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Cass County, 


Mlith inustvaticms and i^ioiivaphical J^hctchc;; 

Of Some of its Prominent Men and Pioneers. 






rr^HE undersigned, wlio entered a year ago upon the task of preparing an exhaustive and correct history of 
-•- Cass County, place the result of their labors before their patrons, with a feeling of confidence that it will 
be fully indorsed by them, as it already has been by the Pioneer Society through its committees appointed for 
the purpose of revising it. The publishers believe that they have not only fulfilled, but exceeded the expecta- 
tions of those who have taken a friendly interest in their work, and that the volume which has been produced 
by them will receive the favorable criticism of all candid people qualified to judge of the character of its con- 
tents. No pains nor expense have been spared to make the history all that it should be. Our writers have 
labored with well-directed diligence to rescue from oblivion all of the essential facts which should enter into a 
work upon the past of this region of country, and to group them in the most appropriate manner possible. In 
this labor, always a difficult one, they have received the willing and hearty co-operation of those people who 
have been the depositories of the desired information. While we rest assured that we and they have been the 
faithful stewards of the riches of historic lore bestowed by a thousand of the pioneers of the county, and that 
the facts they have furnished are returned to them in a form which will be acceptable, we are not so pre- 
sumptuous as to think that the history of Cass County will be absolutely free from trivial errors. That a book 
which contains at least ten thousand dates, and thrice ten thousand names can be accurate in every line, no 
thinking person can expect. But we do believe such has been the care bestowed on the preparation of the 
present work, that its trivial errors are reduced to the minimum — that the sins of omission and commission are 
not numerous. The publishers wish to return their most sincere thanks on their own behalf, and that of those 
in their employ, to the pioneers of the county who have, often at much self-denial, assisted them in securing 
the data for this work. To mention the names of all of those whose courtesy and cordiality have been appre- 
ciated would be impossible, for their number is hundreds; but we cannot refrain from mentioning the names 
of a few of this class, whose positions have enabled them to be of especial service. And first we may perhaps 
place the name of the venerable Capt. Joseph Harper. The Hon. George B. Turner has also been a valued 
"guide, philosopher and friend," and the store of his information has been largely drawn from. Others in 
Cassopolis, to whom thanks should be returned for favors rendered in the preparation of the work, are Messrs. 
John Tietsort, Elias B. Sherman, S. T. Read, Hon. James M. Shepard, C. C. Allison, Judge Andrew J. Smith, 
Judge William P. Bennett and L. H. Glovei-, Esq. Elsewhere in the county, the following may be mentioned : 
La Grange — Orlean Putnam, Hon. Jesse G. Beeson, Gamaliel Townsend, Isaac Shurte, Stephen D. Wright; 
Pokagon — Robert J. Dickson, John Rodgers, Alexander Robertson, D. W. Ilurd, Rev. John Byrnes; Penn — 
John W. O'Dell, Daniel Mcintosh, Dr. Leander Osborn, David M. Howell, W. E. Bogue, Hon. Amos Smith ; 
Ontwa — Joseph L. Jacks, George Redfield, Moses II. Lee, J. C. Olrastead, Hon. John B. Sweetland ; Volinia 
— M. J. Gard, Hon. George Newton, John Huff, Hon. A. B. Copley. H. S. Rogers ; Marcellus— W. 0. Mat- 
thews, Abijah Iluyck, George W. Jones, George Savage; Porter — Hon. George Meacham, Hon. J. II. Hitchcox, 
F. C. Morton, Samuel Rinchart; Mason — Henry Thompson, R. C. Ross, D. Bishop ; Jefferson — S. C. Tharp, 
Judge M. T. Garvey, .Jonathan Colyar ; Milton — Wesley Smith, N. B. Dennis, Henry Aldrich ; Howard 
— Hon. E. C. Smith, Hon. James Shaw ; Wayne — Hon. II. B. Wells, Cyrus J. Gage, Lafayette Atwood ; 
Dowagiac — Francis J. Mosher, B. W. Schermcrhorn, C. J. Grecnleaf, Joel II. Smith, Gideon Gibbs, 
William K. Palmer, G. C.Jones, Dr. H. S. McMaster, George W. Jones; Newberg— J. M. Chapman, 
E. H. Jones ; Calvin — Jefferson Osborn, Levi J. Reynolds, Col. George T. Shaffer. We desire to 
make especial mention of the valuable writings of the late Judge Nathaniel Bacon, of Niles, which 
have been quoted in the chapter upon Pokagon. Written communications have been received in answer to 
letters or circulars from many persons, resident and non-resident of the county. To all who have thus aided 
in the compilation of the history we also tender thanks. 

CmcAoo, 111., June I, 1882. 


i! ••-^1 J ^i,,,^ .,;-^jJ,J) GA^'-'t-' -it 



Scoi)e ol the. Work— The Region Represented In the History 
Described— TopoKraphy of Cass County— Actual Land Areas 
In the Several Townships— Varieties of Soil— Dimensions of 

Reds and Mounds.. 

ulorers— The Huguenots Excluded from New France— Rreben, 
Daniel, Lalleniand- Raymbault and Jouges— ClaudeAllouer— 
Tere Marquette— His Passage down the St. Joseph River 1 

11".')— His Death on the Shore of Lake Michigan— I,a Salle— 
He Builds Fort Miamis at the Mouth of St. Joseph in IGTS— 
HisJournevaci-oss the Michigan Peninsula in leso— Frequent 
Subsequent Visits to the St. Joseph— Founding of Detroit by 
De la Motte Cadillac— The Mission of St. Joseph Established 
—A Mission near the Site of Nlles— The Miamis and the Pot- 


r.— Oreat Britain Suc- 

ceeds France In Domination of the Northwest — MIchlga 
. ; >f th 

Enmity by the French— PnnWac's''Couspiracy— The Potta- 
watoniles join the League— Siege of Detroit— Massacre of the 
GaiTlsun at Fort St. Joseph— An Exploit of the Tribe of Top- 
■ --- -Indians Propitiated by the British-The Quebec Bill 

west by George Rogers Clark— Evacuation of Detroit .... 

lAPTEK IV— OnTLiNK OF Civil Hi.stoky. -Ordinance of 1787 
—Its Authorship— Michigan as a I'art of the Northwest Ter- 
rltoiy— As Part of Indiana Territory — Michigan Territory 
Organized— Formation of Stale Government— Dimrultles At- 
tending Admission (othe Union— Disputed Boundary— Toledo 
War— Michigan Receives the Upper Peninsula in lieu of the 
Maiimee Swamp— Removal of the Capital — Constitutional 
Cimventlon of J85o— Lists of Territorial and State Governors 
—Population from 17% to 18«0 


Their ('. 
duce<l ii 


LAND TiTLK AND SuRVKv.-Ownership of the 

-TlieClaini.sof France and England-Of States— 

)n to tlie liiited States— Sy.stem of Survey Intro- 

- !n iHiiefli.H-Modlftcatlous for Michigan— 

1 V T.ands- Land Sales at White Pigeon 

' I ; ' II Michigan Lands— School Lands— 

; I :i'il— The Treaty of Chicago in l«21— 

the Mlami.s in the Occupation of the St. Joseph Country— 
Hostilities in which tliev were Engaged— The Chicago .Mas- 
sacre-Customs of the I'ottawatomles— A Festival and Med- 
icine Dance Described by the Rev. Isaac McCoy— Bertrand's 
Story of Saugana's Dream— Modes of Burial— Keligious Cer- 
emonies—Evidences that Cannibalism was Practiced by the 
Pottawatoniies and Other Tribes— Deplorable Effectsof Ar- 
dent Spirits—Seasons of Extreme Destitution :u 

IIAITER VII Tim Pr>TTA« atomie Indians. (Cimtmueil).— 
Indian Villages— Their l/ocatlons in Cass County— I'okagon's 
Progressive Spirit-Indian Trails in Cass Countv-The Chi- 
cago and Grand River Trails— Network of Paths in Porter 
Township- Toplnabe— Weesaw.theWarChief-Pokagon.the 
Second Clilef In Rank— Shavehead— His Enmltv to the Whiles 
-Probable Manner of Ills Death— Indian Murders— Removal 
of the Pottawatoniies to the West— Exemption of Pokagon 
and His Band— The Latter Days of the old Chief 44 

