Skip to main content

Full text of "History of Cass County, Illinois"

See other formats




^ ^^V'K^ 




^"'Tl, 'V' e" 










I .H.S 

*Y4» '^ 




tf^ J-i^'J. 


tm . 

jw^ f r 



















!/ fi 


( A " 

V K**' -,^_ti< 











I L It a 3 T^^ TED. 




■"•"^^^^J CHICAGO LEQAL NEW9 00., PRINTERS. «"*t^<-«»' 


7// A 


A FTER several months of laborious research and persistent toil, the history of Cass 
-^-*- County is completed, and it is our hope and belief that no subject of general importance 
or interest has been overlooked or omitted, and even minor facts, when of sufficient note to be 
worthy of record, have been faithfully chronicled. In short, where protracted investigation 
promised results commensurate with the undertaking, matters not only of undoubted record 
but legendary lore, have been brought into requisition. We are well aware of the fact that it 
is next to impossible to furnish a perfect history from the meager resources at the command 
of the historian under ordinary circumstances, but claim to have prepared a work fully up to 
the standard of our engagements. Through the courtesy and assistance generously afforded 

O by the residents of Cass, we have been enabled to trace out and put into systematic shape the 

Ln greater portions of the events that have transpired in the county, up to the present time, and 

I' wo feel assured that all thoughtful persons interested in the matter will recognize and appre- 

5^ ciate the importance of the work and its permanent value. 

gi A dry statement of facts has been avoided, so far as it was possible to do so, and anecdote 

^ and incident has been interwoven with plain recital and statistics, thereby forming a narrative 

C" at once instructive and entertaining. 

To those who have assisted our corps of writers in gathering material, or who have fur- 
nished, direct, matter incorporated in the work, our thanks are due, and to Hon. J. Henry 
Shaw and Judge Jno. A. Arenz, of Beardstown, we acknowledge special indebtedness. 

^ Septembee, 1882. THE PUBLISHERS. 






CHAPTER I.— Cass County— Early Notes on Illinois— The 
French Travelers and Explorers — The Indians- 
Wars of the Iroquois and Kiekapoos— Legend of 
Monsoela — Different Owners of Illinois— Beards- 
town Mound — Purchase of the Country from the In- 
dians— Miscellaneous, etc - 11 

CHAPIER II.— Settlements of the Country Not Included 
in Cass County— Some of the Pioneers and Where 
Thpy Settled— The Sangamo Country— Its Fertility 
—Prairie, Schooners — First Land Entry— Beard's 
Ferry— Beard & Marsh's Entry of Land— First Set- 
tlers of Beardstown— Deed of Defeasance — Going to 
Egypt for Corn— Arrival of Other Settlers— The En- 
trj'of Land, etc 18 

CHAPTER I.— Increase of Population— The Deep Snow 
of 1830— The Black Hawk War— Rendezvous of Sol- 
diers at Beardstown — Cause of Dr. Chandler's Settle- 
ment — Meeting Between Him and Abraham Lincoln 
—Business of Beardstown in 1834— The Early Log 
Cabins— Yankees and Yankee Tricks— Com Bread, 
etc 25 

CHAPTER IV.— Organization of Cass County— The Con- 
vention at Rushville — Legislative Act Creating the 
County— Other Acts— First Election for Officers — 
The Numberof Voters— An Incident of a Wolf— The 
Cold Day of 1837— Location of the County Seat- 
Scarcity of Money — The County Machinery Put in 
Motion- The Courts— Trouble from Horse Thieves — 
Eugene Honorius— The Census, etc 36 

CHAPTER v.— Fertile Lands of Cass— Its Geological For- 
mations — Coal Measures — Different Deposits — Coal 
— Building Stone — Legislative Representatives from 
Cass County — Principal County Oflicers Since For- 
mation—Illinois River Items, etc 52 

CHAPTER VI.— Agriculture of Cass County— Farming in 
the Primitive Times— Improved Farm Implements 
—Agricultural Fairs and Associations— Lists of Offi- 
cers— Cass County Park Association- Its Organiza- 
tion, etc.— Fine Stock of the County— Short Horn 
Herds, etc.— The Railroads, etc 66 

CHAPTER VII.— Virginia Precinct— Description, Bound- 
aries and Topography— Western Pioneer Life— Set- 
tlement of the Precinct by White People— Character 
of the Pioneers— Their Trials, Troubles and Hard- 
ships—Early Improvements and Industries— Roads, 
Bridges, etc.— Schools— The First s'chool-houses— 


Early Teachers— Present Educational Facilities- 
Churches and Preachers— Old Shiloh Church— Mis- 
cellaneous, etc "^2 

CHAPTER VIII.— City of Virginia— Its Birth, Location 
and Growth— Sale of Lots, and Additions to the 
Town— Dr. Hall, Founder of Virginia— First House 
and Store— Public Square and Court House— Busi- 
ness in the West End— The Present Business Center 
—Hotels, Mills, etc.— Doctors and Lawyers— Bank- 
ing Business — Incorporation of the City — Municipal 
Offices— Summary, etc '?9 

CHAPTER IX.— Virginia— Its Growth and Develop- 
ment as a City— The Era of Railroads— Project of 
Building the Illinois River Railroad— The Ohio and 
Mississippi, etc.- Newspapers of Virginia- First 
Paper Established in the Town— The Present City 
Press— Court Houses and the County Seat Question 
—The Jail— Miscellaneous, etc 91 

CHAPTER X. — Virginia — Religious History — First 
Churches and Preachers— The Different Denomina- 
tions and Their Temples of Worship — Sunday 
Schools, etc.— Educational— The Early Schools of 
Virginia— Pioneer Teachers— The Public Schools— 
C. P. College— War History— Secret and Benevolent 
Institutions, etc 57 

CHAPTER XI.— Beardstown— City and Precinct— Laying 
OutoftheTown— Its Location— Organization— First 
Officers— The County Seat Question— Churches — 
Schools— The Press— Railroads— The Professions- 
Early Settlers— Business Interests— War Record, 
etc 108 

CHAPTER XII.— Chandlerville Precinct— Topograph- 
ical Features— Pioneer Times— Early Families — 
Educational — Societies— Mills— Village of Chand- 
lerville.. 122 

CHAPTER XIII.— Ashland Precinct— Physical Features 
—Early Settlers — Pioneer Times — Schools and 
Churches— The Village of Ashland 133 

CHAPTER XIV.— Arenzville Precinct— Its Early History 
—The Three Mile Territory— Early Residence of the 
Settlers— Emigrants from Germany— School-houses 
and Churches in the School Districts— The Village 
of Arenz\'ille— First Lots Surveyed— Business of the 
Town— Churches and School-houses in the Villages 
— Some of the Prominent Men of the Time— Francis 
Arenz, John L Cire, Dr. George Engelbach, and 
Others— Miscellaneous, etc 143 

CHAPTER XV.— Princeton Precinct— General Descrip- 
tion—Boundaries. Topography and Surface Feat- 


nres— The Early Settlement^Pioneer Hardships- 
First MUl, and other Improvements— Walnut Grove 
School-house — Present Schools— Churches — Old 
Princeton, and its Business Enterprise— Little In- 
dian Village 155 

CHAPTER XVI.— Kichmond Precinct— Physical Features 
—Indians— Pioneer Times— Early Settlers— Schools, 
Churches and Stores 160 

CHAPTER XVII— Philadelphia Precinct^Descriptive— 
Topography and Physical Features— Organization 
as a Precinct— The Settlement of the Whites— Their 
Life on the Frontier— Pioneer Improvements — 
Churches, Schools, etc.— Philadelphia and Lan- 
caster—A Lost City, etc 166 

CHAPTER XVIII.— Monroe Precinct — Description — 
Physical Features — Settlement and Pioneer Times — 
jTowth and Improvement — Churches, Schools, 
etc 170 

CHAPTER XIX.— Oregon Precinct- Description and 
Settlement— Pioneer Life — Indiana — Churches and 
Schools 178 

CHAPTER XX.— Hickory Precinct— Physical Features— 
Fii-st Settlement and Subsequent Growth— Progress 
of Industries and Improvements — Churches and 
Schools 183 

PART n. 


Virginia— City and Precinct 193 

Beardstowu— City and Precinct 227 


Chandlerville Precinct 281 

Ashland Precinct 303 

ArenzviUe Precinct 313 

Indian Creek Precinct i. 324 

Princeton Precinct 327 

Richmond Precinct 330 

Philadelphia Precinct 337 

Monroe Precinct 340 

Oregon Precinct 347 

Hickory Precinct 355 


Arenz, J. A 45 

Boone, N. H 279 

Brauer, Frederick 135 

Campbell, William 207 

Carr, David 189 

Chandler, Charles 63 

Clre, L. J 315 

Crum, James 133 

Decker, John 117 

Engelbach, Herman 243 

Leeper, W. D 3.51 

Linn, William 333 

Lohmann, Frank 261 

NoUsch, Gottlieb 297 

Petefish, s. H ."■ 81 

Shaw, J. Henry 27 

Sklles, Ignatius 99 

Tureman, J. H 171 

Wagner, David 225 









ILLINOIS dates its white settlements among 
the first in North America. Four years 
prior to the settlement of Plymouth, Le Baron 

had explored Upper Canada, and twenty 
years later the hardy and ambitious French 
traders and voyageurs and zealous mission- 
aries had erected trading- posts and missions 
along the rivers and upon the lake shores, 
now within the jurisdiction of Illinois and 

At that period the surface of Illinois was 
much lower, geologically considered, than it 
is at the present time. Since its creation, 
the thin crust of the earth has been under- 
going slow mutations, breathing, as it were, 
by centuries, elevating and depressing in the 
lapse of ages under the influence of its 
mighty lungs of fire, sinking slowly and im- 
perceptibly beneath their former level con- 
tinents and islands, and as gradually raising 
others above the waste of waters. 

While the countries bordering upon the 

* The Chapters on the County at large are written for this 
work by Hon J. Hen y Shaw, of teardstown. 

Levantine seas have been gradually en- 
croached upon by the water, there has been a 
corresponding rise in the earth's surface here. 
Two hundred years ago the white settlers 
of Illinois navigated the Mississippi and Illi- 
nois rivers to the great northern lakes. 
French pirogues and Indian canoes found no 
difficulty in passing through the portages of 
the North to Hudson's B ly. The routes from 
the Mississippi river — up the Wisconsin and 
down the Fox to Lake Michigan ; and uj> the 
Illinois or "River of the Mianiis," as it was 
then called, to ('hicago river; or up the Kan- 
kakee and down the St. .loseph — were well 
known and navigated. Indeed, but a few 
centuries since, these rivers were the south- 
ern outlets for the waters of the great lakes, 
and the Illinois penitentiary, near Joliet, now 
stands upon a ledge of rocks over which a 
great river once flowed in rapids similar to 
those of the Upper Mississippi. 

In the southern part of the State, at that 
point now known as Tower Rock, this great 
river was dammed up by a wall of rock, over 



which it fell one hundred feet, forming a 
cataract of such volume and height as to rival 
even Niagara. But the continual wearing 
power of the water, aided materially by earth- 
quakes, which have left their sign in the vicin- 
ity, finally opened the present channel of the 
Mississippi, and gave an outlet to the ocean of 
waters that lay stagnating in the swamps, 
now prairies, above, and causing the present 
agricultural productiveness of the ancient beds 
of these great waters. 

Two hundred years ago Northern and 
Central Illinois was inhabited by two power- 
ful nations of liidians, the Illinois and the 
Miainis. The latter occupied the northern 
part of the present State and part of Wiscon- 
sin, and their chief town was upon the present 
site of Chicago. 

The Illinois tribe occupied the country 
l)ordoring upon the Illinois river, called by 
the French the " River Seignelay, " and all the 
country between that and the " River Col- 
bert," or Mississippi. 

The principal tribe of the Illinois were the 
Muscootens, and their town was upon the 
present site of Beardstown, on the east bank 
of the river, at the foot of Muscooten Bay, 
and was called by the French the " Mound 
Village." The Peorias, another of the Illi- 
nois tribes, generally occupied that portion of 
the country between the rivers, having their 
town on the west l).ink of the Illinois river, 
four miles above the Muscooten village, upon 
the bluffs back of the present town of Fred- 
erick. The present site of Beardstown was 
at that time an island, surrounded on the 
north, east and south by almost impassable 
swamps, containing dangerous quicksands 
and quaking bogs, and which could be cross- 
ed only in canoes, or by Indians jumping 
from hillock to hillock of the turf gras-j with 
which these swamps were interspersed, and on 
the west by the Seignelay or Illinois River. 
The Indian town of the Muscootens was a 

beautiful place. It was built upon a series of 
mounds, covered with grass, and partially 
shaded by tall trees, which stood like sentinels 
upon the hills, or ornamental trees upon a 
lawn, so scattered as not to obstruct the view 
of the whole town from the river. The island 
had evidently been selected, not only on ac- 
count of its natural beauty, but for its easy 
defense and safety from enemies. 

By two bends in the river, forming two ob- 
tuse angles, the allied villages of the Peorias 
and the Muscootens stood at the two elbows, 
in plain sight of each other, the i)road river 
foi-niing a straight sheet of water between, 
while north of the Mound Village, and in 
front of the Peorias, spread the wide and 
glassy surface of Muscooten Bay, separated 
from the river by a narrow peninsula. Back 
of the swamp which protected the rear of the 
town, was a wide belt of rich prairie bottom 
land, and beyond, six miles, loomed up the 
Sangamon Bluffs, looking like miniature 
Andes in the distance, between wliicli and the 
island, in the day time, all approaching foes 
could be discerned. 

This island town was a favorite resting 
place with the weary voyageurs and devout 
missionaries; a large cross was erected here, 
and friendly relations established between the 
"children of the forest" and the white men. 
This favoritism on the part of the French 
towards the Illinois Indians, excited the jeal- 
ousy of the Mianiis, and they determined 
upon revenge. In vain did the missionaries 
try to prevent animosities. The Miamis in- 
vaded the country of the Illinois, and took 
some prisoners. 

At this time the Chevalier La Salle, who 
had built a fort called Creve Cceur, or the 
Broken Heart, where the present city of 
Peoria now stands, in order to prevent further 
hostilities, made a journey alone down the riv- 
er to the Muscooten Village, but his efforts 
were without avail, and the war continued. 



The Muscootens believed that La Salle was 
acting as a spy for the Iroquois, whose chief 
town was then where Buffalo, N. Y., now is, 
and who were the most powerful Indian nation 
upon the continent. This impression seemed to 
be confirmed when it became known to them 
that the Iroquois and Miamis had formed an 
alliance for the purpose of exterminating them. 

Many battles were fought between these 
hostile nations, but, by the superior numbers 
of their enemies, the Illinois were worsted and 
liesieged in their towns. The Peorias forti- 
fied themselves with earthworks upon the 
l)!uffs at their village, and passed men down 
the river in canoes, as necessity required, to 
th3 Mound Village, or received help from 
there, the river being protected from tl'.e 
arrows of the enemy by marshy ground on 
one side and the bay on the other, which for- 
bade their near approach. 

The Muscootens were beseiged in their 
island town. Occasionally they were assailed 
l)y parties of their enemies, who, more coura- 
geous than their fellows, crossed the swamps 
in the night, on the grassy hillocks, with the 
help of poles. On these occasions fierce bat- 
tles were fought, and none of the daring as- 
sailants survived to recross those trembling 
hillocks. At each defeat the Miamies and 
Iroquois became more enraged. In the night 
time, when out of danger from arrows, the 
allied Indians cut grass and smxil trees, and 
gathered floating wood, and built a causeway 
across a part of the swamp. When it was 
completed, with the aid of canoes disguised 
by branches of trees, in the night time, they 
rushed upon the island, and for several days 
the battle raged fierce. y. There was no 
quarter given or asked. Death was dealt by 
uns])aring hands on both sides. They had 
been rendered doubly savage by hunger and 
delay. Their revenge had long been at 
usury, and they were now satisfying principal 
and interest. 

The battle at intervals temporarily sub- 
sided, but only when the combatants became 
exhausted, and was resumed when rest 
brought returnitig strength. Those who from 
fatigue were unable to rise, were scalped and 
tomahawked, entering from the dreamland of 
life to the dreamland of death. 

At length, exhausted and overwhelmed by 
superior numbers, the Muscootens began to 
fall back towards the river, when with yells 
of victory their allied enemies rushed upon 
them, and with tomahawks and scalping 
knives ended the battle. A few of the un- 
fortunate Muscootens swam the river, and 
concealed themselves until night in the high 
swamp grass beyond, and a small number of 
men, women and children fled in canoes to 
the village of the Peorias, and some were 
taken prisoners. 

The battle being over, then came the 
mourning for the slain. Funeral rites, in 
which the missionaries took part, were per- 
formed, and in the great mound on tiie bank 
of the river, which had been raised centuries 
before by a long forgotten race, they buried 
the slain warriors with their bows, arrows and 
tomahawks, together with the silver and Hint 
crosses of the missionaries. 

After these ceremonies were concluded, 
the Iroquois returned to their own country. 
The Miamis, with their prisoners, encamped 
upon the present site of Chandlerville, where 
game was plenty, and attended to their sick 
and dying, great numbers of whom did not 
survive their wounds. 

Tliose that died were buried in the bluffs near 
by, and long after the settlement of Chand- 
lerville their ghastly skeletons lay in white 
rows, exposed to the sun, laid bare by the ac- 
tion of the wind up )n their sandy covering. 

Many years ago, at the request of a young 
friend, the writer put into verse and rhyme 
one of the incidents related above, which is as 
fo lows : 




Far, far into the long ago, and upon the very place 
Where Beanlstown stands, there lived and loved and 

died a noble race. 
Where pretty lawns and spacious streets and lofty 

buildings stand, 
Monsoela'a Indian village stood upon the hills of sand. 

It an island then, and round the hills on v/hich it 

The river ripples wandered in a long continuous flood; 
While over all the tall oaks waved in foliage bright 

and green. 
And the trees and tents were mirror'd on the broad 

and glassy stream. 
Far above the stars were shining, bathed in clouds of 

silv'ry light. 
And the gentle breeze of summer-day slumbered 

into ni;.;lit; 
The mui-mur of the wavelets flowing, and hum of in- 
sect wings. 
Fell lightly on the sleepers' ears, nor waked their 


Three weary moons two Indian tribes had been in 

deadly strife, 
And Miamis and Muscoutens had yielded many a life ; 
Till the allies of the Muscoutens had left them all 

And the Miamis besieged them upon their island home. 

Slowly, at night, across the waters upon the southern 

The Miamis were paddling up their canoes against the 

tide ; 
While in advance of every boat was held a branching 

Which from the gaze of watching eyes might shield 

the advancing prow. 

Upon the island, faint and tired, the Muscoutens lay at 

All witless of the coming foe as the flowers which 
they pressed ; 

They had fought them day by day, their watchfires 
burning night by night, 

Until glimmered on their ashen beds the last faint 
rays of light. 

Just as the distant glittering beams that led the morn- 
ing sun 

Sat lightly on the yellow knobs of the bluffs of 

A yell as of a thousand fiends fell on the startled 

And sleepers woke to sleep again pierced by the foe- 

niens' spears. 

Monsoela then, Muscouten's Chief, raised high the 
battle cry, 

And bade his warriors follow him and win the fight or 
die ; 

Now on the left, now on the right, his ponderous war- 
club foil, 

And many an Indian skull crushed he, and stifled 
many a yell. 

Now backward borne, now pressing on, Muscouten's 

wavering liraves 
Proved that the blood that nerved their arms was never 

meant for slaves ; 
'Till overpowered, and rank by rank fell weltering in 

their blood. 
The lirave Monsoela fought alone amidst the crimson 


Then the ohl chiefs daughter, White Wing, ran 

tlirough the rift of spears ; 
'Thoujh gentle as a fawn, that day she showed no 

childish fears ; 
Pierced to the heart, into his arms she threw herself, 

a shield, 
He grasped her lifeless form and slowly bore her from 

the field. 

Where the golden grass was waving on the river's 

western shore, 
Monsoela's birchen shallop touched the flowery bank 

once more ; 
There oft before the same proud chief had pushed his 

light canoe, 
With warriors in sinewy keels — three hundred bravt 

and true. 

Near two hundred years have entered into the dreamy 

Since thechief of the Muscoutens on his village looked 

the last — 
One longing, lingering look he gave toward his island 

Then drew his mantle round him and wandered forth 


Some years later, Mound Island was taken 
posses ion of by the Kickapoo Indians, upon 



^\hich they built a village, known as " Kicka- 
poo Town," although still remcmbererl by the 
French Missionaries as the "Beautiful Mound 
Village." This became a favorite trading 
post and missionary station, and continued in 
the possession of the Kickapoos until its set- 
tlement by Thomas Beard, in 18"20, after 
whom the present city of Beardstown was 

A few years later the great mound in 
Beardstown began to be encroached upon by 
the spade and pickaxe of the avaricious 
white man. Still later, Horace Billings built 
upon its river front a huge mill, for the pur- 
pose of grinding corn, bolting it fine like 
wheat flour, kiln-drying, sacking it, and ship- 
ping it to Europe as bread stuff. This build- 
ing was five stories high, a massive frame, and 
the mound was so excavated with winding 
roads that teams could be driven to three 
different stories, to load and unload. 

This enterprise proved a ruinous failure. 
The drying process destroyed the vitality of 
the meal, and prevented its sale. The build- 
ing was destroyed by fire. The earth, of 
which the mound was composed, and which 
is supposed to have been taken by its builders 
from the bottom of the river, was stolen away 
by wagon-loads to cover house lots and streets 
with, and its site was finally reduced to the 
level of the adjacent streets. 

The decaying bones of the red warrio-s, as 
they lay in their quiet an4 lovely resting 
place, with the implements -,of war around 
them; the silver and flint crosses of the mis- 
sionaries, even the beautiful mound itself, 
which as an ornament and historic feature to 
the town and river, should have been held 
sacred, could not restrain the money- making 
white man from destroying it, and it is now 
recollected only by the old settlers, who used 
to sit upon its summit and watch the passing 
away ofthelast of two races — the Indian in his 
cano2, and the French voyageur in his j)irogue. 

In 1700, Illinois was a part of the territory 
owned by the French government, and was 
called New France. 

In 17^0, all the country west of the Missis- 
sippi River belonged to Spain, with Santa Fe 
as its capital. 

In 17G3, Illinois was ceded by France to 
Great Britain, after a " seven year's war," 
Many French inhabitants, rather than live 
under British rule, joined La Clede and set- 
tled in St. Louis, then French territory. 

In 1778, the Illinois country was conquered 
from Great Britain by troops from the State 
of Virginia, under the command of General 
George Rogers Clark, which was an inde- 
pendent military enterprise of that State; and 
on the 4th day of July of that year, General 
Clark and his troops took possession of Kas- 
kaskia, the capital of the British possessions 
west of the AUeghenies, and declared the 
Illinois country free and independent of Great 
Britain, thus making the -ith day of July the 
natal day of this State as well as of the Na- 
tion. In that year, Illinois was created a 
county of Virginia, and Timothy Dernanbrun 
was appointed by the governor, Patrick Henry, 
a justice of the peace, to rule over it; which 
was probably the most extensive territorial 
jurisdiction that a magistrate ever had. 

In 1794, the legislature of the Northwest 
Territory divided it into two counties, Ran- 
dolph and St. Clair. 

In 1800, Illinois was declared a separate 

In 1812, Madison County was organizeil 
from St. Clair, and then contained all of the 
present State north of St. Clair and Randolph. 

In 1818, Illinois was admitted into the 
Union as the twenty-second State. 

In 1821, Green County was formed from 
Madison County. 

In 1823, Morgan County was formed from 
Green County, which included the territory 
now known as Cass County. 



During the first quarter of the present cen- 
tiuy, immigration to the Illinois country was 
retarded by frequent earthquakes; indeed, 
from 1811 to 1813 they were as severe as ever 
happened on this continent, and the few set- 
tlers then here were in constant dread from 
these disturbances. New Madrid, a flourish- 
ing town near the mouth of the Ohio, was 
utterly destroyed and partially swallowed up. 
But in 1825, the Erie Canal was completed, 
and steamboats had been introduced upon the 
Mississippi and its tributaries, and immigration 
received a new impulse and flowed in vigorous- 
ly. This immigration excitement was called 
east of the Alleghenies, the "western fever; " 
and it carried many a good man ofi^ — loest. 

Another circumstance which prevetited im- 
migration into central Illinois during the 
same period was, that all that portion of it 
that lay south of the Kankakee, east of the 
Illinois, west of the Wabash and north of a 
line drawn from the mouth of the Illinois 
eastward to the Wabash, including the present 
Cass County, was owned and in possession of 
the Kickapoos, a powerful and warlike tribe 
of Indians, who conquered this territory about 
the middle of the last century from the Illi- 
nois Indians. The Kickapoos, while friendly 
with the French, lookeil with extreme jeal- 
ousy upon the Americans, and discouraged 
their settlement in this territory. This wide 
scope of country, included the best and most 
fruitful portions of Illinois, and pioneers were 
anxious for the general government to pur- 
chase it of the Kickapoos, and open it to set- 
tlement. Several efforts were made by the 
government to treat with them for their lands, 
but being of a haughty spirit, no satisfaction 
could be obtained from them, until Gen. Har- 
rison defeated them at the battle of Tippe- 
canoe, which so diminished their vanity that 
they sought to treat, but Gen. Harrison re- 
fused. Shortly afterward they were again 
defeated by Col. Zachary Taylor, and in Octo- 

ber, 1812, Co!. Russell defeated thcmatKick- 
apooTown.on the Illinois River, the present 
site of Beardstown, and again, in November 
Col. HopkinsHestroyed one of their towns on 
Wildcat Creek. They then sued for peace, 
and their chief. Little Otter, met Gen. Harri- 
son. The treaties of Portage des Sioux (Sept. 
2, 1815) and Fort Harrison (June 4, 1816), fol- 
lowed. These treaties being indefinite in 
their results, the Kickapoos still retaining 
their lands, many of them religiously believ- 
ing and maintaining that they were granted 
them by the Great Spirit as their possession 
forever, and that he would be angry if they 
sold them; the following order was issued by 
the general government, addressed to Gov. 
Wm. Clark, Indian Superintendent at St. 
Louis, and to Gov. Ninian Edwards, Gov- 
ernor of the Territory of Illinois: 

" Department of War, Nov. 1, 1817. 

" Gentlemen: — I have the honor to enclose 
you a commission, for the purpose of treating 
with the Illinois, the Kickapoos, the Potta- 
watomies and other tribes of Indians within 
the Illinois territory. The object of this nego- 
tiation is to obtain a cession from the tribes 
who may have a claim to it, of all that tract 
of land which lies between the north- 
eastern point of boundary of the lands ceded 
by the Kaskaskias in August, 1803, the San- 
gamo and the Illinois rivers; and which tract 
of land comj^letely divided the settled parts 
of the Illinois Territory from that part which 
lies between the Illinois and Mississippi 
rivers, and which has been lately surveyed for 
the purpose of satisfying the military land 
bounties, a circumstance which makes the 
acquisition of this tract of country peculiarly 

"If either of the tribes who have a claim 
to the land is desirous of exchanging their 
claim for lands on the west of the Mississippi, 
you are authorized to make the exchange, and 
your extensive local knowledge of the coun- 



try will enable you to designate that part of it 
where it would be most desirable to locate 
the lands to be given as an equivalent. To 
other tribes who may not wish to remove, you 
will allow such an annuity, for a fixed period, 
as you may deem an adequate compensation 
for the relinquishment of their respective 
claims. To enable you to give the usual pres- 
ents on such occasions, you are authorized 
to draw on this department for §G,000. 

"The contractor will furnish, on the re- 
quisition of either of you, the rations that 
may be necessay for the supply of the Indians 
while attending the treaty. Your compensa- 
tion will be at the rate of eight dollars per 
day for the time actually engaged in treating 
with the Indians; and that of the secretary, 
whom you are authorized to appoint, will be 
at the rate of five dollars a day. 

"I have the honor to be, with great respect, 
"Your obedient servant, 

"George Geaham, 
"Acting Secretary of War." 

Under these instructions, such negotiations 
were had with the Kickapoo Indians, that on 
the 30th day of July, 1819, that tribe ceded 
to the United States all the above described 
tract of land. The final treaty was signed on 

the part of the government by August Choteau 
and Benjamin Stevenson, and by twenty-three 
chiefs of the Kickapoos, who reluctantly 
placed their awkward but significant sio-n- 
manuals thereto. Among other things, and 
together with many presents and much amuni- 
tion, the United States agreed to pay them 
$3,000 a year for fifteen years, and assigned 
them a large tract on the Osage. From the 
date of tlie treaty they began to remove from 
the State, but very slowly and reluctantly, 
and in 1823 there were still four hundred 
Kickapoos remaining in Central Illinois, and 
up to 1821, quite a large number of them 
remained within the present limits of Cass 
County, and at their town on the present site 
of Beardstown. A few of them, who had 
connected with the French by marriage, re- 
mained in Beardstown and on the islands 
near by, many years afterward. 

This purchase from the Kickapoos, opened 
the most beautiful portion of the State to set- 
tlers. That part of it now included in the 
counties of Cass, Morgan, Scott, Mason, Men- 
ard, Sangamon, Logan, Macon and some oth- 
ers, was known far and near, as the " Sangamo 
Country," and its fertile soil soon attracted 
great numbers of actual settlers, who made 
farms, laid out towns, built roads and bridges. 






IN 1818 a man by the name of PuIIam 
settled upon Horse Creek, a tributary of 
the Sangamon river, and later, in November 
of that year, Seymour Kellogg first settled 
the country afterward included in Morgan 
County, and it was at his house that the first 
white child of the Sangamo country was born. 

The first actual and permanent vfhite set- 
tler within the limits of the present city of 
Beardstown, was Thomas Beard, who came 
here on horseback when it was a Kickapoo 
town, in 1819, and made it his home as a 
trader among the Indians. 

JNIartin L. Lindsley, together with his wife 
and two children, John C. and Mary A., and 
Timothy Harris and John Cettrough, settled 
in Beardstown in 1820, and afterward located 
in " Camp Hollow," a mile east of the present 
county farm, where Mr. Lindsley built a cabin, 
and the first white child born in this (after- 
ward) Cass County, was added to his family. 

During the year 1820, a family named Eg- 
gleston settled on the site of Beardstown. 

Major Elijah lies, now a resident of Spring- 
field, 111., landed in 1819 where Beardstown 
now is, on his way to the " Keeley Settle- 
ment," afterward named Calhoun, and now 
Springfield, the State capital. He says that at 
that time there was a hut at Beardstown, built 
of birchen poles, standing on the bank of the 
river, but unoccupied. As the Indians lived 
in tents, this hut was probably erected by the 

French traders nearly a quarter of a century 
before the landing of Major lies. 

Archibald Job settled first at Beardstown, 
and then at Sylvan Grove, in the north edge 
of North Prairie, in the spring of 1821, sur- 
rounded by Kickapoo Indians. 

There were other pioneers who temporarily 
settled here about that time, whose names we 
have not learned. 

In 1821, there were but twenty white fam- 
ilies within the present limits of Morgan, 
Cass and Scott Counties. 

But when the reputation of the " Sangamo 
Country" for unrivaled fertility, and that the 
Indian title to it had become extinguished, 
and the lands would soon be surveyed and 
offered for sale by the government, had 
reached Kentucky and Tennessee, the sturdy 
and enterprising farmers of those States be- 
gan to remove thereto in great numbers. 

There was at that time in common use, a 
craft known as the "prairie ship," or as some 
called it the "prairie schooner," and nothing 
similar to it ever floated or moved in or 
upon or between the waters of the earth. It 
was constructed with four huge wheels, upon 
which was a great bed or box, formed like a 
quarter of a moon, with the bend hanging be- 
tween the fore and aft wheels. The solid 
running gearing, well and fantastically ironed, 
the broad felloes heavily tired, the tongue 
arranged for a propelling power of either 



horses or oxen, its high end-boards and curv- 
ing side-boards, ribbed and barred and riveted, 
glaring in red or blue paint, was not gotten 
up merely for show. It made no pretensions 
to beauty. It was thoroughly a substantial 
craft. What has l)ecome of the old "prairie 
ship," with the four horses before it, and the 
driver in his saddle (Sn the near wheel-horse, 
twitching at a single rein? 

The old " prairie ship," with its great white 
cover and flapping curtains, looking at a dis- 
tance on the prairie like a ship on the ocean, 
was the great original of the emigrant wagon 
of the West. This craft was of vast capacity. 
It contained ample bedding for a large fam- 
ily, made up of all ages and sexes. It held 
cooking utensils, provisions, ammunition, 
tubs, buckets, besides the family. The wagon 
box or bed was fitted with flat iron staples, 
about eighteen inches apart, along its sides, 
and in those were placed ashen hoops which 
bended over from side to side of the wagon 
box, leaving a roomy space inside about five 
feet high and twenty feet more or less long, 
■which when covered with canvas, looped over 
at the ends, made a comfortable room, high, 
dry and safe from storms. Upon the sides of 
the wagon box were cleats to secure the crow- 
bar, axes, spades, mattocks, chisels and 
augurs; and underneath hung the kettles, tar- 
bucket, water-bucket and baskets. An extra 
log-chain was coiled around the coupling pole 
under the wagon for use in emergencies, 
which frequently happened. 

It was in these prairie schooners that most 
of the first settlers of Cass (then Morgan) 
County emigrated from the older States. These 
journeys were not altogether pleasure trips, al- 
though there were pleasant features connected 
with them, and thej' were usually terminated 
with every member of the family in robust 
health, sickness verj' rarely afflicting those who 
traveled in this way, yet they were sometimes 
attended with dangers, hardships and "hair- 

breadth 'scapes," which were profitably re- 
counted by the participants in after life to the 
rising generation. There were but few roads 
and bridges at that time, and the prairies had 
to be crossed on Indian trails, the rivers 
forded where there were no ferries, and the 
creeks and brooks, where the banks were 
steep, were still more difficult to cross. 
In such case, sometimes a bridge was impro- 
vised, or a tree was felled across it, the limbs 
removed, the wagons taken all apart, and 
each separate piece and article of freight 
carried by hand across over the fallen tree, 
and set up and loaded on the other side, 
Sometimes a single "mover" would do all, 
this alone. But, for convenience, these 
"movers" would sometimes travel in com- 
panies or caravans, and in that case assist each 
other, and thus make the journey much more 
pleasant, safe and expeditious. It was a 
common sight upon the Illinois prairies in 
those days to see such a caravan, the white 
canvas tops of the prairie schooners looking 
in the distance like a fleet at sea under sail. 
These emigrants generally drove along with 
them a few head of cattle, or led some brood 
mares, so that in the new country they were 
prepared to raise cattle and horses. Some 
also brought in a coop lashed to the wagon, a 
few fowls, for the purpose of raising chickens 
in the new home. 

Let us suppose several of these prairie 
schooners, in the early "twenties," have 
reached the northern part of Morgan County 
(now Cass), and, enraptured with the view, 
unhitch the teams and look around. The 
land was surveyed and offered for sale by the 
government for the first time in November, 
1823, so that all those who settled here pre- 
vious to that date were only "■squatters " on 
the public lands, waiting for the time to come 
when they could pre-empt or buy. Our im- 
aginary immigrants, having looked around 
find there is a navigable river, the Illinois, a 



few miles distant, which will insure them a 
future market for their produce. They find 
good, rich prairie land for their farms, and 
plenty of timber for housing and fencing. 
They conclude this will do. Having selected 
the tract of land that suits them, they go to 
some distant town for a surveyor, who comes 
and gives them the numbers and metes and 
bounds. They then make a weary journey on 
horseback of a hundred miles to Edwardsville, 
where the government land office is located, 
to enter or buy the land. Having secured the 
land — the family having domiciled in the 
wagon in the meantime — the men-folks pro- 
ceed to build a log cabin, in the structure of 
which not a nail, or bit of iron or glass is used. 
The outside walls are made of round or hewn 
logs, fitted together at the ends and chinked 
with chips and clay between them. The floor 
is made of split logs. The roof is covered 
with rived weather-boards, kept in their 
places by poles laid across them. The chim- 
ney is made with logs and sticks and clay. 
The doors are made with split boards, fas- 
tened together with wooden pins, swung on 
wooden hinges, and fastened only with a 
wooden latch. Bedsteads are improvised of 
poles, and benches of split logs on sapling 

Tlius the " first families " of Cass County 
started in life, and most of the great farms 
within its borders had such a beofinninof. 

The first land " entry" (i. e. purchase from 
the government,) was made by Thomas Beard 
and Enoch C. March, jointly, upon the north- 
east quarter of Section 15, in Township 18, 
Range 13, September 23, 182G. It was upon 
this fractional quarter section that Mr. Beard's 
cabin was built. It was placed upon the 
steep bank of the river, at the present foot of 
State street, near where he afterward built 
his brick hotel. In the following spring it 
was discovered that this cabin had been built 
over a den of snakes, and thousands of them. 

of many kinds, came out upon the ojiening 
of warm weather. 

The first licensed ferry across the Illinois 
river was established June 5, 1836, by Thomas 
Beard, and a license was granted him by the 
county commissioners of Schuyler county, 
upon his paying six dollars per annum into 
the treasury of that county. That ferry is in 
operation yet by the assigns of the Beard 
heirs, at Beardstown, where it was first lo- 
cated. There was at that time no road from 
Beardstown through Schuyler county, but 
blazes on the trees was made out as far as 
where Rushville now stands. Schuyler county 
had been organized, and the county seat had 
been located near where Pleasant View now 
is, and, strangely enough, that was named 
Beardstown, too. Why this was so named, 
so soon after Thomas Beard had named his 
town, is now past finding out. But the location 
was soon after removed to Rushville, or Rush- 
ton, as it was first called. 

Thomas Beard's ferry-boat was managed by 
himself alone, the propelling power being a 
pole in his strong hands. It was so small 
that only one wagon and two horses could be 
crossed at one time, and then very little stand- 
ing room was left for passengers. 

On the 28th day of October, 1827, Beard 
and March entered the northwest quarter of 
section 15, township 18, Range 12, which ex- 
tended their river front down below the great 

Thomas Beard individually entered the 
west half of the southwest quarter of section 
15, township 18, Range 12, October 10, 1827; 
and John Knight entered the east half of the 
southwest 15, 18, 13, July 17, 1828. Thus 
there were three men entered the entire sec- 
tion upon which the original town of Beards- 
town was located, in the years 182G, 1827 and 

The original town of Beardstown consisted 
of twenty-three blocks, fronting on the river. 



three tiers of blocks deop, reaching from Clay 
to Jackson streets, of which block ten, lying 
between the Park and Main street, and State 
and Washington, is the central one. It was 
laid out and platted by Enoch C. March and 
Thomas Beard, and acknowledged before 
Thomas B. Arnet, a justice of tin psace of 
Jacksonville, Sept. 29, 1829, and is recorded 
on page 228 of Book Bof the Morgan County 
Records, a transcript of which is in the Cass 
Countj' Records. 

Among the first settlers in Beardstown, 
after it became a town site, were Francis 
Arenz and Nathaniel Ware, who purchased 
an interest and became joint landed proprie- 
tors with Beard and March. The town was 
named after Thomas Beard. 

The first deed from March and Beard upon 
record of lands within the present limits 
of Beardstown, was made before the town 
was laid out, and is dated August 21, 1828, 
to " Charles Robinson, of New Orleans," for 
the consideration of one hundred dollars, 
being for a " part of the fractional part of the 
northwest quarter of Section 15, Township 18, 
Range 12, beginning at a forked birch tree 
on the Illinois river bank, marked as a cor- 
ner, running thence down the river meanders 
thereof, so as to make two hundred yards on 
a straight line, and from thence running out 
from the river at both ends of the above line 
by two parallel lines, until they strike the 
north line of the east half of the southwest 
quarter of Section 15, Township 18, Range 
12, supposed to contain twelve acres. 

Immediately following this deed upon the 
record is this singular " deed of defeasance," 
executed by Charles Robinson : 


"I having this day bought of Enoch C 
March and Thomas Beard and his wife, Sarah, 
a p^ece of land on the river below the ferry 
of the above Beard, and have this day re- 

ceived from them a deed for the same; 1 
hereby declare that it is my intention to do a 
public business on the said land between this 
date and the first day of October, next year, 
and if I have not upon the land by that date, 
persons and property to effect the same, or 
actually upon the way to do so, I will return 
the above deed, and transfer back the land to 
them upon receiving the consideration given 
them for the same. The above public busi- 
ness means a steam mill, distillery, rope-walk 
or store. Witness my hand and seal, this 21st 
day of August, 1828. 

"(Signed) Charles Robinson, [seal]" 

The certificate upon this deed shows it to 
have been acknowledged August 1, 1828, 
before Dennis Rockwell, clerk of the circuit 
court of Morgan County; recorded June 29, 
1829, in Book B of deeds, page 180. The 
land described in the deed from March and 
Beard to Robinson is part of the original 
town of Beardstown. 

Mr. Charles Robinson, party to these deeds, 
now dead, was until recently a resident of 
Cass County, near Arenzville. On the 8th 
of February, 1872, he wrote a letter to the 
Chicago Journal, from which we make this 

" Fifty years ago, or in the summer of 1821, 
there was not a bushel of corn to be had in 
Central Illinois. My father settled in that 
year twenty-three miles west of Springfield. 
We had to live for a time on venison, black- 
berries and milk, while the men were gone 
to Egypt, to harvest and procure breadstufFs. 
The land we improved was surveyed that 
summer, and afterwards bought of the gov- 
ernment, the money being raised by sending 
beeswax down the Illinois river to St. Louis, 
in an Indian canoe. Dressed deer skins and 
tanned hides were then in use, and we made 
one piece of cloth out of nettles instead of 
flax. Cotton matured well for a decade, 
until the deep snow of 1830." 



The southern part of the State, referred to 
by Mr. Robinson as " Egypt," received this 
appellation, as here indicated, because, being 
older, longer and better settled and culti- 
vated, it " gathered corn as the sand of the 
sea," and the immigrants of the central part of 
the State, after the manner of the children of 
Israel, in their want, " went thither to buy 
and bring from thence corn, that they might 
live and not die." 

In the early years of the white settlements 
here, wheat was not to be had, and corn meal, 
the only bread-stulf, was exceedingly hard to 
obtain, as mills were scarce. Jarroe's Mill, 
on Cahokia Creek, was for a long time the 
only one accessible to our pioneers. In 1821, 
a small horse-mill was erected on Indian 
Creek by Richard Sheppard. Then a horse- 
mill was put up at Clary's Grove. Still later. 
Ogle's water mill was built on Indian Creek. 
To these mills the boys of the families had to 
make frequent and tedious journeys on horse- 
back, to procure corn meal for bread. The 
corn for this purpose had to be shelled by 
hand, as there were no corn-sheller machines 
then. Each boy could take but one sack, 
containing two or three bushels of corn. If 
the sack got misplaced on the horse, or fell 
off, the boy was in trouble, as he had not 
strength sufficient to replace it. For this rea- 
son, several boys of a neighborhood would 
club together in going to mill, and thus light- 
en their labors and responsibilities. When 
at the mill, the boys must wait their turn, and 
when great numbers were in before them, 
would have to frequently stay all night at the 
mill, and sometimes two days, depending 
upon parched corn for sustenance after their 
lunches, which they had brought with them, 
had become exhausted. 

Reddick Horn, a Methodist preacher, settled 
at Beardstown in 1833, and entered lands 
near the bluffs; after Cass county was formed 
he became clerk of the circuit court. 

The Cottonwood school hovise, in the San- 
gamon bottom, was built in 18130, and is still 
known by that name. 

The exact date of the arrival of each of 
the settlers is very hard to obtain, as those of 
them now living differ in their recollections 
of those who have precedence; but, by tak- 
ing a conspicuous event, as, for instance, the 
deep snow, which occurred in the winter of 
18 30-31, it becomes more easy to decide who 
then lived in the different neighborhoods. 
At the time of the deep snow, upon the 
Sangamon Bottom road there were the follow- 
ing named settlers : The first above Beards- 
town was Solomon Penny, in Section 10, 18, 
11, where Richard Tink novv lives. The next 
was John Wagoner, who lived where the 
Bottrell farm is now. Above him were the 
Carrs — Elisha, William and B3njamin — and 
their father; Elisha lived on the present Ken- 
dall farm. Next above the Carrs was Grandpa 
Horrom. Then Jerry Bowen, where Calvin 
Wilson now lives. Next, the widow Stewart. 
Next, Shadrach Richardson, on the present 
Brauer farm. Then Thomas Plaster, Sr., 
where Jep ha Plaster's farm is now. 

These were all that then lived below where 
Chandlerville is now, on this road. The first 
above these was Robert Leeper, on the Cleph. 
Bowen place. Next, William Myers ; next, 
Henry McHenry; and in their order above 
him were Peter Dick, John Taylor, William 
Morgan, 'James Hickey, Amos Ogden; and 
then Isham Reavis, who afterwards moved 
below Chandlerville. James McAuley and 
Elijah Garner settled in 1833. 

Among the earliest settlers in the vicinity 
of Arenzville were Henry McKean, John Me- 
Kean, Alexander Pitner, William Pitner, .fohn 
Melone, William McHenry, James Davis, 
George Bristow, Aquilla Low, J. A. Arenz, 
Richard Matthews, Charles Robertson, James 
Crum, Christian Crum, Peter Hudson, Charles 
Wiggins, David Black, Alexander Huffman, 



li njiiniia Matthews, William Summers, An- 
drew Williams, and Richard Graves. Most of 
those persons came about 1830. 

John, Stephen and Jasper Buck and John 
Sliafur were also early settlers. John Savage 
came in 1823. 

In 1830, there was a water-mill for grinding 
corn at Arenzville, where Ens^elbach's steam- 
mill now stands. The power was obtained by 
changing the channel of Indian Creek fully a 
quarter of a mile north from the bed where it 
now runs. There was formerly an ancient 
Indian town and burial place on Prairie Creek, 
about three miles north-east of Arenzville. 

Among the first settlers in the centre of 
the county, near where Virginia now stands, 
were Captain Jacob Yaple, who set out the 
first apple orchard in the county; Henry 
Hopkins, Elijah Carver,- Charles Brady, John 
Do Webber, Thomas Hanby, John Dawsy, 
Samuel Way, William Weaver, Thomas Gat- 
ton, Ha'sey Smith, a preacher named Cham- 
bers, and others. Some of those settled as 
soon as the lands were offered for sale by the 
government at the new land office at Spring- 
field, others a few years later. 

The next installment of settlers, ranging 
fioni 182G to 1832, were James Stephenson 
and his five grown sons, Wesley, James, Wil- 
liam, Robert and Augustus ; Charles Beggs, 
Jacob and John Ej)ler, John Hiler, Rev. 
John Bi'ldlecomo, Isaac Mitchell, William 
Kinner, Jesse AUred, Nathan Compton ; 
John C, Peter and William Conover ; and a 
widow Pratt, and her four sons — William, 
Charles, Rogers and Haramel. A school- 
house was built of logs in this neighborhood 
in 1829. Samuel Thompson built a horse 
mill in 1830. James Richardson built the 
first blacksmith shop in 182(3. Peter Conover 
and Elizabeth Marshall were the first to marry 
here, which was in 1827. The southeast part 
of the county was settled early by James, 
Davis, who made an improvement on the 

farm now owned by Travis Elmore, at the 
head of Little Indian Creek. He sold out to 
Strother Ball, and he to Isaac Bennett. B ii- 
nett sold to William Grove, who entered the 
land in 1826. Eli Cox settled here as early 
as 1820, in Cox's Grove, so named from him, 
and entered the land as soon as it came into 
market, in 1823. William Cooper, a negro 
with a white wife, settled here also ; and 
S'.ophen Short, with his four sons, James 
Benjamin, George and Albert, Stephen Lee, 
Tilman Honihuckle, and Dr. Stockton, settled 
in Panther Grove in 1830. John Miller, 
James Thompson and Daniel Blair settled 
near by on the prairie. Stephen Short was 
the first justice of the peace. Rev. William 
Crow, the first preacher. 

Further north, on the east side of the 
county, among the first settlers were George 
and John Wilson, in 1824 ; William Daniels, 
in IS','5; B.irtlett CoJiyors, .John Lucas, John 
B. Witty, and RoSert Hawthorn, in 1826. 
The first child born in this neighborhood was 
Lucinda Daniels, in 1828. The first marriage 
was Miles Hamilton and Barbara Baeger. In 
the northeast part of the county, on and near 
the Sangamon Bottom, the first settlers were 
Amos Ogden, in 1830, who built a house of 
hewn logs in 1831, and rode three days to get 
eight men to help him raise it. The men who 
helped him were those other old settlers: 
Joseph Hickey, James Watkins, John Hiekey, 
James Hiekey, Isham Reavis, Daniel Ater- 
bury, and a Mr. Mounts. 

The first school-house was of logs, built on 
Amos Ogden's farm. The first blacksmith 
shop was owned by Matthew Holland in 1835. 
The first mill was a small specimen of a 
water-mill, owned by .James Watkins in 1832. 

The five Dick brothers, William Lynti an 1 
William P. Morgan, settled herein 1831; and 
Dr. Charles Chandler, Marcus Chandler and 
Mr. Inglis, in 183 i. Dr. Chandler's cabin 
was in the centre of where the present town 



of Chandlerville now is, where the first Con- 
gregational Church now stands, tlie land be- 
ing subsequently donated by the doctor for 
that purpose. South of the Chandler settle- 
ment, on the Sangamon Bottom, were David 
Clopton, Robert Leeper, William Myers, 
Oliver Coyne, William McAuley and Mark 
Cooper, in 1831 and 1832. The first preach- 
ing there was by Rev. Levi S[)ringer. 


The following is a list of those who entered 
land (i. e., bought from the government), 
•within the present limits of Cass County, 111., 
including the " three mile strip," before the 
deep snow in the winter of 1830-31; and in 
what township and in what year the entry 
was made. Where a person entered land in 
more than one township, his name is given 
for that tract only which he first entered. 

/ IS, 12. Thomas Beard lS2ti 

•■ Enoch C. March 1326 

•• John Knight 1328 



, 12. Frci'Mian Skinner IMO 

'■ Kiniljall i Knapp 1.S30 

" Asa C. New 1S.30 

13, 11, Henry Snmniers ISIO 

" Richard Gainea 1330 

■■ J.itin S. Warfield 1330 

•• R,)l.ert Farrell 1330 

" .Tohn Farrell 13.30 

" Temperance Baker.... 1329 

17. 11, James Orchard 1826 

■• Oswell Thompson, jr. 1.330 

•' Jos. L. Kirkpatrick...IS30 

•• Joseph C. Cliristy 1829 

•• Frederick Troxel 1S28 

'• Peter Karges 1830 

~ •' D.vid Black 1829 

" James Smart 1327 

•• John R. Sparks 1823 

•■ Aqnilla Low 1827 

•' Ahraham Gish 1.S23 

" Charhs Robertson 1323 

•• Petev Taylor 1S27 

" Martin Robertson 1828 

" James H. Richards.... 13:» 

•' Jonah H. Ca,se 1.326 

" Daniel R. Scaffer 1329 

•• Thomas Clark 1831 

■■ David B. Carter 1&T0 

" James Davis 1326 

" Andrew Williams 1827 

** Alexander Huffman. ...1327 

" William Summers 132r 

" L. L. Case 1826 

" John Savase 1-330 

" Dennis Rockwell 1325 

" Ansustus Barber 1326 

" Joseph P. Croshwait.. 1330 

Thonnia WigeiTis 1329 

■■ George F. Miller Is23 

'■ Henry McKean 1329 

•' Daniel T. Matthews. 1323 

•' John SIcKean 1329 

•■ Daniel Richards 1329 

•• Jnhn luppy 1.530 

" Patrick Mullen 1827 

•• Shadrick Scott 1S23 

•' Benjamin Matthews.. 1827 

** Samuel Grosong 1326 

•■ William S. Hauby 1.326 

18, 10, John E.Scott 1316 

" John De Weber 1-5^3 

■• A. S. West 1326 

" John Ray 1826 

.— '• Joshua Crow 1.326 

— " Benjamin Stribliug....l830 

" John G. Bergen 1323 

" Phincas riidenvood....l326 

" Henry M.ulison 1323 

17, 10, Jacob Yaple 182.) 

'• Alexander D. Cox 1.<'6 

" Henry Madison 1.32i> 

" James Marshall K26 

A " Jesse AUred 1.3L'6 

■• Isa^ic Mitchell 1329 

^•* Thonms Redman 1.32'i 

" George Tureman 1327 

•• Edward Fuller 133.1 

. " Levi Springer I.-^:*.)) 

" William M. Clark n27 

" George Freeman 1327 

" Thom:i3 Payi e LWO 

" Luclan T. Bryai.l 13.30 

" William Lamme 1326 

*' Silas Freeman 1828 

•' Isaiah Paschall 1328 

" Littleherry Freeman.. 1330 

" !3i].;i>i Freeman 1828 

19. 9. David McGinnis l.s:'.0 17.10, 

" Stephen Handy 13:!n ^ " 

" Thos. Plaster 1828 

" William Linn 16.30 " 

" Richard McDonald....l829 -" 

" Wilson Runyon 18.30 — *' 

" William D. Leeper.. ..13.30 — " 

'• William MIyers 1830 — •" 

" John Taylor 1829 — " 

'• Elias Rogers 1830 " 

Jesse .Armstrong 1830 " 

1.3, 8, William Holmes 1826 " 

— " John Lee 1330 " 

— '• Joseph Lee '8.30 

- '• Robert Nance 1330 

•' James Fletcher 1829 

17,0, John Hughes 1827 

■• Susanna Walker 1.S21 

" Solomon Redman 1326 " 

_;i^ Henry Kittner 1826 " 

-" Martin Hardin 1827 

•■ Josiah Flinn 1,326 17,^9, 

~ " David >[anclie3ter 1.331 — •=- 

■■ William Miller 1326 

•• Strother Hall I.s26 — " 

*' Samuel Montgomery.. 1.330 ~ " 

18, 11, William W. Babb 1529 " 

•' EIred Renshaw 1330 " 

18, II, Sam'l B. Crewdson.,..l.S29 " 

Solomon Penny 132.3 " 

" Benjamin L'arr 1829 " 

'* Amos Hager 1830 " 

" Reddick Horn 1826 ~" 

" Elisha Carr 1.329 

" John Waggoner 1829 — " 

" James Scott 1829 ~ " 

17, 11, Alexander Pitner 1829 "• 

" John Thompson 1.S.30 " 

18. 10, William Myers 1.327 " 

'-" Thomas Gatton 1829 

" James Mason 1329 " 

■"" Nathan Compton 1.328 

" John Robertson 1.323 " 

" Street li Bland 1327 "~^' 

" Susan Washburn 1^27 19, 8, 

" Henry Traughber 1.326 

•• William McCord 1.3.30 

•• Robert Alexander 1329 18, 8, 

" Ralph Morgan 1.3,30 

-^ " John Biildlecome 1.3.30 

'• Sijdoc W. Flyun I.s29 ~-" 

" Peter Cirr 1.328 . — " 

•• William C.rr 1.323 - • " 

•• William D.Stnrgis....l8.30 

" ShadrMi Richardson. ...1.330 ~" 

■• Robert H. Ivers 1.3.30 — " 

" Josiah Rees 1S30\17, 8, 

" Joseph Baker 1829 — " 

~" Thom.w Plaster 1.3.30 — " 

•• William .Sewa'l 1.3.30 ■—•• 

17, 10, William Chambers 1826 " 

" John C. Oonover 1827 ^' 

" Susanna Pratt I.32fi . — ** 

" D.ivid Black 13i0 

" James Marshall 1.326 

^ •' Jacob W.ird 1829 

These make 21'Z persons 
in what is now Cass Con 
deep snow. 

William Porter 1820 

J.acob Lawrence 1826 

Carrollton R. Gatton. .1826 

Thomas Gatton 1326 

Archibald Job 1326 

Peter Oonover 1826 

William Conovcr...'....IS26 

Abner Tinnen 1326 

Nathan Compton 1326 

Joseph T. Leonard 1826 

Bazaleel Gillett 1830 

George T. Bristow 1826 

William H. Johnson.. 1830 

William Br.edc-n I,'i27 

Peter Taylor.... .'..1.329 

Jolin Re.ini 1830 

Samuel Way 1828 

Archer Herndon 1.327 

Evin Martin 1.327 

James Sturgis 1827 

Jonathan Atlierton...,l830 

Burton Litton 1.330 

Page A. Williams 1.326 

Morris Davis 1826 

Josiah Sims 1826 

Robert Fitzhugh 1,326 

Jesse Gum 1827 

TbonijLS .\tkinsou 1826 

John Vance 1826 

James Welsh 1327 

Richard Jones I.S2fl 

James Fletcher 1829 

Andrew Beard 1827 

John Bridges 1826 

John Creel 1827 

Joseph McDonald 1,326 

Gersham Jayne 1,329 

Jonas McDoinild 1328 

Anthony M. Thomas.. 1826 

Alexander Beard 1329 

John Robertson 1829 

Felix French 1829 

Richard A, Lane 183U 

John BIcDonald 1828 

Isb im Reavis 18:10 

Robert Taylor I.s3u 

Wm. P. Morgan 18.30 

Samuel Reid 1828 

Robert Elkins 1829 

R.Uph Elkins 1829 

Henry Williams 1.328 

Eaton Nance 1828 

John Luciis 1829 

Susan Washhurne 1328 

D.ivid Williams 1829 

Joel Ragsdale 1,329 

James B. Watson 1326 

Wm. Cooper 1326 

Stephen Short 18.30 

Wm. Crow \ti2G 

Lewis Fanner l&3i» 

Stephen Lee 1830 

Eli Cox 1S21 

Robert Johnson Is2i 

G. W. Wilson 1.S29 

Wm. T. Hamilton 1826 

who entered land 
ty, previous to the 





BY the year 1830, the population of the 
State had increased to 157,447, and was 
confined mostly to the borders of rivers and 
creeks and woodlands. As yet but few set- 
tlements had been made anywhere in the open 

The early settlers were apprehensive of a 
future scarcity of wood, and carried their 
fears to such an extent, tliat much of their 
money was invested in useless woodland, which 
they needed to begin farming with. But 
their fears in this respect seems now to 
be allayed, as it has been shown thiit the sup- 
ply increases rather than diminishes. Many of 
those who for the sake of a near and conven- 
ient supply of wood, settled in and along the 
borders of the timber-lands, got the poorest 
of the farm lands, and when they su]5posed all 
the good lands had been taken up, later set- 
tlers came in and entered the dry, rolling 
prairie lands, and thereby got the best farms, 
and were in no want for plenty of timber 

The winter of 1830-31 was a remarkable 
one, and will always be remembered by old 
settlers as the most terrible for suffering with- 
in their memories. The snow fell at first 
about thirty inches deep, then the weather 
settled, and another snow fell, and another, 
until it was from four to six feet deep. In 
drifts it was much deeper. Fences were cov- 
ered and lanes filled up. There was much 
suffering everywhere. Stock died for want 
of food. Deer stood in their tracks and died. 
Prairie chickens and quails having alighted 

in the snow, could not get out. Man was 
the only animal that could walk, and game 
alone, of the food kind, was all he had in 
plenty. That could be had for the picking 
up from the snow, for it was helpless. But 
finally, even game became so poor from 
starvation that it wai unfit for food. The 
snow staid on the ground all winter, until 
March, and people ran short of everything, 
particularly fuel. Thomas Beard, recollect- 
ing a widow with a small family living at the 
bluffs, generously walked out there, and 
found her and her family on the verge of 
starvation, and hovering over the last rem- 
nants of a fire, she having used all her fuel. 
Mr. Beard tore up some fencing and chopped 
a large pile of wood for her, and afterwards 
carried provisions to her through the snow on 
foot, a distance of seven miles, as a horse 
could not travel. 

What little corn had been raised in the 
county, was generally ungathered when the 
snow came, and yet in the fields, and men 
took sacks and waded out into their fields 
and gathered and carried it on their shoul- 
ders to their cabins, and to their horses, cat- 
tle and hogs, feeding it to them as they best 
could. The snow that fell first, thawed a 
little on top, and then froze, forming a crust 
which would break upon being stepped on 
by man or beast. Upon this there fell two 
feet or more of snow, which went through 
the same process of thawing and freezing, 
leaving a c;ust on top not strong enough to 
be r much weight. Through this no animal 



but a man could walk. The black-jack tim- 
ber surrounding Beaidstown for miles, had 
been a favorite resort for vast numbers of 
deer, and here they were caught in this ter- 
rible snow, and died, being unable to travel. 
From this time, the climate changed percept- 
ibly colder. Previous to 1831, the most of 
the pioneers raised sufficient cotton for their 
own use, and it ripened well, but subsequent 
to the deep snow, all efforts to raise it in this 
State were futile. We have no means of in- 
formation as to the extent of country covered 
by this deep snow, as not a history of Illinois 
even mentions it, which leads us to conclude 
tiiat it was not general, but confined to cen- 
tral Illinois, or, perhaps, even to so compar- 
atively small a surface as the Sangamon 

In 1831 the Indians became very troublesome 
in this State, and threatened to overrun the 
white population. They were led by Black 
Hawk, their chief and prophet, who pretended 
to have power given him b}' the Great Sjiirit 
to destroy the pale-faces. He attacked the 
whites with so much vigor that militia com- 
panies were formed for self-protection. A 
battalion of this militia, of 275 men, com- 
manded by Major Israel Stillman, of Fulton 
County, was, on the 1-lth of May, 183:i, 
attacked by Black Hawk on a small branch of 
the Sycamore Creek and badly defeated and 
cut up. This was called the battle of "Still- 
man's Run." The first call which Gov. Rey- 
nolds made for troops was in May, 1831, for 
all able-bodied men who were willing to fight 
the Indians, to the number of seven hundred, 
to rendezvous at Beardstown, on the 10th day 
of June. "^ On that day they assembled in 
Beardstown in three times that number. Gov. 
Reynolds organized them at once by appoint- 
ing Joseph Duncan, of .lacksonville, brigadier- 
general, and Enoch C. March, of Beardstown, 
quartermaster. March was equal to the oc- 
casion. He was so well acquainted with this 

vicinity that ho soon furnished the necessary 
supplies. But Gov. Reynolds was at a loss to 
know how to arm those who had not brought 
rifles. In this emergency, Frances Arenz 
came to the rescue. He was a merchant in 
Beardstown, and had previously purchased 
some light brass-barreled fowling-pieces, 
which had been manufactured in the East for 
a South American government, and not an- 
swering the purpose for which they were made 
they were shipped West to shoot birds with. 
These answered excellently for arms for light 
horsemen and skirmishers. The troops were 
encamped above town, where the saw mills 
now stand, until they took up their march. 
In their ranks were some of the best men of 
the country. 

The whole briffade was organized into two 
regiments and two battalions. The first regi- 
ment was commanded by Col. James D. 
Henry, Lieutenant Col. John T. Stuart, 
Major Thomas Collins, Adjutant Edward 
Jones, quartermaster, and Thomas M. Neal, 
paymaster. The captains were Adam Smith, 
William F. Elkin, A. Morris, Thomas Carlin, 
Samuel Smith, John Lorton and Samuel C. 

The second regiment was commanded by 
Colonel Daniel Lieb, Major N. Butler. The 
captains were H. Mathews, John Hanes, 
George Bristow, William Gilham, Capt. 
Kondall, Alexander Wells and William 
Weatherford, usually called " Old Buck," of 
Morgan County. 

The odd battalion was commanded by Major 
N. Buckmaster, James Semple, adjutant, 
Richard Roman, surgeon, and Joseph Gilles- 
pie, paymaster. 

The Spy battalion was commanded by Gen- 
eral Samuel Whiteside, Major Samuel F. 
Kendall, Adjutant John S. Greathouse, and 
Paymaster P. H. Winchester. Captains Wil- 
liam B. Whiteside, William Miller and Solo- 
mon P. Witt. The little army started on 



W^^ ^r^ 





■ -^ffyK3CTWi»..vV»aa!g-v^ 



tlieir campaign June 15, 1831, for Rock 

We will relate one incident only, connected 
with the Black-Hawk "War, to show how it 
affected the then future history, of at least a 
portion of Cass County. 

David Epler, a resident of North Prairie in 
this county, came to Beardstown to purchase 
two barrels of salt. He drove two beautiful 
horses, well harnessed, and a good wagon; 
altogether just what Col. March wanted for 
war material. He accordingly seized them, 
under that law so universally adopted in war 
times, that "might makes right," and took 
them from Mr. Epler, nolens volens. But 
Mr. Epler refused to give them up, and, his 
face livid with anger, declared that he would 
defend them with his life, and that the colonel 
and his troops would have to walk over his 
dead body before he would give up his favor- 
ite team; at least, until he was paid their 
value. Col. March then offered to pay for 
them what two disinterested men should say 
they were worth. This was agreed to. There 
were then stopping in Beardstown two com- 
parative strangers. Dr. Charles Chandler and 
a man named Cr.awi'ord; to them the cause 
was referred. They, having come from the 
East, were wholly unacquainted with the low 
prices of this new country, and priced the 
team at eastern values, which Col. March felt 
in honor bound to abide by, and the conse- 
quence was Mr. Epler got $350 for his team, 
which was a large price then. 

This incident leads us to relate how Dr. 
Chandler came here. He left Rhode Island, 
where he had a good practice in his profes- 
sion, and a new house which he had just built, 
and started westward with his family, with 
the intention of settling at Fort Clark, where 
Peoria now stands. 

When the steamer, upon which he came up 
the Illinois River, arrived at Beardstown — 
tlia h()stil'=! attitude of the Indians in the 

vicinity, and the preparations for a general 
Indian war, induced the captain to discharge 
his passengers and freight at Beardstown, he 
thinking it unsafe to go any further north 
with his boat. 

While here, Dr. Chandler took a ride up 
the Sangamon Bottom with Thomas Beard, 
and he was so well pleased with that part of 
it where Chandlerville now stands, that he 
determined to go no further north, but to 
settle there. This was in the spring of 1832. 
The bottom and bluffs had been burned over, 
and the new, fresh, green grass and beautiful 
flowers had sprung up; the trees, and vines and 
shrubbery were dressed in their most inviting 
foliase, and he had never seen so beautiful a 
sight. In a short time he took his wife and little 
daughter to see their future home, and they 
were equally delighted with it. Thei-e was a 
wagon road up the bottom, winding along the 
bluffs, in about the same place it now does, 
hut so little was it traveled that it had not 
hindered the fire passing over it, and in the 
middle of the road, between the two horse- 
paths, was a ridge of green grass mingled 
with strawberry vines, which lookeil like a 
row of cultivated strawberries, and these 
right in the road; the doctor and his wife and 
little daughter ate in abundance the large, 
ripe berries. The doctor entered 160 acres of 
land where the town of Chandlerville now 
stands, and built his cabin upon the site of 
the present Congregational Church. He 
broke up three acres of land that spring, late 
as it was,' and raised a crop of buckwheat 
upon it, without an\- fence around. 

There was a universal custom among the 
settlers at that time, that every man should 
be entitled to 80 acres of land on each side of 
the land already entered by him, until such 
time as he was able to enter it, as it was 
called, or, in other words, until he could raise 
money enough to buy it from the Government 
at ^1.35 per acre ; and it was considered as 



mean as stealing for another man to enter it. 

Shortly after the doctor had settled there, 
a man stopped there named English, who was 
so well pleased with the prospect that he con- 
cluded to enter land and settle there. The 
doctor assisted and befriended him all he 
could, and, to induce him to stop, offered to 
give up his claim to one-half of the eighty 
acre tract, next to the land that English 
wanted, and let him enter it. English told 
him that he v.-as going to Springfield and 
enter the whole tract ; that he did not care 
for the customs of the country ; and that 
he was going to have it rigiit or wrong, 
and started for Springfield. All of Dr. 
Chandler's expostulations with him did not 
avail anything. The doctor v?ent to his 
cabin and looked over his little pile of 
money and found that he had fifty dollars. 
He thought that his neighbor MoAuly had 
some money, and saddling his best horse, he 
rode to McAuly's house and borrowed fiftv 
dollars more. Thus provided, he too'k a dif- 
ferent route through the woods and prairies 
from that chosen by English, and putting his 
horse to his best speed, started for the Land 

When about ten miles of Springfield, he 
overtook two young men on horse back, and 
as his horse was foaming with perspiration, 
and nearly tired out, he rode slowly along 
with the j'oung men, as well to rest his horse, 
as to relate to them the cause of his haste. 
When he told them of the meanness of the man 
English, one of the young men was so indig- 
nant that he offered the doctor his own compar- 
atively fresh horse, that he might make all haste 
and thwart the efforts of English, while the 
young man would ride the doctor's horse 
slowly into town. But the doctor rode his 
own horse, got safely to the Land Office and 
entered the land before English got there. 
Sometime after that he wanted to have his 
land surveyed, and the county surveyor lived 

at Jacksonville, but a neighbor told him that 
there was a better surveyor living at Salem, in 
Sangamon County, named Abraham Lincoln. 
So the doctor sent for him, and when he 
came with his implements to do the surveying, 
the doctor found that Abraham Lincoln, the 
surveyor, was the same young man who had 
so kindly offered to lend him his horse, so 
that he might defeat the rascally man English. 

Dr. Chandler was the first physician in Cen- 
tral Illinois who adopted quinine in his prac- 
tice as a reniedy; the first who introduced 
the practice of the infliction of bodily pain 
as a remedy for overdoses of opium ; and 
the first who opposed bleeding as a remedy. 
When he went to Sangamon Bottom, he was 
called into practice before he could build a 
stable, and for weeks, when at home, tied his 
horse to a tree and pulled grass to feed him 
on, having no scythe to cut it with. He built 
the first frame house within the present limits 
of this co'jnty. It was 10x13 feet, one-story, 
and shingled with split and shaved oak shin- 
gles, which made a good roof for twentj'-five 
years — a fact worthy of notice. He built it 
for a drug store and office, and it is still in 
existence. In 1836, he built his present large 
residence. His reason for building so large 
a house at that early day was, that it was ex- 
act'y like the one ho had built and left in 
Rhode Island; and as his family had sacri- 
ficed so much in leaving their comfortable 
home for the wilds of the West, he wished to 
make a home as near like their former one as 

In 1833, Jackson was President ; John 
Reynolds, Governor; and Clay and Webster 
were in their glory. Beardstown was quite a 
flourishing town, and the port on the river 
from which most towns in the interior of the 
State got their supplies of goods, and from 
which their produce was shipped to market. 

In that year Francis Arenz began publish- 
ing the first newspaper north of Jacksonville 



and south of Chicago, entitled, The Beards- 
lown Chronicle andlllinois Military Bounty 
Land Advertiser. This paper did the ad- 
vertising for the counties of Mason, Warren, 
Brown, Schuyler, McDonough, Stark, Knox, 
and Fulton, as there were no newspapers 
printed in those counties. There were no 
lawyers in Beardstown then, but those usually 
consulted by our citizens were: John J. Har- 
din, Walter Jones, Aaron B. Fontaine, Josiah 
Lamljorn, and Murray McConnell of Jackson- 
ville, and William H. Richardson of Rush- 

In 183.3, there was not a single merchant 
north of the Mauvistarre, outside of Beards- 
town, and not one advertised in The Beards- 
toion Chronicle; and money was so scarce 
tiiat it was almost impossible for any kind of 
business to be transacted. Francis Arenz 
humorously ascribes the phenomenon of the 
great meteoric shower of that year, to the 
fact, that a day or two previously a subscriber 
had paid him two dollars, all in cash, for a 
year's subscription to the Chronicle. 

The names of the steamers which navigated 
the Illinois River in 1833-34, were the Peoria, 
E.xchange, Ottawa, Ceres, Utility, Cavalier, 
Express, Black Hawk, and Olive Branch. 

James B. Kenner kept the Bounty Land 
Hotel at Beard's Landing, on the west bank 
of the river, opposite Beardstown. 

Prices of staples in 1833, at Beardstown, 
were : Flour, imported, per barrel, |i4.;i5; 
wheat, in 90 days, per bushel, 50c.; wheat, 
cash, per bushel, 45.; salt, per bushel, 75c.; 
corn, per bushel, 13 to 16c. ; beans, per bushel, 
50c.; whisky, per gallon, 48c.; pork, per lb., 
2|c.; butter, per lb., 10c. ; beef, per lb., 'l^c; 
cigars, per 10 JO, $1; cigars, per box, best, |il. 

The business men of Beardstown in 1834, 
Avere: Francis Arenz, L. W. Talmage & Co., 
T. & J. S. Wibourne, J. M. Merchant & Co., 
Haywood Read, J. Parrott & Co., merchants; 
Juhn Alfred, M. Kingsbury, and Liscomb & 

Buckle, tailors; J. Roulstoii, hat maker; Henry 
Boemler, cabinet maker; M. McCreary, cooper; 
Malony & Smith, forwarding and commission 
business; Knapp and Pogue, steam mill; Gat- 
ton, Judson & Elliott. Tiiere were also: ]3r. 
J. W. Fitch, Dr. Owen M. Long, Dr. Chas. 
Hochstetter, and Dr. Rue. 

As descriptive of the business of Beards- 
town, we will quote the following extract 
from/an editorial in the Beardstown Chron- 
icle oiU&xch 1, 1834: 

" Since the opening of the river, there has 
been shipped from this place, 1,502 barrels of 
flour and 150 barrels of pork. Ready for 
shipment at the warehouses at this time, 581 
barrels of flour, 400 barrels of pork, and 150 
kefS of lard. This is a fair commencement 


of exporting surplus produce from a country 
where a few years ago many of such articles 
were imported. Two steam flouring mills 
and one steam saw mill are now in operation. 
A large brewery and distillery are being built, 
with a grist mill. Besides, arrangements are 
being made for building ware, store, and 
dwelling houses. Four years ago only three 
families, residing in log huts, lived in this 
place, and now, we venture to assert, more 
business is transacted in this town tiian any 
other place in the State." 

The old brick school house in Beards- 
town, since a part of Dr. Theo. Hoffman's 
premises, was built in 1834, by Beard and 
Arenz, and presented by them to the inhabi- 
tants, and for many years was the only place 
for public meetings. 

At that time great stress was laid upon the 
nagavibility of the Sangamon River, as boats 
frequently passed up and down that stream. 
(In 1833, a steamboat of the larger class went 
up the Sangamon to within five miles of 
Springfield, and discharged its cargo there. 

The farm houses, just previous to the or- 
ganizing of Cass County, were mostly built of 
logs, and in many cases, innocent of glass. 



The doors were made of puncheon or split 
logs, as saw mills wei'e few and far between. 
The fire-places were made of logs filled up 
with clay dug from beneath tlie iloors. A 
temporary wall would be built about two feet 
inside the log wall; the space then filled with 
earth, and wetted, was pounded or rammed 
down solid. The inner wall was then taken 
away and a fire built inside, which baked the 
jams like brick. Then this was surmounted 
with a stick an 1 clay chimney, a pole was run 
across to hang ketth>s on; and the chinks be- 
tween the logs of tlie house were filled up 
with sticks, cliiy, and cho|)ped straw. The 
doors and roof of the house were made of 
split boards, and frequently not a nail or any 
iron was used in the whole house. The roof- 
boards were kept in their places by logs 
weighing tlieni down; the doors, held together 
by wooden pins, hung on wooden hinges, and 
latched witli wooden latches. The houses 
generally had but one room an<l two doors, 
but no window. Usually one door of the 
house was left open, no matter how cold the 
weather was, to admit light; and rarely both 
doors were closed, except when the family 
were about to retire to rest. So habituated 
were people to open doors, that that custom 
prevailed even after the introduction of glass 
into the cabins, for wimlows. It is related, 
that on a very cold dny, an eastern man who 
was visiting a friend at his log cabin, proposed 
to close the door to make the house warmer. 
The proprietor expressed his surprise at the 
proposition, but did not object to try it as an 
experiment. After the door had been shut a 
few minutes, he seemed much pleased with 
the result, and said, " Well, I declare! I be- 
lieve it does make a difference." 

A rural poet has truthfully stated that — 
"In every country village where 

Ten chimneys' smoke perfume the air 
Contiguous to a steeple. 

Great getit'e-f'olks are fount! a score, 

AVho can' I associate any more 
With common country people." 

So even in our early days we had some 
aristocrats. Occasionally a man was found 
that built his house of hewn logs, and had 
sawn jilanks for his floor, and perhaps a glass 
window. And then some ambitious neigh- 
bor must overtop him, and the wonderful pal- 
atial double-log-house, with a porch between, 
appeared. By the youngsters this seemed ex- 
travagant and useless ; but the surprise of 
everybody was Dr. Chandler's large, well-fiii- 
islied frame house. Even beds were more 
accommodating then than now, and would 
hold many more occupants. There was one, 
usually, in each of two corners in every log 
cabin, and under each of these was a trundle- 
bed which pulled out at night ; and then 
there was bedding to spare in most houses, 
and when friends called and stayed all night, 
which they usually did, 9. field-bed was made 
that accommodated all. When meal time 
came, a large amount of good wholesome 
provender woukl be supplied, considering the 
few cooking utensils that were used. Even 
in well-to-do families the articles for cooking 
consisted of a Dutch oven, which was simply 
a shallow kettle, with a cover made for 
holding hot coals, in which first the bread 
and then the meat was cooked, a coffee- 
pot, and a kettle to cook vegetables, when 
they had any. Wheat bread was scarce, and 
corn bread was universally used. When 
bread was spoken of without a prefix, corn 
bread was meant ; any other kind being des- 
ignated as v}Jieat bread or rye bread. I rec- 
ollect a circumstance which will illustrate 
how corn bread was respected. When Major 
Miller kept the Western Hotel in Jackson- 
ville, in 1836, there was a saloon, then called 
a grocery, under it called " Our House." A 
Yankee, who had been stopping with the 
Major, called into the grocery to get his bit- 
ters, and outraged the thirsty customers at the 
bar by an offensive allusion to the corn bread 
he had had sot before him at the hotel table, 



stating among other remarks, that corn bread 
was only fit for hogs to eat. At this an irri- 
table native took offense ; he peeled off his 
coat, and sijuared his brawny shoulders before 
the astonished Yankee, and said, "See yer, 
stranger, I don't know who you are, and I 
don't keer a durn, nuther ; but I'll have 
you understand that the man that makes fun 
of corn bread makes fun of the principal 
part of my living." It was with considerable 
difficulty that a fuss was prevented, and then 
only by the Yankee apologizing and treating 
the crowd to the drinks. 

While speaking of Yankees, I might just 
as well say, that this part of Morgan County 
was settled principally by citizens from south 
of the Potomac and Ohio rivers; and a strong 
prejudice was felt against people from New 
England, who were all denominated " Yan- 
kees ; " and, to be just, candor compels me to 
admit that the representatives of the descend- 
ants of the pilgrim fathers, who peddled 
clocks and tinware, and notions, and essences, 
and the like, through this part of the country 
at that time, were not calculated in every 
instance to inspire any high respect for them 
as a class. 

Fitz Greene Halleck, the poet, writes of 
them as 

" Apostates, who are meddling 
With merchandise, pounds, shillings, pence, and 

peddling ; 
Or, wandering through southern countries, teaching 

The A, B, C, from Webster's spelling book ; 
Gallant and godly, making love, and preaching, 

And gaining, by what they call "hook and crook," 
And what the moralists call overreaching, 

A decent living. The Virginians look 
Upon them with as favorable eyes 
As Gabriel on the devil in paradise." 

In fact, a mean trick was always expected 
from a Yankee ; while there is reason to be- 
lieve that, really, there were sometimes just as 
mean things done by persons from other por- 
tions of the nation. To illustrate : About 

forty-five years ago, I attended a wolf hunt on 
Indian Creek. There were about a hundred 
of us, on horseback, up on a rise in the tim- 
ber, waiting to hear from the hounds, and 
passing the time in conversation. The sub- 
ject of discussion, a not unusual one, was the 
Yankees, and each man had a story to tell of 
some Yankee trick. Finally, old Uncle Bob 
Martin, who had but one eye, but was, never- 
theless, quite an oracle in such matters, had 
his say in this wise : "Well, gentlemen, I'll 
tell yer what it is. I've seed a heap 'er Yan- 
kees in my day, and I know all about 'em. 
I know 'em like a book, inside and out, and I 
tell yer what it is, gentlemen, all the Yankees 
don't come from New England, nuther, not 
by a durn sight. And the meanest Yankee I 
ever seed, gentlemen, was a Kanetucky 

I said corn bread was the principal article 
of diet then. But there were various kinds 
of corn bread. That most in use was corn 
dodger. This was simply made of corn meal, 
hot water and a little salt, stirred together to 
the consistency of dough; then a double hand- 
ful was rounded, flatted, and placed in a hot 
Dutch oven, surrounded with glowing embers. 
An oven would hold three or four of these, 
and they were cooked so quickly that a woman 
could keep quite a large number of hungry 
men in business. Then there was the pump- 
kin bread, made by mixing pumpkins and 
meal, and the pone. This last was considered 
suitable for kings, and I must tell j'ou how it 
was made. It was thus: Take as much corn 
meal as is wanted for use; sift it; put it in an 
iron kettle and pour on it boiling water; stir 
it till it becomes well mixed and quite thin; 
this being right, let it remain in the same ves- 
sel till morning, and if kept warm it will be 
well fermented (which is necessary); then put 
it into a hot Dutch oven, it being heated be- 
fore the dough is put in it; apply good live 
embers on the lid of the oven as well as under 



it, being careful not to burn it. These were 
s^metimes baked in hot ashes and embers, 
without an oven. These were called ash- 

Butter was not conuiion, except in the 
spring and summer; but large quantities of 
fat bacon and hams were used instead, which 
were kept the year round, in the smoke houses, 
one of which every family had. Potatoes were 
unknown for many years; and when they 
were introduced, they were at first very un- 
popular. People that ate them were stigma- 
tized as Irish. Deer, prairie-chickens and 
other game, as well as domestic fowls, were 
very plenty and much used for food. 

The principal clothing worn by the men 
was of Kentucky and homo made jeans, made 
into pants and hunting shirts. Under-clothing 
was hardly ever worn, even in winter, and 
overcoats, never; yet men seemed as warm and 
comfortable then as they do now, with under- 
garments and overcoats. The ladies dressed 
principally in linscy of their own weaving. 
1 well recollect when calico was first gener- 
ally worn. Patterns with large flowery fig- 
ures were preferred; and although our prairies 
were covered all over in profusion with the 
most beautiful of flowers, like unto a garden 
of the gods, yet, I must admit, the prettiest 
flowers or, at least, the most attractive were 
those printed upon calico. And I might ad- 
mit further, that they are not altogether dis- 
pleasing to most men even now. At the 
huskings, weddings, meetings, and merry- 
makings, the girls looked as pretty then, in 
their home-made suits as they do now, though 
arrayed in all the gaud and glory of the mil- 

The principal occasions of great public 
gatherings were political discussions; for, 
either fortunately or unfortunately (and which 
it is is a great moral question), there never 
was a man hung witiiin the limits of this 
county at the hands of justice, so the public 

have never been called together out of curi- 
osity on that account. Among our public 
speakers at that time were: Lincoln, Hardin 
Baker, Lamborn, Richardson, and more lat- 
terly, Yates and Douglas, besides many from 
a distance. Besides these occasions, we had 
preaching in the schoolhouses and barns and 
groves. Often have some of us, now living, 
listened to Re idick Horn, Cyrus Wright 
Peter Cartwright, " Old Man Hammaker," of 
North Prairie, and many others. How many 
of the old settlers recollect Old Father Doyle, 
who used to shout "power " until the far-off 
woods rang, and the hills sent back the echo. 
Oh ! those public meetings in the woods; 
how grand they were ! Bryant sings of them 
and says — 

" The groves were God's first temples. 

Ah ! why should we in the world's riper years neglect 

God's ancient sanctuaries, and adore 

Only among the crowd, and under roofs 

That our frail hands have raised." 

There used to be a famous camp meeting 
ground for many years at " Uncle " William 
Holmes', northeast of Virginia, and people 
attended it from twenty miles around. When 
this county was first formed, there were but 
few farms on North Prairie, except those 
skirting the edge of the timber; and a man 
could cross it anywhere on horseback, led 
only by Indian trails, or the points of timber. 
For instance, a man could start from the 
Jacksonville road at Yaples or Peterfish's 
farm, south of where Virginia now is, and go 
straight to Holmes' camp ground, a distance 
of about ten miles, northeast, and not pass a 

In 1835, the Beardstown and Sangamon 
Canal Company were incorporated, and there 
was considerable interest taken in that work. 

In ] 83G, on the 16th day of June, Dr. H. 
H. Hall laid out and platted the town of Vir- 
ginia, he having entered the land upon which 
it stands a short time previously. _ 



At this early date, before there were any- 
other towns than Beardstown, localities were 
known by other names, as for instance, Rob- 
inson's Mills, Panther Creek, Miller's Ferry, 
Schoonover's Ford, North Prairie, Jersey 
Prairie or Workman Post-office, Panther or 
Painter Grove, as it was called; Painter 
Creek Post-office, where Chandlerville is now; 
Little Painter, Middle Creek Settlement, Fly 
Point, Sylvan Grove, Puncheon Camp, Lynn 
Grove, etc. 

In 1835, The Jacksonville & Meredosia 

railroad was incorporated by the legislature 
of Illinois, which was the first railroad built 
west of the Alleghenies. 

About this time, the Sangamon and Spoon 
rivers, and Crooked Creek to Henly's mill 
were declared navigable by the State. 

The manner of voting at that time was 
viva voce, the elector announcing to the judges 
and clerks of the election, in plain voice, the 
man or measure he intended to vote for, so 
that it was publicly known how each man 





State, Vandalia or Alton would gain it. The 
people in the northern portion of the State 
were willing to sacrifice Peoria, but the people 
of Central Illinois were divided between 
Springfield and Jacksonville. There was a 
growing feeling, however, in favor of Spring- 
field, as being the most available ; and a con- 
vention was called by the central and northern 
counties, to meet at Rushville, on the 7th day 
of April, 1834, to unite on one point to sup- 
port for the State capital. Jacksonville was 
opposed to this, and favored the deferring 
the removal of the seat of government to 
some future time, hoping to gain strength by 
this line of policy. Consequently, Jackson- 
ville refused to take part in the Rushville 
convention, while the northern part of the 
county met at Beardstown, decided to take part 
in the convention, and elected Archibald Job 
and Thomas Beard to represent them there, 
which they afterwards did. This occasioned 
a discussion between the newspaper of Jack- 
sonville, conducted by Josiah Lamborn, and 
the Chronicle on the part of Beardstown, 
by Francis Arenz. 

To show the state of this feeling as early as 
1834, the following is from the Chronicle 
of March 35th, of that year: 

" In the ' Chronicle,' No. 35, we published 
the preamble and resolutions adopted at a 
public meeting held in Beardstown on the 
20th of February last. In one of the resolu- 
tions, Archibald Job and Thomas Beard were 

ABOUT this time there became a gradually 
growing feeling of dissatisfaction in this 
the northern part of Morgan County, with the 
management of county aiFairs at Jacksonville. 
It seemed to the people here, that Morgan 
County was ruled by Jacksonville, and that that 
village was ruled by a clique, or ring, as it 
would now be called. This feeling became 
more conspicuous,as at that time the removal of 
the State capital was being worked up. It was 
provided in the Constitution of 1818, while the 
capital was at Kaskaskia, that the Legislature 
should locate a newtown, which should be the 
capital for twenty years. This the Legislature 
did, and named the place Vandalia. The 
constitutional limit of that location was fast ap- 
])roaching, and anew seat of government was 
to be selected. 

A statute was passed February 5, 1833, 
providing, that after the expiration of the 
time prescribed by the constitution for the 
seat of government remaining at Vandalia, 
the people should vote for one of the follow- 
ing named places for the permanent seat of 
government, to- wit: " The geographical centre 
of the State," Jacksonville, Springfield, Alton, 
Vandalia, and Peoria, and the point receiving 
the highest number of votes should forever 
remain the seat of government. The south- 
ern part of the State was at that time most 
thickly settled, and it soon became evident 
that, unless the people of Central Illinois 
united upon a town in their portion of the 



appointed to attend as delegates at Ruslivllle, 
on the first Monday of April next, to repre- 
sent the wishes of the people in the northern 
part of Morgan County. 

" In our last number we published the pro- 
ceedings of a meeting held in Jacksonville on 
the 3d inst. One of the resolutions adopted 
at that meeting, declares, that ' from the neu- 
tral position of Morgan County in relation to 
locality and interest, it is inexpedient, at this 
time, for citizens of our county to send dele- 
gates to the convention proposed to be held 
on the first Monday of April next.' 

"We also published a letter from J. Lam- 
born, Esq., to the editor of this paper, ex- 
planatory of the views and feelings of those 
attending the Jacksonville meeting towards 
their fellow citizens of the northern part of 
Morgan County, who composed the Beards- 
town meeting; but as this letter was not part 
of the proceedings at Jacksonville, and the 
resolutions adopted are contrary and in op- 
position to the friendly feelings privately ex- 
pressed by Mr. Lamborn, we have to take the 
sentiments as expressed by the meeting. 

" The meeting at Beardstown was composed 
of freemen. They acted for themselves, and 
appointed two delegates to represent their 
wishes at the proposed convention, leaving 
four delegates to be chosen in other parts of 
Morgan County. If our fellow citizens at 
Jacksonville, and in the southern and western 
parts of the county, did not choose to send 
delegates, no objection or dissatisfaction 
would have been entertained; but a meeting 
composed of about one hundred and fifty indi- 
viduals at Jacksonville and vicinity (being ac- 
quainted with the sentiments expressed here), 
have assumed to indicate in their resolution 
that it is inexpedient^ at this time, for the 
citizens of our county to send delegates. To 
this decree the citizens of the north will not 
submit. We unhesitatingly say, that two 
delegates will attend and represent their 

wishes. We believe the time has gone by 
when a few leaders of Jacksonville controlled 
the votes of Morgan County; and we would 
advise those who have influence in and about 
Jacksonville, to use it with discretion. The 
people north of Indian Creek, and we doubt 
not in other parts of the county, understand 
their own interest, and will act accordingly." 

The convention was held at Rushville at the 
appointed time, and such united action was 
taken as eventuated in the passage of a 
statute on the 3d day of February, 1837, 
which permanently located the seat of gov- 
ernment at Springfield, and Archibald Job, 
of this county, A. G. Henry and Thomas 
Hunghan were appointed commissioners to 
superintend the erection of the State House. 

At the very same session which removed 
the capital, on the 3d day of March, 1837, a 
bill was passed that the people of Morgan 
County should, on the third Monday of April 
of that year, vote for and against the division 
of that county, on the line running through 
the middle of townships seventeen, north, 
and in case the vote favored it, all north of 
that line to constitute a new county, to be 
called the county of Cass ; that the county 
seat should be at Beardstown, until the peo- 
ple should permanently locate the county 
seat by election; and the school fund should 
be divided according to the number of the 
townships between the two counties. 

We will here insert this, and other statutes 
concerning the early history of Cass county, 
for the reason that the books in which they 
are contained are probably not to be found 
in Cass county, outside of our library, and 
are not for sale anywhere, and they will proba- 
bly never be reprinted, and are very rarely 
found except in the State libraries. By re- 
printing them here they will be preserved. 


Sec. 1. Be it enacted b>j the people of the 



State of Illinois, represented in the General 
Assembly, That all that tract of country 
within the following boundaries to wit: Be- 
ginning at a point in the centre of the main 
channel of the Illinois river, where a line 
running through the centre of townships 
seventeen north intersects the same, in range 
thirteen, west of the third principal meridian, 
thence east with said line to the east side of 
the county of Morgan, from thence north to 
the centre of the main channel of the San- 
gamon river, thence down said river to the 
centre of the main channel of the Illinois 
river, thence down said river to the place of 
beginning, shall constitute a new county to be 
called the county of Cass. 

Sec. 3. The county aforesaid is created 
upon the following conditions: The people 
of the county of Morgan as the same is now 
organized, shall meet at the several places for 
holding elections for Representatives and 
Senators in said county, on the third Monday 
of April next, and proceed to vote in the 
same manner of voting for Representatives 
and Senators to the general assembly, whether 
said county shall be created or not. The 
judges of elections in said county shall give 
twenty days' notice of the time and place of 
holding said elections, by posting notices 
thereof at six public places in the county, and 
on said day shall open a poll book at each 
election precinct, in which they shall rule two 
columns, in one of which they shall set down 
the votes given for the creation of said county, 
and in the other column the votes given 
against the same, and said judges shall conduct 
said election, and make returns to the clerk of 
the county commissioners' court of Morgan 
County, in the same manner as is now pro- 
vided by law in the case of elections for Sen- 
ators and Representatives for the general as- 
sembly, and said returns shall be opened and 
counted in the same manner as in such elec- 
tions, and if a majority of all the votes given 

at said election shall be in favor of the crea- 
tion of said county, a certificate thereof shall 
be made by the clerk of said county com- 
missioners' court, under the seal of said court, 
and transmitted by him to the office of the 
Secretary of State, of the State of Illinois, to 
be filed in his office as evidence of the exist- 
ence of said county, and said clerk shall make 
a like certificate and file the same in his of- 
fice, which shall be entered of record at the 
next succeeding term of the said County 
Commissioners Court, and shall be sufficient 
to prove the facts therein stated, after which 
said county shall be one of the counties of the 
State of Illinois. The Clerk of the Commis- 
sioners Court of Morgan County shall cause 
a notice of said election to be published in all 
the newspapers published in the County of 

Sec. 3. If said county shall be created as 
aforesaid, the legal voters of said county shall 
meet on the first Monday of May next, at the 
several places of holding elections in said new 
county, and vote for the place where the county 
seat of said county shall be located, and the 
place receiving the greatest number of votes 
shall be the permanent seat of justice of said 
county, and on the first Monday of August 
next said county shall proceed to elect all 
county officers for said county, to be commis- 
sioned and qualified as in other cases. 

Sec. 4. The owner or owners of the land 
where said county seat shall be located, shall 
donate and convey to said county of Cass, at 
least fifteen acres of land at the place where 
said seat shall be located, which may be dis- 
posed of in the manner the county commis- 
sioners' court of said county shall deem 
proper, the proceeds whereof shall be applied 
to the erection of the court house and jail, 
and clerk's offices of said county, but if the 
county seat aforesaid shall be located at 
Beardstown in said county, the corporation of 
said town shall, within one year from the said 



location, pay into the county treasury of said 
county, not less than ten thousand dollars to 
be applied in the erection of said public 

Sec. 5. Said county shall vote with the 
county of Morgan for Senators and Represent- 
atives until the next apportionment, and said 
county shall make a part of the first judicial 
circuit, and so soon as said county shall be or- 
ganized, the clerk of the county commission- 
ers' court of said county shall notify the judge 
of the said circuit, and it shall be his duty to 
appoint a clerk and hold a court in said county 
at such times as said judge shall apjioint. 
The seat of justice of said county shall be lo- 
cated at Beardstown, until the public build- 
ings are erected. But if the county seat shall 
be located at Beardstown, and said corpora- 
tion of Beardstown shall not pay to the treas- 
urer of said county, said ten thousand dollars 
for the purpose of erecting said public build- 
ings within one year after the location of said 
county seat, then the county commissioners' 
court of said county shall locate the county 
seat at some other point near the center of 
said county, when the quantity of land men- 
tioned in the fourth section of this act shall 
be donated as therein provided. 

Sec. 6. The school funds belonging to the 
several townships in said county, and all 
notes and mortgages pertaining to the same, 
shall be paid and delivered over to the school 
commissioners of said county of Cass by the 
school commissioners of the county of Morgan, 
so soon as the said county shall be organized, 
and the commissioners of school lands shall 
be appointed and qualified according to law, 
together with all interest arising out of said 
money, that has not been heretofore expended 
for schools within that part of Morgan County 
now proposed to be set off into the county of 
,Cass. This act shall take effect according to 
the conditions thereof, from and after its pas- 

Sec. 7. In case said county of Cass shall 
be created under the provisions of this act, 
then until the next apportionment of Senators 
and Representatives to the General Assem- 
bly, the said county shall be entitled to one 
Representative to the General Assembly, and 
shall at the next election vote with the county 
of Morgan for one Senator, also at every suc- 
ceeding election for said Senator, and the 
county of Morgan shall be entitled to five 
Representatives and two Senators. Approved, 
March 3d, 1837. 

The election was had; the feeling between 
the northern and southern sides of the 
county was such that the election was favor- 
able to division, and the northern townships 
immediately called an election for officers 
with which to organize the new county of 

There were then but three voting precincts 
in this part of Morgan County, which was 
about being formed into a new county; they 
were: Beardstown, Virginia and Richmond, 
and the following are the names of every 
man that voted at that election, with the 
names of the precincts they voted in: 

Poll Book at an election held at the house 
of Moses Perkins, in the Beardstown Pre- 
cinct, in the County of Cass, Ills., August 7, 
1837. Thos. Beard, James Arnold, John 
Scheffer, judges; T. U. Webb, C. W. Clarke, 

John F. Bailey, 
Alex. King, 
Ben. Beasley, 
Christ. Shanks, 
Jerem. Wilson, 
Jordan Marshall, 
Jos. Britton, 
Geo. Bryant, 
Jas. King, 
Geo. McKay, 
John C. Linsley, 
Elizur Anderson, 
Edmund Ensly, 

C. F. Kan d age, 
Elisha Marshall, 
John Marshall, 
Jos Seaman, 
Isham Revis, 
Nich. Parsons, 
Lewis G. Lambert, 
Vim. Cox, 
Frankl. Stewart, 
Sam. Hunt, 
Jas. Pounds, 
Fredy White, 
Landerick Eale, 



Evan Jenkins, 

Nich. Rheim, 

Jn. Miller, 

Fred. Krohe, 

T. C. Mills, 

Moses Derby, 

Lewis Haiues, 

Caleb Lee, 

Wm. Turkymire, 

Jas. Bonnett, 

Pbil. Schaffer, 

Thos. Carroll, 

J. W. Crewdsou, 

Curtis Hager, 

Gottlieb Jokisch, 

Phil. Kuhn, 

Thos. Haskins, 

Dan. Wells, 

Jn. H. Treadway, 

G. Kuhl, 

Andr. Keltner, 

Hy. P. Ross, 

John Richardson, 

John Rohn, 

Amnsa Reeves, 

Hy. Kemble 

Christ' n Kuhl, 

Jac. Downing, 

Chr. Boyd, 

Eilw. Saunders, 

John Ilolkmon, 

Dav. Tureman, 

Jos Haskins, 

Adolph Shupong, 

Seymour Coifren, 

Dav. Spence, 

Milton Parmele, 

G. Ruhl, 2d 

Wm. Home, 

Moritz Hallenbach, 

John Quail, 

Heuiy T. Fostei-, 

Thos. C. Black, 

Hy. Boemler, 

Bernard Beist, 

Wm. Bi'yit.;., 

Owen Clemens, 

Dav. Emerich, 

Ben. Britton, 

Dav. Marshall, 

Bradford Rew, 

L. H. Wilkey, 

Geo. Cowan, 

B.uford Haines, 

Lewis Cowan, 

Thos. J. Moseley, 

J. N. Jenkins, 

Hy. Schaffer, 

Nich. Coteral, 

Joel K. Bowman, 

Dan. Britton, 

Thos. Pierce, 

Gottlieb Jokisch, 

Wm. W. Gillet, 

Sam. Grosliong, 

Jacob J. Brown, 

Jn. Cuppy, 

Wm. W. Hemminghouse, 

John Keltely, 

Jackson Stewait, 

Godfr. Gullet, 

Fred. Kors, 

Wm. Quigg, 

Jos. Canby, 

John C. Scott, 

John Decker, 

Marcus Chandler, 

Geo. Garlick, 

Wm. H. McKanley, 

Chs. Garland, 

Leander Brown, 

Jas. Dickinson, 

Alex. RatcliJf, 

John Brackle, 

Jas. Garlick, 

Westley Payton, 

Math. McBride, 

Chr. Hell, 

Dan'l Boyne, 

I^aac Short, 

John Burns, 

Elisha Olcott, 

Thos. Proctor, 

Amasa Warren, 

John Bridgewater, 

Absalom Spence, 

Rich'd Graves, 

Geo Schaffer, 

John A. Thomas, 

Wm. Ritchie, 

Rich' dwells, 

Asa Street, 

John Buck, 

Hy. Miller, 

George Brown, 

Jas. Roach, 

Wm. R. White. 

M. Kemper, 

Ben. Horom, 

Jas. A. Carr, 

Jn. W. Anderson, 

Wm. Moore, 

Jos. H. Clemens, 

John Haram, 

Henry Collins, 

Sam. Shaw, 

Jas. Neeper, 

Zach. Bridgewater, 

Hy. Boha, 

Jos. McClure, 

Jackson Scott, 

Wm. Moore, 

Wm. Bassett, 

Wm. Dougall, 

Stephen Buck, 

Wm. R. Parks, 

Jas. Davidson, 

Wm. Holmes, 

Wm. Shuteman, 

John P. Dick, 

Robt. Lindsay, 

Lewis Nolte, 

Edward Salley, 

Joshua Morris, 

Wm. Cross, 

Wm. Clark, 

Demsey Boyce, 

Wm. W. demons, 

Jn. Wilbourns, 

B. W. Schneider, 

Aaron Powell, 

J. Philippi, 

John McKean, 

Francis Rice, 

Jerm. Bowes, 

Jas. Scott, 

Jas. Logan, 

Aug. Knapp, 

Jas. Case, 

Jas. Cook, 

Jos. Baker, 

Dan. Scott, 

A. Philippi, 

John Gutliff Berger, 

Christ. Newman, 

Martin F. Higgins, 

P. Philippi, 

Fred. Krohe, 

Thos. Stokes, 

Dudley Green, 

W. W. Gordon, 

Aug. Krohe, 

Jasper Buck, 

Thos. Wilbourne, 

Ily. Havekluft, 

f red Inkle. 

Jas. Davis, 

Hy. Braker, 

Jac. Fisal, 

Louis Sudbrink, 

Jas. Bell, 

0. Long, 

John Nevrman, 

Adam Krough, 

E. B. Gillett, 

John Schaeffer, 

John Yokes, 

Montela Richardson, 

J. B. Pierce, 

T U. Webb, 

Orria Hicks, 

Rucy Richardson, 

Harmon Byrnes, 

J. Blackman, 

John Waggoner, 

W. Moody, 

Joshua Alexander, 

Pet. B. Bell, 

Thomas Cowan, 

Sam. Fletcher, 

Edw'd Treadway, 

Morgan Kemper, 

John Hicks, 

L. H. Treadway, 

Chs. Chandler, 

Thos. Bryant, 

DaT. Newman, 

John Price, 

Peter Light, 

Otto Wells, 

G. A. Bonny, 

Reuben Alexander, 

Wm. B. Gaines, 

J. W. Lippincott, 



VVm. Shcpard, 

Jn. Steele, 

John Wilson, 

Calvin Wilson, 

Sam. Thompson, 

Arn. Arenz, 

Oliver Lege, 

Charles Scaggs, 

Hy. Hendricker, 

Pet. Douglas, 

Wm. Lucas, 

Wm. P. Morgan, 

Rob. Moore, 

Hy. Kashner, 

Aaron Wright, 

Riley Claxton, 

Win. Sewell, y 

J. M. Quale, 

John Pryor, 

Zachariah Hash, 

Sam. McKee, 

Jn. W. Gillis, 

Standley Lockerman. 

John Cook, 

T. A. Hoffman, 

Pav. Jones, 

Henry S. Dutch, 

Clinton Wilson, 

Reuben Hager, 

Jos. W Hardy, 

Robert Nance, 

Henry McHenry, 

John Duchardt, 

Wm. Miller, 

Wm. Myers, 

John Johnson, 

Wm. L. Felix, 

Christ. Trone, 

Wm. Myers, 

Mathew Loundsberry, 

John Ayers, 

Jessie Ankrom, 

Amos Dick, 

Frederick McDonald, 

Hammer Oatman, 

John McKowan, 

Henry Dick, 

John Leeper, 

Thos. Saunders, 

Hy. Whittick, 

Jonathan N. I.oge, 

Pleasant Rose, 

A. Williams, 

Carlton Logan, 

John Hathorn, 

Geo. Fancier, 

J. B. Wilson, 

Wm. Butler, 

Colman Gaines, 

James Bonnet, 

Thos. Payne, 

H. Smith, 

John Davis, 

Cyrus Elmore, 

Wm. B. Ulside, 

J. 0. Spence, 

Daniel Robinson, 

Thomas Jones, 

Dan. Sheldon, 

Nich. Kelly, 

John Lucas, 

Henry D. Wilson, 

John McLane, 

Wm. W. Bolt, 

Robert Leeper, 

John L. Witty, 

Lewis Kicker, 

Wm. DeHaven, 

John Taylor, 

Henry Taylor, 

F. Arenz, 

Hy. Wedeking, 

Robert B. Taylor, 

Alfred Daniels, 

Moses Perkins, 

Dan. Riggle, 

James B. Conner, 

Marcus Cooper, 

Ily. Pheboe, 

G. F. Miller, 

Willis Daniels, 

John B. Thompson, 

Butler .\rnold. 

C. J. Norbury, 

Wm. S. demons, 

Eaton Nance, 

Isa.iG Plasters, 

T. Graham, Jr., 

Ro. ert Carter, 

James Hathorn, 

Z. P. Harvey, 

Lemuel Plasters, 

James Wing, 

John Pratt, 

Wm. H. Williams, 

Jac. Anderson, 

Washington Daniels, 

H. W. Libbeon, 

Ralph Morgan, 

Hy. McKean, 

Ely Cox, 

Sylvester Sutton, 

J. P. Crow, 

John W. Pratt, 

James Hickey, 

Robert G. Gaines, 

Austin 8hiitenden, 

Juhn Bull, 

John Baldin, 

Amos Bonney, 

C. W. Clark, 

Lewis Stoner, 

Ashley Hickey, 

James Roles, 

John Cushman, 

Thos. Beard, 

John B. Witty, 

Cyrus Wright. 

J. S. Wilbourne, 

J. Arnold, 

Wm. Scult, 

N. B. Thompson, 

Election at the 

house of John Dj "Weber, 

Eihv. Collins, 

A. Batoagfe, 

in the Virginia Precinct, in the Comity of 

John Pierson, 

Day. White, 

Cass, Illinois, August 7, 1837. This cer- 

Lewis Pijer, 

tificate is added: 

" The County not being or- 

Poll Book at Rich 

mond Prec'nct election of 

ganized, and, of 

course, no Justice of Peace, 


or appointed Jut 

ge, Mr. Win. Clark admin- 

Mat'w Soundsberry, Jr 

Obadiah Morgan, 

istered the oath 

to the other acting judges 

John Hillis, 

Horatio Purdy, 

and Mr. .lames D 

aniel administered it to him 

Wm. T. Kirk, 

Jerry W. Davis, 

and to the clerks. 

Subscribed by us. 

Thos. Lockermand, 

John Roberts, 

" Wm. M. Claek, 

Azariah Lewis, 

John Chesshire, 

"James Daniel." 

Levy Dick, 

Thomas Plasters, 

Gibson Carter, 

Abner Foster, 

Louis Thornsberry, 

John Slack, 

David Pratt, 

Peter Dick, 

Wm. Paton, 

Ezra Dutch, 

John lancier, 

Cary Nance, 

Wm. Graves, 

Young Phelps, 

Henry Nichols, 

Wm. Linn, 

Levi Springer, 

John Craig, 

Jacob Bixler, 

Enoch Wheelock, 

P. S. Oulten, 

L. B. Ross, 



Thos. Plaster, Sr., 
Benj. Corby, 
John Glover, 
P. Underwood, Jr., 
perry G. Price, 
Thos. J. Joy, 
John Daniel, 
Wm. B. Kirk, 
Jeremiah Northern, 
Jos. McDaniel, 
Felix Cameron, 
Robt. Davidson, 
H. Osborne, 
Beneiiici Cameron, 
Anderson Phelps, 
Zeb. Wood, 
Jesse Spicer, 
Wm. Craig, 
Jas. Bland, 
L. Carpenter, . 
John Clark, 
L. Clark, 
Geo. Cunningliam, 
Michael Reed, 
Green H. Paschal, 
Onslow Watson, 
John McDonald, 
Joel Home, 
Charles Brady, 
Wm. Daniels, 
W. P. Johnstone, 
W. P. Finch, 
John Carpenter, 
Thos. Lee, 
Thos. G. Howard, 
Joshua Price, 
Green Garner, 
Aaron Bonny. 
Amos L. Bonny, 
Ephraim Moseley, 
Jas. Ross, Sr., 
T. S. Berry, 
A. Bowen, 
John Long, 
Evan Warren, 
John Cunningham, 
Jas. Holland, 

Wm. Fields, 
Alex. Bain, 
Jas. Garner, 
John Biddies, 
Phillip Cochrane, 
H. II. Hall, 
A. Elder, 

A. S. West, 
Wm. M. Clark, 
Wm. Blain, 
Titus Phelps. 
Jas. Williams, 
Henry Hopkins, 
Thos. Boicourt, 
John Robinson, 
George Sliaw, 
J. M. Ross, 
Pleas. Scott, 
Jas. Biddle, 

J. T. Powell, 
John De Weber, 
Reddick Horn, 
Archibald Job, 
George Beggs, 

B. Stribling, 
Chas. P. Anderson, 
S. Steveson, 

Jas. Daniels, 
James B. Davis, 
John Redman, 
Elias Matthew, 
Thos. Finn, 
Daniel Cauby, 
L. B. Freeman, 
J. M. McLean, 

B. A. Blantin, 
Jos. Jump, 

C. H. Oliver, 
Alex. Huffman, 
Jonas McDonald, 
John Peirce, 
John Biddlecome, 
Jas. Berry, 

"M. O'Brien, 
Isaiah Paschal, 
M. H. Biddies. 


Probate Juslke. J. S. Wilbourue, 65 ; 
26; Jas. Berry,15. 

Wm. Scott, 

Sheriff. Lemon Plaster, 81 ; M. F. Higgins, 1 'i ; J. 
B. Bueb,;70. 

Recorder. N. B. Thompson, 30 ; Thos. Graham, 1 ; 
Dr. 0. M. Long, 7 ; Alfred Elder, 64. 

Count;/ Commissionera' Treasurer. Thos. Wilbourn, 
14; J. C. Spense, 84. 

County Commissioners' Clerk. J. M. Pratt, 52 ; R. 
G. Gains, 49. 

County Commissioners. Amos Bonney, 60 ; G. P. 
Miller, 16; H McKean, 30; Benj. Stribling, 95; 
Henry McIIenry, 7. 

County Surveyor. Wm. Holmes, 86; Wnt. Clark, 19. 

Coroner. C. Rew, 27 ; J. Anderson, none ; Halsey 
Smith, 75. 

The election was held on the first day of 
August, 1837, and the following named officers 
were elected: Joshua P. Crow, Amos Bonney, 
and George F. Miller, County Commissioners; 
John S. Wilbourne, Probate Justice of the 
Peace; John W. Pratt, Clerk of County Com- 
missioners' Court; Lemon Plaster, Sheriff. 
These men were sworn into office by Thomas 
Pogue, a Beardstown magistrate. 

On tlie 1-tth day of August, 1837, the 
county commissioners met and organized Cass 
County. At this first meeting of the board, 
the new county was divided into six precincts, 
which were named : Beardstown, Monroe, 
Virginia, Sugar Grove, Richmond and 

When this county was organized there was 
not a house, built exclusively for relisrious 
worship, in it, and not one in all Morgan 
County outside of Jacksonville. Physicians 
were scarce, and fever and ague quite com- 
mon. Game was plenty, some of which was 
verv disagreeable, particularly wolves, and an 
occasional panther. The wolves very sel- 
dom did violence to human beings; but when 
the weather was cold and stormy, and the 
ground frozen, they were so bold and threat- 
ening, that nobody cared to risk himself out 
alone at night. The only instance of violence 
to a man within our recollection, was the case 
of Esquire Daniel Troy, living near Bethel 



who was walking home one night from town, 
carrying a quarter of beef on his shoulder. 
He was attacked by a gang of wolves, the 
beef taken away from him, and he very 
roughly handled. 

There were a few large gray wolves also, 
that were very much feared. One cold, bright, 
moonshiny night, we heard an uncommon 
fuss with our dogs, and opened our cabin 
door. A favorite little black dog immediately 
pounced into the house, and t)ie largest gray 
wolf, we ever saw, which was after him, tried 
to follow. The door was open, and we had 
no time to get our rifle. The only weapon 
at hand was a stick of fire wood, but with this 
we did good execution, and Mr. Wolf had to 
beat a retreat. So severely had we beaten 
him, that he immediately left our premises. 
We afterward heard a fuss among the dogs 
at a neighbor's, Armstrong Cooper's house, 
and then the crack of a rifle, and in a short 
time we lu>ard the dogs and another rifle at 
Mr. Lamb's liouse, and then all was still. We 
found next morning that these shots of Cooper 
and Lamb had killed him. He was a mon- 
ster, and measured nine feet and nine inches, 
from his nose to the end of his tail. 

At that time there was very little litigation 
among the country people, and personal alter- 
cations were usually settled by a resort to 

It was in the winter of 1836-37, we be- 
lieve, although we defer our recollection to 
others, if they think we are mistaken, 
that we had what we called the " sudden 
change " in the weather, the most remark- 
able one we ever saw, heard of, or read 
of. On Saturday morning there was snow 
on the ground. The following Sunday 
was a very warm day, and Monday, until 
about one o'clock p. m., was still warmer, 
and on both days there was considerable rain. 
The snow had melted into slush and water, 
which was standing in ponds on the level 

ground, and roaring down declivities. At 
that hour the weather turned suddenly very 
cold. In one hour after the change began 
the slush and water was frozen solid; and in 
two hours from that time, men were hur- 
riedly crossing the river on the ice. A vast 
amount of cattle, fowls and game, and many 
persons, were frozen to death. We heard 
of one man, who was crossing a prairie, on 
horseback, who had killed his horse and 
taken the entrails out of him and then 
crawled inside of him for protection, was 
found there frozen to death. We don't 
know how the thermometer stood, for we had 

On Monday, during this sudden change. Dr. 
Chandler was returning home from a pro- 
fessional trip up the bottom. His overcoat 
was covered with slush and mud, and in a 
few minutes after the change began his coat 
was frijzen stift", and he felt that he was in 
danger of being frozen. He stopped at the 
store of Henry T. & Abner Foster, at Rich- 
mond, on the land since owned by John P. 
Dick, where he was warmed up and thawed 
out. He then mounted his horse and started on 
a gallop for home, about six miles distant, but 
soon found himself freezing again. He 
stopped at another house, and warmed, and 
started again, with like results. He thus was 
forced to stop at four different houses, be- 
tween Foster's store and his house, to prevent 
freezing to death. When he arrived within 
sight of his own house his horse fell down, 
and left him helpless on the ice, and his 
family dragged him, in a helpless condition, 
into the house. 

At the special session of the Legislature, 
in the summer of 1S37, was passed a pream- 
ble and statute to the following effect : 

Whereas, at an election held in the county 
of Morgan, according to the provisions of 
" An act for the formation of the county of 
Cass," it appeared tiiat a majority of the 



voters of said county voted for the creation 
of said county ; and, whereas, at an election 
for the county seat of said county. Beards- 
town received the highest number of votes for 
the county seat, and whereas, some doubts 
have been expressed as to the legality of the 
proceedings of said election, now, therefore, 
to remove all doubts on that subject : 

Sec. 1. He it enacted by the people of the 
State of Illinois represented in the General 
Assembly, That the county of Cass, as desig- 
nated and bounded in the " Act for the 
formation of the county of Cass," approved 
March 3d, 1837, be, and the same is hereby de- 
clared to be, one of the counties of this State. 

