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3 1833 02554 8907 

'77 „ 201 c; 

History of Cass County 






TBESOMAS 3B. 59E3eX;.M. 





Allen County Public Library 

900 Web5,r-ir Ci^sst 

PO Box .22 /'O 

Fort Wayne, IN 45801-2270 


. PART I. 

History of Indiana, 



THE History of Cass County, as it is now issued, has been un- 
der preparation for several months, and no legitimate sources 
of information have been knowingly neglected by those engaged in 
the work. All but two chapters of the county and township history 
have been prepared, ready for the press, by actual residents of the 
county. We believe their knowledge of and familiarity with the 
subjects they have treated have enabled them to produce a work 
that will withstand the test of unbiased criticism. The difficulties 
to be surmounted in the compilation of matter of this kind are many, 
and sometimes almost disheartening. It is seldom that two persons 
who are conversant with facts that go to make up a history, agree 
in regard to them; and fi-om the various coniiictiug statements the 
compiler is called upon to decide which are most deserving of cred- 
ibility. Yet we believe this volume is more than up to the standard 
of our promises. At the outset we placed the work under the ed- 
itorial control of that venerable and scholarly resident of Logans- 
port, Mr. Thomas B. Helm, and it is useless for us to add that he 
has pursued it with all the faithfulness and energy that his waning 
years would permit. This fact alone is almost sufficient guaranty 
of the excellence of the book's contents. The spelling of proper 
names is so arbitrary a matter that great difficulty is always esjieri- 
enced in the Biographical department. Instances are frequent 
where brothers differ in the spelling of their name, and in all cases 
our only guide was the individual desire, if that could be ascertained. 
Yet we do not claim perfection for the book, as it doubtless contains 
some errors. We believe, however, that we have produced as much 
as coiUd be reasonably expected. The volume, in its make-up and 
mechanical execution, is, perhaps, superior to any of its kind that 
has been issued in the State, and we believe that it will be favor- 
ably received and highly appreciated by those for whom it was pre- 
pared. Our thanks are due to those who have rendered us assist- 
ance and to our patrons. 

Chicago, III., October. 1886. 





Pbehistobic Races 


Chinese, The 

Discovery by Columbus.. 

aians, The, 
Immigration, The First.... 
Immigration, The Second. 
Pyramids, etc.. The. 

Relics of the Jlound-Builderi 

.Savage Customs 

Tartars, The 

Wabash River, The 

White Men, The First... 


IjATioNAL Policies, etc 

jijnerican Policy, The 

Atrocity of the Savages 

Burning of Hinton 

British Policy, The 

Clark's Expedition 

French Scheme, The 

Gilbault, Father 

Government of the Northwest... 

Hamilton's Career 

Liquor and Gaming Laws 

Missionaries, The Catholic 

Ordinance of 1787 

Pontiac's War 

Ruse Against the Indians 

Vigo, Francis 


Cession 1 

Defeat of St. Clair 

Defensive Operations 

Expedition of Harmer . ... 

Expedition of Wayne 

Expedition of St. Clair 

Expedition of Williamson 

Kickapoo Town 

Maumee, Battle of 7. 

Massacre at Pigeon Roost 

Mississinewa Town, Battle at... 

Oratory, Tecumseh's 

Prophet Town, Destruction of.. 

Peace with the Indians 

Siege of Fort Wayne 

Siege of Fort Harrison 


Tippecanoe, Battle of. 

War of 1812 

War of 1812, Close of the 

Bank, Establishment of 120 

Courts, Formation of 120 

County Offices, Appointmentof. 119 

Corydon,the Capital 117 

Gov. Posey 117 

Indiana in 1810 84 

Population " 
Territorial : 
Wetlern Snn, 


Organization of the State, etc 

Amendment, The Fifteenth 

Black Hawk War 

Constitution, Formation of the 

Campaigns Against the Indians.... 

Defeat of Black Hawk 

K."todus of the Indians 

' ieneral Assembly, The First 

Guadalupe-Hidalgo, Treaty of 

Harmony Community 

Indian Titles 


Lafayette, Action at 

Land Sales 

Mexican War, The 



Indiana IN THE Rebellion 

Batteriesof Light Infantry 

Battle Record of States 

Call to Arms, The 

Colored Troops of Indiana 

Calls of 1SG4 

Field, In the 

Indepeudent Cavalry Regiment.... 

Morgan's Itaid 


One Hundred Days' Men 

Regiments, Formation of 

Regiments, Sketch of 

Six Months' Regiments 



Divorce Laws 



Internal Improvements 

Indiana Horticultural Society 

Indiana Promological Society 

Special Laws ' 

State Bank 

State Board of Agriculture 

State Expositions 

Wealth and Progress 


Education and Benevolence 

Blind Institute, The 

City School System 

Compensation of Teachers 

Denominational and I'rivate Institutions.. 

Deaf and Dumb Institute 


Enumeration of .^cholais 

Family Worship 

FreeSchool Sysiem, The 

Funds, Management of the 

Female Prison and Reformatory 

Ilouseof Refuge, Th.- 

Insane Hospital, The 

Northern Indiana Normal School 

Origin of School Funds 

Purdue Uuiversity 

School Statistics 

State University, The 

State Normal School 

State Prison,. South' 

State Prison, North 

Total .School Funds 




Calvert's Quarry, Section of. 

Cedar Island, Section of 

County, Connected Section of. 

Fire Stone Quarry , 

Georgetown Stone 


La Rosa & Nash Quarry, Section of.., 


??alico -Magnesia Limestone 

Strata, Dip of, 

Taibott's Mine, Sec'tion'of.V.'.V.'.'.'.'.'.V.".'!! 

Lands, Survey of 

.Miamis, The 

Old Town Engagement 

Pottawattomies, The 

Residents of Cass County 

Treaties .* 

Tribes, Early 



Acts of County Board, First 

Act of Formation 

Agricultural Society 

Boundary, Present 

Canal, The 

Commissioners' Districts, First 

County Board. First 

Court House, Building of 



Hospital, Insane 

Jails. The 

Locating Commissioners, Report of.... 

Lots Sale of. 

Medical Societies 

Officers, County 

Old Settlers' Association 

, Orphans' Home 

Poor, Expense of 

Poor Farm 


Roads, Public 

Surplus Revenue 

Townships, Boundaries of 

Townships, Creation of. 



.attorneys, Early 

Attorneys, Present 

Attorneys, Roll of 

Circuit Court, First 

Circuit Court, Later Sessions.. 

Common Pleas Court 

Conciliation, Court of 

Harrison Murder Trial 

.Judges, The Circuit 

Probate Court 

Seal of Circuit Court 

Superior Court, The 


Black Hawk War, The 

Indian Troubles 

Irish Insurrection 

Mexican War, The 

Rebellion,' The 

Bounty and Relief. 

Cav^ry Com'pany"First.!......'!!! 

Epaulets, Presentation of. 

First Company for 

Forty-sixth, Cass County In 

Forty-sixth, Departure of. 

Forty.«ixth, Flag presentation I 

Forty-sixth, Flag returned 

G. A. E., The 

297, 298 299, 300 

Morgan Raid, The .»,'. 

Ninth Regiment, Return of. ;.... 

Public Sentiment 333, 337,: 



Eel River Seminary '"".'". 

Business College 

iship Schools.. 

Logansport and Eel To 
Methods of Teaching, Eariy.! 

Smithson College 

Teachers, Early 

Township Schools. 

Bethlehem '.''.'.'.'.'.'". 

Boone '. " 


Clinton .'. 

Deer Creek 


Jackson !....!.!!! 



Noble ". 





Additions to City 

graphics of..... 
iiness Interest 

BiOL . 

i Interests, Present.. 

Churches , 

Early Settlement 

Improvements. Early , 

Incorporation as a Town 

Incorporation as a Citv 

Lots, Sale of .",. 

Merchants, Early 

Newspapers ," 

Secret Societies., 

Tow I 

Township Historv and Biographies... 

Adams Township History 

.\dams Township Biographies 

Bethlehem Township History 

Bethlehem Township Biographies 

Boone Township History 

Boone Township Biographies 

Clay Township History 

Clay Township Bioeraphies 

Clinton Township History 

Clinton Township Biographies 

Deer Creek Township History , 

Deer Creek Township Biographies 

Harrison Township History 

Harrison Township Biographies 

Jackson Township History 

Jackson Township Biographies 

Jetferson Township History 

Jefferson Township Biographies 

Miami Township History 

Jliami Township Biographies 

Noble Township History 

Noble Township Biographies 

Tipton Township History 

Tipton Township Biographies 

Washington Township Historv 

Washington Township Biographies,... 

Biddle, Horace P 

Fitch, Graham X 

Helm, Thomas B 

Louthain, Benj. V 

Merriam, John C 

Parks, Chas. D 

Pratt, D. D 


Shrover, A. R 

Wilson, Jas.S 




Scientists have ascribed to the Mound Builders varied origins^ 
and though their divergence of opinion may for a time seem incom- 
patible with a thorough investigation of the subject, and tend to 
a confusion of ideas, no doubt whatever can exist as to the compar- 
ative accuracy of conclusions arrived at by some of them. Like 
the vexed question of the Pillar Towers of Ireland, it has caused 
much speculation, and elicited the opinioi:S of so many icarned 
antiquarians, ethnologists and travelers, that it will not be found 
beyond the range of possibility to make deductions that may 
suiEce to solve the problem who were the prehistoric settlers of 
America. To achieve this it will not be necessary to go beyond the 
period over which Scripture history extends, or to indulge in those 
airy flights of imagination so sadly identified with occasional 
writers of even the Christian school, and all the accepted literary- 
exponents of modern paganism. 

That this continent is co-existent with the world of the ancients 
cannot be questioned. Every investigation, instituted under the . 
auspices of modern civilization, confirms the fact and leaves no . 
channel open through which the skeptic can escape the thorough 
refutation of his opinions. China, with its numerous living testi- 
monials of antiquity, with its ancient, though limited literature 
and its Babelish superstitions, claims a continuous history from 
antediluvian times; but although its continuity may be denied 
with every just reason, there is nothing to prevent the transmission 
of a hieroglyphic record of its history prior to 1656 anno mundi, 
since many traces of its early settlement survived the Deluge, and 
became sacred objects of the first historical epoch. This very sur- 
vival of a record, such as that of which the Chinese boast, is not 
at variance with the designs of a God who made and ruled the 
universe; but that an antediluvian people inhabited this continent,. 


will not be claimed; because it is not probable, thougli it may be 
possible, that a settlement in a land which may be considered a 
portion of the Asiatic continent, was eflected by the immediate 
followers of the first progenitors of the human race. Therefore, on 
entering the study of the ancient people who raised these tumu- 
lus monuments over large tracts of the country, it will be just 
sufficient to wander back to that time when the flood-gates of 
heaven were swung open to hurl destruction on a wicked world; 
and in doing so the incpiiry must be based on legendary, or rather 
upon many circumstantial evidences; for, so far as written narra- 
tive extends, there is nothing to show that a movement of people 
too far east resulted in a "Western settlement. 


The first and most probable sources in which the origin of the 
Builders must be sought, are those countries lying along the east- 
ern coast of Asia, which doubtless at that time stretched far beyond 
its present limits, and presented a continuous shore from Lo]>atka 
to Point Cambodia, holding a population comparatively civilized, 
and all professing some elementary form of the Boodhism of later 
days. Those p&jples, like the Chinese of the present, were bound 
to live at home, and probably observed that law until after the con- 
fusion of languages and the dispersion of the builders of Babel in 
1757, A. M. ; but subsequently, within the following century, the 
old Mongolians, like the new, crossed the great ocean in the very 
paths taken by the present representatives of the race, arrived on 
the same shores, which now extend a very questionable hospitality 
to them, and entered at once upon the colonization of the country 
south and east, while the Caucasian race engaged in a similar move- 
ment of exploration and colonization over what may be justly 
termed the western extension of Asia, and both peoples growing 
stalwart under the change, attained a moral and physical eminence 
to which they never could lay claim under the tropical sun which 
shed its beams upon the cradle of the human race. 

That mysterious people who, like the Brahmins of to-day, wor- 
shiped some transitory deity, and in after years, evidently embraced 
the idealization of Boodhism, as preached in Mongolia early in the 
35th century of the world, together with acquiring the learning of 
tlie Confucian and Pythagorean schools of the same period, spread 
all over the land, and in their numerous settlements erected these 
rathfi, or mounds, and sacrificial altars whereon they received their 


periodical visiting gods, surrendered their bodies to natural absorp- 
tion or annihilation, and watched tor the return of some transmi- 
grated soul, the while adoring the universe, which with all beings 
they believed would be eternally existent. They possessed religious 
orders corresponding in external show at least with the Essenes or 
Theraputae of the pre-Christian and Christian epochs, and to the 
reformed Theraputae or monks of the present. Every memento 
of their coming and their stay which has descended to us is an evi- 
dence of their civilized condition. The free copper found within 
the tumuli; the open veins of the Superior and Iron Mountain 
copper-mines, with all the modus operandi of ancient mining, such 
as ladders, levers, chisels, and hammer-heads, discovered by the 
French explorers of the Northwest and the Mississippi, are conclu- 
sive proofs that those prehistoric people were highly civilized, and 
that many flourishing colonies were spread throughout the Missis- 
sippi valley, while yet the mammoth, the mastodon, and a hundred 
other animals, now only known by their gigantic fossil remains, 
guarded the eastern shore of the continent as it were against sup- 
posed invasions of the Tower Builders who went west from Babel; 
while yet the beautiful isles of the Antilles formed an integral 
portion of this continent, long years before the European Northman 
dreamed of setting forth to the discovery of Greenland and the 
northern isles, and certainly at a time when all that portion of 
America north of latitude 45' was an ice-incumbered waste. 

Within the last few years great advances have been made toward 
the discovery of antiquities whether pertaining to remains of organic 
or inorganic nature. Together with many small, but telling 
relics of the early inhabitants of the country, the fossils of pre- 
historic animals have been unearthed from end to end of the land, 
and in districts, too, long pronounced by geologists of some repute 
to be without even a vestige of vertebrate fossils. Among the 
collected souvenirs of an age about which so very little is known, 
are twenty-five vertebrae averaging thirteen inches in diameter, 
and three vertebrae ossified together measure nine cubical feet; a 
thigh-bone five feet long by twenty-eight, by twelve inches in 
diameter, and the shaft fourteen by eight inches thick, the entire 
lot weighing 600 lbs. These fossils are presumed to belong to the 
cretaceous period, when the Dinosaur roamed over the country from 
East to West, desolating the villages of the people. This animal 
is said to have been sixty feet long, and when feeding in cypress 
and palm forests, to extend himself eighty-five feet, so that he may 


devour the badding tops of those great trees. Other efforts in this 
direction may lead to great results, and culminate probably in the 
discovery of a tablet engraven by some learned Mound Builder, 
describing in the ancient hieroglyphics of China all these men and 
beasts whose history excites so much speculation. The identity of 
the Mound Builders with the Mongolians might lead us to hope 
for such a consummation; nor is it beyond the range of probability, 
particularly in this practical age, to find the future labors of some 
industrious antiquarian requited by the upheaval of a tablet, written 
in the Tartar characters of 1700 years ago, bearing on a subject 
which can now be treated only on a purely circumstantial basis. 


may have begun a few centuries prior to the Christian era, and 
unlike the former expedition or expeditions, to have traversed north- 
eastern Asia to its Arctic confines, and then east to the narrow 
channel now known as Behring's Straits, which they crossed, and 
sailing up the unchanging Yukon, settled under the shadow of 
Mount St. Elias for many years, and pushing South commingled 
with their countrymen, soon acquiring the characteristics of the 
descendants of the first colonists. Chinese chronicles tell of such 
a people, who went North and were never heard of more. Circum- 
stances conspire to render that particular colony the carriers of a 
new religious faith and of an alphabetic system of a representative 
character to the old colonists, and they, doubtless, exercised a most 
beneficial influence in other respects ; because the influx of immi- 
grants of such culture as were the Chinese, even of that remote 
period, must necessarily bear very favorable results, not only in 
bringing in reports of their travels, but also accftunts from the 
fatherland bearing on the latest events. 

With the idea of a second and important exodus there are many 
theorists united, one of whom says: " It is now the generally 
received opinion that the first inhabitants of America passed over 
from Asia through these straits. The number of small islands 
lying between both continents renders this opinion still more 
probable; and it is yet further confirmed by some remarkable traces 
of similarity in the physical conformation of the northern natives 
of both continents. The Esquimaux of North America, the 
Samoieds of Asia, and the Laplanders of Europe, are supposed to 
be of the same family; and this supposition is strengthened by the 
affinity which exists in their languages. The researches of Hum- 


boldt have traced the Mexicans to the vicinity of Behring's Straits; 
whence it is conjectured that they, as well as the Peruvians and 
other tribes, came originally from Asia, and were the Hiongnoos, 
who are, in the Chinese annals, said to have emigrated under Puno, 
and to have been lost in the North of Siberia.'* 

Since this theory is accepted by most antiquaries, there is every 
reason to believe that from the discovery of what may be called an 
overland route to what was then considered an eastern extension of 
that country which is now known as the " Celestial Empire," many 
caravans of emigrants passed to their new homes in the land of 
illimitable possibilities until the way became a well-marked trail 
over which the Asiatic might travel forward, and having once 
entered the Elysian fields never entertained an idea of returning. 
Thus from generation to generation the tide of immigration poured 
in until the slopes of the Pacific and the banks of the great inland 
rivers became hives of busy industry. Magnificent cities and 
monuments were raised at the bidding of the tribal leaders and 
populous settlements centered with happy villages sprung up 
■everywhere in manifestation of the power and wealth and knowl- 
edge of the people. The colonizing Caucasian of the historic 
period walked over this great country on the very ruins of a civil- 
ization which a thousand years before eclipsed all that of which he 
could boast. He walked through the wilderness of the West over 
buried treasures hidden under the accumulated growth of nature, 
nor rested until he saw, with great surprise, the remains of ancient 
pyramids and temples and cities, larger and evidently more beauti- 
ful than ancient Egypt could bring forth after its long years of 
uninterrupted history. The pyramids resemble those of Egypt in 
exterior form, and in some instances are of larger dimensions. The 
pyramid of Oholula is square, having each side of its base 1,335 
feet in length, and its height about 172 feet. Another pyramid? 
situated iu the north of Vera Cruz, is formed of large blocks 
of highly-polished porphyry, and bears upon its front hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions and curious sculpture. Each side of its 
square base is 82 feet in length, and a flight of 57 steps conducts to 
its summit, which is 65 feet in height. The ruins of Palenque are 
said to extend 20 miles along the ridge of a mountain, and the 
remains of an Aztec city, near the banks of the river Gila, are 
spread over more than a square league. Their literature consisted 
of hieroglyphics; but their arithmetical knowledge did not extend 
farther than their calculations by the aid of grains of corn. Yet, 


notwithstanding all their varied accomplishments, and they were 
evidently many, their notions of religious duty led to a most demo- 
niac zeal at once barbarously savage aud ferociously cruel. Each 
visiting, god instead of bringing new life to the people, brought 
death to thousands J and their grotesque idols, exposed to drown 
the senses of the beholders in fear, wrought wretchedness rather 
than spiritual happiness, until, as some learned and humane Monte- 
zumian said, the people never approached these idols without fear, 
and this fear was the great animating principle, the great religious 
motive power which sustained the terrible religion. Their altars 
were sprinkled with blood drawn from their own bodies in large 
quantities, and on them thousands of human victims were sacri- 
ficed in honor of the demons whom they worshiped. The head 
and heart of every captive taken in war were offered up as a bloody 
sacrifice to the god of battles, while the victorious legions feasted 
on the remaining portions of the dead bodies. It has been ascer- 
tained that during the ceremonies attendant on the consecration of 
two of their temples, the number of prisoners offered up in sacri- 
fice was 12,210; while their own legions contributed voluntary 
victims to the terrible belief in large numbers. Nor did this 
horrible custom cease immediately after 1521, when Cortez entered 
the imperial city of the Montezumas; for, on being driven from 
it, all his troops who fell into the bauds of the native soldiers were 
subjected to the most terrible and prolonged suffering that could be 
experienced in this world, and when about to yield up that spirit 
which is indestructible, were offered in sacrifice, their hearts and 
heads consecrated, and the victors allowed to feast on the yet warm 

A reference is made here to the period when the Montezumas 
ruled over Mexico, simply to gain a better idea of the hideous 
idolatry which took the place of the old Boodhism of the Mound 
Builders, and doubtless helped in a great measure to give victory 
to the new comers, even as the tenets of Mahometanism urged the 
ignorant followers of the prophet to the conquest of great nations. 
It was not the faith of the people who built the mounds and the 
pyramids and the temples, and who, 200 years before the Christian 
era, built the great wall of jealous China. No: rather was it that 
terrible faith born of the Tartar victory, which carried the great 
defenses of China at the point of the jarelin and hatchet, who 
afterward marched to the very walls of Rome, under Alaric, and 


spread over the islands of Polynesia to the Pacific slopes of South 


came there, and, like the pure Mongols of Mexico and the Missis- 
sippi valley, rose to a state of civilization bordering on that attained 
by them. Here for centuries the sons of the fierce Tartar race con- 
tinued to dwell in comparative peace until the all-ruling ambition 
of empire took in the whole country from the Pacific to the Atlan- 
tic, and peopled the vast territory watered by the Amazon with a 
race that was destined to conquer all the peoples of the Orient, 
and only to fall before the march of the arch-civilizing Caucasian. 
In course of time those fierce Tartars pushed their settlements 
northward, and ultimately entered the territories of the Mound 
Builders, putting to death all who feJl within their reach, and 
causing the survivors of the death-dealing invasion to seek a refuge 
from the hordes of this semi-barbarous people in the wilds and fast- 
nesses of the North and Northwest. The beautiful country of the 
Mound Builders was now in the hands of savage invaders, the quiet, 
industrious people who raised the temples and pyramids were gone; 
and the wealth of intelligence and industry, accumulating forages, 
passed into the possession of a rapacious horde, who could admire 
it only so far as it offered objects for plunder. Even in this the 
invaders were satisfied, and then having arrived at the lieight of 
their ambition, rested on their swords and entered upon the luxury 
and ease in the enjoyment of which they were found when the van- 
guard of European civilization appeared upon the scene. Mean- 
time the southern countries which those adventurers abandoned 
after having completed their conquests in the North, were soon 
peopled by hundreds of people, always moving from island to 
island and ultimately halting amid the ruins of villages deserted 
by those who, as legends tell, had passed eastward but never returned; 
and it would scarcely be a matter for surprise if those emigrants 
were found to be the progenitors of that race found by the Spaniards 
in 1532, and identical with the Araucanians, Cuenches and Huil- 
tiches of to-day. 


One of the most brilliant and impartial historians of the Republic 
stated that the valley of the Mississippi contained no monuments. 
So far as the word is entertained now, he was literally correct, but 


in some liasty effort neglected to qualify his sentence by a refer- 
ence to the numerous relics of antiquity to be found throughout 
its length and breadth, and so exposed his chapters to criticism. 
The valley of the Father of Waters, and indeed the country from 
the trap rocks of the Great Lakes southeast to the Gulf and south- 
west to Mexico, abound in tell-tale monuments of a race of people 
much farther advanced in civilization than the Montezumas of the 
sixteenth century. The remains of walls and fortifications found 
in Kentucky and Indiana, the earthworks of Vincennes and 
throughout the valley of the Wabash, the mounds scattered over 
Alabama, Florida, Georgia and Virginia, and those found in Illi- 
nois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, are all evidences of the univer- 
sality of the Chinese Mongols and of their advance toward a com- 
parative knowledge of man and cosmology. At the mouth of 
Fourteen-Mile creek, in Clark county, Indiana, there stands one of 
these old monuments known as the " Stone Fort." It is an 
unmistakable heirloom of a great and ancient people, and must 
have formed one of their most important posts. The State Geolo- 
gist's report, filed among the records of the State and furnished 
by Prof. Cox, says: "At the mouth of Fourteen-Mile creek, and 
about three miles from Charleston, the county-seat of Clark county, 
there is one of the most remarkable stone fortifications which has 
ever come under ray notice. Accompanied by my assistant, Mr. 
Borden, and a number of citizens of Charleston, I visited the ' Stone 
Fort' for the purpose of making an examination of it. The locality 
selected for this fort presents many natural advantages for making 
it impregnable to the opposing forces of prehistoric times. It 
occupies the point of an elevated narrow ridge which faces the 
Ohio river on the east and is bordered by Fourteen-Mile creek on 
the west side. This creek empties into the Ohio a short distance 
below the fort. The top of the ridge is pear-shaped, with the 
part answering to the neck at the north end. This part is not 
over twenty feet wide, and is protected by precipitous natural walls 
of stone. It is 280 feet above the level of the Ohio river, and the 
slope is very gradual to the south. At the upper field it is 2'10 feet 
high and one hundred steps wide. At the lower timber it is 120 
feet high. The bottom land at the foot of the south end is sixty 
feet above the river. Along the greater part of the Ohio river 
front there is an abrupt escarpment rock, entirely too steep to be 
scaled, and a similar natural barrier exists along a portion of the 
northwest side of the ridge, facing the creek. This natural wall 


is joined to the neck of an artificial wall, made by piling up, mason 
fashion but without mortar, loose stone, which had evidently been 
pried up from the carboniferous layers of rock. This made wall, at 
this point, is about 150 feet long. It is built along the slope of the 
hill and had an elevation of about 75 feet above its base, the upper 
ten feet being vertical. The inside of the wall is protected by a 
ditch. The remainder of the hill is protected by an artificial stone 
wall, built in the same manner, but not more than ten feet high. 
The elevation of the side wall above the creek bottom is 80 feet. 
Within the artificial walls is a string of mounds whicli rise to the 
height of the wall, and are protected from the washing of the hill- 
sides by a ditch 20 feet wide and four feet deep. The position of 
the artificial walls, natural cliffs of bedded stone, as well as that of 
the ditch and mounds, are well illustrated. The top of the enclosed 
ridge embraces ten or twelve acres, and there are as many as five 
mounds that can be recognized on the flat surface, while no doubt 
many others existed which have been obliterated by time, and 
though the agency of man in his efforts to cultivate a portion of 
the ground. A trench was cut into one of these mounds in search 
of relics. A few fragments of charcoal and decomposed bones, and 
a large irregular, diamond-shaped boulder, with a small circular 
indentation near the middle of the upper part, that was worn qhite 
smooth by the use to which it had been put, and the small pieces 
of fossil coral, comprised all the articles of note which were revealed 
by the excavation. The earth of which the mound is made resem- 
bles that seen on the hillside, and was probably in most part taken 
from the ditch. The margin next to the ditch was protected by 
slabs of stone set on edge, and leaning at an angle corresponding to 
the slope of the mound. This stone shield was two and one-half 
feet wide and one foot high. At intervals along the great ditch 
there are channels formed between the mounds that probably served 
to carry off the surplus water through openings in the outer wall. 
On the top of the enclosed ridge, and near its narrowest part, there 
is one mound much larger than any of the others, and so situated 
as to command an extensive view up and down the Ohio river, as well 
as affording an unobstructed view east and west. This is designated 
as ' Look-out Mound.' There is near it a slight break in the cliff 
of rock, which furnished a narrow passage way to the Ohio river. 
Though the locality afforded many natural advantages for a fort or 
stronghold, one is compelled to admit that much skill was displayed 
and labor expended in making its defense as perfect as possible at 


all points. Stone axes, pestles, arrow-heads, spear-points, totums, 
charms and flint flakes have been found in great abundance in 
plowing tlie field at the foot of the old fort." 

From the " Stone Fort " the Professor turns his steps to Posey 
county, at a point on the Wabash, ten miles above the mouth, 
called "Bone Bank," on account of the number of human bones 
continually washed out from the river bank. " It is," he states 
"situated in a bend on the left bank of the river; and the ground 
is about ten feet above high-water mark, being tiie only land along 
this portion of the river that is not submerged in seasons of high 
water. The bank slopes gradually back from the river to a slough. 
This slough now seldom contains water, but no doubt at one time 
it was an arm of the Wabash river, which flowed around the Bone 
Bank and afi'orded protection to the island home of the Mound 
Builders. The Wabash has been changing its bed for many years, 
leaving a broad extent of newly made land on the right shore, and 
gradually making inroads on the left shore by cutting away the 
Bone Bank. The stages of growth of land on the right bank of the 
river are well defined by the cottonwood trees, which increase in size 
as you go back from the river. Unless there is a change in the cur- 
rent of the river, all trace of the Bone Bank will be obliterated. 
Already within the memory of the white inhabitants, the bank has 
been removed to the width of several hundred yards. As the bank 
is cut by the current of the river it loses its support, and when the 
water sinks it tumbles over, carrying with it the bones of the 
Mound Builders and the cherished articles buried with them. No 
locality in the country furnishes a greater number and variety of 
relics than this. It has proved especially rich in pottery of 
quaint design and skillful workmanship. I have a number of jugs 
and pots and a cup found at the Bone Bank. This kind of work 
has been verj' abundant, and is still found ia such quantities that 
we are led to conclude that its manufacture formed a leading indus- 
try of the inhabitants of the Bone Bank. It is not in Europe 
alone that we find a well-founded claim of high antiquity for the 
art of making hard and durable stone by a mixture of clay, lime, 
sand and stone; for I am convinced that this art was possessed by 
a race of people who inhabited this continent at a period so remote 
that neither tradition nor history can furnish any account of them. 
They belonged to the Neolithic, or polished-stone, age. They lived 
in towns and built mounds for sepulture and worship and pro- 
tected their homes by surrounding them with walls of earth and 


stone. In some of these mounds specimens of various kinds of 
pottery, in a perfect state of preservation, have from time to time 
been found, and fragments are so common that every student of 
archaeology can have a bountiful supply. Some of these fragments 
indicate vessels of very great size. At the Saline springs of Gal- 
latin I picked up fragments that indicated, by their curvature, ves- 
sels five to six feet in diameter, and it is probable they are frag- 
ments of artificial stone pans used to hold brine that was manufac- 
tured into salt by solar evaporation. 

" Now, all the pottery belonging to the Mound Builders' age, 
which I have seen, is composed of alluvial clay and sand, or a mix- 
ture of the former with pulverized fresh-water shells. A paste 
made of such a mixture possesses, in high degree, the properties of 
hydraulic Puzzuoland and Portland cement, so that vessels formed 
of it hardened without being burned, as is customary with modern 

The Professor deals very aptly with this industry of the aborig- 
ines, and concludes a very able disquisition on the Bone Bank in 
its relation to the prehistoric builders. 


The great circular redoubt or earth-work found two miles west ot 
the village of New Washington, and the " Stone Fort," on a ridge 
one mile west of the village of Deputy, offer a subject for the anti- 
quarian as deeply interesting as any of the monuments of a 
decayed empire so far discovered. 


From end to end of Indiana there are to be found many other rel- 
ics of the obscure past. Some of them have been unearthed and now 
appear among the collected antiquities at Indianapolis. The highly 
finished sandstone pipe, the copper ax, stone axes, flint arrow-heads 
and magnetic plummets found a few years ago beneath the soil of 
Cut-OfF Island near New Harmony, together with the pipes of rare 
workmanship and undoubted age, unearthed near Covington, all 
live as it were in testimony of their owner's and maker's excel- 
lence, and hold a share in the evidence of the partial annihilation 
of a race, with the complete disruption of its manners, customs 
and industries; and it is possible that when numbers of these relics 
are placed together, a key to the phonetic or rather hieroglyphic 
system of that remote period might be evolved. 

It may be asked what these hieroglyphical characters really are. 
Well, they are varied in form, so much so that the pipes found in 
the mounds of Indians, each bearing a distinct representation of 
some animal, may be taken for one species, used to represent the 
abstract ideas of the Mound Builders. The second form consists 
of pure hieroglyphics or phonetic characters, in which the sound is 
represented instead of the object; and the third, or painted form of 
the first, conveys to the mind that which is desired to be repre-. 
sented. This form exists among the Cree Indians of the far North- 
west, at present. They, when departing from their permanent vil- 
lages for the distant hunting grounds, paint on the barked trees in 
the neighborhood the figure of a snake or eagle, or perhaps huskey 
dog; and this animal is supposed to guard the position until the 
warrior's return, or welcome any friendly tribes that may arrive 
there in the interim. In the case of the Mound Builders, it is un- 
likely that this latter extreme was resorted to, for the simple reason 
that the relics of their occupation are too high in the ways of art to 
tolerate such a barbarous science of language; but the sculptured 
pipes and javelins and spear-heads of the Mound Builders may be 
taken as a collection of graven images, each conveying a set of 
ideas easily understood, and perhaps sometimes or more generally 
used to designate the vocation, name or character of the owner. 
That the builders possessed an alphabet of a phonetic form, and 
purely hieroglyphic, can scarcely be questioned; but until one or 
more of the unearthed tablets, which bore all or even a portion of 
such characters, are raised from their centuried graves, the mystery 
which surrounds this people must remain, while we luust dwell in 
a world of mere speculation. 


Vigo, Jasper, Sullivan, Switzerland and Ohio counties can boast 
of a most liberal endowment in this relation; and when in other 
days the people will direct a minute inquiry, and penetrate to the 
very heart of the thousand cones which are scattered throughout 
the land, they may possibly extract the blood in the shape of metal- 
lic and porcelain works, with hieroglyphic tablets, while leaving 
the form of heart and body complete to entertain and delight un- 
born generations, who in their time will wonder much when they 
learn that an American people, living toward the close of the 59th 
century, could possibly indulge in such an anachronism as is im- 
plied in the term "New World." 


The origin of the Ked Men, or American Indians, is a subject 
which interests as well as instructs. It is a favorite with the eth- 
nologist, even as it is one of deep concern to the ordinary reader. 
A review of two works lately published on the origin of the Indians 
treats the matter in a peculiarly reasonable light. It says: 

" Recently a German writer has put forward one theory on the 
subject, and an English writer has put forward another and directly 
opposite theory. The difference of opinion concerning our aborig- 
inals among authors who have made a profound study of races is at 
once curious and interesting. Blumenbach treats them in his 
classifications as a distinct variety of the human family; but, in the 
threefold division of Dr. Latham, they are ranked among the Mon- 
golidas. Other writers on race regard them as a branch of the great 
Mongolian family, which at a distant period found its way from 
Asia to this continent, and remained here for centuries separate 
from the rest of mankind, passing, meanwhile, through divers 
phases of barbarism and civilization. Morton, our eminent eth- 
nologist, and his followers, Nott and Gliddon, claim for our native 
Red Men an origin as distinct as the flora and fauna of this conti- 
nent. Prichard, whose views are apt to differ from Morton's, finds 
reason to believe, on comparing the American tribes together, that 
they must have formed a separate department of nations from the 
earliest period of the world. The era of their existence as a distinct 
and insulated people must probably be dated back to the time 
which separated into nations the inhabitants of the Old World, and 

fave to each its individuality and primitive language. Dr. Robert 
Irown, the latest authority, attributes, in his "Races of Mankind," 
an Asiatic origin to our aboriginals. He says that th# Western In- 
dians not only personally resemble their nearest neighbors — the 
Northeastern Asiatics — but they resemble them in language and 
traditions. The Esquimaux on the American and the Tchuktchis 
on the Asiatic side understand one another perfectly. Modern an- 


thropologists, indeed, are disposed to tliink that Japan, the Kuriles, 
and neighboring regions, may be regarded as the original home of 
the greater part of the native American race. It is also admitted 
by them that between the tribes scattered from the Arctic sea to 
Cape Horn there is more uniformity of physical features than is 
seen in any other quarter of the globe. The weight of evidence 
and authority is altogether in favor of the opinion that our so- 
called Indians are a branch of the Mongolian family, and all addi- 
tional researches strengthen the opinion. The tribes of both Nortli 
and South America are unquestionably homogeneous, and, in all 
likelihood, had their origin in Asia, though they have been altered 
and modified by thousands of years of ftotal separation from the 
parent stock." 

The conclusions arrived at by the reviewer at that time, though 
safe, are too general to lead the reader to form any definite idea on 
the subject. No doubt whatever can exist, when the American In- 
dian is regarded as of an Asiatic origin; but there is nothing in the 
works or even in the review, to which these works were subjected, 
which might account for the vast difi'erence in manner and form 
between the Red Man, as he is now known, or even as he appeared 
to Columbus and his successors in the field of discovery, and the 
comparatively civilized inhabitants of Mexico, as seen in 1521 by 
Cortez, and of Peru, as witnessed by Pizarro in 1532. The fact is 
that the pure bred Indian of the present is descended directly 
from the earliest inhabitants, or in other words from the survivors 
of that people who, on being driven from their fair possessions, re- 
tired to the wilderness in sorrow and reared up their children under 
the saddening influences of their unquenchable griefs, bequeathing 
them only the habits of the wild, cloud-roofed home of their de- 
clining years, a sullen silence, and a rude moral code. In after 
years these wild sons of the forest and prairie grew in numbers and 
in strength. Some legend told them of their present sufferings, of 
the station which their fathers once had known, and of the riotous 
race which now reveled in wealth which should be theirs. The 
fierce passions of the savage were aroused, and uniting their scat- 
tered bands marched in silence upon the villages of the Tartars, 
driving them onward to the capital of their Incas, and consigning 
their homes to the flames. Once in view of the great city, the 
hurrying bands halted in surprise; but Tartar cunning took in the 
situation and offered pledges of amity, which were sacredly ob- 
served. Henceforth Mexico was open to the Indians, bearing pre- 
cisely the same relation to them that the Hudson's Bay Company's 


villages do to the Northwestern Indians of the present; obtaining 
all, and bestowing very little. The subjection of the Mongoliau 
race represented in North America by that branch of it to which 
the Tartars belonged, represented in the Southern portion of the con- 
tinent, seems to have taken place some five centuries before the 
advent of the European, while it may be concluded that the war of 
the races which resulted in reducing the villages erected by the 
Tartar hordes to ruin took place between one and two hundred 
jears later. These statements, though actually referring to events 
which in point of time are comparatively modern, can only be sub- 
stantiated by the facts that, about the periods mentioned the dead 
bodies of an unknown race of men were washed ashore on the Eu- 
ropean coasts, while previous to that time there is no account 
whatever in European annals of even a vestige of trans-Atlantic hu- 
manity being transferred by ocean currents to the gaze of a won- 
dering people. Towards the latter half ot the 15th century two 
dead bodies entirely free from decomposition, and corresponding 
with the Red Men as they afterward appeared to Columbus, were 
cast on the shores of the Azores, and confirmed Columbus in his be- 
lief in the existence of a western world and western people. 

Storm and flood and disease have created sad havoc in the ranks 
of the Indian since the occupation of the country by the white man. 
These natural causes have conspired to decimate the race even more 
than the advance of civilization, which seems not to ailect it to any 
material extent. In its maintenance of the same number of rep- 
resentatives during three centuries, and its existence in the very 
face of a most unceremonious, and, whenever necessary, cruel con- 
quest, the grand dispensations of the unseen Ruler of the universe 
is demonstrated; for, without the aborigines, savage and treach- 
erous as they were, it is possible that the explorers of former times 
would have so many natural difiiculties to contend with, that their 
work would be surrendered in despair, and the most fertile regions 
of the continent saved for the plowshares of generations yet un- 
born. It is questionable whether we owe the discovery of this con- 
tinent to the unaided scientific knowledge of Columbus, or to the 
dead bodies of the two Indians referred to above; nor can their ser- 
vices to the explorers of ancient and modern times be over-esti- 
mated. Their existence is embraced in the plan of the Divinity 
for the government of the world, and it will not form subject for 
surprise to learn that the same intelligence which sent a thrill of 
liberty into every corner of the republic, will, in the near future, 


devise some method under which the remnant of a great and an- 
cient race may taste the sweets of public kindness, and feel that, 
after centuries of turmoil and tyranny, they have at last found a 
shelter amid a sympathizing people. Many have looked at the In- 
dian as the pessimist does at all things; they say that he was never 
formidable until the white man supplied him with the weapons of 
modern warfare; but there is no mention made of his eviction from 
his retired home, and the little plot of cultivated garden which 
formed the nucleus of a village that, if fostered instead of being 
destroyed, might possibly hold an Indian population of some im- 
portance in the economy of the nation. There is no intention what- 
ever to maintain that the occupation of this country by the favored 
races is wrong even in principle; for where any obstacle to advanc- 
ing civilization exists, it has to fall to the ground; but it may be 
said, with some truth, that the white man, instead of a policy of 
conciliation formed upon the power of kindness, indulged in bel- 
ligerency as impolitic as it was unjust. A modern writer says, 
when speaking of the Indian's character: "He did not exhibit that 
steady valor and efficient discipline of the American soldier; and 
to-day on the plains Sheridan's troopers would not hesitate to 
attack the bravest band, though outnumbered three to one." This 
piece of information applies to the European and African, as well 
as to the Indian. The American soldier, and particularly the 
troopers referred to, would not fear or shrink from a very legion ot 
demons, even with odds against them. This mode of warfare seems 
strangely peculiar when compared with the military systems of 
civilized countries; yet, since the main object of armed men is to 
defend a country or a principle, and to destroy anything which may 
oppose itself to them, the mode of warfare pursued by the savage 
will be found admirably adapted to their requirements in this con- 
nection, and will doubtless compare favorably with the systems of 
the Afghans and Persians of the present, and the Caucasian people 
<3f the lirst historic period. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, 
like that of war, was a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 
The male children, as soon as they acquired sufficient age and 
strength, were furnished with a bow and arrow and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. Success in killing a large quadruped 
required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as 


sedulously inculcated in the minds of the rising generation as are 
the elements of reading, writing and arithmetic in the common 
schools of civilized communities. The mazes of the forest and the 
dense, tall grass of the prairies were the best fields for the exercise 
of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the yielding 
soil but that the tracks were the objects of the most searching 
scrutiny, and revealed at a glance the animal that made them, the 
direction it was pursuing, and the time that had elapsed since it 
had passed. In a forest country he selected the valleys, because 
they were most frequently the resort of game. The most easily 
taken, perhaps, of all the animals of the chase was the deer. It is 
endowed with a curiosity which prompts it to stop in its flight and 
look back at the approaching hunter, who always avails himself of 
this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. 

Their general councils were composed of the chiefs and old men. 
When in council, they usually sat in concentric circles around the 
speaker, and each individual, notwithstanding the fiery passions 
that rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with 
the sacred pipe, and anotlier with fire to kindle it. After being 
lighted it was first presented to heaven, secondly to the earth, 
thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly the several councilors, 
each of whom took a whiff. These formalities were observed with 
as close exactness as state etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the simplest and rudest 
character. On some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near 
an ever-running spring, they raised their groups of wigwams, con- 
structed of the bark of trees, and easily taken down and removed 
to another spot. The dwelling-places of the chiefs were sometimes 
more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same 
materials. Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, the 
uncertain supply from those sources led them to cultivate small 
patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within 
itself, commerce, or an interchange of articles, being almost unknown 
to them. In cases of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied 
upon himself for retaliation. Blood for blood was the rule, and 
the relatives of the slain man were bound to obtain bloody revenge 
for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to 
innumerable and bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such 
were possible. "War, indeed, rather than peace, was the Indian's 


glory and delight, — war, not conducted as civilization, but war 
where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and cruelty were prime 
requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the Indian would make 
great sacrifices, and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic; 
but when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, un- 
occupied, well-nigh useless savage. During the intervals of his 
more exciting pursuits, the Indian employed his time in decorating 
his person with all the refinement of paint and feathers, and in the 
manufacture of his arms and of cauoes. These were constructed of 
bark, and so light that they could easily be carried on the shoulder 
from stream to stream. His amusements were the war-dance, ath- 
letic games, the narration of his exploits, and listening to the ora- 
tory of the chiefs; but diaring long periods of such existence he 
remained in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the trees of 
the forests and the clouds that sailed above them ; and this vacancy 
imprinted an habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his gen- 
eral deportment. 

The main labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon 
the women. The planting, tending and gathering of the crops, 
making mats and baskets, carrying burdens, — in fact, all things of 
the kind were performed by them, thus making their condition but 
little better than that of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter of 
bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the 
bride. In general they had but few children. They were sub- 
jected to many and severe attacks of sickness, and at times famine 
and pestilence swept away whole tribes. 



The State of Indiana is bounded on the east by the meridian line 
which forms also the western boundary of Ohio, extending due 
north from the mouth of the Great Miami river: on the south by 
the Ohio river from the mouth of the Great Miami to the month 
of the Wabash; on the west by aline drawn along the middle of 
the Wabash river from its mouth to a point where a due north 
line from the town of Vincennes would last touch the shore of said 
river, and thence directly north to Lake Michigan ; and on the north 
by said lake and an east and west line ten miles north of the ex- 
treme south end of the lake, and extending to its intersection with 
the aforesaid meridian, the west boundary of Ohio. These bound- 
aries include an area of 33,809 square miles, lying between 37° 
47' and 41° 50' north latitude, and between 7° 45' and 11° 1' west 
longitude from Washington. 

After the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492, more than 
150 years passed away before any portion of the territory now com- 
prised within the above limits was explored by Europeans. Colo- 
nies were established in Florida, Virginia and Kova Scotia by the 
principal rival governments of Europe, but not until about 1670-'2 
did the first white travelers venture as far into the Northwest as 
Indiana or Lake Michigan. These explorers were Frenchmen by 
the names of Claude AUouez and Claude Dablon, who then visited 
what is now the eastern part of Wisconsin, the northeastern portion 
of Illinois and probably that portion of this State north of the Kan- 
kakee river. In the following year M. Joliet, an agent of the 
French Colonial government, and James Marquette, a good and 
simple-hearted missionary who had his station at Mackinaw, ex- 
plored the country about Green Bay, and along Fox and Wiscon- 
sin rivers as far westward as the Mississippi, the banks of which 
they reached June 17, 1673. They descended this river to about 
33° 40', but returned by way of the Illinois river and the route 
thej came in the Lake Region. At a village among the Illinois In- 
dians, Marquette and his small band of adventurers were received 


in a friendly manner and treated hospitably. They were made the 
honored guesK at a great feast, where hominy, fish, dog meat and 
roast buffalo meat were spread before them in great abundance. In 
1682 LaSalle explored the West, but it is not known that he entered 
the region now embraced within the State of Indiana. He took 
formal possession, however, of all the Mississippi region in the 
name of the King of France, in whose honor he gave all this Mis- 
sissippi region, including what is now Indiana, the name " Louisi- 
ana." Spain at the same time laid claim to all the region about 
the Gulf of Mexico, and thus these two great nations were brought 
into collision. But the country was actually held and occupied by 
the great Miami confederacy of Indians, the Miamis proper (an- 
ciently the Twightwees) being the eastern and most powerful tribe. 
Their territory extended strictly from the Scioto river west to the 
Illinois river. Their villages were few and scattering, and their 
occupation was scarcely dense enough to maintain itself against in- 
vasion. Their settlements were occasionally visited by Christian 
missionaries, fur traders and adventurers, but no body of white men 
made any settlement sufficiently permanent for a title to national 
possession. Christian zeal animated France and England in mis- 
sionary enterprise, the former in the interests of Catholicism and 
the latter in the interests of Protestantism. Hence their haste to 
preoccupy the land and proselyte the aborigines. No doubt this 
ugly rivalry was often seen by Indians, and they refused to be 
proselyted to either branch of Christianity . 

The " Five Nations," farther east, comprised the Mohawks, 
Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondaguas and Senecas. In 1677 the number 
of warriors in this confederacy was 2,150. About 1711 the Tusca- 
roras retired from Carolina and joined the Iroquois, or Five Na- 
tions, which, after that event, became known as the " Six Nations." 
In 1689 hostilities broke out between the Five Nations and the 
colonists of Canada, and the almost constant wars in which France 
was engaged until the treaty of Eyswick in 1697 combined to 
check the grasping policy of Louis XIV., and to retard the plant- 
ing of French colonies in the Mississippi valley. Missionary eiforts, 
however, continued with more failure than success, the Jesuits 
allying themselves with the Indians in habits and customs, even 
encouraging inter-marriage between them and their white fol- 



The Wabash was first named by the French, and spelled by them 
Ouabache. This river was known even before the Ohio, and was 
navigated as the Ouabache all the way to the Mississippi a long time 
before it was discovered that it was a tributary of the Ohio (Belle 
Riviere). In navigating the Mississippi they thought they passed 
the mouth of the Ouabache instead of the Ohio. In traveling from 
the Great Lakes to the south, the French always went by the way of 
the Ouabache or Illinois. 


Francois Morgan de Vinsenne served in Canada as early as 1720 
in the regiment of " De Carrignan " of the French service, and 
again on the lakes in the vicinity of Sault Ste. Marie in the same 
service under M. de Vaudriel, in 1725. It is possible that his ad- 
vent to Vincennes may have taken place in 1732; and in proof of 
this the only record is an act of sale under the joint names of him- 
self and Madame Yinsenne, the daughter of M. Philip Longprie, 
and dated Jan. 5, 1735. This document gives his military position 
as commandant of the post of Ouabache in the service of the French 
King. The will of Longprie, dated March 10, same year, bequeaths 
him, among other things, 408 pounds of pork, which ho ordered to 
be kept safe until Vinsenne, who was then at Ouabache, returned 
to Kaskaskia. 

There are many other documents connected with its early settle- 
ment by Vinsenne, among which is a receipt for the 100 pistoles 
granted him as his wife's marriage dowry. In 1736 this ofBcer was 
ordered to Charlevoix by D'Artagette, viceroy of the King at New 
Orleans, and commandant of Illinois. Here M. St. Vinsenne re- 
ceived his mortal wounds. The event is chronicled as follows, in 
the words of D'Artagette: " "We have just received very bad news 
from Louisiana, and our war with the Chickasaws. The French 
have been defeated. Among the slain is M. de Vinsenne, who 
ceased not until his last breath to exhort his men to behave worthy 
of their faith and fatherland." 

Thus closed the career of this gallant ofBcer, leaving a name 
which hoids as a remembrancer the present beautiful town of Vin- 
cennes, changed from Vinsenne to its present orthography in 1749. 

Post Vincennes was settled as early as 1710 or 1711. In a letter 
from Father Marest to Father Germon, dated at Kaskaskia, Nov. 9, 
1712, occurs this passage: "Zes Francois itoient itabli unfort sur 


le fleuve Ovxihache ; He demanderent un missionaire ,' et le Pere 
Merviet lexir fat envoye. Ce Pere criit devoir travailler a la 
eonversion des Mascoutens qui avoient fait un village siir les 
hords dumerae Jleuve. C'est une nation Indians qui entend la 
lomgue Illinoise." Translated: "The French have establislied a 
fort upon the river Wabash, and want a missionary; and Father 
Mermet has been sent to them. That Father believes he should 
labor for the conversion of the Mascoutens, who have built a vil- 
lage on the banks, of the same river. They are a nation of Indians 
who understand the language of the Illinois." 

Mermet was therefore the first preacher of Christianity in this 
part of the world, and his mission was to convert the Mascoutens, 
a branch of the Miamis. " The way I took," says he, " was to con- 
found, in the presence of the whole tribe, one of these charlatans 
[medicine men], whose Manitou, or great spirit which he wor- 
shiped, was the buflPalo. After leading him on insensibly to the 
avowal that it was not the buifalo that he worshiped, but the Man- 
itou, or spirit, of the buffalo, which was under the earth and ani- 
mated all buffaloes, which heals the sick and has all power, I asked 
him whether other beasts, the bear for instance^ and which one of 
his nation \^orshiped, was not equally inhabited by a Manitou, 
which was under the earth. 'Without doubt,' said the grand medi- 
cine man. ' If this is so,' said I, ' men ought to have a Manitou 
who inhabits them.' ' Nothing more certain,' said he. ' Ought 
not that to convince you,' continued I, ' that j'ou are not very 
reasonable? For if man upon the earth is the master of all animals, 
if he kills them, if he eats them, does it not follow that the Mani- 
tou which inhabits him must have a mastery over all other Mani- 
tous? Why then do yon not invoke him instead of the Manitou 
of the bear and the buffalo, when you are sickl' This reasoning 
disconcerted the charlatan. But this was all the effect it 

The result of convincing these heathen by logic, as is generally 
the case the world over, was only a temporary logical victory, and 
no change whatever was produced in the professions and practices 
of the Indians. 

But the first Christian (Catholic) missionary at this place whose 
name we find recorded in the Church annals, was Meurin, in 1849. 

The church building used by these early missionaries at Vin- 
cennes is thus described by the " oldest inhabitants:" Fronting on 
Water street and running back on Church street, it was a plain 


building with a rough exterior, of upright posts, chinked and 
daubed, with a rough coat of cement on the outside; about 20 feet 
wide and 60 long; one story high, with a small belfry and an equally 
small bell. It was dedicated to St. Francis Xavier. This spot is 
now occupied by a splendid cathedral. 

Yincennes has ever been a stronghold of Catholicism. The 
Church there has educated and sent out many clergymen of her 
faith, some of whom have become bishops, or attained other high 
•positions in ecclesiastical authority. 

Almost contemporaneous with the progress of the Church at 
Vincennes was a missionary work near the mouth of the Wea river, 
among the Ouiatenons, but the settlement there was broken up in 
early day. 



Soon after the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi by La- 
Salle in 1682, the government of France began to encourage the 
policy of establishing a line of trading posts and missionary 
stations extending through the West from Canada to Louisiana, 
and this policy was maintained, with partial success, for about 75 
years. The traders persisted in importing whisky, which cancelled 
nearly every civilizing influence that could be brought to bear upon 
the Indian, and the vast distances between posts prevented that 
strength which can be enjoyed only by close and convenient inter- 
communication. Another characteristic of Indian nature was to 
listen attentively to all the missionary said, pretending to believe 
all he preached, and then offer in turn his theory of the world, of 
religion, etc., and because he was not listened to with the same 
degree of attention and pretense of belief, would go off disgusted. 
This was his idea of the golden rule. 

The river St. Joseph of Lake Michigan was called " the river 
Miamis" in 1679, in which year LaSalle built a small fort on its 
bank, near the lake shore. The principal station of the mission 
for the instruction of the Miamis was established on the borders of 
this river. The first French post within the territory of the 
Miamis was at the mouth of the river Miamis, on an eminence 
naturally fortified on two sides by the river, and on one side by a 


deep ditch made by a fall of water. It was of triangular form. 
The missionary Hennepin gives a good description of it, as he was 
one of the company who built it, in 1679. Says he: " We fell the 
trees that were on the top of the hill; and having cleared the same 
from bushes for about two musket shot, we began to build a 
redoubt of 80 feet long and 40 feet broad, with great square pieces 
of timber laid one upon another, and prepared a great number of 
stakes of about 25 feet long to drive into the ground, to make our 
fort more inaccessible on the river side. We employed the whole 
mouth of November about that work, which was very hard, though 
we had no other food but the bear's flesh our savage killed. These 
beasts are very common in that place because of the great quantity 
of grapes they find there; but their flesh being too fat and luscious, 
our men began to be weary of it and desired leave to go a hunting 
to kill some wild goats. M. LaSalle denied them that liberty, 
which caused some murmurs among them; and it was but unwill- 
ingly that they continued their work. This, together with the 
approach of winter and the apprehension that M. LaSalle had that 
his vessel (the Griflin) was lost, made hi in very melancholy, though 
he concealed it as much as he could. We made a cabin wherein 
we performed divine service every Sunday, and Father Gabriel and 
I, who preached alternately, took care to take such texts as were 
suitable to our present circumstances and fit to inspire us with 
courage, concord and brotherly love. * * * The fort was at 
last perfected, and called Fort Miamis." 

In the year 1711 the missionary Chardon, who was said to be 
very zealous and apt in the acquisition of languages, had a station 
on the St. Joseph about 60 miles above the mouth. Charlevoix, 
another distinguished missionary from France, visited a post on 
this river in 1721. In a letter dated at the place, Aug. 16, he says: 
" There is a commandant here, with a small garrison. His house, 
which is but a very sorry one^ is called the fort, from its being sur- 
rounded with an indifferent palisado, which is pretty near the case 
in all the rest. We have here two villages of Indians, one of the 
Miamis and the other of the Pottawatomies, both of them mostly 
Christians; but as they have been for a long time without any pas- 
tors, the missionary who has been lately sent to them will have no 
small difficulty in bringing them back to the exercise of their re- 
ligion." He speaks also of the main commodity for which the In. 
dians would part with their goods, namely, spirituous liquors, 
which they drink and keep drunk upon as long as a supply lasted. 



More than a century and a half has now passed since Charlevoix 
penned the above, without any change whatever in this trait of In- 
dian character. 

In 1765 the Miami nation, or confederacy, was composed of four 
tribes, whose total number of warriors was estimated at only 1,050 
men. Of these about 250 were Twightwees, or Miamis proper, 
300 "Weas, or Ouiatenons,300 Piankeshawsand 200 Shockeys; and 
at this time the principal villages of the Twightwees were situated 
about the head of the Maumee river at and near the place where 
Fort "Wayne now is. The larger Wea villages were near the banks 
of the "Wabash river, in the vicinity of the Post Ouiatenon; and 
the Shockeys and Piankeshaws dwelt on the banks of the Vermil- 
lion and on the borders of the "Wabash between Vincennes and 
Ouiatenon. Branches of the Pottawatomie, Shawnee, Delaware and 
Kickapoo tribes were permitted at different times to enter within 
the boundaries of the Miamis and reside for a while. 

The wars in which France and England were engaged, from 1688 
to 1697, retarded the growth of the colonies of those nations in 
North America, and the efforts made by France to connect Canada 
and the Gulf of Mexico by a chain of trading posts and colonies 
naturally excited the jealousy of England and gradually laid the 
foundation for a struggle at arms. After several stations were estab- 
lished elsewhere in the "West, trading posts were started at the 
Miami villages, which stood at the head of the Maumee, at the Wea 
villages about Ouiatenon on the "Wabash, and at thePiankeshaw vil- 
lages about the present sight of Vincennes. It is probable that before 
the close of the year 1719, temporary trading posts were erected at the 
sites of Fort "Wayne, Ouiatenon and Vincennes. These points were 
probably often visited by French fur traders prior to 1700. In the 
meanwhile the English people in this country commenced also to 
establish military posts west of the Alleghanies, and thus matters 
went on until they naturally culminated in a general war, which, 
being waged by the French and Indians combined on one side, was 
called " the French and Indian war." This war was terminated in 
1763 by a treaty at Paris, by which France ceded to Great Britain 
all of North America east of the Mississippi except New Orleans 
and the island on which it is situated; and indeed, France had the 
preceding autumn, by a secret convention, ceded to Spain all the 
country west of that river. 


In 1762, after Canada and its dependencies had been surrendered 
to tlie English, Pontiac and his partisans secretly organized a pow- 
erful confederacy in order to crush at one blow all English power 
in the West. This great scheme was skillfully projected and cau- 
tiously matured. 

The principal act in the programme was to gain admittance into 
the fort at Detroit, on pretense of a friendly visit, with short- 
ened muskets concealed under their blankets, and on a given signal 
suddenly break forth upon the garrison; but an inadvertent remark 
of an Indian woman led to a discovery of the plot, which was con- 
sequently averted. Pontiac and his warriors afterward made many 
attacks upon the English, some of which were successful, but the 
Indians were finally defeated in the general war. 


In 1765 the total number of French families within the limits of 
the Northwestern Territory did not probably exceed 600. These 
were in settlements about Detroit, along the river Wabash and the 
neighborhood of Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. Of these fami- 
lies, about 80 or 90 resided at Post Vincennes, 14 at Fort Ouiate- 
non, on the Wabash, and nine or ten at the confluence of the St. 
Mary and St. Joseph rivers. 

The colonial policy of the British government opposed any meas- 
iires which might strengthen settlements in the interior of this 
country, lest they become self-supporting and independent of the 
mother country; hence the early and rapid settlement of the North- 
western territory was still further retarded by the short-sighted 
selfishness of England. That fatal policy consisted mainly in hold- 
ing the land in the hands of the government and not allowing it to 
be subdivided and sold to settlers. But in spite of all her efforts 
in this direction, she constantly made just such efforts as provoked 
the American people to rebel, and to rebel successfully, which was 
within 15 years after the perfect close of the French and Indian 


Thomas JeflFerson, the shrewd statesman and wise Governor of 
Virginia, saw from the first that actual occupation of Western lands 
was the only way to keep them out of the hands of foreigners and 


Indians. Therefore, directly after the conquest of Vincennes by 
Clark, be engaged a scientific corps to proceed under an escort to 
the Mississippi, and ascertain by celestial observations the point 
on that river intersected by latitude 36° 30', the southern limit of 
the State, and to measure its distance to the Ohio. To Gen. Clark 
was entrusted the conduct of the military operations in that quar- 
ter. He was instructed to select a strong position near that point 
and establish there a fort and garrison ; thence to extend his conquests 
northward to the lakes, erecting forts at diflPerent points, which 
might serve as monuments of actual possession, besides affording 
protection to that portion of the country. Fort "Jefferson" was 
erected and garrisoned on the Mississippi a few miles above the 
southern limit. 

The result of these operations was the addition, to the chartered 
limits of Virginia, of that immense region known as the " North- 
western Territory." The simple fact that such and such forts were 
established by the Americans in this vast region convinced the Brit- 
ish Commissioners that we had entitled ourselves to the land. But 
where are those " monuments " of our power now? 


As a striking example of the inhuman treatment which the early 
Indians were capable of giving white people, we quote the follow 
ing blood-curdling story from Mr. Cox' " Recollections of the 
Wabash Valley" : 

On the 11th of February, 1781, a wagoner named Irvin Hinton 
was sent from the block-house at Louisville, Ky., to Harrodsburg 
for a load of provisions for the fort. Two young men, Richard 
Rue and George Holman, aged respectively 19 and 16 years, were 
sent as guards to protect the wagon from the depredations of any 
hostile Indians who might be lurking in the cane-brakes or ravines 
through which they must pass. Soon after their start a severe 
snow-storm set in which lasted until afternoon. Lest the melting 
snow might dampen the powder in their rifles, the guards fired 
them off, intending to reload them as soon as the storm ceased. 
Hinton drove the horses while Rue walked a few rods ahead and 
Holman about the same distance behind. As they ascended a hill 
about eight miles from Louisville Hinton heard some one say Whoa 
to the horses. Supposing that something was wrong about the 
wagon, he stopped and asked Holman why he had called him to 
halt. Holman said that he had not spoken; Rue also denied it, 


but said that he had heard the voice distinctly. At this time a voice 
cried out, " I will solve the mystery for you; it was Simon Girty that 
cried Whoa, and he meant what he said," — at the same time emerg- 
ing from a sink-iiole a few rods from the roadside, followed by IS 
Indians, who immediately surrounded the three Keiituckians and 
demanded them to surrender or die instantly. The little party, 
making a virtue of necessity, surrendered to this renegade white 
man and his Indian allies. 

Being so near two forts, Girty made all possible speed in making 
fast his prisoners, selecting the lines and other parts of the harness, 
he prepared for an immediate flight across the Ohio. The panta- 
loons of the prisoners were cut off about four inches above the 
knees, and thus they started through the deep snow as fast as the 
horses could trot, leaving the wagon, containing a few empty bar- 
rels, standing in the road. They continued their march for sev- 
eral cold days, without fire at night, until they reached Wa-puc-ca- 
nat-ta, where they compelled their prisoners to run the gauntlet as 
they entered the village. Hinton first ran the gauntlet and reached 
the council-house after receiving several severe blows upon the head 
and shoulders. Rue next ran between the lines, pursued by an 
Indian with an uplifted tomahawk. He far outstripped his pursuer 
and dodged most of the blows aimed at him. Holman complaining 
that it was too severe a test for a worn-out stripling like himself, 
was allowed to run between two lines of squaws and boy s, and was 
followed by an Indian with a long switch. 

The first council of the Indians did not dispose of these young 
men; they were waiting for the presence of other chiefs and war- 
riors. Hinton escaped, but on the afternoon of the second day he 
was re-captured. Now the Indians were glad that they had an 
occasion to indulge in the infernal joy of burning him at once. 
Soon after their supper, which they shared with their victim, they 
drove the stake into the ground, piled np the fagots in a circle 
around it, stripped and blackened the prisoner, tied him to the 
stake, and applied the torch. It was a slow fire. The war-whoop 
then thrilled through the dark surrounding forest like the chorus 
of a band of infernal spirits escaped from pandemonium, and the 
scalp dance was struck up by those demons in human shape, who 
for hours encircled their victim, brandishing their tomahawks and 
war clubs, and venting their execrations upon the helpless suflerer, 
who died about midnight from the effects of the slow heat. As 
Boon as he fell upon the ground, the Indian who first discovered 


liim in the woods that evening sprang in, sunk his tomahawk into 
his skull above the ear, and with his knife stripped off the scalp, 
which lie bore back with him to the town as a trophy, and which 
was tauntingly thrust into the faces of Eue and Holman, with the 
question, " Can you smell the fire on the scalp of your red-headed 
friend? We cooked him and left him for the wolves to make a 
breakfast upon; that is the way we serve runaway prisoners." 

After a march of three days more, the prisoners, Rue and Hol- 
man, had to run the gauntlets again, and barely got through witb 
their lives. It was decided that they should both be burned at the- 
stake that night, though this decision was far from being unani- 
mous. The necessary preparations were made, dry sticks and' 
brush were gathered and piled around two stakes, the faces 
and hands of the doomed men were blackened in the customary 
manner, and as the evening approached the poor wretches sat look- 
ing upon the setting sun for the last time. An unusual excitement 
was manifest in a number of chiefs who still lingered about the 
council-house. At a pause in the contention, a noble-looking In- 
dian approached the prisoners, and after speaking a few words tO' 
the guards, took Holraau by the hand, lifted him to his feet, cut the 
cords that bound him to his fellow prisoners, removed the black from 
his face and hands, put his hand kindly upon his head and said : " I 
adopt you as my son, to fill the place of the one I have lately buried ; 
you are now a kinsman of Logan, the white man's friend, as he has. 
been called, but who has lately proven himself to be a terrible- 
avenger of the wrongs inflicted upon him by the bloody Cresap and; 
his men." With evident reluctance, Girty interpreted this to Hol- 
man, who was thus unexpectedly freed. 

But the preparations for the burning of Rue went on. Holman- 
and Rue embraced each other most affectionately, with a sorrow too. 
deep for description. Rue was then tied to one of the stakes; but 
the general contention among the Indians had not ceased. Just as- 
the lighted fagots were about to be applied to the dry brush piled 
around the devoted youth, a tall, active young Shawnee, a son of" 
the victim's captor, sprang into the ring, and cutting the cords- 
which bound him to the stake, led him out amidst the deafening- 
plaudits of a part of the crowd and the execrations of the rest. Re- 
gardless of threats, he caused water to be brought and the black to 
be washed from the face and hands of the prisoner, whose clothes 
were then returned to him, when the young brave said : " I take 
this young man to be my brother, in the place of one I lately lost; 


I loved that brother well; I will love this one, too; my old mother 
will be glad when I tell her tliat 1 have brought her a son, in place 
of the dear departed one. "We want no more victims. The burning 
of Red-head [Hinton] ought to satisfy us. These innocent young 
men do not merit such cruel fate; I would rather die myself than 
see this adopted brother burned at the stake.'' 

A loud shout of approbation showed that the young Shawnee had 
triumphed, though dissension was manifest among the various 
tribes afterward. Some of tliem abandoned their trip to Detroit, 
others returded to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, a few turned toward the Mis- 
sissinewa and the Wabash towns, while a portion continued to De- 
troit. Holman was taken back to Wa-puc-ca-nat ta, where he re- 
mained most of the time of his captivity. Rue was taken first to 
the Mississinewa, then to the Wabash towns. Two years of his 
eventful captivity were spent in the region of the^Wabash and Illi- 
nois rivers, but the last few months at Detroit; was in captivity 
altogether about three years and a half 

Rue effected his escape in the following manner: During one of 
the drunken revels of the Indians near Detroit one of them lost a 
purse of $90.; various tribes were suspected of feloniously keeping 
the treasure, and much ugly speculation was indulged in as to who 
was the thief. At length a prophet of a tribe that was not suspected 
was called to divine the mystery. He spread sand over a green 
deer-skin, watched it awhile and performed various manipulations, 
and professed to see that the money had been stolen and carried 
away by a tribe entirely different from any that had been 
suspicioned; but he was shrewd enough not to announce who the 
thief was or the tribe he belonged to, lest a war might arise. His 
decision quieted the belligerent uprisings threatened by the excited 

Rue and two other prisoners saw this display of the prophet's 
skill and concluded to interrogate him soon concerning their fami- 
lies at home. The opportunity occurred in a few days, and the In- 
dian seer actually astonished Rue with the accuracy with which he 
described his family, and added, " You all intend to make your 
escape, and you will effect it soon. You will meet with many trials 
and hardships in passing over so wild a district of country, inhabited 
by so many hostile nations of Indians. You will almost starve to 
death; but about the time you have given up all hope of finding 
game to sustain you in your famished condition, succor will come 
when you least expect it. The first game you will succeed in taking 


will be a male of some kind; after that you will have plenty of 
game and return home in safety." 

The prophet kept this matter a secret for the prisoners, and the 
latter in a few days set off upon their terrible journey, and had 
just such experience as the Indian prophet had foretold; they 
arrived home with their lives, but were pretty well worn out with the 
exposures and privations of a three weeks' journey. 

On the return of Holman's party of Indians to Wa-pnc-ca-nat-ta, 
much dissatisfaction existed in regard to the manner of his release 
from the sentence of condemnation pronounced against him by the 
council. Many were in favor of recalling the council and trying 
him again, and this was finally agreed to. The young man was 
again put upon trial for his life, with a strong probability of his 
being condemned to the stake. Both parties worked hard for vic- 
tory in the final vote, which eventually proved to give a majority of 
one for the prisoner's acquittal. 

While with the Indians, Holman saw them burn at the stake a 
Kentuckiau named Eichard Hogeland, who had been taken prisoner 
at the defeat of Col. Crawford. They commenced burning him at 
nine o'clock at night, and continued roasting him until ten o'clock 
the next day, before he expired. During his excruciating tortures he 
begged for some of them to end his life and sufferings with a gun 
or tomahawk. Finally his cruel tormentors promised they would, 
and cut several deep gashes in his flesh with their tomahawks, and 
shoveled up hot ashes and embers and threw them into the gaping 
wounds. When he was dead they stripped off his scalp, cut him 
to pieces and burnt him to ashes, which they scattered through the 
town to expel the evil spirits from it. 

After a captivity of about three years and a half, Holman saw an 
opportunity of going on amission for the destitute Indians, namely, 
of going to Harrodsburg, Ky., where he had a rich uncle, from 
whom they could get what supplies they wanted. They let him go 
with a guard, but on arriving at Louisville, where Gen. Clark was 
in command, he was ransomed, and he reached home only three 
days after the arrival of Rue. Both these men lived to a good old 
age, terminating their lives at their home about two miles south of 
Richmond, Ind. 


In the summer of 1778, Col. George Rogers Clark, a native of 
Albemarle county, Va., led a memorable expedition against the 
ancient French settlements about Kaskaskia and Post Vincennes. 
With respect to the magnitude of its design, the valor and perse- 
verance with which it was carried on, and the memorable results 
which were produced by it, this expedition stands without a parallel 
in the early annals of the valley of the Mississippi. That portion 
of the West called Kentucky was occupied by Henderson & Co., 
who pretended to own the, land and who held it at a high price. 
Col. Clark wished to test the validity of their claim and adjust the 
government of the country so as to encourage immigration. He 
accordingly called a meeting of the citizens at Harrodstown, to 
assemble June 6, 1776, and consider the claims of the company and 
consult with reference to the interest of the country. He did not 
at first publish the exact aim of this movement, lest parties would 
be formed in advance aud block the enterprise; also, if the object 
of the meeting were not announced beforehand, the curiosity of the 
people to know what was to be proposed would bring out a much 
greater attendance. 

The meeting was held on the day appointed, and delegates were 
elected to treat with the government of Virginia, to see whether 
it would be best to become a county in that State and be protected 
by it, etc. Various delays on account of the remoteness of the 
white settlers from the older communities of Virginia and the hos- 
tility of Indians in every direction, prevented a consummation of 
this object until some time in 1778. The government of Virginia 
was friendly to Clark's enterprise to a certain extent, but claimed 
that fliey had not authority to do much more than to lend a little 
assistance for which payment should be made at some future time, 
as it was not certain whether Kentucky would become a part of Vir- 
ginia or not. Gov. Henry and a few gentlemen were individually 
80 hearty in favor of Clark's benevolent undertaking that they 
assisted him all they could. Accordingly Mr. Clark organized his 
expedition, keeping every particular secret lest powerful parties 
would form in the West against him. He took in stores at Pitts- 



burg and "Wlieeling, proceeded down the Ohio to the " Falls," 
where he took possession of an island of a about seven acres, and 
divided it among a small number of families, for whose protection 
he constructed some light fortifications. At this time Post Vin- 
cennes comprised about 400 militia, and it was a daring undertak- 
ing for Col. Clark, with his small force, to go up against it and Kas- 
kaskia, as he had planned. Indeed, some of his men, on hearing of 
his plan, deserted him. He conducted himself so as to gain the 
sympathy of the French, and through them also that of the 
Indians to some extent, as both these people were very bitter 
against the British, who had possession of the Lake Kegion. 

From the nature of the situation Clark concluded it was best to 
take Kaskaskia first. The fact that the people ^regarded him as a 
savage rebel, he regarded as really a good thing in his favor; for 
after the first victory he would show them so much unexpected 
lenity that they would rally to his standard. In this policy he was 
indeed successful. He arrested a few men and put them in irons. 
The priest of the village, accompanied by five or six aged citizens, 
waited on Clark and said that the inhabitants expected to be separ- 
ated, perhaps never to meet again, and they begged to be permitted 
to assemble in their church to take leave of each other. Clark 
mildly replied that he had nothing against their religion, that they 
might continue to assemble in their church, but not venture out of 
town, etc. Thus, by what has since been termed the "Rarey" 
method of taming horses, Clark showed them he had power over 
them but designed them no harm, and they readily took the oath 
of allegiance to Virginia. 

After Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia it was difficult to induce the 
French settlers to accept the "Continental paper" introduced by 
him and his troops. Nor until Col. Vigo arrived there and guar- 
anteed its redemption wOuld they receive it. Peltries and piastres 
formed the only currency, and Vigo found great diflSculty in ex- 
plaining Clark's financial arrangements. "Their commandants 
never made money," was the reply to Vigo's explanation of the 
policy of the old Dominion. But notwithstanding the guarantees, 
the Continental paper fell very low in the market. Vigo had a 
trading establishment at Kaskaskia, where he sold coflfee at one 
dollar a pound, and all the other necessaries of life at an equally 
reasonable price. The unsophisticated Frenchmen were generally 
asked in what kind of money they would pay their little bills. 


"Douleur," was the general reply; and as an authority on the sub- 
ject says, "It took about twenty Continental dollars to purchase a 
silver dollar's worth of coffee ; and as the French word "douleur" sig- 
nifies grief or pain, perhaps no word either in the French or Eng- 
lish languages expressed the idea more correctly than the douleur 
for a Continental dollar. At any rate it was truly douleur to the 
Colonel, for he never received a single dollar in exchange for the 
large amount taken from him in order to sustain Clark's credit. 

Now, the post at Vincennes, defended by Fort Sackville, came 
next. The priest just mentioned, Mr. Gibault, was really friendly 
to " the American interest;" he had spiritual charge of the church 
at Vincennes, and he with several others were deputed to assemble 
the people there and authorize them to garrison their own fort like 
a free and independent people, etc. This plan had -its desired effect, 
and the people took the oath of allegiance to the State of Virginia 
and became citizens of the United States. Their style of language 
and conduct changed to a better hue, and they surprised the numer- 
ous Indians in the vicinity by displaying anew flag and informing 
them that their old father, the King of France, was come to life 
again, and was mad at them for fighting the English; and they ad- 
vised them to make peace with the Americans as soon as they 
could, otherwise they might expect to make the land very bloody, 
etc. The Indians concluded they would have to fall in line, and 
they offered no resistance. Capt. Leonard Helm, an American, 
was left in charge of this post, and Clark began to turn his atten- 
tion to other points. But before leaving this section of the coun- 
try he made treaties of peace with the Indians; this he did, how- 
ever, by a different method from what had always before been 
followed. By indirect methods he caused them to come to him, 
instead of going to them. He was convinced that inviting them to 
treaties was considered by them in a different manner from what 
the whites expected, and imputed them to fear, and that giving 
them great presents confirmed it. He accordingly established 
treaties with the Piankeshaws, Ouiatenons, Kickapoos, Illinois, 
Kaskaskias, Peorias and branches of some other tribes that inhab- 
ited the country between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi. 
Upon this the General Assembly of the State of Virginia declared 
all the citizens settled west of the Ohio organized into a county of 
that State, to be known as "Illinois" county; but before the pro- 
visions of the law could be carried into effect, Henry Hamilton, the 
British Lieutenant-Governor of Detroit, collected an army of about 


30 regulars, 50 French volunteers and 400 Indians, went down and 
re-took the post Vincennes in December, 1778. No attempt was 
made by the population to defend the town. Capt. Helm and a 
man named Henry were the only Americans at the fort, the only 
members of the garrison. Capt. Helm was taken prisoner and a 
number of the French inhabitants disarmed. 

Col. Clark, hearing of the situation, determined to re-capture the 
place. He accordingly gathered together what force he could in 
this distant land, 170 men, and on the 5th of February, started from 
Kaskaskia and crossed the river of that name. The weather was 
very wet, and the low lands were pretty well covered with water. 
The march was difficult, and the Colonel had to work'hard to keep 
his men in spirits. He suffered them to shoot game whenever they 
wished and eat it like Indian war-dancers, each company by turns 
inviting the others to their feasts, which was the case every night. 
Clark waded through water as much as any of them, and thus stimu- 
lated the men by his example. They reached the Little Wabash 
on the 13th, after suffering many and great hardships. Here a camp 
was formed, and without waiting to discuss plans for crossing the 
river, Clark ordered the men to construct a vessel, and pretended 
that crossing the stream would be only a piece of amusement, al- 
though inwardly he held a different opinion. 

The second day afterward a reconnoitering party was sent across 
the river, who returned and made an encouraging report. A scaf 
folding was built on the opposite shore, upon which the baggage 
was placed as it was tediously ferried over, and the new camping 
ground was a nice half acre of dry land. There were many amuse- 
ments, indeed, in getting across the river, which put all the men in 
high spirits. The succeeding two or three days they had to march 
through a great deal of water, having on the night of the 17th to 
encamp in the water, near the Big Wabash. 

At daybreak on the ISth they heard the signal gun at Vincennes, 
and at once commenced their march. Reaching the Wabash about 
two o'clock, they constructed rafts to cross the river on a boat-steal- 
ing expedition, but labored all day and night to no purpose. On 
the 19th they began to make a canoe, in which a second attempt to 
steal boats was made, but this expedition returned, reporting that 
there were two "large fires" within a mile of them. Clark sent a 
canoe down the river to meet the vessel that was supposed to be on 
her way up with the supplies, with orders to hasten forward day and 
night. This was their last hope, as their provisions were entirely 


gone, and starvation seemed to be hoverino^ about them. The next 
day they commenced to make more canoes, when about noon the 
sentinel on the river brought a boat with five Frenclimen from the 
fort. From this party they learned that they were not as yet dis- 
covered. All the army crossed the river in two canoes the next 
da}', and as Clark had determined to reach the town that night, he 
ordered his men to move forward. Tiiey plunged into the water 
sometimes to the neck, for over three miles. 

"Without food, benumbed with cold, up to their waists in water, 
covered with broken ice, the men at one time mutinied and refused 
to march. All the persuasions of Clark had no effect upon the 
half-starved and half-frozen soldiers. In one company was a small 
drummer boy, and also a sergeant who stood six feet two inches in 
socks, and stout and athletic. He was devoted to Clark. The Gen- 
eral mounted the little drummer on the shoulders of the stalwart 
sergeant and ordered him to plunge into the water, half-frozen as it 
was. He did so, the little boy beating the charge from his lofty 
perch, while Clark, sword in hand, followed them, giving the com- 
mand as he threw aside the floating ice, "Forward." Elated and 
amused with the scene, the men promptly obeyed, holding their 
rifles above their heads, and in spite of all the obstacles they reached 
the high land in perfect safety. But for this and the ensuing days 
of this campaign we quote from Clark's account: 

" This last day's march through the water was far superior to any- 
thing the Frenchmen had any idea of. They were backward in 
speaking; said that the nearest land to us was a small league, a 
sugar camp on the bank of the river. A canoe was sent ofl" and re- 
turned without finding that we could pass. I went in her myself 
and sounded the water and found it as deep as to my neck. I returned 
with a design to have the men transported on board the canoes to 
the sugar camp, which I knew would expend the whole day and en- 
suing night, as the vessels would pass slowly through the bushes. 
The loss of so much time to men half starved was a matter of con- 
sequence. I would have given now a great deal for a day's provis- 
ion, or for one of our horses. I returned but slowly to the troops, 
giving myself time to think. On our arrival all ran to hear what 
was tlie report; every eye was fixed on me; I unfortunately spoke 
in a serious manner to one of the officers. The whole were alarmed 
without knowing what I said. I viewed their confusion for about 
one minute; I whispered to those near me to do as I did, immedi- 
ately put some water in my hand, poured on powder, blackened my 


face, gave the war-whoop, and marched into the water without say- 
ins; a word. The party gazed and fell in, one after another without 
saying a word, like a flock of sheep. I ordered those near me to 
begin a favorite song of theirs; it soon passed through the line, and 
the whole went on cheerfully. 

" I now intended to have them transported across the deepest 
part of the water; but when about waist-deep, one of the men in- 
formed me that he thought he felt a path; we examined and found 
it so, and concluded that it kept on the highest ground, which it did, 
and by taking pains to follow it, we got to the sugar camp with no 
difficulty, where there was about half an acre of dry ground, — at 
least ground not under water, and there we took up our lodging. 

" The night had been colder than any we had had, and the ice in 
the morning was one-half or three-quarters of an inch thick in still 
water; the morning was the finest. A little after sunrise I lectured 
the whole; what I said to them I forget, but I concluded by in- 
forming them that passing the plain then in full view, and 
reaching the opposite woods would put an end to their fatigue; 
that in a few hours they would have a sight of their long wished-for 
object; and immediately stepped into the water without waiting 
for any reply. A huzza took place. As we generally marched 
dhrough the water in a line, before the third man entered, I called to 
Major Bowman, ordering him to fall in the rear of the 25 men, and 
put to death any man who refused to march. This met with a cry 
of approbation, and on we went. Getting about the middle of the 
plain, the water about mid-deep, I found myself sensibly failing; 
and as there were no trees nor bushes for the men to support them- 
selves by, I feared that many of the weak would be drowned. I or- 
dered the canoes to make the land, discharge their loading, and play 
backward and forward with all diligence and pick up the men ; and 
to encourage the partj', sent some of the strongest men forward, 
with orders when they got to a certain distance, to pass the word 
back that the water was getting shallow, and when getting near the 
woods, to cry out land. This stratagem had its desired effect; the 
men exerted themselves almost beyond their abilities, the weak 
holding by the stronger. The water, however, did not become 
shallower, but continued deepening. Getting to the woods where 
the men expected land, the water was up to my shoulders; but 
gaining the woods was of great consequence; all the low men and 
weakly hung to the trees and floated on the old logs until they were 


taken off b}' the canoes; the strong and tall got ashore and built 
fires. Many would reach the shore and fall with tlieir bodies half 
in the water, not being able to support themselves without it. 

" This was a dry and delightful spot of ground of about ten acres. 
Fortunately, as if designed by Providence, a canoe of Indian squaws 
and children was coming up to town, and took through this part of 
the plain as a nigh way; it was discovered by our canoe-men as they 
were out after the other men. They gave chase and took the Indian 
canoe, on board of which was nearly half a quarter of buffalo, some 
corn, tallow, kettles, etc. This was an invaluable prize. Broth was 
immediately made and served out, especially to the weakly; nearly 
all of us got a little; but a great many gave their part to the 
weakly, saying something cheering to their comrades. By the 
afternoon, this refreshment and fine weather had greatly invigor- 
ated the whole party. 

" Crossing a narrow and deep lake in the canoes, and marching 
some distance, we came to a copse of timber called ' Warrior's 
Island.' We were now in full view of the fort and town; it was 
about two miles distant, with not a shrub intervening. Every man 
now feasted his eyes and forgot that he had suffered anything, say- 
ing that all which had passed was owing to good policy, and noth- 
ing but what a man could bear, and that a soldier had no right to 
think, passing from one extreme to the other, — which is common in 
such cases. And now stratagem was necessary. The plain between 
us and the town was not a perfect level; the sunken grounds were 
covered with water full of ducks. We observed several men within 
ahalf a mile of us shooting ducks, and sent out some of our active 
young Frenchmen to take one of these men prisoners without 
alarming the rest, which they did. The information we got from 
this person was similar to that which we got from those taken on the 
river, except that of the British having that evening completed the 
wall of the fort, and that there were a great many Indians in town. 

" Our situation was now critical. No possibility of retreat in 
case of defeat, and in full view of a town containing at this time 
more than 600 men, troops, inhabitants and Indians. The crew of the 
galley, though not 50 men, would have been now a re-enforcement 
of immense magnitude to our little army, if I may so call it, but 
we would not think of them. We were now in the situation that I 
had labored to get ourselves in. The idea of being made prisoner 
was foreign to almost every man, as they expected nothing but tor- 
ture from the savages if they fell into their hands. Our fate was 


now to be determined, probably in a few hours; we knew that 
nothing but the most daring conduct would insure success; I knew 
also that a number of the inhabitants wished us well. This was a 
favorable circumstance; and as there was but little prooability of our 
remaining until dark undiscovered, I determined to begin opera- 
tions immediately, and therefore wrote the following placard to the 
To the Inhabitants of Post VTncennes: 

Gentlemen: — Being now within two miles of your village with 
my army, determined to take your fort this night, and not being 
willing to surprise you, I take this method to request such of you 
as are true citizens and willing to enjoy the liberty I bring you, to 
remain still in your houses; and those, if any there be, that are 
friends to the king, will instantly repair to the fort and join the 
hair-buyer general and fight like men ; and if any such as do not go 
to the fort shall be discovered afterward, they may depend on 
severe punishment. On the contrary, those who are true friends 
to liberty may depend on being well treated; and I once more 
request them to keep out of the streets; for everyone I find iiv 
arms on my arrival I shall treat as an enemy. 

[Signed] G. E. Claek. 

" I had various ideas on the results of this letter. I knew it 
could do us no damage, but that it would cause the lukewarm to 
be decided, and encourage our friends and astonish our enemies. 
We anxiously viewed this messenger until he entered the town, and 
in a few minutes we discovered hj our glasses some stir in every 
street we could penetrate, and great numbers running or riding out 
into the commons, we supposed to view us, which was the case. 
But what surprised us was that nothing had yet happened that had 
the appearance of the garrison being alarmed, — neither gun nor 
drum. We began to suppose that the information we got from our 
prisoners was false, and that the enemy had already knew of us and 
were prepared. A little before sunset we displayed ourselves in 
full view of the town, — crowds gazing at us. We were plunging 
ourselves into certain destruction or success ; there was no midway 
thought of. We had but little to say to our men, except inculcat- 
ing an idea of the necessity of obedience, etc. We moved on 
slowly in full view of the town; but as it was a point of some con- 
sequence to us to make ourselves appear formidable, we, in leaving 
the covert we were in, marched and counter- marched in such a 
manner that we appeared numerous. Our colors were displayed to 
the best advantage; and as the low plain we marched througji was 


not a perfect level, bnt had frequent risings in it, of 7 or 8 
higher than the common level, which was covered with water; and 
as these risings generally run in an oblique direction to the town, 
we took the advantage of one of them, marching through the water 
by it, which completely prevented our being numbered. We gained 
the heights back of the town. As there were as yet no hostile 
appearance, we were impatient to have the cause unriddled. Lieut. 
Bayley was ordered with 14 men to march and fire on the fort; 
the main body moved in a different direction and took possession 
of the strongest part of the town." 

Clark then sent a written order to Hamilton commanding 
him to surrender immediately or he would be treated as a 
murderer; Hamilton replied that he and his garrison were not 
disposed to be awed into any action unworthy of British sub- 
jects. After one hour more of fighting, Hamilton proposed a 
truce of three days for conference, on condition that each side 
cease all defensive work; Clark rejoined that he would "not 
agree to any terms other than Mr. Hamilton surrendering himself 
and garrison prisoners at discretion," and added that if he, Hamil- 
ton, wished to talk with him he could meet him immediately at the 
church with Capt. Helm. In less than an hour Clark dictated the 
termsof surrender, Feb. 24, 1779. Hamilton agreed to the total 
surrender because, as he there claimed in writing, he was too far 
from aid from his own government, and because of the " unanimity" 
of his oflicers in the surrender, and his "confidence in a generous 

"Ofthi8expedition,of its results, of its importance, of the merits of 
those engaged in it, of their bravery, their skill, of their prudence, of 
their success, a volume would not more than suffice for the details. 
Suffice it to say that in my opinion, and I have accurately and criti- 
cally weighed and examined all the results produced by the con- 
tests in which we were engaged during the Revolutionary war, 
that for bravery, for hardships endured, for skill and consummate 
tact and prudence on the part of the commander, obedience, dis- 
cipline and love of country on the part of his followers, for the 
immense benefits acquired, and signal advantages obtained by it 
for the whole union, it was second to no enterprise undertaken dur- 
ing that struggle. I might add, second to no undertaking in an- 
cient or modern warfare. The whole credit of this conquest be- 
longs to two men; Gen. George Rogers Clark and Col. Francis 
Vigo. And when we consider that by it the whole territory now 


covered by the three great states of Indiana, Illinois and Michigan 
was added to the union, and so admitted to be by the British commis- 
sioners at the preliminaries to the treaty of peace in 1783; (and but 
for this very conquest, the boundaries of our territories west would 
have been the Ohio instead of the Mississippi, and so acknowledged 
by both our commissioners and the British at that conference;) a 
territory embracing upward of 2,000,000 people, the human mind 
is lost m the contemplation of its effects; and we can but wonder 
that a force of 170 men, the whole number of Clark's troops, 
should by this single action have produced such important results." 
[John Law. 

The next day Clark sent a detachment of 60 men up the river 
Wabash to intercept some boats which were laden with provisions 
and goods from Detroit. This force was placed under command of 
Capt. Helm, Major Bosseron and Major Legras, and they proceeded 
up the river, in three armed boats, about 120 miles, when the 
British boats, about seven in number, were surprised and captured 
without firing a gun. These boats, which had on board about 
$50,000 worth of goods and provisions, were manned by about 
40 men, among whom was Philip Dejean, a magistrate of Detroit. 
The provisions were taken for the public, and distributed among 
the soldiery. 

Having organized a military government at Vincennes and 
appointed Capt. Helm commandant of the town, Col. Clark return- 
ed in the vessel to Kaskaskia, where he was joined by reinforce- 
ments from Kentucky under Capt. George. Meanwhile, a party of 
traders who were going to the falls, were killed and plundered bj' 
the Delawares of White River; the news of this disaster having 
reached Clark, he sent a dispatch to Capt. Helm ordering him to 
make war on the Delawares and use every means in his power to 
destroy them; to show no mercy to the men, but to save the 
women and children. This order was executed without delay. 
Their camps were attacked in every quarter where they could be 
found. Many fell, and others were carried to Post Vincennes and 
put to death. The surviving Delawares at once pleaded for mercy 
and appeared anxious to make some atonement for their bad con- 
duct. To these overtures Capt. Helm replied that Col. Clark, the 
" Big Knife," had ordered tlie war, and that he had no power to lay 
down the hatchet, but that he would suspend hostilities until a 
messenger could be sent to Kaskaskia. This was done, and the 
crafty Colonel, well understanding the Indian character, sent a 


message to the Delawares, telling them that he would not accept 
their friendship or treat with them for peace; but that if they 
could get some of the neighboring tribes to become responsible for 
their future conduct, he would discontinue the war and spare their 
lives; otherwise they must all perish. 

Accordingly a council was called of all the Indians in the neigh- 
borhood, and Clark's answer was read to the assembly. After due 
deliberation the Piankeshaws took on themselves to answer for the 
future good conduct of the Delawares, and the " Grand Door " in a 
long speech denounced their base conduct. This ended the war 
with the Delawares and secured the respect of the neighboring 

Clark's attention was next turned to the British post at Detroit, 
but being unable to obtain sufficient troops he abandoned the en- 

Clark's ingenious euse against the Indians. 

Tradition says that when Clark captured Hamilton and his gar- 
rison at Fort Sackville, he took possession of the fort and kept the 
British flag flying, dressed his sentinels with the uniform of the 
British soldiery, and let everything about the premises remain as 
they were, so that when the Indians sympathizing with the British 
arrived they would walk right into the citadel, into the jaws of 
death. His success was perfect. Sullen and silent, with the scalp- 
lock of his victims hanging at his girdle, and in full expectation of 
his reward from Hamilton, the unwary savage, unconscious of 
danger and wholly ignorant of the change that had just been eflfected 
in his absence, passed the supposed British sentry at the gate of the 
fort unmolested and unchallenged; but as soon as in, a volley from 
the rifles of a platoon of Clark's men, drawn up and awaiting his 
coming, pierced their hearts and sent the unconscious savage, reek- 
ing with murder, to that tribunal to which he had so frequently, 
by order of the hair- buyer general, sent his American captives, 
from the infant in the cradle to the grandfather of the family, tot- 
tering with age and infirmity. It was a just i-etribution, and few 
men but Clark would have planned such a ruse or carried it out 
successfully. It is reported that fifty Indians met this fate within 
the fort; and probably Hamilton, a prisoner there, witnessed it all 


Henry Hamilton, who had acted as Lieutenant and Governor of 
the British possessions under Sir George Carleton, was sent for- 


ward, with two other prisoners of war, Dejean and LaMothe, to 
Williamsburg, Va., early in June following, 1779. Proclamations, 
in his own handwriting, were found, in which he had offered a 
specific sum for every American scalp brought into the camp, either 
by his own troops or his allies, the Indians; and from this he was 
denominated the "hair-buyer General." This and much other tes- 
timony of living witnesses at the time, all showed what a savage he 
was. Thomas Jefferson, then Governor of Virginia, being made 
aware of the inhumanity of this wretch, concluded to resort to a 
little retaliation by way of closer confinement. Accordingly he 
ordered that these three prisoners be put in irons, confined in a 
dunt^eon, deprived of the use of pen, ink and paper, and be ex- 
cluded from all conversation except with their keeper. Major 
General Phillips, a British oflicer out on parole in the vicinity of 
Charlottesville, where the prisoners now were, in closer confine- 
ment, remonstrated, and President Washington, while approving 
of Jefferson's course, requested a mitigation of the severe order, 
lest the British be goaded to desperate measures. . 

Soon afterward Hamilton was released on parole, and he subse- 
quently appeared in Canada, still acting as if he had jurisdiction 
in the United 

The faithful, self-sacrificing and patriotic services of Father 
Pierre Gibault in behalf of the Americans require a special notice 
of him in this connection. He was the parish priest at Vincennes, 
as well as at Kaskaskia. He was, at an early period, a Jesuit mis- 
sionary to the Illinois. Had it not been for the influence of this man, 
Clark could not have obtained the influence of the citizens at either 
place. He gave all his property, to the value of 1,500 Spanish 
milled dollars, to the support of Col. Clark's troops, and never re- 
ceived a single dollar in return. So far as the records inform us,, 
he was given 1,500 Continental paper dollars, which proved in th& 
end entirely valueless. He modestly petitioned from the Govern- 
ment a small allowance of land at Cahokia, but we find no account 
of his ever receiving it. He was dependent upon the public in his 
older days, and in 1790 Winthrop Sargent "conceded" to him a lot 
of about "14 toises, one side to Mr. Millet, another to Mr. Vaudreyp 
and to two streets," — a vague description of land. 


Col. Francis Vigo was born in Mondovi, in the kingdom of Sar- 
dinia, in 1747. He left his parents and guardians at a very early 
age, and enlisted in a Spanish regiment as a soldier. The regiment 
was ordered to Havana, and a detachment of it subsequently to 
New Orleans, then a Spanish post; Col. Yigo accompanied this de- 
tachment. But he left the army and engaged in trading with the 
Indians on the Arkansas and its tributaries. Next he settled at St. 
Louis, also a Spanish post, where he became closely connected, both 
in friendship and business, with the Governor of Upper Louisiana, 
then residing at the same place. This friendship he enjoyed, though 
he could only write his name; and we have many circumstantial 
evidences that he was a man of high intelligence, honor, purity of 
heart, and ability. Here he was living when Clark captured Kas- 
kaskia, and was extensively engaged in trading up the Missouri. 

A Spaniard by birth and allegiance, he was under no obligation 
to assist the Americans. Spain was at peace with Great Britain, 
and any interference by her citizens was a breach of neutrality, and 
subjected an individual, especially one of the high character and 
standing of Col. Vigo, to all the contumely, loss and vengeance 
which British power could inflict. But Col. Vigo did not falter. 
With an innate love of liberty, an attachment to Eepublican prin- 
ciples, and an ardent sympathy for an oppressed people struggling 
for their rights, he overlooked all personal consequences, aud as 
soon as he learned of Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia, he crossed the 
line and went to Clark and tendered him his means and influence, 
both of which were joyfully accepted. 

Knowing Col. Vigo's influence with the ancient inhabitants of 
the country, and desirous of obtaining some information from 
Vincennes, from which he had not heard for several months. Col. 
Clark proposed to him that he might go to that place and learn the 
actual state of afl'airs. Vigo went without hesitation, but on the 
Embarrass river he was seized by a party of Indians, plundered of 
all he possessed, and brought a prisoner before Hamilton, then in pos- 
session of the post, which he had a short time previously captured, 
holding Capt. Helm a prisoner of war. Being a Spanish subject, 
and consequently a non-combatant. Gov. Hamilton, although he 
strongly suspected the motives of the visit, dared not confine him, 
but admitted him to parole, on the single condition that he 
should daily report himself at the fort. But Hamilton was embar- 


rassed by his detention, being besieged by the inhaljitants of the 
town, who loved Vigo and threatened to withdraw their support 
from the garrison if he would not release him. Father Gibault was 
the chief pleader for Vigo's release. Hamilton finally yielded, on con- 
dition that he, Vigo, would do no injury to the British interests on, 
his way to St. Louis. He went to St. Louis, sure enough, doing no 
injury to British interests, but immediately returned to Kaskaskia 
and reported to Clark in detail all he had learned at Vincennes, 
without which knowledge Clark would have been unable to ac- 
complish his famous expedition to that post with final triumph. 
The redemption of this country from the British is due as much, 
probably, to Col. Vigo as Col. Clark. 


Col. John Todd, Lieutenant for the county of Illinois, in the 
spring of 1779 visited the old settlements at Vincennes and Kas- 
kaskia, and organized temporary civil governments in nearly all the 
settlements west of the Ohio. Previous to this, however, Clark 
had established a military government at Kaskaskia and Vincennes, 
appointed commandants in both places and taken up his headquar- 
ters at the falls of the Ohio, where he could watch the operations 
of the enemy and save the frontier settlements from the depreda- 
tions of Indian warfare. On reaching the settlements. Col. Todd 
issued a proclamation regulating the settlement of unoccupied 
lands and requiring the presentation of all claims to the lands set- 
tled, as the number of adventurers who would shortly overrun the 
country would be serious. He also organized a Court of civil and 
criminal jurisdiction at Vincennes, in the month of June, 1779. 
This Court was composed of several magistrates and presided over 
by Col. J. M. P. Legras, who had been appointed commandant at 
Vincennes. Acting from the precedents established by the early 
French commandants in the West, this Court began to grant tracts 
of land to the French and American inhabitants ; and to the year 
1783, it had granted to different parties about 26,000 acres of land; 
22,000 more was granted in this manner by 1787, when the practice 
was prohibited by Gen. Harmer. These tracts varied in size from 
a house lot to 500 acres. Besides this loose business, the Court 
entered into a stupendous speculation, one not altogether creditable 
to its honor and dignity. The comm^andant and the magistrates 
under him suddenly adopted the opinion that they were invested! 


with the authority to dispose of the whole of that large region 
which in 184^ had been granted by the Piankeshaws to the French 
inhabitants of Vincennes. Accordingly a very convenient arrange- 
ment was entered into by which the whole tract of country men- 
tioned was to be divided between the members of the honorable 
Court. A record was made to that effect, and in order to gloss over 
the steal, each member took pains to be absent from Court on the 
day that the order was made in his favor. 

In the fall of 17S0 La Balme, a Frenchman, made an attempt to 
capture the British garrison of Detroit by leading an expedition 
against it from Kaskaskia. At the head of 30 men he marched to 
Vincennes, where his force was slightly increased. From this 
place he proceeded to the British trading post at the head of the 
Maumee, where Fort Wayne now stands, plundered the British 
traders and Indians and then retired. While encamped on the 
bank of a small stream on his retreat, he was attacked by a band 
of Miamis, a number of his men were killed, and his expedition 
against Detroit was ruined. 

In this manner border war continued between Americans and 
their enemies, with varying victory, until 1783, when the treaty of 
Paris was concluded, resulting in the establishment of the inde- 
pendence of the United States. Up to this time the territory now 
included in Indiana belonged by conquest to the State of Virginia; 
but in January, 1783, the General Assembly of that State resolved 
to cede to the Congress of the United States all the territory north- 
west of the Ohio. The conditions offered by Virginia were 
accepted by Congress Dec. 20, that year, and early in 1784 the 
transfer was completed. In 1783 Virginia had platted the town of 
Clarksville, at the falls of the Ohio. The deed of cession provided 
that the territory should be laid out into States, containing a suita- 
ble extent of territory not less than 100 nor more than 150 miles 
square, or as near thereto as circumstances would permit; and that 
the States so formed shall be distinct Republican States and 
admitted members of the Federal Union, having the same rights of 
sovereignty, freedom afld independence as the other States. The 
other conditions of the deed were as follows: That the necessary 
and reasonable expenses incurred by Virginia in subduing any 
British posts, or in maintaining forts and garrisons within and for 
the defense, or in acquiring any part of the territory so ceded or 
relinquished, shall be fully reimbursed by the United States; that 
the French and Canadian inhahitants and other settlers of theKas- 


kaskia, Post Vincennes and the neighboring villages who have pro- 
fessed themselves citizens of Virginia, shall have their titles and 
possessions confirmed to them, and be protected in the enjoyment 
of their rights and privileges; that a quantity not exceeding 150,- 
000 acres of land, promised by Virginia, shall be allowed and 
granted to the then Colonel, now General, George Rogers Clark, 
and to the officers and soldiers of his regiment, who marched with 
him when the posts and of Kaskaskia and Vincennes were reduced, 
and to the officers and soldiers that have been since incorporated 
into the said regiment, to be laid off in one tract, the length o' 
which not to exceed double the breadth, in such a place on the 
northwest side of the Ohio as a majority of the officers shall 
choose, and to be afterward divided among the officers and soldiers 
in due proportion according to the laws of Virginia; that in case 
the quantity of good lands on the southeast side of the Ohio, upon 
the waters of Cumberland river, and between Green river and Ten. 
nessee river, which have been reserved by law for the Virginia 
troops upon Continental establishment, should, from the North 
Carolina line, bearing in further upon the Cumberland lands than 
was expected, prove insufficient for their legal bounties, the defi- 
ciency shall be made up to the said troops in good lands to be laid 
off between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami, on the northwest 
side of the river Ohio, in such proportions as have been ehgaged 
to them by the laws of Virginia; that all the lands within the ter- 
ritory so ceded to the United States, and not reserved for or appro- 
priated to any of the before-mentioned purposes, or disposed of in 
bounties to the officers and soldiers of the American army, shall be 
considered as a common fund for the use and benefit of such of the 
United States as have become, or shall become, members of the 
confederation or federal alliance of the said States, Virginia included, 
according to their usual respective proportions in the general 
charge and expenditure, and shall be faithfully and lona fide dis- 
posed of for that purpose and for no other use or purpose whatever. 
After the above deed of cession had been accepted by Congress, 
in the spring of 1784, the matter of the future government of the 
territory was referred to a committee consisting of Messrs. Jeffer- 
son of Virginia, Chase of Maryland and Howell of Rhode Island, 
which committee reported an ordinance for its government, provid- 
ing, amOng other things, that slavery should not exist in said terri- 
tory after 1800, except as punishment of criminals; but this article 
of the ordinance was rejected, and an ordinance for the temporary 


government of the county was adopted. In 1785 laws were passed 
by Congress for the disposition of lands in the territory and pro- 
hibiting the settlement of unappropriated lands by reckless specu- 
lators. But human passion is ever strong enough to evade the law 
to some extent, and large associations, representing considerable 
means, were formed for the purpose of monopolizing the land busi- 
ness. Millions of acres were sold at one time by Congress to asso- 
ciations on the installment plan, and so far as the Indian titles 
could be extinguished, the work of settling and improving the 
lands was pushed rapidly forward. 


This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Con- 
siderable controversy has been indulged in as to who is entitled to 
the credit for framing it. This belongs, undoubtedly, to Nathan 
Dane; and to Rufus King and Timothy Pickering belong the 
credit for suggesting the proviso contained in it against slavery, 
and also for aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring for- 
ever the common use, without charge, of the great national high- 
ways of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and their tributaries to 
all the citizens of the United States. To Thomas Jefferson is also 
due much credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced 
in his ordinance of 178i. But the part taken by each in the long, 
laborious and eventful struggle which had so glorious a consum- 
mation in the ordinance, consecrating forever, by one imprescript- 
ible and unchangeable monument, the very heart of our country to 
Freedom, Knowledge, and Union, will forever honor the names of 
those illustrious statesmen. 

