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3 1833 02492 2046 

'Cc SVT.ZOl C23h 
Helm, Thomas B. 
HrsTORv DF- Carroll. C 






Illustrations and Biographical Sketches 


To WHICH IS Appended Maps op its Several. 



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IN the preparation ol matter for a book designed to embrace the essential features of a local history, numerous difficulties are to be met 
and overcome with which the casual reader is whoUj- unfamiliar ; the labor, therefore, is one of no small magnitude, notwithstanding 
its seeming insignificance, when viewed from a home standpoint. In this instance, the chief difficulty in the author s work arises not so 
much from a want of materials as a superabundance of them in a crude state, undigested and unarranged, without adequate time to thor- 
oughly investigate the sources and channels through which the essential details are necessarily obtained. True, much time has been thus 
appropriated with the most satisl'actory results ; yet, in view of the almost inexhaustible resources apparently within reach, the practiced 
investigator, careful in maintaining the integrity of his narrative, will readily conceive the magnitude of the labor to which the situation 
subjects him. To select and combine, modily and remodel, displace and readjust what is deemed to be valuable aud appropriate butother- 
wise illy adapted to the plan contemplated— the exercise of which, in judicious combination, are qualifications seldom found. The Editor 
does not flatter himself that he possesses these qualifications in an eminent degree, beyond an honest determination to be governed by his 
own convictions of duty in the premises. Here, we have facts and incidents almost without number, some every way pertinent to the work 
in hand, except that they are disconnected from the line of narrative proper to be observed in their arrangement. Some branches are pre- 
sented in a state of completeness requiring little change, while others, though full to excess in detail, require the exercise of discreet judg- 
ment and accurate discrimination in their collivtion and blending. In this particular field, many difficulties have interposed to prevent the 
rapid collection of material sought for, of the class conceived to be of essential value to the general reader, and requisite to the complete- 
ness of the work ; hence, the labor has been excessive and of unusual duration, considered with reference to the time ordinarily allotted 
to the preparation of county iiistorics. 

To acquaint tlic naWn wiili ;iii idm of what labor and research have been bestowed in the collection and adjustment of the mate- 
rial embraced in this \oliiiiir ili, i,i11,ih nm inrumplete list of the sources of information consulted to obtain the information sought for. is 
hereto appended : ■ iK. iu> ii Kialili-M ments des Frangais. dans L'Ouest et dans Le Sud dc Amerique Septentrionale," by Pierre 
Margry, the great French Ijistonnn and arch;eologist, to whose indilatiualiK' hibors the unearthing of so much valuable material pertinent 
to the early history of this country is due, the collection embracing lli<" ctlii i:il details of all the early French discoveries and. settlements 
lirior to the incoming of the eighteenth cenUiry. The '-The New ^■(l]k ('uliiiiinl Documents," contained in eleven super royal octavo vol- 
umes — a hmd of iulurmation no where else so readily atlainablr . I ':i i kuinii > La Salle." " Jesuits in America," " Pioneers of France in 
the Ni« \\ ..rid. (lid lUtiiiin- iii ('aiiad:i. :iiid ■ ( '..ii>i,ir:u \ (.1 rniiiwi,- . ■ Cliaiiilieis, and tiic ■• Encyclopiedia Britaunica ;" Sheldon's 
■'HiM..[\ ,,r .MicliiLiaii : Kaiicioii . Ili^i,,i\ ,,!' ilir I mird .<tai,s (('cnlriiiiial edilinii); -Western Annals;" Dillon's, and Tuttle's 
"Hi.sluij i.r lialiai.a . ,<liL-a h ■ liciiiiriMii, .^laah ■ i „■ ( 'Ici r., . I-M al ilii^hiiiciil i.t ihc Faitii ; ' (loldcu's " History of Five Nations ;" School- 
cralt» 'indiansuf Aorlh Auieiica, 'I i >, Indian i;i..-i apliN . ( 'hailexuix "Travels , Drake's " North American Indians ;" Drake's 
" Tecumseh ; " Burnet's "Notes on the ^llHln^('^ll in 'j'{intiii\ . \ iciias "American Conspiracies," "American Archives," and "Ameri- 
can State Papers," and many others ol i;iial lii>t..ric \ alnr ' l'(.>in s ■ Pre-Historic Races ; " Baldwin's " Ancient America ; " McLean's 
"Mound-Builders;" Force's " ric-Ilisimic ,\lan. Imliana ( d.. logical lieports," etc. These, and many others, are the authorities that 
have been brought into rcciui.-ilu.n in ihc |iivparali(in ..I llns v..huue. 

In the collection ol Un- niaiciial nia >irirtl\ I(m al ( haiarlor. we have been assisted b)' the personal narratives of very man}- of the 
oldest and best infornji d ol iln . , 1 1\ -ritl, i> (,i ili.- . .luniN . and by the free use of the records of the •' Carroll County Old Settlers' Soci- 
ety ; " by the suggestion.>j and rLlcri.nnj.s ul otliii>. and li\ llir liea"i'ty co-operation of tlie masses who have been consulted ; in addition, 
also, by the residence, extensive acquaintance and j^i.-.d Vainiliarity of the Editor himself, with the records and leading facts connected 
with the county's history and progress during a [icnod of nioi(_> than forty years. 

Excepting Deer Creek and Tippecanoe Tow n^lli|l^.. Ihr .■olleclion of material and preparation of the historical matter appertaining 
to the several townships of this ( unnl\ havr luin nndri ilir -pnial ciiiitiol (.[' Mr. L. H. Newton, whose connection with this department 
and long experience tljerein is a -.nilira ni Liuai;int\ ol ihr jmn.d armiacN ol uliat has thus been written. Mr. Newton hei'ewith tenders 
his acknowledgments to the indiMduaK nanad m ilio^. Ioh ll^lll|l.N ioi ihr assistance rendered him in securing the information sought for 
aud obtained : In Adams ToNMisiuj,, lo W illiain l,o^ ,. .lana s llanna W . I'.. ( 'ol,le and John M. Cochran ; in Burlington Township, to Dr. 
S. Anderson, Robert Johnson, John T. i.Hinu .lolm .M Cianl. llanison liwinn. Edmund Moss, and others : in Carrolltou Township, to 
Lindsay B. Payton, Mrs. Benjamin Kiikpainrk, s,xi,,on i'ouls i;,.|iiaiiiin S. Huiflsin. and others not remcm In ivd ; in 1 icinocrat Town- 
ship, to Isaac Watson, 'Warren Adani.s. .lolm S, .^lianklin. lion W , il. W raxcr. Buren Wyatt. Isaac T. Tinkle and oiluis ; in Jackson 
Township, to Adam Porter, Dr. F. Li. .Vrmsiiono <:,,iiiirl Linon, |ia\id Wise, Samuel Porter. Jacol. (\ I'laiik. \1. xaiid.a Saunderson, and 
others; in Jeflerson, to 'Williani Delzelk haMd 11 ( a-son, .Vn-on Ikdiaid. Beiioni Gillam. and ollu is in Madi^.n ila liisi,,rv is compiled 
chiefly from information furnished by Fianris Tliomi.son, and is roiialilc ; in Clay Townshi)!. to C II llo|,kiii, Uaa. Ci ip, . .lohn M. Beard, 
and others ; in Monroe, to Abrain Flora ( d.n. a |i ( 'line. Samuel .Mver, Thomas Boss, Moses I'lank, llioinas >liin i, and oiliers ; in Rock 
Creek, to David Williamson, (da,,-,. Knns ikoil, Inin- at Camden, but early settlers of Rock Creek), J . VV. Wharton. Noah Mullen, James 
Woodward, (d,,,-, s,,,,, ,,,„( .ahns m W as|,inM|,,n, Uig main facts of early history were contributed by Moses Standley, William Hardy 

and Hugh llaid\ wlais, niioi ,,,aii. ,, uas ,|iiii, , |,l,te and reliable; also, to T. H. Britton, County Superintendent, Mr. Newton tenders 

his thanks to,' ,..,iirl,'sirs ,\l, nd.d 

. To til,, .-.ainu ,,111, , IS iiidiM,lually and collectively, to Messrs. James B. Scoit. ot tli,. D.^lplii ./..",„„/. A. B. Crampton, of the Del- 
phi Times, esp, , lallN I., In W , lili.a and Henderson Dunkle, for valuable matter perlainin- I,, tl„. liisU.iA ,,rtlie local press, and to citizens 
of Delphi giai, lallN ila IMiio, lia- l.,,n phiro,! under maiiv obligations for encoiirai;, ni,ail. aid an, I assi^ianci'. 

That s ■', I loi :,i ,. i: , , , , ;,|„ d iIm- -ri iiiliu ,.i''i;'\ isi,.ii, Wuir is 11,1 , loll III, y\ III,' l-'.,liior ivl\ Iiil;- ii|inn tin- liest sources of in- 
formation all. ■ diri., ,, :, ,,. I, uii, 1,, |,oiir,iioii of iud-iiiriii ,o,M., laiiii.^ \\liai oiiulii o|. »lia! on-Ill iM.t to bewritten, 

fair critici.sni wd ,1. :: di !,,.,, ii„ 1 , ,,r his Mal.aniaiis, 01 ih,. |ii.miii>-iv oihis jinlmi,, ni 1,1 ihr s,. I, vii,.ii or arrange- 
ment of thcni. Wilh a ,i. -I,, ol -:,iolarli,„, ili. i, Tmiv Ii,'. sill, mils what II,' has uiithai I,, III,' .■aiidiil .■,,lisi,ha;,l ion ,,r Ih,' |illhlic. 

Makcii, IH.SL'. ' T, U, UVA^]. /■:./;i<.r„„J A„t/,..r. 


Preliminary— Inducements to Discovery— Pre-Columbian "S'oy- 
ages by the Scandinavians, Welsh, Normans and Bretons- 
Voyages of Columbus and his Immediate successors, John 
and Sebastian .Cabot, Cortereal and others— Expeditions by 
the Portugese, French and Spaniards— Discovery of the St. 
Lawrence and the Cod Fisheries off Newfoundland- 
French Traders and their Traffic witli the Indians— The 
Fur Trade— Missionary Labors of the French— Occupation 
of Florida by the Spaniards— Incidents— Subsequent Occu- 
pation by the French— Searching for Water Communica- 
tion with the Pacitic— East Indies— China— Discoveries of 
the Mississippi, Ohio, Illinois, Wabash, etc— Incidents. 


CHAPTER I— Introductory Considerations— What of Our Abo- 
rigines and Who were They V— Classification of the Race as 
Determined by the most Experienced Observers of the Past 
—Some of the Distinguished Characteristics of the Divis- 
ion Cited— Peculiarities of Ijanguage and Habits — Intellect- 
uality and Physical Development— The Algonquins, Hurons 
or Huroii-Iroquois,etc 

CHAPTER II— The Miamis— Their Position in the Algonquin 
Family— Their early Occupation of the Territory above the 
Lakes of the North and their Subsequent Migrations at 
Chicago, South and East of Lake Michigan — Some of their 
Physical and Mental Peculiarities, Manners and Customs 
—Their War Experiences and Treaty Relations— Removal 
AVest of the Mississippi River— Situation there. . 

CHAPTER III— Character of their Principal Chiefs on the Wa- 
bash— Little Turtle, Richeville, La Fontaine— Some inter- 
esting Personal Reminiscences in the History of these 
Representatives of the Miami Nation 

CHAPTER FN'- The Pottawatomies-Their Ancestry— Consan- 
guineous Tribes— The Name and its Origin — An Account 
of their Early History, Customs and Habits— Subsequent 
History of their Movements — Warlike Experiences- 
Treaty Relations and Obligations— Final Cession of their 
Land Interests in Indiana and their Renioval West of the 
Mississippi River. ... 

CHAPTER V— Personal Histoi-y of Me-te-a, a noted Chief and 
Warrior of the Pottawatomies— Some of his Peculiarities— 
His Death— In contrast with some of the Characteristics of 
Wau-ban-she or Wau-bun-see— His Ferocious Nature and 

CHAPTER VI— Ouiatenons (Weas)— A Branch of the Miamis 
—Their occupancy of Territory on the Wabash and Princi- 
pal Villages— Account of Fort Ouiatenon and the care 
taken of it— Peculiarities of the People— Treaties with the 
Weas and Cessions of Land obtained from them. 

CHAPTER VII— Kickapoos— Kindred of the Pottawatomies— 
Invited by the Miamis into their Country— Located on the 
Vermillion River— Expedition against them in 179!— De- 
struction of their Towns on the Wabash— At the Treaty of 
Greenville— Subsequent Treaties and Cessions of Territory 
-Their Alliance with Tecumseh— In Council on the Mis- 
sissinewa River— Their Position, etc '■ 

CHAPTF.i; VI It- Sliinvauoes-Theiriiftme with a Brief Account 
111 IImii i iil> II i^tiiry— Migratory in Character — Jefferson's 

ii"li-~ I rilling them— Their Intercourse with other Tribes 

-Chiiili'VMix lui-ntions them-Mr. Gallatin— Their position 
in the Wars between the French and English — Located in 
Georgia, afterward in Ohio— Among the Miamis. 
CHAPTER IX— Tecumseh — His Genealogy — His Birth and 
Early Exploits— Disposition— Superiority Recognized— His 
Scheme for the Confederation of Tribes and Persistence 
in Disseminating his Plans— His location at Tippecanoe— 

His Diplomacy and Address— Death 

CHAPTER X-TheProphet— His Genealogy— Name, and its Sig- 
nificance—His Character and Pretensions— How Derived— 
I His Teachings among the Delawares— His Town— Defeat in 

the Battle of Tippecanoe 

I CHAPTER XI— Capt. Logan— His Early History-The Adopted 
I sou of Capt. Benjamin Logan— The tried friend of the 

Whites— His Military Achievements— His Bravery and 
Fidelity in the Execution of Important Trusts— His Char- 
acter Manifested in the Seige of Fori Wayne— His Death. 
j CHAPTER Xll-Wey-Pier-Sen-W.-ih (Blue Jacket)— His Con- 
j nection with the Dpfenl ,.l Crn. llarinar— Opposition to 

I the Policy of Little Tniilr in Mil,.,.,|iient Campaigns— His 

I Defeat and Chagrin— His ('(induct at the Treaty of Green- 

1 ville— Speech 

CHAPTER XIII— Nicholas' Conspiracy— Origin of the Move- 
ment very Remote— The Jealousies induced by Competition 
in the Fur Trade— Strife between Tribes— Plans of the 
Chief Conspirator— His eminent Skill— Ultimate Failure. 
CHAPTER Xn^— Conspiracy of Pontiac— Another outgrowth 
of the Fur Trade— Opposed to the English— Magnitude 
of tlie Movement— Its Progress— Ruin and Desolation in 
its Wake— Complications Ensuing— Plans of Destruction 
Arranged— Failure in their Execution— Final Abandon- 
ment—Its Consequences 


CHAPTER I— Indian Depredations Committed in the Territory 
of the Northwest— Action of the United States Govern- 
ment Foreshadowed— Military Movements— Defensive Ope- 
rations Commenced— Expedition of Gen. Harmar fitted out 
^Preparations- Defeat of Harmar and its Results. . . 50 

CHAPTER II— St. Clair's Expedition— Movements of Gov. St. 
Clair— Expedition against the Wabash Indians— Line of 
JIarch— Encampment— Defeat and Terrible Slaughter— 
Conseiiuences 51 

CHAPTER III-Gen. .Scott's Expedition-The Expedition organ- 
ized against the Wabash Indian at the Wea Towns— Brig. 
Gen. Charles Scott in Command— His line of March— At- 
tacked and Destroyed the Wea and Kickapoo Towns- 
Prisoners Taken— Success of the Expedition— His speech 
to the Red People on the Wabash— Return to Fort Waah- 
ington ,53 

CHAPTER IV— Wilkin.son's Expedition-Orders for the Expe- 
dition against Old Town— Instructions from the Board 
of War — Expedition leaves Fort Washington — Strength 
of the Force— Line of March— Beached the Wabash and 
moves toward the Village on Eel River— The Village 
Attacked and Destroyed— Subsequent Movements of the 
Commander— Returns to the Falls of Ohio 5.3 


CHAPTER V— AVayne's Expedition— Appointed to tbe Com- 
mand—Preparations fortlie Campaign— Movements of the 
Army — Route toward the Maumee— Battle — Disastrons 
Defeat of the Indians — Correspondence with the Com- 
mandant of the British Fort on tlie Maumee — Result of the 

CHAPTER VI— Fort Wayne Erected- Its after History-Pur- 
pose and Utility 

CHAPTER VII— Battle of Tippecanoe— Preliminary Statement 
—Importance of the Battle in its Results— The Necessity 
of tlie Muve'ment against the Wabash Indians — Prepara- 
tions for the Expedition— Formalicin nf the Army— Its 
Composition and Officers— Tlie March — Encampment — 
Movements of the Prophet Suspioious--The Battle and 
its Details— Severity of tlie Conflict— Defeat of tlie Indians 
—Losses, etc 58 

CHAPTER VIII — Succeeding Expeditions - War Declared 
against Great Britain — Indian Alliance witli the Latter- 
Consequent Hostilities — Murders — Attack on Port Harrison 
— Council at Mississinewa — Pigeon Koost Massacre -De- 
struction of Indian Villages — Siege of Fort Wayne and 
Tecumseh's Connection with It — Termination of the Siege 
—Results 60 

CHAPTER IX— Hopkins' Expedition— Gen. Hopkins Organizes 
a new Military Force to Operate in the Indian Country 
— Movement of the Army from Vincennes to Fort Harri- 
son — Marches from tlie Latter Point toward the Propliet's 
Town — Burns a Kickapoo Village — Keconnoitering Party 
falls into an Ambuscade— Details of the Affair known as 
Spur's Defeat. . . , 64 

CHAPTER X— Mississinewa Expedition— Gov. Ilanisnii's i>lan 
of Operations — Hostilities among the ;\Ii;iiiii^ I'Ainilitidn 
against the Miami Villages on the Missis^imu;! l.iiut. 
Col. Campbell appointed to the Couimand Iticeived 
Marching Orders— Line of March — Destruction of the 
Miami Villages Contemplated— Battle of the Mississinewa 
—Details of the Engagement — Indians Defeated— Towns 
Destroyed 66 

CHAPTER XI-Black Hawk's War— Origin of the Difficulty in 
the Treaty with the Sacs — He Resists the Removal of His 
Band West of the Mississippi— Complaints of Settlers— 
Gov. Reynolds notifies Gen. Gaines of the United States 
Army — Volunteers called for — Progress of the Expedition 
—Movements of Maj. Stillman— Capture of Black Hawk 
and Defeat of his Forces— Gen. Henry in Pursuit— At- 
tacks Black Hawk and Defeats Him— The Latter lietires 
—Incidents 68 


CHAPTER I— Organization of the Territory Northwest of the 
Ohio River— Brief Review of Proceedings under the Act- 
Territorial Dimensions-Names of some of the Chief Officers 
—Division of the Territory— New Boundaries— Miscellany 
and Incidents 70 

CHAPTER II— Indiana Territory— When and how Formed— 
Us Boundaries and first Officers— Seat of Government— 
' Organization and Subsequent Proceedings — Legislature 
and its Principal Enactments— Delegates in Congress- 
Their .\i-ts and Influence— General Review of the Ter- 
rit..rial GovernnuMit— .Steps toward the Organization of 
ilic, Slati- (icivernnient — The Result 72 

ClIAPTKIi III 'nu' Sl;itc of Tiidiana— Passage of the Enabling 
.\cl by C.oiiKi'' Siili-i.iih III Proceedings Preliminary to 
Oigauizaliiiii li-mmMii, rMking effect of the Act— Or- 
ganization riiirriiil MiiiiiiiTs of the First Constitutional 
Ciiiivention— 'I'hf I'lisl Ligislature— First Congressional 
Hcprcscntation— Review of the State's History. . . . 74 

CHAPTER IV— The State Capital— The Temporary Capital— 
The Provision made for Locating the Permanent Capital- 
Indianapolis Selected— Removal from Corydon— First Meet- 
ing of the Legislature at Indianapolis— Leading State Insti- 
tutions — Miscellany 

CHAPTER V— Benevolent Institutions— Indiana Hospital for 
the Insane— Its Organization and Subsequent Management 
—Institute for the Education of the Blind— Legislative 
Action Concerning It— The Result— Institute for the Deaf 
andDumli— Its Location and the Authority Therefor— Fe- 
male Prison and Refunuatory— Its Origin and Purpose- 
Its Wnik -Iloiise .if Refuge for Juvenile Offenders-Ap- 
propniilioiis 1.11 liuildings— The Early Promoters of the 
Instiliili.iii -W lial it has Accomplislied. .... 

CHAPTEi; \'l -Our I'liblic School Funds— Foreshadowing of 

the prisiiil Si I I System of Indiana— Origin of the School 

Fun. Is Till- .Si\irriiUi Section— The Northwestern Terri- 
tory— Cmsl it ntiinial Enactments— Congressional Township 
Fund— The Saline Fund— Surplus Revenue Fund— Bank 
Tax Fund— Forfeitures, Escheats, Swamp Lands, etc. 

CHAPTER VII— Statistics— Population of the State by Counties 
as sh.iwn liy the Census of 184O,'50,'6O, 'TO iiiiill^sn -rnliti.iil 
Status -.\ii f.xliibil Sh.iwing the Votes eii-t In,- |1„. srwinl 
Caiidi.lati's linl'i.'si.leut in 1860— Fur (i.A .inn] m Is:,', ami 
again in IN^o. in tli.' Different Counties ol tli.- sial.' -State- 
ment Showing the Acres of Land — Its Value— Valuation of 
Improvements — A^aluation of Town Lots and the Improve- 
ments Thereon— Valuation of Personal Property in the 
Several C.iuntiis .if the State with the Aggregates for the 


I' Geography — An Epitome of Geolog- 
ical Fuiiuali.iu Stratiflcation of Rocks in the Order above 
tlie Huronian— Classification and Division into Orders- 
Some of the Distinguishing Features of the Principal 
Glasses— Grouping and Blending— Indications of these in 
the State 85 

CHAPTER IX— Archteology-Pre-historic Remains-Their Char- 
acter— Where and How Situated— Their Use— The Mound- 
Builders— Who were They and what Became of Them':'- 
Character of Their Works 87 

CHAPTER. X— The Public Land System— Tlie Public Domain— 

The Government Title to It How Acquired— The Title 

under tlie Confederation of States— Disposal of Lands to 
Individuals- Early Surveys— The ColoniiU System with 
Modifications— The Method of Iluited States Government 
Survfvs— .\il.iptiiiiL .if the Rectangular System and its 
Api.ili.iiliiin 1.1 III.' Surveys nf tin- Western Lands— Changes 
Mai'l.- .\ I., lli.' Wants ,if Settlers— The System in 
Detail Laud Districts and Land Offices— Land Sales, their 
Revenues— Appropriation of the Proceeds, etc. . .110 


CHAPTER I— Early Purchasers of Land— Names of Purchasers 
— Description of the Tracts Purchased and the Quantity, 
with the date of Purchase, Arranged by Congressional 
Townships, covering a Period of ten years or more. . . 100 

CHAPTER II— Pioneer Reminiscences— Tlie Family of Henry 
Robinson— All Account of their Emigration Hither— Selec- 
tion of site for and Building the first habitation— Subse- 
quent Experiences— Eaily Days in Carroll County as Re- 
lated by the Family— Valuiible Memoranda— Some Details 
of Progress— Incidents 101 

CHAPTER III— Arrival of Other Settlers— Benjamin D. Angell, 
also .Varon Wiles and John Carey— Death of James Gil- 
breath and Mr. .Vngell— Settlement of Aaron Merriman, 
Daiiiil liauni, Sr., Robert Mitchell, Sr., Robert Mitchell. Jr.. 
John Kissleraiid Jacob Bauin, with Their Families— Arrival 
by Flal-li.iiit— Keel of the old boat in Deer Creek— John 
Odell aiul Mrs. Thomas Stirlen Arrive— House built Mi\ 
Baum— Hugh Manary Arrive.s-Mill built W.\ 


CHAPTER IV— Daniel McCain's Settlement— Snow Storm- 
Novel Dining Talile-Cabin Buil.linj;-AS(-aiv-Fiist I'eti- 
tioii for Organization-Its Fate--Jurisdiition of tlie Terntoi^ 
—A Season of Privation anil Want— A Methodist Society Or- 
ganized in the County — Heavy Rains and Consequent Floods 
— Cold Weather and Scanty Provisions— Miscellany— Log 

CHAPTER V— First Merchants— Dr. Vandeventer and Isaac 
Griffith— Rattlesnake Experiences— Arrival of Dr. J. M. 
Ewing— " Nettles " used instead of Flax- A Michigan Road 
Enteriirise — Want of Appreciation —Indian Trade and 
Traders : 

CHAPTER A'l- Wild Fruits and Abundant Supply— Alexander 
Chamberlain has a "Raising" at the Upper Settlement- 
Blackbirds and the Corn Crops— High Waters— Abner Rob- 
inson the first Postmaster— Election for Primary Officers- 
New Countries and Pioneer Settlers— Manners and Cus- 
toms—Natural Scenery : 

CHAPTER VII— Advent of Henry M. (Iraham into Carroll 
County— Portable Mill for Grinding Corn, etc.— Making 
'•Hominy" in I'ioiki i Style- Situation Prior to Organiza- 
tion—The Film .\i;ii i im. s and tlie Names of the Parties to 
Tliem— Sonic i'i->\ j. led for— Aaron Gregg Arrives— 
Enoch Staunels Expuniiice— Mr. Giegg's Traveling Expe- 
rience, etc 

CHAPTER VlII-Dry Weather— Dearth in Business— Steam- 
boats— More New Settlers Arrive— Israel Rohrbaugh. Sam- 
uel Lenon, William McCain, Isaac Robbins— " Delphi Mill " 
Built— Saw-Mill— Contemplated Quaker Settlement— Enoch 
Cox, John Beckner, Jolin M. Gillam— Grain Brought from 
Fountain County— Children Lost 

CHAPTER IX— Christopher Vandeventer's Narrative— Corne- 
lius Williams, Dr. James H. Stewart, Samuel D. Gresham, 
Robert D. Royster— The "Old Dominion" well Represented 
among the Old Settlers— Nancy, Ann, Jacob and Amos 
Ball arrive from Pennsylvania— Enoch Stansel and Aaron 
Gregg— Deaths Doings : 

CHAPTER X— Experiences of Cabin Building and Finishing- 
Some Experts— John R. Ballard one of Them— Otlier good 
Qualities of Mr. Ballard— Nurse and Undertaker— Incidents 
in his Career— Recurrences of the Past— Comparisons— Saw- 
MiU in Delphi— Evidences of Progress and Improvements, 



CHAPTER XI— Incidents of the First .Settlement— Some Ex- 
periences of the Robinson Family— Narrative of the Pioneer 
Experiences of Adam Porter— His First and Second Visits 
to Carroll County— Buys Land and Settles on Bachelor's 
Run— Origin of the Name 113 

CHAPTER XII— Mrs. Thomas Stirlen's Personal Recollections 
—Trip from Wayne County in 1825, with Incidents— Glimpse 
at Pioneer Experiences in Carroll County— Snow in the 
House— Preparing Corn for Bread— James Blake and the 
Ginseng Business 115 

CHAPTER XIII— Dr. John M. Ewing's Review of Early Life in 
Carroll County— Retrospect of Men and Things— Some of 
the Fii-st Officers of the County— Stores in 1830— Incidents. U? 


;APTER I— Organization-Preliminary Considerations-Action 
of the Settlers Toward the Erection of a County Jurisdiction 
-Petition Prepared. Signed and Submitted to the Legislature 
—An Enabling .Vet Passed and Approved by the Governor- 
Order for aSpecial Election of First Officers—The Election- 
Voters Thereat— Officers Chosen— County Organization- 
Meeting and Report of Commissioners Appointed to Select 
Site for and Locate the Seat of Justice for Carroll County. 119 

CHAPTER II-Dissatisfaction with the Name of the Seat of 
Justice ilanifested— Steps Taken to Change the Name- 
Some Discussion on the Subject by Citizens— Action of the 
Board Annulling the Name of "CarroUton " and Substitut- 
ing that of Delphi— Remarks Concerning the Same— Subse- 
quent Proceedings of the Board 

CHAPTER III— First Session of the Carroll Circuit Court— Offi- 
cers and Attorneys— Commissions Presented and Officers 
Sworn — Resume of Business and Proceedings— Probate 
Court of Carroll County— Officers Present at First Session 
— Proceedings of the Session — First Grand and Petit 
Juries and Jurors in Circuit Court, etc 

CHAPTER IV— After Proceedings-First General Election held 
in the County— The Result— First Election for President 
and Vice President— Abstract of the Votes Cast and for 
Whom— Licenses Granted to Samuel McClure and to 
Walker, Carter & Co., to sell Foreign Merchandise— H. B. 
McKeen to keep Ferries— Bounties for Wolf Scalps— Change 
of Township Boundaries, etc 

CHAPTER V— Avenues of Travel— Indian Trails— Their Early 
Utilization by the White People— Modified— Neighborhood 
Roads — Some of the First County and State Roads — Their 
Construction— Corduroys and Graded Roadways— Miscel- 



CHAPTER A'l— County Buildings— Preliminary Steps Toward 
Building a County Jail— After Proceedings— Plan for the 
Construction of the Building, etc.— A Clerk and Recorder's 
Office Ordered to be Constructed— The Plan, Location, etc. 
-Another Jail Contracted for and Built in 1839, at a cost 
of $500— Plan, etc.— The last one Subseciuently Enlarged 
and Improved— A Brick Wall put Around it and a Sheriff's 
Residence Erected with it 127 

CHAPTER VII— Early Judiciary— Court Officers and Proceed- 
ings at the Third Term of the Circuit Court— Special Ses- 
sion of the Board of Commissioners and a Regular Session, 
Officers, etc.— Fourth Term of the Circuit Court — Officers 
and xVttorneys— Third and Fourth Terms of the Probate 
Court Noticed— The Officers Present, and Abstract of tlie 
Proceedings had— Sales of Real Estate, etc. . . . 128 

CHAPTER VIII— The First Court House— Where the Early 
Session of Courts were held— The Neces'sity for Better Ac- 
commodations—Preliminary Action toward Building a 
Court House— Proceedings of the County Commissioners 
on the Subject— Proposals for Plans for the Building— Meet- 
ing of tlie Board— Plan Selected and Contract Awarded— 
Approximate Items of Cost 130 

CHAPTER IX— New Court House— Considerations Relating 
to the Propriety of Erecting a New Building— Agencies 
at Work in Securing the Most Satisfactory Plans— Bids 
Received— Contract Av/arded— Superintending Architect- 
Outline of Plans— Cost, etc. . . . .131 

CHAPTER X— New Jail Building— Insufficiency of the Old 
Building— Purchase of Site for a New One— Notice for 
Proposals— Plans and Specifications— Award of Contract 
—Progress and Quality of Work— Cost of the Structure, etc. 133 

CHAPTER XI— Asylum for the Poor— How the Poor were 
Cared for Half a Ceutury Ago— The Law and How it 
was Administered— Methods in Carroll County— A Poor 
Farm and its Management— Old Buildings and New— Old 
System and New. . . . . . . 135 

CHAPTER XII— Agriculture— Farming in Carroll County in 
Primeval Days — Review of the Situation — Legislative 
Action for the Encouragement of Agriculture— Meetings of 
Farmers— Society Organized— Officers— Address of Hon. 
H. L. Ellsworth— Permanent Organization, etc. . . 137 

CHAPTER XIII— Societies and Fairs— Preliminary Proceed- 
ings-Preparations for an Exhibition of Farm Products- 
The First Fair— Award of Premiums— FIvidences of Prog- 
ress— Changes of Organization— Addresses, etc. .HO 

CHAPTER XIV— Early School System— Original School Funds 
-Their Source and How Used— First Schoolhouses and 
How they were Built— Primitive Schools and School Teach- 
ers—Review of School Economy in the County from 1824 
to 1852— Evidences of Progress— School Funds, Past and 
Present— The School System of To-Day. . . .14: 

CHAPTER XV— Institutes and Normals— Their Mission— The 
Importance of Tliem as Training Schools for Teachers- 
The Law on the Subject— Opinions of Educators— The First 
Institutes Held— The Attendance— Results— More Recent 
Sessions with Some of the Details of the Work— County 
Normals Held— Improvements in School Work, etc. . 1* 

CHAPTER XVI— Country S.chools— Some of the Early Teachers 
—First Schools and Their Methods— Introduction of Im- 
proved Methods— Tlie Results— School Apparatus, Furni- 
ture, Houses, etc.— The First Schoolliouses in the County 
—The First Erected for That Purpose— Names and Work 
of Pioneer Laborers in the Field- Seminary, etc. . . 14' 

CHAPTER XVII— The Temperance Movement— Early Agitation 
of the Subject— Organization as a More Effective Method— 
The Old Washingtonians— The Sons of Temperance— Work 
of the Order in Carroll County— Divisions Instituted— The 
Good Templars— Something of What They Accomplished 
—Murphy Movement. . . . . .14c 

CHAPTER XVIII— Railroads— Interest in the Construction of 
Railroads in Carroll County— Meetings of Citizens Held— 
Proposition for Roads- Surveys Made-Location of the Cam- 
den Extension of the Richmond & Newcastle Railroad-Lake 
Erie, Wabash & St. Louis Railroad— Location and Construc- 
tion— Logansport. Crawfordsville & Southwestern Railroad 
—Indianapolis, Delphi & Chicago Narrow-Gauge— People's 
Aid in the Construction of Railroads, etc. . . . 1.52 

CHAPTER XIX— Plank Roads— Inauguration of the Plank-Road 
System in Indiana— Passage and Approval of the Plank- 
Road Law by the Legislature— Organization of the Delphi 
and Frankfort Plank Road Company— Construction of the 
Road— Delphi & Pittsburg Plank-Road Company— Location 
of the Road, etc. . . . . 154 

CHAPTER XX— Gravel Roads— New Era in the Road System in 
Carroll County— The Common or Dirt Roads Superseded by. 
Gravel Roads or Turnpikes— Effect of the New Depart- 
ure on the Prospects of Business— Range-Line Road Pro- 
jected—Progress of Construction— Delphi and Wild-Cat 
Road— The Delphi, Prince William and County Line Road 
—Other Roads. . . . , . (.5.5 

CHAPTER XXI— Iron Bridges— Impediments in the Way of 
Building Iron Bridges— Energy Required to Remove Them 
—Results of Determined Effort- Bridge Across the Wabash 
at Pittsburg— Preliminary Work— Bridge Across the Tip- 
pecanoe River— Other Bridges. . . . . ,157 

CHAPTER XXII-Old Settlers' Society-Thoughts on the Pro- 
priety of Annual Re-Unions of Old Settlers'— Organization 
—Annual Re-Unions Agreed Upon— Abstracts of Proceed- 
ings-Roll of Old Settlers 158 

CHAPTER XXIII-Geology of Carroll County-Physical Indica- 
tions—Classification—Carroll County of the Devonian 
Period— Remains of Upper Silurian— Effects of Glacial 
Action- Subsequent Disturbances — Recent Condition— 
Limestone— Black Slate— I'rospective floal Beds— Mineral 
Deposits— Economic Geology. . . . . .164 

CHAPTER XXIV— County Finances— Review of the Early Fi- 
nances of the County— Reports of County Treasurers 
Showing Abstracts of Receipts and Disbursements as they 
.\ppear of Record. . .168 


CHAPTER I—Intro(luctiiin— Military History as an Adjunct of 
Civil History— War tlie Forerunner of Civilization— Re- 
view of Military Operations Incident to the Early Settle- 
ment of this County-Iicsults of the Old French and 
Indian War-War of the Revolution Indian Wars-War 
of IMia 16!l 

CHAPTER II— The War With Mexico— Preliminaries to the 
Declaration of War by the United States- War Declared 
—Call for Troops — Response of Indiana — Of Carroll 
County— Activity and Zeal Manifested— Off for the Seat 
of War-Details— Experiences— Return of the Volunteers 
—Muster Rolls. . . . . . .172 

CHAPTER III— The Southern Rebellion— Preliminary State- 
ment—The Issue Presented— The Process of Secession- 
Action of the General Government— Fort .Sumter— Defense 
by Maj. Anderson— Warning by the President— Call for 
75,000 Men— Quota of the State of Indiana— Of Carroll 
County— Company A of the Ninth Indiana— Roster, etc. 174 
CHAPTER lA^— Ninth Regiment for Three Years- Composition 
of the Regiment — Formation of Companies — Regiment 
Ordered to the Seat of War— Its Record in the Campaigns 
—Roster of Our Volunteers. . . . . .176 

CHAPTER A"— Forty-first Regiment (Second Cavalry)— For- 
mation and Mustering In— Composition— Companies from 
Carroll County— Their Record— Campaigns— Record of In- 
dividuals— Rostei'. . . . . . .177 

CHAPTER VI-Third Cavalry (Forty-fifth Regiment)-Organi- 
zation and Muster— Review of the Movements of the Reg- 
iment— Company Roster giving the Individual Record of 
Members— Muster Out, etc. . . . . .184 

CHAPTER VII— Forty-sixth Regiment— Carroll County Compa- 
nies and Their Record— Their Departure for the Seat of 
War — Movements in the Field — Prison Experiences- 
Prison Life in Texas. . • . . .184 
CHAPTER VIII— Seventy-second Regiment— Organization and 
Muster-In— Officers and Men from Carroll County— Com- 
pany Roster— Field Experiences— Battles, Skirmishes, etc. 
— Muster-Out, etc. . . . . . .189 

CHAPTER IX— Seventy-second Regiment at Murfreesboro— 
Reminiscences of Company A— Experiences in the Field 
and Camp— Incidents, etc. . . . . .190 

CHAPTER X— The Seventy-second at Castalian Springs— Com- 
pany A and the Rebel Cavalry— Stay at Castalian Springs 
—Bear- Wallow— Morgan Scare—" Johnny Cake " as a Diet— 
Clay-Eaters, etc. . . . . . . . iy2 

CHAPTER XI— Company A at Bottenwood-Review of the 
Experiences of the Campaign of 1864— Transactions of the 
Period— At Muldraugh's Hill— Chickamauga, etc. . . 193 

CHAPTER XII— Eighty-sixth Regiment— Organization of the 
Regiment— Company B from Carroll County— Review of 
the Campaigns— Experiences in the Enemy's Country— Re- 
turn, etc. ...... 197 

CHAPTER XIII— Eleventh Cavalry (One Hundred and Twenty- 
sixth Regiment)— Recruiting for Companies— Organization 
—In Camp of Instruction— Active Service— Campaigning— 
Mounting of the Regiment— Subsequent Movements— At 
Fort Leavenworth— Mustered Out— Return to Indianapo- 
lis — Welcome at the Capital, etc. . . . .199 

CHAPTER Xn^— One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Regiment— One 
Hundred Days' Men— Considerations Inducing the Call— 
Call for Eight Regiments— The Service Performed— Roster 
of the Company— Muster-Out. ..... 200 

CHAPTER XV— One Hundred and Fiftieth Regiment— One of 
Eleven Regiments for One Year— Enlistments in Carroll 
County— Roster of the Company— Muster-Out. etc. . 201 

CHAPTER XVI-One Hundred and Fifty-fourth Regiment- 
One Year Regiment— Comi)any Formed in Carroll County 
—Regiment in Eighth Congressional District— Campaign in 
Virginia, etc. . . .202 

CHAPTER XA'II— Miscellaneous Regiments- Formation and 
Muster-In— Review of Their Movements— Mustered Out- 
Individual Record of the A''olunteers— Return Home, etc. . 203 
CHAPTER XVIII-Twenty-fourth Battery, Light Artillery- 
Organization and Muster-In— Campaigning on the Cum- 
berland River— In Pursuit of Morgan— With Burnside— 
Winter Campaign— Discharge. ..... 205 

CH.\PTER XIX— Bootliroyd Post, G. A. K.— Purijose of the Or- 
nanizrttion— Its Establishment and Composition— National, 
State and Subordinate Organizations— Establishment of 
Boothroyd Post— Its Muster-In— Charter Members— Officers 
-Officers, Past and Present— Something of its work in 
Carroll County 207 

CHAPTER XX— Tribute to Our Dead Heroes— Decoration Day- 
Remains of Corporal Boothroyd Disinterred and Re-coffined 
—Laying in State— Re-burial— Address by Judge Gould on 
the Occasion— The Propriety of Decorations— An Ancient 
Custom Adopted— Names of Our Dead Soldiers— Com- 
ments, etc. . . . . . . . .208 



Introduction. ...... 

Early Land Purcliascrs and Settlers, 
(iruanization, Biuindiirv.etc. 
Early Deaths. ...... 

Keliyinus < Ibservances and Societies. 

Early Koads 


Early Merchants 

Schools and Schoolhouses. . . . . 

Agricultural Statistics. .... 


HELiaiors opcANizA r/t>xs. 

aii.l lis M. in 

t\w L,1- Sr!,. 

IIAl'TEl; 11 r. 

miinary to 
pir Xames 

'riest — Lot Purchased 
Erected— Progress of 



CHAPTER I— Masonic Orders— Mount Olive Lodge, No. 48— In- 
troductory Statement— Pieliminary Meetings Held— Peti- 
tion for Lodge in Delphi Prepared— Recommended— Dis- 
pensation Granted— Charter Officers, etc. . . .227 

Advance Lodge. No. 220- Petitition for Chartei'— Dispensation 
Granted— First Officers— Report of Committee on Charter 
and Dispensations— Charter Granted— Officers— Member- 
ship— Surrender of Charter. . . . .228 

Delphi Lodge, No. 516— Dispensation Asked For and Granted— 
First Officers- Charter Granted— Lodge Instituted— Mem- 
bers, etc. . 229 


Delphi Chapter, No. 21— Preliminary Meeting— Petition and Dis- 
pensation—Action of Grand Chapter— Charter Granted — 
First Convocation, Officers, etc.— Subsecjuent Officers. . 230 

CHAPTER II— Independent Order of Odd Fellows — Delphi 
Lodge, No. 28— Organization — Charter Members— Early 
Officers— Noble Grands— <;haritable Disbursements— De- 
ceased Members— New Lodge Hall, etc. . . .231 

Carroll Lodge, No. 174— Organization— Charter Members— Officers 
—Early Proceedings— Charity Work— Membership— Noble 
Grands— Miscellany, etc. . . . . . .232 

Daughters of Rebekah— .\dina Lodge, No. 79— Its Organization 

anil Work-Originnl ><l;i)' 'Subsequent History, etc. 234 

Carroll Encaniiuunit. \' ' ' ' Ihi,, liimt.-il -Original Mem- 

biTsliii. -Instilulin- I' ■ . : \\ .: lli~tMn,,.tc. . . 234 

Deliilii Eiii-aiiiiiinc).t..\.i ..: •. ,.,.,: , (^ : 

Victoria Lodge, No. 154, Daughters of Rebekah— Details of Its 
History— Granting Charter— Original Membership— Mis- 
cellany, etc. ....... 

Dr. Webber and the WesUrn .Bannc;— Preliminary History— Its 
PublMUtion tlicFiist in Delphi— After Publication by Is.iac 

ClMiHT -mM \.,,, ., h P:sl:,l,lisl,iii,.i,t-l),.ll,hi Om.Ve— Its 

I of 

Proprietors in 18ib 1 j. l|ilii //. /■,;/,/ l>iil.|i.-li,.,| 
Name until 18dO-TIi. ,, ili.iimrj x.un.- i.. jirlplii Weekly 
Journal— Us Spht-rc I, ( mih ii,i„-,l I'lilili.Mtinu— Pres- 
ent .Status, etc. -Del pi] 1 Hull, tin- luil.-nl its Publication- 
Suspension— Tfte Western Repuhlican its Successor— The 
Publication Suspended— Changed to Delphi Weekly Times— 
Changes of Management— Historj, etc— Miscellaneous. 237 

Delphi Bar— Sketches of Members. . . . . .239 

The Physicians of Delphi— Sketches, etc. . . . .240 

Hotels in Delphi— The Old Delphi House— Some Account of it— 
The Buford House, Old and New— Weakly House— Knight 
House, etc. . . . . . . . .241 

Early Protective Measures Against Fire— The "Bucket Bri- 
gade "—Purchase of Fire Buckets and Babcock Extinguish- 
ers—Hand-Engine Bought— Organization of Fire Company 
—History— Officers. .242 



lil 'if the Manufacture — 
^iilisequent Changes— Su- 
- Shipments— Manufact- 

-It \y^ 


lied and 

Engine and Machine Works, Dunkle & Kilgore, Proprietors. 
Elevators. ......... 

Hubs and Spokes. ....... 

City Mills— Planing Mills, etc. . . .' .' ^ 

Boot and Shoe Manufactory. ...... 

John Burr & Son— Review of the Establishment— Its Early His- 
tory—Character of the Business— Its Extent— Reputation, 

etc *^ , ; ; 

Banks and Banking— James P. Dugan— Spears, Case & Dugan 
-Si.f-ais. Casr & Co.,-First National Bank-Suspension 
and .\ilinsiiii, lit Citizens' Bank. etc. . .: 


BURLIXlildX roWXSHlp ' ' \ 



DEMOClx.VT roWX>IllP, ... ' ', 

JACKSON TOWNSHIP, . . ' ' ' '< 










Armstrong, F. G., 
Bridge, John, 
Bridge, J. C, 
Barnes, James H.. . 
Barnes, E. M., 
Bragunier, J. J., 
Britton, T. H., . 
Bowen, A. H., 
Beclv, E. W. H., M. D.. 
Bradtield, B. D., M. D.. 
Bridge, William, 
Bright, R. R., 
Blin, Adam, 
Cox, Enocli, Sr., 
Cox, Joseph, 
Cartwright, John A., 
Cox, Enoch. Jr., . 
Case, Reed, 
Crampton, A. B., 
Creek, Moses, 
Carson, D. R., 
Dunkle, Henderson, 
Dugan, .James P., 
Fawcett, John W., 
Fonts, Solomon, . 
Gould. John H., 
Gresham, Samuel D., 
Gresham, Edward H.. 

Greenup Bros., 
Gregg, Hiram, 
Gregg, J. C, . . 
Glasscock, J. W., 
Harley, David R., . 
Hiestand. Elias, 
Holmes, Wm. W., . 
Hanna, James, 
Hopkinson, Walter 0., 
Hance, JohnP., . 
Hardy, Mrs. Sarah A., 
Hardy, William, 
Hardy, Hugh, 
Hardy, Capt. A.. 
Johnson, Manelius. 
Knight, C. M., . 
Kilgore, James W., 
Kerlin, Hiram, . 
Kennard, Isaac R., 
Lathrope, John, Jr., . 
Eytle, William F., 
Loop, W- M., 
Love, William, 
Milroy, Gen. R. H., . 
Mitchell, Robert, . 
Morrow, J. L., M. D., 
Miller, John Q., . 
Mc'Cnrmick. A. S., 

B. F., 

'"h., . 

Between 242-3 
Facing 188 
Facing 21.5 

Facing 232 
Facing 2.50 
Facing 238 

Troxell, Jno. G., . 
Thomson, Francis, 
Watts, James M., . 
Wilson, Dr. Robert I., 
Wickard, Abner J., 
Wagoner', Isaac N., 
Wagoner, John, 
Weaver, Hon. Wm. H., 
West, Charles R., . 
Young, Robert, . 


Facing 122 

Bowen, A. H., residence of. 
Bridge, J. C. residence of. 
Court House. . 

County Jail 

County Infirmary, . 
Odd Fellows' Block, . 
Public School, . 

Between 242-3 

Facing 131 

Between 130-1 

Between 130-1 

Between 130-1 

Facing 231 

Facing 130 

Between 274-5 

. 255 


. 255 



Between 306-7 


. 304 
Facing 184 
Facing -37 
Facing 232 
Facing 239 
Between 274-5 

. 270 

Bradfield, B. D., residence of, . Facing 215 

Hopkinspn,_W. O., residence, Facing 269 

Fouts, Solomon, residence, . Between 382-3 
Studebaker, David, res. and mill. Facing 282 
Wagoner, I. N., residence, . Facing 283 

Wagoner, John, residence. Facing 283 

Wickard, Andrew J., residence. Between 282-3 

Armstrong, F. G., residence. Facing 295 

Penn, John C, residence. Between 306-7 

Robeson, Andrew, residence. Facing 304 

Creek, Moses, residence. Facing 309 

Bridge, William, residence. Facing .315 

Bright, Reuben R., residence. Facing 315 

Blin, Adam, residence. Facing 321 

Miller, John Q., residence. Facing 324 

Thomson, Francis, residence. Facing 325 

Gregg, Hiram, residence, Between 336-7 

Gregg, John C, residence. Between 326-7 
Glasscock, J. W., residence. Between 326-7 
Hardy, Mrs. Sarah A., residence. Facing 326 
Mullin, Lewis, residence. Between 326-7 

Muilin, Wm. C, Between 336-7 

McCormick, Asbury S., residence. Facing 326 
Powell, Dr. J. W., residence. Facing 335 

StaufEer, Henry K., residence. Facing 326 
West, Charles R., residence. Facing 336 

Greenup Brothers, residence. Between 338-9 
Swatts, Lewis, residence. Between 338-9 

Sibbitt, Mrs. Sarah, residence. Facing 341 
Troxell, John G., residence, Between 338-9 

Hardy, Hugh, residence. Facing 343 

Standley, Moses, residence. Fiicing 348 


Armstrorg,F. G., M. D., . 

Facing 295 

Bridge, John, . 

Facing 243 

Barnes, J. H 

Facing 189 

Barnes, E.M., . 

Facing 189 

Bowen. A. H, . 

Between 242-3 

Beck, E. W. H 

Facing 188 

Britton, T. H. and wife, 

Facing 274 

Bradfield, B.D.,M.D., 

Facing 215 

Cox, Enoch, Sr., 

Facing 243 

Cox, Enoch, Jr., . 

Facing 232 

Case, Reed, 

Facing 250 

Crampton, A. B., 

Facing 238 

Carson, David R., . 

Facing 213 
Between 210-11 

Cartwright, John A., 

Dunkle, H 

Between 210-11 

Fawcett, John W., 

Between 210 11 

Gould, Judge J. H.,. . 
Gresham, Edward H., 

Facing 122 

Between 210-11 

Gros, Lewis, . 

Facing 189 

Gregg, Hiram, . 

Facing 213 

Greenup, John W., . 

Between 338-9 

Greenup, Samuel W., . 

Between 338-9 

Holmes, William W., . 

Facing 243 

Hiestand, E 

Between 210-11 

Hance, John P., . . 

Between 210-11 

Hanna, James, . 

Facing 213 

Hardy, Hugh and wife, . 

Facing 343 

Hardy, Mrs. Elizabeth, . 

. Facing 347 

Hardy, William and wife. 

Facing 347 

Hardy, Alexander, . 

. Facing 347 

Hopkinson, W. O. and familv 

Facing 269 

Johnson, Manelius and wife. 

Between 274-5 

Kerlin, Hiram, . . 

Between 210-11 

Kennard, Isaac R., 

Between 210-11 

Kilgore, James W., . 

Facing 213 

Love, William, . . . 

Facing 213 

Lytle, W. F 

Facing 203 

Lathrope, John, . 

Facing 202 

Loop, W. M., M. D., 

Facing 346 

Milroy, Gen. R.H., . 

Facing 258 

Morrow, James L., M. D.. 

Facing 203 

McCormick, A. S., . 

Facing 303 

Mitchell, Robert, . . 

Facing 243 

Odell, James, 

Between 210-11 

Pigman, George W., 

Between 210-11 

Pigman, Will A., . . 

Facing 202 

Penn. John W., . 

Between 306-7 

Penn, Huldah C, 

Between 300-7 

Powell, Dr. J. AV., . . 

Facing 335 

Schermerhorn, B. F.. . . 

Facing 184 

Scott, James B. and wife. 

Facing 237 

Smith, William, . . . 

Facing 213 

Smith, James C. and wife. 

Between 274-5 

Sims, Joseph A 

Facing 239 

Stewart, Dr. J. H., ■ 

Facing 232 

Stewart. W. R 

Facing 189 

Sibbitt, Richard, 

Facing 243 

Stephenson, John and wife, 

Facing 287 

Studebaker, David, . . 

Facing 282 

Troxell, Jolm G., . 

Facing 203 

Watts, J. M., 

Facing 203 

Weaver, Hon. W. H., . 

F.icing 287 

Young, Robert and wife, . 

Facing 474 


Outline o|- Carroll County. 


Adams Townsldp, . . 

Between 362-3 

Burlington Township. . 

. Facing 368 

Carrollton Township, 

. Facing 277 

Clav Township, 

Facing 284 

Deer Creek Towiisliip. . 

. Facing 214 

Democrat Township, . 

Facing 286 

Jackson Township. . 

. Facing 294 

Facing 308 

M "''""' '""!'hiiT . ■ . 

. Facing 314 

M ;m, . •, 1 •.•, liship. 

Facing 320 

1,-. 1 ( ir, ,. I..v\nsliip, 

lietwecn 263-3 

•|i|.|....uM.. 1,. unship, . 

Fa.'ing 337 

WashinuloM Townsliiii. . 

. Facing 342 

(^p'©s^ < C^^i li OLLt.3 '^'"^^'^ 



CrSTOM has made it a law, which we may not violate with 
impunity, that an introductory should precede the presenta- 
tion of the subject matter contained in the pages that, follow. 
Whatever may have been necessary in the experiments of others, 
therefore, must be equally so in this; yet, the labor and reseai-ch 
that have been bestowed in the preparation of the body of the 
work must in a measure compensate for the particularity that 
might otherwise be deemed essential as introductory matter. If 
what has been written in the succeeding pages for the edification 
of the present and coming generations, concerning what has been 
done in the past, in the inseparable connection which links it with 
the present, shall be appreciated and accepted in the spirit of ear- 
nest investigation for the development and jM-eservation of the 
essential truths of our history, the labors of the aitthor and com- 
piler will not have been in vain. It is not possible, in the very 
nattu'e of things, to anticipate, in the selection and arrangement 
of matter, for a work of this class especially, the peculiar wants 
and expectations of individual minds; hence, while it is desirable 
to meet the reasonable approbation of the masses for whom the 
book is designed, the con.siderate reader owes it to his or her own 
good sense of propriety to ponder well the evidences adduced in 
support of a controverted statement, and the reasonableness cf the 
construction of it, before passing judgment upon the integi-ity of 
the statement itself. Again, what is hereinafter submitted has 
not been prepared from any motive involving mere pecuniary con- 
siderations, btit from an innate desire to do e(jual an exact justice 
to the subject which has been placed in the author's hands for dis- 
cussion and elaboration. That some errors of judgment and errors 
of fact may have been committed is not improbable, for it is hu- 
man to err; but nothing has been written and j^resented except 
what was believed to be jtist and true, or within the range of rea- 
sonable probability. 

Among the developments of this last half of the nineteenth 
centiuy, there are few which have impressed themselves more 
distinctly upon society than that wherein is manifested the neces- 
sity for a recognition of the fact that it is due from those who 
now constittite the citizenship of a given locality, to those who 
succeed them, their children and their children's children, that 
they should interest themselves in the collection and preservation 
of the leading facts essential to the accurate determination of local, 
as opposed to general, history. Until within the past few years, 
this field has remained almost wholly imcultivated. Recently, 
however, the demands of the situation have caused to be opened 
up the avenues to this rich mine of uitwrought material, and now 
invite the interposition of the historian's hand, to collect, digest 
and arrange it for the general good. In the past, recourse was 
seldom had, in the preparation of general history, to the gather- 
ing, determination and investigation of local facts as a means of 

justly representing local interests, beyond those which connect 
themselves, immediately or remotely, with the annals of the State 
or nation: hence, we have seldom or never seen, in State or na- 
tional histories, anything tending to inform the general reader 
that a given county, for example, has a history of its own, to 
which his attention might with propriety be dii-eeted. The case 
now is dift'erent, and that which so interests tis as citizens of a 
town or county is so arranged as to present in review, under ap- 
propriate heads, the facts and incidents that have come under our 
own observation, or connected with the past of our -'wn neighbor- 
hood, township or county. Of this class of material, with such 
an arrangement, topically or otherwise, should our histories of 
State or nation of the fttture abound, thus adapting them to the 
wants of both the general and local reader. 

With a view, then, of confoi'ming otu- plan of arrangement to 
the idea suggested, in what has been written of the history of 
Carroll County in the succeeding pages, the matter has been divid- 
ed and placed under appropriate heads, as periods, significant of 
its character, for the double purpose of putting in possession of 
the local reader information pertinent to Carroll County, and, as 
intrpductory thereto, a fair review of the discoveries and explora- 
.tions antedating the first settlements on that portion of the Amer- 
ican continent in which we, as a nation, are interested: of its ab- 
original inhabitants in their family and tribal relations; something 
of the early adventurers who labored in the movement toward civ- 
ilization on the continent, in the gi-eat Teiritory of the Northwest, 
in the Territory and State of Indiana, and in the Wabash Valley; 
of the outline history of our State, civil, political and social, with 
a concise presentation of its natural history — designed to give the 
leading features in those departments which it is believed every 
citizen should understand — together with a statement of what is 
known concerning the Mound-Builders, and other pertinent pre- 
historic remains. 

A leading article in the department of general historv will be 
found in a liberal review of the public land system of the United 
States, embracing a statement of the sources and means whence 
and whereby the title to our general domain was finally settled 
as a perpetual right in fee simple, vested in the Government of 
the United States, and thence to her citizens: the svstems of 
surveys adopted from time to time for the determination and tier- 
petuation of boitndaries to tracts of land adapted to the wants of 
individual piu-chasers, and that now in force governing all the 
sm-veys of public lands over which the General Government exer- 
cises jurisdiction: the land districts and land offices as they have 
been determined and located in the State of Indiana: the surveys 
of the public lands in Carroll Coimty, when and by whom made, em- 
bodying a fund of information rarely to be found in one volume. 

The department of local history, however, is the grand feature 
of the work, and will be found to contain not only the full and 


aceiirate recital of the legislative and official proceedings con- 
nected with the process of organization as a county jurisdiction, 
and the consequent outgrowth thereof, but a cai-efully prepared 
account of the early settlements of the county, with incidents, 
which form the most interesting characteristic reflex of pioneer 
life: a department of personal reminiscences, in which the "old 
settlers " give their own version of the occurrences of the past in 
which they were participants; the introduction of different foi-ms 
of Chi'istian worship, the organization and growth of religious so- 
cieties and churches; our educational system in the several stages 
of its development, from the methods of the old-fashioned " dees- 
trick" or "privet soule," down to the highly disciplined and 
well-regulated " institutions of learning " which are the pride of 
om- county, and underlie the structure and establish the perpetuity 
of our body politic. 

A compact history of the public institutions of the county, the 
legitimate outgi-owthof its structure, will find a conspicuous place 
with a summary account of the special economy of each, and of 
the county edifices also: the organization of the vaiious coiu'ts, 
their province, and something of the proceedings distinguishing 
them, with their officers, etc. ; the leai-ned professions, with occa- 
sional personal details: the leading industries of the county, and 
who have been engaged in them; business establishments and 
business men; in short, every department of society exerting an 
active influence in the development and utilization of the resources 
of oiu- county, will have a hearing to the extent of the infor- 
mation we may have gleaned concerning them. In addition to 
all this, something will be found representative of our social sys- 
tem, as exhibited in the management, influence and purposes of 
the benevolent and other social orders that have in times past, 
or ha\e now, a histoiy worthy of record as examples for the 

In the department of township history, it has been the aim to 
collect and presence, in satisfactory form, a concise review of 
home life as we find it among the people who give character to 
society in the immediate neighborhood where they reside. This 
review necessai'ily embraces a gi-eat diversity of facts, given with 
more elaborate pai-ticularity than would be practicable in the nar- 
ration of the facts pertinent to the discussions of general history. 
In this department, also, as a means of preserving with gi-eater 
fullness the essentials of local history, it has been the aim to pre- 
sent dates of settlement, names and peculiarities of settlers, and 
their first homesteads in the township; the establishment of 
churches and the moving spirits in the movement; the erection 
of schoolhouses, the character of the schools, with the names of 
teachers and school officers, as completely as they could be ascer- 
tained ; mechanical and other enterprises that have been the result 
of applied local talent. Indeed, whatever of value could be ob- 
tained tending to give a clear and comprehensive reflex of what 
the past has been, has been collated and given an appropriate 
place among the incidents of the neighborhood and township. 

And last, though not the least valuable foatiu'e of the work, 
will be found presented in the department of illusti-ations, which 
includes accurately di-awn and tastefully engraved raa])s of the 
civil townshijjs, locating homesteads, schoolhouses, chiu'ches, and 
other notable buildings; home views, landscape illustrations, por- 
traits, and historical representations mementoes of the past, 
which, extending into the future, furnish an interesting reflex of 
individuals and of scenery, wliose identity would otherwise fade 
from memory and become extinct, and the lessons taught thereby 
lost to coming generations. 

Pkelimixaey — Inducements to Discovery— Piie-Colu.mbi.\n 


TONS— Voyages of Columbits and his Immediate Successoils, 
.John and Seba.stian Cabot, Corteueal and Others— E.xpe- 
ditions by the portuguese, french and spaniards— dis- 
COVERY" OF THE 8t. Lawrence and the Cod Fisheuies of New- 
foundland— French Traders and their Traffic with the 
Indians — The Fur Trade— Missionary Labors of the" 
French— Occupation of Florida by the Spani.\rds, and In- 
cidents—Subsequent Occupation by the French— Search- 
ing for Water Communication with the Pacific— East 
Indies— China— Discoveries of the Mississippi, Ohio, Illi- 
nois, Wabash, Etc.— Incidents. 

XpROM the time when order sprang from chaos and the sun 
-L came forth to gladden the earth, sepai-atiug the day fi-om the 
night, the East has been recognized as the source of light, the 
precui'sor of knowledge, whence the tide of civilization has since 
flowed to dispel the darkness of ignorance and to enlighten the 
world, in the progress of the ages. As in the remote, so in the 
recent past. Evolutions and revolutions are upward and forward, 
never downward nor backward. When knowledge began first to 
enlarge the domain of thought, and the genns of intelligent mo- 
tives to expand the area of human progi-ess — the energies of the 
moving world of sentient beings actuated by powers emanating 
fi'om the great fountain, accepted the guidance of destiny, and, 
with the star of empire, moved Westwai-d. The nations of antiq- 
uity, the peoples inhabiting the countries of the Old World, 
directed by the same impulse, turning their faces toward the set- 
ting sun, took up the line of march f jr the unseen havens beyond. 
Such are the experiences which the history of the world — the 
stream of time — is continually presenting for om- consideration. 
Far buck in the remote past, beyond the eastern exb'emity of 
the Mediterranean Sea, we ai'e told, the first pair, created in the 
image of God, were placed in the Garden of Eden. The entire 
human family, by common acceptation, ai'e the offspring, in direct 
line, of this primitive pair. In the com-se of time, their posterity 
having peopled the countries round about, began to disperse, emi- 
grating into foreign lands, always to the westward, populating 
the countries between them and the setting sun. Centuries passed, 
and the descendants of earlier descendants occupied the eastern 
shores of the Atlantic. All beyond was a vast expanse of waters, 
seemingly occupying the extremities of the universe. Still they 
looked forward, and, in their mind's eye, beheld a continent, in- 
habited they knew not by whom, but the siu-face of which the foot 
of white man had never ti'od. Inspiration told them this, for, 
following in the wake of the inviting sun, whose cheering rays 
had thus lighted them on their way, the desire to traverse those 
ti'ackless waters by the great headlight of the universe would not 
yield to the imjiulses of doubt or fear - and they moved forward. 
The history of the world's jirogress during the succeeding centu- 
ries fully attests the grandem- of the conception that dictated the 
discovery of a new world, whose horizon, extending westwai'd be- 
yond the extremities of the American continent, mingles with and 
is re illumined by the morning suiLshiue of the old. 


About the middle of the ninth centuiy, the spirit fi'om which 
the desire for adventure in the direction just indicated was evolved, 
took fonn, giving iinpuls(> io the schemes of those adventurers, 
impelling them forward to tin' attainmont of the object-s cont..'m- 



In the year A. D. WCiO, the Scandinavians discovered Icehmd, 
and, in 87i and 875. colonized it. These Scandinavians then oc- 
cupied a peninsula in the north o{ Eui'ope, bounded on the north 
by the Ai'ctic Ocean, on the south and east by the Baltic Sea, the 
Gulf of Bothnia and Finland, and on the west by the Atlantic 
Ocean, embracing an ai-ea of 300,000 square miles, including now 
the kingdoms of Norway and Sweden, md, anciently, Denmark 
also. The people along the Atlantic coast especially, were good 
sailors, energetic, and possessed with the spirit of adventure. 
This led them to embark frequently in the enterprises foreshad- 
owing discovery. Having discovered and colonized Iceland, less 
than a centuiy later they discovered and col. nized Greenland. On 
the authority of M. Rafn, a Danish historian in high repute, be- 
cause of his intimate knowledge of the narratives of those early 
voyagers, it is stated, a' so, that America was discovered by that 
people in A. D. 985. about the time of the discovery of Greenland; 
that, early in the following centuiy, and repeatedly afterwai-d, the 
Icelanders visited the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, the Bay 
of Gasp6 being their principal station; that they had penetrated 
along the coast as far as Cai'olina, and that they introduced among 
the natives a knowledge nf Chi'istianity. "' This account, though 
meager, is distinct and consistent. Its consistency can scarcely 
be disputed: and it is almost equally obvious that the coxintri' re- 
ferred to under the name of Vinland is in the vicinity of Rhode 
Island. A conclusion resting on such strong grounds scarcely 
requires to be supported by the high authority of Humboldt and 
Malte Brun."* 

It has been stated, also, with some show of authority, thai, 
subsequent to the Scandinavian discoveries and previous to the 
expeditions of Cohmibus, the coast of North America had been 
visited by a Welsh Prince. " In Cardoc's Historic of Cambria", it 
is stated that Madoo, son of Owen Gwynnedd, Prince of Wales, 
set sail westwai-d in 1170, with a small fleet, and, after a voyage 
of several weeks, landed in a region totally different, both in its 
inhabitants and productions, from Em-ope. Madoc is supposed 
to have reached the coast of Virginia."t 

" The discovery of a continent so large that it may be said to 
have doubled the habitable world is an event so much the more 
grand and interesting that nothing pai-allel to it can ever occur 
again in the history of mankind. America had of course been 
known to the barbarous tribes of Eastern Asia for thousands of 
years; but it is singular that it should have been visited by one of 
the most enterprising nations of Em-ope five centm-ies before the 
time of Columbus, without awakening the attention of either 
statesmen or philosophers."]! 

Whatever the facts may have been, as stated in these several 
accounts, it is apparent that the period had not an-ived when the 
Old World, ripe with the experiences of the past, was ready for 
the approjiriation of the New; hence, it appears to have been re^ 
served for the enteii^rise of the fifteenth centm-y to ti-ansmit the 
civilization of that age to the new continent across the Atlantic. 
One of the primary considerations which tended to induce the 
voyages of Colvunbus, and his predecessors as well, was the desire 
to be instrumental in the discovery of a more direct route to the 
East Indies and to China, by sailing westward, whereby the facili- 
ties for trade with those coimtries might be enlarged, and more 
direct commimication established, as a means of increasing mari- 
time operations, with their consequent pecuniary advantages. 
These were the objective points, which, with the considerations 

•British End., I, pp. 619, 62U. Cbaiiib.:r8' End., I, p. I'Js. 

named as the inducing agencies, were pi-esent with and directed 
the voyages of discovfsrj' during the centuries preceding the clos- 
ing years of the fifteenth. Actuated by similar motives, with a 
like purpose in view, the succeeding discoveries were made. 


Cln-istopher Columlius (the Latinized form of the Italian 
Colombo and the Spanish Colon) was the eldest son of Dominico 
Colombo and Suzanna Fontanarossa; was born at Genoa, Italy, 
about the year 1435 or 1436. His father was a wool-comber of 
some small means, and, two years after the disoovei-y of the West 
Indies, he was still living, having, in 1409, removed fi-om Genoa 
to Savonia. Christopher was sent to the University of Pavia, 
where he devoted himself to the mathematical and natural sciences, 
and no doubt received instructions in nautical astronomy from 
Antonio de Terzago and Stefanodi Faenza. On his removal from 
the imiversity, it appears that he worked for some months at his 
father's ti-ade; but. on attaining his fifteenth year, he selected and 
entered upon the life of a sailor. Some of the results of his early 
education are seen in his subsequent cai-eer. 

With some very well defined ideas of the task before him, he 
set sail on this tirst great voyage of discovery, imder the patronage 
of the United Kingdoms of Castile and Leon, on the 3d of An 
gust, 1492, sailing westward. 

The following extract from Chambers' Encyclopedia gives 
something of the pm-poses that actuated and controlled him in 
this enterprise: 

" It was toward the East that his hopes directed his western 
com-se — hopes whose supposed tulfiUment still lives in the misap- 
plication to the New AVorld of the terms Indian and Indies. 
Much of oiu- subsequent knowledge of America has been owing to 
the same desire of reaching the East Indies that led to its dis- 
covery," (I, p. 198.) 

After meeting with some adverse winds and cm-rents, which 
delayed his progi-ess, on the morning of October 1"2, 1492, he dis- 
covered the island of San Salvador, one of the Bahamas, The 
island of Cuba was discovered November 7 of the same year, and 
Hispaniola, or San Domingo, a short time after. Colnmbus, sup- 
posing these latter islands to be a part of the Indies, they and the 
others in the vicinity were subsequently called the West Indies. 
The discovery of the continent by him, however, was not made 
until the year 1498. It had, meantime, in June, 1497, been dis- 
covered by John Cabot, sailing imder the patronage of Henry 
VII, of England, along the coast of Labrador. This incident 
could not with propriety be made to detract in the least from the 
credit of Columbus, who projected the enterprise and established 
the feasibility of what another executed by the use of his capital 
and foresight. To-day, Columbus is recognized by the civilized 
world as the discoverer of America. In 1498, Sebastian Cabot, son 
of the discoverer of the coast of Labrador, commenced the explor- 
ation where his father left it, and traversed the border as far down 
as Virginia, claiming the country in the name of the King of 


Manuel, King of Portugal, in the summer of 1501, sent out, 
under the command of Gaspar Cortereal, an expedition of dis- 
covery in the West and Northwest. The expedition explored the 
coast of North America six or seven hundred miles, till, somewhere 
south of the 50th degree of north latitude, its further progress 
was checked by the great accumulation of ice. " The name of 
Labrador, transferred fi-om the territory south of the St. Law- 


rence to a more northern coast, is a memorial of bis voyage; and 
is, perhaps, the only permanent ti'ace of Portngiiese adventiu'e 
within the limits of North America."* 


Among the first to compete for the prosecution of discoveries in 
the New World was the French. It is claimed that, as early as 
1488, fom- years before the first voyage of Columbus, Cousin, a 
French navigator of Dieppe, while at sea oflf the coast of Afi-ica, 
having been di-iven westwai'd by strong winds and eiu'rents, came 
in sight of an unknown shore, where he discovered the mouth of 
a great river, probably the St. Lawrence. 

This statement, though somewhat traditional, carries with it 
some evidence of plausibility, since there is good reason to believe 
that the cod fisherie.s off' the coast of Newfoundland were visited 
and established prior to the date of Cabot's voyage to that locality, 
in 1497, by the Normans, Bretons and Basques. " The Normans, 
offspring of an ancestry of conquerors ; the Bretons, that stubborn, 
hai-dy, unchanging race, who. among Druid mommients, change- 
Jess as themselevs, cling with Celtic obstinacy to the thoughts and 
habits of the past; the Basques, that primeval people, older than 
history — all fi-equeuted, from a very early date, the cod-banks of 

The name of Cape Breton, found on the oldest maps, is a 
memorial of the early French voyages. It appears, also, that in 
the original language of the Basques, Baccalaos, a cod-fish, was 
the name applied by the inhabitants of Newfoundland to the ad- 
jacent coast. Because of that use, Cabot gave the name to the 
continent whose borders he had traversed. Peter Martyr, in Hak- 
luyt, Vol. Ill, p. 30, says: " Sebastian Cabot himself named those 
lands Baccalaos, because that in the seas thereabout he found so 
great multitudes of certain bigge fishes, much like unto tunies 
(which the inhabitants call baccalaos), that they sometimes stayed 
his shippes." The same name was used generally by wi'iters of 
the then current and the succeeding centmy. 

Judge Martin, in the introduction to his history of North 
Carolina, says; " The French made several attempts to establish 
permanent settlements on the continent of North America. As early 
as the year 1500, one of the Norman navigators sailed fi-om Rouen, 
visited and drew a chart of the gulf and pai't of the River St. Law- 
rence, and Thomas Aubart, of Dieppe, in the year 1508, sailed up 
the Kiver St. Lawrence. And it is known that, as early as 1504, 
the Basque whalers and fishermen from Britany and Normandy, 
visited its shores." (Vol. I, p. 1, 2.) "And it is well established," 
says Parkman, in Pioneei-s of France (p. 171), "that in 1517, fifty 
Castilian, French and Portuguese vessels were engaged in it (fish- 
ing) at once; while in 1527, on the 3d of August, eleven sail of 
Norman, one of Breton and two of Portuguese fishermen were to 
be found in the Bay of St. John." 

About the same time, probably in advance of these latter dates, 
the French had growing establishments in Canada for fishing, 
and for trading in furs with the natives. 

In their traffic with the Indians of the locality, they gave, in 
exchange for the furs purch'ised from them, knives, hatchets and 
other utensils of iron and brass adapted to their use, with trinkets 
and other iu'ticles used for ornamentation. These exchanges of 
goods took place chiefly between these French traders and the 
Iroquois. To the natives, the aiiicles of Eiu'opean manufactm-e 
given in exchange for the fi-uits of their hunting and trap])ing, 
more than a ineri' commercial value, and hi'n<^i were 

•Bnncrott's V. S. Illst., I, p. 13. 

treasured up as sacred relics — mementoes of fortimate possession, 
and transmitted to succeeding generations with characteristic cere- 
mony. Three- quarters of a century later, some of these same 
relics were discovered by Capt Smith in his voyage up the Ches- 
apeake, in possession of the Susquehannocks, who had obtained 
them from the Iroquois. In the procession of the generations, 
many of these articles passed also into other hands, finding their 
way into the hands of the tribes inhabiting the territories further 
to the westward, whose counti'y had been traversed by the Iro- 
quois in their niunerous warlike expeditions against the Ottawas, 
Miamis and Illinois. That some of these cherished relics should 
find their way around the borders of the lakes, even to the head- 
waters of the ancient Ottawa (Omee or Maumee), woirld not be 
considered outside the natural order of things. The Ke-ki-ong-a 
of the primitive Miamis and their predecessors was the center, 
or radiating point, also, for the numerous kindi'ed bands to the 
north and south of the great lakes, is known to have been visited 
by some of the original recipients of those articles exchanged for 
furs on the banks of the St. LawTence. Indeed, numerous mem- 
bers of the Algonquin family, resident on the noi-th bank of the 
St. Lawi-ence, at the date when the tralfic with the French traders 
was going on, began early to emigi-ate westward toward Lake 
Michigan, to the west and south of Lake Erie, whence they wei'e 
accompanied by traders, still ambitious to open and extend the 
avenues of trade to localities rich in furs and hitherto unoccupied 
by white men. These ti'aders not infi'equently intei-married with 
the natives, as a more effectual means of secm-ing their confidence, 
which opened up opportunities to advance jiecuniaiy interests by 
enlarging the facilities for commercial intercourse. 


Subsequently, Jacques Cartier, on a voyage of discovery, 
sailed from St. Malo, in France, April 20, 1534. The result of 
his first voyage was the discovery and reconnaissance of the north- 
ern coast of Newfoundland. Having done this, he retvu-ned and 
made port un the 1 5th of September of the same year. The pres- 
tige acquired in his first voyage induced a second. For this pur- 
pose, three vessels were fitted out during the winter of 1 534-35, 
and, on the 15th of May of the latter year, he embarked again, 
fi'om the same port, to pursue his ideal of discovery under the 
patronage of the French Government Entering the broad gulf 
at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, he sailed up that steam, 
as far as the island of Orleans, in the month of September. A 
little later, he ascended to the site of the present city of Monti-eal, 
where inducements were offered by the natives to go farther to 
the westward, representing that the country to which he was in- 
vited abounded in great stores of gold and copper; " that there 
were three great lakes, and a sea of fi-esh water so liu'ge that no 
man had ever found the end." Notwithstanding these recitals, 
however, on the 5th of October following, he left Montreal, and, 
retm-ning, wintered on the River St Croix, whence, during the 
succeeding summer, he made a return voyage to France. 

In 154(1, five years afterward, a charter was gi-anted to Francis 
de la Roque. Seignem- de Rubervid, investing him with supreme 
power over all territories and islands which lie nom' the gulf or 
along the River St. LawTcnce. I'nder this chiu'ter, a s(juadrou of 
five vessels, commanded Ijy Admiral Cai'tier and sujjplied with 
all the necessaries, men and provisions, for forming a colony, 
bore Ruberval to his new possessions. A fort wa.s erected im 
mediately upon their arrival, of which Ciu-tier was placed in com- 
mand, and a colony planted luider favorable auspices. A further 



expedition was fitted out in 1603. by a company of Koueu mer- 
chants, with tlie objective pm-poseof speculations iutlie f;ir ti'ade. 
and sent to the same territory. 


This expedition was placed in chai'ge of Samuel Champlaiue. 
who was also a member of the company. One of the results of 
this enterprise was the founding of the city of Quebec, in 1008. 
The great profits of the fm' ti-ade ofi'ered inducements for still 
greater adveutm-e, and for the farther extension of settlements to 
the westwai'd in the Indian country. These inducements were 
accepted, and a great number of traders and other adventm-e- lov- 
ing spirits found their way to the extensive domain of New France. 
These adventiu-ers were not exchisively of the class known as trad- 
ers. There were among them membei-s of the society of Jesuits, 
who came for the double pm-pose of discovery and the establish- 
ment of missions as a means of disseminating the principles of 
Christianity among the chikh-en of the forest. 


So zealous and active were those reverend fathers in their self- 
appointed work that, in 1611, a mission had been established 
among the Indians of that region. From that time forward, vig- 
orous efforts were made, through the insti-umentality of these mis- 
sions, to improve the facilities for ti-affic in furs, which was a 
som'ce of revenue to the persons engaged in it. Thus, through the 
joint efforts and assiduous perseverance of these French priests 
and traders, the movements were generally attended with success. 
On the religious side of the question, it has been stated as a re- 
sult that, in ten years, up to 1621, 500 converts of these Recollets 
had been established in New France. In 1635, a Jesuit college 
was formed at Quebec. In like proportion, the accumulations of 
the fur trade increased with the additional enterprise developed 
in that department. 

The immediate successor of Champlaine, the fii'st Governor of 
New France, who died dm'ing the year 1635, was f'-hesteaufort. 
His temu'e of office, however, was short, and he was succeeded by 
M. de Montmagny in 1686. 


With this latter appointment, a change in the affairs of tlie 
Govermnent was noticeable, the fiu' trade becoming the chief ob- 
ject of attention. A natm-al consequence of this policy was the 
extension of explorations into new territories, and the enlarge- 
ment of the area of trade. " Rude forts were erected as a means 
of defense to the trading-houses," and of protection to the trade. 
Not far removed from these posts was the uever-failing auxiliaiy 
— a chapfil of Jesuits siurmounted by a cross. 

lu 1640, when Charles Raymbault and Claude Pijart were ap- 
pointed to missionary work among the Algonqnins of the North 
and West, their route to the westwai-d whs by the' way of the Ot- 
tawa and French Rivers, so that the whole coast of Ohio and 
Southern Michigan remained unknown, except as seen by mis- 
sionaries from the stations in Canada.* It may be readily infen-ed, 
therefore, that these localities had been previously visited, though 
by a different route, by other missionaries, because, at a date more 
than twenty years in advance of this, explorations had been made 
by them to points further northward, and perhajis by traders also, 
for it had grown to be a maxim that wherever the 
went the traders had gone before. 

" In August (6th), 1654, two young fur traders, smitten with 
the love of adventure, joined a band of Ottawas or other Algon- 
qnins, and, in their gondolas of bark, ventured on a voyage of 500 
leagues. After two yeai-s, they returned, accompanied by a Meet 
of fifty canoes. ***** They describe the vast lakes of 
the West and the niunerous tribes that hover around them; they 
speak of the Knisteneaux, whose homes stretch away to the North- 
ern Sea; of the powerful Sioux, who dwelt beyond Lake Superior, 
and they demand commerce with the French and missionaries 
for the boundless West."* 

The Western Indians demanding the presence of missionaries 
among them, the Bishop of Quebec supplied tbem. In making 
his selections, the charge fell iipon Father Mesnai-d to visit Green 
Bay and Lake Superior, and accordingly this mission was estab- 
lished in 1660. In August (Sth) of that year. Father Claude 
AUouez embai'ked on his mission to the F-m West. Two years 
afterwai-d, he retm-ned to Quebec and ui'ged the establishment of 
permanent missions there, to be accompanied by colonies of French 
emigrants. Success attended the efforts of this reverend father, 
and he was accompanied, on his retm-n to th(f mission, by Claude 
Dablon and James Marquette, then recently from France. The 
field of labor covered by this mission embraced all the region of 
coimti7 extending fi-om Green Bay westward to the head of Lake 
Superior, and southward to the countries of the Sacs, Foxes, 
Miamis and Pottawatomies, whither, also, the ubiquitous ti'aders 
had preceded them. Subsequently, in 1671, Father Mai'quette 
gathered around a chapel at Point St. Ighace, on the continent 
of the peninsula of Michigan — the remnants of one branch of the 
Hiu'on nation that had inhabited the countiy bordering on the 
western extremity of Lake Erie.f The year following, Allouez 
and Dablon explored the country south of the village founded by 
Marquette, bearing the cross through Wisconsin and the north of 
Illinois, visiting the Mascoutins and Kickapoos, on the Milwaukee! 
and the Miamis, at the head of Lake Michigan. 


Ponce de Leon who had been a voyager with Columbus in sev- 
eral of his expeditions, becoming, from some cause, disaffected with 
his commander, manifested a disposition to utilize the advantages 
gained by his experience with him, and make discoveries on his 
own account. Accordingly, in March, lol'i, under the pati'onage 
of the King of Spain, he sailed from Porto Rico, and, on the 6th 
of April following, discovered a new region, which, on account of 
its fiorid and blooming appearance, he named Florida. Of this 
new region, claimed by him in the name of the Spanish King, he was 
appointed Governor, on condition of his establishing a colony there 
at his own expense. He was to have the exclusive right to the 
island of Bimini, one of the Lucayos, discovered previously by him, 
said to contain a spring, possessing, among other miraculous 
properties, that of rejuvenation, and be its Adelantado, or Gov- 
ernor, the King building the forts. Notwithstanding his failure 
to be made young again throxigh the agency of the mai'velous 
effects attributed by the natives to this spring, and to seciu'e the 
golden prize anticipated, his courage remained with him. " For 
nine yeai's he attempted to plant a colony in Florida; but the In- 
dians attacked him fiercely: he was mortally wounded, and died 
soon afterwai'd, in Cuba." (Pai'kman. ) 

Subsequent voyages, made by Gai-ay and Vasquez de Ayllon, 
tln-ew some additional light on the discoveries of Ponce de Leon, 



whence the general outline of tlie coast of Florida became knowii 
to the Spaniards, and they vainly endeavored to profit by the in- 
fonnation obtained regai-ding that country. " Meanwhile, Cortez 
had conquered Mexico, and the fame of that iniquitous but mag- 
nificent exploit rang throiigh all Spain. Many an impatient cav- 
alier bm-ned to achieve a kindred fortune. To the excited fancy 
of the Spaniards, the unknown land of Florida seemed the seat of 
surpassing wealth, and Pamphilo de Narvaez essayed to possess 
himself of its fancied treasures. Landing on its shores, and pro- 
claiming desti'uction unless they acknowledged the sovereignty of 
the Pope and the Emperor, he advanced into the forests with 300 
men. Nothing could exceed their -suflferiugs. Nowhere could 
they find the gold they came to seek. The village of Appalachee, 
where they hoped to gain a rich booty, offered nothing but a few 
mean wigwams. The horses gave out, and the famished soldiers 
fed upon their flesh. Themen sickened, and the Indians unceas- 
ingly hai-assed their march. At length, after 28( I leagues of wan- 
dering, they foimd themselves on the northern shore of the Gulf 
of Mexico, and desperately put to sea in such crazy boats as their 
skill and means could construct. Cold, disease, famine, thirst, and 
the fury of the waves melted them away. Narvaez himself per- 
ished, and of his wretched followers no more than four escaped, 
reaching, by land, after years of vicissitudes, the Chi'istian set- 
tlement of New Spain."* 

The interior of Florida was not yet explored, and the Spanish 
voyagers, haunted by the visions of gold which their vivid im- 
aginings had pictured, were not slow in attempting the realization 
of these fancied ideals. Hei-nando de Soto, a companion of Pi- 
zaiTo in his conquest of Peru, having come to America a needy ad- 
ventui'er, he obtained permission to conquer Florida. AVith 620 
chosen men and an ample armament, he landed at Tampa Bay 
(Espiritu Santo), ofi" the Florida coast, in July, 1539. The ad- 
venturers began their mai'ch, and for months and years they wan- 
dered thi'ough wild and boundless wastes, guided by the varying 
prospects of anticipated gain, never, however, their phantom El 
Dorado. In the third year of their journeyings, they reached the 
banks of the Mississippi, crossing over at a point above the mouth 
of the Ai'kansas. Advancing westward, they found no treasures 
— nothing but hardships. " Finding neither gold nor the South- 
ern Sea, for both of which they had hoped, they retm'ned to the 
banks of the Mississippi." Dejected by his frequent failures, De 
Soto was attacked by a malignant fever, from which he died on 
the 21st of May, 1542, and " to ))reserve his body from the In- 
dians, his followers sank it, at midnight, in the river, and the 
BuUen waters of the Mississippi biu'ied his ambition and his 
hopes." Other similar enterprises followed in the course of years, 
but all were alike disastrous, and the Spaniards failed to gain a 
permanent foothold in this land of flowers. 

"After the treacherous peace between Charles IX (of France) 
and the Huguenots, Coliguy renewed his solicitations for the col- 
onizations of Florida. The King gave consent: in 1504, three 
shipswere conceded for the service, and Landonnior, who, in the 
former voyage, had been ujjon the American coast— a man of great 
intclliLjriici'. t)i(]ugli a seaman rather than a soldier — ^was ap- 
poiiilrit to Wm\ Ini'rli the colony." Emigi-ants followed readily, 
and til. 'v \VMn> liospitably entertained by the natives. A monu- 
ment, bearing the arms of France, was crowned with laiu'els, 
and its base encircled with baskets of corn. The apparent pros- 
perity of the French colony was unsatisfactory to the Spaniards, 
who had never relinquished their right to the territory, though 

*rftrknmtrii Ploncora or France, pp. 7, 8. 

they had abandoned it, and measm-es were adopted to recover their 
lost opportunities. In this emergency, Pedro Melendez de Aviles, 
a naval oflicer of unscrupulons daring, appeared upon the scene, 
and a compact was soon formed by which he was constituted Gov- 
ernor. This was on the 20th of May, 1565. In the meantime, 
the Huguenots had made a plantation in Florida, and were pros- 
pering in the enjoyment of privileges of which they had been de- 
prived in the country of their nativity. Then, the cry was raised 
by the King of Spain, and other bigoted followers of the Romish 
chm-ch in alliance with him, that the heretics — not only the Hu- 
guenots, who were especially pnjscribed because of their opinions, 
but the reformers, followers of Luther and Calvin — must be ex- 
tirpated. Melendez. the champion of bigotiy and intolerance, 
imdertook the invasion, which was to be succeeded by the execu- 
tion of the thi-eat. Encountering the French fleet, his name and 
the objects of his visit being demanded, he answered: " I am Mel- 
endez of Spain, sent with strict orders from my King to gibbet 
and behead all of the Protestants in these regions. The Frenchman 
who is a Catholic I will spare; every heretic shall die." Later, 
Melendez, knowing that the French settlement was in defenseless 
state, " led his men through the low land that divides the St. Au- 
gustine from the St. Johns, and, with a furious onset, surprised 
the weak gai'rison, who had only looked toward the sea for the 
approach of danger. After a short contest, the Spaniards were 
masters of the fort; soldiers, women, children, the aged, the sick, 
were alike ntassacred. Nearly two hundred persons were killed."* 

The despotism of Melendez continued during the succeeding 
two years. Finally, Dominique de Gourgues. a bold soldier of 
Gascony, eminently qualified for the self-imposed task, biu'ning 
with a desire to avenge his own wrongs and the honor of his 
country, having equipped tlu'ee ships, with 150 men, embarked, 
on the 22d of August, 1567, for the Florida coast. Keaehiug 
there, he immediately set himself about his work, attacking the 
Spanish fort with such determined resolution that it was finally 
demolished. Not a Spaniard escaped. All were cut down but a 
few, reserved by Goiu'gues for a more inglorious end. The fate of 
the men who had murdered the Huguenot colonists as heretics — 
" not as Frenchmen, but as Lutherans " — was sealed. They were 
hanged on the veiy trees where Uie French had hung before them. 
Over them was nailed the inscription, biu-ned with a hoi iron on a 
tablet of pine, " Not as to Spaniards, but as to ti-aitors, robbers 
and miu'derers." 

The mission of Gom'gues was accomplished. He had avenged 
the wrongs inflicted on his countrymen an<l against humanity. 
He returned to his native countiy with the full consciousness of 
having faithfully discharged his obligation to defend the right 
and punish the wi'ong. 

The Jesuits, despairing of their ability to maintain their rights 
of possession in that territory, left Florida in disgust, the French 
reformers still holding their position.f 

I..\ SAI.LE S 

Previous to the consummation of his plans for the execution 
of the gi'eat piu'poso of his life. La Salle was often visited by In- 
dians, at his settlement on the St LawTence, above Montreal. " On 
one occasion," says Parkman, "he was visited by a band of Seneca 
Iroquois, not long before the seom'ge of the colony, but now, in 
virtue of the treaty, wem'ing the semblance of friendshi]). The 
visitors spent the winter with him, and told him of a river called 




the Ohio, rising in theii' country and flowing into the sea, but at 
such a distance that its mouth could only be reached after a joiu' 
ney of eight or nine months. * « * lu accordance with the 
geographical views then prevalent, he conceived tliat this great 
river must needs flow into the ' Vermillion Sea; ' that is, the Gulf 
of California. If so, it would give him what he sought — a west- 
ern passage to China."* His resolution was then formed, and 
without delay he descended the St. Lawrence to Quebec, where 
the pui-pose of his mission and his plans were laid before the 
Governor in extenso. The plausibility of the enterprise was 
readily acknowledged by the Governor, Coui'celle, and M. Talon, 
Inteudant of Justice. Without delay the necessary commission 
was granted him. to which reference is hereafter given. The 
cost, however, was to be his own, and he was at liberty to 
adopt such means of conducting it as might be in consonance with 
his own ideas of propriety. 

In May, IBIVJ. M. Talon, then Intendaut of Justice, Police and 
Finance, under appointment of Louis, the French King, for the 
province of New France, having a short time previously returned 
fi'om a conference with his sovereign at Paris concerning the prior 
and subsequent administration of the affairs of the province, and the 
measures best adapted to develoji the resom-ces of the country, in 
cai-rying out the instnictions received at that time to extend the 
domain of discovery in the New World, having, with the conom'- 
rence of Gourcelle. the Provincial Governor, appointed Robert 
Cavalier, Siem' de La Salle, a person of great energy and discre- 
tion, to execute the task, which, the sequel will show, was fi'aught 
with such momentovis consequences to the civilization of Europe 
and of the world. Sieui- de La Salle was instructed to jienetrate 
further than had ever before been done, to the southwest and 
south; keep a journal of his adventm-es in all instances, and, on 
his retm'n, reply to the written instructions in his commission. 
These instructions required, among other things, that he should 
take possession of all the new territory discovered by him, " in 
the King's name, displaying the arms of France and issuing jirorra 
I'erbeaux to settlers, to serve as titles." 

In reporting this appointment to the King, he remarks: " His 
Majesty will probably have no news of him (Sieur de La Salle) 
before two years from this, when I shall retiu'n to Frances." 
Another appointment of the same character was made in the jier- 
son of Sieur de St. Louisson, who was given like general instruc- 
tions, and directed to penetrate to the west and northwest. The 
chief pm-pose involved in the explorations of these special routes 
, was the discovery of a more direct passage by water to the East 
Indies and China, points presumed to possess extraordinai-y ad- 
vantages for trade with tLe countries of Western Em-ope. 

It was the custom of the period for provincial oflicers chief in 
authority to report annually to the home government, in October 
or November, a detailed account of the transactions of the pre- 
ceding year, with suggestions for the futm'e. In February. KiTl, 
M. Colbert, the King's Secretary, in a communication addi'essed to 
the Intendant, reviewing his report, covering a period from the 
early part of the year 1669, to the date of the rejiort of 167(1, 
under consideration, says ; " The resolution you have taken to 
send Siem- de La Salle toward the south and Sieur de St. Luisson 
to the north, to discover the South Sea passage, is very good; biit 
the principal tiling to which you ought to apply yom-self, in dis- 
coveries of this nature, is to look for the copiier mine." 

Subsequently, in his rejiort to the King, dated in November. 
1671, M. Talon, the Intendant, makes this annoimcement concern- 

ing the progress of the expeditions before cited: Siem- de La Salle 
he has not yet returned fi-om his jom-ney to the southwiu-d of the 
country. But Siem- de Luisson is retm-ned, after having advanceil 
as far as 500 leagues from here (Quebec), and planted the cross and 
set up the King's arms in presence of seventeen Indian nations, as- 
sembled on this occasion, fi-om all jiai-ts; all of whom voluntarily 
submitted themselves to tUe dominion of His Maji-sty. wli.iin .ilonc 
they regai-d as their sovereign protector." The im-.t in^ ^i th.' In 

I dians to which this report refers was held at the F;ilU..I St. .M.iry. 

; north of Lake Michigan. He reports, also, that "According to the 
calculation made fi-om the reports of the Indians, and fi-om maps, 
there seems to remain not more than fifteen hundi-ed leagues of 
navigation to Tai-tary, China and Japan. Such discoveries must 
be the work either of time or of the King." 

Of the details of the route pm-sued b)' La Salle in this expe- 
dition, since no record made by himself is now known to be ex- 
tant except_so much as relates to the circumstances attending his 
starting-out, and to the conclusion of his enterprise. What occur- 

I red dm-ing the intervening period, is to some extent, a matter of 

Having detei-mined to proc-ed in his work, he left La Chine, 
and, ascending the St. Lawi-ence, he moved westward, in company 
with Collier and Gallinee, imtil, on the thirty-fifth day of their 
jom-ney, they reached Ii-ondequoit Bay, on the south side of Lake 
Ontario. Thence the party took its coiu-se, coasting along the 
southern shore of the lake, reaching the town of Otinawatawa, in 
the vicinity of Hamilton, on the 24th of September. Here, meet- 
ing with Louis Joliet, a young adventm-er who had been sent out 
by M. Talon to discover and explore the copper mines of Lake 
Superior, and, failing in the pm-pose of his mission, was retm-n- 
ing. This meeting changed the plan of operations, the i)rie.sts, 
Dollier and Gallinee, determining to continue on the route by 
way of the lakes, while La Salle, on the other hand, proposed to 
go, as his better judgment seemed to dictate, by the way of the 
Ohio Eiver. On the last day of September, 1669, the pai-ty sepa- 
rated, each branch pm-suing its proposed route. After leaving the 
priests. La Salle went to Ommdaga in search of a guide to direct 
him on his way. Thence he made his way to a point some six or 
seven leagues distant from the southern shore of Lake Erie, where 
he reached a branch of the Ohio, probably the Alleghany, which 
he descended imtil met by a gi-eat fall in the river, imderstood to 
be the Falls of the Ohio, at Louisville. Here the direct narrative 
ends, and we are left in doubt concerning his subsequent move- 
ments, deferring, however, to the consideration of circumstances 
pertinent to the issue transjiiring diu-ing the succeeding two or 
thi-ee yeai-s. 

This was in the fall of l(i69, and he was the beai-er of a com- 
mission from the French Government, clothing him with the au- 
thority and directing him to make discoveries to the southwest 
and south of the countries over which the jiu-isdiction of the Gov- 
ernment then extended, and to penetrate in those directions far- 
ther than had ever been done before. 

Statements in the correspondence of the Government officials 
fi-om time to time, during the period of his absence, kept the au- 
thorities fully infoi-med as to the range of his movements, showed 
that he had not returned, and would not at an earlier date than 
was expected. In fact, the matter was well imderstood in official 
circles, having in the beginning been definitely stated, that he 
would not retm-n until the expiration of two years at least. The 
correspondence also develops the further fact that he did return 
about the time anticipated. These tend to shovr conclusively that 



his movements were in exact accord with the instructions imder 
which the enterprise was conducted. Hence, in view of the jjre- 
liminaiy facts stated, it is not a question of great moment whether 
he piu'sued the course originally sketched out for and by himself, 
in detail, or varied, according to circumstances. That He piu'- 
sued the route, in a general way. at least, that at first most forci- 
bly determined him, there is it room to doubt. And that he exe- 
cuted the trust according to his instructions will scarcely admit of 
a peradventure. 

Taking into consideration all the facts pertinent to the issue 
thus far developed, the more probable route, after leaving the 
Falls of the Ohio at Loiiisville, was to descend that river to the 
mouth of the Wabash, since, on a manuscript map di-awn in 1673, 
and still extant, exhibiting the area of discovery of that date or 
immediately antecedent thereto, the Mississippi Kiver is not 
shown, but the Ohio is traced a short distance below the falls, 
and a part of the Eastern and Northern Illinois delineated there- 
on — a very significant fact, indicating the extent of La Salle's ex- 
ploration. From this, the inference is very naturally and reason- 
ably di-awn that, with the information manifestly in the posses- 
sion of the compiler of that map, who must have been, at the same 
time, cognizant of the movements of M. de La Salle, if not a com- 
panion—it is highly probable that, if La Salle had descended the 
Ohio below the mouth of the Wabash, these additional ouUines of 
discovery would have been represented also. Having thus desig- 
nated the Ohio, the compiler placed on its margin these words: 
" Riviere Ohio, ainsy appellee par les Iroquois a causa de sa beautiS, 
par ou le siem' de la Salle est descendu."* (The River Ohip, so 
called by the Irofjuois liecanse of its beauty, by which La Salle 

Accepting this probability as true — and there seems to be little 
reason to doubt it — that he ascended the Wabash, where did he 
leave that stream 'r The obvious answer is that, if he subsequently 
embarked on the western extremity of Lake Erie, which accords 
with the accepted account, and ascended the strait to Lake St. 
Clair and beyond, as we have seen, he must have traversed the 
Wabash " to the canying-place," on La Riviere de Portage, or 
Little River, and thence by Portage to the " Riviere de la Roche 
(Maumee) at Ke-ki-onga," and down that river until it debouches 
into Lake Erie. This is the more probable, too, in view of the 
further fact that, being a trader as well as an explorer, the greater 
inducement was in favor of the central or chief village of the Mi- 
amis — not only the principal arena of trade with that nation, 
but the great converging point of all the sources of information, 
as stated by Little Tiu'tle, in his address to Gen. Wayne at the 
treaty of Greenville, and his statements were not mere specula- 
tions, but had their foundation in the traditions of his fathers 
from time immemorial. Hence, the route was practicable, since 
it offered the means of acquiring more complete and accurate in- 
formation, concerning that which he most desired to know, than 
was obtainable from any other soiu'ce. 

Returning again to the consideration of the question whether 
La Salle, during the period of his two years' absence, from 10(jU 
to 1(571, ascended the Wabash to the head- waters of that river, and 
thence over the Portage to the Miami village at Ke-ki-ong-a, sub- 
sequently descending thi> Maumee to Lake Erie, thus making con-, 
nection between the Falls of the Ohio and the west end of the 
lake, as stated in the ])reeeding ))ages, let it bo observed that fur- 
ther corroborative circiunstancos occur in the following passages, 
taken from an official account of his voyages and explorations: 

" In 1670, Siem- de La Salle caused a ship and lai-ge house to 
be built above the Falls of Niagara, within thi'ee or four leagues 
of Lake Erie, * * * -which, being completed in 1677, about 
the Feast of St. John the Baptist, was conducted, freighted with 
merchandise, into the said Lake Erie, and thence passed through 
the Detroit (Strait). * * * navigated Lake Hm-on as far as 
Missilimackanaek, and thence, tlu'ough that of the Illinois or Mis- 
sagan beyond the Hm-on Islands, which said bai-k was constiiicted 
for the greater convenience of trading with the French who in- 
habited the said place of Missilimackanaek for more than forty 
years (1636) * * *. For the continuance of which trade, he 
caused a fort and buildings to be erected, and a bark to be begim, 
at a place called Crevecoer, in order to proceed as far as the South 
Sea, two-thirds of which bark only were built, the said Sieur de La 
Salle having afterward employed canoes for his trade in said coun- 
tries, as he had already done for several years, in the Rivers Oyo, 
Ouabach, and others in the surrounding neighborhood, which flow 
into the said River Mississippi, whereof possession was taken by 
him in the King's name, as appears by the relations made there- 
of. The countries and rivers of the Oyo or Abache, and circumja- 
cent territory were inhabited by our Indians, the Chaouanons, 
Miamis and Illinois.",* 

If he had traversed the Wabash with canoes inthe progress 
of his trade for several years before the expedition just cited, the 
conclusion that he did so dm-ing the late fall of 1669, and during 
the year's of 1670 and 1671, seems more than probable, since we 
have no record or allusion to the fact that he did so at a later pe- 
riod. If, then, he was exploring and trading on the AVabash at 
the time designated, what more reasonable than the presumption 
that he established a trading-post at Ke-ki-ong-a, the centi'al vil- 
lage of the Miapiis, and another at Ouiatenon, on the Lower Wa- 
bash, the chief town of the Weas, a branch of the Miamis, trans- 
porting his articles of traffic up the river to " the carrying-place," 
and, having taken them across " the portage," deposited them in 
the fort near the junction of the St. Mary's and the St. Joseph's, 
palisaded, according to the necessities, for protection and defense, 
preparatory to conveying them liy way of the Maiunee to Lake 

Having occupied one or more years in executing his pm-poses 
of discovery and trade, the record informs us that, in 1671 and 
1672, " La Salle embarked on Lake Erie, ascended the Detroit to 
Lake Huron, coasted the imknown shores of Michigan, passed the 
straits of Michillimackinac, and, leaving Green Bay behind him, 
entered what is described as an incomparably larger bay, but 
which was evidently the soitthern portion of Lake Michigan. 
Thence he crossed to a river flowing westwai-d — evidently the Illi- 
nois — and followed it until it was joined by another river flowing 
fi-om the northwest to the southeast. By tins the Mississippi only 
can be meant; and he is reported to have said that he descended 

red that it 
t into tlif 

it to the 36th degi-eeof latitude, where he stopped, 
discharged itself, not into the Gulf of California 
Gulf of Mexico, and resolved to fol'ow it thither at a future day. 
when better provided with men and supplies."-!- 

From the death of Champlaine, in 1635, until 1672, when 
Count de Frontenac was apijointed Governor General of New 
France, a manifest want of judicious management was ai^jiarent 
in tlie conduct of administa-ative officers and subordinates inti-usted 
with the direction of under colonial afl'airs. This condition of 
things had the efi'ect to create disti-ust, induce insubordination 

•N. Y. Col. Doc, IX.pp. isa. 183. 
tPnrkman'H Lh Httlle, pp. 113. 24. 



and retard the movemeuts tending to promote the prosperity of 
frontier settlements. Upon the incoming of Fronteuac, however 
and the development of his administrative policy, there was an 
improvement in the regulatory system of the Government, with 
inducements to greater activity in the extension of trade and of 
settlements. Military posts were established and garrisoned as a 
means of protecting those engaged in pioneer enterprises at the 
principal points designated, as warranted by the demands of these 
growing interests. As early as 1672, a considerable trade had 
grown up among the Miamis and their allies in the teiTitory wa- 
tered by the St. Joseph's of Lake Michigan, the St. Mary's and 
Maumee adjacent to Lake Erie, which, in the not very remote fut- 
m-e, would demand the attention of the colonial authorities to 
encourage and protect. The erection and maintenance of militai'y 
posts by the Government in these localities, therefore, for th^ pro- 
tection of trade, were the natural outgrowth of the situation. 

Meanwhile, the Iroquois were making warlike incursions 
against the Miamis and Illinois. During the progress of these 
expeditions against triljes inhabiting the country watered by the 
Wabash, Kankakee and Illinois Rivers, to the southward of Lake 
Michigan, the route of the incursionists lay along the southern 
shore of Lake Erie, and in the direction of the principal village 
of the Miamis. While the Miamis were not the special objects of 
Iroquois enmity, they were understood to be in alliance with the 
Illinois, and, as a consequence, subject to distrust, and not un- 
frequeutly suffered from the aggressions of their formidable as- 
sailants. The situation induced a change in the line of commer- 
cial intercourse between the French and their Indian allies, with 
whom the Iroquois were at war. In order to avoid the complica- 
tions incident to the maintenance of a trading-post on the line of 
warlike operations, it was determined to occupy and fortify, for 
the time being, another position more remote, at the mouth of the 
River St. Joseph's, at its entrance into Lake Michigan. At a 
later date. La Salle gave this reason for the change: "I can no 
longer go to the Illinois but by the Lakes Hiu-on and Illinois 
(Lake Michigan), because the other ways which I have discovered, 
by the head of Lake Erie and the southern coast of the same, had 
become too dangerous, by fi-equent encounters with the Iroquois, 
who ai'e always npon these coasts.* " * * * Accordingly, 
in the month of November, 1 679, a fort was erected by La Salle at 
the mouth of the St. Joseph's River, ostensibly for the purpose of 
protecting trade, but without doubt for another purpose then quite 
as apparent — defense against the incui-sions of the Iroquois espe- 
cially, who, at that time, and for two years or more prior thereto, 
had been engaged in a war with the Illinois and Miamis — a cir- 
cumstance also tending to show why he had not continued at the 
head of the Miami of Lake Erie (Maumee), in line of most direct 
communication between the Northern lakes and the Mississippi, 
which had been discovered and traversed by him and his asso- 
ciates for some time previously. 

Father Hennepin, who was one of La Salle's pai'ty, gives the 
following account of the building of this fort, called the " Fort 
of the Miamis;" " There was, at the mouth of the river of the 
Miamis, an eminence, with a kind of platform on top, and natur- 
ally fortified. It was high and steep, of ti'iangular figul-e, formed 
on two sides by the river, and on the other by a deep ravine. He 
felled the trees by which it was covered, and cleared away the un- 
derbrush for two gunshots in the direction of the woods. Then 
he began a redoubt forty feet long by eighty broad, fortified by 
square beams and joists, and musket-proof, laid one on another, 

♦Margry's Dtjcouv. iles Fran^ais, II, p. ^96. 

his design being to jiut inclined palisades around the two sides 
facing the river. He cut down palisades which he wished to 
plant eii tenaiUi' twenty-five feet high on the land side. 

" The mouth of November was spent in these works, during 
which time we ate nothing but bear meat that our hunter killed. 
There were at this place many of these animals, that were at- 
tracted to it by the great 'cjuantities of gi-apes growing everywhere 
there; but om- people, seeing the Sieur de La Salle all unmanned 
by the fear entertained by the loss of his bai-k. and utterly an- 
noyed also at the delay of his men, whom the Sieui' de Tonty was 
to bring us, the rigorous setting- in of winter as a climax, disheai-t- 
ening them, the mechanics worked only reluctantly, storming 
against the fat bear meat, and at their being deprived of liberty 
to go and kill deer to eat with the bear tat, but their aim all tend 
ed to desertion. 

"We made a bark cabin during this halt, in order to say mass 
more conveniently, and. on holidays and Sundays. Father Gal)riel 
and I preached alternately, choosing the most impressive matters 
to exhort our m?n to patience and perseverance. 

" From the commencement of the same month, we had exam- 
ined the mouth of the river. We had marked a sand bank there, 
and, to facilitate the entrance of the bark, in case it arrived, the 
channel was marked out by two tall poles, planted on either side 
of the entrance, with bear-skin pendants, and buoys all along. 
We had, moreover, sent to Missilimaekanack two of our men. in- 
formed of all things, to serve as guides to Luke the pilot."* 

This same father, the year following, visited the villages of 
the Miamis in the vicinity and on the Illinois River, in his expe- 
riences learning much of the habits and mode of thought of this 
peojile, of whom he said: "There were many obstacles that hin- 
dered the conversion of the savages, but in general the difficulty 
proceeds from the indifference they have to everything. When 
one speaks to them of the creation of the world, and of the mys- 
teries of the Christian religion, they say we have reason : and they 
applaud, in general, all that we say on the gi'eat affair of om- sal- 
vation. They would think themselves guilty of a great incivility 
if they should show the least suspicion of incredulity in respect 
to what is proposed. But, after having approved all the discourses 
upon these matters, they pretend, likewise, on their side, that 
we ought to pay all possible deference to the relations and reason- 
ings they may make on their part. Superstition," he says, " is one 
of the gi'eat hindrances to conversion, and the custom of tradei-s, 
in common with themselves, to make the most of the bargain by 
cheating, lying and artifice, to promote personal gain, thus en- 
com-aging fraud and injustice. On the other hand, the best ac- 
counts agree that it was thi-ough the agency and persevering ex- 
ertions of missionaj'ies, combined with the active and enterprising 
movements of traders, that the amicable relations and moderate 
trade were brought about between the colonists of Canada and 
the Miami Indians, in the seventeenth eentiu'y." 