Sec. 2. The county seat shall be located 
at the city of Beardstown, in said county ; 
Provided, however., that the provision of the 
act above referred to, shall be complied with 
by the citizens, or a corporation of Boards- 
tc^n, in relation to the raising the sum of 
ten thousand dollars, to defray the expenses 
of erecting public buildings for said county. 

Sec. 3. The corporation of Beardstown 
shall be allowed the period of one, two, and 
three years, for the payment of ten thousand 
dollars, aforesaid, to be calculated from the 
passage of the law aforesaid, which sum shall 
be paid in three equal payments. The County 
Commissioners' Court of said county shall 
make their contracts for erecting the pulilic 
buildings in said county, so as to make their 
payments thereon when the said installments 
aforesaid shall become due and payable. 

Sec. 4. The court house of said county 
shall be erected on the plat of ground known 
as the public square, in said town of Beards- 

Sec. 5. Returns of the elections for the 
county officers of said county, to be elected 
on the first Jlonday of August next, shall be 
made in Beardstown, to O. M. Long and 
Thomas Poyne, notaries public in Beardstown, 
who shall open and examine the poll books of 

said election in the presence of one or more 
Justices of the Peace in and for said county ; 
and said notaries public, after due inspection 
and examination of the poll books, according 
to the laws of this State, shall make out certi- 
ficates of election of those persons who have 
received the highest number of votes, which 
certificates shall be such as those required to 
be made by the Clerks of the County Commis- 
sioners' Court, and shall receive and be en- 
titled to the same effect in law. 

This statute also provides how the school 
fund of Morgan County shall be divided with 
Cass County. 

At the session of 1839, on the 2d day of 
March, the Legislature made this preamble 
and statute : 

" Whereas, it was provided, by the act for 
the formation of the county of Cass, that, in 
case the county seat of said county should be 
located at Beardstown, the corporation or in- 
habit;uits should, within one year after the 
location, pay into the county treasury tiie sum 
of ten thousand dollars, to be ajs plied to the 
erection of public buildings; and whereas, by 
the act passed 21st of July, 1837, in relation 
to said county, further time was allowed said 
corporation to make said payment, the said 
corporation having failed to pay the said ten 
thousand dollars, and not having complied 
with, or agreed to comply with the provisions 
of the last recited act, the County Commis- 
sioners of said county, under the provisions of 
the first recited act, located the county seat at 
Virginia, and contracted for the erection of a 
court house and jail in said county; and doubts 
being entertained as to the true construction 
of the act last recited in relation to the rights 
of said corporation, and the duties of the 
County Commissioners, therefore: 

" Sec. 1. He it enacted by the people of the 
Slate of Illinois represented in the General 
Assembly, That the county seat of Cass 
Countv shall be and remain at Virginia, and 



!■ •,"•'( 1 




tlie courts of ^^aid county shall hereafter be 
held at that place; and the several county 
officers, who are required to keep their offices 
at the county seat, are required to remove 
their respective offices, and all bonds, docu- 
ments, books and papers pertaining to the 
same, to Virginia, on or before the first day 
of May next, and thereafter hold and keep 
their respective offices at that place; and in 
case one or more of said officers shall fail, or 
refuse to comply with the provisions of this 
act, such officer shall forfeit his office." 

In the years 1838 and 1839, wasbuilt, aswe 
believe, the first railroad west of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains, running from Meredosia to 
Springfield. "We particularly recollect this 
great enterprise, for two reasons: first, we took 
a trip in 1838 from Meredosia to Jacksonville, 
on the first passenger train that ever ran on that 
road; and second, because it was built by the 
State, and was a part of that great internal 
imnrovement policy, which bankrupted and 
disgraced the State, and spread miserj' among 
the people. Of all the hard times that the 
people of Cass County, and indeed of the 
A^hole State, have ever seen, these were the 

This was caused by a passage of a bill in 
the Legislature, providing for a general sj's- 
tem of internal improvements by the construc- 
tion of nearly 1,300 miles of railroad, and the 
improvement of various rivers. These im- 
provements never paid the interest on the 
money they cost, and in 1840, after a short 
but eventful life of three years, fell the most 
stupendous, extravagant and almost ruinous 
foil}' of a grand system of internal improve- 
ments that any civilized community, perhaps, 
ever engaged in, leaving a State debt of 81-4,- 
23?, 348.00, and a population of less than half 
a million to pay it. For this the people 
could not blame the Legislature, or the poli- 
ticians, for the people themselves had de- 
manded and clamored for it, and the Legisla- 

ture only obeyed their behest in granting it. 
At the same time, the State banks suspended, 
and left us with a depreciated currency. 
The State Bank of Shawneetown collapsed 
with a circulation of §1,700,000, and the State 
Bank with §3,000,000. The people were left 
destitute of an adequate circulating medium 
and were not supplied until the ordinary pro- 
cess of their limited commerce brought in 
gold and silver and bills of solvent banks 
from the other States, which was very slow. 
Even immigration was stopped, owing to the 
general financial embarrassment, high taxes, 
and disgraceful condition of the State. 
When money was abundant, credit had been 
extended to every body. With the vast sys- 
tem of internal improvements, and the large 
circulation of the banks, this was the condi- 
tion of our people. They were largely in 
debt on account of speculations, which proved 
to be delusions. Contracts matured, but no- 
body paid. The State had sold and hypothe- 
cated her bonds until its credit was exhausted. 
Then no further effort was made to pay even 
the interest on the State debt. Then the 
State bonds went down, down, until they 
were worth but fourteen cents on the dollar. 
The people were unable and unwilling to pay 
higher taxes, and what might almost be called 
a general bankruptcy ensued. The people 
owed the merchants; the merchants owed the 
banks, and for goods purchased abroad; while 
the banks, having suspended specie payment, 
owed every one who carried one of their rags 
in his pocket. None could pay in par funds, 
for there were none to l)e had. In this dilemma 
the Legislature tried to come to the relief of 
the people, but instead of relieving them 
from their wretched condition by summary 
legislation, they, as such bodies usually do, in 
like circumstances, only made matters worse. 
Among- other statutes passed with this gener- 
ous object, was one that we have no doubt 
many citizens of Cass will recollect, which was 



known among the people as the slay laic, or 
two-thirds law. It serves to illustrate both 
the hard times and the inconsiderate and un- 
just legislation of that day, although done 
with the intention of affording relief to the 
debtor class, without ajiparently thinking that 
it was at the expense of the creditor. This 
law provided that property levied upon by 
e.\(>cution should be valued as in "ordinary 
times;" the valuation to be made by ihree 
householders summoned by the officer 
holding the writ of whom the debtor, 
creditor, and officer should each choose one, 
thus placing it in the power of the officer to 
favor either party at his option; the property 
was not to be sold unless it brought two-thirds 
of its valuation; no way was provided by 
which the creditor if two-thirds of its valua- 
tion was not bid, could hold his lien; thus 
forcing him to stay collection or suffer dis- 
count of '33j( per cent. This law was made 
applicable to all judgments rendered and con- 
tracts accruing prior to the 1st of Maj', 1841, 
without reference to the legal obligations of the 
time when contracts were entered into; beincr 
in violation of that clause of the constitution 
of the United States, declaring that "no law 
shall be passed impairing the obligation of 
contracts." In the case of McCracK-en v. 
Howard, 2d Howard, COS, the Supreme Court 
of the United States subsequently held this 
law to be unconstitutional. But, in the mean- 
time, the law had performed its mission, and 
had rendered the collection of debts almost 
impossible. The condition of our people was 
truly distressing. There was an utter dearth 
and stagnation of businesg. Abroad, the 
name of the State was associated with dis- 
honor. There were no immigrants but those 
who had nothing to lose; while people here, 
with rare exceptions, were anxious to sell out 
and flee a country presenting no alternative 
other than exorbitant taxation or disgrace. 
But property would not sell, nor was there any 

money to buy with. Indeed, money, as a 
means of exchange, became almost unknown. 
Payment was taken in trade, store pay, etc. 
Merchants and other dealers issued warrants 
or due bills, which passed for so much on the 
dollar /n trade. Even the county commission- 
ers' court of Cass County came to the relief 
of the people, and had a plate engraved, and 
issued vast quantities of county warrants, or 
orders, in the similitude of one dollar bank 
bills. But these coimty orders, and others 
like them, were made invalid by an act of the 
legislature passed in the interest of the banks; 
so that even this charitable act on the part of 
our county commissioners to relieve the local 
scarcity of money, failed in its office. 

At this time money was so scarce that it 
was with great difficulty that farmers, owning 
good farms, could get the money to pay their 
postage. It was not necessary then to prepay 
postage. Domestic letters cost from five to 
twenty-five cents apiece, according to the 
distance they had come; and foreign letters 
were still higher. 

What was wrorse, they must all be paid for 
in silver, and it often occurred a letter 
would lie in the office for weeks before its 
owner could get the silver to redeem it. If 
the farmers wished to get goods from the 
store, they were forced to buy on credit, and 
pay in grain or other produce, or take butter, 
eggs, poultry, game, honey, wood, or other 
articles, to exchange for store goods. 

Produce continually fiuctuated in price, 
even in store pay. We have seen corn sell at 
six cents often, and have heard farmers re- 
mark that ten cents in cash was all that 
corn ought to and probably ever would 
bring, and that farmers could get rich at 
that price. We have sold wheat in Beards- 
town at thirty-five cents per bushel, and pork 
often at one and one-quarter cents per pound. 

One of the first acts of the County Com- 
missioners' Court after the organization of 



this county, was to arrange for raising a rev- 
enue, and they passed an order that the fol- 
lowing kinds of property be taxed at the rate 
of one-half per cent.: Town lots, "inden- 
tured or reg-istered negro or mulatto servants" 
(for this had not ceased to be a slave State at 
, that time), pleasure carriages, stocks in trade, 
horses, mules, " and all neat cattle over and 
under three years old," hogs, sheep, wagons 
and carts. 

A public notice was given to " all persons 
trading in Cass County " to procure a license 
according to law. Under this notice, at the 
September Term, 1837, Spence & Foster, T. 
& J. T. Wilbourn, and Parrot & Alcott, got a 
license to sell goods, wares, and merchandise 
in Beardstown ;'and Beasley & Schafer, a sim- 
ilar license at Monroe ; and all such licenses 
were fixed at five dollars each. Tavern li- 
censes were granted at seven dollars each. At 
the same term, a license to keep a ferry-boat, 
for one year, at B Mrdstown, was granted to 
Thomas Beard for twenty-two dollars. 

The first county order drawn on the treas- 
urer, was for twenty-two dollars and fifty 
cents, in favor of N. B. Thompson, for the 
books of the County Commissioners' Court. 
The second was in favor of N. B. Thompson, 
for thirty dollars, and was for three county 
seals, in full, September 6, 1837. 

The first term of the Circuit Court of Cass 
County was held in Beardstown, November 
13, 1837, in a one-story frame building stand- 
ing at the corner of Main and State streets, 
where Seeger's hall now stands. Present : 
the Hon. Jesse B. Thomas, Jr., judge of the 
First Judicial Circuit ; Lemon Plaster, sheriff; 
and as the Circuit Clerk was not an elective 
ofBce at that time, N. B. Thompson was ap- 
pointed clerk by the judge. 

The grand jury at that time consisted of 
Thomas Wilbourn, foreman, Isaac Spence, 
Augustus Knapp, James H. Blackman, Alex- 
ander Huffman, Robert Gaines, Richard 

Graves, William Shoopman, Benjamin Strib- 
ling, John Daniels, Phineas Underwood, Eph- 
raim Moseley, John Robinson, Elijah Carver, 
John P. Dick, William McAuley, Marcus 
Chandler, Henry S. Ingalls, Jeremiah Bowen, 
Amos Hager, and Jeremiah Northern. 

There was no petit jury at this term, but 
talismen were drawn as they were wanted. 

At the May term, 1838, Nathan alias 
Nathaniel Graves, was indicted for the mur- 
der of an eastern man lamed Fowie, which 
murder took place at what was known as 
Miller McLane's grocery, kept in a log house 
which stood on the present site of Philadel- 
phia. Fowle and Alec Beard were sitting 
down on a log outside the grocery, talking in 
a friendly manner. There was quite a num- 
ber of persons around. Graves and Richard 
McDonald came riding up on horseback from 
different directions about the same time. 
Graves dismounted, leading his horse towards 
Fowle, drew a pistol and shot and killed him. 
He was so near Fowle that the fire burnt his 
clothes. The men standing around were so 
surprised that they stood still while Graves 
mounted his horse and started to ride away. 
At this time McDonald cried out, " Men, why 
don't j'ou arrest him?" and rode alter him. 
When Graves saw that McDona'd was about 
to catch him, he drew a knife and turned 
around. McDonald caught him by the throat 
and choked him till he surrendered, but was 
himself badly, almost fatally, wounded in the 
struggle. Graves took a change of venue to 
Green County, where, breaking jail, he escaped 
to Kentucky, where he died a natural death. 

In 1839, the town of Arenzville was found- 
ed by Francis Arenz. 

Thus matters stood from 1837 to 1843, dur- 
ing which time there grew a feeling of dis- 
satisfaction among the people of the southern 
half of the townships seventeen and other 
parts of Morgan County, with Jacksonville; 
and there was such effort made to dissever 



their relations, that two statutes were passed 
by the Legislature in the session of 1843, 
which provided for the accoraplishmetit of 
three objects: one of which was that a vote 
be taken whether Morgan County should be 
divided into two counties, one of which was 
to remain by the name of Morgan County, 
and the other by the name of Benton; second, 
that the tier of half townships, known as 
seventeen, or the " three mile strip," on the 
north side of Morgan County, be added to 
Cass County; and third, that Cass County 
should vote for the selection of a permanent 
county seat. The election on the first propo- 
sition was held in Morgan County on the first 
Monday in August, 1843, and resulted unfav- 
orably to the creation of the county of Benton 
The proposition to annex the " three-mile 
strip," was held in the four different precincts 
in that strip of territory, on the first Mon- 
day in May, 1845, and stood as follows: 

For attaching to Cass. Agaiust attaching. 

Arenzville 115 5 

At the house of Ilenry Price 70 14 

Princeton 41 35 

At the house of Wm. Berry 20 24 

M tjority for attaching the "three-mile strip" 
to Cass, 168. 

On the first Monday in September, 1843, 
there was an election held in Cass County to 
determine the permanent location of the 
county seat, at which election the vote stood 
as follows: 

Precincts. For Beardsto^vn. For Virginia. 

Virginia 2 234 

Richmond 21 34 

Monroe 17 7 

Beardstown 413 13 

Majority for Beardstown, 165. 

The county seat was removed to Beards- 
town, and on the eighth day of February, 
1845, the town of Beardstown presented the 
county commissioners' court with lot one, in 
block thirty-one, in that town, with the court 

house and jail thereon completed. On the 
sixth of March, 1846, Reddick Horn sold his 
farm, consisting of 134 acres, in sections 
twenty-eight and twenty-nine, in township 
eighteen, range eleven, to the county of Cass, 
for a " home for the poor of the county," for 

By the breaking out of the Mormon war, 
in 1845, Beardstown again became the rendez- 
vous for the State forces called out to coerce 
into obedience to our State laws that peculiar 
people. The troops were under the com- 
mand of Brigadier- General John J. Hardin, 
of Jacksonville, Illinois. 

The town of Chandlerville was begun in 
1848, by Dr. Charles Chandler; and Ashland 
in 1857. 

From 1850 to 1852, Cass County was in- 
fested by horse thieves, who resided in the 
county, some half dozen of which were ar- 
rested in the latter year, and brought before a 
magistrate lor examination. One of the 
number was a large, powerful, good-looking 
young Hungarian, named Eugene Honorius. 
We were prosecuting the case, and felt satis- 
fied from what we could learn, that he had no 
heart in that nefarious business, but was in- 
duced to stay with the gang out of love for 
the sister of one of them. Not having suf- 
ficient testimony, we pressed him into the 
service as witness, and by a rigid examina- 
tion, extorted all the necessary facts from him 
sufficient to hold the rest of the gang, who 
were committed to jail. 

Before the sitting of the Circuit Court, 
however, they all broke jail, and fled to Kan- 
sas; from whence the girl to whom Honorius 
was attached, wrote back to a friend the 
statement: That by an arrangement with the 
gang, after they had escaped from jail, one 
Sunday she asked the Hungarian to go to a 
religious meeting with her, down on Indian 
Creek. That they started on horseback, but 
that she decoyed him away down on Hog 



Island, where they met the gang, who shot 
and killed him in revenge for his having 
"■peached" on them; and that if the prose- 
cutors wanted to use him for a witness again 
they could find him at a certain place on Hog 
Island, and designated it. 

Upon being informed of this, John Craig 
and the writer rode down there, and at the 
place designated in the girl's letter, we found 
the bones of a man, evidently about the large 
size of Honorius, but so much torn to pieces 
and broken bv animals, that we could find 
but three whole bones, the two thighs and the 
jaw bone, which we have yet in our posses- 
sion. The perpetrators were never re-taken, 
but the county was not troubled with horse- 
thieves for a long time afterwards. 

By virtue of the State Constitution of 18-18, 
a statute was passed by the legislature of 1849, 
abolishing the County Commissioners' Court, 
and the office of Probate Justice of the Peace, 
and creating instead the County Court, con- 
sisting of one judge and two associate justices 
of the peace. 

The first court elected under the new law 
was: James Shaw, judge; Wm. Taylor and 
Thomas Plaster, associates. 

At the same session an act was passed 
authorizing counties to adopt township organ- 

ization, if a majority of the citizens should 
favor it. An effort was made at that time, 
and several others by a vote of the people 
have been made since, to adopt that form of 
county government in Cass County, but have 
failed; the people in every instance prefer- 
ring to remain under the old form of organi- 

In the same year, 1849, Beardstown was 
incorporated as a city, with the same charter 
as those of Springfield and Quincy. In this 
year also occurred the third election for loca- 
tion of the county seat, which was decided 
in favor of Beardstown. Another election 
was had in 1857, and another in 1868, for 
the same purpose, but the county seat still 
remained at Beardstown. Another election 
was held in 1873, under the Constitution of 
1870, and a new general statute governing re- 
location of countj' seats. The history of this 
last election and its results is too fresh in the 
memory to need repeating now. By it the 
county seat was removed to Virginia, where 
it now remains. 

The first census taken after Cass County 
was formed, was in 1840; it then had a total 
population of 2,981. In 1850, it had 7,253; 
in 1860, 11,325; in 1870, 11,580; in 1880, 










CASS County, being highly favored with fer- 
tile lands, and all which, with industry, 
goes to make up wealth, has prospered ever 
since it was formed. In the beginning it had 
but little developed wealth. A few farms 
scattered along the edges of the timbered 
lands or in the river bottom-lands and the 
little town of Beardstown was about all. 
But notwithstanding its small territory, it has 
bounded along and now competes with its 
most progressive neighbors. Its prairie and 
bottom lands are now in cultivation, and 
great farms and substantial farm houses now 
stand where a few years since were waste 
places. A few years ago the barren lands, 
(so-called because a former growth of timber 
was supposed to have exhausted the soil) were 
unsettled, and considered almost worthless, 
but now they are known to be very produc- 
tive, especially for wheat, and have been all 
taken up and mostly cultivated. Also the 
sand-ridges scattered along the river bottoms 
are found to be profitable for the production 
of melons, sweet potatoes, beans, etc., and 
have been turned to account for these pur- 
poses. Our cities and towns are in a prosper- 
ous condition, having their fair share of 
manufactories, and commerce and other 
means of continued prosperity. We have 
the Illinois river and abundance of railroads 
for business and pleasure ; the St. Louis & 
Rock Island, Peoria, Pekin & Jacksonville, 
and Chicago & Alton R. R.'s running north 
and south, and the Beardstown and Spring- 

field branch of the O. & M., running east and 

The history of the present generation of 
the prominent and representative people of 
Cass County will be found in the biographies 
and in the description of its cities, towns and 
business, as set forth in other parts of this 
work, and which will form a continuation of 
this history. 

Cass County is bounded on the north by 
Mason County, on the east by Menard County, 
on the south by Morgan County, and on 
the west by the centre of the channel of the 
Illinois river. Its superficial area is about 
four hundred and sixty square miles. The 
level of its high prairie lands is about six 
hundred and thirty feet above that of the 
ocean, forty-five feet above the level of Lake 
Michigan, and three hundred and forty feet 
above low water at Cairo, in the Illinois 

The surface of the county is, for the most 
part, gently undulating, becoming hilly and 
broken only along the courses of the streams. 
In the western part, along the Illinois river, 
there is a strip of bottom land, varying in 
width from three and one-half to five miles. 
This extends also along the Sangamon river, 
on the northern border. 

The soil of the prairie portion of this county 
is the same as that in the whole of this por- 
tion of the State, a dark-colored loam with a 
lighter colored clay sub-soil. On the ridges 
and bluffs which skirt the streams, we find 



this sub-soil everywhere, except upon the 
Loess formation, exposed at the suifacj of 
the ground, and •generally bearing a heavy 
growth of timber. On the bottom lands the 
soil is an alluvial arenaceous loam, and, ex- 
cepting in localities where the sand too 
greatly predominates, is an excellent and 
productive soil. 

The principal kinds of timber upon the up- 
lands are the common varieties of oak, hickory, 
elm, sugar maple, black and white walnut, 
linden, and various species which are rather 
less frequent. On the bottoms there are the 
willow, soft maple, ash, sycamore, cottonwood, 
water oak, etc., in addition to some of the he- 
fore-mentioned species, forming a consider- 
able proportion of the timber. The propor- 
tion of prairie to wooded land is probably 
nearly evenly divided. 

The geological formations in this county 
consist of the Quaternary deposits, the Loess 
and Drift, and the Coal Measures, which alone 
of the older formation underlie the surface 
beds of clay, gravel, etc. The Loess forms 
the bluffs along the Illinois and Sangamon 
bottoms. Its general features here are the 
same as in the other river counties, and it 
forms the same bold bluffs that are seen in 
other localities along the Illinois and Missis- 
sippi Rivers. The material here is an ash or 
buif-colored marly sand, containing fossil 
fresh-water shells of existing species. The 
thickness of the formation is considerable, 
some sixty or seventy feet immediately at the 
bluffs, but it rapidly thins out in the back 
country, in many places disapjiearing entirely 
within a very short distance. It appears to 
extend the farthest inland along the Sanga- 
mon River north of Virginia, and several good 
sections of this deposit may be seen in the 
cuts on the Peoria, Pekin and Jacksonville 
Railroad, between that place and Chandler- 

The Drift Deposits consist of brown, yellow 

and blue clays, with boulders, while sand and 
gravel seams are of frequent occurrence amid 
the mass. The thickness can hardly be esti- 
mated, as experiments have not been made, 
but will probably range between forty and 
one hundred feet. 

Coal Measures, so far as developed, com- 
prises a thickness of over three hundred feet 
of the middle and lower portion of the series, 
and contains two or three seams of coal of 
workable thickness. The principal exposures, 
commencing with the lowest, are as follows: 

In the southwest part of section 21, town- 
ship 18, range 11, where the wagon road be- 
tween Virginia and Beardstown comes down 
through the bluffs to the bottom lands along 
the Illinois river, there are several old coal 
shafts, only one of which (late Mr. Kinney's) 
is now worked. This is reported to have 
afforded the following section: 

1. Soil (Loess) 15 feet. 

2. Brownish sandstone, containing many vegeta- 

ble impressions 13 '' 

3. Limestone (" Blue Rocli ") 2 " 

4. Clay Shale ("Soapstone") 12 " 

5. Coal (No. 1 of Illinois river section) 3 " 

6. Fire clay, very hard 4 " 

No. 3 of this section crops out along the 
bluff road, at the edge of the bluffs, and a 
few rods farther west, in ledges several feet 
in vertical exposure. It is a soft micaceous 
sandstone, of a light brown or whitish brown 
color, and appears slightly crumbling at this 
locality. Aliout a quarter of a mile further 
north the coal seam No. 4 is reported to have 
been reached by digging in at the foot of the 
bluff and worked by stripping. Still farther 
to the northward, in the northwest quarter of 
the same section, in an old quarry on the side 
of the bluff, a little to the right of the wagon 
road, is an exposure of about ten feet in 
thickness, of a heavy bedded sandstone, the 
same as that which is met with in the shaft, 
and exposed on the roadside near by. A lit- 



tie farther northeast, near the eastern line of 
section 16, the coal seam is said to appear 
again, and to have been worked to a slight 
extent in the side of a ravine about half a 
mile from the road. 

Above the north line of section 21, the 
bluffs, for about two miles, are mostly of 
Loess, and it is necessary to go up the side 
ravines in order to see the exposures of 
rock. About half a mile up the large ra- 
vine, which cuts through the bluffs in the 
southern part of section 10, on the eastern 
side, there is another exposure of the sand- 
stone (No. 2 of the section), and a little above 
this, near the northwest corner of section 14, 
there is about ten feet exposed of the shales 
No. 4, capped by a single layer of limestone 
two feet thick (No. 3). 

The coal seam must be very near the bot- 
tom of the ravine at this point, but it is not 

The outcrops of the sandstone continue up 
this ravine and its branches in the eastern 
part of section 14 and the western part of 
section 15, for about three-quarters of a mile 
above this point, and then disappear entirely. 
The rock is, in most respects, the same as in 
the localities before described, a soft, even 
textured sandstone, varying in color from 
brownish red to a dirty white, and in some 
portions having a light bluish tinge and a 
slightly variegated appearance. 

It contains a great abundance of fossil 
vegetable remains, calamites, etc., but from 
the nature of the rock very few are found in 
a good state of preservation. 

From the mouth of this ravine, for a short 
distance to the northeast, along the face of 
the bluffs, there are no very good exposures 
of any of the beds. There seems to be here, 
however, a low anticlinal, the strata having 
gradually risen until, at this point, the coal 
seam No. 4 has been worked by drifting into 
the side of the bluff almost midway between 

the base and summit. The crown of the arch 
is very near this point, and the direction of 
the axis of the fold must be, judging from ap- 
pearances, about southeast. 

The seam of coal is said to be about three 
feet thick at this point, but at present only 
the entrances to the old drifts and the debris 
can be seen, no work having been done here 
for a number of years. 

A short distance further along the bluff 
road, nearly on the line between sections 10 
and 11, another large ravine opens out, and 
the rock again appears. The coal seam was 
formerly worked also at this point, at a level 
some fifteen or twenty feet above the road, 
though its outcrop is not now visible. Just 
below the level of the old drift there is an 
outcrop of what appears to be a nodular ar- 
gillaceous limestone, which is probably just 
underlying the fire-clay. 

Above the opening of the drift the Shale 
No. 4 appears, and still higher up the bank 
the Limestone No. 3 has been slightly quar- 
ried, and above all the sandstone No. 2 ap- 
pears, but at present the debris of the sand- 
stone and shale covers all the lines of junc- 
tion, and no very reliable measurements of the 
thickness of the beds can be taken. The 
sandstone continues to appear in the sides of 
the ravine, and in the bed of the small stream 
which occupies it for upwards of half a mile. 
Its total thickness, although in no place so 
fully exposed as to afford an opportunity for 
accurate measurement, can hardly be less 
than fifty or sixtj' feet. 

East of the mouth of this ravine, through 
the northern half of section 11, this sandstone 
appears in ledges in the bluffs, at an elevation 
of fifty feet or more above the road, and has 
been quarried in some of the small ravines. 
In one of these ravines, in the Northeast 
quarter of section 11, there was a single out- 
crop of the coal seam, the exposed thickness 
I of which is about three feet. This is on the 



Northeastern slope of the anticlinal, and only 
a little fui'tlier on the Loess and Alluvium 
come down to the road, and the exposures of 
rock cease to appear for the distance of sever- 
al miles. 

Leaving the last mentioned localities, and 
continuinof eastward alongr the base of the 
bluffs, the next prominent exposure is met 
with near the center of the western part of 
section ten, township eighteen, range ten, on 
the left bank of Job's creek, just above the 
])oint where it comes out of the bluffs and enters 
the bottoms. Here the Sandstone No. two 
lias been quarried in the hillside, some thirty 
feet or more above the water, presenting pre- 
cisely the same appearance as at the other 
localities already mentioned. The lower beds 
of limestone and shale, and the coal seams, if, 
indeed, they occur above the bottom of the 
ravine at all, are completely hidden by the 
fragments and debris from above. The sand- 
stone appears again at one or two points 
further east, within the distance of one mile, 
in the northeast quarter of section ten, and 
almost on the line between sections ten and 

The only remaining locality in Gass County, 
where the older rocks appear at the surface, 
or are artificially exposed, is on Panther creek, 
near Chandlerville, in sections five and six, 
township eighteen, range nine. A shallow 
coal shaft in the southeast quarter of section 
six, afforded the following section : 

feet, inches. 

1. Surface .«oiI 4 

2. Gravel (blue bind) 4 

3. Black slate 2 

4. Clay shale (soapstone) LS 

5. Coal 2 6 

6. Fir-' clay, passing (lownw.arJ into 

nodular limestone 2 

7- Clay, penetrated 2 

The shale and slate appear in the bank of 
the creek for upwards of half a mile above the 
coal diggings, seldom rising more than two 
or three feet above the water's edge. No 

fossils were discovered. It seems quite prob- 
able that this seam of coal is the same as that 
in the exposures further west, although from 
the lack of continuity in the exposures, and 
other sufficient evidence, it may, perhaps, 
be best to refer to it only provisionally. 

Coal. — All parts of Cass County appear to 
be underlaid by the coil measures, which here 
include the horizon of four or five different 
seams of coal. It seems highly probable, in- 
deed, that there is no portion of the county, 
excepting the bottom lands along the Illinois 
and Sangamon rivers, that is not underlaid by 
at least one coal bed of workable thickness. 
The lowest of these seams, which is exposed 
or worked anywhere in this region is prob- 
ably the coal No. 1 of the general sec- 
tion of the State, identical with the Exeter 
coal of Soott County, although it is possible 
that it may prove to be No. 2 of the general 
section, or the same as the Neeleyville coal in 
Morgan County. 

The ab.sence of black slate in the roof and 
the great thickness of the sandstone above, 
are facts which seem to slightly favor this 
view, but are, however, not conclusive. 

The absence of exposures in the southwest- 
ern portion of Cass County is to be regretted, 
as not affording the means of positively de- 
termining this question. 

This seam of coal is now actively worked 
at only one or tvro points in Cass County, al- 
though it was formerly much more extensively 
mined along its out-crop on the side of the 
bluffs of the Illinois and Sangamon rivers. 
The seam will average three feet in thick- 
ness, and is of fair quality. The discontin- 
uance of the most of the mining operations 
was mainly due to the small local demmd 
and the competition of other mines in the 
adjoining counties on the Illinois rivej. 

Building Stone. — The brownish sandstone 
which occurs in very heavy beds above the 
roof shales of coal No. 3, promises well for 



this purpose. It is usually of a reddish-brown 
color, though in some places it approaches a 
dirty white, or has a bluish tinge, is very soft 
and easily dressed when first quarried out, 
but is said to harden on exposure. At the 
junction of this rock and the underlying 
shales there is generally from one to three 
feet in thickness of limestone, which has been 
also quarried to some extent at a few points. 
The quantity of this sandstone is such that it 
is practically inexhaustible; it is probable, how- 
ever, that all parts of it will not be found to 
answer equally well as a building stone. 

OrnicE Building Materials.^ — -Limestones 
suitable for the manufacture of a fine article 
of quicklime are found wherever limestone 
can be obtained for building stone. Some 
selection, however, has to be made among the 
beds at some points for a material which will 
afford an article of lime suitable to supply 
the local needs. 

Clay and sand for brick making are found 
in abundance in all parts of the county, and 
will probably become one of the chief sources 
of building material in those parts distant 
from available stone quarries. 

The general surface configuration and soils 
of the county have been noticed in this 
sketch, and but little more need lie said on 
that branch of the subject. The soil of the 
upland prairies takes rank with the best in 
Central Illinois in general agricultural value. 
The soil of the timbered portions is also pro- 
ductive when properly cultivated. 

Along the Illinois and Sangamon rivers, in 
the bottom lands, there are occasinnal sandy 
tracts or ridges, generally covered, before 
being put into cultivation, with a dense 
growth of stunted oak and black-jack, and 
frequently with prickly pears, which are, of 
course, inferior in richness of soil, but which 
are of late years being successfully used in 
the cultivation of melons, sweet-potatoes, 
beans, grapes, etc.; but, as a general thing, the 

soil of these bottoms is a deep rich arenace- 
ous loam, which, when sufficiently elevated, 
or properly drained, or guarded with dykes 
to prevent overflows of water from the rivers, 
is one of the most productive soils in the 

One of the greatest difficulties which a 
large portion of the farmers of Cass County 
will have to encounter in the future, is the 
washing of hilly uplands by heavy rams, 
and the consequent covering and ruin of rich 
bottom lands by sand and poor clay silt. Al- 
ready much damage and many lawsuits have 
grown out of it, and unless some concerted 
and united action is had by the parties inter- 
ested, the future will bring much greater 
damage and increased litigation. Another 
important matter that should be taken into 
consideration, is the frequent and destructive 
overflow of the creeks. This could be rem- 
edied in most instances by straightening the 
creeks by cutting channels across the bends, 
and removing the drift wood from the bed, 
by a combination of neighborhoods, all those 
interested working together for the common 
good ; or a remedy could be had under the 
drainage law. 

But the above remarks are sufficient for a 
general description of the county and its 
wealth-producing qualities. For the geo- 
logical facts herein contained I have mostly 
drawn on the " Economical Geology of Illi- 
nois," a work of undoubted authority. 

The following are the names of the resident 
representatives of Cass County in the Legis- 
lature : 

William Holmes for the yours 18-38-40 

Amos S. West " " 1840-42 

David Epler " " 1842-44 

John M. Pratt " " 1842-4(3 

Francis Arenz '' " 1844-4tj 

Edward W. Turner. " " 1846-48 

Richard S. Thomas " " 1848-50 

Cyrus Wright " " 18.52^54 

Samuel Christy " " 185G-58 


VHy. E. Dumraer, Senator " " 1860-6-t 

Frederick Rearick. " " lfjBO-62 

James M. Epler :.. " " 1862-61 

James M. Epler " " 1866-68 

James M. Epler, Senator " " 1868-72 

Williara W. Easley " " 1870-74 

John F. Snyder " " 1878-80 

John W. Savage. " " 1878-80 

J. Henry Shaw " " 1880-82 

Tlic principal officers of Cass County since 
its formation, are as follows : 




Joshua P. Crow. 

Amos Bonney [■ Elected August 7, 1837. 

George F. Miller J 

Joshua P. Crow. 

Amos Bonney. 

Isaac C. Spence Elected August 6, 1838. 

Amos Bonney. 

John C. Scott Elected August 3, 1840, for 3 years. 

Marcus Chandler. . . " " 2 " 

John C. Scott. 

Marcus Chandler. 

W. J. Dellaven Elected August, 1841. 

John C. Scoit. 

W. J. DeHaven. 

Robert Leeper Elected August, 1842. 

John C. Scott. 

W. J. De Haven. 

Henry McHenry. . .Elected December 26, 1843. 

W. J. DeHaven. 

Henry McHenry. 

Jesse B. Pence Elected August 7, 1843. 

Henry McHenry. 

J. B. Pence. 

George B. Thompson . Elected August, 1844. 

J. B. Pence. 

George B. Thompson. 

Wm. McHenry. . .Elected Ist Monday of August, 1845. 

J. B. Thompson. 
William McHenry. 

Henry McHenry. .Elected 1st Monday of August, 1846. 

William McHenry. 

Henry McHenry. 

George H. Nolte. .Elected 1st Monday of August, 1847. 

Henry McHenry. 
George H. Nolte. 
Geo. W. Weaver. .Elected Ist Monday of August, 1848. 


James Shaw, Judge ■> 

William Taylor, Associate [-Elected November 6, 1849. 
Thomas Plaster, Associate i 

James Shaw, Judge. 

Thomas Plaster, Associate. 

Jacob Ward, Associate Elected May 19, 1851. 

John A. Arenz, Judge ....■> 

Isaac Epler, Associate,,,, I Elected November, 1853. 

Sylvester Paddock. J 

John A. Arenz, Judge. 

Sylvester Paddock, Associate. 

John M. Short, Associate Elected November, 1855. 

H. C. Havekluft, Judge... % 

Wm. McHenry, Associate. \ Elected November, 1857. 

G. W. Shawen, Associate. J 

F. H. Rearick, Judge Elected November, 1861. 

Wm. McHenry, Associate. 

G. W. Shawen, Associate. 

John A. Arenz, Judge ■> 

Jennings G. Mathis, Associate \ Elected November, 1865. 
Samuel Smith, Associate. ... J 

Alexander Huffman, Judge -i 

Andrew Struble, ^«socia(e. [-Elected November, 1869. 

Jepthah Plaster, Associate. J 

F. H. Rearick, Judge Elected February 24, 1872. 

Andrew Struble, Associate. 
Jepthah Plaster, Associate. 

John W. Savage, Judge Elected November, 1873. 

Jacob W. Rearick, Judge Elected November, 1877. 


Wm. Campbell . . \ 

John H. Melone. I Elected Nov. 1873. 

Robert Fieldcn. . ; 

William Campbell. 

John M. Melone. 

Luke Dunn Elected November, 1875. 

John JI. Melone. 

Luke Dunn. 

Robert Crum Elected 1876. 



Luke Dunn. 

Robert. Orum. 

Robert Clark Elected 1877. 

Robert Crura. 
Robert Clark. 
Thomas Knight Elected 1878. 

Robert Clark. 

Thomas Knight. 

Robert Crura Re elected 1879. 

Thomas Knight. 

Robert Crura. 

Lewis C. Hackman Elected 1880. 

Robert Crum. 

Lewis C. Hackman. 

Luke Dunn Re-elected 1881. 

PROBATE JU.STICES — 1837 TO 1849. 

John S. Wilbourne Elected August 7, 1837 

Joshvia P. Crow " " 1839 

I Alexander Ilutfmann " " 1841 

"•H. E. Dummer " " 1843 

Hulelt Clark " " 1847 

^ H. E. Duraraer " May 13, 1849 


Lemon Plasters Elected August 7, 1837 

John Savage '• " 1841 

Joseph M. McLean " " 1848 

J. B. Fulks " November, 18.50 

William Pitner " " 1852 

James Taylor " " 18-54 

James A. Dick " " 1856 

Francis H. Rearick " " 1858 

James Taylor " " 1860 

Charles E. Yeck " " 1862 

James A. Dick " " 1864 

Charles E. Yeck " " 1866 

Thomas Chapman " " 1868 

Horace Cowan " " 1870 

George Volkmar " " 1872 

William Epler " " 1874 

A. H. Seilschott " " 1876 

«' " " " 1878 

«< <■ " " 1880 


John M. Pratt Elected in 1837 

H. H. Carpenter. " 1845 

Lewis F. Sanders '. " 1847 


Lewis F. Sanders, elected in 1849 

Allen J. Hill, " 1857 | 

James B. Black, " 1873 



Nathaniel B. Thompson, appointed by the Judge 1837 
James Berry, " " " 

date of appointment not known. 
Roddick Horn, appointed by the Judge, date of 

appointment not known. 

Thomas R. Sanders, elected in 1848 

Sylvester Eramons, " 1852 

James Taylor, " " 1856 

Henry Phillips, " 1860 

C. F. Diffenbacher, « 1868 

Albert F. Arenz, " 1872 

Thomas V. Finney, " 1876 

Finis E. Downing '< 1880 


Richard S.Thomas 1845 

John B. Shaw 1849 

Frank Holenger 1857 

James K. Vanderaark, 1861 

Harvey Tate 1869 

John Gore 1873 

Allen J. Hill, 1877 

state's ATTORNEYS. 

Linus C. Chandler, elected in 1872 

Arthur A. Leeper, " 1876 

Reuben R. Hewitt, " 1880 


*Thoraas Wibourue, -v 

Isaac W. Overall i 1837-1838 

William W. Babb, ) 

*NOTE.— Thomas Wilbourne iv as elected Treasurer, Aug- 
7, 1837, and afterward resigned, anrl Isaac W Overall was 
elected Deccmb;r 16, 18 !7, to fill the vacancy, and took pos- 
session of the office and entered upon its duties, but his elec- 
tion was contested by William W. Babb, and Babb was de- 
clared the rightfnl incumbent. 

JIartin F. Higgius was re-elected Assessor and Trea.surer. 
November 8, 1.8.5."!, but died shortly afterward, and Phineasr 
T Underwood was elected to fill the vacancy, and re-elected 
in 185.5. 

John L. Cire died during his last term of office, and John 
Rahn was appointed by the County Commissioners to fill the 
vacancy, and he was elected by the people November 1881, to 
fill a constitutional interim of one year. 



William H. Nelms. 1838-1839 

Robert G. Games 1839-1847 

John Craig 1847-1851 

Martin F. Higgins, term of office 1851-1853 

Phineas T. Underwood, " 1853-1857 

Frank A. Hammer, " 1857-1859 

David C. Dilley, " 185,1-1871 

rhillip H. Bailey, " 1871-1873 

JohnL. Cire, " 1873-1881 

JohnRahn, " 1881 

Illinois River Memoranda. — The follow- 
ing we have collected from various sources, as 
■well as largely from our own observation : 

1640. — Twenty years after the settlement 
of Plymouth Colony, the Illinois river was first 
navigated by white men in pirogues and birch 
canoes, and Illinois was colnoized by French- 
men, and added to the French DorainioM. 

1673. — Marquette and Joliet with five fol- 
lowers, crossed Wisconsin in canoes to the 
Mississippi river, down that stream and up the 
Illinois to Lake Michigan, the point of their 
departure, the entire route being at that time, 
and for a hundred years later, navigable for 
pirogues and canoes, the route being via Green 
Bay, and the Wisconsin, Mississippi, Illinois, 
Kankakee and St. Joseph rivers. There was 
another navigable connection, during the 
whole of that period, between the Illinois and 
Lake Michigan, by means of the DesPlaines 
and Chicago rivers, which men now alive 
h:ive traveled in pirogues, all the way. 

1070, Dec. — The Illinois, Kankakee and St. 
Joseph route was navigated by La Salle and 
thirty-three followers. 

1081, Aug. — Illinois, Kankakee and St. 
Joseph route again navigated by La Sallo 
and party. 

1682. — La Salle and party navigated the 
waters from Lake Michigan, across Wiscon- 
sin, down the Mississippi, up the Illinois, 
Kankakee and St. Joseph, to the lake. At 
that time Beardstown was upon an island, 
the water surrounding it the year round, 

1687, Sept.— The Illinois, Kankakee and 
St. Joseph route navigated by seven French- 
men, mutineers and nmrderers of La Salle, 
on their way from Arkansas to Lake Michigan. 
1693. — Gravier and his followers settled at 
Kaskaskia, Cohokia and Peoria, and from this 
time for fifty years the Illinois was continually 
navigated by canoes, pirogues, and other s^mall 

1725— The first of the four greatest floods 
of the Westen rivers. 

1750 — Vivier says that forty vessels from 
the Illinois River landed at New Orleans, 
laden with lumber, brick, beef, tallow, cotton, 
myrtle, wax, leather, tobacco, lead, iron, cop- 
per, wild game, tar, skins, furs, pork, bears' 
oil, flour, and other articles of produce. 

From this time on for many years, the 
principal part of the produce received at New 
Oileans was shipped from the Illinois River. 

1763 — LaClode founded St. Louis, which 
gave a new impetus to commerce in the Illi- 
nois River, it being a nearer market. At 
this time the Illinois country was ceded by 
France to Great Britain, which closed the 
French war. 

1772— Second great flood. 
1778 — Illinois was conquered and taken from 
Great Britain by Virginia, and was added 
to that State, and named Illinois County. 

1785 — A great flood on the Illinois and all 
Western Rivers, the third highest ever known. 

1786 — Another great flood. The Ohio rose 
fifty-nine feet above low water mark. The 
stage of water in the Illinois River is not 
recorded that I can find, but known to be 
very high. 

1792 — Another great flood. The Ohio rose 
sixty-three feet above low watermark. Stage 
of the Illinois not recorded, but very high. 

1800 — The population of Illinois, on the 
borders of its rivers, 3,000. 

1810 — Great flood in all the Western 
rivers. The Ohio at Pittsburg higher than 



ever before known. Stage of the Illinois not 
recorded. Steamer " Orleans," the first on 
Western rivers, built. 

1811 — On the 16th day of December began 
the most remarkable phenomena that ever 
occurred in North America : an earthquake, 
the continued shocks of which lasted for the 
space of three months, a longer period than 
ever before known ; the effects of which 
were felt in Illinois, Missouri, Tennessee, 
Kentucky and Arkansas, the focus of which 
seemed to be about the mouth of the Ohio. 
It made great commotion in the rivers, the 
banks of which caved in by whole acres at a 
time. Large islands disappeared under the 
waters. The town of New Madrid, Missouri, 
was destroyed, and the river now runs over 
part of its former site. The balance of it is 
lower by twenty-five feet than it was before. 
The bed of the river just below the mouth of 
the Ohio raised up like a bow and turned up 
stream, until its pent-up waters with accumu- 
lated force swept over the barrier and poured 
into the craters and fissures of the ground, 
when they were again thrown out in huge 
streams higher than the trees. 

The river was navigated at that time by 
many flat-boats from the Illinois, Uj)per 
Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, some of which 
were swallowed up in the great chasms of 
the river. There was much loss of life and 
property. Fortunately at that time the coun- 
try was sparsely settled; for no building could 
have withstood its fury. 

This calamity checked the commerce of the 
Illinois River, as indeed also the general pros- 
perity of the Western States. All immigra- 
tion stopped, and the impression became gen- 
eral in the Eastern and Middle States that 
Illinois and Missouri were so subject to earth- 
qialces, as to be forever unsafe as a place of 
hibitation. But in a few years this impres- 
sion with its attendant fears wore away, and 
iimnigration a^ain was resumed. 

There have been but two earthquakes in 
Illinois since that time, one in 1840 and the 
other in 1862; both slight shocks; the one in 
1840, however, doing some little damage to 
brick buildings and chiitineys. 

1815 — The steamer "Enterprise " iniilt, and 
run from New Orleans to Louisville, the first 
steamboat which ever run up stream in 
the AVestern rivers. The "Orleans" was 
able only to run down stream, and 
had to be cordelled back. From 1815, steam- 
boats multiplied very fast, and the pirates, 
who in large numbers had infested the west- 
ern rivers, began to disappear, and finally 
ceased their depredations altogether. 

1826, June 2. — The Illinois and Mississippi 
were higher than before known for forty years. 
The river was up to Main street, in St. Louis, 
which caused great destruction of property. 

1827.— Steamer "Mechanic," John S. 
Clark, captain, first steamboat ever up the Illi- 
nois river. 

1828. — Another great flood, supposed to be 
as great as that of 1T92. 

] 829. — Beardstown was founded by Thomas 

1830, 31. — The great snow, six feet deep. 

1836. — The Illinois and Mississippi again 
flooded. The water at St. Louis was fifty- 
four feet above low water mark, being nine 
feet ten inches higher than in 1810. 

18 57.^Stoamer "Wave " burned near Peru; 
one man lost, a passenger, who was drowned. 

1844. — This was the greatest flood on rec- 
ord in this or any other country, since the 
days of Noah. Every river west of the Alle- 
ghanies and north of the gulf of Mexico, rose 
simultaneously, and the channel of the Miss- 
issippi was unable to pass out the vast amount 
of water which came into it. Four hundred 
human beings, and a great number of horses 
cattle and other stock lost their lives. 

The water was one foot deep on Main 
Street, in Beardstown, and this city again 



became an island, with ten feet depth of water 
between it and the bluffs. The water rose 
to a level with the second story windows on 
Front Street, St. Louis. A great many towns 
were inundated and houses washed away. 

The four greatest floods on the Mississippi 
River and its tributaries, within the last 150 
years, are those of 1725, 1773, 1785 and 

ISiS — " Planter" exploded and burned at 
Jones' Ferry on the Illinois River. Five 
persons were killed and many scalded, some 
of whom afterward died. The captain 
escaped harm, but was shortly afterward 
killed by the explosion of the " Saluda," on 
the Missouri River. 

184:9- -Another flood this year. The water 
was on a level with Main Street, in Beards- 
town, and again it became an island. The 
people on the lower Mississippi suffered more 
than in 184-1, on account of crevasses, their 
losses amounting to $30,030,000. The water 
was ten feet deep in some of ths streets of 
New Orleans. At this time, and for several 
years afterward, steamboating on the Illinois 
River arrived at the zenith of its glory and 
prosperity. During these years it boasted 
the finest vessels which ever flouted on its 
waters ; among vphich were the Die Vernon, 
Prairie State, Cataract, Garden City, Ocean 
Wave, Belle Gould, Polar Star, and many 
others ; they were truly floating palaces, and 
the travel was upon the river and canal ex- 
clusively, there being no railroad convenient 
for that class of travelers. Oa May 17th of 
this y-ear, occurred the great confligratiou in 
St. Louis, by which several whole blocks of 
buildings and twenty-three steamboats were 
burned, among which were the Prairie State 
and Acadii, Illinois River packets. 

1850 — Financier, an Illinois River packet, 
exploded at Alton. Seven lives lost. 

1851 — August 20, Dacotah exploded at 
Peoria; eleven lives lost. November 27, Die 

Vernon and Archer collided three miles above 
the mouth of the Illinois River; the Archer 
sank immediately; tvventy-three persons were 
drowned, whose names were known, also quite 
a number on deck, whose names were un- 
known. In this year there were two floods, 
the two continuing so long as to cause more 
damage than any former one. The water was 
highest on the 11th of June, when it was four 
feet nine inches lower than the high water 
mark of 1844. 

1852 — Prairie State No. 2 exploded April 
25th, at Pekin; twenty lives lost. In April, 
the Illinois was very high, but no unusual 
damage was done. The Ohio rose as high as 
in 1832, doing an immense injury to prop- 

185G — Illinois River on a level with Main 
street, running over at one place, Lafayette 
Street. March 22, Tropic and Challenge 
first boats up. Ocean Spray burned. De- 
cember 14, river closed. 

In 1852 and 185G, during the high water, 
first-class steamboats went entirely around 
Beardstown without anv difficulty. 

1857 — February 18, Brazil first boat up. 
River moderate. November 19, river closed. 
December 1, opened and remained navigable 
until Fe'iruary 19, when it closed. 

1858 — March 11, river opened; Adriatic 
first boat up. River did not close again. 
Prairie State collapsed a flue; one man killed. 
This spring the river was very high, being 
nearly as high as in 1844. The water crossed 
over Main Street, and all the lower parts 
covered. The city again an island, and a first- 
class steamer, loaded with passengers, went 
around it. 

1859. — January 21, River closed for the 
first time. Open to St. Louis on the 28th. 
February 3, closed again. February 16, F. 
X. Aubry first boat up. December 15, closed. 

I860.— February 21, Polar Star first boat 
up. Belle Peoria burned. November 24, 



river closed. December 7, Sam Young came 
up. December 13, river closed. January 1, 
deep snow ; very cold ; railroads generally 
blocked up ; mails stopped ; and traveling 
suspended two weeks. 

1861. — February 16, Polar Star first boat 
up. Still very cold ; some ice running. Feb- 
ruary 22, Minnesota Belle came up. Decem- 
ber 36, river closed. 

1862.- March 12, Minnesota Belle first 
boat up. December 6, river over the Schuy- 
ler bottom lands, and closed. December 12, 
river open. La Salle first boat up. 

1863. — February 3, river closed until Feb- 
ruary 13. Lacon first boat down. December 
9, river closed. 

1864. — February 2, Schuyler first boat up. 
February 16, river closed. February 22, riv- 
er opeu. From September 1 until October 
13, only two feet of water in channel, and nav- 
igation suspended. December 9, river closed 

1865.— February 30, City of Pekin first 
boat up. December 13, river closed. De- 
cember 21, thermoneter 14° below 0, Fahren- 
heit. December 33, 14° below. 

1866. — January 31, six o'clock p. .m., tlier. 
mometor 4° above, with heavy rain, freezing 
as it fell, and heavy thunder and lightning 
mercury falling rapidly meantime, until nine 
o'clock P. M. it stood 8° below, where it stood 
until morning. Thunder and lightning listed 
one hour, say until seven o'clock p. Jt. It 
will require a skillful meteorologist to explain 
these phenomena. February loth, thermoin- 
eter 36° below at Beardstovvii, which was the 
coldest day ever known in this county. In 
the northern counties of this State it ranged 
from 30 to 40° belovF. February 16, ther- 
mometer 16° below. March 1, Schuyler first 
boat up; river over bottom lands. Steamer 
Farragut collided with the Meredosia bridge, 
whereby the canal boat Ajax, with entire 
cargo was lost, and .John Quigg drowned. 
The Ajax was in tow of the Farragut. March 

17, thermometer 7° above, but river remained 
open. Fall quite warm and pleasant until 
December 11; turned cold, mercury 8° above. 
December 13, 4° above, and ice running thin. 
Illinois run down in the morning, cutting her 
way through. Same day river got clear of ice 
and B'arragut went down. December 15, 
snowed six inches; weather moderate; 36° 
above, but ice running; 17th, 3° below; 19th, 
river opened and boats run until Christmas; 
25th, ice running; and 26th, river closed, 2 

1867. — February 9th and 10th, thermome- 
ter 10° below. March 8, river clear of ice; 
Farragut and Gem started down. Boats run 
all the week. March 13, weather turned sud- 
denly cold, 6° below, ice running; and March 
14, river closed. March 30, river open; water 
all over the low lands and within three feet 
of the surface of Main street, Beardstown. 
June 14, Peoria City's last trip down; low 
water began. July 20, Illinois' last trip 
down. August 8, City of Pekin's last trip 
down. Gem collapsed a flue; two men 
killed. September 18, Lancaster's last trip 
down. December 1, Lakin's last trip down. 
December 5, Beardstown's last trip up. River 

1868. — March 4th, river open ; Schuyler 
first boat up. March 5, City of Pekin up. 
Miircli 9, Beardstown up. March 10, Illinois 
up. July 7, Low water began; Schuyler's 
last trip down. July 13, Illinois' last trip 
down. November 15, river in good stage; 
Illinois began regular trips. December 4, 
snow six inches; thermometer 33° above. 
Belle Pike burst a cylinder; one life lost, one 
wounded. December 9, 4° below; river 
closed. Illinois last boat up. December 12, 
Mercury 10° below. The second week in this 
month was the coldest week ever experienced 
in this State, the mercurj' 26' below, Fahren- 

1869. — January 1, weather warm. .January 







6, river opened; Pekin up. April 2, river 
moderately high, and ferry-boat ran to Fred- 
erick. River continued gradually to rise 
until August 3, when it reached its highest, 
being on State street, in Beardstovsrn, within 
one foot of the level of Main street. The 
rainiest season ever known. River open to 
navigation until January 7, 1870. 

1871. — November 11, river closed, and re- 
mained closed all winter. 

1873. — January 38, coldest night ever 
known in this State. Early in the morning 
the thermometer stood 40° degrees below 
zero, Fahrenheit. Mercury congealed. Snow 
16 inches deep. 








CASS County has the reputation of being 
a fine agricultural region, and indeed 
the larger portion of the county is as choice 
land as may be found in the State. Its 
claims to superiority are well founded. 
While some counties may show more of rich 
soil, and while other counties may be 
better adapted to some specialty, yet 
it is safe to say that there are few counties 
that can lay claim to all the advantages in 
climate, soil, water, timber and general health- 
fulness that are possessed in a great degree 
by this. While in some sections a certain 
specialty, may, with propriety, be claimed as 
peculiar, we believe that no county combines 
so many natural advantages. In some of the 
more northern counties we find perhaps larger 
crops of corn, and in some of the more south- 
ern, a greater amount of fruit; but these 
specialties, even in the localities named, are 
not a certain crop. The farmer's safest course 
is a diversity of produots, and Cass County 
furnishes an example of soil and climate 
which makes it in an eminent degree fitted 
for such pursuits. For a number of years, 
the natural advantages of this region were 
scarcely appreciated, as the farming was car- 
ried on in such a manner as to obtain results 
far below those now realized. Better farm 
machinery, better methods of planting and 
cultivation, and the adoption of crops better 
suited to the soil, have wrought great changes. 
In an especial rnaiiiipr is this true in regard 

to methods of planting, cultivating, harvest- 
ing and taking care of products. 

The way our fathers performed their farm- 
ing operations, is so little known to the 
present generation who depend mostly upon 
farm machinery, requiring the horses to do 
all the work which men, women and children 
formerly did, that a description of the olden 
way, gathered from conversations with some 
of the oldest farmers still living, can not prove 
otherwise than interesting to some of our 
young farmers of the present time. Just 
banish from the farm all such modern innova- 
tions as reapers, mowers, corn-pliiriters, hay- 
rakes, threshing-machines, sulky-plows, riding 
corn-cultivators, and a slight conception can 
be formed of primitive farming facilities. To 
jjrepare the ground for planting corn it was 
plowed over with a wooden-mold board plow, 
which had to be cleaned every few rods with 
a paddle which hung to one of the handles ; it 
was then scratched over with a wooden-toothed 
harrow, after which it was "laid-ofF" both 
ways with the one-horse shovel-plow. It 
was then ready for planting. This was done 
by the boys, the women, children and men ; 
the smallest of the children dropping the 
grains of corn in the " crosses," where it was 
covered with hoes by the men and larger 
boys and women. After the planting, and 
when the corn had come up, then came the 
hoeing, now superseded by the improved 
cultivators. Plowing corn with the single- 


shovel-plow, was common until a few years 
ago, but it has had to take its place with the 
old spinning-wheel and loom, and they arc 
now counted^as relics of a past age. Cutting 
wheat, rye, oats and grass was formerly a 
laborious process. Even within the recollec- 
tion of comparatively young men of the 
county, the scythe and cradle were con- 
sidered as improved implements of husband- 
ry ; but the reaper and mower now in use 
not only do a much better job but transfers 
the hardest of the labor to the horses. 

The old methods in vogue three thousand 
years ago, treading out wheat with oxen or 
knocking it out with flails, were scarcely im- 
proved upon until within a comparatively 
recent date. In the early history of this 
county these ancient methods prevailed. By- 
and-by, came the old thresher — the ground- 
hog, as it was called — that merely knocked 
the grains from the chaff, leaving the same to 
be separated by some other process. One 
of these marvelous old machines has not 
been seen in Cass County for many a year ; but 
in its place we now have the steam thresher, 
which not only separates the grain from the 
chail and straw, ready for the mill, but sacks 
and counts the number of bushels, and the 
next improvement will doubtless be to grind it 
and bake it into bread. 

It is difficult to comprehend how, with corn 
at from six to ten cents per bushel, oats but 
little more, wheat at from thirty to fifty, and 
other products in proportion, with the market 
at Alton, Chicago and St. Louis, a farmer 
succeeded in obtaining enough for his products 
to pay for saving them. It is not so difficult 
to understand why so much of the county lay 
for so many years without an occupant. Of 
course, the farmers in those days did not ride 
in carriages, pay heavy taxes, wear fine 
clothes or indulge in many luxuries ; but they 
rode to meeting on horsel.ack or in the farm- 
wasron, wearing their every-day clothes done 

up clean for Sunday, and paid the preacher 
with a bag of corn or potatoes, or not at all, 
as they felt able. Yet, to say that they did 
not live comfortably and independently, would 
be a great mistake. The rifle supplied, from 
the timber, venslon and other game, an 1 the 
actual needs of life were all satisfied, though 
it would seem a great hardship to go back to 
what some are pleased to call the " good old 

Cass County has kept up with the improve- 
ments, not only in farm machinery, but in the 
new methods of farming, and no section of 
the State, perhaps, can boast of a finer state 
of agriculture than this county. Agricultural 
fairs and associations have been organized 
for the general improvement of stock, farm 
machinery and agriculture. 

The Cass County Agricultural Society, was 
organized in the court house, at Beardstown, 
January 5, 1856. A preliminary meeting had 
been held previously, at which a committee on 
constitution and by-laws had been appointed. 
The committee made a report at this meeting 
which was accepted, and at a meeting held in 
Virginia, June 15, the Constitution, as report- 
ed by the committee, was adopted. Ten acres 
of ground were purchased of Robert Hall, ad- 
joining the town of Virginia, at a cost of 
S400, for Fair Grounds. A Fair Ground 
Association was formed, which leased to the 
Cass County Agricultural Society, the grounds. 
The Fair Ground Association was incorporat- 
ed by special act of the Legislature, approved 
February 18, 1857. The Association and 
the Agricultural Society were composed 
mostly of the same individuals (but were two 
distinct corporations), and frequently the same 
set of officers were elected in both. 

The first officers of the Agricultural Society 
elected, were as follows : Francis Arenz, Pres- 
ident; Ezra J. Dutch, Treasurer; John W. 
Sweeney, Secretary; and John W. Seaman, 
James Hickey, Milton Stribling, John Prunty, 



and Ebenezer Fish, Directors. At the next 
meeting, March 6, 1858, the election resulted 
as follows: William Stevenson, President; 
Henry S. Sava;re, Secretary; Z. W. Gatton, 
Treasurer; and William Stevenson, David 
Epler, Thomas Plasters, John W. Seaman, Z. 
W. Gatton, E. W. Turner, and John Pnuity, 
Directors. March 5, 1859, the old olEcers 
were re-elected, and William Stevenson, J. 
M. Hill, William Petefish, John Prunty, I. M. 
Stribling, Z. W. Gatton, and John W. Seaman, 
Directors. At tiio election March 3, 1860, J. 
M. Hill was elected President; John W. Sea- 
man, Vice-President; Z. W. Gatton, Treas- 
urer; H. S. Savage, Secretary; and J. M. Hill, 
N. Seaman, D. J. Cole, J. M. Epler, A. G. 
Angier, John Prunty and Z. W. Gatton, Di- 
rectors. No officers were elected in 18G1; but 
on the 3d day of March, the following Di- 
rectors werj elected: John Prunty, William 
Stevenson, E. W. Turner, J. M. Hill, D. J. 
Cole, I. M. Stribling and H. H. Hall. March 
1, 1862, .lolni M. Epler was elected President; 
1. M. Stribling, Vice-President; Z. W. Gat- 
ton, Treasurer ; H.S. Savage, Sjoretarv ; and 
John M. Epler, I. M. Stribling, H. S. Savage, 
Z. W. Gatton, H. H. Hall and A. G. Angier, 
Directors. March 7, 18lj:i, Isaac M. Stribling 
was elected Piesident ; D. .1. Cole, Vice- 
President ; Z. W. Gatton, Treasurer ; H. H. 
Hall, Secretary; and I. M. Stribling, D. J. Cole, 
H. H. Hall, Z. W. Gatton, J. M. Epler, S. H. 
Petefish, A. G. Angier and John Prunty, Direc- 
tors. The next fair was to be held on the 1st 
and 2d days of the following September. 

At the election held March 5, 1864, I). J. 
Cole was elected President ; Z. W. Gatton, 
Treasurer ; H. H. Hall, Secretary ; and Wm. 
Petefish, A. G. Angier, John Prunty, John 
W. Seaman, S. H. Petefish and H. S. Savage, 

April 1, 1865, John Prunty was elected 
President ; I. M. Stribling Vice-President ; 
Z. W. Gatton, Treisurer ; ' H. II. Hall, Secre- 

tary; and John Prunty, I. M. Stribling, Z. W. 
Gatton, William Stevenson, John W. Seaman, 
J. Dunnaway, James L. Beggs and Samuel 
Petefish, Directors. 

March 2, 1866, John Prunty was re-elected 
President ; Z. W. Gatton, Treasurer ; Rufus 
Rabourn, Secretary ; and John Prunty, I. M. 
Stribling, J. H. Bates, A. G. Angier, J. Dun- 
naway, H. H. Hall and W. Petefish, Directors. 
An order was passed to sell the grounds, but 
there is no further record in regard to such 

March 2, 1877, J. W. Seaman was elected 
President ; A. G. Angier, Vice-President ; R. 
W. Rabourn, Secretary; Z. W. Gatton, Treas- 
urer; and I. M. Stribling, William Stevenson, 
J. H. Bates, J. A. Petefish and H. H. Hall, 
Directors. There is no record of an election 
of officers in 1868. 

March 6, 1869, J. W. Seaman was elected 
President; A. G. Angier, Vice-President ; R. 
W. Rabourn, Secretary ; E. T. Oliver, Treas- 
unn- ; and Z.W. Gatton, I. M. Stribling, S.H. 
Petefish, Robert Hall and D. J. Cole, Direc- 

March 5, 1870, old officers re-elected, and 
Joseph Black, John Prunty, J. A. Petefish, 
William Stevenson and Robert Hall, Direc- 

March 4, 1871, old officers re-elected, and 
John Prunty, William Stevenson, I. M. Strib- 
ling, Robert Hall, and J. A. Petefish, directors. 

March 3, 1872, I. M. Stribling was elected 
President; J. A. Petefish, Vice-president; E. 
T. Oliver, Treasurer; R. W. R.ibourn, Sec- 
retary, and John Prunty, A. G. Angier, Rob- 
ert Stevenson, Robert Hall, and Williaia 
Stevenson, Directors. 

March 1, 1873, Robert Stevenson was elect- 
ed President; J. M. Epler, Vice-president; 
Z. W. Gatton, Treasurer; R. W. Rabourn, 
Secretary; and Robert Hall, .John Prunty, I. 
M. Stribling, A. G. Angier, and J. W. Sea- 
man, Directors. 



March 7, 1874, J. M. Epler was elected 
President; P. A. Biiker, Vice-president; R. W. 
Rabourn, Secretary; J. A. Epler, Treasurer; 
and T. J. Crum, Robert Hall, T. J. Stribling, 
and Robert Stevenson, Directors. The time 
set for the next fair was the 1st, 2d, 3d and 
4th of September following. 

March G, 1873, J. M. Epler was elected 
President; T. J. Crum, Vice-president; J. A. 
Epler, Treasurer, R. W. Rabourn, Secretary; 
and .John Pruiity, T. J. Stribling, Robert 
Hall, Morrison Graves, and Robert Stevenson, 

March 4, 1876, J. W. Seaman was elected 
President; T. J. Crura, Vice-president; Mor- 
rison Graves, Treasurer; K. W. Rabouru, 
Secretary, and the old directory was re- 

March 3, 1877, Morrison Graves was elected 
President; Robert Hall, Vice-president; R. 
W. Rabourn, Secretary; S. H. Petefish, 
Treasurer, and John Prunty, J. B. Stevenson, 
Oswell Skiles, Robert Hall, C. M. Savage, T. 
.1. Stribling, and M. Graves, Directors. 

March 2, 1878, Morrison Graves was elect- 
ed President; T. J. Crum, Vice-president; 
R. W. Rabourn, Secretary; S. H. Petefish, 
Treasurer, and M. Graves, O. Skiles, John 
Prunty, T. J. Crum, C. E. Lippincott, Robert 
Stevenson, and W. S. Vance, Directors. 

March 1, 1879, J. M. Epler was elected 
President; P. A. Buraker, Vice-president; 
O. Skiles, Treasurer; R. W. Rabourn, Secre- 
tary, and J. M. Epler, C. W. Savage, Henry 
Campbell, P. A. Buraker, I. M. Stribling, W. 
H. Thompson, and Robert Hall, Directors. 

March 13, 1880, J. M. Epler was elected 
President; O. Skiles, Treasurer; R. W. Ra- 
bourn, Secretary, and G. A. Beard, T. J. 
Striblng, C. W. Savage, A. G. Eplar, Robert 
Hall, Henry Campbell, and John W. McCul- 
loun-h, Directors. The time for holding the 
next fair was set for the 17th, 18th, 19th and 
20th of August following. 

March 3, 1881, Oswell Skiles was elected 
President; W. C. Barkley, Vice-president; 
George Conover, Treasurer; R. W. Rabourn, 
Secretary, and Oswell Skiles, W. S. Vance, T. 
J. Stribling, W. C. Barkley, G. W. Rawlings, 
George Conover, and Morrison Graves, Direct- 

The officers for the present year (1882) are 
as follows: J. M. Epler, President; John A. 
Jones, Vice-president; G. L. Warlow, Secre- 
tary; George Conover, Treasurer, and J. M. 
Epler, J. A. Jones, M. Graves, R. W. Ra- 
bourn, W. S. Vance, J. B. Stevenson, and F. 

E. Downing, Directors. The next fair will 
be held September 12, 13, 14 and 15, follow- 
ing. The superintendents of departments, at 
the next meeting, are as follows: Fine Art 
Hall — F. E. Downing, and Assistant — Mrs. 

F. E. Downing; Fruit and Vegetables — Tho- 
mas Dunnaway; Preserves, Jellies, etc. — C. 
W. Black and Alice Dwclle; Agricultural 
Hall— J. F. Black; Poultry— J. N. Gridley; 
Sheep and Swine — Robert Stevenson; Horses 
and Mules — A. G. Epler; Cattle — Watson 
Sinclair. From preparations already being 
made the coming meeting will be an interest- 
ing one. 

The Cass County Park Association was or- 
ganized a few years ago. This association 
purchased and now owns the grounds, and 
leases them out for fairs, races, and for other 
purposes, as may seem legitimate to the 
Board of Directors. 

The fine stock interest is taking high rank 
in Cass County, and has grown to large pro- 
portions, particularly that of fine cattle. 
The writer has seen all the fine herds of Short- 
horn cattle in the famous blue grass region 
of Kentucky, and in his capacity as historian 
has visited many of the stock farms of that 
world-renowned section, but he has seen some 
cattle in this county that are unsurpassed by 
Kentucky, or any other state. The herd, for 
instance, of William Stevenson is, probably. 


without a superior in quality in any country. 
His Sliort-horn bull, Duke, was purchased of 
Hutchcraft, one of the most extensive herd- 
ers of Bourbon County, Kentucky, for $1,000, 
when a yearling, and is one of the finest ani- 
mals of his kind, while Mattie Belle, 2d, 
calved June 30, 1S77, is the finest cow we 
have seen in the State. But to do justice to 
Mr. Stevenson's herd would be to particular- 
ize every one. He makes a specialty of rear- 
ing Short-horns, and like the larger breeders 
of Kentucky, has his annual sales of all those 
aside from his regular breeders. 

C. E. Lippincott took an active interest a 
few years ago, in breeding Short-horns, but 
did not remain long in the business. Mr. J. 
M. Epler, also, has a small herd of very fine 
animals, and devotes considerable attention 
to breeding; also, Watson Sinclair, doing 
something in the same line, and has several 
fine animals. The time, doubtless, is 
near at hand, when Cass County will become 
famous as a fine stock region, and noted for 
the rearing of Short- horn cattle. The start 
made has proven its adaptability to the in- 
dustry, and shown the value of the business. 

A writer on Kentucky Short-horns has the 
following on the genuine breed: "Short- 
horns of a true type and good shape, that is 
to say, level backed, wide crops, wide hips, 
swelling sides, fine bone, fine tail, neat blood- 
like appearance, straight lines across the hips, 
straight from the point of the hock to point of 
hip near the tail, straight along the belly 
from the brisket to the end of the flank, 
smooth shoulders, not sinking at the girt, soft 
elastic skin, good handlers, placid, calm eye, 
short in the legs, short tapering horns, waxy 
horns well set on, quiet disposition, good 
milkers, clean, clear muzzle, solid colors, 
either red or roan, these have long been 
sought after, bred for and purchased when 
attainable, and breeders with pride in their 
stock have endeavored to produce them from 

the earliest known period in Short-horn his- 
tory, ancl it is not surprising that breeders 
have in the main owned many that were 
never defeated in the show ring. And as 
such stock has been the result of much trou- 
ble and experiment, so it has and ever will 
deservedly command high prices. Requiring 
several generations of judicious crossing, 
weeding out defects, meting out to the 
breeders many blanks with the prizes, it is a 
fascinating pursuit, and is increasing daily 
the number of its votaries." 

It is worth while to notice, in passing, the 
change in the colors of Short-horns. Most 
every one, who has paid attention to the mat- 
ter, can remember that there was a time with- 
in their memory that Short-horn cattle were 
uniformly white and roan, with here and there 
a red. Take, for example, one of the leading 
herds of the country in 1851, 1853 and 1853, 
of fifteen head recorded in Volume H, A. H. 
B. Eight were roans and seven whites. The 
same breeder would not allow a white animal 
to be used on his herd for a homis of $3,000 a 
year. Who knows but the stylo and fashion 
may change back again into its former chan- 
nel? It is well to observe that the scarcer 
and more rare Short- horns of peculiar quali- 
ties become, the higher prices they are held 
at in some quarters. While on the other 
hand, it is with satisfaction that we observe 
many new beginners whose names appear at 
the annual sales, from New York to Califor- 
nia, and from Minnesota to Texas, indicating 
that the people, as a mass, are beginning to 
appreciate the value of an infusion of thorough- 
bred blood into scrub herds, and to at last 
acknowledge that a two-year old thorough 
bred, or even high grade, is equal to a three- 
year-old of common, or mongrel stock. 

There is an increasing attention yearly tc 
the improving of other stock in Cass County, 
as well as to cattle. Many thoroughbred 
horses from Kentucky are being introduced. 



among which we have noticed some members 
of the Mambrino family, one of the finest 
reared in Kentucky. The original Mambrino 
Patchen, sold for 625,000, and Mambriuo 
King, sold at Lexington, Ky., a few weeks 
ago, for 815,000. Fine sheep and hogs, also, 
are being greatly improved, and many of the 
farmers are devoting special attention to rear- 
ing the best breeds of these animals. It is 
then, not saying too much, to predict for Cass 
County a brilliant future as a stock-raising 
region. The start is made, and perseverance 
will accomplish the rest. 

The railroads of the County will be written 
up in other chapters of this volume. Rail- 

roads are the great features that make a 
country powerful and add to its material 
wealth and prosperity. The railroads inter- 
secting Cass County, are the Peoria, Pekin 
and Jacksonville; the Springfield division of 
Oliio and Mississippi; the St. Louis division 
of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy; and 
the Western division of the Chicago and 
Alton. Thus it will be seen the County is 
well supplied with these useful internal im- 

The press of the county, and the war his- 
tory also, will be found in other and appro- 
priate chapters, together with other subjects 
of local and general interest. 





IT was a beautiful sentiment of Goethe 
when he compared our little round of being 
to a summer watering place: " When we first 
arrive, we form friendships with those who 
have already spent some time there, and must 
soon be gone. Their loss is painful, but we 
content ourselves with the second generation 
of visitors, with whom we spend some time, 
and daily become more intimate; but these 
also depart, and we are left alone with a third 
set, who arrive just as we are prepared for our 
departure." This is not inapplicable to the 
settlement of this section of the country. 
It is a sad realization of the inscrutable de- 
cree that, " Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt 
thou return," when we come to collect the 
history of a county or people. Here, in Vir- 
ginia Precinct, we look around us for the 
pioneers, and find most of them sleeping in 
the quiet graveyard. The first generation of 
visitors to the "summer watering-place" are 
mostly gone, and the second and third, and 
even the fourth generations are crowding on 
to fill their places. Those of the " first set " 
who still linger, are bent with age, and a few 
more rolling years will take them from our 
sight for ever. Wonderful are the chang-es 
wrought since they first beheld this beautiful 
land, once the home of the lordly savage, and 
the hunting ground of his kindred. The 
pioneers, who braved the dangers of " flood 
and field," to open these broad and product- 

ive plains and valleys, have melted away like 
mists before the morning sun, and are now 
gathered to the land of dreams. From the 
few still left, we have gleaned a few facts 
pertaining to the early settlement of this 
section, and to pioneer life, which form the 
subject-matter of this chapter. 

Virginia Precinct is rather large, and con- 
tains portions of townships 17 and 18, in 
ranges 9 and 10, west of the 3d principal me- 
ridian. It is generally level or undulating, 
resembling somewhat the swell of the ocean 
after a storm, and originally comprised both 
timber land and prairie. On the north it is 
bounded by Husted Precinct, or Hickory, as 
now called, and Chandlerville Precinct, on 
the east by Oregon and Princeton Precincts, on 
the South by Princeton Precinct and Morgan 
County, and on the west by Monroe Precinct. 
It is drained and watered by Clear Creek, 
Prairie Creek, Little Indian, Job's, Little 
Panther and Lost Creeks, all tributaries of the 
Illinois River. The Peoria, Pekin and Jack- 
sonville railroad (now a part of the Wabash 
system), and the Springfield division of the 
Ohio and Mississippi railroad, intersect it, 
crossing at the City of Virginia, the capital 
of the County, and afford ample accommoda- 
tions in shipping and transportation. 

The settlement of Virginia Precinct dates 
back to the year 1821, when the first whites 
came in and commenced the improvement 



of the lands. Pioneer life, in all time, has 
been characterized by incidents peculiar either 
to the locality or the make-up of the pioneers 
themselves. Western pioneer life has been 
subjected to conditions common to the experi- 
ence of all early settlers. The primary ele- 
ments in the composition of those who have 
taken their lives in their own hands and battled 
successfully with the privations and hardships 
incident to settlements in the wilderness, with- 
out companions, save their " household gods," 
away from the echoes of civilization, depend- 
ing for subsistence upon their own good 
right arms, were will-power, physical vigor 
and energy. Thus endowed, the brave pioneer 
boldly cuts loose from the moorings of civili- 
zation, turns his face toward the wild, un- 
known West, and after days and weeks, per- 
haps months, of weary journeying over 
trackless prairies, tangled woodland, rocky 
steeps and through rushing torrents, at last 
determines the spot where his future home 
shall be, at once makes a start by erecting a 
little cabin, breaking a small patch of ground 
and planting a little corn. Soon he is joined 
by others, and the feeble settlement becomes 
the foundation of one of those prosperous 
communities which are to-day the pride and 
boast of our western country. But we are 
digressing from the more specific part of 
our subject. 

Archibald Job, Henry Hopkins and Thos. 
Redmon, were early settlers in Virginia Pre- 
cinct. Mr. Job was a native of Maryland, and 
settled in what he called Sylvan Grove, now 
the present site of Virginia, in Cass County, 
in 1820. From an article, in the Jacksonville 
Journal, written by William Thomas in 1874, 
we extract most of our information concern- 
ing Mr. Job. hi 183 2 he was elected to the 
legislature from the district, composed of the 
county of Greene, and the territory afterward 
included in Morgan County, and again in 
182i, fromthe counties of Morgan and Greene. 

In 182() he was elected to the Senate from 
the district composed of the counties of Mor- 
gan, Pike, Adams, Schuyler, Fulton and 
Peoria. During this service of eight years, 
his constituents never had cause to regret his 
election, nor to complain of his want of 
devotion to their interests. He maintained 
the character of an honest, fearless, intelligent 
and industrious representative. In 1830, he 
was again a candidate for the Senate, but was 
defeated, not because of any complaint of his 
previous action, or of any want of confidence in 
his ability and integrity, but because the Whig 
party, with which he was identified, was in 
the minority. Upon the passage of tiie law 
providing for the building of the State House 
at Springfield, because of his known integrity 
and intelligence, he was appointed one of the 
State house commissioners. At the time of 
his death he was about ninety years of age. 
Mrs. Job, it is said, never saw the face of 
a white woman for six months after landing 
in this county. She used to say that she had 
very good neighbors among the Indians, who 
were then numerous in this section. Their 
nearest neighbors lived fifteen miles distant, 
and St. Louis was their post office. Mr. Clark 
came in 1827 and settled at North Grove, three 
miles west of the present town of Virginia. 
In 1836 he moved to Iowa, but in 18 re- 
turned to Cass County, and settled again in 
the neighborhood. He afterward removed to 
Bluff Springs, where he died in 1852. 

Hopkins was a native of Delaware, and emi- 
grated first to Woodford County, Kentucky, 
then to Clarke County, Indiana. From there 
he removed to Morgan County, Illinois, in 
1825, and located in Sugar Grove the next 
year, and which was in Virginia Precinct un- 
til a few years ago, when Philadelphia Pre- 
cinct was formed. He lived there until in 
1875, then removed into Virginia, and died 
in 1879, at the age of eighty-five years. He 
was married in 1817, and his widow still sur- 



vives him at the age of eighty-four, and is 
the mother of twelve children, ten of whom 
are now living. 

About the year 1825-26, William Holmes 
came to the precinct, and was followed the 
next year by Thomas Redmon, Benjamin 
Stribling, and a man named Street. Holmes 
was from New York, and made his home with 
Hopkins until his marriage, in 1828-29. They 
improved their land in common, and for 
several years farmed in partnership. He was 
a man of intelligence, of considerable public 
spirit, and a graduate of an Eastern college ; 
probably the first college graduate who ever 
settled in Cass County. He commenced his 
public career' as a school teacher in his own im- 
mediate neighborhood. He served as county 
surveyor, and as the first representative in the 
legislature from Cass County, after its forma- 
tion in 1837. Redmon settled about half a 
mile south of Hopkins', and was from Logan 
County, Kentucky. Although a man of quite 
ordinary intellect, he was very pious, upright, 
a kind of exhorter or local preacher of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and took an 
active part in molding the society of his day 
and generation. He died about 1810, and is 
without relatives or descendants now in this re- 
gion. Stribling was also from Logan County, 
Kentucky, and first located near the present 
village of Liter, now in Morgan County, but 
in 1829 bought out Street, who had settled 
and improved the farm now owned by J. M. 
Stribling. After selling out to Stribling, 
Street moved about a mile and a half west, 
and improved another place, upon which was 
built one of the primitive grist mills of Cass 
County. He left about 1834, and went to 
Iowa, where he was lost sight of long since. 
None of his descendants now live in the 

Among other pioneers of this precinct, may 
be mentioned Anthony Thomas, Col. A. S. 
West, Joshua P. Crow, Thomas S. Berry, 

Benjamin Cauby, Berry Freeman, a man 
named Paschall, and others whose names are 
now forgotten. Anthony Thomas came about 
1827-28 and located on what is now known 
as the Frotter farm, lying on the south side of 
Sugar Grove. He sold out in 1840 and re- 
moved with his family to the Rock River 
Country. Sugar Grove and Sylvan Grove, 
which have been several times referred to, 
were two bodies of timber, situated about three 
or four miles southeast of the present city of 

Col. West came in about 1828, and im- 
proved the farm now owned by Cain Owens, 
lying north of the city, and partly inside of 
the corporate limits. He was a very enter- 
prising and active business man, and was the 
second representative in the legislature, from- 
Cass County, succeeding Mr. Holmes in that 
august body. He was for a time a merchant 
in the town of Virginia, and traded extensive- 
ly in cattle and pork, a business he com- 
menced in 1839. Like many other good 
business men, he failed in the financial crash 
of 1840-42. Crow first settled where William 
Campbell now lives, in 1828-39, to whom he 
sold out, and afterwards moved to Missouri. 
He served for a number of years as a justice 
of the peace. In 1843, he was the Demo- 
cratic candidate against John W. Pratt, for 
the State Legislature, but was defeated by 27 

Thomas S. Berry emigrated to Cass County, 
from near Fredericksburg, Virginia, a distance 
of about nine hundred miles. He came 
through on horseback, with his entire posses- 
sions in apair of saddle-bags, and reached Ben- 
jamin Stribling's in November, 1829, where 
he spent the winter. He assisted Stribling 
in sjatherinof corn in the field,* and brinffingf it 
in to feed stock, and the remainder of his 
time he spent in hunting. He taught school 
about two years, worked on a farm by the 
month, and in August, 1833, assisted his father, 



William S. Berry, to remove his family to 
Cass County. In 1834:, he bought a farm in 
Virginia Precinct, on which he resided until 
his death in 1847. James Berry came to Cass 
County in 1830, from Orange County, Virgin- 
ia. He taught school and worked on a farm 
until 1833, when he purchased land of L. T. 
Bryant; he died in 1849. Benjamin Cauby 
came to Virginia Precinct in 1830, and was 
a Cumberland Presbyterian preacher. He 
organized, or rather reorganized old Shiloh 
Church; was a zealous Christian and an able 
minister. He died in 1845, in the prime of 
life. Freeman and Paschall were brothers-in- 
law, and settled a little northeast of town, 
about 1830. They were both thrifty and in- 
dustrious men, and bore an active part in 
subduing the country, and opening it up to 
civilization. The only son of Freeman vvas 
a lieutenant in Company D, One Hundred 
and Fourteenth Illinois Infantry, in the late 
civil war, and was captured at Guntown, Miss- 
issippi. He was put on a train with other 
captured oflBcers, and started south to prison, 
but jumped from the train while running at 
the rate of twenty miles an hour, and made 
his escape from the guards. After spending 
a week in wandering through the country, he 
finally found his way to a camp of Union 
soldiers, and was sent at once to his regiment, 
with which he served until the close of the 

Charles Oliver, Thomas Gatton, John Epler 
and .Jacob Petefish, were also early settlers of 
Virginia Precinct; but first located on Little 
Indian, in what is now Princeton Precinct, 
where they will be further noticed. Epler 
came from Pennsylvania, and has a good manj' 
descendants still in the county. Gatton came 
from Maryland, and was one of the early 
merchants of the county. Oliver came to 
Virginia in 1835, and was for a time a clerk 
for Dr. Hall. Mr. Petefish also has a num- 
ber of descendants in the county. There are 

many others, doubtless, who deserve mention 
among the early settlers of the precinct, but 
their names have faded from the memories of 
the pioneers still left among us. JIany, in 
fact most of the first settlers of the precinct 
who were prominently indentified with its 
early history, have passed away " as a tale 
that is told." A few have scattered to other 
lands, but far the greater number have gone 
to the land of dreams. 

When the first settlements were made here 
game was plenty, and the people depended 
mostly on it for meat; game and corn-bread, 
with wild honey, constituted the almost uni- 
versal diet for several years. The clothing 
worn by both the male and female members 
of the family, was manufactured at home by 
the women, on the old fashioned spinning- 
wheel, cards and loom. The men dressed 
deer skins, out of which were made panta- 
loons, hunting shirts and moccasins; they 
made shoes from leather tanned at home by 
themselves; of course this kind of material 
made rather a rough shoo, but being the best 
that could be procured, they were content; in 
fact, such shoes best suited the rough jaunts 
taken on foot by many of the pioneers 
through brush, briers, swamps and grass, 
wet with dew and rain. 

Everything not manufactured at home was 
termed a " store " article, as " store shoos," 
"store hat," etc., and any one attired in 
" store clothes," excited envv in the younger 
members of the community, and many a 
young lass, when appearing in pul>lic, consid- 
ered herself highly honored if so fortunate 
as to secure the attention of a " feller " ar- 
rayed in " store clothes," furnishing striking 
instance of that weakness in human nature, 
quite as common in this enlightened age — 
that of judging persons by external appear- 

In those early days, the people managed to 
get along without nails, glass, sawed lumber 


or brick, for the reason they could not procure 
them. Their houses were small, consisting of 
one story, built of logs or poles, unhewed, 
with the ends projecting from six inches to two 
feet at the corners, and the cracks between the 
logs were filled with sticks and daubed with 
clay. The doors were made of boards fast- 
ened in place with wooden pegs and hung 
with wooden hinges. A wooden latch raised 
by a string, served as a fastening ; the string 
had one end tied to the latch and the other 
passed through a small hole above it, and 
when the door was fastened, one end of the 
string was hanging out. " The latch-string 
out" was the pioneers' emblem of hospitality. 
The fireplaces were from six to ten feet in 
width, and in them large logs blazed on win- 
ter nights, warming the entire household. At 
one side of these capacious hearths, one ar- 
ticle always stood conspicuous, viz : the kettle 
of "blue dye," with which the old ladies 
colored their "yarn" for weaving. This 
kettle being covered with an old barrel head, 
or something of the kind, often did service as 
a seat for some members of the family, and 
even for visitors. Young fellows, when on 
courting expeditions, sometimes found it a 
very convenient seat with the objects of their 
affections in close proximity. "Some of the 
best men or our country," an old gentleman 
informed us, who had probably been there 
himself, "wooed and won their brides, seated 
on a kettle of 'blue dye,' by the blazing fire 
of the backwoodsman's rude cabin." On the 
outside of the houses, it was no uncommon 
thing to see a goodly number of raccoon and 
deer skins "stretched" against the wall to 
dry, and occasionally the skin of a wild cat, 
wolf or bear. The projecting ends of the 
logs, at each corner of the cabin, served as 
places to hang the various utensils used on 
the farm, such as hoes, rakes, bridles and 
harness, or "gears," as they were then called. 
The first improvement of importance to the 

pioneer, after he has erected a shelter for 
himself and family, is a mill, an industry that 
always advances with civilization. Judge 
Shaw tells us in his centennial address on 
Cass County, that the first mill accessible tc 
the pioneers of the county was Jarvoe's mill 
on Cahokia Creek, and that in 1821 a mill was 
erected on Indian Creek, and later a horse- 
mill was erected at Clary's Grove, in Menard 
County. These mills served the people in 
this section until able to build mills for them- 
selves. One of the first in this precinct, of 
wh'ch we have any account, was built by a 
Mr. Street, about 1831-2, on the southeast 
quarter of section 29, town 18 and range 10. 
It was a primitive aifair, but, as we were in- 
formed, was "better than none at all." H. 
H. Hall built a water grist mill some two 
miles northeast of the present city of Virginia, 
about 1838, on Job Creek. It was for grind- 
ing corn and wheat, and had but one run of 
burrs, driven by a horizontal water-wheel 
with upright shaft. Its capacity was about 
eight to ten bushels per hour. As population 
incrL'ased,'and the community became wealtliy. 
other mills were built for the accommodation 
of the growing population. Other improve- 
ments were male in the precinct. Roads 
were laid out, and put in order, thus render- 
ing travel a less task than formerly, and where 
they crossed streams and sloughs, bridges were 
built. Good roads now pass through the 
precinct in every direction, diverging from 
the county seat, and while they do not com- 
pare with macadamized roads, they are about 
as good as Illinois soil will make without 
artificial aid. 

The pioneer fathers were alive to the ad- 
vantages of education, and lost no time in 
establishing schools in the different settle- 
ments. Mr. Keiling Berry is authority for the 
fact that a school was taught in the precinct 
as early as 1830. During the first few years 
after settlements were made, there were no 


siliOiiUiouses or churches built in the precinct. 
Schools were taught in abandoned cabins, 
nnd conducted on the subscription plan. 
Tlio teacher made out his proposition on pa- 
per, and the parents " signed " as many 
scholars as they had, or could afford to pay 
for, agreeing to pay a specified sum for tui- 
tion a certain number of months. The first 
school taught in the precinct, so far as we 
l-ave learned, was taught by M^illiam Holmes, 
in one of these abandoned cabins, at Sugar 
Grove, Mr. Berry says, about the year 1830. 
Keiling Berry himself taught a subscription, 
or on the select school plan, from November 
19, 1839, to September 1, 1840, in a log cabin 
still standing on the soiitheast quarter of the 
southeast quarter of section 27, township 17, 
and range 10. This is doubtless the oldest 
building now standing in the neighborhood, 
used as a temple of learning. The Angier 
school house which stood on the northwest 
corner of section 4, is believed to have been 
the first built in the precinct, especially for 
school purposes. It was erected by the people 
of the community by their own mutual labor, 
and afterward became the property of the 
district. It was burned some eight or ten 
years ago. 

School facilities increased with the advanc- 
ing tide of immigration, and new houses were 
liuilt as they were needed. At the present 
time there are some half a dozen school houses 
in the precinct outside of the city of Virginia. 
Those are good, comfortable houses, fitted up 
with modern furniture, and present quite a 
contrast to those of fifty years ago. 

There are at present two churches in Vir- 
ginia precinct outside of the city. Shiloh 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church is located 
some three and a half miles west of the city 
of Virginia, and was built in 1857. The con- 
gregation was organized at the house of 
Nathan Compton, in Jersey Prairie, in Mor- 
gan County, in the fall of 1827, by the Rev. 

J. M. Berry. After the congregation was 
permanently organized, it was attached to the 
Sangamon Presbytery, and was represented in 
the semi-annual meetings of that boily, from 
time to time, until about the year 1835. 
Hitherto the church had been supplied with 
preaching, chiefly liy Kevo. Berry and William 
M Cord, the latter of whom died in August, 
1833. Rev. Benjamin Cauby, who moved 
into the bounds of the church about the year 
1830, began to preach to this and neighboring 
societies after Mr. McCord's decease. Mr. 
Compton, one of the first elders, had moved 
away, and the records of the church were 
either lost or mislaid. Under this state of af- 
fairs. Rev. Ciuby diemed it proper to re-or- 
ganize the congregation, which was done in 
1837, at the Shiloh meeting house, and which 
had been built upon land donated by Mr. 
Cauby for that purpose. The f .Uowing reso- 
lution was adojjted : " W/urcs, We, the 
undersigned, believe it to be our privilege and 
duty to attach ourselves to some branch of 
the church of God and, so far a we have read 
and examined, the government and discipline 
of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church also 
believing that it agrees with our views most 
in accordance with Apostolic mode, do and 
hereby order our names to be enrolled as 
members of the Mount Pleasant Congregation 
of the Presbyterian Church." Following are 
the names of those who signe 1: Rev. Benja- 
min Cauby, Joseph Cauby and wife, Abner 
Tining, Richard Matthews, Sarah Street, 
Susan and Mary Beasley, Nancy Morgan, D. 
A. McCord, Ann, Elizabeth, Sarah and Eliza 
Jane McC rd, Elizabeth Thompson, Sarah 
Fraesell, James B. Thompson, William and 
Sarah Lowrance, Margaret Schaffer, Richard 
D. and John B. Thomps n, Amanda Matthews, 
Samuel B., Matilda, Matilda J., and Sarah J. 
Thompson, Catharine Pratt, and H. S. 

The present elders of the church are: L. 


McNeil, Henry Bierhause, and Daniel Bid- 
dlecome. The cluirch lias now forty mem- 
bers, under the pastorate of Rev. J. E. Roach, 
and a good comfortable church building. 

A Sunday-school of about twenty- live pupils 
is carried on in connection with the church. 
Daniel Biddlecome is the present superinten- 
dent, a position he has held for the past 
twelve years. The school was held at the 
Union school-house until within the past two 
years, when it was removed to the church 
where the church organ adds a pleasant ac- 
companiment to the singing and to the gen- 
eral interest of the school. 

Bethlehem Methodist Church is located 

about three miles south of Virginia, on the 
road to Jacksonville. It was built more than 
thirty years ago, and was originally a kind of 
vuiion church, being used by several denomi- 
nations, but for many years has been occupied 
onlv by the Methodists. 

Virginia Precinct contains the county-seat 
of the county, and as is usually the case, much 
of the history of the precinct centers in the 
county seat, leaving but little to say in the 
preliminary chapter, beyond the mere settle- 
ment of the precinct, and the mention of a 
few minor topics. With this brief sketch of 
Virginia procinct, we will close this chapter, 
and in a new one take up the city's history. 




IN historic annals we are enabled to meas- 
ure social progress. Society, as it circles 
outward from a common centre, has a ten- 
dency to degenerate from its original and 
higher type to one of a lower tone and stand- 
ard. History reveals the fact that every re- 
cedinof circle of civilization has lessened the 
forces forming and completing a perfect state 
of society. On nearly every wave of immi- 
gration some good seed is borne to grow up 
in the opening soil of the new country. The 
good seed is usually sufficient to begin the 
work of raising society to a higher level of 
civilization, and their transforming power 
counteracts those demoralizing influences 
which tend to social degeneration and disrup- 
tion, as the lawless and vicious seek the 
frontiers, where there is less restraint from 
civil power. This good seed becomes the 
nuclijus around which gather those influences 
necessary to carry society onward to a state 
of comparative perfection. By a comparison 
with the rude and rough scenes of the past, 
we may see how much has been done in this 
respect. The moral and social standard of 
the community afford unbounded evidence 
that much good seed has fallen in this local- 

The city of Virginia, to which this chapter 
IS devoted, and the county seat of Cass 
County, is beautifully situated in a fine re- 
g'on of country, near the geographical cen- 

tre of the county, and is surrounded by some 
of the best and most productive farms in the 
State. The Peoria, Pekin & Jacksonville 
Railroad, and the Springfield division of the 
Ohio & Mississippi, cross here, and furnish the 
citizens of the place, and the farmers of the 
adjacent neighborhood, ample facilities for 
shipping, as well as travel. 

Virginia was laid out by Dr. H. H. Hall, 
who owned the land upon which it is lo- 
cated. It was surveyed by Johnston C. Shel- 
ton. May 17, 1836, and the original plat oc- 
cupied a portion of township 17, range 10, 
west. The first sale of lots was made Au- 
gust 6, 1836, and the records show that Joel 
Horn purchased lot 5; E. B. Gentry, lot 6; 
George Garlick, lot 7; M. H. Beadles, lots 8 
and 9; Isaiah Paschal, lot 10; J. B. Gentry, 
lot 11; Zebedee Wood, lots 13, 18, and 19; 
Franklin Marshall, lot 20; William S. Horn, 
lot 31; Henry T. Foster, lot 23; L. S. Saun- 
ders, lot 34; Joel Horn, lot 28; William 
Quigg, lot 33, etc., etc. Dr. Hall made an 
addition to the town, which was surveyed and 
platted, July 1, 1837, and on the 2.Jth of Au- 
gust the sale of lots in this addition took place. 

A number of them were sold on the day of 
the sale, and the remainder before the close 
of the year. The town, for a new place, in 
a sparsely settled district, grew rapidly, and 
bid fair to become a place of considerable 



Dr. Hall, the proprietor and founder of 
Virginia, was a native of Ireland, and a reg- 
ular graduated physician. He served for a 
time as surgeon in the British navy, and in 
that capacity came here in the vcar of 1813, 
remaining in this country after its close, and 
in 1818 settling in Virginia. He remained a 
citizen of the Old Dominion until his removal 
to Illinois in 1835. He first visited the West 
in 1831, and during his stay entered several 
hundred acres of land, upon a portion of 
which the city of Virginia now stands. Re- 
turning to his hofcie, he remained there until 
1835, when he removed to Illinois and settled 
upon the lands he had already entered here, 
and the next year laid out the town of Vir- 
ginia, which he called after the State he had 
first chosen for his home after becoming a 
citizen of the United States. Up to the time 
of his death, which occurred in 18-17, he was 
the ruling spirit of the growing town, and one 
of its chief business men, fully alive to its in- 
terests, as well as to those of the county, and 
manifesting his zeal by encouraging all enter- 
prises looking to the development and im- 
provement of the common country and to 
his own county. He built the first house 
within the present limits of the city, and 
prior to the laying out of the place. It stood 
on what is now Springfield street, one block 
east of the public square, and was a frame 
building a Story and a half high. He was not 
only the first settler of the town of Virginia, 
but was also the first merchant, and opened 
the first store in the place in 1836, having for 
a clerk at the time Charles Oliver, afterward 
a prominent merchant himself. The first 
sale made from Dr. Hall's store was by Mr. 
Oliver, and consisted of three pairs of shoes 
for the family of Wm. S. Berry, and the pur- 
chase of which was made by his son, Keiling 
Berry, still a well known citizen of Virginia. 

An addition of public grounds was made 
V'y Dr. Hall, surveyed by Wm. Holmes, coun- 

ty surveyor, on the 21st of June, 1838. Vir- 
ginia had then become the county seat, and 
Mr. Holmes drove down a stake in the cen- 
ter of the public square, as the spot whereon 
the court house should be built. The addi- 
tion comprised fifteen acres, donated by Dr. 
Hall, and deeded to the commissioners of 
Cass County for public buildings. A court 
house was erected on the square, and after 
the county seat was moved liack to Beards- 
town, the house and grounds were sold to the 
town for school purposes, and with the house 
rebuilt, are still so used. Originally the bus- 
iness section was in the western part of town, 
and there still remains many traces of the 
old business houses around the square, now 
the school grounds, as the laying out of a 
square and the erection of a court house drew 
the business around it. 

Hall & Thomas made an addition to Vir- 
ginia, May 15, 1839; surveyed and platted 
by John Clark, county surveyor. The same 
parties made another addition June 13, 
1856; it was surveyed by John Craig, and ac- 
knowledge before Henry Rabourn, a jus- 
tice of the peace. Robert Hall has made 
several additions; one surveyed by John 
Craig, June 26, 1856, and another platted 
by the same surveyor August 29, 1859, 
and acknowledged before Squire Henry 
Rabourn. Barton & Wood made an addition 
June 21, 1856; surveyed by R. C. Cruiupton. 
H. H. Hall, Jr., made an addition Marcii 5, 
1SG6, which was surveyed by J. T. Dunbar, 
county surveyor. Several other additions have 
been made by different parties, until at the 
present day, Virginia covers enough ground 
for a city of ten thousand inhabitants. 

When the court house was built in the 
square now occupied as the city school, the 
business was drawn around it as it is now 
around the present square, and as we have 
said, some of the old business houses are still 
standing, and there are traces of others. No 




y ,>^^^|'^' 




one with an eye for the glorious and beauti- 
f il can see any improvement made, either in 
location or beauty, by the removal from the 
" West End Square " to the present business 
location. Hall's, we have seen, was the first 
store opened. Charles Oliver was a clerk in 
Hall's store, but in a year or two went into 
business on his own account. He kept the 
second store in Virginia, and remained a mer- 
chant of the place for many years. His store 
was on the southwest corner of the old square, 
south of Beardstown street, while N. B. 
Thompson — probably the next merchant- 
had his store on the same corner, but north 
of Beardstown street. Portions of these old 
buildings are still standing, but with changes 
are now dwellings, or parts of dwelling-houses. 
Dr. Hathaway opened a drug-store on the 
northwest corner of the old square, the first 
one in Virginia. Other branches of business 
were established, and other stores were open- 
ed. The house, or the brick part of it, where 
Harry Thompson now lives, was a store-house 
with a hall in the second story, that used to 
witness strange events during the late un- 
pleasantness. The old-fashioned brick, a little 
iurther east from Thompson's, and on the 
same side of the street, was also a store-house. 
Thus, a quarter of a century ago, was a busy 
town, where now are but a few private resi- 
dences around a beautiful square, in which 
stands a rather dilapidated looking temple of 

Charles Oliver, the second merchant, sprang 
from a family of merchants. His father was 
a heavy importer, and two uncles — brothers 
of his father — were wholesale merchants of 
Philadelphia, while four of his sons were 
merchants. One of these sons — William A., 
opened the first store on the south side of the 
present public square, in the Mead building, 
now occupied by J. O. Hammer as a saloon. 
Hu had entered Dr. Hathaway's drug store, 
aiiil after bocominsf familiar with the business. 

not having means to go into the drug busi- 
ness, his father divided his own stock of goods 
with him, giving him some five or six hun- 
dred dollars worth of goods out of his store, 
which he opened out, as we have said, on the 
south side of the present square. Influences 
wore at work then, which eventually resulted 
in the removal of the business to its present 
location, affording at least one instance of the 
star of empire moving eastward instead of 

Jake Dunnaway, who was a mail contractor, 
had purchased the stage-stand in Virginia, 
which was then kept in what is now the Virginia 
house, or a part of it, and this was one of the 
influences in moving the business in this di- 
rection. The proposed Illinois river railroad 
was another. These, together with other in- 
ducements, which finally culminated when 
the county-seat was moved to Beardstown, 
accomplished the change. N. B. Thompson, 
whose store we have mentioned as standing 
on the southwest corner of the old square, 
and a man of keen penetration in business 
affairs, saw the tendency of the town to move 
eastward, and built a store house on the south 
side of the present square. He did not occupy 
it, however, but rented it to other parties, 
and continued at his old stand sometime 
longer. Finally he moved his store house, 
now a part of the city hotel, from the old 
square, to the site of the hotel on the north 
side of the present square, and opened his 
store in it, though there was no other house 
then in the vicinity. But, he said, his trade 
would follow him wherever he went, an asser- 
tion that proved true, as he was one of the 
successful merchants of the town for many 
years. Milton Trotter built the first brick 
store house on the present square, which is 
known on the plats as " Washington B^ount- 
ain Square." It comprises two stores below 
and Trotter's hall above. After this time 
business built up rapidly in the new locality. 



and business hovises were erected, until the 
present state of improvement was reached. 
The war between the east and west ends, 
which was carried on with considerable ardor 
at times, after the removal of the county-seat 
back to Beardstown, in 1845, gradually sub- 
sided, and the east end became the establish- 
ed scene of business and trade. 

Mr. Hall, besides building the first store 
house and residence, built also tlie first tavern 
in the town, which was first kept by Powell 
& Beadles. With many changes and im- 
provements, xnoilernizations, etc., until but 
little of the original building is left, it is now 
the Virginia House, and is kept at present by 
J. B. Craft. It, and the City Hotel, kept by 
the jolly and genial John Gore, are the hotels 
of the town. 

A post-office was established at Virginia, 
and L. F. Sanders was appointed postmaster. 
It was a primitive affair, with its one and two 
mails a week, presenting quite a contrast to 
Mr. Wilson's well-arranged and lucrative 

The first steam mill within the corporate 
limits of Virginia was built by N. B. Burs. 
It was a modern two-run mill, and did good 
•work until 1852-3, when it was burned. The 
city was without a mill then until the present 
one was built by Armstrong & Beasley, some 
twenty years ago. It became the property 
of Jacob Dunnaway, who sold it to Mr. Cos- 
gro, the present owner, in 1871. He re- 
modeled and improved it in every respect, 
and made it thoroughly a first-class mill. 
Originally it had but one run of buhrs, but Mr. 
Cosgro has added two more, and all the latest 
improved machinery, purifiers, Moline clean- 
ing machinery, etc. He makes the patent 
process flour as well as straight grade flour, 
and turns out at the rate of forty barrels every 
twelve hours. The production of his mill is 
consumed mostly at homo, though he ships 
considerably at certain seasons of the year. 

and grinds winter wheat altogether. Mr. 
Cosgro learned the milling business in New 
York State, at Albany, Oswego, etc., and 
came West in 1860, stopping at Peoria, where 
he was engaged in the Fort Clark and City 
Mills, coming to this city in 1871, as stated 

There is an inevitable meanness in every 
grand event, and homeliness of detail in each 
heroic life, which time does not wholly erase. 
We go a thousand miles away to get the 
mountain's height, and we are, it may be, too 
near the men and things of which we write. 
It is difficult to compose a history of the city 
on ])erspective, and, like a Chinese draughts- 
man, leave the background and shadow out. 
Any one can be wise for yesterday, for he has 
results to jjuide his iudofinent. But Viririn- 
la's yesterday is long gone by, and her history 
has lost much of the morning freshness. The 
incidents of its first years, however, are as 
freely canvassed as those of the present. Each 
feeling and prejudice has been nursed to 
keep it warm. 

Dr. Hall was the first physician. Although 
he had graduated from the best schools and 
colleges of Europe, and had served in the 
British navy, he never practiced his profes- 
sion after settling here, except in case of ex- 
treme emergency, but devoted himself to 
other business interests. Dr. M. H. L. 
Schooley was the next physician, and com- 
menced practice about 1836. He was the first 
who opened a doctor's office, as Dr. Hall did 
not practice. He graduated at Philade'phia 
Medical College, and continuei] in practice in 
A^irginia until 1867, when he removed to Cass 
County, INIo., where later he died. Dr. Lord 
came about 1846, and practiced some three 
j-ears in partnership with Schooley. Dr. Tate 
came in 1841. He was a graduate of the 
Medical College of Ohio (Cincinnati), in the 
class of 1840. Dr. Hathaway came in 1844, and 
k'^pt the first drug .store opened in the town; 



Dr. Snyder came in 1863. The last named 
has a fine museum which he values very 
highly, and indeed, there are very few such 
private collections to be found in the country. 
At the present time there are six practicing 
physicians in Virginia, viz.: Drs. Tate, Good- 
speed, Snyder, Hubbard, Colladay, and Smith. 

" When lawyers take what they would give; 
When doctors give what they would take ; 
Till then let Cummmings blaze away. 

And Miller's saints blow up ihc globe; 
But when you see that hap ly day, 
Then order your ascension robe." 

The first lawyer was ilr. Friend, who open- 
ed an office here in 183B. He was licensed 
to practice, and was a very successful lawyer. 
R. S. Thomas, probably the next lawyer, 
fame in 1839, and was a brother to Judge 
Jesse B. Thomas, one of the early United 
States senators from Illinois. R. S. Thomas 
was a man of considerable energy. He 
was president of the old Illinois River Rail- 
road Co.; was elected to the legislature in 
1847, and for a time was editor of a Whig 
paper, the Cass County Times. He remained 
in Virginia until 1865, when he removed to 
Chicago, where he died about 1869. Mark 
W. Delaha was another of the early la'.\yers, 
and located in Virginia in 1844. He was a 
man of ability, a fine orator, and a most radi- 
cal Whig, and edited, for a while, the first 
paper established in Virginia, The Chrofiicle, 
an ultra Whig paper. Lee Carpenter, .1. N. 
Gridley and R. W. Mills came in at a later 
date. The bar of Virginia comprises now some 
nine members, as follows: J. N. Gridley, R. 
W. Mills, A. A. Leeper, G. L. Warlow, Henry 
Philips, George Martin, W. H. Thacker, C. 
M. Tinney and Charles Martin. 

The banking business is represented in 
Virginia by three banks, firmly established, 
and comprising considerable capital. 

The Farmers National Bank, of Virginia, 

was organized in 1865, with the following 
officers: S. S. Vance, president; H. H. Hall, 
vice-president, and John H. Wood, cashier; 
the first board of directors were S. S. Vance, H. 
H. Hall, I. M. Stribling, William Stevenson, 
John A. Ptitofish, N. B. Thompson and A. G. 
Angier. The capital was originally $50,000, 
and the circulation $15,000, but in 1869 the 
capital was increased to $150,000, and the 
circulation to $14-5,000. In 1876, Mr. Wool 
resigned his position as cashier, and organized 
the Centennial National Bank, and Mr. J. T. 
Robertson was appointed cashier in his stead, 
which position he now holds. 

July 16,1867, H. H. Hall was elected presi- 
dent, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the re- 
signation of Mr. Vance, which position he 
held for two years. A. G. Angler succeeded 
Mr. Hall; John A. Petefish and John Robert- 
son held the position of president one year 
each, succeeding Angler. Then George Gat- 
ton for one year, x\iigier again for one year, 
then Gatton for three years. In January, 
1874, Xjeorge Virgin was elected president, 
and has continued in the position to the pre- 
sent time. The present board of directors 
are: George Virgin, William Stevenson, Z. 
W. Gatton, Robert Taylor, J. G. Rexrout, 
John Robertson and J. T. Robertson. Z. W. 
Gatton, an old resident of the count}', has been 
connected with the bank almost from the time 
of its organization to date, as a director or 

The bank building which this bank now 
owns, is as good a banking-room as may be 
found in Central Illinois. A pleasing feature 
of the institution is the kind and courteous 
book-keeper, Miss Virgin, whose pleasant face 
is always to be seen above the book-keeper's 

Petensh, Skiles & Co., is one of the leading 
banking houses in Caes County, and was or- 
ganized as a private bank in 187 , by Samuel 
H. Petefish, Ignatius Skiles and Jacob Epler. 



It commenced business under rather unfavor- 
able circumstances at that time, having to 
contend with old established banks in adjoin- 
ing towns, as well as with a local bank. The 
office was placed in charge of Mr. Richard 
Elliott, as cashier, who continued with the firm 
for two years. At the end of the first year, 
Mr. Epler retired, ami the business was con- 
tinued for some eight months, when Mr. 
George Virgin was admitted as a partner. 
In September, .8 2, the management of the 
business was transferred to Mr. E. T. Oliver, 
who was also ailuiitted as a member of the 
firm, and who has continued to act as cashier 
up to the present time. The copartnership 
continued until April, 187j, when Ignatius 
Skiles, one of the leading members of the 
firm died, leaving interest in the business 
which was continued by his administrator un- 
til September, 1875, when Oswell Skiles was 
admitted as a member of the firm to take his 
brother's place. In March, 1876, Mr. George 
Virgin retired, and Messrs. William Campbell 
and George Crum became members of the 
firm — it being composed of Samuel H. Pete- 
fish, Oiwell Skiles, E Iward T. .Oliver, Will- 
iam Cainpljell and Gjorge Crum, who have 
composed the firm from tlie latter date up to 
the present time. Although numerous changes 
of personal members, the firm name has re- 
mained the same from the first, and it has be- 
come as thoroughly known and establishde in 
the county as any public institution. 

The bank has had a varied career in point 
of business ; it has gone through panics, de- 
pressed and prosperous times, and through all 
has maintained its high standard of credit and 
fair dealing, at all times paying particular at- 
tention to the development of the local indus- 
tries and enterprises, as well as aiding its 
customers to successfully manage their private 
business. While not being organized as a 
corporation, it has always been rated as high 
in credit and business ability as any of the 

leading baidiS in Central Illinois, and at all 
times employing sufficient capital to supply 
the legitimate demands of business men who 
are dealing with it. The private means of 
the members of the firm are stated at over 
three hundred thousand dollars, composed of 
personal property, moneys and credits, and 
unencumbered real estate, of the latter of 
which tlu'v own near five thousand acres of 
the best improved lands in the county, and all 
of which represents their credit in the bank- 
ino- business, as they are individually liable 
for all the business transacted at the bank- 
counter. This fact alone has added largely 
to their long list of customers, as they well 
know no financial crisis can alfect their 
interests when so thoroughly protected by 
private wealth. 

In February, 188 L, the firm bought out the 
banking house and business of Messrs. H. T. 
Chandler & Co., of Chandlerville, and re- 
ceived as a local member of the firm at that 
place, Mr. W. K. Mertz, who had been in the 
office for some nine years, an 1 opened the 
doors of the new firm of Petefish, Skiles & 
Mertz, February 1, 1881. Having placed the 
business upon a firm financial basis, and prac- 
tic:tlly ch.mgod the workings of the former 
office, the public soon appreciated the efi"orts 
the new firm were making to furnish them 
first-class banking fauili ies, and the rapid 
increase of business has attested the value of 
their regard. The business is under the im- 
mediate management of Mr. Mertz, but the 
general direction is from the head firm at 
Virginia, whose large acquaintance and busi- 
ness experience enable them to furnish all ac- 
commodations needed, and to supply all de- 
mands in a proper manner. 

For some time it had been apparent to the 
home office that a bank was needed at Ash- 
land, and acting upon their own judgment 
in the matter, in addition to urgent requests 
from the business men of that placj and vi- 



cinity, they, in September, 1881, estaMished 
a private bank in that town, under the firm 
name of Skiles, Rearick & Co., being com- 
posed of the present firm at Virginia, and re- 
ceiving as an additional member, Mr. Walter S. 
Rearick, of Beardstown, who for some eight 
years had been connected with the Cass 
County bank at that place. Being successful 
in securing the services of a practical business 
man, the office was, upon September 5,188 1 , op- 
ened to the public; not having time to provide 
a suitable office for transacting their business, 
the firm for three months occupied the rear 
part of a drug store in the place, during 
which time the builders were rapidly at work 
erecting a neat office building, which was oc- 
cupied by the firm about the 5th of Decem- 
ber. The immense corn business at that 
point, and the mercantile trade growing out 
of it, demanded good banking facilities, and 
the satisfaction of the customers of the bank 
shows it has been render^'d equal to all 
demands. Like the Chandlerville office, the 
immediate management of the business 
is conducted by the local member, Mr. Rea- 
rick; but the control and direction of it pro- 
ceeds from the home office, and the firm feel 
very well pleased with the present business 
now in their hands at that place, and only hope 
their efforts to accommodate their present line 
of customers may be the means of enlarging 
their list of patrons. 

Such is a short synopsis of the business of 
this firm, which has grown from a small be- 
ginning to be the most extensive in Cass 
County, and equal to the largest in other im- 
portant counties. Its business interests di- 
versifies into all the different neighborhoods 
in the county, and its credit is now as well- 
known abroad as it is at home. With ample 
means and unlimited credit, it is so situated as 
to thoroughly put through any business en- 
terprise it may undertake, and the business 
ability of the individual memljcrs of the firm. 

gives increased confidence to its patrons. To 
Mr. Samuel H. Petefish, the only living mem- 
ber of the original firm, is due in a great part 
the present prosperity of the business, and 
who at all times has the interest of the county 
as his objective point. Being the prime 
mover in the organization of the bank, he 
naturally feels very proud of its present pro- 
portions, and at is all times ready to advance 
the interests of its customers. 