Mr. Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a system of government 
for the Northwestern territory. He was an emancipationist and 
favored the exclusion of slavery from the territory, but the South 
voted him down every time he proposed a measure of this nature. 
In 1787, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slavery clause was pending. This concession to the South was 
expected to carry it. Congress was in session in New York. On 
July 5, Rev. Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came into New 
York to lobby on the Northwestern territory. Everything seemed 
to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the public 
credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his mission, 
his personal character, all combined to complete one of those sudden 


and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that once in five or 
ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the breath of the 

Cutler was a graduate of Yale. He had studied and taken de- 
grees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. 
He had published a scientific examination of the plants of New 
England. As a scientist in America his name stood second only to 
that of Franklin. He was a courtly gentleman of the old style, a 
man of commanding presence and of inviting face. The Southern 
members said they had never seen such a gentleman in the North. 
He came representing a Massachusetts company that desired to 
purchase a tract of land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government money was 
worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected 
enough to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in 
New York made Dr. Cutler their agent, which enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. As this would reduce the 
national debt, and JeflTerson's policy was to provide for the public 
credit, it presented a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the North- 
western region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught 
the inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The entire South ral. 
lied around him. Massachusetts could not vote against him, be- 
cause many of the constuitents of her members were interested 
personally in the Western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends in the South, and doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convic- 
tions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documents 
of wise statesmanship that has ever adorned any human law book. 
He borrowed from JeiFerson the term "Articles of Compact," which, 
preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred char- 
acter. He then followed very closely the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, adopted three years before. Its most prominent points 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for pnblic schools, giving one township for a semi- 
nary and every section numbered 16 in each township; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all the land for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or 
the enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 


Be it forever remembered that this compact declared tliat " re- 
ligion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
cation shall always be encouraged." Dr. Cutler planted himself 
on this platform and would not yield. Giving his unqualified dec- 
laration that it was that or nothing, — that unless they could make 
the land desirable they did not want it, — he took his horse and buggy 
and started for the constitutional convention at Philadelphia. On 
July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously adopted. Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, a vast empire, were consecrated to free 
dom, intelligence, and morality. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared to save the union of States, for it was this act that was 
the salvation of the republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon 
the South saw their great blunder and tried to have the compact 
repealed. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee, of which 
John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
way of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

The " Northwestern Territory " included of course what is now 
the State of Indiana; and Oct 5, 1787, Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair 
was elected by Congress Governor of this territory. Upon 
commencing the duties of his office he was instructed to ascertain 
the real temper of the Indians and do all in his power to remove 
the causes for controversy between them and the United States, 
and to effect the extinguishment of Indian titles to all the land 
possible. The Governor took up quarters in the new settlement of 
Marietta, Ohio, where he immediately began the organization of 
the government of the territory. The first session of the General 
Court of the new territory was held at that place in 17SS, the 
Judges being Samuel H. Parsons, James M. Varnum and John C. 
Sjmmes, but under the ordinance Gov. St. Clair was President of 
the Court. After the first session, and after the necessary laws for 
government were adopted. Gov. St. Clair, accompanied by the 
Judges, visited Kaskaskia for the purpose of organizing a civil gov- 
ernment there. Full instructions had been sent to Maj. Hamtranick, 
commandant at Vincennes, to ascertain the exact feeling and temper 
of the Indian tribes of the Wabash. These instructions were ac- 
companied by speeches to each of the tribes. A Frenchman named 
Antoine Gamelin was dispatched with these messages April 5, 1790, 
who visited nearly all the tribes on the Wabash, St. Joseph and St. 



Mary's rivers, but was coldly received; most of the chiefs being 
dissatisfied with the policy of the Americans toward them, and 
prejudiced through English misrepresentation. Full accounts of 
his adventures among the tribes reached Gov. St. Clair at Kaskas- 
kia in June, 1790. Being satisfied that there was no prospect of 
efiecting a general peace with the Indians of Indiana, he resolved 
to visit Gen. Harmar at his headquarters at Fort Washington and 
consult with him on the means of carrying an expedition against 
the hostile Indians; but before leaving he intrusted Winthrop 
Sargent, the Secretary of the Territory, with the execution of the 
resolutions of Congress regarding the lands and settlers on the 
Wabash. He directed that ofiicer to proceed to Vincennes, lay 
out a county there, establish the militia and appoint the necessary 
civil and military oflScers. Accordingly Mr. Sargent went to Vin- 
cennes and organized Camp Knox, appointed the oflacers, and noti- 
fied the inhabitants to present their claims to lands. In establish- 
ing these claims the settlers found great difficulty, and concerning 
this matter the Secretary in his report to the President wrote as 
follows : 

" Although the lands and lots which were awarded to the inhabi- 
tants appeared from very good oral testimony to belong to those 
persons to whom they were awarded, either by original grants, pur- 
chase or inheritance, yet there was scarcely one case in twenty 
where the title was complete, owing to the desultory manner in 
which public business had been transacted and some other unfor- 
tunate causes. The original concessions by the French and British 
commandants were generally made upon a small scrap of paper, 
which it has been customary to lodge in the notary's ofiice, who 
has seldom kept any book of record, but committed the most im- 
portant land concerns to loose sheets, which in process of time 
have come into possession of persons that have fraudulently de- 
stroyed them; or, unacquainted with their consequence, innocently 
lost or trifled them away. By French usage they are considered 
family inheritances, and often descend to women and children. In 
one instance, and during the government of St. Auge here, a royal 
notary ran off with all the public papers in his possession, as by a 
certificate produced to me. And I am very sorry further to observe 
that in the ofiice of Mr. Le Grand, which continued from 1777 to 
1787, and where should have been the vouchers for important land 
transactions, the records have been so falsified, and there is such 
gross fraud and forgery, as to invalidate all evidence and informa- 
tion which 1 might have otherwise acquired from his papers." 


Mr. Sargent says there were about 150 French families at Vin- 
ceniies in 1790. The heads of all these families had been at some 
time vested with certain titles to a portion of the soil ; and while 
the Secretary was busy in straightening out these claims, he re- 
ceived a petition signed by SO Americans, asking for the confirma- 
tion of grants of land ceded by the Court organized by Col. John 
Todd under the authority of Virginia. With reference to this 
cause. Congress, March 3, 1791, empowered the Territorial Governor, 
in cases where land had been actually improved and cultivated 
under a supposed grant for the same, to confirm to the persons wlio 
made such improvements the lands supposed to have been granted, 
not, however, exceeding the quantity of 400 acres to any one per- 


The General Court in the summer of 1790, Acting Governor 
Sargent presiding, passed the . following laws with reference to 
vending liquor among the Indians and others, and with reference 
to games of chance: 

1. An act to prohibit the giving or selling intoxicating liquors 
to Indians residing in or coming into the Territory of the United 
States northwest of the river Ohio, and for preventing foreigners 
from trading with Indians therein. 

2. An act prohibiting the sale of spirituous or other intoxicat- 
ing liquors to soldiers in the service of the United States, being 
within ten miles of any military post in the territory; and to pre- 
vent the selling or pawning of arms, ammunition, clothing or 

3. An act prohibiting every species of gaming for money or 
property, and for making void contracts and payments made in 
consequence thereof, and for restraining the disorderly practice 
of discharging arms at certain hours and places. 

Winthrop Sargent's administration was highly eulogized by the 
citizens at Vincennes, in a testimonial drawn up and signed by a 
committee of officers. He had conducted the investigation and 
settlement of land claims to the entire satisfaction of the residents, 
liad upheld the principles of free government in keeping with the 
animus of the American Revolution, and had established in good 
order the machinery of a good and wise government. In the same 
address Major Hamtramck also received a fair share of praise for 
his judicious management of affairs. 



Gov. St. Clair, on his arrival at Fort Washington from Kas- 
kaskia, had a long conversation with Gen. Harmar, and concluded 
to send a powerful force to chastise the savages about the head- 
waters of the Wabash. He had been empowered bj the President 
to call on Virginia for 1,000 troops and on Pennsylvania for 500, 
and he immediately availed himself of this resource, ordering 300 
of the Virginia militia to muster at Fort Steuben and march with 
the garrison of that fort to Vincennes, and join Maj. Hamtramck, 
who had orders to call for aid from the militia of Vincennes, march 
up the Wabash, and attack any of the Indian villages which he 
might think he could overcome. The remaining 1,200 of the mi- 
litia were ordered to rendezvous at Fort Washington, and to join 
the regular troops at that post under command of Gen. Harmar. 
At this time the United States troops in the West were estimated 
by Gen. Harmar at 400 effective men. These, with the militia, 
gave him a force of 1,450 men. With this army Gen. Harmar 
marched from Fort Washington Sept. 30, and arrived at the Mau- 
mee Oct. 17. They commenced the work of punishing the Indians, 
but were not very successful. The savages, it is true, received a 
severe scourging, but the militia behaved so badly as to be of little 
or no service. A detachment of 340 militia and 60 regulars, under 
the command of Col. Hardin, were sorely defeated on the Maumee 
Oct. 22. The next day the army took up the line of march for 
Fort Washington, which place they reached Nov. 4, having lost in 
the expedition 183 killed and 31 wounded; the Indians lost about 
as many. During the progress of this expedition Maj. Hamtramck 
marched up the Wabash from Vincennes, as far as the Vermillion 
river, and destroyed several deserted villages, but without finding 
an enemy to oppose him. 

Although the savages seem to have been severely punished by 
these expeditions, yet they refused to sue for peace, and continued 
their hostilities. Thereupon the inhabitants of the frontier settle- 
ments of Virginia took alarm, and the delegates of Ohio, Monon- 


gahela, Harrison, Eandolph, Greenbrier, Kanawha and Mont- 
gomery counties sent a joint memorial to the Governor of Vir- 
ginia, saying that the defenseless condition of the counties, form- 
ing a line of nearly 400 miles along the Ohio river, exposed to the 
hostile invasion of their Indian enemies, destitute of every kind of 
support, was truly alarming; for, notwithstanding all the regula- 
tions of the General Government in that country, they have reason 
to lament that they have been up to that time ineffectual for their 
protection; nor indeed could it be otherwise, for the garrisons kept 
by the Continental troops on the Ohio river, if of any use at all, 
must protect only the Kentucky settlements, as they immediately 
covered that country. Tiiey further stated in their memorial: "We 
beg leave to observe that we have reason to fear that the conse- 
quences of the defeat of our army by the Indians in the late expe- 
dition will be severely felt on our frontiers, as there is no doubt 
that the Indians will, in their turn, being flushed with victory, in- 
vade our settlements and exercise all their horrid murder upon the 
inhabitants thereof whenever the weather will permit them to 
travel. Then is it not better to support us where we are, be the ex- 
pense what it may, than to oblige such a number of your brave 
citizens, who have so long supported, and still continue to support, 
a dangerous fi'ontier (although thousands of their relatives in the 
flesh have in the prosecution thereof fallen a sacrifice to savage in- 
ventions) to quit the country, after all they have done and suffered, 
when you know that a frontier must be supported somewhere?" 

This memorial caused the Legislature of Virginia to authorize 
the Governor of that State to make any defensive operations neces- 
sary for the temporary defense of the frontiers, until the general 
Government could adopt and carry out measures to suppress the 
hostile Indians. The Governor at once called upon the military 
commanding oflicers in the western counties of Virginia to raise by 
the first of March, 1791, several small companies of rangers for this 
purpose. At the same time Charles Scott was appointed Brigadier- 
General of the Kentucky militia, with authority to raise 226 vol- 
unteers, to protect the most exposed portions of that district. A 
full report of the proceedings of the Virginia Legislature being 
transmitted to Congress, that body constituted a local Board of 
War for the district of Kentucky, consisting of five men. March 9, 
1791, Gen. Henry Knox, Secretary of War, sent a letter of instruc- 
tions to Gen. Scott, recommending an expedition of mounted men 
not exceeding 750, against the Wea towns on the Wabash. With 


thi8 force Gen. Scott accordingly crossed the Ohio, May 23, 1791, 
and reached the Wabash in about ten days. Many of the Indians, 
having discovered his approach, fled, but he succeeded in destroy- 
ing all the villages around Ouiatenon, together with several Kick-, 
apoo towns, killing 32 warriors and taking 58 prisoners. He 
released a few of the most infirm prisoners, giving them a " talk," 
which they carried to the towns farther up the Wabash, and which 
the wretched condition of his horses prevented him from reaching. 

March 3, 1791, Congress provided for raising and equipping a 
regiment for the protection of the frontiers, and Gov. St. Clair was 
invested with the chief command of about 3,000 troops, to be raised 
and employed against the hostile Indians in the territory over 
which his jurisdiction extended. He was instructed by the Secre- 
tary of War to march to the Miami village and establish a strong 
and permanent military post there; also such posts elsewhere along 
the Ohio as would be in communication with Fort Washington. 
The post at Miami village was intended to keep the savages in that 
vicinity in check, and was ordered to be strong enough in its gar- 
rison to afford a detachment of 500 or 600 men in case of emer- 
gency, either to chastise any of the Wabash or other hostile Indians 
or capture convoys of the enemy's provisions. The Secretary of 
War also urged Gov. St. Clair to establish that post as the first and 
most important part of the campaign. In case of a previous 
treaty the Indians were to be conciliated upon this point if possible; 
and he presumed good arguments might be offered to induce their 
acquiescence. Said he: "Having commenced your march upon the 
main expedition, and the Indians continuing hostile, you will use 
every possible exertion to make them feel the effects of your superi- 
ority; and, after having arrived at the Miami village and put your 
works in a defensible state, you will seek the enemy with the whole 
of your remaining force, and endeavor by all possible means to 
strike them with great severity. * * * * 

In order to avoid future wars, it might be proper to make the Wa- 
bash and thence over to the Maumee, and down the same to its 
mouth, at Lake Erie, the boundary between the people of the 
United States and the Indians (excepting so far as the same should 
relate to the Wyandots and Delawares), on the supposition of their 
continuing faithful to the treaties; but if they should join in the 
war against the United States, and your army be victorious, the 
said tribes ought to be removed without the boundary mentioned." ' 

Previous to marchinff a strong force to the Miami town, Gov. St. 


Clair, June 25, 1791, authorized Gen Wilkinson to conduct a second 
expedition, not exceeding 500 mounted men, against the Indian 
villages on the Wabash. Accordingly Gen. Wilkinson mustered 
his forces and was ready July 20, to march with 525 mounted vol- 
unteers, well armed, and provided with 30 days' provisions, and 
with this force he reached the Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua village on the 
north bank of Eel river about six miles above its mouth, Aug. 7, 
where he killed six warriors and took 34 prisoners. This town, 
which was scattered alpng the river for thi-ee miles, was totally d.^- 
stroyed. Wilkinson encamped on the ruins of the town that night, 
and the next day he commenced his march for the Kickapoo town 
on the prairie, which he was unable to reach owing to the impassa- 
ble condition of the route which he adopted and the failing condi- 
tion of his horses. He reported the estimated results of the expe- 
dition as follows: "I have destroyed the chief town of the Ouiate- 
non nation, and have made prisoners of tlie sons and sisters of the 
king. I have burned a respectable Kickapoo village, and cut down 
at least 400 acres of corn, chiefly in the milk." 


The Indians were greatly damaged by the expeditions of Harmar, 
Scott and Wilkinson, but were far from being subdued. They 
regarded the policy of the United States as calculated to extermi- 
nate them from the land; and, goaded on by the English of Detroit, 
enemies of the Americans, they were excited to desperation. At 
this time the British Government still supported garrisons at 
Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac, although it was declared by 
the second article of the definitive treaty of peace of 1783, that 
the king of Great Britain would, " with all convenient speed, and 
without causing any destruction or carrying away any negroes or 
property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his forces, 
garrisons and fleets from the United States, and from every post, 
place and harbor within the same." That treaty also provided that 
the creditors on either side should meet with no lawful impedi- 
ments to the recovery of the full value, in sterling money, of all 
hona fide debts previously contracted. The British Government 
claimed that the United States had broken faith in this particular 
understanding of the treaty, and in consequence refused to with- 
draw- its forces from the territory. The British garrisons in the 
Lake Region were a source of much annoyance to the Americans, 
as they aflforded ocaeor xo iiostile Indians, encouraging them to 


make raids among the Americans. This state of affairs in the 
Territory Northwest of the Ohio continued from the commence- 
ment of the Revolutionary war to 1796, when under a second 
treaty all British soldiers were withdrawn from the country. 

In September, 1791, St. Clair moved from Fort Washington 
with about 2,000 men, and November 3, the main army, consisting 
of about 1,400 effective troops, moved forward to the head- waters 
of the Wabash, where Fort Recovery was afterward erected, and 
here the army encamped. About 1,200 Indians were secreted a few 
miles distant, awaiting a favorable opportunity to begin an attack, 
which they improved on the morning of Nov. 4, about half an hour 
before sunrise. The attack was first made upon the militia, which 
immediately gave way. St. Clair was defeated and he returned to 
Fort Washington with a broken and dispirited army, having lost 
39 officers killed, and 539 men killed and missing; 22 officers and 
232 men were wounded. Several pieces of artillery, and all the 
baggage, ammunition and provisions were left on the field of bat- 
tle and fell into the hands of the victorious Indians. The stores 
and other public property lost in the action were valued at $32,800. 
There were also 100 or more American women with the army of 
the whites, very few of whom escaped the cruel carnage of the sav- 
age Indians. The latter, characteristic of their brutal nature, 
proceeded in the flush of victory to perpetrate the most horrible 
acts of cruelty and brutality upon the bodies of the living and the 
dead Americans who fell into their hands. Believing that the 
whites had made war for many years merely to acquire land, the 
Indians crammed clay and sand into the eyes and down the throats 
of the dying and the dead! 


Although no particular blame was attached to Gov. St. Clair for 
the loss in this expedition, yet he resigned the office of Major-Gen- 
eral, and was succeeded by Anthony Wayne, a distinguished 
officer of the Revolutionary war. Early in 1792 provisions were 
made by the general Government for re-organizing the army, so 
that it should consist of an efficient degree of strength. Wayne 
arrived at Pittsburg in June, where the army was to rendezvous. 
Here he continued actively engaged in organizing and training his 
forces until October, 1793, when with an army of about 3,600 men 
he moved westward to Fort Washington. 

While Wayne was preparing for an offensive campaign, every 


possible means was employed to induce the hostile tribes of the 
Northwest to enter into a general treaty of peace with the Ameri- 
can Government; speeches were sent among them, and agents to 
make treaties were also sent, but little was accomplished. Major 
Hamtramck, who still remained at Vincennes, succeeded in con- 
cluding a general peace with the "Wabash and Illinois Indians ; but 
the tribes more immediately under the influence of the British 
refused to hear the sentiments of friendship that were sent among 
them, and tomahawked several of the messengers. Their courage 
had been aroused by St.'s defeat, as well as by the unsuccess- 
ful expeditions which had preceded it, and they now felt quite pre- 
pared to meet a superior force under Gen. Wayne. The Indians 
insisted on the Ohio river as the boundary line between their lands 
and the lands of the United States, and felt certain that they could 
maintain that boundary. 

Maj. Gen. Scott, with about 1,600 mounted volunteers from 
Kentucky, joined the regular troops under Gen. Wayne July 26, 
1794, and on the 2St]i the united forces began their march for the 
Indian towns on the Maumee river. Arriving at the mouth of 
the Auglaize, they erected Fort Defiance, and Aug. 15 the army- 
advanced toward the British fort at the foot of the rapids of the 
Maumee, where, on the 20th, almost within reach of the British, 
the American army gained a decisive victory over the combined 
forces of the hostile Indians and a considerable number of the 
Detroit militia. The number of the enemy was estimated at 2,000, 
against about 900 American troops actually engaged. This horde 
of savages, as soon as the action began, abandoned themselves to 
flight and dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving Wayne's vic- 
torious army in full and quiet possession of the field. The Ameri- 
cans lost 33 killed and 100 wounded ; loss of the enemy more than 
double this number. 

The army remained three days and nights on the banks of the 
Maumee, in front of the field of battle, during which time all the 
houses and cornfields were consumed and destroyed for a considera- 
ble distance both above and below Fort Miami, as well as within 
pistol shot of the British garrison, who were compelled to remain 
idle spectators to this general devastation and conflagration, among 
which were the houses, stores and property of Col. McKee, the 
British Indian agent and " principal stimulator of the war then 
existing between the United States and savages." On the return 
march to Fort Defiance the villages and cornfields for about 50 


miles on each side of the Maumee were destroyed, as well as those 
for a considerable distance around that post. 

Sept. 14, 1794, the army under Gen. "Wayne commenced its 
march toward the deserted Miami villages at the confluence of St. 
Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers, arriving Oct. 17, and on the follow- 
ing day the site of Fort Wayne was selected. The fort was com- 
pleted Xov. 22, and garrisoned by a strong detachment of infantry 
and artillery, under the command of Col. John F. Hamtramck, who 
gave to the new fort the name of Fort Wayne. In 1814 a new fort 
was built on the site of this structure. The Kentucky volunteers 
returned to Fort Washington and were mustered out of service. 
Gen. Wayne, with the Federal troops, marched to Greenville and 
took up his headquarters during the winter. Here, in August, 
1795, after several months of active negotiation, this gallant ofScer 
succeeded in concluding a general treaty of peace with all the hos- 
tile tribes of the Northwestern Territory. This treaty opened the 
way for the flood of immigration for many years, and ultimately 
made the States and territories now constituting the mighty North- 

Up to the organization of the Indiana Territory there is but little 
history to record aside from those events connected with military 
affairs. In July, 1796, as before stated, after a treaty was con- 
cluded between the United States and Spain, the British garrisons, 
with their arms, artillery and stores, were withdrawn from the 
posts within the boundaries of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio river, and a detachment of American troops, consisting of 65 
men, under the command of Capt. Moses Porter, took possession 
of the evacuated post of Detroit in the same month. 

In the latter part of 1796 Winthrop Sargent went to Detroit and 
organized the county of Wayne, forming a part of the Indiana 
Territory until its division in 1805, when the Territory of Michigan 
was organized. 



On the final success of American arms and diplomacy in 1796, 
the principal town within the Territory, now the State, of Indiana 
was Vincennes, which at this time comprised about 50 houses, all 
presenting a thrifty and tidy appearance. Each house was sur- 
rounded by a garden fenced with poles, and peach and apple-trees 
grew in most of the enclosures. Garden vegetables of all kinds 
were cultivated with success, and corn, tobacco, wheat, barley and 
cotton grew in the fields around the village in abundance. During 
the last few years of the ISth century the condition of society at 
Vincennes improved wonderfully. 

Besides Vincennes there was a small settlement near where the 
town of Lawrenceburg now stands, in Dearborn county, and in the 
course of that year a small settlement was formed at " Armstrong's 
Station," on the Ohio, within the present limits of Clark county. 
There were of course several other smaller settlements and trading 
posts in the present limits of Indiana, and the number of civilized 
inhabitants comprised within the territory was estimated at 4,875. 

The Territory of Indiana was organized by Act of Congress May 
7, 1800, the material parts of the ordinance of 1787 remaining in 
force; and the inhabitants were invested with all the rights, privi- 
leges and advantages granted and secured to the people by that 
ordinance. The seat of government was fixed at Vincennes. May 
13, 1800, Wm. Henry Harrison, a native ot Virginia, was appoint- 
ed Governor of this new territory, and on the next day John Gib- 
son, a native of Pennsylvania and a distinguished Western pioneer, 
(to whom the Indian chief Logan delivered his celebrated speech in 
1774), was appointed Secretary of the Territory. Soon afterward 
"Wm. Clark, Henry Vanderburgh and John Grifiin were appointed 
territorial Judges. 

Secretary Gibson arrived at Vincennes in July, and commenced, 
in the absence of Gov. Harrison, the administration of government. 
Gov. Harrison did not arrive until Jan. 10, 1801, when he imme- 
diately called together the Judges of the Territory, who proceeded 



to pass such laws as they deemed necessary for the present govern- 
ment of the Territory. This session began March 3, 1801. 

From this time to 1810 the principal subjects which attracted the 
attention of the people of Indiana were land speculations, the 
adjustment of land titles, the question of negro slavery, the purchase 
of Indian lands by treaties, the organization of Territorial legis- 
latures, the extension of the right of suffrage, the division of 
Indiana Territory, the movements of Aaron Burr, and the hostile 
views and proceedings of the Shawanee chief, Tecumseh, and his 
brother, the Prophet. 

Up to this time the sixth article of the celebrated ordinance of 
1787, prohibiting slavery in the Northwestern Territory, had been 
somewhat neglected in the execution of the law, and many French 
settlers still held slaves in a manner. In some instances, according 
to rules prescribed by Territorial legislation, slaves agreed by 
indentures to remain in servitude under their masters for a certain 
number of years; but many slaves, with whom no such contracts 
were made, were removed from the Indiana Territory either to the 
west of the Mississippi or to some of the slaveholding States. 
Gov. Harrison convoked a session of delegates of the Territory, 
elected by a popular vote, who petitioned Congress to declare the 
sixth article of the ordinance of 1787, prohibiting slavery, suspend- 
ed; but Congress never consented to grant that petition, and many 
other petitions of a similar import. Soon afterward some of the 
citizens began to take colored persons out of the Territory for the 
purpose of selling them, and Gov. Harrison, by a proclamation 
April 6, 1804, forbade it, and called upon the authorities of the 
Territory to assist him in preventing such removal of persons 
of color. 

During the year 1804 all the country west of the Mississippi and 
north of 33° was attached to Indiana Territory by Congress, but in 
a few months was again detached and organized into a separate ter- 

When it appeared from the result of a popular vote in the Terri- 
tory that a majority of 138 freeholders were in favor of organizing 
a General Assembly, Gov. Harrison, Sept. 11, 1804, issued a procla- 
mation declaring that the Territory had passed into the second grade 
of government, as contemplated by the ordinance of 1787, and 
fixed Thursday, Jan. 3, 1805, as the time for holding an election in 
the several counties of the Territory,to choose members of a House 
of Representatives, who should meet at Vincennes Feb. 1 and 


adopt measures for the organization of a Territorial Council. These 
delegates were elected, and met according to the proclamation, and 
selected ten men from whom the President of the United States, 
Mr. Jefferson, should appoint five to be and constitute the Legisla- 
tive Council of the Territory, but he declining, requested Mr. Har- 
rison to make the selection, which was accordingly done. Before 
the first session of this Council, however, was held, Michigan Ter- 
ritory was set off, its south line being one drawn from the southern 
end of Lake Michigan directly east to Lake Erie. 


The first General Assembly, or Legislature, of Indiana Territory 
met at Vincennes July 29, 1805, in pursuance of a gubernatorial 
proclamation. The members of the House of Representatives were 
Jesse B. Thomas, of Dearborn county, Davis Floyd, of Clark county, 
Benjamin Parke and John Johnson, of Knox county; Shadrach 
Bond and William Biggs, of St. Clair county, and George Fisher, 
of Randolph county. July 30 the Governor delivered his first mes- 
sage to "the Legislative Council and House of Representatives of 
the Indiana Territory." Benjamin Parke was the first delegate 
elected to Congress. He had emigrated from New Jersey to In- 
diana in 1801. 

THE "western sun" 

was the first newspaper published in the Indiana Territory, now 
comprising the four great States of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and 
Wisconsin, and the second in all that country once known as the 
"Northwestern Territory." It was commenced at Vincennes in 
1803, by Elihu Stout, of Kentucky, and first called the Indiana 
Gazette, and July, 4, 1804, was changed to the Western Sun. Mr. 
Stout continued the paper until 1845, amid many discouragements, 
when he was appointed postmaster at the place, and he sold out 
the office. 


The events which we have just been describing really constitute 
the initiatory steps to the great military campaign of Gen. Harrison 
which ended in the "battle of Tippecanoe;" but before proceeding 
to an account of that brilliant afi"air, let us take a glance at the re- 
sources and strength of Indiana Territory at this time, 1810: 

Total population, 24,520; 33 grist mills: 14 saw mills; 3 horse 
mills; 18 tanneries; 28 distilleries; 3 powder mills; 1,256 looms; 


1,350 spinning wheels; value of manufactures — woolen, cotton 
hempen and flaxen cloths, $159,052; of cotton and wool spun in 
mills, $150,000; of nails, 30,000 pounds, $4,000; of leather tanned, 
$9,300; of distillery products, 35,950 gallons, $16,230; of gun- 
powder, 3,600 pounds, $1,800; of wine from grapes, 96 barrels, 
$6,000, and 5 0,000 pounds of maple sugar. 

During the year 1810 a Board of Commissioners was established 
to straighten out the confused condition into which the land-title 
controversy had been carried by the various and conflicting admin- 
istrations that had previously exercised jurisdiction in this regard. 
This work was attended with much labor on the part of the Commis- 
sioners and great dissatisfaction on the part of a few designing specu- 
lators, who thought no extreme of perjury too hazardous in their 
mad attempts to obtain lands fraudulently. In closing their report 
the Commissioners used the following expressive language: ""We 
close this melancholy picture of human depravity by rendering our 
devout acknowledgment that, in the awful alternative in which we 
have been placed, of either admitting perjured testimony in sup- 
port of the claims before us, or having it turned against our char- 
acters and lives, it has as yet pleased that divine providence which 
rules over the aflfairs of men, to preserve us, both from legal mur- 
der and private assassination." 

The question of dividing the Territory of Indiana was agitated 
from 1806 to 1809, when Congress erected the Territory of Illinois, 
to comprise all that part of Indiana Territory lying west of the 
Wabash river and a direct line drawn from that river and Post 
Yincennes due north to the territorial line between the United 
States and Canada. This occasioned some confusion in the govern- 
ment of Indiana, but in due time the new elections were confirmed, 
and the new territory started off on a journey of prosperity which 
this section of the United States has ever since enjoyed. 

From the first settlement of Vincennes for nearly half a century 
there occurred nothing of importance to relate, at least so far as 
the records inform us. The place was too isolated to grow very 
fast, and we suppose there was a succession of priests and com- 
mandants, who governed the little world around them with almost 
infinite power and authority, from whose decisions there was no 
appeal, if indeed any was ever desired. The character of society 
in such a place would of course grow gradually different from the 
parent society, assimilating more or less with that of neighboring 
tribes. The whites lived in peace with the Indians, each under- 


Standing the other's peculiarities, which remained fixed long 
enough tor both parties to study out and understand them. The 
government was a mixture of the military and the civil. There 
was little to incite to enterprise. Speculations in money and prop- 
erty, and their counterpart, beggary, were both unknown; the nec- 
essaries of life were easily procured, and beyond these there were 
but few wants to be supplied; hospitality was exercised by all, as 
there were no taverns; there seemed to be no use for law, judges 
or prisons; each district had its commandant, and the proceedings 
of a trial were singular. The complaining party obtained a notifi- 
cation from the commandant to his adversary, accompanied by a 
command to render justice. If this had no efiect he was notified 
to appear before the commandant on a particular day and answer; 
and if the last notice was neglected, a sergeant and file of men 
were sent to bring him, — no sheritF and no costs. The convicted 
party would be fined and kept in prison until he rendered justice 
according to the decree; when extremely refractory the cat-o'-nine- 
tails brought him to a sense of justice. In such a state of society 
there was no demand for learning and science. Few could read, 
and still fewer write. Their disposition was nearly always to deal 
honestly, at least simply. Peltries were their standard of value. 
A brotherly love generally prevailed. But they were devoid of 
public spirit, enterprise or ingenuity. 


Immediately after the organization of Indiana Territory Governor 
Harrison's attention was directed, by necessity as well as by in- 
structions from Congress, to settling affairs with those Indians who 
still held claims to lands. He entered into several treaties, by 
which at the close of 1805 the United States Government had ob- 
tained about 46,000 square miles of territory, including all the 
lands lying on the borders of the Ohio river between the mouth of 
the Wabash river and the State of Ohio. 

The levying of a tax, especially a poll tax, by the General Assem- 
bly, created considerable dissatisfaction among many of the inhabit- 
ants. At a meeting held Sunday, August 16, 1807, a number of 
Frenchmen resolved to " withdraw their confidence and support 
forever from those men who advocated or in any manner promoted 
the second grade of government." 

In 1807 the territorial statutes were revised and under the new 
code, treason, murder, arson and horse-stealing were each punish- 
able by death. The crime of manslaughter was punishable by the 
common law. Burglary and robbery were punishable by whip- 
ping, fine and in some cases by imprisonment not exceeding forty 
years. Hog stealing was punishable by fine and whipping. Bigamy 
was punishable by fine, whipping and disfranchisement, etc. 

In 1804 Congress established three land offices for the sale of 
lands in Indiana territory, one was located at Detroit, one at Vin- 
cennes and one at Kaskaskia. In 1807 a fourth one was opened at 
Jefiersonville, Clark county; this town was first laid out in 1802, 
agreeably to plans suggested by Mr. Jeflferson then President of 
the United States. 

Governor Harrison, according to his message to the Legislature 
in 1806, seemed to think that the peace then existing between the 
whites and the Indians was permanent; but in the same document 
he referred to a matter that might be a source of trouble, which in- 
deed it proved to be, namely, the execution of white laws among 
the Indians — laws to which the latter had not been a party in their 
enactment. The trouble was aggravated by the partiality with 
which the laws seem always to have been executed; the Indian 


was nearly always the suiferer. All along from 1S05 to 1810 the 
Indians complained bitterly against the encroachments of the white 
people npon the lands that belonged to them. The invasion of their 
hunting grounds^ and the unjustifiable killing of many of their peo- 
ple were the sources of their discontent. An old chief, in laying 
the trouble of his people before Governor Harrison, said: "You 
callus children; why do you not make us as happy as our fathers, 
the French, did? They never took from us our lands; indeed, they 
were common between us. They planted where they pleased, and, 
they cut wood where they pleased; and so did we; but now if a 
poor Indian attempts to take a little bark from a tree to cover him 
from the rain, up comes a white man and threatens to shoot him, 
claiming the tree as his own." 

The Indian truly had grounds for his complaint, and the state of 
feeling existing among the tribes at this time was well calculated 
to develop a patriotic leader who should carry them all forward to 
victory at arms, if certain concessions were not made to them by the 
whites. But this golden opportunity was seized by an unworthy 
warrior. A brother of Tecumseh, a "prophet" named Law-le-was-i- 
kaw, but who assumed the name of Pems-quat-a-wah (Open Door), 
was the crafty Shawanee warrior who was enabled to work upon 
both the superstitious and the rational judgment of his fellow In- 
dians. He was a good orator, somewhat peculiar in his appearance 
and well calculated to win the attention and respect of the savages. 
He began by denouncing witchcraft, the use of intoxicating liquors, 
the custom of Indian women marrying white men, the dress of the 
whites and the practice of selling Indian lands to the United States. 
He also told the Indians that the commands of the Great Spirit re- 
quired them to punish with death those who practiced the arts of 
witchcraft and magic; that the Great Spirit had given him power 
to find out and expose such persons; that he had power to cure all 
diseases, to confound his enemies and to stay the arm of death in 
sickness and on the battle-field. His harangues aroused among 
some bands of Indians a high degree of superstitious excitement. 
An old Delaware chief named Ta-te-bock-o-she, through whose in- 
fluence a treaty had been made with the Delawares in 1S04, was 
accused of witchcraft, tried, condemned and tomahawked, and 
his body consumed by fire. The old chief's wife, nephew 
("Billy Patterson ") and an aged Indian named Joshua were next 
accused of witchcraft and condemned to death. The two men were 
burned at the stake, but the wife of Ta-te-bock-o-she was saved from 



death by her brother, who suddenly approached her, took her by the 
hand, and, without meeting any opposition from the Indians present, 
led her outof the council-house. He then immediately returned and 
checked the growing influence of the Prophet by exclaiming in a 
strong, earnest voice, " The Evil Spirit has come among us and we 
are killing each other." — [^Dilloii's History of Indiana. 

When Gov. Harrison was made acquainted with these events he 
sent a special messenger to the Indians, strongly entreating them to 
renounce the Prophet and his works. This really destroyed to some 
extent the Prophet's influence; but in the spring of 1808, having 
aroused nearly all the tribes of the Lake Region, the Prophet with 
a large number of followers settled near the mouth of the Tippe- 
canoe river, at a place which afterward had the name of "Prophet's- 
Town." Taking advantage of his brother's influence, Tecumseh 
actively engaged himself in forming the various tribes into a con- 
federacy. He announced publicly to all the Indians that the 
treaties by which the United States had acquired lands northwest 
of the Ohio were not made in fairness, and should be considered 
void. He also said that no single tribe was invested with power to 
sell lands without the consent of all the other tribes, and that he 
and his brother, the Prophet, would oppose and resist all future 
attempts which the white people might make to extend their set- 
tlements in the lands that belonged to the Indians. 

Early in 1808, Gov. Harrison sent a speech to the Shawanees, 
in which was this sentence: " My children, this business must be 
stopped ; I will no longer suffer it. You have called a number of 
men from the most distant tribes to listen to a fool, who speaks 
not the words of the Great Spirit but those of the devil and the 
British agents. My children, your conduct has much alarmed the 
white settlers near you. They desire that you will send away those 
people; and if they wish to have the impostor with them they can 
carry him along with them. Let him go to the lakes; he can hear 
the British more distinctly." This message wounded the pride of 
the Prophet, and he prevailed on the messenger to inform Gov. 
Harrison that he was not in league with the British, but was speak- 
ing truly the words of the Great Spirit. 

In the latter part of the summer of 1808, the Prophet spent sev- 
eral weeks at Vincennes, for the purpose of holding interviews 
with Gov. Harrison. At one time he told the Governor that he 
was a Christian and endeavored to persuade his people also to 
become Christians, abandon the use of liquor, be united in broth- 


erly love, etc., making Mr. Harrison believe at least, that he was 
honest; but before long it was demonstrated that the ''Prophet" 
was designing, cunning and unreliable; that both he and Tecumseh 
were enemies of the United States, and friends of the English; and 
that in case of a war between the Americans and English, they 
would join the latter. The next year the Prophet again visited 
Vincennes, with assurances that he was not in sympathy with the 
English, but the Governor was not disposed to believe him; and in 
a letter to the Secretary of War, in July, 1809, he said that he 
regarded the bands of Indians at Prophet's Town as a combination 
which had been produced by British intrigue and influence, in antic- 
ipation of a war between them and the United States. 

In direct opposition to Tecumseh and the prophet and in spite 
of all these difficulties, Gov. Harrison continued the work of extin- 
guishing Indian titles to lands, with very good success. By the 
close of 1809, the total amount of laud ceded to the United States, 
under treaties which had been effected by Mr. Harrison, exceeded 
30,000,000 a res. 

From 1805 to 1807, the movements of Aaron Burr in the Ohio 
valley created considerable excitement in Indiana. It seemed that 
he intended to collect a force of men, invade Mexico and found a 
republic there, comprising all the country west of the Alleghany 
mountains. He gathered, however, but a few men, started south, 
and was soon arrested by the Federal authorities. But before his 
arrest he had abandoned his expedition and his followers had 

Harrison's campaion. 

While the Indians were combining to prevent any further trans- 
fer of land to the whites, the British were using the advantage as a 
groundwork for a successful war upon the Americans. In the 
spring of 1810 the followers of the Prophet refused to receive their 
annuity of salt, and the oificials who oflered it were denounced as 
"American dogs," and otherwise treated in a disrespectful manner. 
Gov. Harrison, in July, attempted to gain the friendship of the 
Prophet by sending him a letter,offering to treat with him person- 
ally in the matter of his grievances, or to furnish means to send 
him, with three of his principal chiefs, to the President at Wash- 
ington; but the messenger was coldly received, and they returned 
word that they would visit Vincennes in a few days and interview 
the Governor. Accordingly, Aug. 12, 1810, the Shawanee chief 
with 70 of his principal warriors, marched up to the door of the 


Governor's house, and from that day until the 22d held daily inter- 
views with His Excellency. In all of his speeches Tecumseh was 
haughty, and sometimes arrogant. On the 20th he delivered that 
celebrated speech in which he gave the Governor the alternative of 
returning their lands or meeting them in battle. 

While the Governor was replying to this speech Tecumseh inter- 
rupted him with an angry exclamation, declaring that the United 
States, through Gov. Harrison, had "cheated and imposed on the 
Indians." When Tecumseh first rose, a number of his party also 
sprung to their feet, armed with clubs, tomahawks and spears, and 
made some threatening demonstrations. The Governor's guards, 
who stood a little way off, were marched up in haste, and the In- 
dians, awed by the presence of this small armed force, abandoned 
what seemed to be an intention to make an open attack on the Gov- 
ernor and his attendants. As soon as Tecumseh's remarks were 
interpreted, the Governor reproached him for his conduct, and com- 
manded him to depart instantly to his camp. 

On the following day Tecumseh repented of his rash act and re- 
quested the Governor to grant him another interview, and pro- 
tested against any intention of offense. The Governor consented, 
and the council was re-opened on the 21st, when the Shawanee 
chief addressed him in a respectful and dignified manner, but re- 
mained immovable in his policy. The Governor then requested 
Tecumseh to state plainly whether or not the surveyors who might 
be sent to survey the lands purchased at the treaty of Fort Wayne 
in 1809, would be molested by Indians, Tecumseh replied: 
"Brother, when you speak of annuities to me, I look at the land 
and pity the women and children. I am authorized to say that they 
will not receive them. Brother, we want to save that piece of land. 
We do not wish you to take it. It is small enough for our purpose. 
If you do take it, you must blame yourself as the cause of the 
trouble between us and the tribes who sold it to you. I want the 
present boundary line to continue. Should you cross it, I assure 
you it will be productive of bad consequences." 

The next day the Governor, attended only by his interpreter, 
visited the camp of the great Shawanee, and in the course of a long 
interview told him that the President of the United States would 
not acknowledge his claims. "Well," replied the brave warrior, 
"as the great chief is to determine the matter, I hope the Great 
Spirit will put sense enough into his head to induce him to direct 
you to give up this land. It is tru«, he is so far off he will not be 


injured by the war. He may sit still in his town and drink his 
wine, while you and I will have to iight it out." 

In his message to the new territorial Legislature in 1810 Gov. 
Harrison called attention to the dangerous views held by Teeumseh 
and the Prophet, to the pernicious influence of alien enemies 
among the Indians, to the unsettled condition of the Indian trade 
and to the policy of extinguishing Indian titles to lands. The 
eastern settlements were separated from the western by a consider- 
able extent of Indian lands, and the most fertile tracts within the 
territory were still in the hands of the Indians. Almost entirely 
divested of the game from which they had drawn their subsistence, 
it had become of little use to them; and it was the intention of 
the Government to substitute for the precarious and scanty sup- 
plies of the chase the more certain and plentiful support of agri- 
culture and stock-raising. The old habit of the Indians to hunt 
so long as a deer could be found was so inveterate that they would 
not break it and resort to intelligent agriculture unless they were 
compelled to, and to this they would not be compelled unless they 
were confined to a limited extent of territory. The earnest lan- 
guage of the Governor's appeal was like this: "Are then those 
extinguishments of native title which are at once so beneficial to 
the Indian and the territory of the United States, to be suspended on 
account of the intrigues of a few individuals? Is one of the fair- 
est portions of the globe to remain in a state of nature, the haunt 
of a few wretched savages, when it seems destined by the Creator 
to give support to a large population, and to be the seat of civili- 
zation, of science and true religion?" 

In the same message the Governor also urged the establishment 
of a system of popular education. 

Among the acts passed by this session of the Legislature, one 
authorized the President and Directors of the Vincennes Public 
Library to raise $1,000 by lottery. Also, a petition was sent to 
Congress for a permanent seat of government for the Territory, and 
commissioners were appointed to select the site. 

"With the beginning of the year 1811 the British agent for 
Indian aflPairs adopted measures calculated to secure the support of 
the savages in the war which at this time seemed almost inevitable. 
Meanwhile Gov. Harrison did all in his power to destroy the influ- 
ence of Teeumseh and his brother and break up the Indian confed- 
eracy which was oeing organized in the interests of Great Britain. 
Pioneer settlers and the Indians naturally grew more and more 


aggressive and intolerant, committing depredations and murders, 
until the Governor felt compelled to send the following speech, 
substantially, to the two leaders of the Indian tribes: "This is the 
third year that all the white people in this country have been 
alarmed at your proceedings ; you threaten us with war ; you invite 
all the tribes north and west of you to join against us, while your 
warriors who have lately been here deny this. The tribes on the 
Mississippi have sent me word that you intended to murder me 
and then commence a war upon my people, and your seizing the salt 
I recently sent up the Wabash is also sufficient evidence of such 
intentions on your part. My warriors are preparing themselves, 
not to strike you, but to defend themselves and their women and 
children. You shall not surprise us, as you expect to do. Your 
intended act is a rash one: consider well of it. What can induce 
you to undertake such a thing when there is so little prospect of 
success ? Do you really think that the handful of men you have 
about you are able to contend with the seventeen 'fires?' or even 
that the whole of the tribes united could contend against the Ken- 
tucky 'fire' alone? I am myself of the Long 'Knife fire.' As soon 
as they hear my voice you will see them pouring forth their swarms 
of hunting-shirt men as numerous as the musquitoes on the shores 
of the Wabash. Take care of their stings. It is not our wish to 
hurt you ; if we did, we certainly have power to do it. 

" You have also insulted the Government of the United States, 
by seizing the salt that was intended for other tribes. Satisfaction 
must be given for that also. You talk of coming to see me, attend- 
ed by all of your young men; but this must not be. If your inten- 
tions are good, you have no need to bring but a few of your young 
men with you. I must be plain with you. I will not suffer you 
to come into our settlements with such a force. My advice is that 
you visit the President of the United States and lay your griev- 
ances before him. 

" With respect to the lands that were purchased last fall I can 
enter into no negotiations with you; the affair is with the Presi- 
dent. If you wish to go and see him, I will supply you with the 

" The person who delivers this is one of my war officers, and is a 
man in whom I have entire confidence; whatever he says to you, 
although it may not be contained in this paper, you may believe 
comes from me. My friend Tecumseh, the bearer is a good man 
and a brave warrior; I hope you will treat him well. You are 


yourself a warrior, and all such should have esteem for each other." 

The bearer of this speech was politely received by Tecumseh, 
who replied to the Governor briefly that he should visit Vincennes 
in a few days. Accordingly he arrived July 27, 1811, bringing 
with him a considerable force of Indians, which created much 
alarm among the inhabitants. In view of an emergency Gov. 
Harrison reviewed his militia — about 750 armed men — and station- 
ed two companies and a detachment of dragoons on the borders of 
the town. At this interview Tecumseh held forth that he intended 
no war against the United States; that he would send messengers 
among the Indians to prevent murders and depredations on the 
white settlements; that the Indians, as well as the whites, who had 
committed murders, ought to be forgiven; that he had set the white 
people an example of forgiveness, which they ought to follow; 
that it was his wish to establish a union among all the Indian 
tribes; that the northern tribes were united; that he was going to 
visit the southern Indians, and then return to the Prophet's town. 
He said also that he would visit the President the next spring and 
settle all difficulties with him, and that he hoped no attempts would 
be made to make settlements on the lands which had been sold to 
the United States, at the treaty of Fort Wayne, because the Indians 
wanted to keep those grounds for hunting. 

Tecumseh then, with about 20 of his followers, left for the South, 
to induce the tribes in that direction to join his confederacy. 

By the way, a lawsuit was instituted by Gov. Harrison against a 
certain Wm. Mcintosh, for asserting that the plaintiff had cheated 
the Indians out of their lands, and that by so doing he had made 
them enemies to the United States. The defendant was a wealthy 
Scotch resident of Vincennes, well educated, and a man of influence 
among the people opposed to Gov. Harrison's land policy. The 
jury rendered a verdict in favor of Harrison, assessing the damages 
at $4,000. In execution of the decree of Court a large quantity of 
the defendant's land was sold in the absence of Gov. Harrison; 
but some time afterward Harrison caused about two-thirds of the 
land to be restored to Mr. Mcintosh, and the remainder was given 
to some orphan children. 

Harrison's first movement was to erect a new fort on the "Wabash 
river and to break up the assemblage of hostile Indians at the 
Prophet's town. For this purpose he ordered Col. Boyd's regiment 
of infantry to move from the falls of Ohio to Vincennes. When 
the military expedition organized by Gov, Harrison was nearly 


ready to march to the Prophet's town, several Indian chiefs arrived 
at Vincennes Sept. 25, 1811, and declared that the Indians 
would comply with the demands of the Governor and disperse; but 
this did not check the military proceedings. The army under com- 
mand of Harrison moved from Vincennes Sept. 26, and Oct. 3, en- 
countering no opposition from the enemy, encamped at the place 
where Fort Plarrison was afterward built, and near where the city 
of Terre Haute now stands. On the night of the 11th a few hos- 
tile Indians approached the encampment and wounded one of the 
sentinels, which caused considerable excitement. The army was 
immediately drawn up in line of battle, and small detachments 
were sent in all directions; but the enemy could not be found. 
Then the Governor sent a message to Prophet's Town, requiring 
the Shawanees, Winnebagoes, Pottawatomies and Kickapoos at 
that place to return to their respective tribes; he also required the 
Prophet to restore all the stolen horses in his possession, or to give 
satisfactory proof that such persons were not there, nor had lately 
been, under his control. To this message the Governor received 
no answer, unless that answer was delivered in the battle of Tip- 

The new fort on the Wabash was finished Oct. 28, and at the re- 
quest of all the subordinate officers it was called "Fort Harrison," 
near what is now Terre Haute. This fort was garrisoned with a 
small number of men under Lieutenant-Colonel Miller. On the 
29th the remainder of the army, consisting of 910 men, moved 
toward the Prophet's town; about 270 of the troops were mounted. 
The regular troops, 250 in number, were under the command of 
Col. Boyd. With this army the Governor marched to within a 
half mile of the Prophet's town, when a conference was opened 
with a distinguished chief, in high esteem with the Prophet, and 
he informed Harrison that the Indians were much surprised at the 
approach of the army, and had already dispatched a message to 
him by another route. Harrison replied that he would not attack 
them until he had satisfied himself that they would not comply 
with his demands; that he would continue his encampment on the 
Wabash, and on the following morning would have an interview 
with the prophet. Harrison then resumed his march, and, after 
some difficulty, selected a place to encamp — a spot not very desir- 
able. It was a piece of dry oak land rising about ten feet above 
the marshy prairie in front toward the Indian town, and nearly 
twice that height above a similar prairie in the rear, through which 


and near this bank ran a small stream clotlied with willow and 
brush wood. Toward the left flank this highland widened consid- 
erably, but became gradually narrower in the opposite direction, 
and at the distance of 150 yards terminated in an abrupt point. 
The two columns of infantry occupied the front and rear of this 
ground, about 150 yards from each other on the left, and a little 
more than half that distance on the right, flank. One flank was 
filled by two companies of mounted riflemen, 120 men, under com- 
mand of Major-General Wells, of the Kentucky militia, and one 
by Spencer's company of mounted riflemen, numbering 80 men. 
The front line was composed of one battalion of United States in- 
fantry, under command of Major Floyd, flanked on the right by 
two companies of militia, and on the left by one company. The 
rear line was composed of a battalion of United States troops, 
under command of Capt. Bean, acting as Major, and four companies 
of militia infantry under Lieutenant-Colonel Decker. The regular 
troops of this line joined the mounted riflemen under Gen. Wells, 
on the left flank, and Col. Decker's battalion formed an angle with 
Spencer's company on the left. Two troops of dragoons, about 60 
men in all, were encamped in the rear of the left flank, and Capt. 
Parke's troop, which was larger than the other two, in rear of 
the right line. For a niglit attack the order of encampment was 
the order of battle, and each man slept opposite his post in the 
line. In the formation of the troops single file was adopted, in 
order to get as great an extension of the lines as possible. 


No attack was made by the enemy until about 4 o'clock on the 
morning of Nov. 7, just after the Governor had arisen. The 
attack was made on the left flank. Only a single gun was flred by the 
sentinels or by the guard in that direction, which made no resist- 
ance, abandoning their posts and fleeing into camp; and the first 
notice which the troops of that line had of the danger was the yell 
of the savages within a short distance of them. But the men 
were courageous and preserved good discipline. Such of them as 
were awake, or easily awakened, seized arms and took their stations; 
others, who were more tardy, had to contend with the enemy in 
the doors of their tents. The storm first fell upon Capt. Barton's 
company of the Fourth United States Regiment, and Capt. Geiger's 
company of mounted rifiemen, which formed the left angle of the 
rear line. The fire from the Indians was exceedingly severe, and 


men in these companies suflFered considerably before relief could be 
brought to them. Some few Indians passed into the encampment 
near the angle, and one or two penetra;ted to some distance before 
they were killed. All the companies formed for action before they 
were fired on. The morning was dark and cloudy, and the fires of 
the Americans afforded only a partial light, which gave greater 
advantage to the enemy than to the troops, and they were there- 
fore extinguished. 

As soon as the Governor could mount his horse he rode to the 
angle which was attacked, where he found that Barton's company had 
suffered severely, and the left of Geiger's entirely broken. He 
immediately ordered Cook's and "Wentworth's companies to march 
up to the center of the rear line, where were stationed a small com- 
pany of U. S. riflemen and the companies of Bean, Snelling and 
Prescott. As the General rode up he found Maj. Daviess forming 
the dragoons in the rear of these companies, and having ascertained 
that the heaviest fire proceeded from some trees 15 or 20 paces in 
front of these companies, he directed the Major to dislodge them 
with a part of the dragoons ; but unfortunately the Major's gal- 
lantry caused him to undertake the execution of the order with a 
smaller force than was required, which enabled the enemy to avoid 
him in front and attack his flanks. He was mortally wounded and 
his men driven back. Capt. Snelling, however, with his company 
immediately dislodged those Indians. Capt. Spencer and his Ist 
and 2nd Lieutenants were killed, and Capt. Warwick mortally 
wounded. The soldiery remained brave. Spencer had too much 
ground originally, and Harrison re-enforced him with a company 
of riflemen which had been driven from their position on the left 

Gen. Harrison's aim was to keep the lines entire, to prevent the 
enemy from breaking into the camp until daylight, which would 
enable him to make a general and effectual charge. With this view 
he had re-enforced every part of the line that had suffered much, 
and with the approach of morning he withdrew several companies 
from the front and rear lines and re-enforced the right and left 
flanks, foreseeing that at these points the enemy would make their 
last effort. Maj. Wells, who had commanded the left flank, charged 
upon the enemy and drove them at the point of the bayonet into 
the marsh, where they could not be followed. Meanwhile Capt. 
Cook and Lieut. Larrabee marched their companies to the right 
flank and formed under fire of the enemy, and being there joined 


by tlie riflemen of that flank, charged upon the enemy, killing a 
number and putting the rest to a precipitate flight. 

Thus ended the famous battle of Tippecanoe, victoriously to the 
whites and honorably to Gen. Harrison. 

In this battle Mr. Harrison had about 700 eflBcientmen, while 
the Indians had probably more than that. The loss of the Ameri- 
cans was 37 killed and 25 mortally wounded, and 126 wounded; the 
Indians lost 38 killed on the field of battle, and the number of the 
wounded was never known. Among the whites killed were Daviess, 
Spencer, Owen, Warwick, Eandolph, Bean and "White. Standing on 
an eminence near by, the Prophet encouraged his warriors to battle 
by singing a favorite war-song. He told them that they would gain 
an easy victory, and that the bullets of their enemies would be made 
harmless by the Great Spirit. Being informed during the engagement 
that some of the Indians were killed, he said that his warriors must 
fight on and they would soon be victorious. Immediately after 
their defeat the surviving Indians lost faith in their great (?) Proph- 
et, returned to their respective tribes, and thus the confederacy 
was destroyed. The Prophet, with a very few followers, then took 
up his residence among a small band of Wyandots encamped on 
Wild-Cat creek. His famous town, with all its possessions, was 
destroyed the next day, Nov. 8. 

On the 18th the American arm}' returned to Vincennes, where 
most of the troops were discharged. The Territorial Legislature, 
being in session, adopted resolutions complimentary to Gov. Harri- 
son and the officers and men under him, and made preparations for 
a reception and celebration. 

Capt. Logan, the eloquent Shawanee chief who assisted our 
forces so materially, died in the latter part of November, 1812, 
from the effects of a wound received in a skirmish with a recon- 
noitering party of hostile Indians accompanied by a white man in 
the British service, Nov. 22. In that skirmish the white man was 
killed, and Winamac, a Pottawatomie chief of some distinction, 
fell by the rifle of Logan. The latter was mortally wounded, when 
he retreated with two warriors of his tribe, Capt. Johnny and 
Bright-Horn, to the camp of Gen. Winchester, where he soon after- 
ward died. He was buried with the honors of war. 


The victory recently gained by tlie Americans at the battle of 
Tippecanoe insured perfect peace for a time, but only a short time 
as the more extensive schemes of the British had so far ripened as 
to compel the United States a^ain to declare war against them. 
Tecumseh had fled to Maiden, Canada, where, counseled by the 
English, he continued to excite the tribes against the Americans. 
As soon as this war with Great Britain was declared (June 18, 
1812), the Indians, as was expected, commenced again to commit 
depredations. During the summer of 1812 several points along 
the Lake Region succumbed to theBritish, as Detroit, under Gen. 
Hull, Fort Dearborn (now Chicago), commanded by Capt. Heald 
under Gen. Hull, the post at Mackinac, etc. 

In the early part of September, 1812, parties of hostile Indians 
began to assemble in considerable numbers in the vicinity of Forts 
Wayne and Harrison, with a view to reducing them. Capt. Rhea, 
at this time, had command of Fort Wayne, but his drinking pro- 
pensities rather disqualified him for emergencies. For two weeks 
the fort was in great jeopardy. An express had been sent to Gen. 
Harrison for reinforcements, but many days passed without any 
tidings of expected assistance. At length, one day, Maj. Wm. 
Oliver and four friendly Indians arrived at the fort on horseback. 
One of the Indians was the celebrated Logan. They had come in 
defiance of " 500 Indians," had "broken their ranks" and reached 
the fort in safety. Oliver reported that Harrison was aware of the 
situation and was raising'men for a re-enforcement. Ohio was also 
raising volunteers; 800 were then assembled at St. Mary's, Ohio, 
60 miles south of Fort Wayne, and would march to the relief of 
the fort in three or four days, or as soon as they were joined by re- 
enforcements from Kentucky. 

Oliver prepared a letter, announcing to Gen. Harrison his safe ar- 
rival at the besieged fort, and giving an accountof its beleaguered 
situation, which he dispatched by his friendly Shawanees, while he 
concluded to take his chances at the fort. Brave Logan and his 
companions started with the message, but had scarcely left the fort 
when they were discovered and pursued by the hostile Indians, yet 
passing the Indian lines in safety, they were soon out of reach. 
The Indians now began a furious attack upon the fort; but the little 
garrison, with Oliver to cheer them on, bravely met the assault, re- 
pelling the attack day after day, until the army approached to their 
relief. During this siege the commanding officer, whose habits of 


intemperance rendered him unfit for the command, was confined in 
the " black hole," while the junior oflBcer assumed charge. This 
course was approved by the General, on his arrival, but Capt. Rhea 
received very little censure, probably on account of his valuable ser- 
vices in the Revolutionary war. 

Sept. 6, 1812, Harrison moved forward with his array to the re- 
lief of Fort Wayne; the next day he reached a point within three 
milesof St. Mary's river; the next day he reached the river and 
was joined at evening by 200 mounted volunteers, under Col. Rich- 
ard M. Johnson; the next day at "Shane's Crossing" on tlie St. 
Mary's they were joined by 800 men from Ohio, under Cols. Adams 
and Hawkins. At this place Chief Logan and four other Indians 
offered their services as spies to Gen. Harrison, and were accepted. 
Logan was immediately disguised and sent forward. Passing 
through the lines of the hostile Indians,he ascertained their number 
to be about 1,500, and entering the fort, he encouraged the solaiers 
to hold out, as relief was at hand. Gen. Harrison's force at this 
time was about 3,500. 

After an early breakfast Friday morning they were under march- 
ing orders; it had rained and the guns were damp; theywere dis- 
charged and reloaded; but that day only one Indian was encount- 
ered ; preparations were made at night for an expected attack by 
the Indians, but no attack came; the next day, Sept. 10, they ex- 
pected to fight their way to Fort Wayne, but in that they were hap- 
pily disappointed; and "At the first grey of the morning," as Bryce 
eloquently observes, " the distant halloos of the disappointed sav- 
ages revealed to the anxious inmates of the fort the glorious news 
of the approach of the army. Great clouds of dust could be seen 
from the fort, rolling up in the distance, as the valiant soldiery 
under Gen. Harrison moved forward to the rescue of the garrison 
and the brave boys of Kentucky and Ohio." 

This siege of Fort Wayne of course occasioned great loss to the 
few settlers who had gathlered around the fort. At the time of its 
commencement quite a little village had clustered around the mili- 
tary works, but during the siege most of their improvements and 
crops were destroyed by the savages. Every building out of the reach 
of the guns of the fort was leveled to the ground, and thus the in- 
fant settlement was destroyed. 

During this siege the garrison lost but three men, while the 
Indians lost 25. Gen. Harrison had all the Indian villages for 25 
miles around destroyed. Fort Wayne was nothing but a military 
post until about 1819. 


Simultaneously with the attack on Fort Wayne the Indians also 
besieged Fort Harrison, which was commanded by Zachary Taylor. 
The Indians commenced firing upon the fort about 11 o'clock one 
night, when the garrison was in a rather poor plight for receiving 
them. The enemy succeeded in firing one of the block-houses, 
which contained whisky, and the whites had great difiiculty in pre- 
venting the burning of all the barracks. The word " fire " seemed 
to have thrown all the men into confusion; soldiers' and citizens' 
wives, who had taken shelter within the fort, were crying; Indians 
were yelling; many of the garrison were sick and unable to be on 
duty; the men despaired and gave themselves up as lost; two of 
the strongest and apparently most reliable men jumped the pickets 
in the very midst of the emergency, etc., so that Capt. Taylor was 
at his wit's end what to do; but he gave directions as to the many 
details, rallied the men by a new scheme, and after about seven 
hours succeeded in saving themselves. The Indians drove up the 
horses belonging to the citizens, and as they could not catcli th°ra 
very readily, shot the whole of them in the sight of their owners, 
and also killed a number of the hogs belonging to the whites. 
They drove off all of the cattle, 65 in number, as well as the public 

Among many other depredations committed by the savages dur- 
ing this period, was the massacre of the Pigeon Roost settlement, 
consisting of one man, five women and 16 children; a few escaped. 
An unsuccessful effort was made to capture these Indians, but 
when the news of this massacre and the attack on Fort Harrison 
reached Vinceunes, about 1,200 men, under the command of Col. 
"Wm. Eussell, of the 7th U. S. Infantry, marched forth for the re- 
lief of the fort and to punish the Indians. On reaching the fort 
the Indians had retired from the vicinity; but on the 15th of Sep- 
tember a small detachment composed of 11 men, under Lieut. Rich- 
ardson, and acting as escort of provisions sent from Vincennes to 
Fort Harrison, was attacked by a party of Indians within the pres- 
ent limits of Sullivan county. It was reported that seven of these 
men were killed and one wounded. The provisions of course fell 
into the hands of the Indians. 


By the middle of August, through the disgraceful surrender of 
Gen. Hull, at Detroit, and the evacuation of Fort Dearborn and 
massacre of its garrison, the British and Indians were in possession 
of the whole Northwest. The savages, emboldened by their sue- 


cesses, penetrated deeper into the settlements, committing great 
depredations. The activity and success of the enemy aroused the 
people to a realization of the great danger their homes and families 
were in. Gov. Edwards collected a force of 350 men at Camp 
Russell, and Capt. Russell came from Vincennes with about 50 more. 
Being officered and equipped, they proceeded about the middle of 
October on horseback, carrying with them 20 day's rations, to 
Peoria. Capt. Craig was sent with two boats up the Illinois, with 
provisions and tools to build a fort. The little army proceeded to 
Peoria Lake, where was located a Pottawatomie village. They 
arrived late at night, within a few miles of the village, without 
their presence being known to the Indians. Four men were sent 
out that night to reconnoiter the position of the village. The four 
brave men who volunteered for this perilous service were Thomas 
Carlin (afterward Governoi;), and Robert, Stephen and Davis White- 
side. They proceeded to the village, and explored it and the ap- 
proaches to it thoroughly, without starting an Indian or provoking 
the bark of a dog. The low lands between the Indian village and 
the troops were covered with a rank growth of tall grass, so high 
and dense as to readily conceal an Indian on horseback, until within 
a few feet of him. The ground had become still more yielding by 
recent rains, rendering it almost impassable by mounted men. To 
prevent detection the soldiers had camped without lighting the 
usual camp-fires. The men lay down in their cold and cheerless 
camp, with many misgivings. Thej' well remembered how the 
skulking savages fell upon Harrison's men at Tippecanoe during 
the night. To add to their fears, a gun in the hands of a soldier 
was carelessly discharged, raising great consternation in the camp. 
Through a dense fog which prevailed the following morning, the 
army took up its line of march for the Indian town, Capt. Judy 
with his corps of spies in advance. In the tall grass they came up 
with an Indian and his squaw, both mounted. The Indian wanted 
to surrender, but Judy observed that he " did not leave home to take 
prisoners," and instantly shot one of them. With the blood 
streaming from his mouth and nose, and in his agony " singing the 
death song," the djnng Indian raised his gun, shot and mortally 
wounded a Mr. Wright, and in a few minutes expired! Many guns 
were immediately discharged at the other Indian, not then known 
to be a squaw, all of which missed her. Badly scared, and her hus- 
band killed by her side, the agonizing wails of the squaw were 
heart-rending. She was taken prisoner, and afterward restored 
to her nation. 


On nearing the town a general charge was made, the Indians 
fleeing to the interior wilderness. Some of their warriors made a 
stand, when a sharp engagement occurred, but the Indians were 
routed. In their flight they left behind all their winter's store of 
provisions, which was taken, and their town burned. Some Indian 
children were found who had been left in the hurried flight, also 
some disabled adults, one of whom was in a starving condition, and 
with a voracious appetite partook of the bread given him. He is 
said to have been killed by a cowardly trooper straggling behind, 
after the main army had resumed its retrograde march, who wanted 
to be able to boast that he had killed an Indian. 

September 19, 1812, Gen. Harrison was put in command of the 
Northwestern army, then estimated at 10,000 men, with these 
orders: "Having provided for the protection of the western front- 
ier, you will retake Detroit; and, with a view to the conquest of 
upper Canada, you will penetrate that country as far as the force 
under your command will in your judgment justify." 

Although surrounded by many difficulties, the General began 
immediately to execute these instructions. In calling for volun- 
teers from Kentucky, however, more men offered than could be 
received. At this time there were about 2,000 mounted volunteers 
at Vincennes, under the command of Gen. Samuel Hopkins, of the 
Revolutionary war, who was under instructions to operate against 
the enemy along the Wabash and Illinois rivers. Accordingly, 
early in October, Gen. Hopkins moved from Vincennes towards the 
Kickapoo villages in the Illinois territory, with about 2,000 troops; 
but after four or five days' march the men and officers raised a 
mutiny which gradually succeeded in carrying all back to Vin- 
cennes. The cause of their discontent is not apparent. 

About the same time Col. Russell, with two small companies of 
U. S. rangers, commanded by Capts. Perry and Modrell, marched 
from the neighborhood of Vincennes to unite with a small force of 
mounted militia under the command of Gov. Edwards, of Illinois, 
and afterward to march with the united troops from Cahokia 
toward Lake Peoria, for the purpose of co-operating with Gen. 
Hopkins against the Indian towns in that vicinity; but not find- 
ing the latter on the ground, was compelled to retire. 

Immediately after the discharge of the mutinous volunteers, 
Gen. Hopkins began to organize another force, mainly of infantry, 
to reduce the Indians up the Wabash as far as the Prophet's town. 
These troops consisted of three regiments of Kentucky militia, 


commanded by Cols. Barbour, Miller and "Wilcox; a small company 
of regulars commanded by Capt. Zachary Taylor; a company of 
rangers commanded by Capt. Beckes; and a company of scouts or 
spies under the command of Capt. Washburn. The main body of 
this army arrived at Fort Harrison Nov. 5; on the llth it pro- 
ceeded up the east side of the Wabash into the heart of the Indian 
country, but found the villages generally deserted. Winter set- 
ting in severely, and the troops poorly clad, they had to return to 
Vincennes as rapidly as possible. With one exception the men 
behaved nobly, and did much damage to the eneni}'. That 
exception was the precipitate chase after an Indian by a detach- 
ment of men somewhat in liquor, until they found themselves sur- 
rounded by an overwhelming force of the enemy, and they had to 
retreat in disorder. 

At the close of this campaign Gen. Hopkins resigned his 

Ill the fall of 1812 Gen. Harrison assigned to Lieut. Col. John 
B. Campbell, of the 19th U. S. Inf., the duty of destroying the 
Miami villages on the Mississinewa river, with a detachment of 
about 600 men. Nov. 25, Lieut. Col. Campbell marched from 
Franklinton, according to orders, toward the scene of action, cau- 
tiously avoiding falling in with the Delawares, who had been ordered 
by Gen. Harrison to retire to the Shawanee establishment on the 
Auglaize river, and arriving on the Mississinewa Dec. 17, when 
they discovered an Indian town inhabited by Delawares and 
Miamis. This and three other villages were destroyed. Soon 
after this, the supplies growing short and the troops in a suffering 
condition, Campbell began to consider the propriety of returning 
to Ohio; but just as he was calling together his officers early one 
morning to deliberate on the proposition, an army of Indians 
rushed upon them with fury. The engagement lasted an hour, 
with a loss of eight killed and 42 wounded, besides about 150 horses 
killed. The whites, however, succeeded in defending themselves 
and taking a number of Indians prisoners, who proved to be Mun- 
sies, of Silver Heel's band. Campbell, hearing that a large force 
of Indians were assembled at Mississinewa village, under Tecum- 
seh, determined to return to Greenville. The privations of his 
troops and the severity of the cold compelled him to send to that 
place for re-enforcements and supplies. Seventeen of the men had 
to be carried on litters. They were met by the re-enforcement 
about 40 miles from Greenville. 


Lieut. Col. Campbell sent two messages to the Delawares, who 
lived on White river and who had been previously directed and 
requested to abandon their towns on that river and remove into 
Ohio. In these messages he expressed his regret at unfortunately 
killing some of their men, and urged them to move to the Shaw- 
anee settlement on the Auglaize river. He assured them that their 
people, in his power, would be compensated bv the Government 
for their losses, if not found to be hostile ; and the friends of those 
killed satisfied by presents, if such satisfaction would be received. 
This advice was heeded by the main body of the Delawares and a 
few Miamis. The Shawanee Prophet, and some of the principal 
chiefs of the Miamis, retired from the country of the Wabash, and, 
with their destitute and suffering bands, moved to Detroit, where 
they were received as the friends and allies of Great Britain.* 

On the approach of Gen. Harrison with his army in September, 
1813, the British evacuated Detroit, and the Ottawas, Chippewas^ 
Pottawatomies, Miamis and Kickapoos sued for peace with the 
United States, which was granted temporarily by Brig. Gen. Mc- 
Arthur, on condition of their becoming allies of the United States 
in case of war. 

In June, 1813, an expedition composed of 137 men, under com- 
mand of Col. Joseph Bartholomew, moved from Valonia toward 
the Delaware towns on the west fork of White river, to surprise 
aud punish some hostile Indians who were supposed to be lurking^ 
about those villages. Most of these places they found deserted;, 
some of them burnt. They had been but temporarily occupied for 
the purpose of collecting and carrying away corn. Col. Bartholo- 
mew's forces succeeded in killing one or two Indians and destroy- 
ing considerable corn, and they returned to Valonia on the 21st of 
this month. 

July 1, 1813, Col. William Russell, of the 7th U. S., organized 
a force of 573 effective men at Valonia and marched to the Indian 
villages about the mouth of the Mississinewa. His experience was 
much like that of Col. Bartholomew, who had just preceded him. 
He had rainy weather, suffered many losses, found the villages de- 
serted, destroyed stores of corn, etc. The Colonel reported that he 
went to every place where he expected to find the enemy, but they 
nearly always seemed to have fled the country. The march from 
Valonia to the mouth of the Mississinewa and return was about 
250 miles. 

Several smaller expeditions helped to " checker" the surrounding 


country, and find that the Indians were very careful to keep tbem- 
selves out of sight, and thus closed this series of campaigns. 


The war with England closed on the 24th of December, 1814, 
when a treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. The 9th article of 
the treaty required the United States to put an end to hostilities 
with all tribes or nations of Indians with whom they had been at 
war; to restore to such tribes or nations respectively all the rights 
and possessions to which they were entitled in 1811, before the 
war, on condition that such Indians should agree to desist from all 
hostilities against the United States. But in February, just before 
the tr.eaty was sanctioned by our Government, there were signs of 
Indians accumulating arms and ammunition, and a cautionary 
order was therefore issued to have all the white forces in readiness 
for an attack by the Indians; but the attack was not made. During 
the ensuing summer and fall the United States Government ac- 
quainted the Indians with the provisions of the treaty, and entered 
into subordinate treaties of peace with the principal tribes. 

Just before the treaty of Spring Wells (near Detroit) was signed, 
the Shawanee Prophet retired to Canada, but declaring his resolu- 
tion to abide by any treaty which the chiefs might sign. Some 
time afterward he returned to the Shawanee settlement in Ohio, and 
lastly to the west of the Mississippi, where he died, in 1834. The 
British Government allowed him a pension from 1813 until his 
death. His brother Tecumseh was killed at the battle of the 
Thames, Oct. 5, 1813, by a Mr. Wheatty, as we are positively in- 
formed by Mr. A. J. James, now a resident of La Harpe township, 
Hancock county. 111., whose father-in-law, John Pigman, of Co- 
shocton county, Ohio, was an eye witness. Gen, Johnson has gener- 
ally had the credit of killing Tecumseh. 


If one should inquire who has been the greatest Indian, the most 
noted, the " principal Indian " in North America since its discov- 
ery by Columbus, we would be obliged to answer, Tecumseh. For 
all those qualities which elevate a man far above his race; for talent, 
tact, skill and bravery as a warrior; for high-minded, honorable and 
chivalrous bearing as a man; in a word, for all those elements of 
greatness which place him a long way above his fellows in savage 
life, the name and fame of Tecnmseh will go down to posterity in 
the West as one of the most celebrated of the aborigines of this 
continent, — as one who had no equal among the tribes that dwelt 
in the country drained by the Mississippi. Born to command him- 
self, he used all the appliances that would stimulate the courage 
and nerve the valor of his followers. Always in the front rank of 
battle, his followers blindly followed his lead, and as his war-cry 
rang clear above the din and noise of the battle-field, the Shawnee 
warriors, as they rushed on to victory or the grave, rallied around 
him, foemen worthy of the steel of the most gallant commander 
that ever entered the lists in defense of his altar or his home. 

Tlie tribe to which Tecumseh, or Tecumtha, as some write it, be- 
longed, was the Shawnee, or Shawanee, The tradition of the nation, 
held that they originally came from the Gulf of Mexico ; that they 
wended their way up the Mississippi and the Ohio, and settled at 
or near the present site of Shawneetown, 111., whence they removed 
to the upper "Wabash. In the latter place, at any rate, they were 
found early in the 18th century, and were known as the " bravest 
of the brave." This tribe has uniformly been the bitter enemy of 
the white man, and in every contest with our people has exhibited 
a degree of skill and strategy that should characterize the most 
dangerous foe. 

Tecumseh's notoriety and that of his brother, the Prophet, mutu- 
ally served to establish and strengthen each other. "While the 
Prophet had unlimited power, spiritual and temporal, he distributed 
his greatness in all the departments of Indian life with a kind of 
fanaticism that magnetically aroused the religious and superstitious 
passions, not only of his own followers, but also of all the tribes in 


this part of the country; but Tecumseh concentrated his greatness 
upon the more practical and business affairs of military conquest. 
It is doubted whether he was really a sincere believer in the preten- 
sions of his fanatic brother; if he did not believe in the pretentious 
feature of them he had the shrewdness to keep his unbelief to him- 
self, knowing that religious fanaticism was one of the strongest im- 
pulses to reckless bravery. 

During his sojourn in the Northwestern Territory, it was Tecum- 
seh's uppermost desire of life to confederate all the Indian tribes of 
the country together against the whites, to maintain tlieir choice 
liunting-grounds. All his public policy converged toward this sin 
gle end. In his vast scheme he comprised even all the Indians in 
the Gulf country, — all in America west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains. He held, as a subordinate principle, that the Great Spirit 
had given the Indian race all these hunting-grounds to keep in 
common, and that no Indian or tribe could cede any portion of the 
land to the whites without the consent of all the tribes. Hence, in 
all his councils with the whites he ever maintained that the treaties 
were null and void. 

When he met Harrison at Vincennes in council the last time, 
and, as he was invited by that General to take a seat with him on 
the platform, he hesitated; Harrison insisted, saying that it was the 
"wish of their Great Father, the President of the United States, 
that he should do so." The chief paused a moment, raised his tall 
and commanding form to its greatest height, surveyed the troops 
and crowd around him, fixed his keen eyes upon Gov. Harrison, 
and then turning them to the sky above, and pointing toward 
heaven with his sinewy arm in a manner indicative of supreme 
contempt for the paternity assigned him, said in clarion tones: " My 
father? The sun is my father, the earth is my mother, and on her 
bosom I will recline." He then stretched himself, with his war- 
riors, on the green sward. The effect was electrical, and for some 
moments there was perfect silence. 

The Governor, then, through an interpreter, told him that he un- 
derstood he had some complaints to make and redress to ask, etc., 
and that he wished to investigate the matter and make restitution 
wherever it might be decided it should be done. As soon as the 
Governor was through with this introductory speech, the stately 
warrior arose, tall, athletic, manly, dignified and graceful, and with 
a voice at first low, but distinct and musical, commenced a reply. 
As he warmed up with his subject his clear tones might be heard, 


as if " trumpet-tongued," to the utmost limits of the assembly. 
The most perfect silence prevailed, except when his warriors gave 
their guttural assent to some eloquent recital of the red man's 
wrong and the white man's injustice. Tecumseh recited the wrongs 
which his race had suffered from che tiuie of the massacre of the 
Moravian Indians to the present; said he did not know how he 
could ever again be the friend of the white man; that the Great 
Spirit had given to the Indian all the land from the Miami to the 
Mississippi, and from the lakes to the Ohio, as a common property 
to all the tribes in these borders, and that the land could not and 
should not be sold without the consent of all; that all the tribes on 
the continent formed but one aation ; that if the United States 
would not give up the iands tliey had bought of the Miamis and 
the other tribes, those united with him were determined to annihi- 
late those tribes ; that they were determined to have no more chiefs, 
but in future to be governed by their warriors; that unless the 
whites ceased their encroachments upon Indian lands, the fate of 
the Indians was sealed; they had been driven from the banks of 
the Delaware across the Alleghanies, and their possessions on the 
Wabash and the Illinois were now to be taken from them; that in 
a few years they would not have ground enough to bury their war- 
riors on this side of the "Father of Waters;" that all would perish, 
all their possessions taken from them by fraud or force, unless they 
stopped the progress of the white man westward; that it must be 
a war of races in which one or the other must perish; that their 
tribes had been driven toward the setting sun like a galloping 
horse (ne-kat a-kush-e ka-top-o-lin-to). 

The Shawnee language, in -which this most eminent Indian states- 
man spoke, excelled all other aboriginal tongues in its musical ar- 
ticulation; and the effect of Tecuraseh's oratory on this occasion 
can be more easily imagined than described. Gov. Harrison, 
although as brave a soldier and General as any American, was over- 
come by this speech. He well knew Tecuraseh's power and influ- 
ence among all the tribes, knew his bravery, courage and determi- 
nation, and knew that he meant what he said. When Tecumseh 
was done speaking there was a stillness throughout the assembly 
which was really painful; not a whisper was heard, and all eyes were 
turned from the speaker toward Gov. Harrison, who after a few 
moments came to himself, and recollecting many of the absurd 
statements of the great Indian orator, began a reply which was 
more logical, if not so eloquent. The Shawnees were attentive un- 


til Harrison's interpreter began to translate his speech to the Mia- 
mis and Pottawatomies, when Tecumseh and his warriors sprang 
to their feet, brandishing their war-clubs and tomahawks. "Tell 
him," said Tecumseh, addressing the interpreter in Shawnee, " he 
lies." The interpreter undertook to convey this message to the 
Governor in smoother language, but Tecumseh noticed the effort 
and remonstrated, " No, no; tell him belies." The warriors began 
to grow more excited, when Secretary Gibson ordered the Ameri- 
can troops in arras to advance. This allayed the rising storm, and 
as soon as Tecumseh's " He lies " was litei-ally interpreted to the 
Governor, the latter told Tecumseh through the interpreter to tell 
Tecumseh he would hold no further council with him. 

Thus the assembly was broken up, and one can hardly imagine a 
more exciting scene. It would constitute the finest subject for a 
historical painting to adorn the rotunda of the capitol. The next 
day Tecumseh requested another interview with the Governor, 
which was granted on condition that he should make an apology to 
the Governor for his language the day before. This he made 
through the interpreter. Measures for defense and protection were 
taken, however, lest there should be another outbreak. Two com- 
panies of militia were ordered from the country, and the one in 
town added to them, while the Governor and his friends went into 
council fully armed and prepared for any contingency. On this oc- 
casion the conduct of Tecumseh was entirely different from that of 
the day before. Firm and intrepid, showing not the slightest fear 
or alarm, surrounded with a military force four times his own, he 
preserved the utmost composure and equanimity. No one would 
have supposed that he could have been the principal actor in the 
thrilling scene of the previous day. He claimed that half -the 
Americans were in sympathy with him. He also said that whites 
had informed him that Gov. Harrison had purchased land from the 
Indians without any authority from the^ Government; that he, 
Harrison, had but two years more to remain in office, and that if 
he, Tecumseh, could prevail upon the Indians who sold the lands 
not to receive their annuities for that time, and the present Gover- 
nor displaced by a good man as his successor, the latter would re- 
store to the Indians all the lands purchased from them. 

The Wyandots, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Otta was and the Win- 
nebagoes, through their respective spokesmen, declared their 
adherence to the great Shawnee warrior and statesman. Gov. Harri- 
son then told them that he would send Tecumseh's speech to thePresi- 


dent of the United States and return the answer to the Indians as soon 
as it was received. Tecumseh then declared that he and his allies were 
determined that the old boundary line should continue; and that 
if the whites crossed it, it would be at their peril . Gov. Harrison re- 
plied that he would be equally plain with him and state that the 
President would never allow that the lands on the Wabash were the 
property of any other tribes than those who had occupied them 
since the wliite people first came to America; and as the title to 
the lands lately purchased was derived from those tribes by a fair 
purchase, he might rest assured that the right of the United States 
would be supported by the sword. " So be it," was the stern and 
haughty reply of the Shawnee chieftan, as he and his braves took 
leave of the Governor and wended their way in Indian file to their 
camping ground. 

Thus ended the last conference on earth between the chivalrous 
Tecumseh and the hero of the battle of Tippecanoe. The bones of 
the first lie bleaching on the battle-field of the Thames, and those 
of the last in a mausoleum on the banks of the Ohio; each strug- 
gled for the mastery of bis race, apd each no doubt was equally 
honest and patriotic in his purposes. The weak yielded to the 
strong, the defenseless to the powerful, and the hunting-ground of 
the Shawnee is all occupied by his enemy. 

Tecumseh, with four of his braves, immediately embarked in a 
birch canoe, descended the Wabash, and went on to the South to 
unite the tribes of that country in a general system of self-defense 
against the encroachment of the whites. His emblem was a dis- 
jointed snake, with the motto, " Join or die !" In union alone was 

Before Tecumseh left the Prophet's town at the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe river, on his excursion to the South, he had a definite 
understanding with his brother and the chieftains of the other tribes 
in the Wabash country, that they should preserve perfect peace 
with the whites until his arrangements were completed for a con- 
federacy of the tribes on both sides of the Ohio and on the Missis- 
sippi river; but it seems that while he was in the South engaged 
in his work of uniting the tribes of that country some of the North- 
ern tribes showed signs of fight and precipitated Harrisou into that 
campaign which ended in the battle of Tippecanoe and the total 
route of the Indians. Tecumseh, on his return from the South, 
learning what had happened, was overcome with chagrin, disappoint- 
ment and anger, and accused his brother of duplicity and coward 


ice; indeed, it is said that he never forgave him to the day of his 
death. A short time afterward, on the breaking out of the war of 
Great Britain, he joined Proctor, at Maiden, with a party of his 
warriors, and finally suffered the fate mentioned on page 108. 


Owing to the absence of Gov. Harrison on military duty, John 
Gibson, the Secretary of the Territory, acted in the administration 
of civil affairs. In his message to the Legislature convening on the 
1st of February, 1813, he said, substantially: 

" Did I possess the abilities of Cicero or Demosthenes, I could 
not portray in more glowing colors our foreign and domestic politi- 
cal situation than it is already experienced within our own breasts. 
The United States have been compelled, by frequent acts of injus- 
tice, to declare war against England. For a detail of the causes of 
this war I would refer to the message of President Madison; it 
does honor to his head and heart. Although not an admirer of 
war, I am glad to see our little but inimitable nav}- riding triumph- 
ant on the seas, but chagrined to find that our armies by land are 
so little successful. The spirit of '76 appears to have fled from our 
continent, or, if not fled, is at least asleep, for it appears not to 
pervade our armies generally. At your last assemblage our politi- 
cal horizon seemed clear, and our infant Territory bid fair for rapid 
and rising grandeur; but, alas, the scene has changed; and whether 
this change, as respects our Territory, has been owing to an over 
anxiety in us to extend our dominions, or to a wish for retaliation 
by our foes, or to a foreign influence, I shall not say. The Indians, 
our former neighbors and friends, have become our most inveterate 
foes. Our former frontiers are now our wilds, and our inner settle- 
ments have become frontiers. Some of our best citizens, and old 
men worn down with age, and helpless women and innocent 
babes, have fallen victims to savage cruelty. I have done my duty 
as well as I can, and hope that the interposition of Providence will 
protect us." 

The many complaints made about the Territorial Government 
Mr. Gibson said, were caused more by default of oflicers than of the 
law. Said he: "It is an old and, I believe, correct adage, that 
' good officers make good soldiers.' This evil having taken root, I do 
not know how it can be eradicated; but it may be remedied. In 
place of men searching after and accepting commissions before they 


are even tolerably qualified, thereby subjecting themselves to ridi- 
cule and their country to ruin, barely for the name of the thing, I 
think may be remedied by a previous examination." 

Daring this session of the Legislature the seat of the Territorial 
Government was declared to be at Corydon, and immediately acting 
Governor Gibson prorogued the Legislature to meet at that place, 
the first Monday of December, 1813. During this 3'ear the Terri- 
tory was almost defenseless; Indian outrages were of common 
occurrence, but no general outbreak was made. The militia-men 
were armed with rifles and long knives, and many of the rangers 
carried tomahawks. 

In 1813 Thomas Posey, who was at that time a Senator in Con- 
gress from Tennessee, and who had been ofiicer of the army of the 
Eevolution, was appointed Governor of Indiana Territory, to suc- 
ceed Gen. Harrison. He arrived in Vincennes and entered upon 
the discharge of his duties May 25, 1813. During this year several 
expeditions against the Indian settlements were set on foot. 

In his first message to the Legislature the following December, 
at Corydon, Gov. Posey said: " The present crisis is awful, and big 
with great events. Our land and nation is involved in the common 
calamity of war; but we are under the protecting care of the benefi- 
cent Being,who has on a former occasion brought us safely through 
an arduous struggle and placed us on a foundation of independence, 
freedom and happiness. He will not sufi'er to be taken from us 
what He, in His great wisdom has thought proper to confer and 
bless us with, if we make a wise and virtuous use of His good 
gifts. * * * Although our afiairs, at the commencement of 
the war, wore a gloomy aspect, they have brightened, and promise 
a certainty of success, if properly directed and conducted, of which 
I have no doubt, as the President and heads of departments of the 
general Government are men of undoubted patriotism, talents and 
experience, and who have grown old in the service of their country. 
* * * It must be obvious to every thinking man that we were 
forced into the war. Every measure consistent with honor, both 
before and since the declaration of war, has tried to be on amicable 
terms with our enemy. * * * You who reside in various parts 
of the Territory have it in your power to understand what will tend 
to its local and general advantage. The judiciary system would 
require a revisal and amendment. The militia law is very defective 
and requires your immediate attention. It is necessary to have 


good roads and highways in as many directions through the Terri- 
tory as the circumstances and situation of the inhabitants will 
admit; it would contribute very much to promote the settlement 
and improvement of the Territory. Attention to education is highly 
necessary. There is an appropriation made by Congress, in lands, 
for the purpose of establishing public schools. It comes now with- 
in your province to carry into operation the design of the appro- 

This Legislature passed several very necessary laws for the wel- 
fare of the settlements, and the following year, as Gen. Harrison 
was generally successfal in his military campaigns in the North- 
west, the settlements in Indiana began to increase and improve. 
The fear of danger from Indians had in a great measure subsided, 
and the tide of immigration began again to flow. In January, 
1814, about a thousand Miamis assembled at Fort Wayne for the 
purpose of obtaining food to prevent starvation. They met with 
ample hospitality, and their example was speedily followed by 
others. These, with other acts of kindness, won the lasting friend- 
ship of the Indians, many of whom had fought in the interests of 
Great Britain. General treaties between the United States and the 
Northwestern tribes were subsequently concluded, and the way 
was fully opened for the improvement and settlement of the lands. 


The population of the Territory of Indiana, as given in the 
official returns to the Legislature of 1815, was as follows, by 

COUNTIES. White males ofSlaBd over. TOTAL. 

Wayne 1,225 6,407 

Franklin 1,430 7,370 

Dearborn 902 4,434 

Switzerland 377 1,832 

Jefferson-- 874 4,370 

Clark 1,387 7,150 

Washington 1,420 7,317 

HarrisoS 1,056 6,975 

Knox 1,391 8,068 

Gibson 1,100 5,330 

Posey 320 1,619 

Warrick 280 l,41o 

Perry 350 1,730 

Grand Totals 12,113 •. 63,897 


The well-known ordinance of 1787 conferred many " rights and 
privileges " upon the inhabitants of the Northwestern Territory, and 


consequently upon the people of Indiana Territory, but after all it 
came far short of conferring as many privileges as are enjoyed at 
the present day by our Territories. They did not have a full form 
of Republican government. A freehold estate in 500 acres of land 
was one of the necessary qualifications of each member of the legis- 
lative council of the Territory ; every member of the Territorial House 
of Representatives was required to hold, in his own right, 200 acres 
of land; and the privilege of voting for members of the House 
of Representatives was restricted to those inhabitants who, in addi- 
tion to other qualifications, owned severally at least 50 acres of 
laud. The Governor of the the Territory was invested with the 
power of appointing officers of the Territorial militia, Judges of the 
inferior Courts, Clerks of the Courts, Justices of the Peace, Sheriffs. 
Coroners, County Treasurers and County Surveyors. He was also 
authorized to divide the Territory into districts; to apportion 
among the several counties the members of tlie House of Represent- 
atives; to prevent the passage of any Territorial law; and to con- 
vene and dissolve the General Assembly whenever he thought best. 
None of the Governors, however, ever exercised these extraordinary 
powers arbitrarily. Nevertheless, the people were constantly agi- 
tating the question of extending the right of suffrage. Five years 
after the organization of the Territory, the Legislative Council, in 
reply to the Governor's Message, said: " Although we are not as 
completely independent in our legislative capacity as we would 
wish to be, yet we are sensible that we must wait with patience for 
that period of time when our population will burst the trammels 
of a Territorial government, and we shall assume the character more 
consonant to Republicanism. * * * The confidence which our 
fellow citizens have uniformly had in your administration has been 
such that they have hitherto had no reason to be jealous of the un- 
limited power which you possess over our legislative proceedings. 
We, however, cannot help regretting that such powers have 
been lodged in the hands of any one, especially when it is recol- 
lected to what dangerous lengths the exercise of those powers may 
be extended." 

After repeated petitions the people of Indiana were empowered 
by Congress to elect the members of the Legislative Council by popu- 
lar vote. This act was passed in 1809, and defined what was known 
as the property qualification of voters. These qualifications were 
abolished by Congress in 1811, which extended the riglit of voting 
for members of the General Assembly and for a Territorial delegate 


to Congress to every free white male person who had attained the 
age of twenty -one years, and who, having paid a county or Terri- 
torial tax, was a resident of the Territory and had resided in it for 
a year. In 1814 the voting qualification in Indiana was defined by 
Congress, " to every free white male person having a freehold in 
the Territory, and being a resident of the same." The House of 
Representatives was authorized by Congress to lay off the Territory 
into five districts, in each of which the qualified voters were em- 
powered to elect a member of the Legislative Council. The division 
was made, one to two counties in each district. 

At the session in August, 1814, the Territory was also divided 
into three judicial circuits, and provisions were made for holding 
courts in the same. The Governor was empowered to appoint a 
presiding Judge in each circuit, and two Associate Judges of the 
circuit court in each county. Their compensation was fixed at 
$700 per annum. 

The same year the General Assembly granted charters to two 
banking institutions, the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Madi- 
son and the Bank of Vincennes. The first was authorized to raise 
a capital of $750,000, and the other $500,000. On the organization 
of the State these banks were merged into the State Bank and its 

Here we close the history of the Territory of Indiana. 


The last regular session of the Territorial Legislature was held at 
Corydon, convening in December, 1815. The message of Governor 
Posey congratulated the people of the Territory upon the general 
success of the settlements and the great increase of immigration, 
recommended light taxes and a careful attention to the promotion 
of education and the improvement of the State roads and highways. 
He also recommended a revision of the territorial laws and an 
amendment of the militia system. Several laws were passed pre- 
paratory to a State Government, and December 14, 1815, a me- 
morial to Congress was adopted praying for the authority to adopt 
a constitution and State Government. Mr. Jennings,the Territorial 
delegate, laid this memorial before Congress on the 28th, and April 
19, 1816, the President approved the bill creating the State of In- 
diana. Accordingly, May 30 following, a general election was held 
for a constitutional convention, which met at Corydon June 10 to 
29, Johathan Jennings presiding and Wm. Hendricks acting as 

"The convention that formed the first constitution of the State 
of Indiana was composed mainly of clear-minded, unpretending 
men of common sense, whose patriotism was unquestionable and 
whose morals were fair. Their familiarity with the theories of the 
Declaration of American Independence, their Territorial experience 
under the provisions of the ordinance of 1787, and their knowledge of 
the principles of the constitution of the United States were sufficient, 
when combined, to lighten materially their labors in the great work 
of forming a constitution for a new State. With such landmarks 
in view, the labors of similar conventions in other States and Ter- 
ritories have been rendered comparatively light. In the clearness 
and conciseness of its style, in the comprehensive and just pro- 
visions which it made for the maintainance of civil and religious 
liberty, in its mandates, which were designed to protect the rights 
of the people collectively and individually, and to provide for the 
public welfare, the constitution that was formed for Indiana in 1816 
was not inferior to any of the State constitutions which were in ex- 
istence at that time." — Dillon's History of Indiana. 


The first State election took place on the first Monday of August, 
1816, and Jonathan Jennings was elected Governor, and Christo- 
pher Harrison, Lieut. Governor. Wm. Hendricks was elected to 
represent the new State in the House of Representatives of the 
United States. 

The first General Assembly elected under the new constitution 
began its session at Corydon, Nov. 4, 1816. John Paul was called 
to the chair of the Senate pro tem., and Isaac Blackford was elected 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Among other things in the new Governor's message were the 
following remarks: "The result of your deliberation will be con- 
sidered as indicative of its future character as well as of the future 
happiness and prosperity of its citizens. In the commencement 
of the State government the shackles of the colonial should be for- 
gotten in our exertions to prove, by happy experience, that a uni- 
form adherence to the first principles of our Government and a 
virtuous exercise of its powers will best secure efficiency to its 
measures and stability to its character. Without a frequent recur- 
rence to those principles, the administration of the Government 
will imperceptibly become more and more arduous, until the sim- 
plicity of our Republican institutions may eventually be lost in 
dangerous expedients and political design. Under every free gov- 
ernment the happiness of the citizens must be identified with their 
morals; and while a constitutional exercise of their rights shall 
continue to have its due weight in discharge of the duties required 
of the constituted authorities of the State, too much attention can- 
not be bestowed to the encouragement and promotion of every 
moral virtue, and to the enactment of laws calculated to restrain 
the vicious, and prescribe punishment for every crime commensu- 
rate with its enormity. In measuring, however, to each crime its 
adequate punishment, it will be well to recollect that the certainty 
of punishment has generally the surest effect to prevent crime; 
while punishments unnecessarily severe too often produce the ac- 
quittai of the guilty and disappoint one of the greatest objects of 
legislation and good government * * * The dissemination of 
useful knowledge will be indispensably necessary as a support to 
morals and as a restraint to vice; and on this subject it will only 
be necessary to direct your attention to the plan of education as 
prescribed by the constitution. * * * I recommend to your 
consideration the propriety of providing by law, to prevent more 
effectually any unlawful attempts to seize and carry into bondage 



persons of color legally entitled to their freedom ; and at the same 
time, as far as practicable, to prevent those who rightfully owe ser- 
vice to the citizens of any other State or Territory from seeking 
within the limits of this State a refuge from the possession of their 
lawful owners. Such a measure will tend to secure those who are 
free from any unlawful attempts (to enslave them) and secures the 
rights of the citizens of the other States and Territories as far as 
ought reasonably to be expected." 

This session of the Legislature elected James Noble and "Waller 
Taylor to the Senate of the United States; Robert A. New was 
elected Secretary of State; W. H. Lilley, Auditor of State; and 
Daniel C. Lane, Treasurer of State. The session adjourned Janu- 
ary 3, 1817. 

As the history of the State of Indiana from this time forward is 
best given by topics, we will proceed to give them in the chronolog- 
ical order of their origin. 

The happy close of the war with Great Britain in 1814 was fol- 
lowed by a great rush of immigrants to the great Territory of the 
Northwest, including the new States, all now recently cleared of 
the enemy; and by 1820 the State of Indiana had more than 
doubled her population, having at this time 147,178, and by 1825 
nearly doubled this again, that is to say, a round quarter of a mil- 
lion, — a growth more rapid probably than that of any other section 
in this country since the days of Columbus. 

The period 1-825-' 30 was a prosperous time for the young State. 
Immigration continued to be rapid, the crops were generally good 
and the hopes of the people raised higher than they had ever been 
before. Accompanying this immigration, however, were paupers 
and indolent people, who threatened to be so numerous as to 
become a serious burden. On this subject Governor Ray called for 
legislative action, but the Legislature scarcely knew what to do 
and they deferred action. 


In 1830 there still lingered within the bounds of the State two 
tribes of Indians, whose growing indolence, intemperate habits, 
dependence upon their neighbors for the bread of life, diminished 
prospects of living by the chase, continued perpetration of murders 
and other outrages of dangerous precedent, primitive igno- 
rance and unrestrained exhibitions of savage customs before the 
children of the settlers, combined to make them subjects for a more 
rigid government. The removal of the Indians west of the Missis- 
sippi was a melancholy but necessary duty. The time having 
arrived for the emigration of the Pottawatomies, according to the 
stipulations contained in their treaty with the United States, they 
evinced that reluctance common among aboriginal tribes on leav- 
ing the homes of their childhood and the graves of their ancestors. 
Love of country is a principle planted in the bosoms of all man- 
kind. The Laplander and the Esquimaux of the frozen north, 
who feed on seals, moose and the meat of the polar bear, would not 
exchange their country for the sunny clime of "Araby the blest." 
Color and shades of complexion have nothing to do with the 
heart's best, warmest emotions. Then we should not wonder that the 
Pottawatomie, on leaving his home on the Wabash, felt as sad as 
jEschines did when ostracised from his native land, laved by the 
waters of the classic Scamander; and the noble and eloquent Nas- 
waw-kay, on leaving the encampment on Crooked creek, felt his 
banishment as keenly as Cicero when thrust from the bosom of his 
beloved Rome, for which he had spent the best efforts of his life, 
and for which he died. 

On Sunday morning, May 18* 1832, the people on the west side 
of the Wabash were thrown into a state of great consternation, on 
account of a report that a large body of hostile Indians had 
approached within 15 miles of Lafayette and killed two men. The 
alarm soon spread throughout Tippecanoe, Warren, Vermillion, 
Fountain, Montgomery, and adjoining counties. Several brave 
commandants of companies on the west side of the Wabash in 
Tippecanoe county, raised troops to go and meet the enemy, and 
dispatched an express to Gen. Walker with a request that he should 


make a call upon the militia of the county to equip themselves 
instantly and march to the aid of their bleeding countrymen. 
Thereupon Gen. Walker, Col. Davis, Lieut-Col. Jenners, Capt. 
Brown, of the artillery, and various other gallant spirits mounted 
their war steeds and proceeded to the army, and thence upon a 
scout to the Grand Prairie to discover, if possible, the number, 
intention and situation of the Indians. Over 300 old men, women 
and children flocked precipitately to Lafayette and the surrounding 
country east of the Wabash. A remarkable event occurred in this 
stampede, as follows: 

A man, wife and seven children resided on the edge of the 
Grand Prairie, west of Lafayette, in a locality considered particu- 
larly dangerous. On hearing of this alarm he made hurried 
preparations to fly with his family to Lafayette for safety. Imag- 
ine his surprise and chagrin when his wife told him she would not 
go one step; that she did not believe in being scared at trifles, and 
in her opinion there was not an Indian within 100 miles of them. 
Importunity proved unavailing, and the disconsolate and frightened 
husband and father took all the children except the youngest, bade 
his wife and babe a long and solemn farewell, never expecting to 
see them again, unless perhaps he might find their mangled re- 
mains, minus their scalps. On arriving at Lafayette, his acquaint- 
ances rallied and berated him for abandoning his wife and child in 
that way, but he met their jibes with a stoical indifference, avowing 
that he should not be held responsible fur their obstinacy. 

As the shades of the first evening drew on, the wife felt lonely; 
and the chirping of the frogs and the notes of the whippoorwill only 
intensified her loneliness, until she half wished she had accom- 
panied the rest of the family in their flight. She remained in the 
house a .ew hours without striking a light, and then concluded 
that " discretion was the better part of valor," took her babe and 
some bed-clothes, fastened the cabin door, and hastened to a sink- 
hole in the woods, in which she afterward said that she and her 
babe slept soundly until sunrise next morning. 

Lafayette literally boiled over with people and patriotism. A 
meeting was held at the court-house, speeches were made by 
patriotic individuals, and to allay the feare of the women an armed 
police was immediately ordered, to be called the " Lafayette Guards." 
Thos. T. Benbridge was elected Captain, and John Cox, Lieutenant. 
Capt. Benbridge yielded the active drill of his guards to the 
Lieutenant, who had served two years in the war of 1812. After 


the meeting adjourned, the guards were paraded on the green 
where Purdue's block now stands, and put through sundry evohi- 
tions by Lieut. Cox, who proved to be an expert drill officer, and 
whose clear, shrill voice rung out on the night air as he marched 
and counter-marched the troops from where the paper-mill stands 
to Main street ferry, and over the suburbs, generally. Every old 
gun and sword that could be found was brought into requisition, 
with a new shine on them. 

Gen. Walker, Colonels Davis and Jenners, and other officers 
joined in a call of the people of Tippecanoe county for volunteers to 
march to the frontier settlements. A large meeting of the citizens 
assembled in the public square in the town, and over 300 volunteers 
mostly mounted men, left for the scene of action, with an alacrity 
that would have done credit to veterans. 

The first night they camped nine miles west of Lafayette, near 
Grand Prairie. They placed sentinels for the night and retired to 
rest. A few of the subaltern officers very injudiciously concluded 
to try what effect a false alarm would have upon the sleeping sol- 
diers, and a few of them withdrew to a neighboring thicket, and 
thence made a charge upon the picket guards, who , after hailing 
them and receiving no countersign, fired off their guns and ran for 
the Colonel's marquee in the center of the encampment. The aroused 
Colonels and staff sprang to their feet, shouting "To arras! to arms!" 
and the obedient, though panic-stricken soldiers seized their guns 
and demanded to be led against the invading foe. A wild scene of 
disorder ensued, and amid the din of arms and loud commands of 
the officers the raw militia felt that they had already got into the 
red jaws of battle. One of the alarm sentinels, in running to the 
center of the encampment, leaped over a blazing camp fire, and 
alighted full upon the breast and stomach of a sleeping lawyer, who 
was, no doubt, at that moment dreaming of vested and contingent 
remainders, rich clients and good fees, which in legal parlance was 
suddenly estopped by the hob-nails in the stogas of the scared 
sentinel. As soon as the counselor's vitality and consciousness 
sufficiently returned, ho put in some strong demurrers to the con- 
duct of the affrighted picket men, averring that he would greatly 
prefer being wounded by the enemy to being run over by a cowardly 
booby. Next morning the organizers of the ruse were severely 

May 28, 1832, Governor Noble ordered General Walker to call 
out his whole command, if necessary, and supply arms, horses and 


provisions, even though it be necessary to seize them. The next 
day four baggage wagons, loaded with camp equipments, stores, 
provisions and other articles, were sent to the little army, who were 
thus provided for a campaign of five or six weeks. The following 
Thursday a squad of cavalry, under Colonel Sigler, passed through 
Lafayette on the way to the hostile region; and on the 13th of June 
Colonel Russell, commandant of the 40th Regiment, Indiana Militia, 
passed through Lafayette with 340 mounted volunteers from the 
counties of Marion, Hendricks and Johnson. Also, several com- 
panies of volunteers from Montgomery, Fountain and Warren 
counties, hastened to the relief of the frontier settlers. The troops 
from Lafayette marched to Sugar creek, and after a short time, 
there being no probability of finding any of the enemy, were 
ordered to return. They all did so except about 45 horsemen, who 
volunteered to cross Hickory creek, where the Indians had com- 
mitted their depredations. They organized a company by electing 
Samuel McGeorge, a soldier of the war of 1812, Captain, and Amos 
Allen and Andrew W. Ingraham, Lieutenants. 

Crossing Hickory creek, they marched as far as O'Plein river 
without meeting with opposition. Finding no enemy here they 
concluded to return. On the first night of their march home they 
encamped on the open prairie, posting sentinels, as usual. About 
ten o'clock it began to rain, and it was with difiioulty that the sen- 
tinels kept their guns dry. Oapt. I. H. Cox and a man named Fox 
had been posted as sentinels within 1-5 or 20 paces of each other. 
Cox drew the skirt of his overcoat over his gun-lock to keep it dry; 
Fox, perceiving this motion, and in the darkness taking him for an 
Indian, tired upon him and fractured his thigh-bone. Several sol- 
diers immediately ran toward the place where the flash of the gun 
had been seen; but when they cocked and leveled their guns on the 
figure which had fired at Cox, the wounded man caused them to 
desist by crying, " Don't shoot him, it was a sentinel who shot me." 
The next day the wounded man was left behind the company in 
care of four men, who, as soon as possible, removed him on a litter 
to Col. Moore's company of Illinois militia, then encamped on the 
O'Plein, where Joliet now stands. 

Although the main body returned to Lafayette in eight or nine 
days, yet the alarm among the people was so great that they could 
not be induced to return to their farms for some time. The pres- 
ence of the hostiles was hourly expected by the frontier settlements 
of Indiana, from Vinceunes to La Porte. In Clinton county the 


inhabitants gathered within the forts and prepared for a regular 
siege, while our neighbors at Crawfordsviile were suddenly 
astounded by the arrival of a courier at full speed with the announce- 
ment that the Indians, more than a thousand in number, were then 
crossing the Nine-Mile prairie about twelve miles north of town, 
killing and scalping all. The strongest houses were immediately 
put in a condition of defense, and sentinels were placed at the prin- 
cipal points in the direction of the enemy. Scouts were sent out to 
reconnoitre, and messengers were dispatched in different directions 
to announce the danger to the farmers, and to urge them to hasten 
with their families into town, and to assist in fighting the moment- 
arily expected savages. At night-fall the scouts brought in the 
news that the Indians had not crossed the Wabash, but were hourly 
expected at Lafayette. The citizens of Warren, Fountain and Ver- 
million counties were alike terrified by exaggerated stories of Indian 
massacres, and immediately prepared for defense. It turned out 
that the Indians were not within 100 miles of these temporary 
forts ; but this by no means proved a want of courage in the citizens. 

