was an euthusiastic Whig, 
and repaired the various arms used by the soldiers. 
The day of the battle of Red Bank he started for 
the fort to return a number of muskets to the 
troops of that place, but finding that he could 
not reach there by reason of the advance guard of 
the Hessians, he buried them near by. He did 
not return al'ler the battle, and they were left in 
the ground where he had placed them for many 
years, and a tradition in his family explains the 
cause of their being there when found." 

l''rom a brief mention made by Miekle, it 
appears that in their march on Fort Mercer 
the Hessians were guided by some country- 



THE WAK OF THE REVOLrTlON'. 



53 



men, who were afterwards Icart'iilly imnisliwl 
tor tlieir treaeliery to America. He writes, — 

" Donop pressed several peisons whom he found 
along the route into his service as pilots, amiinj; 
whom was a negro belonging to the Cooper family, 
called Old Mitch, who was at work by the Cooper's 
Creek bridge. A negro named Dick, belonging to 
the gallant Colonel Ellis, and an infamous white 
scoundrel named Mcllvaine, volunteered their 
services as guides. At the bar of the Haddonfield 
tavern these loyal fellows were very loud in their 
abuse of the American cause; but their insolence, 
as we shall see, was soon repaid. . . . Dick and 
Mcllvaine, the guides, having been taken prison- 
ers by the Americans, were immediately hung 
within the fort for divers outrages which they had 
committed. Old Mitch, the other pilot, lived until 
recently (1845) to tell to groups of admiring Cam- 
den boys how terribly he was scared in this mem- 
orable fight. Resolved not to bear arms against 
his country, and being afraid to run away, he got 
behind a hay-rick when the battle began, and lay 
there flat on the ground until it was over." 

Mickle is a usually reliable chronicler, but 
there is no record to substantiate his state- 
ment as to the execution of Dick and Mc- 
llvaine. 

FoRT^! Mercei! .\nii Mifflin Ah.\.\- 
1K)NED. — Waiting uear Hog Island for the 
signal-gun of Donop's attack were the Brit- 
ish sixty-four-gun ship, the " Augusta," the 
" Roebuck " and two other frigates, the .sloop 
" Merlin " and a galley. When that gun w^as 
tired they stood up the river with the inten- 
tion of cannonading the American positions, 
l)Ut were held back by the stubborn fire of 
Hazlewood's little squadron. The next morn- 
ing the battle was renewed, the British and 
American fieets and Forts Mifflin and Mer- 
cer all taking part. The British commander 
aimed to woi'k his floating batteries into the 
channel between Mud (Fort) Island and the 
Pennsylvania shore, in order to shell Mifflin 
from its rear, but each effort was thwarted by 
the vigilance and the effective great gun ser- 
vice of the patriots. By noon the enemy found 
that it was impo.ssible to force tlie passage of 
(he river by direct assault, and made prejtara- 
tions to retire. A hot sliot had jjierccd the 



" Augusta " and set lier on lire. Becoming un- 
manageable, siie drifted towards the Xew 
Jersey sliore and went hard and fast aground, 
lier siiip's company escaping to the other ves- 
sels. When tlie flames reached her magazine 
she blew up. The " ]\Ierlin " met with preciselv 
the same fate, and at three o'clock l)lew uj) 
near the mouth of Mud Creek. The " Roe- 
btiek " and her remaining consorts then gave 
up the fight and left the Americans tiie pres- 
ent masters of the Delaware. 

But becau.se the river was the only avenue 
through whicli Howe could be certain of re- 
ceiving supplies in Philadelphia, he again .set 
to work to open it for his ships. By Novem- 
ber 1st he had erected on Province Island, 
a low mud bank between Fort Mifflin and 
the Pennsylvania shore, five batteries of 
heavy guns. On this side Fort Mifflin had 
only a wet ditch without ravelin or abatis, 
and a weak block-house at each of the angles. 
Tlie British ahso brought to bear upon the 
fort four sixty-four-gun ships and two forty- 
gun ships, besides a floating battery of 
twenty- two twenty-four pounders, which was 
moved within forty vards of an angle of the 
fort. Lossiug gives the following narrative 
of the Irombardment that followed : 

"On the 10th of November the enemy opened 
their batteries on land and water, and for six con- 
secutive days poured a storm of liombs and round 
shot upon the devoted fortification. .With con- 
summate skill and courage, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Smith directed the responses from the ordnance of 
the fort. The artillery, drawn chiefly from Colonel 
liamb's regiment, were commanded by Lieutenant 
Treat, who was killed on the first day of the siege 
by the bursting of a bomb. On that day the bar- 
r.acks alone suffered, hut on the morning of the 
1 1 th the direction of the enemy's fire was changed ; 
a dozen of the strong palisades were demolished 
and a cannon in an embrasure was disabled. The 
firing did not cease until midnight and many of the 
garrison were killed or wounded. Colonel Smith, 
the conunander, had a narrow escape. He had just 
gone into the barracks to write a letter to tJeneral 
N'arnum when a ball passed through the chimney. 
He was struck by the scattered bricks ami for a 
lime lav senseless. He was taken across to Red 



54 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Bank, and the coniiiiaud devolved upon Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Russell, of the Connecticut Line. 
That officer \va.s disabled by fatigue and ill health, 
and Major Thayer, of the Rhode Island Line, 
volunteered to take his place. Major Henry, who 
sent daily reports to Washington of the progress of 
the siege, was also wounded on the 11th, but he 
continued with the garrison. On the 12th a two- 
gun battery of the Americans was destroyed, the 
northwest block-house and laboratory were blown 
up, and the garrison were obliged to seek shelter 
within the fort. At sunrise on the 13th thirty 
armed boats made their appearance, and during 
that night the heavy floating battery was brought 
to bear on the fort. It opened with terrible effect 
on the morning of the 14th, yet that little garrison 
of 300 men managed to silence it before noon. 

"Hitherto the enemy did not know the real 
weakness of the garrison ; on that day a deserter in 
a boat carried information of that fact to the 
British, who were seriously thinking of abandon- 
ing the siege, for they had suffered much. Hope 
was revived and preparations were made for a 
general and more vigorous assault. At daylight 
on the 15th the 'Iris' and ' Somerset,' men-of-war, 
passed up the east channel to attack the fort in 
front. Several frigates were brought to bear on 
Fort Mercer, and the ' Vigilant,' an East Indiaman 
of twenty twenty-four pounders, and a hulk with 
three twenty-four pounders made their way 
through a narrow channel on the western side and 
gained a position to act in concert with the bat- 
teries on Province Island in enfilading the Ameri- 
can works. At ten o'clock, while all was silent, a 
signal bugle sent forth its summons to action, and 
instantly the land batteries and the shipping 
poured forth a terrible storm of missiles upon Fort 
Mifflin. The little garrison sustained the shock 
with astonishing intrepidity, and far into the gloom 
of the evening an incessant cannonade was kept 
up. Within an hour the only two cannons in the 
fort that had not been dismounted shared the fate 
of the others. Every man who appeared on the 
platform wa.s killed by the musketeers in the tops 
of the ships, whose yards almost hung over the 
American battery. Long before night not a pali- 
sade was left; the embrasures were ruined; the 
whole parapet leveled; the blockhouses were 
already destroyed. Early in the evening Major 
Thayer sent all the remnant of the garrison to Red 
Bank, excepting forty men, with whom he re- 
mained. Among these was the brave Captain 
(afterwards Commodore) Talbot, of the Rliode 
Island Line, who was wounded in the hip, having 
fought for hours with his wrist shattered bv a mus- 



ket-ball. At midnight, every defence and every 
shelter being swept away, Thayer and his men set 
fire to the remains of the barracks, evacuated the 
fort and escaped in safety to Red Bank. Altogether, 
it was one of the most gallant and obstinate de- 
fences made during the war. In the course of the 
last day more than a thousand discharges of can- 
non, from twelve to thirty-two pounders, were 
made against the works on Mud Island. Nearly 
250 men of the garrison were killed and wounded. 
The loss of the British was great ; the number was 
not certainly known." 

Wasliiugton, .shut up in liLs caiup al 
Whitemarsh, could not send a man to the 
defen.se of Fort Mifflin, but he was now able 
to detacli Huntington's brigade to join that 
of Varnuni in New Jersey, and ordered 
General Greene with his division to oppose 
Cornwallis, who had crossed the Delaware 
from Chester to Billingsport, on November 
I8th, to attack Fort Mercer. Greene cro.s.sed 
at Burlington and marched toward Red 
Bank, but as he was disappointed in his 
e.xpectation of being joined by Glover's bri- 
gade, and believing Cornwallis to be much 
superior to himself in numbers, he gave up 
the notion of a battle and marched off 
toward Haddonfield. Colonel Greene, thus 
abandoned to his fate, evacuated Fort Mercer 
on November 20th, leaving his artillery, 
ammunition and some stores for Cornwallis, 
who dismantled the fort and demolished the 
works. The latter received reinforcements 
until he had fully five thou.sand men, with 
whom he took position at Gloucester Point. 
Morgan's rifle corps joined General Greene, 
but the Americans were not strong enough 
to venture a regular attack on the enemy. 
The American fleet, no longer supported by 
the forts, sought other places of safety. On 
the night of November 2Ist the galleys, one 
brig and two sloops in the darkness stole 
cautiously along the Jersey shore past the 
Briti.sh guns and arrived at Burlington in 
safety. Seventeen other craft wore aban- 
doned by their crews and burned to the 
water's edge at Gloucester. The enemy were 
in unvexed ijossessitjn uf the Delaware from 



THE WAE OF THF- BEVOLTTTTON. 



55 



Pliihulelphia to the owan. In 1872 the 
United States governmeut purchased a hun- 
dred acres of the river front at Red Baid<, 
and since then the vestiges of the enibank- 
uients and trenches of Fort Mercer have 
been preserved. 

Skirmishes Around Glouckster. — 
Both General Greene and Lord Cornwailis 
retired from tlie Gloucester vicinage early in 
the winter, but before they did so some very 
interesting incidents occurred there and 
about Haddonfield, which are graphically 
described by Isaac Mickle and Judge 
< "lenient. 

On the evening of November 25, 1777, 
General Lafayette, notwithstanding that he 
was suffering from an unclosed wound, came 
out from Greene's camp at Haddonfield with 
the intention of reconnoitering Cornwailis. 
His zeal carried him close up to the British 
lines, upon the sandy peninsula south of the 
outlet of Timber Creek, and he was pursued 
by a squad of dragoons. He reported the 
encounter to Washington in the subjoined 
language : 

"After having spent the most pari of the day in 
iiiakiug myself well acquainted with the certainty 
of the enemy's motions, I came pretty late into 
the Gloucester road between the two creeks. I 
had ten light horse, almost one hundred and fifty 
riHeraen and two pickets of militia. Colonel 
Armand, Colonel Launioy and Chevaliers Du- 
plessis and Gimat were the Frenchmen with me. 
A scout of men under Duplessis went to ascertain 
how near to Gloucester were the enemy's first 
pickets, and they found at the distance of two 
and a half miles from that place a strong post of 
three hundred and fifty Hessiaus with field-pieces, 
and they engaged immediately. .\s my little 
reconnoitering party were all in tine spirits, I 
supported them. We pushed the Hessians more 
than half a mile from the place where their main 
l)ody had been, and we made them run very fast. 
British reinforcements came twice to them, but 
very far from recovering their ground, they always 
retreated. The darkness of the niglit ])reveiited 
us from pursuing our advantage. After standing 
on the ground we had gained I ordered them to 
return very sli>wly to Haddonfield. I take great 
pleasure in JettiMg yon know that tin- rondurt of 



our soldiers was above all praise. I never .saw 
men so merry, so spirited and so desirous to go on 
to the enemy, wh.atever force they might have, a,< 
that small party in this little fight." 

Tt was on this occasion that Morgan's 
Rangers drew from Lafayette the notable 
compliment: "I found them even above 
their reputation." They were commanded 
by Lieutenant-Colonel Butler. The Ameri- 
cans had onl}' one man killed and .six 
wounded, while the British lost about sixty 
in killed, wounded and prisoners. 

In the latter part of February, I77H, 
General Anthony Wayne came into Lower 
Jersey to gather cattle and hor.ses for the 
American army, and Howe dispatched 
Colonel Stirling with two battalions to 
im]>ede him. 

Major Simcoe, with the Queen's Rang- 
ers, a very efficient corps of Tories re- 
cruited in New York and Connecticut, 
occupied Haddonfield, while Slirling re- 
mained near Coopers Ferry with a reserve. 
Simcoe occupied the main street with his 
troojis, and .sent detachments to destroy 
some barrels of tar near 'limber C!reek and 
.seize a lot of rum on the Egg Harbor road 
east of the village. " Mad Anthony " quickly 
whirled his little command down toward 
the river from Mount Holly, and, in obedi- 
ence to Stirling's orders, Simcoe quitted 
Haddonfield by niglit in a storm of sleet 
and rain, and rejoined the reserve at (hoopers 
Ferry, with Wayne only a few miles distant. 
Mickle says, — 

"The ne.xt day (March 1st) a sliarp ' skirmish 
ensued between the Spicer's Ferry Bridge over 
Coopers Creek and the place where the Camden 
.\cademy now stands. Fifty British, picked out 
from the F^rty-secoud and the Rangers, having 
been sent three or four miles up the direct road to 
Haddonfield, for some remaining forage, were met 
by Wayne's cavalry and forced to retreat to the 
ferry. The Americans followed uj) to the verv 
cordon of the enemy. The British were drawn 
up in the following order : the Forty-second upon 
the right. Colonel Markham in the centre and the 
(iuei'u's Rangers upon the left, with their left flank 



56 



HISTORY OF rAATPRX COUNTY, NEW JERSEJ. 



resting upun r.ooi)ers Creek. Captain Kerr anrl 
Lieutenant Wickham were in the meanwliile em- 
Vjarking with their men to Philadelphia, and as the 
Americans seemed disposed only to reconnoitre, 
Colonel Markham's detachment and the horses also 
started across the river. Just then a barn within 
the cordon was fired, and the Americans, taking 
this as evidence that only a few stragglers were 
left upon the eastern shore, advanced and drove in 
the pickets. The Forty-second moved forward in 
line and the Rangers in column by companies, the 
sailors drawing some three-pound cannon. A few 
Americans appearing upon the Waterford side of 
Coopers Creek, Captain Armstrong, with a com- 
pany of Otrenadiers, was ordered to line a dyke on 
this side to watch them. 

" Upon the right, in the neighborhood ol' the 
Academy and the Hicksite Meeting-house, a heavy 
fire was kept up by the Forty-second upon the 
main body of the Americans, who were in the 
woods along the Haddonfield road. The Rangers 
on the left, toward the creek, only had to oppose 
a few scattered cavalry, who were reconnoitering. 
As Simcoe advanced rapidly to gain an eminence 
in front, which he conceived to be a strong and 
advantageous position,' the cavalry retired to the 
woods, except on officer, who reined back his horse 
and facing the Rangers as they dashed on, slowly 
waved his sword for his attendants to retreat. The 
English Light Infantry came within fifty yards of 
him, when one of them called out ' you are a brave 
fellow, but you must go away ? ' The undaunted 
officer paying no attention to the warning, one 
McGill, afterwards a quartermaster, was ordered to 
fire at him. He did so and wounded the horse, 
but the rider was unscathed and soon joined his 
comrades in the woods a little way otl." 

Tliis brave officer was ('ount Pulaski, wlio 
liad fommand of the cavalry. lu this skir- 
mish several ol" Simcoe's Rangers were 
wounded and Sergeant Moi'herson, of tiie 
Grenadiers, was killed. A cannonading was 
kept up from the eminence whidi Simcoe had 
occupied upon some of the Americans, wlio 
were removing the plank from C^ooper's 
Bridge, but it proved harmless. So persistent 
were the efforts of the Americans to drive 
their enemies away from ahoul Coopers 
Ferrv, that a .scries of cnlrcncliments was 

•About the crcssing oltlie I'aiiulon iiud Atliiutic iiml 
Camden ami Aniboy HailroiKls, formerly Dogwooiltowii. 



thrown u|), extending from the creek we.st- 
erly toward the river, and the timber there- 
abouts was so cut as to ol)struct the move- 
ments of troops coming from the interior. 
The position was also protec-ted by the can- 
non of vessels lying in the river, and tiius 
the British were saved from the abandon- 
ment of the place. 

While Wayne was posted in Haddonfield 
some of his men made a reconnoissance of the 
British at Gloucester, and were discovered and 
pursued by a superior force. A running 
fight ensued, which la.sted nearly from 
Gloucester Point to tlie American lines, but 
the British suffered much the greater loss. 
The most prominent man in this action on 
the American side was Colonel El^lis, of the 
Gloucester militia. Soon afterward the 
whole British force at Gloucester moved on 
Wayne at Haddonfield by night, but found 
only his empty quarters. 

On this occasion occurred the daring ex- 
ploit of Miles Sage, a vidette in Ellis' regi- 
ment, who, with a comrade named Ch^w, 
as stated by Judge Clement : 

" Detected the enemy's movements and rode in 
great haste to inform Colonel Ellis. Chew taking 
a shorter route and swimming his horse across 
Newton Creek, was the first to reach Haddonfield, 
and Ellis' regiment marched out just as the British 
marched in. The colonel was so corpulent that 
he fell behind his men, and but for the darkness of 
the night would have been taken prisoner. 

"The intelligence brought by Chew created 
great consternation in the town, and every precau- 
tion was taken to mislead the enemy by putting 
out the lights in the dwellings and the families 
retiring to bed. A colored servant in the family 
of Mrs. Abigail Blackwood, widow of Samuel 
Blackwood, then living in Tanner Street, 
was sent with the children to their room and 
strictly enjoined to extinguish the candle, '^n 
gratify her curiosity, however, she placed it on the 
window ledge, which attracted the attention of the 
soldiers, who at once surrounded the house. John 
Blackwood, n -son of the widow, then a lad, was 
captured, taken into the street and made to tell 
what he knew of Colonel Ellis and his regiment. 
While attempting, by the liglit of a few torches 
and surrounded by the excited soldiers, to show 



THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION. 



57 



the direction nf tlie lotreating lroO|>s, Miles Sage 
rode up and asked llie buy very much the same 
((uestion he was endeavoring to answer the others. 
His reply was that they liad koic 'some one 
way and some another.' At this moment Sage 
discovered that he was in the midst of British 
soldiers, who at the same time noticed that he 
was an American. 

"Sage at once put .spurs to his horse, rode 
hastily into the main street and towards the 
northerly part of the village. He was fired upon 
as he vanished in the darkness, but escaped until 
he reached the upi)er hotel, where his horse was 
wounded and he fell to the ground. Before Sage 
could disengage himself from the saddle he was 
attacked by the guard, stabbed in various places 
about his body, and left for dead in the street. By 
order of a Scotch officer he was carried into a 
small building on the north side of the street near 
the present Temperance House, where he was 
attended by a surgeon of the army." 

On examination it was found that lie iiad 
tiiirteen bayonet wounds, and he was put in 
the care of some women, one of whom became 
tlie mother of (xovernor Stratton. Being 
besougiit to prepare for death, he exclaimed : 
" Why, Martha, I mean to give the enemy 
tiiirteen rounds yet." He lived to tell iiis 
grandchildren of his perilous adventure. 

Siracoe had a narrow escape while halted 
at Haddonfield with his battalion. Says the 
same authority above given, — 

" On one occasion, while resting his horse near 
the brow of the hill, opjwsite the present residence 
of William Mann, Major Simcoe heard the whist- 
ling of a rifle ball near him and saw two persons 
on the opposite hill. He ordered Lieutenant 
Whitlock to take a few drigoons and capture 
them. These persons proved to be John Kain 
(brother of Joseph Hinchman's wife) and Benja- 
min Butler, two young men who secured the loan 
of a rifle of Joseph Collins (then living on the 
farm now owned by Logan Paul) for the purpose 
of hunting. They had proceeded along the roa<l 
as far as where Jacob Dodd now lives, I'rom which 
point Simcoe was plainly in view, and could not 
resist the temptation of shooting at a British 
oHicer. After this exploit they thought best to 
return to the house, when Diana Collins, a daugh- 
ter of Josei)h, discovered the dragoons in pursuit 
and shouted to the young men to escajjc. Kain 
turned down the creek into the swamp and evaded 
8 



the soldiers, while Butler ran up llu' hill and 
secreted himself in the bushes, and but for his 
curiosity in watching the men and horses ;is they 
passed would also have escai)cd. He, however, 
left his hiding-place, went back into the road, was 
discovered, and after a hot chase cai)tured. He 
wiis taken to Philadelphia, thence to the jirison- 
ships at New York, and kept for a long time. Al- 
though not the guilty one, as Kain handled the 
gun, he suflered a terrible punishment, from the 
eflects of which his health was never Inlly restored. 
He did not return for about three years, and when 
he visited the spot where he had secreted himself, 
found his hat that had been lost in (he scuttle at 
the time." 

The first liritish encampment at (,'o()j)ers 
Point was made by ( leneral A bercr<jrnbie, 
who had his headquarters in the house that 
was afterwards bought by Joseph W. Cooper. 
The quarters of the Foi-ty-third Jlegimcnt, 
Colonel Shaw, and several Highland and 
Hessiau regiments were at the old Middle 
Ferry House, sometimes called English's. 
Mickle says, — • 

" The British lines reached from the Point down 
the Delaware nearly to Market Street, Camden, 
thence up to the site of the present academy at the 
corner of Sixth and Market Streets, and thence 
about northeast across to Coopers Creek. The re- 
mains of their redoubts were visible until a few 
years ago." 

The same authority says, — 

Li March, 1778, soon after the retreat of Simcoe 
from Haddonfield, Pulaski, with a considerable 
body of Continental troopers, came close under 
the British lines to reconnoitre. The enemy, 
anticipating his approach, placed an ambush upon 
both sides of the road leading from the bridge to 
the Middle Ferry, in the neighborhood of the 
present Friends' meeting-house, under the com- 
mand of Colonel Shaw. As Pulaski approached, 
a good way in advance of his men, a stanch 
Whig, William West, mounted a log and waved 
his hat as a signal of retreat. Pulaski took the 
hint, hastily wheeled his men aud saved them 
from slaughter. About the same time a hot fight 
took place at Coopers Creek Bridge, where the 
Englishmen surprised a party of militia. Several 
of the latter were killed and the rest captured. 
Most of the Gloucester fighting men eidistcd early 
in the war and were marched to Fort Washington, 
where they were taken and confined on board of 



58 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



the British prison-ship ' Jersey,' through the horrors 
of which but few ever lived to return home. Most 
of the minute-men, therefore, who annoyed the 
British in the neighborhood of Philadelphia were 
very young. They fought bravely and sold their 
lives whenever they were overpowered as dearly 
as possible. 

" Among the American Rangers who distin- 
guished themselves in forays in the west end of 
Newton, none were more eminent than John Stokes 
and Kinsey, or, as he was generally called, Taph 
Bennett. Stokes was a man of unconquerable 
energy, and some of his feats equal anything ever 
told of Jasper or MacDonald. He was continually 
hanging upon the lines of ihe enemy, and was in 
hourly danger of his life. His courage and activ- 
ity, however, could relieve him from any dilemma. 
He lived through the war to tell of his hair- 
breadth escapes at many a social party. Taph was 
a kindred spirit. Like Stokes, he had pricked 
many an Englishman who dreamed not of a rebel 
being within ten leagues ; and it is said he gen- 
erally cut off his foeman's thumb to prove his 
prowess to his comrades." 

Local Incidents of the War. — The 
Tories and Hessians burned the iiouses of 
many staunch patriots in old Gloucester, 
among them the mansion of the Huggs, near 
Timber Creek bridge, and that of the Harri- 
sons, close to the Point. The Hugg family 
were punished in this fashiou for having 
given two officers and several privates to the 
patriot armies. The women were as cour- 
ageous as the men. Mrs. Hugg, the mother 
of Colonel Joseph Hugg, met the intruders 
who were foraging in her poultry-yard. " Do 
you," she stormed at them, " call yourselves 
soldiers and come thus to rob undefended 
premises ? I have .sons who are in Wash- 
ington's army. They are gentlemen and not 
such puppies as you." Within a few days 
her house and out-buildings were burned to 
the ground. 

Most of the houses along Coopers Creek 
were sacked by the enemy, uidess their occu- 
pants were Tories. A young British officer 
made a recpiisition at the dwelling of the 
Champions for their best horse. He got an 
imbroken colt, which threw him into a pond, 
and in revenge he had his men plunder the 



house. An old gentleman named Ellis bur- 
ied his specie near his house at night by the 
light of a lantern to save it from the maraud- 
ers. The light betrayed him to the spies 
lurking about, and when he next visited the 
spot his treasure was gone. 

In the Haddonfield budget of legend and 
history are many narratives that serve to 
illustrate the Revolutionary epoch. A Scotch 
regiment which was encamped about the cen- 
tre of the town in the winter of 1777-78 
made many friends by soldierly conduct. The 
boys of the village soon ingratiated them- 
selves into the good graces of the men and 
exchanged some game for powder. They 
were subjects of much curiosity because of 
wearing the full Highland uniform. 

Robert Blaekwell, D.D., an Episcopal 
clergyman, who became a chaplain in the 
American army at the opening of the strug- 
gle and remained until the end, was a resi- 
dent of Haddonfield ; his house stood on 
the east side of Main Street and opposite 
Tanner Street. 

Mrs. Annie Howell, the daughter of Mrs. 
Abigail Blackwood and widow of Colonel 
Joshua L. Howell, of Fancy Hill, Gloucester 
County, was a child in Haddonfield during 
the war and retained vivid recollections of 
Lafayette and Pulaski. The former took 
frequent notice of her, and she never forgot 
him as an affable, courtly French gentleman. 
The jewelry he wore M'as her special admira- 
tion, and when in her old age she spoke of 
him she never omitted to mention this fea- 
ture of his dress. She would describe Pu- 
laski in his dragoon uniform, wearing a 
tightly-fitting green jacket and buckskin 
breeches, mounted on a superb charger and 
displaying his wonderful horsenumship tn 
the admiring soldiers. 

EVACU.^TI0N OF i'lllI.ADKLI'ltlA AND 

Retreat of the British. — All the sur- 
rounding country was overrun in June, 1778, 
when the British evacuated Phiiadelj)hia, 
crossed the Delaware at' Gloucester and 



THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION. 



59 



inai-phed to New York. Tlicy were four 
days and nights passing through Haddon- 
field, bv reason of the munitions of war and 
plunder witii which they were loaded down. 
Their wagon-trains seemed to stretch out in- 
terminaljly. Bakeries, laundries, hospitals 
and smith-shops were on wheels, as well as 
l^oats, bridges, magazines and uiedicine-chests. 
With occasional field work, the troops had 
lounged the winter through in Philadelphia ; 
they had stolen everything they could carry 
on leaving there and along the line of march, 
and were consequently weighted with lug- 
gage. Judge Clement has preserved the me- 
mories of the sufferings of the New Jersey 
people caused by them. They brought with 
them a host of camp followers, debased wo- 
men, who would enter private houses, carry off 
such things as they might select, and if inter- 
fered with, would insult the owners by 
wicked conduct and obscene language. They 
were outside of military control, and the offi- 
cers would not interfere with them. To save 
what they might, the residents drove their 
cattle to secret places, buried valuables and 
household adornments in the ground and hid 
their provisions. The lax discipline of the 
British, however, was an eventual advantage 
to the Americans, for it contributed to the 
victory which Washington gained over tiiem 
at ^lonmouth on June "i.Sth. 

The Haddonfield farmers formed a league 
for the protection of their horses and cattle. 
In a low, swampy piece of timber land, about 
two miles east of the village, and familiarly 
known as " Charleston," now part of the 
farm of George C. Kay, Esq., several acres 
were surrounded with a strong, high fence, 
and there the stock was secluded whenever 
in danger. Once the league's secret was be- 
trayed by Jacob Wine, a man in their em- 
ploy, and the British seized every animal 
within the stockade, but in being removed 
the horses were stampeded and fled into the 
forests near Ellisburg, whence the owners 
subsequently rescued them. 



Some of Old Gloiickstku County's 
Heroes. — The most prominent military 
characters of the county of Gloucester at the 
commencement of the War of the Revolu- 
tion, were Colonels Joseph Ellis, Josiali 
Ilillman, Joseph Hugg and Robert Brown, 
Major William Ellis, Captains Samuel Hugg, 
John Stokes and John Davis. 

Colonel Ellis had commanded a company 
in Canada in the French and Indian War, 
but on the opening of the i.ssue between the 
mother-country and the colonies he resigned 
the commission he held of the King and was 
made a colonel in the Gloucester militia. 
He was in the battle of Monmouth and sev- 
eral other engagements, in all of which he 
fought bravely. 

Colonel Hillman was esteemed a gooil offi- 
cer and saw much hard .service. 

Colonel Hugg was appointed commissary 
of purchase for West Jersey at an early 
stage of the war, and in that capacity did 
much for the cause. He was in the battles 
of Germantown, Shorthills and Monmouth ; 
and when the British crossed from Philadel- 
phia to New York he was detailed to drive 
away the .stock along their line of march, in 
performing which duty he had many narrow 
escapes from the enemy's light hor.se. 

Colonel Brown lived at Swedesboro', and 
his regiment was chiefly employed in pre- 
venting the enemy from landing from their 
ships and restraining the excursions of the 
refugees from Billingsport. 

Major Ellis was taken prisoner early in 
the war, and kept for a long time upon Long 
Island. 

Captain Samuel Hugg and Frederick Fre- 
liughuysen were appointed by an act of the 
Legislature to command the first two com- 
panies of artillery raised in New Jersey — 
Captain Hugg in the Western and Captain 
Frelinghuy.sen in the I];istcrn Division. The 
former soon raised his company, and in it 
were a number of young men of fortune and 
the first families in the State, the Westcoats, 



60 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Elmers, Seeleys and others, men who after- 
wards occupied distinguislied posts in the 
local and national governments. This com- 
pany was at the battles of Trenton and 
Princeton. When the " Roebuck," (44) was 
engaged in protecting the operations against 
the chevaux-de-frise at Billingsport, Captain 
Hugg's artillerists threw up a small breast- 
work on the Jersey shore and fought here 
during a whole daj' ; but unfortunately their 
first sergeant, William Ellis, was killed by 
a cannon-ball, which took oif both his legs 
above the knees. This Ellis was an English- 
man and had been for several years a recruit- 
ing officer for the British service in Phila- 
delphia. He joined the American cause 
early — like his namesake, was a very brave 
man — and died much regrettetl by his com- 
j)anions-in-arms. 

Captain Stokes commanded a company of 
mere boys, made up from some of the best 
families in Gloucester County. These fellows 
were at the battle of Monmouth, but Colonel 
Hillman sent them to the rear to guard the 
baggage. Stokes was often heard to say 
afterward that he " never saw so mad a set 
of youngsters" as these were on being as- 
signed to so safe a post. They cried with 
rage at being stationed there after having 
marched so far to see what fighting was. 

Among those who enlisted in the service 
from the Haddonfield region were John 
Stafford, James B. Cooper and John Mapes. 
Because of Stafford's stalwart figure and 
erect military l)earing, he was selected as one 
of Wasliington's body-guard, but at the 
battl(! of (iermantowu was so badly woinided 
by a shot in the thigh that he was retired 
from active service. Cooper and Mapes 
fought in Harry Lee's Ijight Dragoons, and, 
after the war, the former commanded several 
merchant-ships sailing out of Philadelphia. 
When hostilities with (Jreat Britain began, 
in 1812, he accepted a commission in the 
United States navy, and i"ose to the rank of 
post-caj)lain. " Mapes," we are told by 



Judge Clement, " settled a few miles from 
the place and took much pleasure in con- 
versing about the ' Old War,' as he called it. 
He was a genial, pleasant man ; woi'e a 
broad-brimmed hat, with his long clay pipe 
twisted in the band, never passing an oppor- 
tunity for using it. His familiar salutation 
of ' My darling fellow,' whenever he met a 
friend, is still remembered by the people, 
whether it was at a public gathering or by 
his own fireside. Not having much of this 
world's goods, and living to a ripe old age, 
the pension allotted him by Congress was 
the means of making him comfortable in his 
latter days." 

Captain James B. Cooper was the only 
child of Benjamin and Elizabeth (Hopwell) 
Cooper, and was born at Coopers Point, Cam- 
den. Although of Quaker ancestors and edu- 
cated in the faith and belief of that Society, yet 
in his youth being frequently the observant 
of military excitement, he early in life 
coveted the desire to become a soldier. 
The home of his parents was for a time the 
rendezvous of either American or British 
troops, and as a boy he became familiar with 
many stirring events of that period. His 
father's commands nor his mother's persua- 
sions and tender solicitude, would not deter 
him from joiningthe parti.--an corps of Colonel 
Henry Lee, of the American Army and al- 
though underage, he managed togettheconsent 
of the commander to follow his forttnies during 
the stoi-my times of that eventful war. With 
others of the neighborhood about, he was 
mounted and .soon became expert in the diffi- 
cult drill of a cavalryman and a favorite 
with his companions. He saw much active 
service, was at the capture of Stony Point 
and Paulus Hook, in New York, was at the 
battle of Guilford Court-House and Entaw 
Spring.s, in South Carolina, assisted in the 
stt)rming of Forts Watson, Mott and Granby, 
in the last-named State, and was present at 
the engagements before Galpin and Augusta, 
in Geory-ia. He was selec^ted bv Colonel Lee 




J V 




THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION. 



61 



as the bearer of dispatches to theooiumaiKler- 
in-chief, and was entrusted with a flag of 
truce to theBritisli military authorities, which, 
under the circumstances, was a delicate and 
important duty. Many incidents of that 
event, as related by himself, and to which he 
was an eye-witness, are now forgotten. He 
lived long enougli, however, after the war to 
see his country prosperous and her institu- 
tions command the respect of the nations of 
the world. 

After the close of the war he adopted a 
sea-faring life, and soon rose to the command 
of some of the best ships that sailed out of 
Philadelphia. Upon the opening of the War 
of 1812, he accepted the position of .sailing- 
master in the navy, but was promoted to the 
rank of lieutenant for valuable services. At 
one time he had charge of the gun-boats on 
the New Jersey coast, placed there to prevent 
the depredations of the English cruisers. This 
was a dangerous position, for his vessels, 
although good sailors, were deficient in 
the weight of their guns. He had a wary 
and bold enemy to contend with, which 
required all his ingenuity to avoid, yet keep 
watch of their movements .so as to inform 
his superiors in command of a larger craft. 

He saw some service after this war, and in 
1834 took charge of the Naval A.syluni at 
Philadelphia, where he i-emained several 
years. After that duty he returned to Ilad- 
donfield, and there lived in the enjoyment of 
a ripe old age, surrounded by his family ami 
many friends. During this time he was 
advanced to the rank of post-captain as a 
compliment for his service through two wars 
of the nation. He died February 5, ] 854, 
in the ninety-third year of his age, and his 
remains lie in the Friends' grave-yard at 
Haddonfield, without any monument to show 
his last resting-place. 

Chews Landing, at the head of naviga- 
tion on Timber Creek, got its name from the 
family of a steadfast patriot, Aaron Chew, 
who, while enjoying a furlough from the 



army, was chased into the old tavern on the 
hill by British cavalry. They tired several 
volleys into the building, where the bullet- 
holes may yet be seen, and Chew was made 
prisoner as he fled. Confined in a prison- 
ship in New York, he was one of the many 
Gloucester men who endured extreme torture 
in those filthy, dark and crowded hulks. 

Attempt to Steal the Records of 
Continental Congre.s.s. — James Moody's 
attempt to steal the records of the Continen- 
tal Congress is an episode of the war which 
culminated at Camden. He was a Tory 
and a lieutenant in Skinner's brigade of the 
British army, and had made him.self famous 
for his daring and his intense hatred of the 
patriots long before he undertook the adven- 
ture which proved so signal a failure. One Ad- 
dison, an Englishman by birth, but who 
had become a thorough American in feeling, 
was employed, in a clerical capacity, by 
Charles Thomson, .secretary of the Conti- 
nental Congress. Having been captured by 
the British and imprisoned in New York, 
he proposed to Major Beckwith, aide-de- 
camp to the Hessian general Knyphausen, 
that if he was released or exchanged, he 
would steal the .secret docunuents of Congress 
and place them in the custody of the agent 
whom Knyphausen might designate. Beck- 
with fell into the trap set by the cunning 
iMiglishman, and enlisted Moody, who had 
on several occasions captured the dispatches 
of Washington and other .American com- 
manders, and was entirely familiar with the 
country. Moody was equally hoodwinked, 
and leagued with himself his brother and an- 
other Tory named Marr. Addison was .set 
fr(>e and left New York for Philadelphia. 
Moody and his aids followed him, and, on 
November 7, 1781, they met Moody on the 
Camden side of the Delaware. What fol- 
lowed is told by the Tory himself in a little 
pamphlet which he wrote. When old and 
poor he sought refuge in Jllngland and be- 
sousilit the British tfovernment for assistance: 



62 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



" Lieutenant Moody kept a little back, at such a 
distance as not to have his person distinguished, 
yet so as to be within hearing of the conversation 
that passed. His brother and Marr, on going up 
to Addison, found him apparently full of confi- 
dence and in high spirits, and everything seemed 
to promise success. He told them that their plot 
was perfectly ripe for execution, that he had se- 
cured the means of admission into the most pri- 
vate recesses of the State-House, so that he should 
be able the next evening to deliver to them the 
papers they were in quest of. . . . Soon after 
they crossed the river to Philadelphia, and it is 
probable that on the passage Addison was for the 
first time informed that their friend was Lieutenant 
Moody. Whether it was this discovery that put 
it first into his head, or whether he had all along 
intended it and had already taken the necessary 
previous steps, the lieutenant cannot certainly say, 
but he assures himself that every generous-minded 
man will be shocked when he reads that this per- 
fidious wretch had either sold or was about to sell 
them to the Congress. 

" As the precise time in which they should be 
able to execute their plan could not be astertained, 
it was agreed that Lieutenant Moody should re- 
main at the ferry-house opposite to Philadelphia 
till they returned. On going into the house, he 
told the mistress of it by a convenient equivoca- 
tion that he was an officer of the Jersey brigade, 
as he really was, though of that Jersey brigade 
which was in the King's service. The woman un- 
derstood him as speaking of a rebel corps, which 
was also called the Jersey brigade. To avoid 
notice, he pretended to be indisposed, and going 
up-stairs, he threw himself upon a bed and here 
continued to keep his room, but always awake and 
always on the watch. Next morning about eleven 
o'clock he saw a man walk hastily up to the house 
and overheard him telling some {>erson at the 
door that ' there was the devil to pay in Philadel- 
phia, that there had been a plot to break into the 
State-House, but that one of the party had be- 
trayed the others, that two were already taken, and 
that a party of soldiers had just crossed the river 
with him to seize their leader, who was said to be 
hereabouts.' The lieutenant felt himself to be 
too nearly interested in this intelligence any longer 
to keep up the appearance of a sick man, and seiz- 
ing his pistols, he instantly ran down-stairs and 
made his escape. 



" He had not got a hundred yards from the 
house when he saw the soldiers enter it. A small 
piece of woods lay before him, in which he hoped, 
at least, to be out of sight, and he had sprung the 
fence in order to enter it. But it was already 
lined by a party of horse with a view of cutting 
off his retreat. Thus surrounded, all hopes of flight 
were in vain, and to seek for a hiding-place in a 
clear, open field seemed equally useless. With 
hardly a hope of escaping so much as a moment 
longer undiscovered, he threw himself flat on his 
face in a ditch, which yet seemed of all places the 
least calculated for concealment, for it was without 
weeds or shrubs and so shallow that a quail might 
be seen in it; . . . yet, as Providence ordered it, the 
improbability of the place proved the means of 
his security. He had lain there but a few minutes, 
when six of his pursuers passed within ten feet of 
hinf and very diligently examined a thickety part 
of the ditch that was but a few paces from him. 
With his pistols cocked, he kept his eye constantly 
upon them, determining that as soon as he saw 
himself to be discovered by any of them, he would 
instantly spring up and sell his life as dearly as 
might be, and, refusing to be taken alive, provoke, 
and if pos.sib!e, force them to kill him. Once or 
twice he thought he saw one of the soldiers look 
at him, and he was on the point of shooting the 
man. . . From the ditch they went all around the ad- 
jacent field, and, as Lieutenant Moody sometimes a 
little raised up his head, he saw them frequently 
running their bayonets into some tall stacks of 
Indian corn fodder. This suggested to him an 
idea that if he could escape till night, a place they 
had already explored would be the securest place 
for him. When night came he got into one of 
those stacks. The wind was high, which prevented 
the rustling of the leaves of the fodder as he en- 
tered from being heard by the people who were 
passing close by him into the country in quest of 
him. His position in this retreat was very uncom- 
fortable, for he could neither sit nor lie down. In 
this erect posture, however, he remained two 
nights and two days without a morsel of food, for 
there was no corn on the stalks, and, which was in- 
finitely more intolerable, without drink. We must 
not relate, for reasons which may be easily imag- 
ined, what became of him immediately after his 
coming out of this uneasy prison, but we will ven- 
ture to inform the readers that on the fifth night 
after his elopement from the ferry-house he 



THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION. 



6;^ 



searched the banks of the Delaware until he had 
the good fortune to meet with a small boat. Into 
this he jumped and rowed a considerable way up 
the river. In due time he left his boat, and, re- 
lying on the aid of Loyalists, after many circui- 
tous marches, all in the night, and through path- 
less courses, in about five days he once more ar- 
rived at New York." 

Local Patriotism. — The leading fami- 
lies in the Gloucester ueighborhood are de- 
scribed by Judge Clement as being strongly 
imbued with the sjiirit of liberty, and no op- 
portunity was passed for giving information 
that would asssist the Continental cause. 

"To insure protection the enemy's pickets were 
kept on and along the King's road, which crossed 
Little Timber Creek at the Two Tuns tav- 
ern, kept by an old lady known as Aunty High 
Cap. The road extending southerly, passed close 
in front of the Browning homestead and over Big 
Timber Creek, where the old bridge formerly stood. 
Going southerly from the old tavern, it went near 
the former residence of Jonathan Atkinson and 
through Mount Ephraim toward Haddonfield. The 
section of country lying between this old road and 
the river was the scene of many encounters, num- 
berless reconuoissances and much strategy, and 
traditions are still remembered touching their pur- 
pose and success, while others are lost sight of and 
forgotten. All these grew out of the increasing 
vigilance of the people toward their common en- 
emy. Aunty High Cap's was the hostelry where 
the British officers most did congregate, where 
military rank and discipline were laid aside, and 
where the feast of reason and flow of soul was most 
enjoyed." 

At one of these revels an officer was killed 
by a rifle-shot fired by a man standing on the 
porch of the Atkinson residence, at least a 
mile distant, and many of the English believed 
that it was not accidental, but rather an un- 
welcome evidence of the expertness of New 
Jersey marksmen. 

The ocem side of Old Gloucester, that 
which is now comprised in Atlantic County, 
was the locality of some memorable Revolu- 
tionary incidents. Smugglers, who.se object it 



was to run goods, espeoially groceries and 
liquors, through the British lines and into 
Philadelphia, abounded along the coast, and 
undertook many intrepid operations. In 
light-draft vessels they stole up Mullica 
River to the forks of Egg Harbor, where the 
contraband stuff was placed upon wagons and 
hauled across the country, passing through 
Haddonfield on the way to a profitable mar- 
ket in the city. Almost every swamp along 
the route had its secu-et places of deposit, and 
the loyalty of the people to the American 
cause had much to do witii making this kind 
i)f trade successful. 

Egg Harbor was a station on the route of 
the refugees who were passing north and 
south during the war or following the move- 
ments of the British forces, with whom alone 
they were safe from their indignant country- 
men. They had innumerable encounters with 
the hardy sailors and fishermen along the 
shore, who were zealous Americans and ever 
ready to display their abomination of the ad- 
herents of royalty. The New Jersey State 
Gazette, which was published at Trenton, 
contains in its files the following record of 
events of that period on the Gloucester sea- 
front : 

"March 31, 1779. — In the late snow-storm the 
transport ship 'Mermaid,' of Whitehaven, England, 
with troops from Halifax bound to New York, was 
driven on shore and bilged at Egg Harbor. After 
being in this miserable situation from five o'clock 
on Monday morning until noon on Tuesday, a boat 
came oflT to their relief and saved only forty-two 
souls out of one hundred and eighty-seven." 

"August 25, 1779. — By a sailor from Egg Har- 
bor we are informed that on Wednesday last the 
schooner ' Mars,' Captain Taylor, fell in with a ves- 
sel mounting fourteen guns, which he boarded and 
took. She proved to be a British packet from 
Falmouth, England, to New York. Captain Tay- 
lor took the mail and prisoners, forty-five in num- 
ber; but on Saturday last fell in with a fleet of 
twenty-three sail, under convoy of a large ship and 
frigate, when the latter gave chase to the frigate 



64 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



and retook her. Captain Taylor got safe into Egg 
Harbor." 

"Septe!iiber 11, 1782.— Last week Captain Doug- 
lass, with some of the militia of Gloucester Coun- 
ty, attacked a refugee boat at Egg Harbor, with 
eighteen refugees on board, of whom fourteen were 
shot or drowned ; the rest made their escape." 

" December 18, 1782. — Captain Jackson, of the 
'Greyhound,' on the evening of Sunday, last week, 
with much address within the Hook the schooner 
' Dolphin ' and sloop ' Diamond,' bound from New 
York to Halifax, and brought them both into Egg 
Harbor. These vessels were both condemned to 
the claimants, and the amount of sales amounted 
to £10,500." 

Thus privateering, fighting, smuggling and 
saving the lives of the shipwrecked enemy 
combined to furnish exciting employment 
and perilous adventure to the dwellers by the 
seaboard. In 1781-82 they were pestered 
with parties of Cornwallis' troops, who had 
escaped from the Virginia cantonment in 
which they were confined after his surrender 
at Yorktown, and were making their way to 
New York. Captain John Davis was posted 
with a company at Egg Harbor to look out 
for the fugitives, and got wind of a party of 
twenty-one, who were concealed iu the woods 
and waiting for a vessel to take them off. 
He ambushed nineteen men near where they 
were to embark, and when they appeared on 
the shore, he killed or recaptured every one 
of them after a hand-to-hand fight. 

Mickle obtained from some of the survi- 
vors of the war another incident of Davis' 
expedition, which he thus relates, — 

"On one occasion hi.s (Davis') lieutenant, Ben- 
jamin Bates, with Richard Powell, a [irivate, called 
at a house where Davis had been informed that 
two refugee officers were lodging. Bates got to 
the house before any of the family had risen, ex- 
cept two girls, who were making a fire in the 
kitchen. He inquired if there were any persons 
in the house beside the family, and was answered, 
' None except two men from up in the country.' 
He bade the girls show him where they were, which 
they did. In passing through a room separating 
the kitchen from the bed-room, he saw two pistols 



lying on a table. Knocking at the door, he was 
refused admittance, but finding him determined to 
enter, the two refugees finally let him in. They 
refused to tell their names, but were afterwards 
found to be William Giberson and Henry Lane, 
refugee lieutenants, the former a notorious rascal 
who had committed many outrages and killed one 
or two Americans in cold blood. On their way to 
the quarters of Davis' company, Giberson called 
Bates' attention to something he pretended to see 
at a distance, and while Bates was looking in that 
direction Giberson started in another, and, being 
a very fast runner, although Bates fired his musket 
at him, he managed to escape. 

" Davis, on being informed of what had hap- 
pened, told Bates to try again the next night. 
Accordingly the next night he went to the same 
house. While in the act of opening the door he 
heard the click of a musket-cock behind a large 
tree within a few feet of him. He dropped on his 
knees, and the ball cut the rim of his hat. Giber- 
son started to run, but before he had got many 
rods Bates gave him a load of buck-shot, which 
broke his leg. He was well guarded until he could 
be removed, with Lane, to Burlington gaol, from 
which, however, he soon made his escape and went 
to New York." 

The same writer, who is borne out by the 
Historical Collections in this matter, states 
that Elijah Clark and Richard Westcott 
built, at their own expen.se, a small fort at 
the Fox Burrows, on Chestnut Neck, " near 
the port of Little Egg Harbor," and bought 
for it a number of cannon for the defense of 
the port. While the Revolutionary Legisla- 
ture was in session at Haddonfield, in Sep- 
tember, 1777, the two branches pas.sed a 
resolution for paying Chirk and Westcott 
four hundred and thirty pounds for this 
fort, wliicii at one time was dcl'ended by 
fifteen hundred of the shore men, who evac- 
uateil it upon the enemy ascending the river 
in great force in barges. 

After the retreat of the British to New 
York, as a residt of the battle of Monmouth, 
Gloucester County was free from the pres- 
ence of the enemy during the remainder of 
the war, except iis it was traversed by the 



THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION. 



65 



refugees ami e,<f'a[)ing prisoners first spoken 
of. Her ardent patriots welcomed witli 
extreme joy the alliance concluded with 
Fi-ance on February 6, 1778, which stimu- 
lated recruiting for the depleted ranks of the 
regiments of the Line. They maintained un- 
broken their good reputation except when, in 
tlie middle of . January, 1781, a portion of the 
i)rigade, then stationed at Ponipton, revolted 
and marched to Chatham, in Middlesex 
County. They were suffering from the 
extremity of want. They had enlisted for 
the term of three years or during the war. 
The officers contended that the meaning of 
the argument was that they shoidd serve 
until the war closed ; the men claimed that 
they could not be held after the three years 
had elapsed. Washington immediately dis- 
patched General Robert Howe with five 
hundred . regidars to march against the 
mutineers and subdue them by force. They 
were taken by sur[)rise and yielded at onir. 
'i'welve of the principal offenders were com- 
|)eiled to select two of the ringleaders, who 
were promptly executed and order was com- 
pletely restored. 

The Council of Safety at Haodox- 
FiEi-D. — Messrs. Barber and Howe, in pre- 
paring the New Jersey " Historical Collec- 
tions " in 1 843, vouched for the truth of the 
allegation that the Continental Congress 
" sat for several weeks in Haddonfiehl dur- 
ing the war, in the house built by Matthias 
Aspden, and boarded about among the in- 
habitants." This is one of the legends of 
the town, and these authors seem to have 
accepted it without seeking for verification. 
Mickle, two years later, was more careful, 
and, as a result of his inquiry, intimates that 
Barber and Howe confounded the Provincial 
Congress of New tlersey with the Continen- 
tal Congress. The minutes of the latter do 
not show any session at Haddonfield, al- 
though some State papers of 1778 are dated 
at the town. Captain James B. Cooper, a 
contemporary witness, who was not likely to 
'J 



be ignorant of aTiy incident of the Kcvohi- 
tion occurring in that neighborhood, was 
exceedingly skeptical regarding the assi'rtion 
so confidently made by the writers of the 
" Collections," l)ut had a perfect recollection 
of tlie brief session of the Provincial Congress 
at Haddonfield. 

A body, however, which did sit at Had- 
donfield, and there [lerformed some of its 
functions of the first importance in strength- 
ening the hands of the patriot government in 
New Jersey, was the Council of Safety of 
1777. It met in the old tavern-house now 
occu[)ieil by George W. Stillwell, as a tem- 
perance hotel, convening for its first session 
on Man'h IStli. The members, who were 
appointed by the Legislature, were .John 
Cleves Symmes, William Patterson, Na- 
thaniel Scudder, Theophilus Elmer, Silas 
Condict, John Hart, John Mehelm, Samuel 
Dick, John Combe, Calel) Camp, Edmund 
^\'etherby and John Manning. These men 
\\\'re selected carefully for the discharge of 
the arduous and delicate duties imposed upon 
them. Entrusted specially with power to 
arrest, try and punish persons suspected of 
Toryism, their authoritj' was almost without 
limit. The Council was tlu' ri'|)resentative 
of the Ijegislature during the recesses of the 
latter, and it was clothed also with judicial, 
executive and (piasi-military functions. More- 
over, it could appropriate such sums of money 
from the State treasury as wei-e ni'e<led to 
carry on its operations, and could also make 
appointments of officers in the military con- 
tingent of the State and issue commissions to 
its appointees. A strong detail of Arnold's 
men attended all its movements, and it was 
entitled to call out the militia to enforce its 
decrees. While it sat at Haddonfield it 
kept two guard-houses' well filled with it.s 
prisoners, and every patriot was in some 

' One still stamls opposite to the place of tiieir ilelili- 
erations, now occupied by Zebedee Tompkins, and I he 
other was recently owned and occupied by Br. I. W. 

Ileulings. — CZf'»f«('.? Rrvohitio-nary Reminiscences. 



66 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



manner an amateur detective, who reported 
to the Council his neighbors supposed to 
entertain hostility to the cause of indepen- 
dence. 

Wielding such formidable weapons, the 
Council was the terror of the American 
friends of England. Governor Livingston 
sat at its deliberations and usually presided. 
There was the single appeal from the deci- 
sions of a majority of the Councillors that an 
accused person could enter bail and carry his 
case to court ; but if he refused to give 
security or take the oath of loyalty, he was 
peremptorily imprisoned and held at their 
pleasure. At their first meeting they disposed 
of the cases of fourteen alleged Tories ; and it 
was not uncommon for them to try from twenty 
to thirty in a day. They sat at Haddonfield 
on March 18th and 19th, then adjourning to 
Bordentown, and the sutijoined extracts from 
the minutes of the 19th are a fair sample of 
their work and also their manner of execut- 
ing it : 

" The Board entered upon tlie examination of 
the prisoners sent to Haddonfield some time since 
by General Putnam. Abraham Briton, Jonathan 
Forman and Robert Barns, having been examined, 
took and subscribed the oaths of abjuration and 
allegiance, as by law a]>iiointed, and were dis- 
charged. 

"Anthony Woodward, son ol William, having 
been examined, being one of the people called 
Quakers, took affirmations to the effect of the 
oaths above mentioned, and entered into recog- 
nizance with David Hurley, his surety, in £300 
each, before Mr. Justice Symraes, for liis appear- 
ance at the next Court of Oyer and Terminer, to 
be field in the County of Monmouth, and in the 
meantime to be of good behavior, and was there- 
upon dismissed. Moses Ivins, being examined, 
acknowledged that he had given bond to tlie late 
convention in £500 conditional for his good be- 
havior towards the State, and having entered into 
recognizance with Abraliam Britt)n, his surety, in 
E300 each to appear, etc., as in the case of .\n- 
thony Woodward, was dismissed. 

" Ordered, That the prisoners lately ordered to 
be brought from Frederick Town in Maryland and 
lodged in the gaol of the C'onnty of Raleni, be con- 



ducted under guard to Bordentown, so as to be 
there by Wednesday next, or as soon thereafter as 
may be convenient ; and that Col. Dick be desired 
to detach so many of the militia of his battalion 
as may be necessary to carry this order into exe- 
cution. 

"An account of Capt. Elisha Walton for sub- 
sisting a guard and six prisoners belonging to 
Pennsylvania at and from Haddonfield to Phila- 
delphia on the ISth and li>th instants, amounting 
to £4 7.«. fid., was laid before the Board. Ordered 
that the same be paid.'" 

The Council opened its .second .session at 
Haddonfield on May 10, 1777, and from 
thence until Jiuie 9th met there nearly every 
day, and such was the press of labor u])on it 
that if frequently held two and .sometimes 
three meetings daily. Its time was largely 
taken up with the proceedings against John 
Henchman, the owner of a very large and 
valuable estate in the township, and the 
descendant of the settler of the same name a 
century previous. Henchman came under 
suspicion as a Loyalist, and among the wif- 
nes.ses against him in the preliminary pro- 
ceedings were Capt. Samuel Hugg, Joseph 
Hugg, Samuel Harrison, Capt. William 
Harrison, William Noitou and John Estaugh 
Hopkins. The grounds of the charges ap- 
pear in the record of Capt. Hugg's testi- 
mony, in which it is stated that he "can give 
some account of the ,s-\id Hencliman's pro- 
ducing his former commission under the 
crown to some British officers at the Black 
Horse as a pass and of his inviting .some 
British offic»'rs to his sister's house at Mount 
Holly." 

The minutes of . I line oth eontiuiie the 
ca.sc thus : 

" .lohn llenehnian, I'^s.i., appear^ liefore the 
l{oard pursuant to citation, and the charges against 
him being read, he was permitted to offer any- 
thing m his power by way of palliation, and after 
being heard wiis ordered to witlidraw. 

" The Council taking Mr. Henchman's case into 
their consideration, and being of the opinion that 
the cliarges against liim did not fully indicate a 
malicious intention, but that the said charges did 



THK WAK OF 'nil.; KKVOIJJTION. 



ti7 



lix liim uuder a strong suspit-ioii of disalli'ctiou to 
I 111' United States. 

" Agreed, therefore, tliat Mr. Hendiman be again 
called into Conncil, and that the oath.s of abjura- 
tion and allegiance be tendered to him according 
to law. 

'■ >[r. Henchman appeared accordingly, and the 
.said oaths were tendered him in Council, which he 
refused to take and subscribe, but was willing to be 
bound with surety for his appearance at the next 
Court of General Quarter Sessions ; and the said 
John Henchman did accordingly enter into recog- 
nizance with Jacob Clement in the sum of £300 
each, before the Governor and Council of Safety 
for his appearance at the next Court of General 
Quarter Sessions of tlie peace of the County of 
Gloucester, there to answer to such charges as shall 
be exhibited against him on behalf of the State ; 
and, in the meantime, be of the peace and of the 
good behavior, and was thereupon dismissed." 

Several other citizeii.s of (xloiieester were 
uiiiler examiuatioii by the Council at thi.s 
time. George Rapalje wa.s eonimitted on May 
'21st, to jail, — 

"For advisedly and willingly by speech, writing, 
open deed and act, maintaining and defending the 
authority, jurisdiction and power of the King of 
Great Britain as heretofore claimed within this 
State." 

( )n May ."Ust, Richard Snowdou retused to 
take the oath of allegiance or to give bail for 
court aud wa.s placed in the sheriff's custody. 
Hownumeroiis were tiie offencesof which men 
might be accused was instanced in the case 
of Thomas Woodward, a Friend, .son of 
Anthony, for whom a warrant of arrest was 
issued, ciiarging him " with maliciously and 
advisedly saying and doing things encourag- 
ing disaffection, and with maliciously and 
advi.scdly spreading such false rumors con- 
cerning the American forces and the forces 
of the enemy as tend to alienate the affec- 
tions of the people from the government aud 
to terrify and discourage the good subjects of 
this State, and to dispose tliem to favour the 
pretensions of the enemies of this State." 

After a short sitting at Morristown the 
Council returned to Haddonfield on Septem- 
ber r2th. Changes had been made iu the 



pt'rmtuui, tlic members then being Silas 
Condict, Win. Patterson, NatJKiniel Scudder, 
Thomas Elmer, John Hart, Benjamin Man- 
ning, Peter Tallmann, Joiui Mehelm, Caleb 
( "amp, Jacob Drake, Jonathan Bowen, John 
Combs, John Buck, \Vm. Peartree Smith, 
Fred'k Frelingluiysen and Edward Plem- 
ing. Little oi" importance was accomplished 
at this session, (iloucester County having 
been restored t(j comparative quiet, and the 
most of the guard was sunt tct Burlington, 
where the jail was over(;rowded with Tory 
suspects. Thomas Hootoii, of Gloucester, 
was arrestetl, but released upon swearing to 
his loyalty, and John Carty was sent into the 
enemy's lines, this being one of the methods 
of getting rid of disaffected persons whom it 
was not deemed politic to imprison. A sample 
order of the kind was that issued regarding 
Richard Wain, who was a land-holder in 
Gloucester County, — 

" October 7th. — Rioliard Wain (one of the peo- 
jde called Quakers) being concerned before the 
Board, and affirmations to the effect of the Oaths 
of Abjuration and allegiance, being tendered to 
him pursuant to law, he refused to take them, but 
being willing to go with his family into the ene- 
my's lines, and he appearing to the Board too dan- 
gerous to remain iu the State, the Council agreed 
that the said Richard Wain have leave to go witli 
his family into tlie enemy's lines on Staten Island 
in five days from the date hereof" 

The exchange of [)risoners was another mat- 
ter within the jurisdiction of the Council, aud 
early in its proceedings it made the rule of 
giving a soldier for a soldier, a civilian for a 
civilian. Through this system numerous 
Tories were handed over to the Britisli, 
while valuable patriots whom the enemy had 
incarcerated were reclaimed \(> the national 
service. A reserve of prisoners was occa- 
sionally held with a view to such a transfer, 
and there are quite a number of cases like 
that of Joseph King, who, being "too dan- 
gerous a person to be suffered to beat large," 
was ordered " taken and kept in safe custody 
in order to be exchanged." 



68 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Quittiuo; Hadilonfiekl ou September 2Gth, 
the Council fled to Princeton and then to 
Pittstowu, to be safely out of the way of 
British raiders. While at the latter place, 
on October 18th, it appointed commissioners 
to raise recruits and apprehend deserters, 
those for Gloucester County being Joseph 
Estell, William Price, Colonel Josiah Hil- 
man and James Tallman, who were com- 
manded to rendezvous at A\'oodbury. The 
following minute appears of December Pith : 

" Application was made to the Board for the 
payment of money due to the militia in the county 
of Gloucester, under the command of Colonel 
Ellis. 

" Agreed that Colonel Ellis be informed by letter 
that the Legislature have directed the delegates 
to obtain from Congress the sum of £120,000 for 
discharging the debt due to the militia of this 
State, and that the proportion of $16,000, when 
obtained, will be paid into the hands of Thomas 
Carpenter for the payment of the militia of 
Glouc'ester and Salem." 

The Hessian marauders were scouring 
Southern New Jersey for better food than 
King George's rations, and Colonel Ellis, 
commandant of the Gloucester militia, was 
authorized to remove any cattle, sheep and 
hogs (excepting milch cows) from any places 
where he thought them in danger of falling 
into the enemy's hands to places of greater 
security, and upon tlie owners refusing to do 
so, after first giving notice to the owners, who 
may take care of tliem at their expense. 
This measure not proving extreme enough, 
Colonel Ellis was directed to remove all the 
horned cattle, sheep, hogs and all cows 
wiiicli do not give milk from the vicinity of 
the Jersey shore, in the counties of Burling- 
ton, Gloucester and Salem, that may be 
within the reach of the enemy's foraging 
parties, except such as might be really neces- 
sary for the inhabitants (the owners refusing 
to do it on notice given to them for that 
purpose), and that the general (Washington) 
be informed that the powers lodged in the 
Council of Safety are inadecjuate to the 



requisition of having the forage removed, 
and that it be recommended to him to exer- 
cise his own authority in having it effected. 
This stripping of the country of provender in 
order that the enemy might not obtain it 
speaks eloquently of the .straits to which this 
section of the State was reduced. 

These stern Councillors were obliged to be 
no respectors of the sex. The wives and 
daughters of Tories were as inimical to the 
republic as their husbands and fathers, and 
when the men had gone into the British 
service the women left behind frequently be- 
came adroit and successful spies upon the 
movements of the patriots. Hence the 
Council applied to them the extreme rigors 
of the treason law and either sent them 
after their male protectors into the British 
lines, locked them up in jail or held them in 
heavy bonds for their good behavior. Tho.se 
to be sent into the enemy's camp were usually 
assembled at Elizabeth, from whence it was 
an easy task to transfer them under a flag of 
truce to the headquarters on Staten Island. 
While sitting at Trenton, on March 27, 
1778, the Council had to deal with a .squad 
of suspects who had been brought in from 
Gloucester County, and passed the following 
orders regarding them ; 

" That William and Thomas .Tones be committed 
to gaol for trial. 

" That Jacob Shoulder, Jacob Mouse, Isaac 
Zane and Samuel Hewling have five days to de- 
termine whether they will enlist into the Conti- 
nental service during the war or be committed for 
their trial for going into the enemy's lines and 
returning into this State contrary to law. 

" That Jacob Jones, Gunrod Shoemaker, Wil- 
liam Davenport, Thomas Smith and a negro man 
belonging to John Cox be discharged, the former 
four on taking the oath to government prescribed 
by law. 

" And that Daniel Murray and Blakey Hurltey, 
suspected of being spies from the enemy, and also 
for endeavoring to pass counterfeit money found 
upon them, be sent to headquartei's." 

On June otli, John Kirby, Benjamin 
Allen, Urich W est and Jesse Sirrau, all of 



THK WAR OF THE REVOLUTION. 



69 



(iloucester Couuty, were exumiued " for joiu- 
iiig tlie enemy," but there were also lield in 
reserve against them accusations of" mis- 
prision of treason and of counterfeiting tlie 
State currency, which later was a very com- 
mon offence until the bills of credit which 
<lid duty as a circulating medium became so 
depreciated in value tliat the labors of tiic 
counterfeiter were profitless. On August 4th, 
the Council being then at Morristown, it com- 
mitted to the Gloucester (Jounty jail Isaac 
Lloyd, Samuel Lippiucott, Joseph Myers, 
Lawrence Cox, David Carter, Jacob Justine, 
A\'iiliam Kennack and Jesse Sirran, who 
were believed to have given aid and comfort 
to the enemy. 

The final records of the Council are dated 
at Princeton, October 8, 1778. Its member- 
ship had then been increased to twenty. Mr. 
Frelinghuysen and Mr. Combs had retired, 
and Messrs. Cooper, Imlay, Linn, Craue, 
Fennemore, Cook and Keasby had been 
l)rought in. The last proceedings having 
connection with Gloucester County affairs 
were the passage of a resolution for the re- 
payment to Councillor Camp of fourteen 
pounds, "by him advanced to Isaac Coxe, ser- 
geant of the guard at Haddonfield, in ]xut 
pay for the said guard." 

The ^YEST Jersey Co.viiMANDs. — Men- 
tion has already been made of the formation 
of the battalions commanded by Lord Stir- 
ling and Colonel Maxwell. These were the 
first organizations of the " Jersey Line." 
Tlie privates were enlisted for one year, at 
five dollars per month, and were allowed, in 
place of bounty, "a felt hat, a pair of yarn 
stockings and a pair of shoes," but were to 
furnish their own arms. On January 8, 
1776, the West Jersey (Maxwell's) battalion 
was ordered to report to General Schuyler, at 
Albany. Authority for the formation of a 
third battalion, of which I^lias Dayton was 
made colonel, was given by Congress Janu- 
ary 10, 1776. All these commands were 
reorganized under the act of the Continental 



C'ongress of September 16, 1776. It pi"o- 
vided for the enlistment of eighty-eight bat- 
talions to serve during the war, and of these 
the " New Jersey Line " consisted of four. 
Twenty dollars was ofiered as a bounty to 
each non-commissioned officer and private, 
and bouut_y lands at the close of the war to 
each officer and man, or to his heirs in case 
of his death, as follows : Five hundred acres 
to each colonel, four hundred and fifty acres 
to each lieutenant-colonel, four hundred to 
each major, three hundred to each captain, 
two hundred to each lieutenant, one hundred 
and fifty to each ensign, and to each private 
and non-commissioned officer one hundred. 
The men in the ranks were to be furnished 
with an outfit annually, that for the first 
year to be two linen hunting-shirts, two pair 
of overalls, a leathern or woolen waistcoat 
with sleeves, one pair of breeches, a hat or 
leathern cap, two shirts, two pair of hose and 
two pair of shoes. They could commute 
these things into money at a valuation 
of twenty dollars, if they chose t(» equip 
themselves. 

The reorganization and re-enlistment of 
the First Battalion, Colonel Silas Newcomb, 
was completed in December, 1776 ; the Sec- 
ond, Colonel Israel Shreve (of Gloucester), 
Fel)ruary, 1777 ; the P'ourth, Colonel Eph- 
raim Martin, during tlie same month ; and 
the Third, Colonel Elias Dayton, in April 
of that year. Colonel Maxwell was j)romoted 
to brigadier-general in October, 1776, and 
assigned to the command of these battalions, 
which, as " Maxwell's Brigade," won laurels 
on many a bloody field. In the May follow- 
ing they were placed in (General Stephens' 
division and encamped at Elizabethtown, 
Bound Brook and Spanktown (Rahway). 
Stephens, in the summer of 1777, marched 
through Pennsylvania and Delaware, and a 
small portion of the " New Jersey Line " 
opened the battle of Brandywine on the 
morning of September 11th. They contin- 
ued actively engaged through the fight and 



70 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



afterwards skirmished with the enemy before 
i-eaching their faiup at Germantowu, where, 
in the battle of October 4th, they formed the 
left wing and reserve of Washington's army. 
They were conspicuous for their gallantry in 
this action, and Newcomb's battalion was an 
especially heavy loser of officers and men. 

The Jersey men passed the winter of 1777- 
78 with the remainder of the ai tny in gloom 
and suffering at A'alley Forge. When the 
British evacuated Philadelphia, in June, 
1778, Maxwell's brigade constituted the 
maiu portion of the column placed under 
the command of Lafayette to hang ujion 
General Clinton's flanks and rear, with the 
object of striking him a blow whenever the 
opportunity permitted. They were highly 
successful in making the enemv suifer 
severely on the march through Jersey. On 
June 28th the Line, as well as the militia, 
which was under the command of Major- 
Geueral Philemon Dickinson, took part in 
the battle of Monmouth. Most of the win- 
ter of 1778-79 was spent by the brigade at 
Elizabethtown, but a detachment of Shreve's 
Gloucester troops was encamped at Newark. 
In May, 1779, the whole Ijrigade took part 
in General Sullivan's expedition, which 
marched up the Suscjuehanna Valley and in- 
flicted punishment on the Seneca Indians^ 
returning to New Jei'sey in October. 

Another reorganization was carried into 
eti:ect in compliance with the acts of Congress 
of May 27, 1778, and March 9, 1779. The 
battalions of the Line, reduced in numbers 
by losses in battle and the other calamities 
of war, were consolidated into three, and a 
bounty of two hundred dollars each was 
offered for three liundred and sixty-flve vol- 
unteers. Sixteen hundi'ed and twenty more 
were called for on February 9, 1780, the in- 
ducemeut to enlist was increased to one 
thousand ilollars, and recruiting officers, or 
" Muster Masters," were appointed, Colonel 
Joseph Ellis filling the office in Gloucestei- 
County. In Juue^ 1781, another draft was 



made, and .bdin Davis undertook to fill 
Gloucester's (juota of fifty-one men. The 
bounty paid under this requisition was twelve 
pounds in gold or silver to each man, and 
the three colonels— Matthias Ogden, Isaac 
Shreve and Elias Dayton — succeeiled in filling 
out their regiments to six companies each. 
Maxwell continued in command of the 
brigade until his i-esignation, in July, 1780, 
when he was succeeded by the senior colonel, 
Dayton, who served until the close of the 
war. In September, 1781, the three regi- 
ments were ordered to A^irginia, where they 
participated in the Yorktown campaign and 
were present at the surrender of Lord Coru- 
wallis. The news of the cessation of hostili- 
ties was announced in the camp of the 
brigade April 19, 1783, and the Jersey Line 
was mustered out on the succeeding 3d of 
November. 

Sta'J'E Tr(jops.— Besides tlie troops who 
served continuously in the regular army. 
New Jersey iuid occasion at \'arious times 
during the war to call out volunteers from 
the militia for protection against the incur- 
sions of the British and the raids of Royalists 
and Indians. These commands were held 
subject to duty in this and adjoining States, 
and were known as " New Jersey I^evies," 
" Five Months' Levies," or more generally 
as " State Troops." The artillery companies 
of Frelinghuysen and Hugg, already alluded 
to, the earliest of these organizations, were 
created under the act of the Provincial Con- 
gress of February 13, 177(j. November 27, 
1776, the first act was passed for the organi- 
zation of the infantry branch of the State 
troops, and four battalions of eight com- 
panies each were raised by voluntary enlist- 
ment. One battalion was recruited in the 
counties of Gloucester, Salem and Cumber- 
land, three companies coming from the former 
county. Of this battalion, David Potter 
was apiHiintcd colonel, Whitton Cripps 
lieutenant-colonel, and Anthony Sharp major. 
Capt. Simon Lucas commanded another 



THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION. 



71 



Gloucester compauy, which vvat< formed 
under tlie call of December '29, 1781, for 
four hundred and twenty-two men to serve 
until December lo, 1782. Calls were also 
made on June 7 and 14, 1780, for four 
iiundred and twenty men to serve until 
January 1, 1782. 

Militia. — The militia were the first 
troops organized in New Jersey in the Revo- 
lution, the Provincial Congress, on June 3, 
I 775, providing "a plan for regulating the 
militia of the colony," because of " the I'ruel 
and arbitrary measures adopted and pur- 
sued by the British Parliament and present 
ministry for the purpose ol' subjugating the 
American colonies to the most abject servi- 
tude." By the elaboration of this plan in 
August, Gloucester was required to raise 
three battalions. On June 3, 1776^ the 
Continental Congress called for thirteen 
thousand eight hundred militia to reinforce 
the army at New York. The quota fur 
\ew Jersey was three thousand three hun- 
dred, of which Gloucester furnished two 
companies. On July 16th Congress re- 
quested the convention of New Jersey to 
supply with militia the places of tw(i thou- 
sand of Washington's troops tliat had been 
ordered into New Jersey to form the Flying 
Camp. Of the thirty companies of sixty-four 
men each sent under this call, Gloucester 
juovided tliree, which, with one from Cum- 
berland and three from liurlington, were 
combined in a battalion under Colonel Charles 
Head, Tjieutenant-Colonel Josiah Killman, 
^lajor William Ellis and Surgeon Bodo 
Otto, Jr. August 11, I77i;, liie militia was 
divided into brigades, one to bo detached for 
immediate service and relieved by the other 
at the expiration of thirty days. On tliis 
bifiis of monthly classes, in active service 
alternate months, these troops were held 
during the war. On January 8, 1781 , the 
organization was enlarged to three brigades. 
" The good .service performed by the militia 
of New Jersey is fully recorded in history. 



At the fights at Oi'hiliinV F.ridge, Hancock's 
i'lridge. Three Rivers, ( 'onniicticut I'^arms 
and \'an Neste's IVfills they bore an active 
|iart; while at the battles of Long Island, 
Trenton, Assanpiiik, I'rincetou, (lermantown, 
Springfield and ^NIouTnouth they performed 
efficient services in supporting the Continen- 
tal Line." ' 

The subjoined list e\Iiil)its the field and 
staff officers of the niiiilia of Old Gloucester 
C\iuiity. 

Tiie following is a li.st of those from 
(ilciucester County who served either in the 
Continental army, State troops oi- militia 
during the Revolutionary War :" 
Byli/dilier-Genffal. 
.loseph Ellis. 
( 'rilotuli'. 
Rodo Ottn. Israel Slireve. 

Richard Somers. 
lAruteiiant-(hl<>neh. 
Robert Brown. Samuel Shreve. 

Klijah Clark. Samuel Tonkin. 

J/«/./,-.v. 

William Ellis. (icorge Payne. 

Samuel Hannigau. Jeremiah Smith. 

Rich'd Westcott. 

/\i.i//iiiisfer.i. 

Thomas ('ari)enter. .lohn lyittlc. 

Surgeon . 

Thomas Heudry. 

.luiin Baker. .I.ames Holmes. 

■Andrew Barnes. .John Inskip. 

.lacob Browning. Simon Lucas. 
Richard Cheesem.an. Archibald M.affit. 

.loseph Covenovcr. William Matht. 

•Tohn Cozens. .lohn Patten. 

John Davis. David Paul. 

Douglas. George Pierce. 

.loseph Elwell. William Price. 

Siiwtel Elwell. I teorge Purvis, 

.loseph Estell. Christopher Rajie. 

Eelix Fisher. Henry Shute. 

.Tohn Hampton. William Smith. 
William Harrison. — . Robert Snell. 

Richard Higher. Samuel Sncll. 

' "Officers and Men of New Jersey in the Hevolii- 
tionary War," by General W. S. Stryker. 

-Oumpiled from Strylier's Official Register. 



72 



HISTOKY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



James Somers. 
John Someis. 
Zephania Steelman. 
John Stokes. 
Richard Stonebanks. 



James ToUnian. 
Joseph Thorne. 
William Watson. 
David Weatherby. 
John Wood. 



Lieufenanfs. 
David Baker. Joseph McCullough. 

John Carter. John Parsons. 

John Chatham. Ward Pierce. 

Enoch Leeds. Benjamin Weatherly. 

First Lieutenants. 
Joseph Ingersoll. Alexander Mitchell. 

Edward Ireland. Nehemiah Morse. 

Jeremiah Leeds. Samuel S|)ringer. 

Samuel Matlack. Arthur Westcott. 



Srrond I.ieiitinant. 



Aaron Chew. 
Peter Covenhoven 
Jacob Endicott. 
William Finch. 
John Lucas. 



John Adams. 
Joseph Avis. 
Elijah Barret. 
Japhet Clark. 
John Dilkes. 
Ebenezer Extell, 
Daniel Frazer. 



Samuel McFarland. 
Abraham Parsons. 
Jeremiah Risley. 
Henry Rowe. 
John Scull. 
Elijah Townsend. 

Ensigns. 

Daniel Hooper. 
Benjamin Inskeep. 
Cornelius McCollum. 
Joseph Morrell. 
Nathaniel Sipple. 
David Stillwell. 
John Tilton. 



Serf/eant.'t. 
Abraham Benuet. John Reed. 

William Campbell. Richard Sayers. 

Patrick McCollum. Jacob Spencer. 

James Tomblin. 

CorjjuraL 
Leonard Fisler. 

Wagoner. 
Philip Dare. 

Privates. 

Jeptha Abbot. . Jesse Adams. 

.Tohn Abel. Jonas Adams 

Daniel Ackley. Jonathan Adams. 

Hezekiah Ackley. Richard Adams. 

James Ackley. Thomas Adams. 

John Ackley. William Adams. 

Silas Ackley. Abram Aim. 

James Adair. .\brahani Albertson. 

Andrew Adams. Albert Alberson. 

David Adams. Isaac Albertson. 

Elijah Adams. Jacob Albertson, Jr. 

Jeremiah Adams. Jacob Albertson, Sr. 



George Allen. 
Joseph Allen. 
William Allen. 
Thomas Alleor. 
Jacob AUset. 
Henry Anderson. 
Isaac Armstrong. 
Gibson Ashcroft. 
.lames Ashcroft. 
Jacob Assit. 
Conuter Athert(}n. 
Abijah Ayers. 
James Ayers. 
Moses Ayers. 
John Baley. 
Jonathan Baley. 
Joseph Baley. 
Benjamin Balken. 
Jonathan Barton. 
William Bates. 
Thomas Beavin. 
Jonathan Beesley. 
James Belange. 
Nicholas Belange. 
Samuel Belange. 
Robert Bell. 
William Bell. 
Jonathan Benly. 
Alexander Bennct. 
John Bennet. 
Jonathan Bennet. 
John Berry. 
Patrick Brady. 
George Bright. 
Asa Brown. 
Matthew Brown. 
(ieorge Browne. 
Thomas Bryant. 
Elijah Buck. 
Josiah Budd. 
John Budey. 
James Bulangey. 
Jo.shua Bulangey. 
Robin Bunton. 
Benjamin Bachon. 
Abel Bacon. 
Frederick Baker. 
James Baley. 
Haned Bardin 
Richard Barker. 
Benjamin Bispham. 
Andrew Blackman. 
David Blackman. 
John Blackman. 
Nehemiah Blackman. 



.Tames Bleakman. 
James Boggs. 
William Boice. 
Jonathan Borton. 
Edward Bowen. 
Josiah Bowen. 
David Bowyer. 
John Bradford. 
David Brower. 
John Bryant. 
Joseph Burch. 
Elijah Burk. 
Moses Burnet. 
Samuel Burton. 
William Bushing. 
Moses Butterworth. 
Aaron F. Cade. 
John Cain. 
Samuel Cain. 
Ezekiel Camp. 
James Camp. 
David Campbell. 
AVilliam Campbell. 
William Campen. 
John Cann. 
George Caranna. 
Jacob Carpenter. 
( ieorge Carter. 
James Caruthers. 
John Casey. 
Benjamin Casker. 
Tobias Casperson. 
William Cattell. 
George Cavener. 
Thomas Chamberlain. 
John Chattan. 
Thomas Cheesman. 
John Chester. 
Robert Chew. 
Adrial Clark. 
David Clark. 
John Clark. 
Joseph Clark. 
Parker Clark. 
Richard Clemens. 
David Clement. 
William Clifton. 
Jacob Clough. 
John Cobb. 
Thomas Cobb. 
William Cobb. 
Joseph Conklin. 
Bryant Conelly. 
David Conover. 
Jesse Conover. 



THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION. 



73 



Patterson Cook. 
Silas Cook. 
William Cordry. 
Abel CorsoQ. 
Simon Coshier. 
Benjamin Cosier. 
Simon Cosier. 
James Coults. 
Isaac Course. 
William Course. 
Joseph Covenhoven. 
Andrew Cos. 
Jacob Cox. 
John Cozens. 
Samuel Crager. 
Levi Crandell. 
William Cranmore. 
Cornelius Cullom. 
John Camp. 
Joseph Camp, Sr. 
Joseph Camp, Jr. 
Archibald Campbell. 
Simeon Casker. 
Daniel Cham|)ion. 
John Champion. 
Thomas Champion. 
Benjamin Clark. 
Reuben Clark. 
Thomas Clark. 
George Clifton. 
Micajah Conover. 
Peter Conover. 
Peter B. Conover. 
.Fohn Cook. 
John Corson. 
John Coshier. 
Isaac Covenhoven. 
John Covenhoven. 
Cain Dair. 
John Dair. 
Samuel Dallas. 
John Danelson. 
Kidd Daniels. 
Joel Daven. 
Andrew Davis. 
Cain Davis. 
Curtis Davis. 
Charles Day. 
Samuel Day. 
Thomas Day. 
Klias Deal.' 
.lames Deal. 
Samuel Deal, 
.lames Deckley. 
Edward Deifel. 
10 



John Delfer. 
Samuel Denick. 
Samuel Denick, .Ir. 
Gideon Denny. 
Jonas Denny. 
Thomas Denny. 
Andrew Derrickson. 
John Dickinson. 
Samuel Dilkes. 
Frampton Dill. 
John Dolbier. 
Samuel Dollis. 
John Doram. 
Silas Dorcar. 
Abner Doughty, 
Absalom Doughty. 
.Tonathan Doughty. 
Josiah Doughty. 
.Tohn Drummond. 
Edward Duftcl. 
Samuel Dulaney. 
Thomas Dunaway. 
William Daniels. 
Earl Davis. 
Richard Davis. 
John Deal. 
David Dennis. 
Matthew Dennis. 
William Dickin.son. 
Jesse Dormant. 
Edward Dougherty. 
Abel Doughty. 
Abige Doughty. 
Thomas Doughty. 
Edward Do wan. 
.Tohn Dower. 
Benjamin DrunuiHind. 
James Dunlap. 
Joseph East.all. 
John Edwards. 
Joseph Edwards. 
William Elbridge. 
Jeremiah Elway. 
Joseph English. 
Joseph Ervin. 
J(din Evans. 
Abner Ewing. 
Abraham ICwing. 
Mis. English. 
Thomas English. 
Daniel Falker. 
John Farrell. 
Abraham Farrow. 
John Farrow. 
Mark Farrow. 



George Feathers. 
Peter Fell. 
William Fell. 
Abraham Fenimore. 
Daniel Fenimore. 
Xathan Ferlew. 
James Ferril. 
,Tacob Fetter. 
Thomas Field, 
■lacob Fisher. 
Jacob Fisler. 
George Fithian. 
William Fithian. 
William Fletcher. 
Uriah Forbes. 
William Ford. 
William Fort. 
George Fowler. 
Isaac Fowler. 
Andrew Frambis. 
John Franklin. 
Daniel Frazier. 
Samuel French. 
Daniel Furman. 
William Furman. 
John Fisler. 
Nicholas Frambis. 
William Fry. 
Ebenezer Grinton. 
Calvin Gamble. 
Edward Gandy. 
Elias Gandy. 
John (Tandy. 
James Gant. 
Robert Garret. 
(Cornelius Garri.son. 
Elijah Garrison. 
Reuben Garrison. 
Samuel Garwood. 
Rossel Gee. 
William Gentry. 
James Gibeson. 
Job Gibeson. 
John (ribeson. 
Daniel Giflen. 
James Gillingham. 
Reese Given, Sr. 
Reese Given, Jr. 
William Given. 
Richard Graham. 
William Graham. 
Joshua Greaves, 
.lames Gromley. 
Benjamin Guild. 
Jacob Garratson. 



.lereraiah Garratson. 
Joseph Garratson. 
Lemuel Garratson. 
Benjamin Gifford. 
James (xitFord. 
John Giftbrd. 
Timothy Gifford. 
John Gotr. 
Francis Gonuel. 
James Gormley. 
William Hackett. 
Joseph Haines. 
William Hainey. 
.Tames Hamilton. 
.Tohn Hamilton, 
.Tohn Hancock. 
Abram Harcourt. 
Abel Harker. 
David Harker. 
Nathaniel Harker. 
Mose.s Harris. 
Reulien Harris. 
William Harris. , 
(xeorge Hawkins. 
David Hays. 
Peter Hedd. 
David Heind. 
Leonard Helel. 
Hance Helmes. 
.Tohn Helmes. 
Robert Hem[)hill. 
.Tacob Henns. 
George Henry. 
Michael Hess. 
John He.ssler. 
William Hewes. 
Benjamin Hewett. 
Caleb Hewett. 
Moses Hewett. 
Samuel Hewett. 
Thomas Hewett. 
William Hewett. 
Isaac Hickman, 
.lames Hickman. 
Edward Higbey. 
Isaac Higbey. 
Richard Higbey. 
Uriah Hill. 
Daniel Hillman. 
S.'imuel Hillman. 
Samuel A. Hillman. 
Jlichael Hiss. 
John Hitman. 
Benjamin HnfI'man. 
Jacob Hollinan. 



74 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Thomas Hollingsworth. 
Andrew Homan. 
Daniel Homan. 
John Hukey. 
John Hulings. 
Thomas Humphrey. 
David Hund. 
Lewis Hund. 
John Hurley. 
Abraham Hutchinson. 
Ezekiel Hutchinson. 
Peter Hutsinger. 
Thomas Hickman. 
Absalom Higliey. 
John Hillnian. 
Seth Hillman. 
David Homan. 
John Hugg. 
Andrew Hurst. 
Jacob Idle. 
George Ihnetler. 
Daniel Ingalson. 
Isaac Ingalson. 
Benjamin Ingersoll. 
Ebenezer Ingersoll. 
John Ingersoll. 
Josei)h Ingersoll, .Tr. 
Amos Irelan. 
Thomas Irelan. 
Thomas Ireland. 
John Ireland. 
Thomas Ireland. 
David Irelan. 
Edmond Irelan. 
George Irelan. 
Japhet Irelan. 
Jonathan Irelan. 
Joseph Irelan. 
Reuben Irelan. 
James Jeffries. 
John Jeffries. 
Jonathan Jerry. 
Samuel Jess. 
Isaac Johnson. 
Joseph Johnson. 
Lawrence Johnson. 
Lewis .lohnson 
Nathaniel Johnson. 
Richard Johnson. 
Isaac Johnston. 
Abraham Jones. 
Alirani Jones. 
Daniel .loncs. 
Hugh Jones. 
Jonas Jones. 



Lawrence Jones. 
Samuel Jones. 
Michael Johnson. 
William Johnston. 
Isaac Jones. 
John Kaighn. 
Reuben Keen. 
Thomas Kehela. 
David Keilson. 
Patrick Kelly. 
Uriah Kelly. 
William Kelly. 
James Kendle. 
John Kerrey. 
John Kesler. 
Daniel Kidd. 
Peter Kidd. 
John Killey. 
.loseph Kindle. 
Andrew King. 
Cornelius Lacy. 
John Lafferty. 
Andrew Lake. 
Joseph Lake. 
Nathan Lake. 
William Lake. 
.Tames Land. 
Nathan Leah. 
Nathaniel Leake. 
William Leake. 
Godfrey Leaman. 
David Lee. 
Joseph Lee. 
Walter Lee. 
Daniel Leeds. 
Felix Leeds. 
.Tames Leeds. 
William Leeds. 
Azariah Leonard. 
Francis Lewis. 
Jeremiah Lewis. 
John Linwood. 
Daniel Lippencott. 
John Lippencott. 
John Little. 
John Little, Sr. 
John Little, Jr. 
Cornelius Locy. 
John Lodge. 
Ansey Long. 
Moses Long. 
Silas Long. 
Asa Lonl. 
John Lord. 
Jonathan Lord. 



Richard Lown. 
Israel Luck. 
Daniel Lake. 
Mack Lamor. 
George I^and. 
Nehemiah I>eeds. 
Thomas Leeds. 
.John Lock. 
.Jonathan Lock. 
Abram I>oper. 
Abram Manary. 
David Mancy. 
Benjamin Mauley. 
Edmund Mapes. 
Andrew Mason. 
David Mason. 
Benjamin Massey. 
Joseph Masters. 
David Mattacks. 
Jesse Mattacks. 
Michael McCleary. 
John McCoUum. 
Abraham McCullock. 
.Tames McFadden. 
John McFadden. 
Samuel McFarland. 
Daniel McGee. 
George McGonigal. 
Charles McHenry. 
William McKay. 
William Mclvimmy. 
Hector McNeil. 
George Meare. 
Charles Meyers. 
Benjamin Miller. 
Samuel Miller. 
Stephen Miller. 
Samuel Mintear. 
George ]\Iires. 
John Mitchell. 
Andrew Moore. 
Daniel Moore. 
Thomas Morris. 
Jonas Morse. 
Nichola.s Morse. 
George IMoses. 
Sharon Moslander. 
Ezekiel MuUord. 
Furman Multord. 
Jonathan JIulford. 
Samuel Mulford. 
DaveMuney (Murrey). 
John Munnion. 
William Murjihy. 
John Musbrook. 



George Marical. 
Joseph Marshall. 
William Marshall. 
Andrew Mart. 
John McClaisuer. 
Adam McConnell. 
Joshua Morse. 
John Mullaky. 
Thomas Neaves. 
Davis Nelson, 
(rabriel Nelson. 
James Nelson. 
.Joseph Nelson. 
Nehemiah Nelson. 
Richard Newgen. 
.T(din Newman. 
Reuben Newman. 
Silas Newton. 
Cornelius Nichols. 
Thomas Nich(ds. 
Wilson Nickles. 
John Nickleson. 
David Nielson. 
Davis Nielson. 
Gabriel Nielson. 
Benjamin Nile. 
Renjamiii Norcross. 
James Norcross. 
Joseph Norcross. 
Caleb Norton. 
Jonathan Norton. 
Thomas Nukler. 
Wilson Nuckless. 
Jacob Nichols. 
James Norton. 
John Orr (or Ord). 
Daniel Osborn. 
David Padgett. 
Thomas Padgett. 
Joseph Parker, Sr. 
Samuel Parker, Sr. 
Daniel Parkes. 
•losejih Parkes. 
Noah Parkes. 
Paul Parkes. 
.lohn Patterson (1st), 
.lohn Patterson (2d). 
Jos.'ph Paul. 
Robert Pawpe. 
Samuel Peckin. 
Stephen Peirson. 
.lames Penton. 
.loaeph Penyard. 
Samuel Penyard. 
Samuel Perkins. 



THE WAR OF THK HKVOLdTlON. 



75 



Daniel Perry. 
John Perry. 
Joseph Perry. 
Mo-ses Perry. 
Philip Peters. 
Abram Peterson. 
David Peterson. 
Jacob Peterson. 
Samuel Peterson. 
Th(jnuis Peterson. 
Joseph Pett. 
George Pierce. 
Joseph Piatt. 
Samuel Piatt. 
Thomas Poarch. 
Lawrence Pouleson. 
John Powell. 
Richard Powell. 
Jacob Price. 
Levi Price. 
Thompson Price. 
William Pridmore. 
William Prigmore. 
Joseph Parker, Jr. 
Samuel Parker, Jr. 
John Parry. 
Israel Parshall. 
l)avid Pierson. 
Ward Pierce. 
Richard Price. 
Thomas Price. 
William Quicksel. 
John Rain. 
Junathiiu Reed. 
William Reed. 
John Reeves. 
Joshua Reeves. 
Thomas Reeves. 
Thomas Rennard. 
Samuel Reynolds. 
Michael Riie. 
Joseph Rich. 
Richard Richerson. 
Richard Richman. 
Daniel Richmond. 
Jacob Riley. 
Patrick Riley. 
Ann Risley. 
David Risley. 
Joseph Risley. 
John Robbins. 
James Roberts. 
Joseph Roberts. 
George Robertson. 
Caleb Robeson. 



Jeremiah Robeson. 
Joseph Robeson. 
Thomas Robeson, 
.fcremiah Robinson. 
William Rockliill. 
Andrew Ross. 
Stephen Ross. 
Enoch Rudnown. 
Enoch Rudrow. 
Obadiah Reed. 
Morris Risley. 
Nathaniel Risley. 
Samuel Risley. 
Thomas Risley. 
Isaac Robertson. 
John Rossell. 
John Salmon. 
Johu Salsbury. 
Joseph Sawings. 
David Sayers. 
Thomas Scott. 
Abel Scull. 
David Scull. 
Joseph Scull. 
Peter Scull. 
David Sealey. 
Jacob Seddons. 
Benjamin Seeds. 
John Seeley. 
David Seers. 
William Seller. 
John Selvy. 
William Senker. 
John Shane. 
Henry Sharj). 
Reuben Shaw. 
Richard Shaw. 
David Sheeti; 
Lawrence Slu'pherd. 
Nathaniel Shepherd. 
Owen Shepherd. 
Frederick Sliinfclt. 
Edward Shroppear. 
John Shuley. 
Samuel Shule. 
Henry Sight, 
John Sill. 
John Silvey. 
(leorge Simpkins. 
James Simpkins. — 
Jesse Siner. 
William Sinker. 
David Skeotr. 
Johu Slawter. 
Philip Slide. 



James Smallwood. 
John Smallwood. 
Elias Smith. 
Elijah Smith, .Ir. 
Felix Smith. 
Henry Smith. 
Isaac Smith. 
James Smith. 
Jesse Smith. 
John Smith. 
Joseph Smith. 
Joshua Smith. 
Micha Smith. 
Nathan Smith. 
Noah Smith. 
Thomas Smith. 
William Smith (1st). 
William Smith (2d). 
Zenos Smith. 
Daniel Snellbaker. 
Philip Snellbaker. 
George Snelbacker. 
David Snell. 
Robert Snelly. 
Joseph Soey. 
Nicholas Soey. 
Samuel Soey. 
David Sommers. 
Enoch Sommers. 
Isaac Sommers. 
John Somers. 
Richard Sommers. 
Thomas Sommers. 
Joseph Sparks. 
Robert Sparks. 
Thomas Springer. 
Jeremiah Springer. 
John Sprong. 
John Starkey. 
John Spire. 
Richard Stedman. 
Andrew Steelman. 
Daniel Steelman. 
David Steelman. 
Kbenezer Steelman. 
Frederick Steelman. 
George Steelman, 
James Steelman, Sr. 
James Steelman. 
John Steelman. 
Jonas Steelman. 
Jonathan Steelman, Jr. 
Jonathan Steelman, Sr. 
Richard Steelman. 
David Stephens. 



Ezekiel Steward. 
.rosc]ili Steward. 
Alexander Stewart. 
Joel Stewart. 
Jcdin Stewart, Sr. 
.Tohii Stewart, .Ir. 
Stephen Stewart. 
Ebenezer Stebbins. 
David Stilwell. 
Samuel Stoddard. 
Thomas Stonebauk. 
.loel Stord. 
Thomas Stothem. 
Samuel Strickland. 
John Strumble. 
Gideon Stull. 
.lames Summers. 
John Stut}nan. 
Abraham Swaim, 
Judeth Swain. 
Jesse Swan. 
Isaac Swandler. 
Valentine Sweeny. 
Timothy Swiney. 
Valentine Swing. 
Isaac Taylor. 
Robert Taylor. 
William Tenneut. 
Isaac Terrepin. 
Uriah Terrepin. 
Jonathan Terry. 
James Thomas. 
John Thackry. 
John Thomas. 
Richard Thomas. 
William Thomson. 
Oliver Thorp. 
John Tice. 
Daniel Tilton. 
Peter Till, 
.losepli Tillon. 
Jacob Timberman. 
Elijah Toinlin. 
Jacob Tomlin. 
Jonathan Tomlin. 
William Tomlin. 
Lewis Ton.son. 
Redack Tourain. 
.lohn Towne. 
.lames Townsend. 
Daniel Townsend. 
John Townsend. 
Reddick Townsend. 
Daniel Trumey. 
John Vanncmon. 



76 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



David Vernon. 
George Waggoner. 
John Walker. 
George Wall. 
John Wallace. 
John Wallis. 
Benjamin Weatherby. 
David Weatherliy. 
(ieorge Weatlierby. 
John Weeks. 
Zephaniah Weeks. 
Seth Weldon. 
Thomas Weldron. 
Jacob Wence. 
Peter Wells. 
Israel West. 
Uriah West. 
Porter Wheatou. 
Robert Wheaton. 
Silas Wheaton. 
Uriah Wheaton. 
Samuel Whitacre. 



Jennings White. 
John White. 
John Whitlock. 
John Wild. 
Daniel Wiles. 
James Wiley. 
David Williams. 
Edward Williams. 
George Williams. 
William Williams. 
John Williams. 
David Williamson. 
John Wilsey. 
Elijah Wilson. 
William Wilson. 
Samuel Woodrutt'. 
John Woolson. 
Samuel Worrick. 
John Wright. 
Hance Young. 
Uriah Young. 
Jacob Zimmerman. 



Lieutenant Eichard Somers at Trip- 
oli. — In the war in which the United 
States engaged next after achieving their 
independence, that against the Barbary State.s 
on tiie African coast of the Mediterranean 
Sea, to punish and .suppress their piracy, 
Lieutenant Richard Somers wtin a fame 
whicli will last as long as the memory of 
gallant deeds endures. He was the son of 
Colonel Richard Somers, of the army of" the 
Revolution, was horn in Egg Harbor, and 
became an officer in the American army in 
1796. In the squadron which Commodore 
Preble took to fight the Moors in 1803 he 
commanded the schooner " Nautilus." ^\'hen 
the enemy ciipturcd the " Philadelphia," in 
1804, Somers conceived the project of send- 
ing into the inner harbor of Tripoli the little 
gunboat or ketch " Inlrepid " as a fire-ship 
and infernal machine. She was loaded and 
her decks covered with powder, boud)s, 
grape-shot, rockets and various missiles, the 
expectation being to so explode her amidst 
the Moorish ficet and close to the fortifica- 
tions that she might inflict the greatest 
damage on both, po.s.sibly destroy the " Phila- 
delphia," and cause the release of her crew 



and other Americans slowly perishing in 
the prisons of Tripoli. Somers volunteered 
for the command of this desperate expedi- 
tion, and had with him four other volunteers 
from the crew of the " Nautilus." 

Fenimoi-e Cooper has tersely told the narra- 
tive of that fateful night of Septeniljer 4, 
1804,— 

"Once assured of the temper of his companions, 
Somers took leave of his officers, the boat's crew 
doing the same, shaking hands and expressing 
their feelings as if they felt assured of their fate in 
advance. Each of the four men made his will 
verbally, disposing of his eft'ects among his ship- 
mates like those about to die. Several of Somers' 
friends visited him on board the Intrepid be- 
fore she got under way. Somers was grave and 
entirely without any affectation of levity orindifl'er- 
ence, but he maintained his usual quiet and tran- 
quil manner. After some conversation he took a 
ring fi-om his finger, and breaking it into three 
pieces, gave each of his companions ' one, while 
he retained the third himself. 

" Two boats accompanied the Inti'epid to 
bring ort' the party just after setting fire to the 
train. About nine o'clock in the evening Lieu- 
tenant Reed was the last to leave the Intrepid 
for his own vessel. When he went over her side 
all communication between the gallant spirits she 
contained and the rest of the world ceased. The 
ketch was seen to proceed cautiously into the 
bay, but was soon obscured by the haze on the 
water. At ten o'clock the enemy's batteries were 
slowly firing upon her. At this moment Captain 
Stewart and Lieutenant Carroll were standing in 
the gangway of the Siren, one of the American 
fleet, looking intently toward the place where the 
ketch was known to be, when the latter exclaimed, 
' Look ! see the light I ' At that instant a light 
was seen passing and waving, as if a lantern were 
carried by some person along a vessel's deck. 
Then it sunk from view. Half a minute may 
have elapsed, when the whole firmament was 
lighted by a fiery glow, a burning mast with its 
sails was seen in the air, the whole harbor was 
momentarily illuminated, the awful explosion 
came and a darkness like that of doom succeeded. 
The whole was over in less than a minute, the 
(lame, the quaking of towers, the reeling of ships, 
and even the bursting of shells, of which most fell 
in tlie water, though some lodged on the rocks. 

'Stewart and Decatur, who were bidding him farewell. 



TIIK WAR OF 1S12-14 



The tiring ceased, and lioiii (hat iiistaiil Tiipiili 
passed the night in a stillness as piofoiMid as that 
in whicli the vietims of this explnsinn have lain 
from that fatal hour to this." 

Whetlier Somer.-^ I)ur])Osely l>le\v ii|) the 
'' Intrepid " to preveut capture, wlii'tlier the 
explosion was at-cideutal, or wlietiier it was 
a hot shot from a Moorisli gun is a ([uestioii 
that will never be answered, for he and his 
four devoted shipmates perished in tlie 
disaster. 



C H A P T E R AM T T . 

THF. WAR (IK ]<Sr_'-1 1. 

The prosperity of the United States after 
the achievement of their independence was 
interrupted by the war between England 
and France, during the career of Napoleon 
Bonaparte. Those nations declared each 
other's ports to be in a state of blockade, 
which closed them against American com- 
merce. The British government demanded 
the " right of search," to take from American 
vessels, sailors, claimed to be of English birth, 
and impress them into the English service. 
The Atuerican people demanded " free trade 
and sailors' rights," and the outrages perpe- 
trated were so great that America insisted 
upon a surrender of the British claim of 
search. The government of the United 
States refused to negotiate on the subject, and 
an embargo was laid upon all ships in Amer- 
ican ports. 

In all, three thousand American sailors, 
who were, or were claimed to be, of British 
liirth, were impressed into the British navy; 
and many hundreds of Irish emigrants on 
their way to the United States were taken 
from their ships, upon which they were sail- 
ing on the high seas, and compelled to serve 
on British decks as marines. 

The crowning act was committed on June 
'22, 1807, when the British frigate " Leopard," 
without warning, fired into the American 



man-of-war " Che.sai)eake," disabled iier and 
took from among her crew four men, on the 
charge that they were <leserlers from a Brit- 
ish ship. Congi-e.ss ])assed the Embargo and 
Xon-Intercourse Acts, wiiich were retaliatory 
measures designed to stop commerce between 
the United States and Great Britain. 'IMie 
Democrats, who favored a declaration of war, 
elected Madison President, for whom New- 
Jersey gave her electoral vote. The consj)ir- 
acy of Governor Craig, of Gaiuula, and the 
British ministry to induce thelS'ew England 
States to secede from the Union, by aggra- 
vating the discontent which they, the great 
ship-owning and couimercial section of the 
nation, felt because of the prostration of tiiat 
interest, was revealed by John Henry, and 
on June 4, 1812, war was declared by Con- 
gress. 

The prevailing sentiment in New Jersey 
favored peace if it could be had with honor, 
but it did not flinch from the crisis that Eng- 
land precipitated. On January 9th, five 
months before the declaration of war, Sam- 
uel Pennington, of Essex County, introduced 
in the House of Assembly a |)reamble and 
resolutions, reciting the gi-ievances of the 
country, and adding, — 

"That in ease the government of the United 
States shall eventually determine to resist by 
force the lawless aggressions eommitted by the 
British nation on the persons and property of our 
citizens, this Legislature, in behalf of themselves 
and the citizens of New Jersey, whose representa- 
tives they are, pledge themselves to the nation to 
render to the general government all the aid, as- 
sistance and support in their power, and will, with 
all readiness, perform all the duties required of 
them in the prosecution of a war undertaken for 
the common defence and general welfare." 

On Novetnber 16th an order calling out 
the militia was i.ssued, and among those who 
tendered the services of their companies was 
Captain Pi.ssant, of Woodbury. No other 
organization is reported at that time as com- 
ing from Gloucester County, but it seems 
that manv Gloucester men were enrolled in 



78 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



companies formed at Salem, and that they 
were commanded hy Captains Tuft, William 
Ray, Freas and Garrison. 

Altogether New Jersey had about four 
thousand men under arms during this war. 
They were in service generally three months; 
five hundred at Fort Richmond, on Staten 
Island ; other detachments at Paulus Hook 
and Mai'cus Hook, and still others along the 
Delaware River. The State was not the 
theatre of any military operations, but pre- 
cautionary measures were taken in case the 
British should attempt an invasion by way 
of the Delaware, which was frequently 
threatened by the presence of her fleets 
along the coast. In 1814 a brigade of 
militia, under command of General Eben- 
ezer Elmer, was stationed at Billingsport, 
from whence it observed the movements of a 
small British schooner, which occasionally 
came into the river. Forty or tifty of these 
landsmen chartered another schooner, and, 
putting themselves under the direction of a 
dragoon officer, who had been a sailor, they 
put off to attack the foe. Unluckily, the 
water was so rough that all hands, except the 
captain and a few others, were driven below 
by sea-sickness ; but even thus disabled, he 
gave chase to the British vessel, which 
crowded on canvas and put out to sea, 
though she could easily have captured her 
pursuer. 

In the latter part of 1813, as several small 
coasters were sailing around Cape May from 
the Delaware River, bound for Kgg Harbor, 
they came in contact with a British armed 
schooner lying off the Cape. She chased 
and captured the sloop " New Jersey," from 
Mays Landing, which was manned by the 
master, Captain Burton, and two hands. 
Having placed on board as prize-master a 
young midshipman, with three men (two 
p]nglishmen and an Irishman), she ordered 
the sloop to follow her, and made chase for 
the other vessels. As they neared Egg Har- 
bor, the apj)roach of night compelled her to 



desist from the chase, and she then put about 
for tlie Cape. The sloop followed, but made 
little headway, the midshipman in command 
being an indifferent seaman, and he finally 
ordered Burton to take the helm and head 
for Cape May. Burton designedly held the 
sloop off and on during the night, so that 
when morning dawned they were off the 
mouth of Great Egg Harbor. Burton pro- 
fessed ignorance of his whereabouts, and the 
puzzled British middy sent one man aloft as 
a look-out, while he went below with another 
to study the charts, leaving one of the prize- 
crew on deck with the Americans. The lat- 
ter made this man prisoner, secured the look- 
out as he came down from the masthead, 
locked the midshipman and his companion 
in the cabin, and thus recaptured their vessel, 
which they sailed to Somers Point, where 
they turned their captives over to an Ameri- 
can officer. The midshipman was exchanged, 
the two Englishmen went to work in the 
neighborhood and the Irishman enlisted in 
the United States uavy. 

The heroic CVptain James Lawrence, so 
greatly distinguished in this war, though 
born in Burlington, obtained much of his 
education at the academy in \Voodbury, where 
he studied navigation with Samuel Webster.' 
For two years he read law with his brother 
John, who was a leading practitioner at the 
Gloucester bar, but left his office in 1798 to 
accept a midshipman's commission in the 
navv. Mickle, in his " Reminiscences of Old 
(iloucester," relates that he was told by a 
friend who met Lawrence at English's Ferry, 
in Camden, at the opening of the war, that 
the latter remarked with much warmth, in 
alluding to the attack of the " Leopard " upon 
the" Chesapeake : " "I shall never sleep sound 
until that stain is washed from the ' Chesa- 
peake's ' decks." Perhaps he had this deed 
of vengeance in mind when he was promoted 

■ Commodore Stephen Decatur was also a pupil at 
this school, and during his academic terms in Wood- 
bury resided with the West family, at the Buck Tavern. 



THE WAR OF 1812-14. 



79 



to the command of the " (Chesapeake,'" and, on 
June 1, 1813, accepted the challenge of Cap- 
tain Broke, of the Briti.^li frigate " Shannon," 
to the combat off the Massachusetts coast, 
(xoing into action with an unprepared shij> 
and a raw crew, he suffered a terrible defeat 
and lost his own life. As they bore him 
down the hatchway, bleeding to death, he 
gave, in feeble voice, his last heroic order- — 
ever afterward the motto of the American 
mau-o'-war's man — " Don'tgive up the ship." 
On the previous 24th of February, while 
commanding the " Hornet," he had captureil 
the British sloop-of-war " T'ejicock " on the 
South American coast, and had won the plau- 
dits of the nation. 

New Jersey Militia. — The army oi" 
the United States previous to 1808 num- 
bered only three thousand men, but the same 
year the force was increased to six thousand. 
In January, 1812, Congress had directed a 
force of twenty-five thousand to be raised, so 
that the entire number authorized by law 
now exceeded thirty-five thousand, including 
the officers, and consisted of twenty-five reg- 
iments of infantry, three of artillery, two of 
light artillery, two of dragoons and two rifle 
regiments. In addition to this, the President 
was authorized to accept the services of any 
number of volunteers not exceeding fifty 
thousand, who were to be armed and equipped 
by the United States ; and a similar author- 
ity was given to him to call upon the Uover- 
nors of States for detachments of militia, the 
whole of which was not to exceed one hun- 
dred thousand. 

Aaron Ogden, Governor of New Jersey, 
issued his proclamation calling fi)r volunteers 
to garrison fortifications and for coast defense. 
In answer to this call, Gloucester County 
responded with eleven full companies of 
troops, of which one was independent, eight 
were attached to Brigadier-General Ebenezer 
Elmer's brigade of detailed militia and were 
a.ssigned to Colonel Joshua Howell's ix'gi- 
ment. They were .stationed at Billingsport, 



Cape May and Fort Elizabeth. Fwo lull 
companies — one of infantry and the other of 
artillery — were a.ssigned to the defen.se of the 
sea-coast from New York Harl)<)r to ( 'ape Mav, 
and as occasion demanded, were d('tache<l to 
protect any and all points along the sea-coast. 




UXIl'ORMKll SOI.niEKS IN ISll'. 

The territory embraced in Atlantic and 
Cape May Counties, since taken from Glou- 
cester, sent out its cjuota of volunteers who took 
a prominent part in inland and coast protec- 
tion, and asall the troops iicrein appended were 
accredited to ( TJoucester County, it is impossible 
to collect and assign the troops to the .several 
counties, as upon the original rolls, now in 
the office of the adjutant-general in Trenton 
(and from which these list.s were copied"), each 
and all the companies are mentioned only as 
from Gloucester County. 

The first full compaiiy to offer its servi<es 
to (Governor Ogden was that of Captain .Inhn 
Cade. 

The name of Captain John Cade is yet 
well remembered by many citizens of Glou- 
cester, Camden and Atlantic Counties ; for 



80 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



maiiv years he was court-crier and jail-keeper 
at Woodbury and took a prominent part in 
the military organizations of the county. 
His son, Thomas Jefferson C'ade, "the 
drummer-boy of Billingsport," was attached 
to his company and at this date, 1886, is an 
honored official in the clerk's office in Wood- 
bury. 

An Independent Co>rPANY of New 
Jersey Militia. — Cajitain John Cade was 
placed on duty at Billingsport and assigned 
to Major William Potter's detachment. This 
company was enrolled July 14, 1813, and 
discharged Septeml)er •'!(), 1813. The fol- 
lowing is its rank and file : 
Captain. 

John Cade. 

Lieutenantit. 
Zephaiii.ih Steelinau. Joseph Bright. 

Sergediit^. 
William Th(imi)snn. Jacob Featherer. 

John M. Gibson. David Ewings. 

Thomas Fulton. 

Corpordh. 
Samuel Avis. George Floyd. 

James Milsom. Samuel J^eapcutl. 

Driiiiinicr. 
Thomas .lefferson Cade. 
Fifer. 
William Allen. 
Privates. 
James Andrews. William Helap. 

Ware Askill. Jai-ob Dilks. 

Nathaniel Ashmore. .Tose|>h Doty. 

Jacob Adams. HcTiry Daniels. 

John Alloway. James Dublc. 

Joseph Atkinson. Jonathan Dougherty. 

Zedekiah Barber. David Evan.s. 

Abraham Bacon. John Epley. 

George Burket. Nidiolas Elberson. 

Joseph Bozortli, Jaiob Fo.x. 

Luke Braning. John Firinemore. 

George Bosier. William Finncmore. 

Thomas Busier. Samuel Fagan. 

Henry Crowell. Annias Gant. 

-Isaac Crawford. .loseph Grolf. 

William Cahala. William Grant. 

James Crawford. Solomon Gaskcl. 

Henry Craven. Scth Homaii. 