While the conditions of hostility existed between those bellig- 
erent Indian Wbes, no steps appear to have been taken on the pai't 
of the Provincial Government towai-d the erection and mainte- 
nance of a fort at the head of the Maumee, other than that prob- 
ably built by La Salle while he occupied the place as a trading- 
jiost, until there was a temporary suspension, at least, of warlike 
operations among the belligerent elements. In 1685, the French 
Government began to adopt more prompt and positive measures 
for the protection of the Miamis: yet. with the greater or less 
activity on the part of the combatants, the warfare continued for 

•Shea'a Hennepin, pp. 131, 132, 



a series of years, lieirig allayed only by ti'eaty, about the year 
1695. Notwithstanding this temporary interrujition of trade 
along the short route to the Mississippi, it was nevertheless re- 
svimed soon after the obstructions were removed, if not before that 
time, and the necessary defenses erected for its maintenance. 
This becomes manifest when it is shown that a commandant was 
appointed by the French Government, and provided with the req- 
uisite outfit, at Ke-ki-ong-a, on the Maumee, and at Ouiatenon, 
on the Wabash. In an account of the occurrences in Canada 
from the 1st of November, 160(5. to the l^th of October, 1697, 
appears the following item concerning appointments in the mili- 
tary department: 

" Count de Frontenac, after having taken the advice of the 
principal officers of this country, ordered D'Argenteuil to place 
himself at the head of the soldiers about to proceed to Missilimack- 
anack and the Miamis. Sieur de Vincennes was to command at 
the latter post. These officers and soldiers have precisely only 
what is necessary for their subsistence, and are very expressly 
forbidden to trade in beaver." This appointment carries with it 
the very reasonable presumption that a fort had already been 
built, which was necessary to be supjilied with officers and men. 
No change appears to have been made in the meantime; in a like 
annual report of the oocmi-ences of the preceding year, bearing 
date November 16, 1704, we find the following statements of ap- 
pointments made: 

" Dispatched Father Valliant and Sieur de Joucaire to Seneca, 
and I sent Sieur de Vinsiene to the Miamis. with my annexed 
order and message to be communicated to them. 

" Sieur de Vinsiene, my Lord, has been formerly commandant 
at the Miamis (1697), by whom he was much beloved; this led me 
to select him in preference to any other, to prove to that nation 
how they were to attack the Iroquois — o\^x allies and theirs 
--without any cause; and we — M. de Beaucharnois and I — after 
consultation, permitted said Sieur de Vinsiene to carry some goods. 
and to take with him six men and two canoes." 

Again, in a communication fi-om Vaudrueil to Pontchartrain, 
dated October 19, 1705, the following fm-ther statement occurs 
touching this matter: 

" I did myself the honor to inform you last year that I re- 
garded the continuance of the peace with the Iroquois as the 
principal affair of this country, and, as I have always labored on 
that principal, it is that also which obliged me to send Sieur de 
Joneaire to the Senecas, and Siem- de Vinsiene to the Miamis."* 

In addition to what has already been shown concerning the 
early discovery and use of the line of communication by water 
from the Northern lakes to the Mississippi, as a means of estab- 
lishing trade between those points, the attention of the reader is 
directed to the following extract from a paper prepared by the 
provincial officers of the British Government in this coimtry, in 
review of the progress of discoveries and courses of trade during 
a long series of yeai's anterior thereto: 

" It is evident, from Father Hennepin's and La Salle's travels, 
that the communication between Canada and Mississi])pi is a very 
recent discovery; and. jierhaps, such a one as no nation less in- 
dustrious than the French would have attemjited; but it pntist be 
allowed that they have a great advantage over us in this jiai-ticu- 
lar, to which even the natm'e of their religion and Government do 
greatly contribute; for their missionaries, in blind obedience to 
their superiors, spend whole years in exploring new countries; 
and the encouragement the late French King gave to the discov- 

♦N. Y, Col. Doc, IX, pp. C0«, 7r.9, 7r.c. 

erers and planters of new tracts of land, doth far exceed any ad- 
vantages your Majesty's royal predecessors have hitherto given to 
their subjects in America. ***** From this lake 
(Erie) to the Mississippi, they have three diffei'ent routes. The 
shortest by water is up the River Miamis, or Ouamis (Mamnee), 
on the southwest of Lake Erie; on which river they sail about 
one hundred and fifty leagues without interniption. when they 
find themselves stopped by another landing of about three leagues, 
which they call a carrying-place, because they are generally ob- 
liged to carry their canoes overland in those places to the next 
river, and that where they next embark is a very shallow one, 
called the La Riviere de Portage (now Little River, or the Little 
Wabash); hence they row about forty leagues to the River Oua- 
bach, and from there about one hundred and twenty leagues to 
the River Ohio, into which the Ouabach falls, as the River Ohio 
does, about eighty leagues lower, into the Mississippi, which con- 
tinues its course for about three hundred and fifty leagues directly 
to the Bay of Mexico. 

" There are 1 ikewise two other passages, much longer than 
this, which are particularly pricked down in Hennepin's map, and 
may be described in the following manner: 

" From the northeast of Lake Erie to a fort on Lake St. Clair, 
called Pont Chai-trin. is about eight leagues sail; here the French 
have a settlement, and often foiu- hundred traders meet there. 
Along this lake they proceed to the Straits of Michilimackinack 
120 leagues. Here is a gamson of about thirty French, and a 
vast concoui-se of traders, sometimes not less than one thousand, 
besides Indians, being a common place of rendezvous. At and 
near this place, the Outarwas, an Indian nation, ai'e settled. 

" From the Lake Hm-on they pass by the Sti-ait Michilimack- 
inack foiu' leagues, being two in breadth, and of gi-eat depth, to 
the Lake Illinois (Michigan): thence 150 leagiies on the lake to 
Fort Miamis, situated on the mouth of the River Chicagoe; fi'om 
hence came those Indians of the same name, viz.. Miamis, who 
are settled on the forementioned river, that nms into Erie. Up 
the River Chicagoe they sail but three leagues to a passage of 
one-fom-th of a league; then enter a small lake of about a mile, 
and have another very small portage, and again another of two 
miles to the River Illinois, thence down the sti'eam 130 leagues 
to Mississippi. 

" The next is from Michilimackinack. on Lake Illinois, to the 
Lake de Puans, ninety leagues, thence to the River Paaus, eighty 
leagues, thence up the same to a portage of about foiu- miles be- 
fore they come to the River Owisconsing. thence forty leagues to 
Mississippi. These distances are as the traders reckon them; but 
they appear generally to be much overdone, which may be owing 
to those peoples coasting along tlie shores of the lakes, and taking 
in all the windings of the rivers. 

"They have another much shorter passage fi-om Mount Heal 
(Montreal) to Lake Huron, by the French River on the north of 
St Lawrence, which communicates with the two latter points; but 
it abounds with falls, and therefore, is not so much used. They 
have also by this river a much shorter passage to the upper lake, 
or Lake Superior."* 

Although this paper bears date September S, 17'J1. it must be 
remembered that its statements are baaed wholly u|iiin the r(>])orts 
of travels and explorations made by La Salle and Hennepin, espec- 
ially, and the maps prepared by them, or imder their sui)ervision, 
communicated within the jjoriod from 1(169 to 1685, and that the 
language is simply descriptive of what was ascertained and known 



by those voyageurs nearly half a century before the paper was writ- 
ten. And it is exceedingly strange, too, that many historians who 
have wi'itten upon the subject should fix the period of the discovery 
of this particular route in 171 t3,when the very testimony upon which 
the statement rests says, they were so made fi'om the date fiuTiished 
by these two noted travelers, and not fi-om discoveries made at a 
period immediately anterior to 172] , as the language used might 
readily be consti-ued to import. Still fm-ther, also, must it be un- 
derstood that the account is from English officials, who necessarily 
were not cognizant of the details of recent discoveries made by 
another nation not enjoying the most fi-ieudly relations with them, 
but governed wholly by the published statements of earlier oper- 
ations within their reach. Hence, while the account in the main 
is just and fair, the presumption should not go forth that the 
document alluded to contained the first emmciation that such dis- 
coveries had been made, when, in fact, it only recited what had 
long before been within the knowledge of the nations. 

Of like import with the foregoing is the statement of Father 
AUouez, who, in describing the countries bordering on the Lakes 
Illinois and Erie, their water-com-ses and means of transport to 
and from the principal marts of trade, items of advantage, proper 
to be known in the selection of eligible sites for future settle- 
ments, says: " There is at the end of Lake Erie, ten leagues be- 
low the strait, a river by which we could greatly-shorten the route 
to the Illinois (country), being navigable for canoes about two 
leagues nearer than that way by which they usually go there " — 
referring to the route by way of the Maumee and Wabash, speak- 
ing also of another route shorter and better, by way of the Ohio, 
because of its being navigable for vessels of greater capacity than 
canoes, and to this latter there were objections not attaching to 
the one previously cited.* 

That this route by way of the Maumee and Wabash was prob- 
ably traveled at a much earlier date, even, than that usually 
claimed for it, is at least strongly suggested by a map published as 
early as 1657 — di-awn, no doubt, two or thi-ee years before, by M. 
de Sanson, Royal Geographer to the King of France — designed 
to accm-ately represent the relative situation of New France with 
its numerous lakes, rivers and mountains, to the best advantage. 
By this map, a copy of which has been published in this country. 
Lake Erie is located with considerable accuracy, " with a river 
flowing into it from the southwest for a distance, clearly repre- 
senting the present coiu-se of the Maimiee, from the site of the 
old French fort at Ke-ki-ong-a to the lake. The St. Mary's and 
St. Joseph's are not delineated, showing that their coui-ses had not 
yet been explored." This, with other facts before presented, must 
establish, beyond successful controversy, the very early visitation 
of this country by white men of careful and painstaking observa- 
tion and of extensive research. Guided by the same som-ces of 
information from which much of the testimony relative to the eai-ly 
occupancy by the French of the Upper Wabash and its ti'ibutaries, 
and the navigation of them with canoes in the transportation of arti- 
cles of commerce from one poi'tion of the country to another, that 
testimony is equally applicable to the histoiy of discoveries, trad- 
ing operations and visitations preliminary to settlement in the 
middle and lower Wabash coimtry. Indeed, for the pui-poses of 
trade and its inseparable incidents, the whole route from and be- 
low Ouiatenon to Ke-ki-ong-a was a continuous thoroughfare and 
appropriated for a common purpose. This was the country of 
the Miamis, and almost exclusively occu])ied by them and their 
immediate branches, the Thorntowns and AVeas, until by suifer- 

*Margry'B Decouv. des Frangaia, II. p. 9^. 

auce the Pottawatomies gained a habitation among them near 
the margii^ of the Tippecanoe ; and the Jesuit priests, with their 
forerunners, the French traders, who came among them in their 
homes farther to the northward near the lakes, visited and traded 
with them here. 


Father Hennepin, in his account of the expedition from Fort 
Miamis, at the mouth of the St. Joseph's River, to the Illinois 
country, speaks of the movements of the party, relating numerous 
incidents of travel, which are valuable as giving a more accurate 
idea of the country and its inhabitants as seen two centm-ies ago, 
than is perhaps elsewhere obtainable. Speaking of rejoining 
the other members of the party at the portage at the head 
of the carrying-place from the St. Joseph's to the Kankakee, he 
says: "We found there a number of buffalo horns and the car 
! casses of those animals, and some canoes that the Indians had 
I made of buffalo skins to cross the river with their load of meat. 
This place is situated on the edge of a gi-eat plain, at Ihe extremity 
of which, on the western side, is a village of Miamis, Mascoutens 
and Ouiatenons, gathered together." 

This portage was not far from the present city of South Bend, Ind. 
West of this city, and not far distant, is Lake Kankakee, from which 
the Kankakee, the ancient Seignelay River takes its rise. The 
distance intervening between the head of this little lake and the St. 
Joseph's River is about two miles, over a piece of marshy ground, 
almost level, yet with sufficient fall to justify the utilization of 
the water in the lake as a motive power in the propulsion of ma- 
chinery. This latter fact was fully demonstrated in 1832, when 
Alexander Coquillard, one of St. Joseph's entei-prising pioneer 
citizens, dug a race fi'omthe lake thi-ough a portion of this mai-sh 
land to the St Joseph's River, thus seciu-iug a flow of water suffi- 
cient to ran a grist and saw mill. 

" The River Seignelay, which flows to the Islinois (Indians), 
rises in a plain in the midst of much boggy land, over which it is 
not easy to walk. This river is only a league and a half distant 
fi'om that of the Miamis (St. Joseph's), and thus we transported 
all our equipage and canoes by a road which we marked for the 
benefit of those who might come after us, after leaving, at the 
portage of the Miami River, as well as at the fort which we had 
built at its mouth, letters to serve as a guide to those who were to 
come and join us by the bark, to the number of twenty-five. 

" The River Seignelay is navigable for canoes to within a 
hunch-ed paces of its source, and it increases to such an extent in 
a short time that it is almost as broad, and deeper than the Marne. 
It takes its coui'se through vast marshes, where it winds about so, 
though its current is pretty strong, that, after sailing on it for a 
whole day, we sometimes foimd that we had not advanced more 
than two leagues in a straight line. As far as the eye could 
reach.'nothing was to be seen but marshes, full of flags and alders. 
For more than forty leagues of the way, we could not have found 
a camping-ground, except for some hummocks of frozen earth on 
which we slept and lit our fire. Om- provisions ran out, and we 
could find no game after passing these marshes, as we had hoped 
to do, because there are only great open plains, where nothing 
grows except tall grass, which is di'y at this season (December), 
and which the Miamis had burned while himting buffalo, and, 
with all the address we employed to kill some deer, our hunters 
took nothing; for more than sixty leagues' journey, they killed 
only a lean stag, a small deer, some swans and two wild geese for 
the subsistence of thirty-two men. If our -eanoemen had found a 
chance, they would infallibly have all abandoned us, to strike in- 


land and join the Indians, whom we discerned Ijy the flames of the 
j^rairies, to which they had set fire in order to kill the buffalo more 

" These animals are ordinarily in great numbers there, as it is 
easy to judge by the bones, the horns and skulls that we saw on 
all sides. The Miamis hunt them at the end of avitumn, in the 
following manner; When they see a herd, they gather in great 
numbers and set fire to the grass everywhere around these ani- 
mals, except some passage which they leave on purpose, and where 
they take post with their bows and arrows. The buffalo, seeking 
to escape the fire, are thus compelled to pass near these Indians, 
who sometimes kill as many as a hundred and twenty in a day, 
all of which they distribute according to the wants of th* fami- 
lies; and these Indians, all trimnphant over the massacre of so 
many animals, come to noti fy their women, who at once proceed to 
bring in the meat. Some of them at times take on their backs 300 
pounds' weight, and also throw their children on top of their load> 
which does not seem to bm-then them more than a soldier's sword 
at his side. 

" These cattle have very fine wool instead of hair, and the fe- 
males have it longer than the males. Their horns are almost 
black, much thicker than those of the cattle in Eiu'ope, but not 
quite so long. The head is of monstrous size; the neck is very 
short, but very thick, sometimes six hands broad. They have a 
hump, or slight elevation, between the two shoulders. Their legs 
are very thick and short, covered with a long wool. On the head 
and between the horns, they have long black hair, which falls 
over their eyes and gives them a fearful look. The meat of these 
animals is very succulent. They are very fat in autumn, because 
all the summer they are up to their necks in the gi-ass. These 
vast countries are so full of prairies that it seems this is the ele- 
ment and the country of the buffalo."* 

In addition to what has been drawn fi-om Henue}nu"s travels 
in Northern Indiana, and his route along the Kankakee, some 
facts pertaining to a better understanding of the earlier descrip- 
tions of the country than are usually found in the histories of the 
present day. we introduce in this place, further accounts given 
by Charlevoix, in his journal of travels in North America, wi'itten 
in 1720 and 1721. In his letter of September 17, 1720, he says: 
" I think I informed j'ou in my last that I had the choice of two 
ways to go to the Illinois. The first was to return to Lake Michi- 
gan, to coast all the south shore, and to enter into the little river, 
Chicagou. After going up it five or six leagues, they pass into that 
to the Illinois, by the means of two portages, the longest of which 
is but a league and a quarter. But, as this river is but a brook 
in this place, I was informed that at that time of the year I should 
not find water enough for my canoe; therefore. I took the other 
route, which has also its inconveniences, and is not so pleasant, 
but it is the sui-est. 

" I departed yesterday from the fort of the River Ht, .f osejA's, 

'Shen-B H.-im,.I.In. p|.. H(i, U!,. Mnrgry'» Di-couv. dea Kraii..«iB, I, p|,. 4l!:i, 405. 

and I went up that river about sis leagues. I landed on the 
right, and I walked a league and a quarter; at first by the bank of 
the river, then cross the coimtiy in a vast meadow, interspersed all 
over with little clusters of trees that have a very fine effect. They 
call it the meadow de la Tele de Boeuf (the Buffalo's Head), be- 
cause they fovmd here a buffalo's head of a monstrous size. Why 
should there not be giants among these animals 'i I encamped in 
a very fine place, which they call the Fort des Renards (of the 
Foxes), because the Renards, that is to say, the Outagamis, had 
here, not long since, a village fortified after their manner. 

" This morning I walked a league further in the meadow, hav- 
ing almost all the way my feet in water. Then I met with a 
little pool, which communicates with several others of different 
bigness, the largest of which is not one hundred paces in com- 
pass. These are the sources of the river called Tbeakiki, and which 
our Canadians, by corruption, call Kiakiki. Theak signifies a 
wolf, I forget in what language, but this river is so called because 
the Mahingans. which are also called the Wolves, formerly took 
refuge here."* This river, here called Theakiki, is the same 
called by Hennepin and others Seignelay, now known as the Kan- 
kakee, probably a corruption of Theakiki. The Mahingans. or 
Wolves, were a tribe of Indians at one time inhabitants of the 
Peninsula of Michigan, whence the name Wolverines, sometimes 
applied to the inhabitants, of that State. 

" We put our canoe, which was brought hither by two men, 
into the second of these springs or pools, and we embai-ked; but 
we found scarce water enough to keep it afloat ; ten men. in two 
days, might make a straight and navigable canal, which would 
save much trouble, and ten or twelve leagues' way; for the river, 
at first coming out fi-om its spring, is so nan-ow that we are 
continually obliged to turn so short that every moment one is 
in danger of breaking the canoe, as it has just now hajipened 
to us." 

In the letters patent gi-anted by Louis XIV, King of France, 
September 14, 1712, to Anthony Crozat, bestowing upon him the 
commerce of the countiy of Louisiana, the following paragraph 
occurs, which may be a soiu-ce of information to the inquiring 
reader; " We have appointed, and do appoint, the said Sieur 
Crozat solely to carry on a trade in all the lands possessed by us 
and bounded by New Mexico, and by the lands of the English of 
Carolina, all the establishments, ports, havens, rivers, principally 
the port and haven of the Isle Dauphine, heretofore called Mas- 
sacre; the river of St. Louis, heretofore called Mississippi, from 
the edge of the sea as far as the Illinois; together with the river 
St. Philip, heretofore called Missouri; and of St. Jerome, hereto- 
fore called Ouabache, with all the countries, teiTitories, lakes 
within land, and rivers, which fall directly or indirectly into that 
part of the River St. Louis, * ♦ * reserving, however, to 
ourselves the liberty of enlarging, as we shall think fit, the extent 
of the government of the said country of Louisiana." 

•CbBrlnvoli.Vl'. 27i, 273. 






s Detek- 
r. Past— 
ii: Divis- 







Who were They— Classification of 
mined by the most experienred (u:<\ 


IONS Cited— Pecui.iaiuties of Langiai. 


HURON'S OR Huuon-Iroquois, etc. 

1 TPON the tii'st introduction of Eiu'opeans among the primitive 
*— ^ inhabitant's of this country, it was the prevailing opinion 
among the white people that the vast domain since designated as 
the " American Continent" was peopled by one common family, of 
like habits, and speaking the same language. The error, how- 
ever, was soon dispelled by observation, which at the same time 
established the fact of the great diversity of their characteristics^ 
language and physical development, the diversity arising some- 
times from one cause and sometimes from another. Especially 
within the past centmy, the subject of ethnological investigation 
has acquired new interest, the unfoldings of the period adding 
largely to the stock of knowledge appertaining thereto. These 
investigations, in many instances, have elicited facts of gi'eat mo- 
ment, by the consideration, in the light of the present age, of ob 
served conditions as consequent upon causes before unknown to 

In what follows, the reader's attention will be directed to an 
examination of such of the featm-es of the investigation as pertain 
to the classes, families and tribes of the Indian race that have 
from time to time inhabited this valley, or whose history may have 
been incidentally connected therewith. Certain radical divisions 
there are, into which, by common consent, the race has been sep- 
arated, and these now must claim our attention. 

The principal division known at this period is the Algonquin, 
embracing, among other powerful tribes, the Miamis, recognized 
as one of the mast perfect types, and, in past ages, one of the most 
extensive on the continent. Next in rank to the Miamis, if. in- 
deed, they are not entitled to precedence, are the Delawares, or 
Lenne Lenapes, and the Shawanoes. The Miamis were early 
known as the Twa'-twas,' Omes and Omamees. Next in rank were 
the Peorias. Kaskaskias. Weas and Piankeshaws, who, collectively, 
were known as the Ilinese, or Illinois Indians. Then, the Otta- 
was. The Chippewas and Mississauges were interchangeably 
known as Nepersinians, Nipissings, Ojibwas, Santaux and Chibwas. 
After these were the Kickapoos, or Miscoutins; the Pottawatomies, 
or Poiix; and the Sacs (or Saux) and Foxes (or Reynai-ds). The 
Muusees was another name for the Delawai-es. This is the classi- 
fication and arrangement of Schoolcraft, in his history of the 
" Indians of North America." Another division, the Hm'ons, 
Hm'on-Iroquois or Wyandots, embraced all the remaining tribes 
with whose history we ai'e immediately interested. Of this divis- 
ion, the Hurons, better known as the Wyandots, enter especially 
into oiu: local history. Of these matters, however, more will ap- 
pear in subsequent pages. 


The Algonquins, or i)rimitive family, as sometimes called, re- 
ceived that name from the French as a mark of distinction when 
compared with other families of the aboriginal race. It appears 
to have been first applied by the missionaries at Montreal, before 
the middle of the sixteenth centiiry. As first employed, it meant 
only "the people of the other side." Cartier, in 1535, having 
the previous year discovered the St. Lawrence, entered the gulf 
known by that na .le and ascended the river, in one of his ships, 
to Lake St. Peters, whence he proceeded in boats to the island of 
Hochelega, the present site of Montreal or Moimt Royal, as orig- 
inally called. This jjlace was then populated by numerous bands 
of Indians, who, it was readily perceived, were of the Iroquois 
stock. These were found to be the ancient tribe since known as 
the Wyandots, but called, by the French, Hurons, from the wild 
manner of dressing their hair. They occupied the eastern and 
southern shores of the St, Lawrence, extending westward to the 
Niagara River, and southeast to the Lake Champlain, in common 
with other Iroquois cantons, and were expert canoemen, during the 
fishing season descending the St. Lawrence to the gulf. On a map 
published at Amsterdam in 1654, the country inhabited by them 
was designated by the name of Ii'ocosia, the country of the Lo- 
quois. The opposite side of the River St. Lawrence, on the other 
hand, was occupied by a people speaking a different language, 
who were, however, on good terms with the Wyandots, and — 
according to Colden, who followed the early French writers — 
excelling them in military skill and renown. This Northern 
people, occupying a position on the other side of the river, 
were called Algomeequins, or, by contraction, to Algonquins, 
to tlistinguish them from the Ii'oquois, who occupied the lower 
side of the St. La^vi'ence. The Algonquins ti-aced their origin to the 
high and mountainous tract of lakes and cliffs which stretches fi-om 
the sources of the Utawas River to the entrance of the Saguenay 
at Tadousac, and hence ai-e refen-ed to by eai'ly French wi-iters as 
Montagnes. From the Ttawas and its sources south, west and 
north, this jieople spread throughout the entire area of the upper 
lakes. Later, they abandoned the valley of the St, Lawi-euce and 
moved westward, still repeating the traditions of their removal 
fi'om the Far East, Though divided into numerous local bands, 
bearing distinctive names, the difference in their language, looks, 
manners or customs being scai'cely appreciable. At the earliest 
dates refen-ed to in their traditions, the Attawas, or Ottawas, oc- 
cupied the country to the northward of the St. Lawrence, and 
afterward the chain of Manitouline Islands in Lake Huron, The 
Nipercinians, however, who ai'e deemed the ti'ue or original Al- 
gonquins, lived at Lake Nepissing; the Ojibwas. on the Straits of 
St. Mary's and on the shores of Lake Superior. 

The traditions of the Ottawas and Chippewas represent those 
tribes as a nation, as first coming into hostile collision with a peo- 
ple who appear to have been their predecessors in the lake region, 
on the inner shores of the island of Portagimasee, now known as 
Dnimmond Island, and on the nan-ow peninsula of Point Detour, 


Lake Hm'ou, the latter being the western cape of the entrance 
into the Straits of St. Mary's, and, defeating, drove them westward. 
This 2>rimitive people were known as Mushkodians, or Little Prai- 
rie Indians, and to them the Ottawas atti'ibute the construction of 
the small mounds and all garden-beds in the Grand Kiver Valley 
and elsewhere, and the authorship of the trenches filled with hu- 
man bones on Bound Island, in Lake Huron, as well as having 
been the workers of the ancient copper mines on Lake Superior. 
Algonquin traditions rejiresent, further, that the sepai'ation of the 
Chippewas, Ottawas and Pottawatomies took place in the vicinity 
of Michilimackanack; that subsequently, the Ottawas went to live 
with the Pottawatomies on the southern shore of Lake Michigan; 
but, becoming dissatisfied with the situation, were sold by the 
latter they might go back toward the North if they did not like 
them — that they had made a fire for themselves. From this cir- 
cumstance, it is said, the name of Pottawatomies (signifying they 
who assume separate sovereignty by building a coimeil tire for 
themselves) was derived. 

The Algonquin family, considered with reference to the intel- 
lectual capacity of its members, occupies a position, when com- 
pared with the other families of the Indian race, far above medi- 
ocrity, being surpassed in this regard only by the Dacotahs and 
Iroquois, the latter standing, probably, in the first rank. The 
language is euphonious and expressive, abounding in vowel sounds 
capable of numerous and exceedingly nice, regular modifications. 
Aside fi'om their distinctive individualities, there are few physical 
peculiarities which distinguish the Algonquins from other divis- 
ions. "All possess, though in various degrees, the long, lank, 
black hair, the heavy eyebrows, the dull and appai-ently sleepy 
eye, the full and compressed lips, and the salient but dilated 
nose. A similar conformity of organization is not less obvious in 
the cranial structiu-e of these peoples. The Indian skull is of a 
decidedly rounded form. The occipital portion is flattened in 
the upward direction; and the transverse diameter, as measm-ed 
between the parietal bones, is remarkably wide, and often exceeds 
the longitudinal line. The forehead is low and receding, and 
rarely arched, as in other races ; a feature that is regarded by 
Humboldt, Lund and other naturalists as characteristic of the 
American race, and seiTing to distinguish it even from the Mon- 
golian. The cheek bones are high, but not much exjianded; the 
whole maxillary region is salient and ponderous, with teeth of a 
corresponding size and singularly free from decay." 

Bancroft, speaking of the Algonquin as the primitive language 
of the aborigines, says: " It was the mother tongue of those who 
greeted the colonists of K'aleigh at Roanoke, of those who wel- 
comed the Pilgrims to Plymouth. It was heard from the Bay of 
Gaspe to the valley of the Des Moines; from Cape Fear, and it 
may be from the Savannah, to the land of the Esquimaux; fi-om 
the Cumberland River of Kentucky to the southern bank of the 
Mississippi. It was spoken, though not exclusively, in a territory 
that extended through sixty degrees of longitude and more than 
twenty degi'ees of latitude."* 


This family, so called by the French, otherwise known as the 
Wyandots, were of those who inhabited the Island of Hochalega, 
at the time of the advent of Jacques Cartier in 1535, their domain 
extending westward to the west end of Lake Erie, and thence 
northward along the margin of the lake since known by their 
name. They were, it is understood, of the family of the Iroquois, 

though in alliance with the Algonquins, who inhabited, at that 
time, the region of the Northern lakes. At the time of the dis- 
covery of America, and for a time subsequent thereto, as we 
have seen, the nations speaking the dialects of this family were 
very numerous and powerful, diffused over a wide expanse of ter- 
ritory. " The peninsula inclosed between Lakes Huron, Erie and 
Ontario had then long been the dwelling place of the five confed- 
erated tribes of the Hurons. After their defeat by the Five Na- 
tions, a part descended the St. Lawrence, and their progeny may 
still be seen neai' Quebec; a part were adopted on equal terms into 
the tribes of their conquerors: the Wyandots fled beyond Lake 
Superior and hid themselves in the dreary wastes that divided 
the Chippewas from their Western foes. In 1671, they retreated 
before the powerful Sioux, and made their home first at St. Mary's 
and at Michilimackinack, and afterward near the post of Detroit. 
Thus the Wyandots within our borders were emigrants fi-om 
Canada. Having a mysterious influence over the Algonquin 
tribes, and making treaties with the Five Nations, they spread 
along Lake Erie ; and, leaving to the Miamis the country beyond 
the Miami of the lakes, they gradually acquired a claim to the 
territory fi-om that river to the western boundary of New York."* 

Charlevoix, in his journal of travels through North America, 
in 1720-22, discusses the character of the Huron language in this 
wise: "The Huron language has a copiousness, an energy and 
a sublimity perhaps not to be found united in any of the finest 
that we know; and those whose native tongue it is, though they 
are now but a handful of men, have such an elevation of soul that 
agrees much better with the majority of then- language than with 
the sad fate to which they ai'e reduced. Some have fancied they 
found in it some similitude with the Hebrew ; others, and the great- 
est number, have maintained that it had the same origin as the 
Greek; but nothing is more trifling than the proofs they bring for 
it. We must not depend especially upon the vocabulary of Brother 
Sagbard, a Recollet, who hath been cited to support this opinion; 
much less on those of James Cartier and the Baron de la Honton. 
These three authors took at random some terms, some of which 
were Hm'on, others Algonquin, which they ill retained, and which 
often signified qutie diffeieut fi'om what they thought. And how 
many errors have been occasioned by such mistakes of many trav- 
elers. * * * l7i the Huron language, all is conjugated; a 
certain device, which I cannot well explain to you, distinguishes 
the verbs, the nouns, the pronouns, the adverbs, etc. The simple 
verbs have a double conjugation — one absolute, the other recipro- 
cal; the third persons have the two gendere. for there are but two 
in these languages; that is to say, the noble and the ignoble gen- 
der. As to the numbers and tenses, they have the same differences 
as in the Greek; for instance, to relate travels, they express them- 
selves differently according, as it was, by laud or by water. The 
verbs active multiply iis often as there are things which fall under 
action; as the verb which signifies to eat, varies as many times as 
there are things to eat. The action is expressed differently in 
respect to anything that has life and an inanimate thing; thus, to 
see a man and to see a stone ai'e two verbs; to make use of a thing 
that belongs to him that uses it, or to him to whom we speak, are 
two different verbs." 

Of the people who speak the Huron language, he says, " they 
have always applied themselves more than the othei-s to culti- 
vating the land; they have also extended themselves much less, 
which has produced two offoct*i; for, iu the first place, they are 
better settled, better lodged arid better fortified: and there has 

•Bancrofl's U. S. HIsl., Vol. II, p. 4(«l. 



alwaj's been amongst them more policy, and a more distingiaished 
form of government The quality of a chief, at least among the 
true Hiu-ons, which are the Tionnontates, is hereditaiy. In the 
second place, till the Iroquois wai's, of which we have been wit- 
nesses, their coimtry was more peopled, though they never allowed 
polygamy. They are also reputed more industrious, more dex- 
trous in their afl'airs. and more prudent in their resolutions, which 
cannot be attributed but to a spirit of society which they have 
preserved better than the others. This is remai'ked particularly 
of the Hurons, that, though scarcely any longer a nation, and re- 
duced to two villages not vei^ large, and at a gi-eat distance one 
from the other, yet they are the soul of all the coimcils when they 
consult on any general afl'airs. It is true that, in spite of that 
difi'erence which is not seen at the fii-st glance, there is much re- 
semblance in the sense, the manners, and all the customs of the 
savages of Canada; but this is the consequence of the intercom-se 
which has been always between them for many ages."* 

A-t a later date, fi-om the latter pai-t of the eighteenth eentm-y 
and the first years of the nineteenth, the Wyandots (Hurons) had 
a residence among the native tribes of the Northwestern Territory; 
and, during the Indian wars that preceded the settlement of the 
Wabash Valley, they occupied a conspicuous part in the move- 
ments incident to the warfare that succeeded the adoption of the 
coercive policy of the United States toward the Indian tribes, 
which culminated in the battle of Tippecanoe, in Xovemlier. 1811. 




East ok Lake Michigan— .Some ok Theik Piiy.sical and Men 

TAL I'EI-ULIARITIES, MANNERS AND CvsTOMS— TiiEiK WAR Ex- more sweetness and elegau' 


Mississippi Ki\'ei!. e;tc. 

probably did not take place prior to the year 1600, since nothing 
is heard of them for a number of yeai-s subsequent to that time. 
Having separated themselves, however, they located somewhere to 
the southwiu-d of Lake Nipissing, or on the peninsula ea.stof Lake 
Michigan. Here their aptness in catching the beaver and ether 
fiir-bearing animals of the higher grades insm-ed their early ac- 
quaintance with traders of the class that then traversed the 
i Coimtry. The strifes incident to competition in trade, and the 
I jealousies engendered thereby in the end, induced a resort to 
every species of chicanery consistent with securing a good trade. 
They were designated first, by the English traders and others, as 
I Twightwees, or Twig-twees. Later, tkrough the agency of these 
deceptions, practiced by the English no doubt to oflfset the supe- 
! rior diplomacy of the French, the name became obnoxious. At 
[ this juncUu'e, the French, to maintain the ascendant and secure 
i their confidence thereafter, called them M'Amis (Miamis) — my 
j friends — significant of the confidential relationship between them. 
I The general con-ectness of this version of the incidents connected 
I with the name of this ancient tribe has, in addition to its proba- 
bility, the accej)tance, in substance, at least, of some old vpriters 
whose statements are every way worthy of credence. 

Next to the Delawares, perhaps, the Miamis are entitled to be 
recognized as the leading branch of the Algonquin group, tracing 
their individuality, with the Ottawas and Nipercinians, from the 
( coimtry north of the St. Lawrence, in the latter end of the six- 
teenth century, when the French navigators and traders began 
first to establish posts as the antecedents of permanent settle- 
ments in New France. Whatever is true of their relationship to 
the parent stock, whether immediate or remote, it is a fact, never- 
theless, that many of the primitive characteristics of the generic 
group are preserved in the habits and language of the Miami 

In common with the primitive Algonquins, the language of the 
Miamis, as compared with the Huron, " has not so much force, but 

Both have richness of 


THE Miamis, according to the opinion of ethnologists gener- 
ally, occupy a high position among the tribes recognized as 
typifying the primitive or Algonquin family. As a tribe, they 
have been variously designated as the 'Twa-'twas, Twe-twees, 
Twightwees, Omes, Omamees, Aimiiamis, and finally the Miamis. 
Just at what time this latter name became the generally accepted 
one is uncertain. As to the origin of the name, however, there is 
little doubt. At an early period in the history of the^Algonquin 
family, while it inhabited the region of the Northern lakes, and 
before the general dispersion of the tribes, this branch was recog- 
nized not so much by a distinct name, in the sense of a specific 
division, as by particularities of manner and habit, or otherwise, 
from its location. At that period, in common with the Ottawas 
and adjacent bands, their chief avocation appears to have been 
fur- gathering, for they were hunters and trappers, and had ac- 
quired considerable notoriety in this special calling. From the 
contiguity of their location and similarity of habit with the Otta- 
was, as separate bands, they were perhaps distinguished by the 
appellation of 'T-oua-touas, or 'Twa-twas, indicating that they 
were of the hunters, or were hunters, the Ottawas being especially 
known by that name, from which the modification of the term de- 
rives its significance. The tribal relation was not recognized 
imtil the severance from the parent stock was consummated. This 

•rharleroix Trflv., pp. 115, 121, Vl-l, 123. 

a variety of terms, a propriety of terms, a regularity, which aston- 
ishes. But what is more sm-prising is that among these barbai'ians, 
who never study to speak well, and who never had the use of writing, 
there is not introduced a bad word, an improper term or a vicious 
construction; and even children preserve all the purity of the lan- 
guage in their common discom-se. On the other hand, the manner 
in which thej' animate, they say, loaves no room to doubt of their 
comprehending all the worth of their expressions and all the 
beauty of their language." 

Touching the question of their first or primitive settlement as 
a b-ibe, and its subsequent movements. Little Turtle, one of the 
most intelligent of his tribe, in a speech before Gen. WajTie at 
the treaty of Greenville, in August, 1795, gives the following re- 
view of the tribe's histoiy: " It is well known by all my brothers 
present that my forefather kindled the tii-st fire at Detroit; from 
there he extended his lines to the headwaters of the Scioto; from 
there to its mouth; from there down the Ohio to the mouth of the 
Wabash; and from there to Chicago, on Lake Michigan." Though 
given without reference to dates, yet the movements are stated in 
the exact order of their occuiTence, and, relatively therefore, ai-e, 
without doubt, strictly acciu-ate. , 

The iii'st historical accoimt we have of this tribe was in the 
year 1669, in the vicinity of Green Bay, where they were visited by 
the French missionary. Father Allouez, and subsequently by 
Father Dablon. It is stated that from there they passed to the 
southward of Lake Michigan, in the vicinity of Chicago. At a 


later date, they settled on the St. Joseph's, of Lake Michigan, and 
established there a village, another on the Kiver Miami of Lake 
Erie (Ke-ki-ong-a, now Fort Wayne), and a third one on the AVa- 
bash (Ouiatenon, on the "Wea Plains, a few miles below La Fay- 
ette, Ind.). CJharlevoix says these villages were established as 
early as 1070, for at that date the Miamis had been in possession, 
occupying the territory sm-rounding, for a period of many years 
anterior thereto. A portion of them remained at Detroit and 
above that point until near the close of the seventeenth century, 
when they were induced to emigi-ate southward and join the other 
Miamis in the southern portion of the Michigan peninsula. Diu-- 
ing the major part of the latter half of the century, they had been 
and were in alliance with the French, and, thi-ough their instru- 
mentality, the principal settlements of them were made in North- 
ern Indiana and Illinois. French missionaries were among them 
at those several villages as early as 1670-79, as we find from the 
records of Jesuit 'priests, who were themselves familiar with the 
facts stated. Simultaneous with or prior to the visitation of these 
points by the priests, rude forts had been erected by the authorities 
of the French Government for the protection of trado and the 
maintenance of their supremacy of these their Indian allies. One 
of these forts had been erected at the instance of Sieur de La Salle, 
at Kekionga, in 1669 or 1670, and, in 1679, after his plans had 
been interfered with at Kekionga by war parties of the Iroquois 
passing that way, at the mouth of St. Joseph's of Lake Michigan, 
some account of which has already been given. Within about 
the same period, the exact date of which does not now appear, a 
similar fort or post was erected and maintained at Ouiatenon — all 
within the jiulsdiction of New France, and within the region oc- 
cupied by the Miamis. 

At a very early period, but just what time is not now to be as- 
certained, the Miamis, because of their extensive dominion, power 
and influence, and of the nimierous consanguinous , branches ac- 
knowledging their relationship, came to be known as the Miami 
Confederacy. In 1765, the confederacy was composed of Jhe fol- 
lowing branches, with the mimber of warriors belonging to each : 
The Twightwees, at the head of the Maumee River, with 250 
available waiTiors; the Ouiatenons, in the vicinity of Post Ouia- 
tenon, on the Wabash, with 800 warriors; the Piankeshaws, on 
the Vermillion River, with^ 300 warriors; and the [Shookeys, on 
territory lying on the Wabash, between Vincennes and Post Ouia- 
tenon, with 200 warriors. At an earlier date, perhaps, the Mi- 
amis, with their confederates, were able to muster a much more 
formidable force, as the citation from the history of the Five 
Nations would seem to show. 

In 1748, the English merchants and^traders seciu-ed a limited 
trade with the Miamis, in consequence, it is said, of the failure of 
the French traders— who had held the supremacy in this depart- 
ment during the preceding century— to supply the increasing 
wants of the Miamis, especially those on the borders of the Ohio 
and its tributaries. Thus a favorable influence was exerted on 
the part of the Miamis toward the English, which resulted in a 
treaty of alliance and fi-iendship between the English and the 
Twightwees (Miamis) on the 23d of July of that year, whereby 
the latter became and were recognized as " Good friends and 
allies of the English nation, ***** subjects of the 
King of Great Britain, * » * * entitled to the privilege 
and protection of the English laws." This treaty was signed by 
the representatives, deputies, from the Twightwees (Miamis), on 
or about the Kivor Ouabaehe, a branch of the River Mississippi." 
There were three of these representatives or deputies of the Mi- 

amis who signed that treaty on behalf of that people. The first 
or principal of those whose names are attached to that instrument 
was Aque-nack-que, head chief of the Miamis and the father of- 
Me-che-quin-no-qua (Little Tm-tle). He was at that time, and 
for many years previously, a resident of the Turtle village on Eel 
River, a few miles to the northwestward fi'omFort Wayne, where, 
about one year pi-evious to the signatiu-e by his father to that 
treaty, the noble chief Little Tiu'tle was born. 


The Miamis, in their preparations for war, had a custom pecu- 
liar to themselves. Charlevoix, who is good authority on the sub- 
ject, thus speaks of that peculiai- featm-e of their history: "After 
a solemn feast, they placed on a kind of altar some pagods made 
with bear-skins, the heads of which were painted gi-een All the 
savages passed this altar bowing their knees, and the jugglers led 
the van, holding in their hands a sack which contained all the 
things which they use in their conjm'ations. They all sti'ive to 
excel each other in their contortions, as any one distinguished 
himself in this way, they applaud him with great shouts. AATien 
they had thus paid their fu-st homage to the Idol, all the people 
danced in much confusion to the sound of a di'um and a Chichi- 
cou6; and dm-ing this time the jugglers make a show of bewitch- 
ing some of the savages, who seemed ready to expire; then, put- 
ting a certain powder upon their lips, they make them recover. 
When this farce had lasted some time, he who presided at the 
feast, having two men and two women, run through all the cabins 
to give the savages notice that the sacrifices were going to begin. 
Whun. he met any one in his way, he put both his hands on his 
head, and the person met embraced his knees. The victims were 
to be dogs, and one heard on every side +he cries of these animals, 
whose throats they cut; and the savages, who howled with all 
their strength, seemed to imitate their cries. As soon as the flesh 
was dressed, they offered it to the idols ; and they ate it and bui'nt 
the bones. All this while, the jugglers never ceased raising the 
pretended dead, and the whole ended by the distribution that was 
made to these quacks of wha.tever was found most to their liking 
in all the village. 

" From the time that the resolution is taken to make war till 
the departure of the warriors, they sing their war songs every 
night. The days are passed in making prepai-ations. They de- 
pute some warriors to go to sing the war songs amongst their 
neighbors and allies, whom they engage beforehand by secret ne- 
gotiations. If they are to go by water, they build or repair their 
canoes. If it is winter, they fiu-nish themselves with snow-shoes 
and sledges. The raquettes which they must have t» walk on the 
snow ai-e about three feet long, and about fifteen or eighteen 
inches in their greatest breadth. Their shape is oval, excepting 
the end behind, which terminates in a point; little sticks placed 
across at five or six inches from each end serve to sb-ongthen them, 
and the piece which is before in the shape of a bow, where the 
foot is fixed, and tied with leather thongs. The binding of 
the raquette is made of slips of leather about a sixth part of an 
inch wide, and the circiunfereuce is of light wood, hai-dened 
by fire. To wnlk well with these raquettes, they must tm-n their 
knees inwards and keep their legs wide asunder. It is some 
trouble to accustom one's self to it, but, when one is used to it, 
one walks with as much ease and as little fatigue as if one had 
nothing on one's feet. It is not possible to use the raquettes with 
our common shoes; we must take those of the savages, which are 
a kind of socks, made of skins dried in the smoke, folded over at 


the end of the foot and tied with strings. The sledges, which 
serve to carry the baggage, and, in ease of need, the sick and 
woiinded, are two little boards, very thin, about half a foot broad 
each board, and six or seven feet long. The forepart is a little 
bent upward, and the sides are bordered by little bands to which 
they fasten straps to bind what is on the sledge. However load- 
ed these carriages may be, a savage can draw them with ease by 
the help of a long band of leather, which he^puts over his breast 
and which they call collars. They draw bui'dens this way, and 
the mothers use them to carry children with their cradles, but then 
it is over their forehead that the band is fixed. 

"All things being ready, and the day of departure being come, 
they take their leave with great demonstration of real tenderness. 
Everybody desires something that has been used by the warriors, 
and in return give them some pledges of their friendship and 
assurances of perpetual remembrance. They scai-ce enter any cabin, 
but they take away their robe to give them a better — at least one 
as good. Lastly, they all meet at the cabin of the chief; they 
find him armed as he was the first day he spoke to them, and as 
he always appeared in public from that day. They then paint 
their faces, every one according to his own fancy, and all of them 
in a very frightful manner. The chief makes them a short speech; 
then he comes out of his cabin, singing his song of death. They 
all follow him in a line, keeping profonnd silence, and they do 
the same thing every morning when they renew their march. Here 
the women go before with provisions, and, when the warriors come 
up with them, they give them their clothes and remain almost 
naked — at least, as the season will permit. 

" Formerly, the arms of this people were bows and arrows, and 
a kind of javelin, which, as well as their arrows, was armed with 
a point of bone wi-ought in different shapes. Besides this, they 
had what they call the head-breaker. This is a little club of 
very hard wood, the head of which is round, and has on one side 
an edge to cut. The greatest part have no defensive arms, but, 
when they attack an iutrenchment, they cover their whole body 
with light boards. Some have a sort of cuirass made of rushes or 
small, pliable sticks, pretty well wrought. They also had defenses 
for their arms and thighs of the same matter. But, as this 
armor was not found to be proof against tii-earms, they have left 
it off, and use nothing in its stead. The Western savages always 
make use of bucklers of bull-hides, which are very light, and 
which a musket ball will not pierce. It is something surprising 
that the other nations do not use them. 

" When they make use of our swords, which is very seldom, 
they use them like spontoons; but when they get guns and pow- 
der and ball, they lay aside their bows and arrows and shoot very 
well. We have often had reason to repent of letting them have 
firearms; but it was not we who ticrst did it. The Iroquois, hav- 
ing got some of the Dutch, then in possession of New York, we 
were under a necessity of giving them to our allies. These sav- 
ages have a kind of ensign to know one another and to rally by. 
These are little pieces of bark, cut round, which they put on the top of 
a pole, and on which they have traced the mai-k of their nation and of 
their village. If the party is numerous, each family or tribe has 
its ensign, with its distinguishing mark. Their arms are also dis- 
tinguised with different figui-es, and sometimes with a particular 
mark of the chief."* 


Among these, one known as the game of straws is thus de- 
scribed: " These straws are small reeds, about the bigness of a 

wheat straw and about six inches long. They take a parcel, 
which are commonly 201, and always an odd number. After hav- 
ing shuffled them well together, making a thousand contortions 
and invoking the genii, they separate them with a kind of an awl, 
or a pjiiad>d bane, into parcels of ten each. Every one takes one 
at a veatui-e, anl he that happens to get the parcel with eleven, 
gains a certain number of points that are agreed on. The whole 
game is sixty or eighty." Another of these games is called the 
game of the bat. " They play at it with a ball, and sticks bent 
and ending in a kind of racket. They set up two posts, which 
serve for boanis, and which are distant from each other accord- 
ing to the number of players. For instance, if there are eighty, 
th3re is a half -lea jue distance between the posts. The players 
are divided into two bands, which have each their post. Iheir 
business is to strike the ball to the post of the adverse party with- 
out letting it fall to the ground and without touching it with the 
hand; for, in either of these cases, they lose the game, unless he 
who makes the fault repairs it by striking the ball at one blow to 
the post, which is often impossible. These savages are so dex- 
terous at catching the ball with their bats that sometimes one 
game will last many days together." 

Another similar game is thus played: " They mark out two 
bounds, as in the first, and the players occupy al! the space be- 
tween. He that is to begin, throws a ball up in the air as perpen- 
dicularly as possible, that he may catch it the better and throw it 
toward the bounds. All the others have their hands lifted up, 
and he that catches the ball repeats the same, or throws the ball 
to one of his band that he judges more nimble and dexterous than 
himself; for, to win the game, the ball jnust never have been in 
the hands of the adverse party before it comes to the bound. The 
women also play at this game, but it is but seldom. Their bands 
consist of fom' or five, and the first that lets the ball fall loses the 


The p.fople of every nation and kindi'ed. barbarous as well as 
civilized, have had their periods of amusements and meny-making 
— seasons when the cares of the present and past were forgotten 
for the moment, cast aside for the enjoyment, temjiorary though it 
might be, of occasions of festivity and amusement. The customs 
of the Miamis as a nation were not an exception to the rule, while 
many of them were peculiar to themselves- It was a time-hon- 
ored custom among this people " that, when a member of a family 
died, a meeting of the family and immediate villagers would take 
place at a certain time subsequent to the death of the perspn, with 
a view to replacing the deceased, which was done by means of a 
game of chance, there being often a number of candidates for the 
place. The lucky one at once fell heir to all the effects of the de- 
ceased; after which they all joined in a meny dance, called the 
replacement dance." 

Another dance sometimes indulged in by the Miamis was 
known as the beggar dance, the object of which " was to obtain 
presents, or indeed anything the stranger, trader or settler might 
feel disposed to give them; and, with no covering on their bodies 
but a part of a deer or other skin about their waists, the rest of 
the body and face painted with some bright colors, with perhaps 
some gay ornament or feathers about their heads, often several in 
number would pass from agency to agency, in front of wbose 
doors they would go through the liveliest movements of dancing, 
singing, etc., which, to the spectators, was often very amusing, 
and who seldom failed to give the rude dancers some tobacco, a 



loaf or two of bread, some whisky, or other ai-ticle that would be 
pleasing to them." 

The comiilimentary dance, among the Miamis, was of more rare 
occurrence, yet, when indulged in, was done so with great zest. " In 
the complimentary dance, it was the custom to obtain permission 
of the pai'ty to be complimented "to dance for him.' Thisgi-ant- 
ed, preparations were made by painting the face elaborately, and 
marking the body, which was usually bai-e about the chest and 
shoulders. In addition to this, a profusion of ornaments, in the 
form of feathers, etc., were added to the hair, and most 'happy 
was he, who, in virtue of having taken one or more scalps, was 
entitled to proclaim it by a corresponding number of eagle's 
feathers. The less fortunate made a substitute of the feathers of 
the wild tm-key,' or other game." The medicine dance was also 
of this class. " Sometimes it happened that a person who had 
had a severe illness, which had yielded to the prescriptions of 
one of the members, was considered a proper object of choice 
from a sort of claim thus established. When he was about to be 
initiated, a great feast was made, of com'se, at the expense of the 
candidate, for, in the most simple as in the most civilized life, 
the same principle of politics held good, and honors were to be 
paid for. An animal was killed and di-essed, of which the peo- 
ple partook; there were dances and songs, and speeches in abund- 
ance. Then the chief medicine man took the candidate and pri- 
vately began to instnict him in all the ceremonies and knowledge 
necessary to make him an accomplished member of the fi-ater- 

" In the springtime, as a matter of reverence to the Great 
Spirit (Much-a-te-Auoeke)—' the man with the l)lack robe,' the 'good 
man ' or ' preacher ' — asking him to aid in the production or gi-owth 
of a bountiful crop, they had the corn-planting dance. A great 
deal of importance was attached to this dance, which was con- 
ducted with an air of marked solemnity and earnestness, all the 
villagers pai'taking in it."* Another, called the green-corn dance, 
took place in the early fall, while the corn was yet in the milk, be 
fore coming to matm-ity — very much after the fashion of the one 
just cited, but with less solemnity, thankfulness and general en- 
joyment ruling the hour. These latter dances were not unfre- 
quently participated in by white settlers. 


The great treaty entered into by the Miamis and the Commis- 
sioners on the j)art of the United States, iinder the provisions of 
which the first important cession of territory in this part of In- 
diana was made, was concluded on the 0th of October, 1818, at 
St. Mary's, Ohio. The boundaries of the territory embraced in 
this session were substantially the following: 

"Commencing near the town of La Gro, on the Wabash, where 
the Salamonie unites with the Wabash Eiver; running thence 
thj-ough Wabash and Grant Counties, into Madison County, its 
southeast corner was about fom' miles southeast of Independ- 
ence, at the center of Section 17; thence running south of west, 
with the general course of the Wabash Kiver, across Tipton 
County, close to the town of Tipton, just north thereof to where 
it intersects a line running north and south fi'om Logansport, 
which is the western Ixiundary oE Howsu'd County, one mile west 
of Range Line No. 1 east; thence north to Logansport; thence 
up the Wabash to the mouth of the Salamonie River, to the place 
of beginning." There was cimtained within these boundaries 
1»30,000 acres. The greater |iai-t of this reservation remaini>d in 

•Brici'V Hint. Ft. Wiijui-, pp. ■10, 12. 

the hands of the Indians until November, 1S40, when it wus re- 
linquished, being the last of their claims in Indiana. 

By the treaty of October "23, IS'ili, held at Paradise Springs, 
known as the " Old Treaty Ground," the chiefs and warriors of 
the Miamis, in council with Lewis Cass, James B. Ray and John 
Tipton, Commissioners on the part of the United States, ceded 
to the latter power " all their claim to lands in the State of In- 
diana, north and west of the Wabash and Miami Rivers, and of 
the cession made by the said ti-ibe to the United States, by the 
treaty concluded at St. Mary's October 6. 1818." By further pro- 
vision of the same ti-eaty, the State of Indiana was authorized to 
lay out a canal or road tlu'ough any of the resei'vations, and for 
the use of a canal, six chains in width along the same, was appro- 
priated. In payment for this land, they received $31,040.53 in 
goods; S31,O40.53 incash; the following year, 1827, they received 
$61,259.47 in addition, and in 1828, $30,000. After that date, 
they were to receive a permanent annuity of $25,000. 

Again, in 1834, the Government purchased of them 177,000 
acres, including a strip seven miles wide off the w^est side of the 
reserve, in what is now Cass, Howard and Clinton Counties, which 
was transferred to the State of Indiana to be used for the com- 
pletion of the Wabash & Erie Canal from the mouth of the Tippe- 
canoe River. A sti'ip live miles wide along the Wabash had been 
previously appropriated to the constmction of the canal to the 
mouth of the Tippecanoe. The consideration paid for this was 

By treaty of November 0, 1838, they made a fui-ther cession 
to the United States of certain lands reserved by former treaties. 
Finally, on the 28th of. November, 1840, they relinquished their 
right to all the remaining lands in Indiana, except certain specific 
reservations, for which they received the sum of $550 000, and 
agreed to vacate these lands within five years. They did not 
move, however, until 1847. 

By their several ti-eaties with the United States, the Miamis 
have ceded an aggregate of 6,853,020 acres. Aggregate of land 
given exchange, 44,640, the value of which was $55,800. The 
aggregate consideration paid for these lands in money and goods 
was $1,205,907; total consideration paid was $1,261,707, as shown 
by the official records of those transactions in the pro])er depart- 
ment of the national capitol. 



Rei'hesentatives of the Miajii Nation. 
OOMETHING of the general character of the warrior chieftain, 
'^ Aqne-naek-que, who signed the treaty of peace and alliance . 
with the English at Lanciister, Penn., in 1748, in behalf and as 
one of the representatives of his nation, has been already given in 
the tribal histoiy. Beyond the commencement of his chieftaincy 
we have now no means of ascertaining, in connected line, his pred- 


Tliis cliief was the successor in direct line of A(pie-nack que, 
his father, the great war chief of the Twigh-tweos (Miamis), who 
flourished for many years preceding and subsequent to the middle 
of the eighteenth century, and was one of the thi-ee, the principal, 



of the deputies, who, on behalf of their nation, signed the treaty 
at Lancaster, Peau., on the 23cl of July, 1748. His mother was 
of the tribe of the Mohegans, and is reputed to have been a supe- 
rior woman, transmitting many of her best qualities to her son. 
Aque-nack-que, his father, however, was of the Turtle branch of 
the Miamis, and lived in the Turtle village on Eel Kiver, some 
sixteen miles northwest of Fort Wayne, Ind. At this village. 
Little Turtle was born about the year 1747, and was the senior, 
by less than two yeai's, of his sister, Algo-ma-qua, wife of Capt. 
Holmes, who was a victim of the conspiracy among the Indian 
tribes of the Northwest that resulted in the destruction of the 
English garrison at Fort Miami, in March, 1703. 

Me-chequin-no-qua, after the death of his father, became the 
chief of his tribe, at an early age — not on account of any right 
by inheritance, since the condition of the offspring follows the 
mother, and not the father, and his mother not standing in the 
line of descent from hereditary chiefs, the child stood in the same 
category — but because of his extraordinary talents and adaptation 
to the position, noticeable from early boyhood. Upon the death 
of his father, therefore, he became the principal chief of the Mi- 
amis by selection. His first eminent services were those of a 
warrior, in which he distinguished himself above all competitors. 
His courage and sagacity, m the estimation of his people, were 
proverbial, and his example insj^ired others to unwimted achieve- 
ments in council and in the field. Neighboring consanguineous 
tribes, in their operations against the whites, drew courage from 
his presence and achieved success under his leadership. He was 
in himself a host on the battle-field, and his counsel always com- 
manded respect. 

At the time of St. Clair's expedition against the Wabash In- 
dians, Little Turtle was the acknowledged leader, directing the 
movements of his braves, which resulted in the defeat of the for- 
mer, as he had previously done in several actions in the cam- 
paign of Gen. Hannar. In comparison with Gen. St. Clair as a 
director of the fore?s at Fort Keoovery, his exhibitions of skill 
and tact in the management of the assault upon the white troops 
were more those of the expert tactician. His loss in that eng;.ge- : 
ment was slight, while that of Gen. St. Clair was very great 
"Again, he commanded a body of Indians, in November, 1792, 
who made a violent attack on a detachment of Kentucky volun- [ 
teers under Maj. Adair, under the walls of Fort St. Clair, near J 
Eaton, Ohio, but the savages were repulsed with loss. He was 
also at the action of Fort Recovery, in Jime, 1794. The cam- 
paign of Gen. Wayne, in August of the same year, proved too suc- 
cessful for the Tiurtle, and superior to_the combined forces. Prior 
to the battle of Fort Miami, two miles below Maumee City, a 
council was held, when Little Tiu-tle showed his sagacity and 
prudence by refusing to attack the forces of Gen. Wayne. ' 

Having satisfied himself of the impracticability of further op- | 
position to the white people, Little Tui-tle lent his influence toward j 
the maintenance of peace, and, in pai-t consideration for his services I 
in this respect, the American Government erected a house for 1 
him, at his village on Eel River, in which to live, and in which 1 
he did live for many yeai-s afterward. The era of his warlike ex- 
ploits being past, he devoted himself to civil pursuits. " His 
habits were those of the whites, and he had black servants to at- I 
tend to his household wants and duties. He was true to the in- j 
terests of his race, and deplored their habits of diimkenness. In | 
1802, he went before the Legislatiu'a, and, through his interpreter, 
made an appeal in person for a law preventing the sale of ai-dent | 
spirits to the Indians. The like mission he performed before the [ 

Legislature of Ohio, but without success. He described the In- 
dian bfaders to life, viz. : " They stripped the poor Indians of skins, 
guns, blaQkets-ever.vthiug — while his squaws and children, de- 
pendent upon him, lay starving and shivering in his wigwam. 
He was the first to introduce among the savage tribes the practice 
of vaccination for preventing the small-pox. and did much to pre- 
vent human sacrifice." 

From the first appearance of Tecumseh and the Proph'^t. in 
their attitude of manipulators of opinions directed toward the for- 
mation of an Indian confederacy, he opposed their movements 
with aa earnest zeal for the best interests of his race. A conse- 
quence of the influence thus exerted by him was that little was 
accomplished by them for a long time. In a communication bear- 
ing his own signature, dated at Fort Wayne, January 25, 1812, 
and addressed to Gen. Harrison, he expressed himself as anxious 
to do all in his power to preserve peaceful relations between the 
white and red people. He was destined, however, to take no part 
in the pending conflict. He died on the 14th of July of the same 
year. The following account of his sickness and death will be 
read with interest: 

" He came to this city (Fort Wayne) in 1812, from his resi- 
dence, to procure medical aid, and was under the treatment of the 
United States Surgeon, and in the family of his brother-in-law, 
Capt. Wells, at the Old Orcnai-d, or rather, was eared for by Capt. 
Wells' family at his own tent, a few rods distant, preferring it to 
the more civilized mode of living in-doors. His disease was the 
gout, of which he died in the open air, at the place (Old Orchard) 
above described, July 14, 1812, having the universal respect of 
all who knew him. The commandant of the fort at that time, 
Capt. Ray, the friend of Little Turtle, buried the remains of the 
chief with the honors of war." A writer says; "His body was 
borne to the grave with the highest honors, by his great enemy, 
the white man. The mufiled drum, the solemn march, the fu- 
neral salute, announced that a great soldier had fallen, and even 
enemies paid the moui-nful tribute to his memory." The place 
of his biiyial is near the center of the "Old Orchard," and his In- 
dian ornaments and accouterments of war, a sword presented to 
him by Gen. Washington, and a medal, with Gen. Washington's 
likeness thereon, were buried with him. 

Some years ago, Coesse. a nephew and real chief, since dead, 
came to Fort Wayne and pronounced a funeral oration over the 
remains of his unele, full of eloquent pathos, which was listened 
to with profound respect by many of the old citizens of that pe- 

" A distinguishing trait in the character of this justly celebrated 
chief," says Mr. Dawson, in his notes of the early history of Fort 
Wayne, " was his ardent desire to be informed of all that relates 
to om- institutions; and he seemed to possess a mind capable of 
understanding and valuing the advantages of civilized life in a 
degree far superior to any other Indian of his time." 


Pe-che-wa, or. as he was generally known, John B. Richard- 
ville, was the son of Joseph Drouet de Riclieville, of French ex- 
traction, a trader at Ke-ki-ong-a before and after the disastrous ! 
expedition of La Balm, in 1780, by Taw-cum-wah, a daughter of i 
Aque-nack-que, principal chief of the Miamis, and a sister of 
Little Turtle. He was born, as tradition has it, and as he him- 
self often stated, near the " Old Apple Tree," in the midst of the 
Miami village, at the junction of the St. Joseph's with the Mau- 
mee, about the year 1761. The associations clustering ai-ound 



this old apple tree during his childhood days gave the chief ever 
afterward a profound regard, approaching almost to reverence, 
for its continued renewal of the joyous scenes so intimately 
blended with the recollections of his early life; hence, he was in- 
strumental in its preservation as one of the sacred relics of the past. 

In connection, also, with his early history, are many incidents 
of thrilling interest, a recital of which would not fail to command 
attention. One of these, referring to an occasion which determined 
his election to the chieftaincy of his tribe, is here repeated; 

It was less than a hundi"ed years ago when the prevailing 
customs of the Indian race were generally observed by the Mi- 
amis. A white captive had just been broiTght-in, and the ques- 
tion was about to be submitted to the council whether the young 
man should die. The council was held, and its mandate had 
gone forth that he must be burnt at the stake. All was confusion 
and bustle in the village, and the features of all save the hapless 
victim bespoke the anxiety with which they looked forward to the 
coming sacrifice. Already the prisoner was bouud to the stake, 
and the fagots were being placed in position, while the torch 
which was to ignite the inflammable mass was in the hands of 
the brave who had been commissioned to apjjly it. But hold! 
the time was not yet come when the fates had decreed that the 
mandate of the council was to be "executed. A chief was to be 
chosen to rule over the tribe, and there were many candidates, 
apparently alike entitled to recognition. Again, the question of 
eligibility is mooted, and the usages of the ages must be observed 
— he must be from the line of royal ancestor-? — yet an exhibition 
of his prowess will tend to hasten the issue. An anxious mother, 
herself the accepted chiefess and successful ruler of the mighty 
nation for many years, stood not far away, observing, with ap- 
parently calm indifference, the progress of preparation for the 
sacrifice. Her son, the cherished idol of her household, was near 
her side, a quiet observer of the prospective torture, yet solicitous. 
He would save the young man from his fearful doom, but hesi- 
tated, for the opportune moment had not arrived. Then, as the 
torch was being extended to fii'e the combustible material — all 
attention was directed toward the spot — and the tu-e was kindling 
into a scorching flame, ready to wreathe itself ai-ound the almost 
uuconscioua form pinioned to the stake. At a signal from his 
mother, young Pe-che-wah sprang from her side and bounded 
forward, knife in hand, to assert his chieftaincy by the captive's 
rescue. Electrified by the magnetic force of his mother's desire, 
he dashed through the wild crowd, cut the cords that bound him, 
and bade the captive go free. Siu'prise and astonishment, not un- 
mingk'd with displeasm-e, was visible in every countenance at the 
unexpected denouement. Yet this daring feat of voluntary hero- 
ism was the theme of universal exultation, and he was at once ac- 
cepted as the futm'e chief of his Iribe. In the meantime, the 
thoughtful mother, to make the rescue complete, placed the man 
in a canoe, covered him with fm-s and [icltries. ])nt him in charge 
of fi'iendly hands and sent him down the Miami of Lake Krie to a 
place of safety. 

Many years after this occmTence. while on his way to Wash- 
ington City, passing thi'ough the State of Ohio, he was recog- 
nized by the rescued captive, who manifested his gratitude with 
all the warmth of filial affection. It is needless to say, those man- 
ifested by the rescued were as fully reciprocated by the hero who 
rescued him under such critical circumstances. The meeting was 
a most happy one on the part of both, and was the occasion of 
many joyous recurrences to the singular meeting and equally sin- 
gular recognition. 

Pe-che-wah was present and participated in the defeat of Gen. 
Harmar, in October, 1790, but was not characteristically wai-like, 
being more disposed to exert his executive ability in otlier direc- 
tions better calculated to result in the improvement of his opportu- 
nities in after life. 

At the treaty of St. Mary's, on the 6th of October, 1818, he 
was there in behalf of his people as the leading chief and repre- 
sentative of his tribe, and as such, signed the treaty for the ces- 
sion of certain territory to the United States, a description of which 
is elsewhere given. Twenty three years prior to that time, how- 
ever, he appeared also as the representative of his tribe and signed 
the treaty of Greenville, concluded on the 3d of August, 1795. 
The same act he performed, on the part of his people, at 
the treaty of Fort "Wayne, in June. 1803, and at Vincennes in 

■'About the year 1827," says Mr. Dawson in his notes, "five 
himdred dollars were appropriated by Congress to each chief to 
build a residence. Richardville appropriated more and built a 
substantial house, five miles from here (Fort Wayne), on the south 
bank of the St. Mary's, on one of the reservations referred to. A 
part of this building was standing in 1859, owned by his gi-and- 
daughter (the daughter of La Blonde), who married James God- 
frey. For many years, he kept an extensive trading-house in this 
city, on Coliunbia street, and in person lived there most of the 
time; but, about 1836. he moved the goods to the forks of the 
Wabash and continued business there for many years- -his squaw 
and younger members of his family at all times remaining, till 
her death, at home on the St. Mary's. His housekeeper at the 
forks of the Wabash was Madam Mai-garet La Folia, a French 
woman, in person graceful and prepossessing." 

In the management of the affairs of his tribe, he was judicious 
and painstaking, adjusting all matters of business appertaining to 
them with the most exact discrimination and prudence. As a 
consequence, he was held in highest esteem, not only by his own 
people, but by the Indians generally throughout the Northwest. 
"He was honored'and trusted as their law-giver, with the most 
unsuspecting confidence and implicit obedience" — always adjust- 
ing que.stions of dispute without resort to bloodshed. He was a 
patient and attentive listener, always reaching his conclusions by 
deliberate consideration; hence, he seldom had occasion to change 
them. "Averse to bloodshed, except against armed resistance, he 
was ever the strong and consistent fi'iend of ]ieace and good 

In stature, he was about five feet ten inches; in weight, about 
one hundred and eighty pounds; in disposition, taci hu-n ; in man- 
ner, modest and retiring; and, in his intercom-se with the white 
people, he was att'aljle, yet dignified. He died at his family resi- 
dence, on the St Mai'y's, August 13, 1841, aged about eighty 
years. He was bm-ied on the following day, after services by Rev. 
Mr. Clark. Irish Catholic priest, of Peru, held at the church of St. 
Augustine, in Fort Wayne. His body was fu'st interred on the 
site of the cathedral in that city, subsequently erected. After- 
ward, however, when it became necessary to make room for the 
building, the remains were removed, and now rest in the Catholic 
bwying-ground. south of the city. A fine mai'ble moniunent 
marks the spot. >ipon which is the following inscription: 

East side- "Here rest the remains of Chief Richardville. 
principal chief of the Miami tribe of Indians. He was born at 
Fort Wayne, Ind., about the year 1760. Died August, A. D. 
1841." West side — "This monument has been erected liy La 
Blonde, Susan and Catherine, daughters of the deceased." 



Francis La Fontaine, whose Indian name was To-pe-ah — per- 
haps a contraction of the Pottawatomie name, To-pe-na-bin — was 
the immediate successor of Pe-che-wah (Richeville), as the 
principal chief of the Miamis. He was the lineal descendant of 
the family of that name who mingled extensively in the political 
affairs of Canada in the latter part of the eighteenth centiu-y. sent 
out by the French Government in connection with the provincial 
management of New France. His father was of French extrac- 
tion, and was Si one time a resident of the city of Detroit. His 
mother was a Miami woman, whose name does not appeiu- very 
fi-equently in the history of the tribe: nevertheless, a woman of 
considerable force of charactei', which was transmitted to and 
strikingly manifested in the distinctive qualities of her son. He 
was born near Fort "Wayne in 1820, and spent the greater portion 
of his life in the immediate vicinity. In his yuunger days, he 
was noted for his great strength and activity; indeed, his charac- 
ter as an athlete was quite conspicuous, being probably the most 
fleet of f'jot of any man in his tribe — a quality highly appreciated 
by his race. 

When about the age of twenty-one years, he was married to 
Catharine (Po-con-go-qua). one of the daughters of Chief Riche- 

For some yeai's after his marriage, his residence was on 
the south side of the prairie, between Huntington and Fort 
Wayne, on lands granted to him by the treaties of October 23, 
1834, and November 6, 1838. Manifesting great interest in the 
welfare of his tribe, he became very popular, and, after the death 
of Chief Richeville, in 1841, he was selected jirincipal chief of 
the Miamis. Subsequentlj', " he moved to the forks of the Wa- 
bash and resided in the frame building near the road, a few rods 
west of the fair grounds, the place belonging to his wife, who in- 
herited it from her father." 

When, imder the provisions of their final treaty with the United 
States, the Miamis, in the fall of 1846, moved to the ri'serva- 
tion set apart to them west of the Mississippi, he went with them, 
and remained there during the succeeding winter. The follow- 
ing spring, he stai'ted homeward. "At that time, the route of 
travel was from the Kansas Landing (now Kansas City) down the 
Missom-i and Mississippi to the mouth of the Ohio, up the Ohio 
to the mouth of the Wabash, and thence up the latter sti-eam to 
La Fayette — all the way by steamboat. At St. Louis he was 
taken sick, and his disease had made such jirogi'ess that, upon his 
arrival at La Fayette, he was imable to proceed further, and died 
there on the 13th of April. 1S47. at the age of thirty-seven 

>f the removal of his 
it but little evidence 

lighing usually 

He was embalmed at La Fayette, and his remains were brought 
to Huntington, where he was buried in the grounds now occu- 
jiied by the Catholic Chm-ch. His body was subsequently re- 
moved to the new cemetery, kt the tini 
body, so perfect had been the emlialming 
of decay was manifested. 

'■ He w!is a tall, robust and corpulent 
about three himdred and fifty pounds, and generally dressed in 
the Indian costume. There are two portraits of him remaining, 
one painted by Freeman, and one by R. B. Croft. About twenty 
months after his death, his widow married F. D. Lasselle, of 
Fort Wayne, but lived only a short time. Of her seven children 
by La Fontaine, but two are now living — Mrs. Ai'changel Engle- 
man, in Huntington, and Mrs. Esther Washington, who resides in 


Their Ancestry— CoNSANGUiNKousTuiiiES—Tm-; Name and its 


nnHE Pottawatomies, or Poux, as they appear to have been an- 
■*- ciently known, are of the family of the Algonquins, or Mon- 
tagues, as they were iu-st called, and ai'e a branch of the Chippe- 
was, sometimes written Ojibways, having a common origin with 
them. The Algonquins, as we have seen. " traced their origin to 
the high and mountainous tracts of lakes and cliffs stretching fi-om 
the soiu-ces of the Utawas River to the entrance of the Saguenay 
at Tadousac." Thence they spread throughout the entire area of 
the upper lakes, throwing off branches, in the course of time, 
which, as they established an individuality determined by the lo- 
cality or its siu-roundings, came to be known and recognized as 
sepai-ate tribes, retaining all of the essential elements of the fam- 
ily language, modified, however, by the dialects which were the 
outgi-owth of influences consequent upon changes of situation. 
Among those offshoots of the parent stock, the Ottawas and Chip- 
pewas were, perhaps, the most notable of the branches with whose 
history we ai'e now more particularly interested. These two 
branches appear to have been cotemporaneous with that now un- 
der consideration. It is represented, also, as a part of the family 
history that the separation of these into distinct bands took place 
in the vicinity of Michilimackinaek, not far from the middle of 
the seventeenth oentuiy — as early, probably, as 1641. At the. 
time of the separation, or immediately after, the Poux having lo- 
cated on the southern shore of Lake Michigan, the Ottawas went 
: to live with them. After a time, the Ottawas, becoming dissatis- 
i fled with the situation, determined to withdraw from their former 
] allies and seek a home elsewhere. The Poux, being informed of 
this determination, told the Ottawas they might go back to the 
j North if they did not like their association; that they, the Pons, 
had made a fire for themselves, and were capable of assuming and 
maintaining a separate and independent sovereignty, and of build- 
ing their own council fires. From this circumstance, it is said, 
the name of the Pottawatomies was derived, EtjTnologically, the 
woi'd is a compound of put-ta-wa, signifying a blowing-out or ex- 
pansion of the cheeks, as in the act of blowing a fire, and me, a 
nation, which, being interpreted, means a nation of fire-blowers — 
a people, as intimated to the Ottawas, able to build their own 
council fires and exercise the prerogatives of independent or self- 

The first historical reference we have to them was in 164], 
when it was stated that they had abandoned their own country 
(Green Bay), and taken refuge from among the Chippewas, so as 
to sectu'e themselves from their enemies, the Sioux, who, it would 
seem, having been at wai- with, had well nigh overcome them. In 
1660, Father Allouez, a French missiouaiy, speaks of the Potta- 
watomies as occupying territory that extended from Green Bay to 
the head of Lake Superior, and southward to the country of the 
Sacs and Foxes, and the Miamis, and that traders had preceded 
him to their country. Ten years later, they retm-ned to Green 
Bay and occupied the borders of Lake Michigan on the north. 
Subsequently, about the beginning of the eighteenth century, they 
had traversed the eastern coast of Lake Michigan to the mouth of 



the Kiver St. Joseph's, where, and to the southward of Lake 
Michigan, a large body of th<jm held possession until- near the 
middle of the nineteenth centnry. The occupancy of this terri- 
tory was at first permissive only on the part of the Miamis, who 
had before possessed the imdisputed right to occupy and enjoy; 
but, in the coiu'se of time, their right was acknowledged by giv- 
ing them a voice in the making of treaties, which also included 
the right of cession and conveyance. 

Being somewhat migratory in character, they have, as a conse- 
quence, been detennined to be aggressive also, since they have 
frequently taken possession of territory without permission from 
the rightful owners, and then, by sufferance, occupied it until a 
quasi right was acknowledged. And, while it is true that they 
have thus occupied territory, it is true, also, that such occupancy 
has been, as a rule, an unavoidable alternative after being forci- 
bl}' ejected or retired from their own country, as was the fact when 
they first removed fi'om Green Bay. 

Dm'ing the progi'ess of the Nicholas conspiracy, in 1747, the 
Pottawatomies were generally on the side of the French, against 
the English, as were also the Ottawas. In a communication from 
M. de Longneuil, commandant at Detroit, to the Canadian Gov- 
ernor, giving in review the situation of atl'airs, civil and military, 
in Canada, in 1747, the statement is made that "the Pottawato- 
mies are, as M. de Longueuil believes, the best disposed; in fact^ 
that he has no fault to find; that they are consequently the only 
persons he can confide in." This relation was generally, though 
not always, maintained between them: the Pottawatomies, like 
most other of the Indian tribes, were susceptible, and liable to be 
influenced by gifts or the promise of them; hence, sometimes they 
were temporarily under the conti'ol of the English, through the 
agency of belts presented by them. While the conspiracy of 
Pontiac was in jn'ogi-ess, the Pottawatomies, with other tribes 
heretofore sustaining amicable relations with the French, were 
visited by the agents of Pontiac or by the chief in person, to se- 
ciu'e their influence in the fiu-therance of his plans. It required 
but little diplomacy to arouse the feelings of these peoples in fa- 
vor of their common ally, the French, and command the deepest 
interest, growing out of the former pleasant relations existing be- 
tween them. A fresh imjietus was given to the current of senti- 
ment prevailing amongst them by the act of the surrender of the 
French garrison at Detroit to the English, which occm'red on the 
10th of November, 1700. At that time, the Pottawatomies and 
Wyandots were encamped before Detroit, on the opposite side of 
the river, and seemingly witnessed the transfer with indifference, 
preferring to await the issue of events speedily to follow. The 
mutterings of the impending storm were distinctly heard in the 
early summer of 1761. 

In the spring of 1763, after the garrison of Fort Miami on the 
Maumee had been siirrendered to the English, the commandant 
was warned of the contemplated uprising of the Indians. A con- 
ference of the adjacent chiefs, held at his suggestion, developed 
the true situation, an accoimt of which was commimicated to the 
English commandant at Detroit. The latter officer, resting in 
confidence upon the (juiet demeanor of the Pottawatomies sur- 
rounding the post, discredited the report. He was soon, how- 
ever, made only too conscious of his criminal disbelief. In the 
gatherings of the tribes which followed, the Pottawatomies were 
in the fnint rank, anxious to participate in the conflict. On the 
'2r)th of May of that year, the old post at St. Joseph's fell into the 
hands of the conspirators, the Pottawatomies bearing Pontiae's 
order for the sacrifice of the garrison. No further impulse was 

needed to insui'e the prompt execution of the order. Two days 
later, the same determined band, in the further execution of or- 
ders received or in possession, captm-ed the fort at Ke-ki-ong-a, by 
the methods usual in Indian warfare — treachery, with the accom- 
paniments of indiscriminate human slaughter. 

Passing the results of the expedition of Gen. Wayne in 1704, 
the Pottawatomies followed the course of events participated in 
the conference at the treaty of Greenville in August, 1795, and 
allied themselves with the promoters of peace along the frontiers 
of the Northwest. They maintained that relation, with few ex- 
ceptions, until the period of Tecumseh's efforts at confederating 
the adjacent Indian ti-ibes and his subsequent alliance with. Great 
Britain, in 1812, during which time their peace propensities were 
conveniently laid aside, while they succumbed to his influence 
and participated in the expeditions that followed. After the close 
of that war, amicable relations were again assumed, and, on the 
18th of July, 1818, the Pottawatomies concluded a treaty of 
peace with the United States, which, by its terms, was to be ]ier- 

By the provisions of a treaty made and concluded at St. Mary's, 
on the 2d day of October of the same year (1818), they ceded to 
the United States all the country comprised within the following 
limits: "Beginning at the mouth of the Tippecanoe River, and 
running up the same to a point twenty-five miles, in a direct line, 
from the Wabash River; thence, on a line as neai'ly parallel to 
the general coiu'se of the Wabash River as practicable, to a point 
on the Vermillion River twenty -five miles from the Wabash River; 
thence do\vn the Vermillion River to its mouth, and thence up the 
Wabash River to the place of beginning. The Pottawatomies also 
cede to the United States all their claim to the country south of 
the Wabash River." 

The treaty of most importance to this locality, to which the 
Pottawatomies were a party, was that considered at Paradise 
Sj^rings, near the mouth of the Mississinewa, upon the Wabash, 
on the 10th of October, 1820, by the provisions of which the 
United States acquired the right to all the lands within tlie fol- 
lowing limits: "Beginning on the Tippecanoe River where the 
northern boundary of the tract ceded by the Pottawatomies to the 
United States by the treaty of St. Mary's, in the year 1.M8, inter- 
sects the same; thence, in a direct line, to a point on Eel River, 
half way between the mouth of the said river and Pierish's village; 
thence up Eel River to Seek's village, neai- the head thereof; thence 
in a direct line to the mouth of a creek entering into the St. Jo- 
seph's of the Miami, near Metea's village ; thence up the St Joseph's 
to the boundary line between the States of Indiana and Ohio; 
thence south to the Miami; thence up the same to the leservation 
at Fort Wayne; thence with the lines of said reservation to the 
boundary established by the treaty with the Miamis in 1818; 
thence with the said line to the ^Vabash River; thence with the 
same river to the mouth of the Tippecanoe River; and thence with 
the said Tippecanoe River to the place of beginning. And the 
said tribe also cede to the United States nil their right to the land 
within the following limits: Beginning at a point on Lake 
Michigan ten miles due north of the southern extreme thereof; 
running thence duo east to the land ceded by the Indians to the 
United States by the h-eaty of Chicago ; thence south with the 
boundary thereof ten miles; thence west to the southera exb'eme 
of Lake Michigan; thence with the shore thereof to the place of 
beginning." By a further provision of the same treaty, for the 
purpose of building the Michigan road, they made an additional 
cession " of a strip of land commencing at Lake Michigan, and 



running thence to the Wabash River, 100 feet wide, for a ro;uJ. 
and also one section of good land contiguous to the said road for 
each mile of the same, and also, for each mile of a road from the 
tennination thereof, through Indianapolis, to the Ohio River, for 
the pm-pose of making a road " connecting those extreme and the 
intermediate points. 

In addition to the treaties already refen-ed to, the Pottawato- 
mies concluded nineteen other treaties with the United States, ced- 
ing certain reserved interests from time to time withheld, until, 
by the provisions of the tinal treaty concluded by them on the 
11th of February, 1837, with John T. Dougl-ass, a Commissioner 
on the part of the United States, at the city of Washington, 
they ceded all their remaining interests in the lands before held 
by them in the State of Indiana, and agreed to remove to the coun- 
try provided for them by the President of the United States, 
southwest of the Missom-i River, within two years from the rati- 
lication of said treaty. The treaty was ratified at the end of one 
week from the date .of its conclusion, and the Indians took their 
departure for. and were removed to, their new reservation, in accor- 
dance with the stipulated provisions of the new treaty, in the 
fall of the year 1S38 and the succeeding fall of lS3f). 


The following incident, related by one of the parties connect- 
ed with it, well illustrates the method by which, no doubt, many 
of the treaties with the Indians, during the last three-quarters of 
a centm-y, have been made. Says om- informant, speaking of the 
treaty with the Pottawatomies, made October 26. 1832, on the 
banks of the Tippecanoe River, near Rochester. Ind. : " The Com- 
missioners — Jonathan Jennings, John W. Davis and Marks Crame. 
on the part of the United States, on the one hand, and the various 
Indian chiefs and principal men of the tribe represented, on the 
other — had been several days planning, consulting and proposing, 
endeavoring thus to arrive at some definite plan of operations 
that would be mutually satisfactor}' and conclusive, but, up to the 
time referred to, had been wholly unsuccessful. To work up an 
agreement with the Indians to treat upon terms satisfactoiy to all 
the parties thereto, was the thing most to be desired. 

" A large number of prominent and influential chiefs were pres- 
ent, among whom were A?ah-she-o-nas, Wah-ban-che, Aub-bee- 
naub-bee; and others, with Capt. Bourie. The Indians generally 
were not satisfied with the outlook, and hence were unwilling to 
enter into the proposed negotiations with the combined interest 
and zeal necessary to insure an early agreement It seems that, 
from some cause not then inanifest, an ill feeling existed in the 
minds of many of the Indians toward Mi'. Barron, the interpre- 
ter, which had, among other things, a tendency to delay the pro- 
ceedings. As a consequence, these malcontents refused to listen 
to any propositions made by the Commissioners thi'ough his in- 

" The delay was growing tiresome and tedious, and the success 
of the negotiations came to be a question of serious doubt. Fi- 
nally, it was agi-eed on all hands that Mr. Ban-on should act as the 
intrepreter. The speech on behalf of the Commissioners that day 
was to be made by Gov. Jennings, who, as was his wont, had imbibed 
quite freely of the ' tire-water,' and was therefore excessively 
wordy. He commenced by saying : ' I am most happy to meet 
you, my red brothers, under this clear, blue sky, so auspiciously' 
expanded above us, beside the crystal watei-s of your own beauti- 
ful Tippecanoe, on this green sward beneath our feet. In the 
midst of all these cheerful surroundings, with natm'e's imageiy 

nodding assent to the piu-poses of our mission, I feel but too hap- 
py in the consciousness that the prospect is most propitious, in 
that om- anticipations of a speedy conclusion of om- labors will 
be shortly realized.' Having uttered two or three similar sen- 
tences of his wordy introdiictory. Mi-. Barron was proceeding to 
interpret it but failed to develop any point or fitness in the dis- 
course. At this point, dissatisfaction began again to manifest it- 
self, and AVah-she-o-uas interposed, saying that he did not want 
to hear that kind of talk: it was not what he wanted to hear; it 
was nothing. Mr. Barron was compelled to desist, and the con- 
ference at that time closed peremptorily, the chiefs scattering in 
all directions, with manifestations of gi-eat dissatisfaction, and a 
determination to break up the conference. The guards, however, 
soon checked the progress of these hotheads and brought them 
again into camp. 

"Everything was confusion, and all prospect of further nego- 
tiation seemed at an end. The sequel, however, showed otherwise. 
Under an order that intoxicating liquor should not be allowed 
ujion the grounds, some fine wines and brandies brought in by 
' Jack Douglass ' had been confiscated and for safety had been 
stored away i.\ the Agent's department of the council house. To 
the door of this room there was no other fastening than a heavy 
wooden latch and catch on the inside, accordingt to the usage of 
those days, with a string fastened to the latch and passed through 
a small hole in the door to the outside. 

" One day, Capt. Bom-ie came into the room and said to the 
Agent that he had a great secret to tell him, and, wishing to have 
the door closed, asked whether it could be locked. He was in- 
formed that to pull the latch-string inside was all the locking 
necessary. This done, Aub-bee-naub-bee, who came in with Capt. 
Bourie, said to the Agent that, before he could communicate his 
secret, the latter must pom- out three glasses of wine, one for 
each of them, before he would tell it. The request was complied 
with, and then Aub-bee-naub-bee stated that he would bring 
about an agreement to go into the treaty within an hour. This 
seemed incredible; but he went out, and in a short time the chiefs 
and head men were seen seated all round the council fire. Soon 
Aub-bee-naub-bee rose to speak. Before he had uttered many 
words, Wah-ban-che, a big chief, and considerably fi-aetious, com- 
manded him to stop his talk and sit down; that they did not want 
to hear him. Not daimted at this, Aub-bee-naub-bee deliberately 
stopped, but only for an instant. Straightening himself up to his 
full height, his commanding figure and stern demeanor exhibited 
a firmness of purpose not safe to be trifled with. Displaying con- 
spicuously two long knives in his belt on the left side, and bring- 
ing the two horse pistols on his right side to the front, he took out 
one of the knives, with a blade some fifteen inches long, in his 
left hand. Thus, bristling with arms, his e.ves flashing lire and 
his features rigid from Uie coolness of his determination, he 
turned round defiantly, facing Wah-ban-che, Wa-she-o-nas and 
the other fractious spirits, and, in language not to be misunder- 
stood, thus addi-essed them: 'Now show me the Indian that will 
tell me to sit down until I get thi-ough.' That was enough. 
Quailing under his fierce gaze, they said not a word, nor again 
attempted to interrupt him. Having spoken a few minutes, ex- 
plaining in detail the purposes and plan of the proposed treaty, 
he closed. In a little while, all the ju-ovisions contemplated were 
agreed upon, and all the extensive domain around Chicago, down 
to the borders of the Tippecanoe River, as designated in the treaty 
of that date, were sold and transfen-ed to the United States, and 
the treaty satisfactorily concluded." 



Peiesoxal HisToitY OF Me-te-a. a Noted Chief and Warriou of 
THE Pottawatomies— Some of his Peculiar Qualities— His 
Death— In Contrast, Some of the Chauacteristils of Wau- 


ME-TE-A was a war chief of the Pottawatomies, who, in the 
course of his career, achieved a somewhat enviable noto- 
riety. His tribe, dm-ing the gi-eater pai-t of the last centmy, in- 
habited the region to the northward of the present site of Fort 
Wayne, and to the westward, bordering on the Tippecanoe River. 
About the period of the war of 1812, Me-te-a was at the zenith of 
his power and influence among the kindred tribes. " His villages 
were on the Little St. Joseph's River — one on the table-land 
where Cedarville now is, near the mouth, but on the north side of 
Cedar Creek; and the other about seven miles from Fort AVayne, 
on the north side of the St. Joseph's, on a section of land granted 
by the Miami Indians at the treaty held in 1820, at the mouth of 
the Mississinewa, at Paradise Springs (Wabash), to John B. Bou- 
rie, which section was so described as to include Chop-a-tee vil- 
lage, perhaps better known as the Bourie section. On the lOth 
of September, 1812, when Gen. Harrison's army was forcing its 
march to raise the siege which the Indians were holding over Fort 
Wayne, Me-te-a and a few of his braves planned an ambuscade at 
the Five Mile Swamp, where Wayne's trace crossed it, and per- 
haps where the present county road crosses it, five miles southeast 
of this city (Fort Wayne). Having made an ambush on both sides 
of the road in a narrow defile, where the troops would have to 
crowd together, they laid in wait for the army; but Maj. Mann, 
a spy of Gen. Han-ison's, with a few avant-com-iers, discovered it 
in time to save the effusion of blood in the army. Me-te-a, hav- 
ing located himself behind a tree, left his elbow exposed as it lay 
over the breech of his rifle, resting on his left shoulder. This 
Maj. Mann discovered, and instantly took aim, and, firing, broke 
the arm of the brave chief ; aud, discovering that^ he had not 
killed him, he sprang off in the pursuit after Me-te-a, who gath- 
ered up his swinging and crippled ai-m, fled with a loud, 'Ugh! 
ugh!' and by the hardest effoi't escaped to Fort Wayne in time to 
advise the besieging Indians of the upjiroach of Gen. Harrison's 
army, at which they prepared to leave, and left that afternoon. 

" The arm of the chief healed up, but the bone never knit, 
which left it entireh' useless. He afterward told over the inci- 
dent of his wound and chase by Maj. Mann,"and gave him great 
praise for being a brave and athletic man. It was supposed that, 
if Mann's men who were with him as spies, had been as quick 
and courageous as he was himself, that Me-te-a-would have paid 
the penalty of that ambuscade with his scaljx 

"He was a brave, generous and intelligent Indian, who is de- 
scribed by those who knew him well to have been not only an ora- 
tor; but a powerful reasoner and practical man, especially at the 
treaties in which he took a part. In addition to these qualities, 
he was most vivacious and witty. He lived in this vicinity, as is 
known, from 1800 to 1827, in May of which latter yeai' he came 
to his death by poison, said to have been siuTeptitiously adminis- 
tered by some malevolent Indians, who were unjustly incensed at 
him for his adherence to the terms of the treaty of 1826, matle at 
the mouth of the Mississinewa. The poison was supposed to have 
been the root of the May apple. He, the night before his death, 
was discovered to have been poisoned, and, in the. morning, foimd 
dead, his- tongue having swollen to such an extent as to have pro- 

truded far thi-ough his mouth, filling it so as to prevent breathing. 
He was then biu'ied on the sand-hill overlooking the St. Mai-y's, 
and between where Fort Wayne College now stands, at the west 
end of Wayne street, and the west end of Berry street. 

" In that unmarked spot sleeps, in an undisturbed state, all 
that was mortal of the Pottawatomie chief Me-te-a, who, for half 
a century or more, it is thought, prior to May, 1827, had been an 
occupant of this soil, which had been reclaimed with such an in- 
different spu'it on the part of the whites, as that they neai-ly for 
got it was once Indian territory, and since which death, on the spot 
where stood his and the Indians' beloved Ke-ki-ong-a (Blackberry 
Patch) has sprung up a beautiful city. But here comes a musing 
spirit; their day is past; their tires are out: the deer no longer 
bounds before them; the plow is in their hunting-grounds; the ax 
rings through the woods once only familial' with the rifle's report 
and the war-whoop; the bai'k canoe is no longer on the river; the 
springs are diy; civilization has blotted out that race. 
■ ' 'And with his frail breath his power has passed away. 
His deeds, his thoughts, are buried with his clay.' " 

— Dawson's Notes. 


In marked contrast with the chief whose career we have briefly 
reviewed, we place that of Wau-ben-see, or, as he was popularly 
called, Wah-ban-che. He, as the one cited above, was a noted 
chief and brave wan-ior, but, in the character of their notability 
and the style of their bravery were strikingly dissimilai'. Me-te-a's 
notability as a chief and warrior was the result of a superior 
intellectual nutiu-e, and a sense of honorable opposition and strat- 
egy in war, and his bravery was of that cool, well-poised aud de- 
liberate character which acts alone from the impulse of duty in 
the maintenance of right, as in his nature developed. Of Wah- 
ban-che, let the record he has made of himself speak: " The 
horrid massacre of the retiring American garrison at Chicago, 
who were butchered, like so many cattle, on the sandy shores of 
Lake Michigan," says Mr. Schoolcraft, •' the wild howl of the 
tribes along the whole frontiers — came like the fierce rushing of 
a tornado, which thi'eatens to destroy entire Ullages. Among the 
elements of this tornado was the wild sasaguon or war-whoop, of 
Waubimsee. He was a Pottawatomie war chief of some note at 
Chicago, distinguished for his ferocious and brutal character. He 
had been one of the actors in the sanguinary massacre of 1812, 
near the mouth of the Konamic. He often freely indulged in 
liquor, and, when thus excited, exhibited the flushed visage of a 
demon. On one occasion, two of his wives, or rather female 
slaves, had a dispute. One of them went, in her excited state of 
feeling, to Waubuusee and told him that the other had mistreated 
his children. He ordered the accused to be brought before him. 
He told her to lie down on her back on the ground. He then 
directed the other (her accuser) to take a tomahawk and dispatch 
her. She instantly .split open her skull. ' There! ' said the sav- 
age. ' Let the crows eat her.' He left her unburied, but was 
afterward persuaded to direct the mm-deress to bui-y her. She 
dug the grave so shallow that the wolves pulled out the body that 
night and partly devoured it. This chief had the reputation of 
being a brave aud eflicient warrior. There are no anecdotes of 
him, however, which redeem his chai'acter from the reproaches of 
cruelty and deep revenge. He united with his tribe in the sales 
of their lands, aud migrated with them, in 1838, to Council 
Bluffs, on the Missom-i." 

The manner and disposition of this chief, as given by Mr. School- 
ci-aft, are in exact accord with the chiu-acteristics manifested on 



the occasion of a treaty-making conference, held on the banks of 
the Tippecanoe River, in October. 1832, an account of which has 
ah'eady been given among the treaty relations of the tribe. On 
that occasion, the reader will remember, he attempted to prevent 
any discussion of the propriety or impropriety of the terms pro- 
posed for consummating of the purposes of the conference, 
for no other reason than that he entertained a personal pique 
against Mr. Bai-ron, the interpreter employed by the United 
States Commissioners as the medium of communication between 
the white people and the Indians. Notwithstanding his attempt 
at bravado, however, the prom[)t action and determined demeanor 
of Aub-bee-naub-bee had the eilect to let his pompous courage ooze 
out from his fingers' ends. 


r I A T E N O N.S ( W E A .S.) 
A Branch of thk Miamis— Their Occupancy ok Tkuicitouy on 
THK Wabash, and PiaNciPAL Villages— .^.ccount ok Fout 


THE People— Treaties With the Weas and t'KssioN.s ok 

Lani) Ortained FitOM Them. 
f" I'^HE Weas, or Ouiateuons, as they were originally called by 
-L the French, are of the Algonquin family, and have a com- 
mon origin with the Miamis. They were first separately known, 
after the settlement of their kinsmen iu the vicinity of Chicago, 
on the St. Joseph's or Miami of Lake Michigan, and on the 
head-waters of the Wabash, about the year 1669-7(1, at which 
time, probably, they were tu'st recognized as occupying a partially 
distinct territory, though not as a distinct tribe. In the earliest 
accounts of the settlement of the Miamis at the mouth of the St. 
Joseph's and at the head of the Maumee, the present site of Fort 
Wayne, they are spoken of as Ouiatenons, and yet Miamis. The 
subsequent relations between these thi-ee villages, especially, were 
those naturally subsisting between any three members of the same 
family, though residing in as many different localities. At nearly 
the same period, military posts were erected and garrisoned at 
Ke-ki-ong-a and Oui-a-te-non, and were under the common con- 
trol of the same commandants, as will appear by reference to the 
official military correspondence of the latter part of the seven- 
teenth and the first quarter of the eighteenth centuries, and, in- 
deed, at later dates, for a like management continued, with refer- 
ence to them, until the French ceased to have the control of them 
— nearly one hundred and twenty years ago. 

Among the archives of France, at Paris, a document has been 
found, written in 1718, which gives the following account of the 
villages of the Weas and their inhabitants: " This river, Oua- 
bache, is the one on which the Ougatenons (Weas) are settled. 
They consist of five villages, which are contiguous the one to the 
other. One is caJled Ouj-a-tenon, the other Peanquinehias, and 
another Petitscotias, and the fom-th Les Gros. The name of the 
last I do not recollect, but they are all Oujatenons, having the 
same language as the Miamis, whose brothers they are, and prop- 
erly all Miamis, having the same customs and dress. The men 
are very numerous — fully a thousand or twelve hundred. They 
have a custom different from all other nations, which is to keep 
their fort extremel)' clean, not allowing a blade of grass to remain 
in it. The whole of the fort is sanded, like the Tuileries. Their 
village is situated on a high hill, and they have over two leagues 
of improvement, where they raise their Indian corn, pumpkins 

and melons. From the summit of this elevation, nothing is visi- 
ble to the eye but prairies full of buffalo." 

The Weas continued to occupy the territory possessed by them 
without molestation, save tlie permitted occupancy by fragments 
of other tribes, temporarily or permanently, according to inclina- 
tion, until commencing with the treaty at Greenville, Ohio, con- 
cluded on the 3d day of August, 1795, they ceded to the United 
States a tract of land at the Ouiatenon, or Old Wea Towns, six 
miles square. This session was small in size, and appears to have 
been the first made by them as a separate tribe, or jointly with 
other interested tribes, and embraced a portion of their most val- 
uable possessions. By another treaty, made by the Weas, in con- 
junction with the Miamis, Eel Rivers, Delawai'es and Pottawato- 
mies, at Grouseland, near Vincermes, on the 21st of August, 1805, 
it was declared that those tribes were " joint owners of all the 
counti-y on the Wabash and its waters, above the Vincermes tract," 
which had not been before ceded to the United States by that or 
any other ti-eaty. and as such they agreed thereafter to recognize 
a community of interest in the same. By the provisions of the 
same treaty, the joint interest of these tribes in certain lands south 
of the WTiite River was relinquished to the United States, in con- 
sideration of which the Weas were to receive an annuity of $250. 

On the -tth day of June, 1810, the Weas and the Kickapoos 
entered into a treaty of peace with the United States, and con- 
firmed the treaties before made by them, involving the title to the 
lands on the west side of the Wabash River. By a subsequent 
treaty, entered into on the 2d day of October, 1818, the Weas, for 
themselves, ceded to the United States all the lands owned by 
them in Indiana, Ohio and Illinois, except certain special reser- 
vations made in their interest, for which the United States stipu- 
lated to pay them, in addition to their former annuity of $1,150, 
the sum of $1,850, thus making the aggregate annuity $3,000, in 
silver. The Weas afterward, on the 11th of August, 1820, at 
Vincennes, made a final cession of all their lands reserved by the 
last preceding treaty, to the United States, in consideration of 
the sum of $5,000 in money and goods, the receipt of which was 
then and there acknowledged. Inasmuch, also, as it was contem- 
plated, by the foregoing provisions, that the Weas should shortly 
remove fi-om the Wabash, their annuities were thereafter direct- 
ed to be paid at Kaskaskia, in Illinois. 


Kindred of the Pott .\wato5iies— Invited by the Miamis into 
TiiEiR Country— Located on the Veujiillion nivKH — Ex- 
pedition Against Them in 1791 — De.struction of theiu 
To\VNs on the Wabash— At the Treaty- ok Gueenville— 
Subsequent Tiie.\ties and Cessions of Territory— Their 
Alliance with Tecumseh— IntiieCocxcil on the Mississin- 
EWA River, etc. 

'■ I ■'HE Kickapoos, like the Pottawatomies. ai-e of the Algonquin 
-L family, and with them also occupied territory in common be- 
tween Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River, territory pos- 
sessed by the Miamis. At a later period in their history, they 
were invited by the Miamis to unite with them in some of their 
expeditions against other Indian tribes. About the middle of the 
eighteenth centiuy, the Kickapoos were very numerous and pow- 
erful, and, as the result of a furious war between them and the 
Sacs on the one side, and the Kaskaskias, Cahokias, Peorians, 


Michiganians and Teraorias on the other, these latter tribes were 
almost annihilated, though a short time previously they aggre- 
gated 4,()(.)0 warriors. The Sacs contimied to occupy the terri- 
toiy uoi-th, while the Kiekapoos made their principal village at 
Peoria, on the south bank of the Illinois. 

■' During the war of the Kevolution," says Gen. Harrison, 
" the Miamis had invited the Kiekapoos into their countiy to as- 
sist them against the whites, and a considerable village was 
formed by that tribe on the Vermillion Biver, near its junction 
with the Wabash." At a later date, by virtue of the same per- 
mission, vil lages were established farther up the Wabash, in the 
vicinity of the Tippecanoe, a principal one on the Wabash oppo- 
site the Wea villages. Though not very numerous in that lo- 
cality, they maintained their position among other tribes, though 
not especially warlike, and were, as a rule, peaceably disposed to- 
ward the whites. 

Id the spring of 1791, an expedition was fitted out against 
the Wabash Indians, under the directions of Gen. Charles Scott. 
This oificer, on the 1st of June of that year, attacked and de- 
stroyed the villages of the AVeas, After the destruction of these 
villages, the Kickapoo town on the opposite side of the Wabash 
was attacked and destroyed. Subsequent to the destruction of 
those villages, the two or tlu'ee days succeeding were occupied in 
the disposition of prisoners, and in ascertaining, with as much 
definiteness as possible, the status of the numerous bands of In- 
dians in the vicinity, on the question of peace or war. On the 
4th of June, he addressed a written speech •' to the various tribes 
of the Piankeshaws, and all the nations of red people lying on the 
waters of Wabash River," dated at Ouiatenon, giving them some 
wholesome advice touching their conduct toward the white people, 
and the consequences likely to result to them in case they persist- 
ently continued to act in a depredatory way toward the pioneer 
settlers along the frontier. On the same day, he set out on his 
return march to Fort Washington. The chastisement adminis- 
tered by Gen. Scott had a good effect in cheeking,the frequency 
of their hostile expeditions. 

At the treaty of Greenville, Ohio, concluded on the 3d of Au- 
gust, 1795, the Kiekapoos were jiresent and participated in the 
conferences held preliminary thereto, and. in the end, ceded their 
interest in certain lauds disjjosed of by that treaty to the United 
States, receiving in consideration therefor an annuity of 1500. 
By the provisions of Article VH of that instrument, they were al- 
lowed the " liberty to hunt within the territory and lands which 
they have now ceded to the United States, without hindi-auce or 
molestation, so long as they demean themselves peaceably, and 
offer no injuiy to the people of the United States." Another treaty 
was held at Fort Wayne on the 7th of June, 1803, in which they, 
with other triln- iiitcri'strd. made further cession of rights and 
privileges to tb'' rniiiil States,"as amai'kof their regai'd for and 
attachment tothc rnilcil Slates, whom they acknowledged as their 
friends and protectors." 

By a subsequent treaty, held at Fort Harrison on the Ith day 
of June, IHK), they, with the Weas, acknowledged the cession by 
the to certain lands on the northwest side of the Wabash, on 
the Wabash and Vennilliim Eivers, and again entered into a 
league of friendship with the United States, having, by former 
treaties, on the 30th of September and 9th of Deeembor, 1809, 
made joint cession to the United States of the same territory em- 
braced in the treaty just concluded. Finally, on the 30th of July, 
1819, a treaty was helil at Edwardsville, in the State of Illinois, 
by which they ftirther ceded to the United States "all the land on 

the_ southeast side of the Wabash Biver, including their princi- 
pal village, in which their ancestors formerly resided, consisting 
of a large tract, to which they have had from time immemorial, 
and now have, a just right; that they have never heretofore ceded 
or otherwise disposed of it in any manner whatever; " also, all 
other lands in the State of Indiana not before ceded by them, 
thereby confirming all other treaties before made by them, prom- 
ising to continue under the protection of the United States, and 
no other nation. In consideration for this last treaty, they were 
fc) receive $3,000 worth of merchandise, in addition to an an- 
nuity of $2,000 in silver; and as a consideration for former cos- 
siims made, in addition to which they were to receive certain 
lands in Missouri Territory; provided they never sell said lands 
without the consent of the United States. 

Aside, fi'om the alliance of some members of the tribe with 
Tecumseh in his proposed scheme for an Indian confederacy, the 
Kiekapoos generally maintained the integrity of their treaty 
stipulations at Greenville, in 1795, by remaining at peace with 
the whites. The result of the alliance, for which the tribe was 
scarcely responsible, was the unprovoked attack on the camp of 
Gen. Harrison at Tippecanoe, in November, 1811, in which they 
lost eleven warriors killed, and others wounded or disabled. 

About the middle of May, 1812, a great council was held at 
an Indian village on the Mississinewa Biver, in which all, or 
nearly all, the Wabash tribes participated, Tecumseh being the 
moving spirit. During the progi-ess of that coiincil, the pacific 
disposition of the Kiekapoos was strikingly manifested. In reply 
to a hai'angue by Tecumseh on his favorite theme, they declared 
that, having made peace with Gov. Harrison, "we have not two 
faces, and we despise those who have. The peace we have made 
with Gov. Harrison we strictly adhere to, and trouble no person, 
and hope none will trouble us." With this unequivocal declara- 
tion of the Kiekapoos. the council ended, and Tecumseh left, cha- 
grined and disajipointed. 


TiiFiu Nami:. with a Buief AccorNT of Theih Eaui.v HtsToKY— 


Them— TiiEiii Intercodisse with Other TuiiiE.s—CHAEi,EvoLX 
Mentions Them— Mr. Gallatin— Their Position in the Wars 
Bktween THE Erexcii and Enolish— Located ixrtEOHoiA, 
.Afterward in Ohio— .Vmono the Mia.mi.s, etc 

THIS tribe, one of the early types of the Algon(iuin family. 
was called Satanas by the Iroqnois, and Shawanau by the 
Delawares, meaning Southern. By the French they were called 
Chouanons- occasionally, Massawomoes. They were en'atic, 
and, in consequence, their location was little kno^vn prior to 1(508. 
Mr. Jefferson, in Iiis " Notes on Virginia," says that, in 1()()8. when 
Capt. John Smith had been in Amei'ica about one year, a fierce 
war was raging against the allied Mohicans residing on Long Isl 
aiid, and the Shawanoes on the Susquehanna and to the westwanl 
of that river, by the Iroquois. Capt Smith landed in April. 
1007. In the following- year, 1008, he penetrated down the Sii;, 
quehnnna to the mouth of it, where he met with six or seven of 
their canoes filled with wm-riors, about to attack their enemies In 
the rear. 

In 1032, Do Laet tni'iilinmd them as being then on citlur 
side of the Delaware River. Chiirlevoix speidcs of them, in 11172. 


under the name of Chaouanons, as neighbors to the Audastes, an 
Iroquois tribe, south of the Senecas, and were perhaps represented 
at the treaty of Kensington, Penn., in IOS'2. They were parties 
to the treaty at Philadelphia in 1701, which was signed by their 
chiefs. Wa-]3a-tha. Lemoytungh and Pemoyajagh.* 

Meantime, in 16S4, the Iroquois, when complained of for hav- 
ing attacked the Miamis. justified their conduct on the ground 
that the Miami had invited the Satanas (Shawanous) into the 
country for the purpose of making war upon them (Ii'oquoisj.f 

The Sacs and Foxes, originally on the St. Lawi-ence, claim 
the Shawanoes as of their stock, retaining traditional accounts of 
their emigration South. "Their manners, customs and language 
indicate a Northern origin, and, upward of two centuries ago, 
they held the country south of Lake Erie. They were the first 
tribe which felt the force and yielded to the superiority of the 
Iroquois. Conquered by these, they migrated to the South, and, 
from fear or favor, were allowed to take possession of a region 
upon the Savannah River; but what part of that stream, whether 
in Georgia or Florida, is not known; it is presumed the former."J 

Mr. Gallatin fixes the date of their defeat by the Five Nations 
as having taken place in 1673. He also places them as belonging 
to the Lenapi tribe of the North — originally to the Algonquin 
Lenapi nation. Prior to 1672, they were in Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania, on the St. Lawrence, and on the southern shore of Lake 
Erie; generally, it was with some neighboring tribe. Subse- 
quently, they were found South, on the Ohio River below the 
mouth of the Wabash, in Kentucky, Georgia and the Carolinas. 