After some time had elapsed, a portion of the troops were 
marched back into Tippecanoe county and honorably discharged ; 
but the settlers were still loth for a long time to return to their 
farms. Assured by published reports that the Miamis and Potta- 
watomies did not intend to join the hostiles, the people by degrees 
recovered from the panic and began to attend to their neglected 

During this time there was actual war in Illinois. Black Hawk 
and his warriors, well nigh surrounded by a well-disciplined foe, 
attempted to cross to the west bank of the Mississippi, but after 
being chased up into Wisconsin and to the Mississippi again, he 
was in a final battle taken captive. A few years after his liberation, 
about 1837 or 1838, he died, on the banks of the Des Moines river, 
in Iowa, in what is now the county of Davis, where his remains 
were deposited above ground, in the usual Indian style. His re- 
mains were afterward stolen and carried away, but they were re- 
covered by the Governor of Iowa and placed in the museum of the 
Historical Society at Burlington, where they were finally destroyed 
by fire. 


In July, 1837, Col. Abel C. Pepper convened the Pottawatomie 
nation of Indians at Lake Ke-waw-nay for the purpose of remov- 
ing them west of the Mississippi. That fall a small party of some 
80 or 90 Pottawatomies was conducted west of the Mississippi 
river by George Proffit, Esq. Among the number were Ke-waw- 
nay, Nebash, Nae-waw-kay, Pash-po-ho and many other leading 
men of the nation. The regular emigration of these poor Indians, 
about 1,000 in number, took place under Col. Pepper and Gen. Tip- 
ton in the summer of 1838. 

It was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness these children of 
the forest slowly retiring from the home of their childhood, that 
contained not only the graves of their revered ancestors, but also 
many endearing scenes to which their memories would ever recur 
as sunny spots along their pathway through the wilderness. They 
felt that they were bidding farewell to the hills, valleys and streams 
of their infancy; the more exciting hunting-grounds of their ad- 
vanced youth, as well as the stern and bloody battle-fields where 
they had contended in riper manhood, on which they had received 
wounds, and where many of their friends and loved relatives had 
fallen covered with gore and with glory. All these they were leav- 
ing behind them, to be desecrated by the plowshare of the white 
man. As they cast mournful glances back toward these loV^d 
scenes that were rapidly fading in the distance, tears fell from the 
cheek of the downcast warrior, old men trembled, matrons wept, 
the swarthy maiden's cheek turned pale, and sighs and half-sup- 
pressed sobs escaped from the motley groups as they passed along, 
some on foot, some on horseback, and others in wagons, — sad as a 
funeral procession. Several of the aged warriors were seen to cast 
glances toward the sky, as if they were imploring aid from the 
spirits of their departed heroes, who were looking down upon them 
from the clouds, or from the Great Spirit, who would ultimately 
redress the wrongs of the red man, whose broken bow had fallen 
from his hand, and whose sad heart was bleeding within him. 
Ever and anon one of the party would start out into the brush and 
break back to their old encampments on Eel river and on the Tippe- 


canoe, declaring that they would rather die than be banished from 
their country. Thus, scores of discontented emigrants returned 
from diflPerent points on their journey; and it was several years 
before they could be induced to join their countrymen west of tlie 

Several years after the removal of the Pottawatomies the Miami 
nation was removed to their Western home, by coercive means, un- 
der an escort of United States troops. They were a proud aud 
once powerful nation, but at the time of their removal were far 
inferior, in point of numbers, to the Pottawatomie guests whom 
they had permitted to settle and hunt upon their lands, and fish in 
their lakes and rivers after they had been driven southward by 
powerful and warlike tribes who inhabited the shores of the North- 
ern lakes. 


In 1831 a joint resolution of the Legislature of Indiana, request- 
ing an appropriation by Congress for the extinguishment of the 
Indian title to lands within tlie State, was forwarded to that body? 
which granted the request. The Secretary of War, by authority, 
appointed a committee of three citizens to carry into effect the pro- 
visions of the recent law. The Miamis were surrounded on all 
sides by American settlers, and were situated almost in the heart 
of the State on the line of the canal then being made. The chiefs 
were called to a council for the purpose of making a treaty; they 
promptly came, but peremptorily refused to go westward or sell 
the remainder of their land. The Pottawatomies sold about 
6,000,000 acres in Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, including all 
their claim in this State. 

In 1838 a treaty was concluded with the Miami Indians through 
the good offices of Col. A. C. Pepper, the Indian agent, by which 
a considerable of the most desirable portion of their reserve was 
ceded to the United States. 


As an example of the manner in which land speculators were 
treated by the early Indianians, we cite the following instances 
from Cox's " Recollections of the Wabash Valley." 

At Crawfordsville, Dec. 24, 1824, many parties were present 
from the eastern and southern portions of the State, as well as from 
Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee and even Pennsylvania, to attend a 
land sale. There was but little bidding against each other. The 
settlers, or " squatters," as they were called by the speculators, had 
arranged matters among themselves to their general satisfaction. 
If, upon comparing numbers, it appeared that two were after the 
same tract of land, one would ask the other what he would take 
not to bid against him ; if neither would consent to be bought off 
they would retire and cast lots, and the lucky one would enter the 
tract at Congress price, $1.25 an acre, and the other would enter the 
second choice on his list. If a speculator made a bid, or showed a 
disposition to take a settler's claim from him, he soon saw the 
white of a score of eyes glaring at him, and he would " crawfish" 
out of the crowd at the first opportunity. 

The settlers made it definitely known to foreign capitalists that 
they would enter the tracts of land they had settled upon before 
allowing the latter to come in with their speculations. The land 
was sold in tiers of townships, beginning at the southern part of 
the district and continuing north until all had been offered at 
public sale. This plan was persisted in, although it kept many on 
the ground for several days waiting, who desired to purchase land 
in the northern part of the district. 

In 1827 a regular Indian scare was gotten up to keep specu- 
lators away for a short time. A man who owned a claim on Tippe- 
canoe river, near Pretty prairie, fearing that some one of the 
numerous land hunters constantly scouring the country might 
enter the land he had settled upon before he could raise the money 
to buy it, and seeing one day a cavalcade of land hunters riding 
toward where his land lay, mounted his horse and darted off at 
full speed to meet them, swinging his hat and shouting at the top 
of his voice, "Indians! Indians! the woods are full of Indians, 


murdering and scalping all before tliein!" They paused a moment, 
but as the terrified horseman still urged his jaded animal and cried, 
"Help! Longlois, Cicots, help!" they turned and fled like a troop of 
retreating cavalry, hastening to the thickest settlements and giving 
the alarm, which spread like fire among stubble until the whole 
frontier region was shocked with the startling cry. The squatter 
who fabricated the story and started this false alarm took a cir- 
cuitous route home that evening, and while others were busy 
building temporary block-houses and rubbing up their guns to 
meet the Indians, he was quietly gathering up money and slipped 
down to Crawfordsville and entered his land, chuckling to himself, 
" There's a Yankee trick for you, done up by a Hoosier." 


In 1814 a society of Germans under Frederick Rappe, who had 
originally come from Wirtemberg, Germany, and more recently 
from Pennsylvania, founded a settlement on the Wabash about 50 
miles above its mouth. They were industrious, frugal and honest 
Lutherans. They purchased a large quantity of land and laid ofi" 
a town, to which they gave the name of "Harmony," afterward 
called "New Harmony." They erected a church and a public 
school-house, opened farms, planted orchards and vineyards, built 
flouring mills, established a house of public entertainment, a public 
store, and carried on all the arts of peace with skill and regularity. 
Their property was "in common," according to the custom of an- 
cient Christians at Jerusalem, but the governing power, both tem- 
poral and spiritual, was vested in Frederick Rappe, the elder, who 
was regarded as the founder of the society. By the year 1821 the 
society numbered about 900. Every individual of proper age con- 
tributed his proper share of labor. There were neither spendthrifts, 
idlers nor drunkards, and during the whole 17 years of their sojourn 
in America there was not a single lawsuit among them. Every 
controversy arising among them was settled by arbitration, expla- 
nation and compromise before sunset of the day, literally according 
to the injunction of the apostle of the New Testament. 

About 1825 the town of Harmony and a considerable quantity 
of land adjoining was sold to Robert Owen, father of David Dale 
Owen, the State Geologist, and of Robert Dale Owen, of later 
notoriety. He was a radical philosopher from Scotland, who bad 
become distinguished for his philanthropy and opposition to 


Christianity. He charged the latter with teaching false notions 
regarding human responsibility — notions which have since been 
clothed in the language of physiology, mental philosophy, etc. 
Said he: 

"That which has hitherto been called wickedness in our fellow 
men has proceeded from one of two distinct causes, or from some 
combination of those causes. They are what are termed bad or 

"1. Because they are born with faculties or propensities which 
render them more liable, under the same circumstances, than other 
men, to commit such actions as are usually denominated wicked; 

" 2. Because they have been placed by birth or other events in 
particular countries, — have been influenced from infancy by par- 
ents, plaj'mates and others, and have been surrounded by those 
circumstances which gradually and necessarily trained them in the 
habits and sentiments called wicked ; or, 

"3. They have become wicked in consequence of some particu- 
lar combination of these causes. 

" If it should be asked, Whence then has wickedness pro- 
ceeded? I reply. Solely from the ignorance of our forefathers. 

" Every society which exists at present, as well as every society 
which history records, has been formed and governed on a belief 
in the following notions, assumed as first principles: 

" 1. That it is in the power of every individual to form his own 
character. Hence the various systems called by the name of religion, 
codes of law, and punishments; hence, also, the angry passions 
entertained by individuals and nations toward each other. 

" 2. That the affections are at the command of the individual. 
Hence insincerit}' and degradation of character; hence the miseries 
of domestic life, and more than one-half of all the crimes of man- 

" 3. That it is necessary a large portion of mankind should ex- 
ist in ignorance and poverty in order to secure to the remaining part 
such a degree of happiness as they now enjoy. Hence a system of 
counteraction in the pursuits of men, a general opposition among 
individuals to the interests of each other, and the 
of such a system, — ignorance, poverty and vice. 


During the administration of Gov. "Whitcomb the war with 
Mexico occurred, which resulted in annexing to the United States 
vast tracts of land in the south and west. Indiana contributed her 
full ratio to the troops in that war, and with a remarkable spirit of 
promptness and patriotism adopted all measures to sustain the gen- 
eral Government. These new acquisitions of territory re-opened 
the discussion of the slavery question, and Governor Whitcomb 
expressed his opposition to a further extension of the '' national 

The causes which led to a declaration of war against Mexico in 
1846, must be sought for as far back as the year 1830, when the 
present State of Texas formed a province of New and Independent 
Mexico. During the years immediately preceding 1830, Moses 
Austin, of Connecticut, obtained a liberal grant of lands from the 
established Government, and on his death his son was treated in an 
equally liberal manner. The glowing accounts rendered by Aus- 
tin, and the vivid picture of Elysian fields drawn by visiting jour- 
nalists, soon resulted in the influx of a large tide of immigrants, 
nor did the movement to the Southwest cease until 1830. The 
Mexican province held a prosperous population, comprising 10,0UC 
American citizens. The rapacious Government of the Mexicans 
looked with greed and jealousy upon their eastern province, and, 
under the presidency of Gen. Santa Anna, enacted such measures, 
both unjust and oppressive, as would meet their design of goading 
the people of Texas on to revolution, and thus afford an opportu- 
nity for the infliction of punishment upon subjects whose only 
crime was industry and its accompaniment, prosperity. Precisely 
in keeping with the course pursued by the British toward the col- 
onists of the Eastern States in the last century, Santa Anna's 
Government met the remonstrances of the colonists of Texas with 
threats; and they, secure in their consciousness of right quietly 
issued their declaration of independence, and proved its literal 
meaning on the field of Gonzales in 1835, having with a force of 


500 men forced the Mexican army of 1,000 to fly for refuge to their 
strongholds. Battle after battle followed, bringing victory always 
to the Colonists, and ultimately resulting in the total rout of the 
Mexican army and the evacuation of Texas. The routed army 
after a short term of rest reorganized, and reappeared in the Terri- 
tory, 8,000 strong. On April 21, a division of this large force 
under Santa Anna encountered the Texans under General Samuel 
Houston on the banks of the San Jacinto, and though Houston 
could only oppose 800 men to the Mexican legions, the latter were 
driven from the field,nor could they reform their scattered ranks until 
their General was captured next day and forced to sign the declaration 
of 1835. The signature of Santa Anna, though ignored by the 
Congress of the Mexican Kepublic, and consequently left unratified 
on the part of Mexico, was effected in so much, that after the sec- 
ond defeat of the army of that Eepublic all the hostilities of an 
important nature ceased, the Republic of Texas was recognized by 
the powers, and subsequently became an integral part of the United 
States, July i, 1846. At this period General Herrera was pres- 
ident of Mexico. He was a man of peace, of common sense, and 
very patriotic; and he thus entertained, or pretended to enter- 
tain, the great neighboring Republic in high esteem. For this 
reason he grew unpopular with his people, and General Paredes 
was called to the presidential chair, which he continued to occupy 
until the breaking out of actual hostilities with the United States, 
when Gen. Santa Anna was elected thereto. 

President Polk, aware of the state of feeling in Mexico, ordered 
Gen. Zachary Taylor, in command of the troops in the Southwest, to 
proceed to Texas, and post himself as near to the Mexican border 
as he deemed prudent. At the same time an American squadron was 
dispatched to the vicinity, in the Gulf of Mexico. In November, 
Genera] Taylor had taken his position at Corpus Christi, a Texan 
settlement on a bay of the same name, with about 4,000 men. On 
the 13th of January, 1846, the President ordered him to advance 
with his forces to the Rio Grande; accordingly he proceeded, and 
in March stationed himself on the north bank of that river, with- 
in cannon-shot of the Mexican town of Matamoras. Here he 
hastily erected a fortress, called Fort Brown. The territory ly- 
ing between the river Nueces and the Rio Grande river, about 
120 miles in width, was claimed both by Texas and Mexico; ac- 
cording to the latter, therefore. General Taylor had actually 
invaded her Territory, and had thus committed an open 


act of war. On the 26th of April, the Mexican General, Ampudia, 
gave notice to this effect to General Taylor, and on the same day a 
party of American dragoons, sixty-three in number, being on the 
north side of the Eio Grande, were attacked, and, after the loss of 
sixteen men killed and wounded, were forced to surrender. Their 
commander. Captain Thornton, only escaped. The Mexican forces 
had now crossed the river above Matamoras and were supposed to 
meditate an attack on Point Isabel, where Taylor had established a 
depot of supplies for his army. On the 1st of May, this officer left 
a small number of troops at Fort Brown, and marched with his 
chief forces, twenty-three hundred men, to the defense of Point 
Isabel. Having garrisoned this place, he set out on his return. 
On the Sth of May, about noon, he met the Mexican army, six 
thousand strong, drawn up in battle array, on the prairie near Palo 
Alto. The Americans at once advanced to the attack, and, after an 
action of five hours, in which their artillery was very effective, 
drove the enemy before them, and encamped upon the field. The 
Mexican loss was about one hundred killed; that ot the Americans, 
four killed and forty wounded. Major Ringgold, of the artillery, 
an ofiicer of great merit, was mortally wounded. The next day, as 
the Americans advanced, they again met the enemy in a strong 
position near Resaca de la Palma, three miles from Fort Brown. 
An action commenced, and was fiercely contested, the artillery on 
both sides being served with great vigor. At last the Mexicans 
gave way, and fled in confusion. General de la Vega having fallen 
into the hands of the Americans. They also abandoned their guns 
and a large quantity of ammunition to the victors. The remain- 
ing Mexican soldiers speedily crossed the Rio Grande, and the next 
day the Americans took up their position at Fort Brown. This 
little fort, in the absence of General Taylor, had gallantly sustained 
an almost uninterrupted attack of several days from the Mexican 
batteries of Matamoras. 

When the news of the capture of Captain Thornton's party was 
spread over the United States, it produced great excitement. The 
President addressed a message to Congress, then in session, declar- 
ing " that war with Mexico existed by her own act;" and that body, 
May, 1S46, placed ten millions of dollars at the President's dispo- 
sal, and authorized him to accept the services of fifty thousand 
volunteers. A great part of the summer of 1846 was spent in prep- 
aration for the war, it being resolved to invade Mexico at several 
points. In pursuance of this plan, General Taylor, who had taken 


possession of Matamoras, abandoned by the enemy in May, marched 
northward in the enemy's country in August, and on the 19th of 
September he appeared before Monterey, capital of the Mexican 
State of New Leon. His army, after having garrisoned several 
places along his route, amounted to six thousand men. The attack 
began on the 21st, and after a succession of assaults, daring the 
period of four days, the Mexicans capitulated, leaving the town 
in possession of the Americans. In October, General Taylor 
terminated an armistice into which he had entered with the 
Mexican General, and again commenced offensive operations. 
Various towns and fortresses of the enemy now rapidly fell into 
our possession. In Xovember, Saltillo, the capital of the State 
of Coahuila was occupied by the division of General Worth; 
in December, General Patterson took possession of Victoria, 
the capital of Tamaulipas, and nearly at the same period, 
Commodore Perry captured the fort of Tampico. Santa Fe, 
the capital of New Mexico, with the whole territory of the State 
had been subjugated by General Harney, after a march of one 
thousand miles through the wilderness. Events of a startling char- 
acter had taken place at still earlier dates along the Pacific coast. On 
the 4th of July, Captain Fremont, having repeatedly defeated su- 
perior Mexican forces with the small band under his command, de- 
clared California independent of Mexico. Other important places 
in this region had yielded to the American naval force, and in Au- 
gust, 1846, the whole of California was in the undisputed occupa- 
tion of the Americans. 

The year 1847 opened with still more brilliant victories on the 
part of our armies. By the drawing off of a large part of 
General Taylor's troops for a meditated attack on Vera Cruz, he 
was left with a comparatively small force to meet the great body of 
Mexican troops, now marching upon him, under command of the 
celebrated Santa Anna, who had again become President of Mexico. 

Ascertaining the advance of this powerful army, twenty thou- 
sand strong, and consisting of the best of the Mexican soldiers, 
General Taylor took up his position at Buena Vista, a valley a few 
miles from Saltillo. His whole troops numbered only four thousand 
seven hundred and fifty-nine, and here, on the 23d of February, he 
was vigorously attacked by the Mexicans. The battle was very 
severe, and continued nearly the whole day, when the Mexicans fl.ed _ 
from the field in disorder, with a loss of nearly two thousand men. 
Santa Anna speedily withdrew, and thus abandoned the region of 


the Rio Grande to the complete occupation of our troops. This left 
our forces at liberty to prosecute the grand enterprise of the cam- 
paign, the capture of the strong town of Vera Cruz, with its re- 
nowned castle of San Juan d'Ulloa. On the 9th of March, 184-7, 
General Scott landed near the city with an army of twelve thousand 
men, and on the 18tli commenced an attack. For four days and 
nights an almost incessant shower of shot and shells was poured 
upon the devoted town, while the batteries of the castle and the city 
replied with terrible energy. At last, as the Americans were pre- 
paring for an assault, the Governor of the city offered to surrender, 
and on the 26th the American flag floated triumphantly from the 
walls of the castle and the city. General Scott now prepared to 
march upon the city of Mexico, the capital of the country, situated 
two hundred miles in the interior, and approached only through a 
series of rugged passes and mountain fastnesses, rendered still more 
formidable by several strong fortresses. On the 8th of April the 
army commenced their march. At Cerro Gordo, Santa Anna had 
posted himself with fifteen thousand men. On the 18th the Amer- 
icans began the daring attack, and by midday every intrenchment 
of the enemy had been carried. The loss of the Mexicans in this 
remarkable battle, besides one thousand killed and wounded, was 
three thousand prisoners, forty-three pieces of cannon, five 
thousand stand of arms, and all their amunitions and mate- 
rials of war. The loss of the Americans was four hundred 
and thirty-one in killed and wounded. The next day our forces 
advanced, and, capturing fortress after fortress, came on the 
ISth of August within ten miles of Mexico, a city of two hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants, and situated in one of the most 
beautiful valleys in the world. On the 20th they attacked and 
carried the strong batteries of Contreras, garrisoned by 7,000 men, 
in an impetuous assault, which lasted but seventeen minutes. On 
the same day an attack was made by the Americans on the fortified 
post of Churubusco, four miles northeast of Contreras, Here 
nearly the entire Mexican army — more than 20,000 in number — 
were posted; but they were defeated at every point, and obliged to 
seek a retreat in the city, or the still remaining fortress of Chapul- 
tepec. While preparations were being made on the 21st by Gen- 
eral Scott, to level his batteries against the city, prior to summon- 
ing it to surrender, he received propositions from the enemy, which 
terminated in an armistice. This ceased on the 7th of September. 
On the 8th the outer defense of Chapul tepee was successfully 


stormed by General Worth, though he lost one-fourth of his men 
in the desperate struggle. The castle of Chapultepec, situated on 
an abrupt and rocky eminence, 150 feet above the surrounding 
country, presented a most formidable object of attack. On the 
12th, however, the batteries were opened against it, and on the 
next day the citadel was carried by storm. The Mexicans still strug- 
gled along the great causeway leading to the city, as the Americans 
advanced, but before nightfal a part of our army was within the 
gates of the city. Santa Anna and the officws of the Government 
fled, and the next morning, at seven o'clock, the flag of the Ameri- 
cans floated from the national palace of Mexico. This conquest of 
the capital was the great and final achievement of the war. The 
Mexican republic was in fact prostrate, her sea-coast and chief 
cities being in the occupation of our troops. On the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1848, terms of peace were agreed upon by the American 
commissioner and the Mexican Government, this treaty being rati- 
fied by the Mexican Congress on the 30th of May following, and 
by the United States soon after. President Polk proclaimed peace 
on the 4rth of July, 1848. In the preceding sketch we have given 
only a mere outline of the war with Mexico. We have necessarily 
passed over many interesting events, and have not even named 
many of our soldiers who performed gallant and important ser- 
vices. General Taylor's successful operations in the region of the 
Kio Grande were duly honored by the people of the United States, 
by bestowing upon him the Presidency. Geheral Scott's campaign, 
from the attack on Vera Cruz, to the surrender of the city of 
Mexico, was far more remarkable, and, in a military point of view, 
must be considered as one of the most brilliant of modern times. It 
is true the Mexicans are not to be ranked with the great nations of 
the earth; with a population of seven or eight millions, they have 
little more than a million of the white race, the rest being half-civ- 
ilized Indians and mestizos, that is, those of mixed blood. Their 
government is inefficient, and the people divided among them- 
selves. Their soldiers often fought bravely, but they were badly 
officered. While, therefore, we may consider the conquest of so 
extensive and populous a country, in so short a time, and attended 
with such constant superiority even to the greater numbers of the 
enemy, as highly gratifying evidence of the courage and capacity 
of our army, still we must not, in judging of our achievements, fail 
to consider the real weakness of the nation whom we vanquished. 


One thing we may certainly dwell upon with satisfaction — the ad- 
mirable example, not only as a soldier, bnt as a man, set by our com- 
mander, Gen. Scott, who seems, in themidstof war and the ordinary 
license of the camp, always to have preserved the virtue, kindness, 
and humanity belongincr to a state of peace. These qualities 
secured to him the respect, confidence and good-will even of the 
enemy he had conquered. Among the Generals who efi"ectually 
aided General Scott in this remarkable campaign, we must not 
omit to mention the names of Generals Wool, Twiggs, Shields, 
Worth, Smith, and Quitman, who generally added to the high 
qualities of soldiers the still more estimable characteristics of 
good men. The treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo stipulated that the 
disputed territory between the Nueces and the Eio Grande should 
belong to the United States, and it now forms a part of Texas, as 
has been already stated; that the United States should assume and 
pay the debts due from Mexico to American citizens, to the amount 
of $3,500,000; and that, in consideration of the sum of $15,000,000 
to be paid by the United States to Mexico, the latter should 
relinquish to the former the whole of New Mexico and Upper 

The soldiers of Indiana who served in this war were formed into 
five regiments of volunteers, numbered respectively, Ist, 2d, 3rd, 
4th and 5th. The fact that companies of the three first-named reg- 
iments served at times with the men of Illinois, the New York 
volunteers, the Palmettos of South Carolina, and United States 
marines, under Gen. James Shields, makes for them a history; be- 
cause the campaigns of the Rio Grande and Chihuahua, the siege 
of Vera Cruz, the desperate encounter at Cerro Gordo, the tragic 
contests in the valley, at Contreras and Churubusco, the storming 
of Chapultepec, and the planting of the stars and stripes upon 
every turret and spire within the conquered city of Mexico, were 
all carried out by the gallant troops under the favorite old General, 
and consequently each of them shared with him in the glories at- 
tached to such exploits. The other regiments under Cols. Gorman 
and Lane participated in the contests of the period under other com- 
manders. The 4th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, comprising 
ten companies, was formally organized at Jeffersonville, Indiana, 
by Capt. R. C. Gatlin, June 15, 1847, and on the 16th elected 
Major Willis A. Gorman, of the 3rd Regiment, to the Colonelcy; 
Ebenezer Dumont, Lieutenant-Colonel, and W. McCoy, Major. On 
the 27th of June the regiment left Jeffersonville for the front, and 


subsequently was assigned to Brigadier-General Lane's command, 
which then comprised a battery of five pieces from the 3rd Regi- 
ment U. S. Artillery; a battery of two pieces from the 2nd Regiment 
U. S. Rrtillery, the 4th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers and the 4th 
Regiment of Ohio, with a squadron of mounted Louisianians and 
detachments of recruits for the U. S. army. The troops of this 
brigade won signal honors at Passo de Ovegas, August 10, 1847; 
National Bridge, on the 12th; Cerro Gordo, on the 15th; Las Ani- 
mas, on the 19th, under Maj. F. T. Lally, of General Lane's staff, 
and afterward under Lane, directly, took a very prominent part in 
the siege of Puebla, which began on the 15th of September and 
terminated on the 12th of October. At Atlixco, October 19th; 
Tlascala, November 10th; Matamoras and Pass Galajara, Novem- 
ber 23rd and 24th; Guerrilla Ranche, December 5th; Napaloncan, 
December 10th, the Indiana volunteers of the 4th Regiment per- 
formed gallant service, and carried the campaign into the following 
year, representing their State at St. Martin's, February 27, 184S; 
Cholula, March 26th; Matacordera, February 19th; Sequalteplan, 
February 25th; and on the cessation of hostilities reported at 
Madison, Indiana, for discharge, July 11, 1848; while the 5th In- 
diana Regiment, under Col. J. H. Lane, underwent a similar round 
of duty during its service with other brigades, and gained some 
celebrity at Vera Cruz, Churubusco and with the troops of Illinois 
under Gen. Shields at Chapultepec. 

This war cost the people of the United States sixty-six millions 
of dollars. This very large amount was not paid away for the at- 
tainment of mere glory ; there was something else at stake, and 
this something proved to be a country larger and more fertile than 
the France of the Napoleons, and more steady and sensible than 
the France of the Republic. It was the defense of the great Lone 
Star State, the humiliation and chastisement of a quarrelsome 


We have already referred to the prohibition of slavery in the 
N orthwestern Territory, and Indiana Territory by the ordinance of 
1787; to the imperfection in the execution of this ordinance and the 
troubles which the authorities encountered; and the complete estab- 
lishment of the principles of freedom on the organization of the State. 
The next item of significance in this connection is the following lan- 
guage in the message of Gov. Ray to the Legislature of 1828: " Since 
our last separation, while we have witnessed with anxious solicitude 
the belligerent operations of another hemisphere, the cross contend- 
ing against the crescent, and the prospect of a general rupture among 
the legitimates of other quarters of the globe, our attention has 
been arrested by proceedings in our own country truly dangerous 
to liberty, seriously premeditated, and disgraceful to its authors 
if agitated only to tamper with the American people. If such ex- 
periments as we see attempted in certain deluded quarters do not 
tall with a burst of thunder upon the heads of their seditious pro- 
jectors, then indeed the Republic has begun to experience the days 
of its degeneracy. The union of these States is the people's only 
sure charter for their liberties and independence. Dissolve it and 
each State will soon be in a condition as deplorable as Alexander's 
conquered countries after they were divided amongst his victorious 
military captains." 

In pursuance of a joint resolution of the Legislature of 1850, a 
block of native marble was procured and forwarded to Washington, 
to be placed in the monument then in the course of erection at the 
National Capital in memory of George Washington. In the 
absence of any legislative instruction concerning the inscription 
upon this emblem of Indiana's loyalty. Gov. Wright ordered the 
following words to be inscribed upon it: Indiana Knows No 
North, No South, Nothing but the Union. Within a dozen 
years thereafter this noble State demonstrated to the world her loy- 
alty to the Union and the principles of freedom by the sacrifice of 
blood and treasure which she made. In keeping with this senti- 
ment Gov. Wright indorsed the compromise measures of Congress 
on the slavery question, remarking in his message that " Indiana 
takes her stand in the ranks, not of Southern destiny, nor yet of 



Northern destiny: she plants herself on the basis of the Consti- 
tution and takes her stand in the ranks of American destiny." 


At the session of the Legislature in January, 1869, the subject 
of ratifying the fifteenth amendment to the Federal Constitution, 
allowing negro suffrage, came up with such persistency that neither 
party dared to undertake any other business lest it be checkmated 
in some way, and being at a dead lock on this matter, they adjourn- 
ed in March without having done much important business. The 
Democrats, as well as a portion of the conservative Kepublicans, 
opposed its consideration strongly on the ground that it would be 
unfair to vote on the question until the people of the State had had 
an opportunity of expressing their views at the polls; but most of 
the Kepublicans resolved to push the measure through, while the 
Democrats resolved to resign in a body and leave the Legislature 
without a quorum. Accordingly, on March 4, 17 Senators and 36 
Representatives resigned, leaving both houses without a quorum. 

As the early adjournment of the Legislature left the benevolent 
institutions of the State unprovided for, the Governor convened 
that body in extra session as soon as possible, and after the neces- 
sary appropriations were made, on the 19th of May the fifteenth 
amendment came up; but in anticipation of this the Democratic 
members had all resigned and claimed that there was no quorum 
present. There was a quorum, however, of Senators in office, 
though some of them refused to vote, declaring that they were no 
longer Senators ; but the president of that body decided that as he 
had not been informed of their resignation by the Governor, they 
were still members. A vote was taken and the ratifying resolution 
was adopted. When the resolution came up in the House, the 
chair decided that, although the Democratic members had resigned^ 
there was a quorum of the de-faoto members present, and the 
House proceeded to pass the resolution. This decision of the chair 
was afterward sustained by the Supreme Court. 

At the next regular session of the Legislature, in 1871, the 
Democrats undertook to repeal the ratification, and the Republican 
members resigned to prevent it. The Democrats, as the Republi- 
cans did on the previous occasion, proceeded to pass their resolu- 
tion of repeal; but while the process was under way, before the 
House Committee had time to report on the matter, 34 Republican 
members resigned, thereby preventing its passage and putting a 
stop to further legislation. 


Theeventsof the earlier years of this State have been reviewed 
down to that period in the nation's history when the Republic de- 
manded a first sacrifice from the newly erected States: to the time 
when the very safety of the glorious heritage, bequeathed by the 
fathers as a rich legacy, was threatened with a fate worse than death 
— a life under laws that harbored the slave— a civil defiance of the 
first principles of the Constitution. 

Indiana was among the first to respond to the summons of patri- 
otism, and register itself on the national roll of honor, even as she 
was among the first to join in that song of joy which greeted a Re- 
public made doubly glorious within a century by the dual victory 
which won liberty for itself, and next bestowed the precious boon 
upon the colored slave. 

The fall of Fort Sumter was a signal for the uprising of the State. 
The news of the calamity was flashed to Indianapolis on the 14th of 
April, 1861, and early the next morning the electric wire brought 
the welcome message to Washington : — 

Executive Department of Indiana, ) 
Indianapolis, April 15, 1861. } 
To Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States: — On behalf of the State 
of Indiana, 1 tender to you for the defense of the Nation, and to uphold the^ au- 
thority of the Gtovernment, ten thousand men. 

Governor of Indiana. 

This may be considered the first official act of Governor Morton, 
who had just entered on the duties of his exalted position. The 
State was in an almost helpless condition, and yet the faith of the 
" War Governor " was prophetic, when, after a short consultation 
with the members of the Executive Council, he relied on the fidelity 
of ten thousand men and promised their services to the Protectorate 
at Washington. This will be more apparent when the military 
condition of the State at the beginning of 1S61 is considered. At 
that time the armories contained less than five hundred stand of 
serviceable small arms, eight pieces of cannon which might be use- 
ful in a museum of antiquities, with sundry weapons which would 
merely do credit to the aborigines of one hundred years ago. The 
financial condition of the State was even worse than the military. 


The sum of $10,368.58 in trust funds was the amount of cash in the 
hands of the Treasurer, and this was, to all intents and purpo ses 
unavailable to meet the emergency, since it could not be devoted 
to the military requirements of the day. This state of affairs was 
dispiriting in the extreme, and would doubtless have militated 
against the ultimate success of any other man than Morton; yet 
he overleaped every difficulty, nor did the fearful realization of 
Floyd's treason, discovered during his visit to Washington, damp 
his indomitable courage and energy, but with rare persistence he 
urged the claims of his State, and for his exertions was requited 
with an order for five thousand muskets. The order was not exe- 
cuted until hostilities were actually entered upon, and consequently 
for some days succeeding the publication of the President's procla- 
mation the people labored under a feeling of terrible anxiety min- 
gled with uncertainty, amid the confusion which followed the crim- 
inal negligence that permitted the disbandment of the magnificent 
corps d' armee (51,000 men) of 1832 two years later in 1834, Great 
numbers of the people maintained their equanamity with the result 
of beholding within a brief space of time every square mile of their 
State represented by soldiers prepared to fight to the bitter end in 
defense of cherished institutions, and for the extension of the prin- 
ciple of human liberty to all States and classes within the limits of 
the threatened Union. This, tlieirzeal, was not animated by hos- 
tility to the slave holders of the Southern States, but rather by a 
fraternal spirit, akin to that which urges the eldest brother to cor- 
rect the persistent follies of his juniors, and thus lead them from 
crime to the maintenance of family honor; in this correction, to 
draw them away from all that was cruel, diabolical and inhuman in 
the Republic, to all that is gentle, holy and sublime therein. Many 
of the raw troops were not only unimated by a patriotic feeling, 
but also by that beautiful idealization of the poet, who in his un- 
conscious Republicanism, said: 

" I would not have a slave to till my ground, 
To carry me, to fan me while I sleep, 
And tremble when I wake, for all the wealth 
That sinews bought and sold have ever earned 
No : dear as freedom is — and, in my heart's 
, Just estimation, prized above all price — 

I had much rather be myself the slave, 
And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him." 

Thus animated, it is not a matter for surprise to find the first ' 
call to arms issued by the President, and calling for 75,000 men, 


answered nobly by tlie people of Indiana. The quota of troops to 
be furnished by the State on the first call was 4,683 men for three 
years' service from April 15, 1860. On the 16th of April, Gov- 
ernor Morton issued his proclamation calling on all citizens of the 
State, who had the welfare of the Republic at heart, to organize 
themselves into six regiments in defense of their rights, and in 
opposition to the varied acts of rebellion, charged by him against 
the Southern Confederates. To this end, the Hon. Lewis Wallace, 
a soldier of the Mexican campaign was appointed Adjutant-General, 
Col. Thomas A. Morris of the United States Military Academy, 
Quartermaster- General, and Isaiah Mansur, a merchant of Indian- 
apolis, Commissary-General. These general officers converted the 
grounds and buildings of the State Board of Agriculture into a 
military headquarters, and designated the position Camp Morton, 
as the beginning of the many honors which were to follow the pop- 
ular Governor throughout his future career. Now the people, im- 
bued with confidence in their Government and leaders, rose to the 
grandeur of American freemen, and with an enthusiasm never 
equaled hitherto, flocked to the standard of the nation; so that 
within a few days (19th April) 2,400 men were ranked beneath 
their regimental banners, until as the official report testifies, the 
anxious question, passing from mouth to mouth, was, " Which of 
us will be allowed to go? " It seemed as if Indiana was about to 
monopolize the honors of the period, and place the 75,000 men 
demanded of the Union by the President, at his disposition. Even 
now under the genial sway of guaranteed peace, the features of 
Indiana's veterans flush with righteous pride when these days— re- 
membrances of heroic sacrifice — are named, and freemen, still un- 
born, will read their history only to be blessed and glorified in the 
possession of such trul}', noble progenitors. Nor were the ladies 
of the State unmindful of their duties. Everywhere they partook 
of the general enthusiasm, and made it practical so far as in their 
power, by embroidering and presenting standards and regimental 
colors, organizing aid and relief societies, and by many other acts 
of patriotism and humanity inherent in the high nature of woman. 
During the days set apart by the military authorities for the or- 
ganization of the regiments, the financiers of the State were en- 
gaged in the reception of munificent grants of money from pri- 
vate citizens, while the money merchants within and without the 
State offered large loans to the recognized Legislature without even 
imposing a condition of payment. This most practical generosity 


strengthened the hands of the Executive, and within a very few days 
Indiana had passed the crucial test, recovered some of her military 
prestige lost in 1S34, and so was prepared to vie with the other 
and wealthier States in making sacrifices for the public welfare. 

On the 20th of April, Messrs, I. S. Dobbs and Alvis D. Gall re- 
ceived their appointments as Medical Inspectors of the Division, 
while Major T. J. Wood arrived at headquarters from "Washington 
to receive the newly organized regiments into the service of the 
Union. At the moment this formal proceeding took place, Morton, 
unable to restrain the patriotic ardor of the people, telegraphed to 
the capitol that he could place six regiments of infantry at the dis- 
posal of the General Government within six days, if such a pro- 
ceeding were acceptable; but in consequence of the wires being cut 
between the State and Federal capitols, no answer came. Taking 
advantage of the little doubt which may have had existence in re- 
gard to future action in the matter and in the absence of general 
orders, he gave expression to aii intention of placing the volunteers 
in camp, and in his message to the Legislature, who assembled three 
days later, he clearly laid down the principle of immediate action 
and strong measures, recommending a note of $1,000,000 for there- 
organization of the volunteers, for the purchase of arms and supplies, 
and for the punishment of treason. The message was received most 
enthusiastically. The assembly recognized the great points made 
by the Governor, and not only yielded to them in toto, but also made 
the following grand appropriations: 

General military purposes $1,000,000 

Purchase of arms 500,000 

Contingent military expenses 100,000 

Organization and support of militia for two years 140,000 

These appropriations, together with the laws enacted during the 
session of the Assembly, speak for the men of Indiana. The celerity 
with which these laws were put in force, thediligince and economy 
exercised by the officers, entrusted with their administration, and 
that systematic genius, under which all the machinery of Govern- 
ment seemed to work in harmony, — all, all, tended to make for the 
State a spring-time of noble deeds, when seeds might be cast along 
her fertile fields and in the streets of her villages of industry to 
grow up at once and blossom in the ray of fame, and after to bloom 
throughout the ages. Within three days after the opening of the 
extra session of the Legislature (27th April) six new regiments were 
organized, and commissioned for three months' service. These reg- 


iments, notwitlistaiiding the fact that the first six regiments were 
already mustered into the general service, were known as "The 
First Brigade, Indiana Volunteers," and with tlie simple object of 
making the way of the future student of a brilliant history clear, 
were numbered respectivel}' 

Sixth Regiment, commanded by Col. T. T. Crittenden. 

Seventh >' " " " Ebenezer Dumont. 

Eighth " " " " W. P. Benton. 

Ninth " " " " R. H. Milroy. 

Tenth " " " " T. T. Reynolds. 

Eleventh " " " " Lewis Wallace. 

The idea of these numbers was suggested by the fact that the 
military representation of Indiana in the Mexican Campaign was 
one brigade of five regiments, and to observe consecutiveness the 
regiments comprised in the first division of volunteers were thus 
numbered, and the entire force placed under Brigadier General T. 
A. Morris, with the following staff: John Love, Major; Cyrus C- 
Hines, Aid-de-camp; and J. A. Stein, Assistant Adjutant General. 
To follow the fortunes of these volunteers through all the vicissi- 
tudes of war would prove a special work; yet their valor and endur- 
ance during their first term of service deserved a notice of even more 
value than that of the historian, since a commander's opiniou has 
to be taken as the basis upon which the chronicler may expatiate. 
Therefore the following dispatch, dated from the headquarters of the 
Army of Occupation, Beverly Camp, W. Virginia, July 21, 1861, 
must be taken as one of the first evidences of their utility and 
valor: — 

"GovERNOK O. P. Morton, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Governor:— I have directed the three months' regiments from Indiana to 
move to Indianapolis, there to be mustered out and reorganized for three years' 

I cannot permit them to return to you without again e.xpressing my high 
appreciation of the distinguished valor and endurance of the Indiana troops, and 
my hope that but a short time will elapse before I have the pleasure of knowing 
that they are again ready for the field. ******* 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
George B. McClellan, 
Major- Oe?ieral, U. 8- A. 

On the return of the troops to Indianapolis, July 29, Brigadier 
Morris issued a lengthy, logical and well-deserved congratulatory 
address, from which one paragraph may be extracted to characterize 


the whole. After passing a glowing eulogium on their military 
qualities and on that unexcelled gallantry displayed at Laurel Hill, 
Phillipi and Carrick's Ford, he says: — 

" Soldiers ! You have now returned to the friends whose prayers went with you 
to the field of strife. They welcome you with pride and exultation. Your State 
and country acknowledge the value of your labors. May your future career be as 
your past has been, — honorable to yourselves and serviceable to your country." 

The six regiments forming Morris' brigade, together with one 
composed of the surplus volunteers, for whom there was no regi- 
ment in April, now formed a division of seven regiments, all reor- 
ganized for three years' service, between the 20th August and 20th 
September, with the exception of the new or 12th, which was ac- 
cepted for one year's service from May 11th, under command of 
Colonel John M. Wallace, and reorganized May 17, 1862, for three 
years' service under Col. "W. H. Link, who, with 172 officers and 
men, received their mortal wounds during the Richmond (Ken- 
tucky) engagement, three months after its reorganization. 

The 13th Regiment, under Col. Jeremiah Sullivan, was mus- 
tered into the United States in 1861 and joined Gen. McClellan's 
command at Rich Mountain on the 10th July. The day following it 
was present under Gen. Rosencrans and lost eight men killed; three 
successive days it was engaged under Gen. I. I. Reynolds, and won 
its laurels at Cheat Mountain summit, where it participated in the 
decisive victory over Gen. Lee. 

The 14th Regiment, organized in 1861 for one year's service, and 
reorganized on the 7th of June at Terre Haute for three years' ser. 
vice. Commanded by Col. Kimball and showing a muster roll of 
1,134 men, it was one of the finest, as it was the first, three years' 
regiment organized in the State, with varying fortunes attached to 
its never ending round of duty from Cheat Mountain, September, 
1861, to Morton's Ford in 1864, and during the movement South in 
May of that year to the last of its labors, the battle of Cold Har- 

The 15th Regiment, reorganized at La Fayette 14th June, 1861, 
under Col. G. D. Wagner, moved on Rich Mountain on the 11th 
of July in time to participate in the complete rout of the enemy. 
On the promotion of Col. Wagner, Lieutenant-Col. G. A. Wood 
became Colonel of the regiment, November, 1862, and during the 
first days of January, 1863, took a distinguished part in the severe 
action of Stone River. From this period down to the battle of Mis- 
sion Ridge it was in a series of destructive engagements, and was, 


after enduring terrible hardships, ordered to Chattanooga, and 
thence to Indianapolis, where it was mustered out the 18th June, 
1864, — four days after the expiration of its term of service. 

The 16th Regiment, organized under Col. P. A. Hackleman at 
Eichmond for one year's service, after participating in many minor 
military events, was mustered out at Washington, D.C., on the 14th 
of May, 1S62. Col. Hackleman was killed at the battle of Inka, 
and Lieutenant-Col. Thomas I. Lucas succeeded to the command. 
It was reorganized at Indianapolis for three years' service. May 27, 
1862, and took a conspicuous part in all the brilliant engagements 
of the war down to June, 1865, when it was mustered out at New 
Orleans. The survivors, numbering 365 rank and file, returned to 
Indianapolis the 10th of July amid the rejoicing of the populace. 

The 17th Regiment was mustered into service at Indianapolis 
the 12thof June, 1S61, for three years, under Col. Hascall, who 
on being promoted Brigadier General in March, 1862, left the 
Colonelcy to devolve on Lieutenant Colonel John T. Wilder. Tliis 
regiment participated in the many exploits of Gen. Reynold's army 
from Green Brier in 1862, to Macon in 1865, under Gen. Wilson. 
Returning to Indianapolis the 16th of August, in possession of a 
brilliant record, the regiment was disbanded. 

The 18th Regiment, under Colonel Thomas Pattison, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis, and mustered into service on the 16th of 
August, 1861. Under Gen. Pope it gained some distinction at 
Blackwater, and succeeded in retaining a reputation made there, 
by its gallantry at Pea Ridge, February, 1862, down to the moment 
when it planted the regimental flag on the arsenal of Augusta, 
Georgia, where it was disbanded August 28, 1865. 

The 19th Regiment, mustered into three years' service at the 
State capital July 29, 1861, was ordered to join the army of the 
Potomac, and reported its arrival at Washington, August 9. Two 
days later it took part in the battle of Lewinsville, under Colonel 
Solomon Meredith. Occupying Falls Church in September, 1861, 
it continued to maintain a most enviable place of honor on the 
military roll until its coiisolidation with the 20th Regiment, October, 
1864, under Colonel William Orr, formerly its Lieutenant Colonel. 

The 20x11 Regiment of La Fayette was organized in July, 1861, 
mustered into three years' service at Indianapolis on the 22d of the 
same month, and reached the front at Cockeysville, Maryland, 
twelve days later. Throughout aJ its iirilliant actions from Ilat- 
teras Bank, on the 4th of October, to Clover Hill, 9th of April, 1865, 


including the saving of the United States ship Congress, at New- 
port News, it added daily some new name to its escutcheon. This 
regiment was mustered out at Louisville in July, 1865, and return- 
ing to Indianapolis was welcomed by the great war Governor of 
their State. 

The 21sT Eegiment was mustered into service under Colonel I. 
W. McMillan, July 24, 1861, and reported at the front the third 
day of August. It was the first regiment to enter New Orleans. 
The fortunes of this regiment were as varied as its services, so that 
its name and fame, grown from the blood shed by its members, are 
destined to live and flourish. In December, 1863, the regiment 
was reorganized, and on the 19th February, 1864, many of its 
veterans returned to their State, where Morton received them with 
that spirit of proud gratitude which he was capable of showing to 
those who deserve honor for honors won. 

The 22d Kegiment, under Colonel Jeff. C. Davis, left Indian- 
apolis the 15th of August, and was attached to Fremont's Corps at 
St. Louis on the 17th. From the day it moved to the support of 
Colonel Mulligan at Lexington, to the last victory, won under 
General Sherman at Bentonville, on the 19th of March, 1865, it 
gained a high military reputation. After the fall of Johnston's 
southern army, this regiment was mustered out, and arrived at 
Indianapolis on the 16th June. 

The 23d Battaxion, commanded by Colonel W. L. Sanderson, 
was mustered in at New Albany, the 29th July, 1861, and moved 
to the front early in August. From its unfortunate marine ex- 
periences before Fort Henry to Bentonville it won unusual honors, 
ajid after its disbandment at Louisville, returned to Indianapolis 
July 24, 1865, where Governor Morton and General Sherman 
reviewed and complimented the gallant survivors. 

The 24th Battalion, under Colonel Alvin P. Hovey, was 
mustered at Vincennes the 31st of July, 1861. Proceeding imme- 
diately to the front it joined Fremont's command, and participated 
under many Generals in important affairs during the war. Three 
hundred and ten men and officers returned to their State in August, 
1865, and were received with marked honors by the people and 

The 25th Regiment, of Evansville mustered into service there 
for three years under Col. J. C. Veatch, arrived at St. Louis on the 
26th of August, 1861. During the war this regiment was present 
at 18 battles and skirmishes, sustaining therein a loss of 352 men 


and oflBcers. Mustered out at Louisville, July 17, 1865, it returned 
to Indianapolis on the 21st amid universal rejoicing. 

The 26th Battalion, under W. M. Wheatley, left Indianapolis 
for the front the 7th of September, 1861, and after a brilliant cam- 
paign under Fremont, Grant, Ileron and Smith, may be said to 
disband the ISth of September, 1865, when the non-veterans and 
recruits were reviewed by Morton at the State capital. 

The 27th Regiment, under Col. Silas Colgrove, moved from 
Indianapolis to Washington City, September 15th, 1861, and in 
October was allied to Gen. Banks' army. From Winchester 
Heights, the 9th of March 1862, through all the affairs of General 
Sherman's campaign, it acted a gallant and faithful part, and was 
disbanded immediately after returning to their State. 

The 28th ok 1st Cavalry was mustered into service at Evans- 
ville on the 20th of August, 1861, under Col. Conrad Baker. From 
the skirmish at Ironton, on the 12th of September, wherein three 
companies under Col. Gavin captured a position held by a 
few rebels, to the battle of the Wilderness, the First Cavalry per- 
formed prodigies of valor. In June and July, 1865, the troops 
were mustered out at Indianapolis. 

The 29th Battalion of La Porte, under Col. J. F. Miller, left 
on the 5th of October, 1861, and reaching Camp Neviu, Kentucky, 
on the 9th, was allied to liosseau's Brigade, serving with McCook's 
division at Shiloh, with Buell's army in Alabama, Tennessee and 
Kentucky, with Rosencrans at Murfreesboro, at Decatur, Alabama, 
and at Dalton, Georgia. The Twenty-ninth won many laurels, 
and had its Colonel promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. 
This officer was succeeded in the command by Lieutenant-Col. 

The 30th Regiment of Fort Wayne, under Col. Sion S. Bass, 
proceeded to the front via Indianapolis, and joined General Rosseau 
at Camp Nevin on the 9th of October, 186 L At Shiloh, Col. 
Bass received a mortal wound, and died a few days later at 
Paducah, leaving the Colonelcy to devolve upon Lieutenant-Col. J. 
B. Dodge. In October 1865, it formed a battalion of General Sheri- 
dan's army of observation in Texas. 

The 31st Regiment, organized at Terre Haute, under Col. Charles 
Cruft, in September 1861, was mustered in, and left in a few days 
for Kentucky. Present at the reduction of Fort Donelson on the 
13th, 14th, and 15th of February, 1862, its list of killed and 
wounded proves its desperate fighting qualities. The organization 


was subjected to many changes, but in all its phases maintained a 
fair fame won on many battle fields. Like the former regiment, 
it passed into Gen. Sheridan's Army of Observation, and held the 
district of Green Lake, Texas. 

The 32d Regiment of German Infantry, under Col. August 
Willich, organized at Indianapolis, mustered on the 24th of August, 

1861, served with distinction throughout the campaign. Col. 
Willich was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General, and Lieut.- 
Col. Henry Von Trebra commissioned to act, under whose com- 
mand the regiment passed into General Sheridan's Army, hold- 
ing the post of Salado Creek, until the withdrawal of the corps of 
observation in Texas. 

The 33d Eegiment of Indianapolis possesses a military history 
of no small proportions. The mere facts that it was mustered in 
under Col. John Coburn, the 16th of September, won a series of 
distinctions throughout the war district and was mustered out at 
Louisville, July 21, 1865, taken with its name as one of the most 
powerful regiments engaged in the war, are sufficient here. 

The 34th Battalion, organized at Anderson on the 16th Sep- 
tember, 1861, under Col. Ashbury Steele, appeared among the in- 
vesting battalions before New Madrid on the 30th of March, 1862. 
From the distinguished part it took in that siege, down to the 
13th of May, 1865, when at Palmetto Ranche, near Palo Alto, it 
fought for hours against fearful odds the last battle of the war for 
the Union. Afterwards it marched 250 miles up the Rio Grande, 
and was the first regiment to reoccupy the position, so long in 
Southern hands, of Ringold barracks. In 1865 it garrisoned Bea- 
consville as part of the Army of Observation. 

The 35th ok First Irish Regiment, was organized at Indian- 
apolis, and mustered into service on the 11th of December, 1861, 
under Col. John C. Walker. At Nashville, on the 22d of May, 

1862, it was joined by the organized portion of the Sixty-first or 
Second Irish Regiment, and unassigned recruits. Col. Mullen now 
became Lieut.-Colonel of the 35th, and shortly after, its Colonel. 
From the pursuit of Gen. Bragg through Kentucky and the aflfair 
at Perryville on the 8th of October, 1862, to the terrible hand to 
hand combat at Kenesaw mountain, on the night of the 20th of 
June, 1864, and again from the conclusion of the Atlanta campaign 
to September, 1865, with Gen. Sheridan's army, when it was mus- 
tered out, it won for itself a name of reckless daring and unsur- 
passed gallantry. 


The 36th Eegiment, of Eichmond, Ind., under Col. William 
Grose, mustered into service for three years on the 16th of Sep- 
tember, 1861, went immediately to the front, and shared the for- 
tunes of the Array of the Ohio until the 27th of February, 1862, 
when a forward movement led to its presence on the battle-field of 
Shiloh. Following up the honors won at Shiloh, it participated in 
some of the most important actions of the war, and was, in October, 
1865, transferred to Gen. Sheridan's army. Col. Grose was pro- 
moted in 1864 to the position of Brigadier-General, and the 
Colonelcy devolved on Oliver H. P. Carey, formerly Lieut.-Colonel 
of the regiment. 

The 37th Battalion, of Lawrenceburg, commanded by Col. 
Geo. W. Hazzard, organized the 18th of September, 1861, left for 
the seat of war early in October. From the eventful battle of 
Stone river, in December, 1862, to its participation in Sherman's 
march through Georgia, it gained for itself a splendid reputation. 
This regiment returned to, and was present at, Indianapolis, on the 
30th of July, 1865, where a public reception was tendered to men 
and ofiBcers on the grounds of the. Capitol. 

The 38th Regiment, under Col. Benjamin F. Scribner, was mus- 
tered in at New Albany, on the ISth of September, 1861, and 
in a few days were en route for the front. To follow its continual 
round of duty, is without the limits of this sketch; therefore, it 
will suffice to say, that on every well-fought field, at least from 
February, 1862, until its dissolution, on the 15th of July, 1865, it 
earned an enviable renown, and drew from Gov. Morton, on return- 
ing to Indianapolis the ISth of the same month, a congratulatory 
address couched in the highest terms of praise. 

The 39th Eegiment, or Eighth Cavaley, was mustered in as 
an infantry regiment, under Col. T. J. Harrison, on the 28th of 
August, 1861, at the State capital. Leaving immediately for the 
front it took a conspicuous part in all the engagements up to April, 
1863, when it was reorganized as a cavalry regiment. The record of 
this organization sparkles with great deeds which men will extol 
while language lives; its services to the Union cannot be over esti- 
mated, or the memory of its daring deeds be forgotten by the un- 
happy people who raised the tumult, which culminated in their 
second shame. 

The 40th Eegiment, of Lafayette, under Col. W. C. "Wilson, 
subsequently commanded by Col. J. W. Blake, and again by Col. 
Henry Learning, was organized on the 30th of December, 1861, and 


at once proceeded to the front, where some time was necessarily spent 
in the Camp of Instruction at Bardstown, Kentucky. In February, 
1862, it joined in Bnell's forward movement. During the war the 
regiment shared in all its hardships, participated in all its honors, 
and like many other brave commands took service under Gen. 
Sheridan in his Army of Occupation, holding the post of Port 
Lavaca, Texas, until peace brooded over the land. 

The 41st Eegiment oe Second Cavalky, the first complete regi- 
ment of horse ever raised in the State, was organized on the 3d of 
September, 1861, at Indianapolis, under Col. John A. Bridgland, 
and December 16 moved to the front. Its first war experience was 
gained en route to Corinth on the 9th of April, 1862, and at Pea 
Ridge on the 15th. Gallatin, Yinegar Hill, and Perryville, and 
Talbot Station followed in succession, each battle bringing to the 
cavalry untold honors. In May, 1864, it entered upon a glorious 
career under Gen. Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, and again 
under Gen. "Wilson in the raid through Alabama during April, 
1865. On the 22d of July, after a brilliant career, the regiment was 
mustered out at Nashville, and returned at once to Indianapolis for 

The 42d, under Col J. G. Jones, mustered into service at Evans- 
ville, October 9, 1861, and having participated in the principal 
military afiairs of the period, Wartrace, Mission Ridge, Altoona, 
Eenesaw, Savannah, Charlestown and Bentonville, was discharged 
at Indianapolis on the 25th of July, 1865. 

The 43d Battalion was mustered in on the 27th of September, 
1861, under Col. George K. Steele, and left Terre Haute en route to 
the front within a few days. Later it was al'ied to Gen. Pope's 
corps, and afterwards served with Commodore Foote's marines in 
the reduction of Fort Pillow. It was the first Union regiment to 
enter Memphis. From that period until the close of the war it was 
distinguished for its unexcelled qualifications as a military body, 
and fully deserved the encomiums passed upon it on its return to 
Indianapolis in March, 1865. 

The 44th or the Regiment of the 10th Congressional District 
was organized at Fort Wayne on the 24th of October, 1861, under 
Col. Hugh B. Reed. Two months later it was ordered to the front, 
and arriving in Kentucky, was attached to Gen. Cruft's Brigade, 
then quartered at Calhoun. After years of faithful service it was 
mustered out at Chattanooga, the 14th of September, 1865. 

The 45th, or Third Cavalry, comprised ten companies 


organized at different periods and for varied services in 1861- 
'62, under Colonel Seott Carter and George H. Chapman. The 
distinguished name won by the Third Cavalry is established in 
every village within the State. Let it suffice to add that after its 
brilliant participation in Gen. Sheridan's raid down the James' 
river canal, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the 7th of Au- 
gust, 1865. 

The 46th Regiment, organized at Logansport under Colonel 
Graham N. Fitch, arrived in Kentucky the 16th of February, 1862, 
and a little later became attached to Gen. Pope's array, then quar- 
tered at Commerce. The capture of Fort Pillow^ and its career 
under Generals Curtis, Palmer, Hovey, Gorman, Grant, Sherman, 
Banks and Burbridge are as truly worthy of applause as ever fell to 
the lot of a regiment. The command was mustered out at Louis- 
ville on the 4th of September, 1865. 

The 47th was organized at Anderson, under Col. I. R. Slack, early 
in October, 1862. Arriving at Bardstown, Kentucky, on the 21st 
of December, it was attached to Gen. Buell's army; but within two 
months was assigned to Gen. Pope, under whom it proved the first 
regiment to enter Fort Thompson near New Madrid. In 1864 the 
command visited Indianapolis on veteran furlough and was enthu- 
siastically received by Governor Morton and the people. Return- 
ing to the front it engaged heartily in Gen. Banks' company. In 
December, Col. Slack received his commission as Brigadier-General, 
and was succeeded on the regimental command by Col. J. A. Mc- 
Laughton ; at Shreveport under General Heron it received the sub- 
mission of General Price and his army, and there also was it mus- 
tered out of service on the 23d of October, 1865. 

The 48th Regiment, organized at Goshen the 6th of December, 
1861, under Col. Norman Eddy, entered on its duties during the 
siege of Corinth in May, and again in October, 1862. The record 
of this battalion may be said to be unsurpassed in its every feature, 
so that the grand ovation extended to the returned soldiers in 
1865 at Indianapolis, is not a matter for surprise. 

The 49th Regiment, organized at Jeffersonville, under Col. J. W. 
Ray, and mustered in on the 21st of November, 1861, for service, 
left en route for the camp at Bardstown. A month later it arrived 
at the unfortunate camp-ground of Cumberland Ford, where dis- 
ease carried off a number of gallant soldiers. The regiment, how- 
ever, survived the dreadful scourge and won its laurels on many 


a well-fought field until September, 1865, when it was mustered out 
at Louisville. 

The 50th Eegiment, under Col. Cyrus L. Dunham, organized 
during the month of September, 1861, at Seymour, left en route to 
Bardstown for a course of military instruction. On the 20th of 
August, 1862, a detachment of the 50th, under Capt. Atkinson, was 
attacked by Morgan's Cavalry near Edgefield Junction; but the 
gallant few repulsed their oft-repeated onsets and finally drove 
them from the field. The regiment underwent many changes m 
organization, and may be said to muster out on the 10th of Septem- 
ber, 1865. 

The olsT Eegiment, under Col. Abel. D. Streight, left Indianap- 
olis on the 14th of December, 1861, for the South. After a short 
course of instruction at Bardstown, the regiment joined Genera! 
Buell's and acted with great efi^ect during the campaign in Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. Ultimately it became a participator in the 
work of the Fourth Corps, or Array of Occupation, and held the post 
of San Antonio until peace was doubly assured. 

The 52d Regiment was partially raised at Rushville, and th* 
organization completed at Indianapolis, where it was consolidated 
with the Railway Brigade, or 56th Regiment, on the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1862. Going to the front immediately after, it served with 
marked distinction throughout the war, and was mustered out at 
Montgomery on the 10th of September, 1865. Returning to Indian- 
apolis six days later, it was welcomed by Gov. Morton and a most 
enthusiastic reception accorded to it. 

The 53ed Battalion was raised at New Albany, and with the 
addition of recruits raised at Rockport formed a standard regi- 
ment, under command of Col. W. Q. Gresham. Its first duty was 
that of guarding the rebels confined on Camp Morton, but on 
going to the front it made for itself an endurable name. It was mus- 
tered out in July, 1865, and returned to Indiananoplis on the 25th 
of the same month. 

The S-iTH Regiment was'raised at Indianapolis on the 10th of 
June, 1862, for three months' service under Col. D.G.Rose. The 
succeeding two months saw it in charge of the prisoners at Camp 
Morton, and in August it was pushed forward to aid in the defense 
of Kentucky against the Confederate General, Kirby Smith. The 
remainder of its short term of service was given to the cause. On the 
muster out of the three months' service regiment it was reorgan- 


ized for one year's service and gained some distinction, after which 
it was mustered out in 1863 at New Orleans. 

The 55th E.egiiient, organized for three months' service, retains 
the brief history applicable to the first organization of the 54:th. 
It was mustered in on the 16th of June, 1862, under Col. J. R. 
Mahon, disbanded on the expiration of its term and was not reor- 

The 56th Eegiment, referred to in the sketch of the 52nd, was 
designed to be composed of railroad men, marshalled under J. M. 
Smith as Colonel, but owing to the fact that many railroaders had 
already volunteered into other regiments, Col. Smith's volunteers 
were incorporated with the 52nd, and this number left blank in the 
army list. 

The 57th Battalion, actually organized by two ministers of the 
gospel, — the Eev. I. W. T. McMullen and Eev. F. A. Hardin, of 
Richmond, Ind., mustered into service on the ISth of Novem- 
ber, 1861, under the former named reverend gentleman as Colonel, 
who was, however, succeeded by Col. Cyrus C. Ilaynes, and he in 
turn by G. W. Leonard, Willis Blanch and John S. McGrath, the 
latter holding command until the conclusion of the war. The 
history of this battalion is extensive, and if participation in a num- 
ber of battles with the display of rare gallantry wins fame, the 57th 
may rest assured of its possession of this fragile yet coveted prize. 
Like many other regiments it concluded its military labors in th* 
service of General Sheridan, and held the post of Port Lavaca in 
conjunction with another regiment until peace dwelt in the land. 

The 58th Regiment, of Princeton, was organized there early in 
October, 1861, and was mustered into service under the Colonelcy 
of Henry M. Carr. In December it was ordered to join Gen- 
eral Buell's army, after which it took a share in the various 
actions of the war, and was mustered out on the 25th of July, 1865, 
at Louisville, having gained a place on the roll of honor. 

The 59th Battalion was raised under a commission issued by 
Gov. Morton to Jesse I. Alexander, creating him Colonel. Owing 
to the peculiarities hampering its organization. Col. Alexander could 
not succeed in having his regiment prepared to muster in before 
the 17th of February, 1862. However, on that day the equipment 
was complete, and on the 18th it left en route to Commerce, where 
on its arrival, it was incorporated under General Pope's command. 
The list of its casualties speaks a history, — no less than 793 men 
were lost during the campaign. The regiment, after a term char- 


acterized \)j distinguished service, was mustered out at Louisville 
on the 17th of July, 1865. 

The 60th Kegiment was partially organized under Lieut .-Col. 
Eichard Owen at Evansville during November 1861, and perfected 
at Camp Morton during March, 1862. Its first experience was its 
gallant resistance to Bragg's army investing Munfordsville, which 
culminated in the unconditional surrender of its first seven com- 
panies on the 14th of September. An exchange of prisoners took 
place in November, which enabled it to joine the remaining com- 
panies in the field. The subsequent record is excellent, and forms, 
as it were, a monument to their fidelity and heroism. The main 
portion of this battalion was mustered out at Indianapolis, on the 
21st of March, 1865. 

The 61sT was partially organized in December, 1861, under Col. 
B. F. Mullen. The failure of thorough organization on the 22d of 
May, 1862, led the men and officers to agree to incorporation with 
the 35th Regiment of Volunteers. 

The 62d Battalion, raised under a commission issued to Wil- 
liam Jones, of Rockport, authorizing him to organize this regiment 
in the First Congressional District was so unsuccessful that consoli- 
dation with the 53d Regiment was resolved upon. 

The 63d Regiment, of Covington, under James McManomy, 
Commandant ot Camp, and J. S. Williams, Adjutant, was partially 
organized on the 31st of December, 1861, and may be considered 
on duty from its very formation. After guarding prisoners at 
Camp Morton and Lafayette, and engaging in battle on Manassas 
Plains on the 30th of August following, the few companies sent 
out in February, 1862, returned to Indianapolis to find six new 
companies raised under the call of July, 1862, ready to embrace 
the fortunes of the 63d. So strengthened, the regiment went forth 
to battle, and continued to lead in the paths of honor and fidelity 
until mustered out in May and June, 1865. 

The 64th Regiment failed in organization as an artillery corps ; 
but orders received from the War Department prohibiting the con- 
solidation of independent batteries, put a stop to any further move 
in the matter. However, an infantry regiment bearing the same 
number was afterward organized. 

The 65th was mustered in at Princeton and Evansville, in July 
and August, 1862, under Col. J. W. Foster, and left at once en 
route for the front. The record of this battalion is creditable, not 
only to its members, but also to the State which claimed it. Its 


last action during the war was on the 18th and 20th of February, 
1865, at Fort Anderson and Town creek, after which, on the 22d 
June, it was disbanded at Greensboro. 

The 66th Regiment partially organized at New Albany, under 
Coininandant Eoger Martin, was ordered to leave for Kentucky on 
the 19th of August, 1862, for the defense of that State against the 
incursions of Kirby Smith. After a brilliant career it was mus- 
tered out at Washington on the 3d of June, 1S65, after which it 
returned to Indianapolis to receive the thanks of a grateful people. 

The 67th Eegiment was organized within the Third Congressional 
District under Col. Frank Emerson, and was ordered to Louisville 
on the 20th of August, 1862, whence it marched to Munfordville, 
only to share the same fate with the other gallant regiments en- 
gaged against Gen. Bragg's advance. Its roll of honor extends 
down the years of civil disturbance, — always adding garlands, un- 
til Peace called a truce in the fascinating race after fame, and insured 
a term of rest, wherein its raemberscould think on comrades forever 
vanished, and temper the sad thought with the sublime mem- 
ories born of that chivalrous fight for the maintenance and integri- 
ty of a great Hepublic. At Galveston on the 19th of July, 1865, the 
gallant 67th Regiment was mustered out, and returning within a 
few days to its State received the enthusiastic ovations of her citi- 

The 68th Regiment, organized at Greensburg under Major Ben- 
jamin C. Shaw, was accepted for general service the 19th of August, 
1862, under Col. Edward A. King, with Major Shaw as Lieutenant 
Colonel; on the 25th its arrival at Lebanon was reported and with- 
in a few days it appeared at the defense of Munfordville; but shar- 
ing in the fate of all the defenders, it surrendered unconditionally to 
Gen. Bragg and did not participate further in the actions of that 
year, nor until after the exchange of prisoners in 1863. From this 
period it may lay claim to an enviable history extending to the end 
of the war, when it was disembodied. 

The 69th Regiment, of Richmond, Ind., under Col. A. Bickle, 
left for the front on the 20th of August, 1862, and ten days later 
made a very brilliant stand at Richmond, Kentucky, against 
the advance of Gen. Kirby Smith, losing in the engagement two 
hundred and eighteen men and oiBcers together with its liberty. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was reorganized under 
Col. T. W. Bennett and took the field in December, 1862, under 


Generals Sheldon, Morgan and Sherman of Grant's army. Chick- 
asaw, Vicksburg, Blakely and many other names testify to the valor 
of the 69th. The remnant of the regiment was in January, 1865, 
formed into a battalion under Oran Perry, and was mustered out in 
July following. 

The 70th Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the 12th of 
August, 1862, under Col. B. Harrison, and leaving for Louisville on 
the 13th, shared in the honors of Bruce's division at Franklin 
and Russellville. The record of the regiment is brimful of honor. 
It was mustered out at "Washington, June 8, 1865, and received at 
Indianapolis with public honors. 

The 71sT OK Sixth Cavalry was organized as an infantry regi- 
ment, at Terre Haute, and mustered into general service at Indian- 
apolis on the 18th of August, 1862, under Lieut. -Col. Melville D. 
Topping. Twelve days later it was engaged outside Richmond, 
Kentucky, losing two hundred and fifteen officers and men, includ- 
ing Col. Topping and Major Conklin, together with three hundred 
and forty-seven prisoners, only 225 escaping death and capture. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was re-formed under 
Col. I. Bittle, but on the 28th of December it surrendered to Gen. 
J. H. Morgan, who attacked its position at Miildraugh's Hill with a 
force of 1,000 Confederates. During September and October, 1863, 
it was organized as a cavalry regiment, won distinction throughout 
its career, and was mustered out the 15th of September, 1865, at 

The 77th REOiMENTwas organized at Lafayette, and left e?iTO?/^e 
to Lebanon, Kentucky, on the 17th of August, 1862. Under Col. 
Miller it won a series of honors, and mustered out at Nashville on 
the 26th of June, 1865. 

The 73rd Regiment, under Col. Gilbert Hathaway, was mustered 
in at South Bend on the 16th of August, 1862, and proceeded im- 
mediately to the front. Day's Gap, Crooked Creek, and the high 
eulogies of Generals Rosencrans and Granger speak its long and 
brilliant history, nor were the welcoming shouts of a great people 
and the congratulations of Gov. Morton, tendered to the regiment 
on its return home, in July, 1865, necessary to sustain its well won 

The 74th Regiment, partially organized at Fort Wayne and made 
almost complete at Indianapolis, left for the seat of war on the 22d 
of August, 1862, under Col. Charles W. Chapman. The desperate 
opposition to Gen. Bragg, and the magnificent defeat of Morgan, 


together with the battles of Dallas, Chattahoochie river, Kenesaw 
and Atlanta, where Lieut. Col. Myron Baker was killed, all bear evi- 
dence of its never surpassed gallantry. It was mustered out of ser- 
vice on the 9tli of June, 1S65, at Washington. On the return of the 
regiment to Indianapolis, the war Governor and people tendered it 
special honors, and gave expression to the admiration and regard 
in which it was held. 

The 75th Regiment was organized within the Eleventh Congress- 
ional District, and left Wabash, on the 21st of August, 1862, for the 
front, under Col. I. W. Petit. It was the first regiment to enter 
Tullahoma, and one of the last engaged in the battles of the Repub- 
lic. After the submission of Gen. Johnson's army, it was mustered 
out at Washington, on the 8th of June 1865. 

The 76th Battalion was solely organized for thirty days' service 
under Colonel James Gavin, for the purpose of pursuing the rebel 
guerrilas, who plundered Newburg on the 13th July, 1862. It was 
organized and equipped within forty-eight hours, and during its 
term of service gained the name, " The Avengers of Newburg." 

The 77th, or Fourth Cavalry, was organized at the State capi- 
tal in August, 1862, under Colonel Isaac P. Gray. It carved its 
way to fame over twenty battlefields, and retired from service at 
Edgefield, on the 29th June, 1865. 

The 79th Regiment was mustered in at Indianapolis on the 2nd 
September, 1862, under Colonel Fred Knefler. Its history may be 
termed a record of battles, as the great numbers of battles, from 
1862 to the conclusion of hostilities, were participated in by it. 
The regiment received its discharge on the 11th June, 1865, at 
Indianapolis. During its continued round of field duty it captured 
eighteen guns and over one thousand prisoners. 

The 80th Regiment was organized within the First Congress- 
ional District under Col. C. Denby, and equipped at Indianapolis, 
when, on the 8th of September, 1862, it left for the front. Durin^" 
its term it lost only two prisoners; but its list of casualties sums 
up 325 men and oflicers killed and wounded. The regiment may 
be said to muster out on the 22nd of June, 1865, at Saulsbury. 

The 81sT Regiment, of New Albany, under Colonel W. W. 
Caldwell, was organized on the 29th August, 1862, and proceeded 
at once to join Buell's headquarters, and join in the pursuit of 
General Bragg. Throughout the terrific actions of the war its 
influence was felt, nor did its labors cease until it aided in driving 
the rebels across the Tennessee. It was disembodied at Nashville 


on the 13th June, 1865, and returned to Indianapolis on the 15th, 
to receive the well-merited congratulations of Governor Morton 
and the people. 

The 82nd Regiment, under Colonel Morton C. Hunter, was 
mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 30th August, 1862, and 
leaving immediately for the seat of war, participated in many of 
the great battles down to the return of peace. It was mustered out 
at Washington on the 9th June, 1865, and soon returned to its 
State to receive a grand recognition of its faithful service. 

The 83rd Regiment, of Lawrenceburg, under Colonel Ben. J. 
Spooner, was organized in September, 1862, and soon left en route 
to the Mississippi. Its subsequent history, the fact of its being 
uuder fire for a total term of 4,800 hours, and its wanderings over 
6,285 miles, leave nothing to be said in its defense. Master of a 
thousand honors, it was mustered out at Louisville, on the 15th 
July, 1865, and returned home to enjoy a well-merited repose. 

The 8iTH Regiment was mustered in at Richmond, Ind., on the 
8th September, 1862, under Colonel Nelson Trusler. Its first 
military duty was on the defenses of Covington, in Kentucky, and 
Cincinnati; but after a short time its labors became more con- 
genial, and tended to the great disadvantage of the slaveliolding 
enemy on many well-coritested fields. This, like the other State 
regiments, won many distinctions, and retired from the service on 
the 14th of June, 1865, at Nashville. 

The 85th Regiment was mustered at Terre Haute, under Colonel 
John P. Bayard, on the 2d September, 1862. On the 4th March, 
1863, it shared in the unfortunate afiair at Thompson's Station, 
when in common with the other regiments forming Coburn's Bri- 
gade, it surrendered to the overpowering forces of the rebel 
General, Forrest. In June, 1863, after an exchange, it again took 
the field, and won a large portion of that renown accorded to 
Indiana. It was mustered out on the 12th of June, 1865. 

The 86th Regiment, of La Fayette, left for Kentucky on the 26th 
August, 1S62, under Colonel Orville S. Hamilton, and shared in the 
duties assigned to the 84th. Its record is very creditable, particu- 
larly that portion dealing with the battles of Nashville on the 15th 
and 16th December, 1864. It was mustered out on the 6th of June, 
1865, and reported within a few days at Indianapolis for discharge. 

The 87th Regiment, organized at South Bend, under Colonels 
Kline G. Sherlock and N. Gleason, was accepted at Indianapolis 
on the 31st of August, 1862, and left on the same day en route to 


the front. From Springfield and Perrjville on the 6th and 8th of 
October, 1862, to Mission Ridge, on the 25th of November, 1863, 
thence through the Atlanta campaign to the surrender of the South- 
ern armies, it upheld a gallant name, and met with a true and en- 
thusiastic welcome- home on the 21st of June, 1865, with a list of 
absent comrades aggregating 451. 

The 88th Regiment, organized within the Fourth Congressional 
District, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, entered the service on the 
29th of August, 1862, and presently was found among the front 
ranks in war. It passed through the campaign in brilliant form 
down to the time of Gen. Johnson's surrender to Gen. Grant, after 
which, on the 7th of June, 1865, it was mustered out at Washing- 

The 89th Regiment, formed from the material of the 
Eleventh Congressional District, was mustered in at Indianapolis, 
on the 28th of August, 1862, under Col. Chas. D. Murray, and 
after an exceedingly brilliant campaign was discharged by Gov. 
Morton on the 4tli of August, 1865. 

The 90th Regiment, ok Fifth Cavalry, was organized at 
Indianapolis under the Colonelcy of Felix W. Graham, between 
August and November, 1862. The different companies, joining 
headquarters at Louisville on the 11th of March, 1863, engaged in 
observing the movements of the enemy in the vicinity of Cumber- 
land river until the 19th of April, when a first and successful 
brush was had with the rebels. The regiment had been in 22 en- 
gagements during the term of service, captured 640 prisoners, and 
claimed a list of casualties mounting up to the number of 829. 
It was mustered out on the 16th of June, 1865, at Pulaski. 

The 91sT Battalion, of seven companies, was mustered into 
service at Evansville, the 1st of October, 1862, under Lieut.-Colonel 
John Mehringer, and in ten days later left for the front. In 
1863 the regiment was completed, and thenceforth took a very 
prominent position in the prosecution of the war. During its ser- 
vice it lost 81 men, and retired from the field on the 26tli of June, 

The 92d Regiment failed in organizing. 

The 93d Regiment was mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 
20th of October, 1862, under Col. De Witt C. Thomas and Lieut.- 
Col. Geo. W. Carr. On the 9th of November it began a move- 
ment south, and ultimately allied itself to Buckland's Brigade of 


Gen. Sherman's. On the 14th of May it was among the first regi- 
ments to enter Jackson, the capital of Mississippi; was next pres- 
ent at the assault on Vicksburg, and made a stirring campaign 
down to the storming of Fort Blakely on the 9th of April, 1865. 
It was discharged on the 11th of August, that year, at Indianapo- 
lis, after receiving a public ovation. 

The 94th and 95th Eegiments, authorized to be formed within 
the Fourth and Fifth Congressional Districts, respectively, were 
only partially organized, and so the few companies that could be 
mustered were incorporated with other regiments. 

The 96th Eegiment could only bring together three companies, 
in the Sixth Congressional District, and these becoming incorpo- 
rated with the 99th then in process of formation at South Bend, the 
number was left blank. 

The 97th Eegiment, raised in the Seventh Congressional Dis- 
trict, was mustered into service at Terre Haute, on the 20th of 
September, 1861, under Col. Eobert F. Catterson. Eeaching the 
front within a few days, it was assigned a position near Memphis, 
and subsequently joined in Gen. Grant's movement on Vicksburg, 
by overland route. After a succession of great exploits with the 
several armies to which it was attached, it completed its list of 
battles at Bentonville, on the 21st of March, 1865, and was dis- 
embodied at Washington on the 9th of June following. During its 
term of service the regiment lost 341 men, including the three 
Ensigns killed during the assaults on rebel positions along the 
Augusta Eailway, from the 15th to the 27th of June, 1864. 

The 9Sth Eegiment, authorized to be raised within the Eighth 
Congressional District, failed in its organization, and the number 
was left blank in the army list. The two companies answering to 
the call of July, 1862, were consolidated with the 100th Eegiment 
then being organized at Fort Wayne. 

The 99th Battalion, recruited within the Ninth Congressional 
District, completed its muster on the 21st of October, 1862, under 
Co'l. Alex. Fawler, and reported for service a few days later at 
Memphis, where it was assigned to the 16th Army Corps. The va- 
ried vicissitudes through which this regiment passed and its remark- 
able gallantry upon all occasions, have gained for it a fair fame. 
It was disembodied on the 5tli of June, 1865, at Washington, and 
returned to Indianapolis on the 11th of the same month. 

The 100th Eegiment, recruited from the Eighth and Tenth 
Congressional Districts, under Col. Sandford J. Stoughton, mustered 


into the service on the 10th of September, left for the front on the 
11th of November, and became attached to the Army of Tennessee 
on the 26th of that month, 1862. The regiment participated in 
twenty-live battles, together with skirmishing during fully one-third 
of its term of service, and claimed a list of casualties mounting up 
to four hundred and sixty-four. It was mustered out of the ser- 
vice at Washington on the 9th of June, and reported at Indianapolis 
for discharge on the 14th of June, 1S65. 

The lOlsT Eegiment was mustered into service at Wabash on 
the 7th of September, 1862, under Col. William Garver, and pro- 
ceeded immediately to Covington, Kentucky. Its early experiences 
were gained in the pursuit ofBragg's army and John Morgan's 
cavair}', and these experiences tendered to render the regiment one 
of the most valuable in the war for the Republic. From the defeat 
of John Morgan at Milton on the 18th of March, 1863, to the fall 
of Savannah on the 23rd of September, 1863, the regiment won 
many honors, and retired from the service on the 2oth of June^ 
1865, at Indianapolis. 


The 102d Regiment, organized under Col. Benjamin M. Gregory 
from companies of the Indiana Legion, and numbering six hun- 
dred and twenty-three men and officers, left Indianapolis for the 
front early in July, and reported at North Vernon on the 12th of 
July, 1863, and having completed a round of duty, returned to In- 
dianapolis on the 17th to be discharged. 

The 103d, comprising seven companies from Hendricks county, 
two from Marion and one from Wayne counties, numbering 681 
men and officers, under Col. Lawrence S. Shuler, was contemporary 
with the 102d Regiment, varying only m its service by being mus- 
tered out one day before, or on the 16th of July, 1863. 

The 101th Regiment or Minute Men was recruited from mem- 
bers of the Legion of Decatur, La Fayette, Madison, Marion and Rush 
counties. It comprised 714 men and officers under the command 
of Col. James Gavin, and was organized within forty hours after the 
issue of Governor Morton's call for minute men to protect Indiana 
and Kentucky against the raids of Gen. John H Morgan's rebel 
forces. After Morgan's escape into Ohio the command returned 
and was mustered out on the 18th of July, 1863. 

The 105th Regiment consisted of seven companies of the Legion 
and three of Minute Men, furnished by Hancock, Union, Randolph, 


Putnam^ Wayne, Clinton and Madison counties. The command 
numbered seven hundred and thirteen men and officers, under Col. 
Sherlock, and took a leading part in the pursuit of Morgan. Re- 
turning on the ISth of July to Indianapolis it was mustered out. 

The 106th Regiment, under Col. Isaac P. Gray, consisted of 
one company of the Legion and nine companies of Minute Men, 
aggregating seven hundred and ninety-two men and officers. The 
counties of Wayne, Randolph, Hancock, Howard, and Marion were 
represented in its rank and file. Like the other regiments organized 
to repel Morgan, it was disemljodied in July, 1863. 

The 107th Regiment, under Col. De Witt C. Rugg, was organ- 
ized in the city of Indianapolis from the companies' Legion, or 
Ward Guards. The successes of this promptly organized regiment 
were unquestioned. 

The 108th Regiment comprised five companies of Minute Men, 
from Tippecanoe county, two from Hancock, and one from each of 
the counties known as Carroll, Montgomery and Wayne, aggregat- 
ing 710 men and officers, and all under the command of Col. W. C. 
Wilson. After performing the only duties presented, it returned 
from Cincinnati on the 18th of July, and was mustered out. 

The 109th Regiment, composed of Minute Men from Coles 
county. 111., La Porte, Hamilton, Miami and Randolph counties, 
Ind., showed a roster of 709 officers and men, under Col. J. R. 
Mahon. Morgan having escaped from Ohio, its duties were at an 
end, and returning to Indianapolis was mustered out on the 17th 
of July, 1863, after seven days' service. 

The 110th Regiment of Minute Men comprised volunteers from 
Henry, Madison, Delaware, Cass, and Monroe counties. The men 
were ready and willing, if not really anxious to go to the front. But 
happily the swift-winged Morgan was driven away, and conse- 
quently the regiment was not called to the field. 

The 111th Regiment, furnished by Montgomery, Lafayette, 
Rush, Miami, Monroe, Delaware and Hamilton counties, number- 
ing 733 men and officers, under Col. Robert Canover, was not 

The 112th Regiment was formed from nine companies of Min- 
ute Men, and the Mitchell Light Infantry Company of the Legion. 
Its strength was 703 men and officers, under Col. Hiram F. Brax- 
ton. Lawrence, Washington, Monroe and Orange counties were 
represented on its roster, and the historic names of North Vernon 
and Sunman's Station on its banner. Returning from the South 


after seven days' service, it was mustered out ou the 17th of 
July, 1863. 

The 113th Kegiment, furnished by Daviess, Martin, Washington, 
and Monroe counties, comprised 526 rank and file under Col. Geo. 
W. Burge. Like the 112th, it was assigned to Gen. Hughes' 
Brigade, and defended North Vernon against the repeated attacks ^ 
of John H. Morgan's forces. 

The 114th Regiment was wholly organized in Johnson county, 
under Col. Lambertson, and participated in the aflair of North 
Vernon. Returning on the 21st of July, 1863, with its brief but 
faithful record, it was disembodied at Indianapolis, 11 days after 
its organization. 

All these regiments were brought into existence to meet an 
emergency, and it must be confessed, that had not a sense of 
duty, military instinct and love of country animated these regi- 
ments, the rebel General, John H. Morton, and his 6,000 cavalry^ 
would doubtless have carried destruction as far as the very capital 
of their State. 

SIX months' regiments. 

The 115th Regiment, organized at Indianapolis in answer to the 
call of the President in June, 1863, was mustered into service on 
the 17th of August, under Col. J. R. Mahon. Its service was short 
but brilliant, and received its discharge at Indianapolis the 10th 
of February, 1864. 

The 116th Regiment, mustered in on the 17th of August, 1863, 
moved to Detroit, Michigan, on the 30th, under Col. Charles Wise. 
During October it was ordered to Nicholasville, Kentucky, where it 
was assigned to Col. Mahon's Brigade, and with Gen. Willcox's 
entire command, joined in the forward movement to Cumberland 
Gap. After a term on severe duty it returned to Lafayette and 
there was disembodied on the 24th of February, 1864, whither Gov. 
Morton hastened, to share in the ceremonies of welcome. 

The 117th Regiment of Indianapolis was mustered into service 
(III the 17th of September, 1863, under Col. Thomas J. Brady. 
After surmounting every obstacle opposed to it, it returned on the 
6th of February, 1864, and was treated to a pyblic reception on 
the 9 th. 

The 118th Regiment, whose organization was completed on the 
3d of September, 1863, under Col. Geo. W. Jackson, joined the 
116th at Nicholasville, and sharing in its fortunes, returned to the 


State capital on the 14th of February, 1864. Its casualties were . 
comprised in a list of 15 killed and wounded. 

The 119th, or Seventh Cavalry, was recruited under Col. John 
P. C. Shanks, and its organization completed on the 1st of Octo- 
ber, 1863. The rank and file numbered 1,213, divided into twelve 
companies. On the 7th of December its arrival at Louisville was 
reported, and on the 14th it entered on active service. After the 
well-fought battle of Guntown, Mississippi, on the 10th of June, 
1864, although it only brought defeat to our arms. General Grier- 
son addressed the Seventh Cavalry, saying: " Your General con- 
gratulates you upon your noble conduct during the late expedition. 
Fighting against overwhelming numbers, under adverse circum- 
stances, your prompt obedience to orders and unflinching courage 
commanding the admiration of all, made even defeat almost a vic- 
tory. For hours on foot you repulsed the charges of the enemies' in- 
fantry, and again in the saddle you met his cavalry and turned his 
assaults into confusion. Your heroic perseverance saved hundreds 
of your fellow-soldiers from capture. You have been faithful to 
your honorable reputation, and have fully justified the confidence, 
and merited the high esteem of your commander." 

Early in 1865, a number of these troops, returning from impris- 
onment in Southern bastiles, were lost on the steamer " Sultana." 
The survivors of the campaign continued in the service for a long 
period after the restoration of peace, and finally mustered out. 

The 120th Regiment. In September, 1863, Gov. Morton re- 
ceived authority from the War Department to organize eleven regi- 
ments within the State for three years' service. By Ai)ril, 1864, 
this organization was complete, and being transferred to the com- 
mand of Brigadier- General Alvin P. Hovey, were formed by him 
into a division for service with the Army of Tennessee. Of those 
regiments, the 120th occupied a very prominent place, both on ac- 
count of its numbers, its perfect discipline and high reputation. 
It was mustered in at Columbus, and was in all the great battles 
of the latter years of the war. It won high praise from friend 
and foe, and retired with its bright roll of honor, after the success 
of Right and Justice was accomplished. 

The 121st, or Ninth Cavalry, was mustered in March 1, 1864, 
under Col. George W. Jackson, at Indianapolis, and though not 
numerically strong, was so well equipped and possessed such excel- 
lent material that on the 3rd of May it was ordered to the front. 
The record of the 121st, though extending over a brief period, is 


pregnant with deeds of war of a high character. On the 26th of 
April, 1865, these troops, while returning from their labors in the 
South, lost 55 men, owing to the explosion of the engines of the 
steamer " Sultana." The return of the 386 survivors, on the 5th of 
September, 1865, was hailed with joj', and proved how well and 
dearly the citizens of Indiana loved their soldiers. 

The 122d Eegiment ordered to be raised in the Third Congres- 
sional District, owing to very few men being then at home, failed 
in organization, and the regimental number became a blank. 

The 123d Eegiment was furnished by the Fourth and Seventh 
Congressional Districts during the winter of lS63-'64, and mus- 
tered, March 9, 1S64, at Greensburg, under Col. John C. McQuis- 
ton. The command left for the front the same day, and after win- 
ning rare distinction during the last years of the campaign, par- 
ticularly in its gallantry at Atlanta, and its daring movement to 
escape Forrest's 15,000 rebel horsemen near Franklin, this regi- 
ment was discharged on the 30th of August, 1865, at Indianapolis, 
being mustered out on the 25th, at Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 124th Eegiment completed its organization by assuming 
three companies raised for the 125th Eegiment (which was intended 
to be cavalry), and was mustered in at Eichmond, on the 10th of 
March, 1861:, under Colonel James Burgess, and reported at Louis- 
ville within nine days. From Buzzard's Eoost, on the Sth of May, 
1864, under General Schofield. Lost Mountain in June, and the 
capture of Decatur, on the 15th July, to the 21st March, 1865, in 
its grand advance under General Sherman from Atlanta to the 
coast, the regiment won many laurel wreaths, and after a brilliant 
campaign, was mustered out at Greensboro on the 31st August, 

The 125th, or Tenth Cavalry, was partially organized during 
November and December, 1862, at Vincennes, and in February, 
1863, completed its numbers and equipment at Columbus, under 
Colonel T. M. Pace. Early in May its arrival in Nashville was 
reported, and presently assigned active service. During September 
and October it engaged rebel contingents under Forrest and Hood, 
and later in the battles of Nashville, Eeynold's Hill and Sugar 
Creek, and in 1865 Flint Eiver, Courtland and Mount Hope. The 
explosion of the Sultana occasioned the loss of thirty-five men with 
Captain Gaffney and Lieutenants Twigg and Eeeves, and in a 
collision on the Nashville & Louisville railroad, May, 1864, lost 
five men killed and several wounded. After a term of service un- 


surpassed for its utility and character it was disembodied at Yicks- 
burg, Mississippi, on the 31st August, 1865, and returning to 
Indianapolis early in September, was welcomed by the Executive 
and people. 

The 126th, or Eleventh Cavalry, was organized at Indian- 
apolis under Colonel Robert R. Stewart, on the 1st of March, 186i, 
and left in May for Tennessee. It took a ver}' conspicuous part in 
the defeat of Hood near Nashville, joining in the pursuit as far as 
Gravelly Springs, Alabama, where it was dismounted and assigned 
infantry duty. In June, 1865, it was remounted at St. Louis, and 
moved to Fort Riley, Kansas, and thence to Leavenworth, where it 
was mustered out on the 19th September, 1865. 

The 127th, or Twelfth Cavalry, was partially organized at 
Kendallville, in December, 1863, and perfected at the same place, 
under Colonel Edward Anderson, in April, 1864. Reaching the 
front in May, it went into active service, took a prominent part in 
the march through Alabama and Georgia, and after a service bril- 
liant in all its parts, retired from the field, after discharge, on the 
22d of November, 1865. 

The 128th Regiment was raised in the Tenth Congressional Dis- 
trict of the period, and mustered at Michigan City, under Colonel 
R. P. De Hart, on the 18th March, 1864. On the 25th it was 
reported at the front, and assigned at once to Schofield's Division. 
The battles of Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, 
Kenesaw, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Dalton, Brentwood Hills, Nashville, 
and the six days' skirmish of Columbia, were all participated in by 
the 128th, and it continued in service long after the termination 
of hostilities, holding the post of Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 129th Regiment was, like the former, mustered in at 
Michigan City about the same time, under Colonel Charles Case, 
and moving to the front on the 7th April, 1864, shared in the for- 
tunes of the 128th until August 29, 1865, when it was disembodied 
at Charlotte, Notrh Carolina. 

The 130th Regiment, mustered at Kokomo on the 12th March, 
1864, under Colonel C. S. Parrish, left eri route to the seat of war 
on the 16th, and was assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, 
Twenty-third Army Corps, at Nashville, on the 19th. During the 
war it made for itself a brilliant history, and returned to Indian- 
apolis with its well-won honors on the 13th DecemDer, 1865. 

The 13 1st, or Thirteenth Cavalry, under Colonel G. M L. 
Johnson, was the last mounted regiment recruited within the State. 


It left Indianapolis on the 30tli of April, 1864, in infantry trim, 
and gained its first honors on the Ist of October in its magnificent 
defense of Huntsville, Alabama, against the rebel division of 
General Buford, following a line of first-rate military conduct to 
the end. In January, 1865, the regiment was remounted, won 
some distinction iu its modern form, and was mustered out at 
Vicksburg on the 18th of November, 1865. The morale and 
services of the regiment were such that its Colonel was promoted 
Brevet Brigadier-General in consideration of its merited honors. 


Governor Morton, in obedience to the offer made under his auspices 
to the general Government to raise volunteer regiments for onehun- 
dred days' service, issued his call on the 23rd of April, 1864. This 
movement suggested itself to the inventive genius of tlie war Gov- 
ernor as a most important step toward the subjection or annihila- 
tion of the military supporters of slavery within a year, and thus 
conclude a war, which, notwithstanding its holy claims to the name 
of Battles for Freedom, was becoming too protracted, and proving 
too detrimental to the best interests of the Union. In answer to 
the esteemed Governor's call eight regiments came forward, and 
formed The Grand Division of the Volunteers. 

The 132d Regiment, under Col. S. C. Vance, was furnished by 
Indianapolis, Shelbyville, Franklin and Danville, and leaving on 
the 18th of May, 1864, reached the front where it joined the forces 
acting in Tennessee. 

The 133d Regiment, raised at Richmond on the 17th of May, 
1864, under Col. R. N. Hudson, comprised nine companies, and 
followed the 132d. 

The 134th Regiment, comprising seven companies, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis on the 25th of Ma}, 1864, under Col. James 
Gavin, and proceeded immediately to the front. 

The 135th Regiment was raised from the volunteers of Bedford, 
Noblesville and Goshen, with seven companies from the First Con- 
gressional District, under Col. W, C. Wilson, on the 25th of May, 
1864, and left at once en route to the South. 

The 136th Regiment comprised ten companies, raised in the 
same districts as those contributing to the 135tli, under Col. J. "W. 
Foster, and left for Tennessee on the 24th of May, 1864. 

The 137th Regiment, under Col. E. J. Robinson, comprising 
volunteers from Kokomo, Zanesviile, Medora, Sullivan, Rockville, 


and Owen and Lawrence connties, ]et'ten route to Tennessee on the 
28th of May, 1864, having completed organization the day previous. 

The 138th Regiment was formed of seven companies from the 
Ninth, with three from the Eleventh Congressional District (un- 
reformed), and mustered in at Indianapolis on the 27th of May, 
1864, under Col. J. H. Shannon. This fine regiment was re- 
ported at the front within a few days. 

The 139th Regiment, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, was raised from 
volunteers furnished by Kendallville, Lawrenceburg, EHzaville, 
Knightstown, Connersville, Newcastle, Portland, Vevay, New 
Albany, Metamora, Columbia City, New Haven and New Phila- 
delphia. It was constituted a regiment on the 8th of June, 1864, 
and appeared among the defenders in Tennessee during that month. 

All these regiments gained distinction, and won an enviable po- 
sition in the glorious history of the war and the no less glorious 
one of their own State in its relation thereto. 

the president's call of JULY, 1864. 

The 140th Regiment was organized with many others, in response 
to the call of the nation. Under its Colonel, Thomas J. Brady, it pro- 
ceeded to the South on the 15th of November, 1864. Having taken 
a most prominent part in all the desperate struggles, round Nash 
ville and Murfreesboro in 1864, to Town Creek Bridge on the 20th 
of February, 1S65, and completed a continuous round of severe duty 
to the end, arrived at Indianapolis for discharge on the21st of July, 
where Governor Morton received it with marked honors. 

The 14Ist Regiment was only partially raised, and its few com- 
panies were incorporated with Col Brady's command. 

The 142d Regiment was recruited at Fort "Wayne, under Col. I. 
M. Comparet, and was mustered into service at Indianapolis on the 
d of November, 1864. After a steady and exceedingly effective 
service, it returned to Indianapolis on the 16th of July, 1865. 

the president's call of DECEMBER, 1864, 

Was answered by Indiana in the most material terms. No less 
than fourteen serviceable regiments were placed at the disposal of 
the General Government. 

The 143d Regiment was mustered in, under Col J. T. Grill, on 
the 21st February, 1865, reported at Nashville on the 24th, and af- 
ter a brief but brilliant service returned to the State on the 21st 
October, 1865. 


The 144tii Regiment, under Col. G. W. Iliddle, was mustered in 
on tlie 6th March, 1S65, left on the 9th for Harper's Ferry, took an 
effective part in the close of the campaign and reported at Indian- 
apolis for discharge on the 9th August, 1S65. 

The 145th Regiment, under Col. W, A. Adams, left Indianapolis 
on the 18th of February, 1865, and joining Gen. Steadmau's division 
at Chattanooga on the 23d was sent on active service. Its duties 
were discharged with rare fidelity until mustered out in January, 

The 146tii Regiment, under Col. M. C. Welsh, left Indianapolis 
on the 11 til of March en route to Harper's Ferry, where it was as- 
signed to the army of the Shenandoah. The duties ot this regiment 
were severe and continuous, to the period of its muster out at Bal- 
timore on the 31st of August, 1865. 

The 147tu Regiment, comprised among other volunteers from 
Benton, Lafayette and Henry counties, organized under Col. Milton 
Peden on the 13th of March, 1865, at Indianapolis. It shared a 
fortune similar to that of the 146th, and returned for discharge on 
the 9th of August, 1865. 

The 148th Regiment, under Col. N. R. Ruckle, left the State 
capital on the 28th of February, ,1865, and reporting at Nashville, 
was sent on guard and garrison duty into the heart of Tennessee. 
Returning to Indianapolis on the 8th of September, it received a 
final discharge. 

The 149Tn Regimknt was organized at Indianapolis by Col. W. 
H. Fairbanks, and left on the 3d of March, 1865, fur Tennessee, 
where it had the honor of receiving the surrender of the rebel 
forces, and military stores of Generals Roddy and Polk. The reg- 
iment was welcomed home by Morton on the 29th of September. 

The 150rH Regiment, under Col. M. B. Taylor, mustered in on the 
9th of March, 1865, left for the South on the 13th and reported at 
Harper's Ferry on the 17th. This regiment did guard duty at 
Charleston, Winchester, Stevenson Station, Gordon's Springs, and 
after a service characterized by utility, returned on the 9th of 
August to Indianapolis for discharge. 

The 151sT Regiment, under Col. J. Healy, arrived at Nashville on 
the 9th of March, 1865. On the 14tli a movement on Tullahoma 
was undertaken, and three months later returned to Nashville for 
garrison duty to the close of the war. It was mustered out on the 
22d of September, 1865. 

The 152d Regiment was organized at Indianapolis, under Col. 


W. W Griswold, and left for Harper's Ferry on the 18th of March, 
1865. It was attached to the provisional divisions of Shenandoah 
Army, and engaged until the 1st of September, when it was dis- 
charged at Indianapolis. 

The 153d Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the Ist of 
March, 1865, under Col. O. H. P. Carey. It reported at Louis- 
ville, and by order of Gen. Palmer, was held on service in Ken- 
tucky, where it was occupied in the exciting but very dangerous 
pastime of fighting Southern guerrillas. Later it was posted at 
Louisville, until mustered out on the 4th of September, 1865. 

The 15J:TH Regiment, organized under Col. Frank Wilcox, left 
Indianapolis under Major Simpson, for Parkersburg, W. Virginia, 
on the 28th of April, 1865. It was assigned to guard and garrison 
duty until its discharge on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The 155th Regiment, recruited throughout the State, left on the 
26th of April for Washington, and was afterward assigned to a 
provisional Brigade of the Ninth Army Corps at Alexandria. The 
companies of this regiment were scattered over the country, — at 
Dover, Centreville, Wilmington, and Salisbury, but becoming re- 
united on the 4th of August, 1865, it was mustered out at Dover, 

The 156th Battalion, under Lieut. -Colonel Charles M. Smith, 
left en route to the Shenandoah Valley on the 27th of April, 1865, 
where it continued doing guard duty to the period of its muster 
out the 4th of August, 1865, at Winchester, Virginia. 

On the return of these regiments to Indianapolis, Gov. Morton 
and the people received them with all that characteristic cordiality 
and enthusiasm peculiarly their own. 

independent cavalry company of INDIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

The people of Crawford county, animated with that inspiriting 
patriotism which the war drew forth, organized this mounted com- 
pany on the 25tli of July, 1863, and placed it at the disposal of 
the Government, and it was mustered into service by order of the 
War Secretary , on the 13th of August, 1863, under Captain L. 
Lamb. To the close of the year it engaged in the laudable pursuit 
of arresting deserters and enforcing the draft; however, on the 
18th of January, 1864, it was reconstituted and incorporated with 
the Thirteenth Cavalry, with which it continued to serve until the 
treason of Americans against America was conquered. 



The 2Sth Regiment of Colored Troops was recruited through- 
out the State of Indiana, and under Lieut.-Colonel Charles S. 
Russell, left Indianapolis for the front on the 24th of April, 1864. 
The regiment acted very well in its first engagement with the 
rebels at White House, Virginia, and again with Gen. Sheridan's 
Cavalry, in the swamps of the Chickahominy. In the battle of 
the " Crater," it lost half its roster; but their place was soon filled 
by other colored recruits from the State, and Russell promoted to 
the Colonelcy, and afterward to Brevet Brigadier-General, when he 
was succeeded in the command by Major Thomas 11. Logan. 
During the few months of its active service it accumulated quite a 
history, and was ultimately discharged, on the 8th of January, 
1866, at Indianapolis. 


First Battery, organized at Evansville, under Captain Martin 
Klauss, and mustered in on the 16th of August, 1861, joined Gen. 
Fremont's army immediately, and entering readily upon its salu- 
tary course, aided in the capture of 950 rebels and their position 
at Blackwater creek. On March the 6th, 1862 at Elkhorn Tavern, 
and on the 8th at Pea Ridge, the battery performed good service. 
Port Gibson, Champion Hill, Jackson, the Teche countrj', Sabine 
Cross Roads, Grand Encore, all tell of its efiicacy. In 1864 it was 
subjected to reorganization, when Lawrence Jacoby was raised to 
the Captiancy, vice Klauss resigned. After a long term of useful 
service, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the 18th of August, 

Second Battery was organized, under Captain D. G. Rabb, at 
Indianapolis on the 9th of August, 1861, and one month later pro- 
ceeded to the front. It participated in the campaign against Col. 
Coffee's irregular troops and the rebellious Indians of the Cherokee 
nation. From Lone Jack, Missouri, to Jenkin's Ferry and Fort 
Smith it won signal honors until its reorganization in 1864, and 
even after, to June, 1865, it maintained a very fair reputation. 

The Third Battery, under Capt. W. W. Frybarger, was organ- 
ized and mustered in at Connersville on the 24th of August, 1861, 
and proceeded immediately to join Fremont's Army of the Mis- 
souri. Moon's Mill, Kirksville, Meridian, Fort de Russy, Alex- 
andria, Round Lake, Tupelo, Clinton and Tallahatchie are names 


which may be engraven on its guns. It participated in the affairs 
before Nashville on the 15th and 16th of December, 1864, when 
General Hood's Army was put to route, and at Fort Blakely, out- 
side Mobile, after which it returned home to report for discharge, 
August 21, 1865. 

The Fourth Battery, recruited in La Porte, Porter and Lake 
counties, reported at the front early in October, IStil, and at once 
assumed a prominent place in the army of Gen. Buell. Again 
under Rosencrans and McCook and under General Sheridan at 
Stone River, the services of this battery were much praised, and it 
retained its well-earned reputation to the very day of its muster out 
— the 1st of August, 1865. Its first organization was completed 
under Capt. A. K. Bush, and reorganized in Oct., 1864, under Ofcpt 
B. F. Johnson. 

Tiie Fifth Battery was furnished by La Porte, Allen, Whitley 
and Noble counties, organized under Capt. Peter Simonson, and mus- 
tered into service on the 22d of November, 1861. It comprised 
four six pounders, two being rifled cannon, and two twelve-jjounder 
Howitzers witii a force of 158 men. Reporting at Camp Gil- 
bert, Louisville, on the 29t]i, it was shortly after assigned to the 
division of Gen. Mitchell, at Bacon Creek. During its term, it 
served in twenty battles and numerous petty actions, losing its Cap- 
tain at Pine Mountain. The total loss accruing to the battery was 
84 men and officers and four guns It was mustered out on the 
20th of July, 1864. 

Tiie Sixth Battery was recruited at Evansville, under Captain 
Frederick Behr, and left, on the 2d of Oct., 1861, for the front, 
reporting at Henderson, Kentucky, a few days after. Early in 
1862 it joined Gen. Sherman's army at Paducah, and participated 
in the battle of Shiloii, on the 6th of April. Its history grew in 
brilliancy until the era of peace insured a cessation of its great 

Tlie Seventh Battery comprised volunteers from Terre Haute, 
Arcadia, Evansville, Salem, Lawrenceburg, Columbus, Vin- 
cennes and Indianapolis, under Samuel J. Harris as its first 
Captain, who was succeeded by G. R. Shallow and O. H. Mor- 
gan aftei- its reorganization. . From the siege of Corinth to the 
capture of Atlanta it performed vast services, and returned to 
Indianapolis on the 11th of July, 1865, to be received by the peo- 
ple and hear its history from the lips of the veteran patriot and 
Governor of the State. 