James Cunningham. John Hoshin. 
Joseph Cairl. ^\■iHiam Holmes, Jr. 



Abraham Hewlings. 
Daniel Holland. 
Joseph Hilyard. 
Amos Ireland. 
Hezekiah Ireland. 
William Jacobs. 



James McNenney. 
Robert Nelson. 
Joseph Powell. 
Joseph Paneoast. 
Christopher Slim. 
David Stibbins. 



William Leonard, Jr. George Simkins. 

David Lock. Joseph Shute. 

Benjamin Lord. Samuel Saxton. 

Abijah Learning. Samuel Simson. 

Methusala Lupton. William Simson. 

William Milson. James A. Tice. 

James Milson, Jr. William Tice. 

Thomas Milson. Ephraim Taylor. 

Eber Ml Ilvain. Benjamin Taylor, 

.lohn Jtiller. David Thomas, 

.lames JIallet Jacob Thompkins. 

John Morris. James Vennel. 

Cyrus Middleton. Nicholas Vansant. 

Eli Jhither. Venable Wallace. 

Charles McGee. Aaron Wonderlin. 

Total : Three commis.sioned officers, ninety- 
one enlisted men. 

Captain John K. Scull's Company 

was organized April 14, 1S14. The officers 

were commissioned May 6, 1S14 ; was called 

a volunteer company of the First Battalion, 

First Regiment, (Jloucester Brigade. The 

troops were enrolled May 25, 1814, and were 

discharged February 12, 1815. The fblk)W- 

ing is the rank and file of thiscom[)any : 

( 'iiplaiii. 

John R. Scull. 

First fAentennnt. 

Ijawrence Scull. 

Second Lieuteniint. 

Levi Holbcrt. 

Third l.it'uteiiant 

Job Frambes. 

En-ngn. 

Samuel Risley. 

First Sergeant. 

David Frambes. 

Strge<inte. 

Zacliariah Dole. Samuel Lake. 

Israel Scull. Richard I. Somcrs. 

(hrpont/.'<. 
.Idliii I'iuc. Isaac Robinson. 

Thomas Reeves. 

Drummer. 

Robert Risley. 

Fifir. 

James >r. Gilford. 



THE WAR OF 1«12-14. 



81 



James Adams. 
Jeremiah Adams, 
.lonas Adams. 
Solomon Adams. 
Jacob Albertsoii. 
John Barber. 
David E. Bartlett. 
John Beaston. 
Andrew Blackman. 
Andrew B. Blacknii 
Thomas Blackman. 
Derestius Booy. 
Joseph H. Booy. 
James Burton. 
Jesse Chamberlain. 
Jesse Chambers. 
Enoch Champion. 
John Champion. 
Joel Clayton. 
John Clayton. 
Absalom Cordery. 
Samuel Delancy. 
James Doughty. 
Enoch Doughty. 
John Doughty. 
Daniel Edward.s. 
Daniel English. 
Hosea English. 
Aaron Frambes. 
Andrew Frambes. 
Stephen Gauslin. 
Andrew Godfrey. 
Andrew Hickman. 
Ebenezer Holbert. 
Clement Ireland. 
David Ireland. 
Elijah Ireland. 
Job Ireland. 
Thomas Ireland. 
Andrew Jeffers. 
Daniel Jefters. 
Evin Jefters. 
Nicholas Jefters. 
John Jefters. 
William Jeffers. 
Enoch Laird. 
David Lee. 
Jesse Marshall. 
Daniel Mart. 
John Mart. 
Richard Morri.'*. 



Privates. 

David Price. 
John Price, Sr. 
John Price, Jr. 
John Riggins. 
Jeremiah Risley, Sr. 
.leremiah Risley, Jr. 
Nathaniel Risley. 
Peter Risley. 
Richard Risley. 
n. .Tohu Robarts. 
John Robinson. 
Andrew Scull. 
David Scull. 
John S. Scull. 
Joseph Scull. 
Richard Scull. 
Damon Somers. 
Edmund Somers. 
Isaac Somers. 
James Somers. 
John J. Somers. 
John S. Somers. 
Joseph Somers. 
Mark Somers. 
Nicholas Somers. 
Samuel Somers. 
Thomas Somers. 
Abel Smith. 
Enoch Smith. 
Isaac Smith. 
Jacob Smith. 
Jesse Smith. 
Zopbar Smith. 
David Steelman. 
Elijah Steelman. 
Francis Steelman. 
Frederick Steelman. 
James Steelman. 
Jesse Steelman. 
Peter C. Steelman. 
Reed Steelman. 
Samuel Steelman. 
Daniel Tilton. 
.fames Townsend. 
.Taphet Townsend. 
.loel Vansant. 
Joseph Wilkins. 
Martin Wilsey. 
.Tohn Winner. 
.Joseph Winner. 



Captain Robert Smith's Artillery 
Company was enrolled May 1, 1814, and wa.'* 
attached to the Second Battalion, Third Reg- 
iment, Gloucester Brigade, and discharged 
February 19, 1815. The following was the 
raidc and file : 

(hptaiii. 

Robert Smith. 

First Lieutenant. 

Joseph Endicott. 

Second Lieutenant. 

John Endicott. 

First Sergeant. 

William Endicott. 



Levi SmallwdOf 
Joseph Kindle. 



Daniel Kindle, Sr 
Joseph Shores. 



Ser<jeant,<. 

Nehemiah Mor.se. 

.Tames Smith. 
Curiiorals. 

Malcolm McCoUum. 

Samuel McCoUum. 



Joseph .Tohnson. 



Total : Five commissioned officers, one 
huTidrcd and twelve enlisted men. 
11 



Evy Adams. 
John Adams. 
Thomas Adams. 
Joab Bates. 
Joseph Bell. 
William Bennett. 
James Blackman. 
John Bowen. 
Joseph Bowen. 
John Brewer. 
Joshua Burnet. 
George Clifton. 
Absalom Conover. 
Adam Conover. 
Eliakim Conover. 
James Conover. 
Job Conover. 
John Conover. 
Josiah Conover. 
Micajah Conover. 
Peter Conover. 
Somers Conover. 
William Conover. 
Daniel Cordery. 
Edmund Cordery. 
Sanuiel Delap. 
Abner Doughty. 



Drummers- 

Reuben Mathis. 

Fifer. 
fyeed Risley. 

rrinate.'!. 

John Doughty. 
Nathaniel Doughty. 
Thomas Doughty. 
Benjamin Endicott. 
Jacob Endicott. 
Nicholas Endicott. 
Joseph Garwood. 
James Giberson. 
Jesse Giberson. 
John Giberson. 
Huston Grapevine. 
Aaron Hewitt. 
Absalom Higbee. 
Edward Higbee. 
Enoch Higbee. 
Daniel Homan. 
Eli Homan. 
David Homan. 
Mahlon Homan. 
Isaac Horn. 
Daniel Ireland. 
Vincent Ireland. 
William Johnson. 
Daniel Kindle, Jr. 
Thomas Kindle 
Cornelius Leed.s. 
.Tosse Leeds. 



82 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEWJERSEY. 



Reuben Leeds. 
Beaiah Mathis. 
Daniel McCollum. 
Jesse McCollum. 
John McCollum. 
Samuel McCollum. 
Joab Morse 
Joshua Morse. 
Thomas S- Murphy. 
Daniel Newberry. 
Solomon Newberry. 
Jesse Parker. 
Eli Risley. 
John Risley. 
Daniel Scull. 
Gideon Scull. 
James Scull. 
Paul Scull. 

Gideon 



David Shores. 
Samuel Smallwood. 
Isaac Smith. 
Jonathan Smith. 
Noah Smith. 
Joseph Somers. 
Richard Somers. 
William Somers. 
Benjamin Sooy. 
Nicholas Sooy. 
Samuel Sooy. 
Reed Steelman. 
Eli Strickland. 
John Strickland. 
Samuel Strickland. 
Aaron Thomas. 
John Turner. 
Vincent Weeks. 
Wilklon. 



Total : Three officers, one hundred and four 
enlisted men. 

General Elmer's Brigade. — The fol- 
lowing is the roster of the field and staff of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Howell's regiment, to 
which the following-mentioned companies 
were assigned. The roster of each of the 
eight companies of Elmer's brigade are ap- 
pended. They were copied from the original 
rolls in theoffice of Adjutant-General Stryker, 

at Trenton : 

Lieutenant- ( 'oloni:!. 
Joshua L. Howell, Sept. 7, '14, disch. Dec. 22, '14. 

Majors. 
Mahlon Davis, Sept. 7, '14, died Nov. 17, '14. 
Samuel Seagraves, Sept. 26, '14, disch. Jan. 6, 'If). 

Lieutenant and Adjutant. 
Josiah Matlack, Sept. 23, '14, disch. Dec. 22, '14. 

Lieutenants and Quartermasters. 
Thomas R. Denny, Sept. 21,'14, disch. Sept. 29,'14. 
Thomas Bradway, Sept. 30,'14, disch. Dec. 22, '14. 

Pay-Master. 
John Clement, Sept. 31, '14, disch. .Ian. (i, '13. 

Surgeon. 
Jeremiah J. Foster, Sept. 26, '14, disch. .Ian. 6,'15. 

Surgeon's Mates. 
Moses Bateman, Jr., Sept. 25, '14, died Nov. 7, '14. 
Edmond Sheppard, Nov. 8, '14, disch. Jan. 6, '15. 

Wagon Master. 
James Miller, Nov. 27, '14, disch. Jan. 7, '15. 



NOX-COMMI.SSIONED STAFF. 

Sergeant- Maj or . 

Evan C. Clement, Sept. 23, '14, disch. Dec. 22, '14. 

Quartermaster-Sergeant . 
Benjamin Nichols, Sept. 26, '14, disch. Jan. 6, '15. 

Drum-Major. 
Joseph Purfil, Jr., Sept. 26, '14, disch. Dec. 22,'14. 

Fife-Major. 
Clement R. Cory, Sept. 26, '14, disch. Dec. 22, '14. 

Total, fifteen. 

Captain Thomas Wescoat's Co.mpany 
was enrolled September 21, 1814, discharged 
January 4, IS15, was stationed at Billings- 
port. The following was the rank and file 
of the company : 

Captain. 

Thomas Wescoat. 

Lieutenant. 

Arthur Wescoat. 

Ensign. 
Solomon Adams. 
Sergeants. 
John Johnson. James Wiltse. 

James Smith. John Hosking. 

Corporals. 
Simon Morgan. Edward Dans. 

Samuel Pettitt. Daniel Veal. 

Privates. 

Robert Leeds. 



George Adams. 
Noah Adams. 
Robert Ashcraft. 
Elijah Barett. 
Richard Barrett. 
Edward Beebe. 
Joseph Beebe. 
William Bennet. 
Daniel Berry. 
David Campbell. 
Nathaniel Carver. 
William Clark. 
Edmund Cordeary. 
.lacob Cox. 
Michael Garvette. 
Daniel Giberson. 
John Hickman. 
Major Higbee. 
Edward Hooper, 
.lames Hughes. 
George Irelon. 
John Johnson, Jr. 
.Tames Jones. 



Charles Lord. 
John Murphy. 
John Peterson. 
Jesse Platte. 
George Poyier. 
Samuel Read. 
Daniel Rose. 
Daniel Smith. 
John I. Smith. 
John Smith. 
Steelman Smith. 
Elijah Steelman. 
Isaac Steelman. 
John Stewart. 
David Stibbins. 
Eli Strickliii. 
.■Abraham Toilor. 
John Turner. 
Daniel Vanneman. 
David Veal. 
James Wiley. 
Booze Wilkins. 



THE WAR OF 1812-14. 



83 



Total: Three commissioned officers, fifty- 
five enlisted men. 

Captain Richard W. Cheeseman's 

Company of detailed militia was stationed 

at Billingsport. It was enrolled September 

22, 1814, and di.scharged December 1(5, 1814. 

The following was the rank and file : 

Captaitu 

Richard W. Cheeseinan. 

LieuUnant. 

Jamea Bakley. 

Ensign. 
Jacob Conrow. 

Sergeants. 
John Wolohou. John Armitage. 

Samuel Hewitt. Christopher Sickler. 

Curporals. 
Johu Watsou, Jr. Jacob Cramer. 

Thomas Fulton. Henry Zulker. 

Dru7nmer. 
Isaiah Dill. 

Fifer. 
William Killium. 



Prirates. 
Nehemiah Beebe. 
Elijah Brilton. 
Joseph Brittou. 
Arthur H. Brown. 
Thomas Brown. 
Wesley Brown. 
Isaac Bryan. 
Job Burloe. 
John Cheeseman. 
Richard G. Cheeseman, 
Samuel Cheeseman. 
Joseph Dilks. 
M'duke Dukemeuier. 
Peter Dunn. 
James English. 
Samuel Farrow. 
Benjamin Filar. 
David Fisher. 
William Ford. 
Osman Garrison, 
Hudson Grajjewine. 
William Grapewine. 
Daniel Hagerty. 
William Hewet. 
Joseph W. Hillman. 
John Jones. 
Jonathan Kendall. 



William Leslie. 
Cromwell Lewis. 
David Matlack. 
Josiah Mickel. 
Joseph Morgan. 
Randall Morgan. 
Joshua Owen. 
Enos Parker. 
Cornelius Peas. 
Josiah Peas. 
Anthony Pettit. 
Jonathan Pine. 
William Randall. 
John Robertson. 
William Rowand. 
Samuel Rudrow. 
Samuel Slim. 
David Tice. 
James A. Tice. 
John Wallins. 
James Warrick. 
Joseph Watkins. 
John Webber. 
Joseph Wiley. 
Thomas Williams. 
John Zulkes. 



Total : Three commissioned officers and 
sixty-three enlisted men. 

Captain Jesse C. Chew's Company was 
stationed at Billingsport. It was enrolled Sep- 
tember 23, 1814, and disciiarged December 
20, 1814. Tile following was the rank and 
file: 

Captain. 
Jesse C. Chew. 

Lieutenant. 
John Smith. 

Scrgeantn. 
John Nelson. William Thompson. 

Charles Brooklield. Sparks Mcllvain. 

Corporals. 
Isaac Paul. Samuel White. 

Joseph Mullen. George Sherwin. 

Drummer. 
James Crawford. 



Prir 
Abel Ashead. 
Samuel Baxter. 
Elijah Blake. 
David Bowers. 
Israel Brown. 
Thomas Burrough. 
John Carpenter. 
Jeremiah Carter. 
Samuel Carrtar. 
Kendall Cole. 
John Connelly, Jr. 
William Connelly. 
James Corneal. 
Charles Cozens. 
Barnes Crawford. 
Jacob Dilks. 
Samuel Dilks. 
Samuel Dilks, Jr. 
Jonathan Fowler. 
Franklin B. Frost. 
James Gant. 
Joel Heritage. 



Isaac Hews. 
David Hurst. 
Isaac Jackson. 
Matthias Kay. 
John Mcllvain. 
Daniel McFee. 
Samuel Mitten. 
Reuben Mullen. 
Henry Myers. 
James Park. 
Ward Park. 
William Peterson. 
John Piles. 
Robert Pike. 
Isaac Price. 
James Seeds. 
John Sharp. 
William Sharp. 
George Simpkins. 
Joseph Thomson. 
Edward Thornton. 
John Whh. 



Total : Two commissioned officers and fifty- 
three enlisted men. 

C.\PTAiN Robert L. Armstrong's Com- 
pany wiis enrolled September 26, 1814, and 
discharged December 22, 1814. It was 
stationed at Billingsport and afterwards at 
Cape May. The following was the rank and 
tile: 



m 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, HiEW JERSEY. 



Robert L. Armstrong. 

First Lieutenant. 
Samuel L. Howell. 

Second Lieutenant. 
Randall Sparks. 

Ensign. 
Henry Roe, Jr. 

Sergeants. 
William Hugg. John Learmouth. 

Jacob Madera. Matthias Barton. 

Corporals, 
Nathan Thomson. John Mickle. 

Benjamin Darlington. John D. Watson. 

Privates. 

Edward Andrews. Charles Kinsenger. 

Thomas Ashbrook. John Matlack. 

Thomas Ayres. James G. Moysten. 

Benjamin Bartlett. Somers Owen. 

William Batt. Charles Page. 

Charles D. Branson. David Pierce. 

Gideon Burroughs. .\masa Pew. 

John Burroiighs. Tliomas Pawlings. 

Jonas Cattell. Joseph Richards. 

Robert Chatham. Thomas Richards. 

Samuel Cheeseman. John Roberts. 

Samuel E. CU^menl. Robert Roe. 

Job Coles. William Roe. 

Samuel Coles. William H. Ross. 

Edward Co.x. William Rutor. 

James Cox. William Scott. 

Charles Crump. Jacob Sears. 

Henr}' Davis. Benjamin Shreeve. 

James Dorman. Simon Sparks. 

John Dunaway. Joseph Stirling. 

Independence Ellis. Samuel C. Thackrav. 

Jacob Ellis. Cornelius Tice. 

Jacob Fifer. Joseph Townsend. 

John M. Gibson. Daniel Vannemaii. 

Isaac Hevvett. James Ward. 

Jacob S. Howell. Davis Watson. 

Joseph Hugg. Samuel W. Whitecar. 

Simeon James. Aaron Wilkins. 

Jonathan Kenuey. Charles Wilkins. 

Total : four coramissioued officers, sixtv- 
six enli.sted men. 

Captai.x Jonathan Lippincott'.s Co.\i- 
PANY was enrolled September 26, 1814, and 
discharged Decemlier 16, 1814 ; .stationed at 
Billingsport. Tlie following was the rank 
and lile : 



Captain. 

Jonathan Lippiucott. 

Lieutenant. 

William Madara. 

Ensign. 

Stephen S. Vauzant. 

Sergeants. 

Samuel Hendrickson. Charles Wood. 

Daniel Key. Samuel Lock. 

Corporals. 
David Burk. Jacob Mayers. 

John Madara. Abraham Gaskill. 

Druimner. 
John Holmes. 

Fi/'er. 
Thomas Riley. 
Privates. 
John Archer. Abner Luallen. 

.lohn Barber. Job B. Monroe, 

.lohn Burch. ' William Nugent. 

Jacob Carn. John Powell. 

James Clark. James Price. 

Maskill Clark. Jacob Price. 

Walter W. Day. John Pullen. 

Jonathan Dilks. James Reynolds. 

Jonathan Eldridge. William P. Reynolds. 

John Fisher. Henry Rulon. 

Samuel Garrison. William Russell. 

Abraham Clause. Charles Schweily. 

William Griscom. .loseph Sims. 

Joseph Grott". Philip Snailbacker. 

Richman P. Gurnal. Frederick Steel. 

Thomas Hand. John Stow. 

George Heisler. Gabriel Strong. 

Ezra Hendrickson. Isaac Thomson. 

Peter Homan. Thomas Vaughn. 

.\ndrew Jenkins. William Walker. 

Joseph Keen. Christopher Whitacar. 

Samuel Keen. Elijah Wood. 

Ezekiel Lock. Christian Yenser. 

Isaac Lloyd. John E. Y'ounker. 

Total : Three commissioned officers, fifty- 
eight enlisted men. 

Artillery CojrpANY commanded by 

Captain Enoch Gabb. It was stationed at 

Billingsport ; enrolled September 26,1814, 

and discharged December 22, 1814. The 

following was the rank and file : 

Captain. 

Enoch Gabb. 

Second Lieutenant. 

Stephen Miller. 



THE WAR OF 1812-14. 



85 



James Harker. 



Henry Kigir. 



Strytants. 

Ebeuezer Turner. 
( 'orporah. 

Ezekiel Weeks. 

Druiiimer. 

William Shillings. 

Kfer. 

Robert Davis. 



Primfes. 

James Reeves. 
Anthony Riley. 
William Shoulders. 
George Shute. 
Zephaniah Weeks. 
Moses Wilson. 
Gideon Ziern. 



Thomas Bates. 
John Dgrrieksou. 
Benjamin Hewlings. 
Aaron Hews. 
John Johnson. 
Noah Kates. 
James Miller, Jr. 
John Pricket. 

Total: Two coiiiinissioued officers, tweiity- 
oue enlisted meu. 

CaPT.MX PeTEK 8<)I DKIl's Co.MPAXY of 

detailed militia was statioued at Billiugs- 
port. It was eurolled September 27, 1814, 
and discharged December 21, 1814. The 
tollowiug was its rank and file : 

Capfain. 
Peter Souder. 
Z/ieutenant. 
Joseph Lippincott. 
Ensign. 
William Allen. 
Sergeants- 
Thomas Peterson. Erasmus Morton. 
Dodo Peterson. Philip Curiden. 

Corpoi-als. 

Andrew Cole. Elwen Cliffin. 

Lawrence Lippincott. John Sparks. 

Drummer. 

Benjamin Lippincott. 

Fl/er. 

Henry Webber. 

Frirates. 



Daniel Adams. 
Jonathan Ale. 
Josiah Ale. 
Samuel Beaver. 
Moses Bidel. 
James Boon. 
Daniel Carter. 
Oliver Combs. 
George Coombs. 
Joseph Curriden. 



William Curriden. 
James Demaris. 
Linnick Dilmore. 
William Dilworth. 
Lemuel Dougherty. 
David Dubois. 
John Dutley. 
Samuel Dunlap. 
William Dunn 
Jacob Ebright. 



David Evvens. Samuel Pickcn. 

Charles Fithian. Jolin Plummer. 

Lewis Fransway. John Reeves. 

John Glauden. William Sair. 

Peter Harris. Joseph Sanders. 

Francis Holetoir .Joseph Sapp. 

John Holeton. John Scott (1). 

William Holeton. John Scott (2). 

Joseph Humphreys. Silas Scare. 

John Hunter. Benjamin Smith 

Charles Lath Henry Sparks. 

Andrew Louback. Josiah Sparks 

Elijah Loyd. Thomas Sparks 

Samuel Lumley. John Spears. 

Samuel Mains. Lewis Stombs. 

Hill Mecuni. William Straughu 

William Moore John Stump. 

Jacob Nelson. Clark Tracy. 

Aaron Padget Charles Walleu 

Erick Peterson. Nathan Welsh. 

Peter Peterson. Samuel Wheaton 

Jacob Whitesele. Jonathan White. 

Thomas Woodnot Henry Zane. 

Total : Three commissioned officers, .seveu- 
ty-seven enlisted meu. 

Capt.\ix Willia.m Newton's Company 
of" detailed militia was stationed at Billings- 
port. It was eurolled September 29, 1814, 
and discharged December 22, 1814. The 
following was its rank and file. 
Captain. 
William Newton. 
Lieutenant. 
John Porter. 
Ensign. 
Michael Stow. 
iSergeants. 
Amos A. Middleton. Isaac Vansciver. 
Isaac Jones. (ieorge Hoft'man. 

Cor/jorals. 
John Henderson. Davis Nichols. 

Isaiah M. Hannold. 



Pr! 
Benjamin Anderson. 
William Burns 
John Brannon. 
George L. Browning. 
Jacob Coleman. 
Daniel Coles. 
Henry Earick. 
John Fisher. 
James Flick. 



•ates. 

John Garrow 
Joseph Garwood 
Samuel Hannold. 
Jacob Lock. 
Abraham Mack 
Isaac Middleton. 
Matthew Miller. 
Joel Read 
George Roe 



86 



HISTORV OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Isaac Sage. 
Armstrong Sapp. 
John H. Smallwood. 
Enoch Smith. 
Samuel Smith. 



Benjamin Stow. 
John Sutor. 
William Sutor. 
Peter Toy. 
James Vennel, 



Total : Three commissioned officers, tiiir- 
tv-five enlisted men.' 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE WAR WITH MEXU'O. 

During the administration of President 
Polk (1845-49) the war with Mexico oc- 
curred, in consequence of the adoption by 
Congress of Senator Benton's bill for the 
annexation of Texas, which had declared its 
independence of Mexico in 1833, and ob- 
tained its freedom as the result of the battle 
of San Jacinto April 21, 1836, when the 
Texans, under (ieneral Sam Houston, defeated 
Santa Anna's Mexican army. The population 
of Texas was largely made up of emigrants 
from the United States, and almost as soon 
as they had organized a government by 
electing Houston as President, tiiey asked for 
admission to the United States. They had to 
wait nine years, however, the sinister remon- 
strances and threats of Mexico, which still 
cherished hopes of regaining her lost territory, 
deterring Congress from acceding to the ap- 
plication. But the Americans crowded so 
rapidly into the new republic that there 
could be no question but that its future was 
destined to be united with that from which 
it had drawn its people and its institutions, 
and notwith.standing that the Senate in 1844 

1 Trenton, New .Jersey,] 
Sept. 20, 1880. / 

" I certify that the above list of soldiers detailed 
from tlie Gloucester County Mililia for service in the 
Wur of 1812. and of soldiers who were enrolled in the 
New Jersey Battalion for the Mexican War, is correct 
from the records of this office. 

" WiLHA.M S. Strykek, 
"Adjutant-General of New Jersey." 



rejected the annexation treaty negotiated by 
President Tyler, a year later it and the Hou.se 
of Representatives were ready to favorably 
answer the petition of Texas. 

Mexico officially announced that she re- 
garded this as an act of war, and by taking 
up arms sacrificed forever her claim upon 
Texas, and was eventually compelled to con- 
firm the conquests of Colonel Philip Kearny 
and Colonel John C. Fremont in New Mexico 
and Upper California by the session of those 
regions to the United States. 

The Wiiigs had opposed and the Demo- 
crats had favored the annexation of Texas; 
New Jersey had voted for Henry Clay and 
against I'oik for President in 1844 ; and in 
the existing situation of atfairs the Whig 
majoi-ity regarded with misgivings a war 
whicli they feared would result in the ex- 
tension of slavery in the Southwest. Yet the 
quota of troops, which the national govern- 
ment required the State to furnish, was filled 
without difficulty, and was forwarded to Mexi- 
co in time to join in General Taylor's victories 
in 1846 and 1847, at Palo Alto, Resaca de 
la Palma, Monterey, Saltillo and Bueua 
Vista. Then they joined the army under 
Scott, to the triumphs at Vera Cruz, Cerro 
Gordo, Perote, Contreras, San Antonio, 
^lolino del Rey, Cherubusco, Chapultepec 
and the City of Mexico. Between May 8, 1846, 
the date of the battle of Palo Alto, and Sep- 
tember 7, 1847, when the entry into the City 
of Mexico was made, the American armies, 
never counting as high as eight thousand 
elFective men, had in twenty engagements 
never failed to defeat the enemy, who were 
invariably twice or thrice their strength in 
numbers, had stormed fortifications supj)osed 
to be imj)regnabie and utterly vanquished a 
foe who at the outset of the war had affected 
to despise " Los Gringos." 

The Jersey commands participating in these 
marvelous campaigns were all, with one ex- 
ception, mustered at Trenton into the regular 
army ; and, therefore, no record was kept of 



THE WAR WITH MEXTCO. 



87 



the place of their organization, or of the resi- 
dence of individual recruits. The rosters 
presented in the office of the adjutant-general 
at Trenton merely show names and assign- 
ments to companies or regiments, rendering 
it impossible to fix through the rolls the 
towns and counties that supplied any one 
body of troops. Circumstances, however, 
indicate that most of the men who went from 
Camden County were mustered into the 
Tenth Regiment United States Infantry. 

In addition to the corajjanies thus received 
into the service by the War Department, a 
call was made on Governor Charles C. Strat- 
ton, of New Jersey, on May 2.3, 1846, for a 
regiment of volunteer infantry, and in re- 
sponse to his proclamation a number of com- 
panies were offered from Newark, Trenton, 
Burlington and Flemington. Brigadier-Gene- 
ral Goodwin is stated in Raum's history to 
have offered the Passaic brigade, and on May 
29, 1846, Captain Samuel Colt tendered a 
battalion. 

Camden County Soldiers. — The fol- 
lowing is a complete record, so far as could be 
ascertained, of troops from Camden County 
who served in the j\Iexican War. They are 
accredited to Camden County on the original 
muster-out roll of the company, on file in 
the office of the adjutant-general in Trenton. 
They were mustered into the battalion at 
Fort Hamilton, New York Harbor : 

Company A, New Jersey Battalion, was 
mustered in September 1, 1847, and mus- 
tered out August 5, 1 848. 
( 'iiji/aiti. 
Henry A. Naglee. 
Second Lieutenant. 
Isaac W. Mickle. 
Seryeaiitx. 
David D. Nichols. .Joliu M. Miikle. 

Corjioral. 
^Tohn Ppear. 

ftrummer. 
William H- Benckert. 



PTirnfe.s. 

Charles S. Bates. .lolin W. Luniley. 

Charles Bessonett. Samuel Lumley. 

Franci.s S. Bosler. .lolui jAIcNiilty. 

John B. Berger. .loseph M. Myer.s. 

James Canning. Charles Orhley. 

Samuel Cleary. (icorgeP. Pettit. 

Daniel Carter. Charles H. Potts. 

Peter Cunningham. William W. Reilly. 

Thomas Deizley. Charles F. Rodgers. 

Jame.s Falan. Frederick Rothweilcr. 

Lawrence Garcy. William Shery. 

Thomas Gaynor. Thomas Shimus. 

Barnet Hansel. Aaron D. Smalhvuod. 

William S. Heaton. Charles V. Smith. 

William Hera. Alexander Steward. 

Henry W. Howard. Edward Tice. 

Ireland. Henry Williams. 

Israel Learner. .Tohn Winters. 

Total: Twocommissioned officers and fortv 
enlisted men. The following served in the 
Mexican War in Penn.sylvania companies 
and in the navy, but were not accredit('d to 
Camden County. They entered the Uin'ted 
States service from Camden County, — 

Capfains. 

James McCraken. William Newton. 

IJtuti-nant. 

James B. Sutherland. 

Boatswain's Mate. 

Ziba Sears. 

Sergeant. 

Aquilla Haines. 

Corporal. 

Isaac Toy. 

Gunner's Mate. 

Ezra Lukens. 

The battalion of New Jersey infantry to 
which the Camden County company was 
assigned went out from West Jersey. There 
were many who entered the marine service, the 
naval service, the regular army, and others 
again, who were transferred to the store-ship 
" Fredonia," the bomb brigs, " Vesuvius " 
and " Heckla," as also the war steamers 
" Spitfire " and " Iri.s," and the sloop-of-war 
" Falcon." There were thirteen men from 
Camden and Gloucester Counties on the 
frigate " Cumberland," under Coinniodore 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



ConiKT, and who were landed l)elow the city 
of Vera Cruz on the morning of the 9th of 
March, 1847. They assisted in landing shot 
and shell, planting batteries and preparing 
to attack the celebrated castle San Juan de 
Ulloa. General Scott summoned the city 
to surrender on the 22d, but receiving a 
negative answer, the heavy mortars opened 
fire, which was continued until the 27th, 
when General Landero, commandant of the 
city, commenced negotiations for their sur- 
render. Tn the mean time the little " Spit- 
fire," a steamer not larger than one of the 
small ferry-boats on the Delaware, put out 
on the guards two men at heaving the lead 
to find a passage over the coral reef. Oae 
of these was a Jerseyman from Camden 
County, Boatswain's Mate Ziba Sears, who 
had distinguished himself in the determined 
effort, to discover a channel or thoroughfare 
over this reef, which extends for three 
miles around and beyond the castle and 
early ou the 27th did succeed in find- 
ing a crossing-place. At once the " Spit- 
fire " advanced boldly up under the walls of 
the San Juan, tlie guns of which were 
mounted en barbette and could not be de- 
pressed sufficiently to do any material dam- 
age to the steamer. The " Spitfire " ran 
right under the guns of the ca.stle, and tossed 
red-hot shot into it and set the buildings on 
fire and compelled' the surrender of the 
castle. When Vera Cruz and the 'castle 
surrendered, the detachment of Major John 
Reynolds, to which the Camden Company was 
attached, at once (captured Alvarado and 
Hocatalpam, ninety miles below Vera Cruz. 
Major Reynolds was enthusia.stic in his 
praises of the soldierly bearing of the Jersey 
troops. James M. Sutherland, of Wood- 
iiury, a first lieutenant in this detachment, 
was the first to mount the scaling ladders at 
Chapultepec and planted the Stars and Stripes 
upon the walls of the city. On the 19th of 
April, 1847, these same troops attacked and 
took possession of Peroteand throughout the 



entire war took an active part. On the 8th 
of May, 1848, peace was declared between 
the United States and Mexico, and at this 
time the great insurrection was in progress 
in the penin.sula of Yucatan, and the cities on 
the Gulf coast were in danger and applied 
to the United States for protection. Our 
government nobly responded and called for 
volunteers from among those who were prepar- 
ing to return home after a grand and glorious 
conquest. Some of the naval s(|uadroii and 
marines and five hundred of the troops, 
among whom were some of the Camden 
company, were at once forwarded to Laguna, 
Sisal and Catupeche. The flint-lock mus- 
kets and ammunition were turned over to 
the authorities of the cities, the insui'gents 
were routed, and in November, 1848, six 
tnonths after the term of service of these 
troops in the Mexican War had expired, 
they returned home via Norfolk, being dis- 
charged from the different vessels of the 
squadron. 

Captain C. N. Pelouze, of 604 St)uth 
Fifth Street, Camden, is one of the survivors 
of the Mexican War. Elisha N. Luckett 
was a second lieutenant in the Second 
Pennsylvania Regiment in the Mexican War. 
He now resides in Camden. Joseph Camp, 
residing three miles .south of Camden, is also 
a survivor of the Mexican War. 

C.VPTAIN Frank H. Coles, who.se .ser- 
vices in the preparation of the military 
chapters and other parts in this work were 
of great value, entered the marine service in 
the Mexican War in 1847, assigned to the 
frigate " Cumi)erland " mentioned above, 
and afterward to the United States .steamer 
" Iris," participated in the capture of Vera 
Cruz, Alvarado and Hocatalpam, and was 
one of the volunteers to Yucatan. 

Captain Coles was born at Woodbury, Sep- 
tember 28, 1827, and is of Swedish descent, 
his great-grandfathei'. Job Coles, having emi- 
grated from Sweden nearly two centuries 
ago. His father, Samuel Coles, was an ensign 



THE WAR FOE THE UNION. 



89 



ill the War of 1812. At the outbreak of the 
Civil War, Captain Coles, between the 12th 
and 16th of April, 1861, materially assisted 
in raising the first company that went out 
from Gloucester County, of which he became 
fii-st lieutenant. He afterwards entered the 
three years' service as first sergeant in Third 
Regiment of General Kearny's brigade ; 
was promoted to second lieutenant of Com- 
pany G May 29, 1862 ; promoted to first 
lieutenant March 24, 1863. After being 
woinided on June 27, 186.3, at Gaines' Mills, 
he was transferred, December 18, 1863, to 
the Veteran Reserve Corps as captain, com- 
manding Fifty-first and Fifty-second Com- 
panies, Second Battalion, Veteran Reserve 
Corps. He remained in the service until 
June 29, 1865. 

Captain Coles was married, in December, 
1849, to Anna Elizabeth Harker, daughter 
of Joseph Harker, of Swedesboro' and eldest 
sister of Brigadier-Cteneral Charles (i. 
Harker, a graduate of West Point Military 
Academy, who was killed at Kennesaw 
Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, at the 
age of twenty-seven years. 

C'aptaix William SxiLLiNCis, now 
residing in Gloucester City, was born in 
1814, sou of Jacob Stillings, a soldier of the 
Revolution. He was a soldier in the Seminole 
War in Florida, the ^Mexican War and the 
War for the Union. In 1838 he enlisted in 
the regular army and served in Florida 
under General Zachaiy Taylor. He was 
under General Scott when the Cherokee 
Indians were removed west of the Mississi|)pi 
to Indian Territory. In 184(), with his 
command, he was sent to Mexico, placed 
under General Scott, and participated in the 
memorable battles on the triumphant march 
to the City of Mexico. In 1854 he retired 
from the army and returned to Gloucester. 
In 1861 he was mustered into the service 
as a first lieutenant of Company K, Fourth 
Regiment New Jersey Volunteers, and at 
the exj)ii-ation of his term ol' tiirce months 



became a first lieutenant in the throe years' 
service. He was in the battles of West 
Point and Fair Oaks and at Gaines' Mills 
was captured by the enemy, placed in Libb} 
Prison forty-six days and then paroled. He 
joined his command, was promoted to cap- 
tain, took part in the second battle of Bull 
Run and the battles of South Mountain and 
Antietam. After recovering from a wound 
received in battle he entered the navy as 
engineer and continued in that service until 
1867. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE WAR FOR THE UXIOS. 

If a definite date is sought tor the begin- 
ning of the slavery agitation out of which 
proceeded the War for the Union, it may 
be placed in the year 182(1, when Mis- 
souri was admitted into the Union — not but 
that the question had previously shown itself 
to be a disturbing and threatening element, 
but because at that time there was presented 
for solution, the momentous problem whether 
the vast territory which had been acquired 
by the Louisiana purchase should be thrown 
open to the slave power of the South. The 
people of the free States — or at least an 
overwhelming majority of them — were de- 
termined that this more than imperial domain 
should not be used for the extension of sla- 
very, while those in favor of it were equally 
i-esolute in the maintenance of their theory 
that the slave-holder should be at liberty to 
locate in any of the newly-formed Territories 
with their human chattels, and, if they pos- 
sessed the voting majority, to establish sla- 
very by the Constitution of any State created 
from the Territories. It is not required that 
we should here refer to the several compro- 
mise measures passed by Congress defining 
lines stretching from the Mississippi River to 
the Pacific Ocean, the soil north of which 



90 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



should be forbidden to the slave-master and 
that south of it preserved to him forever. 
All such efforts to accomplish the impossible 
task of reconciling under one government 
two widely repellent industrial, political and 
social systems proved failures before they 
were wiped out by the decision of the Su- 
preme Court in the Dred Scott case. 

Interwoven with this phase of the irre- 
pressible conflict was the doctrine of States' 
rights upheld by the Southern leaders and 
insisted upon as the most efficacious of the 
instruments for the extension and perpetuity 
of slavery. It had been discussed with ex- 
treme vigor in the convention which framed 
the Constitution of the nation, and even the 
victory therein of the Federali-sts over the 
opposition had not laid it to rest or prevented 
it from becoming a crucial i.ssue in subse- 
quent politics. It had been the justifica- 
tion for South Carolina in 1832, when, under 
the guidance of John C. Calhoun, that State 
endeavored to nullify the tariff legislation of 
Congress, and from it tlie Southern states- 
men derived the alleged right of secession, in 
consequence of the election of Abraham 
Lincoln to the chief magistracy as the can- 
didate of a party which declared opposition 
to the extension of slavery to be its rea.son 
for existence. 

The opening of the War for the Union 
found New Jersey illy prepared to play her 
part on the field of battle. Devoted to the 
Constitution which the Legislature had nnan- 
imously ratified in December, 1787, this 
State was ready to exert her influent* to 
peacefully adjudicate the questions pregnant 
with national disruption. New Jersey had 
given four of her electoral votes to j\.braham 
Lincoln and a coalition of the Democratic 
factions had cast the other three for Stephen 
A. Douglas. On January 29, 1861, the 
Legislature passed resolutions indorsing Sen- 
ator Crittenden's compromise plan, or any 
other constitutional method that might i)er- 
mancntly settle the question of slavery. The 



conservative temper of that body decided 
" that the government of the United States 
is a national government, and the union it 
was designed to perfect is not a mere com- 
])act or league ; that the Constitution was 
adojited in a .spirit of mutual compromise 
and concession by the people of the United 
States and can only be preserved by the 
constant recognition of that spirit." The 
Personal Liberty statutes which some of 
the States had adopted as an offset to the 
F\]gitive Slave Law, were aimed at in a 
re.solution urging States " that have obnox- 
ious laws in force which interfere with the 
constitutional rights of the citizens of other 
States, either in regard to their persons or 
property, to repeal the same." Another res- 
olution propo.sed the calling of a convention 
of all the States to suggest amendments to 
the National Constitution that would avert 
disunion ; and finally, Charles S. Olden, 
Peter D. Vroom, Robert F. Stockton, Ben- 
jamin Williamson, Frederick T. Freling- 
huysen, Rodman M. Price, William C. Alex- 
ander and Thomas J. Stryker were appointed 
a committee to confer with Congress and 
similar delegates from other common- 
wealths upon enforcing the plan outlined in 
these resolutions. They took part in the 
Peace Conference held at Washington, Feb- 
ruary 4, 18(J1, at which twenty-one States 
were represented and which submitted sev- 
eral constitutional amendments to Congress, 
but their well-meant efforts were of no avail, 
for Congress gave little heed to their recom- 
mendations, and on the same day the Confed- 
erate government was organized at Mont- 
gomery, Alabama. 

President Lincoln's proclamation calling 
out seventy-five thousand troops for the three 
months' service was issued April ISth, two 
days after the fall of Fort Sumter. New 
Jersey had no militai-y establishment com- 
))etent to furnish at a moment's notice the 
four regiments of seviMi hundred and eighty 
men each, the cpiota a.'^signcd to her. 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



91 



lu the language of John Y. Foster, author 
of " New Jersey aud the Rebellion," hor 
militia system " was one of shreds and 
pat<>hes, without organic unity, and almost 
entirely worthless as a means of defence, or 
even as a nucleus for a more perfect organi- 
zation.'" But she had in Governor Charles 
S. Olden an executive whose quickness of 
thought and action went far to make up for 
these deficiencies. He received the requisi- 
tion from the national government on April 
17th, and instantly issued a proclamation 
directing all imlividuals or organizations 
willing to volunteer to report themselves 
within twenty days, various banks tlirough- 
out the State having already placed at his 
disposal four hundred and fiftj^-one thou.sand 
dollars to provide for the equipment and 
arming of the troops. At the same time 
orders were issued to the four generals of 
divisions to detail each one regiment of ten 
companies, aud at once proceed to the organi- 
zation of the reserve militia. Under the 
orders volunteers were to be accepted for 
three months' service ; but if a sufficient num- 
ber of these did not enlist, the deficiency was 
to be made up by a draft from the militia. 
Ardent loyalists, however, came forward in 
such numbers that within a few days over one 
hundred companies, equal to ten thousand 
men, had offered to go to the front. The 
Camden correspondent of the Philadelphia 
Pxiblle Ledger states that on the evening 
of April loth the Stockton Cadets, a Cam- 
den militia^company, held a meeting at their 
armory and passed resolutions expressing 
their loyalty and declaring it to be the duty 
of all connected with the militia to enroll 
tlieraselves for the defence of the Stars and 
Stripes, whereupon all present, twenty-three 
in number, enlisted. Arrangements were 
made for having the armory open nightly for 
the enlistment of recruits between the ages of 
eighteen and twenty-one yeare, with a view 
of tendering the services of the command to 
the government. 



The First War Mi:ETiN(i in C.\mdkx. 
—On the KJth of April, 18(J1, three days 
after the Confederates fired upon Fort Sum- 
ter, at the entrance of Charleston Harbor, a 
large number of loyal and patriotic citizens 
of Camden City and County issued the fol- 
lowing vigorous and spirited response to the 
President's proclamation : 
" To the Preudcnf of the United Staten : 

"The unparalleled events of the last week have 
revealed to the citizens of the United States, be- 
yond iiueation or the possibility of a doubt, that 
[>eaceful reconciliation upon the form of our Con- 
stitution is repelled and scorned, and secession 
means, in the hearts of its supportei-s, both Trea- 
son and war against our Country and Nation. 

" We, therefore, the undersigned Loyal Citizens 
of the United States, and inhabitants of the city of 
Camden, in the State of New Jersey, responding 
to the proclamation of the President of the United 
States, hereby declare our unalterable determina- 
tion to sustain the government in its efforts to 
maintain the honor, the integrity aud the exist- 
ence of our National Union and the perpetuity of 
the popular Government, and to redress the 
wrongs already long enough endured; no differences 
of political opinion; no badge of diversity upon 
points of party distinction, shall restrain or with- 
hold us in the devotion of all we have or can com- 
mand to the vindication of the Constitution, the 
maintenance of the laws and the defence of the 
Flag of our Country. 

" I. S. Mulford. Samuel S.E.Coperthwait. 

E. R. .Johnson. James M. Scovel. 

Louis L. Scovel. S. C. Harbert. 

B. M. Braker. John S. Read. 

Joseph C.Nichols. D. H. Erdman. 

Elwood C. Fortiner. Adam Angel. 

Joseph Vautier. George W. Vanhorn. 

Edmund Brewer. Charles S. Garrett. 

Uriah Norcross. Thomas M. Barracliff. 

Isaac L. Lowe. W. H. Saunders. 

Henry B. Goodwin. Jacob Harman, Jr. 

Richard W. Test. Charles K. Horsfall. 

James M. Cassady. Timothy Middleton. 

John Duprey. William W. Sloan. 

Jesse Pratt. Charles Cloud. 

Hamilton Johnston. A. W . Tcsl. 

Charles P. Dickinson. C. A. S. Oriesback. 
Richard H. Lee. Henry Scliock. 

C.G. Zimmerman. Walter Patton. 

Thomas M. K. J-ee, Jr. Azael Roberts. 
Charles J. Sanders. Thomas Jeft'ries. 



92 



HISTORY OF CAMDKN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



C. Gilbert Hannah. 
John T. F. Peak. 
Samuel C. Cooper. 
J. C. De Lajour. 
Edward T. Andrews. 
Conclin Mayhey. 
William Reynolds. 
Simon Rammel. 
H. H. Gold.smith. 
John Horsfall. 
Thomas H. Dudley. 
Robert Folwell. 
Edw. H. Saunders. 
James C. Morgan. 
David H. Sheppard. 
Richard Fetters. 
Charles C. Reeves. 
S. H. Grey. 
N. B. Stokes. 
S. C. Wright. 
Joseph Dlinston. 
David Creary. 
John R. Barber. 
James H. Denny. 
William R. Maxwell. 
Robert Wible. 
Hamilton William. 
George W. Jackson. 
Joseph Maurer. 
Joseph D. Brown. 
William S. Scull. 
Daniel Witham. 
Isaac Shreeve. 
Adam Hare. 
George Wardell. 
Joseph Coffman. 
George W. Conrow. 



Joshua Howell. 
Martin Grey. 
S. L. Wayne. 
Abner Sparks. 
Van T. Shivers. 
Westcott Campbell. 
William J. Taylor. 
Isaiah Norcross. 
Alden C. Scovel. 
Philip J. Gray. 
George W. Gilbert. 
Charles D. Hineline. 
Thomas H. Davis. 
Charles De Haven. 
Thomas Ackley. 
John Gill. 
James B. Dayton. 
James M. Stevens. 
Joseph French. 
George Campbell. 
A. A. Merry. 
E. Wells. 
William D. Clark. 
William B. Hatch. 
E. C. Jackson. 
A. B. Martin. 
Richard O. Robertson. 
Timothy C. Moore. 
George W. Stanley. 
Robert Schali. 
Reynell Coates. 
Aaron Hewit. 
Henry Shuster. 
William Hartsgrove. 
William B. French. 
W. A. Winchester. 
John M. Natty." 



In response to a call, on the 18tli of 
April an enthusiastic meeting was held in 
the county court-house, which was formed 
of a large collection of prominent citizens. 
The court-room was decorated with flags 
and mottoes. John W. Mickle was chosen 
president and Samuel C. Harbert and 
Thomas G. Rowand secretaries. The presi- 
dent addre.ssod tlie meeting first and Rev. 
Mr. Monroe offered a prayer. Hon. Thomas 
P. Carpenter, Thomas B. Atkinson (mayor) 
and Joseph Painter were appointed a com- 
mittee on resolutions. Judge Philip J. Grey 
addressed the uK^eting, after which the com- 
mittee adopted a long series of patriotic res- 



olutions. The A¥ashington Grays, Stockton 
Cadets and the Zouaves marched into the 
room and were received with cheers, Samuel 
Hufty read a resolution which was signed by 
many persons, who immediately formed the 
Home Brigade. David M. Chambers, Cap- 
tain Stafford, Benjamin M. Braker, John H. 
Jones and ¥^. A. Acton each addressed the 
meeting. James M. Scovel was then called 
upon and responded in eloquent terms and 
with patriotic energy. S. H. Grey offered a 
resolution, wliich was adopted, that the City 
Council and the Freeholders of the county be 
requested to apjn'opriate money for the e([ui])- 
ment of persons who may volunteer in de- 
fense of the country, and S. H. Grey, James 
M. Cassady and Joseph Painter were ap- 
jioiuted a committee to look after the interests 
of the resolution. The meeting continued in 
sassion until eleven p.m. 

On the 22d of April Samuel H. Grey 
made an address before the Board of Free- 
holders in a patriotic appeal, soliciting the 
board to make appropriations for the relief 
of families of volunteer .soldiers. John S. 
Read offered a resolution favoring the ap- 
propriation of five thousand dollars, whicli 
was unanimously adopted. On the evening 
of the 25th the City Council voted four 
hundred dollars for the saiue purpose. On 
the same evening the First Methodist Epis- 
copal Church of Camden collected one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars and purchased five 
hundred Bibles for the volunteer soldiers of 
Camden County. , 

The State Bank of Camden loaned twenty- 
five thousand dollars and the Farmers and 
Mechanics Bank ten thousand dollars to the 
Governor of New Jersey to aid in the prose- 
cution of the war. In July, 1861, the 
County Bible Society sent large in.stallments 
of Bibles to the Caniden County soldiers at 
Trenton. 

On April Itith the Washington Grays, of 
Camden, held a meeting and resolved to open 
the armory for recruits. By Saturday, April 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



93 



20th, those two oompaiiies, the Caimleu 
Zouaves and the Union Guards were reported 
ready tor service and the Camden liiglit Ar- 
tillery organizing. On the 25th the same 
correspondent wrote that the following com- 
panies had taken their departure from Cam- 
den for Trenton : 

Washington Grays, Captain E. Price Hunt. 
Canideu Light Artillery, Captain I. W. Mirkle. 
Stockton Cadets, Captain E. G. Jackson. 
Camden Zouaves, Captain John R. Cunningham. 

And the following fi-om Gloucester City : 

Union Guards, Captain Joseph B. Stratiord. 
Anderson Guards, Captain John P. Van Leer. 

It was the boast of the Gloucester people 
that Union township, which had but four 
hundred voters, sent at this time one hundred 
and ninety-eight good men to do duty for the 
cause. 

Foster's history asserts that on April 18th, 
Captain John R. Cunningham tendered the 
Camden Zouaves, a well-drilled and uni- 
formed comj)auy, to the Governor." This or- 
ganization had been formed under the militia 
law in the preceding year, when the tour of 
the principal cities made by Ellsworth's 
Chicago Zouaves inspired thousands of young 
men to join companies patterned upon that 
famous model. It was mustered into the 
Fourth Regiment, on April 25th, as Company 
G, under command of Captain Cunningham, 
First Lieutenant Louis M. Morris and En- 
sign Joseph L. De La Cour. 

The other five companies from Camden 
County were placed in the same regiment. 
Captain Hunt's company became Company 

' This was the first official tender of a company made 
in tlie State. Foster says that the first regimental otter 
was made on the same day, when Lieutenant-Colonel V. 
R. Matthews, commanding the First Regiment, Hunter- 
don Brigade, wrote to the Governor proffering their ser- 
vices. The fir.st individual offer, according to Governor 
Olden's records, was that of General Joseph W. Revere, 
of the Morris Brigade, who, in January, 1861, tendered 
his services in any capacity in which they might be re- 
quired. This offer was renewed and accepted on April 
17th. 



F ; Captain Van Leer's, Company II ; Cap- 
tain Jackson's, Company V ; Captain Straf- 
ford's, Company D ; and Captain Mickle's, 
Company E. The two first were mustered 
on April 25th and the three last on April 
27th. 

Among the individual offers was that of 
William B. Hatch, of Camden, who had 
served in 185!) and 18()0 in the cavalry of 
the Russian army ; he was commissioned as 
adjutant of the Fourth Regiment in the 
ninety days' service, and subsequently made 
major of the Fourtli (three years') Regiment. 
Mrs. Hettie K. Painter, of Camden, volun- 
teered as a nurse, and became known to 
thousands of sick and wounded men for her 
gentle and efficient ministrations in the hos- 
pitals of the Army of the Potomac. 

On the last day of April the quota of the 
State was complete, and it was mustered at 
Trenton as a brigade of four regiments, 
under command of General Theodore Run- 
yon, the present chancellor of New Jersey. 
The next day the Governor sent a special 
messenger to General B. F. Butler, com- 
manding at Annapolis, Md., requesting him 
to prepare to receive the brigade, which was 
to be .sent through the canal route in con.se- 
quence of the destruction of the railroad 
bridges near Baltituore by the Secessionists of 
Marvland. The men were embarked at 
Trenton on May 3d, on a fleet of fourteen 
propellers, and proceeded down the Delaware 
River and through the Delaware and C^hesa- 
peake Canal to Annapolis, which they 
reached on the night of the 4th." General 

^They left Trenton without a round of ammunition. 
Captain Charles P. Snntli was sent to New York that 
day to procure it, but was unsuccessful, until a Mr. 
Blunt, a dealer on Broadway, agreed to let him have a 
certain quantity of cartridges and percussion caps on 
his personal security. He reached Jersey City with a 
dray-load, notwithstanding the New York authorities 
had prohibited any ammunition from being taken from 
the city. There he had a controversy with the railroad 
officials, who refused to take such freight on a passen- 
ger train, but compromised by allowing it to be packed 
in an iron crate, which was towed a long way astern of 



94 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Butler ordered its advance to Washington, 
and on the otli the First Regiment, witli six 
companies of tlie Second and nine companies 
of the Third, started forward in two trains 
of cars. The first of these trains reached 
Wasliington about midnight, and the second 
at eight o'clock the following morning. The 
same evening the Fourth Regiment and the 
remaining company of the Third arrived at 
the capital. The four companies of the >Sec- 
ond left at Annapolis, were detailed to guai'd 
the telegraph and railroad between ^Vnnaj>o- 
lis Junction, and were left without tents and 
almost without a commissariat for a mouth. 

(_)n May Oth the arrival of the brigade 
was reported to General Scott, and no camps 
being provided, the troops went into such 
qnarters as were available in Wasliington. 
" On all sides," says Foster, " their arrival 
was hailed witii jileasure. Men felt that now 
the capital was safe. These three thousand 
Jei'seymen, thoroughly armed and equij)ped, 
as no regiments previously arrived, had been, 
could be relied upon to repel all assaults. 
New Jersey never stood higher in the estima- 
tion of the loyal people of the country than 
at that juncture, ^^•hen she sent to the na- 
tion's defense the first full brigade of troops 
that reached the field." On May 7th the 
command marched past the White House, 
where it was reviewed by President Lincoln 
and (leneral Scott. On the 9th the Fourth 
Regiment moved out to Camp Monmouth, on 
Meridian Hill, where it was soon joined by 
the other regiments, and on the I'lth the 
camp was visited by the President and Se(!- 
retaries Chase and Seward, Mr. Lincoln com- 
plimenting the troops on their .soldierly ap- 
pearance. They remained at ('am[) Mon- 
mouth, ])erfecting their drill and discipline, 

the train. At 10.30 that night Captain Smith reache'i 
(Jamden, where a tug was in waiting for him. The 
flotilla with the brigade was intercepted as it was pass- 
ing the city ; lie transferred the crate to the various ves- 
sels, and its lontents were served out to the men as they 
went on down the Delaware. 



until the 23d, when the Second, Third and 
Fourth Regiments (the First following the 
next day) crossed the Potomac into Virginia, 
and on the Wa,shingtonand Alexandria road, 
at a most important strategic point, con- 
structed and mounted with heavy guns a 
strong defensive work, which, in honor of 
their brigadier, they named Fort Runyou. It 
was the first regular fortification built by the 
national troops. The brigade remained in 
this vicinity until July IGth, when it was 
moved forward a few miles, and placed in 
the First Reserve Division, to which had also 
l)een assigned the First, Second and Third 
New Jersey (threeyear.s')Regiments,whit'ii had 
reached the field a few days previous to the 
movement. The First (three months') Regi- 
ment was ordered to a point on the Orange 
and Alexandria Railroad, three miles beyond 
Springfield, to guard the track repairs. On 
the same day four hundred and twenty-five 
men of the Third Regiment were detailed to 
e-scort a provision train, and a portion of the 
Fourth was charged with guarding another 
.section of the railroad. One company of the 
latter regiment was then guarding the Long- 
Bridge, and still another was on duty at Ar- 
lington Mills, while the remainder was or- 
dered to Alexandria with the Second (three 
montlis') Regiment. Colonel Taylor, com- 
manding the Third (three years') Regiment, 
was at the same time instructed to march to 
a point on the Orange and Alexandria Rail- 
road, and during the night • following, the 
First and Second (three years') Regiments 
were moved forward to A'^ienna. On the 
17th orders were issued to all the regiments 
in the command to provide them-selves with 
two days' cooked rations, and on the 18th, 
(leneral Rnnyon as.sumed command of all 
the troops not on the march to the front. 

These dispositions were in view of the bat- 
tle of Bull Run, which was fought and lost 
by the Union army on July 21st. The near- 
est that any of the Jersey troops came to par- 
tici]>ation in it, was that the First and Second 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



95 



(three years') Regiments and the First (three 
months') Regiment were marched toward 
Centrevillc during the day, and that the two 
first-named reached the town in season to ar- 
rest with fixed bayonets the rush of thou- 
sands of panic-strici\en fugitives toward 
Washington, and rally them into something 
like order. They performed this duty most 
tMithfully and the value of their services was 
fully recognized by General JNIcDowell. 

On July 24th the Third and Fourth Reg- 
iments, their term of enlistment having ex- 
pired, were ordered to report to General 
Mansfield to be mustered out. The First 
and Second received the same orders on the 
following day ; and after being formally dis- 
charged the brigade returned home to New 
Jersey, where it was accorded an enthusiastic 
reception. A majority of the men re-enlisted 
in the long-term regiments and were back in 
the field before they had time to forget a 
movement of the manual of arms. 

It has been estimated that in the early 
months of the war fully five thousand citizens 
of New Jersey enlisted in New York, I'hila- 
delphia and elsewhere in the regiments of 
other States. They were bent upon entering 
the army, and as the three months' quota of 
New Jersey was already filled, they sought 
service outside. Whole companies were thus 
transferred to neighboring States and their 
identity as Jersey commands thus lost. They 
("umot now be traced, but it may be mentioned 
that the renowned Flxcelsior I^rigade of New 
York embraced many Jersey soldiers in its 
ranks. An unknown number of CamdcMi 
County men crossed the river, and in Phila- 
delphia enrolled themselves in commands of 
the Keystone State. 

The following is the official roster of the 
six com])anies of the P^ourth Regiment of 
three months' troops raised in C'amden 
County : 

COMPANY c. 

Captain. 

Edmund G. .laokson. 



Firxt. JJeu/enanl. 
William R. Maxwell. 

Ensign. 

William H. Hemsing. 

First Sergeant. 

Retijamin C!oiinelly. 

Serijeaiifx. 

Rudolph Tenner. John W. Moore. 

David D. Helm. 

Corporals. 
William Rogers. Samuel RatclitT. 

George W. Jaek.non. William D. Miller. 

Fifer. 
George Jauss. 

Drummer. 
Charles Hoy. 

Privates. 

James Albright. Edward A. .lohnston. 

Robert H. Ames. John Lezenby. 

.loseph Bazarth. William Loel. 

Anthony Bernard. Alfred Martin. 

James G. Boileau. Frank McCamnidii. 

Cornelius Brown. William Morris. 

.John Brown. Francis Mount. 

Charles B. Capewell. Davis H. Nichols. 

Thomas Carr. George S. Patterson. 

William H. Carson. John P. Price- 

.lesse C. Chew. Richard J. Robertson. 

William H. H. Clark. Charles H. Rogers. 

John Clevenger. William H. Schwaab. 

William P. Cojieland. August Scior. 

Collin Coutts. Richard Smith. 

Dilwyn Cowperthwaite. Charles Spooner. 

John O. Crowell. Savillion A. Steiumetz. 

Charles Davis. Andrew H. Stilwell. 

Elijah T. Davis. Stacy Stockton. 

Clayton Edwards. John Sweesley. 

William A. Fish. Edward Thornton. 

Henry Frost. James H. Townsend. 

Jacob Gerhart. Tlieodore Vansciver. 

Charles G. P. Goforth. Andrew J. Wallace, 

.lohn R. Grubb. Joshua Walleus. 

.fosiah Harley. John W. Wetherby. 

William H. Helams. Joseph M. White. 

Thomas Henderson. Thomas White. 

Walter Hill. Thomas Whittaker. 

William S. Hiueline. Charles Wilson. 

.■Vlt'red Horner. Isaac F. Wright. 

WillardHowe. George W. Wood. 

CO.MPANV D. 

Captain. 
Joseph B. Strafibrd. 



96 



HISTORY OF CAMPEN COUNTY, NEW .TERSEi^ 



First Lieutenant. 

John Cavanaugh. 

J-Mugn. 

P'erdinand MeWilliams. 

Fird Sergeant, 

Patrick Reiley. 
Sergennti'. 
Arnold S. Shailer. Edward Corcoran. 

James Oonley. Peter Rancom. 

Corparals. 
Michael Dunn. Peter Megary. 

Joseph S, Strafford. Franklin Lightcap. 

Drummer. 

John O'Brien. 
Privdtes. 
William H. Ackerson. (leorge H. Manson. 
William Bisbing. Peter McAdams. 

Suffaray J. Blanc. James McCaffrey. 

Nicholas Brady. James McCann. 

Theodore Brick. James McCormick. 

Alexander Bryson. James McGrovy. 

John Burns. Michael McGrovy. 

James Byers. Alexander McHenry. 

Patrick Byers. James McManus. 

Michael E. Callahan. Owen Mullen. 
William A. Coles. Edward Noble. 

William J. Coles. . William Norton. 

Henry Conlen. John ( )'Neil. 

Henry Conerty. James O'Reiley. 

Michael Corcoran. Francis C. Orens. 

(ieorge W. Crammer. John Pei)per. 
Thomas Dugan. Aaron Peterson. 

Thomas Eagen. Robert Ciuigley. 

Patrick Early. Robert Redfield. 

James Finnegan. James Rowbottom. 

James Flynn. Aaron Stone. 

Charles Gannon. Ambrose Strong. 

.Fohn Gannon. Arthur Toole. 

Hugh H. Gorman. Peter Toole. 

Thomas Goodman. Peter Warburton. 

James Jobes. Josiah L. Ward. 

William Kaine. Patrick Waters. 

Thomas Keegan. James White. 

Daniel Kinney. .lohn J. White. 

Stephen A. Lane. Peter White. 

(xeorge Leeming. George Whitehead. 

John Lynch. William H. Wyant. 

WMlliam Lynch. Samuel Wynn. 

COMPANY !•;. 

Captain. 

I.saac W. Mickle. 

First Lieutenant, 

Philip M. Armington. 



Ensign. 

Timothy C. Moore. 

First Sergeant. 

John M. Collins. 

Sergeants. 

Benjamin D. Coole)'. Henry Carels. 

Samuel B. Jobes. 

f'or/iorals. 
.lohn E. Droham. John Sing. 

Robert M. Wible. Edward J. Cassady. 

Fifer, 
Emanuel Joseff. 

Drummer. 
Philip Josefi; 

I'rivates, 

George B. Anderson. Joseph E. Jones, 

George W. Armstrong. Robert Kell. 

Hugh Beaty. Jacob F. Kihule. 

James Beaty. James McComb. 

Thomas H. Bishop. Abraham Morely. 

Charles P. Bowyer. John H. Morris. 

Joseph D. Brown. .lames Morrissey. 

Joseph T. Burdsall. .loseph D. Parker. 

Henry Carse. Samuel Peers. 

Richard Church. Thomas Pickering, 

.lohn Cole. Benjamin A. Pine. 

Patrick Cunningham. Isaac J. Pine. 

Lewis W. Drummond. John Pinkerton. 

Lemuel Edwards. John A. Quigley. 

William Fennimore. John R. Rich. 

Joseph W. Fernandez. Oliver H. Ritchson. 

Charles Fish. Albion V. Salisbury. 

Charles Fisher. Benjamin Sands. 

Howard Fisler. Jeremiah Saunders. 

Charles Fox. Charles C. Sharp. 

John W. Garwood. Joseph D. Smith. 

Christian A. Gross. Edward H. Stackhouse. 

Charles Hahn. Joseph Strock. 

William B. Haines. William H. Thompson. 

David D. Hamell. .lohn Thornton. 

John W. Hart. Mordecai Tyler. 

William Hclmiitb. William B. Warlord. 

.John Hill. Joseph M. Webb. 

Count De(i. Hogan. l>evi A. Westcott. 

George W. Jobes. Benjamin Wilson. 

John L. Johnson. Brazier Wiltsey. 

yVlexandcr Johnson. William Wiltscv. 



Captain, 
Edward Price Hunt. 

First Lieutenant. 
Richard H. Lee.' 



THE WAR FOR THE TTNTON. 



97 



Ensign. 

Theodore A. Zimmerman. 

First Hwgeaiit. 

Theodore W. Field. 

SergtanU. 

Charles J. Field. Chas. G. Zimmerman. 

.Toseph C. Lee. 

('orporah. 

Cha.s. F. Miller, Jr. Charles F. Dickenson. 

Chas. J. T. Saunders. (leo. A. 8. Drisback. 

Fijtr. 

Michael Hartzell. 

Brummer. 
•Toseph Rodgers. 
Pri-oales. 
.James V. Anderson. Joseph Immon. 

Joseph G. Betts. William T. Jaooby. 

William Bosworth. William L. Kaighn. 

.John P. Bronf'ord. Joseph Kelly. 

Henry Bruist. George W. King. 

William N. Biizby. Thomas M. K. Lee, Jr. 

Edmond Carels. William C. Lee. 

Thomas E. D. Carter. Steven.son Leslie. 
John M. Chillman. .Jacob S. Levan. 

Bartholomew Clarke. Edward Livermore. 
Isaac Clark. Thomas A. Locke. 

R. Graham Clark. John E. Loeb. 

Jacob W. Clements. William T. Long. 

John Clements. Edward Mackey. 

Charles Clendenning. James McClernon. 
Oliver K. Collins. Timothy L. Middleton. 

Robert T. Cox. William Morton. 

Burton Davis. .John Naphy. 

Ethelbert Davis. John T. Ogdeu. 

.John P. Ducas. Benjamin W. Perkins. 

Samuel H. Elders. Samuel M. Price. 

Joseph H. Ewiug. Henry Rauser. 

William H. Eyies. George M. Rodgers. 

Joseph B. Garwood. Albert Smith. 

Josiah B. Gibersoii. Henry Smith. 

Charles Gilliert. .John T. Smith. 

Harvey B. Goodwin. Charles C. Stezer. 
Joseph E. Gregory. .Austin E. Vanarsdale. 

Richard C. Haines. .lohn Wescoat. 

John M. Henderson. Henry Williams. 
Leander Houghtaling. Samuel Williams. 
Charles E. Hugg. Thomas P. Williams 

Jose|)h 8. Hugg. 

COMPANY <;. 

(Japtam. 

John R. Cunningham. 

First Lieutenant. 

Lewis IVr. Mnrri>. 



Ensign. 

Joseph L. De La Cour. 

First Sergeant. 

William w'. Mines. 

Sergeants. 

John K. Brown. George Holl. 

Henry Daniels, .Ir. 

(joriiorals. 
Henry F. Surault. William Pell, Jr. 

James M. Lane. Isaac Wood. 

Fifer. 
William Howard. 

Drummer. 
William Brassell. 
rrlimtes. 
A. George M. Ashley. Charles H. Jewell. 
George Baxter. Edward Johnson. 

.John Beideman. William H. Kaighn. 

George Bloomfield. Benjamin F. King. 

Albert M. Buck. Barton Lane. 

Charles P. Bundick. .John G. Lewallen. 
James Burkett. (Jhurles Lownsbury. 

Lewis Buzine. .James Massey. 

George Cairoli. John McKinley. 

Benjamin Cavanaugh. Edward H. Mead. 
William Cox. Edwin Mitchell. 

Alpheus Davis. Howard Moore. 

David Davis. Lorenzo F. Park. 

Samuel H. Davis. John Quick. 

Edward F. Dufty. John T. Redi'ern. 

Frank B. Fox. James B. Scott. 

Alexander T. Francisco. Edward Sewell. 
Charles B. Eraser. William Shurdon. 

Henry Gallagher. Lewis Smith. 

Samuel W. Gahan. George W. Sonder. 

Samuel Gilbert. John, Sourren. 

( 'harles E. Githen.s. James Staueley. 

William Gleason. Francis A. Street. 

William H. Griffin. William F. Tarr. 

.Fames Hartley. James Thompson. 

Charles Helmuth. Edward Van Stavoren. 

Samuel Hickman. Isaac Waar. 

John Hildebrandt. George L. White. 

Isaac N. Hoey. John Wilson. 

.Foseph Hofflinger. Richard Wilson. 

Abednego Howeth. Theodore F. WiLson. 

William Inman. RichnrdT. Wood. 

CO.MI'ANV u. 

Cplui,,. 
John P. V:mi Limt. 

Mv-.v/ Lu'Mlnia.id. 
George I'^. Wilson. 



98 



HISTORY OF f'AMT>EX OOT'NTY, XRW JERSEY. 



Ensign. 

John Willian. 

Fi.rat Sfrgeanl. 

James A. Duddy. 

Si'r(je<intK. 

Joseph K. GiddinjrH. Joseph B. Davis. 

Joseph P. Busha. 

( hrpnrah. 

Joseph Morton. .Vden W. Powell. 

Daniel W. Giddings. Thomas B. Jordan 

Fifer. 

Robert Berryman. 

Drummer. 

John P. Booth. 



Henry Astley. 
Eli Bailey. 
Jesse F. Bailey. 
Thomas Bates, Jr. 
John Berryman. 
Henry Blaek. 
James P. Britton. 
John Brown. 
William Burroughs. 
Thomas Calvert. 
Joseph Cheeseman. 
James M. Cramer. 
Eli Crammer. 
William Dennington 
John Dill. 
John Dimon. 
Edward Ellis. 
•Joseph S! Garretson. 
■foseph Garwood. 
John Groves. 
William Groves. 
Andrew Marker. 
Henry Harley. 
Alexander Harvey, 
.lohn Herron. 
Benjamin W.Hill. 
George II. Holmes. 
Michael Hoover. 
Edgar Hudson. 
Charles Hulings. 
Charles Jess. 
John C. King. 



Privatp^. 

Charles E. Lancaster. 
William Lanagan. 
Matthew Larney. 
John Loynd. 
Abram Martin. 
John E. Maxwell. 
Louis Matkensy. 
William M. Metz. 
William Moss. 
John O'Mara. 
Samuel Ogden. 
John Osborn. 
Franklin Pike. 
Nathan Rambo. 
Henry Rem enter. 
Edgar Roby. 
William Robust. 
Thomas D. Ross. 
John Smith. 
William D. Smith. 
Robert Spink. 
Thomas B. Thompson. 
James G. Tomlinson. 
James Totten. 
Augustus Van Fossen. 
Joel Whitehead. 
William Williamson. 
Josepli Wollard. 
Frederick Young. 
I'eter V. Brow n. 
Steward M. Hawkins. 
William J. Stone. 



First Buic.m)!-: Tiikkf. Yk.xrs' Titooi'.^ 
— President Ijincoln and his luivi.stM^ did 
not long entertain the notion, .so pn^valeiit 
up to, and even after the firing upon Sumter, 
tiiat the war would be ended and the Sduthern 



Confederaey .sulxlued before the summer was 
well advaneed. April had not indeed run 
out its course before the President was made, 
by the logic of events, to comprehend that a 
long and desperate civil conflict must be 
prepared for and that it would require a tre- 
mendous draft upon the men and money of 
the nation tosave it from total wreck. The 
day for temporizing and half-way military 
measures had flown by, aud on May 3, 18fil, 
the President called for thirty-nine regiments 
of infantry and one of cavalry to serve for 
three years or diiriug the war. Although the 
number of men thus summoned was so small 
in comparison with the hosts of later years, 
the length of the term of enlistment is evi- 
dence that the government at last appreciated 
the magnitude of its task. Governor Olden 
did not receive the requisition upon New 
Jersey, which was for three regiments of 
infantry, until the 17th. More than enough 
companies were organized and awaiting the 
mustering officer, and the (lovernor, in an- 
nouncing this fact to the War Department, 
added that '' If the oc-casion required their 
services, this State would willingly furnish 
twice as many regiments to serve during the 
war." 

From these companies were formed the 
First, Second and Third Kegiments of the 
three years' service. They were furnished 
with camp and garri.son ecpiipage by the 
State, but were armed by the United States. 
Company E, Captain Charles N. Pelouzc, of 
the First Regiment, Colonel William R. 
Montgomery, and Company B, Captain 
Heiuy C. (iil)st)n, of the Tiiird, ( 'olonci 
(Jeorge W. McLean, were Camden County 
volunteers. The three regiment.s left Trenton 
on June 28th, and reported to General Scott 
at Wa.shington on the following day. Tiieir 
movements up to and on the day of the Iwt- 
tie of Bull llun have been recorded in llic 
history of the three months' men. .Vftcr 
that engagement the First and Second went 
into camp near .Alexandria, and thither tiie 



TIIK WAU FOR TIIK TI.XION. 



Tliird was ()r<l<'r(Ml fVcmi Fairfax, where it 
had been posted duriiio- the battle. 

On July 24tli ({ovenior Olden was not i lied 
that the j>()veriiment would accept five aildi- 
tioiial regiments, " to be taken, as far as con- 
venient, from the three months' men and 
otficers just discharged ; and to be organized, 
e((uipped and sent forward as fast as single 
regiments are ready, on the same terms as 
were those already in service." The Fourth 
Regimcnit, Colonel James H. Simpson, with 
which William R. Hatch, of Camden, went 
<iut as major and was j)roinoted to colonel, 
was mustered un August 20th, and, with 
( 'aptain M'illiam Hexamer's battery, was 
t()rwarded t(i the fronton the 21st. It com- 
prised in part t()ur full companies rai.sed in 
Camden County as follows : A, Captain 
Charles Meves ; F, Captain Napoleon B. 
Aaron.son ; G, Captain Henry M. Jewett ; 
and H, Captain JoJin Reynolds. The regi- 
ment camped with the First, Second and 
Third near Ale.^andria, aud the four were 
early in August combined as the Fir.st New 
.Jersey Krigade and placed under the com- 
mand of that illustrious and dauutle.ss soldier, 
(General Philip Kearny, who had alreadv 
distinguished himself as a fighter in Mexico, 
Algeria and Italy, and against the Indians 
on the frontier, and who.se death at the battle 
of Cliantilly, August 30, 18G2, was to deprive 
the army of a commander in whom military 
skill and personal courage (V)mbined to form 
the ideal brigadier. In recalling the grand 
reputation which this brigade achieved under 
Kearny and other chiefs, it is a most propei- 
cause for local pride that Camden ( 'ounty 
contributed to its ranks six full companies 
that shared in its perils, its victories and its 
honors. They were among the men who 
had so endeared themselves to his lion heart, 
that when he was offered the command of 
Sumner's division he refused to acce]>t it 
because he would not be permitted to take 
his Jersey regiments with him. 

The Third Regiment received its baptism 



of lire in an ambuscade in which il tell at 
Cloud's Mills on August 29th, and on Sep- 
tember 29th, Kearny had tlu' whole brigade 
out for a reconnoi.s.sance of the enemy's lines at 
Mason's Hill. On October 14th a detach- 
ment of the First emi)tied several saddles of 
a Confederate cavalry force which it encoun- 
tered, and lost three oi' four killed. After 
spending the winter inactively the brigade, 
wliich was attached to General William H. 
Franklin's division, was, on March 7, 1X02, 
pushed towards Manassas, the First Regi- 
ment, which had been the last to leave C(;n- 
treville on the retreat of Julv 21, lS(j|, 
having the honor of being the first to occupy 
the place on the second advant-e. 

On the 10th the brigade colors were 
unfurled over the abandoned Confederate 
works at Manassas, eight liompanies of the 
Third leading the advance. On iVIeClellan's 
preparations to transfer the army to the 
\^irginia Peninsula the Jer.sey regiments, 
which had been placed in the P^irst Division 
of the First Army Corps, moved to Catlett's 
Station, where they remained from April 7th 
to the 1 1th, w'hen they retraced their steps 
to Alexandria and embarked for York Point, 
York River, on the 17th. May 5th they 
advanced to ^\'est Point under command of 
Colonel Taylor, Kearny having been pro- 
moted to the command of the division, aud 
on the night of that day the First Regiment 
captured at a charge and held a position 
which two New York regiments had ])rove(l 
unabh' to maintain. Its gallantry was testi- 
fied to by a correspondent of the Neir York 
Timcn, who wrote that " The line was as firm 
as a division in a columu at review. Colonel 
McAllister, when the enemy broke, bravely 
pursued them some distance. This firm and 
determined movement decided the ri'snlt, 
and the rebels made good their n^treat." 

These minor plays on the great chess-l)oard 
of the campaign had fitted Taylor aud liis 
men for the first of the important battles in 
which thev were destined to enter. On June 



100 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NE^Y .lERSEY. 



27th they left camp on the south side of tlie 
Chickaliominy liiver, and crossing that dark 
and sluggisii stream at Woodbury's bridge, 
plunged into the thick of the fight at Gaines' 
Mills, where Fitz-Johu Porter's aud Mc- 
Call's lines were giving way under the 
impact of the enemy's pressure. (Swinging 
full into the face of the Confederate musketry 
and artillery fire, the brigade fought the 
rebels at a distance of four hundred yards 
and was badly hurt, until Taylor ordered a 
charge that drove them out of the woods iuto 
an open field, where he met their reserves 
au(] was compelled to fall back. The Fourth 
Regiment, four companies of which were 
Camden men, was sent into the woods by 
order of one of McClellan's aids, and there 
sustained the brunt of a fight at close quarters. 
Five hundred of its number were taken 
prisoners. Colonel Simpson was one of the 
unfortunates, and in letters dated from prison 
in Richmond he thus described the action 
and sequel, — 

"The regiment was posted in the wood to sustain 
the centre in the battle near Gaines' Mill, and 
nobly did it hold its ground until about an hour 
after the right and left wings of the army had 
fallen back. Mine and the Eleventh Connecticut 
were the last to leave the front, and only did so 
when we foiuid that the rest of the army had 
given way and we were literally surrounded by 
the infantry and batteries of the Confederate 
forces. Being in the woods, and trusting to our su- 
perior officers to inform us when to retreat, and 
not being able to see, on account of the woods, 
what was going on towards our right and left, 
we continued fighting an hour, probably, after 
every other regiment had left the ground. The 
consequence was inevitable. We were surrounded 
by ten times our number, and though we could 
have fought until every man of us was slain, yet 
humanity, and, as I think, wisdom, dictated that 
we should at last yield." 

In a snb.sequent letter to his wile. Colonel 
Simpson stated that fifty-three enli.sted men 
were killed and one hundred and twentv-oiie 
wounded, out of the si.x hundred whom lie 
took into action. Captain Meves, of Com- 
pany A, was killed, and Lieutenant Charles 



Meyer, of the .same company, wounded. The 
brigade had gone into the fight with twenty- 
eight hundred in its ranks, and but nine 
hundred and sixty-five answered to their 
names when the roll was called in camp at 
midnight. The First Regiment lost twenty- 
one killed, including Major David Hatfield; 
seventy-eight wounded and sixty missing' 
The Third had thirty-four killed, one hun- 
dred and thirty-six wounded and thirty-five 
missing. Lieutenant-Colonel McAllister, in 
his report of the participation of the former 
command in the battle, spoke of Captain 
Pelouze, of the Camden company, as one of 
whom " too much cannot be .said in prai.se." 

During the night after the battle the shat- 
tered brigade recrossed to the right bank of 
the Chickahominy, and at midnight of the 
■J8th took up the line of retreat b}' way of 
Savage Station and White Oak Swamp to 
James River. A sharp fight occui'red at 
White Oak Creek, where the Jerseymen oc- 
cupied a position of peril between the oppos- 
ing lines, and were lucky to escape damage 
by hugging the ground as the shells fiew over 
them. They passed Malvern Hill on July 1st 
without being called into the battle then rag- 
ing, and reached Harrison's Landing, on the 
James River, on the morning of the 2d. 

On August 24th the brigade landed at Al- 
exandria, McClellau having abandoned the 
Peninsula and transferred his array by water 
to the Potomac. Three days afterward it was 
pushed forward to Bull Run Bridge and the 
old battle-field. The First Regiment had 
three hundred men fit for duty ; the Second, 
two hundred and fifty; the Third, throe iiun- 
dred aud seventy-five ; and the Fourth, sev- 
enty-five. On this day, the 27th, the open- 
ing of Pope's battle of Bull Run, it fought 
for several hours a nuich superior force of 
Stonewall Jackson's corps, losing nine killed 
and three hundred and ten wounded, missing 
and pr'isoners. Colonel Taylor was severely 
wounded, and died on September 1st. Com- 
pelled to relinquish the field, the brigade re- 



THK WAK FOi; TIIK IXION. 



101 



tired to Cloiid's Mills, hut in a week was on 
the mareh again witli McCMellan's pursuit of 
Lee into^Iaiyland, Colonel A. T. A. Torhert 
iiaving succeeded Taylor in command. < )n 
September 14tli it won the battle of C'ranip- 
tou's Gap by a splendid charge up the side 
of a steep acclivity, capturing enough Spring- 
field rifles to arm the Fourth Regiment, 
which had been equipped with smooth bores. 
This regiment, which had lost its colors at 
(Jaines" Mill, captured two stands of rebel 
colors at ("rampton's Gap. At the battle of 
Antietam, on the 11th, it relieved Sumner's 
corps at midnight and was not actually en- 
gaged, although it was for six hours exposed 
to a hot artillery fire. At Fredericksburg, 
December 13th and 14th, it saw hard fight- 
ing on the left of the line, and Colonel Wil- 
liam B. Hatch was fatally wounded in lead- 
ing the Fourth Regiment to an assault. Pre- 
vious to this the Fifteenth and Twenty- 
fourth Regiments had been added to the 
brigade and it had been placed in the Sixth 
Corps. At Chancellorsville, cm May •"., l.Sli.'!, 
it was for two hours and a half engaged with 
Longstreet's veterans near Salem Church, 
and the casualties footed up five hundred and 
eleven men killed, wounded and missing. 

In the battle of Gettysburg it embraced 
the First, Second, Third and Fifteenth Regi- 
ments and Hexamer's battery, the Fourth 
Regiment lieing on provost duty at Wash- 
ington. It was on the picket line during the 
decisive fighting of July od, and on the .")th 
joined in the pursuit of Lee. 

While (irant was marshaliug the army 
for the grand advance, the Tenth New Jersev 
Regiment was assigned to the brigade. C'om- 
pany A, Captain Isaac W. Mickle ; Company 
E, Captain George W. Scott; Company II, 
Captain John R. C/unuingham, and Company 
I, Captain John Coates, were recruited in 
( 'amden. The brigade had three days of 
tightiug in the Wilderness during the first 
week of May, 1804, and ou the 10th took 
part in the celebrated charge on the Confed- 



erate works near S[)oftsylvania, in which a 
thousand prisoners and several guns were 
ca]iturcd. On the 12th it was in the furious 
assault of that day and the subsecjuent struggle 
over the rebel entrenchments, " the intense 
fury, lieroism and horror of which," Edward 
A. Pollard wrote, " it is imjwssible to de- 
scribe." This was the awful and stubborn 
contest in " the bloody angle," and no com- 
mand suffered a heavier loss than did the 
live Jersey regiments. They were driven 
from and retook the Gait House on the 14th, 
and until the 18th were participants in 
skirmishes along the North Anna and Tolo- 
potomy Rivers. At Cold Harbor, June 1st 
to 3d, they were constantly under fire. The 
terms of service of the First and Third 
Regiments had expired on May 2.^d, l)nt 
tliey remained at the front to take part in the 
battle of Cold Harljor. They reached Tren- 
ton on June 7th, and were mustered out ou 
June 23d. Of the two thousand and sixty- 
eight officers and enlisted men who had left 
the State capital on June 28, 1861, only three 
hundred and forty returned for muster out, 
of whom one hundred aud thirty-nine be- 
liinged to the First and two hundred and one 
to the Third Regiment. The Fourth, with 
the exception of the men who had re-enlisted, 
returned from the front August 19, 1864, 
and was mustered out on the next day ; it 
came back with four hundred and twenty- 
four privates and officers, while it had taken 
one thousand and thirty-four to the field three 
years before. The re-enlisted men of the 
First and Third, which ceased to exist as or- 
ganizations, were at first transferred to the 
Fourth and Fifteenth, but were subsequently 
consolidated into the First, Second and 
Third Battalions, and, with the Fourth, 
Tenth and Fifteenth Regiments from that 
time until February, I860, constituted the 
First Brigade. The Fourth tiuis kept u|) its 
organization through its re-enlisted men, and 
thus has an unbroken history until the termi- 
nation of the war. 



102 



HTSTOI'.Y OF ('AMI»KN COUNTV. NKW .IRRSKY. 



In July, 1X04, the brigade wa.s sent witli 
tlie Sixth Corps to check Pearly in the Shen- 
andoaii Valley, and on August 17th delayed 
his advance for six lioursat Winchester. On 
September 1 !ttli it was in the direct assault 
upon tiie rel)el front at (^pequaii, and was 
gallantly instrumental in sending the enemy 
" whirling up the valley." On the 22d, at 
Fisher's Hill, it repeated its achievement, 
and at the battle of Cedar Creek, on Octol)er 
19th, it formed on the left of the line and 
fought steadily to maintain its ground, but 
was finally overwhelmed and forced to retire. 
When Sheridan, however, arrived upon tlie 
scene and turned defeat into victory it re- 
formed and did its duty in the charge that 
repulsed Early and ended the war in the 
valley. On December 1st it rejoined the Army 
of the Potomac; April 2, 1865, it helped 
to take the Confederate entrenchments on the 
Boydton Plank-Road, in front of Peters! )urg, 
and it was close to Appomattox when Lee's 
surrender was made. Thence it was ordered 
to Danville, Va., and not until May 24th 
did it march through Richmond on its way 
northward. On June 2d it fncami)ed five 
miles from Washington, where the regiments 
were mustered out. At Trenton they were 
dissolved, and this scarred and storied com- 
mand ceased to exist. 

The following i.s the roster of the original 
companies raised in Camden County tiial 
were assigned to the l)rigade: 

CDMI'ANV K, FIKST KKlJIMKXI' NKW .IKHSKV VOL- 
UNTEERS. 
rriiis oomiKiDj wua iimstcred in May 23, ISOl, unil ii»islfi-i-U uiil 
Willi regiment, unless otherwise staterl.] 

C'liiii-les JS. Pelouze, res. Nov. 8, '02. 

Kiiiiuis B. Holt, Nov. ti, '61, res. Nov. 27, 'H2. 

First Lieuterwnts. 
James J5. Shields. 

A. Stewart Taylor, Nov. tl, '01, res. iNov. ;27, '02. 
11. M. GilliiiHii, Nov. 27, '62, vice Taylor, res. 

Second Lieutenants. 
.N.W.Siiiill), Dec. 10, '02, pro. 1st lieut. Co. A, Feb. 

Joseph Fergusou, Feb. la, '63, par. pris- 



I'trxt Sergrantf. 
E. K. RaiiLsey, pro. 2d lieut. Co. (!, Feb. 13, '(i3. 
W. E. Vanderslice, Mar. 1, '63, dis. June 29, 05. 
Edward A. Herman, dis. Oct. 21, '62. 

Ser(jnants. 
Peter A. Grum, Dec. 8, '62. 
Samuel W. Lesenby. 
William H. Good. " 
William H. Gilbert, dis. Sept. 12, '62. 
Benjamin H. Roby, dis. May 15, '65. 

Corjiortds. 
August Mulhan, dis. June 29, '65. 
John W. Fisher. 
Oscar Greslius, May 21, '61. 
Conrad Mace, dis. June 23, '65. 
John C. Zanders, died July 0, '02, of wounds. 
Jacob Ristine, killed June 27, '62. 
Wm. McCombe, killed Aug. 17, '64. 
Frederick C. Schwarze, killed June 27, '62. 
Henry Bechtel, killed May 3, '63. 
Henry K. Patton, died June 5, '64, of wounds. 
Daniel Logan, killed April 2, '(55. 
Edward Stehr, dis. Nov. 6, '62. 
Augustus B. Conrad, musician, dis. June 29, '65. 
John W. Wilson, musician. 
James H. Pimlotte, wagoner. 

F'rii-ate.i. 
George Adams, killed May 5, '64. 
Charles Alfred. 
David Anderson. 
William R. Anderson. 
Charles T. Anthony. 
Joseph Ailt, dis. Oct. 7, '62. 
Stewait H. Allshouse. dis. to joiu regular army. 
John Brown, killed Sept. 14, '62. 
Fk. M. Brown, Sept. 4, '62, must, out June 22, 65. 
■Jacob Krunsholly, dis. Jan. 27, "63. 
John Bruden, dis. Feb. 6, '63. 
Benjamin Budil, killed June 27, '02. 
James H. Carney. 

Fred. Cappell, must, out Oct. 17, '65. 
Joseph Cortledge, Nov. 26, '63; dis July 22, '65. 
Samuel Cline, dis. Nov. 4, '02. 
Albert Clingmau, killed June 27, '62. 
Joseph Coners,Sept. 15, '62. 
William Cook, killed August 27, '62. 
Thomas Dalton, dis. Nov. 1, '62. 
Christopher Dice, dis. June 23, '64. 
Joseph E. Dilks, killed Sep. 14. '62. 
Jacob Dillshaver, Sep. 19, '62, dis. Jan. in. '03. 
Daniel Driggils, killed May 0, 'M. 
Joseph 11. Dutton, dis. Dec. 9, '03, 
John Fitzgerald, dis. Oct. 3, '62. 
Joseph W. Foster. 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



lOS 



James Gilespy, killed .Fune 27. '«"J. 

Wm. Gratz, ciis. Oct. 12, 't;i. 

Joseph Groskinsky, died of wounds. 

Wm. L. Hartman. 

Chas. Hexamer, Sept. 30, "fil, must, out Oct. 4,"64. 

John Hill, May 23, 'Ol, dis. April 3, '65. 

Jacob Hill, dis. Mav 23. '64. 

Martin Hoefle. 

James Hook. 

Ralph Hopwood 

Daniel N. Hyder, dis. Dec. 23, '63. 

Conrad Hoover, Jan. 2r>, '64. 

George W. Hoquet, dis. Oct. 28, '62, wounds. 

Wm. Irion, must, out .\n)r. 10, '6.i. 

Thomas Jacobs. 

Andrew .T. Jorden. 

Andrew J. Joline. trans, to Co. E, 4th Reg. 

.Tohn H. Kelly, must, out June 29, '65. 

Chas. Leonhardt. Feb. 25, '64, dis. March 24, '64. 

Chas. Long. must, out June 20, '65. 

Edward Lunny, dis. March 23, '62. 

Alfred A. Maulin, died Feb. 23, '63. 

John Mertz, Jan. 26, '64. 

Seth S. Mead. 

John McDonald, dis Sept. 12, '01. 

Edward McDowell, dis. July 26, '62. 

Charles McLaughlin, dis. Jan. 16, '63, of wounds. 

.Alexander McGaukey, killed June 27, '62. 

P. McLaughlin, Aug, 27,'62, tr. to V.R.C. Sept.l ,'63, 

Edwin Miles, died Nov. 26, '62. 

Samuel Miller. 

Charles Munzing, Feb. S, 'H2, died Dec, 20, '03, 

(.'harles Murray, 

William Neville, 

Patrick Nolao, killed June 27, '62. 
Charles P. Norton, died of wounds. 

Alexander Oldham, killed June 27, '62. 

Michael O'Regan, died May 16, '62. 

Gutthelf Osterday, must, out Aug. 2, '65. 

Simon Peter, must, out Aug. 2, '65. 

W. Pos.ser, Aug. 28,'62, tr. to U. S. N. Apr. |.s,'04. 

.Facob H. Plume, dis. May 12, '63. 

John H. Redtield, dis. July 0, '05, of woiiiids, 

Edward C. Reed, dis. Feb. 2t;, '03, of wounds, 

Thomas Russell. 

Adam Schiela, must, out June 2!), '05. 

August Schwarze, killed June 27, '02. 

.lohn Skyrni. 

George Sproud. 

.lohn C, Stow, dis. May 23, 'i;4. 

(Charles Sparks, killed May 0, '04. 

William H. Swope. 

Peter Sweeny, dis. Aug. 16, '03. 

Jacob Tehr, dis. July 25, '05. 

Nathaniel M. Wolf, dis. Oct. 3, '02. 



Christopher Weedmiui, must, onl .Inne 2'.\ '05. 

.lacob S. Wheeler, 

William H, Wheaten. 

Emerick Whitman, 

(jharles Yeager, killed June 27, '02, 

George W, Young, dis. Fob, 24, '63. 

Nicholas Yeager. 

rOMPANY B, THIRD liEl.lMF.NT NF.W .IKKSKY VOI,- 

rNTEEKS (tHKKF. YE.-MfS). 

IThi^.-.inipany »as must.Toil iu Mn.v '.i, IM.l, uii.l iuii«tvi".l ..nl 

,I.itic 2.i, lKi;t,milPw..th.Twiw st,it.-.l|, 

Henry C, Gibson, res, .\ug, 21, 1X02, 

Richard D, Cook, Sept, 20, '02 ; res, Feb. 10, '63. 

.lohn Frantz, Feb. 17, 1803. 

Firaf fAiiilnuuil^. 
David Vickers, Jr., pro. tocapt.Co. \ May 31, 01. 
Franklin L. Knight, May 20i, '01 ; pro. lieut.-col. 

24th N. J. Regt. Sept. 12, 1802. 
Wm. N. Evans, Dec. 1.'^,'01: died of wds, July 14,'02. 
David Fairly, July 1 , '02 ; pro, to adjt, July 14, '02, 
Griffith W, Carr, Sept, 13. 1802; pro, to cajit, ( V., 

K, 28d Regt., April 18, 1863. 
Abraham M. Salmon, Oct. 15, 1863. 

Second Lieutenants. 
Baldwin Hufty, Jan. 6, 1862; pro. 1st lieut. Co. E 

Aug, 13, 1862, 
Oscar Westlake, Aug, 13, '62 ; pro, 1st lieut, Co, 1) 

Dec. 10, '02. 
James Dalzell, Dec. 10. '02, pro. from sergt. Co. D. 

Fii-K/ Senjeanlx. 
Howard S. Vandegrift, killed May 3, '63. 
Mathias Lambson, pro. 2d lieut. Co. E July 16, '62. 
John S, Clark. 

Sf.riie.antx. 
Hamilton Johnson. 

Geo. T. Westcott, pro. 2d lient. Co. COct. 16, '62. 
Nathan C. Jones. 

Fred. Mervine, killed in action May 8, 1.S04. 
Rich. A. Curtis, pro. 2d lieut. Co. C .luly 3, 1802. 
William Page, disch. Oct. 27, 1802. 
William H. Suiith. 
Wm. B.Philips, disch. Nov. 5, 1802. 
( 'has. A. McClung, pro. sergt.-maj. Sept. 5, 1862. 
Samuel B. Pine, traus. to V. R. C- 

(\,ri,<irals. 
Fred. W. Sowby. 
William J. Mills. 
Thomas W. Clark. 

Edwin Phillips, disch. Sept. 18, 1862. 
John M. Lewis, disch. Oct. 17, 1802. 
Arthur H. Merry, killed iu action June 27, I Wi2. 
Wni. Ross, died of wds. May 14, 1803. 
John K. Frankish, killed in action May '.I, 1804. 



104 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Wm. B. Smith, killed in action May 12, 1864. 
Wm. Marsh, musician, disch. Jlay 17, \><(i^. 
.Tona. Demaris, musician, disch. March SO. \siv>. 
Wm. A. Shinn, wagoner. 
James Ro.ss, wagoner. 

Prii'atfs. 
Adam Adams, killed in action June 27, 1S62. 
John Blair, trans, to V. R. C. 
Armand Bressillon. 
Charles Bressillon, disch. Oct. 4, 1862. 
Samuel Broadhurst, disch. June 29, 1865. 
Geo. S. Bromley. 
Newton M. Brooks. 

Edward Browning, died of wounds May 12, '64. 
Patrick Burns, disch. June 6, '65. 
John L. Campbell, Nov. 21, '62; dis. July 13, Tv'i. 
Theodore Casper, disch. Nov. 11, '61. 
Mordecai Clossen, disch. Jan. 31, '63. 
John W. Coates. 
John Conway. 

Francis W. Coull, disch. (disability) Dec. 3, '62. 
Allen Coull, killed in action June 27, '62. 
Titus Crawshaw, disch. Nov. 19, '62. 
Henry De Ford, disch. Dec. 20, '62. 
Edward Y. Diament, disch. Dec. 8, 1862. 
James Dillon, disch- June 29, 1865. 
Henry Edwards, must, in Dec. 17, 1862. 
Jehu Evaus, Jr., pro. 1st lieut. Co. A, 4th Regt. 
Charles F. Fackler, disch. May 20, 1862. 
Thomas D. Farris, disch. March 19, '63. 
August Fisher, must, out June 29, 1865. 
Peter J. Fox, killed in action May 12, 1864. 
Wm. Gibson, disch. Aug. 16, '65. 
H. H. Goldsmith, pro. to 2d lieut. Co. A, 23d Regt. 
Thompson Gordon. 
Henry Gorman. 

John Hamberger, Jan. 7, '62 ; disch. Jan. 21, '65. 
Mahlon Harden, 
.fohn T. Harrison. 
John Harkinson. 

Wm. T. Harvey, disch. March 29, '62. 
James Henry. 
Brockington IloUis. 

James Hollingsworth, died of wds. Oct. 30, '62. 
Lewis C. Hong, killed in action .(une 1, '64. 
Joseph C. Johnston, disch. Nov, 8, '62. 
.Toseph King, disch. tJct. 6. '62. 
(ieorge W. Loughlin, disch. May 13, '63. 
John G. LewalliM,Sept. 11, '61 ; disch. Feb. 11. '63. 
Ehvood l>()ck, died of wds. June 28, '()2. 
Martin Lokcman, Oct. 10, '62; disch. July 10, '6.'). 
Nathaniel P. Long, must, in Oct. 18, '62. 
Albert Lukens, disch. June 16, '64. 
J. Harrison Lupton, disch. Sept. 16, '62. 
Alfred Marshland, disch. April 11, '63. 



Samuel Martin, disch. April 19, '63. 

.lohn D. McCoy, Jan. 10, '62; died July 21, '62. 

.lohn McLees, died of wds. June 30, '62. 

Martin McNully, killed in action May 3, '63. 

John D. McWey, disch. Sept. 3, "65. 

Theodore W. Merrihew. 

Archibald Neimo. 

John M. Phillips. 

Thomas L. Phillips, disch. Sept. 24, '62. 

George G. Ricker, Jan. 6, '62 ; disch. June 28, '65. 

Charles Robinson, disch. .June 29, '65. 

Franklin Robinson, died Nov. 24, '63. 

Nathaniel P. Senz, must, in Oct. 18, '62. 

Philip Shank. 

Peter Sherris, Sept. 16, '61 ; disch. Aug. 13, '62. 

Benj. F. Shinn, trans, to Co. G. 

Geo. Shade, must, in Dec. 5, '62. 

Grisby H. Snow. 

John W. Slocum, disch. Feb. 23, '63. 

Charles H. Smith, disch. July 28, '62. 

Cooper Smith, disch. Dec. 2, '62. 

John Spence. 

Thomas C. Surran. 

Albert Talmadge. 

.Tos. R. Taylor, Jan. 10, '62; disch. June 29. '65. 

J. Fred. Taylor, disch. April 10, '62. 

Stephen Tomkinson, killed in action Dec. 4, '61. 

Armand Trimble, disch. May 20, '62. 

Edward Trussell, disch. Feb. 1 1, '63. 

Alex. J. Walker, died of wds. May 12, '63. 

Erasmus R. Webb, disch. July 7, '64. 

S. Williams, Sept. 12, '61; trans, to Co. B, 15th Rgl. 

Wallace Williams, trans to U. S. Navy. 

Jacob Wise, must, out June 23, '64. 

Thomas Westtiill, disch. Sept. 13, '61. 

Robt. F. Wood, disch. Sept. 15, '62. 

Charles H. Wright, must, in Jan. 21, '62. 

Wm. T. G. Young, disch. May 31, '64. 

COMPANY A, KOHRTH REOIMENT NEW .lERSEY 
VOLUNTEEES. 

[Thiti .■..iiipiiny was iiiUBtPieil in August, 0. 18G1, and nniBt.Tcd out 
«'itli n-jiinii-nt unless otherwise statpd.] 

Cltpi'lillH. 

Charles Meves, killed in action June 27, '62. 
Charles Meyer, Aug. 30, '62, vice Meves, killed. 
Josiah Shaw, Aug. 9, '63. 

Klias Wright, Dec. 13, '62 ; pro. to niaj. 1'. S. ( '. 
.Tcibn \L Crammer. Nov. 2f>, 'ii4. 

FIrM JJeHtciianfs. 
J. Kvans, Jr.,Aug. 30, '62; pro. toadjt. Nov. 26. ■<;2. 
Cha.s. H. Hatch, Nov. 26, '62 ; res. ^iar. 29, '64. 
Frank Iv Mailey. April 24, 'M. 
Lcaiidcr Brevier, Feb. 2, '65; pr... lu adj. .1 iiiir 4. 'iy> 
Peter lianning, .hinc 4, 'iW). 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



105 



Sfconil Lirutennnfs. 
Charles Lisenbarth, res. Sept. 13, '61. 
Fritz W. Schroeder, Sept. 21, '61 ;clis. Oct. 11, '62. 
Eclwd. M. Anderson, Nov. -i, '62 ; pro. 1st It. Co. K, 

Nov. 12, '63. 
Griffin P. Lillis, Jan. 31, 6.5 ; pro. 1st lieut. Co. H. 

.Tune 4, '65. 

First Sf'ri/ean/. 
Samuel R. Keeler, Aug. 17, '61. 
Srrr/t'anfa. 
.Joseph Brady. 
George Wilson, Dec. 8, '64. 
Erail Jaerin, Jan. 3, '65. 
Frederick Wool, disch. Mar. 1 2, '63. 
Theodore Krugg, disch. Aug. 8, '62, of wounds. 
Chas. Helmouth, disch. May 3, '64, of wounds. 
John Greipp. 
.John Mergenthaler. 
Theodore Schreiber, trans, to V. R. C. 

Corporals. 
.Joseph Lippe, disch. Feb. 16, '62. 
Louis Deike, Aug. 22, '61 ; disch. April 24, '63. 
Edward Dike, disch. Sept. 16, '61. 
Gottfried Whitman. 
Thomas Desmond, Aug. 13, '61. 
.John O'Neil, Jan. 11, '65 ; killed in ac. Ap. 2, "65. 
John Miller, disch. May 31, '64, of wounds. 
Joseph Schlatter, killed in action May 6, '64. 
Jean G. Veltier, disch. Aiig. 14, '62- 
George Schuh, disch. Fel). 16, '63. 
Adam Rickerts. 
.John Lynch, Dec. 15, '64. 
.John H. Reardon, Jan. 12, '65. 
Jos. Harding, Feb. 16, '64 ; disch. July S, '65. 
Jos. Hodgeson, Sept. 29, '64; disch. May 17, '65. 
Saml. Hill, musician, Aug. 12, '63. 
Robt. Clow, mus., Sept. 15, '62 ; disch. May 17, 65. 
Charles I>yons, wagoner, .\ug. 13, '61. 

Prirales. 
Christian Adelar, died July 8, '62, in Andsonville. 
Andw. Anderson, Mar. 3, '65 ; disch. July 9, '65. 
John Adshead, disch. July 7, '65. 
David Batthalia, Dec. 30, '64; disch. July !», '65. 
Frederick Bauer, disch. .July 18, '65. 
Otto Bender, Aug. 22, '61 ; killed in ac. .June 27, '62. 
Lewis Binder, disch. Oct. .30, '62 
John Britton, Jan. 11, '65. 
George Brombacher, disch. Feb. 18, '63. 
John Brown (1), Dec. 30, '64 ; disch. July 9, '65. 
John Brown (2), Jan. 18, '65 ; disch. July '.\ '65. 
.James Brown, Jan. 16, '65. 
Wm. Brown, Dec. 7, '64; died Feb. i), '65. 
Christian Burger, disch. June 6, '()2. 
John Burghart, killed in action June 27, '62. 
14 



John'Barr, Jan. 12, '65. 

Michael Cavanagh, .Jan. 5, '65. 

Jame.^ Chester, Jan. 5, '65. 

George Clark, Mar. 30, '65. 

John Clark, Jan. 17, '65 ; disch. \\>n\ 28, '65. 

Albert Clement, disch. Dec. 25, '62. 

Robt. Corson, Jan. 5, '64 ; disch. .July [\ '6">. 

Alfred Conklin, Sept. 2, '62 ; disch. .-Vug. 25, '(i4. 

Geo. Cowpe, Sept. 30, '64; disch. May 17, '6.">. 

Peter Cox, died Jan. 1, '65. 

.John Deihl, Jan^ 25, '64; killed in ac June 3, 'ii4. 

Christian DiehT. 

John Dickinson, Jan. 12, '65 

John Diehl, disch Mar. 3, '62. 

Henry Dietrich, March 25, '65; disch. .July S', '65. 

Martin Effinger, died .\pril 12, '62. 

John EIrah, Aug. 27. '62 ; died Jan. 3, '65. 

Andw. Faudre. April 8, '65; disch. .luly Ki, '(;.">. 

Francis Fecht, disch. March 3], '62. 

Frederick Killian. 

Charles Fessman. 

Heinrich Finger, disch. Aug. 19, '64. 

Frederick Fisher, Dec. 28, '64 ; disch. July 9, '65. 

Jacob Fleck, disch. Dec. 24, '62. 

Christian Floel. March .30, '65 ; disch. May 3, '65. 

Jacob Fox, August 22, '61 ; disch. Jan. 20, '63. 

.Jacob Gallatin, disch. Jan. 4, '62. 

Henry Gollman, April 7, '63; disch. April 14, '63. 

.John Gundling, disch. Dec. 3, '62. 

Fjudwig Gundling, died Nov. 15, '63. 

.Jolm Haines, Jan. 4, '65. 

Gilmore Hall, Jan. 4, '65; disch. July 9, '65. 

Charles Hambrecht, died Nov. 8, '62, of wounds. 

John Hart, Jan. 10, '65. 

George Hays, Jan. 11, '65; disch. July 9, 'i\i). 

Ernest Hassenbein, Dec. 12, '64. 

Valentine Henricus, killed in action May 12, '64. 

George Hetchner, killed in action May 6, '64. 

Emanuel Herbert. 

Charles Heitman, disch. March 3, '62. 

James Hines, Dec. 29, '64; disch. July 9, '65. 

Jacob Hirsch. 

Geo. Holzmann, Aug. 22, '61 ; disch. Dec. 19, '62. 

Andw. J. Hopkins, July 8, '64 ; disch. July 9, '65. 

Jacob Hucke. 

Patk. Hurley, Sept. 28, '64; disch. May 17, 'tM. 

Thomas Jackson, Dec. 19, '62. 

John Jack, Oct. 7, '64; trans, to Company 1). 

Charles Jacobson, Dec. 9, '64; disch. July 9, '65. 

John Kane, Jan. 12, '65; disch. July 9, '65. 

Philip Keifer, Aug. 22, '61 ; disch. Aug. 20, '64. 

James Kelly, Jan. 10, '65; trans, to Company I. 

Christopher Kiefer, disch. Aug. 15, '61. 

John F. Killmer, Dec. 20, '64; disch. July 9, '65. 

Herman Kisshauer, Jan. 7, '65; disch. June, '65. 



106 



HISTORY OF CAMBEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Edward Krause, disch. June Iti, 'Bo. 

Christian Krause, di.sch. March 21, '63. 

Rudolph Klctfer, disch. Aug. 15, '62. 

Wendle Kunlz, disch. Sept. 26, '62. 

John Lawson, Jan. 6, '65 ; disch. July 9, '66. 

John Lenk. 

Francis Leonard, January 16, '6.5. 

John Louis, killed in action June 27, '62. 

Charles Lutz, disch. Sept. 26, '62. 

John McCarty, Jan. 10, '65; disch. July 9, '65. 

Lawrence McDonald, Jan. 11, '65-. ■ 

Thos. McMahon, Auit. 29, '61 ; disch. .Ian. 30, '6.3. 

George Met/.. 

Ceorge Millar, disch. May 14, '63. 

Fred'k Mondinger, March 25, '65; di.sch. July 9, '65. 

Wm. W. Morse, March 24, '65; disch. July 9, '65. 

Gustavus Moses, March 25, '65. 

Michael Murphy, Jan. 13, '65; disch. July 9, '65. 

Leopold Myers, Dec. 9, '64; trans, to Battery A. 

Leonard Nargaug. 

John Nelson, Dec. 7, '64. 

Wm. F. Neshit, Jan. 11, '65 ; trans, to West'n A'y- 

John G. Nutt, Jan. 4, '65 ; disch. June 12, '65. 

Wm. J. Tarkhill, Aug. 10, '64 ; disch. June 22, '65. 

Charles Randolph, March 24, '65. 

Allen Rathtbrd, Jan. 6, '65. 

Henry Reinhardt, disch. Sejit. 13, '62. 

Ludwig Reinhardt, disch. Sept. 13, '62. 

Michael Rielly, Aug. 17, '(!4, disch. June 22, '65. 

Charles Riley, Aug. 17, '64; trans. toV. R. C. 

.Facob Rhode, killed in action June 27, '62. 

Albert Ross, Jan. 12, '65 ; disch. July 9, '65. 

John Ryan, Feb. 13, '64 ; disch. July 9, '65. 

.lames Rice, Jan. 5, '65. 

William Riley, Jan. 10, '65. 

.lames Rogers, Dec. 7, '64. 

Conrad Rosch, disch. April 23, '63. 

George Roth, disch. .Fan. 3, '63. 

Johaii Roth, disch. Jan. 3, '63. 

.lohn Schack. 

George Schick. 

Joseph Scherm. 

John Schmidt. 

David W. Schneider, .Ian. 22, '62. 

George Schneider, Jan. 10, '65. 

.Joseph Schneider. 

.John P. Schuster, Jan. 22, '64. 

Frederick Schneider, Dec. 13, '64, dis. .Inly 9, '65. 

Joseph Schaler, Mar. 30, '64. 

Sebastian Schauh, dis. Mar. 21, 'i)3. 

William Schneider, dis. Mar. 10, '62. 

Michael Srhiiepp, dis. April 30, '62. 

Conrad Seibolt, dis. Nov. 3, '62. 

Joseph Shaw, Oct. 3, '64, dis. July 9, '(>5. 

Henry Sherbrook, Jan. 6, '65, dis. July 9, '65. 



Solomon Smallwood, Jan. 6, '64, dis. July 9, '65. 

James Smith, Aug. 11, '63, dis. May 3, '65. 

John Smith, .Ian. 16, '65. 

Sebastian Smith, Jan. 2, '64. 

William Smith, .Ian. 13, '65. 

William Souville, Jan. 16, '65. 

William B. Smith, Jan. 10, '65, trans, to Co. G. 

Henry Strick, dis. Jan. 14, '62. 

William Sweuson, Jan. 5, '65, dis. July 9, '65. 

William Spitz, dis. April 29. '62. 

.Tohn.son Stockton, dis. Aug. 15, '61. 

George Treide, dis. Dec. 25, '62. 

William Tyler, Jan. 11, '65. 

Christopher Ulrich, died Oct. 29, '62. 

Jacob Vanvaler, Aug. 5, '64, dis. July 9, '65. 

Charles Wagner, Jan. 12, '65, dis. May 3, '65. 

August Weinknecht, dis. Oct. 29, '62. 

Jesse Wheeler, dis. Aug. 23, '64. 

Charles H. White, Feb. 6, '62, dis. Nov. 2, '62. 

Peter Williams, Dec. 7, '64, killed April 2, '65. 

Christopher Williams, Jan. 12, '65, dis. July 9, '65. 

John White, July 7, '64, died April 22, '65, of wds. 

Charles Woerner, dis. Jan. 10, '63. 

John Watson, Jan. 5, '65. 

F/dward Waugh, .Jan. 10, '65. 

Andrew Wesler. 

Christopher Wester. 

James Wilson (1), .\ug. U, '63. 

James Wilson (2), Dec. 13, '64. 

.lames Wilson (3),. Tan. 16, '65. 

Samuel Wilson, Jan. 6, '65. 

John F. Wilson, Dec. 12, '64, dis. July 9, '65. 

Herman Woerner, Mar. 25, '65, dis. .July 9, '65. 

John Wcdfe, Dec. 10, '64, dis. July 9, '65. 