In 1708, they were removing from the Mississippi to one of 
the rivers of South Carolina. Says Mi'. Gallatin: " There was a 
settlement of them on the head- waters of the Catawba or Santee, 
probably the Yadkin.'' 

John Johnston, in the "Transactions of the -American Anti- 
quarian Society," says that a large body of them, who originally 
lived north of the Ohio River, for some cause, emigi-ated to the 
Suwanee River. From there they retiu-ned under Black Hoof, 
about 1750, to Ohio. They probably gave the name to the Suwa- 
nee (Shawanoe) River. 

In the wars that took place between the French and English, 
commencing in 1755 and ending with the declaration of peace on 
the 10th of February, 1703, the Shawanoes were the allies of and 
assisted the French in the contest, rendering essential service. 
Notwithstanding peace had been declai-ed between these two bel- 
ligerent powers by the ratification of the treaty to that end, the 
Indians, being dissatisfied with some of the provisions of that in- 
strument, refused to abide by its terms, and continued their dep- 
redations against the settlers on the border. The peculiai-ly ob- 
jectionable feafui'e appears to have been that whereby the Cana- 
dian provinces were ceded to Great Britain. This objection was 
greatly enlarged by the acts of the British Government in build- 
ing so many forts on the Susquehanna and elsewhere, because they 
were thus gradually§ " surroimded on two sides by a cordon of 
forts, and were threatened with an extension of them into the very 
heart of their coimtry. They had now to choose whether they 
would remove to the North and West, negotiate with the British 
Government for the possession of their own land, or take up ai-ms 
for its defense. They chose the last alternative, and a wai' of ex- 
termination against the English in the Western country, and even 
those on the Susquehanna, was agreed upon and speedily com- 

gDrako'8 Teciiinseh, ] 

menced. * * * * The contest was continued with resolute 
and daring spirit, and with much destruction of life and property, 
until December, 1764, when the war was brought to a close by a 
treaty at the German Flats, made between Sir William Johnston 
and the hostile Indians. Soon after the conclusion of this peace, 
the Shawanoes became involved in a war with the Cherokees, 
which continued until 170S, when, pressed hard by the united 
forces of the former tribe and the Delawares, the Southern In- 
dians solicited and obtained a peace. For the ensuing six years, 
the Shawanoes remained quiet, living on amicable terms with the 
whites on the frontiers^ in April, 1774, however, hostilities be- 
tween the parties were renewed." 

From that time until the close of Wayne's campaign, in 1794, 
and the subsequent treaty of Greenville in August, 1795. there 
was a series of eonfiicts involving the sacrifice of many valuable 
lives, not of the white people only, but of the Indians, and not 
the least among the latter, Cornstalk, the celebrated Shawanoe 
chief, and his son, Elenipsico, two genuine specimens of Indian 
nobility. Having united in the ti'eaty of Greenville, with the ex- 
ception of those who fought at Tippecanoe, the Shawanoe* re- 
mained at peace with the Government of the United States until 
the period of the war with Great Britain, in 1812, in which a 
considerable body of them became the allies of the English. 
Subsequently, we hear little of them in the attitude of warriors. 
Afterward, having disposed of their interest in the lands in 
this vicinity by satisfactory treaty, they removed westward and 
settled upon " a tract of country twenty-five rniles north and south, 
and one hundred east and west, bounded on the east by the State 
of Missoui-i and on the north by the Kansas River, which, in point 
of soil, timber and water, is equaled by but few tracts of the 
same size in any coimtry; though there is, however, hardly a 
sufficient proportion of timber for the prairie. The Shawanoes 
have become an agricultm-al people, their buildings and farms be- 
ing similar to those of the whites in a new settled country; in- 
closed by rail fences, and most of them in good form, each string 
of fence being straight, sufficiently high to secure their crops, 
and many of them staked and ridered. They all live in comfort- 
able cabins, perhaps half or more being built of good hewn logs, 
and neatly raised, with outhouses, stables and barns."* 

Among the numerous Shawanoe chiefs and warriors whose 
history is especially identified with the history of the Maumee 
Valley, especial attention is directed to the following: 


His GENEALOfiY— His BntTH and Early Exploits— Disposition 

ATION OF Tribes, and Pehsi.stence in Disseminating his 
Plans— His Location at Tippecanoe— His Diplomacy and 
.ViiDREss— Killed at The Thames. 

TECUMSEH, whose name, with that of his brother, the 
Prophet, figured quite extensively in the history of this im- 
mediate locality many years anterior to its settlement by the white 
people, was of the Shawanoe tribe, which, for a time just after 
the treaty of Greenville, in August, 1795, with the consent of the 
Delawares, who then occupied the territory on White River, abode 
with them at their principal town, Out-ain-iuk, now better know 
as Old Town, to distinguish it from the present city of Muncie, 


the seat of justice of Delaware County. He was the son of Puc- 
ke sbin-wa and Me-tho-a-las-ke, the former of the Kiscopoke and 
the latter of the Tiu-tle division of the Shawanoes, and hence of 
the pure blood, notwithstanding the declaration that his paternal 
gi'andfather was of the Anglo-Saxon race, as has been claimed, 
and his grandmother a Creek. 

Both his father and mother were of the Shawanoe family, and 
possessed qualities, mental and physical, of a high order. 

He was the fom-th in a family of seven children — six sons 
and a daughter — and his name was said to signify a shooting star, 
foreshadowing his futui'e career. According to the best aiathori- 
ties, he was born in the year 1768, on Mad River, in what is now 
Clark County, Ohio. His father. Puc-ke-shin-wa, was a brave of 
great merit, and won for him the confidence of his people, by 
whom he was promoted to a chieftaincy — a rank to be acquired 
only by the exhibition of qualities foimd only in persons of the 
highest recognized distinction He was one of the leading spirits 
in the battle of the Kan-aw-ha in 1774. 

At an early age. Tecumseh was placed under the tutelage of 
his elder brother. Chec-see-kan, who is represented to have taken 
great pains in preparing him for what he seems destined to become 
— a distinguished warrior — instilling into his youthful mind a 
love for the truth and contempt for the wrong. His earliest in- 
stincts seem to have been for war, and his first impulses directed 
him forward in the development of mind and muscle, according 
to the most approved methods of the age, excelling in all the de 
partments of Indian military life, assnming the leadership among 
his companions as if by inherent right in all their trainings and all 
their pastimes, distinguishing himself always, by superior strength, 
activity and skill. In the use of the bow and arrow, his dexter- 
ity surpassed all the other youth of his tribe, over whom he pos- 
sessed an inft^nce only begotten of unbounded confidence and 
respect This confidence is said never to have been betrayed by 
him. The first important warlike expedition in which he took 
part, was an attack upon some flat-boatmen descending the Ohio 
River near Limestone, about the year 1783, when he was in his 
seventeenth year. The boats were all captured and the crews 
killed, except one man who was taken prisoner and afterward 
burned. This was the first case of burning ever witnessed by him, 
and the experience was a terrible one. exerting an influence upon 
him which ever after induced an abhorrence that he could not 
overcome. It has been said by those best acquainted with him 
that never, in any instance, was he known to have violated this 
resolution to obey the promptings of an inherent humanity. 

About the year 17S7, he, with his brother, Chec-see-kan, and 
a small party of Kiscopokes, started on a himting expedition in 
the Cherokee country, stopping for a few months in the Missis- 
sinewa country, then crossing over to the Mississippi, encamped 
at the mouth of Apple Creek, where they remained about one 
year; from there to the ]ilace of their destination, remaining in 
the South some two years. Subsequently, he retiirned to Mad 
River, and afterward to the Auglaize, in 171)0. after the defeat of 
Gen. HaiTuar. 

In the decisive engagement between the combined Indian 
forces and the army of Gen. Wayne, on the 2()th of August, 1794, 
near the Maumee Rapids, ho was a participant; but, from some 
yet unexplained cause, it appears he took no part in the council 
of the preceding evening, when the engagement was determined 
ujiim, hence in the details of that engagement we find no other 
evidence of his presence or method among the Indians in their 
movements than his personal management of the small band of 

Shawanoes, who fought with a desperation seldom paralleled. 
It was in this action that he and Lieut, (afterward Governor) W. 
H. Harrison met for the fu-st time on the battle-field as opposing 
combatants. They were then both young, nearly the same age, 
and both displayed a coiu-age and gallantry indicative of the brill- 
iant and eventful futm-e in wait for them. He refused to attend 
the treaty of Greenville, which was concluded on the 3d of Au- 
gust, 1795, and continued, fi-om that time forward, unyielding in 
his opposition to a recognition of its provisions. 

Having removed from his former habitations, near Urbana and 
Piqua, Ohio, to the head-waters of the White River, in the spring 
of 1797, the following year, the Delawares, then residing in part 
on White River, in the State of Indiana, invited Tecumseh to re- 
move to that locality. This invitation he and his followers ac- ■ 
cepted, and for a number of year's afterward made that his head- 
quarters. The principal town of the Delawares, to which Tecmn- 
seh and his band were invited, and where he etablished his head- 
quarters, was Out-ain-ink, on the north side of the 'VMiite River, 
opposite to the Munsey-town. 

In 1805, some of the Shawanoes living at the Tawa Towns, on 
the head- waters of the Auglaize River, desiring to bring together 
the scattered bands of their people, sent a deputation to Teciun- 
seh, at Out-ain-ink, inviting him and his followers to join them 
at these towns. The proposition, though mutually accepted, was 
never fully can-ied out, in consequence of the movements of the 
embryo prophet, Tens-kwa-ta-wa, who subsequently figured with 
conspicuous notoriety in Indian history along th- Wabash. Un- 
der the influence of Tecumseh and his brother, some four him- 
dred Indians assembled at Greenville in April, 1807, and held a 
council, ostensibly for the pm'pose of affording an opportunity 
to these warriors to exhibit their mutual dissatisfaction with the 
provisions of the treaty at that place in 1795. The result indi- 
cates no other pm-pose, otherwise it had as well never been held. 

The year following, the Kickapoos and Pottawatomies granted 
to Tecumseh and his Prophet brother, a tract of land on the Tip- 
pecanoe River, a tributary of the Wabash, upon which the latter 
established a town, afterward known as the " Prophet's Town," 
because of its being the headquarters of the ti'ibe. and under the 
personal control of the Prophet himself. From this point, also, 
Tecumseh radiated among the circumjacent tribes in the interest 
of his favorite project of establishing an Indian confederacy, as 
a means of offering combined opposition to the provisions between 
the United States and the Indian tribes of the Northwest. With 
this purpose in view, in the spring of 1809, he attended a coimcil 
of various Indian tribes at Sandusky, Ohio, and attempted to prt^ 
vail upon the Wyandots and Senecas to join his settlement on the 
Tippecanoe. His operations in this direction appear to have been 
premature, for some of the wily old AVyandot chiefs distrasted 
his pm-pose, and .so informed l;im. However, with Capt. Lewis, 
another Shawanoe chief, a mission to the Creeks and Cherokees 
was planned and subsequently HCCom])lished, all in the interest of 
Tecimiseh's scheme. 

During the latter part of the vein- ISO'.I and the spring of IMO. 
the movements of Tecumseh and Teus-qaa-ta-wa, his brother^ be 
gan more certainly than ever before to develop their ultimate pur 
pose to make war upon the frontier settlements on the Wabash 
and elsewhere. Their followers continued to increase, and there 
were numerous instances of secret diplomacy between them anil 
the head-men of other tribes supposed to be favorable to an alli- 
ance for the purpose of combined operations against the white 
people. The visit of Tecumseh to the Wyandots. and the success 



attending it. with conciu-reut circumstances, elicited greater vigi- 
lance on the part of Gov. Harrison, aiad induced a determined pur- 
pose, on his pai-t, to prepare for an active defense of his terri- 

In August of that yeai-, Tecumseh, under promise of a visit to 
the Governor at Vincennes, projiosed to go there accompanied by 
no more than thirty of his principal warriors. Instead of comply- 
ing witli the promise, on the l'2th of the month he descended the 
Wabash, attended by some fom- hundred wai-riors, fully armed 
with tomahawks and war clubs, for the pm-pose of holding a con- 
ference with the Governor at his headquarters. The council took 
place in a gi-ove near the Governor's residence, on the morning 
of August 15. IS 10, Tecumseh opened the conference with a 
speech, in which he avowed his fixed purpose to resist all ces- 
sions of land unless agreed to by all the tribes in common, as one 
nation. He had threatened to kill the chiefs who signed the 
treaty at Fort Wayne, and was still determined not to permit vil- 
lage chiefs, in futiu-e, to manage their affairs, but to place that 
power in the hands of the war chiefs. While he disclaimed any 
intention to make war against the United States, he declared his 
resolution to oppose all fiu'ther intrusion of the whites on Indian 
lands, except on the teiTus indicated. 

Gov. Harrison, in reply, reviewed Tecumseh's objections to the 
treaty at Fort Wayne, and stated that the Indians were not one 
nation, having a common property in the lands; that the Miarais 
were the real owners of the l&nds on the Wabash ceded by that 
treaty, and that the Shawanoes had no right to interfere in tho 
case except by sufferance, because, from time immemorial, the Mi- 
amis had been in undisputed possession. As an answer to the as- 
sertion of Tecumseh that the red people constituted but one na- 
tion, he said that if such had been the piu'pose of the Great Spirit, 
He would have taught them to speak but one tongue; instead, as 
the facts were, every tribe was wout to speak a different language. 
This stoug point in the Governor's argiament greatly exasperated 
the chief, who, springing to feet, flom'ished his tomahawk and 
disputed the correctness of the statement. The Indians, his war- 
riors, springing to their feet also, assumed a warlike attitude. A 
collision seemed imminent, but, by the coolness of the Governor, 
and his manifest pm-pose to meet force with force, if need be, the 
calamity was averted. Rebuking Tecumseh for his fastness, he 
told him he was a bad man, and that no fmiher communication 
would be then held with him, and that he must at once leave the 

On the following mtirning. having recalled his hasty temper, 
Tecumseh sought and obtained another interview with the Gov- 
ernor, in which the subjects of conference were more pacifically 
^canvassed, not materialjy changing the issues. In this latter in- 
terview, the Wyandots. Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Ottawas and 
Winnebagoes signified their pm-pose to abide by the principles of 
their compact with the Shawanoes. 

Subsequently, while manifesting an indisposition to commence 
hostilities against the whites, Tecumseh occupied his time in vis- 
iting other tribes, and sought, by every means in his power, to 
fm-ther the objects of his contemplated confederacy. In tho 
meantime, however, the battle of Tippecanoe was brought about 
through the instrumentality of the Prophet, contrary to the wishes 
and purposes of Tecumseh, who, at the time, was on a mission to 
the Southern Indians, soliciting their co-operation with his plans. 
This untoward movement of Tens-qua-ta-wa, in closing the issues 
involved in the partially matui-ed purposes of Tecumseh, prema- 
turely thwarted those purposes and changed his course of policy. 

Upon the declai-ation of war by the United States against Great 
Britain, on the 18th of June, 1812, he declai-ed himself the ally 
of the latter, and united his destinies with the British Army. He 
was given command of the Indians in alliance with him. In the 
engagement at Brownstown, which took place soon after the dec- 
laratiimof war, he received a slight woimd. Subsequently, in the 
action before Detroit, on the l()th of August, 1812, the courage 
and tact exhibited by him induced his appointment as a Brigadier 
General in the British Army. Diu-ing the siege of Fort Meigs, in 
May, 1813, Tecumseh again commanded the Indian allies, distin- 
guishing himself as on former occasions. It is related of him, in 
this eonneooion, that, after the defeat of Col. Dudley, through his 
agency, many of the Americans taken prisoners were saved from 
the tomahawk and scalj>iug-kuife, the usages of civilized warfare 
being more in consonance with his convictions of duty; thus, in 
his conduct, exliibiting qualities of heroism to which tha British 
General, Proctor, seemed to be a stranger. On that occasion, see- 
iag the indisposition of Proctor to stay the effusion of blood. Te- 
ciunseh said to him: "You are unfit to command; go and put on 
petticoats." Another of his declarations at that time is especially 
characteristic, addi-essing Gen. Pi-octor: "I conquer to save, and 
you to murder." 

In October following, the battle of the Thames was fought, 
between the army of Gen. Hai-rison on the one hand, and the com- 
bined forces of Proctor and Tecumseh on the other. The result 
of this engagement was most disastrous to the latter, who suffered 
an inglorious defeat. Tecumseh, the brave and magnanimous, 
fell in the midst of the fight — a greater hero than his superior in 
command. In his fall, he was a willing sacrifice at the post of 
duty, disgusted with the perfidy of his commanding General. 


His CiExhalogy— and its Significance— His Ciiakai ter 
AND Pretensions — How Derived— His Teachings — .\mong 
THE Delawares- His Town— Defeat at Tippecanoe. 

'■ I ■'HE name by which this individual was known anterior to 
-L the date of his endowment with the spirit of prophecy, was 
Law-le-wa-si-ka, signifying a loud voice — a name, no doubt, from 
his noisy propensities in early life. He was born about the year 
1771, in the vicinity of Piqua, Ohio. He does not appear to have 
created any gi-eat sensation in eai-ly life because of his sagacity, 
but rather the i-everse. It was not until the earlj' part of the year 
1805 that he assumed to have been clothed upon with oracular 
power. The circumstances of this acquisition are thus related: 
"About this time, Pen a-ga-she-ga (the changed feathers), who, 
for some years, had been the reputed prophet of the Shawanoes, 
died, and his mantle was appropriated by Law-Ie-wa-si-ka. From 
this time forward, he refused to answer to the name of the Loud 
Voice, but gave himself the name of Tens-qua-ta-wa, or, as some 
have it, Pens-qua-ta-wa, meaning the Open Door, because he then 
claimed to be the medium through which his people were to enter 
into the ne^^ ways of life proclaimed and exemplified bv him. 

In November of that year, he called tosether at Wa-pa-con- 
neta, on the Kiver Auglaize, a large number of his own tribe, 
and many Wyandots, Senecas and Ottawas, and, imfolding, dis- 
played the formulai-ies of the new chai-acter assumed by him, with 
the evidences of his divine commission. Among other things, he 



declared, with a show of eai'nestness, against the sin of drunk- 
enness, of which he had been a victim; against the custom of In- 
dian women intermaiTying with white men, formerly prevalent 
among his people. Another of his peculiar doctrines advocated 
under the new departure was that all propert}' should be owned 
in common, each and every individual having an exact equality 
of right in the use and disposition of it under the sanction of the 
community. He advocated, also, the observance of a precept 
which might be safely indorsed by the white race — the duty, es- 
pecially of young people, at all times and under all circumstances, 
to respect age, support and cherish the weak and infirm. A.s a 
means of preserving the identity of the Shawanoe nation as the 
superior of other divisions of the Indian family, he taught that 
the observance of the original habits and dress was especially nec- 
essary. The chief of the new lights which, through his agency, 
were made to da^n upon hi.s peculiar people, was that, having 
received from the Great Spirit supernatural powers, " he was able 
to ciu'e all manner of diseases.' to confound his enemies, and stay 
the ai-m of death in sickness or on the battle-field." 

Because of the superstitious credulity of the Indians, the 
Prophet was capable of and did exercise an uncommon control 
over the opinions and actions of a large number of his own as 
well as of kindred nations. The power assumed to be exercised 
by him he claimed to be supreme, and would not admit of inter- 
ference or opposition from others; hence, numerous instances are 
recorded of his dealing out to siich summary punishment for their 
temerity. "If an individual, and especially a chief, was supposed 
to be hostile to his plans, or doubted the validity of his claim to 
the character of a prophet, he was denounced as a witch, and the 
loss of reputation, if not of life, speedily followed. Among the 
first of his victims were several Delawares — Tat e-poc-o-she Pat- 
terson, his nephew Coltos. an old woman, and an aged man called 
Joshua. These were successively marked by the Prophet, and 
doomed to be burnt alive. The tragedy was commenced with the 
old woman," who was roasted slowly over a fire for four days,, 
when she yielded up the ghost. The next victim sTas~.Tat-e-poc- 
o-she, a venerable chief of the Delawares, who had incurred the 
displeasure of this self -constituted Prophet, and was hence con- 
demned to suffer death. He was deliberately tomahawked by the 
Prophet's order; his body was consumed by fire. Other victims 
were similarly disposed of, when the wife of Tat-e-poc-o-she was 
selested for immolation, after the manner of her husband. While 
preparations were in progress, her brother, a youth of twenty sum- 
mers, suddenly stepped forivard, and, taking her by the hand, to the 
astonishment of all the council sitting in judgment, led her from 
the house. On his return, alluding to the Prophet and the con- 
sequences of his presumption, he exclaimed : " The devil has come 
among us, and we are killing each other." Having thus spoken, 
he re-seated himself in the crowd. This bold and unexpected act, 
it is said, checked the superstitious frenzy of the Indians b}' caus- 
ing them to appreciate the inhumanity of the deeds committed by 
the emissaries of the Prophet, whose influence, in consequence, 
was essentially impaired. 

Many of these proceedings took place during the temporary 
residence of Tecumsnh, the Pi'ophet, and some of their immediate 
followers, -among the Munsees of the Delawares, upon the banks 
of the White River, with headquarters at Out-ain-ink, where, tra- 
dition has it, these numerous burnings, or many of them, were 
enacted. Indeed, the statement has been made, without contra- 
diction, in many of the historical works of the day, that not only 
did these sacrifices on the altar of superstition oecui- within the 

limits of this old Indian town on the north bank of White River, 
but the desecrated spot was long marked by the evidences remain- 
ing within the past half-century of the post to which victims, 
white and red, have been tied during the progress of the fiery or- 
deal which reduced thieir bodies to ashes. 

In the latter part of the year 1807, he extended the influence 
of his newly acquired powers among the Ojibways, and for some 
time there was much interest excited touching the observances 
proposed as tests of their sincerity. The effect of these spasmodic 
efforts to keep themselves in good repute with the Prophet's chosen 
ministers was of short diu-ation: then the proffered influence was 
cast aside as impotent. From other quarters, however, proselytes 
came in large numbers, and remained in the sacred presence until 
their means of subsistance were exhausted and their superstitious 
frenzy had abated. 

During the following year, the Prophet's town was established 
on the banks of the Tippecanoe. This town, in the subsequent 
history of pioneer movements on the Wabash, figured quite ex- 
tensively. Indeed, in its real character, it became the hot-bed of 
treachery and corruption, where raids upon the frontier settle- 
ments were hatched and sent out, and plans laid for the construc- 
tion of the great Indian confederacy. Here the prime purpose of 
the Prophet's zeal for reform among his people was nurtm-ed into 
maturity and brought forth its legitimate fruit — the defeat of his 
enterprise and the ultimate breaking of his magic spell. 

The frequent and large accessions to his band from various 
tribes made the number so formidable as to become a source of 
uneasiness and apprehension to Gov. Harrison and the Territorial 
authorities. As a consequence of the distm'bances that unif oi'mly 
had their origin at this point, -attention was directed towai-d the 
pacification of the elements of discord concentrated there, either 
by diplomacy or the force of arms. So well were the motives of the 
Prophet concealed under his plausible statements that it was long 
before the full measure of his deceptive villainy was fully ascer- 
tained. The development came, however, and with it the knowl- 
edge that it was the purpose of the Prophet and those acknowl- 
edging his leadership to massacre the entire pojjulation of Vin- 
oennes. To meet this exigency, prompt measm-es were adopted. 
In the course of time, however, affairs came to a crisis. The bat- 
tle of Tippecanoe was fought on the 7th of November, 1811, and 
with it the destruction of his hopes of renown, his magic power 
was dispelled by the death-dealing bullets of the frontiersmen, 
and his assumed supremacy among the chieftains of the Wabash 
tribes vanished with the return of day, when his unguarded am- 
bition induced him to ignite the slumbering volcano, whose con- 
sequent explosion cost him his reputation and the lives of many of 
his deluded followers. Obscurity followed him to his death. 

Black Hoof was a Shvwanoe, entitled to thr highest rank 
among the great chiefs of that tribe. He was born in Florida 
during the sojourn of his people in that country, and with them 
returned to and settled in Ohio and Pennsylvania. He. with other 
members of his tribe, was present at the defeat of Gen. Braddock, 
neai- Pittsburgh, in 1755, and, subsequently, in all the wars in 
Ohio from that time until the treaty of Greenville, in 1795. His 
sagacious conduct in planning the militai'y operations of his peo- 
ple won for him their confidence and appreciation, and he was 
never at a loss in finding braves to fight luider his leadership. 
" He was known far and wide as the great Shawanoe warrior, 
whose cunning, sagacity and experience were only equaled by 



the. fierce and desperate bravery with which he carried into oper- 
ation his miJitary plans. * * * * He was the orator of his 
tribe during the greater part of his long life, and was an excel- 
lent speaker. The venerable Col. Johnston, of Piqua, * * * 
describes him as the most graceful Indian he had ever seen, and 
as possessing the most uatiu'al and happy faculty of expressing 
his ideas. He was well versed in the traditions of his people; no 
one understood better their peculiar relations to the whites, whose 
settlements were gradually encroaching on them, or could detail 
with more minuteness the wrongs .with which his nation was 
afflicted. But, although a stern and uncompromising opposition 
to the whites had marked his policy through a series of forty 
years, and nerved his ai'm in a hundi-ed battles, he became at 
length convinced of the madness of an ineffectual struggle against 
a vastly superior and hourly increasing foe. No sooner had he 
satisfied himself of this truth than he acted upon it with a decis- 
ion which formed a prominent trait in his character."* 

He was the principal chief of the Shawanoe nation, possess- 
ing all the influences and authority that usually attached to the 
office, when Tecumseh and his brother commenced their hostile 
career. In this, Tecumseh solicited his co-operation, but the sa- 
gacious chieftain refused to be allied with such an enterprise. 

There was much of the hiimanitarian, also, in his composition, 
opposing polygamy and the practice of biu-ning prisoners, and he 
is reported to have lived forty yeai's with one wife, and to have 
reared a numerous family of children, who both loved and es- 
teemed him. He was small in stature — not more than five feet 
eight inches in height — was cheerful and long-lived, dying in 
Wapakouneta at the advanced age of one hundred and ten years. 

C APT.VIX i,0(;ax. 
His Eahi.y History— Tin-; AnorTED Sox of Patt. Bkx.hmin Lo- 
G.\N— The Tkied Fiuend of the Whites— His Military 
Achievements— His Bravery and Fidelity in the Exeuu- 
TioN OF Impoiitant TRUSTS— His TuvE Character Mani- 
fi>ti;d in the Siege of Fort Wavnf;- His nFATii as a Test 
OF Fidelity, etc. 

C1APT. LOGAN, whose career as a warrior is so intimately as- 
'' sociated with the pioneer historj' of Allen County, and espe- 
cially of Fort Wayne, was the tried friend of the white man, and 
sacrificed his life in the attestation of that fidelity, in the month 
of November. 1812, during the progress of the memorable siege 
of Fort AVayne. 

From the best authorities at command. Logan, whose Indian 
name was Spemica-Lawba. the High Horn, sprang fi-om the Mac- 
hachac tribe of the Shawanoes. and was liorn at the principal town 
of his tribe, on Mail River, Ohio, about the year 1778. He is al- 
leged to have been the nephew of Tecumseh (his sister's son), 
but the statement is probably incoiTect. There are manifest rea- 
sons for the statement that there was no relationship existing be- 
tween them. 

The first account we have of him is from Oapt. Benjamin Lo 
gan, of Kentuckj', who had command of an expedition of mounted 
men fi-om that State against the Shawanoes on the north side of 
the Ohio, which destroyed the Machachac towns 'on Mad River, in 
September. 1786. After the capture and destruction of the vil 
lage. the men were greatly annoyed by an-ows shut by an invisible 

hand, not unfamiliar with the use of the bow and arrow. A crit- 
ical investigation revealed a young Indian fully equipped for the 
work engaged in. That youth was the Capt. Logan of after 

The otKcer in command being much ]>Ieased with the courage 
and address of the boy. adopted him into his family, to which he 
became a valuable addition. Subsequently, he was exchanged 
and permitted to rotm'n to his people, but he retained the name 
of Logan, and continued to be the trusted friend of the white 

Because of his bravery and intellectual qualities, he was pro- 
moted to the position of a civil chief, and acquired considerable 
distinction as a counselor and as an executive officer. 

In the war against England in 1812, he joined the American 
Army and acted as one of the guides to Gen. Hull in his e.xpedition 
against Detroit. Afterward, when it became necessai-y, as well as 
expedient, to remove the women and chikh'en in the vicinity of 
Fort Wayne to some place of safety in Ohio, John Johnston, the 
Indian Agent at Piqua, selected Logan as the most suitable per- 
son to be intrusted with so important an enterprise. He dis- 
charged that duty with the utmost delicacy and kindness, remov- 
ing twenty-five women and children more than one himdi-ed miles, 
those imder his charge beai'ing testimony to his imiformly humane 
treatment, not sleeping, it is said, during the entire journey from 
Fort Wayne to Piqua. 

Immediately after Hull's siUTender at Detroit, in August, 1812, 
dm-ing the progress of the memorable siege of Fort Wayne, the 
place was infested by some foiu- or five hundred Indians, the en- 
tire garrison consisting of less than one hnndi-ed persons, not 
more than sixty of whom were fit for duty, and the commanding 
officer totally ineificient. Relief was necessary, and none was 
more readily accessible than the body of Ohio troops' near Piqua. 
These had been directed toward Fort Wayne, but to establish 
communication with them and make their presence here quickly 
available was an undertaking at once hazardous and critical, re- 
quiring both com'age and tact in its successful execution, as the 
sequel will show. 

On the 31st of August, it having been ascertained that the In 
dians, in large force, were on the route to Fort Wayne, and it was 
essential that the garrisons should be made acquainted with the 
situation, William Oliver (afterward Major) and Thomas Worth- 
ington, with Capt. Logan and a number of trusty Shawanoes, 
imdertook the difficult task of communicating with the gai-rison. 
On the following day, when within twenty-four miles of the fort, 
Oliver and Logan, with Capt -Johnny and Bright Horn, all well 
armed and mounted, made an effort to reach the fort. While at a 
distance of five miles from the place, the keen eye of Logan dis- 
covered signs of strategy on the part of the besiegers to cut oflf all 
communication with the fort. Leaving the main road at this 
point, they struck across the country to the Maumee. which they 
reached in safety at a point one mile and a half below the fort. 
Dismounting, they proceeded cautiously on foot, to ascertain 
whether om- troops were still in possession. Having satisfied 
themselves, they returned to their horses, remounted and rode 
back to the fort, just in time to prevent the successful execution 
of a maneuver of the Indians to obtain possession. 

The great point to be next gained was to inform Worthington 
of the situation. Oliver was to remain in the fort, hence the per- 
ilous task was left to be executed by Logan and his two com- 
panions. They passed the Indian lines in safety and reached 
Worthington 's camp in due season, but, owing to some delays, 



the re-enforeements did nut reach the £ort until the 12th of Sep- 
tember. The Indians, after a struggle of many days, tinally 
abandoned the siege and withdi'ew. 

On the morning of the 22d of November, an imputation of 
unfaithfulness having been cast upon him by a subordinate offi- 
cer, Logan, to refute an imputation as groundless as this, attend- 
ed by Capt. Johnny and Bright Horn, started down the Maumee 
to recounoiter. Suddenly, about noon, they were surprised by 
some of the enemy, among whom was Winamac, a Pottawatomie 
chief, and Elliott, a half-breed holding a commission in the Brit- 
ish Army. Being overpowered, they were taken prisoners by the 
latter, who started with them to the British camp at the foot of 
the rapids. A favorable opijortuuity presented itself; he and his 
companion attacked their captors and killed two, wounding a 
third. Subsequently, they succeeded in wounding two others. 
During the progi-ess of this movement, Logan received a shot 
through the body. Thus wounded fatally, Capt. Johnny 
mounted Logan upon one of the enemy's horses, and Bright Horn, 
also wounded, upon another, and started them for Winchester's 
camp, which they reached about midnight Capt. Johnny, in 
the meantime, having secured Winamac's scalp, started on foot, 
reaching the eamp early in the morning. 

After two days of intense suffering, which had been borne 
with stoic indifference, having preserved his honor with the sac- 
rifice of his life, he died, with the utmost composure and resigna- 
tion, and was buried with the honors of war. 

Gen. Winchester said of him: "More firmness aiad consum- 
mate bravery has seldom appeared on the military theater." His 
death cast a gloom over the entire army, and he who gave utter- 
ance to the ingenious implication upon the honor of the chief 
seemed deeply grieved at the consequences of his unprovoked as- 
sault, prompted, as it certainly was, from motives of jealousy. 


\VKY-.\-PlEH-SEy-W.\H {BLl'i: .JACKET). 

HlSl<,S\M I I. IS Willi I III Inil Mnl (Jl \, IIMIMAU— Oppo.sition 

TM rill i'..i |( 1 Ml I. II II 1 li i:i[.i i\ --I r.^Ki;UKNT CAMPAIGNS 
- II I- I >l I I AT \M) I II M. l:i\ III- ( ,i\hl . T AT THE TkEATY OF 

Gui;i..Nvii.i,i.— lli.> .Sri-.i.c u o.s iuk ()i i v.mon, etc. 
XN the campaign of Gen. Hai-mar, in the year 1790, Blue Jacket, 
-L an induential Shawanoe chief, was associated with the Miami 
chief. Little Turtle, in the command of the Indians. In the battle 
of August 20, 1794, when the combined army of the Indians was 
defeated by (}en. Wayne, Blue Jacket had the chief control. The 
night previous to the battle, while the Indians were posted at 
Presque Isle, a council was held, composed of chiefs from the 
Miamis, Puttawatomies, Delawares, Shawanoes, Chippewas, Otta- 
was and Senecas — the seven nations engaged in the action. They 
decided against the proposition to attack Gen. Wayne that night 
in his encampment. » * ♦ ♦ * The council of Blue Jacket, 
however, prevailed over the better judgment of Little Turtle. 
The battle was fought and the Indians defeated." 

At the treaty of Greenville, which followed as an effect of their 
formidftblo engagement. Blue Jacket conducted himself with groat 
dignity and moderation. He was not among the first to act upon 
Gen. Wayne's proposition. He thus stated his reasons: " Brother, 
when I came hero last winter, I did not mean to deceive you. 
What I promised you, I did intend to perform. My wish to con- 

clude a firm peace with you being sincere, my uneasiness has been 
great that my people have not come forward so soon as you could 
wish or might expect But you must not be discouraged by these 
unfavorable appearances. Some of our chiefs and warriors are 
here; more will arrive in a few days; you must not, however, ex- 
pect to see a great number. Yet, notwithstanding, our nation will 
be well represented, our hearts are open and void of deceit." 
At the conclusion of the treaty, he again spoke, as follows: " El- 
der brother, and you, my brothers, present: You see now present 
myself, as a war chief, to lay down that commission, and place my- 
self in the rear of my village chiefs, who for the future will com- 
mand me. Kemember, brothers, you have all buried your war 
hatchet. Your brothers, the Shawanoes, now do the same good 
act. We must think of war no more." He kept his word. 

lUKE Between 
- His Emi.nent 



Okigin of the Movement Very Kemote-Ti 

duced by Competition in the Fuk Tp.aue- 

Tribes — Plans ok the Chief Conspiiiat( 

Skill— Failure. 

'' pHE origin of this conspiracy should, perhaps, date back to a 
-•- period more than one hundred and fifty years anterior to the 
date of its ultimate consummation. A short time subsequent to 
the first permanent French settlements in Canada and the inau- 
guration of the systematic trade with the Indians for accumulation 
of ful's as a source of pecuniary profit, English traders came and 
established a competition in that department, the French having 
enjoyed a monopoly. To make their competitian available, it was 
necessary to secure the confidence of those classes of Indians espe- 
cially engaged in the procurement of such furs as commanded the 
best prices in foreign markets. The French having first opened ave- 
nues through which the Indians could make the traffic profitable, 
and, by methods peculiar to the French people, secm-ed their en- 
tire confidence, it was extremely diificult to divert the trade from 
those original channels. Failing to succeed in their attempts to 
overcome the inclination of the Indians to confide in and trade 
with the French, feelings of jealousy on the part of the English 
traders were naturally engendered, and, in the course of time, be- 
came productive in results. 

The department of trade in fiU's most lucrative was that in bea- 
ver, from always commanding the readiest sales. From location 
and adaptation, some tribes procured the best qualities in larger 
quantities and more certainly than others; hence they were envied 
by the less successful, and their favor courted by competing traders. 
Of these, the Ouataous(Ottawas) were prominent, and at the same 
time were most unyielding in their adherence to the French, thus 
constituting an almost impassable barrier to the advances of the 
English traders. With these conditions precedent, jealousy on 
the part of other tribes, perhaps in alliance with the English, on 
one hand, and the disposition on the part of the English to secure 
their trade by whatever means, holding at tlie simie time a con- 
trolling influence over powerful and ambitious trilies on the other, 
the process most likely to suggest itself was to induce an exertion 
of that insinuating influence in pandering to the jealousies of 
circumjacent ti-ibes with i)retexts for war. Such means were 
speedily utilized by the English, and the Ottawas were met with 
manifestations uf ill feeling from former friends, who had been 




wrought upon to thus play their part in the game of intrigue to 
acquire the advantages of trade. 

Next to the Ottawas, the Hiu-ons were the best fiu'-gatherers, 
and occupied an enviable position in their sphere, supplying a 
large proportion of the material necestary to successful trade, and, 
with them, were eai'ly in the interests of the French trad- 
ers, and were allies also of the Ottawas. Thfey were, however, 
subject to the influences of the Iroquois, whose kindi-ed they were. 
That influence was exerted so as eventually to divert the trade into 
English channels, to the detriment of the French interests. This 
left the Ottawas the exclusive large traders in beaver adhering to 
the French, notwithstanding the successful manipulation process 
adopted by the English agents. Meanwhile, the elements of dis- 
cord had their effect on the family relations of the neighboring 
tribes, involving also the relations of the French and English 
subordinate governments. Feuds were engendered among the 
tribes, and promoted by the interference of their allies res2)ect- 
ively. In the course of time, petty wars became frequent, and 
were sources of annoyance, especially to the French, and the Hu- 
rons, from being warm fiuends of the French came to be secret, 
often open, enemies, thi-ough the agency of designing co-opera- 
tors. Hence the sequel. 

The immediate pretext for the consjiiracy of Nicholas, the 
Huron chief, while it was the outgrowth of the conditions before 
cited, was assumed to be the consequence of the circulation of 
English belts, by Ii'oquois, among the neighboring tribes, as a 
means to that end, and Nicholas — sometimes known as Sandos- 
ket, from the location of his principal village on the Bay of San- 
dusky — a Hiu'on chief of some notoriety, who, fi-om some disaffec- 
tion, with a few followers, had left Detroit a few years previously 
and settled on the south of Lake Erie, became the self-con- 
stituted agent of the movement, and settled at the point named, 
where he had better opportunities for gratifying his ambitious 

About the time of the contemplated attack upon Detroit, live 
Frenchmen, who were on their retm'n from the post at White 
River, were murdered by some Hm'ons, from Detroit, belonging to 
the band of the war chief Nicholas, and had stolen all the furs in 
the possession of the murdered men. This occmTed on the 23d 
of June, 1747. Being wholly unaware of the presence of English- 
men among the Hm'ons. they were unsuspicious of danger, and had 
counted upon the hospitality and friendship of the Indians. It 
was quickly observable, however, that their presence was unsatis- 
factory to these emissaries of the English, who, instead of ten- 
dering to these travelers the hospitalities due to the citizens of a 
kindred nation, eneoiu-aged the village chief to seize them and 
appropriate their effects. " This was accomplished on the after- 
noon of the day of their arrival." Nicholas assumed to be greatly 
irritated at the audacity of these Frenchmen, as he termed it, in 
coming to his towns without his permission, and. as a penalty for 
their temerity, he condemned them to death, the tomahawk exe- 
cuting in cold blood this imperial mandate. 

At this time, also, all the Indians of the neighborhood, except 
the Illinois, had entered into the design of this Nicholas party to 
destroy all the French at Detroit, on one of the holidays of Pen- 
tecost, and afterward to go to the fort and subject it to the fire 
and the sworJ, which, as we have seen, failed, because of the plot 
having been discovered. The discovery, however, does not appear 
to have been the result of Nicholas' misdirection and management, 
but of the too great anxiety of some of the young men to be first 
in carrying out the designs of the leader- -striking too soon. 

The purpose of the chief becoming known to the commandant 
of the fort at Detroit, all the settlers in the vicinity were directed 
by him to retire within the fort, and thus, being in a place of 
comparative security, be better prepared for any new treachery. 

Meanwhile, as soon as the Sandusky murders came to the 
knowledge of the Canadian Governor, M. de Longueuil. command- 
ant at Detroit, was instructed to require Nicholas to surrender the 
murderers of the live Frenchmen, that they might be made to ex- 
piate for the crime. Messengers were accordingly sent, and de- 
mand made, but the demand was disregarded, the chief manifest- 
ing a spirit of defiance. The result of this condition of affairs 
was ])reparation for the prompt punishment of the perpetrators 
and their defiant abettors. While steps were being taken by the 
military authorities at Detroit to provide for the maintenance of 
law and order, the protection of the people and preservation of 
the interests of trade, the wily chief was not inattentive to what 
was going on, but was equally active in jireparing to execute his 
own plans, to which reference has been incidentally made. 

It was the purpose of the chief that *" a party of Deb'oit Hu- 
rons were to sleep in the fort and houses at Detroit, as they had 
often done before, and each were to kill the people where he lodged. 
* * * A band of Pottawatomies was commissioned to destroy 
the French Mission and villages on Bois Blanc Island; the Miamis 
to seize the French traders in their country, the Iroquois to de- 
stroy the French village at the jimction of the Miami and St. Jo- 
seph's; the Poxes to destroy the village at Green Bay; the Sioux, 
Sacs and Sarastans to reduce Michilimackinack ; while the other 
tribes were to destroy the French trading-posts in their respective 
countries, seize the traders and put them to death. This great 
conspiracy, so skillfully planned and arranged, would have been 
attended with a frightful loss of life and the utter annihilation of 
French power, but for its accidental yet timely discovery." 

The discovery was in this wise: A murder had been committed 
prematurely, and some of the conspirators, being fearful of the 
consequences, held a meeting to consider what was best to be 
done, in a room provided for the purpose. During the progress 
of this coimcil. while the details of the conspiracy were being dis- 
cussed, one of the squaws had occasion to go into the garret in 
search of corn. While there, she overheard the plans, and, in 
great haste, went to a Jesuit priest and made a statement of the 
matter, which was at once communicated to M. de Longueuil, the 
commandant at thei fort, who took the precautionary steps neces- 
sary to insure safety. Soon an additional military force was sent 
by the Canadian Governor, which had the efl'ect to so interfere 
with his plans that Nicholas abandoned the project of consummat- 
ing the destruction of the French power. 

In his management of diplomatic intercourses with other In- 
dian ti-ibes, to secure their alliance, Nicholas was greatly assisted 
by the English, who. it appeared, had been fiu-nishing supplies of 
ammunition and inilitary stores at Sandusky, and had otherwise 
given their influence for f lu-thering his designs. As a partial re- 
tiu-n for the interest taken by the English in their operations 
against the French and their Indian allies, Nicholas, on his part, 
offered them all the facilities in his power for the establishment 
of posts all along Lake Erie as far as the Miamis River, as a 
means of seciiring and maintaining their trading advantages. 
The active co-operation of the English with the movements of 
Nicholas was further shown by assurances to the effect that the 
Senecas had given a belt to La Demoiselle, chief of a portion of 
the Miamis. allies of the English, to procm-e the assassination of 




Sieur Douville, French commandant at the Miamis post, and of 
M. de Longueiiil, at Detroit, having oifered a reward to whoever 
should carry their heads to the English Governor. 

In addition to poisoning the minds of the Miamis. and of the 
other tribes manifesting a moderate degree of friendship for the 
French, he was on the alert to cut ofl' means of communication 
between the Indians and the authorities at Detroit, Montreal and 
Quebec, intercepting messengers and diverting from their legiti- 
mate channels these sources of information, that, in the mean- 
time, he could better execute his own plans, while the French au- 
thorities might, in their fancied secui-ity, for the time being, be 
unguarded. This was especially true as to the Miamis, who, from 
the request of the Canadian Governor, had sent a deputation to 
Montreal. This deputation was met on the way by some of Nich- 
olas' emissaries, and induced, upon a misrepresentation of the 
facts, to return. The statement of Ensign Chevalier de Peyrade, 
commandant at Post Ouyatenon, gives the details. While he was 
on his way down to Montreal, with the nations from the Ouabache, 
passing down the Miamis Eiver, he learned of the treachery of 
the Hurons, that this intelligence, conjoined to other circiun- 
stances, obliged those nations to retm'n to their village, where 
they were pretty quiet when he left them to return to Detroit. 

Early in July. 1747, information from the Kiver St. Joseph's 
disclosed the situation in that quarter, from which disclosures it 
appeared that the English had been endeavoring to debauch the 
nations belonging to that post, as well as in the others, by the 
unfavorable impressions they were tiying to insinuate among them 
through the agency of the Ii'oqiTois, who were continually employ- 
ing pretexts to bring about the destruction of the French at that 
and the adjacent posts. As a result, the Miamis and Ouyatenons 
especially were in disorder, the former having allowed themselves 
to be gained over by the belts of Nicholas, who had represented 
to them that Detroit trade had been razed by the lake tribes: 
hence, that they could no longer defer killing the French who re- 
mained among them. With this state of feeling among the Mi- 
amis. they were ready for the commission of any excess that might 
suggest itself. 

No better pretext l)eiug required, they tirst seized eight 
Frenchmen, who were in the fort at the Miami village, about the 
last of August, 1747. These they did not injure, but, shortly 
after, impelled forward by the continued interposition of the em- 
issaries of the English, the French fort at Ke-ki-ong-a, with the 
property belonging to the French inhabitants, was seized by the 
disaffected Miamis and their confederates. The property was ap- 
propriated by the marauders, and a portion of the buildings ad- 
jacent, together with the fort, were partially destroyed by fire, in 
the latter part of September following. Before theconsiimmation 
of this last act, however, information had been conveyed to the 
commandant at Detroit of the situation of aftairs, who imme- 
diately sent four French deputies with messages to the Miamis, 
to dissuade them from the wrong course they were ignorantly ))ur- 
suing, and induce them to go to Deti'oit, where they might be ac- 
curately informed concerning what had been represented to them. 
But when the deputies arrived, the blow had been struck and the 
])ro])orty destroyed. Notwithstanding the jiosition of things as 
ascertained by these dejiuties, many of the Miamis were prevailed 
upon to go to Detroit as requested. But in the meantime, Nich 
olas had adopted means to offset the effort of the French com 
mandant to rectify the impressions before given out that Detroi' 
had been destroyed; he sent other belts to the Miamis, coulirma 
tory of the tirst, which had the effect to again disconcert the jia- 

cific measures proposed, and cause the Miamis to retm-n to their 
village and send only two deputies to Detroit. These two depu- 
ties were immediaately sent back by M. de Longueuil, with mes- 
sages calculated to disabuse the nation of the evil speeches of 

When Nicholas found that no pennanent advantage had been 
gained by his sti-ategic movements; that all his plans were event- 
ually circumvented,' and that, with the additional force received 
at the Detroit post, his destruction was inevitable, he manifested 
a disposition to disband, and, while the Miami deputy was at De- 
troit, he, with Orontoni and Anioton, chiefs of the Huron traitors, 
went there to sue for peace and surrender the belts which had 
been the cause of their treason. Their sincerity, however, was 
doubted, and the actions of Nicholas were deemed equivocal and 
not free from suspicion that other motives than those manifested 
by him had induced the display. - 

Having made this bold exhibition of his intentions, steps were 
taken to enforce obedience to his promises by war in case of his 
refusal, and Mikinac, a trusty Outaouas chief, with a sufiieient 
number of faithful allies, was delegated to carry these pm-poses 
of the French commandant into execution. 

Early in the month of February, 1748, the French command- 
ant at Detroit, with a view to maintain the advantages already 
required, and deprive the enemy of the liberty of seizing a post 
of considerable importance, sent Ensign Dubuisson to the Miamis 
at Kekionga, with instructions " to form only a small establish- 
ment there to winter in. He has been supplied with thirty 
Frenchmen to maintain himself there, and is accompanied by 
thirty others, destined for the Ouyatenon ti-ade. with orders to the 
latter to return to join Sieur Dubuisson in the spring, so as to re- 
turn together to Detroit. It is also fui'ther shown by the fore- 
going instructions that Sieur Dubuisson was so sent with a suffi- 
cient escort to keep possession of the fort, which had been par- 
tially burnt, but not to undertake anything."* 

" The same month," says Mr. Knapp, " Lajoncaire, Governor 
of Canada, ordered M. de Longueuil to give Nicholas notice that 
no English traders would be allowed among his people, or in the 
Western country; and if they were found, they should receive 
notice to quit forthwith. Agi-eeable to these instructions, a 
French officer was sent to Sandusky, who notified Nicholas of the 
wishes of the Governor of Canada. Finding several English at 
the towns, the officer commanded them to leave the country, which 
they promised to do. 

"Finding himself deserted by nearly all of his allies, his 
power for mischief gone, and the activity and determination of 
the French to suffer encroachments fi-om the English no longer, 
Nicholas finally resolved to abandon his towns on Sandusky Bay 
and seek a hom(> farther West. On the 7th of April, 1748, he 
destroyed the villages and fort, and on the following day, at the 
head of Hit wariiors and their families, left for \Miite River, in 

It has been stated that h,' s,il,sr,|U(.ntlN moved to th.' Illinois 
country, locating on the Ohio, neai- the Indiana line, and that he 
died there. This statement is jirobably incorrect, as it is i)retty 
well settled that he remained on WTiite River, and died near the 
forks of that stream, not far from the Wabash, in the fall of 
1748, at the age of about fifty-eight years. 

Thus closed one of the most gigantic conspiracies of the eight 
eenth century, considered in the light of the influences brouglil to 




bear through the ingenuity of this chief, second, perhaps, only to 
that of Poutiae's. which occm-red a few years later. The result, 
too, is probably as much owing to the unyielding conduct of M. 
de Longueuil toward most of the tribes who had been engaged, as 
to the ill luck that continued to pursue the chief manipulator of 
the scheme. That the Miamis at Kekionga were deeply eoncerned 
in the plot, and perfoi-med the part assigned them by the de- 
struction of the fort and the appropriation of the property, cannot 
now be doubted: but whether those acts were committed fi-om 
motives of innate treachery, or were the consequences of too 
great credulity in yielding to the influences of flattering gifts 
fi-om the hands of designing agents, is a question of more difii- 
cult solution. 


C N S P I R A C V 


Tllli Ex- 

u Ex- 


GLisii— Magnitude ok the Mi)\ i ^ll \ i 1 i ~ 
AND Desolation in its Wak; -t 'imii p \i 
Plans for Destruction Aia:AN(.i,ii -Fa in 


T^HE effects of the conspiracy instigated by Nicholas, the Hu- 
-*- ron chief, in the interest of the; Knglish traders and their 
allies, and the consequences resulting therefrom, had scarcely 
passed, when the English succeeded in overthrowing the French 
power, and new alliances were necessaiy to maintain the suprem- 
acy of English authority among the Indians. It was then that 
disafi'ection of the former allies of the French began definitely 
to manifest itself. When Quebec had fallen into the hands of 
the English, in September, 1759, one after another of the French 
possessions yielded to superior force and were lost forever. '• The 
trading posts and forts — Presque Isle (Erie, Penn.), Miami (on 
the Maumee), Detroit, Michilimackinack, Green Bay, etc. — were 
occupied during 1760 by British troops. English traders, En- 
glish laws, English insolence and English dishonesty quickly 
succeeded, to add fuel to the fires slumbering in the savage breast." 

Soon this dissatisfaction began to assiune form, and a leader 
came forth equal to the emergency, and capable of commanding a 
mighty influence among his people, '■ powerful in person, com- 
manding in presence, resolute to an extraordinaiy degree, pos- 
sessed of a rare gift of eloquence, sagacious and subtle as a beast 
of prey, he rightfxilly claimed the ofBee of chief over many tribes, 
and became the minister of vengeance for his race." This per- 
sonage was Poutiac, chief of the Ottawas, whose first appearance 
in the character of a warrior was his pai'ticipation in the battle of 
the Heights of Abraham in the vicinity of Quebec. The extent 
of bis pai'ticipation. however, is unknown. He was in sympathy 
with the French, whose uniform policy toward the Indians was 
that of kindness, which wi'ought a most powerful influebce m 
maintaining their relation of fidelity. 

Had the English, even at this late period, adopted a coiust of 
policy toward the Indians similar to that of the French m ill 
their dealings with them, much eflusion of blood might ha'se bi en 
spai'ed. "But then, as since. Great Britain acted less fiom thi 
impulses of commercial gain. In fixing the degi'ee of responsi 
bility for what followed, we should, in order to be just weigh 
well the causes which impelled the savages to the war-path. If 
Great Britain could ha^e appeased those tigers of the American 
forest, panting for blood, she should have done it: that she not 
only offered no conciliation, but scorned and maltreated the un- 

tamed creatures, is to make her at least partially accountable for 
the conspiracy and its sad results. 

" The mutterings of the impending storm were heard early in 
the summer of 17fjl, when Maj. Camjibell, commanding at Detroit, 
was fully informed of a conspiracy among the tribes along the 
lakes and in the Ohio Valley to rise simultaneously against all 
the forts, to massacre the garrison, and then to combine and fall 
upon all the settlements advanced over the eastern ridge of the 
Alleghaaies. Expresses were at once dispatched to all the points 
menaced. This betrayal of their plot sufficed to postpone the at- 
tack for that season. Sir Jeffrey Amherst commanded extreme 
caution to be used at all posts, while the Indians were treated 
with a severity and suspicion which only served to strengthen 
their bitterness of feeling toward their foe."'* 

This jiostponement, while it delayed open proceedings, gave, 
at the same time, greater opportunities to the Indians to perfect 
their plans. At the instance of Pontiac, ambassadors were sent 
to all the tribes west and south fi-om every quarter, receiving 
assurances of aid in any attempt to expel the English. 

" These proceedings were ke]it profoundly secret. Those con- 
ducting the plot dissiiQulated well. Crowds of men, women and 
children beset the forts and trading-posts, eager for gunpowder, 
traffic and liquor: but, even in their drunken bouts, nothing es- 
caped their ,lij)s to betray their murderous designs. A friendly 
savage would at times whisper a word of warning to some white man 
who had won his confidence, and enough transj)ired to keep the 
English officers on their guard. The commandant at Fort Miami, 
on the Maumee River, was thus warned early in the year 1763. 
Messengers from the East had arrived in his naighborhood to in- 
form the tribes of the hour of uprising, and the Miamis had con- 
sented to murder the gaiTison." 

At this time (March, 1763), a neighboring Indian came to the 
fort and informed Ensign Holmes, then in command, that 
'•a bloody belt" had just Vieen received at one of the villages near 
by, which contemplated the massacre of himself and the entire 
garrison, and that preparations were then making to that end. 
The situation required prompt action, and at once received it at 
the hands of Holmes, who immediately siunmoned a council of the 
neighboring Indians and boldly charged them with the design of 
which infonnation had been given him. They acknowledged the 
truth of the statement, but cast the blame for its instigation upon 
another and more distant tribe. With the information at com- 
mand, he procm-ed the belt that apjjears to have wrought the mis- 
chievous intentions, and with it the speech accompanying, fi-om 
one of the chiefs of the Miamis. Having obtained these, it was 
apprehended that no immediate stejis would be taken toward the 
execution of the murderous design. Accordingly, on the 30th of 
March, a few day.s later, he sent the following communication rela- 
tive to the affair to Maj. Gladwyne, commanding at Detroit: 
FoktMumi Much 5(1 lTb3 

bince my List Lcttci to \ou nUciemI Voquiint <l\iu f the Blooch 
Belt being in tins vill igi I ii nc in ide ill tilt sc iii li I couUl i1h ut it xnil 
hn f 1 1 It ul t I Tl 1 ^^\ I i I V nil I ill till Chiefs ot 

■^ 1 the in I obtaineil 

I This VfEui is 

I I 1 it I Stop to inv 

Among the Indians, at that period, their diplomatic communi- 
cations were made by the transmission of belts having an accepted 

*American Consp., p. 3.5. 



emblematic signification well understood by all the tribes between 
whom communications were to be made. These were usually ac- 
companied by a speech, or " talk," calculated to energize the sig- 
nificance of the belt. Were peace to be requested, a white belt 
was sent, while black or red belts were suggestive of war, and 
were transmitted by special messengers. 

The delay consequent upon the surrender of this belt was not 
of long duration, for signs of coming trouble were apparent, and 
practical observers of these signs were on the alert, preparing to 
counteract their effect, or to meet strategy with strategy, force 
with force. 

It was the office of the chiefs, says Parkman, " to declare war 
and make peace; but when war was declared, they had no power 
to carry the declaration into effect. The wan-iors fought if 
they chose to do so; but if, on the contrary, they preferred to re- 
main quiet, no man could force them to lift the hatchet. The war 
chief, whose part it was to lead them to battle, was a mere parti- 
san, whom his bravery and exploits had led to distinction. If he 
thought proper, he sang his war song and danced his war dance, 
and as many of the yoimg men as were disposed to follow him 
gathered around and enlisted themselves under him. Over these 
volunteers he had no legal authority, and they could desert him 
at any moment, with no other penalty than disgi-ace. 

By the 25th of April following, the well -elaborated plans of 
Pontiac were nearly matured, and the villages and camps of the 
allied tribes were active with preparations for wm- on a most 
extensive scale. The oracles were consulted, and the charmed 
circle responded with omens of success. A council was called and 
" several old men, heralds of the camp, passed to and fro among 
the lodges, calling the warriors, in a loud voice, to attend the meet- 
ing. In accordance with the summons, they came issuing from 
their cabins — the tall, naked figures of the wild Ojibways, with 
quivers slung at their backs and light war-clubs resting in the hol- 
low of theii- arms ; Ottawas, wrapped close in their gaudy blankets ; 
Wyandots, fluttering in painted shirts, their heads adorned with 
feathers and their leggins garnished with bells. All were soon 
seated in a wide circle upon the grass, row within row — a grave 
and silent assembly. Each savage countenance seemed carved in 
wood, and none could have detected the deep and fiery passion 
hidden beneath that unmoved exterior. Pipes, with ornamented 
stems, were lighted and passed from hand to hand."* Before this 
grand council, convened at the River Encores, Pontiac delivered his 
war speech, ingenious in method and thi'illing in its effects upon 
his silent, statiie-like auditors. "Every sentence was rounded 
with a fierce ejaculation, and as the impetuous orator ])roceeded, 
his auditory grew restless to sjn-iug at once into the bloody arena 
of battle and bury the scalping-knife and tomahawk in the bodv 
of the enemy." All was now ready for action, and Detroit was 
the objective point. 

The numerous failm-es in executing their designs ])ut the sav- 
ages at a disadvantage, and the commandants of the several mili- 
tary posts on guard, lest at any time advantage might be taken 
of a temporary relaxation from strict duty. Well knowing the 
situation, the wily savage resorted to strategy as an aid in over- 
coming otherwise impregnable defenses. The plan agi'eed upon 
bythe Indians was the following: "Pontiac would demand council 
with the commandant concerning matters of gi'eat importance; 
and on this pretext he flattered himself that he and his principal 
chiefs woiild gain r(>ady admittance within the fort. They were 
all to carry wea[>ons concealed beneath th(>ir l)laDket.s. While in 

the act of addressing the commandant in the council room, Pon- 
tiac was to make a certain signal, upon which the chiefs were to 
raise the wai'- whoop, rush upon the ofiicers present and strike 
them down. The other Indians, waiting meanwhile at the gate, 
or loitering among the houses, on hearing the yells and firing 
within the building, wei-e to assail the astonished and half-armed 
soldiers; and thus Detroit would fall an easy prey."* Although 
this plan was well matured, it failed in execution, as the sequel 
will show. 

" A beautiful Ojibway girl, whose love for the commander, 
Gladwyne, seems to have been only equaled by her precautions 
and care, was in the secret; had probably attended the council 
and heard the plan of Pontiac's movement to surprise and capture 
the fort; and, true to her sense of regard for her kind friend, Maj. 
Gladwvne, on the afternoon of the 6th of May, she found occasion 
to visit the fort, whither she quietly strode, with anxious heart, in 
hopes to reveal to her lover his perilous situation, and unfold to 
him the movement about to be made upon the fort by Pontiac and 
his warriors — his plan of surprise, etc. As she entered. Gladwyne 
observed that she wore a different air than on other occasions. 
Her countenance assumed the expression of one in distress. Fear 
and depression both seemed to sway her, and she could say but lit- 
tle. Remaining but a short time, she stepped forth again in the 
open air. to look about, perhaps to see who might chanced to have 
seen her enter the fort: sorrow still weighed heavily upon her. 
She could not depart from the scene of her fi'iend without ac- 
quainting him with the work that was fast maturing for his death, 
and the destruction of all within the garrison. With this feeling, 
she lingered about the fort until quite late, which not only attract- 
ed the attention of the sentinel, but Gladwyne himself, who, no- 
ticing her strange conduct, called her to him, and asked her what 
was giving her trouble. Her heart beat heavily. She could not 
speak. Sti 11 her friend pressed her for a response, assuring her that 
he would not, under any consideration, betray her — that with him, 
whatever she told, would be safe — that no harm should befall her. 
Her fear was suddenly overcome, and her admiration for her friend, 
united with an irrejiressible determination to save him, even in 
the midst of danger, as the beautiful Pocahontas had saved the 
life of Capt. Smith, she confidently told him all."t 

" To-morrow," she said, " Pontiac will come to the fort with 
sixty of his chiefs. Each will be armed with a gun, cut short 
and hidden under his blanket. Pontiac will demand to hold a 
council, and after he has delivered^his speech, he will offer a peace 
belt of wampum, holding it in a reversed position. This will be 
the signal of attack. The chiefs will spring up and fire upon tlie 
officers, and the Indians in tlie street will fall upon the gan-ison. 
Every Englishman will be killed, but not the scalp of a single 
Frenchman will be touched." 

This revelation naturally induced the exercise of the greatest 
caution on the part of the commanding officer, who, quietly and 
without demonsti-ation, prepai'ed for the emergency. " Half the 
garrison were ordered uniler ai-ms, and all the officers prepared 
to spend the night upon the rnmpai-ts." " From sunset till dawn, 
an anxious watch was kept from the slender palisades of Detroit. 
* * * # * ]3„j_ j,(. intervals, as the night-wind swept across 
the bastion, it bore sounds of fearful j)Oitent to the ear — the sul- 
len booming of the Indian di-um and the wild chorus of quaver- 
ing yells, as the warriors, around Uieir distant r-amp-fires, danced 
the war-dance in preiiaration for the morrow's worl;." 

*Pnrknmn, I. p. 210. 
tHiBl. Kort W«jm>, p. 65. 



To-mon-ow came, and with a readiness for the issues that were 
to thwart the cunningly devised jilans of the chief to capture the 
fort and massacre the English citizens of Detroit. Ai-riving at 
the council house, the Indians were at once given an audience. 
They entered, and found the officers there ready to receive them. 
A file of soldiers, fiilly armed and equipped for duty, was present 
also. The reception had the appearance of a readiness for com- 
bat, instead; each officer with a brace of pistols in his belt, and a 
sword at his side, was indicative to the mind of the savage that 
some well-defined purpose was underlying this unusual display. 
His suspicions were excited, and not without reason. Pontiac 
was taken at a disadvantage, biit, with a display of little uncon- 
cern, he asked the commanding officer: ■' "Why do I behold so 
many troops in the street ? " Maj. Gladwyne replied that his men 
were under arms for discipline and exercise. At length the coun- 
cil was opened, and the chiefs, having seated themselves upon the 
mats aiTanged for them upon the floor, Pontiac arose, in one hand 
holding a peace belt; he expressed to the commandant his strong 
admiration and love for the English, saying: "I have come to 
smoke the pipe of peace and brighten the chain of fi'iendship with 
my English brothers." Then he raised the belt, and was about to 
give the fatal signal, and instantly " Gladwyne waved his hand, 
and, as if by magic, the garrison drum beat a most stunning roll, 
filling the air with its reverberations, and startling the warriors, 
both within and vfithout the fort, into sudden dismay; while the 
guards in the passage to the council house suddenly made their 
arms to clash and rattle as they brought them into a position for 
action, and the officers, with Gladwyne looking sternly upon the 
figm-es of the ' tall, strong men ' before them, had simultaneously 
clasped their swords in anticipation of and with a view to meet, 
if need be, the premeditated onslaught of Pontiac and his war- 
riors. The moment was one of heroic determination on the pai't 
of the little gaiTison of Detroit, and of the utmost discomtitm-e 
and chagi-in with the savages. The plans of the Ottawa chief were 
foiled, and he stood before the commandant and bis officers like 
one suddenly overcome by a terrible shock."* 

Other attempts were made to cany out the nefarious pm-pose. 
but failed in their execution. Finding that he could not thus 
succeed, the indiscriminate slaughter of all unprotected English 
in the vicinity was the order of the day, and was literally carried 
out. Maj. Campbell was one of the victims, being massacred 
while on a mission of peace to the Indian camp. Subsequently, 
an attack was made on the fort with renewed vigor, but again 
failed for the time only. "On the 16th of May, Sanduskj' fell; 
on the 1st of June, Ouiatenon was cajitiu'ed; Jlichilimackinack 
on the 12th, and Preque Isle on the loth of June, also fell into 
the hands of the wild conspirators. After Presque Isle was taken, 
runs the narration of Parkman, the neighboring little posts of Le 
Boet and Venango shared its fate, while fmiher southward, at 
the forks of the Ohio, a host of Delaware and Shawanoe wan'iors 
were gathering around Fort Pitt, and blood and havoc reigned 
along the whole frontier." 

Next, the fates decreed that Fort Miami, at the junction of the 
Maumee and St. Joseph's, should fall, and again strategy was 
brought into requisition, and was applied with better efl'ect than 
the instance cited at Deti-oit. 

This post was then under command of Ensign Holmes, who, 
siispecting, fi'om the movements of the Indians in the neighbor- 
hood, that some ]ilot was waiting for a favorable opportunity to 
be executed, had exercised the most vigilant cai'e in his observa- 

«Hist. Furt WajQ,?, jj].. 67, 69. 

tions of their condiict, more especially after the discovery of the 
bloody belt before referred to. Savage ingenuity and deception, 
however, were striving hard, and Holmes seemed destined to fall a 
victim to the perfidy of the conspirators, white and red, prowling 
about the villages and neighborhood. The 27th of May had been 
designated for the execution of the scheme, as villainous as it 
was perfidious. In the meantime, the details of the plan were 
perfected, and only recjuired the apjiroach of that day to consiuu- 
mate the act. The innocent agent in the perpetration of this deed 
of blood and phinder was an Indian girl, with whom Holmes, it 
seems, had been for a long time on intimate terms. This circum- 
stance, being known to the consjiirators, was utilized by compel- 
ling her, imder the confidential relations existing between her and 
the commandant. Holmes, to betray that confidence by acting as 
a decoy. Accordingly, on the appointed day, the girl entered the 
fort and told Holmes that there was a sick squaw lying in a wig- 
wam near by, expressing a desire that he should go and see her. 
" Unsuspectingly, and with a view to serve and perhaps relieve 
the supposed sick squaw (knowing, perhaps, something of medi- 
cine, for it would seem, had there been a sm'geon in the fort, he 
would have been more likely called on by the Ensign than for 
Holmes to have gone himself), preceded by the Indian girl, he 
was soon without the inclosiire of the gan-ison, and advancing 
with cautious steps in the direction of the hut wherein lay the 
object of his philanthropic mission. Neai-ing a cluster of huts, 
which are described to have been situated at the edge of an open 
space, ' hidden from view by an intervening spur of woodland,' 
the squaw directed him to the hut wherein lay the supposed inva- 
lid. Another instant — a few more paces — and the sudden crack 
of two rifles from behind the wigwam in view felled Holmes to 
the earth, and echoed over the little gan-ison, startling the guards 
and inmates into momentary surprise and wonder. Amid the con- 
fusion the Sergeant iinthoughtedly passed without the fort to as- 
certain the cause of the rifle shots. But a few paces were gained 
when, with loud, triumphant shouts, he was sprung upon by the 
savages and made a captive, which, in turn, brought the soldiers 
within, about nine in all, to the palisades of the gan'ison, who 
clambered up to see the movement without, when a- Canadian of 
the name of Godfi-oi (or Godfri ), accompanied by two other white 
men, stepped defiantly forth and demanded a siuTender of the 
fort, with the assiu'ance to the soldiers that, if at once complied 
with, their lives would be spai'ed, but, refusing, they should all 
be killed without mercy. 

" The aspect before them was now sadly embarrassing. With- 
out a commander, without hope, and full of fear, to hesitate 
seemed only to make death the more certain, and the garrison 
gate soon swung back upon its hinges; the sm'render was com- 
plete, and the English rule at this point, for a time at least, had 
ceased to exercise its power."* 

The Miamis at this time were deeply embroiled in the great 
conspiracy, and were the inunediate agents, with the Pottawato- 
mies and Ojibways residing in the vicinity, who were chiefly in- 
strumental in the transactions resulting in the final drama, to 
which attention has just been directed. 

In the latter part of September, 1704, when it had become ap- 
parent that the English gan'ison at Detroit was likely to receive 
large re-enforcements, and the allies of the great conspirator began 
gi-adnally to weaken in their adherence to his cause, and to make 
overtm-es for peace, on the ground, perhajjs, that a treaty of peace 
had been then recently established between the French and En- 

*Hi8t. Fort Wayne, p. 71. 



glish Kings, and tlijit they were not likely to receive fm-ther aid 
from their French father, Pontiac, with a number of his princi- 
(lal chiefs, repaired to the River Maumee, with the design of 
stirring up the Indians in that quarter and renewing hostilities 
in the spring. The succeeding winter, however, proved a severe 
one. and much suffering among the Indians was the consequence. 
In addition to this, also, the siege had exhausted their ammuni- 
tion: the fur trade had been interfered with, or the sources of 
profit from it had been broken up ; they were left greatly in want. 
In the meantime, the opportunity of Sir William -fohnson, in the 
Indian department of the English provincial government, to util- 
ize his Indian policy, had come, and accordingly he had dis- 
patched messengers to many of the tribes, inviting them to a great 
peace council at Niagara, which was producing the desired effect 
in allaying their hostile feelings. All these things had a tendency 
to relax the sinews of war on the part of Pontiac's confederates. 

At this timo. sullen and intractable, Pontiac and such of ' his 
followers as still adhered to him, had left Detroit and taken up 
their abode, for the time being, on the Maamee, a few miles be- 
low Fort Wayne. 

Not long after this. Capt. Morris and a number of Canadians 
had started on a mission of peace to the Illinois Indians. As- 
cending the Maumee in a canoe, he was approaching the encamp- 
ment of Pontiac, when he was met by a party of about two hun- 
dred Indians, a part of Pontiac's bs(nd, who treated him with great 
violence, while the Canadians were treated respectfully. After 
many demonstrations of hostile intentions, however, he was per- 
niitt.Ml ti, depart Poling his way up the river, he arrived with 
lii^ ])urty. iju the seventh day after their departure, and made a 
lauding within sight of Fort Miami (Ke-ki-ong-a), which, from 
the time of its oaptm-e the year previous, had been without a gar- 
rison. On the opposite side of the river, covered by an intervening 
strip of woods, were the Miami villages. Here he met with fur- 
ther opposition from the Miamis, who gave him a hostile recep- 
tion, with the intention of completing their work by bm-ning him 
at the stake, from the execution of which pm'pose they were only 
prevented by the interjaosition of some of the chiefs less hostile 
than the rest. Here, from the continued manifestations of a de- 
termination on the part of the Kickapoos and Shawanoes, and 
many (jf the Miamis, he was dissuaded from proceeding on his 
mission to the Illinois. With this conclusion, he returned by 
the same route to Detroit, reacbino- thiMi' S.'ptember 17. 

In the summer and fall of r.r.r,. m cxi.cuting the mission 
proposed by Sir William Johnsmi tn imliirc a pacification of the 
hostile tribes, G-eorge Croghan visitetl various points on the Wa- 
bash. On the 1 7th of August, as shown by his journal, he ap- 
proached the village of the Miamis, in reference to which he makes 
the f"ll'iwing e.utry: '"The Twigtwee (Twightwee) village is sit- 
ii;itril I'll liuth sides of a river called the St. Joseph's. This river, 
whiTc it falls into the Miami (Maumee) River, about a quarter of 
a milo from this place, is 100 yards wide, on the east side of which 
stands a stockade fort, somewhat I'uinous." This is the English 
Fort (Miami), so called, better known, perhaps, as Holmes Foi-t, 
from its having been under his command at the time of his 
asaa-ssination two years before, in contradistinction to the French 
fort on the south side of the St. Mary's, which, in 1697. and in-ob- 
ably before, as it was in 1704 and 1705, commanded l)y Sieur 
de Vinsienne, and later by Sieur Dubuisson. Then he^made the 
following additional entry concerning this place: 

"The Indian village consists of about forty or fifty cabins, 
besides nine or ten French houses — a runaway colony from De- 

troit during the late Indian war : they were concerned in it, and, 
being afraid of punishment, came to this point, where, ever since, 
they have spirited iip the Indians against the English. * * * 
* * The country is pleasant, the soil is rich and well watered. 
After several conferences with these Indians, and their delivering 
me up of all the English prisoners they had, on the 0th of August 
we set out for Detroit, down the Miamis Rivei-, in a canoe." 

In the spring of 1766, Pontiac, true to his promise, left his 
encampment on the Maumee for Oswego, " accompanied by his 
chiefs, and by an Englishman named Crawford, a man of vigor 
and resolution, who had been appointed by the Superintendent 
to the troublesome office of attending the Indian deputation 
and supplying their wants." Reaching Oswego, where the gi-eat 
council was held, he made his great peace speech, and "sealed his 
submission to the English " l)y acknowledging allegiance to them 
forever. When the treaty was concluded, loaded with the pres- 
ents received, he is said to have returned again to the Maumee. 
where he spent the winter of 1760-67, living in the forest, 
with his wives and children, and hunting like an ordinary 

Toward the close of the Revolutionary war, in the month of 
January, 1778, insti-uetions were issued by Patrick Henry, Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, to Lieut. Col. George Rogers Clark, of Albe- 
marle County, " to raise, with all convenient speed, seven compa- 
nies of soldiers, to consist of fifty men each, officered in the usual 
manner, and armed most properly for the enterprise, and with 
that force to attack the British fort at Kaskaskia, and for the 
subjugation of the allied British and Indians on the Wabash, 
if need be, and protect the frontier settlements fi-om their 

Having, in pursuance of orders, attacked and reduced the 
British fort at Kaskaskia, and appointed a conuuandant over it, 
he proceeded to Post Vincennes, which smTendered to him on the 
25th of February, 1 779. This put him in possession of all the 
lower portion of the West until the close of the Revolution. The 
Upper Wabash, in the vicinity of the lakes, was still in the hands 
of the British. It was his purpose to have visited and taken for- 
cible possession of these points, also, but his attention for the 
time being was directed to other fields. 

The capture of the British post at Kekionga. however, was an 
enterprise contemplated b_\' another than Gen. Clai-k. Late in 
the year 1780, a Frenchman at Kaskaskia, named La Balme, con- 
ceived the idea of its reduction, and formed a plan for that pur- 
pose. Accordingly, he induced a number of persons at Kaskaskia. 
and others at Vincennes. to join him in the expedition. The re- 
sult was not what had been anticipated, but, on the contrary, wat; 
so great a disaster that few, if any, were left to tell the melau 
choly story. No official account of it has ajipeared. Yet. 
from a somewhat laborious collection of facts and incidents, and 
unconnected details, with, jierchance, some plausible traditions, 
arranged by Mr. Charles B. Lessello, of Logansport, Ind., than 
whom, perhaps, there is no one more familiar with the data bear- 
ing upon the case, the following brief statement is taken — the 
most acciu-ate at this time attainable: 

Speaking of Ke-ki-ong-a, Mr. Lesselle. in his account, says: 
"This village was situated on the bank of the St. Jo-sejib's River, 
commencing about a (juarter of a mile above its confluence with 
the St. Mary's, which forms the Miami ( Maumee ), and was near 
the present city of Fort Wayne. It had been a principal town of 
the Miami Indians for at least sixty years before the Revolution, 
and had been occupied by the French before the fall of Canada, 



who had erected a fort at the confluence of the rivers, on the eastern 
side of the St. Joseph's. At the period of the Kevohition, it had 

become a pla 

of much 


, a trading and inilitary 

point of view, and as such, ranked in the Northwest next to De- 
troit and Vinceunes. It was accordingly occupied as ' a post or 
seat for an official for Indian affairs by the British in the begin- 
ning of the war. Col. Clai-k, on the capture of Vincennes, had 
meditated an expedition against this place, as well as against De- 
troit : and. though he seems never to have aliandoned the idea, yet 
he could not succeed in his aiTangements to attempt its execution. 
But, while the subject was still fresh in the minds of Clai'k and 
the inhabitants of the Lower Wabash, another individual made his 
appearance to undertake what even the daring Clark, with greater 
resources, did not deem prudent to ventiu'e upon. This was La 
Balnie. But of him and his expedition it may be here stated, 
very little information of an entirely authentic shape is within 
our reach. Excepting about a dozen lines in Mr. Dillon's Histor- 
ical Notes, no published account whatever of his expedition has 
ever appeared. Whatever may be given in this brief sketch, has 
been obtained mostly from some of those who were in part eye- 
witnesses to the events, and fi'om traditions as handed down by 
the old inhabitants. La Balme was a native of France, and had 
come to this country as some kind of an officer, with the French 
troops, under La Fayette, in 1779. AVe are not apprised whether 
he came to the West on his own responsibility, or whether he was 
directed by some authority; but we find him, in the summer of 
1780, in Kaskaskia. raising volunteers to form an expedition 
against the post of Kekionga, with the ulterior view, in case of 
success, of extending his operations against the fort and towns of 
Detroit. At Kaskaskia he succeeded in obtaining only between 
twenty and thirty men. With these he proceeded to Vincennes, 
where he opened a recruiting establishment for the piu'pose of 
raising the number necessary for his object But he does not 
seem to have met here with the favor and encouragement of the 
principal inhabitants, or to have had much success in his estab- 
lishment. His expediti-on was looked upon as one of doubtful 
propriety, both as to its means and objects, and it met with the 
encoiu-agement, generally, of only the less considerate. Indeed, 
from the fragments of an old song,* as sung at the time by the 
maidens of Vincennes on the subject of La Balme and his expedi- 
tion, preserved by the writer, it would seem that plunder and fame 
were as much its objects as of conquest for the general good. 
Injustice may have been done him in this respect: but it is quite 
certain, from all accounts, that, though a generous and gallant 
man, well calculated to be of service in his proper sphere, yet he 
was too reckless and inconsiderate to lead such an expedition. 
How long he remained at Vincennes we have not now, perhaps, 
any means of knowing. But some time in the tall of that year 
(17S0), with, as is supposed, between fifty and sixty men. he pro- 
ceeded up the Wabash on his adventure. 

"He conducted his march with such caution and celerity that 
he appeared at the village before even the watchful inhab- 
itants had apprehended his approach. The sudden appeiu-ance 
of a foe. unknown as to character, numbers and designs, threw 
them into the greatest alaiTu, and they fled on all sides. La Balme 
took possession of the place without resistance. It was probably 
his intention, in imitation of Clark's captm-e of Kaskaskia, to take 
the village and its inhabitants by surprise, and, by acts and pro- 

fessions of kindness and friendship, to win them over to the 
American cause; but the inhabitants, including some six or eight 
French traders, totally eluded his grasp. His occupation of the 
village was not of long dm'atiou. After remaining a short time, 
and making plunder of the goods of some of the French traders 
and Indians, he retired to near the Aboite Creek* and encamped. 
The Indians, having soon ascertained the number and character 
of La Balme's forces, and learning that they were Frenchmen, 
were not disposed at first to avenge the attack. But of the trad- 
ers living there, there were two, named Beaubienf and La 
Fontaine,^ who, nettled and injured by the invasion and plunder 
of the place, were not disposed to let the invaders off' without a 
blow. These men having incited the Indians to follow and attack 
La Balme, they soon rallied their warriors of the village and the 
vicinity, under the lead of their war chief, the Little Tiu-tle. and, 
falling upon them in the night time, massacred the entire party. 
Not one is said to have survived to relate the sad story of the ex- 
pedition. Such is a brief and imperfect account of La Balme's 
expedition, of which so little is known." 

Piu-suant to the instructions received by Gov. St. Clair fur the 
protection of the frontier settlements in the territory northwest of 
the Ohio, and at tht same time avoid war with the Wabash In- 
dians, " by all means consistently with the security of troops 
and the national dignity." without which, " in the exercise 
of the present indiscriminate hostilities, it would be extremely 
difficult, if not impossible, to say that a war without further 
measures would be jiist on the part of the United States. But 
if. after manifesting clearly to the Indians the disposition of 
the General Government for the preservation of peace, and the ex- 
tension of a just protection to the said Indians, they should con- 
timie their incursions, the United States will be constrained to 
punish them with severity." "Maj. Hamti-amck, then command- 
ing at Post Vincennes, on the 15th of April. 1790, dispatched 
Antoine Gamelin from that point with the speeches of St. Clair 
to the tribes of the Wabash. Reaching the Indian settlements, 
Mr. Gamelin delivered the speeches at all the villages bordering 
this stream, and came as far eastward as the Miami village, oppo- 
site the present site of Fort Wayne.'' « 

Having proceeded as far as that point, he makes the following 
statement of his proceedings: ■' The 23d of April, I arrived at the 
Miami town. The next day, I got the Miami nation, the Shaw- 
anoes and Delawares, all assembled. I gave to each nation two 
bunches of wampum, and began the speeches before the French 
and English traders, being invited by the chiefs to be present, 
having told them myself I would be glad to have them present, 

I having nothing to say against anybody. After the speech, I 
showed them the treaty concluded at Muskingum (Fort Harmar), 
between His Excellency. Gov. St. Clair, and simdi-y nations, which 
displeased them. I told them the pui-pose of this present time 
was not to submit them to any condition, but to off'er them the 

I peace, which made disappear their displeasure. The great chief 
told me that he was pleased with the speech; that he would soon 
give me an answer. In a private discourse with the great chief, 
he told me not to mind what the Shawanoes would tell me. hav- 
ing a bad heart, and being the pertm-bators of all the nations. 
He said the Miamis had a bad name, on accoimt of the mischief 
done on the River Ohio; but he told me it was not occasioned by 
his young men, but by the Shawanoes. his young men going out 
onlv for a hunt" 

rot chief La FonlaiDB. 




Subsequently, conferences were held witli Blue Jacket, a chief 
warrior of the Shawanoes; with several Pottawatomies : with Le 
Gris, of the Miamis ; and with the representatives of several other 
tribes to whom the speeches were presented, and who gave their 
views and the sentiments of their respective tribes concerning the 
questions presented for their consideration. They generally ex- 
pressed satisfaction, as individuals, but preferred to await fm-ther 
deliberation on the part of their people. Few were ready to give 
a definite answer until the matter had been presented to all the 
confederates, and their xmanimous consent obtained. 

On the 2Uthof April, he had a general conference with several 
of these tribes: the result was not materially different. Imme- 
diately thereafter, he left Kekionga and started on his return toip. 
All these preliminary steps were taken to give the several Indian 
tribes on the Wabash and adjacent thereto an opportunity to ex- 
press themselves on the questions submitted, and have grievances 
if possible, as a means of preserving the peace, before 
measures were adopted, on the part of the United States, 
to secure and maintain the rights of the settlers on the North- 
western frontier. 



Indian Depked.\tions Committed in the Tehritorv of the 
NoKTHWEST— Action of the United States Government 
Foreshadowed— Military Movements— Defensive Opera- 
tions Commenced— Expedition of Gen. Harmar Fitted 
Out— Preparations— Defeat of Harmar and its Results. 

FROM the date of the failure of Pontiac's conspiracy until the 
commencement and during the progress of the American 
Revolution, but little more than local protection was afforded the 
frontier settlements against the depredations of Western Indians. 
Indeed, it was a part of the policy of the British Government to 
maintain an alliance with belligerent tribes for the purpose of 
vising them when opportunity offered in its offensive warfare 
against the colonists. It was not until the close of the Revolu- 
tion, the success of the colonial arms and the establishment of a 
permanent government by the people of the United States, that 
any formidable movement was inaugurated against them, not- 
withstanding frequent and startling incidents of merciless Indian 
warfare were common. When, however, the machinery of gov- 
ernment was put into operation, and the power to meet force with 
force, if need be, was adequately established, Pi-esident AVashing- 
ton called the attention of Congress to the necessity of effective 
measiu-es in the premises. 

At tii'st, a pacific policy was adopted, and all reasonable means 
to establish and maintain the same applied, but without satisfac- 
tory results. Hence, Washington, in his message of the 8th of 
January, 1790, directed the attention of Congress to the mi'tter, 
using this language : " There was reason to hope that the pacific 
measures adopted with regard to certain hostile tribes of Indians 
would have relieved the inhabitants of our Southern and Western 
frontiers from their depredations; but you will perceive fi-om the 
information contained in the papers which I shall direct to be 
laid before you (eomjtrehending a communication from the com- 
monwealth of Virginia), that we ought to be prepared to afford 
protection to those parts of the Union, and, if necessary, to pun- 
ish th<' aggressors." Again, in his second annual message, on the 
Sth of December of the same year, he submitted the following. 

"It has been heretofore known to Cougi-ess that fi-equent in- 
cursions have been made on our fi-ontier settlements by certain 
banditti of Indians from the northwest side of the Ohio. These, 
with some of the tribes dwelling on and near the Wabash, have 
of late lieen ]iarticularly active in their depredations, and, being 
emboldened by the impunity of their crimes, and aided by such 

parts of the neighboring tribes as could be seduced to join in their 
hostilities or afford them a retreat for their prisoners and plunder, 
have, instead, listening to the human invitations and overtm'es 
made on the part of the United States, renewed their violences 
with fi-esh alacrity and greater effect. 

" These aggravated provocations rendered it essential to the 
safety of the Western seltlements that the aggressors should be 
made sensible that the Government of the Union is not less ca- 
pable of punishing their crimes than it is disposed to respect their 
rights and reward their attachments. As this object could not 
be effected by defensive measures, it became necessai-y to put in 
force the act which empowers the President to call out the militia 
for the protection of the frontier. I have accordingly authorized 
an expedition in which the regulai' troops in that quarter ai-e com- 
bined with such di-afts of militia as were deemed sufficient" 

Pursuant to the authority above refeiTed to. Gen. Harmai', 
having been placed in chief command of the expedition, left Fort 
Washington on the 4th of October, 1790,, at the head of the army, 
the route being to the northward, bearing to the northeast, pass- 
ng the Indian village of Chillicothe, on the Little Miami, on the 
ith. From there the route lay to the northward and westward, 
n the direction of the Miami towns at the head of the Maumee. 
On the i-lth of October, when about thirty miles fi-om the object- 
point. Col. Hardin, with one company of regulars and 600 
militia, was detached from the main army and sent forward to 
recormoiter the position of the Indians, their number and appar- 
ent intentions. On the afternoon of the following day, this de- 
tachment reached the village and took possession of it, the Indians 
having vacated it a short time previously. In the meantime, how- 
ever, the main body of the army having piu'sued the regulai- line 
of march, aiTived on the morning of the 17t.h. and crossed the 
Maumee to the village above, at the junction of the St. Joseph's 
with that stream. Then the destruction of the village commenced, 
and before the 21st, the destruction was complete: the chief town 
and live subordinate villages, with neai'ly twenty thousand bushels 
of corn found in the vicinity, had been reduced to ashes. 

A general reconnaissance of the surrounding neighborhood 
having been determined upon to ascertain the whereabouts of the 
absconded savages. Gen. Trotter, with 300 Kentuckians, was sent 
out for that purpose on the morning of tJie 18th, after the de- 
struction of the principal village. This reconnaissance was not 
rewarded with any beneficial results, and was, as a consequence, 
unsatisfactory to the General-in-Chief. On the morning of the 


following day, Gen. Trotter's commaud was transfen-ed to Col. 
Hardin, with instructions as on tlie preceding day, and the detach- 
ment took up its line of march along the Indian trail, bearing to 
the northwestwai'd in the direction of the Kickapoo village. A halt 
was called when about five miles fi-om the head of the Maumee. and 
positions assigned to different divisions, anticipating an attack, 
but, none being made, the detachment moved forward about thi-ee 
miles, when two Indians were discovered on foot. These escaped 
unhm't, owing to the thick underbrush suiToundiug, though a gun 
had been fired at them. A little fui'ther on, a more formidable 
body of Indians was discovered, with camp-th-es in front of them. 
A fire was at once opened by these Indians upon Col. Hai'din's 
detachment, which, without waiting to retm-u the fire, hastily re- 
treated, with great loss, the regulars alone remaining to continue 
the fight against fearful odds. The result was most disastrous. 

Col. Hardin was greatly chagrined at the appai-ently imneces- 
sary defeat of his expedition, and, on the night of the 2 1st, after 
Gen. HarmOT had taken up his line of mai'ch back in the direction 
of Fort Washington, after much persuasion, induced the com- 
manding General to give him another opportunity to vindi- 
cate himself, by sending him back to the site of the village jvist 
destroyed Accordingly, though Gen. Harmar was unwilling to 
tiy further experiments, having already suffered greatly, he re- 
ceived an order for a special detachment of 340 militia, of which 
forty were mounted, and sixty regular troops, the former to be 
commanded by himself, and the latter by Maj. Wyllys. ' The de- 
tachment marched immediatel)-, forming in three columns — the 
regulars in the center, commanded by Capt. Asheton, with Maj. 
Wyllys and Col. Hardin in fi'ont, the militia forming the right 
and left. The Maumee was reached about sunrise on the morn- 
ing of the 22d, when the spies, discovering the enemy on the op- 
posite side of the rivei', reported to Maj. Wyllys, who halted the 
regulars and gave his orders and plan of attacl^to the militia in 
front, with the commanding officers of the several divisions. 
These orders, however, were not generally communicated, leaving 
those uninformed officers in doubt. Divisions were sent to the 
left, with instructions to cross the St. Mary's in rear of the vil- 
lage, and to the right, crossing the Matunee at the old ford in ad- 
vance of the regulars, to cut off the retreat of the Indians below 
the village, while the center was to move forward, cross the Mau- 
mee near the same point, and attack the enemy in front. Pre- 
matm-e firing fi-om the divisions sent to the rear of the village 
disarranging the order of attack, and the Indians being apprised 
of the situation, attacked the entire body almost simultaneously, 
forced the center by a concentrated movement, with fatal eflect. 
The right and left, being held by an inferior force, were imable 
to afford any assistance in repelling the principal attacking force 
of the enemy. The engagement was short, sharp and decisive - 
the slaughter terrible. The loss to the whites was 1S3 killed and 
31 wounded. The Indian loss was not so great. 


Movements of Gov. St. Clair— Expedition Against the AVa- 
liASii Indians— Line of March— Encamp.iient-Defeat and 
Terrible Slauoiiter— Consequences. 

THE failure of the expedition of Gen. Harmar against the Wa. 
bash Indians naturally induced a continuance of the hostile 
spirit manifested by the savages of that locality, and, indeed, of 
the whole territory northwest of the Ohio. 

The leaders of these hostile bands, whenever opportunity of- 
fered, never failed to exercise their warlike propensities. Hence, 
the Government of the United States found it necessary to adopt 
measures for the relief of the frontier settlements. Accordingly, 
Gov. St. Clair was directed to prepare for such defense with 
all possible dispatch. Hence, on the 28th of Mai-ch, 17i)l, he 
left Philadelphia and proceeded to Pittsburgh, aiTiving there 
on the Kith of April following. From Pittsburgh he repaired to 
Lexington, Ky.. where he remained a few days, and departed 
thence to Fort Washington, arriving there on the 15th of May, 
the garrison at the latter point consisting then of seventy-nine 
commissioned officers and privates fit for duty. At Fort Harmar 
the garrison consisted of fovty-fiv'.i. rank and file: at Fort Steuben, 
there were sixty-one regulars ; and at Fort Knox, eighty- 

"On the ir)th of July following, the whole of the First Regi- 
ment of United States Infantry, amounting to 299 non-commis- 
sioned officers and privates, amved at Fort Washington, under 
orders fi-om Gov. St. Clair, Commander-in-Chief." 

This force was subsequently increased, under act of Con 
gress to raise the niunber of regulars to complete the quota, 

I di'awn principally fi-om New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Mary- 

' land. 

! Early in September, the regiment took up its line of march 
in the direction of the Miami towns at the head of the Mau- 
mee, halting on the site where Fort Recovery was afterward 

' erected. 

; On the 8d of November, the army, consisting of about fomteen 

' hundred eft'ective men. encamped on the head- waters of the Wa- 

[ bash, among a munber of small creeks. The right flank lay in 

j front of a creek about twelve yards wide, and constituted the 
first line, while the left wing formed the second line. Between 
these two lines there was a space of about seventy yai-ds, which 
was all the situation would allow. The right flank was supposed 
to be protected by the creek, while the left was covered by a steep 
bank, a cor2)s of cavalry and some pickets. The militia passed 
over the creek and encamped in two lines, about one-quai'ter of a 
mile in advance of the main ai-my. Snow was on the ground, and 
two rowsof fii-es were made between Butler's and Dai'ke's lines, 
with two rows also between the lines of the militia. 

At the same time, and while the army was thus encamped. 
Little Tiu-tle and Buchongahelas. with other chiefs of less dis- 
tinction, with about twelve hundi-ed waj-riors, were lying only a 
few miles distant, awaiting a favorable opportunity to commence 
the attack. This opportimity was presented about 4 o'clock on 
the morning of the next day, and the attack was made according- 

j ly, with a suddenness and effect seldom equaled, just as the ai-my 
had been dismissed from parade, in a state bordering on disorgan- 

The result was a most sanguinary and disastrous defeat to 

] the white people, the details of which were almost incredible in 
the degree of barbarous atrocity. The loss was stated to have 
been 39 officers killed, and 393 men killed and missing; the 

i wounded, 22 officers, and 240 men. The loss of the Indians did 

I not exceed 150 killed and wounded. 

The Government then, in view of the situation, seeing that a 
larger, better provided and better disciplined army was necessary ' 
to give confidence to the settlers along the fi-ontiers and to put a 
quietus on the movements of the Indians, took immediate steps 
toward fitting out an expedition free fi-om all the elements of 
weakness that characterized the two former. 





Tiii: i:\ii i.riK.x (ii:i. AM/IT) AGAINST THE Wabash Indians at 
Mil Wivlnwxv lii;i.. (lEX. Charles Scott Placed IN CoM- 
M\Mi-lli~ l.iM.oi M A i:rii— Attacked AND Destroyed the 
\\i:\ AM) Ki> ivAiiH.i Towns— Prisoners Taken— Success of 
THE Exi'EDiTioN- His Speech tothe Red People on the 'Wa- 
bash- Keturx TO FoKT Washington. 
n~^HE campaign of Gen. Scott against tlie Indians had its origin 
-L in the same cause that induced the campaigns of Harmar and 
St. Clair, and was. indeed, a part of the same plan laid out by the 
War Department of the United States to defend the fi-untier set- 
tlements against the stealthy warfare of the savage hordes occu- 
pying the Western ten-itory, and to chastise them for the offenses 
committed. The campaigns of the two former officers were di- 
rected more especially against the Indians on the Maumee and 
Auglaize, while the exjjedition commanded by Gen. Scott was the 
outgi-o-\vth of a movement suggested by a resolution of the Legis- 
lature of Virginia, looking to the protection of her frontier coun- 
ties, passed by that body on the 20th of December, 1790, by which 
the Governor was authorized to direct such temporary defens- 
ive operations in those counties '' as would secure the citizens 
thereof from the hostile invasions of the Indian enemy, until the 
General Government could enter into full and effectual measures 
to accomplish the same object." Under this authority, the Gov- 
ernor directed the western counties above referred to to raise 
small companies of rangers for the protection of the frontier set- 
tlements. To this end, Charles Scott, Esq., was appointed a Brig- 
adier General of the militia of the District of Kentucky, with the 
necessai-y power to procure, by vohmtary engagement, 226 men, 
to range the most exposed parts of the frontier. An account of 
these proceedings was forwarded to the President of the United 
States on the 4th of January following, when, by the authority of 
the Government, a local board of war was constituted for the dis- 
trict of Kentucky, composed of Brig. Gen. Scott, Hany Innis, 
John Brown, Benjamin Logan and Isaac Shelby. On the 3d of 
March of the same year. Congress passed " an act for raising and 
adding another regiment to the military establishment of the 
United States, and for making fm-ther provision for the protection 
of the frontiers." Subsequently, Gen. St. Clair was invested with 
the chief command of about three thousand troops to be raised 
and employed against the Indians in this territory, and the Sec- 
retary of War, on the 21st of March, 1791, issued the necessary in- 
structions to him concerning the regulations that should govern 
the movements of the expeditions to be fitted out against the In- 
dians on the Maumee and the Wabash. Previously, however, on 
the 9th of March, the Secretary of War forwarded instructions to 
Gen. Scott, from which we make the following extract: 

" Sir — The issue and consequent eflect of the expedition 
against the Miami towns, and the situation of afifairs between the 
United States and the Wabash and other hostile Indians north- 
west of the Ohio, are well known to you and the inhabitants of 
Kentucky generally. * * * it would afford high satisfaction 
to the President of the United States could a firm peace be estab- 
lished without fiu-ther effusion of blood; and, although he con- 
ceives the sacred principles of humanity, and a regard to the wel- 
fare of the country, dictate that he should take every proper ar- 
rangement to bring the deluded Indians to a just sense of their 
situation, yet he is apprehensive that all lenient endeavors will 
be fruitless. He is, therefore, constrained to calculate his ulti- 

mate measures, to impress the Indians with a strong conviction 
of the power of the United States, to inflict that degree of punish- 
ment which justice may require. That, for this purpose, he avails 
the public of the offers which you and the delegates of Kentucky 
and the other frontier counties of Virginia, made, by your me 
morial of the 4th of December last, to combat the Indians accord- 
ing to your own modes of warfai'e. 

" It is the result of information from men of reputation in In- 
dian affairs that a body of 500 picked men, mounted on good 
horses, by rapid incursions, would be equal to the assault of any of 
the Indian towns lying on the Wabash River, and that the prolv 
ability would be highly in favor of sm'prising and capturing at 
least a considerable number of women and children. In this 
view of the object, and also estimating the consequent impressions, 
such as a successful operation would make upon the Indians, by 
demonstrating to them that they are within our reach and lying at 
our mercy; and also, considering from the before-recited memo- 
rial and other information, that such an opportunity of acting by 
themselves in an Indian expedition, would be highly gratifying to 
the hardy and brave yeomanry of Kentucky, the President of the 
United States hereby authorizes an expedition of the magnitude 
and upon the conditions hereinafter described. 

" The mounted volunteers or militia are to proceed to the 
Wea, or Ouiatenon, towns of Indians, there to assault the said 
towns, and the Indians therein, either by siu-prise or otherwise, 
as the nature of the circumstances may admit — sparing all who 
may cease to resist, and capturing as many as possible, particularly 
women and children. And on this point it is the positive orders 
of the President of the United States that all such captives be^ 
treated with humanity; and that they be carried and delivered to 
the commanding officer of some post of the United States upon 
the Ohio." 

This expedition was directed to move from some point on the 
River Ohio, about the 10th of May, 1791, and to consist of a 
number of men not exceeding 750. The President, also, author- 
ized the sending of another expedition, and a third one against 
the W^abash Indians, ju-ovided the Major General or commanding 
officer on the Ohio should order the same. 

Piu-suant to the special instnictions cited above. Brig. Gen. 
Scott, with a force of about eight hundi-ed mounted and aiTued 
men, crossed the Ohio at the mouth of the Kentuckv- River, on 
the 23d of May, 1791, and commenced his march for Ouiatenon 
on the Wabash. From that time, he jiushed forwai-d with the ut- 
most celerity comjiatible with the character of the country and the 
kind of weather he had to encounter in his route. From the 23d 
to the 31st of May. he marched 135 miles, over a country cut by 
four large branches of the White River, and many smaller 
streams, with steep, muddy banks, covered in many places with 
brush and briers so thick as to be almost impenetrable. Rain 
fell in torrents almost every day. accompanied by frequent blasts 
of wind and thunder storms. These impediments to rapid march- 
ing not only greatly delayed his progress, but jaded his horses 
and destroyed his provisions. 

On the morning of the 1st of June, the ai-my entered an ox 
tensive prairie, and in the distance obsei^ved an Indian, wh(i 
proved to be Capt. Bull, on horeeback, but a few miles to the right. 
It was the purpose to intercept him, and a detachment was sent 
out with that object, but he escaped, in time, as the sequel proved, 
to warn the villagers of the ai-my's approach. Finding himself 
discovered, the General advanced with all the rapidity the con- 
dition of his men and horses would ]>prmit. At 1 o'clock, a gi'ove. 



bordering on another prairie, was penetrated, when, at a distance 
of two and four miles to the left, two small villages were discov- 
ered. The main town, however, was some four or live miles in 
front, behind a point of woods that jutted into the prairie. Im- 
mediately, Col. John Hardin, with sixty mounted infantry, and 
Capt. McCoy, with a troop of light-horse, were attack the 
villages on the left, while the main body, under Gen Scott, moved 
on briskly toward the main town, which, instead of being situated 
at the edge of the plain, was found to be on low ground border- 
ing the Wabash. The summit of the eminence which overlooked 
the villages on the banks of the Wabash being gained, the Indians 
were discovered in gi-eat confusion, and endeavoring to escape 
across the river in canoes. At the word directing the movement. 
Commandant Wilkinson rushed forward with the Fii-st Battalion 
and attacked the fleeing savages. He executed the order iirompt- 
ly, the detachment gaining the bank of the river just as the rear 
of the enemy had embarked; and, regardless of a brisk tii-e kept 
up fi'om a Kickapoo town on the opposite bank, by a well-direct- 
ed fire from their rifles, they destroyed, in a few minutes, all the 
Indians with which five canoes were crowded. The Wabash, at 
the time was high, beyond fording at that point, which made it nec- 
essary to detach Co). Wilkinson, with instructions to cross the 
stream at a ford two miles above. This crossing-place being found 
to be impassable also, the detachment returned to the town, Oui- 

The enemj' still holding the Kickapoo village, it was deter- 
mined to dislodge them, and Capt. Iving's and Logsdou"s com- 
panies were directed to cross the river lower down, imder the di- 
rection of Maj. Barbee. Several of the men swam over, and 
others crossed the river in a small canoe, which movement being 
unobserved, the men took post on the bank in the immediate 
vicinity. As soon as the enemy discovered the situation, they 
precipitately abandoned the village. In the meantime. Col. Har- 
din had discovered another and stronger village not far distant, 
and was proceeding to attack it, when, finding himself already 
encumbered with prisoners, Capt. Brown was sent to support him ; 
but, before he reached the point, which was about six miles dis- 
tant, the work was complete, and Col. Hardin rejoined the main 
army about sunset, having killed six warriors and taken fifty-two 

The following morning, a detachment was sent out imder com- 
mand of Col. Wilkinson, on foot — the horses being too much 
crippled to be sei-viceable — to destroy the important town of Keth- 
tip-e-ca-nunk, about eighteen miles from camp and on the west 
side of the Wabash. The detachment left about half past 5 
o'clock in the evening, and returned the next day at 1, having in 
the meantime marched thirty-six miles in twelve hoiu-s, and de- 
stroyed the most important settlement of the enemy in that portion 
of the territory. 

To avoid embarrassing his anny with a large number of pris- 
oners, being moved by the impiilses of humanity. Gen. Scott re- 
leased sixteen, the weakest and most infirm of them, and gave 
them a written speech, adch'essed to " the Piankeshaws and all the 
nations of red people " on the Wabash Kiver, instructing them as 
to the consequences of their method of warfare and recommend- 
ing them to pui'sue a different course of policy. Having, on the 
4th of June, bm-ned and destroyed all the adjacent towns and 
villages, and growing corn-crops, he began his march to the 
Kapids of the Ohio, where he aiTived on the 14th, without the loss 
of a single man by the enemy, and only five woimded; having 
killed thirty-two, chiefly warriors o'f size and figiu-e, and taken 

fifty-eight prisoners. As worthy of note, he mentions the fact 
that no act of iuhiunanity marked the conduct of the Kentucky 
volunteers; even the inveterate habit of scal2)ing the dead ceased 
to influence them. In conclusion. Gen. Scott states that he de- 
livered forty-one prisoners to Capt. Asheton, of the First United 
States Regiment, at Fort Steuben, and took that officer's receipt 
for them, in accordance with his instructions. Thus ended that 
brief campaign, having, in about twenty days, accomplished the 
great work for which it was planned, and retui'ned with the hon- 
ors of an honorable and humane warfai'e. 


Orders for thk Expedition Against the Indians at 
"Old Town "—Instructions from the Board of War — Ex- 
pedition Leaves Fokt Washington— strknotii of thk FoR<P> 
SentOut— Line OF March— Keaches 1111, \\' m,\^,i wii Movi -; 
Toward the Village on Eel Kivii; liii: \ ii i.\(,i. At 
tacked and Destroyed — SUBSEQUENi .Moximini-^ m ri:i: 
CojiMANDER— Returns to the Falls of the (iiiio. 

TTTHILE Gov. St. Clair was making prepai'ations for his ex- 
' ^ pedition to the Indian towns on the Maumee and St. 
Mary's, on the 25th of June, 1701, he directed the Boai-d of AVar of 
the district of Kentucky to fit out a second expedition, of not ex- 
ceeding 500 men, against the Indian towns on the AV^abash. At 
Danville, Ky., on the 5th of July following, Bi'ig. Gen. James 
Wilkinson was invested by the Board of War with the command 
of this second expedition, authorized by Gov, St. Clair, and the 
troops were ordered to rendezvous at Fort Washington by the 
20th of July, " well mounted on horseback, well armed, and pro- 
vided with thirty days' provisions." The expedition left Fort 
Washington, about five hundred and twenty-five strong, on the 
1st day of August, and, moving forward, made a feint toward the 
Miami village, subsequently directing the line of march toward 
the Indian village on Eel Kiver called Ke-ne-pa-com-a-qua, since 
known as " Old Town," about six miles above the jimction of Eel 
River with the Wabash. The following is the official account of 
the expedition rendeicd to the War Department: 

" I quitted my camp on the 7th (August) as soon as I could 
see my way, crossed one path at thi-ee miles distance, bearing 
northeast, and at seven miles I fell in with another, very much 
used, which I adopted as the direct route to my object, and pushed 
forward with the utmost dispatch. I halted at 12 o'clock to re- 
fi'esh the horses, and examine the men's arms and ammunitions; 
marched again at half past 1; and at fifteen minutes before 5, I 
struck the AVabash, about one and a half leagues above the mouth 
of Eel River, being the very spot for which I had aimed from the 
commencement of my march. I crossed the river, and, following 
the path a north-by-east course; at the distance of two and a half 
miles, my reconnoitering party announced Eel River in fi-ont, 
and the town on the opposite bank. I dismounted, ran forward, 
and examined the situation of the town as far as was practicable 
without exposing myself; but the whole face of the country, from 
the Wabash to the margin of Eel River, being a continued thicket 
of brambles, blackjacks, weeds and shiaibs of different kinds, it 
was impossible for me to get a satisfactory view without endan- 
gering a discovery. I immediately determined to post two com- 
panies on the bank of the river, opposite to the town, and above 
the ground I then occupied, to make a detour with Maj. Caldwell 




and the Second Battalion nntil I fell in with the Miami trace, and 
by that route to cross the river above and gain the rear of the 
town, and to leave directions with Maj. McDowell, who command- 
ed the First Battalion, to lie perdue until I commenced the attack, 
then to dash thi-ough the river with his corps and the advanced 
guard, and assault the houses in front and upon the left. In the 
■ moment I was about to put this arrangement into execution, word 
was brought me that the enemy had taken the alarm and were 
flying. I instantly ordered a general charge, which was obeyed 
with alacrity. The men. forcing their way over every obstacle, 
plunged through the river with vast intrepidity. The enemy was 
unable to make the smallest resistance. Six wai-riors and (in the 
hurry and confusion of the charge) two squaws and a child were 
killed; thirty- four prisoners were taken, aad an unfortunate capt- 
ive released, with the loss of two men killed and one wounded. 