The Eighth Battery, under Captain G. T. Cochran, arrived at 
the front on the'26th of February, 1862, and suljsequently entered 
upon its real duties at the siege of Corinth. It served with dis- 
tinction throughout, and concluded a well-made campaign under 
Will Stokes, who was appointed Captain of the companies with 
which it was consolidated in March, 1865. 

The Ninth Battery. The organization of this battery was 
perfected at Indianapolis, on the 1st of January, 1862, under Capt. 
N. S. Thompson. Moving to the front it participated in the afiairs 
of Shiloh, Corinth, Queen's Hill, Meridian, Fort Dick Taylor, Fort 
de Russy, Henderson's Hill, Pleasant Hill, Cotile Landing, Bayou 
Rapids, Mansura, Chicot, and many others, winning a name in 
each engagement. The explosion of the steamer Eclipse at Johnson- 
ville, above Paducah, on Jan. 27, 1865, resulted in the destruction of 
58 men, leaving only ten to represent the battery. The survivors 
reached Indianapolis on the 6th of March, and were mustered out. 

The Tenth Battery was recruited at Lafayette, and mustered in 
under Capt. Jerome B. Cox, in January, 1861. Having passed 
through the Kentucky campaign against Gen. Bragg, it partici- 
pated in many of the great engagements, and finally returned to 
report for discharge on the 6th of July, 186'4, having, in the mean- 
time, won a very fair fame. 

Tiie Eleventh Battery was organized at Lafayette, and mus- 
tered in at Indianapolis under Capt. Arnold Sutermeister, on the 
17th of December, 1861. On most of the principal battle-fields, 
from Shiloh, in 1862, to thecapture of Atlanta, it maintained a high 
reputation for military excellence, and after consolidation with the 
Eighteenth, mustered out on the 7th of June, 1865. 

The Twelfth Battery was recruited at JefFersonville and sub- 
sequently mustered in at Indianapolis. On the 6th of March, 1862, 
it reached Nashville, having been previously assigned to Buell's 
Army. In April its Captain, G. W. Sterling, resigned, and the 
position devolved on Capt. James E. White, who, in turn, was suc- 
ceeded by James A. Dunwoody. The record of the battery holds 
a first place in the history of the period, and enabled both men and 
ofiicers to look back with pride upon the battle-fields of the land. 
It was ordered home in June, 1865, and on reaching Indianapolis, 
on the 1st of July, was mustered out on, the 7th of that month. 

The Thirteenth Battery wa.=? organized under Captain Sewell 
Coulson, during the winter of 1861, at Indianapolis, and proceeded 
to the front in February, 1862. During the subsequent months it 


.was occupied in the pursuit of John H. Morgan's raiders, and 
aided eifectively in driving them from Kentucky. This artillery 
company returned from the South on the 4th of July, 1865, and 
were discharged the day following. 

Tlie Fourteenth Battery, recruited in Wabash, Miami, Lafay- 
ette, and Huntington counties, under Captain M. H. Kid d, and 
Lieutenant J. W. H. McGuire, left Indianapolis on the 11th of 
April, 1S62, and within a few months one portion of it was cap- 
tured at Lexington by Gen. Forrest's great cavalry command. The 
main battery lost two guns and two men at Guntown, on the Mis- 
sissippi, but proved more successful at Nashville and Mobile. It 
arrived home on the 29th of August, 1865, received a public wel- 
come, and its final discharge. 

The Fifteenth Battery, under Captain I. C. H. Yon Sehlin, 
was retained on duty from the date of its organization, at Indian- 
apolis, until the 5th of July, 1862, when it was moved to Harper's 
Ferry. Two months later the gallant defense of Maryland Heights 
was set at naught by the rebel Stonewall Jackson, and the entire 
garrison surrendered. Being paroled, it was reorganized at Indian- 
apolis, and appeared again in the field in March, 1863, where it 
won a splendid renown on every well-fought field to the close of 
the war. It was mustered out on the 24th of June, 1865. 

The Sixteenth Battery was organized at Lafayette, under 
Capt. Charles A. Naylor, and on the Ist of June, 1862, left for 
Washington. Moving to the front with Gen. Pope's command, it 
participated m the battle of Slaughter Mountain, on the 9th of 
August, and South Mountain, and Antietam, under Gen. McClel- 
lan. This battery was engaged in a large number of general en- 
gagements and flying column affairs, won a very favorable record, 
and returned on the 5th of July, 1865. 

The Seventeenth Battery, under Capt. Milton L. Miner, was 
mustered in at Indianapolis, on the 20th of May, 1862, left for the 
front on the 5th of July, and subsequently engaged in the Gettys- 
burg expedition, was present at Harper's Ferry, July 6, 1863, and 
at Opequan on the 19th of September. Fisher's Hill, New Mar- 
ket, and Cedar Creek brought it additional honors, and won from 
Gen. Sheridan a tribute of praise for its service on these battle 
grounds. Ordered from Winchester to Indianapolis it was mus- 
tered out there on the 3d of July, 1865. 

The Eighteenth Battery, under Capt. Eli Lilly, left for the 


front in August, 1862, but did not take a leading part in the cam- 
paign until 1863, when, under Gen. Eosencrans, it appeared prom- 
inent at Hoover's Gap. From this period to the affairs of "West 
Point and Macon, it performed first-class service, and returned to 
its State on the 25tli of June, 1S65. 

The Nineteenth Battery vras mustered into service at Indian- 
apolis, on the 5th of August, 1862, under Capt. S. J. Harris, and 
proceeded immediately afterward to the front, where it participated 
in the campaign against Gen. Bragg. It was present at every post 
of danger to the end of the war, when, after the surrender of John- 
son's army, it returned to Indianapolis. Reaching that city on 
the 6th of June, 1865, it was treated to a public reception and 
received the congratulations of Gov. Morton. Four days later it 
was discharged. 

The Twentieth Battery, organized under Capt. Frank A. Rose, 
left the State capital on tiie 17th of December, 1862, for the front, 
and reported immediately at Henderson, Kentucky. Subsequently 
Captain Rose resigned, and, in 1863, under Capt. Osborn, turned 
over its guns to the 11th Indiana Battery, and was assigned to the 
charge of siege guns at Nashville. Gov. Morton had the battery 
supplied with new field pieces, and by the 5th of October, 1863, it 
was again in the field, where it won many honors under Sherman, 
and continued to exercise a great influence until its return on the 
23dof June, 1865. 

The Twenty FIRST Battery recruited at Indianapolis, under the 
direction of Captain "W. W. Andrew, left on the 9th of September, 
1862, for Covington, Kentucky, to aid in its defense against the 
advancing forces of Gen. Kirby Smith. It was engaged in numerous 
military affairs and may be said to acquire many honors, although 
its record is stained with the names of seven deserters. The battery 
was discharged on the 21st of June, 1865. 

The TwEXTT-SECOND Battery was mustered in at Indianapolis 
on the 15th of December, 1862, under Capt. B. F. Denning, and 
moved at once to the front. It took a very conspicuous part in the 
pursuit of Morgan's Cavalry, and in inanj' other affairs. It threw 
the first shot into Atlanta, and lost its Captain, who was killed in 
the skirmish line, on the 1st of July. While the list of casualties 
numbers only 35, that of desertions numbers 87. This battery was 
received with public honors on its return, the 25th of June, 1865, 
and mustered out on the 7th of the same month. 


The Twenty-third Battery, recruited in October 1862, and 
mustered in on the 8th of November, under Capt. I. H. Myers, pro- 
ceeded south, after having rendered very efficient services at home 
in guarding the camps of rebel prisoners. In July, I860, the battery 
took an active part, under General Boyle's command, in routing 
and capturing the raiders at Brandenburgh, and subsequently to 
the close of the war performed very brilliant exploits, reaching 
Indianapolis in June, 1865. It was discharged on the 27th of that 

The Twenty-fourth Battery, under Capt. I. A. Simms, was 
enrolled for service on the 29th of November, 1862; remained 
at Indianapolis on duty nutil the ISthof March, 1863, when 
it left for the field. From its participation in the Cumberland 
River campaign, to its last engagement at Columbia, Tennessee, it 
aided materially in bringing victory to the Union ranks and made 
for itself a widespread fame. Arriving at Indianapolis on the 2Sth 
of July, it was publicly received, and in five days later disembodied. 

The Twenty-fifth Battery was recruited in September and Oc- 
tober, 1864, and mustered into service for one year, under Capt. 
Frederick C. Sturm. December 13th, it reported at Nashville, and 
took a prominent part in the defeat of Gen. Hood's army. Its 
duties until July, 1865, were continuous, when it returned to 
report for final discharge. 

The Twenty-sixth Battery, or "Wilder's Battery," was re- 
cruited under Capt. I. T. Wilder, of Greensburg, in May, 1861; but 
was not mustered in as an artillery company. Incorporating itself 
with a regiment then forming at Indianapolis it was mustered as 
company "A," of the 17th Infantry, with Wilder as Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the regiment. Subsequently, at Elk Water, Virginia, 
it was converted into the "First Independent Battery," and became 
known as " Rigby's Battery." The record of this battery is as 
brilliant as any won during the war. On every field it has won a 
distinct reputation; it was well worthy the enthusiastic reception 
given to it on its return to Indianapolis on the 11th and 12th of 
July, 1865. During its term of service it was subject to many 
transmutations; but in every phase of its brief history, areputation 
for gallantry and patriotism was maintained which now forms a 
living testimonial to its services to the public. 

The total number of battles in the " War of the Rebellion " in 
which the patriotic citizens of the great and noble State of Indiana 
were more or less engaged, was as follows: 




No. of Battles. 
.... 90 




South Carolina. . . 

So of Battles. 








Indian Territory 












Nortli Carolina 



The regiments sent forth to the defense of the Republic in the 
hour of its greatest peril, when a host of her own sons, blinded by 
some unholy infatuation, leaped to arms that they might trample 
upon the liberty-giving principles of the nation, have been passed 
in very brief review. The authorities chosen for the dates, names, 
and figures are the records of the State, and the main subject is 
based upon the actions of those 267,000 gallant men of Indiana 
who rushed to arms in defense of all for which their fathers bled, 
leaving their wives and children and homes in the guardianship of 
a truly paternal Government. 

The relation of Indiana to the Republic was then established; 
for when the population of the State, at the time her sons went 
forth to participate in war for the maintenance of the Union, is 
brought into comparison with all other States and countries, it will 
be apparent that the sacrifices made by Indiana from 1861-'65 
equal, if not actually exceed, the noblest of those recorded in the 
history of ancient or modern times. 

Unprepared for the terrible inundation of modern wickedness, 
which threatened to deluge the country in a sea of blood and rob, 
a people of their richest, their most prized inheritance, the State 
rose above all precedent, and under the benign influence of patriot- 
ism, guided by the well-directed zeal of a wise Governor and 
Government, sent into the field an army that in numbers was 
gigantic, and in moral and physical excellence never equaled 

It is laid down in the ofiicial reports, furnished to the War De- 
partment, that over 200,000 troops were specially organized to aid 
in crushing the legions of the slave-holder; that no less than 50,000 
militia were armed to defend the State, and that the large, but abso- 
lutely necessary number of commissions issued was 17,114. All 
this proves the scientific skill and military economy exercised by 
the Governor, and brought to the aid of the people in a most terri- 
ble emergency; for he, with some prophetic sense of the gravity of 
the situation, saw that unless the greatest powers of the Union 
were put forth to crush the least justifiable and most pernicioua 


of all rebellions holding a place in the record of nations, the best 
blood of the country would flow in a vain attempt to avert a catas- 
trophe which, if prolonged for many years, would result in at least 
the moral and commercial ruin of the country. 

The part which Indiana took in the war against the Rebellion is 
one of which the citizens of the State may well be proud. In the 
number of troops furnished, and in the amount of voluntary con- 
tributions rendered, Indiana, in proportion and wealth, stands 
equal to any of her sister States. " It is also a subject of gratitude 
and thankfulness," said Gov. Morton, in his message to the Legis- 
lature, " that, while the number of troops furnished by Indiana 
alone in this great contest would have done credit to a first-class 
nation, measured by the standard of previous wars, not a single 
battery or battalion from this State has brought reproach upon the 
national flag, and no disaster of the war can be traced to any want 
of fidelity, courage or efficiency on the part of any Indiana officer. 
The endurance, heroism, intelligence and skill of the officers and 
soldiers sent forth by Indiana to do battle for the Union, have shed 
a luster on our beloved State, of which any people might justly be 
proud. Without claiming superiority over our loyal sister States, 
it is but justice to the brave men who have represented us on 
almost every battle-field of the war, to say that their deeds have 
placed Indiana in the front rank of those heroic States which 
rushed to the rescue of the imperiled Government of the nation. 
The total number of troops furnished by the State for all terms of 
service exceeds 200,000 men, much the greater portion of them 
being for three years; and in addition thereto not less than 50,000 
State militia have from time to time been called into active service 
to repel rebel raids and defend our southern border from inva- 


In 1867 the Legislature comprised 91 Republicans and 59 Dem- 
ocrats. Soon after the commencement of the session. Gov. Morton 
resigned his office in consequence of having been elected to the IT. 
S. Senate, and Lieut.-Gov. Conrad Baker assumed the Executive 
chair during the remainder of Morton's term. This Legislature, 
by a very decisive vote, ratified the 14th amendment to the Federal 
Constitution, constituting all persons born in the country or sub- 
ject to its jurisdiction, citizens of the United States and of the 
State wherein they reside, without regard to race or color; reduc- 


ing the Congressional representation in any State in which there 
should be a restriction of the exercise of the elective franchise on 
account of race or color; disfranchising persons therein named 
who shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States; and declaring that the validity of the public debt 
of the United States authorized by law, shall not be questioned. 

This Legislature also passed an act providing for the registry of 
votes, the punishment of fraudulent practices at elections, and for 
the apportionment and compensation of a Board of Registration; 
this Board to consist, in each township, of two freeholders appointed 
by the County Commissioners, together with the trustee of such 
township; in cities the freeholders are to be appointed in each 
ward by the city council. The measures of this law are very strict, 
and are faithfully executed. No cries of fraud in elections are 
heard in connection with Indiana. 

This Legislature also divided the State into eleven Congressional 
Districts and apportioned their representation; enacted a law for 
the protection and indemnity of all officers and soldiers of the 
United States and soldiers of the Indiana Legion, for acts done in 
the military service of the United States, and in the military ser- 
vice of the State, and in enforcing the laws and preserving the 
peace of the country; made definite appropriations to the several 
benevolent institutions of the State, and adopted several measures 
for the encouragement of education, etc. 

In 1868, Indiana was the first in the field of national polities, 
both the principal parties holding State conventions early in the 
year. The Democrats nominated T. A. Hendricks for Governor, 
and denounced in their platform the reconstruction policy of the 
Eepublicans; recommended that United States treasury notes be 
substituted for national bank currency; denied that the General 
Government had a right to interfere with the question of sufi'rage 
in any of the States, and opposed negro suftrage, etc. ; while the 
Republicans nominated Conrad Baker for Governor, defended its 
reconstruction policy, opposed a further contraction of the currency, 
etc. The campaign was an exciting one, and Mr. Baker was 
elected Governor by a majority of only 961. In the Presidential 
election that soon followed the State gave Grant 9,572 more than 

During 1868 Indiana presented claims to the Government for 
about three and a half millions dollars for expenses incurred in the 
war, and $1,958,917.94 was allowed. Also, this year, a legislative 


commission reported that $413,599.48 were allowed to parties suf- 
fering loss by the Morgan raid. 

This year Governor Baker obtained a site for the House of 
Refuge. (See a subsequent page.) The Soldiers' and Seamen's 
Home, near Knightstown, originally established by private enter- 
prise and benevolence, and adopted by the Legislature of the 
previous year, was in a good condition. Up to that date the insti- 
tution had afforded relief and temporary subsistence to 400 men 
who had been disabled in the war. A substantial brick building 
had been built for the home, while the old buildings were used for 
an orphans' department, in which were gathered 86 children of 
deceased soldiers. 


By some mistake or liberal design, the early statute laws of 
Indiana on the subject of divorce were rather more loose than those 
of most other States in this Union; and this subject had been a 
matter of so much jest among the public, that in 1870 the Governor 
recommended to the Legislature a reform in this direction, which 
was pretty effectually carried out. Since that time divorces can 
be granted only for the following causes: 1. Adultery. 2, Impo- 
teiicy existing at the time of marriage. 3. Abandonment for two 
years. 4. Cruel and inhuman treatment of one party by the other. 
5. Habitual drunkenness of either party, or the failure of the hus- 
band to make reasonable provision for the family. 6 The failure 
of the husband to make reasonable provision for the family for a 
period of two years. 7. The convictiou of either party of an infamous 


Were it not for political government the pioneers would have got 
along without money much longer than they did. The pressure ot 
governmental needs was somewhat in advance of the monetary 
income of the first settlers, and the little taxation required to carry 
on the government seemed great and even oppressive, especially at 
certain periods. 

In November, 1821, Gov. Jennings convened the Legislature in 
extra session to provide for the payment of interest on the State 
debt and a part of the principal, amounting to $20,000. It was 
thought that a sufficient amount would be realized in the notes of 
the State bank and its branches, although they were considerably 
depreciated Said the Governor: " It will be oppressive if the 
State^ after the paper of this institution (State bank) was author- 
ized to be circulated in revenue, should be prevented by any assign, 
ment of the evidences ot existing debt, from discharging at least 
so much of that debt with the paper of the bank as will absorb the 
collections of the present year; especially when their notes, after 
being made receivable by the agents of the State, became greatly 
depreciated by great mismanagement on the part of the bank 
itself. It ought not to be expected that a public loss to the State 
should be avoided by resorting to any measures which would not 
comport with correct views of public justice; nor should it be 
anticipated that the treasury of the United States would ultimately 
adopt measures to secure an uncertain debt which would inter- 
fere with arrangements calculated to adjust the demand against the 
State without producing any additional embarrassment." 

The state of the public debt was indeed embarrassing, as the 
bonds which had been executed in its behalf had been assigned. 
The exciting cause of this proceeding consisted in the machinations 
of unprincipled speculators. Whatever disposition the principal 
bank may have made of the funds deposited by the United States, 
the connection of interest between the steam-mill company and the 
bank, and the extraordinary accommodations, as well as their amount, 
effected by arrangements of the steam-mill agency and some of 
the officers of the bank, were among the principal causes which 


liad prostrated the paper circulating medium of the State, so far as it 
was dependent on the State bank and its branches. An abnormal 
state of affairs like this very naturally produced a blind disburse- 
ment of the fund to some extent, and this disbursement would be 
called by almost every one an '' unwise administration." 

During the first 16 years of this century, the belligerent condi- 
tion of Europe called for agricultural supplies from America, and 
the consequent high price of grain justified even the remote pio- 
neers of Indiana in undertaking the tedious transportation of the 
products of the soil which the times forced upon them. The large 
disbursements made by the general Government among the peo- 
ple naturally engendered a rage for speculation; numerous banks 
with fictitious capital were established; immense issues of paper 
were made; and the circulating medium of the country was in- 
creased fourfold in the course of two or three years. This infla- 
tion produced the consequences which always follow such a scheme, 
namely, unfounded visions of wealth and splendor and the wild 
investments which result in ruin to the many and wealth to the 
few. The year 1821 was consequently one of great financial panic, 
and was the first experienced by the early settlers of the West. 

In 1822 the new Governor, William Hendricks, took a hopeful 
view of the situation, referring particularly to the " agricultural 
and social happiness of the State." The crops were abundant this 
year, immigration was setting in heavily and everything seemed to 
have an upward look. But the customs of the white race still com- 
pelling them to patronize European industries, combined with the 
remoteness of the surplus produce of Indiana from European mar- 
kets, constituted a serious drawback to the accumulation of wealth. 
Such a state of things naturally changed the habits of the people 
to some extent, at least for a short time, assimilating them to those 
of more primitive tribes. This change of custom, however, was 
not severe and protracted enough to change the intelligent and 
social nature of the people, and they arose to their normal height 
on the very first opportunity. 

In 1822-'3, before speculation started up again, the surplus 
money was invested mainly in domestic manufactories instead of 
other and wilder commercial enterprises. Home manufactories 
were what the people needed to make them more independent. 
They not only gave employment to thousands whose services were 
before that valueless, but also created a market for a great portion 


of the surplus produce of the farmers. A part of the surphis cap- 
ital, however, was also sunk in internal improvements, some of 
which were unsuccessful for a time, but eventually proved remu- 

Noah Noble occupied the Executive chair of the State from 1831 
to 1837, commencing his duties amid peculiar embarrassments. 
The crops of 1832 were short, Asiatic cholera came sweeping along 
the Ohio and into the interior of the State, and the Black Hawk war 
raged in the Northwest, — all these at once, and j'et the work of 
internal improvements was actually begun. 


The State bank of Indiana was established by law January 28, 
1834. The act of the Legislature, by its own terms, ceased to be a 
law, January 1, 1857. At the time of its organization in 1834, its 
outstanding circulation was $4,208,725, with a debt due to the insti- 
tution, principally from citizens of the State, of $6,095,368. During 
the years 1857-'5S the bank redeemed nearly its entire circulation, 
providing for the redemption of all outstanding obligations; at this 
time it had collected from most of its debtors the money which they 
owed. The amounts of the State's interest in the stock of the bank 
was $1,390,000, and tlie money tlius invested was procured by the 
issue of five per cent bonds, the last of which was payable July 1, 1866. 
The nominal profits of the bank were $2,780,604.36. By the law 
creating the sinking fund, tliat fund was appropriated, first, to pay 
the principal and interest on the bonds; secondly, the expenses of 
the Commissioners; and lastly the cause of common-school educa- 

The stock in all the branches authorized was subscribed by indi- 
viduals, and the installment paid as required by the charter. The 
loan authorized for the payment on the stock allotted to the State, 
amounting to $500,000, was obtained at a premium of 1.05 per 
per cent, on five per cent, stock, making the sum of over $5,000 on 
the amount borrowed. In 1836 we find that the State bank was 
doing good service; agricultural products were abundant, aind the 
market was good; consequently the people were in the full enjoy- 
ment of all the blessings of a free government. 

By the year 1843 the State was experiencing the disasters and 
embarassment consequent upon a system of over-banking, and its 
natural progeny, over-trading and deceptive speculation. Such a 
state of tilings tends to relax the hand of industry by creating false 


notions of wealth, and tempt to sudden acquisitions by means as delu- 
sive in their results as they are contrary to a primary law of nature. 
The people began more tlian ever to see the necessity of falling 
back upon that branch of industry for which Indiana, especially 
at that time, was particularly fitted, namely, agriculture, as the 
true and lasting source of substantial wealth. 

Gov. Whitcomb, 1843-'49, succeeded well in maintaining the 
credit of the State. Measures of compromise between the State 
and its creditors were adopted by which, ultimately, the public 
works, although incomplete, were given in payment for the claims 
against the Government. 

At the close of his term, Gov. Whitcomb was elected to the 
Senate of the United States, and from December, 1848, to Decem- 
ber, 1849, Lieut-Gov. Paris C. Dunning was acting Governor. 

In 1851a general banking law was adopted which gave a new 
impetus to the commerce of the State, and opened the way for a 
broader volume of general trade; but this law was the source of 
many abuses; currency was expanded, a delusive idea of wealth 
again prevailed, and as a consequence, a great deal of damaging 
speculation was indulged in. 

In 1857 the charter of the State bank expired, and the large 
gains to the State in that institution were directed to the promotion 
of common-school education. 


During the war of the Kebellion the financial condition of the 
people was of course like that of the other Northern States generally. 
1870 found the State in a very prosperous condition. October 31 
of this year, the date of the fiscal report, there was a surplus of 
$373,249 in the treasury. The receipts of the year amounted to 
$3,605,639, and the disbursements to $2,943,600, leaving a balance 
of $1,035,288. The total debt of the State in November, 1871, was 

At the present time the principal articles of export from the State 
are flour and pork. Nearly all the wheat raised within the State 
is manufactured into flour within its limits, especially in the north- 
ern part. The pork business is the leading one in the southern 
part of the State. 

When we take into consideration the vast extent of railroad lines 
in this State, in connection with the agricultural and mineral 
resources, both developed and undeveloped, as already noted, we can 


see what a substantial foundation exists for the future welfare of 
this great commonwealth. Almost every portion of the State is 
coming up equally. The disposition to monopolize does not exist 
to a greater degree than is desirable or necessary for healthy compe- 
tition. Speculators in flour, pork and other commodities appeared 
during the war, but generally came to ruin at their own game. 
The agricultural community here is an independent one, under- 
standing its rights, and " knowing them will maintain them." 

Indiana is more a manufacturing State, also, than many imagine. 
It probably has the greatest wagon and carriage manufactory in the 
world. In 1875 the total number of manufacturing establishments 
in this State was 16,812; number of steam engines, 3,681, with a 
total horse-power of 114,961; the total horse-power of water wheels, 
38,614; number of hands employed in the manufactories, 86,402; 
capital employed, is $117,462,161; wages paid, $35,461,987; cost of 
material, $104,321,632; value of products, $301,304,271. These 
figures are on an average about twice what they were only five years 
previously, at which time tliey were about double what they were 
ten years before that. In manufacturing enterprise, it is said that 
Indiana, in proportion to her population, is considerably in advance 
of Illinois and Michigan. 

In 1870 the assessed valuation of the real estate in Indiana was 
$460,120,974; of personal estate, $203,334,070; true valuation of 
both, $1,268,180,543. According to the evidences of increase at 
that time, the value of taxable property in this State must be double 
the foregoing figures. This is utterly astonishing, especially when 
ws consider what a large matter it is to double the elements of a 
large and wealthy State, compared with its increase in infancy. 

The taxation for State purposes in 1870 amounted to $2,943,078; 
for county purposes, $4,654,476; and for municipal purposes, 
$3,193,577. The total county debt of Indiana in 1870 was $1,127,- 
269, and the total debt of towns, cities, etc., was $2,523,934. 

In the compilation of this statistical matter we have before us the 
statistics of every element of progress in Indiana, in the U. S. 
Census Eeports; but as it would be really improper for us further 
to burden tliese pages with tables or columns of large numbers, we 
will conclude by remarking that if any one wishes further details in 
these matters, he can readily find them in the Census Eeports of 
the Government in any city or village in the country. Besides, 
almost any one can obtain, free of charge, from his representative in 


Congress, all these and other public documents in which he may be 


This subject began to be agitated as early as 1818, during the 
administration of Governor Jennings, who, as well as all the 
Governors succeeding him to 1843, made it a special point in their 
messages to the Legislature to urge the adoption of measures for 
the construction of higliways and canals and the improvement of 
the navigation of rivers. Gov. Hendricks in 1822 specified as the 
most important improvement the navigation of the Falls of the 
Ohio, the Wabash and White rivers, and other streams, and the 
construction of the National and other roads through the State. 

In 1^^26 Governor Ray considered the construction of roads and 
canals as a necessity to place the State on an e<jual financial footing 
with the older States East, and in 1829 he added: "This subject 
can never grow irksome, since it must be the source of the bless- 
ings of civilized life. To secure its benefits is a duty enjoined upon 
the Legislature by the obligations of the social compact." 

In 1830 the people became much e.xcited over the project of con- 
necting the streams of the country by " The National New York 
& Mississippi railroad." The National road and the jlichigan 
and Ohio turnpike were enterprises in which the people and Legis- 
lature of Indiana were interested. The latter had already been the 
cause of much bitter controversy, and its location was then the 
subject of contention. 

In 1832 the work of internal improvements fairly commenced, 
despite the partial failure of the crops, the Black Hawk war and 
the Asiatic cholera. Several war parties invaded the Western 
settlements, exciting great alarm and some suffering. This year 
the canal commissioners completed the task assigned them and had 
negotiated the canal bonds in New York city, to the amount of 
$100,000, at a premium of 13J per cent., on terms honorable to the 
State and advantageous to the work. Before the close of tnis year 
$54,000 were spent for the improvement of the Michigan road, and 
$52,000 were realized from the sale of lands appropriated for its 
construction. In 1832, 32 miles of the Wabash and Erie canal was 
placed under contract and work commenced. A communication 
was addressed to the Governor of Ohio, requesting him to call the 
attention of the Legislature of that State to the subject of the 
extension of the canal from the Indiana line through Ohio to 'che 


Lake. In compliance with this request, Governor Lucas promptly 
laid the subject before the Legislature of the State, and, in a spirit 
of courtesy, resolutions were adopted by that body, stipulating that 
if Ohio should ultimately decline to undertake the completion of 
that portion of the work within her limits before the time fixed by 
the act of Congress for the completion of the canal, she would, on 
just and equitable terms, enable Indiana to avail herself of the bene- 
fit of the lands granted, by authorizing her to sell them and invest 
the proceeds in the stock of a company to be incorporated by Ohio; 
and that she would give Indiana notice of her final determination 
on or before January 1, 1838. The Legislature of Ohio also 
authorized and invited the agent of the State of Indiana to select, 
snrve}- and set apart the lands lying within that State. In keeping 
with this policy Governor Noble, in 1834, said: ""With a view of 
engaging in works of internal improvement, the propriety of 
adopting a gejieral plan or system, having reference to the several 
portions of the State, and the connection of one with the other, 
naturally suggests itself. No work should be commenced but such 
as would be of acknowledged public utility, and when completed 
would form a branch of some general system. In view of this 
object, the policy of organizing a Board of Public Works is again 
respectfully suggested." The Governor also called favorable atten- 
tion to the Lawrenceburg & Indianapolis railway, for which a 
charter had been granted. 

In 1835 the Wabash & Erie canal was pushed rapidly forward. 
The middle division, extending from the St. Joseph dam to the 
forks of the Wabash, about 32 miles, was completed, for about 
$232,000, including all repairs. Upon this portion of the line nav- 
igation was opened on July 4, which day the citizens assembled 
" to witness the mingling of the waters of the St. Joseph with 
those of the Wabash, uniting the watej'S of the northern chain of 
lakes with those of the Gulf of Mexico in the South." On other 
parts of the line the work progressed with speed, and the sale of 
canal lands was unusually active 

In 1836 the first meeting of the State Board of Internal Im- 
provement was convened and entered upon the discharge of its 
numerous and responsible duties. Having assigned to each mem- 
ber the direction and superintendence of a portion of the work, 
the next dutj' to be performed preparatory to the various spheres of 
active service, was that of procuring the requisite number of 
engineers. A delegation was sent to the Eastern cities, but returned 


■without engaging an Engineer-in-Chicf for the roads and railways, 
and without the desired number for the subordinate station; but 
after considerable delay the Board was fully organized and put in 
operation. Under their management work on public improve- 
ments was successful; the canal progressed steadily; the naviga- 
tion of the middle division, from Fort Wayne to Huntington, was 
uninterrupted; 16 miles of the line between Huntington and La 
Fontaine creek were filled with water this year and made ready for 
navigation; and the remaining 20 miles were completed, except a 
portion of the locks; from La Fontaine creek to Logansport prog- 
ress was made; the line from Georgetown to Lafayette was placed 
under contract; about 30 miles of the Whitewater canal, extending 
from Lawrenceburg through the beautiful valley of the White- 
water to Brookville, were also placed under contract, as also 23 
miles of the Central canal, passing through Indianapolis, on which 
work was commenced; also about 20 miles of the southern divis- 
ion of this work, extending from Evansville into the interior, 
were also contracted for; and on the line of the Cross-Cut canal, 
from Terre Haute to the intersection of the Central canal, near 
the month of Eel river, a commencement was also made on all the 
heavy sections. All this in 1836. 

Early in this year a party of engineers was organized, and 
directed to examine into the practicability of the Michigan & 
Erie canal line, then proposed. The report of their operations 
favored its expediency. A party of engineers was also fitted out, 
who entered upon the field of service of the Madison & Lafayette 
railroad, and contracts were let for its construction from Madison 
to Vernon, on which work was vigorously commenced. Also, con- 
tracts were let for grading and bridging the New Albany & Vin- 
cennes road from the former point to Paoli, about 40 miles. 
Other roads were also undertaken and surveyed, so that indeed a 
stupendous system of internal improvement was undertaken, and 
as Gov. Noble truly remarked, upon the issue of that vast enter- 
prise the State of Indiana staked her fortune. She had gone too 
far to retreat. 

In 1837, when Gov. Wallace took the Executive chair, the 
reaction consequent upon "over work" by the State in the internal 
improvement scheme began to be felt by the people. They feared 
a State debt was being incurred from which they could never be 
extricated; but the Governor did all he could throughout the term 
of his administration to keep up the courage of the citizens. He 


told them that the astonishing success so far, surpassed even the 
liopes of the most sanguine, and that the flattering auspices of tlie 
future were sufficient to dispel every doubt and quiet every fear. 
"Notwithstanding all his efforts, however, the coustructiou of ]jub- 
lic works continued to decline, and inhislast message lie exclaimed: 
" Never before— ^I speak it advisedly — never before have you wit- 
nessed a period in our local history that more urgently called for 
the exercise of all the soundest and best attributes of grave and 
patriotic legislators than the present. * « * ^^^^ 

truth is — and it would be folly to conceal it — we have our hands 
full — full to overflowing; and therefore, to sustain ourselves, to 
preserve the credit and character of the State unimpaired, and to 
continue her hitherto unexampled march to wealth and distinction, 
we have not an hour of time, nor a dollar of money, nor a hand 
employed in labor, to squander and dissipate upon mere objects of 
idleness, or taste, or amusement." 

The State had borrowed $.3,827,000 for internal improvement pur- 
poses, of which $1,327,000 was for the Wabash & Erie canal and 
the remainder for other works. The five per cent, interest on 
debts — about $200,000 — wliich the State had to pay, had become 
burdensome, as her resources for this purpose were only two, 
besides direct taxation, and they were small, namely, the interest 
on the balances due for canal lands, and the proceeds of the third 
installment of the surplus revenue, both amounting, in 183S, 
to about $45,000. 

In August, 1839, all work ceased on these improvements, with 
one or two exceptions, and most of the contracts were surrendered 
to the State. This was done according to an act of the Legislature 
providing for the compensation of contractors by the issue of 
treasury notes. In addition to this state of affairs, the Legisla- 
ture of 1839 had made no provision for the payment of interest on 
the State debt incurred for internal improvements. Concerning 
this situation Gov. Bigger, in 1840, said that either to go ahead 
with the works or to abandon them altogether would be equally 
ruinous to the State, the implication being that the people should 
wait a little while for a breathing spell and then take hold again. 

Of course much individual indebtedness was created during the 
progress of the work on internal improvement. Wiien operations 
ceased in 1839, and prices fell at the same time, the people were 
left in a great measure without the means of commanding money 
to pay their debts. This condition of private enterprise more than 


ever rendered direct taxation inexpedient. Hence it became the 
policy of Gov. Bigger to provide the means of paying the interest 
on the State debt without increasing the rate of taxation, and to 
continue that portion of the public works that could be immedi- 
ately completed, and from which the earliest returns could be 

In 1840 the system embraced ten different works, the most im- 
portant of which was the Wabash & Erie canal. The aggregate 
length of the lines embraced in the system was 1,160 miles, and 
of this only 140 miles had been completed. The amount expended 
had reached the sum of $5,600,000, and it required at least $14,000,- 
000 to complete them. Although the crops of 1841 were very 
remunerative, this perquisite alone was not sufficient to raise the 
State again up to the level of going ahead with her gigantic 

We should here state in detail the amount of work completed and 
of money expended on the various works up to this time, 1841, 
which were as follows: 

1. The Wabash & Erie canal, from the State line to Tippe- 
canoe, 129 miles in lengtii, completed and navigable for the whole 
length, at a cost of $2,041,012. This sum includes the cost of the 
steamboat lock afterward completed at Delphi. 

2. The extension of the Wabash & Erie canal from the mouth 
of the Tippecanoe to Terre Haute, over 104 miles. The estimated 
cost of this work was $1,500,000; and the amount expended for the 
same $408,855. The navigation was at this period opened as far 
down as Lafayette, and a part of the work done in the neighbor- 
hood of Covington. 

3. The cross-cut canal from Terre Haute to Central canal, 
49 miles in length; estimated cost, $718,672; amount expended, 
$420,679; and at this time no part of the course was navigable. 

4. The White Water canal, from Lawrenceburg to the mouth 
of Nettle creek, 76^ miles; estimated cost, $1,675,738; amount 
expended to that date, $1,099,867; and 31 miles of the work 
was navigable, extending from the Ohio river to Brookville. 

5. The Central canal, from the Wabash & Erie canal, to 
Indianapolis, including the feeder bend at Muncietown, 124 miles 
in length; total estimated cost, $2,299,853; amount expended, 
$568,016; eight miles completed at that date, and other portions 
nearly done. 


6. Central canal, from Indianapolis to Evansville on the Ohio 
river, 194 miles in length; total estimated cost, $3,532,394; amount 
expended, $831,302, 19 miles of which was completed at that date, 
at the southern end, a«d 16 miles, extending south from Indianao- 
olis, were nearly completed. 

7. Erie & Michigan canal, 182 miles in length; estimated cost, 
$2,624,823; amount expended, $156,394. No part of this work 

8. The Madison & Indianapolis railroad, over 85 miles in 
length; total estimated cost, $2,046,600; amount expended, $1,493,- 
013. Road finished and in operation for about 28 miles; grad- 
ing nearly finished for 27 miles in addition, extending to Eden- 

9. Indianapolis & Lafayette turnpike road, 73 miles in length; 
total estimated cost, $593, 737; amount expended, $72,118. The 
bridging and most of the grading was done on 27 miles, from 
Crawfordsville to Lafayette. 

10. New Albany & Vincennes turnpike road, 105 miles in 
length; estimated cost, $1,127,295; amount expended, $654,411. 
Forty-one miles graded and macadamized, extending from New 
Albany to Paoli, and 27 miles in addition partly graded. 

11. Jefferson ville & Crawfordsville road, over 164 miles long; 
total estimated cost, $1,651,800; amount expended, $372,737. 
Forty-five miles were partly graded and bridged, extending from 
Jeffersonville to Salem, and from Greencastle north. 

12. Improvement of the Wabash rapids, undertaken jointly by 
Indiana and Illinois; estimated cost to Indiana, $102,500; amount 
expended by Indiana, $9,539. 

Grand totals: Length of roads and canals, 1,289 miles, only 
281 of which have been finished; estimated cost of all the works, 
$19,914,424; amount expended, $8,164,528. The State debt at 
this time amounted to $18,469,146. The two principal causes 
which aggravated the embarrassment of the State at this juncture 
were, first, paying most of the interest out of the money borrowed, 
and, secondly, selling bonds on credit. The first error subjected 
the State to the payment of compound interest, and the people, 
not feeling the pressure of taxes to discharge the interest, natu- 
rally became inattentive to the public policy pursued. Postpone- 
ment of the payment of interest is demoralizing in every way. 
During this period the State was held up in an unpleasant manner 
before the gaze of the world; but be it to the credit of this great 


and glorious State, she would not repudiate, as many other States 
and municipalities have done. 

By the year 1850, the so-called "internal improvement" system 
having been abandoned, private capital and ambition pushed for- 
ward various "public works." During this year about 400 miles 
of plank road were completed, at a cost of $1,200 to $1,500 per 
mile, and about 1,200 miles more were surveyed and in progress. 
There were in the State at this time 312 miles of railroad in suc- 
cessful operation, of which 124 were completed this year. More 
than 1,000 miles of railroad were surveyed and in progress. 

An attempt was made during the session of the Legislature in 
1869 to re-burden the State with the old canal debt, and the matter 
was considerably agitated in the canvass of 1870. The subject of the 
Wabash & Erie canal was lightly touched in the Republican plat- 
form, occasioning considerable discussion, which probably had 
some effect on the election in the fall. That election resulted in 
an average majority in the State of about 2,864 for the Democracy. 
It being claimed that the Legislature had no authority under the 
constitution to ta.x the people for the purpose of aiding in the con- 
struction of railroads, the Supreme Court, in Anril, 1871, decided 
adversely to such a claim. 


In 1869 the development of mineral resources in the State 
attracted considerable attention. Rich mines of iron and coal were 
discovered, as also fine quarries of building stone. The Vincennes 
railroad passed through some of the richest portions of the mineral 
region, the engineers of which had accurately determined the 
quality of richness of the ores. Near Brooklyn, about 20 miles 
from Indianapolis, is a fine formation of sandstone, yielding good 
material for buildings in the city; indeed, it is considered the best 
building stone in the State. The limestone formation at Gosport, 
continuing 12 miles from that point, is of great variety, and 
includes the finest and most durable building stone in the world. 
Portions of it are susceptible only to the chisel; other portions are 
soft and can be worked with the ordinary tools. At the end of this 
limestone formation "there commences a sandstone series of strata 
which extends seven miles farther, to a point about 60 miles from 
Indianapolis. Here an extensive coal bed is reached consisting of 
seven distinct veins. The first is about two feet thick, the next 
three feet, another four feet, and the others of various thicknesses. 


These beds are all easily worked, having a natural drain, and they 
yield heavy profits. In the whole of the southwestern part of the 
State and for 300 miles up the Wabash, coal exists in good quality 
and abundance. 

The scholars, statesmen and philanthropists of Indiana work- 
ed hard and long tor tlie appointment of a State Geologist, with 
sufficient support to enable him to make a thorough geological 
survey of the State. A partial survey was made as early as 1837-'8, 
by David Dale Owen, State Geologist, but nothing more was done 
until 1869, when Prof. Edward T. Cox was appointed State Geolo- 
gist. For 20 years previous to this date the Governors urged and 
insisted in all their messages that a thorough survey should be 
made, but almost, if not quite, in vain. In 1852, Dr. Ryland T. 
Brown delivered an able address on this subject before the Legis- 
lature, showing how much coal, iron, building stone, etc., there 
were probably; in the State, but the exact localities and qualities 
not ascertained, and how millions of money could be saved to the 
State by the expenditure of a few thousand dollars; but "they 
answered the Doctor in the negative. It must have been because 
they hadn't time to pass the bill. They were very busy. They had 
to pass all sorts of regulations concerning the negro. They had to 
protect a good many white people from marrying negroes. And as 
they didn't need any labor in the State, if it was ' colored,' they 
had to make regulations to shut out all of that kind of labor, and 
to take steps to put out all that unfortunately got in, and they didn't 
have time to consider the scheme proposed by the white people " — 
W. W. Clayton. 

In 1853, the State Board of Agriculture employed Dr. Brown to 
make a partial examination of the geology of the State, at a salary 
of $500 a year, and to this Board the credit is due for the final 
success of the philanthropists, who in 1869 had the pleasure of 
witnessing the passage of a Legislative act " to provide for a Depart- 
ment of Geology and Natural Science, in connection with the State 
Board of Agriculture." Under this act Governor Baker immedi- 
ately appointed Prof Edward T. Cox the State Geologist, who has 
made an able and exhaustive report of the agricultural, mineral 
and manufacturing resources of this State, world-wide in its celeb- 
rity, and a work of which the people of Indiana may be very 
proud. We can scarcely give even the substance of his report in a 
work like this, because it is of necessity deeply scientific and made 
up entirely of local detail. 


The coal measures, says Prof. E. T. Cox, cover an area of about 
6,500 square miles, in the southwestern part of the State, and 
extend from Warren county on the north to the Ohio river on the 
south, a distance of about 150 miles. This area comprises the fol- 
lowing counties :Warren, Fountain, Parke, Vermillion, Vigo, Clay, 
Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Gibson, Pike, Dubois, 
Vanderburg, "Warrick, Spencer, Perry and a small part of Crawford, 
Monroe, Putnam and Montgomery. 

This coal is all bituminous, but is divisible into three well-marked 
varieties: caking-coal, non-caking-coal or block coal and cannel 
coal. The total depth of the seams or measures is from 600 to 800 
feet, with 12 to 14 distinct seams of coal; but these are not all to 
i)e found throughout the area; the seams range from one foot to 
eleven feet in thickness. The caking coal prevails in the western 
portion of the area described, and has from three to four workable 
seams, ranging from three and a half to eleven feet in thickness. 
At most of the places where these are worked the coal is mined by 
adits driven in on the face of the ridges, and the deepest shafts in 
the State are less than 300 feet, the average depth for successful 
mining not being over 75 feet. This is a bright, black, sometimes 
glossy, coal, makes good coke and contains a very large percentage 
of pure illuminating gas. One pound will yield about 4J cubic feet 
of gas, with a power equal to 15 standard sperm candles. The 
average calculated calorific power of the caking coals is 7,745 heat 
units, pure carbon being 8,080. Both in the northern and southern 
portions of the field, the caking coals present similar good qualities, 
and are a great source of private and public wealth. 

The block coal prevails in the eastern part of the field and has an 
area of about 450 square miles. This is excellent, in its raw state, 
for making pig iron. It is indeed peculiarly fitted for metal- 
lurgical purposes. It has a laminated structure with carbonaceous 
matter, like charcoal, between the lamina, with slaty cleavage, and 
it rings under the stroke of the hammer. It is " free-burning," 
makes an open fire, and without caking, swelling, scaffolding in the 
furnace or changing form, burns like hickory wood until it is con- 
sumed to a white ash and leaves no clinkers. It is likewise valuable 
for generating steam and for household uses. Many of the principal 
railway lines in the State are using it in preference to any other 
coal, as it does not burn out the fire-boxes, and gives as little trouble 
as wood. 


There are eight distinct seams of block coal in this zone, three of 
which are workable, having an average thickness of four feet. In 
some places this coal is mined by adits, but generally from shafts, 
40 to 80 feet deep. The seams are crossed by cleavage lines, and 
the coal is usually mined without powder, and may be taken out in 
blocks weighing a ton or more. When entries or rooms are driven 
angling across the cleavage lines, the walls of the mine present a 
zigzag, notched appearance resembling a Virginia worm fence. 

In 1871 there were about 24 block coal mines in operation, and 
about 1,500 tons were mined daily. Since that time this industry 
has vastly increased. This coal consists of 81^ to 83^ percent, of 
carbon, and not quite three fourths of one per cent, of sulphur. 
Calculated calorific power equal to 8,283 heat units. This coal also 
is equally good both in the northern and southern parts of the field. 

Tlie great Indiana coal field is within 150 miles of Chicago or 
Michigan City, by railroad, from which ports the Lake Superior 
specular and red hematite ores are landed from vessels that are able 
to run in a direct course from the ore banks. Considering the 
proximity of the vast quantities of iron in Michigan and Missouri^ 
one can readily see what a glorious futm-e awaits Indiana in respect 
to manufactories. 

Of the cannel coal, one of the finest seams to be found in the 
country is in Daviess county, this State. Here it is three and a 
half feet thick, underlaid by one and a half feet of a beautiful, jet- 
black caking coal. There is no clay, shale or other foreign matter 
intervening, and fragments of the caking coal are often found 
adhering to the cannel. There is no gradual change from one to 
the other, and the character of each is homogeneous througliout. 

The cannel coal makes a delightful fire in open grates, and does 
not pop and throw off scales into the room, as is usual with this 
kind of coal. This coal is well adapted to the manufacture of 
illuminating gas, in respect to both quantity and high illuminating 
power. One ton of 2,000 pounds of this coal yields 10,400 feet of 
gas, while the best Pennsylvania coal yields but 8,680 cubic feet. 
This gas has an illuminating power of 25 candles, while the best 
Pennsylvania coal gas has that of only 17 candles. 

Cannel coal is also found in great abundance in Perry, Greene, 
Parkeaiid Fountain counties, where its commercial value has already 
been demonstrated. 

Numerous deposits of bog iron ore are found in the northern part 
of the State, and clay iron-stones and impure carbonates and brown 


oxides are found scattered in the vicinity of the coal field. In some 
places the beds are quite thick and of considerable commercial 

An abundance of excellent lime is also found in Indiana, espe- 
cially in Huntington county, where many large kilns are kept in 
profitable operation. 


In 1852 the Legislature passed an act authorizing the organization 
of county and district agricultural societies, and also establisliing a 
State Board, the provisions of which actare substantially as follows: 

1. Thirty or more persons in any one or two counties organizing 
into a society for the improvement ofagriculture, adopting a consti- 
tution and by-laws agreeable to the regulations prescribed by the 
Stata Board, and appointing the proper officers and raising a sum 
of $50 for its own treasury, shall be entitled to the same amount 
from the fund arising from show licenses in their respective 

2. These societies shall offer annual premiums for improvement 
of soils, tillage, crops, manures, productions, stock, articles of 
domestic industry, and such other articles, productions and improve- 
ments as they may deem proper; they shall encourage, by grant 
of rewards, agricultural and household manufacturing interests, and 
so regulate the premiums that small farmers will have equal 
opportunity with the large; and they shall pay special attention to 
cost and profit of the inventions and improvements, requiring an 
exact, detailed statement of the processes competing for rewards. 

3. They shall publish in a newspaper annually their list of 
awards and an abstract of their treasurers' accounts, and they shall 
report in full to the State Board their proceedings. Failing to do 
the latter they shall receive no payment from their county funds. 


The act of Feb. 17, 1852, also established a State Board of Agri- 
culture, with perpetual succession; its annual meetings to be held 
at Indianapolis on the first Thnreday after the first Monday in 
January, when the reports of the county societies are to be received 
and agricultural interests discussed and determined upon; it shall 
make an annual report to the Legislature of receipts, expenses, 
proceedings, etc., of its own meeting as well as of those of the local 


societies; it shall hold State fairs, at such times and places as they 
may deem proper; may hold two meetings a year, certifying to the 
State Auditor their expenses, who shall draw his warrant upon the 
Treasurer for the same. 

In 1861 the State Board adopted certain rules, embracing ten 
sections, for the government of local societies, but in 1868 they 
were found inexpedient and abandoned. It adopted a resolution 
admitting delegates from the local societies. 


As the Board found great difficulty in doing justice to exhibitors 
without an adequate building, the members went earnestly to work 
in the fall of 1872 to get up an interest in the matter. They 
appointed a committee of five to confer with the Councilor citizens 
of Indianapolis as to the best mode to be devised for a more 
thorough and complete exhibition of the industries of the State. 
The result of the conference was that the time had arrived for a 
regular " exposition," like that of the older States. At the Janu- 
ary meeting in 1873, Hon. Thomas Dowling, of Terre Haute, 
reported for the committee that they found a general interest in 
this enterprise, not only at the capital, but also throughout the 
State. A sub-committee was appointed who devised plans and 
specifications for the necessary structure, taking lessons mainly 
from the Kentucky Exposition building at Louisville. All the 
members of the State Board were in favor of proceeding with the 
building except Mr. Poole, who feared that, as the interest of the 
two enterprises were somewhat confiicting, and the Exposition being 
the more exciting show, it would swallow up the State and county 

The Exposition was opened Sept. 10, 1S73, when Hon. John 
Sutherland, President of the Board, the Mayor of Indianapolis, 
Senator Morton and Gov. Hendricks delivered addresses. Senator 
Morton took the high ground that the money spent for an exposi- 
tion is spent as strictly for educational purposes as that which goes 
directly into the common school. The exposition is not a mere 
show, to be idly gazed upon, but an industrial school where one 
should study and learn. He thought that Indiana had less untill- 
able land than any other State in the Union; 'twas as rich as any 
and yielded a greater variety of products; and that Indiana was 
the most prosperous agricultural community in the United States. 


The State had nearly 3,700 miles of railroad, not counting side- 
track, with 400 miles more under contract for building. In 15 
or 18 months one can go from Indianapolis to every county in 
the State by railroad. Indiana has 6,500 square miles of coal field, 
450 of which contain block coal, the best in the United States for 
manufacturing purposes. 

On the subject of cheap transportation, he said: " By the census 
of 1870, Pennsylvania had, of domestic animals of all kinds, 4,006,- 
589, and Indiana, 4,511,094. Pennsylvania had grain to the amount 
of 60,460,000 bushels, while Indiana had 79,350,454. The value of 
the farm products of Pennsylvania was estimated to be $183,946,- 
000; those of Indiana, $122,914,000. Thus you see that while 
Indiana had 505,000 head of live stock more, and 19,000,000 
bushels of grain more than Pennsylvania, yet the products of Penn- 
sylvania are estimated at $183,946,000, on account of her greater 
proximity to market, while those of Indiana are estimated at only 
$122,914,000. Thus you can understand the importance of cheap 
transportation to Indiana. 

" Let us see how the question of transportation affects us on the 
other hand, with reference to the manufacturer of Bessemer steel. 
Of the 174,000 tons of iron ore used in the blast furnaces of Pitts- 
burg last year, 84,000 tons came from Lake Superior, 64,000 tons 
from Iron Mountain, Missouri, 20,000 tons from Lake Champlain, 
and less than 5,000 tons from the home mines of Pennsylvania. 
They cannot manufacture their iron with the coal they have in 
Pennsylvania without coking it. We have coal in Indiana with 
which we can, in its raw state, make the best of iron; while we are 
250 miles nearer Lake Superior than Pittsburg, and 430 miles 
nearer to Iron Mountain. So that the question of transportation 
determines the fact that Indiana must become the great center for 
the manufacture of Bessemer steel." 

" What we want in this country is diversified labor.'' 

The grand hall of the Exposition buildings is on elevated ground 
at the head of Alabama street, and commands a fine view of the 
city. The structure is of brick, 308 feet long by 150 in width, and 
two stories high. Its elevated galleries extend quite around the 
building, under the roof, thus affording visitors an opportunity to 
secure the most commanding view to be had in the city. The 
lower floor of the grand hall is occupied by the mechanical, geologi- 
cal and miscellaneous departments, and by the offices of the Board, 
which extend along the entire front. The second floor, which is 


approached by three wide stairways, accommodates the tine art, 
musical and other departments of light mechanics, and is hrilliantly 
lighted by windows and skylights. But as we are here entering 
the description of a subject magnificent to behold, we enter a 
description too vast to complete, and we may as well stop here as 

The Presidents of the State Fairs have been: Gov. J. A. Wright, 
1852-'-i; Gen. Jos. Orr, 1855; Dr. A. C. Stevenson, 1856-'8; G. D. 
Wagner; 1859-60; D. P. Holloway, 1861; Jas. D.Williams, 1862, 
1870-'l; A. D. Hamrick, 1863, lS67-'9; Stearns Fisher, 1861-'6; 
John Sutherland, 1872-'4:; Wm. Crim, 1875. Secretaries: John B. 
Dillon, 1852-'3, 1855, 1858-'9; Ignatius Brown, 1856-'7; W.T. Den- 
nis, 185i, 1860-'l; W. 11. Looinis, lS62-'6; A. J. Holmes, 1867-'9; 
Joseph Poole, 1870'1; Alex. Heron, 1872-'5. Place of fair, Indian- 
apolis every year except: Lafayette, 1853; Madison, 185'4; New 
Albany, 1859,- Fort Wayne, 1865; and Terre Haute, 1867. In 
1861 there was no fair. The gate and entry receipts increased from 
$4,651 in 1852 to $45,330 in 1874. 

On the opening of the Exposition, Oct. 7, 1874, addresses were 
delivered by the President of the Board, Hon. John Sutherland, 
and by Govs. Hendricks, Bigler and Pollock. Yvon's celebrated 
painting, the " Great Republic," was unveiled with great ceremony., 
and many distinguished guests were present to witness it. 

The exhibition of 1875 showed that the plate glass from the 
southern part of the State was equal to the finest French plate; that 
the force- blowers made in the eastern part of the State was of a 
world-wide reputation; that the State has within its bounds the 
largest wagon manufactory in the world; that in other parts of the 
State there were all sorts and sizes of manufactories, including roll- 
ing mills and blast furnaces, and in the western part coal was mined 
and shipped at the rate of 2,500 tons a day from one vicinity; and 
many other facts, which " would astonish the citizens of Indiana 
themselves even more than the rest of the world." 


This society was organized in 1842, thus taking the lead in the 
West. At this time Henry Ward Beecher was a resident of Indian- 
apolis, engaged not jnly as 'a minister but also as editor of the 
Indiana Farmer and O^rdener, and his influence was very exten- 
sive in the interests of horticulture, floriculture and farming. 
Prominent among his pioneer co-laborers were Judge Coburn, 


Aaron Aldridge, Capt. James Sigarson, D. V. Culley, Reuben 
Kawan, Stephen Hampton, Cornelius RatliiF, Joshua Lindley, 
Abner Pope and many others. In the autumn of this year the 
society held an exhibition, probably the first in the State, if not 
in the "West, in the hall of the new State house. The only pre- 
mium offered was a set of silver teaspoons for the best seedling 
apple, which was won by Reuben Ragan, of Putnam county, for 
an apple christened on this occasion the " Osceola." 

The society gave great encouragement to the introduction of 
new varieties of fruit, especially of the pear, as the soil and cli- 
mate of Indiana were well adapted to this fruit. But the bright 
horizon which seemed to be at this time looming up all around the 
field of the young society's operations was suddenly and thoroughly 
darkened by the swarm of noxious insects, diseases, blasts of win- 
ter and the great distance to market. The prospects of the cause 
scarcely justified a continuation of the expense of assembling from 
remote parts of the State, and the meetings of the society therefore 
soon dwindled away until the organization itself became quite 

But when, in 1852 and afterward, railroads began to traverse the 
State in all directions, the Legislature provided for the organization 
of a State Board of Agriculture, whose scope was not only agri- 
culture but also horticulture and the mechanic and household arts. 
The rapid growth of the State soon necessitated a differentiation of 
this body, and in the autumn of 1860, at Indianapolis, there was 
organized the 


October 18, Reuben Ragan was elected President and Wra H. 
Loomis, of Marion county, Secretary. The constitution adopted 
provided for biennial meetings in January, at Indianapolis. At 
the first regular meeting, Jan. 9, 1861, a committee-man for each 
congressional district was appointed, all of them together to be 
known as the " State Fruit Committee," and twenty-five members 
were enrolled during this session. At the regular meeting in 1863 
the constitution was so amended as to provide for annual sessions, 
and the address of the newly elected President, Hon. I. G. D. Nel- 
son, of Allen county, urged the establishment of an agricultural 
college. He continued in the good cause until his work was 
crowned with success. 


In 1864 there was but little done on account of the exhaust- 
ive demands of the great war; and the descent of mercury 60° in 
eighteen hours did so much mischief as to increase the discourage- 
ment to the verge of despair. The title of the society was at this 
meeting, Jan., 1864 changed to that of the Indiana Horticultural 

The first several meetings of the society were mostly devoted to 
revision of fruit lists; and although the good work, from its vast- 
ness and complication, became somewhat monotonous, it has been 
no exception in this respect to the law that all the greatest and 
most productive labors of mankind require perseverance and toil. 

In 1866, George M. Beeler, who had so indefatigably served as 
secretary for several years, saw himself hastening to his grave, and 
showed his love for the cause of fruit culture by bequeathing to 
the society the sum of $1,000. This year also the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction was induced to take a copy of the 
Society's transactions for each of the township libraries in the State, 
and this enabled the Society to bind its volume of proceedings in 
a substantial manner. 

At the meeting in 1867 many valuable and interesting papers 
were presented, the office of corresponding secretary was created, 
and the subject of Legislative aid was discussed. The State Board 
of Agriculture placed the management of the horticultural depart- 
ment of the State fair in the care of the Society. 

The report for 1868 shows for the first time a balance on hand, 
after paying expenses, the balance being $61.55. Up to this time 
the Society had to take care of itself, — meeting current expenses, do- 
ing its own printing and binding, "boarding and clothing itself," 
and diflusing annually an amount of knowledge utterly incalcu- 
lable. During the year called meetings were held at Salem, in the 
peach and grape season, and evenings during the State fair, which 
was held in Terre Haute the previous fall. The State now assumed 
the cost of printing and binding, but the volume of transactions 
was not quite so valuable as that of the former year. 

In 1870 $160 was given to this Society by the State Board of 
Agriculture, to be distributed as prizes for essays, which object 
was faithfully carried out. The practice has since then been con- 

In 1871 the Horticultural Society brought out the best voiuKo 
of paperB and proceedings it ever has had published. 


In 1872 the ofBce of corresponding secretary was discontinued ; 
the appropriation by the State Board of Agriculture diverted to 
the payment of premiums on small fruits given at a show held the 
previous summer; results of the exhibition not entii-ely satisfac- 

In 1873 the State officials refused to publish the discussions of 
the members of the Horticultural Society, and the Legislature 
appropriated $500 for the purpose for each of the ensuing two 

In 1875 the Legislature enacted a law requiring that one of the 
trustees of Purdue University shall be selected by the Horticultu- 
ral Society. 

The aggregate annual membership of this society from its organ- 
ization in 1860 to 1875 was 1,225. 

The subject of education has been referred to in almost every 
gubernatorial message from the organization of the Territory to 
the present time. It is indeed the most favorite enterprise of the 
Hoosier State. In the first survey of Western lands, Congress set 
apart a section of land in every township, generally the IGth, for 
school purposes, the disposition of the land to be in bauds of the 
residents of the respective townships. Besides this, to this State 
were given two entire townships for the use of a State Seminary, 
to be under the control of the Legislature. Also, the State con- 
stitution provides that all fines for the breach of law and all com- 
mutations for militia service be appropriated to the use of county 
seminaries. In 1825 the common-school lands amounted to 
680,207 acres, estimated at $2 an acre, and valued therefore at 
$1,216,044. At this time the seminary at Blooraington, supported 
in part by one of these township grants, was very flourishing. The 
common schools, however, were in rather a poor condition. 


In 1852 the free-school system was fully established, which has 
resulted in placing Indiana in the lead of this great nation. Al- 
though tins is a pleasant subject, it is a very large one to treat in 
a condensed notice, as this has to be. 

The free-school system of Indiana first became practically oper- 
ative the first Monday of April, 1853, when the township trustees 


for school purposes were elected through the State. The law com- 
mitted to them the charge of all the educational affairs in their 
respective townships. As it was feared by the opponents of the 
law that it would not be possible to select men in all the town- 
ships capable of executing the school laws satisfactorily, the 
people were thereby awakened to the necessity of electing their 
very best men ; and although, of course, man}- blunders have been 
made by trustees, the operation of the law has tended to elevate the 
adult population as well as the youth; and Indiana still adheres to 
the policy of appointing its best men to educational positions. 
The result is a grand surprise to all old fogies, who indeed scarcely 
dare to appear such any longer. 

To instruct the people in the new law and set the educational 
machinery going, a pamphlet of over 60 pages, embracing the law, 
with notes and explanations, was issued from the olHce of a super- 
intendent of public instruction, and distributed freely throughout 
the State. The first duty of the Board of Trustees was to establish 
and conveniently locate a sufficient number of schools for the edu- 
cation of all the children of their township. But where were the 
school-houses, and what were they? Previously they had been 
erected by single districts, but under this law districts were abol- 
ished, their lines obliterated, and houses previously built by dis- 
tricts became the property of the township, and all the houses were 
to be built at the expense of the township by an appropriation of 
township funds by the trustees. In some townships there was not 
a single school-house of any kind, and in others there were a few 
old, leak}', dilapidated log cabins, wholly unfit for use even in sum- 
mer, and in " winter worse than nothing." Before the people could 
be tolerably accommodated with schools at least 3,500 school-houses 
had to be erected in the State. 

By a general law, enacted in conformity to the constitution of 
1S52, each township was made a municipal corporation, and every 
v(jter in the township a member of the corporation ; the Board of 
Trustees constituted the township legislature as well as the execu- 
tive body, the whole body of voters, however, exercising direct con- 
trol througli frequent meetings called by the trustees. Special 
taxes and every other matter of importance were directly voted 

Some tax-payers, who were opposed to special townships' taxes, 
retarded the progress of schools by refusing to pay their assess- 
ment. Contracts for building school-houses were given up, houses 


half finished were abandoned, and in many townships all school 
operations were suspended. In some of them, indeed, a rumor was 
circulated by the enemies of the law that the entire school law from 
beginning to end bad been declared by the Supreme Court uncon- 
stitutional and void; and the Trustees, believing this, actually dis- 
missed their schools and considered themselves out of office. Hon. 
"W. C. Larrabee, the (first) Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
corrected this error as soon as possible. 

But while the voting of special taxes was doubted on a constitu- 
tional point, it became evident that it was weak in a practical point; 
for in many townships the opponents of the system voted down every 
proposition for theerection of school-houses. 

Another serious obstacle was the great deficiency in the number 
of qualified teachers. To meet the newly created want, the law 
authorized the appointment of deputies in each county to examine 
and license persons to teach, leaving it in their judgment to lower 
the standard of qualification sufficiently to enable them to license 
as many as were needed to supply all the schools. It was therefore 
found necessary to employ many " unqualified " teachers, especially 
in the remote rural districts. But the progress of the times 
enabled the Legislature of 1853 to erect a standard of qualifica- 
tion and give to the county commissioners the authority to license 
teachers; and in order to supply every school with a teacher, while 
there might not be a sufficient number of properly qualified teach- 
ers, the commissioners were authorized to grant temporary licenses 
to take charge of particular schools not needing a high grade of 

In 1854 the available common-school fund consisted of the con- 
gressional township fund, the surplus revenue fund, the saline 
iuud, the bank tax fund and miscellaneous fund, amounting in all 
to ii2,'J:60,G00. This amount, from many sources, was subsequently 
increased to a very great extent. The common-school fund was 
intrusted to the several counties of the State, which were held 
responsible for the preservation thereof and for the payment of the 
annual interest thereon. The fund was managed by the auditors 
and treasurers of the several counties, for which these officers were 
allowed one-tenth of the income. It was loaned out to the citizens 
of the county in sums not exceeding $300, on real estate security. 
The common-school fund was thus consolidated and the proceeds 
equally distributed each year to all the townships, cities and towns 


of the State, in proportion to the number of children. This phase 
of the law met with considerable opposition in 1854. 

The provisions of the law for the establishment of township 
libraries was promptly carried into effect, and much time, labor 
and thought were devoted to the selection of books, special atten- 
tion being paid to historical works. 

The greatest need in 1854 was for qualified teachers; but never- 
theless the progress of public education during this and following 
years was very great. School-houses were erected, many of them 
being fine structures, well furnished, and the libraries were consid- 
erably enlarged. 

The city school system of Indiana received a heavy set-back in 
1858, by a decision of the Supreme Court of the State, that the 
law authorizing cities and townships to levy a tax additional to the 
State tax was not in conformity with that clause in the Constitu- 
tion which required uniformity in taxation. The schools were 
stopped for want of adequate funds. For a few weeks in each year 
thereafter the feeble " uniform " supply from the State fund en- 
abled the people to open the schools, but considering the returns 
the public realizes for so small an outlay in educational matters, 
this proved more expensive than ever. Private schools increased, 
but the attendance was small. Thus the interests of popular edu 
cation languished for years. But since the revival of the free 
schools, the State fund has grown to vast proportions, and the 
schools of this intelligent and enterprising commonwealth compare 
favorably with those of any other portion of the United States. 

There is no occasion to present all the statistics of school prog- 
ress in this State from the first to the present time, but some 
interest will be taken in the latest statistics, which we take from the 
9tli Biennial Eeport (for]877-'8) by the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, Hon. James H. Smart. This report, by the 
way, is a volume of 480 octavo pages, and is free to all who desire 
a copy. 

The rapid, substantia] and permanent increase which Indiana 
enjoys in her school interests is thus set forth in the above report. 



of Scnool 

No of 



Am't Paid 


m Days. 


at School. 








$ 289,934 
































The increase of school population during the past tea years has 
been as follows: 

Total in 1868, 593,865. 

Increase for year ending Increase for year ending 

8ept.l,1869 17,699 May 1, 1874 13,982 

" 1,1870 9,063 " 1,1875 13,372 

" 1,1871 3,101 " 1,1876 11,494 

" 1,1872 8,811 " 1,1877 15,476 

May 1, 1873 (8 months) 8,903 " 1,1878 4,447 

Total, 1878. 

No. of white males 354,271 ; females 333,033 687,304 

" "colored" 5,937; " 5,912 11,849 


Twenty-nine per cent, of the above are in the 49 cities and 212 
incorporated towns, and 71 per cent, in the 1,011 townships. 

The number of white males enrolled in the schools in 1878 was 
267,315, and of white females, 237,739; total, 505,054; of colored 
males, 3,794; females, 3,687; total, 7,481; grand total, 512,535. 

The average number enrolled in each district varies from 51 to 56, 
and the average daily attendance from 32 to 35; but many children 
reported as absent attend parochial or private schools. Seventy- 
three per cent, of the white children and 63 per cent, of the colored, 
in the State, are enrolled in the schools. 

The number of days taught vary materially in the diiFerent town- 
ships, and on this point State Superintendent Smart iterates: "As 
long as the schools of some of our townships are kept open but 60 
days and others 220 days, we do not have a uniform system, — such 
as was contemplated by the constitution. The school law requires 
the trustee of a township to maintain each of the schools in his 
corporation an equal length of time. This provision cannot be so 
easily applied to the various counties of the State, for the reason 
that there is a variation in the density of the population, in the 
wealth of the people, and the amount of the township funds. I 
think, however, there is scarcely a township trustee in the State 
who cannot, under the present law, if he chooses to do so, bring his 
schools up to an average of six months. I think it would be wise 
to require each township trustee to levy a sufficient local tax to 
maintain the schools at least six months of the year, provided this 
can be done without increasing the local tax beyond the amount 
now permitted by law. This would tend to bring the poorer schools 
up to the standard of the best, and would thus unify the system, 
and make it indeed a common-school system." 


The State, however, averages six and a half months school per 
year to each district. 

The number of school districts in the State in 1878 was 9,380, in 
all but 34 of which school was taught during that year. There are 
396 district and 151 township graded schools. Number of white 
male teachers, 7,977, and of female, 5,699; colored, male, 62, and 
female, 43; grand total, 13,781. For the ten years ending with 
1878 there was an increase of 409 male teachers and 811 female 
teachers. All these teachers, e.xcept about 200, attend normal 
institutes, — a showing which probably surpasses that of any other 
Statfc in this respect. 

The average daily compensation of teachers throughout the 
State in 1878 was as follows: In townships, males, $1.90; females, 
$1.70: in towns, males, $3.09; females, $1.81; in cities, males, 
$4.06; females, $2.29. 

In 1878 there were 89 stone school -houses, 1,724 brick, 7,608 
frame, and 124 log; total, 9,545, valued at $11,536,647.39. 

And lastly, and best of all, we are happy to state that Indiana has 
a larger school fund than any other State in the Union. In 1872, 
according to the statistics before us, it was larger than that of any 
other State by $2,000,000! the figures being as follows: 

Indiana |8,437,593.47 Michigan $2,500,214.91 

Ohio 6,614,816.50 Missouri 2,.535,252.52 

Illinois 6,348,538.32 Minnesota 2,471,199.31 

New York 2,880,017.01 Wisconsin 2,237,414.37 

Connecticut 2,809,770.70 Massachusetts 2,210,864.09 

Iowa 4,274,581.93 Arkansas 2,000,000.00 

Nearly all the rest of the States have less than a million dollars 
in their school fund. 

In 1872 the common-school fund of Indiana consisted of the 

Non-negotiable bonds |3,591,316.15 Escheated estates 17,866,55 

Common-school fund, l,H66,s24,50 Sinking fund, last distrib- 

Sinking fund, at 8 per cent 569,139.94 ution 67,068,73 

Congressional township Sinking fund undistrib- 

fund 3,281,076,69 uted 100,165,93 

Value of unsold Congres- Swamp land fund 42,418.40 

sional township lands,. 94,245,00 - 

Saline fund 5,727.66 $8,4:37,593 47 

Bank tax fund 1,744.94 

In 1878 the grand total was $8,974,455.55. 

The origin of the respective school funds of Indiana is as follows: 

1. The " Congressional township " fund is derived from the 

proceeds of the 16th sections of tlie township.'^. Almost all of these 

have been sold and the money put out at interest. The amount of 
this fund in 1877 was $2,452,936.82. 

2. The "saline" fund consists of the proceeds of the sale of 
salt springs, and the land adjoining necessary for working them to 
the amount of 36 entire sections, authorized by the original act of 
Congress. By authority of the same act the Legislature has made 
these proceeds a part of the permanent school fund. 

3. The " surplus revenue " fund. Under the administration of 
President Jackson, the national debt, contracted by the Revolutionary 
war and the purchase of Louisiana, was entirely discharged, and a 
large surplus remained in the treasury. In June, 1836, Congress 
distributed this money amcng the States in the ratio of their repre- 
sentation in Congress, subject to recall, and Indiana's share was 
$860,254. The Legislature subsequently set apart $573,502.96 of 
this amount to be a part of the school fund. It is not probable that 
the general Government will ever recall this money. 

4. " Bank tax " fund. The Legislature of 1834 chartered a State 
Bank, of which a part of the stock was owned by the State and a 
part by individuals. Section 15 of the charter required an annual 
deduction from the dividends, equal to 12^ cents on each share not 
held by the State, to be set apart for common-school education. 
This tax finally amounted to $80,000, which now bears interest in 
favor of education. 

5. "Sinking" fund. In order to set the State bank under 
good headway, tlie State at first borrowed $1,300,000, and out of 
the unapplied balances a fund was created, increased by unapplied 
balances also of the principal, interest and dividends of the jfmount 
lent to the individual holders of stock, for the purpose of sinking 
the debt of the bank; hence the name sinking fund. The 114th 
section of the charter provided that after the full payment of the 
bank's indebtedness, principal, interest and incidental expenses, the 
residue of said fund should be a permanent fund, appropriated to 
the cause of education. As the charter extended through a period 
of 25 years, this fund ultimately reached the handsome amount of 

The foregoing are all interest-bearing funds; the following are 
additional school funds, but not productive: 

6. " Seminary " fund. By order of the Legislature in 1852, all 
county seminaries were sold, and _ the net proceeds placed in the 
common- school fund. 


7. All fines for the violation of the penal laws of the State are 
placed to tlie credit of the common-scho )1 fund 

8. All recognizances of witnesses and parties indicted for crime, 
when forfeited, are collectible by law and made a part of the 
school fund. These are reported to the office of the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction annually. For the five years ending 
with 1872, they averaged about $34,000 a year. 

9. Escheats. These amount to $17,865.55, which was still in 
the State treasury in 1872 and unapplied. 

10. The "swamp-land" fund arises from the sale of certain 
Congressional land grants, not devoted to any particular purpose 
by the terms of the grant. In 1872 there was 142,418.40 of this 
money, subject to call by the school interests. 

11. Taxes on corporations are to some extent devoted by the 
Constitution to school purposes, but the clause on this subject is 
somewhat obscure, and no funds as yet have been realized from this 
source. It is supposed that several large sums of money are due 
the common-school fund from the corporations. 

Constitutionally, any of the above funds may be increased, but 
never diminished. 


So early as 1802 the U. S. Congress granted lands and a charter 
to the people of that portion of the Northwestern Territory resid- 
ing at Vincennes, for the erection and maintenance of a seminary 
of learning in that early settled district; and five years afterward 
an act incorporating the Vincennes University asked the Legisla- 
ture to appoint a Board of Trustees for the institution and order the 
sale of a single township in Gibson county, granted by Congress in 
1802, so that the proceeds might be at once devoted to the objects 
of education. On this Board the following gentlemen were ap- 
pointed to act in the interests of the institution: "William H. Har- 
rison, John Gibson, Thomas H. Davis, Henry Vanderburgh, Wal- 
ler Taylor, Benjamin Parke, Peter Jones, James Johnson, John 
Rice Jones, George Wallace, William Bullitt, Elias McNamee, 
John Badolett, Henry Hurst, Gen. W. Johnston, Francis Vigo, 
Jacob Kuykendall, Samuel McKee. Nathaniel Ewing, George 
Leech, Luke Decker, Samuel Gwathmey and John Johnson. 

The sale of this land was slow and the proceeds small. The 
members of the Board, too, were apathetic, and failing to meet, the 
institution fell out of existence and out of memory. 


In 1816 Congress granted another township in Monroe county, 
located within its present limits, and the foundation of a university 
was laid. Four years later, and after Indiana was erected into a 
State, an act of the local Legislature appointing another Board of 
Trustees and authorizing them to select a location for a university 
and to enter into contracts for its construction, was passed. The 
new Board met at Bloomington and selected a site at that place for 
the location of the present building, entered into a contract for the 
erection of the same in 1822, and in 1825 had the satisfaction of being 
present at the inauguration of the university. The first session was 
commenced under the Rev. Baynard R. Hall, with 20 students, and 
when the learned professor could only boast of a salary of $150 a 
year; yet, on this very limited sum the gentleman worked with 
energy and soon brought the enterprise through all its elementary 
stages to the position of an academic institution. Dividing the 
year into two sessions of five months each, the Board acting under 
his advice, changed the name to the " Indiana Academy," under 
which title it was duly chartered. In 1827 Prof. John H. Harney 
was raised to the chairs of matliematics, natural philosophy and 
astronomy, at a salary of $300 a year; and the salary of Mr. Hall 
raised to $400 a year. In 1828 the name was again changed by the 
Legislature to the " Indiana College," and the following professors 
appointed over the different departments; Rev. Andrew Wylie, 
D. D., Prof, of mental and moral philosophy and belles lettres; 
John H. Harney, Prof of mathematics and natural philosophy ; and 
Rev. Bayard R. Hall, Prof, of ancient languages. This year, also, 
dispositions were made for the sale of Gibson county lands and for 
the erection of a new college building. This action was opposed 
by some legal difficulties, which after a time were overcome, and 
the new college building was put under construction, and continued 
to prosper until 1854, when it was destroyed by fire, a-nd 9,000 
volumes, with all the apparatus, were consumed The curriculum 
was then carried out in a temporary building, while a new struct- 
ure was going up. 

In 1873 the new college, with its additions, was completed, and 
the routine of studies continued. A museum of natural history, 
a laboratory and the Owen cabinet added, and the standard of the 
studies and morale generally increased in excellence and in strict- 

Bloomington is a fine, healthful locality, on the Louisville, New 
Albany & Chicago railway. The University buildings are in the 


collegiate Gothic style, simply' and truly carried out. The building, 
fronting College avenue is 145 feet in front. It consists of a 
central building 60 feet by 53, with wings each 3S feet by 26, and 
the whole, three stories high. The new building,- fronting the 
west, is 130 feet by 50. Buildings lighted by gas. 

The faculty numbers thirteen. Number of students in the col- 
legiate department in 1879-'S0, 183; in preparatory, 169; total, 
349, allowing for three counted twice. 

The university may now be considered on a fixed founaation, car- 
rying out the intention of the President, who aimed at scholarship 
rather than numbers, and demands the attention of eleven pro- 
fessors, together with the State Geologist, who is ex-officio member 
of the faculty, and required to lecture at intervals and look after 
the geological and raineralogical interests of the institution. The 
faculty of medicine is represented by eleven leading physicians 
of the neighborhood. The faculty of law requires two resident 
professors, and the other chairs remarkably well represented. 

The university received from the State annually about $15,000, 
and promises with the aid of other public grants and private dona- 
tions to vie with any other State university within the Republic. 


This is a " college for the benefit of agricultural and the mechanic 
arts," as provided for bj' act of Congress, July 2, 1862, donating 
lands for this purpose to the extent of 30,000 acres of the public 
domain to each Senator and Representative in the Federal assem- 
bly. Indiana having in Congress at that time thirteen members, 
became entitled to 390,000 acres; but as there was no Congress 
land in the State at this time, scrip had to be taken, and it was 
upon the following condition (we quote the act): 

" Section 4. That all moneys derived from the sale of land 
scrip shall be invested in the stocks of the United States, or of 
some other safe stocks, yielding no less than five per centum upon 
the par value of said stocks; and that the moneys so invested shall 
constitute a perpetual fund, the capital of which shall remain undi- 
minished, except so far as may be provided in section 5 of this act, 
and the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated by each 
State, which may take and claim the benefit of this act, to the 
endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college, where 
the leadinsr object shall be, without excluding other scientific and 


classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning r.s are related to agriculture and the mechanic 
arts, in such a manner as the Legislatures of the States may re- 
spectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical 
education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and pro- 
fessions of life. 

" Sec. 5. That the grant of land and land scrip hereby author- 
ized shall be made on the following conditions, to which, as well as 
the provision hereinbefore contained, the previous assent of the 
several States shall be signitied by Legislative act: 

" First. If any portion of the funds invested as provided by the 
foregoing section, or any portion of the interest thereon, shall by 
any action or contingency be diminished or lost, it shall be replaced 
by the State to which it belongs, so that the capital of the fund 
shall remain forever undiminished, and the annual interest shall be 
regularly applied, without diminution, to the purposes mentioned 
in the fourth section of this act, except that a sum not exceeding ten 
per centum upon the amount received by any State under the pro- 
visions of this act may be expended for the purchase of lands for 
sites or experimental farms, whenever authorized by the respective 
Legislatures of said States. 

" Second. No portion of said fund, nor interest thereon, shall 
be applied, directly or indirectly, under any pretence whatever, to 
the purchase, erection, preservation or repair of any building or 

"Third. Any State which may take and claim the benefit of 
the provisions of this act, shall provide, within five years at least, 
not less than one college, as provided in the fourth section of this 
act, or the grant to such State shall cease and said State be bound 
to pay the United States tlie amount received of any lands pre- 
viously sold, and that the title to purchase under the States shall 
be valid. 

" Fourth. An annual report shall be made regarding the prog- 
ress of each college, recording any improvements and experiments 
made, with their cost and result, and such other matter, mciuding 
State industrial and economical statistics, as may be supposed use- 
ful, one copy of which shall be transmitted by mail free, by each, 
to all other colleges which may be endowed under the provisions 
of this act, and also one copy to the Secretary of the Interior. 

"Fifth. When lands snail be selected from those which have 
been raised to double the minimum price in consequence of railroad 


grants, that they shall be computed to the States at the maximum 
price, and the number of acres proportionately diminished. 

"Sixth. No State, while in a condition of rebellion or insur- 
rection against the Government of the United States, shall be 
entitled to the benefits of this act. 

"Seventh. No State shall be entitled to the benefits of this act 
unless it shall express its acceptance thereof by its Legislature 
within two years from the date of its approval by the President." 

The foregoing act was approved by the President, July 2, 1862. 
It seemed that this law, amid the din of arms with the great Rebel- 
lion, was about to pass altogether unnoticed by the next General 
Assembly, January, 1863, had not Gov. Morton's attention been 
called to it by a delegation of citizens from Tippecanoe county, who 
visited him in the interest of Battle Ground. He thereupon sent 
a special message to the Legislature, upon the subject, and then 
public attention was excited to it everywhere, and several localities 
competed for the institution ; indeed, the rivalry was so great that 
this session failed to act in the matter at all, and would have failed 
to accept of the grant within the two years prescribed in the last 
clause quoted above, had not Congress, by a supplementary act, 
extended the time two years longer. 

March 6, 1865, the Legislature accepted the conditions ot the 
national gift, and organized the Board of " Trustees of the Indiana 
Agricultural College." This Board, by authority, sold the scrip 
April 9, 1867, for $212,238.50, which sum, by compounding, has 
increased to nearly $400,000, and is invested in U. S. bonds. Not 
until the special session of Maj', 1S69, was the localit}' for this col- 
lege selected, when John Purdue, of Lafayette, offered $150,000 
and Tippecanoe county $50,000 more, and the title of the institution 
changed to " Purdue University." Donations were also made by 
the Battle Ground Institute and the Battle Ground Institute of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The building was located on a 100-acre tract near Chauncey, 
which Purdue gave in addition to his magnificent donation, and to 
which 86i^ acres more have since been added on the north. The 
boarding-house, dormitory, the laboratory, boiler and gas house, 
a frame armory and gymnasium, stable with shed and work-shop 
are all to the north of the gravel road, and form a group of build- 
ings within a circle of 600 feet. The boiler and gas house occupy 
a rather central position, and supply steam and gas to the boarding- 
house, dormitory and laboratory. A description of these buildings 


may be apropos. The boarding-house is a brick structure, in the 
modern Italian style, planked by a turret at each of the front angles 
and measuring 120 feet front by 68 feet deep. The dormitory is a 
quadrangular edifice, in the plain Elizabethan style, four stories 
liigh, arranged to accommodate 125 students. Like the other build- 
ings, it is heated by steam and lighted by gas. Bathing accommo- 
dations are in each end of all the stories. The laboratory is almost 
a duplicate of a similar department in Brown University, K. I. It 
is a much smaller building than the boarding-house, but yet suffi- 
ciently large to meet the requirements. A collection of minerals, 
fossils and antiquities, purchased from Mr. Richard Owen, former 
President of the institution, occupies the temporary cabinet or 
museum, pending the construction of a new building. The military 
hall and gymnasium is 100 feet frontage by 50 feet deep, and only 
one story high. The uses to which this hall is devoted are exer- 
cises in physical and military drill. The boiler and gas house is an 
establishment replete in itself, possessing every facility for supply- 
ing the buildings of the university with adequate heat and light. 
It is further provided with pumping works. Convenient to this 
department is the retort and great meters of the gas house, capable 
of holding 9,000 cubic feet of gas, and arranged upon the principles 
of modern science. The barn and shed form a single building, 
both useful, convenient and ornamental. 

In connection with the agricultural department of the university, 
a brick residence and barn were erected and placed at the disposal 
of the farm superintendent, Maj. L. A. Burke. 

The buildings enumerated above have been erected at a cost 
approximating the following: boarding-house, $37,807.07; labora- 
tory, $15,000; dormitory, $32,000; military hall and gymnasium, 
$6,410.47; boiler and gas house, $4,814; barn and shed, $1,500; 
work-shop, $1,000; dwelling and barn, $2,500. 

Besides the original donations. Legislative appropriations, vary- 
ing in amount, have been made from time to time, and Mr. Fierce, 
the treasurer, has donated his official salary, $600 a year, for the time 
he served, for decorating the grounds, — if necessary. 

The opening of the university was, owing to varied circumstan- 
ces, postponed from time to time, and not until March, 1874, was a 
class formed, and this only to comply with the act of Congress in 
that connection in its relation to the university. However, in 
September following a curriculum was adopted, and the first regu- 
lar term of the Purdue University entered upon. This curriculum 


comprises the varied subjects generally pertaining to a iirst-cla&s 
university course, namely: in the school of natural science- 
physics and industrial mechanics, chemistry and natural history, 
in the school of engineering — civil and mining, together with the 
principles of architecture; in the school of agriculture — theoret- 
ical and practical agriculture, horticulture and veterinary science; 
in the military school — the mathematical sciences, German and 
French literature, free-hand and mechanical drawing, with all the 
studies pertaining to the natural and military sciences. Modern 
languages and natural history embrace their respective courses to 
the fullest extent. 

There are this year (1880) eleven members of the faculty, 86 
students in the regular courses, and 117 other students. In respect 
to attendance there has been a constant increase from the first. 
The first year, 1874- '5, there were but 64 students. 


This institution was founded at Terre Haute in 1870, in accord- 
ance with the act of the Legislature of that year. The building is 
a large brick edifice situated upon a commanding location and 
possessing some architectural beauties. From its inauguration 
many obstacles opposed its advance toward efficiency and success; 
but the Board of Trustees, composed of men experienced in edu- 
cational matters, exercised their strength of mind and body to 
overcome every difficulty, and secure for the State Normal School 
every distinction and emolument that lay within their power, 
their efforts to this end being very successful; and it is a fact that 
the institution has arrived at, if not eclipsed, the standard of their 
expectations. Not alone does the course of study embrace the 
legal subjects known as reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, 
geography, United States history, English grammar, physiology, 
manners and ethics, but it includes also universal history, the 
mathematical sciences and many other subjects foreign to older 
institutions. The first studies are prescribed by law and must be 
inculcated; the second are optional with the professors, and in the 
case of Indiana generally hold place in the curriculum of the nor- 
mal school. 

The model, or training school, specially designed for the training 
of teachers, forms a most important factor in State educational 
matters, and prepares teachers of both sexes for one of the most 
important positions in life; viz., that of educating the youth of the 


State. The advanced course of studies, together with the higher 
studies of the normal school, embraces Latin and German, and pre- 
pares young men and women for entrance to the State University. 

The efficiency of this school may be elicited from the following 
facts, taken from the official reports: out of 41 persons who had 
graduated from the elementary course, nine, after teaching success- 
fully in the public schools of this State from two terms to two 
years, returned to the institution and sought admission to the 
advanced classes. They were admitted; three of them were gentle- 
men and six ladies. After spending two years and two terms in the 
elementary course, and then teaching in the schools during the 
time already mentioned they returned to spend two and a half or 
three years more, and for the avowed purpose of qualifying them- 
selves for teaching in the most responsible positions of the public 
school service. In fact, no student is admitted to the school who 
does not in good faith declare his intention to qualify himself for 
teaching in the schools of the State. This the law requires, and 
the rule is adhered to literally. 

The report further says, in speaking of the government of the 
school, that the fundamental idea is rational freedom, or that free- 
dom which gives exemption from the power of control of one over 
another, or, in other words, the self-limiting of themselves, in their 
acts, by a recognition of the rights of others who are equally free. 
The idea and origin of the school being laid down, and also the 
means by which scholarship can be realized in the individual, the 
student is left to form his own conduct, both during session hours 
and while away from school. The teacher merely stands between 
this scholastic idea and the student's own partial conception of it, 
as expositor or interpreter. The teacher is not legislator, executor 
or police officer; he is expounder of the true idea of school law, so 
that the only test of the student's conduct is obedience to, or 
nonconformity with, that law as interpreted by the teacher. This 
idea once inculcated in the minds of the students, insures industry, 
punctuality and order. 


This institution was organized Sept. 16, 1873, with 35 students 
in attendance. The school occupied the building known as the 
Valparaiso Male and Female College building. Four teachers 


were employed. The attendance, so small at first, increased rap- 
idly and steadil3% until at the present writing, the seventh year 
in the history of the school, the yearly enrollment is more than 
three thousand. The number of instructors now employed is 23. 

From time to time, additions have been made to the school 
buildings, and numerous boarding halls have been erected, so that 
now the value of the buildings and grounds owned by the school 
is one hundred thousand dollars. 

A large library has been collected, and a complete equipment of 
philosophical and chemical apparatus has been purchased. The 
department of physiology is supplied with skeletons, manikins, 
and everything necessary to the demonstration of each branch of 
the subject. A large cabinet is provided for the study of geology. 
In fact, each department of the school is completely furnished 
with the apparatus needed for the most approved presentation of 
every subject. 

There are 15 chartered departments in the institution. These 
are in charge of thorough, energetic, and scholarly instructors, and 
send forth each year as graduates, a large number of finely cultured 
young ladies and gentlemen, living testimonials of the efficiency 
of the course of study and the methods used. 

The Commercial College in connection with the school is in itself 
a great institution. It is finely fitted up and furnished, and ranks 
foremost among the business colleges of the United States. 

The expenses for tuition, room and board, have been made so 
low that an opportunity for obtaining a thorough education is 
presented to the poor and the rich alike. 

All of this work has been accomplished in the short space of 
seven years. The school now holds a high place among educational 
institutions, and is the largest normal school in the United States. 

This wonderful growth and devolopment is wholly due to the 
energy and faithfulness of its teachers, and the unparalleled exec- 
utive ability of its proprietor and principal. The school is not 


Nor is Indiana behind in literary institutions under denomina- 
tional auspices. It is not to be understood, however, at the present 
day, that sectarian doctrines are insisted upon at the so-called 
" denominational" colleges, universities and seminaries; the youth at 
these places are influenced only by Christian example. 


Notre Daine University^ near South Bend, is a Catholic institu- 
tion, and is one of the most noted in the United States. It was 
founded in 1842 by Father Sorin. The first building was erected 
in 1843, and the university has continued to grow and prosper until 
the present time, now having 35 professors, 26 instructors, 9 tutors, 
213 students and 12,000 volumes in library. At present the main 
building has a frontage of 224 feet and a depth of 155. Thousands 
of young people have received their education here, and a large 
number have been graduated for the priesthood. A chapter was 
held here in 1872, attended by delegates from all parts of the world. 
It is worthy of mention that this institution has a bell weighing 
13,000 pounds, the largest in the United States and one of the finest 
in the world. 

The Indiana Ashury University, at Greencastle, is an old and 
well-established institution under the auspices of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, named after its first bishop, Asbury. It was 
founded in 1835, and in 1872 it had nine professors and 172 

Howard College, not denominational, is located at Kokomo, and 
was founded in 1869. In 1872 it had five professors, four instructors, 
and 69 students. 

Union Christian College, Christian, at Merom, was organized in 
1858, and in 1872 had four resident professors, seven instructors 
and 156 students. 

Moore'' s Hill College, Methodist Episcopal, is situated at Moore's 
Hill, was founded in 1854, and in 1872 had five resident professors, 
five instructors, and 142 students. 

Earlharn's College, at Richmond, is under the management of 
the Orthodox Friends, and was founded in 1859. In 1872 they 
had six resident professors and 167 students, and 3,300 volumes in 

Wabash College, at Crawfordsville, was organized in 1834, and 
had in 1S72, eight professors and teachers, and 231 students, with 
about 12,000 volumes in the library. It is under Presbyterian 

Concordia College, Lutheran, at Fort Wayne, was founded in 
1850; in 1872 it had four professors and 148 students: 3,000 volumes 
in library. 

Hanover College, Presbyterian, was organized in 1833, at Han- 
over, and in 1872 had seven professors and 118 students, and 7,000 
volumes in library. 


Rartsvllle University, United Brethren, at Hartsville, was 
founded in 1854, and in 1872 liad seven professors and 117 students. 

Northwestern Christian University, Disciples, is located at 
Irvington, near Indianapolis. It was founded in 1854, and by 
1872 it had 15 resident professors, 181 students, and 5,000 volumes 
in library. 


By the year 1830, the influx of paupers and invalid persons was 
so great that the Governor called upon the Legislature to take 
steps toward regulating the matter, and also to provide an asylum 
for the poor, but that body was very slow to act on the matter. 
At the present time, however, there is no State in the Union which 
can boast a better system of benevolent institutions. The Benevo- 
lent Society of Indianapolis was organized in 1843. It was a 
pioneer institution; its field of work was small at first, but it has 
grown into great usefulness. 


In behalf of the blind, the first effort was made by James M. Ray, 
about 1846. Through his etibrts William H. Churchman came 
from Kentucky with blind pupils and gave exhibitions in Mr. 
Beecher's church, in Indianapolis. These entertainments were 
attended by members of the Legislature, for whom indeed they 
were especially intended; and the effect upon them was so good, 
that before they adjourned the session they adopted measures to es- 
tablish an asylum for the blind. The commission appointed to carry 
out these measures, consisting of James M. Eay, Geo. W. Mear's, 
and the Secretary, Treasurer and Auditor of State, engaged Mr. 
Churchman to make a lecturing tour through the State and collect 
statistics of the blind population. 

The " Institute for the Education of the Blind " was founded by 
the Legislature of 1847, and first opened in a rented building Oct. 
1, of that year. The permanent buildings were opened and occu- 
pied in February, 1853. The original cost of the buildings and 
ground was $110,000, and the present valuation of buildings and 
grounds approximates $300,000. The main building is 90 feet 
long by 61 deep, and with its right and left wings, each 30 feet in 
front and 83 in depth, give an entire frontage of 150 feet. The 
main building is five stories in height, surmounted by a cupola of 


the Corinthian style, while each wing is similarly overcapped 
The porticoes, cornices and verandahs are gotten up with exquisite 
taste, and the former are molded after the principle of Ionic archi- 
tecture. The building is very favorably situated, and occupies a 
space of eight acres. 

The nucleus of a fund for supplying indigent graduates of the 
institution with an outfit suitable to their trades, or with money in 
lieu thereof, promises to meet with many additions. The fund is 
the out-come of the benevolence of Mrs. Fitzpatrick, a resident of 
Delaware, in this State, and appears to be suggested by the fact 
that her daughter, who was smitten with blindness, studied as a 
pupil in the institute, and became singularly attached to many of 
its inmates. The following passage from the lady's will bears 
testimony not only to her own sympathetic nature but also to the 
efficiency of the establishment which so won her esteem. " I give 
to each of the following persons, friends and associates of my blind 
daughter, Margaret Louisa, the sum of $100 to each, to wit, viz: 
Melissa and Phoebe Garrettson, Frances Cundiff, Dallas Newland, 
Naomi Unthunk, and a girl whose name before marriage was 
Eachel Martin, her husband's name not recollected. The balance 
of my estate, after paying the expenses of administering, I give to 
the superintendent of the blind asylum and his successor, in trust, 
for the use and benefit of the indigent blind of Indiana who may 
attend the Indiana blind asylum, to be given to them on leaving 
in such sums as the superintendent may deem proper, but not more 
than $50 to any one person. I direct that the amount above direct- 
ed be loaned at interest, and the interest and principal be distributed 
as above, agreeably to the best judgment of the superintendent, 
so as to do the greatest good to the greatest number of blind 

The following rules, regulating the institution, after laying down 
in preamble that the institute is strictly an educational estab- 
lishment, having its main object the moral, intellectual and phys- 
ical training of the young blind of the State, and is not an asylum 
for the aged and helpless, nor an hospital wherein the diseases of 
the eye may be treated, proceed as follows : 

1. The school year commences the first Wednesday after the 
15th day of September, and closes on the last Wednesday in June, 
showing a session of 40 weeks, and a vacation term of 84 days. 

2. Applicants for admission must be from 9 to 21 years of age; 
but the trustees have power to admit blind students under 9 or 


over 21 years of age; but this power is extended only in very 
extreme cases. 

3. Imbecile or unsound persons, or confirmed iramoralists, 
cannot be admitted knowingly; neither can admitted pupils who 
prove disobedient or incompetent to receive instruction be retained 
on tlie roll. 

i. No charge is made for the instruction and board given to 
pupils from the State of Indiana; and even those without the State 
have only to pay $200 for board and education during the 40 weeks' 

5. An abundant and good supply of comfortable clothing for 
both summer and winter wear, is an indispensable adjunct of the 

6. The owner's name must be distinctly marked on each article 
of clothing. 

7. In cases of extreme indigence the institution may provide 
clothing and defray the traveling expenses of such pupil and levy the 
amount so expended on the county wherein his or her home is 

8. The pupil, or friends of the pupil, must remove him or her 
from the institute during the annual vacation, and in case of their 
failure to do so, a legal provision enables the superintendent to 
forward such pupil to the trustee of the township where he or she 
resides, and the expense of such transit and board to be charged to 
the county. 

9. Friends of the pupils accompanying them to the institution, 
or visiting them thereat, cannot enter as boarders or lodgers. 

10. Letters to the pupils should be addressed to the care of the 
Superintendent of the Institute for the Education of the Blind, so as 
the better to insure delivery. 

11. Persons desirous of admission of pupils should apply to the 
superintendent for a printed copy of instructions, and no pupil 
should be sent thereto until the instructions have been complied 
with. 5, 


In 1843 the Governor was also instructed to obtain plans and 
information respecting the care of mutes, and the Legislature also 
levied a tax to provide for them. The first one to agitate the subject 
was "William Willard, himself a mute, who visited Indiana in 1843, 
and opened a school for mutes on his own account, with 16 pupils. 


The next year the Legislature adopted this school as a State insti- 
tution, appointing a Board of Trustees for its management, consist- 
ing of the Governor and Secretary of State, ex-officio,and Revs. Henry 
Ward Beecher, Phineas D. Gurley, L. H. Jameson, Dr. Dunlap, 
Hon. James Morrison and Eev. Matthew Simpson. They rented the 
large building on the southeast corner of Illinois and Maryland 
streets, abd opened the first State asylum there in 1844; but in 1846, 
a site for a permanent building just east of Indianapolis was selected, 
consisting first of 30 acres, to which 100 more have been added. 
On this site the two first structures were commenced in 1849, and 
completed in tlie fall of 1850, at a cost of $30,000. The school 
was immediately transferred to the new building, where it is still 
flourishing, with enlarged buildings and ample facilities for instruc- 
tion in agriculture. In 1869-'70, another building was erected, 
and the three together now constitute one of the most benefi- 
cent and beautiful institutions to be found on this continent, at 
an aggregate cost of $220,000. The main building has a fagade of 
260 feet. Here are the offices, study rooms, the quarters of officers 
and teachers, the pupils' dormitories and the library. The center 
of this building has a frontage of eighty feet, and is five stories high, 
with wings on ^either side 60 feet in frontage. In this Central 
structure are the store rooms, dining-hall, servants' rooms, hospital, 
laundry, kitchen, bakery and several school-rooms. Another struct- 
ure known as the " rear building " contains the chapel and another 
set of school-rooms. It is two stories high, the center being 50 feet 
square and the wings 40 by 20 feet. In addition to these there are 
many detached buildings, containing the shops of the industrial 
department, the engine-house and wash-house. 

The grounds comprise 105 acres, which in the immediate vicinity 
of the buildings partake of the character of ornamental or pleasure 
gardens, comprising a space devoted to fruits, flowers and veget- 
ables, while the greater part is devoted to pasture and agriculture. 

The first instructor in the institution was Win. Willard, a deaf 
mute, who had up to 1844 conducted a sraall^chool for the instruc- 
tion of the deaf at Indianapolis, and now is employed by the State, 
at a salary of $800 per annum, to follow a similar vocation in its 
service. In 1853 he was succeeded by J. S. Brown, and subse- 
quently by Thomas Mclntire, who continues principal of the 



The Legislature of 1832-'3 adopted measures providing for a 
State hospital for the insane. This good work would liave been 
done much earlier had it not been for the hard times of 1837, 
intensified by the results of the gigantic scheme of internal improve- 
ment. In order to survey the situation and awaken public sympa- 
thy, the county assessors were ordered to make a return of the 
insane in their respective counties. During the year 18-i2 the 
Governor, acting under the direction of the Legislature, procured 
considerable information in regard to hospitals for the insane in 
other States; and Dr. John Evans lectured before the Legislature 
on the subject of insanity and its treatment. As a result of these 
efforts the authorities determined to take active steps for the estab- 
lishment of such a hospital. Plans and suggestions from the 
superintendents and hospitals of other States were submitted to the 
Legislature in 18-14, which body ordered the levy of a tax of one 
cent on the $100 for the purpose of establishing the hospital. In 
1S45 a commission was appointed to obtain a site not exceeding 
200 acres. Mount Jackson, then the residence of Nathaniel Bolton, 
was selected, and the Legislature in 1846 ordered the commissioners 
to proceed with the erection of the building. Accordingly, in 
1847, the central building was completed, at a cost of $75,000. It 
has since been enlarged by the addition of wings, some of which 
are larger than the old central building, until it has become an 
immense structure, having cost over half a million dollars. 

The wings of the main building are four stories high, and entirely 
devoted to wards for patients, being capable of accommodating 

The grounds of the institution comprise 160 acres, and, like 
those of the institute for the deaf and dumb, are beautifully laid 

This hospital was opened for the reception of patients in 1848. 
The principal structure comprises what is known as the central 
building and the right and left wings, and like the institute for the 
deaf and dumb, erected at various times and probably under various 
adverse circumstances, it certainly does not hold the appearance of 
any one design, but seems to be a combination of many. Not- 
withstanding these little defects in arrangement, it presents a very 
imposing appearance, and shows what may be termed a frontage 


of 624 feet. The central building is five stories in height and con- 
tains the store-rooms, offices, reception parlors, medical dispensing 
rooms, mess-rooms and the apartments of the superintendent and 
other officers, with those of the female employes. Immediatelj 
in the rear of the central building, and connected with it by a 
corridor, is the chapel, a building 50 by 60 feet. This chapel 
occupies the third floor, while the under stories hold the kitchen, 
bakery, employes' dining-room, steward's office, employes' apart- 
ments and sewing rooms. In rear of this again is the engine- 
house, 60 by 50 feet, containing all the paraphernalia for such an 
establishment, such as boilers, pumping works, fire plugs, hose, 
and above, on the second floor, the laundry and apartments of male 


The first penal institution of importance is known as the "State 
Prison South," located at Jeffersonville, and was the only prison 
until 1859. It was established in 1821. Before that time it was 
customary to resort to the old-time punishment of the whipping- 
post. Later the manual labor system was inaugurated, and the 
convicts were hired out to employers, among whom were Oapt. 
Westover, afterward killed at Alamo, Texas, with Crockett, James 
Keigwin, who in an affray was fired at and severely wounded by a 
convict named Williams, Messrs. Patterson Hensley, and Jos. 
R. Pratt. During the rule of the latter of these lessees, the atten- 
tion of the authorities was turned to a more practical method of 
utilizing convict labor; and instead of the prisoners being per- 
mitted to serve private entries, their work was turned in the direc- 
tion of their own prison, where for the next few years they were 
employed in erecting the new buildings now known as the " State 
Prison South." This structure, the result of prison labor, stands 
on 16 acres of ground, and comprises tlie cell houses and work- 
shops, together with the prisoners' garden, or pleasure-ground. 

It seems that in the erection of these buildings the aim of the 
overseers was to create so many petty dungeons and unventilated 
laboratories, into which disease in every form would be apt to 
creep. This fact was evident from the high mortality character- 
izing life within the prison; and in the efforts made by the 
(xovernment to remedy a state of things which had been permitted 
to exist far too long, the advance in prison reform has become a 
reality. From 1857 to 1871 the labor of the prisoners was devoted 


to the manufacture of wagons and farm iinpleineiits; and again the 
old policy of hiring the convicts was resorted to; for in the latter 
year, 1871, the Southwestern Car Company was organized, and 
every prisoner capable of taking a part in the work of car-bnilding 
was leased out. This did very well until the panic of 1873, when 
the company suffered irretrievable losses; and previous to its final 
down-fall in 1876 the warden withdrew convict labor a second time, 
leaving the prisoners to enjoy a luxurious idleness around the 
prison which themselves helped to raise. 

In later years the State Prison South has gained some notoriety 
from the desperate character of some of its inmates. Dnring the 
civil war a convict named Harding mutilated in a most horrible 
manner and ultimately killed one of the jailors named Tesley. In 
1874, two prisoners named Kennedy and Applegate, possessing 
themselves of some arms, and joined by two other convicts named 
Port and Stanley, made a break for freedom, swept past the guard. 
Chamberlain, and gained the fields. Chamberlain went iti jnirsnit 
but had not gone very far when Kennedy turned on his jnirsuer, 
fired and killed him instantly. Subsequently three of the prisoners 
were captured alive and one of them paid the penalty of death, 
while Kennedy, the murderer of Chamberlain, failing committal for 
murder, was sent back to his old cell to spend the remainder of his 
life. Bill Rodifer, better known as "The Hoosier Jack Sheppard,'' 
effected his escape in 1875, in the very presence of a large guard, 
but was recaptured and has since been kept in irons. 

This establishment, owing to former mismanagement, has fallen 
very much behind, financially, and has asked for and received an 
appropriation of $20,000 to meet its expenses, while the contrary 
is the case at the Michigan City prison. 