Each member of the firm feels the respon- 
sibility resting upon him, in having the sur- 
plus wealth of so many of the citizens of the 
county deposited with them for safe keeping, 
and to keep their honor and credit untar- 
nished, and attend properly and in a business 
manner to the demands of their patrons, is 
their chief aim in the management of the 

The Centennial National Bank was incor 
porated April 11, 1876, with the following 
officers and directors, viz: A. G. Angler. 
John A. Petefish, Daniel Biddlecome, T. J. 
Crura, J. H. Bates, A. Struble, Robt. Hall, W. 
L. Black and Thomas Dunnaway. John A. 
Petefish was elected president, and John H. 
Wood, cashier. The original stockholders 
were, John Fielding, D. R. Downing, W. M. 
Gorellery, Thos. Dunnaway, Daniel Biddle- 
come, Wm. Lindsey, John A. Petefish, A. G. 
Angler, Cyrus Cruin, G. W. Goodspeed, .lohn 
Epler, A. G. Epler, Wm. Epier, John A. 
Jones, N. W. Spillman, Geo. A, Woodworth, 
P. M. Petefish, J. F. Black, Joseph Wilson, 
James Thompson, T.J. Crura, J. W. Savage, 
W. L. Black, Geo. A. Beard, J. H. Bates, 
Henry Quigg, Amos Cox, Robert Hall, A. 
Struble, John Edwards, J. H. Tureman, R. 
W. Mills, Mrs. M. S. Caldwell, A. C. An-ier, 
Jno. H. Melone, Mary E. Henderson, John D. 
McHenry, E. A. Gridley, T. J. Nesbitt and 
A. S. Montgomery. A portion of the above 
names are not on the rolls now, and in addi- 
tion to those given, are the following, who 


have since come in: Maria Cunningliam, B. 
Fielding, Martha B. C. Downing, Henry 
Philips, Mrs. E. J. H. Tomlin, Thos. Mead, A. 
Petefish and G. W. Crum. The capital stock 
was $60,000 until 1877, when it was reduced 
to $50,000, with a circulation of $45,000. The 
bonds were bought when they were high, and 
depreciated to such an extent, that they ab- 
sorbed the earnings of the bank up to 1879, 
when the first dividend was declared, which 
was ten per cent. An annual dividend has 
been declared every year since of eight per 
cent. During the past four years the business 
of the bank has more than doubled. 

John A. Petefish continued as president 
until his death. May 24, 1880, when A. G. 
Angier became president, a position he still 
holds. T. J. Crum is vice-president at pre- 
sent. John H. Wood continued cashier until 
June 15, 1878, when he resigned, and the pre- 
sent incumbent, Mr. James B. Black, took his 

We have noted the beginning of business 
in Virginia, and traced it from an insignificant 
village store to the present large and increas- 
ing business and trade. 

The town boasts no manufacturing enter- 
prises, to speak of, unless it be the tile fac- 
tory, now in the course of construction, and 
which will be, when completed, a good thing 
for the city, as it will be the begiiming of 
manufacturing industries. It is manufactur- 
ing that makes a town, and the discovery re- 
cently of a fine vein of potter's clay in the 
vicinity of Virginia, ought to lead to the 
erection of works for the making of stoneware 
at no distant day. 

The business of Virginia is strictly retail, 
and considering the competition it has in the 
neighboring towns, and the close proximity 
of Springfield, Jacksonville, and even St. 
Louis, it is large. The class of business 
houses are good for a town of this size, and 
are a credit to the business men ; banking 

facilities are excellent, many of the residences 
are handsome, and the churches are spacious 
and commodious. 

An item of interest that should not be 
overlooked, is the set of abstract books of J. 
N. Gridley. He has devoted much time, and 
expended about $10,000 in money, to the 
compiling of one of the finest and most 
complete set of Abstract books in the State 
of Illinois. They contain a correct copy of 
the entire records of Cass County, showing 
all the titles and all transactions affecting the 
titles of any and all real estate in the county, 
together with plats of all the towns, cities 
and villages, certificates of organization of 
all societies and incorporations, which exist or 
have existed, and much other valuable infor- 
mation. The entire set of records are sup- 
plemented with an official certificate, by the 
proper officer over the county seal, vouching 
for their correctness. It is not an easy mat- 
ter to estimate the value of this set of re- 
cords, particularly if the original records of 
this county ever be destroyed. The records 
were made almost entirely by Miss Mary E. 
Hill, one of the most efficient pen women and 
thorough book-keepers in Virginia. As a 
work of art alone, they are worthy of perusal. 

The Virginia Building and Savings Asso- 
ciation was chartered by the Legislature in 
1876, with a capital of $500,000. The object 
of the association is to purchase and build 
city residences, thus aiding specially the 
working classes. The first officers were: 
James Thompson, President; John McHenry, 
Vice President; M. Graves, Treasurer, and 
R. W. Rabourn, Secretary. Directors: Jo- 
seph F. Black, P. H. Bailey, Robert Hall, M. 
Graves, and E. T. Oliver. It has already 
built about forty residences, and loaned out 
some $40,000. The association is composed 
of about one hundred of the best citizens of 

Virginia was incorporated as a village, 



Ausrust 19, 1857. The first board of trustees 
was as follows: Alexander Sample, Stephen 
P. Gvviiin, S. W. Neely, .L E. Haskell, and .1. 
B. Thompson. The first officers were: C. H. 
Oliver, President; John W. Nay lor, Town 
Clerk; L. S. Allard, Treasurer; James H. 
Harris, Town Constable, and John A. Giles, 
Street Commissioner. The town remained 
under this style of government until 1872, 
when on the 22d of August, of that year, it 
was incorporated as a city, and the first set of 
officers elected, were as follows, viz.: J. A. 
Petefish, Mayo-; E. M. Dale, Clerk; J. N. 
Wilson, Treasurer; R. W. Mills, Attorney, 
and Messrs. E. T. Oliver, A. E. Wyatt, John 
Rodgers, .Joseph Wilson, and Morrison Graves, 
Councilmen. Since then the following gen- 
tlemen have served as Mayor of the city, viz: 
J. A. Petefish (two terms), 1872-3; Dr. G. W. 
GoodsjDeed, 187-4; D. N. Walker, 1875; W. 
W. Easley, 1876; P. H. Bailey (two terms), 
1877-8; John A. Petefish, until his death, 
which occurred in May, 1880; and J. T. Rob- 
inson was elected to fill out the unexpired 
term, until April, 1881; P. H. Bailey, 1881, 
and served until he moved away, when A. G. 
Epler was elected, and is (1882) the present 
incumbent. Other officers are R. W. Ra- 
bourn. Clerk; J. B. Craft, Treasurer; R. W. 
Mills, Attorney, and Marlin Cosgro and Reu- 
ben Lancaster, Councilmen from the First 
Ward; George E. Harris and Dr.- D. G. Smith, 
Councilmen from the Second Ward; W. W. 
Bishop and Oswell Skilos, Councilmen from 
the Third Ward, and Daniel Murray, City 

The last premium list (1882) of the Cass 
County Fair Association, issued from the of- 
fice of the Virginia Enquirer, contains an 
historical sketch of the county, and of the 
city of Virginia, from which we make a brief 
extract, in conclusion of this chapter. It is 
a kind of peroration of the writer's article on 
Virginia, and shows the business and import- 

ance of the city at the present time. It is as 

"Forty-six years laden with sorrows and 
joys, bright anticipations and vanquished 
hopes, have added both age and dignity to 
our little town since it was first laid out. 
Many of the old citizens who were wont to 
dream pleasant dreams over what the town 
would some day be, are quietly sleeping their 
last sleep. The boys and girls of those early 
times are boys and girls no longer. They 
have taken the places of men and women in 
the ranks, and are earnestly endeavoring to do 
the work laid out for them. The reflections, 
however, of what they were in their youthful 
days, can be seen in the many bright and 
happy faces of the scholars who attend the 
public schools. During all these years, Vir- 
ginia hassteadily gained in financial strength, 
and it is to-day not only one of the solidest 
but one of the most beautiful little towns in 
Central Illinois. Nature has freely laid her 
golden off 'rings at our feet, but only those 
found on th surface have as yet been utilized. 
Some day in the future, perhaps, we may 
muster sufficient courage to investigate the 
mysteries beneath our feet, and when the light 
of day is once permitted to shine upon them, 
a transformation of our little town will take 
place, equally as amazing as those accom- 
plished by Alladin and his wonderful lamp. 

"The business enterprises of the little city 
now include nine grocery stores, eiglit dry 
goods stores, three drug stores, two hotels, 
five churches, two millinery stores, four black- 
smith shops, two merchant tailoring establish- 
ments, one first-class clothing house, two bar- 
ber shops, two livery stables, one flour mill, 
one brick yard, three boot and shoe shops, 
five saloons, one dairy, two hardware stores, 
two stove and tinware establishments, two 
wagon manufactories, one meat market, three 
banks, one bakery, two restaurants, two har- 
ness shops, two furniture stores, two under- 



takers, one lumber yard, two agricultural 
implement dealers, three grain dealers, one 
photograph gallery, three sewing machine 
agencies, two title abstract offices, nine law- 

yers, six physicians, two jewelry establish- 
ments, one book store, two dentists, three 
painters, three contractors and builders, one 
marble shop, and two printing offices. 





IN the preceding chapter we have seen how 
Virginia grew and developed into a pros- 
perous town, and then into a lively little city, 
governed by city rules, laws and regulations, 
and with a rapidly increasing population is 
quietly gliding on in the full tide of "success- 
ful experiment." Her growth and develop- 
ment, unlike many towns and cities of the 
West, have been rather slow, but all the 
more sure for being slow, and it requires no 
prophet to foresee her prosperous future, if 
her business men keep their eyes open and 
continue to do their whole duty. " A city 
that is set on a hill cannot be hid," and one 
that contains a plentiful stock of business 
energy cannot fail to prosper. 

The railroads have added very materially 
to the growth and prosperity of Virginia, as 
they must do to every community through 
which they pass. A brief sketch of the roads 
passing through the city will not be out of 
place in this connection. 

The Illinois River Railroad was agitated as 
eady as 1850, but it was some years later 
before the project assumed a tangible form. 
In 1853, Gen. Ruggles of Mason County, was 
elected to the State Senate, from the district 
comprising the counties of Sangamon, Men- 
ard and Mason, and at the first session in 
1853, he preferred and secured the enact- 
ment of the charter under which the road was 
built. Under this charter Gen. Ruggles went 
to work and procured subscriptions amount- 
ing to over $100,000, and organized a com- 

pany. At the first election. Judge William 
Thomas, of Morgan County, R. S. Thomas, 
of Cass County, J. M. Ruggles and Francis 
Low, of Mason County, and Joshua Wag- 
gonseller, of Tazewell County, were elected 
Directors; R. S. Thomas was elected Presi- 
dent; M. H. L. Schooley was elected Secreta- 
ry; and Thomas Plasters, Treasurer. With 
some slight changes this directory continued 
until the road changed its name and owner- 
ship. Of this directory, the Havana Herald, 
of Sept. 11, 1857, said: "The election of direct- 
ors of the Illinois River Railroad took place 
at Chandlerville, on Saturday of last week. 
A large number of persons were present 
on the occasion, and an amount of stock was 
represented equal to $350,000. Considerable 
interest was manifested among those present, 
in regard to who should be elected to the 
directory, and as to how they should be ap- 
pointed. But after the manifestation of con- 
siderable feeling in regard thereto, matters 
were finally arranged, as we presume, to the 
entire satisfaction of all parties, and directors 
were elected. The selection of a more effi- 
cient Board of Directors could not have been 
made. They are the very best men to be 
found along the line of the road, and their 
selection will meet the approbation of a large 
majority of the citizens of the different coun- 
ties through which the road will pass, and 
give renewed confidence to the friends of 
this great improvement." 

The counties and principal towns through 


which the road was surveyed, subscribed 
liberally toward building it. Morgan County 
voted $50,000 stock; Cass, $100,000; Mason, 
$100,000— $.50,000 at two different times; Ha- 
vana, the county-seat of Mason, voted $15,000; 
Bath, in Mason County, $10,000, while other 
cities did well in the same substantial manner. 
W. G. Wheaton of Peoria, was the first en- 
gineer employed, but soon developed a dis- 
position to locate depots and speculate in 
town lots, which led to a disruption with the 
directory, and finally resulted in his discharge 
from the employment of the company, and the 
salection of another engineer. 

The contract was let in May, 1857, for grad- 
ing, bridging and furnishing cross-ties be- 
tween Pekin and Jacksonville, a distance of 
about seventy miles. Allen and McGrady, of 
Indiana, became the contractors, and the work 
began at Bath in September, 1857, and was 
pushed forward rapidly until completed from 
Pekin to Virginia, which was accomplished 
in 1859. The section from Pekin to Peoria 
was finished in 1864, and from Virginia to 
Jacksonville in 1869; thus completing an un- 
broken line from Peoria to Jacksonville. For 
a local road it has always done a heavy busi- 
ness. During the late civil war, the road 
changed hands, by reason of a foreclosure of 
first mortgage, and the name was changed to 
that of Peoria, Pekin and Jacksonville Rail- 
road, and for years, was operated for that com- 
pany, by John Allen and J. P. Kelsey, who 
gave very general satisfaction in their man- 
agement. In 1878, the road went into the 
hands of a receiver, Mr. John Allen, and some- 
time after, the controlling interest passed to 
the Wabash Railway, since which time it has 
remained a feeder to that great system. 

It is a matter of wonder to all strangers 
who visit Virginia, and a source of consider- 
able profanity to the majority of commercial 
travelers, that the depot of this road, was lo- 
cated almost as near to Springfield as it is to 

Virginia, and " thereby hangs a tale." One, 
however, which we shall not attempt to "un- 
fold," further than that its being partly at 
least, caused by the war then existing between 
the east and west ends of the city, by little 
under-currents of feeling, local prejudices, and, 
in fact, wheels within wheels, which together, 
resulted in the road being located beyond the 
eastern limits of the city. It is of considerable 
inconvenience to the citizens of the town and 
to visitors, and the project now agitated to 
some extent, of building a union depot, would 
be hailed by all with unbounded pleasure. 
However, what is a loss to the citizens and 
traveling public is a gain to others — the bus 

The Springfield division of the Ohio & Mis- 
sissippi Railroad crosses the Peoria, Pekin & 
.lacksonville road at this place. It was char- 
tered as the Springfield & Illinois Southeast- 
ern, and was built through this section in 1871- 
72. Cass County manifested her interest in the 
enterprise by voting $50,000 stock, for which 
bonds were issued of $1,000 each. Twelve of 
these bonds have been paid. The road be- 
came involved, and after the usual amount of 
wire-pulling it was sold, and purchased by the 
Ohio & Mississippi Railroad, March 1, 1875, 
since which time, it has been known as the 
" Springfield Division of the Ohio & Mississip- 
pi." While it is not kept in the best condition, 
yet it has been of great advantage to Virginia 
in giving her a more direct outlet to Eastern 
markets, and connections at Springfield with 
several first-class roads. These two roads 
have made Virginia what she is, and afford 
her ample means of transportation and travel. 

The Press. — No art save that of printing 
can reproduce the original emanations of 
genius in unlimited number, and as long as 
time shall last. Statues, monuments, paint- 
ings, molder and fade, and with them the 
names of those they were intended to me- 
morialize; but the volume of to-day may be re- 



printed ten thousand years hence, if the 
world shall endure so long, anJ the last copy 
will be, for all practical purposes, as available 
as the first. In this age of refinement and 
civilization, of education and letters; an age 
in which a Henry Clay rises from the humble 
"Mill-boy of the Slashes" to the greatest 
statesman the world ever saw, and an Abra- 
ham Lincoln steps up by regular gradation 
from a gawky rail-splitter to President of the 
United States; in this age of advancement we 
say, a town of any importance at all, without 
a newsj)aper, would indeed be phenomenal. 
It is to be regretted, however, that many sec- 
tions of the country pay so little attention to 
their newspapers, and contribute so little to 
their support. Said Daniel Webster: " I care 
not how unpretending a newspaper may be 
every issue contains something that is worth 
the subscription price." In Ohio it is a State 
law that every newspaper published in the 
county, shall be kept on file in the office of 
the County Auditor, and at the end of each 
year be bound in volumes at the public ex- 
pense. This is a good move, and should be 
followed in the other States. There is no other 
way so correct of preserving the country's 
history as through the medium of the press. 
The very advertisements eventually become 
historical facts, and sometimes of the greatest 
value. The press of to-day, it can not be dis- 
puted, is the ruling element, not only in the 
jx)litical, but in the social world. 

The newspaper history of Virginia dates 
back to 184:7, when the Chronicle was estab- 
lished. It was an ultra Whig paper, and was 
originally started by a Mr. Tilden, an own 
cousin, it is said, of the Sage of Gramercy 
Park, Samuel J. Tilden, of New York. Mark 
W. Dellaha became the editor and proprie- 
tor, and conducted the paper until 1852, when 
he sold out to parties who removed the paper 
from the town. Mr. Dellaha was a lawyer 
of considerable prominence and ability, and 

a fine orator. After selling out the Chronicle 
he removed to Kansas, in 1853, and estab- 
lished the first paper at Leavenworth, pub- 
lished in the State. Subsequently he became 
Judge of the United States District Court of 

The Cass Coxmtu Times was the next paper 
established in Virginia, and sprang into exist- 
ence about the year 1855, through the energy 
and enterprise of Richard S. Thomas, one of 
the most pushing, and live, wide-awake busi- 
ness men in the town. Mr. Thomas conducted 
the Times as a neutral paper until the cam- 
paign of 18G0,when it raised the standard of the 
Republican party, as led by Abraham Lincoln 
in the contest for the presidency. Thomas 
disposed of the editorial management of the 
Tirnes to Prof. McDowell, by whom it was 
operated until the close of the year ISGO, or 
beginning of 18G1, when it was sold to Mr. 
Naylor, and the office removed to Pekin, a 
move which resulted in establishing the Taze- 
well Republican. 

During the hotly contested and exciting 
campaign of 18G0, a company was formed 
which started the Cass County Union, a 
Douglas paper, edited by Lafayette Briggs, 
who published it until the fall of 18G4. It 
had become the property of Jacob Dunnaway, 
who sold it to a gentleman, and it was moved 
to Beardstown, but was shortly after again re- 
moved, and this time to El Paso. Virginia 
was now without a paper, and remained so un- 
til 1867, when a Republican paper was estab- 
lished by John S. Harper and N. S. Pur- 
viance. It was shortly after purchased by L. 
S. AUard, who changed it, or commenced the 
publication of the Cass County Courier. 
While these changes were taking place, the 
Democrats again established a county organ, 
with a Mr. Friend as editor; it finally fell in- 
to the hands of J. J. Bunce, who published 
for a time the Je.ffersonian; but later moved 
the office to Chandlerville. The Courier 



published by L. S. Allard, until in February, 
18 2, when he leased the office to his son, H. 
C. Allard and W. M. Summers, by whom 
the name of the paper was changed to the 
Gazette, and operated by the firm about one 
year. Mr. Allard then retired and Mr. Sum- 
mers became editor and proprietor of the pa- 
per. The Gazette under the management of 
Mr. Summers, at once took rank with the 
best conducted newspapers of the State, be- 
ing bold and fearless in its advocacy of what 
its editor deemed right and just. Every issue 
of the paper was eagerly read by an increas- 
ing list of subscribers, and while many may not 
have agreed with the editor in his policy, or 
endorsed his methods of treatingmen and 
measures, all admitted his earnestness, and ad- 
mired the bold and manly course he pursued 
in treating of local issues andcounty affairs. 

In the memorable contest over the removal 
of the county seat, the Gazette was a staunch 
and able advocate of the Virginia interest, and 
in the county elections pending the contest, 
to his efforts, more than to any other one man, 
may be ascribed the successful issue of the 
" People's movement," which placed in most 
of the county offices men who were pronounced 
for Virginia. To say that Mr. Summers was 
without enemies would be to assert that which 
is not borne out by the facts. A man of so 
pronounced a character, so bold in speech, so 
strong a hater, and so earnest a friend, must 
needs have enemies, and they lost no oppor- 
tunity to heap abuse upon him. Through all 
the Gazette continued to prosper, and became 
widely known as a fearless, able and out- 
spoken paper. In February, 1876, Mr. Sum- 
mers's health failed. He had suffered the 
previous year with disease of the lungs, and 
was unable at all times to attend to the duties 
of his office. After vainly seeking health in 
the cooling breezes of the north, he was com- 
pelled to retire from the Gazette, which was 
j)urchased by Messrs. Brownlee & Allard, who 

assumed charge February 25, 1876. Mr. 
Summers died in Petersburg, III., in Novem- 
ber following. 

Mr. Allard, of the firm of Brownlee & Allard, 
was, together with Mr. Summers, a founder 
of the Gazette. Mr. Allard retired in Sep- 
tember, 1876, and Mr. Brownlee continued 
alone until August 17, 1877, when T. L. Mat- 
thews and W. H. Thacker became proprietors. 
Mr. Matthews bought out Thacker, January 18, 
1878, and January 3, 1879, H. C. Allard again 
became interested in the paper. During the 
campaign of 1880, C. M. Tinney, the present 
editor, had editorial control, while Mr. Allard 
was in Fort Smith, Ark., conducting the Neio 
Era, owned by Hon. V. Dell, then United 
States Marshal of the Western District of Ar- 
kansas. April 29, 1881, Mr. Tinney bought the 
Gazette, and assumed full control of it, which 
position he has ever since maintained. Under 
his management, the Gazette has lost nothing 
of its former high standing as an able and 
influential newspaper, but continues to im- 
prove in character and excellence. It ranks 
among the very best papers in Central and 
Southern Illinois, and is the leading Repub- 
lican paper in this section. Mr. Tinney is 
an able and efficient writer, and a live, and 
wide-awake newspaper man, deserving of 
liberal support from the town and county. 

The Virginia Enquirer is a weekly paper, 
published in Virginia. It is the official orgai: 
of the Democratic party in Cass County, and 
an able and earnest exponent of the principles 
of the Jacksonian Democracy. 

The Enquirer was started by John S. Harper 
and J. J. Bunce, in the spring of 1874, and 
the first number was issued about the first of 
August in that year. After an existence of 
about two months, Mr. Bunce sold his half 
interest to J. H. Remtsen. A few weeks later 
Mr. Remtsen disposed of his interest to John 
S. Harper. After running the paper seven or 
eight months, Mr. Harper sold the establish- 



nient to a Democratic Stock Company, and 
the management of the paper was entrusted 
io C. A. Ciandall and Thomas Thompson. In 
the winter of 1876, the Stock Company dis- 
posed of the property to William T. Dowdall, 
of the Peoria Democrat. In March, IS? 7, 
John Frank, the present proprietor, purchased 
the paper from Mr. Dowdall, and issued his 
first number on the nineteenth of that month. 
Mr. Frank gave the paper a new dress, put in 
new job material, and otherwise increased the 
facilities of the office. As time rolled on, the 
business grew and prospered, and he was com- 
pelled from time to time to enlarge the paper. 
The subscription-list is, at this time, five times 
as large as it was when Mr. Frank took pos- 
session. The paper is a large seven column 
quarto, whose advertising columns are crowded 
with advertisements from the best houses in 
central Illinois. It is a live local sheet, and 
ranks among the sterling Democratic papers 
of the State. Mr. Frank has labored hard to 
bring it up to its preser.t standard, and the 
success that has attended his efforts, is no 
more than he deserves. 

The people of Virginia and the surround- 
ing community, have two as able local 
newspapers in the Enquirer and Gazette as 
are to be found in any c. unty in the State. 
They should feel proud of their city press, 
and support it as it deserves to be supported. 

Court Houses. — Virginia has twice been 
the seat of justice of Cass County. The 
county was organized in 1837, and Bjardstown 
was made the seat of justice, but, as we learn 
from Judge Shaw's Centennial address, failed 
to comply with the act of the legislature re- 
quiring the sum of ten thousand dollars to 
be paid in to the county treasury for the erec- 
tion of public buildings, and the County 
Commissioners, under a provision of the act, 
locat.'d the county seat at Virginia. The fol- 
lowing act was passed by the legislature and 
approved M.irch 2, 1S3'J: 

Be it enacted by the People of the State of 
Illinois, represented in the General Assembly, 
That the county seat of Cass County shall bd 
and remain at Virginia, and the courts of said 
county shall hereafter be held at that place; 
and the several county officers who are required 
to keep their offices at the county seat, are re. 
quired to remove their respective offices, and all 
bonds, documents, books and papers pertain- 
ing to the same to Virginia on or before the 
first day of May next, and thereafter hold and 
keep their offices at that place, etc., etc., etc. 

Thus the county seat was moved to Vir- 
ginia in an early period of the county's exist- 
ence, and also in an early period of the exist- 
ence of Virginia, which had been laid but a 
year or two before. Fifteen acres of land were 
donated by Dr. Hall, the proprietor of Vir- 
ginia, for the purpose of erecting public build- 
inrrs. A public square had been laid out, be- 
ing that in th.i west end of the town, upon 
which the public school building now stands. 
Upon this square a court house was erected at 
a cost of near ^-^jOOO. It was a two-story 
brick, and served as a temple of justice until 
the county seat was moved back to Bjards- 
town in 1843—14. The vote was taken in 
September of 1843, resulting in the '■'■perma- 
nent location of the county seat at B^irds- 
town," but which proved to be otherwise than 
" permanent." It was not, however, until 
the famous election in 1872, that the ques- 
tion of the county seat was settled, perhaps, 
forever, by again moving it, or re-locating it 
at Virginia. There is little fear of its ever 
being moved back to Beardstown, and, in- 
deeil, looking at the matter from a disinter- 
ested standpoint, we can really see no reason 
why it should not rem lin where It now is. It 
is near the geographical centre of the countv, 
has two railroads crossing almost at riglit 
angles, an excellent court house and jail, all 
of which considered, will no doubt conspire tj 
keep it at Virginia henceforth. 



• The present court house is a modern brick 
structure, erected on the new public square 
of Virginia, " Washington Fountain Square," 
in anticipation of the removal of the county 
seat back here. It cost about $35,000, and 
was built by the business men and citizens of 
the town, and presented to the county for a 
court house. The removal of the county 
seat was, in a manner, caused by this liber- 
ality of the citizens, as its removal involved 
the county in no expense. The court house 
is a substantial and elegant building, con- 
taining the county offices, court room, jury 
rooms, etc., and stands in the center of a 
beautifully shaded square. But few counties 
in the State have a better court house for the 
money it cost, than the one that now decks 
the public square of Virginia. 

The jail building was erected in Virginia 
in 1876, and is a substantial building, costing 
about $15,000. It is a safe depository for 
criminals and evil- doer.-, and is finished off in 
the strongest manner possible. To it is at- 
tached a sheriff or jailer's residence, which 
is quite a comely building. The prison part 
of the building is of stone, containing eight 
cells ; the sheriff's residence is of brick, with 
stone trimmings, which sets it off in handsome 

Virginia has never been troubled very se- 
riously with fires. It is an axiom of military 
law, that " in time of peace prepare for war," 
and no one can say just when some raischiev- 
ious cow will take it into her head to kick 
over a coal-oil lamp. There are many wooden 
buildings in town that would burn like — , 
well, just like houses. For instance, if a fire 
was to break out some day — windy day or 
night, on the east side of the square, and get 

five minutes the start, it would take some- 
thing more than the little machine pointed 
out to us the other day as Virginia's fire ap- 
paratus, and which might be taken, at acaus- 
ual glance, for a wheelbarrow or a delivery 
hand cart, to extinguish it. A few public 
wells or cisterns, and a good fire engine, may 
sometime save the town from a destructive 

It has ever been a custom of mankind to 
care for the dead. Loving hands lay them 
away to their last rest, with faces looking up- 
ward and eastward; because, from the ele- 
vated Orient, the Archangel will come to 
summon them to judgment. In an early 
period of Virginia's history, a cemetery was 
laid out west of the town, upon land donated 
by Dr. Hall; this was used until the laying 
out of the present cemetery, when most of 
the bodies were taken up and moved to the 
new burial grounds. Walnut Ridge, the 
present city cemetery, was surveyed and laid 
out July b, 1873, and the plat made by J. S. 
Lynch, county surveyor. The cemetery was 
established under an act of the legislature, 
authorizing cities and towns to buy, hold and 
improve cemeteries as public property, under 
restrictions adopted by city councils. Thus 
Walnut Ridge Cemetery was purchased and 
improved. It is a beautiful location for a 
burying ground, and with plenty of time 
and money spent upon its improvement, it 
can be made a place of surpassing loveliness. 
Already there are many beautiful lots laid 
out with taste, and ornamented with flowers 
and shrubbery, while neat stones and monu- 
niLMits, rising here and there, symbolize the 
affection of surviving friends for their loved 
and lost ones. 









CHRISTIAN truth is the superstructure on 
which every society which approximates 
perfection, must rest. Said an old minister of 
the (xospel : " It used to make my heart sick 
in the early years of my ministry to dismiss 
members of my charge to churches in distant 
regions, and have brothers and sisters and 
neighbors leave us for the new settlement in 
the opening Territories. But as I have 
grown older and followed these emigrants to 
their new homes, and have found them far 
more useful in church and State than they 
ever could have been in the regions they have 
left behind, where others held the places of 
influence — as I have seen them giving a 
healthy and vigorous tone to society, while 
the separation causes a pang of sorrow, the 
good accomplished more than compensates 
for the pleasure lost." It was to such emi- 
grants as those mentioned in the foregoing 
extract, that Illinois is indebted, for the 
Christian civilization she to-day enjoys. The 
good seed brought hither by these humble 
pioneers, have produced an hundred fold. 

The first Church Society formed in Virginia 
was by the Protestant Metho.lists. They 
built a church edifice upon the site of Traph- 
agan's horse barn, in the rear of Mrs. Free- 
man's. It was a frame structure about 30x50 
feet, and without any of the modern improve- 
ments. . The Protestant Methodist organiza- 
tion his been extinct in Virginia for a num- 
ber of years. 

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church was 
the ne.xt organized in Virginia. It was form- 
ed of meml)ers principally from Shiloh church, 
by Rev. Thomas Campbell, February 26, 
1842. Among the original members were: 
William Naylor, BMijamin Bjasley, William 
Shilly, Harvey O'Neil, William Blair, David 
Blair, Daniel Cornell, Louise O'Neil, Susan 
Beasley, Melville Blair, Mary A. Cornell, 
Margiiret Weaver, Mary A. Lindsley, Mary 
Lorance, and Elizabeth Biddlecome. The 
first elders were William Naylor, Benjamin 
Beasley, and William Shilly. Their first 
place of worship was the old court house, 
which stood where the public school building 
now stands. In 184:3, they built a frame 
church on Job street, opposite Dr. Tates, 
which would seat about 250 persons. The 
new church, which stands in the eastern part 
of the city, was built in the summer of 1879, 
by J. F. Black, and cost about $4,600. It is 
a handsome brick edifice of modern architec- 
ture, and will seat some fifteen hundred peo- 
ple. Rev. J. E. Roach is the present pastor, 
and the membership is perhaps fifty. A Sun- 
day school of some fifty or sixty children is 
maintained, under the superintendence of 
Mr. S. A. Gould. 

The Church of Christ, of Virginia, was re- 
organized in 1875 (of its previous history we 
were unable to learn anything definite), by 
electing C. W. Elder and .1. E. Turner as 
church elders, and C. W. Black and J. B. 



Black, deacons. These officers resigned in 
1877, and C. W. Elder, J. F. Black, and 
F. A. Wade were elected elders; C. W. Black, 
I). D. Wilson, J. B. Black and T.J. Kemper, 
deacons. M. Graves, Joseph F. Black, T. J. 
Kemper and J. E. Turner were elected trus- 
tees, John Wear holding over, making five 
trustees. The church began holding Sunday 
meetings in 1873, without electing officers, 
elder C. W. Elder preaching occasionally un- 
til the organization was perfected. He was 
then employed by the -church, and preached 
until 1878, when elder J. L. Richardson was 
employed, remaining two years, when he re- 
signed, and accepted a call to Europe. He 
preached there one year, and then returned 
and resumed his charge here in 1881, and is 
now pastor of the church. During the time 
Eider Richardson was in Europe, Elder 
James McGuire was engaged as pastor. Up 
to the fall of. 1879, services were held in the 
old church building in the west end of the 
town. The house was then torn down, 
the material removed, and a new church 
erected (in 1879) on the corner of Cass and 
Beardstown streets, at a cost of about $4,000, 
including furniture. It was dedicated by Ei- 
der B. J. Radford, president of Eureka Col- 
lege, in Woodford County. J. F. Black was 
architect and builder of the new church edi- 
fice, and displayed much taste in the design. 
The church now has 143 members. 

The Sunday school was organized contempo- 
raneously with the re-orgauization of the 
church, and has continued ever since. The 
present superintendent is Charles Martin; Dr. 
D. G. Smith, assistant, with an average at- 
tendance of about 85 children. 

The Ladies' Christian Missionary Society 
of this church, was organized November 7, 
1880, with eleven members, of whom Mrs. J. 
A. McGuire was elected President; Mrs. James 
Black, Vice-president; Mrs. Mattie Rummel, 
Secretary, and Mrs. A. A. Leeper, Treasurer. 

The contributions of the society for the first 
year, were twenty-three dollars. Its present 
officers are Mrs. Charles Black, President; 
Mrs. James Black, Vice-president, and the 
Secretary and Treasurer as above given. The 
society is growing in strength and increasing 
in usefulness. Its contributions will probably 
reach near thirty dollars the present year. 

The Catholics have had a partial organiza- 
tion in Virsrinia since about 1840. For a 
number of years mass was said in the houses 
of catholic families, until something like or- 
ganization was effected, when they used as a 
church an old building which stood on the 
south side of the square, in the west end, and 
in which the present St. Luke's Catholic church 
was fully organized. The present handsome 
church was commenced in 1880, and is about 
40x90 feet. When finished, its cost will be 
near 810,000, and it is by far the most elegant 
church edifice in the city. The painting and 
frescoing is just finished, and reflects great 
credit on Messrs. Peters & Son, the firm who 
did it. Rev. Father Michael Ryan has been 
pastor of St. Luke's church since 1876. About 
45 families compose the present m mibership 
of the church, and a Sunday school of about 
50 children is regularly maintained. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church ol Virginia 
was organized about 1 836, as a pai t of the 
Petersburg circuit, under the Presiding Elder- 
ship of Rev. Peter Cartwright. Among the 
first members were Rev. Levi Springer, a local 
preacher, and his wife, P. S. Ough en and 
wife, M. H. Baadles, G. W. Harris, ! nd his 
wife and daughters, and others not now re- 
membered. Rev. Enoch Faulkner was one 
of the first pastors, and when this church was 
a part of a circuit, large in extent. For some 
time the society held its meetings in t. e old 
Protestant Methodist Church, already fre- 
quently alluded to in these pages, and after- 
ward the court house in the West End was 
used as a place of meeting. The pr. sent 


U .^^ci:^ 






IVaino church, standing on Springfield street, 
west of tiie court house — was erected in 1856, 
at a cost of about $2,500. The membership 
is now 120, and is under the pastorate of Rev. 
Mr. Auer. The Sunday school has a regular 
attendance of about 100 children; Mr. Henry 
lierry is the superintendent, and devotes con- 
siderable attention to its interests, and the 
moral improvement of its members. 

The Presbyterian Church of Virginia. — 
The following sketch was furnished by Rev. 
J. P. Dawson, the pastor : Although the 
present house of worship was erected in 
1857, and was occupied as a Dreaching sta- 
tion, by stated supplies, there was no regular 
Presbyterian organization until the year 1803. 

On the 12th day of June, 1863, the follow- 
ing petition was sent to the Presbytery of San- 
gamon. ^'' Dear Brethren: — We, your petition- 
ers, members of Providence Church, and 
others, respectfully ask you to organize us in- 
to a separate church, to be called the 'Presby- 
terian Church of Virginia, Illinois,' under your 
care and supervision, if in your judgment 
the same should be for the interest of Christ's 
cause." (Signed) G. W. Goodspeed, Sarah 
vV. Goodspeed, Alice H. Goodspeed, I. N. 
White, George Wilson, Jane B. Wilson, Be- 
linda M. Wilson, John N. Wilson, R. M. Wil- 
son, Wlliam C. Wilson, Rev. J. Dale, N. S. 
Dale, Eliza J. Dale, G. Clendenin, Helen Clen- 
denin, Mary H. Stowe, Mary McCawly, 
Mary E. Haynes, Eliza C. Heslep, D. R. 
Downing, Mary Downing, N. H. Downing, 
A. G. Angier, Eliza A. Angier, Robert Barr, 
Jane Barr, Hattie Angier, Grace Suffren, 
Mildred Berry, .lohn .1. Bergen, S. S. Bergen, 
James McAllister, William McAllister, Eliza 
McAllister, Charles Sloan, and Mary A. Sloan. 

In compliance with this petition, the Rev. 
J. G. Bergen, D. D., as commissioner of San- 
gamon Presbytery, preached at Virginia, on 
the 4th day of July, 1803, and afterward pro- 
ceeded to organize the " Presbyterian Church 

of Virginia." George Wilson, Dr. G. W. 
Goodspeed and David R. Downing, were 
elected and installed as elders, and Glasgow 
Clendenin, J. N. Wilson, J. J. Bergen and 
A. G. Angier, were ordained deacons. 

The organization of the church was largely 
due to the efforts of Rev. .lohn Dale, who as 
stated supply of Providence Presbyterian 
Church, had preached at this point for several 
years. After the organization the church em- 
ployed Rev. George K. Scott as stated supply, 
who labored acceptably for nearly two years. 
After he was called to another field, a young 
licentiate named David J. Strain, labored here 
until April, 1805. The people were well 
pleased, and through the Presbytery extended 
to him a regular call to become their pastor, 
which call was accepted, and on the 20th of 
June, 1805, the Presbytery of Sangamon met 
in Virginia, and ordained Mr. Strain to the 
gospel ministry, and installed him as pastor of 
this church. The blessing of God followed, 
and he remained the faithful and efficient 
shepherd of this flock for more than fourteen 
years. But on account of failing health he 
was led to resign the charge, and the pastoral 
relation was dissolved in July, 1880. In Oc- 
tober of the same year the church, employed 
Rev. J. P. Dawson as stated supply, and at 
the end of the year extended to him a regular 
call, which was by him accepted, and he was 
duly installed as pastor of the church by a 
commission of Springfield Presl)ytery, on the 
23d day of October, ] 881, and he is now (1882) 
the pastor of the church. 

The church is united and prosperous ; has 
a comfortable house of worship and parsonage; 
has about 120 members, and a Sabbath school 
of about 100 members. 

Educational. — Through the medium of the 
common schools are the rising generation of 
all nationalities assimilated readily and thor- 
oughly, forming the great American people. 
The common shools are alike open to the rich 



and the poor, the citizen and the stranger. It 
is the duty of those to whom the administra- 
tion of the schools is confided, to discharge 
it with magnanimous liberality and Christian 
kindness. Diligent care should be taken by 
instructors, to impress upon the minds of 
children and youth committed to their care, 
the principles of morality and justice, and a sa- 
cred regard for truth, love of their country, 
humanity and universal benevolence, sobriety, 
industry and frugality, chastity, moderation 
and temperance, and all other virtues which 
ornament society. 

The early residents of Virginia were alive 
to the value of education, and opened schools 
as soon as they could support tiiem. The 
first school of which we have any reliable ac- 
count, was taught in the second story or attic 
of the old Protestant Methodist church, al- 
ready described. It had been fitted up for a 
school room, by lathing and plastering to the 
rafters, making a room about l-txoO feet, and 
in this unique building the youth of the early 
town learned the first rudiments of an educa- 
tion. The first teachers were Miss x\nn Jour- 
dan, a Protestant Methodist preacher, a Miss 
Williams, Mrs. Blackman Ross, now of Jack- 
sonville, Miss Mary Ann Lindsley, now Mrs. 
John Ruckley, of Philadelphia, and others 
whose names are forgotten. The first school- 
building owned by the city was the old court 
house, which was purchased by the county for 
school purposes after the county seat had been 
moved back to Beardstown, and was occupied 
as such about 1846. It was used until 1867, 
when it was torn down and re-built, and has 
since served the city, until the purchase of 
the old Cumberland Presbyterian College 
building, now used by the city for a high- 
school department, and which will be again 
referred to further on. The city schools are 
in a flourishing condition, and compare favor- 
ably with any other town in this section of 
the State of a like popidation. 

The High School was organized by Prof. 
Loomis, the present principal of the city 
schools, though he has not been principal 
ever since. Several who have filled the posi- 
tion have become somewhat distinguished 
men. Prof. J. A. Johnson, one of these ex- 
principals, is now a practicing lawyer at Oak- 
land, Oregon. Another, Prof. R. H. B !ggs, 
is the present Superintendent of the schools 
at Denver, Colorado. We are unable, how- 
ever, to sketch each and every one of them, 
and tell whether they rank as great or small, 
among the men of the time. 

The teachers for the ensuing year are as 
follows, viz.: Prof. John Loomis, Principal ; 
Miss Lucy B. Duer, Assistant Principal ; 
Miss Rachel Berry, teacher 6 th, grade ; Geo. 
J. Kelley, 5th grade ; Miss Monie Tate, 4th 
grade ; Miss Belle Rodgers, 3rd grade ; Miss 
Mary Billings, 2nd grade ; Miss Mary E. 
Wright, 1st grade ; attendance about 350 
pujiils. Springer School, Edward Missie, 
teacher ; about 15 in attendance. 

Union College. — The history of this insti- 
tution is brief, and its career was shcjrt and 
unprofitable as a school. When tJie Sanga- 
mon Presbytery of the Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church, concluded to build a 
Seminary, three difl'eriuit p'aces were des- 
ignated as the point where the school should 
be located, and the choice was to fall to the 
most liberal bidder. In other words, the 
town, which would extend the most liberal 
contribution toward building the Seminary, 
was to become the place of its location. This 
led to the erection of three buildings at as 
many different points, viz.: at Virginia, Cass 
County ; at Mt. Zion, Macon County, and at 
Lincoln, Logan County. The school at Mt. 
Zion died an early but natural death, soon 
passing out of existence. 

The school, in the meantime, which had 
been established at Virginia, was changed 
into the Union College, but never prospered 



to any extent. It became involved in debt 
and was finally sold to the city of Virgii'.ia, 
and is now known as the City High School 
Building. The school at Lincoln flourished 
in proportion to the decline of the others. It 
became a college, then a university, and is 
now known as Lincoln University. The 
Virginia school was run under denomina- 
tional rule from its commencement, about 
1865. It was sold to the city about 1870, for 
$7,500, and the proceeds used to strengthen 
the Lincoln school, which is still owned by 
the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 

War History. — In a work of this kind, it is 
not intended to write a history of the late 
civil war, but to allude very briefly to the 
part Virginia took in the matter. A war of 
any sort, from a " war of words" to bloody 
battles between contending armies, is but a 
sickly detail of horrors, and a civil war is the 
most deplorable of all. It would be well if 
we could drop a veil over our late war be- 
tween the States, and blot out the remem- 
brance of it forever. It is a species of history 
better forgotten than perpetuated. 

The Nineteenth Illinois Infantry was the 
first regiment that drew anything like a com- 
pany from Virginia and vicinity. Company 
F was from this place, and was officered as 
follows; Luther S. Allard, Captain; K. H. 
Chandler, First Lieutenant; and James G. 
Campbell, Second Lieutenant. Captain Al- 
lard resigned December 1, 18G1, and Lieu- 
tenant Chandler was promoted to Captain, 
and afterward killed in buttle, when Lieu- 
tenant Campbell became Captain, who re- 
mained as such until the expiration of the 
regiment's term of service. Upon the pro- 
motion of Lieutenant Campbell, Samuel L. 
Himilton was promoted to Second Lieuten- 
ant, and then to First Lieutenant, and mus- 
tered out with the regiment. John Hill was 
promoted Second Lieutenant, January 2, 
1863, and resigned (says the Adjutant-gen- 

eral's Report), " for the good of the service." 
The same authority makes the same report of 
Silas W. Kent, who was promoted Second 
Lieutenant on the 3rd of June, 1803. 

Of the service of the Nineteenth, the Ad- 
jutant-gonerars report gives no record, fur- 
ther, than that it was mustered out of the 
service at the close of its three years term of 

The Thirty-third Illinois Infantry was the 
ne.xt regiment in which Virginia was repre- 
sented. In the Thirty-third almost an entire 
company was enlisted from Virginia and the 
immediate vicinity. Company K was the 
Virginia company, and Charles E. Lippincott 
was its Captain. None of the other commis- 
sioned officers, however, were from Cass 
County, except Second Lieutenant William 
H. Weaver, who was from Beardstown. 
Lieutenant Weaver resigned March 22, 1862, 
came home and raised a company for the 100 
days' service, of which company he was Cap- 
tain. Capt. Lippincott was promoted to 
Lieutenant-colonel, March 1, 1863, and to 
Colonel on the 5th of September following, 
he was mustered out of the service with the 
regiment, and was promoted Brigadier-gen- 
eral for gallant and meritorious services. We 
have not space to give the names of the entire 
company, but from the Adjutant-general's 
report will give a synopsis of the history of 
the Thirty-third, of which Company K formed 
a part. 

The Thirty-third Infantry was organized at 
Camp Butler, Illinois, in September, 1861, and 
mustered into the United States service by 
Capt. T. G. Pitcher, U. S. A. Its first service 
was in Missouri, where it did little but scout 
duty, until March, 1862, when it moved into 
Arkansas, and was engaged in a number of 
skirmishes, and several rather severe battles. 
It remained in Arkansas until in the spring 
of 1863, when it was ordered to St. Genevieve, 
Mo., from whence it embarked for Milliken's 



Bend, La. Attached to the 'I'hirtepiith Army 
Corps, it participated in all its battles — Port 
Gibson, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, 
siege of Vicksburg, siege of Jackson, etc. In 
August it was ordered to New Orleans, where 
it was engaged in several raids and expedi- 
tions, and in November was ordered into 
Texas, where it did considerable manoeuvering, 
if nothing more serious. The regiment re-en- 
listed in the spring of 18G4, and on the 14th 
of March arrived at Blooming ton. 111., where 
they received veteran furlough. It was re- 
organized in April, 18ii4, at Camp Butler, and 
proceeded to New Orleans. It remained in 
Louisiana on guard duty at dilferent points, 
and in March, 1865, was ordered to join the 
Sixteenth Army Corps. On its way the train 
was thrown from the track, and 9 men killed 
and 70 wounded. Company K had fortunately 
remained behind, guarding transportation, 
and escaped the catastrophe. After the cap- 
ture of Mobile the regiment moved to Mont- 
gomery, Ala., where it arrived on the 25th of 
April, and where it received the news of Lee's 
surrender. It was mustered out of the service 
November 34, 1865, at Vicksburg, and was 
sent home to Camp Butler for final dischare, 
after more than four years continual service. 

The One Hundred and Fourteenth Illinois 
Infantry contained two companies from Cass 
County, one from Virginia and one from 
Beardstown; the latter company will be writ- 
ten up in the chapters devoted to Beardstown. 
Company ]). was Irom Virginia, and was or- 
ganized with the following commissioned of- 
ficers: Benj. C. Berry, Captain, Thos. S. 
Berry, First Lieutenant, and David N. Down- 
ing, Second Lieutenant. Capt. Berry resigned 
January 3 ', 1865, and George H. Martin was 
promoted Captain June 26, 1865, but mustered 
out as Sergeant August 3, 1865. Lieutenant 
Thomas S. Berry was honorably discharged 
May 15, 1865, and Henry D. Freeman was 
promoted June 3ti, 18 35, to First I^ieutenant, 

but mustered out as Sergeant with the regi- 
ment. Second Lieutenant Downing died at 
Duckport, La., May 22, 1863. The following 
facts are gleaned from the Adjutant-gen- 
eral's reports of the movements of the regi- 
ment to which this company belonged. 

Tiie One Hundred and Fourteenth was re- 
cruited during the summer of 1862, and mus- 
tered into service on the 18th of Sep- 
tember at Camp Butler, Illinois. The regi- 
ment left for Memphis, Tenn., on the 8th of 
November, arriving on the 26th, and starting 
at once on the Tallahatchie campaign. Early 
in I860 it returned to Memphis. It was or- 
dered to Louisana, and on the 2nd of May 
returned to the rear of Vicksbnrg, and was 
engaged in the battle of Jackson, Miss., 
where it lost five men, killed and wounded, 
and arrived in the rear of Vicksburg on the 
18th, participating in the siege, with a loss of 
twenty in killed and wounded. It did little 
but scout and guard duty until in .lune, 18'i4, 
when it went against Generals Forrest and 
Lee at GunJ;owu, Miss. The battle at this place 
commenced early in the afternoon, and the 
troops, worn down and exhausted by a double 
quick march of three miles, were hurried into 
action, and after fighting five or six hours, 
were repulsed. The 114th reiuained as rear 
guards, and assisted in holding the enemy in 
check during the whole of the first night's 
retreat. Out of the 397 men of the 114 th 
engaged, it lost 205 in killed, wounded and 
missing. Among the wounded was Lieuten- 
ant T. S. Berry, of Company D. 

The regiment, from this time until August, 
was engaged in numerous scouts and expedi- 
tions, and had many skirmishes with detach- 
ments of the enemy, in which it did consider- 
able severe fighting. In August, 1864, it 
was ordered to Duvall's Bluff, Ark. It left 
Brownsville, Ark., in pursuit of Gen. Price, 
and marched to Cape Girardeau, Mo., in sev- 
enteen days on ten days' rations. After long 



and tedious marches, and travel by rail and 
boat, it reached Kansas City, whence it was 
ordered to St. Louis, arriving there Novem- 
ber 15. From St. Louis it was ordered to 
Nashville, Tenn., where it arrived in time to 
take part in the battles of the loth and IGth 
of December. The One Hundred and Four- 
teenth was attached to McMillan's brigade, 
McArthur's division of Gen. A. J. Smith's 
corps, which brigade was especially coinpli- 
niented by Gen. Thomas in his report to the 
War Department. After the surrender of 
Mobile, the regiment marched to Montgom- 
ery, Ala., arriving April 24, 1865, and bridging 
the Alabama river with pontoons, remained 
on duty at the bridge until July 17, when it 
was ordered to Vieksburg, and mustered out 
of service August 3, 18G5. It arrived at 
Camp Butler, Illinois, on the 7th of August, 
and on the 15th was paid off and discharged. 
These regiments are all that contained any- 
thing like an organized body of men from 
Virginia. A number of men from the city 
and vicinity, were scattered through various 
other regiments, but none in organized 
bodies. From the foregoing sketch of the 
33d and the 114th, it will be seen that Vir- 
ginia's gallant sons performed their duty 
nobly, during those four long and dreary 
years, and that some of them came not back 
when the contest ended. From bloody fields 
of war and carnage, they crossed over the 
river to join the grand army on the other side. 
Thev need no mausoleum ! Their fame is a 
part of the nation's history; their epitaph is 
engraved upon the hearts of men. In the 
language of the gallant O'Hara : 

" The muffled drum's sad roll has beat 

The soldier's last tatoo ; 
No more on life's parade shall meet 

The brave and fallen few. 
On Fame's eternal camping-ground, 

Their silent tents are spread ; 
And glory guards with solemn round 

The bivouac of the dead." 

Secret and Benevolent Institutions. — Be- 
nevolent institutions have existed so long, 
that no records tell of their organization, 
and they will, doubtless, continue, "until 
time shall be no more." The history of Free 
Masonry is veiled and clouded by almost un- 
written centuries ; yet amidst the political 
fluctuations of the earth, and the downfall of 
States and Empires, its traditions have been 
borne to us on the current of time, and been 
gathered together by the Masonic student for 
the meditation and instruction of the Craft. 
All who have considered the origin of Free 
Masonry have been convinced that the germ 
from which it sprang was coeval with that 
wonderful command of Jehovah: "Let there 
be light," and from the coincidences found to 
exist between it and the ancient mysteries, 
they were very similar in character. We know 
that the aims of these institutions are good, 
because the results achieved are so grand and 
glorious. We believe that the world is better 
for their existence, secret though they are in 
their workings, and agree not with those who 
believe that everything is evil which is veiled 
in secrecy, and hidden from the eyes of tlie 

Free Masonry is represented in Virginia by 
the Blue Lodge only. The institution, it 
seems, has never flourished very vigorously 
here — the more 's the pity. Like the seed that 
fell in stony ground, it has probably been 
choked by the briars and brambles. Virginia 
Lodge No. 544, was organized under dispen- 
sation, April 2, A. L. 5867, and was chartered 
October 1 following. The charter members 
were G. F. Hellig, W. A. Harding, L. P. K. 
Yaple, Casper Magel, F. Underwood, H. H. 
Hall, James Smith, James M. Rodney, William 
Cox, L. S. Allard, Lee Carpenter and H. Bar- 
den. The first Master was G. F. Hellig ; the 
first Senior Warden, William A. Harding ; 
and the first Junior Warden, L. P. R. Yaple. 
The lodge now has some thirty members, and 



is officered as follows: G. F. Hellig, Wor- 
shipful Master; D. G. Smith, Senior Warden; 
A. A. Leeper, Junior Warden; Thomas Dun- 
naway, Treasurer; T. M. Hubbard, Secretary; 
George Davidson, Senior Deacon ; Parker 
Thompson, Junior Deacon; and Robert Chet- 
tick, Tiler. 

There has never been a Chapter, Council 
nor Commandery of the order in the town, 
and, as we remarked above, the institution, 
from some cause, has never flourished here as 
in the majority of Illinois towns. With the 
amount of first-class material at hand, how- 
ever, the time will come, perhaps, when it 
■will flourish here as it deserves to flourish 

Odd Fellowship, the twin-sister of Free 
Masonry, though comparatively modern in 
organization, possesses the same virtues, and 
exerts the same wide-spread influence for 
good. It is represented in Virginia by Saxon 
Lodge No. 68, which was instituted in Virginia 
by Deputy Grand Master James Leonard, 
March 14, 1850, with P. O. Bryan, N. B. New- 
man, R. S. Lord, I. N. White, Charles Boyd, 
W. H. H. Carpenter, and William Collins 
charter members. The first officers were: 
R. S. Lord, N. G.; W. H. H. Carpenter, V. 
G.; I. N. White, Secretary; and N. B. New- 
man, Treasurer. Charles E. Lippincott (now 
General Lippincott), was the first member 
admitted into the new lodge. He was a mem- 
ber of mini Lodge No. 4, at Jacksonville, 
and as soon as Saxon Lodge was instituted, 
took out his card of withdrawal, presented it 
for admission to this lodge, and was elected a 
member. H. H. Hall, now of Jacksonville, 
was the first initiate, being elected and in- 
itiated at the first meeting. 

The first hall or place of meeting used by 
the lodge, was in a church that stood near 
where Traphagan's livery stable now stands, 
and was burned in 1872. This building was 
used for town hall political meetings, school 

house, and preaching place for all religions 
denominations, and was not the most secret 
and retired room for the meetinsrs of a lodg-e. 
It was used however, for four years, and in 
1854, the lodge moved to the upper room of 
the frame building on the southwest corner of 
the square, now occupied by D. J. McCon- 
nell as a grocerv store. After remaining here 
two years, it was moved to the West End, where 
most of the business of the town was then 
done, and occupied the brick building now 
used by Harry Thompson as a residence. In 
1860, it bought the property now owned by 
J. G. Campbell, and occupied by the Dan 
Leonard saloon, on the west side of the square. 
It used the upper story for a lodge room, and 
rented the lower story until 1864, when, owing 
to the rapid increase of membership, which 
had reached fifty-four, it became necessary to 
again move to larger quarters, and the prop- 
erty was sold to Mr. Campbell, and the lodge 
rented the room over the Farmers' National 
Bank, which gave it very commodious quart- 
ers. With the proceeds of the sale of its old 
building, it bought the lot on the north side 
of the square, on which it afterward built a 
hall. It bought also at the same time the lot 
adjoining it on the east. The lodge remain- 
ed, however, in the room in the bank build- 
ing until 1873, during which time it had ac- 
cumulated something over $1,300. It now 
determined to build on its ovpn lots, and ac- 
cordingly contracted for a brick building 
20x80 feet, two stories high, to cost about 
$5,000, and with its $1,300 issued bonds to 
the amount of $3,700, which were sold, and 
in the fall of the same year the building was 
completed. The lower room was occupied by 
John Rodgers' furniture store, and the upper 
room was occupied jointly by the Odd Fel- 
lows' and Masonic Lodges. The crisis of 
1873-74 caused many of its members to drop 
out of the lodge, and the debt under which 
the lodge was laboring so embarrassed it. 



that in 1881, after struggling long and hard 
against many difficulties, it succeeded in re- 
ducing its debt to $3,600, had $175 in the 
treasury, and but twenty-two members on the 
roll. Under this state of circumstances it 
proposed to the bond-holders to give theia 
the $175, and a deed to the property, to be 
released from all further obligation, which 
was accepted. The lodge then rented the 
upper room for one year, and at the close of 
1881, rented the suit of rooms now occupied 
in the Skiles building, on the southwest cor- 
ner of the square, and moved into them in 
January, 1883. Here it has one of the best 
arranged halls in Central Illinois, and at the 
present time (1883), has a membership of 
over ninety, comprised of the best men in the 

The present officers of Saxon Lodge are as 
follows : Henry H. Berry, N. G., Geo. L. 
Warlow, V. G., Geo. J. Kelly, Recording 
Secretary; George R. Berry, Permanent Secre- 
tary, and MattYaple, Treasurer. 

Advance Encampment No. 139, was insti- 
tuted November 39, 1871, at Paxton, Ford 
County, 111., and the charter members were 
Stacey Daniels, A. F. Blake, Charles Guth- 
man, Dan. Guthman and H. C. Funk. The 
original charter was destroyed and a new one 
issued by T. Warren Floyd, Grand Patriarch, 
October 13, 1874. The Encampment was re- 
moved to Virginia, and re-organized under 
a dispensation June 23, 1880, from W. E. 
Carlin, Grand Patriarch. The first officers at 
Virginia were S. M. Colladay, C. P., F. E. 

Downing, H. P., A. A. Leeper, S. W., S. P. 
Henderson, J. W., C. W. Black, Scribe, and 
J. W. Wilson, Treasurer. The present officers 
are: E. D. C. Woodward, C. P., Jas. A. Mar- 
tin, H. P., H. H. Berry, S. W., S. M. Colladay, 
J. W., J. W. Stanley, Treasurer, and F. E. 
Downing, Scribe. The Encampment has 
now about thirty members, and is in a flour- 
ishing condition. It owns no property, but 
uses the hall in common with the lodffe. 

mini Lodge No. 854, Knights of Honor, 
was organized January 16, 1878, with the 
following charter members: J. B. Black, C 
W. Black, W. W. Bishop, C. A. Bruce, John 
Black, J. T. Black, George Conover, C. A. 
Crandall, F. E. Downing, J. M. Epler, W. W. 
Easley, H. D. Freeman, M. Graves, James 
Hunt, C. M. Hubbard, Reuben Lancaster, 
Wm. Murray, T. L. Matthews, T. A. Morrison, 
E. T. Oliver, W. B. Payne, J. L. Richardson, 
J. W. Rearick, J. W. Savage, C. N. Savage, 
J. H. Tureman, J. W. Virgin, N. S. Vance, 
Jno. H. Wood, W. W. Walker, D. T. Walk- 
er, D. N. Walker and J. B. Vanderventer. 
They have paid out for widows and orphans' 
benefit fund about $3,000, and have lost two 
members. The oflBcers are T. L. Matthews, 
P. D., M. Graves, D., C. W. Black, V. D., 
J. W. Savage, A. D., W. W. Easley, G., J. 
L. Richardson, C, Wm. Murray, R., C. A. 
Bruce, F. R., George Conover, T., W. W. 
Bishop, G., W. W. Walker, Sentinel, J. B. 
Black, J. H. Wood and D. N. Walker, 





THOMAS BEARD and Enoch C. March 
entered the northeast quarter of Section 
15, in Township 18, North of Range 12 West, 
on Sept. 23, 182G, and Oct. 8, 1827; the same 
parties entered the northwest quarter of said 
section. Thomas Beard entered the west 
half of the southwest quarter of the afore- 
said section on Oct. 10, 1827, and March and 
Beard also on the same date entered fraction- 
al section 10 in said Township, embracing ail 
the lands upon which Beardstown is now lo- 
cated, except the southeast quarter of section 
15, and the west half of section 14, which 
two last mentioned tracts were donated by 
Congress, in lieu of the deficiency of section 
16 for school purposes. The School Commis- 
sioner of Morgan county divided this land 
into 173 blocks and fractional blocks, which 
was designated as the School Commissioners' 
addition to Beardstown, and the first sale or 
blocks in said addition was on April 16, 1832, 
when seventy-five blocks were sold therein, 
and the remaining blocks were subject to pri- 
vate entry at affixed prices. 

The original town of Beardstown was laid 
off and platted by Enoch C. March and Thom- 
as Beard, Sept. 9, 1829, and recorded at Jack- 
sonville, Morgan County, in Book B, page 

The town having grown rapidly, an addi- 
tion was made, called " March & Beard's" ad- 
dition to Beardstown, recorded March 6, 1833. 
Soon afterward, Mr. March, having sold his 

* By Judge J. A. Arenz. 

interest in Beardstown to N. A. Ware, an- 
other addition was made by Beard & Ware 
May 10, 1836, and also a further addition was 
made by Beard & Arenz, July 1, 1837. 

There were also additions made to Beards- 
town by John Ayres, David Clendenin, A. B 
Dennison, and many school blocks have been 
subdivided into lots. 

The location of Beardstown is a very favor- 
able one, being situated on the Illinois River, 
about midway between Peoria and St. Louis. 
It is connected directly with St. Louis and 
Chicago, by the Chicago, Burlington and 
Quincy Railroad, and with Springfield and 
Southwestern Illinois to the Ohio River at 
Shawneetown, by the Ohio & Mississippi 
Railway. Another railway from Burlington 
to the Ohio River is contemplated, running 
through Beardstown, which in all probability 
■will soon be built. 

For purposes of manufacturing, Beardstown 
is not surpassed by any town in Illinois, pos- 
sessing all facilities; for there is plenty of 
water at all times, and coal, timber and other 
building materials can be obtained in its im- 
mediate neighborhood. 

The first licensed ferry across the Illinois 
River was granted by the County Commis- 
sioners of Schuyler County, to Thomas Beard 
June 5, 1826. 

The first organization of the town govern- 
ment of Beardstown, was by the election of a 
Board of Trustees in September, 1834. Hay- 
wood Reed was elected President of the 
I Board; John B. Fulks, Clerk; Edward Tull, 



Assessor; Martin S. Trent, Collector; Isaac 
C. Spence, Treasurer; William H. Nelms, 

The first set of ordinances were passed 
Sept. 22, 1834. 

This town government continued from year 
to year, by the election of new oiBcers, until 
Feb. 4, 1850, when a city organization was 

"By an act of the General Assembly of 
March 3, 1837, declaring the County of Cass 
to be one of the counties of the State of Illi- 
nois, Beardstown, the largest town in Cass 
County, and having the most numerous popu- 
lation in said town and immediate vicinity, 
was designated to be the county seat, pro- 
vided the citizens or corporation of Beards- 
town raise the sum of $10,000, to defray the 
expenses of erecting public buildings, and 
that the Corporation of Beardstown shall be 
allowed the period of one, two and three years, 
for the payment of said sura, in three equal 
payments. The court house shall be erected 
on the public square of Beardstown." 

At that time it was not a very easy matter 
to raise $10,000 at short notice, and the 
hand}' mode of running a town in debt by the 
issuing of bonds had not then been discovered. 
There was also a great diversity of opinion 
among the people of Beardstown ; some would 
much rather pay nothing, alleging that the 
county ought to pay for its own buildings; 
others objected to erecting the buildings on 
the public square; and others, although wil- 
ling to furnish their proportion of the funds 
required, were unwilling to foot the bill 

Therefore, in order to raise the amount re- 
(juired upon equal terms, an act of the legis- 
lature was obtained July 21, 1837, authoriz- 
ing the corporation to levy a tax of six per 
cent, per annum on all real estate in Beards- 
town, according to the value thereof, for the 
purpose of raising the sum of $10,000. 

But the County Commissioners, then in 
office, Amos Boiiney, Joshua P. Crow, and 
Geo. F. Miller, were determined to locate the 
county seat at Virginia. 

February 24, 1838, the board of trustees at 
Beardstown appointed a committee to inform 
the County Commissioners that Beardstown 
will comply with the requirements of the law, 
establishing the county seat at Beardstown. 
This committee consisted of Thomas Graham, 
Edward Tull and Thomas R. Saunders, and 
having brought the matter by the County Com- 
missioners, reported to the town trustees that 
they had presented the matter to said County 
Commissioners' Court, while in session, and 
Mr. Bonney, the presiding officer of said court, 
had treated the same with contempt. 

In March, 1838, another eifort was made 
by the board of trustees to satisfy the Com- 
missioners' Court, if possible, by informing 
said court that Ben. H. Gatton had made 
proposals for building the court house and 
other public buildings at Beardstown, to 
which the following answer was returned by 
order of said court: 

"To Thomas Wilbourn, President of the 
" Board of Trustees, Beardstown. 

"I am directed by the County Commis- 
" sioners' Court to inform j'ou that they have 
"considered the propositions submitted to 
" them from B. H. Gatton through your 
" board, and regret that they do not feel 
"themselves authorized by law to acceed to 


" Signed, J. W. Pkatt, Clerk." 

The County Commissioners had entered 
into an agreement with H. H. Hall, a resi- 
dent and large property holder of Virginia, 
on the 21st of April, 1838, for erecting a 
court house and jail, at Virginia; and said 
Hall reported at the September term, 1839, 
that said buildings were completed ; where- 
upon the commissioners accepted the same, 
and notice was given at said Septemijer term, 



1839, to the county officers, that their offices 
were ready for use in the court house at Vir- 

The manner, in -which the county seat of 
Cass was thus located was by no means satis- 
factory to the citizens of Beardstown, and the 
western portion of the county, and it is to be 
regretted, that out of this proceeding, arbi- 
trarily and highhanded, as some called it, 
and a desire that Beardstown again wished 
to obtain, what Virginia then had got, grew 
up that unfriendly feeling between these two 
places, which existed, and still exists, to the 
detriment of both. 

That the county seat has never been any 
material benefit to either place, has been 
demonstrated, for each town has had it long 
enough to prove this. The only benefit in 
reality is the convenience of access to the 
records, offices and courts. The strife for 
county seat, between the two rival places, 
has cost the people immense sums of money, 
caused much hard feeling, and prevented 
or ruined many a useful enterprise. 

The next election about the county seat 
resulted in favor of Beardstown, and at the 
March term of the County Commissioners' 
Court, H. E. Dummer, Esq., on behalf of the 
corporation of Beardstown, presented before 
said court, a deed from Thomas R. Saunders, 
to the County of Cass, for Lot 1, in Block 31, 
in Beardstown ; also a receipt from B. W. 
Schneider, contractor for building the court- 
liouse at Beardstown, and a receipt from 
Thomas Beard, contractor for the erection of 
a jail, and also the certificate of the suffi- 
ciency of said buildings from the Hon. Sam- 
uel D. Lockwood, presiding judge of the 
Cass Circuit Court; all of which papers were 
ordered to be filed. Upon which the Court 
adjourned, to meet at Beardstown, on Mon- 
day, March 3d, 1845. Beardstown remained 
in possession of the county seat until 1875, 
when it was removed to Virginia, after the 

election in 1873 had been contested and car- 
ried tiirough the courts, resulting finallj' in a 
decision that said election had been in favor 
of Virginia by a majority of eight votes. 

Beardstown adopted a city organization on 
February 4, 1850, when the following persons 
had been elected as officers: 

John A. Arenz, mayor ; Eli S. Houghton, 

Aldermen of the 1st ward — Thomas Eyre 
and Jesse Riggins; 2nd ward, James Hope 
and Joseph Stehlin; 3rd ward, George 
Gucnther and Jacob Ritcher. 

S. Emmons was appointed city clerk, and 
T. A. Hoffman, treasurer. 

The present officers in 1883 are: 

J. J . Beatty, mayor. 

Aldermen of the 1st ward — H. C. Meyer 
and S. O. Buck; 2nd ward, B. F. Epler and 
H. B. Wilson; 3rd ward, H. Schmoldt and 
Henry Huge; 4th ward, George F. Frauman 
and H. Schroeder. 

Charles E. Fulks, clerk; Franklin A. Ham- 
mer, treasurer; J. G. Liston, marshal. 

Churches. — The first church was erected 
in 1S41 or 1843, at the corner of Fifth and 
Washington Streets, and designated as, "the 
German Evangelical Church at Beardstown." 
Mr. Beard and wife executed an amended 
deed for the lot of ground, upon which it had 
been built in June, 1842. 

Mr. George Kuhl, Christian Kuhl and Wil- 
liam Hemminghouse, were elected trustees of 
said church, to hold their offices until suc- 
cessors should be elected and qualified. The 
church was open to all denominations, and 
independently of synods, bishops or confer- 
ences. For some years it proved to be a very 
useful institution, filled to its full capacity on 
Sundays for worship, and for school purposes 
on other days of the week. After the expira- 
tion of several years, some of the most ortho- 
dox members came to the conclusion that, in 
addition to services on Sundays, there should 



also be held prayer- meetings and religious 
exercises on certain evenings during the 
other days of the week. In this movement 
Mr. Hemminghouse and Mr. Geo. Kuhl were 
the leaders, and for a considerable time such 
meetings were held in the town school-house, 
or in a building on Main Street, belonging to 
Geo. Kuhl, and resulted finally in the organ- 
ization of the German Methodist Church, 
about the year 1845. 

Although the German Evangelical Church 
continued on for several years, it decreased 
in members, because other religious societies 
had been established, erecting places of wor- 
ship of their own until finally it was dissolved 
as a church organization, and the building 
was sold in 1881, to Mr. H. T. Foster, who 
constructed it into a dwelling house, which 
he now occupies as a family residence. 

The second church in Beardstown was 
erected at the corner of Third and Washing- 
ton Streets, in 1845, as a Presbyterian Church, 
but in February, 1850, the Congregational 
form of government was adopted, and it be- 
came, " the first Congregational Church at 

Horace Billings and Dr. V. A. Turpin were 
the first deacons. Mr. Billings continued to 
hold office until his removal to Jacksonville 
in 1867. The Rev. Socrates Smith was the 
first minister of the church, and Dr. B. F. 
Grey is pastor now. 

The Methodist Church was organized in 
Beardstown at an early day, supposed to be 
in the year 1837 or 1838, and a church was 
built on the corner of Fifth and State Streets 
in 1848, and an addition in 1874. 

Rev. J. K. Miller is the present pastor. In 
the year 1846, the German Methodists erected 
a building for worship on State street, which 
was also used for school purposes. In 1848, 
when William Bauermeister was pastor, a 
dilTerence arose between the members about 
some question of belief, or government, of the 

nature of which we are not informed, and a 
division occurred, Mr. Bauermeister and 
thirty-two members withdrawing from the 
church and forming the Evangelical Lutheran 

In 1851, the German Methodists built their 
church at the corner of Fifth and State 
streets, and the old building was converted 
into a dwelling for the pastor. 

The first pastor of the church was Peter 
Wilkens, and the present one is John Ritter. 

The members who had withdrawn from the 
German Methodist Church with William 
Bauermeister organized as " the First Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church at Beardstown," with 
William Bauermeister as pastor, and in 184S 
erected a building used as church and school- 
house, and shortly afterward erected a church 
at the corner of 4th and Lafayette streets, in 
1850. This church has a fine organ, and is 
well fitted out. Rev. William Bauermeister 
was its pastor from May 22, 1848, until Oc- 
tober, 1850. The present pastor is Rev. John 

The church increased rapidly in members, 
and in 1871, when Rev. Robert Knoll was its 
pastor, dissention arose between the members, 
an'd the result was that the pastor with his 
adherents withdrew, and established another 
Evangelical Lutheran Church on 6th street. 
This later church claims the same name as tho 
former ; the one on 4th street adhered to the 
synod of Illinois, and is now connected 
with the general synod, whilst the church on 
6th street is under the Missouri synod. 

The first pastor of the 6th street church 
was Rev. Robert Knoll, and his successor is 
Paul Merbitz. 

In 1871 the church on 6th street built a 
house, which was used for a place of worship 
and school purposes, and in 1873 erected a 
very neat church at the corner of 6th and 
Jefferson streets. This church contains a fine 
organ, and the windows are of stained glass. 



The erection of this church shows what can 
be acoompHshcd by determined ]3eople. Al- 
though the number of members was small at 
first, they nevertheless put up buildings cost- 
ing over $8,000, without calling for any aid 
outside of its own members. Both the Lu- 
theran Churches are in a very flourishing con- 
dition. The services on Sundays are well 
attended, and each congregation keeps up a 
school, with a teacher. 

The Catholic Church was built in 1855, on 
5th street, and was considerably enlarged in 
1860. Its present pastor is Rev. Father Weig- 

Schools. — The first school-house was built 
by Thomas Beard and F. Arenz, in 1833, 
which was also used as a place of worship oii 

In 1853 a commodious school-house was 
erected on block 36, on 4th street. This 
building and the former court-house are now 
used for public school purposes, but additional 
buildings are much needed. 

The Catholics and two Lutheran Churches 
have also schools of their own. There is also 
outside of Beardstown a school-house near 
Casp. Stock's farm. 

The enumeration of children in township 
18, range 12, of which Beardstown alone 
contains nearly the whole population, in July, 
1882, shows that there are 

Males under 21 years 797 

Females « " 867 

Total, 1,664 
The population of Beardstown is about 
5,000 inhabitants. 

Ifeicsjyapers at Heanlstoten. — The first 
newspaper was established by Francis Arenz, 
and was published in 1833 and 1834; Francis 
Arenz, editor, and J. B. Fulks, publisher. It 
was called The Beardstown Chronicle and 
Illinois Military Bounty Land Advertiser. 
Then for some time there was no newspa- 

per published here, until in 1845; S3'lvester 
Emmons established and published The 
Beardstoicn Gazette, the first number being 
issued in August, 1845. At this time the 
newspapers nearest to this place were publish- 
ed, to wit: one at Jacksonville, two at Spring- 
field, two at Quincy, two at Peoria, and one 
at Burlington, Iowa. In 1846, the Gazette 
published the delinquent tax list for the 
counties of Cass, Mason, Schuyler and Brown, 
it being the only paper located nearest the 
county seat of the respective counties. This 
paper was continued by Mr. Emmons until 
1852, when it was sold to C. D. Dickerson 
who published the paper about eighteen 
months; when it was sold to J. L. Sherman, 
who afterward sold out to B. C. Drake, who 
issued the paper, and for some time also pub- 
lished a daily; then the paper was published 
for a time by a Mr. Mitchell, and afterwards 
passed into the hands of L. U. Reavis. Mr. 
Reavis having published the paper for sever- 
al years, it passed into the hands of a com- 
mittee, composed of members of the Repub- 
lican party, of which J. A, Arenz was the 
chairman. This committee were the owners 
of the paper for several years, and it was 
published by different persons, until in 1867, 
the paper came into the hands of John S. 

From the time of sale by Mr. Emmons, the 
name of the paper was alternately the Gaz- 
ette and Central Illinoisan, which latter 
name it still retains. 

Mr. Nicholson has published the paper reg- 
ularly, and under many trying circumstances, 
to the present day. It was first located in the 
building known as " the Great Western," 
which burned down. Then he moved the 
printing office into the Billing's block, in the 
third story, when in the night of Nov. 26, 
1875, the entire block was consumed by fire, 
which destroyed the press and everything be- 
lonsring to the office. The Illinoisan is now 



]iublished up stairs in the building owned by 
Siieriff Sielschott, on Main street. From its 
long publication, and faithfully and ably advo- 
cating the interest of Beardstown, it deserves 
the patronage of the citizens of Beardstown. 

In 1876 another paper was established, 
called The Cass County Messcmjer, of which 
Mr. George Dann was editor and publislior. 
This paper was purchased by Joseph P. Sailor 
in 1880, who changed its name to Cass 
County Democrat. The paper is published 
on the second floor of the building owned by 
the estate of H. Mohlmann, at the corner of 
Main and Jeiferson streets. Mr. J. P. Sailor 
is its editor, and the paper is well gotten up 
and full of news. 

The German newspaper was first established 
in 1877, by Rev. A. Sehaberhorn, under the 
name of The JBeohachier am Illinois Fluss. 
Mr. Sehaberhorn being the editor and pro- 
prietor until 1878, when it was purchased by 
Mr. Theodore Wilkins, who edited the same 
under the name of The JBeardstoim Wochen- 
blatt, until his death in 1881, when the paper 
was purchased by Ross & Son, who continue 
to edit and publish the same. 

This paper has a very large circulation, and 
is gotten up with considerable ability and in- 
dustry. It is of large size with a supplement 
to each number, and deserves the support 
and patronage it at present enjoys among its 
German readers. 

liaiiroads. — When the era of railroads had 
come, causing a great revolution in business 
matters, benefiting some places, and cutting 
off the trade of towns which were not so for- 
tunate as to obtain a railroad, Beardstown 
was for some years at great disadvantage, and 
desperate efforts were made by its citizens to 
secure railroad facilities. 

Large sums were subscribed by the cor- 
poration, and large amounts were subscribed 
1)V private citizens, and Beardstown has now 
the benefits which arise from two railroads, 

and there is a very fair prospect that there 
will be very soon a third one added. 

The first subscription of the corporation 
was made March 1, 1857, to the Rockford, 
Rock Island & St. Louis Railroad Co., of '1^.50,- 
000, and between Dec. 1, 1857, and Feb. 1, 
1SG9, another subsci'i[)tion of $10,000 was 
made to the same conipaiiy, and on Nov. 1, 
18G0, a fuither subseri()tion was made to the 
same company for §12,000. 

January 1, 1871, there was issued to the 
Pana, Springfield & Northwestern R. R. Co., 
the sum of §8,000, and to the Rockford, Rock 
Island & St. Louis R. R. Co., Aug. 1, 1871, 
the further sum of §1:0,000. 

Bonds were issued for said amounts, run- 
ning twenty years, and bearing interest at the 
rate of six, seven, and ten per cent., respec- 
tively. The whole amount issued is §150,- 
000, of which §125,000 remain unpaid at this 

The Rockford, Rock Island & St. Louis R.R. 
is now in the possession of the C, B. & Q. R. 
R. Co., and the Pana, Springfield & North- 
western is now controlled by the O. & M. R. 
R. Co. The Ro kford. Rock Island & St. 
Louis was completed between 18Gi( and 1871, 
and the Pana, Springfield & Northwestern in 

Lmiyyers and Doctors. — The lawyers of 
Beardstown are: J. Henry Shaw, who is now 
the oldest practicing attorney here; Thomas 
H. Carter; Charles E. Wyman, city attorney; 
R. Hewitt, prosecuting attorney of Cass 
County; B. F. Thacker. 

Doctors of Medicine are: H. H. Litth^fiehl^ 

II. Ehrhardt, B. Halm, George Bley, 

Avery, T. A. Hoffmann, B. F. Grey, Moses 
M. Dowler. 

Dentists. — F. Smith and William Hare. 

Danls. — The Cass County Bank is man- 
aged by F. A. Hammer, president, and Charles 
E. Fulks, cashier; and the People's Bank. 
J. H. Harris, president, and Thomas K. Cou- 



dit, cashier. Both banks do a flourishing 

The American Express Company has an 
office here, which is managed by its efficient 
and popular agent, E. F. Derr. 

Secret Societies. — The Masons, Odd Fel- 
lows, Knights of Honor, Druids, A. O. U. 
Workmen, Mutual Aid, Young Men's Social 
Club, and other societies have lodges here. 

There is also a temperance organization 
with a large membership, who meet once 
every week. 

f Ettsiness Affairs at JBeardstown. — Before 
the railroad era, when the rivers were the 
main channels for carrying merchandise and 
])roduce, Beardstown was in possession of 
the most extensive pork trade of any western 
town, competing even with Cincinnati. 

From 40,000 to 75,000 hogs were slaughter- 
ed annually, between the months of November 
and February. 

Among the firms most largely engaged in 
pork-packing, of which some were large deal- 
ers in grain, were: Houston & Co., Cincin- 
nati, Ohio; Gano, Thoms & Talbot, Col. 
McKee, Wheeling, Va.; Sydam, Sage & Co., 
New York. 

The Beardstown grain dealers were: Nolte 
& McClure, S. M. Tinsley & Co., H. F. Foster, 
Horace Billings, D. Kreigh & Co., John 
McDonald, H. Chadsey & Co. 

There were also many others, pork-packers 
in smaller quantites. 

Among the dealers in grain before the rail- 
road era, were Knapp & Pogue; Basset & 
Taylor; George Kuhl; Chase, Rich & Parker; 
George Volkmar & Co.; E. J. Dutch & Bro. ; 
Thompson & Eatnes; J. W. Thompson & Co.; 
H. F. Foster & Co,> 

The present dealers in grain are: Garm 
Wilson & Co.; George Kuhl; Hagener & Bro 

The business at the present time in Beards- 
town, in full operation, are: three houses deal 
ing in agricultural implements, two banks 

four bakeries, four boot and shoe stores, four 
barber shops, four blacksmith shops, four 
butcher shops, one brick yard, one brewery, 
nine boarding and eating houses, four clothing 
stores, five dry good stores, one distillery, four 
drug stores, one foundrj', two flouring mills, 
two furniture stores, eleven grocery stores, 
eight halls, three hardware stores, three hotels, 
ten large ice houses, four jeweler stores, two 
lumber yards, two livery stables, four milli- 
nery stores, one opera house, two photograph 
galleries, two saw mills, three saddle and har- 
ness shops, one scouring and dying establish- 
ment, three dealers in sewing machines, three 
stores of general merchandise, two tinware 
and stove stores, two undertakers, four watch 
a;id clockmakers, one sash and door factory. 

There are also the shops of the C. B. & Q. 
railroad located here. Two railroad depots, 
one telephone office, having also connection 
with the city of Virginia, 13 miles distant. 

Among the prominent men, now resting 
among the dead, who whilst living her.', 
spent much of their time and means for pro- 
moting the interests of Beardstown, should be 
mentioned: Thomas Beard, Francis Arenz, 
Thomas and John Wilbourn, Thomas Gra- 
ham, Knapp and Pogue, Thomas and Ed- 
ward Saunders, B. W. Schneider, Bassett and 

Some of these honored dead have loft no 
children or near relations living here to fur- 
nish a narrative of their lives, and a short 
sketch is therefore prepared by one who knew 
these men personally. The most of them 
were doing extensive business here at an 
early day in Beardstown. Messrs. Knapp 
and Poo-ue occupied the front rank in busi- 
ness affairs at the time when Beardstown be- 
came a town, and when that firm finally failed 
in business, Mr. Pogue acted as justice of the 
peace, until his death. Mr. Knapp went to 
New Orleans. The firm built several large 
business establishments, among which was 



(hat capacious storehouse called " the Great 
Western," none of which buildings are now 
standing. Messrs. Thomas and John Wil- 
bourn, among other buildings, erected a large 
mill, which afterwards burned down, and 
upon the lot where it stood, Messrs. Baujan 
& Co. erected a few years ago, their new mill. 
Wilbourn built also a store building upon the 
lot upon which the opera house now stands. 
That firm dissolved, and Nolte and McCluie 
purchased their store goods. This latter firm 
moved their store to Main street, where for 
many years they transacted a very large 
amount of business, erected several sulistan- 
tial buildings, and contributed very materially 
to advance the interest of Beardstown. 

Thomas Graham was a native of the city of 
Philadelphia, where his father was a promi- 
nent business man. He came here at an early 
day, and for several years kept store. His 
wife, also a Philadelphia lady, brought with 
her a piano, which was the first and only 
piano for several years in this part of the 
country. After the death of his wife, and re- 
versals in business, he returned to Philadel- 

Messrs. Basset & Taylor came here from 
Springfield and entered into the forwarding 
and commission business, dealing also in 
pork, grain, dry goods, groceries, etc., for 
many years. After the death of Mr. Bassett 
Taylor left here. 

Thomas and Edward Saunders came from 
Philadelphia at an early day. They were en- 
gaged in business here for several years. 
Thomas R. Saunders was Recorder of Cass 
County. He died in Beardstown, leaving a 
widow and several children. Edward Saun- 
ders went to Chicago, where he died some 
years ago. 

B. W. Schneider came to Cass County in 
1834; was engaged in farming near Arenz- 
ville for several years. He then came to 
Beardstown and purchai^ed from F. Aenz 

his store on Main street, which he occupied as 
a liquor dealer and for other purposes. He 
purchased the lot of ground upon which the 
Opera house now stands, and erected a large 
hotel, which was carried on by himself and 
others, called the " Schneider House." He 
erected also other houses, but none of those 
buildings are now existing. He died here, 
leaving a widow and several children, none 
of whom are now living in Beardstown. 

Mr. Thomas Beard was born in Granville, 
Washington County, N. Y., in 1795, from 
whence his father moved to Burton, Geauga 
County, O., in 1800. 

Thomas Beard came to the State of Illinois 
in 1818, and for some time lived about Ed- 
wardsville and Alton, where he formed the 
acquaintance of Enoch March. Then he came 
to Beardstown in 1820, where his immediate 
neighbors, for a considerable time, were In- 
dians and a few white people. He established 
the first ferry across the Illinois river, and 
obtained a license therefor from the County 
Commissioners' Court of Schuyler County, in 
1826. In 1827 he, with Enoch March, a man 
of means, entered the land upon which Beards- 
town is located, and in 1829 the original 
town of Beardstown was laid out, platted and 
recorded; and several additions were made 
t the town afterward. 

Mr. Beard was tveice married. His first 
wife was Sarah Bell, by whom he had three 
children, of which only one is now living, in 
Nebraska. This marriage proved unhappy, 
and after his wife left him, a divoice was ob- 
tained in 1835, Mr. Beard retaining the chil- 
dren. Some years afterward he married a 
widow Dickerman, who had an only son, Wil- 
lard A. Dickerman, who afterward became 
Colonel of the 103d Illinois Regiment, and fell 
in battle near Atlanta, Georgia, in the war 
for suppressing the Rebellion. 

With his second wife, a lady of the mosst 
amiable and excellent character, esteemed by 



every one, he had three children, of whom two 
are now living. Mr. Beard died here in No- 
vember, IS i9. 

Mr. Beard, although he had not the advan- 
tages of a superior education, neve theless 
was a man who had educated himself to such 
degree that he could get along very well in 
ordinary business matters. For industry, lib- 
erality, kindness and honesty, he had no 

The widow of Mr. Board resides now in 
New York city, with her married daughter, a 
Mrs. Doane. 

Mr. Horace Billings was a native of the 
State of Vermont, and came to Boardstown in 
the year 1843. Having been engaged in 
business in New York, Canada, and other 
places, he dashed into business hei-e at once. 
There was nothing salable or purchasable 
in which he did not trade. Trading and 
speculating seemed to be his element. He 
was very quick of perception and in deciding 
the course to pursue, and there was no enter- 
prise in or about Beardstown wherein Mr. 
Billings had not a leadi^^ hand. Sometimes 
he would miss his aim and sustain a loss, 
which, however, he bore like a true philoso- 
pher, neither lamenting nor fretting; but he 
generally succeeded, and his pork and grain 
speculations at times brought him very large 
returns, which he again applied to the exten- 
sion of his business, and new enterprises. No 
one man has done more to build up the town 
and put it on the track to future prosperity 
than Mr. Billings. Among the many build- 
insrs he erected, the Park House is one. Some 
of these buildings are now standing, and some 
were consumed by fire. His energy was also 
directed to discover new channels for employ- 
ment and traffic, and he added much to increase 
the population of Beardstown by inducing 
skillful mechanics and business men to settle 
here. Mr. Billings was a very good citizen, 
strictly temperate in his habits, using neither 

strong drinks nor tobacco. He was a highly 
valued member of the Congregational Church, 
to which he contributed very liberally. 

Mr. Billings married twice. His first wife, 
a very estimable lady, from New York, with 
whom he had two daughters, died here. His 
second wife, a very highly educated and very 
worthy lady, he married here, with whom he 
had one daughter. 

When advanced age prevented Mr. Bill- 
ings from active business engagements, he 
took up his place of residence in Jacksonville, 
in 1867, where he died in 1870. 

Henry E. Dummer came to Beardstown 
about the year 1812, after he had resided in 
Springfield and Jacksonville before, and was 
the first, and for several years the only attor- 
ney-at-law, and his influence and counsel has 
been of very material benefit to the citizens 
of Beardstown. Very amiable and kind in 
disposition, and reliable in his counsel, he 
enjoyed the esteem and respect of all classes. 
Although a man of law, he never encouraged, 
instigated or favored litigation, and always 
advised amicable settlements and comprom- 
ises, if possible; but when a case was carried 
through court he advocated faithfully and 
skillfully the interests of his client. He was 
very moderate in his charges, and felt more 
disposed to render services to his fellow men 
than to make money. In Beardstown he 
married Miss Phebe Van Ness, a very worthy 
young lady, which marriage proved to be a 
very happy event for both. 

Mr. Dummer made himself useful when 
and wherever his fellow citizens desired his 
services. He served in the town and school 
board, as Alderman, City Attorney, Judge of 
Probate, member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention, State Senator, and other offices, all of 
which he filled with honor, and for the best 
interests of the people. He joined the church 
here, and became a sincere, true Christian. 
In 1805 Mr. Dummer removed to Jackson- 






ville, whore he at once ohtainoil a lucrative 
practice until the time of his death, about two 
years ago. He left a widow, two sons, and 
three daughters. As a lawyer he occupied 
the front rank, and as a citizen he had no 
siipc lior. His memory will live in the hearts 
of his many friends until they also moldor in 
their graves. 

War Record. — The following comprises 
the names of the persons, who entered into 
the service of the United States from Beards- 
town and Piecinct, for the suppression of the 
late Rebellion: 

Third Regiment of Illinois Cavalry, Com- 
pany C: Captain, Charles P. Dunbaugh; 
Adjutants, .1. S. Crow and Theodore Lelland; 
Lieutenant, August Tilford; Q. M. Sergeant, 
Burr Sanders; Sergeant, Norman Parsons; 
Corporals, M. Richards, C. E. Burns, James 

Privates: Joseph Anderson, Charles Box- 
nieier, William Boxmeier, Robert Bailey, 
Thomas M. Cuppy, William H. Chamljlin, 
Charles Coleman, Martin Finney, Daniel 
Grant, Adam Gruling, Josiah jMcCandlesS) 
John Minick, William Nicholson, W. H. Per- 
cival, Horatio G. Rew, jr., John G. Reeves, 
George Spicker, H. C. Simpson, George Wag- 
ner, William Wells, Joseph Barwick, John H. 
Beadles, John Hatfield, John Miller, Martin 
Tread way. 

Recruits: Aaron Abney, Henry Coleman, 
George Chamblin, William De Haven, David 
Griffin, William Snow, George W. Snow, John 
R. Stephens, Henry Sturtevant, David A TuU, 
David H. Wells. 

Thirty-second Illino's Regiment, Co. G.: 
First Lieutenant, Charles A. Eames; Sec- 
ond Lieutenant, William Hitchcock, and mu- 
sician, William J. Center. 

Privates: John Beals, promoted to first 
lieutenant Co. E, Sixty-first 111.; Melvin Burk, 
Thomas Barry, Thomas Bird, James Burns, 
Edward Cottrell, David Connell, Thomas Dar- 

kin, Samuel DeHaven, Hugh Donnelly, Ben- 
jamin Eyres, John Fitzpatrick, John Flani- 
gan, Andrew Gemming, Peter Grime, .John 
Haven, .Tames Harrell, William Hugo, Anton 
Hoffman, John B. Looman, William McDow- 
ell, George Swan, Jnhn Triliey, Setli Thom[>- 

Thirty-third Illinois Regiment, Company K. 
Captain, Charles E. Lippincott (promoted 
Colonel); Quarter-master of Regiment, R. B. 

Com]iany Officers: Captain, E. H. Twining; 
1st Leiutenant, J. H. Schuler; 2nd Lieuten- 
ant, W. H. Weaver; 1st Sergeant, H. P. 

Privates: Herman Bohne, George Boem- 
ler, J. H. Betz, Moses M. Dowler,Thoinas Eyre, 
George French, Conrad Hendrickcr, George 
C. Kuhl, George S. Kuhl, John Lauler, R. 
F. Lasley, David Matson, Charles Ojten, 
William Paterson, Louis Benz, Joseph Sis- 

Recruits: Edwin Carman, David J. Curry, 
Thomas Foxvvorthy, Josiah Hawkenberry, 
John Hawkenberry, George Hucke, Samuel 
Lyon, John Orr, Ab. Shoemaker. 

F»)rty-seventh Illinois Regiment, Company 
F. — Privates — A. F. Cottrel, Benjamin Harris, 
Dewitt McCandles, Thomas Paschal, Wood- 
ford Sills. 

One Hundred and Fourteenth Illinois Regi- 
ment. Major, Joseph M. McLane; Second 
Lieutenant, Albert McClure. 

Sergeants: Norman Hitchcock (promoted 
First Lieutenant, Company K. 71 U. S. col- 
ored), Frederick Haid, Joseph Milton Mc- 

Corporals: Joseph Wright, John Mar- 
shall, Joseph Riifer, Christ. Pilger. 

Captains: Richard B. Adams, A. D. Ad- 
kins, John Anderson. 

Privates: Louis Boemler, M. L. Brown, 
J. M. Cafferberger, William F. Crow, F. M. 
Davis, Asa Dean, Pet(»r Douglas, Ezra Fish, 



(promoted First Lieutenant Company K.), R. 
F. Kippenberg, C E. Lawson, Kiley McLane, 
Robert McCarty. 

Eleventh Illinois Regiment: Luther J. 
Main, Thomas Millei-, Asa N. Paschall (died in 
Anderson ville, Aug. 20, 1SG4), Zach. Taylor, 
Geo. F. Unland, John T.Webb, Henry Weber, 
John Worm, John H. Wedeking, Thomas H. 
Williams, Joiia Kleinsteuber, .John Davis, 
John Truebswasser (died at Mound Uity hospi- 

Recruits: Charles Boekemeier, Henry 
Fredenberg, Win. Meizer, Piiilip Smith. 

Second Illinois Battery : Lieutenants, 
Hoyer, Adolf Geils. 

United States Navy: C. H. Gulick. 

One Hundred and Forty-filth Illinois 
Regiment — 100 day men: 

Captain, W. H. Weaver; Second Lieutenant, 
Ebenezer Fish; Sergeants, William De Haven, 
Edwin C. Foster; Corporals, James Caldwell, 
James A. Lindsay, William McClure, Edward 
Logan, Samuel Webb, Clinton Garrison, J. 
B. Sanders. 

Privates: Abraham Black, Randall Block, 
Louis Cowan, Allen Cunningham, Thomas 
Cowan, David Clendcnin, Ernest Corte, J. W. 
Chase, Charles Dunbaugh, Thomas J. De 
Haven, John S. Fulks, James Griffin, J. W. 
Hamilton, Guilford Judd, H. Livingston, H. C. 
McLane, George McDonnel, William Mayer, 
Henry C. Milnor, James H. Mathews, A. J. 
Norton, Rudolph Oliver. 

One Hundred and Forty-Fifth Illinois Reg- 
iment. Privates: Frank Paterson, W. C. Rew, 
S. W. Robinson, William Roach, J. H. Rose, L. 
O. Spangler, Charles Schneider, Louis Ware, 
Eason White, Willis White, Christ. Mertz. 

Third Illinois Cavalry, Company I. Ben- 
jamin F. Barron, Casper Coleman, James 
A. Geer, Warren H. Monett, Joshua Mibb, 
George Olden, William Ruff, William Rhodes, 
David Schrader, J. L. Wolford, Peter T. ^Vol- 

Second Illinois Cavalry. Private : F. Ab- 

Twelfth Regiment, Illinois Infantry. Com- 
pany A: Thomas Bern hard, Martin Gott- 

Eighteenth Regiment Illinois Infantry. 
Company G: Sergeant, George Rauch; Cor- 
porals, Jas L. Black, W. O. Willis. 

Privates: Andrew Blattncr, Henry Brocker, 
Peter Flanery, Fred Holden, Thomas Har- 
mel, .Joseph H-'ine, Henry Knoess, Henry 
I^ynn, A' lam La fie, Hugh Lyden, William 
Meyer, George J. MeD.tirel, F. K. Shever, 
George Taylor. 

Eighty-second Illinois Regiment, Company 
E: Corporal, Simon Benz. 

Privates: Anton Bihl, Charles BoeKe- 
meier, .John Hieg, August Petri, William 
Ram, Anton Seller, Philip Schmidt. 

Fourteenth Regiment Illinois Infantry, 
Company A: Major, J. F. Nolte; Captain, 
Thomas M. Thompson; Captain, Charles 
Opitz; 1st Lieutenant, Henry Rodecker; 
and Augustine Snow; 2nd Lieutenant, Da- 
vid S. Finney; Sergeant, Eben H. Richard- 
son; Corporals, Ed. E. Foster, Charles H. 
Harris, W. H. Dutch, David Carr. 

Privates: William Armstro'ig, Ijester 
Beals, Amos Burkhardt, Alonzo Buck, George 
Cummings, Ernest Corte, August ChristianiM-, 
Joseph Ewing, Joseph Heine, John Hess, Jo- 
seph Huber, Caleb James, Edward Knight, 
Christian Kuhl, Thomas Lincoln, Abner Liver- 
more, Dexter Loomis, Charles Luecking, 
Archibald McConnel, John S. Morgan, 
William. C. Marrow. 

Company G: Conrad Meyres. 

Company A: Wm. Nelson, Charles Nickel, 
Andrew J. Norton, Lester J. Parmenter, 
William H. Parson, Henry C. Pheljis, Reu- 
ben B. Pool, George M. Rhineberger, Will- 
iam Roach, Abraham J. Saylor, Christian 
Schramm, William Snow, William Sales. 

Company G: William Stauf, 



Company A: George H. Tracy, William 
Wisbey, Charles Williams. 

Recruits: Charles Burrows, Henry C. 
Brown, James M. Ewing, Martin Finney, 
James S. McLin, George H. Parmenter, John 
W. Richardson, Henry Roach, Alonzo Snow, 
John F. Switzer, Louis Weaver, Benjamin 

Sixty-first Regiment of Illinois Infantry, 
Company E. Privates: Edward W. Ellkin, 
John W. Glover, Anthony Hill, Daniel Row- 
ley, William A. Squires, George W. San- 
ders, Nicholas Shoopman, Jacob O. Wells, 

Madison Woods, Alpheus Wells, Asa F. Win- 

Recruits: John C. Menkel, John McCor- 
mick, Peter Baxton, Walter Beals, Daniel B. 
Grant, William T. Melton, Charles Meyer, 
George T. Ruby, George L. Stone, George 
W. Shoopman, John H. Shoopman, Frederick 
Schnitker, Jacob Trommen. 

The names of the persons serving during 
this war in the United States army, from the 
adjoining precincts of Arenzville, Indian 
Creek, Hickory and Monroe, are not herein 





" Ye pioneers, it, is to you 
The tieht of gnuituJe is due; 
Ye builded wiser than ye knew 

The broad foundation 
On wliicli our superstructure stands ; 
Your strong right arms and willing hands, 
Your earnest efforts still command 
Our veneration." 

pHANDLEKVILLE Precinct lies on the 
y^ sotitheni side of Sangamon river, where 
a broad strip of bottom land, varying from 
one to two miles in width, forms the entire 
northern boundary of the precinct. This 
bottom land is, no doubt, the richest soil in 
the county, for the Sangamon river may be 
called the Nile of America, for it annually 
overflows, adding new deposits to the present 
richness of the soil. 

Where the bottom lands terminate inland, 
a series of very high hills tower in natural 
majesty above the surrounding country, ap- 
pearing at a distance like a range of moun- 
tains. These hills are now mostly overgrown 
with scrubby timber and dense underbrush, 
but in the memory of some of the old settlers, 
not a twig or tree could be seen over the 
broad surface of this elevated height. The 
Indians annually burning off the prairies, the 
fire would sweep over the hills, destroyino- 
the young timber that had started during the 
year. The oldest settlers say that at the 
present time there is five times as much tim- 
ber in this part of the county as there was 
when they first settled in the country. 

At the present time there are many beauti- 

*By J. L. Nichols. 

fill groves clustering at the foot of these hills, 
where many fine residences and beautiful 
gardens peep out amid their inviting foliage. 
There is considerable good timber on the 
banks of the Sangamon, along the bottoms of 
Big and Little Panther creeks, and along the 
valleys whiding among the hills. The kinds 
of wood that grow native, are oak, maple, elm, 
sycamore, walnut, hickory, pecan, persimmon, 
and paw-paw. On the low grounds in early 
days the grass grew very tall, reaching to a 
man's waist on horseback, and the' grass on 
the hills grew much higher and thicker than 
it does at the present day. Game at that 
time was very plenty. Wild turkeys and 
prairie chickens were witliout nutnber; deer, 
wolves and raccoons were very nuinerous, 
and an occasional panther and lynx wandered 
through. All the game that is left now that 
in any way can interest the sportsman, are 
wild ducks, which yet continue to visit the 
Sangamon Bottoms when overflowed, in great 
numbers, hunters of ordinary skill killing 
from 80 to 100 ducks per day, 50 being con- 
sidered a very poor day's work during the 
duck season. 

The Pottawatomie Indians lived here till 
the year 1835, but they were of a very friendly 
character, and never molested in any way the 
peace and prosperity of the settlers. The 
precinct back from the hills is considerably 
rough and broken, and a large portion of that 
land was sold for 25c. per acre; the United 
States giving it to the State, and \he State in 
turn gave it to the county, and the county 
sold it to the settlers at the above rate; much 



oTthat land, however, at the [iresent time is 
worth from 8-5 o $40 per acre. There was 
governmeat land in this precinct as late as 
1856. The precinct at first was mostly settled 
by Sjuthern people, and very few other 'a:iii- 
lies cime till about 1832, except a few Yan- 
kee peddlers, who occasionally visited the 

Who the first settlers were the writer finds 
some difficulty in ascertaining. Robert Leep- 
er, James and Elijah Garner, William Myres, 
Tnomas Plasters, Ma k Cooper and Dr. 
Chandler, were probably among the first. 

The settlers here, as in other new countries, 
came very poor. They lived in log cabins, 
many of them without floors or windows, 
using greased paper for the latter, and what 
little grain they raised had to be hauled to 
Beardstown and sold at a nominal price, and, 
there being no bridges at the time, it was 
often a difficult and dangerous journey. 

The first bridge that was built was across 
Panther Creek, in 1838, just south of the vil- 
lage. A bridge was built by a Mr. Stindy 
across the Sangamon, but being so poorly 
framed and constructed, it gradually sunk, 
broke and separated by its own weight. It 
was re-built by Samuel Cook, of Chandlerville, 
in 1874, and is a permanent structure that 
will stand till its timbers decay. It braved 
the torrent of 1882 without yielding a timber, 
or the fragment of one. This bridge is a 
great benefit to the village of Chandlerville, 
as it brings a large proportion of trade from 
Mason County. 

The first school taught within the present 
limits of the precinct, was the one taught by 
Mrs. Ingalls, given in the village history 
below ; the second that the pioneer families 
patronized, was located about two and a 
half miles northeast of Chandlerville, on 
the land now owned by Moses Harlinson. 
Mr. Martin Morgan taught the first school, 
and the following wore some of his schol- 

ars: John Hash, James Dick, and his 
sister Sallie, and the children of the My- 
res family. The school-house was built by 
the charity and energy of Robert Leeper, and 
as a pioneer he deserves the highest en- 
comium. There are now five district schools 
in the precinct ; they are respectively known 
as the Levi Spring School, Brick School, John 
Way School, German School, and the Wil- 
son School. The schools are well attended, 
and teachers are paid a salary, varying from 
$25 to $50 per month, according to the 
qualification and experience of the teacher. 

The first saw and grist mill was built in 
1828, on Panther creek, by A. S. West and 
William Morgan, Mr. Z. Hash getting out 
most of the timber for the mill. Robert 
Leeper subsequently bought the mill and run 
it for several years, when it was carried down 
stream by extraordinary high water. The 
second mill was built by Richard McDonald, 
one-half mile above Mr. Leeper's mill, on the 
same stream, and shortly after the building 
of the McDonald mill, Henry L. Ingalls built 
a mill about one-half mile below Mr. Leeper's 
mill. There were then three mills within one 
and a half miles of each other. Their princi- 
pal business was sawing, but they also 
cracked corn. These two latter mills were 
also swept down stream, leaving scarcely a 
trace of their former existence. Panther 
creek was subject to a very sudden rise of 
water, and it came in such torrents as to 
sweep every thing before it. There are no 
mills on that stream at the present day. It 
does not run more than six months of the 
year in ordinary seasons, and could not in any 
way be considered a stream that would support 
the power for a mill of the smallest character, 
except in these extraordinary torrents that 
spare neither roads, bridges, or railroads. 

The first road that received any degree of 
travel was called the Bottom Road to Beards- 
town. This was a winding route over the 



most elevated portions of the bottom, as the 
low places were often marshy and very diffi- 
cult to cross. On the ridge formed in the 
middle ot this road by the horses and oxen 
wearing out foot-paths, as is often seen now 
on our prairie roads, there used to grow and 
flourish some of the finest wild strawberries 
that were produced on the bottoms. They 
looked like a row of cultivated fruit, and in 
their season were truly an inviting curiosity. 
Travelers that came during that time can 
never forget the richness and beauty of those 
almost endless rows of native berries. Wild 
fruit was very common here in an early day. 
Plums, persimmons, raspberries, blackberries, 
and strawberries were very plentiful and 
much more numerous than at the present day. 
It was all the change the early settlers had 
from coarse bread and pork, as but very little 
sugar or dried fruits could be afforded or in- 
dulged in, in those days of pioneer economy. 
The wild land has all been subdued or 
turned into fine pastures. Beautiful homes 
and cultivated fields smile all over the pre- 
cinct. The farmers have improved their stock) 
and some of the finest horses, hogs, and cattle 
that the State produces are raised in this part 
of the county. 


Early in the spring of 1832, a colony from 
Rhode Island were about to leave their native 
hills and seek homes in the distant wilderness 
of the West. But the members of the colony 
hearing of so many Indian massacres in the 
Western States, there was but one of the 
party that dare venture and carry out the or- 
iginal design; that man was Dr. Chas. Chand- 
ler. While coming up the Illinois river with 
his wife and little daughter Jane, now Mrs. 

*The writer, having found some matters particularly ap- 
propriate to Chandlorville, in the oration delivered in lS7fi, 
liy Hon. J. H. Shaw, he has taken the liberty of incorporat- 
ing them in this article. 

Shaw, and hearing of the Indian troubles at 
Ft. Clark, since called Peoria, the place of 
destination, they concluded to go no further, 
and consequently landed at Beardstown. 
While there Dr. Chandler took a ride up the 
Sangamon bottom with Thomas Beard, and 
was so charmed by the lay of the land and 
richness of the soil, and the thrift of vegeta- 
tion, that he determined at once to make a 
settlement, and immediately entered 160 acres 
of land where Chandlerville now stands, and 
before the summer of his first arrival had passed 
he had built a comfortable log cabin and found 
a crop of buckwheat blossoming at his door. 
His cabin was erected on the spot now occu- 
pied by the Congregational Church, and his 
plow was the first that stirred the native soil 
within the limits of the village. He was a 
man of untiring industry, and began at once 
the practice of his profession, performing 
wonders in the healing art, and prodigies of 
toil, often riding seventy or eighty miles, 
and not unfrequontly one hundred per day. 
His practice extended over what is now known 
as Cass, Morgan, Brown, Schuyler, Sanga- 
mon, Menard, Mason, and Fulton Counties. In 
December, 18313, the humble cabin received a 
brother of the Doctor, Marcus Chandler, wife 
and only son Knowlton, with Mr. and Mrs. 
Henry Ingalls. In 1831, Squire Bonney and 
family, with a nephew, Geo. Bonney, also Mr. 
Hicks and family, were added to ihe colony. 

A Sabbath school was early in 1835 organ- 
ized through the united efforts of Mrs. 
Marcus Chandler, Mrs. H. S. Ingalls, and Mr. 
Robert Leper, which was well attended and 
did much good. 

The Sabbath school was held at the resi- 
dence of Mrs. Ingalls, and may be said to be 
the first religious assembly ever held in the 

The settlers at this time marketed all their 
grain and farm produce at Beardstown, and 
purchased all the necessary articles within 


their means that their families and farms wore 
most sorioiisly in need of; also most of their 
ro]iairing was done there. 

(^In ISoi or '35 Dr. Chandler built a li'ack- 
sraith-shop. and the year following built the 
first storejwhere now Mr. Pilcher's place of 
business stands. Dr. Chandler did not do 
this so much as a business speculation and to 
make money, as he did to benefit and acoom- 
moilate the settlers, many of them having 
nothing but ox-teams, and a journey to Beards- 
town was not at all a desirable trip, or one 
that many of our farmers desire to-day with 
all our modern improvements. 

Dr. Chandler continued in business about 
two years, when he closed out his stock to C J. 
Newberry, who was shortly after succeeded by 
Mr. Chase, and he, alter continuingbusiness for 
several years, was bought out bylDr. Chandler 
and his brother Marcus.) They V did a very 
flourishing and extensive business, and in 
connection with their general ; they bought 
and packed pork, putting up about three 
thousand hogs annually for many years in 
succession."^ In 1849, the two prosperous 
brothers met with the misfortune of having 
their store burned down, and their stock 
liadly damaged, but the store was quickly re- 
built, and their former business re-established. 
(At one time they had about four hundred 
uushels of pecan nuts, for which they paid 
one dollar and fifty cents per bushel, and 
shipped the same to St. Louis, and sold them 
for three dollars per bushel.') In 1850, Dr. 
Chandler and his brother sold their entire 
business to William Way, who has been in 
business, and witnessed the prosperity of the 
vdlage from that time to the present. 

The early growth of the village was not 
rapid, for in 1848 there were but the following 
families within its limits: Dr. Chandler, Rev. 
S. Smith, O. Hicks, .1. B. Shaw, Elisba Olcutt, 
D. Marcy, Levi McKee, H. L. lugalls. Widow 
Harbeson and Mr. Chase. 

The mail at this time was brought from 
Beardstown by the little sons of Dr. Chandler, 
and distributed at his place of business, he 
being the regular appointed postmaster, and 
assisted by Mr. Shaw, then a clerk in the 
store. The post office was known as Panther 
Creek till 1851, when Gen. C. E. Lippincott 
wrote to Col. E. D. Baker,* then member of 
Congress, and had the name of the office 
changed to Chandlerville. 

A cooper shop was started about this time, 
also a wagon shop. The latter business was 
one of the most successful enterprises of the 
settlement, Levi McKee being the proprietor. 
And the McKee wagons were known all over 
the country as the most durable and best 
made wagons of the county. Dwight Marcy 
in 1849, kept the first hotel just north of 
Panther creek, on the land now owned by 
Gen. Lippincott, where he continued business 
till the present hotel was converted from a 
■warehouse into a hotel, being built by Dr. 
Chandler, and used for a general house of 
storage, etc., while he continued in business. 

In 1850, Mr. Olcutt, who had for several 
years been a clerk for Dr. Chandler, built a 
store and warehouse in company with Mr. 
Sanders, where a thriving business for several 
years was carried on. The firm dealt largely 
in wheat, hogs, tallow, &c. In 1854, Dr. 
Reed and T. N. Canfield built the first regu- 
lar drug store, drugs having been kept and 
sold by the other stores many years previous, 
but no separate store had been built before for 
thatspecial purpose. The building was erected 
in the western part of Dr. Reed's present lot, 
and long since has been removed. This store 
was a very attractive place of business for 
many years. Dr. Reed had an extensive prac- 
tice, and like Dr. Chandler, not unfrequently 
traveling 100 miles a day to visit a patient. 
( There was an unusual custom among the 

« Who was kiUed at Ball's Bluffs. 



settlers that every man should be entitled to 
eighty acres of land on each side of his first 
entry as soon as he could pay for it at govern- 
ment price, $1.25 per acre. And it was con- 
sidered as mean as stealing for another man 
to violate this established custom of the set- 
tlers. Shortly after Dr. Chandler settled here, 
a man by the name of English came to the 
settlement and was much pleased with the 
country. The Doctor assisted and befriended 
him all he could, and offered to give up a 
a claim to one eighty to induce him to stay, 
but English, hog-like, told him that he was 
going to Springfield and enter the whole 
tract adjoining ; that he did not care for the 
customs of the country, and that he was go- 
ing to have it right or wrong, and started at 
once for Springfield. The Doctor went to his 
cabin, counted his money, and found only 
fifty dollars. The deficit was made up through 
the kindness of his neighbor, McAuly. Thus 
provided, he started at once for the State cap- 
ital with the determination of beating Eng- 
lish if possible. He took a different route 
through the woods and prairies from that 
chosen by his greedy friend. When about 
ten miles from the land office, he overtook two 
young men on horseback, and his horse foam- 
ing in perspiration was about tired out ; and 
•while riding along with these young men, he 
related to them the cause ot his haste, when one 
of them, the tallest of the two, was so indignant 
that he offered the Doctor his own horse, which 
■was comparatively fresh, so that he might 
defeat the plans of English; but the Doc- 
tor declined the courtesy, got there on his 
own horse, and entered his land before his 
rival got to the city of Springfield. Some- 
time after Dr. Chandler wanted his land sur- 
veyed, and sent for a young surveyer who 
lived at Salem, Sangamon county, and when 
he arrived he proved to be the same young man 
that the Doctor had overtaken on his way to 
Springfield, and that had so kindly offered his 

horse. That man was Ahrah im Lincoln, and 
the land, where Chandlerville stands, and 
some considerable country adjacent, was sur- 
veyed by him. 

Dr. Chandler was a man of stirring energy. 
He built the first frame house, 10 by 12, one 
story, ever built in Cass County, and he built 
the present large residence on the Chandler 
estate in 1836, which is yet among the finest 
residences in the village. He was one of the 
first physicians in Central Illinois who adopt- 
ed quinine in his practice as a remedy, and the 
first who opposed bleeding as a remedy for 
disease. When he first came to the Sanga- 
mon bottom he was called into practice before 
he could build a stable for his horse, and when 
at home, for weeks his wife cut grass with 
the shears to feed it, as there were no scythes 
in the vicinity to be had for love or money. 

The Doctor was also a man of charity 
as well as enterprise. He gave all the lots 
on which all the churches are built, except the 
Christian church, and that he sold to the society 
for half its real value; he also gave the lots for 
the three public parks, and donated the land 
for the cemetery. He was always a liberal 
contributor to the church, and all benevolent 
institutions. He was the founder of the town, 
and a father to it while he lived. 

Since 1856, many valuable accessions to 
the social and business power of the commu- 
nity have been made; good mechanics, active 
business houses, sustained by a large intelli- 
gent farming population, energized by the 
iron aid of a new railway, passing directly 
through their midst, and all tolerably per- 
meated by Christian character and influence, 
Chandlerville hopes a future of useful thrift. 

The present village was laid out in 1818, 
when the first lots were sold. The town was 
first incorporated in 1858, under the General 
Act, and under a more special act in 18G1. 
The incorporate area is exactly one mile 
square. , 



The first members of the first village coun- 
cil were Dr. Chas. Chandler, J. W. Gladding, 
W. S. Way, Elisha Olcutt, Levi McKee, 
with Gen. C. E. Lippincott, as clerk. The 
present members of the board are: A. G. 
Colson, W. K. Mertz, Roljert Clark, August 
Zorn, C. C. Brown, W. H. Pilcher, with A. 
G. Colson, as president, E. H. Henkel, clerk, 
and S. C. Fielden, treasurer. 