" I found this town scattered along Eel River for full tliree 
miles, on an imeven, scrubby oak barren, intersected alternately 
by bogs almost impassable,' and impervious thickets of plum, 
hazel and blackjacks. Notwithstanding these difficulties, if I may 
credit the report of the prisoners, very few who were in town es- 
caped. Expecting a second expedition, their goods were gener- 
ally packed up and bm-ied. Sixty warriors had crossed the Wa- 
bash to watch the paths leading from Ohio. The head chief, with 
all the prisoners and a number of families, were out digging a 
root which they substitute in place of the potato; and, about one 
horn- before my arrival, all the warriors except eight, had mounted 
their horses and rode up the river to a French store to pm'chase am 
munition. This ammunition had airived from the Miami village 
that very day, and, the squaws informed me, was stored al^out two 
miles from the town. I detached Maj. Caldwell in quest of it, 
but he failed to make any discovery, although he scoured the 
country for seven or eight miles up the river. 

" I encamped in the town that night, and next morning I cut 
up the corn — scarcely in the milk —burned the cabins, mounted my 
young wan-iors, squaws and childi-en in the best manner in my 
power, and leaving two infirm squaws and a child, with a short 
talk, I commenced my march for the Kickapoo town in the prai- 
rie. I felt my prisoners a vast incumbrance, but I was not in 
force to justify a detachment, having barely 523 rank and file, 
and being then in the bosom of the Ouiatenon country, 180 miles 
removed from succor, and not more than one and a half days' 
march from tln' l'iiH;nv;i((pmies, Shawanoes and^Delawares." 

The expi-ililiwii ilim ilirected its coiu'se toward the Kickapoo 
village, encouiitiTiiij^- iiuiihtous difficultieB in the way, through 
bogs and morasses and thick underbrush, Finding the way im- 
passable, the route was changed to the southwestward. On the 
morning of the 10th of August, some discoveries were made which 
induced the belief of the near approach to an Indian village. 
Moving forward rapidly, the Tippecanoe River was reached about 
1 2 o'clock, where the enemy, having watched the movements, be- 
came alarmed and abandoned the place. This town had been de- 
stroyed by the army under Gen. Scott, in June preceding, yet, in 
the meantime, the Indians had retiu-ned and cultivated their corn 
and ])ulse, which had nearly reached maturity, and was in much 
larger quantities than at Old Town on Eel River. Halting here 
until the next morning, the army resumed its march U)wm-d the 
Kickapoo town on the prairie, by the j-oad leading fi-om Ouiate- 
non to that place. It having been ascertained diu-ing the day 
that the men and horses were not in condition to fiu'ther pursue 
the course marked out, the design upon tlie Kickapoosof the prai- 
ries was abandoned, and the mju-ch continued to the Kickapcx) 

town near Ouiatenon, destroyed a few months previously. On the 
12th, the expedition took route for the Rapids of the Ohio, at 
which place it aiTived on the 21st of August, having marched, 
by accm-ate computation, about four hundred and fifty-one miles 
from Fort Washington, having destroyed the chief town of the 
Ouiatenons, made prisoners of the sons and sisters of the King, 
bm-ned a respectable Kickapoo village, and cut down at least four 
hundred and thirty acres of corn, chiefly in the milk. The com- 
manding officer gives due credit to the Kentucky volunteers, who 
acquitted themselves with distinguished propriety and habitual 
good conduct. Especial remark was made in his report, how- 
ever, of the meritorious conduct of Majs. McDowell and Cald- 
well, of Col. Russell, and for the jn-ompt service rendered by Maj. 
Adair and Capt. Parker. 

^YN E 






11' M MMI 





; Campaign 
E Maumee 
OK TlIE In- 

iiE British 






Fort on'iiii; .\1m mii -lii^i it ■ i iiii: \'i.|.ii;y. 
/"■vN the 28th of July, 171(4, the regular troops imder his com- 
^-^ mand having been joined two days previously by Maj. Gen. 
Scott, with about sixteen hundi-ed mounted volunteers fi-om Ken- 
tucky, Gen. Wayne, with this imited force, commenced his inarch 
for the Indian towns on the Maumee River. At a point on .the 
St. Mary's River about twenty- foiu' miles to the northward of Port 
Recovery, he erected and gai-risoned another post, which he called 
Fort Adams. Moving hence, on the 4th of August, he arrived at 
the junction of the Maumee and Auglaize on the Sth. The capt- 
ure of the post at this point is best described in the language of 
Gen. Wayne's re2)ort to the Seeretaiy of War, dated August 14, 
1794. He says: " I have the honor to inform you that the army 
under my command took possession of this very important post 
on the morning of the 8th inst., the enemy on the preceding 
evening having abandoned all their settlements, towns and vil- 
lages, with such apparent marks of siu-prise and precipitation as 
to amount to a positive proof that om- approach was not discov- 
ered by them until the an-ival of a Mr. Newman, of the Quarter- 
master General's Depai'tment, who deserted from the anny near 
the St. Mary's. ***** j ija,^ made such demonstra- 
tions for a length of time previously to taking up our line of 
march, as to induce the savages to expect our advance by the 
route of the Miami villages to the left, or toward Roche de Bout 
by the right — which feints ajjpear to have produced tie desired 
affect by drawing the attention of the enemy to those points, and 
gave an opening for the army to approach undiscovered, by a 
devious, i. e., in a central, direction. Thus, Sir, we have gained 
the grand emiiorium of the hostile Indians of the West, with 
out loss of blood. The very extensive and highly cultivated fields 
and gardens show the work of many hands. The miu'gin of those 
beautiful rivers, the Miamis of the lake (or Maumee) and Au- 
glaize, appear like one continued village for n number of miles, 
both above and below this place: nor have I ever before lieheld 
Biich immense fields of corn in any pai't of America, from Canada 
to Florida. Wo are now employed in completing a strong stockade 
fort, with four good block-houses, by way of bastions, at the con- 
fluence of Auglaize and the Maumee, which I have called Defi- 



ance. Eveiything is now prepared for a forward move to-morrow 
morning towai"d Koche de Bout, or Foot of the Rapids. Yet I 
have thoiight proper to offer the enemy a last overture of peace; 
and as they have everything that is dear and interesting now at 
stake, I have reason to expect that they will listen to the proposi- 
tion mentioned in the inclosed copy of an address ' to the Dela- 
wares, Shawanoes, Miamis and Wyandots. and to each and every 
of them; and to all other n^.tions of Indians noi-thwest of the 
Ohio, whom it may concern,' dispatched yesterday by a special 
flag (Christopher Miller), who I sent under circumstances that 
will insure his safe return, and which may eventually spai-e the 
effusion of much human blood. But. should war be their choice, 
that blood be upon their own heads. America shall no longer 
be insulted with impunity. To an all-powerful and just God I 
therefore commit myself and gallant army." 

The dispatch addressed as above and forwai-ded contains this 
passage: "Brothers — Be no longer deceived or led astray by the 
false promises and language of the bad white men at the Foot of 
the Rapids; they have neither the power nor inclination to pro- 
tect you. No longer shut your eyes to yoiu- true interest and 
happiness, nor your eai's to the last overtiure of peace. But, in 
pity to yom- innocent women and children, come and prevent the 
further effusion of your blood. Let them experience the kindness 
and fi-iendship of the United States of America, and the invalua- 
ble blessings of peace and tranquillity." Inviting the Indians 
also to meet him without delay between the mouth of the Auglaize 
and the foot of the rapids of the Maumee. in order to settle the 
preliminaries of a lasting jjeace. 

" The bearer of the letter left Fort Defiance at 4 o'clock. P. 
M., on the 13th of August. On the 16th, he brought an answer 
from some of the hostile Indians to Gen. Wayne, in which they 
said that, if he waited where he was ten days, and then sent 
Miller for them, the.y would treat with him. but that if he ad- 
vanced, they would give him battle." 

But Gen. Wayne was not thus induced to check his onward 
march, for, on the 15th. he moved his forces from Fort Defiance 
and directed them toward the British fort, at the foot of the Mau- 
mee Rapids. Five days later, he had gained a decisive victory 
over the Indians and their allies, almost under the guns of the 
British fort, on the left bank of the Maumee. The Indians had 
been as good as their word, but met with a reception not contem- 
plated in their pomjwus reply to his proposition for peace. They 
had fought and been disastrously defeated. 

The following, from Wayne's official report of his proceedings, 
addressed to (he Secretary of War, and bearing date at Fort De- 
fiance August 28, 179-t, will give the reader an acciu-ate idea of 
his efforts at conquering a peace: 

" Sib— It is with infinite pleasm-e that I now announce to you 
the brilliant success of the Federal army under my command, in 
a general action with the combined forces of the hostile Indians, 
and a considerable number of the volunteers and loilitia of De- 
troit, on the 20th inst.. on the banks of the Maumee. in the vicin- 
ity of the British post and garrison at the foot of the rapids. The 
army advanced from this placa (Fort Defiance) on the loth, and 
arrived at Roche de Bout on the ISth; the 19th was employed in 
making a temporary post (Fort Deposit) for the reception of om- 
stores and baggage, and in reconnoitering the position of the en- 
emy, who were encamped behind a thick brush of wood, and the 
British fort. 

"At 8 o'clock on the morning of the 2(ltli. the army again ad- 
vanced in cohunns. agreeable to the standing order of march; the 

Legion on the right, its flank covered by the Maumee: one bri- 
gade of mounted volunteers on the left, under Brig. Gen. Todd, 
and the other in the rear, under Brig. Gen. Barbee. A select 
battalion of mounted volunteers moved in front of the Legion, 
commanded by Maj. Price, who was directed to keep sufficiently 
advanced so as to give timely notice for the troops to form in case 
of action, it being yet undetermined whether the Indians would 
decide for pej.ce or war. 

"After advancing about five miles. Maj. Price's corps received 
so severe a fire from the enemy, who were secreted in the woods 
and high grass, as to compel them to reb'eat. The Legion was 
immediately formed in two lines, principally in a close, thick 
^ wood, which extended for miles on om- left, and for a very con- 
siderable distance in front, the grounds being covered with old 
fallen timber, probably occasioned by a tornado, which rendered 
it impracticable for the cavalry to act with effect, and afforded the 
enemy the most favorable covert for their modes of warfare. The 
j savage.s wei-e formed in thi-ee lines, within supporting distance 
j of each other, and extending for near two miles, at right angles 
I with the river. I soon discovered, from the weight of the fire 
and extent of their lines, that the enemy were in full force in 
front, in possession of their favorite ground, and endeavoring to 
tiu-n our left flank. I therefore gave orders for the second line 
ta advance and support the first, and directed Maj. Gen. Scott to 
gain and turn the right flank of the savages, with the whole of 
I the moimted volunteers, by a circuitous route; at the same time, - 
I ordered the front line to advance and charge with trailed arms, 
and rouse the Indians from their coveris at the point of the bayo- 
net, and, when up, to deliver a close and well-directed fire on their 
backs, followed by a brisk charge, so as not to give them time to 
load again. 

" I also ordered Capt. Mis Campbell, who commanded the le- 
gionary cavahy, to tvirn the left flank of the enemy next the river, 
and which afforded a favorable field for that corps to act in. ' All 
these orders were obeyed with spirit and promptitude: but such 
was the impetuosity of the charge by the first line of infantry, 
that the Indians and Canadian militia and volunteers were di'ove 
from all their coverts in so short a time, that, although every pos- 
sible exertion was used by the officers of the second line of the 
Legion, and by Gens. Scott, Todd and Barbee, of the mounted 
volunteers, to gain their proper positions, but part of each could 
get up in season to participate in the action, the enemy being 
drove, in the course of one hoiu\ more than two miles through 
the thick woods already mentioned, by less than one-half their 
numbers. From every account, the enemy amounted to 2,000 
combatants. The troops actually engaged against them were 
short of 900. This horde of savages, with their allies, abandoned 
themselves to flight, and dispersed with terror and dismay, leav- 
ing om- victorious army in full and quiet possession of the field 
of battle, which terminated imder the influence of the guns of the 
British gan'ison, as you will obseiwe by the inclosed con-espond 
ence between Maj. Campbell, the commandant, and myself, upon 
the occasion. 

" The bravery and conduct of every officer belonging to the 
army, from the Generals down to the Ensigns, merit my highest 
approbation. There were, however, some whose rank and situa- 
tion placed their conduct in a vei-y conspicuous point of view, and 
which I observed with pleasure and the most lively gi'atitude; 
among whom I must beg leave to mention Brig. Gen. Wilkinson 
and Col. Hamti-amck. the commandants of the right and left 
wings of the Legion, whose brave example inspired the troops. 


To those I must add the names of my faithful and gallant Aids- 
de-camp, Capts. De Butt and T. Lewis, and Lieut. Harrison, who, 
with the Adjutant General, Maj. Mills, rendered the most essen- 
tial service by communicating my orders in every direction, and 
by their conduct and bravery exciting the troops to press for vic- 
tory. Linut. Covington, upon whom the command of the cavalry 
now devolved, cut down two savages with his own hand, and 
Lieut. Webb one, in turning the enemy's left flank. The wounds 
received by Capts. Slough and Prior, and Lieut. Campbell Smith, 
an extra Aid-de-camp to Gen. AVilkinson, of the legionary in- 
fantry, and Capt. Van Rensselaer, of Lhe dragoons, Capt. 
Rawlins, Lieut. McKenney and Ensign Duncan, of the mounted 
volunteers, liear honorable testimony of their bravery and con- 

" Capts. H. Lewis and Brock, with their companies of light 
inf antr}', had to sustain an unequal fire for some time, which they 
supported with fortitude. In fact, every officer and soldier who 
had an opportunity to come into action displayed that true brav- 
ery which will always insiu'e And here permit me to 
declare that I never discovered more true spirit and anxiety for 
action than appeared to pervade the whole of the mounted volun- 
teers, and I am well persuaded that, had the enemy maintained 
their favorite ground for one-half hour longer, they would have 
most severely felt the prowess of -that corps. But, while I pay 
this trilrate to the living, I miTst not neglect the gallant dead, 
among hwom we have to lament the early death of those worthy 
and brave officers. Capt. Mis Campbell, of the dragoons, and 
Lieut, Towles. of the light infantry of the Legion, who fell in 
the first charge. 
» * * * *.* * * « 

" We remained three days and nights on the banks of the 
Maumee, in front of the field of battle, dm-ing which time all the 
houses and corn-fields were consumed and destroyed for a consid- 
erable distance, both above and below Fort Miami, as well as with- 
in pistol shot of the garrison, who were compelled to remain 
tacit spectators to this general destruction and conflagration, 
among which were the houses, stores and property of Col. 
McKee, the British Indian Agent, and principal stimvilator 
of the war now existing between the L^nited States and the 

"The armyretm'ned to this place (Fort Defiance) on th.' 27th, 
by sasy marches, laying waste the villages and corn-lields for fifty 
miles on each side of the Maumee. There remains yet a groat 
number of villages and a great quantity of corn to be consumed 
or destroyed, upon Auglaize and the Maumee above this place, 
which will he effected in the course of a few days. In the inter- 
im, we shall improve Fort Defiance, and, as soon as the escort re- 
turns with the necessary supplies from Greenville and Fort Recov- 
ery, the army will proceed to the Miami villages, in order to ac- 
complish the object of the campaign. It is, however, not improb- 
able that the enemy may make one desperate efibrt against the 
army, as it is said that a re-enforcement was hoiu-ly expected at 
Fort Miami fi-om Niagara, as well as numerous tribes of Indians 
living on the margin and islands of the lakes. This is a busi- 
ness rather to be wished for than dreaded, while the army re- 
mains in force. Their numbers will only tend to confuse the 
savages, and the victory will be the more complete and de- 
cisive, and which may eventually insure a permanent and happy 

The exact uumlier of Indians engaged in this action has of 
course never l)epn accm'ately ascertained, but, fi-om the best infor- 

mation at hand, there were about four- hundi-ed and fifty Dela- 
wares, one hundred and seventy-five Miamis, two hundred and 
seventy-five Shawanoes, two hundred and twenty-five Ottawas, 
two huhdi'ed and seventy-five Wyandots, and a small number of 
Senecas, Pottawatomies and Chippewas — in all, fi'om fifteen to 
eighteen hundred warriors, not including about one hundi'ed Cana- 
dians fi-om Detroit under command of Capt. Caldwell. The loss of 
the Indians can only be estimated by the number of dead left on the 
field, and upon that basis it would be safe to fix the number of killed 
at little less than eighty, and about two hundred wounded; for, 
when the battle was ended, and the Indians had withdrawn, forty of 
their dead remained on the field, in addition to the large number 
necessarily taken ofl" the field dm-ing the progress of the engage- 
ment, according to their universal usages, until their compulsory 
retirement, the wounded being more than double their death loss. 
According to the official report of Gen. Wayne in the War De- 
partment, his loss was twenty-six regulars and seven Kentucky 
volunteers killed, while of the wounded there were eighty-seven 
regulars and thirteen volunteers. Subsequently, nine regulars 
and two volunteers died from the effect of their wounds — at the 
date of the report, August 28, 179-t, 

Gen. Wayne, with his army, remained at Fort Defiance, 
whither he had marched after the battle of the 20th, until the 
14th of September, when, leaving that point, he moved up the 
Maumee in the direction of the English fort at the junction of 
the St. Joseph's and St. Mary's. Prior to this departure from 
Fort Defiance, and after his engagement at the foot of the rapids, 
being in the vicinity of Fort Miami, then under the command of 
Maj. Campbell, of the Twenty-fourth Regiment, in the service pf 
the King of Great Britain — fi-om some technical objection growing 
out of the apparent disposition on the part of Gen. Wayne to 
hold his position in the vicinity of the British fort, the command- 
ant challenged his right to remain there in hostile attitude. The 
result was a short but spicy correspondence between the two oflS 
cers, in which the Briton, while endeavoring to establish the right 
of his sovereign, to occupy that territory by right of anterior pos- 
session, admitted that his situation there was totally militaiy. 
However, Gen. Wayne, in the name of the President of the United 
States, desired and demanded that he " immediately desist from 
any fiu'ther act of hostility or aggi'ession by forbearing to fortify, 
and by withdrawing the troops, artillery and stores, imder your 
(his) orders and discretion, forthwith, and removing to the near- 
est post occupied by His Britannic Majesty's troops at the peace 
of 1783." This advice was subsequently taken by Maj. Campbell, 
and the fort Americanized. 

Departing, for the moment, from a narrative of succeeding 
events, the reader's attention is directed to some incidents pre- 
ceding, but intimately related to, the decisive engagement of the 
20th of August, 1794, at the rapids of the Maumee. 

Gen. Wayne, as has been already stated, had come to a halt 
about seven miles above the British fort (Miami), which stood on 
the northwestern bank of the Maumee, near where Maumee City 
now stands, on the 18th of August, and, on the following day, had 
erected a temporaiy garrison, designed especially for the recep- 
tion of stores, baggage; also, for the additional pm-pose of 
better reconnoitering the enemy's ground, lying "behind a 
thick, bushy wood," adjacent to the British fort., calling it Fort 

In anticipation of the presence and piu'pose of Gen, Wayne, in 
case of their failiu'e to accept his proposals and have peace, the 
Miamis were wavering and imdecided as to the policy of attack- 


ing him (in consequence, no doubt, of the recent determination of 
Capt. Wells, the warm friend and son-in-law of Little Turtle), to 
leave their nation and return to his own people. The circiun- 
stances surrounding this incident are of particular interest, and 
deserve to be recorded here. 

Wells, at the age of twelve years, had been captiu'ed in Ken- 
tucky by the Miamis; had lived to manhood and raised a family 
among them, having married the daughter of Little Tm'tle, the 
great war chief of that nation. About the time of the advance of 
Wayne's army, his mind began to be impressed with reminiscences 
of his childhood and youth, renewing those early memories, 
and picturing the scenes of parental anxiety at the period of his 
separation fi-om the home fireside, the hours of anguish suftered 
by those who gave him life, the vacant chair at the old kitchen 
table, his relation to some of those very people against whom he, 
with his adopted people, was about to raise the war-cry and hui'l 
the deadly tomahawk. With those ever-present memories persist- 
ently claiming dominion, he finally resolved to sever his connec- 
tion with the savage race, in their warlike enterprise, and hence- 
forth give his allegiance to the white people. " In this state of 
mind, with much of the Indian characteristics, inviting the war 
chief of the Miamis, Little Tiu'tle, to accompany him to a point 
on the Maumee about two miles east of Fort Wayne, at what was 
long known as the 'Big Elm,' whither they at once repaired, 
Wells told the chief his purpose. ' I now leave youi- nation,' said 
he, ' for my own people. We have long been friends. AVe are 
friends yet, imtil the sun reaches a certain height (which was 
named). From that time, we are enemies. Then, if you wish to 
kill me, you may. If I want to kill you, I may.' When the 
time indicated had come, Capt. Wells crossed the river and was 
soon lost to the view of his old friend and chieftain. Little Turtle. 
Moving in an easterly course, with a view to striking the trail of 
Wayne's forces, he was successful in obtaining an interview with 
the General, and ever thereafter proved the fast fi-iend of the 
Americans. The resolute movement of Wells was a severe blow 
upon the Miamis. To Little Tm-tle's mind it seemed to have 
been an unmistakable foreboding of siu'e and speedy defeat to 
the confederated tribes of the Northwest. ****** 
At a general council of the confederated tribes, held on the IDth 
of August, Little Tm-tle was most earnest in his endeavors to per- 
suade a peace with Gen. Wayne. Said he. ' We have beaten the 
enemy twice under different circumstances. We cannot expect 
the same good fortune to attend us always. The .Americans are 
now led by a chief that never sleeps. The nights and the days 
are alike to him, and, diu-ing all the time he has been marching 
on oiu' villages, notwithstanding the watchfiiluess of om' young 
men, we have never been able to siu-prise him. Think well of it. 
There is something whispers me it would be pnident to listen to 
his offers of peace.' But his words of wisdom were biit little re- 
garded. One of the chiefs of the council even went so far as to 
charge him with cowardice, which he readily enough spui-ned, 
for there were none braver nor more ready to act, where victoiy 
was to be won or a defense required, than Little Tm'tle. and so. 
without fiu'ther parley, the council broke up 'and Little Tm-tle,. 
at the head of his braves, took his stand to meet and give battle 
to the advancing army."* 

The sequel showed the wisdom and foresight of Little Tm-tle, 
and well had it been if the counsel of the sagacious chief had 
been heeded. But destiny willed otherwise, and the Miamis paid 
dearly for their temerity. 

*Hiat. Fori Wayne, pr. -17, JS. 


F () K T W A Y .V : 

'■ I ''HAT the junction of the St. Joseph's of the lakes with the 
-L St. Mary's, forming the Maumee, is a sti-ategic point of 
more than ordinaiy consequence, the experiences of the past two 
centm'ies sufiiciently demonstrates. The first knowledge of the 
locality obtained by Eiu'ojieans of which we have iufoi-mation 
embodies descriptions of its importance in a commercial as well 
as in a militai'y point of view. The statement is additionally es- 
tablished by the consequence attached to it by the aborigines 
themselves, ascertained through their traditions handed down from 
generation to generation in regular succession. But the object 
of this article is not so much to record the opinions entertained 
by its primitive inhabitants and their immediate followers as to 
show what the more modern conception of it has brought forth. 
The contemplated expedition of George Rogers Clark, in 1779; 
of La Balme, in 17S0; followed by those of Harmar and St. Clair 
in 1790 and 1791, foreshadow the operations of succeeding years, 
and determine the motives which induced Gen. Wayne to guard 
the point by the erection of substantial and permanent works for 
its defense by the military power of the Government. Accord- 
ingly, having defeated the combined Indian forces at the rapids 
of the Maumee, and almost under the guns of l,he British Fort 
Miami, an account of which has already been given, his army 
took up its line of march for the Miami villages at the junction 
of the St. Joseph's and St. Mary's, on the 14th of September, 
1794. aiTiving at the destined point on the 17th, and on the 18th 
selected the site for a fortification afterward known by his 

On the ■24th, work commenced on the garrison, and, consider- 
ing the state of the weather and the suiToundings, proceeded to- 
ward completion with proper rapidity, occupying the time until 
the 18th of October — just one month from the selection of the 

On the 17th of October, the day preceding the completion 
and dedication of the work. Gen. Wayne forwarded to the War 
Dejiai'tment a dispatch containing a description and plan of the 
new fort. It was constructed of logs, and not very safe, but 
deemed to be sufficiently so for the time and purpose contemplated 
in its erection, commanding the Maumee for half a mile below 
the junction, and the mouth of the St. Joseph's and of the St. 
Mai-y's. The following extracts fi-om the daily jom-nal of the 
campaign, giving a better idea of the proceedings and casualties 
than can be elsewhere ascertained, are inserted here as a jiart of 
the accoimt; 



riitly, and the- wind blew from 
ore. Gen. Bnrhour. with bis 
bi.s mornins, witli .553 keg.s of 

* * ' Foin .]( .rriri. hiiiii ilii' British camp came to us 

thi.sday; they brmt: ilir inh.i m ii i-.n {Ii:ii ih. Indians are encamped eight 
miles below the liiiii-li hn i.. ih- nuniiii r .,1 1.600. 

September 30, I,:i-i Tiijiiit ii i;ii 
the nortliwest harder than I knew 
command, arrived in camp about 9 c 
flour, each containing 100 pounds. 

September 23. Four de>i rtrr- t'l 
camp; they mentioned that iIm In. I 
nine miles below the Briti^li Idi 
opinion — some are for peace iiinl i.iIk i^ i,ir war, 

Septemlier 25. Lieut. Blue, of the dragoons, was this day arrested by 
Ensign Johnson, of the Fourth S. L., but a number of friends interfering, 
the dispute was settled upon Lieut. Blue asking Johnson's pardon. 



September 20. McClelland, one of oui 
came in tliis evening from Fort Dcfiiinee. 
the enemy are troublesome alioiit tin- li.-irrison. :ith! i1i;i 
some of our men under the w:ill> 'il ilir ImiI Sixi.-.n 
to-day near this place ; asmall \y.\y\\ wciii in [mi^uii ul 
heard what discoveries they have made. 

September 30. Salt and were ilraun hy il 
and a numlier of the soldiers became mini] iTil.iviia 
stolen a quantity of liquor from the Quail,)ni;i^ter. 

October 4. Tliis iiu.iiHiii; hi- Ija.l tli,' li;inU-sl fros: 
middle of DceemlM-r: it w.i^ likr -innll ^ii.iu . there was ice in our camp 
kettles three-fourths 111 ;j!i iiirli tliiik ; tin- t;iti!::ues go on with velocity 

vith a small party, 
gs information that 
lat they have killed 
1 Indians were seen 
t t hem. I have not 






frosts; the wind 
nd peace through- 

OrKilHili l'lrnl\ anil the same as yesterday ; the volun- 
ici 1- rii^a^. il in «Mrk .m iln- garrison, for which they are to receive three 
gill- III wlii-kx jiri I , raih day; their employment is di.gging the 

f)ctober 8. The troops drew but half rations of flour this day. The 
cavalry and other horses die very fast, not less than four or five per day. 

October 9, The volunteers have agreed to build a block-house in front 
of the garrison, 

October 11, A Canadian (Rozelie) with a flag arrived this evening ; 
his business was to deliver up three prisoners in e.xchange for his brother, 
who was taken on the 20th of August ; he brings information that the 
Indians are in council with Girty and McKee, near the fort of Detroit, 
and all the tribes are for peace except the Shavvanoes, who are determined 
to prosecute the war. 

October 16. Nothing new; weather wet, and cold wind from the 
northwest. The troops healthy in general, 

October IT, This day Capt. Gibson anivi'd with a quanlily of flour, 
beef and sheep. 

maiider-in-chief ; the cuiilent.- are kept -niel. A court martial !o sit this 
day for the trial of Charles Hyde. 

October 21, This day were read the proceedings of a court martial, 
held on Lieut, Charles Hyde (yesterday) was found not guilty of the 
charges exhibited against him, and that he was therefore acquitted. 

On the morning of the following day, October 22, 179-1-, the 
new fort having bean fiillyicompleted and ready for occupancy, 
passed the ordeal of a formal dedication to the God of War, with 
the usual ceremonies. Gen, Wayne then invested Lieut, Col. 
John F, Hamtramck with the command of the post, who, upon 
assuming the position, placed the following officers in command 
of sub-legion: Capt, Kingsbiu'y, fii'st: Capt. Greaton, second; 
Capts. Sparks and Reed, third; Capt. Preston, fourth; with Capt. 
Porter of the artillery. 

The garrison being thiis completely officered, a final salute of 
fifteen rounds of artillery was fired, and the stars and stripes 
were flung to the breeze, thereafter to float over the ramparts, in- 
dicative of the invincible character of the works, as manifested in 
the appropriate and significant name of Fort Wayne, 

"And here," says Mr, Brice, " was the stiu'ting-puiut of a new 
era in' civilization in the Great Northwest." 

The fort having been completed and officered, with a garrison 
ec^ual to the demands for defense, Gen. Wayne left the post on 
the 2Sth of October, and took up his line of march for Fort Green- 
ville, reaching that point on the 2d day of November, with the 
main body of his regular troops. Dtu'ing the succeeding two 
years, Col. Hamtramck continued in command of the new fort, 
watching the movements of the Indians, who were still numerous 
in the vicinity, reporting from time to time To his superior officers 
the condition of the garrison, as well as the disiiosition manifested 
by the leading spirits amn,,^; the Tndiims. wlietlicr for peace or 




Preliminary .St.vtkmknt— Lmi'Oiit.\N("e ok the Battlk in its 
Results— The Necessity of the Movement Aoainst the 
Wabash Indians— Preparations for the Exteditiox — For- 
mation OF the Army— Its Co.mposition and Ofkiceus— The 
Maroii—Encamp.ment — Movements of the Prophet Sus- 
picious—The Battle and its Details— Severity of the 
Action— Defeat of the Indians— The Lcsses, etc, 

n^HE battle of Tippecanoe is justly regarded as one of the most 
-*- important of the military conflicts between the pioneers of 
civilization and the numerous Indian tribes within the limits of 
the territory now occupied by the State of Indiana, Prior to the 
fitting out of the expedition which culminated in a collision with 
an armed force between the savage hordes of the Prophet on tlie 
one hand, and the Army of the Northwest, under the command of 
Gov. Harrison, on the other, the border settlements on the Ohio 
and Lower Waba,sh had been subjected to a series of continued 
depredations by murderous bands. For several years, the 
master sjjirit directing these movements against the white people 
was Pems-quat-a-wah, better known as the Shawanoe Prophet, 
who, claiming the po.ssassiou of supernatural power, exerted a 
strong influence among his followers, inducing them to acce])t and 
recognize his assumed superiority as real. This asstunption, how- 
ever, was effectually disposed of on the morning of November 7. 
1811, when, having in advance inspired the immediate followers 
of his delusion with the idea that, under his guidance, they were 
invincible: that, by the charms of his presence, the bullets of the 
white men could not harm them, and that they would pass on to 
triumph unscathed - -they saw their comrades falling around 
them, smote with the leaden messengers of death: the long spell 
was broken, and the enchanter was shorn of his power. From 
that time forward, the Prophet was an object of loathing to his for- 
mer adherents, and thus passed into unhallowed oblivion. Hence, 
because of this result, the battle of Tippecanoe isprojierly accepted 
as the most important and decisive of the war with the Wabash 
Indians, who for so long a time had been a terror to the white 

The military movements immediately preceding tlie action it- 
self may be briefly described as follows: The expedition having 
been determined upon. Gen. Harrison, on the 10th of September, 
1811, issued a general order assigning positions t<i officers 
and detachments, subordinate to the chief command, and ap- 
pointing Henry Hurst and Waller Taylor his Aids, with the rank 
of Major. By a subse(iuent order, dated September 21, the offi- 
cers of the subordinate commands were instinieted to familiarize 
their men with " the jierformance of the evolutions contemplated 
by the Commander-in-chief, for the order of march and battle." 
On the day following, the entire force was made to constitute one 
brigade, and was placed under the command of Col. John P. Boyd 
as Brigadier General. In the assignment of positions to subordi- 
nate officers, Capt. S])ier Spencer's company was directed to act 
as a detached corps of mounted volunteers, receiving orders from 
the Commander-in-chief, Thus formed, the army took up its line 
of march from Vincennes on the 2(5th of Se]>tember, It arrived, 
on the 5th of October, at a point on the Wabash some two miles 
above the present site of Terre Haute, known in that day as Bn- 
taillf des Illiiinin, fi-oin having been, as tradition had it. the scene 
of a terrible battle between some btiiids of the Inuiiinis and it 
party of the Illinois Indians. Here ,i f..rl m.cle.l by them 



as a means of affording more ample protection to tlie peojile. and 
to guard the approaches on the river. "SMiile the men were thus 
engaged, a speech was intercepted, coming from the Prophet to 
some of the Delaware chiefs supposed to be sufficiently suscepti- 
ble to his influence in executing his plan for a renewal of his war- 
fai'e against the whites. He was mistaken, however, in his esti- 
mate of the susceptibility of these chiefs, who were friendly to the 
whites, and the discovery served to put the army on the alert. 
The fort was completed on the 28th of October, and named Fort 
Harrison. Leaving a small garrison, the army took up its line 
of march for the Prophet's town, and crossed the Wabash near 
wiere the town of Montezuma now stands, on the last day of the 

At the time of leaving the fort, the ai'my consisted of about 
nine hundred men, made uji of two hundred and fifty regular 
troops under command of Col. Bo3'd, sixty Kentucky volunteers, 
and some six hundred territorial volimteers, including the com- 
panies made up at Corydon. Vincenues and other points along the- 
Wabash and Ohio — among these, Capt. Spencer's company of 
" Yellow Jackets," so called from the color of the uniform adopted 
by them. Those from Kentucky embraced some of her most gal- 
lant sons, among whom were Cols. Joseph H. Daviess, Abram 
Owens, Samuel Wells, and others little less distinguished for their 
eminent services in the defense of their country and their homes. 
Indiana Territory, too. was represented by citizen soldiers equally 
gifted in the cardinal virtues of the -day — native heroism. 

Stopping long enough at the mouth of Big Vermillion to build 
a small block-house for the protection of supply boats, the army 
resinned its march on the 3d of November, and, passing through 
the open country some distance fi-om the river, came iu view of 
the Prophet's town about "2 o'clock on the aftei-noon of November 
6, and halted about a mile and a half below to reconnoiter. Gov. 
Harrison, with a view to ascertain the ti-ue condition of things, 
sent Capt. Dubois, of the spies and guides, with an interpreter, to 
request a conference with the Prophet. The developments of the 
next half-houi' indicating, with sufficient definiteness, the hostile 
intentions of the savages, the Governor recalled the embassy, 
placed the army in the order of battle, and at once moved toward 
thj town, the interpreter in fi-ont. with orders to invite a confer- 
ence with the Indians, if such a disposition was manifested. 

After some delay, occasioned by informal conferences with the 
emissaries of the Prophet, which resulted in nothing deyond a 
show of friendship manifested so as to cover their contemplated 
treachery. Gov. HaiTison having dispatched two of his officers, 
Majs. Marston G. Clark and Waller Taylor, to make examination 
and select a suitable camping-groimd. they returned, reporting the 
selection of an eligible site upon a piece of diy oak land rising 
about ten feet above the level o£ the marehy prairie in fi'ont, fac- 
ing to the southeast, toward the Prophet's town, the rear nearly 
twice that elevation above a similar prairie, thi-ough which and 
near to its eastern border ran a small stream (Burnett's Creek) 
with willows on either side. This point was detennined upon, 
though not wholly satisfactory to the Governor, because of the 
facilities afforded for the approach of the Indians, the grounds 
on their southwestern exti'emity terminating in an abrupt point, 
while to the northward the area gradually widened and was cov- 
ered with underbrush. Notwithstanding this, it was detei-mined, 
as an offset to the disadvantage of the position, to have the army 
encamp in the order of battle, and instruct the men to^sleep with 
their clothes and accouterments on, with their fii-e-arms loaded 
and their bayonets fixed. As a fm-ther precaution, it was ordered 

that each corps foi-ming a part of the exterior lines of the encamp- 
ment, was directed, in case of attack, to hold its ground until re- 
lieved. Of course, the plan of encampment contemplated the prob- 
ability of a night attack. As a consequence, therefore, Gov. 
Han-ison made the distribution of subordinate branches of his 
command with direct reference to such a contingency. Accord- 
ingly, the fi-ont line, facing southeast, and the rear lines, alcmg 
Bm'nett's Creek, were occupied each by a column of infantry, sep- 
j arated on the left flank (north end) about two hundred and fifty 
yards, but on the right little more than half that distance. The 
right flank, occupying a position about one himdi-ed and fifty yards 
to the north of the point, was composed of Capt. Spencer's com- 
pany of mounted riflemen, niunbering eighty men; while the left 
flank (or north line), occupying a more exposed position, was filled 
up by two companies of mounted riflemen, numbering about one 
hundi-ed and twenty men, irnder the immediate command of Maj. 
Gen. Wells, of the Kentucky mjlitia. The fi-ont line occupied a 
position facing the wide prairie to the eastward, and was com- 
posed of Maj. Floyd's battalion of United States Infantry, flanked 
on the left by one company, and on the right by two companies. 
On the rear, facing Biu-nett's Creek, the line was composed of Maj . 
Baen's battalion of United States troops and four companies of 
militia infantry imder the command of Lieiit. Col. Decker, the 
regulars adjoining Gen. Wells' command on the left, and Col. 
Decker's battalion uniting and forming an obtuse angle with Capt. 
Spencer's company on the right flank. Two troops of dragoons, 
under the command of Maj. Joseph H. Daviess, numbering in the 
aggi'egate about sixty men, occupied a position in reai' of the left 
flank, while Capt. Park's troop of di'agoons, larger than the other 
two, was placed in rear of the front line. Should a night attack 
be made, as was anticipated, the dragoons were instiiieted to pa- 
rade dismounted, with pistols in their belts, as a reserve corps. 

About two hours before sum-iseonthe morning following (No- 
vember 7), the attack was commenced near the left angle of the 
real- line, at the n.irthwest comer of the camp occupied by Capt. 
Barton's company of the Fourth United States Infantry, and Capt. 
Guiger's company of mounted riflemen. The attack was sudden 
and impetuous, driving in the guard. These companies suffered 
gi'eatly fi'om the severity of the fii'e, before relief could be afford- 
ed them/ Soon after the attack had Ijeen made, and before per- 
fect order could be established, a few Indians made their way into 
the encampment near the point of attack. All except two of these 
were killed immediately, the latter making some headway before 
they were dispatched. Save these two companies, all others were 
imder arms and paiiially formed before receiving their first fii'e. 

Considering that nineteeu-twentieths of the troops engaged 
had never before been under fire, their behavior in the trying 
ordeal was worthy the reputation of veterans; taking the positions 
assigned them without noise and with little confusion, they re- 
ceived the charge of the Indians and retui'ned their fire without 
disorder, notwithstanding the fierceness jf the attack. The com- 
panies of Capts. Barton and Guiger having suffered severely in 
the fii'st onset, the commands of Capts. Cook and Wentworth were 
ordered to their support from the center of the rear line. A 
heavy fire having been opened on the left of the front line, Maj. 
Daviess, of the dragoons, seeing the emergency, formed his com- 
mand in the rear of the companies of Capts. Baen, Suelling and 
Prescott, of the Foiu-th United States Regiment, occupying that 
position. It having been ascertained that the heaviest part of the 
fire proceeded from Indians concealed behind a clump of trees a few 
paces in front. Maj. Daviess was ordered to dislodge them. Un- 



del-estimating the strength of the position, the attacking force was, 
as a consequence, inadequate to the task, the enemy avoiding him 
in front and attacking his flank. In executing this movement, the 
Major was mortally wounded and his party driven back. The In- 
dians, however, were immediately dislodged by Capt. Snelling's 
company. Within a few moments after the commencement of the 
attack, the th-e of the Indians extended along the left flank, the 
whole of the front, the right flank, and part of the rear line. The 
fire was especially severe along the right flank (south end of the 
ground), occupied by Capt Spenoer"s company of mounted rifle- 
men and Capt WaiTick's command. Eai'ly in the fight, Capt. 
Spencer and his First and Second Lieutenants were killed, and 
the command devolved upon Ensign Tipton, who, after gallantly 
maintaining his ground for some time under a galling fire, was 
re-enforced by Capt. Robb's company of riflemen. About the same 
time, Capt. Wan-ick also fell, mortally wounded, and died soon 

On the approach of daylight, when the situation could be bet- 
ter ascertained, the companies of Capts. Snelling, Posey and Scott 
were withdrawn fi'om the front line, with Capt. Wilson's from the 
rear line, and placed in support of the left flank. At the same 
time, the company of Capt. Cook, from the rear line, and of Capt. 
Baen, from the front line, were ordered to re-enforce the right 
flank, on the supposition that at this latter point the enemy would 
make their last effort. From this position the Indians were 
driven by the infanti-y, at the point of the bayonet, and the di'a- 
goons, pm'suing, forced them into the marsh, where they could not 
be followed. In the meantime, the companies of Capt. Cook and 
Lieut. Lan-abee had foi-med in line with the right flank, and, 
with the aid of the riflemen, had charged the Indians in that 
quai-ter, killing a large number and putting the rest to precipitate 
flight, thus ending the feai-fnl contest. Gov. Han-ison and his army 
retaining possession of the field. 

The loss sustained in this action by Gov. Hai-rison was 37 
killed on the field, and 151 wounded; of the latter, 25 subse- 
qiiently died, making the total death loss 62. The loss was great- 
est among the officers, of whom Cols. Joseph H. Daviess, Abraham 
Owens and Isaac White; Capts. W. C. Baen, Jacob Warrick and 
Spier Spencer: Lieuts. Richard McMahon and Thomas Berry, 
were among those killed or mortally woimded in the battle. 
Among the wounded were Lieut. Cols. Joseph Bartholomew and 
Luke Decker, Dr. Edwai'd Scull, Adjt. James Himter, Lieuts. 
George P. Peters and George Gooding, Ensign Henry Burch- 
stead, Capts. John Non-is and Frederick. Guiger. The number 
of Indians engaged has never been accurately ascertained; esti- 
mates making it from three hundred and fifty to one thousand 
fighting men have been presented. The latter number ])robably 
is the more nearly correct, judging fi'om the dissatisfied elements 
of the various tribes known to be in alliance with the Prophet 
during the season of his prosperity. These elements consisted of 
representatives from the Shawauoes, Wyandots (or Hm'ons), Kick- 
apoos, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawatomios, Winnebagoes, Sacs, 
and a few Miarais. The loss among the Prophet's forces was no 
doubt even gi'eater than the whites, in view of the well-known 
custom of the Indians to conceal their loss as much as possible by 
removing out of sight their woimdod and slain, with the fiu-ther 
formidable iU'gument that they left thirty-eight dead warriors on 
the field. The sm-vivors left, each returning to his former tribal 
relation, leaving the Prophrt'a town deserted. The town, with 
large quantitios of corn, was entirely destroyed on the following 

A cotemporaneous writer, speaking of the battle and its re- 
sults, says : " The decisive blow which Harrison had struck against 
the Indian power had produced a more powerful efl'ect than all 
the admonitory efforts of years had accomplished. Several of the 
tribes sent deputies to wait upon him, with assiu'ances of renewed 
amity, and a disavowel of fmther connection with the hostile 
bands of Tecumseh. In Februaiy, 1812, intelligence was received 
that no less than eighty Irdian deputies from all the ti-ibes who 
were engaged in the late hostilities, except the Shawanoes, had 
arrived at Fort Han'ison, on their way to Vincennes. Siispicion 
being again natm-ally ai-oused, fi'om their numbers, that a new 
treachery was designed, the Governor sent an expostulation, re- 
quiring them to come in less numbers, and unarmed; they, how- 
ever, not only delivered up their aims, but evinced the subdued 
deportment of men who had been taught to respect the authority 
of him with whom they had come to treat." 

President Madison, in his message of December 18, 1811, 
says; "While it is to be lamented that so many valuable lives 
have been lost in the action which took place on the 7th iilt.. 
Congress will see, with satisfaction, the dauntless spirit and for- 
titude victoriously displayed by every description of troops en- 
gaged, as well as the collected firmness which distinguished their 
commander on an occasion requiring the utmost exertion of valor 
and discipline." The Legislature of Kentucky resolved " That, 
in the late campaign against the Indians on the Wabash, Gov. 
Harrison has, in the opinion of this Legislature, behaved like a 
hero, a patriot and a General ; and that for his cool, deliberate, 
skillful and gallant conduct in the late liattle of Tippecanoe, 
he deserves the wannest thanks of the nation." 


War Dkcl.\ked .\ Great Briti.\n— Indian Alliance 
with the i.attelt and conseijuent hostilities— murder.s 
—Attack on Fokt Harrison— Council at Mi.ssissinewa— 
Pigeon Roost Massacre— Destruction ok Indian Villages 
—Siege of Fort Wayne and Tecu.mseh's foNNECTioN with 
It— Termination of the Siege— Results of These Cam- 

TECUMSEH and his brother, the Prophet, having obtained 
the right to locate their principal town on the Tippecanoe 
River, near its entrance into the Waliash, began, about the year 
1808, to exert among the neighboring tribes an influence, the ulti- 
mate purpose of which was to make war upon the fi'ontier settle- 
ments and prevent the fui-ther advance of emigration into the ter- 
ritory by white people, claiming that such territory, of right, was 
the property of the red people, entitled \a be occupied by the vari- 
ous Indian ti-ibes in common. The Prophet's town, as it was 
called, became, in conseiinence, the headquarter .of all tJie dis- 
affected spirits from the several tribes of the Northwest, who could 
be induced to accept the policy of the proposed confederation. 
Tecumseh, in the spring of 1809, animated with a desire to de- 
velop, for the consideration of the adjacent trilips, his cherished 
piu-pose, attended a council of tribes at Sandusky, and attempted 
there to extort a promise from the Wyandots and Senecas to join 
his embryo settlement on the Tippecanoe. The plan was not re- 
ceived with favor, and some of the old Wyandot chiefs emphat- 
i cally manifested their disapprobation of his jwlicy and motives. 
His ill success in this quarti'r, however, did not discourage him. 


but rather tended to induce greater activity and vigilance on his 
part. In other fields he was more successful, and, in proportion 
as new accessions of adherents gave promise of ultimate success 
he became more bold and aggressive in his movements, demand- 
ing what his diplomac}' failed to accomplish. Subsequent con- 
ferences with Gov. Harrison at Vincennes and elsewhere were ex- 
amples in point 

Not aeoomplishing all he desired in his intercourse with ad- 
jacent tribes, ho visited tribes inhabiting more remote districts, 
seeking thus to gam their confidence and co-operation, his per- 
suasive eloquence and consequential demeanor bringing to bear 
every plausible feature of his plans for centralizing the power of 
the Indian families in the Northwest. Meanwhile, the Prophet, 
arrogating to himself the management of plans he was incompe- 
tent to execute, in tlie absence of Tecumseh. precipitated an en- 
gagement with the army of Gov. Harrison at Tippecanoe, on the 
7th of November. 1811, the result of which was disastrous, not 
only to his prophetic ambition, but to the unmatured plans of his 
brother as well. Tecumseh, upon his return, in view of the situa- 
tion, while condemning the movements of the Prophet, was less 
hopeful and aggressive, yet still determined in the advocacy and 
maintenance of his opinions. Thus circumstanced, he sought an 
alliance with the British Army, as a means, in part at least, of 
compensating for his loss of prestige among the masses of his 
former adherents. 

The seed sown by him, as the sequel shows, was not wholly 
unproductive, and the influence of his example, with the remem- 
brance of his exploits in the council and in the field, gave to the 
savage ambition of numerous warriors of circumjacent tribes an 
impulse to the execution of deeds of the most extreme cruelty 
upon the slightest pretexts. In the month of Januiu-y, 181:2, Lit- 
tle Turtle, a distinguished chief arid warrior of the Miami nation, 
living at his village near Fort Wayne, having been a close and 
intelligent observer of the movements incident to the alliance of 
the Indians with the British, sent a message to Gov. Harrison 
detailing some of the indications of an approaching war with 
Great Britain, and the probabilities of an Indian alliance, ex- 
pressing, also, the strongest attachment of the peojile of his na- 
tion generally for the Government of the United States. The 
Delawares, too, gave expressions of friendship; "but it became 
clearly evident, early in the year 1812, that the Pottawatomies, 
Kickapoos, Wirmebagoes, and some other of the Northwestern 
tribes, were not disposed to remain at peace with the pioneer set- 
tlers of the West. On tho 6th of April, two white men were 
killed by Indians at' a cabin that stood almost in view of a small 
military post at Chicago. On the 11th of April, at a settlement 
on the westei'n side of the Wabash, about thirty miles above Vin- 
cennes, filr. Hutson, his wife, four of his children, and a man em- 
ployed in his service, were killed by Indians; and on the 22d of 
April, Ml-. Hartman, his wife and five ohildi-en were killed by 
a party of Indians near the mouth of Embarrass Creek, at a jjoint 
about five miles distant fi-om Vincennes."* 

The effect of such proceedings was to alarm the frontier set- 
tlers and cause them to prepare for the piuiishment of the dep- 
redators, first protecting the settlements from the assaults of 
marauding parties of Indians who were known to infest the ter- 
ritory. With a view to making these preparations effective, Gov. 
Harrison, on the 16th of April, 1812, directed the officers of the 
Territorial militia to put their forces " in the best possible state 
for active service," suggesting, also, the expediency of erecting 

' Dillon'6 Hiet. ^f Indiana, p. 481. 

block-houses, or picketed forts, on the frontiers of Knox County, 
on the two branches of the White River, eastward of Vincennes, 
and in the county of Harrison. The propriety of erecting similar 
posts of defense on the frontiers of Clark, Jefi'erson, Dearborn, 
Franklin and Wayne Counties was to be determined by the dispo- 
sition of the Delaware Indians." Inasmuch as the Delawares had 
performed, with punctuality and good faith, all their obligations 
with the United States, the exercise of forbearance toward them 
was recommended, no reason for doubting their fidelity having 
been manifested. In the general orders above referred to, the 
following instructions were contained: " When mischief is done 
by the Indians in any of the settlements, they must be piursued; 
and the officer nearest to the spot (if the number of men under his 
command is not inferior to the supposed number of the enemy), is 
to commence it as suon as he can collect his men. If his force 
should be too small, he is to send for aid to the next officer to him, 
and in the meantime, take a position capable of being defended, 
or watch the motions of the enemy, as circiunstances may require. 
The pm'suit muso be conducted with vigor: and the officer com- 
manding will be held responsible for making every exertion in 
his power to overtake the enemy." 

About the middle of May following, a great Indian council 
was held at the village on the Mississinewa River, at which the 
Wyandots, Chippewas, Ottawas, Pottawatomies, Delawares, Mi- 
amis, Eel Rivers, Weas, Piaukeshaws, Wilmebagoes, Shawanoes 
and Kickapoos were represented. Li this council, the general 
situation was discussed, and a free interchange of opinion and 
purpose was indulged in. The current of expression was in favor 
of peace, Tecmnseh and a few others in his interest being the only 
dissenters. To the adverse opinions entertained and expressed 
by this few, the Delawai'es replied thus tartly: " We have not met 
at this place to listen to silly words. The red people have been 
killing the whites. The just resentment of the latter is raised 
against the former. Owe white brothers are on their feet — their 
guns in their hands. There is no time to tell each other, you 
have done this, and you have done that. If there was, we could 
tell the Prophet that both red and white people have felt the bad 
efi'ects of his council. Let us all join our hearts and hands to- 
gether, and proclaim peace throughout the land of the red people, 
and rely on the justice of our white brethi-en." The reply of the 
Miamis was equally direct and to the point. They said: "We 
feel that we all appear to be inclined for peace— that we all see 
that it would be oiu- immediate ruin to go to war with the white 
people. We, the Miamis, have not hm-t our white brethi-en since 
the treaty of Greenville. We would be glad if all the other na- 
tions present could say the same. We will cheerfully join our 
brethren for peace; but we will not join you for war against the 
white people. We hope our brothers, the Pottawatomies, Kicka- 
poos and Winnebagoes, will keep their warriors in good order, 
and learn them to jiay more respect to their women and childi-en 
than they have done by going and mm'dering the innocent white 
people." The Kickapoos, also, were especially emphatic in their 
response, saying : " We have not two faces, and we despise those 
who have. The peace we have made with Gov. Han'ison we will 
strictly adhere to, and trouble no person, and hope none will 
trouble us." 

Teciunseh was not satisfied with the tone of this conference. 
The representatives of the Pottawatomies, Winnebagoes and 
Kickapoos, though the last were teiTibly emphatic, did not reflect 
the real sentiments entertained by their tribes toward the white 
people. Immediately, the consequences of this disaffection, among 



these latter tribes especially, began to manifest themselves in the 
movements of these malcontents. Fi-om the time of Tecumseh's 
deiiarturo from Fort Wayne, a few days after the council referred 
to, he had been restless and vindictive, exerting himself with great 
activity in inciting the Indians to acts of hostility toward the 
white people; and, when war was declared by the United States 
against Great Britain, he allied himself to the cause of the, latter, 
taking an active part with them. 

Upon the formal declai'ation of wai-. Gen. Hull, in command 
of the Noi-thwestern Army, conceived the idea of invading Canada, 
as a means calculated to give him an advantage in maintaining 
his defense of the frontier. With that idea in view, he stationed 
his army in British territory and issued a proclamation, declar- 
ing to the Canadian peojile that " he came to tind enemies, not to 
make them — to protect, not to injm-e them." 

It was the duty of Gen. Hull, as the commander of the army, 
to notify the garrisons in his jru'isdiction that war had been de- 
clared by the United States against Great Britain, but some 
question has arisen whether he acted from the spirit of his in- 
structions or from some other motive. However that may be, the 
notice issued by him, bearing date July 5, from some unexplained 
cause, did not reach many of the points entitled to be informed 
of the facts communicated by it. Because of this f ailui-e, the oc- 
cupants of those garrisons were not prepared for defensive oper- 
ations, especially since the British and Indians, in conjunction, 
were ready to take advantage of the situation. An immediate 
consequence of this failm-e, therefore, was the surrendi-r of the 
post at Mackinac, on the 17th of July, to a largely superior force, 
less than one week after the issue of the General's proclamation 
to the people of Canada, nearly two weeks having elapsed after 
notice should have been received, in due course, at the garrison. 
The posts at Detroit, Michilimackinack, Fort Wayne and Chicago 
had been notified, and the commanding oificers at these points 
were ordered to place their gan'isons " in the best possible state 
of defense," without delay, and to make a retiu-n to Brig. Maj. 
Jessup, at Detroit, " of the quantity of provisions the contractors 
had on hand at their respective posts; the number of officers and 
men, ordnance and military stores of every kind, and the public 
property of all kinds" — yet the commandant at Fort Dearborn had 
not been thus notified until the last of July — nearly a month after 
the infonnation should have been received. About the same time, 
feeling that he had been less vigilant than duty demanded, he 
sent a messenger to Fort Wayne, with instructions to the officer 
in command to send immediate notice to the gai'rison at Chicago. 
The same messenger also brought a request fi-om Gen. Hull to 
Maj. Stickney, Indian Agent at Fort Wayne, to see that all the 
information and assistance at his disposal be forwarded to Capt. 
Heald, then smTounded by a lai'ge body of IndianSx.operating un- 
der the instnictions of Teciunseh. Accordingly, Maj. Stickney, 
with as much dispatch as possible, sent Capt. Wells, his sub- 
agent, a brother-in-law of Little Tm-tle, and thoroughly versed in 
Indian strategy from a lifelong intercourse with them, with a 
small force, to aid the beleaguei'ed gan-ison. In the meantime, 
however, Capt. Heald received orders fi-om Gon. Hull to evacuate 
th<> post at Chicago and move to Detroit. Tlu'ee days later, Capt. 
Wells, with thirty jiicked and ti'usty warriors, fully equipped, ar- 
riv<>d at Fort Dearborn (Chicago), when ho was informed by Cai)t. 
Hi'alil 111' the condition of affairs, and that, after receiving the or- 
der of (reu. Hull, he had a conference with the Indians of the 
neighl)orliood,-and agin^ed upon terms of evacuation. These terms, 
among other things, embraced an agreement " to deliver up to the 

Indians the fort, with all its contents, except some ammunition 
and provisions • necessary for their march," in consideration for 
which he was to be permitted to pass unmolested. Capt. Wells 
thought such an arrangement ill-advised, for the reason that the 
ammvmition and whisky especially were dangerous elements to 
place at the disposal of a horde of treacherous savages, who, 
when under the influence of the whisky, which they were sm-e to 
become, would not for a moment regard the terms of the agree- 
ment entered into. The truth of this opinion soon became mani- 
fest, when the Indians, being made acquainted with the fact of 
the presence of fire-water among the articles obtainable, by a 
ready disregard of their agreement, determined at once to attack 
the garrison. Capt. Wells, being cognizant of their movements, 
took in the situation at a glance. He was not mistaken, for in- 
fonnation had even then been commimicated to Mi-s. Kinzie of the 
proceedings and intentions of the Pottawatomies engaged as an 
escort for them. 

The troops lander command of Capt. Heald consisted of tifty- 
fom- regulars and twelve militia. These, on the morning of the 
15th of August, marched out from the fort to the tune of the dead 
march, as if some invisible force had impelled them to chant their 
own funeral dirge. Capt. Wells, too, as if conscious of his im- 
pending fate, marched in front, at the head of his little band of 
faithful warriors, with his face blacked. 

After passing outside the walls of the fort,, the garrison, with 
Capt. Wells' band and the escort of Pottawatomies, took up the 
line of march along the margin of the lake, in the direction of 
Fort Wayne. AVhen the sand-hills separating the prairie and 
lake had been reached, the escort, consisting of some five himdi-ed 
Pottawatomies, instead of pursuing the regular route, kept along 
the plain to the right of the sand ridge, and had thus marched 
something more than a mile and a half, when Capt. Wells, hav- 
ing in the meantime watched these movements closely, and satis- 
fied himself as to their pmijose, and that an attack was contem- 
plated, he conmnmieated the result of his observations to the men, 
and directed a chai'ge upon the assailants. At that moment, a 
volley was fii-ed fi-om behind the sand-hills. The troops were then 
hastily formed into line and charged rapidly up the bank. A 
veteran of some seventy yeai's was the fii-st to fall. Cajjt. Wells 
fell soon after, pierced with many bullets, and, in the words of 
one of the party, IVIis. Kinzie, " Pee-so- turn * * * held dan- 
gling in his hands a scalp? which, by black ribbon around the 
queue, I recognized as that of Capt. Wells." Their leader being 
killed, the Miamis fled; one of their chiefs, however, before leav- 
ing the scene of l)lood, riding u]i to the Pottawatomies. exclaimed, 
with emphasis: "You have dci'"! veil tlii'.\mericans and us! You 
have done a bad action, and." Iiriindisluiij; his tomahawk, " I will 
be the first to head a pai'ty "f Amciiciii^ to return and punish 
yom- treachery." Having thus spoken, he galloped away over the 
prairie in pursuit of his companions, who wer<' rai)idly making 
their way back toward Fort Wayne. 

After a desperate conflict, the troops were compelled to siu'- 
render, only to be subjected to the bai-bai-ous inflictions of the tom- 
ahawk and scalping-knife at the hands of the doubly treacherous 
savages. The result of this massacre was twenty-six regulai-s 
killed, with all the militia, two women and twelve chikb-en 
Twenty-eight only were taken prisoners. One of the incidents 
connected with this affair, related by Maj. Sticlmey, is chiu-acter- 
istic of Indian warfare: "As the chai-actor of Capt. Wells was 
unequaled for bravery, after his death his head was severed from 
his body and the Indians took out his heart, cooked it, and diviil 



ed it amoug themselves in very small pieces. They religioxisly 
believed that each oue who "ate of it would thereby become as 
brave as he from whom it was taken." 

Thus far, the plans to Tecumseh had been successful, the re- 
sult of the cowardly and treacherous attack upon and the butch- 
ery of prisoners under escort being in full accord with his desire 
for revenge for his own ill success in his efforts to form an Indian 
confederacy. While the massacre of the Fort Dearborn garrison 
exhibited the character of his offensive movements, it was only 
part of the plan. The sequel proved that the siege of Fort 
Wayne was designed to be a second act in the terrible drama. 
Thi-ough the agency of the British, with whom he had connected 
himself as a means of more advantageovisly executing his piu'- 
jjoses, he secured the co-operation of the Pottawatomies, Ottawas, 
and a portion of the Mianiis engaged in the massacre just cited, 
all allies of the British, to aid in the important enterprise. A 
council was held and plans fully matm-ed for attacking, simulta- 
neously, the gan-isons at Fort Wayne and Fort Hai-rison, aid being 
promised by the British agents. The details of this plan are 
thus given: The Indians were to besiege these forts, and pre- 
vent their evacuation by the garrisons occupying them. The siege 
having continued for about the space of one moon, they were to 
be joined by a large force ft-om Maiden and Detroit, witli artil- 
leiy enough to demolish the works, when the way would be fully 
open for an indiscriminate slaughter of the garrison at the hands 
of those accomplishe;! operators with the tomahawk and scalpiug- 
knife, who, a short time previously, had distinguished themselves 
on the sand-banks in the vicinity of Chicago. 

This was in the month of Aiigust, 1812, and but a few days 
remained before the plan was to be cai-ried into execution for the 
demolition of Fort AVayne. Notwithstanding the extreme caution 
that characterized the movement, there were members of the con- 
federated tribes not fully in accord with it, which fact in time 
became manifest. "At this time, there was an Indian trader re- 
siding near Fort Wayne, of French extraction, by the name of 
Antoine Bondie. He was about fifty years of age, and had lived 
among the Indians ft-om the time he was twelve years old. He 
was an extraordinary chai-acter. At one time, he would appear 
to be brave and generous; at another, meanly selfish. He was 
recognized by the Miamis as one of their tribe, maii'ied one of 
their squaws, and confoi-med to their habits and mode of life. 
The hostile Pottawatomies, desirous of saving him ft-om the de- 
struction contemplated for the garrison, sent Metea, chief of their 
tribe, to inform him of their intentions and his danger. Metea 
went to his cabin in the night, and, under an injunction of gi-eat 
secrecy, infoi-med him of all that had transpired relative to the 
contemplated siege of the two forts. He offered to come for 
Bondie and his family before the siege was commenced, with a 
sufficient nmnber of pack-horses to remove them and their mova- 
ble property to a [ilace of safety. Bondie did not decline the 
offer. " 

On the following morning, Bondie, with Charles Peltier, a 
French interpreter, visited the Agent, Maj. Stickney, at an early 
hour, and quietly disclosed the whole plot, enjoining the Agent to 
the strictest secrecy as to his informauts. In doubt whether the 
import of these disclosures was what it appeared to be, he was at 
a loss to know how best to apply the information most advantage- 
ously. Some doubt had been expressed touching the veracity of 
his informants by the commanding officer at the fort, Capt. Rhea, 
whose habits of intoxication were such as to disqualify' him as a 
safe adviser. Und<'r the circumstances, having dulv considered 

the situation, he acted upon his own judgment in the pi-emises. 
and at once dispatched messengers to Gov. Hai-i-ison, informing 
him of the contemplated siege. Active preparations for defense 
were at once commenced, and not a moment too soon, for scarcely 
had the messengers left when the Indians had di-awn their guard- 
lines around the fort to cut oft' all means of comrauuieatiou. In- 
formation having been received by Gov. Hai-rison concerning the 
perilous condition of the garrison, besieged by a large body of 
hostile Indians, prepared as rapidly as possible to send forward 
the necessary re-enforcements for its relief. 

On the Oth of September, the army under connnand of Gov. 
Han-isou moved forward for the relief of the besieged garrison, 
reaching, on the 7th, a point within thi-ee miles of the St. Mary's 
Kiver, making the remaining distance to the river on the 8th. Here, 
in the evening, they were joined by '200 moimted volunteers under 
Col. Richard M. Johnson, of Kentucky. Reaching " Shane's 
Crossing " of the St. Mary's on the following day, after a march 
of eighteen miles, the army was ftu-ther re-enforced by the arrival 
of 800 men ft-om Ohio, commanded by Cols. Adams and Hawkins. 
At this time, Capt. Logan, a Shawanoe chief, and fom- other trusty 
Indians, volunteered their services to Gov. Han-ison as spies. 
Their ofi'er was accepted, and Logan, disguised, was sent for- 
ward. Passing through the lines of the hostile Indians, their 
niunber was ascertained to be about fifteen himdred. He subse- 
quently entered the fort and encouraged the gan-ison to hold out, 
as relief was at hand. To oppose the force of the besiegers, Gov. 
Hai-rison had at that time about three thousand five hundred men. 
On the morning of the 12th of September, the army reached the 
vicinity of the fort. As it approached, " great clouds of dust could 
be seen from the fort, rolling up in the distance, as the valiant 
soldiery of Gen. Han-ison moved forward to the rescue of the 
gan-ison, and soon after daybreak the army stood before the fort. 
The Indians had beat a retreat to the eastward and northward, 
and the air about the old fort resounded with the glad shouts of 
welcome to Gen. Harrison and the brave bo}'s of Ohio and Ken- 
tucky," who thus opportimely had come to the rescue of the be- 
sieged. The garrison lost, during the siege, Init three men. while 
the Indians lost twenty-five. 

" The second day following the an-ival of the anny at Fort 
Wayne, Gen. Harrison sent out two detachments, with the view 
of destroying the Indian villages in the region of country lying 
some miles ai-ound Fort Wayne, the First Division being com- 
posed of the regiments under Cols. Lewis and Allen, and Capt. 
Garrai-d's troop of horse, under Gen. Payne, accompanied by Gen. 
Han-ison. The Second Division, imder Col. Wells, accompanied 
by a battalion of his own regiment imder Maj. Davenport (Sfotfs 
regiment), the mounted battalion under Johnson, and the ninuiiti-d 
Ohio men under Adams. These expeditions were all successful: 
and, after the retra-n of the divisions under Payne and Wells, Geu. 
Han-ison sent them to destroy Little Tm-tle Town, some twenty 
miles northwest of the fort, with orders not to molest the build- 
ings foi-merly erected by the United States for the benefit of Little 
Turtle, whose ft-iendship for the Americans had ever been firm 
after the treaty of Greenville. Col. Simrall most faithfully per- 
formed the task assigned him. and, on the evening of the I'.ltb. 
retm-ned to the fort." 

On the 4th of September, almost simultaneously with the com- 
mencement of the siege of Fort AVayne, the Indians, about 1 1 
o'clock at night, and in considerable numbers, composed of Win- 
nebagoes, Kickapoos. Shawanoes, Pottawatomies and a few Mia- 
mis, coromenced an attack on Fort Harrison, by setting lu-e to one 



of the block-houses attached to it, the movement being a part of 
Tecumseh's scheme for seeking revenge for anticipated hopes not 
realized. " Capt. (afterwai'd General) Zachary Taylor, and a 
small number of the men under his command, bravely resisted 
the attack, which continued without intermission until about G 
o'clock on the morning of the 5th of September, when the Indians 
abandoned the assault and retired beyond the reach of the guns 
of the fort." 


The " Pigeon Roost Settlement," so called, was situated in what 
is now a jiart of Scott County, in this State, and was founded 
about the year If^DO. and was contined to about one square mile 
of land, and was separated from all other settlements some five 
or six miles. On the afternoon of September 3, 1812, two men, 

named Jeremiah Payne and Ooffman, who had been hunting 

bees, were overtaken and killed by a party of Indians, Shawanoes, 
about twelve in niunber. In the evening of the same day, they 
attacked the settlement, and, in the space of little more than an 
horn-, killed one man, five women and sixteen children. Having 
completed this terrible tragedy, they set fire to the buildings, 
which were consumed with the bodies of their slaughtered victims. 
The names of the persons thus massacred were Henry Collings 
and his wife: Mrs. Payne, wife of Jeremiah Payne, and eight of 
her children; Mrs. Kichard Collings and seven of her children; 
Mrs. John Morris and her only child; and Mi's. Morris, the 
mother of John Morris. During the confusion incident to the 
commission of those acts of barbarism, Mrs. Jane Biggs, with her 
three small children, eluding the vigilance of the Indians, escaped 
from the settlement, and, about an hour before daylight on the 
following morning, arrived at the house of her brother, Zebulon 
Collings, who lived some six miles from the scene of blood. Will- 
iam Collings, beyond the age of threescore years, with the assis- 
tance of Capt. John >f orris, defended his house, for the space of 
three-qnai'ters of an hour, against the attack of those Indians. 
In the house there were also two children, John and Lydia Col- 
lings. As it began to grow dark, Mrs. Collings and Capt. Norris, 
with the two children, managed to escape unobserved, and, on the 
morning of the next day, reached the house of Zebulon Collings. 
where, also. Mi's. Biggs and her children had taken refuge. The 
militia of Clark County set out in immediate pursuit, and, proceed- 
ing to the scene of the massacre, they found several of the man- 
gled bodies of the dead, surrounded by the smoking ruins of the 
cabins, whioli were lirought together and buried in one common 

About one hundred and fifty mounted riflemen, under the com- 
mand of Maj. John McCoy, on the afternoon of the 4th of Sep- 
tember, the day following the massacre, followed the trail of the 
Indians some twenty miles, when, darkness overtaking them, they 
were compelled to return. However, a small scouting party, un- 
der command of Capt. Devault, discovered aud attacked the re- 
treating Indians, who, after killing one of the attacking party, 
continued their flight through the woods, finally eluding pursuit. 
Further attempts were made to punish the Indians ougjiged in the 
of these murders, but the attempts were abortive. 



Gen. Hopkins Organizes a New Military Force to Operate 
IN THE Indian Country— Movement of the Army from 
Vincennes to Fort Harrison — Marches from the I.,attei; . 
Point Toward the Prophet's Town— Burns a Kickapoo 
Village— Keconnoitering Party into an Ambus- 
cade-Details OF the Affair. 
TT7 HEN the mounte 1 volunteers, whose mutinous conduct has 
' ' been noticed in a preceding chapter, had been discharged, 
Gen. Hopkins began immediately to organize a new militai-y force, 
composed mainly of infantry, to penetrate further into the Indian 
country, at least as far as the Prophet's town on the Tippecanoe, 
and for the additional pui-pose of bui-ning that and other Indian 
villages in the vicinity, which had been rebuilt since the destruct- 
ive expedition under Gen. Charles Scott, in May, 1791. The 
troops engaged in this e.xpedition under the command of Gen. 
Hopkins consisted of three regiments of Kentucky militia, com- 
manded by Cols. Barbom-, Miller and Wilcox; a small company 
of regulars commanded by Capt. Zachary Taylor; a company of 
rangers under command of Capt. Beokes; and a company of 
scouts, or spies, commanded by Capt. Washburn. The organiza- 
tion of this force was consummated at Vincennes, fi-om which 
point it moved forward at an early day, arriving at Fort Han-i- 
son on the 5th of November, 181 '2. In a letter addressed to Gov. 
Shelby, of Kentucky, bearing date November '27, Gen. Hopkins 
reviewed briefly the movements of his army fi-om the time of leav- 
ing Fort Hari'ison, on the 11th, until the completion of the expe- 
dition. Among other things contained in that letter, he recites 
the following incidents: " The length of time the enemy had ex- 
pected us made it necessary to guard ourselves in an especial man- 
ner. The rise of the waters fi'om the heavy fall of rain preced- 
ing our march, aud some large creeks, left us no doubt of consid- 
erable difficulty and embarrassment; insomuch, that not until the 
14th did we pass Sugar Creek, three miles above the road. 

From every information, I had nohesiiation in moving on the 
east side of the Wabash, The Vermillion, Pine Creek, and other 
impediments on the west side, superadded to the presumjition that 
we were expected, and might more easily be annoyed and ambus- 
caded 'on that route, determined me in this measure. The boats, 
too, with provisions of rations, forage and military stores, could 
be more easily covered and protected, as the line of march could 
be invariably nearer the river. Lieut. Col. Barbom% with one 
battalion of his regiment, had command of the seven boats, and 
encamped with us on the bank of the river almost every night. 
This so protracted our march that we did not reach the Prophet's 
town until the 19th. On the morning of that day, a detachment 
of 300 men, under Gen. Butler, was sent out to surprise aud capt- 
ure the Winnebago town on Wild Cat Creek, one mile from the 
Wabash and four below the Prophet's town. Upon reaching the 
town, it was found to have been evacuated. In this town there 
were about forty houses, many of which were fi-om thirty to fifty 
feet in length, besides a number of temporaiy huts in the prairie 
adjacent. These, with a large quantity of corn, there and at the 
Prophet's town, were totally destroyed during the following two 
or throe days. This work of destruction was not confined to the 
AVinnebago town and the corn found at the different places named 
above, but extended to the Prophet's town, which had about forty 
cabins and huts, and the large KickajKK) village adjoining it be- 
low, on the west side of the river, consisting of about one hundred 




and sixty cabins and huts. This department of the work was 
complete. Some of the succeeding movements, however, were at 
tended with less satisfactory consequences, as the sequel will 

The details of the affair to which reference is made above be- 
ing especially important, having never before been in print, are 
given with interesting minuteness in the following account, pre- 
pared by Hon. Charles B. Lasselle, from memoranda of interviews 
held with Messrs. La Plante and Richeville, who were active par- 
ticipants in the engagement. To him, therefore, we are indebted 
for this valuable addenda, which, but for his painstaking care 
and perseverance in their collection and preservation, would have 
been lost to the world. 

spues' defeat. 

•' There ai'e few events of amilitary chai'acter in tbe historv of 
the State of more interest than that known as ■' Spm-s" Defeat," 
which occm-red on the banks of Wild Cat Creek [on the east half 
of the southeast quarter of Section 1, Township 23 north. Range 
3 west], in Tippecanoe County, in the fall of 1812. "It was one 
of those sucecessful Indian ambuscades which so clearly demon- 
strated the craft and skill of the Indians in waging hostilities 
against a brave, but impetuous, volunteer soldiery. The event 
has been noticed in general terms in Dillon's History of Indiana: 
but there are many details and incidents connected with it, fm-- 
nished to the wTiter by some of those who were actors in the scene, 
not mentioned in history, that will justify a fiu-ther accoimt of it. 

'■ AVhile Gen. Hopkins, with an army of about thirteen hundred 
men, \vas encamped on the east bank of the "Wabash, opposite the 
Prophet's town, and on the 21st of November. 1812, a pai-ty of ten 
or twelve mounted men was sent out in different directions as 
scouts to reconnoiter the coimtry. A portion of these, consisting 
of John B. La Plante, of Vincennes, Dr. Gist, and a man named 
Dunn, both of Kentucky, while scom-ing the coimtry some five or 
six miles easterly from camp, discovered a small party of Indians 
near them. La Plante, who had been an Indian trader, and im- 
derstood the Indian character, soon saw, from their movements, 
that it was the purpose of the Indians to cut them off; and he 
pressed his comrades to immediately attempt their esoai)e with 
him. But Gist and Dunn, insisting upon watching the move- 
ments of the Indians and ascertaining their number, delayed their 
starting. La Plante immediately put spm-s to his horse and made 
his escape without difficulty. The Indians then advanced tipon 
them, when Gist and Dunn also attempted flight. Gist made 
good his escape; but. while doing so. he heard the report of a rifle, 
followed by the triimiphaut yell of the Indians: and he knew that 
Dunn had fallen. He continued h is flight for some distance, when, 
his horse showing signs of faltering, and it being near nightfall, 
he jumped off and plunged into a poad of water, and concealed 
himself amongst its di-ift. He soon heard and saw the Indians 
passing in pmrsuit, not suspecting^ his concealment. His horse^ 
following the coui'se taken by La Plante, an'ived at camp with 
saddle and holsters. Upon La Plante's an-ival with news of the 
piu-suit. Gen. Hopkins ordered the gun to be fired at intervals to 
indicate to Gist or Dunn, if alive, their direction to camp. Gist, 
heai'ing the reports, left his hiding-place, made his way to camp 
late at night, and I'elated the circitmstances attending Dunn's 
death or captm'e. 

" On the nest morning, upon the call of Gen. Hopkins, the 
company of rangers, or mounted riflemen, under Capt Beckes, of 
Vincennes, together with such other volunteers as might be 
obtained from other comiianies. were organized into a mounted 

troo)) of between sixty and seventy men. to proceed to the spot 
where Dium was supposed to have been killed, to bury his body, 
if killed, and also to scout over the country. The whole troop 
was placed under the command of Lieut. Col. Miller. They wore 
divided into three lines — the right under Lieut. Col. Miller; the 
center under Lieut. Teabold. and the left under Lieut. Col. Wile. .\ 
— with instnictions to march in single file, fifty yards apart. I'h.' 
men, not having had their whisky ratons for some time, were, nu 
the morning, treated to a pint each; and they proceeded on their 
mai'ch in good spirits. 

"In the meantime, the Indians, consisting of Miamis, Win- 
nebagoes, Kiekapoos and Pottawatomies, and numbering about 
seven himdred wai'riors, were not idle. They had a strong en- 
campment on the bank of the "Wild Cat. They had watched every 
movement of the expedition: and, exasperated by the destruction 

their villages, they were thirsting for revenge. Their scouti 


party of warriors on the preceding day had killed Dunn, as our 
troops had supposed — o\tt off his head and set it upon a stake, 
with the face in the direction of their camp, at the spot where 
his body lay. They natm-ally inferred that some portion of om- 
troops, on the next day, would visit the spot where their comrade 
fell, bury his body, and scout the countiy for their enemy: and 
they determined to prepare an ambuscade for them. For this 
purpose, they posted themselves in a long and deej) ravine lead- 
ing to the 'Wild Cat Creek, heavily shaded with forest trees, about 
a mile and a quarter from the spot where Dunn's body lay. with 
directions to one of their wan'iors to post himself there, and. upon 
the arrival of om- troops, to entice pursuit of himself into the fatal 
ravine. Unfortimately. their plans succeeded too well. 

"Upon the approach of the troops. Col. Miller, at the head of 
his line, discovered an Indian at the spot, appai-ently imcouscious 
of their approach, and who, appearing greatly surprised and 
alarmed, mounted and put spm-s to his horse as if to make his 
escape. Col. Miller, without giving any orders to his command, 
immediately raised the yell and gave pm-suit. The men of his 
line first, and then those of the others, afterward followed in 
quick succession, until the whole troop went pell-mell in pm-suit 
of the Indian. He was several times overtaken, and could have 
been shot; but it seems to have been the pm-pose to captm-e him 
alive. At one time, a soldier by the name of John Shannon, of 
Capt. Bigger 's company, caught hold of him, but an intervening 
bush broke his hold. The Indiim, in the meantime, gave out loud 
and repeated yells, intended, doubtless, as a signal to his concealed 
fi-iends of the conditon of affairs. 

"And thus continuing the pm-suit for alxiut A mile and a quar 
ter. and while descending the ravine before mentioned, the ti'oops 
suddenly found themselves in the midst of a large body of Indians, 
j and startled by the reports of himdreds of rifles. Thirteen of the 
I men were shot dead at the first fire. It was evident at once that 
I any defense was hopeless; and each man immediately raised up, 
I wheeled, ptit s]nu-s to his horse and fled as rapidly as he could 
I toward the camp. 

j " Pien-e La Plante. of Capt. Parke's company of dragoons, of 
I Vincennes, one of the -m-iter's infoi-mants above refen-ed to, states 
that the first intimation they had of the ambu.scade was the reports 
of several himdred rifles, aroimd and about them on all sides. He 
I iromediately put spurs to his horse, with the rest of the troops, 
hotly pursued h\ the Indians, on foot and on horseback, and with 
lances and t<jmahawk.s, as well as rifles. Diu-iug the retreat, his 
rifle was shot oft" by an Indifiu's bullet, at the small of the stock, 
leaving the breech alone in his hands. Being well moimted, he 



passed many in the pursuit; among others, Benoit Bezallion, of 
Capt. Beckes" company, whose horse appeared to be faltering. 
He called upon the old gentleman to hasten, that the Indians were 
close after them. But, looking up despondingly. he made no 
reply. Shortly after, the triumphant yells of the Indians denoted 
his captiue. 

'■Michael Richeville, of Oapt. Beckes" company, of Vincennes, 
also states that they were surrounded on all sides in the ambus- 
cade, and that the bullets of the Indians were as thick as hail. 
As he reined up his horse to tm-n and flee, he noticed an Indian 
quite near, pointing his rifle, as he supposed, at himself; and he 
thought he was the doomed man. ' But,' says he, ' another fellow 
by my side, Samuel Ciilbertson, of my own company, had to take 
it, and he fell dead from his saddle.' Shortly afterward, he was 
violenty thrown to the ground, by his rifle, lying across the pom- 
mel of his saddle, catching between two trees: but, holding on to 
the reins of his bridle, he immediately remounted, with his gun 
in his hand, but with the hammer of the lock disabled. The short 
delay, however, enabled a Pottawatomie Indian, armed with a 
lance, to approach quite near, who was preparing to strike him. 
Suddenly turning in his saddle, and pointing his disabled gun at 
the Indian, the latter fell back. But he again renewed the pur- 
siiit. and uniformly met with the same movement of his enemy, 
until finally he gave up the chase.* Proceeding on. he came up 
to a party consisting of Col. Miller. William Stockwell, Richard 
Westrope and another, who had halted, at the request of the for- 
mer, to make a stand. But the others, except Stockwell, declined. 
Stookwell, w'no was moiiatei on a spirited, fleet horse, declared 
that he would stand aad kill an Indian or be killed. For this 
purpose, he dismounted, to fire from behind his horse as the In- 
dians approached, and then remount. But, upon the appearance 
of the Indians, the other parties fled, his horse broke loose from 
him, leaving him exposed, and he was immediately killed. 

" On the return of the fugutives to camp, the following were 
found to be the casualties: Killed — Lieuts. John Murray and 
John Edwards; Ensign James Mars ; Corporal John Sublitt; and 
Privates James Webb, Jesse Jones, Pierre Vaudiy, Jonathan 
Benton. Samuel Culbertson, Barnabas Young, William Stockwell, 
William Brown, John Curry and John Long — 14. Wounded — 

Lieut. Little, and Privates Richard Westrope and John 

Shannon — 3. Captured — Benoit Bezallion — 1. 

" It having been learned that the Indians were strongly en- 
camped on the bank of Wild Cat Creek, and that they would prob- 
ably make a stand there. Gen. Hopkins intended, on the next 
morning, the 23d, to move out the whole army and attack the 
enemy in his stronghold. But a violent storm of snow, attended 
with intense cold, intervening during the whole of this day, the 
march was delayed uatil the 24th. On the morning of the 24th, 
the army moved against the encampment ; but they found the 
enemy had decamped before the fall of the snow, and left no traces 
of their retreat. Gen. Hopkins, in speaking of the Indian en- 
campmeiit, says, ' I have no doubt but their ground was the strong- 
est I have ever seen." The deep, rapid stream spoken of [the Wild 
Cat. then called Ponce Passu, or Ponceau Piohou] was in their 
rear, running in a semi-circle, and fronted by a bluff one hundred 
feet high, almost jjerjiendicular, and only to be penetrated by 
three steej) ravines.' 

t-.n,i|.t >1hli„1 "1)™!!!!!!.!, IntiioBtureof llio latler. Illcboville Imi-i" " 'I ' I" i" .n^t r^ti, 

,,,!l"','i',l.''y.M' ll!'rcholB,«aid B. TliolnclmiiMkiilllilmif hciViiiiM 1.^ .,11.1.' Ilnli..- 
> ill' II, !.,«. IP il, lie. would; mid they Bhook hands. Tbo Indian mi In ■ : 1 ■ Vlii- 

" Before the army returned to camp on the 24th, they buried 
the dead who had fallen on the 22d. Those who fell upon the 
scene of the ambuscade were buried upon the spot, in one grave; 
those in the retreat, where they fell. 

'■The ambuscade was denominated as 'Spurs' Defeat' by the 
participants themselves, fi-om the fact that the spur was the main 
appliance in the action. In connection with the ambuscade, it 
was also stated by the same authority from whom the foregoing 
details were obtained, that, facing the entrance to it, the Indians 
had peeled the bark from several trees aud painted them black 
and red, significant of defiance and the purpose of dire revenge, 
the resalt sufficiently' indicating the piu'portof the warning signal. 

"As to Benoit Bezallion, the only prisoner captured by the 
Indians, it may be added, as learned fi'om the Indians themselves, 
after the close of the war, that on the same day of his capture they 
determined to put him to death with extreme tortiu'e. They would 
have probably put him to death, in some form or other, in any 
event, as their custom generally was in the case of adult male 
captives. But his case, to them, was peculiar. He had been an 
old trader among some of their tribes. They had contracted, mu- 
tually, many business and f rinedly relations. They therefore, fi'om 
their standpoint, regarded him as a false friend or traitor to them- 
selves, and they determined to burn him to death at the stake. 
For this purpose, they bound him to a tree, piled up brush and 
wood about him, and set fire to the jiile. The old man begged 
them to put him to death in some other and more speedy way. 
But they refused. Finally, a young warrior, who had known him, 
and still had some affection for him, hastily seized a loaded rifle 
from another Indian near by, and, before interference, could be 
made, shot the old man dead." 

From the best information thus far obtained, the location of 
this formidable encampment, occupied by some six or seven hun- 
dred Indians, was probably in the bend of the creek in the north- 
east quarter of Section 7. Township 23 north. Range 2 west, in 
Clay Township, Carroll Co.. Ind.. while the ambuscade was about 
one mile and a quai'ter west,, in Tippecanoe County. 





o\'< I'l.W or OrKlMTTON-s IlnsTlLITIKS A5ION(i Tllli 

Mm Ml- i:\iM I'l 1 hi\ .\i.M\-rTiir Mi ami Villages ON THE 
.Ml--I--I\l.w \ l.ll i I I'm l'\Mri;lll. .\l-POINTED TO THE 
CiiMMAMi — r.i;i i;i\ i:i> .Maih iiim. ( iiii'Kiis— Line ok M.\I!CII 

Engagement— The Indians Defeated— Towns Destuoyed. 

IT was the purpose of Gov. HaiTison, as set forth in his com- 
munication to the Secretary of War, on the 4th of Januai-y, 
1813, to occupy the Maumee Rapids, and to deposit there as much 
provision as possible, and move thence with a choice detachment 
of the ai'my, with the view to make a demonstration toward De- 
troit, and, by a sudden passage of the strait upon the ice, to in- 
vest Maiden. In the uncertainty indicated of obtaining the nec- 
essary supplies, fi^om the want of which the men under his com- 
mand were suffering, to undertake the enterprise would be im- 
practicable, and was therefore temporarily delayed. Because of 
the failure of the expedition of Gon. Hopkins against the Kicka- 
poos of Illinois, ,ind the hostile acts of some of the Miamis, grow- 
ing out of their opportunities, on acooimtof the situation of (hoir 
villages on the Mississinewa and elsewhere, to attack the white 



settlements, or to furnisli other hostile tribes with the meiius to 
that end, it was deemed necessary to break np and destroy the 
Miami settlements on the Mississinewa and vicinity. That pai'- 
ticular duty was assigned by Gov. Harrison to Lieut. Col. John 
B. Cam]ibell,.of the Nineteenth United States Infanti-y, with a 
detachment of about sis himdi-ed men. The detachment was 
composed chiefly of a regiment of Kentucky dragoons, coromanded 
by Col. Simrall; a squadron of United States Volunteer Dra- 
goons, conunanded by Maj. James V. Ball; and a corps of infantry, 
consisting of Capt. Elliott's company of the Nineteenth United 
States Regiment, Butler's Pittsbm-gh Blues, and Alexander's 
Pennsylvania Riflemen. Receiving instructions on the 2rith of 
November, 181'2, Col. Campbell took up the line of march toward 
the Mississinewa towns, by way of Springfield, Xeuia. Dayton, 
Eaton and Greenville, that route being prescribed by Gov. Harri- 
son because of its being more distant from the Delaware towns, 
which he desired to avoid, in consequence of the friendly relations 
existing between the members of that tribe and the United States. 
In another part of his instructions. Gov. Harrison says: "It will 
be necessary that care should be taken to avoid coming in contact 
with them, or to avoid any ill consequences should it happen to 
be the case. Inform yom'self as minutely as possible, from Con- 
ner and others who have been to Mississinewa, of the localities 
of the place and the situation of the Indians. * * * There 
are, however, some of the [Miami] chiefs who have undeviatingly 
exerted themselves to keep their wan-iors quiet, and to preserve 
their friendly relations with us. This has been the case with ref- 
erence to Richardville (a half-breed Frenchman, the second chief 
of the Miamis), Silver Heels, [and] the White Loon certainly, and, 
perhaps, of Pecan, the principal chief ot the Miamis, and Charley, 
the princijial [chief] of the Eel River tribe. * * * * The 
same remark will also apply to the son and brother of the Little 
Turtle, who continued to his last moments the warm friend of the 
United Slates, and who, in the course of his life, rendered them 
many important services. Your character as a soldier, and that 
of yom- troops, is a sure guarantee of the safety of the women and 
children. They will be taken, however, and conducted to the set- 
tlement. • * * The utmost vigilance of yom- guards will 
not, however, afford you perfect secm-ity. Yom' men must at all 
times be kept ready for action, by night as well as by day. When 
you advance into the enemy's country, your men must be made to 
lie upon their ai-ms, and with their accouterments on." 

In the report of his expedition. Col. Campbell says; " Early 
in the morning of the 17th [of Decemlier, liS12], I reached and 
discovered an Indian town on the Mississinewa, inhabited by a 
number of Delawares and Miamis. The troops rushed into the 
tovra. kille'd eight warriors and took forty-two prisoners, eight 
of whom are warriors; the residue are women and childi'eu. I 
ordered the town to be immediately burned — a house or two ex- 
cepted, in which I confined the prisoners — and the cattle and 
other stock to be shot. I then left the infantry to guard the pris- 
oners. * * * * I biu'nt, on this occasion, thi-ee considera- 
ble villages, took several horses, killed many cattle, and retm-ned 
to the town I iu-st burnt, where I left the prisoners, and en- 
camped. * * * * At 4, on the morning of the 18th, I or- 
dered the reveille to be beaten, and the oflieers convened at my 
tii-e a short time afterward. While we were in council, and about 
half an horn* before day, my camp was most fru-iously attacked by 
a large party of Indians, preceded by and accompanied with a 
most hideous yell. This immediately broke up the council, and 
every man ran to his post." 

The encampment was of the usual fonu. The infantry and 
riflemen were in the front line, the company of Capt. Elliott on 
the right, Butler's in the center and Alexander's on the loft. Maj. 
Ball's squadron occupied the right of the rear line; Col. Simi-all's 
regiment the left and'the other half of the rear line. The attack 
was commenced at the angle formed of the left of Capt. Hopkins' 
troops and the right ot Garrard's, but soon became general fi-om 
the entrance of the right to the left of Ball's S(juadron. Every 
man, officer and soldier stood firm, animated and encouraged each 
other. After an action of more than an horn', the enemy fled with 
IM'ecipitation, having suffered great loss. Fifteen Indians were 
found dead on the battle-field, and many more were probably car- 
ried away. The Indian force engaged in the battle was inferior 
to that of Col. Campbell, whose loss was reported at eight killed 
and forty-two wounded, several others afterwiu'd dying of their 

The Indians who were taken prisoners were nearly all Mun- 
sies. and were included in those who composed Silver Heel's band. 
The villages destroyed were situated on the banks of the river, at 
points fifteen or twenty miles distant fj'om its junction with the 
Wabash River, the site of the principal Mississinewa village. 
" Lieutenant Colonel Campbell sent two messengers to the Dela- 
wai-es who lived on AVhite River, and who had been previously 
directed and requested to abandon their towns on that river, and to 
remove into the State of Ohio. In these messages, he expressed his 
' regi'et at unfortunately killing some of their people,' and urged 
them to move to the Shawanoe settlement on the Auglaize 
River." Not long afterward, the Delawares, with a small niunber 
of Miamis, moved to the State of Ohio, and there placnd them- 
selves under the protection of the United States Government. 

An expedition, composed of about one hundred and thirty-seven 
mounted men, under the command of Col. Joseph Bartholomew, 
in June, 1813, started from Valonia toward the Delaware towns 
on the West Fork of White River, with the intention to sui-prise 
and punish some hostile Indians supi)osed to be Im-king about 
those villages. This expedition was made up of parts of thi'ee 
companies of rangers, one of which was conunanded by Cai^t. Will- 
iam.son Dunn, another by Capt. James Bigger, and a third by 
Caiit. C. Peyton, with a small detachment of militia under Maj. 
Depauw, of Harrison County. In a letter ^vi'itten by ('ol. Bar- 
tholomew and addressed to Gov, Posey, we have the following brief 
accoimt of the movements of the expedition: "Lieut. Col. John 
Tipton, of Harrison County, and Maj. David Owen, of Kentucky, 
acted as Aids. AVe left Valonia on the 11th inst. [June, 1813], 
and pursued a eoiu-se between north and northeast, about one 
hundred miles, to theujiper Delaware town on AMiite River. AVe 
arrived there on the 1 5th, and found the principal part of the 
town had been bm"nt thi'ee or four weeks jjrevious to our getting 
there. We found, however, a considerable quantity of corn in the 
fom- remaining houses. We went fi-om there, on the [10th]. down 
White River a west coiu-se, and passed another village, three or 
fom- miles below, which had also been biu-nt. At the distance of 
twelve miles below the upper town, we came to anothei- small vil- 
lage, not burnt. Here we discovered the signs of Indians who 
had come to this village for the purpose of canning ofl" corn. On 
the morning of the 17th, Capt. Dunn, Lieut. Shields and myself, 
with thirty men. took the trail, and pursued it about a mile, when 
we met with three of the Indian horses, which we secured. The 
woods being very thick, we found it necessary to leave most of om- 
horses, imder a small guard, and took with us only six mounted 
men, which were kept iu the rear. After following the buck trail 




of the Indian Lorses two miles fm-ther, we discovered a camp of 
two Indians on a high piece of ground. In attempting to stir- 
round them, they discovered one of our flanking parties, and im- 
mediately broke and ran. They were, however, fired on, and one 
killed. The mounted men were ordered to charge; but, before 
they could get near to the surviving Indian, he had got into some 
bnish and hid himself. One of Capt. Peyton's rangers, being 
thi'own from his horse on retiu'ning, was considerably in the rear, 
and, coming suddenly and tmexpectedly on the Indian, who had 
concealed himself, he was fired on. and dangerously wounded 
through the left hip. The Indian then made his escape to a 
swamp, where he could not be found. At the same time that we 
had set out on the Indian ti-ail, the main force moved on to the 
lower town. They found no fresh appearance of Indians there, 
bxit much of their having some time previously fi'equented it to 
cany off corn. The lower town had, from appearances, been 
burnt early in the winter. We found at all the towns from eight 
hundred to one thousand bushels of corn, and, discovering that 
the hostile Indians were making use of it [we destroyed it]. We 
conceived it was the more necessary to do this, as the corn would, 
if not destroyed, enable considerable bodies of the enemy to fall 
upon and harass o\vc fi'ontier. Having the wounded man to take 
care of, whom we had to carry on a horse littei-, it was thought 
prudent to retm-n to Valonia, at which place we arrived on the 
21st [June]." 

A further expedition was organized on the 1st of July. 1813, 
by Col. William Bussell, of the Seventh United States Regiment, 
the force amounting to 573 effective men, designed to operate 
against the Indian villages near the mouth of the Mississinewa. 
The expedition left Valonia early in the month, encountering 
much rainy weather and consequent high waters, from which the 
provisions suffered gi-eatly. It proceeded first to the Delaware towns ; 
thence to those on the Mississinewa, finding there four or five dis- 
tinct villages, one of which was strongly fortified, and had adjoining 
it a very considerable encampment of Indians. These had evi- 
dently been evacuated by their former occupants early in the spring ; 
they were, however, all destroyed. Proceeding thence down the 
Wabash to the Eel Biver town; to Winamac village; to the 
Prophet's town, and, then, recrossing the Wabash, the expedition 
took the Winnebago towns in its route to Fort Harrison, meeting 
with no formidable oi^position by hostile Indians. In the latter 
part of the month, a few Indians having been discovered in the 
vicinity of the settlements on White River, a company of rangers 
was sent in pursuit. Little was accomplished, however, except to 
recover three horses that had been stolen — the Indians escaped. 
In the meantime, the battle at River Raisin had been fought on 
the 22d of January, resulting in a hon'ible massacre of the whites 
under Gen. Winchester. The siege of Fort Meigs, which contin- 
ued from the 28th of April to the iJth of May, had ended in a de 
cided victory to the officers and soldiers imder the command of 
Gen. Harrison, over Col. Proctor, in command of the combined 
forces of the British and Indians. On the 2d of August, 1813, 
Fort Stephenson, on the site of Lower Sandusky, under command 
of Maj. George Croghan, was attacked by a British force consist- 
ing of about five hundred regulars and fi-om seven to eight hun- 
dred Indians, also commanded by Col. Proctor. The fight was a 
fierce one, Imt the defense of the fort was maintained, though the 
opposition was nearly eight to one of the garrison. 

From, that time forward, the frequent defeats sustained by 
the Indians, and the scarcity of supplies, had the effect to chock 
their warlike spirit and to induce a spii'itof compromise. Before 

the opening of spring, in 1814, deputies fi'om the Miamis and 
Pottawatomies, and other Northwestern tribes, assembled at Day- 
ton, Ohio, where they were informed of the terms upon which their 
propositions for alliance would be accepted by the Government 
and people of the United States. Accordingly, after a lengthy 
conference upon the subject, a treaty was concluded at Greenville 
on the 22d of July, the effect of which was to virtually close the 
Indian wars in Indiana Ten-itory, other than occasional depre- 
datory incursions into the fi'ontier settlements of Indiana and Il- 
linois Territories. 




Origin' of the Difficulty in the Treaty with tue Sacs- 
He Resists the Removal of his Band west of the Mis- 
sissippi—Complaints BY' Skttlers— Gov. Rf.y'nolds Notifies 
Gen. Gaines of the United States Army-— Volunteeks 
Called For- PitoiiRESs of the Expedition— Movements of 
Maj. Stillman— Capture ok BlaOK Hawk and Defeat of 
his Forces— Gen. Henry in Pursuit— Attacks Black Hawk 
AND Defeats Him— The L.\tter Retires— Incidents. 

IN 1804, Gen. Harrison, as Governor of Indiana Territory, a 
Commissioner on the part of the United States, pm-chased 
from the Sacs and Foxes, at St. Louis, a large extent of territory, 
" beginning at a point on the Missouri River, opposite the mouth 
of the Gasconade River; thence in a direct course so as to strike 
the River Jefferson, at the distance of thii-ty miles from its mouth, 
and down the said Jefferson to the Mississippi ; thence up the 
Mississippi to the mouth of the Ouisconsin River, and up the 
same to a point which shall be thirty-six miles in a direct line 
from the mouth of said river; thence by a direct line, to the point 
where the Fox River (a branch of the Illinois) leaves the small 
lake called Sakaegan; thence down the Fox River to the Illinois 
River, and down the same to the Mississippi " — and in consider- 
ation of the friendship and protection of the United States, as 
likewise goods to the value of $2,234, then delivered, and a fui'- 
ther annuity of $1,000, to be paid them annually, in goods, the 
said tribes ceded and relinquished forever to the United States 
all the lands included within the aforesaid limits. These lands 
were subsequently smweyed and sold by the United States, and 
the purchasers, as a natural consequence, settled upon their lands 
and made improvements thereon. A part of the tract so ceded to 
the United States, sold and settled upon, had been the ancient 
metropolis of the Indian nation inhabiting that territory, which, 
it seems, had been abandoned by some of those Indians reluct- 
antly- even with a pm-pose of resistance. Black Hawk was one 
of those malcontents, who, from the beginning, had denied the 
validity of the several ti-eaties under which the title thus exer- 
cised by the whites had been acquired. He was at this time an 
old man; had been a warrior fi'om his youth; had also led many 
a war party on the trail of the enemy, and had never been de- 
feated. In the war of 1812, he had been in the service of En- 
gland, and an Aid-de-camp of Tecumseh. A firm ally of Great 
Britain, he cordially hated the Americans, and, at the close of the 
war, had never joined in making peace with them: but, on the 
other hand, he and his band of followers had always kept up their 
connection with Canada, and were ever ready for a wrn- with our 
people. Brooding over his imagined as real wi'ongs, he contin- 
ued to thirst for revenge. He resisted the order of the Govern- 



ment for the removal of his baud west of the Mississippi. Al- 
leging that some depredations had been committed on their prop- 
erty by the whites during their absence on a hunting expedition, 
he was highly incensed, and, in the spring of 1.N31, after his re- 
turn from the winter hunt, he recrossed the river with his women 
and children and 300 wan-iors of the British band, with some Pot- 
tawatomies and Kickapoos, to establish himself upon his ancient 
hunting-gi'ounds, and in the principal village of his nation. 
With this pirrpose in view, he ordered the white settlers away, 
threw down their fences, um-oofed their houses, cut up their gi-ain. 
drove off and killed their cattle, and threatened the people with 
death if they remained. Complaints were made by the settlers 
to Gov. Reynolds, on account of these depredations, and steps 
were immediately taken by the proper authorities to punish the 
offenders and protect the property of the settlers. 

Gen. Gaines, of the United States Aimy, with some fifteen 
hundi-ed volunteers and a detachment fi-om the regular ai-my. im- 
mediately proceeded to the scene of anticipated conflict. This 
was in the month of June, 1831, and the place of rendezvous was 
in the vicinity of Rockport. III. "WTien the volunteers reached the 
Indian town, they found no enemy there, the Indians having, 
in the meantime, departed in their canoes to the western side of 
the Mississippi River. " The enemy having escaped, the vohm- 
teers wei'e determined to be revenged upon something. The rain 
descended in ton-ents, and the Indian wigwams would have fm-- 
nished a comfoi'table shelter ; but, notwithstanding the rain, the 
whole town was soon wi'apped in flames, and thus perished an an- 
cient village, which had once been the delightful home of six or 
seven thousand Indians. The volunteers marched to Rock Island 
next morning, and here they encamped for several days, precisely 
where the town of Rock Island is now situated." Gen. Gaines 
manifesting a disposition to pur.sue the Indians across the Mis- 
sissippi and punish them, Black Hawk and his liand, considering 
discretion the better part of valor, came forwai'd and asked for 
peace. A treaty was fomied, then and there, by which these hos- 
tiles agi'eed to remain forever after on the west side of the river, 
and never recross it without permission of the President, or the 
Governor of the State, ratifying, also, the treaty of 1S04. aliove 
refen-red to. and to remain at peace. 

Notwithstanding this treaty, however, early in the sjiring of 
1832, Black Hawk and the disaffected Indians prepared to re as- 
sert their claim upon the ceded territoiy. The Sacs and Foxes 
were divided into two parties, one of which was of the warlike 
band, and commanded by Black Hawk, while the other was peace- 
ably disposed, and was commanded by Keokuk, who was not only 
a sagacious leader of his people, but gifted with a stining elo- 
quence, which enabled him to retain the Uu-ger portion of his na- 
tion in amity with the white people. On the contrary. Black 
Hawk, who was a rival of Keokuk, secured the co-o]3eration of 
nearly all the bold, turbulent spirits, who delighted in mischief 
— indeed, the chivalry of the nation. "With these, the chivahic 
chief recrossed the Mississippi, in violation of his agi'eement, and 
directed his march to the Rock River coimtry. and. by marching 
up the river into the country of the Pottawatomies and Winneba- 
goes, he aimed to make them his allies also. Gov. Reynolds, upon 
being informed of the facts, made another call for volunteers, and 
in a few days 1,800 men awaited marching orders. 

The army proceeded by way of Oquaka to the mouth of Rock 
River, where the volunteers, under Gen. Whiteside, and the reg- 
ulars, under Gen. Atkinson, were separated into two divisions, 
the former marching to the Prophet's town, which they destroyed. 

and then marched to Dixon, forty miles fmtliei- ii|iili(' liv.T. wliilc 
Gen. Atkinson proceeded up the river to the same points iu keel- 
boats, with provisions. On the ]2th of May, a pm-ty under Maj. 
Stillman began their mai-ch. reaching " Old Man's Creek " late in 
the evening, where they encamped for the night. Early iu the 
evening, they were drawn into an ambuscade and defeated by a 
party of Indians under Black Hawk, and suffered considerable loss. 
Having thu-s gained an advantage, tlie Indians were oncoiu-aged 
to commit fiu'ther depredations; accordingly, they scatteretl over 
the country, some of them fiu'ther up Rock River, and others to- 
ward the nearest white settlements. A piu-ty munbering about 
seventy attacked a small settlement on Indian Creek, a ti'ib\itary 
of Fox River, and there, within fifteen miles of Ottawa, they mas- 
sacred fifteen persons, men, women and chihh-en, and took two 
young women prisonex-s, who were hmi-ied by forced marches be- 
yond the reach of pm-suit. Subsequently, these prisoners were 
ransomed, and retm-ned safely to their friends. 

Soon after the disaster suffered by the detachment under Maj. j 
Stillman, a council of war was held, in which it was determined 
to march back to the scene of defeat with a sufficient force to s>ic- 
cessfully combat the enemy. Reaching the sj»t, however, the In- 
dians were gone. .At this time, the army amounted to 'J.-tOO men, 
but, their tenn of enlistment having nearly expired, they refused 
to sei-ve longer, and were discharged on the 27th and 28th of May. 
Meanwhile. 3.000 Illinois militia had been called out, and, on 
the 20th of Jime following, they rendezvoused at Peru, and 
marched forward to Rock River, where they were joined by the 
regular troops, and the whole force was placed under the com- 
mand of Gen. Atkinson. 

" On the 24th of June, Black Hawk and his 200 warriors were 
repulsed by Maj. Demint, witli but 150 militia: this skirmish 
took place between Rock River and Galena. » * * This de- 
tachment hearing of Black Hawk's army, pm-sued and ovei-took 
them, on the 21st of July, near the Wisconsin River, and in the 
neighborhood of the Blue Mounds. Gen. Hemy, who commanded 
that party, formed with his troops three sides of a hollow square, 
and in that oi'der received the attack of the Indians; two attempts 
to break the ranks were made by the natives in vain; and then a 
general charge was made by the whole body of Americans, and 
with such success that, it is said, fifty-two of the red men were 
left dead upon the field, while but one American was killed, and 
eight wounded. Before this action, Henry had sent word of his 
motions to the main army, by whom he was immediately rejoined, 
and. on the 28th of July, the whole crossed the Wisconsin in pur 
suit of Black Hawk, who was retiring toward the Mississippi. 
Upon the bank of that river, nearly opposite the Upper loway, 
the Indians were overtaken and again defeated, on the 2d of -Au- 
gust, with a loss of 150 men. while of the whites but eighteen 
fell. This battle entirely broke the power of Black Hawk; he 
fled, but was seized by the Winnebagoes, and, on the 27th, was 
delivered to the officers of the United States at Prairie du Chien."* 

It was about the middle of May, 1832, when the annoimcement 
was made that Black Hawk and his braves were on the war-path, 
and al»ut to invade the territoiyoccupied by settlers on the Tip- 
pecanoe and Wabash Rivers, comprising those in Can-oil, Tippe- 
canoe and other adjacent counties. The nunor produced every- 
where the utmost consternation and dismay, causing many to de- 
sert their homes and seek places of safety elsewhere. In the 
midst of this excitement, self-protection was the prevailing senti- 
ment in this commimity. As a precautionary measure, Capt. An- 




drew AVood, with some twenty or twenty-five citizens, started out of the Monon, whence, having satisfied themselves that no Indians 

on a scouting expedition up the Tippecanoe River; but, after had been there, nor were likely to be, after leaving a guard at 

traversing the borders of the Grand Prairie for a considerable dis- the house of Malachi Gray, they returned home, well satisfied 

tance, the expedition penetrated the prairie as far as the mouth with the success of the expedition and the safety of the frontier. 



Oroanization of the Territory Northwest of the Ohio 
River— Brief Review of Proceedings Under that Act- 
Territorial DiMESSiONS— Mames of of the Chief 
Officers— Division or the Territory— New Boundaries- 
TT will be remembered that the large extent of territory lying 
-L west of the Ohio River, after the close of the Revolution and 
the ratification of the treaty of peace between the United States 
and the kingdom of Great Britain, was claimed and acknowledged 
to be owned by the State of Viiginia. 