In 1859 the first steps toward the erection of a prison in the 
northern part of the State were taken, and by an act of the Legis- 
lature approved March 5, this year, authority was given to construct 
prison buildings at some point north of the National road. For this 
purpose $50,000 were appropriated, and a large number of convicts 
from the Jeffersonville prison were transported northward to 
Michigan City, which was just selected as the location for the new 
penitentiary. The work was soon entered upon, and continued to 
meet with additions and improvements down to a very recent 
period. So late as 1S75 the Legislature appropriated $20,000 


toward the construction of new cells, and in other directions also 
the work of improvement has been going on. The system of 
government and discipline is similar to that enforced at the Jeffer- 
son ville prison; and, strange to say, by its economical working has 
not only met the expenses of the administration, but very recently 
had amassed over $11,000 in excess of current expenses, from its 
annual savings. This is due almost entirely to the continual 
employment of the convicts in the manufacture of cigars and 
chairs, and in their great prison industry, cooperage. It differs 
widely from the Southern, insomuch as its sanitary condition has 
been above the average of similar institutions. The strictness of its 
silent system is better enforced. The petty revolutions of its 
inmates have been very few and insignificant, and the number of 
punishments inflicted comparatively small. From whatever point 
this northern prison may be looked at, it will bear a very favorable 
comparison with the largest and best administered of like establish- 
ments throughout the world, and cannot fail to bring high credit to 
its Board of Directors and its able warden. 


The prison reform agitation which in this State attained telling 
proportions in 1869, caused a Legislative measure to be brought 
forward, which would have a tendency to ameliorate the condition 
of female convicts. Gov. Baker recommended it to the General 
Assembly, and the members of that body showed their appreciation 
of the Governor's philanthropic desire by conferring upon the bill 
the authority of a statute; and further, appropriated $50,000 to aid 
in carrying out the objects of the act. The main provisions con- 
tained in the bill may be set forth in the following extracts from 
the proclamation of the Governor: 

" Whenever said institution shall have been proclaimed to be 
open for the reception of girls in the reformatory department 
thereof, it shall be lawful for said Board of Managers to receive 
them into their care and management, and the said reformatory 
department, girls under the age of 15 years who may be committed 
to their custody, in either of the following modes, to-wit: 

"1. When committed by any judge of a Circuit or Common 
Pleas Court, either in term time or in vacation, on complaint and 
due proof by the parent or guardian that by reason of her incorrig- 
ible or vicious conduct she has rendered her control beyond the 
power of such parent or guardian, and made it manifestly requisite 


that from regard to the future welfare of such infant, and for the 
protection of society, she should be placed under such guardianship. 

" 2. When such infant has been committed by such judge, as 
aforesaid, upon complaint by any citizen, and due proof of such 
complaint that such infant is a proper subject of the guardianship 
of such institution in consequence of her vagrancy or incorrigible 
or vicious conduct, and that from the moral depravity or other- 
wise of her parent or guardian in whose custody she may be, 
such parent or guardian is incapable or unwilling to exercise the 
proper care or discipline over such incorrigible or vicious infant. 

"3. When such infant has been committed by such judge as 
aforesaid, on complaint and due proof thereof by the township 
trustee of the township where, such infant resides, that such infant 
is destitute of a suitable home and of adequate means of obtaining 
an honest living, or that she is in danger of being brought up to 
lead an idle and immoral life." 

In addition to these articles of the bill, a formal section of 
instruction to the wardens of State prisons was embodied in the 
act, causing such wardens to report the number of all the female 
convicts under their charge and prepare to have them transferred 
to the female reformatory immediately after it was declared to be 
ready for their reception. After the passage of the act the 
Governor appointed a Board of Managers, and these gentlemen, 
securing the services of Isaac Hodgson, caused him to draft a plan 
of the proposed institution, and further, on his recommendation, 
asked the people for an appropriation of another 850.000, which 
the Legislature granted in February, 1873. The work of construc- 
tion was then entered upon and carried out so steadily, that on the 
6th of September, 1873, the building was declared ready for the 
reception of its future inmates. Gov. Baker lost no time in 
proclaiming this fact, and October 4 he caused the wardens of the 
State pvisons to be instructed to transfer all the female convicts in 
their custody to the new institution which may be said to rest on 
the advanced intelligence of the age. It is now called the 
" Indiana Reformatory Institution for Women and Girls." 

This building is located immediately north of the deaf and 
dumb asylum, near the arsenal, at Indianapolis. It is a three- 
story brick structure in the French style, and shows a frontage of 
174 feet, comprising a main building, with lateral and transverse 
wings. In front of the central portion is the residence of the 
superintendent and his associate reformatory officers, while in the 



rear is the engine house, with all the ways and means for heatin^r 
the buildings. Enlargements, additions and improvements are 
still in progress. There is also a school and library in the main 
building, which are sources of vast good. 

October 31,1879, there were G6 convicts in the " penal" depart- 
ment and 147 in the " girls' reformatory " department. The 
" ticket-of-leave " system has been adopted, with entire satisfaction, 
and the conduct of the institution appears to be up with the 


In 1867 the Legislature appropriated $50,000 to aid in the 
formation of an institution to be entitled a house for the correction 
and reformation of juvenile defenders, and vested with full powers 
in a Board of Control, the members of which were to be appointed 
by the Governor, and with the advice and consent of the Senate. 
This Board assembled at the Governor's house at Indianapolis, 
April 3, 1867, and elected Charles F. Coffin, as president, and 
visited Chicago, so that a visit to the reform school there might 
lead to a fuller knowledge and guide their future proceedings. 
The House of Refuge at Cincinnati, and the Ohio State Reform 
school were also visited with this design; and after full consider- 
ation of the varied governments of these institutions, the Board 
resolved to adopt the method known as the " family " system, 
which divides the inmates into fraternal bodies, or small classes, 
each class having a separate house, house father and famiU' offices, 
— all under the control of a general superintendent. The system 
being adopted, the question of a suitable location next presented 
itself, and proximity to a large city being considered rather 
detrimental to the welfare of such an institution. Gov. Baker 
selected the site three-fourths of a mile south of Plainfield, and 
about fourteen miles from Indianapolis, which, in view of its 
eligibility and convenience, was fully concurred in by the Board 
of Control. Therefore, a farm of 225 acres, claiming a fertile soil 
and a most picturesque situation, and possessing streams of running 
water, was purchased, and on a plateau in its center a site for the 
proposed house of refuge was iixed. 

The next movement was to decide upon a plan, which ultimately 
met the approval of the Governor. It favored the erection of one 
principal building, one house for a reading-room and hospital, two 
large mechanical shops and eight family houses. January 1, 1868, 


three family houses and work-shop were completed; in 1869 the 
main building, and one additional family house were added; but 
previous to this, in August, 1867, a Mr. Frank P. Ainsworth and 
Ills wife were appointed by the Board, superintendent and matron 
respectively, and temporary quarters placed at their disposal. In 
1869 they of course removed to the new building. This is 64 by 
128 feet, and three stories high. In its basement are kitchen, 
laundry and vegetable cellar. The first floor is devoted to offices, 
visitors' room, house father and family dining-room and store- 
rooms. The general superintendent's private apartments, private 
offices and five dormitories for officers occupy the second floor; 
while the third floor is given up to the assistant superintendent's 
apartment, library, chapel and hospital. 

The family houses are similar in style, forming rectangular build- 
ings 36 by 58 feet. The basement of each contains a furnace 
room, a store-room and a large wash-room, which is converted into 
a play-room during inclement weather. On the first floor of each 
of these buildings are two rooms for the house father and his 
family, and a school-room, which is also convertible into a sitting- 
room for the boys. On the third floor is a family dormitory, a 
clothes-room and a room for the " elder brother," who ranks next 
to the house father. And since the reception of the first boy, from 
Hendricks county, January 23, 1868, the house plan has proved 
equally convenient, even as the management has proved efficient. 

Other buildings have since been erected. 




History of Cass County. 


Geology— General Features— Condition at the Close of the Gla- 
cial Epoch- KocKs of Cass County— Section of the S teat a— The 
SiLico Magnesia Limestone— Sections at Various Points— Limb 
Burning — Iron Manufacturing, etc. 

CASS COUNTY is situated in the north central portion of In- 
diana, and at the close of the glacial epoch was probably a 
level plain. Since that time the "Wabash River and its tributaries 
have eroded a very considerable amount of clays and bowlders de- 
posited by the great ice flow, forming a valley in this natural plain 
several miles wide, and ranging fi-om 100 to 200 feet deep, and cut- 
ting their channel down into the underlying rocks about ninety feet. 
Hence, a great variety of soil is found to exist, ranging from the 
stiff clays of the bowlder drift to the ancient and modern alluvial 
loams which are found on the terraces along these rivers. The 
Wabash River flows fi-om east to west, near the center, and Eel 
River, from the northeast, enters the same at Logansport. Along 
these streams there is a large area of alluvial soil of great excellence, 
upon which large crops of wheat and corn are raised. The county 
was originally covered with a dense growth of timber, considerable 
quantities of which yet remain. 

The rocks of this county are of the upper Silurian Age, with out- 
lines of lower Devonian. It is probable that the latter prevails in 
the southern portion of the county, although generally buried be- 
neath the drift. The following is a connected section of the county 
strata : 

♦Adapted from the State Geological Report for 1872. 



Soil 3 to 10 

Modified drift 10 to 20 

Bowlder drift 120 to 30 

Devonian black slate (reported) 30 

Devonian limestone 20 to 10 

Silurian yellow limestone, local 11 

Fire-stone 12 

Pine blue limestone 20 to 40 

Silico Magnesia limestone 10 to 40 

Total 203 

An outcrop of the Devonian limestones occnrs on the Cincinnati 
road, and southeast from Logansport another bed was seen near the 
southern bank of the canal, three miles east of the town, rich in 
beautiful specimens of fossils. Near the lime works, four and a 
half miles east of the town, there is a still richer Devonian coral reef, 
about ten feet thick. In this locality a large amount of lime has 
been made and shipped. It is a good quality, and is known by 
masons as a hot lime, begins to set quick, but requires several days 
to thoroughly harden. At these mines strata containing petroleum 
are seen, and occasionally a cavity is broken into containing several 
pounds of bitumen. On the land of William Dunn is found a bed 
of snow-white sandstone suitable for making glass, and also a thin 
stratum of lithographic stone. 

Below the lime rock is a thick deposit of buff-colored rock, often 
locally called "fi'eestone," termed in Owen's report "silico magnesia 
limestone." It contains little or no limestone, but in position, color 
and mode of occurrence is similar to the famous buff-colored stone 
obtained at Anamosa, Iowa. At the weathered outcrops this stone 
does not present a favorable appearance, but may imjn-ove as it is 
uncovered, deeply protected from atmospheric action. The follow- 
ing section at the head of Cedar Island shows some massive bands 
worthy the attention of quarrymen: 

Feet. Inches. 

Roughly weathered white limetone 4 6 

Irregular and amorphous stone 14 

Thin bedded ' ' silico magnesia' ' 4 6 

Heavy bedded " silico magnesia" 11 6 

Banded limestone, with petroleum and tar 1 6 

Total 36 


The Wabash Eiver here flows over a solid floor, a part of which 
indicates good quality for building purposes. "Rostrum Rock," on 
the Indiana Reservation, on the south bank of the river, is a trun- 
cated pillar, standing alone in the forest. On the canal, half a mile 
west of Lewisburg, is a very extensive^bed of gravel, about twenty 
feet in depth. 

One mile south of Logansport is an'outcrop of stone, principal- 
ly thin bedded, known as the "Fire-stone Quarry." This stone has, 
in an extraordinary degree, a capacity for resisting the effects of 
heat, and has successfully and profitably been used for back-walls 
in fireplaces in houses and the parts exposed to excessive heat in 

The "silico magnesia," or buff-colored limestone, mentioned as 
occurring at Cedar Island, passes entirely beneath the bed of the 
Wabash at Logansport, btit on the west this rock is soon found above 
the surface, and within a few miles attains a thickness of from ten to 
forty feet. This stone was used in the Toledo, Wabash & Western 
Railroad bridge across the Wabash, and seems to weather well. 
Still further down the river, and on the south bank, there is an ex- 
tensive outcrop that has been worked on a large scale. The follow- 
ing section is given at La Rosa & Nash's quarry: 

Feet. Inches. 

Gray porous limestone 40 

Shelly buff silico magnesia limestone 4 6 

Solid buff silico magnesia limestone 13 

Compact brown silico magnesia limestone 15 6 

Hard blue limestone, with odor of petroleum, and streaks 
and masses of tar in partings and crevices to water 

line ? ? 

Total 72 

North of the Wabash, and near the Logansport & Peoria Rail- 
road, this stone is well developed and has been worked on the lands 
of Maj. Dunn and Mr. Watts. Calvert's quarry, two and a half 
miles east of Georgetown, gives the following section, which shows 
the blue limestone unconformably deposited upon the silico magne- 
sia, with a small parting of clay. This parting is general, and is 
often drilled to some twenty or thirty feet below the surface, at Lo- 
gansport, for a supply of water: 


Feet. Inches. 

Gray limestone 10 

Clay parting 2 to 10 

Irregular bedded limestone 1 

Clay band filling inequalities on surface of the Argo. 

magnesia limestone 1 ft. to 1 6 

Silico magnesia limestone 15 4 

Total 28 8 

North and west from Calvert's is Eechester's quarry, from which 
is obtained the stone known as the " Georgetown stone," used so ex- 
tensively in the construction of abutments, j^iers and copings along 
the canal and river and different railroads. A good test of the qual- 
ity of this stone is seen in the walls and columns of the county 
court house, built nearly forty-five years ago. About sixty acres 
have been exhausted, but the supply is inexhaustible. A sti-atum 
from two to four inches thick of lithographic stone is also found 
here, which experts declare to be of a good quality. 

The quarry on the Dunn homestead was extensively worked in 
former times. On the opposite side of the river fi-om La Eosa's quarry 
the stone is of the same color, and may be quarried in large blocks. 
Stratigraphically this is the most elevated expanse of the sil- 
ico magnesia limestone seen in the county. From this point the 
strata dips in every direction, and rapidly to the north and north- 
east. The hill is capped with eight to twelve feet of gray lime- 
stone, with an expanse of quarry rock thirty feet thick. On the 
same farm there is a tract of more than five acres in extent, where 
the solid rock is rent by fissures from one to two feet wide, and ten 
to thirty feet deep, having a direction generally from northeast to 
soiithwest. The same ground is also pierced with round holes two 
to three feet in diameter, reaching perpendicularly down to an un- 
known depth. This singular phenomenon probably owes its origin 
to the corroding action of rain, or rain-water charged with carbonic 
acid gas. 

Adjoining this farm, and one and one-half miles from Logans- 
port, an extensive business is done^in burning and shipping lime. 
The product is highly caustic, and has been used by the gas compa- 
nies at Peoria, Pekin, Logansport and Lafayette exclusively for 
several years as a deodorizer. It is a good plaster lime when well 
slacked, and makes a hard, compact wall, not liable to "pop" from 


subsequent exposure to the air. A section at the Talbott Mine is 
here given: 


Soil 1 

Fire-stone 1 to 2 

Gray limestone, with pocltets and seams of calc spar, a 
strong odor of petroleum, and partings and masses of bi- 
tumen 12 

Same, more compact, as found in test fire 48 

Total 63 

The stone is compact, free fi'om chert, obscurely laminated, and 
well adapted for burning. 

R. S. J. Green & Co. established iron works four miles east of 
Logansport in the year 1856 or 1857, at the canal lock, using water 
leased from the canal for motive power. The company used bog 
ore from White County, which was roasted, sifted and heated in a 
Catalan forge, and then hammered into blooms by machinery. The 
ore, by analysis, was at least 60 per cent, but by this process the 
product only averaged 37 per cent. The forge was in operation 
about a year and a half. The maximum product for a single month 
was 100 tons. The enterprise was not profitable because of the 
great expense of long transportation of the ore from White County 
in wagons. 


Indians— The Abokigines, their Divisions and Classes— Tribes; The 
MiAMis, THEIR History and Family Relations— The Pottawato- 
mies, their Origin— Migrations— Noted Chiefs and Warriors, 
—Treaties— Battle at Old Town, etc. 

UPON the first introduction of Europeans among the primitive 
inhabitants of this country, it was the prevailing opinion 
among the white people that the vast domain since designated as 
the "American Continent" was peopled by one common family, of 
like habits and speaking the same language. The error, however, 
was soon dispelled by observation, w'hich at the same time estab- 
lished the fact of the great diversity of their characteristics, Ian- 


guage and physical development, the diversity arising sometimes 
from one cause and sometimes from another. Especially within the 
past century the subject of ethnological investigation has acquired 
new interest, the unfoldings of the period adding largely to the 
stock of knowledge appertaining thereto. These investigations, in 
many instances, have elicited facts of great moment by the consid- 
eration, in the light of the present age, of observed conditions as 
consequent upon causes before unkno-mi to science. As a result, 
therefore, it has been ascertained that there are certain radical divis- 
ions in the Indian race at large into which, by common consent, 
the race has been separated. 

The i^rincipal of these divisions, as known at this period, is the 
Algonquin, embracing, among other powerful tribes, the Miamis, 
recognized as one of the most perfect types, and in past ages one of 
the most extensive on the continent. Next in rank to the Miamis, 
if, indeed, they are not entitled to precedence, are the Delawares, or 
Lenne Lenapes, and the Shawanoes. The Miamis were early known 
as the Twa'twas', Omes and Omanees. Next were the Peorias, Kas- 
kaskias, Weas and Piankeshaws, who, collectively, were known as 
the Ilioese, or Illinois Indians. Then, the Ottawas. The Chip- 
pewas and Mississauges were interchangeably known as Nipersin- 
ians, Nipissings, Ojibwas, Sautaux and Chibwas. After these were 
the Kiskapoos, or Miscoutins ; the Pottawattomies, or Pouks ; and the 
Sacs (or Sauks), and Foxes (or Eeynards). The Munsees was 
another name for the Delawares. This is Schoolcraft's classifica- 
tion and arrangement, as given in his history of the "Indians of 
North America." 

The Miamis. — At an early period in the history of the Algon- 
quin family, while it inhabited the region of the northern lakes, 
and before the general dispersion of the tribes, the Miamis were 
recognized, not so much by a distinct name, in the sense of a spe- 
cific division, as by particularities of manner and habit, or, other- 
wise, from location. Then, in common with the Ottawas and ad- 
jacent bands, their chief occupation appears to have been fur-gath- 
ering, for they were hunters and trappers, and had acquired consid- 
erable notoriety in that particular calling. From the contiguity of 
theix location and similarity of habit with the Ottawas, as separate 
bands,they were probably distinguished by the appellation of Toua- 


touas, or 'Twa-twas, indicating that they were of the hunters, or 
were hunters, the Ottawas being especially known by that name, 
from which the modification of the term derives its significance. 
The tribal relation was not recognized until the severance from the 
parent stock was consummated. This probably did not take place 
prior to the year 1600, since nothing is heard of them for a number 
of years after that time. Having separated themselves, however, 
they located somewhere to the southward of Lake Nipissing, or on 
the peninsula east of Lake Michigan. Here their aptness in catch- 
ing the beaver and other fur-bearing animals of the higher grades 
insured their early acquaintance with traders of the class that 
traversed the country. The strifes incident to competition in trade, 
and the jealousies engendered thereby in the end, induced a rSsort 
to every species of chicanery consistent with securing a good trade. 
They were designated first, by the English traders and others, as 
Twightwees, or Twig-twees. Later, through the agency of these 
deceptions, practiced by the English no doubt to offset the superior 
diplomacy of the French, the name became obnoxious. At this 
juncture, the French, to maintain the ascendent and secure their 
confidence thereafter, called them M' Amis (Miamis) — my friends 
— significant of the confidential relationship existing between them. 
The general correctness of this version of the incidents connected 
with the name of this ancient tribe has, in addition to its probabil- 
ity, the acceptance, in substance, at least, of some old writers 
whose statements are every way worthy of credence. 

The first historical account we have of this tribe was in the 
year 1669, in the vicinity of Green Bay, where they were visited by 
the French missionary, Father AUoviez, and subsequently by Father 
Dablon. It is stated that from Green Bay they passed to the south 
■of Lake Michigan, in the vicinity of Chicago. At a later date 
they settled on the St. Joseph's, of Lake Michigan, and established 
there a village; another on the river Miami of Lake Erie (Ke-ki- 
ong-a, now Fort Wayne), and a third on the Wabash (Ouiatenon, 
on the Wea Plains, a few miles below La Fayette, Ind.). Charle- 
voix says these villages were established as early as 1670, for at 
that date the Miamis had been in possession, occupying the terri- 
tory surrounding, for many years anterior thereto. A portion gf 
them remained at Detroit and above that point until near the close 


of the seTenteentb century, when they were induced to emigrate 
southward and join the other Miamis in the southern part of the 
Michigan Peninsula. During the major part of the latter half of 
that century they had been and were in alliance with the French, 
and through their instrumentality the principal settlements of them 
were made in northern Indiana and Illinois. French missionaries 
were among them at those several villages as early as 1670-79, as 
we find from the records of the Jesuit priests, who were themselves 
familiar with the facts stated. Simultaneous with or prior to the 
visitation of these points by the priests, rude forts had been erected 
by the authorities of the French Government, for the protection of 
trade and the maintenance of their supremacy over these, their In- 
dian allies. One of these forts had been erected at the instance of 
Sieur de La Salle, at Ke-ki-ong-a, in 1669 or 1670, and in 1679, af- 
ter his plans had been interferred with at Kekiouga, by war parties 
of the Iroquois passing that way, and another at the mouth of St. 
Joseph's, of Lake Michigan. Within about the same period, the 
exact date of which does not now appear, a similar fort or post was 
erected and maintained at Ouiatenon — all within the jurisdiction of 
New France, and within the region occupied by the Miamis. 

At a very early period, but just at what time is not now to be 
ascertained, the Miamis, because of their extensive dominion, power 
and influence, and of the numerous cousanguinous branches ac- 
knowledging their relationship, came to be known as the Miami 
Confederacy. In 1765 the confederacy was composed of the follow- 
ing branches, with the number of warriors belonging to each: The 
Twightwees, at the head of the Maumee Eiver, with 250 available 
warriors; the Ouiateuons, in the vicinity of Post Ouiatenon, on the 
Wabash, with 300 warriors; the Piankeshaws, on the Vermillion 
Eiver, with 300 warriors ; and the Shockeys, on the territory lying 
on the Wabash, between Vincennes and Post Ouiatenon, with 200 
warriors. At an earlier date, perhaps, the Miamis, with their con- 
federates, were able to muster a much more formidable force, as the 
citation from the history of the Five Nations would seem to show. 

From what has already been shown concerning the extent of ter- 
ritory claimed by and conceded to belong to the Miamis, it will ap- 
pear that the lands in Cass and adjoining counties came into posses- 
sion of the United States Government through the agency of 


treaties with that nation, an account of which will elsewhere appear, 
notwithstanding the fact that there was a show of title in the Pot- 
tawatomies, who, by sufferance, had been permitted to exercise rights 
of possession over a portion of these lands, which was ceded by 
them to the United States, subject to the higher claim of the Mi- 
amis. The Great Miami Reserve, so called, lying south of the 
Wabash River and east of a line running due south from a point 
opposite the mouth of Eel River, and extending east through Cass, 
Miami and Wabash, including a portion of Grant County, was the 
last of their extensive possessions in the State of Indiana, to which 
they yielded their ancient right. "They dwelt in permanent vil- 
lages, thus indicating a higher civilization than that of the nomadic 
tribes of the farther West. For this purpose they selected the most 
beautiful sites on the banks of rivers and small streams. .While 
their principal sustenance was derived from hunting and fishing, 
their selections for village sites and their treaty reservations, 
whether of large or small tracts, are, proverbially, the very best 
lands for agricultural purposes. They were a war- like tribe, and 
were allies of England in the wars between that country and this. 
Their chiefs were able leaders, the most conspicuous of whom, as a 
statesman and warrior, was Little Turtle. Their prowess in the field 
is historical under the leadership of this celebrated chief, who, as 
commander of the allied Indian forces, defeated Gen. Harmar Octo- 
ber 19, 1790, and Gen. St. Clair November 1, 1791, the most dis- 
astrous reverses suffered by the whites at the hands of the In- 

"And not less conspicuous is the war-like character they sus- 
tained in their defeat by Gen. Wayne at the battle of Fort Wayne, 
August 20, 1794; by Gen. Harrison at the battle of Tijipecanoe, No- 
vember 7, 1811; and by Col. Campbell on the Mississinewa, in De- 
cember, 1812. Francis Godfrey, Lewis Godfroy, his brother, and 
Shap-pa-can-nah, or Deaf Man, * * * were noted 
war chiefs, and participated in the battles." 

The Pottaivattomies. — The Pottawattomies, or Poux, as they ap- 
pear formerly to have been known, are of the Algonquin family, 
and a branch or offshoot of the Chippewas — sometimes written Ojib- 
ways — having a common origin with thera. It is represented, also, 
as a part of the family history, that the separation of these 


branches of the present stock took place iu the vicinity of Michili- 
mackanack, not far from the middle of the seventeenth century, as 
early, probably, as 1641. At the time of the separation, or imme- 
diately after, the Poux having located on the southern shore of Lake 
Michigan, the Ottawas went to live with ^them. After a time the 
Ottawas, becoming dissatisfied with thejsituation, determined to 
withdraw fi-om their former allies and seek a home elsewhere. The 
Poux, being informed of this determination, told the Ottawas they 
might go back to the north if they did not like their association; 
that they, the Poux, had made a fire for themselves, and were capa- 
ble of assuming and maintaining a separate and independent sov- 
ereignty and of building their own council fires. From this circum- 
stance, it is said, the name of the Pottawatomies was derived. 
Etymologically, the word is a compound of pui-ia-iLia, signifying a 
l)lowing out or expansion of the cheek, as in the act of blowing a 
fire, and me, a nation, which, being interpreted, means a nation of 
fire-blowers — literally, a people, as intimated to the Ottawas, able 
to build their own council fires and otherwise exercise the preroga- 
tives of independence, or self-government. 

The first historical reference we have to them was in 1641, when 
it was stated that they had abandoned their own country (Green 
Bay), and taken refuge with the Ohippewas, so as to secure them- 
selves from their enemies, the Sioux, who, it would seem, having 
been at war with, had well nigh overcome them. In 1660 Father 
AUouez, a French missionary, speaks of the Pottawattomies as occu- 
pying territory that extended from Green Bay to the head of Lake 
Superior, and southward to the country of the Sacs and Foxes and 
the Miamis, and that traders had preceded him to their country. 
Ten years later they returned to Green Bay, and occupied the bor- 
ders of Lake Michigan on the north. Subsequently, about the be- 
ginning of the eighteenth century, they had traversed the eastern 
coast of Lake Michigan to the mouth of the St. Joseph's Kiver, 
where, and to the southward of Lake Michigan, a large body of them 
held possession until nearly the middle of the nineteenth century. 
The occupancy of this territory was at first permissible only on the 
part of the Miamis, who had before possessed the undisputed right 
to occupy and enjoy; but in the course of time their rights were ac- 
knowledged by giving them a voice in the making of treaties, which 


also included the rights of cession and conveyance. Being some- 
what migratory in character, they have, as a consequence, been de- 
termined to be aggressive also, since they have frequently taken 
possession of territory without permission fi-om the rightful owners, 
and then by sufferance occupied it until a quasi right was acknowl- 
edged ; and while it is true that they have thus occupied territory, 
it is true, also, that such occupancy has been, as a rule, an unavoid- 
able alternative after jbeing forcibly ejected or retired from their 
own country, as was the fact when they first removed from Green 

At the beginning of the war of 1812 "they had settled along the 
northern bank of the Tippecanoe River, and finally, by the year 
1820, they had extended their lines to and along the northern bank 
of the Wabash, from the mouth of the Tippecanoe to the head waters 
of Eel River, and thence northward to the bordei-s of Lake Michi- 
gan. The great civil chief, or sachem, who ruled over them from 
about the year 1790 to about 1820, was named To-beno-beh, and noted 
for his intelligence and mildness of character. He died, a venerable 
patriarch of the wilderness, about the latter year. Wen-e-megh — - 
usually spelled Winemac — -was their leading war chief during the war 
of 1812, and was distinguished for his force of character, as well as 
his noble and commanding personal appearance. He was of that 
party of the enemy with which Logan had his fatal encounter near 
the banks of the Miami in the fall of 1812. Me-te-ah, who stood 
high, both as an orator and military chieftain, during and after that 
war, was the last chief of distinction among the Pottawattomies. He 
came to his death under circumstances which showed too plainly 
the fallen condition of his people and their degeneracy from the 
days of their ancient power and independence." 

The Pottawottomies, like the Miamis, after selling all their lands 
in the State, agreed, as a part of their treaty stipulations, that after 
a specified time from the conclusion of their treaties with the United 
States, they would migrate to reservations prepared for them west 
of the Mississippi. As a tribe they went — in part, willingly, but 
generally by the application of force as a means of facilitating their 
progress. "The Pottawattomies frequently resorted to Logansport in 
large bodies, and sometimes remained for days at a time. The prin- 
cipal chiefs and leading men of the tribe who came hither for the 


purpose of trading, and who were most" familiarly known to the 
early citizens, were Aw-be-naw-be, Ash-kum, Paw-siss, Muck-kose, 
Co-ash-be, Che-quah, Kawk, Ko-kem, Shpo-tah, Che-chaw-koase, 
We-saw, Weis-she-o-nas, Ke-wau-nay, Pash-po-ho, I-o-wah, Nas- 
waw-kay, 0-kah-maus, Ben-ac, Ne-baush, and Njo-quiss ; and the 
chiefesses, Mish-no-quah and Mis-ne-go-quah ; the last two of whom, 
together with several others, and several Indian scenes, have very 
happily been transferred upon canvas by the elegant pencil of Mr. 
George Winter." 

Their usual camping ground while on a trading expedition on the 
north side of Eel Kiver, on the site of West Logan, sometimes on 
the hill-side near the site of the Old School Presbyterian Church, 
and again on the banks of Eel River opposite the " Point." The 
Miamis came in smaller parties, and encamped on the south side of 
the Wabash, and when they had finished trading, departed for their 
homes without delay ; while the Pottawatomies ended their trade 
mission with a grand " spree " — "taking the town." 

Treaties and Cessions of Land. — The territorial area in- 
chided within the present boundaries of Cass County, Ind., 
became vested in the United States by virtue of certain 
treaties with the Indian tribes, who were the acknowledged 
primitive owners of the several portions thereof, in accordance with 
the settled policy of the Government to receive no lands fi'om any 
of the aboriginal possessors of them, except by purchase, and for a 
valuable consideration paid. The first of these treaties made and 
concluded between the parties thereto was at St. Mary's, Ohio, on 
the 2d day of October, 1818, between Jonathan Jennings, Lewis 
Cass, and Benjamin Parke, commissioners on the part of the United 
States, and the principal chiefs and warriors of the Pottawattomie 
nation of Indians. In consideration of the cession so made, the 
United States agreed to pay said nation a perpetual annuity of $2,500 
in silver, one-half of which to be paid at Detroit, and the other half 
at Chicago. The lands in Cass County embraced in the provisions 
of this treaty, lie immediately west of a line drawn due south from 
a point on the south side of the Wabash opposite the mouth of Eel 
Biver, and north of the Wabash River to a line extending easterly 
from a point near the southwest corner of the northwest quarter of 
Section!18, Township 28 north, Range 1 Avest, to the eastern bound- 


ary of the county at a point a few rods north of the southeast cor- 
ner of Section 22, Township 28 north, Eange 3 east, known as the 
old " Indian boundary line." The second was held at the "Treaty 
Ground " on the Wabash River, nearly opposite the mouth of the 
Mississinewa (in the eastern part of the city of Wabash, at what 
was known as "Paradise Springs "), between Lewis Cass, James B. 
Eay, and John Tipton, commissioners of the United States, and the 
chiefs and warriors of the Pottawattomie tribe of Indians, concluded 
and signed on the 16th of October, 1826, and ratified by Congress 
and proclaimed by John Quincy Adams, President of the United 
States, February 7, 1827. By this treaty the tribe ceded to the 
United States the lands lying north of the boundary designated by 
the preceding treaty, and including the northern portion of Town- 
ship 28 north, to the north line thereof. 

In confirmation of the title derived through the preceding trea- 
ties with the Pottawattomies, the Miamis — who were the acknowl- 
edged holders of a prior interest in all said lands by virtue of 
antecedent occupancy — by a subsequent treaty between the same 
commissioners and themselves, made and concluded at the last 
named " Treaty Grounds," on the 23d of October, 1826, " ceded 
to the United States all their claim to land in the State of Indiana, 
north and west of the Wabash River," excepting certain reserva- 
tions therein designated, which treaty was also ratified by Congress 
and proclaimed by the President of the United States, on the 21th 
of January, 1827, prior to the ratification of the aforementioned 
treaty mth the Pottawattomies. By a further treaty with the 
United States, dated October 23, 1831, between William Marshall, 
commissioner, and the chiefs and warriors of the Miami tribe of 
Indians, made and concluded at the forks of the Wabash, said 
tribe ceded a portion of their big reserve made at the Treaty of St. 
Mary's, in 1818, situated southeast of the Wabash River, and ex- 
tending along said river from the mouth of the Salamony to the 
mouth of Eel River, " commencing on the Wabash River opposite 
the mouth of Eel River, running up said Wabash River eight miles ; 
thence south two miles ; thence westwardly one mile ; thence south 
to the boundary line of said reserve ; thence along said boundary 
line seven miles to the southwest corner; thence northerly with the 
western boundary line to the place of beginning." The consider- 


ation for all the lauds embraced in Article I of said treat^y, was 
3208,000; of this sum §58,000 was to be paid within six months 
from the ratification of the treaty, $50,000 to be appropriated to 
the payment of the debts of the tribe, and the remaining $100,000 
in annual installments of $10,000. This treaty, in consequence of 
some informality, was not ratified by Congress until December 22, 
1837. The portion of tliose lands in Cass County lies immediately 
south of the Wabash River, extending from the mouth of Eel River 
eastwardly to near the mouth of Pipe Creek, a distance of eight 

The Miamis, by a subsequent treaty made at the forks of the 
Wabash, on the 6th of November, 1838, between Abel C. Pep- 
per, commissioner on the part of the United States, and the chiefs 
and warriors of said tribe, ceded to the United States all that tract 
of land lying south of the Wabash River and included within the 
following bounds, to wit: " Commencing at a point on said river 
where the western boundary line of the Miami reserve intersects the 
same, near the mouth of Pipe Creek ; thence south two miles ; thence 
west one mile; thence south along said boundary line, three miles; 
thence east to the Mississinnewa River ; thence up the said river, with 
the meanders thereof, to the eastern boundary line of the said Miami 
reserve ; thence north along said eastern boundary line to the Wabash 
River; thence down the said last named river, with the meanders 
thereof, to the place of beginning." This treaty was ratified by 
Congress on the 8th day of February, 1839. The consideration 
was $335,680, $60,000 of which was to be paid immediately upon 
the ratification of the treaty, and the residue, after paying the debts 
of the tribe, in yearly installments of $12,568 each. 

Finally the Miamis, by a treaty made and concluded at the 
forks of the Wabash on the 28th of November, 1840, in which the 
United States was represented by Samuel Milroy and Allen Ham- 
ilton, commissioners, acting unofficially, and the chiefs and warriors 
of their tribe, ceded "to the United States all that tract of land on 
the south side of the Wabash River, not heretofore ceded, and 
known as the ' residue of the Big Reserve ' — being all of their re- 
maining lands in Indiana." Ratified June 7, 1841. The consid- 
eration for this cession was $550,000; $250,000 of which was to be 
appropriated to the payment of the debts of the tribe, and the resi- 
due, $300,000, to be paid in twenty yearly installments. 


The lands embraced in the several cessions referred to, lying in 
Cass County, were surveyed as follows : That part of the cession of 
October 2, 1818, in Congressional Township 26 north, and the por- 
tion in Township 27 south of the Wabash Kiver, were subdivided by 
Henry Bryan in 1821 ; the portion in Township 27, north of the 
Wabash River, by David Hillis in 1828; and that in Township 28, 
south of the Indian boundary, by Austin W. Morris in 1834. The 
lands ceded by the ti-eaties of October 1(5 and 23, 1826, were sur- 
veyed by Thomas Brown in 1828 ; those lying south of the Wabash 
in Eanges 1 and 2 east, in the western part of the Miami Reserve, 
by A. St. Clair Vance in 1838 ; those south of the Wabash, ceded 
by the treaty of October 23, 1884— not ratified until December 22, 
1837 — by Chauncey Carter in 1839; and the land embraced in the 
treaty of November 28, 1840, which lies in Cass County, was sur- 
veyed in 1846 and 1847 by Abner E. Van Ness. The Indian reser- 
vations, most of them north and south of the Wabash Eiver, were 
surveyed by Chauncey Carter — those under the treaties of 1826 in 
the summer and fall of 1827. 

The Old Town Engagemeni. — An occurrence of considerable 
importance, that took place in Cass County, was the destruction of 
the Indian village known as Eel River Town. This was at the 
present site of Old Town, on the north side of Eel Eiver, six miles 
from the Wabash Eiver. The commander of the troops against this 
place was Brig. -Gen. James Wilkinson. Dillon says: "On the 
1st of Aiigust, 1791, Wilkinson, at the head of 525 men, moved 
from the neighborhood of Fort Washington, and, after making a 
feint toward the Miami village, directed his march toward the In- 
dian village of Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua, which stood on the north bank 
of Eel Eiver, about six miles from the point where that stream 
enters the river Wabash." This town was also called, by the 
French, I'Anguille. In his report of this affair, dated August 24, 
1791, to Gov. St. Clair. Gen. Wilkinson says: 

" I quitted my camp on the 7th, as soon as I could see my way, 
crossed one path at three miles distance, bearing northeast, and at 
seven miles I fell into another, very much used, bearing northwest 
by north, which I at once adopted as the direct route to my object, 
and puslied forward with the utmost dispatch. I halted at 12 
o'clock to refresh the horses, and examine the men's arms and am- 


munitions : marched again at half past one, and at fifteen minutes 
before five I struck the Wabash about one and a half leagues above 
the mouth of Eel Eiver, being the very spot for which I had aimed 
since the commencement of my march. I crossed the river, and 
following the path a north by east course. At the distance of two 
and a half miles, my reconnoitering party ^announced Eel Eiver in 
front and the town on the opposite bank. I dismounted, ran for- 
ward, and examined the situation of the to-\vn as far as practicable 
without exposing myself, but the whole face of the country, from 
the Wabash to the margin of Eel Kiver, being a continued thicket of 
brambles, black jacks, weeds and shrubs of different kinds, it was 
impossible for me to get a good view without endangering a dis- 
covery. I immediately determined to post two companies on the 
bank of the river opposite to the town, and above ithe ground I 
then occupied; to make a detour with Maj. Caldwell and the second 
battalion, imtil I fell into the Miami trace, and by that route to 
cross the river above and gain the rear of the town, and to leave 
directions with Maj. McDowell, who commanded the first battalion, 
to lie perdue until I commenced the attack, then to dash through the 
river with his corps and the advanced guard, and assault the houses 
on the fi'ont and left. In the moment I was about to put this ar- 
rangement into execution, word was brought me that the enemy had 
taken the alarm and were flying. I instantly ordered a general 
charge, which was obeyed with alacrity. The men, forcing their 
way over every obstacle, plunged through the river with vast intre- 
pidity. The enemy was unable to make the smallest resistance. 
Six warriors, and (in the hurry and confusion of the charge) two 
squaws and a child, were killed. Thirty-four prisoners were taken 
and an unfortunate captive released, with the loss of two men killed 
and one wounded. 

" I found this town scattered along Eel Eiver for full three miles, 
on an uneven, scrubby oak barren, intersected alternately by bogs 
almost impassable, and impervious thickets of j^bim, hazel and black 
jack. Notwithstanding these difficul^es, if I may credit the report 
of the prisoners, very few who were in town escaped. Expecting a 
second expedition, their goods were generally packed up and buried. 
Sixty warriors had crossed the Wabash to watch the paths leading 
from the Ohio. The head chief, with all the prisoners and a num- 


ber of familes, were out digging a root which they substituted in 
place of the potato; and about one hour before my arrival, all the war- 
riors, except eight, had mounted their horses and rode up the river 
to a French store to purchase ammunition. This ammunition had 
arrived from the Miami village that very day, and the squaws in- 
formed me was stored about two miles from the town. I detached 
Maj. Caldwell in quest of it, but he failed to make any discovery, 
although he scoured the country for seven or eight miles iip the 
river. I encamped in the town that night, and the next morning I 
cut lip the corn, scarcely in the milk, burned the cabins, mounted 
my young warriors, squaws and children in the best manner in my 
power, and leaving two infirm squaws and a child, with a short talk 
I commenced my march for the Kickapoo town in the prairie." 


Organization of Cass County— Location of County Seat— Sale of 
Lots— Creation of Townships— Public Buildings— Coxtnty Finances 
—Poor Expenses— Roads— Raileoad.s— Wabash & Ekie Canal- 
Agricultural Society-Medical Association— Old Settlers' Asso- 
ciations-Orphans' Home— Elections— County Offices, etc. 

CASS COUNTY was named in honor of Gen. Lewis Cass, who 
was one of the commissioners of the United States, and did 
much to consummate the treaties with the Indians, by which the 
Government became the possessor of the lands that now constitute 
the county. After the consummation of the treaty of 1826, immi- 
gration increased, and in 1828 the settlers were sufficiently numer- 
ous to warrant the formation of a new county, and in consequence 
the following enabling act was passed by the Legislature : 
An Act for the Formation of Cass County. Approved December 18, 1838. 

Section 1. Beit enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, 
That from and after the second Monday of April next, all the territory included in 
the following boundary to wit: Beginning on the west boundary line of the great 
Miami Reservation, at the intersection of the township line dividing Townships 35 
and 26; thence north three miles; thence west eight miles to the southwest corner of 
Section 15, Township 26 north, of Range 1 west; thence west three miles to the 
range line dividing Ranges 1 and 3 west; thence north to the boundary line of the 
purcluase of 1826; thence east with said line about twenty-eight miles to the bound- 


ary of the Five-Mile Reservation, extending from tlie Wabash to Eel River; thence 
crossing the Wabash to a point due east of the place of beginning; thence west to the 
place of beginning, shall form and constitute a county known and designated 
by the name and title of Cass. 

Sec. 2. The said new county shall, from and after the second Monday in 
April ne.xt, enjoy all the rights, privileges and jurisdiction which to separate and 
independent counties appertain and belong. 

Sec. 3. That Henry Restine, of the county of Montgomery, Erasmus Powell, 
of the county of Shelby, William Purdy, of the county of Sullivan, Harris Tyner, 
of the county of Marion and Samuel McGeorge, of Tippecanoe County, be, and 
they are hereby appointed commissioners for the purpose of fixing the seat of jus- 
tice in said new county agreeably to the provisions of an act entitled "An act for 
fixing the seats of justice in all new counties hereafter to be laid off. " The com- 
missioners above named, or a majority of them, shall convene at the house of Gillis 
McBean in said new county, on the second Monday of August next, or so soon 
thereafter as a majority of said commissioners may meet, and shall proceed to dis- 
charge the duties assigned them by. law. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the sheriff of Cass County, to notify the com- 
missioners herein above named, by written notification, of their appointment, on 
or before the 15th day of June next; and for such services, the board doing county 
business of the said new county, shall allow him a reasonable compensation out of. 
the county treasury thereof. 

Sec. 5. The circuit court and other courts of said new county shall be held at 
the seminary in the town of Logansport or at any other place therein, to which the 
said courts may adjourn until suitable accommodations can be had at the seat of jus- 
tice thereof, when the courts shall adjourn to meet at said county seat. 

Sec. 6. The agent who shall be appointed to superintend the sale of lots at 
the county seat of said new county of Cass, shall reserve ten per centum out of all 
donations of said county, and shall pay the same over to such person or persons, as 
may be appointed according to law to receive the same, for the use of a county lib- 
rary for said new county. 

Sec. 7. It shall be the duty of the qualified voters of the county of Cass, at 
the time of electing a clerk, recorder and associate judges, to elect three justices of 
the peace, as well as three county commissioners, agreeably to theprovisions of an 
act entitled "An act to establish a board of county commissioners," approved Jan- 
uary 30, 1834, who, when elected and qualified as prescribed by said act, shall have 
all powers and perform all duties prescribed by said act, which act is hereby revived, 
and decreed and taken as in full force as relates to said county of Cass; and also 
the county commissioners shall have all the power and perform all the duties pre- 
scribed by law as relates to the board of justices in the several counties; said com- 
missioners shall have power to hold special sessions, and to do and perform any 
duties required at any previous regular session. This act to take effect and be in 
full force from and after the first day of February next. 
An act supplemental to the foregoing. Approved Janu.4.ry 19, 1829. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, 
That the lines of said county of Cass be, and they are hereby, corrected in the 
boundaries thereof, as described in the first section of the act, to which this is sup- 
plemental by the insertion of the words " thence north three miles " next after the 
words " north of range west " and previous to the words "thence west three miles," 
and the same as hereby amended shall be and remain tlie boundary of Cass County, 


as fully as if the above amendment had been originally inserted in the description 
thereof in said act. 

Sec. 2. That the territory included in the following boundaries, to wit: Be 
ginning on the western boundary line of the Great Miami Reservation, at the corner 
of Cass and Carroll Counties, in Township 25, Range 1 east; thence south with said 
boundary line to the line dividing Townships 34 and 25; thence east on said two 
townships' line tc the eastern boundary of said reservation; thence north with the 
eastern boundary line of said reservation, and in a line due north, in continuation 
thereof to the State line; thence on the line of the State west to a point where a 
due south line will strike the western boundary line of said county of Cass; thence 
south to the line of Cass County, and thence east with the line of said county of 
Cass to the place of beginning, be, and the same is hereby, attached to the said 
county of Cass for civil and criminal jurisdiction; and the citizens residing within 
the bounds so included shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities, and 
be subject to all taxes, impositions and assessments of the citizens of the county 
of Cass. 

Following the supplemental [act of 1829 various other changes 
were made and new counties formed out of the attached portion, 
but it was not until 1852 that the boundary as it now exists was 
fixed by statute. The following is the description: Beginning on 
the west side of the great Miami Beservation line, where township 
line dividing Townships 24 and 25, intersects the same; thence north 
nine miles to the northeast corner of Section 23 in Township 2G 
north, of Eange 1 east; thence west eight miles to the corner of Sec- 
tions 15, 16, 21 and 22 in Township 26 north, of Range 1 west; thence 
north three miles to the southeast corner of Section 33, Township 
27 north, of Eange 1 west; thence west three miles to the south- 
west corner of said Township 27 north, Range 1 west; thence north 
twelve miles to the northwest corner of Township, 28 north, of 
Range 1 west ; thence on the township line dividing Townships 28 
and 29, east twenty-two miles, to the northeast corner of Section 3, 
Township 28 north, of Range 3 east, that being the western line of 
Miami County ; thence south on the Miami County line twenty-four 
miles to a point in the great Miami reserve which, when it is sur- 
veyed, will be the southwest corner of Section 34, Township 25 
north, of Range_3 east; thence west eleven miles to the place of 

The first term of commissioners court was held at the old semi- 
nary building in Logansport on Friday the first day of May, 
1829. James Smith and Moses Thorpe, who had been elected April 
13, constituted the first board. Chauncy Carter was elected 
at the same time,but did not file his certificate of election until July 


25, of the same jeav. The first act of the board was the division 
of the county into townships, which was as follows: That all that 
part of Cass County lying south of Tippecanoe Kiver, and west of 
the western boundary of the Five-Mile Reservation shall form and 
constitute Eel Township. That all that part of the territory attached 
to said county of Cass lying south of Eel River and east of the west- 
ern boundary of the Five-Mile Reservation shall form and consti- 
tute Wabash Township. That all that part of territory attached to 
said county of Cass lying north of the Tippecanoe River to the 
north line of the State shall form and constitute a separate town- 
ship, to be called and known by the name of St. Joseph Township. 
The townships were divided into road districts, and John Tipton, 
James Oldham and Lewis Rodgers were appointed supervi- 

Hugh B. McKeen was ajipointed lister for said county, and 
Cyrus Taber, county treasurer, and William Scott, collector of 
county revenue. After appointinglelection inspectors, overseers of 
the poor and various other townships officers, the board proceeded 
to fix the tavern rates for the county as follows: For keeping a 
horse one night, hay and grain, 50 cents; for "victualling,-' per 
meal, 25 cents; lodging 12-| cents; brandy, per half pint, 50 cents; 
wines, per half pint, 50 cents; rum, per half pint, 50 cents; Hol- 
land gin, 50 cents ; whisky, per half pint, 25 cents. 

A special session was held at the house of Gillis McBean, on the 
25th of July. At this time Cyrus Taber was granted a license to 
vend merchandise in the town of Logausport. Various others had, 
however, preceded him. John Scott was appointed inspector of 
fiour, beef and pork for the county of Cass. The first allowance 
made by the board was $1 to J. B. Duret for county seal, and rec- 
ord books $3, total $10. The first tax was levied at this session, 
and consisted of 50 cents on every animal of the horse, ass or 
mule kind over three years old, and 25 cents on work-oxen three 
years old. Gillis McBean was appointed agent for the county of 
Cass August 10, 1829, services to begin as soon as seat of justice 
is located. Two days later the board met in special session to re- 
ceive the report of the commissioners who were appointed by the 
foregoing act of the Legislature to locate the seat of justice. The 
following is the rejoort: 


To the Board of County Commissioners of Cass Comity, Ind.: 

The undersigned three commissioners, appointed by an act of the General As- 
sembly of the State of Indiana to locate the seat of justice of Cass County, met at 
the house of Gillis McBean, in the town of Logansport, on Monday, the 10th day of 
August, 1829, and selected the town of Logansport as the seat of justice of Cass 
County, the court house to be on Court Square, as designated on the plat of said 
town. We have further received, of Chauncy Carter, the proprietor of said town, 
as a donation, a bond drawn in favor of the county commissioners of said county 
for a deed in fee simple for town lots in the said town of Logansport designated on 
the plat of said town by Nos. 61, 63, 64, 83, 83, 85, 90, 91, 99, 100, 103, 103, 104, 105, 
106, 107, 108 and 33, also a not3 drawn in favor of , Gillis McBean, agent for said 
county of Cass, or his successors in office, by the said Chauncy Carter, for $530, pay- 
able the 20th day of September, 1839. 

Given under our hands and seals this, the 13th day of August, A. D. 1829. 
Signed; Henry Kestine, 

Ekasmus Powell, 
Harris Tyner. 

Tlie first public sale o£ lots Vas advertised for Friday succeed- 
ing the third Monday jin November, 1829. The price of lots was 
fixed as follows: Nos. 61, 64, 85 and 106 shall not sell for less than 
$65 each. Nos. 82, 90, 99, 102, 104, 105 and 107 shall not sell for 
less than $75 each, and Nos. 83 and 100 shall not sell for less than 
$100 each. The conditions were that one-fourth of the purchase 
money be paid at date of sale, the balance in three equal install- 
ments of six, twelve and eighteen months. 

The November term of court was held at Thorp & "Wilson's ho- 
tel, the principal business being the inspection of the reports of 
county agent and county treasurer. The report of Cyrus Taber, 
county treasurer, for the six months ending November 3, 1829, 
shows that $61.44 had been received for licenses, and that the ex- 
penditures for the same period was $54.69, leaving a balance of 
$6.75. Gillis McBean, county agent, submitted the following re- 
port: Eeceived of Chauncy Carter, $530; expenditures for same 
period was $143.75; which left a balance of $386.25. Several per- 
mits were granted to operate ferries across Wabash and Eel Eivers, 
and the following rates established: For each man, OJ cents; for 
man and horse, 25 cents; for each horse, mule, or ass, 18| cents; 
for each wagon, 50 cents; for each horse attached to a wagon, 12i 
cents; for any number of horned cattle more than four years old, 6 
cents each; for each swine, 3 cents; for each yoke of oxen, 25 cents, 
and for each sheep, 3 cents. 

At the January term, 1830, it was ordered that for each wolf 


scalp presented at the county clerk's office §1 should be paid. 
The following grand jurors were each paid SI. 50 for their services 
at the May and November terms of the circuit court of 1S29: John \ 
Scott, William Scott, Samuel Ward, Daniel Bell, Ephraim Dukes, 1 
Cyrus Taber, John K. Hinton, Moses Barnett, Anthony Martin, ] 
James Thompson, Edward McCartney, S. S. Eoocker, I. W. John- \ 
son, Alexander Chamberlain and N. D. Grover. The traverse jurors ] 
for the same term were Alex. Wilson, George Smith, J. K. Hall, | 
Atchison Aaron Speeks. Samuel D. Taber, James Wayman, Joshua i 
Merryman, Ira Evans, David Pati'ick, William Speaks, I. Washing- ' 
ton and Josejjh Guy. i 

The county treasurer submitted a report for the two months end- J 
ing January 4, 1830, which shows that he had received $2, mak- ] 
ing the total amount in treasury §8.75. At the same time Anthony j 
Gamblane was allowed §16 for services of himself and horse in car- j 
rying the returns of senatorial election to Winchester. Jordan i 
Vigus was appointed county treasurer, and Dr. Hiram Todd received \ 
the first allowance for medical aid to the paupers. J. B. Tui-ner was ■ 
appointed superintendent of the school sections of the county. J. . 
B. Eichardville and J. B. Eldridge were granted a license to vend i 
foreign and domestic merchandise in said coiinty. In May the fol- : 
lowing tax levy was made : On each poll, 50 cents ; each horse. 50 
cents; each ox, 25 cents ;2fom'-wheel carriage, 50 cents; each brass 
clock, 50 cents ; gold watch, SI. and each silver watch 25 cents. A 
capital of $1,000, invested in foreign merchandise, be taxed SIO, 
and S5 for each additional SI, 000. 

Commissioners^ Disii'icts. — At the May term. 1831, the county 
was divided into commissioners' districts, as follows: That Miami 
and Wabash Townships shall constitute the First Commissioners' 
District; and that all the territory lying east of a line drawn due 
north through the mouth of Eel Kiver to the county line north and 
south, and east to Miami Township, shall constitute the Second Com- 
missioners' District : and that all the territory west of said line drawn 
through the mouth of Eel River shall constitute the Third Commis- 
sioners' District. 

Other Ads. — It was ordered by the board, September 0, 1831. 
that a pound be constructed on the jail lot in the town of Logans- 
port, of the following dimensions: Eighty by forty feet to be en- 


closed with post and plank fence, the posts to be 6x10 inches, and 8i 
feet long, the plank to be 12 feet long and 1 inch thick; and it was 
further ordered Samuel Ward be superintendent thereof. William 
Scott was appointed commissioner of the three per cent fund Janu- 
ary, 1832. The report of Gillis McBean shows that he had received 
1587.72, and had paid to J. B. Turner, for work on clerk's and re- 
corder's ofiices, $525, leaving a balance of $02.72. Each person 
selling wooden clocks was ordered to pay into the treasury $8. 
Of the $500 of 3 per cent fund allotted to Cass County for the year 
1833, $250 was ordered expended for the building and repair of 
bridges between Logansport and the county line west, and $250 in 
the same manner between Logansport and the county line east. 
May, 1835, a second pound was ordered built. The plans provided 
that it should be fifty feet square, the fence to be of good white oak 
lumber not less than six feet high. S. Ward was appointed to su- 
perintend the construction of said pound. It was further ordered 
that each person presenting wolves' scalps to the county clerk should 
receive, $2; prairie wolves, $1. 

The commissioners, having advertised for bids for a court house 
to be erected in Logansport, found that it would be necessary to 
borrow money to complete the work, and accordingly appointed 
Samuel Hanna, of Fort Wayne, to negotiate a loan fi-om the Bank 
of the United States, in Pennsylvania, or from indi^dduals, as he 
may think proper, said loan not to exceed $10,000, with interest at 
6 per cent, payable annually, and the whole redeemable in twenty 
years, at the pleasure of the county. 

Gillis McBean, county agent, made a report of receipts and ex- 
penditures for the whole time of his incumbency, which was as fol- 

Received from sale of lots $1,750 75 

One not given by Chauncy Carter 530 00 

$2,280 75 
Expenditures 2,095 93 

Balance $ 184 83 

The clerk of the board was authorized to purchase the following 
weights and measures: A measure of one foot, a measure of thirty - 
six inches, a half-bushel measure, containing 1,075.85 cubic inches; 
a gallon measure, and a set of weights, commonly called avoirdupois. 


Said weights and measures to be kept in the office of the county 

The report of Cja-us Taber, commissioner of the three per cent 
fund, shows that there was appropriated by the Legislature in ISBA, 
$100; 1836, $2,000, and in 1837, $2,000, making a total of $4,100. 
This fund was expended for the building of bridges and locating 
and grading roads. 

Sur2}Jits Revenue. — Thomas J. Wilson, commissioner of said fund, 
submitted the following report for the four years ending April, 
1841: Whole amount of principal in the hands of commissioners, 
$6,963.20. Of this amount $557.05 had been loaned. 


That all that part of Cass County lying east of the line dividing 
Ranges 2 and 3, east to the western boundary of the Five-Mile Ees- 
ervation, form and constitute Miami Township. — January 3, 1831. 

Jefferson Township. — That all that part of Cass County lying 
west of the east line of Section 16 and north of the Wabash Eiver, 
form and constitute a township to be named and styled Jefferson 
Township. — September 6, 1831. 

Clay Township. — That all territory bounded by Eel Eiver south, 
west by range line dividing Eanges 1 and 2, on the east by range 
line dividing Eanges 2 and 3, on the north by the county line tak- 
ing in the attached part, shall form and constitute Clay Township. — 
May 7, 1832. 

Clinton Toivnship. — All that part of Cass County lying south of 
the Wabash Eiver and west of the east line of Section 16, form and 
constitute a new township, to be known and designated by the name 
of Clinton.— May 4, 1834. 

Chippewa Township. — All that part of Cass County lying north 
of the lines of the purchase of 1826 shall form and constitute a new 
township, to be known and designated as above. — March 4, 1834. 

Adams Toivnship. — All that part of Cass County, commencing at 
the old boundary line, at the section line dividing Sections 23 and 
24 in Township 28 north, Eange 2 east ; thence south to Eel Eiver ; 
thence up said river, with the meanders therof, to the county line; 
thence north to the said boundary line; thence west to the place of 
beginning, shall form and constitute a new township, to be known 
and designated by the name of Adams. — May 6, 1835. 


Harrison Township. — That all that part of Cass County lying 
in Township 28 north, of Eange 1 east, form and constitute a new 
township, to be known by the name of Harrison Township. — March 
7, 1836. 

Bethlehem Township. — Ordered that all that part of Cass County 
lying in Township 28 north, Eange 2 east, shall form and consti- 
tute a new township, to be known by the name of Bethlehem. — 
May 7, 1836. 

Noble Township. — Ordered that all that part of Cass County 
lying north and west of the plat of West Logan, in Township 27 
north, Eange 1 east, shall form and constitute a new township, to 
be known and designated by the name of Noble. — March 8, 1836. 

Boone Township. — Ordered that all that ])art of Cass County 
lying in Township 28 north, Eange 1 west, be organized and con- 
stitute the township of Boone. — May 8, 1838. 

Tipiion Township. — Ordered that all that part of Cass County 
lying south of the Wabash Eiver, in Townships 26 and 27 north, 
Eange 2 east, shall form and constitute a new township, to be 
known and designated by the name of Tipton. — March 3, 1840. 

Deer Creek Township. — Ordered that all that part of Cass County 
lying in Township 25 north, Eanges 1, 2, 3 east, shall form a new 
township, to be known by the name of Deer Creek. — July 26, 1842. 
Wild Cat Township. — Ordered that all that part of the territory 
attached to the county of Cass, which lies south of the line dividing 
Townships 24 and 25 north, shall constitute a new township, and 
that it shall be known by the name of Wild Cat Township. 

Washington Toionship. — Ordered that a new township, bearing 
the above name, be created, with the following boundary: Com- 
mencing where the section line dividing Sections 34 and 35, Town- 
ship 27 north, Eange 1 east, strikes the Wabash Eiver on the south 
bank; thence to the corner of Sections 14, 15, and 22 and 23, in 
Township 26, Eange 1 east; thence east to the corner of Sections 
14, 13, and 23 and 24; thence south to the corner of Sections 35 and 
36 ; thence east with the township line to the corner of Sections 33 
and 34, Township 26, Eange 2 east; thence north with section line 
to where said section line strikes tlie south bank of the Wabash 
River, in Township 27, Eange 2 east; thence west, with the mean- 
ders of said river, to the place of beginning. — September 7, 1842. 


The foregoiug described townships, with the three original, viz. : 
Eel, Wabash and St. Joseph, elsewhere mentioned, shows the bound- 
ary and date of organization of each township prior to the year 
1847, at which date the townships of the county were reorganized. 
The attached portion of the county, described in the act of the 
Legislatui'e creating the county of Cass, had previously been organ- 
ized into new counties, leaving the boundary as it now exists. The 
townships, according to the reorganization June 9, 18J:7, are de- 
scribed as follows: 

Township No. 1 is composed of Congressional Township 28, 
Kange 1 west, of the principal meridian in the State of Indiana, and 
is known as Boone Township. 

Township No. 2 is composed of Township 28 north. Range 1 
east, and is known as Harrison Township. 

Township No. 3 is composed of Township 28 north, Range 2 
east, and is known as Bethlehem Township. 

Township No. i is composed of all that part of congressional 
Townships 26 and 27 north. Range 1 west, which lie north of the 
Wabash River, and is known as Jefferson Township. 

Township No. 5 is composed of all that part of Township 27 
north. Range 1 east, which lies north of Wabash and Eel Rivers, 
except that part of Barron's reserve .between said rivers and the 
Wabash & Erie Canal, and also except that part of Cicott's reserve 
and fractional Section 25 in said town and range, which is included 
in the town plat of West Logan, said tovmship to be known by the 
name of Noble Township. 

Township No. 6 is composed of all that part of Township 27 
north, Range 2 east, which lies north of Eel River and included the 
whole of Metchineqa reserve, and is known as Clay Township. 

Township No. 7 is composed of all that part of Township 28 
north, Range 3 east, which lies in Cass County, except Little 
Charley's reserve, and is known as Adams Township. 

Township No. 8 is composed of all that 'part of Township 27 
north, Range 3 east, which lies in the county of Cass and north of 
the Wabash River, all of Little Charley's reserve and the islands of 
the Wabash River, and also that part of Township 27, north of 
Range 2 east, which lies between the Wabash and Eel Rivers and 
east of the section line dividing Sections 21 and 22, and 27 and 28 


in the last mentiouecl townsliip and range, and is known as Miami 

Township No. 9 is composed of all that part of Township 27 
north, Ranges 1 and 2 east, which lies between Wabash and Eel 
Elvers, and west of section line dividing Sections 21 and 22 and 27 
and 28 in Township 27 north, Range 2 east, and all parts of Town- 
ship 27 north. Range 1 east, within the limits of the town plat of 
West Logan and the additions thereto, also all that part of Barron's 
reserve in said last mentioned township which lies between the 
Wabash River and the Wabash & Erie Canal, also the islands in 
Wabash River adjacent to said Township No. 9, and is known by 
the name of Eel Township. 

Township No. 10 is composed of that part of the county of Cass 
south of the Wabash River and west of section line dividing Sec- 
tions 31 and 35, Township 27 north. Range 1 east, and the section 
line dividing Sections 2 and 3, and 10 and 11, and 14- and 15, Town- 
ship 26 north, and range last aforesaid, and is known as Clinton 

Township No. 11, is included in the following bounds, to wit: 
Commencing at a point where the section line dividing Sections 34 
and 35, Township 27 north. Range 1 east, strikes the south side of 
the Wabash River; thence south on section line to the southwest 
corner of Section 11, Township 26 north. Range 1 east; thence 
east to the southeast corner of said section, town, and range last 
aforesaid; thence south on section line to the southwest corner of 
Section 36 in the town and range last aforesaid; thence east on the 
township line to the southeast corner of Section 31, Township 26 
north, Range 2 east ; thence north on the section line to the Wabash 
River; thence down said river, with the meanders thereof, to the 
place of beginning.' Said township to be known as Washington. 

Township No. 12 is included in the following boundary, to wit: 
Commencing at the northeast corner of Washington Township; 
thence south with the eastern boundary of Township No. 11 to the 
township line dividing Townships 25 and 26; thence east on said 
line to the eastern boundary of said county; thence north along the 
said eastern boundary to the Wabash River ; thence down said river, 
with the meanders thereof, to the place of beginning. Said town- 
ship to be known by the name of Tipton. 


Township No. 13 is included within the following boundary to 
wit: Commencing at the northeast corner of Section 2, Township 25 
north, Range 2 east; thence west to the northwest corner of Sec- 
tion 1, Township 25 north, Range 1 east; thence south with the 
section line to the to^vnship line dividing Townships 24 and 25 
north; thence east on said township line to the southeast corner of 
Section 35, To^Tiship 25 north, Range 2 east: thence north with 
the section line to the place of beginning. Said township to be 
known by the name of Deer Creek. 

Township No. 14 is composed of all that part of Cass County 
south of Tipton Township and east of Deer Creek, and is known as 
Jackson Township. 

The above descriptions are in some instances ambiguous, but 
they are in each case given in the language of the record. 

Court House. — The second public building erected in Cass 
County was a clerk and recorder's office. This was a frame build- 
ing and stood on the court house square. Bids were received for 
the erection of said building May 12, 1831, and were as follows: 
William Scott, $1,297; Craddock & Collins, $924.87; Horney & An- 
derson, $1,287.87, and Turner & Campbell, $890. The contract 
was awarded to Turner & Campbell, with the provision that it 
should be completed and ready for occupancy by December of the 
same year. Commissioners' court was sometimes held in this 
building. Prior to the erection of the court house meetings were 
held at various places, viz. : Seminary building, Presbyterian Church, 
Methodist Church, Thorp & Wilson's hotel, and the Canal Mansion 

"At a special session of the county board, on the 14th of May, 
1839, the clerk was ordered to give notice for ' sealed proposals ' for 
the erection of a court house in Logansport; and a further order, 
accepting the plan submitted by Joseph Willis. 

"Accordingly, on the 15th day of June, 1839, notice having been 
given, the proposals were opened by the board, and, upon mature 
consideration, the contract was awarded to Joseph Willis at $13,190, 
to be completed for that sum, the contractor furnishing all the ma- 
terials, by the 30th day of December, 1841. 

" Subsequently, by an article of agreement between the board and 
Joseph Willis, an addition was made to the estimated cost of the 


building, making the contract price $14,666.80, instead of the for- 
mer sum. This subsequent agreement was made in vacation, on 
the 8th of January, 1840. 

"Measurements and estimates were made from time to time for work 
and labor done and materials furnished by Mr. Willis, as provided 
by the contract, until the 3d of March, 1841, when it became appar- 
ent that he would be unable to complete the building in the manner 
and by the time sj^ecified in the contract. He was, accoidingly, re- 
leased on that day by the board, Mr. Willis, likewise, ' executing 
a release to the county commissioners," "for and in consideration 
of an allowance of three hundred and fifty dollars," " all claim to 
the ten per centum on the amount of work done upon the court 
house in Logansport," the said sum so allowed being in full of the 
final estimate, that day made to him, on his said contract therefor. 
The aggregate of estimates so made to him amounted to the sum of 
$4,063.75. This sum had been paid him, in cash $876, and $3,187.75 
in county bonds, di'awing 10 per cent interest, payable in ten years 
fi-om the dates thereof, as follows: $337.50, from November 7,1839; 
$1,895.85, from May 7, 1840; $562 from July 7, 1840; $647.40, 
from September 10, 1840, and $250 from March 8, 1841. 

" A further contract for the completion of the building was en- 
tered into on the 23d of March, 1841, with Job B. Eldridge, Thomas 
J. Cummings, and Isaac Clary, at the sum of $11,598, on terms of 
payment and conditions similar to those with Mr. Willis. By this 
contract it was stipulated that the building should be fully com- 
pleted on or before the 1st of December, 1842. Under this con- 
tract, which was confirmed and regularly executed on the 10th of 
June, 1841, Messrs. Eldridge, Cummings & Clary progressed with 
the work as rapidly as the circumstances of jthe case would permit, 
receiving estimates quarterly, until the final completion of the build- 
ing, in December, 1844. In the meantime, extras had been allowed 
for changes made to the amount of $731.11, the contractors thus re- 
ceiving the aggregate sum of $12,329.11, including an allowance of 
$85 for putting up the spire and lightning rod. This sum, with the 
$4,063.75 allowed and paid to Mr. Willis, makes the cost of our 
court house foot up the gross sum of $16,392.86, exclusive of the 
interest paid on the bonds issued for the liquidation of the debt 
created by reason of the erection of this edifice, so long recognized 


as one of the finest and best buildings of its kind in the State. It 
has answered well the pm-pose contemplated until within the past 
few years, when the immense accumulation of business has demon- 
strated the fact of its growing insufficiency to meet the demands of 
the period." 

The Jails. — "At a session of the^board, convened on the lith of 
October, 1829, the preliminary order was made directing the county 
ao-ent, Gillis McBean, Esq., to -cause a jail to be erected on Lot No. — , 
in the to-rni of Logansport, of the following dimensions, to wit: Twelve 
feet square, of hewn logs one foot square, one story high; also a 
jailer's hoiise, of round logs, sixteen feet square, and one story high.' 
When the building was completed, and the bills for labor and mate- 
rial received, audited and paid, the aggregate cost, on the plan pro- 
posed, was found to be S60.50. 

" The insufficiency of the first building was soon clearly manifest, 
and the necessity of a more substantial one, with an enlarged capac- 
ity, well established. On the 5th of July, 1832, the board ' ordered 
that a jail for the county of Cass, in the town of Logansport, be built 
of the following size, dimensions and manner: Twenty by thirty- 
eight feet square, two stories high, and each story eight feet in the 
clear ; first story of good hewn rock ; front walls two feet thick, the 
balance equally strong. Three apartments : Criminal, fourteen feet 
square; middle, 8x14 feet; for female criminals, 8x14 feet.' 

" Proposals were to be received July 21, following, but none ap- 
pear to have been received. On the 14th of January, 1833, another 
effort was made and a plan submitted: ' Hewn timber one foot thick, 
and so long as to make the house 14x27 feet in the clear ; partition 
in center of hewn timber ; under and upper floors to be laid with hewn 
timber, one foot thick, edges straightened and corners completely 
dovetailed.' The criminal room was to be additionally strong, as 
per specifications. Notice of the letting was given for the first Mon- 
day in February, when the time was extended to March 5, at which 
time the contract was awarded to Thomas Kichardson for $394.50. 
It was completed substantially as prescribed, and the work accepted. 
This building continued to be used for several years until superseded 
by the prison rooms in the basement of the new coui-t house. 

"In the course of time, this latter proving unequal to the public 
expectation, the plan of the present one was projected, and, in the 


fall of 1870, was completed after mimerous modifications, the ulti- 
mate cost reaching the sum of $40,011.17. Since its completion and 
occupancy numerous improvements have been made on the original 
plan and construction. The contractor for this building was David 
D. Dykeman." 

Northern Indiana Hospiial for the Insane. — Pursuant to au act 
of the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, providing for the 
erection of additional hospitals for the insane, the board of commis- 
sioners selected Logansport to be the site of the Northern Indiana 
Hospital. Said board, on the 4th of October, 1883, for the sum of 
114,500, bought of Andi'ew Y. Shanklin, 160 acres of land, lying 
one mile and a half west of the city of Logansport, and received as 
a donation to the State from the citizens of Cass County 121.86 
acres adjoining, to be used as a site for another of the hospitals 

This place lies on the south bank of the Wabash River. Its 
281 acres form a square block, excepting ten acres in the northeast 
corner, which should be a part of the hospital property also. Its 
surface is broken by a long rocky ridge, which passes through its 
center; and this affords a remarkably commanding site for the 
buildings, with views in every direction over the broad and here very 
picturesque valley of the Wabash, including the city of Logans- 
port. A considerable creek passes through the farm, having about 
thirty feet of fall available for domestic use and fire protection. 
Nearly half the land is densely wooded, and the building site is 
adorned by a beautiful grove of maple trees. The opportunities 
for drainage are excellent. The main line of the Terre Haute & 
Logansport Railroad passes through the south half of the place. An 
excellent gravel road along the river front connects it with Logans- 
port very conveniently. 

Plans and specifications for the hospital near Logansport were 
submitted to and adopted by the board, with certain modifications. 
May 26, 1884; and after due advertisment, as required by law, the 
following bids were received for the construction of the hospital : 
Chas. Pearce & Co., total work, $383,354.72; Sweeny Bros., total 
work, $392,839.54; McCormack & Hege, total work, $362,802.29. 

That of Messrs. McCormack & Hege, of Columbus, Ind., being 
the lowest, it was accepted, and on June 12 a contract was made 


with this firm to supply the materials and do the work of said con- 
struction, according to the original plans and specifications as adopt- 
ed by the board, for the sum of $362,802.29, more or less, accord- 
ing to any changes in the plans or specifications which might be 
made by the board, and according to a schedule of quantities and 
price.s forming a part of the contract. 

The hospital will be ready for occupation in the spring of 1887, 
and when completed will cost about $400,000. 

In accordance with the act of the Legislature the insane of the 
following named counties will be provided for at this hospital : Cass, 
Dekalb, Elkhart, Fulton, Huntington, Jasper, Kosciusko, Lake, La- 
porte, Lagrange, Miami, Marshall, Newton, Noble, Porter, Pulaski, 
Steuben, St. Joseph, Starke, White, Whitley and Wabash. 

Finances. — Owing to the incompleteness of the early records it 
is impossible to give a trustworthy report of the finances for the first 
decade of the county's existence. Many of the reports were never 
recorded, while others were so unsystematically arranged as to ren- 
der them unintelligible. After the report of the first year, which is 
elsewhere given, the county revenue increased very rapidly, and in 
the following year (1830) the total receipts, not including the pro- 
ceeds arising from the sale of lots, were S3G8.00, and the expendi- 
tures were but §1.25 less than the receipts. For many years orders 
were issued for work, and these were discounted at almost any per 
cent named by the purchaser. This worked a hardship on the 
poorer classes, who were compelled to sell, in order to provide for 
the daily wants of the family. The principal source of revenue for 
the first several years was from the sale of lots, which furnished the 
necessary funds for the erection of all the early public buildings. 

The following statement will show the probable annual receipts 
and disbursements of the county for the dates given: 

Date. Receipts. Disbursements. 

1839 $6144 154 00 

1830 368 90 367 65 

1840 4,828 55 4,137 19 

1850 13,182 08 11,007 85 

1860 73.252 21 63,932 59 

1861 65,407 45 56,808 58 

1862 60,114 35 46,284 34 

1863 100,647 59 79,764 61 

1864 106,690 93 89,141 14 

1865 169.287 53 134,560 99 


Date. Receipts. Disbursements. 

1866 274,344 39 230,801 97 

1867 212.710 98 157,769 77 

1868 236,366 85 178,153 90 

1869 222,553 98 154,666 24 

1870 214,836 00 176,633 00 

1871 180,975 00 124,585 00 

1872 277,704 00 183,776 00 

1873 289,556 00 217,823 00 

1874 204,836 00 166,878 00 

1875 205,305 00 163,013 00 

1881 280,259 27 238,505 34 

1882 302,252 00 237,369 08 

1888 292,076 00 219,227 60 

1884 315,403 00 259,798 88 

1885 339,576 00 345,388 59 

. 1886 363,600 00 351,93190 


County bonds outstanding June 1, 1885 $30,000 00 

County bonds redeemed June 1, 1885 30,000 00 

Orders outstanding 9,109 44 

Orders issued June 1, 1885 121,282 37 

Orders paid June 1, 1885 130,391 81 

County indebtedness nothing. 

Reduction of indebtedness 39,109 44 

Poor Farm — County Asylum. — "The experience of older coun- 
ties having demonstrated the fact that the poor and unfortunate, 
who are necessarily supported at jaublic expense, can be better and 
more economically provided for on a farm, with sufficient build- 
ings and other appliances to utilize their labor, managed by a 
competent overseer, than, perhaps, by any other method; in the 
course of time, the county board, also, having taken cognizance 
of these facts, steps were taken to make that system an element 
of county economy. 

"Accordingly, on the 5th of March, 1845, the county board hav- 
ing closed a contract with Henry H. Helm, for ninety acres off the 
south part of the southeast quarter of Section 17, Township 27 
north, Range 2 east, for a consideration of $1,300, a deed was exe- 
cuted to the county for those grounds, thenceforward to be appro- 
priated to the purposes of a ' poor farm.' "The buildings necessary 
to meet the demand of the times were soon after erected, and the 
utility of a public enterprise of this character became daily more ap- 
parent, as the improved economy of the county in providing for its 


poor and infirm, compared with its former experiences, was fully 
demonstrated by later developments. 

" From that time forward, such additions to the working appli- 
ances of the institution as were required by the increased demands 
for admission received the ready attention of the board controlling 
its operations. " Within the past few years, the provision made for 
utilizing pauper labor has added greatly to the revenues derived 
from that source, while it has in a like ratio reduced the per capita 
expenses of its management and maintenance. 

" As early as 1871, the board had in contemplation improvements 
upon the county farm, in the way of infirmary, or county 
asylum, which it was expected would not only be a matter of 
economy in taking care of the poor and infirm, but would add greatly 
to their facilities for rendering the inmates more comfortable. It 
was the purpose, then, to go on with the work at once. The im- 
provement was deferred, however, for further consideration. 

"Finally, on the 3d of March, 1874, bids having been received in 
pursuance of a notice for sealed proposals for the purpose, and the 
several propositions fully considered, the contract was awarded to 
E. D. Stevens & Bro., on their bid of $12,548, for the completion of 
the work. The work was completed in compliance with the con- 
tract, with a small additional advance on the contract price, for 
extras, changes of detail, etc. The main structure is of brick and 
heated by steam, the dimensions, at present, being fully equal to 
the demands made upon it. In detail, the plan of the building is 
such as to blend economy, comfort and safety with satisfactory har- 
mony; the separate departments for diiierent classes of inmates be- 
ing arranged and furnished with especial reference to the condition 
and requirements of the occupants. Altogether, the plan of the 
building, with its appliances, its structure and management, reflects 
credit upon the projectors and managers." 

The following is the annual expense of the poor: 

Date. Expense. Date. Expense. 

1860 $3,671 09 1867 11,811 31 

1861 3,899 93 1868 8,383 13 

1863 3,493 94 1869 9,102 00 

1863 3,803 98 1870 8,373 30 

1864 5,986 81 1871 17,774 91 

1865 8,676 51 1873 7,534 65 

1866 10,386 02 1873 9,138 71 


$11 556 55 


23,065 86 


13,644 70 



13,092 37 



13,206 64 


14,422 19 



14.634 23 



1884 14,163 76 

14,143 79 

14,163 19 

Michigan Road. — " By the provisions of the act of the General 
Assembly of the State of Indiana, approved January 21, 1828, ' John 
McDonald, of Daviess County, and Chester Elliott, of "Warrick, were 
appointed commissioners to survey and make a road from Lake 
Michigan to Indianapolis, agreeably to the late treaty with the Pot- 
tawattomie Indians, and the act of Congress in confirmation thereof.' 

" Under that authority, work was immediately commenced and the 
line of road, making Logansport a central point, was accordingly 
surveyed, located and marked out the succeeding summer and fall. 
As a general business thoroughfare, it was one of the most valuable 
improvements of its day, opening up a line of trade that tended, 
perhaps, most largely to develop the vast natural resources of Cass 

"The history of this road, during the first fifteen years of its use, 
is full of interesting incidents, as they illustrated the experiences 
of those who, from necessity, were compelled to traverse its line 
through bottomless mud or endless 'corduroy.' Its reputation was 
not limited to Cass or other counties along the borders, but was co- 
extensive with the settled districts of the entire Northwest. In- 
deed, its name was abroad as far east as the Alleghanies and be- 
yond, for the whole tide of emigration passing from the eastward 
to populate the newly acquired domain in Indiana and the more 
Western States and Territories, must flow along this great thorough- 
fare, because no other was so direct, and none afPording better in- 
ducements for travel." 

Plank Road. — Under the provisions of an act authorizing the 
organization of plank road companies, a company was organized in 
Cass County, and in the early part of the fifties a plank road was 
built on the line of the old Michigan Koad. These roads proved to 
be impracticable, and after a few years were abandoned. 

Gravel Roads. — Logansport & Burlington Turnpike Company 
was organized in June, 1867, with an authorized capital stock of 


856,000. The entire length of this road is fourteen miles. The 
officers of the company are Thomas H. Bringhui'st, president; 
W. H. Brown, treasurer, and S. L. Tanguy, secretary. Logans- 
port & Western Turnpike Company was organized December 12, 
1881, and four miles of road built, at a cost of $7,500. The officers 
are D. D. Neff, president; Dennis Uhl, treasui-er, and D. W. Tom- 
linson, secretary. 

Logansport & Marion Tui-npike Company was organized May 
19. 1882. The capital stock of said company is 810,000. The road 
is completed a distance of five miles. The following are the offi- 
cers: Henry Puterbaugh, president; Samuel S. Helvie, treasurer, 
and D. W. Tomlinson, secretary. 

Logansport & Northern Tui'npike Company was organized ■ndth 
a capital stock of §16,000. The road leads fi'om Logansport to 
Meta, a distance of eleven miles. The officers are Tobias Julian, 
president; and W. E. Haney, secretary and treasiu-er. 

The Logansport & Wabash, Logansport & Koyal Center, Logans- 
port & Pleasant Grove, and Logansport & Eock Creek -Turnpike 
'Companies have each constructed roads bearing the same name as 
the company. These pikes were constructed upon some of the 
principal highways leading to the city. The aggregate length of 
these roads is about twenty-five miles. These roads have added 
materially to the wealth of the county and have immeasurably bene- 
fited the business interests of Logansport. 

Railroads. — In contrast with the historic Michigan Koad as an ave- 
nue of transportation, we place the more modern railroad, and with it 
the greater facilities for supplying the demands of the present age. 
Triie, Cass County was not the first in the State of Indiana to em- 
bark in the enterprise of building railroads, nor was she the last. 
It required the stimulus of a few roads in the older counties of the 
southern part of the State to excite the necessary estimate of pub- 
lic opinion to warrant the preliminary action in the premises. This 
was not long wanting, and the year 1848 found our people moving, 
witli no uncertain purpose, toward the incorporation of " The Lake 
Michigan, Logansport & Ohio Eiver Kailroad Company, " with such 
men as James W. Dunn, Williamson Wright, and George B. Walker 
of Cass County, among those composing the board of directors. 
The capital stock of this company was fixed at 81,000,000, divided 
into shares of 8'-5 each. 


New Castle & Richmond, now known as the Richmond & Logans- 
port Division of the Panhandle Railroad. — The result of this pro- 
ceeding was first manifested in an agreement with the New Castle 
& Richmond Railroad Company, dated December 11, 1852, whereby 
the line of the latter road was extended from its western terminus 
to the south side of the Wabash River, opposite Logansport. This 
extension was immediately surveyed and the work put under con- 
tract. Its completion to that point, in 1855, was hailed as the in- 
auguration of a new era in the history of Cass County in general 
and Logansport in particular. 

A further extension of this line, known as the " Camden Exten- 
sion, " was authorized by subsequent legislative enactment, but, 
when almost completed, was abandoned. Its track and roadway 
have since been purchased and utilized by the Logansport, Craw- 
fordsville & Southwestern Railroad. 

Logansport & Chicago Railway, later known as the Columbus & 
Cliicago Division of Panhandle. — By a resolution of the Lake Mich- 
igan, Logansport & Ohio River Railroad Company, dated March 12, 
1853, the name of that company was changed to the Logansport & 
Chicago Railway Company. Soon afterward, the preliminary line 
of that road was smweyed, but the location was temporarily deferred 
until some necessary modification of the route had been made. It 
was subsequently put under contract and completed in good time. 

Toledo WabasJi & Western Railway, later known as the Wa- 
bash St. Louts & Pacific. — In 1852, the preliminary steps were 
taken toward the organization of a railroad company to build and 
operate a line of railroad from Toledo, on the lake, westerly to St. 
Louis, thus connecting the Mississippi and Lake Line, passing 
through the rich territory of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri. 
The company so formed was first known as the Lake Erie, Wabash 
& St. Louis Railway Company, but was changed several times, being 
more recently known by the name which heads this article. The 
building of this road progressed rapidly and was completed to this 
jjoint, so that the first arrival of cars at Logansport was on March 
20, 1856. Since its completion along the entire line it has done 
an immense freight and passenger business, and is, perhaps, better 
supplied, in the quantity and quality of its rolling stock, than any 
other of the Western roads. 


Loganspori, Peoria & Burlinyion, Western Division Panhan- 
dle. — Almost simultaneously with the construction of the Wabash 
Road, this additional line was projected and pushed to completion 
without unreasonable delay. It is daily becoming of more impor- 
tance to the shipping interests of the people of this county, as it 
passes through the best grain region of northern Indiana. 

The Bradford Division of the Panhandle was completed more 
recently. The Eel Eiver Road and The Vandalia Line, the former 
extending from Logansport to Detroit and the latter from Terre 
Havite to South Bend, via Logansport, are each doing a lucrative 

Wabash & Erie Canal. — By an act of Congress ajaproved 
March 2, 1827, provision was made for assisting the State of Indi- 
ana to open a canal connecting "the waters of the Wabash with 
those of Lake Erie," "for the more easy and cheap conveyance of 
goods and merchandise from one extreme thereof to the other,"' 
through the country then illy provided with the means qf transit 
and intercommunication between the different sections of this and 
the older settled portions of Indiana, adjacent and more distant, 
thus magnifying the importance of the interests to be derived from 
the newly acquired purchase from the cessions of the preceding 
October 16 and 23, by the Pottawattomie and Miami Indians. 

The survey of the canal was commenced in 1833, several routes 
being transversed for the purpose of selecting the most available. 
It was not, however, until 1835, that there was &nj determination 
as to the more practicable route. In order to supply the public de- 
mand for it, the Legislature of 1834-35 directed the survey of two 
proposed routes through the county; one of these to cross the Wa- 
bash above Logansport, passing down through the low lands on the 
south side until it should intersect another proposed route crossing 
from the north side; the other commencing at the same point, and 
running along the north side, through Logansport, crossing Eel 
Eiver, and thence down, on the same side of the Wabash, so as to 
cross the Wabash above Delphi, and there intersect the main line. 
The latter route, from cousidei-ations not then or since generally 
understood or sanctioned, was accepted as the more practical. 

The work was subsequently let about the loth of September, 
1885, along the selected route, and the work commenced on special 


•sections shortly thereafter, but no part of the work was completed 
in Cass County until the summer of 1838. In the fall of 1838 
water was let in and boats came down as far as Berkley Street, 
Logansport, about September of that year. Boats, however, did 
not pass through the city and cross Eel River until some time in the 
summer of 1840. 

As soon as the canal was completed to Lafayette and put in 
operation, its utility as a means of cheap transportation for heavy 
freights and the products of the country began to be fully realized, 
and its popularity continued unabated during a period of more than 
a third of a century, answering fully the purposes contemplated by 
its original projectors. But, in the course of time, its usefulness 
was measurably superseded by the greater facilities afforded by 
railroads, for transportation and conveyance, than could be offered 
by the canal. Having completed its mission, it was abandoned in 

Agricultural Society. — -"Encouragements looking to the promo- 
tion of agricultural interests, as the best means of developing the 
resources of our State and insuring the greatest permanent good, 
received early recognition from the Legislative authorities of the 
commonwealth. So far as it affects the experience of this county, 
the action taken in 1838-34, recommending the formation of county 
agricultural societies, seemed first to have awakened the interest of 
the farming population of the county. Pursuant to the provisions 
of the law enacted for the purpose, a meeting of the agriculturists 
of the county assembled at the "seminary" on _the 30th of May, 
1885, and the questions discussed touching the organization of a 
county society. 

"The result of this step was little more than to awaken an inter- 
est in the prospective advantages to be obtained from organization. 
It had a tendency, at least, to investigate and compare the experi- 
ences of the progressive agriculturists of the day, but the attempts 
at organization were, in a measure, abortive. There were many 
advanced thinkers on the subject of scientific farming, and were 
ready to lead ; but the rank and file of our farmers were not pos- 
sessed of great faith in the idea that the kind and quantity of farm- 
ing products could be improved beyond the experiences of their 


"In 1840-41, discussion had developed an interest that culmi- 
nated in the organization of a society about the beginning of 1842. 
Of this organization Hewit L. Thomas was president; Dr. John 
Lytle, secretary, and James Horney, treasurer, aided by a compe- 
tent board of directors. In the fall of that year, an agricultural 
fair, the first, perhaps, ever attempted in the county, was held on 
the grounds immediately west of the old hotel at the northwest 
corner of Walnut and Market Streets, in the city of Logansport. 
There was indeed a fine display of stock and farm products, which 
tended greatly to encourage the lukewarm and confirm the argu- 
ments of the progressives, inciting them to greater effort. 

"Again, in the course of time, the interest subsided, and little 
was heard of the society; but the discussion went on, and the main 
objects were not lost sight of nor forgotten. The society was re- 
organized in 1854 or 1855. Subsequently numerous fairs were held, 
at first, for a few years, in the eastern part of the city, on grounds 
leased of George T. Tipton for the purpose; afterward on the north 
side, immediately south of S. A. Custer's residence. For a few years 
success attended the efforts of the society; but dissatisfaction and 
jealousies were engendered, and the society became defunct, either 
from mismanagement or inefficient organization. 

" Other efforts having failed, thus far, to secure the objects 
desired to be attained, on the 26th of April, 1873, "The Cass 
County Agricultural, Horticultural and Mechanical Association" 
was formed, with a capital stock of $20,000, to be divided into 
shares of $25 each. The purpose for which said corporation was 
organized ' is to promote and improve agriculture, horticulture, the 
mechanic, manufacturing and household arts, throughout Cass 
County; and to this end to buy and sell, and deal generally in such 
real and personal estate as may be necessary to the successful pros- 
ecution of said business.' 

"The organization being perfected, a tract of land in the north- 
east quarter of Section 29, Township 27 north, Kange 2 east, was 
purchased by the association as a fair ground, of sufficient dimen- 
sions to subserve all the purposes for which it was intended. The 
needed buildings and conveniences were soon after built, and the 
first fair was held on those grounds, fi-om September 9 to 13, in- 
clusive, in the year 1873. Since that time, an increased interest 


has been manifested, justifying the expenditure of large sums of 
money in the erection of suitable and sxibstantial buildings, with 
all the improvements appertaining to such grounds that experience 
has found necessary to completely adapt them to the wants of the 
public. Annually, since the first, fairs have been held and largely 
attended, proving the efficiency of the association in accomplishing 
the purposes foreshadowed in its organization." 

The present officers of the association are William D. Pratt, 
president; James Buchanan and John G. Seybold, vice-presidents; 
D. W. Tomlinson, secretary ; John W. Markley, treasurer ; John G. 
Seybold, general superintendent, and George W. Haigh, marshal. 

Cass Couniy Medical Socieiy. — " The formation of this society 
was the result of a manifest necessity on the part of the profe 
to secure not only a combination of eifort in advancing its 
and enlarging the domain of its usefulness, but to giiard it against 
the deceptions of disqualified, irresponsible practitioners. There- 
fore, as an outgrowth of this sentiment, and as a means of realizing 
the influence heretofore exerted by the District Association, the 
members of the profession, after mature consideration of the premi- 
ses, met in Logansport on June 25, 1873, and perfected the organ- 
ization of the society by prescribing the articles of association, to 
which the names of sixteen reputable practicing physicians of Cass 
County were attached, adopting a code of by-laws and regulations, 
and electing officers pursuant thereto. 

"The original officers so elected were J. A. Adrian, president; 
W. H. Bell, vice-president ; J. H. Goodell, secretary ; J. M. Justice, 
treasurer ; A. Coleman, I. B. Washburn and James Thomas, censors. 

"The objects of the society, as set forth in the articles of asso- 
ciation, were as follows: 

" ' 2. The objects of this society shall be the advancement of 
medical science; the promulgation of medical knowledge; the pro- 
motion of the interests of the members, and all measures adapted to 
the relief of suffering; to improve the health and protect the lives 
of the people.' 

" The prescribed qualifications for membership were: 

" ' 3. Any graduate of medicine of any regular school, who is in 
good moral and professional standing, may become a member of 
this society by signing the constitution and complying with the by- 


laws thereof; and, in lieu of a diploma, shall submit to a written 
examination provided for in the constitution and by-laws of this 

" By the provisions of Article I of the constitution and by- 

" ' The name and title of this society shall be the Cass County 
Medical Society, and shall be auxilliary and subject to the Indiana 
State Medical Society.' 

" Section 5 of Article VI provides as follows: 

" ' Sec. 5. It shall be the duty of the censors to examine candi- 
dates for membership who have not the credentials prescribed by 
Section 1 of Article III, and where the applicant gives satisfactory 
evidence of qualifications in the various branches of medical sci- 
ence, give him a certificate of the fact, if in the interim of the meet- 
ings, and if it be at any meeting report the same to the society.' 

"Under the head of 'Powers and Duties,' Section 1 of Article 
VIII provides that, 'The society shall have full power to adopt 
such measures as may be deemed most efficient for mutual improve- 
ment, for exciting a spirit of emulation, for facilitating the dissemi- 
nation of useful knowledge, for promoting friendly intercourse 
among its members, and for the advancement of medical science.' 

" Section 7 of the same article authorizes the secretary, with 
the approval of the society, to appoint, at each regular meeting, 
three members, whose duty it shall be to prepare and read papers 
on some medical subject of their own choosing, or to report cases in 
practice, as they may elect. 

"Article XIV prescribes as the society's 'Code of Ethics' the 
code adopted by the American Medical Association. 

" Membership is forfeited by a non-compliance with the letter 
or spirit of the regulations and code adopted and in force, after a 
full and fair trial, and a vote of two-thirds of the members present 
at any regular meeting." 

In January, 1876, the society was reorganized, for the purpose 
of becoming an auxiliary to the State Association, othervrise there 
were but few changes made. The present ofiicers are D. N. Fans- 
ler. president: F. A. Busjohn, vice-president; J. Z. Powell, secre- 
tary; J. Herman, J. E. Sterrett and W. B. Hunter, censors. 

Logcmsport Medical and Surgical Associcdioii was org 

A A f. 



May 1, 1880. The first officers were G. N. Fitch, president; J. 
M. Justice, vice-president; and J. H. Talbott, secretary. The pur- 
pose of the organization, as set forth in the articles of association, is 
to promote a friendly and professional interest among the members, 
and for their mutual improvement. The charter members are: J. 
W. Talbott, A. Coleman, G. N. Fitch, A. B. Buchanan, J. M. Jus- 
tice, E. Faber, H. D. Hattery, J. A. Adrian, J. H. Talbott and C. 
C Hill. The present membership is fifty-two. The regular meet- 
ings are held quarterly. 

Election Returns of Cass County. — November, 1828 — Andrew 
Jackson, Democrat, 66; Jno. Q. Adams, Whig, 31. 

November, 1832 — Andrew Jackson, Democrat, 162; Henry Clay, 
Whig, 158. 

November, 1836 — Harrison, Whig, 513; Van Buren, Democrat, 

November, 1840 — Harrison, Whig, 640; Van Buren, Democrat, 

November, 184J— Clay, Whig, 768 ; Polk, Democrat, 671 ; Bir- 
ney, 18. 

November, 1848— Taylor, Whig, 881; Cass, Democrat, 829; Van 
Buren, 55. 

November, 1852— Scott, Whig, 1,176; Pierce, Democrat, 1,190; 
Hale, 50. 

November, 1856 — Buchanan, Democrat, 1,539; Fremont, Ee- 
publican, 1,504; Fillmore, American, 40. 

November, 1860 — Lincoln, Eepublican, 1,874; Douglas, North- 
ern Democrat, 1,727; Bell, Union, 130; Breckinridge, Southern 
Democrat, 34. 

November, 1864 — Lincoln, Eepublican, 1,836; McClellan, Dem- 
ocrat, 2,087. 

November, 1868 — Grant, Eepublican, 2,370; Seymour, Demo- 
crat, 2,673. 

November, 1872^Grant, Eepublican, 2,616; Greeley, Democrat, 

OCTOBER, 1876. 


Williams. Harrison. Harrington. 

Boone 311 113 5 

Harrison 148 122 3 

Bethlehem 85 176 1 




Adams 100 

Miami 98 

Clay 73 

Noble 70 

Jefferson 146 

Eel, First Ward 387 

Second Ward 240 

Third Ward 4.59 

Fourth Ward 201 

Fifth Ward 321 

Clinton 122 

Washington 194 

Tipton 281 

Jackson 168 

Deer Creek 212 

Totals 3515 








1 * 























Garfield an 

Adams 95 

Bethlehem 216 

Boone 114 

Clay 139 

Clinton 151 

Deer Creek 157 

Eel, First Ward 232 

Second Ward 289 

Third Ward 183 

Fourth Ward 330 

Fifth Ward 338 

Harrison 158 

Jefferson 134 

Jackson 139 

Miami 120 

Noble 156 

Tipton 182 

Washington 159 

Totals 3382 



Cleveland. main 

Adams 139 101 

Bethlehem 63 233 

Boone 2.52 136 

Clay 74 153 


Hancock and 



Weaver and 







































Cleveland. Blaine. Butler. St. John. 

Clinton 125 146 1 

DeerCreek 237 167 7 3 

Bel, First Ward 427 279 7 1 

Second Ward 283 320 5 

Third Ward 473 219 2 

Fourth Ward 239 334 8 

Fifth Ward 409 365 10 1 

Harrison 181 148 ^7 

Jefferson 150 123 

Jackson 208 213 7 

Miami 119 235 2 

Noble 109 137 3 

Washington 216 168 1 

Tipton 373 198 6 2 

Totals 4070 3583 75 13 

Old Settlers'' Association of Cass County. — For several years 
prior to the organization of said association meetings were held, and 
matters of interest to the old settlers were introduced and discussed, 
but no permanent organization effected until 1870. The first effort 
at organization was at a meeting held February 9, 1870, at which 
George T. Tipton presided, and A. F. Smith was secretary. A 
committee was appointed to obtain a list of pioneers whose settle- 
ment in the county antedated the year 1832. The meeting then 
adjourned to meet again February 26, 1870, at which time a per- 
manent organization was effected. The first officers were Daniel 
Bell, president; Anthony Barron, George T. Tipton, Daniel Pater- 
ick, Job B. Eldridge, Cyrus Vigus, vice-presidents, and C. B. Las- 
sell, secretary. Meetings are held annually, or oftener, at which 
great interest is manifested. The present officers are N. B. Barron, 
president; Anthony F. Smith, secretary. 

Orphans' Home Association. — As early as the summer of 1875 
the question of organizing an institution for the purpose of bet- 
ter providing for the wants of that class of unfortunates who are 
left without estate or the means of support by the death or indi- 
gence of parents was quite extensively canvassed among the char- 
itably disposed of the citizens. About that time a few of the 
warm-hearted Christian ladies of the city undertook the task of sup- 
plying the apparent demand. The movement met with the em- 
phatic approval of the entire community, and its immediate demands 
seconded by contributions awarded for that purpose. Central among 


those who operated with devoted effort to that end was Mrs. IVIinnie 
Griffith, of this city. She gave form to the enterprise by taking 
charge of the temporary organization in person, devoting her time 
and energies, and providing a suitable building for the practical 
demonstration of the cherished idea. 

For two years the experiment was tested by the measui-e of expe- 
perience, and its utility fully insured, notwithstanding there were 
many discouragements encountered, and overcome with a spirit that 
ensures certainty in the attainment of any desired end. 

With these results in view, and the magnitude of the work duly 
weighed, at a meeting of the board of managers, held on Wednes- 
day, the 2d of January, 1878, to consider the propriety of re- 
organization, a large attendance of the fi-iends of the association 
being present, giving sanction to the proceedings fi'aught with such 
momentous interest to the well-being of the society. 

The result of the management, as developed in the second annual 
report "showed that during the year it had twenty-nine children 
under its care, and, as opportunity afforded, good homes had been 
provided for some, while others were returned to their mothers, who 
thought they were able to care for them, leaving in the asylum at 
present nineteen inmates, twelve of whom are attending school. Of 
the whole number enrolled at this date only three remain who were 
there when the last annual report was rendered." 

On the 1st of February following, the reorganization was per- 
fected under the corporate name of the Orphans' Home Associa- 
tion. The range and scope of the organization is fully set forth in 
the articles of the association, as follows: 

"We, the undersigned, residents of the city'of Logansport, in 
Cass County, in the State of Indiana, do hereby associate ourselves 
for the purpose of organizing and maintaining a benevolent or char- 
itable association for the care, support, discipline and education of 
orphan and poor children within Cass County, Ind., and to establish 
and maintain a 'Home' for furtherance of the aforesaid object of 
said association. 

"Any one may become a member of this association by subscrib- 
ing to its articles and paying the sum of S3 annually toward its 
support. Membership is lost by failure to pay said sum of $3 an- 
nually. There shall be each year, and on the first Wednesday of 


January of each year, twelve directors elected, in whom shall be re- 
posed the care and management of the affairs of the association and 
of its property and iinance. These directors shall have no authori- 
ty to borrow money on the credit of the association, or to pledge its 
property, by mortgage or otherwise, for the payment of money, but, 
in other respects, shall have full power to contract for and transact 
the business of the association. 

"There shall be no sectarian or religious discrimination in the 
management of the association." 

Under the act of the Legislature, which provided for the estalj- 
lishmeut and maintenance of an orphans' home in the several coun- 
ties of the State, the county commissioners have appropriated more 
than $4,000 for the purchase of lands, the erection of buildings, and 
general improvements. The county also provided for the mainte- 
nance of the children, but has little to do with the general manage- 
ment of the institution, all this being left almost entirely to the 
board of managers of the association. 

The association was organized under the laws of the State, the 
articles of association having been filed with the Secretary of State 
in February, 1879. 

The purpose, as set forth in the articles, was not only to shelter 
the little ones under the roof of the home, and bountifully supply them 
with physical nourishment, but also to minister to their moral and 
mental needs. How faithfully these generous, noble-hearted women 
have performed their duty; every citizen of Logansport can testify. 
To the commendable efforts of the women who always lead, in 
matters of benevolence, the State is now indebted for the enactment 
of the law which made the proper maintenance of such institution 
possible in many localities. 

The present board of managers of the association is as follows: 
Mrs. W. H. Johnson, president; Mrs. Landis and Mrs. Merriam, 
vice-presidents; Mrs. Landrigan, treasurer; Mrs. Dykeman, secre- 
tary ; and Mrs. A. J. Murdock, Mrs. Douglas, Mrs. Bell, Mrs. Tom- 
linson, Mrs. Craig and Mrs. Keesliug. The matron is Miss Maria 

Circuit Judges. — Bethuel F. Morris, 1829; John E. Porter, 
1830; Gust A. Everts, 1833; Samuel C. Sample, 1836; Charles 
W. Ewing, 1837; John W. Wright, 1840; Horace P. Biddle, 1847; 


Robert H. Milroy, 1852; John U. Petitt, 1853; Jobu M. Wallace, 
1855; Horace P. Biddle, 1861, Dudley H. Chase, 1873; Maurice 

Associate Judges. — Hiram Todd and John Scott, 1829; Rob- 
ert Edwards, 1834; H. Lasselle, 1835; George T. Bostwick, 1836 
J. B. Eldridge, 1840; Hewit L. Thomas and Jesse Julian, 1845 
and James Horney, 1847. 

Probate Judges.— John Scott, 1829; Chauncey Carter, 1833 
James McClung, 1835 ; Henry La Rue, 1836 ; Thomas J. Wilson 
1837; John S. Patterson, 1845; Robert M. Graves, 1848; John P. 
Dodds, 1849; James M. Lasselle and Alvin M. Higgins, 1851 
Henry M. Eidson, 1852; Robert P. Groves, 1853; Samuel McPadin 
1857;" Cline G. Shryock, 1861; D. D. Dykeman, 1863; T. G 
Whiteside, 1867; J. H. Carpenter, 1870; D. P. Baldwin, 1871 
and John Mitchell, 1873. 

Clerks.— John B. Duret, 1829; Noah S. La Rose, 1856; Hor- 
ace P. Bliss, 1865; Noah S. La Rose, 1873; Samuel L. McFadin, 
1877 : and Charles Fisk, 1884. 

^4„,/(7ors.— John B. Duret, 1829; Jay Mix, 1841; John P. 
Dodds, 1851; D. W. Tomlinson, 1862; W. G. Nash, 1866; John 
F. Dodds, 1870; G. W. Blakemore, 1875; R. R. Carson, 1878; 
Barry Torr, 1882. 

J?ecorcZers.— John B. Diu-et, 1829; Thomas Jones, 1844; Will- 
iam Lytle, 1848; David Douglas, 1849; William P. Koutz, 1856; 
Horace M. Bliss, 1860; J. C. Kloenne, 1864; Nelson P. Howard, 
1868; Simon P. Sheerin, 1872; John Markley, 1878; J. J. Roth- 
ermel, 1882. 

Treasurers. — Cyrus Taber, 1829; Jordon Vigus, 1830; John 
E.Howes. 1841; Edward B. Strong, 1851; A. M. Higgins, 1860; 
C. Carter, 1862; George F. Adams, 1866; John B. Stultz, 1870; 
Jacob Hebel, 1874; W. T. S. Manly, 1876 (Robert Reed, vacan- 
cy) ; Thomas Pierce, 1880; A. Gruseumeyer. 

Slieriffs.—'VfiWis.m Scott, 1829; James H. Kintner, 1830; Job 
B. Eldridge, 1834; James Horney, 1838; William L. Ross, 1840; 
Abijah Van Ness, 1844; James Spear, 1848; W. K. McElherry, 
1852; Job B. Eldridge, 1858; Williard G. Nash, 1862; John 
Davis, 1866; James Stanley, 1870; W. T. S. Manly, 1872; W. P. 
Louthain, 1876; Isaac Himmelbarger, 1880; Henry Snyder, 1882; 
•Jnp.ies Stanley, 1884. 


Frosecuting Attorneys. — "W. W. "Wick, 1829; E. A. Hanagan, 
1830; A. Ingram, 1832; John B. Chapman, 1833; Samuel C. Sam- 
ple, 1834; J. L. Jernegan, 1836; Thomas Johnson, 1837; John W. 
Wright, 1839; Lucien P. Ferry, 1840; Spier S. Tipton, 1842; 
William Z. Stuart, 1844; D. M. Dunn, 1846; C. B. Lasselle, 1848; 
George Gordon, 1852; Isaiah M. Harlan, 1853; Orris Blake, 1856; 
Charles S. Parish, 1858; E. P. DeHart, 1859; M. H. Kidd, 1861; 
T. C. Whiteside, 1862; Dudley H. Chase, 1865; Alexander Hess, 
1871; James M. Justice, 1873; Thad. C. Eollins and Charles B. 
Pollard, 1874; D. B. McConnell, 1877; Simon Weyand, 1878; E. 
S. Daniels, 1880; M. D. Pansier, 1884. 

Surveyors.^C. Carter, 1829; A. E. VanNess; 1831; C. Carter, 
1844; Noah S. La Eose, 1846; A. E. Van Ness, 1849; J. C. 
Kloenne, 1869; S. M. Delamater, 1872 ;7 J. C. Brophy, 1873; G. 
W. Neill, 1876; W. A. Osmer, 1878. 