MAI'TEK VIII. Thf.Carkv .Mission.— Its KjitabiUhment near 
the Site lit Nlles In IsL-i- Its Effect on the Settlement of Ca«s 
and Berrien Counties -The Rev. Isaac McCoy— Trials of the 
.Mi.sslonarles Scarcityof Fond— Succes.sfulnessof the School 
—How Regarded hv the Pottawatomles— Necessity for Re- 
moval—Crowded Out by the Whites— Improvements at Carey 
.\ppral9ed, in 1830, at over S.' S2 

IIAITER IX.— ADVKNT OK THE White Man as a Skttlfk. 
-Indian Traders-Zaccheus Wooden, the Trapper— His Visit 
to CassC.mntv in 18i:i-15— The White Man as a Permanent 
Settler— First Settlement In the Interior of the State— Earliest 
SettlementIn Berrien County— The Pioneers Enter Pokagon— 
Hates of Earlv Settlements throughout Cass County— Causes 
Oocratlng to Retard Immigratl. n-The Sauk or Black Hawk 
War Scare- The June Frost of 18,15 .iK 


CHAPTER X— Pioneer Like— Beauty of the Country in a State 
otNature— Cabin Building Described— Furniture and House- 
hold Utensils— Food— First Mill— Occupations of the Pioneers 
— '■ Breaking " — Women Spinning and Weaving — Social 
Amenities— First General Pioneer Gathering at Elijah Co- 
ble's In 1837— Character of the Pioneers— Two Classes— Job 
Wright, of Diamond Lake Island, as a Type of the Eccentric 

'HAPTEK XI.-Erkction and Organization or Cass 
CoiNTV.— The 'Earliest Counties EstablLshed— St. Joseph 
Township— Cass County Erected in 1829— Berrien Attached 
under the name of Nlles Township— Political Divisions— 

—Public Buildings-Roster of Civil Officers 6« 

CHAITER XII.— Internal Imi-rovk.ments.- Indian Trails— 
The Chicago Road— The Territorial Legislative Council— Fos- 
tering Internal Improvements— Roads Ordered to be Opened 
—Stage Routes— The Old Stage Coach— A Canal or Railroad 
Project— Railroads 75 

(■H.\PTER XIII.— llELiqioiis akdEdioational.— Character of 
Pioneer Preachers— Early Clergymen of Different Denomina- 
tions in Cass County— Sketches of .Vdam Miller, John Byrns, 
Elder Jacob Price, Justus Gage and Others— Bishop Phi- 
lander Chase— Collins, " the Boy Preacher "—Educational In- 
teresls of the County- School Laws— Incorporation of an 
Academy- Present Method of Scliool Supervision- County 
Supeiintendents- County School Examiners DO 

CIIAITEK XIV.— Thk Bar ok Cass Bounty.- Alexander H. 
Redlield— Ellas B. Sherman— Old Time Non -Resident Law- 
yen Sketched by one who knew Them—" Black Chip " and 
" White Chip"— Biograpiilcal Sketch of James Sullivan— Eze- 
kiel S.Sinith— Henry H.CooIidge— Clifford Shanahan— Daniel 
Blackmail— George B. Turner— Andrew J. Smith— Younger 
Attorneys who have Practiced at the Cass County Bar «« 

CIIAITKR XV.— The Mkdh'al Profession.- Practitioners In 
Cass County, Past and Present— Biographical Sketches— The 
Succession of Physicians in Cassopoli.s, Edwardsburg, Van - 
dalla, Dnwagiac, Pokagon and Sumnerville— Physicians in La 
Grange, Brownsville, Jones, .\damsville, Williamsvllle and of 
Marcellus * 

CHAITEU XVI.— Thk Press.- Firet ifewspaper Published in 
Cassopolis— The NatinnaJ D'.mnciat and tlie r«ffilaril— His- 
tory of the Dowagiac Press— The Republican and the Times- 
Papers in Edwardsburg— Marcellus— Vandalla io« 

CHAPTER XVII.— The Underground Railroad and the 
Kentucky Raid.— The two Lines of the Underground Rail- 
road which formed a Junction in Cass County— Station 
Agents and Conductors— Their Methods— Spies f ' 

and other Friends— Riot and Bloodshed narrowly Escaped— 
'• Nigger Bill " Jones, the Baptist Minister and the Negro 
Baby-Excited Condition of the Public Mind— Legal Proceed- 
ings In (Cassopolis- Negroes discharged from Custody and 
Spirited away to Canada— Suit against the Fugitives' Frlcids 
by tlieKentuckians 

IIAPTER XVIII.— Cash County in the War of the Re- 
IIKLLION.— The First Company of Soldiers raised In the 
County— Its Organlzatio " ' 

-Attached to the Forty-second II- 

ine rony-secona Il- 
linois Infantry- Brief History of that Reglmenr— Roster of 
the Officers and Men of the Forty-second, from Cass County 
—Other Full Companies from the County— The Sixth Mich- 
igan Infantry— Brief Histories of the Twelfth and Nineteenth 
Infantry Regiments, with Roster of Men from Cass County— 
The First Michigan Cavalry l 


,,n 1 I..V ".."/irii/€d(— Second. Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, 
Niiitii .11(1 I I. viiith Cavalry— First Light Artillery- Four- 
\. iK in Infantry Organizations— The Nlntn, Elev- 

. , I M. jii. Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Seven- 

in iiHi I "■ I ii> -fourth, Twenty-lllth, Twenty-eighth and 
liuili. Ui Ih, One Hundred and Second V. S Colored In- 
laiilry- Cass I'miiity Men In Miscellaneous Organizations 1 

'HAPTKR .\X.— The Pion err Sociktv. -Us Organization— Con- 
stitution and Bv-Lawn— Annual Picnics— List of omcera frum 
187.1 to 1881 Inclusive— An Incident ol the Meeting of 1881— Ros- 

Flourishing Condition of the Society. 


iHAPTKK XXI.— A<5UK 1 l.TIRAI. ANII MisrKl.i.AXEtiv S Soi.T- 
KTiRs.— Its Ocg&iil/ation in Issi— Tlie First *"air Held— A 
SpeecJi by lleniaii KedlielU— ('oadilion of the County Tliirty 
Years Aso — Horses, Cattle and slieep — "Ten Thousand 
Thiiiits by Wolverine Audaeilv Called Swine "—Complete 
Premium List of the Fair of IKil— Urief .Suhse<iumt History 
of the Society— Cass County Bible Society Oi-ganlffld in iwi 
—County Medical Societies— Farniei-s' Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company 14k 

CHAI'TER XXn.— STATISTICS.- Population by Townships, 1837 
to 1880- Vote on the Constitutions and for Presidents— Gub- 
ernatorial Vote of 1880, by Townships— Valuation— Produc- 

IIAPTEK XXIII.— Cassopolis— Foundiugof theVillage-<'ounty 
Seat Contest— A Souvenir— I^etter from Alexander H. Re<lHeld 
—First Death, llirth and Marriage— Cassopolis as it Appeared 
in 1835— The CampaiffU of 1S40— Job Wrighfs Prediction— 
Tlie Only Ceneral iMilitia Muster— Llttlejohn's Temperance 
Kevival of lj*4."i— Corporation History— Roster of \'illage OfB- 
cials— The I'ulilic Souare Case— Mercantile and Manufactur- 
iiiB Matters-nankiUK- Hotels— Post Olllce— Religious His- 
tory Pul)Iio Scliools— Cemetery Societies 

HAPTKI! XXIV.-TheCitvok 

velopment— C;ni-f^ rcHiiMni 

City of Venirt- ■■ '■ 

Original Phil 

tile and 

Hce— RailroM I 


Secret and l;.-i.. ..n..!. >.... 