By the surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, on the 19th 
of October, 1781, the struggle for the independence of the colonies 
was virtual h' closed, but the final treaty of peace was concluded 
at Paris, on the 3d day of September, 1783, and ratified by the 
Congress of the Confederation of States on the 14th of January, 
1784. Prior to that time, however, the General Assembly of the 
State of Virginia, on the 2d of January, 1781, resolved that, on 
certain conditions, they would cede to Congress, for the benefit 
of the United States, all the right, title and claim which the State 
of Virginia had to the teiTitory northwest of the River Ohio. This 
resolution was passed pm'suant to the provisions of an act of Con- 
gress of the 6th day of September, 1780, recommending "to the 
several States in the Union, having claims to waste and unappro- 
priated lands in the Western country, a liberal cession to the 
United States, of a portion of their respective claims, for the com- 
mon benefit of the Union." Subsequently, on the 13th of Sep- 
tember, 1783, Cougi-ess, by their act of that date, stipulated cer- 
tain terms upon which the cession before proposed would be ac- 
cepted, provided the Legislature of that State would approve the 
same. Accordingly, the General Assembly of the State of Vir- 
ginia, by their act passed December 20, 1783, after i-ecitiug the 
preliminary proceedings had in the premises, declared that, al- 
though the terms proposed " do not come fully up to the propo- 
sitions of this commonwealth, ai'e conceived, on the whole, to ap- 
proach so nearly to them, as to induce this State to accept thereof 
in full confidence that Congress will, in justice to this State for 
the liberal cession she has made, earnestly press upon the other 
States claiming large tracts of waste and imcultivated territory, 
the propriety of making cessions equally liberal, for the common 
benefit and supiJort of the Union." The following are the terms 
and conditions upon which the cession was iniidc iiidiiding the 
boundaries and conditions, reservations, etc. : 

" Hi- if ciiiictcd III/ the (•'riirral Axsriiihlij, Thai it sliall and may 
be lawful f„r the Delegates of this State to the Congress of the 
United Slates, in- sucli of tliem as shall be assembled in Congress, 
and the said I)i'lcgates, or such of them so assembled, are hereby 
fully authorized and empowered, for and on behalf of this State, 
by proper deed or instrument in writing, under their hands and 

seals, to convey, transfer, assign, and make over unto the United 
States in Congress assembled, for the benefit of the said States, 
all right, title and claim, as well of soil as jm-isdictiou, which this 
commonwealth hath to the territory or tract of country, within 
the limits of the Virginia charter, situate, lying and being to the 
northwest of the River Ohio, subject to the terms and conditions 
contained in the before-recited act of Congress of the 13th day 
of September last, that is to say: Upon condition that the terri- 
tory so ceded shall be laid out and formed into States, contain- 
ing suitable extent of territory, not less than 100 nor more than 
150 miles square, or as near thereto as circumstances will admit; 
and that the States so formed shall be distinct Republican States, 
and admitted members of the Federal Union, having the same 
rights of sovereignty, freedom and independence, as the other 
States; that the necessary and reasonable expenses incurred by 
this State in subduing any Briuish posts, or in maintaining forts 
and garrisons within and for the defense, or in acquiring any pai't 
of the ten-itory so ceded or relinquished, shall be fully reimbm^sed 
by the United States; and that one Commissioner shall be ap- 
pointed bj' Congress, one by this commonwealth, and another b)- 
those two Commissioners, who, or a majority of them, shall be 
authorized and empowered to adjust and liquidate the account of 
the necessary and reasonable expenses iuem-red by this State, 
which they shall judge to be comprised within the intent and 
meaning of the act of Congi-ess of the 10th of October, 1780, re- 
specting such expenses. That the French and Canadian inhabi- 
tants and other settlers of the Kaskaskias, St. Vincent's, and the 
neighboring villages, who have professed themselves citizens of 
Virginia, shall have their possessions and titles conlu-med to them, 
and be protected in the enjoyment of their rights and liberties. 
That a quantity not exceeding 150,000 acres of land, promised by 
this State, shall be allowed and granted to the then Colonel, now 
General, George Rogers Clai-k, and to the officers and soldiers of 
his regiment, who marched with him when the posts of Ka«- 
kaskias "and St. Vincent's wei'e reduced, and to the officers 
and soldiers that have been since incorporated into the said regi- 
ment, to be laid off in one tract, the length of whicli is not to ex- 
ceed double the breadth, in such place on the northwest side of the 
Ohio as a majority of the officers shall choose, and to be aftei-wiu-d 
divided among the said officers and soldiers in due proportion, 
according to the laws of Virginia. That in case the quantity of 
good lands on the southeast side of the Ohio, upon the waters of 
the Cumberland River, and between the Green River and Ten- 
nessee River, which have been reserved by law for the Virginia 
troops uiion Continental establishment, should, from the North 
Carolina line bearing in further upon the Cumberland lands than 
was expected, prove insufficient for their legal bounties, the defi- 
ciency should be made up to said troops in good hmds, to be laid 
off between the Rivers Scioto and Little Miami, on the northwest 



side o£ the River Ohio, iir such proiiortions as have been engaged 
to them by the laws of Virginia. That all the lands within the 
territory ceded to the United States, and not reserved for or ap- 
propriated to any of the before-mentioned piu'poses, or disposed 
of in bounties to the officers and soldiers of the American army, 
shall be considered as a common fund of such of the United States 
as have beoome, or shall beaome, members of the confederation or 
federal alliance of the said States, Virginia inclasive, according to 
their usual respective proportions in the general charge and expend- 
iture, and shall be faithfully and bona fide disposed of for that 
purpose, and for no other use or purpose whatsoever, Prorided, 
that the trust hereby reposed in the Delegates of this State shall 
not be exeauted unless three of them at least are present in Con- 

Pursuaut to the authji-ity aforesaid, and iu strict accjrd with 
its provisions, Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Hardy, Arthur Lee and 
James Monroe, Delegates in Congress fi-om the State of Virginia, 
on the 1st day of March, 1784, executed a deed of cession, by 
which they transferred to the United States, on the conditions 
named in the preceding ai'tiele, all right, title and claim of Vir- 
ginia to the country northwest of the Ohio River. The deed so 
executed by the Delegates representing the commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia, was tendered to and immediately accepted by the Congress 
of the United States. Without delay thereafter, Congress referred 
the subject matter of providing for the disposition of the terri- 
tory thus acquired, and suitable laws for the government thereof, 
to a committee, consisting of Messrs. Jefferson, of Virginia; Chase, 
of Maryland; and Howell, of Rhode Island. This committee 
after deliberation reported an ordinance for its temporarj- gov- 
ernment on the 23d of April of the same year. Subsequently, 
however, on the 13th of July, 1787, an ordinance was passed re- 
pealing and making void the provisions of the preceding ordi- 
nance. This ordinance prescribed a series of regulations for the 
better government of the new territory, making the same into one 
district, but subject to division into ttvo, as might be fomid expe- 
dient. Article 5 of this ordinance provides, among other things, 
that " there shall be formed in the said territory not less than 
thi-ee nor more than five States; and the boundaries of the States, 
as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of cession, and consent to 
the same, shall become fixed and established as follows, to wit: 
The western State in the said teiTitory shall be bounded by the 
Mississippi, the Ohio and the Wabash Rivers; a direct linedi'awu 
fi-om the Wabash and Post Vincent's, due north; to the territorial 
line between tlie United States and Canada, and by the said terri- 
torial line to the Lake of the AVouds and Mississippi. The 
middle States shall be boixnded by the said direct line, the 
Wabash from Post Vincent's to the Ohio, by the Ohio, by a 
direct line drawn due north fi-om the mouth of the Great Miami 
to the said territorial line, and by the said temtorial line. The 
eastern States shall be bounded by the last-mentioned direct line, 
the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said territorial line; provided, 
however, and it is further understood and declared, that the boimd- 
ai-ies of these thi-ee States shall be subject so fai- to be altered, 
that if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have 
authority to form one or two States in that part of the said terri- 
tory which lies north of an east-and-west line di-awn thi-ough the 
southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And whenever 
any of the said States shall have 60,000 free inhabitants therein, 
such shall be admitted, by its Delegates, into the Congress of the 
United States, on an equal footing with the original States, in all 
respects whatever; and shall be at liberty to foi-m a permanent 

constitution and State government, provided the constitution and 
government so to be formed shall be Republican, and in conform- 
ity to the principles contained in these ai-ticles: and, so far as it 
can be consistent with the general interest of the confederacy, 
such admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when 
there may be a less number of free inhabitants in the State than 
60,000." The provisions of this aiticle, it will be seen, ai-e in 
conflict with the conditions prescribed by the act of Virginia ced- 
ing the territory to the United States, and the deed made and ac- 
cepted in conformity therewith, in this, that the ordinance of ces- 
sion provided " that the teii'itory so ceded shall be laid out and 
formed into States, containing suitable extent of territory, not less 
than 100 nor more than 15(.) miles square, or as near thereto as 
circumstances will admit " — hence the condition contained in the 
article under consideration — " as soon as Virginia shall alter her 
act of cession, and consent to the same." In order to make her 
act of cession conform to the provisions contained in the ordinance 
for the government of the new territory, the General Assembly 
of the Commonwealth of Virginia, on the 30th of December, 1788, 
enacted as follows: " Whereas, the United States, in Congress as- 
sembled, did, on the 7th day of July. A. D. 1786, state certain 
reasons, showing that a division of the tenutory which hath been 
ceded to the said United States by this commonwealth, into States, 
in conformity to the terms of cession, shoiald the same be adhered 
to, would be attended with many inconveniences, and did recom- 
mend a revision of the act of cession, so far as to empower Con- 
gress to make such a division of the said territory into distinct 
and Republican States, not more than five nor less than three in 
number, as the situation of that coimtry and future circumstances 
might require." After reciting Article 5 of the foregoing ordi- 
nance for the government of the territory, and the expediency of 
the recommendation of Congress, enacted " That the afore-recited 
article of compact between the Statas, and the people and States iu 
the territory northwest of the Ohio River, be, and the same is 
hereby ratified and confirmed, anything to the contrary, in the 
need of cession of the said territory by this commonwealth to the 
United States, notwithstanding." 

Ai'tlcle 6 provided that " There shall be neither slavery nor 
involuntary sei-vitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the 
pimishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly 
convicted. " 

In October, 1783, the General Assembly of Virginia passed 
an act for laying off the town of Clarksville. at the Falls of the 
Ohio, in the county of Illinois. By this act it was provided that 
lots of half an acre each should be sold at piablic auction for the 
best price they would bring. One of the conditions of the sale 
was that the pm'chaser was required, within thi-ee years from the 
day of sale, to build a dwelling house. " twenty feet by eighteen 
at least, with a brick or stone chimney." William Fleming, John 
Edwards, John Campbell, Walker Daniel, George R. Clai-k, Abra- 
ham Chaplin, John Montgomery, John Bailey. Robert Todd and 
AVilliam Clark were designated as Trustees of the town. 

The ordinance for the government of the Xorthwestera Terri- 
tory took effect and was in force from and after its passage, on 
the 13th of July, 1787, and, pursuant to that act. Gen. Arthm- St. 
Clair, on the 5th of October following, was elected, by Congr-ess, 
Governor. In July, 1788. Gen. St. Clair, having accepted the po 
sition, an'ived at the new town of Mai'ietta, at the mouth of the 
River Muskingum, and began to organize the government of the 
Northwestern Territory, in ai'cordance with the provisions of the 
ordinance prescriliing the regulations therefor. Samuel Holden 


Parsons, James Mitchell Tarunin and John Cleves Symmes were 
the Judges of the General Court of the territory, who, with the 
Governor, were the authority for determining the efficiency and 
sufficiency of local legislation for the territory, and as such es- 
tablished an excellent code of laws. All these ordinances and 
proceedings, it will be remembered, were declared and had vinder 
and during the existence of the Confederation of States, prior to 
the formation and adoption of the present national constitution; 
hence, in order to make those early regulations conform to the 
new order of things, it was necessary that a revision of them be 
made by the Congress of the United States as the highest legisla- 
tive authority in the General Government. Accordingly, by an 
act approved August 7, 1789, Congress, in order that the original 
ordinance might continue to have full effect, made the necessary 
provisions to that end, by directing that the mode formerly {pre- 
scribed for furnishing the General Government with any infor- 
mation regarding the territory be so changed that such communi- 
cations be made to the President of the United States, and that he 
should nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Sen- 
ate, appoint all officers which, by the said ordinance, were appointed 
" b}' the United States in Congress assembled," and grant the nec- 
essary commissions Section 2 of this act provided further " That, 
in case of the death, removal, resignation, or necessary absence, 
of the Governor of the said territory, the Secretary thereof shall 
be, and he is hereby authorized and required to execute all the 
powers and perform all the duties of the Governor, during the 
vacancy occasioned by the removal, resignation or necessary ab- 
sence of the Governor." Thenceforward, the affairs of the terri- 
torial government were in conformity with the national authority. 


By the act of Congress approved May 7, 1800, it was provided 
" That, fi-om and after the 4th day of July next, all that part of 
the territory of the United States northwest of the Ohio River, 
which lies to the westward of a line beginning at the Ohio oppo- 
site the mouth of Kentucky Kiver and muning thence to Fort 
Recovery and thence north until it shall intersect the territorial 
line between the United States and Canada, shall for the purposes 
of temporary government, constitute a separate Territory, and be 
called the Indiana Ten-itory." The government of this new Terri- 
tory was in all respects similar to that provided for the old terri- 
tory, with the addition that, so far " as relates to the organization 
of a General Assembly therein, * « * » whenever satisfac- 
tory evidence shall be given to the Governor thereof, that such is 
the wish of a majority of the freeholders, notwithstanding there 
may not be therein 5,000 fi-ee male inhabitants of the age of 
twenty-one years. Prnrided. That, until there shall be 5,000 free 
male inhabitants of twenty-one years and upward, in said Terri- 
tory, the whole number of Representatives to the General Assem- 
bly shall not l)e less than seven- nor more than nine, to be appor- 
tioned by the Governor to the several counties in said TeiTitory, 
agi'eoably to the number of free males of the age of twenty-one 
years and upward, which they may respectively contain." 

It was further provided by said act "That, whenever that pai't 
of the territory of the United States which lies to the eastward 
of a line beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami River, and 
running thence, due north, to the territorial line between the 
United States and Canada, shall be erected into an indejiendent 
State, and a,draitted into the Union on an equal footing with the 
original States, thenceforth said line shall become and remain 
permanently the boundary line between such State and the In- 

diana Territory, anything in this act contained to the contrary 
notwithstanding." And fm-ther, " That, until it shall be other- 
wise ordered by the Legislstm-es of the said Territories respect- 
ively, Chillicothe, on Scioto River, shall be the seat of the gov- 
ernment of the territory of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio River; and that St. Vincennes, on the "Wabash River, shall 
be the seat of government for the Indiana Territory." 

Indiana Territory was divided by an act of Congress, approved 
February 3, 1800, prescribing "That, fi'om and after the 1st day 
of March next, all that part of the Indiana TeiTitory which lies 
west of the Wabash River, and a direct line di-awn from the said 
Wabash River and Post Vincennes, due north, to the territorial 
line between the United States and Canada, shall, for the piu-- 
poses of temporary government, constitute a separate Territory, 
and be called Illinois " — leaving the boimdaiy of Indiana Terri- 
tory substantially as it is now as a State, except that the penin- 
sula of Michigan had been set apart as a distinct Territoiy by the 
act of Congress of January 11, 1805, with a line separating the 
two Territories as at present existing between the two States. 


I X D I A iV A T E 11 R I T R Y. 
When and How Fokmed— Its Boundahies and First Officers- 
Seat OF Government— Organization and Subsequent Pro- 
ceedings—Legislature and its Principal Enactments- 
Delegates IN Congress, their Acts and Influence- 
General Review of the Tbrritobal Government— Steps 


Result, etc. 

AS has been already shown, the area afterward known as In- 
diana Territory was set apart from the teiritoiy of the 
United States northwest of the Ohio River, by act of Congress 
appi'oved May 7, ISOO. by which it appears that the material por- 
tions of the ordinance of July 13, 1787. prescribing a form and 
regulations for the government of the Ten-itory ceded by the State 
of Virginia, continued in force and constituted the basis of the 
oi'ganic law of Indiana Territory, and tlie people residing witliin 
its limits were invested with all the rights, privileges and advan- 
tages granted and secm-ed to the people by the original ordinance. 
The boundaries of the territorial jiu-isdiction of Indiana were as 
defined in the concluding portion of the preceding chapter, and 
in efi'ect the same as now, with the difference in the eastern por- 
tion between what was known as the ten-itorial line, extending 
from the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Kentucky River north- 
ward to Fort Recovery, and a line running due north fi-om the 
mouth of the Great Miami River — the western boundai-y of tlie 
State of Ohio — which, during the existence of Indiana TeiTitory, 
was subject to the jurisdiction of Ohio, but, upon the adoption 
of a State constitution, became a piu't of the State of Indiana. 
On the 13th of May, 1800, AVilliam H. Hamson, a native of Vir- 
ginia, was confirmed as Governor of the TeiTitory. and John Gib- 
son, a native of Pemisylvania. and a distinguished pioneer (to ' 
whom, in 177-t, the Indian chief [a Mingo] Logan, delivered his 
celebrated speech), was appointed Secretary. Shortly afterward, 
William Clark, Hem-y Vanderburgh and John Griffin were ap- 
pointed Territorial Judges. The civilized population of the Ter- 
ritory at that tiin<> was estimated at 4,875. The Secretary pro 
ceedcd at once to Vincennes, the seat of the Territorial govern- 
ment, where he arrived in the month of July of thatyeai", and pro- 


ceeded, in the absence of Gov. Harrison, who did not arrive until 
Jannaiy, 1801, to appoint several of the Territorial oiEcers, and 
to provide for the administration of the laws. On the 10th of 
January, Gov. Harrison issued a proclamation requiring the 
Judges of the Territoi-y to attend at the seat of government for the 
piu'pose of adopting and publishing " such laws as the exigencies 
of the times " required, and foi' the performance of other acts con- 
formable to the ordinances and laws of Congi-ess for the govern- 
ment of the Territory." These officers met on the 12th of Jan- 
uary, and continued in session until the 20th of the month, when 
they adjoiu'ned, having, during the session, adopted and published 
seven laws and thi-ee resolutions. The titles of these laws and 
resolutions were the following: 1. A law supplemental to a law 
to regulate county levies. 2. A resolution concerning attorneys 
and counselors at law. 3. A law to regulate the practice of the 
General Coirrt on appeals and wi-its of errors. 4. A law respect- 
ing amendment and joefail. 5. A law establishing coui'tsof gen- 
eral quarter sessions of the peace in the counties of Knox, Ban- 
dolph and St. Clair. 0. An act repealing certain acts. T. A law 
appointing a Territorial Treasm'er. 8. A resolution respecting 
the establishment of ferries. 9. A law concerning the fees of 
officers. 10. A resolution concerning the compensation to the 
Clerk of the Legislature. 

The Judges above named commenced the first session of the 
General Coiut in the new Ten-itory at Vincennes, on the 3d of 
March, 1801. The first Grand Jiu'y impaneled was composed of 
nineteen persons, as follows: Luke Decker, Antoine Marchal, Jo- 
seph Baird, Patrick Simpson, Antoine Petit, Andre Montplaisem', 
John Ochiltree, Jonathan Marney, Jacob Tevebaugh, Alexander 
Valley, Francois Tui'pin, Fr. Compagnoitte, Charles Languedoc, 
Louis Severe, Fr. Languedoc, George Catt. Jolm Bt. Barois, 
Abraham Decker and Philip Catt. ■ 

By virtue of the royal ordinance of Louis XV. King of France. 
in 1721, re-enacting the edict of Louis XIII, of France, dated 
April 23, 1615, the Company of the Indies was authorized to im- 
port negro slaves into the province of Louisiana, which, at one 
time, extended, on the west side of the Alleghany Mountains, over 
all the teiTitory watered by the Mississippi and its ti'ibutaries ; 
hence, some of the early French colonists who settled at Kaskas- 
kia, and certain residents of Post Vincennes, were slaveholders, 
and, during the period from 1721 to 1784, while the Northwestern 
Territory was claimed successively by France, Great Britain and 
Virginia, the right to so hold them was unquestioned by any leg- 
islative authority. At the date last mentioned, however, March 1, 
1784, that portion of the Ten-itory claimed by Virginia was trans- 
ferred to the United States, in which, by the ordinance of July 
13, 1787, it was declared that neither slavery nor involuntary ser- 
vitude should exist, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes. 
This provision extended to and was incorporated in the acts where- 
by the authority of Indiana Territoiy was transferred to its jiu-is- 
diction as a State Govermnent. 

Gov. Han'ison, on the 22d of November, 1802, in compliance 
with the request of many of the inhabitants of the Territory, is- 
sued a proclamation notifying the people that an election would 
be held on the 11th of December following, for the pm-pose of 
choosing delegates to meet iu convention,. at Vincennes, on the 
20th of that month, to consider the expediency of repealing or 
suspending that article of the ordinance which prohibited the 
holding of slaves. As a result of the deliberation of that conven- 
tion, a memorial -was presented to Congress to that effect. The 
committee, of which Mi'. Randolph, of Virginia, was Chairman, 

wisely foreseeing that involuntary or even voluntary slavei'y would 
not be conducive to the prosperity of the Territory or futm-e 
State, reported adversely on the proposition, and Congress, in 
adopting the report of that committee, refused to suspend the ai'ti- 
cle, and left it in full force and effect. 

On the 11th day of September, 1804, a majority of 138 of the 
fi-eeholders of the Territory having declared that they were in 
favor of organizing a Territorial General Assembly, Gov. HaiTi- 
son issued a proclamation declaring that the Territory had passed 
into the second grade of govermnent, as contemplated by the or- 
dinance of 1787, and fixing Thursday, January 3, 1805, as the 
time for holding an election in the several counties of the Teiri- 
tory , to choose members of a House of Representatives, who would 
be required to meet at Vincennes, on the 1st of February, for the 
purpose of adopting measmes for the organization of a Ten-i- 
torial Legislative Council. The meeting was held, in obedience 
to that proclamation, on the 7th day of Februai-y, 1805, and se- 
lected, by ballot, thej names of ten residents of the TeiTitoiy 
to be forwarded to the President, who would select five out of 
that number, and commission them as members of the Legislative 
Coimcil of the Territory of Indiana. The following are the names 
of the ten persons selected and sent to the President, as provid- 
ed by the ordinance : John Rice Jones and Jacob Kuykendall, 
of Knox County; Samuel Gwathmey and Marston Green Clark, 
of Clai'k County: Benjamin Chambers, of Dearborn Count}'; 
Jean Francois Berry and John Hay, of St. Clair County: Pierre 
Menard, of Randolph County; and James Maj' and James Hemy, 
of Detroit, in the coimty of "Wayne. 

President Jefferson, however, waived his right to designate 
the names of five persons from the list of ten, and forwai-ded to 
Gov. Hai-rison blank commissions, with authority to make the se- 
lections and till the blanks with the names of suitable persons for 
members of the Legislative Council, rejecting " laud- jobbers, dis- 
honest men, and those who, though honest, might suffer them- 
selves to be wai'ped by party prejudices." 

By act of Congress, approved January 11, 1805, a few days 
after the first meeting of the House of Representatives of In- 
I diana Territory, and before the organization of the Legislative 
I Coimcil, the Territory of Indiana was divided, in order to estab- 
lish the Territory of Michigan, which was separated from the In- 
diana Territory fi-om and after June 30, 1805. by the following 
I boundai'y: "All that part of the Indiana Territory which lies 
north of a line di-awn east from the southerly bend of Lake Mich- 
igan, until it shall intersect Lake Erie, and east of a line di-awn 
fi-om the said southerly bend thi'ough the middle of said lake to 
its northern extremity, and thence due north to the northern 
boundary of the ITnited States." This separation transferred the 
coimty of Wayne, in which Deti'oit was situated, from Indiana to 
Michigan Territory. 

Pursuant to the proclamation of Gov, Harrison, dated Jime 7, 
1805, the first General Assembly or Legislatiu-e of Indiana Terri- 
tory was held, commencing on the 29th of July. The members 
composing the House of Representatives were Jesse B. Thomas, 
of Dearborn County: Davis Floyd, of Clark Count}': Benjamin 
Parke and John Johnson, of Knox County; Shadrach Bond and 
William Biggs, of St. Clair Couuty; and George Fisher, of Ran- 
doljjh County. Gov. Han'ison delivered his first message to " the 
Legislative Council and House of Representatives of the Indiana 
Territory on the 30th of July." At this session of the General 
Assembly, Benj amin Parke, a native of New Jersey, was elected, on 
joint Ijallot. a delegate to represent the Territoi'y in Congress. 



In 1807, the first revision of the laws of the Territory, adopted 
aud published by Gov. St. Clair and the Judges of the territory 
northwest of the Ohio, and still in force, with those adopted and 
published by Gov. Harrison and the Territorial Judges, took 
})laoe, and were published at Vineennes, by Messrs. Stout & Smoot, 
" printers to the Territory." The Committee of Revision con- 
sisted of John Rice Jones and John Johnson. 

On the 14th of December, 1815, the Legislature of Indiana 
Territory adopted a memorial, which was presented to Congress 
on the 28th, setting forth that, pursuant to the ordinance for the 
formation of a Territorial Government, a census had been taken 
of the fi-ee white inhabitants of the Territory, showing the ag 
gregate number to be 03,897 — more than the number necessary 
to authorize the adoption of a State constitution and its admission 
as such into the sisterhood of States; and asking Congi-ess to or- 
der an election for that purpose, on the first Monday in May, 1816, 
for Representatives to meet in convention and determine whether 
a State Government be formed, and, if detenuined in favor of the 
proposition, to fi-ame a constitution and fomi of government. 
The memorial was presented, reported on January 5 ; the enab- 
ling act was passed, and received the President's approval April 
19, 1816. 



;i;ss -si i:s|.:(;UENT Pno- 
/All'i\ llnruMENTS— 

<-vi. Cii-WKNTION— The 


r.\ssA..L C.I nil: ICnablinCt Act EY f'l 

(■|II.IM.~ l'l:i;i,IMINARY TO Olli 
T\Ki\(. Ijii'T of the Act— O 
Mlmulk.^ oi TjiE First Constitu 
First IjKGI.slature— First Congi 
— Review of the St.4.te'.s History. 

AS has been already shown, the memorial presented by the 
people of Indiana Territory asking for a charter under the 
authority of which a constitution might be formed as the basis of 
a State Government, and finally admitted as a State, had been ac- 
cepted and an act passed and approved for the purposes named. 
Section 1 of that act provided " That the inhabitants of the Ter- 
ritory of Indiana be, and they are hereby authorized, to form for 
themselves a constitution and State Government, and to assume 
such name as they shall deem proper; and the said State, when 
formed, shall be admitted into the Union upon the same footing 
with the original States, in all respects whatever." The second 
section fixed the boundaries of the State as follows: " Bounded 
on the east l)y the meridian line which forms the western bound- 
ary of the State of Ohio; on the south, by the River Ohio, from 
the mouth of the Great Miami River to the mouth of the River 
Wabash; on the west, by a line drawn along the middle of the 
Wabash, from its mouth to a point where a due north line drawn 
fi'om the town of Vineennes would last touch the northwestern 
shore of the said river; and from thence by a due north line, imtil 
the same shall intersect an east-and-west line drawn through a 
point ten miles north of the southern extreme of Lake Michigan; 
,,n the north, by the said east-and-west line until the same shall 
iuti'rscft the tii-st-mentioned meridian line which forms the west- 
ern boundary of the State of Ohio; Pmridecl, That the convention 
hereinafter jn'ovided for, when formed, shall ratify the bounda- 
ries aforesaid: otherwise, thoy shall be and remain as now pre- 
scribed by the ordinance for the government of the territory north- 
west of the River Ohio; Provided, also, That the said State shall 
have conoiu'rent jurisdiction on the River Wabash, with the 'State 

to be formed west thereof, so far as the said river shall form a 
common boundary to both." 

Section 3 provided for the qualifications of voters, and for the 
holding of an election to determine the question of expediency as 
to the formation of a State constitution, and, upon the determina- 
tion of that question affii'matively, to form such a constitution. It 
provides " That all male citizens of the United States, who shall 
have an-ived at the age of twenty-one years, and resided within 
the said Territory at least one year previous to thedayof election, 
and shall have paid a county or Territorial tax; and all persons 
having in other respects the legal qualifications to vote for Repre- 
sentatives in the General Assembly of the said Territory, be and 
they are hereby authorized to choose Representatives to form a 
convention. * * * * A.nd the election for the Representa- 
tives aforesaid shall be holden on the second Monday in May, 
1816, throughout the several counties in the said Territory; and 
shall be conducted in the same manner and under the same penal- 
ties as prescribed by the laws of said Territory regulating elec- 
tions therein for members of the House of Representatives." 

Accordingly, said election was held on the second Monday, 
which was the 13th day of May, pursuant to the foregoing pro- 
vision, the result of which was the selection of the following per- 
sons to represent the counties named: 

Wayne County, four members — Jeremiah Cox, Patrick Baird, 
Joseph Holman and Hugh Cull. 

Franklin Coimty, five members — William H. Eads, James 
Brownlee, Enoch McCarty, Robert Hanna, Jr., and James Noble. 

Dearborn Coimty, three members — James Dill, Solomon Man- 
waring and Ezra Ferris. 

Switzerland County, one member — William Cotton. 

Jefferson County, thi-ee members — David H. Maxwell, Samuel 
Smock and Nathaniel Hunt. 

Clai'k County, five members — Jonathan Jennings, James Scott, 
Thomas Carr, John K. Graham and James Lemon. 

Harrison County, five members — Dennis Pennington, Davis 
Floyd, Daniel C. Lane, John Boone and Patrick Shields. 

Washington County, five members —John Du Pauw, Samuel 
Milroy, Robert Mclntyre, William Lowe and William Graham. 

Knox County, five members — John Johnson, John Badollet, 
William Polke, Benjamin Parke and John Benefiel. 

Gibson County, four members — David Robb, James Smith, 
Alexander Devin and Frederick Rappe. 

Warrick County, one member — Daniel Grass. 

Pen-y County, one member — Charles Polke. 

Posey County, one member — Darm Lynn. 

The session of the convention was commenced on the lOtli of 
June at Corydon, and continued until the 29th, when, having 
comj)leted its labors of forming a State constitution, and settled 
the question of expediency thereby, it adjom-ned. Jonathan Jen- 
nings presided over the deliberations of the convention, and AVill- 
iam Hendricks was Secretary. In addition to the matter of form- 
ing a State constitution, by the provisions of Section 6 of the en- 
abling act, certain propositions were submitted for the considera- 
tion of the convention: " First — That the section numbered 16, 
in every township, aud when such section has been sold, gi-anted 
or disposed of, other lands efjuivnleut thereto, and contiguous 
to the same, shall be granted to the inhabitants of such town 
ship for the use of schools." The second proposition had ref- 
erence to the reservation of salt springs and the lands upon 
which they were situated, not exceeding thirty-six entire sec- 
tions, for the usi. of the people of the State, under such reg- 



ulations as the Legislatui'e might prescribe. ThirS — That 
5 per cent of the net proceeds of the lands in the Territory should 
be reserved for making public roads and canals, three-fifths of 
which should be applied to those objects within the State, and 
two-fifths for roads leading to the State, as might be directed by 
Congress. The foui'th proposition reserved one entire township 
of land for the use of a seminary of learning, regulated by the 
State, and the fifth proposition reserved fom' sections of land, 
which were granted to the State for the piu'pose of fixing the seat 
of government thereon, to be located under the direction of the 
State Legislature. If the propositions so submitted were accept- 
ed by the convention, the provisions thereof should be obligatory 
upon the United States to maintain the same. An ordinance- 
passed by the convention and signed by the proper officers, on the 
29th of June, 1816, sets forth its conclusions touching those prop- 
ositions as follows: "That we do, for ourselves and om', posterity, 
agree, determine, declai-e and ordain, that we will and do hereby 
accept the propositions of the Congress of the I'nited States, as 
made and contained in their act of the 19th day of April, 
1816, entitled 'An act to enable the people of the Indiana TeiTi- 
tory to foiTQ a State Government and constitution, and for the ad- 
mission of such State into the Union, on an equal footing w/ith 
the original States.' And we do fiu'ther, for om'selves and our 
posterity, hereby ratify, confinn and establish the boundaries of 
the said State of Indiana, as fixed, prescribed, laid down and es • 
tablished, in the act of Congress aforesaid; and we do also fur- 
ther, for om'selves and our posterity, hereby agree, determine, 
declare and ordain, that each and every tract of land sold by the 
United States, lying within the said State, and which shall be 
sold from and after the 1st day of December next, shall be and 
remain exempt fi-om any tax laid by order or under any authority 
of the said State of Indiana, or by or under the authority of the 
General Assembly thereof, whether for State, county or township, 
or any other purpose whatever, for the term of five years from 
and after the day of sale of any such tract of land; and we do, 
moreover, for ourselves and our posterity, hereby declai-e and or- 
dain, that this ordinance, and every part thei-eqf, shall forever be 
and remain irrevocable and inviolate, without the consent of the 
United States, in Congress assembled, first had and obtained for 
the alteration thereof, or any part thereof." 

Thus, the Territorial Government of Indiana was superseded 
by a State Government on the 7th of November. 1810. and the 
State was therefore formally admitted into the Union by a joint 
resolution of Congress, approved on the 11th of December of the 
same year. 

On the 8th day of November, 1816, the day following that 
upon which the State constitution took effect, the General Assem- 
bly, in joint session, elected James Noble and Waller Taylor to 
represent the State of Indiana in the Senate of the United States. 
Subsequently, Robert A. New was elected Secretary of State; 
William H. Lilley, Auditor of Piiblic Accounts: and Daniel C. 
Lane, Treasurer of State. At the fii-st general election, held on 
the first Monday in August. 1816, as in the constitution provided, 
Jonathan Jennings was elected Governor, having received 5,211 
votes, while his competitor, Thomas Posey, who was then Govern- 
or of the Territory, received only 3,934 votes. Cln-istopher Har- 
rison, of Washington County, was elected Lieutenant Governor, 
and William Hendricks was elected the first Representative from 
this State in the Lower House of Congress. 

The followiug members composed the first General Assemlily 
of the State of Indiana : 

Senate — William Polke, from Knox County; William Prince, 
of Gibson County; Daniel Grass, for Posey, Peny and Warrick 
Counties; Patrick Baird, of AVaTOe; John Conner, of Franklin; 
John Du Pauw, for Washington, Orange and Jackson Counties; 
John Paul, for Jefferson and Switzerland Counties: Ezra Ferris, 
of Dearborn County; Dennis Pennington, of Harrison County; 
and James Beggs, of Clark County — ten members. 

House of Representatives — Joseph Holman, Ephraim Over, 
man and John Scott, for Wayne County; James Noble, David 
Mounts and James Brownlee, from Franklin Coimty; Amos Lane 
and Erasmus Powell, fi-om Dearborn; John Dmnont, fi'om Swit- 
zerland; Williamson Dunn and Samuel Alexander, from Jefferson; 
Benjamin Ferguson, Thomas Carr and John K. Graham, fi'om 
Clark: Davis Flbyd, Jacob Zenor and John Boone, from Hai'rison; 
Samuel Milroy and Alexander Little, from Washington; Will- 
iam Graham, from Jackson; Jonathan Lindley, fi'om Orange; 
Isaac Blackford, Walter Wilson and Hemy I. Mills, fi'om Knox; 
Edmund Hogan and John Johnson, fi-om Gibson; Dann Lynn, 
from Posey; Ratliff Boone, from Warrick; and Samuel Conner, 
fi'om Perry County — twenty-nine members. 

The fii-st session of the Legislature after the organization of 
the State was commenced on Monday, the 4th day of November, 
1816. John Paul was made Chairman of the Senate, pro tem- 
pore, and Isaac Blackford was elected the fii-st Speaker of the 
House of Representatives. The oath of office was administered 
to Jonathan Jennings, Governor, and Chi-istupher Harrison, Lieu- 
tenant Governor, on the third day of the session, November 7, at 
which time the Governor delivered his inaugiu-al address. The 
session closed on the 3d day of January, 1817, having enacted an 
excellent code of laws for the government of the State in the first 
years of its independent existence, some of which have, in sub- 
stance at least, continued in force from that time to the present, 
showing the discreet judgment and wise perception of those early 

" The histdiy of Indiana," says Mi-. Dillon, " fi'om_ the year 
1816 to the present time, would be, if it were now written in de- 
tail, a record of the rapid growth of a State whose peaceful prog- 
ress toward a condition of strength and prosperity was some- 
times greatly emban-assed by the presence of financial difficulties, 
once agitated by the events of a war between the United States 
and Mexico, and often retarded by the distm-bing influence of 
unwise legislation, and by obstacles which had their origin in the 
demoralizing dissensions of local factions." In 1816, the actual 
number of fi'ee white inliabitancs was less than seventy thousand, 
but there were elements of rapid development patent to the eye 
of the provident emigrant which tended to swell the tide of home- 
seekers toward the inviting prospects presented for permanent set- 
tlements within the boundaries of the State that had so recently 
emerged Tfrom the TeiTitorial condition, and the census of 1820 
showed a population of 147,178 — an increase of more than 100 
per cent in a period of about fom- yeai-s, which, considering the 
era of our national existence, was beyond what the most sanguine 
had anticipated. New-comers selected homesteads, and without 
delay began to improve them. The unbroken forest gave place to 
j cultivated fields, small at first, but increasing in area accordingly 
[ as the demand and opportunity were in satisfactory accord; the 
Indian wigwam gave place to the pioneer cabin of the white man, 
which, in the progress of yeai-s, was supplanted ' by the stately 
mansion. A sense of secm'ity pervading the minds of the people 
was a sufficient guarantee to insure the coming-in of i 
from " older settled districts." " The hostile Indian tribes 1 



incr been overpowered, humbled and impoverished, no longer ex- 
cited the feai-s of the pioneer settlers, who dwelt in safety in their 
plain log cabin homes, and cultivated their small fields without 
the protection of armed sentinels. The numerous temporaiy forts 
and block-houses, which were no longer required as places of ref- 
uge for the pioneers, were either converted into dwelling houses, 
or suffered to fall into ruin." Hence, the march of civilization 
was rapidly onward, transforming, within the period of one's 
memory, the stately forest into the magnificent area of elaborately 
cultivated fields. Early foreseeing that " the universal diffusion 
of knowledge is liberty's only safeguard," om- immediate ancestors, 
without delay, began to make ample provisions for the founding, 
development and maintenance of a system of education that should 
meet the wants of a rapidly increasing populatioli, and ultimately 
present a fund for securing advantages unequaled by those of 
any other State — such, in fact, as the children of the present gen- 
eration are jjennitted to enjoy to the fullest measure of their ca- 

At a very early date in the history of Indiana, the idea of a 
general system of internal improvements began to agitate the 
public mind. In 1820 and 1821, the question had elicited con- 
siderable discussion in circles likely to be advantaged by the op- 
erations of a judicious policy in that direction. Indiana and Illi- 
nois, in 1822, began jointly to forward such a movement by mak- 
ing provisions for the improvement of the gi'eat rapids of the 
Wabash, and Gov. William Hendricks, in his message to the 
General Assembly of the State, in December, 1822, says: " We 
ought to have fi'ee and unshackled, as far as we can, our resources 
for improvement and purposes which the interests of the State 
may hereafter require, if not at our hands, at the hands of those 
who succeed us. * * * Let us not lose sight of those great 
objects to which the means of the State should, at some future 
day, be devoted — the navigation of the Falls of the Ohio; the 
improvement of the Wabash, the AVliite River and other streams ; 
and the construction of the National and other roads through the 
State." In 1823, the subject of connecting the Maumee and Wa- 
bash Rivers by a canal navigation, attracted, with interested effect, 
the attention of the law- making authorities of the two States, 
Ohio and Indiana, and steps were taken to bring about so desira- 
ble an enterprise as such a one promised to be. 

Speaking on the subject, in his message of December, 1826, 
Gov. Ray says, " On the constniction of roads and canals, them, 
we must rely, as the safest and most certain State policy, to re- 
lieve our situation, place us among the th-st States in the Union, 
and change the cry of 'hai-d times' into an open acknowledgment 
of contentedness. « * * We must strike at the internal im- 
|irovoment of the State, or foiin our minds to remain poor and 
unacquainted with each other." Gov. Ray again, in his message 
of December, 1827, says: "Within the space of the last fifteen 
months, public lands have been granted to the State of Indiana, 
* * * estimated to be worth aliout >:|.2."i(t.<li>(l. free of cost, 
for special piu'poses." By the treatii's witli lln' l'citt;iwnt(imies 
and Miamis, in October, 1826, gi'nnts ,,f land wciv i.iadc specific- 
ally for the purposes of the right of way and for the consti'uction 
of a canal fi-om Lake Erie to the Ohio River, since known as the 
Wabash & Erie Canal, and the road commoucing at Lake Michi- 
gan, traversing the State in a southeasterly direction \o Indian- 
apolis, afterward called the Michigan road. In this' connecti(m. 
Gov. Ray further says: " It is believed that the most sanguine pol- 
itician will be umililc til jioiiil to any cnnilMii.-itioii of circumstances 
which will again |.hic.' iindi'v tlio control of llie State, in the 

same time, and, perhaps, not for half a centiu-y — perhaps never — 
such extensive and valuable resoiu-oes for prosecuting a grand sys- 
tem of internal improvements to a successfvil termination, and 
for the ultimate production of a revenue that shall relieve oui- fel- 
low-citizens from taxation." All the early Governors and the 
leading politicians of the State, for a long series of years, used 
their utmost influence in favor of the fonnation and adoption of 
a complete system. In 1828, the opening of the original line of 
the Michigan road was commenced and forwarded toward com- 
pletion, with occasional delays. The Wabash & Erie Canal, 
within the limits of the State of Indiana, began to be constructed, 
and was completed as far as La Fayette, about the year 1840, and 
from that point to Evanville a few years later. In 1836, a gen- 
eral system of internal improvements was adopted by the State, 
and soon canals and railroads were commenced in the most exti'av- 
agant multiplicity, the result of which was almost disastrous to 
the credit of the State, as well as to the ftirther progress of many 
valuable public improvements in process of construction and par- 
tially completed. The aggregate cost of these improvements, at 
the close of the year- 1841, such of them as had been completed, 
was .^8,164,528. 21; the estimated total cost of the completion of 
all of them amounted to 119,914,244. 

Following in the wake of the internal improvement system was 
a long period of stagnation in public affairs, and in the affairs of in- 
dividuals as well. When an era of prosperity began again to davm, 
the spirit of progress was for a time overshadowed by the war cloud 
that gathered on the borders of Texas and Mexico and threatened 
to involve the counti'y in a turmoil of bloodshed. Indiana was 
prompt in answering the call of the President for soldiers to de- 
feud the nation's honor, and her record during the period of hos- 
tilities is one of which no citizen need be ashaited. 

In the progi'esB of years, many of the soiu'ces of wealth before 
luideveloped began to be opened \vp, tending, by the encom-age- 
ment of healthy progress, to re-invigorate the dormant energies 
of the people, who, as if prompted by the impulse of inspiration- 
moved on, prospering and to prosper in the enjoyment of a more 
provident public economy. Agricultm-e and manufactm-es, before 
neglected, were promoted with a generous and healthy activity. 
Our educational system, which, in time past, had had an exist- 
ence little more than in name, came foi-th to move forward in its 
mission for good, and its fruits are every where visible. Our 
progi'pss is onward and iipward. 


The Tempokary Capitai,— The Pkovision Made fob Locat- 
ing THE Peiimanent Capitai.— In'dianapolis Selkited— 


TUUE AT IndiXnapoi.i.s— .Some ok the Leawno State Ixsti- 
TUTrON.S— Mi.^cellany. 

DURING the existence of the Territorial government of In 
diana, Vincennes was its capital. There the first and suli 
sequent Legislative Assemblies met and enacted laws by wliicli 
the affairs of the jurisdiction were regulated. When it had lui n 
determined that a movement should be made for the organization 
of a State government, and the act of Congx-ess had been passed 
and approved authorizing the people to meet in convention to de- 
termine whether it was deemed expedient to form such State gov- 
ernment, and, upon tlie decision of that question ai&-matively, to 


frame a constitution and form a State government according to 
the models of other States, the convention so ordered met, and was 
held at Corydon, in Harrison Coimty, and, from and after the tak- 
ing effect of that constitution, became the seat of government of 
the State, and some public buildings were erected for the accom- 
modation of the State officers, and for the meeting of the General 
Assembly, and for other purposes. 

By the provision of the fifth proposition of Section 5 of the act 
of April 19, 1816, authorizing " the people of Indiana TeiTitory to 
form a constitution and State government," a gi'ant of four sections 
of land was made to the State, for the piu'pose of fixing their seat 
of government thereon, which fom' sections should, under the di- 
rection of the Legislatm-e of said State, lie located at any time in 
such tovmship and range " as the Legislatm-e aforesaid may select, 
on such lands as may hereafter be acquired by the United States 
from the Indian tribes within the said Ten-itory; Pmcideil, That 
such locations shall be made prior to the public sale of the lands 
of the United States sm-rounding such location." At that time, 
the lands in the central portion of the State had not yet been 
ceded to the United States. Subseijuently, however, a treaty with 
the Delawares was concluded at St. Mary's, Ohio, on the 8d of 
October, 1818, by which the United States became vested with the 
title to all the lands of the Delawares within the limits of the 
State, including the right to grant, sell and convey the same. 
These lands were surveyed early in the year 1820, preparatory 
to their being offered for sale. On the 11th of January of 
that year, the Legislature, to carry into effect the grant made 
by Congress, to which reference has been made, appointed 
George Hunt, John Conner, John Gilliland, Stephen Ludlow, 
Joseph Barthelomew. John Tipton, Jesse B. Dm-ham, Frede- 
rick Rapp, AVilliam Prince and Thomas Emerson, Commissioners 
to make selection of an eligible site for the permanent capital of 
the State, and locate the specified grant of foiu' sections for the 
purposes contemplated in the proposition in the enabling act con- 
tained, and which was accepted by the convention at Cor^-don. 
But eight of these Commissioners accepted the appointment tend- 
ered and took part in the work assigned them, Messrs. Prince and 
Rapp taking no part. On the 22d of May, 1820, the Commis- 
sioners met at the house of William Conner, according to instruc- 
tions, and were sworn, but did not commence operations imtil the 
following morning. The borders of White River seem to have 
been the objective poiut. and the attention of the Commissioners, 
in their tour of inspection, was confined to those limits. Having 
traversed this valley a considerable distance, making examina- 
tions as they progressed, several points were looked upon with fa- 
vor, and the merits of each were freely discussed — sometimes 
quite warmly. Finally, the choice was narrowed down to three 
sites which were conceived to be at all suitable. These thi-ee 
points, in the order of their merits respectively, were: The 
mouth of Fall Creek, Conner's, and the bluffs of White River. 
The examination continued from the 22d of May until the 7th day 
of June, excepting a delay of about one week, occasioned by the 
incomplete state of the sm-veys of the lands in the vicinity, which 
were then in progress under the direction of Judge Laughlin, 
United States Surveyor, assisted by Charles H. Test. On the morn- 
ing of Wednesday, June 7, the Commissioners again met at the 
McCormick residence for the final discussion of the questions in- 
volved, and to agree upon the site to be selected, when, every- 
thing having been deliberated upon, on motion of John Tipton, it 
was resolved by the Commissioners present to select Sections 1 
and 12, the east and west fractions of Section 2, the east fraction 

of Section 11, and so much off the east side of fi-actional Section 
3, divided by a uorth-and-south line running parallel to the west 
boundary of said section, as would make foiu- sections, all in 
Township 15 north. Range 8 east. Thus, the site for the capital 
city of Indiana was determined and located: and the report of 
the Commissioners to that effect was submitted to the Legislature 
at its next session,' and their action duly ratified on the 0th of 
Januai-y, 1821. By the same act, the Legislature appointed 
Christopher Han'ison. James Jones and Samuel B. Booker Com- 
missioners to lay off' the town, which, at the suggestion of Judge 
Sullivan (afterward of the Supreme Coiu't), who was a member of 
the committee that prepared the bill, was named "Indianapolis." 
the capital city of Indiana — a significant name, truly. 

The committee appointed to make the smwey of the town jihit 
was directed to meet on the first Monday in April following, ap- 
point two Surveyors and a Clerk, make the survey and prepare 
two maps thereof, advertise and sell the alternate lots as soon as 
practicable, the proceeds of which sale were to constitute a build- 
ing fund. At the time appointed for the meeting of the com- 
mission, Christopher Hai'rison onh' was present. Proceedings 
were not delayed in consequence of the absence of the other two 
members. He at once selected and appointed Elias P. Fordham 
and Alexander Ralston, Smweyors. and Benjamin I. Blythe, Clerk. 
Mr. Ralston, who had been an assistant in making the sm-vey of 
Washington City, possessing excellent taste as well as gi-eat skill 
in his profession, exerted a good iniiuence in making up the plan 
of Indianapolis, especially with reference to the width and regu- 
larity of its streets. Washington street, which was then, as now, 
the principal one, was laid oat 125 feet wide. The squares were 
regularly laid out with boundary lines of 420 feet, separated by 
streets ninety feet in width, following the cardinal points of the 
compass. From the exti-eme corners of the fom- adjacent squares, 
avenues wrere sent out to the northeast, northwest, southeast and 
southwest — all radiating fi'om the center of a circle known as the 
Governor's Cii'ole, situated on a beautiful knoll, comprising an 
area of about fom- acres, and sm-rounded by a street eighty feet 
wide. Very nearly in the center of the grant of four- sections, 
the original plat of Indianapolis was situated, and is but little re- 
moved from the geographical center of the State, which was prob- 
ably one of the considerations in the minds of the locating Com- 
missioners. The alternate lots proposed to be sold were adver- 
tised by Gen. John Carr, State Agent, to be sold on the 10th of 
October, 1821. " The sales lasted several days, and 31-1 lots were 
sold for the aggregate sum of $35,590.25, of which one-fifth, 
17,119.25, was paid down, the remainder to be paid in fom- ecpial 
annual installments. The lot on the northwest corner of Dela- 
ware and Washington streets brought the highest price — S500— 
and one west of the State house square sold for the next highest 
price — $500. Prices generally ranged between SlOO and S300."* 
From that time forward, Indianapolis continued to grow in 
coiisequence, because of the anticipated early removal of the cap- 
ital effects fi-om Corydon to the place designated for that pm-- 
pose. The removal did not take place, however, until some anx- 
iety began to manifest itsel E in the shape and chai-acter of ths im- 
provements. At the session of 1824, Mai-iou County was fii-st 
represented in the Legislatm-e; hence, fi-om that and other con- 
siderations, the opportune moment arrived when the capital city 
should become the capital in fact. Attention was directed to the 
I matter early in the session, and, on the 28th of January, 1824, 
an act was passed transferring the seat of government to Indian- 


apolis, ordering the removal to take place, under the direction 
of Samuel Merrill, Esq., State Treasm-er, of the offices and State 
archives, by the 10th of January, 1825, fixing that day, also, for 
the meeting of the Legislatm'e at the new capital, the imiinished 
covmty court house being designated as the place of meeting. 
According to his instructions, Mr. Merrill, with the aid of a heavy 
wagon, in the month of November, 1824, traveling at the rate of 
twelve and a half miles a day, transferred the State Government 
effects from the old to the new quarters. The transfer, outside 
of the removal and relocation of the State officers, was scarcely a 
noticeable featiu-e in the appearance or condition of the town. 
About the time the meeting of the Legislatiire was to take place, 
the effect of the change was everywhere noticeable, because the 
incoming of nearly one himdred men, some of them with their fam- 
ilies, was a strikingly perceptible increase in the population at 
that period. 

The fii-st session of the Legislatiu-e hold at Indianapolis -^as 
in the court house, according to the order, the House of Rep- 
resentatives meeting on the gi-ound floor of the building, and 
the Senate up-stairs; and, from that period until December, 1835, 
the sessions continued to be held there, and, in those days, there 
was sufficient room. 

On the 10th of Februai-y, 1831, a committee having been ap- 
pointed at the previous session to that end, the Legislatm-e, on its 
recommendation, by joint resolution, decided to build a State 
house, and took the necessary preliminary steps in that direction. 
It was anticipated that the proceeds of the unsold donation lots 
would yield .158,000— a stun deemed to be sufficient for the pm-- 
pose. " James Blake, Esq., was appointed a Commissioner to su- 
pervise the work, obtain plans and materials, and prepare gener- 
ally for active operations, with an appropriation of $3,000 for 
preliminaries. The plan (for which he was avithorized to offer 
$150) was to include a Senate chamber for fifty members, a hall 
for one htmdi'ed Representatives, rooms for the Sttpreme Court 
and the State Library, with twelve committee rooms and the nec- 
essary appurtenances, at a cost of $-45,000." Plans were ob- 
tained from Ithiel Town and I. J. Davis, of New York, which, 
being reported to the Legislatiu-e of 1832, were approved, and 
Gov. Noah Noble, Mon-is Morris and Samuel Merrill were ap- 
pointed a committee to superintend the construction. The con- 
tract was awarded to Ithiel Town, the architect, for $58,000, the 
work to be completed by November, 1838. Without delay, the 
contractor commenced work, and prosecuted it with vigor, complet 
ing it in December, 1835, in time for the meeting of the Legislatm-e. 
There were some defects in the construction as well as in the plan 
of the building, but, as a whole, the work was well done, and at 
a cost of only $2,000 in excess of the contract price. In its day, 
the struotui'e was recognized as a masterpiece of workmanship by 
all observers, and was indeed a magnificent edifice, entirely cred- 
itable to the projectors and builders. It was 200 feet long and 
100 feet wide. For forty-two yeai-s the building remained, and 
within its walls the representatives of the people assembled, at the 
periods prescribed by law, to deliberate upon and devise the 
methods best calculated to advance the public interest in the en- 
actment of laws demanded by the exigencies of the times. The 
session of 1877 was the last one held there. Soon after, the dis- 
mantling process began, and erelong its once stately form was a 
mass of ruins, the site to be re-occupied with a more magnificent 
structiu-e. ■ 


lNDi.\N-\ Hospital for the Insane— Its Organization and .'>ub- 


THE Blind— Legislative Actios Concerning It— The Re- 
sult— What WAS Accomplished— Institute for the Deaf 
and Dumb— Its Location and the Authority Therefor- 
Female Prison and Reformatory— Its Origin and Pur- 
pose, Mission and Wouk— House of Refuge for .Tuyenile 
Offenders- Appropri.ation for Building the Edifice— 
The Early Promoters of the Institution— Its Work. 

INSANE hospital. 

BY an act of the General Assembly of the State, approved Jan- 
uary 19, 1846, it was provided that the Commissioners of 
the Indiana Lunatic Asylum were authorized to cause to be erect- 
ed suitable buildings for the use and accommodation of said in- 
stitution, thereafter to be called the "Indiana Hospital for the In- 
sane," upon the grounds purchased for that purpose, piu-suant to an 
act approved January 13, 1845, two and a half miles east of the 
city of Indianapolis, at a cost of $4,000, the tract consisting of 
160 acres. The main building was erected in 1847 and 1848, of 
brick, trimmed with di-essed stone, and consisted of a central 
building and two wings. These wings " extend from each end of 
the central structui-e, laterally and backward, giving to the front 
a broken, receding range. The entire linear extent of the edifice 
is 624 feet. The three principal parts of the building, as it now 
stands, were erected at as many different periods — the center, in 
1847-48; the south wing, in 1853-56; and the north in 1866-69." 
" The center building has five stories, inclusive of basement, and a 
superior, or half -story. The basement is used for storerooms, etc. ; 
the second story for offices, public parlor, dispensary, officers' din- 
ing room, etc. ; the third and fourth stories, for private rooms for 
the Superintendent and other officers; and the fifth stoiy is occu- 
pied by the female employes. The wings are three and fom' 
stories in height, and are entirely occupied by wai-ds for the pa- 
tients. The entire capacity of the wards is about five hundred 
patients. Forty-four feet in the rear of the center building, and 
connected with it by a wooden corridor three stories in height, is 
the chapel building, 50x60 feet, the first floor of which contains 
the general kitchen, bakery, dining rooms for the employes, etc. ; 
the second, the Steward's office, sewing room, rooms for employes, , 
etc. ; and the third floor is entirely occupied by the chapel, hav- 
ing seating accommodations for 300 persons. Immediately in 
the rear of the chapel building is the engine building, 60x50 feet, 
the first floor of which contains the requisite boilers for heating 
all the buildings throughout, and the pumps of the water works, 
connected with which ai-e six fire-plugs, to furnish hose attach- 
ments in case of a fii'e breaking out. The second floor is occupied 
by the laimdry, and the third by rooms for the male employes. 
The entire building is lighted by gas. It has complete water 
works of the Holly system, * * « also an approved apparatus 
for forced upward ventilation."* The whole cost of the build- 
ings and grounds has been about the sum of $37a4.)00— a very 
small siun comjiiu'cd with the present value. In addition to the 
other buildings, a department for women has recently been erect- 
ed, at a cost of $000,(100. The present oflicei-s ai-e: Joseph G. 
Rogers, M. D., Superintendent; Assistant Physicians, Depart- 
ment for Women— J. C. Walker, M. D., J. W. Smith, M. D.; De- 
partment for Men A. J. Thomas, M. D., AV. H. Hubbard, M. D. 

•HoUowny'ii ludlunoiioUs, |.p. 181, 18;i. 


John Fishback, President: B. F. Spann. M. D., R. H. Tarleton. 
M. D., constitute the present Board of Trustees. 


The buildings erected as an asyhim, as well as an institution 
for the education of the blind, and the grounds belonging thereto, 
comprising an ai-ea of eight acres, occupy a position bounded on 
the south by North street; on the west by Meridian street; on the 
north by Walmit street; and on the east by Pennsylvania street. 
The institute was founded by an act of the General Assembly of 
the State, in the year 1847, and was first opened in a rented build- 
ing, on the 1st of October of that year. The permanent build- 
ings were completed and tii'st occupied in the month of Februaiy, 
1853. The original cost of the buildings and grounds was $110,- 
000; their present value is not less than S35O,000. " The prin- 
cipal edifice is composed of a center building, having a front of 
ninety feet and a depth of sixty-one feet, and is five stories in 
height; together with two foiu'-story wings, each thirty feet in 
fi-ont by eighty-three feet in depth; making a total frontage of 
lot) feet. Each of these sections of the building is siu'mounted 
by a handsome cupola, of the Corinthian order of architeetm-e. 
The building is mainly constracted of brick, stuccoed in imitation 
of sandstone, the basement story being faced with sandstone ash- 
lar, rustic-jointed. The portico of the center building, and ver- 
andas on the fi'onts and sides of the wings, are of sandstone: the 
former thirty feet wide by thirty-five feet deep, and extending to 
the top of the third story. The portico and cornices of the build- 
ing ai-e of the Ionic order. In addition to the main struotm-e and 
usual outbuildings, there is a plain three-story brick building, 
forty by sixty feet, containing the work-shops for the several 
trades of the pupils. The grounds ai-e handsomely adorned, and 
the goveiTiment of the institution is excellent, and the efficiency 
second to none of the kind in the country. 

" Mental and physical training are the prime objects of school 
life: but, in the Indiana Institute for the Blind, the physical 
training is of equal importance. To meet this acknowledged de- 
fect in the institute, a class in calisthenics has been formed, and 
is now in successful operation. To eradicate bad habits of cai-ly 
life, to give gi-acefulness of caiTiage and better health of body 
and mind, ai-e the results anticipated from this course of train- 

The principal officers aie: Ti-ustees -John Fishback, Presi- 
dent; AVilliam V. AViles, Treasiu-er; and Daniel MowTer, Secre- 
tary. Superintendent, W. B. Wilson. Teachers in the Literary 
Depai-tment, J. C. Black, Miss H. A. Daggett, Miss M. B. Pile 
and Miss E. Green; teachers in the Music Department, E. A. 
Newland, Miss H. A. Hauvy and Miss Josephine Culbertson; 
teachers in the Handicraft Department, J. M. Bichards and Miss 
Livonia Mason. 


The construction of the buildings appertaining to this institu- 
tion was authorized by an act of the Legislature passed and ap- 
proved in 1844. The institute proper consists of thi-ee build- 
ings, connected by con'iders. Two of these buildings were erect- 
ed in 1848-49; the third, in 1S89-70. " The fi-ont building has 
a fagade of 260 feet, and contains the offices, library, general 
study rooms, officers' and teachers' rooms, and the dormitories for 
the pupils. The center oE this building is eighty by fifty-foiu- 
feet, and five stories high; the lateral wings, sixty by thirty feet. 
and three stories in height; the transverse wings, thirty by fifty 

feet and four stories high. The middle building contains the 
storerooms, kitchen, laundi-y, bakery, dining halls, servants' 
rooms, hospital and several school -rooms. It is thi-ee stories high, 
the centar being forty by eighty feet and the wings thirty-two by 
seventy feet. The rear building contairjs the chapel and ten 
school-rooms. It is two stories high, the center being fifty feet 
square, and the wings forty by twenty feet. " The aggregate cost 
of these and the detached buildings belonging to the institute was 

The grounds comprise an area of 105 acres. The portion im- 
mediately surrounding the buildings are beautifully laid ofi' in 
walks and drives, and are elaborately ornamented with shrubbeiy 
and forest trees, and contain, also, a flower garden and conserv- 
atory. Appropriate spaces are devoted to the purposes of an or- 
chard, a vegetable garden and play-grounds. Altogether, the lo- 
cation is one of the most beautiful spots within the limits of the 
city of Indianapolis, and tends greatly to make those for whose 
benefit the institution, with its attractive surroundings, was con- 
structed, forget for the time their misfortunes in the scenes of 
beauty which suiTound them. 

The nmnber of pupils admitted into the institution within 
the year- ending October 31, 1880, was 390; of these. 41 were dis- 
missed; the number remaining at the end of the year, 349. Dm-- 
ing the same period, the disbui-sements for ordinary expenses 
were $50,005.88; for extraordinary expenses, $6,523.53; in the 
aggregate. $56,539.41. The appropriation made for the year 
1881 to cover ciu-rent expenses was $55,000, which was deemed 
to be sufficient for the pmpose. The officers at the close of the 
year 1880 were: John Fishback, President; James A. Cravens, 
Secretary; and M. James, Treasurer. William Glenn, Superin- 


This institution is one of the fi"uits of the agitation of the 
question of prison reform that had prevailed diu-ing the few years 
immediately preceding the year 1869, when the movement took 
form in the preparation for trying the experiment which was to 
determine its practicability. At the session of the General As- 
sembly of 1869, upon the recommendation of Gov. Baker, an act 
was passed authorizing the planning and construction of build- 
ings adapted to the purposes contemplated. Two departments 
are provided, one of which is penal and the other reformatory. 
The act creating the institution explains the nature and objects 
aimed at, as follows: 

" As soon as the Penal Dej^artment of the institution created by 
this act shall be ready for the reception of inmates, it .shall be the 
duty of the Warden of said State Prison, upon the order of the Gov- 
ernor, to transfer and convey t« the institution created by this act all 
the female convicts who may be confined in said prison, and deliver 
them to thu Superintendent of said institution, with a certified 
statement in writing, signed by such Warden, setting forth the 
name of each convict, the coiu't by which, and the offense of and 
for which, she was convicted and sentenced, the date of the sen- 
tence, the term of com-t at which sentence was pronounced, and 
the term for which said convict was sentenced, which certified 
statement in writing shall be sufficient authority for the confine- 
ment of such convict in the institution created by this act, for the 
portion of the term of such convict which may be and remain un- 
expired at the time when she shall be transferred to said insti- 
tution as aforesaid." 

The act .states further, concerning the Refonnatory Depart- 
ment, that "Whenever said institution shall have been proclaimed 



to be open for the reception of girls in the Reformatory Depart- 
ment thereof, it shall be lawful for said Board of Managers to re- 
ceive into their care and mangement, in the said Reformatory De- 
partment, girls under the age of fifteen years, who may be com- 
mitted to their custody, in either of the following modes, to wit: 
When committed by the Judge of any Circuit Coiu-t in the State, 
on complaint and proof by the parent or guardian, that, by reason 
of her incorrigible or vicious conduct, she has rendered her con- 
trol beyond the power of such parent or guai'diau. Second, when 
she shall be committed, as aforesaid, upon complaint of any citi- 
zen, due proof having been submitted showing her to be a fit sub- 
ject for the guardianship of such an institution. And third, 
when she shall be committed as aforesaid, on complaint and due 
proof of the Trustee of the township in which she resides, that 
such infant is destitute of a suitable home and of adequate means 
of obtaining an honest living, or that she is in danger of being 
brought up to lead an idle and immoral life." 

The building is situated just north of the Asyliun for the Deaf 
and Dumb, between it and the Arsenal building, and presents a 
co:umanding appearance, especially when viewed from the Na- 
tional road. It is of brick, two stories high, with a Mansard roof, 
and is 174 feet long, composed of a main building with side 
wings, and transverse wings at either end, the latter being 109 
feet in length. 

In the Penal Department, for the year ending October 31, 
1880. the number of inmates was 48, 34 having been admitted 
during the year, which, with 41 inmates at the beginning of the 
year, aggregated 75. 30 having been discharged or otherwise dis- 
posed of. In the ReformatojT, there were 147 inmates, October 
31, 1879: at the end of October, 1880, there were 148. 


By the provisions of an act approved March 8, 18(57, the Leg- 
islature of Indiana authorized the creation and maintenance of 
an institution to be known as " A House of Refuge for the Cor- 
rection and Reformation of Juvenile Offenders" — and $50,000 
was appropriated for the purpose of carrying out those provisions. 
The general supervision and government of the institution was 
vested in a Board of Control, consisting of three Commissioners. 
The first board consisted of Charles F. Coffin, of Wayne County; 
A. C. Downey, of Ohio County; and Joseph Orr, of La Porte 
County. This boai-d, at their first meeting, on the 23d of April, 
1807, having elected Mr. Coffin President, resolved to visit and 
examine the working systems of the various Reform Schools in 
the adjoining States of Ohio and Illinois. The result was an 
organization under what is known as the " Family System," after 
the model of the Ohio Reform Schools. This institution, for ob- 
vious reasons, was located near Plainfield, in Hendi-icks County, 
on the line of the Indianapolis, Terre Haute, Vandalia & St. 
Louis Railway, fourteen miles west of Indianapolis. The site is 
a very eligible one, and is of easy nccess from all parts of the 
State. The farm upon which it is situated contains 225 acres, 
combining beauty of location with fertility of soil. The build- 
ing is beautifully located on an elevated plateau, about eighteen 
feet above the jilane of the adjacent valley. On the 27th of Au- 
gust. 1807, Mr. and Mrs. Frank B. Ainsworth were appointed 
rcispi'ctivcly Supi-i-inteudent and Matron, who at once entered 
activi'ly upon tlic discharge of the duties assigned them. The 

liavinjr been erected, the Governor 

od hit 

proclamation on the 1st of January, 1808, . 
tion ready for the reception of inmates. 

Dclaring the iustitu- 

The plan of the buildings is an elongated octagon. Most of 
the family house.-* front to the center of the plateau, while the 
main building stands east of the center and fronts to the east, and 
is 64x128 feat, external measure, and has three stories above the 
basement. In the basement are the vegetable cellars, wash-room, 
furnace-room and the kitchen. On the first floor are the office, 
reception-room, officers' and boys' dining-rooms, pantry and store- 
rooms. On the second story are the Superintendent's family 
rooms, private office, and five dormitories for officers, etc. The 
third floor is occupied by the Assistant Superintendent's rooms, 
a storeroom and library, Ehe chapel and hospital. The family 
houses are uniform in style, and are thirty-six by fifty-eight feet. 
The first boy was received from Hendricks County, January 23, 
1808. A few days later, ten boys were transferred from the 
Northern Prison. 


ovw vvv,\ 

•HOOL Frxn.-< 


-Origin of the Sohooi. Funds— Thk Sixteenth Section— 


Legislative Enactment.s— Congre.ssional Town.siiip Fund 
—The Saline Fund— Suhplus Uevenue Fund— Bank Tax 
Fund — Si.NKiNu Find — Forfeitures — E.scueats — Swamp 
Land, etc. 
n^HE various funds of which the proceeds have been and are used 
-*- for the maintenance and utilization of om' present excellent 
school system, are the outgrowth of judicious forethought exer- 
cised by the legislative fathers of nearly a century ago, and of 
the subsequent direction of other soiu-ces of revenue into channels 
which ultimately concentrate the deposits of years into a com- 
mon fund for the promotion of educational interests. Shortly 
after the close o E the Revolutionary struggle, when the people of 
the colonies were taking their first steps toward solving the prob 
lem of self-government, and the territory northwest of the Ohio 
River was beginning to assume prominence, the Congress of the 
Confederation, by ordinance dated May 20, 1785, in prescribing 
the mode for disposing of lands within those limits, inserted the 
following: " There shall be reserved the Lot No. 16 of every town 
ship for the maintenance of public schools within the said town- 
ship; also, one-third part of all gold, silver, lead and copper 
mines, to be sold or otherwise disposed of, as Congress shall here- 
after direct." 

This purpose was further defined by the same authority, in Ar- 
ticle 3 of the " Ordinance for the government of the territory of 
the United States northwest of the River Ohio," dated July 13, 
1787, as follows: "Religion, morality and knowledge, being nec- 
essary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools 
and the means of education shall forever be encoui'aged." These 
provisions extended to the entire territory, and were incorpo- 
rated as a part of the organic law of the several States into which 
that vast area was af terwai-d cai'ved. Indiana was the second of the 
States so carved out, and the Congress of the United States, in 
the first of a series of propositions embodied in Section of the 
"Act to enable the people of the Indiana Territory to form a con- 
stitution and State Government, and for the admission of such 
State into the Union on equal footing with the original States," 
approved April 19, 1810, submitted the following to the conven- 
tion of the said Territory of Indianji, when formed, for their free 



acceptance oi- rejection, which, if accepted by the convention, 
shall be obligatory upon the United States." 

" First, that the section numbered 16 in every township, and, 
when such section has been sold, granted or disposed of, other 
lands equivalent thereto, and most contiguous to the same. sh,all 
be granted to the inhabitants of sucli township fur tlie use of 
schools. " 

The people of Indiana Territory having met in general con- 
vention pursuant to the aforesaid act, and formed a constitution 
entitling them to admission into the Union on the same tenns as 
original States, by ordinance dated June 29, ISIO, for themsleves 
and their posterity, agreed, determined, declared and ordained 
that they would and did thereby " accept the propositions of the 
Congress of the United States, as made and contained in their act 
of the Hlth of April, ISIO, ****** that this or- 
dinance and every part thereof should forever be and remain in-e- 
vocable and inviolate, without tlir ri,iis,.iit if tlic United States, 
in Congress assembled, first had :iiii! oI.i.him^I for the alteration 
thereof, or any part thereof." In the coii^titulidn so formed, Ai'- 
ticle 9, Sections 1 and 2, the provibions cited, and others, were 
guaranteed to the people of the State of Indiana, as follows: 

Section 1. Knowledge and learning, generally cliffiised through a 
community, being essential to the preservation of a free government, and 
spreading the opportunities and advantages of eilueation througli the 
various parts of tlie inuntrx lieinn liii.'hl\ rouilucivc to this end, it should 

plishment of the object loi \\hiili they are or may be intended : 
But no lands granted for the use of schools or seminaries of learning, 
shall lie sold by authority of this State, prior to the year 18'>n, and the 
moneys which m.iy tin raisi il mit uf tb^ - ili of mv -ur-li binds or other- 


. ,ind t 
Tlie G( 

countenance^ and 1-11.0111,1^. ili. puncipala of liumanit,\. industry and 

Sec. 2. It shall be tin- .liii.\ ot the General Assembly, as soon as eh- 
cumstances -will permit, to ]irovide by law, for a general .system ot educa- 
tion, ascending in a regular graduation from township schools to a State 
University, wherein tuition shall be gratis and equally open to all. 

Section 8 also provides that, " for the promotion of such salu- 
tary end, the money which shall be paid as an equivalent by per- 
sons exempt from militia duty, except in times of war, shall be 
exclusively, and 'in equal proportion, applied to the support of 
county seminai-ies; also, all fines assessed for any breach of the 
penal laws shall be applied to said seminaries, in the coimties 
wherein they shall be assessed." 

Section 5, too, makes a fiu-ther provision for the creation of a 
fund which has subsequently become an integral part of oiu' pres- 
ent common school fimd. This provision prescribes that, at any 
time when the Legislatiu'e should lay off a new county, " at least 
10 per centum [should] be reserved out of the proceeds of the sale 
of town lots in the seat of justice of such eoimty, and at the same 
session, ***** incorporate a library company, under 
such rules and regulations as [would] best secure its pennanence 
and extend its benefits." 

The fii-st step taken by the Legislature towai-d the utilization of 
the sixteenth section in each Congi'essiontil township was an act 
passed at the first regular session, and approved December U, 1 8 1 H. 

Under the provisions of this act, Superintendents of such sections, 
termed " school sections," in the several township.s, were ajj- 
ixiinted with authority to lease such lands for a term of time not 
exceeding seven years, the lessee being required to set out, each 
yeai', twenty-five apple trees and twenty-five jieaoh trees, until 
100 of each had been planted. By this means, those lauds were 
kept in a condition which would command a better price when 
offered for sale, since the State had not the authority to sell the 
same prior to the yeai' 1820, and appropriate moneys arising 
therefrom to their legitimate ptu-pose. 

At the session of 1820-21, by an act approved January 9, 
1821, the General Assembly appointed John Badollet, David Hart, 
William W. Martin, James Welch, Daniel I. Caswell, Thomas C. 
Searle and John Todd, a committee to di'aft and report to the 
next Legislatm-e a bill providing for a general system of educa- 
tion, with instructions to guard particularly against " any distinc- 
tion between the rich and the poor." The work of this committee 
resulted in the preparation and arrangement of the first general 
school law in the State, which was entitled: " An act incorporat- 
ing Congressional townships, and providing for public schools 
therein," and approved January 31, 1824. 

The first provision of that law required " that the inhabitants 
of each Congiessional township, being either freeholders or house- 
holders, after notice given by any three of such inhabitants set 
up for twenty days, at three of the most public places in such 
township, shall meet at the section reserved by Congress for the 
use of schools, or at some place convenient thereto," and, should 
twenty of such inhabitants be present, they should elect thi'ee 
Trustees, freeholders, which election being properly certified and 
filed in the Clerk's office of the proper county, such inhabitants 
would become " a body coi-porate and politic, under the name and 

style of Township School No. , Range ," according to 

the number of such township and range, subject to rules and reg- 
ulations thereafter prescribed. By the provisions of Section 3 
of that act, " the lands reserved by Congress for the use of schools 
in each Congressional township [should] be vested in the corpora- 
tion thereof, and such corporation, through and by their said 
Trustees, [might] dispose of all such lands, gifts or donations, 
made or reseiwed for the use of township schools, in such manner 
as [might] seem most conducive to the best interests thereof; ex- 
cept that no sale of the fee simple of any such reserved lands 
[should] be made, nor * * any lease thereof be given or 
gi-anted upon any other condition than that of forfeitm-e l.iy the 
lessee, upon his failing for one whole year to perform the condi- 
tions of such lease or any part thereof." 

The fifth section of said act provided, also, that the Trustees as 
aforesaid should, within ime month of their election, divide their 
respective townships into such number of districts as would best 
accommodate the inhabitants thereof, defining the same by bound- 
aries. Upon the formation of the district, it was also made the 
duty of the Trustees to appoint for each of said districts three 
Sub-Trustees, or Directors, who should have charge of the imme- 
diate affairs of such districts and the schools therein. The duties 
of these Sub-Trustees, or Directors, were, by the provisions of 
Section 6, more particularly defined to be to call a meeting of all 
the inhabitants, fi-eeholders and householders, within ten days 
after their appointment, who should express, by wi'itten ballots, 
whether they would siipport a school in the district, and, if so, 
for what length of time. An exjiression of the majority of stich 
inhabitants being had in favor of supporting a school, it was next 
made the duty of such inhabitants to determine upon a suitable 


site for a schoolhoiTse. as near the center of the district as prac- 
ticable. When such site had been so agreed upon and fixed, the 
Directors were required to appoint a time for the inhabitants of 
the district •' to meet aod commence the building of a suitable 
schoolhouse for the accommodation of as many pupils as [would] 
probably attend such school; said house to be built of brick, 
stone, hewn timber or fi-ame, according as a majority of such in- 
habitants [might] agree upon, the building and completion of 
which [being] superintended and conducted by such Sub-Trust- 
ees." In the construction of such schoolhouse, " eveiy able-bodied 
male person of the age of twenty-one years and upward, being a 
freeholder or householder, * * within the boimds of such 
district, [was] liable equally to work one day in each week until 
such building [should] be completed, or pay the siim of 37 J cents 
for every day he [might] so fail to work." Such schoolhouses 
were required to be " eight feet between floors, and at least one foot 
from the surface of the ground to the first floor, and finished in 
a manner calculated to render comfortable the teacher and pupils ; 
with a suitable number nf seats, tables, lights, and every other thing 
necessary for the convenience of such school; which [should] be 
forever open for the education of all childi'en within the district, 
without distinction." 

The various minor funds of which our present magnificent 
common school fund is composed are divided, for the sake of dis- 
tinction, into the productive, the contingent and the non-pro- 
ductivo. The first class is composed of the following separate 
funds, to wit: 


This fund occupies the first position because it was primarily 
the fund first set apart by the pioneer fathers for the exclusive 
use of succeeding generations as an eflicient aid in forwarding 
the educational processes of the futm'e. It will be rememliered 
that in the act of Congress enabling the peojile of the Territory 
to construct a State, the ordinance provided that the proceeds of the 
sixteenth section of eveiy Congressional township should be dedi- 
cated to the purposes of education for the benefit of children re- 
siding within such township. The fund was therefore called the 
Congi-essional Township Fund. At the date of the last report, in 
.Time, 1878, the aggi'egate of this fund was stated to be !?2,453.- 
100.73- -an increase of $100.91 in one year. 

branch of the public school fund. This money, according to the 
conditions of the distribution, is liable to be retm'ned again into 
the national treasm'v: yet more than forty years have elapsed 
since the distribution, and no part of it has been or is likely to 
be called for by the General Government. 


Section 15 of the charter gi-anted to the State Bank of In- 
diana, in 183-t, provided that there should be deducted from the 
dividends, and retained in the bank each year, the sum of r2i 
cents on each share of stock, other than that held by the State, 
which should constitute part of the permanent fund to be devoted 
to the purposes of common-school education under the direction 
of the General Assembly, and suffered to remain in bank and ac- 
cumulate until the Legislatm'e should so appropriate it. The 
aggi'egate of the fund derived fi-om that som'ce amounted to the 
sum of about $80,000, which is now bearing interest, and forms 
an important element of the permanent school fund of the State. 


The stock of the State Bank above referred to. was in part owned 
by the State and a part by individuals. To pay, her subscription to 
the Bank Stock, the State borrowed the sum of $1,300,000, and to 
pay, also, by loans to them, the stock of individuals. The balance 
remaining after appropriations to these pm-poses, together with 
the princijaal, interest and dividends of so much as were loaned to 
these individual stockholders, was appropriated to the creation of 
a sinking fund to meet the contingent indebtedness of the bank ; 
hence the name of this branch of the permanent fund. When 
the charter of the bank had expired, which was at the end of 
twenty-five years, aad all the liabilities of the bank fully liqui ■ 
dated and canceled, the residue so remaining was transferred to 
the common school f mid of the State, and amounted in the aggre- 
gate to the sum of s(.7Ci7.S().">.s<.). The sum of these several 
fimds amounted t^ s7.^^7.:!'^•"l.•"l 1. This is the total of the pro- 
ductive or interest-liearijig fund, other than the amounts derived 
from sale of the county seminaries of the State, and all the prop- 
erty, real and personal, belonging thereto, after deducting neces- 
sary expenses. The exact amount of this latter fimd does not 
appear. Of the class of contingent funds, we have the following: 


Another clause in the enabling act before referred to provides 
that all salt springs in the territory, and the land reserved for 
the use of the same, should be granted to the State for the use of 
the people of the State, on such temis as the Legislatm'e should 
prescribe. The Legislatm-e subsequently enacted that the proceeds 
of these reservatitms, likewise, should become a part of the school 
fund of the State. Those lands sola for the aggregate sum of 
aliout $85,000, which has, since that time, been at interest, yield- 
ing a res])i'ctable portion of our annual income. 


In June, 1830, by an act of Congress of that date, the 
sni-plus funds remaining in the treasury, after the payment 
of the national debt created during the Revolutionary war, 
and the purchase of the Louisiana Territory, was disti-ibuted 
among the several States according to the ratio of their rejiro- 
sentation in Congress. The jiortion set apai't for the State of In- 
diana was $800,254. By act of the Legislatiu-e, approved Feb- 
ruai-y 0, 1837, $573,502.90 of this sum was set apart as a pennanent 

In this class is included all flnes for the violation of the penal 
laws of the State, assessed and collected in the process of litiga- 
tion. The amount of money derived from this source is consider- 
able, as shown by the returns of the proper officers. 


All recognizances of witness and of parties indicted for the 
commission of penal oflenses against the State, which have been 
forfeited because of failure to appear and testify, or answer, as 
ordered by the courts in whose jurisdiction the cases are prosecut- 
ed, are collectable by law, and, when so collected, are made a part 
of the common school fund of the St:ite. and reported by the 
Commissioners of the proper county. Tlic ;iiiiouiit^ so retiiriii'd 
make the aggregate sum of from $:!ii.iiiiO to sls.dOO iuinuidly. 

It is provided, in the elevcntli section of the law of descents, that: 
" The estate of a person dying intestate, without kindred capable 
of inheriting, shajl escheat to the State, and shall be appliei? to 



the support of common schools, in the manner provided by law." 
There is now in the treasury of the State about §20,000, -liable to 
be appropriated to the purpose contemplated by law, whenever 
the period limiting its retention in the treasury shall have expired. 


Oiu' present State constitution (Ai'ticle 8, Section 2) provides 
that " all lands which have been or may hereafter be granted to 
the State, when no special purpose is expressed in the grant, and 
the proceeds of the sales thereof, including the proceeds of the 
sales of the swamp lands granted to the State of Indiana by the 
act of Congress of the 28th of September, 1850, after deducting 
the expenses of selecting and draining the same," shall become a 
part of the common school fund. In this grant, no purpose was 
expressed touching the subsequent appropriation or application 
of these funds, and the State was at liberty to make such dispo- 
sition of the same as might be deemed proper. Accordingly these 
lands were ordered to be sold, and. after paying expenses mci 
dental thereto, the residue of the proceeds was converted into a 
fund for the maintenance of common schools. 


Another som'ce of revenue designed to be merged n the 
common school fund is that defined by the constitution as " taxes on 
the property of corporations," which may be assessed by the Leg s 
lature for common school piu'poses. This source is said to 1 e un 
certain, since the pm-pose of the fi'amersof that instrument is not 
well defined. However, in 18-47, a charter was granted foi ihe 
construction of a railroad fi'om Indianapolis to Terre Ha ite A 
clause contained in that charter is to this effect: " When the ag 
gregate amount of dividends declared shall amount to the f ill 
sum invested, and 10 per cent per annum thereon, the Leg sla 
ture may so regulate the tolls and freights that not more than Id 
per centum per annmn shall be divided on the capital emj loved 
and the sm-plus profits, if any, after paying the expenses an 1 re 
ceiving such proportion as may be necessary for future c nt n 
gencies, shall be paid over to the Treasurer of State foi tl e use 
of common schools."- (Local laws, 1847, Section 23, pp. " S4 ) 
This would seem to define, with some degree of certainty, the con 
ditions precedent to the appropriation of that class of f n Is to 
the purpose intended. The sum likely to be derived fionths 
source, as soon as the necessary provision is made for its ace im la 
tion, will not be less than 11,000,000. In addition to those 
already enumerated, there is another source, denominated ' Unj r 
ductive," from which a very considerable sum may be eventually 
realized, in the shape of rents and profits, and proceeds of the 
sales of remaining sixteenth sections yet undisposed of, the st 
mated value of which is about $95,000. 

The different funds, being the separate som-oes or accumula- 
tion, which combine to constitute the common school fund of 
Indiana, as given above, are denominated as " a perpetual fund, 
which may be increased, but never diminished," because the pro- 
ceeds only are liable to be used for the maintenance of the pub- 
lic schools of the State. The capital fund thus far accumulated, 
as shown by the rejiort of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion for 1880, amounts to $9,065,254.73 —an increase of $52,192.98 
over the preceding year, pf this fund, 12,711,328.88 was held 
by counties, $8,904,783,21 consisted of non-negotiable bonds, to- 
gether making the common school fund $6,616,112.04. This 
latter sum being added to the Congressional township fund, gives 
the gi-and total as above. A like ratio of increase since 1880 

would make a little less than 89,750,000 as the capital stock of 
oiu- common school fund at this date. The capital of 1880 pro- 
duced an allowance for distribution among the several coimties of 
the State, as applicable to school piu-poses for the year ending 
June 30, 1880. in the sum of $2,943,105.77. 




'H'^HE population of the State of Indiana by counties, as shown 
-L by the census of 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870 and 1880, is as 
follows ; 










9 o" 




5 94'> 

16 919 

29 3 8 

43 494 

54 76 

Bar holomeXN 

10 042 

1 4 8 

1 865 



1 144 


5 6lD 

11 1 

BI ckford 

1 b 






81 1 


16 7j3 

" m 





1 64 

C nivfo I 
De I on 
D c t 
D Kil 
ElU art 
F jet 
Fl 3d 
F n ai 
F nU 


13 880 

1 S4.3 

15 53 


63 1 

1 394 


1 P 



M3l 4 

J ff n 

1 4 

Jhn n 

K uko 

L L g 

L k 

1 14 

I P r 

M 1 



li;,iiMi -1 II-:; 



:i ^;.'. ."i '.111 




II, i:;^ 1^ iisi 


pi, , 11 1 i,:,:i; 



■■ ;iv : 'in; 



;■■■ ■ 1,; My, ■,; ,„. 




•.' ii;-,' .^ '.Ml 



r,i;-[ -J :.'.i:> 


; W.^-iS lH,(il.5 


1 10,684 1 14,725 




St. Joseph. . . 







Tippecanoe. . 



Vermillion. . . 















!,418 !i,; 







An exhibit allowing the votes cast for the several candidates 
for President in 1860 ; for Governor in 187'2, and for Governor 
in 1880, in the different counties of the State. 



Benton .. . . 
Blackford . 







Clinton ... 
Crawford. . 
Daviess. . . 
Decatur . . 
Dubois . . . 
Elkhart . . 
Floyd .... 
Fountain . 
Franklin . 
Fulton . . . 
Gibson . . . 

Greene . . . 
Hamilton . 
Hancock . 


.Tacksc.n . 
Jasper . . 


[,500 1,; 

1,933, 1,( 

30ll 1,! 

!,47l| 1,! 

[,343 i 

1,151 1,! 

L,B56| l,i 

1,695 2,! 

1.019 ! 

97i 2!( 


Porter. Landers. 

2, ',36 



Linroln. Douglfta. 




Newton .... 






1 403 


1 1M,5| 

1 74C 








2 661 



1 I14'l' 



1 ou:; 

















Randolph . . 



St. Joseph.. 







Tippecanoe . 



Vermillion . 


Wabash . . . . 







Whitley . . . . 

2,429 2,137 

Totals .. . .1139,033 115,50915,306 13,295 

The following statement shows the acres of land, its value, 
valuation of improvements, valuation of town lots and the im- 
provements thereon, value of personal property in the several 
counties of the State, and the aggregate : 





Value of 










8128,100 8167,620 
4,062,9301 3,026,lH,'. 




La Portf 


b,8U2l 160,M»| 





— - 

1 " 

Value of 1 

1 om-v 


234'36fi 111 




. 25,631 946.69 S32C 810,; 

! S7-2,Cii6,5941S71 ,873.971 5728.944,231 


An Epitome of Geological Fokmations — Stuatifioation of 
Rocks in Their Ordek Above the Huronian— Classifica- 

INQ Features of the Piiincipal Classes— Grouping and 
Blendings— Indications of These in the State. 

IT is the generally accepted opinion among geologists of the 
present day, that the central portion of the earth was at one 
period at least in its history a mass of^ molten matter, which, in 
the process of ages, from atmospheric or other influences, became 
incrusted, thus forming the basis of what is Imowu as the ancient 
life or Paleozoic Period. This primary rock formation is some- 
times designated as the Igneous or Plutonic, underlying the 
Aqueous or sedimentary rocks. It would seem fi-om this arrange- 
ment that those primary rocks were submerged in water, since the 
class known as sedimentary appear to have been formed by de- 
posits of sediment derived fi-om particles, the waste of contigu- 
ous rocks. The process of deposit being gi-adual, there were fos- 
sils mingled with other sedimentaiy matter brought in contact; 
hence, rocks of this class are recognized as of the fossiliferous 
formation, as are all those of subsequent origin in which fossil- 
ized substances are found. By the classification of these ancient 
life forms, geologists are enabled to determine and distinguish 
the class of rocks in which they are found from other classes, 
wherein similar fossiliferous remains are not found. The classes 
with which we are to deal in discussing the evidences of geolog- 
ical formations peculiar to the State of Indiana, according to the 
accepted order of stratification, will be designated as the Lower 
Silurian and Upper Silurian, so named by Sir Roderick Murchison, 
and applied by him to a series of strata lying below the old red 
sandstone, and occupying districts in "Wales and its borders, which 

were at one time inhabited by the Silures, a tribe of ancient Brit- 
ons; the Lower and Upper Devonian, so designated because of the 
prevalence of rocks of that class in Devonshire, England; and the 
Carboniferous, embracing the subearboniferous limestones and 
sandstones, the millstone grit and coal measure. 

Dr. Owen, in his report of geological reconnaissance in the 
State of Indiana in ISnO and 1860, speaking of the foimation of 
the primary rocks, says: "It is generally supposed that the first 
film, or inner portion of the earth's crust, consists of rocks which 
resulted from cooling after being in a molten condition, somewhat 
like the slack we see thi'own from large furnaces, having either a 
solid, crystalline structure, or a porous, spongy appearance. 
These hypogene (nether- formed) or igneous or crystalline rocks, 
although constituting probably the inner film, and thus deriving 
their origin deep in the earth, may, in consequence of internal 
commotion and expansion, either raise portions of the superin- 
cumbent aqueous rocks, or even break through and pour over 
them. This may take place after deposition of the paleozoic 
(older) sedimentary rocks, also called primai'y fossiliferous, or of 
the middle-aged (mesozoic) rocks, called secondary, or even dur- 
ing part of the cainozoie age, which embraces the tertiary or 
modern 'epochs. Thus these eruptive rocks, such as granite and 
basalt, may be called primary granite, secondary gi-anite, tertiary 
basalt, etc., according to the period at which they biu'st through 
the earth's crust. 

"Allusion has already been made to the fact that these igneous 
rocks have at various periods burst through the sedimentary rocks, 
in consequence of internal action, thereby disturbing considera- 
ble areas of these aqueous deposits, usually elevating most the 
portions nearest to the igneous upheaving soui'ce. Sometimes 
eruptive rocks thus breaking tlu'ough may rise to form the high- 
est mountains, and the higher they rise the greater the angle or 
inclination, or dip, they will give to the originally horizontal 
aqueous deposits tlu'ough which they break. Sometimes the ig- 
neous rocks are elevated sufliciently to distiu'b these horizontal 
sedimentary strata, yet without breaking through the crust in 
such a manner as to be detected anywhere on the surface." These 
upheavals from localities more or less remote, rising above and 
breaking through tho sedimentary strata, leave valleys, or basins, 
between. " When this is the case with a bed of rocks, geologists 
term their' first appearance on the sm-face, the ])rolonged line 
of which would run into the sky, the 'outcrop" of those rocks." 
The original surface of Indiana has been affected by some of these 
phenomena, as will appear in what follows. " In Indiana we 
have usually a gentle westerly dip, sometimes a little north of 
west, sometimes south of west, and occasionally west of south. 
The dip or variation of the rocks forms a true horizontal line, es- 
timated by their disappearing under the surface of the water in 
descending the Wabash, the fall of the river being known, ap- 
pears to be commonly only a few feet in a mile, although occa- 
sionally as high as two degrees; while some rare local or partial 
dips are as high in Indiana as forty-five degi'ees." Of the 
aqueous or sedimentary rocks, those within the State are thus 
divided: The Lower Silurian are chiefly found in the southeastern 
counties ; the Upper Silurian extend from these southeastern coun- 
ties over most of the north and northwest, although partially 
concealed by drift; the Devonian has the same direction, but 
occupies a less extensive area, and somewhat more southerly than 
the Upper Silurian; the, subcarbonifeious sandstones and lime- 
stones extend fi-om Floyd and HaiTison Counties, in a belt thirty or 
fortv miles wide, to Tijijjecanoe County, and thence under the 


, > 



di'ift probably to Lake Michigan. The coal mbasure embraces a 
large proportion of the southwestern part of the State, extending, 
though in a limited measure, as far north as Carroll and White 
Counties. The northern and central portions of the State are 
embraced in the drift area, the deposits of which it is made iip, 
in some portions, being found at the depth of from sixty to ninety 
feet. In this drift, considerable deposits of gold have been found 
toward the center and southwestern portions of the State. 

" Starting fi-om the highest levels in the State, whence our 
largest streams take their origin, and passing gradually from these 
geologically low formations (the Lower and then 'Upper_Silurian), 
to the Devonian regions, topographically lower, although geolog- 
ically higher, and thence to the subcarboniferous limestones and 
sandstones, which disappear under the true coal measiu-e, we thus 
reach finally ova valuable coal deposits. This coal-bearing for- 
mation is the uppermost and last true geological deposit in In- 
diana (if we consider the di-ift, as some avithors do, too partial 
and erratic to be classed as such), but topographically the lowest, 
as indicated by the convergence of the Ohio and Wabash, until 
the latter empties into the former in the extreme southwest corner 
of oiu- State. Each geological formation has its marked differ- 
ences of soil, forest growth, and adaptation for peculiar agricultural 
products, as well as its varying materials for the construction of 
works of art, buildings, bridges, roads, pottery, etc." 

While fossils indicative of a certain geological formation, as 
the Upper Silurian, particularly in the beds of water courses, the 
soil may have been chiefly the result of the decomposition of original 
overlying Devonian shales, thereby imparting to the county agri- 
culuu'al and other features more nearly allied to Devonian than 
to Upper Silurian regions. For similar reasons, although Upper 
Silui-ian rocks are foimd on the Wabash at Delphi and Logans- 
^ort, yet Can-oil and Cass Counties are properly embraced under 
the head of Devonian, because in the former the black shales 
constitute the great plateau, and the upland of the latter Devo- 
nian limestone is abundantly indicated by its fossils. 

" Eight of the southeastern counties are situated in this lower 
subdivision of the Silurian system, viz., Wayne, Union, Fayette, 
Franklin, Dearborn, Kiple.y, Ohio and Switzerland. Several ad- 
joining counties exhibit, at deep natural or artificial cuts, this 
Lower Silurian fonnation, especially Jefferson County, also the 
eastern parts of Decatur, Rush, and probably Henry, besides the 
southern portion of Randolph." The soils in this formation are 
ascertained to be usually rich in the lime and phosphoric acid so 
necessary for the gi-owth and filling-out of small gi-ain and grass- 
es, to an extent that such lands were more likely to remain per- 
manently productive than some rich black soils, deficient in these 
inorganic ingredients. In consideration of the (piality of the 
soil thus indicated, containing a large proportion of clay derived 
from marlites, beech timber is very abundant in the Lower Siliurian 
eouuties, sometimes the prevailing forest growth. Apple and 
other fruit trees generally prove, by the analysis of their ashes, 
that they demand considerable quantities of lime to promote and 
sustain a healthy growth. 


" Eighteen counties may be assigned to this second section, 
as deriving the character of their soil chiefly from the disintegra- 
tion of the Upper Silurian rocks, viz., Adams, Wells, Himtington, 
Wabash, Miami, Jay, Blackford, Grant, Howard, Delawai-e, Mad- 
ison, Randolph, Henry, Hancock, Rush, Decatiir, Jennings and 

The same foi'mation extends in a northwest direction 
under the drift, to Lake Michigan, probably through Lake, New- 
ton, White, Porter, Stark, Pulaski, Cass, La Porte, Marshall, Kos- 
ciusko, Whitley, and perhaps others. The soils in this formation 
are chiefly derived from the shales and earthy layers of the sand- 
stones and limestones, and are probably less productive. Where, 
however, the intermediate limestones come to the surface and 
mingle thei^•^_debris with those of the upper and lower rocks, the 
stiff clays become capable of beai'ing excellent wheat crops. Prof. 
Hall remarks, speaking of the Onondaga Salt group: " The soil 
derived from the decomposition of the rocks of this group, and 
those of the Niagara group, ai'e among the most fertile in the 
United States." 


The greater portion of the following counties are so character- 
ized as to rank in the Devonian system, viz. : Cass, Carroll, Tipton, 
Hamilton, Shelby, Bartholomew, Jackson, Scott and Clai'ke. The 
soils resulting from the disintegi-ation of the Indiana Devonian rocks 
are generally of excellent quality, though occasionally varying in 
character, from the proximity of the formations. The agricultural 
products in this geological era are small gi-ains and grasses 
rather than Indian corn, though in some localitieslhis latter prod- 
uct is cultivated quite successfully. Beech timber is the pre- 
vailing growth, particularly on the clay soils, resulting from the 
disintegration of the ahuainous shales; yet sugar tree, black and 
white walnut, ash, with some buckeye and'>-wild cherry, are very 
abundant in various parts of the formation. 


" The following counties in Indiana are considered as chiefly 
characterized by the sub-carboniferous sandstone and shales : Tip- 
pecanoe, Clinton, Boone, Hendricks, Johnson, Morgan, Brown, 
Washingion and Floyd. The soil resulting fi-om the disintegra- 
tion of sandstone, and somewhat aluminous shales, might natur- 
ally be expected to be rather cold where the shales predominated, 
as well as too thin and light where the detritus of the sandstone 
was the chief ingredient of the soil. This is undoubtedly, to 
some extent, the ease, but, generally speaking, the two are blend- 
ed, and sometimes the modifying proximity of the not far distant 
limestone, or the natural top-di-essing of quatemai'y deposits, 
bringing clay, gravel, decomposed bowlders, some of them rich in 
magnesia, lime, the alkalies and oxide of iron, forms a vai'ied soil, 
well adapted for most agricultural purposes." Where there are 
defects in the composition of the soil of the character named, an 
artificial top-dressing of lime or plaster would be found to be an 
improvement in its quality, as well as inexpensive. Oak, elm 
and poplar ai-e most common on the higher sandstone knobs, while 
in less elevated or more clayey portions, beech, sugar tree, walnut 
and ash are most generally found: indeed, the qualities and quan- 
tities of timber in different regions vary according to the presence 
or absence of characterizing elements in the producing soil. 

In the sub-carboniferous limestone formations, the following 
counties may bo placed: The greater portions of Montgomery, 
Putnam, Monl'oe, Lawrence, Orange, HaiTison and Crawford, ad- 
jacent counties being more or less affected. The decomposition 
of these limestones, with their intercolated sandstones and alumi- 
nous shales, produces a very favorable admixtm-e for most agri- 
cultural products. Generally, the soil seems to be well adapted 
to the production of small grains and grasses; hence, we see in 
these counties fine cereals, luxm'iant meadows and picturesque 




Warren, Fountain, Parke, Vermillion, Clay, Vigo, Owen, 
Greene, Sullivan, Martin, Daviess, Knox, Dubois, Pike, Gibson, 
Perry, Spencer, Warrick, Vanderbiargh and Posey Counties be- 
long to the coal measure area jiroper, while workable seams of 
coal are found in Harrison, Crawford, Orange and Putnam Coun- 
ties. The gi'owth of timber in this formation is various ; but per- 
haps there is in the uplands a gi-eater predominance of oak, and 
proportionately less Vieech, than/ in other systems. The prairies 
are chiefly in the coal measm-e, especially those of WaiTen, Fount- 
ain, Vigo, Sullivan and Knox Counties. 


In the drift formation, Steuben, La Grange, Elkhart, St. Jo- 
seph's, La Porte, Porter, Lake, De Kalb, Noble, Kosciusko, Mar- 
shall, Starke, Jasper, Nevrton, Alien, Whitley, Fulton, Pulaski, 
White and Benton Counties are located. The diversity of ma- 
terial brought during this period, and scattered, as it were, broad- 
cast over the secondary rooks or the detrital remains, of necessity 
produces a remarkably rich and fertile soil. From the great 
quantity of argillaceous shales and disintegrating bowlders, in 
which alumina is prominent, a mixed soil is produced, well adapt- 
ed to the cultivation of wheat, rye, timothy, clover and potatoea 
Corn is likewise gi-own, but less extensively than in the more 
arenaceous Wabash bottoms 

In some of the northern counties of the State,- there is abund- 
ance of fine timber, especially white oak, with some beech and 
sugar tree; and, toward the lakes, cedars, pines and tamaracks 
and alders. In other portions, especially where prairies occupy 
a very extensive area, there is no timber, except in some instances, 
where groves of oak are found in the midst of those grassy plains. 
At most places in these prairies, water can be obtained by dig- 
ging a moderate distance ; sometimes, however, through clay beds 
one or two hundred feet deep, when strata of sand are reached, 
an abundant supply of good water is found. Along the valley 
of the head-waters of the Elkhart Kiver, beech, sugar tree, black 
and white walnnt, cheiTy, oak (white, black and red), are found, 
of vigorous growth and of ample dimensions. The poplar (tulip 
tree) is also found in the same locality. 


Pre-Historic Remains— Their Character— Where Situated 
AND Their Use— The MorND Builders- Who Were Tiiey 
and What Became of Them. 

THE consideration of the question involved in the title of this 
article has of late become one of absorbing interest, and the 
investigations pertinent to the issue have in the recent past 
engaged, and do now command, the energies of the best class of 
minds having a penchant for researches among the rains of a lost 
race. Half a century ago, little was known or cared for concern- 
ing the existing evidences of a pre-existing people endowed with 
many of the elements of genius, well developed in the remains 
so mmierously found along the valleys of the principal rivers of 
Indiana, Ohio and others of the Middle and Western States. 
" These remains," says a recent wi-iter, " have been carefully ex- 
amined, and, after long and patient investigations, the ai-ehseolo- 
gist has arrived at certain definite conclusions, and so apparently 
accurate are they that we may safely say that we are veiy well 

acquainted with the lost race. By what aj)pellation they were 
known dm-ing their existence is [yet] past finding out. They have 
been called Mound-Builders, on account of the innumerable 
mounds which they erected, imd which remained imtil the advent 
of the white man."* So numerous are these remains that in Ohio 
alone there are not less than thirteen thousand, including both 
mounds and inclosm-es. Within a radius of fifty miles fi'om 
the mouth of the Illinois Kiver, in the State of Illinois, there are 
about five thousand mounds." The extent and variety of these in 
the State of Ohio would seem to indicate that there the country 
was most densely populated by them, and certainly not without 
a pm'pose, since the regions so generally occupied by them, con- 
sisting of a gi'eat system of plains, seems well adapted to the 
wants of a people apparently accustomed to agricultvual pursuits, 
who therefore exercised great foresight and wisdom in selecting 
and occupying such a locality. " The whole country affords a 
perfect system of navigation. The Alleghany rises on the bordera 
of Lake Erie, at an elevation of nearly seven himdred feet 
above the level of the lake, and one thousand three himdred feet 
above the sea. A boat may start from within seven miles of Lake 
Erie, and almost in sight of Buffalo, and float down the Conne- 
wango, or Cassadaga, to the Alleghany, thence into the Ohio, and 
finally into the Gulf of Mexico, the whole distance being 2,400 
miles. Add to this the great uatm-al advantages, and the fact 
that this is pre-eminently the garden spot of North America, with 
almost innmnerable other considerations, we may be able to judge 
of the wisdom of the Mound-Builders." 

The following description of the general classes of these re- 
mains, copied fi-om McLean's " Mound-Builders," will be found 
of interest as giving the most recent expose of the situation: 

" The ancient remains composed of works of eai-th and stone 
natm-ally divide themselves into two general classes, viz., inclos- 
ures and mounds; and these again embrace a variety of works 
divers in foi-m and designed for different purposes. The first is 
characterized by being bounded by embankments, circumvalla- 
tions, or walls, and include fortifications or strongholds, sacred in- 
closiu'es and numerous miscellaneous works, mostly symmetrical 
in structure. Under the second head we have the true mound 
buildings, which constitute one general or single system of works, 
and include what has been specially designated sacrificial, temple, 
sepulchral, symbolical and anomalous." 

The inclosures. to the general observer, form the most inter- 
esting class of these remains. They are massive, sometimes of 
great dimensions, and required great labor in their construction. 
Their number is great, Ohio alone containing over one thousand 
five himdi'ed of them. They are composed of clay, sometimes of 
stone, the walls having a height ranging from thi-ee feet to thirty, 
and inclosing areas from one acre to fom- hundred. Inclosm-es 
of fi-om one to fifty acres are common; of two hundi-ed acres, not 
infi-equent; and of greater extent, only occasionally met with. 

" A large proportion of the inclosures are I'egular in outline, 
being constructed in the form of a square, circle, parallelogram, 
ellipse and polygon — the fii'st two predominating. The regularly 
formed works occur on the level river terraces, and the irregular 
works, being used as a place of defense, are made to conform to 
the natiu-e of the brows of the hills upon which they are situated. 
The square and circle frequently occur in combination, and are 
either directly connected with the other, or else by avenues in- 

•The Mounl-Bullder., McLean, p 14 


closed by parallel walls. Nearly all the embankments give evi- 
dence of having been hilly completed. A few remain which were 
left in an unfinished state. The walls are usually accompanied 
by a ditch, either interior or exterior to the embankment. From 
the ditch the earth was taken for the foundation of the walls. 
Where the ditch does not occiu', pits or excavations are usually 
found in the immediate vicinity." 


Of the several classes of inclosures, those located and erected 
for purposes of defense are perhaps the most important, and in- 
volve a higher degree of skill in their construction. These were 
generally situated upon bluffs or hilltops overlooking settlements 
in the adjacent valleys. Sites for works of their character are 
sometimes surrounded by deep raviues, difficult of ascent on three 
sides. Many of them, also, are on isolated hills, with broad and 
level summits, presenting all the requisites of a stronghold. When 
such sites are adjacent to an extensive valley, the works erected 
thereon appear to have been of more elaborate construction, with 
best adaptation to the pm-poses of defense, and exhibit superior 
military skill, the sides most exposed to attack and approaches 
being protected by trenches and overlapping walls more or less 
numerous, according to circumstances, the trenches being usually 
found on the exterior of the walls. Not unfrequently, the gate- 
ways, situated at the jjoints most easy of approach, are guarded 
by a series of overlapping walls, sometimes with a mound accom- 
panying, which rises above the rest of the works, designed, per- 
haps, for the double purpose of observation and defense. 


These works are generally regulai' in structure, and usually 
found in groups. While the military inclosures were uniformly 
situated on elevated positions, on bluffs and hills, the sacred in- 
closures occupied the lower and more level river bottoms, seldom 
or never upon the table-lands, where the surface is broken. 
Those of a circular form are generally small, having nearly a uni- 
form diameter of from two hundred and fiftf to tlu-ee huudi'ed 
feet, the larger ones sometimes reaching more than a mile in cir- 
cumference. The gateways to these inclosures usually face to- 
ward the east, In the immediate vicinity of the larger circles, 
small ones, varying from thirty to fifty feet in diameter, consist- 
ing of a high embankment and no gateway, are quite numerous. 
Compared with the walls of defensive inclosures, the walls of 
those approju'iated to sacred pm'poses ai-e comparatively slight, 
ranging from three to seven feet, occasionally, however, reach- 
ing a height of thirty feet. The walls are composed of sur- 
face material and clay. These works, many of them, are accom- 
panied by jiarallel walls of slight elevation, while others are more 
elaborate, sometimes reaching the length of SOO feet. In form, 
some of these works combine the square, circle, ellipse, octagon, 
also parallel walls in their construction. A description of such 
a system of works, however, would be of too great length to be 
practicable m a volume of this magnitude. An excellent example 
of such a combination may be found at the junction of the South 
and Raccoon Forks of Licking River, near Newark, Ohio, and 
" Wilson's Pro-Historic Man " contains an account, in descriptive 
detail, to which reference may be made. A very satisfactory 
descrii)tion is found, also, in "McLean's Mound-Builders." 

" The mounds proper form an interesting feature of these an- 
cient remains; they have been carefully studied, and are mi- 

doitbtedly of as much importance to the archfeologist as the in- 
closures. Among the people generally who live within the vicin- 
ity of the earth-works, the moimds are better known than the in- 
closures. On inquiring for the latter, great difficulty is often ex- 
perienced in finding it, while almost any one could readily point 
out the mounds," which are more numerous. Works of this class 
vary in dimensions from a few feet in height and a few yards in 
diameter to ninety feet in height and covering several acres at 
the base. Usually, they range fi-om six to thirty feet in perpen- 
dicular height, by forty to one hundi-ed feet base diameter. Com- 
mon earth is found generally to be the composition of these 
mounds, though not infrequently they are composed chiefly of 
stone. Again, they are found entirely of clay, while the material 
around is gravel or loam. The purposes for which mounds were 
erected were various, depending very much upon their location. 
Sometimes they are found on hills or higher elevations, and occu- 
pying commanding positions. Generally, they are within or near 
inclosures, sometimes in groups, again detached and isolated. 


A distinguishing feature of this clasi of mounds is their great 
regularity of form and large dimensions. They are chiefly truncated 
pyramids, having gi-aded avenues or spiral pathways to their sum- 
mits. Some ai'e round, others square, oblong, oval or octagonal. 
Generally, they are high, yet in some instances thej' are elevated 
a few feet only, while covering many acres of ground. Another 
feature is, they are almost Liniformly smTounded by embankments 
and ditches. In some instances, also, they are terraced, having 
successive stages. But, whatever their form, they invariably have 
flat or level tops, which were probably crowned with temples, but, 
being composed of perishable material, all traces of them have 
long since disappeared from view. The opinion is entertained, 
too, by some careful observers, that these temple mounds were 
frequently used for sepulchral piu'poses, and many instances are 
cited where vast quantities of hmuan skeletons have been found, 
" The Grave Creek Mound, which is in the form of a tnincated 
cone — the flattened area on the top being fifty feet in diameter, 
and therefore coming under the classification of temple mounds 
— was found to inclose two vaults, originally constructed of wood, 
which contained human skeletons."* 

" The truncated pyramid,'' says the same writer, " is among the 
strongest links in the chain which connects the ancient inhabit- 
ants of the Mississippi Valley with those of Mexico and Central 
America. In the rude earth-works we see the germ of the idea 
which was subsequently wi'ought out in proportions of beauty 
and harmony, giving origin to a unique style of architecture," 


Descriptively, these generally consist of a simple knoll or 
group of knolls, of no considerable height, without an}' definite 
arrangement, " Examples of this chai'acter may be seen at Du- 
bu(jue, Merom, Chicago and La Porte, which, on exploration, have 
yielded skulls differing widely from the Indian type. It often 
happens that, in close proximity to a large structure, there is an 
inconsiderable one, which will be found rich in relics." In shape, 
they are usually conical, but frequently are elliptical or pear- 
shaped, from six feet to eighty in height, averaging from fifteen 
to twenty-five feet in altitude, and ai'e situated outside the walls 
of inclosues, at distances more or less remote. As a rule, when 
•I numl)er of these mounds are found connected, one of the gi'oup 



is uniformly two or three times larger in dimensions than any of 
the others, the smaller arranged around the larger at its base, indi- 
cating an intimate relation between them. Such mounds invari- 
ably cover a skeleton, sometimes more than one, near the original 
surface of the soil. 