Coroners.— R. B. McKeen, 1829; James Horney, 1832; DeHart 
Booth, 1836; John Topst, 1838; George Weirick, 1840; Levin 
Turner, 1841; Harvey Brown, 1842; Henry Barker, 1844; J. W. 
McCaughey, 1854; Joseph Dale, 1860; B. A. Mabley, 1862; Hugh 
O'Neill, 1864; James Henley, 1866; Joseph H. Ivins, 1873; B. C. 
Stevens, 1876; J. W. Irons, 1878; D. N. Pansier, 1880; M. A. 
Jordan, 1884. 

Commissioners. — Pirst District, Chauncy Carter, 1829; Eobert 
Wilson, 1832; John McGregor and John W. Miller, 1833; N. Will- 
iams, 1835 ; Wm. Scott, 1843 ; Wm. Meeks, 1845 ; Moses Barnett, 
1848; Nathan Julian, 1851; Joseph Penrose, 1861; S. Panabaker, 
1864; J. A. Adi-ian, 1870; John Campbell, 1871; John Haynes, 
1874; Henry A. Bickel, 1876; Wm. Holland, 1880; John Camp- 
bell, 1881 ; Henry Schwalm, 1882. 

Second District, Moses Thorpe, 1829; Samuel Ward, 1831; 
Jesse Julian, 1837; Eobert Edwards, 1841; George B. Walker, 
1847; A. B. Knowlton, 1850; Crabtree Grace, 1856; Cyi'us Vigus, 
1862; Amos Palmer, 1865; C. B. Knowlton, 1869; Joseph Uhl, 
1872; Dennis Uhl, 1874; Wm. Chase, 1880; A. J. Sutton, 1882; 
M. Britton, 1884. 

Third District, James Smith, 1829; Alexander Smith, 1832 
Daniel Neff, 1833; Alexander Smith, 1836; Daniel Neff, 1839 
Wm. Dixon, 1842; Eichard Tyner, 1845; Blair Buchanan, 1851 


John Meyers, 1857; Henry M. Kistler, 18G0; Dauiel Kistler, 1863; 
Eobt. G. McNitt, 186(3; Blair Buchanan. 1868; Joseph Peru-ose, 
1872; Daniel Foglesong, 1875; George Reubarger, 1878; James 
Buchanan, 1884. 

ySeJia/ors.— Daniel W. Worth, 1829; Othniel L. Clark, 1831; 
Geo. W.. Ewing, 1836; Williamson Wright, 1840; Wm. M. Rey- 
burn, 1843; Cyi-us Taber, 1846; Geo. B. Walker, 1849; Wm. C. 
Barnett, 1852; Chas D. Murray, 1856; Richard P. DeHart, 1860; 
John Davis, 1862; N. P. Richmond, 1864; Chas. B. Laselle, 1868; 
Milo R. Smith, 1872; D. D. Dykeman, 1874. 

Bepreseniaiives. — Anthony L. Davis, 1829; Jos. Holman, 1830; 
Walter Wilson, 1831; Gillis McBean, 1833; Chauncey Carter, 
1834; G. McBean, 1835; Graham N. Fitch, 1836; Job B. Eldridge, 
1837; G. N. Fitch, 1839; James Butler, 1840; Nicholas D. Grover, 
1841; Chauncey Carter, 1842; G. W. Blakemore, 1843: Cyrus Ta- 
ber, 1845; Wm. S. Palmer and Harvey Brown, 1846; Corydon 
Richmond, 1847; G. W. Blakemore, 1848; Chas. D. Murray, 
1849; Daniel D. Pratt, 1850; Wm. Z. Stuart, 1851; D. D. Pratt, 
1852; David M. Dunn, 1854; Wm. J. Cullen, 1856; John W. 
Wright, 1857; Chas. B. Knowlton, 1858; Chas. B. Lasselle, 1862; 
Sam'l L. McFadin, 1866; Wm. M. Gordon, 1870; Chas. W. Ander- 
son, 1872; John A. Cantley, 1874; Isaac Bumgardner, 1876. 



Bench and Bar— Org.\nization of the Circuit CorRT— Some Early 
Proceedings— Harrison Murder Trial— His Suicide— Early At- 
torneys—The Judges of the Circuit Court— Probate Court and 
its Judges— Common Pleas Court and Judges— Court of Concili- 
ation—Superior Cox-RT- Present Bar, etc 

ON Thursday May 21, 1829, being the Thursday following the 
third Monday in that month, the circuit court of Cass County 
was organized. This county was one of the several counties com- 
posing the Fifth Judicial Circuit of the State of Indiana. The judicial, 
machinery was put in motion by Hon. Bethuel F. Morris, of Marion 


County, the president judge o£ said circiut, who convened the first 
judicial tribunal in Cass County in the seminary, the first public 
building erected in the county, the place designated by Section 5 
of the organization act as the place for holding courts for the time 
being; and, calling about him his associates, Hiram Todd and John 
Smith, and the other officers of the court, he directed the sheriff, 
William Scott, to make proclamation that the first session of the 
Cass Circuit Court was then open and ready for the transaction of 
business. Proclamation was made accordingly. The record nar- 
rates the proceedings, pertaining to the organization, as follows: 

May term, 1839.— At the first term of the Cass Circuit Court, begun and held at 
the Seminary, in the town of Logansport, within, and for the county of Cass, in the 
Fifth Judicial Circuit of the State of Indiana, on Thursday, the 31st day of May, A. 
D. 1839, it being the Thursday succeeding the third Monday in said month. 

Bethuel F. Morris produces his commission as president judge of the fifth ju- 
dicial circuit, on which is endorsed a certificate that he has taken the oath required 
by the constitution of the State, and takes his seat as the president judge of our said 
Cass Circuit Court. 

William Scott now produces his commission as sheriff of the county of Cass, on 
which is endorsed a certificate that he has taken the oath prescribed by law, and 
makes proclamation that the Cass Circuit Court is now open for the transaction of 

Hiram Todd now produces his commission as an associate judge for our said 
county of Cass; and, thereupon, the president judge of the court administers to him 
the oath required by the constitution of the State, a certified copy whereof is en- 
dorsed on his said commission, and the said Hiram Todd now takes his seat as one 
of the judges of said court. 

John Smith now produces his commission as an associate judge for our said 
county of Cass; and, therefore, the president judge administers to him the oath re- 
quired by the constitution of the State, a certificate whereof is endorsed on his said 
commission, and said John Smith now takes his seat as one of the judges of our said 

John B. Duret now comes into court and produces his commission as clerk for 
the said county of Cass, and the several oaths required by law being administered 
to him by tlie president judge of the circuit, and certificate thereof endorsed upon 
said commission, now, also, produces his official bond, which is approved by the 
associate judges of the court, and is in the words and figures following, to wit: 

Know all men by these presents, that we, John B, Duret, Alexander McAlister and 
Gillis McBean, all of the county of Cass, and State of Indiana, are held and firmly 
bound unto the State of Indiana, in the sum of .|3,500, lawful money of the United 
States, to the payment of which, well and truly to be made, we bind ourselves, our 
heirs, executors and administrators, jointly, severally and firmly by these presents. 
Sealed with our seals, and dated this the 31st day of May, A. D. 1839. 

' ' This is the condition of the above obligation : Whereas, the above bound John 
B. Duret hath been commissioned clerk of the circuit court of the county of Cass, 
aforesaid, for the term of seven years from the eighth day of this present month; 
now, therefore, should the said John B. Duret faithfully discharge the duties of 


his said office, as clerk, and seasouablj' record all the decrees, judgments and orders 
of said court, and also pay over all mone.ys which shall or may come into his hands, 
for the payment, or in discharge of any judgment, order or decree of said court, to 
such person or persons as shall by law have a right to demand and receive the 
same; and do and perform all other duties which may be required of him by law, 
then the above obligation to be void, else to be and remain in full force and virtue. 

J. B. DcRET. [seal.] 

A. MoAllster. [SEAI.J 

GrLLis McBe.\n. [seal.] 

St.^te of Indiana, | 

C.4-SS County. |" ^^■ 

We approve of the foregoing bond, and the sufficiency of sureties. Given un- 
der our hands at the county aforesaid, the 21st day of May, 1829. 

John Smith, 
Hiram Todd, 
Associate Judges for Cass County. 

And, thereupon, the said John^B. Duret enters upon the discharge of the duties 
of his office. 

Alljert S. White, Andrew Ingram and Henry Cooper, are severally admitted to 
practice as attorneys and counselors-at-law, at the bar of the court, and are sever- 
ally sworn as prescribed by law. 

The clerk now produces here in court, a seal, an impression whereof is [L. S.] 
hereunto, in the margin, affixed, which is by the court adopted as the seal of the 
Cass Circuit Court, and ordered to be used as such by the clerk in all his official 
acts. Ordered, That as soon as a proper order book is procured by the county, the 
clerk shall copy therein the proceedings and orders of the present term. And the 
court adjourned sine die. 

November Term, A. D. 1839. — First day. The foregoing record of the proceed- 
ings of the last term have been examined and are found to be just and correct. 

B. F. Morris. 

The official seal referred to, an impression of which appears on 
the left hand margin of page 2, of order book No. 1, of the Cass 
Circuit Coui-t, has a rudely engraved device or insignia represent- 
ing the busts of two human figures, a white man and an Indian, in 
costume — the faces are not striking in their expression further 
than to indicate business and a piu-pose to scrutinize closely the in- 
tention of each other — surrounded by a circle inclosing the words: 
" Cass Circuit Court, Indiana." The origin of the device is briefly 
given as follows: The preliminary treaty between the authorities of 
the United States and the Pottawattomie tribe of Indians, on the 16th 
of October, 1826, at the mouth of the Missisinnewa, on the Wa- 
bash. Consultations preliminary to that treaty were frequent and 
protracted, dieting much interest and no little uneasiness as to the 
resiilt. Gen. Lewis Cass was one of the commissioners represent- 
ing the United States, and Aubbenaubbee, princijDal chief of the 


Pottawattomies, representing that tribe. The figures in the device 
represent these two leading spirits in the act of concluding the com- 
pact by shaking hands — an expression of mutual 'satisfaction as to 
the terms. On the 15th of August, 1842, a new seal was adopted, 
the device of which represented the same idea as the first, but in a 
more fertistic form, yet commemorative of the same event. It is the 
design now used by the clerk in the attestation of papers. 

A reference to the proceedings of the first term, just recited, 
will show that they were of a character appertaining only to organi- 
zation, the adjustment of the judicial ermine, and prescribing the 
routine of court business. This being completed, the transactions 
of that first session passed into history. Immediately, business for 
disposal at the next or a subsequent term, began to flow in through 
the channels presci-ibed by immemorial usage, and the tangible 
identity of the Cass Circuit Court was established. 

The second term commenced its session at the " seminary," on 
Thursday succeeding the third Monday, being the 19th of No- 
vember, A. D., 1829, Hon Bethuel F. Morris, president judge; John 
Smith and Hiram Todd, associate judges; John B. Duret, clerk; 
James H. Kintner, sheriff, and William W. Wicks, prosecuting at- 
torney, being present. The grand jury — the first impaneled in the 
county — was then duly sworn and John Scott appointed foreman, 
when it retired to consult of its presentments and indictments, under 
the charge of William Johnson, a sworn bailiff. At this session, 
William W. Wick, Thomas J. Evans, Calvin Fletcher, Aaron Finch, 
David Patton and Benjamin Hurst, on motion of Albert S. White, 
were admitted as attorneys. 

The first cause in which proceedings were had, was one represented 
by Thomas J. Evans, on behalf of Jean Baptiste Cicott, for parti- 
tion of certain real estate between himself, Sophia and Emily 

On the second day of the term, proceedings were had in an 
action for debt, wherein Charlotte Ewing, executrix, etc., was plain- 
tiff and Thomas Robb defendant. This cause having been put at 
issue was submitted to a jury — the first jury case in the court. That 
jury was composed of the following persons, to wit: Alexander Wil- 
son, George Smith, Joseph Guy, Jacob E. Hall, Silas Atchison, 
Aaron Speaks, Samuel D. Taber, James Wyman, Joshua Merriman, 


Ira Evaus, David Patrick and William Speaks. The jury heard the 
evidence, but before a verdict was rendered, the parties agreed upou 
a judgment for $12 against the defendant. 

At the same term of court, the grand jury returned thirty-nine 
bills of indictment for the following classes of offense: One for 
murder, against Ho-zan-de-ah, an Indian ; one for larceny, against 
George W. Hicks; five for assault and battery, eight for gaming, 
twelve for betting, seven for retailing, and five for vending mer- 
chandise. Of these but two were disposed of by trial — convictions 
in both — one for gaming, fine 37i cents, for the use of the Cass 
County Seminary; the other for betting, fine $7, also for the use 
of the Cass County Seminary. The bill for larceny was con- 
tinued to the next term, under recognizance. The grand jury 
made the following report as to the condition of the county jail: 
" That the jail of the said county is in an unfinished state and alto- 
gether unfit for the purpose designed. The grand jury believe that 
the jail which is begun, when finished in the manner in which it is 
begun, will be of little value to the public and not calculated for a 
public prison. John Scott, Foreman." 

After a session of three days, in which fifteen civil cases were 
reduced to judgment, the coiii-t adjourned sine die November 21, 1829. 

The third term commenced on the fourth Monday, being April 
26, 1830, with Hon. John R. Porter, president judge of the First 
Judicial Circuit, and Edward A. Hannegan, prosecuting attorney. 
This term occupied only three days, yet, dui-ing that time there was 
an accumulation of business as compared with that which appeared 
on the docket of the preceding term. The session closed on April 
28, but the associates signed the proceedings of the second and third 

Harrison Murder Trial. — A case which excited more interest, 
perhaps, than any other occurring in the county anterior thereto, 
was tried in the Cass Circuit Court at the February term, 1838. 
On Saturday night, February 10, 1888, an altercation occurred be- 
tween David Scott and Jeremiah F. Harrison, in the house of the 
latter, immediately opposite the Forest Mill, in this city, in which 
whisky played an impox'tant part — was really the prime factor in the 
murder that grew out of the difficulty. In the affray Hai-rison 
stabbed Scott some nine or ten times, literally cut him to pieces 


with a shoe-knife. Scott died almost instantly, and an inquisition 
was held by John Yopst, the coroner, on the following day, Sunday. 
Harrison was arrested and imprisoned in the county jail, a wooden 
structure of two stories high, situated on court square, the site of 
which is now occupied, in part, by the southwest corner of the court 
house and the southeast corner of the new jail building. On Mon- 
day, February 19, the February term of the circuit court for that 
year, met in the old seminary. Present, Hon. Charles W. Ewing, 
judge, his associates, and Thomas Johnson, prosecuting attorney; 
but, in consequence of the dilapidated condition of that building, 
adjourned to meet instanter in the Presbyterian Church, on the south 
side of Broadway, a few rods west of Sixth street, where the courts 
continued to be held for several years. 

Immediately after the meeting of court the grand jury was called, 
impaneled and sworn, consisting of the following persons: Jesse 
Julian, foreman; Abraham LaEue, John A. Calvin, Daniel Bell, 
John Clary, John Adams, Sr., Jonathan Martindale, William Mur- 
phy, David Patrick, Thomas Kinneman, John Kistler and Alexan- 
der Gray, of those regularly summoned; and Abraham Bennett, 
Michael Craddock, Daniel Redd, John Thornton, David Johnson 
and John Hoover, talesmen. This grand jury returned an indict- 
ment February 21, charging Harrison with murder in the first de- 
gree. The defendant was then arraigned and required to make 
answer thereto. He plead not guilty. A motion being made for a 
continuance of the case and overruled, he was remanded to prison to 
await the further order of the court. On Tuesday, February 27, 
the parties appeared, the State by Thomas Johnson, prosecuting at- 
torney, and the defendant in proper person. The case being called 
for trial, on motion, the court assigned W. Z. Stuart and Daniel D. 
Pratt as counsel for the defendant. A jury was then impaneled 
and sworn, consisting of the following persons, to wit: Lewis John- 
son, Joseph Galbreath, Christian Arma, Peter Berry, Robert Bryer, 
John Rush, John McMillen, Richard Tyner, John Adair, Joseph 
Corbet, Thomas McMillen and Joseph Bellew. On the following 
day, February 28, the introduction of testimony was commenced. 
The jury having heard the testimony and the charge of court, re- 
tired for deliberation. In due time a verdict was agreed upon and 
returned into open court, finding the defendant guilty as charged. 


Subsequently, motions were made for new trial and in arrest o£ 
judgment, but overruled by the court. March 2, 1S38, the sentence 
of the court was pronounced, tlie record of which is as follows: 

"It is therefore considered by the Court now here, that the said 
Jeremiah F. Harrison, the defendant aforesaid, be taken from hence 
to the common jail of said county of Cass, and that he be safely 
kept ; that on Friday, the 6th day of April, in the year of our Lord, 
1838, he be taken to the place of execution, within the body of said 
Cass County, and, between the hours of nine o'clock in the morning 
and four' o'clock in the afternoon of that day, that he be hung by 
the neck until he is dead. May God have mercy on his soul." 

Wliile the current of public opinion was in accord with the ver- 
dict of the jury, there was yet a considerable element in the oppo- 
sition, claiming that the act which cost Scott his life, was in a 
measure justified by the unwarranted provocations of the deceased. 
Under the circumstances, a strong effort was made for commutation 
of the sentence. D. D. Pratt, one of his attorneys, feeling that 
the testimony did not warrant the grade of punishment decreed by 
the court on the finding of the jury, exerted his utmost powers to 
secure a modification, riding on horseback to Indianapolis, for the 
piu'pose of presenting his case, in person, to the Governor, and re- 
turning by the same means of transit, on at least two different oc- 
casions. Through the interposition of Mr. Pratt, the prisoner was 
twice respited. Finally, perhaps, on the occasion of a third visit 
to the Governor, upon again lu-ging his suit with more than ordi- 
nary vigor, he was informed that, in the mind of his Excellency, 
there was no cause for interference with the sentence of the Coui't ; 
that the defendant must suffer the full penalty of the law, on Fri- 
day, June 1, 1838. The sentence, however, was never fully exe- 
cuted, for, on the night of May 31, the prisoner, "voluntarily and 
feloniously, and with malice aforethought, hanged and strangled 
himself," says the coroner, " with a towel and handkerchief tied to- 
gether, of the value of three cents, which he then and there held in 
his hands, and one end thereof, then and there, put about his neck, 
and the other end thereof tied to a peg [in the wall] of the build- 
ing " wherein he was confined. It was stated at the time, and gen- 
erally believed, that his wife, who stayed in the jail with him until 
1 o'clock in the morning of the day when he was to have been 
publicly executed, assisted in the work of self-destruction. 


There were at least five thousand people in town to witness the 
execution and when it was ascertained that the prisoner had hung 
himself inside the jail, the disappointment was great. When the 
body was taken from the jail many expressed themselves in favor 
of having it again suspended in mid-air, seeming to believe the 
death-work was incomplete. The remains were taken to his late 
residence opposite the mill, followed by a large proportion of the 

Prior to the time when the suicide's act cheated the law of its 
victim, particularly during the period that Mr. Pratt, counsel for 
the accused, was putting forth his best efforts to secure a commu- 
tation of the sentence, public feeling ran high in opposition to him, 
because of the interest manifested in the prisoner's behalf. Later, 
however, he was declared to be a safe attorney, who would risk his 
reputation in defending the rights of his client. 

Early Attorneys. — In the early days of our judicial history, as 
well as in the immediate past, numerous attorneys, fi-om time to 
time, were present during the sessions of our courts, and admitted 
to practice therein, in pursuance to the laws in force relating there- 
to. Among those may be mentioned, with propriety, a few who ac- 
quired some celebrity in the line of their profession and otherwise, 
having placed high their mark in the esteem and confidence of their 
fellow-citizens, without detracting in any degree from the individ- 
ual merits of the many who are not thus especially noticed: 

Hon. Albert S. White, the senior member of this bar, was then 
and until the time of his death a citizen of La Fayette, Ind., noted 
for his scholarly attainments and the professional distinction ac- 
quired as the result of skillful experience during a long practice. 
Though never a citizen of Cass County, professionally, politically, 
and in the civil walks of life, his name and fame have been pro- 
claimed here in a measure that entitles his name to registry in this 

Calvin Fletcher, of Indianapolis, also among the first practition- 
ers in our courts, was one of the bright lights in his profession, and 
took high rank as such here and elsewhere. 

James Eariden, of Wayne County, Ind., was also admitted here 
at an early date, and recognized, in his day, as one of the ablest 
lawyers in the State. In 1838 and 1839 he represented his district 
in the Lower House of Congress. 


Edward A. Hannagan, of Montgomery Countj, Ind., was prose- 
cuting attorney of this judicial circuit in 1830 and 1831, and one of 
the most distinguished lawyers. He represented the State in the 
United States Senate fi-om 1843 to 1849. 

David Wallace, of Indianapolis, was one of the early attorneys 
from abroad who practiced at this bar and stood high in his pro- 
fession. He was governor of Indiana from 1880 to 1840. 

John B. Niles, of St. Joseph County, also practiced in this 
com-t at an early date, and in his day was one of the ablest lawyers 
of the State and a man of superior intellectual cultui-e. 

Charles W. Ewing, of Allen County, and Samuel C. Sample, of 
St. Joseph County, were both early members of the Cass County 
bar, both prosecuting attorneys in this circuit, and subsequently 
both president judges of our circuit court. In the latter relation 
both will be elsewhere noticed. 

William W. Wick was admitted to practice here at the Novem- 
ber term, 1829, of our circuit court, and was the first prosecuting 
attorney. He was also a good lawyer and popular in his profession. 
Subsequently he served one term as representative in Congress 
from this State. 

George Lyon, probably the first local attorney admitted to 
practice here, was a young man of scholarly attainments and of 
fair legal ability. Upon his first introduction into Logansport, he 
was employed as principal of the select school opened on the 8th of 
December, 1829, and occupied the same position during the two 
succeeding winter sessions of the school. Soon after his admission 
as an attorney, he was appointed the first deputy of the Cass 
Circuit Court, where he remained for two or three years, except 
when otherwise employed. He died at an early age. 

Thomas J. Evans prepared and filed the papers in the first 
cause unon which action was had in the circuit court, at the Nov- 
ember term, 1829, the fu-st general business session of the court. 
He was a man of somewhat eccentric character but a good lawyer 
and commanded a fair practice. 

Benj. Hurst, admitted to practice here in the fall of 1829, was a 
man of some experience in his profession but not a brilliant lawyer. 
He acquired, however, no very extensive or lucrative practice. His 
business was chiefiy in the justices' courts. 


Heury Chase, though not then a resident, was admitted here as 
an attorney at law, on the 25th of April, 1831. He afterward 
became a citizen of Logansport, and later judge of the circuit court, 
of which further notice will be found in another place. 

Peter J. Vandevier located here in 1831, and for a time was 
connected with the editorial department of the Cass Comity 
Times. In April, 1832, he was admitted to the bar and commenced 
practice with a fair prospect of success, but the amount of his busi- 
ness was never very extensive in this locality. 

John B. Chapman, at the time of his admission to practice in 
this court, was prosecting attorney of the Eighth Judicial Circuit — ■ 
in April, 1881. He afterward became a citizen of Logansport and 
engaged in the jjractice of his profession. 

John W. Wright, afterward judge of the Cass Circuit Court, was 
admitted to practice as an attorney in said court on the 22d of 
April, 1833. A notice of him as judge will be found on another 

James W. Dunn was one of the early attorneys at this bar, but 
in consequence of his election to the office of justice of the peace 
in the city, and long continuance therein, his practice in the higher 
courts was necessarily limited. 

Spier S. Tipton became a practicing lawyer by admission to the 
bar of our court. Being educated in the military schools his pro- 
ficiency in the science of arms detracted considerably from his suc- 
cess in the department of law. He served as prosecuting attorney 
in this circuit one term of two years. When war was declared 
against Mexico, he was one among the first to raise a company of 
volunteers for service in that country. He did not go to the seat of 
war with that company, but, receiving a commission as lieutenant 
in the regular army, he returned, recruited another company for 
that branch of the service, and with it went to Mexico and partici- 
pated in many of the battles of that war, and afterward died while 
the war continued in progress. 

Williamson Wright, brother of John W., was admitted on the 
10th of August, 1835, and became a very successful and popular 
lawyer. For many years he and John S. Patterson controlled a 
large proportion of the court business, but afterward being engaged 
in other business he abandoned the practice of law. 

George W. Blakemore was admitted to practice as an attorney 


at the same time with Mr. Wright, and for many years afterward 
■was interested in a fair- share of the legal business that came before 
the coui-t for adjudication. He was subsequently elected and served 
one term as auditor of the county, having previously represented 
Cass County two terms in the State Legislatui-e. He died about 
two years ago. 

John S. Patterson was admitted on the 8th of February, 1836. 
He was a superior oilice lawyer, and being associated for several 
years with Williamson Wright the firm did a very extensive busi- 
ness. A few years later he went to New York where he died less 
than one year ago. 

Hon. Daniel D. Pratt, having completed the study of law with 
Calvin Fletcher, of Indianapolis, early in the year 1836 came to 
Logansport, was admitted to the bar here on the 9th of August of 
that year, and immediately entered upon a very successfid and 
hicrative practice. He was studious, careful and judicioiis in the 
preparation of his legal jiapers, painstaking and thorough in their 
presentation to the com't, and fi-equently secured verdicts at the 
hands of a jury by skillful and elaborate arguments, which were pre- 
sented with great magnetic force. Eminently popular in the prac- 
tice of his profession he was equally so as a man and citizen, rep- 
resenting the people of this county one tei'm in the State Legisla- 
ture and the State of Indiana in the Senate of the United States. In 
both these positions his characteristic energy and industry were 
everywhere manifest. He died on the 17th of June, 1877, at the 
age of sixty-four years. 

Hon. William Z. Stuart came to Logansport at nearly the same 
time with Mr. Pratt, having partly completed his studies elsewhere. 
He was admitted to practice here on the 20th of February, 1837. 
From 184:3, he served one term as prosecuting attorney in this 
circuit, and discharged the duties pertaining to that office with 
signal ability. During the period of his practice, which took a very 
wide range, he was ranked among the most thorough and logical 
lawyers in the State. At the time of his death, and several years 
anterior thereto, he was principal attorney for the Wabash Eailway 
Company. From 1853 to 1857, he served one term as judge of the 
Supreme Court of the State of Indiana with distinguished credit to 
himself and the profession he honored. 

Hon. Horace P. Biddle, upon attaining his majority entered the 


law office of Hocking H. Hunter, of Lancaster, Ohio, where he 
diligently pursued his studies under that eminent lawyer iiutil 
April, 1839, when he was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court 
of Ohio, at Cincinnati. In October of the same year he came to 
Logansport, and subsequently located here. He was admitted to 
the bar of the Cass Circuit Court on the lith of May, 1840, and 
continued to practice in this and other judicial circuits of the State 
until 1846, when he was commissioned as president judge of this 
circuit, and resumed practice again in 1852, continuing thereafter 
until he was re-elected to the judgeship of this circuit in 1861. 
At the end of his judicial career he retired. 

Hon. John B. Dillon, after completing a course of study here, 
was admitted to the bar of the Cass Circuit Court at the same time 
with Mr. Biddle, May 14, 1840. Inasmuch, however, as his time 
was chiefly occupied with editorial and otherliterary labors, he gave 
little attention to the practice of law, since that did not seem to be 
in consonance with his intellectual makeup. At the time of his ad- 
mission, and for some time after, he was engaged in the preparation 
of matter to be incorporated in the piiblication of an elaborate His- 
tory of the State of Indiana. The first volume of the work, as orig- 
inally contemplated, was published and given to the world in 1843. 
Some years later, he published a revised and enlarged edition of 
the Territorial History of Indiana and an outline history of the 
State's progress. He was a man of fine taste and considerable lit- 
erary ability.. 

Hon. Charles B. Lasselle was a student in the office of Hon. D. 
D. Pratt, and admitted to the bar in the fall of 1842. In 1847 he 
was elected prosecuting attorney in this judicial circuit, and served 
one term of three years with a fair measure of success. From 1862 
to 1866 he represented Cass County in the lower house of the State 
Legislature, and from 1868 to 1872 in the State Senate. He also 
held the office of mayor of the city of Logansport one term, ending 
in May, 1885. In all these several relations he sustained the repu- 
tation of an honest and discreet legislator and official. He is also en- 
titled to much credit for his collection and preservation of ancient 
records and other data pertaining to the early history of the North- 
west, and of the great Wabash Valley in particular. 

Hon. Jacques M. Lasselle, brother of Charles B., was an early 
student of the law and admitted to practice in the circuit court of this 


county on the 1st of September, 1841. His legal ability was 
above the average of that day, and in his limited practice acquitted 
himself creditably. In 1851, he served part of one term as judge 
of the probate court of this county with credit, but ill health, which 
resulted in his death, prevented the complete fulfillment of the pre- 
scribed term of service. He was an antiquarian of more than or- 
dinary activity and energy, and devoted much time to the collection 
and preservation of literary and other relics, of which he possessed 
many of rare value. 

Benjamin W. Peters, was a student in the office of his uncle, 
Hon. Horace P. Biddle, and was admitted to practice in 1845. Soon 
after he became a member of the law firm of Biddle & Peters which 
continued, except during the interim of his service in the Mexican 
war and the judgeshij^ of the senior partner, until the time of his 
death, which occurred May 22, 1875. While not a brilliant lawyer he 
was generally a successful one. The number and importance of 
causes in which he was interested as counsel would compare favor- 
ably with any other member of the Cass County bar. 

Lewis Chamberlin was originally licensed to practice law by the 
Supreme Court of the State of New York. He came to Logansport 
early in 1851, and on the 17th of February of that year became a 
member of the Cass County bar, and by his critical knowledge of 
the law and energy of character soon occupied a high position 
among the leading lights of the profession in the State. Later in 
life, however, and in the midst of a lucrative practice, a shadow 
passed over his intellectual horizon, shutting out its light forever. 
He died while comparatively a young man, in 1874. 

Hon. Samuel L. McFadin was a student in the office of Hon. 
William Z. Stuart, and subsequently was admitted to practice on 
May 10, 1852. Upon the taking effect of the act establishing the 
court of common jjleas, he was elected district prosecutor, and 
served out one term as such, and in 1856 was elected judge of that 
court, and occupied the bench during a term of four years. After- 
ward he was repeatedly chosen to represent this county in the State 
Legislature, and during the course of his official life filled the office 
of mayor of the city of Logansport. In 1876 he was elected clerk 
of the circuit court, and served two full terms as such. 

Stephen C. Taber, who, for two years or more previously, was a 
student in the office of Hon. D. D. Pratt, on the 9th of November, 


1852, was admitted to the bar, aud soon after became the law part- 
ner of his late preceptor, under the firm name of Pratt & Taber. 
The practice of the firm was very extensive, commanding the exer- 
cise of a high order of talent on the part of both. Mr. Taber, upon 
the death of his father, which occurred in April, 1855, retired from 
practice to engage in the settlement of his father's immense estate, 
as executor, to which trust he was appointed by the decedent's will. 

The Bench. — Hon. Bethuel F. Morris, of Marion County, as Pres- 
ident Judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit of the State of Indiana, com- 
posed then of the counties of Hendricks, Morgan, Monroe, Bartholo- 
mew, Johnson, Marion, Hancock, Shelby, Decatur, Rush, Henry, Mad- 
ison, Hamilton, Carroll and Cass, appeared in the last named county, 
pursuant to the law defining the limits of said circuit, and prescrib- 
ing the time of holding courts in said several counties, on Thursday 
next, succeeding to third Monday in May (21st), 1829, and pro- 
ceeded to the organization of our Cass Circuit Court, as elsewhere 
fully recorded. Again, on the Thursday next succeeding the third 
Monday in November (19th), of the same year, he presided, holding 
court during that and the two days succeeding, according to the 
limit prescribed by the law. His associates, during those two 
terms, were Hiram Todd and John Smith. 

At this late day but little is known, personally, of the character 
and judicial ability of Judge Morris, further than is disclosed in 
his record. From this it may be readily inferred that he was 
methodical in the disposition of business, ready in the examination 
and settlement of issues, clear and unequivocal in the enunciation 
of his decisions, aud withal gentlemanly and courteous to the mem- 
bers of the bar especially, and to all others with whom he came in 
contact generally. Before the commencement of the third term of 
the Cass Circuit Court, a redivision of the State into judicial 
circuits took place, and this county became a part of the first circuit, 
embracing the counties of Vermillion, Parke, Montgomery, Foun- 
tain, Warren, Tippecanoe, Carroll and Cass, to which Clinton and 
St. Joseph were subsequently attached. 

Hon. John R. Porter, i^resident judge of this circuit, came to the 
bench in Cass • County at the commencement of the third term of 
our court, on the fourth Monday, being the 26th of April, 1830, 
having for his associates Hiram Todd aud John Smith. His term, 
as were the first and second, was held in the old Seminary building. 


situated near the northeast corner of Market and Fourth streets, in 
Logansport. Like his predecessor, but little is known of Judge 
Porter, except what may be gleaned fi-om the record of his proceed- 
ings. This source of information is to an extent circiimscribed and 
not altogether satisfactory. Enough is apparent, however, to deter- 
mine that while he was a good lawyer and in a measure successful, 
there was a show of immethodical arrangement in the details of his 
judgments — an apparent non-observance of the strict rules of plead- 
ing and practice. Whatever maj- have been defective or informal 
in the disposition of questions of law was generally compensated 
for in his acciirate discrimination as to the facts involved — basing 
his judgments sometimes upon the facts developed by the evidence 
rather than on the technical application of the law. He occupied 
the bench in Cass County until the close of the October term, 1832. 

Hon. Gustavus A. Everts, president judge of the Eighth Judi- 
cial Circuit, commenced his judicial labors in Cass County with the 
April term, 1833, vnth Hiram Todd and John Smith his associates. 
At the February term, 1834, Robert Edwards became one of the 
associate judges, and at the August term of the same year. Hyacinth 
Lasselle, Jr., took his seat as the second associate. At the same 
term a survey of the " jail bounds" was ordered, and the boundary 
defined by A. Wilson, sui-veyor. Judge Everts occupied the bench 
until the close of the February term, 183G. The Eighth Judicial 
Circuit, at the commencement of Judge Everts' term, was com- 
posed of the counties of Carroll, Cass, Miami, Wabash, Huntington, 
Allen, Lagrange, Elkhart, St. Joseph and Laporte. As a lawyer 
and a man Judge Biddle thus speaks of him: " He was a lawyer of 
great tact and fine address; extremely astute in the management of 
witnesses and facts ; not remarkably studious nor deeply learned in 
the law. In cases that moved emotion, or touched passion, or ap- 
pealed to the feelings which stir our common nature, he was very 
powerful — far more successful than when he attempted to convince 
the understanding. His peculiar talent made him personally very 
popular. He was indeed a very prince of good fellows. 

" As a teller of amusing stories he was inimitable; always had a 
fund of ready anecdote; and he could travesty character most 
amusingly." In illustration of his readiness in repartee, Judge 
Biddle gives a few characteristic anecdotes, one of which is as fol- 
lows: "Some members of the bar at that time were convivial, and 


did ' sleep o' nights.' Everts was occasionally one of them. On one 
occasion, after he had been broken of his rest, upon the nest day he 
was sitting, leaning his face in his hands, over the counsel table, 
and fell asleep, while John H. Bradley, a high-toned, fastidious 
gentleman of much ability and of great worth, by the way, was ad- 
dressing the jury. Everts soon began to snore. Bradley touched 
him and woke him up. Everts begged pardon, but soon slept and 
snored again. This scene was repeated several times. Finally, 
Everts fetched a most outrageous suore, which startled the whole 
court-room. Bradley felt insulted, and appealed to the court. The 
court reprimanded Everts, who, on being privately told what he had 
done, rose to apologize, and said: 'May it please the court, it was 
simply an involuntary burst of applause at the gentlema^i's elo- 
quence.' " 

Samuel C. Sample was the immediate successor of Mr. Everts, 
as president judge of the Eighth Judicial Circuit, then composed of 
the counties of Cass, Miami, Wabash, Huntington, Allen, Lagrange, 
Elkhart, St. Joseph and Laporte. By the act of February 4, 
1836, the following other counties were attached to and made a part 
of that circuit: Porter, Marshall, Fulton, Kosciusko, Noble and 
Adams. The first and only term of court held by Judge Sample, 
in Cass County, commenced on the second Monday, being the 8th 
of August, 1886 — in the old seminary building — continuing six 
days, and adjourning August 13. His associates were George T. 
Bostwick and Eobert Edwards; J. L. Jernagan was prosecuting 
attorney, and Job B. Eldridge sheriff. 

Judge Sample, at that date and until his death, was a citizen of 
St. Joseph County, having previously lived many years, indeed 
the most of his early life, in Connersville, Fayette Co., Ind., which 
was also the home of his father, John Sample, Sr., and several 
brothers, all of whom occupied high positions in society and were 
severally possessed of a superior order of talent. The late Hon. 
Oliver H. Smith, ex-United States Senator, thus speaks of him: 
"My acquaintance with Samuel C. Sample, the subject of this 
sketch, commenced in the year 1820, at Connersville, when he be- 
came a student at law in my office. I knew him intimately while 
he lived. Mr. Sample was no ordinary man; plain, practical in all 
his acts. He represented his district in Congress with decided 
ability, and was always at his post among the working men of the 


body. At the bar, aud as presiding judge of the circuit courts, he 
stood higli, among the most efficient and able practitioners, and one 
of the purest judges that has graced the bench. His person -was 
fine, his head and forehead large, and hair dark. He was taken 
from us in the middle of life, while discharging the duties of the 
State Bank at South Bend, and [^reposes in the cemetery there. 
Peace to his remains." 

Charles AY. Ewing came upon the bench as president judge of 
the Eighth Judicial Circuit, as the immediate successor of Judge 
Sample, and held his fii'st term of the Cass Circuit Court, commenc- 
ing on the third Monday, February 20, 1837, like his predecessors, 
in the old seminary. His associates were the sanne as those who 
sat with Judge Sample, -with Thomas Johnson, prosecuting attorney, 
and Job B. Ekbidge, sheriff. Judge Ewing was a lawyer of supe- 
rior ability, and stood high in the profession, locally and generally. 
As a judge, he was ready in grasping facts pertinent to the issues 
involred, and seldom committed an error in disposing of questions 
submitted to him for consideration. He was deservedly popular, 
both as lawyer and judge, and his untimely taking off was a source 
of regret to all with whom he was acquainted. His term of service 
as judge of the Cass Circuit Coui-t closed with the February term, 
1839. He died by his own hand on the Hth of January, 1843, in 
the meridian of his life and usefulness. 

Henry Chase was the sixth judge, in line of succession, of the 
Cass Circuit Court. He was appointed August 20, 1839, by David 
Wallace, governor of Indiana, during the interim preceding the 
session of the Legislature of 1839-40, to fill the vacancy caused by 
the resignation of Hon. Charles W. Ewing. He was duly sworn by 
the clerk of this coiu't on the 26th, but his term of service did not 
commence until the 1st of September, five days later. At the time 
of his apjwintment, the Eighth Judicial Circuit was composed of 
the counties of Cass, Miami, Wabash, Huntington, Whitley, Noble, 
DeKalb, Steuben, Lagrange and Allen. While the term of service 
of Judge Chase did not commence until the close of the fall session 
in Cass County, he presided in the cii'cuit courts of Miami, Wabash 
and the other counties of the circuit, during the half-yearly session 
of 1839. At the session of the Legislature of 1839-40, the term of 
Judge Chase's appointment having expired, a successor was chosen. 
Judge Chase was among the early lawyers who practiced in this 

HISTORY OP Cass county. 317 

court. In 1825, while teaching in the academy at St. Clairsville, 
Ohio, he commenced the study of law; was licensed to practice in 
Adams County, Miss., February 9, 1828, and in 1830 located in 
Delphi, Carroll Co., Ind., where he remained until 1834, when he 
settled in Logansport. He was a close and ready pleader, seldom or 
never asking for time to prepare his papers; had a clear, logical 
mind, with great force of character. As judge he was dignified, self- 
reliant and unequivocal, making no mistakes in the enunciation of 
his decisions ; his style brief yet exhaustive. 

He left Logansport in 1845 and went to New York City, and re- 
mained there until 1852, when he left for the great West, settling 
in Sheboygan, "Wis. He died there in July, 1854, aged fifty-four 

John TV. Wright was elected president judge of the Eighth Judi- 
cial Circuit by the Legislature of 1839-40, the circuit being com- 
posed of the same counties as when Judge Chase was appointed, ex- 
cepting that Carroll County was added. He held his first term of 
coiirt in Cass County on the second Monday in May (14th'), 1840, 
with Bostwick and Edwards as associates, continuing upon the bench 
during the successive terms of the Cass Circuit Court until the close 
of the August term, 1846, a little more than six years. He was a 
man of peculiar make-up; not a profound la^vyer, but ready in arriv- 
ing at conclusions and prompt in announcing them. During his 
term of service the amount of business that came up for his consid- 
eration was unsually large, and yet few appeals were taken from his 
decisions, which, though not always satisfactory, were generally 
concurred in by the parties litigant. Subsequently, in 1851 or 1852, 
he was mayor of the city of Logansport, serving one full term. La- 
ter, he became interested in the construction of railroads, especially 
those which he conceived to be of importance to the people of Cass 
County. In this field he probably did more than any other indi- 
vidual toward providing the county with the means of ready trans- 
portation for its surplus products. These ventures were not always 
financially successful, and yet, while unsuccessful, his energy and 
tact seldom waned. He left Logansport many years ago, and at 
this date, if alive, he resides in the vicinity of Washington City, 
D. C. 

Horace P. Biddle was the successor of Judge Wright, and pre- 
sided in the courts of the Eighth Judicial Circuit for a 


pe2-iocI, first, five and a half years, commencing January 9, 
1847. He came upon the bench in Cass County on Wednesday, 
February 24, 1847, with He-nat L. Thomas as his only associate, 
Jesse Julian, his other associate, having died during the session. 
In 1852, he was elected senatorial delegate to attend the conven- 
tion which met at the capital that year for the purpose of forming 
a new Constitution for the State Government. As a member of that 
convention he distinguished himself in the advocacy of provisions 
which experience has shown were wholesome and judicious, impart- 
ing additional dignity to the political and judicial economy of the 
State. Resuming the practice of law during the interval after the 
conclusion of his convention service, he continued his professional 
labors until the fall of 1860, when he was re-elected president judge 
of this circuit, designated at that time as the Eleventh. His commis- 
sion was dated October 26, 1860, and extended over a period of six 
years from the day preceding. The circuit was then composed of 
the counties of Carroll, Cass, Miami, Wabash, Huntington and 
Grant. Judge Biddle was re-elected in 1866, for another term of 
six years, as judge of the Eleventh Circuit, composed of the same 
counties, and left the circuit bench at the close of the spring ses- 
sion in 1872. Two years later, however, he was elected one of the 
judges of the Supreme Court of the State, and served a full term of 
six years as such, leaving that high position full of judicial honors. 
Aside fi-om his experience in the field of law as practitioner and 
judge, he has not been unknown to fame in the field of literature, 
having produced many valuable works in the departments of science 
and general knowledge. 

Eobert H. Milroy was appointed the successor of Judge Biddle 
at the time of his resignation in 1852, and remained on the bench 
as judge of the Cass Circuit Court one term, commencing Novem- 
ber 8 of that year, and in the other counties of the circuit, then 
composed of the counties of Lake, Laporte, Porter, St. Joseph, 
Marshall, Starke, Fulton, White, Cass, Pulaski, Howard, Carroll 
and Miami, constituting the Ninth Judicial Circuit. Judge Milroy, 
23rior to his accession to the bench, was a lawyer of considerable 
ability, of wide experience and high integrity, and carried these 
qualities with him in the discharge of the duties pertaining to his 
more responsible position, leaving no stain upon the judicial ermine. 
His early life was spent chiefly in Carroll County, lud., but hav- 


iug an inherent desire for distinction in tlie science of arms, he 
entered the military school at Norwich, Vt., where he became 
proficient in the theoretical details of military life. Upon the an- 
nouncement of a declaration of war against Mexico, and a call for 
volunteers by Gov. Whitcomb, without delay he enlisted a company 
for that service, of which he was made captain, and tendered his 
and their services for the strife already inaugurated. Again, at 
the outbreak of the Rebellion; he enlisted one or more companies 
for the three months' service, and was commissioned Colonel of the 
regiment known as the "Bloody Ninth." He was subsequently 
promoted to a major-generalship, and served with distinction during 
the war. He now resides in one of the territories of the great AVest. 

John Upfold Pettit was the tenth judge of the Cass Circuit 
Court, president judge of the Eleventh Judicial Circuit, and as 
such came upon the bench in this county on the second Monday, 
being the eleventh day, of April, 1853. He also served as judge 
during the two succeeding terms, closing with April term, 1854, 
when, resigning his judgeship, he was elected a member of the Thir- 
ty-fourth Congress to represent his district in the lower house of 
the National Legislature. He was again elected to. the same posi- 
tion in 1865, and became speaker of that body during the session, 
and served with great credit, sustaining the high reputation already 
accorded to him as one of the most polished presiding officers of the 

He studied law in the office of Hon. D. D. Pratt, of this city, 
■where, on motion of his preceptor, he was certified of record in Feb- 
ruary, 1841, and afterward admitted to the bar of the Cass Circuit 
Court. In 1842 he settled in Wabash, and made that city his home 
during the remainder of his life. His practice embraced not only 
the local but the supreme and United States Courts, in all of which 
he achieved marked success. As the outgrowth of his legal acumen 
and power of analysis, he came ixpoH the bench at an early age, and 
having arrived at eminence in that department was called to the 
professorship of law in the State University at Bloomiugton. In 
1850 he was apjjointed United States consul at Maranham, Brazil, 
and served two years in that capacity, with satisfaction to his Gov- 
ernment. In point of critical scholarship and high intellectuality, 
he stood in the front rank. He died at Wabash March 21, 1881, 
aged sixty-one years. 


John Brownlee was judge of the Cass Circuit Court at its Octo- 
ber term, 1854, having been appointed to fill the vacancy created by 
the resignation of Hon. John U. Petti t. His term of service in the 
county commenced on Monday, October 9, 1854, and closed after a 
session of eighteen days. He presided also in the several counties 
of the circuit. He was a lawyer of fair ability, and, in a measure, 
successful as a judge, but without a superior order of taleut. He 
resides in Grant Coiinty. 

John M. Wallace, a native of Franklin County, Ind., was the 
twelfth judge of the Cass Circuit Coiu't, by virtue of his election as 
jiidge of the Eleventh Jiidicial Circuit. His fii-st term of service 
in this county began on the third Monday being the sixteenth day 
of xA.pril, 1855. That term occupied eighteen days. He continvied 
on the bench in this circuit until the fall of 1860, serving a full 
term of six years. As lawyer and judge he ranked well with those 
of a high order of talent in their respective fields, and. as a rule, 
had the confidence of clients and litigants. As a man he was gen- 
tlemanly in manner and of easy address, having few enemies and 
many friends. He enlisted as a soldier in the war with Mexico, and 
did good service. Again, at the outbreak of the Eebellion, he en- 
listed as a private, but was subsequently commissioned as colonel of 
the Twelfth Eegimeut of Indiana Volunteers, on the 22d of May, 
1861. He was afterward appointed paymaster in the regular army, 
with the rank of major. His death occurred several years since. 
At the time of his death, and previously, he was a citizen of Grant 

Dudley H. Chase was the immediately successor of Hon. Hor- 
ace P. Biddle, and came upon the bench as judge of the Eleventh 
Judicial Circuit, composed of the counties of Carroll, Cass, Miami 
and Wabash. His first term in this county commenced November 
11, 1872, and continued in session forty -two days, closing December 
30, 1872. During this term and a special or vacation session, the 
celebrated case of Garrett vs. The Board of Trustees of the Wa- 
bash & Erie Canal was brought up for hearing and final adjudica- 
tion before Hon. H. P. Biddle. 

Judge Chase having served his first full term of six years was 
re-elected in 1878, and entered upon his second term in November 
of that year. He declined the nomination for a third term, and, 
after leaving the bench in 1884, resumed the practice of his pro- 


fession. Few judges of his age have acquired so high a reputa- 
tion for soundness in the knowledge of the law and for careful appli- 
cation of principles in the investigation and determination of ques- 
tions submitted for his consideration and disposal. Fortified by his 
convictions of right, he seldom committed errors of sufiicient import 
to justify reversal at the hands of the supreme court. As a lawyer 
he has always been a safe counselor and judicious practitioner. Pos- 
sessed of an ambition to excel in military science and to partici- 
pate in the operations incident to that department of service, early 
in life he exhibited many of those qualifications which distinguish 
the rigid disciplinarian and observant^soldier. His subsequent ex- 
periences in the field have tended to heighten his ambition rather 
than subdue it. His company was among the first to offer their 
volunteer service in the Nation's defense at the opening of the war 
of the Kebellion ; and during the succeeding years of the contest to 
establish the supremacy of law and order, Capt. Chase was always 
found at the post of duty. 

Maurice Winfield, present judge of the Cass Circuit Court, suc- 
ceeded Judge Chase on the 10th of November, 1884, his term of 
service commencing November 3, of that year, and extending over 
a period of six years. Judge Winfield completed his studies of 
law in this city, and was admitted to practice in this court on the 
17th of December, 1866. From the beginning of his professional 
life he exhibited a high order of talent, especially in that he aimed 
to acquire a critical knowledge of law, coupled with the ability to 
present and successfully maintain the soundness of his opinions. 
His practice, as a consequence, has been more than ordinarily suc- 
cessful. With this experience to sustain him he came upon the 
bench, and is likely to succeed in that position, also. 

John C. Nelson, judge of the superior court of Cass County, 
came upon the bench at the date of organizing that court, on the 
12th of March, 1877. At that time he had been practicing at the 
bar of the Cass Circuit Court about nine years, where he acquired 
the reputation of a sound and judicious attorney, which qualified 
him for the faithful discharge of duties pertaining to the judgeship 
of the superior court. His experience in that department has been 
of value to him, in that his legal acquirements were greatly diversi- 
fied and his mind more matured. He closed his term of service on 
the 31st of March, 1881, after remaining in that position during a 
period of four vears. He left a good record. 


Hon. William Z. Stuart was one of the early members of the 
Cass County bar and in fact one of the most learned, taking a high 
position among those of more advanced age and wider experience. 
He was a close, logical and judicious pleader, his papers being 
always prepared with great skill and caution. His first official posi- 
tion in this county was that of prosecuting attorney of the judicial 
circuit of which Cass County was a component part. His experi- 
ence extended over a period of two years, 1844 and 1845, during 
which he was recognized as one of the most prominent of the State's 
attorneys of that day. For many years afterward he maintained a 
lucrative practice, being generally engaged in the prosecution or de- 
fense of cases involving interests of great moment and requiring 
the highest order of legal talent. 

From 1853 to 1857 he occupied a seat on the Supreme Bench of 
the State, and in that experience also he gained new laurels, announc- 
ing, as chief justice, some of the most learned decisions that ever 
jiroceeded from that ti-ibunal of justice. Eesuming his practice, 
after returning to private life, he labored with assiduity in defending 
the interests of his clients, the great Wabash Eailway Company. 
He died in Ontario County, N. Y., on the 7th of May, 1876. 

The Probate Court of Cass County commenced its first session 
at the " Seminary," in Logansport, on Monday, the 2d day of Novem- 
ber, 1829, before Hon. John Scott, judge, who, at the election in 
August, of that year, was chosen for that position, having been, 
previous to his settlement here, judge of the probate court in Wayne 
County, Ind. 

After the entry of preliminary proceedings, the record shows 
the following as the first business presented for the consideration of 
the court: 

"On motion and suggestion of Francis Godfroy, administrator, 
on the estate of Francis Lafontaine, deceased, by Thomas J. Evans, 
his attorney, Chauncey Carter and Hiram Todd were appointed ap- 
praisers to appraise the real property of said Lafontaine; and, on 
further motion, it was ordered that a summons issue, commanding 
the heirs of the said Lafontaine to appear at the next term of this 
court to show cause why the real estate of said Lafontaine, or so 
miich thereof as will supply the deficiency of the personal estate to 
pay the debts of said estate, shall not be sold." 

The first letters of administration issued in this county were 


granted on the said 2d of November, 1829, to James Nixon, '-of 
the goods and chattels, rights and credits, moneys and effects, which 
were of Asa Davis, late of the county of Cass, who died intestate." 

On the same day other letters were granted by the judge to Ja- 
cob E. Hall, on the estate of John Hall, who also died intestate. 
These proceedings thus briefly referred to comprised all the record- 
ed transactions of the term, which occupied but one day. The sec- 
ond term continued only one day, and the third no longer time. As 
the population increased, the amount of business coming under the 
jurisdiction of this court increased also, making it necessary that 
the duration of the sessions be extended. 

All the probate business of the county was disposed of by this 
court, except in cases where the judge thereof was under disability, 
from interest or otherwise; then such cases were transferred to the 
circuit court for adjudication. By the revision of the judicial sys- 
tem of the State, under the constitution of 1852, the entire probate 
business was transferred to the~court of common pleas, which at 
that time came into existence. The names of judges and terms of 
service of each are appended hereto: John Scott, 1829-32; Chaun- 
cey Carter, 1833-34; James McClurg, 1835; Henry LaRue, 1836; 
Thomas J. Wilson, 1837-41; John S. Patterson, 1845-47; Eobert 
F. Groves, 1848; John F. Dodds, 1849-50; J. M. Lasselle and 
Alvin M. Higgins, 1851, and Henry M. Eidson until the incoming 
of the court of common pleas in 1852. 

Court of Common Pleas. — By the provisions of the act ap- 
proved May 14, 1852, the court of common pleas was established 
and its jurisdiction defined. Exclusive jurisdiction was given it in all 
matters relating to the probate of wills, granting letters testament- 
ary, administration and guardianship; all matters relating to the 
settlement of estates, guardianships, and all matters generally of a 
probate nature, except in special cases, and original and concurrent 
jurisdiction in certain other specified classes of business. This 
court continued to have jurisdiction of probate business generally, 
and the classes of civil and criminal business, as in the act pre- 
scribed, until 1873, when, by the act discontinuing that court, the 
business was transferred to the circuit court, where the jurisdiction 
over probate business still rests, the business of that class, in part, 
being transacted by a master commissioner. The names and terms 
of service of the judges of this court are as follows: Eobert F. 


Groves, 1853-56; Samuel L. McFadin, 1857-60; Kliue G. Shiyock, 
1861-62; David D. Dykemau, 1863-65; Thomas C. Whiteside, 
1866-69; James H. Carpenter, 1870; Daniel P. Baldwin, 1871-72, 
and John Mitchell until the repeal of the common pleas act in 

Court of Coiiciliafion. — This court was established by an act 
approved June 11, 1852, and vested with jurisdiction over claims 
and controversies submitted for the purpose of compromise or 
conciliation, or for determination of cases by the judge of the 
court of common pleas, who was made, ex-officio, judge of this 
court. Causes involving actions for libel, slander, malicious pros- 
ecution, assault and battery, and false imprisonment, were designed 
to be first submitted for conciliation, as a means of settlement 
at small cost. But few cases were brought to this court for that 
purpose, and the act was repealed November 30, 1865. It was 
practically a dead letter in the statutes. 

SH2)erio7' Couri of Cass Coimiy. — This court Avas organized 
under the provisions of an act approved March 3, 1877, on the 12th 
of March, 1877, with John C. Nelson judge. The jurisdiction of 
said court, as defined by Section 10 of said act, is as follows: " Said 
court, within and for the county, shall have original concurrent jur- 
isdiction with the circuit court in all civil cases, and jurisdiction con- 
current with the circuit court in all cases of appeals from justices of 
the peace, boards of county commissioners, and mayors' or city courts, 
in civil cases, and all other appellate jurisdiction in civil causes, 
now vested in, or which may hereafter be vested by law in, circuit 

The enlarged jurisdiction extended to this court, and its practic- 
ally continuous sessions, brought an immense influx of business, a 
considerable portion of which was necessarily drawn from the cir- 
cuit and subordinate courts. In many instances it was a matter of 
economy to have causes tried in that court, because they could be 
disposed of without so great expenditure of time and consequent 
outlay of money. Taken as a whole, however, in the course of time 
it became apparent that because of the ultimate and aggregate cost 
of maintaining this and the circuit, a pressure was brought to bear 
against it, and the act was repealed April 2, 1881. Judge Nelson 
contiiirx'd on the bench during the entire existence of the court. 




Albert S. White, May 21, 1829. 
Andrew Ingram, May 31, 1839. 
Henry Cooper, May 31, 1829. 
William W. Wick, November 19, 1829 
Thomas J. Evans, November 19, 1829. 
Calvin Fletcher. November 19, 1829. 
Aaron Finch, November 19, 1829. 
David Patton, November 19, 1829. 
Benjamin Hurst, November 19, 1839. 
George Lyon, April 26, 1830. 
Peter H. Patterson, April 26, 1830. 
James Rariden, April 26, 1830. 
Edward A. Hannagan, April 26, 1830. 
•Joseph Tatman, April 26, 1830. 
Thomas B. Brown, April 36. 1830. 
William M. .Tenners, April 36, 1830. 
David Wallace, April 26, 1830. 
Hiram Bell, April 25, 1831. 
J. B. Chapman, April 25, 1831. 
Henry Chase. April 25, 1831. 
Charles W. Ewing, April 25, 1831. 
William J. Brown, April 23, 1833. 
Peter J. Vandevier, April 23, 1833. 
Lazarus Miller, April 23, 1833. 
J. A. Listen, April 23, 1833. 
John W. Wright, April 32, 1833. 
Samuel C. Sample, February 17, 1834. 
John B. Niles, February 17, 1834. 
R. D. Skinner, February 30, 1834. 
James A. Maxwell. August 18, 1834. 
James W. Dunn, August 18, 1834. 
Daniel G. Garnley, August 18, 1834. 
John U. Pettit, February 3, 1835. 
Spier S. Tipton, February 3, 1835. 
Williamson Wright, August 10, 1835. 
George W. Blakemore, August 10, 1835. 
Isaac Naylor, August 11, 1835. 
Michael O'Dohertv, August 11, 1835. 
John Huber, February 8, 1836. 
John S. Patterson, February 8, 1836. ' J 
Rufus A. Lockwood, August 8, 1836, 
Joseph L. Jernegan, August 8, 1836. 
.James Denison, August 9, 1836. 
Daniel D. Pratt, August 9, 1836. 
Thomas Johnson, February 30, 1837. 
William H. Coombs, February 30, 1837. 
William Z. Stuart, February 30, 1837. 
P. A. Cowdry, August 31, 1837. 
Zebulon Beard, February 20, 1838. 
Nathaniel Niles, February 33, 1838. 
Horatio J. Harris, August 31, 1838. 
Hiram Allen, August 31, 1838. 
R. J. Dawer, August 31, 1838. 
John F. Dodds, August 38, 1838. 
William S. Palmer, August 30, 1839. 
Lucien P. Ferry, May 14, 1840. 
Horace P. Biddle, May 14, 1840. 
John B. Dillon, May 14, 1840. 
Albert L. Holmes, May 20, 1840. 
John M. Wilson, May 30, 1840. 
John Bush, May 34, 1841. 
James W. Ryland, February 21. 1842. 
Charles B. Lasselle, March 2, 1843. 

Thomas G. McCuUoch, March 2, 1843. 

Hiram W. Chase, August 23, 1844. 

Thos. Alex Weakley, August 23, 1844. 

Charles D. Murray, December 19, 1844. 

Benjamin W. Peters, August 18, 1845. 

Baxter. February 11, 1846. 

Elijah Odell, May 1, 1848. 

Lewis Chamberlin, February 17, 1851. 

William Brown, February 17, 1851. 

Samuel L. McFadin, May 10, 1852. 

William C. Wilson, May 17, 18.52. 

Stephen C. Taber, November 9, 1853. 

Edwin Walker, November 11, 1852. 

Sidney Baldwin, November 11, 1853. 

Henry Swift, November 11, 18-53. 

AVilliam J. CuUen, April 1.5, 1853. 

William P. Koutz, April 16, 1853. 

William H. Lytic, October 4, 1853. 

Isaac I. Parker, October 6, 1853. 

Joseph Sellers, April 17, 1854. 

Isaac De Long, October 17, 1854. 

D. D. Dykemun, February 5, 1855. 

Orris Blake, April 17. 1855. 

W. W. Haney, May 13, 1856. 

T. B. Helm, August 16, 1856. 

George Gardner, October 30, 1856. 

Lewis Wallace, April 31, 1857. 

James ^V. Eldridge, May 6, 1857. 

John M. La Rue, May 6, 1857. 

John R. Flynn, October 23, 1857. 

Harvey J. Shirk, November 3, 1857. 

Richard P. DeHart, April 31, 1858. 

Dudley H. Chase, October 20, 1858. 

David B. Anderson, November 5, 1858. 

Elwood P. Sine, May 9, 1859. 
John Wertz, May 10, 1859. 
John Guthrie, May 10, 18.59. 
Aaron M. Flory. November 36. 1859. 
Thurman C. Annabal, May 8, 1860. 
J. Brown Wright. May 9, 1860. 
Simeon M. Bliss, May 14, 1860. 
Daniel P. Baldwin, November 16, 1860. 
Whitman S. Benham, November, 1860. 
Andrew H. Evans, May 7, 1861. 
Stewart T. McConnell. Dec. 11, 1861. 
Dyer B. McConnell, May 39, 1865. 
Henry C. Thornton, July 34. 1865. 
Frank Swigart, September 13, 1865. 
Maurice Winfield, December 17, 1866. 
James M. Howard, February 37, 1867. 
John A. Chappelow, August 26, 1867. 
.John C. Nelson, April 3, 1868. 
DeWitt C. Justice, July 37, 1868. 
Dennis H. Palmer, November 13, 1871. 
John R. McNary, April 28, 1873, 
Thomas J. Tuley, September 1, 1873. 
Charles B. Stuart, September 19, 1873. 
Philip Ray, March 11, 1874. 
Alex S. Guthrie, March 11, 1874. 
E. J. C. Kelley, April 37, 1874. 
Thos. A. Stuart, September 7, 1874. 
Emory B. Sellers, February 3, 1875. 
William W. Thornlon, February 15, 1875. 


Joseph Y. Ballou, February 20, 1875. Elijah Herchberger, September 14, 1876. 

Frank Herald, May 5, 1875. W. H. Jacks, November 20, 1876. 

W.'R. Anthony, October 12, 1875. Milton Hanson, November 21, 1876. 

A. B. Leedy, November 1, 1875. D. A. Snyder, December 6, 1876. 
Willard McDowell, November 22, 1875. Charles E. Hale, March 17, 1877. 

Wager Swayne, February 8, 1876. Rufus Magee. 

"W. H. Elliott, February 8, 1876. N. O. Ross. 

Phil H. Grelle, May 9, 1876. John C. McGregor. 

The Cass County bar, as now constituted, consists of the follow- 
ing members, among whom the names of some are included that ap- 
pear upon the foregoing roll : Williamson Wright, John F. Dodds, 
Charles B. Lasselle, Samuel L. McFadiu, David D. Dykeman, D. 
H. Chase, Daniel P. Baldwin, Stewart T. McConnell, Dyer B. Mc- 
Connell, Henry C. Thornton, Frank Swigart, T. B. Helm, Kufus 
Magee, Nathan O. Ross, John C. McGregor, John C. Nelson, De- 
Witt C. Justice, John A. Chappelow, James M. Justice, Thomas J. 
Tuley, John W. McGreevy, N. B. Barron, Joseph T. McNary, John 
G. Meek, William H. Jacks, William Powell, William T. Wilson, 
Charles E. Hale, George E. Eoss, M. D. Fansler, Quincy A. Myers, 
James J. Shaffrey, E. S. Daniels, George C. Taber, P. H. Mc- 
Greevy, Fred. W. Muuson, W. S. Wright, Frank L. Justice, E. G. 
Wilson, Charles E. Taber, David D. Fickle, George W. Funk, Jo- 
seph P. Gray, A. G. Jenkines, J. T. Tomlinsou. 



Military— FIR.ST Military Experiences IN the County— Black Hawk 
War— iRLsn In.surrection— Indian Payment DiFFicrLTiES— Local 
Military Companies— Mexican War— Cass County Volunteer.s— 
Regulars— The Rebellion— Prompt Enlistments— Public Opinion 
—Cass County in the War— Her Roll of Honor— County Action 
FOR Support of Families— Cost, etc. 

ALTHOUGH many of the early settlers of Cass County, and 
others of more recent dates, had participated in warlike con- 
flicts with Indians here and elsewhere, and with the marshaled hosts 
of civilized nations, they can not, with propriety, be recognized as a 
people trained in the arts of war — warlike. While this negation is 
true, it is nevertheless a fact, that always, whenever the o6casion de- 


manded and a call was made for soldiers for the defense of our 
homes and firesides, or for the protection of our more distant bor- 
ders, the maintenance of the rights of the State, and in support of 
the General Government in enforcing obedience to law ; for the sup- 
pression of rebellion against the authority of the Nation — the inborn 
disposition to defend the right and chastise the wrong has always 
predominated, inciting them to take up arms in support of the one 
and to oppose the other. 

Aside from the calls made upon the people of this county, by 
authority of the State or of the United States, for soldiers to ma- 
terialize and exert the formidable war power of the country in the 
maintenance and support of civil government, some there have been 
of the remaining fathers of the Revolution, others of the war of 1812 
and Indian campaign, some of whom still abide with us, who repre- 
sented Cass County, in times past, iu the several periods of savage 
and civilized warfare, in which the State and Nation have been par- 
ticipants. In May, 1832, when the prospects for an invasion by 
Black Hawk and his band were alarmingly aiispicious, the people 
rose in their might and prepared to dispute his rights to come with 
the fire-brand and scalping knife and deprive them of their homes 
and sacrifice their " household gods" by the blighting touch of sav- 
age cruelty. The expected visitation, however, failed to materialize, 
and the marauder and his party were captured on the 2d of August, 
1832, opposite the Upper Iowa. 

On or about July 12, 1835, while the construction of the Wa- 
bash & Erie Canal was in progress, two parties of the Irish laborers 
known as the " Fardowns " and " Corkonians," engaged iipon that 
work, became involved in riotous proceedings, threatening the de- 
molition of each other and general devastation along the entire line 
of the work. This riot made the interposition of the military power 
of the State necessary for its suppression. Upon the call of the 
Governor, Gen. John Tipton, of this county, was put in chief com- 
mand, and Capt. Spier S. Tipton, son of the General, with a com^ 
pany of militia, left Logansport immediately for the scene of action, 
and, with the militia called from Fort Wayne and elsewhere, was in- 
strumental in the restoration of order and quiet. 

Again, in the latter part of September, 1836, at the time of the 
Pottawattomie payment, a difiiculty arose in reference to the distri- 
bution of the moneys to be paid them on account of lands purchased 


and for aunuities. Owing to the belligerent character of the parties 
engaged and the apparent cause for a serious collision, Col. Abel 0. 
Pepper, the Indian agent, as a means of preserving quiet and sup- 
pressing disorder, notified G. W. Ewing, colonel of Seventy-eighth 
Regiment of Indiana Militia, who immediately called out the Peru 
Greys, under the command of Capt. A. M. Higgius, the Logansport 
Guards, commanded by Capt. Spier S. Tipton, and the Logansport 
Dragoons, commanded by Capt. G. N. Fitch. The timely arrival of 
these warlike auxiliaries had a tendency to still the troubled waters 
and to induce a spirit of conciliation and compromise, which resulted 
in an amicable adjustment of the grievances without bloodshed. 

Through the kindness of Hon. Charles B. Lasselle, of Logans- 
port, we have the opportunity of transcribing the names of the men 
who composed the two Cass County companies: "Spier S. Tipton, 
captain; Stanislaus Lasselle, lieutenant; Jacob Hull, ensign; Sam- 
uel B. Linton, first sergeant; Daniel Sparks, second sergeant; John 
Sellers, third sergeant ; Daniel Clary, fourth sergeant ; Joshua 
Shields, first corporal; Amos Roe, second corporal; Cam Moore, 
third corporal; George Myers, fourth corporal. Privates, D. D. 
Pratt, Wills Buzan, Thomas G. Davis, Isaac Booth, John Black- 
burn, James Young, William Dickey, Austin Pate, Martin O'Brien, 
Philip Leahey, Daniel McCarty, Jeremiah Green, Hugh Ensby and 
John Goldsberry." 

"G. N. Fitch, captain; George Weirick, first lieutenant; James 
W. Dunn, second lieutenant; S. K. Waymore, cornet. Privates, 
George Rush, James T. Miller, David Johnson, Ancb-ew Robe, Jesse 
Evans. B. O. Spencer, Edwin Davis, J. McClary, R. C. Weirick, 
John Howard, J. H. Myers, J. P. Gaines, J. Medary, E. B. Fitch, 
Jay Mix, M. Washburn, Philip Pollard, J. B. Dillon, J. Lemon, 
William Conner." 

These two companies were mustered into service September 25, 
1836, and discharged October 1, 1836. 

Mexican War. — Affairs between the United States and Mexico 
having assumed a hostile attitiide, the President of the United States, 
by proclamation May 11, 1846, announced that a state of war ex- 
isted between this country and Mexico. Congress, thereupon, im- 
mediately authorized a call for 50,000 volunteers, one-half to be 
mustered in at once and the remainder to be used as a reserve. 
Then the President, on the strength of this authority, issued his call 


accordingly, the instrument bearing date May 13, 1846. The gov- 
ernors of the several States responded promptly, James Whitcomb, 
governor of Indiana, issuing his proclamation, directing the enroll- 
ment of volunteers in conformity with the order of the President, on 
May 23, following. 

The news of the declaration of war by the United States, and of the 
Governor's proclamation, reached Logansport without delay. Capt. 
Spier S. Tipton immediately commenced the enlistment of volun- 
teers for the war. Military enthusiasm ran high, and there was 
little delay in making up the roll of one complete company. On the 
8th of June, following, the company left for the seat of war, under 
command of Capt. Tipton. For several days previously it had been 
announced that the boys woiild leave on that day, and, as a conse- 
quence, the town was full of j^eople from all parts of the county to wit- 
ness their departure. They left, by way of the Michigan Eoad, south 
to Indianapolis, thence to New Albany, the place of rendezvous for 
the Indiana soldiers prior to taking transportation for the seat of 
war. Upon reaching that point, Capt. Tipton having received an 
appointment as lieutenant in the regular army, and accepting it, 
made a vacancy in the captaincj' of the company, which, however, 
was supplied by the election of Stanislaus Lasselle to that position. 
On the 19th of June the company was mustered into the service of the 
United States by Capt. Churchill, of the United States Army, with 
the following officers and privates: Captain, Stanislaus Lasselle; 
first lieutenant, William L. Brown; second lieutenant, David M. 
Dunn; thii-d lieutenant, George W. Blakemore; first sergeant, Jas. 
H. Tucker; second sergeant, James M. Lasselle; third sergeant, 
Edwin Farquhar; fourth sergeant, Thomas A. Weirick; first cor- 
poral, Benj. P. Turner ; second corporal, Henry W. Vigus ; third 
corporal, T. W. Douglass; fourth corporal, Thomas H. Bringhurst; 
fifer, Leonard H. Keep; drummer, James M. Vigus; surgeon, Will- 
iam Fosdick; color bearer, J. Stephenson. 

Privates: J. S. Armitage, David C. Buchanan, W. B. Buchanan, 
J. Brisco, J. T. Bryer, Sylvester Berry, L. B. Butler, AVilliam Bock- 
over, H. Borman, J. Bowser, D. Barrett, D. S. Barbour, S. Baily, 
0. Baily, AV. B. Buckingham, B. Crawford, G. T. Case, W. Crum- 
ley, S. M. Cotner, G. Coleman, J. Cotter, Peter Doyle, J. Dawson, 
A. Daniels, T. S. Dunn, E. Denbo, J. Duel, G. Emerson, I. H. Fore- 
man, A. B. Foster, D. B. Farrington, O. H. P. Grover, John B. 


Grover, A. D. Graham, N. F. Hines, C. B. Hopkiuson, A. Hunter, 

C. Hillhouse, D. W. Johnson, K. L. Kelly, W. B. Kelly, J. Ker- 
nodle, Joshua S. La Eose, J. Loser, James M. Morse (elected cor- 
poral at Mier, Mexico), F. O. MHler, W. Miller, T. P. McBeau, W. 
W. McMilleu, J. C. Moore, John Martin, S. L. McFadin (elected 
corporal at the mouth of the Eio Grande), T. Montgomery, E. 
McGrew, J. Monroe, W. Obenchain, B. W. Peters, I. D. Patterson, 
B. Purscell, J. Pfouts, Max. Eeese, P. Eector, S. B. Eichardson, S. 

D. Ehorer, W. T. Shepperd, E. L. Stuart, P. Smith, C. Smith, S. 
Thompson, S. L. F. Tippett, W. Thompson, W. L. Wolf, L. G. Ward, 
F. T. Windrich, P. N. Whittingill, D. Yopst. 

There were three regiments formed at New Alliany, the First, 
Second and Third. The Cass County volunteers were pi;t in the 
First Eegiment, of which James P. Drake was colonel, C. C. Nave, 
lieutenant-colonel, and Henry S. Lane, major. After the expira- 
tion of their term of service, the members of the company were 
miistered oiit on the 15th of June, 1847, at New Orleans. The offi- 
cers of the company, when mustered out, were Stanislaus Lasselle, 
captain; William L. Bro-wn, first lieutenant; David M. Dunn, sec- 
ond lieutenant; George W. Blakemore, third lieutenant; J. H. 
Tucker, fii'st sergeant; J. M. Lasselle, second sergeant; T. A. Weir- 
ick, third sergeant; H. W. Vigus, fourth sergeant; B. P. Turner, 
first corporal; T. H. Bringhurst, second corporal; S. L. McFadin, 
third corporal; J. M. Morse, fourth corporal; L. H. Keep, fifer, J. 
M. ,Vigus, drummer, and E. Farquhar, hospital steward. 

When mustered into service the company contained ninety-two 
men; when mustered out, fifty-seven men, thirty-one having been 
discharged on account of ill-health, and three died in Mexico : W. B. 
Buchanan, Dyer Barrett and Caleb B. Hopkinsou. 

After the departure of the company enlisted in the volunteer 
service, Lieut. Tiptou opened a recruiting office in the city, and se- 
cured the enlistment of a company of young men for the regular 
ai-mj', designed to serve in Mexico and elsewhere according to the 
requirements of the Department of War. The members of the com- 
pany thus formed were soon after ordered to the front, where they 
were speedily engaged in the sanguinary work of adjusting existing 
difficiilties between this country aud the Government of Mexico, 
under the leadership of Gen. Winfield Scott, the hero of Lundy's 
Lane during the unpleasantness with Great Britain in 1S12. In the 


movement attending the investment and subsequent capture of the 
Cjty of Mexico, a squad of " Cass County Boys" were the fii-st to 
enter within the walls of the city, the first to enter the consecrated 
halls of the Montezumas, and one, DeWitt C. Wimer, first hoisted 
their own "battle flag" — the emblem of American liberty, our 
National colors — over the nation's ancient capital. In the numer- 
ous engagements which led to the capture and final surrender of 
the city, Cass County was rejaresented by the brave men who parti- 
cipated in nearly all the hard-fought battles of the campaign which 
added to the brilliant record of American soldiers. Among those 
who were thus engaged, it will not be out of place to mention the 
names of Lieut. S. S. Tipton (whose remains now repose in Mexican 
soil ) , D. C. Wimer, Col. N. G. Scott, Carter L. Vigus, John Snively, 
Michael S. Pettit, and of Maj. Abram Peters, who, though he did 
not enlist in Cass County, was nevertheless a brave soldier and, in 
common with our boys, did service in the fields of carnage, being 
now, and for many years past, a citizen of this county with them. 

War of the Rebellion. — Consequent upon the threatening aspect 
of affairs in the Southern States, and the strong probability that a 
rupture was likely to occur in the near future, from the time it had 
been definitely ascertained that Mr. Lincoln was the choice of the 
people of the United States, the current of public opinion and ex- 
pression in Cass County foreshadowed an earnest purpose on the 
part of the people to give their support to the incoming President 
in whatever legitimate way he might propose to steer the ship of 
State through the breakers obtruding to interfere with the progress 
and development of that liberal sentiment which characterized the 
policy of the majority of the American people as expressed at the 
ballot-box. That current of opinion became stronger and more ex- 
pressive day by day as time advanced toward the inauguration of 
the new administration. After the 4th of March, 1861 — indeed, 
long anterior to that date — the spirit of the opposition was so dis- 
tinctly exhibited in the actions of some leading adherents of the late 
administration, and the belligerent attitude assumed by them, that 
the conservative and peace-loving element of society at large became 
a unit on the question of propriety in maintaining the supremacy 
of the laws. The condition of affairs during the few days that pre- 
ceded the first act of war, left no doubts in the minds of our people 
that open war would be the inevitable consequence, and that without 


delay. When, therefore, the telegraph announced that Fort Sumter 
had been iii'ed upon, and the laws of the country set at defiance — 
that open rebellion had been inaugurated — all party distinctions 
were forgotten in the common impulse to maintain the integrity of 
the National Union, and the determined purpose to meet force with 
force, if need be, engaged the attention, and called forth the ener- 
gies, of all parties to aid in the accomplishment of the one grand 
object — the perpetuity of otu- form of government. 

The annoucemeut of the President's proclamation and call for 
volunteers, and the quick response of Gov. Morton tendering the 
requisite quota of Indiana, found the people of Cass County ready 
for the conflict and already far advanced in the formalities of volun- 
tary enlistment. Capt. D. H. Chase, of the " Zouave Guards," 
whose military fervor had long before induced him to organize a 
company of boys — who in time became young men — which he armed 
and uniformed at his own expense, and drilled them until they had 
become thoroughly disciplined, familiar with the manual of arms and 
skillful in warlike evolutions — was the first to tender the services of 
his company. The President's proclamation was issued on Monday, 
April 15, 1861, the proclamation of Gov. Morton on the 16th, and 
on the same day Capt. Chase received a dispatch from Adjt.- 
Gen. Lewis Wallace accepting his tender and ordering him to 
report his men to headquarters. Almost simultaneoxasly with the 
movement of Capt. Chase, Thomas S. Dunn, a member of the Cass 
County volunteers, opened a recruiting oflice in the stone building 
at the southeast corner of Market and Fourth Streets, and succeeded 
in rapidly enlisting men. The oflice was opened on Wednesday, the 
17th, and on Saturday following he had enrolled 125 meu — good work 
for less than three days. On Monday, the 21st, Capt. Chase's com- 
pany and the company of Capt. Dunn went into camp at Indianapolis. 
Other recruiting oflices were opened, and the enlistments continued 
to be rapid. Capt., afterward Col. William L. Brown, commenced 
recruiting on Friday the 19th, and on Tuesday the 23d, his company 
was full. Capt. Chamberlin opened an oflice on Monday, the 22d, 
and began to enlist men for a company to be called the Union 
Grays, and the ranks were filled with little delay. On the same 
day, also, Col. N. G. Scott, a member of the Eifle Eegiment under 
Gen. Twiggs during the campaign from Vera Cruz to the Mexi- 
can capital, began to enlist recruits, and the work proceeded actively. 


Although several hundred men had been enlisted within the week 
succeeding the call of the President, the number of recruits ready 
and anxious to enlist seemed not to have been diminished. The 
following is the roster of Capt. Chase's company as it left Logans- 
port: Dudley H. Chase, captain ; Fred. P. Morrison, first lieutenant ; 
Alexander Hamilton, second lieutenant; Joseph A. Westlake, third 
lieutenant. Privates: Thomas H. Musselman, John S. Morrison, 
John C. Scantling, Chris. Jeanerette, Joseph S. Turner, Fred. 
Baldwin, Madison M. Coulson, Milton B. Seagraves, James P. Mc- 
Cabe, John H. Shirk, George Shires, Charles A. Brownlee, Landon 
S. Farquhar, Bradley M. Tuttle, James M. Pratt, Isaac Walker, J. 
W. McClain, James G. Parish, Samuel Smith, Benj. Dwire, John 
Cramer, Samuel L. Swinuey, Fred. R. Bruner, James Gunion, Wes- 
ley McDonald, George W. Camjjbell, S. A. Kenton, Chris. Burke, 
A. Boothe, John Maxwell, Thomas W. Adair, Joseph Barron, Sr., 
W. Ryan, J. C. McNess, L. Smith, William Griswold, Thomas Rid- 
ley, G. Boothe, John T. Powell, Fred. Fitch, Jas. F. Mitchell, James 
Douglass, Garrett A. Van Ness, William Kenton, Michael L. Hare, 
Frank Rust, David R. Simbardo, George Turner, William Edwards, 
Eaton B. Forgy, Lewis W. Johnson, William H. Perry, James C. 
Lanckton, E. Roderick, Nelson P. Cummings. James L. Walker, 
David Pomeroy, J. W. Randall, J. Barron, Jr., Joseph Smalley, 
William Carrigan, William H. Smith, William P. Lasselle, John 
Hall, J. DeHart, George Campbell, Joseph H. Oliphant, A. Faurote, 
Martin Andrews, Joseph L. Jessey, Isaac Sheeders, N. Turner, 
George Starr, Charles S. Davis, F. W. Smith, Edward Brooks, 
George W. UpdegrafP, William L. Powell. 

There were subsequently some changes made before the com- 
pany was mustered into the service of the United States. The com. 
pany was then designated as K of the Ninth Regiment of Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry. 

Prior to the departure of the company for Indianapolis, at 8 
o'clock on the morning of Monday, April 22, " as the Zouave 
Guards were parading in their armory, prejjaratory to marching to 
the depot. Col. C. C. Loomis, of this city, presented to Capt. D. H. 
Chase an elegant pair of epaulettes. The occasion was one of 
much interest and was particularly gratifying to the company of 
gallant Zouaves who, under Capt. Chase, will do their whole duty 
in the perilous times which surround the Nation." The following 
is the address of Col. Loomis and Capt. Chase's reply: 


Preseniation Speech by Col. Loomis. — " Sir, yourself with those 
under your command are now about to leave your homes 
to fight for fi-eedom against the enemies of your hitherto 
peaceable, prosperous and happy country. But in one evil hour, 
^vith Satan as a counselor, an insidious foe has invaded our 
rights and is now striving to force our Nation into anarchy, 
bloodshed and ruin. The young men of our land with brave 
hearts and strong hands are now called upon, in this hour of our 
country's danger, to stand up for the rights so gloriously be- 
queathed us by those revolutionary heroes who have now gone down 
to their graves covered with honor and glory. Oiu' fathers thought 
it no hardship to risk their fortunes and lives, and all that they 
held dear, if by any means they could thus transmit to posterity the 
liberties which we have hitherto enjoyed. Our mothers, too, whom 
we with pride remember, were willing to sacrifice — if necessity re- 
quired it — their sons, the pride and joy of their hearts, that tyran- 
ny and oppression could be di'iven from our land. With a good 
cause for a fouudation,and trusting in the God of battles for deliv- 
erance, they succeeded; and to perpetuate those liberties, you are 
now called from the homes and friends you love so well, to assist in 
rescuing our noble ship of State, which has so long withstood the 
storm, fi'om a treacherous and rebellious crew. May the conscious- 
ness that the cause is just urge you forward and give you courage 
to stand up manfully for the right, showing mercy where it should 
be shown, but giving to traitors that reward which they so richly 
deserve as a just recompense for their treachery and folly. 

" I now present you a pair of epaulettes, an insignia of your 
office. Like them, may your conduct and valor as a soldier ever 
shine — and may you, with all those under your charge, again return 
to your homes, to your kindred, and to your friends, bringing with 
you such proofs of fidelity and bravery as the cause in which you 
are enlisted so richly merits."' 

Reply of Capt. Chase: — "Kespected Sir: Please accept my 
warmest thanks for your kind and opportune present. It shall be 
my greatest endeavor that no rusty action or tarnished honor ever 
soils them. With many thanks, allow me to say that I shall en- 
deavor to do my duty faithfully, ever bearing in mind the importance 
of the cause in which I am engaged." 

On Satiirday preceding the departure of the first company, and 


three days subsequent to the receptiou of the Governor's proclamation, 
a union meeting was held in the court house, to consider the situation 
and take such steps in the premises as the exigencyseemed to demand. 
The proceedings were in all respects harmonious, all participants 
agreeing that the General Government must and should be sustained 
at whatever cost. The meeting was presided over by Hon. Chauncey 
Carter, who, upon taking the chair, addressed the meeting in his us- 
ually pointed and direct style, advocating the enforcement of the 
laws and the unequivocal support of the official head of the Govern- 
ment in his efforts to see that the laws of the country are faithfully 
executed, to the end that the birthright transmitted by our fore- 
fathers be preserved intact. He said the question to be settled in 
this emergency was whether a popular government of the people 
and for the people can be sustaine,d ; that the right ought and would 

He was followed by Hon. D. D. Pratt, who, iu responding to the 
call, commenced his address by showing that the war iu which we 
were engaged was not an aggressive one, but was for the defense of 
the constitution and the laws of the country. Our free institutions, 
he said, had been attacked; that the stars and stripes must continue 
to be recognized in the future, as in the past, as the emblem of a 
perfect union, and not allowed to be trailed in the dust by unholy 
hands. If the supremacy of the laws could not be maintained, the 
result would certainly follow that our country would be divided 
into petty rival governments, which would ever be at war with each 
other. The patriotic citizen, who bared his breast and met the com- 
mon foe on the battle-field, iu the defense of his country, would be ' 
held in grateful remembrance by his fellow-citizens. No civil wreath 
was ever so glorious as the laurels won upon the battle-field by the 
citizen-soldier fighting in his country's defense. 

Having concluded his address, Mr. Pratt presented the follow- 
ing preamble and resolutions,' which were unamiously adopted, as 
fully expressive of the sentiments of the meeting: 

Whereas, The President of the United States has issued his proclamation an- 
nouncing to the country that the laws of the United States are opposed, and their 
execution obstructed in seven States, by combinations too powerful to be suppressed 
by ordinary methods, and calling for the militia of the several States, to the number 
of 7.5,000, in order to suppress said combinations, and to cause the laws to be duly 
executed, and appealing to all loyal citizens to favor, facilitate and aid this effort 
to maintain the honor, the integrity and the existence of our National Union, and 
the perpetuity of popular government, and redress wrongs already endured. Kow, 


Resoh'td, That we, the people of Cass County, laying aside all party distinctions, 
and mindful only of the duties of patriotism in the hour of our country's peril, do 
promptly and heartily respond to this appeal, and applaud the purpose of the ad- 
ministration to protect the property and places belonging to the Government. 

Resolved, That Cass County will furnish its quota of all volunteers now, or here- 
after, to be called in aid of tiiese lawful purposes of the Government. 

Resolved, That we will contribute whatever of money and clothes are necessary 
to properly equip the volunteers, and put them in the field; and that we will look 
after, the families of such volunteers as are married or have families dependent upon 
them for support; and that this duty, gratifying as it is, may be shared in by all ac- 
cording to their means. 

Resolved, That the board of commissioners of the county of Cass be requested 
to make an appropriation of |5,000 for that object. 

Resolved, That while we deprecate all sentiments in our midst, that opposj tlie 
present just and patriotic action of the Government, and either favor the secession 
movement, or consider the course of the administration as unwise, yet mindful of 
the constitutional guaranties for freedom of speech, we will abstain from all 
assaults upon the persons or property of those who differ from us in opinion. 

S. A. Hall, editor of the Denwcrcdic Pharos, was then called for, 
aud addressed the meeting. He said he owed allegiance to the 
GoTernment under which he found his State. He was for the stars 
and stripes. A blow had been struck at that Government, and he 
would return blow for blow in its defense. 

Short speeches were made by James AV. Dunn, Charles B. 
Lasselle, A. M. Flory, Charles B. Knowlton, Stephen C. Taber and 
others, much in the same strain as those which preceded them. 
That of Mr. Taber was especially characteristic. He said: " What- 
ever I am, and whatever you are, we owe to ottr Government ; I care 
not for the causes of the war, I am for my country. I acknowledge 
no fraternal relations to traitors." 

Dr. James A. Taylor was " for the war, and would do all in his 
power to aid the Government. The time was past for party differ- 
ences. The South thinks that there are men in the North who will 
aid them in their efforts to destroy this Government, but he wanted 
the people of the South to know that as one man we are against re- 

On motion the chairman was authorized to request the auditor 
to call the county commissioners together for the purpose of consid- 
ering the purport of the resolutions passed at this meeting. 

As requested by the general meeting of Saturday, the auditor is- 
sued his call to the county commissioners, directing them to meet 
in special session to transact business of great moment to the peo- 
ple of this county. Accordingly, in pursuance of the tenor of said 
notice, on Tuesday, April 23, 18G1, " The Board of County Com- 


missioners of Cass County, Ind., met at the court house in said 
county at 11 o'clock A. M., pursuant to the call of the Auditor, for 
the purpose of determining whether or not the said Board will make 
an appropriation out of the County Treasury for the support of the 
families of such persons as have already or shall hereafter volunteer 
as soldiers in the service of the United States, as asked for by the 
meeting of citizens of said county, held April 20, 1861, and for 
transacting such other business as may be brought before said 
Board. Present: Crabtree Grace, Henry M. Kistler and Joseph 
Penrose, Commissioners; D. W. Tomlinson, Auditor, and Job B. 
Eldridge, Sheriff." 

Preliminary to further action, preambles and resolutions were 
presented setting forth in substance the situation as in the resolu- 
tions of the citizens' meeting of Saturday preceding, which, being 
duly considered, were adopted by the board, and the following order 
and resolution entered of record : 

iVtfJO, therefore, Resolved, That the board sympathizing with the citizens of 
Cass County in the subject-matter of said appeal, and approving the suggestions of 
said resolution, do hereby appropriate the sum |5,000 from the moneys now col- 
lected or hereafter to be collected for county purposes, for the relief of the families 
of such volunteers resident in Cass County as have enlisted or shall enlist in the 
service of their country at the present emergency, where such families are dependen 
for their support upon the personal labor of those enlisting and left in destitute cir 

Resolved, That all orders to be drawn by the auditor on the treasurj', on ac 
count of said appropriation, shall be based on the certificates of the several town 
ship trustees, acting as overseers of the poor, which shall have appended to them 
the recommendation of either Thomas H. Wilson, Chauncey Carter or Daniel D 
Pratt. And it is also ordered that no more of said appropriation shall be drawn 
from the treasury than shall be deemed by said Carter, Wilson or Pratt, really nee 
essary for the support of said families of said volunteers. 

On Friday evening, Ajjril 19, 1861, in advance of the citizens' 
meeting of Saturday and the action of the board of commissioners 
just referred to, the common council of the city of Logansport met 
in special session, and appropriated $1,000 for the support of the 
families of volunteers, if needed. Messrs. Thomas H. Wilson, 
Chauncey Carter and D. D. Pratt were appointed a committee with 
authority to disburse it. 

A meeting of citizens and soldiers was held on Spencer's Square, 
on the afternoon of Sunday, April 21, at which addresses were made 
by Rev. M. M. Post, Rev. Silas Tucker and Rev. Mr. Layton. The 
assembly was very large and the exercises were characterized by 
great interest and enthusiasm. 


As fiirther expressive of public sentiment, the stars and stripes 
were tlung to the breeze on the depot building of the Wabash Val- 
ley Eailroad soon after receiving intelligence of the downfall of 
Fort Sumter, and on Tuesday, the 23d of April, a little later, our 
country's emblem was seen to float gallantly from the spire of the 
Catholic Church in this city. 

Capt. Thomas S. Dunn's company, before referred to, left the 
city on the 22d of April, and was accepted by the proper authorities 
at Indianapolis, the following day. As constituted at the time of 
its departure, it was composed of the following officers and privates : 
Captain, Thomas S. Dunn; first lieutenant, D. C. Weimer; second 
lieutenant, C. L. Vigus; first sergeant, O. W. Miles; second ser- 
geant, M. K. Graham; third sergeant, J. Eoss Vigus; fourth ser- 
geant, J. W. F. Liston ; fii'st corporal, Wm. M. DeHart ; second cor- 
poral, S. Purviance; third corporal. Perry B. Bowser; fourth cor- 
poral, Thomas A. Howes; di-ummer, Geo. W. Green; fifer, A. U. 
McAlister. Privates: Austin Adair, J. M. Arnout, Hampton C. 
Boothe, William Boothe, Granville M. Black, Amos Baruett, Charles 
Bell, Samuel M. Black, Isaac Barnett, Allen W. Bowyer, Ambrose 
Butler, John Castle, Isaac Castle, Wm. H. Crockett, Ebenezer T. 
Cook, John W. Chidester, James C. Chidester, James A. Craighead, 
Eobert Clary, A. Bruce Davidson, John Douglass, Charles A. Dun- 
kel, Alex. K. Ewing, David A. Ewing. Theodore B. Forgy, William 
E. Gurley, Jacob Hudlow, John L. Hinkle, John Howard, Paul 
Herring, David Jameson, Joseph Knight, James Linton, John S. 
Long, William Larimer, Joseph Lindsey, Charles Longdrose, Alex. 
Lucas, A. W. Mobley, George Myers, S. A. Mendenhall, John E. 
Moore, William Martin, Samuel Martin, AV. P. Marshall, John 
Means, Paul B. Miller, Edward E. Neff, Graham N. Patton, Will- 
iam Patton, John Eush, David Eeprogle, Jacob Stover, Austin 
Sargent, James A. Troup, John W. Tippett, John A. Woodward, 
James A. Wilkinson, Joseph A. Vickory, Cyrus J. Vigus, John W. 
Vanmeter, George C. Vanmeter, George S. Vanmeter. They were 
mustered into service as Company D, Ninth Indiana Eegiment. 

The other companies enlisted by Capts. William L. Brown, N. 
G. Scott and Lewis Chamberlin, were not then accepted, the quota 
being already full. At a later period, however, the war continuing 
and the term of service of those first enlisted expiring, regiments 
were formed and mustered in for three years, of which those com- 
panies previously enlisted formed a constituent part. 


After Capt. Dunn's company had left Logansport, and had been 
received at Camp Morton, it was presented, by a committee of our 
ladies, with a beautiful flag. The following is the company's re- 
sponse on accepting it: 
Ladies of Logansport, who presented the flag to Oapt. Dunn's Company: 

I am delegated by the company which is the recipient of your patriotic gift — 
the stars and stripes — to tender you their heartfelt thanks, with the assurance tha 
that proud banner, the work of your hands, shall never be lowered to traitor or 
foreign foe; never, while there is left one arm to bear it aloft; never, never, while 
there is one heart left to pour out the warm tide of its devotion to our country. 

Wm. M. DeHart, 
In behalf of the Company. 

Camp Morton, May 11, 1861. 

When Capt. William L. Brown disbanded his company that had 
been enlisted for three months, he began immediately to recruit for 
the three years' service, in anticipation of an early call for troops to 
serve during that period. In {i few days his company was full and 
accepted, notwithstanding many members of the company origin- 
ally refused to re-enlist, because of the long term of service pre- 
scribed. In the meantime the President of the United States had 
authorized Col. Brown to raise a regiment to serve for three years, 
or during the war. This authority was in consonance with the 
foreshadowings which seemed to direct the Colonel in his early 

Sometime during the second week in June, when it was every 
day becoming more apparent that the war would be continued for a 
longer period than was in the beginning anticipated, other re- 
cruiting offices were opened in different portions of the city for the 
purpose of making further enlistments of volunteers for the ex- 
tended service. Col. N. G. Scott had his quarters in the AVade 
building on Broadway, immediately east of the Haney storeroom 
on the east side of the alley between Fourth and Pearl Streets. 
John Guthrie, Esq., was also enlisting men in another part of the 
city. Capt. T. H. Logan, formerly of the Zouave Guards, also 
opened a recruiting office in the Haney building on Broadway, just 
west of Col. Scott's quarters. At all these points men were daily 
enrolled for service in maintaining the supremacy of the laws. 
Capt. Logan's company filled up rapidly, and on Monday, July 1, 
1861, left the city and went into camp at Lafayette, being the sec- 
ond in point of time to take up quarters there preparatory to the 
formation of Col. Brown's regiment at that place. 


A meeting was held iu the court house on "Wednesday evening, 
July 24, to make ai-raugements for receiving the companies of three 
months' men, then on their way homeward. Col. C. C. Loomis was 
chairman of the meeting, and appointed a committee of arrange- 
ments, consisting of F. Keyes, L. Chamberlin, A. M. Higgius, A. 
M. Flory, S. L. McFadin, A. L. Williams and John C. Merriam. 
At 2 o'clock on the afternoon of July 30, the committee received a 
telegram announcing that the returning volunteers would arrive here 
at 2 o'clock the following morning. Upon receiving that intelli- 
gence everything was in a bustle of preparation to have a suitable 
breakfast in readiness at the court house. "The response from our 
citizens was what might have been expected from their well-estab- 
lished reputation. Provisions that would tempt an epicure — hams, 
chickens, pigs, bread and butter, cakes, etc. — were sent in until 
there was an abundance of everything needed to cheer and invig- 
orate. A committee of ladies and gentlemen was appointed to su- 
perintend the breakfast and arrange the room. The work was not 
left exclusively to the committee, as large numbers assisted in the 
pleasant labor of welcoming those who had volunteered in defense 
of the flag of our country. 

" Our citizens were aroused at 1 o'clock on the morning of the 
31st by the firing of cannon and ringing of bells, and soon gathered 
at the depot. As the train approached the volunteers were wel- 
comed by rousing cheers, the firing of cannon, strains of music, the 
glad welcome and the hearty shake of the hand. Under the direc- 
tion of Maj. McFadiu as marshal, assisted by J. C Merriam, John 
S. Thompson and Lewis Chamberlin, the mass of the people, headed 
by the Logan Brass Baud, proceeded to the court house, where a 
cordial welcome was extended to the returned volunteers by the 
Hon. E. P. De Hart, as follows: 

■• ' Gallant Soldiers of the Bloody Ninth: It is with mingled feel- 
ings of pride and gratitude that we welcome you home fi-om the 
field of battle. We may be justly proud of you, for, by your gal- 
lant conduct at Phillippa, Laurel Hill, Carrick's Ford and Rich 
Mountain, you have won stars that will glitter and bui'u in the 
crown of young Indiana when the names of Jeff Davis, Wise and 
Beaurcgird shall be remembered but as a badge of sectional folly 
and Clime. I need not say to you that you have won your glory in 
defense of the best government that man ever devised or God smiled 


upon. That sublime truth has cheered you in the long, weary 
march — as you stood sentinel at the midnight hour — and nerved 
your arms in the hour of battle. A goyernment which was laid 
broad and deep by the patriots who sat down together by the camp 
fires of the Revolution, and who, for the sincerity of their convic- 
tions and the intensity of their devotion, appealed to the great God 
of battles, and who never gave over until that government — theirs 
and ours — was made permanent in the organized form of our time- 
honored Constitution, which extends its protection over all, and 
which we are bound to obey. The truths which underlie this glo- 
rious fabric were proclaimed in the name of the ascendant people of 
that time, and as they made the circuit of the entire globe, the na- 
tions woke fi'om their lethargy like those who have been exiles from 
childhood when they hear for the first time the dimly-remembered 
accents of their mother tongue. I will not detain you. In the 
name of the people here assembled, in the name of the patriotic 
women who have prepared this bounteous feast for you, I bid you 
welcome to our midst.' 

"The volunteers then entered the court room, which was tastily 
decorated with National flags. Every thing was arranged in ex- 
cellent order, with tables groaning beneath the load of substantials 
which our citizens had, with their accustomed liberality, supplied for 
the refreshment of the gallant volunteers. At 3 o'clock, after 
prayer by Rev. Mr. Layton, the feast of good things commenced, 
and ample justice was done to it by the volunteers. 

"After breakfast, A. M. Flory, Esq., in behalf of Company D, 
presented Capt. T. S. Dunn with a handsome sword, as a testmonial 
of their regard for him. 

" The assemblage to welcome the volunteers was large, but it 
would have been increased four -fold if time had permitted a general 
notice in the country of the time of their arrival. The volunteers 
are, with few exceptions, in excellent health, and their bronzed 
countenances show the extent of their exposure to sun and storm." 

At 2 o'clock on the afternoon of the same day, Capt. Chase and 
his company of zouaves arrived at the depot from the seat of war in 
West Virginia. Uj^on their arrival they were escorted to the court 
house by the welcoming committee, where a bounteous repast had been 
prepared in anticipation of their coming, and was awaiting their 
presence. The reception ceremonies were not essentially different 


from tliose of the early morniug, which being completed, the dinner 
was served amid the general rejoicing at their return and the kindly 
greetings that were extended to them on all sides. In the eyes of 
the multitude the zouaves took front rank for their soldierly bear- 
ing and exquisite training. 

" These boys too were bronzed fi-om exposure to sun and storm, 
and have the proud satisfaction of knowing that they went where- 
ever duty pointed the way, and that the name of the 'Bloody, 
Ninth' will not be forgotten by the historian." It was also a sub- 
ject of general congratulation that not a volunteer from this place 
was killed or wounded, and the larger proportion returned with 
health improved. 

In the midst of this general rejoicing at the safe return of our 
volunteers, the life of one who had done battle side by side with many 
of those just returned from fields of carnage, was fast ebbing away 
in the eastern part of the city — Lieut. DeWitt C. Weimer was dy- 
ing. On Sunday, August 4, 1861, he breathed his last, surrounded 
by family and friends, at the early age of thirty-four years. He 
was much esteemed by his fellow-soldiers and by all with whom he 
had fi-om time to time been associated as citizen and soldier. 

During the Mexican war he served in the famous Eifle Kegiment 
in the campaign of Gen. Scott from Vera Cruz to the City of Mex- 
ico. In the latter city, he, with a squad of Cass County boys, was 
the first to enter within the walls after surrender of the Mexicans. 
And to him, also, belongs the credit of first placing our National 
colors upon the dome of the ancient hall of the Montezumas, even 
before an order had been made by the commanding officer directing 
it to be done. 

" The funeral took place on Monday afternoon ; his military as- 
sociates and the fire companies of this city joining in them. The 
funeral sermon was preached in Spencer Square to a very large con- 
course of people, by Kev. Mr. Layton. To the solemn strains of 
music his remains were borne to the grave, and a parting salute 
fired over his last resting place by those who esteemed him for his 
manly conduct in the services of his country. Peace to his ashes. " 

Col. William L. Brown's regiment, the Twentieth, went into 
camp at Camp Vajen, Indianapolis, on the 2-ith of July, and soon 
after received marching orders. The Indianapolis papers of that 
date speak very highly of the appearance of the men, and say that a 
" finer regiment has not yet been mustered into the service. " 


On September 1, 1S61, Capt. Ira E. Gifford opened a recriiiting 
office in the Tipton Engine House on Fourth Street. The original 
roll of the company had the following caption: "Muster EoU of 
Capt. Ira E. Gifford' s Cavalry Company, of Logansport, Indiana. 
Provisional Committee, Ira E. Gifford, Eichard D. Ellsworth and 
Benjamin O. Wilkinson. " This roll contained upon it, ninety-seven 
names, a large number of whom did not finally remain upon it when 
the company came to be mustered into the service. The company 
as it left Logansport, was composed of the following men: 

Ira E. Gifford, Eichard D. Ellsworth, Spencer T. Weirick, 
Thomas W. Stevenson, William Banks, Charles N. Banks, William 
A. Larimer, Frederick Wiley, Thomas Chainbers, Charles Wliipp, 
Charles M. Haner, Michael L. Hare, F. M. Henton, Henry M. 
Thomas, Joseph Barron, Benjamin O. Wilkinson, David A. Ewing, 
John Oliver Barron, George Toliver, Edward Griffin, Stephen E. 
Lavictoire, Arthur Smith, Lon Voorhis, James Wilkinson, Jacob 
Loser, William D. Lyon, Alfred Williams, James Hurley, Samuel 
Purviance, F. S. Mumford, J. A. Wilkinson, Owen Gillespy, Peter 
Zerbe, Samuel Sellers, Pollard Herring, James Crosby, Thomas 
Quin, Joseph Smalley, Thomas Flinn, H. E. Parker, Jordon Berry, 
John Eacus, Joseph S. Allen, William C. Marshall, James Douglass, 
Malvin G. Bliss, John Detric, Ira M. Sweet, Patrick Dillon, John 
M. Sturm, George L. Sturm, Samuel W. Wilson, A. W. Wells, P. 
I. Howard, Jacob L. Eeap, Eeuben Scott, Joseph Bauer, Charles 
W. Dunn, James M. Cashen, H. H. Thomas, John Harry Master- 
son, Zenas E. Bradley, Charles Davidson, Michael Eohr^r, John M. 
Fletcher, H. B. Moore, William Beatty, Thomas McCoy. 

On the 3d of September, Capt. Gifford was notified by Col. 
Brackett, that his cavalry company would be accepted in the make- 
up of the Ninth Illinois Eegiment. Enlistments proceeding rapidly, 
the company was soon filled up, and about the middle of the month 
took transportation for regimental headquarters at Chicago, and was 
subsequently mustered into service as Company E of that regiment. 

September 20, authority was granted to raise and quarter a reg- 
iment in Logansport. The following is the dispatch announcing 

the fact: Indianapolis, September 30, 1861. 

Hon. R. P. BeHart, Logansport. 

Hon. Graham N. Fitch, N. G. Scott and T. H. Bringhurst are authorized to 
raise a regiment to rendezvous at Logansport. Build your barracks, hurrj- up the 
organization of companies, and put them into camp. 

By order of Gov. Morton. W. E. Hollow.^t, 


Under the head of " Military," of September 25, the foUowiDg 
announcements are made, indicating the state of progress in the en- 
listment of men: 

"A. M. Flory and E. E. Stevens are adding rapidly to the muster 
roll of their company, and it will be full in a few days. The com- 
pany will be made up of the best material of the county. The re- 
cruiting room is at Tipton engine house." 

" John Guthrie, S. M. Bliss and Wilson Williamson are getting 
recruits who will do honor to the county wherever they may be. 
Their recruiting room is at Mr. Guthrie's law office, on Broadway." 

" Like Vigus and George J. Groves have opened a recruiting 
room, and put out the National colors from the brick block on Broad- 
way, and are enlisting a company for Fitch's regiment." 

"John Kearney, William Fitzgerald and William Cahill are en- 
gaged in raising a company of Irishmen for Fitch's regiment. It 
will be composed of men who will do their duty wherever they may 
be stationed. The recruiting room will be at Matthew Wilson's 

Upon the announcement that a regiment would be quartered 
here, examination was made, and the woody grove on the eastern ex- 
tremity of Lot No. 1, of the subdivision of Lot No. 1, of Barron's Ke- 
serve, immediately west of the Logan line, and north of Bates 
Street, was selected as the site for the encampment. At once lum- 
ber and other necessary materials were transported thither, and a 
-force of men — as many as could work to advantage — commenced 
■.the work of erecting barracks, etc., with all possible dispatch. The 
quarters being ready about the 1st of October, the full com- 
panies moved in and the grounds were formally dedicated as " Camp 
Logan," being adjacent to the city of Logausport. Capt. Guthrie's 
company was the first to enter into camp on those grounds. The 
next was the company of Capt. Paden, fi-om Camden, Carroll County, 
and the company of Capt. John H. Gould, of Delphi, also from 
Carroll County. The company enrolled by Capt. A. M. Flory was 
the third, which went into camp October 9. 