John Woerner, died at Andersonvillc .\ug. 9, '64. 

.'Vnthony Wolf, died Aug. I, '62. 

John Wolfe, Dec. 10, '64, dis. July 9, '65. 

Charles Wood, Dec. 12, '64, dis. July 9, 'I15. 

<<)MP.\NY F, FOURTKKNTH REUIMENT NKW .IKRSF.Y 
VOLITNTEEKS. 

[TliiF (■.iriiiiiiuj- was mustered in August 1.1, Im'il, and iiiuMli'ivil oul 
August 17, lsr,4, iinless iithorwisu statod.j 

Captains. 
N. R. Aaronson, Aug. 17, '61, res. Sept. 23. '62. 
Samuel M. Gaul, Oct. 13, '62, iv'cf .Varonson, res. 
•Joseph S. Heston, .Juno 4, 'Ij^f, vice Gaul. must. out. 

Firaf. lyieuttnants. 
T.M. Fetter, Aug. 17,'61,p. capt. Co. K l)ec.2l,'61. 
J. M. Pearson, Dec. 21, '61, p. capt. Co. K .Ian. S,'6:!. 
H. W. .lackson, Jan. 8, '63, p. brt. lieut.-col. Mar. 

13, '(;5. 

Srcdud JAeiileiHiiits. 
V. G. Aaron.soM, Aug. 17, '(!1, res. Sciit. 26, '62. 
W. McElhaney, May 16, '63, pro. adjt. July 7, '63. 
D. R. F"orgus, Jan. 31, '65, resigned June 14, '65. 



TIfK WAli FOR THE UNION. 



107 



Frank E. Mailey, pro. 1st lieut. Co. A, Apl. -M, 'i)4. 

John Diuioud, killed in action .Tnni' 27, "(i2. 

David D. Hamell. 

Jacob V. Nesson, niiist. out July ;», '(i.'>. 

.Vshlcy H. Lui'Ms, jm-o. c|. m.-scrgt. May I, 't;."i 

SiryediilK. 
Samuel J. Fenner. 

James C. Sloane, pro. i,. in.-sergt. (Jt-t. -'o, '(!!. 
Tlmmas W. Mooiiey, pro. sgt. -major Nov. 4, 'til . 
.lames Houghtaling, must, out July 12, 'B.'), 
Josejili B. Holmes, must, out July i>, '(i;">. 
William ('oote, pro. sgt. -major May I, 'liri. 
(ieorge I. (Jesmeyer, ilis. Feb. 28, '().■>. 
Charles H. Jewell, died Nov. 27,'t!4, of wounds. 
Benjamin Linton, killed in action May 12, '(i4. 

CoipornU. 
Horatio S. Howell, pro. q. m.-sergt. Sept. 6, 'GIv 
John W. Me.ssick, Aug. 2(i, '(>4, dis. .lune 25, '(i">. 
.lohn Elbertson,dis. July 22, 'M. 
Lorenzo Jess, dis. July 9, 'i\b. 
Samuel P. Budd, Jan. 19, '()4. dis. July 9,'t5r.. 
John McLiester, Dec. l;i,'<;4, dis. July 9, "ti.".. 
James H. Brown, Dec. 24, '04, dis. July 9, '<>">. 
Francis V. Souders, dis. July 9, '05. 
John R. McCowau, dis. Nov. 6, '62. 
Valentine W. Brown, dis. Dec. 3, '(52. 
Richard F. Stoue, dis. Oct. 3, '62. 
Miles Bakely, trans, to U. S. Navy. 
Francis Soper, mus'n, Aug. 20, '61, dis. Sept. 8, 64. 
James Dean, musiciau, Sept. 3, '63, dis. July 9, 'O.'). 
James H. Carter, musician, dis. Aug. 15, '63. 
John Camp, wagoner, Feb. 12, '64, di.s. July 9, '65. 
Walter B. Ay res, wagoner, dis. Sept. 19, '62. 

I'livales. 
Jonal'n Abbott, dis. Jan. 30, 'm, of wds. rec. in act. 
William W. Adler, Mar. 28, '65, dis. July 9, 65. 
Henry Adler, died July 26, '62. 
Charles R. .Archer. 

Henry Ashback, Dec. 27, '64, dis. July 9, '65. 
Joseph Bates, died Mar. 10, '62. 
William Bailey, Dec. 14, '62, dis. July 9, '65. 
Steward D. Bakeley, dis. .Tuly 25, '65. 
Charles Bakeley, dis. Oct. 20, '61, wds. rec. in act. 
Joseph Bakeley, died Dec. 1, '63. 
Michael Baiinon, July 13, '64, dis. .fuly 9, 'il5. 
Joseph A. Beckett, dis. Nov. 29. 'ti2. 
Samuel Bentlcy, Jan. 13, 'i'lb. 
Abel Biddle. 

Edward Bohn, Dec. 2(1, '64, dis. .luly 9, '65. 
Edwin Boles, March 15. 't;4. 
Jos. E. Boustead. 

Alfred R. Bourdeu, Jan. 19, '64, dis. June 10, '65. 
Chas. Bowman, Jan. 6, '65, dis. July 9, '65. 



.lohn Boyle, Dec. 21, '64, tr. to t!o. I, KHh Itcgt. 

I'cter Borne, March 25, '65. 

Wni. H. Briggs, dis. Aug. 26, '64. 

James Brewster, dis. March 20, '1)3. 

John P. Brown, dis. Aug. 19, '64. 

Henry W. Brown, dis. ()<>t. 8, '62. 

Daniel Brown, Jan. 13, '65. 

.lohn P. Brown, Aug. 19, '64. 

.las. Britton, Jan. 18, '65. 

Patrick ( ). Bryan, March 2.S, \\r<, dis. .Inly 9, '65. 

(Jco. B. lUidd.died.luly 7, '62, ofwounds inaction. 

.lohn H. Burdick, Dec. 21, '64. 

^V'm. Butcher, Feb. 5, '64. 

Bernard Calhoun, Dec. 13, '64. 

Thomas Casey, Jan. IS, '65. 

.\liraham E. Casto, dis. Oct. 7, '62. 

(Jeorge W. Chew, killed .lune 27, 'ii2. 

Jacob W. Clement, Jan. 21, '64, killc<l .May 12, '64. 

John W. Cotner. 

Charles C. Craner, dis. Jan- 17. 'ti3. 

(Jeorge Crispin, Dec. 19, '64. 

James Daley, Jan. 13, '65. 

William Davis, Dec. 15, '64. 

Joseph Debler, Jan. 14, '65, di.s. .Inly 9, '65. 

.loseph C. Dorell, killed .hinc 27, '62. 

John De (jarnie. 

John Dimond, .fan. 16, '{>.^>. 

John Doyle, Jan. 16, '(;5, dis. .Inly 28, 65. 

Pafk Dunn, June 5, '61, died Sept. 20, '64, ofwds. 

Wm. G. Eldridge, died July 4, '62. 

F'ranklin Est!ack,dis. Sept. 13, '64. 

Charles P. Fish, dis July 9, '65. 

Charles B. Fithian, Dec. 15, '64. 

Harrison Flanigan. 

James Galbraith, dis. Nov. •'<, '62. 

James Gardner, Jan. 10, '65. 

Henry Glock, Jan. 9, '65, dis. .June 26, 'ti5. 

James Goodwin. Jan. 10, '65. 

Charles Gouger, killed in action June 27, '62. 

John Grace, May 25, '64, dis. July 9, '65. 

John R. Grubb, dis. Aug. 19. '64. 

David Gripton, Jan. 13, '64. 

David Harris, Dec. 15, '64, dis. July 9, '65. 

Joseph Hand, dis. Oct. 7, '62. 

John N. Hazard, Feb. 10, '65, dis. July 9, '65. 

Henry F\ Hensmau, died May 31, '62. 

John Hicks, Jan. 9, '65, dis. July ".), '65. 

Wm. H. Hilman, dis. Oct. 7,'(il. 

Charles Hillman, July 6, '64. 

Samuel Hotl'man, Dec. 13, '64. 

Francis Horner, Feb. 12, '62. 

John E. Holeton,died July 1, '62. 

John Hutwell, Jan. 10, '65. 

Lewis Jackson, Dec. 17, '64. 

Thomas Jacksou, Jau. 16, '65, dis. June 15, '65. 



108 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JEKSEY. 



Bowers Jess. 

Joseph Johnson, Jan. 18, '(55, dis. July 9, '65. 

Henry L. Johnson, April 9, '64, dis. May 28, '64. 

Henry Kessler, Ang. 19, '64, dis. July 9, '65. 

Joshua Killingl)a('k, dis. Sept. 14, '64. 

William B. King, dis. May 20, '02, 

John King, Dec. 20, '64. 

John King, Jan. 1.3, '65. 

John Klaus, Jan. 14, 'Ofi. 

Richard Lahey, Feb. 13, '64,kld. in act. May 6, '64. 

Jacob D. Lawrence. 

John W. Lane, Jan. 13, '65. 

John W. Leonard, Jan. 13, '65. 

James Lewis, Jan. 13, '65. 

George W. Lewis. 

John Logan, dis. ( >ct. 6, '62. 

Wm. Louderback, dis. Feb. 12, '63. 

Emmett McLaughlin, Aug. 29, '64, dis. July 9, '65. 

Patrick McLaughlin, Feb. 7, '65, dis. July 9, '65. 

Thomas McLaughlin, dis. Feb. 12, '63. 

James McBride, Jan. 18, '65, 

Wm. McCabe, Jan. 10, '65. 

John McPherson, Jan. 16, '65. 

John Miller, Jan. 4, '65, dis. July 9, '65. 

Neal Munroe, March 27, '65, dis. July 9, '65. 

Charles Muhler, Jan. 16, '65, dis. July 9, '65. 

Wm. T. Mead, dis. Dec. 19, '62. 

Jacob S. Minks, Feb. 6, '64, dis. Aug. 16, '65. - 

Edward Mosely, dis. Feb. 12, '63. 

Frederick Mumberger, Jan. 16, '65. 

Owen Mullen, Jan. 16, '65. 

Richard Murphy, Jan. 12, '65, dis. July 28, '65. 

George Mix, Jan. 5, '64, died Sept. 8, '64. 

Francis Nugent, Jan. 11, '65. 

Henry O'Biien. 

Michael O'Brien, Dec. 19, '64. 

Burton K. Price, Jan. 13, '63, 

Thomas P. Potts. 

Hugh Quigley, Jan. 14, '65. 

Owen O. Ratigan, Jan. 10, '65, dis. Aug. 24, '^o. 

Patrick Rine, Jan. 10, '65, 

Thomas Ryan, March 24, '65, dis. July 9, '65. 

Frank 0. Roberts, Jan. 18, '65. 

Thomas D. Sawn. 

James Schwernaii, dis. .July 9, '65. 

John Schitenhelm, Dec. ]2, '64, dis. June 26, '65. 

George W. Scott, dis. Dec. 13, '63. 

John Shepjjard, Dec. 20, '64, dis. July 12, '65. 

Washington Shecltz. 

David Sleven, May 20, '62. 

James Shaw, Dec. 20, '64. 

John Sheppard, Jan. 11, '65. 

Clement Schy, killed .)une 27, '62. 

Patrick Smith, Jan. 12, '65. 

John Smith, Jan. 10, '65. 



Wm. Smith, Jan. 10, 'ih'>, dis. July (>, '65. 

Eleazer Stark. 

Thomas S. Stevens. 

William Stephens, Sept. 24, '64, dis. July 9,65. 

John S. Sturges, dis. June 14, '65, 

Jacob Sturges, wounded, died Oct. 19, '64. 

Charles L. Test, dis. Jan. 24, '63. 

John C. Tibbies. 

Joseph E. Ware, killed Sept. 14, '62. 

John Weathers, Jan. 16, '65, dis. July 9, '65. 

Sylvester Weaver, Jan. 13, '65. 

Edward Welch, Jan. 13, '65. 

William F. Wilke, dis. Jan. 24, '63. 

John Wilson, Jan. 9, '65. 

Thomas Williams, Jan. 16, '65. 

John T. Williams, March 24, '65, dis. July 9, '65. 

John Wright, Jan. 18, '65. 

Wm. Wright, Jan. 18, '65. 

Richard Yapp, dis. July 14, '62. 

COMPANY U, FOURTH REGIMENT SEW .JERSEY 
VOLUNTEERS. 

[This company waa mustered in August 17, 18til, aud mustered out 
July 9, 1865, unless otherwise stated, | 

Oajjtains. 
Henry M. Jewett, disch. Apr. 15, '63, woumleil. 
M. Lambson, May 16, '63, disch. Oct. 19,'64, wd. 
Wm. McElhaney,Nov. 26,'64, bvt. It. -col. Apr. 2,'65. 

First Lieutenants. 
Samuel M. Gaul, pro. capt. Co. F Oct. 13, '62. 
J. S. Heston, May 16, '63, pro. capt. Co. F June 4, '65, 

Second Lieutenants. 
Elias Wright, pro. Istlieut. Co. D Jan. 3, '62. 
Edgar Whitaker, Jan. 3, '62, resig. July 25, '62. 
J. E. Bradford, Sept. 6,'62, pro. 1st It. Co. H May 16, 

'63. 
Caleb M. Wright, May 16, '63, pro, capt. Co. C 

Oct. 5, '64. 
P. Lanning, Jan. 31, '65, pro. 1st It, Co, A.lune 4,'65. 

First Sergeants. 
Samuel E. Taylor, pro. to 2d It. Co. E Jan. 8, '63. 
John E. Doughty, nro. sergt.-major Jan, 1, '65. 
Wm. E. Cavalier, Nov. 12, '61. 
I. J. Pine, Aug. 28, '61, killed in action June 27, '62. 

Sergeants. 
Samuel B. Fisher. 
A. D. Nichols, Nov, I2,'61, pro. 1st It, Co. B Feb,13, 

'65. 
Jos. R. Westcott. 

Jos. H. Martin, pro. com.-sergt. Aug. 27, '61. 
Samuel H. Cavaljer, pro. 2d It. Co. C Feb. 13, '65. 
Jno. M. Crammer, pro, 1st U. Co. A Oct. 5, '64. 
Alfred Webb. 
Dilwyn V. Purington, Aug. 23,'61, i>ro, qr, m,-sgt. 

Aug, 26, '62. 



THE WAR FOR TIIK r.VrON. 



109 



Leauder Houghtaliiig, discli. .luiu- (>, tiA. 

J. M.Cavalier,Aug. 28, '61 , killed in act'ii June L'7,'iJ2. 

Corporals. 
S. B. Carter, Aug. 28, '(U, died May 1 7,'('>4, uf wds. 
George W. Thompson, killed in action Dec. 13,'t(2. 
Phineas Atkinson, disch'. May 10, '02. 
Richard R. Robins, disch. Aug. 21, '(52. 
James Snow, Nov. 12, '61, disch. Nov, 2y, '62. 
James H. Nugent. 
W^alter W. Woodward. 
John S. Nichols, Nov. 12, '61. 
Wm. H. Crowley. 
Lewis Bender. 

W. A. Burnett, Feb. 1, '64, disch. June 6, '65. 
Chas. R. Brown, Oct. 18, '61, must, out Oct. l.S,'6-l. 
W. F. (laul, mn.sician. 
Lewis Watson, musician. 
Gilbert Bird, wagoner. 

I'rivateii. 
David W. Adams, Aug. 28, '61. 
Joseph Adams, disch. May 10, '62. 
James Allen, Jan. 11, '65. 
Wm. W. Anderson, disch. May 17, '62. 
Louis Arnold, Jan. IS, '65. 
John K. Amit, died Jan. 28, '62. 
Wm. Applegate, died Jan. 10, '63. 
John H. Austin. 
Charles Bampton, Dec. 6, '64. 
Stephen Bailey, disch. Oct. 16, '62 
Thomas Bennett. 
Thomas Bird. 

ElishaB. Bird, disch. Dec 20, '68. 
John Boggs. 

Adam Brown, Jan. 18, '65, disch. June 21, '65. 
James Brown, Jan. 13, '65. 
James H. Bunting, disch. Feb. 7, '63. 
John Burke, Dec. 14, '64. 
Michael Cain, Jan. 11, '65. 
John \V. Camp. 

John C. Cavalier, trans, to V . H. N. April 6, '64. 
Chas. B. Carter, Aug. 23, '61, disch. Nov. 10, '62. 
Lafayette Carter, Dec. 7, '62, disch. May 10, '64. 
Ernest Cavalier, Dec. 7, '64, disch. Mar. 6, '65. 
Wm. A. Channells, must, out July 9, '65. 
Lyonel G. Clifford, Aug. 23, '61, died Mar. 15, '62. 
James Connor, Dec. 13, '64. 
Isaac Cooke, Dec 7, '64. 

Napoleon Cote, Dec. 12, '(>4, disch. .Iul,\ 12, Wi't. 
Joseph Connelly, disch. Oct. 17, '62. 
C. Cramer, Feb. 26, '64, died Dec. 12, '64, of wnds. 
Thomas Cummings, Dec. 6, '64. 
John Davis, Jan. 11, '65. 
Charles Davis, Jan. 18, '65. 
Jasper N. Dick, disch. June 10, '68. 



John Dippic, May 25, '64. 

Benj. B. Doughty, Aug. 28, '61, died .lune 6, '62. 

George lOd wards, Aug. 20, '61. 

Thomas Erwin, Jan. 10, '65. 

Richard Fehan, Dec. (i, '64. 

.lohn Fisk, Jan. 13, '65. 

Henry Fletcher, Jan. 9, '65. 

Joseph Ford. 

Wm. Ford, Feb. 10, 't;4. 

J. W. Ford, Nov. 26, '61, killed in act'n June 27,'62. 

-Samuel C. Ford, killed in action Sept. 14, '62. 

Augustus Fraley, May 25, '(i4. 

James (jalbreth, Jan. 18, '68. 

Aaron Gardner. 

Abraham Garrabrant, Oct. 15, '64. 

John F. Gaul, Oct. 17, '61, died June 29, '62, 

Daniel Gibson, Jan. 13, '65. 

Charles Gilroy, Jan. 10. '65. 

Daniel Glass, Dec. 8, '64. 

William Green, Jan. 11, '65. 

Isaac Giti'ord, dis. July 11, '62. 

John P. Grant, dis. Oct. 15, '62. 

William GoH; Nov. 18, '61 ; dis. Aug. 16, '64. 

Wm. A. Goff, Nov. 29, '61 ; died May 1 1 , '64, of wds. 

Wait Gober, Aug. 17, '61 ; killed in act. May 12,'64. 

Thomas Haggerty, Dec. 8, '64. 

John F. Haines, died June 19, '62. 

James Hale, Jan. 11, '65. 

Henry C. Hamilton, Feb. 6, '65- 

John Hamilton, Jan. 11, '65. 

J(din Hampton, Jan. 11, "65. 

Lewis Hart, Jan. 6, '65. 

George W. Harris, Dec. 8, '6)4 ; dis. July 18, '65. 

Chas. H. Hatch,Oct.24,'61 ; pr.sgt.-maj. Oct. 28, '61. 

Thomas Hayes, Jan. 16, '05 ; dis. June 6, '65. 

Daniel Higgins, Dec. 10, '64. 

Elmer Johnson, dis. Aug. 14, '62. 

Elisha Johnston, Aug. 23, '61 ; dis. Aug. 27, '62. 

M.W. Johnson, Aug. 10, '61; kid. in act. June 27,'62. 

Thomas .lones, Dec. 8, '64. 

William P. Kears, Aug. 26, '01. 

William Kelly, Jan. 16, '65. 

Joseph Kendall, Aug. 23, '61. 

John King, Mar. 29, '65; must, out ,luly 9, '65. 

Anthony Larricks, Feb. 27, '64. 

Peter Larricks, killed in action May 6, '64. 

Charles W. Leek, died Aug. 8, '62. 

.(oseph Leach, Aug. 23, '61 ; dis. Nov. 14, '62. 

George Lee, Dec, 10, '04. 

JohnT. Lewis, Aug. 15, '61; dis. Aug. 20, '64. 

Joseph Logan, Jan. 12, '65. 

Robert Love, died Sept. 5, '62. 

James Long, Jan. 13, '65. 

John O. Matthews, must, out Oct. 20, '64. 

Thomas Mahoney, Dec. 6, '64. 



110 



HTSTOliY OF CAMDEN rOT'NTY, NEW .JERSEY 



Daniel Mason, (lied March 17, 'i>2. 

Isaac R. Matliias, died Oct. 8, 'li2. 

James McCabe, Dee. 10, '(;4. 

Saml. W. McCollum, Aug. 28, '(51 ; died May 6, '62. 

(Camilla Meyer, Sept. 24, 'f!4 ; discli. June 22, '65. 

Alfred H. Miller. 

.Tohn E. Miller, Jan. IS, '6."). 

Thomas Miller, Nov. 12, '61 ; disch. Mar. 4, "tji. 

Edward J. Miller, Aug. 8, '64; died Sep. 28, '64. 

Hezekiah Morton, must, out Aug. 19, '64, 

John Moore, Nov. 29, '61; must, out July 12, '!>.">. 

E,x;e] Morey, disch. Mar. 14, '63. 

Benjamin Morton, disch. Oct. 16, '62. 

Japhet Mosbrooks, Feb. 13, '64; dis. Mar. 28, '64. 

Parker Mullica, died Mar. 27, '62. 

Thomas Murray, Jan. 12, '65, 

James Nash, Jan, 13, '65, 

Israel Nicholas, disch. Feb, 19, '63. 

Frank O'Neil, Dec. 8, '64, 

Joseph Perrine. 

William Phillips, Jan. 13, '65. 

James Price, Jan, 12, '65, 

Robert S. Pine, must, out Oct, 14, '64. 

Chas, Pharo, Nov, 12, '61 ; disch. Nov, 28, '62. 

Charles Pulaski, Sept, 21, '64 ; dis, June 22, '65, 

John Reeourt, Oct. 4, '64 ; died June 5, '65, 

James Riley, Jan. 11, '65, 

John Ryan, Jan. 19, '65, 

Joseph Salvatore, Dec. 8, '64 ; disch. Mar, 21, '65, 

Henry C, Shelmire, Feb, 29, '64, 

George W. Shelmire, Feb, 29, '64, 

John Shields, Nov. 29, '61 ; disch. .luly 9. '62. 

William A. Smith, Jan. 11. '65. 

John Smith, Jan, 11, '65, 

William B, Smith, Jan, II, '65, 

William Smith, Jan. 13, '65; trans, to Co. A, 

Lewis M, Silance, March 2, '65 ; trans, to Co. H, 

John Snyder, Aug, 5, '64, 

Uriah Spragg, Nov. 29, '61, disch, Nov, 4, '62. 

F, Steinbock, Sept. 24, '64; must, out June 22, '65, 

Samuel S, Stewart, must, out Sept, 13, '64, 

Alfred Soudens, must, out Aug, 21, '65, 

Byard E. Turner, Nov, 12, '61 ; died at Anderson 

ville Sept, 5, '64, 
Patrick Torney, Dec, 9, '64. 
Jacob Walker, Sept, 21, "64; died Nov, 2<;, '64. 
U, J. Walters, Feb, 26, '64 ; died May 31 , '64, of wds. 
William H. Weeks, disch. May 19, '(12, 
James Ward, Sept, 16, '(>4, 
Charles Woodward, killed in action June 27, '62, 

CO.MPANY H, FOl'KTH REOIMENT NEW ,)ERSEV 
VOLUNTEERS. 

jTliiu i:uuipini> wan iiiimtertid in August 17, 1861, and inuatered out 
July!(, 1805, unless otherwiee stated. J 

Captains. 
John Reynolds, res. Sept. 6, '62. 



Wm. R. Maxwell, Oct. 22, '62, died Feb. 28, '64. 
Dav. Flannery, April 24, '64, vici- Ma.vwell, dec. 

7''u'.<< Lii'uteniinls. 
Thos, R. Grapewine, res, Oct. 17, '62. 
Howard King, Oct. 21, '62, pr. capt. Co, C, 
.lohn Bradford, May 16. '63, dis, April 22, '65. 
Gritlin P. Lillis, June 4, '65. 

Second LdeiitpiiatiU. 
Jas. W. Lowe, dis. Oct. 22, '61. 
Chas. G. Hatch, Oct, 29, '61, res. Sept, 3, '63, 
•lohn V, Case, Sept. 16, '62, must, out Oct, 16, '64, 

Firxt •Sei-gfuiitx. 
John McLean, Aug. 24, '61, 
Jos, R, Wells, pr. tosgt.-maj., June 10, '63. 
Joshua F, Stone, tr, to V, R, C, Feb, 15, '64. 

■Sergeaitt!!, 
Abijah Doughty, Aug. 23, '61, m. out July 12, "65, 
Thos. S. Bonney, pr, to ser,-maj. Aug, 20, '61. 
Josiah Shaw, pr. 2d lieut. Co. B, 
Geo, W. Marshal. 
Abraham M, Tice. 
Archibald Scott, 
Wm. Criblier, dis, Oct, 18, '6.2, 
Jas, B, Wells, dis, March 1, '63, 
Edw. F. Kane, tr, to S, Corps Aug. I, '63, 
Charles W, Lowe, d, July 16, '62, of wounds. 

Corporals. 
John D. Cooper, Nov, 1, '61, 
Geo. I, Risley, Nov, 10, '61, m. out July 6, '6-".. 
Wm, C, Doughty, Oct. 18, '61. 
John Cavanaugh, Feb. 23, '64. 
John Van Hook. 

Geo, Hofl'man, Dec, 5, '61, m, out Aug, 17, '65. 
Lewis Perney, dis, June 13, '65. 
Christopher J, Mines, Jan. 21, '64, dis. Aug. 3, '6'). 
Ch. F. Currie, Aug, 23, '61, tr, to S. C, Aug, 1, '63. 
Benj. F. Mitchell, d, July 20, '62, of wounds, 
John Lyons, musician, Sept. 26, '61. 
E, J, Strickland, ni., Aug. 15, '61, dis. Aug, 20, '64, 
Geo, D, Cook, muse, Sept, 23, '61, dis, Sept. 9, '62. 
Wesley J, Price, wagoner, Nov, 10, '61. 

Privates. 
Richard Ashworth, Sept, 30, "64, tr. to Co. A. 
Francis R. Bavis, Aug. 24, '61, dis. Aug, 14, '62. 
Moses Blanchard, Jan, 17, '65. 
Peter Blanchard, .\pril 3, '65. 
.lohn Bohcn, .Ian, 10, '65, tr, to Co, C, 
■lohn Bosse, .Ian. I(i, 'ti5, tr, to Co, E. 
Thos, Bozarth. 
Peter Brunell, March 28, '65. 
Michael Bush, Jan. 16, '65. 
David R. Brown, d. March 18, '65, 
Michael Cahill,- Jan. 17, '66. 



THE WAE FOR THE UNION 



111 



John Carpenter, Jan. 18, '65. 

(iforge H. Cassaboon, dis. Aug. 18, "(io. 

John Champion, Aug. 24, 'til. 

John Clark, Jan. 17. "(io. 

Henry Colbert, Feb. 4, '64. 

Michael Conway, Jan. 17, '65. 

Th. Clevenger, Feb. 5, '64, d. June 1, '64, of wds. 

Joseph Connelly, Aug. 24, '61. 

George Cowpe, Sept.- 30, '64, tr. to Co. A. 

John Dannenlierger, dis. Oct. 14, "64. 

Thomas Davis, Feb. 23, '64, taken prisoner. 

Richard S. Davis, Feb. 4, '64. 

Chas. H. Dilks, m. out Oct. 7, '64. 

George Dilks, Nov. 1,'()1, dis. Nov. 1, '64. 

William Dolson,Feb. 22, '65. 

David Doorman, July 23, '64. 

.John Dimond. Jan. 18, '65. 

David Doughty, d. Aug, 4, '62, of wounds. 

Frederick Drinkwater, April 4, '6.'i. 

Daniel Dugan, Jan. 17, '65. 

.James Eaton, ,Jan. 17, '65. 

William Early, Jan. 15, '64, d. Aug. 26, '64. 

Jesse G. Eastlack, d. March 27, '63, of wounds. 

.John Edwards, Jan. 1 5, '64. 

Charles O. Eisele, Jan. 23, '64. 

Charles Fabian,. Jan. 14, '65. 

Thomas Fariell, .Jan. 17, '65. 

Edward Fitzer, Feb. 8, '64, dis. .\ug. 14, '65. 

Thos. Fleet. 

n.rson Ford, Feb. 24, "65. 

Edw. V. Force, Nov. I, "61, killed June 27, '62. 

George Garrison, Aug. 24, '61, dis. Sept. 22, '62. 

D. Gaupp, Dec. 1, '61, d. Aug. 15, "64, in rebel \<r. 
Wm. .1. (xibbs, Aug. 24, '61. 

Th. Gibbs, Feb. 9, '64, dis. Tune 27, '65, of wounds. 

.lohn Green, .Tan. 16, '64. 

.Joseph Green. 

.John Guare, Jan. 18, "65. 

.lacob Gvvintert, March 28, '66. 

Mich.ael Haggerty, Jan. 18, '65. 

Morgan Hall, Jan. 15, '64, killed May 12, '64. 

.Tames Hendricks, Sep. 3, '62, dis. May 3, '65. 

James Higgins. 

Thomas Hodgson, .-Vug. 24, '61, dis. March 3. '63. 

Samuel Hofi'man, Dec. 5, '61. 

Henry Holeman, Nov. 1, '61 ; dis. April 14, '6.3. 

.John Horriden, Jan. 15, '(i3. 

E. A. Jetlayes,Feb.9,'64; tr.to V. R. C.luly 27, '65. 
Bowie Johnson, Jan. 16, '65. 

Thomas .Johnson, .Jan. 18, '65. 

Frank .Tones, Nov. 1, '61 ; dis. March 22, 'ti2. 

William (>. Johnson, trans, to S. Corps. 

Thomas Johnson, Nov. 10, 'til. 

Daniel Kane, Oct. 1, '63; died Sept. 6, '(;4,<ifw(juuil>. 

William Kelsey, Nov. 1, 'til. 



R J. Kindle, Feb. 1, '64; died May 31, 'ti4, of wounds. 

William King, .Tan. 18, '65. 

Thomas King, .Jan. 18, '65. 

Joshua Korn, Nov. 1, "til ; dis. ."May 4, '62. 

.Tcdin Lannigan, Aug. 23, '61 ; dis. Oct. 22, '61. 

Theophilus Ijane, Jan. 15, '64. 

William Leak, must, out Aug. 18, '(i4. 

Lewis L. Liebeiili.st, Feb. 10, 'ii4 : dis. April 2, '64. 

Henry IvOgan, March 25, 't;5. 

/.achariah Martz. 

.Tolin L. Maston, .lau. 18, '65. 

James Mattson. dis. Sept. 24, '62. 

.John McClure, Aug. 23, 61 ; dis. June 4, '62. 

Wm. McDowell, Jan. 11, 'ti4 ; killed June 3, '64. 

Lewis McPherson, must, out Aug. I'.t, 'i)4. 

William McClune, Jan. 17, 't;5. 

John McLaughlin, Feb. 13, '64. 

George W. Messick, dis. May 15, '62. 

Charles Messner, Jan. 14, 'ti5, 

George Meyers, Nov. 1, 'til ; must, out July 9, '65. 

Thomas Murphy, Jan. 17, 't>5. 

George W. Mossbrooks, dis. Dec. 8, '62. 

Jonathan Munson, Feb. 12, "64; killed May 6, '64. 

.Tohn Myers, .Tan. 18, '65. 

John W. Newell, Jan. 18, 'ii5. 

.Tohn Nolan, .Tan. 17, '65. 

Hugh Norry, Jan. 16, '65. 

Robert J. Owens, Nov. 1, '61 ; dis. Oct. 17, '62. 

,Tohn R. Pancoast, Aug. 23, '61; dis. Dec. 22, '62. 

Charles W. Potter, Aug. 24, '61 ; killed June 27, '62. 

(ieorge W. Phifer, Nov. 1. '61 ; dis. July 1, '65. 

George T. Rayliold, must, out Aug. 19, 't)4. 

John W. Richmond, Feb. 22. '65. 

John W. Rickard, Nov. 1, 'tU ; dis. Nov. 1, '64. 

•Tames Ross, Jan.. 15, '64. 

I'^Jwood Robart, dis. Aug. 20, '62. 

Aaron Rubart, Jan. 18, "65. 

Bartholomew Ryan, Feb. 21, 'tiS. 

William H. Sanders, Nov. 10, '61. 

William Schenck. 

.I(din C. Schenck, A\ig. 23, "61 ; dis. Jan. 17, '63. 

ITenry Schonawald, March 27, '65. 

t'harles Schwartz, dis. Aug. 19, 'ti4. 

John W. SchafTcr, Jan. 4, '64. 

Lewis M. Silauce, March 2, '()5. 

.lames Smith, must, out Aug. 4, '65. 

Hcrnuiu Stehrf Aug. 21, '61 ; must, out Sept. .S, '64. 

.lohn W. Streeper, Feb. 1, '64; dis. .lunc 2S. 'ii5. 

Andrew K. Snyder, dis. Dec. 21, '(i2. 

C.Sti<'rle,Feb.4,'64; died .May 12, '6 l.ol' woinids, 

l'hilii> Stoy, Dec. .5, 'til ; died May IS, '(lii. 

Demas Struap, Jan. 4, '65. 

David Surran, Aug. 21, '61. 

Joseph Thomas. 

Walter I!. Thomas, Nov. 8, '61. 



112 



HlfSTORY OF CAMPEN COTTNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Eli Thompson. 

Sheppard Thompson, must, out July 22, '65. 

Thomas Thompson. 

Felix Thomas, killwl in a<!tion May o, 'fi4. 

John W. Thoma.s. 

Archibald Tice. 

Leonard Tice, killed in action Dec. 13, '62. 

August Tubert, March 28, '65. 

Cornelius Tubbs, Jan. 18, '65. 

B. F. Upham, Aug. 22, '61 ; must, out Hept. 23, '64. 

Joseph Van Hook, died Oct. 30, '62. 

Benjamin Vernon, Oct. 28, '61 ; died June 2!<. '64. 

William H. Wagner, must, out .^ug. 20, '61. 

John W. Walters. 

Jacob Watson, Dec. 1, '61. 

William Westcott, killed in action Dec. 13, '62. 

Henry C. Williams, Dec. 1, '61 ; dis. Aug. 14, 62. 

David Wood, Feb. 8, '64. 

John W. Wood, Feb. 8, '64. 

William Zanes, Dec. 5, '61. 

Jacob Zimmerman, Aug. 23, '61. 

The Second Brigade. — Camden County 
was also strongly represented in the Second 
New Jersey Brigade of three years' troops, 
which was compcsed of the Fifth, Si.xth, 
Seventh and Eightli Regiments. Companies 
D, E, G, I and K, of the Sixth, were rai.sed 
in Camden County, and the regiment was 
mustered into the United States service at 
Camp Olden, Trenton, August 19, 1861. 
The Sixth left the State on September lOtli, 
with thirty-eight commissioned officers and 
eight hundred and sixty non-commissioned 
officers ant! privates. At Washington it 
went into camp at Meridian Hill, and in De- 
cember the four regiments reported to Gen- 
eral Hooker, at Budd's Ferry, Maryland, 
when tiiey were brigaded as the Third Bri- 
gade, Hooker's division ; afterwards as the 
Third Brigade, Second Division, Third 
Corps ; then as the First Brigade, Fourtli 
Division, Second Corps ; and Jastly as the 
Third Brigade, Third [iivision, Srcoiul 
Corps. 

At Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, lS(i-2, 
it was in tlio thickest of the battle, losittg 
over fiv(^ hundred men, among whom was 
Ijicutcnant-Colonel John P. \'an Leer, ol' the 
Si.xtii, a I'iti/.cn of Camden, and thii-ty-eight 



killed and seventy-eight wounded, of the 
same regiment. On June Ist, at Turner's 
Farm, General Hooker placed himself at the 
liead of the Fifth and Sixth Regiments and 
" charged straight into and through the 
woods, breaking the rebel lines and driving 
the enemy in great confusion for a consiiler- 
able distance, recovering all the ground lost 
by Casey's division and ending the fight for 
the day on that part of the line." 

The other battles of the Peninsular Cam- 
|)aign in which the Sixth took part were 
Fair Oaks, June 25th; Glendaie, June 30th; 
and Malvern Hill, July 1st and August 20th. 
In this campaign the Second New Jersey 
Brigade had six hundred and thirty-four of- 
ficers and men killed and wounded out of its 
total strength of twenty-seven hundred. 
From the swamps it was moved to reinforce 
Poj)e, and bore the brunt of the engagement 
at Bri.stow Station, on July 27th, and was an 
active participant in the fighting of the four 
succeeding days at Bull Run and Chantilly. 
In this series of disastrous battles that 
eclipsed Pope's military fame its ranks were 
depleted to the extent of two hundred and 
forty-eight killed, wounded and missing, the 
Sixth's .share being one hundred anil four, 
or more than double that of any othei- of tlic 
four regiments. The report of Lieutenant - 
Colonel George C. Burling, commanding the 
Sixth, says, — 

" Wednesday morning, August 27lii, marched in 
the direction of Manassas, and when near Bris- 
tow's Station found the enemy in force. In a 
short time we met the pickets and drove them in. 
W^e were then ordered to take an advanced posi- 
tion on a hill to the right in front of us, which we 
gained without loss under a terrible fire of shell 
from the enemy. We were then ordered to relieve 
the SecoiKl New York, Eighth New .Jersey and 
One Hundred and Fifteenth Pennsylvania Regi- 
ments, who were engaged on the right. Immedi- 
ately on reaching our new position, the enemy 
lied in great confusion, leaving their dead and 
wounded in great numbers on the field. We pur- 
sued them for two miles and encamped for the 
night. August 28th, pursued the enemy through 



THE WAR FOR THE UNTOX 



ns 



the day atifl encamped near IlhukUurii's Ford that 
night. 

" Auo;ust 20th, left camp at three ()'cU)ck, A. M.^ 
pursuing; the enemy through Centrevillc, down 
the Warrington Road. Crossing Bull Run at ten 
A. M., we formed a line of battle and advanced, in 
the woods, to relieve one of General Sigel's regi- 
ments, where we found the enemy in force behind 
the embankment of an old railroad. After deliv- 
ering and receiving several volleys, we charged 
and drove them from their position, when they re- 
ceived reinforcements, and were compelled to fall 
back nearly fifty yards, which position we held 
until we were relieved by the Second Maryland 
Regiment. During this engagement Colonel G. 
Mott and Major S. R. Gilkyson, while gallantly 
encouraging their men, were wounded. 

" August 80th, formed a line of battle about 
four o'clock. l>. JI., and were ordered to support 
batteries to the right and rear of the position we 
had held the day before- Through some misun- 
derstanding, my regiment being on the right, the 
other regiments composing the brigade were with- 
drawn without my knowledge, leaving me in a 
very critical position. The enemy making a charge 
upon the batteries in front, conijielling them to 
fall back, I determined to resist their advance, 
when to my astonishment I found we were flanked 
right and left ; I then ordered the regiment to fall 
back in the woods, which was done in order, and 
thus checked the advance of the enemy in front. At 
this time, finding the flanks of the enemy rapidly 
closing round us, the only safety for my command 
was to retreat. In trying to extricate ourselves 
from the critical position in which we were placed 
my command suffered severely. I was enabled to 
rally my regiment on a hill in close proximity to 
the battle-field, under the shell of the enemy, 
where we remained in line of battle until ordered 
by the ranking officer to fall back to Centreville, 
where we joined the brigade the following morn- 
ing." 

Captains T. W. Baker and T. C. Moore 
arc alluded to as dis[)layli)g es[iecial gal- 
lantry. 

At Chaneellorsville, on May li, ISli;}, Gen- 
eral Mott having been vvounded, General 
William J. Sewell ' took command of the 
brigade and distinguished himself" by taking 
it into a charge which a correspondent of the 

' See history of West .Jersey Hailroad in chapter on 
I'uhlic Internal Improvements for sketcli of Oeneral 
Sewell. 

15 



Washington Chronicle described as " one of 
those .splendid achievements seldom occur- 
ring in this war .so far, but which, when oc- 
curring, cover a .soldier's career with imper- 
ishable glory." The brigade's loss in this 
engagemeitt was three hundred ;ind seventy- 
eight, six killed and fifty-nine wounded be- 
ing credited to the Sixth. 

Colonel Burling was commander of this 
brigade at Gettysburg, where it did noble 
service on the afternoon of -Tulj' 2d. He sent 
the Sixth into the Devil's Den, where it lo.st 
one man killed and thirty-two woimded. 

The next engagement for the Sixth after 
Gettysburg was the skirmish at McLean's 
Ford, on Bull Run, October 15th. On May 
(5, l.S(i4, in the Wilderness, and on the 10th 
and 12th, around Spottsylvania Court-House, 
it was in the most perilous positions of those 
hard-fought fields, and behaved with much 
gallantry in the charge on the salient held 
by Powell's Confederates, in which three 
thousand prisoners and thirty guns were 
taken. Adjutant C. F. Moore and Lieuten- 
ant Note brought oiF one of these guns with 
a squad of the Sixth and turned it upon the 
eneiuy. Seven hundred men, killed and 
wounded, were subtracted from the brigade 
on that terrible 12th of May. 

Between June 3d and 21st the Sixth j^artici- 
pated in the fighting on the north bank of 
the James River, and the attacks on Peters- 
burg. Its losses in May and June were six- 
teen killed, ninety-nine wounded and eight 
missing. Its final engagement was near 
Deep Bottom, James River, August 14th to 
18th, when, its three years of service having 
expired, it was ordered to report at Trenton, 
and was mustcj-ed out September 7th. 

The roster of the Camden County com- 
panies of this regiment is appended : 

COMPANY D, SIXTH REGIMENT XEW .TEHSEV VOL- 
UNTEERS 

[This ciinipiiny was muatered in August 20, 1801, and mustcsn'il out 
September 7, 1804, unless otherwise stated], 

Captdhi. 
Geo. E. Wilson, Sept. 9,'(>1, must, out Sept. 7, '04. 



114 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



First Lieutenants. 
.1. Willian, Sept. 9, '61, pro. capt. Co. C July 11, '62. 
T. F. Field, Jan. 2, '63, pro. capt. Co. H June 9,'63. 
F. Young, Sept. 21, 63, pro. capt. Co. I Aug. 8, '64. 

Second Lieutenant. 
Wm. H. Kinly, Sept. 9, '61, resig. Jan. 11, '63. 

First Sergeants. 
Pat. Eiley, Aug. 9, '61, killed in action May 5, '62. 
Thos. J. Keegan, trans, to Co. G, 8th Regt. 

Se.rgeant-'i.. 
Eli H. Baily. 
Mahlon F. Ivins. 

Wm. D. Smith, disch. Nov. 21, '63. 
Joseph Wollard, killed in action May 5, '62. 
Edgar Hudson, killed in action .luly 2, '63. 

Corporals. 
Amos Ireland. 

Thos. B. Jordan, disch. Dec. 29, "62. 
Thos. Bates, Sr., disch. Oct. 15, '62, of wounds. 
Frank W. Pike, trans, to Co. G, 8th Regt. 
John E. Maxwell, disch. Sept. 1, '64. 
Wm. C. Poole, trans, to V. R. C. Sept. 1, '63. 
Samuel Ogden, disch. Aug. 26, '64. 
Jesse T. Bailey, killed in action May 8, '63. 
Chas. F. Jess, musician. 
Jas. Pollock, musician, disch. July 3, '62. 
Chas. C. Sturgess, musician, disch. Aug. 2-'i. '64. 
Jacob Clark, wagoner, Oct. 19, '61. 
S. W. Crammer, wagoner, trans, to Co. G, 8lh Regt. 

I'riviitvs. 
Christian Anderson, must, out April 1, '6-'i. 
James Abernathy, disch. Dec. 11, '(i2. 
Robert Anders(m, Aug. 9, '61. 
Wm. D. Anderson, Aug. 9, '61. 
Daniel P. Bendalow, trans, to Co. G, Stli Regt. 
John Berry man. 
Thomas Burrott. 
Robert N. Black. 
Wm. Black. 
James Bradley. 

Henry Black, trans, to Co. G, 8th Regt. 
Robert Booth, must, out Aug. 2, '64. 
J. T. Boyle, June 30, '63, trans, to Co. G, 8th Regt. 
Patrick Boylon. 
Wm. R. Britton. 
James P. Britton. 
Allen Brown. 

James Booth, disch. July 24, '62. 
Thos. Bottomly, disch. Jan. 29, '63. 
Conrad Brickhardt, May 25, '64, disch. Nov. 21, '64. 
Jos. P. Busha, disch. Feb. 11, '64. 
Michael Campbell. 
Thomas Calvert, disch. May 26, '62. 
John Cloren, died Oct. 11, '62. 



Timothy Cloren, killed in action May 5, '62. 

Wm. Conard. 

Jacob Cowan, Aug. 29,'61, trans, to Co. G, 8th Regt. 

Woodard Cox, disch. Dec. 1, '62, of wounds. 

Joseph P. Davis, trans, to Co. G, 8th Regt. 

Henry Deats, trans, to Co. G, 8th Regt. 

James Devlin. 

John Dowell, trans, to Vo. (t, Sth Regt. 

Samuel English. 

Joseph L. Ervin. disch. Dec. 11, '61. 

John Fitzgerald, killed in action May 5, '62. 

J. W. Ford, April 2, '62. killed in action May 5,'62. 

Thomas Gannon. 

Charles P. Gannon, trans, to Co. G, 8th Regt. 

.John Gannon, disch. Sept. 22, '62. 

John Gourley, disch. vSept. 1, '62. 

Jos. Graisberry, disch. Feb. 18, '63. 

James Groves, disch. March 18, '62. 

John Groves, disch. Oct. 8, '62. 

Wm. Groves, trans, to Co. G, Sth Regt. 

John Hanery, Maich 27, '63, disch. July 15, '68. 

John Hare, disch. Feb. 6, '63. 

Henry Harney, disch. Feb. 6, '63, to join Reg. A'y. 

•lames Herron, disch. Oct. 17, '62. 

Charles Holmes, disch. May 31, '62. 

John Harley. 

Alexander Harvey. 

Benjamin W. Hill. 

G. H. Holmes, <lied May 10, '62, of wounds. 

Robert Irvine. 

Hiram Irvin, disch. Dec. 11, '61. 

Levi Jess. 

Henry Johnson, Feb. 17, '62. disch. Jan. 2. '63. 

John T. Johnson, disch. Jan. 2, '63. 

Michael Joy, May 16,'64, trans, to Co. G,8th Regt. 

John Kentworthy. 

Thos. H. King, disch. Oct. 19, '62. 

John Kochersperger, disch. July 24, '62. 

J. P. Langley, Sept. 23,'64, trans, to Co. E, Sth Regt. 

Albert C. Lee, Sept. 3,'64,trans. to Co. H, Sth Regt. 

Matthew Larney. 

Thos. Marrott, disch. Oct. 25, '62. 

Robert Marshall, died Feb. 18, '62. 

James McCormick, disch. April 18, '63. 

James McElmoil, disch. Oct. 17, '62. 

John McHenry, disch. Dec. 9, '61. 

Henry D. Morgan, died June 1, '62, of wound,". 

Francis Nield, disch. Nov. 29, '62. 

JohnO'Ncil, July 21, '63. 

Jos. Parks, killed in action May 5, '62. 

Wm. Parker, disch. May 17, '64. 

Theodore Pike, died March 14, '62. 

W. C. Poole, Aug. 19, '64, trans, to Uo. (), Sth Regt. 

Lewis G. Pratt, discli. Se|)t. 27, '62. 

Edgar V. Roby. 




^fr?J^ 



'^t^^-A^ 



THK WAU FOR THE UNION. 



Win. H. Robust, died Nov. 26, '02. 

TboiiKW D. Ros.s, died Feb. 12, 'f>2. 

J:is. Ryan, Marcb 22,'(;4, killed in action May G,'04. 

David Salmons, Feb. 18, '62, disch. Feb. 17, '65. 

John Sheppard, disch. Dec. 31, '62. 

Henry Shatter, di.wh. Sept. 24, '61. 

Thomas Sinclair, disch. Sept. 24, '61. 

Aaron Stone, disch. Feb. 28, '(iS. 

Thomas R. Smalhvood. 

\Vm. Terry, Jan. 26, '64, trans, to Co. G, Sth Regt. 

James Tomlinson. 

James Totten. 

Charles Van Meter. 

Eber Van Meter. 

Henry Wei?tlake, Sept. 22, '64, dis<'li. .Fan. l:i, 'i'Al 

J. M. Webster, Sept. 9,'6.3, trans, to (_'o. K, Sth Regt. 

Frederick Whorten. 

J. Wolohon, June 30,'6.S, trans, to Co. G, Sth Regt. 

Captain George E. Wilson was boru 
at Woonsocket, E. I., February 10, IS:?;}. 
Hi.s graiul father, the Rev. Junies NA'il.son, a fle- 
sceudant ut" oue of the early settler.s of New 
England, in 1800 beeanic one of tiie fir.^t 
piiblio-scliool teaehers in tlie city of Provi- 
(Knee, where tlie free-school system in Amer- 
ica then originated. As a minister of tiie 
gospel he .served during tlie long period of 
fifty years as pastor of the Beneficent ( 'on- 
gregational Cluircli of Providence, and died 
highly honored and respeetetl at the advanced 
age of eighty years. 

James Wilson, his .son, and the father of 
Henry B., James P. and George E. Wilson, 
was treasurer of the New England Screw 
Clompany, at Providence, for a time. He 
iiKived to Camden County in 184!), and for 
many years was treasurer of the Washington 
Manufacturing Company, of (jlonccster ( !ity, 
until age compelled him t« resign, and he 
spent the remainder of his life in Camden. 
He was a man of sterling integrity, deeply 
interested in the material and moral weiiiire 
of the communities in which he lived, and a 
prominent member of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church. He died in 1S82, at the age 
of eighty years. 

Captain Wilson, subject of this biograjJiy, 
spent his boyliood days in Providence, and 
there attended the public schools and subse- 



quently was a j)upil in a Friends' school in 
Philadelphia. He entered business asach'rU 
for the Washington Maiuilacturing Com])any, 
at (iloucester, and afterwards engaged in the 
ice business in the .same city. When the 
C^ivil War opened he joined Cajjtaiii John P. 
Van Leer's com]«iny in the three months' 
service, and upt)n arriving at Trenton was 
mustered in, April 21, 18(jl, as first li(uiten- 
ant of C'ompany H of the lAturth New Jer.sey 
Militia. This regiment was taken down the 
Delaware to Anna])olis in ti-ansports, and 
was the first fully-e(juip])e<l brigaile at the 
outbreak of the war to arrive at the city of 
Washington. The same regiment built Fort 
Runyon, at the south end of the Long Bridge 
over the Potomac near Washington, and was 
present at the first battle of Hull iiun, tlniugh 
n(jt actively engaged. At the exjiiralion of 
the term of service he cann' Imnie with the 
regiment, and immediately alter being dis- 
charged re-enlisted with Cajjlain Van Leer, 
in Company I) of the Sixtii New Jersey 
Regiment, and was nuistered in as captain 
of the comjtany, Cai)tain Van Leer being 
promoted to major. The Sixth Regiment 
fdniied a part of the Secontl New Jersey 
Brigaile, and in 18()2, under (ieneral Mc- 
Clellan, took part in the Peninsular cam- 
paign. Captain Wilson commanded his 
company at the siege of Yorktown, and in 
the succeeding engagement of this campaign 
at Williamsliurg, May "», 18G2, he was .se- 
verely wounded in the hand and hip, as th<> 
army was on the retreat and he fell into the 
hands of the enemy, but the fi)llowing day 
was recovered. After his wounds had healed, 
in August, 1862, he rejoined his regiment and 
again took charge of his company. In 18(i;! 
he participated in the battles of Frederii-k.s- 
burg, Chancellorsville and (i('ttysburg. In 
July of the same year he was detached from 
his regiment to take charge of the camp of 
drafteil men at Trenton, and remained in 
that position until the exj)iration of his term 
of three years' service, in 1864. 



116 



HISTORY OP CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Since the close of tlie war Captain Wilson, 
lias been actively engaged in the ice and 
coal business in the city of Camden, has built 
up an extensive trade and has been very 
successful. He olitains his ice in immense 
quantities from the Eastern States and from 
Lakeside Park, and furnishes it to consumers 
in the city of Camden and elsewhere. He 
also has a coal-yard at Second and Chestnut 
Streets and one at Tenth and Spruce Sti-eets. 
He is a member of the Thomas K. Lee Post, 
G. A. R., and has taken an active interest in 
the Masonic fraternity, lieing a member of 
Lodge 94, Siloam Chapter, No. 19, Cyrene 
Commandery of Camden ; has taken the 
thirty-second degree in Masonry, and was 
Grand C!onuuander of Knights TeMi]ilar 
of West Jersey for 1880 and 1881. 

On October 12, 1805, Captain Wilson was 
married to ]\Iatilda M., daughter of Dr. 
William C. Mullbrd, of Gloucester. She 
died in 1869, leaving two children, — Emilie 
I), and George Edward. He was married, 
on the 19th of NovemI)er, 1872, to Maria 
W. Jackson, daughter of Ephraim S. Jack- 
son, a prominent citizen of Providence, II. I., 
and for twelve years postmaster of that city. 
They have two children, — Benjamin J. and 
Rachael Graham Wilson. 

COMPANY E. 

[This tuuipiuiy was niiifttf red in August 20, 1861, aud luiistered out 
Scv'tiMiiliiT 7, 1S(>4, unless otherwise stated,] 

Caj/tdiim. 
Kamuiul G. Jackson, Sept. 9, '01, tlis. Oct. 18, '02. 
William H. Hemsiiig, Jan. 2, "0?., i'/t<? Jackson, dis. 

First Lieutenant. 
Frederick Homer, Jan. 2, '03, (lis. July 1-1, '04. 

Second LieufenniitK. 
Levi E. Ayres, Mar. 2, '03, pr. 1st lieut. Oo. F. 
George W. Breen, Sept. 2, '03, pr. 1st lieut. Co. B. 

First /Sergeant. 
George VV. Jackson, pr. 1st lieut. Co. H. 

ii'ergea,nts. 
William H. Schwaab. 
Authony Barnard, dis. July 1, '02. 
James Albright, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regt. 
Charles G. P. Golorth, d. Sept. 1, '64, of wounds. 



Corporals. 
Count De Grasse Hogau, dis. Aug. 25, '02. 
Jacob Gerhard, dis. Mar. 21, '03. 
Benjamin H. Connelly, trans, to Co. I, 8th Regt. 
Frederick O. Lowe, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regt. 
Charles H. Rossiter, dis. Aug. 0, '04. 
John Brown, trans, to Co. I, 8th Regt. 
Thomas Matthews, dis. Nov. 14, '05. 
Adam Wooley, killed May 9, "04. 
James Herliert, killed May 3, '03. 
Kd. G. Jackson. Jr., mus., trans, to Co. F. 8th Regt. 
William G. Gordcn, mus. 
Charles Fox, wagoner. 

J'rii'ates. 
Frederick M. Adams, June 9, '04, dis. Sept. 22, '64. 
Robert H. Ames, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regt. 
Michael B.iyne, killed May fi, '02. 
George Baltzer, dis. Mar. 24, '0.^). 
Patchie Barry. 

George Bower, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regt. 
Charles R. Bechtel. killed May 5, '02. 
Joseph Bozer, dis. Nov. 29, '02. 
David R. Burton, dis. Jan. 12, '03. 
Charles Brown. 

Alfred Biddle, died May 25, '02, of wounds. 
Alfred B. Carter, Apr. 3, 'ti2, dis. Jan 19, '03. 
William H. Carey. 
Jesse Cain, died Aug. 22, '02. 
Edward J. Cassady. 
(k'orge Cobb, dis. Feb. 16, '03. 
Michael Collins, dis. Dec. 5, '02. 
Restore L. Crispin, dis. Mar. 6, '63. 
Chs. C. Cullen, Feb. 2, '(i4, trans to Co. F, 8th Regt. 
Job J. Davidson, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regt. 
Thomas Dougherty. 
Michael Eagan. 
Charles O. Easley, dis. Oct. 22, '02. 

Ralph Easley, died May 20, '02, of wouuds. 
Charles Elliott. 

Lemuel Edwards, dis. Feb. 4, '03. 

Charles Fennimore, dis. Aug. 5, '02. 

William Fields, killed Aug. 29, '02. 

Charles Fredericks, Dec. 14, '03. 

Hiram Fish, Nov. 1, '01, dis. May 21, '63. 

Frank Gordon. 

Charles Gotz. 

Archibald M. Grant, dis. Dec. 3, '02. 

Joseph F. Greenly, dis. Oct. 21, '62. 

(Jhris. (ir.andan, Feb. 2, '04, trans, to lOtli Mass. Regt. 

Chandler Gross, trans, to Co. F, 8tli Regt. 

John W. Guptill, trans, to Co. F, Sth Regt. 

William Harlman, trans, to Co. F, Sth Regt. 

William Hamlin, killed Aug. 29, '02. 

Charles Helmers, trans, to Co. F, Sth Regt. 

David Herbert, trans, to Co. F, Sth Regt. 



THK WAR FOR THE UNION. 



117 



Joseph Herbert, trans, to Co. F, Stli Kogt. 

S. R. Hankinson, Mar. 15, 'C2,dis. Dec. 16, '(!2, wds. 

Joseph S. Heston. 

Charles M. Hoagland, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regt. 

William Hoftman, trans, to 1st N. J. Art. 

David Holloway, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regt. 

Waher Hill. 

Loren Horner, May 18, 'iV>. di.s. Sept. 18, 'M. 

Alfred Iviiis. 

Thos. Jacobs, ApLJli, 'ti2, trans, to Co. F, 8tli Regt. 

Richard Jobes, dis. Oct. 22, '62. 

Edward Johnson, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regt. 

Thomas Jones, killed Aug. 29, '62. 

Lewis Keller, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regl. 

Nichohis Lambright, dis. May 22, '62. 

Isaac K. Lapp. 

Samuel W. Lilly, died June 1, '62, of wounds. 

Lawrence Lockner, dis. Mar. 23, '6S. 

Charles Matlack, dis. Jan. 12, '63. 

William Matthews, di.s. Mar. 19, '62. 

Joseph McCarty, dis. Mar. 18, '62. 

William McClain. 

William McClure. 

William McCready, trans, to V. R. C. Jan. l.'i,'64. 

John McNish. 

Edw. A. Meyer, Feb. 8, '64, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regt. 

Henry Naylor. 

John J. Olden, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regt. 

Henry Paul. 

Charles H. Pierce, dis. Nov. 26, '63. 

Clayton Pope, dis. Juue 13, '62. 

William Pope. 

Samuel E. Radeliff. 

Thomas C. Ralston, dis. Oct. 15, '62. 

William T. Ralph, dis. Aug. 27, '64. 

Edward J. Reynolds, dis. April 21, '63. 

William Rianhard. 

Wesley Robinson, died June 6, '62, of wounds. 

Jacob Schenck, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regt. 

Fred. Schlegel, Feb. 16, '64, trans, to Co. F, Sth Regt. 

Jacob Seigrist, dis. Oct. 22, '62. 

Alexander A. Smith, dis. Aug. 30, '64. 

John Smith, April 21, '64, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regt. 

Joseph Simpson, May 17, '64. 

Henry Stanmire. 

Joseph Steen. 

Charles W. Steele, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regl. 

Jona'n Strouse, May 11, '64, trans, to i'o. F, Sth Regt. 

Thomas S. Stewart, dis. Jan. 3, '63. 

William H. Stewart, dis. Dec. 12, '61. 

Joseph Stoeckle, must, out Oct. 6, '64. 

Zebulon Tompkins. 

Geo. W. Wade, Mar. 30, '64, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regt. 

Andrew .1. Wallace, trans, to Co. F, Sth Regt. 

Samuel N. Wilmot, trans, to Co. F, Sth Regt. 



John Wilson, .Ian. 4, '64, trans, to Co. F, Sth Regt. 

Wm. Wilson, Sept. 7, 'i;4, trans, to Co. I, Sth Regt. 

Josei.h M. Wliite. 

Thomas .1. Whittaker, di.s. Jan. 2, '63. 

Thomas Van Hrunt, killed Aug. 29, '62. 

('"MI'ANY (i. 
(Thirt ciiiipanv was iiiusltTed in .\uKuxt «, 1 wll, anil mnsteroa out 
with rcpinmnl unli.-Hs otherwise staterl.] 

Oipfains. 
Theo. W. Baker, Sept. 9, '61 ;pro. inaj. Oct. 9, '62. 
Louis M. Morris, Jan. 2, '63, vire Baker, pro. 

Fif.it Licutenanh. 
Chas. F. Moore, Jan. 1, '63; pro. adjt. Jan. I, '63. 
Rufus K. Case, Jan. 1, '63. 

Second Lieutenanls. 
John K. Brown, Sept. 9, '61; res. ,luly 11, '62. 
J. C. Lee, Jan. 2, '63 ; pro. 1st It. Co. C June 9, '63. 

First Sergeants. 
Benjamin D. Brown, pro. 2d It. Co. I Juue 23, '62. 
Joseph T. Note, pro. 2d lieut. Co. K Jan. 11, '63. 
James A. Morris. 

Seryeaiifs. 
John H. Hoaglaud, pro. 2d It. Co. C Jan. 16, '63. 
Joseph H. McClees, dis. May 22, '62. 
Edwin Mitchell, killed May 5, '(i2. 
Charles E. Githens, died Juue 21, '62, of wounds, 
.lacob B. .lohnson, died Jan. 5, '63. 
Joseph D. Moore, dis. Aug. 26, "64. 
George W. Farrow, dis. Aug. 27, '64. 
Charles Brough, trans, to Co. H, Sth Regt. 
Howard S. Moore. 

Coi-jiorals. 
John L. Bullock. 
James S. Porch. 

Leopold W. Rossmaier, dis. Aug. 29, '64. 
John North, dis. Feb. 19, '63. 
Charles W. North, died May 5, '63, of wounds. 
Lewis Drummond. 

George L. Baker, nius. ; trans, to Co. K, Sth Regt. 
Henry Bender, Jr., musician. 

Privates. 
William Adams, dis. May 30, '62. 
John Allen, dis. Dec. 10, '61. 
Benjamin Anderson, dis. May 22, '62. 
James V. Anderson, trans, to V,u. Vt, Sth Regt. 
Andrew Benner, May 24, '64. 
James Blake, May 24, '64. 
William Burke, May 19, '64. 
James Burns, May 24, '64. 

Benjamin F. Budd, Oct. 31, '61 ; killed Aug. 29, '62. 
James Budd, killed May 5, '()2. 
John P. Burroughs, killed May 5, '62. 
Theodore M. Cattell, trans, to Co. E, Sth Regt. 
Robert Campbell, May 24, '64. 



118 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY 



Joseph Cardisser, May 20, 't!4. 

William Charlton, May 24, '64. 

John Cheesman, Sept. 2S, '61 ; (li.s. Sept. 21. '64. 

John H. Crammer, dis. Jan. 2, '63. 

James B. Cox. 

Henry Day, May 24, '64. 

Samuel David.son. 

Samuel Dermot, died June 14, '62. 

Charles W. Devinney, di.s. June 2, '62. 

Daniel W. Donau, May 2.3, '64. 

Josiah Dickson, dis. June 11, '63. 

William E. Eastlack. 

Albert C. English, dis. May 29, '62. 

Frank Farrow, died Oct. 11, '62. 

William Feltman, dis. Oct. 13, '62. 

Henry Firth, dis. Jan. 2, '63. 

John I. Gardner. 

Frank Gates, May 24, '64. 

Thomas Gladden. 

Giles Gleason, May li), '64. 

James Gillean, dis. Dec. 10, '61. 

Charles B. Green, dis. May 31, '62. 

Horace L. Haines, Oct. 3, '61 ; dis. Oct. lo, '62. 

John Hardy, May 16, '64 ; trans, to Co. E, 8th Regt. 

Philip Hart, May 19, '64. 

Charles Hires, dis. Oct. 1 1, '62. 

Joseph HofHiuger, trans, to Co. E, Sth Regt. 

John Hogan, May 20, '64. 

John W. Holmes, trans, to Co. E, Sth Regt. 

John Horn, died June 26, '62. 

Sylvauus Ireland, killed May 5, '62. 

Thomas Ivins, dis. Feb. 2r>, '(53. 

Robert Johnson, May 23, '64. 

Charles Jones, May 19, '64. 

William Jones, dis. Oct. 17, '62. 

Justice S. Kerbaugh, dis. July 24, '62. 

Charles Layman, dis. .Tuly 24, '62. 

William Lee. 

Charles Letts, dis. Sept. 7, '64. 

Thomas Lynch, May 23, '64. 

James Mackinall, killed May 5, '62. 

John Macktoff, dis. May 22, '62. 

Thomas Marshall, May 16, '64. 

William E. Maling. 

John Mathys, May 23, '64. 

Giovanni Martini, May 20, '64; tr. to Co. E.Sth Regt. 

John McAllister, May 24, '64. 

Edw. McArdle, Dec. 30, '63 ; tr. to Co. E, 8th Regt. 

Patrick McAvoy, trans, to Co. E, Sth Regt. 

Micliael Morgan, dis. Dec. 11, '63. 

Daniel Murry, dis. May 28, '64. 

Michael Nicholson, killed in action May ">, '62. 

Michael O'Neil, trans, to Co. K. 

Benjamin Ong, dis. May 31, '62. 

Peter L. Owens, Oct. 31, '61 ; di.s. June 6, '62. 



John S. Owens, trans, to Co. E, 8th Regt. 

Charles Owens, killed in action May 5, '62. 

Frederick Parker, May 18, '64. 

Timothy Parker. 

Nicholas S. Parker. 

Ward Pierce (1), dis. June 28, '62. 

Ward Pierce (2), Dec. 30, '63 ; tr. to Co. E, 8th Regt. 

Read M. Price, died Sept. 15, '62, of wounds. 

James Phalin, May 23, '64. 

William Powell. 

Francis Rawlings, May 19, '64. 

Franklin Read, killed in action May 3, '63. 

Louis Revear, May 23, '64. 

Force Rhoads, trans, to Co. E, 8th Regt. 

Amos Robb, dis. May 22. '62. 

George Schenck, killed in action May 5, '62. 

Philip H. Schenck. Jr., killed in act. May o, '62. 

James B. Scott, Mar. 8, '62 ; dis. Aug. 8, '63. 

Henry Seabury, dis. Aug. 26, '64. 

Joseph H. Sooy, Nov. o, '62; dis. Mar. 11, '63. 

Luke Sooy, dis. Feb. 17, '63. 

George P. Stiles, Apr. 16, '62 ; tr. to Co. E, Sth Regt. 

Thos. S. Tanier, Feb. 3, '64 ; tr. to Co. E, Sth Regt. 

Thomas Taylor. 

Charle.s A. Thomas. 

Maxwell T. Toy, dis. May 31, '62. 

Andrew .1. Ware, paroled prisoner. 

John Watson, tr. to Co. E, Sth Regt. 

Samuel Watson, killed in action May 6, '64. 

James M. West, tr. to Co. E, Sth Regt. 

George L. White, dis. Dec. 19, '63. 

William Wiltsey, tr. to Co. E, Sth Regt. 

William Wilson, died May 17, '62. 

James Young, tr. to Co. E, Sth Regt. 

Malica Zimmerman, died July 26, '62. 

COMPANY I, SIXTH REGIMENT NEW .lER.^EY 
VOLUNTEERS. 

(This company wns muetf red in .\uKii8t 29, 1861, ami miiflleivd out 
with regiment uniess otlierwise stated). 

Captains. 
Richard H. Lee, Sept. 9, '61, res. Aug. 12, '63. 
Benjamin D. Coley, Oct. 27, '63, res. .Vpl. 12, '64. 

First Lieuteiiimti<. 
T. M.K.Lee, Sep. 9, '61, pr. capt. Co. K Jan. 16, '63. 
Joseph T. Note, Sep. 21, '63. 

Second Jjieuteiiants. 
T. F. Field, Sep. 9, '61, pr 1st It. Co. D June 23, '62. 
C. F.Moore. June 23, '62, pr 1st It. Co. G Dec.1,'62. 
Bcnj. D. Brown, Jan. 2, '63, res. May 22, '63. 

First Sergeants. 
Joseph C. Lee, pr. sgt. maj. Feb. 26, '62. 
Edmond Carels, tr. to Co. E, 8tb Regt. 



THK WAR FOR THE TTNTON. 



119 



Sergemitf. 
John E. Loeb. 
Benjamin W. Perkins. 
Stevenson Leslie. 

William C. Lee. tr. to Co. F, Sih Regt. 
Charles F. Dicksen, killed in action June 18, 'tU. 

Oliver K. Collins. 

Albert S. Newton. 

Jacob M. Parks. 

Joseph M. Ross. 

Richard C. Haines, disch. Sep. 12, '63. 

George W. King, disch. Sep. 5, '64. 

Samuel Taylor, disch. Aug. 31, '64. 

(i'harles W. Lane, killed in action May 5, '62. 

William F\ Hessel, killed in action June 16, '64. 

( ;. W. Mooney, died Andersonville, Ga. Aug. .1, '(14- 

William S. Chew, musician. 

William Wilson, musician. 

James Schooley, wagoner. 

Vrivates. 
John P. Allord. 

William Ascough, disch. Aug. I'd, '64. 
Favel Baptiste, May 24, '64. 
William Bates, tr. to Co. F, 8th Regt. 
Wesley Bates. Oct. 18, '61, disch. Dec. 12, '62. 
Joseph Beebe, Jan. 12, '64, died July 8, '64. 
Alfred Breyer, Nov. 2.'!, '61, died July 28, '64. 
Eben. Beebe, Jan. 12, '64, tr. to Co. IF, 8th Regt. 
Josiah Beelie, Jan. 30, '64, tr. to Co. F, 8th Regt. 
William S. Bradford, tr. to Co. F, 8th Regt. 
Joseph Brown (2), Apl. 14, '64. 
William Brown, killed in action May 6, '()4, 
Joseph Brown (1), disch. Apl. 18, '(;3. 
Joseph Burkart, disch. June 7, '62. 
Aden Chew, died Feb. 20, '62. 
Thomas D. Clark, died Jan. 2'.i, '64. 
Washington L. Clark. 
Joseph Craft, disch. Oct. 17, '62. 
William Dorsey. 

James L. Dougherty, Mar. 1.'62, died May 1-5, 62. 
Edward Ewen, Jr., Aug. 'J, '61, killed Aug. 29, 'ti2. 
W. C. Figner, Nov. 23, '61, tr. to Co. F, 8th Regt. 
William F^isher. 

Lewis M. Gibson, Sep. 10, '61, disch May 31. '62. 
,lacob Gilraore. 
Bernard Ginlay, Nov. 22, '61. 
Horace Githens, Sep. 28, '61, died Mar. l.''>, '62. 
Thom.is W. Graham, disch. Aug. 29, '64. 
Uirhard W. Hankins, died Jan. 20, '63, of wounds. 
Michael Hartzell, Feb. 20, '62, disch. Sep. 20, '62. 
Charles Henry, Nov. 27, '63, disch. June 12, '6o. 
(iaudalonp Hall, tr. to 95th Pa. Regt. 
Albert Herman, June 30, '64, tr. to Co. A, 8th Regt 
Henry Hesselb 



John M. Huber, Aug. 10, '63, tr.toCo. F, 8th Regt. 

William Hulit, Aug. 10, '63, tr. to IT. S. Inf. 

Edward B. Hood, disch. Mar. 2.'), '63. 

.lames W. Insco, disch. Feb. 5, '63. 

\Vm. D. Jacobs, July 6, '62, tr. to Co. F, 8th Regt. 

.Icdiu W. Jobes, Dec. 6, Uil, killed Aug. 29, '62. 

.Fcdin Johnson. May 23, '64. 

Samuel Kendrick, disch. .May 22, '<i2. 

James Leach, May 2;"). '64. 

.lames W. Lewis. 

Edward Livermore, killed inaction May 18, '64. 

William W. Loeb. 

Wm. Lorenz, Feb. 29, '64, killed May 12, '64. 

Alexander B. Mahan, disch. .Inly 15, '62. 

Howard F. Matlack. 

William L. Mathews, Mar. 3, '<;2, disch. Apr. 9, '65. 

Thomas Mayland, May 28, '64. 

John McCabe, May 28, '64. 

G. W. McKeen, Jan. 12, '64, tr. to Co. F,8th Regt. 

Arthur Meayo, Nov. 22, '61. 

William Mulligan, Nov. 22, '61. 

John Naphey. 

John S. Nicholson, Oct. IS, '61, died Feb. li;, '62. 

August Noach, May 24, '64. 

Samuel B. Norcross, killed in action May 5, '(!2. 

Edw. Ostner. Nov. 18, '61, killed May 5, '02. 

James Paquitt, May 23, "64. 

Henry Parker, May 23, '64. 

Daniel W. Pettibone, disch. Sep. 23, '6l'. 

Henry Piatt, May 30, '64. 

William Rhein, May 28, '64. 

Peter Rice, May 25, '64. 

Michael Robinson, Nov. 22, '61. 

Franklin Rogers, died May 6, '62. 

Peter Roe, Oct. 25, '61, disch. Feb. 25, '63. 

.Foseph D. Rogers. 

Romeo RoUi, June 2, '64. 

William Rowe, killed in action May 5, '62. 

Thomas Russell, May 24, '64. 

Thomas Ryan, May 24, '64, tr. to Co. F, 8ih Regt. 

John Sands, disch. Feb. 23, '63, 

Samuel Sanders, Dec. 6, '(Jl. 

(ieorge Schayegart, May 24, '64. 

August Scior. 

Edward L. Scott, disch. Jan. 29, '6.^. 

Andrew Serini, June 2, '64. 

Michael Sharon, May 28, '(i4. 

Charles P. Shute, disch. Feb. 28, '63. 

Geo. Simpson, May 28, '64, tr. to Co. F, 8th Regt. 

Benjamin F. Skinner, Nov. 22, '62. 

.fohn Sterling, May 23, '64. 

William Stewart, May 24, '64. 

( Jeorge Thomas, May 23, '64. 

James Thompson, May 26, 64. 

John C. Torney, died May 12, '62, of wounds. 



120 



HISTORY OF f'AMPEN COTTNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Isaac Tracy. 

Lewis Typie, Feb. 9, '64, tr. to Co. F, 8th Regt. 

Charles Waar, Feb. 25, '62, died Apr. 12, '64. 

Amos R. Watson, Oct. 23, '61, disch. Sept. 14, '62. 

Charles Waverly, May 28, '64. 

James H. Webster, disch. Aug. 31, '64. 

George Wegman, disch. Aug. 29, '62. 

Paul Werner, May 31, '64. 

Wilmon Whillden, disch. June 16, '62. 

John C. Whippey, died June 7, '63, of wounds. 

Watson Wertzell, disch. Oct. 10, '6r). 

John Williams, May 30, '64. 

John W. Williams, Nov. 22, '61. 

James Wilson, May 26, '64. 

John Woods, disch. May 22, '62. 

William Yates, May 28, '64. 

COMPANY K. 

[This r(>mpaliy watt muBtered in August ^'.), 1861, aufl niusterf^rl 
out with regiment unless otherwise stated.] 

Cajifaiuf. 
Timothy C. Moore, Sept. 9, '61 ; res. Jan. 14, '63. 
Thomas M. K. Lee, Mar. 2, '63 ; vice Moore, res. 

First Lieutenants. 
Thomas Goodman, Sept. 9, '61 ; det. to 4th Art. 
B. D. Coley, Jan. 2, '53 ; pro. capt. Co. I, Sept. 24, '63. 

Second Lieutenant. 
J. T. Note, Mar. 2, '63, pro. 1st It. Co. I, June 9, '63. 

Fir-it Sergeants. 
Edward Corcoran, disch. June 8, '63. 
George W. Jobes, trans, to Co. B, 8th Regt. 

Sergeantn. 
Samuel H. Elder, disch. Nov. 24, '62. 
James White, disch. Jan. 28, '63. 
William McCormick, disch. March 23, '63. 
George W. Hall, trans, to Co. F, 8th Regt. 
Isaac T. Gartou, trans, to Co. G, 8tli Regt. 
William T. Goodman. 

I'orporals. 
James Flynn, disch. Dec. 27, '62. 
Christopher Dowling, disch. Sept. 7, '62. 
Hugh Diamond, disch. Aug. 29, '64. 
Charles P. Tuttle, trans, to Co. G, 8th Regt. 
.lohu McKenna. 

T. McKibben, Aug. 13, '(i2 ; disch. June 29, '65. 
B. F. Reeves, Sept. 17, '(il ; killed July 2, '63. 
James Derkeu. 
Frederick Biisser, musician. 
Thos. Marshall, musician, disch. March 11, '62. 
Henry Bender, Jr., musician, trans, to Co. G. 
Da\ id Creevy, wagoner, disch. Feb. 8, '63. 

I'rioates. 
James Baker, Oct. 3, '61. 
John Barnes. 



William Bayne, disch. Oct. 13, 62. 

William Bisbing. 

Jesse H. Berry, died June 1, '63, of wounds. 

J. G. Bowers, May 14, '64, trans, to Co. G, 8th Regt. 

Lewis R. L. Blizzard, disch. June 0, '62. 

Peter Bride, Oct. 9, '61, disch. May 22, '62. 

Edward Budding, disch. June 9, '62. 

Charles Braceland. 

Benjamin F. Christy. 

.Joseph Cheeseman, disch. April 27, '63. 

Albert G. Clark, May 21, '64, trans, to Co. G. 

Henry Conerty. 

James Coleman, disch. June 19, '63. 

John S. Copeland, died Sept. 18, '61. 

Michael Corcoran, disch. Sept. 7, '62. 

.Jacob Cowan, trans, to Co. D. 

J. J. Daniels, May 20, 64, trans, to Co. G, 8th Regt. 

Cornelius Dowling, disch. July 14, '62. 

Patrick Earley, disch. Feb. 28, '63. 

Thomas Egan, disch. April 18, '63. 

James Finnegan, disch. Sept. 1, '64. 

John Fogger. 

John Gagger, killed Aug. 29, '62. 

James Gannon. 

Charles P. Gannon, trans, to Co. D. 

Francis A. Gaskill, disch. May 3, '64. 

Samuel Gilbert, Aug. 19, '62 ; disch. Mar. 25, '63. 

Lewis H. Giles, disch. May 21, '62. 

Martin Haley. 

William Hampton. 

Henry Harley, Oct. 3, '61. 

Joseph W. Henderson, trans, to Co. G, 8th Regt. 

William H. H. Hilyard, disch. Feb. 7, '63. 

James R. Husted, disch. Jan. 16, '63. 

Edward Hutchinson, disch. Oct. 21, '62. 

H. C. Izard, May 16, '64; trans, to Co. G,8th Regt. 

W. H. Janes, Jan. 29, '62; tr.to Co. G, 8th Regt. 

E. H. Johnson, Aug. 19, '62; disch. Jan. 7, '63. 

Ellas P. Jones, killed June 18, '64. 

William F. Joslin, disch. Oct. 17, '62. 

.John Lane. 

.James M. Lane, disch. Feb. 2, '63. 

Dennis Laughlin, trans, to Co. G, 8th Regt. 

William H. Lawrence, trans, to Co. G, Sth Regt. 

John Leo, Oct. 9, '61 ; disch. Dec. 31, '62, wounded. 

Thomas Lippincott, disch. Mmv 14, '62. 

Thomas M. Long, disch. July 21, '63. 

George A. Lovett, disch. Sept. 17, '62. 

W. G. Leake, died May 23, '62, of wounds. 

Joseph C. Lore, died May 21, '62. of wounds. 

Martin Marshall, killed Aug. 29, '62. 

Patrick Maguire. disch. Oct. 7, '(>2. 

Robert Mc.Vdoo, disch. Dec. 2">, '62. 

Thomas McDonald, disch. Dec. 9, '61. 

James McCormick, killed May 5, '62. 




t^^ 




THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



121 



N. McElhoiie, Mar. 13, '62 ; died June 4/62, of wds. 

B.obert McGourley. 

Michael McLaughlin, died Sept. 14, '62, of wduiids. 

Michael McGrory. 

Peter McGeary, disch. Aug. 29, '61. 

James McNulty, disch. Sept. 26, '62. 

W. Miller, May 21, '64 ; trans, to Co. G, Sth Regt. 

Abijah Mitchell. 

Jos. Mox, May 23, '64 ; trans, to Co. (4, Sth Regt. 

William Mullen, disch. Aug. IS, '62. 

Robert Munday, trans, to Co. B. 

Michael O'Neil. 

Constantiue O'Neil, disch. Oct. IS, 62. 

F. O'Neil, Feb. 7, '62 ; died Feb. 25, '62. 

Fritz Olsun. May 20, '64; trans, to Co. G, Sth Regt. 
.r. Jenn, May 21, '64; trans, to Co. G, Sth Regt. 
Jeremiah C. Price, trans, to Co. G, Sth Regt. 
William Proud, Jr., killed June 1, '62. 
Nathan Rambo, diseh. Jan. 16, '63. 
William H. Randolph, trans, to Co. G, Sth Regt. 
M. H. Reynolds, Sept. 17, '61 ; disch. Dec. 9, '61. 
W. V. Robinson, May 23, '64 ; tr. to Co. G, Sth Regt. 
A. Schaider, May 23, '64; trans, to Co. G, Sth Regt. 
.John S. Sibbett, disch. July 24, '62. 
William Snape, disch. Sept. 7, '64. 

G. J. Stewart, May 21, '64 ; tr. to Co. G, Sth Regt. 
John Scott, May 26, '64. 

\Iahlon Smith. 

John A. Smith, died Nov. 30. '63. 

William Streeper, disch. Oct. 17, '62. 

Levi Swan, died Oct. 10, '62. 

Henry H. Stiles, Sept. IS, '61. 

Mathew Timnicns, trans, to V. R. C. 

William Thompson, disch. Sept. 7, '64. 

.1. H. Thompson, disch. July 24, '62. 

P. Vandertimer,May 21, '64 ; tr. to Co. G, Sth Regt. 

Isaac Warr, Feb. 5, '62 ; trans, to V. R. C. 

George F. Ward, diseh. Sept. 16, '62. 

W. H. Watsou, Aug. 17, '62; trans, to V. R. C. 

J. H. Wilkins, May 16, '64 ; tr. to Co. G, Sth Regt. 

Nathaniel F. Wilkinson, trans, to V. R. C. 

John Wiley, killed Aug. 29, '62. 

Edgar S. Wilkinson, killed May .5, '62. 

James Wittle, disch. Sept. 7, '64. 

Captain Ben.famin D. Coi.ey, .son of 
John and Ann (Day) Coley, born at Rad- 
dell, Bedfordshire, England, February 1, 
1826, emigrated with his parents to America 
in ]S'29, landed at I'liiladelphia and soon 
afterward located in Camden. At tiie age of 
six he went to live with a farmer in Bur- 
lington County and remained tlicre, working 
on the farm in summer anil attending school 
16 



in winter, until he was fourteen, when he re- 
turned home and for several years assisted 
his father at whip-making. He was next 
employed for five years with Richard Fet- 
ters, of Camden, and next engaged in the 
restaurant business and also kept a billiard 
saloon in Camden until the opening of the 
Civil War, in 1861, when, in company with 
the Camden Light Artillery, a military or- 
ganization to which he belonged for about 
six years, he went to Trenton and entered the 
service three days after President Lincoln's 
first call for volunteer soldiers. As second 
sergeant of the company, which was assigned 
to the Fourtii New Jersey Regiment, he re- 
mained three months, the term of enlistment, 
and during that time participated in the first 
battle of Bull Run. The company was dis- 
charged July 27, 1861, at the expiration of 
the term of service, and on the 9th of August 
following he began to recruit a company for 
the three years' service, which, on September 
9, 1861, became Company K of the Sixth 
Xew Jersey Regiment, and he was chosen 
second lieutenant. This regiment formed a 
part of tiie famous " New Jersey Brigade," 
which was assigned to General Hooker's di- 
vision, participated in 1862, under General 
McClellau, in the Peninsular campaign, in 
the siege of Yorktown, battles of Williams- 
burg, Fair Oaks, Seven Pines and Malvern 
Hill, in the Army of the Potomac under 
(Jeneral Pope, in the battle of Bri.stow Sta- 
tion, the second Bull Run engagement and 
the battle of Chantilly, and in the battle of 
(fentreville, under General Sickles; in 
1863, in the Army of the Potomac, under 
General Buruside, at Fredericksburg, and 
Chancellorsville under General Hooker, and 
in July of the same year in the battle of Get- 
tysburg, under General Meade, at which 
place he was in command of Company H of 
the Sixth Regiment. On November 17, 
1862, he was promoted to first lieutenant, 
and on September 24, 1863, was promoted to 
captain of Company I of the .same regiment. 



122 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



The other engagements in which Captain 
Coley participated were the battles of" Wrap- 
ping Heights, McCleau's Ford and Pine 
Run, all in Virginia. At the last-named 
battle, owing to the terrible strain, he was 
disabled for further military duty, and on 
March 4, 18G4, was discharged from the 
service on a surgeon's certificate. 

Soon after his return home he entered the 
employ of Thomas Clyde & Co., of Phila- 
delphia, as an engineer, and continued with 
that firm until 1868, when he began the gro- 
cery business at the corner of Third and Fed- 
eral Streets, where he has ever since contin- 
ued and prospered. Captain Coley was 
married, September 9, 1848, to Margaret K. 
Southwick, daughter of James Southwick, of 
Camden, by whom he has three children, all 
residing in Camden. Mrs. Coley died May 
13, 1885. Martha, the eldest daughter, is 
married to Henry S. Wood; Alma J)., is 
married to Charles H. Thompson; Benjamin 
D. Coley, the only son and youngest child, is 
married to Hattie Wil.son. Captain Coley 
is prominently connected with the fraternal 
and beneficial orders of Camden, being a 
member of Thomas M. K. Lee, Jr., Post, 
G. A. R., No. 5 ; Chosen Friends Lodge, No. 
29 ; and Camden Encampnient, No. 12, of I. 
( ). (). F. ; Damon Lodge, No. 2, K. of 1'. ; 
Iron Hall ; and Camden Council of Royal 
Arcanum. 

Ninth Ri;(;iMi',Nr. — This command, of 
which Company I was recruited in Camden 
Couuty, was mustered at Camp Olden, 
October 5, 1861, under authctrity of the War 
Department for the organization of a regi- 
ment (if riflemen, and arrived at Washing- 
ton December 4th with one thousand one 
hundred and forty-two men on its rolls. In 
Januaiy, 1862, it was assigned to General 
Reno's brigade, and sailed with Burnside's 
expedition to Roanoke Island, N. C, where 
Colonel Jo.seph W. Allen was drown('<l in 
disembarking. At the battle of February 
8th it rendered admirable service in picking 



off the (Confederate gunners by its sharji- 
shooting, and Burnside privileged it to place 
the name " Roanoke Island " and the date 
of the fight in gold on its regimental flag. 
Besides this the principal engagements in 
which it shared were the.se : 

Newberne, N. C, March 14, 1862 ; Fort Macon, 
X. C, April 25, 18ti2 ; Young's Cross-Roads, N. C, 
July 27, 18()2 ; Rowell's Mill, N. C, November 2, 
1802; Deep Creek, N. C, December 12, 18(52; 
Southwest Creek, N. C, December 13, 18ti2; Kins- 
toii, N. C, December 14, 18(12; Whiteliall, N. C, 
December 1(3, 1862 ; Goldsborougli, N. C, Decem- 
ber 17, 1862; Comfort, N. C, July 6, 1863; Win- 
ton, N. C, July 26, 1863; Deep Creek, N. C, 
Febiuary 7, 1864; Cherry Grove, N. C, April 14, 
1864; Port Walthall, Va., May 6 and 7, 1864; 
Swift Creek, Va., May 9 and 10,1864; Drury's 
lilutr, Va., May 12-16, 1864; Cold Harbor, Va., 
June 3-12, 18(34; Petersburg, Va., June 20 to 
August 24, 18()4 ; Gardner's Bridge, N. C, Decem- 
ber, 9, 1864; Foster's Bridge, N. C, December 10, 
1S64; Butler's Bridge, N. C, December 11, 1864; 
Southwest Creek, N. C, March 7, 1865; Wise's 
Fork, N. C, March 8-10, 1865; (Joldsborough, 
N. C, March 21, 1865. 

This long record is full of brave achieve- 
ments by the regiment. At the battle of 
Young's Cross-Roads Caj)tain Hufty, with 
the Camden company, charged a bridge and 
cai>tured eighteen jiri.soners. January 21, 
]8(J4, two-thirds of the men re-enlisted while 
at the front in North Carolina. At Drury's 
Bluff, where the recounoi.sance that preceded 
the fight was made by Hufty's men, the regi- 
ment lost one hundred and fifty killed and 
wounded. Colonel Zabriski was one of the 
fatally wounded, and General Heckman was 
taken j)risouer. The Richmond Examiner 
expressed its satisfaction " at the destruction 
of Hecknian's brigade," and that " the cele- 
brated New Jersey Rifle Regiment has been 
completely destroyed, thus ridding the bleed- 
ing Caroliuas of a terrible scourge." Cap- 
tain Charles Hufty was fatally wounded at 
the head of Company I in the skirmish at 
Southwest Creek, March 7, LSfir). 

The regiment was mustered out June 14, 
1865, and was discharged by the State on the 



THE WAR FOR THE UNTOX. 



28th. It Imd taken part in forty-two er)- 
gagenients ; sixty-one enlisted men were 
killed in battle, four hundred wounded, 
forty-three died from wounds and one hun- 
dred from disease. Eight officers had been 
killed and twenty-three wounded. It was 
successively attached to the Ninth, Eigh- 
teenth, Tenth and Twenty-third Army Corps. 
The Camden County enlistments were as 
follows : 

COMPANY 1, NINTH REGIMENT NEW .lERSEY VOL- 
UNTEERS. 
[This culupany was mustered in October 8, 1861, and mustered out 
July 12, 1805, unless otherwise stated.] 

0(pfains. 
Henry F. Chew, Nov. 12, '61, res. March !(, 'i>'2. 
Samuel Hiifty, March 7, '62, pro. maj. June 15, '64. 
Chas. Hiifty, July 25, '04, died Mar. 14, 'Co, of vvnds. 
David Killc, July 7, '65, vice Hufty, died. 

Fir-ff Lieutenaiitis. 
Charles M. Pinkard, Mar. 19, '62, res. Dec. 28, '62. 
R. D. Swain, Dec. 29,'62, pro. capt. Co. K, Feb.10,'65. 

Second Lieuteitants. 
Chas. B. Springer, Mar. 9, '62, died July 31, '62. 
J. C. Bowker, Dec. 29, '62, pro.lst It. Co.D July y>, '64. 
D. Whitney, Mar.28, '65, pro. Istlt.Co.A June22,'65. 

First Sergeants. 
Edward H. Green, pro. 2d It. Co. D Jan. 14, '6^^. 
Chas. P. Goodwin, com. 2d lieut. June 22, '65. 

Sergeants. 
Mark L. Carnly. 
Charles Keene. 
Lewis Murphy. 
John C. Smith. 

Edward D. Matson, dis. Oct. 7, '64. 
Samuel B. Harbison, trans, to V. R. C. 

Corporals. 
John S. Hampton, dis. July 19, '65. 
Joseph Wolf. Jan. 20, '64. 
Eugene Sullivan, March 22, '64. 
John B. Mitchell, Feb. 27, '64. 
James W. Daniels. 
Lewis S. Mickel, dis. July 19, '65. 
Abrani M. Dickinson, March 1, '64. 
James H. Tash, dis. March 24, '63. 
Charles G. Lorch, dis. Nov. 17, '62. 
Wm. O. Birch, dis. March 17, '63. 
John Schweible, Sept. 30, '61, trans, to V. R. C. 
Chas. Hoffman, died June 5, '64. of wounds. 
Geo. N. Cawman, killed May 8, '64. 
Robt. Alcorn, bugler, dis. Aug. 25, '62. 
Robert P. Craig, musician, dis. Nov. 10, '62. 



Charles Beyer, Sept. 30, '61. 

.\sa K. Harbert, dis. July IS, '6i>. 

Wm. H. Tonkin, wagoner, dis. Nov. 8, '64. 

I'rh'ale.-^. 
Charles Albertson, Jan. 3. '65, dis. May 22, '65. 
Edward L. Alvord, pro. Feb. 8, '64. 
Joshua Anderson. 
Frederick Babser, March 1, '()5. 
Joshua Ballinger, Sept. 2, '64, dis. June 14, '65. 
John Bennett. 

Hiram D. Beckett, Feb. 23, '64, trans, to Co. A. 
Smith Bilderbaek, i)r(i. Oct. S, '61. 
John Brady. 

Samuel T. Butcher, April 7, "65. 
Malachi Blackman, March 7, '65, trans, to Co. K. 
Albert C. Cawman, dis. Dec. 7, '65. 
.Tames V. Clark. 
John L. Cliti', Feb. 24, '65. 
John M. Clark, Jan. 17, '65, trans, to Co. C. 

Enoch Cordrey, dis. Dec. 7, '64. 

George Cortwright, Feb. 16, '64. 

William E. Creed, March 4, '64. 

John P. Crist, Feb. 23, '65. 

John M. Davis, Sept. 5, '64, dis. June 14, '65. 

Geo. 0. Davis, April 8, '()5, trans, to Co. A. 

Benj. H. Dilmore, March 29, '<15, trans, to Co. K. 

Josiah Dubois, trans, to V. R. C. 

Edward H. Davis. 

Philip Ebert, Sept. 30, '61, dis. Feb. 23, '65. 

Henry Eipert, dis. July 19, '65. 

James W. Elkiuton. 

Benj. Estilow, Feb. 6, '65. 

Henry Essex, April 8, '65, trans, to Co. A. 

Leo Eckert, Sept. 30, '61, died Sept. 11, '63. 

George B. Evans, Dec. 28, '63. 

Francis Fagan, April 6, '()5. 

Wm. Floyd, Sept. 2, '64. 

Fredk. Felney, dis. Nov. 19, '62. 

Bernard Fagan, April 12, '65, trans, to Co. F. 

Thomas Fannin, April 6, '65. 

Robert Green, Dec. 29, '63. 

Philip S. Garrison, Jan. 28, '64, dis. May 13, '65. 

Benj. Gill, dis. Nov. 18, '62. 

Thomas Grady, April 13, '65, trans, to Co. H. 

James Graham, Dec. 28, '65, trans, to Co. H. 

MaxGumpert, April 13, '65, trans, to Co. H. 

John Gorman, March 14, '64. 

Wm. P. Corliss, dis. Mar. 24, '63. 

Joshua D. Haines. 

Wm. A. Harper, Sept. 14, '(;4, dis. June 14, '65. 

James J. Harris, April 6, '65. 

Wm. H. Harris, Aug. .30, '64, dis. June 14, '65. 

John H. Hilyard. 

John W. Harbison, dis. March 24, '63. 

John H. Harvey, dis. Nov. 19, '62. 



124 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Henry A. Hartrantt, trans, to Co. D. 

James A. Hawthorne, April 13, '65, trans, to Co. H. 

Andrew J. Hanley, died Feb. 22, '65. 

Wni. G. Hartline," died Feb. 3, '63. 

Magnus Hepburn, died Oct. 16, '64. 

Wm. H. Hughes, March 1, '64, died March 12, '64. 

Enoch Irelan, Feb. 14, '63. 

Richmond Ireland, dis. Nov. 19, 't>2. 

John N. Johnson. 

Andrew Kauffman. 

Daniel Kelcher, April 6, '65. 

Nathan Kell, Feb. 24, '65. 

Thomas H. Kijer. 

Charles Klapproth, March !), '64, dis. July 19, '65. 

Charles Koarley, April 13, '65, trans, to Co. H. 

John Kingston, April 6, '65. 

Samuel M. Layman, dis. June 22, '65. 

Henry Loper, dis. Dec. 7, '64. 

George H. Lott. 

Thomas W. Lumis. 

Samuel Lester, dis. March 18, '63. 

Wm. B. Loper, dis. Nov. 19, '62. 

Ezekiel Madara, Nov. 10, '64. 

Joseph Madara, March 29, '65. 

Joseph Manderville, Feb. 10, '65. 

James P. Mattson, dis. Oct. 8, '64. 

Edmund L. Mattock, dis. Nov. 25, '62. 

Frank E. Mailey, March 6, '65, trans, to Co. D. 

George W. Matlock, March 7, '65, trans, to Co. P. 

James McCormick, March 31, '64. 

James McDonald, Feb. 15, '65. 

James McGhie, Feb. 8, '64. 

Wm. McLaughlin, Feb. 24, '65. 

James McClay, April 12, '65, trans, to Co. E. 

John McDonald, April 13, '65, trans, to Co. E. 

Robert McDonald, April 13, '65, trans, to Co. E. 

Henry McFerrin, Feb. 4, '65, trans, to Co. C. 

Wm. Measey, Feb. 10, '65. 

Charles B. Messick, dis. Nov. 19, '62. 

John Mctzler, April 13, '65, trans, to Co. H. 

Albert C. Mifflin. 

David T. Miller, Dec. 29, '63. 

John Miller, Sept. 30, '61. 

August Miller, April 12, '65, trans, to Co. A. 

David Morgan, Aug. 31, '64, dis. June 14, '65. 

John Morgan, Aug. 31, '64. 

Charles H. Miller, died Aug. 23, '64, 

Thompson Mosher, March 24, '64, dis. July 23, '65. 

Stephen M. Mosure, killed in action June 3, '64, 

Charles D. Multbrd, dis. Dec. 7, '64. 

John MuUer, Feb. 16, '64, dis. Sept. 29, '65. 

Daniel Myers, Sept. 24, '64, dis. June 14, '65. 

George M. Newkirk, Sept. 4, '65, dis. June 14, '65. 

John Newkirk. 

Wm. H. Nonamaker. 



August Noll, Feb. 12, '64, trans, to Co. A. 

Bernard O'Brien, April 12, '65. 

Christian Oatanger, dis. March 24, '63. 

John Ostertag, May 28, '62, dis. June 3, '65. 

James O'Neil, Feb. 6, '64. 

Stephen C. Park, Sept. 5, '64, dis. June 14, '65. 

Thomas Parsons. 

John A. Patton. 

Daniel Parr, Jan. 30, '64, died May 29, '64, ot wnds. 

Samuel Perkins, Feb. 14, '65. 

Eli B. Price, Feb. 16, '64. 

Reuben R. Pittman. 

John Powell. 

Albert Reis, Aug. 21, '62, dis. June 14, '65. 

Francis Reitz, Feb. 28, '65. 

Tylee Reynolds, Feb. 26, '64, dis. June 27, '65. 

Isaac Reeves, dis. March 24, '63. 

Irvin Rodenbough, Feb. 26, '61. 

Jacob Schmidt, Sept. 30, '61, dis. July 19, '65. 

Charles Schnabel, Feb. 6, '65. 

Philip Schmidt, Sept. 30, '61, dis. May 9, '63. 

Henry Scholz, July 21, '62, dis. May 7, '63. 

Henry Schra-der, April 8, '65. 

Charles Shepherd, pro. com. sergt. Jan. 1, '62. 

Arthur F. Shoemaker, Feb. 27, '64, dis. June24,'65. 

Jonathan ShuU. 

Andrew J. Shuller, Jan. 2S, '65, dis. May 27, '65. 

Francis H. Singwald, Feb. 28, '65. 

Samuel F. Staulcup, killed in action Dec. 16, '62. 

James W. Somers, Aug. 30, '64, dis. June 14, '65. 

Wm. C. Sparks. 

Francis C. Strawn, Aug. 31, '64, dis. June 14, '65. 

Wm. B. Stretch, Sept. 2, '64, dis. June 14, '65. 

Amos Strickland, Sej)t. 5, '64, dis. June 14, '65. 

Herman Steibertz, Sept. 30, '61, dis. Sept. 11, '63. 

Leonard Stoll, June 16, '62, dis. July 17, '63. 

Reuben Segraves, killed in action May 16, '64. 

John Sparks, died Nov. 15, '64. 

Wm. Speakman, Feb. 5, '64. 

John E. Taylor. 

Samuel B. Taylor. 

Charles Taylor, dis. July 23, '62. 

Wm. Thompson, Feb. 21, '65, dis. June 21, '65. 

Sylvester J. Tinsman, Feb. 16, '64, dis. Feb. 16, '65. 

George V. Townsend. 

George L. Tnrnbull, dis. Oct. 8, '64. 

Charles Vannanian, Feb. 24, '64. 

Smith B. Vining. 

Amos J. Van Gordon, Feb. 15, '64, dis. Aug. 2, '65. 

James Van Gordon, Feb. 15, '64. 

Aaron Vanculen, died Aug. 22, '63. 

Wm. Warlord, Feb. 15, '64. 

John Warple, dis. Nov. 7, '62. 

Paul Wax, April 13, '65, trans, to Co. H. 

John Walker, Sept. 30, '61. 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



1-J5 



Frederick Weber, Sept. 30, '(>1. 

George L. Web.ster, Aug. 30, "li-l, dis. Juiu' 14, '(i'). 

Courad Weitzell, Aug. 30, '04, dis. .lunc 14, '05. 

John Welcli, April li, '05. 

Christian Wellendorf, Sept. 30, '01, dis. Doe. S. ■t;4. 

David Wensel, dis. Nov. 17, '62. 

Joseph West, dis. June 1, '63. 

Josiah Wensell, killed in action May HI, '04. 

Wm. Williams, dis. May 17, '62. 

George G. White, died April 18, '02. 

Fenwick A. Woodsides, Sept. I,'(i4, dis. July ir),'Or). 

Edward S. Woolbert, Feb. 27, '64. 

Augustus Reuiming, killed in action ]\ray lii,'04. 

Wm G. Youmans, Feb. 17, 'tl.'>. 

Isaac Zaues, died May 3, '02. 

Colonel Sa.muel Hufty, tlie son of 
Samuel and Jo.sephiue Rapiii^rcble Huf'ty, 
was born in Philadelphia January 1, 1834. 
He graduated from the High School of his 
native city and, after a year spent in Illinois, 
removed to Chester County, Pa., where he 
followed for eight years the life of an agri- 
culturist. Repairing in 1858 to Camden, he 
was employed in the capacity of clerk. Colo- 
nel Hufty, at the beginning of the war, in 
1861, enlisted as captain of (Jompany F, 
Ninth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, 
for three months, and joined tlie command of 
General Patterson in the Shenandoah Valley. 
At the expiration of his time of service he 
liecarae first lieutenant of Company I, Xinth 
Regiment New Jersey Volunteers, and was, 
March 9, 1862, made captain of the com- 
pany. On the loth of June, 186-1, he was 
promoted to the office of major of the regi- 
ment, and in February, 1865, was made 
lieutenant-colonel. He was mustered out on 
the 31st of July, 1865. Among the more 
important engagements in which he partici- 
[)ated were those at Roanoke Island, New- 
bern (where he was wounded). Fort Macon, 
King.ston (N.C.), Goldsboro' (N. C), Drury's 
Bluff, Cold Harbor, Petersburg (from June 
20 to August 16, 1864, where he was wound- 
ed by a sharpshooter), Wise's Forks (N. C.) 
and Goldsboro' (second), where he was 
provost-marslial and commanded the regi- 
ment. On liis di.scharge he engaged in tlie 



himbcr business in Somerset County, Md., 
and in 1872 (-ame to Camden. Colonel 
Hufty was, in 1877, appointed city auditor 
and received, in 1885, the appointment of 
(uty comptroller foi- three years from the ( 'ity 
< 'ouncil of Camden. 

Baldwin Hufty, the brother of ("oloue! 
Hufty, entered the service in 1861 as ser- 
geant, was made se(^ond lieutenant of (Jom- 
])any B, Third Regiment New Jersey Vol- 
unteers, and first lieutenant of Company E in 
1862. He was, November 26th of tiie same 
year, elected captain of Company I) of the 
Fourth Regiment New Jersey Volunteers, 
and made lieutenant-colonel of the regiment 
on the 28th of March, 1865. He partici- 
pated in nearly all the battles of the Army 
of the Potomac and was breveted colonel. 

TiiK Tenth RE(iiMENT. — This command 
was eventually attached to the First Brigade 
of New Jersey Volunteers. Companies A, E, 
H,and I, of it, were recruited in Camden 
County. It was created under authority 
from the War Department and recruited b\' 
Colonel William Bryan, of Beverly, again.-^t 
the wishes of Governor Olden, although it 
was named the " Olden Legion." His objec- 
tion was that the War Department issued the 
authorization direct to private individuals in- 
stead of through and to the officials of the 
State — a course wiiich had previously been 
unknown. The regiment proceeded to Wasii- 
ington December 2G, 1861. On January 29, 
] 862, the Governor finally accepted it as part 
of the quota of New Jersey, whereupon it was 
thoroughly reorganized and designated as tiie 
Tenth Regiment, and Colonel William R. 
Murphy appointed to it. In April, 1863, it 
was relieved from j)rovost dut)' in Washing- 
ton and sent to Suffolk, Va., where, on April 
23d and May 4th, it shared in the repulse of 
Lougstreet as a portion of Corcoran's brigade. 
Peck's division. Seventh Corps. In July it 
was ordered to Philadelphia in anticipation 
oi" a resistance to the draft, and remained 
tiicre two mouths. Its dre.ss parades were 



126 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



one of the shows of the city. In September 
it was moved to Pottsvilie, Pa., and spent 
the winter of 1863-64 in Schiiylkill, Carbon 
and Luzerne Counties repressing the Con- 
federate sympatliizers of the coal region, who 
were encouraging desertions, interfering with 
recruiting, interrupting mining operations 
and murdering men conspicuous for their de- 
votion to the Union. Colonel O. H. Ryer- 
son, who succeeded Murphy in command, 
was president of a commission which tried 
many of these offenders. During the winter 
the regiment re-enlisted and in April, 1864, 
joined the First Brigade at Brandy Station, 
Virginia, sharing in all its subsequent 
battles and losing Colonel Ryerson, who was 
mortally wounded in the Wilderness, on May 
6th. It saw some hard service, under Sheri- 
dan, in Shenandoah Valley. It was recruited 
before returning to Grant's lines in front of 
Petersburg, and with four hundral and fifty 
men in its ranks was mustered out at Hall's 
Hill, Va., June 22d and July 1, 1865. 

The Camden County companies of the 
Tenth were made up as shown by the an- 
nexed lists : 

COMPANY A, P'IRST REGIMENT NEW JERSEY VOL- 
IINTEERS. 

Capi<aiis. 
Isaac W. Wifkle, Oct. 17, '(Jl.died March 22, •02. 
Ephraim C. VVare, March 22, 'C2, dis. Oct. 22, '64. 
Joseph G. Strock, Feb. 11, '65, dis. July 1, '05. 

First Lieutenants. 
Philip :\I. Armington, Sept. 21,'01, res. Sept. 24,'01. 
Chas. V. C. Murphy, Apr. 17, '02, dis. Apr. 18, '65. 
James H. Jordan, June 2, '65, dis. July 1, '05. 

Secniid Lietiteiumt. 
Wni. C. Feiininiore, Oct. 17, '61, res. Feb. 22, '64. 

Firiit Sergeant. 
Benjamin \ Pine, Sept. 23, '01, pro. 2d lieul. Co. 
C Oct. 24, '63. 

Sergeants. 
Jeremiah Saunders, Sept. 7, '61, dis. .luly 0, '(iA. 
Thomas B, Bareford, Sejit. 10, '01, dis. Sep. 14, '01. 
Benjamin Wilson, Sept. 7, '61, dis, July 1, 'O.'i. 
Augustus C. Wilson, July 25, '02, dis. July 1, '05. 
Joseph M. Webb, Sept. 10, '01, dis. July 1, '05. 
Theodore Harrington, Aug. liVO:i, dis. July 1,'C5. 
Oliver H. Ritchson, Sept. 7, '61, dis Oct. 31, '03. 



William Rich, Sept. 7, '61, killed Aug. 17, '04. 
Howard Fisher, Oct. 2, '62, died Nov. 12, '04. 

Corponih. 
Hiram E. Budd, Sept. 21, '61, dis. Feb. 7, '64. 
James W. Fithian, Oct. 23, '61, dis. Oct. 22, '64. 
John Marshall, Sept. 10, '61, dis. Sept. 10, '64. 
Charles H. Small, Sept. 24, '61, dis. July 1, '05. 
James McGeever, Aug. 9, '04, dis. July 1, '05. 
Samuel B. Cambrou, Nov. 14, '01, dis. July 1, '05. 
John Kenny, May 9, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
John McMann, Sept. 21, '01, dis. July 1, '65. 
Ellis P. Whitcraft, Sept. 21, '01, dis. Feb. 10, '65. 
Wm. H. Jones, Oct. 23, '61, dis. June 8, '64, of wds. 
Philip F. Hilpard,Oct. 5, '61, died Oct. 5, '64. 
D. H. Holcomb.mus., Sept. 10, '61, dis. Sept. 10,'04. 
Wm. McOraw, mus., Dec. 4, '63, dis. July 1, '65. 
G. Hubbard, wag., Sept. 30, '61, dis. July 1, '65. 
J. F. Kihnley, wag., Sept. 10, '65, dis. May 15, '62. 

Privates. 
Alonzo Allen. Feb. 1, '65, dis. .July 1, '65. 
Alfred Anderson, Sept. 21, '01, dis. Sept. 21, '64. 
Peter Ayres, Aug. 12, '62, dis. Nov. 11, '62. 
Thomas F. Asay,Nov. 30, '61, dis. Nov. 20, '64. 
Edward Ayres, Sept. 7, '61, died Dec. 10, '04. 
Louis Adams, Jan. 24, '(55. 
William Adams, Feb. 1, '65. 
Edward Archer, Sept. 21, '61. 
Charles Atkins, Jan. 24, 65. 
Herman Bolger, Jan. 24, '65, dis. June 20, '65. 
Francis Brennan, Jan. 24, '05, dis. July 1, '05. 
Fred. Brooklis, Jan. 23, '05, dis. July 1, '05. 
Henry Brown, Jan. 31, '65, dis. July 1, '65. 
John Brown, Jan. 23, '(i5, dis. July 11, '65. 
Daniel Burns, Feb. 10, '64, dis. July 1, '05. 
.lobn Wesley Burdon, Oct. 18, '01, dis. May 27,'(!2. 
(ieorge W. Brill, Feb. 25, '04, trans, to Co. I. 
John A. Brown, Jan. 24, '65, trans, to Co. H. 
Levi Butler, Dec. 20, '63, killed May 14, '64. 
.loseph Baker, Feb. 24, '64. 
James Barker, Feb. 6, '04. 
Robert P. Belville, Oct. 20, '61. 
John Boden, Feb. 11, "04. 
.I.ames Boyd, Jan. 5, '04. 
John Boyle, Dec. 5, '63. 
John Brennan (1), March 15, '64. 
.Tohn Brennan (2), Jan. 23, '65. 
John Brown, Jan. 5, '64. 
Walter Brown, Dec. 27, '63. 
Edward Bymer, Jan. 5, '64. 

Peter D.Cheeseman, Sept. 21, '61, dis. Sept. 28,'04. 
John A.Cole, Jan. 19, '04, dis. July 1, '65. 
John .1. (Countryman, Oct. 8, '62, dis. April 10, '63. 
Samuel Craig, Oct. 21, '01, died July 21, 03. 
Edward Campbell, Dec. 28, '03. 



THE WAR FOR THE TTNEON. 



127 



James Cavanaugh, Nov. 24, '(i8. 

John Clark, Aug. 22, '(33. 

Joseph C. Collins, Jan. 2, '64. 

John Cortwright, Dec. 24, '63. 

Charles Curtis, Dec. 16, '63. 

Wm. Davis, Feb. 16, '65, dis. July I. '65. 

John Doran, Jan. 31, '65, dis. .hily 1, '65. 

Owen Doyle, Nov. 2% '64, dis. Aug. 21, '65. 

Edward Daly, Aug. 16, '62, dis. July 21, '63. 

Edward Davis, Sept. 30, '61, killed July 13, '64. 

J.-hn Decker, Oct. 8, '62, died Jan. 14, '63. 

John Dawson, Nov. 25, '65. 

John Diginan, April 22, '64. 

Michael Dolehenty, Dec. 4, '63. 

Martin Doyle, Feb. 6, '64. 

Arthur Dolan, Jan. 31, '65. 

Emanuel Eck, Feb. 23, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 

Augustus Eck, Feb. 17, '64. 

Frederick Erickson, Dec. 11, '63. 

Herman Erickson, May 17, '64. 

John F;rle, Jan 19, '64. 

Peter Friend, Jan. 24, '65, dis. July 1, '65. 

Robert Fitzpatrick, Jan. 23, '65. 

(iideon C. Fletcher, Oct. 0, '(i2. 