This class, as compai'ed with others, possesses many distin- 
guishing features, one of which is that they are invariably situat- 
ed within the inclosiu-es, or in the immediate vicinity. They are 
regularly constructed with unifonn layers of gi'avel, earth and 
sand, alternately, in strata conformable to the shape of the mound, 
and covered by a sjiometrical altar of biu'nt clay or stone, upon 
which numerous relics are found — in all instances exhibiting 
traces of having been subjected to the action of tli-e. These 
altars are carefully formed, varying both in size and shape, some 
being round, while others are elliptical, others, again, being in 
the form of squai'es or jjarallelograms, In size, they vai'y fi-om 
two to fifty feet by twelve or fifteen; usually, however, they are 
from five to eight feet. They ai-e modeled fi-om fine clay, and 
usually rest upon the original siu-face. In a few instances, they 
have been foimd with a layer or small elevation of sand imder them. 
Their height seldom exceeds a foot or twenty inches above the adja- 
cent level. Upon the altare have been found calcined human bones, 
elaborate carvings in stone, ornaments cut in mica, copper instru- 
ments, discs, and tubes, pearl and shell beads, pottery, spear- 
heads, etc."* 


In this day of ethmological investigations, when so much has 
been developed concerning the mysterious works of a race of people, 
who, in the remote past, erected, occupied and maintained them, the 
inquiry naturally suggests itself, " "Who and whence came they, 
and whither did they go?" All these investigations, while they 
elicit an interest sufficient to maintain a healthy progress in the 
work, awaken new zeal and induce gi'eater activity in the pursuit 
of additional information. Such interest is only equaled by the 
importance of the object to be attained. Great diversity of opin- 
ion and much-leai'ned discussion have been the result With all 
this diversity, however, there are some points upon which little 
difference of opinion obtains. One of these points is involved in 
the answer to the query, "Whence came they?'' It is now gen- 
erally accepted by ethnologists that this peojile migi-ated from the 
region of the tropics, where these moniunental remains most 
numerously abound. The status of this branch of the incjuiiy is 
well presented in the following extract ti'om Baldwin's "Ancient 

" They were unquestionably American aborigines, and not im- 
migi'ants from another continent. That appears to me the most 
reasonabln suggestion which assumes that the Mound-Builders 
came originally from Mexico and Central America. It explains 
many facts connected with their remains. In the great valley, 
their most populous settlements were at the South. Coming from 
Mexico and Central America, they would begin their settlements 
on the gulf coast, and afterward advance gradually vxp the river 
to the Ohio Valley. It seems evident that they came by this 
route, and their remains show that their only connection with the 
coast was at the South. Their settlements did not reach the coast 
at any other point. 

" Their constructions were similar in design and an'angemeut 
to those found in Mexico and Central America. Like the Mexi- 

cans and Central Americans, they had mimy of the smaller struct- 
ures, known as feocaUitf, and also liu-ge, high mounds, with level 
summite, reached by great flights of steps. Pyramidal platforms 
or foundations for important edifices appear in both regions, and 
are very lauch alike. In Central America, important edifices were 
built of hewn stone, and can still be examined in their ruins. The 
Mound-Builders, like some of the ancient people of Mexico and 
Yucatan, used wood, sun-dried brick, or some other material that 
could not resist decay. There is evidence that they used timber 
for building purposes. In one of the mounds opened in the Ohio 
Valley, two chambers were found, with remains of the timber of 
which the walls were made, and with arched ceilings, precisely 
like those in Central Amei'ica, even to the overtopping stone. 
Chambers have been foimd in some of the Central American and 
Mexican moiuids, Init there hewn stones were used for the walls. 
In both regions, the elevated and terraced foundations remain, 
and can be compared. I have already called attention to the close 
resemblance between them, but the fact is so important in any 
endeavor to explain the Mound-Builders that I must briug it to 
view here. 

" Consider, then, that elevated and terraced foundations for 
important buildings are peculiar to the ancient Mexicans and 
Central Americans; that this method of constnietion, which, with 
them, was the rule, is foimd nowhere else, save that terraced ele- 
vations, carefully constructed, and precisely like theirs in foi-m 
and appeai-ance, occupy a chief place among the remaining works 
of the Mound- Builders. The use made of these foundations at 
Paleuque, Uxmal and Chicken- Itza, shows the purpose for which 
they were constructed in the Mississippi Valley. The resemblance 
is not due to chance." 

" A very large proportion of the old structiu-es in Ohio and far- 
ther south, called "mounds," namelj-, those which are low in pro- 
portion to their horizontal extent, are terraced foundations for 
buildings, and, if they were situated in Yucatan, Guatemala and 
Southern Mexico, they would never be mistaken for anything 
else. The high mounds, also, in the two regions, are remarkably 
alike. In both cases, they are pyramidal in shape, and have level 
su m mits of considerabie extent, which were reached by stairways 
on the outside. #«■**** ^^\\ these mounds were con- 
structed for religious uses, and they are, in their way, as much 
alike as any five Gothic churches."'* 

From these statements, and similar opinions expressed by 
other eminent archseologists, it. may be safely assumed, for the 
piUTJose of this work, that the Mound- Builders were offshoots of 
the original projectors and builders of those structures so num- 
erously found in Central America, who emigrated northward 
through Mexico, Texas and the Mississippi Valley. This is in- 
dicated very plainly in the tracings of their route tlu-ough these 
countries. Other evidences of intercommunications are shown 
by the fact that the obsidian dug fi-om these mounds in the Ohio 
Valley is only found in the mines of Mexico, and must have been 
brought hence as an article of commerce. 


This question can only be answered iuferentially, since we 
have no direct information on the subject. If we take those infer- 
ences, drawn fi-om apparently legitimate som-ces, the conclusion 
may be arrived at, with a fair degree of certainty, that they prob- 
ably retm-ned southward, but under what circumstances is con- 
jectui-al also. " Civilization, as a rule, radiates from a center," 



says the author of " Pre-Historic Man," and when, from anj' cause, 
it fades out, it contracts upon the center. Now, the vast stone 
temples and palaces of Central America are at least as old as the 
mounds of the United States. Central America was, then, rela- 
tively, the birth-place and center of American aboriginal civiliza- 
tion. The influence spread northward to the Mississippi and Ohio 
Valleys. So the Mound-Builders appear to have receded fi-om the 
lakes to the south. 

" The existing remains show they had, north of the Ohio 
Kiver, a strong line of fortresses along the Great Miami fi-om 
its mouth to Piqua, with advanced works near Oxford and 
Eaton, and with a massive work in rear of this line, on the Little 
Miami at Fort Ancient. There was another line crossing the 
Scioto Valley at Chillicothe, and extending west of the valley of 
Paint Creek. These seem to have constituted a line of perma- 
nent defense. 

" Their situations were well chosen, were naturally very strong, 
and were fortified with great labor and some skill. Such works, 
if defended, could not have been taken by assault by any means 
the natives possessed, and they were so constructed as to contain 
a supply of water. They would be abandoned until the nations 
that held them were broken. When these were abandoned, there 
was no retreat except across the Ohio. South of the Ohio, in 
Kentucky and Tennessee, there are many works of defense, but 
none possessing the massive character of permanent works like 
the Ohio system. They are comparatively temporary works, 
thrown up for an exigency — are morever isolated, not forming, as 
in Ohio, a connected system. They are such works as a people 
capable of putting up the Ohio forts might erect, while being 
gradually pushed south, and fighting an invader from the North- 
or Northwest. South of the Tennessee River, the indications are 
different. We miss there the forts that speak of prolonged and 
obstinate conflict. And we find among the tribes, as they were 
when first discovered, lingering traces of what we have called 
characteristic traits of the Mound-Builders."* 

From what has been already stated, it requires no^ profound 
observation nor exquisite judgment to understand what became of 
this people north of the Ohio. Every indication shows that they 
were expelled from the territory by force. Being harassed by the 
inroads of warlike bands, they erected strong fortifications as 
places of safety and retreat during the predatory visits of these 
hostiles. They erected mounds for observation on eligible points, 
and, when surprise was imminent, they established lines of signal 
posts, upon which beacon fires were kindled and the people 
warned of the enemy's approach. These moimds of observation, 
or signal posts, indicate the direction whence came the enemy. 
On the projecting highlands bordering the Great and Little 
Miami Rivers are numerous small mormds, well adapted to pui'- 
poses- of ob.-iervation, and, in addition to these, a similar series of 
them is found along the Scioto, across Ross County and extending 
down into Pike "and Pickaway Counties, and so situated that, in 
a few minutes, intelligence of an approaching enemy could be 
flashed from Delaware County to Portsmouth. 

" From time immemorial, there has lioen immigration into 
Mexico from the North. One type after another has followed. 
In some cases, different branches of the same family have succes- 
sively followed one another. Before the Christian Era, the Na- 
hoa immigration from the North made its appearance. They wore 
the founders of the stone- works in Northern Mexico. Certain 
eminent scientists have held that thi^ Nahoas l)c'lniig(>d to tlu' race 

•Pro-IIl«lol In Miin, pp. n. 74. 

that made the mounds of the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys. Fol- 
lowing this people came the Toltecs, and with them, light begins 
to dawn upon aacient Mexican migration. They were cultivated, 
and constituted a branch of the Nahoa family."* 

As to the time when the Toltecs entered Mexico, there is a 
gi-eat diversity of opinion among scientists, but it is generally 
conceded that it was generally at a vei-y remote period — as early 
as the seventh century. In the light of modem discovery and 
scientific investigations, we are able to follow the Mound- Build- 
ers. We first found them in Ohio, engaged in tilling the soil and 
developing a civilization peculiar to themselves. Driven fi-om 
their homes, they sought an asyhun in the South, and from there 
they wandered into Mexico, where we begin tp learn something 
more definite concerning them." 


The Public Dom.\in— Government Title to It— How Acquiked 
Thk Title Under the Confederation of States— Disposal 
OF Lands to Individuals— Eakly Survey.s— The Colonial 
System With Modifications— The Method of U. S. Govern- 
ment Surveys— Adoption of the Rectangular System and 
its Application to the Survey of Western Lands— Changes 
Made— Adaptation to .the Wants of Settlers— The Sys- 
tem IN Detail— L.\ND Districts and Land Office.s— Land 
Sales, Their Revenues— Appropri.vtion of the Proceeds, 

THE public domain, as it is called, consists of the lands belong- 
ing to the General Government, as distinguished fi-om the un- 
improved lands belonging to the individual States or private owners. 
Anterior to the discovery and occupancy of the continent of 
America by Europeans, the title to lands embraced within the ter- 
ritorial area of the United States, as now recognized, was vested 
in the various Indian tribes and families who were then the in- 
habitants and occupants of this country. It would seem natm-al 
and proper, therefore, that they, possessing the proprietary right 
to the soil, should have been consulted, at least, in the transfer 
of these rights to others, notwithstanding the rights of discovery 
and of conquest by Europeans were made to supersede the rights of 
original possession. While the policy of making the rights of 
discovery sujjreme, by force, may have been in accord with the 
laws of civilized nations, it does not comport with the doctrines 
of the higher law of inherent rights, as expressed by our Revolu- 
tionary fathers in the gi-eat charter of American liberty. Having 
discovered the continent, and caused the light of Chi-istiau civil- 
ization, so called, to shine upon it, all other rights than those of 
discovery appear to have be.-^n dissipated by the benignant sun- 
shine, and the discoverers, by assumption, took formal possession. 
Whether this policy was right is for the Supreme Arbiter of jus- 
tice to decide. On such premises, however, in the com-se of time, 
liberal grants were made by the King to favored representatives, 
who, in his name and under his credit, discovered the continent, 
thus giving consequence to the acquisitions seciu-ed. These grants 
sometimes embraced extensive territorial areas, not infrequently 
including within their boundaries the aggregate area of several 
States, as now defined, and were in the natm'e of charters, vest- 
ing in the grantees authority to plant colonies within the limits 

•.Momi'lliulldom, p. 147. 



On the 10th of April, 1606, James I, King of England, 
granted letters patent " for two several colonies and plantations, 
to be made in Virginia and other parts and territories of America." 
In this instance, the grantees, '" Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George 
Somers, and others, of London and elsewhere, were authorized to 
plant their colony at any place on the Atlantic coast between the 
thirty-fom-th and forty-first degrees of north latitude." This 
grant embraced " all the lands, woods, * * * * fj-om the 
first seat of their plantation * * * " by the space of fifty 
miles of English statute measm-e, all along the coast of Virginia, 
toward the west and southwest, as the coast lyeth, with all the 
islands within 100 miles, directly over against the same coast, and, 
also, all the lands, soil," etc., " fi'om the said place of their first 
plantation and habitation for the space of fifty like English 
miles all along the coast of Virginia and America, toward the 
east and northeast or toward the north, as the coast lyeth, together 
with all the islands within 100 miles, directly over against the 
said coast; also, all the lands, woods," etc., " from the same fifty 
miles every way on the coast, directly into the main land, by the 
space of 100 like English miles." Subsequently, through the agency 
of similar grants of territory made to the colony of Virginia, and to 
other colonies and companies, the major part of all the lands com- 
prised within the limits of the United States and Ten'itories, was 
acquired. By the "Articles of confederation and perpetual imion 
between the States," entered into at Philadelphia, on the 9th of 
July, 1778, each separate State retained its proprietary right to 
the unoccupied lauds within its borders, no title vesting in the 
United States by virtue of that union of States ; hence, " the un- 
inhabited wilds lying to the west, and as yet not clearly defined 
by established boundaries, were claimed by the adjacent States, 
and portions of them by foreign nations under conflicting claims, 
but all subject to the paramount Indian title. The title, there- 
fore, of the United States to that coimtry is derived: First, from 
treaties with foreign nations; second, fi'om treaties with the In- 
dian tribes; and third, from cessions by individual States, mem- 
bers of the Union." The titles thus acquired by the United 
States were so acquired by the National Government in its capac- 
ity as such, chiefly since the adoption and ratification of the 
"more perfect union," known as the " Constitution of the United 
States of America " — at present existing. 

" The treaties with foreign nations by which territory has 
been acquired are those of 1793 and 1794, with Great Britain; 
of 1795 and 1820, with Spain; and of 1803 with France. It is 
sufficient to say of these treaties that by them we acquired Louis- 
iana and the Floridas, and extinguished all the claims of foreign 
nations to the immense regions lying west of the several States 
and extending to the Pacific Ocean." " The lands east of the 
Mississippi, and contained within the boundaries designated by 
the treaty with Great Britain of 17S3, were claimed by individual 
States, and the title of the United States to that ten'itory its de- 
rived fi-om cessions made by those States. These cessions embrace 
three distinct tracts of country: First, the whole territory north of 
the River Ohio and west of Pennsylvania and Virginia, extending 
northwardly to the northern boundary of the United States, and 
westwai'dly to the Mississippi, was claimed by Virginia, and that 
State was in possession of the French settlements of Vincennes 
and Kaskaskia, which she had occupied and defended dm-ing the 
Revolutionary war. The States of Massachusetts. Connecticut and 
New York set up claims to portions of the same territory — claims 
which, though scarcely plausible, were m-gently pressed upon the 
consideration of Congress. The United States, by cessions from 

those foiu- States, acquired an indisputable title to the whole. 
This tract now comprises Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. 
Second, North Carolina ceded to the United States all her vacant 
lands lying west of the Alleghany Moimtains within the breadth 
of her charter. This territory is comprised within the State of 
Tennessee. Third, South Cai'olina and Georgia ceded their titles 
to that tract of country which now composes the States of Ala- ■ 
bama and Mississippi. 

" The United States having thus become the sole proprietary 
of what has since been called the public lands, the nation was res- 
cued from evils of the most threatening and embarrassing aspect. 
The claims of foreign nations, adverse to our own, to the broadly ex- 
Ijanded regions lying west of the several States and extending to the 
Pacific, were extinguished, depriving those nations of all excuse 
for tampering with the Indians upon oui- border, and rescuing our 
frontier from the dangerous vicinity of foreign military posts. 
The boundaries of the then fi-ontier States were defined, and they 
were prevented from gi'owing to an inordinate size and acquiring 
an undue preponderance in the government — the interfering claims 
of several States to the same territory were silenced— but above 
all, the General Government, in acquiring the sole jiu-isdiction 
over the vacant lands, was enabled to establish a uniform system 
for their settlement, and the erection of new States. To the lat- 
ter, admission into the Union upon terms of perfect equality with 
the older members of the confederacy was secured; while the land 
was offered to the settlers at a fair price, and under an unexcep- 
tionable title. The disinterested policy of the States which made 
these liberal cessions cannot be too highly applauded. Virginia, 
in particular, displayed a magnanimity which entitles her to the 
lasting gratitude of the American people; her territory was by 
far the largest, and her sacrifice to the general good the noblest. 
It was disinterested because she reserved no remuneration to her- 

Under the ordinance of cession made by the State of Virginia 
to the United States, the following reservation was prescribed: 
" That the French and Canadian inhabitants, and other settlers of 
Kaskaskia, St. Vincents and the neighboring villages, who had 
professed themselves citizens of Virginia, shall have their pos- 
sessions and titles confii-med to them, and be protected in the en- 
joyment of their rights and liberties." In addition to this reser- 
vation, a certain quantity of lands having been promised by Vir- 
ginia to Gen. George Rogers Clark, and to the officers and soldiers 
who served under him in the reduction of the French posts, a 
reservation to that effect was incorporated, for the pui'pose of 
fulfilling the terms of that promise. This cession was made 
in 1784. 

By the ordinance of Congress passed in 1787 for the govern- 
ment of the Northwestern Territory, certain prohibitions were 
imposed concerning the management of the lands embraced in 
its provisions, among which these are the most important to the 
people of this locality : 

" The Legislatui-es of those districts or new States shall never 
interfere with the primary disposition of the soil by the United 
States, in Congress assembled, nor in any regulations Congress 

may find necessary for 

securing the title in such soil to the bona 

fide purchasers." " No tax shall be imposed on lands the prop- 
erty of the United States; and in no case shall non-resident pro- 
prietors be taxed higher than residents." 

From what has been presented in the preceding pages, the 
fact is reasonably established that no portion of the lands embraced 

^HiiU'a Notes on the Weatem States, pp. 150. 154. 



in oiu' vast ten'itory have been acquired or even claimed by our 
Government by conquest, under the usages of war. Aside from 
the rights acquired by purchase or cession fi'om civilized nations 
under the forms of law, the Government, recognizing the existence 
of paramount rights inherent in the Indian tribes of this country, 
has uniformly consulted those tribes and procured from them, 
for what was accepted as a valuable consideration, under treaty 
stipulations, the cession of all rights vested in them. In confir- 
mation and as illustration of this doctrine, we cite the reader to the 
treaty of Greenville, made by Gen. Wayne in 1795, at the head 
of a victorious army, with the chiefs of the tribes who had just 
before been vanquished by him in battle, is one of the first in date 
referring to the public domain, and affords sufficient evidence of 
the early adoption of a pacific and just policy by our Government 
toward the aborigines of this country. Nothing is claimed in that 
treaty by right of conquest The parties mutually agree upon a 
perpetual peace, all the questions of right having been considered 
and determined after mature deliberation, the Indians acknowl- 
edging themselves, also, to be under the protection of the United 
States, and not under any foreign power; promising, also, to sell 
their lands to the United States only — the latter power, on her 
part, guai'anteeing the protection accepted and acknowledged by 
the Indians themselves. In further recognition of the compact, 
a few necessary regulations were adopted by which the future 
intercourse should be governed. A boundary line was established 
by which the Indians confirmed to us large tracts of land, nearly all 
of which had been ceded to us by former treaties. In compensa- 
tion for these lands, the United States agreed to pay them in 
goods to the value of $20,000, and to make them further payment 
of 19,500 annually. Most of the treaties subsequently made were 
framed on this model. " So far, then, as title by piu-chase could 
be gained, that title has been acquired by the Federal Kepublic. 
She has extinguished every title which could be possibly set up 
as adverse to her own; namely, those of foreign nations, those of 
Indian tribes, and those of such States as possessed or alleged 
tiiem; and she has confirmed to individuals every acre to which 
the plausible shadow of a right could be shown, either in law or 
equity; " and the validity of those pm'chases, or the rights ac- 
quired under them, has never been disputed. 

During the existense of the Confederation of States, titles to 
individual and other pm-chasers were acquired through the agency 
of the State in which the land was situated. Since the confir- 
mation of all titles in the General Government, pm-ohasers have 
derived their sole right of ownership from the United States, as 
the supreme authority. "In 1787, the Ohio Company pur- 
chased a large tract from Congress, which body, having adopted 
no system for the sale of lands, or the settlement of the 
Western country, seemed disposed to favor the mode of par- 
celing out her wide domain in extensive grants. The pur- 
chase of the Ohio Company comprehended 1,500,000 of acres." 
In 1789, John Cleves Symmes idso contracted with Congress for 
the purchase of 1,000,000 acres of land between the Great and 
Little Miamis, but the patent subsequently issued to him and his 
associates included only 311,682 acres, of which only 248,540 
acres became private property. At first, it appears to have been 
the disposition of Congress to sell large grants to single individ- 
uals, but this became unpopular because of the attempted specu- 
lation at the expense of the piu'chaser for homestead purposes, 
for whose interest lands were afterward sold in tracts of forty 
and eighty acres. To this end, IVIr. Hamilton, Secretary of the 
Treasury, in a report dated July 20, 179f), submitted for the con- 

sideration of Congi'ess these siiggestions : That no land should be 
sold except such in respect to which the titles of the Indian tribes 
shall have been previously extinguished. That convenieat tracts 
shall from time to time be set apart for the purpose of locations 
by actual settlers, in quantities not exceeding, to one person, 100 
acres. The first positive step taken toward modifying the old 
system of selling the public lands in large quantities to Individ- 
vrals or companies, was on the 10th of May, 1800, which provided 
for the sale of lands in sections and half-sections. Prior to that 
date, no more than 121,540 acres had been sold, in addition to the 
Symmes purchase. Of this quantity, 72,974 acres had been dis- 
posed of at public sale in New York, in 1787, for $87,325, in evi- 
dences of public debt; 43,446 acres at public sale in Pittsburgh, 
in 1796, for $100,427; and 5,120 acres at Philadelphia, in the 
same year, at $2 per acre. The credit of taking this first step in 
the direction of a radical reform in disposing of those lands is due 
to Gen. William H. Harrison, who, in 1799, was a Delegate in 
Congress from the Northwestern Territory. At the session of 1799 
and 1800, Gen. Harrison introduced a bill embodying the proposed 
provisions, and the introduction produced a sensation, showing 
how little thought had been bestowed upon the question of such 
momentous interest to the people, especially- in the new States. 
Members of large experience in the Legislative department of the 
(government felt called upon to combat the provisions of the bill 
antagonizing the processes before recognized in the management 
of the land question. Gen. Han-ison was equal to the emergency, 
however, and, defending it single-handed and alone, he exposed 
the folly and iniquity of the old system, demonstrating that it 
could only result to the advantage of the wealthy monopolist, 
while the hardy and useful population, embracing chiefly those of 
small means, would necessarily be exchided firom the benefits other- 
wise resulting to the country from the labors bestowed by the in- 
terested pioneer settler in the improvement of his homestead. 
Thus he triumphed, in being familiar with the logic of facts ap- 
plicable to the situation, and able to present them with convincing 
force. The bill was passed, and became a law by the approval of 
the President, on the 10th of May, 1800. Thi-ough his agency, 
also, the provision which appropirates the one-thirty-sixth part of 
each Congi-essional township, since known as the 16th section, 
for the support of schools within the same, became a part of the 
fundamental law, and may be safely asserted to constitute the 
commencement of om' beneficent system of common schools. 

"As early as 1803, petitions were presented to Congress pray- 
ing for various improvements or changes in the mode of selling 
lands, among which the most prominent suggestions were: To soil 
lands in smaller tracts; to charge no interest on sales; to sell for 
cash; to reduce the price; and to make grants of small tracts to 
actual settlers. On the 24th of January, 1804, a report was made 
in the House of Representatives, recommending the reduction of 
the size of the tracts, and the sale of quaiter-sections in the town- 
ships which had before been offered in half-sections, and the sale 
of half -sections in those which had been offered in whole sections." 
These provisions, with others authorizing the sale of the public 
lands in tracts of ci^Klv au'l I'oily acres, eighths and sixteenths 
of sections, wore suIimii'I'I'II.^ i'n:ii'ti'd, enabling persons of small 
means, at the price lixcil, (o hccuie homesteads in these Western 
land districts. The result was a largely increased population of 
active and enterprising settlers, who, in after yeai-s, truly caused 
"the wilderness to bud and blossom as the ros&" The following 
brief outline of om- present eminently practical system of public 
smTeys, copied from Judge Hall's "Notes on the Western States," 



frequently referred to in these pages, will be found both interest- 
ing and valuable. 

" All the lands within each disti'ict are sui'veyed before any 
part is oifered for sale; being actually divided into townships of 
six miles square, and each of these subdivided into thirty-six sec- 
tions of one square mile, containing 041) acres each. All the di- 
viding lines run according to the cardinal points, and cross each 
other at right angles, except where fi'actional sections are formed 
by large streams, or by an Indian boundary line. These sections 
are again divided into quarter, half-quarter and quarter-quarter 
sections, containing 160, 80 and 40 acres respectively, of which 
the lines are not actually sui'veyed, but the corners, boundaries and 
contents are ascertained by fixed rules, jarescribed by law. This 
branch of business is conducted under two principal surveyors, 
who appoint their own deputies. The sections in eai'h township 
are numbered from 1 to 36 ; the townships are placed in ranges, 
and also numbered. The surveys are founded upon a series of 
true meridians; the First Principal Meridian is in Ohio; the 
Second, in Indiana: the; Third, in Illinois, etc., each forming tho, 
base of a series of surveys, of which the lines are made to corre- 
spond, so that the whole country is at last divided into squares of 
one mile each, and townships of six miles each, and these subdi- 
visions arranged with mathematical accuracy into parallel ranges. 

"This system is as simple as it is, on many accounts, peculiarly 
happy. Disputes in relation to boundaries can seldom occur where 
the dividing lines can at all times be corrected by the cardinal 
points; where the same line, being extended throughout a whole 
region, is not dependent upon visible marks or corners, but can be 
readily ascertained at any moment by calculation and measm-e- 
ment; and where, one point being ascertained, fiu'nishes the basis 
for an indefinite number of surveys around it. Such lines, too, 
ai'e easily preserved and not readily forgotton. 

"A vast deal of accurate and useful information is furnished 
to the public through the medium of this system. The whole sur- 
face of the country is actually siu-veyed and measiu-ed. The 
courses of rivers and smaller streams are accurately ascertained 
and measured, through all their meanders. Oiu- maps are there- 
fore exact, and the facilities for measuring distances remarkably 
convenient. Many of the peculiarities of the country are discov- 
ered aud its resources pointed out in the com-se of this minute 
exploration; and a mass of well-authenticated facts ai-e registered 
in the proper department, such as the topographer can find in 
relation to no other country. After the land has been siu'veyed, 
districts are laid off, in each of which a land office is established, 
and, on a day appointed by the President, the whole of the land 
is offered at public sale, to the highest bidder; but not allowed 
to be sold below a certain minimum price. Such tracts as are not 
sold at that time may at any time afterward be pm'chased at the 
minimum price, at private sale. From all the sales, one-thirty- 
sixth pari of the land, being one entire section in each township, 
is reserved, and given in perpetuity for the support of schools in 
the township. Section No. 16, which is nearly central in each 
township, is designated by law for that pm'pose. In each of the 
new States and Territories, one entire township, containing 23,- 
040 acres (and in some instances two townships), has been reserved, 
and given in perpetuity to the State, when formed, for the support 
of seminaries of learning of the highest class. Five per cent on 
the amount of the sales within.each State is reserved, thi-ee-fifths 
of which is to be expended by Congress in making roads leading 
to the State, and two-fifths to be expended by such State in the 
encouragement of learning. 

"The business of the laud office in each district is transacted 
by a Register and a Eeceiver, by the first of whom the land is 
sold to individual purchasers, while the other receives the money. 
These offices are entirely independent of each other, their duties 
distinct and their responsibilities separate. They are required to 
keep similar books of account, and to make, respectively, period- 
ical reports to the General Land Office at Washington — the one 
of his sales, the other of his receipts; so that the officers operate 
as checks on each other; and, as neither has any pecuniary inter- 
est in the fidelity of the other, there is no temptation to collusion. 
They -each keep plats of all the lands in the district, sold or un- 
sold, on which each tract is distinctly marked and numbered, so 
that the purchaser, in making his selection, may examine for him- 
self. No distinction is vested in the land officers in reference to 
the sale; the purchaser having selected his tract, or as many tracts 
as he may desire, they have simply to discharge the ministerial 
duty of receiving the money and gi'anting the evidence of title." 


The surveys made in this country dm-ing the antecedent and 
colonial periods, possessed few of the elements recognized as es- 
sential in a system established and regulated by the authority of 
General Goverrmient, for the determination of boimdaries to home- 
steads and landed interests of greater area. Om- jjresent system 
is the legitimate outgrowth of the change of policy in the admin- 
istration of public affairs called forth by the modifications in om- 
form of government and the consequent necessities of the situa- 

We have already given something of the methods prescribed 
by the usages of the preceding century, anterior to the organiza- 
tion of om- present form of government, and what came of them. 
The system now in use did not at once matm-e and become a per- 
fect one, nor, indeed, is it now wholly free fi-om en-or; but, hav- 
ing its origin in the necessities of the times, it .was at first little 
more than an outline of what after contingencies deduced and 
gradually approached perfection conformably with suggestions of 
experience. The fii-st departure fi-om those ancient usages ant^ 
dated, somewhat, the inaugm'ation of oiu- present form of govern- 
ment, having been prescribed by the Confederation, on the 20th 
of May, 1785, in the act providing for the sm-vey of the " Western 
Territoiy." The ordinance directed that the said teiTitory should 
be divided into "townships of six miles squai'e, by lines rimning 
due north and south, and others crossing them at right angles." 
This provision constituted the basis of the present system. In- 
stead of the iiTegular coast-line base of the eai-ly colonial period, 
the due east-and-west base line and standard parallels, with the 
principal meridians erected thereon and at right angles therewith, 
whereby the township and snbdivisional lines are definitely ascer- 
tained and accurately located, was substituted. It was a great 
improvement on earlier regulations, and fonns the outline of all 
subsequent enactments tending to develop a jierfect, connected 
system. On the 18th of May, 1796, the Federal Congi'ess passed 
the first law on the subject of public smweys, the application of 
which was to "the territory northwest of the River Ohio, and 
above the mouth of the Kentucky Eiver," better known as the 
" Northwestern Territory," afterward gi-anted TeiTitorial rights 
under special act of ("ongress. 

The following are the provisions of the second section of that 
act, and applied to such lands as had not already been surveyed or 
disposed of, requiring that these lands be surveyed " by north-and- 
south lines, run according to the true meridian, and by others cross- 



ing them at right angles, so as to form townships six miles square." 
It was fm-ther provided that "one-half of said townships, taking 
them alternately, should be subdivided into sections, containing, 
as nearly as may be, 640 acres each, by rrmning parallel lines 
thi-ough the same each way at the end of every two miles, and 
making a corner on each of said lines at the end of every mile." 
This was in full accord with the method of disposing of the pub- 
lic lands at that period, and before the inauguration of the new 
system, proposed by Gen. Harrison, to which reference has already 
been made, and contained, withal, some of the elements which 
distinguished the improved system. 

On the 10th of May, 1800, by further act of Congress, amend- 
atory of the foregoing, it was directed that the " interior lines of 
townships intersected by the Muskingmn, and of all townships 
lying east of that river which had not before been actually subdi- 
vided into sections, should also be run and mai'ked in the manner 
prescribed by the said act for running and marking the interior 
lines of townships directed to be sold in sections of 640 acres 

Whenever the exterior lines of the townships thus to be sub- 
divided exceeded or fell short of six miles, the excess or deficiency 
was to be added to or deducted from the western or northern tier 
of sections. By this act it was also provided that the northern 
and western tiers of sections shoxild be sold as containing only the 
quantity expressed on the plats, and all others as containing the 
complete legal quantity. 

Under the provisions of the first section of the act approved 
March 26, 1 804, it was made the duty of the Surveyor General to 
cause the public lands north of the Kiver Ohio and east of the 
Biver Mississippi to be surveyed in townships six miles square, 
and divided in the same manner as provided by law in relation to 
the lands northwest of the Biver Ohio, and above the mouth of the 
Kentucky Biver. Subsequently, a law was passed by Congress 
and approved February 11, 1805, contemplating the division of 
the public domain in tracts suitable for settlers of moderate means, 
which provided for such subdivision and established the follow- 
ing principles upon which the subdivisional boundaries of the 
public lands should be determined: Section 1 jjrovided that "all 
the comers marked in the surveys retui'ned by the Sm-veyor * 
* * * should be established as the proper corners of sections 
or subdivisions of sections which they were intended to designate; 
and the corners of half and quarter sections not marked on the 
said surveys sLould be placed, as nearly as possible, equidistant 
from the two corners which stand on the same line." The second 
section provides that " the boundaiy lines actually run and mai'ked 
in the surveys returned by the Smweyors * * * * shall 
be established as the proper boundary lines of the sections or stib- 
divisions for which they were intended ; and the length of such 
lines-, as returned by * * * * Stirveyors, shall be held and 
considered as the true length thereof. And the boundary lines 
which shall not have been actually run and marked as afoi'esaid, 
shall be ascertained by running straight lines from the establishe-^. 
corners to the opposite corresponding corners; but, in the por- 
tions (.(■ llidsc fractional townships in which no sitch opposite cor- 
rc'spiiiiiliii^; li;ivi' l)een or can be fixed, the said boundaiy lines 
shall !«■ MsciM'tainrd by running from the established corners due 
north-and-south, or east-and-west, lines, as the case may be, to the 
water-course, Indian boundary line, or other external boundary of 
such fi-actional township." 

Section 3 provides that "each section, or subdivision of sec- 
tion, the contents whereof shall have been, or, by virtue of the 

first section of this act, shall be rettirned by the SiuTeyor, * * 
* * shall be held and considered asjcontaining the exact quan- 
tity expressed in sttch retimi or returns; and the half- sections and 
quarter-sections, the coatents whereof shall not have been returned, 
shall be held and considered as containing the one-half or the one- 
fourth part respectively, of the returned contents of the section of 
which they make a part" 

Again, by the act of Congress of February 22, 1817, it was 
provided that, from and after the lat day of September of that 
year, " in every case of the division of a quarter-section " (of the 
sections designated by numbers 2, 5, 20, 30 and 33) "the partitioQS 
shall be made by a line running due north and south." It will 
be seen, from the last preceding clause, that in the subdivision of 
quarter-sections there were only certain sections in each township 
which were subject to subdivision by a north-and south line, mak- 
ing an east and a west half of such quarter-section; but, by a 
subsequent act, April 24, 1820, it was provided that "in every 
case of the subdivision of a quarter-section," after the 1st of July 
of that year, " the line for the division thereof shall rim north and 
south, and the corners and contents of half-quarter-sections which 
may thereafter be sold, shall be ascertained in the manner and on 
the principles directed and prescribed by the second section of the 
act of February 11, 1805." 

"An act supplemental to the several laws for the sale of the 
public lands," approved April 5, 1832, provides that, fi-om and 
after the 1st day of May following, " in every case of a subdivision 
of a half-quarter section " (in all the public lands of the United 
States) " the line for the division thereof shall run east and west, 
and the corners and contents of quarter -quarter sections, which 
may thereafter be sold, shall be ascertained, as nearly as may be, 
in the name and on the principles directed and prescribed by the 
section of the act of February 11, 1805: and fractional sections 
containing fewer or more than 160 acres shall in like manner, as 
nearly as may be practically, be subdivided into quarter-sections, 
imder such rules and regulations as maybe prescribed by the Sec- 
retary of the Treasiu-y." 

The system prescribed by the United States Government for 
the survey of the public lands is known as the " Bectangular Sys- 
tem," since the lines bottnding given areas are imifoimly run at 
right angles with each other on adjacent sides, and hence parallel 
on opposite sides. The primaiy divisions recognized in the sys- 
tem are townships six miles squai'e, bounded by lines confoiming 
to the cardinal points, and containing, as nearly as may be, 23,- 
040 acres;" sections, each " one mile square, containing 640 
acres," or the one-thirty-sixth part of a township, except in par- 
ticular-cases, as the interposition of meandered streams or ancient 
boimdaries; subdivisions of sections into quai'ters, eighths and 
sixteenths, containing, respectively, 160, 80 and 40 acres, which 
are styled the legal subdivisions, and ai-e the only subdivisions 
recognized by the Goveniment in disposing of the public lands, 
except where tracts ai-e made fractional by water courses or other 

The lines of these subdivisions are not actually surveyinl 
and marked in the field; but .|ii;iilcv s..,-ti,.ii ,.r luilf mil.- i..>sts are 
established on the boundari'- .il' MviiMiis. .-iiiil tlic .|ii:niri' .|niii-)('r 
corners ai-e bylaw the ecjuidislant |i.iiiits lictwrm Ih.' scctinn and 
quarter-section corners; hence, the interior subdivisional lines of 
sections are only designated on the township plats in the Siu-veyor 
General's office ; so that, when the boimdaries of these subdivis- 
ions are required to bo established on the ground, the County Sui-- 
veyor or other competent person is employed. 




The fii-st or preliminai-y step taken in making an original sur- 
vey of tile public lands intfl townships and sections is to establish 
Principal Meridians and Base Lines. The tirst is called a meri- 
dian line because it is run due north and south, and at right an- 
gles with the equator or equatorial line, and principal because it 
is made a standard or reference line for the sm'veys in a given 
State or Territory, and numbered 1st, 2d. 3d, etc., as it is the first, 
second or third one established. The first one established was 
that which starts on the Ohio Kiver, "beginning at the mouth of 
the Great Miami River, and numing thence due north, to the ter- 
ritorial line between the United States and Canada," and, at the 
time of the approval of the act of Congress of May 7, 1800, " to 
divide the territory of the United States northwest of the Ohio 
info two separate governments," was designated as the line which 
should henceforth " become and remain permanently the boundary 
line between such State [Ohio] and the Indian Territory; any- 
thing in this act to the contrary notwithstanding."' Yet the first 
section of that act prescribed " That, from and after the 4th day 
of July next, all that part of the territory of the United States 
northwest of the Ohio Kiver, which lies to tiie westwai'd of a line 
beginning at the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of Kentucky Eiver, 
and running thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north until it 
shall intersect the territorial line between the United States and 
Canada, shall, for the purpose of temporary government, consti- 
tute a separate Territory, and be called the Indiana Territory" — 
and the sm-veys of public lands made prior to the admission of 
Indiana as a separate State, as provided in the fifth section of 
the foregoing act, was so made with reference to that line as a 
boundary, the ranges counting west, to that line, from the First 
Meridian, as will appear by reference to the reports of such sur- 
veys and the plats thereof, on file in the office of the Siirveyor 
General. The Second Principal Meridian, and that which is 
made the reference line in the surveys of lines in Indiana, is 
located 86^, 24', 19" west fi-om Greenwich, fifteen ranges — about 
ninety miles township measm'e — west fi-om the First Principal 
Meridian. From this meridian, the ranges of townships are num- 
bered east and west, accordingly as they are situated east or west 
of that line, except those situated west of the First Meridian, 
and east of the temporary ten-itorial line which was the bound- 
ai-y line of the old siuweys. 

The Base Line, or that iipon which the old Principal Meri- 
dian is erected, may be either the equatorial line or a line drawn 
parallel with it, and is located with reference to the convenience 
of the State or Ten-itory interested, in niuubering the townships, 
the largest division known in the public land system of the United 
States, which lie north or south of that line. In this State, the 
Base Line is established at a point in Latitude 38° 30' north, from 
which townships are munbered from 1 to 8 south, and fi-om 1 to 
38 north. As explanatory, therefore, of the means whereby a par- 
ticular tract of land in Indiana is determined, we first detei-mine 
the niunber of the township, whether north or south, which fixes 
the number of townships, inclusive, from that to the Base Line; 
then, the number of the range, whether east or west of the Sec- 
ond, or west of the First Principal Meridian. If in a range west 
of the First Meridian, we know that it lies between the old tem- 
porary ten-itorial boundary and the west line of Ohio; and, if east 
or west of the Second, we know not only that the township is that 
many ranges, six miles wide, east or west of the meridian, but 
that it is also west of the old line just referred to, extending from 
a point on the Ohio River opposite the mouth of the Kentucky, to 

Fort Recovery. These two lines [Principal Meridians] constitute 
the basis of all public surveys in the State of Indiana, and are in- 
dispensable prerequisites to the laying-out of townships. 

Standard Parallels, as they ai'e called, are simply standard 
linTs established either north or south of the base line and paral- 
lel with it, and are used as reference or correction lines, from 
which the Smweyor is enabled to make allowance for the conver- 
gence of meridians, and thus preserve, as nearly as may be prac- 
ticable, the square fonn of the townships, as prescribed by law. 
These parallels are ran every five townships, or thirty miles, north 
or south of the base line, and constitiite new bases for the town- 
ships north of them, up to the next Standard Parallel. This is 
the present system. Prior, however, to 1866, these parallels were 
run every twenty-four miles north of the base line, and thirty 
miles south: hence, it will be noticed that, in surveys made ante- 
rior to the yeai- 1866, Standard Parallels were twenty-fom- miles 
apai-t north of the base line in any State, and thirty miles apart 
south of that line. In surveying and establishing all these prin- 
cipal reference lines meridians, base lines and standard parallels, 
for the purpose of secui'ing strict accui-acy and to dispense with 
the uncertainties of magnetic lines, " Deputy Sm-veyors are 
required to use Burt's improved solai' compass, or other instrument 
of equal utility; but, when the needle can be relied upon, the 
ordinary magnetic compass may be used in subdividing or mean- 

The meridian and base lines having been previously estab- 
lished, and the proper township, section and subdivisional cor- 
ners located as prescribed in the instructions, the process of sm-- 
veying and establishing township lines is briefly described as fol- 
lows: For tovmships west of the meridian, the Surveyor com- 
mences his work at the first jjre-established township corner on 
the base line west of the meridian, which will be the southwest cor- 
ner of Township 1 , Range 1 west, and runs thence north, on a true 
meridian line. 480 chains, establishing the sertion and quai-ter- 
section corners, as required by his instnictions ; at the end of that 
distance establishing the township corner, which is common to the 
Townships 1 and '2 north, and Ranges 1 and 2 west. From this 
point, he runs and measm-es east on a random line, setting tem- 
porary section and quarter-section stakes, to the first township 
corner north, on the meridian line, and noting the distance at 
which the eastern boundai-y is intersected north or south of the 
trae or established corner ; then, making his correction for course, 
he runs the true line back to the corner fi-om which the random 
started, measui'ing westward and establishing the necessaiy peiTua- 
nent section and quarter-section corners, and obliterating the tem- 
porary posts, thi'owing the excess or deficiency in measurement on 
the east and west end of the line. In case the variance in align- 
ments is more than 3.50 chains north or south of the standard cor- 
ner on the meridian, he is required, by his instructions, to retrace 
his work. The same course of procedure applies to all townships 
north to No. 5, the north boundaiy of which intersects the first 
correction parallel, where the line, having no check by an east- 
and-west alignment and measurement, intersects the parallel at a 
point, if the line has been correctly rim, seventy-six links east of 
the standard corner, the amount of the actual convergence of 
meridian lines. A corner is established at this point of intereection, 
called a closing corner. On the east of the meridian, the process 
is the same, except that the work commences at the first township 
corner east, and the random lines are measm-ed west, instead of 
east, as before, and the trae line east, throwing the excess over 
or the deficiencv under 480 chains on the west end of the line. 



When the township liups have been run, the next step is to 
subdivide, or sectionize, the townships; and, by a regulation of 
the Land Department of the Governreent, the same Deputy Sm'- 
veyor who has established the township lines is not pennitted to 
subdivide that township into sections, for the obvious reason that 
eiTors or imperfections in work are more likely to be detected by 
another. This regulation has not always been in force, or at least 
has not always been enforced literally. These lines may be ran 
by a standard needle instrument properly adjusted. Before pro- 
ceeding, it is the duty of the Surveyor, with such an instrument, 
to make correction of his magnetic variation so as to confonn to 
the township work, and compare his chaining with the original 
measurements. " For this purpose, he is reqiiired to retrace the 
• mile, both of the south and east boundaries of each tovra- 
ship, and any discrepancy, either in the variation or chaining, 
must be noted in the field-book," that he may use a correspond- 
ing variation and proportionate measurement in the prosecution 
of his work. This requirement is alike applicable^ to subdivis- 
ional work in the townships, and to the retracing of similar lines 
in the subdivision of sections. 

Having thus complied with the prescribed regulations, the Sm-- 
veyor will begin at the first mile, or section corner, west on the 
south boundary, common to Sections 35 and 36; thence, running 
due north forty chains, he establishes a quarter-section corner, and 
continues his com'se to the end of eighty chains [one milej, estab- 
lishing there a corner common to Sections 25, 26, 85, 36. From 
this point he rans a random line due east, setting a temporary 
quarter-section post at the end of forty chains, and continues his 
alignment, without 'blazing," to the eastern boundary, which, in 
this instance, is the township line. " If the townshiji line is in- 
tersected exactly at the section corner thereon, the random may 
be "blazed back." and established as the ti'ue line; but, if the 
random strikes the boundary either north or south of the section 
corner, the distance of the point of intersection fi'om said corner 
must be measured and noted, and a com-se calculated that will 
run a true line fi'om the section- corner on the east boundary back 
to the section -corner last started from. " The permanent quarter- 
section corner miist be established on the true line at a point equidis- 
tant from the two section-corners, according to the requirements 
of law, and the temporary post on the random should be pulled 
up." Thus he proceeds with each section to the closing section 
on the north. From the corner of Sections 1, 2, 11 and 12, a ran- 
dom line is nm due north between Sections 1 and 2, to the north- 
ern boundary of the township. " If the random does not close 
exactly on the section-corner pre-established, the distance of the 
intersection from said corner must be measvu'ed and noted, and a 
course calculated that will run a true line south of the corner from 
which the random started, the same as randoms east, except that 
the permanent quarter-section corner must be planted exactly 
forty chains from the interior section-corner, thereby throwing 
the excess or deficiency in measui'ement on the last half-mile, 
according to law." The first tier of sections being completed, 
the Surveyor next commences at the corner on the south side of 
the township, between Sections 3-t ami '■'•'>. :nnl prncoiHls with the 
second tier as with the first; then wilh ili.- lliinl, I'.nn-th and fifth 
in like manner. "In surveying the lirili section line between the 
fifth and sixth tiers of sections, not only an east random line is 
run between the sections, but a random line must also be run due 
west to the. range line, and corrected back the same as between 
sections in the first tier, e.xcept that the permanent quarter-section 
must be established exactly forty chains fi'om the interior 

section -corner, as required on the north boundai-y, thi'owing the 
excess or deficiency of measurement upon the last half-mile or 
outside quarter-section." That portion of this last regulation 
which refers to the running true or corrected lines intersecting 
the township lines north and west, has not always been observed, 
for the Surveyc5r, in retracing the operations of early sm-veys, will 
not infrequently find that closing corners have been established, 
thus making, on the township lines, corners representing the sec- 
tions both on the north and on the south, the former as standard 
corners and the latter as correction corners. All lines and corners 
thus established by the laws of the United States, under which 
they were established, are unchangeable. This regulation was 
made necessary, since, in the experiences of the past, it had been 
found that without such a provision a fruitful source of litigation 
and vexatious annoyance would exist among land-owners holding 
title under patent fi-om the United States, as well as to others 
acquiring title by subsequent conveyance. Inasmuch, therefore, 
as these surveys w^re originally made under and in conformity 
with the laws of the United States, the National Government then 
holding the title, the boundaries and corners so established are 
recognized as forming the basis of all subsequent subdivisions, 
notwithstanding the corners connecting boundaiy lines and the 
lines themselves, may have been established out of their proper 
positions, considered with reference to the literal observance of 
the instructions prescribed by the law pertinent thereto. The 
reason is obvious. The Government, having sold these lands to 
purchasers, prescribing and designating those lines and corners 
as true, would be bound to protect those purchasers in their rights. 
Hence these rules: 

" 1. Whenever one or more of the original corners of a section 
was established out of place, the area of every legal subdivision 
in said section is affected thereby; that is, some of the subdivis- 
ions will contain more than the regular quantity, and others will 
contain less. It will be useless for the surveyor, therefore, when 
called upon to subdivide a section where one of the original cor- 
ners was established out of line or out of measure, to attempt to 
make such a division as will give an equal ai'ea to even two of 
the subdivisions; it cannot be done without violating the rules 
prescribed by Congress in such cases. 

"2. The original section and quarter-section corners estab- 
lished by the Government Surveyor must stand as the tue corners 
vrhich they were intended to represent. This is true, whether the 
corners be in place or not. 

" 3. The quarter-quarter corners not established by the Deputy 
Surveyor must be planted equidistant and on the line between the 
quarter-post and section comer. 

"4. All the subdivisional lines of a section must be straight 
lines nmning from the proper corner in one exterior line to its 
corresponding corner in the opposite lioundaiy of the section. 
There is no exception to this rule. 

" 5. The fractional sections where no opjMsite corresponding 
corner has been or can be established, any required subdivision 
line of such section must be run fi'om the proper original corner 
in the boundary line, due east and west, or north and south, as the 
case may be, to the water-com'se, Indian reservation or other ex- 
terior boundary of said fractional section." 

LANII DI.STliirTf; Axn I,.\XD OFI'ICf;s. 

The first division of th(> public domain embraced in the origi- 
nal Territory of Indiana was made pm'suant to an act of Congress 
approved March 20, 180-t. One of these districts embraced the 


'J 7 

lands lying north of the State of Ohio, to which the Indian title 
had been extinguished, and the office at which they were subject 
to sale and entry was established at Deti'oit, then in "Wayne 
County, as the Territory was divided. Another division com- 
prised the lands lying with the boundary fixed by the treaty with 
the Indians at Fort Wayne, on the 7th of June, 1803, between 
the United States on the one pai-t, and the Delawares, Shawanoes, 
Pottawatomies, Miamis, Kickapoos, Eel Rivers, Weas, Pianke- 
shaws and Kaskaskias, on the other. The boundaries prescribed 
by that ti'eaty were as follows; "Beginning at Point Coupee, on 
the Wabash, and running thence by a line north seventy-eight de- 
grees west, twelve miles; thence by a line parallel to the general 
com-se of the Wabash, imtil it shall be intersected by a line at 
right angles to the same, passing thi-ough the mouth of Wliite 
Kiver: thence, by the last-mentioned line across the Wabash, and 
toward the Ohio, seventy-two miles; thence, by a line north twelve 
degrees west, until it shall be intersected by a line at right angles 
to the same, passing through Point Coupee, and by the last-men- 
tioned line to the place of beginning." The office in this 
district was situated at Vincennes, in Knox County. Here, 
also, lands were subject to entry and sale. Of this office, John 
Badollet was the fii-st Register, and Nathaniel Ewing was the first 

The third disbrict embraced such of the lands included within 
the boimdaries fixed by the ti'eaty of the 18th of August, 
1S03, with the Kaskaskias, as was not claimed by any other 

That bonndaiy is defined as follows : '' Beginning at the conflu- 
ence of the Ohio and the Mississippi; thence up the Ohio to the 
mouth of the Saline Creek, about twelve miles below the mouth 
of the Wabash; thence along the dividing ridge between said 
creek and the Wabash, imtil it comes to the general dividing ridge 
between the waters which fall into the Wabash and those which 
fall into the Kaskaskia River; and thence along the said ridge 
until it reaches the v.-aters which fall into the Illinois River; 
thence in a direct course to the mouth of the Illinois River, and 
thence down the Mississippi to the beginning." The office for 
the enti-y and sale of these lands was established at Kaskaskia. in 
Randolph County. 

By the provisions of a fm-ther act of Congress, approved March 
3, 1807, a fourth district was established, embracing the remaining 
unappropriated area of Indiana Territory proper. The office of 
sale and entry of the lands in this district was established at 
Jeti'ersonville, in Clai-ke Coimty. These were the disti-icts and 
offices which embraced the lands in the major part of the territoiy 
northwest of the Ohio River, and within those divisions respect- 
ively the lands sold anterior to the establishment of oiu- State 
boundaries were piu'chased. Subsequently, the boundai'ies of these 
land districts were changed to suit the convenience of pm'chasers 
contemplating settlement. 

A few years after the organization of the State Govermnent. 
when the emigration to the northern and western portions of the 
State was most active, the boundaries of land disti-icts were de- 
fined as follows: '■ The Cincinnati District embraces all the lands 
east of the following old Indian boundaries, viz. : Beginning where 
the old Indian line strikes the Ohio, in Range 13 east; thence, 
with it, say north- northeast to where it intersects the other In- 
dian line in Section 23, in Township 11, Range 13 east; thence 
southv.-est with another Indian line to where it intersects another 
line in Section 83, Township 10, Range 11 east; thence, with that 
line, say north northeast, to its bend in Sectirn 11, To\vnship 21. 

Range 13 east, and thence northeast toward Fort Recovery, to 
where it intersects the State line in Section 30, Township 23, 
Range 15 east. 

"The Jeti'ersonville District (commencing on the Ohio) is 
bounded on the west by the Second Principal Meridian as far 
north as the line between Townships and 10 north; thence east, 
with the line between Townships and 10, iintil it makes the In- 
dian boundary line on the south side of Section 38, Township 10, 
Range 11 east; thence (being the Cincinnati line) with the In 
dian line, northeastwardly, to the jiuiction of the Indian lines in 
Section 23, Township 11, Range 13 east; thence, south-southwest, 
to the line in Range 13, on the Ohio; thence with that river to 
the beginning. 

'"The Vincennes District embraces all the lauds west and south 
of the following lines: Beginning on the Ohio where the Second 
Meridian tu-st leaves the same; thence north with the meridian 
line until it is intersected in Section 1, Township 9, Range Iwest, 
by the old Indian line; thence, with the old Indian boimdaiy, 
northwesterly, until its intersection with the Illinois State line in 
Township 16 north. 

" The Crawfordsville District is included in the lines begin- 
ning on the Illinois line, where the Indian line strikes it, in 
Township 16; thence southeast with the Vincennes line on In- 
dian boundaiy, to intereection with the meridian in Section 1, 
Township 9, Range 1 west; thence north with the meridian line 
to the corner of Townships 9 and 10; thence east with the line 
between Townships 9 and 10, to the southeast corner of Town- 
ship 10, Range 1 east; thence north with the line between Ranges 
1 and 2 east; to the northeast angle of Township 26, Range 1 
east; thence west with the line between Townships 26 and 27, to 
the Illinois line, and with that line to the beginning. 

" The Indianapolis District, beginning at the southwest corner 
of Township 10, Range 2 east; thence north with the line between 
Ranges 1 and 2 east, to the line between Townships 20 and 2] 
north; thence, with the line between 20 and 21 north, east to its 
intersection with the old Indian or Cincinnati line, in Range 13 
east; thence south-southwest with the Indian or Cincinnati line 
to its intersection with the line between Townships 9 and 10, in 
Range 11 east, and thence west with the line between Townships 
9 and 10, to the beginning. 

" The Fort Wayne District, beginning at the southwest cor- 
ner of Township 21, Range 2 east (being the northwest comer of 
the Indianapolis District); thence east with the line between 
Townships 20 and 21 to its intersection, on Range 13, with the 
old Indian or Cincinnati line; thence north-northeast to the bend 
of this line, and then northeast with it to the Ohio State line, in 
Section 86, Township 23, Range 15 east, being the north corner of 
the Cincinnati Disti'ict; thence with the Ohio line to the north 
boundaiy of Indiana; thence west with that "boundaiy to the line 
between Ranges 6 and 7 east; thence south with the line between 
Range 6 and 7, to where it would be intersected in the Miami 
Reserve by the line between Townships 26 and 27; thence west 
with the line between those townshijis to the line between Ranges 
1 and 2 east; and thence south with the line between Ranges 1 
and 2 east to the beginning'. 

'' The La Porte District embraces all the residue of the State, 
being the lands north of the line between Townships 26 and 27, 
and west of the line between Ranges 6 and 7 east," to the northern 
and western boundaries of the State. In all these districts, lands 
piu'chased fi-om the Government were exempted from taxation for 
a period of five yeai's from the date of pm-chase. 



In 1840, a laud district was constructed, which inckided ter- 
ritory formerly embraced in the Crawfordsville, Fort Wayne and 
La Porte Districts, extending south to the line of the Crawfords- 
ville District, east to the Indianapolis and Fort Wayne Districts, 
north to the La Porte District, and west to the Illinois line. The 
land office of this district was situated at Winamac, in Pulaski 

The aggregate of public lands in the State is 21,637,760 acres, 
all of which had been surveyed pursuant to existing laws at the 
periods indicated by the date of the several sm-veys prior to the 
year 1860, and offered for sale at the land offices in the several dis- 
tricts of the State. From the opening of the first land office in 
the State until 1849, 15,477,629 acres had been sold, including 
1,170,259.50 sold in the Cincinnati District, for aggregate sum 
of $21,316,100, leaving unsold at that date 6,160,131 acres. The 
largest quantity sold in any one of the years during the period 
named was 3,016,960.77 acres, in the year 1836, the gi-eater pro- 
portion of which was purchased by speculators. At the present 
time, few tracts, if any, remain imsold, all the land offices having 
been closed — all of them, except the oue established at Indian- 
apolis—many years since. 


The original surveys of the public lands in Carroll County 
■ were made under and pursuant to the laws of the United States 
in force at the several dates when the work was executed. The 
fact that they were so made at different periods will account for the 
apparent differences of method occasionally manifest in some of 
the subdivisional lines of sections, especially those appertaining 
to the subdivision of quarter-sections. Those lands which were 
subdivided between the 1st day of September, 1817, and the 1st 
day of July, 1820, were surveyed under the provision of the law 
requiring that " in every case, division of a quarter-section [of 
sections designated by numbers 2, 5, 20, 30 and 35], the partitions 
shall be made by a line running due north and south." Subse- 
quently, the law was so modified that " in every case of the sub- 
division of a quarter section, the line for the division thereof 
shall run north and south, and the contents of quarter-sections 
which may thereafter be sold shall be ascertained in the manner 
and on the jirinoiples directed and prescribed by the second sec- 
tion of the act of February 11, 1805." Hence, it will appear 
that the greater portion of the lauds of this county were surveyed 
subject to the provision last named, while a small portion were 
affected by the preceding provision. After the 1st of May, 1832, 
" in every case of a subdivision of a quarter-section (in all the 
public lands of the United States), the line for the division there-' 
of shall run east and west, and the corner and contents of quar- 
tor-quarter-sections which may thereafter be sold sh-ill be ascer- 
tained, as nearly as may be, in the manner and on tbe principles " 
before prescribed, and those latter surveys all recognized the sub- 
divisions with quarter-quarter-sections, and sales were made in 
accordance therewith. 

According to the instructions prescribed by the foregoing 
regulations, the Second Principal Meridian of Indiana, having 
been (istaljlished co-incident with the range line between the tiers 
of townships, designated as of Kange 1 oast and Range 1 west, 
the work of making these surveys was commenced. This merid- 
ian or range line was established by William Harris, Deputy 
United States Surveyor, beginning on the line dividing Town- 
ships 22 and 23 north, as abase, November 19, 1819, and run- 
ning thence north, with a variation of 5° 45' east from the mag- 

netic bearing, between Townships 23, 24, 25, 26 and 27, of 
Ranges 1 east, and 1 west, closing with the last-named township 
on the 22d of November, occupying a period of four days. The 
line between townships marked Range 1 west and Range 2 west 
of the Principal Meridian was su;'veyed and established also by 
William Harris, Deputy Surveyor, commencing as before, on the 
line between Townships 22 and 23, on the 25th of November, 
1819, and running thence north with a variation of 6' 30' east of 
the magnetic bearing, between Townships 23, 24, 25 and 26, to 
the south bank of the Wabash River, closing at that point on the 
27th of November. The line between Ranges 2 and 3 west was 
also sui'veyed and established by Mr. Harris, who, commencing 
work from the same base as previously, on the 1st day of Decem- 
ber, 1819, ran north, with a variation of 6° 15' east from the 
magnetic bearing, between Townships 24 and 25, of Ranges 2 and 
3 west, closing at the corner of Townships 23 and 24, on the east 
bank of the Wabash River, the following day. From this point, 
the line was smweyed and established by David Hillis, Deputy 
Surveyor, on the 9th of May, 1828, with the same variation as that 
determined by Mr. Harris, closing at the comer between Town- 
ships 26 and 27, on the 12th of the same month. 

The boundary line on the north of Tovniship 23 north. Range 
1 west, was sui-veyed and established by William Harris, Deputy 
Sm'veyor, on the 24th of November, 1819, commencing on the 
south boundary of Section 36, Township 24 north. Range 1 west, 
and running thence west, with a variation of 5° 45' east of the 
magnetic bearing — closing on the temporary township comer-post. 
The survey of the subdivisional or section lines of the township 
was commenced July 30, 1821, by Josiah F, Polke, Deputj' Sur- 
veyor, and closdd on the r2th of September. The survey of the 
gi-ant of Zachariah Cicott, in this township, was made by Chaun- 
cey Carter, Deputy Surveyor, July 30 to August 1, 1827. 

The north boundary line of Township 24, of the same range, 
was surveyed and established by William Harris, Deputy Sm'- 
veyor, on the 23d of November, 1819, commencing on the south 
boundary of Section 36, Township 25 north, Range 1 west, and 
running thence west, with a variation of 5° 45' east, to the south- 
west corner of Section 31, Townshij^ 25 north. Range 1 west. 
In this township, the subdivisional or section lines were siu'- 
veyed by Henry Bryan, Deputy Siu-veyor, in July, 1821, com- 
mencing at the northwest corner of Section 25, and ninning 
thence north, between Sections 23 and 24, and closing on the 
line between Sections 5 and 6, 79.72 chains north of the southeast 
corner of Section 5, in the same township. 

The north boundary line of Township 25 north. Range 1 west, 
was siu'veyed and established by William Harris, Deputy Sm'- 
veyor, on the 21st and 22d of November, 1819, commencing on 
the south boundary of Section 36, Township 26 north, Range 1 
west; thence west, closing on the east boundary of Section 31, of 
the same township. The survey of the subdivision was made by 
Henrj' Bryan, Deputy Sm'veyor, commencing July 27, 1821, on 
the south boundary line of the township between Sections 35 and 
36, according to instructions, and closing August 8, on the north 
boundary of the townshi]), 79.70 chains north of the southeast cor- 
ner of Section 5. 

The north boundary line of 'Township 26 north. Range 1 west, 
was surveyed and established by David Hillis, Deputy Surveyor, 
May 13, 1828, commencing on the south boundary of Section 36, 
To^vnship 27 north, Range 1 west; thence west, closing at the in- 
tersection of the range line, 300 links south of post, at 72.50 chains 
west of the southeast corner of Section 31, of Township 27. The 



subdivisional or section lines of the township were surveyed by 
Henry Bryan, Deputy Sui-veyor, commencing on the township 
line south, between Sections 33 and 36; thence, as by his in- 
structions prescribed, on the 9th of August, 1821, and closing on 
the left bank of the AVabash Kiver, on the line between Sections 
17 and 18, 8.50 chains north from the south line of said sections, 
embracing all the lands south of the Wabash River, on the 21st 
of August, 1821. The work of subdividing into sections the por- 
tion north of the Wabash was performed by David Hillis, Deputy 
Surveyor, commencing February 18, 1810, on the south bank of 
the Wabash, between Sections 9 and 10, and thence, as by in- 
structions directed, and closing on the right bank of the same 
river, between Sections 8 and 9, 69.85 chains south of the north 
line of said sections, on the 19th of February, 1829. In August, 
1821, the Wabash River was meandered by Hemy Bryan, oppo- 
site Bm-nett's Reserve, and by David Hillis, on the south side of 
the Wabash, February 19, 1829. The Indian Grant, No. 9, to 
George Cicott, and that to Abraham Bmnet, were sxu-veyed by 
Chauncey Carter; also, the grants of Zacliai'iah Cicott and to his 
childi-en, from July 26 to 29, 1827. 

The north boundaiy line of Township 23 north. Range 2 
west, was surveyed and established by William H arris, Deputy 
Surveyor, November 29, 1819, commencing on the south bound- 
aiy of Section 86, Township 24 north. Range 2 west; thence 
west, closing at the northwest corner of the township. Josiah F. 
Polke, Depiity Surveyor, subdivided this township, commencing 
on the random line between Sections 13 and 24, Jime 12, 1821, 
and iTuining thence, conformably with his instructions, he closed 
on the line between Sections 3 and 6, 78.67 chains north fi'om 
their south boundary, intersecting the northern boundaiy of the 
township 870 links east of section-post, on the 21st. 

The north boundary of To-\vnship 2-1: north. Range 2 west, was 
surveyed and established November 29, 1819, by William HaiTis, 
Deputy Suiweyor, commencing on the south boundaiy of Section 
36, Township 25 north. Range 2 west, and running thence west, 
closing at the township corner, 74.78 chains west of the southeast 
corner of Section 31, on said Township 25. It was subdivided 
by Josiah F. Polke, Deputy Surveyor, commencing June 22, 1821, 
on the south side of the township, between Sections 85 and 36, 
and rn Tilling thence, pursuant to instiiictions, and closing on the 
line between Sections 5 and 6, 81.30 chains north from the south 
line of the aforenamed sections, at the intersection of the north 
boundary of the township, July 1, 1821. 

The north boundaiy of Township 25 north, Range 2 west, to 
the left bank of the Wabash River, was surveyed by William 
Harris, Deputy Surveyor, November 28, 1819. That on the right 
bank was surveyed by David Hillis, Deputy Siu-veyor, May 9, 1828. 
The subdivision of the township south of the Wabash was sm-- 
veyed by Hemy Bryan, Deputy Sm'veyor, commencing August 
26 and closing September 7, 1821 ; that on the north side was 
surveyed by David Hillis, February 29, 1829. On the 8th of 
the same month, Mr. Hillis ran the meander lines on the AVabash 

River. The Indian grant to Mary Wells was surveyed by Chaun- 
cey Carter April 28, 1835; that to Antione Bondie was siu-veyed 
by Joseph S. Allen, Deputy Surveyor, April 8, 1820. 

The north boundaiy of Township 26 north, Range 2 west, was 
surveyed by David Hillis May 14, 1828. The subdivision of the 
township on the left bank of the Wabash was siuweyed by Henry 
Bryan, commencing August 22 and closing August 24, 1821; that 
on the right bank was surveyed by David Hillis, commencing on 
the 9th of February, 1829, and closing on the 17th. 

The township lines in Range 3 west, on the right bank of the 
Wabash River, were suiweyed by David Hillis, fi-om May 9 to 
May 15, 1S28. He surveyed the subdivisional lines also, in Jan- 
uary and February, 1829. 

In Township 23 north. Range 1 east, the north boimdary line 
was surveyed and established by Hemy Bryan on the 25th of 
May, 1821, to the west side of the Miami Reserve; the part east 
of that line was surveyed and established by A. St. Clair Vance, 
Deputy Sm'veyor, July 23, 1838. That portion of the township 
west of the reserve was subdivided into sections by Josiah F. 
Polke, Deputy Surveyor, from the 4th to the 19th of August, 1821 ; 
that inside the reservation was subdivided by Mr. Vance, July 19 
to 23, 1838, the lines being run with a variation of 4° 45' east 
from the magnetic bearing. 

In Township 24 north, Range 1 east, the north boundaiy was 
siu'veyed and established to the west line of the Miami Reserva- 
tion, on the 28th of May, 1821, by Henry Biyan; that east of 
said line was smweyed and established by A. St. Clair V^anoe, in 
August, 1838. The first pai-t was subdivided by Hemy Bryan, from 
May 26 to June 5, 1821; the last part, by Mr. Vance, from Au- 
gust 17 to 21, 1838, the lines being run with a variation of 4 
45' east from the magnetic bearing. 

In Township 25 north. Range 1 east, the north boundary was 
surveyed and established by Hemy Bryan, to the west line of the 
Miami Reservation, on the 10th of June, 1821; the portion on the 
easl of that li .le was surveyed and established by A. St. Clair 
Vance, October 3, 1838. Hemy Bryan subdivided that portion 
of the township lying east of the Miami Reservation, fi'om the 
11th to the 21st of June, 1821; that inside the reservation was 
surveyed and subdivided by A. St. Clair Vance, from the 11th 
to the 13th of October, 1838. The section lines east of the 
reservation were run with a variation of 5° 45' east, while those 
inside the reservation were run with a variation of 5° 10' east 
from the magnetic bearing. 

In Township 26 north. Range 1 east, the north bovmdaiy east 
of the Miami Reserve was suiweyed and established, June 24, 
1821, by Hemy Bryan, commencing at the southwest corner of 
Section 31, Township 27 north, Range 1 east, and closing 76.44 
chains east of the southwest corner of Section 35, Township 27 
north. Range 1 east; that east of the reserve line, by Mr. Vance, in 
November, 1838. The first was subdivided by Hemy Bryan, fi-om 
June 25 to July 1, 1821; that inside the reserve was subdivided 
by A. St Clair Vance, November 17 and 18, 1838. 





Names ok Purciiaskus— Description of Tracts Purchased and 
THE Quantity, With the Date of Purchase, Arranged by 
Congressional Townships— Covering a Period ok Ten 
Years and More. 

THE early piu-ohases of land in thi's county were, for the most 
part, in Congi'essional Township 25 north, Range 2 west, 
of the Second Principal Meridians of Indiana, embracing the lands 
that lie in the immediate vicinity of Delphi, where the first settle- 
ments were made. That township and some others adjacent were 
laid out and subdivided in the latter part of the yeai- 1819, and 
during the succeeding years of 1820 and 1821. These lands were 
platted and reported within a year after the completion of the 
work, and, some time in the year 1824, a land office was opened at 
Crawfordsville, and lands in that district, embracing those in Car- 
roll County, were from that time forwai-d open to entry and sale. 
The fii'st public sale appeal's to have commenced on the 24th of 
December, 1824, yet, prior to that time, numerous entries of land 
were made in this county, as appears by reference to the record 
of original entries [Tract Book] in the Recorder's office, which is 
subject to the inspection of the public. 

The tii-st entry in this township as shown by the record before 
referred to, was the west half of the southwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 18, which was fractional, containing only sixty-two acres and 
sixty-eight hundreths. The purchaser was Ephi'aim Chamberlain, 
and the date of entry, February 17, 1824. The second was the 
east half of the same quarter-section, containing seventy-seven 
(77) acres, entered on the 25th of August, 1824, by Edward Luny. 
On the 21st of December, 1824, Henry Robinson entered thn east 
half of the southeast quarter of Section twenty (20), which was 
a full half-quarter section. The same day. Hugh Manary entered 
the west half of the southwest quarter of Section twenty-nine (29), 
containing eighty (80) acres; Daniel Baum entered the east half, 
and also the west half, of the southeast quarter of Section thirty 
(30). The day following, Mr. Baum entered the west half of the 
southeast quarter of Section ten (10); Samuel Williamson entered 
the west half of the northwest quarter of Section eleven (11), and 
John Beard entered the east half, and also the west half, of the 
northeast quarter of Section twenty (20). These appear to have 
been all the entries made prior to the date of the public sale of 
lands, which commenced, as we have seen, on the 24th of Decem- 
ber of that year. Purchases were made on that day and subse- 
quently, as follows, dm-ing that year: By James Thornton, of 
the east half of the southeast quarter of Section seventeen (17), 
on the 24th; by Daniel Baum, of the east halt of the south(iast 
quarter of Section ten (10), December 25, haviiii; lul. r.'.l flir west 
half of the same section three days previously ; In L'uhiil Hi'.-itty, 
of the west half of the southeast quarter of Sc<-ti<iii Iwciily (20), 
on the same d.ay. On the 27th day of December, 1824, Daniel 
Baum purchased the west half of the northwest quarter of Section 

thirty-two (32), which comprised the entries and pm-chases of 
that year in what is now Carroll County. In 1825, they were 
more numerous. January 1, Thomas Stirlen purchased the east 
half of the northwest quarter of Section twenty-foui' (24); Nathan 
Clarke, the west half of the northeast quarter of Section twenty- 
eight (28); Fr. Hoover, the east half of the northwest quaiier of 
the same section; William Clarke, the east half of the southwest 
quarter of Section twenty-eight (28), also. January 3, Benjamin 
D. Angell purchased the west half of the northwest quarter, and 
the west half of the southwest quarter of Section 28, and on the 
10th of January, one week later, he purchased the east half of 
the southeast quarter of Section 29. On the 4th. Aaron Mills 
purchased the east half of the southwest quai'ter of Section 22, 
and on the 10th James Odell purchased the west half of the south- 
east quarter of the same section. January 31, Alexander C. Black 
pui-chased the northwest fractional quarter east of the Wabash 
River, containing 73.10 acres; and the north fi-action of the south- 
west quarter, containing 71.40 acres, in Section 9. February 16, 
John Kuns purchased the south fraction of the northwest and" all 
of the southwest quarter of Section 2. March 18, 1825, William 
G. Bishop entered the west half of the northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 33. On the 18th of April, Abram Ciaypool entered the 
northeast fractional quarter of Section 19, containing 156.87 acres. 
And afterward. May 4, 1825, Jacob Abolt entered the west half of 
the northwest quarter of Section 23; May 6, 1825, John Cary en- 
tered the west half of the southwest quarter of Section 22; May 
9, 1825, Samuel Wise entered the southeast quarter of Section 11; 
May 9, Samuel Wise entered the southeast quarter of Section 13; 
May 9, Samuel Wise entered the northeast quiu-terof Section 24; 
May 10, John Kestler entered the south fraction east of river of 
Section 8 : May 10, David Baum entered the east half of the north- 
west quarter of Section 20; May 10, David Baum entered the south- 
west quarter of Section 20; May 11, John Abolt entered the north- 
east quai'ter of Section 27; May 16, William McCain entered the 
southeast quarter of Section 21; May 16, William McCain entered 
the northwest (juarter of Section 22; May 16, Benjamin Gilbreath 
entered the east half of the southwest quarter of Section 2 1 ; May 1 6, 
William McCain entered the northeast quarter of Section 15; May 
16, William McCain entered the southwest quarter of Section 15; 
May 18, Andi'ew Bm-ntrager entered the northeast fraction of Sec- 
tion 9; May IS, Andi'ew Biu'ntrager entered the west half of the 
northwest cpuirtcr of Srctidn 10; May 18, George I. Baum entered 
the fractional S.'clicn 1^; May 18, George Baum entered the west 
half of the nnvtliwrst .pi.-irtrr of Section 20; May 26, Samuel Mil- 
roy entered the west half (if th.- ^ontlnv.'^t .|Uarlrr ..f Srctioi, 21 ; 
June 1, John Hurt entered tln' \vr>t li.ilf of ih.' >. mihr.-i^t .|ii.ii'liT 
of Section2S; Au^rust9.Altl'e,l Snuth .■ntrrrd lli..>..n,tlnv.'>( fi;ic- 
tional quarter of Section 9; September :'4, Thomas McGnire en- 
tered the west half rf the northwest quarter of Section 14; Octo- 
ber 30, William McCall entered the fractional northwest quai'ter 
north of river of Section 9; November 26, Joseph Smith entered 
the east half of the southeast quai'ter of Section 31 ; December 21, 



Henry Robinson entered the east half of the northeast quarter of 
Section 29; December 23, Jesse Clarke entered the west half of 
the northeast quarter of Section 29; December 23, Jesse Clark 
entered the east half of the northeast quarter of Section 29. 

In Township 2-t north, Range 2 west, David Mount, on the 
23d of December, 1824, entered the east fraction of the southwest 
quarter of Section 6, and also the west fraction of the same quar- 
ter-section — the first tracts entered in that township. 

In Township 20, Range 2 west, on the 3d of January, 1825, 
Newberry Stockton purchased the east half of the soiitheast quar- 
ter of Section 25; on the 22d day of the same month and year, 
Lewis Paddock entered the east half of the uoi;theast quarter of 
the same section. Februaiy 16, 1825, John Knns entered the 
southwest fractional quai'ter of Section 26, containing 63.17 acres, 
and the southeast fi-actioual quarter of Section 25, containing 
21.77 acres. December 7, 1825, AVilliam Vermillion entered the 
west half of the southeast quarter of Section 26. 

In Township 25, Range 1 west, John Odell, on the 6th of May, 
1825, entered the east fraction of the southwest quarter of Section 
18, and the west half of the southeast quarter of the same section. 

On the 18th of May, 1825, Fr. Hoover entered the west frac- 
tion of the southwest quarter of Section 30, Township 26 north, 
Range 1 west, containing 78.70 acres — the &st entry made iu that 

The iii'st entry made in Township 2-1 north. Range 1 west, was 
the east half of the southwest quarter of Section 30, on the 7th of 
March, 1828, by David Cleaver. The next tract was the north 
fraction of the northwest quarter of Section 4, entered by Joseph 
Buckner on the 30th of September, 1828. 

The first entry made in Township 23 north, Range 2 west, 
was on the 19th of March, 1828, by James Enoch, of the west 
half of the southeast quarter of Section 4. On the same day, 
Alexander Murphy, entered the southwest quarter of the same 
section. May 3, 1828, Nicholas Garst entered the west half of 
the southeast quarter of Section 2, and three days later he entered 
the southwest of the same section. 

In Township 24, Range 2 west, the first original entry was 
made on the 4th day of February, 1829, by Thomas Stoops, of the 
east half of the southwest quarter of Section 12. The next entry 
was made by Enoch Cox, on the 26th of April, 1830, of the north 
fraction of the northwest quarter of Section 6, containing 82.10 
acres, and the south fraction of the same quarter-section, contain- 
ing 76.94 acres. On the 30th of October of the same year, John 
Robbins entered the north half of he northwest quarter of Section 
5, containing 82.82 acres, and on the same day, William McCraiy 
entered the south half of the same quarter-section, containing 80 

The first entries in Township 23 north. Range 1 west, were 
made on the 18th of September, 1829 — of the northwest quarter 
of Section 5. containing 156.93 acres, by Benjamin McGee, and 
of the northwest quarter, containing 152.63 acres, by Andi-ew Gee, 
both tracts iu the same section. 

In Township 26 north. Range 1 east, the iii'st pm-chases were 
made by Moses Standley, on the 18th day of March, 1829, of the 
west half of the southeast quarter of Section 32, and the east half 
of the southwest quarter of the same section. On the 11th of 
September, Eleazer Gray entered the west half of the northeast 
quarter of the same section. 

Samuel Salyers, on the 27th of JanuaiT, 1830, entered the 
west half of the southwest quai-ter of Section 19, in Township 25 
north. Range 1 east — the tu-st entry made in that township. 

In Township 23, Range 1 east, George A. Kent entered the 
west half of the southwest quarter of Section 14, August 23, 

In Township 24. Range 1 east, the first entry was made 
by Israel T. Canby, of the east half of the northeast quarter of 
Section 34, on the 11th of March, 1830. The next entry was 
made May 11, 1830, by John Shively, of the northeast quarter of 
Section 6. 

In Township 25 north, Range 3 west, the first pui'chases were 
made on the 6th of October, 1830, of the whole of Section 12, by 
John Burkholder; of the northeast quartei', the west half of the 
southeast quarter, and the southwest quarter of Section 13, by 
Thomas Smith; of the fi'actioual west part of the northeast, and 
the east half of the northwest quarter of Section 25, by Daniel 
F. Vandeventer; of the northwest quarter of Section 24, by Na- 
thaniel Hamilton; of the west half of the northwest quai'ter of 
Section 27, by Abram Hornback. 


The Family of Henry Rohinsox— An Account of Their Emi- 
gration Hither— Selection of Site for and Building of 
THE First Habitation— Sub,sequent Experiences— Early 
Days is Carroll County, as Related by the Family- 
Valuable Memoranda Giving an Account of Early' 
Deaths in the Settlement— Some Details of— 

HENRY ROBINSON, who was the first permanent settler in 
this county, was born in the State of Pennsylvania, in March, 
1778, the son of James and Sarah (Best) Robinson, the former 
having descended from Irish parentage. About the time of 
attaining his majority, he was married to Elizabeth Coleman, a 
daughter of Benjamin and Esther Coleman. On the 12th of Oc- 
tober, 1824, Mr. Robinson, with his family, consisting of Abner, 
Sarah B., Coleman, Sojihronia, Lydia Ann, Elizabeth and Samuel 
H., accompanied by Joseph Clymer and his son, and a Mi'. James 
French, left the place of their former domicile, in the neighbor- 
hood of Dayton, Montgomery Co., Ohio, en route for the Wabash 
Valley. After leaving Dayton, they came by the road usually trav- 
eled by emigrants on their way to the West, passing through 
Richmond, Centerville, Jacksonboro, to the northward of New- 
castle, and thence to Makepeace Station, or ■' Old Bucktown," as 
it was sometimes called — one of the most populiu' stopping-places 
on the road; thence, on the south side of White River, thi'ough 
Anderson [town] to Strawtown, situated on the margin of 'WTiite 
River, at that time a place of considerable notoriety, being a kind 
of general trading point and stopping place; hence the name of 
the road [Strawtown Road], to distinguish the route as the most 
popular one fi'om the fact that the major part of the travel went 
that way. From Strawtown, the road traversed the wilderness in 
the direction of and through Thorntown, the site of an old village 
of the Thorntown or Miami Indians, to the Wea Plains in the 
vicinity of La Fayette. This point was reached on the f om'teenth 
day fi'om the starting. The family remained on the Wea fi'om 
the time of their arrival, in the latter part of October, until after 
the land sales at Crawfordsville, which commenced the day before 
Chi'istmas. In the meantime, Mr. Robinson and his eldest son, 
Al^ner, had been up on Deer Creek, prospecting for and locating 
suitable vacant tracts, preparatory to jjiu'chase. Having done so; 



they retxu-ned to their families, and thence repaired to the land 
otfice at Crawfordsville in time to enter the lots selected. The 
entry was effected on the 21st of December, 1824, the tracts piu-- 
chased being described as the east half of the southeast quarter of 
Section 20, Township 25 north, Range 2 west, and the east half 
of the northeast quarter of Section 29, in the same township and 
range. The latter of these two tracts selected for the homestead, 
upon which, as soon as they could reach the place of making the 
purchase, the first "cabin home" was erected with all the activity 
at command. The building party consisted of Hemy Robinson, 
the father; Abner and Coleman Robinson, his sons; with a Mr. 
Starks and his son — five in number, the two latter having been 
brought from the Wea for the piu-pose. The party an'ived at the 
place selected about midday, on Friday, December 31, 1824. 
They left the place of their temporary residence on Tuesday, De- 
cember 28, the parties above named being in company, Mr. Starks 
and his son taking with them an ox team to facilitate their prog- 
ress, and to assist in getting the logs together for the cabin. 

On the fii-st day, after laboring assiduously and traveling as 
rapidly as circiunstances would permit, they reached and crossed 
Wild Cat Creek, and encamped that evening on the bluff. The 
crossing proved to be somewhat difficult, because of their non- 
acquaintance with the route. The next day, after leaving the 
creek, they began their journey by cutting their way thi-ough the 
thick woods, without other pioneers and guides than themselves, 
avoiding, as best they could, the creeks that run toward the river 
on the left, and the swamps likely to obstruct their passage on the 
right. Dm-ing the day, they were overtaken by Benjamin D. An- 
gell (father of Dr. Charles Angell), who traveled with them most 
of the remaining distance. On the evening of the second day, the 
party encamped about one mile beyond Sugar- Creek. The follow- 
ing day they proceeded, with their usual caution, encamping for 
the night on ''Walker's Branch," or ''Bridge Creek," as it was 
sometimes called, all enjoying themselves as only such pioneers- 
men can. On Friday, the last day of the year 1824, they started 
early, but, meeting with considerable difficulty in crossing a swamp 
that ran parallel with Deer Creek, about three-fourths of a mile 
south of the site of Delphi, they did not an'ive at the place of 
their destination until about midday. The fu-st proceeding after 
their aiTival was to ascertain where the section line was located, 
to determine if they were right before fixing a place to encamp 
until better quarters could be provided in the proposed cabin. In 
the meantime, the bushes and undergrowth had been cut out of 
sufficient dimensions for their fixture domicile. Having thus com- 
pleted the day, the month and the year, they retired to the enjoy- 
ment of peaceful slumbers in the midst of an unbroken wilderness, 
with the tall forest trees standing guard over the unconscious 

Arising at an early hour of the morning, they commenced the 
labors of a new year with an earnest purjiose to economize time 
by pushing forward the work of building as rapidly as cirevmi- 
stances would permit. At the end of the day ending the week 
that preceded the first Sunday of these first settlers in Carroll 
County, the logs had been cut, brought to the spot, th(( foundation 
laid, and the building was left five rounds high when the night 
ended their labors. Sunday was observed with all due jiropriety, 
and with as much humility as the situation would pei-mit. tha]ik 
ing the Giver of all good for the opportunities thus afforded them. 

The work. of building continued on Monday, assistance being 
received occasionally from persons prospecting for lands who 
chanced to pass that way. In the meantime, provisions growing 

scarce, Abner Robinson, Mr. Starks and his son were sent back 
for more, with instructions to bring, on their retiu-n, such mem- 
bers of the family as might feel willing to brave the perils of the 
situation. Abner, his wife, and Sarah B. Robinson, his eldest 
sister, set out for their new home on Tuesday, the 4th of January, 
camping for the night on the same spot where the party of the 
first expedition encamped the second night. On Wednesday, the 
5th, these three members of the family arrived here between 1 
and 2 o'clock, the two females being the first white women who 
settled in the county. During the two days following, four men 
were busy at the cabin, completing it, so far as the inclosui'e was 
concerned, with a chimney started and doorway cut out, in the 
evening of January 7. Much more difficulty was encountered by 
the builders in preparing the material for and making the floor. 
No saw-mills nor whip-saws were within reach, and it was neces- 
sary to resort to other expedients to produce Imnber adapted to the 
pui'pose of flooring, and for doorway and window faciags. The 
idea of hewing out planks with a broad- ax suggested itself, and 
was adopted. Though somewhat tedious, and occasionally vexa- 
tious, the method was attended with success, and accomplished in 
due time. The floors, it is true, were a little less even than if 
the lumber had been sawed and planed, but equally solid and vei-y 
satisfactory. Indeed, that process of making lumber for floors 
became vei-y popular among the subsequent settlers, being gener- 
ally adopted by them, fi-om motives of necessity, if not from choice. 

On Saturday, the 8th of January, Henry Robinson, with his son 
Coleman and Mr. Starks, returned to the Wea settlements for the 
remaining members of the household, Abner, his wife and sister 
remaining the sole occupants of the new cabin. The absentees 
returijied the following Wednesday, when the two families became 
the joint occupants of the round log domicile thus erected for 
them in midwinter, under circumstances not the most propitious. 
All, however, made a virtue of necessity, and enjoyed the situation 
with a becoming satisfaction akin to real comfort. The expe- 
riences of the Robinson family in their efforts to find and secure a 
home in this wilderness were, in the main, tyjiical of what other 
families that came soon after necessarily passed through, the ad- 
vantages being in favor of the later adventm'ers, who not only had 
the way mai'ked out for them, but the example of genuine forti- 
tude and perseverance manifested by those who had come before. 

Breaking, for the moment, the thread of oiu' narrative of events 
in the order of their occurrence, the following register of the 
deaths that occun-ed in the settlement dui'ing the rest five yeai's 
fi'om its commencement, kept by Miss Elizabeth Robinson, a 
daughter of Hem-y Robinson, is inserted in this place as a valua- 
ble appendage tooui' record of events in primitive Cai'roll County: 

James Gilbreath Septembers. 1835. 

Benjamin D. Angell September 16, 1835. 

John Nelson Newman ,Tuly 11, 1836. 

Robert Mitchell August 27, 18'36. 

William Sims September 5, 1826. 

Henry Alexander Robinson January 20, 1827. 

Mrs. Mcrriman Februiuy — . 1827. 

S.irah Odell May 20, 18'37. 

Elizubelh Odell .Imie 11, 18'->7. 

jMis. llMmilton , 1827. 

George Bamn November — , 1827. 

Mary Bauni Deceml)iT 5, 1837. 

T. Hughes May '30, 1838. 

Andrew Forbes September 11. 1838. 

John Bean September 30, 1,838. 

Melinda Bozarth September 28, 1828. 

Sarah Glister October 3, 1828. 



Nnnies. Date of death. 

William Waugh Griffith October 5, 1838 

Rebecca Lowther October 6. 1828. 

Infant of Mr. Hamilton , 1828. 

James McCain January 7, 1829. 

Emanuel McCombs January 17, 1829. 

Infant of J. Adams January 27, 1829. 

Benjamin Lowther March 30, 1839. 

Mrs. Metcalf May 36, 1839. 

Margaret Adams Jvme 12, 1839. 

Infant of Mr. Thornburg " June 30, 1829. 

Hcrvey Dewey August 19, 1829. 

Infant of Mrs. Bross August 24, 1829. 

James McChillan August 26, 1829. 

Mr. Bross August 31, 1829. 

Rebecca George September 25, 1829. 

Margaret Black October 2, 1829. 

Infant of Mi'. Bm-ket , 1829. 

Samuel Wise October 31, 1839. 

Daniel Kuns November 1, 1839. 

James Briggs December 1, 1829. 

Sarah Mussagee , 1829. 

William Wilson January 23, 1830. 

Mrs. Adkinson February 10. 1830. 

Hugh Manary February 16, 1830 . 

M. Kennon March 30, 1230. 

Infant of Mr. Kennon March — , 1830. 

Susan Wilson March 31, 1830. 

Mahala Clark April 5. 1830. 

Harrison Blackburn June 2, 1830. 

William Roberts July 26, 1830. 

Elizabeth Pike Au.gust 15, 1830. 

John Banm August 27, 1830. 

Infant of Mr. Pike September 8. 1830. 

Martha Humerickhouse Septembers, 1830. 

William Seeley September 10. 1830. 

Mr. Silvers Septemlier 13, 1830. 

Mrs. Gideon Septemlier — , 1830. 

Mr. Clark September 24, 1830. 

Mrs. Long September 36, 1830. 

Mrs- Olinger September — . 1830. 

Mr.s. Hulry September 30, 1830. 

Matt. Ileim' Ewing October 6, 1830. 

Sophia Bricker October 26, 1830. 

Maiy McCombs , 1830. 

Mr. Merriman , 1830. 

Two children of Mr. Thomas , 1830. 

Mrs. Bell , 1830. 


PIONEER reminiscences-Continued. 

.Vkrival of Othek .Settlers— Benjamin D. Angell, Also 
AApoN Wiles and John Cary— Death of James Gilbreath 
AND Mr. Angell— Settlement of Aaron Merriman— Dan- 
iel Baum, Sk.— Robert Mitchell, .Sr.— Robert Mitchell, 
Jr., John Kessler and Jacob Baum. with Their Families 
—Arrival by Flat-boat— Keel of the Old Boat in Deer 
Creek— John Odell and Mrs. Thomas Stirlen Arrive and 
Settle on Deer Creek— House Built for Mr. Bau-M- Hugh 
JIanary Arrives— Mill Built, f;tc. 
. O OON after the family of IVIi-. Robinson had ai-rived and become 
^ firmly fixed in their new home, Benjamin D. Angell, father of 
Dr. Charles Angell, of Pittsbm-gh, in this county, moved with his 
family into the neighborhood. He was accompanied by Aaron 
Wiles and John Cary, his brothers-in-law, tho three having mar- 
ried sisters, the daughters of James Odell, Sr. They soon selected 
a location, and all settled together, occniiying for some time the 
same cabin, which was situated a little way above where Isaac 
Wilson subsequently resided. Jlr. Angell, however, did not live 

long after this to enjoy the fiiiits of his labors, for death came to 
claim him as its victim, and he obeyed the eai-ly summons. He 
expired on the 16th day of September, 1825, and was— except- 
ing, perhaps, James Gilbreath, who died September 8, of the same 
year the tu-st among the early settlers of this county who paid 
the debt of natui-e. His widow and family, consisting of fotu- 
small ohilch-en, continued to reside in the neighborhood. Aaron 
Merriman came here and settled about the same time, and made 
an opening on Kock Creek. 

On the 7th day of March, 1825, Daniel Baum, Sr., Robert 
Mitchell, Sr., Robert Mitchell, Jr., John Kessler and Jacob Baum, 
with their families, left Chillicothe, Ohio, on a flat-boat, en route 
for the Wabash; passed down the Scioto River to the Ohio; thence 
down that river to the mouth of the Wabash; thence up the Wa- 
bash to the mouth of Deer Creek, and up that creek half a mile to 
the place of their landing, which was about one hunch-ed yards 
below he old slaughter house. While they were on their way down 
the Ohio River, Mr. Baum traded oflf his flat and pm'chased a keel 
boat, with which they pursued their jom-ney to the place of desti- 

The old keel-boat lay tied to the shore, as it was when vacated 
by the voyagers at landing on the 30th day of April, 1825, until 
the spring of 1826, when it was simk by a flood of ice which 
passed down the creek at that time. Its bottom, pai-tially tilled 
with stones, still lies imbedded in the sand and mud, at or near 
the spot where it was first di^awn ashore. About this time, also, 
or it may be a little before, Craig Black commenced an improve- 
ment above the dam, now known as the old Wells fanu. 

Dm-ing the smnmer or fall of this year, Mr. John Odell and 
Sli's. Thomas Stirlen settled on Deer Creek. With these came 
also a Mr. Gilbreath, and built a cabin on the spot or adjacent 
to 'the former residence of Mrs. Gen. Milroy. Soon after his set- 
tlement at that place, himself and family suffered greatly fi-om 
sickness, losing a son, James Gilbreath, who died September 8, 
1825, and was bm-ied on the bluff below the Milroy mansion. 
These early misfortunes so disheai'tened him that he left there a 
short time after. 

Robert Mitchell, Sr., one of the company who came here with 
Mr. Bamn, put up a cabin on the bank of Deer Creek. Mr. Dan- 
iel Baum, of whom mention has been before made, built the house 
afterwai-d occupied by Mi-. Christopher Vandeventer. John Kess- 
ler settled on the farm since owned by Speai's & Case, adjoining 
the "Bondie Reserve." Jacob Baum settled on the fai'm situate 
one mile from Delphi, on the Logansport road, owned by Peter 
Toughman many years after. With the exception of Robert 
Mitchell, Jr., who returned to Ohio, the foregoing paragi-ajih 
shows the several locations of the families composing the emigrant 
company who arrived here with Daniel Baum. Of these, again, 
severally, mention will be made hereafter. 

In the fall of 1825, Hugh Manary, Sr., settled in the bottom 
on what is now known as Manary's Addition to the town of Del- 
phi. He sold a mill seat ofl' his land to Phillip StaiT, and after- 
ward moved across the creek, on the hill just above where the old 
slaughter house stood. 

Early in the season of 1S25, Henry Robinson commenced the 
improvement of the mill site on the creek just above town. The 
work progressed slowly for the want of proper tools, and the near- 
est blacksmith was at Crawfordsville. The mill at which the set- 
tlers were obliged to get their gi-inding done, and the store at 
which they did their shopping, as well as the post office where 
they received and deposited their mail matter, were also at Craw- 




fordsville. It was the common practice, therefore, for some one 
person of the neighborhood to go with an ox team to mill, and at 
the same time transact all the other business at that point re- 
quired by the whole settlement, which usually occupied some 
eight or ten days in going and retm-ning. 

Some time in the spring or summer of this year, 1825, John 
R. Ballard, with a few other young men, ai-rived in the settlement 
and commenced improvements. 

On Sunday, the 18th day of Januaiy, 1826, the people of the 
settlement met and held their first social prayer meeting, which 
has been continued, with more or less regularity, ever since. At 
this time, there were but ten heads of families in Carroll County, 
and among them there was no observance of caste, but all was 
sociability and good feeling. 

In May or June of this year, a saw-mill was erected where the 
upper mill now stands. The mill commenced operations some 
time in September, and, in two or thi-ee weeks after, a pair of 
small mill-stones was placed in the mill and adjusted for the pur- 
pose of grinding corn. This addition to the facilities for promot- 
ing the comfort and lessening the uncertainties of subsistence of 
the settlers was hailed with delight, as an omen of good to the 
community. It obviated, in no small degree, the necessity they 
were subjected to in being obliged to go sometimes to Fountain 
County, other times to Crawfordsville, and then recently to La 
Fayette, where a mill had been erected but a short time before, to 
get their corn ground. This mill was the result of efforts directed 
to that and by Mi-. Henry Kobinson, to whom, in this and succeed- 
ing evidences manifested by him of endeavors to add to their con- 
venience and comfort, the early settlers of Carroll County owe a 
debt of gratitude. 

At the time when the saw-mill above alluded to was raised, all 
the men from Wild Cat to Rock Creek were invited to assist in 
putting up the frame. There were twenty-eight persons present, 
including three or fom- fi-om beyond the limits of Carroll County. 
This was probably the last time that all the men in what is now 
the limits of CaiToll County were together, and was an occasion long 
to be remembered by the surviving participants on that occasion. 

About the same period, the settlement received several acces- 
sions to the number of its inhabitants by the arrival of Isam At- 
kinson, James McDuwel, John Kims, and the late Gen. Samuel 
Mih-oy, with their families. There were also some others, among 
them a number of young men. James McDowel arrived here in 
August of this year, from Vigo County, Indiana, and was accom- 
panied by David Lucas and family. Alexander Chamberlain, for- 
merly of Cass County, afterward of Fultou County, in this State, 
came with him also. 

In the month of October, 1820, Gen. Milroy, with his family, 
settled on the farm ou Deer Creek above Del]jhi known as the 
Milroy fai'm. 

Robert Mitchell, Sr., who came from Ohio with Daniel Banm, 
Sr., in April of the preceding year, died on the 27th day of Au- 
gust, 1826, and was biu'ied at the section corner, at what is now 
the foot of Front street, in the town of Delphi, which is not now, 
nor has it been for many years, markcil l>y ,iiiy iiji'iiiorial that one 
of the earliest settlers of the county iv|m,s.s tli,.|-,. hciusith the sod; 
and few, if any, are there now who can iirD^niizi- the place of his 
rest Not far fi'om the same spot rest the ashes of William Sims, 
who was a stranger in the country, stopping temporarily near 
where Logansjiort now stands. He was taken sick there, and, 
having no one to care for him except his brother-in-law, was 
brought to Mv. Daniel Baum's residence, in what is now Delphi, 

that he might be better cared for. He remained sick about two 
weeks after being brought down, and died at the house of Mr. 
Baum on the 5th day of September, 1826. 


Daniel M<'Catn'.s Settlement— .Snow-Storm and Hurricane- 
Novel Dining Table — Cabin-Building— A Scare — The 
FiR.ST Petition for Org.vnization— It-s Fate— Jurisdiction 
OF the Territory— a Sea.?on of Want and Privation— A 
Methodist Society Organized in the County— Heavy 
Rains and Consequent Floods— Cold Winter and Scanty 
Provision.^— Log Cabins. 
~|~\ANIEL McCAIN and his wife, Magdalene McCain, landed 
-L^ in this county on the 2Sth day of April, 1856 — and an inci- 
dent is related of their camp experience on the last night before 
arriving at their forest home, which is full of interest, as exem- 
plifying very fully some of the hardships all early settlers had to 
undergo in laying the foundation of the proverbial prosperity of 
Carroll County. They, with their company, consisting of seven 
persons in all, had encamped for the night near the bank of Lit- 
tle Sugar Creek. The weather was cold already, and the snow 
had been falling at intervals during that and the day previous. 
A little after nightfall, the wind began to blow, and soon increased 
almost to a hirrricane. The night was dark and dismal; the snow 
whirled in eddying oiuTents through the air, and the howlinc 
tempest overhead seemed to sound some dread requiem, as whis- 
tling thi-ough the lofty ti-ee-tops, the creaking of branches, accom- 
panied by the continual crash of falling timber, added horror to 
the scene. The danger which surrounded them was imminent, es- 
cape seemed improbable, and death inevitable. But the stoim passed 
away and the bright morning came, bringing with it the assur- 
ance of safety to all their company. With hearts full of thank 
fulness and gratitude for protection and deliverance fi-om danger, 
in the morning they pm-sued their jom-ney with renewed vigor, 
onward to their new home, which point was reached about mid- 
day, without fiu-ther impediment worthy of note. Having ar- 
rived, they pitched their tent, prepared dinner and pai'took of a 
repast, the first in their new home, with a relish that kings might 
well envy, using the hind-gate of the wagon for a table. 

Joseph, William and Ramsay McCain, brothers of Daniel, and 
John McCain, a cousin, came with them. They all set imme- 
diately to work to build a cabin to shelter them from the inclem- 
encies of the season, and in three days had it in a habitable con- 
dition, with a clapboard roof on it, a door cut out, and on one 
side and end, "chinked," but not "daubed" imtil a short time 
after. The succeeding morning, two of the men took their guns 
and made their first experiment in hunting, and soon after re- 
tiu-ned, bringing with them a deer they had killed, which being 
soon di-essed, all hands went off about a mile distant to raise a 
cabin for William McCain, who contemplated moving there the 
uext fall. Mrs. McCain was thus left alone for the day, with no 
other companion than her little boy, a lad of something over two 
years of ago. A little while before noon, feeling very lonely 
and on the lookout lest some danger should come upon them un- 
awares, she discovered two animals at no gi-eat distance fi'om the 
cabin, which she supposed to be wolves, following the trail of the 
deer which had been brought in by the men that morning. At 
first she was much frightened, but, recovei-ing somewhat from her 
trepidation, began to revolve iu lier mind the best means of de- 




fense within her reach, in case they should attack the house. 
With woman's ready invention, she was not long in determining that 
a good supply of hot water, together with the broom-stick, under the 
circumstances, would constitiite weapons suiHeiently formidable to 
meet the emergency. It was not necessaiy, however, to bring these 
defenses, nor any other, into operative requisition, for the enemy, 
exercising discretion in the premises as the better part of valor, 
kept at a respectful distance, and soon after left entirely. 

At the session of the Legislatm-e of the State of Indiana of 
1826-27, a petition was presented by simdi-y citizens, living in 
the jurisdiction of what is now Carroll County, for the passage of 
an act enabling them to organize a new coimty, but, for some rea- 
son which does not now appear to us, the bill failed to become a 
law. The territory before had been, and was at that time, under 
the recognized jurisdiction of Montgomery County, subsequently, 
however,, under the jm-isdiction of Tippecanoe County for judi- 
cial purposes, which circumstance rendered the position of the peo- 
ple as a co mm unity extremely awkward and unpleasant; hence 
their eai'ly steps toward the organization of a. county, guarantee- 
ing to them the rights and privileges enjoyed by other counties; 
and, although they were defeated in the accomplishment of their 
object in the first instance, yet they determined to avail them- 
selves of the next opportunity that presented itself, and, with their 
purjjose still in view, at the succeeding session of the General As- 
sembly, another petition was presented, which met with a better 
fate than its predecessor. The law was passed in the form and 
embodying the provisions set forth in the act for the organization, 
given at length in another place. 

The settlers were siibjected to many hardships and privations 
in the way of clothing, provisions, shoes, tea, coffee and sugar. 
The stock of articles that had been procured before was ex- 
hausted, and the large emigi-ation into Tippecanoe and adjacent 
counties during the fall of 1826, consumed all the sm-plus provis- 
ions and other necessaries raised by the early settlers there, which 
left our peojile the alternative, either to go great distances into 
older settlements to get their supplies, or otherwise to get along 
as best they could, on small allowances, until they could raise 
enough from their own fields to suffice for home consixmption. The 
settlers here who had come in the season before, and made small 
improvements, had raised no more thau would meet the imperative 
demands of their own families. In this contingency, to satisfy 
the requisition for tea and coffee, spicewood. sassafras and milk 
were substituted with peculiar relish; for sweetening, the sugar 
tree was taxed in the springtime, and in the place of shoes, moc- 
casins, made of dressed deer-skins, were worn. Such, however, 
was the extent of these privations that in some instances bread 
was scarcely tasted for weeks at a tim^. Under these circum- 
stances, potatoes and squashes were the usual substitutes — and it 
has since l^een fi'equently remarked, by persons who were obliged 
by the necessities of the times to put up with such kind of fare, 
that the substituted article tasted as well, or better, and answered 
the demands of appetite as satisfactorily as the veriest epicure 
could ask. Thus many of the privations and difficulties, seem- 
ingly formidable in themselves, were supplied by the uncultivated 
productions of the forest wilds. 

Flour at this time had to be lirought overland h\ wagons, or 
by keel and flat boats along the river, fi'om Ohio; sometimes it 
could be procvu-ed at Terre Haute. It is needless to say that flom- 
was not generally used as it is now, but the more ready substitute, 
corn-meal, was the staple article for making bread. And to this 
day, the " corn-jione," "corn-dodger," "hoe-cake" and "johnny- 

cake " are not entirely forgotten by the survivors of those who 
were wont, in those days, to feast upon these luxuries of pioneer life. 

In November, 1826, a Methodist society was organized in this 
county, composed of eight persons, to wit: John Odell, and Sarah 
Odell, his wife; Elizabeth Angell, widow of Benjamin D, An- 
gell, just before that time deceased; John Carey, and Ruth Carey, 
his wife; and Thomas Stirlen, and Frances Stirlen, his wife — 
under the chai-ge of Hemy P. Buell, of the Crawfordsville Mis- 
sion, who preached for them about once in four weeks. 

Some time in the latter part of August of this year, it has been 
stated by some of the oldest settlers here, there were frequent 
and very heavy rains, which prevented many from getting cabins 
in conditioQ to be comfortable during the wet and cold season, and 
all fi-om making that progress iu their clearings- the ciroirmstances 
of the times demanded. The Wabash River, and all the creeks 
and rivulets tributary to it, were swollen to unusual dimensions; 
in fact, the whole of the flat country along the margin of 
the Upper Wabash was inundated. The river was higher at that 
time, it has been often said by persons who have been longest 
residents here, thau it was before know within the memory of 
the white man. 

The succeeding winter was very cold, and the cattle, with 
other stock, suffered severely. Feed being very scai'ce, and with- 
out shelter to protect them from the inclemency of the weather, 
several head were fi-ozen to death, gi'eatly to the deti-iment of the 
settlers, who also themselves experienced much inconvenience from 
the severe cold. Their cabins generally were not very well con- 
ditioned to shield the inmates from the piercing winds, driving 
snows and beating rains usual in this latitude at that season of 
the year. There have been, since that time, winters epually 
severe, but, when the poor protections against cold possessed by 
those early settlers are considered, it is not at all wonderful that, 
imder such circumstances, the same degree of temperatm-e which 
now would be deemed moderate was then most keenly felt. Those 
eighteen by twenty cabins that sparsely dotted over the area of 
Carroll County at the period of which we are writing, although at 
the time, when no better habitations could be obtained, as com- 
fortable as necessity demanded, yet, it must be admitted, they very 
often were but little more. And we do not wish to be understood 
as saying anything in disparagement of log cabins, for they were 
generally the abode of contentment, and of comforts such as the 
times wan-anted; but oiu- pm-pose in making allusion to them was 
to present a contrast between the means of comfortable living at 
that time and the present. That log cabins have been the scene of 
as much enjoyment and genuine hospitality as any other class of 
habitations, there is no question, for these are found in all new 
settlements inseparably connected. 


First Merciiant.s— Dr. Vandevexter axd Isaao Griffith- 
Rattlesnake ExrERiENCES— Arrival of Dr. J. M. Evving 
—••Nettles" Used Instead of Flax— JUu-iiigax Ro.vd Ex- 
TKKPUisE— Advantages of Tnis TiioROUGiiFAiiE Not Appke- 
ciated— The Indian Trade and Its Ejioli'Ments- Some of 
THE Early Traders. 

TN the spring of 1827, Dr. D. F. Vandeventer brought a small 
-*- stock of goods to Carroll County, and Mi^. Baum built a log 
storehouse for him in his yard. This was the tii'st stock of goods 



ever brought to Carroll County. About the same time, though 
later in the season, Mr. Isaac GriiSth. late of this county, brought 
another stock of good, and located his store south of Halsey & 
Griffith's mill. Before this time, all articles of merchandise and 
groceries had to be procured at Crawfordsville and other points 
south on the river, which had been longer settled. Nor was there, 
up to this time, any post office in the comity for the accommoda- 
tion of the people, and the fact very often subjected them to great 
inconvenience, because it was necessary that they should go to 
Montgomery County for their mail matter. All legal business was 
transacted in Montgomery and Tippecanoe Counties, but the set- 
tlers, being well disposed toward each other, and little inclined to 
litigation seldom had occasion to resort to law to settle the small 
matters of difference between neighbors : consequently, the amount 
of judicial business transacted from causes arising in Carroll 
County among its own citizens was extremely small. 