To show the quality of material of which the occupants of Camp 
Logan was composed, a Sunday-school was organized on Sunday, 
October 6, opened and conducted by and under the management of 
the soldiers themselves, who made common cause in the effort to 
.make the exercises interesting and valuable. A joint committee 


was appointed by the several Siiuday-schools of the city, for tlie 
purpose of raising money to purchase testaments for all the soldiers- 
of the regiment. The movement was soon after fully carried out and 
the books presented. The Sunday-school was kept up during the stay 
of the regime^ here, and religious services conducted, usually by 
our local ministers, every Sunday. Bev. Silas Tucker, of the Bap- 
tist Church, delivered the first sermon in Camp Logan, on Sunday, 
October 13, at 2 o'clock, P. M., which was listened to with marked 
interest by the soldiers themselves and the large number of visitors 

Recruiting continued steadily at the quarters of Capt. T. S. 
Dunn, who used every exertion to fill up his company as fast as pos- 
sible. These recruits were for service in the Twelfth United States 
Infantry. From the commencement to the end of the second week 
in September, he had forwarded to Fort Hamilton the following re- 
cruits: John S. Long, James A. Johnson, Joseph Helvie, Noah 
Helvie, L. R. Helvie, A. J. Helms, AVilliam Ferrell, William Tur- 
ner, George Turner, Ed. Neff, William Harrison, Jacob Brubaker, 
David VanBlaricum, Christ Mathias, Francis McCain, A. J. Kline, 
George H. Bell and George J. Schneider. Twenty additional men 
left here for the same post October 14, making thirty-eight in all. 

The following extract from a letter wi'itten by Capt. William P.. 
Lasselle, of Company K, Ninth Indiana, and bearing date Novem- 
ber 19, 18(31, will be of interest. 

"K has been engaged in as many scouts and skirmishes as 
any other company of the brigade — I believe I may safely say 
twice as many as any other. In fact, some of the men are continually 
annoying the enemy's pickets — firing on them, and receiving theii- 
fire in return. They have troubled me so much asking to go out 
scouting, and insisting on their individual right each to go every 
time we are called upon to furnish oiu' detail of six scouts, that I 
have been compelled to request the General to let me send out men 
whenever I wished to. My men have certainly been more successful 
in their expeditions than others, although when I say this, it is not 
with a desire to detract from the credit of other companies. In the 
second attack after the Green Briar fight (the first attack of that 
fight being made by the whole of K) on the enemy's pickets, in 
which some 250 were engaged, and only ten from K, out of five of 
the enemy killed, two were shot by our boys. 


"About a week since, nine of my company started out under 
the lead of [Dyer B. ] McConnell, to pass behind the enemy's pickets 
and camp, and try to ascertain their number and position. It was an 
expedition of much danger, as it was neccessary to start and travel 
thirteen miles before daylight, cross the Green Briar Bridge in the 
dark to escape the observation of nine of the enemy who were sta- 
tioned to watch the bridge, passing within a few feet of them, 
screened only by the darkness, and woiild then have to go for two or 
three miles, almost within hearing of their pickets and within their 
picket line, most of the time not over 200 yards from large parties 
of the enemy, and in case of discovery they were almost certain to 
be cut oif. 

"The party, consisting of McConnell, Corp. Lewis, Johnson, 
Koberts, Growall, Burton, Byrum, Hearne, Swinney and AVidnear, 
started at 3 o'clock in the morning in high spirits, thinking them- 
selves fortunate in being premitted to undertake the expedition. As 
they were starting they were informed that a party who were out the 
day before, reported two secession companies guarding the road a 
short distance this side the river. This report, which however 
proved to be untrue, caused our party to proceed very cautiously, and 
they were delayed in reaching the bridge until the day was just 
breaking — too late to attempt a crossing. As it would be useless to 
go ahead now, they determined to secrete themselves, and watch. 
They had just got into position when five of the enemy stepped from 
the bushes on the other side of the bridge, not over one hundred 
yards distant, and turned to go into camp. Johnson aud Roberts 
had gone ahead of the party, and were jumping into the road at their 
end of the bridge as the enemy stepped out. One of them looked 
up, and, seeing our boys, brought his gun to a ' ready,' aud made a 
movement as if to step back into the brush, but before he could do 
it Johnson had him ' covered,' when his cap snajjped. Roberts im- 
mediately fired, the secessionist dropped his gun aud fell into the 
bushes. The rest hearing the firing commenced to run, when Bur- 
ton shot one, who fell in the road. Growall, who was sitting on the 
hillside, with his legs crossed, and never moved except his arms to 
bring his piece forward, shot another. This one, when struck, threw 
his gun from him and fell on his face in the road. After laying 
still for a little time he raised himself on his hands aud knees, then 
vi'ith great difficulty staggered to his feet, and, steadying himself for 


a moment, pitched forward into the brush, his feet sticking out. 
Another took to the brush and did not again appear until out of 
range of our rifles. The last of the five kept the road, and had got 
over a quarter of a mile off when McConnell fired at him. All 
supposed he was missed, as so long a time elapsed before the ball 
reached him, but with a shriek he threw his gun from him and fell 
flat on his face. About the same time one of the pickets at a barn 
(some twenty pickets stay at this point, near where the last man 
fell), stepped out and attempted to cross the road, when he was fired 
on by Widnear, who wounded him so severely as to cause him to re- 
turn to the barn, which he reached with much difficulty. After this 
none of them would come out to pick up their men, who lay in the 
road ; nor would they show themselves, except at a point some' dis- 
tance farther off, where they collected to the number of forty or 
fifty, bantering our boys, but not daring to attack them, nor come 
within rifle range. 

" Johnson and Hearne, seeing the body of one of the enemy lying 
in the road pretty close to the bridge, determined to examine it, and 
crossed the bridge for this purpose — a proceeding which brought 
them in fair shot of the enemy's lookouts, who were posted on the 
hill just above, and it also exposed them to the danger of being sur- 
rounded. Before they reached the body, however, our boys on the 
hill commenced hallooing to the enemy, offering to meet them, with 
an equal number, half-way, which the two in advance mistook for a 
signal of danger and warning to return, and they came back with- 
out accomplishing their object. 

" The party remained for two or three hours in sight of the en- 
emy before they returned to camp. Eoberts and Johnson captured 
a lieutenant of cavalry and a dragoon, with horses and equipments, 
a day or two since." 

A meeting of citizens was held at the court house on the 10th of 
December, at which it was resolved to present a flag to the Forty- 
sixth Eegiment, and the committee appointed to make the arrange- 
ments, after consulting the proper oflicers, decided that the presen- 
tation would take place at Camp Logan, on the parade ground, on 
Thursday, the 12th, at 8 :30 o'clock, as it was expected the regiment 
woxikl leave here for Indianapolis at 9 o'clock. The proposition 
to present a flag to the regiment met a willing response from our 
citizens, who justly felt a deep interest in the regiment and cordial- 


ly united in procviriug so appropriate a token of their confidence 
and esteem. 

At that time the soldiers in Camp Logan had been fully sup- 
plied with overcoats, in the place of those that had before been re- 
turned to the quartermaster's department as unfit for use. Blank- 
ets were also distributed. In fact all the necessary equipments had 
been provided. After the drill service had been performed on the 
■4th, the regiment marched throiigh the streets of the city, exhibit- 
ing their skill in the exercise of war-like evolutions. 

" The Forty-sixth is spoken of by all as a fine body of men, and 
in efiioiency will compare favorably with any regiment raised in 
the State. The soldiers have made great improvement in disci^ 
pline and soldierly bearing within the past few weeks. Composed, 
as the regiment is, of companies recruited within thirty miles of 
this place, deep interest is felt in its movements, and hence we re- 
gret that the notice was not longer before the time of its departure. 
As it is, thousands of citizens of Cass and the adjoining counties 
will come in to see their sous, brothers, husbands and fathers de- 
part to discharge the first duty which a patriot owes to his country. 
The regiment will leave for Indianapolis on a special train at 9 
o'clock on Thursday morning [December 12] byway of Lafayette." 

At the meeting above referred to for the purpose of taking 
measures to purchase and j^resent a flag to the regiment, Messrs. S. 
A. Hall, C. B. Lasselle, S. L. McFadin, N. D. Grover and Isaac 
Bartlett were appointed a special committee to make suitable ar- 
rangements for the presentation of the flag. 

Depariure of ihe Forfij-sixfh Regimcni. — "Thursday [De- 
cember 12, 18G1 J, the day appointed for the Forty-sixth Regiment to 
march for the seat of war in Kentucky, was one of the most de- 
lightful of the numerous pleasant days which have been enjoyed by 
our citizens. Not a cloud obscured the sky, and the clear, bracing 
air was invigorating to all. 

" The news of the departure of the gallant volunteers had not 
been conveyed as widely as could have been wished, yet several 
thousands of the people of town and country gathered to see a 
sight gratifying to every patriotic heart. The appearance of the 
men and ofiicers, as they answered the roll-call and took the oath to 
stand by the Constitution and the Union, gave the assurance that 
the Forty-sixth Regiment would fully sustain the confidence re- 


pceed in it by friends and relatiyes of the volunteers who composed 

" Drawn up on the fine parade grounds in front of Camp Logan, 
something like three hours were occupied in preparing to march. 
The scene was one of deep interest to the sjjectators, as was testified 
by the large number of persons who, during the hours which inter- 
vened fi-om 8 to 11 o'clock, and on the march from the camp to 
the Wabash Valley Depot, watched every movement and attended 
every step of the regiment. 

" The troops looked well in their uniforms, accoutrements and 
arms, and their soldierly bearing and ready and intelligent obedience 
to orders, indicated their rapid and satisfactory progress in the 
manual of arms. 

" The oath was administered to the soldiers by companies, and 
at the conclusion, all the commissioned officers advanced to the 
front and center, where the oath was administered by Lieut. Phelps 
of the regular army, and the commissions of the company oflicers 
d elivered to them. 

" The march of the regiment was through a vast concourse of 
people, which increased in numbers as it approached the depot, 
where it was variously estimated at from 4,000 to 7,000. 

" Owing to an unfortunate delay, the flag purchased in Cincin- 
nati for the regiment did not arrive till about the time the regiment 
reached the depot, and hence, the arrangements for its presentation 
at the camp were frustrated, and the singing of National songs by 
the Logan Glee Club omitted altogether. The flag was a hand- 
some one made of silk, with '46th Reg. of Ind. Vols.' marked with 
silver cloth on the center stripe, and the whole displayed on a flag- 
staff ten feet long, handsomely ornamented. The flag was pre- 
sented at the depot by C. B. Lasselle, Esq., and was accepted in be- 
half of the regiment by Col. Fitch." The speech and response are 
as follows: 

" Col. Fitch, Genilemen, and Soldiers of the Foriy-sixth Regi- 
ment: — Your fellow-citizens of Cass County, as the highest testi- 
monial they can give of the esteem which they bear you, and as a 
token of the anticipations they entertain of your future good conduct 
in the field to which you are called, have procured, and now present 
to you this National banner of our Union. In saying this much, we 
have said all, perhaps, that is necessary to be said ; yet, we feel that 


we woiild commune still further with you, did our time permit ; but 
it does not. Permit us to add, however, that we present you this 
ilag with full confidence that its glories will not be tarnished, nor 
oiir confidence disappointed, while it remains in your hands. 

"It is not necessary or proper on this occasion that we should 
refer to the caiises or nature of the present iiufortunate war. "We 
will only say, let those causes be what they may, its termination 
successful or unsuccessful, or whatever shall be the judgment of 
posterity ujion those who may have contributed to its existence, we 
can assure you that upon the faithful performance of your duty 
under the Government you will receive — as brave and generous men 
always receive — the approbation of your country. 

"I need not tell you that we expect much of you, whether in the 
enemy's presence or in the enemy's country. We know the officers 
in command to be brave, skillful and humane, and we are fully sat- 
isfied of the courage, promptitude and obedience of those in the 
ranks. While in the enemy's country we shall look for no act of 
depredation or insult to private property or personal feelings that 
would be unworthy of you. Should it be your fortune, as it prob- 
ably soon will be, to meet the enemy upon the battle-field, we shall 
hope that the fame of Indiana, as yet unsullied in this strife, will 
be fully sustained by the gallantry of the Forty-sixth. 

" Then take this flag, with our affections, oiir regrets and our 
hopes. Our prayer is that you may soon return with it in prosper- 
ity and honor ; but we enjoin you, if you accept it, to return it with 
honor, or retui-n it not at all." 

Eeply of Col. Fitch: 

•' 3Ir. Lasselle: We thank you, and through you the citizens of 
Cass County, for the flag which you have done us the honor to present 
to us. We accept it with gratitude ; and we will treasure it as a me- 
mento of their kindness at all times, and wherever it may be our for- 
tune to be jilaced. As to the high anticipations you may have formed 
of our future good conduct in the field, I will only say that oui- acts 
shall speak for themselves, but I trust they shall not prove false to 
your hopes ; and when we return, should we return at all, I promise 
you that we will do so with this flag above us, or we shall return 
with it around us. I accept it in the name of the regiment, and now 
place it in the keeping of the color-guard, who will bear it aloft be- 
fore us, reminding us of the kind hearts left behind us, and guiding 
us upon the path of honor and duty.' 


" At 12 o'clock the special train moved off for Lafayette, amid the 
cheers of soldiers and citizens, followed by earnest prayers for their 
protection from the dangers of the battle-field and the camp, and 
a safe return to their homes. The train stopped a short time 
at Delphi, where a large audience greeted the men with a glad wel- 
come. At Lafayette the regiment marched through the streets, 
escorted by the Fortieth Eegiment, under Col. Blake." 

The Forty-sixth Regiment reached Indianapolis safely, where 
it remained until Saturday, December 14, when it left for Kentucky, 
stopping at Camp Wickliffe, at which place it went into camp, march- 
ing thence, on the 16th of February, 1862, to the mouth of Salt 
Eiver, but afterward to Paducah. From that time forward it was 
almost continually in active service. 

The following is the composition of the Forty-sixth Eegiment, 
so far as the companies, in whole or in part, were citizens of Cass 
County: Colonel, Graham N. Fitch; lieutenant-colonel, Newton G. 
Scott ; major, Thomas H. Bringhurst ; adjutant, Richard P. DeHart ; 
quartermaster, David D. Dykeman; surgeon, Horace Coleman; 
chaplain, Eobert Erwin; drum-major, James M. Vigus; fife-major, 
Alfred U. McAlister; bass drummer, William S. Eichardson. 

Company B — Captain, Aaron M. Flory; first lieutenant, John 
Castle; second lieutenant, John Arnout; first sergeant, Matthew K. 
Graham; sergeants, Franklin Swigart, Isaac Castle, E. B. Forgy, 
John W. Tippett; corporals, Theodore B. Forgy, Austin Adair, 
Eobert I. Bryer, Thomas Castle, Loren O. Stevens, Thomas Jame- 
son, John E. Cunningham, Johnson M. Eeed; drummer, Jay M. 
Eichardson ; teamster, George W. Cronk ; privates, William Bell, 
Asa J. Black, James Black, Charles F. Bellington, Henry Brown. 
George Bruington, John W. Castle, Harrison Caller, Samuel S. Cus- 
ter, James Cumpton, Benjamin Carmine, George P. Dale, William 
Davis, George M. Doane, James C. Dill, J. W. Dague, Abraham 
Ellis, Dickenson Forgy, George W. Forgy, John D. Forgy, John 
Fox, Samuel Fox, James W. Gordon, William Guard, William H. 
Grant, Isaac Grant, John Horrell, William Hart, Samuel Hauey, 
Amos Hart, Jesse Hulce, William P. Horney, Hezekiah Ingham, 
John J. Jameson, Samuel L. Jump, William B. Kerns, Levi Lynch, 
Reese D. Laird, George Lowbrick, Adams McMillen, George Mc- 
Carty, William E. Morse, Peter Mice, Stephen Mellinger, Henry 
Martin, Albert Michael, Marcellus H. Nash, Augustine W. Nash, 


George W. Oden, John N. Oliver, William Pfoutz, Frank Pfoutz, 
Samuel N. Pennell, Philip Pierson, Joseph Redd, Charles Reeder, 
William A. Rodgers, Theophilus Rodgers, Chancey Rodgers, George 
Ranee, Abraham Rutt, Joseph Roberts, Samuel Stuart, Thomas Stu- 
art, John T. Shields, Joshua P. Shields, Joseph Specia, Nicholas S. 
Smith, Samuel Tipton; William F. Thomas, Aurelius J. Voorheis, 
Manlius Voorheis, Isaac J. Winters, Michael Welsh. Warren Wag- 
oner, Robert S. Whittaker. 

Company D — Captain, John Guthrie; first lieutenant, Will- 
iam M. DeHart; second lieutenant, Charles A. Brownlee; first 
sergeant, Alex K. Ewing; sergeants, Le Roy J. Anderson, Jordan 
R. Tyner, Andrew J. Little, Jamas A. Pepper; corporals, John 
B. Stephen, Elijah J. Hunt, Ambrose Updegraff, John P. Lim- 
ing, William La Qaere, William H. Crocket, Robert Beruethy. 
Cornelias B. Woodruff; drummer, T. W. Keudrick; teamster, 
James Williams. Privates, Thomas J. Bell, Martin V. Blue, Mich- 
ael J. Blue, David Bruminee, Joseph F. W. Boon, Josiah Budd, 
John Butler, George Baer, Moses M. Crocket, Patrick Clifford, 
Samuel W. Cree, William Cornell, James W. Cloud, Jacob Crip- 
liver, Geo. A. Casssll, Downham, Patrick Dougherty, George E. 
Dodd, Joseph Dickey, David Dickey, Joseph H. Dobbins, Thomas De 
Ford, Terry Dunn, Anthony A. Eskew, Nicholas Gransinger, James 
Gardener, William H. Garey, Adam Hiukle, A. B. Herman. Ed- 
ward Hatfield, Jacob Hitchens, Alfred Hitchens, Samuel L. Ireland, 
Julius W. Jackson, Noah Jones, David Jones, Daniel O'Keefe, 
William W. Loudermilk, Andrew J. Loveugire, Thomas J. Lynch, 
Michael Murray, John McTaggart, Peter McDermot, Patrick Mc- 
Gloin, Wright L. Nield, George Nield, William Niles, Samuel Per- 
kins, Henry W. Powell, Thomas Robinson, Joseph H. Smith, George 
See, Andrew Stover, William H. Small, John Shea, Daniel W. Sam- 
uels, Perry Springstead, Robert Shaw, Lemuel H. Tam, James To- 
len, Andrew J. AVoods, William Woods, Nicholas Welsh, Joseph 
Williams, Porter A. AVhite, Benjamin Warfield. John Williamson. 

Company I — Captain, James H. Thomas ; first lieutenant, J. W. 
Frank Liston; second lieutenant, Napoleon B. Boothe; sergeant, 
Hampton C. Boothe; corporals, Frederick Fitch, Israel Washburn, 
Robert McElheny, John Douglass. "Privates, Thomas Burton, Will- 
iam A. Custer, Walter Dunkel, Henry Fishbaugh, William Fallis, 
John Grass, William Hancock, Jacob Hudlow, John Humbard, Van 


Buren Julian, A. Johnson, Solomon Kline, Jeff Kistler, John Krel- 
ler, William Keefe, John May, Henry Myers, C. D. Mellinger, 
William Myers, John Means, William Oliver, John Persinger, 
George Porter, James Parish, S. M. Surface, John Stiver, William 
Spader, Charles Seagraves, James Todd, Valentine Todd, Samuel 
Todd, W. J. Walters, J. W. Walters, Dennis Whitmore, John A. 
Warfiekl, Eli Washbui-n, Taylor Wilson. 

Company C — Capt. Schermerhorn, Thornton A. Burley, George 
Collins, Benjamin B. Chilcott. 

Company F — Capt. Howell, David Connell, Samuel Grable, 
Corrigan Lawrence, James S. Tripp, Albert W. Tripp, Michael 
Traffe, Josep Willis. 

Company E — Capt. Spencer, P. H. Burk, Frank M. Davis, 
George W. dinger, Ed C. Means, James McCombs, George W. 
Murray, Nathaniel Nichols, F. M. St. Clair, Moses W. Tucker, John 
R. Waterbury, Eoselle Young, Marion M. Young. 

Company H — Capt. Sill, Ed B. Coulson, Ei chard W. Palmer. 

An extract from a letter written by Dan H. Bennett, of the 
Ninth Indiana, bearing date April 9, 1862, gives a brief statement 
of the part taken by the companies from this county in the battle of 
Pittsburgh Landing: 

" I have just returned this evening from the field of the hardest 
fought battle known to our history. As to the advance by the enemy 
and our victory, you have been apprised, no doubt, ere this, by tele- 
graph, and were I to attempt a description I would fall short of do- 
ing justice to the subject. The number of dead and wounded on 
both sides was terrible. The fight raged with indomitable fury over 
seven miles square, as that was the length of our color lines, and 
the enemy were driven by inches, as it were, for that distance. 

"It is truly an appalling and heart-rending spectacle to pass 
over the field and witness the scenes connected with it. Dead and 
wounded strewn in every direction, and those in the last throes of 
death, appealing for aid, and no one to render them any assistance, 
and in consequence they were compelled to surrender up their ex- 
istence without the aid of a physician. 

"Cass County boys were in the heat of the fight all day on 
Monday, yet they escaped remarkably. Below I give the names of 
the killed and wounded: Capt. Lasselle's Company K, of the Ninth 
— Killed, Cathcart (initials not known) ; badly wounded, Lieut. 


Joseph S. Tui-ner, M. P. Hearne, S. Hauua, S. Kendall, G. W. 
Langston, William L. McConnell, George Campbell ; slightly wound- 
ed, Newton Victor, J. Rhonamus. 

"Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company E — Badly wounded, J. M. 
Bennett, Tyre Douglass, S. Bishop, J. Chesnut, D. Callahan, Ben- 
son Enyart, Henry Pownell, J. W. Green; slightly wounded, M. 
Mitchell, George Myers. 

"The entire loss of the Ninth Indiana, as I learned from Capt. 
Cole, acting adjutant, is 25 killed, 150 wounded, 10 missing. They 
lost their adjutant, one captain, killed and several officers wounded, 
among whom is Capt. Copp, the fighting preacher from Michigan 

All accounts agree that the Ninth and Twenty-ninth Regiments 
performed their whole duty at Pittsburgh Landing. The Twenty- 
ninth, in that engagement, was commanded by Lieut. -Col. David M. 
Dunn. During the battle, Capt. W. P. Lasselle acted as major of 
the Ninth, and the command of Company K devolved upon Lieut. 
Turner, who was shot through the kidneys, and died at Mound City 
Hospital, Illinois, on April 16, following. His remains were 
brought to this city on Saturday morning, April 19, by Patrick C. 
Johnson, of this city, a boy aged fourteen years, who was with Lieut. 
Turner at the battle of Pittsburgh Landing, attended him during 
his illness, and was with him when he breathed his last in the hos- 
pital, the boy nobly doing all he could to make comfortable his dy- 
ing hours. The body was taken to the residence of W. T. S. Manly, 
where it lay until Sunday, when the funeral services and interment 
took place. The services were conducted by Eev. Silas Tucker and 
Rev. W. J. Vigus, at the Methodist Church. 

"The corpse was buried with military honors. Capt. Chase 
(under whom Lieut. Turner served in the three-months' service) 
commanded the military escort, and the bier was followed by many 
of the returned volunteers who knew the deceased in Virginia, and 
knew him only to love and respect him. It was the most numer- 
ously attended of any funeral ever witnessed in this city, showing 
how properly our citizens appreciate the services of those who lay 
down their lives in the defense of the Union and the Constitution. 
As the farewell salute was fired over the grave of the departed 
many a tear was dropped to the memory of one who was respected 
by all who knew him, and whose bravery at Alleghany Mountain 


and Pittsburgh Landing won tbe admiration of his associates in 

" In 1859, he joined the Cecil Greys of this place, and after 
their disbandment he became orderly sergeant of the Zouaves. He 
always stood high in both companies as an able soldier and gentle- 
man, and was particularly noticeable for his modest and unassuming 
conduct. At the breaking out of the war in 1861, he accompanied 
the Zouaves to the field as second sergeant, and won the regard of 
his immediate commander and all the men. On the reorganization 
of the ' Bloody Ninth' he again enlisted in Company K, and was 
unanimously elected fii-st lieutenant, which post he held at 
the time he received his fatal wound at Pittsburgh Lauding. He 
was in command of a party of skirmishers, and was leading them 
coolly and gallantly forward when he fell. His last command was, 
'Keep cool, and take good aim!' " 

During the engagement at Pittsburgh Landing Lieut. Palmer 
Dunn was struck on the sword belt by a riile ball, but it glanced 
and did not injure him. 

A volunteer company for ninety days, under the call of Gov. 
Morton, was organized here May 29, 1862, at the Tipton Engine 
House, by the election of the following commissioned officers: Cap- 
tain, Carter L. Vigus; first lieutenant, Frank Rust; second lieuten- 
ant, John T. Powell. The service of the company was to guard 
the prisoners at Camp Morton, the regiment which before per- 
formed that service having been sent into the field. The company 
left for Indianapolis on the Chicago & Cincinnati Railroad, at 12 
o'clock, Saturday, May 31. 

Under a call issued by the Governor for three months, Capt. 
James W. Dunn, under a commission dated July 18, 1862, went 
into camp at Indianapolis the following day, with a full company of 
101 men, with the following subordinate commissioned officers: 
Amos W. Mobley, first lieutenant, and John G. Meek, second lieu- 
tenant. They were mustered into the service on the 21st, as Com- 
pany H, of the Fifty-fifth Indiana Regiment. 

Two additional companies from Cass County, the number neces- 
sary to make Seventy -fifth Regiment complete, were mustered into 
service August 16, 1862, as Company G; William L. McConnell, 
captain; Joseph A. Westlake, first lieutenant, and Robert J. 
Connolly, second lieutenant. Company H, Peter Doyle, captain; 


Daniel H. MiUl, first lieutenant, and Andrew M. Callahan, second 

A company of cavalry, with Benjamin O. Wilkinson as captain, 
Arthur M. Buell, first lieutenant, and Perry B. Bowser, second lieu- 
tenant, from Cass County, was mustered into service in the Ninetieth 
Eegiment (Fifth Cavalry) September 3, 1862. 

At a meeting of the citizens of Cass County, held at the court 
house in Logausport, on Saturday, June 20, 1863, the flag of the 
Forty-sixth Regiment, presented by the citizens of Logansport on 
the morning of its departure for Indianapolis, which had been 
brought home by Lieut. A. K. Ewing, was returned by that officer 
to the citizens there assembled. Upon returning that battle-rent 
emblem to its original donors, Lieut. E. made a brief address con- 
cerning its history in the brilliant career of the regiment, and con- 
cluded by reading the following letter from Col. Bringhurst: 

Near Vicksburq, Miss., June 1, 1863. 
To the Citizens of Logansport: 

The flag presented by you to the Forty-sixth Indiana Regiment, on its de- 
parture from Logansport, has become too nearly worn out to be of further use upon 
the field. On behalf of the members of the regiment, I return it the donors without 
stain or blemish, except that caused by exposure or from the balls of the enemy. 

Your flag has cheered the regiment in the fatiguing marches, the privations and 
hardships and the battles of eighteen months. It has been borne before the enemy 
in six States. The pages of the Rebellion's history which speak of New Madrid, 
Riddle's Point, Fort Pillow, Memphis, St. Charles, Coldwater, Tallahatchie, Grand 
Gulf, Port Gibson, Champion Hills and Vicksburg, will make honorable mention 
of the regiment that carried your flag at those places, and of the earnestness with 
which its members sought to discharge the obligation they assumed in accept- 
ing it. 

Very many of those who stood by at the presentation of this flag have fallen in 
in battle or from disease. The remainder assure you that they are still devoted to 
the Union, the Flag and the great interests it represents. 

T. H. Bringhurst, 
Colonel Forty-sixth\Indiana Volunteers. 
Rev. Mr. Irwin, of the Old School Presbyterian Church in the 
city, having been previously selected to make the reception speech 
on the occasion, addressed the meeting ; and, at the conclusion, Rev. 
J. Colclazer, pastor of the Methodist Church, was called out. The 
addresses were characteristic of these gentlemen, and the sentiments 
expressed were in consonance with those of the audience. Capt. 
John Gathrie, Col. B. H. Smith and Lieut. A. K. Ewing were ap- 
points! a committee, with instructions to have the names of the 
battles in which the Forty-sixth had been engaged placed upon the 

,'«:!^ ^- 



flag, which should then be deposited iu the State Library, at Indian- 

On July 10, 1863, a call by Gov. Morton for volunteers to 
repel the invasion of Indiana by John Morgan's band of cavalry 
was received here, in response to which an impromptu meeting was 
held at the northeast corner of Broadway and Fourth Streets, and 
organized by the appointment of Hon. D. D. Pratt, chairman, and 
S. L. McFadin, secretary. After a speech by Mi". Pratt, the meet- 
ing was adjourned to the court house. The scene there was most 
exciting, as name after name of our most prominent citizens and 
business men were added to the list of infantry and cavalry volun- 
teers. During the day the work of enlistment went on in the city 
most vigorously, and by night more than I-IO names were on the 
infantry list and about thirty on the roll of cavalry. Among our 
citizens who volunteered were D. D. Pratt, S. L. McFadin, J. A. 
Taylor, G. N. Fitch, E. Walker, L. Chamberlin, C. B. Lasselle, W. 
G. Nash, D. W. Tomlinson, N. S. LaRose, W. L. McConnell, and 
many others. In the meantime, a committee, consisting of William- 
son Wright, D. W. Tomlinson, S. A. Hall, Job B. Eldridge, Lyman 
E. Legg and I. N. Cory, was appointed to visit the outer townships, 
and calling upon the people to rally them in force to repel the in- 
vaders of our soil. 

At night the meeting in the court house was very numerously 
attended, and the utmost enthusiasm prevailed. A company of in- 
fantry was then and there organized by the election of John Guth- 
rie, captain; S. L. McFadin, first lieutenant; and John T. Powell, 
second lieutenant. A calvary company was also organized, and 
placed under command of Col. Fitch. At 2 o'clock in the afternoon 
of the next day (Saturday, 11th) the infantry company left on the 
Cincinnati & Chicago Railroad for Indianapolis, and were joined on 
the cars by volunteers from Boone, Tipton- and Jackson Townships. 
The cavalry company left in the morning of the same day, at 7 
o'clock, by way of the Michigan Road, and reached Indianapolis at 
9 o'clock, P. M. — a rapid march. All these were mustered in as 
members of the One Hundred and Tenth Regiment minute men, of 
which G. N. Fitch was made colonel, and James M. Justice, quar- 
termaster. The prompt movement of the people of the State to re- 
pel the invader was so demonstrative that he beat a hasty retreat 
from our borders, and no further occasion existing for the service 


of these minute men, they were disbanded and mustered out, after 
a military experience of five days. 

On Wednesday afternoon, January 13, ISGi, a dispatch was re- 
ceived from Indianapolis, to the effect that Col. David M. Dunn, of 
the Twenty-ninth Regiment, with such of his men as had re-enlisted 
from this county, would reach here on the 5 o'clock Cincinnati 
train. Arrangements were immediately made to welcome them in 
an appropriate manner. Accordingly, on the approach of the train, 
the soldiers were greeted with cheers and the best strains of Wach- 
ter's band, A procession was formed, the band leading, the sol- 
diers next, and citizens following, and proceeded to the Barnett 
House, where Maj. McFadin, in a brief speech, extended a cordial 
welcome, in behalf of the city, to the gallant men who had displayed 
their heroism upon so many battle-fields. At the request of Thom- 
as H. Wilson, Esq., Maj. McFadin then announced to the soldiers 
that a bountiful supper had been prepared for them, and that lodg- 
ing and breakfast would be furnished them free of expense ; after 
which Dr. Justice spoke for a few minutes, when Col. Dunn was 
called out, and briefly thanked the citizens who honored his brave 
and tried soldiers with so cordial and gratifying a welcome. Three 
cheers were then given for Col. Dunn, when the soldiers proceeded 
to the dining-room of the Barnett House, where a bountiful supper 
of oysters, etc., had been provided, and partook of a sumptuous 
meal. Everybody felt that it was not only a duty, but a pleasure to 
thus honor the brave. 

On the evening of February 10, a complimentary supper was 
given to the soldiers of the Ninth and Twenty-ninth Eegiments. at 
home on furloiigh, previous to their departure again for the seat of 
war. The supper was an elaborate expression of our people as to 
their confidence in the brave boys who, having previously periled 
their lives in our country's cause, were again about to leave us. to 
complete the work so faithfully prosecuted. 

Early in February, 1864, Comijany K, of the Ninth Indiana, 
while here, made arrangements for the erection of a fine monument 
as a fitting tribute to the memory of Lieut. Joseph S. Turner, of 
this company, who died of a wound received in the battle of Shiloh. 
The company selected a beautiful lot in Mount Hope Cemetery, and 
before their departure had the ground cleared off preparatory to lay- 
ing the foundation stones and completing the elegant memorial. 


Friday, March 23, at noou, the members of Capt. Gifford's cav- 
ahy residing in this county, reached home from Chicago. They 
were escorted by the Logan Brass Band and a multitude of our cit- 
izens, to the Barnett House, where they were welcomed, on behalf 
of the people of the county, by Judge Dykeman, in an excellent and 
appropriate address, after which they partook of an ample meal es- 
pecially prepared for them. 

Very few of the men composing this company, who left here two 
years before under the command of Capt. Gifford, remained in the 
service and were present at the reorganization of the regiment in 
Chicago. Among those who returned was Spencer T. Weirick, of 
this city, who was first lieutenant of the company up to the time of 
the reorganization, and then he was the unanimous choice of the 
company for captain — a high testimonial of the esteem entertained 
by the company with whom he had been on duty during the long 
and arduous service of the cavalry in Missouri, Arkansas, Tennessee 
and in other States. 

On Thursday, June 23, the members of the Forty-sixth Regi- 
ment, enlisted in this county, returned on veteran furlough, and were 
greeted with a hearty welcome by our citizens. "The regiment 
arrived at 4 o'clock P. M., on the Cincinnati train, and forming 
near the Wabash Valley Depot, under command of Col. Bringhurst, 
marched down the railroad to Fourth Street; thence to Market, up 
Market to Seventh; thence to Broadway, down Broadway to Fourth, 
and thence to the court house." At the court house Judge Biddle 
delivered the welcoming address, which was a brief but compli- 
mentary review of the gallant service rendered by the regiment. 

After the expiration of their furlough the regiment returned to 
duty, and remained in the field subject to call, until it was finally 
mustered out of service on the 4th of September, 1865. 

From time to time, according to the demands of the situation, 
Cass County continued to furnish the quota of men, under the sub- 
sequent calls of the President, until the close of the war. In the 
fall of 1864 and the spring of 1865, however, enrollments for drafts 
being ordered, the quotas were filled without resort to the draft in 
some townships, but in others it was enforced to a limited extent 
only. The total number of men furnished by Cass County under 
the several calls is scarcely obtainable, nor, indeed, is it necessary, 
since the county was always prompt in meeting the demand for 


troops, and by bounty and otherwise has not failed in whatever the 
country required of her in the bloody struggle to maintain the 
supremacy of the laws. 

In the brief review of our war experience it has been the aim of 
the writer, not so much to prepare a complete history of military 
movements in the county, as to collate the leading, living facts per- 
iinent thereto. In this effort, no doubt, many incidents may have 
been omitted which otherv^-ise would have been inserted, but alto- 
gether it is believed to be essentially correct, as gleaned from the 
local papers of the period. As a conclusion, the following abstract 
of relief funds and bounties will be found of interest: For bounties, 
the county at large paid, $127,825, and the townships an aggregate 
of $101,579, in all $229,404 

For the relief of soldiers' families the county paid the sum 
of $50,105.80, while the townships paid $32,519.13; total for 
relief, $82,624.93. For miscellaneous purposes, $3,379. Total 
expenses paid, $315,407.93. 

Loganspori Post, No. 14, of the G. A. E., wa,s organized in 
Logansport on February 26, 1880, under a charter bearing the 
same date, with the following original members: Thomas C. Haire, 
Thomas H. McKee, James C. Chidester, D. Lainge, J. T. Powell, 

D. H. Mull, J. Y. Ballon, Frank Swigart, John W. Griggs, Alex. 
Hardy, J. W. F. Liston, D. B. McConnell, B. B. Powell, Samuel D. 
Meek, George P. McKee, Harvey H. Miller, E. E. Carson, O. B. 
;Sargent, John E. Moore, D. L. Bender, Chas. E. Hale, W. F. Hen- 
sley, John Higley, Fred. Fitch, John Stanford, Joseph E. McNary, 
J. L. Herand, John E. Griggs, John H. Cole, Wm. M. DeHait, 
M. E. Griswold, Jasper A. Paugh, Henry Tucker, T. H. Bringhurst, 
Chas. H. Barron, J. A. Mowi-ey, L. H. Daggett, T. H. Ijams, W. 
H. H. Ward, George K. Marshall, A. W. Stevens, A. Miller, Joseph 

E. Hays, James W. Lesh, W. Dunn, S. A. Vaughn, A. H. Landes, 
A. McChord, W. A. Bigler, Sol. Smith, James Brosier, F. E. West, 
John Goring, Peter Keller, James H. Vigus, Oliver J. Stauffer. 

The first officers were Joseph G. Barron, Commander; Joseph 
Y. Ballon, S. V. C. ; John T. Powell, J. V. C. ; O. B. Sargent, Q. 
M. ; Thos. H. McKee, Chap. ; Thomas C. Haire, O. D. ; George B. 
McKee, O. G. ; Frank E. West, afterward Adjt. 

The present officers are D. B. McConnell, Commander; John C. 
Nelson, S. V. C. ; George A. Linton, J. Y. C. ; Eev. E. S. Scott, 


Chap. ; A. Coleman, Surg. ; O. B. Sargent, Q. M. ; John B. Winters, 
0. D. ; Thos. J. DeWees, O. G. ; H. C. Hammontree, Adjt. ; Jacob 
M. Barron, Serj. Maj. ; Jasper A. Paugb, Q. M. Serj. 
The number of members is 208. 

CASS county's dead in the war of the rebellion. 


First Lieut. Joseph S. Turner, died of wounds at Sbiloh, Tenu., Apr. 1863; woundei 

Apr. 2, 1863. 
Corp. Norris S. Davis, died at New Albany July 3, 1863. 
Wagoner James R. Bevan, died, veteran, wounded at Marietta. 
Addington, Lewis A., died Fetterman, Va., Feb. 17, 1863. 
Bechdol, William H., died at Terre Haute, Ind.. June, 1863. 
Bechdol, Matthias B., died at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 36, 1862. 
Boring, Thomas W., died. 

Brown, Elias A., died at EvansviUe, lud., Nov. 30, 1863. 
Etnier, George, died at Bowling Green, Ky., Oct. 19. 1863. 
Grant, Daniel A., died at Nashville, Tenn., Mar. 6, 1863. 
Growal, George W., died at Logausport, Ind. 
Hall, Daniel O., killed at Battle of Stone River, Dec. 31, 1863. 
Hilton, John C, died of wounds received at Stone River (at home). 
Hoover, John K., died at Nashville, Tenu., April, 1863. 
James, Benjamin A., died at home. 

Kendall, Samuel P., died in St. Louis of wounds received at Shiloh. 
Lambert, Francis, died at Fetterman, Va., Feb. 13, 1863. 
Little, John W., died at Corinth, Miss., Aug. 13, 1863. . 
Rench, Lewis, died at EvansviUe, Ind., Nov. 3, 1863. 

Rhonemus, Jacob, died at EvansviUe, Ind., of wounds received at Shiloh, Apr., 1863. 
Shaw, Isaac N., died at Fetterman, Va., Feb. 18, 1863. 
Sweeney, Daniel, died at home. 
Swinney, Samuel L., died at home. 

Victor, Newton A., died at EvansviUe, Ind., Aug. 10, 1863, 
•Widener, David, died at Cheat Mountain, wounds received at Buffalo Mountain 

Jan. 5, 1863. 
Willis, William, yiled at Stone River .Dec. 31, 1862. 
Billiard, William, killed at Lovejoy Station Sept. 4, 1864. 
Choen, Montgomery, killed at Stone River Dec. 31, 1863. 
Griffin, Calvin L., died of wounds received at Resacca May 14, 1864. 
Kavenaugh, Maurice, died of wounds at Marietta, Ga., July 16, 1864. 


Allen, Ira T., killed. 

Dasch, George W., killed at Chancellorsville. 

Morrisy, Patrick, killed at Gettysburg. 

Hoffman, Matthias, killed at Gettysburg. 

Welch Clay, killed at Fredericksburg Dec. 15, 1863. 


Corp. Joseph M. Bennett, died at EvansviUe of wounds, May 9, 1863. 
Chesnut, Joseph W., killed at Stone River, Dec. 31, 1863. 


Christie, Robert W., died at Nashville, May 15, 1862. 

Calahan, Daniel, died of wounds received at Shiloh, Apr. 12, 1862. 

Grable, Harvey, died at Chattanooga, July 1, 1864. 

Helper, Samuel, liilled in skirmish at Chattanooga, Sept. 19, 1863. 

Morrison. Theodore, killed at Stone River, Dec. 31, 1862. 

McElhany, Samuel, died at Huntsville, Ala., Aug. 27, 1862. 

Pownall, Isaac W., died at Nashville, May 3, 1862. 

Wagner, John W., died at Camp Nevin, KJ^, Nov. 25, 1861. 

Calkins, David H., died at Chattanooga, Apr. 9, 1864.' 

Demoss Andrew, died at Bridgeport, Ala., (drafted) Jan. 6, 1865. 

Elliott, Silas, died at Chattanooga, July 28, 1865. 

Enyart. Oliver B., died at Nashville, July 28, 1864. 

Hamminger, Frederick, died at Nashville, Jan. 30, 1863. 

P<-terson, Joseph M., died (drafted) Nov. 21, 1864. 


Corp. Romulus T. Hale, died at Camp WicklifE, Ky., Jan. 21. 1862. 
Corp. Charles L. Holland, died at Paducah, Ky., Feb. 25, 1862. 
Foy, Cornelius, died at Sikestown, Mov, Mar. 18, 1862. 
Yeakey, John A., died at New Haveu, Ky., Oct. 13, 1862. 


Corp. Robert T. Bryer, died at Helena. Ark., Dec, 18. 1862. 
Jay M. Richardson, Musician, died at Logausport. Ind., July 21, 1864. 
Black, Asa, died Mar. 9, 1862. 
Black, James, died Mar. 10, 1862. 

Davis, Joseph, (vet.) died at New Orleans, La., Dec. 25, 1864. 
Forgy, George W., died at Camp Wickliffe, Ky., Feb. 7, 1862. 
Herrell, John, died at Memphis, Teun., Sept. 18, 1862. 
' Horner, William P., died at New Madrid, Apr. 21, 1862. 
Jump, Samuel L., died at Helena, Ark., Nov. 7, 1862. 
Lynch, Levi, died at New Orleans, La., Dec. 2, 1863. 
McMillen, Adams, died at Memphis. Tenn., July 14, 1862. 
Nash, Augustine, died at St. Louis, Mo., Apr. 30, 1862. 
Pfoutz, William, died May 17, 1863. 
Pearson, Philip, died March 28, 1862. 
Reed, Joseph, died at Louisville, Ky., 1862. 
Rogers, Chauncey, died Sept. 8. 1862. 
Rutt, Abraham, died at Worster, Ohio, June 17, 1862. 
Smith, Nicholas D., died at Vicksburg, Miss., June 24, 1863. 
Whittaker, Robert S., died March 1, 1864. 

Bachelor, And. J., died of wounds at Vicksburg, Miss., June 17, 1863. 
Mumraert, Harrison, died at Lexington, Ky., June 6, 1865. 
See, Elihu, died at Lexington, Ky., Mch. 2, 1865. 


Sergt. James A. Pepper, died at New Madrid, Mo., Apr. 19, 1862. 

Corp. Ambrose Updegraff, drowned in Mississippi River, July 2, 1862. 

Corp. William Laynear, killed at Champion Hills, Miss., May 16, 1863. 

Baer, George, died at Benton, Mo. 

Cripliver, David, killed at Mansfield, La., Apr. 8, 1864. 

Dunham, Nathan, died of wn'ds rec'd at Thompson's Hill. May 20, 1863. 


Dodd, George E., died at Helena, Ark., Oct. 9, 1862. 

GraDsinger, Nicholas, died at Helena, Ark., Nov. 11, 1862. 

Hitcheus, Jacob, died at St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 3, 1862. 

Hitchens, Alfred, killed at Thompson's Hill, Miss., May 1, 1863. 

Jones, Noah, killed at Thompson's Hill, Miss., May 1, 1863. 

Jone.s, David, died at Helena, Ark., Oct. 12, 1862. 

Loudermilk, Wm. W., killed at Thompson's Hill, Miss., May 1, 1863. 

Lynch, Thomas J., died at Milliken's Bend, La., Jan. 10, 1863. 

Perkins, Samuel, died at Mound City, 111., Aug. 30, 1862. 

Powell, Wm. H., died at Helena, Ark., March 11, 1863. 

Shea, John, killed at Algiers, La., Apr. 31, 1864. 

Welsh, Nicholas, killed at Champion Hills, Miss., May 16, 1863. 

Williams, Joseph, died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 2.5, 1861. 

Warfield, Benj., died at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 4, 1862. 

Williamson, John, died at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., Feb. 26, 1863. 

Lumbard, Hiram, died of wounds Apr. 15, 1864. 


Randall, Marion, died at Bardstown, Ky., Jan. 11, 1862. 


Eastwood, Matthias, died May 4. 1862. 

Barr, William, died at New Madrid, Apr., 1862. 

Eastwood, James H., died at Memphis, June 20, 1862. 

Taafe, Michael, killed at Champion Hills, May 16, 1863. 

Tripp, James S., died at Memphis, 1862. 

Tripp, Albert W., died at Memphis, 1862. 


Washburn, Ira C, died at Memphis, Tenn., Oct., 1862. 


Surface, Martin L., Musician, died at Evansville, Ind., June 20, 1863. 

Button, T. G., died of wn'ds rec'd at Champion Hills, May, 16, 1863. 

Humbert, Thomas, killed at Champion Hills, May 16, 1863. 

Hancock, Milton, died of wn'ds rec'd at Vicksburg, July 27, 1863. 

Hunter, Samuel, died at Memphis, Tenn., July 24, 1863. 

Julian, V. J., died at Logansport, May 25, 1862. 

Johnson, Andrew, died at Logansport, May, 1862. ' 

Kistler, Jefferson, killed at Champion Hills, May 16, 1863. 

Mollinger, C. D., killed at Champion Hills, May 16, 1863. 

Oliver, William, killed at Champion Hills, May 16, 1863. 

Parish, J. G., killed in Arkansas, June 38, 1862. 

Stiver, Jonas, died of wn'ds rec'd at Champion Hills, May 29, 1863. 

Todd, James, died at Osceola, Ark., Apr. 15, 1862. 

Walters, J. W. (vet.), died at Royal Center. July 10, 1864. 

Walters, Samuel, died at St. Louis, Mo., Apr. 15, 1862. 

Davis, Henry, died of wn'ds rec'd at Port Gibson,iMay 18, 1863. 

Persinger, Moses C, died at Indianapolis, May 1, 1863. 

Schrader, Pred'k, died at New Orleans, May 7, 1864. 


Serg. William Crooks, died at Nashville, Sept. 18, 1862. 



Corp. Edward Lucas, died at Nashville, Teun., May 12, 1863. 
Corp. Wm. McDonough, died of wounds, Feb. 9, 1863. 
Anderson, John R., died at Glasgow, Ky., Nov. 3, 1863. 
Antrim, James T., died at Gallatin, Tenn., Jan. 5, 1863. 
Bennett, Lewis H., died at Huntsville, Ala., Feb. 24, 1864. 
Binney, Isaac L., killed near Bellepont, Ala., April 25, 1865. 
Boozer, Peter, died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 8, 1863. 
Dangerfield, B. F., killed near Bellepont, Ala., Apr. 25, 1865. 
Davis, AVilliam, died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 11, 1863. 
Dugan, Lewis F., died at Paducah, Ky., May 9, 1863. 
Ertnier, William M., died of wounds, Mar. 23, 1863. 
Gorden, William, died at Bowling Green, Ky., Nov. 23, 1863. 
Hess, Samuel C, died at Silver Springs, Tenn., Nov. 17, 1862. 
Highman, Tilghman M., died at Louisville, Ky., Nov. 1, 1863. 
Johnson, Anthony S., died at Louisville, Ky., Nov. 3, 1862. 
Lawrence, Harrison, died at Quincy, 111., Mar. 13, 1863. 
Miller, Charles E., died at Bowling Green, Ky., Nov. 29, 1862. 
Palmer, John N., died at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 19, 1863. 
Perry, Reuben, died at Logansport, Dec. 7, 1863. 
Poff, William, died at Louisville, Ky., Apr. 30, 1863. 
Powell, Ephraim, killed at Stone River, Dec. 31, 1863. 
Roherberry, Henry G., died at Bowling Green, Ky., Dec. 1, 1862. 
Rouse, John L., died at Annapolis, Md., July 1, 1863. 
Scully, Edward, died at Louisville, Ky. 

Winters John F., died of wounds received at Blount's Farm, Ala. 
Bennett, John L., died at Huntsville, Ala., Apr. 34, 1865. 
Bennett, Thomas J., died at Decatur, Ala., Apr., 1864. 
Cranmore, Gilbert, died at Pulaski, Tenn., Sept. 17, 1864. 

Hassicb, Christian, died in ho.spital, , Ala., June 24, 1864. 

Langton, David W. 


Corp. Ebenezer Harwood, died at Nashville, Dec. 10, 1863. 

Blackburn, Joseph, died at Perryville, Ky., Oct. 13, 1863. 

Burns, Samuel, killed at Stone River, Dec. 31, 1863. 

Chesnut, Samuel, died at Nashville, Dec. 26, 1862. 

Grain, John, died at Gallatin, Tenn., June 13, 1863. 

Fiddler, John H., killed at Stone River, Dec. 31, 1862. 

Foy, Reuben, died at Nashville, Nov. 23, 1862. 

Healey, Abner, died of wounds received at Stone River, Jan. 17, 186! 

Henderson, James, died at Indianapolis, Sept. 4, 1863. 

Howard John, died at Gallatin, Tenn., Jan. 29, 1863. 

Julian, Nathan J., died at Silver Springs, Tenn., Nov. 18, 1863. 

Mehaffle. John, died at Gallatin, Tenn., Jan. 20, 1863. 

Pearson, Joseph, died at Silver Springs, Tenn., Nov. 20, 1862. 

Turflinger, Benj. F., died at Gallatin, Tenn., Fel). 2, 1863. 

Wolfkill, Alfred, died at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 20, 1863. 


Coppick, Derrick M., died at Chattanooga, Tenn., Feb. 14, 1864. 


Standley, William H., died in Andersonville Prison, July 2, 1864. 



Campbell, John, died at Moscow, Tenn., Apr. 14, 1863. 


Sergt. Henry O. Morrell, supposed lost on Sultana, Apr. 37, 1865. 

Carter, Josiali T., died at Chattanooga, Tenn., June 38, 1864. 

Dreen, Abraham, died at Clinton, Ga., Nov. 31, 1864. 

Kemp, Manford, died at Cairo, 111., March 11, 1864. 

Mattox, James N., died at Camp Sherman, Miss., Aug. 19, 1863. 

Wygand, James, died near Atlanta, Ga., July 34, 1864. 


Bernethy, Robert, died at Royal Center, June 39, 1865. 
Cowgill, Jackson, died at Memphis, Tenn., Mar. 35, 1865. 
McKee, Peter, died at Michigan City, Ind., Feb. 6, 1864. 
O'Connell, John, killed near Murfreesboro, Tenn., Dec. 14, 1864. 
Poor, George W., died of wounds, Jan. 30, 1865. 
Spader, William, died at home, Nov. 30, 1864, 


Brown, David, died at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 8, 1864. 

Cassell, George A., died at Portsmouth Grove, R. I., June 33, 1865. 

Deford, Jonas, died at Nashville, Tenn., Apr. 15, 1864. 

Hilton, Henry J., killed at Resacca, Ga., May 16, 1864. 

Hudson, Jarrett, died at Atlanta. Ga., Aug. 8, 1864. 

Morehart, Adam, died atKnoxville, Tenn., Oct. 4, 1864. 

Powers, David W., died at Altoona, Ga., June 15, 1864. 

Tilton, Robert, killed at Dallas, Ga., May 31, 1864. 

Vigus, Horace B., killed near Lost Mountain, Ga., June 2, 1864. 

White, John, died at Michigan City, Ind., Mch. 7, 1864. 


Barber, Charles, died at Nashville, Tenn., April 18, 1864. 
Brooks, Joseph H., died at Logansport, Ind., Mar. 13, 1865. 
Carr, Patrick, died at Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Clary, Francis M., died at Loudon, Tenn., April 11, 1864. 
Vaneman, Ira, died at Chattanooga, Tenn., July 13, 1864. 


Gorgins, Patrick, died at Salisbury, N. C, Feb. H, 1866. 
Griffith, John, died at Nashville, Tenn., April 9, 1864. 
Jeffries, Inman H., died at Marietta, Ga., Aug. 2, 1864. 
Smeltzer, Milton, died at Nashville, Tenn., July 5, 1864. 
Taylor, George W., died at Nashville, Tenn., June 8, 1864. 


Sergt. Dallas F. Young, died at Louisville, Ky., of wounds, Oct. 24, 1864. 
Burley, Marshall P., died at Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 14, 1864. 
Clymer, Henry C, died at Nashville, Tenn., April 6, 1864. 
Creckpaum, Hugh, died at Chattanooga, Tenn., June 26, 1864. 
Daniels, Reuben, died near Atlanta, Ga., Aug. 1, 1864. 
Efflnger, David, died at Michigan City, March 13, 1864. 


Harvej', Jacob, died at Marietta, Ga., Aug. 8, 1864. 

Jones, Robert, died at Burnt Hickor}', Ga., of wounds, June 16, 1864. 

Martin, William H., died at Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 34, 1864. 

See, John J., died at Knoxville, Tenn., July 10, 1864. 

Yeakly, Thomas J., died at Decatur, Ga., Sept. 8, 1864. 


Sergt. John W. Reeder, died at Walton, Ind., Sept. 1, 186.5. 

Corpl. Henry Kirkpatrick, died at Atlanta, Ga., Oct. 25, 1864. 

Baker, Irvin, killed near Centerville, Tenn., by guerrillas, Nov. 37,'.1864. 

House, David, died at Chattanooga, Tenn., Nov. 10, 1864. 

Mauess, Christopher, killed at Centerville, Tenn., by guerrillas, Nov. 27, 1864. 

Thomas, Albert, died at Knoxville, Tenn., July 18, 1864. 


Eichelberger, August, died at Tullahoma, Tenn., Sept. 18, 1864. 


Shannon, James, died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 15, 1865. 


Kemp, Wilkinson, died at Nashville, Tenn., Mar. 1, 1865. 
Kemp, Andrew J., died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 31, 1865. 
Kennedy, James G., died at Nashville, Tenn., April 3, 1865. 


Corp. Calvin P. Carey, died at Nashville, Tenn., July 32, 1865. 

Farrell, Edward, died at Na.shville, Tenn., July 15, 1865. 

St. Clair, Reuben, died at Nashville, Tenn., July 15, 1865. 

Taylor. Edward W., died at Tullahoma, Tenn., Apr. 24, 1865. 

First Lieut. D. C. Weimer, Co. D, Ninth Regiment (three months), died at Logans- 
port, of wounds, Aug. 4. 1861. 

Lieut. -Col. Wm. P. Lasselle, Ninth Regiment (three years), died. 

First Lieut. Joseph S. Turner, Co. K, Ninth Regiment (three years), died of wounds 
received at Shiloh, Tenn., Apr. 16, 1862. 

First Lieut. Madison M. Coulson, Co. K, Ninth Regiment (three years), died. 

Col. William L. Brown, Twentieth Regiment (three years), killed at battle of Ma- 
nassas Plains, Aug. 39, 1863. 

First Lieut. Ed. C. Sutherland, Co. F, Twentieth Regiment (three years), died May 
26, 1864. 

Capt. N. Palmer Dunn, Co. E, Twenty-ninth Regiment (three years), killed at 
Chickamauga, Sept. 19, 1863. 

First Lieut. Matthew K. Graham, Co. B, Forty-sixth Regiment (three years), died 
at Logansport of wounds, Oct. 15, 1862. 

Second Lieut. LorAi C. Stevens, Co. B, Forty-sixth Regiment (three years), died 
of disease, Nov. 19, 1863. 

Second Lieut. Alex. K. Ewing, Co. D, Forty-sixth Regiment (three years), died. 

Second Lieut. Jacob Hudlow, Co. I, Forty-sixth Regiment (three years), killed at 
Sabine Cross Roads, Apr. 8, 1864. 

Capt. James Finnegan, Co. C, Fifty-third Regiment (three months), died. 

Capt. James W. Dunn, Co H, Fifty-third Regiment (three months), died. 

First Lieut. Amos W. Mobley, Co. H, Fifty-third Regiment (three months), died. 


Second Lieut. Alex. Wilson, Co. F, Seventy-third Regiment, drowned. 

Capt. Peter Doyle, Co. H, Seventy-third Regiment, killed at Stone River, Tenn., 

Dec. 31, 1863. 
First Lieut. Seldon P. Stuart. Co. K, Ninety-ninth Regiment, died. 
Asst. Surg. John T. Brown, One Hundred and Twenty-seventh Regiment (Twelfth 

Cavalry), died at Logansport. 
Capt. Benj. O. Wilkinson, Co. F, One Hundred and Twenty-seventh Regiment 

Twelfth Cavalry), died at Logansport. 
Capt. John C. Barnitt, Co. B, One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Regiment, died at 

•Q.-M. Dan. H. Bennett, One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Regiment, died. 
^Second Lieut. John C. Hilton, Co. K, One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Regiment, 
Davis, Charles S, private Co. K, Ninth Regiment (three months), killed by falling 

from a bridge. 
Farquhar, Landon S., private Co. K, Ninth Regiment (three months). 
Capt. James M. Lytle, Co. I, Twentieth Regiment, died at Washington City, D. C, 

of wounds received at the battle of Richmond, June 25, 1863, Aug. 19, 1863. 
Adjt. James M. Pratt. Eleventh Regulars, killed June, 1864. 


by t. b. helm. 

Early Schools axd School Work in the County— Primitive "School- 
Ma.sters" and "Sciiool-Mistres,ses."— and Furni- 
ture.— Edvcational Facilities in logansport; Smithson College 
Hall's Business College, American Normal College— Country 
Schools, Teachers and Facilities— Schoolhouses— School Insti- 
tutes—Progress, etc. 

OEIGINALLY, the country schools were in a condition corre- 
sponding with the idea of school work in back-woods settle- 
ments — without system, except in rare cases, irregular and barren of 
results. While it is true that many of the teachers connected with the 
school system in primitive Cass County were zealous and energetic in 
their iields of labor, much the larger portion of them were selected, 
not because of their known, but of their supposed, qualifications, 
and for the further reason that, during the winter season, when these 
schools were generally in progress, these candidates for pedagogic 
honors had nothing else to do. As a consequence, therefore, the 
schools, in the main, were wholly without system or discipline, and 
allowed to move forward in the channels in which, from force of 
circumstances, they involuntarily drifted. Among teachers no con- 


sultations were bad, and hence no concert of action and few of the ' 
appliances incident to successful work. Black-boards were things J 
unknown; wall-maps were not in use; test-books were few, varied ' 
and unsuitable; houses and seats — for little else was provided — | 
were uniformly inconvenient and generally uncomfortable. In- ! 
deed, when we recall the opportunities and experiences of the past, , 
and what came of them, it is a source of wonder that so many and 1 
such valuable results had been attained; for true it is that, from j 
these same log-cabin country schools, have come many of our most | 
active business men and women. Some of them, possibly many, had j 
enjoyed the privilege of a slight "polish" in a term or two at the • 
" Seminary," but much the larger portion were never so favored. | 
With the meager opportunities enjoyed at home or at the old-time | 
country school, their own native energies made them what they | 
were. j 

At first, for many years, there were, in most districts, only sub- l| 
scription schools, presided over by the lucky " school-masters " and ti 
" school-mistresses " who, by dint of perseverance or special favor, i| 
were delegated as the instructors of youth, advantageous privileges of j 
the free or public school system being then in an undeveloped state, | 
But a change has been wrought, however, by the onward march of 
improvement which has marked the progress of time during the i| 
past third of a century of our local and State history. The average j 
length of a district subscrij^tiou school, before the advent of this I 
new era, was less than sixty days, while the average length of dis- ; 
trict schools, supported by the magnificent tuition fund of the State, ; 
dm-ing the school year of 1883-84, in Cass County, was 155 days. ! 
The character of the schools has improved, also, through the de- • 
veloping modes of our present educational system. Schoolhouses, ; 
school furniture, school-teachers and school discipline have all ad- ; 
vauced in unison, as by a common impiilse. The means whereby | 
these great results have been accomplished are attributable to the | 
county Superintendency to normal schools. State and county, to the i 
work of institutes in the townships and in the county, to a more i 
rigid examination, and higher standard of scholarship and teaching i 
capacity, whence a class of instructors has been brought into the 
field, who were able to accomplish infinitely higher and more ex- i 
cellent results. And, of course, with the change fi'om the pole- 
cabin dwellings, with no windows but a greased paper, or none ex- 


cept a hole between two of the logs next the big fire-place, and with 
only a single door, to the modern residence, costing thousands o£ 
dollars, has come also, yet with less rapidity than we could wish, a 
similar change in the construction and cost of public school edifices. 
Logansport Schools. — The initiatory step toward the develop- 
ment of the excellent school system of this city was taken immedi- 
ately after the first permanent settlement had been made. On the 
10th of April, 1828, the original town plot was surveyed. In May 
and June following, the first residences were constructed of logs, 
cut from the adjacent grounds. Gen. John Tipton, then Indian 
agent, and Col. John B. Duret, his secretary, Maj. Daniel Bell, 
Chauncey Carter, proprietor of the town, Alexander Chamberlain, 
Joseph Barron, Hugh B. McKeen, Gillis McBean and Dr. Hiram 
Todd, were among the first settlers. They were men of energy and 
enterprise, who, seeing and feeling the importance of a judicious 
educational system, upon which society in the future might build, 
began, early in the month of September of that year, to consider 
and adopt the means in their judgment best calculated to accom- 
iplish the end in view. 

I A subscription was raised at once, aggregating nearly $500, of 
(which sum, Gen. Tipton, the prime mover, paid $150. September 
27, 1828, a meeting of citizens was held, when a building commit- 
tee was appointed, and a committee, also, on organization. These 
jcommittees reported, at a subsequent meeting held on the 29th, 
when the organization was perfected, the contract let for the erec- 
jtion of a brick building, 20x40 feet, one-story high, for $300, on a 
lot (No. 55) donated by Mr. Carter. This organization was thence- 
forward known as the "Eel River Seminary Society," and was in- 
l^orporated by that name on the first day of January, 1829. John 
Tipton was the first president. 

I The building was so far completed that a school was opened the 
l&rst week in March, 1829, under the charge of Mr. John McKiuney, 
ithen recently from Detroit, at $100 per quarter, the grades of tui- 
jtion being $3 and $4 per term. Mr. McKinney remained but one 
term. A summer session was not held. The winter session was 
Ifor six months, commencing December 8, 1829, with George Lyon, 
principal, and Mrs. John B. Turner, assistant teacher, on the same 
Iterms and conditions as Mr. McKinney. 
I At a meeting of the board of trustees, June 2, 1830, the school 


year was divided into two sessions of five mouths each, the first, or 
summer session, to commence on the fii-st Monday in June, and the 
second, or winter session, on the first Monday in Decembei\ The 
school was also divided into four classes, the first to consist of those 
studying first principles and orthography; the second, of reading, 
writing and arithmetic; the third, of English grammar and geog- 
raphy; the fourth, of surveying, mathematics and the languages. 
Terms for the stammer session: 

First class, per session, books furnished $3 00 

Second class, per session, books and stationery 5 00 

Third class, per session, books and stationery 6 00 

Fourth class, per session, books and stationery 7 00 

Contingent expenses for winter session 1 00 

Kev. Hiram A. Hunter was employed to take charge of this 
school, as principal, at a salary of §500 per year, and a residence, 
which should be sectu'ed to him at S75 per year. 

Mr. George Lyon was employed for the winter session, of four 
months, at a salary of $120 per term. The summer session of 1831 
was under the management of Selby Harney. 

In April, 1832, the stock and funds of this society and the Cass 
County Seminary were united, and became the property of the Eel 
River and Cass County Seminary, by which name the joint corpora- 
tion was afterward known. 

As the population increased additional facilities were demanded 
to meet the wants of oiu' educational system. Accordingly, Novem- 
ber 14, 1836, it was determined by the society to sell the old prop- 
erty and make a reinvestment of the funds in a building of greater 
capacity and more judicious arrangement. This new building was 
of stone, and three-stories high; the contract price for it was 
$6,465.11, but it cost much more. It was opened for educational 
purposes the second week in September, 1849, with Rev. M. M. 
Post, as principal, with an efficient corps of subordinate teachers. 

Up to this period the school system of Logansport was slowly, 
but siu'ely, developed to a standard, warranting the introduction of 
more advanced methods of instruction. As a rule, the "school-mas- 
ters," according to their facilities, did good ser^^ce after the " sledge- 
hammer" style, lajang a solid foundation, perhaps, for the more 
successfid culture of advanced instructors. 

With the opening of the Seminary building, in 1849, a new era 
in the educational economy of the city dawned upon the public as 


additional interest was manifested. Father Post was succeeded in 
the management of the school under the auspices of the Cass 
County and Eel Eiver River Seminary Society, by Mr. Irwin W. 
Gates, and he by Rev. H. "W. Shaw, a gentleman of scholarly attain- 
ments and successful experience. At that date, and for a few years 
subsequent, the school was conducted chiefly as a matter of private 
enterprise, depending for support wholly upon the success of the 
lessees of the building. 

Prior to 1854 no steps had been taken to utilize the provisions 
of the new school law of 1852. During that year an enumeration 
of the children between the ages of five and twenty-one years 
showed the number to be 1,026 ; when the apportionment of school 
funds was made, the city received but $566, and there was but one 
public school building. In 1855 the enumeration showed 1,097 
children entitled to school privileges, of whom 596 attended school 
within the year, and the amount expended for their instruction was 

Enlarged facilities for educational purposes being necessary, an 
assessment of $2,515.30 was made that year as a fund for building 
schoolhouses. The following year an additional sum of $2,510.38 
was levied for the same purpose. Again, in 1857, a further assess- 
ment of $1,117 was made. Dui'ing that year the expenses of educa- 
tion were $922, nine teachers being employed at an average of $35 
per month. In 1858, the same number of teachers were employed 
at the same average compensation, to whom, in the aggregate, $1,370 
I was paid. The school term of 1859 averaged sixty-five days, the 
aggregate attendance being 840 pupils, under the instruction of 
thirteen teachers. Of the 840 pupils, 200 attended the high school 
and were instructed by six teachers— three males and three females. 

In 1862-63 two new ward-school buildings of brick, two stories 
high and adapted to primary and intermediate grades, were erected 
and furnished with all the approved appliances. At this time, the 
first steps were taken preparatory to the introduction of the graded 
system. This work was commenced under the auspices of the board 
of trustees, of which Hon. D. D. Pratt was president, assisted by 
T. B. Helm, County Examiner, and Stewart T. McConnell, Esq. 
The first term under this system was commenced on the 19th of 
October, 1863, under the management of an efiicient corps of 
teachers, and continued six months. With the experience of the 


past in view, the system continued to be improved and perfected, 
until the most satisfactory results were obtained during the suc- 
ceeding three or foiu' years. For a time there was no other super- 
^intendency than that afforded by the township trustee as director. 
Finally on the 2d of November, 1865, the necessity for such an 
officer became manifest and Mr. Thomas B. Helm was appointed 
by the board superintendent of the city schools. 

The grades originally established were four — primary, inter- 
mediate, grammar and high school. The first two grades occupied 
the ward-school buildings, while the other two were in the Semi- 
nary, or high school building. From 1864 to 1866, the schools in 
the Seminary building were under the management of Prof. Joseph 
Baldwin as principal, and Thomas B. Helm as teacher of higher mathe- 
matics and the languages. As a part of this management a normal 
term of ten weeks was held each year, with the most satisfactory 
results. Prof. Sheridan Cox succeeded Mr. Baldwin in his depart- 
ment, and on the 5th of July, 1867, was appointed superintendent. 
The first class, consisting of three young ladies, having completed 
the prescribed course, graduated £i-om the high school, in 1871. 
In 1872, another class of five — three males and two females— ^grad- 
uated under the same regulations; in 1873, a class of three; in 1874, 
a class of four. All of these had been instructed, except during the 
school year of 1873-74, under the supervision of Prof. Cox and his 
wife, as principal and assistant. George C. Shepard was superin- 
tendent from July 14, 1873, to August 27, 1874. 

With the commencement of the fall term of 1874, Prof. John K. 
Watts became superintendent (August 27) and a division of the 
grades before recognized was made, establishing three grades 
instead of four, by the omission of the intermediate, so as to con- 
form with the general usage throughout the State, but continuing 
the four years' course. In 1875 there were seven graduates; in 
1876, sixteen; in 1877, thirteen; in 1878, eleven. From that time 
until the present, classes, larger or smaller in number, have gradu- 
ated at the close of each succeeding school year. From 1878-74 to 
1881, Mr. M. S. Coulter was principal of the high school depart- 
ment. In 1886, Mr. Watts' term as superintendent having expired, 
Prof. James C. Black was appointed in his stead September 1, 

In 1874, the old Seminary building became inadequate to the 


public demand, and was torn down during that year and replaced 
with the present magnificent structure, known as the High, or 
"Central School Building." In 1874 and 1875, excellent ward- 
school buildings were erected, known as the west side, north and 
south side buildings respectively, according to their location, thus 
securing the most ample privileges to all departments. 

With the opening of the new high school building, in Janu- 
ary, 1875, a training school was organized, as a part of the system 
of school work, to which were admitted graduates of the high 
school and others, for special preparation as practical teachers. A 
<5lass was graduated ffom this department in 1875 and another in 
1876. Most of these graduates have since rendered efficient service 
as teachers in the city schools. This department was eminently suc- 
cessful. The wisdom of the board in setting it aside is questionable. 

As a brief expose of the present condition and previous manage- 
ment of the city schools, the following extracts from the last gener- 
al report of Supt. Waltz, filed July 31, 1886, will furnish the neces- 
sary information on these points of interest. During the year just 
closed "the whole number enrolled was: Boys, 982; girls, 1,053; 
total, 2,035, an increase of 33 over the previous year. The average 
number enrolled or belonging was 1,621, an increase of 71 over the 
previous year. The average daily attendance was 1,545, an in- 
crease of 75 over the previous year. The per cent of attendance on 
the average number enrolled was 95.8. This is an unusually high 
per cent, and the best record the schools of this city have ever 

"The average daily attendance was 76 per cent of the whole 
number enrolled. This is a record seldom reached in any city, 3 
better than the excellent record made by your city schools the two 
years before. For each of these years the average daily attendance 
was 73 per cent of the whole number enrolled. By reference to the 
report published for 1880, page 10, it will be seen that the per cent 
of attendance on the whole number enrolled prior to 1876, ranged 
from 51 to 61. In 1876 it went up to 65, and has never fallen be- 
low since. In 1880 it was 67.2, the best record reached up to that 
time, and fully up to the average of other cities. The number of 
teachers employed was the same as the year before. Including the 
superintendent and supervisor of music, there were 38 teachers — 8 
men and 30 women. 


"The statistics and the results of the instructiou show the year 
to have been the most prosperous one in the history of the public 
schools of this city. The cost of instruction, including supervision, 
for each pupil enrolled, was $8.05. Based upon the average num- 
ber enrolled, it was $10.11 for each pupil; based upon the average 
daily attendance, it was $10.60 for each pupil." * * * 

"The schools have especially made great progress in speaking 
and writing good English. The instruction in the English language 
and composition has been made to occupy a prominent — I might 
say the most prominent — place fi-om the day the child entered 
school until he completed the senior year of the»high school." 

The following is a complete list of the superintendents of the 
city schools, with dates of appointment: Thomas B. Helm, Novem- 
ber 2, 1865 ; Sheridan Cox, July 5, 1867 ; George C. Shepard, July 
14, 1873; John K. Watts, August 27, 1874; James C. Black. Sep- 
tember 1, 1886. 

HalVs Business College. — This institution was established in 
Logansport, in 1867, by E. A. Hall, who, just previous to that time, 
came from Ashtabula County, Ohio, having received his education 
at Green River Institute, Spencer's Writing Academy, Kingsville 
Academy and Oberlin College. 

At first it commenced operations in a small way in the building 
situated on the corner of Market and Bridge Streets, in the fall of 
1867, where, by perseverance and strict application to business, the 
institution so grew in popular favor that removal to more commodi- 
ous quarters became necessary. This removal took place in 1873, 
and the location was accordingly changed to No. 44: Fourth Street. 
After several years of accumulating prosperity, another change of 
location became necessary, and the institution was again removed 
to its present ample quarters, in the second story of the building 
situated on the northwest corner of Market and Pearl Streets. 

As now situated, with its attendant advantages and modern con- 
veniences, the institution presents educational facilities equal to 
any business college located in any of the larger cities of the Union. 
The course of study is recognized by educators of experience as be- 
ing of the highest order, and is separated into three distinct depart- 
ments : First, The commercial course, which embraces theoretical and 
practical book-keeping, suited to the operations of all trades, phases 
of business and professions; practical penmanship, commercial law. 


commercial arithmetic, business customs, punctuation, spelling, 
wording, analysis, etc. Second, The shorthand -and typewriting de- 
partment, which fits the student for verbatim, speech and law re- 
porting, and for operating the typewriter in the most skillful manner. 
In this department penmanship and spelling are also taught. Third, 
The normal penmanship department, for those who wish to devote 
themselves exclusively to penmanship and make a special study of 
commercial law and of artistic penmanship with the view of instruct- 
ing others. For those wishing to learn any particular branch of 
the pen art, this course was especially designed. 

The number of students who have attended this school from the 
date of its organization to the present time, is- 2,660. Students 
holding lucrative positions, as far as can now be ascertained, num- 
ber 1,250. The number of students who have attended during 
.the past year is 202, including those both in the day and night 
schools. Twenty-five per cent of this number attended the night 
sessions. Thirty per cent also took a full commercial course, and 
a trifle over forty per cent are students from a distance. In the 
above number of students eleven States have been represented. Five 
teachers have been employed the past year. 

Smiihson College. — This institution was the immediate out- 
growth of a desire on the part of the Indiana State Convention of 
Universalists to establish within the limits of the State an institu- 
tion of learning, which, while it was in no sense sectarian, was to 
be under the immediate supervision and control of that body. The 
name is derived from Joshua Smithson, of Vevay, Ind., who be- 
queathed a portion of his estate, in trust, for the up-building and 
maintenance of a school above the grade prescribed by the public 
school system. 

Smithson Academy, to be located at Muncie, Ind., was the first 
step proposed toward the attainment of the object aimed at by the State 
Convention. Neither the grade nor the location were, in all respects, 
satisfactory, hence these two features became open questions before 
final action was had. As a consequence, the eligibility of several 
other points was taken into consideration. Finally, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Pollard, widow of the late Philip Pollard, of Logansport, proposed 
a donation of $20,000, on condition that the grade of the institution, 
instead of taking that of an academy, should be a college or univer- 
sity, whose sphere would unite the common school with the highest 


grade of instruction found in the colleges, East or West, and that it 
should be located in Logansport. 

The proposition was accepted, and a bond executed for the future 
conveyance of ten acres of ground, embracing a very eligible site 
for such an educational edifice, occupying an elevated position on 
the north of, and overlooking, the entire city of Logansport. This, 
at its estimated value, with the money proposed to be donated, made 
the aggregate sum of $20,000, of which 810,000 was to be 
used as an endowment fund. 

These conditions having been satisfactorily complied with, the 
central biiilding was put under contract, and on the 9th of May, 

1871, the corner-stone was laid, with appropriate ceremonies. In 
due time the building was completed, and on the 2d of Januai-y, 

1872, Smithson College was opened for the reception of students, 
with prospects seeming to warrant the commencement of a brilliant ca- 
reer. The course of instruction was excellent, and the president and 
faculty were fully equal to the task imposed upon them, entering upon 
their duties with zealous interest, and, with the prestige of long and 
successful experience, directing their energies toward the elevation of 
the educational standard, such as had been contemplated by its 
owners and projectors. For a time the prospect was auspicious 
and ultimate success seemed to be assured. After years, however, 
established the futility of the enterprise, and the spring of 1878 
recorded the fact that Smithson College, as au educational institu- 
tion, had ceased to exist. 

The American Normal College, while not founded ujion the 
ruins of Smithson College, secured a lease of the property and 
buildings, and in January, 1883, through the instrumentality 
of Prof. J. Fraise Eichards, as principal, and a corps of teach- 
ers, opened a school, of the class designated as normal, with 
a respectable number of pupils preparing for teachers' work. Prof. 
Richards continued in charge, as principal of the institution, until 
some time in the following year, when Prof. Walter Sayler became 
principal, with Charles E. Kircher, assistant principal ; J. C. Gar- 
rett, professor of languages; W. S. Harshman, of mathematics; 
A. H. Beals, of sciences; Mary E. Jackmau, of belles-letfres; C. B. 
Minor, commercial department ; Mrs. Mattie Sayler, music; Florence 
Borradaile, fine arts; Ida Washburn, common branches; Elizabeth 
Branson, phonography and type-writing; P. S. McNutt, violin and 


With the close of the college year in 1885, Prof. Sayler's term 
of service ended, and at the commencement of the new year Prof. 
Kircher succeeded to the principalship, a majority of the old faculty 
continuing in the several departments, the necessary vacancies being 
supplied by the appointment of additional professors. At present, 
the principal is Prof. Kircher; W. S. Harshman, E. M. C. Hobbs 
and Bart B. Bigler, assistant principals. 

The fall term commenced August 10, 188(3; the second fall term 
commences October 19, 1886, and the winter term January 11, 
1887 ; and the next annual commencement will be held August 4, 
1887, as prescribed by the regular course. 

Couniry Schools. — Clinton Toicnship. — The first school in the 
county, perhaps, outside of Logansport, was in Clinton Township. 
Indeed, the first settlements in county other than those in Eel Town- 
ship and the county seat, were also in Clinton and Washington 
Townships; hence, it was, in the very nature of things, the place 
to open the first school, though humble and unpretentious in its 
advent and the sphere of its operations. The first building 
occupied as a schoolhouse was not erected with the expectation that 
it would eve^' become the receptacle of an educational institution, the 
nucleus, indeed, of the excellent schoolhouses and school system that 
the experience of more than half a century has developed. That rude 
log edifice — constructed of poles rather than logs — -the cracks filled 
with "chinks" and daubed with "cat and clay," with puncheon 
floor, and door of clapboards like the roof, and a clay chimney rest- 
ing on a foundation of stone, was situated on the Simons farm, 
just below the bluff which tapers downward to the east into the 
old William Neff place. The building was originally con- 
structed in 1828-29, as a family residence — the home of one of the 
pioneer settlers in that locality. 

The first school in that house was taught by John Martin in the 
winter of 1830-31, for which he received, it is said, about $8 per 
month, though the schbol was a " subscription " one and the pupils 
did not exceed fifteen in number. It was sufficiently popular to 
keep up ordinary vitality during the short period of its existence 
— some three mouths. At the end of one year, however, neither 
the teacher nor his school were retained in the memory of patrons 
or pupils. 

The next school in that house, about the year 1833, was taught 


by a Mr. Fuller, whose success was little more apparent than that of 
his predecessor; yet, it was a school of the magnitude of those days, 
and he filled his place iu the long catalogue of teachers — or rather 
" school-masters " — who in times past have wielded the birchen rod 
in Clinton Township. 

The second building appropriated to the use of a schoolhouse 
was on John Fitzer's farm, and, like the first, was originally de- 
signed as a family domicile. Who it was that practiced pedagogics 
in the dilapidated cabin is not now remembered. It was conspicu- 
ous in its day, nevertheless. 

In the early fall of 1837, a substantial hewed-log building was 
erected on the land of Hewit L. Thomas, now owned by Isaac 
Myers, and. during that and the succeeding winter, schools were 
taught by Mr. Thomas, who proved to be a very efficient instructor, 
and his school took rank with the best in the county. He was fol- 
lowed by other excellent instructors, during a long series of years, 
in the same building, which was jDi'obably the first schoolhouse built 
in the townshijj pursuant to the provisions of the school law. 

About the year 1838, another schoolhouse of the character of 
the Thomas building was erected on the farm of George Shideler, 
and was occupied for school purposes for several years, the teachers 
in which are now no longer remembered. The last of the early 
schoolhouses of the township was in the Justice and Porter neigh- 
borhood, built, probably, about 1839, or the year preceding. Like 
the others it was generally occupied during the winter season. 
When the new school law of 1852 took effect there were four school- 
houses in the township, and all of the same class. A few years later 
other buildings were erected, of a better class than the former, which 
in time superseded the old ones. 

Clciy Township. — While the settlements in this township were 
more extensive than in Clinton in 1830 and 1831, and the interest 
equally great, no school was taught there until the winter of 1831-32, 
and that one by Charles Demoss, iu a cabin not originally con- 
structed for school purposes. So far as can now be ascertained, a 
log schoolhouse, the first in the township, was erected on the farm 
since owned by Mr. Wells in the fall or winter of 1832-33, and an- 
other in the Sutherland neighborhood in the fall of 1833. Of the 
teachers who first occupied these buildings and others subsequently 
erected, we can oulv recall the names of Mr. Crozat, Mr. Sumwall, 


Felix McLaughlin, Daniel McCanfil and Mr. Moore. Of these, Mr. 
McLaughlin was an eccentric Lishman, a superior scholar and pop- 
ular teacher; Mr. McCanfil, also, was an Irishman, and had previ- 
ously large experience, but at the time of which I write he failed 
to make his labors successful in that field, although he taught there 
several consecutive terms. In 1853, only three schoolhouses were 
reported in the township, and these of an indifferent quality but in 
1860 there were sis, most of them in fair condition, and schools 
were taught in them during the winter season especially, while 
there were occasionally summer sessions. In 1861-62, the schools 
were remodeled and placed upon a more uniform basis, since which 
time they have continued to increase in popularity and usefulness. 

Miami Township. — The first schoolhouse in this township was 
erected on the farm of "William Rooker, in 1833 or 1834, and Will- 
iam Kelly was one of the first teachers in the neighborhood. The 
second house was built on the Reed farm about the year 1837, in 
which Mr. Sumwall,of previous experience in Clay Township, taught. 
The record he has left of his teaching qualities gives him a fair rep- 
utation. Other schoolhouses were erected in the township, and other 
schools taught with greater or less sticcess, within a few years after 
those first named. There were four schoolhouses there in 1853, 
and a new one was built in 1854; another new one was built in 
1857, and one of the earlier ones discarded. In this township, also, 
the schools were subjected to an over-hauling in the winter of 
1863-64, and an improved system inaugiirated which produced good 
results. Now, the township is supplied with a better class of school- 
houses and furniture, and a class of teachers who, with additional 
facilities at command, are able to do excellent work in their several 

Harrison Toionship. — In 1834, the first house devoted to school 
purposes was erected on the Robinson farm, and the first teacher 
therein was William Mitchell, a gentleman, then and since, of exten- 
sive and successful experience. Soon after, another house was 
erected in the Foglesong neighborhood, and a third on Section 16, 
near the Zion Church, about the year 1838. Within a few years 
subsequently the number was increased to eight, most of them occu- 
pied during the winter season. In 1854 but six were reported, while 
in the following year there were seven, and eight again in 1858-59 
and 1860. Schools were taught in nearly all these every winter, with 


occasional bummer sessions for those pupils who were too small to 
attend the winter sessions. As a rule these schools were supplied 
with efficient teachers. But in this township, especially, as well as 
in some others, there was an indifferent interest manifested on the 
part of parents to visit the schools and by their presence encourage 
both teacher and pupils. This reference applies only to the period 
when a want of thorough organization precluded the possibility of 
becoming familiar with those duties and the good results following. 
Bethlehem Townshijx — In this township the fii'st school taught 
was in a log house erected on the southwest quarter of Section 24, 
in 1835, and Nathaniel D. Nichols was the first teacher. It is said 
that this school was the first one in the county north of Logansport. 
Another house was built in 1840, which superseded the first one and 
was occupied in its stead. A third house was built iu 1841-42, on 
the McMillen farm, which, with the others, supplied the neighbor- 
hoods interested. At a later period other houses were built in dif- 
ferent neighborhoods according to their wants, so that iu 1853 there 
were six, and all of them occupied. Most of them were of hewed- 
logs, but Avarm and comfortable, while one or two of them were 
frame. In 1860 there were seven. Some two or three years later 
the schools in these several neighborhoods were remodeled and put 
under more systematic regulations, and thenceforward became more 
successful and popular. 

Noble Township. — In 1835-36, the first schoolhouse was built in 
the township on Eobert McMillen's farm, and a school taught therein 
soon after its completion, but the teacher's name is not now remem- 
bered. The second house was built on the Israel Graham farm, and 
was afterward known as the Sandridge Schoolhouse. In its day, 
especially during the fii'st few years after its erection, the schools 
taught there fi-om time to time were classed among the best in the 
county, because of the thoroughness of instruction and the great 
proficiency of the pupils. These facts are especially remembered 
among the early school experiences in Cass County. Indeed, those 
two schools stood in the fi'ont rank of the country schools of those 
days. In 1853, when the new school law went into effect, there 
were four schoolhouses in the township, but the number was in- 
creased to six prior to 1860— of these two were erected during the 
preceding year at an aggregate cost of |600; and in all of them 
chools were taught within the year, the whole attendance being 


250 out of a total number of 342 iu the township entitled to school 
privileges. At -this date, as before, the schools there maintain the 
excellent standing of former years. * 

Jefferson Township. — ^The first schoolhouse in this township 
was built on the Dunham farm in 1831^ but the first teacher's name 
has escaped recollection in these latter days, after the lapse of half 
a century. As early, however, as 1838 or 1839, a New Englander, 
named Alanson Crocker came here and offered his services as a 
teacher, and was employed. He was a man of singularly eccentric 
character, leading many to suppose that his mind was illy balanced, 
but later on in his career it became manifest that he was not only a 
fine scholar but one of the most successful teachers of the day ; his 
control was perfect, and the ingenuity displayed in his efforts to keep 
up an interest and develop the mental faculties of his pupils was 
truly astonishing. As long as his services could be engaged it was 
the common expression that " Crocker " was the man for the place ; 
hence, during a series of years he continued to be the instructor of 
youth in that vicinity. In 1853, but one schoolhouse was reported, 
in 1854, four; in 1855, six; which continued to be the number for 
several years. The schools generally, since that time, have been 
good, and of late years nothing has tended to detract from their orig- 
inal standing. 

Boone Township. — Here, the first school was taught by Thomas 
Harvey, in the winter of 1835-36, but the location of the house is 
now forgotten, and whether it was a bxailding originally constructed 
for school purposes is equally uncertain and undetermined. An- 
other schoolhouse was built in the winter of 1838-39, on the present 
town site of Royal Center, and the school taught by Mary Wash- 
burn. At this time it is questionable whether that house was 
primarily designed for school purposes or a vacated residence after- 
ward apjjropriated to that use. There were five schoolhouses in 
1853, but afterward the nximber was increased to eight, all of them 
occupied by schools during the winter. In Royal Center, as early 
as 1866, a respectable frame schoolhouse was built, and subsequently 
occupied during the most of each season. A large two-story brick 
building was erected, calculated for a graded school. Since that 
time it has been in use during the entire school year. 

Adams Toionship. — A school was first taught in this township, 
by William Davidson, in the winter of 1836-37, in a building erected 


on the Dalzell farm. The following year a schoolhouse was built 
on the Joel Black farm, and a school conducted there during the suc- 
ceeding winter. This was probably the first regular schoolhouse 
built in the township. About the same time, biit a little later, a 
second schoolhouse was biiilt on the Henry L. Thomas farm, and 
was occupied immediately after. Under the new school law no 
schoolhouses were reported from this township in 1853. In 1854 
there were four, and later six, and in all of them schools were taught 
within the year. After the schools were reorganized the growth 
was more healthy and rapid, and to-day they occupy a fair position 
among the other schools of the county. 

fVasJu'ngfon Township. — A portion of this township was settled 
at a very early date in the history of the county, but the major part 
of it at a much later period, and the schools, therefore, were con- 
siderably behind those of the other townships, partly because of 
the sparse settlement, but chiefly on account of the close proximity 
to the schools in town and the greater convenience in attending 
them. The first of which we find any mention was taught in a 
cabin schoolhouse situated on the Audi'ew Johnson farm, in 1838, 
by John Lehigh. This school was not large, but, in a measure, suc- 
cessful. In 1841 a schoolhouse was erected on the same farm, but 
occupied a difPereut site. It was occupied for school purposes 
many years afterward. In the mean time other schoolhouses were 
erected at Yarious points in the township, and in 1858 seven were 
reported there, and that number continued to represent the town- 
sliip in later years. The school economy being changed about 
18(i3, the work has gone on successfully from that time to the 

Deer Creek Township. — This was one of the newer townships, 
and schools did not commence there until the winter of 1840-41, 
the first schoolhouse being located on the Hyman farm, and the first 
teacher therein Josiah Brown. The second teacher in that build- 
ing was Milton Jarrett, who taught there next season. The second 
schoolhouse was on the Holland farm, and was in use during the 
winters until within a few years past, when it was superseded by a 
more substantial structure. There were seven schoolhouses there 
in 1853, but in 1857 there were eight reported. Of late years the 
schools have occupied a much higher grade, and the teachers have 
been more efficient. 


Tijiion Township. — The first school in this township was in a 
cabin on the farm of Alleu^Wilson, in the winter of 1842—43. A 
schoolhouse was built on Andrew Wilson's farm in 1848-44, and 
Lewis F. Bowyer was the teacher and succeeded well. The first 
schoolhouse, however, was erected on Allen Wilson's farm in 1844. 
In 1853 seven houses were reported as being used for school pur- 
poses, and in 1857 there were eight. Subsequently schoolhouses 
were erected in Walton, Onward, and other central points. An in- 
stitution known as the Cass County Normal School was opened in 
Walton on the 9th of April, 1878, under the special charge of Harry 
G. Wilson, county superintendent, and a, corps of practical teachers. 
It opened well and succeeded for some time, but eventually suc- 
cumbed from want of local patronage. A very good school is still 
maintained there, however. The schools of this township have al- 
ways sustained a fair reputation for successful management. 

Jackson Township. — A schoolhouse was erected on the farm of 
William Stanley, in this township, in the fall or winter of 1848-44, 
and John M. Jackson was the first teacher. The next schoolhouse was 
built in the immediate vicinity of Galveston, about 1845, and among 
the early teachers in that locality were Samuel Lambert and Daniel 
Kemp. There were three schoolhouses in the township upon the 
taking eifect of the school law in 1852; in 1854 there were four, and 
in 1855, eight, and they were generally of good quality, for the 
most part of hewed logs. Afterward, when the school system had 
become better understood and the people were better able to bear 
the expense, a better class of buildings was erected, and the houses 
provided with more modern furniture and facilities adapted to the 
wants of progressive schools. In the town of Galveston a building 
was erected about the year 1862, of dimensions sufficient to justify 
the experiment of a graded school, which was put in operation a 
few years later. The first effort at establishing a school of that 
character did not succeed, more, probably, from the inefficiency of 
the teacher and his inability to fully take in the situation. Subse- 
quent efforts were more successful, and at this time schools are enti- 
tled to a higher standard of merit than some others of equal oppor- 
tunities. Indeed, the school work of the township at large is emi- 
nently satisfactory and gratifying to teachers, pupils and patrons. 




Early I jiprovemexts— .Settlers of 1838— Made the se.vt &f .justice 
-Town Corporatiox— City Corporatiox— Additions to the City 
Area— Progress of Improvements— Population— Brief History of 
ITS Churches— Secret Orders— Benevolent Institutions- Leading 
Business Interests, etc. 

UNTIL after the treaties of October 10 and 23, 1826, made " 
with the Pottawattomies and Miamis, the spirit .of advent- 
ure incident to permanent settlement was scarcely developed in the 
minds of white people contemplating immigration hither. How- 
ever, when these treaties* had been confirmed, and the Indian titles 
to the lands ceded thereby had been extinguished — even before the 
surveys, except of individual reservations, had been made — adven- 
tui'ous pioneers now and then came forth, moved by a desire to se- 
cure homes for themselves and families — dropped down, as it were, 
from the clouds, emerged fi-om adjacent thickets, or floated down 
the Wabash from the upper settlements at the head of the Mauinee. 
Some who thus came and saw, " squatted," while others, not fully 
satisfied with the prospect, passed along still farther in search of 
the "promised land." 

Notwithstanding the fact that many of those who contemplated 
seeking homes in this locality were deterred from so doing by reason 
of their indisposition to risk the hazard of settling in the " Indian 
country," yet there were exceptions. As early as August, 1826, be- 
fore the consummation of the expected treaties, Alexander Chamber- 
lain, or "Aleck," as he was familiarly called, from Fort Harrison 
Prairie, anticipating the ultimate success of the treaties, then only 
in contemplation, aud not influenced by the prospect of fancied in- 
security, emigrated from his former home and became the pioneer 
in fact of the early settlers of the county. He pitched his tent 
among the children of the forest, and subsequently erected his 
primitive cabin, of small dimensions, on the bank of the Wabash, 


opposite the mouth of Eel Eiver, adapted only to the immediate 
wants of his family. It was soon ascertained that, situated as he 
was, the only white settler, perhaps, within twenty miles or more, 
his house room was not sufficient to meet the demands of travelers 
and home hunters who found it convenient to seek shelter under his 
hospitable roof. In this contingency, a house of greater dimensions 
became necessary, when, a little later, by force of circumstan- 
ces, his own exertions, and the generous assistance of his neigh- 
bors at the Deer Creek Settlergients, more than twenty miles away, 
he had the first regular house-raising, a double, two-story, hewed- 
log building, with a hall-way between, a little to the westward and 
a short distance inland from his cabin, which, when completed, was 
opened as a tavern, or place of entertainment for travelers. His 
personal qualities were such that ere long he received the title of 
the most popular landlord on the Wabash. Mr. Chamberlain had 
previously entered the land upon which this settlement was made, 
the fractional east half of the east half of Section 35, Township 27 
north. Range 1 east, on the 25th of May, 1825, for which he re- 
ceived a certificate of purchase. But prior to that date, on the 23d 
of December, 1824, he had entered the fractional west half of the 
same half section. Upon this tract (having sold the one first de- 
scribed to Gen. John Tipton on the 3d of April, 1829, for the then 
snug little sum of |725) he subsequently erected another double 
two-story hewed-log house, the exact counterpart of the first, and 
established the second tavern in the county. His tavern sign, hung 
in a large oblong frame, fastened upon the top of a wooden post set 
firmly in the ground, and bearing the inscription, "Entertainment, 
by A. Chamberlain," might be seen any day, many years after the 
property had been purchased and occupied by Francis Murphy, Sr., 
well known to most of the old settlers, who became the owner on 
6th of July, 1833, having paid for the same the sum of $2,000. 

Prior to the sale of the property opposite the mouth of Eel 
River, Gen. Tipton, who had some time before, because of his fa- 
miliarity with the Indian character and promptness in managing their 
affairs, induced by his long expei-ience and active service in that 
field, been appointed Indian agent, with headquarters at Fort Wayne, 
deeming this a more central point, and every way better adapted to 
the supervision and wants of his charge, removed the agency from 
Fort Wayne, and established his headquarters at the Chamberlain 


tavern some time in March, 1828, afterward purchasing the prop- 
erty, as above noted, and erecting thereon other buildings necessary 
for and incident to the transaction of business pertaining to the 
agency. One of these buiklings, used and occupied as an office, 
was a little one-story frame, with a porch in front, standing but a 
few feet to the westward and a little to the front of the original 
building. This agency building — the office — continued to occupy 
its original position until within the past few years, when, like the- 
race, to the protection of whose interests it was dedicated, it j-ielded 
to the inevitable law of change, and was lost to view. As the seat 
of the agency it was the central point of interest, and continued so 
for many years, and until it ceased to be used for that purpose. At 
the time of locating the agency here, the western boundary of the 
" Great Miami Keserve " was but a few rods east of the buildings 
just described. 

From the best information at hand, William Newman and his 
wife Vermillia, were, next to Mr. Chamberlain, the first to settle in 
Cass County. Having entered the east half of the northeast quar- 
ter of Section 33, Township 27 north, Range 1 east, just two miles 
west of the site of the Chamberlain mansion, on the 1st of Decem- 
ber, 1825, at the Crawfordsville land office, Mr. Newman "put up" 
a cabin on the tract, near the left bank of the Wabash, a few rods 
east of the bluff, since known as the "Simons' Stone Quarry,'" not 
long after the date of Mr. Chamberlain's raising at the mouth of 
Eel River. He moved in, with his family, early in the spring of 
1827, and remained there some three or four years, removing thence 
to Tippecanoe County, in the vicinity of Lafayette, selling his land, 
January 4, 1831, to William Nefl, who, in turn, made the place his 
home for a number of years. Of the personal history of Mr. New- 
man, and his pioneer experience in Cass County, but little is now 
known beyond the declarations of a few persons then best acquaint- 
ed with him, all of whom unite in the expression that he was a man 
of generous impulses, possessing habits of industry, which, though 
greatly paralyzed by the " acclimating process " known as the pio- 
neers " fever and ague " experience, was sufficiently well established 
to render him a very satisfactory neighbor. The late Adam Porter, 
of Carroll County, having previously made his acquaintance in Ma- 
rion County, and administered to his wants during a severe and pro- 
tracted illness, a strong mutual friendship was contracted, and Mr. 


Porter was strongly urged, in his contemplated visit to the Wabash 
country to buy land, to call at his cabin and partake of his hospital- 
ity, as a partial return for his kindly help in time of need. Mr. 
Porter, in giving an account of his trip, says: " On making my trip 
to this country, scarcely remembering the exact wliereabouts of ray 
new acquaintance, who should I come across in my travels but friend 
Newman, and the last man I was thinking of. I was invited to his 
house and treated like a prince, Mr. Newman strongly ui'ging me to 
settle on the Wabash, in this county." Others speak of him in sim- 
ilar terms of commendation. 

About the same time James Bui'ch settled a little lower down on 
the same Section, on the land since known as the "Simons' farm." 
He did not remain long in that locality. Having received from 
Christian Simons, the father of Isaac, Leonard, Peter and Benjamin 
Simons, a liberal ofPer for his interest in the land so occupied by 
him, he sold his certificate of entry to Mr. Simons, who, in the 
spring of 1828, took possession of the land and thus became one of 
the very early settlers in the neighborhood. A part of the same constitutes the homestead of Benjamin Simons, Esq. The 
settlers above referred to embrace all, or at least all of whom we 
have now any account, in that portion of the county lying south of 
the Wabash Biver, prior to the organization of the township of Eel, 
in Carroll County, on the 12th of May, 1828. 

On the north side of the Wabash, in that part now forming Eel 
Township, in Cass County, numerous other pioneer men, in the 
meantime, had made permanent settlement — especially those induced 
so to do by reason of the excellent opportunities offered as a result 
of the recent treaty, by the provisions of which individual grants had 
been reserved to the children of Joseph Barron, immediately west of 
the mouth of Eel River; to George Cicott, immediately east of and 
adjoining the first named; and to John B. Richardville, "commenc- 
ing at the southeast corner of Cicott's Reserve, at the falls of Eel 
River," and extending eastward on the south side of Eel River and 
north of the Wabash. The first to avail himself of the opportunity 
was Maj. Daniel Bell, a brother-in-law of Gen. Tipton, who landed 
here with his family on the 27th of March, 1827, very soon after 
the confirmation of the treaty just referred to. He pitched his tent, 
and subsequently erected his cabin, just east of Berkley Street, and 
a few rods south of the "old cemetery " grounds. The ruins of this 


old cabin might hare been seen -within the past thirty years on this 

Next in point of time was Joseph Barron and his family, who 
came from Fort Wayne some time in the month of June, 1827, and 
domiciled temporarily in the old "trading honse" erected on the 
bank of the river in fi-ont of the Seybold mansion, and until the 
completion of the family residence — a double, two-story, liewed-log 
structure of the pattern set by Mr. Chamberlain — ^a few rods west 
of the mouth of Eel Eiver, and near the eastern extremity of the 
Three Sections tract reserved to his children by the treaty of Octo- 
ber 16, 1826. The building was destroyed by fire in September, 

About the same date, Hugh B. McKeen, a son-in-law of Mr. 
Barron, and for some time connected with the Indian trade at Fort 
Wayne, and who early acquired an interest in the reservation 
granted to George Cicott, came here and established a "trading 
house " for traffic with the Indians, on the bank of the Wabash 
River, in front of what was afterward known as McKeen Street, on 
the western boundary of the original plat of Logansport. His resi- 
dence was situated on the north side of Eel River, nearly ojjposite 
the "Forest Mill," on the tract afterward deeded to him by Chauncey 
Carter as his interest in the Cicott Reserve. His first residence, 
however, was situated some fifteen rods east of his trading house, 
where he remained for about one year. Mr. C. B. Lasselle, in his 
"Sketch of the Early Settlement of Logansport and Cass County," 
published in the Democratic Pharos of June 25, 1851, speaking of 
Mr. McKeen, says: "The next person who came to reside here was 
Mr. Hugh B. McKeen, of Fort Wayne. He arrived with his family 
about the 1st of Jxme following (1827), and with the assistance of 
Maj. Bell erected two log houses, one for his family and another 
for a store or trading house. The former stood on the bank of the 
Wabash, near the 'point,' in front of the southeast corner of Lot 
No. 3, on the original plat of the city, and the latter about twenty 
yards [fifteen rods] below. In front of and near to the southeast 
corner of his dwelling, there stood, and still stands, ' a brave old 
oak," under whose lofty and protecting arms McKeen and his friends 
used to while away many a lonely hour with merry chat and song, 
for liis was a hospitable hearth, and his heart 'knew no guile.' 
Here he continued to reside and to trade with the Indians and his 

t^l-O '(^ ■ c^ft€ytyL^^(-^e:^^f^ 


I white neighbors for about one year. His day-book relating to his 
I trade with the whites commences with the date of June 24 and ends 
with October 11, 1827. His customers were not as numerous and 
I extensive as are those of some of his successors. They amounted to 
I something like a dozen, and hailed from Fort Wayne, St. Joseph's 
I and other distant stations, as well as from this vicinity. His was a 
; kind of civilized establishment, in which the familiar articles of 
I plates, pocket-knives, coffee and sugar were to be found, and when 
I the traders, who kept nothing but Indian goods, got out of these 
' articles by accident or otherwise, they had to make for the ' Mouth 
of Eel,' as McKeen designated the point of his location, and 
' replenish their stocks. A Mr. William Suttonfield, who prospered 
j at Fort Wayne in the business of a landlord, was also, among others 
! there, a customer of his, and had sometimes to come down — a dis- 
tance of eighty miles — ^to replenish his table and revive his gilests 
Avith a supply of sugar and coffee. Sometimes, too, the more lively 
' and convivial spirits of the latter place would take a kind of ' spree ' 
I or trip to the ' Mouth of Eel,' and then the luxuries of pocket-knives, 
silk handkerchiefs and boots would be in requisition. Maj. Bell 
I and Mr. McKeen were the only persons who came to reside perma- 
[ nently within the present limits of the city or on the reserve during 
• the year of 1827. * * * Antoine Gamelin 

i andEichard Chabert came in the fall, and built a trading house " on 
' the bank of the Wabash, west of the Barron homestead. 
I The original plan of Logansport, the seat of justice of Cass 

I County, embraced a small area situated in the southeast corner of 
I the reservation granted to George Cicott by the treaty of October 
16, 1826, with the Pottawattomie tribe of Indians. This plan was an 
; unpretentious plat in tlfe shape of a right-angled triangle, with a 
base (Canal Street) having five, and perpendicular (Fifth Street) 
; having four squares on its front, and intervening streets and alleys, 
the whole area including 111 standard lots and fractions. The base 
ran parallel to the general course of the Wabash Kiver, north 77 
degrees east, from the southwest corner; the perpendicular at right 
angles therewith, north 13 degrees west; and the hypothenuse (Eel 
Eiver Street) extending from the northwest corner of Lot No. 1, 
along the general course of Eel Kiver, north 34 degrees, 7 minutes 
east, to its intersection with High Street. The standard lots were 
five by ten rods in size, alleys, parallel with the base, sixteen and a 


half feet in width, and those parallel with the perpendiciilar, ten 
feet in width; streets all sixty-six feet in width, except Broadway, 
which was eighty -two and one-half feet wide. At the first sale of 
lots, those occupying the position on the corner of a square, were 
offered and sold for $75, the others for $50 each. Many of the lots 
first offered were on the condition that the purchaser should, within 
a prescribed period, erect on the lot purchased a house not less than 
eighteen by twenty feet in size and one-story high. 

Chauncey Carter was the proprietor of the original town plat, 
which was surveyed and the lots staked off April 10, 1828. Subse- 
quently this plat was duly recorded in the office of the recorder of 
Carroll County September 3, 1828, this territory, at the time, being 
legally within the jurisdiction of that county. In connection with 
the name by which the town has since been known, the following 
characteristic incident is narrated: 

"The sui-vey had just been completed, and it only remained to 
give the new town a name, which would be at once significant and 
attractive when placed on the plat and recorded. The employes, the 
proprietor and others, immediately or remotely interested, with a 
few lookers-on who were present, began severally to offer suggestions 
touching the matter, having assembled under one of those big branch- 
ing elm trees that bordered the banks of the Wabash in that vicinity, 
for the purpose. Gen. Tipton, who entertained a reverence for the 
classic significance of the Latin and Greek etymologies, intimated 
his preference for a Latin compound which would be a synonym for 
the 'Mouth of Eel,' of cherished memory, commemorative of the 
location. Another submitted an Indian name by which the place 
had before been known. Meanwhile, numerous other propositions 
had been presented, and canvassed without effect. Then Mr. Mc- 
Keen, who had formerly resided on the Maumee Eiver, in the vicin- 
ity of which Capt. Logan, a Shawanee chief, lost his life, while 
attesting his fidelity to the white people, in the month of November, 
1812, proposed that the memory of this Indian hero be perpetuated 
in the name of the new town. Col. Duret agreed with the idea, and 
thought the addition of ' port ' to the chief's name would be both 
appropriate and euphonious, which was accepted by common con- 
sent; hence the name Logansport." 