Incorpoialiou aul t ilj I lu 

Fire l)eparliiient— The I.ari 

■places— Fair Association— I! 

lu to Cif.itf a Town- The Paper 

'■"■■r!v nnwaglac— 

- ~ -Merc;in- 

- I'ostOf- 

I— Church 

i I ■ ;: ■ "-.iihi I'oachers- 

..-.-- .- l.iiH.iiy-Village 

1 tci-uniccrs from l»58 to 1881— 
;o Fires of 18M and 18ti(l-Biirial 
iogiaphlcal : 

CHAITKR XXV.-FOKAGON— Arrival of Putnam— Incidents of 
his Journey— Baldwin Jenkins— Sgiiire Thompson— I^wis 
Kdwards— Alexander Rogeis— The Pioneer Plow and First 
Cnip— Townseuds— Markhams— The First Religious Meeting 
— (Jrganization of the Township— First Marriage- FlrstRoads 
—Early Postal Facilities- ,Sauk War— Assessment of 1834— 
Shakespeare — State Hatchery— Churches— Civil List — Land 
Entries : 

Tietsnrts and others — Early Events— First Heath — Fi ret 
Marriage — Mary Bonnell, the tirst child born — The flrst 
School and Teachers— Deer Killing— First Township Election 
—Families of the Early Settlers— Complete List of l,and En- 
tries—Principal OBlcere of La Grance from 1830 to 1S80— 

Soil, Lakes and Wat.- 
Escape of Daniel Melni 
itivc (irist-Mill— Trii'^i 
Entries— Stock iMaikv-' 
Alasoiiic— (ieiievB. the l.os 
Assessment Roll of l.iST— ( 


I Lisl— liiosraiiliical.. 

•HA ITER XXXIV.-Sii.vkhCkkkk.— Survey— Topography— Mc- 
Daniel the First Settler- Arrival of Barney, Suits, Treat and 
theirFamilies— Organization— First TownshipMeeting— First 
Oltlcers- Pioneer Wedding— Pokagon and bis Band— Erection 
of the First Church— First Road— Assessment Roll of 1858... 
Land Entries- Uncle Tommy— Indian Sugar-Making— First 
School— Later Settlers— Churches— Civil List : 

CHAITEK XXXV.— Jkkfbr«on.— Erection of Township— Water- 
Courses and Lakes— First Settlement— Economy of Pioneers 
ioneerHospitalitv— Original Land Entries— Initial Events 

L-IIAITEli XXXVI.— CALVIN.— Unexpected ResulU of (Cindne.s.<i 
— Abner Tliarp and John Ree<l the First Settlers— Early Set- 
tlen— A Pioneer Cabin— Tlie Shaffer Family— The East Set- 
tlement-Land Entries— Negro Settlement — Saw Mill and 
Distillery — Sauk War .Scare— Schools— Religious Organiza- 
tions— Civil List— Biographical - 

CHAPTER XXXVII— MARCBLbU.H— A Retrospection— View of the 
Township—" Ye Olden " and Present Time Contrasted— Early 
Settlements— Unexecuted Threats of Tah-Wab, an Indian- 
Land Entries— Civil Organization— Post Offices— Early Events 
—Marcellus Village- \'Tllage of Wakelee — Religious- Secret 
Societies— Schools-Civil List— Biographical 

CHAPTER XXXVIII— M.\so>-.—Whv not settled earile^-Elani 
Beardsley the First Settler-Sad Death of Darius Beardsley— 
Tlie Ross Family— Jotham Curtis— The Millers- Laud Entries 
-Erection of Msison Township— Keligious—Schools — Initial 
Events— CMvil List— Biographical 

CHAITER XXXIX.— NKwiiKH<i.-John Balr. the First Settler- 
The Emigrants' Trials-" Land Sharks"- George Eoe— The 
Riidd Family- Early Settlement— Land Entries— f!ivil Or- 
ganization -iJewberg-Tax Roll f.r 18,18- Postal Servlcc- 
Schools— Religious-Civil List— Biographical 


AMrich Dr l( 

Aldrich Or It 

Vldrich Mr and Mrs Henry portraits ii 

Vsiiley, Rev James 

Beeson Hon Jessie G 

Bucklin Mr tnd Mis. William I 

lto».n( Sti I 1 u 111 I Htiin ih 

burg, the Enil.ivorn\ -Thr ( ..untrv ms I'V i:/r:i r.iiinis- 
ley.tiieFirst-- ••' ' ■ ' ■ ■ -' - . ■ . . .. 
niug of Kill- 
Same— Ple:i>< 
—Early Don I 
of an Early ^ ; 

port-Original i.aim i-.iiini-<- lavnn i.i,',.|ist— ■■.invar.iM..,,-, 
Us Demise aud llcsuiici lion, inuliuliiig Laily .Meiulianis, I'd- , 
ritoriai Road, Stage Coach. etc.-Churches- Schools— Organ- 
ization— Civil List-Biographical 2ii2 | 

Btttlr Ml II I Ml 
1I)LIIC^ Lit lolin 
Bisho|i Daniel and 
( iss ( ount> map 


.ITKK XXX.-PoKTKK.-Evidencesof a Preliistorii Itict- 
Earlv Settlrmeiits, InrlMdiiig the Indians' A>.s lult upon Inhn 
Baldwin— A Wolf and Wild Cat Story-Piintlicr scare-Pio- 
iieer Samaritanism— Land Entries- Reminisi ences— Or„'an 
i/alionnf Townshin— Early Taverns- Coal Oil Specul itloii— 
Religious Organizations— Schools-Products— Civil I is(— Bio- 

IIAlTEli \X\li— ll..».Mii.-i;iiiiy b.:i.-f in iL I ii| loiliitlm 
ness— William Kirk, the llrst Sclller-The Si ttk mcnl ini liid 
ing Social Aiimsenieiits— First Maiiufactureis-I o\\ Prno 
of Farm Products— Cliaracteristics of Ploniers- 1 ind l-n 
Hies— Poll List of 1837— Yankees vs. Hoosli rs- M Uistics and 
Productions- Schools-Civil List— liiograpiiic il 

HA ITER XXX 1 1 1 — .M I i.ToN — Beardslev's Prairie .iiid Ihe Town 
ship in "Ye Olden Times "—First .Setlkis and tarly Sit- 
llement— Liuid Entries — Erection of Township— f>oil and 
Products— Religious Organizations— Schools— <'lvll List— Bl 
ographical ■ 


ry, . 

(I. Mr. and Mrs. James ,„,. 

i^}liri^',*!;S.?"*-8»"^" :;;::::::betWeen: 

liller, Itev. Adam 

McMaster, Dr. H. S ... 

Maisb, Austin C 

Morris, Samuel 

Matthews, Warren O. 

..laciug 2si 
..facing 372 
..facing .184 
..faping 314 

Jjewton, Hon. Mr. and Mi-s. (icorge 

Norton, Pleasant. „.., 

Norton, Levi D _ 

On. George B., residence of 

Olds, Mills 

I'utnam, Orle:in - Vi 

Piitiiam, Tzzicl '-- 

Price, Kev. .Jacob 1!. 

Prindle, l>r. C. I' „: ,„ 

Prindle, l)r. c. P.. residence u. i..c , ,,.,,,J .;S 

Putnam, Hon. IzzicI, Jr fl!- e wl 

Pitcher, Mr. and Mrs. Silas A i ueen '«•' tS 

Papsons, Mr. and Mrs. Beujamin failne 'im 

Kedlleld. Hon. Alexander H .. Uveen « m 

Kft>ublie:in,otHce of. * ,yy 

• - r . portrnit and residence fai-ini,' ifKi 

Mr. and Mrs. John, portraits an<i residence facinc 2<« 

r and Mrs. William A., portraits and residence-bet. 216, 217 

Hon.George between 264, aw 

.■.''»'^* i- facins 27« 

facinp: 3(U 


It ltrothers..jt'. 

. Mr. and Mrs. Cool 

inner, Horatio W 

Ilot.iiisoii, Mr. and Mrs. Natli 
Kiekert, c. ('..residence of.. 

Keynoids.Hon. Edwin W 

Sburte, Isaac- 

Sullivan.. lames 

simth, Judge Andrew J 

Sweiitland, Dr. John B., porlr.,.. -i.,; , 

S'liool, Ca.ssopolis Union 

>i'hermerhorn, B. W 

School, nowaglac I'nlon 

MMipson, Mr. and Mrs. Moses W 

Simpson, Mrs. .Sarah H.. residence of 
Shanafelt, William H., residence of.. 