.fames Flynn, Dec. 7, '63. 

Henry Frank, Oct. 28, '61. 

Louis Frank, Sept. 21, '61. 

John VV. Garwood, Sept. 7, '61, dis. July 1, '65. 

Thomas Geary, Dec. 15, '63, dis July 1, '61. 

Henry Goodman, Feb. 16, '64, dis. May 19, '65 

George Gould, Dec. 24, '63, dis. May 19, '65. 

Amos Gaunt, Oct. 7, "61. 

Daniel Gorman, Dec. 7, '()3. 

Joseph Gilhcart, Sept. 10, '61, dis. May 26, '62. 

Baptist Gra.st, Sept. 24, '61, dis. April 15, '62. 

Abraham Hardy, Dec. 29, '63, dis. July 1, '64. 

Thomas Hess, Sept. 21, '61, dis. July 1, '()3. 

Wm. H.H. Hawlings, Dec. 10, '61, dis. July 1,' 

Levi C. Huft; Dec. 24, '63, dis. July 1, '64. 

Geo. W. Hinchman, Sept. 7, '61, died July 5, '6 

Thomas Haley, Aug. Hi, '()2. 

John Hall, Mar. 21, '64. 

Joseph llaller, Feb. 26, 'M. 

Franklin J. Hart, March 14, '64. 

Charles Henry, F'eb. 17, '64. 

Ericks Herman, May 17, '64. 

John Hurly, Feb. 17, '64. 

(Jeorge Inman, Jan. 5, '64, died Feb. 24, '65. 

Gustavu.s Johnson, Dec. 11, '63, dis. Aug. 24, '6 

Henry Jones, Sept. 8, '63. 

William Jones, March 28, '64. 

John H. June, March 18, '64. 

James Kays, Dec. 29, '63, dis. July. 1, '65. 

Jonas R. Keene, April 15, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 

Peter Kennedy, Jan. 31, '65, dis. June 22, '65. 



Aaron Kihler, Jan. 26, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
Wm. F. Killip, Oct. 10, '61, dis. Sept. 10, '64. 
Watson King, Sept. 21, '(Jl, dis. May 27, '62. 
Louis Koenig, Oct 14, '61, dis. Jan. 29, '63. 
.lacob S. Kay, Oct. 14, '61, died Oct. 7, '64. 
Samuel Kell, Oct. 7, '61. 
IVter Kelly, Jan. 31, '65. 
William Kent, August 15, '64. 
Michael Love, Jan. 2, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
John M. Lutz, Sept. 10, '61, dis. Sept. 10, '64. 
Daniel Lutz, Nov. (i, 't!l, ilied June 24, '64. 
.Fames Leonard, August 15, '62. 
Charles Marshall, Sept. 10, '61, dis. Sept. 10, '64. 
Geo. H. Mcintosh, I'eb. 3, '64, dis. July 21, 'i\r,. 
Wm. H. McKeen, Sept. 21, '(!1, dis. July 1, '65. 
Aug. R. McMahon, June 14, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
Wm. Mershon, Feb. 2, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
Frederick N. Moore, Jan. 2, '64, dis. June 26, 'y\'^ 
Wm. H. Myers, Sept. 21, '61, dis. Sept. 21, '(;4. 
Daniel G. Miller, Nov. 21, '71, dis. April 10, '(i3. 
L. McConncll, Oct. 14, '61, died Dec. 5, '64, of wds 
Michael Maher, Jan. 28, '64. 
William H. Martin, March 21, '64. 
Daniel McCahill, Dec. 9, '63. 
Charles McCarthy, Jan. 31, '(!5. 
John B. IMcCord, Feb. 1, '(;5. 
John McGinnis, Sept. 14, "61. 
Thomas Meagher, Aug. 28, '63. 
Peter Jliller, Sept. 21, '61. 
John Morris, March 4, '64. 
Wm. O. Nelson, Feb. 2, '(i5, dis. July 1, '{)r^. 
Henry North, Sept. 24, '61, dis. Sept. 24, 'i;4. 
Henry Nichols, Sept. 21, '61, died March 28, '62. 
Abraham Palmer, Dec 4, '61, dis. July 1, '65. 
Clayton Parker, Sept. 10, '61, dis. Sept. 10, '64. 
Henry Parker, Jan. 23, '65, dis. July 1, '65. 
James Peaden, Jan. 24, '65, dis. July 1, '65. 
Theodore Peeire, April 30, '65, dis. July 1, '65. 
John H. Piatt, Sept. 21, '61, dis. Sept. 21, '64. 
Samuel Pine, Nov. 9, '61, dis. May 21, '69. 
James Powderly, Aug. 16, '62, dis. June 22, '65. 
Jacob L. Parker, Sept. 10, '61, dis. May 24, '62. 
Jtdm H. Paul!, March 29, '64, dis. Jan. 26, '(i5. 
John B. Porter, April 5, '64. 
Thomas Rafferty, Dec. 4, '63, dis. July 1, '65. 
Wm. B. Reynolds, Sept. 7, '64, dis. June 13, '65. 
George Roseman, Nov. 23, '61, dis. July 1, '65. 
Wm. B. Ryker, Dec. 24, '63, dis. June 14, '^\o. 
Samuel Roads, Feb. 16, '64, killed June I, '64. 
John A. Roary,Sept. 21, '61, died July 3, '64. 
Philip Rader, July 4, '62. 
.Tames Reynolds, Feb. 11, 64. 
William Robb, Jr., Sept. 10, '61. 
Samuel Sharp, Sept. 21, '61, dis. July 1, '65. 
(\)rnelius Shea, Aug. 1, '63, dis. July 1,'65. 



128 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, ^sVAY JERSEY. 



John A. Simmerman, Sept. 7, '(il, dis. July 1, '65. 

Charle.s Sipe, Feb. 10, 'M, dis. July 1, T>r>. 

George Smith, Jan. 31, '65, dis. July 1, '65. 

John Smith, Jan. 31, '65, dis. July 1, '65, 

I^arkin Smith, Sept. 21, '61, dis. July 1, '65. 

Abraham Spargo, Dec. 24, '63, dis. July 1, '65. 

Charles Swain, Oct. 28, '61, dis. July 1, '65. 

.loseph E. Subers, Feb. 16, '64, died April 14, '64. 

Joseph Saulsberry, Sept. 21, '61. 

John Shelley, Feb. 1, '65. 

Henry W. Smith, Sept. 10, '61. 

Charles Springer, Jan. 21, '64. 

George Sprowl, Jau. 5, '64. 

Stephen Stimax, Sept. 21, '61. 

Christian W. Smith, Oct. 26, '61, trans, to V. R. C. 

Thomas Stevenson, Jan. 14, '64, dis. July 6, '65 . 

James Stewart, Aug. 25, '64. 

Thomas Sweeney, Jan. 24, '65. 

Frederick Taple, Sept. 24, '61, di.s. .Inly 1, '65. 

,Iohn Thompson, Dec. 24, '63, dis. July 1, '65. 

Edward Tobin, Dec. 24, '61, dis. July 1, '(i5. 

Eugene Taylor, Sept. 21, '(il , killed Sept. 1!>, '64. 

John W. Thomas, Sept. 21, '(U. 

Walter B. Thomas, Oct. 7, "61. 

W^illiara Thompson, Aug. 19, '63. 

Alfred Turner, Feb. 16, '64. 

John Twilagen, June 21, '()4. 

Israel E. Vanneman, Sept. 7, '61, dis. ,)iily 6, '65. 

John Volkert, Oct. 13, '61, dis. .luly 1, '64. 

William Vaukirk, Feb. 22, '64. 

John Watson, Sept. 21, '61, dis. May 6, '65. 

George Weiser, Sept. 10, '61, dis. April 24, '65. 

George Williamson, Oct. 14, '61, di.s. July 1, '65. 

Firth Wood, Sept. 21, '61, dis. May 6, '65. 

David Wells, Sept. 2), '61, died April 14, '63. 

Levi P. Wilson, Sept. 10, '61, died May 21, '62. 

Daniel R. Winner, Sept. 10, '61, died June 4, '63. 

Edward Wade, Aug. 1 9, '63. 

Joseph Wade, March 14, '64. 

George W. Wallace, Dec. 4, '63. 

Martin Walsh, .Ian. 31, '(>5. 

Moses Wells, July 10, '62. 

Isaac Williams, Jan. 23, '65. 

John Wells, Sept. 21, '61. 

David C, Yourison, Sept, 23, '61, died March 2, '62. 

Thomas Veach, Sept. 21, '61, dis. May 2, '65. 

( )!' lliis coiiipany, Scriioaiit Williiuii Rich 
was killed ill tlic hattlc uf AVin(!lie.«ter ; 
Privates I>cvi I'.iitier killed May 14, 1864, 
in Slicnaiuloah Valley; Sanuicl Roads killed 
June 1, 1804; Edward Davis killed in battle 
July i;d, 1864; Eufrene Taylor killed 8ep- 
teniberlt), 1864, 



COMPANY E, TENTH NEW .JERSEY VOI,UNTEERS. 

Cap(ai7is. 
George W. Scott, Jan. 21, '62, di.'*. Oct. 19, '65, 
John Wilson, Jan. 7, '65, dis. July 1,'65. 

First Lieutenants. 
Albert M. Buck, Dec. 10, '61, dis. Dec. 16, '64. 
Richard M. I'opham, Mar. 16; '65, dis. July 1,'65. 

Second Lieutenants. 
Joseph Miller, .Ian. 25, '62, resigned Jan. 29, '62. 
G. W. Hughes, Jan. 6, '65, p. 1st lieut. Co. H .Ian. 

23, '65. 
Richard J. Robertson, Feb. 1,'65, dis. July 1,'65, 

First Sergea7its. 
John B. Wright, Sept. 30, '61, pro. 2d lieut. Cn. K, 

.34th Regt., Nov. 10, '63. 
.1. 1). Richardson, Sept. 29, '61, p. com.-sergt. Sei)t. 

21, '64. 
James Nichols, Feb. 17, '64, dis. July 1, '6.5, 

Sergeants. 
Edward W. Venable, Oct. 31 , '61 , pro. 2d lieut. Co. 

B May 21, '65. 
WicklifF W. I'arkhurst, Nov. 9, '61, di.s. July 1, '65. 
Robert M. Hillman, June 23, '62, dis. July 1, 65. 
H. C. Snyder, Sept. 28, '61, died June 8, '64, of wds. 
T. B. Wescoat, Jan. 13, '62, died May 17, '64, of wds. 
William S. Cazier, Dec. 18, '61, died Aug. 19, '64, 

Corporals. 
Samuel H. Lees, Dec. 14, '61, dis. July 1, '65. 
Jefferson S. Somers, Dec. 5, '61, dis. July 1, '65. 
Mahlon S. Shrouds, Nov. 26, '61, dis, July 1, '65, 
Thomas Hartshorn, Feb. 29, '64, dis. July 1,'6.5. 
Horatio H. Snyder, Sept. 28, '61, di.s. Oct. 1,'64. 
Walter Drake, Feb. 29, '64, dis. June 20, '65. 
Charles A. Thorn, Sept. 7, '61, dis. June 2, '65, 
George W. Woodtbrd, Nov. 20, 61, dis. Nov. 30, '62. 
Riley Letts, Dec. 26, '61, dis. Nov. 9, '63. 
David Gifford, Nov. 26, '61, dis. June 21, '62. 
.lonathan W. Wescoat, Dec. 26, '61, died ,Ian. 7, '65. 
J. Stephenson, muc, Sept. 21, '61, dis. July 1, '65. 
Samuel A. Webb, muc, Dec. 26, '61 , dis. July 5, '65. 
Wm. W. Chatten, muc., Dec. 26,'61, dis. Nov. 7, '62. 
Willi.am Conley, wag., Dec. 7, '61, died Mar. 12, '63. 

Privates. 
Thomas W. Adams, Feb. 27, '64. dis. July 1,'65. 
William L. Adams, Feb. 16, '64, dis. July 1,'65. 
,Ioseph Alexander, Feb. 27, '64, dis. July 1,'65. 
Isaac Andrews, Feb. 27, '64, dis. July 18, '65, 
Ebenezer Adams, Jan. 4, '64, dis. May 20, '65. 
Richard J. Al)bott, Jau. 13, '62, killed July 12, '62. 
Pitman Adams, Feb. 29, '64, died Sept, 18, '64, 
Robert Anderson, .Ian. 23, '65. 
William H. Anderson, Jan. 7, '65. 
Theodore Arringdale, Mar. 2, '64. 



THE WAE FOR THE UNION. 



120 



Henry Arneth, Dec. 17, 'fil. 
William Bartlett, Feb. 27, 'M, tlis. July 1, '6.5. 
William Bogarth, Dec. 2fi, '61, dis. July 1/65. 
Freeman Briggs, Feb. 24, '64, dis. May 30, '6."). 
Herman Bruusing, Nov. 18, '64, dis. June 19, '65. 
Isaiah Briggs, Feb. 10, '64, dis. Jan. 16, '65. 
Charles Brighton, Jan. 13, '62, dis. Jan. 15, '65. 
Henry Biggs, Dec. 23, '63, trans, to Co. I. 
Joseph Branson, Jan. 5, '64, trans, to Co. C. 
Edward Brown, .Tan. 4, '63, trans, to Co. D. 
.Tames H. Bergen, June 19, '62. 
.Tohn Berry, .Tan. 17, '63. 
Aaron V. Brown, Nov. 10, '62. 
Adolph Busa, Nov. 20, '61. 
.Toseph Cain, Jan. 4, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
David E. Clark, Jan. 4, '64, dis. .Tune 6, '65. 
Jonah N. Clark, Jan. 4, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
Thomas Coll, Jan. 22, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
Benjamin R. Couover, Feb. 27, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
Burris Conover, Dec. 14, '61, dis. .Tuly 1,'65. 
James Conover, Jan. 4, '64, dis. July 1 , '65. 
.Tesse Conover, Dec. 26, '61, dis. July 1, '65. 
Pitman J. Conover, Dec. 14, '61, dis. July (i, '65. 
David Cline, Dec. 26, '61, dis. June 28, '62. 
Charles Conover, Dec. 23, '61, dis. Nov. 10, '(i2. 
Casper H. Cregg, Jan. 13, '62, dis. May 24, '(i5. 
.Tohn Cregg, Jan. 13, '62, dis. July 23, '63. 
Alden Clarke, Dec. 26, '61, dis. Feb. 4, '62. 
James Clark, Feb. 27, '64, killed in act. May 14, '64. 
Jesse H. Clark, Feb. 27, '64, died Feb. 11, '65. 
Robert S. Combs, Feb. 26, '64, died Aug. 17, '64. 
.lob C. Conover, Dec. 7, '61, died June 1, '64. 
Recompense Conover, Jan. 4, '64, died Dec. 1 1, '64. 
Martin Callan, March 31, '64. 
Isaac Cheesemau, November 12, '61. 
Somers Conover, Oct. 8, '61. 
John W. Davis, Sep. 29, '61, dis. July 1, '65. 
Henry Distelhurst, Feb. 24, '64, dis. May. 30, '66. 
Daniel C. Doughty, Aug. 24, '63, dis. May 18, '65. 
Cornelius Duch, Jan. 4, '64, dis. June 9, '65. 
Jesse Dayton, Dec. 26, (il, dis. June 4, '62. 
Josiah Dilks, Dec. 5, '61, dis. Dec. 7, '63. 
.lonathan R. Dailey, Jan. 13, '62, trans, to V. R. C. 
William Duugla.'^s, Dec. 25, '61. 
William H. Emmons, Aug. 16, '62, dis. Aug. 18, '64. 
.Toshua Elberson, Dec. 9, '63, died June 22, '64. 
Wyckotl' Emmons, Jan. 13, '62. 
John H. Fielding, Feb. 8, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
William Fitzgerald, Jan. 14, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
John W. Forox, Feb. 24, '64, dis. .lune 9, '65. 
William B. Frazicr, Nov. 19, '61, dis. May 24, '64. 
Frederick Fosmer, Nov. 8, '61. 
William Garey, July 10, '62, dis. .July 1, '65. 
John L. Giftbrd, Nov. 26, '(!1, dis- June 8, '65. 
Joseph Garron, Dec 18, '()3, trans, to Co. B. 
17 



David Gifford, Jan. 24, '62, trans, to V. R. C. 
Oliver Goodnow, Jan. 5, '64, died Dec. 11, '64. 
.Toshua Gorton, March 3, '64, died Jan. 20, '65. 
John F. Grinder, Oct. 19, '61, died Sep. 3, "63. 
Charles Glenn, Aug. 24, '63. 
Henry Higbee, Feb. 26, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
Fred. Hillerman, July 10, '62, dis. July 22, '65. 
William D. Hoover, Feb. 27, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
Stephen H. Horn, Jan. 2, '62, dis. July 1, '65. 
John H. Hackett, Oct. 31, '61, dis. April 10, '63. 
Aaron Hoaglaud, Dec. 10, '61, dis. May 10, '62. 
Mahlon Horman, Dec. 5, '61, dis. .Tune 16, '(52. 
Charles H. Huntsman, Dec. 26, '61, killed in ;iclion 

Oct. 19, "64. 
Joseph Hays, Oct. 22, '61. 

Sydenham W. Houser, Feb. 25, Vi4, trans, to Co. I. 
John Hunt, Dec. 23, '63. 
Charles Jess, June 28, '62, dis. July 1, '65. 
Wesley Jess, July 7, '62, dis. .Tuly 1, '()5. 
Charles D. Johnson, Jan. 4, '62, "dis. July 1, '65. 
Nathan M. Jackaway, .Tune 13, '62, dis. Feb. 7, '63. 
William H. Jackson, Jan. 5, '64, died j\Iay 16, '64. 
William H. Johnson, Jan. 4, '62. 
Mahlon G. Kesler, Aug. 17, '63, dis. July 1, '65. 
William Kent, Aug. 15, '64, trans, to Co. A. 
J. Koerner, Nov. 26,'64,died Apr. 24,'65, of wounds. 
Martin Kenna, June 19, '62. 
John Kenty, Dec. 1, '61. 

.lames Lawrence, July 14, '62, dis. July 1, 't>i. 
Richard Leavy, Nov. 11, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
Joel D. Ledden, March 3, '64, dis. July 1, '(■>->. 
Gustave f^ueder, Nov. 17, '64, dis. .Tuly 1, '65. 
William Landon, Oct. 9, '62, dis. Jan. 10, '65. 
Joseph l>ee, Dec. 5, '61, dis. June 20, '62. 
.John liconard, Feb. 17, '64. 
Francis Lill, Feb. 25, '65, trans, to (Jo. I. 
Patrick McGrory, Nov. 29, '64, dis. June 26, '65. 
John McSorley, May 2, '62, dis. July 1, '65. 
Matthew Midgley, Nov. 23, '64, dis. July 1 , '65. 
.[ohn Misson, Aug. 19, '64, dis. .Tuly 1, '()5. 
Zedic E. Moore, Nov. 22, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
.(ohn Murray, Nov. 12, '64, dis. .Tuly 1, '()5. 
William A. Mason, Oct. 31, '61, dis. Nov. 4, '62. 
Major S. Mathews, Dec. 26, '61, dis. .Tune 21, '62. 
Robert Martin, March 8, '64, trans, to U. S. Navy. 
Richard F. Magee, Jan. 23, '62, died Oct. 31, '64. 
James 'McMullen, Feb. 23, '64, killeil in action 

May 14, '64. 
Charles C. Morgan, Oct. 19, '61, died Dec. 5, '64. 
Emanuel Miller, Aug. 30, '62. 
Romulus Morgan, Oct. 18, '62. 
George S. Nicholas, Nov. 13, '61, dis. July 1, '65. 
Cornelius Post, Sep. 21, '64. dis. June 22, '65. 
Chris'er F. Pomeroy, Mar. 27, '63, trans to V. R. C. 
Mark Peachy, Nov. 19, '61, died Nov. 28, '64. 



130 



HISTORY OF CA3IDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Andrew J. Peck, Dec. 2'.», 'Gl, died Nov. 28, 'BZ. 

Thomas Peterson, Nov. 11, '61, died Jan. Itj, '62. 

Edward Perry, Dec. 19, '61. 

Thomas Phillips, Dec. 25, '61. 

John Prior, Sep. 16, '63. 

Aaron E. Reed, Feb. 27, '64, dis. .luly 1, '65. 

John Reed, Jan. 31, '65. 

Robert Reed, March 11, '61. 

David W. Rodman, Nov. 6, "61. 

William Rogers, Oct. 23, '62. 

Samuel Rose, Oct. 22, '61. 

Edward Riley, Feb. 2, '65, dis. July 1, '65. 

Patrick Riley, Feb. 2, '65, dis. July 1, '65. 

Charles J. Roberts, Feb. 2, '65, dis. July 1, '65. 

Alex. C. Robinson, Jan. 2, '65, dis. July 19, '65. 

Leverett G. Rogers, Feb. 2, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 

Wm. A. Roxbury, Aug. 10, '63, dis. July 12, '65. 

Benjamin F. Scott, March 6, '65, dis. July 1, '65. 

John Sears, Nov. 22, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 

John Seery, March 29, '64, dis. June 29, '65. 

John P. Shirley, March 11, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 

Milton D. Shirley, Feb. 10, '64, dis. July 13, '65. 

James M. Smallwood, Feb. 27, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 

Lewis S. Smith, Feb. 27, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 

John H. Sperry, Feb. 21, '63, dis. July 1, '65. 

Lemuel Springfield, Sep. 29, '64, dis. June 22, '65. 

Daniel C. Stebbins, Feb. 27, '64, dis. July 1, 'cr,. 

John Stewart, Oct. 29, '61, dis. July 1, '65. 

Mathias Switzer, Jan. 23, '62, dis. July 1, '65. 

Philip Shaw, Oct. 14, '61, dis. April 20, '65. 

John M. Smith, Sep. 29, '64, dis. May 15, "65. 

Risley Somers, Dec. 26, '61, dis. Feb. 9, '64. 

Jos. W. Smallwood, Feb. 27, '64, killed May 12. '64. 

Jonas Somers, Jan. 4, '64, died Aug. IS, '64. 

John Shields, Dec. 14, '63. 

Joseph Smith, Aug. IS, '63. 

William Stokley, Nov. 7, '61. 

Jesse Thomas, Jan. 4, '65, dis. July 1, '65. 

Charles B. States, Nov. 25, '61, dis. Nov. 25, '64. 

Philip A. Stephenson, June 22, '63, trans, to Co. H. 

.Tohii Thompson, Sept. 5, '64. 

John Tolan, Feb. 2, '65. 

A. T. Van Horn, Jan. 4, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

N. L. Walters, Dec. 2, '62, disch. July 1, '65. 

John Weaber, Nov. 21, '64, disch. July 6, '65. 

A.sa M. Wilson, Jan. 23, '62, disch. July 1, '65. 

James Wright, March 1, '62, disch. July 1, •'65. 

John Wickam, Dec. 16, '61, disch. Feb. 9, '64. 

Thomas Wilson, Nov. 9, '61, disch. Feb. 23, '63. 

S. C. Winfield, March 30, "64, disch. Sept. 20, •(i4. 

Harrison Wilson, Feb. 27, '64, died May 8, '64. 

Joseph Weyman, Oct. 25, '62. 

Henry Williams, Feb. 2, '63. 

William Young, Dec. 9, '61, disch. .Inly 24, '62. 

Jacob Ziloll, Oct. 30, '62. 



Robert Zitell, Oct. .30, '62 

The following is a li.st of the killed of thi.s 
eompany : Privates, Richard J. Abbott, July 
12, 1862; James Clark, May 14, 1864, iu the 
Wilderne.ss; James McMullen, May 14, 1864; 
Joseph W. Smallwood, May 12, 1864; 
Charles H. Huntsmau, October 19, 1864. 

COMPANY H. 

Captains. 
J. R. Cunningham, Nov. 22, '61, resig. Mar. 16, '64. 
G. W. Hummell, April 22, '64, disch. May3,'65. 

First Lieutenant!!. 
W. R. Maxwell, Nov. 16, '61, pro. cai)t. Co. H, 4th 

Regt., Oct. 22, '62. 
Wm. H. Axe, Nov. S, '62, resig. Sept. 11, '63. 
Robert Love, April 22, '64, riae Hummell, pro. 
George Hughes, Jan. 30, '65, disch. July 1. '65. 

Second Lienfenantv. 
S. A. Steinmetz, Nov. 8, '62, pro. 1st lieut. Co. I 

Sep. 27, '63. 
.Joseph D. Smith, Oct 4, '63, disch. Jan. 2, '65. 
John B. Hoffman, Feb. 24, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 

Firxt /Sergeants. 
J. McComb, Oct. 31, '61, pro. 2d lieut. Co. E, 12th 

Regt., Aug. 22, '62. 
J. P. Newkirk, Oct. 28, '61, pro. 2d lieut. Co. C 

May 21, '65. 
John Sowers, Oct. 21, '61, disch. .Inly 1 , '65. 

Sergeants. 
John A. Mather, Oct. 21, '61 ; dis. Oct. 24, '64. 
R. J. Robertson, Oct. 29, '61, pro. 2(1 lieut. Co. E 

Jan. 23, 'li'). 
Silas Glaspey, March 7, '62, disch. July 1, '65. 
Lewis M. Perkins, Oct. 25, '61, disch. July 1, '65. 
George W. Bowen, Nov. 24, '61, disch. July 1, '65. 
(4eo. B. Anderson, Sei)t. 21, '61, disch. Oct. 5, '62. 
Thonuis H. Heward, Nov. 12, '61, died Feb. 28, '65. 
Charles E. Hugg, Nov. 12, '61, died Feb. 19, '65. 
Charles Ecky, Nov. 4, '61. 
Horace L. Haines, Oct. 25, '61. 
Corporals. 
.lohn Bradford, .June 26, '62, disch. July 1, '65. 
Richard Shimp, Nov. 8, '61, disch. July 1, '65. 
John G. Stiles, Nov. 14, '61, disch. .luly 1, '65. 
Robert Sparks, Oct. 21, '61, disch. July 1, 't!5. 
Joseph Marshall, Dec. 26, '61, disch. July 1, '(i5. 
Nathan Campbell, Nov. 11, '61, disch. July 1, '65. 
John Hildebrandt, Nov. 23, '61, disch. July 1, '65. 
Charles E. Tomlin, Nov. 18, '61, disch. Feb. 18, '65. 
.\lbert Davis, Nov. 4, '61, trans, to V. R. C. 
Clayton Edwards, Oct. 26, '61. 
Edward Thornton, Oct. 31, '61. 



THE WAR FOR THE FNION. 



131 



Cliiirles Lewis, Nov. 9, 'til. 

Charles E. Hamblin, Nov. 22, 'lil. 

Henry Frost, June 2, '62. 

D. Crammer, muc, Sept. 21, 'Ol.disch. July 1, '05. 

C. M. Hoey, muc, Oct. 22, '61, discli. Nov. 21, '64. 

H. Deickman, muc, Jan. 24, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 

Ed. Schooley, wag., Nov. 20, '61, disch. July 1,'65. 

Prii-afes. 
A. H. Atkinson, Nov. 14, '61, disdi. Nov. 13, '64. 
W. M. Adams, Nov. 1, '61, trans, to Co. K. 
H. H. Archer, Oct. 28, '61, trans, to Co. G. 
John R. Anderson, Sept. 27, '62. 
Isaac A. Archer, Feb. 4, '64. 
Albert Beck, Jan. 29, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 
Jacob Becker, Nov. 11, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 
Thos. Black, June 16, '62, disch. June 22, 'i\^>. 
George Bradford, Nov. 4, '01, disch. July 6, '65. 
John Breyer, March S, '62, disch. July 1, '65. 
J. A. Brown, Jan. 24, '64, disch. Oct. 25, '65. 
A. W. Brown, Oct. 22, '61, disch. July 1, '65. 
Salvatore Bruno, Jan. 24, '65, disch. July 1, '05. 
Michael Burn?, Jan. 24, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 
Wm. Burroughs, Oct. 23, '01, disch. July 1, '65. 
James Braman, Sept. 30, '62, disch. Nov. 1, '62. 

C. Burke, Sept. 16, '62, trans, to civil authority. 
Wm. Bozarth, Feb. 23, '64, died May 22, '64. 
John G. Bishop, Nov. 19, '01. 

Peter Booze, Nov. 18, '61. 
Charles Boswick, Nov. 24, '61. 
Joseph Brown, March 15, '64. 
Wm. Brown, Jan. 21, '65. 

D. Campion, April 8, '65, disch. July 1, '05. 
James Ca-ssaday, Jan. 16, '65, disch. July 1, '05. 
F. J. Clarke, May 19, '62, disch. July 1, '65. 
Michael Cornell, Jan. 23, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 
Howard Crawford, Jan. 24, '65, disch. June 13, '65. 
Thos. Colligan, Oct. 4, '62, disch. July 16, '64. 
Christian Crawley, Oct. 28, '61, trans, to Co. B. 
Somers Conover, Oct. 8, '61, trans, to Co. E. 
John Coats, Dec. 1, '61, died Oct. 10, '62. 
Daniel D. Carpenter, Oct. 25, '61. 

John Cooley, March 10, '62. 
Joseph Cooper, Nov. 13, '61. 
Richard S. Cooper, Oct. 25, '61. 
George Costabatter, Jan. 23, '65. 
Charles Curtis, Jan. 23, '65. 
George Daisey, Jan. 23, '65, disch. June 13, '65. 
Wesley Dare, July 2, '62, disch. July 1, '65. 
Fred. Diehr, April 6, '65, disch. June 30, '05. 
Jacob Draybach, Jan. 24, 'ii5, disch. July 1, '05. 
Joseph Dente, Nov. 12, '61, disch. Aug. 23, '02. 
Henry Disbrow, Oct. 28, '61, disch. Oct. 31, '62. 
Wm. Dorrington, Nov. 24, '61, disch. July 23, '62. 
Frank Dunn, March 8, '64. 



Henry Durling, Oct. 23, '61. 

John Eagen, Jan. 24, '65, disch. July 1, 05. 

Jacob Eishorn, Jan. 23, '(55, disch. .luly 1, '65. 

Alfred S. Ellison, Feb. 19, '61. 

William C. Elwell, Oct. 31, '61. 

Fred. Falkenburg, Jan. 23, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 

Mesick P. Fish, Oct. 25, '61, disch. April 26, '65. 

William C.Fisher, Sept. 14, '61, disch. Aug. 8, '62. 

George Frey, Sept. 25, '62, disch. Jan. 13, '66. 

John R. Farquhar, Oct. 23, "lil. 

David Fee, Nov. 8, '61. 

John R. Freeman, Jan. 24, 'ori. 

John Fry, March 1, '04. 

Anthony Garvin, Oct. 6, 'lil, disch. July 1, '(i5. 

Edward Gottwald, Jan. 23, 'ivt, disch. July 1, '65. 

Thomas (iauuon, Oct. 17, '61, trans, to Co. K. 

Jeremiah Gaskill, Nov. 1, '01, trans, to Co. K. 

Jacob Gammell, June 20, '62, killed June 8, '61. 

William Hack, Jan. 24, '05, disch. July 12, '65. 

Frederick Hallman, Jan. 24, '05, disch. July 1, '65. 

Edgar Hartley. March 1, '64, disch. June 13, '65. 

Isaac G. Hays, Dec. 5, '01, disch. July 1, '65. 

Thos. Heatherly, Jan. 24, '(!5, disch. July 19, '65. 

Conrad Hester, Jan. 24, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 

Lewis C. Heirs, Oct. 31, '61, disch. July 12, '65. 

Edwin B. Heirs, Oct. 31, '01, disch. July 12, '05. 

George Heimer, Feb. 11, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

Charles Hays, Sept. 3, '02, disch. Nov. 1, '(i2. 

Henry Heap, Nov. 5, '61, disch. Aug. 23, '04. 

William Hornby, Nov. 24, '61, disch. July 15, '62 

Aaron Hess, Sept. 14, '01, died June 14, '04. 

John Henderson, Jan. 24, '65. 

Charles Higgins, Jan. 21, '65. 

James Hill, Feb. 9, '64. 

John Hoffman, Jan. 30, '65. 

John J. Hamilton, Feb. 22, '64. 

Charles Irwin, June 20, '62, di.sch. June 17, '65. 

John Jacobs, Jan. 23, '65, disch. July 5, '65. 

John A. Janvier, Feb. 13, '64, disch. July 1, '05. 

Thomas Johnson, Jan. 23, '05, disch. July 1, '05. 

Henry James, Jan. 31, '05. 

John James, Jan. 23, '65. 

James Jamison, March 14, '64. 

Disere Jeror, Feb. 2, '64. 

Peter Johnson, Feb. 1, ^6^i. 

Thomas Jones, Feb. 28, '(i4. 

James Karns, July 2, '62, disch. July 1, '65. 

Wm. C. Kemble, Jan. 12, '62, disch. Jan. 12. '64. 

Ludwig Klein, A])ril (;, 'i\7>, disch. July I, '&:k 

Joseph Kellcy, Feb. 2, '05. 

Thomas King, March 14, '64. 

Elmer Johnston, April 1, '64, disch. Aug. 10, '05. 

Alfred L. Hartmau, Oct. 28, "01, trans, to Co. K. 

Henry Henderson, Feb. 2, '04. 

Leonard Hirsch, Nov. 1, '01, trans, to Co. B. 



132 



HISTORY OF OAMDKN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Charles Lauer, April <!, '(!5, disch. July I/O."!. 
John A. Lauer, Aug. 9, '64, diach. June 22, '()P>. 
Elias Lefferts, April 28, '62, disch. May 24, '65. 
Wm. B. Lancaster, Feb. 21, '64, died Sept. 15, '64. 
Samuel Lindsey, Jan. 29, '64, died June 9, '64. 
William Lawrence, April 26, '64. 
Charles H. Loyd, Feb. 1, '64. 
N. G. Maling, Jan. 25, -64, disch. July 1, '65. 
T. H. Maling, Jan. 25, ■<;4, disch. July 1, '65. 
James McCarty, Jan. 24, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 
W. S. Metier, Aug. 9, '64, disch. June 22, '65. 
Martin Miller, Dec. 1, '61, disch. July 12, '65. 
Joseph Mitchell, April 10, '65, disch. July 1. '65. 
Charles Moore, Sept. 27, '62, disch. Nov. 1, '62. 
(Jharles Merrill, May 10, '62, trans, to V. R. ('. 
W. G. Miller, Oct. 25, '61, died July 25, '63. 
Christopher Myers, Nov. 19, '61, died April 6, '64. 
Daniel Mailing, March 15, '64. 
Thomas McCauley, Jan. 23, '65. 
Henry McGinnis, Nov. 5, '61. 
Thomas McGuire, May 19, '62. 
Hugh Mclntire, Nov. 5, '61. 
Isaac McKinley, Nov. 19, '61. 
John McVey, Feb. 4, '64. 
Thomas Meh.-r, Nov. 19, '61. 
James Morris, Jan. 23, '65. 
William C. Morris, Oct. 25, '61. 
Robert O. Mullinoux, Nov. 16, '61. 
John Murry, March 15, '64. 
M. Nausbaum, Jan. 23, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 
Wm. Newton, Nov. 4, '61, disch. May 17, '62. 
Albert J. Nichols, Nov. 5, '61, disch. July 8, '62. 
Jacob Newman, Feb. 2, '64, trans, to Co. I. 
Henry H. Nichols, Oct. 31, '61, died Mar. 14, '65. 
Stockton C. PuUen, Oct. 28, '61, dis. June 13, '65. 
Benjamin Pine, Oct. 31, '61, dis. Nov. 1, '62. 
Jacob F. Parker, Aug. 9, '64, dis. May 5, '65. 
Ephraim Palmer, Oct. 31, '61, died March 21, '63. 

E. D. Patterson, Nov. 5, '61, died May 14, '64. 
James O'Brien, March 15, '64. 

Martin F. Regan, July 21, '62, disch. July 1, '65. 

F. J. Reinfried, Oct. 22, "61, disch. July 6, '65. 
P. J. Romer, Nov. 21, '61, disch. July 1, '65. 
William Ross, Oct. 25, '61, trans, to Co. L 
David B. Russell, Jan. 3, '64, died Dec. 19, '64. 
Patrick Ratchford, Jan. 24, '65. 

John Repshure, Nov. 1, '61. 
John R. Richardson, Nov. 22, '61. 
William Ryan, Mar. 23, '64. 
Edward N. Sapp, Oct. 28, '61, disch. Oct. 27, '64. 
Henry Schrame, Feb. 1, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 
John A. Smith, Feb. 2, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 
A. H.Stillwell, Sept. 21, '61, disch. July 1, '65. 
Theo. F. Strahmire, Dec. 31, '61, disch. July 1, '65. 
John Straway. Feb. 27, '64, disch. June 14, '65. 



James Sayers, Oct. 31, '61, disch. April 22, '62. 

Isaac Shute, Nov. 14, '61, disch. Oct. 2, '62. 

George Smith, Aug. 27, '62, disch. Nov. 4, '62. 

William Stewart, Aug. 28, '61, disch. Dec. 26, '61. 

Charles C. Stitzer, Nov. 4, '61, disch. Dec. 26, '61. 

James W. Smith, June 26, '62, trans, to Co. C. 

Thomas Stiles, March 5, '64, disch. July 24, '65. 

W. Saulsbury, Sep. 14, '61 , killed in act. May 12, '64. 

P. Stephenson, Nov. 13, '61, kd. in act. June 3, '64. 

Gottlieb SchaetFer, March Ki, '64. 

Henry Schwartz, Feb. 2, '64. 

George Shear, Nov. 24, '61. 

Patrick Simon, March 20, '64. 

James Sullivan, Sept. 30, '62. 

John W. Taylor, March 7, '64, disch. .luly 1, '65. 

John Tracy, Feb. 26, '64, trans, to X. K. C. 

Frederick Taylor, Oct. 25, '61 . 

Henry Thompson, March 5, '64. 

Henry Thompson, Sept. 27, '62. 

Matthew Thune, Feb. 26, '64. 

Francis Tounge, May 19, '62. 

William H. Treen, Oct. 23, '61. 

Peter Van Patten, Oct. 4, '61, di.sch. Nov. 1, '62. 

Henry Van Gei.son, Oct. 17, '61, trans, to V. R. C. 

George Ward, Jan. 29, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

Martin Ward, Feb. 2, '65, disch. June 13, '65. 

E. S. Warford, Sept. 12, '61, disch. Sept. 12, '64. 

Thomas Wells, April 8, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 

J. W. Wilson, March 10, '62, disch. March 10, '65. 

John T. Wilson, Feb. 26, '(i4, disch. July 6, '65. 

W. B. Warford, Sept. 21, '61, disch. Jan. 30, '63. 

C. Winckler, Feb. 24, '64, killed in act. June 1 , '64. 

Richard Wally, Oct. 25, '61 . 

William Ward, Oct. 24, '61. 

John H. Watson, Aug. 20, '63. 

Charles Welsh, Jan. 31, '65. 

The killed who belonged to tlii.s company 
were William Saulsbury, May 12, 18(34; 
Jacob Gamewell, June 8, 1864 ; Philip Stev- 
enson, June 3, 1864 ; Charles Winckler, June 
1, 1864 — all privates. 

COMPANY I, TENTH REGIMENT, NEW JERSEY VOL- 
UNTEERS. 

Captains. 
John Coates, Nov. 26, '61, disch. March 6, '62. 
James R. Stone, March 15, '62, disch. Aug. 23, '62. 
William H. Franklin, Oct. 10, '63, dis. July 1, '65. 

First Lieutenants. 
Charles F. Stone, Oct. 15, '61, disch. March 4, '62. 
John S. Cooper, March 31, '62, res. July 31, '63. 
Savillion A. Steinmetz, Oct. 4, '63, dis. May 6, '65. 
Charles A. Austice, June 10, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 



THE WAR FOK TUK UNION. 



133 



Second LivulenmiU. 

Jacol) M. Sharpe, Nov. •ilJ, '(il, res. March il, '6t. 

R. D. Mitchell, Apr. 21, "62, pr. 1st. licut. ( 'o. 1. 2il 
Cav. Regt. Aug. 2G, '(i3. 

Richard A. Herring, Oct. '■'>, '(i:i, com. Ist. lieiit. 
Co.G, Oct. 24, '(JS. 

Adolphus Yuncker, Feb. 1, '(>'), 2d lieut. vire Her- 
ring disch. 

Sergcdiits. 

(ieorge Burushouse, Oct. 21, "Gl, disch. Oct. 21, 'lU. 

Pitney Wilson, Sept. 24, '61, disch. May 5, 't)2. 

Miles G. Sparks, Sept. 30, '(il , disch. Feb. ti, '(it;. 

James R. Jobes, Sept. 27, '(il, disch. Sept. 27, '64. 

Francis B. Abbott, Oct. 8, '(il, disch. Nov. 26, '64. 

George A. Hiles, Dec. 1, '61, disch. Nov. 30, '64. 

James G. Wisner, Aug. 14, '63, disch. July 1, '65. 

Robert B. Saudford, Dec. 5, '64, disch. July l,'6r). 

John Moran.Sept. 9, '61, disch. July 1, 'i)5. 

Charles Brooks, Nov. 25, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

Isaiah Abbott, Sep. 19, '61, disch. .laii. is, '(12. 

Starr G. Holly, Nov. 14, '61. 

( 'orpurak. 
James R. Purcell, May 30, '()2, disch. July 1, '65. 
Sydenham W. Houser, Feb. 25, '64, dis. July 1, '65. 
John Hunsinger, Sept. 19, '61, disch. Oct. 21, '64. 
John Nelling, Oct. 21, '61, disch. Nov. 11, '<!4. 
Daniel Carey, June 12, '62, disch. July 1, '65. 
George Taylor, Dec. 3, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 
Charles Cross, Nov. 23, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 
Enoch Edwards, Dec. 1, '64, disoh. July 1, '65. 
Henry B. Simpson, Feb. 24, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 
John Hayson,(Jct. 21, '61, disch. Oct. 21, '64. 
Abraham Hackman, Oct. 14, '61, dis. May 4, '62. 
Richard A. Spain, Oct. 7, '61, disch. May 5, '62. 
Frederick H. Leach, Sept. 9, '61, tr. to V. R. C. 
Hedger C. Pierce, Sept. 23, '61, tr. to V. R. C. 
Edwin Holly, Nov. 19, '61, died Jan. 31, "62. 
Charles Wilson, Sept. 27, '61. 
James Gardner, Sept. 27, '62. 
W. S. Leach, muse, Sept. 19, '61, dis. Mar. 5, '62. 

Privates. 
Evan Armster, Nov. 11, "64, disch. July 1, '65. 
Peter Adshead, Sept. 27, '61, disch. June 27, '62. 
George Arp, Mar. 1, '64, disch. Jan. 7, '65. 
Henry T. Ainesworth, Aug. 26, '63. 
James Anderson, Aug. 26, '63. 
Henry Atkins, Apr. 15, '64. 
George P. Beach, Sept. 8, '62, disch. July 1, '65. 
John Bock, Nov. 18, '64, disch. July 1, (i5. 
William Bradenbach, Feb. 1, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 
George W. Brill, Feb. 25, '64, disch. June 13, '65. 
Harvey V. Burch, Feb. 25, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 
Henry S. Butcher, Nov. 24, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 
John Brownlie, Jan. 30, '63, disch. Oct. 31, '63. 



tJeorge F. Bird, Oct. 21, '61, tr. to V. R. 0. 

John Boyle, Dee. 21, '64, tr. from Co. F, 4lh Regt. 

Lewis Beebe, Nov. 2, '61, died .Vug. 1, '63. 

Henry Biggs, Dec. 23, '63, died Aug. 2, '64. 

Daniel O. Brown, July 14, '(;2, died .May 14, '64. 

George Barry, Oct. 17, '62. 

Patrick Barry, Jan. 12, '64. 

William Bell, Dec. 1, '64. 

August Bertrand, Nov. 28, '64. 

Sufl'rey I. Blank, Sept. 27, '61. 

.lohn Brine, Mar. 30, '64. 

Joseph Brooks, Aug. 10, '63. 

Charles H. Brown, Jan. 1;{, '63. 

Harrison Brown, March 14, '(i4. 

Henry Bryan, Jan. 21, '63. 

James Buckley, Jlarch 1, '()4. 

Peter Butler, March 1, '64. 

Samuel Boyer, Sept. 2, '62. 

Reuben Camp, Nov. 28, '64, disch. July 13, '65. 

Henry Campbell, Jan. 2, '64, disch. June 22, '65. 

William Carson, Nov. 29, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

Peter Chekle, Nov. 22, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

Morris Crater, Feb. 27, '()4, disch. July 1. '65. 

Peter Crown, Jan. 2, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

William Culver, Nov. 6, '61, disch. Nov. 18, '(i4. 

.lohn Cline, Oct. 3, '61, disch. Dec. 6, '62. 

Peter Cody, Sept. 13, '(!4, tr. to Co. K, 15th Regt. 

William B. Cook, Aug. 20, '(i2, tr. to V. R. C. 

John Crater, Feb. 27, '64, died Jan. 12, '*if> of wds. 

Thomas Cregg, Oct. 21, '61, died Nov. 25, '64. 

Robert Camblass, Nov. 2, '61. 

Charles T. Carr, Jan. 27, '64. 

Dennis Cavanaugh, March 30, '64. 

Thomas Clayton, Sept. 27, '61. 

Lewis C. Coates, Nov. 7, '61. 

James Cooley, Sept. 27, '61. 

Richard Coplis, March 13, '63. 

Jacob Decker, March 31, '(i5, disch. July 1, '65. 

John Donnell, Nov. 17, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

Augustus H. Dorland, Feb. 27, '64, died Aug. 9, '64. 

Robert Dresser, Sr., Oct. 28, '61, died Jan. 25, '63. 

.lames Dagnan, March 23, '64. 

Francis Darrin, Aug. 1, '68. 

Joseph Davis, Sept. 27, '61. 

Thomas Davis, Aug. 19, '63. 

Henry Deuring, Aug. 10, '()3. 

Francis Donnegan, .Jan. 16, '63. 

Robert Dresser, Jr., Nov. 19, '61. 

William Duffy, Sept. 24, '61. 

William Dugan, .lune 4, '(i2. 

Clarkson F. Dunham, (Jet. 29, '61. 

Peter Eckersly, April 1, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 

M. Englebrechtem, Nov. 18, '64, dis. ,)uly 1. '65. 

James M. Everett, Sept. 7, '61, disch. Sept. 20, '64. 

Jeremiah Emmons, Oct. 24, '61, disch. May 2, '62. 



134 



HISTORY OP CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Aaron Emory, Oct. 6, '62, died Nov. 3, 'G4, of wds. 

Redmond Emmons, Oct. 21, '(il. 

Fritz Fisiier, Dec. 3, '04, diseli. July 1, '65. 

Samuel G. Foster, Aug. 22, '63, disch. July 1, 'Go. 

Daniel C. Fowler, Dec. 23, '63, disch. July 1, '65. 

Wm. W. Frazer, Oct. 16, '61, disch. March 3, '62. 

Josiah Ford, Oct. 21, '61, died Jan. 20, 18G2. 

Thos. Ford, Oct. 21, '61, died July 1, '64, of wds. 

David Farlen, Sept. 8, '63. 

Hiram Fish, October 24, '61. 

Jacob Gibson, Nov. 19, '61, disch. July G, 'G5. 

Samuel Goff, Oct. 21, '61, disch. July 1, '65. 

Martin Gallagher, Nov. 30, 'G4. 

John Gill, Oct. 5, '64. 

Raymond Graff, Feb. 1, '6r>. 

Robert Green, Jan. 17, 'G3. 

Juo. F. Hamilton, Sept. 19, '61, disch. July 1, '65. 

Isaac Harris, Nov. 28, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

John Hart, Dec. 23, '63, disch. May 22, 'G5. 

David Hays, Nov. 28, '64, disch. June 16, '65. 

Mich'l Hennessy, Nov. 26, '64, disch. July 1, 'Go. 

Silas Hoffman, Nov. 8, '61, disch. July 1, '65. 

James Hudson, Nov. 25, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

Wm. H. Hulshart, Nov. 29, '64, disch. .July 1, 65. 

Geo. Hamilton, Sept. 27, '61, disch. Feb. 22, '62. 

Simeon Hammil, Oct. 14, '61, disch. Aug. 28, '62. 

Thomas Harra, Nov. 5, '61, disch. May 5, '62. 

Stille C.Hendrickson, Oct. 1, '61, dis. June 18, '64. 

E. Helfreich, Sept. 25, '64, trans, to Co. E, 4tli Rcgt. 

A. Helstein,Sept. 24, '64, trans, to Co. B, 4th Regt. 

J. Helstein, Sept. 24, '64, trans, to Co. B, 4th Hegt. 

Edwin Haight, Aug. 26, '63. 

Francis Hamilton, Feb. 3, '63. 

James Harris, Oct. 11, '62. 

Jacob Hawk, Oct. 19, '61. 

Zachary Hess, Aug. 14, '62. 

Albert Higgins, Aug. 27, '62. 

William Hill, Aug. 19, 'G3. 

John S. Hosea, Feb. 2, '63. 

Christian Jensen, Nov. 17, '64, disch. July 7, 'H'k 

Joseph Johnson, Jan. 2, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

Franklin Jones, Nov. 28, '64, died. May 19, '65. 

Albert Jacques, Oct. 29, '61. 

Lawrence Jenkins, March 31, 'G5. 

Richard Kelly, Nov. 28, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

Andrew Kelstram, Nov. 17, '64, disch. July 7, '65. 

Lorenzo D. Kemple, Sept. 8, '63, trans, to Co. C. 

Michael Kearcher, Feb. 15, '64. 

Edward Kelly, Aug. 13, '63. 

Jesse Kemball, Aug. 27, '63. 

John King, Feb. 3, '63. 

William Knight, Oct. 17, '62. 

Daniel D. Layton, May 8, '63, disch. July 1 , 't;5. 

James Lingham, Nov. 25, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

Hugh Lippincott, Oct. 3, '61, disch. July 1, '65. 



Henry Logan, Nov. 12, '64, disch. July 1, 'G5. 

Francis Lill, Feb. 25, '64, di.sch. Mar. 27, '65. 

P. Louderman, Sept. 24, '64, trans, to Co. B, 4th Rt. 

E. Ludwig, Sept. 24, '64, trans, to Co. B, 4th Regt. 

George B. Land, Sept 24, '61, died Oct. 12, '62. 

Jacob K. Lipsey, Oct. 21, '61, disch. Feb. 7, 'G5. 

Robert Lane, Feb. 5, '63. 

Charles .T. Livingston, Aug. 17, '63. 

Ale.i^ander Lynch, Nov. 12, '61. 

Hiram Lynch, Nov. 12, '61. 

Joseph Love, September 30, '62. 

John Maloy, Nov. 22, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

.loseph Marshall, Nov. 29, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

John Mason, Nov. 25, '64, disch. July 25, '65. 

John F. McDonald, Jan. 10, '63, disch. July 1, '65. 

Benjamin Mingen, Nov. 29, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

Frank Mitten, Feb. 1, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 

Wni. II. Mitten, Dec. I, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

John Murphy, Jan. 30, '65, disch. July 1, '65. 

Thomas Mason, Nov. 2, '61, disch. March 5, '62. 

George May, Nov. 15, 'G2, disch. April 10, '63. 

Patk. McDonough. Nov. 8, '61, disch. June 27, '62. 

William Miller, Nov. 18, '61, disch. June 6, '62. 

Edward McElroy, Aug. 17, '63, died Sept. 6, '64. 

D. McFagan, Nov. 1, '64, died Nov. 29, '64, of wds. 

F'elix Mullen, Oct. 22, '61, died April 15, '65. 

John Major, Aug. 20, '62. 

Jeremiah Maloney, Dec. 2, '64. 

Augustus Martin, Nov. 23, "61. 

Thomas Martin, April 2, '64. 

John McLoy, Oct. 17, '62. 

.lohii Meade, Aug. 26, '63. 

Joseph Miller, Aug. 19, '62. 

James Morgan, Oct. 18, '62. 

Thomas Murphy, Jan. 31, '65. 

Victor Nizou, Nov. 22, '64, disch. Aug. 3, '65. 

James Nolan, Dec. 6, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

Henry Nickuni, Oct. 22, '61, disch. March 5, '62. 

Daniel Ogburn, Aug. 27, '62, died Nov. 11, '64. 

Michael O'Brien, Aug. 26, '63. 

John B. Ogburn, Aug 27, '62. 

Henry B. Pa.xton, Oct. 19, '61, disch. July 1, '65. 

Taylor Phifer, Nov. 28, '64, disch. July 1, '65. 

James Pharo, Nov. 15, '61, disch. June 1, '62. 

George Reinecker, Jan. 30, '62, disch. July 1, '65. 

John Robinson, Sept. 24, '61, disch. April 10, '63. 

William Ross, Oct. 25, '61, trans, to V. R. C. 

Henry Ramsey, Oct. 25, '61. 

William W. Randies, Sept. 27, 'iH. 

Joseph M. Ray, Aug. 28, '63. 

Charles Reilly, Aug. 26, '63. 

John Robinson, Nov. 25, '64. 

William Robinson, Aug. 1, '63. 

George Rodman, Aug. 19, '()3. 

John Scheeper, Feb. I, "65, disch. July 1, '65. 



THE WAE FOR THE UNION. 



135 



Alfred Sellers, Nov. 30, 1864, disch. July 1, 't!'). 

Eph. L. Smith, Sept. 27, '61, disch. July 1, '(io. 

Josiah Sawns, Sept. 30, '61, disch. Aug. 2'i, '62. 

.loaeph Si'hoiier, Sept. Irt, '61, disoh. Sept. •'!, '63. 

.lohii Sturges, Oct. 7, 01, disch. May S, '62. 

\y. Searchfield, Oct. 25, '62, trans, to 1st Rt. D. C V. 

T. Shields, Sept. 8, '61, killed in action Aug. 17, ■(;4. 

Nicholas Sidell, Sept. 24, '64 ; died Oct. 26, 'M. 

Mayab Sliuin, Sept. 24. '61 ; died Nov. l.S, '64. 

\Vm. Spargo, Jan. 2, '64; died July 23. '6)4. 

Dennis Sullivan, Nov. 28, '64; died April It, 'ri.''). 

Bcnj. Sailor, Feb. '25, '64. 

James Sinclair, Nov. ■'>, '61. 

John Sinclair, Sept. 8, '61. 

VA. Smith, March 1, '04. 

Edward C. Smith, Oct. 21, '61. 

Henry Smith, Sept. 2, '63. 

John Smith, March 3, '0'>. 

Samuel Smith, Nov. 7, '62. 

James Snow, Oct. 21, '61. 

A. H. Titus, Sept. 30, '61 ; dis. Sept. 20, '64. 

Constant Tolaus, Nov. 28, ■(!3 ; dis. July 1, "(i'l. 

James Traverse, Jan. 30, 'ii't ; dis. July 1, '6.5. 

.Jacob Thomas, Oct. 7, '61 ; died March 6, '65. 

Geo. Thompson, Feb. 1, '65. 

Jcihn Tracy, Feb. 26, '64. 

Wui. Tome, Sept. 22, '64; trans. Co. D, 4lli Regt. 

Robt. Trafl'y, Sept. 26, 'iirt; trans. Co. B, 4tb Regt. 

Geo. Trader, Jan. 27, '64. 

Wm. Truitt, Aug. 19, '63. 

Charles Vanosell, Oct. 30, '61. 

Charles Waisse, Jan. 30, '65; dis. July 1, '65. 

Samuel Webb, Dec. 23, '63; dis. July 1, '65. 

Richanl Welsh, Mar. 30, '65; dis. July 1, '65. 

John Wiley, Nov. 11, "64 ; dis. July 1, '65. 

Charles Williams, Nov. 16, '64; dis. July 1, 'i'<-''i. 

Robt. Williams, Jan. 30, '65 ; dis. June 20, '65. 

.Idhn Wilkins, Nov. 19, '61 ; dis. March 5, '62. 

.Ids. B. Wolcott, Aug. 1(), '62; trans, to V. R. C. 

.liihn Woodbine, Dec. 1. '64; traus. to Co. C. 

Henry Woodward, April 12, '65 ; trans, to Co. C. 

Sam'l B. White, Oct. 21, '61 ; died Feb. 5, '62. 

Owen Williams, Aug. 26, '(53 ; died July 2i;, '64. 

Francis Watkins, Aug. 1, '63. 

•Tohn Welch, March 13, '63. 

Samuel Wheaton, Nov. 2, '62. 

George Whittaker. Sept. 30, '61. 

Charles L. Willey, Sept. 8, '63. 

Charles H. Williams, Aug. 17, '63. 

Wm. Williams, Aug. 17, '63. 

Garrett Wilson, Aug. 27, '63. 

Peter Woli'ord, Nov. 2, '61. 

Bernard Wood, Aug. 21, '63. 

Henry Wood, March 23, '64. 

Frank Young, Nov. 21, '64 ; dis. July 1, '65. 



Joseph C. Young, Nov. 2, '61 ; died. June 5, 't;4. 
William Yeager, Aug. 1,"63. 

Thomas Shields is the only riu'iiilicr of 
tiiis coinpany reported as killed in battle. 

TiiK TwKi.rxn KEciiMKNT. — Camden 
County eontril)iited to the Twelfth Rey;iment 
Companies E, (i and I. This command was 
raised under the President's call of July 7, 
lSti2, for three hundred thou.sand three years' 
volunteers, and was mustered iu at Wood- 
bury September 4tli. Thomas H. Davis, 
of Camden, was appointed major and after- 
wards promoted to lieutenant-eolonel. En 
route to Washington September 7, l.S(j"J, the 
regiment was directed to guarding the liiie of 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, neai' KWi- 
cott City, Md., and joined the Army ol' the 
Potomac at Falmouth, Va., December (Jth. 
It was first attached to tlie Second Brigade, 
Third Division, Second Army Corps, and 
later to the Third Brigade of tlie Second 
Division of the same cor)is. Serving until 
the close of the war, it was a participaut in 
the following-named battles : 

Chancellorsville, May 3 and 4, 1863 ; Ciettysburg, 
Pa., July 2 and 3, 1S63 ; Falling Waters, Md., 
July 13, 1863; Auburn Mills, Va., October 14, 
1863; Bristow Station, Va., October 14, 1S(;3 ; 
Blackburn's Ford, "Va., October 15, 186.3; Robin- 
son's Tavern, Va., November 27, 1863 ; Mine Run, 
Va., November 28, 29 and 30, 1863; .Morton's 
Ford, Va., February 6, 1864; Wilderness, Va., 
May 5 to 7, 1864; Spottsylvania, Va., May 8 to 11, 
1864; Spottsylvania Court-House, Jlay 12 to 18, 

1864 ; North and South Anna River, Va., May 24 
to 26, 1864; Tolopotomy, Va., May 30 and 31, 
1864; Cold Harbor, Va., June 2 to 12, 1864 ; Before 
Petersburg, Va., June 20 to 23, 1864; Deep Bottom, 
Va., July 25 to 29, 1864; Mine Explosiou, Va., 
July 30, 1864; Ream's Station, Va., August 25, 
1864; Fort Sedgewick, Va., September 10, 1864; 
Boydton Plank-Road, Va., October 27, 1864; 
Hatcher's Run, Va., February 6 to 8, 1865; Dab- 
ney's Mills, Va., February 28, 1865; Hatcher'.s 
Run, Va., March 25, 1865; Cai>ture of Petershuru, 
Va., April 2, 1865; Sailor's Creek, Va., April 6, 

1865 ; High Bridge, Va., April 7, 1865 ; Farmvillc, 
Va., April 7, 1865; Lee's surrender (Appomatto.\, 
Va.), April 9, 1865. 

Companies E and G, at Gettysburg, on the 



136 



HISTORY OF CA:\IPEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



even ing of July '^, 1863, were a part of the force 
that drove the Confederate sharpshooters from 
a lioiise and barn on the Emniettsburg road, 
an affair in wliich Captain Horsfall was 
killed and Lieutenant K!astwick wounded. 
[Tpon this site the survivors of this regiment, 
in 1S86, erected a handsome monument. At 
Bristow Station Lieutenant Low, of Company 
(t, received his death-wound and his c'om- 
pany was very badly cut up. At Spottsyl- 
vauia Court-Housc, on May (j, 18ii4, tlie 
regiment lost heavily, Colonel Davis and 
Captains Chew and Potter being among the 
wounded. Color-Sergeant Charles H. Cheese- 
man, Company E, of Camden, who had 
borne the colors of the command with great 
braverj' through all its battles, was fatally in- 
jured. On the ]2th, it was in the attack on 
Johnson's division of Ewell's corps, where 
Colonel Davis was instantly killed at the 
head of the charging column of his men. 

f^aptain James McCoomb, of Camden, 
succeeded to tiie command of the regiment, 
and was mortally wounded by a shell at the 
battle of Cold Harbor. His successor was 
Captain Daniel Dare, also of Camden, who 
was in charge until Major Thomson returned 
from recruiting service. The latter being seri- 
ously wounded at Ream's Station, the com- 
mand fell upon Major Henry F. Chew, still 
another Camden soldier, so that the Twelfth's 
profuse laurels may iw said to have lieen 
largely gained under the direction of the 
zealous and brave otticers who came from 
this county. It never lost a color, was never 
broken in action and reflected honor upon 
South Jersey, from whence it was recruited. 

CoL. TiioM.xs H. Davis,' son of Benjamin 
T. and Eleanor Travis, was born in the city of 
Camden, N. J., July 2:5, 1835. His early 
days were passetl in liis native town until, at 
the age of seventeen, he entered the West 
.Jersey Collegiate School, at Mount Holly, 
then under the care of the Rev. Samuel Mil- 

' I'oloncl Win. E. Potter. 



Icr. Here he remained until the period of 
his school-days had ended, when he went 
West and was engaged for several years in 
the cities of Toledo, O., and Detroit, Mich., 
in the construction of gas-works. He after- 
wards returned to Camden and entered into 
business in Philadelphia, which occupied him 
until near the outiircak of the war. He was 
among the first of the young men of the- 
State to tender his .services to the imperiled 
government, and entered the service at the 
first call as paymaster of the Fourth Regi- 
ment of the New Jensey Militia, and in this 
capacity served three months in front of 
Washington. 

On the 9th day of July, 1802, he was 
commissioned major of the Twelfth Regiment 
New Jersey Volunteers, and immediately 
entered upon his duties at the camp of that 
regiment at Woodbury. The acquaint- 
ance of the writer with him began at this 
time. From his entrance into the Twelfth 
liegimcnt ^lajor Davis showed an ardent 
interest in its welfare. He was proud 
of the material of which it was composed — 
sons of farmers and young sea-faring men 
chiefly^ — -a manly body of troops, which, for 
strength, youth, activity and health, I think, 
was not surpa.ssed by any which the State 
furnished during the war. .Major Havis 
gave him.self diligently to his duties and 
soon had the respect andatlcctidu of (he en- 
tire regiment. 

The Twelfth Regiment, after .serving some 
months in Maryland, in December, 18()2, joined 
the Second Brigade, Third Division, Army 
of the Potomac, near Falmouth, Va. Here, 
on the 27th of February, 1863, Lieutenant- 
Colonel J. Howard Willetts was commissioned 
colonel of the regiiuent and Major J)avis was 
promoted to be lieutenant-colonel. 

The winter and cai'lv spring were spciil 
in perfecting the e(jiiipmciit, drill and 
di.scipline of the regiment and perl'orni- 
ing what was probably the most severe and 
exposing picket duty of the war. The dis- 




(TJ^^^^^T'^^-^^ 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



137 



tance from the camp to the picket line, the 
horrible weather and roads, the want of 
proper shelter for the reserves and the com- 
parative inexperience of the men, have marked 
the winter of 1862-63 with black lines in 
the diary of every soldier who was during 
those months upon the right front of the 
Army of the Potomac. Colonel Davis, as 
field officer of the day, was necessarily much 
exposed during this winter, and thus laid the 
foundation of an attack of inilammatory 
rheumatism, which early in May completely 
prostrated him so that he was ordered home 
and was not allowed to return until about 
tlie 1st of August, 1863. I have often 
heard him regret that he was thus absent 
from the great actions of Chancellorsville 
and Gettysburg. Colonel Willetts was badly 
wounded at Chancellorsville, and on the re- 
turn of Colonel Davis from sick leave he 
assumed the command of his regiment, which 
he was thenceforth to lead in more than oue 
bloody action, and in front of whose stead- 
fast lines he was to fall. 

He was steadily on duty during tlic latter 
part of the summer of 1 863, and at the 
combat near (xreeuwich and the severe action 
of Bristow Station, both fought upon the 
14th of October, 1863, he manceuvred his 
troops with that coolness and serene courage 
which always distinguished him. He was 
again engaged with his regiment on the 15th 
of October at Blackburn's Ford or Bull Run, 
and later in the fall, during the short but ex- 
pensive campaign of Mine Run. On Feb- 
ruary 7, 1864, he was among the first on 
foot to ford the icy waters of the Rapidan 
at Morton's Ford, and was warmly engaged 
in the severe combat. With the rest of the 
army, he crossed the Rapidan on the nigiit 
of May 4, 1864, and wa.s heavily engaged in 
the first great action of the Wilderne.ss cam- 
paign on the evening of May 5th. The 
next morning Carroll's brigade, in whic^ii 
was the regiment of Colonel Davis, advanced 
more than a mile, swinging to the left and 
18 



across the Orange Court-House plank-road, 
and, with the other brigades and division of 
the Second Corps, driving the corps of A. 
P. Hill, of the enemy's army, in utter con- 
fusion before it. 

During a halt, at length ordered, a shell 
exploded near Colonel Davis and he was 
stricken to the ground. One who was 
wounded, an hour later, found him at the 
field hospital. He was hit by splinters thrown 
oif from a tree struck by the shell refinrred 
to, and not by the projectile itself. He lay 
at the field hospital until the evening of May 
7th, and joined his regiment when, with the 
army, it moved toward Spottsylvania. As 
he pressed the hand of the officer referred to 
and bade him farewell, he said, " If we were 
into camp now I should apply for leave on 
the strength of these bruises, but I cannot 
bear the thought of leaving my regiment so 
long as I can sit on my horse." Graven on 
the memory of his friend as with a pen of 
steel, these last manly words of Colonel Davis 
scnnid in his ears clearly, as if spoken but 
yesterday. 

On the 12th of May, 1X64, Colonel Davis, 
at the head of the Twelfth Regiment, formed 
a part of that magnificent column of veter- 
an infantry which, under command of Gen- 
eral Hancock, assaulted Lee's line at Spott- 
sylvania, and sweeping over it, pierced his 
centre. On foot, because it was imjiossible 
to ride through abatis and over earthwork, 
erect, vigilant, enthusiastic, not yet recovered 
from severe bruises of si.x days before, but 
triumphing overthem, eye-witnesses still love 
to tell with what springing valor and in- 
comparable energy Colonel Davis led his 
regiment as they swej)t like one great wave 
over the enemy's work and into their camp. 
The enemy's first line was carried with but 
little loss, but half a mile to the rear the 
charging troops came upon a second line 
heavily manned and sternly defended. And 
here, while cheering on his troops with ani- 
mated gestures, in front of his colors and 



138 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COTJNTV^ NEW JERSEY. 



almost touching them, Colonel Davis, struck 
by a ball which passed through his neck, 
fell dead. He was buried near the field 
where he fell, but a few days later was re- 
moved to Fredericksburg, whence, in the 
autumn of 1865, loving hands bore him 
northward, and on a beautiful day in No- 
vember of that year, on the eve of the first 
Thanksgiving after the war, iu the presence 
of his family and a few of his comrades, he 
was laid to rest in the cemetery of Laurel 
Hill. 

Few men were more soldierly in appear- 
ance than Colonel Davis — none more brave 
and zealous in the cause for which he died. 
Tall, erect, commanding in person, electric in 
temperament, of a bold and resolute charac- 
ter, his troops so leaned on him that, when 
he commanded, his regiment fought with a 
massive energy which was often noticed. 
Warm in hisaifections, kind and genial in man- 
ners, many loved him, none will forget him. 
He was a gallant soldier and genial gentle- 
man, who freely left home and friends to cast 
his sword, his heart and his life into the breach 
to save the honor of Ills country. 

The rolls of the Camden County companies 
of the Twelfth Regiment are as follows : 

COMPANY E. 

[ThiB company was muatered in September 4, 1862, aud muetprt'd 

nut July 15, 1865, unless otherwise stated, j 

Captains. 
Charles K. Horsfall, killed July 2, '68. 
Daniel Dare, Aug. 6, '63. 

Mrat Lieutenants. 
Philip M. Armington, resg. Nov. lr>, '63. 
EUwood Griscom, Feb. 22, '(>5 ; dis. .Tune 4, '65. 

Second Lieutenants. 
James McComb, pro. 1st It. Co. D June 31, '63. 
Stephen G. Eastwick, Feb. 14, '63 ; dis. Jan. 24,'64. 
G. A. Cobb, May 1, '65; pro. 1st It. Co. H June 24,'65. 

First Sergeants. 
John R. Rich, pro. sergt.-maj. Nov. 27, "63. 
John Sheehan, dis. June 4, '65. 

Sergeants. 
Ethelbert Davis, dis. June 4, '65. 
Wm. H. Brooks, dis. June 3, '65. 
Charles fcjullivan, dis. June 4, '65. 



James M. Cranen, dis. June 4, '65. 

Charles H. Laing, Feb. 23, 65. 

Elijah L. Smith, Feb. 27, '65. 

Pierce McHenry, April 7, '65. 

John Foster, died May 3, "63, of wounds. 

Josef)h S. Hugg, Aug. 13, '62 ; died Aug. 27, '62. 

Charles E. Cheeseman, died May 7, '64, of wounds; 

Charles P. Fish, Aug. 4, '62 ; killed May 12, '64. 

Corporals. 
Henry Ranser, dis. June 4, '65. 
Frederick Fagley, dis. June 4, '65. 
Edward S. Ellis, dis. July 10, "65. 
Joseph Myers, dis. June 4, '65. 
John Hull, dis. June 4, '65. 
Wm. M. Copeland, dis. June 4, '65. 
Samuel E. Farriugton, dis. June 4, "65. 
John Evans, I<>b. 23, '65. 
Charles Richards, Feb. 22, '65. 
,Tobn Thompson, April 5, '65. 
Isaac M. Williams, April 5, '65. 
George White, April 6, '65. 
Ludwig Schweitzer dis. May 17, '65. 
Thomas E. Prickett, dis. Dec. 24, '64. 
.Toseph A. Davis, trans, to Y. R. C. 
.lohn Pinkerton, trans, to V. R. C. 
Edmund M. Stevenson, trans, to V. R. C. 
John Clements, died .June 22, '63, of wounds. 
Jonas M. Roe, died Aug. 7, '64, of wounds. 
Henry Helms. 

Robert .1. Thompson, musician, disch. June 4, '65. 
Israel J. Conklin, musician, trans, to Y. R. C. 
John Bird, wagoner, disch. June 4, '65. 

Privates. 
Elias Abrams, Feb. 23, '65, disch. .\ug. 3, '65. 
John Antonia, April 6, '65. 
Benj. Anthony, disch. Feb. 19, '63. 
Jacob Asay, trans, to Y. R. C. 
George Anderson, killed July 3, '63. 
Thomas Barrett, Aug. 15, '64. 
John Beggs, April 5, 't)4. 
Wm. Byrnes, April 6, '65. 
Peter T. Brewer, trans, to Y. R. C. 
Lysander H. Banks, died Feb. 21, '63. 
Martin Blake, .\ug. 5, '62. 

David Campbell, July 27, '64, discli. Aug. 3, '65. 
George C. Carlyle, April 7, '65. 
Charles Clark, March 31, '65. 
James Cunningham, Feb. 23, '65. 
Matthew Cavanagh, disch. .Jan. 13, '64. 
Thomas Calvert, trans, to Y. R. C. 
.Tames P. Campbell, trans, to Co. F. 
John Q. A. Clinc, killed May S, '63. 
Charles F. Collett, killed May 8. '63. 
John C. Conley,died June 12, '64, of wounds. 



THE WAK FOR THE UNION. 



139 



Isaac H. Copeland, killed July 3, '68. 
Alexander Drew, Feb. 23, 'G5. 
Ezra Drew, Feb. 23, 'Gn. 
Albert Davis, disch. Feb. 17, 'M- 
Enoch H. Duffield, disch. Dec. 30, 'G2. 
Samuel C. Elbertsou, disch. March 9, '<(3. 
Lucius Q. C. Elmer, tran.s. to V. R. U. 
John Farrington, disch. Aug. 1, '65. 
Samuel Fleet, trans, to V. R. C. 
Rudolph Frick, April 4, '65. 
Aaron Garwood, disch. June 12, '65. 
John Geier, April 4, '64. 

Frank Gibson, April 5, '65, disch. July 17, '65. 
Robert Gordon, disch. June 4, '65. 
Thomas J. Gordon, disch. July 28, '65. 
Michael Griner, disch. July 8, '63. 
Alexander Gale, trans, to V. R. C. 
John Gorman, trans, to V. R. C. 
David Gordon, died Jan. 23, '63. 
Wm. H. Haight, Feb. 23, '65. 
Charles Hannahs, April 5, '65. 
Edward P. Harris, disch. June 4, '65. 
Wm. Harrison, April 6, '65. 
Jacob Hartman, April 7, '65. 
Aulson Heaton, April 7, '65. 
Anthony Heft'ner, April 7, '65. 
Albert Heitz, April 3, '65. 
Jacob Henkel, April 7, '65. 
James Hopper, Feb. 23. '65. 
Daniel H. Horner, disch. June 4, '65. 
Benj. Hackney, disch. Feb. 17, '63. 
Jacob Hinchman, disch. Oct. 22, '63. 
Francis Haggerty, trans, to V. R. C. 
Ira C. Hall, trans, to V. R. C. 
Joseph Haynes, trans, to V. R. C. 
Wm. S. Hineline, trans, to V. R. O. 
Josiah C. Hughes, trans, to V. R. C. 
David H. Horner, died June 4, '63, of wounds- 
Samuel C. Hultz. killed May 3, '63. 
John Ipser, April 5, '65. 
Alexander Jervis, died Dec. 20, '63. 
John Kilikus, Feb. 28, '65. 
Wm. Korbel, April 7, '65. 
Charles Kuntzman, March 31, '65. 
Emil Lack, April 7, '65. 
John Lack, April 7, '65. 
George Lutz, April 6, '65. 
James K. P. Latt'erty, trans, to V. R. C 
Charles H. Leeds, trans, to V. R. C. 
Anthony Macel, April 4, '65. 
Frederick Martin, April 4, '65. 
Francis McBride, Feb. 23, '65. 
Augustus Mitchell, Feb. 27, '66. 
Benjamin Mullica, disch. June 4, '65. 
Patrick Murray, Feb. 28, '65. 



Nathaniel Morton, disch. Feb. 28, '63. 

Augustus Munter, disch. Nov. 26, '63. 

John McKeon, killed May 3, '63. 

Enoch F. Mills, died June 14, '64, of wounds. 

Robert Newsome, April 3, '65. 

Helondeus Nonn, April 5, '65. 

William Nagle, died Dec. 5, 64. 

Deitrick Panzie, April 4, '65, disch. June 13, '65. 

Henry Peirce, disch. June 4, '65. 

James B. Peirson, disch. June 4, '65. 

Frederick Pechmiuin, Jr., trans- to Sig- Corps. 

Porteus Pepoon, killed May 12, '64. 

Obadiah Reed, April 6, '65. 

Fidelias Reich, April 6, '(i5. 

Ira B- Ridgway, April 5, '65. 

John Reed, disch. Feb. 16, '65 

George Riggs, disch. Nov. 7, '63. 

Edward Rodgers, trans, to V. R- C- 

James A. Riley, killed July 2, '63. 

Dennis Ryan, killed May 3, '63. 

BernhardtSchniidt, April 7, '65- 

John Schubert, April 1, '65. 

Henry Sehnltr, April 7, "65. 

Charles F. Senix, pro. q.ni.-sergt. Aug. 30, '64. 

James Shaft'er, April 5, '65. 

George Simpkins, April 5, '65. 

Joseph L. Simons, disch. May 18, '65- 

Wra. H. Smith, disch. July 26, '65. 

David M. Southard, disch. June 15, '65. 

Peter Spies, April 6, '65. 

Frederick Staatz, April 7, '65. 

George Skirm, trans, to V. R. C- 

Seth C. Southard, trans, to V. R. C. 

Wm. H. Shaffer, Nov. 20, '63, killed May 12, '64. 

Samuel K. Sooy, died Sept. 15, '63. 

Stephen B. Sooy, died Sept. 12, '62. 

William H. Stockton, killed March 25, '65. 

Isaac A. Taylor, (lis. June 4, '65. 

Amzi Teachman, Feb. 22, '65. 

William Tompson, April 6, '65. 

Andrew H. Tomlin, April 7, '65. 

William Tozer, dis. June 4, '65. 

Casimer Trechler, April 3, '65. 

Charles S. Tindall, killed May 6, '64. 

John Thompson, April 11, '64. 

J. Van Volkenburgh, Feb. 23, '65, dis. May 20, '65. 

William Walker, April 6, '65. 

Matthew Wallace, Feb. 22, '65. 

John Webber, April 7, '65. 

John Weitner, March 29, '65. 

John Welsh, April 7, '65. 

John Westcrmayer, April 6, '65. 

George Wilhelm, April 7, "65. 

Azel Williams, Feb. 27, '65. 

Frank Williams, April 1, '65. 



140 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Lawreuce Williams, April 6, '65. 

John Wallace, Feb. 19, '64, died. Nov. 24, '64. 

Thomas J. Williams, killed in action May 3, '63, 

William J. Wood, died June 20, '64. 

Henry C. Yeager, April 4, '65. 

Isaac Young, Feb. 27, '65. 

Captain Charles K. Horsfall. — 
About the period of the Revolution an 
English famih' named Horsfall came to thi.s 
country, and settled in Monmouth Couuty, 
JN. .]. There were two brothers, belonging 
to the better class of English farmers, and 
they purchased land ou their arrival. From 
these pioneers sprung Johu and Richard 
Horsfall, who were born in Monmouth 
County. John was married to Sarah Tim- 
mons, of Monmonth. They had three chil- 
dren, — Jacob and Isaac (twins), and John. 
Richard married a Smith and removed to 
Cream Ridge, N. J. They had three chil- 
dren. 

Johu, the father of Caj)tain Horsfall, 
moved to Burlington County before he was 
of age, and became a merchant in Borden- 
town. About 1851 he took up his residence 
in Camden, where he has followed the busi- 
ness of general merchandising. In 18.')6 he 
was married to Hannah E., daughter of 
Charles and Ann Kemble, of Bordeutown, 
by whom he had four children, — Charles K., 
who was married to Amy W., daughter of 
William and Mary Brooks, of Medford, 
N. J. ; Hannah Ann T., who died, aged two 
years ; Theodore F., (deceased), who was 
married to Anna Wells, of Camden; and 
Alethia C, who is married to James B. 
Lewis, formerly of Burlington County, now 
living in Camdeu. They had three children, 
— Etta H. and Charles H. (deceased), and 
Jennie B. 

Captain ('harlos K. Horsfall was born in 
Burlington County December 31, 1836. He 
was one of those heroic spirits who entered 
into the service of his country from pure 
patriotism. Before the war he was a mem- 
ber of " Camden Light Artillery " and rose 



to be one of its officers. He was fond of 
military life, and when the Civil War opened 
raised Company E, of Twelfth New Jersey 
Volunteer Infantry. He servetl with it 
in all the hard duty which the Army of the 
Potomac was called upon to perform up to 
Getty.sburg. He distinguished himself at 
Chancellorsville, and on the 2d of July, 
1863, at (xettysburg. A detachment of 
Twelfth New Jersey and Fourteenth Con- 
necticut were ordered to dislodge a body of 
Confederate sharpshooters concealed in a 
barn. He bravely led his men and was shot 
through the head, falling dead within the 
rebel lines. His body was buried on the 
field for two weeks, when it was removed to 
its present resting-place, Evei'green Cemetery, 
in this city. His los.s was deeply mourned by 
his regiment, for he was a brave soldier, 
exemplary citizen and thorough Christian. 
His mother pas.sed to rest June 11, 1886. 

COMPANY G, TWELFTH REGIMENT NEW JEKSEY 
VOLUNTEERS (THREE YEARS'), OF CAMDEN. 

[Tbiw cumjiaiiy was mustered in September 4, 186*.;, aud mustered 
out June 4, 1865, unless otherwise stated.] 

C'aptain^. 
Samuel H. Jobes, res. Jan. 24, '64. 
William E. Potter, biev.-maj. May 1, '65. 

First Lieutenants. 
James T. Lowe, died of wounds Oct. 30, '63. 
F. M. Riley, Apr. 25, '64, pr. capt. Co. F Jan. 30,'65. 
James P. William, Feb. 22, '65. 
Robert B. Kates, July 5, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

Second Lieutenant. 
Charles E. Troutman, res. Feb. 4, '64. 

J-'irst Sergeant. 
Jeremiah Casto. 

Seryeants. 
Joseph Blake. 
Arthur Stanley. 
William H. Rogers. 
John Hall. 

Charles Fosker, April 5, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 
Charles Hulbert, Oct. 3, '64, dis. July 15, '65. 
Isaac L. Wood, dis. Oct. 14, '63. 
Edw. L. Thornton, dis. April 2, '63. 
Joshua D. Fithian, dis. Dec. 11, '63. 
Hiram Smith, dis. May 10, '64. 
Henry Fenton, trans, to U. S. Navy. 




^•<>-^^>X^^v--<'^ 




^'^fC^^/a/6 



THE WAR FOR THK UNION. 



141 



Corp(yrals. 
Theodore Brick. 
Amos Frampea. 
Isaiah Groft'. 
George VVoodrow. 
Edward L. Briok. 
Jesse Peterson. 

David H. Eldridge, dis. July 31, '65. 
George Johnson, April 4, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 
Theodore Hildel)rand, Ajiril 5,j'65, dis. July 15, '65. 
Frank Myers, April 3, '(i5, dis. July 15, '65. 
William H. Howe, dis. Jan. 26, '63. 
Charles Mayhew, trans, to V. R. C. 
Franklin Bates, trans, to V. R. C 
William W. Collins, killed June 3, '64. 
Howard Turner, musician. 
Richard Cheeseman, musician. 

Privales. 
Samuel E. Barker. 

John Blackburn, April 5, '65, dis. ,luly 15, 't)5. 
Florence Bleyler. 

Andrew Bramble, April 5, '(i5, dis. .July 15, W'l. 
Augustus Brant, April 4, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 
Robert R. Burk. 
Edward V. Byerly. 
James Cain, April 8, '65. 
William R. Carter, dis. Dec. 11, '63. 
John B. Carey. 

John Conley, killed July 2, '63. 
Newton B. Cook, died April 6, '63. 
Joseph Cooper, April 8, '65. 
Hiram Cramer, killed May 3, '63. 
Thomas H. Conover, dis. June 2, '65. 
John Corbet, April 5, '65, dis. June 15, '65. 
Andrew Cridline, Aug. 26, '64, dis. July 18, '65. 
John Crowley, dis. May 30, '63. 
John J. Dall. 

Levi M. Decatur, Aug. 26, '64, dis. July 18, '65. 
Edward De Parpart, Aug. 18, '64, dis. July 15, '65. 
James P. Demarris, dis. Mar 25, '63. 
Henry C. Derrickson, died June 20, '64. 
John H. Dill, trans, to V. R. C. 
Jacob S. Dill, died of wounds May 15, '63. 
William E. Downam, dis. July 14, 65. 
Gustav Eisle, dis. July 15, '65. 
Lewis S. Elmer, killed May 3, '63. 
Daniel Everingham. 
John Fagan, April 7, '65. 
William Fee, April 3, '65, died July 15, '65. 
John Fernandos, April 5, '64, dis. July 15, '65. 
John Ferrell, April 8, '65, dis. June 28, '65. 
Lawrence Flood, April 5, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 
Thomas Flynn, April 4, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 
Alfred B. Fortiner, dis. July 31, '65. 
Benj. F. Gladden, dis- June 21, '65. 



William Y. Qladney, dis. March 12, '63. 

Samuel Godfrey, March 24, '65. 

Carl Gremm. 

Richard Groff, died March 29, '63. 

John Griffin, April 5, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

Geo. W. Hardwick, April 3, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

Thomas M. Harrison, dis. June 28, '65. 

James Hayes. April 3, '65, dis. June 15, '65. 

Fred. Heil, Oct. 7, '64, dis. July 15, '65. 

Christian Hesse, Oct. 10, '64, dis. July 15, '65. 

William H. Henderson, dis. June 5, '63. 

William Herring, died May 20, '64. 

William H. Hillman. 

John Horen, April 4, '65. 

Samuel M. Horner, dis. July 1, '65. 

Oscar Hoffman, April 5, '65, dis, July 15, '65. 

Michael Holden", April 7, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

Benjamin Hood. 

Joseph T. Higginson, dis. Oct. 19, '63. 

Theodore Hughes, April 3, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

Charles D. Husbands, dis. for wounds Oct. 13, '6a. 

Felix lufelder, Feb. 28, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

Joseph Inman, dis. March 17, '63. 

John Jaggard, dis. July 10, '65. 

James Johnson, April 3, '65. 

Thomas Joice, April 4, '65, dis. July 15, '65, 

Paul .Tones. 

Adam Jordon. 

Charles Keller, April 4, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

John Kerrigan, April 5, '65. 

Charles Kinge, April 6, '65. 

Charles Laman. 

John H. Lamar, dis. July 21, '61. 

Lorenzo S. Land, killed in action June 3, '64. 

Walter Lindsay. 

Charles E. Madara. 

George R. Marter, killed in action May 3, '63. 

Joseph Marner. 

Donald McDonald, April 3,'»;5, dis. July 15, '65. 

Daniel P. McHenry. 

Henry M. Mcllvaine, dis. for wounds May 5, '64. 

Timothy McMahon, April 5, '65. 

Bernard McManus, April 4, '65. 

James Mercer, April 4, '65, dis. ,Tuly 15, '65. 

Thomas R. Middleton, killed in action July 2, '63. 

Francis Mills, killed in action May 3, '64. 

Josiah K. Moore, dis. July 1, '65. 

William Murphy, April 1, '65, dis. July 5, '65. 

John O'Brien, trans, to V. R. C. 

James O'Connor, Nov. 30, '63, dis. July 15, '65. 

John O'Niel, April 5, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

James O'Niel, April 5, '(55. 

Adolph Olsen, April 3, '65. dis. July 15, '65. 

Richard Palmer, Aug. 12, '64, dis. July 15, '6b. 

Aaron Parker. 



142 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Nathan Parker, dis. July 6, '<55. 

Edward H. Pancoiist, dis. April 5, '65. 

John Perry, April 4, 'd'), dis. July 15, '65. 

Peter L. Perry, Feb. IG, 'tiS, dis. July 15, '65. 

Joseph Phalon, April 7, '65, dis. June 14, '65. 

Richard F. Plum, trans, to V. R. C. 

William Potter, April 4, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

Isaac Randolph. 

Michael Reynolds, April 8, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

Walter A. Rink, Aug. 31, '64, dis. June 23, '65. 

Henry H. Richmond, died Jan. 13, '63. 

Richard Roberaon. April 4, '65. 

Martin Roche, April 5, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

John Ross, April 4, '65, dis. June 28, '65. 

Matthew Russell, April 5, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

James Ryan. 

Joseph Satterley, April 3, '65. 

Charles Schaffer, April 5, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

John L. Severns, dis. June 30, '65. 

John Shey, April 5, '65, dis. July 15,' 65. 

Robert Ct. Sheppard, died April 13, '63. 

William B. Skill, killed in action July 3, '63. 

Frank Smith, Sept. 28, '64, dis. July 15, '65. 

John Smith, Sept. 28, '64, dis. July 15, '65. 

Joseph H. Smith, dis. Nov. 22, "64. 

J. William Smith, July 29, '62, dis March 19, '61. 

Henry Smith, April 5, 'ti'). 

Nicholas Smith, April 8, '65. 

John J. Sneden, April 4, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

Samuel E. Somers, died Feb. 11. '64, of wounds. 

George H. Snyder, dis. Feb. 7, '68. 

James Stanley. 

Jacob C. Stokes. 

Abram J. Stoll, June 26, '62, dis. July 15, '65. 

Jacob R. Stow, died April 13, '63. 

William H. Tatem, dis. June 29, '65. 

Robert Thurston, April 3, '65. 

Joseph J. Thompson, di.s. July 18, '65. 

Morris Tondrof. 

Charles P. Van Hart, dis. June 28, '65. 

Eli Watson, died of wounds June 19, '65. 

Joseph Wanner. 

James M. Wilkins, dis. June 29, '65. 

James William.s, Ajjril 4, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

William J. Williams, April 5, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

Charles Wilson, April 4, '65, dis. July 15, '65. 

James Wilson, April 4, '65, dis. July 16, '65. 

COMl'.iNY I, TWELFTH REtilMKNT NEW JERSEY 
VOLUNTEER.S. 

[This (!i)iiipaiiy wati Diimtered in September 4, lHt32, uml iiiu^tered 
out July 1ft, 18or», unless otherwise stated. | 

( '(rptaiuK. 
Henry 1". (.'hew, pro. niaj. July 2, '64. 
Charles P. Brown, Feb. 22, 'iio ; dis. June 4, '65. 



First Lieutenants. 
Frank M. Acton, pro. capt. Co. F Dec. 12, '63. 
Edw. M. Dubois, Apr. 25, '64; bvt. capt. July 6, '64. 
Charles F. Sickler, Feb. 22, '65 ; dis. June 4, '65. 

Sfcotid Lieuieiiimts. 
Theodore F. Null, disch. April 1, '64. 
Eli K. Ale, Feb. 22, '65 ; disch. June 4, '65. 
Watson P. Tattle, Feb. 28, '65. 

First Sergeants. 
George A. Bowen, pro. 1st It. Co. C Apr. 11, '64. 
Matthew Coombs, disch. June 4, '65. 
Isaac N. Morton, trans, to V. R. C. 

Hergeantii. 
Benjamin S. Wood, disch. June 4, '65. 
Robert C. White, pro. sergt.-maj. Oct. 6, '64. 
J. Morgan Barnes, pro. to q.m.-sergt. Jan. 1, '65. 
Joseph Dielkes, disch. June 4, '65. 
Preston P. Merrion, disch. June 4, '65. 
Louis Warnecke, Oct. 5. '64. 
John J. Shaw, April, 3, '65. 
George Lucas, Nov. 13, '63. 
Thomas S. Champion, disch. June 16, '65. 
George P. Ogden, trans, to V. R. C. 
George R. Burroughs, died June 23, '64, of wounds. 
Asa W. Tash, died May 6, '64, 
Charles H. Wilson, June 9, '64. 

Corporah. 
James P. Stanton, disch. June 4, '65. 
Tlieophilus B. Halter, disch. June 4, '65. 
Alexander Brown, disch. June 4, '65. 
Samuel Reall, disch. June 4, '(io. 
William Parsons, disch. June 4, '65. 
Lewis McPherson, disch. June 4, '65. 
Firman Lloyd, Jr., disch. Juue 30, '6^>. 
William R. Williams, disch. June 4, '6^>. 
William Renchler, July 26, '64. 
Ebeuezer Kennedy, Aug. 17, 63. 
Daniel McDevitt, July 25, '64. 
Theodore Beyer, Oct. 4, '64; disch. July 18, '65. 
Frederick Ditraan, Oct. 11, '(i4. 
Isaac Fox, killed in action June 17, '64. 
Lewis F. Simms, killed in action May 3, '63. 
Daniel A. Hancock, died May 22, '64, of wounds. 
John H. Barklow, died July 16, '64. 
Ale S. Kidd, died May 15, '64, of wounds. 
Albert S. Wood, died Dec. 1, '64. 
Edward Bradway, musician, disch. June 4, '65. 
Lewis S. Kemfer, wagoner, disch. June 4, '65. 

1'rivate.i. 
Henry Ackley, July 20, '64. 

William H. Archer, Feb. 23, '65; dis. June 23, '65. 
William H. Allen, trans, to V. R. C. 
J. Anderson, Oct. 14, '64; tr. from Co. D, lUhRegt. 
Joseph A. Ayers, trans, to V. R. C. 



THE WAE FOR THE UNION. 



143 



Jacob Adams, died May 24, 'H4, of wounds. 

Henry Barth, Oct. 3, '(U. 

.Fohn J. Berry,. June 1, Ii4. 

.Fames Bond, Oct. 14, '(i4. 

Edward Brannen, Sept. (i, 'G4 : dis. .Tune 4, '6.5. 

.1. C. Brill, Apr. 7, '(>■"); pni. cora.-sergt, June .i, ti.i. 

Christian Brodbacker, April 27, 'ti4. 

treorge Brown, April 4, '65. 

Henry Brown, Feb. 22, '65. 

William Brown, .lune 11, '64. 

Oeorge Budcsheim. Oct. :'i, '64. 

William Burcli, Oct. 11, '64. 

William Bader, Mar. 2.5, '64; dis.-h. Nov. 19, '64. 

Melchoir Breitel, dLsch. Mar. 28, '64. 

John P. Bennett, trans, to IT. S. Navy. 

.lacob Biddle, trans, to V. R. C. 

Gilbert Bishop, died Feb. 3, '64. 

Nicholas Code, Feb. 27, '65. 

James Connelly, July 14, '64 ; disch. May 22, '6.5. 

Daniel Cowell. July 6, "64. 

.Tohn Champion, disch. Mar. 16, '63. 

Clement Colgan, disch. Dec. 31, 62. 

Christopher Cooker, disch. Mar. 9, '65. 

James M. Cook, Jan. 26, '65 ; trans, to Co, F. 

Jesse D. Crittafield, July 14, '64; trans, to Co. D, 

John V. Champion, died Oct. 11, '63. 

William J. Clark, died Mar. 24, '63, 

Charles Davis, Oct. 10, '64. 

Samuel Dickeson, disch, .June 4, '65, 

Alexander Ditzell, July IS, '64, 

Peter Doyle, July 26, '64. 

Anton Dyckotr, Oct. 5, '64. 

Claude De Erraan, July IS, '64; trans, to Co, D, 

William Dolby, July 20, '64; trans, to Co, D, 

.August Dugue, July 15, '64 ; trans, to Co. D. 

William Daniels, killed in action May 3, "63. 

David Dickeson, killed in action May 6, '64. 

John W. Dubois, died Sept. 22, '62. 

John Donahue, Feb. 27, '65, 

, lames Donnelly, July 3, '65. 

John Ell, Aug. 17, '64. 

Edward R. Emmel, disch. Dec. 10, '63, 

.lames Edwards, trans, to V. R. C, 

Edward P^llis, July 18, '64; trans, to Co. D. 

Joseph R. Edwaris, killed in action .lune 3, '64, 

George W. Fenu, July 18, '64. 

Joseph S. Fithian, disch. June 4, '65. 

Philip Flood, .Tune 16. '64. 

Michael Foster, April 5, '65 

Charles C. Fithian, disch, Dec. 15, '63. 

Richard V, Fithian, trans, to V, R, C. 

David Fonseca, April 4, '65. 

George W^. Goodwin, disch. .lune 4, '65. 

Samuel L. Gregg, June 13, '64. 

Charles Gootman, Mar. 24, '64 ; trans, to V, R. C. 



Frank E. Gaudy, died Mar. 19, '63. 

John (4erstle, died Mar. 13, '63. 

Charles Harr, Sept. 9, '64 ; disch. .Tune 4, '65. 

(leorge Hammer, April 5, '65, 

William T. F. Harewood, July 25, '64. 

.Tames Hart, Aug. 10, '64. 

.lohn Haverstick, disch. .lune 5, '65. 

(ieorge Hedden, Feb. 23, '65; disch. July 15, '65. 

.Tames Hemphill, disch. June 4, '65. 

Paul Herebschle, Sept. 6, '64; disch. June 4, '65. 

.lohn .T. Hoffman, disch. July 15, '65, 

.Tosiah Holton, disch, June 4, '65. 

.Tames Horner, disch. June 4, '65. 

Ezra Hutchins, Feb. 23, '65. 

Philip Hickman, trans, to V. R. C, 

George W. Homan, trans, to V, R, C, 

Thomas .Tackson, Aug. 13, '64. 

Richard Jellinghaus, Oct. 5, '64, 

.Tames M. .Tones, disch. Apr. 10, '63. 

Joseph L, Jacobs, trans, to V, R. C. 

George W, Jester, trans, to V. R. C. 

Thomas D. Kane, disch. .Tune 4, '65. 

Emmett M. King, di.sch. June 4, '65. 

tJeurge Kofl", Apr. 5, "65. 

Daniel Krebs, Apr. 6, '65. 

Moyer Kuhn, Mar. 25, '64; disch, Jan. 9, '65. 

Patrick Keegan, Apr. (i, '65, 

Ludwig Ivichtenl'ells, July 13, '64, 

Charles LoUamand, Oct, 5, '64, 

Ijcmuel D. Loper, died May 3, '63. 

.Toseph Lower, Apr. 2, '64. 

Ephraim Mack, Oct. 8, '64. 

Joseph F. Martin, July 15, '64. 

James McDonald, July 30, '64. 

Edward McLaughlin, Apr. 6, '65. 

Henry Merkell, Apr. 4, '65. 

Andrew Merkert, Oct. 4, '64. 

Charles Miller, disch. June 4, '65. 

Albrecht Mohr, Oct. 11, "64. 

Joseph Murphy, disch. June 4, '65. 

James McAuliti', disch. Dec, 16, '1)3. 

Charles McNeer, June 2, '64; disch. May 2, '65. 

John P. Miller, disch. Apr. 28, '65. 

Samuel Mattson, killed June 4, '64. 

John Miller, died June 22, '64, of wounds. 

Michael G. Morton, killed June 3, '64. 

Thomas J. Mattson. 

William Munnion. 

John W. Niblick, trans, to V. R. C. 

John P. Newkirk, died Apr. 10, '64. 

Frederick Pauli, Apr. 7, '65. 

John Peterson, July 16, '64. 

James Pierce, trans, to V. R. ( '. 

Abraham Pressman, July 20, '64; trans, to Co. H. 

James Privet, trans, to V. R, C, 



144 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY. NEW JERSEY. 



Peter Powell, July IS, 114; diefl Oct. 1, 'M. 

David Roaan, Oct. 4, '64. 

Thomas Ruth, Oct. 4, '64. 

.John Richardson, July 20, '64; disch. Nov. 8, '64. 

August Rien, Aug. 6, '64. 

Benjamin Sailor, .\ug. 1, '64. 

George Sailor, disch. June 4, '65. 

Charles Scheffler, disch. June 4, '65. 

Frederick Schmidt, Oct. 5, '64. 

John Schneider, Oct. 6, '64. 

Augustus Schogau, July it, '62. 

George Schoonover, Feb. 25, '65. 

Joseph Shuss, Oct. 4, '64. 

.lohn Simeson, disch. June 4, '65. 

William Sloan, disch. June 4, '65. 

.lames Sullivan, disch. May 15, '65. 

Francis Sweeney, .June 14, '64; disch. .June 12, '65. 

David Simpkins, disch. Dec. 24, '63. 

Peter Sharp, trans, to V. R. C. 

John L. Sharp, died Apr. 20, '63. 

.John Smith, Oct. 11, '64 ; died Nov. 1 1 , '64, wounds. 

John Smith, Oct. 11, '64. 

William Stone, Apr. 6, '65. 

Elijah B. Thomas, died June 4, '65. 

Jacob Trunck, Feb. 28, '65. 

Amos Tompkins, disch. May 29, '65. 

.Tames Turner, disch. .July 13, '63. 

.Fonathan Tiramerman, died Apr. 4, '63. 

Robert IJbbrell, Sept. 17, '64; disch. June 4, '65. 

Adam Urban, disch. .fune 4, '65. 

.Tohn Urban, disch. May 25, '65. 

.Fames R. Vannote, Oct. 8, '64. 

Benjamin R. Vincent, trans, to V. R. V. 

Englehart Weimer, Sept. 1, '64. 

John Weimer, July 30, '64. 

Clement C. White, disch. .June 4, '65. 

.rohn White, Sept. 1, '64. 

.Fohn Williams, Oct. 8, '64. 

Franz Wirobisch, June 13, '64. 

.luhii VVohlicher, Oct. 6, '64; disch, June 20, '65. 

.Fose])h VV^ork, trans, to V. R. C 

.lames B. Wood, died Dec. 20, '64. 

.Foel Wood, killed May 3, '63. 

.John Winter, June 16, '64. 

Wm. Youngblood, July 27, '64; disch. .luly 18, '65. 

rvIKnTENANT-COLONEI- HeNKY F. ChEW 

is the grandson of Jes.'ie and Mary Cliew, of 
Gloucester County, N. J., and tli<^ son of 
.lo.seph R. and Maria Chew, of Salem ( 'ouuty, 
ill the same State. He was born in the town- 
shi]» of Mannington, Salem County, on the 
8th of December, 1837, and educ^itcd at tlie 
Friends schools in the town of Saleni, after 



which he learned the trade of a wheelwright 
under his father's direction. Thus engaged 
at the outbreak of the war, in 1861, he enter- 
ed the service with the three months' soldiers 
as lieutenant in the Fourth Regiment New 
Jersey Volunteers. At the expiration of his 
time of .service he became captain of Cora- 
panj- I, Ninth Regiment New Jersey Volun- 
teers, and resigned March 9, 1 862, on account 
of sickness. 

Re-entering the service, he was made captain 
of Company I, Twelfth Regiment New 
Jersey Volunteers, and received, in July, 
1 864, promotion to the rank of major of the 
regiment. In March, 1865, he was made 
lieutenant-colonel, and commanded the regi- 
ment from August 25, 1864, until it was 
mu.stered out of service, on the 4th of June, 
1 8()5. Colonel Chew participated in many en- 
gagements, of which the following are the more 
important : Roanoke Island, Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, Prilling Waters, Auburn Mills, 
Bristow Station, Blackburn's Ford, Robinson's 
Tavern, Mine Run, Morton's Ford, Wilder- 
ness (in which he was wounded), Petersburg, 
Deep Bottom, Mine Explosion, north bank 
of James River, Ream's Station, Fort Sedg- 
wick, Hatcher's Run (first and .second), Boyd- 
ton Plank-Road, Hatcher's Run (second and 
third), Dabney's Mill, Capture of Petersburg, 
Sailor's Creek, High Bridge, Farmville and 
Lee's Surrender. On retiring from the 
service Colonel Chew began the study o( 
dentistry, and in the fall of 1867 engaged 
in its practice, which he still continues. He 
was , in 1868, married to Mi.ss Marietta, 
daughter of James P. and Sarah Fogg, ot 
Salem, N. J. Their children are two 
daughters, Helen A. and Mary R. 

GETTYSRURf! Mo.xuMENT. — The monu- 
ment erected on the battle-field of Gettysburg 
by the society of the Twelfth Regiment was 
dedicated on May 26, 1886, on which occa- 
sion, among other exercises, Comrade Joseph 
Burroughs, president of the .society, gave an 
interesting sketch of its workings and a de- 



THE WAn FOR THE UNION. 



145 



scription i>f the moniiiiient itself, from wliieli 
the following acoount is condensed : 

" In the summer of 1882 a few of our coiurailcs 
visited this historic town and battle-field, and 
learned that the Gettysburg Memorial Association 
had come into possession of much of the ground 
occupied by the lines of the Union army in the 
principal engagements on the 2d and 3d of July, 
1863, and observed that some five or six tablets or 
monuments had been placed by regiments to indi- 
cate the positions held by them, as well as to 
honor their dead who there fell. 

" At the next annual meeting of the Reunion 
Society of the Twelfth Regiment New Jersey Vol- 
unteers, held at Woodbury February 22, 1883, a 
committee, consisting of Comrades Joseph Bur- 
roughs, Frank M. Acton and James S. Kiger, was 
appointed to consider the ex]iediency and cost of 
erecting a tablet or monument on the line formerly 
occupied by the regiment at the battle of Gettys- 
burg. At this meeting the date of the annual 
meeting of the Reunion Society was changed from 
February 22d to September 4th — the latter Iicing 
the date of our muster into the United States ser- 
vice — and a much more favorable season of the 
year for the purjwse. 

" At the annual meeting held at Woodstown 
Sei)tember 4, 1883, the committee reported in favor 
of the project and asked for instructions as to the 
amount that the Society would raise and expend 
in the work, .stated that the prices ranged from $10 
to $1000. 

" Nothing was done at this meeting, however, 
beyond the constituting of each member of the 
Society a committee of one to solicit subscriptions 
for the monument. 

" At the annual meeting held at Salem Sei)tem- 
ber 4, 1884, much enthusiasm was manifested by 
the comrades present, and a sufiicient amount had 
been subscribed to insure the success of the enter- 
prise. 

"The next step in the matter was the issuing of 
a circular by the committee, giving the object and 
soliciting of the remaining comrades who had not 
contributed. This was responded to very satisfac- 
torily, and on the 8th of March, 1885, the commit- 
tee met and ascertained that with the amount of 
cash in hand and pledged, a monument costing 
eight hundred dollars could be erected. A design 
was next adopted and proposals for the work in- 
vited, and on the 19th of May, 1885, a contract 
was entered into with Mr. Michael Reilly, of Cam- 
den, N. J., for the construction and erection upon 



this s)iot of the iiKHiuiiieiil lor the dedication of 
which you have beeJi invited here at this time. 

'"The work was finally completed in the autumn 
of 1885, but at too late a date for the dedicati(ni to 
take place that year, and the committee decided 
upon May 26, 1886. 

" The material of which the monument is con- 
structed is Richmond granite. Although not, per- 
haps, the most widely known, it has been thor- 
oughly tested by the United States government 
and found to be of fine grain, dense, impervious to 
the elements, and capable of sustaining the great- 
est weight. It is being used in the construction of 
the building to be occupied by the State, War and 
Navy Departments at Washington. 





THE (.TETfYbBURH MONUMENT. 

' ' The base is four feet eight inches square and two 
feet high, with sides rustic-dressed. The sub-base 
is three feet eight inches square and eighteen inches 
high, fine hammered, and lettered, ' 2d Brig. 2d 
Div. 2d Corps.' 

"The die is two feet eight inches square, by four 
feet ten inches in height, polished on the two faces 
fronting Round Top Avenue, and lettered as fol- 
lows : 

" On first face — 

" ' In memory of the men of the Twelfth Regi- 
ment New Jersey Infantry Volunteers, who fell 
upon this field July 2d and 3d, 1863, and who else- 
where died under the flag, this monument is dedi- 



146 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



cated by their surviving comrades as an exaui|)le 
to future generations.' 

" On the second face — 

" ' Buck and Ball, Calibre 69.' 

" ' This regiment made two separate charges on 
the Bliss barn and captured it.' 

" The letters are all sunken, to prevent abrasion 
and the vandalism of relic-hunters. 

"The capstone is three feet two inches square by 
two feet high, upon each face of which has been 
placed the badge of the Second Corps, the trefoil 
raised and polished. 

" It is surmounted by a pedestal, upon which is a 
representation of the missile so effectively used by 
the regiment in repelling the charge of the enemy 
— buck and ball. 

" The aggregate height of the monument is 
twelve feet six inches. The foundation was care- 
fully laid, and the stone has been set in the most 
substantial, careful and durable manner." 

After the conclusion of Comrade Bur- 
roughs' liistorical sketch, addresses were made 
by Captain F. M. Riley, ju'esideut of the 
association, an<l Colonel W. E. Potter, the 
latter bein^ the orator of the day. 

Nine Months Troops. — New Jersey 
sent eleven regiments into the field as lier 
response to the call of President liincoln on 
August 4, 1862, for three hundred thousand 
militia to serve for nine mouths, unless 
sooner discharged. They were numbered 
from the Twenty-first to the Thirty-first, 
both inclusive. In the Twenty-fourth Reg- 
iment, commanded by Colonel Frank 1j. 
Knight, of Camden, were three companies — 
D, E and I — which were raised in Camden 
County by voliuitary enlistment. The mus- 
ter-in took place at Beverly, September 1 6th, 
and arriving at Washington, October 1st, 
the regiment was placed in the provisional 
brigade of Casey's division. On December 
!)th it reached tlie Rappahainiock opjjositc 
Fredericksburg, and was transferred to Kim- 
ball's brigade, of French's division, Second 
Army Corps. In the assault of the 13th, 
raw troops as they were, they advanced 
nearer tlie Confederate defences than any 
other command except the Irisii regiments, 
and lost one hundred and sixty killed and 



wounded in their heroic attack. They held 
tlicir ground tenaciously until relieved, but 
even then were compelled to .seek refuge in 
and about the burning bnildings, where, pros- 
trate on tiie earth, tliey were expo.sed to the 
sliot and shell. Company D lost three 
killed and twelve wounded ; Company E, 
two killed and four wounded ; Company I, 
two killed and sixteen wounded. Caj)tainWar<l 
was .shot through the lungs, and Ca|)tain 
Shinn in the right eye. Lieutenant John O. 
Crowell was wounded in the arm, but (^on- 
tinned fighting until another bullet brought 
fleath to him. 

The regiment resumed camp, from wliicii 
it did not depart for four months. C)n 
Thursday, April 2, 1863, copies of the 
" Peace Resolutions" passed by the New 
Jersey Legislature were received in camji. 
and the men held a mass-meeting at which 
they were indignantly denounced. On May 
3d it was under fire at Chancellorsville, 
suffering a loss of about forty in killed, 
wounded and missing, and was mustered 
out at Beverly, June 29, 1863. 

The rank and file of the Camden com- 
panies of this regiment are here given : 

COMPANY D, TWENTY-FOURTH REGIMENT NEW 

.TERSEY VOLUNTEERS. 

IThifi company \YaB mustered in September 115,1862, aiul muBtered 

out June 29, 1863, unless otherwise stated.] 

Cnpfain. 
Aaron Ward, dis. May 31, '6;i. 

Fimf Lii'xfeitaiil. 
David W. Bartine, 
S'l'ond l.iejitenaiils. 
(ieo. D. Britton, resigned April 18, 't)8. 
Samuel H. Deal. 

First Seryeiiiit. 
Franklin T. Horman. 
Senjeiintii. 
(;oo|)cr Wiltsey. John Thornton. 

Joseph D. Bates. George H. Lawson. 

•lohn H. Smith. 
Cnrjmrah. 
Benjamin Dilkes. Samuel E. Clark. 

William (-arney. Alphonso T. Chew. 

Nathan R. Hammond. Samuel H. Morton.' 
Thonii's N. Zimmerman. Cornelius H. Strang.' 
> Discharged .January 7, lhi6;i. 
2 Hied December 22, 18G2. 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



147 



John Sinclair. 
George C. Rolirberg. 

I'r 
James ('. Abbott. 
William Abbott. 
Theodore Allen. 
John C Atkinson. 
Hiram I). Beckett. 
Andrew W. Berry. 
John Bischof. 
■Jonathan Brown. 
S. Kennard Bachelder. 
Abraham Camp. 
William H. Oarr. 
William H. (Jhew. 
Charle.s H. Cliflbrd. 
Frederick Denelsbeck. 
Charles F. Dilks.' 
Charles H. Davis. ' 
Henry B. Dickinson.' 
Dana L. Dunbar.* 
Charles Errickson.^ 
William H. Fowler. 
Antonio Fiebiger." 
Aaron C. Fowler." 
Jacob Giffins. 
William Giffins. 
Adolph Goetz. 
James Guice. 
Charles P. Gunning. 
William Haines. 
Thomas R. Hammond. 
Samuel Haywood. 
Adolph Heller. 
Benjamin Hoffman. 
John M. Holston. 
Hiram HuCsey. 
Martin V. Haines.' 
Jonathan R. Henry .^ 



Richard S. Lutz, mus. 
Mathias JM. Chew, mus 
ivatex. 
Abraham Jiuies. 
Jonas T. Jackson.'" 
Jesse King. 
Leonard Knorr. 
Charles W. Leeary. 
Samuel Leddou. 
Samuel Lonstreth. 
John Lee. 
William Mason. 
Henry Matchinskey. 
John McCarty. 
Alexander IMurray. 
Daniel Murphy." 
George McClernan.'-' 
John Prasch. 
John W. Peter.son. 
George Reckelcomb. 
John Reckelcomb. 
Shepherd Rossell. 
Ferdinand Saxe. 
Abraham L. Shan'. 
Sylvester Sharf. 
John Simkins. 
John Simpkins. 
George Salzgaher.'' 
James Stevenson." 
Benjamin Turner. 
Isaac Turner. 
James Turner. 
Robert W. Turner." 
John R. Walters. 
Uriah Wilson, 
.lobn F. Wolf. 
William J. Wolf. 
Theodore F. Worth.'" 
Andrew Welsh. 



' Discharged December 1.5, 1802. 

^ Died March Hi, 1863. 

» Died November 28, 186'2. 