At present there are twenty-nine business 
places in the town; many of the buildings 
are of brick, and the village, in general, has 
very a promising business outlook. 

The first Masonic Lodge was chartered 
October 7th, 1S74, with the following charter 
members: Linus C. Chandler, C. C. Brown, 
John Chandler, J. A. Paddock, L. M. Dick, 
Robert Clark, N. H. Boon, H. T. Chandler, 
N. S. Reed, Isaac Buther, John Kershaw, 
John Mullen, Thos. Mullen, J. M. Telles, Wm. 
Swartwood, T. A. Skaggs, Henry C. Neff, 
Commodore Silvernail, and John C. Morse. 
L. C. Chandler was elected the first Worship- 
ful Master, and John Morse, secretary. The 
present officers: Levi M. Dick,,W. M.; Rob- 
ert CUrk, S. W.; Thomas Skaggs, J. W.; T. 
P. Renshaw, Treasurer; Arthur Pendleton, 
Secretary; L. C. Chandler, S. D.; J. B. Mor- 
gan, J. U.; August Zorn and M. D. Skaggs, 
Stewards; T. R. Say, Tyler. The Lodge was 
first organized through the efforts of L. C. 
Chandler. At first a dispensation was re- 
fused, but Mr. Chandler went to Dixon, inter- 
viewed the grand master, and by urgent ap- 
peal, he set aside his former decision and 
granted a dispensation and charter. The first 
meeting was held in June, 1874. 

In the spring of 1883, Chandlerville suffered 
considerably from high water; many of the 
houses were surrounded with water up to the 
windows, and the water reaching up Main 
street as far as the Chandlerville mill. The 
water was higher than it ever was known be- 

The Sangamon Valley Mill was built in 
1873, by Messrs. Paddock & Slink. It is a 
handsome brick structure, costing $10,000 to 
complete it. The above parties did a success- 
ful milling business for two years, when they 
sold two-thirds of their interest to James Ab- 
bott and William Howarth, Mr. Paddock 
holding a third interest till his death, which 
occurred two years after. Messrs. Abbott & 
Howarth then purchased the remaining third 
from the heirs of Mr. Paddock. In 1871, the 
boiler exploded, damaging the mill to the ex- 
tent of |i3,000, and killing the engineer, 
Joseph Davis. Mr. Davis had been a success- 
ful engineer all his life, and the cause of the 
explosion will no doubt always remain a mys- 
tery; whether it occurred by neglect, or 
through some defect of the machinery can not 
be ascertained. 

Smith & Carr's grist mill was raised in 1875, 
at a cost of $5,000, by G. B. Skaggs & Bro. 
They continued in the mill sixteen months, 
when they sold it to James Tantrum, who, in 
turn, sold it to W. W. Baker, and shortly af- 
terward it was sold to the present owners, 
Messrs. Smith & Carr, who have been 
doing a very flourishing business for the past 
two years, grinding about 50,000 bushels of 
grain annually. The engine is in charge of 
Mr. A. Garrett, who is an old R. R. engineer, 
and thoroughly understands the business. The 
millers are also men of tried experience, and 
Chandlerville can boast of as good flour as is 
made in the State. 

In 1874, the first newspaper of the village, 
called the New Era, was edited by J. J. 
Bunce (S Son. After running the paper with 
very moderate success about one year, they 
closed out their interest, for the people did 
not seem to appreciate the depth of their ed- 
itorials, or the newsy merits of their local 
columns; or in other words, were not as hun- 
gry for " Era " news as the proprietors of the 
paper had at first anticipated. 



The next paper that broke the monotony 
of village gossip, was the Cass County Jour- 
nal., which was established by Chas. A. Pratt, 
August 5, 1876. This paper was fairly 
patronized, and prospered with a good home 
reputation. It continued under the name 
and management to the middle of February, 
1878, when the office was purchased by G. B. 
Skaggs, who was assisted by his brother, J. 
W. They brought out their first issue, March 
16th of the same year, under the firm name 
of J. W. & G. B. Skaggs. As the paper 
■was of different parentage from the Journal, 
it was no more than right that they should 
give it a name of their own choice. They 
called it the Chandlerville Independent, a 
name well chosen, and adapted to the posi- 
tion the paper politically assumed. It was 
successfully conducted by the two brothers 
till Nov. 11, 1878, when J. W. Skaggs re- 
tired from the publishing business. The pa- 
per was then under the sole management of 
G. B. Skaggs up to Dec. 5, 1879, when the 
name of the firm was changed to Skaggs & 
Spink, Mr. E. Spink, of Havana, having as- 
sumed one-half interest. The Indej)endent 
was then very satisfactorily managed till Sep- 
tember, 1881, when Mr. Spink, by mutual con- 
sent, withdrew from the firm, leaving the paper 
under its present manager. The paper is now 
on solid basis, nearing its 7th year of unabated 
prosperity, and having a fine run of advertising, 
a growing subscription list, and a man widely 
known and highly respected for its editor and 
manager. Its future truly looks promising. 

"Beneath the rule of men entirely great 
The pen is mightier than the sword." 

Schools. — One of the most popular and in- 
teresting features in the history of Chandler- 
ville, is the growth and prosperity of her 
schools. The village spares neither labor nor 
money to make the public school one of the 
most progressive of the county. The civilized 
world is fast realizing that one school master 

with his primer is worth a legion of soldiers. 
The sword with its blood and cai-nage has 
done its cruel work. We now have more 
need of teachers than of soldiers; reason and 
common sense are fast taking the place of 
the musket and the cannon, and books have 
becotne the arsenals of great nations. After 
a few families had clustered beneath the 
shadows of the great hills that overlook the 
site of the present village, they began to look 
after educational interest of their growing 
families. About the year 1835, Mrs. Henry 
Ingails opened a select school at her own 
residence, and among some of her first 
scholars were: Mary J. Chandler, now Mrs. 
Shaw, Sarah Perrin, who became the wife 
of Marcus Chandler, Nancy Leeper, after- 
ward the wife of Mr. S. Paddock, Nolton H. 
Chandler, Louis Bonney, Mary Wing, and 
J. Piasters. Mrs. Ingails, after teaching 
several terms, discontinued the work, owing 
to the increasing cares of her family, and was 
succeeded by Emily Chandler Allen, who 
taught one year in the residence of Dr. 
Chandler. Mr. John Rickert then opened 
his private residence for the education of the 
youth, three-fourths of a mile south of the 
present village, on what is known as the Hash 
farm, and taught one of the best pioneer 
schools of the country. He was a Quaker by 
profession and practice, and ruled not with 
the ferule and rod, but with love and Christ- 
ian kindness. 

In 1838, Dr. Chandler built a small frame 
building about 12 by 12, in the eastern part 
of the village, and fitted it up with necessary 
seats, etc., for a school-room, and gave the 
use of it free of all charge to the community 
for three years. Mrs. Ingails, meantime, had 
resumed the work of teaching, and taught till 
the spring of 1841, when the building put 
up by Dr. Chandler became too small for 
school purposes. It was concluded to re- 
move the school to the Congregational Church, 



which was built that same year, and complet- 
ed before the winter term of school was to be 
opened. The school was then successively 
taught by Miss Dunham, who afterward be- 
came the wife of Amos Bonney, Miss E. 
Pease and Miss Hosford; the latter was sent 
from Vermont by Gov. Slade, .Dr. Chandler 
guaranteeing a certain salary, but the people 
failing to patronize the school as much as he 
anticipated, he was compelled to makeup the 
deficit by paying it out of his own pocket. 
Mr. D. Craig, Peter Rickert, and Emily Chand- 
ler, were among the successful teachers that 

Miss Helen Cotton and a Miss Harris, in 
1851, came West, to follow the profession 
of teaching; one was to land at Beardstown, 
and the other at Chandlerville, and they con- 
cluded to decide by lot where each was to 
settle in the chosen work. It fell to Miss 
Cotton's lot to come to this embryo village 
and assume ihe work of teaching. No better 
fortune could have favored the citizens of 
this place. She was a woman of brilliant 
talents, and made use of every opportunity 
to do. good and enno.'ale the minds of those 
under her care and supervision. She after- 
ward became Mrs. Goodell, but losing none 
of her energy and influence by assuming the 
duties of the family. Mrs. Ingalls, Mr. Rick- 
ert and Miss Cotton, were the pioneer teach- 
ers of Chandlerville, who have yet among 
modern teachers to find a rival. The schools 
up to this time were all selec", each scholar 
paying iji^.oO per quarter tuition. The teach- 
ers were usually boarded by the patrons or 
friends of the school, free of charge. 

Previous to 1841, a log cabin was used for 
a time as a school house, where the boys 
with baited fish-hooks and lines, used to fish 
for rats through the open cracks in the floor, 
that being their only pastime, while the 
vigilant eyes of the teacher were not upon 
them. In 1S56, a common frame building 

was erected on one of the same lots now en- 
closed within the limits of the present school 
yard. Mr. N. S. Canfield was among the 
first teachers who taught in the new building. 
The school now began to assume some pro- 
portions of size, and much more attention 
began to be paid to educational matters. 

In the autumn of IStj <, a part of the pres- 
ent brick building was designed and built by 
the following committee: Dr. Chandler, P. 
Neif, and P. T. Norton. In 1878 the school 
building seemed insufficient to comfortably 
seat all the pupils attending school, and an 
addition of two rooms was added by the di- 
rectors, L. C. Chandler, Robert Clark, and R. 
R. Cromlich. The whole building now con- 
tains five rooms, and cost the village 16,000. 
The first principal in the new building was 
Maria Elam, and her first ass'stant Ella 
Duneway. The present board of directors 
are: Robert Clark, B. Bowman, and Albert 
Smith. The building now is used exclusively 
for school purposes, but the wooden building, 
previous to the present structure, was built 
with the understanding that its doors should 
be open to all public speakers, lecturers, 
Church services, shows and elections, or any 
thing by way of public instruction or enter- 
tainment of a moral eh iracter. 

The public school of Chandlerville is very 
popular. It is patronized by citizens of all 
classes and of all denominations; sectarian 
and political biases have been sedulously 
avoided in its management, and it is the sin- 
gle aim of those in charge of the school, and 
of the citizens alike, to give the youth of the 
town the best possible training, both in intel- 
lect and morals. The course of study is 
so arranged that pupils leaving school at the 
a"-e of twelve or fourteen, are able to write 
and read well, have a good understanding ol 
the fundinental principles of arithmetic, and 
a general knowledge of geography, and a 
good preparation for business in general. 



Congregational Church. — In the fall of 
1836, October 16th, a Presbyterian church 
was organized by Revs. Albert Hale and 
Slierron Baldwin, holding their services for 
the time being in the house of Dr. Chandler. 

The church at first was composed of five 
members only, Mr. and Mrs. Sewall, Mr. Mar- 
cus Hicks, Mrs. Marcus Chandler, and Mrs. 
Lavinia Ingalls, all being Presbyterians in 
their religious proclivities, except the two lat- 
ter, who bringing letters from Congregational 
churches, were united with the society. 

About 181:1 or 1843, a church building was 
erected at cost of $700. It was then decided 
by a vote of the members (the number hav- 
ing been increased to nearly twice the origi- 
nal number), that the building should be 
known as a Congregational church; but there 
remains no formal record of any formal 
change in the ecclesiastical relation of the 
church organization till October, 18i7, when 
it became Congregational, according to the 
reports made to the Southern Association of 
Illinois, with which it is at present connected. 
In the early beginning, the little band of 
Christ's disciples were indebted to the mem- 
bers of the Illinois College Faculty for nearly 
all their spiritual food — President Sturtevant 
and Professer Turner preaching to them, and 
administering the Sacrament. Revs. Hale and 
Baldwin also visited them at stated times, to 
aid the society in their Christian work. 

The first pastor was Prof. J. B. Turner, 
from Jacksonville, who in 1841 was succeed- 
ed by Rev. Mr. Pond, and Mr. Pond was 
succeeded by Rev. Socrates Smith, who came 
under the auspices of the American Home 
Missionary Society, and he was followed by 
the following ministers: Thomas Lippincott, 
the father of General Lippincott, Allyn S. 
Kollogg, Wm. Barnes, O. C. Dickinson, J. R. 
Kimnedy, George Paddock. P. A. Beane, S. 
B. Gtx>d«nough, Hemy Perkins, aud J. M. 

The present officers of /he Church are Dr. 
N. S. Read, Thomas Ainsworth and J. H. 
Goodell, and this Church has a membership 
of 51, who are all liberal and enthusiastic in 
their Christian work. 

The Sabbath school is a very prominent 
feature of the Church, largely attended, and 
far superior to most of the Sibbath schools 
found in similar villages. Dr. N. S. Read has 
been its Superintendent for the past twenty- 
seven years, beginning with but 25 scholars 
and now numbering over 200. Dr. Rjad has 
been a zealous worker, and the prosperity 
and progress of the Sabbath school is largely 
due to his untiring energy. He is the right 
man in the right place. 

31ethodist Church. — A few Methodist fam- 
ilies held their first meetings at the resi- 
dence of Squire Bonney, whenever they were 
able to secure the services of a minister from 
the neighboring settlements. Revs. Springer, 
Cartwright, Ridgeley, Garner and Wyatt, 
were among the first clergymen that ad- 
ministered to the spiritual wants of their 
brethren at Chandlerville. The Society was 
first placed in circumstances to employ a reg- 
ular minister by Messrs. Bonney, Richard, 
McDaniel, Proctor and Hicks. These were 
men of energy, and labored not only for 
themselves, but for the benefit of the com- 
munity and the moral elevation of their fel- 
low-raen. They hired the Congregational 
church for their Sabbath services, and con- 
tinued there for about three years, when they 
found themselves eufficiently strong to build 
an edifice of worship for themselves. This 
latter enterprise was larg^y brought about 
by the labors of Elisha Olcutt. They built 
their present church about the year 1851, at a 
cost of $1,200, the lot being donated by Dr. 

The church grew very prosperous, and its 
membersiup quite large. It was doing a noble 
work in the Christian cause, when it was des- 



tilled to suffer greatly from emigration, many 
of its leading members going West, or set- 
tling in different parts of the State, among 
whom were: Mr. Olcutt, John Boycourt, N. 
Canfield and T. Way. The church, how- 
ever, though somewhat embarrassed, did not 
lose courage, but kept its armor bright, and is 
still " marching along" with moderate pros- 
perity. Rev. Charles Forree is the present 

Catholic Church. — The members of the 
Catholic Society held their first meetings at 
the residence of Mr. P. Neff for about three 
years, when they formally organized in 1874, 
and thereafter continued their Sabbath wor- 
ship in the hall, over the store of Mr. Neft'. 
Father Ryan has officiated as pastor for the 
past four years. 

Mr. Neff was the leading spirit in originat- 
ing and pushing the society organization; he 
organized a Sablsath school about one year 
before the church society was organized, pay- 
ing twenty-five dollars rent out of his own 
pocket. He has kept up the Sabbath school 
ever since, and no doubt will continue to 
figure as one of the most prominent men of 
the society till a church is built, furnished 
and supplied. 

Christian Church. — Elder D. W. Shurt- 
leff came from Beardstown in the winter of 
1862, and preached to a few Christian families 
in the vicinity of Chandlerville, and February 
15th, of the same winter, at Pleasant Ridge 
school-house, the church was first organized 
with the fellowiiig members: Mr. and Mrs. 
C. J. Wilson, W. D. Leeper, S. B. Jones, Mr. 
and Mrs. Wm. Bradshaw, Smith Wilson, 
Nancy Smith, Lucy Curtis, .Tulia Curtis, 
Clarissa Briggs and Barbara Lucus. W. D. 
Leeper, assisted by S. B. Jones, were the 
prime movers in getting Elder D. W. Shurt- 
leff into the settlement. They were the men 
that formed the first nucleus of the church, 
and around which clustered the developing 

interest of the Christian work. The church 
was greatly stimulated and strengthened by 
some stirring revivals. Prof. McCaukle, of 
Eureka College, and Elder A. G. Kane, oi 
Springfield, were among the most prominent 
that awoke the community to a Christian 
sense of duty. Their words of warning and 
entreaty sank deep and reverently into many 
hearts, and great numbers were converted 
and added to the fold of the Master. The 
members were united, and as one, in their 
social and religious relations, brotherly and 
sisterly love ruled every motive, and ere three 
years had scarcely passed I'rom the date of 
their first organization, they found themselves 
sufficiently strong to build a church of their 
own; the present handsome, convenient frame 
building was erected at a cost of $3,700. The 
building committee that designed and con- 
structed, and supervised the work in general, 
consisted of the following persons: Robert 
Cole, .LA. Raines, S. B. .Tones, and James Arm- 
strong. Elders John Raines and Albert Rice 
preached on alternate Sabbaths, the first year 
after the church was completed. The church, 
under the leadership of J. W. Monser and 
M. R. Elder and the two pastors, just men- 
tioned, saw its brightest days ; its member- 
ship was swelled to one hundred or more 
members ; peace and prosperity smiled upon 
the church. 

A Sabbath school, numbering some seventy 
or eighty scholars, was among one of the 
most interesting and progressive features of 
the society. Dr. N. H. Boon and Douglass 
McGee were among the most earnest workers 
in the Sabbath school, one or the other being 
superintendent most of the time for many 

It was wonderful to see how rapidly the 
church grew, but more wonderful to see how 
quickly it crumbled and its members divided 
and scattered. " A house divided against 
itself can not stand." 



For the past two years no regular Sabbath 
services have been held, though occasional 
services occur. 

Lutheran Church. — The German Evangel- 
ical Lutheran church was built in the year 
1870. The society was organized about six 
months previous and held their meetings in the 
Congregational and Christian churches. 

The original members of the church were: 
J. Eichenaur, H. Schneider, J. Craft, J. Mush, 
G. Zorn, F. Brauer, H. During, C. Boensel 
and H. Joeckel. Eichenaur, Schneider, Brauer 
and Boensel being: all that are left of the oria-- 
iiial little band of worshipers. The church 
has been very progressive under the following 
pastoi^: Mr. Weisinger, Mr. Baumann, A. 
Willner and A. D. Greif; the latter being 
the present pastor, and of an earnest, indus- 
trious turn of mind. He has organized a 
day school, and teaches four days of the 
week. The church building is an ordinary 
wooden frame, not large but pleasantly situ- 
ated. The membership is thirty, which is 
considered large for the number of German 
families residing in the vicinity. 

Professional. — The legal or forensic inter- 
est of the village is exclusively in the hands 
of Hon. L. C. Chandler, a son of Dr. Chand- 
ler. He has been prosecuting attorney one 
term of four years, and a member of the leg- 
islature. He is a man widely known, and 
does all the business in his line that origin- 
ates in the town.' 

Dr. Reed and Dr. N. H. Boon lead the 
medical profession of the village, being men 
of large experience, and widely known. 
People do not hesitate to employ them. They 
have a large practice and are among the old- 
est and most respected citizens of the village. 

In closing our chapter of Cbandlerville, we 
can not refrain from offering a brief tribute to 

the memory of its founder. Dr. Chandler. The 
early community of Cbandlerville was patri- 
archal in its characteristics. It originated in 
the self-sacrificing devotion of its founder; its 
first steps were directed and carefully guarded 
by his judgment, and in its maturor years 
bears his name and the impress of his char- 

It is difficult to imagine the early prosperity 
of this settlement vrithout the material and 
moral support of Dr. Chandler. He the 
central figure in its early history, and lost 
none of his prominence while he lived. Com- 
ing as a benefactor, he allowed no desire for 
private ends to swerve him from his chosen 
course. He sought to establish a center of 
civilizing influence; his was a mission of good, 
and the records of his time bear ample testi- 
mony of his faithfulness to such a cause; the 
sick, the unfortunate, found in him a helpful 
friend; public enterprises were placed beyond 
the danger of failure by his efi'orts; strugglin::;- 
merit never failed for lack of material aid 
when solicited of him, while his old account- 
books, bearing the names of every member of 
the settlement in those early days, tell matiy 
a tale of his devotion to his people. His sup- 
port of the Church and school was liberal, 
frequent and voluntary. He labored for the 
common good and the elevation of mankind. 
Some three years ago, to the regret and sor- 
row of all who knew him, "God's finger 
ouched him, and he slept." 

All honor be, then, to these gray old men, 
When at last they are bowed with toil; 
Their warfare then o'er, they battle no more, 
For they've conquered the stubborn soil. 
And the chiwplet each wears, is the silver hairs, 
And ne'er shall the victor's brow 
With a laurel crown to the grave go down, 
Like the pioneer sons — of fame, renown. 





THE first settlers, who gazed upon the broad 
waste of prairie, the unmolested groves, 
dense and tangled with brush and briar, be- 
fore a plow had touched the virgin soil, or an 
ax had struck a tree, little thought that all 
this wilderness, in their own day, before their 
own locks were silvered with the thread of 
time, would be made to blossom as a garden. 
Little thought had they of seeing beautiful 
homes, waving fields of golden grain, green 
pastures and grazing herds, where the 
bounding deer, crouching panther and howl- 
ing wolf, held unmolested sway. 

Little thought they that in their time, fur- 
naces, forges, fire and steam, amid the noise 
and whirl of swift and bright machinery, 
would sow, reap, bind, thresh, grind and 
market their grain. Labor and invention are 
man's greatest functions, and wonderful are 
the changes the past half century has wrought. 

Ashland Precinct has an area of twenty- 
two miles. It formerly was much larger, in- 
cluding a greater portion of Philadelphia 
Precinct within its original boundary. There 
is but little timber within its present 
limits ; Panther Grove, in the northern por- 
tion of the precinct, with here and there a few 
scattering trees, may be said to be all the 
timber worth mentioning. The land origi- 
nally was mostly prairie ; it is quite level 
but very productive. The soil is of a dark 
color and varies from one to three feet in depth. 

There are no streams worthy of mention in 
the precinct; Panther Creek takes its rise in 

• Hy J. L. Nichols. 

Panther Grove, and becomes quite a stream in 
its course to the Sangamon River. 

Mr. Eli Cox was the first settler who came 
into Ashland Precinct; he " blazed" the first 
tree on the corner of his claim in 1818, and he 
is one of the oMe t settlers of Cass County. 
He is very peculiar and anomalous in his 
ways, accumulating considerable property and 
money, but never could be induced to deposit 
his surplus mone / outside of his own house 
or premises, deeming the banks very hazard 
ous and unsif , and consequently he has been 
the victim of robbers for the third time. The 
last time he was assaulted was Aug. 19, 1S8;2. 
A party of masked villains burst into his 
apartments, thinking he had some $3,000 in 
his possession, and tortured him in a very 
brutal manner; they placed burning coals at 
his feet, heated a poker, and cruelly and dan- 
gerously burnt other portions of his body; 
also hanging him by the neck several times, 
hoping thereby to force from him a confession 
as to th ' whereabouts of his money, but the 
Wednesday previous he had been prevailed 
upon by his lawyer in Jacksonville to de- 
posit his money in a bunk, and conspquently 
the fiends sf^cured but $45 as the reward of 
their midnight assault upon a helpless and 
d^'fonceicss old man. A family by he name 
of Shiltz occupied a portion of the house, but 
their guns being unload d, the family were 
rendered helpless, and with cocked revolvers 
at their door were quietly requested to icinain 
in their apartments. 

In 1850, Mr. Cox settled on his present 
farm, where he has ever since resided. Will- 



iam Crow and William Cooper settled in the 
precinct soon after Mr. Cox had located. 
Ashland Precinct was not generally settled 
till comparatively a late date, the land beinjr 
mostly prairie, and the first settlers, coming 
from timbered countries, thought it impossible 
to locale on the prairie, where there was no 
timber. David R. Short made an effort in 
1830, to get away from the timber, and took 
up a claim where Joshua Atkins now resides, 
but after the first year's trial he became dis- 
couraged, and sold out his interest in the 
land to his uncle, Samuel Short, who resided 
then in Sangamon County. Even at that late 
date it was thought by most of the settlers 
that the^prairies would remain an " everlasting 
waste," but they were soon undeceived, for 
the prairie lands soon became the most desira- 
ble to be secured. In 1831, Stephen Lee 
built a cabin in Panther Grove, and John 
Miller and Alfred Dutch soon moved into the 
precinct, and began improving farms. In 
1824, when Adams, Jackson and Clay ran for 
president, there were not enough settlers in 
the precinct to organize an election, and it 
was several months after the election before 
they heard the result. 

The deep snow occurred in the winter of 
1830 and 1831, and this seems to be the 
principal data the old settlers have, dating 
most of the events of their early history in 
the settlement of the county, as occurring be- 
fore and after that winter. Charivaring and 
dancing were the principal amusements of the 
young. The charivari is of French origin, 
but quite generally practiced as a means of 
amusement in that early day, and to some 
extent at the present. 

Mr. Alfred Dutch built the first frame house 
ever erected in the precinct, in 1834. It was 
an elegant building for those early times, but 
he came with some means, and took pride in 
making himself and family comfortable. 

The first settlers received but little mail, 

and the first post office was at Jacksonville. 
Their market was St. Louis, and the journey 
there, a distance of lOO miles or more, took 
from seven to eighteen days, tlie roads being 
very roundabout, and often very difficult. 
They drove, also, their cattle and hogs to that 
distant market, a task which the farmers of 
to-day would deem almost an impossibility. 
Those who have lived only in the era of rail- 
roads, steamships and electricity, know but 
little of the privations, hardships and suffer- 
ings their pioneer fathers endured; they know 
but little of what it was to build cabins, subdue 
the wild prairies, and narrow down the groves, 
with no tools or machinery except the ax, 
spade and plow; but those times have forever 
passed away, and will only be known as facts 
of history. 

The first pioneers of the precinct were not 
a Godless people, but early and devotedly 
counseled together, devising every means 
possible for promoting religious and moral 
influences in the community. They held 
meetings in private cabins, school-houses 
and groves; wherever a few Cliristian families 
could assemble, the word of God would 
be preached. Peter Cartwright, the famous 
pioneer preacher, was a devoted friend to the 
early settlers in this section of the country. 
As early as 1823 we find him preaching in 
the cabin of Mr. Crow, to the following fami- 
lies: Samuel Short, William Cooper, S;ephen 
Short, John Cox, Samuel Robinson, R. Heads- 
peth, William Miller, and James Watson. 
Many similar meetings in various cabins of 
the settlers were held for many years. 

The Centenary M. E. Church, in the north- 
ern part of the precinct, took its name from 
the Centennial year of Methodism in America. 
The church society was first organized at the 
the residence of Samuel Sinclair, in 1853, 
with the following families: Joseph Bowers, 
John Cheatham, John Gill, and Jonathan 
Gill. Mr. Sinclair was a minister of the 

<J)it^/tH^-C ^C^^*^^^^ 




gospel himself, and he and his wife, Myra 
Ann, did more than all others in working up 
the interest which finally culminated in the 
present prosperous church organization. 
They opened their own house for church ser- 
vices, entertaining and feeding all that came. 
They were a very hospitable family and did 
much good, not only as christian workers, 
but as citizens and neighbors; they were ever 
ready and willing to assist those who were 
less fortunate than themselves. 

Rev. James Garner was among the first 
ministers of that neighborhood, and held oc- 
casional services at the residence of Mr. Sin- 
clair, till the fall of 1857, when the school 
house was built, where he, in connection with 
Lewis Mathews, M. Monroe, and Revs. Ayers 
and Hewitt continued preaching for three 
years or more. The Circuit was then organ- 
ized ind Rev. J. Mitchell was appointed as 
the regular pastor. Mr. Mitchell was one of 
the most successful revivalists that was ever 
appointed to the charge; he often preached 
five and six weeks in succession without any 
assistance, holding meetings every afternoon 
and evening. Peter Cartwright, the Presid- 
ing Elder, called him " Whalebone," a term 
very appropriate, considering his ambition 
and endurance. The society built their pres- 
ent church in 1866. It is a beautiful frame 
building, very conveniently adapted for the 
purpose for which it was built. 

Rev. William Stribling, from Jacksonville, 
a retired minister, gave five acres of land for 
the building and support of the church. Mr. 
Stiibling was very generous in the use of his 
acquired property, giving a greater portion 
of it to the schools and churches of the coun- 
try. The building committee was made up of 
the two Samuel Sinclairs and John Beggs. 
The first trustees of the church were: John 
Beggs, Samuel Sinclair, Joseph Bowers, and 
Levi M. Ream. The present membership of 
the church is forty. 

A Sabbath school of considerable inter- 
est has been successfully conducted in con- 
nection with the church. It was first organ- 
ized in Fly Point school-house, with about 
thirty scholars. At present both church and 
Sabbath school are very interestedly at work, 
and the work of both has become a strong, 
stimulating force in the community. 

There were no schools organized in the pre- 
cinct, till a comparatively late date, for the 
prairies were not generally settled till about 
1858 or '(30. The first school-house built in 
the precinct in 1855, was known as the 
Begg's school-house. The children in the 
southern part in an early day, attended a 
school in Morgan County, located in the grove 
near Mr. John Cox. 

At the present day school-houses are con- 
veniently located all over the precinct, no 
scholars being compelled to walk to school 
more than a mile, or a mile and a half, at 
most. The educational interests are well 
guarded, and the general intelligence of the 
growing youth is ample testimony that the 
present schools and present school systems 
are not, and have not been, a failure. 

Ashland Village. — The name was taken 
from the home of that great Kentucky states- 
man, Henry Clay, who was long known as the 
Sage of Ashland. Many of the earlier settlers 
coming from Kentucky, it is not strange that 
they should associate the name of their town 
with the memory of that noble and eloquent 
orator, so long the pride of their native State. 

In 1857, shortly after the Tonica & Peters- 
burg Raih'oad, since known as the Alton, was 
surveyed, a company was organized for the 
purpose of laying out a town and speculat- 
ing in the sale of lots. This company con- 
sisted of Elmore Crow, James L. Beggs, Will- 
iam G. Spears, Richard Yates (the famous 
war-governor of Illinois), and others, whose 
names we were not able to obtain. The 
trustees of the Jacksonville Female Academv 



purchased a half interest, for the purpose of 
adding the net proceeds of the sale of lots to 
the general fund of the school. 

The land upon which the village is located 
was originally owned by Elmore Crow, who 
reserved a proportional interest when he 
deeded the land to the company. He owned 
al)out GOO acres, of which nearly one half was 
laid out into village lots. The boundary of 
the village, as originally laid out, was as fol- 
lows : Commencing at a point one-fourth of 
one mile due west of the southeast corner of 
section twenty-nine, township seventeen, 
range eight, west of the third principal mer- 
idian in the County of Cass, State of Ills., 
running due north one half mile, thence due 
east one mile, thence due south one mile, 
thence due west one mile, thence due north 
one half mile, to the point of starting. Be- 
side the public squares and commons, tlie 
lots were divided into 144 blocks. 

The laying out of Ashland was not a mat- 
ter of speculation alone. Those that invest- 
ed in lots, made the purchase with the view 
of improving them for either a residence or 
place of business, and often both. A thriving 
corn crop was growing on the ground when 
the lots were staked off. Several who are 
now residents of the village, remember dis- 
tinctly when they bound wheat and husked 
corn on the very ground where the principal 
business places are built. Mr. Crow's house 
was the first building erected within the 
present limits of the town; he being a farmer 
and owning the land, had improved it to a 
limited extent. The old building yet stands, 
and is known as the Douglass boarding house. 
About forty buildings were on the grounds 
the first year. A little village or burgh, con- 
sisting of perhaps a dozen houses, and known 
by the name of Rushaway, was moved to 
Ashland and became a part of the town. The 
first two public sales of lots amounted to 
$102,000. There were also many jjrivate 

sales, and the business of selling lots for a 
time was financially a success. 

W. R. Hunter was among the first merch- 
ants of the village. He built a store on Main 
street and began a general grocery and dry- 
goods trade, and continued in business at 
the above named place some four years, 
when he entered into partnership with J. M. 
.lones. They continued business under the 
firm name of Hunter & Jones, buying grain in 
connection with their general store trade till 
1873, when Mr. Hunter sold out his interest 
in the store and entered exclusively into the 
grain trade. Mr. Hunter may be called the 
oldest business man in the village, he being 
one of the first to engage and has ever since 
been identified with the business of the town, 
biung at present largely interested in the 
grain trade. 

William Goble and Alexander Mansfield 
built a store and began business about the 
time Mr. Hunter opened his store. They 
continued business about two years, when 
they became financially embarrassed, and 
their stock was sold out under the Shoriif 's 
hammer. The building which they erected, 
however, is still in existence, being changed 
to a dwelling, and at present is owned by Mr. 
O. P. Lewis. 

From 18G3 to 1866, there was but one gen- 
eral store in the town, viz.: Hunter & Jones. 
They did an extensive business, and were 
widely known as straightforward, thorough 
business men. The first post office was kept 
in their store, and W. R. Hunter was the regu- 
larly appointed postmaster. He was succeeded 
by W. AV. Redman, who has held that position 
ever since. Mr. llediaan was also interested 
in the drug business previous to the fire. He 
is a man widely known and universally re- 

Previous to the opening of the present post 
office, the settlers procured their mail at Lan- 
caster, some three and a half miles distant. 



Tlie first hotel of the villaare is the present 
brick building now used for that purpose, and 
owned and run by J. L. Clark. The building 
was first built by a company consisting of the 
following persons : Elmore Crow, James L. 
Bcggs, and William Spears. 

The first blacksmith shop was put up by 
Leander Grandy, just north of the present 
site of the Methodist Church. 

Another about the same time was started 
by Andrew Henderson, who was shortly after 
bought out by John L. Douglas, and he in 
turn after continuing the business for one 
year or thereabouts, sold out to Messrs. 
Crow and Beggs. This shop stood just west 
of the present hotel, on the south side of the 
street. It has long since disappeared and 
others hive taken its place. About the same 
time the blacksmith business was begun, a 
wagon shop was opened by William Bready. 
He followed the business with moderate suc- 
cess for three years. The present wagon 
shop is doing a prosperous business, and is 
run by Charles Goodman. In 18T3 the pres- 
ent elevator was built by Messrs. Hunter, 
Duey & Co. It is the only building of the 
kind in the town. Mr. Hunter, since the com- 
pletion of the building, bought out the inter- 
est of his partners and conducts the business 
himself. It is a frame structure, conveniently 
built and modernly improved, costing $8,000. 
Mr. Hunter is one of the prominent grain 
deale.-s of the village, and handles over 100,- 
000 bushels of grain annually. The other 
grain firms doing business in the town are, 
E. Beggs, and Hamilton & Duey. 

January 18, 1868, a meeting of the promi- 
nent citizens took place for the purpose of 
arranging an election for the purpose of in- 
corporating the village. Tlie election which 
shortly afterward followed, resulted in thirtv- 
five ballots in favor, and four against, incor- 
poration, and the following persons were 
elected as members and officers of the villao-e 

board : Stephen Barnes, President ; W. R. 
Hunter, Clerk; J. G. Smith, Police Magis- 
trate ; James L. Beggs, A. L. Corson, and J. 
G. Smith. 

Previous to the building of the O. & M. R. 
R., in J 871, the growth of the town was not 
rapid, and the business it did was not of a 
very pressing character ; but on the comple- 
tion of the new railroad, real estate business, 
and building took a new start, and Ashland 
at once took her place as one of the most 
prosperous business towns of the county, and 
at its present ratio of progress it will soon 
rival the county-seat itself. 

In 1877 the village met with a serious 
draw-back and heavy losses by fire. The 
most central and thriving business portion of 
the town was totally consumed. The fire 
originated in a small barber shop some time 
early in the evening, and was not discovered 
till midnight, when it was found to be entirely 
lieyond all control; but new and better build- 
ings have taken the place of the old, and the 
prosperity of the town seems in no way to 
feel the effects of that devastating fltme. 
There are now many brick buildings orna- 
menting the business streets, and many more 
are contemplated ; the future business out- 
look seems very flattering. 

The members of the present village board 
are David Middour, President; Myer Hexter, 
Treasurer ; Samuel Short, Police Magistrate ; 
William Duke, Street Commissioner ; John 
Fansher, Frank Lohman, T. A. Duey, Eli M. 
Wyatt, John King, and J. G. Pearn, Clerks. 

Schools. — The founders of the villag-e of 
Ashland early looked after the culture, char- 
acter and education of their children. They 
seemed to heartily indorse the idea of plac- 
ing them early under the influences which 
awaken their faculties, inspires them with 
higher principles, and fits them to bear a 
manly, useful and honorable part in the 
world. To take the child in all his ignorance, 



weakness, ami dopen<Jence, exposed to evil 
influences and tc'inptations on every hand, 
and lead him through the devious and danger- 
ous paths of childhood and youth, and finally 
place him upon the battle-field of life, with 
the proper armor of truth and education, is a 
duty and a responsibility that no parent should 
neglect or set aside with indifference for the 
purpose of economy or the care of business, 
for no language can express the folly of that 
economy, which, to leave a fortune to a child, 
starves his intellect and impoverishes his heart. 

The citizens of Ashland, mindful of these 
weighty responsibilities, organized a school 
in 18.59, in an old grocery building, near 
where Mr. John Huston now resides. The 
building had previously been used for a store- 
house, then a saloon, and finally metamor- 
phosed into a school-room. Mr. George 
Coffin had the honor of governing and teach- 
ing the first school within the village limits. 
He laid the foundation to the present school 
system, which, in past years, has reflected so 
much credit upon the town and surrounding 
country. The school was continued iiere till 
the fall of 1862, when it was moved to the 
present site, or near where the present brick 
school building stands. The school was then 
continued in the old building till 1866, when 
the present building of two rooms was erected. 

The directors that designed and directed 
the work were W. S. Douglass, Madison Dad- 
isman and J. M. Jones. But the following 
year tested the strength and durability of the 
walls ; quite a severe storm occurred, and the 
upper portion of the building was totally de- 
stroyed, the walls of the lower story alone re- 
maining. It was not so much in the extra- 
ordinary severity of the storm, as it was in 
the defect of the masonry and architectural 
structure of the building in general. It was 
poorly built and its fall was only a matter of 
time. The community were very fortunate, for 
there was no s hool in progress, or otherwise 

many scholars might have been seriously in- 
jured, if not killed. 

The building was at once repaired, and is 
j^et in a state of good preservation. Mr. .fohn 
Full was the first teacher in the new brick 
building, and did much credit to himself in the 
able manner in which he conducted the school. 

A new building is now in progress, the 
cost of which is estimated at $8,000. The 
citizens of Ashland do not propose to be be- 
hind their neighboring villages in school 
buildings or in general school work. The 
contemplated building will probably be the 
finest and best building in the town, and no 
pains or cost will be spared to make it one of 
the best schools of the county. The di- 
rectors who have the building in charge are 
William S. Douglass, William M. Jones and 
Silas Hexter. The present teachers are John 
Pearn and Carrie Redman. 

Churches. — Ashland M. E. Church was 
first organized in 1857, at what was known as 
the Mi;chell school-house, one mile southwest 
of the present site of the village of Ashlaml. 
The members that constituted the first organ- 
ization are as follows: Asel, Jane, Ann, Mary, 
Maria J., Mahala, and A. C. Douglass, Samuel 
and Lavina Short, John L. Douglass, Mary 
Holaway, Thomas Foxvvorthy, Andrew Welch, 
Nancy and G. W. Foxworthy. The first 
minister that administered to the spiritual 
wants of the settlers, was Rev. W. J. Newm ,n, 
with Rev. G. M. Crays as assistant. Rev. 
George Rutledge was the first presiding 
elder. The society held irregular meetings 
at the above named place for several 3'ears. 
A Sabbath School of some considerable inter- 
est was annually organized, and successfully 
conducted through the year by leading mem- 
bers of the Society. The meetings were usu- 
ally well attended, and the children were well 
represented in the Sabbath School. In 1861, 
the church was re-organized in Ashland, 
with the following members: James and Sarah 




Cresse, Asel, Jane, Ann, Mary, Mahala, and 
A. C. Douo'lass, J. Bdycouit, Basil Green- 
wood and wife, Mary Boycourt, Richard Arn- 
old and wife, Mary Campbell, George Coffin 
and wife, Jane High, John Townseri, Charles 
and George Zirkle, Israel, Mary and Cecilia 
Towsen, Jacob, Mabel, and Margaret Shuck, 
AVilliam Bearden, Samantha Brcady, Francis 
Mitchell, Ellizalieth Bready Hathaway, Leland 
and Addie Mitchell, S. E. Beggs, Trifena 
Greenwood, William W. and Nancy J. Red- 
man, Henry HoUinshead, Eliza, Madison, 
Silva and William Campbell. 

Ashland had been laid out but a few years, 
and a place of meeting was with some diffi- 
culty secured. The first meetings were hold 
in a store or store house, now owned by 
Austin Lewis. These were the first religious 
services held in the village of Ashland. In 
those first devotional Christian meetings, dedi- 
cating the embryo village with its business, 
with its prosperity, and with its prospects to 
God, has not been entirely without fruit. 
There are many happy homes, happy wives, 
and happy children, who owe their pleasant 
circumstances and surroundings to the social 
and religious influences of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. Though there is much 
wickedness in their midst, the friends of 
strong drink are numerous; religion and tem- 
perance have not the desired control, but 
those dedicating prayers were heard, and will 
yet be answered. "Though the mills of God 
grind slowly, yet they grind exceeding 
small; though with patience He stands wait- 
ing, with exactness grinds He all." 

The meetings were continued for a time in 
the above named place; the building being 
needed for other purposes, the society con- 
tinued their regular sabbath services in the 
rooms of the hotel, and shortly after occupied 
the Ashland school house, where regular ser- 
vices were continued till the present church 
was built. During the time the meetings 

were held in the store, hotel and school- house. 
Rev. Jeremiah Mitchell officiated as pastor. 

The present church was built in 1870, at a 
cost of $4,000. It is a handsome frame struc- 
ture, built upon the lots given to the society 
by the village authorities. It is at present 
the finest church edifice in the precinct. It 
was dedicated by the Rev. Mr. Buck, who 
preached a very appropriate and soul-stirring 
sermon. The building committee was made 
up of the following members viz.: James L. 
Beggs, Jesse Newman and J. M. Jones. The 
present trustees are Samuel Hamilton, Edwin 
Beggs, Robert G. Hewit, and W. W. Redman. 
The present membership is 70. The promi- 
nent pastors who have labored for the spiritual 
interests of the society, were E. K. Shields, J. J. 
Garner, Wingate Newman, G. Garner, and E. 
B. Randle, the latter being the present pastor. 

A Sabbath School of more than ordinary 
interest has been successfully kept up in con- 
nection with the church ever since its first 
organization. At present about 100 scholars 
are in attendance, and M. F. Short is the 
present Superintendent. He is a man well 
qualified, and has long been identified as one 
of the most energetic Sunday school workers 
of the county. 

The Church has at times been greatly 
strengthened, and its membership considera- 
bly increased, by the zealous labors of some 
of its prominent pastors. Perhaps the most 
prominent revival in the history of the Church 
was that conducted by the talented E. K. 
Shields, who in the winter of 1875, converted 
nearly one hundred persons. The town be- 
came thoroughly awakened by his stirring and 
pathetic appeals; his sermons, though strong, 
forcible and eloquent, were touching, and 
reached the heart of many an erring sinner. 

The church at present is very prosperous; 
Rev. Mr. Randle is a young man of consider- 
able ability, and is earnest and untiring in 
his ministeral labors. 



Tlie Ashland Catholic Church was first 
organized at the residence of Martin Tyes, in 
February, 1871, by the Rev. Father August 
Joseph Sauer, and the following members 
with their families, professing the Catholic 
faith, were present; Thomas Guley, Edward 
Leahy, Wm. Kennedy, John Martin, Morris 
Burus, Cornelius Hurley, and some others 
whose names the writer was not able to ob- 
tain. The society, after being formally organ- 
ized, as above mentioned, held their next 
meetings in the Ashland school-house, where 
they continued their regular Sabbath services 
for nearly two years, when they purchased 
two lots of Matthew Jones, and built a small 
frame-building, in which the society has held 
its regular meetings till the present time. 
The capacity of this building was too small to 
conveniently accommodate the increasing 
membership of the church, and in 1880 Rev. 
Father T. M. Hogan was appointed to the 
charge, for the purpose of investigating the 
prospects of building a new church. He 
found the members not only financially able, 
but enthusiastic, willing, and ready, to enter 
heartily into the work. Father Hogan is a 
man of stirring energy as well as talent, and 
ably fitted for the work that is now so 
prosperously in progress. His first collection 
in the winter of 1881 amounted to $1,800. 
The fair in January, 1882, under his immediate 
supervision, netted |il,314, making a total of 
$3,114 as a preparatory fund for beginning 
the contemplated church. Fivj lots, located 
in the western portion of ihe town, were at 
once purchased from William Mathers, at a 
cost of $300, and the work of building imme- 
diately begun. The building was begun 
May G, 1882, and it measures ninety-six feet 
in length and forty feet in width, its spire 
seventy-five feet in height. It is a frame- 
fitructure, and when completed will be one of 
the finest churches in the county. Its cost is 
estimated at 85,500. 

The members that constitute the building 
committee are James Collins and Edward 
Leahy. Father Hogan, however, personally 
supervises the work and sees that suitable 
material is used and proper labor emplo3-ed. 

The Church at present has sixty members 
as heads of families. The pastors of the 
Church, from the first organization to the pres- 
ent time, are as follows: J. A. Sauer, Michael 
Ryan, Father O'Hare, and T. M. Hogan. 

The Church has a prosperous outlook for 
the future, and, no doubt, will in time become 
one of the strongest and most permanent of the 
Churches of the country. 

Societies.— Oak Lodge I. O. O. F., No. 341, 
was first organized at Prentice, Morgan Coun- 
ty, Oct. 9, 1867, and moved to Ashland Oct. 
10, 1877. The members that were most en- 
ergetic in originating the movement of organ- 
izing a lodge were the charter members, 
which are as follows, viz.: John L. Douglass, 
John M. Berry, John M. Brockman, John W. 
Daniel, Martin Berry, Sumner Daniel, Samuel 
Hurt, Benjamin Berry, and John W. Crura. 

The first election of officers in the order re- 
sulted in the following choice: John M. Ber- 
ry, N. G., John Crum, V. G., John Brockman, 
Secy., Albert Short, Treas., John L. Douglass, 
Warden, and John Daniel, Conductor. The 
lodge meets every Tuesday evening, and has 
a membership of twenty- three. The present 
officers are: David Middour, N. G., T. A. 
Duey, V. G., Myer Hexter, Secy., John L. 
Douglass, Warden, Eli J. Salsenstein, Treas., 
Silas Hexter, Conductor. 

The following members have been honored 
with the office of Noble Grand, viz. : John 
L. Douglass, Albert Short, John Daniel, Sum- 
ner Daniel, Silas Hexter, Myer Hexter, B. C. 
Elmore, Eli J. Salsenstein, T. A. Duey, Wil- 
liam Duke, and a few others, whose names 
could not be obtained. The lodge, though 
not large, is progressive, and a large member- 
ship is but a matter of time. 





IN order to prepare a complete history of 
the orecinc-t of Arenzville, it will be nec- 
essary to refer to some events which preceded 
its organization. 

By an act of the legislature, passed in 
1837, it was declared that the County of Cass 
should be one of the counties of this State, 
that the county seat should be located at 
Boardstown on the public square, that the cit- 
izens or corporation should raise ten thousand 
dollars to defray the expenses of erecting 
public buildings, payable in one, two and 
three 3'ears from the passage of the law afore- 
said; that an election for county officers should 
be held on the first Monday of August, 1837; 
that Thomas Pogue and Dr. O. M. Long, no- 
taries public in Beardstown, should open and 
examine the poll books in presence of one or 
more justices of the peace, etc. 

This act contai led in it the germs from 
which afterward bitter contentions arose 
about the county seat. 

Cass County having been formed from the 
northern part of Morgan, this last mentioned 
county had retained the south halves of the 
townships north of the line, dividing town- 
ships Sixteen and Seventeen. This caused 
considerable dissatisfaction among the inhab- 
itants of what was generally called "the 

• liy Judge J. A. Arcnz. 

three-mile territory," because the geograph- 
ical situation of the country and the then ex- 
isting settlements, were of such nature as to 
incline the people to prefer to belong to 
the County of Cass. 

Arguments were futile, and it was useless 
to expect to obtain relief by means of a new 
election when it was known by everyone 
that the county of Morgan could outvote 
Cass ten to one upon any question upon 
which both might be interested. 

Finally John W. Pratt, the member in the 
legislature from Cass, with the assistance of 
Francis Arenz, who at that time was one of 
the six members from Morgan and a resident 
within this three-mile territory, succeeded in 
obtaining the passage of an act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly on Feb. 26, 1845, allowing the 
people within said three miles to decide by 
their votes, at an election to be held on the 
first Monday of May, 1845, to which county 
they would prefer to belong. This act further 
provided that all justices and constables in 
Morgan, who may reside in this territory, 
should hold their offices in the county of 
Cass, and for judges of election at the desig- 
nated places of voting; the following persons 
were appointed: David Epler, John A. 
Arenz and Edward W. Turner, at Arenzville; 
Jacob Yaples, George Petefish and Peter Con- 
over, at the house of Henry Price; Jonathan 



C. Bergen, William Montgomery and Z. W. 
Gatton, at Princeton; William Berry, Alfred 
Dutch and John Miller, at the house of Will- 
iam Berry. 

This election resulted in nearly a unani- 
mous vote for Cass County, only a few dis- 
senting votes having been cast. 

John A. Arenz and Charles Coffin, having 
been elected justices of the peace in Morgan 
County, continued to hold their offices in the 
new precinct of Arenzville, with the following 
boundary: commencing on the line between 
Morgan and Cass Counties, at the southeast 
corner of section 33, town 17.11, thence run- 
ning west to the Illinois river, thence along 
said river to the dividing line between sec- 
tions 2 and 11, in township 17.13, thence run- 
ning east on said section line to the northeast 
corner of section 9, township 17.11, thence 
south to the place of beginning. 

The persons voting at Arenzville, for or 
against attaching the three-mile territory to 
Cass County, are as follows: Joseph Thomp- 
son, Thomas Thompson, Jacob Lawrence, 
John Altman, Frederick Lang, G. H. Rich- 
ards, David Epler, William Taj'lor, E. Hardy, 
H. B. Dun, Shad. Dun, Henry Meyer, Will- 
iam Kimball, L. B. Kimbal, Thomas Cook, 
Peter Light, Julius Philippi, Jacob Heinz, Jno. 
Orchard, James Jackson, J. L. Cire, Omar 
Bowyer, David Griffin, James C. Robertson, 

D. Wagner, Joel Stewart, Christ. Lovekamp, 
Frederick Brauer, Charles Sandman, W. H. 
Houston, Peter Arenz, I. P. McLane, Francis 
Mitchell, J. Creson, Goorge W. McLane, 
Jep. Weagle, Jacob Epler, James New- 
man, George* McPherson, Richard Mathews, 
N. Carter, Frederick Lovekamp, Henry 
Howell, Alexander Ferguson, Henry Wede- 
king, Jacob Drinkwater, Frederick Kilver, 
Sq. Houston, H. Lippert, James V. Pierce, 
Charles Cooper, Jeremiah Cawood, Joseph 
Houston, Daniel Sumner, Peter Schaaf, Elder 
Hardy, George A. Treadway, Charles Rob- 

e rtson, Christ. Rahe, John Marshall, Christ 
Grave, Victor Krueger, Henry Goedeking, 
Philip Yaeck, Louis Boy, Isaac Drinkwater, 
Henry Phelps, Silas Miller, Randal Miller, 
Thomas Burnet, Samuel Harris, George Heg- 
ener, Henry Lovekamp, Frederick Fricke, 
Daniel D. Comstock, David Sharp, Isaac 
Houston, Adam Schuman, Frederick Wede- 
king, William Teilkemeier, Herman Love- 
kamp, Frederick Hackman, J. L. Comstock, 
Daniel Dun, Henry Carls, John Carls, Henry 
Krems, John Houston, William Hackman, 
William Meyer, Herman Eberwein, J. F. 
Skinner, George Manuel, Alexander Pitner, 
Henry Detraer, Joseph M. Webster, George 
Gunther, John Thompson, George Diehm, 
Henry Buck, J. C. Carter, John James, Tenna 
James, Nicholas Houston, Theo. Burchird, 
Isaac Coy, Henry Menke, Jacob Menke, 
Frederick Kummel, Charles Merz, John Wies, 
John Doell, Christ. Crowell, John Masch, M. 
P. Bowyer, V. G. Smith, J. A. Arenz, Joseph 
Thompson, Joseph Kircher, G. Hackman. 

There were also inhabitants of the Arenz- 
ville Precinct, who voted at the house of 
Henry Price, which was their nearest voting 
place; among that number were: Oswell 
Thompson, Christ. Crum, James Crum, who 
came from Indiana in 1830, and who is the 
only living person among the first settlers in 
that neighborhood, and nearly 76 years old. 
There also voted Thomas Fozzart, John 
Wood, Charles Jockisch, William Reside, 
Ernest Fletcher, David Wilson, John Dobson, 
John Clark, William Nesbit, Anthony Boston, 
William C. Miller, L. C. Pitner, Thomas 
Nesbit, David Hamacker, J. H. Melone, 
Samuel McClure and others. 

The residences of the people at an early 
day were log houses, having generally one or 
two doors, one little window, or none at all, 
a big fire-place, and the furniture therein was 
generally a table or big chest, a bed and a 
a few split-bottom chairs, which so completely 



covered the floor, that only a few visitors at a 
time could ffet inside the house. The door 
had on such occasions to be 'eft open, so that 
one could at least see who his next neighbor 
was. These cabins were so open and airj-, 
that in winter the snow would blow through 
the cracks, and in summer swarms of mosqui- 
toes would surround the sleeper, and if ^he 
party could not afford the luxury of a bar, he 
must either have the hide of an elephant or 
be entirely insensible to pain. To scare off 
mosquitoes, some people made a big fire of 
weeds before their cabins in the evening, or 
in the fire-place, and under cover of the tre- 
mendous smoke arising, under coughing and 
sneezing, the evenings were passed, and 
thus the nights. Very early rising was the 
order of the day, for as soon as daylight 
faintly approached, every one hurried to leave 
his bed. There was no necessity of calling 
any one to get up; the flies would relieve the 
mosquitoes from duty and perform this work 
effectually. In almost every house, or in the 
shed part of the cabin, was found a spinning- 
wheel and loom, to manufacture the yarn and 
weave the clothing and bedding for family 
use. The women were exclusively the manu- 
facturers of these useful things, and on days 
of gatherings, or on Sundays, when people 
assembled for church purposes, before the 
service commenced, it was spoken of, how 
many yards of jeans, linsey-woolsey, socks, 
etc., had been manufactured by Mrs. So and 
So. The surplus of these articles not used 
for family purposes, were brought to the stores 
for sale, and jeans, socks, knit gloves and mit- 
tens, came in such abundance, that the store- 
keeper could not dispose of the same here, 
and had to ship them to St. Louis, then the 
New York of the western country. 

Among the early emigrants from Germany, 
were many who had been accustomed to good 
society, and had enjoyed the advantages of 
superior education. Some held diplomas from 

colleges and universities. As most Germans, 
they were lovers of music, and some could 
play on one or more musical instruments. 
The pioneer lives in a new country, where 
hard labor, coupled with innumerable priva- 
tions, without amusements of any kind, neces- 
sarily drew that class together, who could not 
bring themselves to the belief that the only 
aim and object in life should henceforth be 
devoted to hard work only, for which they at 
best could only get l)oard and clothing. 
They were generally called the "Latin farm- 

A club, or society circle was formed, and 
social gatherings were had, sometimes at the 
house of one member, sometimes at another. 
Little concerts were gotten up, the instruments 
being piano, violin, flute, and violoncello. 
Dancing parties were occasionally arranged, 
and large hunting parties. A musical band 
was afterwards organized under the leader- 
ship of a Mr. Holtzermann. Tliis social circle 
continued for many years, until finally, when 
the number had increased to such proportion 
that no room was large enough to liold them, 
and some of the original members had by 
death, or removal to other parts of the country, 
made their places vacant, this very pleasant 
and useful club came to an end. 

Whenever an opportunity offered to play 
some practical joke upon a new comer, it was 
eagerly seized. One of these, which caused 
considerable merriment, is herewith narrated: 
Several new emigrants having arrived, some 
of the older settlers went with them into the 
prairie, to select a piece of land for farming 
purposes. A skunk, or pole-cat, was seen in 
the grass, and it was given out that these 
animals were highly prized for their beauty 
and valuable fur, and it ought to be secured 
by all means. To shoot it would d image the 
fur, as it was alleged. One of these new 
ones was told to approach very cautiously 
and cover it with his hat, which ho adroitly 



accomplislietl; but the animal at that moment 
squirted its perfume at him, some of which 
reached his face and bosom. The man ran 
and jumped about, gesticulating wildly witii 
arms and body, vomiting and hallowing, " Oh 
Lord! Oh Lord!" He was asked what was 
the matter, whether he was sick; to which ho 
replied, " Don't you smell that infernal stink, 
or are your noses lined with cast iron? " Al- 
though it was at first pretended that no bad 
smell was noticeable, the hearty laughter of 
some of the party brought him to realize that 
a joke had been practiced upon him. Noth- 
ing could induce him to take the skunk, which 
had then been shot, home with him. He 
picked up his hat, which was a new one, 
carrying it at arms length from his body, 
marcliing sulkily in the rear of the party, and 
when Arenzville was reached, the hat was 
gone too — he had lost it willfully. 

The hunting parties also furnished a great 
many amusing incidents. Game of all de- 
scription, was found in abundance. The ponds 
along Indian Creek were, in the spring and 
fall at times so covered with ducks that no 
water could be seen. 

In the summer of 1844, when the river had 
been the highest ever known, the deer had 
to leave the low land and retreat with their 
young: to the sand-ridges, which were also sur- 
rounded with water. Mr. William Carter, 
then livingnearest to the Illinois river, caught 
a great many fawns, which he penned up, and 
when fully grown, shipped them to St. Louis. 

The eastern portion of the Arenzville Pre- 
cinct is upland and hilly, and from Arenzville 
to the river, fine bottom land, interspersed 
occasionally with sand-ridges. Indian Creek 
is the main water course, into which the 
Prairie Creek empties. The bottom lands 
about Arenzville were covered with the finest 
body of timber that could be found anywhere. 
Od,k, maple, sycamore, backberry and walnut 
trees, were of such gigantic growth, that many 

furnished three saw logs, from three to four 
feet in diameter. 

After the population had increased, the 
precinct was divided, and the western part 
was named Indian Creek Precinct* 

These precincts contain parts of Town 17.- 
11, nearly all of Town 17.12, and Town 17.13. 

In Town 17.11 are the following school- 

District No. 1. Schoolhouse, also a church 
near Monroe. 

District No. 2. Schoolhouse, also a Ger- 
man Methodist Church. 

District No. 3. Two schoulhouses at Arenz- 
ville, also three churches. 

District No. 4. One schoolhouse, also a 
Union church. 

District No. 5. Schoolhouse, near Spring- 

District No. 6. Schoolhouse near Mathews. 

District No. 7. Schoolhouse near Love- 

Township 17.12. 

District No. 1. Schoolhouse near Teilke- 

District No. 2. Schoolhouse near Wagner. 

District No. 3. Schoolhouse near Thomas 

District No. 4. Schoolhouse near A. Schu- 
man; also a German Methodist and Lutheran 

Township 17.13. 

District No. 1. Schoolhouse. 

District No. 5. Schoolhouse near H. Kors- 
meyer; also German Lutheran church near 
Korsmeyer, and a Lutheran church near G. 
H. Jost. 

The Toton of AreuzvHle. — The first lots 
wore survej-ed by J. A. Arenz in 1839, and 

*The precinct of Indian Creek was set off from Arenzville, 
in 1S67, but the history of the two precincts (Arenzville and 
Indian Creek), are so closely interwoven, that the one can 
hardly be written without the other, and all the history per- 
taining to Indian Creek, wlH be lound in this chapter. 



he also made a survey of the town, to be called 
Arenzviile, in 1852, which plot was filed and 
recorded, Auafust 3, 1852. In 1857, the ex- 
ecutors of F. Arenz, made an addition to said 
town, and finally Thomas V. Finney prepared 
a plot of Arenzviile and additions, which was 
recorded October 20, 1870, in Vol. 31, page 
364:, and adopted by the town trustees as to 
the limits of said town, on Mav 22, 1878, and 
organizing the town under the State laws. 
The first organization of the town of Arenz- 
viile occurred July 9, 1853, when the first 
election for town trustees was held. Of the 
board elected, Francis Arenz was the Presi- 
dent; Dr. Julius Philippi, Clerk; Herman En- 
gelbach, Treasurer; John Goebel, Supervisor; 
Charles Heinz, Town Constable. 

A set of ordinances were adopted. 

The present officers of the town of Arenz- 
viile, are: William L. McCarty, President; L. 
J. Wallich, Clerk; R. J. Cire, Treasurer. 
Town Trustees: Joseph Amtzen, Christopher 
French, Daniel F. Fischer, Frederick Bode, 
and J. W. Swope; W. B. Smith, Super- 
visor; Henry Schaefer and James Wood, 
Justices of the Peace in the Arenzviile Pre- 
cinct; and Christopher French and Joseph 
Richards, Constables. 

The funded debt of the town amounts to 
6*4,000. Saloon license is fixed at ^200, and 
beer license at |)40 per annum. 

There are in the town of Arenzviile eighty 
dwelling houses, with about five hundred in- 
habitants. The town is in a flourishinir con- 


dition, and the following mentioned branches 
of business are carried on there: 

Estate of Herman Engelbach — General 
store of merchandise, lumber yard and flour- 
ing mill, with five runs of stones and a capac- 
ity of eighty bbls. of flour per day; also an 

Hysinger & Graham — General store of mer- 
chandise, clothing, boots and shoes. Sale, 
last year, about $30,000. 

J. L. Dyer — General store of merchandize. 

Rigler & Shoopman — Grocery store. 

L. Adams — Grocery store. 

Cire & Cire — Books, stationery and no- 

Swope & Yeck — Drugs and hardware.. 

William L. McCarty & William F. Arenz— 
Drugs and hardware. 

Mrs. C. H. Dahman — Millinery and ladies' 
furnishing goods. 

Mrs. S. E. Cutler — Millinery and ladies' 
furnishing goods. 

George Weeks — Saloon. 

Edward Heinz — Saloon. 

Michael Koerner — Brewery and saloon. 

Charles Rewitz — Shoe and boot maker. 

Henry Schaefer — Shoe and boot maker. 

Joseph Richards — Barber. 

Charles Rewitz, Jr. — Barber. 

W. W. Dickerson — Barber. 

Christopher French — Blacksmith and agri- 
cultural implements. 

John Rogge — Blacksmith and agricultural 

William Dreesbach — Tannery. 

B. F. Weeks— Tinner. 

E. Heinz — Harness maker and saddler. 

H. F. Meyer — -Wagon maker. 

Frederick Nordsick — Wagon maker. 

Henry Joeckel — Wagon maker. 

G. F. Gerbing — Butcher. 

Daniel Fischer — Carpenter and builder. 

C. W. Kuechler — Carpenter and builder, 
and paper hanger and painter. 

L. J. Wallich — Furniture and undertaker. 

M. B. Shewsbery — Painter. 

J. W. Norton — Painter. 

H. E. Rahn — Painter. 

Frederick Bode — Brick yard. 

Joseph Baujan — Brick yard. 

Adam Herbert — Mason and bricklayer. 

Val. Herbert — Mason and bricklayer. 

Joseph Herbert — Masou and bricklayer. 

Adam Herbert — Summer garden. 



AYilliam Kraft — Cooper shop. ' 

J. M. Swope — -Physician. 

John Dorpat — Physician. 

W. B. Rigler — Physician. 

JohnRahn — County assessor and treasurer. 

E. Heinz — Boarding house. 

F. Eastman — Dealer in grain. 
HagenerBros. — Dealer in grain. 

^ A. J. Saylor — Shipper of stock. 

Theo. Launer — Shipper of stock. 

L. J. Wallich — Notary Public. 

C. H. Condit— Notary Public. ' 

There is also a branch of the Peoples' Bank 
at Arenzville: C. H. Condit, Cashier, and A. 
J. Saylor, Vice President. 

The public school at Arenzville is visited 
by about one hundred scholars: T. W. Dyer, 
Principal, with one assistant. There is also 
a private school. The first school-house v^as 
built in 1839, and the present public school- 
house was erected in 18G6. The old school- 
house was also used for church purposes for 
all denominations. 

Churches. — In Arenzville are now three 
churches, belonging to the following denomi- 
nations: The Cumberland Presbyterians, the 
Lutherans, and Catholics. The Presbyterians 
have at present no regular minister. The 
pastor of the German Lutheran is J. Droge- 
miller, and the Catholics are supplied from 

After the new church had been built, in 
1860, by the citizens of Arenzville, there was 
a deficiency of funds to pay the contractor, 
George Gunther, and the building was used 
by all denominations, until finally in 1870, the 
Cumberland Presbyterians became the owners 
by paying the debt. 

The first building used for religious services 
was erected in 1839. It was open to all de- 
nominations on Sundays, but at all other 
times was devoted to school purposes. In the 
year 1844, a German Lutheran church was 
in the Howell neighborhood, an 1 soon after- 

ward a German Methodist church, and in 1870 
a very handsome new Lutheran church was 
erected, and the old one used for a school 
house. R. G. Linker is the pastor of the 
Lutheran church, and Mr. Barth of the Meth- 
odist church. About the year 1875, a Meth- 
odist church was built in the neighborhood of 
L. D. Graham's; also, five or six years ago, 
two German Lutheran churches were erected 
in the neighborhood of the farm of G. H. Jost, 
of which Revs. Bosin and Merschroth are the 

A Union church was lately built near the 
farm of J. Melon e. 

School Hotises. — Among the first school 
houses outside of Arenzville was one near 
Pitner's farm, one on the land of George 
Eng-elbach, and one in the Skinner neighbor- 
hood. There were also schools established for 
teaching in the winter in several neighbor- 
hoods. Some person who was able to read or 
write was engaged as teacher, and when the 
season for farm work commenced again, these 
teachers hired themselves to farmers. 

An Odd Fellows' Lodge was organized in 
1874, and the Order of the United Working- 
men in 187G. Both were organized by L. J. 
Wallich, who moved to Arenzville in 1869. 
He is a native of Pennsylvania, and is 54 years 
old; was also the Superintendent of the Union 
Sabbath School from 1869 to the present 
time, and for many years a Justice of the Peace 
of the precinct, which office he filled worthily 
and with ability. 

Arenzville is a station on the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy Railroad, 11 miles south- 
west of Beardstown. 

At the northern edge of the town of 
Arenzville was a nice locust grove, wherein 
generally the political meetings were held. 
Men, who afterwards became distinguished 
in the State and national councils, have made 
speeches in this grove. Among the names 
are mentioned: Stephen A. Douglas, Jas. A, 



McDougal, John J. Hardin, Newton Cloud, 
John Henry, Richard Yates, Murray McCon- 
nell, Thos. M. Kilpatrick. 

Morgan County then had two Senators and 
four members in the House. In 1836 it was 
customary that the candidates for office of 
both political parties, at an appointed day and 
place came together to address the people, 
speaking alternately, the bank and tariff 
questions furnishing the main subjects, the 
speaker's stand being a large box or a table. 

At such a meeting, in 183G, Mr. McDougal, 
who was somewhat of a dandy, alwaj'S neatly 
dressed, in his speech anathematized tiieWhig 
party, calling the Whigs bankworshipers, 
monopolists, aristocrats, silk stocking gentry, 
etc. Mr. Hardin, who was slovenly in dress, 
and cared nothing whether his shoes had any 
strings to them or not, and who had taken his 
seat on a corner of the speaker's table, seized 
one leg of Mr. McDougal, held it up, point- 
ing out to the crowd the fine prunella shoes 
and silk stockings which he wore, saying that 
the silk stocking gentry strutted upon Demo- 
cratic legs, which raised a tremendous laugh- 

The first funeral at Arenzville was that of 
John Fuschka. He was an old bachelor 
without any living relatives, had drifted 
about in the world from place to place, never 
receiving kind words or treatment, as he told 
it, until he came to Arenzville, and found em- 
ployment with Francis Arenz. By industrv 
and frugal habits he had saved his wages and 
acquired possession of eighty acres of good 
land near the town. His last will and testa- 
ment was writen by J. A. Arenz, to whom he 
offered to bequeath one half of his land, and 
the other half to his brother Francis. It was 
pointed out to him, that neither of them need- 
ed any such gift, and that he would perform a 
generous act of benevolence, and perpetuate 
his memory, by bequeathing his farm to the 
school at Arenzville, to which he cheerfully 

assented. Mr. Fuschka was not captivating 
in appearance, small in size, but he possessed 
a large soul, full of honesty and trustworihi- 
ness. The citizens of Arenzville should honor 
his grave and remember his generosity. The 
farm is now cultivated by Casper Becker, and 
the annual rent goes to the school fund. 

John L. Cire came with Henry Kircher, 
Frederick Diekel, Charles Coupor, Dr. Engel- 
bach,H.Lij)pert, and others, in the latter part of 
1834, having finished his education in the 
seminary at Fulda. He built the first frame 
house in Arenzville, where he kept a little 
store, increasing his business from time to 
time, as circumstances would permit. He 
was Postmaster, Justice of the Peace, Town 
and School officer, for many years. At the 
time of his death, in 18S1, he held the office 
of County Assessor and Treasurer, to which 
he had been elected for the second time. He 
left seven cliildrpn. 

Dr. George Engelbach came here in 1831, 
and bought the farm of Peter Taylor, where 
he resided till his death, in 1811. By pro- 
fession he was a doctor of medicine, but gave 
up his practice and devoted his energies to 
fanning. Having lost his wife by death, he 
brought with him to this country his only 
child, a boy about four years of age, named 
Herman, and his aunt Link. Although un- 
used to farming, by his iron will and industry 
he became in time a pretty good farmer. 

In 1810, he was elected to the office of 
County Commissioner of Morgan County, 
which place he filled with honor to himself, 
and the approval of the people. He was the 
only person of the so called " Latin farmers" 
who held out, all the others having arrived 
at the knowledge that farming was not profit- 
able or pleasant, in the long run, and had 
chosen other employments. 

At the death of Dr. Engelbach, his son was 
left under the care of Henry Kircher, as his 
guardian, and exceedingly well and faithlul 



was this trust performed. Young Encrelbach 
received a very good education, and when he 
had become of age, he made a trip to Europe, 
visiting his relatives there. Upon his return, 
in 1853, he associated himself with Peter 
Arenz, and they bought the mill, store, and a 
tract of land of Francis Arenz, and did a 
very successful business until 1859, when 
that firm was dissolved, and H. Engelbach 
carried on the business thereafter in his own 
name, until his deatli, on December 16, 1880, 
caused by being caught in the machinery 
of his elevator. 

He was a very honorable man, of exceeding- 
ly industrious habits, never idle forone moment 
from morning till night. He left a widow with 
s X children, and a considerable estate. 

In the board of town trustees he has filled 
for several years the offices of President or 

Francis Arenz was born in Blankenbr!rg, 
Province of the Rhein, Prussia, Oct. 31, 1800. 
While yet very young he engaged in mer- 
cantile business, and in 1827 emigrated to 
the United States, making his home for two 
years in the State of Kentucky, following the 
business of merchandising. In the vear 
1829, he went to Galena, Illinois, and was 
for a short tims engaged in the lead trade, 
and then came to Beardstown, where he again 
followed the business of merchandizing and 
dealing in real estate. He very soon foresaw 
that Beardstown, on account of its favorable 
situation and surroundings, was destined to 
have a prosperous future, and used ever}' 
means in his power to draw attention to this 
place and invite emigration. Ho expected t\\i 
best mode to accomplish this purpose to be the 
establishment of a newspapor, and he accord- 
ingly, in 1834, commenced the publication of 
The £eardsioien Chronicle and Illinois 
J3onnty Land Advertiser^ of which he became 
the editor and proprietor, with John B. Fulks, 
as publisher. This paper was then the only 

newspaper west of Jacksonville and Spring- 
field. It could not be expected that at this 
early day such an undertaking would prove 
profitable, and having been published for 
nearly two years at considerable loss, its pub- 
lication was abandoned, after having accom- 
pliahed, however, its object. Beardstown, a 
very good landing point on the Illinois River, 
had become the port of entry for all the goods 
designed for Springfield, Petersburg, Rush- 
ville, McComb, and other places, and from 
here were also shipped the pioduce and pork 
of the surrounding towns and country. 
Heavy loaded teams with merchandise and 
produce, could daily be seen on the roads 
leading to and from Beardstown, and there 
was no point in the ^Yest where more hogs 
were slaughtered than here. 

Durino- the Black Hawk war, Beardstown 
was the general rendezvous for the State 
troops, and Mr. Arenz furnished supplies for 
the army at the request of Gov. Reynolds, 
and also a portion of the arras, which had been 
purchased by Arenz, and originally destined 
for the South America service. 

New roads were surveyed and opened, and 
the plan was conceived by Mr. Arenz, that 
the construction of a canal from Beardstown 
to the Sangamon River, to a place called 
Miller's Ferry, and then by slackwater naviga- 
tion to continue to the neighborhood of 
Springfield, whereby also the bottom lands of 
the Sangamon valley would become drained 
and useful for agricultural purposes, would be 
of great benefit to Beardstown. 

An act of the Legislature was obtained in 
1836, for the incorporation of the BearJstown 
and Sangamon Canal Company, of which 
company Mr. Arenz was elected President, 
and Dr. O. M. Long, Secretary and Treasurer; 
William Pollock, as Engineer, and John A. 
Arenz, as Assistant Engineer, commenced the 
survey on September 1, 1836, and in December 
following a very favorable report was niade ; 



but for want of sufficient means and on account 
of the hard times soon following, this project 

The citizens of Beardstown and the north- 
ern portion of Morgan County had become 
aware that their interest would be better 
promoted by a separation from Morgan, be- 
cause every public improvement, and partic- 
ularly the contemplated railroad, running 
from Springfield, by Jacksonville to Quincy, 
which in their opinion, ought to have been 
located by the way of Beardstown, being the 
nearest and best route between Sprinarfield 
and Quincy. 

Morgan had at that time six and Sangamon 
nine members in the Legislature, and the two 
counties combined, could carry most any 
measure, and Jacksonville and not Beards- 
town, would be the recipient of its benefits, 
for all the members from Morgan were either 
citizens of Jacksonville or vicinity. For 
these and other reasons, a division of the 
county was agitated, and continued until 1837, 
when the county of Cass was formed. In all 
these matters Mr. Arenz was the leader and 
main worker. In the year 1835, he gave up 
his mercantile business in Beardstown, and 
took up his residence on his farm, about six 
miles southeast of Beardstown, which he 
named " Recluze." Here he had a house 
built, which had a good sized room in the 
center, surrounded by shed rooms and a 
porch. It was covered by shingle roof, weath- 
er-boarded and painted, and was built on 
the brow of a high hill, near the edge of 
the timber, commanding a very fine view. 
It was certainly the hottest jilace in the 
summer and the coldest in winter, and the 
house appeared from a distance very much 
like a good sized tent. Here he resided un- 
til 1S39, when he made his permanent home 
at Arenzville. 

In 1833 he had purchased of a Mr. Smart, 
who had a little mill on Indian Creek, that 

mill and a large tract of land in Section 31, 
Township 17, North of Range 11 West, 
where now Arenzville is situated. 

Indian Creek forms here a considerable 
bend, and to increase the volume of water, a 
large ditch was cut between said bend, and 
at the upper end a dam was constructed. A 
new saw mill was built on said ditch, Mr. John 
Savage, afterward Sheriff of Cass County, be- 
ing the builder. It was a diflicult matter to 
keep up the dam, which was constructed of 
timber and earth, no stone being at hand. 
The soil being rich and alluvial, the lainks, 
musk-rats and crawfish would in some way 
undermine or work around the edges of the 
dam, so that at times of high water it would 
be damaged or carried away entirely, which 
required the time of low water for making 

"When the timber yielding saw-logs had 
been consumed, the saw-mill was turned into 
a flouring mill and rebuilt ; but the dam still 
proved a failure, until finally steam power 
was applied. These drawbacks would have 
discouraged most men, but not him, although 
he had several times either sold or leased the 
property, but it always came back to his 
hands, like counterfeit money. 

Mr. Arenz wa,s pretty successful in his 
many enterprises, but in the milling business 
he proved to be a complete failure, and by it 
sunk a great deal of money. 

In 1838 he engaged also in the mercantile 
business, and took in partnership his brother, 
J. A. Arenz, and the name of the firm was F. 
Arenz & Co. This partnership continued for 
about six years, when his brother withdrew 
from the firm. Finally in 1853 ho solil the 
mill and store with a tract of land, to Herman 
Eiigelbach and Peter Arenz, in whose hands 
the concern proved very profitable. 

It seemed to be a great relief to Mr. Arenz, 
when he got rid of his business and obtained 
more leisure time for other matters. Tie was 


very often absent from home, attending meet- 
ings of all sorts, having an object for the im- 
provement of the country. He was very fond 
of politics and a member of the Whig party. 
He liked company, was of a very generous 
and social disposition, and his house was 
scarcely ever without visitors. There was no 
session of the legislature, when he failed to 
go to the capita] of the State, to be on hand 
whenever anything could be accomplished for 
the benefit of Cass County. He was ac- 
quainted with the leading men of the State, 
and many of them were his warm friends. 

In 1852 he was the bearer of dispatches 
from the Secretary of the United States, to 
the embassadors at Berlin and Vienna. He 
was one of the organizers of the State Agri- 
cultural Society at Sjiringfield, on .lanuary 5, 
1853, and was elected one of its vice-presid- 
ents, which position he continued to hold to 
time of his death. 

He also organized, on January 5, 1855, the 
Cass County Agricultural Society, and was 
elected president thereof. 

Men of the stamp and character of Francis 
Arenz, gifted with power to look ahead, and 
shaping matters for paving the way to accom- 
plish praiseworthy results, have to encounter 
and overcome a great many obstacles; such 
men necessarily have and gain many friends, 
but they will also have envious, bitter enemies. 
This was also the case with him. 

Mr. Arenz died April 3, 1856. 

Tiie executive committee of the State 
Agricultural Society, then in session at Spring- 
field, adopted April 3, 1850, the following 
resolutions : 

Jiesolved, That in the death of Francis Arenz, 
late member of this board, it lost a co-worker, 
kind, courteous and able, and always in his 
place; the society, one of its most talented, 
energetic and ardent friends; the State and 

community at large, one of its most honor- 
able, respected, and revered citizens; and 
that while we bow in humble humility and 
awe before Almighty God, we tender our 
most sincere and heartfelt sj^mpathies to the 
family and friends of the deceased, hoping 
that their loss and our loss is his gain. 

liesolved. That a copy of these proceedings 
be sent to the family and friends of the de- 
ceased, to the Prairie Farmer, and to the 
papers in Beardstown, Jacksonville and 
Springfield, with the request that the same be 
inserted in the papers indicated. 

There are now eight children of Mr. Arenz 
living, four boys and four daughters, all of 
whom are married. 

Among the men who contributed their 
share to the development of the town of 
Arenzville, must be mentioned the firm of 
Kircher & Goedeking. 

Mr. Jos. Kircher came in 1834. He had 
received a collegiate education, and settled on 
a farm near Arenzville. When some years 
afterwards Mr. Henry Goedeking arrived, he 
took up his residence on the same farm. Mr. 
Goedeking was a native of Berlin, Prussia, 
where his father was an officer of the royal 

After farming a few years, they arrived at 
the conclusion that such employment was 
neither suitable nor profitable for them, and 
they moved to Arenzville and- engaged in 
mercantile business. About five or six years 
afterward they took up their permanent res- 
idence at Belleville, Ills., where they estab- 
lished a hardware business. Mr. Goedeking ' 
became Mayor of Belleville, and died some 
years ago, never having been married. Mr. 
Kircher is still living and is the father of five 
children, honored and loved by all who are 
acquainted with him. 






A3 we travel along the highways that trav- 
erse this beautiful section of Cass 
County, it is difficult to realize that scarcely 
half a century ago these luxuriant plains were 
peoj)led by a few wandering savages and 
formed part of a vast, unbroken wild, wliich 
gave but little promise of the high state of 
civilization it has since attiined. Instead of 
the primitive log cabin and diminutive board 
shanty, we see dotting the land in all direc- 
tions comfortable and eh-gant mansions of 
the latest stylos of architecture, graceful, su'i- 
stantial and convenient. We see also the 
bosom of the country decked with churches 
of all religious denominations, and well-built 
school-houses at close intervals. The fields 
are laden with the choicest cereals, pastures 
are all alive with numerous herds of the finest 
breeds of cattle, and other stock of improved 
quality, while everything bespeaks the thrift 
and prosperity with which the farmer in this 
fertile division of the county is blessed. 

Princeton Precinct lies on the Southern 
border of the county, and is one of the smallest 
divisions, containing scarce fifteen sections or 
square miles; and a story told of the State of 
Rhode Island, may be applied to Princeton; 
that when the people wish to communicate 
with each other, they do not write letters or 
send messages, but go out in the yard and call 
to them. Although small in extent, it is in 
many respects, one of the best precincts in 
the county. Virginia and Philadelphia Pre- 
cinct bound it on the North, Philadelphia lies 

on the East, Morgan County is its Southern 
boundary, and Virginia Precinct, a narrow 
strip of which extends to the south line of the 
county, bounds it on the West. It lies in 
township seventeen, and in ranges nine and 
ten. Little Indian Creek is its only water 
course of any note, and flows southwest, 
through a corner of the precinct. The land 
lies well, and is all susceptible of cultivation, 
and when first seen by white people, contained 
much valuable timber, as well as prairie land. 
The Peoria, Pekin and .lacksonville Railroad, 
now a divison of tiie Wabash system, traverses 
it from north to south almost throuffh the 
center, with one station. Little Indian, in the 
precinct, from which much stock and grain 
are annually shipped. 

Among the earliest settlements in Cass 
County, made by white people, was that, in 
what now forms Princeton Precinct. From 
old Kentucky, that famous land of blue grass, 
fine stock, pretty women and good whisky, 
came the pioneers of this portion of the coun- 
ty. They were, so far as we could learn, 
Jesse AUard, Nathan Coinpton, James Tilford, 
James Stevenson, Jacob Lorance, Samuel 
Montgomery, Thomas Gatton, William Con- 
over, Alexander Beard, Isaac Mitchell, John 
Epler, and others. These families, with one 
or two exceptions, were, as we said, from Ken- 
tucky, and came hither in the usual pioneer 
style, on horseback, in wagons drawn by 
oxen, and even on foot. Some had left homes 
of affluence behind them, others were poor. 



and all came for the purpose of bettering 
their condition, and laying up something for 
that proverbial rainy day. Mr. Allard came 
about the year 1830, and settled on the place 
now owned by Philip Buracher, of Virginia; 
Nathan Compton arrived previous to 18"28, 
and was one of the pioneer school teachers. 
He married a daughter of one of the Bergens, 
bought a farm, but sold out afterward, and 
moved to Schuyler County. Tilford located, 
in 18;J7, on the place now owned by William 
Black, in Walnut Grove timber, township 
seventeen, range nine. He sold out in 1840, 
and moved away. James Stevenson, with 
five grown sons, Wesley, James, William, 
Robert and Augustus, came in 1839, and 
bought land of Thomas Gatton, who had pre- 
ceded him several years, and had taken up 
land in section twenty-six, township seven- 
teen. He was from Maryland, but had resid- 
ed in Kentucky several years before coming 
to Illinois. He opened one of the first stores 
■within the present limits of Cass County, and 
was long a prominent business man. He has 
a son, Z. W. Gatton, residing in Virginia, 
who for years has been identified with the 

Mr. Stevenson was a native of Virginia, 
but liki; Mr. Gatton, had emigrated to Ken- 
tuckj' in the pioneer period of the dark and 
blood)' ground, where he was forced to con- 
tend with the Indians for his very life. He 
bought land, as already stated, from Thomas 
Gatton, upon which he settled and upon 
which he died in 1851, at the age of ?4 years. 
His son, William Stevenson, now lives on the 
place and is noticed in another chapter, as 
one of the most extensive breeders of short 
horn cattle in this section of the State. Lor- 
ance was originally from North Carolina, but 
like hundreds of other early settlers in South- 
ern Illinois, ha, had stopped for a time in 
Kentucky. He located on North Prairie, on 
section 25, township 17 and range 10, on the 

place now owned by Wm. Hemerron, who 
also lives on it. Mr. Lorance has one son still 
living in this region. Montgomery was from 
Adair County, Ky., and came here in 1839, 
locating on section 30, township 17, on the 
place where his son now lives. John Epler 
came here from Clark County, Ind., about 
the year 1831-32. In another department 
will be found an extensive sketch of the Ep- 
ler family, and anything said here would be 
hut a repetition. Mr. Conover settled at 
Walnut Grove in 1832, on the place now owned 
and occupied by George Virgin. Beard set- 
tled here in 182G, on the farm now owned by 
his son, George Beard, of Virginia. Isaac 
Mitchell was from Logan County, Ky., and 
settled on the place in 1837, where Robert 
Taylor now lives. 

Other pioneer settlers in township 17 and 
range 10, and many of whom were in what is 
now Princeton Precinct, were Peter Conover, 
Jacob Yaples, John Dorsey, a man named 
Chambers, George Bristow, a widow Cantrel, 
a widow Richardson, and Thomas Hanby. 
These were all among the earliest settlers in 
this region, and some of them will be further 
mentioned in the history of Philadelphia Pre- 
cinct. A few years later the " Imlian Creek 
Settlement," as it was called, and a part of 
which still remains in Morgan County, and in 
the edges of Virginia and Philadelphia Pre- 
cincts, was further augmented by the arrival 
of the following pioneers: Jacob Epler, John 
Hiler, Charles Beggs, a man named Nancesy, 
Rev. John Biddlecome, William Kinner, a 
widow named Pratt, with four stalwart sons, 
and several more, whose names are forgotten. 
The first of these pioneers settled in the tim- 
ber, avoiding the prairie as they would a 
desert. It was not until all the timber-land 
had been taken up that emigrants began to 
venture out on the prairies. Single families 
tried it at first, then they came in groups of 
three or four, locating at difi"erent places, 



until soon the prairie was thickly dotted with 
pioneer dwellings. Soon school houses were 
built, churches were organized, mills were 
erected, and the foundation laid for a pros- 
perous community, where shortly before had 
been a desert-prairie and wilderness. This 
remarkable development has been brought 
about within a comparatively short time, for 
looking back through the vista of fifty odd 
years, these broad plains were the grazing 
places of numerous herds of wild denizens 
of the forest and prairie, and the camping- 
ground of savages. Now the rich soil is 
broken everywhere, woods have fallen, pleas- 
ant drives, well-tilled fields, beautiful orchards 
and delightful homes, checker the view, speak- 
ing volumes for the enterprise of the pioneers 
of this portion of the county. 

The people in the early days lived in the 
most frugal manner — corn bread and wild 
meat being the principal diet during the 
first years. The clothing was cheap, and 
that for both sexes was made at home by the 
pioneer mothers, who were no more afraid of 
work than their husbands. In the words of 
Eugene Hall — 

" They worked with the spindle, they toiled at the 
Nor lazily brought up their babies by hand;" 

and all members of the household, male and 
female, men, women and children, were 
usually employed in some part of the manu- 
facture of this family clothing. It is still a 
mystery how the people lived and prospered 
in those early days. The manner of cultivat- 
ing the crops was so simple, the tools so dif- 
ferent and rude, and the distance to market 
so great, and the prices so incredibly low, 
that we wonder how any one, even with the 
strictest economy, could prosper at all. The 
farmers of to-day, who have reduced agricul- 
ture to a science, and cultivate their lands al- 
most entirely by machinery, know little of 

what that same work required here fifty or 
sixty years ago. The farmer now would 
expect to starve if he had to sell his corn 
at from six and a-half to twelve and 
a-half cents per bushel, and wheat for twenty- 
five cents, and haul it to St. Louis or Chicago, 
even at those figures. But times have 
changed, and the world, or the people who 
inhabit it, have grown both older and wiser. 

The emigrant, when he locates in a new 
country, generally thinks of a mill, as the first 
improvement. He can do without fine clothes 
and many other luxuries, but he can not get 
along very well without bread. The first mill 
of which we have any reliable account, was 
built by John Epler, and was of the most 
unique and primitive style. This mill was 
run by horse power, but geared in a peculiar 
manner. Mr. Epler had cut off smoothly, a 
stump, into which he bored a hole. Upon 
this he fastened a shaft, which had a wheel at 
the other end, running upon a circular plat- 
form, and from this singular arrangement a 
shaft extended, which operated the mill. It 
was a great benefit to the community, and 
people came from the Sangamon country, 
camping all night, in order to secure the first 
turn in the morning. With a good team the 
buhrs would grind from one to two bushels 
of corn per hour. This was the way the 
pioneers had of getting their bread. " In the 
sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread," was a 
text they could all appreciate. But other 
mills were built in the neighborhood as the 
increasing population demanded, and this 
trouble of procuring meal was forever set at 

The first school house in the precinct, and, 
in fact, in all that region of country, was a log 
building, about 18x20 feet, of the usual pioneer 
type, and was built in the fall of 1833. In 
this old log school house, where the floor 

"Was naked earth, with weight-pole roof. 
That seldom proved quite water-proof; 



With slabs for seats, with rough split-pegs, 
In two-incli auger-holes, for legs," 

the youth of the neighborhooJ learned their 
A B C's. It was constructed mostly of bass 
wood, and finally was treated to a plank floor, 
a shingle roof, and was heated by a stove, the 
first stove ever in this part of the county. It 
was known far and wide as Walnut Grove 
schoolhouse, in consequence of standing near 
a ))ody of walnut timber, on section tliirty-one, 
township seventeen, and range ten. Joel C. 
Robins<in was one of the first teachers in it; 
he taught there in 1835-.36, and afterward went 
to Kentucky, near Louisville, where he was 
shot in a difficulty with a pupil. Among those 
who attended at this old school house, were 
the children of Samuel Montgomery, John 
Epler, Isaac Mitchell, Jacob Lorance, James 
Stevenson, Nathan Compton, Charles Beggs, 
and oth-ers. The house stood and was occu- 
pied for school purposes until June, 1844, 
when it was blown down in a wind storm. 
Previous to this, however, other school houses 
had been erected in the precinct, and the loss 
of this pioneer relic was not, after all, a serious 
backset to the cause of education. 

School houses now dot the country through- 
out the precinct, and the facilities for receiving 
a good common school education are excel- 
lent. For the usual term each year, good 
schools are taught by competent teachers, 
and every means employed to furnish knowl- 
edge to the masses. 

The first church building erected in the 
precinct of Princeton, was at the village of 
Old Princeton, in 1835, and was Missionary 
Baptists. Afterward a Christian Church was 
built about 1838, but both of these have past 
away, and there are now but two churches in 
the precinct, viz.: Zion Presbyterian, and 
the Swedish Church at Little Indian. 

Zion Presbyterian Church first held its ser- 
vices in Zion brick school house, and in Jacob 
Lorance's bam, which was sufficiently large 

for church service, having a partition wiih 
folding doors in it. The church building 
now standing, is owned jointly by the Metho- 
dists and Presbyterians, who use it in com- 
mon. The Presbyterian Church Society was 
organized April 35, 1830, by Rev. J. M. Ellis, 
then living at Jacksonville. The first elders 
were: Jacob Lorance, Benjamin Workman, 
and Samuel Montgomery. Rev. W. J. Fraser 
was the first regular pastor. Among the first 
regular members were: Jacob and Isabella 
Lorance, Delilah Richards, Benjamin and 
Margaret Workman, Mary Tilford, Samuel 
and Mary Montgomery, James and Harriet 
Stevenson, Daniel and Susan Stone, Morgan 
and Sarah Green. The Methodist Society 
was not organized until some years later. 

Old Princeton. — The village of Princeton 
was laid out by .Jonathan Berger, February 
19, 1833, and was the second town laid out 
in what is now Cass County. It was located 
on the east half of the southeast quarter of 
section 30, township 17, range 10, and was, 
at the time it was laid out, in Morgan County. 
Bergen, the proprietor of the town, was one 
of the early settlers of this section, and a 
stirring, energetic man. 

The first goods sold at Princeton, was by 
Stephen Mallory, or the firm of Mallory & 
Lewis, who opened a store about 1836, sev- 
eral years before the town was laid out. Mal- 
lory sold out and returned to Kentucky, 
whence he came, and Lewis carried on the 
business until 1833-34, and then sold out to 
Talraage, who shortly after sold to Parrot & 
Alcott. After continuing the business about 
three years, Alcott bought out Parrot and 
took Jacob Bergen in as a partner, about the 
year 1836. Alcott retired about 1840, and 
Mr. Bergen continued the business up to 
1869. Win. Kinner opened a stock of goods 
at Princeton about 1838-39, and Wm. Brown 
started a store there also about 1840 and took 
Kinner's stand. Thus Princeton becama 



quite a thriving little town, and did a large 
business. Thomas Cowan and Henry Murray 
were early blacksmiths of the place. Wm. 
Brown was the first Justice of the Peace in 
this whole section of country, and was com- 
missioned as such in 1840. The town in- 
creased until at one time it had some two 
hundred inhabitants. 

A wool carding machine was started by 
John Camp, about 183G, and was operated for 
several years. It had a tread-wheel, and the 
power was furnished by oxen, placed upon 
this large wheel. About the year 18-tl it 
was removed to Virginia, where it did good 
service for a number of years. Clifford Wear, 
a wagon-maker, plied his trade for a long 
while ; a shoe-shop was also carried on by a 
man whose name is now forgotten. Zirkle 
Robinson carried on tailoring, and all other 
branches of business common in a country 
town were established. But the time came 
when it began to decline, and as steadily as 
it had grown, it now faded away. The town 
of Virginia was rising into a place of note ; a 
railroad was built which left Princeton out 

in the cold, and it was finally vacated April 
31, 1875. Princeton is blotted from the map, 
and may now rank with the lost cities of the 
plain; — Sic transit gloria, etc. 

Little Indian Village, or Station, is located 
on the Peoria, Pekin & Jacksonville Railroad, 
about four miles south of Virginia. It stands 
on the northwest quarter of section 35, town- 
ship 17, range 10, and is but little else than 
a shipping station on the railroad. It has 
never been laid out as a village, and, indeed, 
makes no pretensions to that dignity. Jacob 
Epler was the first white man to locate near 
the place, and afterward James Stevenson 
settled there. A burying-ground was laid 
out very early, where the water-tank of the 
railroad now stands. Human bones were 
exhumed, when the road was being built, and 
were buried at Zion Church, about a mile 

Little Indian merely comprises a railroad 
station, a shipping point, one store and a 
Swedish church. Mr. Stevenson is the agent 
of the railroad here, and has been ever 
since its completion and opening to business. 






' It was all a wilderness, a wild waste." 

SUCH are the expressions that everywhere 
meet the ears of the inquirer seeking in- 
formation of the early settlement. To the 
generation of to-day the phrase has become 
trite and nearly meaningless, but the thought- 
ful observer can not fail to notice that it is far 
otherwise to the man who knew the country 
when it was houseless, roadless and pathless— 
" Where nothing dwelt but beasts of prey. 
Or men as fierce and wild as they." 

The present generation knows nothing of 
trackless forests, unbridged streams, pangs of 
hunger, days of struggle and nights of fear. 
We can not get any degree of experience of 
pioneer life in our day; no adequate idea can 
possibly be presented; it is lost only as we see 
some of the effects of those early trials and 
hardships in the wrinkled brows, scarred hands, 
and tottering limbs of a few of the old pio- 
neers, who leaning upon their staffs in the 
helpless infirmities of age, are to be spared 
but a few short summers at most. We are 
apt to forget in the whirl and hum of the 
nineteenth century, with one invention hurry- 
ing another out of date, that there ever was 
any necessity for pioneers. The man who 
opens up a new country to-day, can not be 
called a pioneer in the true sense of the word. 
In seeking a home in the West, the traveler 
sits in a palace coach instead of an ox cart, 
and is hurried over streams and rivers, through 
State after State, with the swiftness of an 
eagle's flight; his pockets are crammed with 

*By J. L. Nichols. 

maps and information of the great railroad 
corporations, which offer him land on a long 
time and easj- payments. Deciding to buy 
land, his household goods and a house framed 
and ready to be put up, are shipped almost to 
his door (!) at reduced rates, while improved 
implements and all the advantages of a 
pioneer experience of a hundred years, 
unite to make his work effective. In ten 
years he is in the center of civilization, com- 
bining more privileges than the proudest and 
oldest community of New England knew, 
when the pioneers of this land were young. 
What difficulties they encountered, and with 
untiring fortitude overcame the hardships that 
so numerously were heaped upon them, it is 
the purpose of these pages to relate. When 
they sought the untried country of the West, 
the}' launched out like a mariner, on an un- 
known sea; following a wagon track till that 
ceased, they passed the frontier and entered 
an unmapped wilderness, guided only by 
compass and deed; arriving at their destina- 
tion without protection or shelter, they built 
a house of such material as the scrubby tim- 
ber permitted, unassisted by mill or machin- 
ery. Their log house, with mud to make it 
tight, the rude doors, and for a time, win- 
dowless, and chimneys made of a tottering 
mass of mud and sticks, the remains of which 
here and there are seen, was their home. 
The fitful flame of the hickory was their light 
and fire, the babbling brook furnished them 
water till the spade penetrated the unsounded 
depths, securing a purer source of God's 
sparkling liquid. But all this is of the past. 



About us are gathered the fruits of their toil 
in a civilization to which the world elsewhere 
is a stranger, and, looking back along the 
way over which the pioneers have strolled and 
toiled, we can say with a full and overflowing 
heart of gratitude, " Well done, thou good 
and faithful servants." 

The land-marks of pioneer times are fast 
passing away with those that placed them, 
and all is change. 

Richmond Precinct is bounded on the north 
by Sangamon river, which in pre-historic 
times formed a broad surface of bottom land on 
each side of its present course, and there is but 
little doubt that the original channel once ex- 
tended from bluff to bluff, and as the waters 
gradually settled and were withdrawn, the 
present bottom lands were gradually formed. 

In 1883, the water, owing to the heavy 
rains of the winter and spring, covered the 
entire bottoms, leaving scarcely a perceptible 
spot above the vast ocean of water; in conse- 
quence of which a large portion of the bottom 
land the past year has been without cultiva- 
tion. These overflows are not uncommon, 
however, for they occur nearly every year, but 
not to such a height, bringing so much ruin 
and destruction to the settlers, as the past 
year. The water during the year was higher 
than it was ever known by any of the settlers, 
but Shick Shack, a chief of the Pottawatomie 
tribe, pointed out a high water mark to Philip 
Hash, one of the first settlers, that reached 
nearly one third of the way up Shick Schack 
Knob, one of the highest hills of Richmond 
Precinct; whether he saw this himself or 
whether it was simply a matter of tradition, 
can never be ascertained; but this we know, 
should such a flood as that occur at the present 
day, every building on the bottoms, and Chand- 
lerville with all her trees, bridges and im- 
provements, would be swept down the lUi- 
"ois River, and not a trace of human existence 
left in the course of the torrent. 

The surface of the precinct we find is con- 
siderably broken after entering what is called 
the upland; there seems to be nothing but a 
succession of hills, as though some mighty 
force had collected those majestic heaps and 
then promiscuously threw them together, some 
falling upon each other, and others sparingly 
strewn over the remaining surface. These 
hills may be called the Alps of Illinois, with 
a scenery as beautiful as any elevated upland 
in the State. Amid these apparent mountains 
where a half century ago the foot of a white 
man iiad scarcely trod, there are now beau- 
tiful homes, cultivated fields and grazing 

The farmer, long toiling in subduing his 
fields, improving his buildings, would not ex- 
change his hilly home for the sunniest and 
fairest of Illinois prairie; the hills are no 
longer obstacles to the owners and tillers, but 
a source of pleasure and satisfaction. Many 
of the farmers have become wealthy, some 
have retired from active labor and removed to 
some quiet village; others are quietly enjoying 
life on the scenes of their pioneer struggles. 

The timber, where in an early day there was 
bvit little, is now quite numerous. Puncheon 
Grove, about tlie centre of the precinct, was 
the principal source of timber from which 
many of the earlier cabins were built, and is 
yet one of the best localities for good useful 

In the Spring of 1836, Mr. Philip Hash, be- 
ing of a roving, hunting turn of mind, found 
himself on the bottom lands of the Sangamon 
river, as the first white settler. He hastily 
constructed a temporary cabin, and at once 
began preparing foracrop. The Indians were 
then his only neighbors, and it was here that 
his little son, Zaohariah Hash, now one of the 
oldest and most esteemed citizens of Chand 
lerville, first made his acquaintance with 
them, and learned considerable of their lan- 
guage. The following year a man by the 



name of Richard Chowning came from the 
South and located near the cabin of Mr. Hash, 
on the land now owned by the widow Tan- 
trum. He having a large family of boys, be- 
gan at once the cultivation of tobacco, a crop 
which he had always cultivated as a business. 
He sold his crop at Springfield at a handsome 
price, and after continuing on the bottoms a 
few years, he moved to parts unknown, none 
the poorer for his short sojourn on the Sanga- 
mon Bottoms. 

Robert and Eaton Nance and Peter Dick, 
with his two sons, Levi and Henry, were 
added to the little colony about 1S"^9, and 
others soon followed, among which were John 
Witley, .lohn Lucus, .James Fletcher, Thomas 
Jones, Joshua Nance and Gary Nance. This 
made up a happy, lively and prosperous 
colony. But previous to the coming of the 
last named settlers, the community were con- 
siderably agitated and scared over the float- 
ing reports that the Indians were preparing 
to attack and massacre the settlers; they all 
left their cabins and took refuge at Clary's 
Grove, where a few settlers had located, but 
after remaining three weeks in a military 
state of defense, they all returned to their 
deserted firesides and resumed their usual 
labors. The Indians were of a friendly 
character, and never molested the settlers ex- 
cept by the annoyance of begging, which 
they practiced to no small extent. To show 
their native customs in heaping drudgery 
upon their wives one incident will suflice. 
An Indian and his squaw came to the cabin 
of Philip Hash, when Zachariah was a boy, 
and begged a bushel of corn; being very 
cold and wintr}', Mr. Hash gave them the 
corn, and invited them into the cabin to shell 
it, that it might be less bulky and burden- 
some to carry. They both sat down upon the 
floor, before the fire-place, and silently began 
their work; the Indian, after shelling an ear 
or so, broke the silence with an " och," and 

pointing to the palm of his hand, as though 
it hurt, said to Mr. Hash: "Hurt Indian; 
squaw no hurt;" and she without a word, or 
without even lifting her eyes from her work, 
completed her task, shouldered the sack of 
shelled corn, and then followed her master on 
a dog trot homeward toward the wigwam. 

It is said by some of the early settlers, that 
there was a custom prevailing among the 
Indians that when they married, the Indian 
presented his wife with the shank-bone of a 
deer, and she in turn presented her husband 
with an ear of corn, the ceremony indicating 
that he will furnish the meat, and she the 

The first crops that the early comers prin- 
cipally raised, were mostly wheat, buck- wheat, 
sod-corn, cotton and melons ; the latter article 
was very largely raised. In those days people 
buried them some four feet in the sand, kept 
them till Christmas, when they had, what was 
called their melon-breakings," which were 
among the liveliest entertainments of pioneer 

Cotton was considerably cultivate<l till 
after the big snow in 1831. Previous to that 
people raised enough for their summer cloth- 
ing, and plenty for their quilts and bedding 
in general. 

People in an early day did nearly all their 
teaming and farming with oxen. Many of 
the settlers were not able to own horses, and 
those that were, were not able to use them 
during the greater part of the day in the fly 
season, as these green-heads were so numer- 
ous that a horse could not resist them, but 
would lie down and roll in the harness, or 
under the saddle, or do anything to shake off 
the blood-sucking swarms that would literally 
cover its body. 

Rattlesnakes at this time were very num- 
erous on the bottom lands. Mr. Hash had 
one field of oats in which he killed over forty 
I of the'se venomous reptiles. They were so 



iium ;rous that he was unable to secure har- 
vest help, and consequently had to do it all 
himself, and did it without accident or harm, 
though often binding bundles under which 
the drowsy rattlers lay coiled. 

Till 1833, there was no physician nearer 
than Beardstown or Petersburg. Dr. Chand- 
ler then came and did a humane work among 
the early comers. He traveled night and 
day, giving all of his patients the same care 
and attention; whether rich or poor, with or 
without money; a noble, generous man was 
Dr. Charles Chandler. 

Many of the first settlers did not remain 
long, coming in from eastern and southern 
States and settling in a wild country; poorly 
clothed and more poorly sheltered, they 
would be taken with the ague or other fevers, 
and as soon as they could close out their in- 
terest in the land and harvest their crop, they 
departed wiser, but not richer than they 

The first mill patronized, was a mill run by 
horse power, on Rock Creek, a Mr. Bowen 
owning the mill, and also a cotton gin. Jn 
those days there was no bolted flour; every 
patron bolted their own, or ate it as the 
chronic dyspeptics of to-day do, bran and all. 
There was little farm machinery used; sowing, 
reaping, mowing and threshing, was all done 
by the muscle of men and sturdy youths, who 
labored for health as well as wealth. Grain 
was hauled to Beardstown or to Petersburg; 
cattle were driven often to St. Louis, a dis- 
tance then averaging from 130 to 170 miles, 
as the roads were often impassible in places, 
and much time and distance taken to go 
around in search of better and more passable 

The only road in Richmond Precinct in 
1833, except here and there a lone wagon 
track, was the Bottom Road, leading from 
Beardstown to Petersburg. 

The second road was called the State Road, 

le;iding to Springfield and going through 
Puncheon Grove. 

The settlers of 1833 were Philip Hash, 
James Hickey, Henry McHenry, John Hamby, 
John Taylor, Peter Dick, Jesse Armstrong, 
Wm. P. Morgan, and C. J. Wilson. These 
pioneers in their war with nature were not 
entirely without amusement, religious wor- 
ship or educational training for their children. 

Mr. Zachariah Hash tells us that it was not 
uncommon to see a young man with his girl 
start out with an ox team and go eight or ten 
miles to a dance. Cotton pickings, carding 
and spinning parties, were very common, the 
girls working all day, and the boys coming 
in the evening to participate in the dance, 
and to see that their girls got home safely. 
They did not then have halls and waxed floors 
to glide over in whirling the dizzy waltz ; it 
was a puncheon-floor, with such openings 
that often the broad foot of the pioneer girl 
would slip through or become entangled, so 
it became necessary for her partner or lover 
to show his gallantry by helping her out. For 
many winters a negro by the name of Robert, 
from Tennessee, was the noted musician of 
the Sangamon Bottom. The sweet strains 
of his violin roused the most indifl'erent, and 
brought the heaviest of cow-hide boots quick 
and strong down upon the heavy timbered 
floor. Such was the dance of the pioneer. 

In 1839 or 1830, the first religious assembly 
that ever convened in Richmond Precinct, 
was at the residence of Philip Hash, Reddick 
Horn, an old pioneer minister, preaching. 
Revs. Levi Springer and Peter Cartwright 
also quite frequently visited the settlement 
on their spiritual missions, but Rev. Reddick 
Horn was quite a constant visitor of the settle- 
ment for many years. 

Meetings were held in the cabins of the 
settlers till Chandlerville churches were or- 
ganized, when all church-believing and 
church-going people attended there. 



The second church society that was organ- 
ized in the precinct was at Big Puncheon 
Grove, and the first settlement around the 
vicinity of that grove was made about 1830. 
In 1838 we find the following families in that 
neighborhood: John Lucus, George Thatcher, 
Joshua and Robert Nance, John Chesser, 
Joseph Goble, John Howton, John Bingley, 
Bartlet Conyers and Elijah Watkins. 

The Puncheon Grove Baptist Church, 
sometimes known as the Iron Side Baptist, 
was first organized by the religious zeal of 
Wm. Watkins, Thomas Plasters, Daniel Atter- 
berry, Wm. Armstrong, JamesWatkins, Elijah 
Watkins. The society held their first meet- 
ings at private houses, till 1842, when they 
built a church near the site of the present 
school house. As to the cost, it is difficult 
to say, for the members of the society con- 
tributed miscellaneously money, labor, lumber, 
timber, etc., till the religious edifice was com- 
pleted. Cyrus Wright was their first pastor, 
and continued till his death; since then no 
regular services have been held. 

The church was used for school purposes as 
soon as completed ; elections, law- suits, etc., 
were held within the sacred sanctum, and 
consequently, considering the numerous uses 
to which its doors were open, it did not last 
very long, and has since been torn down, and 
its decayed timbers replaced with a house of 

No Sabbath school was ever conducted in 
connection with the church, as the Old School 
Baptists do not believe in that system of 
teaching and propagating religion. 

One peculiarity about the members of this 
church, was their extreme enthusiasm, but 
though extreme in their religious views, they 
were in a secular sense among the best and 
most honest citizens in the precinct; at present 
there are but four male members remaining 
out of their former number of forty. 

Schools. — The first school of the precinct 

was a rude log house built on the Sangamon 
Bottom, on the Beardstown and Peters- 
burg Road, on the land now owned by the 
heirs of Joshua Morse; the land was then 
owned by Henry McHenry, who was most 
active in planning and carrying out the enter- 

The first scholars that attended that school 
are now gray headed old men and women 
whose shadows are fast lengthening in the 
path of life, and nearing the eternal sunset. 
Many already have gone; the rest soon must 
follow. C. J. Wilson, one of the first schol- 
ars, retains in memory the names of but few 
of his school mates, John Hash, Pollie Dick, 
Henry Taylor, James and Levi Dick, and the 
children of Absalom Bowling are all he can 

The school was taught by an Englishman who 
came from the East, by the name of James L. 
Grant. He was a man of excellent intellectu- 
al understanding, a good scholar and good fel- 
low, and taught a good school, but he had one 
weakness, and that was taking a little too 
much grog under very frequent circumstances. 
Drinking spirits in these days was considered 
a necessary matter of health. Every farmer 
kept it in the pressing seasons of work, and 
many of the farmers keeping a little copper 
still, where they manufactured their own 
whisky and supplied their neighbors. Then 
it was a pure article that men drank, now the 
man that desires his morning dram must pour 
into his stomach four parts of poisonous com- 
pound to one of pure whisky. No wonder 
we have drunkards. The school continued its 
progressive work, till the present building 
known as the Dick school house was erected. 
Girls in the first schools of the country 
brought their work and knitting just as much 
as their books. They were expected to im- 
prove their noon and recess in preparing 
stockings for the family, and doing such other 
work as could be conveniently carried to tho 



bouse of instruction. Such were our pioneer 

There are now four district schools annually 
taught in the precinct. The Dick school 
bouse has already been mentioned. The 
Lynn school, Pontiac school, and Green Ridge 
school, are the other three. 

Shick Shack Knob, known as the summer 
resort of an Indian chief of the same name, 
was first entered by James Hickey, and ho 
purchasing other lands adjoining, found it nec- 
essary to have it surveyed that his boundary 
lines might be more definitely located. He 
being acquainted with a young surveyor in 
Menard county, by the name of Abraham 
Lincoln, had him come and survey the land; 

Shich Shack Knob consequently can never be 
forgotten. The land will ever be sacred to 
the memory of the martyred President. 

The business of the precinct is of a very 
limited character outside of farminar and 


stock raising. 

Henry T. and Abner Foster kept store 
for a time on the land since owned by John 
P. Dick; at that time the mail was distributed 
there and the post-office was known as Rich- 
mond. Their goods were hauled from Beards- 
town and Petersburg; they kept a good stock 
for that early day, and continued a successful 
business for several years. They closed out 
in 1837 or 1838 and Richmond ceased to be 
the centre of pioneer trade. 





FANCY yourself standing upon yonder 
swell of the ground fifty years ago. It 
is June, say; your senses are regaled with the 
beauty of the landscape, the singing of the 
birds, the fragrance of the air, wafting 
grateful odors from myriads of flowers of 
every imaginable variety of size, shai^e and 
hue, blushing in the sunbeam and opening 
their petals to drink in its vivifying rays. 
While gazing enraptured, you descry in the 
distance a something moving slowly over the 
prairies, and through the forest and among 
the gorgeous flowers. As the object nears 
you, it proves to be a wagon, a "• prairie 
schooner," drawn by a team of oxen, contain- 
ing a family and their earthly all. They are 
moving to the "far West" (now almost the 
center of civilization), in quest of a home. At 
length they stop, and, on the margin of a grove 
rear their lone cabin, amid the chattering of 
birds, the bounding of deer, the hissing of ser- 
pents, and the barking of wolves. For all the 
natives of these wilds look upon the intruders 
with a jealous eye, and each in his own way 
forbids any encroachments upon his fondly- 
cherished home, and his long and undisputed 
domain. From the same point of observation, 
look again in mid-summer, in autumn, and in 
winter. And lo! fields are enclosed, waving 
with grain, and ripening for the harvest. 
Look yet again, after the lapse of fifty years, 
and what do you see? The waste has become 
a fruitful field, adorned with ornamenal trees, 
enveloping in beauty commodious and even 
elegant dwellings. In short, you behold a 

land flowing with milk and honey (figuratively 
speaking), abounding in spacious churches, 
schools and academies, and other temples of 
learning; a land of industry, and wealth, check- 
ered with railroads and public thoroughfares. 
A land teeming with life and annually send- 
ing off surplus funds with hundreds, not to 
say thousands, of its sons to people newer 
regions beyond. A land whose resources 
and improvements are so wonderful as to 
stagger belief, and surpass the power of de- 
scription. It reads like a magic story, like a 
tale of enchantment, and yet, it is the true 
history of our own country — our great West. 
Philadelphia Precinct lies east of Virginia, 
and is one of the most recently created in the 
county. It was made from a part of Oregon, 
Lancaster, Virginia and Princeton Pre- 
cincts, and embraces about twenty-four 
square miles. Like Virginia and Princeton, 
it is a fine body of land, lies well, and was 
originally both prairie and timbered land, the 
prairie predominating. It is bounded on the 
north by Virginia and Oregon Precincts; 
on the east by Ashland (formerly Lancaster); 
on the south by Morgan County; on the west 
by Princeton and Virginia Precincts, and lies 
in township 17, and range 9, west of the third 
principal meridian. It has but few natural 
streams, and they are very small. Little Indian 
and Cox Creeks are all that are laid down on 
the map. The Springfield division of the Ohio 
and Mississippi passes through the precinct, 
and the station affords a shipping point for the 
surplus products of the surrounding country. 



Philadelphia Precinct, as we have said, is 
but a newly created division of the county. It 
was organized September 6, 1876, and was 
formed principally out of what was formerly 
known as Lancaster Precinct, though a small 
portion was taken from each, Virginia, Ore- 
gon and Princeton Precincts. The remainder 
of Lancaster was called Ashland, and thus 
old Lancaster Precinct was blotted out of 
existence, just as whole States in Europe are 
often blotted out in some war or revolution. 
From its ruins have arisen Ashland and Phila- 
delphia, two precincts that will compare fav- 
orably with any in Cass County, in fine land, 
wealth and general prosperity. 

The settlement of Philadelphia Precinct is 
so interwoven with that of Ashland, Vir- 
ginia and Princeton, of which it was a part, 
until so recently that little here need be said 
upon the subject. Indeed, there can be but 
little said, without repeating what has been 
said elsewhere, of the setilement of the sur- 
rounding community. Many of the early set. 
tiers mentioned in Virginia, Oregon and 
Princeton, were residents of those parts now 
embraced in this. 