Smith, Hon. Amos 

Silver, Orren, residence of 

S<iuier, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel C 

Storey. Mr. and Mrs. Ozlal 

Spencer, E. 11 , residence of 

Shaw, .Tames 

Smith. .Mr. and Mrs. (ieorgt- 

Savage, John 

School, Marcelliis I'nion 

Sutton, Mr. and Mrs. Polenion 

Townsend, Gamaliel 

Turner, Hon. George H 

Tompkins, l>r. 1,. 1) 

Tlce, Isaac T 

Townsend. George J 

pomaa. Sherwood, residence of 

Taylor, K. O., residence of. 

Tniitt, Peter, portrait and residence. 

\ een 344, :il5 
...facing -.vii 
...facing SiKi 

Rllderback, Win.. 
Kradt. .John C .... 
BIy, Henley W.... 

Illl 1!.. 

between u;i^, ;;;!;; , 

facing 33<! 

facing 352 

between 392, 393 

facing 400 

facing 40>i 
•facing .111 
• 'tween 88, ».> I 
facing 101) ! 
.facing l!>2 
facing 2,% ' 
facing 314 ' 
..facing 3:<il ; 

T™i«; .■.am;k'M:,';ii\d7i?cr^J''!".^.^:.: ,„.;;i^S5 ^- ^ I 

Tl;i;:^^iiraV;;iM^;:i:v,;;,.;;v;,- ;::::: : :::;;::::::::::::::::::Si Z 

between 2011. 2"i i 

facing 22(1 

.portraits and residence facing 22x ' 

between .128. ' 

<'lark,.l)r. William I 

Curtis. Dr. Cyrus 

Curtis, Dr. Eugene .\ 

Carbine, Dr. H 

Casterllne, Thomas . 
Copley, Alexander. 
Copley, Hon. Alexan 

Condon, William 

Chapman, James M 

l),.s''\ ,i,.'i!' ' \, I: 

Dopp, Kansom 

Dyer, J. M 

Easton, Dr. W W 

Edwards, I^wis 

Engle, B. F 

Emei-son, Mathew II 
Fowler, Dr. Henry II 
Flora, Dr. William.. 
Follett, Dr. Henry. 

Flero, vVbram 

Flero, Charlr^ 
Field, Harvpv K 
Gagp,Rev. .Iiisiiis 
Glover. Ixiw.-I I II 

HolllM.r N 
Howell, .Mai 
Howard, Wi 
Hnllanil, lir 
How.ll. II. ' 

u" j 


Wright, Stephen li., imi 

Wells, Mr. and .Mis. llo 

Whitbeck, George, residence of.. 



.facing 318 


A.iains, .lohii T 

\iwell. Freeman J 

.vidrich. Dr. Levi 

.Allen, Dr. .Tacob... 

Allison, C. C 

.\dains, Tlionia.s W 
Anderson, Samuel I 

Andrews, G. W 

Aldrlfli. Henry . 
Ashb-y, Key. .lami 
Byriics, Key .loliii 
Bradford, VImciii I 
Itlai'kinan. Haiiirl 

Hick.-*, i;. \' 

Hull, Isaac 

Huyck, Abijah 

Jewell, Kllas 

.loiies. (!. ('.. Horace ('. 
Jenkins. Wiiiiiiis r.iM 
,Tar\is Xmiiii,.., 
Jom-,11 ,,. 

Bliuly, .\lr. anil .Mrs 
Baooij, H(,n. Cvru.s 
Bacon, Cyrus, ,Ir., M 

Beebe. AWI 

Bionson, o. P 

Iteaucliamp, Manliive i 
Beaiiclianip, James H.. 


Norton. Levi I) 

Osborn. Dr. I-eauder.. 

Oren, James 

Osborn, Charles 
Orr, George 1'. 

Olds, MiUs 

ITice, Elder.i.i ■ 1 
I'enwell, Dr. l.i.- 
Phillips, Dr. II. n 
Prindle, Dr. C. 1' 
Prlndle, Dr. E.C 

Peck, William W 

Peck, A. E 

Palmer, Wm. K 
Putnam, V/.i.u 

Parsons, liinj.mi;!: 
KedSeld, AleNanilr-r I 

Keshore, Frank H 

Kayniond. Dt.I.. K. 

Hepublican omce 

Uobertson Dr. John 

Keed, S. T 

Koot, Eber 


Kodgers, John 

Hodgers, William A 
Uedfleld.Hon. (ieory. 

Kodgers, George 

Kinehart Bros 

Kunkle, Cool 

Rider. Horatio W 
Kobinson. Nathan. 
Kickert, Charles C 
Kcynolds, Hon. hdwi; 

Kodgers. John 

Shurte, Isaac 

Sherman. Elias B 

Stuart, Charles E.. 

Sullivan, James. 

Smith, Ezekiel s 

Smith. Judge Andrw 
Spencer, James M . 
Smith, Harsen D 

.'.'between 408, 409 ' Thomas, 


Sweetland. Dr. John B . 
Stebbins, Dr. Edward Sa^ 

Smith, Joseph 

Shaw, John 

Shepard, James M. 

Shermerhom, B. W 

Smith, Joel H...... 

Simpson, Moses W. ... 

Shanafelt, William H.. 

smith, Hon Amos 

Silver, Kev. Abiel 

silver, Orren Silver 

Squier, Daniel C 

Storey, Ozial 

Spencer, Joseph 

Shaw, James 

Smith, George 

.Savage, John 

Sutton, Polemon 

Townsend Gamaliel 

Turner, Hon. George B 

Talbot, John A 

Thompson, M. A 

Tompkins, Dr. I,. D 

Treadwcll,Dr. A. B.. 

Treat, Dr. John 

Thorp, I>r. A. 1> ■ 

Taylor, Pr. James 1>. 

Turner, .S. A 

Tietsort, John 

Tice, Isaac T 

Townsend, George J 

Thomas. Sherwood 

Tavlor, Emery O 

Truitt, Peter 

Truitt, James M 

Tharp, S C ■- 

Thomas, J. Hubbard 

Townsend, George J 

Van Riper, Jacob 


Wooster, John 

Wheeler, Dr. J. H..^ 

Wells, Dr. Charles P 

Wells,Hon. H.B 

Wells, Homer 

Wright, Stephen 1) 
Whitbeck, George 
Zimmerman, Jacob H 

i.eiween 184, 185 


facing 212 


facing 260 









Plan and Scope of the Work— Tlie Region Kepreseuted in the History 
Described— Topography of Cass County— Actual f,and Areas In the 
Several Townships— Varieties of Soil- Dimensions of the Principal 
Prairies and Lakes— The Pre-hlstonc Garden Beds and Mounds. 

THE pages of this volume are intended to present a 
complete and exhaustive history of Cass County,* 
and they contain incidentally many fragments of the 
history of Michigan and of the West. An effort is 
made, in many instances, not only to chronicle facts, 
but to explain their relations as causes and effects in 
the great chain of events through which a wilderness 
has been reclaimed and added to the mighty realm of 
civilization. In the first few chapters of the book, a 
chronological order of arrangement is maintained, but 
in subsequent ones which treat of subjects in the 
narrower field, which is our especial province, the topical 
form is resorted to for reasons which will be obvious to 
every reader. Following the brief description of the 
county and of the traces of a pre-historic population, 
which is given in this chapter, is a condensed account 
of the French exploration of the Northwest, written 