< Died December 13, 1862. 

' Discharged April 12, 1863. 

« Discharged March 24, 1863. 

' Discharged February 25, 1863. 

" Discharged ,Iune 5, 1863. 

» Died December 13, 1862. 

'" Killed in action December 13, 1862. 

'' Discharged October 31, 1802. 

'■^ Killed iu action December 13. 1862. 

" Discharged May 21, 1863. 

'* Discharged April 8, 1863. 

'= Died June 9, 1863. 

16 Died December 13, 1862. 



Joiia.s Jackson and George IMcClellau, of 
tlii.s company, were killed in battle December 
13, 1862, and Theodore F. Worth is reported 
as havinir died on the same day. 



CDMP-VXY E, 



IMKNT NEW 



TWENTY-FOURTH 
.JERSEY VOLUNTEERS. 

[Tliis . utiipimy was mustered in Septenibor 16, 1802, hikI mustt 
out .lune ■29, 1.SC3, unless otherwise stated. | 

Captain. 

Augustus Sailer. 

Btrst Lifiitenaiit. 

Edward C. Cattell. 

Second Lieutenant. 

Charles W. Wilkius. 

Firsl Sergeants. 

Samuel A. I)eal.'= William N. Hewitt. 

Seri/eaiits. 
(reorge W. Bailey. Henry C. England. 

Nathan Paul. Isaac Cowgill. 

Corpn)'als. 



W. Tbackara Cozens 
Isaac L. Fowler. 
Robert W. Hughes. 
Clark R. Tomlin. 
Charles W. Clement. 
Benjamin F. Stetser. 



John B. Simmons." 
John Sinclair." 
John F. Gaskill.-^" 
Luke Reeves. 
Charles Farr.-' 
George F. Hannold." 
John L. Huff. 
Privates. 



Harrison T. Adams. 
William E. Atkinson. 
Charles H. Bacon. 
,Iohn H. Boody. 
John L. Baily.-^ 
Enos W. Bates.^* 
Joseph T. Bates.-^ 
George W. Cattell. 
Edward H. Cooper. 
Hanson S. Cooper. 
Charles Cowgill. 
Coleman Curran. 
Thomas P. Casperson.-' 
George Y. Davis. 
Richard D. Davis. 
William H. Dilks. 
Andrew Eisile. 



Arthur P. Ellis.-' 
John Gallagher. 
Charles G. Garrison. 
William Gold. 
Chester Green. 
Daniel S. Groff. 
Edward P. Hall. 
John W. Hannold. 
Amariah Hollis. 
Charles Hood. 
James H. Hughes. 
William C. Hurt.-" 
John H. Ireland. 
John L. Jordan." 
Richard Jones.'" 
Barclay D. Kelly. 
John Keller. 



"Pro. 2d lieut. Co. i) .\pril 14, '63. 

'8 Dlsch Feb. 6, '63. 

'»Disch. -Vpril 11, '63. 

■-" Disoh. Mar. 19, 'Ii3. 

2' Died Dec. 24, 62. 

"DiedDec. 26, '62. 

23Disch May 21, "63. 



■-■'Disch. March 3, '63. 
-5 Died ,\lai-ch9, '63. 
'"Disch. March 18, '63. 
-^ Died Dec. 13, '62. 
-'"Died Dec. 13, '62. 
=» Disch Jan. 7, '63. 



' Killed in action Dec. 13, '62. 



148 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Samuel L. P. Murphy. 
Isaiah Magee.' 
John Mapes.'- 
Joseph W. Miller.' 
Benjamin F. Murray.* 
Frederick P. Neil. 
Lawrence R. Nuss. 
George Owens. 
Samuel Paul. 
William Pettitt. 
Fithian Parker.* 
J. Alexander Packer.'' 
William Rambo. 
Henry Ramsey. 
William Randless. 
John Reed. 



William D. Sheets." 
William C. Sparks. 
Joseph T. String. 
Edward Tallman. 
Rufus C. Thomson. 
William L. Thomson. 
Joseph W. Tomlin. 
John W. Tonkin. 
John E. Touser. 
William T. Turpin. 
William B.Tusiiey. 
Martin H. Tanner." 
James H. Vanneman. 
Charles S. Warner. 
Charles Weiley. 
Aaron Wilkins. 



Corporals. 



William S. Richardson. William M. Woollard. 



Edward Russell. 
John W. Randless." 
Jeremiah J. Snethen. 
David H. Sparks. 
Charles W. Stevens. 



John Wood. 
John L. Wood. 
George W. Warner.'" 
Joseph C. D. Williams.' 
William Yerricks. 



The names of those of this company who 
were killed are Richard Jones, Alexander J. 
Packer, Jo.seph C. D. Williams and Luke 
Reeves, who lo.st their lives in the engage- 
ment at Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 
13, 1862. After, the expiration of the term of 
service most of tlie survivors re-enlisted and 
joined regiments in the three years service. 

COMPANY I, TWENTY-FOURTH REGIMENT NEW 
JERSEY VOLUNTEERS. 

[This company was mustered in September IG, 18(12, ami nmstert-d 
out. I line 29, 1863, unless otherwise stiitcii.J 

Captain. 

William C. Shinn. 

First Lieutctmiits. 

John O. Crowell,'- James L. Woodward." 

Second Lieutenant 

Henry S. Spaulding.'-' 

First Sergeant. 

Charles F. Fackler. 

Sergeants. 

Chaa H. Shinn, Jr. Joseph D. Wilson. 

Wm. W. Eiselc. Thomas Law. 

Emanuel M. Kirk. 



iDisch. Jau. 19, '(>?,. 
^Disoh. Mar. 26, '63. 
3Disch. Feb. 23, '63. 
*Disch. Jan. 14, '63. 
6 Died Dec. 13, '62. 
sKilled Dec. 13, '62. 



' Disch. Mar. 17, '63. 

sDiscli. Feb. 6, '63. 

9 Disch. Mar. 3, '63. 
'" Di.seh. Dec. 14, '62. 
11 Killed Dec. 13, '62. 
" Killed Dec. 13, '62. 



Robert C. Parviu, 
Chas. H. McAnney. 
Ransome Shoemaker. 
George J. Broadwater. 
Nathaniel O. Gandv. 



Edward L. Crowell. 
Joseph H. McAnney." 
James McClernand.'* 
Daniel Williams, mus. 
Daniel Osborne, mus. 



John W. Adams. 
Levi H. Atkinson. 
Isaac Collins Baker. 
Miles Bates. 
Samuel A. Bates. 
Harvey Beach. 
John L. Beckett. 
Henderson S. Biggs. 
James Biggs. 
Henry Brill. 
John H. Brockington. 
John R. Burroughs.'" 
Joseph H. Button.'' 
Howard Beebe.'^ 
William Chew, Jr. 
Ambrose P. Clark. 
Adrian Clunn. 
Joseph C. Comer. 
George Conly. 
Eli Craig. 
George Clark. 
Lawrence E. Cake.'" 
Wm. H. Chamberlain. 
Nathan Comer. 
Robert Dean. 
John W. Downs. 
Lamar M. Daniels.-' 
Nicholas S. Derringer. 
Abram C. Dilks. 
John Fetters. 
John Alexander Fish. 
Wm. Fowler. 
Jacob T. Fish.-' 
Wm. L. Galbraith. 
John Garrett. 
Thomas Gibbs. 
Henry Goldenberg. 



Privates. 

John George Gramme!. 
Wm. E. Hagerman, Jr. 
Joseph 1). Hendricksou. 
Henry H. Hughes. 
Wm. Sagers. 
Isaac P. Johnson, 
.lames C. Jones. 
Conrad Krautz. 
Samuel Lindsay. 
Richard B. Lippincott. 
Levi B. Marshall. 
John Marshall. 
Charles Miller. 
Paulen Nelson. 
Oliver Ogden. '-' 
Joshua P. Parker. 
Lewman H. Park hurst. 
John M. Plum. 
George Parks.'' 
Wm. B. Parks.-" 
Fvlijah Porch.'-' 
John Ridgeway. 
David Rile. 

Ephraim C. Richmond.^' 
George C. Saul. 
John W. Saul. 
Charles Scott. 
Peter S. Shivers. 
Israel Stiles. 
George J. Stewart. 
Christian L. Sharp.» 
Thomas E. Sharp.^" 
Philip G. Simpkins." 
Elvy Simpkins.^'^ 
Levi B. Tice. 
Samuel S. Tomlinson. 
Charles Trapper. 



" Mustered iu Jan. 15, '63. 



'< Disch. March 23, '63. 

'5 Died May 3, '63. 

"■Pro. q. m.-sergt. Sept. 20, '62. 

1' Disch. Feb. 2"), '63. 

'"Died Dec. 13, '62. 

19 Killed in action Dec. 13, '62. 

-•" Died April 19, '63. 

-' Died April 18, '63. 

■"Died Dec. 16, '62. 

"Disch. Jan. 29, '63. 



" Disch. Feb. 4, '63. 
=5 Disch. Dec. 31, '62. 
-« Disch. March 16. '63. 
■-'Disch. Jan. 4, '63. 
■^ Disch. May 4, '63. 
^9 Disch. Feb. 25, '63. 
■™ Disch. Feb. 16, '63. 
»' Disch. March 1, '63. 
»-' Died March 18, '68. 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



149 



Charles E. Tule. Samuel P. Wescoat. 

Isaac T. Vannenian. Eli Wilson. 

John F. Walker. Joseph R. Wescoat.' 
Jacob Weiss. 

Of this company, First Ijieutenant John O. 
Crowell and Private Lawrence E. Cake were 
liilled in the battle of Fredericksburg, De- 
cember 13, 1862. 

Company H, Twenty-eighth Regi- 
ment. — The only other organization of nine 
months troops from Camden County was 
Company H, of the Twenty-eighth Regiment, 
which was mustered in September 22, 18<)2, 
and left Freehold October 2d for Washing- 
ton. It was brigaded with the Twenty-fourth 
Regiment, and had about the same experience 
as that command at the battle of Fredericks- 
burg. Its killed were fourteen ; wounded, 
one hundred and forty-seven ; and missing, 
twenty-nine. After its participation in the 
battle of Chancellorsville it was marched 
back to camp at Falmouth, and on July 6 
18();3, was mustered out. 

COMPANY H, TWENTY-EIGHTH REIilMENT NEW 

JERSEY VOLUNTEER.S. 

[Thi3 company was mustered in September '12, I8()2, and ujuatereii 

out July 6, 1863, unless otherwise stated.] 

Cajiiaiii. 
Manly S. Peacock.^ 

First Lieutenant. 

Benjamin C. Rulon. 

Second Lieutenant. 

John T. Smith. 

Fint Sergeant. 

Charles H. Rogers. 

Sergeants. 

William C. Fees. 
Thomas E. Clarke." 
David H. Westcoat.* 
Corporal.-). 

Henry Day. 
Joseph S. Pike. 
George W. Bittle. 
James Sinclair.' 



John Cleavenger. 
John W. Moore. 
Richard Richards 



Cornelius C. Pease. 
Josiah E. Giberson. 
Robert Smith. 
James H. Townsend 
William H. Agins. 



Musicians. 
Richard E. Elwell. William H. Dilka. 

Wagoner. 
Edward M. Kelhim. 

Prirates. 
Christian Apple. Joshua J. Livzey. 

John Bates. Franklin Vj. Lloyd. 

Henry C. Beebe. William Leslie." 

William Bennett. Thomas Macunn. 

(teorge Brill. William Marshall. 

Joseph Buzby. Henry McCully. 

Richard Buzby. Samuel L. Miller. 

Isaac Bosure." .lohn L. Morey." 

David Bates.' David Newman. 

Joseph Cane. David II. Nichols. 

William P. Carr. James Parker. 

David L. Carter. Santuel H. Parker. 

James L. Casto. John E. Pike. 

Thomas E. Combes. Joseph J. Pike. 

Alexander Cooke. Henry Parker. 

Charles Clements." James Ripley. 

Edward Dixon. John D. Rodgers. 

Thomas L. Dixon. William B. Ross. 

William Dolan. William Robinson." 

•fohn W. Darnell.'' Benjamin S. Ross.-" 

William W. Dill.'" Richard Seely. 

Louis EngarJ. George Shaw. 

Andrew Elberson." .lohn Sinclair, Jr. 

George Fish. Charles Seymour." 

Charles J. Fees.'- Benjamin Simpkins." 

Charles Fowler.'^ Samuel Simpkins.'-' 

David Ford.'* John W. Snrran." 

Jacob I). Hawk. George Thomp.son. 

Benjamin Hinchman. Charles Van Lear. 
Benjamin W. Hughes. William Webb. 
Joseph F. Hughes. Thomas West. 

Benjamin H. Hughes.'' David D. Winner. 
William G. Iredell.'" Cooper J. Watson.'^ 
Charles Johnson. .loseph Williams.^" 

David Ford is the only soldier reported a.s 
being killed from this company. He lost his 
life iu the battle of Fredericksburg, \^a., 
December 13, 1862. 



'Disch. March 21, 'tiS. 

■ Resigned March 'lb, 18t'i3. 

3 Discharged .January 10, 1863 

■" Died March U, 18C3. 

5 Died January 10, 1863. 



6 Dis. March 24, 18G3. 
' Died Dec. 13, 1862. 
'Dis. April 1, 1863. 
9 Dis. April 4, 18ti3. 
1" Dis. April 16, 1863. 
" Died Dec. 13, 1862. 
'^ Dis. May 10, 1863. 
" Dis. April 14, 1863. 
»J Killed Dec 13, 1862. 
'i Died Jan. 19, 1863. 
'« Died March 9, 1863. 



'" Dischiirged April 1, 1863. 
's Died December 6, 18()2. 
'» Discliarged Feb. 10, 1863. 
-" Discharged Jan. 26, 1863. 
■^1 Discharged Feb. 11,1864. 
■" Discharged April 1, 1863. 
-' Discharged April 9, 1863. 
-^ Discharged April 1, 1863. 
-s Dis. March 24, 1863. 
-6 Discharged May 23, 1863. 



150 



HISTORY OF CA.MDEX COUNTY. NEW JERSEY. 



Emeruexcv Comi'.vnies. — When Lee 
invaded Penn.sylvania in June, 1863, Gov- 
ernor Curtin, of that State, appealed to the 
other loyal State.? for assistance, and on 
June 17th the Governor of New Jersey 
called for volunteers for thirty day.s to aid in 
repelling tiie enemy. James M. Seovel at 
once recruited an independent company in 
Camden, which was mustered in on June 
19th. It left for Harrisburg the same day 
and was assigned to duty under General 
Couch. At the end of the thirty days 
service the company was returned to Trenton 
for discharge. Its roster was as subjoined : 

Captain. 

James M. Seovel. 

First Lieutenant. 

Timothy C. Moore. 

Second Lkutenant. 

George Holl. 

First Serijeaiit. 

James Lane. 

Sergeant.i. 

Jas. V. Gib.son. Ernest Troth. 

George E. Webb. Francis C. Vanhorn. 

Corporals. 
Joseph M. Cooper. Sylvester Birdsell. 

P. J. Murray. Benj. Wright. 

Lawrence Breyer. John Capewell. 

Wni. Wible. Henry Smith. 

Privaies. 
.(oseph Bates. John Kline. 

Anthony Bernard. Wni. Mahoney. 

Henry Breyer. .Tames McCormick. 

Wm. Buodick. Peter Quiu. 

Jo-seph Burton. Mich. Leibinlitz. 

Simpson Campbell. ICnocli Shootz. 

John Decker. .fohn Smith. 

Wni. Dorman. .lames Snowe. 

Goo. Dosinger. David Sparks. 

John Dovey. Isaac H. Stowe. 

Tho.s. Dovey. Geo. Tenner. 

John Fenner. Benj. Todd. 

Henry Figley. Benj. Tyre. 

Edw. Giftbrd. (Jio. Ward. 

Henry Gilbert. .lames Wilson. 

John Guyant. William Wilson. 

Frank Hewett. David Wood. 

John Hill. Frederick Wood. 

Wm. C. Kaighu. Henry Belisle. 

H. Kelly. John Campbell. 



John Coats. John McGuin. 

Josiah Davis. Josiah Mead. 

David W. Hutton. David D. Middleton. 

Henry Ivins. John Stetzer. 

Marylaxi) Emergency Mex. — In the 
early part of July, 1864, Washington and 
Baltimore were endangered by an invasion 
of the enemy. ^V battle had been fought 
within a few miles of Baltimore, and com- 
munication with Washington interrupted.' 
In view of this emergency, Governor Parker, 
of New Jersey, issued a proclamation dated 
Trenton, July 12, 1864, calling for the or- 
ganization of the militia for thirt}' days ser- 
vice in Penn.sylvania, Maryland and the 
District of Columbia. Under the call the 
company from Camden reported for duty, 
was accepted, and mustered in at Camden, 
N. J., July 14, 1864, for thirty days. It 
left the State, July 15th, for Baltimore, and 
on arrival reported to Major-General Lew 
Wallace, commanding the Middle Depart- 
ment. It was stationed at the Relay House, 
near Baltimore, and wjls attached to the 
First Separate Brigade, Eighth Army Corps. 
Upon expiration of terni of service it re- 
turned to New Jersey and was mustered out 
at Camden, August 15, 1864. It was known 
as Company A, First New Jersey Militia, 
and this was its membership : 

COMPANY A. 

Captain. 
Richard H. Lee. 

First Lieutenant. 
William C. Shinu. 

Second Lieiiteitant. 
Charles F. Kain. 

First Sergeant. 
Cliarles T. Stratton. 

Sergeants. 
Samuel H. Elder. Samuel \V. Caldwell. 

Robert T. Wood. Samiu-1 Ihifty. 

( 'iiporats. 
Eugene Troth. Warren H. Somers. 

John Guyant. . Edward S. Stratton. 

Charles F. Fackler. Edward ('. Shinn. 

William AvLs. Henry H. Wilson. 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



151 



M>l: 

Charles Page. 

Pn 
SavilHoii \V. L. Archer. 
Townsend .Vtkin.inn. 
Martin V. Beicccii. 
Thoma.s Bleyler. 
Isaac A. Braddock. 
Benj. M. Braker. 
Samuel Brown. 
William Brenning. 
Edward Biirrough. 
.lohn R. Burrnugli. 
Joseph Cameron. 
Paul Casey. 
George W. Cheeseman. 
William Clark, 
.fohn Coats. 
Charle.s K. Coles, 
.lohn K. Cowperthwaite, 
Josiah Davis. 
Samuel W. Dilks. 
Charles Drew. 
Aaron B. Eacritt. 
Benjamin Elberson. 
Aaron Ellis. 
James Emley. 
Hiram X. Fairchild. 
.laoob Fetters. 
.Fohn H. Fine. 
Simpson Force. 
Henry H. Fox. 
Alfred French. 
Samuel T. Fulweiler. 
Robert Giberson. 
Wm. Z. Gib.son. 
John Grant. 
John Hallowell. 
Stacy W. Hazleton. 
Frank Hewitt. 
Wm. Holland. 



Edwin Wallace. 
ratfs. 

.lohn Hollis. 
Wm. ly. Hozey. 
.lohn Hughes. 
Thomas S. Hunter. 
Alfred Husback. 
Wm. N. Jackson. 
Wm. Jenkins. 
Richard M. Johnson. 
Isaac Jorden. 
Ephraim Kenible. 
Aaron W. Knight. 
Wm. W. Margerum. 
Ephraim T. Mead. 
David D. Middleton. 
Enoch A. Mitchell. 
Samuel C. Mitchell. 
David Morgan, 
.lohn Powell. 
Walter A. Rink. 
Henry Sandman, 
.lames M. Scovel. 
Harry Settey. 
Isaac Shreeves. 
Isaac A. Shute. 
Charles Sparshott. 
P'dward Sparshcjtl. 
Charles R. Stockton. 
James W. String. 
Charles C. Stutzer. 
Richard C. Thompson. 
.Fames F. Tomlin. 
Garrett A. Tompkins. 
Azohel R. Van leer. 
Edward S. Westcott. 
Albert Whippey. 
George L. White. 
Samuel Winner. 
Norton Woodruft". 



Thirty-fourth Regiment. — This regi- 
ment, of which Company A, of Camden 
County, was a part, was raised during the 
summer and autumn of 1863, and was mus- 
tered in for three years at Trenton in October. 
Its lieutenant -colonel was Timothy C. 
Moore, of Camden, who became colonel in 
October, 186-5. Ou November 16, 1863, 
the regiment left Trenton and was sent to 
Ea.stport, Miss., and thence to Union City, 
Tenn. On January 21, 1864, it was con- 



stituted the garrison of Cohimbus, Ky., and 
when summoned V)y (ieiipral Rut'ord to sur- 
render. Colonel Lawrence gave a defiant an- 
swer and repulsed him after a sliirinisii ol' 
some hours" duration. In December, 1864, it 
was ordered to the Sixteenth Corps, and on 
.\pril 8th and 9th took part in tiie assault 
and capture of tiie defen,ses of ^lobile. This 
regiment remained in the service, doing pro- 
vost duty in Alabama, until April 10, 1866, 
when it was mu.stered out. It had tiie honor 
of being the last regiment from Xeir .TiTxeij to 
leave the serrice of the United Sliitcs. It tiioiv 
part in the following- named engagements: 
Columbu.s, Ky., April 13, 1864 ; Hickman, 
Ky., June 10, 1864; Mayfield, Ky., Septem- 
ber 1, 1864; Paris Landing, Ky., October 
31, 1864; Nashville, December 27, 1864; 
Fort Hugar, Mobile, April 2, 1865 ; Spanish 
Fort, Mobih^, April 3-4, 1865; and Fort 
Blakeley, Mobile, April 5-!t, 18(i5. This 
regiment, though called into active service 
late in its history, never failed to do its entire 
duty. The following is the roster of the 
Camden County company : 

COMIWNY A, THIRTY-FOURTH REGIMEXT NKW 
.lERSEY VOLUKTEERS. 

[Tliisr,.iiin;iTi)- W!Ui iiiustereil in September 3, 1SG3, and nnis|pr.-il 
..111 .\pnirtO, ISr.H, imleS8othel\vi8.>Btiitc.l.| 

Captains. 
f>lmund G. Jackson, dis. Sept. 3, '(i2. 
Elisha V. (Jlover, Jr., May Ifi, '(i4. 

First lAeiileiKints. 
Wm. Stanley, .lune 22, 'M \ pro. capt. Co. H .Ian. 

.S, 'tv'). 
John i-^chwartz, .Vpril I'O, '(15. 

Si'conil I.ieuteiianis. 
Richard .1. Moore, res. June 21, '64. 
James M. Cogans, July 22, '(i4; dis. May 1.5, 'Ho. 

JFVrst Sergeants. 
Joseph H. Compton, pro. 2d lieut. Co. G Oct. 2, 't)4. 
Daniel Epstein. 

Scrgcmits. 
Jacob Geiger. 
Henry McCoy. 
Joseph Crockford. 
J. E. Hollhian, Nov. 9, '08. 
Peter Karge, dis. March 9, '(>(). 
John Laughlin, dis. June 13, '65. 
J. S. Hyland, July 7, '64; trans, to Co. G. 



152 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Curporah. 
C. J. B. Benson. Sept. 8, 64 ; (lis. June <i, '(io. 
Joseph Moore, June 18, '64. 
C. Manuel, Nov. 9, '63 ; dis. Jan. 6, 'm. 
W. T. G. Young, Feb. 21, '65 ; dis. Feb. 20, '6t 
Wra. Cogan, March 27, '65 ; dis. March 26, '66 
Thos. Johnston, March 27, '65 ; dis. March 26, 
Peter Groh. 

Hyronimus Terring, Nov. 9, '63. 
Stephen Bailey, died Sept. 18, '64. 
Randolph Hampton, killed in action April 9, ' 
Charles Smith. 
Josiah Hickman, musician. 
Geo. H. Pullen, musician. 
Benjamin D. Colkitt, wagoner. 
Charles Brister, colored cook, Nov. 9, '63. 
Charles Coward, colored cook, Nov. 9, '63. 

Pri.nntes. 
Andrew Armington, Feb. 25, '65 ; dis. Feb. 24, ' 
Charles Adams, Nov. 9, '63. 
John Allen. 

JohuG. Allen, .July 24, 64. 
William Anderson. 
William Andrews. 
Henry Armstrong, Nov. 9, '63. 
John Barth, June 24, '64; dis. June 19, '()5. 
Wm. Becker. 

Wm. Behan, March 25, '65 ; dis. March 24, "66. 
George Bowers, Nov. 9, '6:^. 
Robert M. Brown. 
John Brudeu. 

John C. Bryant, April 19, '64 ; trans, to Co. E. 
Joseph Bozarth, died Sept. 1, '65. 
Wm. Badger. 
Francis Baldwin. 
Wm. Barger, June 3, '64. 
Thomas Banfield, June 23, '64. 
William Berger. 
James Black. 
James Brady, Feb. 4, '65. 
Patrick Brady, July 5, '64. 
James Branen. 
William Brown. 
Wm. Brown, Jan. 18, '65. 
Thomas Burke. 
Patrick Burns. 
John Barber, Oct. II, '64. 
David Cowman. 
. Wm. Challis. 

Charles Chamberlain, must, out July 22, '(i5. 
John Collins, Feb. 25, '65 ; must, out Feb. 24, 'ili 
Israel M. Grain. 

Wm. H. Clark, Aug. 2, '(>4 ; trans, to Co. F. 
Charles Clemens, died July 8, '65. 
.John Cassidy, Nov. 9, '63. 



Louis Courld. 

.John K. Cowperthwaite, Feb. 21, '65. 

Jesse Day re, trans, to 69th Pa. Regt. 

Edward Deichman, Nov. 9, '6.'i ; trans, to V. R. C. 
i. Edward Dougherty, Feb. 9, '65 ; trans, to Co. K. 

Reading Davis, Dec. 23, '64 ; died April 20, '65. 
'66. Charles Dougherty, drowned Sept. 2, '64. 

Patrick Daily, Feb. 4, '65. 

William Davis. 

William Davis, Oct. 11, '64. 

65. Adolph Deneler, June 24, '64. 
Albert Deurschnable, Nov. 9, '63. 
Thomas Doogery, Sept. 13, '64. 
John H. Dresman. 

Charles Duffy. 

.Tohn Duffy. 

(ieorge Dunning, A|)ril 16, '64. 

Charles Eck, April 6, '65, trans, to Co. B. 

66. Charles Edwards, June 1, '64, trans, to Co. B. 
Frank Engle, Nov. 9, '63, trans, to 19th Pa. Cav. 
Harry Emcrick, Nov. 9, '63, 

Charles Everhard, Nov. 9, '63. 
Killian Fendrick, Sept. 6, '64, disch. Aug. 5, '65. 
Edward Fuller, March 29, '65, disch. March 28,'66. 
("has. F. Fackler, Sept. 6, '64, disch. Oct. 7, '64. 
Fred. Fulmer, Nov. 9, '63, died Sept. 5, '65. 
Samuel G. Fox. 
Charles Frederick, Nov. 9, '63. 
Louis Frotcher, Nov. 9, '63. 
Wm. Gardner, Oct. 4, '64, disch. Nov. 20, '65. 
Thos. Giblin, April 6, '65, disch. April 5, 'i\[i. 
Wm. Gould, disch. Nov. 20, '65. 
Daniel Green. 

Charles G.Green, disch. .lune 10, '65. 
James Green, Nov. 9, '63, died April 20, '65. 
Joseph H. Girven, died August 7, '64. 
Jacob Gallagher. 
Albert J. Green, April 29, '64. 
John Grim, .Tune 8, "64. 
.lames Headley. 
Thos. Herbert. 

Valentine Hoffman, April lo, '65, ilis. April 9, '66. 
William Hooper. 

O. F. Howell, March 23, 'ti5, disch. March 22, '66. 
John Hoy, March 16, '65, disch. August 9, '(16. 
John R. Hull, March 11, '65, disch. March 10, '66. 
,Iohn Hunter, Sept. 3, '64, disch. June 6, '65. 
Thomas Hcailley, Sept. 9, '64. 
Charles Hooper, disch. April 23, 'iid. 
Benjamin Hackney, Feb. 21, '65, trans, to Co. II. 
;. Wni. Harrison, July 14, '64, trans, to Co. F. 
Thomas Healey, Feb. 20, '65, trans, to Co. E. 
Isaiah Horton, Feb. 21, '65, trans, to Co. H. 
.lohn Heerlein, April 13, "65, died .Vug. 6, 'iio. 
Charles Hotl'man, Nov. 9, '63, died Aug. 9, '65. 



THE WAR FOR THE UXIOX 



153 



E. B. Holding, June 14, '(i4, liied Feb. 4, 'H"i. 
Henry Hopkins, Nov. 9, 'liS. 
.loseph Ireland, Feb. 21, 'ti5, trans, to Co. H. 
Napoleon Jules, April 8, '(15, disch. April 7, 't'i'>. 
Wm. B. James, April 5, '()5, trans, to Co. B. 
Peter Johnson, March 28, 'G.i, trans, to Co. B. 
Jerome Judd, Sept. 12, 'ii4, trans to Co. G. 
Henry Jackson. 
Francis Jones. 
Robert Keller, Nov. 9, '63. 
William Kelly. 

A. G. Kircliner, April 1, 'ii.=>, di.wh. Oct. 28, '65. 
Epbraim Kraui. 
Richard Kripps, Nov. 9, '63. 
Godfield Kuhn, disch. July 12, '65. 
Luther Kennedy, trans to V. R. C. 
Charles Kuhn, trans, to pro. marshal. 
John H. Keating, March 6, '65. 
.John W. Kimball. 
John Kirchuer. June 28, '64. 
Edward King, April 16, '64. 
John Luddy, April 10, '65, disch. April 7, '66. 
George Linn, Nov. 9, '63, disch. May 5, '64. 
Wni. Long, Jan. 17, '64, disch. Sept. 30, '64. 
John H. Ladham, March 8, '65, trans, to Co. F. 
Charles Landelt, April 10, '65, died July 21 , '65. 
Albert Lee. 

John Lafertv, Nov.9, '63. 
Robert M. Long. 
William Mathews, June 10, '64. 
John McDonald, Sept. 20, '64, dis. June 6, '65. 
Peter McGinley. 
Peter Mclntyre, dis. June 17, '65. 
John Messner, April 13, '65, dis. Oct. 28, '65. 
Philip Midas. 

Charles G. Moore, dis. Aug. 18, '65. 
Patrick McGentry,Sept. 16, '64, dis. Oct. 2, '64. 
Michael Monahan, Sept. 12, '64, trans, to Co. G. 
Samuel McCoiinell, July 20, '64, tran.s. to Co. F. 
Francis P. Marsh, died May 23, '65. 
John Miller, Nov. 9, '63, dis. Aug. 16, 'm. 
Louis Miller, drowned May 19, '64. 
Richard Mansfield. 
William Martin, Feb. 3, '65. 
John Mathews, Jan. 10, '65. 
Frederick Metz, June 17, '64. 
William McGill, Nov. 9, '63. 
Francis McGinley. 
Michael Moran. 
Thomas Morau. 
.lames Murphy, Nov. 9, "6:i. 
Thomas Murphy. 
John L. Myres. 
James MeCarty, May 2ii, '64. 
.loseph S. Nayior. 
20 



Peter F. Xicluils, Dec. 2S, '64, dis. FeU. 2, '66. 

Patrick Noonan, June 14, '64, dis. Ocl. 24, '65. 

William O'Brien, Feb. S, '65. 

.lohn O'Connor, March 21. '65. 

Theodore W. Price, died .Aug. 4. 'i>4. 

J(din Owens. 

.\ngnst Ramus, April 8, 'ti5, dis. .\pril 7, 'ii6. 

.lohn Riordan, April 7. '65, trans, to Co. (.'. 

.lohn Ranch. 

William M. Reed. 

.lohn Riley. 

William Roberts. 

Stephen Roouey. 

Frank Rupiuni. Nov. 9, '63. 

Israel Schaad. 

George H. Snyder. 

Peter Stidham,Sept. 9, '64, di.s. Sept. 7, '65. 

James R. Sweeney, Feb. 28, '65, dis. Feb. 25, 'C>G. 

Henry Schmidt, April 6, '65, trans, to Co. C. 

Valentine Silberer, Nov. 9, '63, tr. to 19th Pa. Cdx. 

John T. Shaw, dis. July 25, '64. 

David Sweeney, died Feb. 29, '64. 

Henry Saunders. Nov. 9, '63. 

.John Scanlon. 

George W. Smith, April 5, '65. 

William Smith. 

John Stanton. 

David Stephens. 

Henry Stover, Jan. 10, '65. 

Thomas Shardon, May 20, '64. 

John C. Thomas, Feb. 20, '65, dis. July 7, '65. 

Francis Tippin, March 13, '65, dis. March 22, '65. 

Abraham Tyler, died Feb. 4, '64. 

Richard Ulbrich, April 6, '65, trans, to Co. C. 

Francis Weaver, Oct. 4, '64, dis. Nov. 20, '65. 

Waldo 'VVilkes, April 11, '65, dis. April 10, '65. 

John Wilson, Oct. 4, '64, dis. June 16, '65. 

.Tohu Wilkes, May 16, '64, trans, to Co. D. 

Charles Williams, Nov. 9, '63, died June 7, '65 

Christopher Winters, died Sept. 16, '63. 

William White. 

Patrick Wiggins, Feb 4, '65. 

Thomas Wilde. 

John Williams. 

John H. Wilson, Feb 20, '64. 

Jacob Wine, Nov. 9, '63. 

Antonio Witzel. 

Charles Weaver, May 20, '64. 

In all, tliirly-two (Munpaiiics id" inlaiitry 
were raised in ( 'anidcn ( "oiinty hclwct'ii 
the heginuint;- ami cbisc ni' the war, fur .sorv- 
ice under tlie I'liiled .Slates govenunent. 
('oni|irisino- withiTi its limits, aeeordint;- t<i 



154 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



tlie census of 1860, a pojnilation of but 
34,457, uu coiunuinity perhaps iu the coun- 
try sent a larger proportion of its able- 
bddied men to fight for the preservation 
(jf the Union. They made for them- 
selves an untarnished reputation as brave, 
efficient and well-disciplined soldiers in the 
Army of the Potomac, in the Army of the 
Shenandoah, in the Carolinas and in the 
West; many sealed their courage and de- 
votion with their blood, and the survivors 
i-eturned to receive the gratitude and plaudits 
of their fellow-citizens, and i)e honored so 
long as pati'iotism shall endure. 

Gkn. Joshua B. Howeli, was Ixirn at 
Fancy Hill, the site of the family mansion 
of the HowelLs, Woodbury, N. J., September 
n, 1806. He was educated in the academy 
of that place and in Philadelphia, where he 
studied law under the direction of Richard 
C. Wood, an able lawyer of that day, and after 
admission to the bar, removed in the fall of 
1828, to Uniontown, Fayette County, where 
he commenced the practice of his profession, 
and where he soon won prominence. From his 
early boyhood he took an interest in military 
ailairs, and when he attained manhood he 
joined a military company, was promoted 
from one position to another until he became 
a brigadier-general under the old militia 
.system, and was known as a skillful disciplin- 
arian. When the Civil War began he was 
nearly fifty-five years of age, yet he promptly 
ottered his services to the national govern- 
ment, and was chosen colonel of the Eighty- 
fifth Regiment of I'enn.sylvania Volunteers 
in November, 1861. His command, in 1862, 
joined in tiie Peninsular Campaign against 
Richmond. 

At the battle of Williamsburg, Colonel 
Howell commanded a brigade and received 
special mention for meritorious services. At 
Fair Oaks his regiment was distinguished 
for bravery, and on the retreat of the Union 
forces from White Oak Swamp to Harrison's 
Landing it was for a considerable time in 



the rear of IMcClellan's army, stubbornly 
contesting the ground with the advancing 
enemy. At the close of the Peninsular 
Campaign, Colonel Howell's health was se- 
riously impaired. He obtained leave of ab- 
sence for a time, which he spent among his 
friends in New Jersey, and then joined his 
command near Fortress Monroe. His regi- 
ment then occupied Sutt'olk until January, 

1863, when he was promoted to the command 
which was attached to the ex])edition, under 
(iencral Hunter, against Charleston, 8. C. 
His i)rigade was the first to capture P^olly 
Island, a foothold by means of which (iene- 
ral Gillmore was enabled to capture IMorris 
Island, at Charleston Plarbor, shortly before 
the fall of Fort Wagner. General Howell 
suffered a concussion of the brain from the 
explosion of a .shell, and was relieved on a 
furlough. After recuperation he retui'ne<l 
to his brigade at Hilton Head, and com- 
manded that district, including Fort Pulaski, 
Tybce Island and St. Helena Island, the 
approaches to Savannah, until ordered to 
Fortress Monroe to join the forces of (ieneral 
Butler, in the campaign against Richmond, 
where his name became a synonym for gal- 
lantry. In August, 1864, he spent a >hort 
furlough in New Jersey, and returned to his 
brigade, then under Hancock, on the north 
side of the James River. The very day 
after his return, the Confederates assailed his 
position but were driven back. He was then 
promoted to a major-general and assigned to 
the command of the Third Division of the 
Tenth Corps. Having occasion to visit the 
headquarters of the corps on September 12, 

1864, at shortly after midnight, he mounted 
his horse, which, upon starting, turned into 
a divergent path, and being suddenly checked, 
reared and fell back upon its rider. About 
fifteen minute.s after this accident he fell into 
a stupor from wiiich he never rccovei'ed, and 
at seven o'clock in the evening of the 14th 
of September he died. Major-Cileneral Alfred 
H. Terry, in 1882, said of General Howell : 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



155 



"My recollections of Gen('r;ii Unwell as a 
man and an offieer are as clear and distinct 
as tiiev were eighteen years ago. I have 
never known a more courteons gentleman ; 
i never saw a more gallant and devoted of- 
ticer. The record of his service was with- 
out s]»ot or blemish." In the army corps in 
which he served he was widely known and 
universally respected and admired. His nn- 
tiniely death was lamented by all his com- 
rades as a loss well-nigh irrei)ai'able, not only 
to themselves, but to the country also. 

Lons K. Fr.vxcine, colonel of the 
Seventh Regiment of New Jersey \'olun- 
teers, was born in the city of Philadelphia 
March 26, 1837, though at the time he en- 
tered the army he was a citizen of Camden. 
His father, James Louis Franciuc, was a na- 
tive of Bayonne, France. 

The Frauciue family originally came from 
Florence, Italy, where they are known to 
have held offices since the thirteenth century. 
They settled in France during the reign of 
Henri IV, and were naturalized in the year 
si.xteen hundred. Franyois de Francine, gen- 
tleman-in-waiting and .steward of the king, 
was appointed general supfrintendrnt uf (lie 
water-works and fountainx of" the Royal 
Houses of France. The construction of the 
aqueduct of Arcueil, the Chateau d' Eau, the 
Observatoire and other historical monuments 
is due to him. Many of his descendants were 
officers of high rank in the army and navv, 
and bore the title of count. 

James Louis Francine, the father of Colonel 
Francine, a lineal descendant of the Flor- 
entine emigrants to France, being the eldest 
L'hild and only son, at the age of twenty- 
one began an extensive tour throughout the 
civilized world, and as one of the results of 
that traveling, became proficient in the use 
of', at least, seven languages. In 182fi, when 
forty years old, he settled in the city of 
Philadelphia, and by the death of his father 
he inherited the paternal estate, which he 
increased by judicious investment. 



He removed to Camden, there spent many 
of his later years, and died at the age 
of eighty in that city, 1866, three years after 
the unfoi-tunate death of liis heroic son, 
the loss of whom he dceplv mourned and 
from which sad bercavemenl he never re- 
covered. 

By his marriage witli Catherine I^ohra, a 
great granddaughter of John (ieorge Knorr, 
(an European of unblemished character, who 
came to this country in 1725 to escape relig- 
ious persecution, and settled in German- 
town), James Louis FrancMuo had seven 
children, four of whom died in infancy. The 
others were Louis R. (the subject of this biog- 
raphy) Mary V. (Mrs. Gal zmer, deceased) and 
Albert Philip (now deceased, who was mar- 
ried to Anna F. Hollingshead, granddaugh- 
ter of Dr. Joshua Hollingshead, of Moores- 
town, and on her mother's side a descendant 
of the Stockton family of New Jersey). The 
only lineal representatives of the Fi'ancine 
family in America, are her sons Albert 
Philip and Horace Hugh Francine. 

Louis R. Francine grew to manhood in 
Camden. His early youth was spent at home 
and he attended a select school in Camden 
taught by Lafiivette and Talleyrand Grover, 
the former of whom became the (iovernor of 
Oregon and afterwards a United States Sena- 
tor fnnu the .same State. Young Francine, 
when but a boy, develope<l an inherited 
love for military display, watcheil with eager 
interest the local volunteer com])anies at their 
regular parades and drills and then himself 
trained amateur military companies of his 
little school-fellows. He was next seat to a 
military school at Flushing, L. I., at which 
institution he showed aptness as a pupil and 
gained considerable proficiency in the science 
of mechanics and mathematics. 

In order that he might Itecome accjuainted 
with the native country of his ancestors, he 
accompanied his father to France in 1851, 
and spent one year in travel in that country. 
Desiring to take an extended course in engi- 



156 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NKW JERSEY. 



neering, whicli to liini had great attractions, 
in 1856 he returned to France, entered the 
Ecole Polytechnique at Paris and spent two 
years in that famous institution. While 
at Paris he made his home witii the 
Countesse de Brisey, his aunt, and lie tiins 
became associated with intelligent and cul- 
tured people of the French capital and 
entered the fashionable society of that city. 
He became a brilliant and entertaining con- 
versationalist and a forcible and versatile 
writer. During his stay of two years in 
France he contributed to a Philadelphia jour- 
nal a series of interesting letters which were 
much admired. He returned to Camden in 
1858, and when the war opened which en- 
dangered the preservation of the Union, 
Colonel Franeine had just entered upon his 
twenty-fifth year. He speedily raised a com- 
pany of soldiers from Cape May County, 
which, in August, 1861, was oiKcered and 
equipped, with himself as captain, and formed 
Company A of the Seventh New Jersey 
Volunteers. The regiment was mustered into 
the service at Camp Olden, Trenton, and on 
September 19th was sent to Washington, 
reported for duty with nine hundred and 
twentv men, the following day went into 
camp at Meridian Hill, D. C, and there re- 
mained until the early part of December, 
1861. It constituted one of the four regi- 
ments composing the Second New Jersey 
Brigade, though after the battle of Gettys- 
burg it was attached to different brigades. It 
took part in the following-named battles : 
Yorktown, \\'illiamsburg, Fair (Jaks, Seven 
Pines, Savage Station, Glendale, Malvern 
Hill, Bristoe Station, Bull Run, Chantilly, 
Centreville, Fredcricksbui-g, Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, Wapping Heights, McLean's 
Ford, Mine Itun, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, 
Spottsylvania Court-House, North Anna 
River. Tolopotomy Creek, Cold Harbor, Be- 
fore Petersburg, Deep Bottom, Mine Kxplo- 
sion, James River, Fort Sedgwick, Poplar 
Spring Church, Boydton Plank-Road, Fort 



Morton, Hatcher's Run, Armstrong House, 
Capture of Petersburg, Amelia Spring, 
Farmville, and was present at Apj)omattox 
when General Lee surrendered. 

The regiment was composed of a class of 
men noted for their undaunted bravery. The 
guiding spirit of this command from the time 
it entered the service through all the memor- 
able engagements mentioned above to the 
great and decisive battle of Gettysburg was 
the brilliant and heroic Colonel Louis R. 
Franeine, who, from the position of captain, 
was promoted to lieutenant-colonel July 8, 
1862, and to the entire command of the regi- 
ment December 9, 1862. 

Early in the war he won the admiration of 
his commanders and the confidence of his 
men in the manly courage which he displayed 
at the battle of Fair Oaks, in the Peninsular 
campaign. In the battle of Chancellorsville, as 
colonel of the regiment, for his soldierly con- 
duct and eminent ability to command, he re- 
ceived the highest encomiums of his superior 
officers, and still further increased the confi- 
dence of the rank and file in him as a cour- 
ageous leader. The following is his graphi- 
cally written report of the part his regiment 
took in this engagement : 

"I have the honor to submit the following as the 
proceedings of ray regiment in the late movement 
agtiiust the enemy : At ten o'clock p.m.. Tuesday, 
April 28, having just returned from piclcet-liue, the 
regiment joined the brigade and marched to the 
left and bivouacked near ' White Oak Church ' 
early the next morning. At daybreak we were 
massed to support troops in front of us. We re- 
mained in that position until one o'clock on the 
afternoon of the 30th, when we retraced our steps 
and crossed the river at the United States Ford 
early on the morning of the Isl of May. We 
remained at or near the ford, doing picket-duty, 
until the following morning about eight o'clock, 
when I received an order to report my regiment to 
General Humphreys, commanding Third Division, 
Fifth Army Corps. I did so without delay, and 
he assigned me a position on his extreme left, 
to cover the approaches by the Mott or River road 
to the United States Ford. Early in the afternoon 
of the same day General Humphreys ordered me 




t 



THK WAR FOR THE UNION. 



157 



to take a small body of picked men from my reg- 
iment and reconnoitre the position of the enemy 
in my immediate front, to note the topography of 
the country, and the apparent strength of tin- 
enemy, and the manner of their approach to our 
lines. This I did, penetrating the country for two 
miles in one direction and a mile and a half in 
another. My report was highly satisfactory to the 
General. 1 am indebted deeply to Captain James 
McKiernan and Daniel R. Burrell, of my regiment, 
for valuable services rendered upon that occasion. 
At midnight I moved my regiment to the right of 
our line, by order from General Meade through 
General Humphreys, and joined the brigade, arriv- 
ing there at about two o'clock p.m. The follow- 
ing morning (Sunday), at about five o'clock, my 
regiment was again detached from the brigade, 
and under orders from Major Tremain, of Gen- 
eral Sickles' staff, filled up a gap occurring be- 
tween General Birney's right and our immediate 
tront. 

" After a short time my regiment advanced into 
the woods in front of the breast works, and by 
maintaining a flanking position under a very heavy 
tire for over three hours, captured five stands of 
colors and over three hundred prisoners, among 
the latter one colonel, one major and several line 
oBicers. The colors were taken from the Twenty- 
first Virginia, Eighteenth North Carolina, First 
Louisiana, Second North Carolina, and the fifth 
from some Alabama regiment. The Second North 
Carolina Regiment we captured almost in toto. At 
about nine o'clock, the ammunition giving out 
and the muskets becoming foul, I ordered the reg- 
iment to fall back from the woods. After this, a 
regiment having fallen back from our breast- 
works and the enemy coming close upon them 
(Second N(irth Carolina State troops), my regiment 
charged and captured their colors and themselves 
almost wholly. Again we fell back sirghtly, and 
confusion, occasioned by our lines in front getting 
in disorder, threw my regiment further back to the 
rear. At this time, through exhaustion, my voice 
left me entirely, I being scarcely able to speak in 
a whisper. Upon the advice of my surgeon, 1 
retired from the field; the command then devolved 
upon my lieutenant-colonel, whose report I here 
enclose. It would be impossible for me to single 
out individual cases of courage, where all my offi- 
cers and men behaved with such gallantry and 
discretion. The trophies they took from the enemy 
speak more eloquently for their actions than any 
words I might use. 

" For able and gallant assistance I owe much to 
my field ofiicers. Their coolness and bravery in 



mameuvering the men .saved nmch loss of life, con- 
fusion and pain. I regret to announce, by the loss 
of Lieutenant George Burdan, the loss of a brave 
and efficient officer. My loss in killed, wounded 
and missing was one hundred and fifty-three, an 
official list of which I inclose : Killed, 6 ; wounded, 
44; missing, 3. "Louis R. FuANCIXE, 

" Cnlimel ,Seirnth AVw Jeraci/ Volunteeris. 
Ill the battle of Getty.sburg Colonel Frau- 
ciiie exemplified hi.s characterLstic courage 
and bravery, l)ut there received a mortal 
wound, from the efieet of which he died in 
St. Joseph's Hospital, at Philadelphia, on the 
lyth of the same month, being conveyed there 
at his own request in order, as bethought, to 
receive the best surgical treatment. For his 
gallantand meritorious services on the eventful 
day he received his fatal wound, he was pro- 
moted brigadier-general. Owing to his death 
he never received the commission, but it was 
issued and .sent to the family, as indicated in 
the following document ; 

•' ExEt'iTTivE Department, Washinutox, D. C. 

" April 29, 1867. 
" To Marcus L. Warh, Ooremor of New Jeney. 

Dear Sir: 1 have the honor herewith of trans- 
mitting to you the Brevet Commission of Brigadier- 
General for the family of Colonel Louis R. Fran- 
cine, 7th New Jersey Volunteers, mortally wounded 
at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 2, 
1863. This brevet has been conferred for the gal- 
lant and meritorious conduct of Colonel Francine, 
mentioned in my official report of the battle, and 
brought especially to the notice of the Secretary 
of War during the late session of Congress. I 
trust that this indication of the appreciation of 
Col. Francine's gallant services may prove accept- 
able to his family and friends. I have to ask that 
you will transmit this commission to his family. 
"A. A. Humphreys 
" Brig-Gen. A' Chief of Engineers, 

Major-ileneral of Volunteers." 

(jteiieral William J. Sewell, who for a time 
commanded the Sei»nd Brigade, gives the 
following estimate of ( 'olonel Francitie, and 
his opinion of him as a soldier : 

''Col. Franciue was intuitively a soldier. He 
was one of the conspicuous officers among the vol- 
unteers and had a natural love for the profession. 



158 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



He was specially adapted to it, by reason of the 
severity of his own habits, being a strict discipli- 
narian of himself and consequently of those under 
him. He had an absorbing idea of the importance 
of the trust confided to him, and the necessity of 
utilizing every moment to perfect himself in all 
that pertains to the details of his profession, using 
every spare moment in the study of the higher 
branches of science and strategy. In a short time 
he became one of the leading officers in the New 
Jersey troops and bis regiment a model of drill 
and discipline. His gallantry at Chancellorsville 
was repeated at Gettysburg, where, in the Peach 
Orchard, he held his regiment, in connection with 
the rest of the Second Brigade, under the most ter- 
rific storm from the combined batteries of Long- 
street, and when the Confederate forces in over- 
whelming numbers reached the Third Corps, the 
New Jersey brigade fell slowly back with their 
faces to the enemy, disputing every inch of the 
ground. It was here that the gallant Col. Fran- 
cine received a mortal wound, giving up his life to 
the country that he loved so well and tried so hard 
to save." 

Major Edw aud \V. Coffjx was burn at 
Haminouton, Atlantic County, N. J., on tlie 
5th of June, 1824, and spent his early years 
in the vicinity of his home. On the comple- 
tion of his studies he engaged in glass man- 
ufacturing and was thus occupied until his 
removal to Camden, in 1851. At this point 
and later in Lancaster County, Pa., he was 
engaged in nickel manufacturing. In 1801 
he entered the United States service, having 
been appointed to the Subsistence Depart- 
ment as captain and commis.sary of subsist- 
ence. In March, 1862, he accomjianied the 
Army of the Potomac to the James River, 
continuing with tiie advance up the Penin- 
sula to Yorktown, where he remained until 
July, 1864. Major Coffin was then ordered 
to Fortress Monroe in charge of the depot of 
supplies for the Armies of the Potomac and 
James and the Departments of Virginia and 
North Carolina. In December, 1864, he was 
ordered as chief of subsistence to the Fort 
Fisher expedition aud later to the Army of 
the James, where he remained until Febru- 
ary, 1865. Major Coffin was then ordered 
to Yorktown and placed in command of the 



county of York. He was mustered out of 
service in December, 1865. He was breveted 
major for meritorious services in the subsist- 
ence department. May 13, 1865. After some 
time spent in Arizona, Major Coffin entered the 
service of the Camden and Atlantic Railroad, 
and in 1883, when its control was secured 
by the Pennsylvania Railroad, was appointed 
division freight agent, which position he now 
fills. 

Cai'T. ABRAHAjr M. BROW.NrN(i was born 
in Philadelphia, I*a., September 3, 1843, and 
was the son of Maurice and Anna A. Brown- 
ing. His early education was acquired under 
the excellent training of Ins uncle, Professor 
Williaiu Fewsmith. He afterward entered 
Yale College, where he was a diligent .stu- 
dent. During his collegiate course the Civil 
War opened, and young Browning, with a 
patriotism which had characterized his an- 
cestor.s, entered the army, though but just of 
age, as captain of Company H, Tliirty- 
eighth New Jersey Volunteer Infantry. He 
was faithful in the performance of his duties, 
was naturally a soldier, w^as entrusted with 
the erection of fortifications, and had charge 
of large bodies of men, wiiom lie handled 
with ease and skill. 

He contracted laryngitis and died at his 
residence. Cherry Hill Farm, on tlie morning 
of January 12, 1880. He left a widow, 
Josephine Cooper Browning, daughter of the 
late Ralph V. M. Cooper and Louisa F., 
daughter of the late Dr. Joseph and Lydia 
H. Fyfiekl, of Camden. Captain Browning 
left four children, — Louise Cooper, Maurice 
Harold aud Abraham Maurice. 

Captain Browning was a member of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, and vestryman 
in Grace Protestant Ej)iscopal Church, Had- 
donfield. He was a Ri'pnblican in politics, 
and died leaving an unsullied reputation as 
a fearless and brave man, conscientious in 
every particular, strict in integrity, and few 
have left as pure and blameless a record as 
he. He was a member of the firm of Browu- 




^^^^K 




THE WAR FOR THE TTNION. 



159 



ing Brothers, 42 and 44 North Front Street, 
Philadelphia. 

William C. Hansell was horn in Nor- 
ristown, Pa., March 19, 1845, and is a son 
of William S. and Margaret Cummings 
Hansell. He obtained his education in the 
schools of his native town and when but a 
vouth, at the outbreak of the Civil War, im- 
bued with boyish patriotism, he enlisted 
September 16, 1861, in Company F of the 
Fifty-first Regiment of Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers, raised in Montgomery County, and com- 
manded by that distinguished soldier Major- 
General John F. Hartranft, afterwards Gov- 
ernor of Pennsylvania. In tiiis organization 
our subject was a druramer-bt)y. The Fifty- 
first Regiment was assigned to the Ninth 
Corps, commanded by General Burnside, and 
accompanied the expedition to North Caro- 
lina and there participated in the battles of 
Roanoke Island, Newbern and Camden. 
This regiment was the first to place the colors 
on the Confederate breast-works defending the 
approaches of Newbern, and it was then given 
the right of the line in the advance upon that 
<'ity, which immediately surrendered, being 
at tile same time attacked by the fleet in the 
liarbor. 

Young Hansell shared the fortunes of the 
regiment throughout the war, being mus- 
tered out on tlie 2d of August, 18lJo. He 
marched with the gallant and sadly shattered 
Fifty-first 1738 miles, traveled by sea and 
water courses 5390 miles and by railway 
.3311, making the huge total of 10,439 miles 
of travel, most of which wa.s under the most 
unfavorable conditions, accompanied by fa- 
tigue, hardships, harassments and dangers, 
such as the soldier only knows. He was 
present witii the regiment in twenty -one bat- 
tles, as follows : 

Roanoke Island, February 7, "(32 ; New- 
bern, March 14, '(32 ; Camden, N. C, April 
19, '62; Bull Run, August 29, '62; Chan- 
tilly, Va., September 1, '62; South Moun- 
tain, September 14, '62 ; Antietam, Septem- 



ber 17, '62; Fredericksburg, December 12, 
'62 ; Vicksburg, July 4, '63 ; Jackson, July 
13, '63; Campbell Station, November 16. 
'63 : Knoxwell, December 28, "63 ; Wilder- 
ness, May 6, '64; Spottsylvania, May 12, 
'64; North Anna, May 25, '64 ; Cold Harbor, 
June 3, '64 ; Petersburg, June 17 and 18, 
'64; Petersburg, July 30, '64; Yellow Tav- 
ern, August 19, '64 ; Ream's Station, August 
21, '64; Petersburg, April 1, '65. 

At the close of the war Mr. Hansell re- 
mained in Washington and engaged in busi- 
ness in that city for one and a half years and 
then came to Camden, where he has since re- 
sided. He was under the employ of John 
S. Read, in his paper store on Federal Street, 
for a few years, and in 1868 was appointed 
messenger to the First National Bank of 
Camden and held that position with the full 
confidence of the directors of the institution 
until 1876, "when he retired in order to en- 
gage in business for himself During the 
year named he ojiened a paper store at 203 
Market Street, Camden, where, by his own 
business ability and energy, he has built uji 
and continued to enjoy a prosperous trade, 
having filled large contracts for jiapering 
houses in Camden and elsewhere. 

In 1867 Mr. Hansell was married to 
Miss Lizzie Hemsing, daughter of Wm. 
Hemsing, of Camden. They have one child, 
Carrie. 

At the annual reunion of the survivors 
present of the Fifty-first Regiment held in 
Petersburg, Ya., iu 1886, Mr. Hansell was 
chosen vice-president. This meeting was 
held in the crater which was formed at the 
time of the famous "mine explosion," Julv 
30, 1864. The reunion at that place was 
brought about at the suggestion of Mr. Han- 
sell. He is a member of the Union Veteran 
Legion, of which only soldiers who have 
served two years can become members. 

The Draft. — The exigencies of the Civil 
War compelled the passage of the Conscrip- 
tion Act by the Congress of the United 



160 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



States, approved by the President March 
3, 1863. To execute this act the loyal 
States were divided into sections correspond- 
ing to their Congressional districts, and a 
board of enrolment was established in each. 
These boards were composed of a provost- 
marshal, surgeon and commissioner, of which 
the provost-marshals were presidents, and 
before which daily all questions relating to 
the conscription were brought for discussion 
and were decided by a majority vote of tiie 
hoard. 

The first Congressional district of New 
Jersey at that date was composed of six coun- 
ties, viz., Camden, Atlantic, Gloucester, 
Salem, Cumberland and Cape May. The 
appointment of the officials of the board of 
enrolment for this district was by law vested 
in the President of the United States, but 
virtually was exercised by the member of 
Congress at that time, the Hon. John F. 
Starr, of Camden, who, during this trying 
period, played a disinterested patriotism 
worthy of all praise. The ' personnel of the 
board during the little over two years of its 
existence was as follows, viz. : Colonel Eob- 
ert C. Johnson, of Salem,' provost-marshal 
from May 2, 1863, to March 24, 1864. He 
was succeeded by Captain Alexander Wentz, 
of Woodbury, who was appointed April 
25, 1864, and was honorably discharged 
November 15, 1865. Dr. John R. Steven- 
son was commissioned surgeon May 2, 1863, 
served until the close of the war and was 
honorably discharged June 15, 1865. Col- 
onel James M. Scovel was commissioner from 
May 2, 1863, until November 27th, of the 
same year, when he resigned, and Philip .1. 
Gray was appointed to the vacancy December 
8, 1863, and was honorably discharged April 
30, 1865. In addition to the.se, the provost- 
marshal had authority to appoint two depu- 
ties and one special officer. The first two 
were Captain Henry M. Jewctt, of Winslow, 
and Captain Aaron Ward, of Camden ; Ben- 
jamin F. Sweeten, of the latter place, was 



special officer. All these served until the 
close of the war. The law provided that, 
when necessary, assistant surgeons might be 
selected to aid the surgeon. Under this pro- 
vision Dr. H. Genet Taylor was appointed 
assistant surgeon in June, 1864, and contin- 
ued until the close of the conscription, in 
April, 1865. For a short period in the au- 
tumn of 1864, Dr. Jonathan Leaming, of 
Cajje May, also aided in the medical exami- 
nations. 

The headquarters of tiie lioard of enrol- 
ment were directed to be located in Camden. 
They were established in the second and 
third floors of Hall, at the northwest cor- 
ner of Fourth and Market Streets. This 
building being too small to accommodate the 
public, the office was removed, in the spring 
of 1864, to Morgan's Hall, on the southeast 
corner of the same streets. The rendezvous 
where the recruits and the guard were quar- 
tered was the hall at the northeast corner of 
Fourth and Federal Streets. During the ex- 
amination of the drafted men of C'umberland 
and Cape May Counties, in June and in 
August, 1864, the board held its sessions in 
Miilville, Cumberland (^ounty, in an unoccu- 
])ied store and warehouse. 

The first draft in the district was made in May, 
1 864, under the call of the President for three 
hundred thousand men, issued October 17, 
1863. In Camden it was executed with the 
greatest publicity and visible fairness, in a 
small frame house (since demolished) upon 
the north side of Market Street, below Third, 
in front of which an open stand was erected. 
A list of all the enrolled men in the district 
was copied and, together with the slips of pa- 
|)er upon which each name was separately 
written, were handed to a committee of citi- 
zens who had been api)ointed at the boards' 
recpicst to conduct the drawing. These slips 
\vere placed by a citizen in the wheel wiiich 
another turned, while a third drew out the 
papers and read the names to the assembled 
people. \(i sliiiw of force was made, the 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



161 



armed guard liaving been left behind at tlie 
office. Not a murmur of disapproval or dis- 
satisfaction was heard from the multitude. 

But very few of tlie drafted men were in- 
voluntarily forced into the army. The wealth- 
ier ones put in substitutes. The remainder 
either volunteered or their places were tilled 
bv other volunteers, all of whom were induced 
to enlist by the payment of a bounty by the 
township. 

All males i)etween twenty and forty-five 
years of age were liable to do military duty ; 
therefore, all within those ages in the First 
District were enrolled. Foreigners who had 
not taken out naturalization papers, nor de- 
clared their intention to become citizens, were 
exempt. With this exception, there was no 
escape except by reason of physical disability. 
The total number of men examined by the 
surgeons during the existence of the provost- 
marshal's office in Camden was 7883. Of 
these, 2215 were drafted men, of whom 124.3 
were accepted. Of the enrolled men not yet 
drafted, 1605 applied either to have their 
names stricken from the rolls because they 
thought themselves unfit for service or else 
desired to enlist. Of these, 827 were found 
to be fit for duty. The number of substi- 
tutes offered was 2305, and 1 242 were ac- 
cepted. In addition to those, 48 discharged 
wounded soldiers were re-enlisted in the Xet- 
eran Reserve Corps, making a total of 4371 
men placed in the army and navy from the 
First Congressional District of New Jersey. 

8rTMMARY OF Battles. — In the four 
years of service, the armies of the ITnion — 
counting every form of conflict, great and 
small — had been in twenty-two hundred and 
sixty-five engagements with the Confederate 
troops. From the time when active hostili- 
ties began until the last gnu of the war was 
fired, a fight of .some kind — a raid, a skir- 
mish or a pitched battle — occurred at some 
j)oint on our widely-extended front nearly 
eleven times a week, upon an average. Count- 
ing only those engagements in which the 
•21 



I'niou loss, in killed, wounded and missing 
exceeded one hundred, the total number was 
three hundred and thirty. From the north- 
ernmost point of contact to the .southernmost 
the distance by any practicable line of com- 
munication was more than two thousand 
miles. From east to west the extremes 
were fifteen hundred miles apart. During 
the first year of hostilities — one of prepara- 
tion on bi.>th sides — the battles were naturally 
fewer in number and less decisive in charac- 
ter than afterwards, when discipline had been 
imparted to the troops by drill, and when 
the materiel of war had been collected and 
stored for prolonged campaigns. The en- 
gagements of all kinds in 1861 were thirty- 
five in number, of which the most serious 
was the Union defeat at Bull Run. In 18(32 
the war had greatly increased in magnitude 
and intensity, as is shown by the eighty-four 
engagements between the armies. The net 
result of the year's operations was highly 
favorable to the Rebellion. In 1863 the 
battles were one hundred and ten in number 
— among them some of the most significant 
and important victories for the Union. In 
1864 there were seventy-three engagements, 
and in the winter and early spring of 1865 
there were twenty-eight.' 

It is estimated that tluring the war fifty- 
six thou.sand Union soldiers were killed in 
battle and about thirty-five thousand died in 
hospitals of wounds and one hundred and 
eighty-four thou.sand by disease. The total 
casualties, if we include those who died sub- 
sef(uent to their discharge, were about three 
hundred thousand. The loss of Confederates 
in battle was less, owing to the fact that they 
were fighting on the defensive, but they lo.st 
more from wounds and disea.se on account of 
inferior sanitary arrangements. The total 
loss of life cau.sed by the war for the preser- 
vation of the Union exceeded half a million, 
and nearly as many were disabled, 

' '2 Blaine's ■• Tweuty Years of Congress," 20. 



162 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Northern Men in Service. — The calls, 
periods of service and number of men ob- 
tained during the Civil War from the North- 
ern States were as follows : 

N\irabpr Period of Number. 

Bate of flail. called. Service. nlilHlDed. 

April 15, 18(!1 75,000 3 months 03,326 

May anfl July, 18(n..582,748 3 years 714,231 

May and June, 1S62 3 months 15,007 

July 2, 18(52 300,000 3 years 431,958 

August 4, 1862 300,000 months 87,588 

June 15, 1863 100,000 6 months 16,361 

October 17, 1863 300,000 3 years 1 374x07 

February 1, 1864 200,000 3 years | 

March 14, 1864 200,000 3 years 284,021 

April 23, 1864 85,000 100 days 83,652 

July 18, 1864.- 500,000 1, 2 and 3 yrs. 3S4,8S2 

December 19, 1864..300,000 1, 2 and 3 yrs. 204,-568 

2,942,748 2,69(1,401 

The following statement, as appears by the 
report at the office of Adjutant-CJeneral Wil- 
liam S. Stryker, at Trenton, for 1865, ex- 
hibits the number of men called for, the 
number of meu furnished by New Jersey 
and their terra of enlistment from April 17, 
18fil, to April 20, 1865. 

Number of men furnished for four years 155 

" " " three years... 42,572 

" " " two years 2,243 

" " " one year 16,812 

" " " nine months. 10,787 

" " " three months 3,105 

" " 100 days 700 

" " " not classified 2,973 



Credited to Stale 79,348 

Furnished but not credited 8,957 



Total 88,305 

More meu oftered their services than the 
State had authority to accept, and so those 
who, altliough they had preferred to enlist in 
New Jersey organizations, went into regi- 
ments of other States. Six full companies of 
New Jersey troops entered into the Excelsior 
Brigade of New York, commanded by Gen- 
eral Sickles ; others enlisted in the Forty- 
eighth New York Infantry, the One Hun- 
dred and Twelfth Pennsylvania Heavy Ar- 
tillery, Anderson's Cavalry Troop, the 



Third Pennsylvania ( lavalry, the Eleventh 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, First New York 
Cavalry, Company ,\, Twentieth New York 
Volunteers, Bramhall's Battery, Ninth New 
York State Militia. Two full companies 
al.10 entered in SerrilTs Engineers, and the 
State lost the credit on her <juota. 

Reception of Retfrneo Soldiers in 
1864. — A couvention of loyal men of New 
Jersey as.sembled at Newark, the 30th of 
May, 1864, and determined to give the re- 
turning soldiers of New Jersey a suitable 
reception in their respective counties, on the 
4th of July, same year. James M. Scovel 
represented the county of Camden. Accord- 
ingly, the soldiers of this county arranged for 
a celebration at Haddonfield, to take place 
in the grove of John Hopkins, on the above 
date. It was estimated that there were five 
thousand people present, all of whom were 
amply fed from the bountiful tables prepared 
under the mauageinent of the committee of 
arrangements. 

The Union League of Camden acted as 
an escort to the soldiers from Camden City. 
One feature of the procession wius a color 
guard composed almost entirely of one-armed 
men. General George M. Robeson made 
the speech of welcome, which was greatly 
applauded; P. C. Brinck read the Declara- 
tion of Independence ; Major Calhoun, on 
the part of the soldiers, returned thanks for 
the honor done them ; Hon. .James S. Scovel, 
C. T. Reed, Rev. Mr. Dobbins made patriotic 
remarks on the occasion ; the ladies were ac- 
tive in their attention to the returned soldiers 
of the county. 

Women's Work in the W.vr. — The 
same spirit which prompted the soldiers to 
go to the front, kindled the noble and gener- 
ous efforts of devoted and patriotic women 
at home to aid and contribute to the comfort 
of the former. They formed, in Camden, 
the Ladies' Aid Society, the Ladies' Relief 
As.s()ciation, and not only contributed largely 
toward these organizations in money, but also 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



163 



gave tlu'ir tinip and attention and partici- 
pated iu tiie grand results arising from the 
great Sanitiiry Fair. 

The great Central Fair of the Sanitary 
Coniinissiou of the States of Xew Jersey, 
Pennsylvania and Delaware was opened, in 
Philadclpiiia, on the 7th of June, 18(34, with 
appropriate ceremonies. Addresses were 
mad<? by the Governors of the three States 
named. The fair was the great object of at- 
traction from its opening to its close, on June 
28th. It realized for the commission over 
one million and eighty thousand dollars. 

It has been asserted by the ciironicles of 
tiie day that Xew Jersey exhiliited the most 
interesting relics in the fair. 

The Camden Auxit.iaiiy _ 

ru THE Samtaky Fair. — On 
Monday evening, April lOtli, 
1864, a large meeting of the 
prominent citizens of Camden 
was held at the dwelling of R. 
B. Potts, (in Cooper Street, in ' >i 
Camden, at which Judge Thos. 
P. Carpenter acted as chairman 
and Mr. Farr as secretary. 

Resolutions were passetl to 
organize an efficient auxiliary 
to assist in the Great Fair to be 
held in Pliiladelphia, and to 
invoke the assistance of the 
ladies of Camden City and 
County in the enterprise, on the next Thurs- 
day evening, with the assistance of the ladies, 
a plan of operations was introduced and 
matured which gave assured promise tiiat 
the jiatriotic citizens of Camden Coniit\- 
would make the enterprise a successful one. 

The name of "The West Jersey Auxil- 
iary" was adopted. An executive committee 
had been appointed, and by the 18th of 
April, only eight days after the inception of 
the enterprise, rooms had been secured at 
No. 104 Market Street, Camden, and every 
workshop, factory and mill in Camden sent 
to these rooms the best specimens of their 



workmanship. Kvery tiirmei-, workingman 
and mechanic poured into the general fund 
large t'ontributions of manufactured articles, 
or the products of the soil that could be 
turned into money, and again from money 
into the means of encouraging the health and 
life of the soldiers. The patriotic ladies of 
Camden were not idle, and through their as- 
sistance and efforts large sums came into the 
treasury of the commission from every 
quarter of the county. The mothers and 
daughters, wives and sisters of New Jersey's 
sons were energetic in their eiforts to secure 
aid and assistiince. These ladies opened 
their houses for entertainments of various 
kinds. At these parlor entertainments were 




■ENTIIVI. KAll! lUIIJilN 



given charades, tableaux, etc. ; volunteer per- 
formers and amateui's took part. The City 
Halls were tendered free to the committee on 
entertainments, immense concerts were given, 
andagenerouspublicdisplayed great liberality 
in purchasing tickets. The Ladies' Aid 
Society and other relief associations which 
had been iu successful operation for three 
years joined their efforts with the Auxiliary 
and collected large supplies of clothing, 
blankets, stockings and other materials use- 
ful to the men in military duty away from 
home, and during the entii'e period of the 
war these ladies were actively engaged iu 



164 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



collectiug aud forwardiuo; from tlieir depot 
in Camden tons of materials for tiie benefit 
of the soldiers. 

Captain Samuel Hufty was appointed to 
take charge of the donations at General Depot 
No. 4, Market Street. 

The Executive Committee con.sisted of P. 
J. Grey (chairman), Hon. Thomas P. Carpen- 
ter, James H. Stevens, Henry B. Wilson, E. 
V. Glover and John D. Tustiu. 

The following gentlemen of the county 
were honorary members of this Auxiliary : 
Alex. G. Cattell, of Merchantville ; W. S. 
McCalli.ster, Gloucester City; W. C. Milli- 
gan, Haddonfield ; Charles H. Shinn, Had- 
donfield. 

Charles Watson, Esq., as treasurer of the 
committee on entertainments, and Charles S. 
Dunham, as chairman of same committee, 
were most active in their eiforts to aid the 
cause. 

The Ladies' Correspondence Committee 
consisted of Mrs. Clapp, Miss Maria Moss, 
Mrs. Fogoo, Mrs. Campion, Mrs. Shinn, 
Mrs. J. Vogdes, Mrs. Porter, Miss IjCM'is, 
Mrs. Duhring, Miss Woodwai'd. 

The following is a complete list of the 
officers of the West Jersey Auxiliary to the 
great Sanitary Fair : President, Hon. Thomas 
P. Carpenter ; Vice-Presidents, Hon. John 
F. Starr, Hon. Philander C. Brinck, Matthew 
Newkirk, E. V. Glover; Secretary, William 
A. Farr; Treasurer, James H. Stevens ; Cor- 
resj)onding Secretary, P. J. Grey. 

The chairmen of different committees were 
Maui-iee Browning, on contribution of day's 
work ; Robert B. Potts, products of West 
Jersey fabrication ; William Fewsmith, 
works of art, hi.story and relics; William J. 
Potts, collections from field, forest and ocean; 
John Aikman, useful and fancy articles, 
home made; J. R. Stevenson, M.D., original 
ballads of poetry on the war; Edward H. 
Saunders, on miscellaneous articles ; Jose[)h 
Fearon, on flowers and fruits ; J. D. Rein- 
both, on fruits and confectionery ; Benjamin 



H. Browning, on the refectory ; William A. 
Farr, on finance and donations ; Charles S. 
Dunham, on concerts, charades and tableaux ; 
Captain Samuel Hufty, on receipt of articles 
donated. Hon. James M. Scovel was ap- 
pointed to act in conjunction with the United 
States Sanitary Commission. 

From the newspapers of the period are 
gleaned the names of the following ladies — 
by no means all — who were prominent in 
aiding the cause, viz. : The Mi.sses Hufty, 
Mrs. R. Edwards, IMrs. Thomas P. Carpen- 
ter, Mrs. E. V. Glover, Mrs. J. D. Reinboth, 
Mrs. Butcher, Mrs. John F. Starr, Mrs. C. 
Mickle, Mrs. Thomas H. Dudley, Mrs. 
Benjamin Browning, Mi.ss Betsey Mason, 
Mrs. Hewlings Coles, Miss Jo.sephine Brown- 
ing, the Misses Hatch, Mis. Ann Andrews, 
Miss Sallie Gib.son, Miss Maggie Stoy, Miss 
Sallie W. Atkinson, Mrs. Jo.seph Hatch, 
the Misses Carrie, Rebecca, Louise and 
Mary Hatch, Miss Sarah Eldridge, Miss 
Cornelia Eldridge, die Misses Fearon. 

Miss Rebecca Hatch presented the New 
Jersey Department'with a haiid.some silk flag, 
which was much prized. 

The means of raising funds were various. 
There were a boy.s' magic lantern exhibition, 
a children's fair, many parlor concerts, scraiv 
book sales, and the little girls of Haddon- 
field contributed $82.50. 

Mrs. Hettie K. Paintek, who, at the 
outbreak of the war, was a resident of Cam- 
den, was one of those noble and patriotic 
women who left her home, went to the front 
and became known in the Army of the Po- 
tomac as one of the most faithful and devoted 
nurses. Many a sick and wounded .soldier 
of Kearny's brigade was the recipient of 
her tender care and earnest solicitude. After 
the Union defeat at the second battle of Bull 
Run, and the rcpul.se at Fredericksburg, 
where twenty men of the Union soldiers re- 
ceived dangerous, or perhaps mortal, wounds, 
Mrs. Painter's devotion to the unfortunate 
men made her name well-known through the 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



165 



eutire Army of the Potomac. !Slie contimied 
to do noble work in the hospitals, with the 
same faithfnluess and interest, until the close 
of the war, when she returned to Camden, 
and soon afterward removed to the ^\'est, 
where she engaged in the jiractiee of incdi- 
fine. 

Mi.ss YiHoiNiA W1LLET8 (now Mrs. 
James M. Stradling), of Camden, was a vol- 
unteer nurse in tiie Army of the Potomac, 
and wa-s connected with the Second Division 
of the Second Armj' Corps. She followed tlie 
army all through the battle of the Wilder- 
ness and down to City Point. At Freder- 
icksburg she had charge of the hospital in the 
Catholic Church of that city. At Port Roy- 
al she attended many of the wounded of the 
battles of Chaucellorsville and White House 
Landing. She remained with the army until 
1804, and was associated with the well-known 
army-nurse, Mrs. Mary Morris, of I'hiia- 
delphia, whose husband was the grandson of 
Robert Morris, of Revolutionary fame. 

The Soldiers' Moxr^rENT ix Camden. 
— The beautiful and imposing monument 
erected to the memory of the fallen heroes of 
Camden County in the A\'ar for the Union is 
situated in the northeast part of the cit)-, near 
the City Hall, on a plot of ground donated 
by the city of Camden. It is a fine specimen 
of workmanship and an honor to the city and 
county. The movement which resulted in 
its erection was originated by Post 5, G. A. 
R.,of Camden, formerly Sedgewick Post, No. 
C, who contributed the first three hundred 
dollars. The ue.xt contribution was one thou- 
sand dollars, by the Board of Freeholders, 
which body eventually appropriated the bal- 
ance of the entire amount of five thou.sand 
five hundred dollars required. The monu- 
ment was constructed of granite, by Krips tV: 
Shearman. It is thirty-nine feet six in<'hes 
high, and weighs forty-.seven tons. The 
railing around the monument was furnished 
by the county. The dedication took place 
June 9, ]87.'>, on which occasion the city of 



Camden was decorated with flags, banners 
and streamers. The military display and 
parade were an interesting part of the cere- 
mony. There were present the Third Regi- 
ment, from Elizabeth ; the Fourth Hattalion, 
from Bridgetou and Millville ; the Sixth 
Regiment and Battery B, of Camden. The 
prominent persons present were Governor 
Parker and his staff, composed of Adjutant- 




THE soldiers' MOXr.MENT. 

General Stryker, Quartermaster Lewis Per- 
rine, Surgeon Barry and Colonels Murphy 
and Dickerson ; (General Gershom Mott, with 
his staff, Adjutant-General Lodor, Quarter- 
master Ridgway, Surgeon Welling and 
I\[ajor Owens ; General I). Hart and staff, 
composed of Colonels M^eston and Murphy ; 



Ifi6 



IITSTOllY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Major Robbins and Captain Edgar ; Hous. 
John Y. Foster, A. L. Runyan, Samuel 
Hopkins. 

" The ceremonies were opened by General 
Carse iu a brief address. He then introduced 
Rev. P. L. Davie.s, of New York, who offered 
a prayer, and after this the monument was 
unveiled with beautiful and appropriate cere- 
monies, amid the cheers of the vast multitude 
assembled, the music of the bands and 
grand salute from Battery B, and the Star 
Spangled Banner at the signal unfolded itself 
from around the marble shaft and ascended 
majestically to the peak of the flag statl' that 
was erected iu the rear, and as if by magic a 
perfect shower of miniature flags fell gently 
upon the vast concourse below. A. C Scovel, 
Esq., then introduced John Y. Foster, the 
speaker of the day, and author of ' New 
Jersey in the Great Rebellion.' He followed 
the gallant Jersey regiments from the State 
to the field and through their grand march of 
triumph, not only the glorious victories won 
in Virginia, but also the grandest of all 
luarchea, — the march through Georgia, and 
reviewed the termination and turned to re- 
flect upon the great lesson of the hour." 

The following names which are engraved 
on this monument are of soldiers from Cam- 
den County who died during the war : 
Ctiloitei-:. 

Louis R. Fraiicine. H. Boyd McKeen. 

John P. Vanleer. Wm. B. Hatch. 

Lieutenant- ( 'o/onels. 

Simpson R. Stioiicl. Thomas H. Davis. 

C(.ii>taitis. 

('. Haufty. C. Meves. 

J.M.Comb. W. K. Maxwell. 

C,I. Fiekls. T. Stevenson. 

I!. K. Hoisfall. ('. Wilson. 

K. Ilaniihon. 

First- Lieutenants. 

W. S. Briggs. R. A. (JurlLs. 

VV. Evans. J. R. Rich. 

J. T. r.owo. J. R. Ciowell. 

SefOii(l-Lieti.ten(int». 
W. 8. Barnard. G. W. Ei.sler. 

T. J. Howell. D. R. G'owperthwaite. 



tSeryeanls. 

D. A. Westcoat. G. M. Hineline. 
J. D. Richardson. J. B. Johnson. 
C. E. Cheesemen. C. H. Jewell. 

S. W. Bates. J. R. McGowau. 

J. Curtis. T. Krugg. 

J. Dimon. C. W. Lowe. 

C. F. Dickinson. E. Mitchell. 

H. Fisler. J. W. Moore. 

J. K. Frankish. I. J. Rue. 

C. G. P. Goforth. P. Riley. 

]'. A. Grum. C. P. Fish. 

l. A. Korn. J. Woollard 
C. E. Githens. 

Chrporals. 

,1. F. Bailey. B. Linton. 

H. B Brown. E. W. Laue. 

J. M. Roe. E. Livermore. 

J. Clements. A. H. Merry. 

W. W. Collins. J. Miller. 

S. B. Carter. J. McClernand. 

C. P. Norton. J. Roshback. 

C. Helmuth, G. A. Smith. 

W. F. Hessel. M. Slimm. 

C. E. Hugg. F. Schwartz. 

E. Holly. G. W. Thompson. 
J. C. Dilkes. W. Thompson. 
W. H. Jones. A. Wooley. 
J.S.Kay. J. Zanders. 

W. Rich. H. Bechtel. 

G. North. H. K. Patton. 
P. Larricks. 

Privates. 

G. Adam.s. J. Bozarth. 

A. Adams. A. G. Bryan. 
H. Adler. W. Batt. 

.1. E. Amit. D. Bates. 

J.Adams. P. Barnel. 

E. Ayers. G. Boom. 

T. F. Asay. S. Beck. 

.1. .Anderson. W. Brown. 

,1. Brown. J. Brice. 

B. Budd. J. Breer. 
E. Browning. E. Barber. 
J. Buchanan. H. Beckley. 
J. Bakely. W. Cook. 

(r. B. Budd. A. Clingham. 

.1. Bates. A. Coule. 

L. Breyer. W. B. Carson. 

A. Breyer. G. W. Chew. 

J. Bebhe. J. W. Clement. 

J. Bower T. Cobb. 

J. Beetle, .Ir. R. (i. Curry. 

,1. Bowker. T, Cloren. 

L. Banks. T. D. Clark. 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



167 



J. S. Copeland. 

I. Calvvay. 

R. Clayton. 

J. Cline. 

J. G. Conley. 

C. F. Col let t. 

I. H. Copeland. 

J. Q. A. Cline. 

N. B. Cook. 

J. Conley. 

H. Cramer. 

T.Carmack. 

H. Culler. 

H. Graver. 

J. Conlan. 

J. Crammer. 

J. P. Callaway. 

M. Cavanaugh. 

W. H. Chamberlain. 

C. Downs. 
J. Diehl. 
J. Devlin. 
S. Dermott. 

S. Dermott (2d). 
J. Dowel 1. 
R. Dresser, Sr. 
J. S. Dill. 
J. R. Dornell. 
E. P. Davis. 
J. Dyle. 
A. Downs. 
.1. H. Douglas. 
S. O. Darrnw. 
R. Davis. 

E. Dougherty. 

D. Drigget. 
J. E. Dorrell. 
D. Doughty. 

.1. J. Dannenhower. 

T. Davis. 

M. Effinger. 

W. Earley. 

R. G. Easley. 

J. Elberson. 

W. Edge. 

J. Edinger. 

A. P^lberson. 

W. Evans. 

J. Fitzgerald. 

W. Frey. 

J. A. Fenner. 

D. Ford. 

F. Fellows. 
J. G. Foster. 
J. Groskinsky. 



J. Gillespy. 
L. Grundliiig. 
L. Gitlbrd. 

C. Gautier. 
.1. F. Gaul. 
W. Goebel. 
H. Githens. 
J. Gammel. 
R. Grant. 

J. H. Gaunt. 
G. Gerwine. 

D. Gorden. 

G. H. Gilbert. 

A. Gervis. 

J. Hollingsworth. 

C. Hambrec'ht. 
V. Henrieus. 
H. F. Hensman. 
J. F.Haines. 

G. A. Holmes. 
G. Haiuio. 
P. F. Hilyard. 

D. H. Horner. 
S. G. Hultz. 
W. Herring. 
I,. Heller. 

A. Hawk. 
G. Howard. 
H. Hinkle. 
W. F. Halmbold. 

E. Hefferman. 
H. Hears. 

M. Hall. 

y. (J. Heils. 

G. M. D. Hampton. 

W. H. Plarris. 

D. Horner. 
.1. P. Huyck. 
Adam Job. 
J. W. .Fobes. 
T. Johnson. 
A. J. Joline. 

E. Johnson, 
(i. Kell. 

A. J. Keim. 

E. Lock. 
J. Louis. 
J. Logan. 
W. J. Leake. 

F. Laib. 
D. Lutz. 

J. B. Leaeh. 

G. B. Land. 
J. Lewis. 
J. Leslie. 



,1. W. Lee. 

\V. R. Lancaster. 

\V. Lock. 

.1. K. Liphsey. 

B. H. Linton. 

E. Miles. 

C. Mensing. 
J. Munsan. 
R. Marshall. 
H. D. Morgan. 
J. Macinall. 
M. Marshall. 

F. Mullen. 

E. F. Mills. 

T. R. Jliddleton. 
<T. E. Monroe. 
L. Miller. 
J. Miller, 
J. Maehtotl-. 
T. Marrott. 
.J. Murray. 
A. W. Martin. 

G. Mount. 

G. W. Mooney. 
R. J. McAdaras. 
A. McGauhey. 
.r. McMullen. 
M. McLaughlin. 
C. McLaughlin. 
T. J. McKeighan. 
M. McNulty. 
VV. McDowell. 
X. McElhone. 
G. McCabe. 
L. McConnell. 
.1. M( Adams. 
J. McKeon. 
H. McMullen. 
P. Nolan. 
M. Nicholson. 
8. B. NorcroC. 
.r. S. Nicholson. 
M. Nayse. 
W. Nagle. 
A. Oldham. 
M. Oregan. 
C. Owens. 

F. O'Neil. 

P. H. O'Doniu'll. 
P. O'Donuell. 
L J. Pine. 
T. Pike. 
J. Parks. 
R. M. Price. 
A. Pond. 



P. Pepoon. 
I). Ryan. 
.1. Hh.Mle. 
1). Kumford. 
K. Robinson. 
\V. Robust. 
r. D. Ross. 
.J. Ryan. 
V. Rodgers. 
W. Rowe. 
J. Roofe. 
T. J. Rudderow. 
W. J. Rudy. 
H. Richmond. 
D. Reading. 

A. Schwartz. 

C. Schey. 
R. F. Stone. 

.1. A. Steelman. 
G. A. Schmitt. 
J. E. Stark. 

D. M. Southard. 
W. Shroder. 

J. Schlatter. 
.1. Sturges. 
P. Stoy. 
F. Stadler. 
S. Syrapkins. 
P Stevenson. 

D. Sullivan. 

B. F. Sweet. 
S. Sutton. 

E. H. Smith. 
.V. Subers. 

\V. H. Stockton. 
W. H. Schafter. 
S. S. Somei's. 
W. R. Stewart. 
J. K. Stow. 
H.Smith. 

B. F. Schlecht. 
.1. Stevenson. 
1). Sinipkins. 

F. Sichttnlierg. 

C. W. Skill. 
F. Street. 
J. Smith. 

J. S. Smith. 
n. p. Snyder. 
W. Streoper. 
H. Steflins. 
T. Simpson. 
T. Shields. 
R. H. Strought. 
C. S. Turner. 



168 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN (BOUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



H. G. Thorn. 

G. C. Truea.x. 

C. S. Tyndall. 

J. Thomas. 

H. Todd. 

C. Ulrich. 

C. Ulrich. 

J. G. Vanneman. 

J. Wells. 

L. A. Westcoat. 

T. Walker. 

G. Wannan. 

A. J. Walker. 
S. Wilson. 

B. Ware. 
A. Wolf. 
W. Wallace. 
J. Woerner. 
W. Wilson. 



8. W. White. 
.7. C. W' are. 
J. C. Whippy. 
L. P. Wilson. 
T. 6. Williams. 
G. Warr. 

D. Wells. 

J. Williams. 
W. Wells. 

E. Watson. 
E. P. Wilson. 
W. J. Wood. 
C. Winters. 

C. H. Wennel. 

D. R. Winner. 
.T. C. Young. 

C. Yeager. 

D. C. Yourison. 
M. Zimmerman. 



Neceoi.ogy. — The following i.'* a com- 
plete list, as far as can be obtained from the 
Grand Army Posts and the sextons of the 
varions cemeteries of Camden County, of the 
soldiers whose remains lie in the places 
named : 

CAMTEN CEMETERY. 

(One hundred and thirty-five buried here.) 



Samuel R. Pain. 
James Coleman. 
Howard Dewees. 
George Williams. 
James F. Ross. 
Ottis G. Sanderson. 
John S. Normine. 
Martin Etfinger. 
Samuel Miller. 
Jacob Price. 
George Roedel. 
Andrew Merkle. 
Isaac Dougherty. 
Samuel B. Carter. 
Lieut. Thos. S. Stewart. 
Charles P. Horton. 
John Miller. 
C. B. McBride. 
Johan Diehl. 
J. F. Fisher. 
Alfred Bernard. 
Corpl. J. R. McOowan. 
J. H. Dutton. 
James Eiuely. 
Charles Ilclmutli. 
William I). Richardson. 



James Conover. 

Conover. 

Harris. 

Harris. 

• teorge Elder. 
William Dorsey. 
Abner Subers. 
James Smallvvood. 
William L. Gray. 
John Moran. 
I). \y. Morton. 
Joliii Robinson. 
William WiLson. 
William W. Whittaker. 

Felden [father]. 

Felden [son]. 

Clayton Edwards. 
Samuel J. Griflee. 

Biddle. 

Elijah Davis. 
Christian Hess. 
James GriflTec. 
Suton (xchweiler. 
Edward Eckc. 

Price. 

l.,anc. 



Thomas C. Surran. 
.lohn Thornton. 
James Hollingsworth. 
William Hampton. 
J. H. Dutton. 
C H. Cleaver. 
T. J. Cheeseman. 



Heinrieh Rauser. 
Joseph Pike. 
John B. Nevins. 
William W. Howe. 

Elberson. 

Elberson. 

John P. Cannon. 



Capt. J. R.Cunningham. Brinnisholtz. 

Corp. James Ireland. ('. H. Kleavor. 

Corp. Peter Shivers. 

Samuel Yates. 

Abraham Stow. 

Andrew O. Steinmets 

Jacob Hirsch. 



Conly. 

Benjamin Anderson. 

James Griffe. 

Price. 

J. G. Johnson. 
John P. Grant. Augustus F. S. Singleton. 

Adam Kolb, Sr. John Williams. 

Adam Kolb, Jr. Daniel Rowan. 

Sibenlist. James C. Lewis. 

Sibenlist. Robert Middleton. 

Ware. George Brooks. 

War of 1812. — billin(;sport. 
Capt .William Newton. John Smith. 
Daniel S. Carter. 
Nathan A. Carter, sexton, No. .33, North Fourth 

Street. 



EVERCiREEN C 

Joseph Bontemps. 
Alexander Nicholls. 
Lewis Kenney. 
Jonas T. Hull. 
Wm. D. Richardson. 
Albert Kemble. 
Morris R. Giles. 
Joseph S. Fletcher. 
Joseph McAllister. 
Charles M. Ferat. 
John Schack. 
Christian He.ss. 
William A. Tat em. 
George H. Snyder. 
Joseph L. Coles. 
E. T. Davis. 
H. Dieckman. 
Richard W. Parsons. 
Alonzo D. Nichols. 
.John Miles. 
James H. Kerns. 
1). R. Cowperthwaite. 
(ieo. W. Roseman. 
]•:. Miles. 
William Malone. 
Thomas R. Middleton 
E. C. R. WoodrnlV. 
James J. Snow. 



EMETERY (cAMDE??). 

John M. Ehillman. 
Wm. H. Schwab. 
F. G. S. Pfeiffer, M.D. 
Captain James Snow. 
William H. Sugden. 
Heju-y K. Patton. 
William P. Reeves. 
1st Lt. Saml. J. Malone. 
Capt. Frank M. Malone. 
Col. W. B. Hatch. 
Joseph A. Beck- 
1st Lt. William M. Sh iw. 
Joseph C. Huyck. 
Joseph C. Vanneman, 

(Surg. IT. S. N.) 
Thomas James Howell. 
William G. licake. 
John Robertson. 
IstLt. S. .\.Steinmctz. 
Thomas R. McKenney. 
Robert (i. Clark. 
William B. BcMJamin. 
K. C. Allen. 
L. H. Marker. 
William Hutchinson. 
. Edward B. Brown. 
Thomas Herbert. 
Thomas Kellv. 



THE WAR F(3R THE UNION. 



Edgar Reeve. 
John E. Stratton. 
Samuel W. Mattson. 

Hansell. 

George R. Augell. 
John Wallace. 
Joshua F. Stone. 
Colonel Martin Seldon. 
John W. Bear. 
William J. Paul. 
Daniel Smith. 
Alonzo W. Schuler. 
Jacob H. (iilmore. 



R. F. Sherman. 
E. F. Locke. 
C. B. Carter. 
Andrew McCartney. 
S. E. Somers. 
J. W. Norton. 
C. E. Githen.s. 
James Carpenter. 
William B.Shult. 
Charles H. Billings. 
Jeremiah Berry. 
Capt. Henry Z. Gibson. 
Chas. G. P.Goforth. 



CEDAR (iRdVE fEME I'Eli Y ((i I.OHCESTER dTY). 



Thomas Shaw. 
Corp. Miles Blakely. 
Ale.xander Work. 
Peter Rancoru. 

Fithian. 

Ginn. 

John JIarshall. 
James A. Schotield. 
Stephen A. Briggs. 
John Lincoln. 
Chas. H. Cordery. 
John Herron. 
Wm. Hutchinson. 
Henry Simpkins. 
Brig.-tJen. ,1. Willian 
Thomas HoH'. 
John Sands. 
(Jabriel Surran. 
.lames Kane. 
.Tames McElmoyle. 
Thomas B. Campbell. 
John E. Miller. 
Peter D. Hewlings. 
.loseph Davis. 
Howell R. Davis. 
Joseph Bush. 



James Sipplc. 
Hiram Irvine. 
Wm. N. Groves. 
James Groves. 
Robert Berryman. 
Robert McAdoo. 
Arthur Powell. 
David Conklin. 
Abram Martin. 
James W. Moss. 
Philip H. Smith. 
Charles H. Hulings. 
Wm. H. Wilson. 
James A. Duddy. 
Wm. H. Stout. 
Wm. Tyas. 
Samuel Hootcn. 
Wm. Akens. 

Ford. 

John Gsborne. 
Joseph Barton. 
John Norton. 
.John Pew. 
Foster Stanford. 
Fritz Speigle. 
George W. Murray. 



METHODIST CEMETERY (HADDONFIELD.) 

John A. Fish. Franklin Hoops. 

Davis Rumford. Win. Henry Nutt. 

Richard Lippincott. Julin Bakely. 

Augn.stus Bare. Wm. McCarty. 

Lewis Rumford. Josiah Fish. 

Isaac Arterburn. Isaac Cade. 

BAPTIST CEMETERY (HAnDONFIELD.) 

James Fortner. James Brick. 

Lorenzo Jess. Wm. H. Hoey. 

Samuel Wilson. Levi E. Bate.s. 

Saml. Eggman. Charles Scott. 

' In Revolutionary War; died 1806. 



Ashbrook. .John W. Swinker. 

Jacob Dill. Alfred Kcn'tner. 

Silas Gartledge. Lawrence. 

James Young. 

UNION CEMETERY' (ul.OUCESTER CITY). 

George Hoffman. Thomas Pancoast. 

Chakley Cheeseman. John Jordan. 



Thomas Cheeseman. 
George Elmbark. 
Wm. Russell. 

ST. MARY'S CEMETERY (( AI'IH 



Edward Russell. 
Richard Wilson. 



il.OUCESTER 



Patrick Reilly. 
.las. Cooney. 
John O'Neill. 
Daniel Kelly. 
Michael McGrorey. 
James McGrorey. 
Wm. Lenny. 
Patrick Boylan. 
Edward Cole. 
John Cloran. 
Timothy Cloran. 
Edward Burroughs. 
Christopher Dolan. 
Francis Queen. 
John Berzell. 
Thomas Guigan. 
James White. 
Patrick Waters. 
Michael Hurley. 
Constantine O'Neill. 
William Leo. 
James Daly. 
Johnson's cemetery (stockton township). 



Edward Tool. 
Matthew Finuegan. 
Wm. McElhone. 
Nicholas Brady. 
Henry AIcElhone. 
Florence Sullivan. 
Michael Corcoran. 
Joseph Brady. 
Thomas Ageu. 
Christopher Winters. 
I'.itrick McGuire. 
Daniel Kenuey. 
.Michael Callahan, 
.lohn Kenney. 
.lames McCanu. 
James Byers. 
Hugh Hines. 
Thomas Sweeny. 
John Reilly. 
James BIcNally. 
Michael Devlin. 



Nathaniel Stout. 
Thomas Ryan. 
Josiah Pruitt. 
Jacob Brisco. 
David Whiting. 
James H. Menoken. 
Josiah Shipley. 
Edward Shipley. 
Henry Ramsey. 



George S. Menoken. 
Edward Barnard. 
George H. Stewart, 
.loseph Wells. 
Amos W. Nash. 
Theopliilus Peterson. 
James Weeks. 
John Ryan- 
John Miller. 



COLESTOWN CEMETERY (cAMDEN COUNTY). 

Capt. Wm. C. Shinn. Abram Middlcton. 



Abraham Browning. 
Joseph Cline. 
Joseph Errickson. 
J. Stokes Evans. 
Bowman Hendry. 
James Henry. 
Theodore W. Kain. 



■Vrchibald Scott. 
William Shaw. 
Richard C. Schriner. 
William H. Snyder, 
.lob E. Stockton. 
Stacy G. Stockton. 
Samuel West. 



Wm. Henry Lewallen. John J. White. 



170 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COT'NTY. NEW JEESEY 



The Graxp Army of the Republic. — 
All honorably-discharged soldiers and sailors 
who have served in the army or navy of the 
United States are entitled to membership in 
the Grand Army of the Repul)lic. In this 
respeet it is the first organization of its kind 
effected in this country or elsewhere. Soon 
after the close of the Revolution, army socie- 
ties were formed which were composed of 
commissioned officers and their descendants. 

The most prominent of these was the fam- 
ous Society of the Cincinnati, which still has 
an existence. Army and corps organizations 
of the War of 1812 and of the Mexican War 
have existed for social and convivial purposes? 
but none of these societies named have been 
ba.sed on the principle of mutual aid in time 
of need, or comprehended purposes so exalted 
as those eaibi'aced in the declaration of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, namely, " Fra- 
ternity, charity, loyalty." This society, whose 
purpose is to band together the men who wore 
the blue during the war, originated in the 
We.st. To Colonel B. F. Stephenson, M.D., 
of Springfield, Illinois, is given the credit of 
being the first person who formulated the 
plans of its noble aims. The first post was 
organized at Dakota, Illinois, in 18fi6. The 
idea of extending the organization was com- 
municated to many army associates. A State 
Department Encampment was organized in 
Illinois on the 12th of July, 1866, under 
Colonel Stephenson. In the month of No- 
vember of the same year a National Encamp- 
ment was organized at Indianapolis, with 
representatives present from nearly all the 
Northern States. These encampments have 
been held annually since then, in various lo- 
calities of the Union. The State became di- 
vided into districts, and the organization of 
posts was exceedingly rapid. Six months 
after the date of the formation of the society 
fort}' thousand men through the Northern 
States were enrolled as members. The first 
department organization in the State of New 
Jersey was effected in the month of Jarmary, 



1868. The memljership of the order in this 
State in 1884 was reported at five thousand 
two hundred and seventy-nine. The entire 
membership in the United States for the same 
year was two hundred and thirty-three thou- 
sand five hundred and ninety-five. Its mem- 
bership is now estimated at three hundred 
thousand, more than one-fourth of the sur- 
vivors of the war. 

Under the auspices of the order thousands 
of camp-fires, fairs, reunions and banquets 
have been held. These revive the sufferings 
and sacrifices and recall the unwritten history 
of the war. At these meetings no rank is 
recognized, save that conferred by the order, 
and any member is eligible to any position in 
its gift. 

The history of various posts now existing 
in the city and county of Camden are here 
given, according to the date organization. 

Thomas M. K. Lee Post, No. o, of Cam- 
den, was organized in January, 1876, in 
Camden, with eighty-five charter-members. 
The first officers of the post were as fol- 
lows : 

Post Cominaudor, Edmund May ; Senior Vice- 
Commander, Samuel Hufty; Junior Vice-Comman- 
der, George W. Gile ; Surgeon, James A. Arm- 
strong, M.D. ; Chaplain, August H. Lung ; Officer 
of the Day, Benjamin Carlin ; Offii-er of the Guard, 
Robert B. McCovvau ; Quartermaster, Josepli C. 
Nichols ; Adjutant, Alexander Nichols. 

At the first meeting of the post it was 
unanimously decided to honor a gallant soldier 
of General Philip Kearny's Second Brigade, 
by adopting the name of " Thomas M. K. 
Lee Post." The following is a complete 
roster of this po.st for 1886 : 

Commander, David M. Spence; Senior Vice, 
Benjamin C. Coles ; Junior Vice, William Thomp- 
son ; Adjutant, J. Ivelly Brown ; Surgeon, William 
P. Hall ; Officer of the Day, Samuel Hufty ; Otficer 
otthe Guard, Joseph W Ore; Chaplain, Harry L. 
Hartshorne; Quartermaster, William Whitely ; 
Quartermaster-Sergeant, William H. Rightmire; 
Sergeant-Major, William ChandUr. 

( 'om rades. 
John S. Adams. W. R. Anderson. 



THE WAK FOR THE UNION. 



L. Andrews. 
John W. Ayres. 
R. T. BarL'lay. 
John Bamford. 
George Barrett. 
Thomas Bates, Sr. 
Charles F. Bender. 
William P. Besser. 
James C. Blackuood. 
Edward Blanck. 
William Blanck, Sr. 
George W. Blanck. 
William Bovell. 
Charles P. Beyer. 
David B. Brown. 
J. Kelly Brown. 
W. M. Burns. 
Ci. W. Burroughs. 
Benjamin F. Carlin. 
James Carrigan. 
James E. Cai'son. 
J. Caskey. 

Charles B. Capewell. 
William H. Chandler. 
Jesse Chew. 
William H. H. Clark. 
John Clifford. 
Joseph Cline. 
John Coates, Sr. 
John W. Coates, 
Benjamin D. Coley. 
Reuben D. Cole. 
William H. Cooper. 
Albert G. Crane. 
Charles Cregar. 
John Cromie. 
And. J. Cunningham. 
George R. Dannehower 
George F. Deaves. 
John Derry. 
Albert C. Dildine. 
John W. Donges. 
George X. Dresser. 
M. S. Ellis. 
Thomas T. Estworthy. 
Theodore F. Fields. 
Samuel Flood. 
Joseph B. Fox. 
Henry B. Francis. 
B. F. Gault. 
George W. Gile. 
W. E. Gilling. 
William Gleason. 
Thomas R. Grapevine. 
W. S. Grigg. 



.1(1. 



William P. Hail. 
Leonard S. Hart. 
H. L. Hartshorn. 
Thomas Harm an. 
R. G. Hann. 
J. Haynes. 
Charles H. Helnd)^ 
A. S. Helms. 
S. Henderson. 
Richard N. Herring. 
Robert M. Hilluian. 
Charles A. Hotchkiss. 
Thomas Hoy. 
Samuel Hufty. 
David W. J. Hutton. 
David O. Hunter. 
Mahlon F. Ivins. 
Samuel Jackaway. 
Stephen M. Janney. 
Frank S. Jones. 
Charles Kalt. 
Benjamin L. Kellum. 
Robert King. 
William H. Kingley. 
Edward D. Knight. 
Frank L. Knight. 
Joseph C. Lee. 
Richard H. Lee. 
David B. Litzeuberg. 
George W. Loughlin. 
William Madison. 
Edward W. Madison. 
David F. Matthews. 
Edmund May. 
William T. Mead. 
Jonas Melloi. 
Matthew Miller. 
Michael Morgan. 
Daniel B. Murphy. 
Robert B. McCowan. 
Andrew McCready. 
John McMain. 
John Noll. 
John North, Jr. 
Joseph W. Ore. 
William M. Palmer. 
Charles N. Pelouze. 
John B. Peters. 
William H. Righlmirt 
Clarence L. Ross. 
John D. Sargeant. 
Conrad Schwoerer. 
(ieorge W. Scott. 
James M. Scovel. 
John K. Seagreaves. 



William Thompson. 
Albert F. Tilton. 
Baker D. Tomlin. 
Zebulon T. Tompkins. 
John L. Topham. 
John Trimble. 
John F. Tudor. 
George Urban. 
Theodore Verlander. 
Charles H. Walker. 
Samuel S. Weaver. 
William H. Wheaton. 
William Whitely. 
Virgil Willett. 
George E. Wilson. 
George W. Wood. 
William T. G. Young. 
Charles G. Zimmerman. 



Junius E. Severance. 
William J. Sewell. 
.Tames H. Shannon. 
William H. Shearman. 
Isaac W. Shinn. 
Samuel E. Sheetz. 
John C. Shute. 
Charles Shivers, Jr. 
William L. Skinner. 
William H. Simpson. 
William B. Smith. 
David M. Spence. 
.\rthur Stanley. 
William H. Stan.sberg. 
Charles Steeger. 
William Stillings. 
John J. Stone. 
James M. Stradliug. 
H. Genet Taylor. 

Captain Thomas M. K. Lee, Jk., early 
iu 1861, ideutified himself with the troops 
who volunteered from the city of Camdeu. 
He enlisted a.s a private in (,^ompauy F, 
Fourth Regiment New Jersey Volunteer 
Militia ; was promoted sergeant and served 
with the regiment until disharged at expir- 
ation of term of service, July 31, 1861. He 
enlisted August 9, 1861, in Company 1, 
Sixth Regiment New Jersey Volunteer In- 
fantry, for three years. September 9, 1861, 
he was commissioned first lieutenaut of the 
company; and, on January 16, 186;J, was 
commissioned as captain of C'ompany K of 
his regiment. He commanded the regiment 
from Spottsylvania Court-Hou.se, Va., to 
North Anna River ; was detailed judge-ad- 
vocate on the staiFof Brigadier-General i\lc- 
Allister, commanding Third Brigade, Third 
Division, Second Array Coi-ps, and as the 
same under Major-General Gershom Mott. 
He was mustered out with his regiment Sep- 
tember 7, 1864. 

With his regiment he participated in the 
following battles : 

Siege of Yorktown, \'a., April and May, 18(12; 
Williamsburg, Va., May 5,1862; Fair Oaks, June 
1 and 2, 1862; Seven Pines, Va., June 25,1862; 
Savage Station. Va., June 29, 1862 ; Malvern Hill, 
Va., July 1,1862; Brislow Station, Va., August 



172 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COINTY', NEW JERSEY. 



27, 18i;2 ; Second Bull Run, August29, 1862; CLan- 
tilly, Va., September 1, 1862; Centreville, Va., 
September 2, 1862 ; Fredericksburg, Va., Decem- 
ber 13 and 14, 1862; Chancellorsville, Va., May 3 
and4, 1862; Gettysburg, Pa., July 2 and 3, 1863; 
Wappiiig Heights, Va., October 15 1863 ; Mine 
Run, Xa., November 29 and 30, 1863 ; Wilderness, 
Va., May 5 to 7, 1864; Spottsylvania, Va., May 8 
to 11, 1864; Spottsylvania Uourt-House, Va., May 
12 to IS, 1864 ; North Anna River, Va., May 23 to 
24, 1864; Tolopotomy Creek, Va., May 30, 1864 ; 
Cold Harbor, Va., June 1 to 5, 1864 ; Petersburg, 
Va., June 16 to 23, 1864 ; Deep Bottom, Va., July 
25 to 27, 1864; Mine Explosion, Va., July 30, 1864 ; 
North Bank James River, Va., August 14 to IK, 
18(i4; Ream's Station, Va., August 25, 1864 ; wu.s 
wounded in the head at battle of Chancellorsville ; 
was wounded in face and neck at battle of Spott- 
sylvania. 

He returnerl to Cauulen after the war ami 
wa.s elected, in 1865, as couuty clerk, and 
held the position for five years. He died 
December 10, 1873, aged thirty-seven years, 
and wa.s buried in Evergreen Cemetery. A 
wife and one child survive him. 

WiLi-iAM B. Hatch Post, No. 37, of 
(-amden, was instituted and chartered No- 
veod)er 25, 1879, with eighty-one members 
and the following named Post officers : 

Post Commander, John R. Grubb; Senior Vice- 
Commander, Richard J. Robertson ; Junior Vii'c- 
Commander, Daniel J. Fullen ; Surgeon, Thomas 
G. Rowand, M.D. ; Chaplain, John Quick ; Officer 
of the Day, John A. Dall ; Officer of the Guard, 
Edmund G. Jackson, Jr.; Quartermaster, Chris. J. 
Mines, ,)r. ; .Xdjiitant, Benjamin J. Pierce; Ser- 
geant-Major, William A. Tattern ; Quartermaster- 
Sergeant, William B. E. Miller. 

At the first meeting of the Post it was de- 
citled by a unanimous vote to name it in 
honor of the late Colonel William B. Hatch, 
oi' the Fourth Regiment. When Mrs. C. 
Hatch, the mother of the colonel, was in- 
formed that the post had honored the memory 
of her sijn by naming it after him, she sent 
to the Post the following respon.se : 

"Camdrn, N. J., November 26th, 1879. 
" .loUN R. Grubb, Post Commander. 

" De.\r Sir,— It will aflbrd me much 
pleasure to be identified with Post 37, G. A. R., 



named in honor of my sou, William B. Hatch, by 
allowing me to present to the same its colors. The 
memory of my son is ever dear to nie, and, while 
at the same moment I may have thought the sac- 
rifice too great an affliction, yet I was consoled 
by the fiict that I gave him up that this Union 
might be jireserved. It was duty and patriotism 
that called him, and while I mourn him as a mother 
for a well-beloved son, yet I would not have stayed 
him, for the love of country and the upholding of 
this glorious Republic is what every mother should 
instil into her sons, as the purest and holiest spirit. 
Yours truly, 

"C. Hatch." 

^riie following is a complete roster for the 
year 1 886 : 

Post Commander, Benjamin H. Connelly ; Senior 
Vice-Commander, Adam C. Smith ; Junior Vice- 
Commander, William Haegele ; Surgeon, George 
Pfau ; Chaplain, Samuel Gaul ; Otficer of the Day, 
Robert Crawford ; Officer of the Guard, John D. 
Cooper ; Quartermaster, Samuel J. Fenner ; Ad- 
jutant, William B. Summers; Sergeanl-Major, 
Stacy H. Bassett; Quartermaster-Sergeant, Otto 
K. Lockhart. 

Comrades. 
Philip Achenbach. J. Q. Burniston. 

George L. Allchin. George Burton; 

Isaac Albertson. Frederick Buser. 

Joseph Applegate. Thomas L. Bush. 

John W. Barclay. William Butcher. 

Martin M. Barney. Isaac B. Buzby. 

Joseph Baxter. Edward C. Cattell. 

William W. Bennett. Joseph Cameron. 
Charles L. Bennett. James H. Carey. 

Abel Biddle. William Carey. 

George K. Biddle. James Chadwick. 

Henry Bickeriug. James Chafey. 

John Bieri. George M. Chester. 

Robert M. Bingham. James D. Chester. 
Socrates T. Bittle. Lewis L. Chew. 

George W. Bittle. Henry S. Chew. 

Benjamin F. Blizzard. John W. Chniri. 
Joseph Borton. Andrew B. Cline. 

Frederick Bowers. Charles Clarke 

Benjamin M. Brakcr. Samuel J. Cook. 
John Breyer. Levi R. Cole. 

William H. Brians. John J. Collins. 

Wm. J. Broadwater. John C. Cooper. 
William Broadwater. John W. Cotner. 
.lohn Brown. Thomas L. Conly. 

Harris Brooks. Harvey M. Cox. 

William H. Brooks. Jason S. Cox. 

Joseph F. Bryan. Harris Crane. 