Among the early settlers in this section 
were the Cunninghams, Redmons, and others, 
who have already been mentioned as settiino- 
in Sugar Grove, and the other bodies of tim- 
ber which were in the present limits of Phil- 
adelphia Precinct. James Davis, William 
Crow and Eli Cox were also early settlers in 
this region. But, as already stated, the 
names of the early settlers of this entire re- 
gion have been given in other chapters of 
this volume, and it issuperflurous to recapit- 
\ilate them. As the larger portion of the 
present precinct was prairie, it was not set- 
tled so early as the timber portion of the 
county, save in the few small groves it con- 
tained. The early settlers of Cass County, as 
well as of the entire State of Illinois, were 
mostly from a timbered countrj-, and believed 

that the great prairies would never be fit for 
anything but pasture. Hence, it was not un- 
til the timber land was all occupied, and 
farms had sometimes changed hands several, 
times, that settlers begun to venture out on the 
prairies. Slowly at first, they occupied the 
vast plains, and that too, near the timber. 
But time and experience soon proved the 
merits of the prairie lands for agricultural 
purposes, and as this knowledge dawned up- 
on the people, tbey lost no time in securing 
prairie land, with as much zeal as they had 
avoided them. Thus, family after family came 
into Philadelphia, until the entire precinct 
was occupied. 

The young men and women of the present 
time have no conception of the mode of life 
among the early settlers of this country from 
forty to sixty years ago. In nothing are the 
habits and mnnners of the people in any res- 
pects similar to those a half century ago. 
We are at a loss where to begin, so as to give 
the youth of to-day anything like a just idea 
of this matter. The clothing, the dwellings, 
the diet, social customs — in fact, everything, 
has undergone a total revolution. The houses 
were all built of logs, the cracks filled with 
" chinks," and then daubed over with a mor- 
tar made of clay or " prairie dirt." The floor 
was the smooth earth or was made of rough 
" puncheons," and the spaces between these 
were often such that the younger children 
had to exercise great care not to step through 
these crevices. The roof was made of 
" boards," as they were called by the west- 
ern people, but known among the Yankees as 
" shakes," and when put down, were held to 
their places by weight-poles. The fire-place 
occupied one end of the cabin, and is 
described elsewhere in this volume. Tlie ar- 
ticles used in cooking were as few and simple 
as can be imagined. An oven or skillet, a 
frying-pan, an iron pot or kettle, with occas- 
ionally a coifee-pot, completed the outfit of 



the best furnished kitchen. Stoves were en- 
tirely unknown, and all the cooking was done 
in and around the fire-place, a fact that our 
modern young ladies would not relish, as it 
would burn and spoil their pretty faces. 

Among the clothing of the pioneers, every- 
thing was plain, simple, and in conformity 
with the strictest economy. This was not 
only true of their dwellings, furniture and 
provisions, but also of their clothing. The 
men mostly wore hunting-shirts and pants of 
buckskin, and caps of coon or fox skin, while 
both sexes wore moccasins instead of shoes. 
Many were the expedients devised by the 
prudent dames in the matter of clothing; for 
ever since that wonderful triumph of millinery 
art — the construction of an entire wardrobe 
from fig-leaves, devised long years ago in the 
world's early dawn, woman has been very 
gifted in laying plans, and adopting expedi- 
ents in the matter of clothing. But, un- 
fortunately for her skill and industry, the 
country afforded but little more in the line of 
feminine wearing apparel than did Eden in the 
days of our first parents. Cotton and flax 
were produced for some years, but they could 
not be raised to do much good on account of 
wolves and bears. Hence the people had no 
choice between adopting expedients and ap- 
pearing in a somewhat modified phase of the 
Highland costume. The tools and agricul- 
tural implements were on a par with every- 
thing else. The ground was broken with 
wooden mold-board plows, and the corn 
cultivated with hoes and " bull-tongue " or 
shovel plows. The teams wore piincipally 
oxen, both for plowing and hauling. But 
these times of self-denial and privation are 
long since past. Upon the very face of 
nature the rolling years have writ en their 
record, and the wilderness has been trans- 
formed into a scene of loveliness. The ox- 
mill has given place to the steam mill, while 
improvement in farm machinery has kept 

pace with everything else, and our clothing, 
particularly that of the female portion of us, 
is — well, wonderful to contemplate. 

The people of Philadelphia worshiped in 
the early churches of Princeton and Virginia 
Precincts. There is but one church within 
the limits of the precinct at present, at least 
so far as we could learn, and that is the Chris- 
tian Church, at the village of Philadelphia. 
It originally stood in Princeton Precinct, but 
the membership dwindled down so small, that 
the church was finally moved to the village of 
Philadelphia. There is no regular pastor, we 
are informed, at present, but a Sunday school 
is kept up, and occasional preaching by visit- 
ing ministers. 

The first schools of the precinct, like the 
first churches, are described in other chapters, 
and need no repetition here. There are now 
some four or five school houses in the precinct, 
good, substantial edifices, in which schools are 
maintained during the usual terms each 

The old town of Lancaster, like the pre- 
cinct which forme ly bore that name, has 
passed away, and nothing now remains to 
show where once it stood. It wis laid out by 
Jo, n Dutch, who had one hundred acres sur- 
veyed into lots in the nort' east quarter of the 
northwest quarter of section 25, township 
17 and range 9 west. It was surveyed a d 
platted by William French, County Survey, r. 
The entire plat was conveyed to Erastus W. 
Palmer, May 8, 1837, for $400. The town 
was vacated by A. Dutch, June 6, 1843. The 
Lancaster post-office continued until the 
abandonment of Philadelphia Plat in 1881. 

John Dutch, the original proprietorof Lan- 
caster, was an old sea captain, and like most 
of that class, was very profane. Sometime 
after laying out his town, 1 e went back ta 
Boston, whence he had come, and begged 
contributions to build a church, as he .said, to 
Christianize the heathenish wester. i people. 



He raised considerable money and came back, 
and really did build a cliurch, which was used 
as such for many years, and then moved 
away and changed into a barn. Mr. Dutch 
had been very wealthy, but had lost most of 
his riches. He had saved enough, however, 
to enter a la ge body of land in Cass County. 
He built a fine two-story hotel, where he 
laid out his town on the ^p^ingfield and 
Beardstown State road. He kept tavern here 
for a good many years, but his town never 
grew to very large proportwns, and as we 
have said, was finally vacated, and the very 
spot whereon it stood, is known to but few of 
the citizens of the county. 

Philadelphia was laid out on the school 
section (16) of township 17, range 9, and the 
plat recorded July 11, 1836. Archibald Job 
qualified as trustee to section 16, July 17, 
1846, and the plat of the town was made by 

him as trustee. One of the first business 
houses of the place, was a grocery store kept 
by a man named Miller McLane. The town, 
at one time, was quite a business place and had 
an extensive grain trade. But the building 
of the railroad throusrh Virjjinia drew much 
of the business to that point, and Philadelphia 
steadily declined from that time. 

There is now one store, one wagon shop, 
one blacksmith shop, and still quite a grain 
market. There is one church of the Christian 
denomination, which has already been no- 

This comprises a brief sketch of Philadel- 
phia, from the time of its organization and set- 
tlement, aside from what has been given in 
other chapters. It may be that there are rep- 
etitions, from the causes given in the preced- 
ing pages, but, we think, to no great extent. 





TTERE in Monroe Precinct the bold immi- 


grant pitched his lonely tent and staked 

all beside some cool bubbling spring, within 
the shades of some thriving gi-ove, where his 
ax fertile first time rang out amid the mighty 
solitudt!, frightening the denizans from their 
peaceful slumbers, and starting those rever- 
berations, whose last re-echo has changed into 
the screech of the iron hor^e and the hum of 
a thousand industries, which had their begin- 
ning in the rough, ru le cabins of those sturdy 
pioneers, who first penetrated the forests and 
prairies of the West. 

We would ask for no pleas inter task than 
that which falls upon the chronicler of early 
history, could we picture and reproduce the 
scenes of half a century ago, that the reader 
might see in his imagination the unhewn 
log hut, with its clay filled crevices, its mud 
or adobe chimney, its rudely proportioned 
fire-place, its rough, unseemly furniture, and 
the general surroundings of a pioneer cabin; 
could we paint the rude shed with its pro- 
jecting poles, covered with brush, the fore- 
runner of the fine frame barns of to-day, 
groaning under the loads of grain and pro- 
duce, gathered from the fields which our fore- 
fathers conquered and subdued; could we 
show the roads through tangled brush, 
swampy slough, and unbridged streams, over 
which the first settlers struggled and drew 
their loads; could we picture all these 
scenes in their wild but natural beauty, as 
they were and existed, we would bring be- 

»By J. I... Nichols. 

fore many a reader similar scenes, whose im- 
press have been left indelibly upon the 
mind by the oft repeated stories of the gray- 
haired sires, recounted with many an animated 
gesture, as he lived over again those olden 

The historian, like an insurance agent or 
an undertaker, has a thankless task to per- 
form, no matter hovv diligently he may rum- 
mage through the dusty memorials of the 
past, putting forth his gi'eatest powers to en- 
compass ever3'thing of any degree of appro- 
priate importance, and to hand down to poster- 
ity an accurate and comprehensive record; it 
falls far short of what a great majority of 
people anticipated it would be. But there is 
one satisfaction, the coming generations will 
become more fair and consistent in taking in 
the situation, and will more fully appreciate 
the labors of the h'istorian. It must be tak- 
en into consideration, that but few of the 
first settlers are living; those that are, their 
memories and recollections are not what thev 
were in the prime of life, and a history at 
best must consequently be but a partial narra- 
tion of events. 

Monroe Precinct has no village within its 
present limits; about half of its surface was 
originally prairie, and the rest brush and 
timber land. The timber was scattered over 
the precinct in little groves, which were often 
of considerable length along the ravines and 
streams. There is some very beautiful level 
land in places, along the streams; and around 
the groves it is considerably broken and 
often blufTy. Perhaps no better fruit pioduc- 







iiig land can be found in the county. The 
soil seems less sandy than the land in the 
northern part of the county, and more pro- 
ductive and more easily cultivated, excL'pt- 
in"- the Sangamon Bottom. Wheat and corn 
seem to be the staple productions, thougli 
there are a goodly number of stock farms, 
and some very fine blooded stock raised. 
Farmers are fast learning that the improve- 
ment of their stock has become a very profit- 
aljle investment. 

There was a village named Monroe, laid 
out June 27, 1836, and surveyed by Johnston 
Shelton, for Morgan County, while this vpas a 
part of Morgan. It was on the west half of 
southwest quarter of section 11, township 17, 
range 11, and was about four and a half miles 
from Virginia. The place has long since 
been abandoned and vacated, and only a 
church uow marks the site. 

There are three creeks, namely: Lost, Clear, 
and Prairie, that run across the precinct 
from east to west in almost parallel lines. 
Along the banks of the two first, some very 
good timber in an early day was found; along 
the latter was mostly prairie. Some portions 
of the year these streams assume the size of 
rivers, but it is not unusual to see them dry, 
or nearly so, during the summer months of the 

The first settlers were seemingly afraid of 
the prairie, and would not locate unless they 
could secure a site for a cabin within the 
sheltering shades of some grove, or strip of 
timber. The immigrants coming mostly from 
timbered localities, thought it impossible to 
settle on the naked prairie. And thus we find 
the first settlers closely hugging the timber, 
and every neighborhood was known as such a 
grove, the name being taken from the first 
settler that pitched his tent or built his cabin 

The first man that entered the present lira- 
its of Monroe Precinct as a settler is not 

definitely known; but as early as 1827, the 
following families were here: Benjamin Ma- 
thus, Thomas and William Clark, George 
Ruby, James Davis, Alexander Huffman, and 
Richard Graves; of all of these, Mrs. Elizaljeth 
L. Davis is the only survivor. She is eighty- 
two years of age, and lives on the old home- 
stead with her son George. It is but a mat- 
ter of a few years, when she too will enter the 
sleep of her fathers, and the last of Monroe's 
pioneers will have passed away. It is sad to 
follow the old venerable pioneer veterans one 
by one to the grave, and cover them with the 
sod which they struggled so many years to 
conquer and subdue, but " All that lives must 

" Of all the men 
Whom day's departing beam saw blooming there. 
In proud and vigorous health ; of all the hearts 
That beat with anxious life at sunset there, 
How few survive, how few are beating now ! 

Mr. Mathus settled on the land now own- 
ed by Elias Davis; William Clark on Edward 
Davis' present farm. Thomas Clark settled 
on Clear Creek, on the farm now owned by 
Henry Pratt. The land Mr. Ruby purchased 
is still owned by his heirs. The Hufi'man and 
Graves estates which they respectively pur- 
chased and improved, is also owned by their 
heirs. Isaiah Huffman, James Graves, George, 
Turminan, and James Alien Davis, are the 
prominent descendants of the first settlers now 
living in the precinct. Mr. James Davis was 
one of the first settlers of the County, coming 
in 1821, and settled on Indian Creek, where 
he lived till 1827, when he moved to Monroe 

To show the manner of building the earlier 
cabins of the country, it will be necessary to 
to^ivebutone instance. Mr. James Davis 
came in the winter of 1827, and built his log 
house near where he afterward built his 
present frame building; and after complotinar 
it and closing it up, he returned to hisfuiiiiiy 



and when they moved in March to their pre- 
viously built cabin, they found three feet 
of snow on its floor. So open and poorly con- 
structed were the first cabins, that the stars 
could be counted at night through the roof, 
and wolves shot through openings in the sides. 

Previous to 1833, the settlers had no road 
to Beardstown ; what little trading and selling 
they did was at Springfield. 

There was but little grain raised, however, 
to be carried to that distant market, as the 
new immigrants annually coming in consumed 
nearly all of the first crops that were raised. 

The road to Beardstown was traced out by 
a committee appointed especially for that pur- 
pose by the settlers, three of the committee 
were .Joshua Crow, James Davis and Benja- 
min Mathus, the names of the others, like 
many events and facts of early settlements 
have passed into oblivion. 

The road was cut through and completed to 
Beardstown in 1833 or thereabouts. This 
made a nearer or better market, and also a 
post-office, and a cheaper place of purchase, 
thereby not only benefiting the country in 
the immediate vicinity of Monroe Precinct, 
but many miles beyond. Previous to this, 
the settlers had but little mail or beard 
scarcely any news. About the only com- 
munication they had from friends and relat- 
ions left behind, was by settlers coming in or 
some one returning, through whom friendly 
messages were communicated. 

In those days it cost money to receive a 
a letter. Our modern postal system had not 
then been developed; the iron horse, with his 
heart of fire and flaming breath, did not 
sweep through the country with the swift- 
ness of an eagle's flight. There were no 
stoves, no matches; people were compelled to 
seek their neighbor's house for fire should 
their own go out. Living now and fifty vears 
ago are decidedly two different things. 

In 1832, the following families were 

then in the precinct: Benjamin Mathus, James 
Davis, Alexander Huffman, George Rul)v, 
Thomas and William Clark, Richard Graves, 
Austin Sims, Benjamin Montgomery, Joshua 
Grow, and a Mr. Black. 

During the deep snow there was much in- 
convenience and some considerable suffering. 
John "VV. Davis was visiting at the resi- 
dence of Austin Sims when the storm began. 
Durinor the night his horse broke loose and 
attempted to return home, but was never 
seen after; his bones were found the follow- 
ing spring several miles away. 

Deer were easily caught that winter, by 
riding upon them with a horse. Mr. James 
Davis, who had never killed a deer in his life, 
decided to try his luck one morning. Seeing 
one struggling in the snow but a short dis- 
tance from his house, he took out his horse, 
easily overtook the timid animal, and in a 
moment of excitement found himself straddle 
of the deer, without knife or gun, or anything 
with which he could make himself master of 
the situation; but he finally griped the nose 
of his prey, and succeeded in so twisting its 
neck that he broke it and thereby secured his 

Mrs. Low, on Little Indian Creek, killed 
two deer with a meat ax. Two bucks, 
in testing their physical strength, became an 
easy prey, by locking their horns so tightly 
together that they could not separate from 
one anpt(|^er, and Mrs. Low, taking in the 
situation, and with "the courage and bravery 
of an Indian, marched to the scene and suc- 
cessfully dispatched both animals. 

The first settlers had their first milling 
done at Mr. Quiller Hall's horse-mill, on 
Little Indian Creek. They patronized that 
mill till Mr. Streetsput up his, some four miles 
north of the present site of Virginia. Ben. 
Montgomery run a horse mill on a small scale, 
on the farm now owned by Rosa Huffman, 
for several years. It had a grinding capacity 



of about twelve bushels per day, yet there 
was scarcely an hour of the day but what 
there was a team standing at his door, wait- 
ing for a grist. He also run a small copper 
still for a time, which perhaps added some- 
thing to the patronage of his mill. It was 
no mark of disgrace at that day for a man to 
manufacture or drink whisky. Every farmer 
kept it; nearly every man drank it. It was 
tliought impossible to harvest a grain crop 
without it. But times, and men, and whisky 
have changed, the two first for the better, the 
latter for the worse. 

Schools. — The cause of education received 
the early and timely attention of the pioneers 
of Monroe Precinct, and to-day the fruit of a 
hundred fold may be seen in the intelligence 
and culture of the descendants of those early 
and honest settlers. Though in the first settle- 
ment there were a great many influences that 
worked against the development of a general 
system of education, neighborhoods were 
thinly settled, money scarce, and people gen- 
erally poor, no school-houses, no public fund, 
no trained and qualified teachers, no books, 
and nothing characteristic of the present 
schools was at the command of the pioneers, 
yet they organized schools, their children 
were taught, and grew to manhood and to 
years, wiser and more learned than the vener- 
able sires that gave them existence and 
watched and rocked their cradles. When 
we look at the poverty and early condition of 
the settlers, the untiring industry of both 
sexes, old and young, we are surprised that 
they had schools at all. Private residences, 
vacated cabins, barns, or any place of shelter 
where fire could be protected from the falling 
rains or drifting snows, were used for school 
purposes. These rude temples of learning, 
in which the pioneer children of the county 
studied and shivered, were not to be despised, 
for they were the best that the wealth and 
circumstances of the country permitted. 

The early settlers were not unmindful of 
the care, education and culture necessary to 
prepare their children for the trying struggles 
of life, that they might be a credit to their 
parents and a benefit to the country. They 
performed well their duty, and many a rich 
harvest has been the reward of their labors. 

In the year 1829, Mr. James Davis offered 
a portion of his premises, just south of his 
residence, for a school-house, to be used also 
for church purposes, or anything of an edu- 
cational or moral character. 

The neighbors found Mr. Davis very liberal 
and enthusiastic in his proposition; he offered 
not only the site for the building, but also 
money and labor necessary for completing 
the house and conducting a school. A log 
house was at once erected by the united labors 
of the neighborhood, each contributing logs, 
labor, or money, according to their means, and 
ere a month had elapsed the building was com- 
plete and ready for the service for which it 
was built. 

Mr. Jesse Pierce had the honor of being 
the first teacher of Monroe Precinct, and 
taught a good and satisfactory school. Among 
his scholars were the following : Isaiah and 
Svlvester Huffman, David, Thomas and Pa- 
tience Clark, Julia Ann, John, Thomas and 
James A. Davis, Emily Spencer, George 
Savage, Mary, Logan and Samuel Wilson, 
Mary, James and Nelson Graves, and Jake 

The second teacher that was given author- 
ity in this log temple of learning, was a Mr. 
Chapman. He was shortly after succeeded 
by .lohn Galesp, who perhaps was among the 
most successful teachers of the precinct. Ho 
taught several years, and it was during his 
time of service that the building caught fire 
and was consumed. The chimney became 
defective, being made of sticks and mud, 
which was verj' characteristic of the early 
style of chimneys, and caught fire and made 



such rapid progress that it could not be over- 

The settlers were not discouraged, but im- 
mediately put up a new building within two 
hundred yards of the first, also on Mr. Davis' 
land. This was also built of logs, with pun- 
cheon floor, slab seats without backs or sup- 
port, but it had one decided advantage over 
the old building, that in that day was consid- 
ered a very great improvement. Instead of 
greased paper for windows, it was supplied 
with regular sash and glass window-lights. 
Besides the regular building, a shed at 
one end was attached, in which school was 
kept during the summer months of the year. 
School was kept in this building some ten 
years or more, when a building was put up at 
Monroe, with but very little improvement on 
the old, except the logs were hewn a little 
smoother, and a little better fitted together, 
the seats or benches being about the same. 
School was successively taught here, from 
1843 to 1854, when the present building was 
erected, and where school has successfully 
been taught ever since. 

Mr. Alexander Hoffman, about the year 
1842, taught a private school at his own house, 
which was considered a great benefit to the 
community. A school-house about this time* 
was built on the land of Richard Graves, but 
after the second term it took fire and was con- 

Clear Greek Church. — One of the first 
things which our Pilgrim Fathers did, after 
crossing the storm-swept ocean, was to as- 
semble upon the frozen, barren rocks of Ply- 
mouth, in the great temple, whose majestic 
dome was the over-arching skies, and offer 
prayers of thanksgiving for their safe voyage 
and successful landing. So it was with the 
first settlers of Cass County. Whenever a 
few families were sufficiently near to each 
other to be called a neighborhood, we find 
them often assembled, either in the open air. 

or within the narrow confines of some pioneer 
cabin, blending their hymns with the moan 
of the autumn winds, and returning thanks 
amid the screams of the panther and the 
howling of wolves. In all the trials, priva- 
tions, and sufferings that attended the first 
subduing of the forests, or the taming of the 
prairies, the settlers forgot not that God was 
the great source of blessing, and would not 
forsake them in their hour of need. 

Clear Creek church was first begun at the 
residence of Mr. John Ray, about the year 
1S32. He being a minister of the gospel, in- 
vited in a few families, and under his own 
roof first began the work of organizing a 
a church. The members that first added 
their names to the roll of membership were, 
himself and wife, Joshua Crow and wife, 
James Davis and wife, John Mathews, Benja- 
min Mathews and wife, William Shoopman 
and wife, and Nancy Hill. 

Meetings were continued at the cabin of 
Rev. Mr. Ray, for two years or more, when 
he removed to Texas, and left the settlers 
without a minister, and a regular place of 

Rev. Cyrus Wright came among the set- 
tlers about that time and offered his services 
to the community, which were gladly and 
thankfully received. Meetings were then 
held at the cabin of Mr. Shoopman, who re- 
sided on Clear Creek, and the church from 
that took its present name. After continuing 
the meetings for some time at the residence 
of Mr. Shoopman, the society decided to 
hold their meetings at the cabin of Mr. James 
Davis, where services were continued for 
fourteen years. Rev. Cyrus Wright being the 
officiating minister. During this time the 
following members were added to the so- 
ciety: D. Hardy and wife, Elijah Davis and 
wife, Julia Ann Davis, Millie Hoffman, Nancy 
Rnby Mr. Harding, Betsy, Bridgewater, Thom- 
as Cowcn, Mrs. Morgan, Lucy Bridgewater, 

Hiyruuv OF cass county. 


Peter Hudson and wife, John Howell and 
wife, Joshua Howell and wife, James Blan 
and wife and two daughters, Mr. Richards 
and wife, Rachel Epler, Nancy Hill, Ira 
Crow and wife, Amanda Thornsberry, Thomas 
Buck and wife. Miles White and wife, and 
Mr. Ephraim White. At the present day 
but few of the above members are living. 

In 1852, they built their present church, at 
a cost of $500, besides the time and labor 
contributed by the individual members. 

The building committee was made up of 
the following persons: Alexander Hoffman, 
James Davis, and William Shoopman. The 
above committee were also elected the first 
trustees of the church, to which a deed of the 

land was given by John Schaffer, free of all 

No regular services at present are held. 
William Dyre occasionally preaches to the 
few members that are left. The church at one 
time had a large membership, and was among 
the most prosperous of the county. 

The society saw its brightest days of pros- 
perity when the church was first built, and 
Rev. Mr. Wright was pastor. After his death, 
Rev. Mason Beadle took the charge as pastor, 
and at the close of his ministerial services, 
many of the members moved away, others 
died, and now there are but fifteen members 
remaining of that once prosperous body. 






" Once o'er all this famous land 

Savage wilds and darkness spread, 
Sheltered now by thy kind hand, 

Cheerful dwellings rear their head. 
Where once frowned the tangled wood, 

Fertile fields and meadows smile, 
Where the stake of torture stood, 

Rises now thy churches' pile." 

THE world is now taking time to look back 
and the story of the pioneer is becoming 
one of absorbing interest. Illinois was for a 
long time considered "out West," and its 
people, scarcely yet out of the prairie wastes, 
took little interest in those traditions relating 
to a condition of society but little removed 
from their own. But the onward rush of the 
quick march of civilization, has pressed back 
the western frontier, making the once north- 
western territory the central link in the 
brilliant chain of states. This awakening to 
the true value of the pioneer history of this 
country comes in many respects too late. 
The children of the pioneer settlements have 
been fast gathered to the rest of their fathers 
within the past decade, and the old land- 
marks, one by one, have decayed and passed 
away with those that placed them. 

The men who first burst into the native sod 
that hugged the hills and valleys of Oregon 
Precinct; the men whose axes rang first along 
its winding groves, where the foot-prints of 
the red man were imprinted in the sands; the 
men whose bullets first pierced the bounding 
deer that played and hid among its countless 
hills, have long since passed away ; their lips 

*By J. L. Nichols. 


are hushed in sleep that never can impart the 
hunger, and hardships, and trials of their 
pioneer struggles. " The half can never be 
told." It must rest in secret and in silence 
in the pulseless bosoms that know no waken- 

"Great God of love, we dedicate these hiUsaud vales to 

To hold Thy dead of every name, God's Acres let them 

And may the souls whose bodies lie within this beau- 
teous calm 

Be resting in the bosom of The Heavenly Taschal 

We honor those pioneer veterans for their 
self-sacrificing devotion in opening up for us 
such a country of richness, of happy homes 
and of glowing prospects for the future. 

The path which men pursue in life, the dark 
waves they struggle to repel, the rough 
waters they endeavor to traverse, and their 
temporal happiness, depends almost wholly 
upon surrounding circumstances. See the 
life and pursuits which the pioneer has chos- 
en; he knew there was but hardship, priva- 
tion and long suffering in store for him; the 
vigorous years of his manhood must be given, 
and the strong muscular frame must be weak- 
ened with age to secure a brief respite from 
toil in the autumn of his declining years. 
Such was the character and make-up of the 
first settlers of Oregon Precinct, and the suc- 
cess of their labors, and the realization of 
their most sanguine expectations, no one will 
question ; the churches, school houses and 
beautiful homes that everywhere meet the eye, 
are the monuments of their pioneer industry. 



Oregon Precinct, like Richmond, is rather 
too undulating for convenient travel over its 
roads. There seems to be nothing but hills, 
over one only to be at the foot of another, 
and so on throughout the precinct; yet as 
broken and bluff-like as the country seems to 
a passing traveler^ it contains some of the 
best and most productive farm lands in the 

The land that is too broken for cultivation, 
makes admirable pastures for sheep and cattle, 
and the fanners with their improved and im- 
ported stock, find abundant wealth in the Ore- 
gon hills. 

There are three streams that form the prin- 
cipal drainage of the precinct. Coxe's Creek, 
running through the Western part, is quite 
heavily timbered; some portions of this tim- 
ber, in the past has been of more than 
an ordinary growth, but the best part 
has been cut down, and a dense, thrifty 
growth of young trees has taken rapid pos- 
session of the ground. Panther Creek rising 
in the centre of the precinct, is rather a small 
stream whose banks in many places are very 
high and bluffy; there is also some timber 
scattered along its banks, and quite a grove 
where it takes its rise and from which it de- 
rives its name. Middle Creek flows through 
the Northeastern corner, and contains very 
little water, and has but very little timber 
growing along its banks till it reaches Rich- 
mond Precinct, where it is quite heavily tim- 
bered. These streams are comparatively 
small, and only in places contain water the 
year round; they invariably cease running 
about the first of June, and in very dry seasons 
scarcely any water can be found in the entire 
length of their channels. While in the dry 
portions of the summer they can scarcely be 
termed creeks of the smallest character, in 
Spring, after the heavy rains, they become 
raging, roaring rivers, sweeping through the 
lulls with such velocity and force that bridges, 

fences, trees, and everything of a movable 
character that comes within their reach, is 
swept awaj' and rushed down stream. 

Timber is more or less scattered throughout 
the precinct. It is mostly of a young growth 
that has started since the prairie fires ceased 
to rage and sweep over the country. The best 
and most timber is found in the southeast por- 
tion of the precinct, and in the western part 
along the banks of Coxe's Creek. 

The first settlement in Oi'egon Precinct 
was on Middle Creek. Mr. McDonald and 
Mr. Redman were the first to penetrate the 
pathless wilds and seek homes among the In- 
dians and wild beasts that roamed over the 
hills and woods of the country. They built 
their cabins near the present site of New- 
mansville, in 1824, and lived there in the soli- 
tude and silence, with Salem their nearest 
post-office, and Eli Cox, who had settled at 
Coxe's Grove in 1830, their nearest neighbor, 
till 1828, when Bartlet Conyers and Henry 
Hopkins were added to the little settlement. 

Beardstown or Salem were the only places 
where farm produce or grain could be sold, 
and groceries and household necessaries pur- 
chased. At this time, however, there was but 
one store at Salem, kept by Messrs. Hill & 
McNamer. In reaching either of the above 
named places, the early settlers found much 
difficulty; the country was rough, the streams 
unbridged, and the only way farmers could 
travel was for several to go together and 
double up their yokes of cattle in the bad 
and difficult places of the road, and help each 
other through. And after getting their grain 
to market through these trying circumstances 
they could realize but 10 cents per bushel for 
their corn and 40 or 50 cents for their wheat, 
the corn being shelled and the wheat 
threshed by hand. 

Bangs, frizzes, paint and lily hands were un- 
known among the rustic maidens of pioneer 
times. They spun and wove their own cloth- 



iiig; went into the field with their brothers 
and fathers; mowed, reaped, bound, raked, and 
cut wood, were strong, rugged, and perfect 
pictures of health. But very little luxury 
was enjoyed on the part of the pioneer in these 
days; during the big snow of 1830 and '.31, 
many families lived exclusively for months on 
corn bread and parched corn, the meal being 
prepared in a mortar, as there were no mills 
that could be reached. 

In 184-1: we find in the other portion of the 
jirecinct the following settlers: Mr. and Mrs. 
Cress; G. Wood, on Sec. 34; Elijah Carver; 
James Garner, See. 3; Geo. Beggs, Sec. 34; 
John Sherrer, Sec. 3. In 1846 the cabin of 
Joseph Allison was put up with no other 
neighbor but Amos Garner, who lived then on 
the farm now owned by his brother William. 
Much of the land in Oregon was sold for 50 
and even 25 cents per acre, and there was 
government land as late as 1854; the farm 
now owned by R. P. Bell was sold that year, 
among one of the last pieces, at the low gov- 
ernment price of 25 cents per acre. 

Game, as in other parts of the county, was 
very plenty. It seems buffalo and elk once 
hid their habitation here, as many of their 
bones and horns were seen by the early set- 
tlers, strewn over the prairies and through the 
forests. Wolves were very numerous, though 
seldom doing violence to human beings; yet 
no one cared to risk himself at night among 
them without some sort of protection. There 
is but one instance in the county where a 
man was attacked by them, and that was 
Daniel Troy of Bethel, who returning late with 
a quarter of beef, was forced to give it up and 
to beat a hasty retreat to protect himself. 

Thomas Boycourt was one of the most dis- 
tinguished hunters in the precinct while re- 
siding on Section 34. His eagle eye allowed no 
deer or wild turkey to escape when once his 
trusty rifle was leveled upon it. 

The early amusement of the young people 

was principally dancing. An old settler tells 
us, notwi.hstanding the dancers had a rough 
punclieuii floor and no better beverage to en- 
liven their spirits than home-made whisky, 
sweetened with maple sugar, yet it is doubt- 
ful if the anniversary of American Indepen- 
dence was ever celebrated in the State by 
more joyful and harmonious gatherings than 
those who danced the scamper down, double- 
shuffle, Western swing and half-moon, in the 
frontier-cabins of our early settlers, here in 
the county. 

Newmansville was laid out in 1858, by Mr. 
W. Newman, who built a blacksmith shop 
and rented it to Thomas Joyce ; he after- 
wards sold it to Alexander Robinson, who has 
been in active business ever since. A wagon 
shop is also connected with the blacksmith 
shop, where considerable repairing is done in 
that line. 

Thomas P. Way built the first and present 
store building, and did a good business for 
three years, when he sold out to Pilcher and 
Murphy, who continued the business for 
seven or eight years, when they sold out and 
moved to Chandlerville. The store then 
changed hands very frequently for several 
years, or till 1881, when the present occupant, 
J. S. Struble, purchased the stock, and has 
since been doing a fair business for an inland 
country trade. There are six residences in 
the village. 

The post office is generally kept by the 
party in business. The office was first known 
asHigley, and since changed to Newmansville. 

The first doctors in Newmansville were 
Kilburn Hathwell and James Galloway. As 
the country began to settle, Dr. Logan came 
in 1857, and has continued in active practice 
til! within a few years; liis health failing him, 
he was compelled to give up the greater por- 
tion of his ride. A young physician, Charles 
Matthew, has been practicing for the past 
four years with very good results. 



The M. E. Church, known as the Orogon 
Chapel, was first organized in 1848, by the 
following persons, holding class and prayer 
meetings at the residence of John S. Boy- 
court, Joseph Allison, R. Robinson, Amos R. 
Garner, John and Joseph Allison, Jr., Jam>s 
Wyatt, and James R. Garner. These men 
were the first movers in the Christian cause 
which has developed into the strength and 
prosperity of the present church. The Soci- 
ety for a time held its meetings at the resi- 
dences of the different members. In 1855 the 
Oregon school-house was built, and after that 
the Society held their meetings there. Brother 
I. Groves being the first minister, who 
preached two years. The Society continued 
to hold their regular Sabbath services at the 
school-house for fifteen years. During this time 
the church was aroused, and the community, 
awakened by some soul-stirring revivals. 
Brother Geo. Wolfe in one winter drew about 
thirty converts to the church by his zealous 
preaching. Brother Warfield several years 
after brought the community to a sense of 
Christian duty by pointing out the wicked- 
ness and careless neglect of the world. Many 
were brought to Christ and drawn into the 
safe confines of the church. Many other re- 
vivals, says Brother Allison, have been held, 
though not so enthusiastic and full of interest, 
yet great good has been done. 

In 1869 or 1870 Joseph Allison gave to the 
society a lot for a church, upon which the 
present edifice was built at an expense of 
$1,500. The building committee were J. M. 
"Wyatt, H. Monroe, Wm. Watkins, and Wm. 
Garner. The first trustees were: .John M. 
Wyatt, Charles Deadorf, Samuel Hitchey, 
Wm. Garner, Hooker Monroe. Rev. P. Lyons 
was the first pastor after the church was com- 
pleted. The present pastor is Rev. George 
Fower. Present Trustees, Joseph Allison, 
Wm. Garner, M. Arthurbury, Wm. Watkiiis 
niid Mary Wyatt. 

A Sunday school has always been kept up 
in connection with the church. The first 
superintendent was John S. Bo^'court ; he 
began with twenty-five scholars, and now the 
school has more than double the original 
number. W. S. Garner, John M. Wyatt and 
Samuel Hinchey, have had charge of the Sab- 
bath school as superintendents most of the 
time since the time of J. S. Boycourt. 

The church has never been without a 
regular pastor since it was built. The mem- 
bers are earnest in the work, and can boast 
of sixty-seven active members. 

Newmansville M. E. Church society was first 
organized at the residence of Bartlet Conyers, 
a resident of Menard County, living just 
across the line. In the spring of 1829, Rev. 
David Carter preached at his cabin, which 
was the first meeting and preaching in that 
community ; the following families wore 
present : David Williams and wife, Joseph 
Regsdell and wife, and Mr. Conyers and wife. 
That constituted the nucleus around which 
the early religious interest clustered. Rev. 
Mr. Carter resided in the county and visited 
the neighborhood often on his pious mission. 
The first circuit ministers were Revs. McKane 
and Benson. 

In 1840, the Church Society united with 
the community in general, built a school 
house with the understanding that it should 
be used for church purposes as well as school. 
In 1855, the society built their present church, 
where they have held regular Sabbath services 
ever since. 

Peter Cartwright was the first presiding el- 
der. The church is progressive, and has a mem- 
bership of sixty, with a flourishing Sabbath 
school of nearly the same number. 

The school house known as the Quebec 
school, was built about the year 1840, by 
Messrs. Mathews, Garner, Carver and Wood. 
Previous to the building of this school house, 
the children of the community were much 



neglected, as they were compelled to walk 
from three to five miles, a distance that 
would exhaust both mind and bod^', and a 
pupil could do but little in applying the mind 
alter such a distance had been traveled. Some 
of the first scholars were William, Martha and 
David Crews, Nancy Carver, Charles Carver, 
Henry, Jerry, and Katie Sherrer. Wm. Pal- 
lett and Miss D. Major, were among the first 
teachers. The school has been in active 
operation ever since, employing the best 
teachers, and a high grade of studies are 
usually taught. 

The Oregon school house was built in 1855. 
This was a good work, from which much edu- 
cational fruit has been realized. The first 
teacher was Jefferson Boycourt, and some of 
the first scholars were Ellen and James Rob- 
inson, Amos Wilson, Martha Wyatt, Mary 
Boycourt. This school is among the most 
progressive of the precinct 

Let knowledge grow from more to more. 

But more of reverence in us dwell, 

That mind and soul, according well, 

May make one music as before, 

But vaster. Tenntson. 





THIS precinct in almost every respect is su- 
perior to any other in the county. Its 
fertile soil, valuable timber, winding streams 
and beautiful lakes, cannot fail to be appre- 
ciated bj' the most indifferent or sluggish 
mind. Its garden-landscape, spreading out 
from the river till its undulating folds lap over 
the feet of the hills, which stand like martial 
sentinels guarding the plumed fields that di- 
versify the bosom of that extended scope, is a 
scene of which the eye can never tire. San- 
gamon river, that deep, swift stream, winding 
along its northern border; Clear Lake and 
various gorges or chasms which are cut deep- 
ly into the soil, disslosing perpendicular em- 
bankments, furnish abundant material upon 
which the hand of art in future years may 
labor. Each lake, each stream, each hill and 
vale, will be in time associated with some 
event around which the fairy fingers of hal- 
lowed recollections will entwine the sweet 
flowers of other years. Even at this early day 
local names spring up from surrounding 
events, names that will live when those per- 
sons associated with them, have long since 
passed into oblivion. Other names will come, 
as time sweeps onward, and for the pleasure 
and satisfaction of those who live in the 
future, these, and the circumstances which 
gave them birth, must be carefully recorded. 

"The sweet remembrance of the just, 
Like a green root revives and hears 
A train of blessings for his heirs 
When dying nature sleeps in Just." 

•By J. h. Nichols. 

A greater portion of Hickory Precinct is 
made up of bottom land, the Sangamon River 
forming its northern boundary, and from 
which on each side a broad strip of deep, rich 
and sandy soil extends. This is the best and 
most productive farm land in the county; all 
kinds of grain and all manner of fruit that the 
climate of Illinois will permit to grow, flourish 
here in rich and luxuriant abundance; ex- 
treme seasons, whether wet or dry, do not 
seem to affect the yield of grain or the abun- 
dance of fruit; it is land that never fails, or, 
at least, never has failed, to produce a grain 
crop since the first settler touched his plow to 
its virgin soil. " It is a land that flows with 
milk and honey." 

The early settlers feared these bottoms; 
many, looking for land and homes, passed by 
and settled on farms that by years of cult- 
ure, and with thousands of dollars worth of 
improvements, to-dav is not worth one-half as 
much per acre as the bottom land without 
fences and unimproved, which they could 
have purchased for less money. They feared 
the ague floods, and fevers, and would not ex- 
pose themselves and families to such supposed 
dangers. The land which they could have 
purchased for $1.25 per acre, now sells readi- 
ly for $100 per acre. 

The upland, of which the Southern portion 
of the precinct is composed, is very hilly and 
broken. It is largely used for pasture lands, 
as there is comparatively but little that can 
be conveniently cultivated. There is con- 
siderable timber over this broken territory. 



It formerly was found only along the streams 
a:i(l ravines that wind around among the hills, 
but of later years it has been gradually creep- 
ing up the sides of those miniature mountains, 
until their bald heads have become completely 
covered with a young and rapid growth of 
of timber. There is also some good timber 
found in the northwestern corner of the pre- 
cinct, on the banks of the Sangamon. 

Many small ravines have furrowed broad 
and deep channels through the soil in their 
course to the river. There are no streams, 
however, that continue to flow the year 
round except in very extraordinary wet 

Job's Creek, passing through the North- 
eastern corner of the precinct, is, in some 
seasons of the year, a very extraordinary 
stream. It empties into a small chain of 
lakes which in places are never less than sev- 
eral fathoms in depth. In high water this 
miniature river almost becomes a Niagara, 
roaring, rushing and sweeping everything be- 
fore it. 

The first settlers that dare risk life and 
health on the sickly bottoms of the Sangamon, 
of wiiich there was so much dread, were John 
Baker, Amos Hager, John Carr with his sons 
Elish, Peter, William, Benjamin, Jeremiah 
and Divid, and John Wagner, a son-in-law 
of Mr. Carr's; of these, John Baker was the 
first, and probably came as early as 1823. 
Mr. Hager and Mr. Carr and family came 
sometime during the year of 1824. Mr. 
Baker settled on the land now owned by 
Thomas Knapp, and Mr. Carr and family on 
the site of what is now called the Brick Cor- 
ners. S. Richardson, Solomon Penny and I. 
Revis came about 1827, Mr. Richardson oc- 
cupying the land now known as the Frederick 
Bower farm, and Mr. Penny settling on the 
land now owned by Richard Tink. Of all of 
these there is but one living, Mr. James Carr, 
who resides in Fulton County. There are 

but two grandsons of John Carr remaining in 
the precinct, David and Dallas Carr. These 
are the sons of David Carr, Sen., who married 
Miss Julia A. Wells, who is still living, as al- 
most the only representative of the early set- 
tlors of Hickory Precinct. She at present 
resides in Chandlerville, and to her we are in- 
debted for much of the early history that is 
connected with the first settlement of the 

In 1828 and 1829 the following families 
were added to the scattering community; 
Daniel Wells, Robert Ivers, Widow Stuart 
and Benjamin Horrom. Mr. Wells came with 
nine sons and one daughter, and settled three 
miles West of Hickory. 

The first settlers were compelled to go to 
Jacksonville for their mail, groceries, etc., till 
Thomas Pogne and Augustus Knapp started 
a small store at Beardstown. When Mr. 
Daniel Wells came to Beardstown, in 1828, 
Thomas Board was keeping a hotel in a small 
log cabin. Mr. Wells came up the Illinois 
riverin the steamer known as the Dewitt Clin- 
ton the first trip she ever made. The settlers 
that were on the bottoms during the deep 
snow were John Baker, Amos Hager, I. Revis, 
Solomon Penny, S. Richardson, Daniel Wells, 
John Carr, John Wagner, Jeremiah Bowen, 
William Scott, Michael Pearson and a Mr. 

During the autumn of 1830, previous to the 
big snow, wild fruit was very abundant; 
plums, berries, and grapes have never seemed 
so plenty since. Wild bees were numerous 
and honey very plenty; bees seemed to flour- 
ish in a wild state better than they have later 
years. The bottoms were then, during the 
summer months, but a vast and unbroken 
ocean of beautiful flowers, whose sweetness 
were ample to the wants of the buzzing mil- 
lions which fed upon them. 

There was much suffering during the win- 
ter of the big snow; it was impossible to 



reach mills, towns, or any place where provis- 
ions and clothing could be procured. Many 
families had no greater luxuries for months 
than cracked and boiled corn, with now and 
then a little venison. Deer during that winter 
became very poor, and so reduced by hunger 
that they entered the yards of the settlers in 
search of hay and scattering husks. At this 
time there was no nearer mill than Salem; 
people found it very difficult and tedious to 
to travel that distance, and a Mr. Street, tak- 
ing in the situation, put up a horse mill about 
half way between Hickory and the present 
site of Virginia, and did an immense business, 
running night and day year after year. Farm- 
ers, in order to secure their turn in time to re- 
turn the same day, often would start at mid- 
night, or even before, and remain nearly all 
day at the mill before they could secure their 

In the fall of 183-i, the first subscription 
school was organized, and taught by B. F. 
Nelson in a vacated log cabin on the premises 
of David Carr, Sen. Early in the autumn 
Mr. Nelson made his appearance in the settle- 
ment, and solicited the privilege of getting 
up a school. Mr. Carr gladly gave him the 
use of the cabin above mentioned, and fur- 
thermore, agreed to board him while engaged 
in the mission of teaching. He was a man of 
prepossessing appearance, a scholar and a 
gentleman, but after getting nicely initiated 
into the work, he was found to be a man 
decidely wanting in energy and industry, 
and at times beastly intemperate, and in no 
way fitted to stimulate the morals and minds 
of bis pupils. But as no other teacher could 
be secured, he was tolerated, with a fair at- 
tendance of scholars, till sometime in the last 
of February or the first of March, when, by 
gross neglect, he left the fire in such condi- 
tion when leaving the building that it caught 
fire and burned up, thus bringing the school 
very suddenly to a close. 

The cabin was located within a few rods of 
the present residence of Jacob Houke. Some 
of the scholars that attended this were: John 
Wells, Harvey, Elizabeth and Nancy Carr, 
Eliza Ann Turner, Philora Willis, John Hagor, 
Jacob Monroe, David Wagner, Peter Wag- 
ner, and the boys of Wm. Cole. The second 
school that was taught in the precinct, was 
on the premises of Wm. Cole, who built a 
small cabin, especially for that purpose, and 
freely donated its use to any one qualified 
and willing to teach. Qualification then and 
now were decidely two different things. At 
that day any one that had the mechanical 
skill to cut out and trim up a quill pen, an 1 
read and figure interest, was considered well 
qualified if he had the muscle necessary for 
applying the rod or ruler. The first teacher 
that availed himself of Mr. Cole's generous 
offer was Carlatan Logan, who, in the winter 
of 1830, taught a very good and satisfactory 
school. Some of the scholars that attended 
this school were C. Bowen, Ruth and Mar- 
garet Bovven, Jacob Pearson, Sallie and 
Austin Scott, William and Naomi Revis, 
Mary Jane Briar, children of W. Cole, and 
Carrie and Oliver Carr. The school was well 
attended, and many others attended, whose 
names cannot be recalled. 

About 1840, a log school-house was erected 
at Hickory, David Carr, Sen., giving the land 
upon which it was built. A Mr. .lames Grant 
was among the first teachers. Hs, taking his 
bitters a little too frequently, which often got 
the better of him, was the greatest objection 
that the community had against him. 

In 1857, a wooden frame building was 
raised near the site of the old log house, 
where school was continued till the present 
neat and convenient brick building was com- 
pleted. It is nicely finished, seated and 
painted, and is said to be one of the nices; 
country school-buildings in the county. It 
was begun and completed in 1881, and coit 



$1,200. The committee that had the plan- 
ning and building in charge was made up of 
David Carr, Jr., William Taylor and Andrew 
Schaad; they being the directors elect, were 
considered competent without oiEcial instruc- 
tion to design and complete the work. 

Previous to the building of the present 
brick, L. U. Re vis taught some five years in 
succession. He was considered among the 
best and most active teachers that ever taught 
ill the district. He is a man now well known 
over the entire United States, as the author 
and able advocate of moving the national 
capital to St. Louis, and those who have read 
his speeches and pamphlets on that subject 
cannot but be impressed with the weighty 
and forcible logic of his arguments. 

The district was formerly much larger than 
at the present time. In ISfiO or 1861, the voters 
began to talk about replacing the old build- 
ing with a new one, but the northern portion 
of the district objected unless the new build- 
ing was so placed that it divided more evenly 
the distance between the northern and south- 
ern portions of the district ; this was refused, 
and the northern part of the original district 
seceded and built a school-house for them- 
selves, where they have been very progres- 
sive and earnest in keeping up a lively inter- 
est in their school. This school is known as 
the Secession school, a term synonymous 
with its origin. There is one other school in 
the precinct, which is known as the Cotton 
Wood school. This is situated in the west- 
ern part of the precinct, on section 11, and is 
among one of the progressive schools of the 
county. Hickory school pays the largest 
salary to teachers. The directors there pay 
from 140 to $(50 per laonth. The people are 
fast realizing that a few dollars per month in 
a teacher's salary is not at all to be considered 
or com]5ared to a poor school in the hands of 
a cheap teacher. ^ 

Tliere are a few facts of more tlian onliiarv 

interest connected with the history of the 
precinct, facts that will stand associated with 
the names of the great actors that gave them 
birth, when the marble and bronze upon 
which their epitaphs are lettered and their 
names engraved, have crumbled and been de- 

Stephen A. Douglas, the great American 
orator and statesman, made his first public 
speech in Hickory Precinct, under a walnut 
tree, long since dead and removed. The little 
American giant and the giant of the forest 
alike have yielded to the withering touch of 
time and decay, and passed away. Several 
years ago the old walnut died, and Gen. 
Lippincott in his deep veneration for the 
the name of the great American champion, 
purchased the tree, had it made into furniture 
and canes. The latter he presented to his 
friends, and they are .now carried in almost 
every State of the Union, and will be treas- 
ured by father and son for generations to 
come as relics of priceless value. Gen. John 
J. Harding, who was killed in the Mexican 
War, lost his eye on the Sangamon Bottoms, 
in Hickory Precinct, while pursuing a deer. 
Col. E. D. Baker, who lead the Union forces 
across the Potomac at Ball's Bluff, and died 
so nobly in defending the Hag of his country, 
the man who, if he had lived, would have 
risen to have smothered treason in the very 
birth-place of liberty, often hunted on the 
bottoms of the precinct, coming annually for 
years to pursue the chase, and rest from the 
fatiguing and confining labors of his e.xtensive 
law practice. But he is gone, and died the 
death of a patriot. 

" To every man upon this earth 

Death cometh soon or late, 
And how can man die better 

Than facing fearful odds, 
For the ashes of his fathers 

And the temples of his gods.' 

Tn the broad bottom of the Sangamon river. 



the solitary settlers in the early days of their 
pioneer struggles, rejoiced to hear the early 
messengers of God proclaim the glad tidings 
of great joy, or wept at the story of Pilate, 
the crown of thorns and the agonies of Gol- 
gotha and Calvary. It is a fact highly com- 
mendable to the early settlers of Hickory 
Precinct, that with all their trials incident to 
settlement in a new and undeveloped country, 
nought but hardships and poorly compensated 
labor to weary and burden the mind, they did 
not forget nor forsake their God, the source 
of all life, light and happiness. 

On the fifth Sabbath of July, 1848, we find 
a few Christian families assembled about five 
rods east of the present residence of Robert 
Taylor, under a temperary shelter made by 
setting a few posts into the ground and hast- 
ily covered with brush. The services were 
conducted by Rev. Daniel Bell, who was then 
residing in Mason County, at Bath or there- 
abouts, and being a special and intimate friend 
of Mr. Morgan, then a renter. on the premises 
where the meetings were held, and having 
a vacation about that time, he was induced by 
him to come and preach to a few families un- 
der the circumstances above mentioned. After 
continuing the meetings about one week, and 
finding so much religious interest manifested, 
it was thought advisable to continue the meet- 
inars and secure additional clerical assistance. 
Revs, .fames White, then residing on a farm 
at Clary's Grove, and Nathan Downing, of 
Virginia, were then sent for, and in the mean- 
time the place of meeting was moved to or 
near the present site of the Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church building, in a grove (since 
cut away). A stand was prepared between 
two native cherry trees, for the ministers, and 
rude seats arranged under the cooling canopy 
of leaves, for the audience. These meetings 
continued about three weeks in this beautiful 
grove, people gathering from far and near to 
hear God's glorious truth proclaimed amid the 

hymns of praise that in the open air were 
wafted heavenward in a loud chorus of re- 
joicing voices. 

"The groves were God's first temples." 
These meetings were, no doubt, the most 
interesting ever held along the Sangamcm 
bottoms; about sixty souls were converted 
and added to the believing followers of 

In August, 1848, a session was convened 
for the purpose of completing the organiza- 
tion of the church, consisting of Revs. Down- 
ing and White, and Lachlin McNeil, Elder 
of Mount Pleasant church, and opportunity 
being given to join the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church, the following members came 
foward and gave a relation of their experi- 
mental acquaintance with the religion of 
Jesus Christ, which was considered satisfac- 
tory, and they were received as members of 
the church, viz : Thomas Wilson, George, 
William, Charles, Elizabeth and Ellen Briar, 
Susan, Mary Jane and Cyrus Horrom, Wni. 
Cook, Thomas Montgomery, James Fairon, 
Thomas and Ann Cooper, Emeline Anderson, 
Elizabeth Richardson, Hannah Capper, Su- 
sannah Harrington, Mary Carr, Sarah Horn, 
Aiigeline Torry, Manelis More, an 1 J.Coolv. 
These after being duly enrolled, were soon af- 
terward baptized by the Rev. N. H. Dow- 
ning. The church also received the following 
by experience: John Horrom, .J.un^s Briar, 
Mary Briar, Joseph Cook, Sidney Ann B iar, 
Mary Briar, Janet Taylor, Eliza Canby and 
Wright Gill, all of whom had been previously 

The above named converts having ex- 
pressed a desire to organize a church, Robert 
Tavlor having presented a certificate of mem- 
bership in Mount Pleasant congregation, de- 
sired to unite with them, and was unanimously 
accepted and became a member. 

In the organization of the church, N. H. 
Downing was installed as the regular pastor, 



and Robert Taylor, Thomas Wilson and 
George Briar, were elected by the Congrega- 
tion to the office of ruling Elders, and were 
ordained by Rev. N. H. Downing, and Thomas 
Wilson was elected Session Clerk. 

After the above mentioned elections and 
business transactions, they decided to con- 
tinue regular weekly meetings at the Hickory 
school house, where they met regularly every 
Sabbath till 1849, when they built their pres- 
ent church at a cost of $1,000, besides the la- 
bor that was voluntarily given. 

The lot of the chuich was purchased from 
H. Horrom, and deeded to the trustees of the 
church. The building committee was made up 
of the following members, viz.: John Horrom 
and Archibald Taylor. The following mem- 
bers were elected trustees of the church: Rob- 
ert Taylor, John Horrom, Archibald Taylor, 
Win. Briar, and Ralph Morgan; of these, 
Robert and Archibald Taylor are the only 
two living members, and virtually the only 
trustees of the church. Rev. N. H. Downing 
was the first pastor of the new chuich; and.the 
most prominent ministers from that time to 
the present were: Abram Goodpasture, Wm. 
Bell, David Jolley, R. S. Schull, Amos Cox, 
J. E. Roach, and David Jolley, the latter being 
present pastor; also was pastor some fifteen 
years previous. The church has never been 
without a regular salaried minister since it was 
built. Peace and prosperity have attended 
the growth and progress of the society; God 
has blessed it, and great good has been ac- 
complished, and its influence has reached far 
and wide. 

Many years since the Baptists and Presby- 
terians united in organizing a Sabbath school. 
It has been very prosperous and progressives 
some fifty scholars are in attendance. No 
nobler work could enlist the united eft'orts 
of the chiirches. Several years ago an organ 
was purchased, and more life and interest 
addid to the school. Mnggie Taylor, Alice 

Kendall, Emma Fieldeii, and Miss M. Taylor, 
have officiated as oi-g mists. D. J. Cole, 
David Carr, and Robert Fielden have been 
Sabbath school superintendents most of the 
time, the latter being the present superin- 

The Missionary Baptist Church at Hickory, 
was first organized in a small log cabin on the 
premises of Wm. Cole, built by him especial- 
ly for school and religious purposes. Mr. 
Cole was the prime mover and the most active 
member in the little society. A man whose 
purse as well as heart was open to the Chris- 
tian cause. 

Rev. John Daniels, originally from the State 
of Virginia, was the first minister that preach- 
ed to the little band of devoted followers of 
Christ. Services at the little cabin were 
continued for two years or more, with a 
growing interest. A Baptist church society 
was then organized, September 29, 1838, with 
the following members, viz.: William Cole, 
John Hicks, Amos Smith, Thomas J. Mosloy, 
Mrs. Ellen Cole, Lucy Smith and Mrs. J. 

After the society had completed a prelim- 
inary organization, T. J. Mosley was ap- 
pointed to attend the Springfield Baptist 
Association, to request admittance into their 
union, which was unanimously granted. Mr. 
Amos Smith was appointed to write the 
church letters, with the approval of the 

In 1839, a revival of more than usual in- 
terest was held at their regular place of meet- 
ing by Rev. John Daniels, and the following 
persons were converted and baptized: Mary 
E. Cole, Nancy Cooper, James M. Kemper, 
Allen Ingram, Robert Cole, Wm. W. Cole, 
B. J. Smith, Lydia Smith, Eliza Cooper, 
James Ingram, and M. Ingram ; and Luther 
A. Jones, Druzilla Jones and Nancy May 
were received by letter. 

In 1811, or thereabouts, the Hickory sciiool 

SQ Oytn^cC /C cu 



•1 >■ 




house was built near the site of the present 
school building, and the Baptist Society find- 
ing their place of meeting too small to accom- 
modate their increasing numbers, adjourned 
to the school house, where they continued 
meeting till their present church was built. 
They held their services in the school build- 
ing in winter, and in the little grove near the 
school building (since cut away) in summer. 

It was quite customary in that early day 
for a large proportion of the settlers to 
shoulder their rifles and spend the holy Sab- 
l)ath in pursuing the game of the country, as 
there was little of a religious character to in- 
terest a roving, hunting disposition, and at 
these meetings held in the grove, the hunters 
would gather from the hills and the bottoms, 
stack their guns and listen to the sermons of 
Rev. Daniels, who being a man of eloquence 
as well as piety, soon converted many of these 
Sabbath breaking wanderers, and the crack 
of the rifle on the sacred Sabbath was much 
less frequently heard. The present church 
was built in 1853, and Mr. Wm. Cole, Sr., 
contributed about half the fund; it is a neat 
convenient frame building, costing some 
11,500 to complete it. 

The building committee were R. S. Cole, 
D. J. Cole, L. M. Jones and T. Smith. The 
church at this time had some thirty members 
to contribute to its support. 

The first board of trustees was made up of 
the following members: D. J. Cole, Luther 
M. Jones and James Fielding, the latter be- 
ing the only trustee of the church remaining 
in the settlement. Rev. Mr. Hays, in 1854, 

held an interesting series of protracted meet- 
ings at the church, and many were converted 
and added to the church. Rev. John Daniels 
was the first and also the last pastor of the 
church. He was pastor a greater portion of 
the time from the founding of the church till 
his death. A subscription is now being taken 
up to erect a monument to his memory ; 
money could not be contributed to a worthier 
cause or nobler purpose. Rev. John Daniels 
was one of the first ministers of Hickory pre- 
cinct; long, tireless and faithful were his labors 
in the service of the Master. He has o-one to 
his long home. 

Since the death of Rev. Daniels, no regular 
Sabbath services have been held, and no reg- 
ular salaried minister employed. Many of 
the old members have moved to other parts, 
others have died, and are sleeping beneath 
the changing shadows of the hills, and so 
weakened the membership of the church, 
that the few scattered families remaining find 
it very difficult to revive its former interest, 
or build up its decaying strength. 

In conclusion, we shall only say that far- 
mers of the precinct as a general thing, are 
well to do, or wealthy and prosperous. They 
have seen the Sangamon Bottom changed 
from a wilderness of tangled grass, dense 
brush, and scrubby trees, overflowed and 
steaming with poison and miasma, shaking 
the inhabitants with ague and burning them 
with malignant fever, to a garden spot of 
Illinois, surpassing in loveliness and fertility 
anything we have ever seen. 



Black. The grandfather of our subject was 
William Black, a militia captain, during the 
approach of the Revolutionary War. He was 
one of the first officers of the country who re- 
fused allegiance to the British crown. He died 
about the time the war commenced. ^His wife's 
maiden name was Beard. Thomas G. Black, 
one of his sons was born in January, 1772, 
in Mecklenburg County, N. C. He married 
Miss Polly, daughter of William and Eliza- 
beth (Shepherd) Callahan, Feb. 26, 1795. 
She was born April 7, 1773. Her fa- 
ther was of Irish, and her mother of Ger- 
man, descent. Thomas G. departed this life 
Nov. 20, 1823, and his wife, Polly, died 
March 20, 1853. William, who still lives in 
Virginia, in Cass County, is one of the off- 
spring of this union, and was born in Geor- 
gia, Jan. 3, 1796. He married in Tennessee, 
Dec. 4, 1823, Miss Mary S., daughter of 
Dixon and Susan Vaughn. She was born 
Nov. 1, 1803, and as a result of this union, 
they have born to them ten children. Six of 
their oldest were born in Tennessee, and the 
remaining four in Morgan, now Scott, County, 
HI. Thomas G., the eldest of these, was 
born .fune 15, 1828. He served as a colonel 
of the Third Missouri Cavalry, in the late 
■war, about three years, and is now practicing 
medicine at Clayton, Adams County, this 

Amanda C, was born May 25, 1S2G. She 
died July 33, 1837. 

Joseph F., was born Feb. 23, 1828. 
Was six years of age when the family moved 
to Illinois, and consequently received his ru- 
diraental schooling in Scott County. His 
father came to Cass County in 1846, and 
Joseph commenced business for himself as a 
farmer, and followed it for several years. 
Being of a mechanical turn of mind, he be- 
came engrossed in the invention of a self-rak- 
ing reaper. With years of experimenting, 
and the expenditure of some money, he de- 
veloped a successfully working machine, upon 
which he secured a patent in 1856, and the 
binding attachment he sold to the Wood 
Reaper Manufacturing Company, and the 
same is now in use on their machines. Mr. 
Black is an architect of several years' success- 
ful experience. Has erected on contract 
many of the best buildings of Virginia, Jack- 
sonville, and also built the Christian Church 
at Springfield, 111., in 1880-81. Since 1876, 
he has been a resident of Virginia. He has 
been twice married; first to Miss Mary F. 
Wilmott, daughter of Charles R. Wilmott, a 
resident of Morgan County. She died Jan. 
26, 1879, leaving five children, Charles 
W., Mary B., now Mrs. Armsted Mains, a 
farmer of Cass County, Eva L., or Mrs. Win. 
G. Payne, of Virginia. Robert W. and 
Joseph F.. jr., reside at home. May 2, 1882, 



Mr. Black again married, Mrs. Mary J. Skiles, 
of Virginia, widow of Ignatius Skiles (de- 
ceased). Mr. Black is a member of the Chris- 
tian Church, and of the I. O. O. F., and K. of H. 

William L., was born June 8, 1829. He 
commenced life as a farmer in Cass County. 
and continued in that business until the fall 
of 1878, and in 187J entered mercantile busi- 
ness with his brother, John, under firm name 
of Black Brothers, in Virginia. March 3ith, 
1837, he married Miss Adromcha, daughter 
of Alexander and Martha (Clark) Naylor, 
natives of Kentucky. She died Jan. ifl, 
1879, leaving three daughters: Alice, Carrie 
and Fannie. Mrs. Black was a member of 
the Christian Church, as is also Mr. Black. 
He is a life-long Republican, and a mem- 
ber of the I. O. O. F., Virginia Lodge. 

Richard v., was born October 27, 1S31; 
moved to Nebraska about 1860, and located 
near Nebraska City, where he is engaged in 
farming. He served three years in the One 
Hundred and Fourteenth Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry. He entered as a Sergeant, and was 
soon advanced to a Captain. 

John Jefferson, was born Oct. 34, 1833, 
and died August 22, ]839. 

Green V., was born on the 3d day of Au- 
gust, 1830. He is a resident of Jackson- 
ville, and a successful dentist. He served a 
short time as a volunteer soldier in the late war, 
but was discharged on account of disability. 

.Iames B., is the seventh son of his 
father, and was born Oct. 9, 1839, in Scott 
County; he attended the common schools 
of Cass County, and later, the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Academy, in Virginia. At the 
age of 19, he cothmenced teaching school in 
Cass County, and in the fall of 1861, he en- 
listed in Company C, Third 111. Vol. Cavalry, 
in which he served about two years. While 
in service, he was engaged in several battles, 
among which was Pea Ridge; was with 
Sherman at Vicksburg. He entered as a pri- 

vate and was promoted to First Lieutenant 
of his company. He was compelled to resign 
his commission in 1863, on account of ill 
health; returned home, and resumed teaching. 
He served as instructor in the State Institu- 
tion for the Blind, at Jacksonville, in 1864, 
'05 and '60, and afterward became principal 
in the public schools of Jacksonville. After 
farming four years, he was in 1873 elected 
clerk of Cass County, which office he has con- 
tinuously held. Since July, 1878, he has also 
been the cashier of the Centennial National 
Bank, of Virginia. July 1, 1867, he married 
Miss Eliza J. Ewing, daughter of William 
Ewing (deceased), of Jacksonville. They have 
one daughter, May. 

Maky J., was born Dec. 13, 1840. She 
was married in 1857, to George A. Beard, 
a prominent farmer of Cass County. She 
died Feb. 26, 1874. Mr. and Mrs. Black are 
members of the Christian Church, and he of 
the A. O. U. W. and K. of H. John, the 
youngest of the family, was born Dec. 21, 
1844, in Scott. He entered the mercantile 
business in Virginia in 1876. He married 
Maggie Blair, March 15, 1866, and they have 
five (laughters: Emma L., CoraE., Ida F., Jes- 
sie G., and Maggie E. Mr. and Mrs. Black 
are both members of the Christian Church. 
Ho is a Republican, and a member of the K. 
of H. of Virginia. 

Charles W., was born in Princeton Pre- 
cinct, Sept. 19, 1850; is the oldest son of 
Joseph F. Black, of whom an extended men- 
tion is made in the foregoing sketch of the 
Black family. He received his education 
at the Washington School House, near Phila- 
delphia, this county, except a si.x months 
commercial course in the Business College 
in Jacksonville, this State. Nov. 34, 1870, 
he married Miss Elsie E. Buckley, daugh- 
ter of Mark and Cornelia Job Buckley, 
in Philadelphia Precinct. Mark Buckley is a 
native of England, and his wife was born at 



Sylvan Grove, this county, Dec. 30,1823, and 
is daughter of Archibald and Jane (Brierly) 
Job, of whom see Historical Sketch elsewhere 
in this volume. Mr. Black engaged in farm- 
ing for three years, and in 1873 was appointed 
Deputy Clerk of Cass County, and has since 
that time filled the position with such efficien- 
cy, that he has received the nomination on the 
Republican ticket to succeed his uncle, .James 
B. Black, Clerk elect. Mr. and Mrs. Black 
have three children: Mabel Ora, Roy Lcstie, 
and Mary Lora. Since 18G7 they have been 
members of the Christian Church of Virginia, 
and Mr. Black is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
and A. O. U. W. 

HENRY BEVIS, Virginia City, one of the 
respected and thrifty citizens of Cass County, 
is a native of the Buckeye State, and was 
born near the city of Cincinnati, Oct. 23, 1836. 
He is the oldest son of David and Achsah 
(Stout) Bevis. David Bevis was also a native 
of Ohio, his father Jesse having come to 
Hamilton County about the year 1800; Jesse, 
his father, was the third son of a family of 
six sons and si.x daughters, and was for about 
forty years U. S. Postmaster at Bevis Post- 
office, which took its name from the family. 
Our subject received his education at the 
Farmers' College, about six miles north of 
Cincinnati. After leaving school he taught 
one winter. April 20, 1854, he married Miss 
Sarah J. Stout, daughter of Philemon Stout, 
a native of New Jersey, and came with his par- 
ents to Hamilton County, O., when a small boy, 
and in 1831 to Cass County. Mr. Bevis came 
to Illinois in October, 1857; he has since that 
time followed his trade as a carpenter and 
builder, except about five years, spent in the 
mercantile business at Philadelphia. He serv- 
ed as surveyor of Cass County one term of 
four years from 1867. Mr. Bevis is a Demo- 
crat. Himself and wife are members of the 
Presbyterian Church, and they have four chil- 
dren: Flora, Albon, Philemon, and Grace. 

LEVI CONOVER, deceased. Among the 
sturdy pioneers who converted the wild 
prairie into productive £arms, and built up 
the little commonwealth of Cass County, 
was the lamented Levi Conover. His grand- 
father, Dominions Conover, emigrated from 
Holland about 1830, and settled in New 
Jersey. He had five sons : William, John, 
Garrett, Levi, and Peter. The least of 
the five brothers when of middle age, 
weighed 250 pounds, and the largest 295. 
The fourth of the sons of Dorainicus (Levi) 
was the father of the subject of this sketch, 
and was born in 1760. He entered the Federal 
Cavalry service in 1776, being in his seven- 
teenth year. He served five years, as did his 
brother Garrett. In the year 1785, being 
twenty-five years of age, he married Catha- 
rine Dye, and in 1790 he and his brother Gar- 
rett, with their families, removed to the State 
of Kentucky, and settled near Lexington. 
In 1795 both brothers removed to Adair Coun- 
ty, Ky., and purchased farms near Columbia. 
Their brother Peter followed them from New 
Jersey in 1800, and settled near Lexington, 
their two older brothers, William and John, 
remaining in New Jersey. In 1801 Levi's 
wife died, leaving him seven children. In 
1802 he married Mrs. Jane Gelbirth Turnbow; 
she had by her former husband two sons, 
John and Hugh, who were brought up by 
their uncle, Hugh Gelbirth. They were with 
General Jackson in 1S12, at the battle of 
New Orleans. Five children, two daughters 
and three sons, were the fruits of this second 
marriage: Peter, James, Matilda, Levi, and 
Jackson. Levi was born Jan. 14, 1808; his 
brother Peter, in the year 1825, came to Illi- 
nois, and entered the Gilmore farm, two miles 
south of Princeton, then in Sangamon, now 
in Morgan County. In 1827 he sold his first 
purchase, and entered 240 acres just east of 
the Jeff Crum farm, in this county, where he 
remained until 1860. He then moved to 



Mason County, this State, where he still lives, 
at the advanced age of seventy-eight years. 
In the year 1833, the subject of this sketch, 
and his sister Matilda, with her husband, Asa 
B. Lane, came to Illinois. He was then 
twenty-two years of age. His outfit upon 
leaving Kentucky consisted of a good horse, 
a fine mare and colt, and a small amount of 
money. After having traveled three days, he 
awoke one morning to find that his mare and 
colt had been stolen, and a week was spent 
by the entire party in a fruitless search for 
the missing property. On reaching Illinois 
with one horse, his money was all spent, and 
he was in debt to his brother Peter and Mr. 
Lane. Thus, one of Cass County's most suc- 
cessful pioneers commenced his career with- 
out means, except that most valuable capital, 
health, honesty, industry, and economy. He 
purchased another horse of his brother Peter, 
for $35, paying for the same by splitting rails 
at fifty cents per hundred. After paying 
this debt he continued rail splitting until he 
had accumulated $105 in silver. This he 
loaned to a man who moved to Iowa, and he 
never collected a cent of the debt. In the 
spring of 1834, he went to Galena and work- 
ed in the lead mines at Mineral Point, until 
fall, when he returned and emigrated to 
Iowa. There he bought a claim for $75, and 
divided it with a friend. They returned to 
Illinois, purchased oxen and wagons, and 
then returned to Iowa, and spent the next 
summer in breaking and improving their 
farms. During the spring of 1835, he, Mr. 
Conover, built for himself a substantial hewed 
log house, 16x18, a smoke-house, and a stable. 
Unable to obtain plank, a quilt was hung 
up at the opening left for a door, to keep the 
wolves out. Finally the door and floor were 
made of puncheon. In November, 1836, he 
married Miss Elizabeth Petefish, of Cass 
County, sister of S. H. and Jacob Pete- 
fish, and they soon after proceeded to their 

Iowa home. They returned to Illinois in 
August, 1837, on a visit. Mr. Conover re- 
turned to Iowa after a two weeks stay, leav- 
ing his wife to complete her visit. She was 
soon taken sick and died the latter part of 
that same month. So imperfect were the 
mail facilities at that time, that he did not 
learn of her death until two weeks after her 
burial. This sore bereavement unsettled his 
plans, and he sold his claim of 560 acres for 
$3,000 in silver, with which he returned to 
Cass County, and loaned it to his friends, 
Jacob Epler, Capt. Charles Beggs, and J. 
Bradley Thompson. In January, 18-41, he 
purchased the old homestead of the family, 
from his cousin John, son of Peter Conover, 
which was settled in 1823. His experience 
on first settling in this county was not unlike 
that of many of the energetic and resolute 
class of men who were the pioneers of the 
West, and to whom the public are indebted 
for the orderly and intelligent character of 
the society we now enjoy. His second mar- 
riage was to Miss Phebe A. Rosenberger, who 
with three children, George, Charles W., and 
Ellen, now survives him. Mrs. Conover's 
father, .lohn Rosenberger, and her mother, 
were both of German parentage, and came to 
Illinois and settled at Princeton, in 1836. 
They raised a large family, of which Phebe 
A., was the oldest; George, the oldest living 
son of the Conover family, was born Sept. 11, 
1846, at the Conover homestead near Prince- 
ton. He is the fourtti of the family, two 
older sisters tiaving died, and one, Mrs. Will- 
iam Epler, still survives. He received his 
rudimental schooling at Zion school-house, 
and afterwards attended theWesleyan Univer- 
sity at Bloomington, 111., and took a commer- 
cial course at Bryant & Stratton's Business 
College, Chicago. At twenty-one years of 
age he commenced farming, in which busi- 
ness he remained from 18^0 to 1876, when he 
became connected as a partner in the bank- 



ing firm of Petefish, Skiles & Co., and since 
that time has acted as assistant cashier and 
book-keeper. Feb. 23, 1871, he married Vir- 
ginia Bone, a daughter of William Bone, of 
Sangamon County, later of Lincoln, 111. Mr. 
Conover was the fourth of a family of five 
children, and was born Sept. 11, 1846. They 
have two children, William B. and Earnest 
B. Mr. Conover is Secretary of and a stock- 
holder in the Importers and Breeders' Asso- 
ciation of Cass County, and also a member of 
the Buildintj Association of Virgrinia. Charles 
W., is the fifth youngest of the family, and 
was born April 1, 1849, on the homestead; he 
was educated and brought up a farmer, and 
has steadily adhered to his calling. He 
owns and lives on the Conover homestead, 
which he has successfully managed since it 
came into his possession. He married Miss 
Louise Dever, April 1, 1875; she is a daughter 
of John Dever (deceased), a farmer and na- 
tive of Ohio. They have three children: 
Millie, Dasie L., and an infant not named. 
Mr. Conover is a thrifty farmer,'*a Democrat, 
and much respected in the community. 

WILLIAM CAMPBELL, one of the most 
enterprising, energetic and prosperous pio- 
neers of Cass County, was born in Ireland, 
April 15, 1818. His father, Archibald, had 
four daughters and three sons. Our subject 
emigrated to America and to Cass County in 
the spring of 1840. His sister Mary preceded 
him, and another sister, Catharine, came after- 
ward. He located upon his present home- 
stead, and commenced laying the foundation 
of a success, seldom enjoyed by any who com- 
menced in so humble a manner. Mr. Camp- 
bell brought with him only a small amount of 
money, all of which was expended in starting 
him on his first piece of land. He is now 
owner of about nineteen hundred acres of 
Cass County soil; also holds a considerable 
amount of Virginia City property, and is a 
member of the well known banking firm of 

Petefish, Skiles & Company. October 10, 1845, 
he married Miss Mary Studbrank, a native 
of Germany. Her father, Fredric Studbrank, 
emigrated from Germany when she was 
small, and located in Cass County. Mrs. 
Campbell died May 33, 1872, in the forty- 
seventh year of her age, leaving three sons 
and one daughter, Henry J., Alfred, Edwin, 
and Emma J. Ann L., William E., Charles, 
and an infant, are deceased. Mr. Campbell 
has held the office of County Commissioner 
several years, and is a member of the Presby- 
terian Church. Henry J. was born Nov. 
25, 1850. He received his schooling in Vir- 
ginia, and entered farming in 1875. March 1, 
1877, he married Miss Maggie Taylor, daughter 
of Robert and Jenette (Cunningham) Taylor, 
of the Sangamon Bottom, Cass County, a 
sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this 
volume. Mrs. Campbell is the third of a 
family of seven daughters and five sons, 
and was born Dec. 2, 1852. Mr. and Mrs. 
Campbell have one son, William V. Mr. 
Campbell owns a farm of 200 acres; being 
a practical farmer, seldom fails of a profitable 
year's business. 

J. B. CRAFT, proprietor Virginia House, 
is a native of Fayette County, Pa., and was 
born at Brownsville, July 30, 183S. His fa- 
ther, William B. Craft, was a manufacturer of 
grain-cleaning machines, and was also a 
native of the Key-stone State. He married 
Evaline White, a native of Ohio. They 
raised a family of seven children, and our 
subject was their second child. J. B. received 
his schooling in Brownsville, and there learned 
the carriage maker's trade, which he followed 
about eight years. He came to Cass County in 
1864. In 1871 he took charge of his present ho- 
tel, and from that time until the present, except 
one j'ear (1874) spent in the grocery trade, has 
been its proprietor. William B., his father, 
died in the year 1855, and his mother is still 
living, a resident of Fulton County. Our sub- 



ject was married Oct. 9, 1862, to Miss Phoebe 
L. Dunaway, daughter of James Dunaway, a 
farmer of Fayette County, Pa., where she was 
born March 5, 1845. They have six children, 
four sons and two daughters, viz.: Annie E., W. 
Earnest, Edward, Thomas, Bertha and George. 
Mr. Craft has been from time to time identi- 
fied with the public interests and growth of 
Virginia, aside from providing the city 
with an all important adjunct, " a first-class 
hotel;" has served as a member of the City 
Council about six years. He has been for 
several years a member of the School Board, 
Police Magistrate, and is at present the City 
Treasurer, which position he has filled about 
eight years. Mr. and Mrs. Craft are both 
members of the Christian church. 

DR. S. M. COLLADAY, for several years 
a successful practicing physician of Virginia, 
is a native of the city of New York; was 
born Aug. 27, 18i2. His father, Charles H. 
Colladaj-, was a native of Philadelphia, Pa., 
and was by occupation a last manufacturer, 
and carried on business in New York for 
about twenty-one years. He was from Ger- 
man and French Huguenot descent; married 
Miss Sarah Jane Lutes, a native of Orange 
County, N.Y., who was of German and of Pu- 
ritan stock. He died in 1856; whereupon, 
our subject came west to Fulton County, 111. 
In 1861, he entered the army, enlisting in the 
5th Michigan Vol. Infty., from Macomb 
County. His regiment was assigned to Gen. 
Kearney's division of the 3d corps, in which 
division he served until his discharge on ac- 
count of disability, in November, 1862. Dr. 
Colladay studied medicine in Fulton County, 
111., and afterward entered the medical de- 
partment of the Michigan State University, 
and graduated from that institution in the 
class of 187-3. He spent two years practic- 
ing his profession, at Kansas City, Mo., and 
in 1875 came to Virginia and entered the 
drug bnsiness with Mr. J. W. Wilkinson, un- 

der the firm name of Colladay & Wilkinson. 
In 1819, Mr. C. B. Gatton purchased Mr. 
Wilkinson's interest, and the firm of Colladay 
& Gatton continued the business until Jan- 
uary, 1881, when Dr. Colladay withdrew, to 
devote his time to the practice of his profes- 
sion. October, 1874, he married Miss Cor- 
nelia H. Wilkinson, of Vermont, Fulton 
County, 111. Mrs. Colladay is a native of 
Pennsylvania, and from childhood has lived 
in Fulton county. They have two sons, 
Charles and Edward. Mrs. Charles Colladay, 
the doctor's mother, is still living at Lincoln, 
Neb. Of her six children, three are still liv- 
ing: our subject; Frank, a hardware mer- 
chant, of Waterloo, Iowa; and Louise, now 
Mrs. Dr. E. P. Hemer, of Lincoln. 

DAVID M. CRUM; farmer, P. O. Virginia; 
was born in Arenzville Precinct, Dec. 25, 
1853, and is a son of Christian Crura. He re- 
ceived a good education, having attended the 
Wesleyan University, at Bloomington, Ills., for 
some time, and engaged in farming, which oc- 
cupation he still pursues. In Virginia, this 
county, Nov. 24, 1875, he married Henrietta 
B. Payne, a native of Missouri, born Sept. 21, 
1856, daughter of W. B. and Elizabeth Payne 
of Virginia, this county; by this union they 
have been blessed with three children: Bessie 
L., Vida v., and Mabel A. Mr. Crum is a 
member of the M. E. Church and is Secretary 
of Lodge No. 68, I. O. O. F. of Virginia, this 
county; he is a Democrat. 

FINIS E. DOWNING, Circuit Clerk of 
Cass County; is a native of the city of Virginia, 
Cass Co., and was born Aug. 24, 1846. His 
father, Nathan H. Downing, was a Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Clergyman, a native of Ken- 
tucky, and a son of John Downing, who was a 
native of Bedford County, Va., and married 
Susannah Hall, a native of same place. John 
Downing had a family of twelve children, 
nine of whom lived to maturity. He removed 
from Virginia to Kentucky with his parents 



in early life, and from thence to Marion Coun- 
ty, Mo., in 1837, and pursued farming 
until his death, in June, 1833. His wife sur- 
vived him until March 3, 1861. Nathan H. 
Downing came to Cass County in 1843. He 
married Miss Eliza Head, a native of Howard 
County, Mo., and a daughter of John Head, 
a farmer and surveyor. He died in Virginia, 
Nov. 30, 1853. They had five children, two 
sons and three daughters, viz.: John C, 
Finis E., Lucy J., now Mrs. Green Middle- 
ton, of York County, Neb. John C, who 
died in a hospital at Memphis, Miss., April 10, 
1863. He enlisted in the 1 l-tth 111. Vol. Inf ty. 
August 13, 1863, a historical sketch of which 
appears elsewhere in this book. Finis mar- 
ried Jan. 15, 1868, to Miss Sue H. Payne, 
daughter of William B. Payne, of Virginia. 
They have one son, Harry. Mr. Downing was 
elected to the oflSce of Circuit Clerk of Cass 
Countj- in November, 1880. He first entered 
business as clerk for William B. Payne, and 
continued with him about five years, and 
after the first year was his partner. He re- 
moved to Missouri in 1869, and there remained 
until 1875, and then returned to Virginia and 
clerked for Mr. Payne until his election. He 
is a member of the I. O. O. F., A. O. U. W., 
and A. F. and A. M., of Virginia. 

JOHN M. DIRREEN, Deputy Sheriff of 
Cass County, Virginia, is a native of Cass 
County, and was born in Virginia, July 39, 
ISiO. His father, Edward, was a farmer, a 
native of Ireland, and came to Cass County in 
April, 1837. His mother was formerly Miss 
Jane Himphey, and also a native of the 
Emerald Isle; came to Cass County in 1835, 
and is still living. She has nine children, 
three of whom are deceased; the remaining six 
are still living, viz.: Catharine, Eliza, Alice, 
Michael, Edward, and our subject, who was 
brought up a farmer, and followed that busi- 
ness until February, 1878. In 1871, he mar- 
ried to Miss Nancy Cunningham, a native of 

Cass County. She died February 33, 1878, 
leaving one daughter, Josephine. 3*Ir. Dir- 
reen is a Democrat in politics, and since 
Aug. 33, 1878, has held his present respon- 
sible position, which he has thus far filled 
with satisfaction to the people of his county. 
ELI M. DALE, one of the thrifty farmers 
of Cass County, was born at Bedford, Law- 
rence County, Ind., Jan. 1, 1844, and is a son 
of Eli and Elizabeth (Waugh) Dale. The 
former a native of Cumberland County, Pa., 
born Feb. 3, 1816, and the latter 1831, in 
North Carolina. Mrs. Dale died, leaving four 
sons and two daughters, namely: Samuel, a 
lawyer for five years in Beardstown, now in 
Colorado; Eli M., our subject, Emily M., Wil- 
liam W., Mary A., George A. Eli Dale's 
grandfather on his mother's side, McCracken, 
was an Irishman; he came to America in time 
to serve eight years in the Revolutionary war, 
and fought on the American side. His grand- 
father on his father's side (Dale) was a Ger- 
man. Eli M., our subject, received his 
schooling in his native county; came to Cass 
County in 1865, and engaged in the manufac- 
ture of brick, and in building, in company with 
his father, Eli, and his brother, under the 
firm name of Eli Dale & Sons. The firm 
continued in this business successfully until 
1876, and since that time he has been farming 
in Virginia Precinct. Our subject entered 
the army for the suppression of the Rebellion 
in 1863, from Indiana, in the Sixty-seventh 
Volunteer Infantry, in which regiment he 
served about nine months, as a private, and 
was discharged on account of disability. Up- 
on sufiSciently recovering, he again entered 
the army in the One Hundred and Thirty- 
Sixth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, in which be 
served one hundred days, the full time for 
which he enlisted, and received his discharge, 
and a third time enlisted; this time in the 
One Hundred and Fortieth Indiana Infantry, 
and served until the war closed. This record 



speaks 'for itself, and shows that the patriotic 
zeal of our subject must have been inherited, 
or he would, on general principles, have got 
enough of the war on first trial, after having 
lost his health. Durins his term of service 


he was advanced to the rank of Lieutenant of 
his company, and participated in several se- 
vere engagements. Ho was discharged in 
18G5, and came to Illinois, as before men- 
tioned. Dec. 20, 1860, he married Miss Lida 
E. Tureman, daughter of George and Eliza- 
beth (Glover) Tureman, who was born Dec. 
21, 1851. Mr. Tureman is a native of North 
Carolina, and Mrs. Tureman of Morgan Coun- 
ty. They have two children: Stella M. and 
Cora T. 

WILLIAM DOWDALL, a thrifty farmer 
of Cass County, Virginia precinct, came to 
Cass County in 1851, via New Orleans, hav- 
ing landed there direct from Ireland, where 
he was born, Sept. 10, 1830 ; his native home 
was within sixteen miles of the renowned 
city of Belfast, the pride of the Emerald 
Isle. His father, Hugh Dowdall, was a 
farmer, brought up his sons as farmers, and 
our subject shows, in his methods of direct- 
ing his farm, the thoroughness that charac- 
terized his father's labors. Mr. Dovs'dall lo- 
cated on his present place of 176 acres, soon 
after his arrival in Cass County, and in Dec. 
18, 1853, was married to Miss Jane Havern, 
also a native of Ireland, who came to Amer- 
ica on the same ship with Mr. Dowdall. Thev 
have four children: Hugh H., William J., 
S imuel W. and Mary Jane. Mr. and Mrs. 
Dowdall are members of the Presbyterian 
Church, of Virginia, and he belongs to the 
Republican party. 

THE EPLER FAMILY is of German ori- 
gin. Abeam Eplee, was born in Lancaster 
(now Dauphin) County, Penn., Feb. 28, 1709. 
He was married in 1791, to Miss Anna Old- 
weiler. She was born Oct. 26, 1768. In 1798 
he emigrated to Kentucky, and settled n^ar 

the falls of the Ohio, from whence he removed 
across the Ohio river, into what is now Clarke 
County, Ind. He was a man of commend- 
able enterprise and industry, a miller, dis- 
tiller and farmer, and disposed of the prod- 
ucts of his varied business in southern mar- 
kets, principally New Orleans, transportation 
being by flat boats, steamboats not yet hav- 
ing been introduced on Western waters. In 
1832, Abram Epler removed to Illinois, 
settling on Indian Creek, in Morgan 
County, Ills., on section two, township six- 
teen north, range nine west, of the third 
principal meridian, where he died Jan. 22, 
1837. Abram Epler was the father of a 
family of six sons and five daughters, who 
widely scattered, settling in various parts of 
the West. John, Jacob, David and Isaac pre- 
ceded him to Illinois, and settled on farms now 
embraced within the limits of Cass County. 
George, the youngest son, remaining with 
his parents, attending them in their removal 
to Illinois, resided at the old homestead un- 
til his removal to Sangamon County, near 
Farmingdale, where he died Sept. 5, 1867. 
John and David are deceased, Jacob resides 
at Pleasant Plains, Sangamon County, 111., 
which prosperous village he settled and 
founded about the year 1848. Isaac resides 
in Otoe County, Neb., near Nebraska City. 
The above named, John, Jacob, David, Isaac 
and George, were enterprising and eminently 
successful farmers, and were among the lead- 
ers of that noble class of men, who by their 
industry, morality and exemplary citizenship, 
laid the foundations of our social and civil in- 
stitutions, with credit to themselves, and 
with honor to their country. Anna, the 
mother of this family, died May 3, 1817. 

John Epler, the oldest son of Abram, was 
born in Lancaster County, Penn., April 15, 
1795, being about four years of age when 
his parents settled in Clark County, Ind., and 
being the oldest son, was ahvays his father's 



right hand business man. Early in youth he 
assumed the more weighty responsibilities of 
his father's heavy river transportation, and 
often made long and profitable trips down 
the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, with the 
cargoes of the product of his father's business. 
Closing out, perhaps, at New Orleans, he 
would purchase a saddle horse, and return 
home across the country. He married Miss 
Sarah Beggs, a daughter of Captain Charles 
Beggs, a pioneer of 1829, of Morgan County. 
She was born at the falls of the Ohio, April 
38, 1800. John Eplor came to Cass County, 
located at Little Indian, in 1831, and up to 
the time of his death, which occurred in Cass 
County, May 26, 1876, was one of the most 
active citizens, and enterprising farmers of 
that county. He was no scholar, yet his read- 
ing took a wide range, and but few in busy 
life possessed the historical information 
which he did. In Biblical, Ancient and 
Modern History he was considered an author- 
ity by all who interested themselves in such 
studies. He raised a family of twelve chil- 
dren: Charles B., who married to Miss Mary 
Lurton, daughter of Dr. Lurton, of Jackson- 
ville, 111.; died 1855, leaving no offspring. 
Abram, the second, died Aug. 7, 1847, un- 
married. Cyrus is a resident of .lacksonville, 
and Judge of the judicial district, of which 
Morgan County is a part. Mary, and the 
fourth child, married Richard Barnett, of 
Sangamon County. She died in 1859. Sarah 
is now Mrs. D. W. Fairbank, a merchant of 
Jacksonville; Elizabeth the sixth child, married 
H. H. Hall, now of Jacksonville. She died at 
Faribault, Minn., in 1869, leaving five children- 
John M., one of the prominent farmers of 
Cass County, was in early life one of the 
main stays of his father's family. He attend- 
ed the common schools of the county, and at 
twenty-one years of age, purchased a portion 
of the land now comprising his estate of 200 
acres. He has for years past devoted much 

time to the breeding and raising of short-horn 
cattle, of which he has a fine herd. Has been 
twice chosen a member of the State Board of 
Agriculture, and has for twenty years been 
connected with Cass County Agricultural 
Society, and for five years a presiding officer 
of the organization. March 29, 1855, he mar- 
ried Miss Nancy A., daughter of Hon. David 
and ( Eachael R. Johnson ) Epler. She was 
born Oct. 27, 1833, and is mother of seven 
children, viz.: Edward E., Laura, Marv A., 
John W., Frankie, Charles and Frank, who 
died in infancy. Mr. Epler is one of the 
charter members of the Knights of Honor of 
Virginia, and is identified with the Demo- 
cratic party. 

William, the eighth of the family, now a 
prominent citizen of Virginia, is a grain deal- 
er and shipper. At the age of twenty-eight 
was a member of the first Constitutional 
Convention of the State of Nevada, held at 
Carson City in 1863, in which State he was for 
eight years engaged as Civil Engineer and 
Deputy U. S. Land and Mineral Surveyor 
and during a part of that time connected with 
the engineering department of the Central 
Pacific Railroad Company, of California. In 
1869, he returned to Cass County and settled 
on his farm near Little Indian. In 187-1:, was 
elected Sheriff of Cass County, where he has 
since resided. He married Miss Jennie Wood- 
man of Paw Paw, Van Buren Co., Mich. The 
ceremony took place April 12, 1859, at Du- 
luth, Minn., and was the first marriage of 
white persons pronounced in that city. Mrs. 
Epler died at Star City, Humboldt Co., Nev- 
ada, Oct. 2, 1863, leaving one daughter, 
Miss Nellie W. Mr. Epler again married. 
Miss Ellen Conover July 5, 1870. Ellen is 
daughter of Levi Conover ( of whom see 
sketch elsewhere in this volume ), and they 
have two children, Florence and Myron. 

David was the ninth child of the family, 
and died at the age of two years. 



Myrox, the tenth child, lived to acquire an 
excellent education, and a thorough knowl- 
edge of the law, and located in Chicago. 
Hard study had shattered his constitution, 
and in spite of much travel and most stren- 
uous efforts to regain his healtli, he died at 
Helena City, Montana, Se|)t. 5, 1866. 

Makgaeet E. received a Seminary education 
at Monticello, 111.; married John W. Price, a 
prominent druggist of Princeton, Bureau Co., 

Albert, the youngest of the family and the 
present Mayor of Virginia, was born Jan. 
22, 1845 at the Epler homestead. After re- 
ceiving his rudimental schooling at home, he 
took a course of study at the Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, at Bloomington, finishing in 1864:. He 
then engaged in farming until 1871, when he 
entered the livery business for two years. 
Since that time he has been engaged in the 
sale of agricultural implements and farm 
hardware, and dealing in grain. In 1880-81, 
he served as alderman of his ward, and in the 
fall of 1881 was elected to the city Mayorship. 
He married Miss Martha J. Vance, daughter 
of Samuel S. Vance (deceased), who was a 
prominent farmer and stock man of Cass 
County. Mrs. Epler was born in Morgan 
County, Aug. 9, 1845. Thev have seven 
children, viz.: Nellie, Edgar, Lizzie, Ada L., 
Frederick, Jessie, and Ralph, of whom Fred- 
erick is deceased. 

. JACOB A. EPLER, farmer; P. O. Virginia 
City; for many years one of the thrifty agri- 
culturists of his county; is a son of David 
Epler, who was the son of Abraham, of whom 
we find more particular mention in a sketch 
of the Epler family, elsewhere in this work. 
David Epler was the second son of his father, 
a successful teamster, and later, a farmer of 
the early-day type. He came to Cass County 
a short time previous to the deep snow of 
1830, located in North Prairie, on Section 35, 
Tp. 17, Range 11, where he improved a farm 

of about 640 acres. He married Mis-n Rachel 
R. Johnson, of Louisville, Ky., and a native 
of that State. They raised a family of eight 
children, viz.: Joseph A., John T. (deceased), 
Nancy A., now Mrs. John Milton Epler (see 
sketch), Mary A., James M., an able law- 
yer of Jacksonville, William F., Assistant 
Cashier in the First National Bank of Jack- 
sonville, Jacob A, and Rachel L., now Mrs. 
John McHenry, a farmer of Cass County and 
a resident of Virginia. Jacob A., our sub- 
ject, spent his latter school-days in the Illi- 
nois College at Jacksonville, and from that 
time has been a successful farmer. He lives 
in Virginia, and has for several years Ijeen 
connected with the banking interests of his 
town. Nov. 13, 1861, he married Miss Sarah, 
daughter of Oswell Thompson, a native of 
Ohio, and one of the earliest pioneers of Cass 
County. Mr. and Mrs. Epler have three 
children: Fannie M., Nancy J., and Albert E. 
J. N. GRIDLEY, attorney, of Virginia 
City, and one of the most successful in the 
prcfession in Cass County, is a native of 
Manchester, N. H. His father, John J. 
Gridley, was for many years a Methodist 
preacher, and preached throughout the States 
of New York, Michigan, and Northern Illinois. 
He is of English descent, and married Miss 
Elizabeth Mitchell, a native of Portsmouth, 
N. H., and is of English and Scotch ancestry. 
He now resides at Greenville, Mercer County, 
Penn.; Mrs. G. died in August, 1865. James 
N., our subject, is the oldest of the family, 
and was born June 15, 1842. He has two 
sisters younger, Miss Kate, and Elizabeth, who 
is now Mrs. William Bennett, at Beardstown. 
The youngest of the family was Albert, a 
farmer and teacher of Cass County. He 
went to Minnesota to recover his lost health, 
and there died Aug. 18, 1874. Our sub- 
ject, in the year 1861, entered the Michigan 
State Agricultural College at Lansing, as a 
Freshman. He remained there about seven 



months, and then went to Ypsllanti, same 
State, where he spent two years in a Seminary, 
under Prof. Estabrook. In 18C3, Mr. Grid- 
ley came to Oregon Precinct, Cass Co., and 
began farming. He taught during the 
winter season in the puljlic schools of Vir- 
ginia, and devoted a portion of his time to 
the study of law, and in August, 1868, was 
admitted to the bar of the State. Since then 
his time has been given mostly to the j)ractico 
of his profession. He commenced the prac- 
tice of law alone, and in 1871 he formed a 
partnership with I. J. Ketcham, of .lackson- 
ville, wiiich arrangement still exists. Since 
its organization, the firm has done a profitable 
business, their practice being principally in 
criminal, chancery and real estate. Further 
mention of the firm and of Mr. Gridley's ab- 
stract business, will be found elsewhere in 
this volume. Mr. Gridley married Oct. 11, 

1871, Miss Frances A. Hill, daughter of Ebe- 
nezer Hill (deceased), and Maiy B irden Hill 
(also deceased). Mr. Hill was a native of 
New York, and Mrs. H. a native of Connecti- 
cut. Mr. and Mis. Gridley have lour chil- 
dren: Charles, Nellie, Burton, and Harry. In 
politics, Mr. Gridley is a Democrat; he is a 
member of the Knights of Honor, Virginia 

MORRISON GRAVES, one of the oldest 
natives of Cass County, and for many years a 
business man of Virginia, was born in Monroe 
Precinct, Aug. 39, 1835. His father, Richard, 
was a native of Kentucky, and came to Illi- 
nois in the year IS'^8; loeTated in the above 
named precinct, on the fai m now occupied by 
Mr. James M. Graves, one of his sons. He 
married Miss Nancy Martin, also a native of 
Kentucky, and they raised a family of three 
sons and two daughters. Our subject received 
his schooling entirely in Cass County, and 
made farming his occupation up to the year 

1872, when he came to Virginia, and entered 
the livery business with A. G. Epler, under 

the firm name of Graves & Epler. Mr. Graves, 
this same year, 18(io, also engaged in buying 
and shipping stock and since that time 
has followed the business. The firm of Graves 
& Epler continued until about 1876, and in 
1878, Mr. Reuben Lancaster bought one-half 
interest in the stock, and the present firm of 
Gr^ives & Lancaster has continued up to the 
present time. Mr. Graves was married, Nov. 
]'J, 18.57, to Miss Julia C. Nail, daughter of 
Charles Nail, then a farmer of Cass County, 
now in Macon County, Mo. Mr. Nail is a 
native of Kentucky, and came to Illi- 
nois about 1855. Mr. and Mrs. Graves have 
three children: Willis S., Appeline and Nellie 
May. They are both members of the Chris- 
tian Church, and Mr. Graves is a Republican, 
a member of tlie Knights of Honor, A. O. 
U. W., and the I. O. O. F. of Virginia Lodo-e. 
JOHN GORE, for nine years a resident of 
Virginia, is a native of Taylorsvill^, Kv., and 
was born Jan. 14, 18M. His father, R'ctor 
Gore, was a farmer by occupation, a native of 
the same State, and was born in the year 
1809. He married Miss Amanda, daughter of 
David anil Susan (Willet) Gratf, also natives 
of Kentucky. Mrs. Gore died in the year 
1834, having borne three children, viz.: Josh- 
ua, now a farmer of Menard County, this 
State, Evaline, who died when small, and 
our subject, the youngest. Mr. Gore sur- 
vived until 1859. John, being an infant when 
his mother died, was consigned to the care 
and protection of his grandparents, the Graffs, 
and they, in that same year (1834), came to 
Illinois, and settled on a farm in Morgan 
county. He remained with them until he 
had reached years of discretion, and was able 
to care for himself. He attended the com- 
mon schools of their neighborhood, and later, 
the Illinois College at Jacksonville; graduated 
from that institution in 1854, and received the 
degree of B. S. He commenced teaching 
school at sixteen years of age, and followed 



it, as a profession, for about twenty -five years, 
in the counties of Morgan, Adams, and Cass. 
As an instructor he has been successful, to the 
extent of having acquired some means, which 
he has mostly invested in Cass County farm- 
ing land, and was called by the people to serve 
as the Superintendent of the Public Schools of 
Cass county in 1872, for four years, or one 
term. March 3^d, 1859, he married Miss 
Mattie Easum, daughter of Charles and Mar- 
garet (Swope) Easum, he of Maryland, she of 
Kentucky. They came to Illinois in 1854, and 
located on a farm in Adams county; raised a 
family of ten children, of whom Mrs. Gore 
was the second born. Mr. Easum died Aug. 
21, 1871, and Mrs. Easum Jan. 8, 1865. Mr. 
Gore has recently become proprietor of the 
City Hotel, which he conducts with the same 
degree of success that has thus far character- 
ized his life. He and Mrs. Gore are mem- 
bers of the Presbyterian Church, and Mr. 
Gore is a member of the I. O. O. F., Virginia 

Z. W. GATTON, banker; Virginia City. 
Among those of the early and sturdy pioneers 
of Cass County, was Thomas Gatton, a native 
of the State of Maryland, and father of the sub- 
ject of this brief sketch. He lived in Maryland 
until January, 1779, when he emigrated to 
Kentucky, settled in Allen County, and en- 
gaged in merchandising. There he remained 
until he came to Illinois in 1824, and located 
about one quarter of a mile east of where 
Little Indian Station is now located. At 
this point he opened the first store in what 
was then Morgan County, but now Cass. 
Thomas Gatton raised a family of six sons 
and four daughters. All but one, the young- 
est, were born in Kentucky. Zachariah W. 
was the fourth son, and was born Nov. 13, 
1812, being about twelve years of age when 
they came to Morgan County. It is well- 
known what the school advantages of those 
days were, and the young Gattons shared the 

common lot of other young pioneers, studied 
such books as were within their reach, and 
from stern experience learned the common 
every-day lessons not found in books, of how 
to earn a living, and get a start in the world. 
Our subject has, from the time of his advent 
into Illinois, been closely identified with the 
agricultural interests of his county. In 1847 
he married Miss Sarah C, daughter of Arthur 
Saint Claire Miller, a speculator, of Covington, 
Ky., and they have had six children, all born 
in Virginia Precinct, of whom four are now 
living: Emma K., Kate A., Charles B., and 
William R. Charles B., the second of the 
family, is a resident merchant of Virginia; 
was born April 14, 1850. After attending the 
public schools of his native town, he entered 
the grocery business, being at that time nine- 
teen years of age. He continued in that 
business until 1879, and then entered the 
drug and hardware business, in which he is 
still successl'ully employed. He married 
Nov. 13, 1879, Miss Mary Kemper, daughter 
of Thomas J. Kemper, now of Springfield; 
and they have one daughter, Floy, and a son, 
Roscoe B. 

CHARLES M. HUBBARD, physician, Vir- 
ginia City. Doctor Charles M. Hubbard, one 
of the most successful physicians of Cass Coun- 
ty, was born July 25, 1848, at Lempster, New 
Hampshire. His father, George N. Hubbard, 
a native of Vermont, and for more than thirty 
years a merchant of Providence, R. I., came 
West, located in Chicago, and engaged in the 
tin ware and stove business, until he retired 
in 1855. He died from the efi^ects of a stroke 
of lightning, in Menard County, 111., in March, 
1871. He married Miss Sarah Vance, who 
became the mother of five sons and one 
dauarhter. Mrs. Hubbard survives her 
husband and resides with one of her sons, 
Thomas, in Chicago, at the age of fifty-four 
years. The subject of this sketch is the old- 
est of the family. He received his rudiment- 



al education in the common schools of Chi- 
cago, and later, attended in Jacksonville, 111., 
and Springfield, and graduated from the high 
school of the latter place. At Terre Haute, 
Ind., he gained a knowledge of dentistry, and 
in 1871 came to Virginia and opened a dental 
office. He had during 18G9 and 1870 read 
medicine with Dr. J. B. Stevenson, of Spring- 
field, and during his practice of dentistry he 
prosecuted his medical studies. He attended 
medical lectures at both the Ohio Medical 
College, and the Eclectic Medical School of 
Cincinnati, and received diplomas from those 
institutions, in May, 1871. May 20, 1871, he 
married Miss Charlotte L. StoU, daughter of 
H. B. and Susan (Hall) StoU, both natives of 
New .lersey. Mrs. Hubbard was the oldest 
of a family of six children, and was born July 
35, 1848. Her father died in March, 1865, 
and Mrs. Stoll resides at Terre Haute, Ind. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hubbard have two sons, Henry 
C. and Frank L. 

HENRY F. KORS, Deputy Circuit Clerk 
of Cass County, Virginia City ; was born at 
Beardstown, Cass Co., Dec. 2, 1846. H. Fred- 
erick Kors, his father, was born Sept. 25, 1804, 
and Maria (Herainghouse) Kors, his mother, 
were natives of the Kingdom of Hanover, which 
was formerly a portion of northwestern Ger- 
many. Mr. Kors was a plasterer by trade, 
which business he followed until his death, 
in 1865. Mrs. Kors died in 1846, leaving 
two children: Catharine, now Mrs. Boy, of 
Hickory, and our subject. He received his 
schooling in the public schools of Beardstown ; 
learned the harness makers and carriage trim- 
mers trade, which he followed for a time, and in 
1868 entered the business for himself. He sold 
out in 1869. After making a trip to Missouri, he 
followed merchandising, as salesman, until 
December, 1876, when he was appointed 
Deputy Circuit Clerk of Cass County, by 
Thomas V. Finney, and has since that time held 
that position. January 13, 1869, he married 

Miss Laura Finney, daughter of Thomas V. 
Finney, Sr., an early resident of Cass County. 
They have three sons: Martin L., Tad S., and 
Preston V. Addie and Ida, two older daugh- 
ters, are deceased. Laura Davis has been a 
member of the family about six years. She 
is their niece, and a daughter of F. M. Davis, 
formerly of Beardstown, a farmer, now de- 
ceased. Mr. and Mrs. Kors are members of 
tlie Presbyterian Church. Mr. Kors is a 
Democrat, and a member of the I. O. O. F., of 

JOSEPH S. LYNCH, Virginia City, County 
Surveyor ; is a native of Lancaster County, 
Penn.; was born Aug. 13, 1838, at a town of the 
same name. His father, James Lynch, now de- 
ceased, was of Irish descent, born in the same 
town; he was a merchant by occupation, and 
married Miss Elizabeth Schmaling, of German 
extraction. Joseph S. received his schooling in 
the schools of Lancaster, and renuiined at home 
until about eighteen years of age. In 1861 
he entered the Union Army, enlisting at Free- 
port, Stevenson Co., 111., in the 11th III. Vol. 
Infantry ; Feb. 16, 1863, he was taken pris- 
oner at Fort Donelson. He was held by the 
enemy about eight months, at Macon, Ga., 
and then exchanged. He immediately re- 
turned to his regiment, served in the forty 
days campaign before Vicksburg ; July 7, 
1864, he received a severe musket Ijall wound, 
in both thighs, at the battle of Jackson Cross- 
roads, Miss., was left on the field as mortally 
wounded, picked up by the enemy, and 
was again imprisoned in a rebel hospital 
at Clinton, Miss., for about two months, 
whereupon he was again exchanged. He 
then reported to his regiment in Arkansas. 
His time having expired, he received his dis- 
charge, Sept. 13, 1864, and returned to Illi- 
nois. He soon entered farming in Stevenson 
County. Still suffering from the effects of his 
wound, he was after two years' trial obliged to 
abandon the farm, and in 1866 came to Cass 



County, and commenced tcachinw school, 
which he continued for about five years. He 
then took up the profession of surveying, and 
has from that time on made it his principal 
business. He was elected to the office of Sur- 
veyor of Cass County, in 1872, and served one 
term, with satisfaction to the citizens of the 
county, anil was again elected in 1879, since 
which time he has held the office. May 30, 
1872, he married Miss Matilda J. Martin, 
daughter of Joel and Eliza Martin, now living 
in Nebraska. Mr. Lynch is a life-long Re- 
publican, and a member of the A. O. U. W., 
of Virginia City. 

JOHN MARTIN, (ileceased); was born in 
Pennsylvania, in 1829, and was a son o*' Will- 
iam and Mary (Anderson) Martin, the former 
of Irish descent, and his wife of American 
ancestry, so far as known. John was the old- 
est of their family of five sons and one 
daughter, and the only one that ever came 
West. He was a guiismitli by trade, and 
made it the jjrincipal occupation of his life. 
He left his native State and came to Ohio in 
1853, located at Gil more, Tuscarawas Co., 
where he married Miss Rose Ann Turner, 
daughter of James and Julia (Romig) Tur- 
ner. James Turner is of English descent, 
and a native of Maryland, and Mrs. Turner 
is a daughter of Jacob Romig, of German de- 
scent, a native of the Keystone State, and 
by occupation a farmer, and a saddler by 
trade. Mr. and Mrs. Turner came to Illinois 
from Ohio in 1853, lived for a time at Deca- 
tur, in Macon County, and in 185G came to 
Cass County, Hickory precinct (then Vir- 
ginia), located on a farm, where they still 
live, surrounded with a family of grown-up 
children, and the comforts of a well regulated 
country home. Mrs. Martin was the second 
child of the family, and was born Feb. 7, 
1835. Mr. Martin pursued his calling, in Vir- 
ginia, coming directly from Ohio in 1853. In 
1358 he went with his familv to Paris, Edgar 

County, and there followed his trade, until'the 
breaking out of the Rebellion, in 18G1, when 
he enlisted, in response to President Lincoln's 
first call for volunteers. He was enrolled 
from Edgar County, but the 14th 111. Vol. 
Cav. being full, his entire Co. I was mustered 
into the first Mo. Vol. Cav. He was soon 
promoted from a private to first lieutenant, 
but died of sickness at Rolla, Mo., just before 
his commission reached him. The sad news 
of his death reached his bereaved widow, left 
with six fatherless little ones, all too young 
to fully understand the loss of their nearest 
and most valuable earthly friend. Mrs. Mar- 
tin's experiences, for the years that have now 
passed, were only a repetition of what many a 
brave and widowed mother was in those 
days called upon to withstand. Left upon 
her own resources, she kept her little family 
together, afforded them every advantage 
within her reach, to gain an education, and a 
clear understanding of what was right and 
wrong; and her faithfulness is duly rewardcMl 
by living to see her boys all settled in life, 
and each prospered in his adopted calling. 
She died May 23, 1878, in Virginia. 

J. A. Martin, the well known merchant 
tailor, of Virginia, was born May 9, 1853, in 
Ohio, and is the oldest living son of the 
family. He attended the common schools of 
Cass and Edgar Counties, this State, and later 
the Illinois College at Fulton, Whiteside Co., 
111. He learned the tailor's trade with Mr. 
H. W. Leach, of Bloomington, at fourteen 
years of age, and has from that time followed 
it. He engaged permanently in business in 
Virginia in 1876, and most of the time at his 
present location. No. 10, West Beardstown 
St. Mr. Martin conducts a first class 
tailoring establishment, in every respect, and 
always has on hand a complete stock of 
goods in the latest patterns. He was married 
March 4, 1874, to Miss Ida C. Herr, daughter 
of H. S. and Rebecca (Myers) Herr, of 



Bloomington, 111. They have three chil- 
dren : Nellie, Guy C, and Edna M. Nel- 
lie died, at two years of age, in 1877. 

The second living son is John S., a marble 
cutter, born in Cass County, this State, 
June 35, 1854. He received his schooling in 
the pioneer schools of his native county, and 
came to Virginia in 1ST6. He attended the 
Illinois College at Fulton, and in 1870 entered 
a marble shop as an apprentice; served eight 
years in the business, with marked success. 
In 1876 he visited Philadelphia, and other 
eastern cities, making his trip a valuable one, 
in observing much pertaining to his chosen 
profession. As a sculptor, Mr. Martin has dis- 
played talent, having produced several very 
creilitabl}' wrought pieces of statuary. As a 
monumental designer, his ability is shown by 
by some extensive plans of a monument to 
be submitted to the Garfield Monument As- 
sociation, of Cleveland, Ohio. His plans con- 
template an expenditure of $250,000. Mr. 
Martin married Miss Alice L., daughter of 
William L., and Andromache B. (Naylor), 
Black of Virginia. George W. was the next 
born, his birthday being January 4, 1856, in 
Virginia, and is the third of the family now 
living. He received his education at the State 
Normal School, of Normal, 111., and graduated 
at the Wesleyan University, from the law de- 
partment, with the class of 1876, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in June of that year. He 
practiced his profession, in Bloomington, in 
company with Messrs. Straight and Coy, and 
continued with them until he came to Virginia, 
in 1877. Since that time his practice has been 
steadily increasing, with bright prospects for 
the future. He married Oct. 5, 1881, Miss 
Quintella D., daughter of John Sallie (deceas- 
ed), formerly a farmer of Virginia. Charles 
^jSOP, the fourth of the family, was born Nov. 4, 
1857, in Virginia, Cass Co. His people, about 
this tim? moved to Edgar County, and he re- 
riMvcd his early schooling there. Later, he at- 

tended the High School at Bloomington. At 
sixteen years of age he learned the painter's 
trade, and developed a taste and talent as 
scenic painter. He followed his trade in 
Bloomington, St. Louis, and other large cities, 
with success. He entered the law office of 
W. S. Coy, of Bloomington, and continued 
with him as a student until 1877, when lie 
came to Virginia, taught school, and pros- 
ecuted his law studies, and was admitted to 
the bar at Springfield, in 1880, and since that 
time has practiced in Virginia. Sept. 8, 

1881, he married Miss Sallie R., daughter of 
James M. Beadles, of Virginia. Jex.vie R., 
is the sixth child of the family, and now 
Mrs. George W. Berris, of Sedalia, Mo. Will- 
iam R., the youngest, was born at Paris, Ed- 
gar County, III., May 5, 1861. He attended 
school about three months in Virginia, and 
later, at the Soldiers' and Orphans' home at 
Bloomington. He learned the tailor's trade of 
his brother James A., and is now associated 
with him in business. He married Feb. 22, 

1882, Miss Harriet E., daughter of James 
Beadles, before mentioned. 

Precinct, was born July 27, 1810, at Horse- 
shoe Bend, Culpepper Co., Old Virginia. 
Samuel Massey, his father, was a native of 
Halifax, Md., of German descent, and was 
a soldier in the war of 1812; served as a Cap- 
tain at the battle of New Orleans, 1813, and 
died soon after his return home, in 1815, of 
fever, contracted in the service. He was 
married to Miss Olive, daughter of 
Mordecai Choplain, who was of French de- 
scent. They had a family of eight children, 
all of whom lived to maturity, but our sub- 
ject is the only one now living, and was the 
sixth child. Henderson E. was raised a 
farmer, although his father was a school 
teacher, and a man of excellent education. 
Mr. Massey first came to Morgan Countv, in 
1820, but remained only a short time, wlu-n 



he made a trip to Wisconsin, and fiom tliat 
State entered the Black Hawk war, in 1833, 
in which he served about six raonths, liaviiig 
been attached to the Mining Battalion, and 
served as keeper of the peace, after the hottest 
of the conflict was over. He permanently 
settled in Illinois in 1833, near Mount Ster- 
ling, Brown Co., where he remained about 
four years. He then came to North Prairie, 
his present home, in the southern part of 
Virginia Precinct, near Little Indian. His 
first purchase of land here, was 250 acres, to 
which he has added, until he now owns about 
800 acres. He married Miss Martha, 
daughter of James Marshall, an early pioneer 
of North Prairie, and a native of Glasgow, 
Scotland. He was a merchant in Scotland, 
and emigrated to Kentucky, where he lived 
until he came to Cass County. He had a 
family of eight children, and Mrs. Massey 
was the fifth. Mrs. Massey died March 29, 
1874, leaving the following children: James 
F., Elizabeth A., Mary J., Henry C, Samuel, 
Henderson R., John H., Esther M., Harriet 
M., Bell H., George, and Emma L. Four 
sons are married, two are located in Cass 
County, one in California, and one at Litch- 
field, Montgomery Co. Mary is now Mrs. 
George Laurie, of Morgan County; Elizabeth 
married Mr. William Nisbet, of Cass County, 
and the other daughters are still at home. 
Mr. Massey is not a partisan in politics, but 
votes for the best candidate. 