*Tlin countv was named in honor of Lewid Casn, Oitvernor nf Uicbigtin 
from l»»13 lo 18:J1, who, in the lanKUHgp of a hi torlan, "did more f.>r (lie pioB- 
I'erity of MIchiiean than any otiier man HvjnK or dead." Cais was born in 
Exeter, N. H.. OcUilier 9. 1782. Ue settled In Mailetia, Ohio, about UVU; was a 
memtior of the Leglsla'urv, and Manihal of the Slate; came to Michigan in 
1812 as (;ol<.nelof the Third Rrgiraent Ohio Vnlunleere; look a dislinKnlstaed 
liart in the war, and was promoted to the rank of a Brigadiei. In Ocliibt-r. 
1813, be was appointed Governor of Alk'higHti Territory by Pr.-si(lent Madixon. 
This position Ue held for elehteen yeara advancing, by his wise and energetic 
admlniHtrallon, the material in:eresls of the Territory In a large degree. In 
July, 18al. he was appointe.t, by President Jackson, Secretary of War. From 
lg:i6 to 1842, ho was M.nitter to France. The Legislature of the State of Sllcli- 
Igao elected him to the UnitrnJ Sutes Senate io 1845— an office whi.h he re- 
signed three years later, when he became the candMate of the Democracy lor 
the Presidency. After his defeat, in 184U, the Leglslatura ie-p|ecied lihn to the 
Senate lor the expiration of his original term lie was succeeded by Kacharlah 
Chandler, the KepiibllcaD parly having come Into the ascendency. Presi- 
dent Buchanan, however, appointed him as Secretary or State, and he re- 
mained in that position until the early part of 1860, when he resigned. For the 
next six years he resided In Detruit. where he owned a large property. Ue died 
in July, 1886. Gen. Cass was an able lawyer, a polished and i-loquent orator and 

ergy of character. Ue ha<l the conAdeuce and respect of the people, and his 
fine social qualllles, his genial, courteous way and liberal hospitality, combined 
wllh his intellectual worth aod illustrious services, made liim the must |>opular 
man of his Ume In Michigan. 

with especial reference to "the St. Joseph country," 
which was the theater of many of the operations of 
La Salle and of other indomitable pioneers of France 
in the New World. This chapter is supplemented by 
one upon the contest of France and England for su- 
premacy in the West, and this in turn by one upon 
Michigan, under American rule, as Territory and State. 
Two chapters are devoted to the Pottawatomie occu- 
pation of the country, and contain much curious 
information in regard to this tribe, drawn from the 
most authentic sources. Then follows a chapter giving 
a synopsis of the titles to Michigan, an account of 
the survey and sale of lands and of the Indian treat- 
ies by which cessions of territory in Southwestern 
Michigan were made. The Carey Mission, founded 
near the site of Niles, in 1822, is brought into prom- 
inence as a cause and center of settlement. Succeed- 
ing this is a chapter entitled " The Advent of the 
White Man as a Settler," which, like each one of 
those that follow, pertains wholly to Cass County. 
The chapters preceding relate to the county only in 
part. The chapter on settlement is followed by a 
description of pioneer life, of cabin building, "break- 
ing," the occupations of men and women, the perils 
and the discomforts they endured. This is followed 
by an account of the erection and organization of the 
county, its division into townships, the establishment 
of courts, the early meetings of the Supervisors and 
the erection of publio buildings. The chapter is sup- 
plemented by a complete and carefully compiled roster 
of civil officers. Religious and educational matters, the 
Cass County bar, the medical profession, the press 
and internal improvements have each a place, and are 
considered at length. The history of the Under- 
ground Railroad and the Kentucky Raid is given in 


detail. Two very valuable chapters show what Cass 
County did in the war of the rebellion, and contain a 
roster of the soldiers enlisted, together with important 
facts concerning them. The Cass County Pioneer 
Society, the Agricultural Society and a compilation of 
statistics upon population, politics and productions, 
constitute the concluding chapters of the general his- 
tory. The history of the county is followed in its 
minor details in seventeen voluminous chapters upon 
the townships, the village of Cassopolis and the city 
of Dowagiat. In these will be found carefully made 
records of the early settlement, and accounts of all 
local institutions. 


The region of which this history treats is one fair to 
look upon — beautiful alike to the eye of the husband- 
man and the lover of nature. It is true there are 
here no scenes of grandeur or the rugged picturesque, 
but all of the elements of gentler beauty are present, 
and they compose a panorama of varied and exquisite 
loveliness. The sparkling lakes, the undulating ex- 
panse of forest and cleared fields, the level prairies — in 
summer clothed with luxuriant growth which proclaims 
the fertility of the soil — combine to form a thousand 
fresh and beautiful landscapes. Everywhere the 
kindliness of nature to man is suggested. 

* * * " Nature's hand. 
Has showered all blessings on this fruitful land." 

The county of Cass lies approximately between 
41° 49' 5" and 42° 7' north latitude and 8° 48' and 
9° 16' longitude west from Washington. The latitude 
of Cassopolis is approximately 41° 50' and the longi- 
tude 9° 2". The county is bounded upon the north 
by Van Buren County, on the east by St. Joseph 
County, on the south by the counties of Elkhart and 
St. Joseph, in the State of Indiana, and upon the 
west by Berrien County. 

The county is composed of the Congressional town- 
ships Nos. 5, 6 and 7, and the fractional Town- 
ships 8, south of the base line, in Ranges 13, 14, 15 
and 16 west, of the Principal Meridian. Were the 
southern townships full, the county would be a quad- 
rangle, measuring twenty-four miles upon each side, 
and containing 576 square miles, or 368,640 square 
acres. But the four southern townships are only a 
little more than half townships, and the area of the 
county is further lessened by the detachment of about 
two and a half square miles lying east of the St 
Joseph River. The actual area of the county is not 
far from 512 square miles. The area of a full Con- 
gressional township is thirty-six square miles, or 23,- 
040 acres, but the actual land area is in each much 
less. The following is an accurate table* of the 

amount of lands in each township of the county, deduc- 
tions being made for the lakes, etc. : 

Actual Land Areas 
TOWNSHIPS. in Acres. 

Newberg 22,167.24 

Marcellus 21,.S94.77 

North Porter 21, 780. -S? 

South Porter 10,917.40 

(Porter, total 32,097.97) 

Volinia 22,012.51 

Penn 21,468.5.5 

CaWin 22,007.82 

Mason 12,945.66 

Wayne 22,775.10 

La Grange 22,698.02 

Jefferson 22,126.16 

Ontwa 12,361.70 

Silver Creek 21,463.14 

Pokagon 22,353.04 

Howard 22,639.50 

Milton 13,482.48 

Total, actual land area of county (in acres). ..3 


While exhibiting the general characteristics of a 
j comparatively level region, the surface of the county 
presents, nevertheless, considerable variety. It is for 
the most part gently undulating, and in the northeast- 
I ern part reaches that degree of roughness which 
may be denominated as " broken." The leading feat- 
ures may be classed under the headings of heavy 
timbered lands, oak openings and prairies. Three 
distinct varieties of soil are to be found in these divi- 
j sions. That of the heavy timbered regions is a 
gravelly soil often mixed with sand or clay. The soil 
of the oak openings is usually light and sandy, but 
has proven far more productive under judicious culti- 
vation than the pioneers anticipated. Richest and 
j best is the soil of the prairies. It is a black, sticky 
and soft soil, sometimes partaking of the character of 
clay. The subsoil is sand or gravel. It is commonly 
I believed that the fertile soil of the prairies has been 
! produced by the accumulation of vegetable mold — the 
I product of centuries of annual growth and decay. 
' There are various theories in regard to the causes 
I which have produced the prairies or natural meadows 
which are so numerous in Southern and Southwestern 
I Michigan, but the scientific students of nature offer 
I in their writings nothing that is conclusive upon the 
I subject. Cass County is rich in prairie lands — the 
I mellow, warm soiled meadows which have for ages 
been in readiness for man's cultivation. The approxi- 
mate areas of the principal prairies are as follows : 

J'eardsley's 4410 

Young's 2880 

Little Praiiie Koride 1690 

La Grange 1580 

Pokagon 500 

Baldwin's 600 

.McKinnneys 400 

.><and (Pokagon; 200 

Gurd's 100 

Shavehead 70 

Total (about). 



The foregoing are the areas as computed from the 
Government survey. Since the country has become 
thickly settled, and the timber lands surrounding the 
prairies cleared and carefully cultivated, it is often 
impossible to distinguish the original line of demarka- 
tion between timber land and prairie, and the size of 
the prairies has been consequently very commonly 

Cass County is beautified with a fair proportion of 
the five thousand lakes of Michigan. One hundred 
and eighty lakes and ponds are designated upon the 
map in this work. The largest is Diamond Lake, the 
area of which is 1,083 acres (minus the area of the 
island which is 40.79 acresj, and the most peculiar is 
Stone Lake — so named from the fact that its shores 
were originally very thickly strewn with stone, in the 
form of bowlders. This lake has no visible inlet or 
outlet; its water is very fine and very soft. That of 
Diamond Lake, only half a mile distant, is hard. It 
is supposed by many people that Stone Lake is one of 
the surface spots of the great subterranean stream by 
which Lake Superior is believed to discharge its waters 
into the Gulf of Mexico ; and, it is averred in support 
of this theory, that the rise and fall in Stone Lake 
corresponds closely with that of the " shining"^ big 
sea water." There is known to be a chain of soft- 
water lakes extending for a considerable distance 
across the country from north to south. 