Joseph Buddew. Charles Cress. 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



173 



Joel G. C'ros^i. 
O. 0. Cunninghiuii. 
John A. Dall. 
John Dalby- 
John H. Damon. 
Westley Dare. 
John E. Dawson. 
Adam T. Dawson. 
Jame.s L. Davis. 
William Davis. 
Amos R. Dease. 
Henry Deford. 
Lewis F. Derouase. 
Michael Devinney. 
Glendora Devo. 
John Digney. 
Joseph Dilks. 
William A. Dobbins. 
George W. Dunlaji. 
Christopher Ebele. 
Godfrey Eisenhart. 
John Elberson. 
Charles Elwell. 
Charles Eminecker. 
John Esler. 
John H. Evans. 
John J. Early. 
Aaron B. Eacritt. 
Charles S. Fackler. 
James Fanington. 
James A. Farraday. 
John H. Farry. 
John Faughey. 
Wm. H. Feulin. 
George G. Felton. 
George W. Ferguson. 
Charles W. Fish. 
Israel L. Fish. 
James Finnan. 
Samuel B. Fisher. 
Edward L. Fisher. 
Ephraim B. Fithian. 
Jacob T. Fisher. 
Edward Fitzer. 
Samuel Flock. 
Leonard Flor. 
John Fox. 
John S. Fo.x. 
H. H. Franks. 
Chas. B. Frazer. 
Thomas J. Francis. 
Samuel W. Gahan. 
Chas. H. Gale. 
James Galbraith. 
Thomas Garman. 



Harry ( iarrcn. 
John W. Garwood. 
Josiah Garrison. 
John B. Gaskill. 
Richard Gaunt. 
Wm. German. 
Christopher Getsinger. 
Christopher Git'ney. 
Jacob Girtens. 
Albert Gilbert. 
James Gillen. 
Wm. Gifflns. 
C. C. Greany. 
Charles Green. 
W. H. Griffin. 
Louis (irosskops. 
William Grindnid. 
John R. Grubb. 
Mark H. Guest. 
John Guice. 
Alfred Haines. 
Charles (x. Haines. 
Japhet Haines. 
George F. Hamnioiul. 
Charles Hall. 
Solon R. Hankinson. 
Samuel P. Hankinson. 
James Hanson. 
Charles Hannans. 
H. A. Hartranft. 
Mahlon Harden. 
William F. Harper. 
George W. Haytcr. 
Samuel B. Harbeson. 
J. T. Hazletun. 
H. Heinman. 
James Henderson. 
William H. Heward. 
Franklin Hewitt, 
.lames T. Hemniingway. 
Charles Hewitt. 
Edward K. Hess. 
Samuel B. Hickman. 
George Higgens. 
Ephraim Hillman. 
C. M. Hoagland. 
Gaudaloupe Holl. 
William A. Holland. 
Isaac K. Horner. 
Count D. G. Hogan. 
William H. Howard. 
Baxter Howe. 
Allen Hubbs. 
Charles G. Hunsiuger. 
Presmel D. Hughes. 



1. N. Hugg. 
Sebastian Hummel I. 
Edward Hutchinson. 
C. Innes. 
Alfred Ivins. 
Benjamin Ivins. 
E. G. Jackson, Sr. 
E. G. Jack.son, Jr. 
Thomas Jameson. 
George Jauss. 
William P. Jenkins. 
James L. Johnson. 
Alfred Jones. 

B. F. Jones. 
William Joline. 
Charles Joseph. 
Charles Justice. 

C. H. Kaiu. 
R. R. Kates. 
Benjamin Kebler. 
Frank Kebler. 
Peter Keen. 
Henry N. Killian. 
.1. W. Kinsey. 

C. H. Knowlton. 
Thomas W. Krips. 
Joseph H. Large. 
John R. Leake. 
John Lecroy. 
Charles Leonhardt. 
Gefirge W. Locke. 
R. J. Long. 
Charles L. Lukens. 
J. H. Lupton. 
Valentine Machemer. 
Edward Macloskey. 
Edward A. Martin. 
William P. Marsh. 
John Mapcs. 
William Mead. 
William Metealf 
E. A. Meyer. 
C. Meyers. 
George Meilor. 
C. A. Michener. 
William B. E. Miller. 
Jacob Miller. 
W. D.Miller. 
Samuel Mills. 
William W. Mines. 
Christopher J. Mines. 
George Molesbury. 
William Moran. 
Edward More. 
Richard Morgan. 



Jolm F. Moore. 
S. II. Moyer. 
Jacob L. Morton. 
John Muir. 
John J. Murphy. 
Isaac Murray. 
Charles Myers. 
W. H. McAllister. 
James McCracken. 
Edward C. McDowell. 
Hugh McGrogan. 
H. M. Mcllvaine. 
W.F.McKillip. 
W.J. McNeir. 
Lewis McPhersoM. 
R. McPherson. 
Jacob Naglee. 
William Kaphas. 
Antonio Nosardi. 
Robert O'Keefe. 
John S. Owens. 
Robert Owens. 
Edward H. Pancoast. 
James Pancoast. 
Robert B. Patterson. 
William Patterson. 
E. W. Pease. 
John B. Pepper. 
Joel Perrine. 
John Peterson. 
D. E. Peugh. 
Frederick Phile. 
Sanuiel B.Pine. 
William M. Pine. 
Adon Powell. 
John Powell. 
John Portz. 
J. B. Prucelle. 
John Quick. 
S. E. Radclifie. 
I. C. Randolph. 
James A. Regens. 
Philip Reilly. 
Charles P. Reynolds. 
Alexander Rhodes. 
Benjamin F. Richard. 
Andrew Ridgway. 
Benjamin Robbins. 
Edward C. Roberts. 
James Roberts. 
Richard J. Robertson. 
William B. Robertson. 
Isaac Rogers. 
John Rogers. 
William H. Rogers. 



174 



HISTORY OF (JAMUEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY 



Thomas G. Rowand. 
Sebastian Schaub. 
Maurice Schmidt. 
Christian K. Schallers. 
James Schofield. 
George W. Scott. 
John R. Scott. 
John M.Sheraelia. 
Edward M. Siemers. 
John Simmons. 
Benjamin F. Shinn. 
Thomas Sheeran. 
James Shiekl. 
Charles Smith. 
George H. Smith. 
William W. Smith. 
Charles S. Small. 
Adolph Snow. 
W. Souder. 
Francis Souders. 
Robert Sjiarks. 
David C. Sprowl. 
Alfred L. Sparks. 
Abraham Springer. 
George W. Ste\Yart. 
William L.Stevenson. 
Thomas G. Stephenson. 
Samuel R. Stockton. 
Thomas Stockton. 
Henry Strick. 
E. J. Strickland. 
Thomas H. Stone. 
Charles Siring. 
George F. Stull. 
George W. Swaney. 
Crosby Sweeten 
William A. Tatem. 
William F. Tarr. 
Thomas S. Tanier. 
G. R. Tenner. 
Charles L. Test. 
Leonard Thomas. 
Benjamin Thomas- 
Henry C. Thomas. 

The Po.st meets every Thursday evening 
in their own G. A. R. Hall, on Stevens 
Street, below Fifth Street. 

Colonel Willia,vi B. Hatch was the 
son of the late William B. Hatcli, of Cam- 
den. As a youth he developed a fondness 
for military life. After his father's death 
he visited Europe, and spent several months 
in observation of the military systems of the 



George F. Thorne. 
Wesley Thorn. 
Thomas W. Thornely. 
Alexander W. Titus. 
Joseph Tompkins. 
J. E. Troth. 
Isaac C Toone. 
Samuel Tyler. 
Jacob M. Van Nest. 
Albert Vansciver. 
Joseph Wakeman. 
Theodore F. Walker. 
Liharles Walton. 
George Walton. 
Joseph Welsh. 
David Watson. 
George W. Wentling. 
Edward West. 
Elmer M. West. 
George Weyraan. 
Wilmer Whillden. 
James Whittaker. 
Samuel Wickward. 
Amos P. Wilson. 
G. A. Wilson. 
Richard Wilson. 

D. H. Wilson. 
Calvin T. Williams. 
George W. Williams. 
William H. Williams. 
John Williams. 
Samuel Winner, 
(leorge Wispert. 
John W. Wood. 
Joseph Woodfield. 
Walter Wolfkill. 

E. W. Wolvertoii. 
Elijah Worthington. 
C. M. Wright. 
George B. Wright. 
Henry S. Wright. 
Wesley T. Wright. 
William Zane. 



Continent. Upon the breaking out of the late 
war he was appointed adjutant of the Fourth 
Regiment New Jersey Militia, under Colonel 
Miller, and served with that regiment in 
the three months' service. Upon the organ- 
ization of the Fourth New Jersey Volunteer 
Regiment for the three years' service he was 
offered and accepted the commission of major 
of the regiment, and very soon after was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel. With the 
Fourth Regiment he .served under Generals 
Kearny and Taylor, and as a part of General 
Franklin's division, Sedgewick's Sixth Army 
Corps. He took an active part in the Peninsula 
campaign under General j\[cCiellan. At the 
battle of Gaines' Mills tlie Fourth Regiment 
fought bravely for hours, but were finally 
surrounded and captured by the enemy, with 
his fellow-officers and companions. Colonel 
Hatch was carried a prisoner to Richmond, 
where for many weeks he sustained the 
horrors of the rebel pri.son. After being 
exchanged he rejoined his regiment, and soon 
after was (commissioned its colonel. His 
commissions date as follows : Major of the 
Fourth Regiment New Jersey Volunteers, 
Augu.st 17, 1861 ; lieutenant-colonel, Sep- 
tember 7, 18(31 ; and colonel, August 28, 
18(52. He participated with his regiment in 
the following engagements : 

West Point, Va., May 7, '62 ; Gaines' Mill, Va., 
June 27, '62; Manassas, N'a., AugiLst 27, '62; 
Chantilly, Va., September 1,"62; Cram pton's Pass, 
Md., September 14, '62 ; Antietam, Md., Septem- 
ber 17, '62 ; Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, '62. 

In this last battle he fell mortally wounded 
at the head of his regiment, while leading 
them to the attack upon the enemy's works. 
He was conveyed to the field hospital near 
Falmouth, Va., where his leg was ampu- 
tated. He tiled two days later, on December 
15, 1862, and his remains were returned to 
Camden- and interred in the cemetery. To 
such au extent had he gained the love and 
appreciation of his command that they 
collected iu the field six hundred dollars, and 



THE WAR FOR THE UNION. 



175 



])urohasecl and presented to liim a heautitul 
dapple gray horse called the " Grey Warrior," 
which afterwards became the property of 
General A. T. A. Torbert. This famou.s 
horse died at General Torbert's lionie in 
Delaware in 1882. 

The Loyal Ladies' League.— Hatch 
League, No. 2, L. L. L., auxiliary to Wil- 
liam B. Hatch Post, No. .37, Grand Army of 
the Republic, was instituted in Camden in 
January, 1873, with forty-two chart(M- mem- 
bers. The object of the association is to 
unite in fraternal bonds the families of 
honorably discharged soldiers and sailors 
who served during the ('ivil War, to aid the 
Post in whatever way assi.stance may be 
needed, and to aid in keeping sacred the 
solemnities of Decoration Day. 

In the interest of William B. Hatch Post 
the League has instituted and held three fairs, 
five bean suppers, one Japanese tea party, two 
dairy-maid festivals, twelve sociables and 
two fruit festivals. The proceeds of these 
entertainments, amounting to three thousand 
five hundred and twenty-nine dollars, were 
]iaid over to the Post by the finance com- 
mitttee of the League. In addition to this, 
the League has presented the Post with a 
large and valuable collection of relics from 
the battle-field of Gettysburg, and has 
assisted in purchasing and furnishing the 
Post hall, on Stevens Street, below Fifth. 

The following is a complete roster of the 
League at this date (1886) : 

President, Emma L. Devinney ; S. V., Emeline 
Howe; J. v., Mary A. Stockton; secretary, Mattie 
H. CTarrison ; treasurer, Mary A. Guest; chaplain, 
Harriet (i. Williams ; Conductress, Emma Rohr- 
niiin ; Guard, Mary Ehvell. 

Memhers. 
Ida L. Acheiibach. Lizzie Butcher. 

Loui.sa Allen. Mary .lane Cooper. 

Theresa Anderson. Elizabeth Cope. 

Kate Baker. Mary E.Corcoran. 

Fannie Bennett. Cornelia Co.\. 

Ellen Biddle. Emma Dease. 

Rebecca Bovell. Rebecca Eldridge. 

Amanda Butcher. Marv A. Elwell. 



Mary Fenton. 
Susan Franks. 
Mattie B. Garrison. 
Emma Gaskill. 
Ellen Gleason. 



Laura McNeir. 
Elizabeth McLaughlin. 
Imogene Meyers. 
Ada Miller. 
Rav Milliette. 



Dilwinna Greenwood Mary E. MofBt. 

AunaE. Grubb. Rebecca Nelson. 

Mary Guest. Mary Parsons. 

Anuie M. Hagele. Mary Pine. 

Mary E. Hankinson. Elizabeth Portz. 

Sallie X. Hankinson. Anna M. Quick. 

Mary V. Hewitt. Ruth Ross. 

Kate Holt. Emma Rei^ens. 

Henrietta Holland. Hannah Robinson. 

Hannah Horner. Lydia Roray. 

Emeline C. Howe. Rachel Sinkinson. 

Sallie D. Hugg. Annie Smick. 

Emma Ivins. .Teunie Smith. 

Hannah G. Ivins. Maria F.Smith. 

Elizabeth .lobes. Amanda Stratton. 

Catherine .Johnson. Fannie Strickland. 

Priscilla .Tohuson. Minnie T. Summers. 

Annie E. Johnson. Amanda Thomas. 

Emily Kinsey. Ketnrah Tenner. 

Nellie Lane. Hannah Vanhart. 

.\nnie Lang. Sarah A. Wakinuiri. 

Arietta Lewis. Anna E. Walker. 

Mary E. Lupton. Ellen Walton. 
Amanda Mason. 

Department Otficers : Mrs. Anna E. Grubb, depart- 
ment president; Mrs. Laura McNeir, department 
secretary. 

Past Presidents: Mrs. Sarah D. Hugg, Mrs. 
Mattie B. Garrison. 

The League meets every Tuesdav evening 
in (irand Army Hall, Stevens Street, below 
Fifth Street. 

William P. Roheson Po.st, No. 51, of 
Gamden (the first post in New Jersey com- 
posed of colored soldiers), was instituted and 
organized June 28, 1881, with twenty-five 
charter members. 

The following is a complete roster of the 
Post at this date (1886) : Past Commanders, 
W. S. Darr and W. A. Drake ; Post Com- 
mander, Miles Bishop ; Senior Vice, Chas. 
Jones ; Junior Vice, Ezekiel Jones ; Surgeon, 
George Lodine; Chaplain, August Westcott ; 
Adjutant, Charles Accoo ; C)fficerof the Day, 
Anthony Austin ; Officer of the Guard, George 
Bishop ; Quartermaster, John C. Richard- 



•176 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



son ; Quartermaster-Sergeant, Joseph Rice ; 
Sergeant-Major, George H. Watson. The 
other members are Jas. Wiltbanks, Nathaniel 
Ingram, Wm. Ingram, Wm. INI. Butts, Wm. 
Smith, Hezekiah Wreneh, Benj. Stewart, 
Elijah Hammitt, Chas. Barnes, Shepiierd 
Pitts, C'has. AVoolford, Elijah l^ipiiiger, 
Thomas Ryan, George F. Johnson, Charles 
Ford. 

The Post meets in Lee's Hall, corner of 
Broadway and Atlantic Avenue. 

Generai, Wieijam p. Robeson, Jr., 
enlisted early in 1861, and was enrolled with 
the first brigade of three years' troops which 
left the State of New Jersey. On May 28, 
1861, he was commissioned first lieutenant 
of Company K., Third Regiment, New Jersey 
Volunteers, General Kearny's First Brigade. 
He was promoted to captain of the same 
company August 13, 186"2. Wiiile with the 
Third Regiment he participated in the fol- 
lowing engagements : 

First Bull Run, Va., July 21, 18(>1 ; Muiison's 
Hill, Va., August 31, 1801 ; West Point, Va., May 
.7, 1862 ; Gaines' Farm, Va., June 27, 1862 ; Charles 
City Cross-Roads, Va., June 30, 18(i2 ; Malvern 
Hill, Va., July 1, 1862; Manassas, Va., August 
27, 1862; Chantilly, Va., September 1, 1862; 
Crampton's Hill, Md., 8e|)teniber 14, 1862; Anlie- 
tam, Md., .September 17, 1862 ; Fredericksburg, 
Va., December 13 and 14, 1862 ; Second Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., May 3, 1863 ; Salem Heights, Va., 
May 3 and 4, 1863 ; Gettysburg, Pa., July 2 and 3, 
1863 ; Fairfield, Pa., July 5, 1863 ; Witliamspdrt, 
Md., July 6, 1863 ; Fuuktown, Md., July 12, 1863 ; 
Rapi>ahannock Station, Va., October 12, 1863; 
Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 ; 
Mine Run, Va., November 30, 1863. 

After the last-named battle he was pro- 
moted and corami.ssioned as niajor n{' I lie 
Third New Jersey Cavalry, on nccenil)er ■_*8, 
1863. He was promoted to lieuteuanl- 
colonel of the regiment September 23, 18(il, 
and as colonel August 4, 1865, and received 
a eommi.ssion as brevet brigadier-general, 
dating back to April I, 1865, for gallant and 
meritorious .services in the battles of Five 
Forks and South Side Ilailroad, Va. He re- 



turned to his home in Camden after the war, 
and became a member of William B. Hatch 
Post, No. 37, G. A. R. He died August 18, 
1881, and was buried at Belvidere, New 
Jersey. 

John Wili.ian Post, No. 71, of Glou- 
cester, was chartered November 8, 1882, with 
the following-named comrades : 
Charles F. Lindsay. Samuel English. 

William Butler. Aden W. Powell. 

Thomas Black. James JI. Chapman. 

Richard R. Allen. John Harri.sou. 

J(din E. Jlillcr. William M. Lanagan. 

Frederick Tyas. Benj, F. Upham. 

.John Kochersperger. Lewis H. Riley. 
John Lincoln. Wm. (!, Hawkins. 

Klwood Fisher. .lohn Dayton. 

Walter W. Larkins. Stewart Harkins. 

William .\. (kahili. John M. Rapp. 

William Green. Joseph Cheeseman. 

Archibald Wallace. .lames Stitson. 

John O. Hines. Franklin Adams. 

The officers were, — Commander, Wm. 
Lanagan ; S. V. C, Stewart Hawkins ; J. 
V. C, John Harrison ; Adjutant, John O. 
Hines, Surgeon, R. R. Allen ; Chaplain, 
Elvvood Fi.sher ; Q.-M., John Kocher- 
sperger ; O. of D., James. M. Chapman ; 
O. of G., Lewis H. Riley; Q.-M.-S., B. F. 
Upham. The Past ( "ommandcrs have been 
Wm. N. Lanagan, Wm. C. Hawkins, 
Archibald Wallace, Walter W. Ijarkin and 
the corps of officers for 188(i : C., K. R. Al- 
len ; S. V. C., Frederick Tyas ; J. V. C., 
Merrick C^ai-r ; A., Charles M. McCracken ; 
Q.-M., B. F. Upham; Chaplain, Samuel 
Barwis ; Surgeon, Wm. C. Hawkins; O. of 
I)., Lewis H. Riley. This Post has twenty- 
two members. It was named after Brevet- 
General .lolm W'illian, who enlisted as 
seeiiiid liculenant in the Sixtii New Jersey 
Volnntcers in l.S(;i,and was [)ri>motc(l for 
meritorious .service. 

\'an Leer Post, No. 3(i, of (Jlouces- 
ter, was organized November 13, 1880, by 
Department Commander Samuel Hufly. 
The original officers were: P. C., John P. 
Booth ;' S. V. C, John W. \\rigiit ; J. V. 



THE WAR FOE TflE UNION. 



C, Frank W. Pike ; O. of D., Akxaiidur 
Hai-vf'v ; Q. M., William C. Hawkins ; 
Adjt., Benjamin Sands; O. of G., John 
McCormick. Tiie Past Commanders have 
been Joim P. Booth, John W. Wrigiit, 
Alexander Harvey, I^awrence Niitt, John 
Graham, William Miller. The officers for 
1886 are: C, Charles H. Barnard ; S. V. 
C, James Cooney ; J. V. C, James McCaf- 
ferty ; Adjt., Benjamin Sands; C^. M., Wm. 
Miller; (). of IX, William Gideon ; U. ofG., 
Alexander Fergasoii ; Chaplain, John Berg- 
man ; Snrgeou, Christopher Ottinger. 

The Post was named after Colonel Joim 
P. Van Leer, who was first lieutenant of a 
company of three months' men, enrolled in 
Gloucester three days after Fort Sumter was 
fired- on, and on returning he was made ma- 
jor of the Sixth Regiment of the three years' 
men, promoted lieutenant-colonel, and his 
commission as colonel was on its way to him 
when he was killed at Williamsburg. Geo. 
E. Wilson, of Camden, is an honorary mem- 
ber of this Po.st. He was captain in the com- 
pany with John P. Van I^eer, and was, like 
his comrade, consj)icuons for his bravery. 
Quite a number of the comrades of Van 
Leer Post rose from the ranks to positions of 
trust. 

Thomas H. Davis Post, No. 53, of 
Haddonfield, received a charter July 16, 
1882, and was organized a few days later, 
with twenty members, at Clement Hall, in 
tiiat township. In the summer of 1884 the 
Post purchased the Hillman School building 
on Chestnut Street, and fitted it for a hall, 
and in November of that year occupied it as 
their place of meeting. 

The officers at organization were, — 

p. C, Henry D. Moore ; S. V. C, Richard E. 
Elwell; J. V. C, Henry McConnell ; Adjutunt, 
William F. Milliman ; (iiiartermsister, Walter 
Wayne ; Officer of Day, Peter K. Eldridge; Officer 
of Guard, J. Collins Baker ; Surgeon, James P. 
Young; Chaplain, R. W. Budd. 

The Post Commanders who have served to 

•J3 



the present time have been H.D. Moore, R. E. 
p]lwell and .lames M. Latimer. The mem- 
bership is about fifty, and the present officers 
are, — 

P. C, W. H. Oakley ; S. V. C. R. Wilkin.s Budd ; 
J. V. C, J. O. Lee; Adjutant, R. E. Elwell ; tiuarler- 
uiaster, (tilbert L. Day; Officer of Day, Richard 
Plum; Officer of Guard, Patrick Plaughey ; Chap- 
lain, Samuel A. Bates; Surgeon, .Joseph P. Busha; 
(iuariermaster-Sergeant, Alired Anderson. 

The biography and [)cirirail of ('oloncl 
Thomas H. Davis, after whom this Post was 
named, will be found in the history of the 
\\'ar titr the Union. 



Coiiiradt 



Jacob Asay. 
Miles Bates. 
Robert Bales, 
.r. C. Baker. 
George H. Backley. 
.T. G. Bowker. 
John William Boyd. 
Josejdi Buzljy. 
Richard Baxter. 
Rest<jrc Crispin. 
H. C. Cuthbert. 
William Cobb. 
Henry Day. 
John Dowdrick. 
William H. Fowler. 
Josiah Fowler. 
Hiram Fish. 
.Jacob Gehring. 
George Harley. 
J. K. Haines. 
Alfred Hall. 
Thomas Caldwell. 
William R. Jones. 



James M. Latimer. 
Henry D. Moore. 
Jacob R. Jliller. 
Davis Marshall. 
Thoiiuis McManns. 
Edward F. Magill. 
G. Norton. 
(JeorgeM. Newkirk. 
Isaiah Kellum. 
Joel S. Perkins. 
William Pittiuger. 
W'illiam F. Millinum. 
•lohn B. Rumt'ord. 
Lewis Ivistine. 
Julius Smith. 
Charles H. Smith. 
J. R. Stevenson. 
George Sloan. 
0. B. Tiffimy. 
Walter Wayne. 
William Wagner. 
David D. Winner. 



The Sons of Veterans is a .society com- 
posed of descendants of soldiers of the late 
war. C^amp No. 1, Sons of Veterans, of 
Camden, was organized with nineteen mem- 
bers, December 21, 1881, by Comrade Rob- 
ert Crawford, first colonel of the New Jersey 
Division. The object of the association is 
to keep ever fresh and green the memory of 
their fathers' sacrifice in the battles of the 
Civil War. 

The following is a complete roster of the 
officers and members at this date (1886) : 



178 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Captain, Stacy Nevins ; First Lieutenant, 
Samuel Galiaii ; Second Lieutenant, E. E. Kiger ; 
Quartermaster, L. S. Jackson ; Ctiaplain, Albert 
Wolf; Orderly-Sergeant, Wui. Latt'erty ; Color- 
Sergeant, George Nevins ; Sergeant of Guard, A. 
R. Dease ; Corporal of Guard, F. Fernandes ; 
Camp Guard, Harry Siberlist. 

Members. 
William D. Brown. E. E. Jefferics. 

E. H. Bates. C. W. Jones. 

John C. Cooper. C. R. McAdams, 

Howard Cooper. James Myers. 

Robert Crawford. A. PJiel. 

Frederick Fenner. (xeorge Reigens. 

H. Horton. Wm. Sheridan. 

Cliarles Walton, Jr. 

The Camp hold their meetings in G. A. 
K. Hall of Colonel William B. Hatch Post. 

Sixth Rkgiment, National Guards. — 
In 1869 there were but two military com- 
panies connected with the State militia, one 
in the city of Camden and one in Burlington. 
By an act of the Legislature, approved in 
March, 1869, the old militia system of the 
State was abolished and a new law passeil 
organizing the National Guard. By an or- 
der from headquarters the two companies 
mentioned were constituted the Fifth Battal- 
ion of the Third Brigaile of the National 
Guard of the State of New Jersey, and E. (}. 
Jackson was commissioned as major and as- 
sumed command of the battalion. In 1870 
three additional companies were immediately 
formed and added to the ortrauizatiou, thus 
constituting it a full battalion, and the fol- 
lowing staff officers were appointed : Adju- 
tant, Solon R. Haidxinson ; Paymaster, Wil- 
liam B. Sexton ; (:iuarterniaster, Jacob Hill ; 
Surgeon, H. Genet Taylor, M.D. ; Assistant- 
Surgeon, J. Orlando White, M.D. ; and Chap- 
lain, Rev. William H. Jefferys. Adjutant 
Ilankinson resigned, and in January, 1870, 
Daniel B. Murphy was connuissioncd first 
lieutenant and adjutant of the battalion. 

In August, 1870, another company was 
organized at Atlantic City and added to the 
battalion, thus creating a necessity for a reg- 
imental organization, and, accordingly, the 



Sixth Regiment was organized, and Colonel 
James M. Scovel, Lieutenant-Colonel Wil- 
liam H. Hemsing and Major Richard H. Lee 
were elected field officers. The command- 
ants of the regiment have been Colonel Wil- 
liam J. Sewell, elected 1873, and Colonel E. 
Burd Grubb, 1877. The field officers elected 
in 1882 were: Colonel, William H. Cooper; 
Lieutenant-Colonel, J. C. Lee ; and Major, 
G. W. Smith. The regiment was called out 
in August, 1877, to suppress the labor riots 
at Phillip.sburg, N. J., and continued on duty 
seventeen days. Company K, of Vineland, 
became a part of this regiment March 14, 
187(5, and Company E, of Woodbury, March 
•22, 1880. 

The headquarters of the regiujcnt is the 
Sixth Regiment jVrmory, corner of West 
Street and Mickle, formerly the opera-house 
of Camden, which was bought by the regi- 
ment June 9, 1883, and for which they paid 
thirty-five thousand dollars. All of the 
apartments of the armory arc complete, neat- 
ly arranged and handsomely furnished. The 
field and start" officers a])pointed when the 
regiment was first formeil, in 1.S70, were as 
follows : 

Field Officers. — Colonel, James M. Scovel ; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, William H. Hemsing ; Major, 
Richard H. Lee. 

Staff Officers. — .\djutant, Daniel B. Murphy ; 
Quartermaster, William M. P.dmer; Paymaster, 
William B. Sexton ; Surgeon, H. Genet Taylor, 
M.D.; Assistant Surgeon, J. (Jrlando White, M.D.; 
Chaplain, Rev. William H. Jefferys. 

The field and start' orticers for 188(j are, — 
Ficlil Officers. — Colonel, William H. Cooper ; 
Lieutenant-Colonel, George W. Smith ; Major, Wil- 
liam H. Stansbury. 

(S'/(f//' Officers. — Adjutant, George S. Counter ; 
Quartermaster, (Jeorge G. Felton ; Paymaster, Na- 
than Haines ; Surgeon, E. L. B. Godfrey, M.D.; 
Assistant Surgeon, George T. Robinson, M.D.; 
Chai>lain, Clarence A. Adams ; Judge Advocate, 
Franklin C. Woolman ; Rifle-Practice Inspector, 
De Lancey G. Walker. 

The line ollicers of the three comj)anies of 
Camden are, — 



THE ERECTION OF CAMDEN COUNTY. 



179 



Cnmpany B. — Captain, Robert M. Hillmaii ; 
First Lieutenant, Jesse H.Carey; Second Lieu- 
tenant, William P. Mockett. 

Company C.~Qa.\ita.m,\\. B. E. Miller; First 
Lieutenant, Charles C. Walz ; Second Lieuten- 
ant, John Miller. 

Company D. — Captain, Charles S. Barnard ; First 
Lieutenant, George C. Randall ; Second Lieuten- 
ant, Charles H. Turner. 

CiATLiNG Gttn CoMrANY B, of Caniden, 
wa.sorganizetl in LSTS under tlie now law pro- 
viding!; for the organization of two (;onij)anips 
of infantry to be drilled in the use of Gatling 
guns. C-aptain E. D. French was the prime 
mover in its organization and the first com- 
mandant. The membership was recruited 
principally from old Battery B. The artil- 
lery uniform was worn, and in addition to 
the Gatlings, the comjiany was ai-med with 
rifles and sabres. 

John H. Piatt was elected first lieutenant 
on .Inlv 24, 1879, and tiie first conspicuous 
public^ display made by the new company 
was at Grant's rece|)tion in Philadel])hia, 
December IG, 1879. In 1880 the com])any 
])artici])ated in the State G. A. R. encamj)- 
ment at Bonaparte Park, Bordentown, and 
took a prominent part in the sham battle with 
their Gatling guns. Captain French resigned 
on Ai)ril 17, 1880, and Mr. Piatt was elected 
captain and John J. Brown first lieutenant, 
Cieorgo G. Randall having been elected sec- 
ond lieutenant on January 18th. Mr. Ran- 
dall resigned in June, 188], and Charles 
Siiivers, Jr., was elected to his position Oc- 
tober i;3th. Two weeks after this the com- 
])auy turned out in the Bi-Ceutenuial mili- 
tary ]>arade with its Gatlings. 

This command is attached to the Second 
Brigade under General William J. Scwell as 
the brigade commander. In September, 
1883, Lieutenant Brown resigned and on 
October l.st. Captain Piatt and Ijieutenant 
Shivers also resigned. Lieutenant-Colonel 
D. B. Murphy was placed in command until 
December 28, 1883, when its present efficient 
commandant. Captain Robert R. Kckeudorf, 



was elected. The company was then recruit- 
ed up to the legal standard. 

Gattliug Gun Company J> o<'cnpies quar- 
ters in the new armory adjoining the G'un- 
den Battalion. 

The following are its officers and mem- 
bers: Captain, R. R. Eckcndorf; Fii-st 
I.iieutenant, John R. Jones ; SecHjnd Lieu- 
tenant, G. Walter Garton ; First Sergeant, 
Owen B. Jones; Se(^o.nd Sergeant, James 
Duffy; Third Sergeant, Harry M. Dey ; 
Fourth Sergeant, Harry Nichuals ; Fifth 
Sergeant, Samuel Grovier ; First Corpoi'al, 
Louis B. Harris ; Second Corj)oral, Harry 
Tobin ; Third Corporal, Ulie J. Lee ; Musi- 
cians, David Mead, Charles Mead ; Privates, 
Charles M. Baldwin, Harry F. Cami)bell, 
Alonzo W. Powers, John J. Chambers, Wil- 
liam Grover, David Ewan, Earnest Haines, 
Leander Hyatt, George H. Beard, Thomas 
F. Miugen, Samuel C. Grover, John Mul- 
holland, Harry G. Rathgeb, Charles Enger, 
Jacob Haines, Edwin Hillman, Webster Mc- 
Clellau, Charles A. Fowler, James J. Duffy, 
Charles H. Jefferies, Frederick W. Kalt, 
Harry D. Nichuals, William Lawler, Dal- 
gren Albertsou, George Middleton, John E. 
Shannon, John Nixon, George H. Snowhill, 
William H. Adams, J. R. Smyth, Raljili 
Bond, Archie S. Royal, G. Parker Johnson, 
Frank Smith, D. Harry CV)ndit, M. A. Cole, 
Frank T. Hayes, Charles P. Householder, 
Samuel Donaldson. 



CHAPTER XL 

THE ERECTION OF CASfDEN ('OfNTY. 

The first official meeting of citizens in the 
county of Glouee.ster having for its object 
the division of that county was held at the 
house of John M. John.son, in the city of 
C-amden, on the 16th day of l<'ebruary, 1837. 
The object of this meeting was to consider 
the propriety of petitioning the Ijcgislafure 



180 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



to autliorize the erection of a new county to be 
composed of the townships of Waterford, 
Camden, Newton, Union and Gloucester and 
to be called " Delaware." The deliberations 
of this meeting did not result in anything 
effectual, but that agitation on the subject for 
which it met was kept up, is evident from 
the decided stand shown in the resolutions 
passed at a similar meeting held seven years 
later, on the 11th day of January, 1844, at 
the Friend.s' school-house in Haddonfield, 
where a large number of the citizens con- 
vened in re,sponse to a notice. John Clement, 
Sr., was chosen chairman at this meeting 
and Thomas Redman, Jr., secretary. Rich- 
ard W. Snowden, Jacob L. Rowand, and 
David Roc were appointed a committee to 
draft a series of resolutions, which were 
adopted and read as follows : 

"Resolved, that in the opinion of this meeting 
the contemplated division of the county is alto- 
gether useless and unnecessary and would be 
highly oppressive, subjecting the inhabitants to a 
heavy taxation on the one hand without any bene- 
ficial advantages on the other, the county being at 
present of a convenient size and form and the 
public building.s ah'eady erected and in the centre 
of population adequate to public accommodation." 

The meeting, in another resolution, recom- 
mended a county (invention to be held at 
the Woodbury court-house on January 22, 
1844. Notice was given to that effect and a 
convention was held on the day appointed, 
John Clement, Sr., of Haddonfield, jiresid- 
ing. A .series of resolutions and a memorial 
deprecating the division were jire.sented and 
adopted and a iiuimIxt of persons were np- 
poiuted to attend the Legislature at Trenton 
to present and support them. 

The movement for a division liad its friends, 
who were not meinliers of the convention 
held, and wiio were endeavoring to aecom- 
])lisii th(; end desired. A bill was presented 
to the Legislature, asking for the division of 
(jloucester County by the erection of the 
townships of Ciiinden, Waterford, Newton, 
L^nion, Delaware, Gloucester and Washing- 



ton into a county to l)e called " Camden." On 
the tJth of March, 1844, seventeen petitions 
signed by three hundred and forty-two per- 
sons and twenty remonstrances, signed by 
one thoiLsaud four hundred and si.xty-seven 
persons, were presented, but the bill finally 
passed both Houses and was approved by the 
Governor March 13, 1844, and Camden 
County took its place with the counties of 
the State of New Jersey. In November, 

1845, an effbrt was made, without succe.«s, to 
return the townships of ^Yashington and 
Gloncester to Gloucester County. Later, 
however, Wa.shington (then including the 
present township of Monroe) was returned 
to Gloucester County. In December of the 
year 1845 an ineffectual attempt was made 
to re-annex all of Camden County, except the 
township of Camden and part of Delaware, 
to Gloucester County, and in September, 

1846, to erect the townships of Franklin, 
Washington, (xlouccstcr and Winslow into 
a county to be called "Washington." It 
will thus be seen that the erection of the 
new county of Camden caused considerable 
agitation and discussion. 

The public buildings of the county at 
Glou(«ster (now Gloucester City), having 
been destroyed by fire, an election was had 
and the seat of justice was removed to 
Woodbury in 1787. Pnblit^ buildings erec- ' 
ted at Woodbury, wliich, about 1819-20, 
having l)ccome somewhat dilapidated, the 
question of a change of location of the 
county-seat to (iloucester again was agi- 
tated among the ])copie. Meetings were 
held in tiie townshi|)s and in Woodbury 
at different times. \ petition was pre- 
sented to tin: Fjcgislaturc having this 
change in view, whereupon a large meeting 
of citi/cMs convened at Woodbury January 
17, 1.S20, at wiiicli remonstrances signed by 
over one. thousand si.\ hundred persons were 
read, and James Matlack, Joseph V. Clark, 
Joseph Rogers, I.saac Pine and John AT. 
Wiiite were chosen to visit the Legislature, 



THE ERECTION OF CAMDEN COUNTY. 



181 



present remonstrances and take measures to 
prevent the piussage of tiie hill. An influence 
was brought to bear upon the projectors of 
tlie bill and they asked permission to with- 
draw theirpetition, which was granted, the agi- 
tation ce;used, two buildings for county offices 
were erected at Woodbury, and necessary 
repairs made upon court-house and jail. Had 
this change of county-seat then been made it 
is probable Camden County would nut have 
been erected. 

The act under which the county of Cam- 
den was formed provided that after one year 
from date of erec^tion the locati(jn of county 
buildings shoidd be decided by a vote of 
qualified electors in the county at such time 
and places as the Board of Freeholders should 
appoint. In accordance with this act, the 
freeholders, on April 7, 1845, set apart 
August 12, 1845, as the day of election. 
Prior to that time a county meeting was 
held at White Horse Tavern, in Glouces- 
ter township, for the purpose of selecting 
and agreting upon some town most suitable 
in whii'h to erect the public buildings. 
Richard Stafford was chosen president of 
the meeting; Evan C. Smith, of Delaware, 
Richard Thomas, of Camden, Richard W. 
Snowden, of Newton, Joshua Peacock, of 
Waterford, Joseph Bndd, of Union, John 
Albertson, of Winslow, John North, of 
Gloucester, and Joel Steelman, of Washing- 
ton, vice-presidents; Jacob L. Rowand and 
James D. Dotterer, secretaries. In accor- 
ilance with a resolution, five persons were 
chosen from each township as a committee 
aii<l each t(nvnship to east one vote. This 
joint committee was empowered to select 
the most desirable town for the location of 
the proposed buildings. 'Hie result of the 
vote was nineteen for Haddonfield, ten for 
Long-a-coming, and fewer votes for certain 
other places. The meeting adjourned to 
July 31st, of which meeting no account has 
been obtained. 

CoiNTV Bt'ildinos. — The act establish- 



ing the county pruvidrd (hat the courts of 
the coiuity should be held at Woodi)ury for a 
year, and that a seat of justice should be 
chosen by a vote of the peo])le on t\w 12th 
of August, 184"), and re(|uire(l a majority 
of the total vote to establish the site. The 
election was held with this result: Camden, 
1062; (Jloucester, 822; Haddonfield, 422; 
]\Iount K|)hraim, .3.3. There was no choice, 
and then began a series of contests in the 
Board of Chosen Freeholders almost witiiout 
parallel in the history of municipal bodies, 
extending over a period of seven years, and 
i-equiring the assistance of four elections by 
the people, two legislative bodies and three 
courts to bring it to a final result. There 
were seven townships and one city, each with 
two rej)resentatives in the board. December 
2, 1845, the board a])i)ointed Joseph Kay, 
Joseph Porter and C'lnrles Kaighn a com- 
mittee to obtain an act of the Ijegislature 
to autiiorize the holding of another election. 
'I'his was done and the act called for two elec- 
tions, at the first of which a majority was 
requisite, and, that failing, at the second a 
plurality would suffice. 

The first was held April 28, 184(J, with 
the following vote : Camden, 963 ; Mount 
Fphraim, 427; White Horse, 330; Chews 
Ivanding, 93 ; Haddonfield, 46. Thescatter- 
ing vote was sufficient to exceed C'amden's 
lead, and there being no choice, the second 
election was held June? 2d, with this result: 
Camden, 1434 ; Long-a-Coming, 1498. This, 
it was thought, would settle the controversy, 
but Abraham Browning and Captain John 
W. Mickle were mendiers of the board, 
while Thomas H. Dudley was clerk, and 
they were fertile in expedients. The board 
met at Long-a-Coming, .lunc 15th, and at 
once took steps to provide the necessars imild- 
ings at that place. A committee was ap- 
pointed, and at once reported ])lans for build- 
ings, and a site on lands of Jacob licac^h. 
The plans were, — a court-house of stone, 
forty-five by sixty-five feet, with offices on 



182 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY, 



the first floor and court-room ou the second 
floor; the jail, also of" stone, forty-two l>y 
forty-five feet, with five apartments or cells. 
The cost of both estimated at seventeen 
thousand dollars. 

As they were about to adopt the plans and 
advertise for proposals, a writ of critiorari 
was served answerable to the Sujirenie Court. 
The decision of the court favored Long-a- 
Comiug, hut the proceedings caused delay, 
and it was March 8, 1847, before further 
action was taken. At that meeting, held at 
Long-a-C-oming, a committee had been ap- 
pointed with instructions to purchase the 
Leach property, and to advertise for propo- 
sals for the construction of the buildings ()n 
the plans already adopted, when a prelimi- 
nary injunction, from the chancellor, issued 
at the instance of Richard Fetters and I'r. 
Isaac S. Mulford, was served. The nuijorily 
appointed a committee to inquire into frauds 
at the elections and to sue for damages, the 
authors of the vexatious suits ; but as the 
injunction was dissolved, no further steps 
were taken in that direction. Frequent 
meetings were held in out-of-the-way places: 
Ellisburg, Chews Landing, Cross Keys and 
Blue Anchor, but seldom at Camden. 
Another meeting was held at Long-a-Coming 
February 12, 1848, when bids for the erec- 
tion of the buildings at that place were open- 
ed as follows: Rush, §17,540 ; Joseph H. 
Collins, 110,500; John K. Inskeep, $13,500 
and the latter ac<'eptcd. It seemed inevitable 
that I jiing-a-Coming would become the county- 
sciit, but the alert friends of Camden had 
procured an act from the Legislature calling 
for another election by the people, cuntain- 
ing this clause : 

" Tluit if at siii-li ("liM'tii)n, no oiu' City, Villasje 
or Cro.s.s-roa<ls shall have a majoiity of all the 
votes polled, thou L(iiii;-a-Ceiniiig shall bo the 
seat ofjiislico." 

The editor of the HV.s/ Jrrsei/ 3/-?//, I'liilip 
J. Grey, Ks(]., visited liie town of Long-a- 
Coniing with the Roard of Freeholders, and 



in the next issue of his paper said: "Our 
trip to Long-a-Coming on Monday, under 
the favorable auspices of pleasant weather, 
good roads and agreeable company, was not 
' bad to take,' notwithstanding when we got 
back in the evening we found a resting-place 
quite as acceptable. This may be called the 
sunny side of the picture, not to be looked 
upon in a trip during either the November 
or February term of the court. Indeed, we 
cannot but think that our fine little county 
has been ' knocked into a cocked hat ' by 
this extraordinary freak of the popular will, 
the bitterest fruits of which are yet to be 
tasted." 

The election was ordered for April 11th, 
and the result was thus tabulated and re- 
jxirted to the board by Comity C'lerk Thom- 
as R. Wooil, at the meeting held May 

loth,— 

For Cani.lcii, naiidoiifii.-ld. Long-a-Coniing. 

Camden.NoithWanl, 144 5 6 

Mid.llo " G7H (J 8 

" South " 442 1(1 

Delaware Township, 1911 IS.") S 

Monroe " ]8i» 149 3 

Gloucester " 102 104 137 

Washington " SO 8 143 

Waterford " 41 (i3 172 

Winslow " 50 17 233 

Newton " 0') 242 



Abraham Browning offered a resolution to 
ap])oint a committee to " select a site in the 
City of Camden," but it was voted down, and, 
instead, one was appoin'ed to investigate 
frauds. This committee had a baffling expe- 
rience. July 7th they reported that their 
counsel, James R. Dayton, advised them to 
go to the Legislature for redress, and, March 
Ht, 1849, they reported that the Jjcgislature 
advi.sed them to .seek redress in the Supreme 
Court ; and again, December 3d, they ad- 
vised "that th(> inhabitants of Camden Coun- 
ty petition the Legislature to select a site for 
the |)ulilic buildings, in some suitable place, 
at least five miles from the citv of Canideu." 



THE ERECTION OF CAMDEN COUNTY. 



183 



The majority re.solveil, if possible, to pre- 
vent the location of the public buiUliiigs iu 
Caniden, and nothing definite was done until 
^lay 14, 1851, when Abraham Browning's 
oft-repeated motion to " appoint a eonunittee 
to select a siiitjible site in Camden" was voted 
down by the usual majority, — yeas, five; nays, 
eleven, —whereupon Sherifi' Garrett served a 
writ of alternate mandamus, requiring them 
to show cause why they did uot provide build- 
ings for the use of the county, and iu Cam- 
den, as directeil by the election of 1848. 
They answered the w'rit of the Supreme 
Court by an adjournment. Meetings were 
held, but nothing was done in this matter 
until December 1st, when Abraham Brown- 
ing's motion was bucked by a percmptDry 
mandamus and was adopted. This ended 
the long struggle, with the exception of the 
eti'ort of John W. Mickle to locate the 
court-house at the Woodlands, instead of 
Sixth Street and Market, and the work of 
providing the necessary buildings went on. 

First Court-House. — At the meeting of 
May 3, 1852, plans prepared by Samuel Sloan 
were adopted, and, May 12th, proposals 
for the construction of the building were 
opened. They were: Charles Wilson, §-35,- 
(100; Roberts & Reeves, $2(j, 950 ; Daniel A. 
Hall, §26,800. The latter was acetpted, with 
Henry Allen, Samuel D. Elfrcth and Joseph 
Weatherly as bondsmen. 

A plot of ground one hundred and ninety- 
eight feet on Market, one hunilreil antl eleven 
feet on Fetleral, three hundred and fifty- 
eight feet on Sixth Street and four hundred 
and twenty-five on Broadway was purchased 
of Abigail Cooper, for five thousand dollars, 
and the building located mi(hvay between 
]\[arket ' and Federal, so that neither ferry 
should reap undue advantage. Abraham 
Browning, Samuel Norero.ss, John Wilkins, 
John J. Githens, Joseph B. Tatem, Cooper 
P. Browning, Benjamin Horner and Edmond 
Brewer were the building committee, and, 
March 19, 1855, they reported, " Little re- 



mains to be done excef)t the planting of trees 
in and around the yard, and the j)aving of 
the walks from the strett.s to the building, 
the bricks for that purpo.se being on the 
ground." 

The final statement of tiieir operations was 
very full and clear, and gives the cost of tlii^ 
building complete at .§U),970.79, leaving cash 
iu their hands .^187.0."). The building, 
however, was com[)leteil many months be- 
fore the first court was held iu it, being tlie 
October Term, 185."), and the first csise tried 
in it was that of William Hope, the famous 
ferryman, charged wilh assault and battery, 
and iu which Thomas H. Dudley appeared 
for the State, having been deputized to act 
as prosecutor of the pleas. 

The building is of iirick, rough-cast, fifty 
by one huudi'ed and five feet in length and 
width. The first design included a dome, 
but this was omitted in the building. The 
jail, containing twelve cells, is in the basement, 
below the level of the streets. The county 
officers were on the first floor, the only ones 
remaining being the .sheriff and county 
collector. The court-rooms are on the 
second floor, while the third floor comprised 
apartments for the sherifl" and family, who 
formerly resided in the court-house. Here, 
also, is the celebrated iron cage, in which 
alleged murderers are safely kept, before and 
after trial. 

The New Coriir-HousE. — The want of 
more jail room led to the erection, in 1875, 
of the one-story, fire-proof, brick building 
on Market Street, at a cost of .'seventeen 
thou.saud dollars, and its u.se by the county 
clerk, surrogate and register of deeds. 

The unhealthy location of the jail and its 
crowded condition caused jti'otests and com- 
plaints, and the project of a work-house out- 
side the city was agitated. John H. Jone.s, 
while a member of the Board of Freeholders, 
gave the subject earnest attention. Nothing 
W'as done, however, until 1878. 

The board, in 1881, considered the ques- 



184 



HISTORY OF CA:\rDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



tion of a work-house, but finally deci- 
ded to build a commodious jail, with all 
iiioderu improvements, on Federal Street. 
Architect Gendell, of Philadelphia, j)repared 
the plans, which embraced a grou]) of sand- 
stone buildings, prison, court-house and 
county offices, covering the entire plot of 
ground owned by the county ; the several 



completition when there was a change in the 
Board of Chosen Freeholders, and with it a 
change of plans. It was determined to 
change the jail, upon which ninety thousand 
dollars had been s])ent, and make of it a 
court-house. Ruilolph U. Birdsell, James 
Davis, Charles F. Adams, Wm. C. Clark, and 
Samuel Wood were ajipointed the building 



parts to be erected in detail as the demand committee, and thirty thousand dollars were 
arose ; and as a jail was an immediate neces- ap|)ropriated for the purpose. The altera- 
sity, that was to be built by a tax levy of tious were maile and the first court was held 

there in May, 1885. The final re- 
port of the committee was made May, 
18S(), and the entire cost of the build- 
ing was found to be §129,7(32.18. 

The design is to convert the old 
court house into a jail. 

TiiK County Ai.MsuotsE. — The 
first mention found on record relating 
to the care of the poor of (ilouccster 
('iiuntv is in the minutes of the pro- 
ceedings of the justices and freehold- 
ers, June 10,1765, when Wm. Hugg 
and Samuel Harrison were allowed 
i.'()2 Ki.s. 2'?. for repairs to the house. 
In 1770 repairs were ordered, but no 
iiiontion is made of the location and 
cliaracter of the building. In 1799 
Samuel Cooper, James Hopkins and 
James Stratton were directed to look 
alter a site, but failing to report, the 
l)oard of Freeholders, in August, 
i SOO, apjwinted Samuel Cooper, Jas. 
Hurley, John Hider, Samuel W. 
Harrison, Amos Cooj)er, Wm. Ford, 
Jas. Stratton, John Collins, Richard 
Wostcott and Elias Smith a com- 
mittee to purchase a site. The committee se- 
lected iwv. iinndred and twenty-five acres of 
land on the south side of Timber Creek, in 
Deplfonl township, belonging to Michael 
Fisher. The consideration was $;53;53 33i 
and the deed conveying the land to the Board 
of Chosen Freeholders of Gloucester Cdunty 
was dated December 12, 1800. 

A building committee was appointed, — 




forty tiiousatid dnilars for two years, tlu' 
estimated cost being eighty thou.sand dollars. 
In May, 1882, the first levy of forty thou- 
.sand dollars was made, and Fdwanl S. King, 
John Day, Morris Hallock, Joseph L. 
Thackara and Thomas McDowell were con- 
stituted the building committee. In 1883 
the second levy of forty thousand dollars 
was made and the building was ap|)roacliing 




(7 



THE ERECTION OF CAMDEN COUNTY. 



185 



S.imiiel trooper, Jaeob Stokes, John Brick, 
Aiujs C'.)c)per, Saniuel P. Paul, Eaoeh Allen, 
EqocIi Leeds, Tiiomas Somers, Elias Smith 
and Isaac Tomliiison, — who contracted with 
EJmuDd Brewer aud John C. Morgan to 
erect the aliushjuse for five thousand six 
hundred dollars. In 1812 the freeholders 
purchased two hundred aud forty-eight acres 
of woodland, near Willianistowu, for the 
purpose of .supplying the almshou.se with 
fuel. When coal wa.s substituted and no use 
of the woodland had been made for a number 
of years, the ownership was forgotten, until 
1882, when Timothy J. Middleton, theu 
clerk of the board, called attention to the 
fact. In 1822 the adjoining farm of Jedediah 
Morgan, about one hundred aud sixty acres, 
was purchased. The aluishou.se was enlarged 
from time to time as necessity demanded. 
The small building for the insane was built 
in 1816. 

Upon the erection of Camden County, in 
1844, the two counties used the almshouse 
jointly under direction of a joint committee 
until 1861, when, under an act of the Legis- 
lature, the property was sold, and the present 
farm of one hundred and forty-four acres, 
containing the buildings, together with the 
woodland, was bought by Camden County 
for §1 9,802. 

Timber Creek is the dividing line between 
the two counties, but an act of the Legislature 
rectified the line so as to place the almshouse 
farm in Camden County. 

A new almshouse was built in 1864, which 
was enlarged in 1877 and again in 1881. In 
the latter a hospital ward was erected sep- 
arate from the main building, and so thus 
arranged, the Camden County Almshouse is 
regarded as one of the most comj^lete in the 
State. The farm and buildings, including 
the Insane Asylum, are valued at ninety 
thousand dollars. In the fall of 1880 an 
epidemic of ty[)h()id fever broke out in the 
institution, decimating tiie ranks of the in- 
mates, including the steward, Isaac P. Wil- 



.son, who had filled the position from tli« date 
that Camden County first took .sole po.sses- 
sion. The stewards have been Isaac P. 
Wilson, 1861-81 ; Alfred Harris, 1881-86 ; 
and Charles F. Adams. The annual cost 
is about one thousand eight hundred dollars. 
The County In.sane A.sylum. — The 
County Insane Asylum was built in 1877, 
under the law giving counties an allowance 
for the care of its indigent insane. It stands 
north of the alrnshon.sc, on the county farm, 
is of brick, three stories high, with all the 
best modern appliances for the care of the in- 
.sane, in the protection and cure of whom the 
institution has been very successful. It has 
been enlarged and accommodates over ninety 
inmates. It is in charge of a matron, under 
the supervision of a committee of the Board 
of Freeholders. The net annual cost to the 
county for maintenance is about ten thou- 
sand dollars. The matrons have been : 1877- 
85, Adelaide Stiles; 1885, Jeunie Gardner; 
1886, Mary Nichols. 

Randal E. Morgan, whose life has 
been marked by great activity, both in pub- 
lic and private aifairs, was born November 
6, 1824, near Black wood town, which was 
named f >r one of his ancestors. He was a 
son of Randal W. aud Sarah (Eldridge) 
Morgan. The former was the descendant of 
one of three brothers, of Welsh origin, who 
came to America some time between 1660 
and 1670, one settling in New Jersey, one 
in Connecticut and the third in Virginia. 
Oiu' subject's mother was of an old family of 
Friends, and thus his ancestry in America 
has been upon both sides (piite ancient. 

Mr. Morgan's youth was s])eut upon the 
farm where he was born, and his early edu- 
cation received in the .schools of the neigh- 
borhood, though he subsequently attended a 
select school at Woodbury. As he grew to 
manhood his industrious habits and good 
character were recognized, and he was grad- 
ually raised into prominence by his fellow- 
citizens. In 1855 he was elected a free- 



186 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



holder, and at the same time held the offices 
of trustee of the almshouse and treasurer of the 
same institution. After holding various minor 
offices, he was elected treasurer of Camden 
County, upon the Republican ticket, in 1861 
(Washington township, the place of his resi- 
dence, then being a part of Camden County, 
though subsequently returned to Gloucester 
County). In 1864 he was re-elected, and 
held the office for another term of three 
years. During his six years' occupancy of 
this position of responsibility and trust, cov- 
ering the period of the Civil War, over two 
million dollars passed through his hands. 
At the same time he was a special collector 
in his township of moneys needed for war 
purposes, was on the committee to secure 
substitutes, had several pi'ivate estates to 
settle, and attended to his large personal bus- 
iness. In the fall of 1868 he was elected 
sheriff, and re-elected in 1869 and 1870. He 
did all of the work of the office, with the 
a-ssistance of his sons, and discharged the du- 
ties incumbent upon him with the same fidel- 
ity and promptness which had characterized 
his administration as Camden County's 
treasurer. In addition to the labor devolv- 
ing upon him in this office, he served frequently 
as deputy United States marshal, sometimes in 
quite important matters. In 1875 he was 
appointed by the Council as city treasurer, to 
fill the unexpired term caused by the death 
of Captain Hufty. Most of his time since 
1871, however, has been employed in exten- 
sive building operations, and he has erected 
in Camden about two hundred buildings, 
principally dwelling-houses. Of these he 
has sold the greater proportion. His ener- 
gies have also found exercise in various other 
occupations, and he has been constantly busy 
in some line of enterprise. His career forms 
a remarkable illustration of what industry 
and integrity may accomplish in private and 
public life. 

Mr. Morgan's religious affiliation is with 
the Presbyterian Church. He was chosen 



an elder in his home church when only thir- 
ty-one years old ; retained the office until 
coming to Camden, and is now a trustee of 
the First Presbyterian Church of that city. 

He has been twice married. His first wife, 
with whom he was united June 10, 1847, 
was Mary Josephine Willard. She died 
August 30, 1881, having been the mother of 
seven children, five of whom survived her. 
Tliese were Randal AV., Eli B., Mary E., 
Joseph Willard, Sallie (died in infancy), Ella 
(died in 1872, aged thirteen years) and Car- 
rie W. 

Randal W. Morgan, the eldest, was a mid- 
shipman, but subsequently retired from the 
service, studied medicine, carried on a drug- 
store in Camden, was vaccine physician and 
county physician. His health failed, and he 
went twice to Europe for its benefit, and 
died at sea on his retui-n voyage, October 20, 
1884. 

Eli B. was a deputy in the sheriff's office, 
under his father, and subsequently under 
other sheriffs ; then deputy clerk for five 
years, and since 1885 has been engaged in 
building operations. 

Joseph Willard is a counselor-at-law, and 
has been city solicitor since the spring of 
1884. He was elected immediately after 
attaining his majority, and is the youngest 
man who ever held the office. 

Mr. Morgan's second marriage, with Mi's. 
Mertie C. Webster, daughter of Rev. Wm. 
P. ]\Iaul, of Camden, occurred September 
1, 1886. 



CHAPTER XII. 

CIVIL LIST. 

The following list shows, as far as the 
records have been preserved, the principal 
officials of Camden County, the names of 
Senators and Representatives in both Houses 
of Congress, of State officials and of consuls 



CIVIL LIST. 



187 



to foreign ports. The date of election or aj)- 
poiutment is given where it could be ob- 
tained. 

Dr. Marmaduke Burrough was appointed 
United States consul to Vera Cruz, ^Mexico, 
by President Andrew Jackson, in July, 
1834. 

George M. Robeson was Secretary of the 
Na\-y in President Grant's Cabinet from the 
resignation of Secretary Borie to the close of 
Grant's administration, in 1877. 

Thoma.s H. Dudley was consul to the 
port of Liverpool, appointed by President 
Lincoln, and served in the same position till 
the close of President Grant's administration, 
in 1877. 

Gilbert Hannah was appointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln consul to Demerara, South 
America, and died a few months after arriv- 
ing at his post. 

General Vickers was consul to Chili, going 
there when General Kilpatrick was the Uni- 
ted States Minister. 

The attorneys-general of Xew Jersey from 
Camden County were Abraham Browning, 
from 1845 to 1850, and George M. Robeson, 
from 1867 to the time of his appointment 
as Secretary of the Xavy. 

John Clement, in 1864, was appointed 
judge of the Court of Errors and Appeals, 
and continues to hold the same office, by vir- 
tue of which he is a member of the State 
Board of Pardons. 

The Presidents of the State Senate from 
Camden County were, — 

James M. Scovel, 1866. Wm, J. Sewell, 1878-SO. 

Edwanl Settle, 1871-72. 

The Secretaries of Senate from Camden 
County were, — 

Philip J. Grey, 1848-.iO. Morris R. Hamilton, 1862, '63.1 

Speakers of Assembly from Camden, — 

G. W. M. Custis, 1869. E. \. Armstrong, 188.3, '86. 

Clerks of the Assembly from Camden, — 

John P. Harlcer, 1859. Sinnickson Chew, 1872-74. 

'Hamilton was appoints Stat*? Librarian 18S4-. 



State Board of As.«essors, — 

Edward Settle. A. G. Cattell. 

Rev. Dr. Lsaac Wynn, in 1885, was ap- 
pointed a member of the State Board of Ed- 
ucation, and E. A. AruLstrong, by virtue of 
his office as Speaker of the Assembly, is a 
member of the same body. 

Henry Fredericks, in 1884, was appointe<l 
a member of the State Board of Char- 
ities and Correction for a term of four 
years. 

Dr. James M. Ridge, of Camden, served 
as member of the State Board of Health. 

Richard S. Jenkins served for a time as 
State Commissioner of Fisheries. 

Rudolphus Bingham was Tru.stee of the 
State Industrial School for Girls. 

Charles Wilson was State Pri.son Keeper 
from 187.3 to 1876. 

Joseph Porter, of Waterford, was pres- 
ident of the Legislative Council. 

John S. Read served for several years, un- 
til his death, as one of the commissioners of 
the Morris Plains Asylum, and also as State 
director for the United Railroads of New 
Jersey. 

Charles A. Butts is the present State di- 
rector of the United Railroads of Xew Jersey. 

In the succeeding lists the names of all 
persons who have resided within the present 
limits of Camden County, and who represente<l 
Gloucester County in a national or State po- 
sition, or who were elected or appointed to a 
county office, are given, together with the date 
of their election or appointment. Since the 
erection of Camden County the complete roster 
of the civil and political officers Ls furnished. 

Z'niied States Stn^Urrrs. 
Alex. Cattell, 1866-72. Wm. J. Sewell, 1881-87. 

BepreieHtatir^g in Congnsss, 
Jame6 Sloan, 1803-9. John F. Starr. 1863-67. 

Richard JI. Cooper, 1823-33, Geo. M. Rolieson, 1879-81. 

Andrew K. Hay, 16*9-51. 

SOUe Senaiorit. 
Richard W. Howell, 184*. Jamea SI. ScoTel, 1863. 

Jos. C. Stafford, 1845. Edward Bettle, 1866-69. 

John Gill, 1818. Wm. J. SeweU, 1872, '75, '78. 

Thos. W. Mulford, 1851. Albert Merritt, 1881. 

John K. Roberts, 18o4:'57. Richard N. Herring, 1884. 

Wm. P. Tatem, 1860. 



188 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Members of the Legislaiive Oiuncil. 



Joseph Hugg, 1781. 
Elijah Clark, 1782-83. 
Elijah Clark, 178.5, '66. 
Joseph Ellis, 1787-94. 
Joseph Cooper, 1795-97. 
Thos. Clark, 1798-1802. 
Isaac Mickle, 1803-6. 
Richard M. Cooper, 1807-10. 
Isaac Mickle, 1811. 
Samuel VV. Harrison, 1814-16. 
MembeTB 

Members from the surrender 
of West Jersey, — 
John Kay, 1703. 
Joseph Cooper, 1703. 
John Hugg, Jr., 1703. 
Johu Hugg, 1704. 
John Kay, 1704. 
Thos. Lambert, 1704. 

Members from Gloucester an 
Johu Kay, 1709-10. 
John Kaighn, 1709-10. 
Kichard Bull, 1716. 
Samuel Cole, 1721. 
John Mickle, 1721. 
Johu Mickle, 1727. 
Wm. Harrison, 1727. 
Wm. Harrison, 1730. 
Joseph Cooper, 1730. 
Joseph Cooper, 1738.44. 
John Mickle, 1738-44. 
Joseph Cooper, 174.'i, '46. 
Ebenezer Hopkins, 174.'*, '46. 
Joseph Cooper, 1749. 
Joseph Ellis, 1749. 
Samuel Clement, 1754. 
Samuel Clement, 1761. 
Robert F. Price, 1769-72. 
John llinchuiau, 1769-72. 
Rubert F. Price, 1776. 
Isaac Mickle, 1776. 
Elijah Clark, 1777. 
Isaac Toniliuson, 1777. 
Elijah Clark, 1778. 
Joseph Ellis, 1778. 
IniiBC Kay, 1780. 
Sanuii-1 Hugg, 1781-83. 
Jo8c|h Ellis, 1781-83. 
Joseph Cooper, 1781-83. 
Joseph Ellis, 1784-85. 
Joseph Cooper, 1784-85. 
Thoniiis Clark, 1787-88. 
Joseph Cooper, 1787-88. 
Joseph Cooper, 1789. 
AlKil Clement, 1789. 
Joseph Cooper, 1790. 
Samuel Hugg, 1790. 
Joseph Cooper, 1791. 
John Blackwood, 1791. 
Joseph Cooper, 1792. 
John Blackwood, 1792. 
Joseph Cooper, 1793. 
John Blackwood, 1793. 
Abel Clement, 1793. 
John Blackwood, 1794. 
Abel Clement, 1795-96, 
Abel Clement, 1797. 
Saumcl IlarriBuu, 1798. 
Joshua I.. Howell, 1799. 
Samuel Harrison, 1799. 



John Baxter, 1819-20. 
Joseph Kaighn, 1823. 
Chris. Sickler. 1827. 
Joseph Kaighn, 1829. 
John W. Mickle, 1830. 
.Toseph Kaighn, 1831, '32. 
Johu W. Mickle, 1833-35. 
Jos. Porter, 1839, '40. 
Joshua P. Browning, 1843. 

of the ABitein})hf. 
u 1702, who represented theprovii 

Joshua Wright, 170-1. 
John Willis, 1707. 
John Kay, 1707. 
Hugh Sharp, 1708-9. 
John Kay, 1708-9. 
John Kaighn, 1708-9. 
Camden Counties, — 
Samuel Harrison, ISOll. 
Abel Cleincnt, 1800. 
Samuel W. Harrison, 1801. 
Isaac Mickle, 1801. 
Samuel W. Harrison, 1802. 
Abel Clement, 1802. 
Jiisepli Cooper, 1803-4. 
Sanjuel Champion, 180.5-6. 
Jacob lilover, 1807. 
Jacob Glover, 1808. 
Joseph V. Clark, 1809. 
Jacob Glover, 1811. 
Joseph C. Sweet, 1812. 
Charles French, 1813. 
Charles French, 1814. 
Samuel L. Howell, 1818. 
Joseph Kaighn, 1821. 
Isaac Mickle, 1822. 
Joseph Kaighn, 1822, 
Benj. B. Cooper, 1824. 
Benj. B. Cooper, 1825. 
Charles French, 1S2.5. 
Joseph Porter, 1827. 
John W. Mickle, 1827. 
Joseph Porter, 1828. 
Johu W. Mickle, 1829. 
John Gill, Jr., 1832. 
Joseph Rogers, 1833. 
Joseph Rogers, 1834. 
Samuel B. Lippincott, 1834. 
Joseph Rogers, 1836. 
Samuel B. Lippincott, 1835. 
Joseph W. Cooper, 1830. 
Joseph Porter, 1837. 
J. W. Cooper, 1837. 
Joseph Porter, 1838. 
J. W. Coojior, 1S3S. 
Elijah Bower, 1839. 
Richard W. Snowden, 1839. 
Richard W. Snowden, 1840. 
Richard W. Snowden, 1842. 
Thonuis B. Wood, 1843. 
Joseph Kay, Jr., 1844. 
John Redliebl, 1844. 
Joel G. <;iark, 1845. 
Gcn-ard Wood, 1845, 
Edward Turner, 184<>, 
Joselih 1). Tateni, 1840, 
John C. Shreeve. 1847. 
John E. Marshall, 1847. 



Jacob Troth, 1848. 
Joseph Wolohon, 1848. 
Chas. D. Hiueline, 1849-50. 
Thomas W. HnrlT, 1849-60. 
J. 0. Johnson, 1851-52. 
Joseph Kay, 1851. 
Jonathan Day, 1851. 
Samuel Lytic, 1852. 
John K. Roberts, 1852-53. 
Samuel S. Cake, 1853-54. 
James L. Hines, 18.53. 
Beilley Barrett, 1854-55. 
Evan C. Smith, 1855. 
John P. Marker, 1855-56. 
Samuel Scull, 1856, '67, '68. 
Joseph M. Atkinson, 1856. 
Edmund Hoffman, 1857. 
Samuel M. Thorne, 1867-58. 
Zebedee Nicholson, 1858. 
John R. Graham, 1869-60. 
Joseph Stafford, Jr., 1869. 
George Brewer, 1859. 
Joel P. Kirkbride, 1800-61. 
James L. Hines, 1860. 
Daniel A. Hall, 1861. 
Edwin J. Osier, 1861-62. 
James M. Scovel, 1862. 
Chalkley Albertson, 1862-63. 
Samuel Tateni, 1863. 
Philander C. Brinck, 186.3-64. 
Isaac W. Nicholson, 1804-65. 
John F. Bodine, 1864. 
George W. N. Custis, 1865-66. 
Thomas H. Coles, 1865-66. 
Edward Z. Collings, 1806. 
John Hood, 1867. 

,S 
Daniel Reading, 168C. 
Jolin Hugg, Jr. {de|iuty), 1691. 
Thomas Sharp, 1692. 
Joseph Tomlinson, 169.5-96. 
Matthew .Medcalfe, 1700. 
Josiah Kay, 1711. 
Samuel Coles, 1713. 
Samuel Harrison, 1714. 
Wm. Harrison, 1715. 
Josiah Kay, 1719. 
Samuel Coles, 1724. 
Joseph Hugg. 1726. 
Samuel Harrison, 1729. 
Jacob Medcalf, 173:1. 
Samuel Harrison, 1742. 
Joseph Blackwood, 1784. 
John Blackwood, 1787. 
Joseph Hugg, 1798. 
Jacob Glover, 181,3. 

Mark Ware was sheriff of Gloucester County when Camden County 
was formed, and by the provisions of the act erecting the county, 
jierfonned the duties of sheriff of the new county until the next elec- 
tion, in November, 1844, when Arthur Brown was elected. 



James Wills, 1867. 
Chalkley Albertson, 1807. 
Henry L. Bonsall, 1868-69. 
William C. Shinn, 1868-69. 
Thomas H. Coles, ISO'S. 
Samuel Warthman, 1869. 
Charles Wilson, 1870. 
Isaac W. Nicholson, 1870. 
Stevenson Leslie, 1870-71. 
George B. Carse, 1871-73. 
Isaac Foreman, 1872. 
William H. Cole, 1872-73. 
Clialkley Albertson, 1873. 
Alden C. Scovel, 1874-76. 
Richard N. Herring, 1874-75. 
Henry B. Wilson, 1874. 
Oliver Lund, 187.5-70. 
Samuel T. Murphy. 1876. 
Isaiah Woolston, 1877. 
Alonzo D. Nichols, 1877-78. 
Andrew J. Eider, 1877. 
Edward Burrough, 1878-79, 
Richard N. Herring, 1878-79. 
Henry L. Bonsiill, 1879-80. 
Chris. J. Mines, 1880-81. 
John H. McMurray, 1880-81. 
Robert F. 8. Heath, 1881. 
George W. Bolton. 1882. 
John Bamford, 1882. 
Clayton Stafford, 1882-83. 
Edward A. Armstrong, 1883-85. 
John \V". Branning, 1883. 
Benj. M. Braker, 1884. 
Henry M. Jewett, 1884-85. 
George Pfeiffer, Jr., 1885. 



John Baxter, 1815. 
.lohn Baxter, 1821. 
Joshua P. Browning, 1835. 
Mark Ware, 1841.1 
Arthur Brown, 1844. 
Levi C. Phifer, 1847. 
Charles S. Garrett, 1850. 
Wm. P. Tatem, 1863. 
Edmund Brewer, 1856. 
Charles Wilson, 1859. 
John Cain, 1862. 
Samuel D. Sharp, 18C5. 
Randal E. Morgan, 1868. 
Henry Fredericks, 1871. 
Jacob C. Daubman, 1874.' 
Wm. Calhoun, 1878. 
Theo. B. Gibbs, 1881. 
Richard F. .Smith, 18S4. 



Thomas Sharp. 1686. 
John Reading, 1688. 
Richard Bull, 1704. 
Thomas Shari), 1714. 



Voxmiu Cl'Tkn. 

Joseph Hugg, 1776. 
Elijah Clark, 1781. 
Elisha Clark, 1785. 
Thomas B. Wood, 1844. 



1 Under the constitution of 1844 the sheriffs were elected annually, 
but custom gave them three years, and the amended constitution of 
1875 extended the term to three years. Jacob C. Daubman had 
served one year, when the change was made, and in 1876 was elected 
for tlie new term, making four years of continued service. 



CIVIL LIST. 



189 



B^nj, \V. Browninsr, 181!1. 
.li>6i-|ih Myers, 1880. 
Will. P. Tiiteiii, 1880.1 
George Brewer, 1860. 
Thomas M. K. Lee, ISOS. 

Jacob fllover, 1823-24. 
Siinmel P. Chew, 1S44. 
Isuie H. Porter. 1849. 

I, 
(Tliis offlce was eslalilish 
George W. Gilbert, 1876. 
Jehu Evans, 1880. 

O 
Jacob Clement, 171.'). 
Jolm Kay, 1717. 
Thomas Sharp, 1721. 
Joseph Cooper, 1724. 
Ebenezer Hopkins, HiJO. 
llavid Cooper, 1757. 
Samuel Clement, Jr., 1704. 
Saiiuicl Nicholson, 1844. 
Jacob L. Rownml, 1S45. 
John Clement, Jr., 1.S48. 



J.ilin Cain, l.'<7ll. 

.loel Kilkbride, 187.'). 

.lospph Holling^heail, 1S80. 

Jolm W. RrowDing, IS.S.I. 

Edward Burrougli, ISSO. - 
Btirrogatfs. 

Mark Ware, 18,')4. 

Lsaac L. Lowe, 1S..0. 3 

David B. Brown, 186C.. 
fili/ttrr of D*:i'ih. 
■d in 187.i) 

Robert F.S. ll.'alh, ISSS. 

milD Colteclort. 

Wm. P. Tatem, 184fl-.'in. 
Albert W. Markley, 18.54. 
Ridinrd W. Siiowden, 18.';7. 
Randal E. Morgan, 1862. 
Isaiah Woolston, 1868. 
Isaiah Woolston, 1870. 
Ezra Stokes, 1871. 
Morris Ilallock, 1882. 
Nathanii-I Biirlon, 188,5. 



Tlie presiding officers of the Board of 
Ju.stices and Freeholders, and afterwards of 
tlic Board of Frecliolders, were, — 



Elijah Clark, 17111. 
Samuel Harrison, 1800. 
Samuel W. Harrison, 18t)4. 
Samuel W. Harrison, 1807. 
Wni Zane, 1809. 
Joseph Rogers, 1811. 
James Matlack, 1815. 
Jacob Glover, 1823. 
SaDiuel B. Lippincott, 1831. 
Jacob Glover, 1 832. 
James Matlack, 1838. 
Johu Clement, Jr., 1844. 
Joseph Kay, 1845. 
Jacob Troth, 1840. 
Richard W. Stafford, 1S47-53. 
John D. Glover, 1864-55. 
Richard W. Snowden, 1851!. 

Chiks iif the Bm 
Thomas Sharp, 1715. 
Wm. Harrison, 1723. 
John Kay, 1725.. 
Samuel Spicer, 1740. 
Joseph Kaighn, 1748. 
Joseph Harrison, 1751). 
Samuel Clement, Jr., 1704. 
Joseph Hugg, 1705. 
Isaac Mickle, 1700. 
Samuel HalTison, 1708. 
SamuefSpicer, 1773. 
. Joseph Hugg, 1775. 



Joseph L. Tharkara, 1867. 
Thomas McKeen, 1858. 
Joseph Porter, 1869-60. 
Thoni.Ts McKeen, 1801. 
John S. Read, 1802. 
Charles Watson, 18i;3-n6. 
Joseph L. Thackara, 1800-07. 
John J. Lawrence, 1808. 
Charles Watson, 1809. 
Samuel S. Cake, 1870-71. 
Isaac W. Nicholson, 1872-80. 
Morris Hallock, 1881-82. 
Joseph L. Thackara, 1883. 
Samuel Wood, 1HS4. 
J. Grilflth Howard, 18S5. 
Samuel Wood, 1880. 

rd uf FnehuMng. 
Samuel Harrison, 1783. 
Johu Blackwood, 1792. 
Samuel W. Harrison, 1798. 
Richard Snowdon, 1808. 
Jacob (ilover, 1818. 
Thomas II. Dudley, 1844-47. 
Thomas W. Mulford, 1848. 
James B. Dayton, 1849 53. 
R. Gniliam Clark. I8.'i4-50. 
Alden C. Scovel, 1857-65. 
Alfred Hugg, 1806-08, 
Joshua L. Howell, 1809-73. 



1 Joseph Myer.-* died in June, 1800, and William P. Tatem was ap- 
pointed to act until the next election, when George Brewer was 
chostiii. 

2 The Governor commissioned John W. Browning, but the Su- 
preme Court ruled the oftice to Edward Burroiigh, who received his 
commission February 20, 1886. 

3 Isaac L. Lowe was elected in 1804 for five years. lie died in 
March, 1800, and D. B. Brown was appointed until the election, in 
November, when he was elected, and re.^lected in 1871, '70 '81. 



J. Kiiscnc Troth, 1874-79. 
John K. U. Hewitt, 1S.S0. 
J. Eugene Troth, 1881. 
Jacob Jennings, 188.'. 

The following is 
wlio represented the 

Fie 
J.)hn W. Mickle, 1844. 
John R. Cowperthwaito, 1844. 
Charles Kaighn, 1845. 
.iohn R. Thompson, 1845. 
Johu W. Mickle, 1840. 
f'harles Sexton, 1840. 
John W. Mickle, 1847. 
Uichard Kettere, 1847. 
Charles .Sexton, 1818. 
Samuel Liimmis, 1848. 
John «. Mickle, 1849. 
Thomas B. Atkinson, 1849. 
John W. MicUlo, 1850. 
John Sands, 1860. 

One from each of 

Samuel Andrews, 1859. 
Josiah D. Rogers, 1859. 
Augustus Stutzer, 1859. 
John S. Read, 1800. 
Jo.siah D. Rogers, 1800. 
Augustus Stutzer, 1800. 
Thos. McKeen, 1801. 
Samuel H. Morton, 1801. 
Augustus Stutzer, ISol. 
Johu S. Read, 1802. 
Samuel H. Morton, 1802. 
John W. Stutzer. 18C2. 
Charles Watsou, 1803-04. 
Henry Curls, 1803-04. 
Chris, .r. Mines, lS0;}-04. 



Timolh.v J. Middlelou, 1.882-83. 
SaniiKd 1). Bergen, 1884. 
Jonas S. Jliller, 1885. 
John Harris, ISSO. 

I list of the freeholder 
city of Camden : 

eh-Mir'. 
■John W. Mickle, 1851-.'.2. 
Abraham Browning, 1851-62. 
John W. Mickle, 1853. 
Charles Sexton, 1853. 
Charles Sexton, 1854. 
Florance M. Bingham, 1.S54. 
James W. Shroff, 1855. 
Joseph T. Rowand, 1855. 
John W. Mickle, 1S.50. 
Wm. W. Cooper, ISofi. 
Thomas McKeen, 18.57. 
Jos. C. De La Cour, 18.57. 
Thomas McKeen, IS5S, 
James Carman, 1858. 

the three wards, — 

Charles Watson, 1806. 
George Brewer, I8G5. 
Chris. J. Mines, 1805. 
(.'harles Watson, 1800-07. 
Isaiah Woolston, 1800-07. 
Chris. J. Mines, 1800-07. 
Charles Watson, 1808. 
Alex. A. Hammell, 1868. 
John Goldstlio-.jie, 1808. 
Charles Watson, 1809. 
Aimer Sparks, 1809. 
James Deno, 1809. 
Charles Watson, 1870. 
James W. Wroth, 1870. 
John Dovle, 1870. 



One member from each of the eight wards 



Charles Watson, 1871. 
Cooper B. Browning, 1S71. 
James Elwell, 1871. 
Wm. Scudder, 1871. 
James Deno, 1871. 
Wallace Cook, 1871. 
John H. Jones, 1871. 
Francis Boggs, 1871. 
Samuel B. Garrison, 1872. 
Eilmund E. Read, 1872. 
James Elwell, 1872. 
Chris. Sickler, 1872. 
James Deno, 1872. 
Allen C. Wood, 1872. 
John 11. Jones, 1872. 
Wm. C. Clarko, 1872. 
Samuel B. Garrison, 1873. 
Randal E. Morgan. 1873. 
.lames Elwell, 1873. 
Wm. Severns, 1873. 
James Deuo, 1873. 
Allen C. Wood, 1873. 
John H. Jones, 1873. 
Wm. 0. Clarke, 1873. 
Samuel B. Garrison, 1874. 
Henry C. Gibson, 1871. 
James Elwell, 1874. 
Wm. Severns. 1874. 
David B. Kaighn, 1874. 
Evan Miller, 1874. 



Wm. Crossley, 1874. 
Wm. Thompson, 1874. 
David Baird, 1876. 
Henry 0. Gibson, 1875. 
James Elwell, 1875. 
Wm. Severns, 1876. 
Thomas A. Wilson, 1875. 
Evan Miller, 1875. 
Wm. Crossley, 1875. 
Will. C. Clarke, 1875. 
David Baird, 1870. 
John S. Read, 1870. 
James Elwell, 1870. 
Wm. Severns, 1876. 
Thos. A. Wilson, 1870. 
Evan Miller, 1870. 
Wm. Crossley, 1870. 
Bonj. H, Thomas, 1870. 
David Baird, 1877. 
Will. U. Colo, 1877. 
Abner Sparks, 1877. 
Wm. Severns, 1877. 
Charles C. Moffctt, 1877. 
Evan Miller, 1877. 
Thos. .Sotbern, 1877. 
lieiij. H. Thomas, 1877. 
David Baird, 1878. 
Morris Hallock, 1878. 
James Elwell, 1878. 
Wm. Seierns, 1878. 



190 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Charles C. Moffett, 1878. 
Evan Miller, 1878. 
Joseph M. Eo88, 1878. 
BonJ. H. Thomas, 1S78. 
David Baird, 1870. 
Morris Hallock, 1879. 
Abner Sparks, 1879. 
Wm. Severns, 1879. 
Robert C. HiUman, 1879. 
John Guthridge, 1879. 
Wra. Simpson, 1879. 
Peter Wise (Ist, colored), 1879. 
Louis T. Derousse, 1881). 
Morris Hallock, 1880. 
Abner Sparks, 1880. 
Wra. Severns, 1880. 
John W. BranninK, 1880. 
John Guthridge, 188U. 
James Kennedy, 18S0. 
Hugh Greenan, 188". 
Edward S. King, 1881. 
Morris Hallock, 1881. 
Jesse Turner, 1881. 
Timothy J. Middleton, 1881. 
John Day, 1881. 
Thomas McDowell, 1881. 
James Kennedy, 1881. 
Peter Postels (colored), 1891. 
Edward S. King, 1882. 
Monis Hallock, 1882. 
Wm. H. Chandler, 1882. 
John G. Miller, 1882. 
John Day, 1882. 
Thomas McDowell, 1882. 



.Tames Kennedy, 1882. 
Peter Postels, 1882. 
Edward S. King, 1883. 
John C. Rogers, 1883. 
Walter O. Wartman, 1883. 
Augustus F. Richter, 1883. 
John Day, 1883. 
James Mitchell, 1S83. 
Elwood Kemble, 1883. 
John Schause, 1883. 
Charles F. Adams, 1884. 
John Wells, 1884. 
Abner Sparks, 1884. 
Rudolph W. Birdsell, 1884. 
John Day, 1884. 
James Mitchell, 1884. 
John Blowe, 1884. 
Wm. C. Clarke, 1884. 
J. GrilHth Howard, 1885. 
John Wells, 188.5. 
Edward Mills, 1885. 
Charles G. Barto, 1885. 
Thomas A. Wilson, 1885. 
James M. Fitzgerald, 1885. 
Richard Hyde, 1385. 
Wra. C. Clarke, 1885. 
John M. Powell, 1886. 
Abram L. Thorn, 1886. 
Joseph L. Moore, 1880. 
Charles G. Barto, 1886. 
Thos. Gordon, 1880. 
Isaac Sharp, 1880. 
Joseph A. Starr, 1886. 
Wm. C. Clarke, 1880. 



The following is a list of the naiue.s of the 
freeholders of Newton townsliip fmni 1723 
to 1821. There is no record prior to that 



time, — 

Free)toUer» fy, 
Joseph ('oopor, 1724. 
Thos. Sharp, 1724. 
John Kay, 1725. 
John Kaighne, 1725. 
John Hinclinmn, 1726. 
Wm. Cooper, 1726. 
Joseph Cooper, 1727. 
Joseph Cooper, .Tr., 1727. 
Robert Zaiie, 1728. 
John Kaiglin, 1728. 
Wn). Cooper, 1729. 
John Kaighn, 1720. 
Robert Zane, 1730. 
John Kaighn, 1730. 
Robert Zane, 1731. 
John Kaighn, 1731. 
Robert Zane, 1732. 
John Kaighn, 1732. 
Tobias Holloway, 1733. 
Joseph Kaighn, 1733. 
James llinchman, 1734. 
Timothy Matlack, 1734. 
.loscph Kaighn, 1735. 
IsJiac Cooper, 1735. 
Timothy Matlack, 1736. 
Joseph Kaighn, 1730. 
Timothy Matlack, 1737. 
Joseph.Kaighn, 1737. 
Timothy Matlack, 1738. 
James Hinchman, 1738. 



, 1742. 
, 1743. 
, 1743. 



1 AVictoii Tomiship. 
Joseph Kaighn, 1739. 
James Hindi ]nan, 1730. 
Timothy Matlack, 1740. 
Robert Hubbs, 1740. 
Isaac Cooper, 1741. 
Ebenezer Hopkins, 1741. 
Robert Stephens, 1742. 
Ebenezer Hopkii 
Robert Stephc 
Kbenener Hopkii 
Timothy Matlack, 1744. 
Joseph Ellis, 1744. 
Timothy Matlack, 1745. 
Samuel Clement, 174.1. 
Samuel Clement, 1746. 
Isaac Smith, 1746. 
Robert Stephens, 1747. 
Joseph Ellis, 1747. 
Robert Stephens, 1748. 
Samuel Clement, 1748. 
Robert Stephens, 1749. 
Kbenezer Hopkins, 1749. 
Ebenezer Hopkins, 17.50-51. 
Robert Stephens, 1750-51. 
Kbenezer Hopkins, 1752. 
Isiuic Albertson, 1752. 
Ebenezer Hopkins, 1753. 
Isaac Cooper, 1763. 
Ebenezer Hopkins, 1754. 
Robert Stephens, 17.'i4. 



Ebenezer Hopkins, 1756-50. 
Isaac Cooper, 1755-50. 
Joseph Ellis, 1757. 
Archibald Mickle, 1757. 
Isaac Mickle, 1758-59. 
Jacob Clement, 1758-B9. 
Isaac Mickle, 1760-61. 
John Hopkins, 1700-01. 
John Gill, 1762. 
Joseph Cooper, 1702. 
John Gill, 1763. 
David Bronson, 1703. 
Isaac Mickle, 1764-65. 
Samuel Clement, Jr., 1704-05. 
David Branson, 1706-76. 
Isaac Meckle, 1766-76. 
John Gill, 1777. 
John E. Hopkins, 1777. 
John Gill, 1778. 
Jacob Stokes, 1778. 
Jacob Stokes, 1770. 
Joseph tboper, 1770. 
Isaac Mickle, 1780. 
John Litle, 1780. 
Isaac .Mickle, 1781. 
John Middleton, 1781. 
Joseph Cooper, 1782-83. 
John Middleton, 1782-83. 
John Gill, 1784-85. 
John Middleton, 1784-85. 
John Gill, 1786. 



J. E. Hopkins, 1780. 
J"hn Gill, 1787-88. 
Edward Gibbs, 1787-88. 
Marraaduke Cooper, 1789-01. 
Edward Gibbs, 1789-91. 
James Sloan, 1701-93. 
Samuel- Cooper, 1792-93. 
James Sloan, 1794. 
John E. Hopkins, 1794. 
John E. Hopkins, 1795-97. 
Joseph Mickle, 1795-97. 
James Hopkins, 1798-99. 
Jacob Stokes, 1798-99. 
Jacob Stokes. 1800-2. 
Marmaduke Burr, 1803. 
James Hurley, 1800-2. 
John Ward, 1803. 
Jacob Stokes, 1804-6. 
James Hurley, 1804-0. 
James Hurley, 1807-10. 
Samuel Clement, 1807-10. 
James Hurlej-, 1811-15. 
Joseph Kaighn, 1811-15. 
Joseph Kaighn, 1816. 
Wm. E. Roberts. 1810. 
Joseph Kaighn, 1817-19. 
.Tames Hurley, 1817-19. 
John Roberts, 1820. 
James Cooper, 1820. 
Joseph Kaighn, 1821. 
John Roberta, 1821. 



Jesse W. Starr, 1857. 
Williant D. Rogers, 1857. 
Jesse W. Starr, 1858. 
Samuel S. Willits, 1858. 
Samuel S. Willits, 1859-05. 



The records of the township from 1821 to 
about 1870 are missing. The following are 
the names of the freeholders from 1844 to 
18G5, when Haddoii township was erected : 

John Clement, 1S44-45. 
Samuel M. Reeves, 1844-45. 
Samuel M. Reeves, 1840-54. 
Joseph B. Tatcm, 1840-54. 
Richard W. Snowdon, 185.5-56. 
Samuel M. Hinchman, 1855-56. 

The following persons re2)resented the re- 
maining part of Newton township until its 
annexation to Camden, in 1871 : 

Henry Davis, 1865. Henry Davis, 1867-08. 

Michael Creely, 1866. Thomas Q. Moffett, 1860-70. 

Haddon township was represented by 
Richard Snowdon from its organization, in 
1867, until his death, in January, 1883; 
since that time Samuel Wood has occupied 
the position. 

J^cehohlcm of Union Township. 

1856 to 1800. —Benjamin S. Mc 

Collister. 
1856-57. — Alexander McKenzie. 
18.58.— John Redlield. 
1801.— Samuel T. Murphy. 



1S44.-JohnD. Glover. 

Abraham Lippincott. 
1845.— Edward C. Gibbs. 

Abraham Lippincott. 
1846.-Jonallian Williams 

Kdward C. Gibbs. 
1847. — Abraham Lippincott. 

1848 to 1854.— John I). Glove: 
1848, — .Alexander McKenzie. 

1849 to 1854— Cooper P.Browning 1808.— Thomas Uallam. 
1855 -Moses G. Boston, 1809.— Samuel T. Mnvphy 

.loci C. Reynolds. 



1802 to 1865.— William S. McC«l- 

lister. 
1866.— Samuol Tatera. 
1867. — Benjamin S. McCollister. 



CIVIL LI8T. 



1S7I1-71. — luliu ('. Sting.111. 
1872.— William Emery. 
1873-74.— Saiiiiul T. Murphy. 
1875. — Jolin C. Stinsoti. 
1,S76.— Samuel T. Muipby. 
1877-79.— James C. Dobbs. 
1879-80.— Hugli J. Gorman. 



il.T Cily. 

18S1.— Patrick lli-aley. 

Firat Waril, IHSi.-IIugb Mullia. 

Firat Ward, 188:1-84.- Tlios. Moss. 

Fil-st Ward, lS8,i-Sli.— David J. 
Dorau. 

Second Ward, ISSi to 188ii.— Pat- 
rick Mealey. 



Freehutdcrs from StocJitOH Totimship. 



Asa P. Horner, 18i9. 
John W. Potts, lSi;0-IV2. 
William Carter, 18G:l-U5. 
John J. Lawrence, 180C-08. 
Joel Horner, 1809-7:). 
John W. Potts, 1871-76. 

FreehuUersfroi 
John I. Githens, 1850-54. 
Richard Stafford, 1850-54. 
John I. Githens, 1855-50. 
Joseph L. Thackara, 1855-56. 
Nixon Davis, 1857. 
Joseph L. Thackara, 1857. 



Joel Clement, 1877. 
Jacob L. Gross. 1878-80. 
John L. Smith, 1881. 
Asa P. Horner, 1883. 
John L. Smith, 188:i-S0. 



I W:i.ter/„rd Township. 

Joel P. Kirkbride, 1868. 
Joseph Porter, 1859-60. 
Joseph L. Thackara, 1861-67. 
Samuel S. Cake, 1808-72. 
Joseph L. Thackara, 1879-84. 
James C. Bishop, 188,5-80. 



Freeholders from Centre township,- 



John D. Glover, 1855. 
Cooper P. Browning, 1855. 
John P. Brick, 185G. 
Charles L. Willits, 1856. 
Samuel P. Lippincott, 1858. 
Zebedee Nicholson, 1858. 
Abraham Itowand, 1860-62. 
Benjamin Shivere, 1863. 



Abraham Rowaud, 1864. 
Chalkly Glover, 1866-08. 
James Bell, 1870. 
Jos. M. Haines, 1872-74-76- 
John Gill, Jr., 1880-81. 
James Davis, 1882-84. 
John D. Glover, 1885-86. 



Freeholders from Gloucester townsliip. The 
early township records being lost, only the 



names of freeholders elected in the township 
since 1863 could he obtained, — 



Richard F. Batten, isoii. 
T. J. Wentz, 1804-65. 
Joshua Sickler, 1806-07. 
Charles Bucknian, 1808-05 
Daniel Turner, 1871-72. 
Hiuch]uan Lippincott, 187 



Jos. C. Lippincott, 187.'i-70. 
Edward Union, 1877-78. 
T. J. Wentz, 1879-80. 
Henry Steward, 1881-80. 
Benjamin Tomlinson, 1881-80. 
Gcorgo H. Higgins, 1881-S6. 



Mei'chantville was not entitled to a free- 
holder until 1 885, when a special act was passed 
by tiie Legislature creating the office for that 
borough. Charles B. Coles was elected in 
1885 and Charles P. Spangler in 1886. 

Freeholders from Delaware township, — 



Jacob Troth, 1844. 
Joseph Kay, Jr., 1844. 
John M. Haino», 1847. 
Benjamin W. Cooper, 18- 
Abel Fowler, 1848. 
Aaron Moore, 1849. 
JobB. Kay, 18.51. 
Benjamin Horner, 1851. 



Asa P. Horner, 1856. 
Isaac Roberts, 1858. 
Richard Shivers, 18li3. 
Isuic W. Nicholson, 1S70. 
Hugh Sharp, 1881. 
William Gratr, 1884. 
William Graff, ISS5. 



Freeholders from Winslow townsliip, — 



Andrew K. Hay. 
Jacob Ware, Sr. 
Charles H. French. 
Matthias S. Simmernian. 
Ezra Stokee. 
Samuel Norcross. 
Joseph Shreve. 
John J. Sickler. 
Isaac S. Peacock. 



Uzical Barefcird. 
John Carroll. 
I. F. Bodine. 
George R. Pl-att. 
Ziba Cain. 
Andrew Ro.ss. 
Andrew P. Ware 
John R. Dublc. 



CENSUS OF CAMDEN COUNTY. 



1850 



9,()18 
2,421 



3,378 
3,284 



Camden City 

Newton township 

Haddon township' 

Gloucester township. 

Union township 

Centre township 

Gloucester City 

Delaware townsliiji 

Stockton township I 

Waterfonl township 1,639 

Winslow township 1,540 

Washington township 

Monroe township 

Merchantville township ' 



2,578 



Total 



11,217 
3,353 



2,123 
2,453 
1,158 



1,593 

1,855 
2,350 



14,368 

4,055 



2,320 
2,865 
1,305 



1,002 
1,473 
1,955 
] ,800 
1,307 
1,417 



25,422 29,160 



34,457 



1805 



18,313 
2,547 
1,560 
2,355 
3,773 
1,267 



1,779 
1,350 
1,940 
1,473 
1,177 
810 



20,045 
8,437 
1,926 
2,710 



1,718 
3,682 
1,625 
2,381 
2,071 
2,050 
1,567 
1,664 



33,852 



2,541 
2,C01 



1,261 
5,105 
1,358 
2,106 
2,003 
1,887 



41,569 



2,551 
2,527 



1,538 
5,347 
1,481 
3,093 
2,145 
2,158 



52,884 



3,270 
2,542 



1,723 
5,966 
1,572 
3,709 
2,098 
2,180 



7(i,685 



'Haddon township was formed from Newton; Centre from Union and Gloucester, in 1855; 
Gloucester City from Union, in 1868; Stockton from Delaware, in 1859; Washington and Monroe annexed 
to Gloucester County ; Merchantville was erected from parts of Delaware and Stockton, and Newton was 
annexed to Camden, in 1871. 



192 



IILSTURV OF CAMDEN COUNTS, NEW JERSEY. 



Census of Gloucester County 1732 to 1840 : 
1737,3207; 1745, 3506; 1790, 13,363; 
1800, 19,744. 





1810 


1820 


1830 


1840 


Esg Harbor* 

Galloway* 


I8;iu 

1048 


10.5 
1803 
S77 
781 
3281 
2099 
1137 
3113 


2il0 
29i;o 
1424 
1270 
3S99 
2657 
1574 
3033 








Wejmoutl.* 


win 

2978 

2sr,a 




2570 




2837 








Sous 










"vj:"\ 


2059 
602 
2497 


2332 
686 
3298 


2837 


(iloiicetjter townnhip 




1803 












1074 




■2106 


2417 


3088 


3467 








19,189 


23,089 


28,431 


25,445 





' Stt off to Atlantic County, 1837. 



David B. Brown, surrogate of Camden 
County since 1866, was born in the village 
of Blackwood, Camden county, on the 21st of 
March, 1833. His grandfather, John Brown, 
was a shoemaker, and according to the custom 
of his day, passed from house to house 
through the southern part of the county, at- 
tending to the duties of his trade. 

George Brown, the father of Surrogate 
Brown, was married to Mary Beckley, whose 
ancestors were Germans. His trade was 
that of a wheelwright, though he spent much 
of his time in shipping cord-wood to Phila- 
delphia and there selling it. 

Surrogate Brown obtained his education in 
the schools of his native place, taught school 
for a short time, and then engaged in farm- 
work until he arrived at the age of twenty- 
eight years. In 1861, when the call for 
troops from the Northern States was made by 
President Lincoln for the defense of the 
Union, Mr. Brown was one of those brave 
spirits who was quick to respond. He went 
to Trenton with a companion and was en- 
listed on May 21, 1861, as a private in Com- 
pany D of tlie Third llcgiinent of New Jer- 
sey Infantry. He and his comrade were the 
last two needed to complete the company, 
most of whose members were; from Sussex 
Cdiiiitv and (lie northeastern counties of 



Penn.sylvania. The regiment in which Mr. 
Brown enlisted, together with the First, 
Second and Fourth, formed the Fir.st Bri- 
gade of New Jersey Infantry in the three 
years' service and vvas sent to the defense of 
Washington, was within hearing distance of 
the first battle of Bull Run, though not 
actively engaged. He participated with his 
regiment in the Seven Days' Battle and other 
severe engagements of the Peninsular Cam- 
paign, under General McClellan ; was then 
transferred up the Potomac Hivcr to Alex- 
andria, where it engaged in a skirmish, and 
subsequently, during the year 1862, the sec- 
ond battle of Bull Run, the first battle of 
Fredericksburg and the battle of Chantilly. 
He was promoted sergeant of his com- 
pany and in the severe engagement at Salem 
Church, near Fredericksburg, he was severely 
wounded by a riflo-ball fracturing the ulna 
bone of his right forearm. While making his 
way to the rear of his regiment, after receiv- 
ing his wound, he unexpectedly fell into the 
hands of the enemy, and placed in a Confed- 
erate field hospital. While there his wound 
wjis dressed, the ulna being removed by Dr. 
Todd, of Georgia, a surgeon in the Southern 
army and a brother-in-law of President Lin- 
coln. At the expiration of eight days Ser- 
geant Brown was paroled and first sent to a 
field hospital, then to a ho.spital at Washing- 
ton and later to Chestnut Hill Hospital, near 
Philadelphia, where he filled out his term of 
enlistment, and was discharged May 12, 
18(!J. In the mean time, after his wound had 
partially healed, he served on guard duty at 
the hospital. 

(Jn May 5, 186(5, Mr. Brown was ap- 
pointed surrogate of Camden County by 
Governor Ward, to fill the unexpired term 
of Isaac L. IjOwc, who died in office. He 
was elected to the office of surrogate in No- 
vember, 1866, and re-elected in 1871, in 
1876 and in 1881, having served continu- 
ously in the .same office for a period of twenty 
vears, which in itself is a strikina; evidence 





<J%^</T> ("A 



-^ m lyo^i^ 




CIVIL LIST. 



193 



ot liis ability aud efficiency to perform its 
onerous duties and of the confidence reposed 
in him by his constituents. 

Mr. Brown was married, in ISfiS, to Mary 
Oliver, of Camden, though a native of Bur- 
lington County, who died three years later, 
fn 1873 he was married to Mary E. Haines, 
of Burlington County, by whom he has two 
children, Bes.sie and George S. 

Mr. Brown and his family are members of 
the Methodist Church, and he is a mcmi)er 
of T. M. K. Lee Post, No. o, G. A. R., of 
Camden. 

RiniERT F. Stucktox Hkath was born 
in the city of Philadelphia August 20, 1842, 
and is a sou of the late Andrew Heath, well- 
known as one of the first conductors of the 
Camden and Araboy Railroad. His prepar- 
atory education was acquired in the schools 
of Philadelphia and Camden, and he then 
entered the Philadelphia High School, from 
which institution he was graduated. He 
l>egan business as an employee with the firm 
of Thomas White & Co., prominent mer- 
chants of Philadelphia, engaged in the job- 
bing millinery trade on Second Street, above 
Chestnut, and then the leading firm in the 
United States dealing in that line of goods. 
He continued with this firm until the death 
of Mr. White, when Lincoln, Wood & 
Nichols became the successors, and removed 
the establishment to 725 Chestnut Street, and 
Mr. Heath was given charge of the manu- 
facturing department. Upon the dissolution 
of this firm he became associated with P. A. 
Harding in the same business, from ISfil to 
ISG-"), and then with Thomas Morgan & Co. 
(Mr. Heath being the company) until the 
death of the senior partner. 

In 1875 he associated as co-partner in the 
firm of G. P. Muller & Co., and engaged in 
the manufactin-e of straw goods at 513 and 530 
Arch Street, which firm dissolved by limita- 
tion at the expiration of eight years, and Mr. 
Heath, in 1 883, began and has since continued 
the manufacture of ladies' straw goods at an 



extensive establishment, ',tl5 l-'illici-t Street, in 
which he has about onr iiiiiKlrtd and thirty 
workmen constantly employed. He has fifty 
sewing-machines running, liy which all vari- 
etiesofbraid arescwed lo the straw goods. The 
sizing, blocking and finishing at his factory 
are all done by steam-power, antl the color- 
ing and the pleating of the; goods are done in 
the works. A twelve horse-power engine 
and a twenty horse-power boiler drive the 
machiuery, and long lines of shafting and 
floors are used for healing j)urpo.ses in the 
drying-rooms. The manufactured goods are 
.sold in all the large cities of the Union 
from the home office, through a branch house 
in New York, and by resident salesmen in 
Pitt.sburgh, St. Louis anil Chicago. His 
business career has been marked by con- 
tinued success, and as a manufacturer his ad- 
vice and opinions are freciuently sought for 
by others and his Judgment considered good. 

In 1881 Mr. Heath was elected by the 
Democratic party to rejiresent the First Dis- 
trict of Camden County in the State Legis- 
lature, and after serving with ability aud 
credit for one term, was offered a re-election, 
which, on account of the pressing duties of 
his own business affairs, he was compelled to 
decline. At the solicitation of members of 
both the dominant political j)arties, in 1885, 
he accepted the nomination and was elected 
register of deeds for Camden County, to 
serve for a term of five years, a position 
which he now (1886) fills with great ac- 
ceptance to his constituents. 

In 1864 Mr. Heath was married to 
Josephine, the youngest daughter of Captain 
Constant Waithmau. Their children are 
Emma, Matilda (deceased) and Clara. The 
entire family are members of St. Paul's Epis- 
copal (Jhurch, of Camden, of which Mr. 
Heath is a vestryman. Pie is a prominent 
member of the IMasonic fraternity, and of 
the order of Odd-Fellows, and assisted in or- 
ganizing the Knights of Pythias in New Jer- 
sey, being the first Grand Chancellor of that 



194 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



order in the State. ITiider tlie old militia 
system he was captain of Company C, of the 
Second Battalion, under Col. McKeen, and 
afterwards held the commission as captain of 
Comjjany B, of the Sixth Regiment, under 
Col. W. J. Sewell. 

Edward Burrough is a son of Joseph 
A. and Mary H. Burrough, and was born 
upon the farm where he now resides, 
in Delaware township, midway between 
Merchantville and Colestown, September 
5, 1848. He is a member of the fifth gen- 
eration who have been in possession of that 
farm in continuous succession, and from reli- 
able data is of the same family of Burroughs 
that Edward Burrough, the eminent minister 
of the Society of Friends (contemporary with 
George Fox), came from. All of his ances- 
tors on both sides were members of the 
Society of Friends, and although by a pecu- 
liar decree of their Discipline he is not a 
member of it, yet iiis religious affiliations 
remain with tiiat society, under which 
he was reared. He was given such advan- 
tages for acfjuiring an education as the 
district schools of his youth afforded, going 
to school during the winter months and 
working upon the farm during the other 
portions of the year until he reached iiis 
seventeenth year, when he was sent to the 
Friends' Academy, at Haddoufield, for two 
winters, and continued to work upon 
the farm during the summer months. 
In the fall of 1862 he entered Treemont 
Seminary, at Norristown, Pa., and completed 
hi.s .scholastic course in a five months' term. 
Notwithstanding his hap-hazard opportuni- 
ties, he has acquired a fair education, and he 
still continues Iiis studious habits. Mr. 
Burrough was a strong Unionist during the 
Rebellion, having imbibed from his ancestors 
their abolition principles. On July To, 18(54, 
he was one of the company of minute-men 
who left Camden for the defen.se of Baltimore 
under the command of Captain R. H. Lee, 
and was mustered into the service of the 



United SUites and assigned to duty at Fort 
Dix, near the Relay Hou.se, on the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad ; they were attached to 
the First Separate Brigade, Eighth Army 
Corp,s, under Major-Geueral Lew Wallace, 
General E. B. Tyler lieing their brigade- 
commander. At the expiration of their term 
of .service they returned to Camden and were 
regularly mustered out. 

In the spring of 1865 his father died, which 
event prevented his return to the army and 
compelled him to at ont^e begin the business 
of farming, and altliough .scarcely twenty-one 
years of age, and loaded with heavy responsi- 
bilities, he at once applied hi.s energies to 
lightening his burden and securing him.self a 
home. Being imbued with the idea that 
fanning in New Jersey was as honoralile a 
calling as any other pursuit, and that 
fanners as a class should learn to honor their 
business, he took an active interest in 
organizing the '' Farmers' A.ssociation " of 
this county in 1872, and has been an active 
advocate of the many reforms instituted and 
carried out by that association, among which 
was the removal of the calf and stock mar- 
kets from Philadelphia to Camden, which 
was .soon followed by locating a hay and 
calibage market on this side of the river. 
He was also instrumental in bringing about 
an amicable arrangement with the ferry 
companies, whereby a reduction in the rates 
on teams was secured. His activity in 
these matters soon attracted the attention 
of the farmers of Burlington County, and 
agaiiLSt his wishes he was elected a director 
of the Moorestown Agricultural Society, and 
.soon after its vice-jinwident, a position he 
resigned in the spring of 1886. He had 
several years been a member of the execu- 
tive committee of the State iioard of Agri- 
(mlture, and in February, 1886, he was elected 
jiresident of the ]ioard, thus placing him at 
the head of the agricultural interests of the 
State. 

In 1867 he was elected clerk of Delaware 



CIVIL LIST. 



195 



towiisliii), vvhieli pusitioii lu- lielil until tlie 
fall of 1878, wheu he resigned upon reeeiving 
the uoniination for the Assembly, to which he 
was elected for two terms. 

In 1870 he was appointed an assistant mar- 
shal to take the ninth United States census 
of Delaware, Stockton and Haddon town- 
ships. When the State was redistricted, in 
coiifonnitv with the present j)iiblic school 
laws, he exerted himself to have proper 
school facilities afforded the neiglihorhood, in 
which he lived, and succeeded in securing a 
district school, and was appointed a trustee 
by the first county superintendent of Camden 
and Burlington Counties (in which latter 
county the school building is situated) ; this 
]i<>sition he resigned at the annual meeting, 
t)ut the ne.Ktyear, against his earnest protest, 
he was elected a trustee, and still continues 
in that position, and for the last five years 
has been clerk of the district. 

In 1873 he was appointed chairman of the 
Centennial Committee of the West Jersey 
Farmers' CJonference Club, which coiumittee 
was also appointed an auxiliary Board for 
Camden and Burlington Counties by the 
Centennial Bt)ard of Finance. This positi(^n 
brought him in accpiaintance witli those in 
charge of this department of the great 
E.xposition and familiarized him with their 
arduous duties, and the efforts put forth 
by the citizens of Philadelphia to com- 
plete the buildings and make the Kxposition 
a suc(«ss. 

In 1S78, he was solii^ited by his i)oliti('al 
friends to become a candidate for the Legis- 
lature, and after considei-able hesitancy con- 
sented, and received the nomination of his 
party in the first Assembly District, and was 
elected by a majority of one thousand four 
hundred and eighty-one, being the largest 
majority ever given to a member of the As- 
sembly in New Jersey. A redistricting of 
the State followed his election, which |)laced 
him in the Second Assembly district. And 
in the fall of 187'J he was again nominated by 



the l\epublicans, and although a decided off 
year in politics, there being only his own and 
the county collector's name on the ticket (and 
the (!anvass consequently a very (juiet one), 
he was again elected by nearly four hundred 
majority. His career in the Legislature was 
without spot or blemish, and proved very 
satisfactory to his constituents, and threw 
him into the acquaintance of the prominent 
men of the State of all parties, the respect of 
whom he ever after maintained. Never of 
robust health, lie yet po.sse.ssed a sort of 
wiry constitution, which for twenty years 
enabled him to [)erforrn the work of a much 
stronger man. He eventually overrated his 
strength, which brought on a series of heart 
troubles that prevented him from performing 
further manual labor. He became a candi- 
date for the ofiice of county clerk in the fall 
of 1885. Always a Republican and an ac- 
tive partisan, he yet never sought an office 
until he asked the support of his friends for 
the position above-mentioned. He was sin- 
gularly successful in his canvass for the nom- 
ination, and received the entire vote of the 
conventiou. Owing to a combination of cir- 
cumstances over which he had no control, the 
campaign was an apathetic one and the vote 
of his party a very small one. He, however, 
was elected by a small majority, which led 
his opponents to perpetrate infamous frauds 
to overcome his majority. Feeling confident 
that he was fairly and legally elected, he 
])rocured able coiuisel and prosecuted the 
case to a successful termination, and on the 
li5th day of February, 1880, he was didy 
commissioned and qualified as County Clerk 
of the County of Camden, which position he 
still holds. He maintains his residence upon 
his farm, where it is his desire to end his 
existence. 

(In every position that he held he always 
recognized the rights of all parties in his 
ofiicial acts, maintaining that a,s they were 
alike expected to obey the laws, they were 
equally entitled to l)c heard ; that as an 



196 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



office-holder he was as much the servant of 
the minority as he was of the majority ; 
but upou strict party issues he was always a 
firm adherent to the party to which he was 
allied.) 

On tiie 23rd of November, 1870, he mar- 
ried Emily Collins, only child of William 
and Martha Collins, of Moorestown, Burling- 
ton County. No children have ever rewarded 
their union, and they are obliged to remain 
without the endearing prattle of childish 
voices ill their large country home. Edward 
Burrough has but one sister, the wife of 
the present Deputy County Clerk, and slie, 
like himself, is childless. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

the benf'fi and bar of camdex cotnty. 

Outline of Early Legal History of 
New Jersey. — After tlie settlement of the 
dispute between John Fenwick (who had ac- 
quired of Lord John Berkley the undivided 
one-half of New Jersey) and the creditors of 
Edward Byllynge (February 9, 1674), steps 
were taken by those interested to procure a 
division of the territory. This was done by 
a quintipartite deed, dated July 1, 1G76, 
made between the proprietors of East New 
Jersey and the proi)rietors of West New 
Jersey, which fixed the boundary. This 
made two separate and distinct provinces of 
the original territory, each of which estal)- 
lished a government of its own, with legis- 
lative, judicial, and executive powers. The 
proprietors and own(!rs of West New Jersey 
issued (March 3, 167G) their "concessions 
and agreements " in forty-four chapters, 
somewhat in the nature of a constitution, and 
upon which all the laws ])assed by tiie legis- 
lature should be based. These governments 
were separately maintained until 1702, when 
the inhal)itants of bolli |>nivinces joined in a 
petition to Queen Anne ol' England, to as- 



sume the government. The surrender was 
signed April 15, 1702, and two days after 
the Queen accepted it, and November 14th, 
in the same year, appointed Edward Lord 
Cornbury, Captain-General and Governor of 
the Province of Nova Ctesarea, or New Jer- 
sey in America. 