Early this season, a number of the citizens of the county were 
called upon to go out into the country on the Tippecanoe Biver, 
near where Rochester, in Fulton County, now stands, to assist in 
building the •' Indian Mills." 


When the weather became warm in the spring, the country 
was infested with rattlesnakes in such numbers that it was a 
soiu-ce of great annoyance to the settlers. They were so common 
among the weeds and undergrowth that great cairtion was neces- 
sary to be observed in order to avoid being bitten by them. 
Several persons were bitten before the fact of their great num- 
b(!rR in the county became fully known. John Carey was bitten 
by one of these reptiles in the vicinity of the Wilson farm, which, 
from the number of them discovered and killed near by, about 
the same time, led to the discovery of their den in the bluff' not 
far from the old still-house. Many fears were entertained by the 
settlers lest they should crawl into their cabins unobserved, as they 
sometimes did, and bite the inmates, particularly the children, 
who were little aware of the danger to be anticipated from their 
presence. As soon as their appearance was general, it was sup- 
posed that a den of them must be in the neighborhood, and all 
hands turned out to hunt it. The circumstances of John Carey 
being bitten, and the numbers discovered close by there, induced 
the men to search more diligently in that particular place. They 
succeeded in finding the den as above indicated. There were sev- 
eral entrances to the den, resembling the holes made by ground- 
hogs, which emitted a most offensive stench. After that, of warm 
days, snake-hunting was one of the avocations of the settlers; and 
the result was that, in eight or ten years succeeding, himdreds of 
them were killed. Several incidents are related of persons being 
bitten by them, but few, if any, of them resulted fatally. The 
Indians who frequented the neighborhood at the time of the early 
settlements were proverbial for their possession of many antidotes 
for the bites of these reptiles, and often relieved those who had been 
bitten, to their great professional satisfaction as " medicine men." 

A young hunter named Alexander, who had encamped on the 
gi-ound where Logansport now stands, was bitten one night, and 
would have died but for some Indians encamped near him, who, 
hearing his hallooing, wont to his assistance, took him to their 
lodge, cured him up sound and well, and sent him ofT on his way 
rejoicing, accompanied by their injunction that he should not get 
wet, and that if he did, he would die. Let this suffice, however, 
for the histoiy of rattlesnakes in Can-oil County. 

In Ajiril of this year, Dr. John M. Ewing, the first physician 

and sirrgeon in the county, settled here and became a permanent 
practitioner. At this time, there were but forty families in what 
now forms Carroll, Cass and White Counties. Where Delphi now 
stands was a thicket of hazel and blackberry bushes, and the place 
where Logansport is situated was in a state of nature, except a 
trading house at the "Point," occupied by the late Hugh B. Mc- 
Keen. What is now the city of La Fayette had then but six log 
cabins and one two-story log house occupied as a tavern. There 
were no roads except the one opened by Mr. Kobinson when he 
moved here, and the travel was generally along Indian traces and 
deer paths. At that time, also, nettles grew thi-ifty, and yielded 
an excellent crop, frequently covering the ground like flax, and 
about the same height on the upland, but on the bottoms they 
grew as high as a man would be, seated upon his horse. At the 
time when the settlers were in want of clothing and other neces- 
sai-ies, in order to equal the necessities of the times, Mi-s. David 
Lucas, as did some other of the stirring women of those days, in 
the absence of hemp and flax out of which to manufactm-e arti- 
cles of summer apparel, gathered of these nettles, which have a 
fine, flax-like fiber, rotted, broke, dr-essed and spun them, and, 
from the material thus prepared, manufactured cloth, out of which 
garments of a good, substantial quality were made, and worn with 
as much satisfaction as the more rare and costly articles of the 
present day. 

The Indians, who, up to the period of their ti'eaties, and for a 
limited time afterward, had continued to occupy these lands, grad- 
ually disappeared, and but few of them remained. There were, 
however, occasionally some who visited the settlements for the 
pm'pose of trading, and their number was not great, because the 
principal trading point was at Logansport, and they usually went 
to that place to transact their barter and traffic. In some re- 
spects — and, in fact, all — the settlers were quite willing to dispense 
with all the emoluments of the trade, to avoid the frequent an- 
noyance of their presence; for, although there was no danger to 
be anticipated from any manifestations of hostility, yet the petty 
thefts and obtrusions were sometimes of a character to render 
them obnoxious. 

At this time, also, the location of the Michigan road was a 
question of some . interest to the people, and was frequently dis- 
cussed by them. It did not, howe-ver, present inducements suffi- 
cient to direct their active co-operation; for the Commissioners 
appointed to view and locate their route actually visited the set- 
tlements herewith a view to arrive at the facts as to the most prac- 
ticable route, according to the provisions and requirements of the 
act authorizing the same. The people did not seem to look upon 
the enterprise as one which demanded their exertion in its behalf, 
although it was the opinion of many that the road Might have 
been located through Delphi, on as good or better ground than 
where it now runs. The consequence of this apathy on tlie part 
of the most interested was that the Commissioners, seeing there 
were few, if any, who thought the matter of sufficient conse- 
quence to devote a little time and pains to show them the route 
through this county, and set forth the advantages possessed by 
this over other routes, went to Cass Coimty, wh(>re they found men 
willing to sacrifice the time required to gain the importaut ac- 
quisition to their coimty and town. The present route of the road 
along near the line of the eastern boundary of the county, several 
miles distant from the site of Delphi, now the seat of justice, 
through Logansport, the seat of justice of Cass County, was 
finally determined uiion, and that gi-eat public thoroughfOTe was 
accordingly located. 




Wild Fkuits— Ax Akundant Supply— Alexandkk Chambee- 
LAix Has a "Raising "at the Upper Settlement— Black- 


THE First Postmaster— Election for Primary Officers- 
New Countries and Pioneer Settlers— Theiu Manners 
AND Customs— Natural Scenery. 

TN the spring and summer seasons, during the early settlements, 
-*- before apples, peaches, pears, cherries, plums and other culti- 
vated fruits were grown here, wild plums, grapes, gooseberries, 
blackberries and crabapples, with many other fruits of the forest, 
spontaneous of the rich soil and genial climate of Carroll County, 
afforded abundant supplies of these articles, suited to the taste 
and adapted to the wants of the times. 

Some time in the summer of 1827, Alexander Chamberlain 
raised a two-story, double, hewed-log house, on the bank of the 
Wabash, opposite the mouth of Eel River, below Logansport, and 
many of the settlers from this county went there to assist him in 
the raising of it. When there were heavy raisings like that, 
the people of the neighboring settlements always tiu-ned out and 
helped for help again whenever similar circumstances required — 
and there was a mutuality of interest and purpose in all new set- 
tlements, pai'ticularly in those days. 

During the fall of this year, after the small clearings had been 
fenced, plowed aad planted, and the corn crop had well-nigh ma- 
tured, blackbirds came in large quantities and destroyed a vei-y 
considerable portion of it. They were generally bad in the 
fall of the year, but much worse this year than usual, and required 
close watching to prevent total destruction to the crops. Many 
persons who had contemplated moving here were deten-ed fi-om | 
doing so in consequence. j 

In January, 1S28, there was another period of high waters; 
all the flat country below tovra was covered, and the w.iter rose so 
high that it ran into Mr. Baum's kitchen. One time since, when 
Daniel Baum, Jr., was living in the same house, the water came 
up about one foot higher. 

On the 3d day of January, 1828, the first post ofhce ever in 
this county was opened by Abner Robinson, Esq., who was there- 
fore the first Postmaster. This evidence of governmental favor ! 
was hailed by the people as the dawn of a new era in the progress 
of this infant settlement, which, taken into consideration with 
the question of a county organization' at that time agitating the 
community, inspired the settlers with new life and vigor. 

April 28 of this year, according to the provisions of the act of 
organization, passed at the session of the Legislature then recently 
closed, an election was held by the qualified voters of the county 
for the piurpose of electing officers, who should, when duly com- 
missioned and qualified, perform the active functions devolving 
upon them severally, when the period should arrive, as contem- 
plated by the net aforesaid, for putting the wheels of government I 
into practical operation. The number of votes cast at that time, I 
the voters who cast their ballots, and the candidates voted for 
and elected, having been fully set out elsewhere, it is un- 
necessary, at this point, to enter into a more elaborate naiTation 
of the tacts and incidents thereof. In the month of May succeed- 
ing, the organization of the county, under the most favorable aus 
pices, was perfected. 

The increase in the popiilation of the territory diu-ing this 
year was considerable, and the settlement began to assume the ap- 

pearance of progress and the evidences of improvement. The 
efforts of the settlers being directed to the promotion of genera' pros- 
perity, as well as their individual advancement, it was an easy 
matter, fi-om " the signs of the times," to gain assiu-ance that sel- 
fish aggi-andizement was not the governing impulse of the com- 
munity. " There have been, I apprehend" says a late writer, ' ' in 
no country, in its early settlement, precisely the elements in forming 
the public mind which ai'e found in the Wescern regions of our own. 
The colonies that went out from Phoenicia, and that laid the 
foundations of empire on the shores of the Mediterranean, had a 
homogeneousness of character, and transferred the principles and 
feelings of the mother country at once to the new lands where 
they took up their abode. The colonies that went out fi-om Greece 
to occupy the maritime regions of Asia Minor, cai'ried with them 
the love of the arts, of literature and of liberty which distinguished 
Corinth and Athens, and Ionia became merely a reflected image 
of what Attica and Achaia and Argolis had been. The colonists 
who landed on Plymouth Rock, and at Salem, and Boston, also had 
a homogeneousness of character. There was no intermingling of 
any foreign elements contem]>lated or allowed. They were, when 
they landed, and when they laid the foundation of Harvard Uni- 
versity, and wlieu they spread over New England, what they were 
in Holland and in England, with only the modifications which 
their new circumstances made, but with none from any foreign ad- 
mixtiu-es. When we turn our eyes, however, to the great West, we 
discern an entirely different state of things. There is no homogen- 
eousness of character, of origin, of aim, of language. These ele- 
ments, already mingled and struggling for the mastery, any one of 
which, if alone, would have vital and exjiansive power enough to 
diffuse itself all over that great vallej'. 

" There are different manners and customs, different modes of 
faith, and, as a consequence of this, a gi-eat intermingling of those 
minds which are likely to be most adventurous, energetic and bold. 

"Everything in the natui-al scenery is on a scale so vast and 
grand — the majestic rivers, the boundless prairies, the deep for- 
est, the very immensity, almost, of the rich domain which is spread 
out there as if to make man vast in his schemes, gigantic in his 
purposes, large in his aspirations and boundless in his ambitions. 

"I may notice another characteristic of the Western mind, in 
its relation to religion. Strange as it may seem to one who looks 
on the heterogeneous and unsettled mass, the result of the experi- 
ments there made has shown that the West is not a favorable field 
for planting communities destitute of all religion. 

"The question, then, if these are just views is not whether 
there shall be any religion, or none, but whether the religion 
which shall prevail there shall be true or false, enlightened or 
ignorant; a miserable fanaticism, or a large and Christian- 
ity; a low and driveling superstition, or principles that commend 
themselves to reason and common sense; the religion of tradition, 
or he religion of the Bible; a religion of excitement and feeling, 
and variableness, or the religion of principle." 

To a very considerable extent, the remarks made in the fore- 
going quotation will apply to the early settlement of Cai'roU 
County. The elements of which the community was composed, 
were heterogeneous in their character, so far as their former con- 
ditions, pursuits and purposes were concerned, yet the varieties of 
taste and sentiment formed among them seemed necessary to the 
full and perfect development of those faculties which go to make 
up a commimity, destined by its characteristics to become pros- 
perous and happy, variety of taste in individual matters on the one 
hand, and unity of purpose in the affairs of general interest, are 



the sure forerunners of the substantial well-being of the com- 
munity. Here, then, were those elements at work in this com- 
munity as originally constituted; and time had unfolded the pro- 
pitious evidences which distinguish the present position and con- 
dition of society. 

When the emigration fi-om the East, South and North directed 
its com-se hither, the country had been but recently the abode of 
the red man. His companions, the wolf, the bear and cata- 
mount, still held dominion over the forest wilds and disputed the 
right of the civilized pioneer to make a home in the midst of their 
domains. Wolves were abundant, and often made the night hid- 
eous with their howlings — with frogs that inhabited the flat, wet 
lands of the county and sounded the full notes in chorus, they 
chanted the requiem of passing time. No person was ever at a 
loss for musical entertainments of that character. Civilization, 
however, soon brought with it birds and animals such as are always 
found on its trace; the aspect of natui-e, even, seemed to be 
changed, as the massive forest, thick and unbroken before, yield- 
ing to the woodman's ax, became transfoi-med iuto open fields of 
waving grain. 


Advent of Henky M. Ghaham into Carroll County— Porta- 
ble Mill for Grinding Corn, etc.— Making "Hominy" in 
Pioneer Style— Situation Prior to Organization — The 
First Marriages and the Names of the Parties to Them— 
Some Eoads Provided For— Aakon Gregg Arrives— Enoch 
Stansel's Experience- Mr. Gregg'.s Traveling Experi- 
ence, ETC. 
TN the midst of transpiring incidents and circumstances before 
-*- enumerated, it must not be forgotten that new adventurers 
from abroad — from the East, from the North and from the South 
— were coming in to find homes for themselves and families in 
this fertile region, giving countenance and impulse to the ad- 
vancing tide of imi)rovement and prosperity. 

In January, 1828, Henry M. Graham, next to the oldest of 
eight brothers, came to this coimty in company with his father 
and family. Upon coming into the county, they made a halt at 
the family mansion of Gen. Samuel Milroy, and, for want of a 
more suitable or convenient place of abode, moved into a stable 
on the jiremises, and remained there until they got a cabin up on 
the site marked out for their home. Their cabin not being pro- 
vided with a chimney, they cut a hole in the roof to permit the 
smoke to escape. In a few days they got into their cabin, and, 
the first night after, it commenced to snow, and continued with 
little intermission for the next six weeks. The family were all 
barefooted at the time, except Henry and his father — and, as ap- 
pendatoiy to the situation, notwithstanding his shoes, Hemy had 
his feet badly frozen during the winter. Although the weather 
was rough and disagreeable, Mr. Graham, to get things in 
tolerably good living order in and about the house, began 
cutting down trees that stood in reacli of their dwelling, not hav- 
ing had time to make a clearing worth while. The sjiring being 
so far spent when he got into his house, under the circumstances, 
he got some cleared ground from Mr. Odell to put in corn and 
" truck," which gave him some advantage in the way of cleai'ing 
ground for the next season. Mr. Graham erected in his house 
a portable mill, in which he frequtmtly prepared the meal for 
their bread. It consisted of a log about eighteen inches in diam- 

eter and four feet long, with a funnel-shaped hollow burned to 
the depth of twelve or fifteen inches, and then scraped out smooth. 
This section of a log, prepared as above, was set on end, hollow 
upward, adjacent to some crack in the wall between logs, into 
which a spring pole was sometimes adjusted, and a " pestle," con- 
sisting of a stick of suitable dimensions, attached to it — split at 
one end to admit an iron wedge, secured in its place by a ring. 
With this formidable array of machineiy. sometimes omitting the 
"spring-pole," much of the grinding for the family, and some- 
times the neighbors, was done in the early settlement of the 
country. The apparatus was familiai-ly kno\vn as a "hominy 

After the organization of the county, in May, 1828, the social 
as well as the civil relations of the settlers became more circum- 
scribed as to limits in which they were consummated. Before 
that period, the settlements made here, and the movements toward 
independence in the enjoyment of the peculiar privileges of a sep- 
arate community, were embarrassed by the fact that this territory 
formed a part,of the jurisdiction of other and distant counties, re- 
quiring, therefore, that all authority for the completion of busi- 
ness arrangements, so far as their binding force depended upon 
a legal recognition, should and could only be derived from those 
distinct seats of justice, from which radiated these several requi- 
site plenary powers. For a considerable time after the settlement 
of the county, in 1824-25, Crawfordsville occupied the position 
of a general legal dispensary for a vast extent of territory, includ- 
ing the present limits of Carroll County. There justice, in vari- 
ous and modified forms, was administered, sometimes speedily 
and without delay, at other times tardily, depending upon the 
circumstances which surrounded the case. Marriage licenses had 
to be obtained at that point, or at La Fayette, which afterwai-d 
, assumed the prerogatives of the position. So far- as this particu- 
lar county was concerned, the occasions which demanded the resort 
to those distant localities for the purpose of procuring the consent 
of "the powers that be" to exercise the rights of a free people 
were not frequent, yet it was occasionally necessaiy. 

Marriages were not very common here during the earlier pe- 
riods of which I have been writing, pai-tially owing to the fact, at 
first, that those who contemplated a removal to this county us- 
ually settled jireliminai'ies before leaving the old homestead, aad 
did not set out " prospecting" for a new home until the question 
of consummation was no longer controvertible — so tJiat, when the 
home had been secured in the Western wilds, it was only neces- 
sary to go back and claim the prize. Consequently, weddings 
were of somewhat rare occiurence until Carroll Coimty had a dis- 
tinct organization, vesting the people with the necessary powers 
and immunities to grant the authority upon which marriages 
might be solemnized. The first marriage license issued in Car- 
roll County was on the 1st day of June, 1828, the record of which, 
together with the certificate of solemnization, is as follows, viz. : 

Be it kiiii« )i, iIkii i.iMlir Ni ,hi\ ..f .lunc .\, I). IN-'S. ;i iiiaiTiagc liscnse 
issued to .Jolm I'.M/.'iri h ,mhI I,;ii:i(\ Miidirll, lii.ili (.[ ~;iiil counly, the eon- 
sent of Jiiliii I'.M/.nihM- , liiilirr (,r ilir ,:ii(l .Idliii iwh.i i^ iiiiilei- age), lieing 
now given — she In iiii; ul law lul ai;u. And thai llir_\ \\i it legally married 
is thus eertified on the bauk of the license, viz., I, the undereigned, one of 
the Associate Judges in and for the county of Carroll, do hereby certify 
that I joined in the holy bonds of matrimony, the within named couple, on 
Sunday the 1st day of June. A. D. 1828. 

CimisTOi'HEn McComus, A'xociat' Judnr. 

The second license was issued on the 4tli day of July, 1828, 
to John Morrow, of Psu-ke County, Ind., and Isabella Hamilton, 
of this county, who were both of lawful age. Their marriage 



was solemnized on the same day, Christopher McCombs. Judge, 

The third was issued on the 4th day of September, 1828, to 
Jeremiah Ballard and Susannah Baum, both of this county, and 
of lawful age. They were married on the same day, by Isam 
Adkinson, Justice oE the Peace. 

The fom-th was issued on the 25th day of December, 1828, to 
Charles Polke and Louisa R. Smith, both of this county, and of 
lawful age. They were mai-ried January 1, 1829, by Eev. James 
Crawford, at the residence of Maj. Bell, in Logansport. 

The fifth was issued on the 29th day of December, 1828, to 
William Scott and Otilda Lockhart, both of Carroll County, and 
of lawful age. They were married on the 1st day of January, by 
Rev. James Crawford, at the same time and place as the last. 

The sixth was issued December 31, 1828, to John Swalls and 
Polly Marsh, both residents of Carroll County, and of lawful age. 
This marriage also was solemnized Januarj' 1, 1829, by Isam Ad- 
kinson, Justice of the Peace. Thus it will be seen that January 
1 was a propitious day for Carroll County, the first day of the 
year 1829, being signified by these evidences of union. 

August 12, 1828, the second day of the session, on the petition 
of sundry citizens interested, a county road fi-om Delphi to Ben- 
jamin Baxter's, another from Delphi to Nathaniel Hamilton's, 
were ordered to be located. Hugh Manary and Aaron Dewey 
were appointed to view the aforesaid routes, and at the next ses- 
sion to report the routes respectively that would best meet the 
wants of the public. On the same day, a road was ordered to be 
located on the most practicable route from La Fayette to the line 
dividing Tippecanoe and CaiToU Counties, in the direction of 
Delphi, to intersect a road that day established and located from 
the point last named to the public square in Delphi. Provisions 
were made, also, for the location of roads, one fi-om the public 
square aforesaid to the point where the meridian line crosses 
Deer Creek; another from the same point to Elisha Brown's, on 
Bachelor's Run. These several routes were necessary in order to 
establish outlets from the settlements to the points with which 
they corresponded, for pui'poses of trade and inter-conim n n ication. 

In the month of October, 1828, Aai-on Gregg, his wife and 
brother, left Warren County, Ohio, and started on their journey 
to this county with a view to settlement here. But before this, 
however, in 1825 or 1826, Mr. Gregg, in company with Enoch 
Stansel, had visited the Wabash Valley for the purpose of select- 
ing eligible locations for new homes in the West. While they 
were here looking at the country, Mr. Gregg's father was of the 
party. After having traversed most of the county, and satisfied 
themselves as to the quality of the land, as well as the prospects 
presented for the futm'e, in the evening, when on their return to 
Crawfordsville — through which route they had arrived — they 
came to a halt on a blufl' near the bank of Rock Creek, where, 
night coming ujion them, they laid out, with no other shelter than 
the trees, until morning. Next morning, they continued their 
journey for Crawfordsville, where the land oflice was situated, 
and, upon their arrival at that place, made their entries of such 
lands as they had selected during their travel through thiscoimtj-. 

At one time, while Mr. Stansel was out here looking for laud, 
he had Ijeen attending the sales of land at Logansport, and started 
back homeward. There being no road cut along the route he 
proposed to travel, he took an Indian trail. Before reaching the 
place where he expected to put up for the night, darkness overtook 
him and he lost the trail. Depending upon the instinctive knowl- 
edge of his horse for guidance through the woods and thick un- 

derbrush, he lirought up safely at the cabin of " Old Man Har- 
ness," on the located line of the Michigan road, where he passed 
the night, partaking of the hospitable entertainmenf of the old 
"host," so universally known, appreciated, and proverbially recog- 
nized by all the early travelers through this portion of the Wa- 
bash Valley. Having, the night previous, wandered about so long 
before reaching Mi-. Harness', without any definite knowledge of 
his whereabouts, he became so badly lost that he did not know 
which end of the road brought him there, nor which one he should 
take in piu'suing his joiu-ney, and in the morning, also, when he 
came to make a start, he was so bewildered still that he took the 
wrong end of the road, back track toward Logansport, and it was 
with gi-eat difficulty that he could be prevailed upon to turn about. 
When he did so, it was with no small misgivings as to the pro- 
priety of so doing, being fully impressed with the belief that he 
was going wrong when he did so. 

At the time Mr. Gregg came fi'om Ohio, accompanied by his 
wife and brother, as before noticed, while on the road, they 
camped out every night, for there were but few settlements along 
the route traveled by them, and these were so far distant from 
each other that it was inconvenient to depend on finding shelter 
in houses dm-ing the night. And again, the fall being di'y and 
pleasant and the roads good, it was usually more agreeable and 
certain to sleep under cover of the woods than in houses. When 
they landed here, they immediately set themselves about putting 
up a cabin. This being done, they commenced clearing ofi' a 
piece of ground suitabh^ for a yard and "patch," so that, by 
Christmas or before, they had more than an acre chopped ofi' 
almost clear-. Between Chi-istmas and New Yeai-'s, they stai-ted 
back to Ohio; but, owing to the bad traveling at that season of 
the year, they did not reach home until after the middle of Jan- 
uary succeeding, the jom-ney occujiying one-half a month in its 

Any person who has had any experience in traveling over 
these Western roads during that season of the year when there is 
so much moistm-e in the ground, can well imagine why half a 
month might be consumed in making the jom-ney. At that time, 
when the black and clayey soils were not frozen, and teams were 
fi-equently passing along, the mud was deep, so that hea\'y teams 
often made but a few miles — from five to ten, and sometimes fif- 
teen — per day. Often six miles was the longest distance that 
could be made after traveling hard from sunrise to simset. In 
winter, when the ground was frozen, the roads, at first, were rough 
and knobby, but gradually they became smooth by long passage, 
and, of course, solid. 

A great many anecdotes have been related by old wagoners of 
their hardships, difficulties and wondrous experiences on the road, 
which would appear- almost incredible when compai-ed with the 
present, and yet, no doubt, interesting, especially to the inter- 
ested. We shall endeavor, erelong, to give the reader a brief re- 
cital of some of those personal experiences and recollections of 
traveling facilities in those days, as compared with the more 




pioxEER reminiscences-Continued. 

Dry Weather Induces a Dearth in Business— Steamboats- 
More New Settler.-; Arrive— Israel Kohrbavgh, Samuel 
Lenon. William McCain, Isaac IIobbins— "Delphi Mill" 
Built — Saw-Mill — Contemplated Quaker Settlement— 
Enoi h Cox, John Beckner, John M. Gillam— Grain Brought 
]■ liO.M Fountain County— Children Lost, etc. 

^ I ■'HE weather, during the fall of 1828 and the early part of 
-*- the winter sueeeeding, was unusually di-y, as, also, the sjjring 
following. The merchants and tradesmen usually shipped their 
goods from Cincinnati by steamboats for the Wabash; but the 
river was so low that boats could get no farther up than the 
"Rapids," at Mount Carmel. The result was that goods brought 
to that point by the easy and expeditions conveyance of steam- 
boats had to be transported thence by wagons to such points 
higher up the river as were designated in the orders of shipment. 
This occasioned much inconvenience and loss, not only to the mer- 
chants themselves, but was the som'ce of much delay and disap- 
pointment on the part of the settlers, who had no other depend- 
ence for their suj^plies of groceries and clothing. Such mishaps, 
though not very frequent in their occurrence, were, nevertheless, 
seriously felt, and the remembrance of them has continued fresh 
in the minds of many whose experiences in this, direction have 
left an indelible impression. Among all these adversities, there 
were some redeeming prosperities attendant thereon. 

During the fall just then passed, several new settlers made 
their appearance here and coromenced settlements in diiferent 
parts of the county. Among these were Israel Rohi-baugh, who 
emigrated from Virginia and settled here on the 4th day of Oc- 
tober. 1S28; Samuel Lenon. formerly of Ohio, came here iu Octo- 
ber. lS2y: William McCain, also from Ohio, settled here on the 
10th of December, 1S2S; Isaac Robbins settled here about the 
same time that season, and became a permanent resident. 

The improvement of the site of the "Delphi Mill" was com- 
menced this spring, somewhat after the plan proposed by the 
Quakers, and noticed elsewhere. Saw-mills were erected and 
j)ut into operation this year (1829), by Isaac Griffith, Samuel 
Williamson and Samuel Wise — all of them of easy access by the 
settlers. These improvements fonned additional links in the as- 
cending chain of circumstances which have led to the occupancy 
of that independent position so familiai'ly recognized and enjoyed 
by our people at the present day — links which, having been united 
by the strong cement of popular friendship, formed a chain of 
such tenacity that revolution itself could scarce rupture it. All 
these influences seem to have worked together for the common 

In the early part of 1829, Enoch Cox, from New York, and 
John Beckner, of Virginia, moved here and made permanent set 

At this time, the settlements had so extended that the whole 
country began to wear the aspect, in many portions, of an old- 
settled country. The energy manifested by the citizens was such 
as to warrant success, which was readily achieved. 

On the 4th day of March, 1 S29, the day upon which Andrew 
Jaclison ,.,it.']v.l ii|H,ii (lie discliarge of his duties as President of 
(lie 1 iiiliil'f,. .Iiiliii M. ( ill lam, brother of Thomas Gillam, 

Sr., lii'Tciic iioti 1. fi.iiiK.rly (if the State of Pennsylvania, then 

recently from Fountain County, lud., settled in this county. At 
the time when Mr. Gillam was on his way to Fountain County, 

traveling with a six-horse team, and some time prior to the date 
of his removal to this county, bridges across the streams on their 
route were scarcely known, so that the only way, often, to obtain 
a transit from one side to the opposite was by swimming — a 
method not always very satisfactory, and firequently attended 
with more or less difficulty and inconvenience. One night, hav- 
ing encamped in a low piece of bottom, there was a heavy fall of 
rain, and so much water upon the gi-ound they were compelled to 
cut saplings and form platforms of them, raised sufficiently high 
that when their beds were placed upon them there would be no 
danger of being overrun by the waters before morning. These 
were but a few of the difficulties, in number or kind, to be met 
with and overcome by early settlers of the Wabash Valley. 

The winter before Mi-. Gillam moved to this county, he brought 
up here from Foimtain County a wagon-load of corn-meal, a large 
portion of which he lent to the settlers, who had not raised grain 
sufficient the previous season for their bread, and were illy con- 
ditioned to buy. He did this with a consciousness that there was 
no necessary hazard, for, in new settlements, where union and 
harmony were the prevailing characteristics, a favor so well timed 
as this could in no wise go unrewarded. In this community, 
unbroken faith and good fellowship was the order of the day. 
In the fall of the year 1829, the children of Thomas Gillam, Sr., 
and of his brother, John M. Gillam, started out into the woods 
one morning for the purpose of digging ginseng, which was then 
very abundant in the neighborhood, and a source of considerable 
revenue when obtained; but they had not been out very long — 
rambling about from place to ])laee, hunting and digging alter- 
nately, without thinking in what direction they were going — before 
they got lost, and, when night came, the chikh-en were still absent. 
The families by this time had become greatly alai-med for their 
safety in these wild woods, and the nearest houses at that time were 
William Bishoji's and John Briggs'. Three or foLir persons 
started immediately in search. Mr. Thomas Gilhun went to 
Bridge Creek and followed it up some distance, but learned no 
tidings of the lost little ones. Morning came, and still they had 
not been found, nor had there been any traces 'discovered which 
might indicate their whereabouts. By this time, the whole com- 
mimity was in a state of alarm and apprehension for the safety 
of the wanderers. The excited neighbors were early ai'oused, and 
started for the woods with horns, guns, and other implements by 
which natural and significant communications could be passed 
between the different parties in search, and, if within reach, to 
give information to the children that assistance was near at hand. 
Allen Gillam, son of Thomas, who was among the lost ones, and 
a little older than the rest of them, in the meantime, however, had 
suggested to his fi-iends the propriety of pounding upon a tree 
with a club, in order that the persons seeking for them might be 
attracted by the noise and come to their relief; they did so, and 
it had the desired effect, for the noise thus made did strike the 
eagerly listening ears of some of those who were scouring the 
woods in search, and the children were found by the means, after 
having laid out all night. When they had been found, the joyful 
tidings were made to re-eclio fi'om point to point, until the wel- 
come fact was announced at the door of every cabin in thi> neigh 

At another time, not long after this, a child of David Gillam, 
another brother of Thomas, wandereil away and got lost while its 
mother was engaged in getting dinner. Its absence was not dis- 
covered until after dinner, when all parties started in search and 
hunted imtil dark. Rumors were sent to Delphi to raise the 


alaiTn and prociu'e assistance. The people tiu-ned out en masse, 
and roamed over and through the woods all night in unsuccessful 
search for the little one lost. Next morning there were at least 
fifty pereons engaged traversing the country, making inquiries 
and calculating what next should be done. Finally, they all 
foi-med themselves into a long line, separated one from another 
fi'om fifty to one hundi'ed yards, and took a " sweep " over the 
country in th is connected form. About noon that day, they found 
the child, asleep beside a tree, but almost famished with hunger, 
having had nothing to eat since the morning of the day before. 
On the 4th day of April, 1829, Thomas Gillam, Sr., removed 
with his family to this county, and settled down in the midst of 
what was then was an almost unbroken forest; particulai'ly so in the 
iimnediate neighborhood where he located, built his cabin and 
commenced his cleai'ing. At the time of his settlement here, 
Mr. Grillam was possessed with little means with which to com- 
mence operations and make ra]5id progress in improvi Qg his lands, 
and was compelled, by the force of circiimstances, to make exti'aor- 
dinary exertions towai'd raising ''produce" enough to supply the 
demands of his family. Possessed, however, with unconquerable 
resolution, he commenced his clearing with a hearty good will, 
and, instead of taking the usual method of cutting down the trees, 
a young man would climb them and begin at the top branches, 
lopping off the limbs until the trees were entirely stripped, while 
Mr. Gillam, in the meantime, would throw the branches upon a 
fire and burn them as they fell from the trees. In this way he 
got nine acres in cultivation the first spring, and, from the prod- 
ucts of the fii-st clearing, had, the following fall, corn enough for 
home consumption and some to sell besides. Yet Mr. Gillam 
constituted but one example among the many that could have then 
been found in Can-oil County, in which exertions like his were 
vewai'ded so abundantly. The times and circumstances demanded 
the exercise of all the eflicient energies that could be brought to 
bear in opening the way for civilization, by creating siu'plus 
enough to meet the i-equired wants of new settlers, in the way of 
provisions necessary to subsistence, and of inducements such as 
would tend to improve the lands and advance the growth of their 
social polity. 



Christopher Vandeventer's Nakrative— Cornelius Williams 
—Dr. -James H. Stewart— Samuel IJ. Gresham— Robert D. 
RriYSTEH— The "Old Dominion," well Represented among 
the EarT.y Settlei:s— Xaxcy Ann, .Jacob and Amos Ball 
Arrive ki;om J'enxsvlvania— Enoch Stansel and Aaron 
r,uEGO— Death's Doing--^. 
TN the winter of 1S29, Christopher Vandeventer left the State 
-*- of New York for the Wabash Valley, having in contemplation 
a temporary sojourn, if not a permanent settlement, in this county. 
From New York he came by way of the lakes to the vicinity of 
Toledo, Ohio; thence his route lay almost wholly through a wil- 
derness but thinly inhabited, save by Indians and a few French 
traders located here and there for purposes of barter and traffic. 
There were no I'oads then, such as we have now, and the Indian 
trail furnished the only guidance on his route from point to point. 
It was about the middle of December when he left the lake. He 
was alone and on foot, carrying with him a knapsack weighing 
fifty-four pounds. Owing to the sparsely settled condition of the 
countiy thi'ough which it was necessaiy for him to travel to get 

here, he was obliged frequently to travel from daylight until dark, 
and sometimes until late at night, without anything to eat. or a 
place of shelter. His fare consisted usually of "cold corn-pone," 
or " corn-dodger," " coon meat " and hominy, for which he had to 
pay $1 per meal. About the 23d of December, he reached Fort 
Wayne, and remained there overnight with a little Frenchman, 
who had a squaw for a wife. Previous to that time, the weather 
had been wet and disagreeable, considerable quantities of rain 
having fallen in the meantime, and in the morning, before leav- 
ing Fort Wayne, his host infoi-med him that it was forty miles 
to the next cabin where he could probably find shelter for the 
night. This information was not very gratifying, inasmuch as 
his route was ihrough a deep forest, witn no road save an Indian 
trail, which was indistinct and easily lost. He set out, however, 
and was mainly guided by the course of the Wabash Kiver. The 
recent rains had raised the branches and creeks so that they were 
almost impassable except by swimming, which method of trans- 
port, at a wai'mer season of the year, might have been adopted 
with some degi-ee of indiflerence : but at tliis time, when the water 
was cold, and the prospect around dark and gloomy, was not the 
most agreeable. Nevertheless, the unwelcome barriers presented 
themselves, and the "Rubicon must be passed." In the after 
noon, the weather became very cold and fi-eezing, yet he traveled 
on till nightfall, but found no cabin; he had missed the trail and 
wandered out of the way. It was dark, and he soon began to 
realize the painful truth that he was lost, perhaps many miles 
from any habitation, in the midst of a dense forest and surrounded 
by thick darkness. The air continued to grow cold, and snow 
began to fall rapidly. There he was alone — wet, cold, tired and 
hungiy, having traveled since daylight that morning without tast- 
ing food or taking a moment's rest. Eveiything was wet around, 
so that he could not kindle a fire by which his condition for the 
night could be rendered more comfortable. He made his prepara- 
tions, however, as best he could, for spending the night, but his 
blankets were wet and frozen, and the undertaking to sleep, or 
even to lie down, was hazardous. He was in a dilemma from 
which he was in doubt Fow he could best extricate himself. His 
better judgment prevailed, and. instead of lying down in his wet 
clothes with the risk of freezing to death, he continued on his 
feet all night, sometimes running up and dowu an adjacent hill- 
side, at others performing such exercises as suggested themselves 
to keep himself warm. Morning at length dawned, and the snow 
that had fallen during the night covered the ground to the depth 
of ten or twelve inches. On looking around for his knapsack, it 
was no where to be found. In the night, he had wandered away 
from the spot where night overtook him without taking cognizance 
of his serpentine movements, and could not tell in what direction 
it might be from him. After searching in vain for several horn's, 
he again started upon his jom'uey hitherward, and about noon 
came to a cabin, where he tarried until morning to rest and refi'esh 
himself, that he might be in better condition to withstand the 
fatigue of traveling. Starting early, with the advantage, also, 
of information received by which he was enabled to correct his 
latitude and lay his course to better advantage, he directed his 
steps toward Delphi, where he arrived late in the evening of that 
day, and was welcomed by the fi'iends and acquaintances who had 
previously settled here. Upon examining the country, he found 
everything satisfactory, and accordingly made this the place of 
his futm'e settlement. 

On the 2Sth of .January, 1830, Cornelius Williams, a Virgin- 
ian by birth, located in Carroll County, and made it his home 



from that time until the 
years since. Being a man 

leriod of bis death, some twenty-one 
lossessed of gi-eat energy of character 
and judicious business capacity, he was a useful citizen at that 
early day, and, dm-ing the course of his long residence here, he 
amassed considerable property. 

Dr. James H. Stewart, a native of Kentucky, came here on the 
10th of April of this year, and, from that time onward, has been 
one of the permanent fixtui-es of the county. In succeeding pages 
we shall have occasion frequently to refer to him in the various 
positions he has occupied in times past, as they connect themselves 
more or less intimately with the history of Cai'roll County. 

On the 30th of April, Samuel D. Gresham an-ived here fi'om 
Virginia, and settled down, in possession of the ai-dor and vigorous 
enei'gy of youth, determined to work out for himself a fortune in 
this home of his adoption. 

Among others who, about this time, sought and found comfort- 
able homes within the linjjts of this county, may be noticed 
Robert D. Royster, a son of the Old Dominion, who, in early life, 
emigrated thence and settled in Fayette County, in this State' 
where he resided until the period of his location on the banks of 
Deer Creek, above Delphi, on the 8th day of July, 1830. He con- 
tinued here, in the enjoyment of the privileges seciu'ed to himself 
by his eai-ly settlement, vintil his death, many years since. 

In the month of October of this year, Nancy Ann Ball, Jacob 
and Amos Ball — the first a native of Pennsylvania, and the rest 
of Ohio —settled in this county, and then became fully identified 
with its early history. 

As has been before noticed, Enoch Stansel settled here some 
time in November, having, a year or two before visited the county, 
in company with Aaron Gregg, with the purpose of selecting a 
permanent home. 

While accessions were being made to the population of the 
county by the arrival of persons from different partsof the United 
States, death was making its inroads into the enjoyments of 
these yet infant settlements. During the month of September, 
1830, there were nine deaths in the county, and seventeen more 
during the remainder of the yeai'. These adverse circumstances 
had a tendency somewhat to retard the progress of imjirovements 
and chill the energy of enthusiasm among the settlers; but it was 
only temjiorai'v. 


Experiences of Cabin-Building and Finishing— .Some Experts 
—John R. Bai.lard one of them— Other Good Qualities of 
Mr. Ballard— Nurse and Undertaker- Inxidents in His 
Career— Reci'RREnces to the Past— C0MPARI.S0N.S— Saw-Mill 
.—In Delphi— Evidences of and Improvement— 


IN some of the earlier chapters, reference was made to the fact 
that, when the first houses were being built in the county, 
there was a serious want of the materials necessary for the com- 
pletion of iriicDinits ii(hi|iti'(l even to the wants of the times — and 
that, as ail i-vi.lcnc.' ..f tlic inventive power which necessity calls 
forth, in iiiiliT to Mipply tlie di'liciency occasioned by the absence 
of sawed lumber, boards were prepared for the various purjjoses 
of finishing cabins by the use of the broad-ax; in other <vords, 
boards were hewed out, instead of being sawed. This practice 
prevailed for a long time, and to a very considerable extent, in 
this county, owing to the fact that saw-mills in those days were 

not very numerous, and that such as were in the county occupied 
locations too far removed fi'om the settlements to enable the poor 
and often illy provided settlers to avail themselves of the use of 
lumber fi'om them, because of the great expense attending its 
transportation thithiu-. It was a circumstance of not very unusual 
occurrence that boards made by splitting them from the ti-ee, and 
straightening and squaring them with the broad-as, were used for 
laying floors, making doors and door and window casings, and in 
the construction of corner cupboards and shelves, such as pioneer 
housewives were wont to i-ecognize as kitchen furniture of superior 
workmanship and extraordinary diu-ability. Not only was a large 
proportion of the kitchen furniture manuf actirred in this way, in- 
cluding, also, tables and chairs, but bedsteads and cradles, orna- 
ments of the sleeping apartments, were wi'ought out by the same 
skillful process of handiwork. Among the more cunning artifi- 
cers in this depai'tment of mechanics, it is proper to mention the 
name of John R. Ballard, many evidences of whose ability in this 
particular remain to this day. 

It is related, also, of Mr. Ballard, that his skill was frequently 
required in the manufacture of articles other than those of a house- 
hold nature. Here, as elsewhere, sickness and death prevailed, 
though to a limited extent; the one required the assistance of a 
careful niu'se to soothe the pains and administer to the wants of 
the suffering; while the other, after the attention of kind friends 
and neighbors had ceased to be of advantage in restoring them to 
health, and the dread desti'oyer had mai'ked them as his victims, 
required the services of a careful undertaker to prepare them for 
their final rest. As a careful and vigilant nurse, the reputation 
of Mr. Ballard was co-extensive with the limits of these early 
settlements, and his example stands pre-eminent, as many now 
living can fully attest Wherever sickness and want prevailed, 
he was always present, ready and willing to render 'whatever assist- 
ance his generous nature and Vigorous manhood enabled him to 
bestow. Whenever a funeral occurred, he discharged the last sad 
duties of coffining and sepulture to the dead. At the time of the 
death of Benjamin D. Angell, on the 16th of September, 1825, 
there was not in Carroll County a saw-mill where phink could be 
procm-ed, nor a cabinet-maker by profession who could construct 
a cofim in which his remains could be deposited prepai-atory to 
their occupancy of the grave. In this emergency, Mr. Ballai'd 
was looked to as the only som'ce of help, and he, by his practical 
skill as a " worker in wood," took of the boards that had boen 
prepared for covering a house in the neighborhood, and, by the 
use of his broad-ax, straightened and smoothed them, and con- 
sti'ucted therefi'om a coflin, in which the ashes of Mi'. Angell now 
rest. This is only an incident in the eai-ly history of CajToll 
County, which goes to show the characteristics of the times, and 
of the people of that age. There were privations then suffered 
and endm-ed, heroically met and overcome, which would jiut to 
blush the fancied privations and hai'dships of the present day. 
The determined character of those early inhabitants was a sure 
guaranty against weak nerves and the inclination to abandon trial 
when difficulties were deemed insuperable. These qualities were 
adapted to the ncd'ssitirs of tin' times. 

As time passi^d, Iiow.v.t. ..bstacles became less numerous and 
formidable, so that it is douliiful now whether those persons who 
figiu-ed most exti'usively in days of yore could meet and overcome 
the obstructions, which, iifty-tive years ago, were pushed aside 
almost without a thought of their magnitude. 

As time passed, and the eligible positions selected by the set^ 
tiers began to be developed, showing of a certainty that the ad- 




vantages of the location were many yet susceptible of im2irove- 
ment, the extensive privileges bestowed by the Aiithor of natiu-e 
upon the regions round about continued to be brought into requi- 
sition, induced by demands of progress. In Januaiy, 1830, a new 
saw-mill was erected in Delphi, which added a new impulse to the 
movemeiitsof the people and the imjirovement of town and country. 
The small number of mills designed for the manufactm-e of lum- 
ber, before this time, had a tendency in some measure to cheek 
the progi-ess of building and of enlarging the limits of the town. 
By this time, however, Delphi, which had been the seat of justice 
for CaiToll County about two J'ears, began to assume a position 
and a name n the land. Many of the inhabitants in the vicinity 
round about had emigi-ated fi-om Ohio, Eastern Indiana, Ken- 
tucky, New York and Virginia, and, by reason of the inter-com- 
munication estalilished between these and their friends at home, 
induced many of the latter to look forward with interest to the 
evidences of prosperity as manifested from time to time — some 
with a view to the well-being of their friends here, while others 
were prompted with a desire to come and participate in the toils, 
privations, and In the prospective prosperity of the country. 

The countiy, as well as the town, was advancing rapidly in 
the clearing-up and cuiltivation of farms, the enlargement of the 
ai-eaof trade, and the development of the vast resources with which 
the country abounds. These evidences were exerting an influence 
abroad, as well as at home, toward bringing it to that prominence 
of position to which the natm-e of things justly entitles the 

On the 18th day of February, 1830, Daniel Baimi was again 
appointed Treasurer of the county for one year, by the Boai'd of 
Commissioners, then in session. He filed his bond to the ap- 
proval of the board, with Gavin Black and Isaac GrifBth, secm'i- 
ties. At the same session, Messrs. Scott and McAlister were au- 
thorized to establish a feny across the Wabash River, opposite 
Forsythe's cabins, and empowered to collect tolls at given rates 
for the period of one year. Ferries, it will be remembered, in 
those days afforded almost the only means of transit across the 
large streams except swimming, which, at that time, was not an 
imfrequent necessity. Dr.'Vandeventerwas allowed 845 for extra 
services to date, as Clerk of Carroll County, upon whom devolved 
the duties now divided amongst the Clerk, Auditor and Recorder. 

The session of May 10, 1830, of the Board of Commissioners, 
was held in the rew Clerk's office, just then erected and put into 
a habitable condition. Gavin Black was appointed Seminary 
Trustee for Can-oil County, and entered into bonds in the penalty 
of $300, with Isaac GriflSth and William George as securities for 
the faithful discharge of his duties. 

For the reader's gratification in the way of novelties, we will 
introduce here a report of fines assessed by William George, Jus- 
tice of the Peace, under the misdemeanor act in force at that time : 
"State vs. James Quick, for profane sireariiig, fine §10. State 
vs. Thomas Ivers for AsscikU. fine $1, State vs. Ephraim Denni- 
son. for Profane Swearing, fine $h State vs. William Craigh 
and Martin Thornbm-g, for Sabbafli Breaking, fine $1 each."' 

The summer of 1830 was extremely dry, and was the occasion 
of much sickness, more than usual, which gave rise to the general 
reputation, for years after, that Delphi was the most sickly place 
on the Wabash, It is true that for a time there was a large 
amount of sickness, and unusual fatality, particularly among chil- 
dren ranging in age from infancy to five years and upward; but, 
notwithstanding this temporary scourge, the epidemic ceased, 
and in a few years Delphi came into better repute, though the 

name of the j)lace often — indeed, very generally — carried with it 
the ancient idea that children here could not be raised to a greater 
age than about five years, and that for adults even, the assurances 
of health and long life were extremely precarious, A reputa- 
tion of this character is generally very hard to overcome; but 
time, the gi-eat corrector of all in-egularities, has demonstrated 
the fact that Delphi, the shire town, the city, at this period stands 
above reproach on the question of healthfulness, and pre-eminent 
as a beautiful location, enjoying the occupancy of one of the most 
delightful positions in this section of the Wabash Valley, 

In the days, however, of which we have been wi-iting, when 
the area of Carroll Coivnty was almost an unbroken wilderness, 
the dense forests shutting out the sunlight necessary to dissolve 
the unwholesome vapors, which, becoming stagnant fi'om the want 
of his mollif}-ing influence, became an active agent in the pro- 
duction and maintenance of diseases stimulated by malaria — the 
fi-equeney of unhealthful conditions could not be gainsayed. 
Hence the reputation of the past; and hence, also, in the changed 
condition of things, the high repute of the present. 



Incidents OF the F-irst Settlement— Some Experiences of the 
Robinson Family— X.\re.\tive of the Pioneer Experiences 

Co^■M^ \i-ii i>i I..H, \\,r,,i; I \..,.i\, (,i Nm.mtiations 
Fdi; 1 Ml I'l i:. II \~i 'ii I |i I.I I - III ~i i:\ \ i).i\ \ 1 1 mi: Moi'TH 
of Ei l I{i\ ri:-IIiv i;i:i rux t.. Cakimii.i,, riii^. i; m La Fay- 
ette AND Crawfordsville— Buys Land in this Cofnty on 
'• B.\CHELOR's Run "—How the Name was Derived, etc. 

T N addition to v.'hat has already been given as a part of the 
-*- experiences of Henry Robinson and his family in establishing 
the first pei-manent settlement in this county, Mr. Samuel H. Rob- 
inson relates the following: " Diu'ing the progress of building 
the cabin, before the removal of the family to their new home, the 
party engaged in the building consisting of Henry Robinson and 
his two sons, Abner and Coleman, with Mr. Starks and his son, 
cam])ed at night on the gi'oimd, with a great " log-heap " fire in 
front, and a large log beyond. One night, havi Qg retired to rest 
after a day of tiresome labor, Mr. Robinson was aroused from his 
necessai-y sleep by some noise in the immediate vicinity of their 
camp. Upon looking up, he discovered a lai-ge wolf, with his 
fore feet standing on the log beyond the tii-e, facing the sleepers, 
his eyes glaring with the reflected light fi-om the burning " log 
heajj," and not more than from twelve to twenty feet from where 
the tired men lay, enjoying the repose of nature's sw-eet restorer, 
Mr. Stai-ks, who was sleeping soiFudly at no gi-eat distance from 
Mr. Robinson, and an excellent mai-ksman, was iimnediately sum- 
moned, and the situation pointed out to him. Rising up and 
observing the wolf and his inquiring attitude for a moment, as 
if in doubt what should be done next, instead of taking up his 
gun and shooting the animal, as it was anticipated he would do, 
he gave a fierce yell, which frightened the wolf away, and he re- 
tm-ned no more to look upon the faces of this little band, the 
advance-guard of civilization, thus ruthlessly trespassing upon 
the domains of his woltship. The wolf, no doubt, like the occu- 
pants of the camp, was somewhat demoralized by the occurrence. 
Order, however, was once more restored, and again the party slept 



in forgetfulness of the midnight prowler that had, with so little 
ceremony, disturbed their slumbers. 

After the cabin, the floors, in the absence of sawed plank, were 
laid with puncheons hewed out, sometimes quite unevenly. Such 
was the ease in this instance; the floor being uneven, there was 
but one place where the table would stand steadily, To secure 
this point and save delay was a question of some moment. Fi- 
nally, it was ascertained that, by placing one leg of the table in 
a certain prominent knot-hole in one of the puncheons, it would 
not shake, but remained steady. After that there was no farther 
trouble, and the knot-hole became a point of interest, remembered 
for the kindly performance of its patience-saving office in the do- 
mestic economy of the establishment. Until the^ cabin was fully 
completed, however, the family never enjoyed the luxury of eat- 
ing from a table, the " family chest," or an old box, being used 

In this regard, the experience of Mr. Robinson did not 
greatly vary from that of a large proportion of the pioneer fami- 
lies in Carroll County, and other localities as well. Yet the re- 
cital of these facts should be, to the present and succeeding gen- 
erations, an example of patient perseverance in overcoming the 
difficulties and embarrassments that obtrude themselves in the life 
experience of every one. 


In the latter part of the winter of 1826-27, Adam Porter, then 
a resident of Rush County, Ind., but formerly fi-om the State of 
Virginia, being then about twenty-two years of age, left home to 
seek his fortune in the far West — in the " New Purchase," as the 
recently acquired lands on the Upper Wabash were not unfrequently 
called, by way of distinction from the purchases made of the In- 
dians at earlier dates. On his route, he passed through Indian- 
apolis, at that time an insignificant village, noted only as the 
"capital city of Indiana,'' having been, less than two years pre- 
viously, designated as the seat of the State Government, where 
the State buildings and offices were located, with but a spai-se 
population, and especially remembered as a flat, muddy, unconse- 
quential court house town. Some of his friejids fi'om Rush and 
the adjoining counties of Fayette and Wayne having located in 
the vicinity of that place, he tarried with them a few weeks, in 
the meantime reconnoitering the suiTOunding country with the 
view to a location there should he be so fortunate as to suit him- 
self, or find the place that just filled his mind's eye. While there, 
frequent inducements were oft'ered him to remain, but the " New 
Purchase " was the place, and there he must go. otherwise he could 
not feel satisfied. 

From Indianapolis he took the route to the Lower 'Wabash 
country, in the vicinity of La Fayette, then a new place, only 
aboiat three years old, and farther up the country into what was 
afterward called Carroll County. Here he taiTied awhile, being 
better pleased than he had been elsewhere. Before pm'chasing, 
however, he concluded to go still farther up the river and make 
further examination, that he might the better satisfy himself. 
The glowing accounts of this upper country (now Cass Coimty) 
given by Hugh B. McKeen, Joseph BaiTon (interpreter), George 
Cicott, Chauncey Carter and others interested in the reservation 
at the " mouth of the Eel River," on the Wabash, whom he met 
on his way up, afforded an additional reason for so doing. He 
says there were some five or six persons in all, who informed him 
that they had been " down to the city of Washington " to see the 
President and have an interview with him in B'eteronce to the con- 

I firmation of the grant made to Cicott of a section of land at the 

I falls of Eel River, by the treaty of October 16, 1820. 

From the conversation, it appeared that there were some con- 
flicting interests necessaiy to be adjusted before a patent could 
issue to Mr. Cicott, vesting him with the right, aciiording to the 
stipulations of the treaty, to sell and convey the lands so re- 
served to him. One of those stipulations was to the effect that, 
before any party to whom a grant of land had been made by such 
treaty could make a conveyance that would transfer his interest to 
another, such conveyance should be confirmed, and the contract 
receive the sanction of the President to make it binding. In this 
instance, it appeared that Cicott, before receiving his patent, had 
been a party to negotiations with vai'ious persons for the sale to 
them of his interest and claim in said tract of land, subject to the 
contingency of its receiving the sanction of the President. Rumor 
had it that Messrs. McKeen, Carter and Gen. Tipton were cogni- 
zant of these transactions, and that, in consequence of the exist- 
ing condition of things, the President was slow in arriving at a 
satisfactory conclusion in the premises. There was a possibility, 

j under the circumstances, that a prolonged delay might prove dis- 
astrous to the plans of the foremost in the enterprise ; hence the visit 
to Washington, dui'ing the session of Congi-ess immediately succeed- 
ing the treaty, when the treaty and its several provisions and grants 

! would be submitted for confirmation. The treaty having been 
confirmed on the 2-1-th of January, 1827, a patent was issued, on 
the strength of which the negotiations spoken of were based. It 
has been stated, with some show of plausibility, that a bond had 

1 been given by Mr. Cicott to Mr. McKeen, conditioned that, upon the 
proposed conveyance receiving the sanction of the President, a 
deed would be executed in conformity therewith; -that the purpose 
of this visit was to seciu'e this confii'mation of the sale to McKeen, 
who seemed to have been the favored one, and these gentlemen on 
their return were congratulating Mr. McKeen on his success in 
secui'ing the coveted prize. To-day, rumor has it that such sanc- 
tion was actually giv£n to the sale to McKeen, and that evidence 
of the fact was on tile in the proper department at Washington, 
not thirty years since; but, from some 'cause not now manifest, 
Mr. McKeen never came into possession of the legitimate title to 
the land through that conveyance, though subsequently, by piu-- 
chase from Mr. Carter — who, on the 17th day of Januai-y, 1829, 
received a title deed for the same from Cicott, sanctioned by the 
President — he acquired the title to that part lying north of Eel 
River, embraced in the original town plat of West Logan. Gen. 
Tipton also afterwai'd obtained, by pm-chase from Mr. Cai't»r, all 
that jiartof the reservation lying between Wabash and Eel Rivers, 
and east of the middle of Fifth street, as defined by the original 
plat of Logansport. 

Having digressed, in part, from the general remarks of Mr. 
Porter, to state some facts deducible therefrom more fully, his 
nai-rative of the occui'rences of his journey with McKeen, Cicott 
and others, fi'om CairoU County, is resumed: " Having met, then, 
white people in those days were so scarce here tliat,wheuhe fo\md 
himself in company with such, he naturally sought and acquired 
an aocjuaintance and ready familiai'ity with them. As a conse- 
quence, I was soon on very intimate tenns with these men, who 
were on their way uj) to the mouth of Eel River. This was some 
time in the month of March [23], 1827. They stoppi>d for the 
night with a man of the name of Newman, who lived in a small 
cabin on the bank of the river, just above the ' Simons ' stone 
quarry, some three or fom- miles below the mouth of Eel River. 
In the morning, they all walked u}) to Chamberlain's Tavern, op- 



posite the ' mouth of Eel River," where the Indians were waiting 
to rejoice with llr. BaiTon, the interpreter, who had been favored 
with the opportunity to visit and converse with the ' Great White 
Father ' at Washington. 1 walked up with them, and observed 
all the movements, not only of these white men, but the Indians, 
for I was ciu-ious to study human nature. Chamberlain kept 
whisky, and the Indians were generally di'unk, and kept up their 
drunkenness to a condition of beastliness, when they were nu- 
merously kicked out by Chamberlain and the others, without cere- 
mony. This excited their fighting proclivities, and they indulged 
in a promiscuous fight among themselves, which exercise they 
continued for some time, when the whole thing passed off without 
unusual results. This was a season of the greatest commotion 
and turbulence I ever witnessed during my whole pioneer life." 
While there, McKeen tried to prevail upon him and Moses 
Aldi-idge, who had accompanied him, to cut the logs for and build 
a cabin for him on the north side of Eel River, on a part of 
the ti-act of land about which the conversation was had on their 
way up from Carroll County, before related. This proposition 
Mr. Porter declined to accept, and afterward went down the river 
near to Mr. Newman's and made a raft upon which to float down 
the river. The variety of tools he had to work with consisted of 
an ax and an auger only. With the ax he chopped down a hack- 
berry tree, a kind of timber very common in that locality, and, 
cutting it into proper lengths, split them in two. These being 
placed side by side to a proper width, they were fastened to a 
cross-piece as a stay, in the shape of a sapling. The fastening 
was accomplished by pinning them on with wooden pins, the 
holes for which were bored with with a " thi-ee-quarter auger," 
the largest that could be procured in the neighborhood. In put- 
ting these pieces together, a tier of the split logs was laid on the 
fiat sides and fastened to the saplings used for stays ; then smaller 
cuts fi-om the tree were also split in two, laid on top, flat side up. 
in such a manner as to break the joints and enable the passengers 
to keep out of the water during the voyage. Boarding their craft, 
after it had been launched at the mouth of a creek that entered the 
river above Mr. Newman's, they poled out a little way into the 
river, which was "pretty well up;'" they floated down the AVa- 
bash, meeting with no obstructions until they reached the " rapids," 
near Georgetown. Passage over this point was thought to be 
somewhat hazardous, but each stood firmly upon an opposite end 
of the raft, armed with paddles for guide-poles; they made the 
current between the large stones that form the "rapids," and 
passed the " breakers " in safety. They landed opposite the pres- 
ent site of Delphi, in the mouth of Deer Creek. Leaving their 
raft for a time, they took a torn' up the creek, prospecting for 
suitable sites for piu-chase in the region roimd aboiit. Havino- 
made satisfactory selections, they procured the " numbers " of the 
land; •'hey returned to their raft, loosened it fi'om its moorings, 
and again passed out into the stream, with the design of making 
as much of the trip by water as they could — not being disposed, 
fi'om too long experience already in that way, to continue the 
pedestrian exercise along the whole route fi-om Dlephi to La Fay- 
ette, en route for the land oflice at Crawfordsville, to complete the 
purchase of the lands selected on Deer Creek, in the vicinity of 
Camden. They glided down the stream, still a little swollen, 
without notable incident until about two miles above La Fayette, 
as they supposed, when they began to make aiTangements for a 
suitable landing. To effect this — being in the middle of the 
stream, caiTied along by the current — required some maneuver- 
ing to get outside the force of the main current, having no " push- 

poles," nothing but ordinary paddles. The design was to make 
the shore gradually, and " hug the bank " for a mile or so before 
landing. They were deceived somewhat in this, however, for, 
instead of floating down near shore, as they had anticipated, they 
were gradually drawn in and across a bar, so that, in endeavor- 
ing to land their craft, it swung round and round in an eddy, 
and they were therefore unable to approach near enough the shore 
to get off. After laboring some time and failing to get as near 
the shore as desired, in the extremity, they made a long leap and 
made the shore. Climbing up the bank, a little steep, they struck 
out through the bushes and briers, hazarding torn clothes and 
lacerated skin. Toward night they found themselves in fi-ont of 
the principal and only hotel of the city (then village) of La Fay- 
ette. Entering the '• tavern," they put up for the night, and in 
the morning went on their way, making Crawfordsville in good 
time. Having made their piu'chases from the tracts selected and 
noted on their plats, they retm-ued to Delphi on fixit, by a more 
direct route than that by which they came, guided by Indian trails 
and a pocket compass, since no roads were then opened thi-ough 
this wilderness region. Tpon his return, Mr. Porter made a 
deadening upon the tract pm'chased by him. and then retiu'ned 

Subsequently, he made another trip to Crawfordsville, and 
made an additional pui'chase of eighty acres for himself, and 
one for a female cousin. He returned by nearly the same route 
as before, thi'ough the woods. Among the incidents of one of 
these joui'nej's, he relates the following: Passing along on his 
way without encountering anything worthy of special note, he 
an-ived at Wild Cat Creek, at that time " pretty well up." Seeing 
the situation of things, he was doubtful about crossing without 
some craft. Observing an old mare and some colts near by, 
seemingly tame, he tried to catch one of them, and, by putting 
on a " leatherwood bridle," to ride across the stream. He failed 
in the catching, but finally succeeded in di-iving them across, by 
which means he ascertained the actual depth of the water. Find- 
ing it was only about "mid-sides" to these animals, he stripped 
off his lower clothes and waded across, though in the middle of 
March, and the weather, as well as-the water, anything but wai'm. 
After he had crossed and put on his clothes, he trudged along, 
stick in hand, warming by exercise and thus di'ying his clothes; 
he made his point without delay. 

The tract upon which he made his deadening was situated on 
what is now known as Bachelor's Run. The stream was so called 
by the singular coincidence that Mi'. Porter, John Ballard, Moses 
Aldridge, Elisha Brown and Jeremiah Ballard, five single men, 
"old bachelors,'' purchased la]id nearly together, on the same 
creek; hence the name. 



Personal Recollections— Trip froji 
in 1s'?5 wittt tt* iviinents — a glimpse 

Miis. Thom.\s 

M'ayne County. Ind., in is'Ji, 
AT SOME of the Exi'i:i:irM I 
County— Snow in t i i i 1 1 ■ . i ~ } 
Retrospect— Hon. .1 a hi - lli- 
TiiE Vicinity of nELPiii— .\> 

>IFE IN Carroll 
iKN for Bread— 
^ENG Business in 

nnHE following narrative presents, in interesting detail, num- 
■L erous incidents of pioneer life as they connect themselves 
with the personal experiences of Mrs. Thomas Stirlen. The 



review is well worthy of preservation, and is accordingly put upon 
record in the repository of valuable contribiitions to the history 
of Carroll County. It was written in 1808 : 

"On the 16th of Febritaiy, 1825, I, in company with Mr. 
Odeirs family, left Wayne County, Ind., to emigrate to the Wa- 
bash country. Om- journey lasted fourteen days. We had rain 
every day except two during our trip. The men would cut down 
brush on which to lay our beds to sleep. Our clothes would be 
wet upon our backs in tbe morning, sometimes. The country 
from AVhite River to the Wabash was an unbroken wilderness, 
uninhabited, with the exception of a few Indians at Thorntown. 
We got along tolerably well until we got this side of Thorntown, 
when our wagon broke down; then I got into John Odell's wagon 
and rode to Potato Creek. There John Little met us, with a 
horse and a yoke of oxen. My husband went to the South Fork 
of Wild Cat Creek, to old Mi-. Odell's, after a wagon. We en- 
camped at Potato Creek that night. The next morning, I started 
with Little for his home, on Flint Creek, twenty-five miles distant. 
I got on the horse, with my babe in my lap, with Little on foot, 
in advance. Sometimes it rained, and then it snowed as fast as 
it could come down. I was on the horse fi'om sunrise until dark, 
with a child in my arms, two years old. You may be siu'e I was 
very much fatigued. The next day, March 2, my husband came 
with oiu- goods. On the day following, he was taken sick, and 
kept down about six weeks. We thought he would die. We had 
no doctor, nor any medicine. John Odell came to see us, and 
brought a dose of tartar-emetic and some blister flies. These, 
with some butternut pills, composed our stock of medicine, with a 
bottle of Bateman's Drops, which we used as an anodyne. He 
recovered, and we all kept well until August, when he was attacked 
again with fever and ague, and was very sick for some time. I 
was confined the 21st of August, and could procure a nm-se but 
for two days, when I had to get up and perfoiin my work as best 
I could. A man named Luce took sick and died near lis. As 
almost everybody was sick, my husband and myself had to see to 
him. My husband was sick, and my babe was only a week old. 
We succeeded in getting help to dig his grave, and Mordecai 
Ellis made his coffin by splitting a basswood tree, dressing the 
boards with a broad-ax and jack-plane, and painting them black. 
He made quite a decent-looking coffin. Another family came to 
the neighborhood, who had settled on Deer Creek, on what is now 
the ' Milroy farm,' who all got sick, and lost a child, that is bur- 
ied near the spot we now occupy. Their name was Gilbraith. 
They wanted me to wash for them, as they had no washing done 
for six weeks. I told them I would try; and I did try, and per- 
formed as large a day's work as ever I did, when my babe was but 
thi-ee weeks old. The next December, my husband came ujj to 
Deer Creek and built a cabin. February 15, 1820, we started for 
our new home. We an-ived here on Deer Creek on the 10th. 
The weather was very cold, and the snow about a foot deep. We 
stopped at John Carey's and got some fire — we had no matches 
those times. We drove up to the cabin; I crawled imder the 
wall, scraped away the snow and kindled a fire, while the men 
sawed out a door. The snow was about shoe-top deep in the 
house. We threw down some clapboards, and on them we placed 
our beds. We slept inside, and the hogs outside. The next 
morning, the mud was as deep in our cabin as the snow had been 
the evening before. The weather was cold. We built a log heap 
in oui- cabin, but still we almost froze. My husband would hew 
puncheons all day, and chink our cabin at night We were nearly 
three miles from our nearest neighbor. We brought corn-meal 

with us sufficient, as we thought, to last vmtil after planting; but 
it gave out, and I had to pound corn in an iron pot, with an iron 
wedge driven into the edge of a handspike, and sift it through a 
basket lid. We used the finest of the meal for breakfast, and the 
coarse for dinner and supper. We got om- corn planted about 
the 1st of June, and then went to mill in a pirogue, down the 
Wabash, to a little corn-cracker, near where La Fayette now 
stands. I was taken sick about the 1st of July, and both our 
childien. I shook forty days with the ague, without cessation. 
We then got some quinine, which stopped it for ten days. I got 
able to ride on horseback, and, while going to see John Ballard, 
who was sick at Mr. Odell's, my horse became frightened and 
threw me off; and that brought on the ague more severely than 
evei-, and it held on to me imtil Christmas. I never saw a woman 
except one (Sarah Odell), for three months. My husband was 
cook, washerwoman and milkmaid during that time. In .October, 
my husband had to leave home for three days, and I was left 
alone with my two children. One night, our dog fought some 
animal near the door, which had no shutter biit a qxiilt. I was 
very much frightened, and om- faithful dog was almost killed. 
He could not walk the next day. John Ballard stayed at oiu- 
house after that until my husband returned. 

" Forty-two years have passed since those times. I have seen 
our country rapidly settling and improving. There were but 
eleven families in Carroll County in 1820. One generation has 
passed away, another has succeeded. There are but two families 
left whose united head still live — Abner Kobinson and om-s. A 
few of the old settlers have emigrated to distant lands, but the 
greater number have passed to that bourn whence no traveler 
returns. We who are left expect soon to cross the river and join 
them in that better land, where sickness and sorrow, pain and 
death, ai-e feared and felt no more. 

" Frances Stielen.'" 

In August, 1827, James Blake, subsequently a long resident 
of Indianapolis, having established a factoi-y for curing and pre- 
paring ginseng for mai-ket — then a standard article of commerce 
— on the farm of Gen. Milroy. He commenced the purchase of that 
article in large quantities, to be worked up for the ti-ade, which 
at that time was quite extensive. Mi-. Blake had some time pre- 
viously located in Putnam County, at a place afterwai-d called 
Blakesbnrg. At that place he cai-ried on the establishment some 
fom- or five yeai-s, fi-om the emoluments of which "lie realized a 
considerable sum of money, as did many others engaged in the 
collection of it for him. 

When ginseng root became scai'ce in the region of country 
around Blakesbm-g, Mi-. Blake sent out agents to solicit the gath- 
ering of it, and to ascertain, also, where it could be prociu-ed in 
larger quantities. The result established the fact that it could be 
found in great abundance above Wild Cat Creek, and in the vi 
oinity of Delphi, and lai-go quantities of it were transported by 
means of wagons to Blakesburg. Afterward, he made a tour of 
inspection himself, which gained for him the satisfactory infor- 
mation that the best place to find it was in the Deer Creek coun- 
try, the abimdant supply inducing him to stai-t a branch in this 
county. Accordingly, he leased a small tract of land from Gen. 
Mih-oy, and closed a contract with Joseph McCain for the erec- 
tion of the necessary buildings. The buildings were completed 
and ready for occupancy in August following, at which time, as 
we have seen, he commenced business, which, in the end, was 
quite lucrative. While he was engaged here, his brother Jesse 



was superintending operations at Blakesbiu'g. After the digging 
and curing season was over, he returned to Indianajiolis, but at 
the commencement of the following season he resumed business 
at his works in Carroll County. He continued thus to carry on 
the business here until the close of the year 1830 — a period of 
foiu' years — when his lease with Gen. Milroy expired. After- 
ward, he started and operated an establishment in Cass County, 
near Logansport, diu-ing the succeeding two years. He discon- 
tinued the trade, finally, in the year 1835, having, in the mean- 
time, realized a very large siun as net profits of the business. 

Dui-ing the time he was located in this county, an incident 
occm-red which Mr. Blake used to relate with no small amount of 
jocular enjoyment. One of the men in his employ came in and 
represented to him one morning that he felt very much out of 
sorts, and must have some whisky to set him right again. The 
man was told to mount his horse and go down to Mr. Baiim's and 
get some, taking a jug along for that purpose. 'WTiile returning 
from his sanitary mission, a black bear came cantering along 
pretty close to the horse, fi-ightening him so, that he ran away, en- 
dangering the safety of the jug as well as the man. During the 
time this was going on, the men at the factory looked down the 
road and saw man and horse coming, Gilpinlike, with rajjid 
strides, toward them. The amusing featiu-e of the incident was 
that of witnessing the almost superhuman eflbrts of the rider to 
save the little jug containing the coveted medicine. He landed 
safely, however, and the jug, with its contents, became objects of 
interest to the overjoyed horseman. 


PIOXEEl! KEMINI«"EKCE.S— Continued. 

Dr. .J. M. Eu-IN<.^ l;i \ ii.w III I'j. i>,.NA], I:xi'i:i;ii;m )> ixC^UROLL 
County— Ki-r ~r Mi\ vm' Iiii\..- I ii i:i n.. the I^e- 

RIOD OF IIl^ l,l-I|.]N<l, llll:l. ^lAllMLMol i'\' 1^ AND IN- 
CIDENTS— SoME 111 I Hi: 1-'1U>T Uim I.K> IN THE Col NTY— Jf.^T- 

URAL Advantages Possessed by thk County— Difficulties 
AND Privations Encountered and Endured, etc. 

A T a meeting of the old settlers of Carroll Coimty, on the -1-th 
-'— ^ of August. 1855, Dr. John M. Ewing, one of the vei-y early 
settlers here, being called upon, gave a brief narrative of his ex- 
periences in the early days of our county's history, from which 
we glean the following items of interest to the surviving few of 
those who were participants in or cognizant of the incidents 

" In the year 1827, when I first landed on Deer Creek, there 
were but forty families living in what now forms Carroll, White 
and Cass Counties. Wliere the town of Delphi now stands was 
a hazel and blackberry thicket. Where the town of Logansport 
stands, everything was in a state of natui-e, except a trading house 
on the point, occupied by a Mr. McKeen. What is now the city 
of La Fayette had then but six log cabins, and a one-story hewed- 
log house, occupied as a tavern. 

" There were then no roads, except one that was opened by 
Father Robinson in December, 1824, his being the fu-st family 
that crossed the Wild Cat. Traveling had then to be done in 
Indian trails and deer paths. The face of the country was then 
covered with a growth of nettles, which were, in the upland, as 
thick as a crop of flax, and about as high, and on the river bottom, 
as high as a man's head, on horseback. 

" There were then no rabbits, no pai-tridges, larks, thrushes, or 
other variety of birds that followed civilization. Frogs were 
abundant. I have traveled for days without ever getting out of 
hearing of their croaking music. Snakes were also plenty, espe- 
cially the large rattlesnakes. The settlers watched their dens in 
the spring, and killed them when they came out to sun themselves. 
I have killed as many as five at one time. Wolves were also 
plenty — the large gray wolf — and, like the Indians, the)' sur- 
rendered their rights to the country with reluctance. I have 
seen them walk oflf with a snarl and a growl, looking at me as 
though they thought me an intruder on their domain. 

" Indians were not very numerous in what is now Carroll 
County. A few came to the settlement occasionally to trade. 
The principal Indian trade was established at Logansport. It 
was the Indian trade that made Logansport what it is, by bring- 
ing men of capital and enterprise there, and also the Indian 
agency. The location of the Michigan road also gave it a per- 
manent advantage over Delphi. That road would have been 
located through Delphi, on a muclj better and nigher route, if any 
pei-son here had taken the time to show the Commissioners the 
route. They came to this county for the purpose, and were sent 
to Cass County, where they found men that were willing to spend 
the time to gain this important thorough fai-e. 

" Hem-y Kobinson was the tu'st Justice of the iPeace elected in 
CaiToll County, commissioned by Gov. Ray July 14, 1828. The 
fu-st com-theldin the county was at the house of Daniel Baum, Sr. 
The first Postmaster in the county was Abner Robinson. The 
fij-st apples grown from the seed were on the farm of Henry Rob- 

'■ The natm-al advantages of Carroll Coimty in regard to the 
fertility of soil, the facilities for water-power, and good springs, 
were not sm-passed by any county on the river. It was the 
head of steamboat navigation on the Wabash. Boats could 
always ascend to Delphi, at any time they could come to La J'ay- 
ette. Natiu-e did all for Can-oil County that it has ever done for 
any place : and the early settlers depended on its natm-al advan- 
tages bringing in an enterprising population and building them 
a town. They used no efforts of their own, so that business and 
capital concentrated at La Fayette and Logansport; and Delphi, 
with all its natural advantages, was left in the rear. 

"There were comparatively few difficulties and privations 
experienced by the first settlers of Cai-roll County. Provisions 
were generally plenty in the lower counties on the river, and the 
settlers soon raised enough to supply themselves, and a surplus 
for coming emigrants. They were not molested by the Indians, 
as was so often the case with new settlements. Thej' had nothing 
to do but to go to work, open their farms, and receive a bountiful 
retui-n for their labor. In a small prairie near Delphi (now 
Manary's Addition), Mr. Manary raised 110 bushels of corn to the 
acre. The labor of the husbandman was boimtifiilly rewarded in 
the luxm-iant productions of the soil. In the opening of farms 
and in raising cabins, there was a union of effort and harmony of 
feeling, in which all joined. I have spent as many as four days 
in the week at log-rollings and cabin-raisings; have walked at the 
end of a handspike from morning till night, with some of the 
stoutest men in the county, or shoved up the end of a log after 
carrying it on a spike; always trying which end could beat. The 
'Hurrah! our end best!" or 'Up with yoiu- switch end!' would 
surely be heard at the pushing-up of every log. 

"I have experienced more real satisfaction and pleasure at log- 
rollings and house-raisings, in the first settlement of the county. 



than I ever have at any social party or gathering since. The 
social, friendly feeling which existed caused the work to appear , 
like play. Then the appetite which it created for the bounteous 
repast, prepared by the no less industrious matrons and their 
blooming and rosy-cheeked daughters, was a feast good enough 
for a king. 

" It is union of feeling and harmony of effort that form the 
basis of all true happiness. Such union and harmony then ex- 
isted to a fargi-eater extent than it has since; and there was more 
real happiness then than now. Then, there was harmony in 
schools, harmony in ehiu-ches, harmony in politics, harmony in all 
the social and domestic relations of society. Biit these fond recol- 
lections are among the things that were". That real, fr-iendly 
feeling which then manifested itself, in being interested in the 
welfare and prosperity of others, is now concentrated in a spirit 
of acquisitiveness and selfishness, prevented only from trespass- 
ing ujion the rights of others by legal restraints. Civil laws were j 
then unnecessary; now they are not sufficient to restrain the in- 
ordinate selfishness of society. Why the difference in the pri- 
mary and present condition of society ? Are the people any wiser 
or better now than they were then ? Or does the change in their 
social, civil and political relations render them any happier now 
than they were then ? 

" In the fall of each year, for a number of years, there was 
considerable sickness. My practice then jembraced the whole of 
the population north of the Wild Oat. I have often visited fam- 
ilies in which one was not able to give another a drink. In many '. 
instances, I have cooked for them, and left their medicine so that 
each one could get it and take it without distm-bing the others. ' 
I have often visited and prescribed for as many as fifty patients 
in a day, riding day and night. I charged ft-om $5 to 110. For 
like services a physician would now charge $50, and get his pay . 
I never calculated on getting more than half what I charged, and 
in one-half the cases I never charged anything. 

" In the first settlement of Oarroll County, the people lived as 
well, and suffered as few privations and hardships, as any new 

country that has ever been settled. They had all the substantial 
necessaries and many of the luxuries of life, such as sugar, coffee, 
tea, etc. Though they were deprived for a few years of apples, 
peaches and pears, they had plenty of wild fruit — crab-apples, 
plums, gi'apes, goosebeiTies, blackberries — and these were excel- 
lent I have gathered many a mess of blackberries where the 
court house, public squai-e, chm-ches, business houses and resi- 
dences now stand, in the town of Delphi. 

'• In conclusion, I will just say that no man labored more for 
Carroll County than Henry Robinson. He put up the first mill, 
at a time when it required more labor and capital than it would 
now, and the profits were not sufficient to keep up the repairs. 
His labor and money were appropriated more for the benefit of 
others than for himself. In establishing churches and schools, he 
was ever foremost. In giving a correct tone to moral and relig- 
ious sentiment, the influence of his e.iample was always on the 
side of virtue. He was a most indefatigable opponent of idleness 
and vice of every description, and hesitated not to reprove it 
whenever and wherever it came under his notice, regardless of 
the opinions or censm-es of men. Had all the old settlers labored 
as much for the benefit of Carroll County as did Father Robin- 
son, Delphi would have been a different town to what it is 

The late Dr. James H. Stewart, in his " Recollections of Car- 
roll County," states that: " In the spring of 1830, Delphi could 
boast of three stores ; Gavin Black, who kept where Anthony Foust 
has since held forth, in the blacksmith line; Judge Griffith, in a 
little frame across from the Mai'ket House; and Isaac Martin, on 
the lot occupied by Dewey and 0. E. Bolles. in a one-story frame, 
afterward removed down Franklin street and tm-ned into a pot- 
tery, and since owned by Kaufman. About the 1st of July, 

1830, McCarty & Morris opened a stock of goods in the house 
now owned by Spears, Case & Co., and formerly occupied byCapt 
Gist. In the spring of 1831, Robert C. Gist opened a store in 
the house on the corner above Bowen's brick, formerly occupied 
by Daniel B. Daggett as a cooper-shop." 




Preliminary Consider.4tions— Action of the Settlers To- 
ward THE Erection of a County Jurisdiction— Petition 
Prepared, Sk;ned and Sl'emitted to the Legi.slature — 
An Enabling Act Passed and Approved by the fiov- 
ERNOR— Order for a Spei'Ial Election for First On n i:i> 
—The Election — Vf)TERs Thereat —Officers CiinMN- 
County Orcjanized— Meetinc; and Report of Commi^-imn- 
ERS Appointed to Select Site for and Locate the 
County Seat, etc. 

DRAWN westward by the ciuTent of public opinion, and. 
charmed by the inducements held out, inviting settlement 
in this new and fertile region, pioneers fi'om the East and from 
the South — where the density of population afforded no opportu- 
nities for persons of small means to invest their stinted capital in 
landed estates of sufficient dimensions to justify the appropria- 
tion of their individual labor to the cultivation of the soil — and 
found pleasant homes with abundant opportunities for the exei'- 
cise of thrift on their own account, for the benefit of themselves 
and their families. Thus it was, that a little time -after the 
treaties of 1826, in which the Pottawatomies and Miamis parted 
with their rights to the soil of a portion of Carroll County, settlers 
were suflicieutly numerous to cause a movement to be inaugurated 
that would, in due time, culminate in the perfection of a county 

The resiilt of this early agitation was, that, a few weeks prior 
to the meeting of the Legislatiu-e, in December, 1827, the ques- 
tion having been thoroughly discussed, and hence definitely un- 
derstood, a petition, setting forth the wishes of this isolated peo- 
ple, and their desire to become vested with the rights of citizen- 
ship before the law, as guaranteed by the charter which should 
authorize the erection of a sepai-ate jm'isdiction, was fi-eely circu- 
lated and very generally signed. This petition was forwarded to 
the law-making Representatives of the people for their consid- 
eration and action. After brief legislation on -the subject matter 
of the petition, a bill was fi'amed embodying the distinctive feat- 
m'es essential in such an instrument, defining boundaries and 
providing for the perpetuity of its functions, and passed without 
delay, the Governor affixing his signatm'e in approval of its pro- 
visions, on the 7th day of Januai-y, 1828. These provisions can- 
not be more concisely set forth than in the language of the act 
itself, which reads as follows: 

.\N act for the formation CIF THK ( nr 

Sectio-N- 1. Beitenaetedhythe Geii, r.iJ Axx, u,l, 
That, from and after the 1st day of J[a> ii.xt. all 
of Waba-sh, contained within tiie following Ikhiih 
at the northwest corner of Township 24 north, R; 
ond Principal Meridian; thence south nine miles to the center of Town 
ship numbered 23; thence east seventeen miles to the western boundarj 
of the Great Miami Reservation; thence north, with said boundary, eight 
cen miles, to the center of Township numbered 211: tlieme west eighl 


'■flfie state of Indiana. 
lai part of the county 
■ics, to wit: Beginning 
ge 2 west, of the Sec- 

miles to the southeast corner of Section 16 [Township 26], Range 1 west; 
thence north, three miles, to the township line dividing Townships 26 and 
27; thence west thirteen miles to the section line dividing Sections 4 and 5, 
Range 3 west; thence south, with said section line, twelve miles, to the 
northern boundary of Tippecanoe County; thence east, four miles, to the 
place of beginning — shall form and constitute a county, to be known and 
desisn.ated by the name and title of Carroll, in honor of Charles Carroll, 
>f f'>in-ollton, the only surviviny signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
. /I. . , and the boundary line of the county of Tippecanoe, on the east and]. so far as it divides that county from the county of Carroll, is hereby 
established and to be deemed and taken as unalterable, unless by common 
consent of the boards authorized by law to transact county business, in 
the counties of Tippecanoe and Carroll, respectively. 

Sec. 2. The said new county shall, from and after the 1st day of April 
next, enjoy all the rights, privileges and jurisdiction, which^ to separate 
and independent counties, appertain. 

Sec 3. That Samuel Jessup, of Hendricks County, Asa B. Strong, of 
Marion County, Frederick Moore, of Montgomery County, Enos Lowe, of 
Putnam County, and Josiah Bryant, of Fountain County, are hereby 
appointed Commissioners for the purpose of fixing the seat of justice in 
said now county, agreeably to the provisions of an act entitled an act for 
fixing the seats of justice in all new counties thereafter to be laid off. The 
Commissioners above named, or a majority of them, shall convene at the 
house of Henry Robinson, in said new county, on tlie second Monda.v in 
May next, and shall proceed to discharge the duties assigned them by law. 

Sec 4. It shall be the duty of the Sheriff of Montgomei^' County to 
notify the Commissioners herein above named, either in person or by writ- 
ten notification of their appointment, on or before the 10th day of April 
next; and for such service the Board of Justices, or per.sons doing county 
business of the said new county, shall allow him a reasonable compensa- 
tion out of the county treasury thereof. 

Sec. 5. The Circuit and other courts of said new cotmty shall be held 
at the house of Daniel Baum, or at any other place therein, to which the 
said courts may ad,iourn, until suitable accommodation can be had at the 
seat of justice thereof, when the courts shall adjourn to meet at said 
county scat. 

Sec 6. The Agent who shall be appointed to superintend the sale of 
lots at the county seat of said new county of Carroll, shall reserve 10 per 
centum out of the proceeds thereof, and also 10 per centum out of all do- 
nations to said county, and shall pay the same over to such person or per- 
sons as may be appointed according to law, to receive the same for the use 
of a county library for said new county. 

Sec 7. It shall be the duty of the qualified voters of the county of 
Carroll, at the time of electing a Clerk, Recorder and Associate Judges, to 
elect three County Commissioners, agreeably to the provisions of an act 
entitled, " Xn -Vet tii establish a Board of County Commissioners," ap- 
proved. .Tanu ii> '■'■'• ]-:\ who, when elected and qualified, as prescribed 
by said I ' I I I I he powers, and perform all the duties prescribed 

by said a' ' ' I ', I lir ta'by revived, and to be deemed and taken as in 
full fon I . a- I. lah . [., -lid county of Carroll; and, also, said Board of 
C'ominissioutrs shall have all the powers and perform all the duties pre- 
scriljcd by law as relates to Boards of Justices in the several counties. 
Said Commissioners shall have power to hold special sessions, and to do 
and perform any duties required at any previous regular session. This 
act to take effect and be in force from and after the 1st day of April next. 

Pursuant to a notice issued by James B. Ray, Governor of the 
State of Indiana, attested by William AV. Wick, Secretary of State, 
an election was held, by the qualified voters of Can-oil County, 
for election of the necessary judicial and civil officers, to exercise 
the corporate powers of the people, for the time being, in per- 


fecting the organization 
April, 1828, and seventy 
1 Benjamiu Baxter. 

of the county, on Monday, the 28th of 
six votes were cast, as follows: 


John E. Metcalf, 


Moses StanU-v. 


William Carey, 


Moses ,Scott. 


Moses TuUis, 


Eli Cotner. 


Thomas Burk, 


Joseph McCain, 


William Price, 


James McDowell, 


.Teremiah Ballard, 


John Adams, 


William McCord. 


Henry Bingaman, 


Ahiier Robinson. 


Hugh Manary, 


Henry Robinson, 


John Kistler, 


Joseph Jackson, 


Isaac Griffith, 


David Hamilton, 


Daniel McCain, 

Richard Chabart, 


John Phillips, 


Thomas Hamilton, 


Peleg Babcock, 


Coleman Robinson, 


William Siers, 


Christopher McCombs, 


Daniel McCain, 


William Hues, 


Nathan Rose. 


Daniel F. Vandeventer, 


William Cummins. 


David McCombs, 


Jacob Baum. 


Stephen Miller, 


Aaron Hicks, 


Henry Baum, 


Jacob Underhill, 


Stephen Guile, 


William Hicks, 


John Crook, 


Graham Roberts, 


Nathaniel Hamilton, 


Daniel Baum, 


David Baum. ' 


.M..V.-S .\ll,lri.lL.T. 


John Mitchell, 


Samuel W.1I-, 


Moses Hicks, 


,I,ii,H M K«i„ii, 


John Surface, 


SanuKl .Miln,,, 


Maliurl MrCnmb.. 


Aiidnw .McCov. 


,lul,„ l.illlr. 


Thomas Stirlen, 


llrniT IS, Milroy, 


Thomas K. McCai, 


Jnlm Carey, 




John Jlixwell, 


William WIImiii 


George J. Baum, 


.b.liii liall.ard. 


Elisha Brown, 


James Udell. 


David Lucas, 


Isam Atkinson, 


Joshua Whistler, 




John Givens, 


Aaron Dewey. 

Ths foregoing seventy-six votes were cast for the following 
persons, for the offices named, to wit: For Associate Judge, 
Hem-y Robinson received 82 votes; Isaac Griffith, 65 votes, and 
Christopher McCombs, 42 votes; for Clerk and Recorder, John 
Carey received 9 votes; Daniel F. Vandeventer, 42 votes, and 
John M. Ewing, 22 votes; for County Commissioners, Jacob Baum 
received 47 votes; Thomas Stirlen, 30 votes: Daniel McCain, 
31 votes; Graham Roberts, 40 votes, and Aaron Hicks 44 votes. 

Upon canvassing the votes cast as above, Isaac Griffith and 
Cliristopher McCombs were declared duly elected Associate 
Judges for said county; Daniel F. Vandeventer, Clerk and Re- 
corder; and Jacob Baum, Aaron Hicks and Graham Roberts, 
County Commissioners for 'said county. Henry B. Milroy had 
previously been appointed by the Governor Sheriff of Carroll 
County, to serve as such until the next general election, on the 
first Monday in August, 1828. 

The first session of the Board of Commissioners for CaiToll 
County, as prescribed by the foregoing act of organization, met 
at the house of Daniel Baum, " at the hour of 1 1 o'clock, on Mon- 
day, the r2th day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and twenty-eight;" present, the Commissioners 
aforesaid. The following were the principal proceedings had on 
that day: 

Ordered, By the board that all that part of the County of Carroll ly- 
ing on the .southwest side of the Wabash River and south of the line divid- 
ing Townships 36 and 27, shall constitute one township, to be known and 
designated by the name of Tippecanoe township, and that the elections in 
said township be holden at the house of Thomas Hamilton. 

Ordered, That all that part of the County of Carroll southeast of tlie 
Wabash River, lying south of the north line of Section 16, Township 25 
north, constitute one township, to be known and designated by the name 
of Deer Creek Township, and that the elections in said township to be 
holden at the house of Daniel McCain. 

Ordered. That all the territory included in the following boundaries, 
to wit: Commencing where the north line of Section 16 crosses the Wa- 
bash River; thence east with said section line to the eastern boundarj^ of 
the Great Miami Reservation; thence north with said reservation line to 
the center of Township 26; thence west eight miles to the southeast corner 
of Section 16, Range 1 west; thence north, until said line strikes the River 
Wabash; thence down said river to the place of beginning— constitute one 
township, to be known and designated by the name of Rock Creek Town- 
ship, and that the elections in said township be holden at the house of 
Aaron Merriman. 

These three townshijis embraced the whole of the territory of 
Carroll County proper; but, the territory embraced in what is 
now Cass County, being then under the jm-isdiction of Carroll 
County, the board designated it by boundary and name, as fol- 
lows, to wit: 

Ordered, That the territory included in the following bounds, to wit: 
Commencing at the southeast corner of Section 16, Township 26, Range 1 
west; thence east with said section line to the eastern boundary of the 
Great Miami Reservation; thence north with said boundary line, and a line 
in continuation of the same to a point where such line will intersect the 
Indian boundary; tln'ii. r -i.utbw, -li i ly » illi the said boundary line to the 
center of Range 3 w. ~i ih-inr ~..\i]]i \\iili ihi- center line to the north 
boundary of Carroll ( imuiI) iliriin wiih the boundary of said county to 
the place of beginniii,i:—(Mii^iiiiiti' ,,ia inu nsliip, to be known and desig- 
nated by the name of llie Township of Eel, and that the elections in said 
township be held at the house of Alexander Chamberlain. 

As proceedings additional thereto, the following persons were 
appointed Inspectors of Elections in the several townships, the 
boundaries of which have just been defined: In Tippecanoe 
Township, Nathaniel Hamilton; in Deer Creek Township, AVill- 
iam G. Bishoi^; in Rock Creek Township, Isam Atkinson, and 
in Eel Township, Daniel Bell. It was also 

Ordered. That an election be holden in the several townsliips in said 
County of Carroll, at the places appointed for holding elections in the sev- 
eral townships, on Saturday, the 7th day of June next, for the purpose of 
electing one .Justice of the Peace within and for such township. 

Daniel Baum was, at the same time, appointed Treasurer of 
Carroll Coimty. and he filed bond in the penalty of S1,000, with 
Jacob Baum and "William G. Bishop, as sm-eties, who were ap- 
proved by the board. 

The following other apjjointments were made, to wit: Aaron 
Dewey, to be Assessor of the revenue of Carroll County, for the 
present year; Hem-y B. Milroy, Collector of the revenue of Car- 
roll County, for the present year, and he filed bond with Samuel 
Milroy and Aaron Dewey, as sureties, who were approved by the 
board; Thomas Robb was appointed Constable for the township 
of Eel; Andrew McCoy. Constable for Tippecanoe Townshij); 
David McCombs, Constable for Rock Creek Township; Joseph 
McCain, Constable for Deer Creek Townishiji; Daniel Bell and 
.John Hall were appointed Overseers of the Poor, and Alexander 
Chamberlain, William Scott and Lemuel Marsh, were apjiointed 
Fence Viewers, for the townshiji of Eel. 

David Hamilton and Nathan Rose were appointed Overseers 
of the Poor, and James Hamilton, Benjamin Baxter and John E. 
Metcalf, Fence Viewers, for Tijipecanoe Township. 

Samuel Wells and James Odell were appointed Overseers of 
the Poor, and William McCord, John (iivens and Thomas Stirlen 
Fence Viewers, for Deer Creek Township. 

James McDowell and John Crook were appointed Overseers 
of the Poor, and William Cummins, Henry Bingorman and David 
Lucas, Fence Viewers, for Rock Creek Township. 


" Isaac Griifith, having satisfied the board that his stock of 
merchandise does not exceed Sl.OOO; and, having produced the 
Treasurer's receipt for §10, he is permitted to vend foreign mer- 
chandise for twelve months from this date.'' 

This, in substance, comprised the business of the Board for 
the fii-st day. On the day following, " Daniel F. Vandeventer & 
Co., having satisfied the board that his stock of merchandise does 
not exceed §1,000; and, having produced the Treasurer's receipt 
for $10, he is permitted to vend foreign merchandise for twelve 
months from this date." Then "the board adjourned until to- 
moiTow morning at 11 o'clock." 

Wednesday, the third day, the board made the following rec- 
ord, to wit; 

Onhri'il, Tliat the Clerk be allowed for paper furnished for tlie use of 

Oi-'It-rt'J. That Graham Rohertsiie allowed, for three days' services, as 
Commissioner of Carroll County, $3.75. 

Ordered, That Aaron Hicks be allowed, for three days' services as 
County Commissioner, $3.75. 

Ordered, That Jacab Baum be allowed, for two days' services, as Com- 
missioner of Carroll County, $3.50. And the Board ad.iourned until the 
14th day of June next. 

This finished the business of the regular session.* However, 
on the 15th of May, the day following the close of the first regu- 
lar session, the board met, in special session, for the pm-pose of 
receiving the report of the Commissioners appointed by the Leg- 
islatm-e, to fix the county seat of Carroll Cotmty. Accordingly, 
on Thursday, which was the 15th day of May, 1828, Enos Lowe, 
Frederick Moore, Asa B. Strong, Samuel Jessup and Josiah Briant, 
the Commissioners appointed by the Legislattu-e, for the ptu-- 
pose designated, submitted to said board the following report of 
their action in the premises: 

To THE Honorable the Board of Coiintv ( ommi^^k.m ,;•; oi.- the 
County of Carroll— (?«»(temen..- The undei- 
pointed by the General Assembly of the Slate ..I 
justice of the County of Carroll, haviiii^ hh i .r' 
nated by the act establishing the coimi- i! m 
qualified, and having discharged the (.luii 
visions of an Act to establish the seals ni ju»un 

"i..ii,.rs ap- 

t.i li\ thrseatof 
and place desig- 
after being duly 
eable to the pro- 
■ounties, and the 

act amendatory thereto— do make this report, as required by the act afore- 
said, to the Board of County Commissioners of the county aforesaid. 

That we have established Ihe seat of iustice of the County of Carroll 

on a tract of land "f |"m :m i. - i» iiu :i |i m --i ih, n.-i i h.v . -i mi uiiTot Sec- 
tion 39 north, of.' . - I': ■■' ■ '-I ,,.| ,, InWUShip 

•25 north— the saiil 1'" : i ' , <(. .nation 

froraWilliam Wilson, ..! .,,hl , v , ,i^ -\ ill inii^ .,pi..,,,i '.,y his bond 

for a title, payable to Couutj- Cnmiuissiouers of said county, by which 
bond hereafter submitted, it will appear that said tract of laud of 100 
acres is bounded on, and to be taken parallel to the western line of the sec- 
tion aforesaid. The length, north and south, of said quarter-section, and 
to extend east for quantity, upon which tract of 100 acres we, the under- 
signed Commissioners, have and do hereby estalilish the seat of justice of 
said County of Carroll, to be known and designated by the name of Car- 

In testimony of the premises herein set fortli, we hav.' set our signa- 
tures this, the 15th day of May, A. D. 1838. 

Frederick Moure, 
Asa B. Struxo. 
S.AMUEL Jessup. 
Josiah Bri-\nt, 
Enos Lowe. 
Know all men bj these presents that I, 'William Wilson, of the Coun- 
ty of Cairoll and state of Indiana together with executors, administrators. 
1 a 1 1111 firmly bound unto the Board of County 

e CO nty after the pusgaee and approval of the Knahling 

\ nie of conversation mul Bpeciilalion, waa the locution of 

h posed one b.v William WiUon, another by Henrv Rohin- 

th d by Samuel Wells, allerward ihe site of West Del- 

Ph an a fll u n Bozar h be ng the tract upon which was laid 

Commissioners of the county and State aforesaid, and their successors in 
office, in the iieiial sum of $2,000, for the payment of which I bind myself, 
my e.vei iiiii- iiliniiii-ii iiims, heirs and assigns. Sealed with my seal, and 
dated tlii- I i Mi\,iu the year of our Lord one thousand eight 

humliv.l :i- .- ,: 

TIir,,„:,iiii nliuve obligation is as follows: Tlie above bound 

William Wilsuu lia., Ilii.^ ilay donaled l.. 111.- C.i.nilv ( 'Mnii,iw-i..ners of 
Carroll County for the permanent ui jii-ii. , ih, iv,,i ino ,,> r. . ,,f laud, 
being part of the northwest ijuarter .if S.riiMii jii ii,,iiii ,,| K.m-c -.Mvcst. 

ofthe Second Prin,i|.:iMrriHl!,-, 11, T..\Mi~ln[i ri i-. •! '■ ' '. .iiuai-.I 

as follows: Beginnin- :ii iIm' -mimIiui-i i,.iiii' t -. rii.ui: 

thence east 100 rod--: I hriir.. iiMi 111 ih .,, i.i.. i: ., ' > ,. i, - , m i-pi 
what shall be found ^..uihof ihr .nrk: in «liii|i Imi •■! -i. iiMii ilir -,ii,l 
William Wilson is to make a good and sufficient deed in fee simplest hen 
the above obligation to be null and void — otherwise remain in full force 
and virtue in equity and law. 

The above donation, the aforesaid William Wilson makes without any 
reservation whatever, except the crops of the present .sea.son, now growing 
on said lot of ground. The rails also e.xcepted. 

[Seal.] William Wilson. 

Signed in presence of Isaac Griffith and Samuel Milroy. 

And the board adjourned until Saturday, the 24th instant. 




Some Subsequent Proceedinc 


OF THE Board, etc. 

ONE of the motives which induced the Commissioners appoint, 
ed to locate the seat of justice of Carroll County, to name 
the place Carrollton, appears to have been, that, inasmuch as the 
county had been named Carroll, in honor of Chai-les CaiToll, a 
delegate from the State of Maiyland, who signed the Declai'ation 
of Independence, and to fix, immistakably, the identity of the 
signer, in case of being called to account for his temerity in at- 
taching his name to that instrument, wrote it. Charles CtuToll, of 
Carrollton" — it would be eminently appropriate and significant to 
call the seat of justice of this county after the name of his place 
of residence. Whatever the motive may have been, there was a 
seeming propriety in it, and, in the course of time, would have 
been satisfactory. Notwithstanding these circumstances, how- 
ever, the result established the fact that men difier in their opin- 
ions, and those differences generally conduce to changes of base, 
though less generally in changes of name also. From the day 
when the Commissioners made their report, there was a general 
mm-mur of dissent among the ofiicers and people of the county, 
and the dissatisfaction took form in causing a special session of 
the Board of County Commissioners to be called for the pm-pose 
of taking into consideration and disposing of the question that 
seemed to agitate the public mind. Accordingly, piu'suant to a 
call for that piu'pose, the board met, all the Commissioners being 
present, at the house of Daniel Baum, on Saturday, May 24, 1828, 
at which time it was " Ordered, that the seat of justice of the 
coimty of CaiToll be known and designated by the name of Del- 
phi," and has since retained that name, so far as now appears, 
without dissent. "The name Delphi," says Dr. Stewart, in his 
Recollections of Carroll County, " was suggested by Gen. Milroy, 
One tlay when they were discussing what name should be given 
to the new county seat, he handed them a slip of paper on which 



several names were written, Delphi, among others, and that was 
the name selected." This information is somewhat indefinite, 
since the refei-enee to the Commissioners, to whom the paper, with 
the name of Delphi written upon it, was handed, does not define 
whether it was the Commissioners appointed to locate the county 
seat, who, during the progress of examination of proposed sites, 
were, much of the time, guests of Gen. Milroy, and consulted fre^ 
ly with him on all the questions pertaining to the location and 
name of the site selected, or the Commissioners composing the 
County Board, who, after the selection had been made, and the 
designating title determined, suppressed the name of Carrollton, 
and called the place Delphi. It does not seem probable that the 
Commissioners referred to were the locating Commissioners, for 
they did not select Delphi, but Carrollton; nor is it now impor- 
tant. At the same session (May 24) the board 

Ordered. That Samuel Milroy be and is hereby appointed Agent of tlie 
county of Carroll, and, that Isaac Griiflth and Daniel Baum are approved 
of as his sureties. 

Ordered, Also, that three streets in Delphi, on the south side, running 
east and west, and two streets, one on the east, the other on the west side 
of the public square, running north and south, be ninety feet in widtli, all 
other streets in said town eighty feet; alley.s, twelve feet; each lot to con- 
tain one-fourth acre. 

Ordered. That tin- >al Im- in Drlphi 1„. .,ii ili,. m',-mu.1 Mumhiy in 

August next, and thai ili-' A^'tii i- :iinli<H i/id in 's\\< iii.iirr ol tin- ^anie 

in the Indiniut Jmirmil. I'l rrr llanic I!>;list. r :ilul :i papri' ,il Daylcjn- 

Ordn-rd. Tlial tlic i .anlii i.,ii, of thu sale 111' liiU in Uflphi ^liall be as 

follow-, lo wii (Mir I Ill of the pui'chase money in hand, the residue 

i], tlir a|iial aimiial iii-iallincnts.. The Board authorizes the Agent to 

i;-ivr nil iliaiii. - >\liii will liironie actual .settlers in tin- (own of Delphi, 

anil I II I. ill .1 I 'I laiilr 1 1 \M 'I ling-house therein, noi Ii -- i lim i i^liirm feet 

,vii|. : ■ ■. ' I ' lull-, oni' and a half storii- '., , ■ in .-.I logs, 
fi-ani. !■ ' I I lirirk or stone chimney anil a l !■. ' wilhin 

one uai lioiii 111. .,.ilf of lots in said town of Delphi, "in l-i in my lacrt of 
the town they may uhouse, except on Front street, or aiouiiil Ihe public 

At the special session, held on the 15th of May, the boai-d 
made allowances to the Commissioners who fixed the seat of jus- 
tice for the county, as follows; To Samuel Jessup, for nine and 
a half days' services, §28.50; to Josiah Briant, for six days' serv- 
ices, $18; to Frederick Moore, for seven days' services, 121; to 
Asa B. Strong, for ten days' services, $30, and to Enos Lowe, for 
nine and a half days' services, in fixing the county-seat of Carroll 
County, the sum of $28.50; in all, the sum of 1126. 

On the 11th of June of the same year, a further special session 
of the board was held, at the house of Daniel Baum, fur the pur- 
pose of receiving and making a tax-list. At that session the rate 
of taxation was fixed as follows: 

Ordered. Tliai a" rniN hr l.viril on lanh |ioll for roiiiily 

Cyrus Tallin' | in ilir noMi-liiii ol l'.i'l|, lia\ inn -aiiMinl Ihe Board that 
his stock of foivi.^n nn ivhamli^r ilor, noi rxrinl SI. 111)11, aiid, having pro- 
duced the Treasurer's leeeipt fur $1U, lUe liuuid lieeiises the said Cyrus 
Taher to vend merchandise in this State tor one year from the first day of 
June, A. D. 1838. 

Ordered. Also, that all that part of Tippecanoe Towii.ship, lying and 
linini III oi ilii I I lion line dividing Sections 2(i ami '.'r, hr allac-lied to 


for Rock Creek T. 


Pursuant to the notice ordered to be given for the sale of lots 
in the town of Delphi, on the 11th of August, 1828, the agent 
held the sale on that day, but the public interest, it seems, was 
not sufficiently aroused, and but few lots were sold — chiefly to 
persons who were actual settlers, or were intending to become 
such. In this instance, the prospects were not as flattering as 
might have been desired; it was determined, however, to have 

other sales, from time to time, as the future outlook might encoirr- 
age. In the meantime, citizens were not idle, but induced by the 
promptings of self-preservation and a determination to succeed by 
individual effort; improvements, prompted by a desire to become 
comfortable in their own homes, were made by the purchasers of 
the lots in to-wn at the recent sale. Thus, -while the interest in 
the future of the new seat of justice, was not great externally, 
internally, the people, by their own efforts, kept in motion the 
wheels of progi-ess, and the developments of the past half century 
are now visible. 



Attorneys— CojiMissioNS Presented and Officers Sworn— 
RESfME OF the Business and Proceedings- Probate Court 
OF Carroll County— Officers Present at Session- 
Proceedings OF THE Session— First Grand and Petit 
Juries and Jurors in the Circuit Court— Incidents, etc. 

DURING the progress of events that led to the full and per- 
fect organization of the county, in its legislative and civil 
functions, judicial powers were necessai-y to the protection and 
well-being of the people. The organization of the Carroll Circuit 
Court was one of the first steps toward the completion of the or- 
ganic system of the county, and gave character to the proceedings 
subsequently had in the administration of county aft'airs. In ac- 
cordance with the provisions of the Enabling Act, all coiu'ts were 
directed to be held at the house of Daniel Baum, or at any other 
place in the county, " to which the courts may adjourn until 
suitable accommodations can be had at the seat of justice thereof, 
when the com-ts shall adjourn to meet at said county seat." Pur- 
suant to that provision, the said Carroll Circuit Court was begun 
and held at the house of Daniel Baum, in said county, commenc- 
ing on Thursday, the 8th day of May, 1828. Hon. Bethuel F. 
Morris, President Judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit of the State 
of Indiana, which embraced Carroll County, was present and pre- 
sided, acting under a commission from William Hendi'ioks, Gov- 
ernor, bearing date, January 20, 1825, upon which was indorsed 
a certificate that he had subscribed and taken the oath required 
by law. The Associates, or County Judges, present, were Isaac 
Griffith and Christopher McCombs, who also produced their com- 
missions, dated May 8, 1828, to whom the necessary oath was ad- 
ministered, by Judge Morris, and thereupon they entered upon 
the dischai-ge of their duties. At the same time, Henry B. Mil- 
roy produced his commission as Sheriff, issued by J. Brown Bay, 
Governor, on the 4th day of February, 1828, with the oath sub- 
scribed and taken by him before Beubeu Kelsey, a Justice of the 
Peace of Tippecanoe County, on the 6th of March of the same 
year. The Clerk, Daniel F. Vandeventer, presented his commis- 
sion, also, for a term of seven years fi-om the 8th day of May, 
1828, when the oath of office was administered to him, by Judge 
Morris, and he entered upon the dischai'ge of duties appertaining 
to his office, having filed bond in the penalty of $2,500 with Dan- 
iel Baum and George J. Baum, as sureties, Aaron Dewey and 
William Wilson being witnesses. The bond had been accepted 
and approved according to law, at the time of its execution and 

James Rariden, Septimus Smith, William Quarles and An- 
drew Ingram appeared, and, on motion, were admitted, sworn and 



The subject of this biographical sketch was the second son of Daniel 
and Adaline Gould, and was born in Ballston Spa, Saratoga Co., N. Y., 
December 17, 1836. His parents were plain, hard-working people, 
pursuing the very honorable but laborious vocation of farming. In the 
spring of 1837, the family moved to the State of Ohio, and located near 
Richwood Post OfiBce in Union County. The settlement was made in 
a section of the State where the ancient forests, then scarcely disturbed 
by the woodman's ax, necessitated a vast amount of arduous toil in de- 
veloping a home which might be deemed comfortable even in pioneer 
life. To the task of making a home, Daniel Gould and his sons, as they 
grew up, bent every energy. 