Following is a statement of the size of the principal 
lakes in the county : 













Lilly and Flutchings (surveyed together) 

Long and CloTerdale . . . . 



Magician (less islands of twenty-five acres). 





Chief among the water-courses of the county are 
the Christianna Creek (so named by the Rev. Isaac 
McCoy, founder of Carey Mission, in honor of his 
wife, in 1822), and the North and South Branches of 
the Dowagiac. The n*me of this stream is of Indian 
origin, and its meaning is "fishing water." The 
North Branch of the Dowagiac rises in Van Buren 
County and enters Cii-ss near the center of the north 
line of Wayne Township. Its general course is south- 
westerly, and it flows through the townships of Silver 
Creek and Pokagon, and, crossing the county line 
near the northwest corner of Howard Township, it 
empties into the St. Joseph River near Niles, in Berrien 

County. The stream is sluggish, and of little conse- 
quence as a source of mill power. The country through 
which it flows is low, flat, and a considerable portion 
of it marshy. A very different stream is the south 
branch, which flows quite rapidly, and affords a valu- 
able water-power. It has its source in Marcellus 
Township, flows through Volinia and the north part 
of La Grange, makes short meanders in Pokagon and 
Silver Creek, and forms a confluence with the North 
Fork near the dividing line of these townships. Chris- 
tianna Creek rises in Penn, runs southwesterly through 
Calvin into Jefferson Township, and thence southerly 
near the eastern line of Ontwa, beyond the southern 
boundary of the county, and to the St. Joseph, which 
it reaches near Elkhart, Ind. The drainage of the 
entire county is into the St. Joseph River, which, in 
addition to the streams we have described, receives 
the waters of two other small tributaries which rise in 
Cass County — Rock Creek, of Marcellus, and Mud 
River, of Porter. 

Geologically, the county presents very little that is 
interesting. . Its surface is composed entirely of 
"drift" — the mass of debris consisting of loose stone, 
gravel and sand, which covers nearly the whole of the 
Michigan Lower Peninsula. It is undoubtedly true 
that in Cass County this deposit is several hundred 
feet in thickness. Nowhere have the streams cut their 
way through this great diluvial deposit, and nowhere 
does rock appear in situ. Minerals exist only in very 
small quantities, and detached particles mingled with 
the drift. 


A description of Cass County would not be com- 
plete without an account of the pre-historic remains to 
be found within its limits — the relics of those races 
which passed away before the Indian came. The 
ancient works of Michigan may be classed as (1) 
tumuli and inclosures, universally ascribed to the 
race known as the Mound-Builders, and (2) the gar- 
den beds, which many students of archieology deem 
the work of another people. 

The former class of works are found in greatest 
number, variety, size and perfection in the valleys of 
the Ohio, the Mississippi and their tributary rivers, 
while in Michigan and the lake region generally, 
they are comparatively few, and as a rule small. On 
the other hand, the class of ancient remains, commonly 
designated as garden beds, are found in Southern 
Michigan in their greatest perfection, and are prac- 
tically unknown in those parts of the country where 
the other forms of earthworks, the mounds and for- 
tifications most abound. Unfortunately, the garden 
beds (so called from their close resemblance to the 
beds of modern gardens), have nearly all disappeared. 



The slightness of their elevation, and the fact that 
they were nearly always upon the richest lands, were 
circumstances conducive to their destruction by the 

When Cass County was first settled, various forms 
of ancient garden plats were to be seen upon the sev- 
eral prairies and in the woods. Many have been 
spared by the agriculturist until recent years, but at 
present there are few specimens remaining. As a 
rule, the garden beds were not over eighteen inches 
high, and sometimes they were much less. The 
most common form of platting, appears to have 
been one similar to that now practiced in the 
vegetable garden, viz., that by which parallel 
beds of uniform length and breadth, separated by 
narrow paths, were arranged in blocks or parallelo- 
grams. There were many other forms, however, 
among them squares, circles, triangles and a wheel- 
shaped plat, consisting of a circular bed, with beds of 
uniform shape and size, radiating from it, all sepa- 
rated by narrow paths. A garden bed of this kind 
was discovered in Pokagon Township by Lewis Ed- 
wards, when he first came to the county. 

The area covered by the beds was usually not more 
than three to five acres, but according to Henry R. 
Schoolcraft, who wrote of them as " forming by far 
the most striking characteristic antiquarian monu- 
ments of this district of country," they have been 
found in some localities to extend over as many as 
three hundred acres of land. 

By whom the garden beds were made must forever 
remain a mystery. There are many people who believe 
them to have been the work of some large and ad- 
vanced tribe of Indians, who, centuries ago, occupied 
the Michigan Peninsula. The method of cultivation 
which they would indicate, however, had no parallel 
in the rude agriculture of the Indians known to his- 
tory, and the Indians possessed no knowledge of the 
origin of the ancient plats. The fact that the garden 
beds have seldom or never been observed in those 
regions where are found the most stupendous earth- 
works in the forms of tumuli and fortifications, is 
strong presumptive evidence that they were not con- 
structed by the Mound-Builders. 

The tumuli or mounds in Cass County are of far 
greater interest, archiieologically, than the garden beds, 
because of the character of their contents, which 
throw a faint light upon the nature of the lost race 
who reared them. 

The Mound-Builders are supposed to have passed 
away from the region of the great lakes and the val- 
leys of the Mississippi and Ohio at least a thousand 
years ago. Investigators have discovered facts which 
support strongly that belief A great majority of the 

I best authorities agree that the race, either pressed by 
I a more warlike and powerful people or seeking a 
i milder climate, emigrated, by a mighty movement, 
from their vast Northern domain to the South, follow- 
ing the valley of the Father of Waters, and event- 
ually penetrated Mexico ; that they there reached the 
height of their civilization and greatness, and devel- 
oped into the magnificent nation of Montezuma. That 
they were, while they dwelt in the North, a semi- 
civilized people, is unquestionable. The great extent 
of many of their works, their wide distribution geo- 
graphically and the contents of the mounds, in many 
cases, amply testify to this. They had settled habi- 
tations, carried on agriculture very extensively (as was 
a necessity with their vast population) and had a 
knowledge of the ruder arts, such as the manufacture 
of pottery and the making of cloth. There are evi- 
dences that they were a homogeneous people, and it 
is conjectured that they were under a single and a 
strong government. 

As has been said, the works of the Mound-Builders 
are neither numerous nor extensive in the lake region. 
They are sufiicient, however, to identify the people 
who constructed them with the people who made the 
mighty inclosures and reared the colossal temple 
mounds which appear in great numbers farther south. 
Small mounds are to be found in almost every town- 
ship in Cass County. There are a number in Volinia, 
most of which are near the Dowagiac Creek, and 
several in Porter Township, one of the best being on 
the farm of Samuel Rinehart. In Howard Town- 
ship, two mounds have been excavated. One of them, 
in Section 21, a half mile east of Barren Lake, was 
opened in 1834, in the presence of quite a number of 
people, the work being superintended by Dr. Winslow, 
of Niles. This was undoubtedly the first mound ex- 
cavated in Cass County. A quantity of human bones 
was discovered, fragments of coarse pottery and some 
other articles. Another tumulus, on the farm of R. 
East, in this township, was excavated by Amasa Smith 
and his sons, Ezekiel C. and Zenus. A large number 
of human skeletons were found (over a hundred, it is 
said), buried in a circle, with their heads toward a 
common center. Many of the skulls bore the marks 
of weapons, which indicated that death had ensued 
from violence. Those who saw them inferred that the 
skeletons were those of men who had died in battle. 
All had evidently been buried at the same time. 
j Most interesting of the Mound-Builders' works in 
Cass County are those in Pokagon. A cluster of five 
mounds may be seen by the roadside a half mile east 
. of Sumnerville, and not far away, is a faintly-visible 
I embankment inclosing nearly half an acre of ground. 
I On a ridge running east and west on the farm of 



William G. Potter, a half mile north of Champagne 
Lake, are a number of excavations, somewhat resem- 
bling rifle-pits, which are supposed to be of ancient 
anJ artificial production. The largest mounds in the ' 
county are those upon the farm of Joseph Walter. 
Three beautiful and regular mounds occur here, situ- | 
ated in a line from east to west. A short distance ' 
south of them is a well defined ditch which forms a , 
perfect horseshoe, measuring about one hundred and i 
sixty feet in length by one hundred feet in width. It ' 
is flanked upon the north by a line of ditch extending j 
parallel with its longest diameter, a distance of per- 
haps two hundred feet. There is no trace of embank- 
ment in connection with the excavations. For what 
purpose the horseshoe-shaped inclosure was made by 
the ancient people can, of course, only be conjectured. 
There is no probability, however, that it was designed, 
as many suppose it to have been, for a work of defense. 