This was the commencement of a new 
epoch in the history of the courts of New 
Jersey ; and the commission and instructions 
delivered by Queen Anne to Lord Cornbury, 
as the first Governor of the new colony, 
were, in fact, its second Constitution. In these 
instructions the attention of the Governor 
was especially called to the laws which he 
might find in existence, and concerning them 
he is enjoined as follows : " You are with all 
convenient speed to cause a collection to be 
made of all the Laws, Orders, Rules, or such 
as have hitherto served or been reputed as 
Laws amongst the Inhabitants of our said 
Province of Nova Oraarea or New Jersey, 
and together with our aforesaid Council and 
Assembly, von are to revise, correct and 
amend the same, as may be necessary." 

Concerning the passage of laws by the 
General Assembly, it is remarkable that at 
that early period a ])nivisii)n should have 
been tnade in this Constitution, the omission 
of whiili in the Constitution of 1776 was so 
seriously felt, that it was introduced into the 
Constitution of 1844, and may now be found 
in nearly all the Constitutions of the ditfer- 
eut States of tlie I'nion. It is in regard to 
the intermixing of dillerent laws in one and 
the same act, and is as follows: " You are 
also, as nuich as possible, to observe in the 
passing of all Laws, that whatever may be 
requisite upon each ditftu'cut matter, be ac- 
cordingly ])rovided for l)y a diiferent Law 
without intermixing in one and the same 
Act such Tilings as have no proper Relation 
to each other ; and you are especially to take 
care that no Clause or Clauses be inserted in 
or annexed to any act which shall be foreign to 
what the Title of such respective Act imports." 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



197 



The provi.'^ion ol' the Constitution of 1844 
is evidently taken from the foregoing. It 
is in these words : " To avoid improper 
intluenoes which may result from intermix- 
ing in one and the same aet such things as 
have DO relation to each other, every law 
shall embrace but one object, and that shall 
be expressed in the title." 

In the matter of erecting courts or offices 
of judicature, it is curious that the com- 
mission of the Governor and his instructions 
siiould be so much at variance. In the 
instructions he is commanded as follows: 
" You shall not erect any Court or Office of 
.ludicature, not before erected or established, 
witliout our especial Order." In his com- 
mission, on the other hand, we find as fol- 
lows : " And do further give and grant unto 
you full Power and Authority, with the 
Advice and Con.sent of our said Council, to 
erect, con.stitute and e.stabli.sh such and so 
many Courts of Judicature and Public Jus- 
tice within our .said Province under your 
Government as you and they shall think tit 
and necessary for the hearing and determin- 
ing of all Causes as well Criminal as Civil, 
according to Law and Enuity, and for 
awarding execution thereupon with all 
reasonable and neces.sary Powers, Authorities, 
Fees, and Privileges belonging unto them.'' 

Bv virtue, then, of his commission, which 
conferred upon him and his C'ouncil powers 
hitiierto enjoyed by the General AsKend)ly, 
the (lovernor promulgated in 1704 the first 
'■ ( )rdinancc of I'jstablishing Courts of Judi- 
cature," whiili really forms the foundation 
of tlie wiiolc judicial system of New Jer.sey. 
"All that has been done from tliat day to 
tiiis," .says Judge Field in his discourse be- 
fore mentioned, " has been to fill up, as it 
were, the outlines which he sketched ; to add 
some additional apartments to the judicial 
edifice which he constructed." 

This ordinance, which was, perhaps, un- 
known, certainly unnoticed, not only i)y the 
iiistorians of New Jersey, but by those who 



have written upon its courts of justice, is .so 
interesting that it is here given in full, as it 
appears in the appendix to Judge Field's 
discourse, where it was printed for the first 
time since its publication in 1704, — 

An Ordinance for Establishino CoirRTs of 
Judicature. 

Whereaji, her most Sacred Majesty, Anne, by the 
Grace of God, Queen of England, Scotland, France 
and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c., by her 
Royal Letters Patents, bearing date the fifth day of 
December, in the first year of Her Majesty's 
Reign, did, among other things therein mentioned, 
give and grant unto his Excellency, Edward Vis- 
count Cornbury, Captain-General and Governour-- 
in-Chief in and over the Province of Nova C'asarea, 
or New Jersey, &c., full Power and Authority, 
with the Advice and Consent of her Majesty's 
Council of the said Province, to erect, constitute 
and establish such and so m.any Courts of Judica- 
ture and public Justice within the said Province 
and Territories depending thereon, as his said 
Excellency and C'ouncil shall think fit and neces- 
sary, for the Hearing and Determining of all 
Causes, as well Criminal as Civil, according to 
Law and Equity, and for awarding Execution 
thereupon, with all necessary Powers, Authorities, 
Fees and Privileges belonging to them. 

His Excellency, the Governour, by and with 
the advice and Consent of her Majesty's Council, 
and \>y Virtue of the Powers and Authorities 
derived unto him by her said Majesty's Letters 
Patents, doth by these Presents Ordain, and it i.i 
hereby Ordained by the Authority aforesaid, That 
every Justice of the Peace that resides within any 
Town or County within this Province, is by these 
Presents fully empowered and authorized to have 
Cognizance of all Causes or Ca.ses of Debt and 
Ties|)asses, to the Value of Forty ^Shillings, or 
under ; which Causes or Cases of Debt and Tres- 
passes, to the value of Forty Shillings or under, 
shall and may be Heard, Try'd and finally Deter- 
mined without a Jury, by every .lustice of the 
Peace residing, as aforesaid. 

The Process of Warning against a Free-holder or 
luhabitant shall be by Summons under the Hand 
of the Justice, directed to the Constable of the 
Town or Precinct, or to any deputed by him, where 
the parly complained against docs live or reside; 
which Summons being personally served or left at 
the Defendant's House, or his place of Abode, lour 
daysbefore the hearing of the Plaint, shall be sufli- 
cient Authority to and for the said Justice to proceed 



198 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



to hear such Cause or Causes and Determine the 
game in the Defendant's absence, and to grant 
Execution thereupon against the Defendant's 
Person, or for want thereof, his Goods and Chatties, 
which the Constable, or his Deputy, of that Town 
or Precinct, shall and may serve, unless some 
reasonable excuse for the Parties absence appear 
to the Justice. 

And the Process against an Itinerant Person, 
Inmate or Foreigntr shall be by Warrant from any 
one Justice of the Peace, to be served by any 
Constable, or his Deputy, within that County, 
who shall by Virtue thereof arrest the Party, and 
him safely keep till he be carried before the said 
Justice of the Peace, who shall and may imme- 
diately hear, try and finally determine of all such 
Causes and Cases of Debt and Trespass, to the 
Value of Forty Shillings, or under, by avvai-ding 
Judgment and Execution ; and if payment be not 
immediately made, the Constable is to deliver tlie 
Party to the Slierifi", who is hereby required to 
take him into Custody, and him safely keep till 
payment be made of the same, with charges ; 
Always Provided, That an Appeal to the Justices 
at the next Court of Ses.sions held for this said 
County, shall be allowed for any sum upwards of 
Twenty Shillings. 

And his said Excellency, by the advice and 
consent aforesaid, doth by these Presents further 
Ordain, That there shall be kept and holden a 
Court of Common Pleas in each respective County 
within this Province, which shall be holden in 
each County at such place where the General 
Court of Sessions is usually held and kept, to 
begin immediately after the Sessions of the Peace 
does end and terminate, and then to hold and con- 
tinue as long as there is any business, not exceed- 
ing three days. 

And the several and resjiective Courts of Pleas 
hereby established shall have power and .Furisdic- 
tion to hear, try and finally determine all actions, 
and all Matters and Thing3^ Tryable at Common 
Law, of what nature or kind soever. Provided 
always, and it is hereby Ordained, That there may, 
and shall be an Api)eal or Removal by /lalicas 
(Jorpus, or any other lawful Writ, of any I'er.son 
or any Action or Suit depending, and of Judg- 
ment or Execution that shall be determined in 
the said respective Courts of Pleas, u|)wards of 
Ten Pounds, and of any Action or Suit wherein 
the Uiglit or Title of, in or to any Land, or any- 
thing relating thereto, shall lie brought into Dis- 
pute upon Tryal. 

And it is further Ordained by the Authority afore- 
said, That the General Sessions of the Peace shall 



be held in each respective County within this 
Province, at the Times and Places hereafter 
mentioned, that is to say: 

For the County of Middlesex-, at Amboy, the third 
Tuesdays in February, May and August; and the 
fourth Tuesday in November. 

For the County of Bergen, at Bergen, the first 
Tuesdays in February, May and August ; &nd the 
second Tuesday in November. 

For the County of Essex, at Newark, the second 
Tuesdays of February, May and August ; and the 
third Tuesday in November. 

For the County of Monmouth, at Shrewsbury, the 
fourth Tuesdays in February, May and August; 
and the first Tuesday in December. 

For the County of Burlington, at Burlington, 
the first Tuesdays in March, June and September ; 
and the second Tuesday in December. 

For the County of Gloucester, the second Tues- 
days in March, June and September ; and the third 
Tuesday in December. 

For the County of Salem, at Salem, the third 
Tuesdays in March, Jtine and September ; and the 
fourth Tuesday in December. 

For the County of Cape May, at the house of 
Shamger Hand, the fourth Tuesdays in March, 
June and September, and the first Tuesday in Jan- 
uary. Which General Sessions of the Peace in 
each respective County aforesaid shall hold and 
continue for any term not exceeding two days. 

And be it further Ordained by the Authority afore- 
said, That there shall be held and kept at the 
Cities or Towns of Perth Amboy and Burlington 
alternately a Supream Court of Judicature, which 
Supream Court is hereby fully impowered to 
have cognizance of all Pleas, Civil, Criminal 
and Mixt as fully and amply, to all intents and 
purposes whatsoever, as the Courts of (Queen's 
flench. Common Pleas and Exchequer within her 
Majesty's Kingdom of England have or ought to 
have, in and to which Supream Court all and 
every Per.son and Persons whatsoever shall and 
may, if they .see meet, commence any Action or 
Suit, the Debt or Damage laid in such Action 
or Suit being upwards of Ten Pounds, and shall 
or may by Certiorari, Habeas Corpus, or any other 
lawful Writ, remove out of any of the respective 
Courts of Sessions of the Peace or Common Pleas, 
any information or Indictment there depending, 
orjudgmi-nt thereupon given or to be given in any 
Criminal Matter whatsoever cognizable before 
them, or any of them, as also all Actions, Pleas or 
Suits, real, personal or mixt, depending in any of 
the said Courts, and all Judgments thereupon 
given, or to be given. Provided Always, T^hat the 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



Action, or Suit, depending, or Judgment given Ije 
upwards of the Value of Ten Pounds, or that the 
Action, or Suit, there depending or determined, 
be concerning the Eight or Title of any Free-hold. 
And out of the ottice of which Siiprcam (hurl at 
Amboy and Burlington all process shall issue, 
under the Test of the Chief Justice of the said 
Court; unto which Office all Returns shall be 
made. Which Sujircani Court shall be holden at 
the Cities of Amboy and Burlington alternately, 
at Amboy on the first Tuesilai/ in Maij, and at Rur- 
liiic/lon on the first Tue.iday in November, annually, 
and every year; and each session of the said Court 
shall continue for any Term not exceeding five 
days. And one of the Justices of the said Suprram 
Court shall once in every year, if need shall so 
require, go the Circuit, and hold and keep the said 
Siipream Court, for the County of Berr/ni at fter- 
f/rii, on the third Tutsday in Ajiril. For the 
('iiunty oi EMex at Newark, on the fourth Tuesday 
in April. For the County of JMoiimoutli at 
Shrfwsbury, the second Tuesday in JIay. For 
the County of Glouceatrr at Gloufi'ster, the thii'd 
Tuesday in May. For the County of Salem at 
Salem, the fourth Tuesday in May. For the 
County of Cape May, at Shamger Hands, the first 
Tuesday in June. Which Justice, when he goes 
the Circuit, shall in each respective County be 
assisted by two or more J ustices of the Peace dur- 
ing the time of two days, whilst the Court, in the 
Circuit, is sitting, and no longer. 

And His further Ordained by the Authority afore- 
8aid, That all and every of the Justices or Judges of 
the several Courts afore-mentioned, be, and are 
hereby sufficiently Impowered and Authorized to 
make, ordain and establish all such Rules and 
Orders, for the more regular practising and pro- 
ceeding in the said Courts, as fully and amply, to 
all intents and purposes whatsoever, as all or any 
of the Judges of the several Courts, of the Quern's 
Bench, Common Pleas and E.rrhnjiirr, in Km/land, 
legally do. 

And if iif further Ordained by the Authority afore- 
said, that no Person's Right of Property shall be, 
by any of the aforesaid Courts, Determined, ex- 
cept where matters of Fact are either ac'knowl- 
edged by the Parties, or Judgment confessed, or 
passelh, by the Defendant's fault for want of 
Plea or Answer, unless the Fact be found by 
Verdict of Twelve Men of that Neighbourhood, as 
it ought to be done by Law. 

CORNBURY. 

A Cimrt of Chancery always existed in 
the State of New Jersey, although its powers 



were not at first vested in a single piM'son. 
During the pro[)rietary governtuent the 
Court of Common Rights exercised ( 'hancery 
powers and was virtually the Court of 
Ciuuiceiy until KJitS. iSubsequi'nt to that 
time, until 1705, this court was uinlouhtedly 
held by the Governor and ('ouncil, and after 
1705 its authority was vesteil in llie (ioNci- 
nor, or Lieutenant-Governor, and three 
members of the (Council. In 17 IS Gov- 
ernor Hunter assumed the office of ciiau- 
(iellor, and continued to exercise its authority 
until his resignation, in 1720. Although 
this act of (iovernor Hunter was condi'mned 
by the people as an iniauthori/.ed assumption 
of power, it received the approval of the 
King's government, and was adopted Ijy his 
successor, Governor Burnet, who took especial 
delight in his duties as chancellor. Three 
vears after the advent of Governor Franklin 
an effort was made by him (1768) to secure 
such action on the part of the Council and 
General Assembly as would i)lace tlie Court 
of Chancery on a better footing. He 
called for a master of the rolls, a mas- 
ter in Chancery for one division of the 
province, two Masters in Chancery for the 
other division and a sergeant-at-arms in 
each division. But the General Assembly 
caring little for the Court of Clianeery, paid 
no further attention to the Governor's re- 

(jUCSt. 

Two years afterwards the (iovernor took 
ihe matter in his own hands, and, by virtue 
of the powers conferred iii)on him by his 
commi.ssiou, with the advice and consent of 
the Council, he adopted an ordinance c(jn- 
cerning the Court of (Jhancery, by which he 
appointed and commissioned such masters, 
clerks, examiners, registers and other neces- 
sary officers as were needed in the court. 
There were no essential changes made in the 
provisions of this ordinance, even by the Con- 
stitution of July, 1776, which also united 
the offices of Governor and chancellor, and 
this union continued until the adoption of the 



200 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



present Constitution, which separated these 
two offices and allowed a (Jovernor to be 
chosen from any of the professions or voca- 
tions of life. 

There is no evidence tliat, [)rior to ilti'.], 
any previous term of study was re(|uired as a 
qualification for admission to the bar. In 
that year, during the administration of Gov- 
ernor Cosby, it is said by Judge Field, in his 
work already (pioted, " that it was provided by 
an act of Assembly that no person should 
be permitted to practice as an attorney-at- 
law but such as had served an ap})renticesliip 
of at least seven years with some able attor- 
ney licensed to practice, or had ])ursued the 
study of law for at least four years after com- 
ing of full age." If any such law was at 
that time passed it was no longer in force in 
1752, as it does not appear in " Nevill's 
Laws," published in that year. The provis- 
ion referred to by Judge Field was probably 
contained in the act entitled, " An Act for the 
better Enforcing an Ordinance made for Fls- 
tablishing of Fees and for Regulating the 
Practice of the Law," which was disallowed 
by the King in Council April :i, 1735. 
Whatever has been ilone since that time to 
keep " persons of mean parts and slender at- 
tainments " out of the profession has been 
done not by acts of the Legislature, but by 
the rules of the Supreme Court. 

The lawyers of New Jer.sey were the first 
among all the inhabitants of the American 
colonics to resist systematically those oppres- 
sive measures on the part of England which 
led to the Declaration of Independence and 
the War of the Revolution. The first of the 
most odious of these measures was the Stamp 
Act, which was passed by the British Parlia- 
ment March 22, ]7()5. Before the stamps 
had yet arrived from Kngland the members 
of the bar, at the September 'lY-rni of the Su- 
preme Court (17()5), held at Ainboy, met and 
resolved inianimously that they would not 
use the stamps under any circumstances or 
for any purpose whatsoever. When, at 



length, the stamps arrived, the lawyers re- 
fused to purchase them, and, as a matter of 
course, the courts of justice were all closed 
throughout New Jersey, (treat inconven- 
ience and great dissatisfaction was the result, 
not only in New Jersey, but in other colonies 
where the example of the Jersey lawyers had 
been followed. The people c()mj)lained and 
societies were everywhere organized under 
the name of " S(ins of Lil)ertv,"' wlio urged 
the lawyers to go on with their business 
without the use of stamps. ( )f the lawyers, 
some were in favor of so doing and others 
were o[)posed. A general meeting of the 
bar was now called and held in New Bruns- 
wick, February 13, 1766, and hundreds of 
the Sons of Liberty were present to encour- 
age the lawyers to disregard this tyrannical 
act of Parliament, and to have the courts of 
justice once more opened. The result was 
that the meeting resolved that if the Stamp 
Act was not repealed by the 1st of April 
following, they would resume their practice 
as usual. The British government, not ig- 
norant of this bold stand taken by the law- 
yers of New Jersey, repealed the odious act 
before the day arrived when they would have 
bid Parliament defiance. 

Chief Justices of the Colonial Su- 
preme Court of New Jersey. — Under the 
first Constitution — that is, during the provin- 
cial period of our history — no such office ex- 
isted, nor wiis there any court corresponding 
exactly with tiie Supreme Court erected 
inidcr the ordinance promulgated by Lord 
Cornbury in 1704. It was under this ordi- 
nance that the office was created, and the first 
session of the Supreme Court of New Jersey 
was held at Burlington on tiic 7th day of 
November, 1740. On that day the first 
chief justice of New Jersey, Roger Mom- 
pesson, took his seat upon the bench, with 
William Pinhorne beside him as associate 
judge. Their commissions were read and 
the court then adjourned till the next dav, 
when the sherilf of Burlington County re- 



THE BENCH AND BAR 



201 



turned a grand jury, and a charge to them 
was delivered by the chief justice. 

The business of that session was, however, 
very light. Not even one indictment was 
found ; nor was there a single case ready for 
trial. Some gentlemen, nevertheless, had 
the courage to seek admission to the bar and 
were admitted. The court then adjourned to 
the first Tuesday of May succeeding. 

Chief Justices of New Jersey Durixg 
AND After the Kevolution. — After the 
adoption of the Constitution of 1776 consid- 
erable difficulty was experienced in organiz- 
ing the courts of the new State. The Leg- 
islature, in joint meeting, elected Richard 
Stockton, an eminent lawyer and patriot, as 
chief justice of the Supreme Court, but he 
declined the appointment. A few days af- 
terwards, September 4, 1776, the same body 
elected John De Hart to that high office, and 
although he accepted it, he finally declined 
to enter upon its duties. On the same day 
Samuel Tucker and Francis Hopkinson were 
elected associate justices. Mr. Hopkinson, 
who was at the time a delegate to the Con- 
tinental Congress, declined ; but Mr. Tucker 
accepted, and taking the oath of office, held 
a term of court in November following. The 
regular terms of the court just prior to this 
time having been interrupted, acts of Assem • 
bly were passed reviving and continuing the 
process and [)roceedings depending therein. 
Mr. Tucker did not continue long upon the 
bench. A difficulty arose between him and 
Governor liivingstone in regard to the dis- 
appearance of a large amount of ))aper cur- 
rency and other property in Mr. Tucker's 
custody a-s State treasurer. Mr. Tucker's 
allegation that he had been robbed of it by 
a party of British horsemen, who had taken 
him prisoner, was disputed by (Jovernor Liv- 
ingstone and thereupon Mr. Tucker re- 
signed his commission. 

Associate Justices of tiik Supreme 
Court. — The Constitution of New Jersey 
adopted July 2, 1776, makes no mention of 

26 



the Supreme Court except to declare that 
" The Judge.s of the Supreme Court shall 
continue in office for seven years." Who 
these judges might be, or how many, does 
not appear and is not provided for. It is 
true that this Constitution provides : " Sec- 
tion XXL That all the laws of this province 
contained in the edition lately published by 
Mr. Allison (January 1, 1776) shall be and 
remain in full force, until altered by the Leg- 
islature of this colony (such only excepted 
as are incompatible with this charter), and 
shall be, according as heretofore, regarded in 
all respects by all civil officers and others, 
the good people of this province." What 
appears to be the first act passed by tlie first 
Legislature under the Constitution is as fol- 
lows : " Be it therefore enacted by the Coun- 
cil and General Assembly of this State, 
and it is hereby enacted by the authority of 
the same, that the several Courts of Law 
and Equity of this State shall be confirmed 
and established and continued to be held 
with like powers under the present govern- 
ment as they were held at and before the Dec- 
laration of Independence lately made by the 
honorable the Continental Congress." 

There can be but little doubt that between 
October 2, 1704, and November 6, 170n, the 
Supreme Court was composed of a chief 
justice and one associate justice, Mompes- 
son and Pinhorne. Judge Field, in his 
" Provincial Courts of New Jersey," savs 
that they "were the only judges during the 
administration of Lord Cornburv." These 
two gentlemen were certainly on the bench 
during all that period, which terminated in 
1708 ; but the records of the Supreme Court 
show that on November 6, 1705, two asso- 
ciate judges were appointed, and that on 
November 6, 1706, another associate jus- 
tice was appointed, showing that the luuidier 
of justices was not confined to two. To what 
number the judges composing the Supreme 
Court were limited does not appear in the 
ordinance of Cornburv of 1704, nor in the 



202 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



ordinance of Hunter, of 1714, nor in the 
ordinance of Burnet, of 1724, 172;") and 
1728. That this court was limited to a 
chief justice and two associates until 1798 
cannot be doubted. In that year it was made, 
by an act of the General Assembly, to con- 
sist of a chief justice and three associate 
justices. On the 10th of March, 1806, this 
act was repealed and the numlier of associate 
justices was reduced to two. In 1838 the 
number was increased to four, in 1855 it 
was increased to six, and in 1 875 to eight. 

The first division of the territory of West 
New Jersey was into that of two counties— 
Salem and Burlington, — but the people about 
Arwamaumas (Gloucester) and the adjacent 
territory, feeling that the courts and offices 
were so far away, assembled themselves at 
Gloucester (May 28, 1686) and established 
the County of Gloucester, to consist of the 
third and fourth tenths, and extending from 
Pensaukin Creek to Oldmans Creek. In 
1694 this action of the inhabitants received 
legislative sanction and the same boundaries 
were established. In 1844 the third tentli 
(with the addition of Washington township) 
was erected into the County of Camden ; but 
as the townships of Washington and Monroe 
have since been annexed to Gloucester County 
the third or Irish tenth now constitutes Cam- 
den County. 

The Courts of Camden County. — The 
early courts of old Gloucester County, which 
of course had jurisdiction over the territory 
now included in Camden, are described on 
page ,31, e< sequiter, of this volume. The first 
court held in ('amden County appears to 
have been the March Term of the Oyer and 
Terminer, 1845, and the following is the first 
entry upon the record : 

" Oamdeii Oyer & Terminer, So:. 

" March Term, 1S4.'). 
" Tuesday, March 25, Court met at 10 a.m. 
" Present, — 

" The lion. Thomas P. Carpenter as judge, Isaac 
Cole, James W. Sloan, Joseph C. Collins, Joseph 



C. Stafford, Nathan M. Lippincott, William Brown, 
Joel Wood & others, .Tudges. 

" After the usual proclamation court was 
opened. The Grand jury being called, the follow- 
ing persons appeared and were duly qualitipd, 
viz. : 
" Isaac H. Porter. John Gill. 

Edmund Brewer. Joshua P. Browning. 

James W. Lamb. Ebenezer Toole. 

Alexander Cooper. Joseph J. Smallwood. 

.Toel Bodine. Edward P. Andrews. 

Isaac Adams. .lames Jennett. 

Gerrard Wood. David E. Marshall. 

John M. Kaighn. Henry Allen. 

Joseph G. Shinn. William Corkery. 

.Tohn D. Glover. .lames D. Dotterer. 

.Toseph H. Coles. Christopher Sickler. 

" And being charged by .Judge Carpenter, they 
retired to their chamber with Samuel C. Fox 
and John Lawrence, Constables, to attend them.'' 

The first cause tried in the Court of Oyer 
and Terminer was The State />•. Charles 
May, Benjamin Jenkins and Edward Jen- 
kins, an indictment for a.«sault and battery 
on Isaac Shrive. The attorney-general ap- 
peared for the prosecution and Thomas W. 
Mulford for the defendants. Tlie suit re- 
sulted in the conviction of the defendants. 
The jury in this case consisted of Mark Bur- 
rough, Enoch Tomlin, James G. Capeweli, 
John Stafford, Elias Campbell, Azall M. 
Roberts, William J. Hatch, Josiah H. Tice, 
Alexander Wolohon, Daniel Albertson, 
Aaron Middleton and Charles Wilson. 

In the Court of (.Quarter Sessions, the No- 
vember Term, 184.5, was the fir.xt court ; 
opened at half-past nine o'clock on the lOtli 
of the month ; present, Isaac Cole, presiding, 
James W. Sloan, Jo.seph C. (^ollins, >;atlian 
M. Lippincott, Joel Wood, Joshua Sickler 
and William Brown, lay judges. The first 
case brought was tlie State r.s. William Cox, 
for a.ssault and battery on William Hugg. 
Abraham Browning Esq., appeared as attor- 
ney-general for the State and James B. Hay- 
ton, Esq., for the defendant. The jury was 
comj)osed of the following persons, viz.: 
Joseph Warner, Isaac H. Tomlinsou, John 
A. Ware, Joseph K. Rogers, Joseph Barrett, 



THK bp:xch and bar. 



203 



Jolin Xewtoii, Jacob Haiiios, James Dobbs, 
C'lialkley Haines, Kaiidall Nicholson, Jacob 
Middleton, William Waiinan. They found 
the defendant not guilty. 

The records of the Circuit Court prior to 
1852 have been lost, and hence the exact 
date of its first session cannot be given, but 
one was doubtless held in 1845. 

Tiie present Court of Errors and Appeals, 
the last resort in all causes in New Jersey, 
was created by the new Constitution in 1844. 
It is composed of the chancellor, the justices 
of the Supreme Court an<l six other judges 
specially appointed for that t'ourt, who are 
usually lavmen. John Clement, of Haddon- 
tield, Camden County, has been a lay mem- 
ber of this (tourt since the year 18(34, when 
he was first appointed. 

The Supreme Court is composed of nine 
justices, and the State is divided into the 
same number of judicial districts, allotted 
among the several justices. Camden County 
is in the Second District, at this time pre- 
sided over by Justice Joel Parker. Each 
Supreme Court justice is sole judge of the 
Circuit Court and ex-officio presiding judge 
of all the other County Courts in his dis- 
trict. 

The Inferior Court of Common Pleas is 
presided over by the law judge appointetl 
for the county exclusive of the justices ot' 
the Supreme Court. Prior to the adoption 
of the new Constitution there was no limit 
to the uiuuber of judges appointed for 
the C^ourt of Common Pleas, and in some 
counties they luunbered thirty or more 
judges not learned in the law, any one 
of whom alone could hold the court. But 
Sec. G of Art. VI of the new Constitution 
provided tliat there should be no more than 
five judges of this court, aud in 1855 the Leg- 
islature fixed the number exclusive of the 
justice of the Supreme Court at three. 

The Court of Oyer and Terminer is com- 
posed of the justice of the Supreme Court 
and one or more of the judges of the Court 



of Common Pleas. It cannot be held with- 
out the justice of the Supreme Court. The 
Court of General Quarter Sessions of the 
I'eace is composed of two or more of the 
judges of the Court of Common Pleas and 
does not require the presence of the Supreme 
r\nirt justice. 

The Orphans Court may be held by any 
two judges of the C'ourt of Common IMeas. 

Formerly all the county judges, excepting 
the justices of the Su])reme Court, were lay- 
men, and it was then the practice of such 
justicesto preside in all the County Courtsin 
all cases except some of the least import- 
ance. 

March 9, 18(39, the Legislature passed an 
act entitled, " An Act to facilitate Judicial 
proceedings in the county of Camden," em- 
powering any two judges of the Court of 
Common Pleas to try all persons charged 
with offenses (excepting a few of the highest) 
who were willing to forego the right of in- 
dictment and trial by jury. At the time of 
the enactment Asa P. Horner, a farmer of 
Camden County, was the .senior lay judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas of Camden 
County, and to him fell the duty of com- 
mencing the work of the special sessions 
without the intervention of the jury, and for 
several years a very brisk business was done 
in the new special court which had do 
regular terms, but was called to sit whenever 
the prosecutor of tlie pleas had enough per- 
sons charged with offenses willing to be tried 
by the court without a jury, to justify it, 
which was quite frequent. 

The business of the several County Courts 
increased to such an extent that in 1872 a 
supplement was passed to the act of 1869, 
providing that one of the three judges of the 
Court of Common Pleas of Camden County 
should be a counselor-at-law, and since that 
date Camden County has had a special law 
judge to preside in the Courts of Common 
Pleas, the Orphans Court aud the General 
and Special Courts of (c^uarter Sessions of 



204 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



the Peace. And now the Supreme Court 
justice seldom sits iu any Camden County 
court except the Circuit Court and in the 
Court of Oyer and Terminer, in which he is 
required to sit for the trial of treason and 
criminal homicide cases, which cannot be 
tried in the Quarter Sessions. 

The District Court of the City of Camden 
was created by an act of the Legislature 
pas.sed March 9, 1877, entitled, " An act for 
constituting courts in certain cities of this 
State." This court was given exclusive jur- 
isdiction in all civil causes prior to its crea- 
tion cognizable before justices o{ the peace. 
Richard T. Miller was appointed as the first 
judge of this court and on the expiration of 
the first term was reappointed. 

JUSTICES OF THE SUPREME COURT. 

Thomas P. Carpenter 1845-1852 

Stacy G. Potts 1852-1859 

John Van Dyke 1859-1866 

George S. Woodhull 186C-1880 

Joel Parker 1880-1887 

PRESIDENT LAW JUDGES. 

Charles P. Stratton 1872-1877 

David J. Pancoast 1877-1882 

Charles T. Reed 1882-1885 

John W. Westcott 1885- 

Lay Judges. — Following is a list of the 

lay judges from the organization of the 

county to 1886 : 

1844.— Isaac Cole, Jauies W. Sloan, Joseph C. 
Collings, Joseph C. Stafford, Nathan M. Lippin- 
cott, William Brown, Joel Wood, John K. Cow- 
perthwaite, Joel G. Clark, Joshua Sickler. 

1846. — Richard Stafford, Isaac Doughten, Philip 
J. Grey. 

1847. — Jesse Smith. 

1848. — Richard W. Suowden, Jesse Peter.sou, 
Charles H. French. 

1849.— James W. Lamb. 

1850. — Philip J. Grey, Benjamin W. Cooper, 
Richard W. Suowden , Jesse Peterson, James W. 
Lamb. 

1851. — Philip J. Grey, Richard W. Suowden, 
Jesse Peterson, Benjamin W. Cooper, John K. 
Cowperthwaite. 

1852. — Jesse Peterson, Philip J. Grey, Ben- 
jamin W. Cooper, John K. Cowperthwaite, William 
Brown. 



1853. — Philip J. Grey, Benjamin W. Cooper, 
John K. Cowperthwaite, William Brown, .loseph 
C. Stafford. 

1854. — Philip J. Grey, John K. Cow|)erthwaite, 
William Brown, Joseph C. Stafford, .lohn Clem- 
ent, Jr. 

1855. — John K. Cowperthwaite, Joseph C. Staf- 
ford, John Clement, Jr. 

1856. — John K. Cowperthwaite, Joseph C. Staf- 
ford, John Clement, Jr. 

1857. — John K. Cowperthwaite, Joseph C. Staf- 
ford, John Clement, Jr. 

1858. — John K. Cowperthwaite, John Clement, 
Jr., James D. Dotterer. 

1859. — John K. Cowperthwaite, James D. Dot- 
terer, Joseph B. Tatem. 

1860. — John K. Cowperthwaite, James D. Dot- 
terer, Joseph B. Tatem. 

1861. — John K. Cowperthwaite, James D. Dot- 
erer, John Clement. 

1862. — John K. Cowperthwaite, James D. Dot- 
terer, John Clement. 

1863.— John K. Cowperthwaite, James D. Dot- 
terer, John Clement. 

1864. — John K. Cowperthwaite, James D. Dot- 
terer, Joel Horner. 

1865. — John K. Cowperthwaite, James D. Dot- 
terer, Joel Horner. 

1866.— John K. Cowperthwaite, James D. Dot- 
terer, Joel Horner. 

1867. — James D. Dotterer, Joel Horner, Ralph 
Lee. 

1868-72.— Joel Horner, Ralph Lee, Joshua 
Sickler. 

1872. — Joshua Sickler, Asa P. Horner. 

1878-76.— Asa P. Horner, Joseph B. Tatem. 

1877. — Joseph B. Tatem, Joel Horner. 

1878-84. — Joel Horner, Isaiah Woolston. 

1884-86.— Isaiah Woolston, John Gaunt. 

PROSECUTORS OF THE PLEAS. 

Abraham Browning 1844-1849 

Edward N. Jeffers,' 1849-1852 

Thomas W. Mulford 1854-1859 

George M. Robeson 1859-1864 

Richard S. Jenkins 1864-1884 

Wilson H. Jenkins 1884- 

I.IST OF ATTORNEYS. 

Oateij of adiuitHiou. 

William N. Jeffers November, 1814 

Thoma.s Clhapman November, 1815 

Jeremiah H. Sloan February, 1821 

Morris Croxall September, 1821 

1 EJivaid X. Jeltors died iu 1652, and the cuuutj waawilliuula 
prosecutor uutil 1864. 



THE BENCH AND HAK. 



205 



Richard W. Howell September, 1827 

Robert K. Matlaek November, 1827 

Abraham Browning September, 1834 

William D. Cooper February, 1841 

Morris R. Hamilton September, 1842 

Thomas W. Mulford November, 1843 

James B. Dayton September, 1844 

Thomas H. Dudley May, 184r. 

Isaac Mickle May, 184r> 

Charles H. Hollinshead April, 184iJ 

Daniel E. Hough July, 1849 

Alfred Hugg October, 1849 

Charles W. Kinsey October, 1849 

Isaac W. Mickle.. January, 1850 

Philip H. Mulford January, 1851 

Peter L. Voorhees November, 1851 

Charles P. Stratton November, 1851 

George M. Robeson February, 1854 

Richard S. Jenkins November, 1855 

Lindley H. Miller November, 1855 

Marmaduke B. Taylor November, 185ti 

James M. Scovel November, 1856 

Alden C. Scovel November, 1856 

Gilbert G. Hannah February, 1857 

Philip 8. Scovel February, 1857 

Samuel H. Grey November, 1857 

Jacob Mulford June, 1858 

John T. F. Peak November, 1861 

Caleb D. Shreve November, 1861 

Benjamin D. Shreve 1862 

George W. Gilbert February, 1863 

Samuel C. Cooper February, 1863 

Joshua L. Howell November, 1863 

Charles T. Reed June, 1865 

Charles S. Howell June, 1865 

J. Eugene Troth June, 1866 

Martin V. Bergen November, 1866 

Christopher A. Bergen November, 1866 

George F. Fort November, 1866 

Robert M. Browning November, 1867 

Howard M. Cooper November, 1867 

Richard T. Miller November, 1867 

David J. Pancoast November, 1868 

Samuel Davies February, 1869 

James P. Young November, 1869 

George N. Con row November, 1870 

Alfred Flanders February, 1871 

Herbert A. Drake June, 1871 

James E. Hayes November, 1871 

John W. Wright 1871 

Robert F.Stockton, Jr February, 1872 

James H. Carpenter November, 1872 

Wilson H. Jenkins February, 1873 

John H. Fort June, 1873 

John F. Joline November, 1873 



Thomas B. Harned June, 

C. V. D. Joline June, 

Edward Dudley November, 

Alexander Gray February, 

John T. Woodhull February, 

William C. Dayton February, 

Thomas E. French February, 

Peter V. Vorhees June, 

John K. R. Hewitt June, 

Samuel D. Bergen June, 

Augustus F. Richter November, 

Joseph W. Morgan November, 

Samuel W. Sparks November, 

John C. Ten Eyck, Jr June, 

Timothy J. Middleton June, 

Lemuel J. Potts June, 

John W. Westcott June, 

Charles G. Garrison November, 

William S. Hotlman November, 

Henry A. Scovel February, 

William S. Casselman June, 

Jonas S. Miller June, 

Franklin C. Woolman June, 

Karl Langlotz June, 

Edward A. Armstrong February, 

Samuel K. Robbins June, 

John L. Semple November, 

Samuel P. Jones November, 

Edmund B. Leaming February, 

John J. Crandall February, 

Floranc F. Hogate February, 

John J. Walsh June, 

John Harris June, 

Henry M. Snyder June, 

Benjamin F. H. Shreve June, 

Charles I. Wooster June, 

William W. Woodhull June, 

Alfred L. Black November, 

Howard J. Stanger June, 

John W. Wartman June, 

Howard Carrow June, 

Edmund E. Read, Jr June, 

Samuel W. Beldon June, 

John F. Harned November, 

Edward H. Saunders November, 

Joseph R. Taylor November, 

Thomas P. Curley November, 

Robert C. Hutchinson February, 

Walter P. Blackwood February, 

Richard S. Ridgway November, 

Israel Roberts November, 

George Reynolds February, 

Samuel N. Shreve February, 

Ulysses G. Styron ..February, 

L. D. Howard Gilmour February, 



874 
874 
874 
875 
875 
875 
876 
876 
876 
876 
876 
877 
877 
878 
878 
878 
878 
878 
878 
879 
879 
879 
879 
879 
880 



881 
881 
881 
881 
881 
881 



881 
881 
882 
882 
882 
882 
882 



882 
883 
883 
883 
883 
884 



206 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY. NEAV JERSEY 



George A. Vroom June, 1885 

Joshua E. Borton November, 1885 

William P. Fowler November, 1885 

Schuyler C. Woodhull February, 1886 

Pennington T. Hildreth June, 1886 

JUSTICES OF THE SUPREME COURT. 

Thomas Pastor Carpenter was a lin- 
eal desceiKlant of Samuel Carpenter, promi- 
nent in the early history of Pennsylvania. 
He was born April 1 !), 1804, at Glassboro', 
New Jersey. 

His father, Edward Carpenter, was the 
owner of the glass-works at that place 
for many years, which he and Colonel Hes- 
tou, as the firm of Carpenter & Hcston, es- 
tablished. His mother was the daughter of 
Dr. James Stratton, a leading physician of 
his day at Swedesboro'. His father died 
when he was quite young and he grew to 
manhood in tiie family of his grandfather, at 
Carpenters Landing (now Mantua). After 
obtaining a liberal education he studied law 
under the instruction of Judge White, of 
Woodbury, and was admitted as an attorney 
in September, 1830. On October 26, 1838, 
he was appointed prosecutor of tlie pleas of 
Gloucester County and took a prominent 
part in several important trials. 

He soon won prominence at the bar and 
on February 5, 1845, he was appointed by 
Governor Stratton one of the associate jus- 
tices of tlie Supreme C^ourt of New Jersey, 
his circuit comprising Camden, Burlington 
and Gloucester Counties. On his retirement 
from the judgeship, after serving a term of 
seven years, he devoted himself to the prac- 
tice of his profession, i)rincipally as a coun- 
selor, and was eminently successful. 

At the breaking out of the Rebellion hr 
joined the Union League of Philadelphia, 
and daring the war was an ardent supporter 
of the Union cause. In 1865 he was active 
in promoting the success of the Sanitary Fair, 
occupying as he did the position of president 
of the New Jersey Department. Judge Car- 
penter married Rebecca, daughter of Dr. 



Samuel Hopkins, of Woodbury. He was an 
earnest Christian and in the church always 
held an honored position, being for many 
years vestryman, warden and deputy to the 
Diocesan and General Conventions of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. 

He was not only an able lawyer, but was 
well versed in the cla.ssics and in general lit- 
erature. He M'as greatly respected through- 
out the State of New .Jersey, of which he 
was at the time of his death one of her best- 
known citizens. As a judge of the Supreme 
Court he was held in high esteem by his as- 
sociates and by the bar of the State for his 
ability, learning and for the uniform good 
judgment which he brought to the consider- 
ation of cases. In the counties where he 
presided at circuits, and which he visited 
during his term of office at regular periods, 
his genial manners and kindly intercourse 
with the people made him very popular. He 
died at his home in Camden March 20, 1876. 

By his marriage with Rebecca Hopkins, 
who still survives, he had four children, viz. : 
Susan M. Carpenter, Anna Stratton Carpen- 
ter (who died in December, 1869), Thomas 
Preston Carpenter (who died during infancy), 
and James H. Carpenter, now a member of 
the Camden bar. 

Stacy Gardiner Potts was born in Har- 
risburg. Pa., November, 1799. He was the 
great-grandson of Thomas Potts, a member 
of the Society of Friends, who, with Maii- 
lon Stacy and their kindred, emigrated from 
England in 1678, and landed at Burlington, 
N. J. The two families of Stacy and Potts 
intermarried. Stacy Pott.s, the grandfather 
of Judge Potts, was a tanner by trade and 
was engaged in that l)usiness at Trenton. 

His son removed to Harrisburg, and in 
I 791 married Miss Gardiner. Judge Potts 
entered the family of his grandfather in 
1808, who was then mayor of Trenton. He 
attended a Friends' school and then learned 
the printer's trade. At twenty-one he began 
to edit the Emporium, of Trenton. In 1827 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



207 



he was admitted to tlie bar as an attfiriiey. 
He was elected to the Assembly in 1828 on 
the Jackson ticket, and was re-elected in 
1829. In 1831 he was appointed clerk of 
Chancery, held the office for ten years, and 
during that time published his " Precedents 
in Chancery." He next visited Europe with 
his brother, the Rev. William S. Potts, 
D. D., of St. Louis. In 1845 he served on a 
commission to revise the laws of the State. 
In 1847 he was appointed a manager of the 
State Lunatic Asylum. In 18.52 he was 
nominated by Governor Fort as a justice of 
the Supreme Court and was confirmed by the 
Senate. His circuit comprised Camden, 
Burlington, (lloucester and Ocean Counties. 
He served as judge one term of seven years 
with great acceptability and then retired to 
private life. He was a conscientious judge 
and a decidedly religious man, serving as a 
ruling elder in the Presljyteriau Church for 
many years. He died at his home in Tren- 
ton in 1865. 

John Van Dyke was born in New Jer- 
sey and obtained a thorough academical ed- 
ucation, studied law and was admitted to the 
bar in 1836. He commenced practice in 
New Brunswick and at once gained promi- 
nence in his profession. He was elected 
a Representative from New Jersey to the 
Thirtieth Congress in 1846 as a Whig, 
against Kirkpatrick, the Demo<Tatic oppo- 
nent. He was re-elected to the Thirty-first 
(^ongrcss, receiving seven thousand two hun- 
dred and eighty-two votes against six thou- 
sand six hundred and twenty-three for Bill- 
ian, Democrat, .serving in Congress from 
Pecember, 1S47, to March, 1851. He was 
appointed judge of the Supreme Court of 
New Jersey by Governor \\Mlliam A. New- 
ell, and assigned to the district compo.sed 
of Camden, (Jloucester and Burlington Coun- 
ties in February, 1859, and served one 
term of seven years, until I8(i(). He was a 
man of fine legal attainments and was recog- 
nized as a good judge. 



George Spofforp WooDHn.i., associate 
judge of the Supreme Court of New Jersey 
from 1866 to 1880, was born near Freehold, 
Monmouth County, in 1816, and died at his 
residence. No. 104 Arch Street, Camden, in 
1881. His grandfather, John Woodhull, 
D.D., was pastor of a church at Freehold for 
a period of forty years, and was a man of 
fine ability, excellent scholarship and noted 
piety. His father, John T. Woodhull, M.D., 
was a skillful physician of Monmouth 
County, and well known throughout the 
State. The early education of Judge Wood- 
hull was obtained in the schools of his n.i- 
tive place, and in 1830 he entered the Col- 
lege of New Jersey, at Princeton. By a.ssid- 
uous study and great natural endowments 
he completed the course in three years and 
was graduated in 1833. Desiring to take 
up the study of law, he began a course of 
reading under the direction of Ricliard S. 
Field, E.sq., of Princeton. In 1839 he was 
admitted to practice and three years later he 
bec^ame a counselor. He practiced his pro- 
fession at Freehold until 1850 when he re- 
moved to Mays Landing, and for fifteen 
vears was prosecutor of the pleas of Atlantic 
County. He has been credited with chang- 
ing the political complexion of Atlantic 
Countv during his residence in it. For ten 
vears of the time included above he was pros- 
ecutor of the pleas of Cape May County. In 
1866 he was appointed, by (xovernor Ward, 
'as an associate justice of the Supreme Court 
of New Jer.sey, and was assigned to the Sec- 
ond District, comprising the counties of Cam- 
den, Burlington and Gloucester. He soon 
gained the re])utation of being a fearless, u))- 
right and honest judge, and was (character- 
ized for superior legal attainments. He de- 
veloped so much strength and popularity as 
a judicial officer that, in 1873, Hon. Joel 
Parker, then Governor of New Jersey, 
though differing from Ju.stice Woodhull in 
politics, appointed him assistant justice fi)r 
another term of seven years, and he continued 



208 



HTPTOEY OF CAMDE.V COUNTY. NEW JERSEY. 



on the bench until 18S0. Diirinji; his long 
term of service as a judicial officer his rleci.s- 
ions were characterized bv fairness and great 
legal ability. 

Upon his retii'enient from the bench he 
resumed the practice of law in Camden, 
which he continued until his death. 

In April, 1847, Judge Woodhull was 
married to Caroline Mandiville Vroom, a 
niece of ex-Governor Vroom, by whom he 
had five children. He was a man of excel- 
lent standing in the State of New Jersey, 
possessing an exemplary character, and was 
highly honored and respected by the mem- 
bers of his profession as well as by all people 
with whom he was associated or by win mi 
he was known. 

Joel Parker, now one of the justices of 
the Supreme Court of New Jersey, was born 
November 24, 1816, near Freehold, Mon- 
mouth County, N. J. Both his parents were 
natives of that county. His father, Charles 
Parker, was a man of excellent business ca- 
pacity, and, at the time his son was born, was 
sheriff of the county, and subsequently he 
was a member of the Legislature, and in 1821 
was chosen treasurer of the State, an office 
which he held for thirteen years, througli 
annual appointments. In 1821 Charles 
Parker removed to Trenton with his family, 
and in that city Joel, his son, passed most of 
his childhood and youth, attending school at 
the old Trenton Academy. In 1832 Joel 
was sent to Monmouth County, to manage a 
farm belonging to his father, where he re- 
mained two years, doing all kinds of farming 
work and laying the foundation of a vigor- 
ous constitution, which, during a long life of 
busy toil, has enabled him to perform his 
onerous duties. In 18;M he quit farmitig 
and entered the Lawren(«ville High School, 
when! he remained two years. In 18;5() ho 
entered Princeton College, whence he was 
graduated in 18;U), and then entered the law- 
office of Hon. Henry W. Green, a distin- 
guisiied lawver in Trenton, afterwards chief 



justice, and later chancellor of the State. In 
184.3 Joel Parker, having been admitted to 
the bar, removed to Freehold and opened a 
law-office. He has since maintained his resi- 
dence there, and for forty years has lived in 
the same house. Within a year after he en- 
tered on the practice of his profession he 
married Maria M., eldest daughter of Samuel 
R. Gummere, then of Trenton, but formerly 
of Burlington, N. J. 

Joel Parker has always been a member of 
the Democratic party. In 184(1 he cast his 
first vote for Martin Van Buren for Presi- 
dent. In 1844 he commenced his career as 
a political speaker, in the Presidential cam- 
paign which resulted in the election of James 
K. Polk. From that time till his appoint- 
ment as justice his services on the stump 
were sought and given, not only thi'oughout 
this State, but in adjoining States. In 1847 
he was elected a member of the House of 
Assembly. The Whig party iiad a large 
majority in the House. Being the otdy law- 
yer on the Democratic side, he was forced 
into the leadership of the minority, espe- 
cially on all subjects of a legal or political 
bearing, and, although the youngest member 
of the body, he sustained his position with 
discretion and ability. He framed and intro- 
duced a series of reform measures, the most 
important of which was a bill to equalize tax- 
ation, by which, for the first time in the his- 
tory of the Stiite, personalty — such as notes, 
bonds, mortgages and money — were to be 
taxed. At that time taxes were assessed only 
on land and property, called certainties, such ■ 
as horses and (tattle, so that the farmers wei'e 
paying nearly all the faxes. This measure, 
advocated by Mr. Parker, was popular, and 
when his speech on tiie subject was ])ublish- 
ed, public attention was attracted to him as a 
rising man. .Vt the next gubernatorial elec- 
tion, in 1850, George F. Fort was elected ( Jov- 
ernor by the Democrats on a platform whicii 
had adopted those reform measures. In the 
following; vear Mr. I'arker declined being a 



THE BENCH AND BAE. 



209 



caudidate for State Senator (the nomination 
to which he was solicited to accept), because 
it would interfere with his law business, 
which was increasing. Soon after the in- 
auguration of Governor Fort he appointed 
Mr. Parker prosecutor of the pleas of the 
county of Monmouth. His duties growing 
out of this position brought him in contact 
and conflict with some of the ablest lawyers 
of the State. In the celebrated Donnelly 
case (which is the leading case on dying decla- 
rations) he was assisted by the Hon. Wil- 
liam L. Dayton, then attorney-general of the 
State, while the prisoner was defended by 
ex-(TOvernor William Pennington and Jo- 
seph P. Bradley, now a justice of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States. In 18(i(» 
Mr. Parker was chosen a Presidential elector, 
and voted in the Electoral College for Ste- 
jihen A. Douglas. 

From an early date he had taken an inter- 
est in military matters. Several years liefore 
the Civil War he had been chosen by the 
field officers of the Monmouth and Ocean 
Brigade a brigadier-general. Before hostili- 
ties began he had a fine brigade of uni- 
formed men, and he was accustomed, at 
stated periods, to drill them. After the com- 
mencement of the war Governor Olden (Re- 
publican) nominated General Parker to be 
tile major-general of militia for the Second 
Military District, composed of five counties. 
He was confirmed unanimously by the 
Senate, accepted the appointment and assist- 
ed in raising men for United States' service, 
to put down the Rebellion. He aided ma- 
terially in raising several regiments, princi- 
pally composed of men who had belonged to 
his brigade. In 1862 General Parker was 
nominated by the Democratic Convention as 
Governor of the State, and was elected over a 
very popular opponent by nearly fifteen thou- 
sand majority. He adhered, during his term, 
to the principle of the platform on which he 
was elected, to wit, — " The suppression of the 
Rebellion bv all constitutional means." 



He was very active in obtaining volunteers 
and in equipping them thoroughly for the 
field. By this promptness he won the good 
opinion of all loyal men and was thanked 
b}' telegram from President Lincoln and Sec- 
retary Stanton and Governor Curtin. In 
commendation of his course, he has received 
the appellation of "War Governor" of New 
Jersey. When the Confederate army invaded 
Pennsylvania in 1863, the national authori- 
ties and also Governor Curtin called on Gov- 
ernor Parker for troops to repel the invaders. 
He responded with such great alacrity as to 
bring forth from the Federal authorities 
thanks and commendation. (lovernor Cur- 
tin wrote, " Permit me to thank you for your 
prompt attention," and again on the 24th 
day of June, 1863, "I cannot close this com- 
munication without expressing to you the 
thanks of the people of Pennsylvania for 
your promptness in responding to our calls," 
and on the 30th of the same month President 
Lincoln sent to Governor Parker the follow- 
ing telegram : " Please accept my sincere 
thanks for what you have done and are doing 
to get troops forwarded." The next year, 
when the State of Maryland was invaded, 
(xdvernor Parker acted in the same spirit of 
promptness. The communication with Wash- 
ington was cut off by the enemy and a call 
could not officially be made upon him for 
troops, but he anticipated a call and sent 
troops forward in time to render valuable 
aid. At the close of his administration tlie 
State Gazette, the central organ of the Re- 
publican party in the State, used the follow- 
ing language, viz.: "Of the retiring Gover- 
nor it is proper to remark that in many re- 
spects he has discharged his duties in a man- 
ner beyond censure. He was nominated on 
a platform that pledged sup|)ort to the Ignited 
States government in the war for the sup- 
pression of the Rebellion, and he was faithful 
to the pledge he gave in acirepting the nomi- 
nation," and in the same article " efforts 
were made to induce him to resist the con- 



210 



HISTORY OF CA:MDEX COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



scription; he steadily refused to do this, but, 
on the contrary, made use of every effort to 
equip and send off the State's quota of troojis 
at the earliest possible day ; we regard it as 
fortunate that Mr. Parker was selected as the 
Democratic candidate for Governor in 1862." 
He was in office at the close of the war and 
under his guidance a hearty welcome, with a 
good dinner, was given to all returning regi- 
jnents by the State at the city of Trenton, 
before mustered out, — a fact which distin- 
guishes New Jersey from all her sister States. 
During the war the Governor had a large 
patronage. He had the power of appoint- 
ment of all officers in New Jersey regiments 
below the rank of general. These amounted 
to many hundreds, for imttle and disease 
made dire havoc of the noble soldiers. In 
all this vast patronage not an officer was ap- 
pointed or promoted for political reasons. 
The Governor acted on the principle that 
when a man took up arms and risked his life 
for his country on the battle-field, if he had 
earned and deserved promotion, he should be 
promoted without regard to his party predi- 
lection. 

At the close of his term of office Governor 
Parker resumed the practice of his profession, 
and for the next six years enjoyed a lucrative 
business. He was engaged in most of the 
cases of importance in Monmouth and the ad- 
joining counties. In 1871 he was again 
Dominated by the Democratic Convention for 
the office of Governor by acclamation, and 
was elected b)' a large majority, running sev- 
eral thousand votes ahead of his ticket. His 
second term was a very busy one, and al- 
though not so eventful as the first, yet had 
much to distinguish it. The militia of the 
State were placed on a permanent basis and 
vastly improved in discipline and efficiency. 
The General llailroad iiaw was passed, where- 
by monopoly was abolished, and tiie amciid- 
raents of the Constitution adopted. 

In 1868, Governor Parker received in the 
National Democratic Convention, held in 



New York, the unanimous vote of his State 
delegation for nomination a.s President of the 
United States, also the vote of two States on 
the Pacific slope ; and again in 1876, at St. 
Louis, he received the votes of the New Jer- 
sey delegation. In the year last named he 
was i)laced at the head of the Democratic 
electoral ticket, was elected and voted for 
Samuel J. Tilden in the Electoral College. 
At the close of his second term as (rovernor 
he was nominated by Governor Bedle (who 
succeeded him) as attorney general of the 
State. This office at that time had not been 
placed upon a pecimiary basis, that justified 
his retaining it, and he found that it inter- 
fered so nuK^li with his general business, that 
in a few months he resigned. 

In 1880, (ileneral McClellan, then Gover- 
nor of New Jersey, nominated ex-Governor 
Parker as a justice of the Supreme Court. 
He was confirmed, and in March of that year 
entered upon the duties of the office. He 
was assigned to the Second Judicial District, 
composed of the counties of Camden, Bur- 
lington and Gloucester. The district is a 
hard one, on account of the vast amount of 
legal business which i-equircs attention; but 
Judge Parker, by industry and devotion to 
business, by fairness and impartiality in look- 
ing at both sides of every case, and by his 
courtesy of manner to the members of the 
bar and to all who came in contact with him, 
has given great satisfaction and in his official 
position enjoyed the respect of the commu- 
nity. While he has always been a consistent 
Democrat, Governor Parker has never been 
an extreme partisan. In the various busi- 
ness boards, educational and otherwise, he 
made it a rule to appoint members of both 
political parties. He is a believer in a non- 
partisan judiciary and during his last gul)er- 
natorial term he nominated three Republican 
justices to the Supreme Court and two He- 
publican judges of the Court of Appeals, 
leaving each court still with a majority of 
Democrats. His non-partisan appointments 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



211 



gave Governor Parker great popularity 
among the better class of both parties. His 
appointees to offiee have uniformly been men 
of high character and ability. At the close 
of his last term as Governor, out of fourteen 
jutlges of the Court of Errors and Appeals, 
then composing the court, ten had been origi- 
nally appointed by Governor Parker. 

In ]irivate life Joel Parker is much es- 
teemed as a neighbor and friend. He is a 
good citizen and among ilie first to espouse 
any enterprise looking to the improvement 
and advancement of the community where 
he resides. For the last few years he has re- 
sided with his family during the winter either 
at ("amden or Mt. Holly, in order to accom- 
modate the public and be nearer his work. 
The wife of the judge, a highly educated 
and accomplished lady, is living. They have 
had four children who reached the age of 
majority, viz. : Elizabeth, still living ; Charles, 
a lawyer and president of a bank at Mana- 
sqnan ; Helen, who died of consumption in 
1879; and Frcclerick, a lawyer, residing at 
Freehold. 

LAW JUDGES. 

Charlks p. Stratton, the first presi- 
dent law judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas of Camden County, was born at 
Bridgeton, Cumberland Countv, X. J., in 
1827, and died of malarial fever in Camden 
July 30, 1884, soon after his return from a 
trip to Europe. He was graduateil from the 
College of New Jersey, at Princeton, in 1848, 
and read law under the instruction of Hon. 
L. Q. C. Elmer, and was admitted to the 
bar as an attorney in January, 1851 ; was 
made a counselor in 1854, and the same year 
removed to Camden. He continued to prac- 
tice his profession with great success iu 
Camden County, and iu recognition of his 
ability as a lawyer, upon passage of a special 
act of the Legislature creating tlie office of 
law judge for Camden County, to take ef- 
fect in 1872, he was appointed by (governor 
Marcus L. Ward to fill that position for the 



term of five years. He performed the re- 
sponsibilities incumbent upon him as a judge 
until the expiration of his term and the ap- 
pointment of a successor, when he again re- 
sumed the practice of law in Camden until 
the time of his death. He left a widow and 
four children. 

He served two years in the City Council, as 
a member from the First Ward, and was made 
one of the trustees of the Cooper Hospital 
Fund. He was also a director in the Cam- 
den Safe Deposit and Trust Company, the 
New National Bank at Bridgeton, the West 
Jersey Railroad Company and the Camden 
and Philadelphia Ferry Compauy. He was 
by nature ada|)ted to the office of judge and 
presided over the court with great accepta- 
bility. 

David J. Pancoast was born near 
Woodbury, Gloucester County, N. J., Sep- 
tember 21, 1843. His father, James Pajn- 
coast, who married Hope Lippincott, was a 
farmer by occupation, and the son spent his 
early years on the farm. At the age of thir- 
teen he was sent to London Grove Friends' 
School, near Kennett Square, Chester Coun- 
ty, Pa., afterwards to Freeland Seminary, in 
Montgomery County, and later to an acad- 
emy at Carversville, Bucks County. He 
continued his studies in the Pennsylvania 
St;ite Normal School, at Millersville, and iu 
1 8(i4 entered the Law Department of HarvaVd 
University, at which institution he spent 
nearly two years. 

He completed ids legal studies in the office 
of James B. Daytou, of Camden, and was 
admitted to the bar as an attorney November 
5, 18G8, and in 1871 was made a counselor. 
When he first became a member of the Cam- 
deu bar his preceptor, Mr. Dayton, was pre- 
paring to retire from an extended practice, 
whereupon he turned over to Mr. Pancoast 
much of his litigated business. 

C'haucellor Runyon, on March 8, 1875, 
appointed him special master iu (Jhancery, 
and on April 1, 1877, he was elevated to the 



212 



HISTORY OP CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



bench, being appointed president judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas in Camden 
County by Governor Joseph D. Bedle. He 
filled the term of five years with recognized 
ability. In 1873 Judge Pancoast was ad- 
mitted to practice in the United States Court 
of New Jersey, and also the United States 
Circuit Court and the Supreme. Court uf the 
United States. 

Charles T. Reed, the third law judge 
of the Camden County Courts, was born in 
Trenton, N. J., in 1843. He obtained a 
preparatory education at the Academy, the 
High School and the Model School, of that 
city, and afterwards entered the Wesleyan 
University, at Middletown, Conn., from 
which institution he was graduated. He 
soon thereafter entered the office of Hon. 
Thomas P. Carpenter, of Camden, as a stu- 
dent-at-law, was admitted to the bar as an 
attorney in 1865, and as a counselor in 1868. 
He practiced law with success until 1882, 
during which year.s he was appointed by 
Governor Ludlow, president law judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas of Camden 
County. After .serving about three years of 
his term he died, at the early age of forty- 
two, from a violent attack of typhoid fever, 
on Saturday evening, February 7, 1885. 
Judge Reed was married to Miss Emma 
Creft, of Philadelphia, who survived him. 
He left no descendants. 

John W. Westcott was born at Water- 
ford, Camden County, and his early life was 
spent in the glass factory in his native town. 
He attended a i)reparatory school in Massa- 
chusetts, and went from thence to Yale 
College. When he had comj)leted his Col- 
lege course, he read law with the Honorable 
Dexter R. Wright, of New Haven, and then 
entered his name in the office of Samuel H. 
Grey, E.scj., of (Aunden, and was admitted to 
the New Jersey bar, as an attorney, in 1879, 
and three years later admitted as a counselor- 
at-law. At the death of Charles T. Reed, 
Presiding-Judge of the Court of Common 



Plea.s, of Camden County, Governor Abbett 
appointed Mr. Westcott to the unexpired 
term of Judge Reed, a position he has since 
filled with ability. Twice Judge Westcott 
has been before the people as a candidate of 
his party, once as the nominee for the State 
Senate in 1884, and in 1886 was made the 
unanimous choice of his party as a candidate 
for Congress in the First Congressional Dis- 
trict. 

LAY JUDUES. 

John Clement, judge of the Court of 
Errors and Appeals, .son of John and Han- 
nah (Chew) Clement, was born November 
8, A.D. 1818, in Haddonfield, New Jersey. 
At that time his father was in the midst of 
an active business life, constantly engaged 
in the surveying of laud, the settlement of 
disputed boundaries and the division of real 
estate, and it is po.ssible that the subject of 
this sketch cannot remember when he first 
heard questions discussed that were thus in- 
volved. It may be said that his education 
as a surveyor, and his familiarity with mat- 
ters pertaining thereto, began in his infancy 
and grew with him to manhood. As his 
years increased and the physical as well as 
the mental labor attendant upon the field- 
work of surveying became a tax upon his 
strength and endurance, the father gradually 
gave place to the son, with the benefit of his 
experience, the use of his papers and the in- 
fluence of his reputation. These were ad- 
vantages not to be disregarded, and with the 
introduction of new and improved instru- 
ments, he filled the place thus left vacant, 
and has pursued the same cidliug tor some 
forty yeare. As the value of land increased 
it was demanded that some evidence of the 
title to real estate should be shown, which, 
although it increased the labor and responsi- 
bility of the conveyancer, yet were entirely 
legitimate and iinipiT ini|uiries to be an- 
swered. 

In 1851, and upon his father's resignation, 
he was chosen a member of the Council of 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



213 



Proprietors of W^est New Jersey, the duties 
of wliifh, and the records there found, led 
to mucli instruction in the history of titles to 
land in the State. At the annual meeting of 
that body in 1885 he was elected president, 
and has so acted since that time. 

In 1X54 he was appointed one of the as.so- 
ciate Judges of the several courts of ('amden 
County, and reappointed in 1860. Many 
interesting (;ases were heard and disposed of 
during his term of office, from which he de- 
rived much valuable information as applica- 
ble to his line of business. In 1864 he was 
appointed by (Governor Joel Parker one of the 
lay judges of the Court of Errors and Appeals 
of the State of \ew Jersey, sitting at Tren- 
ton. Being the court of last resort in all 
cases, the most important ones only reacli 
that tribunal, and are there disposed of. The 
Court of Pardons, consi.sting of the Governor, 
chancellor and the six lay judges of the Court 
of Errors and Appeals, has many delicate 
duties, involving care and |)rudenci' in their 
discharge. 

Having, ijy this promotion, aci'css to the 
several otlices of i-ecord at the capital, a new 
t]eld of research was opened, which heeagerlv 
entered uj)on. Kxamining each book page 
by page, a mine of historical knowledge 
was developed, which yielded ample reward 
for all the labor, and has proved invaluable 
in establishing titles to laud, settling genea- 
logical questions and strengthening facts here- 
tofore regarded as traditional. 

In 1(S77 John Clement was ai)poiiited bv 
Governor Joseph 1). Bedle one of three com- 
missioners to examine into the prison system 
of the State and suggest any improvement in 
the same, and in 1879 was appointed by 
Governor George B. McClellan upon a com- 
mission to " prepare a system of general laws 
for the government of municipalities hei-eto- 
fore or hereafter to lie incorporated in this 
State." 

As a member of the Surveyors' Associa- 
tion of West New Jersey, which was organ- 



ized in 1 864, he has always been active from 
its inception. This society has been a success 
and accomplished its purposes fully. The 
social intercourse and interchange of senti- 
ment and opinion among the members is of 
great advantage and the valuable papers read 
have saved many points of history relating to 
the southern part of the State from loss. 

He is author of .several articles printed in 
magazines and newspapers relating to histor- 
ical subjects, and in 1877 published a volume 
of five hundred and fifty pages, containing 
sketches of the first settlers in his native 
townshij). Apart from the errors incident to 
such work, it is found to be useful and of 
interest to such as are in search of their 
ancestors. In 1885, he was appointed by the 
Supreme Court of New Jersey, as one of the 
coraml.ssioners to settle a disputed line between 
the counties of Burlington and Atlantic, which 
was accomplished the .same year. 

Judge Clement has an extensive knowledge 
of the early history of West New Jersey, and 
has been unceasing in his interest in the pre- 
paration of the" History t)f (!amden County " 
as embraced in this volume. Bv his wise 
counsel and efficient aid, the author and pub- 
lishers of this History have been greatly en- 
abled to furnish to the people of Camden 
County the work in its |iresent exhaustive 
and complete form. 

• JoHX Clement, Sr., was born in Haddon- 
field, N. J., on the 10th day of September. 
A.I). 1769, and was the eldest of the two 
children of Nathaniel and Abigail (Rowand) 
Clement. He had a distinct recollection of 
many incidents of the Revolutiouarv ^\'ar 
that occurred in his native town. His o[)- 
portunities for education were limited, but 
with a fondness for study, the a.ssistance of 
his parents and diligent api)lication, he man- 
aged to overcome the primary branches and 
obtain some knowledge of mathematics. 
When quite a young man he fancied a .sea- 
faring life would suit him, but a trip from 
Philadelphia to the Lower Delaware Bay 



214 



HTSTOKY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



during a severe wind-storm convinced him 
that he was not of those " who go down to 
the sea in ships." The first public office 
held by John Clement was that of constable 
for the township of Newton, in Gloucester 
County, and it was brought about in this 
wise. At the town-meeting of March 19, 
1790, the following entry was made: 

"It being deemed by the town to be Nathaniel 
Clement's turn to serve as constable for the ensuing 
year, the meeting agreed that he shall have liberty 
to propose a person to serve in said office in his 
stead : and the said Nathaniel producing to said 
meeting his son John Clement, it was agreed he 
shall be appointed to said office." 

This appointment was made about six 
months before he attained his majority, and 
was done to relieve his father of the duties 
of the office. He was at various times free- 
holder, committeeman and surveyor of high- 
ways, and claimed it was the duty of every 
tax-payer to serve the township to prevent 
the waste of money. His military career ex- 
tended through many years of his life. 
From a private in one of the uniformed 
companies of the county, he was in 1798 
recommended by Lieuteiiaut-Colonel Josliua 
L. Howell, and appointed by the Governor 
(Richard Howell) as adjutant of the Second 
Regiment of the Gloucester Militia. In the 
War of 1812 he had a place on the stall' of 
General Elmer, with rank of major, and was 
employed in laying out the camp at Billings- 
port and opening roads to it. 

He also acted as paymaster, and ii|)(>n tlic 
discharge of the troops went into each of tiie 
counties of West Jersey to pay the soldiers. 
The pay-rolls of the several companies show 
the signatures of cacli |)rivate upon the re- 
ceipt of his money. ilicsc papers, in good 
preservation, are now in ])o.ssession of the 
adjutant-general at Trenton, where they can 
be examined by those curious in sncii mat- 
ters. Very useful liiey have been to prove 
the service of many soldiers, whose ]ja))ers 
had been lost, when tiiey or their widows 
made application for pensions. 



In 1824 he was appointed colonel of the 
Second Regiment of the Gloucester Brigade, 
and ranked as such officer until 1837, when 
he was advanced to the position of brigadier- 
general of the Gloucester Brigade, and took 
tiie oath of office the same year. Upon the 
.separation of Camden County from Old 
Gloucester, in 1844, he was continued in the 
same rank, but refused every position, civil 
or military, under the new dispensation. He 
become a practical surveyor when a young 
man, and was so engaged the most of his 
active business life. His field-books, maps 
and memoranda collected during that time 
show his care and industry. In 1809 he 
become a memberof the Council of Proprietors 
of West Jersey, which body .sat at Burling- 
ton four times each year. In 1813 he was 
made a deputy surveyor, and in 181G elected 
vice-president of the board. In 1832, and 
upon the death of William Irick, he was 
chosen president of the Board of Proprietors, 
and .so remained until his resignation as a 
member, in 1851. 

In 1799 lie was appointed collector of the 
revenue for the federal government in the 
county of Gloucester, "arising upon domestic 
distilled spirits and stills, upon sales at auc- 
tion, upon carriages for the conveyance of 
persons, upon licenses to retail wines and 
foreign distilled spirits, upon snuff or snufl- 
mills and upon refined sngar." This posi- 
tion entailed upon him much labor and 
responsibility, the territory being large and 
the settlements in many parts long distances 
from each other. How long he discharged 
the duties does not appear. 

In the same year (1799) he received his 
first commission as justice of the peace, the 
duties of which office he discharged until 
his advancing years induced him to relin- 
quish it. 

He was the first postmaster in Haddon- 
field, his commission being dated March 22, 
1803. This was the second year of the first 
term of Thomas Jefferson's administration as 





^?y^?^^>^ <^^C^rz^^*.-^ 



THE BENCH ANP BAR. 



215 



President of the United States, and shadowH 
his political inclinations at that time. 

In 1 805 he was appointed one of the judges 
of the several courts of (iloucester County. 
His punctuality in attendance and his busi- 
ness methods soon brought him into notice, 
and in 1824 he become the presiding officer 
of the court in the absence of the law judge. 

About the year 1822 the subject was 
agitated as to the building of a canal from 
the Delaware River at Eastoii to the Hudson 
River at Jersey City. The enterprise was 
at last commenced and much trouble arose 
with the land-owuers where it passed as to 
damage. April 15, 18.'50, Chief Justice 
Charles Ewing appointed John Clement, 
William X. 8hinn and John Patterson com- 
missioners to settle these disputes. In the 
discharge of this duty they made a report 
which was accepted by the court and was 
generally satisfactory. 

Of muscular frame, well-developed and 
healthy, his endurance was remarkable, and 
he preserved his strength and faculties to a 
ripe old age. Gradually yielding to the ea- 
croachment.s of an insidious disease and ad- 
vancing years, he died on the evening of 
July 4, 1855. 

John K. Cowperthwaite, who was one 
of the prominent lay judges of the courts of 
f'amden County, was born in 1787, in the 
old frame house standing on the east bank of 
Coopers Creek, between the Federal Street 
and Pennsylvania Railroad bridges. He re- 
moved into the town of Camden in 1820, 
and, uniting intelligence with integrity, he so 
won the confidence of the people, that they 
trusted him almost implicitly, and he was in 
office continuously during his life, frequently 
holding several at the same time. He was a 
magistrate of the county, and, as such, a judge 
of the County Court, and when justices of 
the peace ceased to be judges of the County 
Court he was appointed by the Legislature, 
term after term, almost without interruption 
until his death. He was a member of the 



township committee of Caindcn townsliiji 
nearly the entire eigliteen years of its ('xi>t- 
ence, and was also a nictnlx r of ihc IJoard of 
C^hosen Freeholders. He took an aclivc part 
in securing the city charter of 1.S2S, ami was 
appointed recorder, serving for twelve years, 
and served on most of the important com- 
mittees in Camden City Council. When the 
mayor was made elective by the people, in 
1844, he was the clioice, serving one vear. 
He was a candidate for the office in 1854, but 
was defeated. In t lie efforts to increase the 
educational facilities, in ]84.'i, Judge Cow- 
perthwaite took an active ])art and gave tlie 
cause of educatit)n matei-ial assistance. He 
early attached himself to the Methodist 
Church and was one of its pillars, holding 
various offices and exemplifying its princijiles 
in his life. He was the confidant of manv, 
who sought his counsel, and while free in his 
charities, was unostentatious, and few, save 
the beneficiaries, knew, when he died, May 
(), 1873, how kindly a iieart had ceased to 
beat. 

Asa p. Horner was a thrifty and pro- 
gressive farmer of Stockton township, and 
had the confidence of his neighbors in hold- 
ing many local offices among them. He was 
twice appointed one of the judges of the 
Camden County Courts, and discharged his 
duties acceptably. He was a descendant of 
one of the old families on " Pea Shore," from 
whence, in ancient times, Philadelphia was 
sup])lied with early vegetables and like pro- 
duce. The location and soil was adapted to 
this end, and he was but an indifferent farmer 
who did not make it profitable, fjiko other 
i)ranches of agriculture, this has kept pace 
with the various improvements made, show- 
ing that a few acres well tilled is better than 
many poorly cultivated. The "trucker" of 
fifty years ago would refuse; to l)e convinced 
of any profit, if shown the cost of fertilizers) 
and labor now put upon the land to force the 
cro])s and increase the yield. He was an 
" Old-Line Whig " until the defeat of Henrv 



216 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY. NEW JERSEY. 



Clay for President, when he affiliated with 
the Deinocratir party and became a promi- 
nent man in that (livi.siiin of national politics. 

ATTI )RXEYS-AT- LA W. 

William N. Jeffers was born in Salem 
County and removed in his youth to Camden. 
When he grew to manhood he was in stature 
tall and finely formed, with the exquisite 
manners of the olden time. He was in poli- 
tics an ardent apostle of the Democratic 
faith, and was sent by President -lackson as 
the American representative to one of the 
.South American States, but he soon retiuned 
and resumed the practice of the law. 

Mr. -letters' brilliant qualities as a lawyer 
were recognized all over West Jersey, to 
which his practice was chiefly confined. His 
second wife outlived him, })ut he had no 
children, and his estate descended to Com- 
mander Jeffers, who distinguished himself as 
an officer of the American navy during the 
War for the Union ; who has frequently 
been presented with testimonials of great 
value by other nations, and now lives, after 
a useful and gallant career, in Washington, 
as a retired officer of the United States Navy, 

Thomas Chapman was born in Salem 
(bounty, New Jersey, and from thence re- 
moved to Camden, locating his office in 
Second Street near J'luni (now Arch Street), 
on propcily belonging to the late Dr. Tho- 
mas W. Cullcn. Mr. Chapman was a lawyer 
of solid attainments rather than of brilliant 
oratory. In fact, the great Judge Parsons, 
of Massachusetts, said that mere oratory was 
a hindrance ratlu^r than a help to an axjtivc 
and successful practitioner at the bar. Hu( 
as a counselor, Mr. Chapman had no superior 
in the scaled circle of lawyers who then 
formed the bar of Camden County. Among 
these was the venerable .losiah Harris()n who, 
late in life, removed from Camden to Wood- 
bury, where he died. Thomas Chapman was 
a laborious lawyer, faithful to the interests 
of his clients. He was married happily, but 



the union was not blessed with children. 
( )ne morning, in summer, (Mr. Chapman 
Iteing nearly sixty years old), the door of the 
• little frame office on Second Street was found 
open, and Thomas Chapman lying dead a( 
his table, with his books open before him. 
It is suppo.sed he died of heart disease. 

Among the earliest resident lawyers of 
C'amden was Morris Croxall, who was ad- 
mitted to practice in the Gloucester County 
courts in September, 1821. He died in 
Camden, and although prominent in his dav, 
no facts in regard to him, further than here 
presented, can be procured. 

Jeremiah H. Sloan, admitted to the bar 
in 1821, was a distinguislied lawyer, who was 
ten years older than Hon. Abraham Brown- 
ing, of Camden. He was the cotemporary of 
Samuel h. Southard, William N. Jeffers and 
Judge John Moore White, who died at Wood- 
bury, N. J., at a good old age, full of vears 
and of honor. Jeremiah Sloan was perhaps 
the most brilliant lawyer in West Jersey, keen 
in his perceptions, never a very hard student, 
but gifted with magnetism of temperament 
and elocpient in speech, and possessed of fine 
social qualities whicii caused him to be 
warmly welcomed wherever he went. 

His professional services were sought for 
far and wide, and paid for by admii-ing 
clients with liberality. Those who best re- 
member him say that he united the wit of 
Sheridan with the social graces of Charles 
flames Fox, the celebrated English statesman. 

He was one of the most remarkable 
men who ever practiced at tlu; West Jersey 
bar. His mind was alert, his forensic style 
witty, Jiumorons and argumentative. He was 
a (piick and accurate judge of character. 
Ready and skillf'id in the examination of 
witnesses, eloipient, persuasive and con- 
vinciing in addressing a jury, he was well 
equipped with all the qualities necessary for 
success at the Nisi Prius bar, of which lie 
was in his day the accepted leader. I'er- 
sonallv he was n man of warm and irenerous 



THE BENCH AND BAR 



217 



impulses, social, indeed convivial. He was 
extremely popular and pleasing in manner, 
and was equally at home at the convivial 
assemblages of the lawyers, more common in 
his day than now, or in addressing a court 
upon the dryest legal proposition. He died 
at Mount Holly, broken in health and 
fortune, leaving little behind him but the de- 
lightful recollections of his friends and the 
general reputation of a brilliant character. 

Richard W. Howell was l>orii on a 
plantation called "Fancy Hill," in Glouces- 
ter County. His father and mother were 
both prominent during the Revolution of 
1776, and many are the pleasing tales of 
generous hospitality to the officers of the 
|)atriot army, who were wont to pause at the 
home of Colonel Howell, and, amidst the 
joys of an old-time welcome, forget for a day 
the great struggle for liberty. 

Mr. Howell married a sister of Hon. 
Thoma.s P. Carpenter, and she still survives 
her husband and her brother. Richard W. 
Howell's mother, like his father, was a re- 
markable person, and when she found her- 
self a widow, with a large family and an en- 
cumbered property, she managed the Howell 
estate, much of it lying along the Delaware 
River and including the Howell fishery, so 
that in a few years it was clear of delH, and 
at her death there was a handsome estate to 
divide among the heirs without iiirum- 
brance of any kind. 

Mr. Howell was early bfed to the law, 
and made a careful, conscientious and suc- 
cessful member of the profession. He was 
admitted to the New Jersey bar in Septem- 
ber, 1827. His office, which he occupied 
till his death, was a small, one-story room in 
Plum Street (now Arch), in Camden, built 
Ity William N. Jeffers and now owned by 
.ludgc Woodhull's estate. 

Richard \V. Howell was, like tiic rest of 
the Howell family, a gentleman of distin- 
guished appearance. He was possessed of 
rare] V courteous manners and was a laborious 

'28 



lawyer. The ordinances of Camden City 
Council bear the impress of his legal mind, 
and he was frequently elected to the Council 
chamber, and was once ruayor of the city. 
No man in the profession was more beloved 
by his fellow-members of the bar. 

He left a large family, one of his sons be- 
ing a well-known physician in Philadelphia, 
another a successful lawyer, and still another 
died in battle at the head of his company in 
the War of the Rebellion. 

Robert K. Matlock, who was a practi- 
tioner at the Camden courts immediately after 
their organization, was born at Woodbury, 
Gloucester County, January 22, 1804, and 
was the son of Hon. James Matlock, at one 
time a member of Congress, whose American 
ancestor, William Matlock, was among the 
Friends who settled at Burlington, N. J., 
about the year 1760. His law preceptor 
was ( 'harles Chauncey, Esq., of Philadelphia ; 
was admitted as attorney November 15, 
1827, and as counselor September 6, 1833. 
He died April 27, 1877, at his home in 
Woodbury. 

Abraham Browning was born July 26, 
1808, on his father's farm, in the vicinity of 
Camden. The family to which he belongs 
is one of the oldest in the State of New 
Jersey. The American founder, George 
Browning, came immediately from Holland, 
although of ancient English lineage, about 
the year 1735, and settled near Pea Shore. 
George Browning's son Abraham followed 
in his father's footsteps and became a farmer. 
He married Beulah Genge, who, like him- 
self, was a native of New Jersey, but whose 
parents were English, arriving in Americ^i 
from London about the year 1760. From 
this marriage sprang the subject of this 
sketch and a numerous progeny. Abraham 
obtained his earliest education at the country 
schools in the neighborhood of his home. 
Possessed of a large capacity for accpiiring 
knowledge, and gifted with a .studious tem- 
perament, he made most effective use of all 



218 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



his opportunities, and laid a solid founda- 
tion, broad and deep, for the superstructure 
of after-years. After an elementary course 
thus sati.sfactorily pursued, he was placed at 
the academy at Woodbury. From this he 
was transferred to the popular school of 
John (Tummere, in Burlington. The en- 
larged advantages here offered Abraham 
Browning were industriously improved, and 
he obtained a good English and a limited 
classical education. 

He became a student in the law-offii^e of 
Hon. Samuel L. Southard, at Trenton, in 
1830. At the expiration of a year passed 
in preliminary study he entered the I^aw 
School of Yale College, and, after remaining 
two years, he entered the oflSee of tiie well- 
known Philadelphia lawyer, Charles Chaun- 
cey. He was admitted to the bar in Septem- 
ber, 18.'54, and immediately thereafter began 
to practice his profession in Camden, where 
he has ever since resided, laboring in his 
chosen career. He early became noted for 
the care and ability with which the business 
intrusted to his care was managed, and, as a 
natural consequence, he made steady and 
rapid progress through the ranks. With 
clear perception, a well-trained and well- 
stored mind, to which constant study was 
ever bringing valuable contributions, in- 
domitable industry aud never-tiring investi- 
gation of detail, he obtained so thorough a 
mastery over his cases as to be almost in- 
vincible when he advised contest. Nowhere 
iu the ranks of the profession could a harder 
student have been found ; not one among the 
aspirants to similar fame devoted more faithful 
and painstaking labor to his client's inter- 
ests than he has done. His aid has been 
sought in many important issues beyond the 
borders of New Jersey, and his reputiition 
is national. As a constitutional lawyer- lie 
has been a recognized authority, and his 
opinion on points of constitutional issue car- 
ries great weight. In railroad cases, also, he 
has been rcigarded as especially strong, and 



he has been engaged in many important 
cases, involving difficult and delicate points 
of railroad law. His famous contest with 
Hon. Theodore Cuyler, the Pennsylvania 
Railroad case, in 1871, will long be remem- 
bered by members of the profe.ssion for the 
profound legal learning, easy mastery over 
the mazy difficulties of a peculiarly intricate 
litigation, readiness of resource, patient en- 
durance and overwhelming strengtii he man- 
ifested. 

To him, in part. New Jersey owes its 
present Constitution, inasmuch as he was an 
active and prominent member of the conven- 
tion called in 1844 for the revision of the 
then existing instrument. He was also the 
first attorney-general under the Constitution 
.so revised, being appointed to that position 
by Governor Charles C. Stratton in the .same 
year. This office he held during the regular 
term of five years. 

His succe.sses as a lawyer do not bound 
his career. He has stepped beyt)nd merely 
professional boundaries in his studies aud 
researches, and in whatever direction his 
tastes have led him, the same thoroughness 
and success have marked his eflForts. 

Mr. Browning was married. May 23, 
1842, to Pjlizabeth, daughter of Hon. James 
Matlock, of Woodbury, N. J., whose Amer- 
ican ancestor, William ^Matlock, was among 
the (Quakers who .settled at Burlington, N. J., 
about the year 1678. 

WiLLi.VM Daniel Coopei: was a .son of 
Richard IM. Cooper, late president of the 
National State Bank of Camden, and a lineal 
descendant in the .seventh generation of Wil- 
liam and Margaret Cooper, who in l(i81 were 
the first settlers on the site of Camden. He 
was born in the homestead on Cooper Street the 
30th day of August, 181(), being tlie twin 
brother of Dr. Riciiard M. Cooper, and after 
obtaining a preparatory education entered the 
University of I'eniisylvania, from wiiii^h in- 
stitution he wa.s graduated in 183(i. He 
studied law in the office of the Hon. Wil- 




-XCc.-v^'^Oo-f^ 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



219 



liam M. Meredith, of Pliiladelpliia. llv was 
admitted a member of the Phihidelpiiia bar 
ill 1841 and the same year was admitted to 
practice in the courts of New Jersey. Upon 
the death of his father, in 1844, lie became 
tiie manager of his estate, which embraced 
hinds now covered by much of tiic most at- 
tractively built-up iK>rtion of the city of 
Camden. This gave him an extt'iisive busi- 
ness as a real estate lawyer, and he managed 
the large interest included with judicious 
care and characteristic ability. By laying 
off in lots much of tiie lands previously 
owned by his father, he greatly enhanced the 
value of the property in North Camden and 
very materially increased the amount of the 
estate placed under his special care and direc- 
tion. His experience as a real estate lawyer 
and counselor gave liiiu an extended office 
j)ractice and he seldom appeared in court in 
the trial of causes. He contributed much to 
the growth and development of the city of 
Camden, and was constantly studying how 
best to advance the material welfare of the 
community. He was kind-hearted, benevo- 
lent and philanthropic. Feeling the need of 
a hospital in West .Jersey, he and his brother, 
Dr. Richard M. Cooper, turned their atten- 
tion toward establishing one in Camden. 
Both died betbi'e the reali/.ation of their 
])laiis for the erection of such a building. 
Their sisters — Sarah W. and Elizabeth B. 
Cooper, in accordance with the wishes of 
their deceased brothers, generously donated 
two hundred thousand dollars for the estab- 
lishment and endowment of the Cooper Hos- 
pital, and with their brother, Alexander 
Cooper, conveyed a large tract of land elig- 
ibly located in Camden, upon which to erect 
a building for that purpose. The manage- 
ment of this noble charity (a history of 
which is given in the Medical Chapter of 
this work), was placed in the hands of a 
board of trustees created under an act of 
incorporation by the State Legislature March 
24th, 1875. 



Mr. Cooper was for a time president of 
the Gas Company, a director in the National 
State Bank and for a time counsel for the 
same institution. In politics he was origi- 
nally a Whig in the days of that party and 
afterwards an ardent Republican. Early 
in its history he became a member of the 
Union League of Philadelphia. He devoted 
much of his time to reading and was well 
versed in general literature. In religion he 
was a believer in the faith of his ancestor 
and was a member of the Society of Friends. 

Morris R. HA>riLTox was admitted to 
the bar in September, 1842, after preparing 
for his jjrofession in the office of his father. 
General Samuel R. Hamilton, of Trenton. 
He located in Caniden in November of the 
same year of his admission and continued a 
member of the Camden County bar for two 
years, at the expiration of which time he re- 
moved to Philadelphia and practiced chiefly 
in Kensington and Spring Garden in partner- 
ship with the late Laban Burkhardt. In 
184!) he went to Trenton to become the edi- 
tor of a paper which his father had purchased 
and \vhich was tlien changed to the Daily 
True American, the Democratic orgau of the 
State capital, which position he held until 
1853. He has since edited a number of in- 
fluential journals and is now the efficient 
State librarian at Trenton. 

Thomas W. MtiLFoRU, with three 
brothers, came from Salem Countv and set- 
tled in Camden County in the year 1852. 
Thomas W. Mulfbrd, being a leading and in- 
fluential member of the Democratic party, 
was soon appointed by the Governor as pros- 
(U'utor of the ]>leas of Camden County, a 
position he filled with great credit to himself 
and to the county for many years. Mr. 
Mulford was a fluent, eloquent and able 
s|K'aker, and his voice was always welcomed 
by his party adherents, who nominated him 
for Congress in the First District, now repre- 
sented by George Hires. He was also twice 
a member of the Legislature of New Jersey, 



220 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



where his wise and discriminating statesman- 
ship made him a valuable member, much re- 
spected by both parties. Mr. Mulford's 
health failed him and he died in Salem 
County on his farm, leaving a family and a 
large circle of friends. He was a relative by 
marriage of the late United States Senator 
Hon. A. G. Cattell, of Merchantville, N. J.; 
Philip H. Mujford, one of the brothers of 
the prosecutor of the pleas, was deputy prose- 
cutor of the pleas for Camden County ; then 
associated with General Wright, of Hoboken, 
N. J., in the practice of the law, and in 1860 
went to California, where he died. 

James B. Dayton was born January "27, 
1822, at Basking Ridge, Somerset County, 
N. J. He was a son of Joel Dayton and 
lineal descendant of Ralph Dayton, who em- 
igrated from Yorkshire, England, in 1639 
and settled at Boston, one of whose descend- 
ants, Jonathan Dayton, located at Elizabeth- 
town about 1725, and was the progenitor of 
the Dayton family in New Jersey. His son, 
Elias Dayton, was a brigadier-general in the 
patriot army of the Revolution, command- 
ing the New Jersey Brigade, and member of 
Congress in 1778 and 1779. His son Jona- 
than was a member of the convention which 
framed the Constitution of the United States, 
speaker of the Fourth and Fifth Congresses, 
and United States Senator from 1799 to 1805. 

William L. Dayton, a brother of James B. 
Dayton, after filling with honor the most im- 
portant positions in New Jersey, was a Sena-_ 
tor of the United States from 1842 to 1851, 
Republican candidate for Vice-President in 
1856, and minister to France from 1861 un- 
til his death, shortly before the close of the 
War of the Rebellion. 

James B. Dayton graduated from Prince- 
ton College in 1841, studied law with his 
brother, William L. Dayton, became an at- 
torney in 1844, and counselor-at-law in 1847. 
He settled at Camden and very soon became 
one of the leading advocates of the New 
Jersey bar. His practice was large, his con- 



quests brilliant, and he was acknowledged to 
be one of the most eloquent lawyers in South- 
ern New Jersey. He became the legal ad- 
viser of the Board of Freeholders, city so- 
licitor, city treasurer and one of the fir.st 
board of Ri])arian Commi.ssions. He was a 
man of vig(jrous mind but delicate physique, 
which cau.sed him in later life to forego the 
triumphs of the court and devote his entire 
energies to the less exciting duties of an office 
practice, and ultimately to retire wholly from 
the law and also t(^ renounce all aspirations 
for political life. 

He was married, in 1848, to Louisa, daugh- 
ter of William M. Clarke, of Philadelphia ; 
her death occurred in 1856, leaving two chil- 
dren surviving — William C, a member of 
the Camden bar, and Louisa, now wife of 
Peter V. Voorhees, a lawyer in Camden. 
In 1859 he married Sadie, daughter of Judge 
Alexander Thomson, of Franklin County, 
a celebrated jurist of Pennsylvania. 

Being compelled to give up the practice 
of his profession, he turned his attention to 
corporate interests. He was president of the 
West Jersey Ferry Company for over six- 
teen years, giving prosperity to the company 
and satisfaction to its patrons ; president of 
the Camden Safe Deposit and Trust Com- 
pany, which, under his management, became 
one of the most successful banking institu- 
tions of the State ; chairman of the execu- 
tive committee of the board of directors of 
the Camden and Atlantic Railroad Com- 
pany, which he materially aided in raising 
from insolvency to affluence. He was also, 
from its inception, chairman of the board of 
directors of the Sea View Hotel Company, 
a very successful corporation. He was a man 
of sound judgment, kindly impulses and 
gentle disposition, and his death from pro- 
gressive paralysis, March 9, 1886, caused uni- 
versal sorrow. 

Thoma.s H. Dudley was born in Eves- 
ham township, Burlington County, New 
Jersey, October 9, 1819, being the descend- 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



221 



aut of an English family resident in this 
coiintty since the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century. His early education was ob- 
tained in the schools near the vicinity of iiis 
birth, and he grew to niauhood on his father's 
iliriu. Determining upon law as a profes- 
sion, he entered the office of the late William 
N. Jeffers, in Camden, and in 1845 was ad- 
mitted to the New Jersey bar. From the 
outset of his legal life he held a conspicuous 
place in his profession, his sound training in 
the principles and the practice of law uniting 
to make him successful. Until the dissolu- 
tion of the Whig party he was one of its 
stauchest members. Since that event he has 
been a no less earnest Republican. Elected 
in 1860 a delegate at large to the Chicago 
Convention, he occupied a prominent position 
in it and was greatly instrumental through 
his energy and tact, in the committee on 
doubtful States, in securing the nomination 
of Abraliam Lincoln for President. In 18(J1 
Mr. Dudley went to Europe, and returned 
in the fall of the same year, and soon there- 
after was appointed by Mr. Lincoln as con- 
sul to Liverpool. The j)ositiou of our con- 
sul at this port then was one of great conse- 
(.(uence and of the greatest delicacy, for from 
this centre radiated the substantial aid ten- 
dered to the Confederates by their British 
supporters. In his efforts to enforce the 
maintenance of the neutrality professed by 
the government to which he was accredited, 
the utmost diplomacy was necessary to avoid 
bringing to open war the expressed hostility 
between the two countries. Everywhere his 
endeavor to check the flow of supplies to the 
Confederacy met with a determined resist- 
ance. With a force of one hundred men he 
policed the ship-yards of England and Scot- 
land, he himself incognito, constantly visit- 
ing every shipping centre and registering 
every keel laid down upon the books of the 
Liverpool consulate. Nor was his zeal un- 
attended with danger. Again and again lie 
received anonymous letters warning him that 



unle.ss he ceased his opposition to the exten- 
sion of assistance to the Confederate govern- 
ment, that his life would be taken, and if 
fbuml in certain designated spots he would 
be shot on sight. But the.se threats had small 
effects upon his stern nature. He had been 
charged with a high duty and tiiat duty he 
fulfilled with a calm determination. He re- 
mained at his post until November, 18(J8, 
when he returned to the United States f()r a 
brief visit. He resumed his duties in Liver- 
pool, and three yeai-s later he again returned 
to America, and, wearied by his decade of ar- 
duous official life, tendered his resignation of 
his consulate. The government, however, 
requested his services in the case of the 
United States to be laid before the Joint 
High Commission at Geneva, and he assisted 
in the compilation of the case to go before 
the Geneva tribunal, .supplying the material 
upon which the judgment in favor of the 
United States was rendered. In 1872 he again 
returned to the United States and tendered 
his resignation, to take effect upon the ap 
pointment of his succe.ssoi-. 

Since his return to .\merica Mr. Dudley 
has been engaged in the practice of his pro- 
fession in Camden, New Jersey, residing up- 
on his beautiful country-seat, three miles 
from the city. He has been president of 
the Pittsburgh, Titusville and Buffalo Railroad 
Company, and of the New Jersey Mining 
Company, besides being a member of the 
boards of direction of the Camden and Atlan- 
tic Railroad Company, West Jersey Railroad 
Company, Camden and Philadelphia Ferry 
Company and People's Gas Light Company, 
of Jersey City. 

Isaac Mickle was one of the most re- 
markable men in the early history of Camden 
County. His grandfather was Lsaac Mickle, 
farmer, who married Sarah Wilkins, and 
from that marriage four children were born, 
—John W. Mickle, Rachel Mickle (who 
married Isaac S. Mulford, M.l).,) and Mary 
Mickle, who married Samuel Haines, of Bur- 



222 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



lingtoD County, a well-knowu sheriff of tliat 
bailiwick, and Isaac Mickle, who married 
Rebecca Morgan, from whicli alliance sprang 
Isaac Mickle who, as soon, and even before 
he reached man's estate, became a central and 
controlling figure in the affairs of his native 
County. He began the study of law with 
Colonel Page. Isaac Mickle, who was the 
only child of his parents, was also, presuma- 
bly, the heir of his uncle, John W. Mickle, 
who had ac(|uired by descent and purchase, 
nearly all the land on either side of the 
turnpike, between Camden and Gloucester 
City. Isaac Mickle was a boon companion 
of T. Buchanan Read, the artist and poet, 
and author of " Sheridan's Ride." 

W'liile studying with Colonel Page, and 
mastering the mysteries of his chosen profes- 
sion, he became acquainted with Clara Tyn- 
dale, the sister of (xeneral Hector Tymlale. 
who was once elected mayor of Philadclpiiia. 
Mrs. Tyndale, the mother of Clara, was, 
herself, a woman of talent, and with Haw- 
thorn, George William Curtis and other 
lights of science and literature, became a 
member of the famous comnumity at " Brook 
Farm." 

Isaac Mickle married Miss Tyndale and 
two children resulted from this union, one of 
whom is now living. The subject of our 
sketch early displayed a very decided pen- 
chant for literature, and became the author 
of a volume called "Recollections of Old 
Gloucester," which, besides being admirably 
written!, (contains a fund of information about 
the early history of Camden County and 
West Jersey nowhere else to be found. He 
became a well-known political writer, and 
for some years conducted the Camden Demo- 
crat. He died when under thirty years of 
age. 

Daniel K. Hoidii was colemporary witii 
Hugg and Kinsey, was admitted to the bar 
in July, 1849, and was for a time in the of- 
fice of Thomas H. Dudley. He was a promi- 
nent lawyer, but his services were lost at this 



bar, for, some years prior to the war, he went 
West, and, subsequently enlisting in an Illi- 
nois regiment, was killed in battle. 

Alfred Hugg was born in Camden, 
N. J., August 26, 1826, and educated in the 
city of Philadelphia. He studied law with 
William N. Jeffers, of Camden, and was ad- 
mitted to practice as an attorney in October, 
1849, and as a counselor three years after. 
He settled in Camden and has since been 
engaged in active practice. Mr. Hugg has 
been city solicitor of Camden, as also city 
clerk and city treasurer. He was formerly 
prosecutor of the pleas for Atlantic County. 

Chaklks W. Kinsey was in the same 
class as Alfred Hugg, and was admitted to 
the Camden bar in October, 1849. He prac- 
ticed considerably in the courts of the 
county, but was a resident of Burlington and 
died there. 

Captain Isaa(^ W. Mickle, who was 
admitted to the bar in .Tauuary, 18-30, died 
suddenly at Camp Ely, Virginia, on Satur- 
day, March 22, 1862. During the Mexican 
War he served as captain of Company A of 
the New Jersey Battalion. He enlisted in the 
same capacity in Comi)any F of the Fourth 
New Jersey Regiment during the three montlis 
.service, and at the time of iiis death was in 
command of Company A of the Tenth New 
Jersey Regiment. During the administra- 
tion of James Buchanan he was collector of 
the port of Camden. He was at the saraetin)e 
one of the proprietors of the Camden Demo- 
crat, and took sides against the administra- 
tion of Bu(thanan on the Kansas-Neln-aska 
Bill. He was a nephew of John W. Mickle, 
many years a leading director of the Camden 
and Amboy Railroad Company. He left a 
widowed mother and child. Captain Mickle 
was active in [)olitical and military affairs, 
genial in disposition and liberal in his vi(!ws. 

Pei'er L. Voorhees was born at Blaw- 
enburgh, Somerset County, N. J., July 12, 
1825, and is a member of a fiimily who trace 
their line of descent from Coert Albert van 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



223 



voor Hees, who lived prior to 100(1, in front 
of the village of Hees, near Ruinen, Drenthe, 
Holland. The derivation of the name may 
be understood when it is stated that the pre- 
fix " voor " is the Dutch equivalent of " he- 
fore," or " in front of" Steven Coerte, son 
of Coert Albert, emigrated from Holland in 
April, 1660, and settled at Flatlands, Long 
Island, on an estate the extent of which is 
indicated by the fact that he paid for it the 
lurge sum of three thousand guilders, in itself 
a fortune in those days. The great-grandson 
of Steven Coerte was Peter (ierritse Van 
Voorhees, who left Long Island in 1720 to 
escape from the payment of tithes to the Eng- 
lish Church, which was enforced by the colo- 
nial government, and established a new home 
on land which he bought at Blawenburgh. 
One of his descendants was Peter Van Voor- 
hees, who gave his land to his grandson Peter, 
and ordered his slaves to be emancipated. 
This Peter, whose father, jNIartin, di-o])ped 
the prefix " Van " from the family name. 
He was born May 27, 1787, and married, 
March 2, 1809, Jane, daughter of Captain 
John Scheuck, who, in r)ecember, 1 778, with 
a few of his neighbors and a very scanty 
supply of ammunition, ambuscaded the 
British advance guard at Ringoes, and drove 
it back upon the main column. 

Peter L. Voorhees was the second son. 
The years preceding his majority he spent 
upon the homestead, and in the acquirement 
of a common-school education, and in his 
twenty-first year he selected the law for his 
l)rofession. First entering the office of Rich- 
ard S. Field, at Princeton, as a student, he 
also studied at the Law School formerly con- 
nected with the College of New Jersey, from 
which he received the degrees of LL.B. and 
A.M. In November, 1851, he was admitted 
to the bar, and in the next year he removed 
to Camden, with many of whose most im- 
)K)rtant interests he has since been identified. 

The main characteristic of his professional 
eminence is his thorough knowledge of the 



law. Profoundly versed in its principles and 
j)ractice, his mind is a store-iiouseof informa- 
tion upon its most complicated and abstruse 
questions. The diligenic with which he 
masters every point in a litigated case is as- 
sisted to success by a wonderfully retentive 
memory and a remarkable jxiwer of ajjplica- 
tiou. He is an autlwrity upon the difficult 
and doubtful intricacies of laud titles, and 
some of his most creditable victories before 
the courts have been won in such cases. He 
is also considered an indisputable authority 
upon the finely discriminating ([uestions of 
practice. He was opposed to the Pennsyl- 
vania Company in the memorable suit of 
Black vs. the Delaware and Raritan Canal 
Company, in which was involved the control 
of the New Jersey railways now 0})erated by 
the former corporation, and was so successful 
in court that it was compelled to procure 
special legislation to effect its purpose. Since 
that time he has become counsel for the 
Pennsylvania interest, embracing the Cam- 
den and Amixpy, the West Jersey and the 
Camden and Atlantic Railroads. The Mickle 
will case was another celeltrated litigation 
which he carried for his clients to a successful 
issue. 

Mr. Voorhees is president of the Camden 
Safe Deposit and Trust Company, director 
of the West Jersey Ferry Company and di- 
rector of the Camden Hospital. In politics 
he is a conservative Republican, but has al- 
ways refused to become a candidate for any 
office, except that for one year he filled the 
position of city solicitor of Caiuden, being 
elected by the Republicans and Democrats, 
as opposed to the " Native Americans." 

In the matter of religious education and 
experience, our subject, it niay not be im- 
proper to add, has not been lacking. He was 
brought up in the Dutch Reformed Church, 
but since 1853 has affiliated with the Presby- 
terians, and has been remarkably active in 
the First Church of Camden, for many years 
taking particular interest in the Sunday- 



226 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



Removing to Camden in 1874, lie formed a 
law partnership witli his brother, Alden ('. 
Scovel. 

Samuel H. Grey is the son of the late 
Philip J. Grey and Sarah W. Grey, his 
wife.and was born in the city of Camden April 
6, 1836. His early education was received 
in the schools of his native town. His choice 
tended strongly to the profession of the law, 
and at the age of seventeen years he was 
entered as a student in the office of Abraham 
Browning, who, still living at an advanced 
age, was at that time easily the leading law- 
yer and advocate iu the southern section of 
New Jersey. After the usual course of study 
Mr. Grey was admitted to the bar of the 
Supreme Court as an attorney-at-law at the 
November Term, 1857, and as a counselor-at- 
law at the February Term, 1861. His suc- 
cess in his profession was immediate and sat- 
isfactory. Such was his prominence that in 
April, 1866, he was appointed prosecutor of 
the pleas for the county of Cape May, and 
performed the duties of that office until 
April, 1873, serving, by successive appoint- 
ments of the court, two years under the ad- 
ministration of (lovernor Joel Parker, after 
the expiration of the regular terra of the 
office. 

As a leading lawyer, Mr. Grey, in 1873, 
was appointed by Governor Parker one of a 
commission of fourteen, selected pursuant to 
a joint resolution of the Legislature, to sug- 
gest and frame amendments to the Constitu- 
tion of the State, and was actively engaged 
in all the transactions of the commission. 
The amendments thus framed were after- 
wards, in due form of law, incorporated with, 
and now form a part of, the Constitution of 
New Jersey. 

In the quarter of a century which has 
elapsed since his admission to the bar Mr. 
(xrey has never permitted himself to be 
diverted from his chosen profession, but has 
devoted to its .study and pursuit his entire 
time, and the energy and ability with whicii 



he is endowed. These riginti annorum lucu- 
hrafiones (to use the vigorous words of Lord 
Bacon), these years of study, have brought 
with them their appropriate reward. The 
practice of Mr. Grey is large, lucrative 
and embraces a wide class of important 
cau.ses, beginning with the ca.se of McKnight 
r.s. Hay, tried in 1866, at the Atlantic Cir- 
cuit, in which Messrs. Peter L. Voorhees and 
(teorge M. Robeson appeared for the plaintiff", 
and Messrs. Joseph P. Bradley (now of the 
Supreme Court of the ITnited States), Abra- 
ham Browning and Mr. (xrey appeared for 
the defendant, and of which Judge Elmer 
speaks in his reminiscences as the most 
romantic case he had ever known. Mr. Grey 
has been engaged in very many of the lead- 
ing causes arising in the .southern counties 
of the State. In April, 1886, Mr. Grey was 
selected by the managers appointed to conduct 
the impeachment of Patrick H. Laverty, 
keeper of the State Prison, as the leading 
counsel for the prosecution, and as such con- 
ducted the trial of a month, before the State 
Senate, to a successful conclusion, evincing 
skill, ability and eloquence of a high order. 

The succe-ss of Mr. Grey has resulted, not 
from study and experience alone, but largely 
from his natural mental powers. His 
capacity for quick, intense and accurate 
thought is unusual and striking. His judg- 
ment reaches a conclusion, not by careful 
and laborious plodding, nor yet by intuition, 
but rather, /ler saltum, by a leap over a long 
pathway iif thought. This faculty enables 
him very quickly to perceive and grasp the 
controlling points of a group of complicated 
facts, and to determine at once those upon 
which his cause turns. His vocabulary is 
fluent, generally accurate, often graceful and 
happy, sometimes eloquent. He has a keen 
sense of humor, and nature has giveu him a 
powerful and musical voice, a pleasing pres- 
ence and a mental and physical constitution 
sufficiently robust to endure the .shocks and 
fatigues of jury trials. These are all (juali- 




/^7^ 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



227 



ties whicli are necessary to the ecjuipnieiit of 
a leading and accomplished advocate, and 
such Mr. Grey is beyond qnestion. As was 
remarked of General Sheridan duriug the 
war, no situation was thrust upon him which 
he has not developed capacity to meet. Mr. 
Grey practices in all of the courts of this 
State and is constantly retained in important 
causes before the several superior courts sit- 
ting at Trenton, where his reputation is 
deservedly high. 

In politics Mr. Grey has been an earnest 
and consistent Republican, practically from 
the organization of that party. From 1868 
to 1871 he was an active member of the Re- 
publican State Executive Committee of New 
.lersey. In 1872 he was chosen as an elector 
upon the Grant ticket, and as such voted for 
General Grant in the only Republican Elec- 
toral College ctinvened in this State. In the 
same year he declined to accept the Republi- 
can nomination for State Senator from the 
county of Camden. In 1874, though 
strongly importuned, he declined to permit 
his name to be presented for the nomination 
as a member of the House of Representatives 
of the Congress of the United Slates, in 
1880 he received a large vote in the Repub- 
lican State Convention as a delegate-at-large 
to the National Convention which met in 
that year at Chicago. .\t tiie recjuest of 
many Republicans during the present year, 
he has permitted himself to be named for 
the office of Senator of the Fnited States. 

Mr. (irey was married September 25, 18t!2, 
in (Jhrist Church, Philadelphia, to Julia 
Hubley, only daughter of Charles C. Potts, 
Esq., of Philadelphia. He has four daugh- 
ters, — Julia Ridgway, Mary Joy, Ethel and 
Alice Croasdale Grey. Au only son, Charles 
Philip Grey, died in 1868 an infant. 

Caleb I). Shreve was born May 9, 
1833, and educated at Princeton College, 
from which he was graduated in 1851. He 
began the study of law with Honorable J. 
L. N. Stratton, of Mt. Holly, and was ad- 



mitted as an attorney at the November Term, 
1861, and afterwards an a counselor. 

BE^.IA^[IN D. Shreve, bom August, 
1835, at Medford, Burlington County, N. J., 
was graduated from Princeton College in 
1856. He studied law with Peter L. Voor- 
hees, of Camden, was admitted in 1862 as 
au attorney and as counselor in 1865. He 
has since practiced in Camden. 

George W. Gilbert was born September 
21, 1834, in Philadelphia, and educated at 
the public schools of Camden, to which city 
he removed in 1843. He began the study 
of law with Honorable Thomas H. Dudley, 
of Camden, and concluded with Honorable 
George S. Woodhull. He was admitted to 
the bar in February, 1863. Mr. Gilbert wa.s 
made deputy county clerk in 1865, and held 
the office for ten years, after which he was 
elected register of deeds for the term ex- 
tending from 1875 to 1880. He has since 
practiced his profession in Camden. 

Samuel C. Cooper was born in Camden 
in 1840, and is the son of Joseph W. Cooper. 
He received his primary education at the 
Grover School, in Camden, and entered Hav- 
erford College in 1855. In 1859, he entered 
the law office of Richard W. Howell, remained 
with him until his death, and then entered 
the office of the Honrable Thomas H. Dud- 
ley, and when Mr. Dudley was appointed 
consul to Liverpool he entered the office of 
Judge Woodhull. He was adndtted at the 
February term of court, 1863. 

J. Eugene Troth was born in Newcastle 
County, Delaware, January 14, 1845; re- 
ceived his education at the select and public 
schools and at the Delaware College, situated 
at Newark, Delaware. He began the study 
of law with James B. Dayton, of Camden ; 
was admitted as an attorne}' in 1866, and 
three years after as counselor. He was for 
seven years solicitor of the county of Camden 
and clerk of the Board of Chosen Free- 
holders. 

Martin Voorhees Bergen and his 



228 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



brother Christopher A. (of whom a sketch 
follows) are descendants of an old and promi- 
nent family, after whom Bergen County, 
N. J., was named, and they are representa- 
tives of the eighth generation in this country. 
The common ancestor of the family of 
Long Island, New Jersey and adjacent re- 
gions was Hans Hansen Bergen, of Bergen, 
in Norway, who removed from there to Hol- 
land, and thence, in 1633, to New Amsterdam 
(now New York). Some of his descendants 
settled in what is now Bergen County about 
fifty years later. 

Samuel Disbrow Bergen, of the seventh 
generation in America, and his wife, Charity 
(daughter of Judge Peter Voorhees, of 
Blawenburgh, Somerset County), were resi- 
dents early in the present century of Mid- 
dlesex County, N. J., near Cranberry, and 
lived at what was known as the Bergen 
Farm or Homestead. Their son Martin V. 
was born there Fel)ruary 12, 1839. He 
prepared for college at Edge Hill School and 
entered the sophomore class at Princeton in 
September, 18t!(). Graduating from the col- 
lege in 1863, he commenced the study of 
law the same year in the office of Peter L. 
Voorhees, of Camden, where he continued 
until he graduated in November, 1866, as 
an attorney -at-law. He was licensed as a 
counselor-at-law in November, 1869. He 
opened an office in the fall of 1866 at 119 
Market Street, Camden, and continued to 
practice there until he formed a partnership 
with his brother and removed to 110 Market 
Street. He has been twice elected superin- 
dent of the Camden City schools and now 
holds that position. He was married, in 
February, 1880, to Mary Atkinson, of Mer- 
chantville, N. J. 