T. L. MATHEWS. The subject of this 
brief sketch is a native of the Keystone State, 
and was born in the town of Florence, Wash- 
ington County, Penn., March 1, 1849. When 
quite young his parents moved to Kentucky, 
where the early years of his life were spent, 
■with the exception of about three years 
spent in Rushville, Schuyler County, 111. 
When the war broke out the family returned 
to the East, and there remained until the 
spring of 1805, when Mr. Mathews again 

came West, stopping at Rushville a few 
months, and then located at Vermont, Fulton 
County, 111. Here he started in as an ap- 
prentice and learned the trade of a carriage- 
builder, and became an expert workman. In 
the spring of 1809 he removed to Beards- 
town, where he pursued his trade two years, 
and was promoted to the position of collector 
and salesman for the firm that employed him. 
In the winter of 18T2 he entered the New 
York Store, in that city, as a salesman. In 
the spring of 1873 Mr. Mathews was appoint- 
ed Deputy Sheriff of Cass County, by George 
Volkmar, then Sheriff and Collector, and was 
placed in charge of the revenue department 
of the office. He served through Mr. Volk- 
niar's term, and was re-appointed by Sheriff 
elect, William Epler. He served in this ca- 
pacity about four years, with satisfaction to 
the citizens of Cass County, and credit to 
himself. In 1870, Mr. Mathews was nominat- 
ed by his party as their candidate for Circuit 
Clerk of Cass Co.; and tiiough receiving 
more than his party vote, was swept aside by 
the Tilden and Reform tidal wave, and failed 
of an election. In August, 1877, he, in com- 
pany with William H. Thacker, purchased 
the Virginia Gazette. The following Decem- 
ber Mr. Mathews bought Mr. Thacker's inter- 
est, and successfully continued the publica- 
tion alone al>out one year. Jan. 1, 1879, lie 
sold out to Mr. Cad. Allard, and returned to 
the service of his county, receiving the ap- 
pointment of deputy, by .James B. Black, 
County Clerk, and served four years in that 
office. In 1882, Mr. Mathews was elected 
member of the Board of Education of Vir- 
ginia City, and upon organization of the 
Board, became its Secretary. At the date of 
writing Mr. Mathews is the Republican can- 
didate of the Thirty-fourth Senatorial District 
for Representative in the State Legislature, 
and as a minority candidate his election is 
certain. Mr. Mathews was married at Beaids- 



town, Sept. 26, 1872, to Miss Lou. E. Thorii- 
bur}', daughter of J. A. Thornbury, an early 
resident of Cass County. They have two 
children: Earl and Ruse. Florence died 
Aug. 17, ISSO. 

WIIXIAM MOORE, deceased, one of the 
respected pioneers of Cass County, vvas a na- 
tive of Maryland; was born March 8, 1799. 
He had four brothers: George, Robert, 
Thomas and John, and three sisters: Martha, 
Sarah and Nancy. In early manhood Mr. 
Jfoore was a boatman on the Ohio and the 
Mississippi rivers. Oct. 4, 1831, he married 
Miss Keziah Moore (not a relative), daughter 
of Isaac Moore, who was a farmer by occupa- 
tion. Mrs. Moore's mother, whose maiden 
name was Rachael Lewis, died when she was 
about four years of age, and she was left to 
the care of an uncle and aunt, who gave her 
school advantages, and made for her a com- 
fortable home. Mr. Moore first came to Cass 
County in 1834, and landed at Boardstown in 
April. He made purchase of the present 
Moore homestead, and moved on to it the fol- 
lowing August. The place formerly compris- 
ed 204 acres, but parcels have been sold from 
it, until it now contains about 44 acres. Mr. 
Moore was an honest, conscientious citizen, 
and a thrifty farmer. He died April 26, 1865, 
leaving his wife surrounded by a famiiv of 
thirteen children, viz.: Manilious, now Mrs. 
Carle Pond, of Morgan County ; James N., now 
at home, once married, and has one son; 
Nancy F., now Mrs. J. A. Bond, of Menard 
County; Robert B., at home; Thomas S., of 
Washington County, Kan.; Amanda M., now 
Mrs. Robert MoNeal, of Cass County; William 
A., in Montgomery County, Iowa; John I., of 
Cass County; Charles B.; Ulysses S., a farmer 
of Cass County; Lorinda A., now Mrs. George 
Wubker, of Virginia, Cass County; George C, 
died an infant, and Alma A., is at home. Mrs. 
Moore has now forty-three grandchildren. 

R. H. MANN, photographer, Virginia City; 

was born in Wilmington, Jan. 29, 1855. 
His father, H. T. Mann, was a carriage trim- 
mer, and a native of London, England. Em- 
igrated to America at about twenty-five 
j-ears of age. His mother was, before mar- 
riage, Matilda Stevens, and married Mr. 
Mann, in London, and Robert H. was the old- 
est of their two sons. Our subject received 
his primary education in his native town, after- 
ward attended Lockport, 111., High School, 
and later in Bloominorton. Mr. Mann grained 
his first experience as a photographer in Fari- 
bault, Minn., where he continued work for 
about four years. He then went to St. Paul, 
same State, where he made the art of re-touch. 
ing a specialty for the best establishments of 
that city. He next came to Jacksonville, 111., 
and there spent two years with A. W. Cad- 
man, and July 29, 1879, came to Virginia, 
bought out C. H. Cummings, and since that 
time has successfully conducted the business, 
making for himself the reputation of producing 
as good work as any artist in Central or South- 
ern Illinois. Aside from the fact that Mr. 
Mann is a thorough and practical artist, he has 
a commodious gallery, constructed especial- 
ly for his business, which is well stocked with 
all the latest modern appliances for producing 
first-class work. He married Mrs. Maggie 
Hickox of Virginia, Feb. 28, 1882. 

LACHLAN McNeill, one of the early 
comers to Cass County, vras born in Argvle, 
Scotland, Jan. 25, 1809. He received his ed- 
ucation in Scotland, and was a shepherd and 
a fsrmer previous to coming to America, as 
was also his father, Charles McNeill. He left 
his native home to seek his fortune in a 
strange land. May 6, 1837; brought with him 
his wife, whose maiden name was Flora Tay- 
tor, and his first born child. They terminated 
their long and tedious sea voyage at Montre- 
al, Canada, where they remained about six 
weeks, and there a second child was born to 
them. They soon proceeded on their journcv 



westward, and spent one year in Clark Coun- 
ty, 111., one year in Champaign County, and 
in 1839 came to Cass County and located on a 
farm near his present home. His faithful and 
devoted wife died Sept. 3, 1859, having bless- 
ed him with seven children, four of whom are 
now living: Robert, a farmer of Cas; County, 
Flora, Margaret (now Mrs. Daniel Carr, of 
Sangamon Bottoms), and Charles. Mary, 
Paschal and Elizabeth are deceased. Mr. Mc- 
Niell has ever been an industrious and a fru- 
gal farmer, a good and enterprising citizen, is 
one of the oldest living members of the Shi- 
loh Cumberland Presbyterian Church, of Vir- 
ginia Precinct, and is truly one of Cass 
County's pioneers. 

WILLIAM T. MELONE is a son of .John 
and Elizabeth Ann (Morrow) Melone; the for- 
mer came to Virginia in 1837, and settled five 
miles southeast of Arenzville, then in Sanga- 
mon County, but now Cass, being in the three 
mile strip taken from Morgan County. .lohn 
Melone was an early school teacher of Scotch 
descent, and came to Illinois about 1842-3. 
His wife was a native of Kentucky. They 
had eight children born to them, four of whom 
are still living: William T. (our subject), Jen- 
nie H., Oscar, and Lulu B. Mary C, Lucy A., 
Ida L., and George W., are deceased. Will- 
iam T., our subject, was born November 24, 
1844, in Cass County, and educated in the 
schools of his neighborhood. Farmingr has 
been his business. He was married February 
2, 1876, to Lucy A. Conover, a daughter of 
•John and Nancy (Bennett) Conover. (See 
sketch.) She was the ninth child, and one of 
twins. Have three children: Edgar, born Feb. 
7, 1877; Nettie, born March 23, 1879; and 
Mary L., born Nov. 21, 1880. Mr. Melone 
is a resident of Virginia since- December, 
1871; a member of the Methodist Church, 
and Mrs. Melone of the Christian Church. 

RICHARD W. MILLS, attorney-at-law, 
Virginia; was born Aug. 3, 1815, in Morgan 

County, 111. His father, Chesley Mills, a 
native of North Carolina, was a mason and 
builder by trade, and came to Illinois in the 
year 1813, with his father, Charles Mills, who 
was a farmer by occupation, a native, and in 
early days, a slave holder of the above 
named State. He located at Hannibal, Mo., 
where he died. Chesley learned his trade in 
St. Louis, and followed it in Edwardsville, 
.Jacksonville, Quincy, and finally located at 
Lynnville, Morgan Co. He married Miss Har- 
riet, daughter of Dr. George Cadwell, and 
granddaughter of General Mathew Lyon. 
Chesley Mills had three sons and two daugh- 
ters. All are living, and but two, beside 
our subject, are residents of Illinois. Thomas 
is a miner, of Wyoming Territory; George 
a stock broker, of San Francisco, Cal.; Emily, 
now Mrs. T. W. Jones, of Wilmington, 
111.; Maria is now widow Demorest, and 
lives with her mother, in Morgan County. 
Our subject, the youngest, attended the public 
schools of Jacksonville, and later, the Illi- 
nois College. He studied law with Judge 
Epler, of that city, and was admitted to 
the bar of the State, at Springfield, in 

1870. He came to Virginia in January, 

1871, having formed a partnership with Mr. 
Epler, his former law tutor. Their part- 
nership lasted until January, 1873, when Mr. 
Epler was elected to the bench of Morgan 
County. Mr. Mills married Feb. 4, 1873, to 
Miss Matilda, daughter of Dr. Harvey Tate, 
one of the oldest and most respected physi- 
cians of Cass County. A sketch of Dr. Tate 
may be seen elsewhere in this volume. Mr. 
Mills served as Master in Chancery, during 
the years of 1874 to 1880, City Attorney of 
Virginia, 18T2-'3, also in 1881 and 1882. He 
is a member of the A. F. & A. M. and K. of 
H. Mr. Mills enlisted at fifteen years of age, 
in Company B, Tenth Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry, for three months; but was not ac- 
cepted, on account of age and size. He made 



a second trial in Chicago the following month 
of May, and passed muster for three years, in 
Company F. Nineteenth Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry. Participated in battles of Stone 
River, Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, and was 
mustered out July 11, lSi34. 

most energetic and enterprising farmers of 
Ashland Precinct, is a native of Cass County, 
and was born in the above Precinct, March 
6, 1848. His father, Washington A. Mitchell, 
of whom a sketch appears in this volume, is a 
native of Kentucky, and married Miss Re- 
becca W. Crow, daughter of William Crow, 
an early pioneer of Cass County, and they 
had five sons and two daughters; of these our 
subject is the second oldest. He received his 
schooling in the common schools of his native 
precinct, and later, attended the Wesleyan 
University, at Blooraington. He taught 
school in southern Cass County, and some in 
Morgan, for about seven years, doing farming 
between school terms. He purchased a farm 
in Ashland Precinct, but sold it in 1878. He 
married, on Oct. 21, 1879, to Miss Reasie A. 
Skiles, daughter of Ignatius Skiles, deceased, 
of whom a sketch and full page portrait ap- 
pears in this volume. They have one daugh- 
ter, Mabel S., born Aug. 1, 1880. Mr. Mitchell 
is extensively engaged in farming and stock 
raising, on a portion of the Skiles estate, com- 
prising about 640 acres of valuable land, 
lying about two and one-half miles east of 

EDWARD T. OLIVER, banker, Virginia; 
was born in the city of Virginia, Cass County, 
April 23, 1849. His father, Charles Oliver, 
was one of the pioneers of Cass County, and 
in the year 1835, in company with Dr. Hall, 
came to Virginia. Dr. Hall was o;:e of the 
first merchants of Virginia, and Charles Oliver 
■was for a time his clerk, and in time following 
entered the mercantile business for himself, 
in which he continued with success until his 

death, which occurred Sept. 5, 187 i*, he at 
that time being sixty-three years of age. He 
married Lydia Ann Job, second child of 
Archibald and Jane (Bricrly) Job, one of the 
earliest settlers of Southern Illinois. Mr. and 
Mrs. Oliver had five sons and one daughter, 
viz.: William A., Charles R., Morrison J., 
Rudolph B., Edward T., and Harriet, deceased 
at two years of age. Thus it will be seen, 
that Edward T. was the fifth son. He re- 
ceived a thorough common school education, 
and gained a thorough and practical business 
exoerience while in the employ of his father 
as salesman in his store. In 1866 he entered 
the Farmer's National Bank, as a book-keeper. 
In 1872, the management of this house prac- 
tically had a change, and as Mr. Oliver's posi- 
tion in the concern was wanted by another, 
he was retired. His ability as a rising young 
business man was very generally recognized 
in business circles, and his talents found a 
ready market, as he was immediately called 
to assume a more responsible position in 
the well known banking firm of Petefish, 
Skiles & Co. Since his connection with 
this institution, he has been the cashier, 
and a partner in the business. Oct. 20, 1870, 
Mr. Oliver married Miss Maggie S. Vance, 
daughter of Samuel S. and Martha (Steven- 
son) Vance. Mr. Vance was one of the old 
settlers of Morgan County. He died in 18G8. 
They have had four children, viz.: Edward C, 
Bertha L., George W., and Rena, who died in 
1873, when three months old. Mr. and Mrs. 
Oliver are, since 1874, members of the Pres- 
byterian Church of Virginia. Mr. Oliver is 
regarded as one of the most substantial and 
enterprising business men of his city; is alive 
to any and all business enterprises tending to 
the prosperity of his town, or the general 
public good. He was active as a member of 
the City Council, when it authorized the build- 
ing of their present commodious court-house, 
and afterward became a member of the Build- 



ing Committee. A sketch of the banking 
house of Petefish, Skiles & Co., with which 
Mr. Oliver is connected, appears elsewhere in 
this volume. 

SAMUEL H. PETEFISH, banker. Very 
few of the present citizens of Cass County 
have been and are more closely identified 
with the business interests of their prosper- 
ous little city, than has been and is the sub- 
ject of this sketch. Mr. Petefish came to 
Cass County at a time when men of pith and 
energy were most needed to develop its un- 
seen resources, and establish its growth upon 
the foundations of solid business principles; 
and the success of this work, done by the pi- 
oneers of his and earlier days, stands out in 
bold relief as a monument to their industry 
and perseverance. Mr. Petefish's parents 
were natives of Old Virginia. They emi- 
grated from that State and settled in Morgan 
County in 1835, upon the three-mile strip, 
finally attached to Cass County and about five 
miles south of the present location of the city 
of Virginia. His father, Jacob, died in ISiO, 
on the homestead, and his mother was former- 
ly Elizabeth Price. They raised a family of 
ten children, six sons and four daughters: 
^Yilliam, Jacob, Samuel H., John A., Andrew 
J., and Thomas B. Besides our subject, Ja- 
cob and John are residents of Cass County; 
William and Thomas reside in Douglas Coun- 
ty, Kan.; Andrew fell a soldier in the late 
war. Mrs. Sarah (Robert) Maxfield is the 
only surviving daughter. She and her hus- 
band reside in Macoupin County, in which lo- 
cality died her sister, Mrs. Ellen (Joseph) 
Crum. Mrs. Dinah (Rev. Daniel) Short died 
in Sangamon County. Christian Petefish, 
our sul)ject's grandfather, came to this coun- 
try as a Hessian soldier. He deserted the 
English army soon after the battle of Prince- 
ton, and joining the patriot forces, fought no- 
bly for the independence of America. He 
settled in Old Virginia after the close of the 

conflict, where he raised a family of children, 
viz.: John, Christian, Georg j, Jacob, and Mrs. 
Catharine Chamberlain, who now lives in Ne- 
braska. March 18, 1848, Mr. Petefish mar- 
ried Miss Nancy M., daughter of Peter and 
Melinda (Huffman) Hudson. Mrs. Petefish is 
a native of the State of Virginia. Her 
father removed from that State to Kentucky, 
and then to Cass County, in the year 18ii7, lo- 
ing in township seventeen, range eleven, 
on section fourteen. He was twice married, 
Melinda being his first wife,wUo left him two 
sons and three daughters. Mrs. Petefish was 
the elder, and was born May 'Z, 1827, soon 
after her parents arrived in Cass County. 
With the exception of five years spent in Mc- 
Donough County, he lived in Cass County. 
Mrs. Hudson died in June, 1853, and in 1855 
Mr. Hudson married Mrs. Mathias. Mr. 
and Mrs. Petefish have been blessed with 
eight children, of whom three only are liv- 
ing: Miss Mary E., married Joseph Chamber- 
lain, Louis, and Miss Ada L. Mr. Chamber- 
lain died in Missouri about 1870, and Mrs. 
Chamberlain is living with her parents. Hen- 
ry T., a lad about twelve years of age, was 
lost during the burning of the steamer Ocean 
Spray, which sad catastrophe occurred on the 
Mississippi river, about five miles above St. 
Louis. Mr. Petefish is known through Cen- 
tral Illinois as being one of the most enter- 
prising and successful business men of Cass 
County, and at the head of three successful 
banking houses, sketches of which appear 
elsewhere in this work, and also a lull page 
portrait of our subject. 

JACOB PETEFISH was born in Rock- 
ingham County, Va., and came with his 
father and family into the present limits of 
Cass County in 1835. A settlement was made 
in Tp. 17 north, range 10 west, where his 
parents continued to reside until taken away 
by death. His father departed this life in 
1849, and his mother in 1853. They were 



members of the Lutheran Church, and had 
the reputation of being devout Christian peo- 
ple. They raised the following family: Mrs. 
Mary (Reuben) Faltz, and William (twins), 
Dinah, Mrs. (Rev. Daniel) Short, Elizabeth, 
Mrs. Sarah (Robert) Maxfield, and Mrs. Helen 
(Joseph) Crum, Jacob, Samuel H., and John A. 
Of these, Andrew was in the Union service 
during the late rebellion, and was mortally 
wounded at the battle of Look Out Mountain. 
Thomas, the youngest, resided in Kansas. In 
May, 1855, our subject married Miss Nancy 
C, daughter of Benjamin and Margaret 
Strickler, of Rockingham, Coutity, Va., by 
whom he had the following children: Benja- 
min S., Berryman S., Edward E., Joseph H., 
Andrew J., Marcellus C, Nellie, Frank, and 
Lizzie L. Mr. Petefish's paternal grandfather. 
Christian, was one of the Hessians, hired, or 
rather sold, into the English service against 
the Infant Colonies, confederated against Brit- 
ish oppression. True to the native instincts 
of a noble manhood, he deserted the English 
army and espoused the cause of patriotism. 
After the close of the war, he settled in Vir- 
ginia, where he died. In this State his son 
Jacob, father of our subject, was born and re- 
sided, and there married Miss Elizabeth 
Price, the mother of the children pre- 
viously mentioned. Mr. Petefish, when 
about of age, purchased on his own re- 
sponsibility, about 200 acres of land and com- 
menced farming. W^ith industry and perse- 
verance he has added to his estate until he 
now owns about GOO acres of finely improved 
land, which includes his father's old homestead. 
It may justly be said of Mr. Petefish and 
his family, that they form one of the honest 
and trustworthy elements of Cass County. 
Mr. Petefish, besides being a successful agri- 
culturist, has done something in the way of 
grazing and stock feeding. 

ADAM PRICE (deceased), one of the first 
settlers of Cass County, was a son of Adam 

and Elizabeth (Miller) Price, and was born in 
the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, in Rocking- 
ham County, in August, 1803. Here he lived 
until about thirty-t.vo years of age. In 1833 
he married Miss Susan Rosenberger, and 
came to Cass County the same year. He was 
the first emigrant, direct to Cass County, from 
the Old Dominion State. He first located in 
Morgan County, near Arcadia, and remained 
there until his removal to Virginia Precinct, 
in 1853, settling on section 28. He raised a 
family of three sons and four daughters; five 
of his oifspring having died in infancy. Of 
these, William T., and Adam C, are still resi- 
dents of Cass County. William T. was born 
Nov. 6, 1839. In 1861, he entered the Union 
army, and was mustered in at Springfield, and 
assigned to the 114th 111. Vol. Infantry Co. 
D. The regiment did valiant service in the 
department of the lower Mississippi, and was 
engaged in several lively battles, including 
the forty days' campaign before Vicksburg. 
Mr. Price was taken prisoner at Grand Tower, 
Miss., June 10, 1864, and confined at Ander- 
sonville, Millen, and Florence prisons, for 
about eight months, and finally paroled in 
February, 1865. He was then furloughed for 
thirty days, reported again to his regiment, 
and received his discharge at the expiration 
of his term of enlistment, Aug. 13, 1865. Mr. 
Price was married Dec. 29, 1800, to Miss Ra- 
chel Augusta Marshall, daughter of William 
Marshall {deceased). Mr. Marshall was also 
one of the early pioneers of Cass County, and 
located and owned at one time a laro;e landed 
estate, a portion of which Mr. Price now owns 
and lives upon. James Marshall, Sen., and 
father of William Marshall, came to Cass 
County as early as 1825, from Kentucky, and 
was a native of Woodford County. Mrs. Price 
is the eldest of her father's family; Miss Jen- 
nie M. was next, and Louise W. (deceased 
1863), was the third. William T. Price is an 
active, industrious, and successful farmer, as 



is his next younger brother, Adam C. Price, 
who was born in May IG, 1844, in Morgan 
County. He was the third child of the fami- 
ly, attended the common schools of Cass, and 
commenced farming for himself at twenty 
years of age. He married Miss Ruth Bacon, 
daughter of Ira Bacon, a farmer of Arcadia, 
Morgan Co., in November, 1864. Mr. Ba- 
con is a native of Connecticut, married Ann 
Christie, a native of the Empire State. Mrs. 
Price is the oldest of the family of eight chil- 
dren. Mr. and Mrs. Adam Price have eleven 
children, as follows: Ann, Thomis, Edwin, 
Harry, Minnie, Delia, Adam, Frederick, Ber- 
tie, Archie, and Mary. 

WILLIAM B. PAYNE, the leading dry- 
goods merchant of Virginia, was born at 
Nicholasville, in Jessamine Co., Ky., August 
24, 1824. His father, Flemming Payne, was 
a native of the same State, Todd County, 
Green River Country; was a tailor by trade, 
and made it the occupation of his life. He 
married Miss Susan Hightower, daughter of 
Captain Richard Hightower, a native of 
Old Virginia, a farmer and hotel-keeper. 
Flemming Payne's father was Charles Payne, 
who raised a family of eleven, the youngest 
of which lived to be thirty years of age, and 
the oldest ninety-three, and two are still living 
at an advanced age. They all settled in Ken- 
tucky, but the two now liying are residents of 
Missouri. Flemming was the seventh of the 
family, and raised two sons and one daughter. 
Charles F. (deceased 1860) was a farmer of 
Cass County, Mo.; Miranda H. is now widow 
of Charles F. Lowery, a merchant of Lexing- 
ton, later Circuit Clerk of Fayette County. She 
still resides there at fifty -five years of age. 
William, our subject, attended school at 
Nicholasville, and left home at sixteen years 
of age. He clerked in a store for a time in 
his native town, and then went to Lexington 
and clerked about five years. At twenty- 
three years of age he entered the dry-goods 

business at Oxford, Scott County, Ky. In 
1853 he went to Cass County, ilo., and fol- 
lowed farming successfully for about eight 
years. He came to Virginia, Cass Co., in 
1SG4, and re-entered the mercantile business, 
and has since that time continued in trade. 
Mr. Page has spent about thirty years as a 
merchant, and eighteen years in Virginia. 
He was married February 24, 1848, to Miss 
Hannah E. Allender, daughter of Edward 
Allcnder, of Lexington, Ky. They have 
nine children living: Sue, now Mrs. Finis E. 
Downing, present Circuit Clerk of Cass 
County; Charles F., a merchant of Ashland, 
Cass Co., this State; Miranda H., wife of 
A. M. Thompson, farmer, Cass County; Hen- 
rietta, B., or Mrs. D. M. Crum, farmer, of this 
county; Wm. G., who married Miss Eva L. 
Black, of Virginia; Richard H., James S., 
Eva L., and John S. are still at home. Mr. 
and Mrs. Payne are members of the Metho- 
dist Church, and Mr. Payne is a member of 
the I. O. O. F., of 36 years' standing. 

HENRY QUIGG, of Virginia Precinct, a 
native of Wilmington, Delaware; was born 
May 22, 1827. His father, William Quigg, 
was a native of Ireland, and emigrated to 
America in the year 1822, and brought with 
him his wife and one child. Mrs. Quigg was 
also born in Ireland, and her maiden name 
was Sarah Rogers. William Quigg was by 
occupation a contractor, and did quite a suc- 
cessful business in this country, especially in 
the East. In 1832, he superintended the con- 
struction of Pennsylvania avenue, Washing- 
ton, D. C, the famous street, one mile in 
length, that connects the United States Capitol 
building with the White House. This was in 
its day a very important job, as was all the 
work that pertained to the permanent laying 
out of our Nation's Capital. Mr. Quigg after- 
ward became a contractor on the Baltimore 
and Ohio R. R., and in 1834 came to Cass 
County. He brought with him his family, 



including wife and one son, our subject. A 
second son, Mathew, was born to him after 
his arrival here, who is now a wholesale mer- 
chant of Atchison, Kansas. Mr. Quigg was a 
prosperous and thrifty farmer, and a shrewd 
business man. He died in 1867, his wife having 
preceded hin to the land of eternal rest about 
ten years. Henry Quigg, our subject, received 
his schooling almost entirely in Cass County, 
attending at last in Beardstown. He com- 
menced farming for himself in the year 1853, 
on the old homestead, and removed on to his 
present place in April, 1856. February 22, 
1852, he married Miss Margaret Cotney, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Cotney, of Kent County, Mich., 
who was of Irish nativity. This union has 
been blessed with seven children, five sons 
and two daughters. James F., a farmer of 
Virginia Precinct, who married Catharine 
Treadway, William, Thomas John M., Henry 
C, Steven A., Sarah A., and Annie. Mr. and 
Mrs. Quigg are members of the Catholic 
Church of Virginia. 

JUDGE J. W. REARICK, Judge elect, of 
Cass County; was born in Prussia, on 
March 17, 1833, and is the fifth of seven 
children. In 1837, his father emigrated 
with his family from Prussia to this country, 
settling first in Franklin County, Pa. Here 
he engaged in work at his trade, that of a 
tinner. About the year 1856, he came West 
in quest of a location, and fixed upon Beards- 
town, 111., as his future home, to which town 
he soon removed. Here he commenced work 
at his trade, which he prosecuted with s-uc- 
cess, until his death, which occurred in 1868. 
He was known as a workman of more than 
ordinary skill, a substantial and fair minded 
citizen. It is scarcely necessary to add, that 
the father was careful that his sons each ac- 
quired a trade, to the end that they might be 
more useful men, and independent citizens, 
Jacob W. accordingly received instructions 
in tin-smithing of his father. Ho also ac- 

quired a fair schooling. He preceded his 
father to Beardstown, having located there in 
1854, and commenced work as a tinner with 
his brother, Francis H., who was at that time 
established in business there. With the lat- 
ter Jacob W. soon formed a partnership, 
which lasted for nineteen years. During this 
time he also formed a partnership with 
another brother, Frederick, and the firm 
erected, and for about five years conducted, a 
steam flour mill. Mr. Rearick at the same 
time continuing with Francis H., in this busi- 
ness, which had merged into a general hard- 
ware and agricultural implement trade. Judge 
Rearick was married April 29, 1862, to 
Miss Elizabeth Kuhl, daughter of George 
Kuhl, of Beardstown. Mrs. Rearick died 
April 17, 18G3, leaving an infant son, George 
EVancis. Judge Rearick again married on 
April 3, 1866, to Miss Amanda, daughter of 
William L. Sargent, Esq., of Morgan County. 
By this union they have eight children, all of 
whom are living, viz.: Elsie, Ann, Lydia, John 
H., Susan A., Frederic, Elizabeth and Jennie. 
In November, 1877, Judge Rearick was 
elected to the Judgeship of Cass County, and 
since that time has filled the responsible posi- 
tion with entire satisfaction to the citizens of 
the county. His re-nomination was strongly 
urged by many of his friends, but the de- 
mands of business and other duties made 
upon his time, was his excuse for declining 
further honors, and at the expiration of his 
present term of office he intends to retire from 
politics. The success of Judge Rearick in 
rising from comparative obscurity to the 
prominent position he now occupies as a citi- 
zen, standing at the head of the public 
affairs of his county, is worthy of note, as 
showing what uprightness, and increasing 
energy, worked with a purpose, will accom- 
plish in our country of free thought, free 
speech, and free institutions. 

GEORGE W. RAWLINGS, farmer, P. O. 



Virginia; Mr. Rawlings was born Dec. 23, 
1834, in Cecil County, Marj'land, and is the 
oldest son, and third child of Greenberry 
Rawlings and Elizabeth Dobler Rawlings, 
who raised a family of four sons and three 
daughters, having lost one son and one daugh- 
ter. Greenberry Rawlings was also a native 
of Maryland, and a hatter by trade, which oc- 
cupation he followed until 1837, the year 
that he came West, and located about four 
miles west of Virginia in Cass County. He 
was of Scotch and English extraction, a 
thrifty and enterprising citizen, and a most 
successful farmer, which business he followed 
until his death, in 1864. His family all lo- 
cated in Cass County, except one son in Kan- 
sas, and a daughter in Jacksonville, Morgan 
County. Our subject received his schooling 
in the common schools of Cass County; was 
brought up a farmer; has been engaged in 
that occupation and stock feeding up to the 
present time. Nov. 18, 18G0, he married 
Miss Martha E. Robertson, daughter of 
Charles Robertson, an early resident of Cass 
and Morgan Counties. She was born Feb. 
18, IS-l-l, and was the fifth of a familv often 
children. Mr. and Mrs. Rawlings have had 
nine children, seven of whom are living, viz.: 
Charles W., Franklin E., Greenberry A., Will- 
iam E., George E., John T., Samuel J., Harry, 
and Mary C. George died at four years of 
age, and Harry at the age of three. Mr. 
Rawlings \vas a life-long Republican; voted 
first for John C. Fremont. He cast the first 
Republican vote in his precinct, and at a 
time when there were but two Republi- 
can voters in his voting precinct. He is a 
member of the Masonic Lodge, and of the A. 
O. U. W. of Virginia. 

OSWELL SKILES, one of the substantial 
citizens of Cass County and most enterpris- 
ing business men of Virginia ; was born 
Oct. 18, 1828. He is son of Harmon and 
Polly (Thompson) Skiles, who was twice mar- 

ried. Polly was his first wife, and was mother 
of Ignatius, and died leaving Oswell an 
infant. They were natives of the State of 
Pennsylvania, Ross Co., where their chil- 
dren were both born; Mr. Skiles was a fanner, 
in humble circumstances. Our subject, inci- 
dent to the death of his mother, was adopted 
by one George Smith, a farmer of Ross 
County, and he soon removed to Washing- 
ton County. Here Oswell grew up, and was 
the youngest in a family of ten children. He 
worked three years in a harness shop, learned 
the trade, and in the fall of 1851 came to 
Cass County and worked for an uncle, Os- 
well Thompson, near Arenzville, about one 
year. In 1853 he made an overland trip to 
California. There he worked for a farmer 
one year in the Sacramento Valley, and up to 
1861 followed mining. He saved about one 
thousand dollars, returned home, and entered 
stock dealing with his brother, Ignatius, do- 
ing a shipping business. This he followed 
with marked success until the year 1870, and 
since that time he has been engaged in farm- 
ing and banking. Mr. Skiles married Miss 
Anna Conover, daughter of Levi Conover 
(deceased). She died March 31, 1877, leav- 
ing one son, Lee Harmon. In 1879 he was 
married to Miss Eliza Epler, daughter of 
George Epler, of Sangamon County. Mr. 
Skiles is a member of the well known bank- 
ing house of Petefish, Skiles and Co., 
Virginia; Skiles, Rearick & Co., of Ashland, 
and also of Petefish, Skiles, Mertz & Co., of 
Chandlerville; is a member of the Building 
Association of Virginia, the A. O. U. W., 
I. O. O. F., and he and Mrs. Skiles are mem- 
bers of the Presbyterian Church. 

IGNATIUS SKILES, deceased, whose 
portrait appears in this volume, was born in 
Ohio, August 10, 1827, and was a son of Har- 
mon and Mary (Thompson) Skiles, the former 
of whom was born in Pennsj'lvania and the 
latter in Ohio. The elder Skiles followed 



farming, and died in Ohio. Our subject left 
home when a small boy, and came to Indiana, 
where he lived with a man named Kirkpat- 
rick, until he was twenty-one years old, receiv- 
ing as compensation, when he became of age, a 
good suit of clothes, a pony, and forty dollars 
in money. With this he came to Cass 
County, Ills., in 1848, and commenced the 
battle of life on his own account. He was a 
man of but little education; leaving home 
early in life, as he did, deprived him of op- 
portunities to attend school, and he was com- 
pelled to make his way with what little 
knowledge he could pick up at odd times. 
Upon his arrival in Cass County he began 
farming and stock-dealing, a business he fol- 
lowed successfully, becoming one of the 
largest stock-dealers in the county, and amass- 
ina: considerable wealth. At the time of his 
death ho was the largest stockholder in the 
banking house of Petefish, Skiles & Co., a 
bank wliich is still in existence. He married 
Mary .1. Thompson, in 1853, a daughter of 
Oswell and Elizabeth (Henderson) Thomp- 
son, natives of Ohio, but who came to Cass 
County in an early day; he was a farmer, 
and died in 1864, at the age of fifty-six years; 
his wife is now living in the City of Virginia, 
at the age of sixty-seven years. Both were 
members of the Protestant Methodist Church. 
He took an active part in the Mormon war 
at Nauvoo, Ills. Mr. and Mrs. Skiles had 
five children born to them, three of whom are 
living, viz.: Ressie A., wife of Wm. T. 
Mitchell; Hattie L., and Jessie E.; two died 
in infancy. Mr. Skiles died in 1873, and his 
widow afterward married Mr. Joseph F. 
Black, whose sketch appears in another page 
of this work. 

I. M. STRIBLING, farmer, P. O., Vir- 
ginia ; was one of the oldest citizens and 
foremost agriculturists of Cass County ; is 
a native of Logan County, Ky., and was 
born January 13, 1831. His parents, Benja- 

min and Nancy (Washburn) Stribling, emi- 
grated from Logan County to Morgan County, 
111., in the fall of 1837, and located near Lit- 
erberry. Benjamin Stribling was a native 
of old Stafford County, Va., and was born 
Feb. 11, 1797, and his parents moved from 
there to Kentucky about the year 1803. He 
remained in Morgan County until 1830, when 
he removed to near the present location of the 
City of Virginia, and until his death, which 
occurred June 2.5, 1880, he was a permanent 
citizen of Cass County. He was a man of his 
day ; always identified himself with every 
movement set on foot for the advancement of 
education and the rights or the interests of his 
State and county, or the public good. He will 
long be remembered as one of the stalwart 
pioneers of Cass County. Isaac M. is the second 
of a family of three sons; besides our subject, 
his brother, B. Franklin, jr., now deceased, lo- 
cated in Cass County, and his younger brother, 
Thomas, lives in Iowa. He resided with his 
parents until of age. Sept. 13, 1842, he mar- 
ried Miss Margaret Beggs, whose parents, 
Charles and Mary (Rudell) Beggs, were also 
early settlers on Jersey Prairie. By this 
union they had five children, two sons and 
three daughters. At the time of their mar- 
riage Mr. Stribling's father made him sole 
owner of about two hundred acres of land. 
This property he set about improving. He 
also engaged in stock dealing in a small way, 
and very successfully, and this business grew in 
proportion until he became one of the most ex- 
tensive feeders and dealers in his county, rais- 
ing all the produce required in his extensive 
business, and also a large quantity for the 
market. On Sept. 26, 1856, Mr. Stribling 
was made to mourn the loss of a faithful and 
devoted wife, and his family a loving mother. 
CHARLES W. SAVAGE, Virginia; was 
born .Ian. 12, 1853, at the Savage homestead, 
in Virginia Precinct, Cass Co. His father, 
Henry S. Savage, was a native of Morgan 



County, and was born April 2..', 1821, in Jaclv- 
soMville Precinct, and his fatlier, Jolni Savage, 
was one of the first pioneers of Morgan, having 
come to the county in 1823, where he became 
a successful farmer, an occupation that he 
followed during his life. He was a native of 
New York, and married Miss Elizabeth, 
daughter of Guy Smith, Esq. John Savage 
was son of James Savage, who was an Irish- 
man, and came to America during the Ameri- 
can Revolution as a British soldier, fought 
under Burgoyne, and was taken prisoner by 
the American troops at Ticonderoga. He was 
paroled, and upon becoming convinced of the 
injustice of the war against the Americans, he 
fought on the American side. Henry S. Sav- 
age was the fourth child, and third son of John 
Savage, and was born April 22, 1824, at Dia- 
mond Grove, three miles southwest of Jackson- 
ville. He married Miss Sarah F. Ward, daugh- 
ter of Jacob Ward, deceased. Mr. Savage was 
a thrifty farmer, and one of the most energetic 
and enterprising business men of his day in 
Cass County. He met death by injuries re- 
ceived from an unmanagealjle colt, March 39, 
1865. He left a family of four sons and one 
daughter. Three sons, our subject, C. W., Ed- 
ward E., and Louis L., are residents of Cass 
County. Ella B. and Henry S. are living with 
their mother, in Jacksonville. Mr. Savag-e left 
a valuable estate. Charles W. received his 
schooling first in Cass County, and later, in the 
Illinois College, at Jacksonville. He entered 
farming on the homestead in Virginia Precinct, 
in 1879. In 1881, he entered the lumber and 
grain business, in company with J. B. Steven- 
son. He was married on Jan. 6, 1875, to Miss 
Kitty Kelly, of Davenport, Iowa, daughter of 
Moses Kelly, a native of Massachusetts, for 
twenty-five years a resident of that place, and 
is now retired. Mr. and Mrs. Savage have 
three daughters, viz.: Anna L., Bertha M., and 
ILittie L. Mr. Savage is a member of the I. 
O. O. F., and the A. 0. U. W., of Virginia. 

J. B. STEVENSON, grain and lumber 
merchant, Virginia, Cass Co.; was born 
July 11, 1847, at Little Indian, Princeton 
Precinct. He is the sixth of the family of 
William and Francos (Berry) Stevenson, of 
whom a sketch appears elsewhere in this 
work. Joseph B., after attending the schools 
of his district, took a course of study at the 
then Cumberland Presbyterian College at 
Virginia. He married, April 17, 1870, 
Miss Dora Vandemeter, daughter of Fenton- 
ville Vandemeter, then a farmer of Cass 
County, now a resident of Springfield. Mrs. 
Stevenson was born April 11, 1849, in Cass 
County. Mr. and Mrs. Vandemeter are both 
natives of Kentucky, and came to Illinois at 
an early date. They raised a family of ten 
children, and Mrs. S. was the seventh child. 
Mr. and Mrs. Stevenson have one child, 
Mary F. Mr. S. has been associated in busi- 
ness with Mr. C. W. Savage, since the fall of 
1880, and is also a partner with his father in 
the grain trade, at Little Indian. 

ADOLPH H. SIELSCHOTT, sheriff elect, 
of Cass County, was born in the Kingdom of 
Hanover, on June 3, 1835. In 1854 he came 
to this country. He first did farm labor for 
about two years in the vicinity of Beards- 
town, after which he learned the carpenter 
trade. He followed his trade until 1862, 
when he engaged in merchandising until 
1870. In 1868, he, in company with Robert 
Schmoldt, purchased a saw mill, located in 
the upper part of the City of Beardstown, 
which business the firm conducted with suc- 
cess until 1875. In the year 1876, Mr, 
Sielschott was elected to the office of Sheriff 
of Cass County, and has acceptably filled this 
responsible office si [ice that time. During 
the years 1871 to 1874, Mr. Seilschott filled 
the office of Mayor of Beardstown, with the 
entire api)roval of the citizens of that pros- 
perous and enterprising ciiy. In 1862, Mr. 
Sielschott married Miss Ellen Peeper, a native 



of Hanover, who emigrated to this country 
with her parents when quite young. They 
have three children: Adolph F., Alice A., 
and Martha M. 

EDWARD \V. TURNER, deceased. Ed- 
ward W. Turner was a native of Bourbon 
County, Ky. — a wagon maker by trade, 
which business he followed for many years 
of his early manhood. His father was one 
of the pioneers of Kentucky. Our sub- 
ject left his native State, came to Illinois in 
1825, and became one of the prosperous pio- 
neers of Cass County. He was energetic, 
thrifty, and public-spirited. He represented 
his county in the State Legislature of 1840 and 
1848. He made farming his business after 
coming to Illinois, but erected and run a wag- 
on shop for a time upon his farm, near Virginia, 
soon after locating. He married in Fayette 
County, Ky., Miss America Morrow. Her 
father's farm joined the Ashland home of the 
lamented Henry Clay, near Lexington. They 
raised a family of eight children, all living to 
mature years but one, Thomas B. Sarah, the 
oldest, is now deceased; lived to marry W. 
W. Ward, a farmer of Cass County; Elizabeth 
J., is now Mrs. B. G. Troutman, of Cass Coun- 
ty; James E. is a merchant of Virginia; John 
"W., a farmer of Oregon Precinct; William 
A., a farmer in Kansas; David S., R. R. Ex- 
press Messenger; Henry H., Express Agent, 
Virginia; and Charles is out of business. 
James E. was born Dec. 13, 1843, and has for 
several years been engaged in the mercantile 
business in Virginia, and is at presont; has 
one of the most extensive furniture stores in 
Cass County. He married, Feb. 35, 1803, 
Miss Henrietta Conover, daughter of John 
Conover, of whom see extended mention else- 
where in this volume. They have live chil- 
dren: Anna L., Linna M., Katie, James A., 
and Fred. They are both members of the 
Christian Church, and Mr. Turner is member 
of the A. O. U. W. and I. O. M. A. William 

A., a farmer in Kansas, furnishes us the follow- 
ing data: He was born 1845, in the month of 
August, on the Turner homestead, in Cass 
County. He commenced business as a farmer 
in Princeton Precinct, and later, farmed at 
Walnut Grove. He built and run the only 
|ilaining mill ever run in Virginia, in 1871). 
The venture was not a success, however, and he 
closed out the business and returned to farm- 
ing on the old Downing farm, which he 
sold and went to Wichita, Kansas, in 1870. 
He married March 6, 1806, Mira Berry, 
daughter of William M. Berry, a farmer of 
Morgan County. They have three children, 
Nellie, Nina, and David. H. H. Turner, the 
sixth son, was born Nov. 23, 1850, in Cass 
County. He attended the Kentucky Univer- 
sity at Lexington, during 1868-9, and after- 
ward engaged in the dry goods business in 
Virginia, and later, the grocery trade, having 
at times been associated with W. W. Early, 
Bowman Craft, and M. J. Oliver. He al)nn- 
doned the mercantile business in 1874, and 
since that time has been acting as agent for 
the American and United States Express Com- 
panies, and also engaged in insurance busi- 
ness. He married Dec. 3, 1871, Miss Alice 
R. Buckley, daughter of Mark Buckley, a 
pioneer of Cass County. They have three 
children: Olive, Coral, and Ralph. Mr. Tur- 
ner is a member of the I. O. O. F., Saxon 
Lodge, No. 68. 

H. C. THOMPSON was born Aug. 6, 1848, 
in Virginia, Cass County, and is the third son 
of N. B. Thompson, now of St. Louis, Mo., 
and for many years one of the foremost and 
successful business men of Cass County. He 
first came to Virginia as Clerk and Recorder of 
Cass County, upon the first removal of the 
county seat from Beardstown, and was the 
first Clerk of the county, receiving his 
appointment from Judge Jesse B. Thomas, the 
first County Judge. He commenced mer- 
chandising in Virginia and continued until 



the year 1867, when he removed to St. 
Louis, where he lives in retirement. He 
was married March 30, 1837, to Miss Louise 
Dutch, daughter of Israel J. Dutch, of Mor- 
gan County. He was a native of Massachu- 
setts; married Miss Caroline C. Thorington, of 
New York City. He is of French descent, 
and Mrs. Dutch of English. Mr. and Mrs. 
Thompson have raised a large family, all of 
whom are still living in independence, being 
successful in their several undertakings, and, 
as will be seen from the following, are 
filling honorable positions, both of a business 
and professional nature. Louise A., wife of 
Abrara Bergen, a prosperous lawyer, of the 
State of Kansas; Josephine married John 
Anderson, a farmer of Saint Clair County, of 
this State; Eliza, wife of Mr. G. Polland, an 
able attorney of St. Louis, Mo.; the Hon- 
orable W. B. Thompson is also an attorney 
of Saint Louis, Mo., and represented the 
Twenty-eighth Senatorial district of that 
State in the Forty-sixth General Assembly; L. 
C Thompson is a merchant of Mount Vernon, 
Jefferson County, 111.; Harry C, our subject, 
is a thrifty farmer and a stock-dealer, of Cass 
County; he married Miss Lila Hall, daughter 
of Robert Hall, one of the wealthiest and 
extensive agriculturists of Cass County, of 
whom see sketch in another chapter of this 
work; Harry C. is an enterprising, public 
spirited and go-ahead man of business, and 
quick to see the business bent of a transac- 
tion. Mr. Thompson is the oldest of his fa- 
ther's family, and was born Oct. 14, 1861; 
Mary, wife of Mr. J. A. .lohnston, head sales. 
man for Mermod, Jaccard & Co., No. 4 Locust 
St., St. Louis; Frank P. is a resident of Cass 
County, Mo.; George D. is a physician and 
surgeon at the Marine Hospital, St. Louis; 
and Ella B. is at home with her parents, in St. 
Louis. The Thompson property interests in 
Cass County and Virginia are large, and 
as yet have not l)een divided. 

THOMAS WILSON, of Virginia, was 
born April 15, 1816, in Lancashire, England. 
His father, David Wilson, raised a family of 
ten children, and Thomas was the second 
youngest of the family. He married Mar- 
garet Coates, before he left his native land, in 
the year 1837, and in 1841 they emigrated to 
the New World, in company with two sisters, 
Hannah and Sarah. Mrs. Wilson, also a na- 
tive of England, was born about July 18, 
1817, and lived until Oct. 18, 1880, being 
sixty-three years of age, at the time of her 
death. She left six sons and one daughter to 
mourn her loss: James, born Dec. 19, 1839; 
David, born Aug. 2, 1842; Joseph, born May 
3, 1844; Sarah J. (deceased), born Aug. 24, 
1846, died Nov. 3, 1865, at nineteen years of 
.ge; William R., born April 18, 1849; John 
T., born Julv 3, 1851; Charles, born Aug. 13, 
1853; and Mary E., born May 20, 1857. The 
subject of this sketch first settled near the 
Sangamon Bottoms, about seven miles north- 
west of Virginia, in Virginia Precinct, and 
farmed with success until 1861, when he re- 
moved to Virginia and retired. He has in- 
vested a liberal capital in city real estate, and 
is one of the public spirited and substantial 
citizens of the town, and a member of the 
Cumb rl.ind Presbyterian Church. Of his 
iamily, Joseph, John, Charles, and the only 
living daughter, Mary (who is at home), live 
in Cass County; David is in Kansas; James 
is in Missouri; William is in Menard County, 
tliis State. They are all farmers but Joseph, 
who is a tinner by trade; he has for several 
years been a successful merchant in Virginia, 
in company at different times with D. N.Walk- 
er, and A. G. Angier. He received his school- 
inn- at Sugar Grove, Cass Co., and learned his 
trade at nineteen years of age. He has been 
a successful business man, and has some of 
his present means invested in Cass County 
farming lands. May 26, 1872, he married 
Miss Nancy R. Berry, daughter of James and 


Sinah (Roe) Berry, deceased, formerly of Vir- 
ginia Precinct. They have three children, 
viz.: Anna L., Frank H., and Alice. Jlr. 
and Mrs. Wilson are both members of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church. He is a 
Democrat, and a member of the A. O. U. W., 
and 1. O. O. F., and Secretary of the Virgin- 
ia Lodge. 

D. N. WALKER, Police Magistrate of the 
city of Virginia, was born in Fauquier County, 
State of Virginia. His father, Solomon 
Walker, is also a Virginian by birth, and a 
farmer by occupation. He married Miss Em- 
m;i Wilkins, a native of Virginia, and daugh- 
ter of Thomas Wilkins, a Virginia farmer. 
Mr. Walker (our subject) is the third son of a 
family of seven sons and two daughters, and 
was educated in the common schools of his 
native State, and was Ijrought up a farmer, 
lie came to Illinois with his father's family 
in 1855, and in 18(50 commenced farminuf in 
Hickory Precinct, Cass County. He spent 
the years of 186"^-3 and a part of ;804, in the 
mining fields of Oregon and Idaho, and then 
returned to Cass County. In 18G6 he took 
up his residence in Virginia, and followed 
contracting and building until 18G8, when he 
entered the tin and hardware business. He 
continued in this business, in company with 
Angier, and later, with Joseph Wilson, until 
1873, since which time he has occupied the 
position he now holds. Mr. Walker was 
elected Mayor of Virginia in 1876, hut re- 
signed after having served a part of his term. 
He married Nov. 21, 1861, Miss Elizabeth 
Adam^, a native of Macoupin County, 111. 
She died JIarch 3, 1873, leaving one son, 
John L., and a daughter, Mary E. Mr. Walker 
again married in January, 1876, Miss Martha 
E. Clark, of Schuyler County, and many years 
a resident of Cas.s. In politics, Mr. Walker is a 
D'^mocrat. He is a member of the I. O. O. F., 
and of the Knights of Honor, of Virginia. 

JOHN N. WILSON, the present efficient 

postmaster of Virginia City, was born in 
Licking County, O., June 1, 1833. George 
Wilson (deceased), his father, was a native of 
the Old Dominion State; was born Oct. 30, 
1795, and by occupation was a farmer; lie 
removed from his native State to Ohio about 
the year 1805, and thence to Virginia Pre- 
cinct, Cass Co., and entered farming in 
1842, and there died in 1873. He married 
Jliss Jane B. Moore, a native of Pennsylva- 
nia, in the year 1819. They had nine chil- 
dren — four sons and five daughters; John, our 
subject, was the si.Kth born, and was about 
ten years of age v;hen his parents came to 
Cass County. He received his schooling in 
Virginia public schools, and entered a dry 
goods store and post-office as a clerk, in 1856, 
at twenty-four years of age, for S. W. Nealy. 
He continued with Mr. Nealy for about six 
months, after which he entered the drug bus- 
iness for about two years. He served as the 
Virginia agent for the Wab ish Railroad 
Company two years, and in 1867 was ap- 
pointed postmaster of Virginia, by Andrevv 
Johnson, and has continuously held the posi- 
tion with entire satisfaction to the public up 
to the present time. In 1873, Mr. Wilson 
opened in the same room with the post-office, 
a full and complete stock of books, stationery, 
wall paper, news, notions, etc., and takes the 
lead in his line of trade in the city. Oct. 

7, 1858, he married Miss Rachae'. M. Berry, 
daughter of Thomas S. and America Berry, 
and a native of Cass County. She di d Oct. 

8, 1873, leaving three chi dren: Kate, .lessio 
and Ella, who died at eight months of 
age. He again married, January 20, 1861, 
Miss Mary F. Walker, of Virginia, C.-iss 
Co., and a native of the State of Vir- 
ginia. She died January 11, 1877. Asa third 
wife, he took Miss L. H. Ainsworth, Feb. 8, 
1878; she is a native of Vermont, and daugh- 
ter of Samuel Ainsworth, deceased. Mr. 
Wilson is of Scotch-Irish descent. His fa- 



ther, Georgf, was a son of Archibald, who 
was one -of the first pioneers of the Buckeye 
State, and his father, also Archibald, came 
West to fight the Indians, about 1760. Our 
subject was the first City Treasurer of the 

City of Virginia, and has twice been a mem- 
ber of the City Council. He is a Republic- 
an, a member of the Presbyterian Church, 
aad of the A. O. U. W., Virginia Lodge. 



,^y^ c-^Z^.j^-t.^^^ ^^'A^f^iL.^^^'t.^i^JL.,^^ 




JUDGE JOHN A. ARENZ, Beardstown ; 
was born Oct. ::iS, ISIO, in lJlaiikoiil)eriv, 
Province of tlie Rhine, Prussia. After hav- 
ing received a good school education, he was 
sent to an institute, where he received in- 
struction in languages, drawing, engineering, 
surveying and music. Then he was employed 
for a year in a corps of surveyors, working for 
the government. He then entered as a stu- 
dent in a college, and for two years in the 
seminary at Bruhl, near Cologne. After hav- 
ing passed his examination, he received an 
appointment as teacher, and after having 
served in that capacity one year, was promoted 
to the office of principal, with three assistants. 
He held that position until 1835, when he re- 
signed, and came to the United States, at the 
solicitation of his brother Francis, with whom 
he resided for several years. In 1836 he was 
employed as assistant engineer in the survey 
of a canal. For the purpose of perfecting 
himself in the English language and acquiring 
a knowledge of mercantile business, he entered 
a store at Springfield, where he remained 
until 1838, when his brother took him as a 
partner in his business. In 1844, he became 
the editor of a campaign paper, advocating 
the election of Henry Clay for the presidency, 
])ublished at Springfield in the German 
language. He has been engaged in various 
business enterprises, and held many different 
offices. His first commission as Justice of the 
Peace, is dated Aug. 21, 1843; his first com- 
mission as Notary Public, is dated May 1, 1850, 
which office he held ever since. He was the 
first Mayor of the Cit>' of Beardstown, in 1850. 
He was twice elected to the office of County 
Judge, was admitted, to the bar March 13, 
18(55; he also holds a diploma from the Ger- 

man National Society for Trade and Industry, 
dateil Feb. 2'2, 1850, at Leipzig. Hi; never 
followed the practice of law before the courts; 
but he has settled up more estates, and of 
more value, than any man in Cass Countv. 
In the memorable county seat contest, in 18G7, 
between Beardstown and Virginia, be was the 
Justice chosen by Beardstown, and selected 
by the two other justices, as presiding officer. 
The citizens of Beardstown were so well satis- 
fied with his services, that when the decision 
had been made, they serenaded him. He has 
retired from all active business affairs, to 
settle up his own matters. He married in 
1849, Miss Mary L. Miller, who is yet living, 
and the mother of two daughters, one of whom 
is the wife of Philip Kuhl, in Beardstown, and 
the other the wife of S. O. Spring, in Peoria. 
FRANK J. ARENZ, farmer; P. O. 
Beardstown; was born near Arenzville, this 
county, April 8, 1838, and is a son of Francis 
and Louisa (Boss) Arenz. Francis i\renz, a 
politician of some note, and by occupation a 
merchant, miller and farmer, died in Morgan 
County; his wife died in Arenzville, this 
county. They had ten children, five sons 
and five daughters, of whom one son and one 
daughter are deceased. Mr. Arenz received 
his primary education in Arenzville, after- 
ward attending the Illinois College, .lackson- 
ville, III., for two years, and the Business 
College at Rockford, III., for one year. He 
then engaged in farming, in this county,where 
he has since pursued that occupation. In 
Arenzville, Feb. 31, 1860, he married Caroline 
B. Cire, who was born there, Feb. 4, 1839, and 
who has borne him live children: Katie 
L., Ada, Et a J., Frank C, and Lena. 
Mrs. Arenz is a daughter of John L. and 



Catherina (Hamm) Cire; he a native of Kur- 
hessen, Prussia, was horn May 4, ISOO; she 
also a native of Prussia. Mr. Arenz has been 
Deputy Assessor and School Director for two 
years. He is a Republican. 

ERNST ARNOLDI, farmer, P. O. Bluff 
Springs; was born in Nassau, Germany, Sept. 
13, 1823; son of Gustave and Margaret (En- 
dris) Arnoldi. Gustave Arnoldi, who was an 
Inspector of Forests, died in Germany, in 
1834; his wife also died in Germany, in 1872; 
they had seven children. Our subject 
attended school for seven years in Germany, 
where he began life as a farmer, which occu- 
pation he has pursued since he came to this 
country. In this countv, March 7, 1850, he 
married Amelia Winhold, a native of Gi-r- 
many, born April 13, 1833, daughter of Wil- 
liam and Barbara Winhold; from this mar- 
riage six children have been born: Bertha, 
Ferdinand (deceased), Gustave, Jennie, Ella, 
and an infant (deceased). Mr. Arnoldi is a 
member of the Lutheran Church; he is a Re- 

MENDALL AARON, merchant. Beards- 
town; was born in Prussia about the year 1834, 
and early learned the butcher's trade with his 
father, who kept a meat market. In the fall 
of 1862, he emigrated to this country; worked 
at his trade in New York City, three months; 
then in St. Louis, about a month, and then 
traveled on foot with a pack of dry goods and 
notions, for about six months. After some 
time he procured a horse and wagon, for a 
very small sum, and traveled about three 
months, selling goods. In 1804, he opened a 
store at Kampsville, a little village in Calhoun 
County, Ills., invested about $1,200 in goods, 
and carried on business there for nine years. 
He then sold out, and moved to La Grange, 
Mo., where he invested $9,000 in a rolling- 
mill, but unfortunately lost his investment; 
he engaged in mercantile business for four 
years, in La Grange, then moved to Hardin, 

Calhoun County, 111., rented a store a short 
time, then built a substantial store and dwell- 
ing, and carried on mercantile business, and 
dealt in land there for seven years. He then 
sold out his town property and part of his 
farming land, and Sept. 21, 1881, came to 
Beardstown, and opened a general store at the 
corner of Main and JeiFerson streets, where he 
has since done a good trade, employing two 
assistants. He married Oct. 8, 1862, Florence 
Driesen, a native of Prussia. 

J. BAUJAN & CO., Home Mills, Beards- 
town; .lohn Baujan, was born in Prussia, 
April G, 1820, where he learned the brick- 
mason trade, beginning his apprenticeship at 
the age of eighteen, and serving four years. 
Ho followed his trade in Europe until 1849, 
when he came to this country, landing in 
Now Orleans; thence came to St. Louis, Mc., 
where he worked at his trade for a year. 
From St. Louis he came, in 1850, to Arenz- 
ville, this county, where he pursued his trade 
seven ye irs; then came to Baardstown, start- 
ed a brick-yard, and followed brick laying 
and brick making, building many houses in 
this county. He built the saw mill now owa- 
ed by H. C. Meyer, and run it for five years. 
In 1876, in company with John Schultz he 
built the present Home Mills, of which he has 
since been part owner. In April, 1852, he 
married Catharine Yeck, of this county, a 
native of Wurtemberg, Germany; they have 
seven children living, five sons and two 
daughters. .lolrn Schultz, junior partner in 
this firm, was born in Ottersheim, Bavaria, 
June 1, 1849, and at the aire of fourteen 
years, apprenticed to the carriage making 
trade, working at the wood work branch of 
that business in his native State or four years. 
In 1867 he came to this country and located 
at Beardstown, where he worked at his trade 
two years; afterward carried on a wagon mak- 
ing and repairing shop at Rushville, Hi., two 
years, then returned to Beardstown, where ho 



engaged in mercantile business about three 
years. In 1875, he became a member of the 
firm of Scheber, Schultz & Gemming, which 
began building the present Home Mills on 
the site of the old City Mills; before the com- 
pletion of tiie mills, however, the; firm chang- 
ed to J. Baujari (Jt Co., who have since ope- 
rated them, doing a merchant and exchange 
business. The mills are run by a fifty-horse 
power engine; have six run of stones, and 
three sets of rollers, having a capacity of 100 
barrels a day, and employ from twelve to 
sixteen men. They manufacture four brands 
of flour: " Fancy Patent," " Viola," " Crown 
Jewel," and "XXX," which find a ready 
market. The building is a three story frame, 
5i)x40 feet, with engine room 21x30 feet. 

JOHN J. BEATTY, hardware merchant 
and present Mayor, Beardstown; was born in 
Franklin County, Pa., Oct. 22, 1846, and 
came West in 1855, with Jacob Rearick, who 
raised him, his parents having died when he 
was an infant. After coming to this section, 
he learned the trade of tinsmith, and in 1866 
he went to Marion County, Mo., and worked 
at his trade, at Hannibal, Palmyra and Can- 
ton; also in Quincy. In 1874 he returned to 
Beardstown, and entered the old firm, buj'ing 
a half interest therein, the style of which has 
since been Rearick & Beatty. They orig- 
inally dealt only in stoves and tinware, but, 
about 1877, they added hardware and agri- 
cultural implements. Mr. Beatty was elected 
Mayor in 1881, and re-elected in 1882, and 
takes considerable interest in politics. He 
was married in Missouri, in 1873, to Miss 
Mary F. Pickering, of Canton, that State. 
Thev have two sons living. 

DR. GEORGE BLEY, Jr., Beardstown; 
was born in Philadelphia, Pa., July 14, 1851; 
eldest son of a family of three sons, and three 
daughters, born to Dr. George and Elizabeth 
(Lavis) Blej'. Dr. Giiorge Bley, Sr., was 
born in Wurtembcrg, Germany, came to the 

United States in 1831, being then about 
eleven years old, and received his education 
in the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; his wif^; is a native of that city, her 
father being for many years foreman of the 
Philadelphia Licxhjir. The subject of this 
sketch removeil in 1855, witii his parents-, to 
Scott County, Iowh, thence in 1858, to Rock 
Island, 111., remaining there one year, and, 
after residing one year in Monroe County, 
111., settled in Staunton, Macoupin County, 
111., in 18(31, where he received both a good 
English and German education. At the age 
of fifteen he entered his father's drug store 
in Staunton, 111., remaining there till 1873, 
when he moved to Bethalto, 111., and opened 
a drug store there on his own account, con- 
ducting business there until 1879, when he 
sold out and began the study of medicine 
with his father. In September, 1879, he en- 
tered the .lefiferson Medical College, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa., from which he graduated March 
12, 1881; came to Beardstown in May, that 
3'ear, and began the practice of his profes- 
sion, and now enjoys a large practice. In 
1872, he married Mary E., daughter of Green 
B. Hill, of Christian County, 111. 

JAMES BUCK, gardner and farmer, P. O. 
Beardstown; was born in Newark, Licking 
County, O., July 3, 1817. He followed farming 
in his native State till 1839, when he married 
Susan Daugherdy, and in the spring of the 
same year settled at Bluff Springs, in this coun- 
ty, where he first entered forty acres, where the 
Poor Farm now is. He farmed there until 
1855, raising grain, hogs and sheep, and ac- 
cumulated a good property. He was super- 
intendent of the county farm from 1851 to 
1855. In the latter year he moved to a farm 
of one hundred and twenty acres, in the San- 
gainon bottoms, where he remained a year, 
then came to Beardstown, and, with the ex- 
ception of five years (1873-78), during which 
he farmed in Atchison County, Mo., has lived 



in the vicinity of Beardstovvn ever since. He 
has owned a larg-o number of farms, and is at 
present engaged in raising vegetables and 
small fruiis, at Ravenswood. His wife died in 
1878. They had eigl.t children: Eliza J., 
Mrs. John Nicholson, of Beardstown; Mary 
F., Mrs. William Heminghouse, of Pekin, III.; 
Julia A., Mrs. George S. Kuhl; Harvey, died 
aged two years; John H., of Beardstown; 
Edgar .1., engineer on the Chicago, Burling- 
ton and Quiucy Railroad; Louisa, died aged 
twenty-three years, and Samuel O., of Beards- 
town. Mr. Buck is a Republican. In Janu- 
ary, 1876, James and .lohn H. Buck bought 
of F. A. Hammer, their present stables, on 
Main street, Beardstown, whore they conduct 
a livery and feed business, and also an agency 
for the sale of buggies and carriages. Their 
stables contain stall room for one hundred 

CHARLES E. BURNS, carpenter; P. 
O. Beardstown; was born in Springfield, 
111., July 25, 1842; son of T. J. and Eleanor 
(Craig) Burns. T. J. Burns, who was a car- 
])enter, architect and builder, was born in 
Baltimore, Md., in 1811, and died in May, 
18G8; his wife, who was a native of New 
York City, died Nov. 1, 1866. They had a 
family of eleven children. Charles E. receiv- 
ed a fair education, attending the Beards- 
town school, the brick school house, five miles 
east of that town, and also the brick school 
house in Beardstown Precinct. He began 
the business of life as a carpenter, in Chica- 
go, 111.; engaged in farming for a time; trav- 
eled several years on account of ill-health, 
and for the last five years has been contract- 
ing and building in Beardstown. He was in 
the army three years, serving in Co. C, Third 
111. Cav., under Capt. Dunbar; in Co. A. 
]4th 111. Infty., under Captains Thompson and 
Nolton, and also in the 47th 111. Infty., under 
Capt. Licks. In Beardstown, July 25, 1869, 
he married Caroline Brown, a native of Man- 

chester, England, born Sept. 15, 1846, daugh- 
ter of Samuel and Elizabeth Brown, and by 
this union they have been blessed with four 
children: Eleanor E., Lida M. (deceased), 
Benjamin If., Russell C. (deceased). Mr. 
Burns is a Democrat; is a member of Protec- 
tion Lodge No. 32, A. O. U. W., in Beards- 
town, aTid is connected with the Congrega- 
tional Church. 

C. A. BUSSMANN, contractor and builder; 
Beardstown; was born in Osnabruck, Han- 
over, May 18, 1822, and at sixteen years of 
age began learning the manufacture of spin- 
ning wheels, gears and reeds, at which he 
worked till he was twenty years of age. 
In 1842, he emigrated to this country, and 
came via Baltimore and Pittsburg to Cincin- 
nati, O., where he worked a short time on the 
National road, and late in the same year 
moved to St. Louis, Mo. He then worked on 
farms in different places till February, 1843, 
when he eame to Beardstown, where he 
worked at various employments, and about the 
year 1845 apprenticed to the carpenter's trade, 
with a Mr. Cassau, and served three years. He 
has since been a contractor and builder, em- 
ploving from five to eighteen workmen on his 
contracts, and has built many of the principal 
public and private buildings of Bjirdstown, 
and the county generally. In 1860, he built a 
two-story brick planing mill, on the corner of 
Monroe and Sixth streets, where he dresses 
the lumber and mouldings used in h's con- 
tracts. In 1848 he married Mary Hackmann 
a native of this county, and by this union 
they have seven children living. Mr. Buss- 
man n is a member of the German Methodist 

GEORGE H. BROWN, farmer; P. O. 
Beardstown; was born in Brattleboro, Vt., 
April 1, 1829; son of George W. and Xylphia 
(Chase) Brown ; parents of five children: he, a 
weaver by trade, but chiefly engaged in farm- 
incr; she died in 1851. Mr. Brown attended 



school in Vermont, Fulton Co., Ills., for a time, 
but received only a limited education. He 
learned the blacksmith's trade in Vermont, 
Fulton Co., 111., and followed it until 185S, 
since which time he has engaged in farming. 
He mirried here, Aug. 5, 1855, Sarah J. Hager, 
born in this precinct. May 20, 1840, who has 
borne him three children: Charles L., Henri- 
etta, and Laura B. Mr. Brown is a Democrat. 
His wife is a member of the M. E. Church. 

SAMUEL L. CALIF, farmer; P. O., 
Beardstown; was born in Sullivan County, 
N. H., June 25, 1830; son of Nathaniel and 
Sarah Pettingill, both of whom had been 
married before and had children. His father, 
■who was a farmer, was born in Salisbury, 
K H., Oct. 26, 1768. Samuel L. attend- 
ed school in Plainfield, formerly Grant- 
ham, N. H., then at Canaan, N. H., and af- 
terward at Lebanon, N. H. He hired out 
and worked on a farm for a while, near Plain- 
field, N. H., and in September, 1844, came to 
this county, where he taught school for a 
time, and afterward engaged in his present 
occupation, farming. He married in this 
county, April 22, 1854, Lucy A. Main, a na- 
tive of Ohio; born Oct. 15, 1828; daughter of 
Loderick L. and Sarah Main; he, born in 
Connecticut, March 24, 1796; she, a native of 
New Hampshire. Mrs. Calif is a member of 
the M. E. Church; Mr. Calif was Township 
Trustee for some time, and School Director 
for many years. He met with an accident 
shortly after he came to this county. He was 
out on the Sangamon Bottom, hunting deer, 
■when the horse he was riding became scared 
at some object; he threw his gun from him, 
■which exploded, the shot striking him in the 
face, inflicting a bad wound. 

THOMAS H. CARTER, attorney-at-law, 
Beardstown; was born in Little York, York 
Co., Penn., Oct. 11, 1823, and his parents 
dying when he was quite young, he was 
taken by an uncle to Connecticut, where he 

remained till he was twenty years of age. 
He then commenced teaching school, which, 
in addition to his attending school himself, in 
the summer season, occupied his time till 
1844, still continuing his classical studies till 
1847, at which time he went to Ohio and 
read law at Canfield, with Judge Newton, and 
was admitted to practice in 1851. He then 
went to Ballston Springs, N. Y., and entered 
the law school, from which institution he 
graduated in 1802. In September, 1852, he 
married Miss Marcia L. Peck, and the next 
month moved to Beardstown, where he has 
since remained in the practice of the law. 
Mr. Carter was Postmasfer at Beardstown 
from 1858 to 1861. He was originally a 
Whig, but since 1856 has been a Democrat. 
Has been City Attorney and Alderman. He 
has one son, Augustine P., in the Master 
Mechanics' office of the C, B. & Q. R. R. 
His father was named Bushnel, and his 
mother's maiden name was Julia Laub; they 
had three sous. Father and mother are both 
dead. The father was an able lawyer. 

ANTONIO CASANOVA, bar- tender, 
Beardstovpn; is a native of Switzerland, born 
July 15, 1845; son of Balzer and Margarite 
(Herman) Casanova, natives of Switzerland. 
Balzer Casanova, who is still living, was born 
in 1810, and was for many years a member of 
the Swiss Legislative Department; his wife, 
who is still living, was born in 1812; they are 
the parents of ten children. Antonio at- 
tended school several years, in Ober Saxon, 
Switzerland, where he was afterward em- 
ployed as a letter-carrier, for three years and 
three months. He then engaged in the coffee 
house business, for ten years, and March 4, 
1869, landed in New Orleans, La., and has 
since followed the saloon business in this 
country. Mr. Casanova has spent a great 
deal of time in traveling, and has visited all 
the principal cities of this country, as well as 
those of Germany and France. For the past 


year he has been tending bar in the Park 
Hotel saloon, in Beardstown. In New Or- 
leans, La., Feb. 3, 1876, he married Julia 
Frederick, a native of Germany, born in 1853, 
who died of yellow fever, in Memphis, Tenii., 
Sept. a, 1879 ; she was a daughter of George 
and Katie Frederick. His second wife, EfFa 
Frederick, sister of his first wife, has borne 
him two ohildron; by his first marriage, he 
had three children; of the five children, three 
are deceased: Julia (deceased), Antonio (1) 
(deceased), Antonio (2) (deceased), Julia and 
George. Mr. Casanova is a member, in good 
standing, of Gerniania Lodge, No. 309, 
Knights of Honor, of Memphis Tenn. 

THOMAS J. CHALFANT, wagon maker, 
Beardstown; was born in Wheeling, W. Va., 
March 5, 1823, and came with the family of 
Lawrence Clark, who had adopted him, to this 
county, then Morgan County, and settled three 
miles south of Virginia, in December, 1835. 
Mr. Chalfant received such an education as 
the schools of that day afforded, and remained 
with Mr. Clark until he was eighteen years old; 
then worked in the plow shops of William and 
John Clark, completing his trade with John 
Whiteside. He then run a shop for himself 
a year; afterward made wood work for porta- 
ble saw mills, for about a year, for John Webb, 
with whom he came to Beardstown, in 18-48 
remaining with him about twelve years, and 
after that, in 1849 or 1850, became pattern- 
maker, and took charge of the wood- work de- 
partment, till 1859. He then carried on a 
jobbing shop till 1862, when he became fore- 
man ship carpenter for Capt. Ebaugh, assist- 
ing in the building of the " Farragut," the first 
steamboat built here; worked on river boats 
two seasons, and was then employed as fore- 
man in John Webb's wagon and plow shop 
for two years. In 1867, he opened his pres- 
ent shop, and has since made wood work for 
plows and wagons, James Hood making the 
iron work. In November, 1848, Mr. Chalfant 

married Anne E., daughter of Thomas P. 
Norton, of Beardstown, a native of W. Vir- 
ginia; they have had six children, five of 
whom are living. 

JULIUS CIRE, farmer; P. O. Beardstown; 
is a native of this county; born in Arenzville, 
March 13, 1846; son of John L. and Catherina 
(Hamm) Cire; natives of Prussia, and parents 
of nine children. His father was born May 
4, 1806. Mr. Cire received his education in 
Arenzville, where he attended school several 
years, and began life as a farmer, in 
this county, where he has since pursued that 
occupation. He was also engaged in the 
sewing machine business for about four years. 
In Arenzville, Oct. 37, 1869, he married Car- 
oline C. Durham, who was born Nov. 6, 1844:. 
They have had one child — May. Mrs. Cire 
is a daughter of Ezra J. and Sophia Durham; 
the latter, born in 1811, died Dec. 3, 1867. 
Mr. Cire has been Deputy Assessor for seven 
years. He is a R 'publican, and a member 
of German Lodge A. O. U. W., in Beards- 
town. His wife is a member of the Congre- 
gational Church. 

CHARLES CLARK, restaurateur; Beards- 
town; is a native of Beardstown; born 
May 1, 1835; is a son of Charles and Catha- 
rine (Schaffer) Clark, and is probably the old- 
est native resident now living in Beardstown. 
His father, Charles Clark, a native of London, 
England, when a young man, came to this 
county, where he married Catharine, daugh- 
ter of John Schaffer, of Monroe Precinct. He 
was book-keeper for Knapp & Pogue, of 
Beardstown. He died about the year 1836, 
leaving four children, of whom our subject, 
and Mrs. Sockmann, of Peoria, are living. 
Mr. Clark worked on boats on the Illinois 
and Mississippi rivers as cabin boy for about 
four years, and at the age of eighteen began 
learning the cooper's trade, serving his ap- 
prenticeship with his step-father, Thomas 
Elam. After working at his trade with dif- 



fcrent persons till 1861, he was employed 
during the war as cook and steward on vari- 
ous steamboats; afterward engaged in various 
pursuits till 1877, when he opened a restau- 
rant on Main street, Beardstown, where he 
lias since carried on that business, and also a 
confectionery, with good success. In 1857, 
ho married Miss Staten, who has borne him 
four children, of whom one is living. In 
1870, he married Mary McKnight, of Beards- 

J. K. CLARK, farmer; P. O. Bluff Springs; 
was born in Monroe Precinct, this county, 
then Morgan Coun^, May l-t, 1828, and is a 
son of Tiiomas C. and Julia Ann (King) 
Clark. Thomas C. Clark was born in Penn- 
sylvania, Feb. 24, 1785; was married in Bar- 
ron County, Ky., April 23, 1807, to Julia Ann 
King, who was born in Green County, Tenn., 
Oct. 15, 1790. They moved to Tennessee, 
where they lived seventeen years, then came 
to Illinois, and, after several changes of loca- 
tion, located, in 1846, at Bluff Springs, where 
they died; he, Aug. 16, 1852; she, Aug. 2, 
1866; of their thirteen children, four sons 
and five daughters grew to maturity, of 
whom three sons and three daughters are liv- 
ing, all in this county. The subject of this 
sketch attended school near Mount Pleasant, 
la., for about four years, afterward attending 
the schools of this county some time. He 
first taught school for some time, and then de- 
voted his attention to farming, which occupa- 
tion he has since pursued. Mr. Clark was, 
for many years, Road Supervisor, and School 
Director; he is a Democrat. 

J. H. CRAMER, grocer, Beardstown; was 
born in Beardstown, March 29, 1859; son of 
Jacob H. and Charlotte (Trampe) Cramer. 
Jacob H. Cramer, subject's father, was born in 
Germany, Oct. 5, 1823; he was a carpenter by 
trade. In St. Louis, Mo., March 8, 1851, he 
married Charlotte Trampe; he died in Boards- 
town, May 7, 1872; he had nine children. 

J. Edward, at Portland, Oregon; Engelbert, a 
farmer, in this county; Amelia M. M. (deceas- 
ed), Julius Henry (subject), Adelia M., Charles 
William, Henrj' (deceased), Katie, and Ber- 
tha (deceased). The subject of this sketch 
received his education in Beardstown, and at 
the age of 14 years began learning the cigar- 
maker's trade with Henry Dettmer, serving 
one and one-half years in Beardstown, and 
one year in Meredosia; then worked as jour- 
neyman at various places for one and one-half 
years; also engaged in farming with his 
brother, in this county, for a short time. He 
then worked in a flouring mill at River Falls, 
Wis., sixteen months, and in the fall of 1880, 
returned to Beardstown, where he worked as 
core-maker in a foundry, until the fall of 1881, 
when he built his present store, at the corner 
of Fourth and State streets, on a part of 
his father's estate, where he has since carried 
on the grocery and provision business. 

CHARLES H. CUMMINGS, photograjiher 
and real estate agent, Beardstown ; was born 
in Scott County, 111., Dec. 6, 1842 ; son of 
Henry B., and Ruth Anna ( Freeborn ) Cum- 
mings. Henry B. Cummings, was born in 
Maj'sville, Ky., and moved to Exeter, Scott 
Co., 111., in 1840, where he engaged in mer- 
cantile business until his death, which occur- 
red in the spring of 1850 ; he left two chil- 
dren. Charles H. received his education at 
Exeter, 111., and at the age of fourteen became 
a brakeman on the Great Western Railroad, 
and after a few months, was promoted to con- 
ductor, and ran a j^assenger train until 1862. 
He then began learning photography in Fair- 
field, Iowa, thence went to Dos Moines, Iowa, 
where he remained until 1804, thence to In- 
dianapolis, Ind., working as an operator there 
until 1866 ; then operated in a gallery in St. 
Louis until 1870; then conducted a photo- 
graph gallery in Mattoon, 111., two and a half 
years; and at Charleston, 111., three years. 
After spending a, year in Jacksonville, 111., 



and conducting a gallery in Virginia, this 
county, three years; he came to Beardstown 
in the fall of 1879, where he bought his pres- 
ent photograph gallery, which he has since 
conducted with good success, employing one 
operator, two assistants, and a clerk. He 
was appointed Justice of the Peace in 1880, 
re-elected in 1881, and resigned the office in 
the spring of 1883, and was elected Police 
Magistrate for four years ; he was also com- 
missioned a Notary Public in 1883. He car- 
ries on a large real estate and collecting busi- 
ness. At Charleston, 111., in 1874, he mar- 
ried Carrie Poorman of that place. He is a 

THOMAS CLARK, deceased, was born in 
Franklin County, Tenn.,Sept. 14, 1830. (For 
parents, see sketch of his brother, J. K. 
Clark, which appears elsewhere in this 
work.) He received his education partly 
in Iowa, and partly in Monroe Precinct, 
this county, and began life as a farmer, 
which occupation he followed until his death_ 
He died from lockjaw, caused by a nail run- 
ning into his foot, Nov. 8, 1878. He was 
married in Beardstown, April 13, 1851, to 
Sarah E. Jumpp, born in Grant County, Ky., 
Nov. 35, 183G, daughter of Valentine and 
Mary Jumpp. By this union they were bless- 
ed with eleven children: George E., Alice A.. 
Henry J., Sophronia, Adelaide (deceased), 
Delia, Marion M., Noah N., Mary M. (deceas- 
ed ), Barbara and Maud ( deceased ). Mr- 
Clark was a Democrat, and a member of the 
M. E. Church. 

WILLIAM DUVAL, farmer; P. O., Ar- 
enzville; was born in Beardstown, Jan. 35, 
1837, and is a son of William H. and Eliza- 
beth (Duvandach) Duval, natives of Hanover, 
Germany. William H. Duval was born in 
1806 ; was a shoemaker, carpenter, and 
farmer; he died in August, 1880. His wife 
was born in 1804; they had nine children. 
The subject of this sketch received his edu- 

cation in Beardstown, worked at the printer's 
trade two years, and has since been a farmer 
in this county. He married April 1, 1859, 
Mary Meier, a native of Prussia ; and from 
this union the following children have been 
born : Hannah, William, John, Minnie, Ed- 
ward, Henry, Emma, Louis and Lucy. Mr. 
Duval has been School Director and Trustee 
for nine years ; is a member of the Lutheran 
Church, and an adherent of the Republican 

EDWIN F. DERR, American Express 
Agent; Beardstown; was born in Lebanon 
Penn., March 8, 1844. He enlisted Feb. 2S, 
1862, for three years, in the Twelfth Penn- 
sylvania Volunteer Cavalry, re-enlisted in 
January, 1SG4, and was discharged July 30, 
18G5, at Philadelphia, Penn. During his 
term of service he participated in many im- 
portant engagements; he served under Gen. 
Pope in the second battle of Manassas, was 
in the battles of South Mountain, Harper's 
Ferry, and Antietam; was with General Sher- 
idan at Winchester, Fisher's Hill and New- 
town; was in the fight at McConnellsburg, 
Penn., and was with Gen. Milroy when he 
was driven out of Winchester, Va. He served 
two years in the ranks; was Orderly Sergeant 
and was tendered a commission as First Lieu- 
tenant, by the Governor of Pennsylvania, but 
declined. In March, 1806, he came West; 
stayed in St. Louis, Mo., for a time; engaged 
for one and a half years as a clerk in the 
Quarter-master's Department, at Fort Gibson, 
Indian Territory; was clerk for the Kansas 
Pacific Rail Road, at Kansas City, four years, 
and in 1874 came to Illinois. He was clerk 
in the Freight Department of the C, B. & Q. 
R. R., at Rock Island, 111., for a year, then 
agent at Piasa, 111., for same road; from July, 
1877, to January, 1879, was agent for the C, 
B. & Q. R. R., at Beardstown, and has since 
been the agent of the American Express 
Company here. Mr. Derr married in Beards- 



town, Jan. l-i, 1879, Statia Cornelius, of Peo- 
ria, 111. 

LUKE DUNN, farmer; P.O. Beardstown ; 
is a native of Cornwall, England; was born 
May 20, 1824; son of Luke and Elizabeth 
(Bullen) Dunn; also natives of Cornwall. His 
father was a farmer by occupation; his mother 
died Dec. II, 1831; they had eight children. 
Our subject received his education in the 
j)arish of Alternun, in England, and began 
farming in this county, where he has since 
followed that occupation. He married, March 
2i, 1846, in Cornwall, England, Elizabeth 
Jasper, a native of that country, and daughter 
of Thomas and Elizabeth Jasper. By this 
union they have had eight children. Mr. 
Dunn is now serving his second term as 
County Commissioner; he is a member of 
Lodge No. 26, 1. O. O. F., and of Lodge No. 
726, Knights of Honor, in Beardstown. 

ROBERT H. DUNN, hardware merchant, 
Beardstown; son of Luke Dunn, was born in 
Beardstown Precinct, April 2, 1852. In ad- 
dition to his common school education, he at- 
tended the Illinois College, at Jacksonville. 
In September, 1881, he, in conjunction with 
his cousin, William, purchased the old estab- 
lished hardware business of Abner Foster, 
and continued under the firm name of W. 
T. and A. H. Dunn, till March 6, 1882, 
when Robert H. became sole proprietor. He 
is doing a very fair business, which is con- 
stantly growing. His father, Luke Dunn, 
was elected County Commissioner, at the last 
election, on the Republican ticket, receiving 
a majority in this Democratic county, of 216 
over a very popular Democrat. 

JOHN DUNN, farmer; P. O. Beards- 
town; was born in Cornwall, England, Aug. 
1, 1812. (For parents see sketch of his 
brother, Luke Dunn, which appears in this 
work.) Mr. Dunn received his education in 
the Parish of Alternun in England, and 
began farming in this county, whore he fol- 

lowed that occupation until his death, which 
occurred Oct. 4, 1875. He was married in 
this precinct, July 20, 1840, to Caroline 
Tread way, a native of Harford County, Md.; 
born May 13, 1817; still living. By this 
union they were blessed with nine children: 
Elizabeth (deceased), Mary A., Martha J. (de- 
ceased), John G. (deceased), Emeline (de- 
ceased), Sarah E., William T., Charles N. 
and an infant (deceased). Mrs. Dunn is a 
daughter of Edward and Elizabeth Treadway. 
Mr. Dunn was a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church; he was a Republican. 

DUCHARDT BROS., butchers and cattle 
dealers, Beardstown; George and William M. 
Duchardt, the members of this firm, are the 
sons of John and Frederiecke (Krohe) Du- 
chardt. George, the elder brother, was born 
in Beardstown, Feb. 22, 1849; William M. 
was born Sept. 20, 1850; they both early en- 
gaged in the butcher business with their fath- 
er, who was a butcher by trade. In 1869, the 
brothers formed a partnership, and purchased 
their father's slaughter houses, butcher shop, 
and dwelling house, and under the firm name 
of Duchardt Bros., have since carried on a 
prosperous business. They have a good meat 
market on State street; for some years they 
packed pork and handled all kinds of meats, 
tallow, and lard; they buy and ship all kinds 
of live stock. Their father, John Duchardt, 
was born in 1795, in Hesse Darmstadt, Ger- 
many, where he learned the butcher's trade. 
At twenty years of age, he emigrated to 
America, landing in Baltimore, Md., thence 
went to Cincinnati, O., where he remained 
until 1832 or 1833; he then went to St. Louis, 
which was at that time but a small French 
village; then came to Beardstown about 
1833, where he opened a butcher shop, sup- 
plying meat to the river steamboats, and do- 
ing a general trade. He took real estate in 
payment for some of his meat bills, and a farm, 
which he got for one of these bills, he after- 



ward sold for $5,000. He engaged in the 
butchering and pork packing business in 
Beardstown, till 1869, when he retired, his 
sons taking the management of the business. 
He built a slaughter house on the west side of 
Second street, and for several years butchered 
for a Chicago beef packer, killing as high as 
seventy beeves per day. He is now residing 
on his farm in Beardstown Precinct. He 
married a daughter of FredKrohe,of Beards. 
town; he had six children, five of whom are 
living: Louise, wife of George Volkmar, of 
Beardstown, Henry, George, William, and 

JOHN R. DUTCH, grain dealer, Beards- 
town ; was born in Cape Girardeau, Mo., 
Sept. 7, 1830, and came to Illinois with his 
parents in 1837. In 1849, he joined the Cass 
County Company, consisting of twenty-one 
persons, who went overland to California 
where he worked at mining until the fall of 
1850, when he returned to Cass County, and 
in 1851 entered McKendree College for one 
year, after which he engaged in merchandis- 
ing in Beardstown with his brother, which he 
has continued; also dealing in grain. In 1879, 
this firm purchased a steamer and several 
barges, and operated largely in grain along 
the river from Peoria to St. Louis, handling a 
large amount of grain. Capt. E. J. Dutch 
was born in Salem, Mass., in 1783, and fol- 
lowed the sea for twenty-five years, being 
commander of many vessels, and sailing all 
over the world. He first located at Cincin- 
nati, and afterward went to Cape Girardeau 
and helped lay out the town. In 1886, he 
came to Cass County, where he died in 1849. 
He married in New York City, and had ten 
children, six sons and four daughters, John 
R., (our subject) being the third son. Three 
brothers and three sisters are living, 

F. M. DAVIS, merchant, Beardstown; 
was born in Monroe, Cass Co., July 'iO, 
1844; sou of John and Elizabeth (Dobson) 

Davis, he (.lohn) being born near Ashland, 
this county, Nov. 16, 1823, and was the first 
white child born in Cass County. She (Eliza- 
beth) was a native of Kentucky. They were 
married Nov. 16, 1842, and five children were 
born to them. Mr. F. M. Davis, our subject, 
for a young man, has had a varied life. At 
the age of eighteen he enlisted in the One 
Hundred and Fourteenth Illinois Infantry, 
and served as drummer till May 24, 1865, 
nearly three years, being in numerous hot 
engagements, including Vicksburg, Jackson, 
Nashville, etc. Returning after the war, he 
clerked awhile, and then entered a commer- 
cial college. After his marriage with Miss 
Lizzie King, he removed to Secor, but re- 
turned to Beardstown and entered into busi- 
ness on his own account, in which he has 
since continued. His wife is a lady of much 
business ability and enterprise, and she has 
for many years successfully conducted the 
millinery and dress-making business. She is 
a native of North Carolina, born March 15, 

HENRY B. DeSOLLAR, dealer in agri- 
cultural implements, Beardstown; was born 
in London, England, February 11, 1820. His 
father, who was of French parentage, was 
born in Amsterdam, Holland. Mr. DeSollar 
came to America in 1834, and located at 
Brantford, Upper Canada, and when fifteen 
years of age was apprenticed to the carriage 
and wagon-making trade, at which he served 
three years. He served in the militia in the 
Canadian rebellion of 1837, for six months. 
In 1838, he moved to Akron, Ohio, where he 
worked at his trade as journeyman nine 
months; then started a shop of his own in 
South Akron; afterward moved to Hartford, 
O., where he ran a shop for eighteen months. 
In July, 1842, he came to Bethel, Morgan 
County, III., where he carried on business for 
some years. In 1848, he came to Beards- 
town, bought a shop, and carried on the man- 



ufacture of carriages and wagons, until 18(58, 
wlien he turned his shop into warerooms for 
agricultural implements, and has since en- 
gaged in the implement business. In Akron, 
O., in 1839, he married Christina Clemens, 
who died in Bethel, 111., in 1847, leaving 
three children. In 1849, in Beardstown, he 
married Miss Cook, and from this second mar- 
riage four children have been born. 

OLIVER DECKER, farmer and grain- 
buyer; P. O. Bluff Springs; is a native of 
this county; born Jan. 29, 1839; son of John 
and Mary Ann (Guyott) Decker. John Deck- 
er, whose biography appears elsewhere in 
this work, was born in Germany, May 21, 
1804, and is still living near Bluff Springs, 
this county; his wife is deceased. They had 
two children: Oliver and Oscar, the latter de- 
ceased. Oliver received but a limited educa- 
tion, attending for a short time the country 
schools and the school in Beardstown. He 
began life as a farmer, and has since followed 
that occupation; he also deals in grain. He 
married in this precinct, Dec. 18, 1867, Jose- 
phine L. Rew, born Jan. 22, 1843, who has 
borne him two children: John W. and Charles 
H. Mrs. Decker is a daughter of Bradford 
B. and Julia Ann Rew; he, a native of New 
York, born Jan. 12, 1816 ; she, a native of Ohio, 
born Aug. 25, 1821; still living. Mr. Decker 
is a supporter of the Democratic party, and 
has been Road Supervisor two terms. 

JAMES A. DICK, farmer; P. O. Beards- 
town; was born in Simpson County, K}'., June 
10, 1823. His parents, Peter and Clu'istina 
Dick, were natives of North Carolina, and 
are both deceased; they had a family of eight 
children — five boys and three girls; his father 
was a farmer. James A. attended school in 
his native county, and afterward in Sangamon 
and Cass Counties, of this State, receivino- but 
a limited education. He began life as a 
farmer, and has since followed that occupa- 
tion. He was married in this county Oct 7, 

1845, to Mary Bowen ; born in Monroe County, 
O., Sept. 27, 1819; daughter of Jeremiah and 
Ellen Bowen; from this marriage they have 
had the following children: Samuel (de- 
ceased), Ellen, Nancy (deceased), Amanda 
(deceased), James M., Mary A. and William 
F. Mr. Dick was elected Sheriff of this 
county in 1856, and served two years; was 
re-elected in 1864, and again served two 
years. He has been School Director and 
Road Supervisor; and is a member of Ark 
Lodge No. 23 A. F. and A. M. in Beards- 
town; he is a Democrat. 

JOHN DECKER, farmer; P. O. Bluff 
Springs; one of the oldest settlers of this 
county; was born in Germany, May 31, 1804. 
His parents, Nicholas and Mary (Kersting) 
Decker, had five children, three boys and two 
girls: John, Antony, Theresa, Elizabeth and 
Henry. Mr. Decker received his education 
in Germany, where he attended school seven 
years, till he reached the age of fourteen, 
and began farming in Germany, and since the 
year 1835 has pursued that occupation here. 
In this precinct, in 1835, he married Mary 
Ann Guyott, who was born in St. Augustine, 
Florida,' in 1797, and died Nov. 28, 1873; 
they have had two children: Oliver and Oscar. 
When Mr. Decker came here, he bought 
320 acres of land, at eight dollars per acre, 
which is still in his possession. He is a 
Democrat, and a member of the Methodist 

DAVID C. DILLEY, insurance; Beards-. 
town; was born in Columbiana County, O., 
Sept. 3, 1828, and was raised near Warren, 
Ohio, where, at the age of eighteen, he ap- 
prenticed to the harness-maker's trade, at 
which he worked there till 1850. In the fall 
of that year he came to this county; lived for 
a time east of Virginia, then moved into that 
town, where he worked at his trade till 1853; 
afterward engaged in farming for about three 
years. In 1858 he came to Beardstown, 


where he worked at his trade a year, and in 
the fall of 1859 was elected County Treasurer 
of this county, which position he held twelve 
years. Since 1S70 he has been engaared in 
the insurance business. In June, 1853^ he 
married Melvina Hall, of Virginia, 111. 

J. C. H. EBERWEIN, merchant, Beards- 
tow"n; was born at Giessen, Hesse-Darmstadt, 
Germany, in March, 1819, and received his 
education in the University of Giessen. In 
1837, he came to this country, and in 1838, to 
Beardstown; worked for a time in a packing 
house and on a farm, and for about two and a 
half years in a store. In 1842, he moved to 
Butler County, O., where he married Miss 
Maria Gungerich, and, returning to this 
county, engaged in farming, near Arenzville, 
until the death of his wife, in the spring of 
1846. He then spent some time in Wiscon- 
sin, New Orleans, La., Kansas and Nebraska. 
He kept store at Richland, 111., for about two 
years, for Mr. Moore, and in 1849 engaged 
in business with a partner, to whom he sold 
out his interest in 1851. He then entered 
one hundred and twenty acres of land in 
Monroe Precinct, this county, improved about 
fifty-three acres, and in 1852 went to Califor- 
nia, with a party of four, by the overland 
route. He traded in piovisions between Sac- 
ramento and Nevada City, Cal., and in 1853, 
returned via the Panama route. He then 
engaged in business for two years with a part- 
ner, whose interest he then bought out, and 
carried on business in the same store till 
1880, when he built his present business 
house, where he carries on a general mer- 
chandising business, assisted by his two sons. 
In 1853, he married Christina Tucken, of 
Beardstown, and by this union there have been 
born four children: August, Herman, Christina 
and William. By his first marriage he had- 
two children: Lena and Bertha. Since 1853 
he has been engaged in the pork-packing 

JOHN EDDY, foun'dry; Beardstown; was 
born Dec. 25, 1830, in Cornwall, England, 
where he served seven years apprenticeship 
to the machinist's trade. In 1857, he came to 
this country, and located at Beardstown, where 
he worked at his trade until the breaking out of 
the late war, when he went to St. Louis, Mo., 
and there became foreman in a gun-boat yard 
during the war. In lstj7, he returned to 
Beardstown, and till 1871, was foreman in Mr. 
Ebaugh's machine shop and foundry there. He 
then engaged as engineer on various steam- 
boats, which Mr. Ebaugh commanded on the 
Illinois River, till 1874, and in 1875 again en- 
tered the foundry and soon became foreman 
of the machine shops, which position he 
still holds. The foundry and machine shop, 
when running full time, employ twentj'-four 
hands, and are now filling contracts for the C, 
B. & Q. R. R. 

facturer, Beardstown; is a native of Han- 
over, Germany, born March 24, 1842. He 
was educated in Brunswick, where he received 
a university course, and afterward learned 
the mercantile business, being employed with 
cotton and linen manufacturers. He came to 
the United States in October, 1867. Re- 
mained in New York two years. He was en- 
gaged in the manufacture of neckwear in Chi- 
cago, for about two years, and came to 
Beardstown in 1871. Tne first j'ear, he was 
engaged in the manufacture of neckties, and 
the sale of special lines of furnishing goods. 
In 1873, he began the manufacture of baking 
powder and extracts, and in 1875, added the 
manufacture of ginger ale and white beer. In 
1879, he added the minufacture of soda and 
mineral waters; and then blueing and per- 
fumeries. He has a large sale for his different 
productions, and especially, his Universal 
Baking Powder. His sales average about 
ilO,000 per year, selling mostly to wholesale 
dealers. In 1870 he married, in Chicago, 



Miss Rosa Rosenmerkel, and has five cliililren 
living, two sons and three daughters. 

ceased, was born in Hunterdon County, 
N. J., Feb. 28, 1808. In 1831, he went to 
Philadelphia, Pa., where he studied law; 
was admitted to the bar in Hancock Coun- 
ty, 111., in May, 18-13; and in 1844, be- 
came editor of an anti-Mormon paper, called 
the Nauvoo Expositor, only one number of 
which was published, when the press was de- 
stroyed. He came to Beardstown in 1844, 
and conducted the Beardstown Gazette ujitil 
1853. He served as Circuit Clerk of this 
county nine years; was appointed Postmas- 
ter of Beardstown, in 184'J; was Mayor of 
Beardstown two terms; was Master in Chan- 
cery of this county several terms, and was 
Police Magistrate and Justice of the Peace 
here, for many years. He was originally an 
old line Whig, afterward a Republican. In 
1847, he married Elizabeth Miller, sister ofE. 
B. Miller, and from this union four children 
were born: Alice, Arthur, and two others, 
who died in infancy. Judge Emmons died 
Nov. 15, 1881. He was a member of the 
Methodist Church. 

HENRY T. FOSTER, retired, Beardstown; 
was born in Lincoln County, Me., Feb. 3, 
1815, son of Robert Foster and Maria (Emer- 
son) Foster; he, a native of Boston, born in 
1773, and she, a native of New Hampshire; 
they had eleven children. Robert was a mer- 
chant and shipbuilder, and came to Illinois in 
1835, but returned to Westchester, Pa., where 
he died in 1847, his wife having died in 1831. 
Our subject came to Illinois in 1835, and in 
1836 opened a store, which after two years he 
sold out. He then made a trip to New York, 
and returning, went into partnership with his 
brother for several years. He wastne of the 
joint purchasers of the Wilbourn Flouring 
Mills, which he assisted in conducting about 
three years. From 1840 till 1853, Mr. Foster 

was engaged in farming; also in packing and 
shipping hogs, for the Eastern markets, and 
from 1853 till 18 TG, he was engaged in mer- 
chandising, and the agricultural implement 

ABNER FOSTER, retired; Beardstown ; 
was born in Union, Lincoln Co., Me., Aug., 
3, 1817, and came west at the age of eighteen 
years, locating in Schuyler County, 111., but 
shortly afterward removed to Richmond, 
where he remained two years, merchandising, 
in connection with his brother Henry. In 
1838, he and his brother came to Beardstown, 
and began merchandising. In 1840, he with 
two others, bought a mill, and continued the 
business two or three years. He then engag- 
ed in farming. In 1849 he quit farming, and 
came to Beardstown, and conducted the lum- 
ber business till 185G, when he went to Han- 
cock County, and run a steam saw mill. In 
1860, he returned to Beardstown. In 18G8 he 
a^ain eno-asred in the lumber business, and in 
1873 commenced the hardware business, 
whxh he continued until 1881. In 1876, he 
was elected President of the Cass County 
Bank, in which he has been a director and 
stockholder for many years. In 1844, he 
married Miss Sarah J. Ward, daughter of Col. 
John M. Ward, of Menard County, and two 
children were born, both of whom are dead. 

COL. JOHN B. FULKS, deceased, was 
born in W^estmoreland County, Virginia, in 
1805. His mother died when he was an 
infant; his father married again, and John 
B., at the age of eleven years, went to live in 
Kentucky. He received a good education in 
Frankfort, Ky., where he learned the printer's 
trade; he was U. S. Marshal, and a member 
of the Kentucky Legislature. He came to 
Beardstown, April 4, 1834, where he worked 
at his trade; he afterward started a paper in 
Jacksonville, Ills.; thence removed to Rush- 
ville. Ills., where he published a paper four or 
five vears, and in 1841, returned to Beards- 



town. In 1851 he was elected Sheriff of this 
county; he was the first City Clerk of Beards- 
town. He married Feb. 26, 1835, Sarah 
Crewdson, a native of Logan County, Ky., 
daughter of James and Elizabeth (Bell) Crewd- 
son, natives of Westmoreland County, Va., 
who came to this county in 1831 from Logan 
County, Ky. Mr. Fulks died Nov. 1, 1866, 
leaving a widow and seven children: Timole- 
on C, editor of the Marion Co. (LUs.) JSnquir- 
er,' Richard B., merchant, of this place; Sam- 
uel, TJ. S. Express Messenger in Wright City? 
Mo.; Mary, Emma, at home; Charles C, 
cashier of, Cass Cu. Bank; and Frank M.^ 
clerk in a store. Mrs. Fulks came to Beards- 
town with her parents in 1831, where she re- 
ceived her education. Richard B. Fulks, 
second son of Col. John B. and Sarah (Crewd- 
son) Fulks, was born at Rushville, Ills., Feb. 
6, 1840. At the commencement of the late 
war he enlisted in Co. " K," 33d Illinois In- 
fantry, and after serving two and one-half 
years in the ranks, was commissioned Quarter- 
master, and served in that capacity till the 
close of the war. In July, 187"-i, he opened 
the Great Western grocery store in Beards- 
town, but after two months it burned out, en- 
tailing a loss to him of $1,000; he then started 
business in another store, which was also con- 
sumed by fire, Nov. 37, 1875; he again start- 
ed in business, and was again burned out. In 
August, 1876, he moved to the Opera House 
Block, where he has since carried on an ex- 
tensive grocery and dry goods business. 

CHARLES E. FULKS, cashier of the 
Cass County Bank, Beardstown; was born in 
Beardstown, Feb. 10, 1856, and received a 
good education in the schools of that place. 
At the age of twelve years, he entered the 
office of the Central Illtnoiscm, where he 
worked six years. He then engaged as clerk 
for R. B. Fulks, seven years. In October, 
1881, he was elected cashier of the Cass 
County Bank, which position he has since 

filled. He was also elected City Clerk of 
Beardstown, in November, 1881. 

ANTON GREVE, cigar manufacturer; 
Beardstown; was born in Hanover, Ger- 
many, January, 38, 1847, ai«d at the age of 
eleven years began learning the cigar-maker's 
trade, which he completed when seventeen 
years old, having in the meantime received 
his education by attending school in the 
mornings. He worked as a journeyman for a 
year in his native State, and in 1865 came to 
the United States, and followed his trade 
about three years in New York city. In the 
spring of 1868 he came to Beardstown, where 
he worked at his trade as journeyman for 
about seven years, and in 1875 opened a cigar 
I'actDry in the room now occupied by the 
post office, and the following year entered 
into partnership with his brother, in company 
with whom he carried on business for four 
years. They then dissolved partnership, and 
since the fall of 1 880, Mr. Greve has carried 
on business alone. His present factory, No. 
39, Fourth District of Illinois, is situated on 
State street, opposite Park, where he removed 
from his old stand in 1881. He employs two 
cigar makers, and manufactures on an aver- 
age 130,000 cigars annually; his principal, 
brands are "Smoking Car," and "At Home." 
In Beardstown, in 1873, he married Mary 
Pauk; they have four children. 

ROBERT H. GARM, merchant tailor and 
clothier; P. O. Beardstown; is a native of this 
county; born Aug. 30, 1854, and at the age of 
ten years moved with his parents to Beards- 
town, where he received his education. He af- 
terward took a business course in the Bryant & 
Stratton Commercial College, St. Louis, Mo., 
from which he graduated in December, 1S71. 
In February, 1873, he became a member of 
the firm of Garm & Benneson, merchant tai- 
lors and clothiers, he having one-half interest 
in the business; after two years, Mr. Pilger 
bought Mr. Benneson's interest, and after 



carrying on business two years, under the 
firm name of Garm & Pilger, Mr. Garra sold 
out his interest to his partner. Mr. Garm, in 
company with his father, then engaged in 
business under the firm name of Henry Garm 
& Son, until Sept. 1,1877, when G. M. Pitner 
bought Henry Garm's interest, and the busi- 
ness was conducted on the same stand, under 
the firm name of Garm & Pitner, until August, 
1879, when Mr. Garm bought out his partner's 
interest and Jan. 1, 1880, moved to his present 
place of business, where he has since carried 
on the clothing business. 

HENRY GARM, grain buyer; P. O. 
Beardstown; is a native of Germany; born 
May 23, 1831; son of Henry and Margaret 
(Albers) Garm, natives of Altenburg, Ger- 
many, and parents of two children. Subject's 
father, who was a farmer, was born in 1798, 
and died in Washington, D. C, in 1840. Mr. 
Garm attended school in that city several 
years, and began the business of life as a 
farmer in this county in 1852. He ran a saw 
mill six years; then kept a lumber-yard; en- 
gaged in the merchant tailoring business; af- 
terward in the ice business, for three years; 
and finally engaged in his present business, 
dealing in grain. He married here, in May, 
1851, Mary D. Harris; born March 23, 1831, 
who has borne him eight children, five of 
whom are living: Robert, John, Mamie, Jo- 
seph and Frank. Mr. Garm is a Democrat; 
has been Master of Lodge No. 23, A. F. and 
A. M., three years; has been Aklerman four 
years. He is a member of the M. E. Church. 

GEORGE W. GOODELL, ice dealer, 
Beardstown; was born in Cuyahoga County, 
Ohio, April 39, 1823. At the age of seventeen, 
he began boating on the Ohio Canal, running 
from Portsmouth to Cleveland, and soon be- 
came captain of a boat. In 1848 he became 
captain of a freight boat, running from Chi- 
cago to La Salle, 111.; in 1851, he took com- 
mand of a boat running from La Salle to St. 

Louis, Mo., and during the twelve years 
which he spent on the river, commanded 
freight, tow and passenger boats; he made 
one trip up the Missouri River. During the 
late war he engaged in the ice business, in 
which he had been previously interested, and 
in 1871, located in Litchfield, Ills., where he 
lived eight years. In 1875, he began cutting 
ice on Muscooten Bay, and built an ice 
house near the C. B. & Q. Railroad depot, 
from which he shipped ice by rail. In 1880, 
he formed a partnership with Huse, Loorais 
& Co., of St. Louis, Mo., the firm here being 
known as Huse, Goodell & Co., and built an 
ice house on the Bay, having a capacity of 
18,000 tons, and enlarged the capacity of the 
houses on the C. B. & Q. Railroad, to 13,000 
tons. Their houses are fitted up with all mod- 
ern contrivances, and with a hoisting appara- 
tus, invented by Mr. Goodell. The firm of 
which Mr. Goodell is a member, is one of the 
most extensive ice companies in the West, 
and employs about 250 men in the cut- 
ting season, and the great portion of the ship- 
ping season, from forty to fifty men. 

THEODORE HEINZ, deceased, was a 
native of Germany, born near Frankfort- 
on-the-Main, February 4, 1830. His mother 
died when he was a babe, and his father, 
Jacob Heinz, came to America in 11341 or 
1843, and located in Arenzville, this coun- 
ty, and sent for his family of three small boys 
in 1842. Jacob Heinz worked at carpenter's 
and other trades. Mr. Heinz lived in 
Arenzville till he was about seventeen years 
old, then came to Beardstown, where he was 
employed as clerk in a general store, till he 
reached the age of twenty-two; then he re- 
turned to Arenzville and engaged in mer- 
chandising about three years. He then re- 
turned to Beardstown, where he was engaged 
as book-keeper for Nolte & McClure for a 
number of years; then engaged in the cloth- 
ing and merchant-tailoring business, which 



he followeJ until his death, in June, 1877. 
He was married in Beaidstown, in November, 
1851, to Ellen A. Uoolidge, a native of Massa- 
chusetts, born in 1832. From this union 
eight children were born, five sons and three 
daughters, all living. Mrs. Heinz came to 
Beardstowii in 1849, with her sister, Mrs. Jo- 
seph McGee, now of Waukegan, 111., and 
taught in a Beardstown private school, be- 
fore her marriage, and in the public schools 
for the last five years. Mr. Heinz served as 
City Clerk, and in other city ofEces. He was 
a Republican. 

LYMAN HAGER, farmer, P. O. Beards- 
town ; was born in New Hampshire, Aug. 30, 
1828; son of Reuben and Sarah (Reed) 
Hager; also natives of New Hampshire; he, 
a farmer, born March 8, 1793, died March 32, 
1871 ; she, born April 4, 1795, died Sept. 12, 
1846 ; they had a family of seven children. 
Lyman received a limited education, having 
attended but a short time the schools at 
Beardstown and Blufl" Springs, and also at 
the Cottonwood school house. He began 
farming in this precinct, where he has since 
followed that occupation, with the exception 
of four years, which he spent mining in Cali- 
fornia. In Beardstown, this county, June 15, 
1855, he married Cornelia Spalding, a native 
of Indiana; born Jan. 15, 1838, and died Dec. 
23, 1878, leaving nine children: Rose A., 
Edward, Douglas, Clara, Esther, Emma, 
Christina, Mary and Joseph. Jan. 5, 1879 
he married his present wife, Annie Devlin; 
born near Dublin, Ireland, June 29, 1847; 
daughter of Patrick and Rose Devlin ; from 
this marriage two children have been born, 
William and Charles. Mr. Hager is a Demo- 
crat ; his wife is a member of the Catholic 

O. Beardstown; is a native of Beardstown, 
this county; born Oct. 29, 1850; son of Cur- 
tis F. and Elizabeth (Horrom) Hager. Curtis 

F. Hager, a native of New Hampshire, and 
a farmer by occupation, was born June 21, 
1815, and died Jan. 1, 1877; his wife, a na- 
tive of Indiana, was born in 1809, and died 
April 14, 18G7; they were the parents of six- 
teen children. Mr. Hager attended the 
schools of this district about ten years, and 
has since followed farming here. He married 
here, Sept. 11, 1873, Hannah E. Bristow, born 
in Missouri, July 25, 1856, daughter of George 
W. and Mary E. Bristow. Their children 
are: Arthur L., born Jan. 23, 1877, and Clar- 
ence, born May 18, 1880. Mr. Hager is a 
Democrat; is connected with the M. E. 
Church, and is a member of Lodge No. 16, 
I. O. O. F., in Beardstown. 

JAMES M. HAGER, farmer; P. O. 
Baardstown; was born here, April 39, 1849, 
He began life as a farmer, and has since pur- 
sued that occupation. In Beardstown, this 
county, Aug. 13, 1872, he married Elizabeth 
Chesscher, a native of Illinois, born Nov. 20, 
1848, daughter of Thomas and Esther Chess- 
cher. From this union eight children have 
been born: James, Sarah, Elora, Esther, 
Marv (deceased), and three others who died 
in infancy. Mr. Hager is a Democrat; he is 
a brother of William R. Hager, whose biog- 
raphy appears elsewhere in this work. 

JOHN H. HAGENER, lumber and grain 
dealer, Beardstown ; was born in Beardstown, 
111., Jan. 7, 1850; son of William Hagener, a 
native of Hanover, Germany, who came to 
Beardstown in 1842, having lived in St. Louis 
a short time before coming here, and there 
married Miss Lenora Peters. He was a car- 
penter and builder, and died in 1856, aged 
fifty-nine years. His wife and three sons 
only survive him. Our subject, after receiving 
an ordinary education, learned the trade oi 
stone cutter, but afterward was a clerk and 
bookkeeper for several years. In 1874, he em- 
barked in the lumber and grain business, first 
by himself, and afterward in connection vvitb 

^^/i^^-2<^^ *^^f>i^t^^^^.^^ -£^^y^^ 




his brother. They own warehouses at Beards- 
town, Hamilton, and Arenzville, and have 
agencies at other points. They do a very ex- 
tensive business in both lumber and grain. 
Mr. Ilagener, as stated in this work, under 
the hoad of Peop'e's Bank, has been a direc- 
tor ol' that institution since its orgaiiizatior. , 
he has also held other positions of trust. H<! 
was married in 1875, to Miss Kate Pappmeier, 
daughter of J. F. Pappmeier, and has three 
children living. 

WILLIAM HUPPERS, mercliant tailor 
and clothier, Beardstown; was born in Prus- 
sia, Oct. 1, 1839, and at the age of thirteen 
years learning the tailor's trade in his 
native land, at which he served two years, and 
then worked in Belgium and Paris for several 
years. March 17, 1863, he arrived in New 
York city, and went from there to Columbus, 
Oiiio, but in June he came to Beardstown, 
and worked at his trade till 1869, when he 
started for himself, shortly afterward taking 
in as partner Pliilip Miller, and so continued 
until Feb. 1, 1881, Mr. Miller retiring at that 
time; since when Mr. Huppers has conducted 
the business by himself, at the corner of Main 
and State streets, where he keeps a full line 
of merchant tailoring goods, employing six or 
seven hands. He was married in 1805, to 
Miss Minnie Henkel, of Arenzville. 