One of the three large mounds which have been 
mentioned was excavated in September, 1878, by Dr. 
E. J. Bonine, of Niles, who operated under the aus- 
pices of the Smithsonian Institution. It was a mound 
about thirteen feet high (originally it must have been 
of greater altitude), and the diameter of its base was 
about fifty feet. On the summit of the mound, within 
the memory of the settlers, stood a burr-oak tree four 
feet in diameter, and probably three hundred years 
old. A shaft was sunk by the excavators into the center 
of the mound, which was found to be composed 
throughout of the same soil as that of the surrounding 
plain — a rich black loam. Almost invariably the hu- 
man remains found under the mounds rest upon the 
natural surface of the earth, the mounds simply being 
heaped over tiiem, but in this case the interment was 
several feet below the original level. Several skele- 
tons were found, being those of men, women and 
children, a number of fragments of pottery, a curious 
bone or ivory ornament, bearing some resemblance to 
a walrus tooth, several amulets pierced with holes, 
through which thongs had doubtless once been placed 
to attach them to the person, several bone implements 
and five copper hatchets of fine edge and good forma- I 
tion. Portions of the skeletons were in a good state 
of preservation. The femur, or thigh bone, of one of ! 
the males, which Dr. Bonine has now in his possession, i 
is of great size and indicates that its owner must have 
been at least seven feet in height. Curiously enough, I 
in the same tomb were found the bones of a very small | 
child, a child which could not have measured more i 
than eight or nine inches in height. They were more [ 
perfectly preserved than those of the adults. j 

The mound from which these remains were taken, 
after their sepulture of perhaps a thousand years, 
was undoubtedly the monument and the grave of a 

ruler and the members of his family. Nearly all of 
the mounds in Cass County are of the class to which 
archjeologists have given the name of sepulchral 
mounds, although it is possible a few of them may 
conceal the altars of the ancient people — rude hearths 
of clav or stone. 



J»c<iuea ('artier the rioneerof New France— Chaniplain— He Wins the 
Friendship of the .Vlgonfinins and Trovnltes the Hatred ot the Iro- 
quois— Effect upon Future French Exploration and Colonization— 
I,e Caron— Religious Zeal of French Explorers— The Huguenots 
Excluded from New France— Breben, Daniel, Lalleniand— Raym- 
bault and Jouges— Claude AUouez-Pere Marquette— His I'assage 
down the St. .Joseph Kiver in 1U75— His Death on the Shore of Lake 
Michigan— l.a Salle— He Builds Fort Mlainls at the Mouth of St. 
.loseph in 1670— His Journey across the Michigan I'eninsula in liiSo 
—Frequent Subsequent Visits to the St. .Joseph— Founding of De- 
troit by De la Motte Cadillac— Tlie Mission ot St. Joseph Estab- 
lished—A Mission near the Site of Nlles— The Mianils and the Pot- 

IN 1534, Jacques Cartier, sailing from France, 
entered and explored the Gulf and the River St. 
Lawrence — to the former of which he gave the name 
of his patron saint. Returning to France, he made 
another voyage to the New World in 1536, this time, 
ascending the "great River of Canada" to the site of 
Montreal, which city, when it came into existence, 
took its name from the elevation near by, which Car- 
tier called Mount Royal. In 1541, this explorer, 
under the patronage of Sieur de Roberval, a French 
nobleman, attempted to plant a permanent colony upon 
the St. Lawrence, but the project failed. 

For nearly seventy years, no further attempt was 
made on the part of the French to colonize America, 
or that part of it which Cartier had called New 

In 1608,* however, Samuel de Champlain founded 
the settlement of Quebec. 

An episode in the career of Champlain (interesting 
to those who are fond of tracing tremendous results to 
apparently insignificant causes) determined the direc- 
tion of future French exploration. To secure and 
augment the friendship of the Indians ( Algonquins) 
by whom he found himself surrounded, Champlain, 
during the same year in which he arrived, joined them 
in an expedition against their enemies, the Iroquois, 
who had a strong-hold upon the banks of the lake 
which bears his name. In the battle which ensued, 
the allied forces were the victors. The event secured 
for three generations the alliance of the Algonquins 
and the implacable hatred of the Iroquois. f 

• Thin WM only on« year latoi: tlian llio i-sUliliiilinient of the first prmiantnt 
Englldli Betllbfnf*nt npon tlid Atlntilic coast — Jamralawn, Va , — and ualy forty- 
three yearn later than the foiindtng of the flnit Spiulsh settlomorit — the oldest 
city ia America— St. Augustloe, Kla. 

t James R. Albscb's ADnalsofthe West. 



The French would doubtless have entered zealously 
into the exploration of the region to the southward 
had not their implacable and powerful foe formed a 
barrier. Their alliance with the Algonquins, how- 
ever, left often to them the vast interior lake country, 
occupied principally by the western tribes of the Algon- 
quin nation, and so this region became a field for their 
exploration and colonization. 

Charaplain, in 1611, established a trading-post on 
the site of Montreal, and, in 1615, he made an expe- 
dition to the Georgian Bay of Lake Huron. In the 
same year he led an army of 2,500 Algonquin war- 
riors against the Iroquois, and was compelled to retire 
without gaining the conquest he had hoped to. The 
barrier interposed between the French and the south- 
ern region remained unbroken. 

In 1616, Le Caron, with two compani6ns, pene- 
trated the wilderness to Lake Huron, and for ten 
years they there labored as missionaries among the 
Indians. They were Franciscans. The means, the 
devotion, and the discipline of this order proved in- 
adequate to the carrying-on of its self-imposed task, 
and the missions established under its authority ulti- 
mately passed into the possession of the Jesuits. 

Through all the history of French discovery, ex- 
ploration and colonization in America runs the story 
of religious zeal and martyrdom. Wherever the 
Bourbon lilies were planted as the standard of France, 
there was found also the cross of the Society of Jesus 
and of the Holy Catholic Church. The indomitable 
pioneers of France in the New World were more 
largely actuated by religious motives than by personal 
ambition or commercial enterprise. Champlain re- 
garded " the salvation of a soul worth more than the 
conquest of an empire," and those who followed after 
him were sustained amidst their toils and privations 
by the thought that they might Christianize a heathen 
race — win the wild denizens of the dark " forest con- 
tinent " to the Church of Rome. But the very zeal 
with which the explorers and pioneers of France were 
inspired, and which furnished them the motive for 
penetrating the wilderness of the northwest was 
coupled naturally with an intolerance which not im- 
probably prevented France from maintaining an 
ascendancy upon American soil. Cardinal Richelieu, 
the champion of absolutism in France, had turned his 
attention as early as 1627 to the New France, and 
under his patronage a splendid and powerful organiza- 
tion was formed for the purpose of colonizing on a 
grand scale the new possessions. Upon this company, 
of " the hundred associates" was conferred sovereignty 
over all the French territory in America. The colo- 
nies to be planted by " the hundred associates " were 
to be exclusively French in nationality, and Catholic 

' in religion. Champlain was made the civil and mili- 
tary Governor of the colony, and the Jesuits were 
chosen as the guardians of its spiritual welfare. Under- 

j this arrangement the Huguenots were, of course, 
rigorously excluded. They were the most enterprising 
class in France, and the most strongly inclined to im- 
migration. Had they been permitted to people the 
shores of the New France, it is possible that the whole 
destiny of the French in America might have been 
changed. Francis Parkman gives it as his opinion that 
" had New France been thrown open to Huguenot emi- 
gration, Canada would never have become a British 
province; that the field of Anglo-American settlement 
would have been greatly narrowed, and that large 
portions of the United States would, at this day, have 
been occupied by a vigorous and expansive French 

I population." 