Afterward, on the 12th of August, 1829, soon after the organi- 
zation of the county, by the consideration of the commissioners ap- 


pointed by the Legislature for the purpose, Logansport was selected 
as the seat of justice of Cass County, pursuant to the provisions of 
the act authorizing the organization of the county. At the time the 
town was laid out, and for several years succeeding, its importance 
was chiefly recognized in the light of a central " trading post " for 
a large extent of Indian territory surrounding, and because of that 
fact it acquired a well merited fame. The consequence was that, as 
soon as the course began to be diverted from this point, the produc- 
ing population outside the town being inadequate to the demands of 
consumption, the growth of the town was greatly retarded for sev- 
eral years, until, indeed, the products of the country equaled, over- 
balanced the consumption account of the non-producers in town, and 
the avenues of trade were opened with other markets. 

" The increase in population and facilities for business during 
the several years succeeding the season of greatest depression in 
1836-37, when everything was at a stand-still, was gradual, uni- 
form and certain. Prior to 1860-65 the spirit of improvement and 
enterprise was scarcely developed. At a later period, however, new 
life and vigor began to be infused into the elements of progress, 
and more rapid advances in the prospects of trade were foreshad- 
owed. Activity in every department of industry was the rule 
rather than the exception; and capital, before withheld from pro- 
fitable investments — as if a dollar out of sight was forever lost — 
began to seek investment in public and private enterprises, which 
have since yielded liberal profits. 

"From that time the character of the improvements was no longer 
uncertain, but continued to assume a more healthy and permanent 
aspect than was ever before known, and the population, therefore, 
increased in an equal or greater ratio during the succeeding dec- 
ade." At this time the railroad and other facilities for communi- 
cation with the great points of trade East, West, North and South, 
are equaled by a few, surpassed by a far less number. 

Sale of Lots — Tmprovemenis. — When the survey had been com- 
pleted and the plat of the town prepared, lots were offered and sold 
at private sale. The first sold was Lot No. 1 to John B. Duret, to 
whom was given the first choice in consideration of his having exe- 
cuted a finished copy of the original di-aft of the plat; Lot No. 51 
was sold to George W. Ewing, and Nos. 47 and 48 to Cyrus Taber, 
both of whom had recently come here from Fort Wayne for the pur- 


pose of establishiug themselTes iu the Indian trade, which was 
likely to become an important element in the future of Logansport, 
since it was understood that Gen. Tipton contemplated the removal 
of the agency of the Miami and Pottawattomie Indians £rom Fort 
Waj'ne to this place. 

"Soon after the sale of the lots above mentioned, preparations 
were made for clearing them off and putting up buildings ; and by 
the approach of summer the forests were made to resound with the 
stroke of the woodman's as and the falling trees. During the sum- 
mer and fall of that year the following houses were erected on the 
original plat, to wit: A single-story log house on Lot No. 33, now 
[1851] occupied by John F. Bruggaman, which was erected by Mr. 
Carter, and intended as a future family residence. A similar build- 
ing on Lot 50, by same, for the piirpose of an Indian trading es- 
tablishment, conducted under the firm of Carter, Walker & Co., 
which was, a few years since, torn down to make way for the more 
stately stone edifice of Dr. Jerolaman now erected upon its site. 
A double-house of hewed logs was built by Cyrus Taber on Lots 47 
and 48, so constructed that the partition wall between the two rooms 
of the building was " designed to fix the line of demarkation be- 
tween the two lots, so as to give to each lot a house conforming in 
size to the conditions of the sale, and one story in height. One end 
of the building was used as a residence, and the other as a store- 
room or ' trading house.' " This building was afterward weather- 
boarded, and stood for many years as a monument of the architecture 
charactei'istic of those primeval days. 

" A similar house, one and a half stories high, on Lot 51, was 
erected by George W. Ewing for an Indian trading house," now 
occupied by Martin Frank. " Another double cabin was built by 
Gillis McBean, on Market Street, occupying a position very nearly, 
if not qiiite, on the line separating Lots 30 and 31, now [1875] the 
middle section of the late Barnett House. It was built with a hall 
between the two rooms, and a well was dug so that it was directly, 
or nearly so, opposite the hall, on the south side of the building. 
My informant says, the well referred to, is now under the back part 
of the Barnett House — the part formerly known as the ' Ex- 
change.' " 

During the same year, Alexander McAlister built a log cabin on 
Lot 5, situated at the northwest corner of Canal and First Streets, 


at first used for a tailoring shop, but subsequently purcliased by 
Peter Longlois and occupied as a trading house. A story-and-a 
half log house was erected on the east side of Lot 32, near the alley, 
by Gen. Tipton, for Dr. Hiram Todd, previous to the latter's arrival 
during the same summer. Later, in 1830, a brick residence was 
erected on the front of the same lot. In the fall of that year (1828) 
a single-story log house was also erected on the southeast corner of 
Lot No. 71, by Peter Johnson, for a dwelling, but not completed 
until the following year. The premises are now occupied b}' D. D. 
Dykeman, Esq., whose residence is situated on the north end of the 
lot. Late in the fall of 1828, a small frame building, to be used as 
a tailor's shop, was put up on Lot 45, by David Patrick, for the oc- 
cupancy of " J. B. Eldridge, Tailor," who immediately established 
himself in business at that point. 

Other Settlers in 182S.— On the 6th of November, 1828, David 
Patrick arrived in Logansport, having left Fort Wayne the day suc- 
ceeding the election for President of the United States, and trav- 
eled the whole distance on foot, accompanied by Pleasant Grubb, his 
friend and shopmate. They were of the class of mechanics known 
as " cabinet-makers," but since there was little call for.that species 
of handicraft, their attention was early directed to the cultivation 
of the kindred branch designated as " carpenter and joiner work," 
in which they found steady and lucrative employment. 

Not far from the same date, Job B. Eldridge came here from 
the neighborhood of the " Treaty Ground " where he had been for 
some time previously employed by Gen. Tipton in making clothes 
for the Indians. Shortly after his arrival, as soon as suitable quar- 
ters could be obtained, he set up the first tailor's shop in Logans- 
port, and successfully pursued that avocation for many years, 
Thomas J. Cummings, who came about the same time, or later, 
working with him under the firm name of Eldridge & Cummings, 

October 11, 1828, James Smith, father of Judge Anthony F. 
Smith, settled here, and shortly after his arrival commenced the 
construction of a brick house on Lot 77, at the northeast corner of 
Canal and Fourth Streets, being the west section of the building. 
Afterward the property was purchased and improved by Philip 
Leamey, who built the section east of and adjoining the other, and 
opened a tavern, which for many years was known as the " Leamey 
House." The buildings and improvements are now owned and oc- 


cupied by the Panhandle Kailroad Company as a depot. About the 
same time, John Smith, Sr., father of Maj. Benjamin H. Smith, 
came here with his family and became a permanent resident. 

During the fall of the same year, Frederick W. and James H. 
Kintner, with Harvey Heth, all of whom had formerly been resi- 
dents of Corydon, Harrison Co., Ind., but more recently fi-om 
Fort Wayne, though immediately from the vicinity of the Treaty 
Ground, at Paradise Springs, in Wabash County, located in Lo- 
gansport and commenced business as saddle and harness-makers. 
Here they soon worked up a good trade and continued business for 
many years. Their first location was on the northwest corner of 
Canal and First Streets, in the building siibsequently occupied by 
Peter Longlois. Afterward, for several years, their shop was on 
the southeast corner of Lot 48, immediately west of the residence 
of the late Chauncey Carter. Frederick Kintner died more than fifty 
years ago, and Harvey Heth at a much later period. James H. 
Kintner continued to reside in this city until about the year 1868, 
when, having received a position in connection with the Indian 
agency in the Western Territory, he left here. A few years later he 
went to Indianapolis, and thence to Dayton, Ohio, where he died in 
the summer or fall of 1885. 

Andrew Waymire, from the vicinity of Richmond, Ind;, came 
here in the early part of the year 1828. Possessing great ingenuity 
and skill in different departments of mechanics, he made himself a 
very useful member of society, and did much toward advancing the 
interests and in adding to the welfare and prosperity of the whole 
community. The works of greatest moment that were wrought out 
by him were in the construction of the saw-mills and the grist-mill for 
Gen. Tipton, to whose early enterprise and foresight the people of 
Cass County, and especially Logansport, owe so much, and whose 
efforts in their behalf were so little appreciated during his lifetime. 
Mr. Waymire was not only an excellent mill-wi-ight, but a house- 
carpenter and cabinet-maker of no mean ability. There are yet 
specimens of his mechanical skill to be found among the relics of 
the past in this city. He left here in the spring or summer of 
1837, and when last heard fi-om was in one of the Western territo- 

James Wyman, formerly of Fort Wayne, came and settled here 
in the fall of 1828. After a residence in this place for a few years 


he returned to Fort Wayne, and made that place his permanent 
home. Francis Aveline, also of Fort Wayne, made a temporary 
settlement in Logansport, some time during the same season, but 
subsequently returned to his former home, having remained here for 
five or six years. Eobert Hars, another citizen of Fort Wayne, but 
formerly of western Ohio, came here some time in the summer of 
1828, and in the fall of that year, with his family, made this his 
home. He died, however, on the evening of December 25 follow- 
ing, but his family continued to be residents of the place. His 
widow, the mother of Mrs. John F. Dodds, died at the residence of 
her daughter, in this city, only a few years since. 

When Cyrus Taber came from Fort Wayne and settled in Lo- 
gansport, his brother, Samuel D. Taber, came also, but after a resi- 
dence of a few years he moved northward, and settled permanently 
on the Michigan Eoad, not far south of Plymouth, in Marshall 
County, Ind., where he kept a tavern, or place of entertainment, 
during a long series of years, and his house was one of popular re- 
sort for all who passed that way. In addition to those already 
named, John E. Hinton, Moses Eandall, Edward McCartney, Jacob 
Woodcock, Moses Chilson, Samuel Edsal, Keuben Covert, Jonathan 
Crago, Moses Barclay, Peter DeJean, and perhaps others, settled 
and resided here, temporarily, at least, during the year 1828. If 
there were others, the number was few, and their identity at this 
late day would be exceedingly diflBcult to establish. 

Toivn Corporation. — Pm-suant to the provisions of an act of the 
General Assembly of the State of Indiana, for the incorporation of 
towns, approved February 10, 1831, the inhabitants of Logansport, 
desiring to ascertain whether public sentiment was in favor of erect- 
ing and maintaining a town corporation, assembled at the Canal 
Mansion House, in said town, on Monday, September 5, 1831, and 
having organized by the election of Samuel Ward as president and 
James B. Campbell as clerk, submitted the question to the deter- 
mination of the legally qualified voters present. At that election, 
upon counting the ballots so cast, it was found that there were forty- 
five votes in favor of incorporation, and but two against. It was 
therefore declared that the town should be so incorporated, and to 
that end the territory was divided into five districts, as follows: 
First District — Bounded on the north by Eel Eiver, east by Second 
Street, and south by the Wabash Eiver. Second — Bounded on the 


north by Broadway Street, east by Bridge Street, south by the 
Wabash Biver, and west by Second Street. Third — Bounded on 
the north by Market Street, east by Fifth Street, south by the 
Wabash River, and west by Bridge Street. Fourth — Bounded 
north by Broadway to Fourth Street, west by Fourth Street to the 
alley between Carter and Ward's lots, north by said alley, east by 
Fifth Street, south by Market Street, and west by Bridge Street. 
Fifth — North by Eel River, east by Fifth Street to alley between 
Carter and Ward's Lots ; south by said alley to Fourth Street, east 
by Fourth to Broadway Street, south by Broadway, and west by 
Second Street. 

Notice was then given, dated September 6, 1831, to hold elec- 
tions in said several districts for the choice of five trustees, on Mon- 
day, September 12. At the election so held, John Ward, J. Vigus, 
Hiram Todd, John Scott and Peter Anderson were chosen trustees 
to represent said five districts. From the record of their proceed- 
ings, the first meeting of the town board was held on November 11) 
1831. Logansport, as thus incorporated, was embraced within the 
limits of the original plat only. During the existence of the corpo- 
ration, however, the limits were extended east to Tenth Street. 
The town corporation terminated in April, 1838. 

Incorporcded as a Cify. — During the session of 1837-38 of 
the Legislature of the State of Indiana, a special act was passed 
authorizing the incorporation of Logansport as a city, which act 
was approved by the Governor, David Wallace, on the 17th of Feb- 
ruary, 1888. Pursuant to the provisions of the third and fourth 
sections of said act, an election was held by the qualified voters 
residing in said city, at the ofiice of the clerk of Cass County, on 
the fii-st Tuesday, being the 3d of April, 1838, at which election 
Jordan Vigus was chosen the first mayor, John S. Patterson, re- 
corder ; Cyrus Taber, Job B. Eldridge, Philip Leamey, W. H. Wright 
and S. S. Tipton were chosen aldermen to represent the five wards 
of the city ; and Robert B. Stevenson, treasurer. In accordance 
with the requirements of Section 12 of the chai'ter, all said ofiicers 
appeared before Lismund Basye, Esq., a justice of the peace of said 
county, and took the oath prescribed by law. The fii-st meeting of 
the boaad of aldermen or common council was held at the office of 
Tipton & Patterson, on Wednesday, the 11th of April, 1838, at 
which meeting and the one succeeding (April 12) the following 


other officers were chosen: Henry Chase, city attorney ; Jacob Hull, 
high constable; Levin Turner and Benjamin Green, collectors and 
assessors, and also, police constables ; DeHart Booth and Barton R. 
Keep, street commissioners ; John Dodd, flour inspector, gauger and 
sealer of weights and measures; John B. Turner, measurer of 
o-rain, lumber wood, coal and lime; Joseph P. Berry, weigher of 
hay; George Weirick, common crier. Wm. H. Wright and Spier 
S. Tipton were also appointed a committee to draft ordinances. The 
city government as then organized, modified from time to time by 
the law-making power of the State, has since maintained a succes- 
sive existence, greatly enlarged her territorial area and the measure 
of her population. In June, 1870, the boundaries of the city were 
extended, east, west, north and south, so as to embrace an extent of 
territory equal to nearly eight square miles ; but subsequently the 
general area was diminished to the extent of two square miles, or 

Addiiions. — At the time Logansport became clothed with the 
powers incident to a city government its boundaries were designated 
by Eel River on the north and northwest, by the Wabash River on 
the south, and by Ninth Street on the east, that territory including 
only the original plat laid out by Chauncey Carter, and the several 
additions laid out by Gen. John Tipton in his lifetime. Aside from 
the original plat, the following principal additions have been incor- 
porated with and become a part of the city of Logansport, as now 

Tipton's First Addition, consisting of forty-eight lots lying 
immediately east of, adjoining, and of uniform size north and south 
with the original plat, was laid out by John Tipton on the 3d of 
August, 1833, and extends east to Seventh Street, between Market 
and High. 

Tipton's Second Addition, consisting of fifty-five lots, lying im- 
mediately east of the First Addition, and the lots of uniform size 
with those in the preceding addition, was laid out by John Tipton 
on the Sth of June, 1835, between Seventh and Eighth Streets, and 
between Market and High, and from the canal to the Wabash River 
between Oak and Berkley Streets. 

Tipton's Third Addition, consisting of sixteen lots, bounded 
north by Eel River, south by High and Eel River Streets, and east 
by the Canal, was laid out by John Tipton on the 5th of October, 


Tipton's Fourth Addition, consisting of fifty-four lots, lying im- 
mediately east of the Second Addition, and extending south of Market 
Street, on both sides of Spencer Street, and east to Ninth, was also 
laid out by John Tipton on the 27th of October, 1835. 

Administrator's First Addition, consisting of fifty-five standard 
and fifty-one out-lots, each equal to two standard lots, Ipng imme- 
diately east of Tipton's Foiu-th Addition, between Ninth and Twelfth 
Streets, extending fi-om High Street to the canal, was laid out by 
the administrators of the estate of John Tipton, deceased, pursuant 
to the order of the probate court of Cass County, on February 13, 

Administrator's Second Addition, consisting of twenty-seven 
out-lots, each equal in area to eight standard lots, lying immediately 
east of the Administrator's First Addition, between Twelfth and Fif- 
teenth Streets, extending fi-om High Street to the canal, and be- 
tween the canal and the Wabash Eiver, westward to Berkley Street, 
was laid out by the administrators of John Tipton, deceased, pur- 
suant to the order of the probate court of Cass County, on June 8, 
1843. The out-lots embraced in the two preceding additions were 
subsequently subdivided by the purchasers thereof at different pe- 
riods, and designated on the records as additions laid out by the sub- 
dividing proprietors. 

(Original) AVest Logan, consisting of 201 lots, lying on the 
northwest bank of Eel Eiver, in George Cicott's Eeserve, and east 
of Barron's Eeserve, was laid out by "William F. Peterson and Ed- 
ward H. Lytle on September 28, 1835. 

W. L. Brown's Addition, consisting of eighty lots, in the east 
part of Barron's Eeserve and adjoining the original plat of West 
Logan, on the west, was laid out by William L. Brown on Novem- 
ber 20, 1853, and comprises that part of the city of Logansport, 
known as " Brownstown." 

Harvey Heth's Addition, consisting of twenty-four lots, lying 
west of and adjoining William L. Brown's Addition, between Lin- 
den and Bates Streets, was laid out in Lot 2 of the partition of 
Barron's Eeserve, by Harry Heth on April 27, 1863. 

Mary Ann Heth's Addition, consisting of forty lots, lying im- 
mediately west of and adjoining W. L. Brown's Addition, between 
Wheatland Street and the Wabash Eiver, was laid out by Mary 
Ann Heth on April 2, 1866. 


John P. Usher's Addition, consisting of 139 lots, lying east 
of Fifteenth Street and between Spear Street and the canal, was 
laid out by John P. Usher on May 26, 1863. 

George T. Tipton's First Addition, consisting of seventy-two 
lots, lying east of Fifteenth Street, between Eel River and Spear 
Street, was laid out by George T. Tipton on July, 1853. 

Noah S. LaRose's First Addition, consisting of eighty lots, ly- 
ing between Eighteenth and Nineteenth Streets and between High 
and George Streets, was laid out by Noah S. LaRose on July 6, 

Sarah M. Tipton's Addition, consisting of 109 standard and nine 
out-lots, lying east of N. S. LaRose's First Addition, and extending 
from Eel River south to Spear Street, was laid out by Mrs. Sarah 
M. Tipton, widow of the late George T. Tipton, deceased, June 2, 
1873. George T. Tipton's Second Addition lies immediately south 
of this. 

D. D. Dykeman's Third Addition, consisting of 319 standard 
and ten out-lots, occupying the grounds adjacent to the shops of the 
Panhandle Railroad Company, the area known as the homestead 
of Gen. John Tipton, was laid out by D. D. Dykeman on May 5, 

D. D. Dykeman's Fourth Addition, consisting of ninety-two 
lots, lying between the west line of West Logan and Heth Street, 
and between Wheatland and Pratt Streets, was laid out by David 
D. Dykeman on April 22, 1874. 

Noah S. LaRose's Second Addition, consisting of 103 lots, ly- 
ing immediately north of the Wabash & Erie Canal, between 
Hanna's Addition to West Logan and Josephus Atkinson's Addition, 
was laid out by Noah S. LaRose on June 26, 1872. 

Josephus Atkinson's Addition, consisting of 144 lots, lying 
south of the College grounds and west of College Street, was laid 
out by Josephus Atkinson on June 10, 1872. 

Taberville, consisting of 116 lots, lying south of the Wabash Rivgr 
and east of the Michigan Road, was laid out by Allen Hamilton and 
Cyrus Taber on July 11, 1853. 

Besides these, there are numerous additions of more or less 
magnitude, laid out by John B. Shultz, W. H. Standley, William 
Douglass, Humphrey Taber's estate, James Cheney, T. C. White- 
side, Dodds & Buchanan, Cecil & Wilson, and others, at differ- 


ent times, all of which are included in the corporate limits of the 

ChurcJies. — The First Baptist Chnrch was organized in 1829. On 
the 26th day of December of that year John Smith, Charles Polke, 
David Patrick, Rhoda Shields, Nancy Ross, James Smith and 
Nancy Smith met for consultation concerning the question of a 
church organization in Cass County, and the preliminary steps 
necessary to its satisfactory accomplishment. The articles of 
faith, as recognized by the Regular Baptist Church, were declared 
and signed by those present. 

On the 20th of February, 1830, pursuant to the request of those 
abore named, and the desire of others of like faith in Cass County, 
John Knight, William Hance, and John Lenuon, from Deer Creek 
Church, and Elder Samuel Arthur, from Wea Church, met for the 
purpose of organizing them into a Gospel Church, Elder Arthur 
acting as moderator and John Lennon as clerk. A council being 
thus organized, the several brothers and sisters first named pre- 
sented their letter, which being read, the council made the follow- 
ing proclamation: 

We, the above presbytery, do hereby certify that we have, pursuant to their 
request, constituted them into a Gospel Church. 

John Lennon, Clerk. 

After organization, the church appointed Charles Polke as clerk, 
and adopted the name of Eel River, as that by which the new 
. church should be known. James Smith was chosen moderator at 
the succeeding meeting, held on the 20th of March. 

From that time forward church meetings were held monthly, and 
on the 19th of March, 1831, fixed '-Rules of Decorum" were adopt- 
ed, the better to expedite business. During this period, Elder 
James Smith usually administered to the spiritual wants of the 
church. Afterward, Elder William Reese "took care of the church," 
and continued in that relation, at intervals, until June, 1838, at 
which time "Elder William Corbin was regularly invited to spend 
half his labors in the Gospel at this place." 

Meanwhile, some differences of opinion having arisen in mat- 
ters appertaining to the imity of faith and practice, on the 2d of 
March, 1839, a revision of the articles of' faith was ordered, and 
Elder Corbin, Aaron Yantis, William Aldrich and George Weirick 
were appointed a committee for that purpose. On the 6th of April 


following, the revised articles were presented, read and adopted, 
together with the church covenant. 

In the spring of 184:2 there was, for the time being, a great re- 
vival of interest in the affairs of the church, which seemed to calm 
the troubled waters of discord, and cause many new applications 
for membership to be presented and accepted according to usage. 
About this time Elder William M. Pratt, brother of the late Daniel 
D. Pratt, visited this county, and, participating in, gave new interest 
to the revival effort before in progress. Elder Pratt remained here, 
laboring with earnest zeal and marked effect, for more than a year, 
the membership having increased under his ministrations more than 
200. Mr. Pratt's term of service with this church closed on the 
30th of September, 1843. 

On the 2d of December, 1843, Eev. Demas Eobinson, succeeding 
Elder Pratt, began to labor with the church in the relation of pas- 
tor, and sustained that relation acceptably until the spring of 1845. 
Elder Eobinson was called as a supply until a settled pastor could 
be secured, entering upon the duties of that relation September 6, 
and continuing until December 6, 1845. At that date Elder E. T. 
Manning was called to succeed him in the pastoral relation. For 
several months preceding a general feeling of disquietude prevailed 
among the members, manifesting itself in numerous and protracted 
delinquencies in their attendance' upon church services. These 
manifestations continued with little abatement through the year. 

Elder C. M. Eichmond was chosen pastor on the 5th of Decem- 
ber, 1846, his term of service, however, was to be counted from the 
10th of October preceding, because from that date he had been sup- 
plying the pulpit in the interest of the church. Notwithstanding 
the frequent change of pastors during the past few years, want of 
unity continued to prevail, more, perhaps, from a dissatisfaction 
concerning the nature of the old church polity, than from any other 
■cause. To remedy this element of discord it was proposed to mod- 
ify the ancient articles so as to conform essentially to the advanced 
opinions of dissenting members. Failing in the success of a move- 
ment so necessary to the healthy growth and prosperity of the 
church, and the faithful observance of Christian duties, withdraw- 
als fi'om membership became the rule rather than the exception. 
Finally, the necessity for a new organization, more in accord with 
the advanced thought of the day touching matters of faith and dis- 


cipline, was a settled conviction. Yet, occasionally meetings and 
services continued to be held until April 3, 1852, when the First, or 
" Eel Kiver Kegular Baptist Church " in Logansport, ceased to ex- 
ist as such. The day of its usefulness having passed, it was imme- 
diately succeeded by the incoming of the Second Baptist Church. 

Second Baptist Church, which had perfected its organization 
previously, on the 4th of April, 1847, pursuant to previous notice 
of the purpose contemplated. This purpose is fully set forth in the 
preamble to the new organization: 

Believing tlie time has come when we can best secure our advancement in piety 
and religious enjoyment, and extend aid to the cause of truth, by withdrawing 
from the First Baptist Church of this place, on account of dissensions and long con- 
tinued neglect of gospel discipline, and consequent inability of said church to pur- 
sue an efficient course of action; and seeing no prospect of riddance from these 
and other obstacles to the prosperity of said church, we, therefore, agree to organ- 
ize into a new church, by adopting the following constitution, by-laws, covenants 
and articles of faith. 

This meeting was presided over by Eev. C. M. Kichmond, Sam- 
uel A. Hall acting as clerk. The following persons constituted the 
original membership, having adopted the proposed new regulations 
and attached their names thereto: J. A. Taylor, S. A. Hall, "William 
Aldrich, Daniel Ivins, J. H. Crain, C. M. Kichmond, W. H. Aldrich, 
Mary A. Aldrich, Virginia Loomis, Mary P. Eichmond, Lucinda 
Weirick, Elizabeth Eichardson and Harriet Neff. 

Among the first efforts put forth by this new church toward in- 
siaring a prosperous future, were to secure the services of an effi- 
cient pastor, the organization of a Sunday-school, and the erection 
of a suitable building in which to worship. Elder C. M. Eichmond 
was chosen pastor, and he entered at once upon the active discharge 
of his duties. The first board of trustees consisted of Adkins Nash, 
Samuel A. Hall and James A. Taylor. 

At a meeting of the council of churches within Association limits, 
on the 26th of May, 1847, it was ''Resolved, unanimously, That this 
council does hereby recognize the Seeond Baptist Church, of 
Logansport, as a regular Baptist Church, established in accordance 
with Gospel principles." Elder Deweese, then, on behalf of the 
council, through Elder C. M. Eichmond, extended the hand of fel- 
lowship to the church thus organized. On the loth of January, 
1848, Adkins Nash and Timothy C. Merrit were elected the first 
deacons. On the same day, a donation of $114, to be appropriated 
toward the purchase of a lot for the church, was made by the 


" Baptist Female Benevolent Society," of Logansport, and grate- 
fully accepted. 

Early steps were taken, by the appointment of appropriate com- 
mittees of conference, to devise a plan of union of the First and 
Second Churches. These efforts, after numerous interchanges of 
opinion, were finally successful, and on the 1st of February, 1849, 
the plan of such union was perfected. 

After the close of the term of service for which Elder Richmond 
had been employed, the church was without the services of a regu- 
lar pastor until July, 13, 1849, when Elder Demas Robinson was 
again called. He continued in charge until October 5, 1850, when 
he was succeeded by Elder John P. Barnett, who commenced his 
labors on the 17th of November following. On the 1st of February, 
1852, Elder Barnett resigned his charge, and the church was then 
without a pastor until August 29, 1852, when the vacancy was sup- 
plied by Elder H. C. Skinner. Subsequently, at a meeting of the 
church on the 1st of October, 1853, Elder Skinner resigned his 
charge as pastor, and was succeeded temporarily by Elder Demas 
Robinson, whose relationship with the church was summarily closed 
by voting a withdi-awal of its fellowship on the 4th of March, 
1854. Afterward, Elder "W. F. Parker was called, but he closed 
his pastoral relation in June, 1855. Services were irregular there- 
after, until the employment of Elder J. R. Ash, on the 31st of July, 
1856, who continued his labor with the church until March, 1858, 
when he resigned his charge. 

Early in the year 1854, the wants of the church began to fore- 
shadow the necessity of building a house of worship of enlarged 
proportions, for the accommodation of its increased membership. In 
February of that year, the requisite preliminary action was had in 
the matter, and not long afterward the new building was put under 
contract. The result was the erection of the present commodious 
brick church, on the northeast corner of Seventh and Broadway 
Streets, in the city of Logansport. It was dedicated on the 9th of 
March, 1862. 

Elder Edward W. Clark succeeded Mr. Ash, as pastor of the church 
and remained until July 15, 1860, when Elder Silas Tucker, who had 
previously been invited, took charge of the pastorate. Elder Tucker 
labored very earnestly and with great acceptance for the upbuilding 
of the church and for the best interests of the cause he engaged to 


promote. While lie was thus engaged, the new house of worship, 
before commenced, was completed and set apart by dedication, the 
dedicatory sermon being preached by him on that occasion. Dr. 
Tucker continued to labor with this church until the close of the year 
1871, with marked success in his pulpit efforts and pastoral rela- 
tion. About one year prior to the severance of his relations with 
the church, a careful review of the situation showed a membership 
of 272 persons, of whom 217 were reported in good standing, 33 of 
doubtful standing, and 22 whose standing was unknown. Subse- 
quently, 85 names were added to the roll of church membership 
prior to the year 1878. 

After the departure of Dr. Tucker, Elder A. H. Stole was called, 
and began his work on the 30th of August, 1872, continuing until 
July 1, 1877. On the first Sunday in January, 1878, the pulpit 
was occupied by Rev. H. L. Stetson who was subsequently called 
to the pastorate and entered upon the discharge of his duties as 
such. Mr. Stetson has since labored succesfuUy, and as an evidence 
of that success, a magnificent brick parsonage was erected north of 
the church in the summer and fall of 1881. The membership num- 
bers at this date 221. 

Second Presbyterian — New School. — To Rev. Martin M. Post, 
D. D., the credit is due of sowing the first seed, which, under his 
careful culture germinated, and in due time developed into the 
Presbyterian Church of Logansport. Attracted by the prospect of 
a new town, situated on lands recently purchased of the Pottawatto- 
mie Indians, of great promise and vacant of religious institutions, 
where he could commence his life work, and " build on no other 
man's foundation," he came here Christmas week, in 1829. Up- 
on his advent into Logansport two females constituted the entire 
Presbyterian element within an area of twenty miles around. 
" Within forty miles, save at one place, there was no organized 
church. Soon a small Baptist Church, and a few months later an 
equally small Methodist class, were gathered." In this field, uncul- 
tivated as it was, he began and laid the foundation of the church 
of his choice. On Thursday evening, December 31, 1829, under 
his direction, the first weekly prayer-meeting under the auspices 
of the Presbyterian Church was held in the "old seminary " build- 
ing, on Market Street. " A union meeting for prayer, sustained by 
females, was early established, and in times of special religious in- 


terest numerously atttended; twenty-five or thirty such helpers in 
in the gospel on some occasions thus met from the several congre- 
gations; and from the dawn of our history, for whatever piety and 
good works have existed in Logansport, the obligation is largely 
due to women ; the prayers of the living and the departed are its 
richest treasure." 

A Sabbath-school was formed in May, 1830, of which Mr. Post 
was superintendent. This was the only one in Logansport for sev- 
en years, and in 1836 it numbered 125 scholars. The church 
proper was organized on the 22d of January, 1831, with 21 mem- 
bers. The developed germ vitalized on the 31st of December, 
1829, by the establishment of the weekly prayer-meetings, whereby 
the energies of the faithful were concentrated and consecrated to 
the noble work. "As the fruit of a religious interest, greater, relative 
to the population, than has since been in the county; 13 were ad- 
ded before the close of the year," 34 within a period of two years 
after the institution of that humble, unpretentious, prayer-meeting. 
All this, too; was the result of earnest, imselfish effort on 'the part of 
the leading spirit directing the work. 

"Again, in 1837," says Mr. Post, "10 by conversion were re- 
ceived at one time, and after having dismissed 26 to aid in forming 
country churches, there remained 117 members. Within a period 
of two years (1836-37) 68 had been added, the lai-ger part recent 
immigrants. Soon the tide set back, the population of the city for 
a while diminished, the public works — the canal and bridges — being 
completed and the times reversed." Within a period of thirty years 
from the organization of the church 382 members were received 
and participated in its exercises. The results attained in the 
eighteen years succeeding give assurance that the kind and quality 
of the spiritual instruction received, with the personal example of 
the reverend instructor, who watched over it during the early years 
of its upbuilding, have had much to do in the measure of the per- 
manency and usefulness of the church to-day. 

"Father Post," as he was familiarly known, continued his pas- 
toral relation with this church from its oi'ganization until 1866, when 
he was relieved from active work in that relation. He was suc- 
ceeded by Eev. Adolphus S. Dudley, whose term of service com- 
menced with the close of Dr. Post's thirty-sixth year of patient 


watch and care over the interests vital to the upbuilding and pros- 
perity of the society best known as "Father Post's Church." 

While Dr. Post ceased to labor as the pastor of this church in 
Logansport, his time was appropriated almost exclusively to mis- 
sionary work among those branches of the parent church in the 
city, which his paternal care had planted and nurtured in the coun- 
try adjacent, during the later years of his useful and exemplary 

Mr. Dudley commenced his work with an interested zeal com- 
mensurate with the magnitude of his task, continuing thus to main- 
tain, by his assiduity, the extensive popularity of the church, ac- 
quired through the long years of Father Post's pastoral experience. 
He remained in charge during the succeeding three years, at the 
end of which time Dr. James Matthews was chosen to succeed him. 
The church, under his ministrations, maintained its former prestige 
in the religious world. Dr. Matthews resigned his charge some 
time during the spring of 1874. After a short interval Eev. Eobert 
B. Stimson was clothed with the pastoral charge in Dr. Matthews' 
stead, continuing in that relation until the last of April, 1876. He 
was succeeded, a short time after, by Rev. Koswell C. Post, young- 
est son of the late Martin M. Post, D. D., who, in fact, founded the 
church, and to whose example and watchful care, it owes so much 
to-day. The church, perhaps, was never in better condition, and its 
sphere of usefulness never more completely occupied, than at that 
period. Dui-ing his pastorate, extensive improvements, before com- 
menced, were vigorously prosecuted, and when he was called to a 
larger sphere of work, this church and congregation parted with him 

In January, 1881, Rev. Edward S. Scott was called, and upon 
the completion of the improvements referred to, he was duly in- 
stalled pastor of the chui'ch April 10, 1883. Since that time, as 
before, the church prospered greatly, under his administration, and 
a healthy interest has continued to be manifested. The congrega- 
tions are large, and the Sunday-school, conducted as an auxiliary of 
the church, has a good attendance, and, with the officers and teachers 
in charge, is doing an efficient work. 

The chiirch property in its present condition has cost about 
$20,000, and is fi-ee from debt. Indeed, the financial condition is 
said to be most encouraging, and its recent experiences in spiritual 


growth warrants the expectation of a larger measure of Divine 

First, or Old School Presbyierian.— Until 1838, when the Pres- 
byterian Church of the United States was divided into two distinct 
branches, the New School, or Second Church, as it is now known, em- 
braced the whole family of the church in Cass County, and was repre- 
sented by Rev. Martin M. Post, to whose fostering care it is indebted 
for the high rank awarded to it in this community. From that date a 
gradual separation of the two elements began to take jDlace, the 
breach continuing to widen until, by the action of the Logansport 
Presbytery, at a later period, the disintegration became complete. 
The outgrowth of these proceedings of the controlling authority of 
the chvxrch-at-large was the organization of what was declared to 
be the " Old School Church." 

This new organization dates its existence from the 19th of 
March, 1840, when it took the name by which it continued to be 
kno^vn until the reunion was effected some years ago. Afterward, 
it was known and designate(J as the First Church. A year or two 
anterior to the division before mentioned, the Rev. John Wright — 
father of John W. and Williamson AVright — who had been, for the 
thirty-two years preceding, pastor of the church at Lancaster, Ohio, 
resigned his charge at that place and took up his residence in 
Logansport, whither his two sons had preceded him. Upon the 
organization of the cliiu-ch here, Mr. Wright took charge of it tem- 
porarily, and on the Sunday following, James Harper and William 
Brown were ordained by him as elders, the first chosen by the new 
society. In the absence of these latter gentlemen, Joseph Corbit, 
who had been ordained as such during his residence in Ohio, acted 
as elder j^^o fern. The first board of trustees chosen consisted of 
Joseph Corbit, James W. Dunn and John W. Wright, and the first 
regular pastor chosen was the Rev. James Buchanan, in the spring 
of 1841, who continued to hold that position until the time of his 
death, in September, 1843. From the date of the organization up 
to the period of Mr. Buchanan's death, there were fifty-three addi- 
tions to the original eighteen who constituted the first membership. 

Some time in the year 1842, Williamson Wright donated to the 
chm-ch Lot No. 144 in Tipton's Fourth Addition to Logansport, on 
condition that a stone edifice be erected thereon, at a cost of not less 
than $2,000, and maintained as a church. The necessary building 


was accordingly erected on said lot, being completed in 1842, and 
subsequently enlarged by adding twenty feet to its length. 

The first meetings of the society were held in the second story 
of a frame building on the northwest corner of Broadway and Fourth 
Streets, before, at the time, and afterward used as a school-room. 
The site of that old building is now occupied by McTaggart's Block. 
In this room the organization was consummated, where, also, the 
successive meetings were held from that time forward until near the 
close of the summer, or early in the fall, of the year 1840. Then a 
room in the third story of a brick building on the north side of 
Market Space was prepared, and occupied for church purposes until 
the fall of 1842, when the new church, being completed, was first 

In the spring of 1844 Kev. Thomas Crowe, of Hanover, Ind., 
was called as pastor. He was a youug man of much promise and 
greatly beloved by his congregation, but in consequence of the fail- 
ing health of his wife he returned to his former home in the fall of 
1847. During his ministry, William Thornton, Andrew Young and 
Robert Rowan were elected additional elders. There were also 
eighteen members added to the chui'ch. 

From the time of Mr. Crowe's departure until the fall of 1848, 
Dr. Frederick T. Brown, licensed at a presbytery in Logansport, 
supplied the pulpit here, before accepting a call fi-om the First 
Church, in Madison, Ind. Other supplies were only transient. 
Succeeding Frederick T., Rev. Hugh Brown was called to the pas- 
toral charge of the church in the fall of 1848, having meantime re- 
turned fi'om China, whither he had gone as a missionary. He re- 
mained in charge here one year, and, declining to remain longer, he 
removed hence to northern Illinois. During his ministry here, 
however, there were twenty-four additions to the membership of the 

The next pastor was Rev. Adam Haines, a young minister of 
superior ability, who, in consequence of ill health, did not remain 
long, and finally surrendered his trust into the hands of Rev. Levi 
Hughes, the latter taking charge ot the church as its pastor in the 
year 1852. Mr. Hughes held the pastorate until the fall of 1859, 
when he resigned and removed to Minneapolis, Minn., as a means 
of recuperating his overtaxed mental and physical energies. As the 
result of his labors here the chiirch buildinor was enlarged, the base- 


ment overhauled, prepared and furnished for the Sunday-school, 
and a large addition made to the membership of the church. From 
that time until the spring of ISGl, the pulpit was temporarily sup- 
plied by Rev. H. E. Henneigh and Eev. H. W. Shaw, the latter, 
during that period and before, being principal of the Logansport 
High School. 

At the time indicated above Rev. J. C. Irwin, having been 
called, took the pastoral charge. During his ministry the parson- 
age property adjoining that of the church was purchased, and has 
since been used as such. The ministry of Mr. Irwin was very suc- 
cessful, in that he labored zealously in the execution of the trust 
reposed in him. At one time a leave of absence for three months 
was granted him, to canvass for the endowment of the Logansport 
Presbyterian Academy. "While he was thus absent the pulpit was 
supplied by Rev. C. H. Dunlap, who awakened a lively religious 
interest, the result of which was the addition of sixty-four members 
to the church. These, with the other additions under Mr. Irwin's 
personal ministrations, made the total increase 130 members during 
his term of service, which closed in the summer of 1867. 

" On the 1st of August, 1867,- Eev. William Greenough, of 
Piqua, Ohio, on a previous call of the church," became pastor, and 
continued in that relation until the fall of 1870. The accessions 
during the time he labored with the church were seventy, in a period 
of three years. 

He was succeeded by Rev. L. M. Scofield in Jtanuary, 1871. 
Under his administration the church and Sunday-school were largely 
increased in the number of their members respectively, and in the 
efficiency of their labors. The good results wrought out by the su- 
perior executive ability of those having in charge the management 
of church aifairs made the necessity for further enlargement of their 
house of worship apparent. With this object in view, plans and 
specifications were agreed upon, and the work of remodeling the old 
structure commenced about September 10, 1877. So rapidly was' 
the work pushed forward that the magnificent new church edifice, 
soon after completed, was ready for occupancy on the 2d day of De- 
cember, 1877, and services were held there, accordingly, on that 
day. Mr. Scofield continued to serve his church faithfully and well, 
laboring assiduously to promote its best interests until failing health 
called upon him to relinquish his pastorate and seek rest in other 


He was subsequently succeeded by Rev. Wellington E. Loucks, 
a gentleman of high intellectual culture and a gifted orator, who, 
from the beginning, has been exceedingly popular among his peo- 
Y)\e, commanding the attention and interest of the large congrega- 
tions that greet him from Sunday to Sunday. Under his adminis- 
tration the prosperity of the church has equaled, if, indeed, it has 
not surpassed, that enjoyed in previous years. 

The Sunday-school is large, well conducted and prosperous, also, 
under the efficient management of the excellent corps of school of- 
ficers and teachers, who give it their special attention. 

Cumberland Presbyterian. — This branch of the Presbyterian 
Church of the United States, until within a few years past, had not 
found many advocates of its peculiar doctrines among the religious- 
ly inclined of our population. However, in accordance with the ex- 
perience of all countries whose continually increasing and changing 
population brought people of all phases of religious opinion togeth- 
er in the same community, the law of progress exerted itself here, 
and from the numerously diversified masses evolved the elements 
necessary to the introduction of the forms of worship recognized by 
the communicants of the church of Cumberland Presbyterians. In 
the course of time religious teachers of that persuasion began to do 
missionary work in our midst, with satisfactory results. Yet, it was 
not until October, 1875, that formal steps began to be taken toward 
the cultivation of the field thus opened. At that time the Board of 
Missions of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church apjwinted and lo- 
cated Rev. A. W. Hawkins as missionary in Logansport. 

The labors of Mr. Hawkins were not without "success, and in 
January, 1876, the inducements were such that the hall of the West 
Side Engine House was secured, in which to hold regular services. 
On May 14, following, the congregation was organized in accord- 
ance with the formularies of the church, with a membership of 
thirty-five persons, zealously interested in the cause and desiring to 
promote its prosperity and usefulness, Mr. Hawkins, at the same 
time, being retained as pastor. 

In June, 1877, the congregation purchased a part of Lot No. 
201, in the original town plat of West Logan, fronting on Broadway 
and Pawnee Streets, for which they paid ^1,000. About the 1st of 
September, following, a substantial church edifice was commenced, 
82x55 feet in size, and one story in height, and completed in due 


time, the structure being neat and comely in appearance, and well 
adapted to the purpose for which it was erected. It was dedicated 
to the worship of the Most High, according to the usages and forms 
of this branch of His church, on the third Sunday in December, 
1877. Since that time the church has prospered satisfactorily, the 
labors of the pastor having been most efficient, and directed to the 
development of Christian examples worthy of imitation. ' 

After laboring faithfully during a period of nearly ten years, 
and placing the society on a self-reliant basis, in the spring of 1885 
Mr. Hawkins tendered his resignation as pastor in charge, which 
was accepted, and in April of the same year left for another field of 
labor. His place was immediately filled by calling Rev. James 
Best, of Ohio, to the pastorate, under whose administration the af- 
fairs of the church continued to prosper as before. In the spring 
of 1886, on the tenth anniversary of its organization, the society de- 
clared itself self-supporting, having up to that time received mis- 
sionary aid. At this time the church work is in healthy condition 
and prosperous. Bi-weekly services are held by the pastor at the 
brick schoolhouse on the Michigan Pike, four miles northeast of the 
city, for the accommodation of members living in that vicinity. Three 
societies, iu connection with the church, are actively engaged in 
missionary and other auxiliary work. 

Broadway Methodist Episcopal. — As the Methodist was the 
church of pioneer work in Indiana generally, so, especially, in the 
Wabash Valley. Soon after the first settlements had been made, 
itinerants of the Methodist persuasion began to visit this locality, 
delivering their messages of peace and good-will to audiences con- 
sisting of a few of the scattered settlers who, not infi-equently, were 
brought together through the instrumentality and patient searching 
out and earnest solicitation of the messengers themselves. 

In September, 1828, the Western Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church was held at Madison, Ind. At this session Eev. 
Steven R. Beggs was appointed to the Crawfordsville Circuit, em- 
bracing Crawfordsville, Covington, Attica, Lafayette, Delphi, Lo- 
gansport and Fort Wayne. At the succeeding conference, held in 
1829, Mr. Beggs was appointed especially to the Logansport mis- 
sion, embracing Logansport, Delphi and Lafayette. The ajDpropria- 
tion for missionary purposes that year aggregated no more than 
^50, a stipend so small that at the end of the first quarter Mr. Beggs 


was relieved from duty here and sent to another charge. He was 
sncceeded in this field by Eev. Hackaliah Vrendenburgh. His suc- 
cess does not appear to have been great, since his name is not often 
mentioned in the details of missionary labor along the Wabash. 

On January 23, 1830, a notice was published in the Poiia- 
xcaitomie Times, the only newspaper then in Logansport, that on the 
following Saturday evening and Sunday morning, at 11 o'clock, 
January 80 and 81, Eev. M. Nudeuburg, Methodist, would preach 
in the seminary, then the only jiublic building in Cass County 
adapted to such purposes. At this date, it is understood, the first 
class was formed, out of which the Methodist Church of Cass County 
to-day has grown. The first class was composed of Judge John 
Scott and wife. Joseph Hall and wife, Benjamin Enyart and Joel 

Meetings were then held usiially at the seminary, but often at 
private residences by this nucleus of a church until 1887, when a 
small class-room was built on the east side of Sixth Street, about 
midway between Broadway and North Streets. In this building 
meetings of the class were held ; and here, also, the first Sunday- 
school was organized. Subsequently, in 1839, a brick church of 
fair dimensions was built on the same lot. By this time the mem- 
bership had so increased that a building of greater capacitj- than 
the old class-room became a necessity, and was erected accordingly. 
During the succeeding twelve or thirteen years this was the house 
of worship for the congregation. Within the last period two ses- 
sions of the General Conference were held there, and had ample 
seating room. In the course of time, however, even this building 
became insufficient to meet the wants of a greatly increased mem- 
bership, and steps were taken to supply that want by the construc- 
tion of a new house in which to worship. Accordingly, a lot was 
pui-chased on the northeast corner of Broadway and Eighth Streets, 
the old property having been sold with that object in view, and the 
erection of the present stately stone edifice occupying that site was 
commenced in 1851, and pushed forward toward completion as rapidly 
as the magnitude of the undertaking would permit. It was first 
occupied for church purposes aboiit the year 1851, and has a seat- 
ing capacity of (iOO or more on the upper floor and 300 on the 
lower. The membership in 1878 was more than 300. The Sunday- 
school, at the same time, had at least 200 pupils and active, zealous 
and efficient workers. 


Commencing with the year 1828, when itinerant work began in 
the circuit embracing Cass County, the following are the names of 
the ministers who have officiated here as circuit or as local preachers 
during a period of fifty years: Steven R. Beggs, Hackaliah Vren- 
denburgh, S. C. Cooper, Amasa Johnson, J. A. Brouse, B. Westlake, 
Mr. Trusler, J. Colclazer, George M. Beswick, Mr. White, S. Reid, 
W. L. Huffman, William Wilson, I. N. Stagg, W. Wheeler, J. 
Black, Thomas Sinex, H. B. Beers, R. D. Robinson, V. M. Beamer, 
H. N. Barnes, Nelson Green, A. Greenman, B. Webster, J. N. 
Campbell, J. W. T. McMullen, Safety Laytou, W. J. Vigus, M. H. 
Mendeuhall, M. Mahiu, N. Gillam, R. H. Sparks, J. R. Stilwell, C. 
W. Lynch and Mr. Mahin. At the close of Mr. Mahin's term of serv- 
ice in 1879, Rev. D. M. Brown was placed in this charge, but at 
the end of a year and a half he was relieved, at his own request, 
and Rev. J. H. Ford called- to supply the vacancy thus created. At 
the conference next succeeding Mr. Ford was again placed in 
charge. By other successive appointments he held the pastoral re- 
lation with this church until April, 1885, and, as a consequence, re- 
mained here for a longer period than any other minister. During 
his stay important and valuable improvements were placed in the 
auditorium. Unusual interest was manifested through the agency 
of his extraordinary pulpit efforts. Rev. W. H. Daniels was ap- 
pointed to succeed him, and is still in charge. The membership is 
about 350. 

Markei Street Methodist Episcopal Church. — This church is a 
branch of the Broadway Methodist Church, and had its origin in 
the organization of a Sunday-school in the eastern part of the city 
on Market Street. The organization was perfected in 1865, and 
was made eminently successful, chiefly through the superintending 
instrumentality of Sheridan Cox, of the city public schools, and T. 
B. Louis, an efficient co-laborer. The society, of which the Sun- 
day-school was the nucleus, was organized on the 9th of May, 1868, 
with Rev. E. Hendricks as pastor, who, jjroving himself unequal to 
the task, was relieved in less than three months. Rev. P. Garland 
succeeded him, and served in the pastoral relation during the bal- 
ance of the year. In the summer of 1868, a tabernacle was 
erected on the southeast corner of Market and Fifteenth Streets, 
and used for church purposes until the fall of 1869, when a com- 
fortable frame church edifice was erected near the site of the old 


tabernacle, and subsequently dedicated according to the forms of the 
church. This society has been the means of promoting a healthful 
Christian interest in that part of the city and elsewhere. The min- 
isters who have officiated as pastors of this branch of the church 
since Mr. Garland have been James Leonard, during the year 1869; 
Jarnes Black, in 1870; O. S. Harrison, in 1871; C. P. Wright, dur- 
ing the years 1872, 1873 and 1874; C. G. Hudson, in 1875; N. G. 
Shackelford, during the years 1876 and 1877; C. P. Wright, again, 
in the years 1878, 1879 and 1880 ; Samuel N. Campbell, in 1881 ; 
M. S. Metts, in the years 1882 and 1883, and L. J. Naftzger, the 
present pastor, during the years 1884, 1885 and 1886. As shown 
by the report last year the church had 124 full members and 59 
probationers. Since that time a goodly interest has been main- 
tained and an increased membership the result. The Sunday-school 
conuected with this church is in a healthy and prosperous condi- 
tion, and is the instrument of much good. Its management is excel- 
lent. At the time of the church report in 1885 there were 270 
pupils, with an average attendance of about 200. 

Wheattand Street Church. — This, also, is a branch of the Broad- 
way Methodist Church, and the outgrowth of a Sunday-school or- 
ganized, in that vicinity, in the summer of 1873. The formation 
of a class soon followed, and a society was organized on the 7th of 
May, 1874, which greatly prospered. A tabernacle, as a tempo- 
rary place of worship, was, in the meantime, erected. Very soon 
after the preliminary steps were taken, the contract let, and in a 
comparatively short period a fine brick edifice was fully completed 
and ready for occupancy. It was formally dedicated to the wor- 
ship of God, under the auspices of the society, by Kev. Dr. Eobin- 
son, of Fort Wayne, on the 21st of November, 1875. For a few 
mouths subsequent to the organization of the society Rev. J. E.. 
Stilwell was the minister in charge; his work, however, did not ex- 
tend far into the conference year 1874. He resigned, and Eev. J. 
M. Chaffin was called to supply the vacancy until May, 1875. 
Succeeding him, Eev. C. P. Wright came to the pastorate, and such 
was the interest accompanying his work that twice he was re-called 
and placed in charge of the spiritual and other interests of the con- 
gregation. At the end of the first year of his labors the society 
numbered 113 full members. 

After the expiration of Father Wright's term of service, Eev. 


W. C McKaig became the pastor, remaining in charge until May, 
1879. His labors were successful in this field, keeping alive and 
renewing the interest o£ earlier years. Eev. A. S. Wootten was 
his successor, and remained two years. At the end of that term 
the membership had diminished somewhat, the number shown be- 
ing only 106, as against 113, in 1876 — the interest, however, was 
unabated. Eev. Frank G. Brown followed Mr. Wootten, but stayed 
only one year, the membership being then ninety. Eev. M. S. 
Metts was his successor and remained with the society during the 
next two years, the church maintaining a healthy interest in the 

The present pastor, Eev. E. E. Neal, began to labor in the in- 
terest of this branch of the church in 1883. During his pastor- 
ate the membership has largely increased, the number now being 
120. The Sunday-school under the supervision of the church dur- 
ing the past two years, has especially prospered, and the number of 
pupils has largely increased. 

Trinity Episcopal. — Of the earliest efforts to establish this 
branch of the Christian church in Logausport no record now re- 
mains, the families of that faith who resided here in the first years 
of the city's history having moved away or passed to the life be- 
yond. It is manifested, however, that there were such, and that 
they felt the want of church association. 

The family of Dr. Graham N. Fitch, who came to Logausport 
in 1834, was the first of which we have now any satisfactory ac- 
count who were members of this church. They still remain here, 
and their connection with the j^arish is unchanged, except that Mrs. 
Fitch and Henry S., the son, have departed this life within a few 
years. Of those who held services here in early days, were the Eev. 
Mr. Todd and Dr. C E. Johnson, who became rector of St. John's 
Church, of Lafayette, and Et. Eev. Jackson Kemper, Missionary 
Bishop of the Northwest, and afterward Bishop of Wisconsin, when 
it became a separate diocese. Of these we have no record of any 
official acts, except in the case of the latter. 

It is said that an organization antecedent to the present one ex- 
isted here, but when it was consummated, or how long it continued to 
exist, and under what name, we are left now wholly to conjecture. 

The first record of any official act was on Sunday evening, 
August 2, 1840, at the house of John S. Patterson, the baptism 


of Emily, daughter of J. S. and E. A. Patterson, born August 22, 
1839 ; Henry Satterlee, Martha and Emma Boyer, children of Dr. 
and H. V. Fitch. The foUomng day five children of Dr. and S. 
Merrill were baptized. 

Pertinent to the oi-ganizatiou, we hare the following mem- 
oranda : 

" The Rev. Francis H. L. Laird, acting imder the authority of 
the Domestic Committee of the Missionary Society of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church in the United States, arrived with his wife 
and seven children in the city of Logansport, on the first day of 
July, A. D. 1841. " On the 19th of the same month he organized 
a congregation by the name of Trinity, at which time, in the school 
room occupied by the missionary, a vestry was elected, composed of 
the following persons: John S. Patterson, John Green, Dr. T. H. 
Howes, John E. Howes, Capt. Jacob Hull, Dr. G. N. Fitch, Dr. J. 
F. Merrill, J. S. Twells." 

The erection of a church seems early to have engaged the atten- 
tion of Mr. Laird, for on the 8th of August, 1842, his record shows 
that contributions toward the erection of the first Trinity Church 
had been received at that date, to the amount of 8046.10 in cash 
and securities — an excellent showing. 

The erection of the church progressed with a fair degree of 
activity, the basement being first completed and occupied. The 
audience room was used, though the building was not entirely com- 
pleted, in 1843. The first record referring to the use of the church 
room bears date February 19, 1843. 

The first class for confirmation was presented to and confirmed 
by Bishop Kemper (who confirmed the first five classes), March 
IT, 1842. In this class was Mrs. H. V. Fitch ; in the third class, 
October 19, 1845, was Mrs. Tuttle. On the 8th of August, 1841, 
the Lord's Supper was first administered by Mr. Laird to five per- 
sons. During his rectorship, which closed some time in the spring 
of 1845, the number of communicants in the church aggregated six- 
teen. Succeeding Mr. Laird came the Rev. A. Clark, who was ap- 
pointed missionary at Logansport by the Missionary Society, en- 
tered upon the discharge of his duties January 16, 1845. Twenty 
communicants were added during the pastorate of Mr. Clark, mak- 
ing thirty in all, of whom nineteen were lost by removal and three 
by death, leaving a total membership of only fourteen at the close 
of his labors in the summer of 1848. 


After the resignation of Mr. Clark, only occasional services were 
had, by Bishop Kemper on the 24:th of June, 1849, on a visit for 
baptism and confirmation, and at other times by Eev. Mr. Phelps, 
of Delphi. Rev. "Walter E. Franklin took the rectorship on the 13th 
of March, 1853, remaining in charge until May, 1854. During his 
stay he baptized six, married one, and eight were confirmed. Bishop 
Upfold ofiiciating. At the close of his pastorate, in May, 1854, 
Mr. Franklin reported to the convention twenty communicants. 

Rev. John Trimble, Jr., succeeded Mr. Franklin, in January, 
1855, remaining in charge until March 31, 1857, his number of 
communicants aggregating nineteen, three only being confirmed 
during his term. 

For more than a year following no regular services were held. 
In the summer or fall of 1858, Rev. Elias Burdsall became rector, 
and continued in that relation until the close of the year 1859, when 
the list of communicants numbered twenty-three. 

Rev. Mr. High became rector in the early part of 1860, and held 
the charge until the beginning of 1862, the result of his labors ex- 
hibiting a marked increase, the list showing thirty-six communi- 
cants at that date. Subsequently, until July, 1863, the parish was 
without a rector. Rev. Mr. Hudson, of Delphi, officiating occasion- 
ally, but with what result the record fails to disclose. At that date 
Rev. A. B. Brush took charge of the parish and remained with it 
until near the close of 1864. On his resignation the list of com- 
municants numbered forty-six. 

From this last date until the 1st of October, 1866, there was no 
settled rector, and as a consequence, church interests were greatly 
depressed and a spirit of lukewarmness developed itself to the 
manifest detriment of the cause. With these influences surround- 
ing. Rev. J. E. Jackson was called from Delphi, and at once entered 
upon the active duties of his rectorate. Under his administration, 
work was vigorously prosecuted, twenty-six being baptized and 
twenty-five confirmed, showing sixty-six communicants at the close 
of his term of service, in May, 1868. 

Again, for about one year, there was a vacancy in the parish, 
and the effect was discouraging; "no one to look after the little 
flock, nor to break unto them the bread of life." At this time Rev. 
E. J. Purdy was called, and he accepted the rectorship on condition 
that the old church edifice, which was in a dilapidated condition 


from the effects of a bad foundation, should be disposed of and a 
new one erected without delay, even before the building of a rectory. 
These conditions were complied with, and the transposition imme- 
diately commenced, the work being rapidly forwarded to completion, 
so that on the 19th of February, 1870, just twenty-seven years from 
the date of the first service held by Mr. Laird in the old church, the 
first service was held in the new, under the ministrations of Mr. 
Purdy. The new church has seventy-four pews, and will comfort- 
ably seat 300 persons, while the old one had but twenty-eight pews 
and seated no more than 120. Thus a great change had been 
wrought, a change demanded by the improved condition of things. 
The work done by Mr. Purdy and by his congregation, has rarely 
or never been surpassed in this community. In addition to the 
erection and furnishing of this new church edifice and providing for 
the cost thereof, a fine rectory has been built and the church sup- 
plied with a large pipe organ of suflicient capacity to fill the entire 
building with melody. 

Mr. Purdy resigned in 1880, and from that time until the Sunday 
preceding Easter, in 1884, the pulpit of Trinity Church was supplied 
for longer or shorter terms of service by Rev. John A. Dooris, Rev. 
Mr. Puriker and Mr. Hutchins. At the date given, Rev. Harry 
Thompson was called to the pastorate, and accepting it has occupied 
the position from that time to the present. 

First Universalist Church. — From the organization of the 
county up to 1841, few sermons in advocacy of the doctrines per- 
taining to a belief in the ultimate salvation of the human family 
from error and unbelief had been delivered in this locality. At that 
date Rev. Erasmus Manford, then of Lafayette, Ind., but after-n'&rd 
and at the time of his death a resident of Chicago, began to deliver 
his messages expository of the faith he cherished to the good peo- 
ple of Logansport and adjacent neighborhoods, at intervals, as time 
and opportunity offered. Then there were not more than fifteen, 
possibly twenty, out-spoken believers in the teachings of that de- 
nomination in the entire county. Mr. Manford was an active and 
zealous worker in the cause he labored to promote. The bounda- 
ries of his mission were co-extensive with the Wabash and Ohio 
Valleys, and beyond — wherever he could secure a hearing. He was, 
indeed, the pioneer minister of that persuasion in all northern, south- 
ern and western Indiana, and he did more, perhaps, to disseminate 


a knowledge of the gospel, as he and other of the fathers understood 
it, in the great Northwest, than any other, if not all others, in those 
early days. In the winter of 1842-43 several sermons were deliv- 
ered by ministers from without the limits of the State to large and 
attentive audiences. 

As early as 1844 or 1845 Rev. William S. Clark was tempora- 
rily employed by the friends in Logansport and vicinity to preach 
at short intervals, but no effort was made to organize a society. 
From that time forward preaching was more or less frequent, which 
resulted in the awakening of a greatly increased interest in the doc- 
trines and teachings peculiar to that branch of the Christian church. 
In the summer and fall of 1857, however, meetings and services 
were more frequent than ever before, an increased desire being man- 
ifested by the public to hear proclamation of the doctrines so gen- ^ 
eraUy rej^robated in the pulpits of the less liberal sects. Occasion- 
ally ministers from other localities ventured out for the purposes of 
pioneer work, visiting Logansport and its immediate vicinity in 
their routes. Whenever one such was announced to deliver his mes- 
sage, a comparatively large and always deeply interested audience 
was sure to greet him. Among the more popular ministers of that 
period who were wont to visit and preach to those waiting congre- 
gations, were Eevs. B. F. Foster, of Indianapolis ; Isaac M. West- 
fall, of Lafayette, and T. C. Eaton, of Illinois. Through their ef- 
forts a spirit of inquiry was awakened, and the determination to or- 
ganize a society soon became manifest. In August and September 
of that year, and early in October, there were frequent seasons of 
revival, Eev. Mr. Eaton laboring to that end. 

On the 10th of October, 1857, an organization was effected with 
a membership of seventeen, consisting of David Neal, Joseph Ed- 
wards, Hannah G. Edwards, Joseph N. Hendrickson, Mary J. Hen- 
drickson, Jane Eldi-idge, Catharine P. Davis, T. B. Helm, John Co- 
mingore, Elon Wade, James L. West, Mabel J. Wade, Susan P. Ea- 
ton, Philip J. LaKose, Elliott Lamb, James Chappelow and James 
J. Bates. 

After that, for a time, services were held only once in a month, 
regularly, sometimes more frequently, but at irregular intervals, at 
which, either Mr. Foster, Mr. Westfall or Mr. Eaton officiated, the 
society growing m strength and popularity. The services of a local 
minister were not secured until the fall of 1859, when Thomas Gor- 


man was employed. He remained with the church less than one 
year. After the retirement of Mr. Gorman, another minister was 
not engaged until the beginning of 1861, when Rev. J. D. H. Cor- 
wine assumed the pastoral charge. Mr. Corwiue was a man of su- 
perior scholarship, and very successful in his pulpit efforts, his 
style being easy, natural and singularly convincing. He maintained 
his relation as pastor for a pai-t of two years, a portion of his time 
being occupied as principal of the Logansport Collegiate Institute. 

Until 1863, the services of the church were held in the court 
house. At that date, the building of the commodious brick church 
on Broadway Street was put under contract in a reasonably short 
time, at a sum little in excess of $6,000. The lot on which 
the house was erected being 110 feet front, had been previ- 
ously, in July, 1859, purchased at the low price of §1,500. The 
church was dedicated to the worship of the All-Father, on the 
13th of May, 1866, the dedicatory sermon being preached by Rev. 
J. H. Tuttle, then of Chicago, 111. In the meantime Rev. W. W. 
Cui-ry, then recently from Madison, Ind., had been selected as 
pastor, and, as such, was in charge on the occasion referred to. Mr. 
Curry was succeeded by Rev. N. S. Sage, on the 1st of Oc- 
tober, 1868, and remained during the succeeding two years. His 
pulpit efforts were of a high order of oratory, and for a time very 

On the 17th of September, 1871, Rev. S. S. Hebbard became 
pastor, but after remaining with the church for sis months he closed 
his labors in that relation. From that date until March, 1874, the 
church was without a regular pastor. At that time Mr. Sage was 
again called, and accepted the pastoral charge. He closed his 
labors in that relation finally, in December, 1876, with a 
membership of nearly 100. During the four years succeeding, 
services were held at irregular intervals by transient ministers, no 
regular pastor being employed. In the summer of 1881, Rev. 
Town send P. Abell was chosen pastor, and occupied the pulpit reg- 
iilarly, discharging the duties pertaining to his charge with consci- 
entious fidelity and superior ability until some time in 1883. The 
church was again without a pastor until about the close of the year 
1885, when Rev. I. B. Grandy was employed to preach two Sundays 
in the month. Under his administration a new interest has been 
awakened, and a Sunday-school is in successful operation. 



Soon after the organization of the society,- in 1857, it came into 
possession of a large fund bequeathed by the late Philip Pollard, 
for the erection of a church edifice and securing a comfortable 
property. The building and property above referred to stand as an 
enduring monument of his liberal benefaction. A marble slab in 
front has this inscription: "First Universalist Church — Philip 
Pollard's Legacy — 1863." 

St. Jacohi — German Evangelical Lutheran. — This branch of the 
German Lutheran Church was organized in Logansport, in the fall 
of 1848, with a membership of nine persons, of whom but three, 
perhaps four, are now living in the city. 

The organization was perfected by Rev. Carl Sturcken, who be- 
gan to labor in this field with that end in view, some time in the 
summer of 1848, with such good effect that in the fall of the same 
year the formation of a society was consummated under the regula- 
tions prescribed by that branch of the Christian Church, and Mr. 
Sturcken chosen pastor. He was a man of good executive ability, 
and his success in the management of affairs jDertaining to his jjas- 
torate was well indicated in the excellent results accomplished. 
During his administration of these affairs, indeed in the earlier years 
of his experience here, steps were taken by him for the creation of a 
fund to be appropriated toward the erection of a suitable house of 
worship. In 1852, the means thus accumulated were utilized in the 
construction of a respectable chui'ch edifice on Canal Street, 50x32 
feet in dimensions, and two stories in height, fully equal to 
the requirements of his congregation. The first story was ar- 
ranged for and occupied as a schoolroom, the second for meetings 
of the society and for church services. Both these departments 
were amply provided for, and the school for the education of the 
children of his charge was early supplied with efficient teachers, by 
whom the school, which was large, was well conducted, with good 
discipline and careful instruction. Mr. Sturcken remained with the 
church, laboring with commendable zeal and energy for its up-build- 
ing and usefulness, until some time in the year 1864 — a period of 
about sixteen years. He subsequently moved to Baltimore, Md., 
where for several years he was in charge of one of the principal 
churches of the city, and died there a few years since. 

On the 1st of May, 1865, Rev. J. H. Jox, until then of the 
State of Wisconsin, became pastor, succeeding Mr. Sturcken, and 


has since labored with eminent success in that relation. He is a 
man of quiet, unobtrusive manners, of much learning and great en- 
ergy of character. Possessing these elements he seems to be ex- 
actly adapted to the wants of his people, and has, thus far, shown 
himself to be just the right man in the right place. During the 
years 1867-68, the congregation — which had grown from the orig- 
inal nine communicants to a number so greatly increased as to make 
necessary a house of worship of greatly enlarged proportions, — un- 
der the personal supervision of its excellent 2:)astor, built a magnifi- 
cent brick edifice at the northeast corner of Spear and Ninth Streets, 
at a cost of about $14, 000. 

This building, as originally constructed, had a large tower above 
the fi'ont section, containing a chime of three bells, surmounted by 
a tall, graceful spire. It was one of the finest specimens of church 
architectui-e in the city, and had a seating capacity of 800. At a 
later date a large pipe organ was placed in the auditorium, of greater 
capacity than in any other church of the city, and every way supe- 
rior in construction. This church edifice was destroyed by fire on 
the morning of March 7, 1883, but the peojale of the congregation 
were not disheartened. The excellent pastor taking the lead, the 
congregation put forth renewed energy, and, going to work with 
characteristic zeal, soon the rebuilding process was in active 
operation, and the structure rapidly forwarded toward completion. 
On Christmas day, of the same year, services were held in the new 
auditorium, the building, in its several apartments, being fully com- 
pleted just anterior to that date — with a new organ of superior 
workmanship and power — the whole at a cost of $15,000. 

Connected with the church property, there is a parsonage, 
Bchoolhouse, and dwellings for each of its teachers. The society, 
therefore, is in possession of elements developing into the means for 
promoting the greatest good to those for whose present and future 
well-being these judicious and painstaking efforts have been be- 
stowed. Mr. Jox, in keeping open and in healthy condition these 
avenues of success, performs an amount of labor that would scarcely 
be recognized outside of his congregation, were not the results at- 
tained speaking monuments, so carefully and quietly is it done. 

The schools here, as at present conducted, are under the imme- 
diate management of two or more teachers, the average daily attend- 
ance being from 150 to 175 pupils. In these schools, religious in- 


structiou is a leading feature, the branches usually taught in our 
public schools receiving the attention necessary to qualify the in- 
structed for all the practical duties of life. 

Evangelical English Lutheran. — For more than thirty years 
ministers of that denomination, at irregular intervals, have met with 
such believers in the city and country as could be found, and preach- 
ing to them kept alive the waning zeal for the ancient faith. Dat- 
ing back to a period almost contemporaneous with the organization 
of the German Evangelical Lutheran Church in Logansport, there 
were believers in the doctrines of the Lutheran Church, who, upon 
many questions not essentially vital, dissented from the usages of 
the German branch and were unwilling to worship at that altar. 
Hence, with the appearance of Rev. J. J. Purcell, in the spring of 
1884, a rich field awaiting cultivation at the hands of the skillful 
husbandman was presented. The result was eminently successful,, 
and June 22, 1884, the society was organized with a membership of 
eighteen. In the beginning, services were held in the schoolhouse 
at the foot of Market Street, where a Sunday-school was also organ- 
ized. Later a lot was purchased at the southwest corner of Market 
and Second Streets and the preliminary steps taken toward erecting 
a brick church edifice thereon, of sufficient dimensions for present 
purposes. The building was completed late in the fall of 1885, and 
dedicated to public woi'ship on the 13th of December, 1885. Though 
not large it is substantially built and tastefully finished. Mr. Purcell 
is entitled to great credit for his excellent judgment, and for the suc- 
cess attending his zealous labors. The cost of the church and lot 
aggregates about $5,500. There is now a membership of sixty- 
seven in the church and 110 in the Sunday-schofcl. Both are in a 
healthy and prosperous condition. 

Christian [Disciples). — About the 1st of October, 1842, Elder 
John O'Kane, then of Crawfordsville, Ind., was invited by some of 
the fi-iends accepting his form of religious belief, to visit Logans- 
port and minister to their spiritual wants. Pursuant to that invi- 
tation, he came here and labored successfully during his sojourn of 
several weeks. The result of his evangelizing at that time was the 
organization of the first Christian (or Disciples) Church in Logans- 
port, and, indeed, in Cass County. Elder O'Kane was a man of 
superior ability, and exerted a powerful influence for good in the 
line of his calling by his genial manner and excellent social quali- 


ties, iu addition to his eloquent presentation of the doctrines pecu- 
liar to that branch of the Church of Christ, calling many to com- 
munion with him. Occasionally, for several years afterward, he 
visited this city and county and preached to large audiences, in- 
cluding the congregation to whom he was the first to break the 
bread of life. These occasional ministrations by Elder O'Kane ex- 
tended though a period of four or five years, and were the means of 
keeping alive and active the working elements of the original or- 

Subsequently, Elders Nelson, Hopkins, Mullis, Franklin, and 
other ministers visited the church at intervals, as opportunity offered, 
and delivered their messages to the peojjle, keeping alive the interest, 
almost latent, that the mission might eventually be accomplished. 
There were, however, no regular services held nor pastoral care be- 
stowed upon the congregation until the year 1857, at which time 
Elder William Grigsby settled here. Under his care, the church 
increased in numbers, and a good influence was spread abroad, serv- 
ices being held with some degree of regularity, notwithstanding a 
stated house of worship had not yet been provided. To supply 
this want, different public halls were used for congregational worship 
for several years, the court house being secured for that purpose. 
Elder Grisby continued in charge of the pastorate for about ten 
years, and was then succeeded by Dr. H. Z. Leonard, who preached 
regularly for the congregation during a period of two or three years. 

In the meantime Elder Carpenter, of Wabash, and others came 
and held series of meetings by which means a lively interest was 
awakened, and the church was inspired with new vigor in the pro- 
mulgation of its work. The result was the employment of Elder J. 
L. Parsons, who was called to the pastoral charge of the church iu 
the year 1870. Elder Parsons remained with the chui'ch during 
the three years succeeding, laboring with great efficiency and zeal. 
Under his administration of affairs, the long-felt want of a place of 
worship, permanent and of proper dimensions for the growing con- 
gregation, was supplied. Soon after his settlement here he set 
about devising means for the accomplishment of this most desirable 
enterprise. His labors, seconded by the active co-operation of the 
congregation, were crowned with success, and the close of the year 
1871 found the society in the occupancy of a neat and commodious 
stone chapel, situated at the southwest corner of Ninth and Spear 


Streets, in the city of Logansport, erected and furnished at a cost of 
$8,200. From that time, during the seven years next succeeding, 
the membership was increased nearly 200, and the congregation 
coutiniied otherwise in a healthy and prosperous condition, enjoying 
the fruits of zealous labor in the dissemiiaation of gospel truth. 

At the close of Mr. Parson's term of service Elder C. M. Kob- 
ertson was called, sustaining the relation of pastor of the church 
with distinguished ability during the years 1873-74. His labors 
were crowned with eminent success, and the evidence of his devotion 
to the cause he represented will long remain to remind his people 
of the master-spirit who ministered to them in times past. While 
engaged in the special work of this congregation, during the year 
1874, mainly through his instrumentality, a branch church was or- 
ganized on the south side, and a beautiful brick edifice erected as a 
house of worship, the congregation supplj'ing it with the necessary 

After Mr. Robertson closed his term of service, the church was 
without a pastor for a short time, yet services were conducted with 
considerable regularity by leading lay members of the church. 
Ultimately another pastor was called in the person of Elder C. W. 
Martz, who remained in charge during the following year, but his 
labors were less efficient than those of Elder Robertson. Upon the 
close of the term for which Elder Martz had been employed, serv- 
ices were again held by lay members, who thereby prevented the 
subsidence of interest in the observance of Christian duties. In the 
meantime traveling elders occasionally occupied the pulpit, until 
some time in the spring of 1877, when Elder John Ellis was engaged 
as pastor. He remained in charge for about three years, the inter- 
val between the close of his term of service and the appointment of 
his successor being supplied as heretofore by lay members, who 
took it upon themselves to conduct services with a good degree of 
regularity rather than let the interest subside. 

Elder W. E. Lowe became pastor some time in 1881, and 
remained in that position during the two and one-half years suc- 
ceeding. In July, 1884, Elder L. R. Norton was called to the pas- 
torate, and has discharged the duties of that station faithfully from 
that time to the present. His administration of affairs has been 
more than ordinarily siiccessful, more than 100 members having, 
in the meantime, been added to the church. At present the mem- 


bership numbers 240, and the society is iu every way iu a healthy 
condition and prosperous, indicating, unmistakably, that pastor and 
people are mutually satisfied with existing relations. 

The Sunday-school is large, and all the workers therein are 
active and zealous, doing all in their power to make their work 
interesting and beneficial. The school numbers now about 125, 
including pupils and teachers. 

Xoi-ih Side Christian Church. — This church, which is an off- 
shoot from the one just noticed, was organized on the 18th of April, 
1874, on the north side of Eel River. Anterior to that date a series 
of meetings had been held in that locality, which resulted in the 
organization referred to, under the auspices of Dr. H. Z. Leonard 
and other's. On the 12th of February, 1873, a series of meetings 
was commenced, looking to the organization o^ a separate society, 
and continued with general regularity \mtil the work was accom- 
plished. At that time there were 27 original members, Dr. Leon- 
ard being the officiating minister. Of those 27 members 22 were 
baptized by Dr. Leonard from October, 1873, to the date of organi- 

The organizing services were conducted by Elder William J. 
Howe, of Chicago, in the brick meeting-house previously erected on 
Sugar Street, east of Michigan Avenue. The instituting ceremo- 
nies being completed, the Elder delived an elaborate discoui-se on 
the subject of church officers and their duties. On the conclusion 
of the discoiu'se, Elder Howe was called to the chair, and Benjamin 
Sparks appointed secretary. Then H. Z. Leonard and S. A. Cus- 
ter were appointed elders by the jjresiding officer, which ajDpoint- 
meuts were confirmed by a rising vote of the members of the new 
church, and by the presiding elder declared to be the regularly con- 
stituted elders of the congregation. In like manner, Levi D. Horn, 
Amos Mobley and James Wilson were appointed and confirmed as 
deacons. Thus, also. Mrs. Clary and Mrs. Morehart were selected 
as deaconesses. 

Since the organization of this society and the conclusion of Dr. 
Leonard's labors, services have been held with only partial regu- 
larity. In 1876-77 Rev. S. K. Sweetman was the pastor in charge. 
At a later date Rev. John Ellis, pastor of the Ninth Street Christian 
Church, officiated at stated periods. Subsequently a similar course 
has been pursued, but the services are irregular. For the past 


eighteen months the building has been occupied by members of the 
First Presbyterian congregation, for whom Rev. B. S. Clevinger 
has been preaching. 

South Side Mission {Christian). — Some time in 1874 a society 
was organized, composed of members residing in that vicinity, the 
meetings being held in one of the public halls in Shultztown. Dur- 
ing the coiirse of that year a brick church edifice of fair dimensions 
and comfortably furnished was erected on the corner of Sherman 
and Lincoln Streets. The organization of the society and the 
building of the church were chiefly the work of Rev. C M. Robert- 
son, pastor of the Ninth Street Church, who appropriated a consid- 
erable portion of his time to that special work, and the interest cre- 
ated through his instrumentality was a suflicient reward. After 
Mr. Robertson had retired from the pastorate of the older church 
in the city, services, from time to time, have been conducted by 
Revs. Ellis, Lowe and Norton. 

St. Vincent cle Paul (Catliolic). — During the two years pre- 
ceding the year 1838 the members of the Catholic Church, at that 
time becoming quite numerous in consequence of the great influx 
of laborers engaged in the construction of the Wabash & Erie Ca- 
nal throiigh this portion of the county, a large majority of whom 
were either members of that church or from childhood had been 
reared under the influence of its teachings, were frequently visited 
by traveling clergymen looking after the interests of the church in 
new and uncultivated fields, who, mingling with this people, exerted 
an influence in favor of establishing a place of worship, where their 
ancient faith might be renewed at stated intervals in coming years. 
The first work of this character, so far as is now disclosed by the 
records extant, was performed by Rev. Father John Claudius Fran- 
cis (or Francois, as it was then written), about the beginning of 
the year 1838 purchased a small tract of five acres in the northeast 
corner of Lot No. 2 of the subdivision of three sections of land re- 
served to the children of Joseph Barron, by the treaty with the Pot- 
tawattomies, in October, 1826, of Harvey Heth and wife, the con- 
veyance bearing date February 27 of that year. Subsequently, 
within that and the following year, other pui-chases were made by 
him from the same j^arties, and immediately adjoining the first 
named tract, making in the aggregate 20.13 acres. On the tract 
first purchased, and a few rods southward fi'om the south bank of 


the canal he erected a small frame biiilding. of moderate dimeu- 
sious, and a story and a half high, suited to the purposes of a resi- 
dence and a temporary place of meeting for the members of his 
flock, prior to the erection of a more permanent church edifice. In 
this unpretentious domicilian retreat, away fi-om the bustle of the 
outside world, this venerable father fi-eqiiently, in that early day, 
celebrated mass according to the forms of the church, and otherwise 
administered to the spiritual wants of his congregation. For nearly 
a quarter of a century afterward the building was popularly known 
as the "Priest's House." 

Shortly after the consummation of the work just noticed, Father 
Francis set himself about the further work of erecting a small, but 
sufficiently large, stone church on Duret Street, and a little to the 
westward from Knowlton & Dolan's machine shops, to meet the 
wants of his congregation for many years. This church Avas first 
used some time in the year 1839, and continued to be so used until 
the summer of 1860, when the increased membership made the con- 
struction of a church house of greatly enlarged proportions a 
necessity. The new building was put under contract under the 
supervision of Father Hamilton, and the work so far progressed that 
in August, 1860, the corner-stone was laid with appropriate cere- 
monies. About one year from that date the stately edifice near the 
southwest corner of Ninth and Spencer Streets was dedicated to the 
worship of God, in due form. 

Since the dedication of the new church the old one is no longer 
used for the purposes of its original construction. The projection 
of the new building and the schoolhouse near by, and their subse- 
quent completion, are chiefly due to the untiring energy and zealous 
labor of Eev. Geo. A. Hamilton, deceased. Other extensive and 
much need improvements were made afterward, in the erection and 
completion of a substantial and comfortable brick pastoral residence 
immediately east of and adjacent to the chiirch. 

The following priests have ofliciated as pastors of the congrega- 
tions worshiping in this church since the date of organization: 
Rev. Father Francis, from 1839 to 1841; Father Martin, 1841 to 
1844; Rev. Michael Clark, in 1844; Rev. Maurice De St. Palais, in 
1845 ; Eev. F. Fischer, from 1846 to 1848 ; Rev. P. Murphy, from 
1848 to 1850; Rev. Patrick McDermott, in 1850; Rev. F. O'Connell, 
in 1852; Rev. Fr. A. Carius, from 1852 to 1855 : Rev. William Doyle. 


from 1855 to 1857; Key. Charles Zucker, from May, 1857, to 
August, 1859; Kev. George A. Hamilton, from August, 185!t, to 
January, 1864; Eev. Bernard J. Force, from January, 1864, to April, 
1868; Eev. M. E. Campion, from April, 1868, to January, 1869; 
Eev. F. Mayer, fi-om January, 1869, to July, 1871; Eev. Fr. Law- 
ler, fi-om July, 1871, to May, 1878; Eev. E. P. Waters, from May, 
1878, to June, 1883, and Eev. M. E. Campion, from June, 1883, to 
the present time. Of those early priests, Father Martin was after- 
ward a Bishop in the South, and Father St. Palais was afterward 
Bishop of Vincennes. In connection with Father St. Palais' pas- 
torate in Logansport, is a historical incident worthy of especial 

On the occasion of his visit to Paris, in 1845, he was presented 
with a bell to be placed in his church at Logansport. It was of ex- 
cellent tone, unique in design and of superior workmanship, the 
metal of which it was composed containing an unusually large pro- 
portion of silver, made, so it was said, under the especial super- 
vision of the donor and for the only proper use of the Church of St. 
Vincent de Paul, in this city. In due time it was received here and 
put in its place with the most solemn ceremony. When the old 
church ceased to be used for its original and legitimate purpose, 
this souvenir bell was transferred to and now occupies a position in 
state, in the vestibule at the door of the new church. The new 
church is now entirely out of debt, Father Campion, during his 
present administration, having removed the last vestige. The whole 
church property is valued at not less than $20,000. And about 325 
families now compose the membership. 

St. Joseph's [Caiholic) is an offshoot from St. Vincent de Paul, 
a considerable proportion of its original membership coming from 
that congregation. The first biiilding is of brick, situated on Second 
Street opposite the new Barnett Hotel, and was erected some time in 
the latter part of 1869, and mass was first celebrated in it by the first 
pastor Eev. Jacob Meyer, on the 2d of February, 1870. Father 
Meyer was succeeded by Eev. Von Schwadeler, who in turn was 
succeeded by Father Wittaw, and he by Father Meili. The present 
pastor, the Eev. Henry Koehne, assumed charged August 24, 1872. 
There were about sixty families in the congregation when Father 
Koehne came, and about $6,000 of debts. These debts were paid 
off in about two years under his careful management. Subse- 


queutl}', other and valuable improvements were made. The school 
was originally small and secular teachers were placed in charge. 
In September, 1877, the Sisters of Notre Dame came from Mil- 
waukee, Wis., and took charge of the school, since which time 
it has continued to prosper, and at this time there is not room 
enough to accommodate all the children who desire to attend. The 
school now contains about 250 children. The congregation of the 
church at this time embraces about 200 families. 

A little more than one year ago a new church was put under 
contract, and progressed with such rajoidity that now the building 
is under roof, a stately spire erected — surmounted by a large 
gilded cross — and the edifice itself is approaching completion, and 
when completed will be one of the most magnificent in the city. 
It is large in dimensions, fi'outing on Broadway Street — west of 
the school building which occupies the corner of the square — and 
extending north to the alley. 

St. Bridgets Church [Caiholic) is a further outgrowth fr-om 
St. Vincent de Paul, the extensive membership of that church, and 
the inconvenience of attending, by reason of the distance, of those 
living in the western portion of the city, making the question of 
building another church in that portion one of ready sohition, 
when the matter came up for deliberation and determination. The 
labor incident to the pui'chase of the necessary grounds and the 
building of the church edifice devolved chiefly upon Rev. Father 
Kroeger, who, with a zeal worthy the motive which impelled him 
forward, wi'ought diligently and earnestly. The building was put 
under contract early in the year 1875, and in August following 
was fully completed and ready for occupancy, when, on the 
15th of that mouth, it was formally dedicated to the worship of God 
according to the forms of the Roman Catholic Church. This ele- 
gant edifice was built at a cost of about §11.000 or $12,000, while 
the cost of the lot alone was §5,000, making the total cost of the 
property 816,000 or §17,000. The congregation is made up of about 
100 families, who worship there. Father Kroeger is entitled to 
great credit for the energy manifested and the end accomplisUed. 

African Methodist Episcopal Church. — The colored people of 
this city many years ago manifested a desire to seciu-e the benefits 
of church worship for themselves, and it was often the case that 
traveling ministers of their peculiar faith visited them and deliv- 


ered messages of grace to fair congregations of attentive listeners. 
Ultimately, a class was formed and services held at irreguler periods, 
sometimes by preachers from abroad and again by the better in- 
formed among the lay members. As early as 1867-68, possibly at 
an earlier date, the energies of the people were exerted toward the 
purchase of a lot and the erection thereon of a suitable place of wor- 
ship. The lot secured was at the southeast corner of Market and Cicott 
Streets, and about the year 1870 a small but comfortable church- 
house was built, chiefly through the instrumentality of Eev. J. 
Langworthy, at that time sustaining the relation of pastor to the 
congregation. During the 3'ears 1871 and 1872, the intervals be- 
tween pastoral visits were usually supplied by Messrs. James 
Hill and Willis Tutt, who, in the meantime, served the society ac- 
ceptably, maintaining a good interest ; so, also, in succeeding years 
Kev. H. H. Thompson, as pastor, served the congregation at stated 
periods, and with success, during the years 1877-80, and while 
here the church property was considerably improved, and the in- 
terests of the society otherwise advanced. Mr. Thompson was suc- 
ceeded by Bev. John Jordon, who ministered to the spiritual wants 
of his charge in 1881-82. He, in turn, was succeeded by Eev. 
John Mitchem, who remained with the society until the advent of 
Kev. Mr. Bundy, the present pastor. 

At this time the membership of the church numbers about sixty- 
seven, and is in a healthy condition, with a fine church property, in- 
cluding a neat parsonage. In connection with the church, a Sun- 
day-school has been in operation for many years, and manifests an 
interest worthy of emulation. The school now numbers about sixty 

German Evangelical Church. — The society known by this name 
was organized in Logansport, about the year 1874, and held its 
meetings for three or four years in the public school-room at the 
southwest corner of North and Eighth Streets. At a later period, 
probably about the year 1878, the congregation took the prelimi- 
nary steps toward securing a permanent place of worship. Accord- 
ingly, a small but very comfortable church edifice was erected on the 
corner of Wheatland and Brown Streets, where services have been 
held, since the completion and dedication of the building, regularly 
every Sunday. In connection with and under the control of the 
society, is a Sunday-school, which is well attended. From the best 


information at hand, the following ministers have served the con- 
gregation: Revs. W. Koenig, A. Iwan, John Schuh and N. E. 
Overmeyer, the last of whom now officiates as pastor of the church. 
Free Masonnj. — Tipion Lodge, No. 33. — The Ancient Order of 
Free and Accepted Masons, for centuries past, has been the hand- 
maid of civilization, her members carrying with them into the unbro- 
ken wilderness the fraternizing influences which have been found 
to be of such momentous value, even in the habitations of the unlet- 
tered. The primal settlements in Cass County did not afford an ex- 
ception to this rule. The first settlers here were all, or nearly all. 
of them members of this honorable fraternity, the effect of which 
was manifested in the early steps taken to establish a lodge. The 
moving spirit in this purpose was Geu. John Tipton, at that time, a 
Past Grand Master of Masons in the State of Indiana. Accordingly, 
through his instrumentality, on the 28th of June, 1828, when 
Logansport was little more than two months old. a dispensation was 
issued by the acting Grand Master, Elihu Stout, on the representa- 
tion that at Logansport, Ind., there resided a number of mem- 
bers of Free and Accepted Ancient York Masons, who were de- 
sirous of associating themselves together, authorizing them to 
assemble and work as a lodge. Under this authority, on Monday, 
the 25th of August following, M. W. John Tipton, P. G. M., insti- 
tuted the first lodge in Cass County, afterward known and designa- 
ted as Tipton Lodge, No. 33; the first officers being Hiram Todd, 
W. M. ; Chauncey Carter, S. W. ; John McGregor, J. W. ; Hugh B. 
McKeen, Treasurer; John B. Duret, Secretary; James Foster, S. D. ; 
D. F. Vandeventer, J. D. ; Robert Scott and Richard Chabert, Stew- 
ards, and Antoine Gamelin, Tiler. 

• The membership at the date of institution was twelve, and the 
number was increased to eighteen before the end of four months. 
Nearly all of the pioneer settlers who came to Cass County during 
these few months were members of the order, and soon thereafter 
affiliated with Tipton Lodge. 

On the evening of December 23, 1828, the first death in the 
membership of Tipton Lodge occurred. James Foster, at that date 
died at Miamisport (now, Peru), and was buried with Masonic hon- 
ors by this lodge, on Christmas day. His, therefore, was the first 
Masonic funeral in the county. Robert Hars, another member of 
Tipton Lodge, died on Christmas night, and was buried by the 


lodge on December 27, 1828. During the succeeding ten years, the 
following bretliren were elected and served one or more terms as 
Worshipful Master: Hiram Todd, John Tipton, Chauncey Carter, 
Hiram A. Hunter, John B. Duret, Jacob Hull, John Yopst and John 

The first meeting of members of the Masonic fraterhity in Cass 
County, at which Tipton Lodge was instituted, was held in an up- 
per room of Gillis McBean's cabin hotel, at the southwest corner of 
Market and Bridge Streets, in Logansport. For a short time sub- 
sequently, the meetings were held at the same place, until a more 
convenient hall could be procured. Several different rooms from time 
to time were used for the purpose, among them McAlister's building, 
at the northwest corner of Canal and First Streets, and in the old 
clerk's office, the latter being used for a longer period than any 
other, prior to the use of the lodge hall, on the northeast corner of 
North and Fourth Streets. 

At an early day in the history of this lodge, the building of a 
Masonic hall was put under contract, but the progress toward com- 
pletion was slow, and it was not ready for dedication until August 
2, 1837. At that time, the necessary preparations having been made, 
M. W. John Tipton, P. G. M., in the name of the M. W. Grand 
Lodge of the State of Indiana, " dedicated the new hall to Masonry, 
to Virtue, and Universal Benevolence, in ancient form." Spier S. 
Tipton delivered the dedicatory oration. The committee of arrange- 
ments on that occasion was composed of Gen. John Tipton, Uriah 
Farquhar, Chauncey Carter, Gen. Walter Wilson and John Yopst. 

On the 28th of October following, a proposition was received 
from Logan Eoyal Arch Chapter, then recently instituted, to pur- 
chase a one-half interest in the hall building and the lot upon which 
it was erected. At a subsequent meeting, held on the 4th of Novem- 
ber, a conference of the committees of the two bodies, respectively 
appointed for that purpose, having in the meantime been held, a 
report, embodying the details of the agreement arrived at, was sub- 
mitted, considered, and then unanimously adopted. Upon the 
basis of that agreement and the execution of the necessary papers, 
Logan Chapter, No. 2, became possessed of a one-half interest in 
that property. Since then the joint ownership has continued intact. 

Tipton Lodge, now, in the fifty-eighth year of its existence, as 
in the past, occupies a respectable position among the sister lodges 


in the State of Indiana. Membership, eighty-eight. The present 
officers are Charles L. Moudy, W. M. ; B. F. Conger, S. W. ; George 

A. Shideler, J. W. ; Harry Frank, Treasurer; Frank Clark, Secretary; 
J. M. Willets. S. D. ; J. Y. Wood, J. D. ; G. W. Flanegan and J. W. 
Shinn, Stewards ; John Goodrich, Tiler. 

* Orient Lodge, No. 272, was instituted June 1, 1860, under a 
warrant of dispensation granted May 30, 1860, the membership of 
which was chiefly drawn from Tipton Lodge, No. 33. The first 
principal officers were Horace Coleman, W. M. : S. B. Eichardson, 
S. W. ; George F. Johnson, J. W. A charter was granted by the 
Grand Lodge, bearing date May 25, 1861,' designating the same 
Master and Wardens. The first subordinate officers under the charter 
were Morgan N. Manlove, Treasurer; Samuel A. Bridges, Secre- 
tary; Edwin Walker, S. D. ; George P. Clem, J. D. ; W. H. Mur- 
phy and J. C. Custer, Stewards ; and Sol. Fisher, Tiler. The pres- 
ent officers are John H. Beattie, W. M. ; Henry H. Montfort, S. W.; 
Thomas Meyers, J. W. ; Charles B. Stevenson, Treasurer ; Samuel 

B. Richardson, Secretary ; George Austin, S. D. : Horace C. Lin- 
ville, J. J). ; Geo. E. Barnett and Ben. Fisher, Stewards ; George 

C. Home, Tiler. Now the membership is 155. 

Logan R. A. Cliapier, No. 2, was originally organized on the 
30th of October, 1837, under a dispensation issued under the au- 
thority of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United 
States, and bearing date October 7 preceding. John Tipton, H. P.; 
Jacob Hull, K. ; and Nicholas D. Grover, S., composed the first 
council. From the date of institution until the present time its 
membership has continued to gradually increase, including some of 
the brightest Masonic lights, companions who have taken the highest 
rank in the councils of the State. Present membership, 105. Pres- 
ent officers: C. L. Moudy, H. P.; T. B. Helm, K. : T. Austin, S. ; 
Geo. Austin, C. H. ; C. B. Stevenson, P. S. ; H. H. Montfort, R. A. 
C. ; W. S. Cassidy, M. 3d V. ; Thomas Meyers, M. 2d V. ; Ben. Fisher, 
M. 1st V. ; H. C. Eversole, Tr. ; S. B. Richardson, Secretary ; George 
C. Home, Guard. 

Logansport Council, No. 11, R. & S. M., was instituted June 
24, 1857, under the authority of a dispensation from the Grand 
Council of the State of Indiana, bearing date May 20, 1857, with 
the following principal officers : Horace Coleman, T. I. G. M. ; 
Chauncey Carter, D. T. I. G. M. ; and Uriah Farquhar, P. C. W. 


For the year ending May 17, 1858, the membership was reported to 
be twenty-nine, including twenty-four advancements. On the l.Sth 
of May, 1858, a charter was granted, and Horace Coleman, T. I. G. 
M. ; Chauncey Carter, D. T. I. G. M. ; and Uriah Farquhar, P. C. 
W., designated as the first principal officers. It has since continued 
to work under the same authority, and has a membership of seventy- 
two. The present ofiicers are Thomas B. Helm, I. M. ; George 
Austin, D. I. M. ; John H. Beattie, P. C. W. ; Thomas Meyers, O. 
G. ; Thomas Austin, Treasurer: Samuel B. Richardson, Recorder; 
George C. Home, S. and Sen. 

St. Johri's Conimandery, No. 24, K. T., was instituted by Sir 
Knight William Hacker, P. G. C. and Inspector-General of the 
Grand Commanderyof the State of Indiana, on the 1st of July, 1872, 
under a dispensation granted by Right Eminent Grand Commander 
Charles Cruft, of the Grand Commandery of Knights Templar of 
the State of Indiana. 

Previously, on the 19th of June, 1872, a convention of Knights 
Templar was held in the hall of Logan Chapter, No. 2, at Logans- 
port, Ind., at which the following Sir Knights were present: P. G. 
C. William Hacker, Baldwin Commandery, No. 2; Sir Knights Al- 
vin M. Higgins, Job B. Eldridge and Samuel B. Richardson, of 
La Fayette Commandery, No. 3 ; Allen J. Fisk, Richmond Com- 
mandery, No. 8, Indiana; and Jesse Duncan, Reed Commandery, 
No. 6, Dayton, Ohio. The petitioners for dispensation were A. M. 
Higgins, J. B. Eldridge, J. A. Adrian, Jesse Duncan, John Cooper, 
S. B. Richardson, Allen J. Fisk, Peter Chidester and F. W. 

Under dispensation the following officers were appointed: Sir 
Samuel B. Ricliardsou, E. C. ; Sir AlvinM. Higgins, Generalissimo; 
Sir Job B. Eldridge, C. Gen.; Sir Edward J. Purdy, Prelate; Sir 
Lorenzo C. Miles, S. W. ; Sir Charles F. Thompson, J. W. ; Sir 
Raymond C. Taylor, Treasurer; Sir Robert R. Carson, Recorder: 
Sir John Mackinson, Standard Bearer; Sir Williaia B. Schrier, 
Sword Bearer; Sir Danford E. Andrus, Warder; Sir George C. 
Home, C. of G. 

On the 2d of April, 1873, A. O., 755, a charter was granted, re- 
appointing the aforenamed officers. June 2 following the com- 
mandery was instituted and the officers duly installed by D. G. C. 
Sir Andrew H. Hamilton, of Fort Wayne. 


The material and working qualities of this branch of Templar 
Masonry of Indiana, place it, by common acceptation, among those 
of highest rank in this grand jurisdiction. Its apartments and 
paraphernalia are, perhaps, surpassed by none. The present mem- 
bership is ninety-six. 

The officers for 1886 are Ezra G. Parker. E. C. ; Andrew J. 
Eobiuson, G. ; Charles B. Stevenson, C. G. ; Harry Thompson, Prel- 
ats ; Thomas Meyers, S. W. ; Joseph M. Eeadman, J. W. ; Thomas 
Austin, Treasurer; S. B. Richardson, Recorder; John H. Beattie, 
Standard Bearer; William S. Cassiday, Sword Bearer; Theo. S. 
Kerns, Warder ; George C. Home, C. G. ; William H. Snyder, 1st 
G. ; John C. McGregor, 2d G. ; Charles O. Heffley, 3d G. 

FidelUy Chapter, No. 58, Order of the Eastern Star, was insti- 
tuted in the city of Logansport on the 4th of March, 1885, by Willis 
D. Engle, of Indianapolis as Grand Patron, with a charter member 
ship of thirty -six. The first oSicers chosen were John B. Winters 
W. P.; Lydia Eldridge, W. M. ; Jennie O'Connor, Assistant 
Matron; Rebecca S. Richardson, Secretary; Sallie Home, Treas- 
urer; Lizzie Jenks, Conductress; Mamie Cushman, Assistant Con- 
ductress; Mamie Lux, Adah; Annie Clarke, Ruth; Alice Meyers, 
Esther; Fannie Mull, Martha; Kate Austin, Electa; Susie Robin- 
son, Warder; Sallie Horne, Organist, S. B. Richardson, Chaplain; 
George C. Horne, Sentinel. 

The order has been in active working condition about one year 
and a half, and during that period has proven a valuable auxiliary 
of the Masonic Orders in that city, because of its tendency to culti- 
vate the social qualities of the Ancient Craft. The present member- 
ship is fifty-two. 

For the year 1886 the officers are Lydia Eldridge, W. M.; 
Oliver B. Sargent, W. P.; Jennie O'Connor, Assistant Matron; 
Rebecca Richardson, Secretary; Sallie Horne, Treasurer; Mamie 
Lux, Conductress ; Mary E. DeGroot, Assistant Conductress ; 8. B. 
Richardson, jOhaplain; Lizzie Jenks, Adah; Fannie Clarke, Ruth; 
Alice Meyers, Esther; Fannie Mull, Martha; Kate Austin, Electa; 
Susie Robinson, Warder; George C. Horne, Sentinel. 

I. O. 0. F. — Neilson Lodge, No. 12.— The Grand Lodge of the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, in the State of Indiana, was 
instituted at New Albany, Ind., on the l-lth of August, 1837, the 
charter bearing date the 17th of May preceding. The progress of 


the order was not rapid in the earlier years of its existence, but 
eleven subordinate lodges having been chartered in the succeeding six 
years. The twelfth, in order of succession, was at Logansjjort, and 
took the name of Neilson Lodge, its charter bearing date November 
21, 1843. The charter members were John Green, Job B. Bldridge, 
Francis H. L. Laird, of Logansport, and a few from Delphi, Carroll 
County, whose names are not now obtainable. John Green was the 
first N. G. of this lodge. From the fact that Neilson Lodge had 
among its members some of the oldest Odd Fellows in the State, if 
not in the United States, as well as some of the most active and 
efficient, for many years it occupied a prominent position among the 
sister lodges of the State. About the year 1854 the constant drafts 
upon the relief and charity funds of the lodge began gradually to 
exhaust the energies of her members, so that, in the course of time, 
disappointment and disaffection did their work, and the charter was 
surrendered in 1859, having long struggled to recover the wonted 
zeal of early days. Membership cards were issued to members who 
had not already withdrawn. 

An encampment was instituted about the year 1852, and, after a 
prosperous career of a few years, like Neilson Lodge, passed into 
history, a victim of illy directed zeal and mistaken philanthropy. 

Logan Lodge, No. 40. — When the discouraging condition of 
affairs in Neilson Lodge began to grow painfully manifest, the dis- 
affection took deep hold; several of the members withdrew, who, to 
the number of five — John P. Baker, John T. Musselman, George 
Cecil, Jordan Vigus and Jacob Bemisdarfer — petitioned the Grand 
Lodge for a warrant, authorizing them to work as a lodge. The 
necessary j^reliminary steps having been taken in the meantime, a 
charter was duly granted, bearing date January 13, 1847, to Logan 
Lodge, No. 40, which was regularly instituted by Job B. Eldridge, 
D. D. G., assisted by the following Past Grands: William Sullivan, 
John Green, F. E. Goodsell, Milton Hundon, J. Spencer, P. A. 
Hackelman, H. J. Canniff, John L. Robinson, M. D. Lott, Peter 
Dunkel, A. J. Field and A. M. Higgius; Jordan Vigus, N. G., and 
George Cecil, Secretary. 

For a few years subsequent to its organization this lodge pros- 
pered healthfully, but ere long the interest of the members was 
allowed to weaken — being similarly affected with Neilson Lodge — 
yet the recuperating power of a united purpose to succeed restored. 


iti) a measure, the ancient zeal, and Logan Lodge to-day enjoys a 
good degree of prosperity. Its present membership is 103. 

The officers for the year 1886 are Jacob Zimmerman, N. G. ; 
Charles L. Woll, V. G. ; Elmer Harley, Secretary; Joseph B. Ker- 
lin, F. S., and James Walklin, Treasurer. 

Eel River Lodge, No. 417. — An outgrowth of the apparent 
apathy affecting the more rapid growth of Logan Lodge, No. 40, 
was the institution of Eel Kiver Lodge, No. 417, on the 11th of 
June, 1873, under a charter granted by the Grand Lodge at the 
previous session in May to William H. Jacks, Daniel Comingore, 
Seth B. Pratt, D. C. Plank, D. T. Cook, John H. Shultz, F. C. 
Semelroth, A. B. Crampton, Hugh Hillhouse, James P. Martin and 
John W. Cost, as charter members. This new lodge was instituted 
by Corresponding Secretary B. F. Foster, of Indianapolis, as special 
deputy, at the request of the charter members. He was assisted by 
P. G. John Reynolds, also of Indianapolis. The first officers were 
William H. Jacks, N. G. ; Seth B. Pratt, V. G. ; Daniel Comingore, 
E. S., and John H. Shultz, Tieasurer. The lodge now numbers 
sixty-nine members, and its present officers are J. M. Troutmau. N. 
G.;"h. B. Weaver, V. G. ; W. W. Paiutou, Secretary; William H. 
Jacks, Treasurer. 

Goffhard Lodge, No. 574, was instituted October 22, A. D. 1879, 
in the city of Logansport. The charter members were Rudolf 
Berndt, John Geier, Fred. Hardel, John Kies. John Gottselig, John 
Hildebrand, Ferdinand Burgman, Gustav Burgman, Bernhard 
Kohtz, Isaac Cronise. The membei-ship, July 1, 1886, was twenty- 
nine. Present officers — John Day, N. G. ; Charles Felker, V. G. ; 
William Nehs, Secretary; John Geier, Private Secretary; Ferdi- 
nand Burgman, Treasurer. 

Cass Encampment, No. 119, was instituted in Logansport on 
July 9, 1872, with W. H. Jacks, A. C. Hall, Lindol Smith, W. H. 
Ashton, Russel Crim, Joseph Hartman, L. H. Shaffer, Z. Hunt, and 
A. M. Higgins as charter members. At this time the membership 
is eighty. The officers for the present term are H. B. Weaver, C. 
P. ; Joseph Austin, H. P. ; F. W. Martin, S. W. ; John Keis, J. W, : 
J. A. Amon, Scribe; W. H. Jacks, Financial Scribe; Rudolph 
Berndt, Treasurer. 

Logansjiort Canfon, No. 15, Pairiarchs Miliiani, I. O. O. F. — 
In accordance with the action of the Sovereign Grand Lodge, at its 


session held in Baltimore, Md., in September, 1883, twenty-four 
members of the Royal Purple Degree in Cass Encampment, No. 
119, petitioned for a charter authorizing the institution of a uni- 
formed degree camp. The petition was granted by W. H. Jacks, of 
this city, at that time Grand Patriarch of the jurisdiction of Indi- 
ana, who also instituted Logausport Uniformed Degree, No. 20, at 
Logansport, in accordance with the authority so granted, assisted 
by Past Grand Eepresentative J. W. McQuiddy, of Indianapolis, 
and Daniel Comingore, of Lafayette, with J. S. Craig, Commander, 
on February 28, 1884. This new degree was found to be capable 
of supplying a long-felt want ; yet it was imperfect in construction, 
and accordingly