JOHN H. HARRIS, banker, Beardstown; 
was born in Cornwall, England, April 4, 1833, 
and came with his parents to the United States 
in 1838, first going to Louisville, and in 18-40 
removing to the Sangamon Bottoms. In 
1854, our subject entered McKendree Col- 
lege, where he remained three years, 'and then 
took a course at a commercial college in 
Philadelphia, from which he graduated in 
1858. and at once entered the office as book- 
keeper for John Gregg, afterward becoming 
agent for the sale of that gentleman's lands 
in Illinois, with headquarters at Beardstown. 
In 1864, Mr. Harris also entered the lumber 

business for five years, and the dry goods 
trade at the same time. In 1877, he became 
stockholder at the organization of the Peo- 
ple's Bank, was elected its first president, 
and has filled that position ever since. In 
Lebanon, this State, in 1800, he married Miss 
Phehe Padon, who bore hini five (;liildien, 
and died in 1873. In May, 1S75, ho mar- 
ried Mrs. Ann TuU, widow of David Tull, 
and two children have blessed this union. 
He is a member of the Methodist Episcojial 

Beardstown; was born in Rockingham Coun- 
ty, Va., April 12, 1829; son of John and Eliza- 
beth (Marica) Hammer,Virginians, but of Ger- 
man descent. Franklin came with his parents 
to Illinois, in 1835, and in 1843 removed to 
Beardstown. The father had been a black- 
smith and merchant, but after coming to 
Beardstown kept the Virginia House. He 
afterward bought a farm, upon which he lived 
until 1807, when he moved to Beardstown, 
where he died in 1808. Our subject taught 
school one year, but went to farming in 1852, 
co.;tinuing six years. He served as Treasurer 
of Cass County in 1857-58. In 1852, he 
married Margaret Ann Lee, daughter of 
Caleb Lee, one of the pioneers of Cass 
County. In 1858, Mr. Hammer came to 
Beardstown, and was engaged in the livery 
business for sixteen years. In 187G, he be- 
came a stockholder in the Cass County Bank, 
was elected a Director in 1878, and at once 
chosen President of the same. He is a Demo- 
crat, and takes an active interest in all public 

Beardstown; was born in Pikeion, Pike Co., 
O., April 20, 1825; son of James and Rachel 
(Henderson) Henderson, natives of Virginia, 
both deceased. James Henderson was born 
April 23, 1789; followed the occupation of a 
civil engineer and surveyor, and died March 1 1 , 



1849; his wife, born March 25, 1793, died Oct. 
31, 1863; they had a family of nine children. 
David attended school in his native town till 
he was fourteen years old, and in May, 1844, 
came to Illinois, and located in Meredosia; 
afterward lived in Arcadia, 111., two years, and 
in March, 184(3, came to this county, and set- 
tled near Beardstown. He learned the car- 
penter's trade with his father, in Piketon, 0., 
and worked at it till he came here, since 
which time he has followed farming. In 
Beardstown, this county, Aug. 14, 1873, he 
married Martha Morgan; born in North Caro- 
lina, Dec. 15, 1847; daughter of George and 
Louisa Morgan; from this union four children 
have been born: James H., Mary G., Gertrude 
and Fannie A. Mr. Henderson is a Republic- 
an; his wife is a member of the M. E. Church. 
DAVID M. IRWIN, real estate and insur- 
ance, Beardstown; was born in Philadelphia, 
Pa., Feb. 6, 1814; son of John and Elizabeth 
(Muhlenburg) Irwin; he, a shipping merchant 
of Philadelphia, Pa.; she, a daughter of Fred- 
erick Augustus Muhlenburg, first Speaker of 
the House of Representatives. David M. was 
educated in private schools in his native city, 
and at the age of thirteen became a clerk in 
a wholesale dry goods store, and afterward 
book keeper in an importing and shipping- 
house. In 1841, he came to Springfield, Ills., 
engaged in mercantile luusiness there, four 
years, and afterward in St. Louis, Mo., four 
years. In 1848 he came to Virginia, this 
county, where he kept a general store till 1853, 
then entered a tract of prairie and timber land 
in Hickory Precinct, part of which he still 
owns. In 1853, he opened a general store in 
Beardstown, and remained there till 1805 
then moved to Peoria, Ills., where he carried 
on business three years. He returned to 
Beardstown in 18G8, and has since been en- 
gaged in the real estate, loan, and insurance 
business there, and has devoted his means 
argely to improving and building upon his 

lots. In Chester, Pa., in 1839, he married 
Sibylla Birchell, who died in 1841, leaving 
one son, John H., one of the inventors of the 
Bell Telephone, and holding previous claims 
to Bell's, by which, on compromise, he receives 
an annual stipend of $10,000. Mr. Irwin mar- 
ried in Springfield, Ills., in 1843, Virginia G. 
Payne, and from this second marriage there 
has been one daughter, Ellen. He is a Re- 

L. A. JONES, Jr., postmaster, and agent 
of the O. & M. Railroad, Bluff Springs ; was 
born in Hickory Precinct, this county, Feb. 17 
1847, and is a son of Luther A. and Drusilla 
C. (Calif) Jones, who were the parents of 
four children. Luther A. Jones, who is a 
iariner by occupation, was born in 1813, and 
now resides in Marshall County, 111.; he ran 
the ferry at Beardstown for thirteen years. 
Louis A., received his education principally 
in Beardstown, and engaged as agent for the 

0. & M. Railroad, which position he has held 
at Bluff Springs for eight years ; he also en- 
gaged in mercantile business here for a year. 
In Beardstown, Feb. 23, 1873, he married 
Rosa Dale, who was born in Frederick, Schuy- 
ler Co., III., Aug. 3, 1850, daughter of Hick- 
man and Amelia Dale. By this union they 
have been blessed with four childien: Charles 
F., Luther A., died March 23, 1870, aged ten 
months, Emma L. and Louis A. Mr. Jones 
is the present postnuister of Bluff Springs ; 
he is a Republican. 

WILLIAM JOCKISCH, retired, Boards- 
town; was born in Saxony, German}', March 

1, 183;J, and in 1833 came with his pa- 
rents to America, landing in New Orleans, 
La., after a voyage of eight weeks. Gotthalf 
Jockisch, our subject's father, was a native of 
Saxony, and after coming to America, settled 
on one hundred and sixty acres of land in 
what is now Arenzville Precinct, this county, 
and added to his original purchase till he had 
four hundred and eighty acres of good land. 



He died in 1850, aged fifty-five years, leaving 
an estate wortli over twenty-five thousand 
dollars. His wit'e, Elizabeth, who died in St. 
Louis, while on iicr waj' to this county, V)ore 
him nine children, of whom one died in Sax- 
onv. There are five sons living, William be- 
ing the youngest but one. Our subject re- 
ceived a fair English and German education, 
and after his father's death purchased a part 
of the homestead farm, on which he followed 
farming until 1S?0, when he built a substan- 
tial residence on Sixth street, Beardstown, 
where he has since lived, giving his family a 
good education. He still owns two hundred 
acres of land in Beardstown Precinct; he has 
been a stockholder and director of the Peo- 
ple's Bank, of Beardstown, since its organiza- 
tion. Mr. Jockisch married Nov. 1, 1855, 
Elizabeth Rahn, a native of Beardstown. 
They have had five children, two sons and 
three daughters: Victor, Elizabeth, Annie, 
Rosa and Rudie. 

CHARLES T. JOKISCH, farmer; P. O. 
Bluff Springs; is a native of Saxony; born 
Jan. 4, 182^; son of Charles G. and Mary E. 
(.Jacob) Jokisch, also natives of Saxony. 
Charles G. Jokisch, who was a farmer and dis- 
tiller, was born June 20, 1796, and died in 
this county, Oct. 9, 1851; his wife, born in 
1794, died in St. Louis, Mo., while on the 
way to this county, Jan. 24, 1835; they had 
fifteen children — nine boys and six girls. 
Charles T. received a fair education, having 
attended school in Saxony six years. He en- 
gaged in the hrewe.-y business with his uncle 
for some time, afterward learned the cooper's 
and carpenter's trades, and finally became a 
farmer. In Beardstown, this county, March 
27, 1S50, he married Mary E. Carls, a native 
of Hanover, Germany; liorn Aug. 28, 1834; 
daughter of John F. and Elizabeth Carls; 
from this union twelve children have been 
born: Louis, Phiiiipena, Edward B., Albert 
W., George F., Emma, Elizabeth, John Wes- 

ley (died March 23, 1870, aged 3 years and 
one month), Ida E., Richard R., Cornelia P. 
and Otillia. Mr. Jokisch is a Republican; 
was Road Supervisor and School Director in 
1878, and is at present School Trustee; he is 
a member of the German Methodist Church. 

GOrTHALF .JOKISCH, deceased, was 
born in Saxony, Feb. 22, 1820; son of 
Charles G. and Mary E. (Jacob) Jokisch, 
natives of Saxony, and parents of fifteen 
children, nine boys and six girls. Charles G. 
Jokisch, born June 20, 1796, was a farmer 
and distiller, and died in this county Oct. 9, 
1851; his wife, born in 1794, died Jan. 24, 
1835, in St. Louis, Mo., while on the way to 
this county. Gotthalf was always a farmer. 
In this county, Dec. 12, 1846, he married 
Eleanor Carls, a native of Hanover, Germany, 
born Nov. 2, 1824, who bore him ten chil- 
dren: Mary, Maurice, Philip, Matilda, Ame- 
lia, Edward, Harry, Theophilus (deceased), 
George (deceased), and Otto (deceased). Mr. 
Jokisch was a member of the M. E. Church; 
he was a Republican. 

J. LEWIS KUHL, grocer, Beardstown ; 
was born in Beardstown, July 16, 1850, and 
is half brother of the Kuhl brothers; his 
father having married at the death of his first 
wife, Mrs. Heminghouse, who bore him four 
children: J. Lewis, Mary, Henry, and Lydia. 
Our subject, after a common school educa- 
tion, took a course at the Central Wesleyan 
College, Warrenton, Mo., also a partial course 
at the Illinois Wesleyan University, and a 
commercial course at the Gem City Business 
College, graduating from that institution in 
1872; after which he clerked for some years 
for Kuhl Bros, and at Pekin. In 1881, he 
embarked in the grocery business, on the 
corner of Sixth and Monroe streets, where he 
has a fine trade in groceries and queensw^are. 
Jan. 23, 1879, he married Miss Emma J. 
McVey, daughter of Rev. W. H. McVey, of 
Griggsville, III. 



JOHN KNIGHT, banker, Beardstowii; is 
a native of Cornwall, England; born Feb. 5, 
1838. His father, Thomas Knight, also a 
native of Cornwall, England, was a cooper, 
and followed his trade in the town of Cum- 
bron, England, before coming to America. 
He married Elizabeth Burlase, of Cornwall, 
England, who bore him three sons and three 
daughters, John being the youngest son, and 
fourth child. The children are as follows : 
IMary, Mrs. D. Bottrell, of Christian Co., 111.; 
William J., of Beardstown; Thomas, John 
(subject); Elizabeth J., Mrs. Chauncey Rice; 
and Emily, who died at New Orleans, after 
the voyage from England. Subject's father 
died in this county, about the year I8G7; aged 
sixty-seven years. His mother, who was born 
Nov. 25, 1798, died Aug. 21, 1879. Mr. 
Knight came to the United States in 184(3, 
■with his parents, who settled in Beardstown 
Precinct, and farmed for several years in the 
Sangamon Bottoms; then bought a farm of 
264 acres of land of Abner Foster. He re- 
ceived a good common school education, and 
became owner of the homestead farm during 
the late war. He engaged in farming there 
till 1871, when he rented his lands, and moved 
to Beardstown. He has been Director of the 
Cass County Bank four years, and Vice Presi- 
dent during the same period. In 187(1, he 
married Augusta, daughter of Henry Thei- 
bagt, of this county. 

HENRY C. KEIL, hardware merchant, 
Beardstown; is a native of Hesse-Darmstadt, 
Germany; born Nov. 7, 1848. He learned the 
tinner's trade, and worked some time at Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main, and came to this country in 
the spring of 1867. He worked in New York 
some time, and then came to Jacksonville, 
111., where he remained two years, coming to 
Beardstown in the fall of 1869, where he re- 
mained till 1872, when he went to Europe, 
and spent a year. On his return he worked 
at his trade, and in 1876, started for himself. 

where he has continued ever since, doing a 
large and constantly increasing business. In 
188(1, he bought his present iwo-story brick 
building on Main street, and added to his 
line of stoves and tinware a stock of hard- 
ware and farm implements. In 1877, he mar- 
ried Miss Sophia Weiss, daughter of John 
Weiss, of this county. 

GEORGE KUHL, retired, Beardstown ; 
was born Sept. 17, 1807, in Hesse-Darmstadt, 
Germany; son of Christian and Elizabeth 
(Ganz) Kuhl. Our subject learned the trade 
of baker, and worked at that for a number of 
years. In 1833 he came to America, and 
worked in Richmond, Va., a couple of years, 
and in 1836 came to Beardstown with his 
])aronts. In 1837 he started in the bakery 
business, which he continued till 1848. He 
then erected larger warerooms, and bought 
grain and sacked provisions for many years. 
In 1861 he built another business room on 
Main street, and opened a dry goods store, 
continuing the grocery business in another 
room. In 1876 Mr. Kuhl retired from busi- 
ness, leaving it in the hands of his sons, George 
and Philip. In 1838 he married Miss Chris- 
tiana Becker, who died in 1848, and three sons 
are living by that marriage. He was again 
married in 1849, to Mrs. Femmyhouse, and 
four children have been born to them. 

GEORGE S. KUHL, of Kuhl Bros., dealers 
in dry goods, groceries and notions, Beards- 
town ; is a native of Beardstown, born Aug. 
28, 1841, where he received his primary edu- 
cation, finishing at Quincy College. He be- 
gan clerking in a grocery store when young, 
and remained at that occupation till 1861, when 
he enlisted in Co. K., 33d 111. Vol. Infantry, 
and served in Missouri two years, under Gen- 
erals Steele and McClernand. In the spring 
of 1862, he was detached from the ranks, and 
served as a clerk in the mustering office for 
nearly two years, and was discharged in 1864, 
having served three years. In 1872, he and 



his two brothers, William P., and Philip, en- 
tered into partnership, and carried on busi- 
ness for five years, when William P. retired 
from the firm, and George S. and Philip have 
since carried on the dry gfoods and grocery busi- 
ness, employing three salesmen. In 1881, the 
sales in the two dejiartments amounted to 
$50,000. In 1868, Mr. Kuhl married Julia 
E., daughter of James Buck, of Boardstown. 
They have one son and one daughter. 

HENRY KUHLMAN, farmer; P. O., 
Beardstown; is a native of Germany, born 
March 23, 1841, son of Gottlieb and Mary 
(Markman) Kuhlman. His father, who is still 
living, was born in Prussia, in 180G, and is a 
farmer. Henry attended school seven years 
in Germany, where he afterward learned the 
tailor's trade, at which he worked till he 
came here, since which time be has followed 
farming. He served three years in Co. C, 
3d Ills. Cavalry, under Colonel Carr. In this 
county, Feb. 5, 1868, he married Sarah E. 
Dunn, a native of this county, daughter of 
John and Caroline Dunn; from this union six 
children have been born: John W., Albert H., 
Elizabeth C. (died May 11, 1875,) Frederick C, 
Editii A., and an infant yet unnamed. Mr. 
Kuhlman is a Republican and a member of 
Lodge No. 22, A. O. U. W., in Beardstown; 
his wife is a member of the M. E. Church. 

B(!ardstown; was born in Prussia, Germany, 
June 19, 1840; son of Gottlieb and Mary 
(Markman) Kuhlman. His father is still liv- 
ing, and follows the occupation of a farmer; 
he was born in Prussia in 1806. William re- 
ceived his education in his native land, where 
he attended school seven years; then began 
learning the brick-mason's trade, at which he 
worked in Germany; but since 1860 he has 
followed farming. In Beardstown, this coun- 
ty, Sept. 14, 1865, he married Nancy J. Mc- 
Lin, born in Morgan County, 111., Jan. 4, 1844, 
wliu has borne him seven children: Ella, 

Elizabeth C, Clara M., Harry, Charlie, Myr- 
tle, and Edgar. Mrs. Kuhlman is a member 
of the M. E. Church; she is a dauQ-hter oi 
John and Charity McLin. Mr. Kuhlman is a 
Republican, and a member of Protection 
Lodge No. 23, A. O. U. W., in Beardstown, 
this county. 

Beardstown ; was born in Wheeling, Va. 
(now West Virginia), Aug. 3, 1847, where 
he received his education. At the age of 
seventeen he apprenticed to the watchmaker's 
and jewelers trade, at which he served four 
years in his native city, and in 1865, started 
in business in Little Rock, Ark., where he 
remained till 1869. He then moved to St. 
Louis, Mo., where he remained till 1877, when 
he came to Beardstown, and in 1880 opened 
his present jewelry store on Main Street. 

LYCURGUS S. LEE, farmer; P. O. Bluflf 
Springs; is a native of Maryland, born Sept. 
14, 1827, son of Caleb and Matilda (Higgins) 
Lee, also natives of that State, and parents of 
ten children. Caleb Lee, who was a farmer, 
was born in 1789, and died Dec. 10, 1847; his 
wife was born in 1802, and died in 1875. 
Lycurgus S. received his early education in 
what was then known as " the corner " school- 
house in Morgan, now Cass County, and began 
life as a farmer, and has since continued in that 
occupation on the sami; home farm. He will 
have been in tiiis precinct 50 years ne.vt Octo- 
ber. In this county, Sept. 14, 1854, he married 
LuvinaReam; born in Morgan County, 111., in 
1833, daughter of John and Catharine Ream; 
by this union six children have been born: 
Charles W., Dora A., Mary M., Anna M., 
Solon S. and Ada T. Mr. Lee has been 
School Director and Road Commissioner; he 
is a Republican. 

Beardstown; was born in Pennsylvania, Jan. 
30, 1839, and is a son of Frederick and Lydia 
(]\Iarty) Launer. Frederick Launer, who was 



!i Lutheran minister, was born in Berne, 
Switzerland, ii; ] ^96, and died in tiie fall 
of 1870; he was tlie first preacher in this 
county; his wife, also a native of Switzer- 
land, was born in 1830, and died Jan. 4, 
1876; they were the parents of seven chil- 
dren. Mr. Launer came with his parents 
to this county in IS-il; he received but 
a limited education, as he attended school 
but a short time. He began life as a farmer, 
and has ever since followed that occupation 
in this county. He married here March 10, 
1870, Josephine Winhold, who was born in 
Pennsylvania, Sept. 13, 1837; the}' have had 
eight children: Bertha, Edward (deceased), 
Ida, Rosa, Richard, Edwin (deceased), Cora 
and Robert. Mr. Launer is a member of the 
Lutheran Church, and a supporter of the Re- 
publican party. 

DR. H. H. LITTLEFIELD, Beardstown; 
was born in Wells, York County, Me., 
Sept. 25, 1823. His parents moved to Great 
Falls, N. H., when our subject was thirteen 
years old. After receiving a primary educa- 
tion, he began the study of medicine. In 
1843, he came West and taught school two 
years. In 1846, he attended two courses of 
medical lectures at Bowdoin College, gradu- 
ating in 1848, and locating in Beardstown for 
one year; then removed to Schuyler County, 
where he lived till 1860, when he returned to 
Beardstown, where he has since remained, 
with the exception of two years' service in the 
Union army, as Assistant Surgeon. He 
was with Grant's army, and consequently saw 
much service. He is a member of the Illinois 
State Medical Society; also of the American 
Medical Association, since 1875. 

Beardstown; was born in Bavaria, Germany, 
June 22, 1836; son of Jacob and Margaret 
(Kohlman) Lebknecher, natives of Germany; 
he, a farmer by occupation, born in 1812, died 
D c. 17, 1838; she, born in 1808, died March 

13, 1859; parents of four children. Jacob re- 
ceived his education in Germany, where he 
attended school seven years, and began the 
business of life as a cigar-maker in Philadel- 
phia, Pa. He afterward worked for four- 
teen months in a wholesale tea and cof- 
fee house in New York city; then engaged 
in the brewery business in Peoria, III., and 
was afterward engaa-ed in the same business 
in Beardstown, this county, thirteen years. 
He has followed farming in this county eight 
years. He was married in New York city, 
Nov. 12, 1859, to Kathrina Burkheiser, a na- 
tive of Germany, born April 4, 1839, daugh- 
ter of Karl and Mary A. Burkheiser. They 
have had nine children: Anna M., Frank J., 
Charles, Jacob, Lena (deceased), Emma (de- 
ceased), William, Katie, and Tillie. He is a 
Democrat, and a member of Lodge No. 57, 
A. O. U. W., in Beardstown. 

Beardstown; son of William and Mary (Hut- 
macher) Lammers, was born in Burgsteinport, 
Prussia, May 28, 1809. At the age of four- 
teen, he was apprenticed to the trade of car- 
penter and builder, at which he worked sev- 
eral years in his native country, and in 1836, 
he came to the United Slates. He first set- 
tled in New York, then in Cleveland, and 
then in Indiana; after which he went to Miss- 
issippi, working at his business, and from 
there to the mines at Galena, Ills., and Wis- 
consin. He first visited Beardstown in 1842, 
but settled there in 1849, and opened a gen- 
eral merchandising business, where he has 
been ever since, himself and two sons con- 
ducting the same. Mr. Lammers has built a 
a large number of business and private build- 
ings in Beardstown, and has been a stock- 
holder in the Cass County Bank since its or- 
ganization. In 1850, he married Miss Eleo- 
nora Christianer, of Beardstown, a native of 
Germany; and one son and two daughters 
were born from this marriage; one daughter 



living, wife of John Listinan. Mrs. Lanimers 
died June 5, 1855. Dec. 24, 1855 he married 
Anna Maria Eleonora Gersnieyer, of Beards- 
town, a native of Germany, who bore five 
children, one of whom died; those living are: 
Augusta, Alexander, Bertha, and Frank. 
Mrs. Lammers died Aug. 2, 1849. 

HENRY C. MEYER, brick manufacturer 
and ice dealer; Beardstown; is a native of 
Prussia, Germany; born Sept. 20, 1835. In 
1844, he came to the United States with his 
parents, who settled on a farm in Knox 
County, Ind., where he lived till he was 
twenty-two years of age. He early began to 
learn brick-making, at which he worked about 
eight years in Knox County, Ind. In 1857, 
he came to Beardstown, and started a brick 
yard near the town, and, after running it one 
year, took as a partner J. Baujan, and they 
run the business in company about five years, 
when Mr. Meyer retired from the busi- 
ness, and bought a farm in Arenzville Pre- 
cinct, this county, and engaged in farming 
there about five years. He then resumed 
brick-making, and has ever since been en- 
gaged, more or less extensively, in that busi- 
ness. In 1870, he bought a half interest in 
ihe present saw-mill on the bay, and, in com- 
pany with Mr. Baujan run it for two years; 
then bought out his partner's interest, and 
has since run the mill on his own account, 
employing eight or nine men constantly. 
The mill cuts on an average 4,000 feet per 
day. For the past six years Mr. Meyer has 
been engaged in the ice business, and has 
four ice houses with a capacity of 6,000 tons; 
his farm, mill, ice business, and brick-yard, 
furnish employment for a large force of men. 
He married Jan. 1, 18G3, Amelia, daughter of 
Lewis Boy, of this county; they have had six 
children, one deceased. Mr. Meyer is a mem- 
ber of the present City Council; he is a 

REV. C. R. MORRISON, M. E. minister; 

Bluff Springs; was born in Scott County, 
111., Nov. 27, 1852; son of Robert and Alvira 
A. (Gillham) Morrison. Robert Morrison is 
a native of Virginia; born Dec. 12, 1811; he is 
a farmer by occupation, and resides in Fre- 
mont County, la.; his wife was born in what 
is now Scott County, 111., in May, 1821, and 
was the first female white child born in that 
county; of their eleven children, five are de- 
ceased. Mr. Morrison received his primary 
education in the country schools; in 1871, 
he entered a preparatory school in Jackson- 
ville, 111., and in 1873, entered the Illinois 
College in that place, where he graduated in 
1878, being valedictorian of the graduating 
class. He afterward spent one year in the 
Theological Seminary at Evanston, 111. He 
began his career as a minister of the M. E. 
Church, in the Waverly Circuit, Morgan 
County, 111., and has ever since been a minis- 
ter of the gospel. In Jacksonville, 111., Feb. 
2, 1882, he married Margaret Rees, a native 
of Morgan County, 111., born June 2, 1803, 
daughter of Dr. Edwin and Margaret R>es; 
he, a native of Pennsylvania, born in 1810; 
she, born near Jacksonville, 111., in 1828. 
Mrs. Morrison was a graduate of the Illinois 
Female College class of 1881. Mr. Morrison 
is a Republican. 

WILLIAM H. McCORMICK, "distiller, 
Beardstown; was born in Indianapolis, Ind., 
Feb. 24, 1838, and received his education 
in his native city. At fourteen years of age 
he began working as train boy, and at other 
employments, and at the age of nineteen be- 
came conductor of a train running between 
Indianapolis, Ind., and Cincinnati, O., re- 
maining in that position, on that road, till 
1873, with the exception of four years, which 
he spent in Tennessee. He went to that 
State in 1863, and was employed as ccfnchictor 
on the Nashville and Chattanooga, and Nash- 
ville and Northwestern Railroads till 1866, 
when he returned to Indianapolis, and was 



employed by the company he had formerly 
worked for as conductor, running between 
Cincinnati, O., and Lafayette, Ind., until 
1873. In that year he retired from railroad- 
ing', and devoted his attention to the livery 
business, in Lafayette, Ind., till 1870, when 
he sold out and removed to Beardstown. He 
then again engaged in his former occupation 
of conductor, on the Springfield division of 
the O. & M. Railroad, until the spring of 1880, 
when he engaged in the distilling business in 
Beardstown. In 1858, he married Emma A. 
Brown, of Indianapolis, Ind. 

HENRY MENKE, retired druggist; 
Beardstown; was born in Bremen, Germany, 
Dec. 15, 1813; his father was a native of 
Bremen, Germany, was born Feb. 4, 1780, 
and died in 185i; his mother, Maria (Lamke) 
Menke, died in 1847; they came to America 
in 1834. Of their family, Henry and Mrs. 
Hoffman are the only survivors. Henry be- 
gan learning the baker's trade at the age of 
fourteen, and afterward spent a year and a 
half learning the brewing business. He came 
to America with his parents, and settled near 
Arenzville, in 1834, where his father purchased 
200 acres of land, on which our subject lived 
for about thirteen years. He then, in compa- 
ny with his brother, engaged in the drug busi- 
ness in Beardstown, in 1847, and his brother 
dying in the fall of that year, he continued the 
business alone about two years, then sold out 
to the former proprietor, Dr. T. A. Hoifman, 
and remained in the employ of the latter 
ten years; then bought the business back 
again, and continued it until 1879, when he 
sold out and retired from business life. He 
became a stockholder and Director of the 
Illinois Insurance Company, and was its first 
President; the charter and name of this 
company, about two years later, was changed 
to the Cass Countj' Bank, and Mr. Menke has 
acted as President of the organization, in all, 
about ten years. He married, Jan. 13, 1848, 

Alice A. Fletcher, a native of Lancashire, 
England, who died in October, 1873. She 
bore him three sons, two living — Henry and 
William Edward. In June, 1874, he married 
Mrs. Mary Dennis, nee Osmotherly, a native 
of Kent, England. 

Z. E. MAINE, farmer; P. O., Beards- 
town; is a native of this county; born in 
Beardstown Precinct, near the town of Beards- 
town, March 30, 1849, son of Loderick L. 
and Sarah (Calif) Maine. Loderick L. Maine 
was born in Stafford Springs, Conn., March 24, 
1786, and is still living; he was a carpenter 
by trade ; his wife was a native of New Hamp- 
shire; they had had five children. Our sub- 
ject attended school in this precinct eleven 
years, and also two years in Beardstown, and 
engaged in farming in this precinct, where he 
has since pursued that occupation, with the 
exception of two years, 1870-71, which he 
spent in Iowa. He married in this precinct, 
Feb. 23, 1869, Ellen McKean, a native of 
Monroe Precinct, this county, born March 23, 
1847, who has borne him three children : Minta 
(deceased), Lucas A. (deceased), and Minnie. 
Mrs. Maine is a daughter of John and Nancy 
McKean; he a native of Pennsylvania, born in 
1806; she, a native of West Virginia. Mr. 
Maine is a Greenbacker, and a member of 
Lodge No. 23, A. F. and A. M., Beardstown. 

EDMUND P. MILLER, livery; Beards- 
town; was born in Greenburg, Green County, 
Ky., March 25, 1819; son of Major William and 
Martha (Winlock) Miller. Major William 
Miller was born in Virginia in 1790; removed 
to Green County, Ky., when a boy, and 
learned the carpenter's trade, at which he 
worked several years; afterward kept hotel in 
Greenburg, Ky., in Springfield, 111., and in 
Jacksonville, 111. In 1843 he removed to this 
county, and died in Beardstown in 1864. He 
served in both campaigns of the Black Hawk 
War, being captain during the first, and pro- 
moted to the rank of Major in the second 



campaign; he was a stanch Whig. His wife, 
who was a native of Virginia, died in 185(3, 
aged sixty-eight years; they have had eight 
children, six of whom are living: Edmund P. 
came with his parents to St. Louis, Mo., in 
1827, then in 1839, to Jacksonville, 111., where 
he resided until 1843; and in the fall of 1844 
came to Beardstown, and purchased a farm 
four miles from the town, and engaged in 
farming in this precinct until 1881; he owned 
some of the best farms in the county, and en- 
gaged largely in raising grain. He purchased, 
at the administrator's sale of the effects of the 
late David Drake, his present livery stables, 
and does a good livery and feed business; has 
accommodation for fifty horses. In 1857 
he married Catharine, daughter of William 
Wright, of Schuyler County, 111.; they have 
five children living. 

PHILIP MILLER, retired; Beardstown; 
was born in Schoenberg, Hesse- Darmstadt, 
May 1, 1835. At the age of sixteen he began 
learning the tailor's trade, in his native State, 
at which he served three years, then traveled 
--as_a^ journey man for five years, and in 1850 
came to America, and worked two and a half 
years in the city of New York. In October, 
1853, he came to Beardstown, where he con- 
ducted a tailor shop for some time, then be- 
came cutter for Von Alstine three years, then 
for E. P. Chase nine years. In 18G9, in 
partnership with William Huppers, under the 
firm name of Huppers & Miller, he opened a 
merchant tailoring and clothing house, and 
after changing their location, they built the 
business block now occupied by Huppers & 
Cowen, where they carried on business till 
February, 1881, when Mr. Miller sold out his 
interest in the stock and building, and retired 
from active business life, on account of failing 
health. In November, 1855, he married 
Sarah, daughter of Joseph Ruff, of Beards- 


town; was born in the village of H;ifer, Prov- 
ince of Minden, Prussia, Dec. 13, 1836, and 
came to this country when thirteen years of 
age, with his father, who settled at Beards- 
town in 1849. He learned the carpenter's 
trade; also studied architecture. His father 
was a cabinet-maker, and was born in 1813, 
his wife being Miss Anna Teilkemeyer, and 
raised four children, W. F. being the oldest. 
The father died Jan 10, 1883. He served as 
alderman, and was a member of the Lutheran 
Church for thirty-three years. Our suljject in 
1875 bought the furniture factory of his father, 
and carried on the business there till January, 
1883, when he moved into the building, which 
he erected in 1881, on the corner of Jeffer- 
son and Second Sts., where he keeps a large 
and well-assorted stock of furniture. He 
also attends to the undertaking business. 
In 1858 he married Miss Lydia Looman, of 
Beardstown, and has three sons and three 
daughters living. 

CHARLES J. NORBURY, merchant and 
salesman, Beardstown; was born in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., May 33, 1813, and at seventeen 
years of age entered a commission house in 
that city, and was afterward in a wholesale 
dry goods house there till 1836. In April of 
that year he came to Beardstown, where for 
four years he managed the receiving and 
shipping business for Mr. Bassett, who did 
an extensive forwarding and commission bus- 
iness, chiefly in pork, lard and grain. In 
1840, Mr. Norbury bought a wharf boat, and 
engaged in the receiving and shipping busi- 
ness, on his own account, for several years; 
then carried on a boat store, supplying pack- 
ets with provisions, etc., for three or four 
years. About the year 1855 he became a 
member of the firm of George Plahn & Co., 
with which he was connected in the general 
merchandising business, for fourteen years. 
He then engaged in the same business on his 
own account, till 1874, and for the past five 



years has been employed as salesman for 
Reariok & Beatt}'. In January, 1839, he 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. Thomas 
Spence; they have had thirteen children, two 
of whom are deceased. 

WILLIAM C. NOLTE, grain merchant, 
Bluif Springs; was born in Beardstown, Nov. 
15, 1844; only child of Louis H. and Mary 
(Boldt) Nolte, natives of Germany. Louis 
H. Nolte, who was a carpenter by trade, died 
in October, 1846; his widow, who is still liv- 
ing, was born in October, 1807. Mr. Nolte 
attended school in Beardstown till he was 
fourteen years of age, and then began life as 
a farmer; afterward he learned the cooper's 
trade, and worked on the C. B. & Q. and the 
O. & M. Railroads, for some time. During 
the late war he served ten months in Co. A., 
65th 111. Vols., under Captain McClellan. He 
married, Oct. 4, 1866, Mary M. Jaques, born 
Jan. 13, 1849, who has borne him five children: 
Ellen E., Louis W., Harry F., Carrie A. and 
Maud M. Mrs. Nolte is a daughter of 
William C. and Elizabeth A. Jaques, natives 
of Pennsylvania; he, born April 25, 1833; 
she, born Jan, 19, 1830. Mr. Nolte is a mem- 
ber of Lodge No. 97, Grand Army of the 
Republic, in Beardstown; he is a Republi- 

J. W. NEWBURNE, farmer and gardener; 
was born in Glassboro, N. J., June 10, 1846; 
only surviving child of a family of nine, 
born to John and Lydia (Simmerman) New- 
burne, natives of New Jersey. John Ncw- 
burne, subject's father, was born in 1816, and 
engaged in the manufacture of glass, and also 
in farming, and at present resides in Glass- 
boro, N. J., retired from active life; his wife 
was born in 1830. J. W. resided in his 
native town till he was twelve years of age, 
when he removed to Clayton, N. J., then 
called Fislertown, where he attended school 
until 1864, then taught school until he was 
twenty-two years of age. In 1868 he married 

Rebecca, daughter of John and Martha Flem- 
ing, of Paulsboro, N. J., and in 1809 settled 
near Beardstown, this county, where, seven 
years after, Mrs. Newburne died, leaving two 
children — twins. In 1875 he returned to 
New Jersey, where he married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Benjamin and Elizabeth Zane, 
of Glassboro, N. J., and returned to this 
county the same year. He makes a specialty 
of raising melons and sweet potatoes, and 
has met with good success. He shipped the 
first forty barrels of sweet potatoes by boat 
to Chicago, and afterward the first car-load 
shipped from this county to that city. He 
has one child living, Harry Walter, the 
other, Emily Luella, having died when one 
year old. Mrs. Newburn's father was born 
in Philadelphia, Penn., in 1812, and for many 
years followed the trade of glass-blowing, 
but of late years has engaged in farming. 

PEOPLE'S BANK was organized in April, 
1877, as a private banking institution. Its 
first Board of Directors were John H. Harris, 
John H. Hagener, William Jockisch, J. A. 
Arenz, S. L. Calif. The capital stock was 
S10,000, originally, and in less than five years 
returned in dividends seventy per cent of its 
capital stock, besides a reserve of 81,50 >. 
Feb. 1, 1883, the capital stock was increased 
to ^15,000, at the same time establishing a 
a branch bank at Arenzville. John H. Harris 
and T. R. Condit are, and have been since its 
organization. President and Cashier, respect- 
ively, of the institution. The present Direct- 
ors are Harris, Hagener, Soliultz, Jockisch, 
and Saylor. A. J. Saylor is President, and 
C. H. Condit, Cashier, of the branch at Arenz- 
ville. Mr. Thomas H. Condit was born in 
Winchester, Scott County, 111., on Feb. 11, 
1856, and at the age of seventeen commenced 
as book-keeper in First National Bank, at 
Winchester. In 1874 he came to Beards- 
town, and took the position of cashier of a 
private bank; in 1877 was elected cashier of 



the People's Bank, and still holds that posi- 
tion. He married, in February, 1877, Miss 
Hattie Dutch, daughter of John R. Dutch, of 

Beardstown; was born in Hancock County, 
111., May 4, 1840; and is a son of Coleman 
and Sarah (Street) Paschall, natives of Ten- 
nessee, and parents of eleven children; he, a 
farmer by occupation, born in 1809, died in 
April, 1852; she, born in 1810, died in 18U3. 
Mr. Paschall received a fair education, and 
has always been a farmer in this county, 
where, Dec. 24, 1863, he married Emeline 
Dunn, daughter of John Dunn, whose sketch 
appears elsewhere in this work; she was born 
in this county June 30, 1845, and died Sept. 
2, 1872; from this marriage four children 
■were born: Harriet E., William Robert 
(deceased), John Albert, and Mary A. Mr. 
Paschall married in December, 1873, Mary 
A. Dunn, sister of his first wife, born in this 
county March 13, 1843; from this marriage 
there has been born one child. Myrtle. He 
is a member of the M. E. Church, and a Re- 
publican. * 

HERMAN PHILIPPI, farmer; Beards- 
town; was born in this county, April 23, 1844; 
son of Pompeius Philippi, whose biography 
appears elsewhere in this work. Mr. Philippi 
received his education chiefly 'in Arenzville, 
and has always been a farmer in this county. 
He married April 9, 1870, Mary Weinhold, a 
native of this county; born March 2, 1847, 
daughter of William and Barbara Weinhold; 
to this union five children have been born: 
Lena, born May 14, 1871; Emma and Einil 
(twins), born May 14, 1874; Lula, born Doc. 
23, 1878; and Laura, born Sept. 12, 1879. 
Emil died Sept. 3, 1874. Mr. Philippi is a 
supporter of the Republican party. 

STARK H. PHELPS, farmer; P. O. 
Beardstown; is a native of Bertie County, 
N. C, born Nov. 2, 1847; son of William II. 

and Martha (Measels) Phelps; parents of 
seven children. William H. Phelps was 
born in North Carolina, Feb. 2, 1817, and is 
still living; he is a cooper by trade. Stark H. 
received his education in this county, and 
began life as a farmer, which occupation he 
still pursues. In this precinct, Jan. 30, 1878, 
he married Clara M. Hager; born Dec. 10, 
1861, daughter of Lyman and Cornelia (Spald- 
ing) Hager; he, a native of New Hampshire, 
born Aug. 30, 1828; she, a native of Indiana, 
born Jan. 15, 1838, died Dec. 23, 1878. Mr. 
and Mrs. Phelps have had three children: 
Herbert E. (died Nov. 10, 1878), Charles E. 
and Olive M. Mr. Phelps is a Republican; 
he is a member of Lodge No. 16, I. O. O. F. 
in Beardstown, and is connected with the 
M. E. Church. 

C. E. PARKER, Physician, Beardstown; 
was born in Amherst, Hillsboro Co., N. H., 
Oct. 4, 1813. He entered Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1830, and graduated in 1834. He then 
entered upon a course of medical study: first 
in Dartmouth, then Harvard, and graduated 
from Yale Medical Department in 1837. He 
located at the Insane Asylum, at Pepperell, 
Mass., where he remained until 1855, himself 
and uncle being proprietors of the establish- 
ment; also engaged in general practice. In 
1855, he came to Beardstown, and with the ex- 
ception of six or seven years in the drug bus- 
iness in Springfield, has practiced in Beards- 
town. The Doctor is a member of the Illinois 
Medical Society, and is known and recognized 
as one of the oldest practitioners of his pro- 
fession in the State. 

JOHN F. PAPPMEIER, jeweler, Beards- 
town; was born in Hanover, Germany, Jan. 
13, 1830, and came to this country with his 
parents when four years of age, settling in 
the fall of 1833, on a farm near Beardstown 
where, three years later, Peter Pappmeier, the 
father, died. Mrs. Pappmeier afterward mar- 
ried John F. Heinkel, who raised our subject, 



and who worked on the farm till twenty-one 
years of age, when he came to Beardstown and 
served three years at the jewelry trade, but 
his sight failing, he went back to the farm. 
In the meantime his stepfather and his mother 
had both died. In 1856, he commenced re- 
pairing watches, and keeping a small stock of 
jewelry, and although located six blocks from 
the business center, such has been the quality 
of his work, that he has been exceedingly 
successful. In 1876, he built a fine brick store 
and residence; keeps constantly employed 
three persons, and carrying a large stock of 
clocks, watches, jewelry, silverware, etc. In 
1851 he married Miss Eliza, daughter of 
Clamor Tiemeyer, of Beardstown Precinct, 
and he has two sons and two daughters: John 
A., H. Lewis, Katie E., wife of John H. Hag- 
ener; and Eida. One son and two daughters 
are dead. He owns two fine farms, and is al- 
so interested in the culture of bees, having an 
apiary containing 130 swarms. 

NORMAN PARSONS, postmaster, Beards- 
town; was born in Enfield, Hartford County, 
Ct., November 6, 1811, and went to Ohio 
with his father in 1815. At the age of six- 
teen he was apprenticed to the tannery trade, 
and followed that occupation for many years, 
at Chardon, O., running a tannery of his own 
until 185-1; also conducting a store, a farm, 
and operating in the real estate business. He 
was a Colonel of Militia, and a Justice of the 
Peace, and was Vice-President of the first 
Anti-Slavery Society of Geauga County, and 
which was organized by Joshua Giddings and 
Theodore W. Wells, in 1848. In 1854, Mr. 
Parsons came to Beardstown, where he was 
engaged in the wagon-making and black- 
smithing business for several years; he also 
opened a farm and improved it. In 1861, he 
enlisted in the Third Illinois cavalry, and 
served until the close of the war; was with 
Fremont and Curtis until after the fall of 
Vicksburg; was mustered out as Orderly, 

having been Sergeant, Commissary Sergeant, 
etc.; was ia the campaign in front of 
Richmond; was in the battles of Pea 
Ridge, First Vicksburg, Walnut Hill, Ar- 
kansas Post, Nashville, and many minor 
engagements; also, on recruiting service. 
Exposure incidental to life in the army in- 
jured Mr. Parsons to such extent as to disable 
him for active labor since. In 1869, he was 
appointed Postmaster at Beardstown, which 
position he yet ably and acceptably fills. In 
1836 he married Miss Fannie A. King, of 
Ohio, and two sons were born to them: Mel- 
bourne N. and William E. Mrs. Parsons died 
in 1850; and in 1856 Mr. Parsons married 
Mrs. Sarah C. Saunders, of Beardstown. Both 
his sons, and a step-son served in the late war. 
Has been a Congregationalist and Methodist 
for over fifty years. 

postmaster, Beardstown; was born in Char- 
don, Geauga County, O., April 30, 1841, and 
when thirteen years old, came to Beardstown, 
and apprenticed to the jeweler's trade, with 
John Putinan, with whom he worked for four 
years and three months; then engaged in 
farming. On Aug. 19, 18G3, he enlisted in 
Co. C, 73d 111. Vol. Infantry, for three years, 
his company forming a part of the 1st Board 
of Trade Regiment, raised by postmaster 
Scripps, of Chicago, and participated in a 
number of important engagements during his 
term of service, and after being confined by 
sickness to the Nashville hospital, from No- 
vember, 1864, to May, 1865, he was dis- 
charged. On his return from the army he be- 
gan working at the painter's trade, which he 
had learned when a boy, and followed paint- 
ing until 1874, when he became assistant 
postmaster, under his father. On March 21, 
1861, he married Emma F. Ward, of Athens, 
III., who died Nov. 18, 1880. By this marriage 
four children were born, two of whom are 
living, viz.: Jennie and Willie. April 10, 



ISS'i, he married Mrs. Loretta H. Robinson, 
of Augusta, 111. William E. Parsons was 
born in Chanlon, Ohio, in November, 18! 3 ; 
enlisted in April, ISGl, in the lith 111. In- 
fantry, in the three months' service, and at 
the end of that time re-enlisted in Co. A, of 
the same regiment, for three years. He was 
poisoned at Rolla, Mo., in 1862, and came 
home, and at the end of three months, joined 
his regiment, participated in several impor- 
tant engagements, and after being confined to 
the Memphis hospital about six months, was 
discharged in 1864, and after returning home, 
died March 17, 1864. 

JOHN E. PUTMAN, jeweler, Beardstown ; 
was born near Rushville, Schuj^'er Co., 111., 
April 20, 1846; son of W. B. G. and Martha 
(Eliiins) Putman, he, a native of New York 
State, she, of Vermont. John E. received his 
education in Rushville, and in January, 1866, 
went to Racine, Wis., where he apprenticed 
to the jeweler's trade, with his uncle, John 
Elkins, and served three years, and Feb. 25, 
1869, came to Beardstown, and bought the 
jewelry store of H. Christianer, and remained 
in business till August, 1875; then sold out, 
and dealt in land for a time ; bought a hard- 
ware store in Beardstown, in exchange for 
land, and conducted the business for some 
time, under the firm name of J. E. Putman & 
Co. He then secured a patent for an im- 
provement on seat guards for harvesters, 
which has proved remunerative, and he is 
still interested in the introduction of his in- 
vention in different States and territories. 
March 1, 1882, he opened a jewelry store in 
Beardstown, and is doing a good trade. He 
owns about 1,000 acres of land in this county, 
some in Schuyler County, and some in Ne- 
braska. He married Emma, eldest daughter 
of Dr. F. Ehrhardt (deceased), April 20, 1871, 
and as issue of this union there were born 
four sons, two of whom are living : George, 
aged eight, and Ralph, aged five years. Mr. 

Putman was elected Alderman of second 
ward, Beardstown, in 1879, and served one 
year; elected Mayor in 1880, and served one 
year in that capacity. He is a Republican. 

CHRISTIAN PILGER, of Pilger & Huge, 
merchant tailors and clothiers. Beards, 
town; was born in Waldeck, Prussia, in 
April, 1836, and at the age of fourteen ap 
prenticed to the tailor's trade, at which ha 
served two and one-half years. He then 
traveled for some time as a journeyman, and 
in June, 1855, came to this country and lo- 
cated at Beardstown, where he worked on a 
farm a short time, then worked at his trade 
in St. Louis two years; returned to Boards- 
town in 1857, and worked at his trade till 
1873, with the exception of three years, 
during which he served as a soldier in the 
late war. In August, 1862, he enlisted in Co. 
A, 114th Ills. Vol. Infantry, which joined 
the Army of the Tennessee at Jlemphis, under 
General Logan, and remained in active ser- 
vice till August, 1865, when he was mustered 
out at Vicksburg, Miss.; his terra of 
service he participated in the engagements 
rv)und Memphis, Messenger's Ford, Jackson, 
Miss., and Brandon; and in the pursuit of 
General Price. In 1873, he became a partner 
in the firm of Garm & Pilger, in Beardstown, 
and carried on a merchant tailoring and cloth- 
ing business under that name till 1875, when 
he became sole proprietor and carried on the 
business alone till Feb. 1, 1882, when he took 
in his present partner, W. F. Huge, the busi- 
ness being since conducted under the firm 
name of Pilger & Huge. Mr. Pilger married 
in 1858, Margaret, daughter of Jacob 

ANTON RINK, brewer, Beardstown; 
was born in Bavaria, Germany, August 9, 
1838, and in 1850 came to this country with 
his parents, who settled on a farm in Perry 
County, Mo. Anton remained on the farm 
about eight years, when his father died, 



and he went to St. Louis, Mo., where he 
boaran learningr the brewinsr business with 
Kunz & Iloffineister, with whom he worked 
till 1860, then worked in a brewery in 
Peoria, 111., till 1804. In August of that 
year he came to Beardstown, and with a 
partner bought a small brewery on La Fay- 
ette street, which they rau under the firm 
name of A. Rink & Co., till 1867, then built 
the present three story brick building, 42x1-1:7 
feet, at a cost of $30,000, and continued busi- 
ness until February, 1874, when the partner- 
ship was dissolved, Mr. Rink becoming sole 
proprietor, and he has since conducted the 
business with good success. The establish- 
ment, which has a capacity of fifty barrels 
per day, employs from six to ten men; about 
1877, Mr. Rink established bottling works; 
he also manages a retail liquor store on Park 
Row; liis ice houses have a capacity of 2,000 
tons. In 186.5 Mr. Rink married Margaretha 
Schultz, of Beardstown; they have five chil- 
dren living. 

HENRY RLPPEL, dealer in boots and 
shoes, Beardstown: was born in Hesse-Darm- 
stadt, Germany, Jan. 28, 1836. At the age 
of fourteen he began learning the shoe- 
maker's trade, at wbich he served three 
years' apprenticeship. He then worked 
about six months at Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
Germany, afterward conducting a shop in 
his native village till 1854, when he emi- 
grated' to this country. He worked at his 
trade for a time in New York City, and at 
Rushville, New York, and after working at 
various occupations in different places, found 
employment at his trade in Rochester, N. Y. 
He left there in January, 1856, and came, by 
way of Chicago, to S()ringfield, 111., and 
worked as journeyman there until December, 
1857, when he visited his native country, re- 
turning the following year to Springfield, 
111., where he worked for his former employer 
till 1859. He then carried on a custom shop 

in Springfield, where, in 1860, he married 
Elizabeth Weigand, who was born in his na- 
tive village, Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1861, by 
the failure of the Illinois banks, he lost 1400, 
and again worked as a journeyman until 1869, 
when, in March, that year, he came to Beards- 
town, where he and his brother, Adam, bought 
a stock of boots and shoes, and carried on 
business in company till 1873, when Henry 
bought out his brother's interest, and since 
January, 1880, has occupied his present place 
of business, carrying a large stock of boots 
and shoes, also doing repairing. His store, 
which is sixty-five by twentv-two feet, is one 
of the finest in Beardstown. Mr. Ruppel 
has six children living. 

F. G. I. RATCLIFF, baker, Beardstown; 
is a native of Satfordshire, England; born 
March 5, 18'^3. At the age of eighteen he be- 
gan learning the baker's trade, in Newcastle, 
Eng., to which he served an apprenticeship 
of three and a half years. He worked at his 
trade at Liverpool, and at other places till 
18! 9, when he came to this country, worked 
a short time in Troy, N. Y., afterward worked 
at Andover, Henry County, Ills., about six 
months, then went to New Orleans, La., 
then to Baton Rouge, where he was pastry 
cook in a hotel four years. In 1854, he 
opened a bakery in Rock Island, Ills., which 
he cirried on there three years, then came to 
Beardstown, where he has since carried on 
the bakery business, doing the principal 
wholesale trade of the town; he is assisted by 
his two sons, Richard and Thomas. Mr. 
Ratcliff is also proprietor of a barber shop; 
he cooked the first meal served in the Park 
House, and held the position of cook there 
till 1863, when he paid a visit to his native 
country. In Mobile, Ala., in 1852, he mar- 
ried Rebecca Morrow, who has borne him ten 
children, five of whom are living. 

CHAUNCEY RICE, druggist, Beards- 
town; was born in St. Lawrence Count}-, 



N. y., Feburary 21, 1830, and in 1842 came, 
with his parents, to Williams County, O. In 
18i6, removed to Hancock County, 111., where 
he engaged in farming till the fall of 1849, 
and taught school two winters. In the sum- 
mer of 1850 he entered the drug store of 
James G. McCreary, of Rushville, 111., and 
clerked for six years. In 1S5G, he came to 
Beardstown, and entered into partnership 
with E. R. Maxwell, in the drug business 
there. They conducted a drug store under 
the firm name of Rice & Maxwell, till 18<)5, 
when Mr. Rice bought out his partner's in- 
terest; afterward bought out the stock of 
Henry Menke, and is conducting the two 
drug stores in his own name, his son James 
G., managing one store. He has occupied 
his present site, on Park Row, for twenty- 
three years. Mr. Rice has been twice mar- 
ried. In Hancock County, 111., in the fall of 
1852, he married Emily .1. Denny, of Au- 
gusta, III., who died in July, 1878, leaving 
three children: James G., Mrs. H. J. Nead, 
of Nebraska, and Chauncey J. In 1879, he 
married Elizabeth J. Knight, of Beardstown. 
James G. Rice, son of our subject, was born 
in Rushville, 111., in 1853, and at thirteen 
years of age began clerking in his father's 
drug store, remaining in the same store thir- 
teen years; and in 1879 he became a member 
of the firm, and took charge of a branch store 
on Main street, which he has since conducted 
with good success. He married, March 0, 
1882, Eva Shutts, of Camanche, Iowa. 

HENRY ROTES, grocer, Beardstown; was 
born in Beardstown, Aug. 4, 1849. His 
father, Henry Rotes, was born in Oldenburg, 
Germany, about 1811; emigrated to America, 
and worked for a cotton planter some time, 
then came to Beardstown, where he married 
Mrs. Mary Nolte, ne'e Bolte, of that town, who 
bore him two children, viz.: Henry (subject), 
and Carrie, both living. Subject's father died 
about the year 1SU9. Mr. Rotes, at eighteen 

years of age, began farming on a part of his 
father's place, and followed that occupation till 
1876, when he engaged in the grocery business 
with J. L. Black, under the firm name of 
Black & Rotes, for two years, when Mr. Rotes 
sold out his interest in the business to his 
partner, and until May, 1880, worked in the 
boiler shops of the C. B. & Q. R. R., when he 
purchased the grocery business of J. L. Black, 
on Main street, and has since been engaged 
in that business, meeting with good success. 

HENRY RICKS, saloon, Beardstown; was 
born near Hamilton Station, this county, Sept. 
12, 1850, and is a son of Conrad and Juliana 
(Landmann) Ricks, natives of Germany. Con- 
rad Ricks, a farmer by occupation, was born 
Nov. 30, 1815, and died July 10, 1877. His wife 
was born June 3, 18i2, and died Aug. 29, 1877. 
They had five children, two boys and three 
girls. Our subject received his education in 
the "Warrior School," near Bluff Springs, this 
county, and also attended the Beardstown 
school. He farmed for several years near 
Bluff Springs, and has for the past six years 
been keeping a saloon in Beardstown. In 
Virginia, this county, Feb. 5, 1876, he mar- 
ried Minnie Vellor, a native of this county, 
born May 24, 1857. They have three chil- 
dren, viz.: .lohn H., William G., and OJelia. 
Mrs. Ricks is a daughter of Frederick and 
Mary Vellor; he, a farmer, born Feb. 24, 1814; 
she, born Oct. 30, 1830; both in Germanj-. 
Mr. Ricks is a Democrat. His father came 
to this county in 1842. 

W. H. RHINEBERGER, carpenter and 
builder, Beardstown; was born in Marietta, 
O., June 10, 1844. His father was born in 
New York State, June 12, 1816; was raised 
in Wheeling, W. Va., and has been a resi- 
dent of this county since 1846; he is a carpen- 
ter by trade, and is now engaged as a con- 
tractor and builder in Ashland, this county. 
He has been twice married; his first wife, 
Julia Dunham, whom he married in Virginia, 



died in Marietta, O., leaving three sons, of 
whom W. H. is the youngest; his second 
wife, Mrs. Martha Morrow, whom he married 
in Beardstown, has borne him five children. 
The subject of this sketch came to Beards- 
town in 1846, with his father and grandfather, 
who settled on the land where the Central 
Hotel now stands. June 28, 1861, he enlisted 
in the Twenty-first Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry, of which Grant was colonel, and 
served three years, participating in the en- 
gagements at Fredericktown, Mo., Resaca, 
Stone River, and Chickamauj>a. He received 
a flesh wound in tlie neck at Kingston, Ga., 
May 19, 1864, and on July 9, that year, was 
mustered out at Chattanooga, Tenn. After 
his return from the war, he learned the car- 
penter's trade with his father, and in 18G7 
went to Linn County, Kan., where he owned 
a farm, and worked at his trade for eight 
years. He returned to Beardstown in 1875, 
where he has since been a contractor and 
builder, employing from two to ten men on 
his contracts. He has been twice married; 
May 39, 1867, he married Nannie Richards, 
of this county, who died May 13, 1879, leav- 
ing four children, of whom two daughters 
are living. June 7, 1882, he married Delia 

W. C. REW, merchant, Bluff Springs; is a 
native of this county; born Jan. 21, 1845, in 
an old log house, on the Springfield road, built 
by his grandfather, one of the first houses in 
this county. He is a son of Bradford B. and 
Julia Ann Rew; he, a native of New York, 
born Jan. 12, 1816; died in Biardstown, this 
county; she, born in Ohio, Aug. 25, 1821; re- 
sides in this county with her daughter, Jo- 
sephine Decker. W. C. attended a school 
near Beardstown six or eight years, and about 
two years in Beardstown; afterward worked 
on a farm, and then taught school for about 
five years. He married in Quincy, 111., May 
2, 1875, .Josephine Wither, who was born in 

this county, Nov, 5, 1855. They lived in 
Quincy about eight months, after which he 
entered into partnership with Oliver Deck- 
er, in the general merchandising business 
here. Jan. 1, 1870, he bought out Mr. Deck- 
er's interest, and has since carried on the 
business on his own account. In 1861, he 
enlisted in Company G, One Hundred and 
Forty-fifth 111. Infantry, under Capt. Will- 
iam Weaver, and after serving five months 
was obliged to return home on account 
of ill health. Mr. and Mrs. Rew have had 
two children: Mabel, born Nov. 30, 1879, 
and Henry B., born March 7, 1882; died 
March 21, 1882. Mr. Rew is a Democrat; is 
township School Treasurer of this township 
(No. 18), and has fo;- many years been a mem- 
ber of Lodge No. Ki, I. O. O. F., in Boards- 
town; his wife is a member of the Methodist 

HON. J. HENRY SHAW, attorney- 
at-law, Beardstown, was born in Boston, 
Mass., July 25, 1825. His father, Joseph 
Shaw, had been a book-publisher of that city, 
but, meeting with financial reverses, and pos- 
sessed with but small means, in 1836 he re- 
moved to Morgan County, Illinois, which 
then included Cass County, and settled near 
Jacksonville, where he pursued farming a 
few years, and afterward, merchandising at 
Beardstown, where he died in 1868. While 
he was living and working upon his father's 
farm as a boy in 1837, Henry received three 
weeks' instruction at a country school, in 
which he obtained the elements of the arts of 
reading and writing, which was all the school 
education he ever received; this was not he- 
cause his father did not appreciate the advan- 
tages of an education, but because all the as- 
sistance that could be obtained was necessary 
to carry on the farm, and Henry's education 
was put off for a more convenient season; the 
school which he attended for so short a term, 
was held in a log cabin in Diamond Grove, 



s >J 





^ -'- ,jkw 




near Jacksonville. There was a good school 
at that time in Jacksonville, and Illinois Col- 
lege was in infantile operation, but Henry 
was needed to help work the farm, and seemed 
destined by circumstances to grow up in igno- 
rance; but it is a way that self- made men have, 
to control and direct, or at least divert, cir- 
cumstances. His father, being a practical 
printer, was frequeatly called from his farm 
to assist a friend, Mr. Edwards, in publishing 
the Illinois Patriot, a Jacksonville news- 
paper, and brought home manv of the news- 
paper exchanges from the Patriot office; 
these were eagerly perused by Henry; his 
taste for reading increased with his opportuni- 
ties, and having no books of his own, and no 
money to buy any with, he borrowed of who- 
ever had them who were willing to lend; his 
time being occupied in working on the farm 
in fair weather, his reading opportunities 
were restricted to rainy days, Sundays, and 
nights; often wiiile the family were sleeping 
he was spending the silent hours of the night 
in the little attic between the ceiling and roof 
of his father's log cabin, poring over a bor- 
rowed book by a dim light made by a cotton 
rag and lard or butter in a saucer. Whenever 
his occupation was of suoii a nature as to 
allow of it, he carried a book with him, and 
read at intervals while the team rested, and 
generally held a book in his hand and read 
while plowing — a seemingly difficult task, 
but yet not so with him; he generally carried 
something to read or write upon wherever he 
went, and improved his leisure moments. 
Mills were scarce in Illinois in those days, 
and one of the valuable uses that young 
Shaw was put to, was to go on horseback with 
a sack of corn and get it ground at some dis- 
tant niili; Henry, riding upon the top of the 
sack, was usually lost in the mazes of his bor- 
rowed book; he was habituated to reading 
whenever he had a minute tliat could be util- 
ized for that purpose, and felt unhappy if he 

sat down even for a moment with nothing to 
read; he read everything he could get hold 
of, even scraps of newspapers and old alma- 
nacs, and used to saj' that he learned something 
from every scrap of paper that had any read- 
ing on it. He was also in the habit of writ- 
ing down everything that occurred to him 
as of sufficient importance, both original 
and selected. As writing paper cost money, 
and he had no money to buy it with, he util- 
ized the margins of newspapers, the blank 
leaves of books, and made marginal notes to 
such books as he was able to purchase. The 
other boys in his neighborhood, having neither 
knowledge nor the desire for it, other than for 
those things that appertained to the usual 
avocations and pleasures of life, derided hira 
for his peculiarities, and he avoided, so far as 
he could, being seen by them with a book. 
Even the men shook their heads forebodingly 
at him, and said that if he kept on in this 
course he would some day try and get his 
living without work and come to a bad end. 
Indeed, book learning was contemptuously 
spoken of by the country people, and it was 
not uncommon for justices of the peace and 
preachers to be without the qualifications of 
reading and writing. The most of his youth- 
ful life was passed in this manner, during 
which time he had read largely in history, 
ancient and modern classics, and general lit- 
erature and intelligence, and had begun to 
attract attention, not only for what he knew, 
but for his ability to express himself in good 
language, either orally or in writing, on any 
occasion, and frequently before he was twenty 
years old, made speeches on public occasions. 
He also, while yet a mere plow-boy, wrote 
articles for the newspapers, which attracted 
the attention of public men, and although 
they appeared without signature, inquiries 
were made and the writer was sometimes 
made known. It was by means of his news- 
paper articles that Richard Yates, then just 



entering upon his public career, was attracted 
toward him, and the acquaintance thus formed 
subsequently ripened into a friendship. He 
also cultivated a taste for writing poetry, 
much of which was suggested by public occa- 
sions in his vicinity, and many songs that 
were sung at festivals were of his pro- 
duction, but the author was seldom known 
by those who enjayed them, as he had 
a dread of being sneered at as a coun- 
try poet. One of his articles, which was 
published in the Jacksonville Journal, under 
his usual nom de plume of " Hal Heryn," 
during the war with Mexico, is here inserted 
as a fair specimen of his boyish muse. The 
subject was suggested to him by reading a 
letter from a soldier in the army, from Mor- 
gan county: 


Kefrain: " Bingen on the Rhine." 

" While we were camped on the Rio Grande, A. G. S. 
died: a noble soul as ever bore musket. His last mur- 
murings were of somebody by the name of Mary — his 
sister, I believe, in Morgan county." — Taken from a 
Soldier's Letter. 

Where the moonbeams shimmer brightly 

Upon the silvery sand, 
And the little waves tiow lightly 

Along the Rio Grande ; 
Where the breeze a requiem weaves 

Among the wildwood leaves, 
And the star-robed rivur, gently, 

To the summer wind upheaves, 
And dew-tears, pearl like, nestle 

In meek-eyed flowers around, 
Like fragile spirits drooping 

With sorrow to the ground ; 
There lay a dying soldier, 

His life fast ebbing forth, 
And he had come from Morgan, 

Old Morgan in the North. 
Worn and wasted were his features 

With a long-enduring pain. 
And with incoherent murmurs 

Hard he sought to speak, in vain. 
Low and sad I bent me o'er him. 

And I scarce could hear him say 
That his heart, though weak and blighted, 

Was upon the northern way. 
Then he whispered of a cottage 

In the distant prairie-land; 
And he said a weeping sister 

Beckoned with a gentle hand : 
I fancied that he said his sister, 

But it might have been his bride ; 
She was fiir away in Morgan — 

Old Morgan, Honor's pride. 
He would show to me a treasure, 

All he had to cheer him there ; 
'Twas a little heart-shaped ringlet 

Of his sister's silken hair ; 
In his hand he held it, fondling, 

And essayed to speak a name ; 
But the leaves and wavelets murmured, 

And I sought to hear in vain. 
The stars looked down : the soldier died 

Upon the Rio Grande. 
His last look toward his sister's home 

Far in the prairie-land: 
Perchance 'twas not his sister, 

His bride it might have been : 
She was far away in Morgan — 

Old Morgan, tressed with green. 

Upon arriving at the age of twenty-one 
years, Henry, at the suggestion of Richard 
Yates, began the study of law, Mr. Yates 
lending him the necessary books, and encour- 
aging him with kind words to proceed. 
These books he took, one at a time, and read 
them at home while working on the farm. 
The same plan he had pursued with his boy- 
ish studies, he continued while preparing 
for his professional life. He utilized the 
nights atid rainy days. Every spare moment 
found him with a book in his hands. 
He has a well-worn copy of " Gould's Plead- 
ings," which he read over and over while he 
was plowing, holding the book in one hand 
and guiding the plow with the other, while 
the horses were held in place by a line over 
his shoulder and under one arm. He became 
so attached to this book that Mr. Yates pre- 
sented it to him, and it was the first law-book 



he ever owned. He occasionally reported 
progress to his friend, and received further 
encourao-enient, but never recited a lesson to 
him, or received any instruction beyond a 
recornniendation of the jiroper books to read. 
M'^licn he became twciitv-live years of asje, 
notwitlistanding he had continuously labored 
on a farm, he felt sufficiently advanced in 
his studies to warrant him in applying for a 
license to practice law, and with Mr. Yates 
he went to Springfield, where he was ex- 
amined by the Judges of the Supreme Court, 
and admitted to the bar. He then removed 
to Beardstown, and commenced the practice 
of the law, where he has ever since remained. 
During his many years of practice, he con- 
tinued as before, a laborious student. He 
has not confined himself wholly to the law, 
but has wandered into the by-paths of litera- 
ture, and has contributed many able articles 
to magazines, newspapers, law-journals, etc. 
As an orator, he has taken a front rank, and 
at the bar has met but few superiors in the 
later years of his practice. In 1873 he met 
with an irreparable misfortune, which, at 
least in a measure, blighted his further aspira- 
tions. By severe professional labor, he 
brought on himself a slight attack of paraly- 
sis, and although he was confined to his room 
but a few days, yet it was an imperative no- 
tice to him that his constitution had begun to 
give way under the constant mental strain it had 
been subjected to, and that he must change 
his laborious life to a more quiet and less 
ambitious one. He was then but forty-eight 
years old, in the prime of life, and at a time 
when he might reasonably claim a reward for 
his past labors and perseverance ; he was 
warned in this solemn manner, that he must 
retire to the shade trees, and rest among the 
weary toilers, who had borne the heat and 
burdens of the field. This unfortunate oc- 
currence grieved and disappointed him, as he 
was ambitious of further distinction among 

his compeers, and hoped to rise to a position 
among the highest. But this result can hard- 
ly excite surprise, when we consider the cir- 
cumstance of his past life. Perhaps no man 
ever achieved an education and jiosition 
under such apjiarendy insurmountable diffi- 
culties, and no young lawyer ever had a 
brighter array of competitors for business and 
glory than he. He found practicing in the 
courts where he must practice, such men as 
Lincoln, Douglas, Baker, Yates, Richardson, 
McConnell, Blackwell, Browning, Williams, 
Walker, Smith, Brown, Dummer, and a host 
of stars of only a degree lesser magnitude, 
and among these giants he was compelled to 
parry and thrust with his home«made sword. 
But, notwithstanding his wading through 
Scylla and Charybdis, he had strength and 
nerve enough to throw stones even at the 
Cyclops. At the time he was stricken with 
paralysis, he was getting his cases ready for 
the August term of the Cass Circuit Court, 
1873, and was also preparing an historical 
address for a meeting of the "old settlers" 
of Cass, Brown and Schuyler Counties. The 
attack began ten days before court, the bus- 
iest time in the life of a lawyer. At the sit- 
ting of the court, although he was present, 
his brother lawyers kindly attended to 
his business for him, and his friends 
and physician advised him not to deliver 
the address at the "old settlers" meet- 
ing, but as he had expended much labor 
in its preparation, he concluded to deliver 
it, which he did at great risk of a relapse. 
He then spent some months at the east- 
ern sea-coast and mountains, and returned 
home much refreshed. Since then, by advice 
of his physicians, he has avoided the more ex- 
citing and litigous practice, and confined 
himself mostly to office business and consulta- 
tions. He continues to read extensively, 
and sometimes writes for the press; his men- 
tal powers are unimpaired, and his knowledge 



of the history and present condition of the 
nations and peoples of the world is remark- 
able. While he has mingled much in polit- 
ical controversies, both on the rostrum and in 
the public journals, yet he has never made 
any effort to obtain office, and although he is 
now the representative of the counties of 
Cass, Brown, Menard and Mason, in the State 
legislature, yet it was without his own solic- 
itation. As a legislator, he is noted for his 
ability and strict regard for duty ; and in the 
committees to which he belongs, particularly 
the " Judiciary, ' and "Canals and Rivers," 
two of the most important, he is influential 
and indefatigable in his labors, and constant 
in his attendance. Dui-ing the session of 
1880, 1881, and the special session of 1882, 
he labored for the improvement of the great 
water-ways of the State, originating a bill to 
enable steamboats to pass from St. Louis to 
Chicago, offering competition to the railroads 
of the State, and thus securing to producers 
cheap transportation. As a testimonial of his 
eminent services we insert the following 
resolution, passed at the Cass County Demo- 
cratic Convention, held in Virginia, July 1, 
1882. "Whereas, The Hon. J. Henry Shaw 
has ably and honorably represented this the 
XXXVITH Senatorial District as a member of 
the last General Assembly of Illinois, be it 
Resolved by this Convention, that we en- 
dorse his action and conduct in said last Gen- 
eral Assembly, and trust that as an endorse- 
ment of his action he may be returned to the 
next General Assembly as our representative." 
Previous to the year 1873, he led a very 
active life. Not a minute was allowed to be 
wasted. He gave his time and labor freely 
to public matters, without remuneration 
frequently making speeches or writing for the 
papers, in aid of railroad building and other 
enterprises, and for the advancement of the 
interests of the people. He wrote and pub- 
lished many historical sketches local to the 

Mississippi Valley, and at one time contem- 
plated, and had in course of preparation, a 
history of Illinois ; but the publication of 
Davidson and Stuve's excellent work about 
that time, caused him to abandon this project. 
His story is simple and short, but it has points 
worthy of record. It shows that even a small 
boy may form a resolution which will be a 
miignet and polar star to him through life. 
That teachers, schools and colleges may be 
convenient for the indolent, and advanta- 
geous as a luxury, but are not absolutely 
necessary to any one who is deter- 
mined to get an education without them. 
Tiiat a person who has learned to read, bus 
tr.ereby in his possession a key, which, by ap- 
plication, will unlock all other sources of 
knowledge; that while circumstances may in- 
fluence a man's destiny, yet the continuous 
exercise of his will in a great measure con- 
trols it. Mr. Shaw has been identified with 
Cass and Morgan Counties and acquainted 
with their people and affairs, nearly half a 
century, and has been one of the most influ- 
ential citizens of Cass County for thirty 
years. In 187G, by suggestion of the Presi- 
dent of the United States, and by a resolu- 
tion of Congress, the people of every county 
and city in the Union were requested to ap- 
point a suitable person to deliver, on the 
Fourth of July of that year, an oration, con- 
taining a brief account of such county or 
city, so that its local history should be per- 
petuated. Mr. Shaw was appointed to deliver 
the oration for Cass County, which he did, 
giving a complete history of it, occupying 
two and a-half hours in its delivery. And 
now, as api)licab.e to the closing of this 
sketch, we deem it best to give his peroration 
on that occasion : " I have now told you, in a 
comparatively short time, what I can con- 
dense of a half century's history of this 
county, nearly all of which period has passed 
under my own personal observation. How 



strange that a man should see the birth and 
infancy, and live on through the youth, to the 
maturity of a great State! How passing 
strange that the pioneer of the prairie and 
the forest should witness all the mysteries of 
the building — the sub-structure — and the 
super-structure: should with his own hands, 
help, not only to lay the foundation ro.'ks 
deep in the soil, but also to bear up the 
pillars of strength, and assist in rearing upon 
them the dome and pinnacle of an Em- 
pire State! But so it is. In other coun- 
tries, generations after generations pass away, 
and witness no perceptible change in their 
communities; but here men have passed their 
lives in log cabins, who now rest from their 
labors in rosewood caskets, enshrined in mar- 
ble. And what may we learn by to-day's 
lesson? It is this, if no other: that whatever 
condition in life circumstances may place us, 
to act well our part, and then we can not 
fail to become important factors in the making 
up of the State in which we live. Nations 
are but a conglomerate of smaller communi- 
ties, and communities of individuals; and the 
State looks to every man to do his duty. And 
now, finally, as this is a county festival, the 
people of which are assembled to celebrate 
this, the Centennial Anniversary of our coun- 
try's independence, let us ask ourselves this 
question: Has Cass County, during the near 
half century of its history, done its duty to 
the State and Nation, its duty to God, and to 
the great world of humanity outside of it — 
its duty to itself and to the future genera- 
tions that are to succeed us? And in response, 
I believe we can lay our hands upon our 
hearts, and our consciences will tell us that 
ihis county, as a community, has done its 
duty, and results show it. There is probably 
as much wealth, intelligence, and happiness 
in it, present and prospective, as in any rural 
district of its size and population in this great 
valley. The patriotism of its people and the 

integrity of its magistracy stands unim- 
peached. No duty to the Nation or to hu- 
manity has been left unperformed. And the 
generation now passing away can say to the 
one just stepping upon the platform: (iro and 
do likewise, and your reward shall be equal, 
and we trust even an hundred-fold more 

LEWIS F. SANDERS, real estate and in- 
surance, Beardstown; was born in Loudoun 
County, Va., .July 23, 1809; son of Britton 
and Mary (Gill) Sanders, natives of Virginia, 
and parents of ten children — nine sons and one 
daughter, Lewis F. being the seventh son. 
Britton Sanders was a farmer by occupation. 
Lewis F., engaged from 1832 to 1835 as a dry 
goods clerk in Washington, D. C, and in Ju- 
ly of the latter year, came to Jacksonville, 111., 
and soon after engaged with Dr. Henry H. 
Hall, as a clerk in his store, near where Vir- 
ginia now stands, in August, 1835. In 1837, 
he opened a general store and carried on bus- 
iness on his own account, till 1839; in 1838 
he was appointed postmaster of Virginia. In 
1839, he moved to Stevenson, now Rock Is- 
land, Illinois, and engaged in merchandising 
there till 1841; then moved to St. Louis, Mo., 
where he remained till the spring of 1843, 
when he came to Beardstown. He was ap- 
pointed Deputy Circuit Clerk; also acted as 
Deputy County Clerk; was afterward elected 
County Clerk, which office he held eight years; 
has been twice re-elected Justice of the Peace, 
and has held the office of Police Magistrate 
many years. In 1859, he engaged in the in- 
surance business, and in addition kept a gen- 
eral store for a few years. In 1863, he was 
appointed Assistant U. S. Revenue Assessor 
for the 9th District of Illinois, which position 
he held till 1865; and has since been engaged 
in the insurance business. In 1839, he mar- 
ried Ellen Clendenen, of Morgan County, 111., 
daughter of John Clendenen, of Harford 
County, Md.; they have had five children, two 



of whom are deceased. Mr. Sanders was for- 
merly a Whig, now a Republican. 

CHARLES M. SPRING, druggist. Beards- 
town; is a native of Pike County, 111., born 
March 29, 1851, and at fourteen years of age, 
entered a drug store at Naples, Scott Co., 
111., remaining there five years. He then en- 
gaged with Anderson & Watt, wholesale drug- 
gists, of St. Louis, Mo., with vrhom he remain- 
ed three years, engaged as traveling salesman 
a portion of the time. In 1872, he came to 
Beardstown and opened a drug, book and 
jewelry store, on Park Row, where he has 
since carried on business, meeting with good 
success. In 1880, in addition to his other bus- 
iness, he established a wholesale tobacco, ci- 
gar, confectionery and grocery house, and the 
following year a retail grocery. In 1882, he 
bought a half interest in the Park House, the 
management being under the firm name of 
Spring Bros. In 1876, he married Maria, 
daughter of E. B. Seward, of Beardstown. 

SAMUEL SHAW, retired; Beardstown; 
was born in Cincinnati, O., March 12, 1815, 
and was raised in the village of Newtown, O., 
where he afterward worked in a distillery un- 
til 1838, when he came to Exeter, Scott 
Co., 111., where he worked in a distillery 
two years. He then moved to Springfield, 
111., where he remained five years as manager 
of John A. Kidey and S. M. Tinsley's busi- 
ness, and in 1842, in company with S. M. 
Tinsley, built a 500 bushel still-house in 
Beardstown, where they ran a distillery about 
four years, under the firm name of Tinsley 
& Co. Mr. Shaw then sold out his interest 
in the distillery to his partner, and bought a 
tract of 666 acres of land, on the Sangamon 
Bottoms, which he improved and farmed for 
twelve years, and on which he raised as high 
as 8,000 bushels of potatoes in one year. He 
sold his lands, returned to Beardstown in 
1863, and is living retired from active busi- 
ness life. He married Aug. 3, 1839, Mary A. 

Fleming, of Exeter, III., who has borne him 
nine children, four of whom are living: John, 
William, Harry and Ella. Mr. Shaw was a 
director of the Cass County Bank for seven 
years, being one of the corporators of the old 
Insurance Company; was U. S. Revenue In- 
spector for the Ninth District; he is a Demo- 
crat; himself and family are members of the 
M. E. Church. During his stay in Spring- 
field, 111., Mr. Shaw's firm obtained control of 
the first railroad in the State, running from 
Springfield to Meredosia. 

ABEL M. SMITH, fisherman, Beards- 
town; was born near Chillicothe, Ohio, in 
March, 1823, and in October, that year, his 
father, Thomas Smith, moved with his family 
to Illinois, and settled at Naples, in Scott Co., 
then a part of Morgan County. Thomas 
Smith, who was a farmer, died when our sulj- 
ject was about eleven years old. Abel M. 
remained on the farm till he attained his ma- 
jority, and in 1841 went to New Orleans, 
La., where he worked at the plasterer's trade 
three years. In 1847, he went to Cincinnati, 
Ohio, and in June, that year, married Mary 
M. Redding, of that city, and worked at his 
trade there till 1850; then pursued his trade 
in Naples, 111., till 1862, when he abandoned 
plastering, having become crippled by a fall 
which he had received in New Orleans, La. 
He then engaged in fishing, in the Illinois 
River, at Sharp's Landing and vicinity, for 
nine years. In 1873 he came to Beardstown, 
where he has since resided. At Naples, 111., 
that year, he built his family boat, also a fishing 
boat, the former being sixty-five feet long 
and sixteen feet wide, the latter, forty-two 
feet long and sixteen feet wide. For the past 
three years he has been fishing in company 
with George Swan; they employ four men, 
and handle over 100,000 pounds of fish annu- 
ally; their largest catch was taken in Mus- 
cooten Bay, in August, 1878; they dispose of 
their fish in the local markets, and also shio 



to St. Louis, Mo. Mr. Smith has four chil- 
dren — three daughters and one son. 

FRANK H. SPRING, Park House, Beards- 
town; was born in Pike County, 111., in 185G; 
son of Joseph M. and Hannah E. (Fisk) 
Spring'. He began clerking in a drug store 
in N.iples, 111., in 1809; in 1870, he came to 
Beardstown with his parents, and in 1872 en- 
gaged as clerk in C. M. Spring's store, where 
he remained five years. He then kept a drug 
store for two years, then sold out, and became 
clerk for his father, in the Park House, and 
in February, 188:i, bought a half interest in 
that house, which is now conducted under the 
management of Spring Bros. Joseph M. 
Spring, subject's father, was born in Cuyahoga 
County, O., March 4, 1831; he came to Pitts- 
field, Pike Co., 111., in 1830, where, after the 
death of his father, he took charge of the 
family, and worked the farm until 1860. He 
then ran a stage from Pittsfield to Naples, 
about four years; he engaged in the livery 
business about three years in Naples, 111., 
and ran the old Naples House and the 
Strother House until 1870; he was also in the 
hotel business in Warrensburg, Mo., a short 
time. He came to Beardstown in August, 
1870, leased the Park House, which he after- 
ward bought in 1873, and conducted it for ten 
years, and after several changes in the man- 
agement, sold it in February, 1883, to Charles 
M. and Frank H. Spring. It is a first class 
hotel, with forty-five sleeping rooms, five 
sample rooms, three of which are on the first 
floor, and all modern conveniences. Joseph 
M. Spring married, March 2, 1849, Hannah E. 
Fisk, of Maysville, Pike Co., 111.; they have 
had six children: Sylvester Omar, Charles 
Merrick, Frank Howard, Lucy E., wife of H. 
G. Unland, of Beardstown, Elmer Ellsworth, 
and a daughter, deceased. Joseph M. Spring's 
father, Sylvester O. Spring, located in Ohio, 
in 1819, and married Frances Merrick, of 
Pittsfield, Mass.; he died in 1839; she, about 

the year 1865; they had two sons and four 

THEODORE SCHAAR, manufacturer of 
accordeons, Beardstown; is a native of Prussia; 
born Dec. 8, 1845. His father was a manufac- 
turer of accordeons, and at the age of sixteen, 
Theodore began learning the trade with him, 
and worked with him till he was twenty-two 
years old. In 1867, he emigrated to the 
United States, and conducted a shop in St. 
Louis, Mo., two years. In 1869, he returned to 
Europe, and was married in his native town, to 
Johanna Kuehn, in January, 1870; and the 
Franco-Prussian War then breaking out, he 
was obliged to remain in Prussia till 1871. 
He then returned to the United States and 
came to Beardstown, in July, that year, and 

has since been enofasced there in the manu- 
re o 

facture of accordeons, and the repairing of 
all kinds of musical instruments, employing 
at one time five hands, and at present, two, 
the mouldings being manufactured in St. 
Louis, Mo. His instruments find ready sale, 
both wholesale and retail; he manufactures 
on an average, forty-five dozen instruments 

Beardstown; was born in Altenburg, Hesse- 
Darmstadt, Germany, Dec. 10, 1837; and in 
1854, he came to the United States with his 
parents, who settled at Wheeling, W. Va. 
In 1855, he engaged as cabin boy on an Ohio 
River steamboat, and followed that occuj)a- 
tion over two years; he then conducted a 
restaurant in Jacksonville, 111., for five years, 
and in 1862 came to Beardstown, and engag- 
ed in business. In 1864, he opened a grocerj' 
store, which was burned in September, that 
year, but late in the same year he again 
started in business; in 1868, he formed a 
partnership with J. L. Black, with whom he 
continued in business six years, then bought 
out Mr. Black's interest, and has since carried 
on the business alone. He has occupied the 



same site on State street since 1868; the 
building is brick, tvvo stories high, the 
lower story containing a general stock of 
groceries, glass, queensware, wooden and 
willow-ware. In .Jacksonville, 111., in 1859, 
he married Margaret Kelly, of New York. 

ROBERT SCHMOLDT, proprietor of saw- 
mill and lumber dealer, Beardstown; was 
born in the village of Ritsch, Hanover, Ger- 
many, Aug. 2, 1830, the eighth son of a family 
of fourteen children, born to Hermann and 
Margaret (Eilraann) Schmoldt. His father 
was a large land-owner and farmer in Han- 
over. Mr. Schmoldt received a fair educa- 
tion, and assisted in the farm work, his father 
being in feeble health. At nineteen years of 
age he shipped at Hamburg, Germany, as a 
seaman, and sailed for two years between 
Europe and America, making several trips. 
In 1853, he was married by the American 
Consul, at Hamburg, to Johanna Blohm, a 
native of Hanover, and came to the United 
States and located in New York. He sailed 
on a coast schooner during the summer, and 
afterward worked in a sugar refinery. In Ju- 
ly, 1853, he came to Beardstown, where he 
worked at various employments for one or 
two years, then bought eighty acres of wild 
land in Monroe Precinct, this county, which 
he farmed for seven years, with good success, 
and in 18U0 paid a three months' visit, with his 
family, to his native land. From 1863 to 1869, 
he engaged in merchandising in Beardstown; 
then sold out his store and engaged in the mill- 
ing business, buying his present saw-mill on 
Muscooten Bay, of W. Weaver, and has since 
run the mill, buying his logs, which are rafted 
down the river. The mill cuts, on an average, 
four thousand feet daily, and gives employ- 
ment to seven men. He established lumber 
yards on Third street, in 1881. He still owns 
considerable land in this county. He has 
five sons living. 

FIELD SAMPLE, Virginia House, Beards- 

town ; was born near Jacksonville, Morgan 
Co., 111., March 26, 1828, where he lived on a 
farm till 1879. At twenty-one years of age 
he began farming on his own account, which 
occupation he followed till 18'('9, when 
he rented his land and came to Beards- 
town. In addition to farming, he had fol- 
lowed brick-making for eleven years. In 
1879, he and his brother, F. M. Sample, 
bought the furniture and fixtures of the 
Virginia House, which they ran under the 
firm name of Sample Bros., till May, 1883, 
when F. M. retired, leaving Field sole propri- 
etor. Mr. Sample was twice elected Coroner of 
Morgan County, 111., and also served as Deputy 
Sheriff of that county. In 1857, in Morgan 
County, 111., he married Mary, daughter of 
David Ribelin, a farmer of that county. They 
have had six children, four of whom are liv- 
ing. John Sample, the father of our subject, 
was born in Warren County, Ky., about 1797, 
and when fourteen years old, came to Bond 
County, 111., with his parents, who settled 
there. He served in the war of 1812. In 
Bond County, 111., about the year 1816, he 
married Sarah Prewitt, a native of Kentucky, 
and in 1824 he settled on a farm near Jack- 
sonville, where he resided the remainder of 
his life; he died in 1869, aged seventy-two 
years. He served as County Commissioner 
of Morgan County for three years; he was a 
Democrat. Field is the seventh child of a 
family of nine sons and four daughters, of 
which six sons and two daughters are living. 
JOHN W. SEAMAN, farmer; P. O. 
Beardstown ; was born in JeiFerson County, 
Va. (now West Virginia), Sept. 21, 1820; son 
of Joseph J. and Nancy A. (Deaver) Seaman. 
Joseph J. Seaman was born Jan. 19, 1793; fol- 
lowed the occupation of a carpenter and boat 
builder, and died March 19, 1850; his wife is 
also deceased; they had two children: Isaac 
and John W. Mr. Seaman received but a 
limited education, attending school a short 



time at Beardstown and Rushville. He first 
worked as a carpenter in Springfield, 111., for 
some time; afterward engaged in the livery 
business in Beardstown for nine years, and 
has since followed farming in this county. In 
Beardstown, Nov. 9, 1848, he married Mary 
E. Thompson; born Jan. 14, 18'28, daughter 
of George B. and Hannah Thompson. By 
this union they have been blessed with the 
following children: Anna, Harriet (deceased), 
John W., Hannah, Cora B., Frank (deceased), 
Charles (deceased), George W., Frederick 
and Bertha. Mr. Seaman is a member of Ark 
Lodge, No. 23, A. F. and A. M., in Beards- 
town; he was a Constable for some time; was 
Road Supei-visor, School Director and School 
Trustee from 1874 to 1879; he is a Democrat. 

Z. T. SMITH, surgeon dentist, Beardstown; 
was born in Hart County, Ky., May 16, 1849, 
and being left an orphan when very young, 
was taken by his sister to her home in Clay 
County, Mo., where he lived till he was six- 
teen years of age, and received a good educa- 
tion in the William Jewell College. He then 
went to Virden, Macoupin Co., 111., where he 
studied dentistry, with Dr. G. W. Dillon, 
about three years. In 1869, he came to 
Beardstown, where he has since practiced 
dentistry, with the exception of the years 
1871-3. For the past ten years he has been 
located on State street. 

RICHARD TINK, farmer; P. O. Beards- 
town; is a native of Cornwall, England; born 
Sept. 33, 1834; son of Samuel and Catharine 
(Mutton) Tink, also natives of Cornwall, Eng- 
land, and both still living. Samuel Tink, a 
farmer, was born March 4, 1797; his wife was 
born in 1807; they are the parents of ten 
children. Richard received his education in 
the schools of his native country, and began 
life as a farmer, and has remained in that oc- 
cupation ever since on the place where he 
now resides. In Beardstown, this county, 
Nov. 14, 1861, he married Mary Mutton, a na- 

tive of Cornwall, England, daughter of Will- 
iam and Elizabeth Mutton; three children 
have been born from this union: Edmund S., 
Richard G., and Cora E. Mr. Tink is con- 
nected with the M. E. Church; he is a mem- 
ber of Ark Lodge, No. 33, A. F & A. M., and 
also of the I. 0. O. F., in Beardstown; is a 
Republican; has been School Director during 
the years 1877-78-79, and has been Super- 
visor of Roads some time. 

DAVID P. TREADWAY, farmer; P. O. 
Beardstown; was born in this county, July 36, 
1845; son of Lawson H. and Catharine J. 
(Pittner) Treadway. Lawson H. Treadway 
was a native of Maryland; born March 21, 
1816; he followed the occupation of a farmer, 
and died in November, 1868; his wife, born 
in Tennessee, Dec. 23, 1814, is still living; 
they had five children. David P. receiv- 
ed his education mainly in this precinct; 
also attended the schools at Concord and 
Beardstown, and has always been a farmer. 
During the late war he served one year and 
eight months in the Fourteenth 111. Infan- 
try, under General Howard, his company 
being commanded by Capt. Gillespie. He 
was married in Beardstown, Nov. 20, 1867, to 
Mary H. Chalfant, born in Beardstown, Aug. 
14, 1849, who has borne him five children: 
Lucia v., Anna L., Harry C, Walter A. and 
Edgar V. Mrs. Treadway is a daughter of 
Thomas .1. and Ann E. Chalfant, natives of 
Wheeling, W. Va.; he was born March 5, 
1823, and she was born Nov. 33, 1829. Mr. 
Treadway is a Republican; is now School 
Trustee, and has been School Director several 
years; his wife is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

LEWIS TREADWAY, Central Hotel, 
Beardstown; was born near Monroe, in this 
county, March 3, 1837, and came to Beardstown 
with his parents in 1843. His father, John 
Treadway, was a native of Maryland, and a 
cooper by trade, with whom the son learned 



that trade, and at which he (our subject) worked 
until 18G4, running a shop of his own for four 
years in Beardstown, after which he engaged 
in merchandising for thirteen years, traveling 
for a house in Peoria two years. In 1874 he 
bought the old Palmer House, which he ran 
five years, when it was destroyed by fire. He 
built the present Central Hotel on its site, 
which contains twenty-one large rooms for 
guests, a sample room and all modern conveni- 
ences. The father and three uncles of our sub- 
ject were in the war of 1812. In December, 
18:^2, the father married Miss Rebecca Mc- 
Kane, of Hamilton, Ohio, who bore her hus- 
band eleven children. The old couple are 
still living, he, in his eighty-seventh, and she, 
in her eighty-second year. 

SETH J. THOMPSON, Beardstown Ferry, 
Beardstown; is a native of this county; born 
in Monroe Precinct, June 8, 1840. George B. 
Thompson, subject's father, was born in 
Orange County, N. Y., Sept. 23, 1800, and 
married in New York, Hannah Beers, who 
bore him four sons and two daughters. He 
came to Monroe Precinct in 1839, moved from 
his farm there in 1812, and after various 
changes of location and occupation, he and 
his son went, in 1850, via the overland route, 
to California and Oregon, remaining twenty- 
one months, and returned via Nicaragua and 
New Orleans, staying ten days in Havana, 
Cuba, during the Walker Expedition. He 
run the Beardstown ferry from 1852 to 1858, 
then engaged in the grocery business till 1863, 
our subject assisting in the forwarding and 
commission business, and afterward engaged in 
glass and queensvvare business several years, 
and also in farming three years; he died June 
2, 1872. Our subject enlisted Oct. 18, 1861, 
in Co. G, 32d 111. Volunteer Infantry, and 
served three years in the Army of the Ten- 
nessee; was first duty Sergeant, and was mus- 
tered out near Rome, Ga., Oct. 24, 1864. He 
participated in the battle of Shiloh, the sieges 

of Corinth and Vicksburg, and the Meridian 
Raid. After his return from the war, he 
worked awhile on the Beardstown Ferry, af- 
terward, in company with Luther A. Jones, 
ran it for five and one-half years, then, in 
company with John W. Seaman, for two years, 
and, from 1873 to July, 1881, ran it in compa- 
ny with John Rohn, he having bought Sea- 
man's interest; since that time it has been 
controlled by Thompson & Co. Mr. Thomp- 
son was licensed as pilot and captain on the 
river from St. Louis to La Salle in 1872, and 
has run, almost every season since, on various 
steamboats. He married, Dec. 7, 1860, Addie 
Rahn, of Beardstown. 

P. O., Beardstown; is a nafive of Ohio; born 
Feb. 23, 1825, son of Edward and Elizabeth 
(Anderson) Treadway, natives of Maryland, 
and parents of seven children. Subject's 
father, who was a farmer by occupation, was 
born in 1783, and died in 1858. Edward N. 
received his education in Monroe Precinct, 
this county, and has since followed farming 
here. He married, Dec. 2, 1851, Louisa J. 
Sallee, who died, Nov. 8, 1867, leaving three 
children: Elizabeth J., NorrisA., and Edward 
L. On March 27, 1860, he married his pres- 
ent" wife, Sarah F. Phelps, born in Septem- 
ber, 1841, daughter of William and Martha 
A. Phelps, and from this marriage ten chil- 
dren have been born: Louisa E., Caroline B., 
Martha A., William Henry, Sarah F., Edward 
N., Hans A., Margaret, Annie G., and an in- 
fant, unnamed. Mr. Treadway is a Democrat, 
a member of Lodge No. 16, I. O. O. F., in 
Beardstown, and is connected with the M. E. 

JOHN W. THOMPSON, farmer; P. O. 
Beardstown; was born in Lancashire, Eng- 
land, in 1827; only child of Thomas and Mary 
Thompson, natives of England; he, a carpen- 
ter by trade, deceased; she, died in this coun- 
ty in 1842. Mr. Thompson received his edu- 


cation in England, where he afterward work- 
ed in a cotton factory. In 18J:3 he came to 
this country, where he has since followed 
farming. He is one of the most prominent 
farmers of this county, where he owns 612 
acres of land; the somewhat famous "Clear 
Lake," of this county, is mostly owned by him. 
He is a member of the M. E. Church; was 
School Trustee in 1863-4; he is a Democrat. 
HENRY G. UNLAND, merchant, Beards- 
town; was born in Hanover, Germany, April 
14, 1844, and in the spring of the following 
year was brought to this country by his par- 
ents, who settled on a farm in Arenzville 
Precinct, this county, his father entering a 
large tract of wild prairie land there. Mr. 
Unland lived on the farm till he attained his 
majority, then attended the Central Wesley- 
an University, at Warrenton, Mo., for two 
years, afterward was clerk in the general 
store of Leonard Bros., Beardstown, for two 
years, then clerk for Kuhl Bros, about two 
years. In 1872, he became a partner in the 
firm of J. H. Pieper & Co., remaining iu 
that firm until 1874, when he engaged in 
business on his own account, on the corner of 
Main and State streets. After conducting 
the store for a time himself, the management 
became H. G. Unland & Bros., and since 
1877 C. H. Unland has managed the business, 
which has, since February, 1880, been carried 
on in the Seeger Block, the corner room 
being devoted to groceries and drugs, our sub- 
ject having charge of the grocery department. 
In Beardstown, in November, 1873, Mr. Un- 
land married Lucy E., daughter of Joseph M. 
Spring, of Beardstown. Casper H. Unland, 
Dur subject's father, was born in the city of 
Osnabruck, in Hanover, Germany, Sept. 29, 
1808, and followed farming in his native 
country. In January, 1845, he landed in 
New Orleans, La., having left Europe Oct. 4, 
1844. He settled on 100 acres of land near 
Bluff Springs, this county, and engaged in 

farming there five years. He then sold that 
farm and bought two hundred acres of land 
in Arenzville Precinct, this county, which he 
still owns, and where he lived until 1876, with 
the exception of three years, during which he 
resided in Beardstown, in order to give his 
children an education, then moving back to 
his farm, a school house having been built in 
the vicinity, of which he was Director for 
some years. He owns the general store in 
Beardstown managed by his three sons; he 
also has three hundred and sixty acres of land 
in Arenzville Precinct. In October, 1829, he 
married Mary Carls, also a native of Osna- 
bruck, Hanover. Of their eleven children, 
eight were born in Europe, and three in this 
country. Nine children are living, eight 
sons and one daughter. 

town; is a native of this county: born near 
Bluff Springs, in July, 1846, and was raised 
on a farm. He attended the Beardstown 
schools four years, Quincy College one year, 
and four years at the Wesleyan College at 
Warrenton, Mo. In 1869 he began the 
study of medicine with Drs. Smith and Cook, 
of Quincy, 111., and in 1870 entered the St. 
Louis Homeopathic College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, where he took a course of lectures, 
and completed his studies in the Hahnemann 
Medical College, Chicago, from which he 
graduated in the spring of 1871. He then 
practiced for a year in Pittsfield, 111., and in 
the spring of 1872 went to Europe, and con- 
tinued his medical studies in the universities 
of Berlin and Vienna for over a year, and on 
his return, in 1873, located at Quincy, III. 
He remained there but a short time, then 
moved to Lincoln, Neb., where he remained 
two years; afterward spent about two years 
in Pekin, III., and in March, 1880, came to 
Beardstown where he has since been en- 
gaged in the drug business in connection 
with the practice of his profession. 



HERMAN H. UNLAND, merchant, 
Beardstown; was born in what is now Monroe 
Precinct, this county, May 12, 1848. At 
eighteen years of age he entered the Central 
Wesleyan University, of Warrenton, Mo., 
where he spent three years, 1867-70, then en- 
tered the Northwestern University at Evans- 
ton, 111., from which he graduated in June, 

1875. In the fall of that year he became prin- 
cipal of the High School at Pekin, 111., which 
position he held for a year; and in the fall of 

1876, became a member of the firm of H. G. 
Unland & Bros., which carried on business for 
a year under that name. He then engaged 
with C. H. Unland, and since 1880 has had 
charge of the dry goods department of his 
store. In 1876, he married Emma Smith, of 
Will County, 111.; they have two children. 

JOHN H. UNLAND, farmer; P.O., Beards- 
town; is a native of Germany; born July 30, 
1833; son of Casper H. and Mary (Carls) 
Unland, natives of Germany; he, still living, 
a farmer by occupation, born in 1808 ; she, 
born in 1811; parents of thirteen children. 
John H. attended school in Weimar, Ger- 
many, three years, and also about one year 
here, and began farming in this county, and 
has ever since followed that occupation. He 
married, in this county, Nov. 19, 1857, Eliza- 
beth Christianer, born in Germany, in 1830, 
daughter of Jost H. and Angel Christianer; 
they have had nine children: George H., Lu- 
cinda, Mary, Henrietta, Frank J., Henry W., 
William F., Louis (deceased), and an infant, 
(deceased). Mr. Unland is a Republican, and 
a member of the M. E. Church. 

JOSEPH WEAVER, contractor and brick- 
layer, Beardstown; was born in Putnam Coun- 
ty, Ind., Oct. 22, 1832. George W. Weaver, 
subject's father, was born in Fluvanna Countj^, 
Va., and moved to Kentucky when a boy; 
in 1833 he came with his family to this 
county, then Morgan County, settling on a 
farm in Jersey Prairie, where he lived for 

many years; he also lived several years in 
Virginia, this county, where he was engaged in 
brickmaking; he built the Virginia Seminary. 
He came to Beardstown about the year 1850, 
where he engaged in the milling and lumber 
business about fifteen years. He served one 
term as County Judge of this county, some 
time between 1840 and 1850, and was Mayor 
of Beardstown for three terms. He retired 
from business life several years before his 
death, which occurred March 8, 1881, he being 
then in his seventy-seventh year. His wife, 
Martha Carver, bore him twelve children, of 
whom three sons and four daughters are liv- 
ing, Joseph being the eldest living son. Our 
subject learned the trades of bricklaying 
and brickmaking with his father, and took bis 
first contract in Beardstown, in 1856, and has 
since been contractor and foreman on brick 
work there, with the exception of four years, 
which he spent in Hancock County, 111. In 
Beardstown, in April, 1862, he married Mary 
Collins, daughter of Edward and Thalia 
(Beard) Collins. Edward Collins was born in 
Enfield, Ct., in 1797, and in 1836 moved with 
his family to a farm in Beardstown Precinct, 
this county, where he farmed until about 
twelve years before his death, spending his 
last years in Beardstown; he died in 1803; 
his wife died in 1860. He came to Beards- 
town from Ohio in 1832. 

SAMUEL WORTMAN, blacksmith, BlufiF 
Springs; was born in Rush County, Ind., May 
16, 1829. His parents. Smith W. and Mary 
(Wagoner) Wortman, both died in 1859; his 
father was a native of North Carolina; his 
mother of Bourbon County, Ky.; they had six 
children, five boys and one girl. Samuel re- 
ceived but a limited education, attending 
school in Rush and Shelby Counties, Ind. He 
worked at the blacksmith's trade in Sangamon 
County, 111., about a year, then came to this 
county, where he has since remained, and 
where he was married, Oct. 17, 1852, to Es- 



ther Taylor, a native of this county, born 
April 16, 1833, daughter of John and Mary 
Taylor; he, still living, she, deceased. By 
this union seven children have been born: 
Eliza J., Amos (deceased). Levy (deceased), 
Francis M., Ann E. (deceased), Marvin T. and 
Alice L. Mr. Wortnian is a Democrat; his 
wife is a member of the M. E. Church. 

HENRY WITTE, farmer; R O. Beards- 
town; is a native of Prussia; born Aug. !J, 
IS'Zi; son of Frederick W. and MenaO. (Esa- 
raann) Witte; he, a farmer by occupation, 
died in Beardstown, in 1870, where his wife 
also died, in 1868; they were the parents of 
nine children. Henry received a good educa- 
tion, having attended the schools of Germany 
seven years; he engaged in railroading, and, 
also served two years as a soldier in Prussia, 
in the loth Regiment of Volunteers, under 
Capt. August Menkoff. He has since follow- 
ed farming. In Beardstown, this county, 
April 3, 1856, he married Mena Vette, born 
in Prussia, April 2, 18o-±, daughter of Freder- 
ick and Crystal Vette, and from this union 
eight children have been born: Henry W., 
Caroline (deceased). Bertha, Anna, Maria, 
Louise, Edward (deceased) and Mena. Mr. 
Witte is a member of the Lutheran Church; 
he is a Republican. 

REV. W. WEIGAND, Beardstown; was 
born in Zanesville, O., in April, 1852; son of 
John and Elizabeth Weigand. In 1854 his 
parents moved to Mt. Sterling, Brown Co., 
111., where our subject lived till he was fifteen 
years of age, when he entered upon his pre- 
paratory course at St. Francis' Seminary, Mil- 
waukee, Wis., and completed the course at St. 
Joseph's Ecclesiastical College, at Teutopolis, 
111., in 1873. In 1875, he entered Mt. St. 
Mary's Theological Seminary, Cincinnati, 0.> 
from which he graduated in the spring of 1878, 
receiving the major and minor orders, and 
that of Deacon, from Archbishop Purcell, of 
Cincinnati, O. He was ordained to the priest- 

hood, Nov. 10, 1878, by Bishop Baltes, of 
Alton, III., and in December of the same year 
was established Rector of St. Alexius Church, 
of Beardstown, where he has since oiBciated; 
has established a parish school, and freed the 
church from debt. 

DAVID WAGNER, farmer, P. O., Beards- 
town; was born in Monroe County, O., July 
26, 1823, and is the only surviving child of a 
family of seven children, born to John and Je- 
mima (Carr) Wagner. John Wagner, who 
was a blacksmith, and also a sickle, scythe and 
axe maker, was born in Pennsylvania, in 179-1; 
his wife was a native of Monroe County, O. 
Mr. Wagner attended school but little, but 
being an extensive reader, stored his mina 
with useful information. He early engaged 
in farming, which occupation he still follows. 
He has been twice married. His first wife, 
Sarah E. Blake, whom he married March 8, 
1849, bore him four children: John, Sarah J., 
William, and Rufus; the latter deceased. His 
present wife, whose maiden name was Eliza 
J. Brown, is a native of Ohio, and daughter 
of John and Polly Brown; from this second 
marriage six children have been born: Mary 
Ann (deceased), Adeline, Fannie, Fratiklin, 
Charles, and Ida. Mr. Wagner was formerly 
a Whig, and is now a Republican; he was for 
several j'ears Road Supervisor, and also School 

DR. DAVJD WHITNEY, retired dentist, 
Beardstown; was born in Franklin County, 
Mass., Jan. 29, 1803, and was educated in 
Conway, his native town. At twenty-two 
years of age, he began the study of medicine, 
and graduated from the Pittsfield College, in 
1831. In 1832, he removed to western New 
York, practiced his profession six years, and 
then moved to Indiana, where, his health fail- 
ing, he relinquished medicine partly, and 
practiced dentistry till 1856, when he remov- 
ed to Beardstown, where he has since remain- 
ed, having practiced dentistry for twenty 



years; during the last six years, however, he 
has retired from active practice. In 1826, he 
married Miss Elizabeth S. Granger, of North 
Hadley, Mass., and seven children v?ere born 
to them, three of vehom are dead. Those liv- 
ing are: Cornelia, Mrs. Wallsworth, Ellen, 
Benjamin R., civil engineer, David V., physi- 
cian. For many years Mrs. Whitney has made 
a study of geology and archaeology, and has 
one of the finest collections of fossils and 
prehistoric implements in the State. The 
Doctor is a Baptist, and Mrs. Whitney is a 
Congregation alist. 

HENRY B. WILSON, grain merchant, 
Bijardstown; was born in Bertie County, N. 
C, Sept. 3, 1829, and is the eldest of a family 
of eleven children, born to James D. and 
Sallie (Mizell) Wilson. James D. Wilson was 
born in North Carolina, Jan. 9, 1806; he was 
a cooper by trade; and in 1851 settled on a 
farm in Arenzville Precinct, this county, 
where he died in 1857; he was married in 
October, 1838, to Sallie Mizell, who died in 
February, 1881, age 73 years; of their eleven 
children all are living, save one son. Mr. 
Wilson learned the cooper's trade with bis 
father, and worked at it in his native State; 
after his father's death he worked the farm 
until 1860; he then came to Beardstown, and 
after clerking a short time there for Mr. 
Seeger, bought out his stock, which he sold 
in 1863, and then was employed by different 
firms as salesman, until 1870. In that year 
he entered into partnership with John R. 
Dutch, in company with whom he carried on 
a general merchandising and grain business, 
until the fall of 1874, when their store, stock 
and warehouse were burned, entailing a 
of $35,000. Mr. Wilson then engaged in 
the grain business, and in 1878, became a 
member of the firm of Garm, Wilson & Co., 
who bought the steamboat " Maggie P," and 
barges, carrying on an extensive grain busi- 
ness until the s[)ring of 1882 when thov so'd 

the steamboat. They have warehouses at 
Beardstown, Bluff Springs, West Point and 
Bath, and have leased others on the Illinois 
River. In 1861, Mr. Wilson married Angel- 
ine, daughter of G. H. Seeger, of Beardstown; 
they have had seven children, of whom two 
sons and two daughters are living. 

THEODORE WILKINS, deceased; was 
born in the city of Berlin, Germany, Dec. 13, 
1830; his father was a major in the Prussian 
army. Mr. Wilkins completed a college 
course, and at the age of seventeen entered 
the army as a private soldier; he passed his 
examination at the end of three months, and, 
after attending an artillery and engineer's 
school at Berlin, received a lieutenant's com- 
mission, and served until 1847, when he re- 
signed. He then came to the United States, 
and settled near Washington, Franklin Co., 
Mo., where he engaged in farming, and where, 
in 1849, he married Matilda Manlinckrodt, 
who died in 1853, leaving one son, Paul, a 
teacher in St. Louis, ilo.; she was a daughter 
of Julius Manlinckrodt. In 1855, he married 
Bertha Setzer; her father emigrated from 
Hamburg, Germany, and settled at Hermann, 
Mo., in 1837, she being then a child of nine 
years. In 1858, Mr. Wilkins moved to St. 
Louis, Mo., having previously sold his farm, 
antl been engaged in the drug business in 
Washington, Mo. He was a Collector in St. 
Louis until the breaking out of the late war, 
when, in April, 1861, he was elected Captain 
of a Home Guard Company, afterward serving 
in the Second Missouri Artillery three years 
as major, being in active service at the cap- 
ture of Camp Jackson, at Carthage, and other 
points. After the war he was Assessor in St. 
Louis, Mo., until 1868, when he came to 
Beardstown. Here he engaged as Secretary 
of the Illinois Insurance Company, and was 
afterward Cashier of the Cass County Bank 
until 1878, when he resigned that position, 
and became editor of the Beardstown Wochen- 



blatt, a German paper, which he edited until 
the time of his death, which occurred May 11, 
1881. By his last marriage seven children 
were born, four of whom are living, two sons 
and two daughters. 

GEORGE WAGNER, farmer, P. O., Bluff 
Spring!); is a native of Germany; born Dec. 
14, 1825; son of Theodore and Elizabeth (An- 
dreas) Wagner; he, a piano maker by trade; 
she, died in 1837. Mr. Wagner attended 
school for eight years in his native country, 
where he began life as a farmer; he served 
two years in the 3d Regiment of Prussia — a 
Hessian regiment — under Captain Otto. He 
came to this county in 1850, where he has 
since been engaged in farming. In Beards- 
town, in 1851, he married Mary Derr, a native 
of Germany, born Nov. 11, 1825, who bore 
him live children: John, Theodore, George, 
Elizabeth, and Mary. In 1864, he married 
Catharine Deitrick, also a native of Germany, 
born in 1835, and by this marriage six chil- 
dren have been born: Emil, Harry L., Rosa, 
Edward, Lydia, and Anna Eliza. His step- 
daughter, Mary Webel, eighteen years of age, 
resides with him. He is a Republican. 

JOHN H. WEDEKING, cigar manufact- 
urer, Beardstown; is a native of Beardstown; 
born May 11, 1844; son of Frederick Wede- 
king, a native of Germany, who came to 
Beardstown in 1833, and finally settled on a 
farm in Arenzville Precinct, this county, in 
1844, where he still resides, aged seventy-three 
years. John H. received an ordinary educa- 
tion, and remained on the farm till 1802, when 
he enlisted in Co. A, 114th Ills. Volunteer 
Infantry, and during his term of service par- 
ticipated in the battles of Jackson, Miss., and 
Vicksburg, and again at Jackson, Jliss. At 
the latter place, July 16, 1803, he received a 
gunshot wound, which necessitated the ampu- 
tation of his leg at the thigh; he lay in Mem- 
phis Hospital till May, 1804, and was mustered 
out that year at Jefferson Barracks. On his 

return to Beardstown, he began learning the 
trade of cigar making, at which he served two 
years. In 1866, he oj)ened a cigar factory at 
Lincoln, Logan County, 111., where he carried 
on business one and a half years, then returned 
to Beardstown, and for six years worked for 
John Limberger. In 1880, he opened his 
present cigar factory, No. 36 Fourth District 
of Illinois, and has since carried on business 
here; he employs three men, and manufact- 
ures about 200,000 cigars annuallj-, making 
four brands. In 1866 he married Helena 
Tembick, of Beardstown. 

JOHN WEBB, retired from business; 
Beardstown; was born near Manchester, 
England, Dec. 9, 1813, and came to the 
United States with his parents in 1818, who 
settled in Baltimore, Md. He learned the 
trade of a machinest, and afterward worked 
in the shops of the B. & O. R. R. Co. He 
worked upon marine engines, and for the 
Savage Manufacturing Company, till 1838, in 
which year he went to Springfield, 111., and 
from there to Petersburg. In 1844, he came 
to Cass County, and started a shop about 
three miles from Virginia, for the manufac- 
ture of Page's portable circular saws, but his 
business increased to such an extent that he 
was compelled to seek better facilities, and he 
moved to Beardstown, where he erected a 
foundry and machine shop, running the same 
till 1850, when his works were burned out, 
with a loss of $17,000; no insurance. He re- 
built, however, and continued the business 
until 1806, when he sold to Ebaugh & Quin- 
lan. He afterward went into the manufacture 
of wagons, which he continued till 1875, 
when he retired, leaving the business in the 
hands of his sou and son-in-law. He mar- 
ried in Baltimore, in 1834, Miss Eliza A. 

W. B. WILLIAMS, farmer; P. O., Bluff 
Springs; is a native of North Carolina; born 
Jan. 0, 1848. His parents, W. A. and Mar- 


garet (Thomas) Williams, are both still living, 
and have had five children; his father, who is 
also a native of North Carolina, and a farmer 
by occupation, was born Jan. 8, 1818. Mr. 
Williams received but a limited education in 
the schools of his precinct, attending school 
but a short time, and has always been a 
farmer. For the past three years he has been 
the keeper of the poor-farm. In Beardstown, 
Aug. 8, 1873, he married Mary J. Heatoii, a 
native of England; born May 15, 1850, who 
bore him two children, John E. and William 
H. Mrs. Williams died March 1,1881; she 
was a daughter of John and Mary Jane Hea- 
ton, who now reside in Virginia, this county. 
His second wife, whom he married July 28, 
1881, is Anna Gough. 

CHARLES E. WYMAN, attorney at law, 
Beardstown; was born in Roxbury, Mass., in 
May, 1852, and at the age of four years came 
West with his parents, who settled on a farm 
in Ford County, 111., where he remained till 
he was eighteen years of age. He then be- 
gan the study of law with his brother Gilbert, 
in Chatsworth, 111., and in connection with 
his law studies engaged in teaching school 
and in other pursuits for three years. He was 

admitted to the bar at the session of the Su- 
preme Court held in Ottawa, 111., in Septem- 
ber, ]8r5, and after practicing a year in Gil- 
man, 111., came to Beardstown in the fall of 
1876, where he has since resided, enjoying a 
good practice in this and adjoining counties. 
He is now serving his third term as City At- 
torney of Beardstown. In 1877, he married 
Maggie, daughter of John Fidler, of Beards- 

HENRY WINHOLD, farmer; P. O. Bluff 
Springs ; is a native of this county ; born 
May 7, 1843; son of William and Barbara 
(Weber) Winhold, natives of Hessen, Ger- 
many. William Winhold was born Feb. 1, 
1809, and is a farmer by occupation. He 
came to this country in 18 5, landing in Bal- 
timore, Md., August 28, that year, and settled 
in Pennsylvania, where he remained nearly 
seven years; and in 1811, came to this count}'. 
His wife, who was horn in 1805, is also living. 
They are the parents of seven children: two 
boys, and five girls. Mr. Winhold received 
his education in the schools of this county, 
and began life as a farmer, which occupation 
he has ever since followed in this county. He 
is a Republican. 