Until sixteen years of age, Mr. Gould remained with his father on 
the farm aiding in clearing the land and improving the homestead. 
His early educational advantages were limited to the instructions of a 
private tutor, who was employed by the pioneers 'of the neighborhood. 
But later, as the settlement grew, he had the advantages of the common 
school and the academy. During vacations, he left the " groves of the 
academy " and aided his father among " the groves " of the farm. At 
the expiration of his academic course of instruction, he began the study 
of law in the office of the late Hon. Samuel Galloway, of Columbus, 
Ohio, under whose care he prepared himself for admission to the bar. 
During this preparation, his limited means compelled him to spend the 
winter months in teaching. In 1857, he came to Carroll County and 
taught the winter school in Camden. In the spring of 1858, he came 
to Delphi and at once engaged in the practice of law. At the break- 
ing-out of the war, his practice had become extensive and correspond- 
ingly lucrative, and there were visible gleams of the silver lining to the 

clouds which thus far had shadowed his life. But the clouds of poverty 
were to be supplanted by the clouds of civil war. At the first call of 
the President for volunteers, he promptly responded by enlisting in 
Company A, Ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry. He was elected and 
commissioned as First Lieutenant of the Company. He served with 
the regiment during the West Virginia campaign, participating in the 
engagements at Philippi, Laurel Hill and Carrick's Ford. Returning 
home, he raised a company for the Forty-sixth Indiana Infantry, and 
was in the organization commissioned as Captain of Company A. The 
regiment served first in Kentucky and Missouri, and participated in the 
engagements at Island No. 10, New Madrid, Riddle's Point, Fort Pil- 
low, and at the capture of Memphis June 6, 1862. As soon as the city 
was occupied by the Federal troops, his commanding General assigned 
him to special duty as Provost Marshal. He was promoted successively 
to the rank of Major and Lieutenant Colonel of his regiment. By rea- 
son of ill health, he resigned February 9, 1863, and returned to his 
home. After regaining his health, he re-entered the service as Lieuten- 
ant Colonel of the One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Indiana Volunteer In- 
fantry, where he continued until the expiration of the service. He then 
returned to Delphi and resumed the practice of law, in which he was 
highly successful. In 1876, he was elected Judge of the Thirty-ninth 
Judicial Circuit, then composed of the counties of Carroll, White and 
Pulaski. On the bench, as at the bar, he has maintained an unim- 
peachable reputation for integrity, and, in his knowledge of the law, 
ranks with the foremost of the State. 

November 12, 1866, he was united in marriage to Miss Mary E. 
Robertson of this city. An interesting little daughter, Eva, is the only 
child now living. The venerable parents of Judge Gould are spending 
their declining years near Argos, Ind. 



enrolled as attorneys at the bar of the Carroll Circuit Court. The 
process of organization having been completed, as the first steps in 
the order of business, Jacob Kuns, by his attorney. James Rari- 
den, filed a petition, asking to be appointed guardian of Rosaniia 
Heistand. The prayer of the petitioner was granted, and, having 
first filed bond with Samuel Milroy, William Wilson and Daniel 
Baum, as sureties, which was approved by tln' court, he ti>ok the 
oath prescribed by law in such cases. 

After adopting a seal, which was ordered to be a '-circular 
scrawl, with the words, Cai'roll County Seal inserted therein," the 
court adjom-ned until the next regular term, all the business be- 
fore the court for its consideration having been disposed of. 

Let the reader now turn, for a time, to examine what was 
being done in the judicial department of om- county's history, 
during the period when the events before recited were in prog- 
ress. At the time when the settlers were employed — some in 
traveling over the country, seeking eligible homes, others were 
employed in erecting cabins, felling the forest trees, inclosing 
their nan-ow acres, cultivating the bosom of mother earth, that 
the sun's genial warmth might quicken the harvest time, or- 
ganizing churches, opening schools and drawing around them the 
facilities which go tar toward the promotion of the public good. 
Within the past year, steps had been taken for the advancement 
of the civil and political well-being of the people of Carroll Coun- 
ty. The organization of the county had been consummated, the 
judiciary extended and privileges guaranteed with a view to the 
protection of the people and their diversified interests. The Cir- 
cuit Cotu-t had been established, as we have just seen, and all the 
functions of civil government in this jurisdiction had been put in 
operation, and were doing their legitimate work. Then, as now, 
the Grand Jiu'ors were selected by the Board of Coiinty Commis- 
sioners, at their spring session, for the spring and fall terms of 
the Circuit Coui't. At the first term, however, the court being 
then just organized, a Grand Jury was not required, consequent- 
ly the Board of County Commissioners, not meeting until after 
the tenn of court had passed, the selection made at the spring 
session of the board, was of Grand Jurors to serve as such dur- 
ing the November term, 1 82.S, and the May term. 1 829. The per- 
sons selected to serve dm-ing the November term. 182S, were Ben- 
jamin Baxter, Robert Cade, John Ballai-d, Moses Thompson, 
Joseph McCain, Thomas Stirlen, David Harter, James Clarke, 
Jacob Baum, Christian Simons. Alexander Siers. William Cum- 
mins, John Mitchell. David Hamilton, John Scott, Richard Cha- 
bart, Jacob Sagai' and William Siers. 

At the same session, the following persons were selected to 
serve as Petit Jui'ors, dui'ing the November term, 1828, to wit: 
Alexander Scott, Eli Cotner, Isaac Martin. William McCord, 
Thomas R. McCain, John Hall, Nathaniel Hamilton. Moses Ald- 
ridge, Samuel Wells, James Odell, David Baum, Jeremiah Bal- 
lard. Manuel McCombs, Josejih Jackson. David Lucas, Moses 
Standley, James Miller, Daniel Bell. Graham Roberts. AVilliam 
Hughes, Aaron Dewey, Jacob Clester. Daniel Baum and Hem-y 

To serve as Grand Jurors at the May term, 182VI, the follow- 
ing persons were selected by the board, to wit: John Mikesell, 
Daniel Kuns, Stephen Miller, Daniel McCain. Jr., Ii-a Bacon, 
Joseph Beckuer, Lewis Nelf, John Bozai-th, John S. Metcalf, Dan- 
iel McCain, Hugh B. McKeen. John Odell, John Carey, John 
Little, Geo. J. Baum. Thos. Birk. Geo. Moyer and John Moyer. 

And the following persons were selected to serve as Petit 
Jurors during the same term, te wit: John Phillips, James Cum- 

mons, Samuel Wise, John Adams, John Chilson, John Kistler, 
Samuel Milroy, Martin Kee, Elisha Brown, James Hood, Jacob 
Kuns. Jacob Woodcock, Lemuel Marsh, Aaron Hicks, James Mc- 
Cain, William Wilson, John Kuns, Nathan Rose, Frederick 
Hoover. William G. Bishop. Alexander Chamberlain. John Giv- 
ens, AaroQ Men'iman and James McDowell. 

The November term, 1828, of the Carroll Circuit Com-t was 
begun and held at the house of Daniel Baum, as before, com- 
mencing on Thursday, November (). The court officers present 
were Hons. Isaac Griffith and Christopher McCombs, Associate 
Judges, the Presiding Judge being absent; Daniel F. VanJeven- 
ter. Clerk, and Hemy B. Milroy, Sheriff. In addition to the at- 
torneys admitted and practicing in this court at the May term, 
Joseph Tatman and David Patten were admitted at the Novem- 
ber term. The first case submitted at this term, and the first civil 
case submitted and disposed of, since the organization of the 
court, was one in which " Chai'lotteEwing, executrix of the estate 
of Alexander Ewing, deceased," was plaintiff, and " Joseph Bar- 
ron and Joseph Holeman" were defendants in an action of " Tres- 
pass on the case upon promises." The case being called, the de- 
fendants did not appear to the action and tile an answer or de- 
murrer thereto, as commanded by the notice of the plaintiffs, but 
made default, wherefore the allegations of the complaint were 
taken as confessed and true, and damages were adjudged against 
them in favor of the plaintiff, tor S189.2I, and costs of suit. The 
second case was one against Henry Robinson, in favor of Alexan- 
der Grimes, assignee of Jesse Clarke, in an action of debt. 
These two cases were the only ones adjudicated upon at that 
tei-m, which occupied but one day. The business being disposed 
of, com-t adjourned until court in course. During the tei-m, how- 
ever, the Grand Jury selected as aforesaid, was summoned, and 
in attendance, but, there being no business for them to inquire 
into, they were discharged and allowed for one day's service. 

On Monday, the llth day of May, 1829, the Probate Coui-t of 
CaiToU County commenced its first session, all business of a pro- 
bate nature presented for consideration having been disposed of 
in the Circuit Court. This court, also, held its session at the 
house of Daniel Baum, at which Hons. Isaac Griffith and Chris- 
topher McCombs, Associate Judges of the Circuit Com-t, who, by 
virtue of their position, were authorized to transact probate busi- 
ness, in the absence of a Probate Judge. Their first business was 
to approve and confu-m the letters of administration before that 
time issued by the Clerk, on the estate of Francis Lafountain, 
late of said ooimty, deceased, and the bond of said administrator, 
including all the vacation acts of the Clerk in that behalf. Their 
second act was to grant letters of administration to Elizabeth 
McCombs, on the estate of Manuel McCombs, deceased; and the 
third, to appoint John Orell guardian of the persons and effects 
of Sarah Angell, Samuel Angell, Ruth Angell, Charles Angell and 
Mary Angell, minor childi-en and heirs at law of Benjamin D. 
Angell, then late of Carroll Coimty, deceased. With these brief 
proceedings, the first session of the Probate Court of Cai-roll 
County was closed. 

As has been ah-eady noticed, Andi-ew Ingram, afterward 
Judge, was a practicing attorney in the com-ts of this county. 
The following incident, which he relates of himself, occurred just 
before the commencement of the November term, 1828, of the 
Carroll Circuit Court, when he was on his way to the county seat 
to attend its session. In his route thither, he got lost in the 
woods, below Delphi, some seven or eight miles, when, after wan- 
dering about for some time, night overtook him. There being 




no ti'ack save the Indiau trace, he was compelled to make his 
way, without compass or chart, as best he could, for several hours 
— how long, he scarcely knew — sometimes having to feel for the 
path, to ascertain whether he was on the right track. At length, 
hearing a dog bark somewhere in the neighborhood, he made his 
way in the direction whence the sound came, which led him to 
the house of William McCord. By that time it was midnight, or 
after, and he vpas well-nigh exhausted. He was received, how- 
ever, with the characteristic hospitality of the times, and comfort- 
ably entertained during the remainder of the night, which, under 
the circiunstances, amply compensated him for the annoyance 
and discomfiture of his evening's ramble. In the morning, after 
partaking of a refreshiag meal, he proceeded on his way to the 
place of holding court, without fui-ther serious impediment This 
incident will serve, also, to caiTy back the memories of the rem- 
nant of the primitive settlers who still survive, to the times when 
roads were anomalous, and the Indian trail afforded almost the 
only guide to tlie traveler passing through fi-om one settlement 
to another, with the attendant contingencies thereof. -Some of 
the attorneys, especially those who came a long distance to at- 
tend court, had, necessarily, to travel under a great many disad- 
vantages, and be subject to numerous inconveniences, in the way 
of warm dinners, very often getting no dinner at all, and travel- 
ing many miles during the day, being compelled, oftentimes, to 
lay out all night. It was requisite, therefore, that all should go 
prepared to encounter such emergencies. 

.Tudge Ingram relates a case in point. He and .James Rari- 
den, of Wayne County, afterward a member of Congress from his 
district, laid out one night, some six or seven miles above Logans- 
port, while on one of those expeditions to attend on distant 
coiu'ts, and that Mr. Rariden was provided with a tin cup and 
with venison; that they struck fire from a flint, lighting a piece 
of "punk;" got some spice-wood and other fuel, which furnished 
a sufficiency of heat to cook their provisions and to keep them- 
selves comfortable. They slept during the night without waking, 
scarcely dreaming, except of rattlesnakes, which were abundant 
in the spring season, liut they were not molested nor made other- 
wise afraid. 


FiusT General Election Held in the County— The Result 
—First Election for President and Vice President — An 


Granted to Samuel MiCr.rr.i: ami to Walker, Carter & 
Co. TO Sell Foreign— II. B. McKeen to Keep 
Ferrie-s- Bounties for Wolf Scalps— Changes of Town- 
ship B0UNDARIE.S, E.stabi.ishing Corners, etc. 

PRIOR to the adoption of the present State Constitution, in 
] fS52, the day fixed for holding general elections thi'ough- 
out the State, was the first Monday in August, of each year, and 
was known as the August election, to distinguish it from the 
Spring election, held in April, for choosing townshi[) and other 
local officers. The organization of the county having taken place 
in the early part of the year 1828, it was some time in ;idvance 
of the stated jjeriod for the selection of permanent officere, other 
than those required by the provisions of the organizing act itself. 
Accordingly, the first general election held in Carroll County was 
on the first Monday, being the 4th day of August, 1828, at the 
several precinets or voting places in the county. The result of 

that election was as follows: For Governor, Israel T. Canby, re- 
ceived 25 votes; James B. Ray, 4 votes; and Harbin H. Moore, 
27 votes; for Lieutenant Governor, Abel C. Pepper received 28 
votes; and Milton Stapp, 28 votes; for Congress, Ratlifl' Booti 
(Jackson) received 2<) votes; and Thomas H. Blake (Adams), 28 
votes; for Sheriff, Henry B. Milroy received 33 votes; and Ste- 
phen Miller. 20 votes: for Coroner. Benjamin Baxter received 15 
votes; and Robert Cade, 1 vote. At the same time, in compli- 
ance with the provisions of an act of the Legislature, at the ses- 
sion of 1827 and 1828, the sense of the people was taken for and 
against calling a convention to revise and amend the constitution 
of the State; that sense was expressed by the people of Carroll 
County, in a vote of nine for and forty-four against, such a con- 
vention. This vote does not include the vote on that question by 
the people of the township of Bel, because it was not, except fur 
jurisdiction, a part of Carroll County. 

At the election held at the several precincts of the county, in- 
cluding the township of Eel. on the 3d day of November, 1828, 
for the choice of Electors for President and Vice President of the 
United States, there were, in the aggregate, 185 votes cast, as fol- 
lows: For (Adams) Electors, Joseph Orr, John Watts, Joseph 
Bartholomew, Isaac Montgomery and Amaziah Morgan, received, 
respectively, in Deer Creek Township, 21 votes; Rock Creek, 7 
votes; Tippecanoe, 14 votes; and in the townshi]) of Eel, 31 
votes; total, 73 votes. For (Jackson) Electors, Benjamin E. 
Beckes, Ratliff Boon, Jesse B. Durham, William Ijow and Ross 
Smiley, received, respectively, in Deer Creek Township, 27 votes; 
in Rock Creek, 17 votes; Tippecanoe, 3 votes; and in the town- 
ship of Eel, (55 votes; total, 112, a majority of 39 votes. 

At a session of the Board of County Commissioners, on the 
11th of August, 1828, the following, among other jiroceedings, 
were had : " Samuel McClure, having satisfied the board that his 
stock of mi^rchaudise does not exceed 11,000, and, having pro- 
duced the Treasurer's receipt for $10, the board licenses the said 
Samuel McChu-e to vend merchandise for one year fiom the 1st 
day of September next." On the second day of the same session, 
another license was granted in these words, to wit: "Hugh B. 
McKeen, having given notice, as the law requires, and, having 
produced the Treasiu-er's receipt for $2.50, which sum the board 
established as his rates thereon, the board authorizes and licenses 
the said McKeen to keep a public feiTy across the Wabash River, 
at the town of Logansport, for one yeai' from this date." On the 
same day, they made the following further order, t« wit: " Hugh B. 
McKeen, having given notice, as the law requires, and. having 
produced the Treasurer's receipt for $2.50. which the board es- 
tablished as his rate, thereupon the board authorizes the said H. 
B. McKeen to keep a ferry across Eel River, at the town of Lo- 
gansport, for one yeiu- from this date." 

At the same time, the board granted the following license to 
vend foreign merchandise, to wit: "Walker. Carter & Co., hav- 
ing satisfied the boai-d that their stock of merchandise does not 
exceed $1,000, and, having produced the Treasurer's receipt for 
$10, the board licenses the aforesaid Walker, Carter & Co. to 
vend merchandise in this State for one year fimn the rJth day of 
August, 1828." 

On the firet day of the t«rm, November II. IM'.S. (lie follow 
ing other order was made: 

Ordmd. Thiit William Wilson ri'i-.-iv,. ,.IT il.r n.,rx\u.,^\ 1 nni.r ..1 iln 
(limutioii for Uic town of Delphi, four ncn-s. Uvu (|iiiiili r-, ■.\m\ iw.iiiy Iwn 
rods of ground, tlu- west line running punillel witli ilir lou it pint - in r.\ 
clmngc for the like quantity of ground, for a piililir ;;ravi' Viinl, in llii- 
northeast corner of the land the said Wilson ImuL'lii i4 lliniv Huliiii-inii 



39, Township 

Among the other prooendings of the board at that term, Aaron 
Dewey, having been employed to survey and lay off the town of 
Delphi, into lots, streets and alleys, and locate the public square, 
he was allowed the sum of $10 for the service. It was fiu-ther 
" ordered, that a permanent corner be made at the southwest cor- 
ner of Lot No. 1, and at the northeast corner of Lot No. 63, in 
Delphi," as a means of accurately determiui ig. iu the future, the 
true lines of lots, streets and alleys, in said town. 

The following change of boundary, from that originally pre- 
scribed for the townships designated, was ordered to be made at 
the session of the Board held on the 'Jth day of February, 1829: 

~ Ordered, Thnt oiif tier of si-ctiouss be livken off I lie soutli side of the 
townsliip of Rock Creek, and be tittaciied to the township of Deer Creek. 

It was also ordered, that, in the future, elections in Deer 
Creek Township, be held at the schoolhouse, in Delphi. At the 
same session it was ordered that a fi'ame building be erected in 
the town of Delphi, on the public square, twenty-two feet wide 
and twenty-eight feet long, for a Clerk and Recorder's office, 
" the Clerk to occupy the front room in said building, for a store- 
room, by paying a reasonable rent." This, it is believed, was the 
first public building erected in Delphi, for the use of a county 

The County Board, at its session of May 11, 1829, directed as 

Ordered, That any person holding a certificate for a wolf's scalp taken 
from the large kind of wolves, and taken within tlie bonnds of Carroll 
County, tor a full ,?rnwn wnlf [will lie .illowe.ll 50 rent-^, anil -.mj one un- 
der six months old. 'J."i (■.■nis— 1.1 lir paid .ml ..I" lli.> {'..iiiity Ti-.,isiiry. 

Ordered, That .\ar..n D.w, y liav.> r..i' a lai.k-va.-.l all ih.' n'nnuids 
southwardly "f Hi.' I..uii l,.i- il.r .ai.l l).■^^.■^ ,,«m. mi |i. l|.|ii, aii.l full 
width of sai.ll..uniniiiii- -. ..n I; v ,.i . M . ... ., , -...|-.. ,,i I ,• ('iv..k. 

the 1 

materials, at 

in said town— when required. 

It was also ordered that a capitation tax of 50 cents be assessed 
and collected on each poll — for county pm-jioses. 

Afterward, at a session of the Board, held on the 10th of 
August, 1829, the following, among other proceedings, were had, 
to wit: 

Ordered, That the agent establish a permanent corner as by law di- 
rected, at the southwest corner of the public square, and, also, a perma- 
nent corner at the southeast corner of the public square, in the town of 
Delphi; and, that the order heretofore made, at the November session, 
1828, requiring permanent corners to be established, be and the same is 
hereby revoked. 

Ordered, Also, that the agent immediately take the necessary steps to 
procure a sufficient deed for that part of the donation which has not yet 
been deeded to the county, and that he survey the land proposed to be ex- 
changed with William Wilson, for a burying-ground, and take the neces- 
sary steps to complete said exchange. 

At the same session of the board, the County Agent was 
directed to let out the building of the jail in contemplation, with 
specific instructions as to the plan, materials, etc. By a subse- 
quent order, however, made at a special meeting, on the 2r)th of 
September, the plan of construction was changed as to size and 
form. Among the proceedings of the same special session, at 
which the change of plan in the construction of the jail building, 
the order before made, for the erection of a Clerk and Recorder's 
office, was also materially changed, and the Agent was further 
directed to give notice to contractors for proposals to construct 
both said buildings, pursuant to which notice a letting was to 

take place, " to the lowest bidder, the undertaker to be bound to 
have the building completed by the 1st of Mai'ch, the Agent to 
pay one-third the amount when the frame is raised." 

Oq the 10th of May, 1830, the propriety of a public well hav- 
ing been ]irevicnis]y discusse.l and determined upon, it was 

Orihr..i. Tl.,.! . |i.jiil.. v. II li. .lug in the public .square in Delphi, 50 
feet smith .il 111. .Ill I ..I li.l inari-; and the Board order $40 to be paid 

out of lb.- iii.iiii. - aii-N.- II. . sale of the lots in Delphi, the said $40 

to be refunded ..111 ..I ih. . ..uiiiy revenue, when the same is wanted to 
build a Court H.m^. a... I William Gray be appointed to superintend 
the digging of tlif sai...\ aa.l ili.ii be make use of any timber on the dona- 
tion that may lie waiilc.l Im llu- same. 

At the session on the 8th of November following, the"" former 
order, offering a bounty for wolf -scalps, was "revoked and re- 


Indian Teails— Their Early Utilizath in v.\ iiii M'iiite Peo- 
ple— Modified— Neighborhood 1!iiai.~ ^ii;~MrirKD for 
Them— County and State Roads— Iiii, ik ( '..x^i i:riTioN— 
CoRDURov and Graded Roadway.s— .Mis._i:i.lax\ 


A MONG the Indians, as among all other people, whether sav- 
age or civilized, there were accepted routes of travel estab- 
lished by common consent. Of these there were dift'eront grades, 
depending upon the importance of the points connected and their 
distance from each other, and whether the inter-route stations 
were of sufficient consequence to justify modifications. The 
trails, one and all, were not so much the outgrowth of legisla- 
tion, by councils of chiefs and head men, or a commission of engi- 
neers and road-builders, as by common consent and established 
by immemorial usage. They became, thus, fixed thoroughfares, 
connecting special points of greater with those of less consequence, 
and the reverse. The principal trails derived their specialty 
from the tribe- value of the great center of communication — much 
after the methods adopted and practiced by white people. Some 
of them, even, became international, being accepited and recog- 
nized by other tribes and nations, because of their adaptation to 
the purposes of general intercourse. In this county, those gen- 
eral trails were not numerous, neither were those of minor conse- 
quence frequently to be found. There was a trail of somewhat 
special importance, extending along near the eastern boundary of 
the county, in the route from the principal village of the Thorn- 
town Indians, in the direction of Winamac's village, with 
branches connecting it with towns lower down on the Tippecanoe, 
and another rumiing up and down along the right bank of the 
Wabash, and still another in the western part of the county, con- 
necting, perhaps, Thorntown with the vi llages farther to the north 
or west, or forming a junction with the great trail that passed 
to the eastward of Monticello, in the direction of Chicago. Be- 
sides these, there were, of course, by-paths of less use, connecting 
smaller villages and settlements, the identity of which it would 
be difficult now to locate. All these trails, in the early settle- 
ments of the coimty, wei-e more or less used, until opportunities 
were afforded better, by the white people, in passing from neigh- 
borhood to neighborhood. Not according with the demands of a 
more civilized age, they were abandoned by the settlers, and an- 
other class of thoroughfares adopted, which better conformed to 
the necessities of those having occasion to use them. 



The first road, perhaps, which was the outgrowth of civiliza- 
tion in Carroll County, was that blazed and cut out by Henry 
Robinsou, at the time of his coming from the Wea settlements, to 
build his cabin, of which some account has been already given ; 
and this one, if we mistake not, was quite extensively used by 
hose having occasion to pass to and from the settlements named- 

Of the roads in this county first located and established by the 
authority of law, was one extending from Terre Haute to Fort 
Wayne, a State road, authorized by an act of the Legislature,, 
approved, January 19, 1826, the Commissioners on which, under 
the appointment of that act, were Josephus Collett and John M. 
Coleman. For some reason, these gentlemen were not continued 
in office until the completion of the road, since the act under 
which they were appointed was repealed by a subsequent act 
passed and approved January 24, 1828, by which, also, Samuel 
Milroy, of Carroll County, and Francis Comparet, of Allen 
County, were appointed Commissioners, and the road " declared 
to be a public State road, and, by the same act, established and 
extended, through Fort Wayne, to the Ohio line, on a direction 
for Fort Meigs." This road, being in route with the general line 
of travel, was, no doubt, more extensively used than any other in 

At a session of the Board of Commissioners of Carroll County, 
on the 11th of August, 1828, upon the application of sundry citi- 
zens iutiM-i'slcil along tho line proposed, it was 

orJ. i-.'l. I'liai ,1 puhlic road be laid out as follows, to wit: Commenc- 
ing,' a i lil|.lii, riiiiii ilinirr ihr nearest and best route to Logiinsport, and 
thai .Viixaiidrr (Chamberlain, William Scott and William G. Bishop, be 
appoinli'd lo view and make tlie same, and report to this Board at their 

At the same session, and, as a part of the same act, this road 
was extended by the following authority; 

Ordered. Tliat a pul)lie road be laid out as follows, to wit: Commenc- 
ini; at l.o'jan-iport from ilnaici- the nearest and best route by way of John 
JI:(ii. ■ .1^ o, I [i,,ii|.i .:. 11 Ivy's, and that Daniel Bell, Samuel MeChire 
anil < iiiMi- I T ih I !' .i;i|i iniid to view and make the same, and reporl to 

At the same session, but on the day following, petitions being 
filed for two country roads, one from Delphi to Benjamin Baxter's, 
and the other from Delphi to Nathaniel Hamilton's, viewers were 
appointed to view and examine the routes proposed and report. 
A road of more general importance, was, on the same day, peti- 
tioned for, connecting, at the county line, a laid-out road from 
La Fayette to that point, thence running direct to Delphi, upon 
which the board appointed Standley, Robert Caid and John 
Adams, Viewers, with the usual instructions. Another country 
road was also proposed, to run from the public square in Delphi, 
the nearest and best route to where the meridian line crosses Deer 
Creek, upon which David Baum, William McCord and Samuel 
Wells, were appointed Viewers, The same Viewers were directed 
to view anrl report^iipon a '^ii'oposed road fi-om the public square. 
in Delphi, to Elisha Brown's, on Bachelor's Run. 

The ne.xt regular session of the board, commencing on th<" 
11th day of November, 1828, at which time Samuel McCilure, 
Daniel Bell and Samuel D. Taber, Viewers, appointed at the pre- 
vious term, reported "that they had viewed and marked a road 
from Logans])ort, by way of John MoGrogor's, to Champion Hel- 
vy's, at tho mouth of the Salamony River," which, being read and 
not objected to, was accepted, and the route " established as a 
public higliway, and divided into districts, as follows, to wit: 
No. 1, 2 .■uiil :!. north; District No. 1, to commence at Logansport 
and ciiritiniu' to .John McGregor's; District No. 2, to commence 

at the house of John McGregor and continue to Samuel Mc- 
Clure'a; District No. 3, to commence at Samuel McClure's and 
continue to Champion Helvy's, at the mouth of the Salamony." 

On the presentation and filing of the report of William G. 
Bishop, Thomas Stirlen and Alexander Chamberlain, Viewers, 
appointed for the -purpose, no objection being made thereto, the 
route viewed and marked by them, " commencing at the public 
square, in Delphi, and running thence eastwardly with Main 
street to the termination of said street; thence northeastwardly^ 
on a direct line to the ford of Rock Creek, above Merriman's, 
making the necessary variations to obtain good ground; thence, 
from Rock Creek to a point on the Wabash, known by the Old 
Trading House; thence, from the Old Trading House, up the 
Wabash, as near said river as good groimd can be had. to the 
ford of the Wabash, opposite to the town of Logansport," was es- 
tablished as a public highway in conformity with law. 

The report of Moses Standley, Robert Caid and John Adams, 
Viewers, appointed at the preceding August session, being pre- 
sented, and,-no ob.jection being made to it, the route so viewed 
and marked by them, " commencing at the west end of Water 
street, in Delphi ; thence to a stake ten rods from the comer of 
Daniel Baum'e lane fence; thence down said lane to the crossing 
of the Indian track over Deer Creek; thence, to intersect the 
county road, leading from La Fayette, in Tippecanoe Coimty, at 
the line dividing the county aforesaid, from Carroll, marked with 
three hacks with an ax," was " established as a public highway," 
and William McGord was appointed Supervisor to open said road 
according to law. 

At the same session of the board, on the petition of sundry 
citizens interested in the same, for the openinjj of a road, from 
Delphi to the Old Trading House, David Baum, Samuel Wells 
and Joseph Dunham, were appointed to view and mark such road, 
on the best and most direct route, and report their conclusions 
at the next regular session. Accordingly, at the May session of 
the board, 1829, said Viewers, having carefully exa alined the pro- 
posed route, had the same sm've3'ed, made report of their proceed- 
ings in the premises, which, being duly considered and no objec- 
tion appearing, the report was accepted and the route recom- 
mended, commencing at the public square, in Delphi, at the 
corner of Franklin and Washington street; thence, by des- 
ignated bearings and distances, in a northerly by northeasterly 
direction, to intersect the Delphi and Logansport road, then 
recently established, at the Old Trading House, on Rock Creek, 
an aggregate distance of ten miles, three quarters and twenty-six 
rods, was regularly established as a public highway. 

At the same session of the board, upon the report of William 
Wilson, Hugh Maniiry and Aaron Dewey, Viewers, appointed at 
the preceding term, a road from Delphi to Nathaniel Hamilton's, 
commencing at the north end of Washington street; thence by the 
northwest corner of the Donation; thence by the Point of Rock 
on the river; thence across the Wabash River, at the Rock Ripple 
at the Island,, and thence to Nathaniel Hamilton's, was estab- 
lished as a [jublic highway, according to the law. 

Subaecpiently, at a session of the Board of Coimty Commis- 
sioners, commencing on the 10th of August, 1829, the following 
roads, upon which Viewers had been previously ajipointed, were 
established as public highways: "A road, leading from Delphi 
to the house of Thomas (lillam, in Section 13, Township 24 
north. Range 2 west, beginning at Delphi; thence the ueafest 
and best way to tho northwest corner of Section 10, in Township 
24 north, in Range 2 west; thence along the line, east, to the 



half-mile stake, on the north of Section 12; thence south, to the 
half-mile stake, on the south line of Section 13;" and another, 
" commencing at the public square, in Delphi : thence to Samuel 
Milroy's; thence to Daniel McCain's; thence to John Carey's; 
thence to the section comer of 2'2, 23. 26 and 27 (where it crosses 
Deer Creek); thence to the half-mile stake, at the northeast cor- 
ner of Daniel McCain's land; thence to the northwest corner of 
Solomon Leslie's field; thence toHewit's; thence to the half-mile 
stake, at the corner of David Horter's orchard, and thence to the 
corner Sections 33 and 34, on the township line, between Tovm- 
ships 24 and 25, in Range 1 west." These emViraced all of the 
early roads located in the county, deemed essential as lines of 
communication between the principal settlements and the county 


Preliminary Steps Tow.\rd Building a County Jail— After 
Proceeding.?— Plan fob the Con.struction of the Build- 
ing, ETC— A Clerk and Recorder' ,s Office Ordered to be 
Constructed — The Plan, Location, etc— Another Jait. 
Contracted for and Built, in 1839, at a Cost of §.500— 
Plan, etc— The One Subsequently Enlarged and 
Improved- A Bkick Wall Put Around it and a Sher- 
iff's Residence Erected as Part of the Structure. 

ffl<.- b,, huilt and 

M-t thirty 

r,.nlM-,.f ll.i.pul.l 

'■ ■'^q"«'-e, 

■t sciuare; 

.r, iliivr ui,hI,,,v. ,,( 


111(1 shutters made a 

nd hung; 

ding to be a frame. 

■ notice of tbe lettit 

g of said 

let to the lowest bidder; the 

:iimplete by the first 

of March 

1 the fvame i.s raised. 

n^HE Board of County Commissioners, at their session held on 
-*- the 10th of August, 1829, directed the County Agent to pro- 
cure the building of a jail, on a plan then proposed, ordering him 
to give notice, that, on the first Monday of October, then succeed- 
ing, he w'juld let the contract for the same to the lowest bidder, 
on the conditions prescribed, that the undertaker of such con- 
tract should complete tiie construction of said building, in con- 
formity with the proposed plan, by the 1st day of August, 1830; 
that, as security for the faithful performance of his conb'act, tie 
Agent was directed to require said contractor to enter into a bond 
in the penalty of $1,800, with approved security; also, that the 
contractor should ■' be allowed, out of the county treasury, of any 
moneys appropriated for public buildings, quarterly, throe- fourths 
of the full of the work which he may have done, and that he shall 
receive the whole on the 1st day of August, A. Drl830, for the 
work shall be then completed." The building was ordered to be 
located on the northwest corner of lot niunbered 101, thirty feet 
from the fi-ont of said lot. 

In the meantime, it was ascertained that the size and form 
of the building were not in exact accord with the requirements 
of the situation, and notice was given for re-assembling the 
board to further consider the questions presented. For that 
purpose, a special meeting was held, commencing on the 26th day 
of Septembei', of the same year, at which Jacob Baum and Thomas 
Stirlen, Commissioners, were present. Thereupon it was 

Ordered, That a jail be built in Delphi, on the following plan, to wit: 
Twenty-six feet long, eighteen feet wide, and a nine-foot story with a par- 
tition in the center; three doors, one window to the dungeon, fourteen 
inches square, double-barred with iron bars; floor double, with oaken tim- 
ber one foot square; the debtors' room single, the walls of the dungeon to 
be double, the outside walls of oak tunber one foot square, the inside wall 
of solid timber one foot square; the debtors' room to be one wall of oak 
timber one foot square; the partition to be double, of the same kind and 
size timbers as the wall— the roof to be made of jointed shingles. 

And they revoked " that part of an order, made by them at 
their August session, A. D. 1829, that specifies the size and form 

said jail should be built." At the time appointed, bids were re- 
ceived and examined, and the contract awarded to Henry Robin- 
son, as the lowest responsible bidder. The building was erected 
by him, pursuant to the terms of the contract, and the work ac- 
cepted by the board at or about the time projiosed. kt the ses- 
sion of November 10, .1829, it was 

Ordered. That a Clerk and Rerr 
feet west, and twenty-five f.rl -nutl 
to be built on the tollowin- |il:iii ir. 
nine-foot story, jointed, sliinuli r..,.i 
lights each; lower floor i., 1., ,,1,,,, 

lathed and plastered wit li mmi 

Ordered, Also, tliat iln- .■..nm \ :i 
building, to take plncr on iIk .'Ni m 
undertaker to Ije Ii'iiiimI i" h:i\ <■ ilif I 
— the agent to p;i> iIiimI ilic uim 

Accordingly, notice was given, bids received, the contract let 
and the building completed, in substantial compliance with the 
terms proposed The board, having accepted, occupied the build- 
ing at the session commencing on the 9th day of August, 1830. 

The jail building erected pm-suant to the foregoing contract, 
appears not to have been equal to the demands of the situation, 
nor just such as should have been built, both as to the size and 
construction. The consequence was that at almost every session 
of the board, after the first few years, bills for repairs or for 
changes necessary to be made, became so numerous, that it was 
the better policy to contract for and build a new one better 
to the wants of the times. The question having been 
pretty thoroughly canvassed, a decision was arrived at which de- 
termined the course proper to be pursued under the circumstances. 
A session of the board was called, therefore, and met on Saturday, 
the 1st day of June, 1839, when it was 

Ordered, Tliat the Clerk give no 
pos.ils until th. thiid Silunl i\ of .Tu 

.Jail .1- r. II > T T I 1 " 1 I , 

he will receive sealed pro 
oi the erection of a County 
t' 1m - -(|iiare. the timber to 
beotl.. I ,1 1 ml. 1. of oak. same size of 

the bill! I , li I ik plank, to be spiked 

on-Billi I II 111 I )J^ 1 I M 111 inp I o lie covered with the 

same kind ut In^^ yt \^lin.h the liuu^c is built — the whole to be covered 
with a plain -.hingle roof— weather-boarded at the gable ends House to 
be ^i\teen feet square— to be eight feet high in the clear The whole to 
be (ompleted by the 15th day of Septeinber. 1.1.59 

On Saturday, the 15th day of June, at the time proposed, the 
board met in special session, and, having examined the bids pre- 

Ordered, That Henry Robinson receive the contract for Imildin!; the 
jail of Carroll County, for which he is to receive $.5.50, 

The original plan of the building and the construction of the 
different parts was somewhat modified in detail, and the con- 
tractor was directed to proceed in accordance with the following 
revised specifications; 

Ordered. That the County Jail be built of sawed logs twelve inches 
square, the timber to be of beech, sugar-tree or oak : floor to be laid 
double, of oak, size of the balance ; to be ceilrd mi iIu- invid,. with three- 
inch oak plank, to be spiked on with six-incli ^jiik. -, -i\ in. 1m - apart ; the 
ceiling to be put on the same way of the log-, l.n^ilmi-. i..ints broke; 
the top to be covered with the same kind of 1..^- ..I' wliich the house is 
built. The whole to be covered with a good shingle roof, and weather- 
boarded at the gable ends. The doors to be two feet in the clear, wide, 
five feet high ; the outside to be made of inch-and-a-half oak-plank, 
double, with sheet-iron between, the same size of the door— the inside of 
the door to be made of iron, half an inch in thickness, by two and a half 
wide, the bars to be one inch apart and riveted strongly at each corner ; 
the inside door to be strongly spiked, or nailed, on each side : the window 
to be the same size as the old one, and the other grates may be used, with 
the addition of a new one. The house to be sixteen feet square and seven 




feet high in the dear. Tlie \Yhole to be completed by the 15th day of 
September. 1839. The locks tor the door to be such as are generally used 
for such buildings. The jail to be built in the town of Delphi, at or near 
the same ground where the old one stood. 

At tlie same time the contractor was allowed, on his contract, 
the sum of $250. 

A meeting was held by the County Board, on the 4th of Sep- 
tember, prior to the completion of the building, when the con- 
tractor was specially directed to make an inside door for the use 
of the County Jail. This door was to be six inches high and 
eight inches wide, made of iron, with a shutter on the outside, 
and a strong padlock. From the description, it would seem that 
the door ordered to be made was an opening in the inner door of 
the criminal's department, through which communication might 
be had with the prisoners without the risk of opening the large 
door. At the session in November, Mr. Robinson was allowed, 
on his contract, the further sum of lii2l)0. He was paid the bal- 
ance, $90, in full for his work, at the September session, one year 
after the building was completed, according to the provisions of 
the contract, as in the proceedings of the board set forth. 

After the completion of the building to which reference has 
just been made, the Commissioners, upon mature deliberation, 
deemed it advisable to enlarge the dimensions of the jail pre- 
viously erected, and add to it a comfortable residence for the 
Sheriff or Jailer, and build the same of brick. Having arrived 
at the conclusion that such a step was necessary, at the September 
term, 1840, it was 

Ordrn.l, That the Clerk of this Boaril .-aus.- public iiolice to be given 
ill ilr liiliiM r.^dhliii, iliai he will niri\, [,i , .| r . ,il- until the next 

^i' ' I •! li ' i ; i, h. Imilil :i .lailrt - I i '■; ^ :: i i ' '.iiir's Room of the 

Im!!. ■, ,: I ... liMin,. Ill Ih- liiiili .,! ..lies high, with a 

]ia— I '11 i h' iiH'lilli, the wall to lie 1 wriii \ I iiii In - I hick around the 

jail, lioib .stories and the wall for the other part of tlie house to be eight- 
een inches thick. The house to be forty-two feet long, from outside to 
outside ; the lower story to be nine feet high and the upper story to be 
eight feet high. The Debtor's Room to be built immediately above the 
present jail, to have one window in the Debtor's Room, twelve light, 8x10 
glass, to be lixed with crossed iron-bars in such a manner as to make the 
same secure. The floor of the said Debtor's Room to be laid of oak-planks 
one and a half Indies thick, and the same to be coiled with oak-planks 
one and a half inches thick, to be strongly spiked on with strong iron 
spikes. The builtling to be well covered with i^ood shingles: the rooms 
for the jail li> be plaiiih- aii.l ii.ntiv tini-h'-.l .ilT ■ 'n hare one chiinney. 


Debtor's Room to lie similar tn tlic womlcii ilmir in tlie present dungeon, 
with a similar lock ; to have twn « inilnus ah.ivc and two below, in front 
of the Jailer's rooms— one bcli.w .aid nm aii.iM in the rear. The Debtor's 
Room to have a flue for a stove -pipe, ii. lie iii|ipccl out like a chimney in 
tlie end of a house ; tlie family iiart of the house to have two coats of 
paint. The whole to be completed by the 1st of September next. 

Upon the proposals received from the several builders being 
opened and examined, the contract was awarded to James Rogers; 
but, before the work had progressed very far, at the January ses- 
sion, 1841, it was mutually agreed between the Commi.ssioners 
and the contractor, " that the following change be made in the 
plan of tlie County Jail," as in the" foregoing specifications set 
forth, to wit: "Instead of the building being forty-two feet long, 
it is agreed that said building shall be forty-five feet long from 
outside to outside; instead of the jail part of the wall being two 
feet thick, .it is agreed that said wall shall be two feot thick around 
three sides only, and, on the passage side, one foot thick. The 
first story, and all the rest of the walls both above and below. 

shall be thirteen inches thick, and there shall be an additional 
window of the same size as the balance, above the hall-door; and 
the upper story shall have an addition of one foot to the height 
to the former plan. And it is agreed that the said Rogers shall 
have the sum of $1,800 for building the same." This agreement 
having been consmnmated, the bid of Mr. Rogers was accepted 
and the bond filed by him as the builder, was approved by the 

Allowances were made from time to time to the contractor as 
the work progressed. Finally, on the 17th of November, 1841; 
the record shows that the board allowed BIr. Rogers the sum of 
$573.60, in full for the balance due him on his contract for build- 
ing the Coimty Jail; also, for extra work on Coimty Jail, $79, 
less $'26 ordered to be deducted from the original contract * * 
for damages assessed on plastering account, and that said jail be 
now accepted," and it was accepted accordingly, the building, 
except the changes referred to, having been completed within the 
time stated in the contract 



Court Ofkioers and ProceedinctS at the Third Term of the 
Circuit Court— Special Session of Board of Commissioners 
AND A Regular Se.ssion— Officers, Etc.— Fourth Term of 
THE Circuit Court- Officers and Attorneys— Third and 
Fourth Terms of the Probate Court Noticed, the-Officers 
Present and an Abstract of the Proceedings Had— Sales 
OF Real Estate, Etc. 

THE third term of the Circuit Court of Can-oil County com- 
menced its session on the third Monday, being the 18th day of 
May, 1829, at the house of Daniel Baum, the usual place of meet- 
ing. The ofiicers of court present on that occasion, were Hon. 
Bethuel F. Morris, President Judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit 
Court of the State of Indiana, the circuit in which Carroll Cotmty 
was then situated; Isaac Griffith and Chi'istopher McCombs, As- 
sociate Judges ; Daniel F. Vaudeventer, Clerk : and Hem-y B. 
Milroy, Sheriff, \fter proclamation that court was then open, 
the business before it for disposition was proceeded with in its 
proper order. First, the Sheriff was directed to call the roll of 
Grand Jurors, regularly selected and summoned to attend and 
serve as such at that term. The call being completed, it was 
ascertained that the panel was incomplete, xmly the following 
persons answering to their names, to wit : John Carey, who was 
then appointed and sworn as Foreman: John Mikesell, Stephen 
Miller, Daniel McCain. Lewis Neff, John E. Metcalf, Daniel Mc- 
Cain 2d, John Odell, John Little. George I. Baum, Thomas Burk 
and John Moyers; the com])lement was made by the Sheriff, who, 
under the direction of the court, selected, fiom amongst the by- 
standers, the following Talesmen : Thomas McMillan, William 
Hughes and John Knight, when they were regulai'ly sworn by the. 
Clerk to the faithful discharge of the specific duties assigned them 
by law. Then, the persons so empaneled and sworn as Grand 
Jurors, were charged by the court as to the extent and character 
of their inquiries, the gleaning of evidence and making up their 
presentments and indictments, after which they retired, under the 
charge of Ji K])ecial Bailiff, to the room provided tor tliem, to hear 
testimony and consider of its sutficiency to warrant further pro- 





Tho regular Prosecuting Attorney of the circuit being absent, 
Andrew Ingram, Esq.. of the La Fayette bai-, was appointed by the 
com-t Prosecuting Attorney, pro tem,. and duly sworn as such. On 
motion of Mr. Ingram. Moses Cox, a practicing attorney was ad- 
mitted as an attorney and counselor at law at the bar of this 
court, and was em-olled accordingly. The preliminaries dis- 
posed of. the docket of cases for adjudication was called for mo- 
tions and trials. The first cause set down for befiring at this term 
was one wherein David Stone, by Andi-ew Ingram, his attorney, 
complained of George Cicott, in an action of assiunpsit, and, upon 
the introduction of the proofs, the coui't being sufficiently advised 
in the premises, awarded the plaintiff a judgment for damages in 
the sum of §321.75. When business had proceeded thus far, the 
court adjom-ned to meet again at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, in 
the Bchoolhouse in Delphi, which was then designated as the place j 
of holding comis for the time being, and until a more suitable 
place could be obtained. At the afternoon session of the court, 
on motion of Mi'. Cox, Albert S. White and Cyrus Ball, Esqa., 
were admitted to practice therein as attorneys and counselors at 

On the second day of the term, the Grand Jury returned into 
court fom-teen bills of indictment, six of which were for affrays; 
six for assault and battery, and two for fornication and adultery, i 
Having no fm'ther business before them, they were discharged and 
allowed for two days' service. The coui't 

Ov(hr"l. TlKit, iijxin tlK^ arrest of parties against wliom bills liad been 
t'ounil. rliiiririnLr :h1u1ici V. tbey .should be required to enter into bonds, 
payalili' t.> tlii' .Slat.- ol Indiana, in the penalty of $100 each, with one 
security ; and, for all other offenses, in the penalty of $30 each, with one 
security, for their appearance at the succeeding term of court to an.swer 
the said charges respectively. 

This was all the business done during the session, and court 
then adjourned until court in coiu'se. with the order that the next 
term be held at the public schoolhouse in Delphi. 

The Board of County Commissioners, on the 26th day of Sep- 
tember, held a special, and, on the 9th day of November, 1829, a 
regular session, for the transaction of business, at the usual place, 
Messrs. Jacob Baum. Aaron Hicks and Thomas Stirlen, Commis- 
sioners, being present. November 10, a seal was adopted by the 
board, to be used by them in the attestation of their official acts. 
At the same session, Daniel Baum, County Treasirrer, was allowed 
for his percentage in receiving $495 of the public funds, the sum 
of $7.42. 

The fourth term of the Carroll Circuit Court commenced its 
session on the 16th day of November, 1829, at the place designated 
in the order of adjournment. In addition to the regular officers 
of court before noticed, William W Wick, Esc£., presented his 
commission fi'om the Governor of the State of Indiana, upon 
which was indorsed a certificate that he had taken and subscribed i 
the equisite oath for the faithful discharge of the duties of Prose- \ 
cuting Attorney of the Fifth Judicial Circuit of the State of In- 
diana, and he entered upon the active performance of the func- 
tions of his office. In addition, Calvin Fletcher, W. W. Wick, 
Benjamin Hm'st, Aaron Finch, J. B. Chapman and Thomas J. 
Evans, Esqs., were admitted as attorneys at the bar of this court, 
and duly enrolled as such. 

On the 20th of October, 1829, Franklin G. Armstrong, a native 
of this State, became a resident of Carroll County, and has since 
that time continued to be a permanent citizen here. 

The third term of the Probate Coiu't of Carroll Cotmty was 
begun and held at the public school-room in Delphi, commencing 
on Monday, the 4th day of January, A. D. 1830, at which Hon. 

John Carey, Probate Judge of the county, officiated. The busi- 
ness of the character usually adjudicated upon in eom-ts of Pro- 
bate, was not very extensive, consequently the term was not of 
long continuance — only one day. At that term, however,- John 
Odellwas appointed guardian of the persons and eflfectsof Sarah, 
Samuel, Ruth, Charles and Mary Angell, minor children and heirs 
at law of Benjamin D. Angell, then lately deceased. The court 
also appointed William McCreary, John Knight and John T. 
Hopkinson, appraisers, to fix a value upon certain of the real 
estate of the heirs aforesaid, with instructions to make report 
thereof at the next term. At the same term, John Kuns was 
appointed executor of the last will and testament of David Kuns, 
deceased. Samuel Hulery was also appointed guardian of John 
Bross, Elizabeth Bross. Matty Bross and Michael Bross, minor 
heirs of Jacob Bross. deceased. This was all the business disposed 
of at that term. 

The fourth term of the Probate Court was held at the same 
place, commencing on Monday, the 1st day of March, 1830, Judge 
Carey on the bench. On that day, William McCreary and Thomas 
Stirlen were appointed executors of the last will and testament of 
William Wilson, deceased, donor of the tract of land upon which 
the original plat of Delphi was situated. Hugh Manary having 
died a short time previously, thecourt appointed William McCord 
and William George administrators of his estate. 

A portion or the real estate belonging to the heirs of Benja- 
min D. Angell, deceased, having been sold pursuant to an order 
of the court, by John Odell, their guardian, to Samuel Milroy, a 
deed was ordered to be executed to the purchaser, and James 
Odell was appointed a commissioner to make such conveyance. 
Another portion of the land of said minors, having been, pursu- 
ant to the same order, sold to Henry Robinson, Mi'. Odell, com- 
missioner as above, was instructed to execute to Mr. Robinson, also, 
a deed for the lands so pru:chased by him. At the same term, the 
com't made an order, directing the administrator of the estate ol 
William Wilson, imder a petition for that puqjose, to sell the rea' 
estate of said descedent, for the pm'pose of paying the oiitstand 
ing obligations against the same. This was all the business dis- 
posed of at that term, the court remaining in session but one day 

The matters of a probate nature noticed above, have been in- 
serted here in order that the reader may be better able by the 
means to refer toother incidents moreor less intimately connected 
with these. It is frequently necessary, in delineating facts of 
historical interest, to note circumstances of the character referred 
to; hence, in this instance, it has been found necessary to adopt 
such a course; and, in other depai'tments of this work, and in a 
different connection, the reader may find these references of value 
in properly imderstanding other statements and incidents that go 
to make a part of the current history of the times. Men die, and 
their estates pass, by regular or irregular process, into other 




Where the Early Sessions of Courts Were Held— The Neces- 
sity for Better Accommodations— Preliminary ActionTo- 
WARD Building a Court House— Proceedings of the County 
Commissioners on the Subject— Proposals for Plans and 
FOR Builders Advertised for— Meeting of the Board to 
Examine and Compare Plans- Plan Selected and Con- 
tract Awarded- Separate Contracts for Plastering, 
Painting.Building Cupola, Etc.— Approximate Items of 

THE place designated by the act authorizing the organization 
of the county of ("arroll, for holding courts therein, until 
accommodations could be had elsewhere, was at the house of 
Daniel Baum; accordingly, all the courts of the county were held 
there diu'ing the year 1828 and the early part of 1820. The May 
session of the Circuit Court met there, on the ISth day of May, 
1829, and remained in session until noon, when court was ad 
journed to meet again at 4 o'clock P. M., at the public schoolhouse 
in Delphi, a new hewed-log building recently erected for school 
purposes. Subsequent sessions were held at this schoolhouse 
until the May 'term, 1830, which was held at the Clerk's office, a 
frame building situated on the public square, finished just a few 
weeks before Here the county courts were held for a number of 
years, and antil better accommodations were provided, as contem- 
plated by the law enacted for the county organization. In the 
meantime, the question of building a coiu't house on the public 
square, with the funds realized from the sale of the property do- 
nated by the proprietor of Delphi, in consideration of its selection 
as the seat of justice of Carroll Couaty, by the Commissioners 
appointed by the Legislature, as elsewhere shown, was settled.' 

Some time in the spring of 1831, the Commissioners of the 
county directed notice to be given to " contractors and builders," 
that proposals would be received, with plans and specifications, 
for the erection of a court house for Carroll County, from that 
time until the proposed special meeting of the board for that pur- 
pose, on the 18th of July, 1831. On that day, a special session 
was accordingly held, when the bids presented were examined and 
duly considered. The result of that examination is exhibited in 
the following extract from the record of their proceedings on 
that occasion: 

()r:hr,-ri. ■y\i:ii ilir liiil "I TlicopUilus Hiirflmaii, fov tlio building of a 
I'oiiil liMii^i ill ilir (I iiiir I.I ihr public .square, in Delphi..'be received, and 
that a cijiiliaci In- iiiiiii-il into for the completion of the .same, agreeable 
to tlie Exliiliit A ; the bond made by the said Hardman, Samuel Milroy, Pike and James H., and filed in the Clerk's office, and the 
bond made by the Commissioners to t.hc said Hardman and marked 
Exhibit B. 

At the same session, Mr. Hardman was authorized to receive 
from Aaron Dewey, the County Agent, $100 worth of materials, 
to be used in building the coiu't house. For some reason, not 
now api)areut, Mr. Hardman, being unable to proceed satisfactorily 
with his work, surrendered his contract, and asked, with his sure- 
ties, to be released therefrom. He was released accordingly, the 
contract taken off his hands and awarded to John Dolason, at the 
Septemijer session, 1831. From that time forward, the building 
progressed gradually but not very rapidly. Under the new ar- 
rangement, Mr. Dolason was allowed, at the same session, on his 
contract for building the court house, the sum of $275, to be paid 
out of the donation fund, appropriated for that purpose and in 
the hands of the County Agent. The agent was also directed to 

execute a deed to him for certain town-lots embraced in the dona 
tion — except the lot numbered 87, which was ordered to be con- 
veyed to Mr. Hardman, the original contractor — in part consider- 
ation for the building of the court house. At the session, in Jan- 
uary, 1832, a further allowance of $200, was made, part oj bis 
second installment for building the court house, payabl ilso, 
out of the donation fund. The third installment, of 850'), was 
allowed at the September session, 1832, and ordered to be paid 
out of the same fund. 

When the brickwork on the court-house building was ap- ■ 
proaching completion, it was deemed advisable by the board to 
appoint a committee with instructions to examine the s: .^ and 
report as to its sufficiency and whether the work had been done 
in substantial compliance with the terms of the contract. Such 
examination having been made, a report was made recommending 
its acceptance. At the September session, 1833, in cons'deration 
of the premises, the board 

fjrdered. That .lohn Dolason be allowed, for building the court house 
in the town of Delphi, the sum of $200 as a part of the last installment 

Subsequently, at the January session, 1884, he was allowed 
the further sum of $200. Again, at the March session, he was 
allowed the further sum of $75.03. and, at the May ses-^ion, $20. 
Finally, at this session, the board made the following order in 
the matter: 

Ordered. That John Dolason be allowed, for work done on the court 
house, $81. it being in full for all demands that the said Dolason has 
against the county for completing the court house, as agreed upon by 
Theophilus Hardman and all extra work done by said Dolason. ■ 

From all that appears to the contrary, the original contract 
for building the court house did not embrace the complete con- 
struction; hence, those branches of the work not included therein 
were directed to be done under separate and independent agree- 
ments For example, the board, at their session in May, 1836, 
" entered into a contract with Samuel R. Hughes and Thomas C. 
Hughes, to complete the painter's and joiner's work on the inside 
of the coui't house, and have agreed to make them an order for 
$100 in advance on their contract. It is therefore 

Ordered, That the agent of Carroll County be directed to- pay to 
S.imuel R. Hughes and Thomas C. Hughes $100." 

This contract seems to have included, among other special 
work, the building of a cupola on the court house, since, from the 
papers on file in the Auditor's office, a plan, with estimates of 
cost, was submitted to and iiccepted by the board; and, for the 
further retison, that, at the May session, bS30, the record shows: 

The Cm i-n i- n-" Ihm"- i x.Miiinrd llir nipola l.iiill nil Ibe 

COUrthOUSr li; I I !i' ., . 11- [il llh-iiliir .\ I -i i, I IllUl'-r 

Ordere'l. \ •■■ ■ \ ^ ■•■•'■ ' 'i 'll ( n.niix !ir ,iiivrir,l h. pay tn 

pended, and Ihm In li. |..ii.l liu riuilur .-nm of $!.■) for tin anninii tlie 
cupola roof. 

Whi»n the entire work, under the contract with Samuel U. and 
Thomas C. Htighes, was entirely completed, the question of value 
was referred to mechanical experts for determination, as shown by 
the following record of proceedings, had at the January session, 

WuKKiws. The terms ut Ihr, •oMtnut li,-l«een the Commissioners and 
Hughea, l)eing, that, vvlien the carpenter work on the court house was 
completed, that it was to lie left to disinterested mechanics to fl.v the price. 
The Commissioners on their part appointed Jonathan Harbolt, of While 
County, the said S. R. and T. C. Hughes appointed William Ferguson on 
their part, who, if tliey disagree, are hereby directed to call to their 
assistance a third person as an umpire. Said persons arc directed to meet 
at the court house in Delphi, between this time and the 12th insl,, to 

Carroll County Jail a Sheriffs Residence: Delphi, Indiana, 




aid H.1 

eport I 

measure snid examine tlie worli doni 
and affix tlie price to the same, and 
14tli inst. 

Said referees having met and measured the work as by said 
agreement required, determined the aggregate vahie thereof to be 
$972.63, whereupon the board, on the reception of that report, 
made the following record: 

Tlie «..ikni.ii apiioiiii.Hli.) .■xamiiie tlie woil; l.y Hughes on 
tliecouii Ih.1i-,, innv iv|„,ri that llicv hav,- examined tlie «,,rk, and on 

It was then 

Onlenil. Tlial the Tnasiuer ]iay to Samuel H. Hu-lies .$400 out of 
the Treasury. 

Afterward, at the March session, \><'A1, the lioard, upon "set- 
tlement with T. C Hughes, for bttilding the cupola, find as fol- 
lows: For building ciipola, $7(11); liy cash and note from McGill- 
iard, $481.25; due said Hughes, $218.75." On general account 
with S. R. and T. C. Hughes, for amotint of work and materials, 
$•.(72.03; by cash to date, $700; balance, $272,03. For this bah 
auce, the board directed the isstie of an order, thus balancing the 

At the Miu'ch session, 1834. an agreement was entered into 
between the Commissioners and Thomas Galliard. to paint the out- 
side of the court house and the tops of the chimneys, and the 
brick-work without oil. and pencil the same with lime, for which 
the contractor was to receive $-tO; for paving tlie floor of the 
coiu-t house, from the west side of the doors to the east side of 
the hotise, and build a wall from door to door across the house, a 
brick and a half thick and five bricks high, for which latter work 
he was to receive $30 — the work to be completed by the 1st of 
June following. 

This braucli of wuk liolng incomplete on the 30th of May, 
1830, theOoiuuii>,>inU( I- i-iitored into " a contract with John Phil- 
lips and Milo Dil>l)lo. to paint the outside walls of the court hottse 
a straw color, the roof red; the whole to be completed by the 1st of 
September next, for which they are to pay $150." At the Septem- 
ber session, the Commissioners having " inspected the painting 
done by Phillips and Dibble, under the contract entered into at the 
May session last. 

Onlrn-.t. Tluit the .V-rnI of f'arroll Coiuilv pay to .John Pllillips and 
ililo Dil.Mr, fnv painlin;: walK nf the court h.lUse. eic. $1.50, out of any 

In connection with the painting of the coiu-t house walls, the 
following incident occurred: As indicated in the foregoing order, 
the color of the walls was to be a yellow, or straw color. This 
color was not altogether satisfactory, and the Commissioners were 
presented with a petition, signed by sixtj'-four citizens of the town 
and county, asking that such order be rescinded, and " that red, 
with jiroper penciling, is the only color that is calculated to give 
a brick liuilding the proper appearance and tasteful finish." As 
a remonstrance against changing the original order, another peti- 
tion was presented, signed by forty-one citizens, several of whom had 
previously signed the other, praying to have no change made in 

ig that, generally, they were 

;poet" to the opinions of the 

lor the change. It is sulS- 

|uiinted as originally ordered 

the color first proposed, s 
•" willing to yield all |".s; 
worthy citizens wlm hud \<i 
cient to add that the ImiUl 
— a straw color. 

On the day the Commissioners made ii contract with Messrs. 
Phillips and Dibble to do the painting, a contract was also made 
with Thomas McGilliard to plaster the inside walls of the court 
house, to be completed by the succeeding October, for which he 


was to receive $275. Owing to the faihu'e of Mr. McGilliard to 
comply with his contract and complete the work, the contract 
was, by mutual agreement, rescinded, and the work already done 
by him forfeited to the county; and. on the 6th of September fol- 
lowing, a new contract was made with Lewis Mooney, for the 
completion of the work for $300. To furnish all materials except 
those in and aroirud the court house, plaster all the rooms, put- 
ting three coats on the same, all in a neat and workmanlike man- 
ner, and complete the upper rooms by the third Monday in Octo- 
ber, and the third Monday in April following, Mr. Mooney boirnd 
himself in a penalty of $500. 

At the Septeuilier session, 1837, the board allowed Mr. Mooney, 
as a part of the balance on his contract for plastering the coiu-t 
house, the sum of $25, which also included the sum due him for 
furnishing the brick and laying the lobby in the cotu-t house, and 
for white-washing the upper rooms. Hie latter lieiiig done piu'su- 
ant to an order of the lomf. At iln ;-ainc s.'>>ioii. he was al- 
lowed for full balance on liis i-ouljacl, tlu' .^nm of S'J'_!:',. 

The contract for painting the inside work of il,,- 
was awarded to Messrs. Olvey and Coniio]l\. foi- wlii.- 
were to receive the sum of $230, at tlie Se|ii.'jMlii.r - 
the November session, of the same year, the Coinuii- 
summated a contract with Thomas C. Hughes. " to hm 
substantial Venetian blinds for every window in tln' r 
and hang the same," and have the work coiii|ileteil liy 
of April, 1838, at which time he was to ivr.ive a;- lo 
$10.50 for each window. The work of makiiii; those 
ing been completed, the board, at the May session. II" 
him, therefore, $200, and the fitrther sum of 
and glazing the windows and attaching spri 
The aggregate cost of the cotu't house, not in 
the lots donated and appropriated for that pn 
as can now be readily ascertained, about tin' 
not inchrding the improvciiieut^ on tlio pul'ln 

The dimensions of tlii^ liuildiuu- were aln 
two stories in height, being tliii(y-(\vo feet 
to the square, aad covered with a four-sided shingle rejof, sur- 
mounted by a cupola twelve feet square at the base, and twelve feet 
high. This square was sm-mounted by an octagonal tow.u-. or bel- 
fry, eight feet in diameter-aud eight 'feet liigh. and re>tiiig n|ion 
a water-shed of fifteen inches rise. Resting upon this -trueturo 
was a bell-shaped cone, nine and a half feet high, surmounted liy 
a spire twenty-six feet in height — all making a total cupola ele- 
vation of fiftr-six and three-fom-ths feet 



C0N.sii)i;ii vriox^ T;i:i. A iiNo i-o nir I"'i,oii,ii i ■, ot Euecting A New 
BfILOI\o- .\,,i \( II ~ V I \\o|:! i -i ■ .o THE M0,STS.\TI,S- 

FAe-|-ol:Y I'l.W- oi I o\-i ■! . : - > ■' IJ OF PLANS AND 

,SPEell II .\ lloNv — I'nl: I'llor, i-.m ~ 1;:|.- I ; i:r|.',IVED AND EXAM- 
TECT Appointed— Something of the Details and the Plan 

MENT WITH THE Contractor— The Cost, Etc. 

A S early as 1854, if, indeed, not prior to that date, the public 
-^--^ necessity for a court house of larger dimensions than the 
one at that time occupying the public square, became a subject of 
serious consideration, and the propriety of building another of 

.irk they 
on. At 


value of 
is nearly 
1 11 )^-and 

f( lundation 



greater area and better adapted to the improved condition of 
things, was the subject most freqviently agitated among the peo- 
ple. The matter, however, did not assume a definite form until 
the spring and summer of 1855. At the session of June, 1 855, 
the Commissioners of Carroll (-ounty, by their order of the 7th of 
that month, made an order, directing Thomas C. Hughes, a repu 
table architect and builder of the county, to visit and take views 
of several of the best com-t houses in this and adjoining States, 
for the purpose of maturing plans for a new court house in this 
county; also, to take drafts of such buildings aa he might deem 
necessary in acquiring the information sought for. 

At the same session, also, the Auditor was dii-ected to advertise 
for plans and specifications, the board recommending that archi- 
tects submit plans for a court house, to include the following 
rooms and accommodations: Pour cells or prison rooms in the 
basement. On the fii'st floor, one lai-ge jniblic hall and fom- county 
offices, two of them to be provided with tire-proof vaults; said 
ofiices to be of not less than 300 square feet floor sm'face each. 
The second story to contain one spacious court room of not less 
than 2,700 square feet of floor surface; two jm-y-rooms and one 
witness-room, for the accommodation of female witnesses and 
others, during the session of court, provided the last-named room 
can be included without inconvenience — the building so arranged 
as to eoutain a clock and room for a bell; the basement to be of 
stone and the balance of brick — the whole to be covered with a 
tin roof. 

At a session of the board, held on the (Hhof September, 1855, 
notice was ordered to be given to architects that plans and 
specifications would be received and examined by the board, on 
the 1 st of December of that year, for the construction of a new 
court h'luse. the building to contain one spacious court-room and 
a sufficient numlier of county offices and jury-rooms, a bell and 
clock-tower ; Ijut no jail ur prisiin attached. The size of the 
ground on which the bnildiii^- c mtemplated was to be erected, 
was '252 feet squar.' tli ■ nitin- c ist, when completed, to be $30,- 
000, no cost being jiaid tor any iilans or drafts not accepted. At 
the same time, Mr. Hughes, who had been employed to view and 
select plans, as elsewhere shown, was allowed the sum of .§35.30, 
for traveling expenses and for time spent, including that consumed 
in the pi-eparation of plans, etc. 

When the board met, in December following, a number of 
plans were submitted for their examination and consideration, 
the board present being composed of Thomas C. Hughes and 
Theodore Smoyer. Among others, a plan was submitted by M. 
J. McBird, of Logansport, which was ado[)ted, after some minor 
changes had been made, and Mr McBird employed as architect, 
to prepare the working plans in conformity with those adopted, 
for the details of the work, as prescribed in the following explan- 
atory statement: The foundation, offices and court- room floors, 
front and back elevations, transverse and longitudinal sections — 
all to be in accordance with certain j)lans presented by the said 
McBird at the early p.u-t of this session — with such alterations as 
have on this day been agreed upon and specified as follows: The 
building to bo enlarged laterally five feet, aud longitudinally fif- 
teen feet, the towers to remain the same size as designated on the 
])lans. The excavation for basement under the whole building 
to be made two feet below the present surface of the ground; the 
trenches for the. foundation walls to be excavated one foot below 
the said Ipasement floor, or to the solid strata of clay or gravel; 
upim tlic first floor, a wall, as marked across the Clerk's and Au- 
ditorV offices, making these rooms, the rooms in the rear towers. 

witnesses' and Sherifl"s rooms, and through the remaining parts, 
into a hall, by placing the walls back: the hot-air ducts to be car- 
ried into all the offices on the first floor from one furnace, and 
the com't-room and other rooms to be heated by ducts from an- 
other fm-nace similar to the first, making but two fiu-naces in the 
building. In ascending from the lower story, a spiral staircase 
to be placed in the rear passage up to the floor of the court-room; 
then stairways to the jm'y-rooms above. As compensation, the 
architect was to receive $125, $50 cash, and the balance when the 
plans were completed. 


The stone work to be 65 feet and 8 inches by 95 feet and 8 
inches; the base of the towers, 18 feet and 8 inches square. The 
brick work above to be 65x95 feet, including the towers, and the 
greatest projection of the brick work. The walls of the main 
building to recede 6 feet from the face of the towers— the divis- 
ion walls as set forth. 


The basement 8 feet in the clear; the first story, to the finish, 
1-1 feet in the clear; the court- room, to finish, 28 feet in the clear 
— the roof to incline eighteen degrees. The first story of the rear 
towers is 14 feet 8 inches in the clear; the second story, 13 feet 
8 inches in the clear; the third, 22 feet. The first story of the 
front tower is 15 feet 9 inches in the clear; the second and third 
stories each, to the finish. 14 feet in the clear. 


The external longitudinal walls, under the main front and 
sides, and under the safe-vaults, are 2 feet ti inches in thickness; 
the footings under said walls are 4 feet wide, projecting equally 
each way. Under the towers, the walls are 26 inches thick, and 
made of brick, while the side walls are only 20 inches thick; the 
cross-walls, under the safe-vaults, are 18 inches: the other walls 
are 16 inches. The external walls of the towers iire 22 inches 
thick; the side- walls in the main building are all the same thick- 
ness to the court- room floor; then there is an ofiset of 4 inches, 
leaving the walls from the floor to the eaves 18 inches thick; the 
rear walls are also 18 inches thick. 

On the 2d of April, 1856, the Board of Commissioners, con- 
sisting of Me.-,srs. Smoyer, Hughes and Crowell, met for the pur- 
pose of opening the bids and awarding the contract. The bid of 
James Woods, of Logansport, Ind., in which he proposed to build 
the court house according to the plans and si)ecifications on file 
in the Auditor's office — none of the work to be done by machin- 
ery, except the flooring and the sheeting of the roof --for $32,300, 
was accepted. April 9, .1 856, the contract was awarded to James 
W^oods and James Rodifer for $32,300— to furnish all materials 
of every kind, according to the plans and specifications prejiarcd 
by M. J. McBird (who, as superintending architect, was author- 
ized to accept or reject any work done in the progress of con- 
struction). Messrs. McBird, Heed, Case and John Ct. Vail, wore 
at the same time constituted a Building Committ<ie, with power to 
accept or reject any and all materials pr(>pared or used in the 

construction of the building, within tlie sp;i( f Iwc vnirs from 

May 1, 1856. 

According to the ti.niis c.f the iigreemcnt. the .•i.nlr;H-t(ir'< were 
to receive their first payment at the succeeding June session, aiul 
quarterly thereafter until the March session. 1858, said payments 
to be made for the fuli value of the work done and materials fin- 
nished e.xcepting '20 per ceiil ,.n thr vahic of :ill .„iit,.ri;ils fur- 
nished and accepted liy the liuildin^' (''iiniiiitln'; wlii^ii fidly 


completed and accepted by said Building Committee, the full 
balance was to be paid — no extras to be paid for except as agi'eed 

In the meantime, the Commissioners were to remove the old 
court house, and have everything ready for the new building by 
the 1st day of July, 1856. At the time of consummating the 
aforesaid agi-eement, Messrs. Woods and Rodifer, contractors, filed 
the required bond with Samuel L. McFadiu, James W. Dunn, 
Thomas S. Dunn, William Wilson, Isaac N. Partridge, Joseph 
Culbertson and Samuel A. Hall, as sm'eties, which was accepted 
and approved by the boar'd. 

The foregoing preliminary proceedings being had, Jonathan 
Barnett was authorized to sell, at public sale, the old court house, 
together with the buildings used for county offices, separately, on 
a credit of twelve months, with interest from date, the pur-chasers 
binding themselves to remove the buildings from the public square 
by the 20th of June; the court-house bell was directed to be sold 
also, and upon the same terms. 

Some misunderstandings having arisen between the Commis- 
sioners and contractors, in relation to certain details of work and 
the payment therefor, on the 14th of March, 1860. an agreement 
was entered into between the parties " to submit, for arbitrament 
and adjustment, the entire claim of Mr. Woods against the coimty, 
on account of extra work about the construction of the coiu^; house, 
and all claims arising out of the same — to William Barnett, 
Archibald Slane, Joseph Evans, James H, Stewart, John Crowell 
and George Grilliford." -As the result of that arbitration, on tlie 
9th of June, 1860, James Woods was allowed $1,087, and, also, 
for the further sum of $113, when the lien of William McCain 
was shown to have been legally settled and released by said Mc- 
Cain. This having been done, as of the date last named, the 
Commissioners entered of record among their proceedings the fol- 

1861, with 6 per cent interest ; four orders, for |500 each, on the Treas- 
urer, payable same as before, and one order on the Treasurer for $647.35, 

The ( 




A New One— Examination of Like Buildings Elsewhere- 
Notice Given— Plans with Specifications Filed— An Ex- 
amination Had— Award of Contract- Progress of the 
Work — Quality of the work and it.s Sufficiency- Cost of 
the .Structure— Settlement with and Payment of Con- 
\ ITITHIN a brief period after the completion of the new coiu't 
' ' house, when the stately edifice began to be recognized as 
one calculated to command the pride of the people in whose in- 
terest it had been erected, the question of its great cost was no 
longer deemed to be a barrier to the erection of another public 
building equally as necessary for the maintenance of law and 
order, and the protection of the people's rights against the perpe- 
trators of wrong. In this view of the situation there seemed to 
be a common pai'ticipation :' hence, moved by the expression of 
public sentiment on the subject, a special session of the. Board of 
[ County Commissioners was called to meet on the 14th of Septem- 
ber, 1871. and consider whether it was advisable, at that time, to 
! embark in the proposed enterprise of erecting a new county 
jail and a Sheriffs residence in connection therewith. Having 
matui-ely deliberated upon the matter, the board signified its con_ 
j elusions in the premises as follows : 

The board being sati-sfled that the old jail is insufficient (having exam- 
ined the same), for the wants of the county, and unsafe for criminals, etc.. 

Ordered, That, as soon as practicable, the board purchase such lot or 
lots a~s may tie necessary, within the corporation, in a central portion of 
tlie city fnf D'Ophi], and most convenient, and which can be bought at the 

William Love, 
.lOHS (i. Sh.ujklix. 

When the bui Iding had been otherwise completed, a town-clock 
was placed in the tower, at the southwest corner of the edifice, at 
a cost of $800, by William Bradshaw, and, about the same time, a 
bell was also placed in the same tower. Not far from the same 
period, the square, upon which the coiu-t house was erected, was 
artistically graded, with a regulai- descent from the building to 
the four streets fi'onting the same, at a cost, for labor and super- 
intendence, of about $2,000. It was subsequently sodded and 
ornamented with numerous shade and evergreen trees, and is now 
one of the most tastefully decorated areas in the city of Dnlphi. 

During the summer of 1859, a contract was entered into by 
the Commissioners, with T. J. Gaylord & Co., for the construction 
of an iron fence around the square. After the work was com- 
pleted and partially paid for, before the matter could be fully ad- 
justed between the contracting parties, a settlement was had, Oc- 
tober 2(1. 18511, the record of which is as follows: 

Thc> linurd of Commissioners and T. G. Gavlord A: Co.. by ibc-ir 
a!;.-iit. W CnuliK.,,, .Tr , m„df tbfir linnl --tll-m.-iU f..i- tlir huililing of 

the iron I,., „r :„,,„„,! il,,. |,nl,li,- „|n:,n. in IK.l,,l,i „l,i,l, amounted to 

Trcasuivr llir l,,lln>vnm ;unMulils, iilln- .Ir.hh iiiil; 111.- unl.-r.s by them 
paid for hibor done on the same. Orders are as follows: Three drafts on 
John S. Case, Treasurer, for $1,000, payable on or before October 20, 

ord' /■' /, Tliat the board proceed to erect thei-eon, as early as practica- 
lilr -IK h ;i i^iil ;i>i is uceded- thc size, dimensions, plans and specifications 
h(ii:iri.i In III' determined — the price and value of said lots and jail when 
. M„i|,l,.h.l, iM.i to exceed the sum of $35,000. 

(//■.;, r, 'I, Within a period of two months, the board examine and select 
ihe inci^i iligilile point in the city for the erection of said jail, and to pur- 
chase the same. Also, to visit other points, etc., necessary to mature and 
project the plans, etc.. taking with them Colin A. MeClure, a competent 
architect, and with him mature the plans contemplated. 

Accordingly, at their session of October 12, 1871, the board 
appointed Mr. McClru'e architect, to prepare plans, etc., for the 
jail, and report the same on the second day of the March session, 

At a spacial session on tlie 7th of November, 1871, the board 
agreed to purchase, and purchased accordingly, Lots 37 and 38 
of the original plat of Delphi, for the sum of S:i.iii)ii si.Oilii jn 
hand, and with interest thereon from October 1 i. I^i I : -^imi in 
one year; $400 in two years; $400 in three year,-^: J^HIll in fom- 
years, and $400 in five years, from October 17, 1871, all payments 
bearing interest at 6 per cent, and payable to Noah Corey, from 
whom said lots were purchased. At the same time the Sheriff 
was directed to i-ent the premises so purchased at such amount as 
he could procm-e, but not for a longer period than April 1, 1872, 
when it was expected the work on the new jail building would be 

In the meantime, the seats of justice of several counties in 
this, as well as in the adjoining States, in which model buildings 
of the class projected were situated, were visited by the architect 




anJ olhers, for the purpose of consulting the best designs and 
utilizing the valuable information thus obtained in the plans for 
the new edifice then being prepared. Having secured the infor- 
mation sought for, the board, at its regular session, on the 8th of 
March. 1872, 

Ordered, That the plans and speciflc. 
tory, that they build a jail and Slieiif 

i of Mr. McClure being : 
idciu-c on Lots 3T and 3! 

conDiiilcir. uiKjn the aceeptanee of his boial. oue-lijuilh , one-fourth when 
llie sidiir work is completed, of the prison ; one-fourth when the building 
is uiiilir mot. and one-fourth when the entire buildings are completed and 


Subsequently, at a session of the board, held on the 9th of 
April following, the bids for the construction of these buildings 
were opened and examined, aud the contract awarded to F. L- 
Farman, on his bid, for $36,998.75. At a special session of the 
boai'd, on the 29th of October. 1872. it was 

Orih n;l by the board, tlint tb<- f 'niinty Auditor .haw one order, payable 
on drniand, Ini' ..iie roin-tli i)m i(.iiir:hi prir^ of ilir nrw jail, now due 
Fr;inciv I. Fall nan, iii-ir,Hl ol ilnvr ,,r, 1, i- i,,r ilir -anir amount payable in 
oiii'. two and iliia-c \c,ii-~ a- lir]ri.,rMir cird, iv,[ aial to include interest ac- 

Afterward, at the session of December 6, 1872, the architect, 
liaving re(!ommended that an estimate of one-fourth the contract 
jirice be made in favor of the contractor, in pursuance of the terms 
of the agreement, an estimate was directed to be made accord- 
ingly. Thus far the work appears to have progressed satisfactor- 
ily, and was acceptable to the Building Committee, who, with the 
architect superintending the same, had examined the materials 
procured and declared its sufficiency. 

According to the terms of the contract between the County 
Commissioners and the contractor of the work, the latter was re- 
quired to furnish the materials used in the construction, for which 
the board Was to issue orders, payable in installments of one, two 
and three years, with 8 per centtun interest, while the payments 
for the erection of the buildings fioutracted for were in install- 
ments of one-foiu'th each, at certain stages, as the work progressed 
— on the acceptance of the bond of the contractor; on the com- 
])letiou of the stone work: when the building was under roof; 
and when the whole work was completed and accepted. The first 
installment was paid according to the original conditions; the 
second was paid December 6, 1873; the third, in the early part 
of the summer of 1873, when the bttildings had progre.5sed so as 
to be in compliance with the aforementioned terms. While the 
building process was going on, it was occasiounlly found neces- 
sary to make changes in the plan, or in the method of construc- 
tion, which, having boon agreed upon, involved the payment of 
additional sums in llio way .d extras, the valtte of which was es- 
timated by the suporiiit,'iMliiiu :ii-cliitect, C. A. McClure. 

At a special ses^^ion of tlio hntirJ, hold on the 29th of Decem- 
ber, 1873, Mr. McCliu-e was allowed the sum of $1,225, as balance 
due him for services rendered in the prPi)aration of plans and 
specifications, in superintending the inspection of materials, and 
of the construction oE the buildings. At the same session of the 
board, Mr. McChu-e, the architect, filed the following report touch- 
ing the sufficiency of the work: 

TIN- i- to , ariify that F. L. Farman, , ,,ni la. to, ,.l ilir jail tmd .lailer's 

hi- linal ,•^llln,lO■ 1 1). and tlie additiona'l sum, lor.vha work, of lji.170.52, as 

This report was submitted, then, for examination, with the 
schedule, etc., filed as exhibits thereto, before final action could 
be taken in the premises. Subsequently, " the board, having duly 
considered the report of the architect, and having inspected, in 
person, the buildings; and the board, being sufficiently advised 
in the premises, do now approve the report of the architect, and 
do now receive the prison and Sheriff's residence from the hands 
of the contractor, and do now direct that the Auditor draw his 
warrants on the County Treasurer for the remaining one-fourth 
of the contract price, according to the terms of said contract — 
one-third in one year, one-third in two years, and one-third in 
three years. And the board now allow Francis L. Farman, the 
contractor, the sum of $570.52, as extra services, and passed upon 
and allowed by the Superintendent. And the contractor, F. L. Far- 
man, having made proof to the satisfaction of the board, by vouchers 
submitted, that he had sustained a loss to himself, in the erection 
of the prison and Sheriff's residence, in the sum of $8,(100 and 
upward, and the board, to partly compensate the said contractor 
in his loss in the erection of said buildings, do now allow the said 
Fi-ancis L. Farman the additional sum of $-1,430.73, the board 
being satisfied that the count)' has received full value for the 
same. And the Auditor is directed to draw his warrants on the 
Treasm-er, as for former amounts named in his contract." [Com- 
missioners' Record, No. 8, pp. 382, 383.] 

After these buildings had been completed in accordance with 
the terms of the contract, and accepted by the board in behalf of 
the cottnty, they were, on the 30th day of December, 1873, for- 
mally place.d in the care and under the control of the Sheriff of 
Carroll County, whose duty it was declared to be to see that they 
should only be used aud approijriated to the purposes for which 
they were designed and constructed. A brief description of these 
buildings will not be out of order in this connection. They are 
situated on Lots 37 and 38 of the original plat of the town, now 
ciiy. of Delphi, being the southeast corner of Main and Wab.ish 
streets, on the second .square west of the cottrt house, and on the 
north side of Main street The Sheriff s residence occupies a po- 
sition fronting north on Main and east on Wabash streets. It is 
a brick structure, thirty-eight by forty feet in size and two stories 
in height above the base, the first, and the front portion of the 
second floor of which, is occupied by the Sheriff, or Jailer, and 
his family, while the rear portion of the second floor is used for 
the better class of prison rooms. In the rear of this building, aud 
connected with it, is the main prison building, in which the crim- 
inals for the higher order of offenses are confined. The building 
is of stone, /ery heavily and substantially constructed, with a view 
to the safe-keeping of prisoners. Its internal arrangements con- 
form to the plan found to be best adapted to the jjurposes for 
which it was constructed, great pains having been taken by tlie 
superintending architect to examine and utilize the valuable feat 
lu'es found in buildings elsewhere, coiistnteted for a like purpose. 
In size, the jail building is Hiirty Ity twenty-eiglit feet atid two 
stories high. 

A fine view of these t\>ii public Imildiugs will be found in an 
appropriate place, fruiu which a very ticcurtile cnuoe)>licpu of tlieir 
plan aud appearand' ciiii lie (ilitaiue<l 



How THE Poor Were Cared For Half a Century Ago— The 
Lam' and How it was Administered— Changes in the Law 
AND Improvements in its Administration— The Methods in 
Carroll County— A Poor-Farm and its Management- Old 
Buildings and the New— Old System and New in Contrast 
—The Present. I'.tc. 

ONE of the essential elements in the local economy of every 
community, and one of the distinctive features of our civili- 
zation, is the measm-e of charity extended in providing for and 
maintaining the poor and indigent, relieving the distresses and 
attending to the necessities of those unable or incompetent to 
take care of themselves. Public policy demands, at the hands of 
the people's rejiresentatives, that ample provision be made in 
every locality, to secure this branch of society against want by an 
economic distribution of the surplus of home products. The his- 
tory of oiu- own community in this regard, like that of every 
other, especially in the great Northwest, shows that active, living 
charity is an integral quantity in our body politic, a prime factor 
in the movemBnts of the people everywhere. As a means to this 
end, provision is made by the law-making power of the State for 
the exercise of a liberal charity in behalf of all who are entitled 
to be recipients of public benefactions. 

Among the first provisions made by law for the alleviation 
of the wants of the poor and indigent, was in directing the ap- 
pointment of Overseers of the Poor, whose duty it was to hear 
and examine into the nature of all complaints in behalf of the 
poor, in each civil township of the county, and see that their 
wants \\i'x-f sufficiently provided for; that such should not suffer 
for till' nniiiiiiin necessaries of life, nor be ill-treated. It was 
aK'> iiiacli' the duty of these overseers to keep a record, in which 
sVnjuld lie truuscribed the names of all persons in their respective 
townships who were unable to take care of themselves, and who. 
in their opinion, were entitled to the benefits so provided for the 
maintenance of those unfortunates. A further provision made it 
necessary for them to put out, as apprentices, all poor children 
whose parents were dead, or were found to be unable to maintain 
them— males until the age of twenty-one; and females, until the 
age of eighteen years. The general provision governing the 
duties of such overseers is as follows: 

contained, shall prohibit any Overseers of the 
pling propositions at anytime, for the keeping 
may at any time thereafter become a county 

the Board of County Commissioners of the 
^■. may, in Ihch- disfrcfinn, nlldw and pay to 

of sucll pi.1.1 .Ulil .jlh. I.~. ull 


Prmided, however, tha 

l^rnrnl.J. Imi\mmi, iIlii I lir ( i\ crsecv nf the Poor in no case shall farm 
out any pauper, uiiiiri i|,,' ;i-c ui I «. nfy nnc year.s. if a male, or, if a fe- 
male, under the ai;i ill ri-hh.ii yr;,i^, ir -IK li Overseers of the Poor can 
possibly bind out a~ appirni icv ;iii\ -udi )p:iiipi-rs. 

For the piu-po.-cj, cuuteuiplated in the foregoing act. such 
Overseers of the Poor for the several townships, were made, in 

name and in fact, bodies corporate and politic, in law, to all in- 
tents and purposes, with perpetual succession, liable, by the name 
of " the Overseers of the Poor, of their respective townships, to sue 
and be sued, plead and be impleaded, in all coui-tsof jurisdiction, 
and by that * * * purchase, take or receive, any lands, tene- 
ments or hereditaments, goods, chattels, sum or sums of money, 
to or for the use of the poor of their respective townships, of the 
gift, alienation or devise, of any person or persons whomsoever; 
to hold to them the said Overseers, or their. successors in tnist, for 
the use of the poor forever." The Legislatiu-e, in the enactment 
of this law, had in contemplation in the near futiu-e, the erection 
of proper buildings, such as the County Commissioners might 
prescribe, to be used as an asylum for the poor who might become 
a permanent charge, as paupers, on the county. 

Dtvring the early years of the county's history, but little prog- 
ress was made toward the development of a more practical method 
of providing for the wants of the poor and indigent of the juris- 
diction, by the local legislative authority. In the course of time, 
however, a decided advance was made, the result of which became 
manifest in the improved condition of the recipients. 

The farraing-out system was generally adopted by the Com- 
missioners, in the management of the poor of Carroll County, 
from the period of organization during the succeeding twenty 
years, and no effort appears to have been made for the purchase 
of a farm or for the erection and maintenance of suitable build- 
ings for the benefit of those, who, from indigence or inability^ 
were not in condition to make provision for their own support 
and comfort. In 1848, the question was agitated among those 
whose duty it was to exercise a general supervision over the mat- 
ter. The board, after determining to pm-chase a farm that v.-ould 
be well adapted to the purpose of utilizing pauper labor, occupied 
some time in examining different proposed sites, and making a 
satisfactory selection before making the purchase. In the mean- 
time, on the 7th of March, 1848, the Commissioners, at that time 
in session, ordered notice to be given that proposals would be re- 
ceived by them until the second day of the succeeding term, for 
boarding, washing for and mending the clothes of paupers on 
the poor- farm, for one year from the 1st day of March, 1849; 
and, also, for the rent of tlie poor- farm for the saue purpose — the 
notice to be published during foui' successive weeks, prior to the 
date mentioned, in the newspapers of the county. Immediately 
following this order, on the 13th of March, of the same year, an 
agreement havin r been consummated for the purchase of a farm, 
a contract was executed with Messrs. John W. and Samuel G. 
Greenup, for the conveyance of the east half of the southwest • 
quarter, and the west half of the southeast quai-ter of Section 
33. Township 25 north, Range 2 west, containing 100 acres, to 
CaiToll County, in consideration of the payment of S2,000 there- 
for, and a deed made accordingly. 

On the 6th day of June following. In conformity with the above 
notice, Richard Lynch was appointed, as in his proposal expressed, 
" to board, wash for and make and mend the clothing of all pau- 
pers put on the county by the Overseers, at §].5<) per week each."' 
The_ poor-farm was also leased to him for the period of one year, 
he guaranteeing to take care of the paupers and pay the County 
Treasurer $155 per year. 

At the session of March 8, 184tl. Dr. William McFarlane. 
piu'suant to his proposal, was appointed to take charge of the 
paujiers, and the prisoners in jail unable to pay for medical at- 
tention, one year, for .S58 per year, payable quarterly. 

It ha^ ing been announced that the buildings on the poor-farm 



had been destroyed by fire, a special session of the board was 
called to meet, on the 14th of Augnst, 184'.), at which time the 
Commissioners entered into a contract with Richard Lynch, the 
lessee of the poor farm, and John Luce, to Ijuild on said farm, a 
" hewed log house, one story of eight feet in height, with founda- 
tion of oak, or other dui'able timber, thirty-two feet long and 
eighteen feet wide in the two rooms — a log partition to be put 
between the rooms — one door and one window, of twelve lights, 
in each room," the latter being placed between the doors; "the 
building to be well chinked and daubed; ceiled under the joists 
with matched boarding; the floor of oak plank, seasoned —a com- 
mon rough floor, laid down jointed; a common clapboard roof : ons 
brick chimney — the old brick- -the floor twelve inches above 
ground; flue for stove in one room, from the joists through the 
roof a sufficient distance; also, another house of round logs, ceiled 
overhead, and a loose plank floor. The building to be sixteen 
feet square and one story high, with same kind of doors as above, 
and the same kind of roof, and a like stove-flue — the whole to be 
completed by the 1st of November following, and all for the sum 
of .15120." These buildings were completed in substantial accord- 
ance with the terms of the foregoing contract, and continued to 
be. for many years, the main buildings of the county, on the farm, 
for providing the poor with a comfortable habitation. 

On the 6th of March, 1850, the board allowed Mr. Lynch, the 
lessee and contractor, for keeping the poor and for building the 
houses contracted for, a balance of $68.12 over and above the 
amount of rent due from him for the use of the farm. He was 
also continued in possession of the premises for another year, on 
the same terms as the preceding. September 20, 1 S.5] , Levi Mock 
was appointed to take charge of the poor-farm, and pay for the 
use of the same $171; also, to take charge of and properly care 
for the paupers placed in his keeping, at the rate of §1,40 each 
per week. Again, at the special session on the ISth of Septem- 
ber, 1852, Mr. Mock being the only bidder for the poor-faim, was 
appointed to the superiutendency of the same, on the conditions 
that he " keei. the farm in good order and farm the same in a 
good farmer-like manner, and remove all sprouts and briers off 
the cleared land — keep and board all paupers brought to said 
farm; and pay for rent $181 per year, and keep all paupers 
placed in charge by the Overseers of the Poor for $1.40 per week, 
except Joseph Hare, he for $2." Before the expiration of the 
year, it was found that the accommodations on the fai-m were in- 
sufficient to meet the demands upon it. As a consequence, steps 
were immediately taken to enlarge the buildings, or otherwise, 
. to erect new, better adapted to the situation. To this end, a spe- 
cial session of the board was held on the 12th of February, 1853, 
when the plans submitted for suitable buildings on the poor- 
farm were examined by the board. After due consideration, the 
following proceedings were had: Thomas C. Hiighes, Joseph 
Evans and John Vail, were appointed a committee to draft plans 
for the building; notice of the letting was ordered to be published 
for two weeks, or until the next March terra. 

A meeting was held pursuant to said notice, on the 10th of 
Mai'ch, 1853, when proposals were received for tlio erection of a 
brick building on the poor-farm. The several proposals having 
been inspected Ijy the board, the contract was awarded to Joseph 
Evans and David Buzzard as the lowest responsible bidders - 
" the building to bo finished from to last, in every partictilar, 
according to the drawings and specifications on file in the Audi- 
tor's office, on or before the 1st day of December, 1853, for the 
price and sum of $2,544, payable one-fourth when the stone wall 

is completed and finished ready for the brick, one-fourth when 
the brick wall is completed, one-fourth when the building is 
inclosed and the balance when the work is completed and accepted 
by the board." 

Mr. Mock was continued in charge of the poor- farm diu-ing the 
years 1854 and 1855, and until December 3, iSoli, when Theodore 
Smoyer was appointed superintendent of the county asyhuu for 
the poor, at a salary of $600, payable in quarterly installments. 

On the 30th of January, 1858. the superiutendency passed 
into the hands of John Maxwell, who, on the 4th of March fol- 
lowing, made a report of the situation of affairs, showing, that, 
during the year preceding, twenty paupers had been received and 
twenty-one discharged; that two deaths had occxirred dm-ing the 
year, the diseases generally being self -abuse and bad whisky; ex- 
penses incurred, $1,839.96; cash on hand, $40.61 ; total, $1,880.57. 
Received from County Treasiu-er, $1,716.30; received from prod- 
uce sold, $164.27; total, 11,880.57. Produce sold, outstanding, 

. A change was made in the administration of afl'airs. on the 
28th of January, 1859, when Mitchell Girard was appointed Su- 
perintendent. From time to time since that date, according to 
the demands of the situation, modifications and improTements 
have been made in the county buildings for the management and 
maintenance of the poor. The area of tillable lands and the facil- 
ities for cultivating the same, have also been enlarged so as to 
afford employment for as many of the inmates of the asjdum as 
were physically capacitated for labor. As a rule, the proceeds 
arising from pauper-labor has been in excess of the amount nec- 
essarily expended for their maintenance on the f aim ; hence, with 
occasional exceptions, under judicious management, the institu- 
tion has been self-sustaining. 

From official soui-ces, it has been ascertained that the ex- 
penses incidental to the management of the poor in this county, 
including amounts paid in labor on the farm, and disbursements 
made for the maintenance of the indigent poor outside the 
asylum, for the past fewyears, has been about as follows; 

By the Auditor's x'eport for the year ending May 31, 1876, it 
is shown that disbursements were made on account of the poor 
asylum to the amount of $1,560.15, and 'for other expenses of the 
poor of the coimty the sum of $2,097.20; in the aggregate, 
$3,657.35. By the same authority, for the year 1877, it is shown 
that the expenses of the asylum were $1,440.22 ; in aid of otlier 
poor, $3,040.84; aggregating the svim of $4,481.06, not including 
the salary of the county physician. In 1878, the expenses of the 
asyliun were $I,58"2.G4, and the expenses of the poor generally, 
$8,631.58; in the aggregate, $5,214.22. For the year 1879, tbe 
disbursements were, for expenses of the poor asyUim, $1,461.49, 
and for other poor, $3,725.77; total. $4,187.2('>.* For 1880, the 
county paid for expenses of the poor asylum, $1,044.02; for the 
maintenance of other poor, $3,481.20; for lx)th, $4,525.22: and. 
in 1881, the amount paid for the asylum was $1,653.56; and for 

maintenance of the poor not 
gating the sum of $4,4('4.S2. 






Farming in Cakroll County in Primeval Days with its Ap- 
pliances—A Reviuw of the Situation— a Tendency To- 
ward Improvements— Leqisla-^ive Action for the En- 
( ouragement of Agricultural Interests— Early Move- 
ments Premminary to Organization— Further Legisla- 
tive Action— Meetings of Farmers under the New Regu- 
lations—A Society Organized—Officers— Address or the 
Hon. H. L. Ellsworth— Permanent Organization-Encour- 
agements— Competition. Etc. 

T T is not necessary to discuss here the importance of agricult- 
*- ure, since the experience of the ages has shown and acknowl 
edged that it has been and is the chief element of prosperity in 
the history of all nations. In this age. as in the, past, in this 
country, as in the Old World, the cultivation of the soil as the 
leading industry, tends most to develo[) the real germ of success 
in every community. Hence, with the fullness of its record be- 
fore us, it is a sufficient commentaiy on the question of merit, to 
say that it underlies the permanent structure of governments 
everywhere, and gives character to the people who compose them. 
Something, however, in review of what has been and is concern- 
ing agi'ioulture and agriculturists, farmers, in C!arroll County, 
cannot be out of place, because, by such means only can a suc- 
cessful comparison be instituted, whereby the ciicimiayiiiii.nts 
incident to the progress in that department, dvu'ini; lln |,a>t hall 
century and more, can be fully set forth, and the n->ults ntiliz.'il 
by the present and succeeding generations. 

Here, an important consideration is the quality of the soil and 
its adaptibility to the cultivation of a great variety of farm prod- 
ucts, readily convertible into money or other elements of pe- 
cuniary value, which go far to establish the prosperity of our 
people, -it first, the means for successful culture were few, com- 
pared with the appliances of the present day. vrt. a]i|iarcntly well 
adapted to the wants or experiences of the simple and in- 
expensive in their character. "An old-fashioucJ breaking plow, 
a single-she ivel plow, a heavy hoe or two, a sled for hauling, an 
ax for chopping and a maul and wedge for cleaving the giant 
lugs in sunder, and a frow for splitting boards; an ox or two, or 
a horse, or. perhaps, a team, and a rude harness, with now and 
then, but very seldom, a wagon — made up what was regarded as 
a very reasonable outfit for carrying on a farm in that early day. 
With these rude and scanty helps, the farmers contrived to work 
their groimds and to care for and secure their crops. A scythe, 
indeed, for mowing, and a sickle for reaping, were needed, and a 
fork — (if ten made from a forked limb, but hardly ever a rake — were 
employed in harvest time to move small grain crops to the wagon 
or the sled, to be hauled thence to the log barn or the stack, for, 
at that day. stacking wheat and oats and hay, was a good enough 
method of disposing of those crops for security against the weather. 
And, as for corn, the blessed poor-man's crop, that needed no 
caring for. It simply stood undisturbed on the stalk until 
wanted for feeding, when it was pulled, thi'own ujion the sled, 
hauled to the stable and fed to the hungry horses, cattle or hogs. 
For years, this simple mode of fai-ming prevailed, more or less. 
Of course, some farmers were able to command better things from 
the beginning, but very many were poor, and had to do as. they 
could— and men were contented therewith, for they raised or made 
nearly all that was needed for family use, which was enough, 
since there was no market, or next to none, and no roads to sjet 

anywhei'e on, and hardly any price for an article if it did happen 
to get to market. 

" The roads, indeed, were in a very primitive condition. At 
iirst, men drove through the woods, cutting out brush and poles, 
when necessary, to admit the passage of the wagon, though at first 
there were only paths or trails, for passing on foot or on horse- 
back. In fact, most of the locomotion was done in one or the 
other of these ways, more frequently on foot, although lawyers. 
Judges, etc., in traveling from county to county, went on horse- 
back. And when actual roads intended for traveling by wagons 
began to be made, it was done simply by removing some of the 
largest trees so as to give room for the wagon to pass; and build- 
ing bridges, not merely over the streams, but across swamps, also, 
of poles or logs, laid crosswise of the track. Sometimes earth was 
thrown upon the bridge thus made, but oftener, the poles or the 
logs were entirely bare, when the wagons would thump and bounce 
in passing over that wonderful highway. Occasionally a ' rail- 

] road ' was built - -that is, rails were taken for the road-floor, in- 

I stead of logs or poles, aud that was fai' better than the others, 
because the surface of the track was made thereby comparatively 
smooth and even. But the regular backwoods highways, made 
with logs, were simply awful! " Can-oil County, in its early days, 

, had an ample supply of just such roads, though, for the greater 
part, mud-roads took the palm. With such siUToundings, the 
pioneer farmers plied their avocations under difficulties which 
time, iiatienee and perseverance only could overcome. But they 
t'lilrd as with a courage that would not yield to adversity, and 
ictory at length crowned their efforts. Many, doubtless, who 
now take high rank among their fellow-citizens, look back to the 
time when their fathers, perhaps themselves, were subjected to the 
circumstances and conditions narrated in the foregoing review of 
pioneer experience. 

Finally, " a desire for something better and more convenient 

I began to possess the people, and slowly, very slowly, changes 
were made. The grain-cradle began to replace the sickle, the 
wagon to come where the sled had been; threshing on the ground 
or on the barn-floor, with horses or oxen, or with tl e ' chaff-piler,' 
was practiced instead of with the flail. Now and then, a man got 

j a fanning-mill to clean bis grain with, instead of the big basket- 

I fan or the sheet; the hominy-pounder and the hand-mill were 
laid aside; and, after awhile, the flax-brake ceased to rattle, and 
the scutching-knife to flash, and the 'shives' and the tow-lint for- 
got to fly from the teeth of the 'hackle;' the merry foot-wheel quit 
its humming, and the big spinning-wheel stopped its cheerful 
music: the pounding whack of the usef'il, though ungainly, loom 
no longer made the house to shake, and the hitherto constant 
'quill-wheel' and 'winding-blades." vexed the urchins and half- 
grown lads and lasses no more. The old began to give place to 
the new, and memory now can scarcely recall those once-familiar 
things, and hardly even a relic now remains of the worn-out and 
discarded past. The i>rocess of transformation and renewal has 
been slow and gradual. Half a century has been none too long 
to re]ilace the quaint, imcouth and awkward old. into the sharp, 
the brusque and the shining new. Many of the prime actors in 
this mighty transformation are still alive and active among us: or, 
if the early pioneers are gone, their children, brought to these 
forests in early infancy or tender childhood, or blushing youth. 

j or born beneath the mighty shadow of the over-arching woods, 
are now the strong and vigorous men and women still jiressing 
bravely forward in the work of imiirovement their hardy fathers 
had so nobly liegun. 



" Not less remarkable and thorough has been the change that 
has taken place in the domestic animals in use throughout this 
region. " Scrub-stock ' were the sort of cattle found in the woods 
and in the fields belonging to the settlers, Swine of the class 
called 'elm-peelers' and ' land-sharks ' roamed thi'ough the forests 
around the clearings, and got fat, more or less, according to the sea- 
son, by rooting up the ' mast ' fi-om underneath the bed of leaves 
imiversally clothing the surface of the ground. In early times, 
herds of swine grew wild, and were the terror of persons passing 
alone through the forest. The settlers had to hunt swine down 
with dogs and shoot them as one would bears or deer. Men 
would go out on horseback and range the woods to find the herds 
of swine, and, having found them and killed such as they wanted, 
would haul the dead bodies of the animals home to be dressed 
and packed away in rude troughs made of huge logs hollowed out 
for the purpose. We have not been able to discover who has the 
honor of being the first to break the dull monotony of inferiority 
in these respects in Carroll County, and to take the lead in that 
grand march of improvement which was destined to sweep away 
the rubbish of the olden time and bring fully to pass the new and 
more excellent way on these essential, material things pertaining 
to the advantage of the people in these We.stern wilds, and to the 
permanent improvement and thorough development of this won- 
drous WesteiTi land." 

The chiiiT^rp that lias been wrought in the processes of farming 
in times piisl. .hhI in \\v implements used by the successful hus- 
bandman, ill llh' riill i\.nionof his grounds, in gathering and tak- 
ing care of liis cioiis iiiid preparing them for the market, is the 
result, in part, at least, of legislative encouragement; more, per- 
haps, from the iiiiplication of science in the analysis of soils and 
the improvement of their pi-oduotive qualities, a knowledge of 
which transmitted through the agency of papers devoted to that 
subject, emljodying the experiences of the better informed; and, 
in a much larger measiu'e, from home competition and the award 
of premiums for the most successful of the various crops. Legis- 
lative attention was early directed to the subject, and expectation 
was more than realized in the i-lfirl luchluceil in the popular mind, 
by eliciting and suggesting- iiii|iiiry ■ iiici.iuing the probable ad- 
vantages likely to accrue to the |irn\ id.Mil larnier. 

An act was passed by our State Tjii;isl.ituic, and approved by 
the Governor, on the "i'id of January. I^',".l. anllmrizing "twenty 
or more citizens of any county, who should scr [nopor to meet at 
their county seat * * * to organize themselves and become 
an agricultural society, with corporate and politic powers." Un 
der the provisions of this act, but little was accomplished, except 
so far as it had a tendency to direct attention to the importance 
of the issues sooner or later to be met in the experiences of hus- 
bandmen generally. At a later date, at the session of 1833-34, 
something in the way of encouragement was proposed, and pro- 
duced better results. In this county, considerable discussion was 
had, and some efforts were made toward organization. A few ag- 
ricultural jom'nala found their way into the hands of our farmers, 
and were read with increased interest. Subsequently, further 
legislative action was had in the light of what had been accom- 
plished in the way of improvements in culture and mechanical 
appliances, and the result commanded very general attention 
among flic most interested. 


It was hot, however, until the passage and ajiproval of the act 
of February 14, 1851. "for the encoui'agement of agriculture," 

that much in the *ay of organization was accomplished. Pui'su- 
ant to the provisions of that act, a State Board of Agriculture 
was formed, of which the Governor, Joseph A. Wright, was Pres- 
ident, and John B. Dillon, Secretary. On the 4th of June, 1851, 
this board issued a circular, which was distributed in all the 
counties of the State, setting forth the pm-poses for which the 
board was organized, and suggesting the organization of district 
and county societies, as a means directed to the accomplishment 
of the pm'poses contemplated in the preparation and passage of 
the law above referred to. In this county, the Delphi Journal, 
of August 28, 1851, contained an editorial suggestion, directing 
public opinion to the propriety of immediate organization under 
the regulations presented by the State Boai'd. Subsequently, no- 
tice was published in the county papers, requesting fai-mers and 
others interested, to meet at the coui-t house in Delphi, on Satitr- 
day, September 20, 1851, to consider the question of organizing 
a county society, for the advancement of agricultural interests, 
and to take such steps as the situation seemed to demand. A 
meeting was accordingly held on the^ day indicated, in which a 
very respectable number of the farmers of Carroll County partici- 
pated with commendable zeal. Of this meeting, Aaron Gregg 
was appointed Chairman, and John B. Milroy, Secretary. The 
result of this meeting was a series of resolutions expressive of the 
prevailing sentiment. The first of the .series declared the confi- 
dence of the meeting in the expediency and the highly-beneficial 
effects of a well-organized and permanent society. A committee, 
consisting of Isaac Jackson, Robert H. Milroy and Andrew H. 
Evans, was appointed to prepai'e a suitable constitution and by- 
laws for the government of such a society, with nstructions to 
report the same at a meeting called to perfect the organization, 
on'the 11th of October following. At the time ap])ointed, a meet- 
ing was held at the court house, when the committee before ap- 
pointed for the piupose reported a constitution and by-laws for 
the government of the proposed society, which, being duly con- 
sidered, were imanimously adopted, after which a Ihrge niunber 
of farmers and others present, enrolled their names as members 
of the society. The preamble and constitution embraced a brief 
review of the advantages to be derived from the united efforts of 
the farmers and mechanics of the county in introducing, compar- 
ing and testing the relative merits of labor-saving machinery, 
becoming familiar with popular methods of conducting the affairs 
of the farm and work-shop, improving stock, and thereby of ele- 
vating the standai'd of civil worth. " For the accomplishment of 
which regular and stated meetings are to be instituted, as a means 
in their own hands of inviting competition for premiiuus on arti- 
cles and methods possessing in themselves peculiar and perma- 
nent advantages over others already in use, and of encoiu'agiug a 
spirit of emulation in whatever may have a tendency to enhance 
the value and quality of their respective commodities, the result 
of individual or mutual exertion. Believing, also, that through 
this medium a source of knowledge may be presented, which can- 
not fail of enriching their minds with the fruits of experience, by 
encouraging a tree current of cooperative sentiment to flow 
throughout the length and breadth of the land. 

" The government of the society will bo conducted by a Presi- 
dent, Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer, and one Director from 
each civil township of the county, who. in the performance of the 
respective duties assigned them, shall constitute a Board of Pi 
rectors, for the general m!i*iagoment of the affairs of the society, 
which will consist in the preservaticm of order, recording and jire- 
serving abstracts of the Treasurer's reports, statements of success- 




ful contribiitors for premiums on crops and other improvements, 
with a detail of the mode of tillage, embracing the modes of cult- 
m-e, or the principles involved, which result in the improvements 
presented, and upon which a premium may be awarded, for the 
specific purpose of preserving them for futm-e reference and im- 
provement; the advancement of the society by an exhibition of 
its prospects at different periods and under different ciricumstan- 
ces, together with the addresses delivered on agricultural subjects, 
the principal productions of the county and their amounts — the 
average yield per acre of the variolas crops — the current prices 
which they bear in market, with many other matters, which, if 
properly considered and fully can-ied out, cannot fail of resulting 
in permanent advantage to the community, as well as to individ- 
ual members of the society." 

Under the provisions of the constitution, an election for tem- 
porary officers of the society thus organized, was held, with the 
following result: Thomas Thompson, President; William Hance, 
Vice President; Isaac Jackson, Secretary; Thomas Stirlen, Treas- 
urer; K. H. Milroy, for Deer Creek; Biehard Sibbitt, for Tippe- 
canoe; Mordecai N. Ellis, for Jefferson; J. Guthrie, for Rock 
Creek; Stephen Paden, for Jackson; Simeon Wilson, for Carr