Christopheu a. Bercjen, Esy., whose 
ancestry and parentage are given in the sketch 
of his brother, was born at Bridge Point, 
Somerset County, N. J., August 2, 1841. 
He obtained his preparatory education at 
Edge Hill Classical School, Princeton, and 



entered Princeton College in the fall of 
1860, graduating therefrom, with his broth- 
er, in the class of 1863. Afterwards he 
taught school, — first a country .school at Hope- 
well, N. J., and later a private classical 
school of his own at Princeton, — pursuing at 
the same time law studies under the direction 
of Peter L. Voorhees, Esq., of Camden. In 
November, 1866, he was licensed as an at- 
torney by the New Jersey Supreme Court, 
and in the fall of 1869 as counselor-atlaw 
by the same court. Mr. Bergen's mental ac- 
tivity, onerous as are his professional duties, 
is by no means confined to them. He is a 
student of general literature, keeps fully 
abreast of the times in political, philosophical 
and popular scientific information and con- 
tinues his classical studies, reading exten- 
sively in Latin and Greek. 

Christopher A. Bergen has been twice 
married. He was united with his first wife, 
Harriet, daughter of Thomas D. and Au- 
gusta S. James, Augusts, 1869. Two sons 
were the offspring of this union. His sec- 
ond wife, to whom he was united January 
26, 1886, was Fannie C, daughter of Wil- 
liam L. and Adele C. Hirst, of Philadel- 
phia. 

The fii'm of Bergen & Bergen (M. V. & 
C. A.) has been quite uniformly and steadily 
successful, and probably has as large and as 
widespread a clientage and correspondence as 
any law firm in Camden. They iiave been 
frequently opposed by the best legal talent in 
the county and State, and have fully as often 
been victors as vanquished, and enjoy a high 
reputation. Two of the most notable cases 
in which they have won success were those 
(jf the Marshall estate, and the Jesse W. 
Starr Camden Iron-Works case in bank- 
ruptcy. The former, which aroused much 
interest in the southern part of the county, 
was an action charging breach of" trust 
on the part of the executors, and involved 
the title to five farms and a large part of 
the village of Blackwood. Bergen & Bergen 




^AMiUzt^ uysu^^cA^ 





•-»-^ 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



229 



appeared tor the creditors agaiu.st the execu- 
tors, who were rej)resented by S. H. Grey, 
and Peter L. Voorhees, Esqs. In the bank- 
ruptcy suit against Jesse W. Starr, above 
alhided to, in which about three hundred 
thousand dollars were involved, Bergen 
Brothers were also successful in forcing the 
creditors of Mr. Starr, to terms. Chris- 
topher A. Bergen, as a rule, attends to the 
court business and Martin V. devotes his at- 
tention more parti<'ulariy to that department 
of practice which is the function of the 
counsel, though he also appears frequently in 
court. Both are well-read lawyers and able 
advocates. 

Both of the brothers are pronounced Re- 
publicans, though neither is an active poli- 
tician. Christopher A. in 1884 was the 
choice of a large section of his party for tlie 
position of State Senator, but declined mak- 
ing any etfort to secure the nomination. He 
was elected president of the Camden County 
Republican Club in 1886. Martin V. Ber- 
gen has also been named as a candidate for 
legislative honors, but has held no offices of 
consequence other than the .school superin- 
tendency. 

George F. Fokt was born at Absecom, 
Atlantic County, N. J., November 20, 1843, 
and received an academic education, which 
was completed at the university in Heidel- 
berg, (jcrmany. He began the study of law 
under Abraham Browning, of Camden ; was 
admitted as an attorney in 18G(j and as a 
counselor in 1869. Mr. Fort is well known 
as an author, his more prominent books l)eing 
" \u Historical Treatise on Early Builders' 
Works," " Fort's Mediaeval Builders," 
"Medical Economy during the INIiddle Ages " 
and " Fjarly Hist()ry and Antiquities of Ma- 
sonry." 

Robert M. Brow.nino, wh(j was a native 
of Camden, born in 1844, read law with his 
tatiier, Hon. Abraham Browning, and was 
admitted to practice in November, 1867. He 
followed his profession until his death, in 1875. 



Howard M. Cooi'KU was born June 24, 
1844, at Kaighns Point in the city of Cam- 
den, graduated from Haverford College, 
Pennsylvania, in 1864, studied law under 
L'eter L. Voorhees, Esq., and was admitted 
to the bar as an attorney at the November 
term of the Supreme Court, 1870. He has 
since followed his profession in Camden, and 
in addition to the usual occupation of a law- 
yer, he is a director and the solicitor of the 
Camden National Bank, a director of the 
C'amden Lighting and Heating Company, and 
president and solicitor of the ^\'est Jersey 
Orphanage tor Destitute Colored Children. 

Richard T. Miller is a native of Cape 
May City, N. J., where he was born Decem- 
ber 16, 1845, and received his early education 
at Pottstown Academy and at Easton, Conn. 
He then entered the West Jersey Academy 
and completed his studies under a private 
tutor. He was for two years connected with 
a corps of engineers engaged on the Peuu- 
syivania Railroad, and in 1863 entered the 
office of Judge Thomas P. Carpenter, of Cam- 
den. He was admitted as an attorney in 
November, 1867, and as counselor in 1870. 
Judge Miller began practice in Camden, and, 
March 30, 1877, was appointed judge of the 
District Court of Camden, to which office he 
was appointed live years later. 

Jajies p. YoiTNo was born in Camden 
County, in 1842, was educated in tiie schools 
of that county and at the Philadelpliia Higli 
School. He read law in the office of Hon. 
Thomas P. Carpenter, and was admitted to 
tiie bar in 1869. He was a comrade of Tiio- 
mas H. Davis Post, G. A. R., No. 53, of 
Haddonfield, and for three years served in 
Company G., Sixth New Jersey Regiment. 
He practiced in Camden for fifteen years, 
and was accidentally drowned in the Dela- 
ware River. 

George N. Coxrow was born in Bur- 
lington County, but during his youth went 
West and received his litei'ary education at 
Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana. Re- 



230 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY. NEW .JERSEY. 



turning East, lie read law with Hon. Tiionias 
P. Carpenter, of Camden, was admitted to 
the bar at the November Term of court, 1870, 
and became counselor in 1873. He had 
offices in Camden and Moorestowu, and prac- 
ticed actively until his death — -a period of 
about eight years. 

Alfred Flanders was born in Phila- 
delphia January 6, 1830, received his early 
educatiou through private tutors, aud grad- 
uated at Yale College in 1850. He read 
law with Simp.son T. Vau Sant, of Philadel- 
phia, and was admitted to the bar of tiiat 
city in March, 1801, having meanwhile been 
identified with the Kensington Bank as 
clerk and teller. Having practiced for 
a while in Philadelphia, he settled in Bur- 
lington, N. J., in 1866, and was admitted to 
the New Jersey bar the same year. He 
practiced in Mount Holly until 1883, at 
which date Mr. Flanders opened an office in 
Camden. 

Hkrbkrt a. Drake was born Jidy '2, 
1845, in Hopewell township, Mercer Couuty, 
N. J., and remained a pupil of the public 
schools until 1862, when he became a student 
of the Lawrenceville Higli School, and two 
years later of Rutgers College, from which 
institution he was graduated in June, 1868. 
He entered upon the study of law with 
Peter L. Voorhees, of Camden, was made an 
attorney in June, 1871, and a counselor at 
the June Term, 1874. 

Jame.s E. Haves was born near Burling- 
ton, N. J., Febiuary 18, 1844, aud after a 
preliminary training at the Hightstown in- 
stitution, graduated from the University of 
Pennsylvania. He entered the law-office of 
Robeson & Scovcl in 1867, was admitted as 
an attorney in 1871 and as counselor in 
1877. He was made city .solicitor of Cam- 
den in 1878, and corporation coun.sel of 
Gloucester City in 1883. His law co-part- 
nershij) with (ieorge M. Robeson began in 
A|)ril, 188.3. 

Jou-N W. Wriuiit, son of Richard an<l 



Abigail M. Wright, and grandson of Ricii- 
ard M. Cooper, was born in Philadelphia, 
August 21, 1847. He entered the Univer- 
sity of Penn.sylvania and was graduated from 
the Department of Arts of that institution in 
the class of 1867. He became a studeut-at- 
law in the office of E. Spencer Miller, Esq., 
of Philadelphia, and after graduating from 
the Law Department of the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1870, he was admitted to the 
bar in 1871. Since the death of his uncle, 
William D. Cooper, in 1875, he has been 
executor, tyustee and attorney for the estates 
of a large branch of the Cooper family, com- 
prising much of the central portion of Cam- 
den. 

Jame.s H. Carpenter, sou of the Hon. 
Thomas P. Carpenter, was born in Wood- 
bury, N. J., November 18, 1849, and in 
early youth moved with his parents to Cam- 
den. He I'eceived his education at the ' 
school of William Fewsmith, in Philadel- 
phia, and at the University of Peun.sylvania, 
graduating from the latter in 1869. Immedi- 
ately thereafter he entered his father's office 
as a student-at-law, and was admitted to 
practice November, 1872, and as a coun- J 
selor in 1875. He was made a master in I 
Chancery in 1875, and admitted to practice 
in the United States Court in 1883. 

Wilson H. Jenkins was born Xovem- J 
ber 6, 1846, at Fenwick, South Carolina, aud ^ 
educated at the Citadel, at Charleston, aud at 
the .Vrseual, at Columbia, South Carolina. 
Removing to Camden in 1865, he entered J 
the University of Pennsylvauia, and began " 
the study of law with Richard S. Jenkins, of 
Camden, in 1869; was admitted as an at- 
torney in 1873, and as a counselor in I.S75. 
Mr. Jenkins was appointed pi'osecutor of tin- 
pleas for Camden County in 1884. 

John H. Fort was born on Staten Island, 
N. Y., January 10, 1851, and educated at 
the pul)lic schools, at Lawrenceville Academy 
and at Pennington, N. J. He studied law 
with Maruiaduke B. Tavlor, of Canidcu, 



THE BExVCH ANT> BAR. 



231 



w,is aLlmitted a> au attorney in .hme, 1873, 
and as counselor iu November, 1881. He 
is a master and examiner in Chancerv. Mr. 
Fort lias devotp<l mueli of his time to edito- 
rial work. 

.ToHX F. .JoiJNE was born in Princeton, 
N. J., February 4, 1850, aud pursued his 
early studies at Treuton, N. J. He began 
his law studies with James Wilson, and con- 
cluded them with Peter L. Voorhees, of 
Camden ; was admitted as an attorney in 
1873, and as counselor some years later. 
He was also made a member of the Philadel- 
phia bar in 1882. Mr. Joline was clerk of the 
New Jersey House of Assembly in 1871-72, 
and is secretary and treasurer uf tlie West 
Jersey Ferry Company. 

Thoma.s B. Harned is a native of the 
city of Philadelphia, where he was born 
March 15, 1851, and received his early edu- 
cation at the common schools, after which he 
entered the Cohansey Glass Works, at Bridge- 
ton, N. J. At the age of nineteen he began 
the study of law with Hon. Charles T. Reed, 
of Camden, and graduated from the Ijaw 
Department of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. He was admitted to practice during 
tiie June Term of 1874, and was made a 
counselor in 1X77. He speedily established 
a large criminal practice. Mr. Harned was 
a delegate to the Chicago Convention which 
nominated James (i. Blaine for the Presi- 
dency in 1884. 

Chari.es Van Dyke Joline was born 
August 7, 1851, and educated at the Academy 
and the State Model School, Trenton, N. J. 
He entered Princeton College in September, 
18()8, andwas graduated from that institu- 
tion in June, 1871. He began the study of 
law with Peter L. A^oorhees, of Camden, 
was made an attorney in 1874 and a coun- 
selor iu 1877. Mr. Joline is one of the in- 
corporators, and has been since its organiza- 
tion secretary, of the Camden County Bar 
Association. 

KitWAiiD Dt'DLEY was ijorn .lanuary 17, 



1849, in Camden, where his early .studies 
were pursued. Accompanying hi.^ father to 
England, he became a pupil of the Royal In- 
stitution School, in Liverpool. He returtied 
to America in 18(>6 and entered Harvard 
College, from which he was graduated in 
1870. Mr. Dudley then made an extended 
foreign tour, and was soon after appointed 
United States vice-counsul and acted as 
consul at Liverpool. He thus officiated 
until his return to Camden, in January, 1873, 
when, entering the office of Peter L. Voor- 
hees as a .student of law, he was admitted as 
an attorney in November, 1874, and as a 
couuiselor in 1877. He is a director and 
.solicitor of the National State Rank of 
Camden. 

Alexander Gray was born in Wilkes- 
Barre, Pa., February 5, 1834, and received 
his education at the common schools. He 
engaged for several years in business in his 
native city, and followed mechanical engi- 
neering and mining until 1866. In 1870 he 
began the .study of law with G. Lytel, Esq., 
of Princeton, N. J.; was admitted as an attor- 
ney in 1875, and as counselor iu 1878. He 
practicoid in Mercer ( "ounty until his removal 
to Camden, in 1880. 

Jdhn T. Woodhuel was born July 12, 

1850, at Mays Landing, Atlantic County, 
N. J. He was educated at home, at Free- 
hold and in Philadelphia ; began the study 
of law in 1869 with Aldeu C. Scovel, of 
Camden, and spent one year at the Harvard 
Law School. He was admitted February, 
1875, and has since practiced in Camden. 

WiEr.iAur C. Day-ton was born in July, 

1851, in Camden, and received his academic 
education at the West Jersey Academy, 
Bridgeton, N. J., and in Philadelphia. He 
afterward entered Princeton College and be- 
gan the study of law with his father, James 
B. Dayton, of Camden, was admitted as an 
attorney in February, 1875, and as a coun- 
selor in February, 1878. He is a director 
of the Camden Safe Deposit and Trust Com- 



23? 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



pauy and of the Canidfu and Atlantic Rail- 
road. 

Thomas E. French was born in Bur- 
lington County, N. J., Jartuary 5, 1855, and 
educated at the select and common schools of 
that county. He, in April, 1870, entered the 
law-office of B. D. Shreve, of Camden ; was 
admitted as an attorney in February, 1876, 
and as a counselor February, 1879. He 
began practice in Camden, formed a co-part- 
nership with William S. Ca.sselman, whicli 
Hrm was succeeded by Garrison, French & 
Casselman, and later by Garrison & French. 

Peter V. Voorhees was born in Mid- 
dlesex County June 18, 1852, and took his 
preparatory course at the Rutgers College 
Grammar School, New Brunswick, from 
whence he entered college in 1869, and grad- 
uated in 1873. He began his law studies 
with Peter L. Voorhees, of Camden, was 
admitted as an attorney in 1876, and three 
years after as counselor. He is associated 
with Peter I>i. Voorhees in the practice of his 
profession. 

John K. R. Hewitt was born in Cam- 
den January 29, 1855, and pursued his early 
studies at home and at the public schools. 
He then engaged in business and began the 
study of law some years later. He was made 
an attorney in June, 1876, and a counselor 
in 1880. He was elected, in 1878, solicitor 
for Gloucester City, and was clerk and solic- 
itor for the Board of Chcsen Freeholders of" 
Camden County from May, 1880 to 1881. 

Samuel D. Bergen, brother of Martin 
V. and Christopher A., was born April 9, 
1852, at Harlingeu, Somerset CJounty, New 
Jersey ; received his early education at Edge 
Hill School ; entered Princeton College in 
September, 1868, joining the class of 1872. 
On leaving college in 1872 he commenced the 
study of law with his brothers at Camden, 
and graduated as an attorney-at-law in June, 
1876. He was admitted as coun.selor-at-law 
in November, 1879, and has perhaps more 
reputation from the suit of the Freeholders 



IS. Alfred Haines, steward of the almshouse, 
than in any other one cause. He carried this 
suit through five trials or phases, being suc- 
cessful in each one and secured a final decis- 
ion in favor of the plaintiffs. He married 
Eliza F., daughter of Genge Browning. 

August F. Richter is a native of Phila- 
delphia, where he was born September 10, 
1855. He was educated at La Salle College 
and at Bryant & Stratton's Business College, 
Philadelphia, and began his law studies in 
1871 with Marmaduke B. Taylor, of Cam- 
den. The.se studies were continued at the 
Law Department of the University of Penn- 
.sylvania, after which he was admitted to 
practice at the November Term in 1876. 
He was, three years later, made a counselor. 
Joseph Willard Morgan was born 
July 6, 1854, on a farm near Blackwood, 
now (Tloucester, then C'amden, County, N. J., 
and educated at the common schools in 
his native county and in Philadelphia. He 
began the study of law with Honorable 
Charles P. Stratton, of Camden ; was admit- 
ted as an attorney in February, 1877, and as 
a counselor in February, 1881. He was ap- 
pointed to fill a vacancy in the City Council 
of Camden soon after reaching his majority, 
later elected for three years and subsequently 
re-elected. He has been for several years 
United States commissioner and is now city 
.■solicitor for the city of Camden. 

Samitei- W. Sparks is a native of Wil- 
liamstown, N. J., where he was born Decem- 
ber ?>0, 1855. He was educated at Absecom, 
Atlantic County, N. J., and afterward learned 
the trade of a pri.nter, which he followed for 
four years. He began the study of law with 
Alden C. Scovel, of Camden, and was ad- 
mitted to practice in 1877. He is master and 
■solicitor in Chancery, and has also been ad- 
mitted to practice in the State of Iowa. 

Timothy J. Middleton w;ts born Octo- 
ber 15, 1855, and educated in the city of 
Camden. He entered the office of Thomas 
B. Harncd in June, 1874 ; was admitted as 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



233 



an attorney in 187S and as counsellor in 
18S1. He lias for several years been solicitor 
for the Board of Education of Camden, was 
in 1881 elected chosen freeholder and in 
1S82 clerk and solicitor for the Board of 
Chosen Freeholders. 

Lemuel J. Potts, a native of Camden, 
was born March 17, 1843, and educated at 
the public schools as also by private tutors. 
Removing to Illinois, he engaged in business, 
and (HI his return from the West Ijegan the 
study of law with Alden ( '. Scovel, of Cam- 
den. He was admitted to the bar in 1878, 
and three years later was made a counselor. 

Charles G. Garkison, M.D., is a native 
of Swedesboro', N. J. His education was re- 
ceived at the Edge Hill School, Princeton, 
at the Episcopal Academy, Philadelphia, and 
at the University of Pennsylvania. He 
graduated in 1872 from the Medical Depart- 
ment of that institution, and until 187() 
practiced medicine in Swedesboro', N. J. He 
then entered the office of Samuel H. Grey, 
of Camden, and was admitted to the bar in 
1878. He began practice in Camden as a 
member of the firm of Garrison & French. 
Mr. Garrison was made judge advocate-gen- 
eral of the National Guard of New Jersey 
in 1884 and chancellor of the Southern Dio- 
cese of the Protestant E[)iscopal Church of 
New Jersey in 1.S82. 

William S. H(JFFman is a native of Phil- 
adelphia and was born February 2, 1857. 
His education was received in the public 
schools of that city and in New York. He 
began the study of law in Camden with Al- 
fred Hugg, Es([.; was admitted as an attorney 
in November, 1878, and as a counselor in 
November, 1881. He has received the ap- 
pointment of master and examiner in Chan- 
cery. 

Henry A. Scovel, a native of Camden, 
N. J., was born February 25, 1858, and 
attended the school of Charles F. Woodhull, 
from whence he entered the Hyatt Military 
Academy, at Chester, I'a. He was admittetl 

29.1 



as an attorney Feliruary 2(i, 1879, and as a 
coun.^elor at the June Term, 1SS4. 

W.M. S. C.\s.SELMAN was burn December 
5, 1854, in Pliiiadelphia, and coming to 
( 'amden quite young, was educated in the 
public schools ; read law with Judge (Iharles 
P. Stratton ; was ailmitted to the bar as au at- 
torney in June, 1879, and as a counselor in 
June, 1883. 

JoNA.s S. Miller was born at Cape May 
City and educated at the West .Jersey 
Academy, at Bridgeton. He served an ap- 
prenticeship as a printer, and followed the 
trade until 1875, when, entering ujxin the 
study of law, he became a student in the 
office of his brother, Hon. Richard T. Miller, 
of Camden. He was made an attorney in 

1879, and a counselor in 1883. During the 
latter year he was appointed prosecutor of 
the pleas for Cape May C'ounty, N. J., and 
still fills the office. 

Franklin C. A\'ik)LM.\x was born Octo- 
ber 11, 1855, in Burlington, N. J. He was 
educated in Philadelphia ami later entered 
Princeton College. He l)egan the study of law 
in 1875, in the office of Hon. David J. I'an- 
coast, of Camden, and graduated from the 
Law Department of the Uuiversity of Penn- 
svlvania in 1877. Mr. Woolman was ad- 
mitted to the bar as an attorney in 1879, and 
as coun.sclor in 1883. 

Edward Ajubler ARMSTR()X(i was l)orn 
in Woodstown, Salem County, N. J., De- 
cendier 28, 1858, and educatei^l in the 
Woodstown Academy and the Millville 
High School. In 1876 he entered the law- 
office of George N. Conrow, and, upon the 
death of the latter, finished his studies with 
Benjamin D. Shreve, of Camden. He was 
admitted to the bar at the February Term of 

1880. In 1883 he was elected to the As- 
sembly from the First District of Camden 
County, and upon his re-election, in 1884, 
was made Speaker of the House at the age of 
twenty-six years, being the youngest man 
who has occupied the position. He was 



234 



HISTOKY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



elertcd for tlu; tliiril teriii in IS80, ami was 
re-elected Speaker, l)eiiig by virtue of that 
office a trustee of the State School Board and 
a member of the State Board of Education. 

Samimu, K. RouniNS was born in Mount 
Holly, N. J., May 9, 1853, and after a |)rc- 
paratory course, grailuated at Princeton Col- 
lege in 1874. In 1877 he began the study 
of law with Charles E. Hendrickson, of 
Mount Holly; was admitted June, 1880, and 
as a counsellor in 1884. He is the present 
prosecutor of the pleas for the county of 
Burlington. Mr. Iiol)bins also has an office 
in Moorestown, N. J. 

Samtel p. Joxks was born in Kent 
County, Delaware, and educated principally 
in Burlington County, N. J., and Camden. 
He began the study of law in 1876, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1880. He has since 
been engaged in practice in Camden. 

Edmund B. Leaminc; was born at South 
Seaville, Cape May County, N. J., May 27, 

1857, and educated by his father. He grad- 
uated at the Capital City Commercial Col- 
lege, Trenton ; began the study of law with 
Judge James Buchanan, of Trenton, in 1877 ; 
was admitted in February, 1881, and made 
a counselor tiire(M'cars after. He is a mem- 
ber of the firm of Ijcaming, ]51ack iV: Klioads, 
of C^amden. 

John J. Cuandau, was born in Tioga 
County, N. Y., Novemi)er 8, 18.'>(), and edu- 
cated at the academy in Oswego, N. Y. 
He entered the law-offi<« of Thomas Far- 
rington, of thesanje town, and continued his 
studies at Troy, Pa,, while princi])al of liie 
Troy Academy. lie was admitted to prac- 
tice in the courts of Michigan in 18r)(), wliei'o 
he pursued his profession until 1870. Re- 
moving to New Jersey, he was admitfcHl to 
the Camden County bar at the June Term of 
1880, and as counselor in 188.'3. 

Fi.oitANc F. HooATE, a native of (ilou- 
ccster County, N. J., w-as born March 15, 

1858, and educated at Bridgeton, in the com- 
mon schools and at the West Jersey Acad- 



emy. He entered the office of M. B. Taylor, 
Esq., as a student ; was admitted to the bar 
at the February Term, 1881, and at once 
began practice in Camden. He is officially 
connected with several important corporations 
in the State. 

John Harris was born in IJurliiigtou 
("ounty, N. J., May U), 18(j0, and in youth 
attended the common schools. He entered 
the law-office of Messrs. Jenkins & Jenkins, 
in Camden, and was admitted as an attt)rncy 
in June, 1881 ; three years later he was made 
a counselor. He was elected clerk of the 
Jioard of Chosen Freeholders in May, 1886. 
He is a member of the law-firni of Scovel & 
Harris. 

Hknry M. Snvdkh, Jr., was born Feb- 
ruary 15, 1857, in Philadelphia, and educated 
at the public schools. He read law with 
Peter L. Voorhees, of Camden; was admitted 
as an attorney in 1881, and as counselor in 
1884. He is, for the second term, a member 
of the Camden City Council. 

B. F. H. Shreve was born at Mount 
IIollv, and graduated at Trinity College, 
Hartford, Conn. He began the study of law 
with B. I). Shreve, and was admitted as an 
attorney in 188.'). He is located in Camden. 

Charles 1. Wooster was born in llain- 
monton, X. J., March 25, 184ti, anti received 
his preliminary education at the public schools 
of Camden County. He was afterward made 
de[)uty county clerk and under-sheriff of the 
county. He entered the law-office of Messrs. 
IJergen & Bei-gen, attorneys, as a student, 
an<l began practice in June, 1881, when he 
was admitted. 

WlEI.IAM W. WOODHITI,!,, Jr., was boru 
July 12, 1858, at May's Landing, New Jer- 
sey, and received his early education in private 
schools of Camden. He began the study of 
law, October 3, 187(5, in the office of Peter 
L. Voorhees, and was admitted to practice 
at the June term of court, 1881. He was 
for something over a year in the office of 
Colonel Isaac Buckalew, then suitei-iutendeMt 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



235 



of the Amboy Division of the Peuusylvania 
Railroad, as private secretary. He dieil 
Fcl)ruary 9, 1882, just as lie was about enter- 
ing upon tlie practice of law. He was a 
young man of remarkable promise. 

Alfkei) L. Br.ACK, Jr., was oorn No- 
vember 1(3, 1858, in Chesterfieiil township, 
Burlington County, N. J. After attemling 
a private school in Ocean County, N. J., he 
entered the sophomore class at Princeton 
and graduated June 20, 1878. He begau 
the study of law with James Wilson, Es([., 
of Trenton, X. .1.; was admitted in Novem- 
ber, ISSl, and made a counselor in 1881. 
He began practice in Camden in 1881 as one 
ot' the firm of Learning A: Black (now 
Leaming, Black tt Khoads). The firm are 
city solicitors for Cape May, Sea Isle City, 
Anglesea, Ocean City and South Atlantic 
City. 

H()WAF!i) .1. SxANciEK, a native of Cam- 
den, was l)orn in Camden County, N. J., 
De<'ember 211, 1857, and educated principally 
by private tutors. He entered upon the 
study of law in the s])ring of 1878 with 
Hon. Charles T. Keed, of Camden; was 
made an attorney at the June Term of 1882, 
and a counselor in June, 1885. He is a 
master, examiner and solicitor in Chancery. 

Juiix W. W.\KTM.\.v was born in Camden, 
N. J., December 1(1, 1857, and educated at 
the |)ublic schools. He began the study of 
law with Thomas J5. Harned, June 1, 1878 ; 
was admitted to practice iu June, 1882, and 
as counselor in June, 1885. He had been 
for three years a member of the City Coun- 
cil ol' Camden. 

I lowARO Carik >w was born September .'30, 
18(10, in Camden, Delaware, and educated at 
Bridgeton and in Philadi'Iphia. He began 
the study of law with Thomas B. Harned, of 
Camden, and was admitted in June, 1882. 
Three years later he was madi; a counselor. 
He was also, in 1 882, admitted as member of 
the United States Coiu-t. 

Edmund E. Rkad, Jk., .son of John S. 



Read, was boiii in ( 'auiden, August 7, 1859. 
He obtained a preparatory education in the 
school of William Fewsmith,at 1(»()8 Chest- 
nut Street, Philadelphia, and then entered 
th(^ I 'Diversity of i'ennsyl vania, from which 
institution he was graduated with the degree 
of A. B., in the yc^ar I87;t. Studied law in 
the otiiee of I'eler L. N'oorhee.s, and was 
admitted to the bar in .lune, |8i;2, and has 
since practiced in Camden. He is a director 
of the Camden Fire 1 nsni-ance A.ssociation ; 
secretary of the I'"i'ankliii, Peo|)le's and ( 'ity 
Building Associations, and secretary of the 
(iloucester Turnpike Company. 

Samitkl W. Beldivn was born in Bor- 
dentown, X. J., April 4, 18(51, and graduated 
at the New Jersey ('ollegiate Institute 
in 187(). He began the study of law 
with ex-.ludge James Buchanan in 1878, 
was admitted to the bar as an attorney in 
IS.S2, and as counselor in 1885. He entered 
into partnership with Judge Buchanan in 
1882, and two years later became a member 
of the firm of Hutchinson it Beldon, of 
Camden and Bordentowii. 

John V. Harned was born March 28, 
1856, in Camden, and e(lucated at the public 
schools. He actpiired the trade of a printer, 
followed it for six years and began the study 
of law in 1878 with M. B. Taylor, Es(|., of 
Camden. He was admitted to the bar during 
the fall term of 1882, and as a cwun.selor in 
November, 1885. He has since practiced in 
Camden. 

Edwai;i) H. SAiNDEiis, son of the sur- 
veyor of the same name, was born in ('am- 
den, read law with Howard M. Cooper, was 
ailnutted to practice in Novendjer, 1882, and 
died about two years later. 

Thomas P. Curley, a native of Camdeu, 
was born Se[)tend)er 19, 18()l,and received 
his education in the ]>arochial schools con- 
nected with the Church of the Immaculate 
Conception and the I^a Salle College, I'hila- 
del[)hia. He clio.sc the law as a profession ; 
was admitted as an attorney November, 1882, 



236 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



and made a lua^^tur in C'hauceryin February, 
1883. 

Robert C. Hutchinsdn was lioiii in 
Yardville, Mercer County, N. J., December 
14, 1859, and educated at the Lawrenceville 
High Scliool and at Harvard College. He 
entered the Harvard Law School, continued 
his studies with the late Alden C. Scovel, of 
Camden, and admitted to the bar in 1883. He 
has offices in Camden and Bordentown, and is 
a member of the firm of Hutchinson & Belden. 

Walter P. Blackwood was born at 
Moorestown, N. J., November 26, 1861, and 
educated in the public schools of Camden. 
He adopted the law as a profession in 1878, 
studied with J. Willard Morgan, and was 
admitted in February, 1883. 

Richard S. Ridgway Avas born in Cam- 
den August 7, 1859, and received his edm-a- 
tion at the public schools. He entered liie 
law-office of Alfred Hugg in 1879, and was 
made an attorney in 1883. 

Israel Roberts was born in Burlington 
County, N. J., June 19, 1858, received his 
early education at private schools, and gradu- 
ated from Swarthmore College, Pa., in 1878. 
He entered the office of Thomas H. Dudley 
& Son as a student of the law in Sejitembcr, 
1880, and wa.s admitted to the bar as an at- 
torney in 1883. 

George Reynolds was born in Philadel- 
phia, Jan. 30, 1859, and educated at the Bur- 
lington (N. J.) public schools. He studied law 
with Hon. Richard T. Miller, of Camden, and 
was made an attorni^y in February, 1884. 

Samhet, N. SiiRF.VE was born Sept. HI, 
1860, at Mount Laurel, Burlington Co., N. J., 
and finished his academic studies at tiic West- 
town Boarding-Scliool, Chester Co., I'a. He 
chose the law as a profession, and, entering the 
office of lienjamin 1). Slircvc, of Camden, 
was admitted at the February Tern), 1884. 

Ulysses G. Styron was born at Cape 
Hatteras, N. C, September 3, 18()3,and pur- 
sued his studies at the common schools of iiis 
county, in May, 187-"., he canu; to Camden, 



and entered the office of Hon. E. A. Armstrong 
as a student Jan. 1, 1881. He was admitted 
to practice at the February Term, 1 885. 

L. D. H. GiLMOUR was born October 27, 
1860, at Cape May City and educated at the 
South Jer.sev Institute, Bridgeton. He became 
a student in law-office of H. M. ( 'ooper in 1 881 
and was made an attorney in 1885. He is also 
associated with the Pennsylvania Railroad. 
• George A. Vkoom was born Oct. 21, 1861 , 
in New Brunswick, N. J., and received his 
education at Rutgers College. He began the 
study of law witii John T. Woodhull, Esq., of 
('amdeii, and was admitted to the Camden 
County bar at the June term of 1885, after 
which he began practice in Camden. 

JosHi'A E. Borton was born November 
16, 1861, in Mount Laurel, Burlington 
( 'ouutv. New Jersey, and educated at the 
public schools at Bordentown and in C'liester 
County, Pa. He beaime a student of the 
law in November, 1880, under the precep- 
torship of Messrs. Jenkins t*i: Jenkins, of Cam- 
den, and was admitted in November, 1884. 

William P. Fowler, born in Philadel- 
|ihia Octol)er 7, 1857, was educated at the 
South .lersey Institute, Bridgeport, N. J., 
i-cad law with Judge David J. Pancoast and 
Marmaduke B. Taylor, Esip, of Camden, and 
was admitted to the bar November 6, 1884. 

Schuyler C. Woodhull was born Oct. 
22, 1863, in Camden and was educated by a 
private tutor. He began the study of law w^itli 
his brother, Hon. Geo. S. Woodhull, in 1881, 
and concluded with Judge David J. l*ancoast, 
after which he was admitted in Feb., 1886. 

I'e.wnington T. HiLitUHi'ii was Ixn-n at 
C'a[)e May Conrt-Housc and educiited at 
iVnnington, X. J. He began his legal 
studies in 1882 with John B. Hott'man, Es(p, 
and concluded tlicm with Judge David J. 
Pancoast, of Camden. He was made an at- 
torney at the June Term of 1886. 

"The Camden C\)t'NTY Bar Assoclv- 
TKiN "' was incorporated \\m\ 16, 1881, by 
Al)raliaiii Browning, Thomas Jl. Dudley, 



A HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND MEDICAL MEN. 



237 



Peter L. Vi)orliees, Benjamin D. Shreve, 
C!hristoplier A. Bergen, Richard T. Miller, 
Howard M. Cooper, David J. Pancoast, Her- 
bert A. Drake, William C. Dayton, Peter Y. 
Voorhees, Charles V. D. Joline. Its ob- 
jects were '' To maintain the honor and dig- 
nity of the profession, to cultivate social re- 
lations among its members, to promote and 
encourage the more profound study of the 
law, the due administration of justice and re- 
form in the law and to establish and maintain 
an efficient lawlibrary in the City of Camden." 

Meets first Monday of every month at its 
library, 106 Market Street, Camden. Annua! 
meeting, first Monday of May each yeai-. 
There are about forty -three members. TJie 
present officers are, — President, Abraham 
Browning ; 1st Vice President, Thomas H. 
Dudley ; 2d Vice President, Peter L. Voor- 
iiees ; Treasurer, Howard M. Cooper ; Secre- 
tary, Charles V. D. Joline. Managers, C. A. 
Bergen, chairman ; B. D. Shreve, C. D. Shreve, 
R. T. Miller, H. A. Drake, P. V. Vooihees, 
VV. S. Casseiman. There are also the follow- 
ing committees; Admission, grievances, pro- 
secutions, amendment of the law. 

The association maintains a library that is 
constantly growing in size and value. Its 
rooms are on the third floor of 106 Market 
Street, adjoining the chambers of the Court 
of Chancery, and are complete in every re- 
spect as a place for lawyers to retire and 
work up a difficult case. Among the books 
are the English Common Ijaw and Equity 
Reports and the Reports of the United 
States Supreme Court. Reports of the States 
of Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, ( )hio, 
Michigan, California, besides a large number 
of digests, commentaries, statutes, etc. 

The association h;us taken a great interest 
in legislation, and every winter since its or- 
ganization it has introduced bills looking to 
the improvement of local measures and sent 
a committee to the Legislature to effect their 
passage. 

30 



C H A P T E R XIV. 

A HISTORY OF MKDICIXE AND MEDICAL 
MEN. 

BY JOHN R. STEVENSON, .\.M., M.D. 

"At the annual meeting of the Camden Connty 
Medical Society, held at Gloucester City on May 11, 
1880, on motion it was Resolved, that Dr. John R. 
Stevenson, of Haddonfield, be appointed a (Committee 
of one to prepare a History of Medicine and Medical 
Men in Camden County and report the same at the 
next semi-annual meeting in November." 

Two hundred years ago, in 1686, seven 
years after the first .settlement in what is now 
Camden County, there was ni)t a medical 
man in it. The few settlers were lottated 
along the shore of the Delaware River, and 
on Coopers, Newton and Little Timber 
Creeks, where the water formed the only 
means of easy communication with each otliei". 
There were no roads, no bridges to cross the 
streams, and the trail of the Indian was the 
only route through the wilderness. A few- 
medicinal herbs brought from home had 
been transplanted into the gardens. With 
the virtues of these they were familiar. The 
new country abounded in native plants, 
who.se healing powers had been for ages 
tested by the aborigines, and a knowledge of 
whose properties they conveyed to their white 
neighbors. Each autumn the careful house- 
wife collected the horehound, boneset, penny- 
royal, sassafras and other herlis to dry for 
future use. This custom is still pursued in 
the remote parts of the county, and to-day a 
visit to the garrets of many farm-houses will 
reveal the bunches of drietl herbs, a knowl- 
edge of whose merits has been handed down 
from generation to generation, — -a knowledge 
that has spread beyond its neigliborhood, and 
has been incorporated in our Pharmacopieias 
and Dispensatories. 

In each settlement there was some elderly 
matron of superior skill and experience in 
midwifery wlio kindly volunteered her ser- 
vice in presiding at the birth of a new colonist. 



238 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



I II tlie hark canoe arouud by the water-way, 
or seated on a pillion strapped behind the 
saddle of the j)atient's messenger, riding double 
through the woods, this obstetrician would be 
conveyed from her own home to that of her 
suffering neighbor. When a wound was 
received or a bone broken, there was no 
surgeon to dress the former or set the latter. 
The wound, bound up as best it might be, 
was left for the cool water of the brook or 
spring to allay the pain and inflammation. The 
broken bone was placed at rest in that posi- 
tion least painful to the patient, to await the 
process of nature to make an indifferent cure. 
As soon as Philadelphia had grown sufficient- 
ly to attract physicians, one was called from 
there to attend important cases of surgical 
injurie,s, and as highways were opened and 
the settlers increa.sed in wealth, the most 
thriving of them would send for the city 
doctor in other .serious illness. This practice 
has continued even to our time. 




AN OLD-TIME DOCTOK. 

Such were tJie primitive means and 
methods of medication in Camden County at 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, 
when John Estaugh, arriving from England, 
married, in 1702, Elizabeth Haddon, the 
founder of Haddon field. Although not a 
physician, he " had some skill in chemistry 
and medicine," and made himself useful in 
his neighborhood, especially by his attend- 
ance upon the poor. His first residence 
was upon the south side of Coopers Creek, 
about four miles from Camden, but in 1713 



he removed to the vicinity of Haddonfield, 
where he died in 1 742. 

The jiermission to practice medicine was a 
prerogative that belonged to the crown, under 
English law, and when a charter was granted 
in 1664, to the Duke of York for the prov- 
ince of New Jersey, this prerogative, im- 
plied or expressed, was granted to him and to 
his successors in the persons of the Gover- 
nors. On March 5, 1706, Governor Richard 
Ingolsby, at Burlington, i.ssued the following 
liceu.se: "To Richard Smith, Gentleman, 
greeting; Being well informed of your knowl- 
edge, skill and judgment in the practice of 
chirurgeryand phesig, I do hereby license and 
authorize you to practice the said sciences of 
chirurgery and phesig within this her Maje.s- 
tys province of New Jersey, for and during 
pleasure." On May 24, 1706, a similar 
license was granted to Nathaniel Wade.' 
In 1772 the New Jersey State Medical 
Society procured the passage of an act, limit- 
ed to five years, which provided that all 
applicants to practice medicine in the State 
shall be examined by two judges of the 
Supreme Court (they calling to their assistance 
any skilled physician or surgeon), to whom 
they may issue a certificate. This law was 
re-enacted in 1784, and continued in force 
until 1816, when a new charter granted to 
the State society transferred the power of 
licensure to it. 

The first record of a physician in the 
county is in the "Town-Book" of Newton 
township, among the minutes of a meeting 
held on September 29, 1731. The record 
says, — "and to pay themselves ye sum of 
four pounds twelve shillings and two pence 
being due to them from the township upon 
acct. of the poor, and to pay Doctr. Kersay 
for administg physic to sd. Hart. " The 
person referred to here was one of the I)rs. 
Kearsley, of Philadelphia. The elder, r)r. 
John Kearsley, was a native of England, and 

' Hon. Jolin Clement's MSS. 



A HISTORY OF MEniCINE AND MEDICAL MEN. 



239 



came to this country in 1711. He was tlie 
third j)hysician to settle and practice medi- 
cine in Philadelphia, and was a prominent 
and able man, botli as a practitioner and a 
citizen. He was a member of the Colonial 
Assembly and a popular orator. He died in 
1732. There was a younger Dr. Kearsley, 
a nephew of the first-named, who succeeded 
to his uncle's practice. He espoused the 
cause of the proprietors and crown against 
the rights of colonists, a proceeding that 
madehiin very unpopular, and caused him to 
be subjected to such gross indignities as to 
induce chronic insanity. As Newton town- 
sliip then embraced the territory bordering 
on the river-shore opposite to Philad«^lphia, 
it is probable that the practice of both these 
l)hysicians extended across the river into this 
county. 

The next notice of a physician in Camden 
County is to be found in the " Registry of 
Wills," at Trenton. Under tiie date of 1 748 
is recorded the will of "John Craig, Doctor 
of Piiysick, of Haddonfield." He evidently 
had practiced medicine there, but whence he 
came or how long he lived there cannot now 
be ascertained. There is no positive record 
of what were the prevalent diseases in early 
times in Camden County. Small-pox pre- 
vailed occasionally, and, after tlie discovery 
of inoculation in 1721, was combated by 
that method of treatment. Inflammatory 
diseases were common among a po])ulation 
exposed to the vicissitudes of an unaci'us- 
tomed climate. Dysentery occurred in July 
and August. Although all the houses in 
early days were built on the streams, there is 
circumstantial evidence to show that malarial 
fevers were at first infrecpient ; nor did tiiey 
become prevalent until considerable extent 
of forest had been cleared away, and the 
soil of much new ground upturned by the 
plough. The first information on this sub- 
ject from a professional source is furnished 
by Peter Kalm,a professor in the University 
of Arbo, iu Sweden, who, by order of the 



Swedish government, visited, among other 
places, filoucester County between 1747 and 
1749. At Raccoon (Swedesboro') he found 
that fever and ague was more common than 
other dis(»ases. It showed tlie same charac- 
teristics as are found to-day. It was quotid- 
ian, tertian and quartan, and prevailed iu 
autuuui and wiutei-, and in low places more 
than in high ones ; some years it was preva- 
lent throughout the coimty (Camden County 
was then included iu it), wiiile iu others 
there would be but very few (wses. The 
remedies then employed to overcome it were 
Jesuit's (Peruvian) bark, bark of the yellow 
poplar and root of the dog-wood. Pleurisy 
was also very common, and was fatal with 
old peo])le. Under this name were classed 
many cases of pneumonia, a disease not then 
well understood. 

In 1771 Kesiah Tonkins, widow of Joseph, 
who died in 17G5, lived on a farm between 
C'amden and Gloucester City, known as the 
" Mickle estate." Betsveen that date and 
1776 she married Dr. Benjamin Vanleer, 
who lived with her on this place. She was 
the daughtei' of Joseph Ellis, of Newton 
township. It is supposed tiiat Dr. Vanleer 
practiced in the surrounding country, as he 
took an active part in the affairs of the peo- 
ple, being one of a " Committee of Corre- 
spondence " for Gloucester County in the year 
1775, in relation to the troubles between 
the colonies and the mother government. 
He was a man of fashion, dressed in the 
Continental style, with kuee-lireeches, and 
was proud of his " handsome leg." He did 
not remain long in New Jersey. A Dr. 
Benjamin Vanleer residing, iu 178.'i, on 
Water Street, between Race and Vine, I'hil- 
adelphia, is supposed to be the same persou. 

Although this history is confined to that 
portion of Gloucester which is now Camden 
C'ounty, yet Dr. Thomjis Hendry, of Wood- 
bury, ought to be classed among its physi- 
cians, because his field of practice included 
this section, aud for tiie reason that his de- 



240 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



scendants became practitioners in it. He 
was born in 1747, in Burlington County, of 
English parentage, his mother's name being 
Bowman, from whom her sou received his 
surname. He served in the Revolutionary 
War, being commissioned superintendent of 
hospital April 3, 1777; surgeon Third Bat- 
talion, Gloucester. "Testimonials from Gen- 
eral Dickinson and General Heard, certifying 
that Dr. Hendry had served as a surgeon to 
a brigade of militia, that he had acted as a 
director and superintendent of a hospital, and 
recommending that he should be allowed a 
compensation adequate to such extraordinary 
services, was read and referred to the hon'- 
ble Congress." He took an active part in 
political affairs, and was once clerk of the 
county. He died September 12, 1822. 

The next physician in Camden County 
was Dr. Benjamin H. Tallman, who prac- 
ticetl in Haddonfield. He probably located 
there about 1786, the year in which he was 
licensed to practice in New Jersey. From 
the year 1788 to 1793 he was the township 
physician, as it appears that in each of tlio.se 
years he was paid by it for his services in 
attending tlie poor. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Friendship Fire Company of 
Haddonfield, September (J, 1792. On 
October 4, 1791, he read a paper before the 
College of Physicians of Philadelphia, on 
the sudden effects of an effusion of cold 
water in a case of tetanus. He died about 
1796. 

Cotemporary with the above-named phy- 
sician was Dr. Evan Clement. He was the 
son of Samuel Clement, who married Beulah 
Evans in 1758. They had two children, 
Samuel and Evan.' The latter was born in 
Haddonfield, but the exact date is not known, 
neither is there any record of when or where 
he studied medicine. He married, A()ril 8, 
1 795, Anna, daugiiter of James and Kliza- 
beth Wills, and lived in the biick iiouse at 

' Hon. John Clement's .MSS. 



the corner of Main and Ellis Street,s, re- 
cently purchased and taken down by Alfred 
W. Clement. Dr. Clement was in practice 
there in 1794, and died in 1798. He was 
the first native of the county to adopt the 
profession of medicine and practice it in his 
native place. 

It is a noteworthy circumstance that ibr a 
hundred years after the settlement of the 
county no one born in it had studied medi- 
cine. The poorer classes were unable to 
procure the means for acquiring the requisite 
education, while the wealthier ones altogether 
neglected it. It is true that prior to the foinid- 
ing of the University of Pennsylvania, in 1765, 
the only means of obtaining a knowledge of 
medicine was either to pursue a course ot 
study under some competent physician, wliere 
the student was apt to be considered half a 
servant, or else by attendance at a medical 
school in England. The prospects of pro- 
fessional or pecuniary succe.ss in the county 
were not flattering. But in addition to this, 
there was a sentiment in this community 
unfriendly to the medical profession as a 
calling. In sickness the ministrations of 
friends and relatives, with their teas and 
potions, and the quack remedies of popular 
charlatans, who flourished then as well as 
now, were deemed sufficient. If, after this 
medication, the patient died, it was attributed 
to a " wise dispensation of Providence." The 
midwives were considered to be adequate to 
manage ob.stetrical cases. There .still lingered 
among the people the tradition of their 
English ancestors, that tlie red and white 
striped pole was the sign of the combined 
office of barber and surgeon. These preju- 
dices fi)und ex|)ression in two diametrically 
opposite opinions. Tiie stout, robust farmer 
and the active and alert merchant and me- 
chanic looked with contempt upon a yoiilli 
who had aspirations for the life of a i)hysi- 
cian as one who was too lazy to work. The 
women, whose remembrances of the midnight 
ride of the doctor through rains and snow 



A HISTORY OF .MEDICINE AND MEDICAL MEN. 



241 



ami cliilliug winds, thought the liard.ships 
and exposure too great for their brothers and 
sous. Tiiese prejudices passed away but 
slowly. 

Dr. John Blackwood, who began his pro- 
fessional career in Haddontield, became the 
successor of Dr. Evan Clement, not only by 
succeeding to his practice, but by marrying 
his widow in 1799. He was the sou of 
Joseph and Rebecca Blackwood, and wa* 
born at Black woodtown, July 28, 1772. His 
wife was a member of Friends' Meeting, but 
was di.sowned for marrying out of it. Dr. 
Blackwood remained but a short time in 
HaddonKchl. He removed to Mount Holly, 
where he became prominent in public affairs, 
serving at one time as postmaster and also as 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas and 
Orphans' Court of Burlington County.' He 
died in Mount Holly March 16, 1840. 

Up to the close of the eighteenth century 
Haddonfield may be considered as having 
been the medical centre of the territory of 
Camden County. It was not only the oldest 
town in it, but it was the third oUlest in the 
State. All the physicians who had practiced 
within the limits of the county had either 
lived in Haddonfield or Newton township, 
of which it was the seat of authority. J''or 
nearly half a century later it still retained 
its pre-eminence, until the growth of Cam- 
den, and its becoming the seat of justice ibr 
the county, transferred the supremacy to the 
latter. 

In more recent times Haddonfield has had 
the doubtful honor of being the seat of one 
of the notorious John Buchanan's (of Phila- 
delphia) bogus medical colleges. Between 
1870 and 1880 the doctor owned a farm on 
the Clement's Bridge road, about four miles 
from the place, upon which he spent a por- 
tion of his time. During this period diplo- 
mas of the mythical " Univ(n-sitv of Medi- 
cine and Surgery of Haddonfield, N. J.," 

' S. Wickes' History of Medicine in .New Jersey. 



were oti'cred for sale by his agents in Eu- 
rope. 

The period now being considered was a 
transition one for the uation, which was tiien 
being developed from the former colonies, 
through a confederation of independent 
States, into a great empire. The science and 
practice of medicine here participated in this 
change. At this time there appeared in 
Camden County a physician, who was des- 
tined to be its Hi[)po('rates for forty years, 
and whose memory, though dead for half a 
century, is still preserved green in the farm- 
hou.ses and hamlets of this county. This 
was Dr. Bowman Hendry, son of Dr. Thos. 
Hendry, of \\'oodbury. 

Dr. Bowman Hendry was born October 1 , 
177o. He was educated at the Woodbury 
Academy, pursuing his studies under a Mr. 
Hunter, a classical scholar and a man of 
high literary attainments. At the age of 
seventeen he commenced the study of medi- 
cine, under the preceptorship of his father, 
and then attended lectures at the University 
(if Pennfsylvania, residing, as a pupil, in the 
house of Dr. Duftield. When about twenty 
years of age, and .still a student, the Whiskey 
Insurrection broke out in Penn.sylvania, and 
troops being called out for its suppression, 
young Hendry joined the ranks as a private 
soldier, and marched with them to Lancas- 
ter. The influence of his father, with Pro- 
fessor James, the surgeon of the troops, se- 
cured his release from the ranks, a prema- 
ture e.xamination at the University, whitth he 
successfully pa.s.sed, and his appointment as 
assistant surgeon of the troops. This was a 
bloodless war, and soon ended. Dr. Hendry 
now began to look around for a field for 
practice, finally .selecting Haddonfield. He 
liegan his active life as a physician in 1794, 
and upon the death of Doctors Tallman and 
Clement, and the removal of Dr. Blackwood 
to Mount Holly, he became the only doctor 
in the place. His practice now increased 
very rapidly, and stretched over a large ex- 



242 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



tent of territon', exteiuling from the Dela- 
ware liiver to the sea-sliore, a distance of 
sixty miles. He was a man of indefatigable 
industry and indomitable perseverance in the 
])iirsuit of his calling. Kind-hearted and gen- 
erous, lie possessed that suamter in re which 
won the affection of his patrons. Many ai'e 
the anecdotes that are recorded of him. 

For fifteen years he made his visits on 
horseback, having no carriage. At length 
he procured at a vendue an old sulky, wiiich 
was only an ordinary chair placed upon 
wooden springs, without a top to protect him 
from the sun or rain. The price [)aid for the 
vehicle and harness was thirty dollars. An 
old " Friend " witnessing this extravagance, 
remarked, " Doctor, I fear thee is too fast in 
making this purchase. Thee will not be 
able to stand it, and make thy income meet 
thy expenses." This gives us an idea of the 
life of a physician in those days, and of the 
value of his services in the public estima- 
tion. In his journeys through the " Pines " 
on the Atlantic slope he would sotuetimes 
become lost at night, and be cunipelled to 
sleep in tlie woods, tying his horse to a tree. 
He was always prompt to answer every call, 
no matter whether the patient was rich or 
poor, and being a furious driver, he had been 
known, in cases of emergency, to break down 
a good horse in his hurry to quickly reacli 
the bedside, and that, too, in a case where he 
knew that he would not receive any pay for 
his services. It iias been estimated thai, in 
the course of forty years, he wore out over 
two hundred horses. He risked his lite and 
gave his services in all cases. A family of 
negroes, living seven miles from Haddon- 
field, were attended by him for typhus fever, 
and, although warned that they were vaga- 
bonds, thieves and utterly worthless, yet he 
not only continued his visits, but gave them 
medicine and sent them |(rovisions from a 
neighboring store. 

Notwithstanding the arduous duties of 
such an extensive jsrivate practice, Dr. Hen- 



dry found time to attend to public duties. 
For many years he had charge of the Glou- 
cester County Almshouse. He served as 
surgeon of Captain J. B. Cooper's volunteer 
cavalry in 1805, formed from the young men 
of Haddonfield and Woodbury. He took 
ail active part in religious affairs. He was a 
member and vestryman of St. Mary's Pro- 
testant Episcopal C^hurch, Colestown, until 
itj congregation was drawn away from it by 
tiie building of new churches in the growing 
towns of Moorestown and Camden. Dr. 
Hendry was one of the originators of St. 
Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church in Cam- 
den, and was chairman of the first meeting 
held in the city hall, in that city, March 12, 
18;30, whereat the organization of this ciiurch 
was completed. At this meeting he was 
elected one of its vestrymen. 

Dr. Hendry was a physician of gi'eat abil- 
ity, and one who kept pace with the growth 
of knowledge in his profession. He stood 
pre-eminent in this county, both as a physi- 
cian and surgeon, and his services as a con- 
sultant were in frequent request. He pos- 
sessed tho.se magnetic personal attributes 
which endeared him to the people to such an 
extent, that when his barn, hor.ses and equip- 
ments were destroyed by an incendiary fire, 
they raised a sni).><cription for him and 
f[uickly relniilt the building and replaced the 
destroyed personal property. With these he 
combined the .sterling qualities of the true 
physician. No doctor in this county has 
done more to elevate the practice of meilicine 
from a trade to a profession. By his exam- 
ple he taught this community that there was 
attachetl to it a philanthropy and a benevo- 
lence that widely separates it from other oc- 
cupations, and, by dying a poor man, when 
so many opportunities offered to secure gain, 
he illustrated the fact that the services of 
such men cannot be measured by money. 

Dr. Hendry married, June 7, 1798, ICliz- 
al)cth, daughter of Dr. Charles Duffield, of 
Philadelphia, and had seven daughters and 



A HISTORY OF MEPICIXE AND MEDICAL :MEi\. 



243 



two sons, — Charles H.aiid Bowman ilt'iulry, 
l)oth physicians in Camden ('oiiiity. 

Coteuiporary with the early portion of I>r. 
Hendry's (career, and located at Colestown, 
three miles distant from him, was Dr. Sam- 
uel Iiloointield, who lived in ii .small hi])-roof 
frame house on the road from Haddonfieid 
to Mooresfown, just north of the (thurcii. 
This house was torn down a few years since. 
Dr. Bloomfield, horn in 1756, was the second 
.son of Dr. Mo.ses Bloomfield, of Woodl)ridt;e, 
X. J., and younger hrother of Joseph, who 
became (to vernor of New Jer.sey. In 17!l(> 
the doctor applied for admission to the State 
Society, but did not press his application, 
and his name was dropped. It is not known 
how long he followed his profession here, 
but his practice must have been limited in 
con.sequence of his convivial habits, and the 
great popularity of his competitor. lie died 
in 1806, and was buried in St. Marv's ' 
Churchyard, now Colestown (Jemetery. 
Two of his .sons who survived him fell in 
the War of 1812. 

There is no record of any piiysician hav- 
ing settled in Camden jtrior to the nineteenth 
century. Its proximity to Philadelphia 
.seems to have made the village dependent 
upon its neighbor for its medical attendance. 
It is probable that some (k)ctor may have 
attempted to practice there for a short time, 
but, not succeeding, moved away, leaving no 
trace behind him, not even as much as did a 
Dr. Ellis, who, in 1800, had an otlico on 
Market Street, above Second. The only fact 
preserved of him is that in this year he 
dressed the wounded forearm of a child, but 
first bled the patient in the other arm before 
binding up the wound, yet the child recovered. 

Dr. Samuel Harris was the first physician 
to .settle permanently in Camden. As he 
was the connecting link between the old- 
fashioned practitioners of the la.st century and 
the a-ssociation known as the Camden County 



Medical Society he is worthy of especial 
consideration. His father was Dr. Isaac 
Harris, born in 1741, who studied medicine 
and practiced near ( iuii)l)leti)wn, i'iscatawav 
township, Middlesex County, N. J. From 
there he removed to Pittsgrovc, Salem 
County, about 1771. Here he pursued his 
profession successfully for many years, and 
died in 1808. He jios.ses.sed a good medical 
library. While a resident in Middlesex he 
was one of the pioneers in tiie oT'ganization 
of the .\ew .Ici-.sey State Medical Socjetv, 
ixiug the sixth signer to the " Instruments 
of As.sociatiou," and beitame its ])residt'Ml in 
1792. In the ilevolutionary W'ai- he was 
commissioned surgeon of (ieneral Niw- 
combe's brigade. His brother. Dr. Ja<'ob 
Harris, also a surgeon in I lie .same arniv, 
dressed the wounds of ('ouiit Donop, the 
Hessian commander, who was ilefeated and 
mortally wounded at the battle of Red Bank, 
and who ilied in an adjacc^nt farm-house.^ 
Another brother. Dr. Benjamin Harris, 
practiced anil died in Bittsgrove. Dr. Isaac 
Harris had two wives. The first was Mar- 
garet Pierson, of Morris or Esse.x County ; 
the second, Anna, daughter of Alexander 
Moore, of Bridgeton, Cumberland County. 
By the first he had four children ; one, Isaac 
Jr., studied medicine and practiced in Sa- 
lem County. By the second wife he had nine 
children, one of whom, Samui'l, is now nndi'r 
consideration. 

Dr. Samuel Harris was born Januarv t!, 
17S1. He stuilied medicine with his father. 
It is said that he attended medical lectures 
at the University of Pennsylvania, but his 
name does not appear in the list of graduates 
of that institution. He began the practice 
of medicine in Philadelphia, at the north(!ast 
corner of Fourth Street and Willing's Alley, 
but indorsing for a relative, he lost all his 
property. He then determined to settle in 
Camden, and grow up with the place. He 



' lion. John Clement's MSS. 



■ Wicke'a History of Medicine in New Jersey. 



2U 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



located in 1811 in the old brick building on 
Cooper Street, above Front. While he prac- 
ticed medicine in Camden he still retained 
some of his patients in Philadelphia, and to 
visit them was compelled to crass the river 
in a row-boat, the only means of" crossing at 
that time. In 1825 he purchased the large 
rough-cast house at the southeast corner of 
Second and Cooper Streets, which had been 
built by Edward Sharp. Here he kept his 
office and a small stock of drugs, it being at 
that time the only place in Camden where 
medicine could be purchased. Dr. Harris 
was a polished gentleman and a man of 
ability, and had a large practice in the town 
and in the surrounding country. He held 
to the religious faith of the Protestant Ej)is- 
copal Church, and was one of the founders 
of St. Paul's Church in 1830, and was a 
vestryman in it until his death. Dr. Harris 
married Anna, daughter of John and Kcziah 
Kay, and granddaughter of Captain Jo.seph 
Thorne, of the army of the Revolution. 
He died November 25, 1843, and is buried 
in Newtown Cemetery. His widow died 
July 16, 1868. He had no children. He 
bequeathed his e.state, which was large, to his 
adopted daughter and wife's niece, Miriam 
Kay Clement (now wife of Dr. Charles D. 
Maxwell, United States Navy), to niece 
Harriet (wife of Colonel Robert M. Arm- 
strong), to niece Anna M. (wife of Richard 
Wells) and to niece Eli/.a T. (wife of Rev. 
Thomas Ammerman). 

In 1812 Dr. Francis Hover settled in 
Camden, but remained only a short time. 
He was a native of Salem County and 
received his license to practice medicine June 
4, 1794. He began his professional career 
in his native town ; from thence he removed 
to near Swedesboro', and then to Camden. 
From the latter place he returnetl to Swedes- 
boro'. In 1821 he changed his residence to 
Smyrna, Kent County, Del., where he died 
May 29, 1832.' 

' S. Wickes' History of .Medicine in New Jersey. 



For a few years Dr. John A. Elkinton was 
a co-laborer with Dr. Bowman Hendry in 
Haddonfield. He was a native of Port 
Elizabeth, Cumberland County, N. J., born 
October 19, 1801, and was the son of John 
and Rhoda Elkinton. Selecting the pro- 
fession of medicine, he attended lectures at 
the University of Penn.sylvania, from which 
he graduated in 1822. He commenced the 
practice of medicine in Haddonfield, where 
he remained until 1828. Being an energetic 
and active man, this country place did not 
offer a wide enough field for him, .so he 
removed to Manayunk, a suburb of Philadel- 
phia, where he resided for a short time. 
In the same year he moved into the city, 
where he continued in his profession. In 
the year 1832 he took an active part in 
combating the epidemic of cholera. He like- 
wise became interested in puijlic affairs. For 
many years he was a member of the Phila- 
delphia Board of Health. In 1838 he was 
the projector of the Monument Cemetery in 
that city, and owned the ground upon which 
it was laid out. Afterward he was elected 
an alderman, when he gradually relinquished 
the practice of medicine. On October 5, 
1830, he married Ann De Ijaniater. He died, 
December 15, 1853. 

Dr. Edward Edwards Gough practiced 
medicine in Tansboro' between 1826 and 
1835. He was a native of Shropshire, Eng- 
land, in which country he acquired some 
knowledge of medicine. In 1824 he lived in 
Philadelphia, and there he married his wife, 
Elizabeth Dick, In 182(i he .settled in 
Tansboro', and commenced the practice of 
medicine, his visits extending throughout the 
surrounding coiuitry. While living there he 
attended medical lectures at the Jefferson 
Medical College, but he never graduated. 
He died in Tansboro' in lS-35. His widow 
is still living, in Indiana. 

Camden County Medic.vl Society. — 
Between the years 1844 and ?.846 the phy- 
sicians of Camden County began to feel the 



A HISTOEY OF MEDICINE ANP MEPICAL 'MEN. 



245 



need of a closer union. Scattered as they 
were, they but occasionally met ; sometimes 
they would pass each other on the road ; 
sometimes, where their practices overlapped, 
tliev would meet each other at a patient's 
house in mutual consultation.' To accc^m- 
|)lish this desired object, a petition was drawn 
up and signed by the legal practitioners in 
the county for presentation to the New Jer- 
sey State Medical Society, asking for author- 
ity to organize a society. As the law then 
stood, no one was legally qualitied to practice 
medicine, or caj)ab]e of joining a medical so- 
ciety in New Jersey, unless he iiad passed an 
examination before a board of censors of the 
State Society, and received a license signed by 
the board. 

In the year 1846 the State Society met at 
New Brunswick. The petition of the phy- 
sicians in f 'amden ('ounty being laid before 
it, they issued a commission, dated May 12, 
1846, authorizing the following legally (jual- 
itied persons to form a society, namely: Drs. 
Jacob P. Thornton and Charles D. Hendry, 
of Haddonfield ; Dr. James C. Risley, of 
Berlin ; and Prs. Richard M. Cooper, < )th- 
niel H. Tavlor and Isaac S. Mulford, of 
( 'amden. In accordance with this authority, 
the above-named gentlemen, with the excep- 
tion of Dr. Midford, who was detained by 
sickness, met at the hotel of Joseph C\ 
Shivers, in Haddonfield, on August II, 
1846, and organized a society under the 
title of " The District Medical Society of the 
County of Camden, in the State of Xcw 
Jersey." Dr. James C. Risley was eli'ctid 
president ; Dr. Othniel H. Taylor, vice-pres- 
ident ; Dr. Richard M. ('ooper, secretary, and 
Dr. Jacob P, Thornton, treasurer. A con- 
stitution and by-laws wereadoj)ted similar to 
those of the .State Society. At this meeting 
I)rs. Thornton, Hendry, Taylor and Cooper 
were elected delegates to th(^ State Society. 
\ notice of the formation of the .society was 

I Dr. R. M. Cooper's XISS., History of Camtlen County 
Society. 
31 



ordered to be published in the county news- 
papers. 

Haddonfield was thus honored by having 
the first medicfll .society in the county organ- 
ized within its limits. Tlic nilcs of tlie 
State Society directed that county .societies 
should hold their meetings at the county-seat, 
yet Haddonfield was not the .seat of justice. 
The county of Camden had, in 1844, been 
set off from Gloucester County, and the 
courts of law were held in Camden, and the 
public records kept there, but the county- 
town had not been selected. The Legisla- 
ture had authorized an election to decide 
upon a permanent place for the public build- 
ings. The people were divided upon the 
subject. A most violent opposition had 
sprung up in the townships against their 
location in Camden, the majority of the 
jieople of the former desiring them to be 
built at FiOng-a-coming (now Berlin). It 
was during this contest that the society or- 
ganized, and Drs. Hendry and Risley, who 
had charge of the petition, had inserted in 
the commission the name of Haddonfield. 
The second meeting, which had been left 
subject to the call of the president, was also 
held in Haddonfield on March 'M), 1847. At 
this meeting Dr. Mulford raised the question 
of the legality of the place of meeting, and 
a committee was thereupon appointed to lay 
the matter before the State Society, who de- 
cided that the.se meetings, although irregular, 
were not illegal, as the county-seat had not 
yet been definitely fixed) but directed that 
hereafter the meetings should be held in Cam- 
den. 

The third meeting of the .society was a 
special one, called by the president, and was 
held on June 1.5, 1847, at English's Hotel, 
which was situated at the northeast corner of 
Cooper iuid Point Streets, a building which 
has since been torn down and dwellings 
enacted upon the site. At this time it was 
de<'ided to hold .semi-aimual meetings: the 
amiual one on the third Tuesday in June, 



246 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



and the serai-aiiruial on the tliirfl Tuesday 
in Decern her. These were always punctually 
held until 1852, when, upon the motion of 
Dr. A. I). Woodruff, of Haddonfield, the 
semiannual meeting in December was dis- 
continued. On June 18, 1867, Dr. R. M. 
Cooper, chairman of the committee on by- 
laws, reported that the State Society having 
changed their day of assembling from Jan- 
uary to the third Tuesday in May, it would 
necessitate the election of delegates to that 
society eleven months before it met. The 
Camden County Society then changed the 
time of the animal meeting from June to the 
second Tuesday in May, and this rule still 
continues. For twenty years the semi-annual 
meetings had been discontinued, when, in 
May, 1878, Dr. N. B. Jennings, of Had- 
donfield, moved that they should be resumed. 
This was approved, and the .second Tuesday 
in November named as the time for holding 
them. As the society increased in numbers 
and its proceedings became more interesting, 
the propriety of holding more frequent meet- 
ings began to be discu.ssed, until, in 1884, 
Dr. E. L. B. (xodfrey, of Camden, proposed 
a third meeting, on the second Tuesday in 
February of each year. This was adopted 
in the succeeding year. 

At this, the third stated meeting of the 
society, in 1847, a resolution was passed that 
caused great excutement in the city and coun- 
ty of C-amden. It read as follows : 

" Resolved, That the names of all the regularly 
licensed practitioners in Camden County be pub- 
lished in one of the papers of the county, to- 
gether with the twelfth section of the law incor- 
porating tlie Medical Society of New Jersey." 

This law imposed a fine and imprison- 
ment upon any one practicing medicine in 
the State without a license from the State 
Society. The insertion of this in a county 
paper caused the gravest anxiety among the 
few irregular practitioners and their pati'ons, 
and pi'ovoked from Dr. Lorenzo F. Fisler a 
lonj; communication in the Camden Deino- 



ocrat. Dr. Fisler, who had been ])racticing 
medicine in Camden since 1837, had not 
joined in organizing the County Medical 
Society, nor had he taken any part in it. He 
was a man of more than ordinary ability, 
active in public affairs and was at one time 
mayor of the city. He was a writer of 
considerable force. He took umbrage at be- 
ing inferentially placed in the illegal class, 
claiming that he had passed his examination 
l)efore the board of cen.sors of Salem County 
in 1825, and had received their certificate 
therefor, but had never presented it to the 
State Society for a license, and that the doc- 
ument had been mislaid or lost. Upon this 
the Camden County Society made inquiry of 
Dr. Charles Hannah, of the board of censors 
of Salem County. He replied that he lia<l 
been a member of every board that had ever 
met in the county, and that Dr. Fisler had 
never received a license from it. The latter 
immediately went down to Port Elizabeth, 
Cumberland C^ounty, his native place, and 
among some old papers of his father's found 
the missing certificate, with Dr. Hannah's 
name among the signatures. After the dis- 
covery of this document the society held a 
special meeting on September 2, 1847, anil 
prepared an address to the public, explaining 
their reasons for falling into the error, and 
dis<'laiming any unfriendly feeling towards 
Dr. Fisler.' .Vlthough the doctor obtained 
the required license from the State So(^iety, 
he ever after held aloof from it, and never 
joined the Camden County Medical Society. 
In the year 181(5 the New Jersey State 
Medical Society had obtained from the State 
a new charter, which gave them exclusive 
jurisdiction over the medical profession in it, 
with a power of license which alone qualified 
a person to legally practice medicine. In ac- 
cordance with this enactment, the State So- 
ciety aj>})()intc(l boards of censors for differ- 

M)r. H. M. Cooper's M8S , History Cam Jen County 
Medical Society. 



A HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND MEDICAL MEN. 



■Malt 

[Mil. 
■llldlot- 
[Wlttb 

ii'jiiirv III' 
'i mm 



•'ijil 



; 



.I'Bdf"*"''' 



ent districts. It was tlie <liity of tlicst' 
boards to examine all applications for mem- 
bership in the society, and also to examine 
any one desiring a license to practice, as to 
his professional qnalifications, and if he 
passed successfully to issue to him a certificate. 
No one, not even graduates of medical col- 
leges, was exempt from this examination, un- 
til the year 1851, when the Legislature 
passed an amendment to the act of 1816, 
autliori/.ing the graduates of certain colleges, 
which were named, to practice medicine in 
New Jersey by merely exhibiting their 
diplomas to the j)resident of the State Society, 
who thereupon was directed to give them a 
license, which was complete upoli its being 
recorded in the clerk's office of the county 
wherein the recipient intended to ])ractice, and 
upon the payment of a feeof fivedollars. I )u- 
ring the period between the organization of 
the Camden County Medical Society and the 
passage of this law its board of censors ex- 
amined thirteen physicians, some of whom 
were t<i practii'e elsewhere in New Jersey. 
Tiieir nanu's were, — 

E\;iuiinyil. NiiuiP. T-iu;ition. 

1848. Dr. Bowman Hendry, CamiUn County. 

1848. Dr. A. Dickinson Woodrutt', Camden County. 
1848. Dr. Daniel M. Stout, Camden County. 

1848. Dr. William Elmer, CumUerland County. 
1848. Dr. T. Barron Potter, Cumberland County. 
1848. Dr. Theophilus Patterson, Salem County. 

1848. Dr. Edward J. Record, Camden County. 

1849. Dr. Theodore Varrick, Hud.son County. 
lS4il. l>r. .I..hri ,1. JesMUji, Atlantic County. 

1849. Dr. .luhn W. Snowden, Camden County. 

1850. Dr. Thomas F. CuUen, Camden County. 
1850. Dr. Sylvester Birdsell, Camden County. 
1850. Dr. .lacob Grigg, Camden County. 

Anotiier amendment was enacted by the 
Legislature in 1854, which permitted a grad- 
uate of any medical college to practice medi- 
cine in the State by merely filing his diplo- 
ma in the clerk's office of the county in 
which he located. Upon the passage of this 
law the Camden County Society required, as an 
eligibility to meud)ership, that the applicant 
should procure a diploma from the State So- 



ciety. This rule continued in force 
1860, the centennial aniversary of th€ 
society, which had the year previous i- 
dered its old charter and obtained a nc 
which relinquished all powers of lice 
Since then and up to the pre.senf tin; 
physician, a resident in the county ow 
may apply for membership in the C 
County Medical Society. His applica 
referred to the board of censors, who 
at the next meeting. If he is found 
of good moral character and posses.s 
professional qualifications required 1 
American Medical Association, he is i 
mended for election. 

The constitution of the society pn 
that the officers should be elected am 
It was intended to re-elect yearly thos 
were first placed in office. Dr. Kislt 
continued as president until a special 
ing in 1849, when his office was declar 
cant in consequence of a tardiness in s 
his financial accounts with the society 
though these were afterwards .satisfii 
adjusted, he withdrew from it, and I)r 
S. Mulford was elected to fill the vi 
Dr. O. H. Taylor, who was the first 
president, and Dr. R. M. Cooper, tl 
secretary, were continued until 1850 
Jacob P. Thornton was tlie first tri 
l)ut he does not a[)pear to have attenc 
meetings regularly, and in 1848 Dr. ( 
was elected to fill his place. At the n 
held in June, 1850, Dr. Bowman V 
moved that the president and vice-pr 
be eligible for election for only two y( 
.succession and the by-laws were so am 
In June, 1854, the words "two (2) y 
succession " were erased and " one 
substituted. This was done to open 
fices to new and younger members ; 
quently, since that date these two < 
have held their position for one year, 
that has proved to be satisfactory ai 
continues. Dr. Cooper, the first se 
and treasurer, held these offices unti 



rj^^-'j^mT 



24S 



HISTOKY OF CAMDKN COIJNTV, SKW JERSEY. 



when he wa.s succeeded by Dr. Thomas F. 
Culleu, who occupied them for two years ; 
then Dr. Richard C. Dean filled them from 
1855 to 1857 ; Dr. John V. Schenck, in 1858 ; 
and Dr. Henry Ackley from the latter date 
until 1861. At this time the society had be- 
come a permanent institution. It had never 
failed to hold a meeting at the appointed 
time. \'aluable medical and historical pa- 
pers were accumulating and the want of a 
suitable person who would permanently take 
care of them was keeidy felt. It was there- 
fore determined that while under the consti- 
tution the secretary must be elected annually, 
it would be well to re-elect him so long as 
he should satisfactorily perform his duties 
and would accept the office. Dr. H. Genet 
Taylor, a young graduate in medicine, who 
had joined the society the year previous, was 
elected, and has been continuously re-elected, 
faithfully performing the duties of his office 
for twenty-five years up to the present time. 
During the Civil War he was absent serving 
his country as surgeon in the Army of the 
Potomac in the years 1862 and 1863, and in 
1865 he was president of the society, when 
his duties were performed by a secretary pro 
tempore. Dr. Taylor was treasurer as well 
as secretary until 1874, when the two offices 
were separated and Dr. Isaac B. Mulforil 
was made treasurer. This he held until his 
death, in 1882, when Dr. Alexander Mecray, 
the present incumbent, was elected to fill the 
vacancy. 

In a few years after the formation ol' the 
society there arose a need of collecting each 
year the medical history of the people and 
the hygienic condition of the county. At a 
meeting held June 18, 1852, Dr. Edward J. 
Record made a motion that a committee of 
three be appointed " to report of the diseases 
incident in the county and also interesting 
cases that may come under their notice." 
The committee were Drs. O. H. Taylor, A. 
D. Woodruff and E. J. Record. At the 
next meeting, in 1853, the name of " Stand- 



ing Committee" was given to it and each 
member was requested to transmit to the 
chairman of it any interesting cases occurring 
in his practice. Dr. O. H. Taylor was its 
first chairman. The members of this com- 
mittee were frequently changed, its number 
remaining the same until 1875, wiien it 
was increased to five members. In 1878 
Dr. John W. Snowden was elected chair- 
man and has been continued until now. 

The Camden County Medical Society is 
entitled to representiition in the State Society 
by delegates to the number of three at large, 
and one additional for every ten members. 
It also sends delegates to the American Med- 
ical Association and to the neighboring dis- 
trict societies in this State. 

One of the most interesting proceedings ot 
the early days of the society was the ordering, 
in 1851, of an enumeration of all the physi- 
cians practicing in the county. The com- 
mittee appointed for that pur))ose reported at 
the meeting held June 15, 1852, that the 
total number was twenty-seven. Of these, 
one was a botanical, or herb doctor, who was 
not entitled to, nor did he claim, the privi- 
leges of an educated physician. Two were 
homteopaths, one of whom was a graduate of 
a regular college, and was a licentiate under 
the law of 1851. The remaining twenty- 
four were graduates of accepted medical col- 
leges, twenty-two of them holding licenses 
from the State Society, altliough five had ne- 
glected to register their names in the clerk's 
office, in accordance with the provisions of 
the new law. The names of all these doctors 
have not been preserved. In the year 1872 
another census of the county was taken by 
direction of the society. A report made to 
it at the annual meeting held on the 14th of 
May, in that year, stated that the total num- 
ber of practicing ])hysicians was fifty-three. 
Of this number, thirty-three were " regular 
graduates, practicing as such, one regular, 
but practicing homceopathy at times." There 
\yere thirteen professed homtjeopaths and five 



A HISTORY OF .MEDICINE AND MEDICAIi MEN. 



24!) 



eclectics. The regular j)liy.sieian.s were lo- 
cated as follows: Tvveiity-oue in Camden 
City, four in Haddonfield, three in I>laek- 
wood, three in Gloucester City, one near 
Waterford and cue in Berlin. 

The Camden County Medieal Society has 
always taken an active interest in sucli jnih- 
lic affairs as legitimately came within its 
pi'oviuce, and were calculated to be of l)enc- 
tit to the county or State, and has never 
failed to throw its influence in hehalf of 
whatever might conduce to the |iul)lic wel- 
tlirc. As early as 185-t Dr. John W. Snow- 
den introduced into the society a resolution 
" that the delegates of this society are hereby 
instructed to suggest at the next meeting of 
the State Society the propriety of an appli- 
cation to the next Legislature for such mod- 
ification of the present law as shall enforce 
the registration of all the marriages, births 
and deaths occurring in the State." Tliis 
measure has since that time Ijeen acted upon 
bv the Legislature of New Jersey, and nn 
efficient system of recording these data is now 
in o[)eratiou. 

The next public event that aroused the 
society was the breaking out of the great 
Rebellion in 1861, and the calling for troops 
by the government. To this call the response 
was prompt. Uf the eighteen physicians 
whose names were registered on the roll of 
its members at the close of the Civil War, five 
had enlisted in the service of their country : 
Doctors Richard C. Dean and Henry Ackley 
had entered the navy, Doctors IL (Jenet 
Taylor and Bowman Hendry in the army, 
and Dr. John R. Stevenson, in the Provost 
Marshal General's Department, all as sur- 
geons. The two in the navy were still on 
its rolls, having engaged for a life-service. 
The three who had been in the volunteer 
service all had honorable discharges. 

The society keeps a careful guardianship over 
its county interests. It having been reported, 
in 1879, that the Board of Chosen Freehold- 
ers had inadvertently appointed an incompe- 



tent man as resident physician of the County 
Insane Asylum, at a meeting held May 12th, 
of that year, Dr. James M. Ridge " moved 
the appointment of a committee to report 
what action is, in their opinion, advisable for 
this society to take in reference to the ap- 
])ointment." Doctors James M. Ridge, 
Alexander Marcy, N. B. Jennings, I). Beu- 
jauiin, E. B. Woolston, D. l*. Rancoast and 
H. Genet Taylor were appointed. At the 
next meeting of the society, held November 
11th, of that year, the committee reported 
that they had held a meeting upon June 4th, 
and had appointed a sub-committee, consist- 
ing (jf Doctors D. Benjamin and ( ). B. Gross, 
to attend the meeting of the committee of the 
Board of Freeholders at Blackwood, and 
that the latter had superseded the late medi- 
cal incumbent, and had appointed Dr. Jona 
J. Comfort, a former member of the society, 
as resident physician of the Insane Asylum. 
It also recommended that a number of jiln- 
sicians, members of the society, be appointeil 
to visit the asylum, in order that it might be 
more properly under their inspection. A 
vote of thanks was tendered to Director Isaac 
Nicholson, of the Board of Freeholders, and 
to the members connected with him, for their 
assistance in procuring the desired change. 
Dr. Henry E. Branin, of Blackwood, at 
present has charge of the County Asylum 
and Almshouse. 

A notable feature of the meetings of the 
C'amden County Medical Society is the social 
gathering which accompanies them. The 
hour of assembling was, at one time, twelve 
o'clock, noon, l)ut now it is eleven a.m. After 
the business is disposed of, a collation is par- 
taken of, at the expense of the society. It 
is the custom to Invite to these a number of 
distinguished physicians from other places, 
who have previously joined in the discussions 
upon .scientific and medical subjects, and have 
given the members thebeuefit of their knowl- 
edge and experience. The meetings have 
always been held at hotels, where suitable ae- 



250 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



conimodations could bo obtained. As was 
previously stated, the first two were held at 
the house of Joseph C. Shivers, in Haddon- 
field. The next meeting was held at the 
hotel of Israel English, at the foot of Coop- 
er Street, aud when Mr. English became the 
landlord of the West Jersey Hotel, the so- 
ciety followed him to it. Between 1855 and 
1857, inclusive, they were transferred to the 
hotel of James Elwell, at the foot of Bridge 
Avenue. This building has been demolished, 
and the site is no\\' ()ccuj)ied by the otlices of 
the Peiuisylvania Railroad CVunpany. The 
annual meeting of June 21, 185!(, was held 
at the hotel at Ellisburg, then kept by Stacy 
Stockton. Iteturning to the West Jersey 
Hotel, this continued to be the favorite place 
uutil the retirement of Mr. ICnglish as ho.st. 
Mr. Samuel Archer, who then kept the old 
house at Cooper's Point, having offered to 
provide a suitable entertainment, and the 
Camden and Atlantic Railroad Company 
proffering the use of their rooms adjoining, 
for meeting purposes, the society met there 
from 1873 to 1880. Since then the meetings 
have been held three times at Gloucester 
(Buena Vista House and Thompson's Ho- 
tel), but otherwise at the West Jersey 
Hotel. 

The expenses incuri'ed by the society were 
met by an as.sessment upon each member for 
a pro-rata share of them, until the death of 
Dr. E. M. Cooper, in 1874. In his will, 
which was dated .-^pril 28, 1874, and j)n)- 
bated June 4th, of the same year, was the 
following clause, " I give and bequeath to 
the Camden County District Medical Society, 
of which I have been a member since its 
commencement, the sum of three thou.sand 
dollars, to be invested by the said Society in 
the loans of the United States, the State of 
New Jersey, or the City and County of Cam- 
den or some other public loan, and the in- 
terest of said sum to be used by the said So- 
ciety in the payment of the expenses ordina- 
rily incurred by the said Society. In case 



my executors should think proper to pay 
said legacy in any securities belonging to my 
estate, bearing interest at their market value, 
I do authorize and direct them to pay said 
legacy in such securities instead of cash." 
To accept of this legacy, the society, at a 
meeting held May 10, 1875, determined to 
appoint two trustees, one for one year and 
one for two years, who, with the treasurer, 
should constitute a board of finance. These 
were elected the succeeding year, and were 
Dr. John V. Schenck for two years. Dr. 
Thomas F. Cullen for one year, and Dr. 
Isaac B. Mulford, treasurer. Dr. Cooper's 
executors set aside three one thousand dollar 
seven per cent, bonds of the West Jersey 
Railroad Company, which were left with, 
and are still in the possession of John W. 
Wright, who is one of them, who pays the 
interest as it becomes (hie. 

The New Jersey State Medical Society has 
three times met as the guests of the Camden 
County Society. The first time in 1 849, when 
the semi-annual meeting of the former society 
convened at Elwell's Hotel, on November 
13th of that year. The annual meeting, in 
January, 1864, was held in Camden, at Mor- 
gan's Hall, on the corner of Fourth and Mar- 
ket Streets, 'f he reception committee were 
Drs. R. M. Cooper, T. F. Cullen, J. V. 
Schenck, O. H. Taylor and A. D. Woodruff. 
They found great difficulty in finding hiitel 
accommodations for members, some of whom 
had to go to Philadelphia to secure them. 
The expenses incurred by the committee were 
paid by Dr. R. M. Cooper out of his private 
funds. 

In the year 1874 Atlantic City had become 
a favorite seaside resort, with several hotels 
each large enough to accommodate the whole 
State Society. There being no medical soci- 
ety in Atlantic County, it was determined by 
the Camden County Society to invite the 
first-named society to hold their next annual 
meeting there. A committee, consisting of 
Drs. J. W. Snovvden, J. V. Schenck, J. Or- 



A HISTORY OP MEDICINE AND MEDICAL MEN. 



251 



lancio White, I. B. Heulings, J. R. Stevenson 
and T. F. Cullen, was ap[)ointe(l to make 
preparations. The meeting was held May 
25, 1875. It was memorable for .several rea- 
sons. It was tile first time a county society 
had ever selected a place outside of its own 
jurisdiction to entertain its parent society. 
The Camden and Atlantic Railroad (.'oiupany 
provided, free of expense, a special train to 
convey delegates and invited guests both ways, 
issuing tickets good for three days, on any 
train. 

As tiir as is known, this was the first 
instance in the United States where a railroad 
had offered such a courtesy to any body of 
raedical men. For several years a few of the 
members had been accompanied by their 
wives and daughters to these meetings of the 
State Society, which hold for two days. As 
the families of physicians enjoy but few op- 



]M)rtunities to join them in a linlid;iy excur- 
sion, it was tietermined hv I he r niittce to 

offer the greatest inducements fur the ladies 
to accompany the delegates to Atlantic Citv. 
Invitations were issued for them to attend 
and to partake of a ban(|uet, which the Cam- 
den County Society had ordered for the eve- 
ning, and the minutest details of thi^ shortest 
route to Camden and thence to the seaside 
were furnished them. The attendance, es- 
pecially of ladies, was larger than it had ever 
been at any j)revious meeting. The State 
Society, however, passed a resolution iirohil)- 
iting any cf)nnty society from jjroviding any 
banquet in the future, becau.se of the burden 
it would entail on poorer societies. ^Plie cit- 
izens of Atlantic City did all in their [lower 
to give pleasure to their guests. 

Members of the Camden Comity Medical 
Society since its organization, — 



Date of 
H<liiii»^ion. 


Name. 


Year of 
graduation. 


Colfege where graduated. 


Reniarlts. 


1846 




1828 
1839 
1844 
1832 
1825 
1822 
1844 
1846 
1847 
1828 
1847 
1848 
1844 
1848 
1849 
1843 
1844 
1848 
1843 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1856 
1854 
1858 
1860 
1858 
1862 
1863 
1861 
1845 
1852 
1859 


University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

Jetierson Medical College 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

Universitv of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 

Jetferson Jledical College 

Jetferson Medical College 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Penn.sylvania 

Jefferson Jledical College 

University of Pennsylvania 




1846 




Died Mav 24 1874 


1846 ■ 




Died Nov 21), 1866. 


1846 


Cliarles I). Hen<lrv 


Died April 29, 1869. 
Died Sept. 5, 1869. 
Died Feb. 17 1873. - 


1846 


Othniel H. Tavlor 


^184(i 




1847 


A. D. Woodruff. 


Died Jan. 1881. 


1847 




Died June 8, 1868. 


1847 


Daniel M. iStout 




1847 
1848 


Benj. W. Blackwood 


Died Jan. 19, 1866. 
Died July 25, 1882. 
Expelled. 


1848 




1849 




1849 


John J. Jessup 

Robt. M. Smallwood 


Died 1852. 


1849 
1850 


University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 

Jetferson Me.lieal College 

Jefferson Medical College 

University of Pennsylvania 

Jetierson Medical College 

Jefferson Medical College 

Pennsylvania Medical College ... 

Jefferson Medical College 

University of Penn.sylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Penn.sylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 


Died Feb. 8, 1856. 


1850 


Thos. F. Cullen 


Died Nov. 21, 1878. 


1850 




Died Mav 2it, 1883. 


1851 




Removed West. 


1852 






1854 




Expelled. 
Honorary member. 
Died April 17, 1885. 
Died Aug. 17, 1858. 
Died Dee. 1, 1865. 


1854 




1857 




1857 


W. G. Thomas 


1859 




1860 


H. Cenet Tavlor 


Present memlicr. 


1860 






1863 




Honorary member. 


1863 




1864 




Present member. 


] 8()6 




Honorary member. 


1866 




Present member. 


1866 


Jonathan J. Comfort 


Removed. 



252 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY. NEW JERSEY. 



Date of 
admission. 


Name. 


Year of 
graduation. 


College wliere graduated. 


Remarke. 


1867 




1860 
1864 
1863 
1867 
1866 
1858 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1860 
1861 
1859 
1870 
1871 


University of Pennsylvania 


Died March 12, 1885. 


1867 


H A M. Smith 




1867 


^Alex. M. Mecray 


University of Pennsylvania 




1867 




Died. 


1867 


T. J. Smith 


University of Pennsylvania 


Removed in 1868. 


1867 






1868 
1870 


J. Orlando White 


University of Pennsylvania 


Present member. 
Honorary member. 

D.ed ( )ct. 20, 1884. 
Died .March .'i, 1881. 


1870 
1871 


'Randall W. Morgan 

J. W. McCnlloiigh 

John R. Haney 

D. ParrishPancoast 

R. B.Okie 

Isaac B. Multbrd 


University of Pennsylvania 


1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 


University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 


Present member. 
Present member. 
Removed to Penna. 
Died Nov. 21, 1882. 
Resigned. 
Present member. 


1871 
1871 


W. H. Ireland 


18(57 
1863 

1872 
1873 
1875 
1854 
1875 
1876 
1861 
1850 
1874 
1876 
1876 
1877 


University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 


1872 








1873 


C. H. Shivers 






1875 
1875 
1876 


Maximillian West 

E. B. Woolston 

E. L. B. Godfrey 

W. P. Melcher 

James A. Armstrong 

Thomas G. Rowand 

E. J. Snitfher 

I). W. Blake 

W. A. Davis 


Universiiy of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 


Rem. to .Atlantic City. 
Present member. 


1876 
1876 
1876 


University of Penn.sylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 


Rem. to Burlington Co. 
Died Oct. .30, 1885. 


1876 






1876 ■ 






1877 
1877 


University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 


Present member. 


1877 


John S. Miller 




1878 


J. F.Walsh 


1876 
1844 
1870 
1878 
1878 
1866 
1879 
1879 
1872 
1870 
1881 
1863 
1882 
1882 
1876 
1877 
1880 
1880 
1884 
1878 


University of Pennsylvania 




1878 


S. B. Irwin 

W. H.Iszard 




1879 






1879 


University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 


Present member. 


1879 
1880 
1881 


Jarae.s H. Wroth 

J. W. Donges 

C. M. Schellinger 

H. H. Davis 

C. G. Garrison 

W. A. Hamilton 


Rem. to New Mexico. 
Present member. 


1881 






1881 
1882 


University of Pennsylvania 


Honorary member. 


1883 


H. F Palm 


JelbT-on Mrdi.-al C.illege 




1883 


E. P. Townsend 

Conrad G. Hoel! 

A. T. Dobson, Jr 

P. W. BeaJe 


JeHerson Medical College 




1884 
1884 
1884 


University of I'enn.sylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 


Present member. 
Present member. 


1885 






1885 
1885 
1886 


Joseph H. Wills 

Wm. Warnock 


University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 

Jefferson Medical College 


Present member. 
Present member. 


1886 


James A. Wamsley 


Present member. 



.laities V. Risley, 1840-47. 
Isaac S. Milford, 1848-61. 
f'harles D. Hendry, 18.52-.5r!. 
A. Dickinsoti WoodrulT. 1S.'.-I. 
■lohn W. Suowdun, ISS.")-?:.. 
Othoicl II. Taylor, 18.56. 
ThomaB K. Cullen, 18.57. 
Sylvester Birdsell, 1858. 
.lohu V. Schcilck, I85!1-7:i. 
Hownian Hendry, 18)10. 
Napoleon It. Jennings, 18i;l. 
Heurv E. Braiiin, lS(i2. 



COrNTV MEllICAT, SOCIETY. 

.lames M. Ridge, 18C7. 
.Touathan J. Comfort, 1SI>8. 
.MexanderM. -Mecray, 18(KI. 
.1. Orlando White, 18711. 
Richard M. Cooper, 1S71-71. 
Isaac \V. Heulings, 1872. 
Edwin 'ronilinson, 1877. 
It. A, M. Smith, 1878. 
D. Parish Paneoaat, 187i». 
C. H. Shivers, 1880. 
Isaac U. Mulford, 1881. 
K. I,. H. Codfroy, 1882. 



J. Gilbert Young, 1S63. .lohn R. Haney, 1883. 

.Tohn K. Stevenson, WCA. Dowling Benjamin, 1884. 

H. Cenct Taylor, lsi;,5. E. B. Woolslon, 188.5. 

Ale.xaMder Marey. 18i;il-7(i. W.H.Ireland, lS8f.. 

DisKASKi? .\Ni) TiiKiit Rkmi'.diks. — There 
is hut little iiiforiuation concerning thediseases 
that prevailed in Camden C\)iinty prior to 
tlie formation of its Medie.il Society. The 
limited number of" physicians who prai'ticcd 
in it between 1730 and 1846 had but little 



A HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND MEDICAL MEN. 



253 



time to write any account of their observa- 
tiousand experience, and still less opportunity 
to publish them. It is, therefore, from 
traditions that have been well preserved in 
this section, compared with the accounts of 
diseases and epidemics in t)ther parts of this 
and adjacent colonies, that a knowledge of 
them can be best obtained. 

Tliere is a widespread belief that the 
climate of this section has changed, and that 
diseases now are very different from what 
they were in early times. A hundred years 
ago the old were wont to lament the change 
and deterioration of the seasons, since the 
days of their youth, in the same strain as their 
descendants do now. A careful examination 
of weather notes shows that there has been 
no climatic variation since the early settle- 
ment of the county. There were then, as 
now, cycles of hot and dry summers, alter- 
natiug with cool and moist ones ; cold, bleak 
winters witli warm and wet ones. There was 
the chilly spring and the mild autumn. With 
the exception of a few maladies, like cholera, 
that have been imported from countries with 
which, in former times, there was only in- 
frequent and slow communication, there is 
no evidence that there are any diseases now 
that did not occur in early days. Their 
sym[)toms and courses have been greatly 
modified by a change in the habits and cus- 
toms of the people, and by improved medi- 
cation and sanitation. 

In colonial times the houses were nearly 
all built of wood, a few were log, but most 
of tiiem were constructed of rough sawed 
boards, with board partitions, and without 
jilastcr. There were no carpets on the Hoor. 
Tlie only mode of heating them was by a 
wood fire in an open fire-place, by which the 
family sat in the Arctic cold of winter, one 
side of the body alternately chilled and 
warmed as it was turned to or from the 
blazing logs. Their clothing was of home- 
spun wool ; only on ceremonial displays did 
the well-to-do wear linen or silk shirts or 
32 



stockings. Underclothing was not worn 
until the present century, even after cottt)n 
cloth had been substituted for woolen stuff's. 
Overcoats were a rare luxury, but a few of 
the wealthier men possessed them. Bangups 
they were called, made of good imported 
clotii ; they were reserved for state occasions ; 
they were expected to last a life-time, and 
sometimes descended as an heirloom to the 
son. Rubber over-shoes and clothing were 
never dreamed of until within the present 
generation. Tlie only mode of traveling was 
in the open boat or on horseback exposed to 
the weather. 

Their diet did not compare any more 
favorably with that of modern times than 
did their clothing. Vegetables were plentiful 
in the summer, but there was no method of 
preserving the perishable ones through tiie 
other nine months of the year. Their bread 
was made from rye, wheat having come into 
general use only within the last fifty years. 
The staple meats were salt pork and ham. 
In the earlier period of the settlement this 
was relieved by game, but as the country 
filled up, it became scarce and had a mercan- 
tile price ; then it was sold. Mutton was but 
little eaten. Prior to the Revolution sheep 
were so valuable that in old wills bequests 
are left to daughters of a' ewe-lamb and 
feather-bed in lieu of any real estate. After 
the embargo laid upon wool during the war 
it became unpatriotic and disreputable to eat 
mutton, and this sentiment continued to pro- 
hibit its use long after the reason for it had 
been forgotten. It was only in the winter 
that they had fresh meat. When they wanted 
beef they fatted the oldest and most worthless 
cow on the farm, and when cold weather set 
in they killed it, and after the meat had beeu 
cooked to the indigestibility of leather, tliey 
ate it three times a day until putrefaction 
commenced. It is not surprising (hat ix>ef 
was not considered a wholesome food. One 
suj)erlative article of food they possessed in 
abundance, whose value as a substitute for 



254 



HISTOBY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



anv deficieucy in a diet is UDsurpassed, but 
wliieh has not been ap}3reciated by either 
tiie medical profession or the laity, until 
recently. That was milk. This was not a 
salable commodity, and that is, perhaps, the 
reason why it was considered to be a plebeian 
drink. The dividing line between gentility 
and common people %vas milk. To have 
offered an invited gue.st at the table 
a glass of it would have been an un- 
jiardonable offence. The family, including 
the children, at the first table had their tea 
and coffee ; the bound boy at the second table 
had an unstinted supply of milk. The result 
was that a quarter of a century afterwards 
the bound boy owned the farm. 

Alcoiiolic drinks were freely u.sed. Apple- 
whiskey was in every one's house. Imported 
wines and brandies purchased by the wealthier 
people were reserved for special occasions. It 
was customary to take a drink of spirits be- 
fore breakfast to counteract the deleterious 
effects of fog and dampness. Ifaneighl)or 
was visited, or the visit returned, the de- 
canter was set out as a mark of hospitality. 
It was not believed that any excessive labor, 
like haying and harvesting, could be done 
without it. The jug was taken to the mea- 
dow or field along with the water-bucket, and 
when the men had cut a number of swaths 
across the grass or grain, a halt was made to 
take a draught of the liquor. At social 
gatherings, at weddings, at funerals, and even 
at cliild-birtlis the flowing bowl was passed 
around. 

The contrast between these early habits 
and customs and those of to-day is most 
marked. Without enumerating them, it will 
suffice to state that a temperance man in the 
eighteenth century was one who never got 
intoxicated ; now he is a total abstainer from 
alcoholic beverages. Now the well-filled de- 
canter is not only ke[)t out of sight, but it is 
banished from the house. One townsiiip in 
this county has for fifteen years prohibited 
the sale of liquor within its limits. 



As might be expected, inflammatory dis- 
eases were formerly very frequent, and their 
.symptoms violent. Pleurisy, bronchitis, 
pneumonia and rheumatism prevailed exten- 
sively, especially in years in which the 
thermometric changes favored their develop- 
ment. They were much oftener fatal than 
they are now. Cholera-morbus, dysentery 
and diarrhrea, which are rarely fatal now, 
then caused the death of many. Scarlet 
fever, measles and whooping-cough, which 
are the bane of childhood, exhibited the same 
infantile violence as the di.seases of adult life. 
Sickness, especially epidemics, as far back as 
1726, are noted as having been sthenic or 
asthenic, but there is no record of that 
popular word typhoid, as applied to depressed 
forms of illness, having been used in this 
county until 1855, when Dr. T. F. CuUen 
reported that malarious diseases had that year 
assumed a typhoid form. These facts would 
indicate that the changes in the mode of liv- 
ing of the people, wliich had been gradually 
improving up to the discovery of gold in 
California in 1848, and very rapidly since 
then, had produceil a moiety of people of 
weak constitution, wlio, under the surround- 
ings of earlier days, invariably died young. 

Intermittent and remittent fevers were 
common on the Delaware slope of the county. 
In 1798 there is a record that they were 
prevalent on the high ground, while yellow 
bilious fever attacked tho.se along the river- 
.shore. In 1823 Dr. Charles F. Clarke, of 
Woodbury, in his notes, says that bilious 
fevers were epidemic, and so numerous were 
the cases, that as he rode along at night, 
farmers would keep a light burning as a 
signal for him that there was sickne.ss in the 
house. The reports made to the Camden 
County Medical Society state that malarial 
fevers prevailed along the streams in 1848. 
After this little is said about them until 1856, 
when they again became frequent, and con- 
tinued to increase until 18G2, when they were 
declared to be epidemic. Then they began 



A HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND MEDICAL MEN. 



255 



to decline, until in 1867, and for five years 
;i fterwards, they had so diminished that the 
physicians congratulated themselves that these 
diseases were finally disappearing. In 1873 
they reapi^eared, steadily increasing in num- 
her and severity until 1877, when they were 
again pronounced to be epidemic ; since then 
they have been declining, and at present 
(1880) are quite infrequent. Professor Kalni, 
reporting to the Swedish government in 1748, 
concerning Gloucester (Camden included) 
County, says fevers and agues were more 
common than any other disease. In some 
years they ravaged the whole county, in 
(itliers " scarcely a single person was taken 
ill." 

At the time that Kalm wrote, the Atlantic 
.«lope of the county, called the " Pines," was 
not inhabited, except by a few wood-chop- 
jiers. From the earliest times this section 
has been popularly credited with great ex- 
emption from pulmonary and miasmatic dis- 
eases. More recently Dr. John W. Snowden, 
who has practiced medicine in that section 
for foi'ty years, and who is the able chairman 
*>{ the Standing Committee and reporter of 
tlie Camden County Medical Society, states 
that he never saw a case of intermittent or 
remittent fever originate there. He also 
i'onfirms its reputation for freedom from pul- 
monary aifections. 

Typhoid fever was not known as a distinct 
disease until it was investigated and de- 
scribed by Louis, a French physician, in the 
early part of the present century. There is 
no doubt but that cases of it occurred here so 
.soon as the concretions from filth were suffi- 
cient to form a nidus for its growth. The 
milder forms of it were classed with obsti- 
nate remittent fever, and helped to swell its 
mortality list. In the tradition that has 
come down to us of the dreaded and fatal 
nervous fever, as it was called, may be found 
a description of a severe case of tyjjhoid fever 
where the cerebral symptoms were promi- 
nent. In the reports of the medical society 



this disease is noted as occurring more or less 
throughout the county every year, although 
in some seasons it is more freijuent than iu 
others, especially in Camden. Haddonfield 
seems to have had great immunity from it, 
as there is no record of any case happening 
there that, was not contracted elsewhere. 

Typhus fever has been an infrequent dis- 
ease during the history of the county. 
There was an epidemic of it in Camden in 
1812, in which a number lost their lives, but 
otherwise that city has been remarkably free 
from it. Dr. Bowman Hendry had some 
cases of it adjacent to the almshouse at 
Blackwood. At this institution it is occa- 
sionally introduced by vagrants, and in 1881 
it became epidemic, there having been one 
hundred and three cases and thirty-three 
deaths from it. Dr. McCullough, one of 
the attending physicians, fell a victim to the 
disease. 

Tiie proximity of Camden County to the 
port of I'liiladelphia has made it liable to be 
invaded by yellow fever. There is no record 
of its having become located within the 
county limits, although the lower end of 
(xloucester County, from which it was set off, 
has been charged with having reproduced it 
along the river-shore in 1747 and 1798. 
There were epidemics of yellow fever in 
Philadelphia in 1762; between the years 
1793 and 1798 ; between 1802 and 1805 ; and 
in the years 1819 and 1820. At these peri- 
ods there were isolated cases contracted by 
visits to infected districts of that city. Dur- 
ing the epidemic of 1853 there does not ap- 
pear to have been any deaths from it in 
Camden County. In 1854 there was one 
case of yellow fever in Camden in the person 
of a sailor who, two days previous to his 
attack, had landed from a steamer sixty hours 
from Savannah, Ga. 

The insidious and obscure diseases of the 
kidneys observed and described by Dr. 
Bright, of England, in 1828, and after whom 
they are named, were not diagnosed by phy- 



256 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



sicians until chemistry and microscopy liad 
advanced to such a state of progress as to 
offer the only means of detecting them. The 
first application of these sciences in Camden 
County for this purpose was made by a mem- 
ber of its Medical Society in 1865. Since 
that date Bright's disease is known to be the 
cause of a limited number of deaths here an- 
nually. Fatal results from some formerly 
obscure cases of dropsy are now known to be 
caused by this disease. There are some fam- 
ilies ^vho have noticed that for two or three 
generations a number of their members have 
died of dropsy. Some of these deaths within 
the last twenty years have been the sequelae 
of Bright's disease. The inference is, there- 
fore, that the dropsy of former generations 
was produced by the same cause, and that, 
to a limited extent, Bright's disease is heredi- 
tary. 

In 1735-36 a terrible epidemic swept over 
the colonies, called the " throat distemper." 
In the accounts of it that have come down to 
us, and in the traditions of a not infrequent 
disease called, in this county, " putrid sore 
throat," may be discerned the modern diph- 
theria. Under tiie latter name the malady 
is but little mentioned in the records of the 
Medical Society until 1862, when Dr. Cullen 
reported that it had been seen occasionally 
during the year, but that he did not believe 
that it had ever been epidemic in Camden 
City. Since that date it has appeared more 
or less every year throughout the county, but 
not to any great extent. 

Small pox was a much dreaded disease iu 
colonial times. The introduction of inocula- 
tion here, about 1750, robbed it of some of 
its terrors, and the discovery of vaccination, 
by Jenner, at the close of the last centur}-, 
made it still more harmless. Yet it still 
lingers, and at times becomes epidemic. The 
Camden County Medical Society reported it 
to be so in Camden City in 1856, 1864, 1871 
and 1880. In the latter year there were six 
hundred and eighty-eight cases and one 



hundred and thirty-four deaths from it. The 
number of gratuitous vaccinations made to 
check the disease was about eight thousand. 

Asiatic cholera is an imported disease in- 
digenous to Southern Asia. Its first appear- 
ance in Camden County was in 1832. The 
accounts of its ravages then are verv meagre. 
Dr. Isaac S. Mulford, writing in 1855, says 
that it was not so violent as were the subse- 
quent epidemics of 1849 and 1854, all of 
which he witnessed. He also says that in the 
first-named year it possessed a sthenic char- 
acter. Among the papers of the late Dr. 
Charles F. Clarke, of Woodburv, is one 
stating that the people were greatly afraid of 
it, believing it to be contagious, and that he 
had helped to bury the bodies of the dead, 
which the people in their terror had thrown 
upon the river-shore. 

Its second appearance was in 1849, the 
first case occurring in Camden in the middle, 
of June. At that time the city had a popu- 
lation of nine thousand people, many of 
whom fled ; yet between its advent and the 
commencement of cold weather, when it 
ceased, there were one hundred and nineteen 
cases and fifty deaths. In Winslow there 
were a number of deaths from cholera, but 
no account of them has been preserved. 
There were also a few isolated cases in the 
other townships. Camden was next visited 
by this disease in 1854, when the first person 
attacked died from it on June 25th. It did 
not assume an epidemic form until October, 
and ceased on November 23d. In this year 
there were ninety-four cases and fifty-seven 
deaths. During its continuance the Camden 
City Medical Society held several special 
meetings to consult about it, and the mem- 
bers exerted themselves to the utmost to 
check its ravages. In Haddoufield there was 
a single case that had been contracted iu 
Camden. The susceptibility of the latter 
city to become a cholera centre, the virulence' 
and the fatality of the scourge there, gave it a 
reputation for unhealthfulness that seriously 



A HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND MEDICAL MEN. 



257 



cliecked its growth, so tlmt between 1849 and 
1866 its population only increased from nine 
thousand to eighteen thousand. 

When it was reported, in 1865, that 
cholera was approaching the United States, 
the Camden City IMedical Society, alert to the 
dangers to be apj)reheuded from another 
visitation, at their stated meeting held Sep- 
tember 7th of that year, appointed Drs. John 
R. Stevenson, Isaac S. Mulford, Alexander 
Marcy and Thomas F. CuUen a committee 
to adopt measures to prevent an anticipated 
invasion of cholera. Their final report states 
that upon inspection they found Camden to 
be as filthy as any city of its size in the 
Union. The drainage was superficial and 
imperfect ; garbage and coal ashes were 
thrown into the streets, but few of which 
were paved ; the cesspools, shallow in depth, 
were in many places overflowing upon the 
ground, and pig sties had been allowed to be 
erected in the yards of the poorer classes. 
The committee consulted with the City 
Council, who courteously received their sug- 
gestions, and through their sanitary commit- 
tee, of which John S. Lee was chairman and 
Colonel Joseph C. Nichols the efficient execu- 
tive officer, put in force the ordinances which 
were plenary. Before the summer of 1866 
they had cleansed the city and abated all 
nuisances. In this year the first case of 
cholera occurred on June 25th, when the 
city authorities, having previously provided 
a stock of disinfectants, as recommended by 
the medical committee, virtually transferred 
the direction of sanitary measures to the 
latter, who investigated each case of the dis- 
ease, and had the premises and clothing of 
the sick promj)tly disinfected. There were 
in this year thirty-nine cases of cholera and 
thirty deaths. It did not become epidemic, 
as it only became located in two places, in 
,both of wdiich it was stamped out within 
thirty-six hours. Just beyond the city limits, 
in Newton township, there were twenty-seven 
cases, and twenty-five deaths in a negro 



hamlet. "With the exception of one at 
Winslow, there were no others in Camden 
County. In the year 1873 there were three 
reported instances of cholera in Camden 
City, and in one person it proved fatal. 

The experience of 1866 in Camden and 
elsewhere demonstrated the power and effi- 
ciency of well-directed sanitary measures in 
preventing the spread of infectious and con- 
tagious diseases, and subsequent observation 
confirmed it. 

In the year 1880 the Legislature of New 
Jersey passed an act creating a State Board 
of Health of nine members, which enact- 
ment provided that every city, town or 
borough shall have a Board of Health of not 
less than five nor more than seven members, 
of which the recorder of vital statistics, one 
city physician and the city health inspector 
shall be members. In each township, the 
township committee, the assessor and town- 
ship physician compose the Board of Health. 
Any city, borough or township which had a 
local Board of Health at the time of the 
passage of this act was exempt from its pro- 
visions. Camden was one of those exempted 
and did not accept the provisions of the 
health law until 1885. During the years 
1884 and 1885, Dr. O. B. Gross acted as 
special inspector of that city for the State 
Board of Health. 

The use of herbs as remedies has already 
been described. Cider, although a beverage, 
may be classed as a medicine. In former 
times it was drank hot at night as a cure for 
colds. The ground Jesuit's bark was mixed 
in it to make the dose more palatable, and it 
had the popular reputation of being "good 
for the liver." Every large fanner had his 
cider-mill, where he made his own cider, and 
which he loaned for the use of his less fortu- 
nate neighbors. Scattered at convenient 
points throughout the district were farmers 
who added a still to their cider-mill, and who 
distilled the cider of their friends into apple 
whiskey on shares. At the present time there 



2J8 



HISTORY OF CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 



are only a few cider-presses, and but two 
whiskey stills in the county. One still is 
owned by Joshua Peacock, near Haddonfield ; 
the other by Hugh Sharp, adjacent toMarlton. 
An early industry was the distillation of the 
essential oils of sassafras, pennyroyal, horse- 
mint, winter-green, spearmint, etc., from 
indigenous plants that were once very abun- 
dant. Their product was sold locally for 
use as liniments and rubefacients, and the 
surplus sent to the Philadelphia market. 
These oil-stills gradually fell into the hands 
of the negroes. Between 1840 and 1850 
oue was operated in Jordantowu by a colored 
man, Stephen Polk, and by his sou Elzey. 
The last one in the county was owned by a 
colored man styled ''Dr. Thomas," residing 
near Marlton. This was abandoned about 
twenty years ago. 

About the year 1822, Nathan Willets be- 
gan the cultivation of the castor beau on the 
farm where he resided, on the Haddonfield 
and Clements Bridge road, two miles from 
Haddonfield. He also prepared the oil for 
market. He continued the business for 
some twenty years. 

Until the beginning of the present century 
physicians made their visits on horseback 
with a saddle-bag attached to it, in which 
were carried their medicines and the few in- 
struments they used. They prepared their 
own pills and potions. Among their prep- 
arations were those of mercury, a very an- 
cient remedy, which had been always in mod- 
erate use. Calomel came into repute in 
1736 as au application for the throat dis- 
temper, but mercurials were not pushed to 
salivation until within the present century. 
This mode of medication continued up to 
1850. Since then mercury has fallen into 
disuse by the medical profession, but wiien 
the great increase in the consumption of offic- 
inal and patent pills, most of which contain 
some compound of this metal, is taken into 
consideration, it is doubtful if any less of it 
is taken by the people now than formerly, 



only the manner of administration has 
changed. 

Venesection began to be employed about 
1750 and became so p