THOMAS AINSWORTH, capitalist ; 
Chandlerville. Among the most active, up- 
right and liighly respected citizens of Cass 
County, who have achieved success by their 
own indomitable energies, rather than by any 
outside aid, is the subject of this sketch. 
His record is that of hundreds of others of 
the self made, self reliant men, to be met 
with in the every-day walks of life, and his 
career has been marked with the varied ex- 
periences common to all of the class referred 
to. Mr. Ain^worth is a native of Lancashire, 
England, having been born Jan. 30, 1814, to 
Thomas and Sarah (Townley) Ainsworth, both 
natives of England. He was denied the 
privilege of attaining other than a limited 
mental culture in youth; but his was an en- 
ergy that was not easily thwarted by obstacles, 
and by dint of his own perseverance, he suc- 
ceeded in gaining a fair business education; 
nor was he more fortunate in this world's 
goods. Standing on the threshold of his 
young manhood, he could easily count the 
dollars that were his upon the fingers of his 
hand. His had ever been a cradle rocked by 
the hand of adversity ; but his heart was 
strong, his courage great, his energy remarka- 
ble; and lured by hope, he pressed steadily 
forward, placing his trust in Him who heareth 
ever the cry of the raven, and who has prom- 
ised to reward the faithful worker. His early 
life was spent at home, and at an early age 
learned to earn his own livelihood in a cot- 
ton factory, where his father was also em- 
ployed. At the age of twenty-eight years he 
bade his home and native country farewell. 
He emigrated to America in 1843, and the 
same year moved to Illinois, settling in Mason 
County, where he entered eighty acres of 

wild prairie land, and remained on the samo 
for thirty-five years, and during that time saw 
this country ilevelop from a wilderness to its 
present highly cultivated condition. In 1876 
he erected, from his own designs, a neat and 
commodious residence in the stirring little 
town of Chandlerville, and moved to the same 
in the spring of 1877, where he may now be 
found, surrounded with those comforts, and 
enjoying those pleasures that are ever the re- 
sult of honesty, industry and economy. Mr. 
Ainsworth is one of the largest stockholders 
of the Valley National Bank of St. Louis, is 
largely interested in Colorado mines, and is 
the owner of over two thousand acres of the 
best land of Illinois. His marriage occurred 
in 1837, to Miss Maria Abbott, a native of 
Lancashire, England, born in November, 1814. 
The result of this union was ten children, of 
whom seven are now living: Nancy, the wife 
of Agustine Witt, a wholesale merchant of 
Decatur; William Henry, a prominent mer- 
chant of Rood House, III.; Alice, the wife of 
William Casey, a retired farmer, of Centralia, 
111.; Thomas T., a farmer of Mason County; 
Sarah E., wife of George Ransome, a farmer of 
Mason County; Mary A., wife of Thomas Saye 
furniture dealer, of Chandlerville, and Jo- 
seph, who is farming upon the old homestead 
farm, in Mason County. Among his children 
Mr. Ainsworth has divided over $80,000 
worth of property. He and wife are con- 
nected with the Congregational Church. He 
was formerly an old line Whig, but is now a 
Republican. He has never taken part in po- 
litical demonstrations, but evidently takes 
quite as much interest in what he has not 
done, as in that which he actually has accom- 



FRIEDRICH BRAUER, retired farmer; 
P. O. Chandlerville. Hanover, formerly a 
State of the German Confederation, situated 
in Northwestern Germany, has furnished a 
larger proportion of solid, substantial, thrifty 
emigrants to America, perhaps, than any por- 
tion of country of equal size on the continent. 
Of the number referred to belongs the sub- 
ject of this sketch, who was born in Hanover, 
May 10, 1822. Here were his parents also 
born. Notwithstanding the beauties in na- 
ture, art, science and literature, that charac- 
terize the "German Fatherland," the great 
Republic that has sprung into existence 
vpithin the last century in North America, 
has presented quite enough in attractions to 
seduce many thousands of Germans to our 
shores, where, to their honor, be it said, they 
contributed largely by their industry and 
thrift, to the material wealth of the country 
of their adoption. Christ. Brauer, the father 
of the subject of this memoir, set sail for this 
country, with his family, in 1842, landing at 
New Orleans. From this point he embarked 
by water for Beardstown, 111., where he re- 
mained two months looking for a suitable 
farm, -which he found, and purchased of Wil- 
liam Taylor, three miles north of Arenzville. 
Here Mr. Brauer died in the spring of 18-13 ; 
his wife surviving his death until 1853. In 
1853, previous to the death of his mother, 
Mr. Brauer sold the homestead farm, and 
bought two hundred acres of land about one 
mile north of Arenzville, where he remained 
for thirteen years, when he sold it, and bought 
of John Fielding, in Sangamon Bottom, 280 
acres of land. In 1880, he rented his farms, 
bought a handsome residence in Chandler- 
ville, and removed to it the same year, it 
being his desire to retire from active labor 
and enjoy the fruits of his past labors. As a 
business man Mr. Brauer has been very suc- 
cessful. He now owns 1,000 acres of splen- 
did farmitig land, as good as is to be found in 

this part of Illinois. Mr. Brauer was married 
in Cass County in 1817, to Miss Elizabeth 
Brunker, a native of Germany. The result 
of this union was twelve children, of whom 
five are now living: Mary, widow of .lohn 
Ackerman; Lewis, a farmer of Christian 
County, who married Miss Lizzie Bloone, of 
Menard County; Lizzie, the wife of Epha- 
mire Henry, a farmer of Christian County; 
Hannah, wife of Charles Grape, a farmer of 
Christian County; and Minnie, at home with 
her parents. Mr. Brauer and wife, are mem- 
bers of the German Lutheran Church. In the 
life of our subject we have demonstrated 
s(ime of the possibilities of human energy 
and perserverance in overcoming difficulties. 
We have seen him launched out in life empty 
handed, battling with poverty, with a family 
to support, steadily gaining and increasing 
his possessions, until to-day he looks out on 
his fine farms, covered with a rich harvest, 
ready for the reaper, and furnished with all 
conveniences of well ordered and improved 

lerville ; was born in Troop Co., Georgia, 
June 6, 1836, to William and Martha E. 
(Bradford) Boone; born in South Carolina in 
180G; farmer; and died in Mississippi in 1855; 
bis wife, the mother of our subject, was 
born in South Carolina in 1808, and is now 
residing in Oxford, Mississippi. She is the 
mother of ten children; five of whom are 
living; of whom the Doctor was the third. 
When but six years old he was removed by 
his parents to Alabama, and at the age of 
nine to Oxford, Mississippi. His literary ed- 
ucation was received at the Oxford Univer- 
sity, after which he entered the Nashville 
Medical College, in 1854, and graduated 
March 4, 18G0, when he began the practice 
of his profession at Pine Bluff, Arkansas; and 
in 1864 removed to Chandlerville, 111., his 
present residence, where he has a large and 



increasing practice, and socially enjoys the 
highest esteem. In IStJl, in Arkansas, he 
married Miss Julia (J. Blackwell, a native of 
Georgia. She died in 1867, aged twenty-six 
j'ears, and was the mother of two children, 
James and Howard N., both dead. In Sep- 
tember, 1S?0, in Menard County, 111., he mar- 
ried' Miss Harriet Coddington, a native of 
Menard County, 111.; born in November, 
1837. She is the mother of two children, 
both of whom are dead. Politically, Dr. 
Boone is identified with the Democratic party. 
ALBERT BUCK, merchant; Ciiandler- 
ville ; was born in this county. June 10, 
ISiO ; son of Jasper and Sophia Buck ; he, 
born Dec. 17, 1702, and died March 1, 1841 ; 
she, born April 26, 1797, and died Dec. 37, 
1866. They were the parents of thirteen 
children, seven of whom are now living : 
Thomas C, born July 4, 1815, died Dec. 5, 
1875 ; Charleton, born June 28, 1817, died 
Aug. 6, 1856 ; Sarah (Conrad) Reinning, 
born July 31, 1819, living in Arenzville Pre- 
cinct ; Martha, widow of Michael Buxton, 
born Aug 29, 1821 ; Margaret, May 7, 1824, 
died Oct. 8, 1831 ; Elizabeth and James, 
twins, born Nov. 14, 1827 ; James died in in- 
fancy, and Elizabeth married Richard L. 
Davis ; James H., born Jan. 30, 1830, died 
May 6, 1857 ; John H., born March 27, 1832; 
Stephen D., born July 14, 1834 ; Jasper J., 
born Oct. 15, 1836 ; Mary, wife of Mathew 
Bowyer, born July 20, 1838, died April 2, 
1880 ; and Albert, the subject of this sketch. 
Jasper, with two brothers, John and Stephen, 
came from Bertie County, N. C, between 
the years 1825 and 1830, and settling in what 
is now known as Arenzville Precinct. Jas- 
per was a man highly respected in his day, 
and filled the position of Justice of the Peace. 
Albert, being the youngest, remained on the 
farm with his mother, until the breaking out 
of the late war, when he, in August, 1SG2, 
volunteered in Company K, 101st Illinois 

Infantry, serving until the close of the war, 
at which time, 1805, he began farming on the 
home place. June 9, 1868, he was married 
to Miss Sarah Naomi Stanley, by whom he has 
had two children : Sarah Ellen, born April 3, 
1869 ; and Chas. Oliver, born April 29, 1870. 
He continued farming until February, 18? 2, 
when he met with an accident that disabled 
him from farm duty ; when he moved to 
Arenzville in 1873, and opened a grocery 
store. He was elected Justice of the Peace. 
In the fall of 1875 he sold out his business in 
Arenzville, and moved to Chandlerville, 
where he has since continued in business. 

CHARLES C. BROWN, drugs and hard- 
ware; Chandlerville; was born near Cleveland, 
O., Dec. 22, 1846, to O. P. and Lydia B. (Bee- 
be) Brown ; born in Buffalo, N. Y., in 1826, and 
when a child was taken to the Western Re- 
serve, O., by his parents, where, after he 
grew to manhood, became a prominent law- 
yer and judge of Portage County; was a 
member of the Legislature for several terms, 
and State Senator, and enlisted in Seventh 
Ohio Regiment, but died soon after the break- 
ing out of the war. Gen. J. A. Garfield was 
one of his law students, and he nominated the 
future President to his first political office. 
His death occurred in 1802. His wife, the 
mother of our subject, was born in Chardon, O., 
in 1828, and died in 1862; she was the mother 
of three children, of whom Chas. C. was the 
oldest son. In 1861 he went to Cleveland, 
and engaged as clerk in wholesale drug busi- 
ness for about five years, with the exception 
of eleven months, while he was in the war — 
150th Ohio Regiment, Cleveland Grays, Com- 
pany C. In 1866 he commenced in the mer- 
cantile business in Warren, Ohio. In 1807 
he removed to Chandlerville, Cass County, 
where he engaged as clerk in different drug 
stores. In 1868 he started a dry goods, grain 
and grocery business in (Jhandlerville. In 
1873 he started in the drug business with 



Mr. Ira N. Read, where he has since re- 
mained, engaged extensively in the drug- 
business, also handling a large stock of hard- 
ware. He has been a member of the Town 
Board nearly all the time since he came to 
the county, and has filled other town offices. 
Oct. 12, 1881, he married Miss Anna Saunders, 
a native of DeWitt County, Iowa; was born in 
1854; is a member of A. F. and A. M., and has 
served as Master; is a Republican, and has 
been several times Chairman of the Central 

B. E. BOWMAN, dealer in agricultural im- 
plements, Chandlerville ; was born in Ruther- 
ford County, Tenn,, April 23, 1844, to James 
T. and Mary (Brown) Bowman; he born in 
Tennessee, a farmer, and dying in January, 
1854, aged forty-seven years ; she, also a 
native of Tennessee, died in July, 18G6, aged 
fifty-four years. She was the mother of twelve 
children, and of them B. E. Bowman was 
the ninth. In 1862 he was conscripted 
into the Confederate army, and served in the 
45th Tenn. Reg., under Bragg. He was cap- 
tured at Look Out Mountain in December, 
1864, taken to Rock Island, and stayed until 
July, 1865, when he went to Mason County, 
where he worked as a farm hand, and con- 
tinued until 1869, when he rented a farm in 
Cass County, where he has since been engaged. 
He married April 14, 1869, Sarah J. Hash, a 
native of Cass County, born June 17, 1849, 
and died in December, 1872, leaving two 
children, Ella and Arthur, both at home. 
Oct. 14, 1874, he married Miss Mary Parrott, 
a native of Missouri, born in 1846, who was 
the mother of three children, only one of 
whom is living, Clark E. Mr. Bowman has 
served as School Director, and self and wife 
are members of the Christian Church. He is 
a Democrat. 

REV. JOHN M. BOWERS, Congregational 
clergyman, Chandlerville; was born in Wash- 
ington, Washington County, Penn., March 14, 

1835, to George and Catharine (Snyder) 
Bowers ; he, born in Germany, in 1806, and 
emigrated to America in 1833, settling in 
Pennsylvania, but subsequently in Mansfield, 
Ohio, in 1836; is a blacksmith by trade, and is 
still living. She, also born in Germany, in 1812, 
came to America in 1832, and was married in 
1834 ; is still living. She is the mother of 
nine children, John M. being the oldest. The 
nine children are all living, viz.: John M., 
Margaret, Caroline, Catharine, Lewis, Bar- 
bara, Louisa, George, and William. John M. 
received his education at the Michigan Uni- 
versity, at Ann Arbor, and Vermillion Insti- 
tute, at Hayesville, Ohio, and his theological 
train ing at Oberlin Institute. Was ordained 
to the Congregational Church at Sedalia, Mo., 
April 16, 1866. His. first church was at Seda- 
lia; he was the organizer of the church there. 
In 1872 he removed to Lexington, Ohio, 
where he remained until 1874, when he re- 
moved to Parkesburg, Iowa, and remained for 
three and one-half years, and Earlville, Iowa, 
for three and one-half years. In 1881 he 
came to Chandlerville and took charge of the 
Congregational Church of that town, built in 
1880. On March 8, 1870, he was married to 
Helen A. Knapp; born in Indiana, Jan. 15, 
1852. She is a daughter of J. H. and Lydia 
(Currier) Knapp. Mr. and Mrs. Bowers are 
the parents of six children, viz.: George, Marv, 
Laura, Emma, Helen, and Clara. Mr. Bowers 
was in the 84th Ohio Reg., Col. Lawrence, 

GEORGE BRIAR, deceased; was born 
in New Jersey, Aug. 13, 1817, and was 
a son of James and Mary Briar, who were 
the parents of nine children. His education 
was received in the common schools of Penn- 
sylvania, and in 1835 he came to this county; 
settled in the Sangamon Bottom, and engaged 
in farming until his death, which occurred 
Jan. 90, 1882; he had at the time of his 
driitli 200 acres of improved land. In this 



county Sept. 4, 1844, he married Sidney Ann 
Capper, a native of Ohio; born Jan. 28, 1824, 
who died Jan. 31, 18 r3, leaving six children: 
James D., born Nov. 26, 1846; Robert E., 
Feb. 13, 1848; George W., Dec. 13, 1849; 
Charles M., March 9, 1852; Alice, March 24, 
1856; and Susan, Jan. 8, 186 , all of whom are 
at the honiestead farm except James D., who 
is in Missouri. Mrs. Briar was a daurrhter of 
Meredith and Eliza Capper, natives of Ohio. 
Mr. Briar was a member of the Presbyterian 
Church, and a supporter of the Republican 

LINUS C. CHANDLER, lawyer ; Chand- 
lerville ; was born in Chandlerville, Aug. 9, 
1846, to Dr. Charles and Clarissa (Child) 
Chandler ; he was born in Connecticut, July 
2, 1806, and died April 7, 1879 ; emigrated 
to Chandlerville in the winter of 1831 — being 
the founder of Chandlerville — where he was 
President of Town Board for many years. 
He took an active part in the business affairs 
of Chandlerville; he was a druggist and mer- 
chant for many years. He was a graduate from 
the Dudley Academy in Connecticut, and 
the Medical College, June, 1827, at Castleton, 
Vermont. Began the practice of his profes- 
sion in 1829 in Scituate, Rhode Island, and 
continued the practice of his profession to the 
time of his death, with the exception of a few 
years. Was married in Connecticut in 1827, 
to Mary C. Rickard; she died in 1840 or 
1841. In 1842, in Chandlerville, he married 
a second time, Clarissa Child, of Connecti- 
cut. By the first marriage there were five 
children : Mrs. Shaw and Mrs. Gen. C. E. 
Lippincott, of Chandlerville, Mrs. Frackelton, 
of Petersburg, Charles E., of Knoxville, Illi- 
nois, and Harrison T., of Cleveland, Ohio. 
By the second marriage there were three 
children ; Linus C, our subject, being the 
only one living. Linus C. attended Phillips' 
Academy, Andover, Mass., and Illinois Col- 
lege, and graduated from Harvard Law Uni- 

versity in June, 1871, when he went to Chi- 
cago, and entered the office with Higgins, 
Swett & Quigg, and afterward with Nolton, 
Smith & Scales, until the fire in Chicago, 
when he returned to Chandlerville, and 
opened a law office, where he has since remain- 
ed. In 1872 was elected States Attorney 
for Cass County, and served four years. In 
1880 was elected to the Legislature, and 
served two years. Was Justice of Peace, and 
President of Town Board at Chandlerville. 
On Sept. 5, 1873, he married Sarah L. Beane, 
a native of Lisbon, N. H. She is the mother 
of two children : Carl, born Feb. 16, 1876 ; 
William C, Feb. 21, 1879. Mr. C. is an 
active member of the Masonic order, hav- 
ing been Master of his lodge for eight years. 
Is a Republican. 

SILAS CARR, farmer; P. O. Chandler- 
ville; was born in Monroe County, 111., Nov. 
10, 1810; son of Leonard and Mary (Groats) 
Carr. He, a native of Hardy County, Va.; 
born June 4, 1771, and died June 4, 1851. 
His business was that of a blacksmith and 
a farmer; was an early settler of Illinois. 
She, a native of Randolph County, 111., and 
dying in September 1821, aged 40 j-ears. 
Our subject after receiving the education af- 
forded by the schools of his native county, as- 
sisted his father on the farm until he was 
twenty-one years old. He came to Cass 
County, 111., in April, 1863, and is now 
the owner of 150 acres of land. He was mar- 
ried Feb. 8, 1838, to Miss Delia Sharp, who 
has borne him three children, two of whom 
are now living, viz.: Francis M., and Stephen 
A. Douglas. Mr. Carr and wife are connect- 
ed with the Methodist Church. He stands 
high in the estimation of the people as a citi- 
zen and a gentleman. His political views 
are in accordance with the principles of the 
Republican party. 

A. G. COLSON, dealer in furniture 
and agricultural implements, Chandlerville; 



was born in Menaid County, 111., Jan. 6' 
1851, to Isaac and Dilue (Overstreet) Colson; 
he, born in Maine, April 34, 1803; emigrated 
to Illinois, and settled in Menard County 
about 1830. During his life he followed the 
occupation of a farmer, and was one of the 
largest and most successful farmers of that 
county; he accumulated about 10,000 acres 
of well improved land, which he owned at the 
time of his death, which occurred March 31, 
1854. His wife, the mother of our subject, 
was born in Virginia, March 15, 1814, and 
died May 13, 1859. They were the parents 
of one child, our subject. Mrs. Colson was 
formerly Mrs. Dilue Anderson, and by him 
had three children. Mr. Colson was educated 
at Petersburgh and Shurtleff College. la 
1873 he engaged in the mercantile business 
at Oakford, Menard Co., 111., and continued 
the same for about five years. In 1877 he 
sold his business and removed to Chandler- 
ville, where he engaged in the hotel business 
for about one year. In 1878 he engaged in 
the commission grain business for about four 
years, and in the fall of 1881, gave his at- 
tention to the agricultural implement busi- 
ness. On Dec. 15, 1870, he was married 
to Miss Susan E. Davis, a native of Menard 
County, 111., born May 10, 1854; died Dec- 
35, 1871. Nov. 21, 1873, he married Miss 
Rachel Skeggs, a native of Mason County, 
111.; born January 16, 1859. She is the 
mother of five children, of whom but one is 
living — Blessie, born May 25, 1876. Mr. 
Colson is President of the Board of Trustees, 
and a member of the order A. F. & A. M. He 
and his wife are members of the Congrega- 
tional Church. He is a Democrat. 

JEREMIAH W. DAVIS, deceased. Refer- 
ence to the prominent and highly industrious 
class of the citizens of Cass County would be 
incomplete without a brief "mention of the 
active career of Jeremiah W. Davis, deceased. 
He was born in Greene County, Ky., Sept. 5, 

1816. He was brought to Illinois by his par- 
ents, who settled in Cass County about the 
year 1839. His early life was spent in receiv- 
ing a limited common school education, and 
assisting in tilling the home farm. At the 
age of twenty years, he left his home and em- 
barked on life's rugged pathway, as a farmer, 
continuing the occupation to the time of his 
death, which occurred in 1863. He was mar- 
ried March 10, 1836, to Miss Cassandra E. 
Gunn, who bore him nine children, of whom 
four are now living, viz.: Jesse A., born Jan. 
38, 1843; John B., B'eb. 10, 1852; Jemima 
M., April 36, 1846; and Jeremiah W., 
Sept. 15, 1854. Mr. Davis commenced 
life a poor boy, and by hard work succeeded 
in gaining a good property. At the time of 
his death he was the owner of 1,000 acres of 
good land. Such, very briefly, is the career 
of one who through life was highly energetic 
and progressive, and whose many excellent 
qualities of head and heart enabled him to 
gather about him an unusually large number 
of friends. 

Virgina; was born in Germany, June 21, 1830; 
fifth child of a family of eleven, born to Carl 
and Mary (Link) Duchardt, both natives of 
Germany, where also both died; Carl Duch- 
ardt was a butcher by trade. Christian re- 
ceived his education in the common schools 
of Germany, and at the age of seventeen emi- 
grated to America, landing in New York City 
in 1838. In that same year he came to this 
county, where he followed the butchering 
business about twenty years, and in 1858 
bought eighty acres of land, and has since 
devoted his attention to farming, and is now 
the owner of 560 acres of improved land, all 
of which has been acquired by his own labors. 
He was married in this county in 1852, to 
Mary A. Nollsch, a native of Germany; born 
in February, 1830, who has borne him two 
children: Lizzie, wife of Mr. William Neeham, 



and John. Mr. DucharJt and family are 
members of the Methodist Church; he is a 

JAMES FIELDExN, farmer; P. O. Chau- 
dlerville; was boru in Roachdale, England, 
Jan. 10, 1829, to James and Betty (Bellfield) 
Fielden; he, born in England about the year 
1800, and died in this county, in 1858; he 
was a son of John Fielden; she was born in 
England in 1800, and died in Cass County in 
18G1. They were the parents of eight chil- 
dren, of whom James, the subject of this 
sketch, was the youngest. He came to Amer- 
ica with his father and grandfather in 1842, 
and remained with his parents to the age of 
twenty-five years. He learned the trade of 
shoe-making, but subsequently began farm- 
ing. He commenced life, as he says, — " worse 
than poor," and by his industry and economy 
has succeeded in accumulating 286 acres of 
the best land of Cass County. His farm is 
under a high state of cultivation, and has all 
the modern improvements in the way of a 
fine residence, barns, etc. Mr. Fielden was 
married in Cass County on the fourth day of 
Fehruar}', 1857, to Miss Elizabeth Briar. 
Mrs. Fielden was born in Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania, in November, 1838. Mr. and Mrs. 
Fielden have been blessed with seven chil- 
dren, of whom four are now living: Mary, 
Emma, Lincoln and Lannes. He is a mem- 
ber of the Baptist Church, and she of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian. Politically, Mr. 
Fielden, like his father and grandfather, was 
a Whig, but now unites with the Republican 

ROBERT FIELDEN, farmer ; P. O., 
Chandlerville, is a native of Lancashire, Eng- 
land; born Feb. 23, 1819; for parents, see 
sketch of James Fielden. He received his 
education in his native country, and in 181:2, 
in company with his parents and his grand- 
father, emigrated to America, and settled on 
the Sangamon Bottoms, in this county. When 

thirty-one years of age, he began farming on 
his own account, on a part of his father's 
farm, and now owns three hundred acres of 
land, part of which is well improved. He has 
been twice married; in this county, in January, 
1850, he married Matilda Cook, a native of Ire- 
land who died in 1 858, aged thirty-seven years, 
leaving four children: Samuel, in Chandler- 
ville; Elizalseth J., at home; James E., a 
farmer, in Kansas, and John J., at home. In 
1863, ho married Sarah L. McKinnell, a native 
of Lancashire, England, who died in March, 
1873, aged thirty-seven years; from this mar- 
riage four children were born: Henry, Benja- 
man, David and Jonathan, twins. McFielden 
is a Republican; he has been County Com- 
missioner two years; has been Township Treas- 
urer about ten years, and now holds that of- 
fice; he is a member of the Baptist Church. 
JOHN H. GOODELL, farmer and lumber 
merchant ; P. O. Chandlerville; was born in 
Thompson, Windham County, Conn., April 
15, 1832, to Horace and Lucy P. (Rick- 
ard) Goodell. He, born in Connecticut in 
1802, came to Illinois in the spring of 1837, 
and settled in Cass County, he is a farmer, and 
now in the eightieth year of his age ; his 
father was a captain in the Revolutionary 
War. The mother of our subject was born 
in Windham County, Conn., in 1808, and 
died in ]868. She had seven children, 
of whom John H. was the second. At the age 
of eighteen he left his home and apprenticed 
himself at the carpenter and joiner trade, and 
followed that for about twelve years. In 
1862 he enlisted in the army, and served 
three years in the 114th Illinois Regiment, 
Company A, under command of Capt. John- 
son. He was in the battle of Vicksburg. 
When Price made his march through Mis- 
souri, he, in his regiment, marched from Du- 
val's Bluff through to Missouri, and returned 
to Nashville. In 1865, after his return homo, 
he resumed his trade, and worked at it for 



about two years in Jacksonville. In 1866 he 
commenced farming in Cass County. In 
1876 he started a large lumber business at 
Chandlerville. Mr. Goodell is the owner 
of about 230 acres of land, in Cass County. 
In 18.51 he married Miss Helen E. Cotton, a 
native of Franklin County, New York; born 
in March, 1833, and died in 1863. In 1865, 
Dec. 27, he married Miss Harriet A. Sewall, 
a native of Cass County; born April 14, 1838. 
She is the mother of seven children, six of 
whom are living : Lucy, Lydia, William, 
John, Andrew, Susan; all at home. Mr. 
Goodell is now holding his second term as 
Justice of the Peace. Self and wife are 
members of the Congregational Church. 
Politically, he is a Democrat. 

Chandlerville; was born in France, now Ger- 
many, Jan. 3, 1828; is the fourth child of a fam- 
ily of eight children, born to Andrew and 
Katerine (Derr) Gebhartt, natives of Germany. 
Andrew Gebhartt was a tailor by trade, and 
died in Germany. Our subject was educated 
in the common schools of Germany, learning 
both the French and German languages, and 
remained with his parents engaged in farm- 
ing until 1854, when he emigrated to Amer- 
ica. He landed at New Orleans, thence came 
to Beardstown, this county, and immediately 
obtained emplojment on the farm of Gottleib 
NoUich, with whom he remained about two 
vears. He then bought eighty acres of land, 
which he increased, till he now has 236 acres, 
after dividing 160 acres in Christian County, 
among his boys; he has on his farm a good 
residence and outbuildings. In this county, 
in 1857, he married Elizabeth Derr, a native 
of Germany, who has borne him eight children, 
six of whom are living, viz.: George W., 
John H., Amey, Franklin, Elizabeth, and 
Frederick William. Himself and wife have 
been members of the German Methodist church 
for ^twenty-seven years; he is a Republican. 

A. D. GREIF, Pastor of German Lutheran 
Church, Chandlerville; was born in Meinin- 
gen, Germany, June 16, 1849, to C. F. and 
Susanna (Seugling) Greif, natives of Ger- 
many, where they are now living. Our subject 
was educated at Real Sohule College, and in 

1868 emigrated to America, and landed Oct. 
15, 1868, in New York, where he began teach- 
ing German in the German American Insti- 
tute, of Gerke Koessly, on Twenty-third 
street. His pupils paid $300 per term; one 
of them was the son of President Arthur. In 

1869 he attended the Lutheran Theological 
Seminary at St. Louis, and in 1870 graduat- 
ed, and was ordained to the ministry by Dr. 
C. F. W. Walther. He went to Texas in 
July, 1870, where he took charge of a church 
at Independence, and afterward at Serbiu. In 
December, 1875, he removed to Little Rock, 
Ark., where he took charge of a congrega- 
tion for one and one-half years. In August, 
1877, he removed to Chandlerville, this coun- 
ty, where he has since remained in charge of 
the German Lutheran Church. While in 
Texas, he met with several mishaps: once be- 
ing bitten by a rattlesnake in the back of the 
head; again, by being threatened by a mem- 
ber of his congregation with a butcher-knife; 
and by being nearly drowned in quicksand. 
In New Orleans, April 17, 1874, he married 
Miss Louisa Odendahl, a native of Rostock, 
Mecklenburg, Germany; born Sept. 5, 1847. 
They have two children which they have 
adopted — Herman and Frieda Greif. 

MOSES HARBISON, farmer; P. O. Chan- 
dlerville. The father of our subject w^as 
Adam B. Harbison; he was born in Virginia, 
on the 10th of April, 1797, and was taken to 
Kentucky by his parents, when a small boy; 
he was married in Kentucky, and emigrated 
to Cass County, Illinois, in December, 1839, 
where he engaged in farming, to the time of 
his death, which occured Aug. 31, 1841. The 
mother of our subject was Hannah Rhea; 



bom in Barren County, Ky., on the 16th 
of May, 1808, and dying on the 25th of Nov. 
183-1. She was the mother of three children, 
of whom Moses Harbison is the only living 
child. He was born in Metcalf County, Ky., 
on the 3rd of Sept. 1831. His early life was 
spent at hard work; after the death of his 
father he made his home with John Dick 
and Marcus Trobridge; at the age of fifteen 
he commenced work for himself as a farm 
hand. In Cass County, Jan. 7, 1858, he 
married Jliss Mary A. Davis; she was born 
in Cass County, Aug. 10, 183&, and died 
Jan. 17,1863. In 1864, on the 13th of March, 
he married Miss Lydia F. Mason, who has 
borne him nine children: Sarah V., Charles 
C, Mary C, James A., Robert F., Estella 
F., Alice, Martha E., and Emma. He is now 
the owner of 376 acres of land, and is consid- 
ered one of the substantial, enterprising citi- 
zens of Cass County. 

O. Chandlerville; is a native of Wurtemberg, 
Germany, and son of Martin and Margaret 
Herrmann. He was born Feb. 16, 1824. His 
father was born in Germany, and during his 
life followed the occupation of a farmer; he 
died in 1846, aged sixty-five years. His 
mother was also a native of Germany. She 
died in 1853, aged seventy-two years. Our 
subject was educated in the common schools 
of Germany, and when quite young was ap- 
prenticed at the shoemaker's trade, which he 
followed in Germany until 1848, when he 
came to America. He made his first stop in 
Mason County, where he worked at his trade 
for six years, and then began farming. He 
came to Cass County in 1876, and is now the 
owner of 560 acres of land. In November, 
1823, he married Catharine Smith, who has 
borne him five children: Leonard, Henry, 
Catharine, Fred, and Josephine, all of whom 
are at home. Mr. Herrmann and family are 
religiously connected with the German Luther- 

an Church. He is a thorough business man, 
and highly esteemed by the community, and 
is always first in any public enterprise. He 
is a good neighbor, a kind husband, and an 
indulgent father. 

ZACHARIAH HASH, retired farmer; P. 
O. Chandlerville; was born in Green County, 
April 6, 1812, to Philip and Sarah (Nance) 
Hash. Philip Hash, our subject's father, was 
born in Virginia, Jan. 31, 17'J0; emigrated to 
Kentucky with his parents when a small boy; 
in 1822, he came to Illinois, and settled in 
Cass County; followed the occupation of a 
farmer, served in the war of 1812. He died 
in Missouri, Aug. 5, 1849. He was a son of 
Thomas Hash, a native of Virginia; born Feb. 
13, 1756, and died in Missouri, Dec. 5, 1848. 
Our subject's mother was born near Rich- 
mond, Va., Oct. 24, 1791, and died Feb. 24, 
1847; she was a mother of fifteen children, of 
whom our subject was the second child; her 
father, Zachariah Nance, was born in Virginia, 
served through the Revolutionary war, under 
Washington. Our subject was brought to 
Illinois by his parents in 1822, and was edu- 
cated principally in Sangamon, now Menard 
County. On June 26, 1834, he was married 
to Miss Mary Dick, a native of Kentucky; 
born Feb. 16, 1817, and died June 22, 1857; 
was the mother of seven children, of whom 
three are living, viz.: Phillip, Peter, and 
Martha, wife of John Plunkett. He first 
rented a farm in this county, on Sangamon 
Bottom; he has since been engaged in farm- 
ing in this county, and is now living upon 
his farm, one mile southwest from Chandler- 
ville, but has been retired from active labor 
for several years. His second marriage oc- 
curred in Mason County, April 3, 1862, to 
Mrs. Susan Shelton, formerly a Bowman; 
was born in Rutherford Co., Tenn., March 17, 
1825; she is a daughter of Daniel Bowman, 
a native of Maryland, born March 11, 1799, 
and died Sept. 14, 1859. Mr. and Mrs. Hash 



have had two children, both dead. Mr. Hash 
is the owner of about 200 acres of land; our 
subject and wife are members of the Christian 
Church. He is a Democrat. Mr. Hash says 
he was often compelled to give up his house 
on account of the Indians, and at other times 
used to associate among them. He was 
always very daring. Old Dr. Chandler, who 
first laid out Chandlerville, said he had 
doctored five generations of the Hash family. 

ALBERT G. HAYNES, grain and imple- 
ment dealer, Chandlerville; was born in Ross 
County, O., Dec. 23, 1835, to Joseph and 
Agnes (Clark) Haynes; he, born in Ohio in 
1808, and removed to Illinois in 1854, settling 
in Cass County, where he died in 1856; she, 
born in Ohio, on June 13, 1813, and died in 
Cass County, June 13, 1872; she was the 
mother of eight children, our subject being the 
second child. At the death of his father, in 
1856, he commenced farming on his own ac- 
count. May 1, 1872, he removed to Chand- 
lerville, engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness for about six years, when he engaged in 
the grain and agricultural implement business, 
in the firm of A. G. Haynes & Co., in grain, 
and Bowman, Haynes & Co., in the implement 
business. In May, 1857, he married Miss 
Julia A. Benson, a native of Steuben County, 
N.Y.; she, born June 4, 1837; she is the mother 
of one child — Eva, born in 1860 — at home. Mr. 
Haynes has been a member of the Town 
Board, and was President of the same. Polit- 
ically he is a Democrat. 

Chandlerville; was born Jan. 19, 1834, in Ger- 
many; his parents were Gottlieb and Elizabeth 
(Aarps) Kirchner, natives of Germany. His 
father died in 1845, aged 48 years. He was a 
farmer. The mother of our subject died in 
1843, aged 53 years. They were the parents 
of three children, William being the youngest. 
He remained with his parents until he 
was twenty-one years old, and then sailed for 

America, landing in New York in July, 1854; 
for fifteen months his time was chiefly spent 
in Wisconsin and Michigan, engaged in the 
lumber business. In 1859, he came to Cass 
County, where he has since remained, engaged 
in agricultural pursuits. He is now the owner 
of 480 acres of good land. In Cass County, 
Dec. 26, 1858, he married Miss Elizabeth 
Yeck, who has borne him eight children, viz.: 
Mary, William, Louis, Matilda, Lizzie, Emma, 
Anna and Frank. Mr. and Mrs. Kirchner are 
members of the German Lutheran Church. 
Mr. Kirchner, as a farmer, is practical and 
prosperous; as a citizen he is enterprising and 
progressive, and, together with his estimable 
wife, are intelligent and esteemed citizens. 
He is a Democrat. 

JOHN H. KINNEY, furniture and agri- 
cultural implements ; was born in Chicago, 
Feb. 18, 1849, to John and Harriet (Smith) 
Kinney ; he, born in Ireland, emigrated to 
America, and settled near Chicago, dying 
July 29, 1849 ; she, born in Ohio, in March 
17, 1833, and died July, 1878 ; was the mother 
of two children, John H. being the youngest. 
When he was two years of age, he was given 
by his mother to his uncle, Seth Houston, 
and remained with him to the time of his 
death, which occurred in 1881. At the age of 
fourteen, Mr. Kinney began farming on his 
own account in Cass County, and continued the 
same until 1877, when he removed to Mason 
Co., and there also engaged in agricultural 
pursuits. Jan. 37, 1883, sold his farm in Ma- 
son Co. and removed to Chandlerville, where 
he engaged in partnership with Mr. A. G. 
Colson, in a large furniture and agricultural 
implement business. Mr. Kinney retained 
a fitie farm of 100 acres, which he rents. 
May 20, 1869, he married Miss Sarah R. 
Keeth, a native of Mason Co., 111., born Feb. 
4, 1846, daughter of Zeph. and Luzannah 
Keeth. Mr. and Mrs. Kinney are the parents 
of 6 children, 4 of whom are living : Mary E., 



Lotta, and Luzaiinah E. He is a member of 
the Gc»jd Templars, and self and wife are 
connected with the Cumberland Presbyterian 
church. Politically, he is identified with the 
prohibition ])arty. 

physician ; ex-auditor-general ; was born at 
Edwardsville, 111., on January 36, 1825, and 
is the son of Thomas Lippincott and Cath- 
erine n^e Leggett. His father removed to 
Illinois in 1818, and took a conspicuous stand 
against slavery. He afterward became a 
Presbyterian minister, and remained such un- 
til his death, which occurred in April, 1869. 
Mr. Lippincott's mother was the daughter of 
Major Abraham Leggett, of Revolutionary 
fame, and was married in 1831. Our subject 
after dividing his time between school and 
farm life for some years, went to the little 
village of Collinsonville, on the bluffs oppo- 
site St. Louis, and in company with several 
other young men, rented a house, worked for 
his means, and entered upon a systematic 
course of preparation for college. He after- 
ward entered Illinois College, but being com- 
pelled to abandon his course before complet- 
ing it, did not obtain his degree until some 
years later. In the spring of 1849 he grad- 
uated from the St. Louis Medical College. 
After he graduated he located at Chandler, 
ville, and engaged in the practice of his pro- 
fession. In the spring of 1852, owing to his 
failing health. Dr. Lippincott visited Cali- 
fornia. He remained there five years. While 
there Dr. Lippincott was elected to the senate 
by a large majority, and after serving out his 
term of two years, was re-nominated, but 
through trickery was defeated. In 1857, he 
returned to his home in Illinois and resumed 
his profession. At the breaking out of the 
Rebellion he raised almost an entire company, 
and after the quota of the State was filled, 
again resumed his practice. After the battle 
of Bull Run, he immediately wrote to Gover- 

nor Yates tendering himself to the service in 
any capacity. The answer came, " Bring 
men." He enlisted a full company in one 
week, known as Company K of the Thirty- 
third Illinois Infantry, and was elected Cap- 
tain. At the organization of the regiment, 
he was tendered the Lieutenant-Colonelcy by 
Governor Yates, but declined. Within six 
weeks after he entered the service he had a 
desperate fight, with but half his company 
against 300 rebels under General Jeff. Thomp- 
son. He was in command of the Thirty- 
third regiment from the spring of 186"-i till 
the fall of Mobile. He was commissioned 
Captain of Company K, September 18, 1861; 
Lieutenant-Colonel, March 1, 1863; Colonel, 
September 5, 1862. Was mustered out Sep- 
tember 16, 1865, as Brigadier-General. Upon 
his return to his home. General Lippincott 
was nominated Republican candidate for 
congress; the district had a Democratic major- 
ity of over 3,000, and he was defeated by about 
500. In January, 1867, he was elected Sec- 
retary of the Illinois Senate ; and during the 
session was chosen door-keeper of the House 
of Representatives at Washington. Before 
the expiration of that congress he was elected 
Auditor of Public Accounts of Illinois, and 
qualified during the first week of January, 
1869, and was re-elected in 1873. He was 
married on December 25, 1851, to Miss Emily 
Webster Chandler, daughter of one of the 
earliest settlers of Cass County, a celebrated 

ceased; was a native of Greene County, Ky. ; 
born Feb. 17, 1817, and was a son of Robert 
A., and Frances (Summers) Leeper; the for- 
mer was born in Kentucky, and emigrated to 
Illinois in 1829, and came to Cass County in 
1830, settling near Chandlerville; the latter 
(Mrs. Leeper) was also a native of Kentucky. 
They had nine children, of whom the subject 
was the second, and the eldest son. He was 



educated principally in the common schools 
of the county, and remained with his parents 
to the time of their death. Of the entire 
family but one is now living — Robert, in 
California. Mr. Leeper, during his life, fol- 
lowed farming and stock-dealing, and by strict 
integrity and business energy amassed consid- 
erable wealth. He was married June 17, 1858, 
in Beardstown. His second wife was Mary 
Hermyer, a native of Germany, and was born 
Sept. 30, 1832. She was a daughter of Henry 
Hermyer, who was born in Germany, and 
came to Beardstown at an early day. By his 
first marriage Mr. Leeper had three children. 
viz.: George W., Albert A. and Arthur. By 
his second marriage he had two children — 
Mary E. and Henry S. Mrs. Leeper and her 
daughter are members of the Christian 

JACOB METZMAKER, Jr., proprietor 
Park House, Chandlervilie; was born in Au- 
gusta County, Va. on the 1 6th of January, 
1844, and is the son of Jacob and Susan 
(Chapman) Metzmaker. Jacob, Sr., was born 
in Augusta County, Va, Jan. 1, 1803; he 
emigrated with his family to Cass Coun- 
ty, and settled in Virginia in the fall of 
1855. His business is that of a farmer, at 
which he still continues in his seventy-ninth 
year. His wife, and mother of our subject, 
was born in Rockingham County, Va., in 
1802, and died in Cass County in 1871; she 
was the mother of twelve children, ten girls 
and two boys. Jacob, Jr., our subject, was 
the ninth child. His education was ad- 
vanced in Augusta County, as he says, "as 
far as the single rule of three." He also at- 
tended the High School at Virginia, Cass 
County; he remained with his parents until 
he was twenty-one years of age, and then em- 
barked on his career in life as a farmer. He 
continued farming until 1881, when he came 
to Chandlervilie and bought the Park House. 
He was married Nov. 15, 1867, to Pris- 

cilla Evans, a native of Morgan County ; she 
has borne him the following children: Ethel 
G., born Feb 5, 1869; Veffie G., born 
March 5, 1870; Otto O., born July 1, 1871; 
Eulalie, born May 7, 1875. Mr. Metzmaker 
served the people of Virginia as Precinct Con- 
stable and City Police, and is filling the same 
office in Chandlervilie to the entire satisfac- 
tion of the community. He has the only pub- 
lic place of entertainment of the place; by 
careful management and study of the needs 
of the traveling public, he is making a suc- 
cess of the business. Mr. Metzmaker is a 
Republican; he is a stirring, energetic man, 
who has been careful to dabble in no busi- 
ness to bring his name into disrepute, and as 
a consequence he enjoys an honorable name 
and reputation. 

CHARLES McKEE, lumber merchant, 
Chandlervilie, was born in Bristol, Connecti- 
cut, Sept. 3, 1833, to Levi and Sophia 
(Alcott) McKee; he was born in Connecticut, 
and emigrated to Illinois in 1843, settling in 
Hancock County, and in 1846 removed to 
Cass County; was a wagon-maker, and died 
in Chandlervilie. His wife, the mother of 
our subject, was a native of Connecticut, and 
died in 1877; she was the mother of nine chil- 
dren, of whom Charles was the sixth. At 
about twenty years of age he apprenticed 
himself at the wagon-maker's trade, and 
worked at the same until 1860, when he en- 
gaged as clerk in a drug store in Chandler- 
vilie, and continued for about four years. In 
1864 he went west to Kansas and Iowa, 
where he clerked for about two and a half 
years. In 1867 he returned to Chandlervilie, 
and in 1876 engaged in partnership with Mr. 
Goodell, in the lumber business. In 1860 he 
married Ellen Thompson, a native of Ireland; 
born in 1843 and dying in 1863; leaving two 
children, one of whom is still living: Robert 
J. Mr. McKee is a Mason, a member of the 
Congregational church, and a Republican. 



W. K. MERTZ, banker, ChandlerviUe; he 
was born in Beardstown, Cass Co., Dec. 18, 
1853, to J. Henry and Louisa E. (Hardt) 
Mertz; he was born in Germany, in 1810, emi- 
grated to America in ISoO, and settled in 
Williamsburg', N. Y., but soon after removed 
to Chicago, where he remained but one year, 
when he removed to Beardstown, Cass Co., 
dying in 1875 ; his wife, the mother of our 
subject, was also born in Germany, in 1814, 
and is now residing in Beardstown, enjoying 
good health; she is the mother of six children, 
of whom W. K. is the fifth. Our subject for 
several years clerked at various places, and in 
April, 1873, came to ChandlerviUe and en- 
tered the employ of Lippincott, Chandler & 
Co, bankers, and remained with them until 
they sold out, in February, 1881, when he 
became a partner in the firm of Petefish, 
Skiles & Mertz, and has since conducted the 
business. On June 23, 1870, he married Miss 
Kate Norton, in Cass County, daughter of P. 
T. Norton, of ChandlerviUe. She died May 
5, 1881, leaving one child, William Norton. 
Mr. Mertz is Township Treasurer, and a mem- 
ber of the town board. Politically, he is a 

ChandlerviUe, whose portrait appears in this 
work, was born April 3, 1832, in Dtlrnau, 
Wurtemberg, Germany. His parents, John 
R. and Elizabeth (Gerber) NoUsch, kept a ho- 
tel and bakery. They had eleven children, 
as follows: John L., living in this county; 
John P., in Quincy, 111.; Mary, deceased;. 
John E., deceased; Mary Duchardt, Qass 
county; John, Springfield; Gottlieb, this 
county; Lena Eckart, this county; Thomas, 
Montgomery County, Kansas; Frederick, de- 
ceased, in August, 1841. Mr. NOllsch's pa- 
rents removed to Illinois, and settled three 
miles from the present site of Virginia. Gott- 
lieb remained at home, working on the farm, 
until he was about twenty-six years old. On 

March 13, 1848, he was married to Miss Dor- 
othy Lutz, daughter of Laurence Lutz, who 
is of French birth. Her parents removed to 
this county in 1837. Mr. NOllsch had born to 
him six children, as follows: Laurence, borv 
Dec. 11, 1851; infant, Nov. 7, 1853, died a.\ 
birth; William Henry, March 23, 1855; Gott. 
lieb Benjamin, April 13, 1857, deceased Oc. 
tober, 1859; Carl Edward, June 19, 1859, de- 
ceased January, 1869; Gottlieb Benjamin, 
March 2, 1863. His oldest son, Laurence, 
was married March 11, 1873, to Martha E. 
Jokisch. They have five children: Susan, 
Louisa, Bismark, Charley and Albert. In 
1851, Mr. Nollsch bought his first land, one 
hundred and sixty acres, and he began buy- 
ing and feeding cattle and hogs. He paid 
off the first purchase, and has since continued 
to add to the farm, until at present he owns 
eight hundred and forty-five acres of land, 
under a high state of cultivation. The fam- 
ly residence is a beautiful and commodious 
brick structure, built by the design of Mr. 
Nollsch. On Sept. 24, 1804, Mrs. Nollsch was 
called to leave her companion and children. 
She was a member of the Gorman Methodist 
church from childhood. On Nov. 28, 1804, Mr. 
Nollsch was again married to Mrs. Catharine 
Mauler, widow of Henry Mauler, and daugh- 
ter of John and Barbara Hobig. She had 
two children by her first husband, Amelia E., 
born July 5, 1858, Caroline, May 15, 1860. 
By this wife, Mr. Nollsch has born to him 
seven children: Annie Margaret, born Oct. 
8, 1865; Mary Magdaline, Feb. 10, 1867; 
Adolph Walter, Nov. 22, 1868; George Thom- 
as, Oct. 18, 1870; George Herman, March 
33, 1873; Alfred, Dec. 5, 1876; Phillip, 
July 13, 1879. Mr. Nollsch and lady are 
members of the German Methodist Church, 
in which denomination they have faithfully 
served their Master, the former for thirty-four 
years, and the latter twenty-eight years. 
PIUS NEFF, merchant; ChandlerviUe; 



was born in Germany, April 29, 1834, to 
Ignatz and Mary A. (Bower) Neff. Our sub- 
ject attended the common schools of Ger- 
many until he was ten years of age, when 
with his parents he emigrated to Pennsylva- 
nia, where he succeeded in acquiring a good 
business education. At the age of twenty- 
three he began working upon a farm, which he 
continued for several years, when he entered 
the store of J. J. Mish, of Peoria, as Clerk, 
where he continued until 1863, when he 
started a grocery store in Peoria. In 1864 
he sold out his business, and removed to 
Chandlerville, where he has since remained 
enaraged in mercantile business, being one of 
the leading business men of Chandlerville. 
In 1857, in Pennsylvania, he married Miss 
Elizabeth Glaus, a native of Pennsylvania, 
born in 1833. She is the mother of eleven 
children, six of whom are now living, viz.: 
Mary, wife of Jacob Euteneuer, of Havana, 
111.; Frank, George, Gustavus, William, and 
Leo. The father of our subject was born in 
Germany, in 1800, and died in 1871. He 
was in the old country a potter, and in Amer- 
ica followed farming; he came to America in 
1844. The mother of our subject was born 
in Germany in 1802, and is now residing in 
Pennsylvania, enjoying good health; she is 
the mother of eleven children, of whom Pius 
Neff was the sixth. He has been School 
Treasurer of Chandlerville Township for ten 
years, and still holding that office. He has 
held Town Board office six times, and acted as 
President of the Board for three terms. Our 
subject and family are members of the Cath- 
olic church. Politically, he is a Democrat. 
When Mr. Neff first came, he was one of the 
Board of School Directors, and with the 
other members, was influential in building 
the large and commodious school house of the 

WILLIAM A. NEILL, postmaster, Chan- 
dlerviilr; was born in Knox County, O., 

April 18, 1841, to William and Sarah (Gibson) 
Neill. William Neill, our subject's father, 
was born in Pennsylvania, in February 1807; 
removed to Ohio at an early day, and from Ohio 
to Illinois in 1848, and settled in Morgan 
County, where he is now residing; has followed 
the occupation of a farmer, but is now retired. 
His wife, and mother of our subject, was born 
in Ohio, in 1812, and is still living; she is the 
mother of twelve children, of whom William, 
our subject, and John F., of Arcadia, 111., are 
living. Our subject lived at home till he was 
twenty-one years of age, when he enlisted in 
Co. G,Thirty- fourth Illinois, under command of 
Col. Ed. P. Kirk, and served for seven months. 
He then returned to Morgan County, and was 
apprenticed to the harness maker's trade, and 
worked there for about one and a half years. 
In May, 1865, he moved to Chandlerville, 
where he worked as a journeyman at his trade 
for several years, and in 1870 opened a harness 
shop there. In 1876 he was appointed post- 
master, which office he is now holding; he 
also works some at his trade; and also does 
some first class job printing, for the accommo- 
dation of the business men of town and vicini- 
ty; and also keeps a stationery and cigar store, 
in connection with his other business. On 
Feb. 21, 1866, he married Maria J. Parr, a 
native of Illinois, daughter of Oliver Parr (de- 
teased). Mr. and Mrs. Neill are the parents 
of one child, Fred; born May 24, 1879. 
Mrs. Neill is a member of the Congregational 
Church, and Mr. Neill of the Methodist. He 
is a Republican, and cast his first vote for 
Abraham Lincoln, the first time be ran. 

PHILO T. NORTON, tin and hardware; 
Chandlerville; was born in Wheeling, Va., 
April 29, 1826, to Thomas P. and Mary E. 
(Goldenborough) Norton; he, born in Massa- 
chusetts, and emigrated to Burton, O., in 1812 
removed to Pittsburg, Pa., in 1822 removed to 
Wheeling, Va., and in 1844 emigrated to Cass 
County, and settled in Beardstowu, where he 



remained to the time of liis death, which occur- 
red in 1853; his Nvit'e was also a native of 
Wheeling, where she died, and was the mother 
of seven children, Philo T. being the oldest. 
He was a cabin-boy on a steamer on the Ohio, 
and at the age of eighteen years came with his 
parents to Beardstown, Cass County, and with 
his father, started a tin and hardware store. 
In 1859 he came to Chandlerviile, where he 
also engaged in the tin business, being one of 
the leadinff business men of the town. In 
1852, in Beardstown, he married Miss Mary 
E. Clark, a native of Beardstown, who is now 
dead; she was the mother of four chil- 
dren, two of whom are now living: Charles C. 
and Emma. In Beardstown Mr. Norton acted 
as Marshal for two years (in 1853 and 1858), 
and also Deputy Sheriff and Coroner for 
eight vears, beinff elected in 184G; he is a 
member of the A. F. and A. M., and a Demo- 

sea captain, Chandlerviile; was born in Middle- 
town, Conn., June 4, 1831, to Joseph and Mary 
H. (Austin) Paddock; he, born in Connecticut 
in October, 1798; followed the occupation of a 
farmer, and died in his native State Dec. 6, 
1877; his wife, the mother of our subject, was 
born in Connecticut, May 3, 1799, and died in 
the same State Jan. 8,1881; she was the mother 
of five children, of whom the Captain was the 
fourth. He received his education in the 
schools of his native county, and at the age of 
fourteen made his first voyage to the island 
of Santa Cruz. At the age of seventeen was 
second mate of a vessel, and at the age of 
eighteen became first mate, and continued as 
first mate until he was twenty-two years of 
age, at which time he became master, and 
served in that position until July 15, 1879 on 
different classes of vessels. The Captain has 
made many trips to Europe, South America, 
the East Indies, and, in fact, to nearly all parts 
of the world. During his sea life he became 

interested in the ownership of several vessels, 
and is at the present time part owner in sev- 
eral vessels. In 1879 he made up his mind 
to retire from sea life, and in August of that 
year, removed his family to his present resi- 
dence, it being his intention to remain here 
until the Supreme Captain of the Watch should 
call him to his last " eight bells below." The 
Captain enjoys good health, and is considered 
one of the substantial men of Cass County. 
In 1853, he was married to Miss Henrietta 
Spencer, a native of Middletown, Conn. She 
died in 1870, leaving two children : Carry, 
residing in Middletown, Conn., and Frederick 
S., of Connecticut. July 28, 1880, he married 
Caroline Joeckel, a native of Indiana. Polit- 
ically, is identified with the Democratic party. 
In his sea life he never met with an accident. 
His oldest brother was one of the oldest set- 
tlers of Chandlerviile. 

JEPTHA PLASTER, retired farmer; P. 
O. Chandlerviile; he was born on ^le 19th 
day of March, 1837, in Robertson County, 
Tenn., and is the son of Thomas and Eliza- 
beth (Batts) Plaster. Thomas Plaster, his 
father, was born in Robertson County, Tenn., 
on the Gth day of May, 1803; emigrated to 
Cass County, 111., in 1838, where he entered a 
small tract of land. He followed farming 
until his death, which occurred May 30, 1858. 
He served in the " Black Hawk " war. His 
mother was born in Robertson County, Tenn., 
in 1803, and died in 1853. Mr. Plaster's 
early education was quite limited, although 
later in life he succeeded in gaining a good 
practical business education. ^.& followed 
farming, until the spring of 1881, with the ex- 
ception of about one year, while he was en- 
gaged in mining in California. In 1880, he 
erected, by his own design, a large commodi- 
ous residence in Chandlerviile, where he now 
resides. He is now the owner of about 900 
acres of land, the most of which is under a 
hiu-h state of cultivation. Our subject was 



married in Mason County, Oct. 14, 1858, to 
Miss Elizabeth, daughter of John and Rosanna 
(Adkins) Johnson. Mrs. Plaster was born in 
Cass County, on the 15th of March, 1838. Mr. 
Plaster was elected, and served the people 
four years, as Associate Justice. 

A. M. PENDLETON, dealer in grain and 
agricultural implements, Chandlerville ; was 
born in Monroe County, Mo., Dec. 28, 1840, 
to John and Elizabeth (Odell) Pendleton. 
John Pendelton was born in Culpepper 
County, Va., Aug. 1, 1805 ; emigrated to 
Missouri in 1830, where he is now residing, 
engaged in farming. His wife, the mother of 
our subject, was born in Rappahannock, Va., 
Aug. 22, 1812, and died in 1871. She was the 
mother of ten children, of whom Arthur M. 
was the third ; of the ten children but four 
are now living. At about the age of twenty- 
one years, he entered as clerk in a drug store 
in Paris, Mo., where he continued until about 
the time of the war. In 1861, he enlisted 
in the Third Missouri Reg. State Troops, and 
served for about fifteen months. After his re- 
turn from the armj', he again engaged as 
clerk in a dry goods store at St. Louis, and 
various other places. In 1867, he removed 
to Illinois, and engaged in teaching school in 
Menard and Cass Counties, and in Chandler- 
ville High School, of which he was Principal 
for three years and a half. In 1879, he en- 
gaged in the grain and agricultural imple- 
ment business. In 1869, he married Miss 
Hester Hewitt, a native of New Jersey ; 
born Nov. 9, 1843 ; she is the mother of 
three children, two of whom are living : Stel- 
la, aged ten years, and Arthur M., jr., aged 
eight. Is a member of the A. F. and A. M.; 
is Secretary of the Lodge. He has held the 
office of Village Clerk for two years. Polit- 
ically, Democratic. 

N. S. READ, M. D., Chandlerville, was born 
in Ashtabula County, O., July 25, 1820, to Ira 
and Mary (Smith) Read; he, born in Tyring- 

ham, Mass., Feb. 25, 1790; he was a farmer; 
emigrated to Ohio about 1815, and died Oct. 
31, 1861; she was born in Tyringham, Mass., 
July 23, 1790, and died April 21, 18G9; was 
the mother of six children, four boys and two 
girls, N. S. being the third. Of the six chil- 
dren, five are now living. In 1811, our sub- 
ject began the study of medicine, with his 
brother, A. N. Read, of Norwalk, O. In 1843 
entered the medical college at Cleveland, O., 
and graduated in 1844; His first practice of 
his profession was in Ashtabula County, O. 
In 1846 he removed to Geauga County, O., 
where be remained until 1852, when he re- 
moved to Illinois and settled in Chandlerville, 
his present residence, where he has since re- 
mained. Oct. 1, 1811^, in Geauga County, 
O., he married Miss Lydia C. Canfield, a 
native of Geauga Cjuiity, born Jan. 11, 
1826. She is the daughter of Orin and Anna 
(Beard) Canfield. Mr. and Mrs. Read are 
the parents of five children, two of whom are 
now living: Ira, and Lucy, wife of John 
Morse, of Chandlerville. He is an active 
member of the A. F. & A. M., and of the 
Chapter. Self and family are members of the 
Congregational Church, and he has acted as 
superintendent of the Sunday school for 
twenty-nine consecutive years. Politically, he 
is a Republican. Is a member of the Morgan 
County Medical Society, the Illinois State So- 
ciety, and the American Medical Association. 
PETER W. RICKARD, farmer; P. O. 
Chandlerville; is a native of Windham 
County, Connecticut. He was born Aug. 
26, 1823, and is the son of Peter and Mary 
(Heley) Rickard. His father was born in 
Massachusetts, in 1769, and died in July, 
1823. He was killed in the Revolution- 
ary war. His mother was also a native of 
Massachusetts. She was born in 1783, and 
died in 1852. Peter W. was educated in 
Connecticut in the Duley and Thompson 
Academies. His early life was spent at the 










home of his brother-in-law, Erastus Childs. 
In ]8J:-i, he came to Cass County, where he 
has since remained, engaged in teaching 
school, merchandising and farming. At the 
present time he is tilling the soil of 230 acres 
of well improved land. In 184Q he was mar- 
ried to Miss Elizabeth Peas, who bore him one 
child, Henry, now living in Morgan County- 
He married a second time, Mary Harbison, 
who died a few years afterward, and in 1859 
he married Mary C. Taylor, who has borne 
him six children, viz.: Charles E., John T., 
Frank M., Emma and James A. Mr. Rickard 
is a Republican, and he and Mrs. Rickard are 
members of the Congregational Church. 

JOSEPH RAWORTH, farmer; P. O. 
(/handlerville; was born in Sheffield, England, 
Dec. 30, 1820, and is the eldest of two chil- 
dren, born to Ebenezer H. and Sarah (Wing) 
Raworth, natives of England. Ebenezer H. 
Raworth, who was a grocer, died Aug. 11, 
1858, aged sixty-six years, and was interred 
at the Cemetery Church, Sheffield, England; 
his wife, born in 1799, died in 1824. Joseph 
received his primary education in the parish 
schools, finishing at Mooregate Academy, near 
Rotherham, England. In 1844, he came to 
America, landed in New Orleans the fifth of 
April that year, engaged in steamboating two 
years, taught school three months in 184G, 
■went to Scott County, Ills., and began farm- 
ing, and in 1860 came to this county. He 
has since followed farming in this county, 
and now has 105 acres here and 320 acres in 
Nebraska, all of which has been made by his 
own labors, he having had only a crown in 
his pocket when he landed in New Orleans. 
He married in Mason County, Ills., in August 
1857, Alice Tomlinson, a native of England, 
born in February, 1832. From this union six 
children have been born: Ebenezer, Mary, 
John, Emeline (deceased), Elizabeth, and 
Richard D. Mr. Raworth is a Greenbacker; 
he and his wife are Methodists. 

ALFRED T. SMITH, miller, Chandler- 
ville; was born in Chemung County, N. Y., 
Jan. 20, 1831; to Samuel and Anna (Roads) 
Smith. Samuel Smith was born in New 
York, November 27, 1790; removed to Illi- 
nois in fall of 1837, and settled in Menard 
County, where he followed the occupation of 
a farmer; in 1852 he removed to this county, 
where he also engaged in farming; he died 
Jan. 21, 1871?; he was in the war of 1812. 
His wife, and mother of our subject, was 
born in Duchess County, N. Y., January 
15, 1802, and died July 11, 1870; she was 
the mother of ten children, five boys and 
five girls, all of whom lived to maturity. 
Of the ten children, Alfred T. was the fifth 
child. When six years of age he came to 
Illinois with his parents, and at the age of 
twenty-two engaged as a farm hand; he contin- 
ued in that occupation about three years; 
then followed the trade of house painting in 
this county, until 1879, when he engaged in 
the milling business with Mr. W. W. Baker, 
at Chandlerville; the present firm is Smith 
and Carr; their mill is called Chandlerville 
Mills, and makes the well known brand of 
"Gilt Edge," flour in which they have a 
large trade. The mill has now a capacity of 
fourteen barrels per day, and they intend en- 
larging and improving it. April 15, 1866, 
he married Miss Laura J. Chapman, a native 
of Illinois, born Sept. 24, 1842, daughter 
of Jesse M., and Margaret (McGahan) Chap- 
man; he, born March 4, 1794, died November 
5, 1871; she, born August 8, 1800, died April 
27, 1848. Mr. and Mrs. Smith have five 
children: Albert, Charles C, Anna M., Laura 
and Edward. He is independent in politics. 

B. H. SHANKLAND, retired farmer; P. 
O. Chandlerville; was born in Nicholas Coun- 
ty, Ky., Nov. 23, 1843, son of A. G. and Judith 
(Stoops) Sliankland. He, A. G., was a native 
of Nicholas County, Ky., and was mar- 
ried Doc. 29, 1825, moving to Brown County, 



III., in 1853, where he remained till 185(5, 
when he moved to his late residence, where 
he lived till death called him away. May 7, 
1881, aged 74 years. He raised a family of 
nine children, four girls and five boys, all of 
whom are living, except one, Mrs. James 
Plew, who died three years ago. Mr. Shank- 
land was a useful and consistent member of 
the Methodist Church for over fifty years, and 
was loved and respected by all who knew 
him. His wife, who is still living in Brown 
County, was also a native of Nicholas County, 
Ky., and was born within 11 days of the birth 
of her husband. At the age of 19, our sub- 
ject left home, and began farming on his own 
account, but removed in 1874 to this county. 
In April, 18S1, he retired from farming, and 
removed to Chandlerville. He owns about 
600 acres of land. April 3, 1861, he married 
Miss Henrietta Briggs, a native of Brown 
County, who died in 1871, leaving five chil- 
dren, only one of whom is now living, Laura 
Belle, born Nov. 24, 1871. Feb. 2, 1876, he 
married Mrs. Elizabeth Dick, of Menard 
County, daughter of William and Jane Peak, 
natives of Kentucky. Two children are the 
result of this union: Lee, born May 30, 1878, 
and Ora, born May 20, 1881. Mr. Shankland 
served in the late war about six months, as a 
member of Company F, 135th Reg. Ind. Vol. 
He and wife are Methodists, and he is an A. 
F. and A. M., and a Democrat. 

THOMAS P. TAYLOR, retired merchant, 
Chandlerville; was born in Lancashire, Eng- 
land, June 18, 1828, to Mark and Ann (Scott) 
Taylor; he, born in Lancashire, England, in 
J 779, and died in 1844; she, born in Lanca- 
shire, England, in 1789, and died in 1864; she 
was the mother of thirteen children, of whom 
Thomas was the eighth. He began working 
in a cotton factory when eight years old, and 
was principally engaged in the factory until 
he was twenty-two years of age, when he 
came to America, and made his first stop in 

Delaware County, Penn., and engaged in a 
woolen mill. In 1853, he went to Pottsville, 
Penn., and from there to Delaware, and then 
returned to Pennsylvania and remained about 
twelve months. In 1855, he removed to Illi- 
nois, and settled in Morgan County. In 
March, 1850, he removed to Cass County, and 
settled on the bottom lands, and engaged 
with one Mr. Fielding upon a farm, until 
1802, when he bought a farm of about 250 
acres in Cass County, and began farming on 
his own account. In 1877 he removed to 
Chandlerville, and engaged in mercantile 
Ijusiness, which he continued until April, 
1882, when he sold his business to Mr. Morse, 
and retired from active labor. In July, 1862, 
he married Miss Ann Fielding, a native of 
England; born Feb. 28, 1821; a daughter of 
James and Betty (Bellfield) Fielding. Mr. 
and Mrs. Taylor were the parents of one 
child, who is dead. Our subject and wife are 
members of the Baptist Church. Politically, 
he is a Republican. 

Z. A. THOMPSON, merchant; Chandler- 
ville; was born in Petersburgh, 111., Dec. 
27, 1858, to Aaron and Amanda ( Flinn ) 
Thompson ; his father was born in New Jer- 
sey, Jan. 28, 1810; was a sea captain and 
emigrated to Illinois about 1830, settling in 
Sangamon County, and removed to Menard 
County in 1835, where he is still residing, en- 
gaged extensively in stock raising and farm- 
ing. His wife, the mother of our subject, 
was born in Hopkinsville, Kentucky, Sept. 
22, 1837, and is the mother of five children, 
of whom L. A. Tliompson is the second child. 
In addition to the ordinary schools, he attend- 
ed the Illinois College from 1874 to 1877, and 
in 1878 he entered the University of Ann Ar- 
bor, Mich., where he studied law. In 1879, he 
engaged in the mercantile business at Chand- 
lerville, where he has since remained engag- 
ed in the same business, and is at the present 
time considered one of the leading business 



men of the town. He is a member of the 
A. F. and A. M. Politically, he is identified 
■with the Democratic party. 

PETER VOLLMERR, grocer; Chandler- 
ville; was born in Hanover, Germany, Aug. 
6, 1848, to Peter and Margaret (Klinck) Voll- 
uierr; he was born in G(Mman\', where he fol- 
lowed the occupation of a farmer, dying in 
1881, aged eighty years. His wife, the moth- 
er of our subject, was also a native of Ger- 
many, where she died when Peter was an 
infant. They were the parents of six boys 
and one girl, our subject being the only one 
in America. He left his home when he was 
twenty years of age, and landed in New York, 
Dec. 14, 1808; then went to Charleston, South 
Carolina, where he remained two years. In 
1870 he came to Chandlerville, where he en- 
gaged as a farm hand for about four years, 
when he built a fine brick block, and started 
in the grocery business, where he also con- 
ducts a bakery. He has met with good suc- 
cess, having commenced poor, and is now 
among the leading businessmen of Chandler- 
ville. He was married in Cass County in 
1876, to Miss Lettie Durring, a native of Ger- 
many, who is the mother of two children: 
Alice and John. He and wife are members 
of the German Lutheran Church; and he is a 

WILLIAM L. WAY, grain dealer, Chand- 
lerville; was born in Crawford County, Ind., 
Nov. 3, 18-23, to Samuel and Ruth (Parr) Way. 
Samuel Way was born in Bristol, England; 
emigrated to Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 18, 1819, 
and settled in Crawford County, Ind., where he 
married ; he came to this county in November, 
1837, where he followed farming to the time of 
his death, which occurred in 183G ; his wife was 
born in Adair County, Ky., and died in Chand- 
lerville, this countv, in April, 1864; she was 
the mother of seven children, five boys and 
two girls, our subject being the oldest. At 
twenty-four years of age he engaged as 

clerk in a store in Morgan County, 111., and 
after two years went to Beardstown, where he 
was engaged by John McDonald, as dry goods 
and grocery clerk. He remained with Mr. 
McDonald as clerk, one year, when the latter 
started him in business in Chandlerville under 
the firm name W. L. Way & Co., and after 
continuing under that name three years, Mr. 
Way bought out the interest of his employer, 
and carried on the business alone until 1865, 
when he sold out and went to Iowa, where he 
sold goods and packed pork. In 1867 he re- 
turned to Chandlerville, where he has since 
remained, engaged in the grain and mercan- 
tile business. He was married in this county 
in 1804, to Emeline, daughter of David Carr, 
and a native of this county. They have three 
boys : David Henry, assisting his father in 
the grain business, Thomas Edward and Will- 
iam Carr, also assisting their father. He is a 
member of the A. F. and A. M., and I. O. O. F. 

ELIJAH WATKINS, livery and sale sta- 
ble, Chandlerville; was born in Cass County, 
111., Feb. 3, 1859, and is the son of William and 
Emeline (Hinchee) Watkins. His early life 
was spent in receiving such an education as 
the common schools of his native county af- 
forded, and assisting in tilling the soil of his 
father's farm. Being raised on a farm, Mr. 
Watkins in 1879 began farming on his own 
account, working a farm of sixty-five acres. 
In 1883 he bought, of Mr. Philo T. Norton, the 
sale and livery stable which he is now man- 
aging. By careful management, and study 
of the needs of the traveling public, he is 
making a success of this business. In 1879, 
he was married to Miss Anna Cone. Two 
children are the result of this union, viz.: Ora 
Lee, and an infant (unnamed). 

FRANK ZILLION, farmer, P.O.Virginia; 
is a native of Prussia, Germany; born Aug. 
24, 1835; son of Godfried and Louisa (Prong) 
Zillion, natives of Germany, where they both 
died. He is the fifth child of a family of 



eight children, and received his education in 
^the common schools of his native land. At 
the age of sixteen he apprenticed to the black- 
smith's trade, at which he worked till 1855, 
when he emigrated to America, and landed in 
New York; moved to Illinois the same week; 
worked at Quincy at his trade for about a 
month, then came to this county, settled in 
Virginia, and worked by the month on a farm 
for three years. In 1858, he rented land in 
Sangamon County, 111., which he farmed two 
years, then came back to this county and en- 

listed in the 6th 111. Cavalry, and after serving 
four years and two months, returned to tliis 
county, where he bought eighty acres of land, 
and has since followed farming. During his 
services he took part under Gen. Hunt, in 
the engagements around Nashville, Tenn. 
He married in this county in 18G6, Kate Yeo- 
mens ; they have nine children, of whom 
seven are living, viz.: Joseph, Charles, Willie, 
Eliza, Frank, John, and Kate. Mr. Zillion is 
a Republican. 




ISAAC N. BEAVER, druggist, Ashland, 
was born in Champaign County, Ohio, Jan- 
uary 3, 1833, to Isaac and Rachael (Boj-er) 
Beaver, natives of Virginia. His father was 
born January 5, 1793, and was a farmer by oc- 
cupation ; his death occurred May 1, 
1847; his wife died in 1839, aged about 
thirty-five years; she was the mother of eight 
children, of whom Isaac was the sixth child. 
When he was thirteen years of age, he en- 
gaged to learn the trade of a tanner, at which 
business he remained about nine years, after 
which he farmed ten or fifteen years, and 
then entered the drug business. In the spring 
of 18S0, he came to Ashland, this county, 
where he purchased the drug business of B. 
C. Randall, and has since continued in that 
business, at which he has been more than or- 
dinarily successful, and has built up a large 
and steadily increasing business. He was 
married in Champaign County, Ohio, March 
7, 1854, to Miss Ruannah Hess, who was 
born in Seneca County, Ohio, June 26, 
1832; she is the mother of six children, of 
whom three are still living, the balance of 
whom died in infancy; those living are Ella, 
wife of Dr. Shannon, of Industry., Ill; Ro- 
manus, living at home and interested in the 
drug business with his father; Orra, residing 
at Industry, engaged in the drug business, 
with his brother-in-law. Dr. Shannon. Mrs. 
Beaver is a daughter of Abraham and Sarah 
(Zerkle) Hess, natives of Virginia, and of 
German descent; both still living near Indus- 
try, Illinois. Mr. Beaver has been an active 
member of the fraternity of A. F. and A. M. 
for about 26 j'ears, and has held offices of more 
or less importance about one-half of the time. 
Politically he has been a life long Republican; 

always takes a part in any county enterprise 
that favors the interest of the county, such 
as churches, schools, and all other public im- 

JOHN BLANK, hardware merchant; Ash- 
land; was born in Germany, Nov. 15, 1840; re- 
ceived his education in his native land, and as- 
sisted in a bakery until he was seventeen years 
of age, when he emigrated to America, and lo- 
cated at Quincy, Illinois, where he remained 
about five years, and during the time learned 
the trade of a tinner. In 1871 he removed to 
Ashland, and worked for a Mr. Cullum, 
whom he bought out, and continued the bus- 
iness upon his own account; at present his 
store is well stocked with the goods usually 
found in a hardware store and tinshop com- 
bined. He was married Nov. 25, 1867, to 
Almira Best, who was born in Cass County, 
June 19, 1850; she is the mother of four 
children: Leonia, Delia, Gertrude and John. 
Mrs. Blank is a daughter of "Wilson J. and 
Nancy (Miller) Best. John Blank, Senior, 
was a native of Germany, a farmer by occu- 
pation, and died in 1864, aged sixty years. 
Christenia Blank, his wife, was also a native 
of Germany, and died in 1847, aged about 
fifty-two years; they bad six children, of 
whom John was the youngest. Although he is 
a man not much interested in politics, his 
sympathies are ^N-ith the Republican party. 

ALONZO F. BURNHAM, physician and 
surgeon, Ashland ; was born in Mason Coun- 
ty, 111. June 29, 1853 ; son of Henry C. 
and Angeline (Currier) Burnham. Henry 
C. Burnham, a farmer by occupation, was 
born at Hampton, Windham Co., Conn., .Ian. 
30, 1826, and has, since 1853, resided in Salt 
Creek Township, Mason Co., 111. ; his wife 



was born at Canandaigua, Ontario Co., N. Y., 
Dec. 16, 1835 ; they are the parents of seven 
children. The doctor received his primary 
education in the country schools, and after- 
ward attended an academy, after which he 
taught school and worked on the farm. At 
the age of twenty-two he began the study of 
medicine with Dr. J. P. Walker, of Mason 
City, 111.; and attended the Rush Medical Col- 
lege three winter terms and one summer 
term, and graduated in 1878. He came to 
Ashland, April 3, 1878, and entered into 
partnership with Dr. John Walker ; they 
practiced in company until October, 1880, 
when, on account of ill health, Dr. Walker 
retired from the practice of his profession, 
and Dr. Burnham has since practiced alone, 
meeting with good success. He was married 
Oct. 29, 1879, in Mason Co., 111., to Emma 
Blunt, a native of that county, born .Jan. 3, 
1859, daughter of A. A. and Martha A. (Trail- 
er) Blunt ; he was born in Hart Co., Ky., 
Feb. 21, 1831 ; she was born in Springfield, 
111., June 23, 1831 ; from this union they have 
had one child, P. Garfield, born April 4, 
1881, died Aug. 2, 1881. The doctor is a 
Republican and a member of the I. O. O. F., 
the K. of H. and the A. O. F. 

JOHN BEGGS, farmer and stock-dealer; 
P. O. Ashland; was born in Morgan County, 
Illinois, Aug. 7, 1831. At the age of eighteen 
he began farming in Morgan County, where 
he remained until 1858, when he removed to 
his present place of residence, where he has 
since remained, engaged more or less exten- 
sively in farming and in stock-dealing. His 
large and commodious farm residence is one 
of the finest in the county. He has been 
identified with the Republican party since 
the days of the old line Whigs. He was mar- 
ried in Cass County, Dec. 18, 1855, to Miss Sai- 
lie Sinclair, daughter of Samuel and Malinda 
(Bird) Sinclair, natives of Kentucky, both de- 
ceased. Mrs. Beggs was born in Morgan 

County, March 16, 1834. She is the mother 
of seven children, viz.: Emma, wife of Ed- 
ward C. Beggs, of Ashland; Anna, Charles 
S., John T., Nellie, Myra and Samuel 
W. Charles Beggs, the father of our sub- 
ject, was born in Rockingham County, Va., 
Oct. 30, 1775; he was a farmer by occu- 
pation, and was a noted politician at an early 
day, and was a member of the Constitutional 
Convention that framed the constitution of 
Indiana; he served several terms in the Leg- 
islature of Indiana, and was captain of cavalry 
in the war of 1812, and was in the engage- 
ment at Tippecanoe; his death occurred Oct. 
21, 1869. His wife, Mary Ruddell, a native 
of Hardy Co., Va., was born April 28, 1790, 
and died Aug. •!, 1871. She was the mother 
of nine children, of whom John, the subject 
of the sketch was the youngest. Religiously, 
himself and wife are connected with the 
Methodist Church. 

JOSEPH BOWERS, farmer, P. O. Ashland, 
was born in Derbyshire, England, Nov. 
26, 1816. His early life was spent in the 
cotton factories of England, and when twen- 
eight-years of age he emigrated to Amer- 
ica, and located at Philadelphia; in 1849 he 
moved to Cass County, Illinois, and took upon 
himself the duties of farm life; in 1858 he 
purchased a quarter section of wild prairie, 
upon which he now resides. He was married 
in Cass County, July 19, 1846. His wife, 
Hannah Gill, was born in Yorkshire, England, 
March 6, 1817; she has borne him seven 
children: Richard, a prominent young farmer, 
living near the homestead; James, in Denver, 
Colorado, speculating in mines; Mary A., 
wife of Wat Sinclair; Thomas, farmer, single, 
living at home; Jennie, wife of John Sinclair, 
living near home; William, a graduate of the 
Illinois College, at Jacksonville, a teacher by 
profession; Joseph, at home. Mrs. Bowers 
was a daughter of Richard and Betty (Hinch- 
cliff,) Gill, native of England, deceased. 



Joseph Bowers, the father of the subject of 
this sketch, was a native of England, a me- 
chanic by occupation; born March 4, 1790; 
died April 8, 1854. Betty Howe, his wife, 
■was also a native of England; born August 
1, 179o; died December 29, 185G; they 
were the parents of fifteen children, of whom 
only four are now living, and of whom Joseph 
is the third child. Mrs. Bowers is a Metho- 
dist, and Mr. Bowers has always been identi- 
fied with the Republican party. 

JOHN L. DOUGLASS, retired blacksmith, 
Ashland; was born at Midison, Jefferson Co., 
Ind., June 3, 1823; son of Asahel and Jane 
(Kikindall) Douglass. Asahel, a native of 
Connecticut, was born May 19, 1791, and died 
Jan. 21, 1880; his wife, born in Pennsylva- 
nia, Nov. 6, 1802, died Nov. 28, 1879; they 
were the parents of eleven children; John 
L., when two years of age, went with his 
parents to Lexington, Ky., thence to Metcalfe 
Co-, that State, where his youth was spent in 
assisting his father in his mercantile and 
trading interests. When about twenty years 
of age he began blacksmithing with his father, 
and after having learned the trad(!, came, in 
1857, to Virginia, this county, and the fol- 
lowing j'ear removed to Ashland, and pur- 
chased a shop which had been in operation 
but a few months. Here he continued in 
business until 1881. He served as magistrate 
one year, and is now performing the duties of 
that office, having been re-elected in the fall 
of 1881. During the late war, he entered the 
service in Co. I, 1st I. V. I., under Capt. Jesse 
F. Newman, the regiment being commanded 
by Col. Charles Fox, and remained in service 
three years. In Adair Co., Ky., April 27, 
1847, he married America E. Yates, born in 
Kentucky, May 31, 1831, daughter of Mel- 
ford and Catherine (Creels) Yates, natives of 
Adair Co., that State. From this union twelve 
children have been born, viz.: Melford A., 
John W. O., Jane C, Onin A. (died July 12, 

1858; was the first person who died in Ash- 
land), Louan, Rebecca C, Luthor H., Maud 
L , Maria O., Mary E., George T., and Reu- 
ben C. M". Douglass and wife are connected 
with the Methodist church; he has been an 
active member of the L O. O. F., for a num- 
ber of years; was one of the charter members 
of Oak Lodge No. 341, at Ashland. He was 
originally an old line Whig, and is now a 

WILLIAM S. DOUGLASS, retired car- 
penter, Ashland; was born in Lexington,, 
Ky., July 1, 1827. He received an ordi- 
nary education, and at the age of 22, left 
home and engaged in farming for about 
nine years; then learned the carpenter 
trade, at which he worked till 18G2, build- 
ing some of the first houses erected in Ash- 
land, and assisting in the erection of the princi- 
pal business blocks of the town. In Jackson- 
ville, 111., Feb. 20, 1855, he married Mary 
Virginia Job, born in Morgan County, 111., Dec. 
14, 1830, who has borne him four children, viz.: 
Charles F., Grace, Helen and Willie T. Dur- 
ing the late war, Mr. Douglass enlisted in 
Co. D, 114th 111. V. I., under Capt. Berry, the 
regiment being in command of Col. Judy, and 
served three years, and during that time par- 
ticipated in fourteen battles. Mr. Douglass 
retired from active life some time since, has 
been a member of the town board of Ash- 
land, and school director for twelve years; he 
is a Republican, and was formerly a member 
of the I. O. O. F. 

ALONZO S. FAY, Lawyer, Ashland, was 
born in Virginia, in October, 1853; son of 
Perry and Ellen (Rasenberger) Fay. Perry 
Fay, subject's fatlier, was born in New York 
in 1814, came to Illinois in 1848, and taught 
school till 1854, when he started West, and has 
not since been heard of; his wife, born in the 
State of Virginia, in 1820, died at Princeton, 
111., in 1858, leaving tvvo children, viz.: Alon/o 
S. and Luela (died in July, 1881.) Subject 



followed farming for a tiiiio; then entered the 
Asbury Institute of Indiana, where after pur- 
suing his studies in the classical course for six 
years, he graduated in June, 1879. He then 
entered the law office of Epler & Gallon, in 
Jacksonville; and, after reading law there two 
years, was admitted to the Bar at Springfield, 
111., in November, 1881; then formed a part- 
nership with Hon. J. M. Epler, and located at 
Ashland, where he is engaged in the practice 
of his profession. He is a Democrat, and a 
member of the I. O. O. F. 

WATSON W. GAILEY, Physician, Ash- 
land, was born near Newcastle, Pa., July 19, 
1843, of Scotch parentage, and claims an an- 
cestry running back to the House of Stuart; 
the grand maternal uncle of his mother, 
Elizabeth Stuart Macready, being none other 
than Charles Stuart, the Pretender; his 
father John Gailey, is a descendant of one 
of those gallant Highlanders who were 
banished from their native land, and took 
refuge in the North of Ireland. Our subject, 
after obtaining an ordinary education, at- 
tended medical lectures in Philadelphia. In 
1862 he entered the medical service of the 
United States, and was assigned to duty in 
front of Richmond. After the close of the 
war, the Doctor traveled to some extent, but 
finally located in Morgan Co., 111., at the little 
village of Prentice, which has so decreased 
since the rise of Ashland, that it is almost 
obliterated. He has a fine practice. April 
13, 1865, he married Miss Luella E. Carson, 
daughter of John and Nancy Carson, who 
bore him two children, Ernest C, and Louis, 
both of whom are dead. Mrs. Watson also 
died July 19, 1868. In January, 1873, he 
married Miss Lizzie M. Sinclair, daughter of 
Samuel Sinclair (Virginia Sam). Four boys 
have blessed this last marriage: Byron, Dar- 
win Spencer, Eugene Paul and Marsh Draper, 
the last named being now dead. In 1877 the 
Doctor built a fine residence at Ashland, 

where he resides. He has a very extensive 
practice, and always keeps fully up to the 
front in advanced medical and surgical prac- 
tice. He is a republican in politics and 
religion, meaning by the latter that he ac- 
knowledges the good in all churches. 

LEWIS C. HEWITT, Farmer, P. O. 
Ashland, was born at Cape Newtown, New 
Jersey, May 22, 1849. At the age of 37 years 
he left home and began working as a farmer, 
locating in Cass Co., 111., where he has since 
remained, engaged more or less extensively 
in farming. In 1877 he removed to his pres- 
ent place of residence, located three miles 
west of Ashland. His farm consists of 400 
acres of choice rolling land, all under a high 
state of cultivation. He deals, to quite an ex- 
tent, in stock of all kinds. He was married at 
Virginia, Cass Co., January 4, 1876, to Miss 
Alice Long, who was born in Cass Co., Oct. 
35, 1858. She is the mother of three child- 
ren, viz., Jessie, Allie, and Lewis. Mrs. 
Hewitt was a daughter of Jesse and Maria 
(Grisby) Long, both deceased. Thomas Hew- 
itt, the father of Lewis, who was born in New 
Jersey, was one of the early settlers of 
Menard Co., and still follows the occupation 
of a farmer; he was born in 1833. His wife, 
Abigail Hand, also a native of New Jer- 
sey, died in, or about, 1858, aged about thirty- 
four years. She was the mother of four chil- 
dren, of whom Lewis was the eldest. Po- 
litically, he has always been identified with 
the Democratic party. 

SAMUEL L. HAMILTON, grain dealer, 
Ashland, a son of Charles B. and Sarah Claphan 
(Lucket) Hamilton, was born in Loudoun 
County, Va., Dec. 17, 1835. Charles B. Ham- 
ilton, subject's father, a native of Virginia, a 
farmer and merchant, died in 1864, asred 56 
years; his wife, also a native of Virginia, is still 
living, and is about 73 years of age; of their 
nine children our subject is the third. Samuel 
L., in 1870 engaged in the mercantile business 



in Mason County, 111., and after remaining 
there three years, removed his business to 
Ashland, his family accompanying him. In 
1880, he sold out the mercantile business, and 
gave his attention to the grain and stock trade, 
but at present is engaged in grain dealing 
only. In May, 1870, he married Eleanor, 
daughter of Samuel Sinclair; she was born 
January 23, 1830, and died December 1, 1881, 
leaving five children, viz.: Charles S., Maud, 
Samuel S., Lloyd L. and Sarah E. Mr. Ham- 
ilton served three years and three months in 
the late war; he enlisted in Co. "F," 19th 
III. Volunteer Infantry, under Capt. AUerd, 
Col. Scott commanding the regiment. During 
his army service he received an injury which 
laid him up for nearly two years. He is a 
Republican, and a member of the I. O. O. F. 
WILLIAM M. JONES was born in the 
State of Indiana, County of Tippecanoe, on 
July 31, 1826, and came within four miles of 
where Ashland now is, in the spring of 1847; 
has seen, where Ashland now stands, growing 
in wild prairie grass, and has seen it also in 
a farm, growing grain, and now sees it in a 
beautiful little town. Commenced the prac- 
tice of law in 1857, tvas admitted to the bar 
as an attorney to practice law by the Supreme 
Court of the State, on October 20, 1871; came 
to the village of Ashland in the spring of 
1870. Never studied law in attorney's office, 
except his own. Never was in college a day 
in his life; came here as soon as he was dis- 
charged from the Mexican war at Newport 
Barracks, Kentucky, and was mustered out at 
New Orleans. He also served in the late war 
for the suppression of the rebellion. He was a 
private in Co. D, 26th 111. Infantry, and was 
mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky, and 
discharged at Springfield, Illinois. He was 
wounded in Mexico, and carried the bullet for 
thirty-six years, and then had it taken out, 
and yet he has received no pension, for he has 
never asked Uncle Sam for any help. 

THOMAS B. LaTOUCHE, merchant, Ash- 
land, was born in St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 8, 1852. 
At an early age he was employed in assisting 
his father in the mercantile business, and 
afterward clerked in Mason County. In 1875 
he went to Ashland, and clerked for S. L. 
Hamilton until the fall of 1880, when he pur- 
chased the business from Mr. Hamilton, where 
he has continued since. His trade, already 
large, has steadily increased, until now he has 
the satisfaction of conducting one of tho 
largest business interests at Ashland. He 
was married in Mason County, May 30, 1875, 
to Miss Capitola Dongler, who was born in 
Bath, Mason County, June 17, 1859. She is 
the mother of three children, viz.: Arthur, 
Myrtle, and an infant. Mrs. LaTouche was a 
daughter of George and Catharine Dengler, 
natives of Pennsylvania, still living. The 
father of our subject, John LaTouche, was 
born in Canada, was a merchant, and died in 
the army in 1801, aged about 35 years. His 
wife, Eraila McClintock, was a native of New 
York State, and is still living, aged about 40 
years, wife of Bernard Donlin. By her first 
husband she gave birth to three children, of 
whom Thomas was the eldest child. He has 
held the offices in the village of Ashland, of 
Clerk, Treasurer, and President of the town 
board. Politically he is identified with the 
Democratic party. 

FRANK LOHMANN, farmer and brick- 
maker, P. O. Ashland, was born Dec. 3, 1834, 
in Germany, of which country his parents, 
Frank and Elizabeth (Burns) Lt)hmann were 
natives. Mr. Lohmann, Sr., our subject's 
father, died of cholera, Nov. 1, 1850, aged 
about 62 years; his wife died in 1SG5, aged 
also about 62 years. Frank, the youngest of 
a family of five children, received an aca- 
demic education in his native land, and assist- 
ed his fjither in the coal and salt business, and 
in running a boat. At the age of sixteen he 
began learning the bakery and brewing trade, 



and in May, 1855, came to America and 
located at Wheeling, W. Va; in March, 
1875, came to Ashland, and in 1876, started 
a brickyard, where he still carries on the 
brick- making business, and in addition is also 
ensasred in farming. Ho had the misfortune 
to be burnt out once, with a loss of $3,500, 
but has since erected several brick blocks at 
Ashland, and has done much to make the 
town what it is. At Dixon, Lee Co., Ills., he 
married Dina Pahl, a native of Germany, born 
May 27, 1836; died in 1869. His second wife, 
whom he married June 26, 1876, is Artilicia 
D. Clark, a native of Menard Co., 111., born in 
1844. He has five children, viz.: Joseph B., 
Frank, Lewis, Sophia and Bertie. Mr. Loh- 
mann is a member of the Town Board, and of 
the County Central Democratic Committee; 
while at Beardstown he held the office of 
Supervisor. He is a Democrat, and a mem- 
ber of the A. F. and A. M., and Knights of 

GEORGE M. LEITCH, painter, Ashland; 
was born in Lenawa County, Mich., July 11, 
1853. At 14 years he engaged to learn the 
trade of coach painter, at which he worked in 
various places many years. Went to New 
Orleans, and was one of the force that frescoed 
the St. Charles Opera House. Upon his re- 
turn from the South he took a trip through 
Canada, frescoing churches, etc. Returning 
to the States, he eventually settled in Ashland, 
this county, where he has since remained, en- 
gaged in painting, graining and frescoing. 
He was married in Ashland July 24, 1877, to 
Miss Louisa A. Douglass, who was born to 
John L. and Ellen (Yates) Douglass, in 18G0. 
She is the mother of two children, viz.: John 
W., born Oct. 10, 1881; Estella, Nov. 
22, 1879. William M. Leitch, the father of 
our subject, was born in Huron County, Ohio, 
in 1816, a retired contractor and builder, liv- 
ing at Blissfield, Michigan. His wife, Emily 
S. Randall, born near Biddeford, Maine, in 

about 1821, died Oct. 10, 1881. She was 
the mother of five children, of whom George, 
our subject was the third child. He has al- 
ways taken more or less interest in the politi- 
cal issues of the times, and his sympathies are 
with the Democratic party. His father and 
one brother were in Company C, Fourth 
Michigan Cavalry, and one brother, Captain 
of Company K, Eleventh Infantry. 

ALFRED E. MICK was born in Tippe- 
canoe County, Ind., Dec. 22, 1837 His 
father, Daniel Mick, was born in Ross County, 
Ohio, and his mother in North Carolina. In 
an early day they left their native States, and 
located in Indiana, where they were married 
in the year 1836, locating on a farm in Tippe- 
canoe County. His mother died in April, 
1851, and his father in September, 1872. 
Th -y had nine children, five boys and four 
girls. After a preparatory course of study at 
Shawnee Academy, he entered Wabash Col- 
lege at Crawfordsville, Indiana, and two years 
later attended Asbury University at Green- 
castle, Indiana. In 1859 he left his native 
State, and located in Petersburg, Menard 
County, 111., and was elected county surveyor 
in 1864, and filled the position until 1869. 
During: President Johnson's administration he 
was appointed postmaster at Petersburg. 
Mr. Mick was elected county clerk in Novem- 
ber, 1869. During this time he was licensed 
to practice law by the Supreme Court of the 
State, following that profession until 1877, 
when he purchased the Petersburg Democrat. 
In 1881 he published the Petersburg Me- 
P'ublican, continuing until January, 1882. 
In March of this year he established the 
Sentinel, which he is now publishing at Ash- 
land, Illinois. On April 15, 1865, he was 
married to Mary E., the daughter of Milo and 
Elizabeth A. Wood ; she was born in Morgan 
County, 111., April 29, 1833. Milo Wood was 
a native of North Carolina, born May 23, 
1795, and Elizabeth A. Wood was born in 


Tennessee Jan. 11, 1797; they emigrated to 
Illinois in the year 18:20. Mollie O., Leslie 
P. and Claude W., constitute the children of 
Mr. Mick's family, now living. He was 
raised under the influence of the Methodist 
Church, but as yet has not become identified 
with any religious denomination. Mary E., 
his wife, has been a member of the Presby- 
terian Church for more than thirty years. 
In his political convictions Mr. Mick has al- 
ways been identified with the Democratic 
party. He is an Odd Fellow of fifteen years 
standing, and was one of the charter members 
that assisted in establishing Charity Encamp- 
ment at Petersburg, Illinois, about ten years 

NELSON A. NEWMAN, grocer, Ashland ; 
was born near Meredosia, Morgan Co., 111., 
July 30, 1848. In addition to the common 
schools, he attended for a short time the Illinois 
College at Jacksonville, and Wabash College 
at Crawfordsville, Indiana. In 1871 he be- 
gan dealing in stock in St. Louis; is now en- 
gaged in keeping a first-class grocery. He 
was married at St. Louis, June 23, 1880, to 
Miss Louisa J. Rogerson, who has borne one 
child, Mildred, born May 15, 1881. Mrs. 
Newman is a daughter of Thomas Rogerson, 
a native of England, now living at St. Louis. 
Jesse T. Newman, the father of Nelson, was 
born in Marietta, Ohio, in 1824; followed 
different occupations, but principally mer- 
chandising. His death occurred July 7, 1881. 
His wife, Esther Jane Gillham, was born in 
Scott County, 111.; she is the mother of- nine 
children, of whom Nelson was the oldest. 
Politically he is identified with the Republi- 
can party; his wife is connected with the 
Presbyterian Church. The father of our sub- 
ject served as Lieutenant Colonel in the 
One Hundred and First 111. Vol. Inft., organ- 
ized at Jacksonville. 

JOHN G. PEARN, teacher, Ashland; was 
born in Beardstown, Cass County, Oct. 

3, 1855, son of William and Mary (Mutton) 
Pearn, both natives of England, he being a 
farmer, and dead, she still living; they had 
five children. Our subject was educated at 
Lincoln University and McKendree College. 
March 30, 1880, he was married to Miss Annie 
Cunningham, born in Lebanon, Illinois, in 
1858, daughter of R. F. and Mary (Risley) 
Cunningham. Mr. Pearn has been teaching 
school six years. He is an Odd Fellow and a 

WILLIAM W. REDMAN, Postmaster, 
Ashland; was born in Logan County, Ky. 
Aug. 16, 1S20, and was brought to Morgan 
County, 111., when five years of age. At the 
age of seventeen years he moved with his 
parents to Van Buren County, Iowa, where 
he assisted his father upon his farm until he 
reached the age of twenty-one years, at which 
time he began farming for himself, and re- 
mained in Iowa until 1851, when he went to 
California,where he remained about five years 
engaged in mining. He then returned to 
Jacksonville, 111., where he remained three 
years. In 1860 he came to Ashland and en- 
gaged in the drug business, afterward spend- 
ing three years upon a farm; in 1871 he was 
appointed deputy Postmaster, and in 18 r4 
was made Postmaster, which office he still 
holds. He was married Oct. 7, 1845, to Miss 
Nancy J. Rucker, who was born in Kentucky, 
in 1825; she is the mother of five children: Ra- 
banus, Carrie C, Lester L., Lua, and an infant 
not named, the two latter deceased. Mrs. Red- 
man was a daughter of John Rucker, a native 
of Kentucky, deceased. Solomon Redman, the 
father of our subject, was born in Kentucky, 
in 1794; a farmer by occupation; his death oc- 
curred in 1849. His wife, Rebecca Williams, 
was also a native of Kentuck}', born in 1800, 
died in 1870; she was the mother of nine chil- 
dren, of whom William was the oldest. Him 
self and wife are members of the M. E. 
Church. Politically he is a Republican. 



REV. EDWIN B. RANDLE, clergyman, 
Ashland; was born in Madison Co., 111., Dec. 
15, 1852, to William S. and Sarah (Hans- 
barger) Ran die; he was born in North Caro- 
lina, and was brought to Illinois by his parents 
■when a child; a lawyer by profession, but 
conducts a farm also; now resides in Chris- 
tian County. His wife, Sarah, is a native of 
Kentucky, and came to Illinois when she was 
about eighteen years old; she is still living, and 
is the mother of seven children, of whom our 
subject is the oldest. At the age of eighteen 
years, he began teaching, and continued in 
that occupation six years. In the fall of 1878, 
he joined the Methodist Conference at Jack- 
sonville, having preached one and a half years 
previously. His first pastoral charge was at 
Irving, Montgomery County, where he re- 
mained two and a half years, and then remov- 
ed to Harristown, Macon County, where he 
remained two years, and in the fall of 1881, 
came to Ashland, where he now has charge of 
the Ashland Circuit. He was married at Har- 
ristown, 111., Aug. 25, 1881, to Miss Mary 
Stookey, who was born at Bloomington, III., 
in August, 1856, to Daniel and Caroline 
(Goodner) Stookey, natives of St. Clair Co., 
111., and both still living. Mr. Randle has 
been an active member of the I. O. O. F. for 
several years. He acts as correspotident for 
the Chvistain Advocate, the church paper of 
the denomination in whose interest he so zeal- 
ously works, and his letters and contributions 
are able, interesting, and full of the love and 
grace of the Master, in whose footsteps he 
endeavors to tread. 

JOHN L. REILEY, station agent, Ash- 
land; only child of Alfred T. and Mary (Lee) 
Reiley, was born in Howard County, Ind., 
Dec. 28, 18G1. Alfred T., the father of our 
subject, is a farmer, and was born in Rush 
County, Ind., in 1829; his wife, a native of 
Tipton County, Ind., died Dec. 31, 1861, aged 
twenty-two years. John L., after receiving 

an ordinary education in Clay County, 111., 
learned telegraphy in Isola, Ind., and, when 
a thoroughly proficient operator, took charge 
of the telegraph office at Farmingdale, 111., 
where he remained thirteen months, then re- 
moved to Jeffersonville and stayed one and 
a-half years, after which he took charge of 
the station at Ashland, where he has since 
remained. At Jeffersonville, Ind., June 29, 
1S80, he married Flora B. Caddy, who was 
born in Allen County, Ohio, in September, 
1862, who has borne him one child, Ethel, 
born Sept. 23, 1881. Mrs. Reiley is a daugh- 
ter of Charles and Anna (Straley) Caddy. 
Mr. Reiley owns a good village property, con- 
sisting of a house and two lots; himself and 
wife are members of the Methodist Church; 
he is a Democrat. 

GEORGE M. RANDALL, clerk, Ashland; 
was born in Vienna, Scott County, Ind., 
April 21, 1856. His father, George W. Ran- 
dall, who followed the occupation of a farmer, 
was born in New Albany, Ind., in 1826, 
and died June 2, 1S76. His mother, Mary J. 
Swope, who is still living, was born in Spencer 
County, Ky., in 1828; of her nine children, 
George M. is the fifth. He received a good 
education in the High School at Vienna, Ind., 
and having fitted himself for a teacher, taught 
school in Scott County, Ind., for some time; 
he afterwards taught in Cass County for six 
years. He has been engaged in his present 
business, clerking, in the employ of T. La 
Touche, for about three months. In Scott 
'County, Ind., July 15, 1876, he married Jem- 
ima Whitson, a native of that county; born 
November 28, 1854, daughter of Lorenzo D. 
and Jemima (Collins) Wliitson, both natives 
of Clark County, Ind., he, still living; she 
dead. From this union three children have 
been born, viz.: Linneaus, Olvia and Nor- 
man. Mr. Randall is a Republican. 

SAMUEL SINCLAIR, deceased, son of 
•John and Rachael Sinclair, was born in Ten- 



nessee, July 17, 1808. After a residence of 
a few years in Kentucky, the family moved to 
Illinois, and finally settled on a farm some 
eight miles northeast of the city of Jackson- 
ville, in a settlement yet known under the 
name of Hebron, where they located in 1835. 
Here the heads of the family died, the mother 
in 1844, and the father in 1850. They were 
both consistent members of the M. E. Church. 
When about 23 years old, he married Miss 
Melinda Bird, by whom he had one daughter, 
Mrs. Sally (John) Beggs. This wife died in 
1837. Oct. 22, 1845, Mr. Sinclair was married 
to Mrs. Myra A. Williams, relict of Page A. 
Williams, and daughter of John and Eliza- 
beth Rucker. Of this union there were born 
four children: Mrs. Elizabeth (Warner) Cow- 
ell, of Vernon Co., Mo. ; Samuel W. ; Mrs. 
Mary T. (Leni) Leatherton, and William O. 
Mrs. Sinclair raised three children by her first 
husband, viz.: John, Ellen and Newton. Mrs. 
Sinclair's parents were natives of Virginia. 
Mr. Sinclair, immediately after his second mar- 
riage, moved to Apple Hill, Cass County, 
where he remainedabout eight years, when ho 
sold his farm and moved to Panther Grove, 
Cass Co., where he bought 800 acres of 
very fine land. He died May S, 1868. He 
was a member of the M. E. Church. He had 
the reputation of being a good citizen — honest, 
upright, temperate, and patriotic, and a kind, 
indulgent, affectionate husband and father. 
He made a specialty of fine cattle and hogs. 
The Sinclair family are of Scotch descent. 
Mrs. Sinclair is a native of Kentucky. She is 
a member of the M. E. Church. She had 
seven brothers and sisters, raised to maturity, 
viz. : Presley, Eliza, Sedonia, Elizabeth, Sarah, 
Greenberry, and Nancy. The homestead 
farm is now managed by William O., who was 
born June 19, 1855. His education was com- 
pleted in a high school, since which time he 
has been engaged in general agricultural busi- 
ness, and handling a large amount of stock. 

He was married in Sangamon County, March 
16, 1866, to Miss Eva Tonilin, daughter of 
Edward and Myra (Rucker) Tomlin, born 
July 20, 1855. They have one boy, Carl, 
born Jan. 31, 1877. Mrs. Sinclair is a con- 
sistent member of the M. E. Church. Politi- 
cally Mr. Sinclair is a strong Republican. 

SAMUEL SINCLAIR, farmer, P. O. Ash- 
land; is a native of Loudoun County, Va., son 
of George Sinclair, a man of remarkable pru- 
dence and judgment, who brought up his 
family with great care. Our subject came to 
Morgan County June 8, 1-33, an anniversary 
of his birth, and entered 280 acres of land 
with a portion of $400, that he brought with 
him, afterward adding 40 acres more, making 
just one-half of a section. This land lies 
eight miles north-east of Jacksonville, near the 
little village of Sinclair, named in honor of 
our subject. After securing the land, he re- 
turned' to Virginia, Loudoun County, and 
Oct. 28, 1834, married Miss Euphemia 
Craven, daughter of Josiah and Elizabeth 
(Shepherd) Craven, from which union there 
were born nine children: George, Ellen, Peter 
Akers, Virginia, Henry Clay, May and James, 
twins, Ruth and John. Mrs. Sinclair died 
April 23, 1861; she had been for many years 
a devout member of the Methodist Church, 
and a lady of many lovable qualities. October 
21, 1863, Mr. Sinclair married Miss Dolly 
Beggs, daughter of Charles and Mary (Rudale) 
Beggs; and two children have blessed this 
second marriage: Emma Lou, and Maggie. 
The Sinclairs are of Scotch lineage, and trace 
their ancestry back to the famous Clan-Sin- 
clair, confreres of the Douglass and other 
noted Highlanders. George died 1850. Mr. 
Sinclair is a Christian gentleman, and has 
been a strong Union man, having given three 
sons to the cause during the late war. He 
owns 887 acres of splendid land, which is un- 
der a high state of cultivation, and contains all 
the modern improvements in farm a]iplianccs. 



Ashland; was born Jan. 11, 1833, in Wash- 
ington County, N. Y., of which county 
his parents, Samuel and Lydia (Robinson) 
Sybrant, were natives. Samuel, who followed 
the occupation of a farmer, died in 1859, 
aged seventy years; his wife is also deceased; 
they were the parents of seven children, our 
subject being the fifth. William, on attain- 
ing his majority, hired out as a farm hand, 
and, after having made some money, bought 
his first property in Crawford County, Pa. 
He came to this county in 1865, where he 
has since been enofaffed in farming:; he owns 
130 acres of land, on which he raises the usual 
grain crops. In Crawford County, Pa., in 
September, 1844, he married Sally Bassett, a 
native of Massachusetts, born June 25, 1823, 
daughter of Rufus and Mrs. (Colfax) Bassett, 
natives of Rhode Island (both deceased) and 
from this union one child has been born, viz.: 
Parmelia, wife of Joseph D. Turner. Mr. and 
Mrs. Sybrant are , members of the Christian 
Church; he is a Democrat. 

JOSEPH D. TURNER, farmer, Ashland; 
was born in England, Nov. 16, 1836; eldest 
child of a family of seven, of whom four 
are now living, born to John and Juliet 
(Dale) Turner, natives of England, and both 

still living; he, a farmer, and also a mechanic, 
born in August, 1810, now residing in Henry 
County, Ills.; she, born in 1811. Joseph D., 
came to America with his parents, when he 
was but two years of age; attended school in 
Scott County, Ills., and came to Cass County, 
in 1856, where he has since resided, with the 
exception of the time he served in the army. 
At the age of 20 years he began learning the 
blacksmith trade, at which he worked twelve 
years. In this county, October 1, 1865, he 
married Pamelia Sybrant, born in Pennsyl- 
vania, Aug. 5, 1845, daughter of William 
and Sarah (Bassett) Syl)rant, both still living; 
he, a native or New.York; she, of Vermont; 
from this union two children have been born, 
viz.: Ella Louisa and Mary Juliet. Mr. Tur- 
ner, during the late war, enlisted in Co. K., 
33J Illinois Volunteer Infantry, under Capt. 
C. E. Lippincott, the regiment being com- 
manded by Col. Havey, and remained in ser- 
vice three years and two months. After leav- 
ing the army he engaged in farming, which 
occupation he has since pursued. He owns 
156 acres of land on which he raises consider- 
able stock, as well as the usua! crops. Mr. 
Turner is an adherent of the Republican 
party. His wife is a member of the Christian 




"WILLIAM F. ARENZ, druggist, Arenz- 
ville; was born in Arenzville, Jan. 3, 1860; 
son of Peter and Mary L. (Baerholdt) Areuz; 
parents of two children ; he, deceased ; she, still 
living. (A full sketch of Peter Arenz, subject's 
father, will be found in the historical portion of 
this work.) The subject of this sketch re- 
ceived his primary education in Arenzville, 
afterward finishing at Jacksonville, III., and 
engaged in the drug business in Arenzville, 
where he has since followed that business. 
He is a Democrat. 

PETER ARENZ, harness maker,Arenzville; 
was born in Arenzville, Oct. 5, 180^, and is a 
brother of William Arenz, whose sketch ap- 
pears elsewhere in this work. His education 
was received chiefly in Arenzville; he also at- 
tended the Jacksonville Business College for 
some time. He began learning the harness 
maker's trade in Arenzville with Edward Heinz 
and has since followed that occupation there. 

E. E. BEARD, farmer, P. O., -Arenzville; 
was born in Augusta County, Va., Sept. 5, 
1848, and is a son of John C. and Mary A. 
(Bates) Beard, natives of Virginia. John C. 
Beard, who was a farmer, died in March, 1881; 
his wife is still living; they had thirteen chil- 
dren. The subject of this sketch received his 
education in this precinct, where he began 
life as a farmer, and where he has since pur- 
sued that occupation. He married, in this 
county, Oct. 7, 18^5, Julia Berry, a native of 
Jersey County, 111., and daugliter of David 
and Hannah Berry. Mr. and Mrs. Beard are 
the parents of three children: Clarence A., 
Grace, and John E. Mr. Beard is a member 
of Arenzville Lodge No. 481, I. O. O. F.; in 
politics he is a Democrat. His father came to 
this county twenty-seven years ago. 

THE CRUiM FAMILY.— James Ceum, 
farmer, Arenzville Precinct. The father of 
our subject was Matthias Crura, a native of 
Virginia, and was born July 10, 1774. He 
lived in the old dominion State until matun; 
in years, and then emigrated to Kentucky. 
While in this State, he taught school, and 
there married Miss Margaret Spangler, a na- 
tive of Louisville; born Nov. 18,1779. Her 
father, Daniel, was an early comer to that 
portion of the State, and was killed by the 
Indians, while attending to stock on his larin. 
Matthias Crura came from Kentucky to Mor- 
gan County, in 1833, and brought with him 
his wife and family of six children. He lo- 
cated in Morgan County, and there resided 
until his death, March 8, 1841, being then 
sixty-seven years of age. His wife survived 
him, and died April 34, 1853. His father al- 
so, Matthias Crum, was a native born Ger- 
man, a stone mason by trade. He crossed 
the ocean three times in his life; was a 
thorough workman, as many of the old stone 
chimneys erected by him in the old Domin- 
ion State, for the F. F. V's, are still standing, 
as a monument to his skill. James Crura, 
our subject, and his oldest brother. Christian, 
made their first visits to Cass County in the 
year 1830; another brother, David, also came 
with them, but he pushed on to Missouri, and 
there died. James and Christian located 330 
acres of land in Section thirty-five, township 
seventeen, range eleven. This they owned 
and improved in common. Upon this tract 
they built a small log cabin, and occupied it 
until they were both married, and their in- 
terests became divided. James married .Ian. 
31, 1833, to Miss Christiana Ream, daughter 
of John Roam, a native of Pennsylvania, and 



came to Ohio, thence to Illinois in 1830. He 
lived with his brother until he had completed 
his first log cabin in 1834, which he first oc- 
cupied the winter of 1834-35. Mr. Crum 
was born Sept. 33, 1806. He commenced 
farming in an humble way on eighty acres of 
land. To this he steadily added, until he 
had at one time several hundred acres. Of 
this he has sold but little, but has settled it 
upon his sons and daughters, and now owns 
about 800 acres, which comprises the home- 
stead. Mrs. Crum died May 1, 1878. Their 
children, born in the following order, are: 
David M. (deceased), T. Jefferson, James F., 
Sarah M., now Mrs. John F. Wilson, of Men- 
ard County, Mary E., or Mrs. William H. 
Thompson, of Jacksonville, Amanda C, now 
Mrs. W. H. Thompson, of Arenzville Pre- 
cinct, John M., Marcellus, George W., Mar- 
cus L., Charles P., and Oscar (deceased). Mr. 
Crum cast his first vote for General Jackson, 
at Charlestown, Ind. He has always evinced 
a lively interest in the cause of education, 
and is awake to the public interests of his 
county and State. 

Thomas Jeffkeson, his oldest living son, 
was born July 9, 1835. He received such 
schooling as the early advantages of those 
times afforded, and grew up to assist his fa- 
ther at a most propitious time, when there 
was much to be done. He was reared to be 
a successful farmer. In 1853 he started in 
life for himself, with a worthy gift from his 
father of 350 acres of Cass County land. 
March 11, 1855, he married Miss Sarah A., 
daughter of William and Lucinda (Turner) 
Henderson. Mr. Henderson is a native of 
Indiana, and Mrs. Henderson of Kentucky. 
They came to Morgan County in 1830. Mrs. 
Crum, born May 7, 1840, and she has eight 
children living, as follows: Charles E.. Marah 
T., Marion O., Willey S., OUie E., May L., 
Henry O., Eben R. Two died in infancy 
without names. 

Makcellus also received 250 acres from 
the old homestead, upon which he located. 
He was born Jan. 9, 1844, and is the sixth 
living child of his father. He attended the 
Wesleyan University at Bloomington; after- 
ward took a commercial course in Chicago. 
Married, Oct. 19, ISiO, to Mary E. Graff, 
daughter of Washington Graff, of Morgan 
County. They have four children: Alma C, 
Jessie F., Elton M., Reuel G. 

Dr. George W. Crum, the seventh living 
child, was born on the homestead, Oct. 1, 
1848. He attended school at the State 
Normal University, two and a half years, 
at Bloomington, in 1868, 1869, and a 
part of 1879. Ho then entered Adrian Col- 
lege, at Adrian, Mich., and in 1873 receiv- 
ed the degree of A. M. He then returned 
to the Wesleyan College, and graduated as 
an A. B. In the meantime he spent two 
years in the study of medicine, at the St. 
Louis Medical College, and graduated in 
1874, receiving his degree as M. D. The 
course of study he pursued may seem rather 
irregular, but it was taken as his choice, to 
avoid the discipline under one set of minds. 
Dr. Crura practiced medicine about four years, 
but is gradually abandoning practice, and has 
embraced farming, on account of failing 
health. He entered farming in 1869, when 
he purchased one hundred and sixty acres of 
land adjoiningthe homestead. Aug. 21, 1878, 
he married Mary E. Malone, daughter of Da- 
vid Malone, of EvaiisviUe, Ind. Mrs. Crum 
is a o-raduate of the Jacksonville Athasneum, 
and was born April 10, 1856. They have two 
children: Cora A. and Olga I. 

Marcus L. Crum was born Jan. 16, 1851, 
on the homestead. He received his educa- 
tion at the State Normal University, at Nor- 
mal, 111., and at the Wesleyan University, 
Bloomington, where he graduated in the class 
of 1874. He first took the degree of B. S., 
and since an honorarv degree of M. S. has 

J. Qsl. LcAJLy 





been conferred upon him. He, with the 
others, received 250 acres from the homestead 
property, as a present, and to that has been 
added, until he now owns about 560 acres, 
160 acres having been presented to him by 
John Stubblefield, whose daughter. Miss 
Mary F., he married March 30, 1875. They 
have three chiliben: Edith W., Arthur E., 
and Oral C. A full page portrait of our sub- 
ject appears elsewhere in this volume (see 

CtEORGE a. CRUM, farmer; P.O., Ar- 
enzville; is a native of Arenzville Precinct, 
tliis county; born Oct. 39, 1855; son of Chris- 
tian and Mary (Robertson) Crum, natives of 
Clarke County, Ind. Christian Crum, our sub- 
ject's father, was a farmer by occupation; was 
born May 11, 1803, and died Dec. 30, 1881; 
his wife, born May 17, 1813, died March 9, 
1883; they were the parents of eleven chil- 
dren, three deceased, our subject being the 
youngest child. His early education was re- 
ceived in the Union School House, Arenzville; 
at seventeen years of age he went to the 
Wesleyan College, Bloomington, 111., where 
he studied for three years. He then devoted 
his attention to farming, and also engaged in 
the livery business. He was married in 
Beardstown, this county, July 5, 1881, to 
Lucy G. Morris; born in this county, Jan. 13, 
1863; daughter of John C. and Nancy Mor- 
ris. Mr. Crum is a Democrat, and a member 
of the I. O. O. F. 

RICHARD J. CIRE, merchant, Arenz- 
ville; was born in Arenzville, July 20, 1853; 
son of John L. and Catherina (Hamm) Cire, 
natives of Prussia, and parents of nine chil- 
dren. He received his education in Arenz- 
ville, afterward taking a business course in 
the Jacksonville Business College, of which 
institution he is a graduate. He then clerked 
in his father's store in Arenzville for some 
time, and afterward devoted his attention to 
farming. For the past two years he has car- 

ried on a general merchandising business in 
Arenzville, and has been postmaster therei 
and still holds that office. He is at present, 
and has been for some time. Town Treasurer, 
and also Township Treasurer. In Arenzville, 
Feb. 35, 1877, he married Mary E. Briugman, 
who was born in Concord, Morgan Co., III., 
Aug. 3, 1856; daughter of William F. and 
Elizabeth J. Bridgraan. They have one 
child, Edna G., born Feb. 34, 1878. He is a 
Republican, and a member of Lodge No. 
481, I. O. O. F., in Arenzville. 

HERMAN ENGELBACH, deceased; was 
born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, D !C. 33, 
1839; only child of George and Matilda (Meyer) 
Engelbach, natives of Germany. Dr. George 
Engelbach, subject's father, was born Oct. 16, 
18l)4, and died Jan. IG, 1845; his wife, born 
Dec. 19, 1807, died Nov. 16, 1831. The sub- 
ject of this sketch received his education in 
Jacksonville, 111., graduating from the Illinois 
College, in that place, in 1849. He then en- 
gaged as book-keeper in a wholesale hard- 
ware house in St. Louis, Mo. In 1853 he re- 
turned to Arenzville, and engaged in milling 
and mercantile business until his death, which 
occurred Dec.