! In 1634, Brebeuf and Daniel, and later Lallemand, 

I passed, by way of the Ottawa River, Lake Huron 
and the Sault Ste. Marie,* to Lake Superior, and es- 
tablished missions in the country of the Hurons, which 
tribe, at that time, according to Jesuit authorities, 
numbered 30,000 souls. Rayraebault and Jouges fol- 
lowed in 1640, and were probably the first Europeans 
who set foot upon the soil now included within the 
boundaries of Michigan. These Jesuit missionaries 
carried the tidings of salvation to the Western tribes 
five years before Elliott preached to the Indians within 
a few miles of Boston Harbor. In the following year, 
Jouges and one of his fellow-missionaries were capt- 
ured and tortured by the Iroquois. Daniel was killed 
in 1648, and a year later the same savage enemy laid 
waste several of the missions and burned at the stake 
the two Jesuits, Brebeuf and Lallemand. In the en- 
suing Huron-Iroquois war, nearly all of the devoted 
apostles of Catholicism fell as martyrs of their faith. 
The advance of the French explorers was temporarily 
checked; but no obstacles could discourage and no 
horrors dismay the brave spirits who had entered upon 
the task of carrying to the inhabitants of the wilder- 
ness what they devoutly believed to be the only true 
religion. With the terrible fate of their brothers 
fresh in their minds, the Jesuits pressed on, with al- 

I most superhuman zeal, to plant the holy cross and the 
golden lilies upon the shores of the Western waters. 

Rene Menard (or Mesuard) wa3 probably the first 
of the Jesuits who visited the West after the close of 
the Indian war. He founded a mission upon the south 
shore of Lake Superior in 1660, and in the following 
year had fallen a victim to the Indians, or, at least, 
such was the supposition, his breviary and cassock 
afterward being f)und in the possession of the Sioux. 
In 1665, Claude Allouez was sent out to the far West. 

♦ Falls of the River St. Mary's, between Lakes Huron and Superior. 


He visited the great fresh-water sea (called by the 
Indians Gitchi Goinee, which Longfellow translates 
"Big Sea Water" or "Shining Big Sea Water") and 
named it, in honor of the new Viceroy of the French 
province, Lac Tracy au Superieur. Landing at the 
chief village of the Chlppewas, on the bay of Chego- 
imegon, he established a mission, and, on behalf of the 
French colony, made with the Chippewas, the Potta- 
watomies, Sacs, Foxes and the Illinois, an alliance 
against the Iroquois. The next year, at the western 
extremity of the lake, he came in contact with the 
Sioux, and received from them information of a vast 
and mysterious river that flowed southward, which 
they called "Messipi." Aliouez returned to Quebec, 
filled with wonder at the marvelous stories he had 
heard of the Father of Waters, and dreaming, doubt- 
less, of the splendor and vastness of the future French 
dominion and Catholic triumph. 

In 1668, Jacques (or James) Marquette and Claude 
Dablon arrived at the Sault, and established the mis- 
sion of St. Marie. Marquette advocated with enthu- 
siasm the exploration of the Mississippi, and the proj- 
ect was furthered by Talon, the Intendant under 
Tracy, who was ambitious to extend the power of 
France. On the 13th of May, 1673, Marquette, 
Joliet and five voyageurs, embarking in two birch- 
bark canoes at Michilimackinac (or Mackinaw, as it is 
now called), made their way across Lac des Illinois, 
or Lake Michigan, to Green Bay. From thence they 
passed, by way of the Fox River, to a great Indian 
town, where dwelt together, in harmony, numbers of 
the Miami,* Mascoutin and Kickapoo nations. Al- 
iouez had preached here, but beyond the village no 
explorer had penetrated. Marquette and his compan- 
ions pressed on, through the wilderness, over lakes 
and dismal marshes, until they reached the westward 
flowing Wisconsin. Committing themselves to the 
current, they floated onward until, upon the 17th of 
June, their boat shot out athwart the broad bosom of 
the Mississippi. But we cannot follow the brave and 
pious voyageur in his inspiring and joyous journey. 
He went nearly as far South as the mouth of the 
Arkansas, and was the discoverer of the Des Moines, 
Illinois, Missouri and Ohio Rivers. The party re- 
turned, laboriously working their way against the 
current of the great river, to the mouth of the Illi- 
nois, which they entered. At a village, which Mar- 
quette called Kaskaskia (near the site of the present 
village of Utica), an Indian chief offered to guide 
them to the lake of the Illinois (Michigan). The offer 
was accepted, and the voyageurs, passing up the Des- 

; fpv, of llie Minniin at tblx tII1bh«. and tb 

itump.l to tlK. ahurea of Lake Micliinan 

, which country, oa will bo hereafter aliov 

plaines River and across the portage to the site of 
Chicago,* entered the lake and made their way to the 
mission station on Green Bay, which was reached in 

Marquette, ever on the alert to advance the cause of 
his religion, had determined to found a mission at the 
Indian village on the Illinois, and had promised the 
chiefs that he would soon return to them for that pur- 
pose. With this object in view he set out from 
Green Bay October 25, 1674, with a flotilla of ten 
canoes manned by Frenchmen and Illinois and Potta- 
watomie Indians. Following the west shore of the 
lake, they entered the Chicago River, and had pro- 
ceeded up the stream but a few miles when Marquette 
became so sick that he could go no further. The 
little party went into camp, and the Father's illness 
continuing unabated, they remained there through the 
winter, sustaining life upon the game which abounded 
in that region. In the early spring of 1675, how- 
ever, the missionary had so far recovered that he was 
able to resume his journey, descending the Des- 
plaines River, and reached the Illinois village by the 
route over which he and Joliet had returned from 
their voyage to the Mississippi in 1673. Before a 
vast concourse of the red men, Marquette unfolded the 
plan of Christian salvation and laid the foundation of 
a mission which he named the Immaculate Conception. 
The missionary, however, felt that his malady must 
soon prove fatal, and he made preparations to return 
to the North — to St. Ignace. About the middle of 
April, he set out with his escort of Frenchmen and 
Indians for Lake Michigan by a route which no white 
man had ever traveled. 

The now dying priest, led by Indian guides, pro- 
ceeded up the Illinois to the mouth of a stream the 
Indians called Teankakeek (the Kankakee of our 
day), whioh they followed to a portage communicating 
with the stream now known as the St. Joseph. The 
priest named this water-course the " River of the 
Miamis,"t because he found the Indians of this 
nation upon its banks, and one of their principal vil- 
lages a few miles south of it upon the portage. 

Marquette and his companions were the first white 
men who passed over the St. Joseph River. They 
came to it at, or very near, the site of South Bend, 
and steered their canoes to its mouth upon Lake 
Michigan, where the village of St. Joseph now stands, 
and thence made their way northward along the east- 
ern shore of the lake, the priest hoping before his life 
ebbed away to reach the mission of St. Ignace. 

*SoDie writ«ra have atated that Marquette and Joliet returned to Laka 
Michiitaii by way of the St. Joseph Ulver. Parknian ia the authority for the 
ttatement aburu given. It was while returnint from hia leooml Journey, In 
I6r>, that >[Hr<iue(to piiu^ddown the St. Joaeph. IIiavl«lt to the aite of Chicago, 
In 107:1, w.ia uri loubtejly the first one made by a European. 

tXhla name waa not auperaede.1 by the preaont one until about the year 



Slowly and patiently paddling their frail canoes along : 
tlie border of the lake, they reached a point about one 
hundred and seventy-five miles from the mouth of the 
St. Joseph, within the bounds of the present county 
of Leelenaw, and here, upon the wild and lonely coast, 
surrounded only by a few Indians and his fellow-voy- 
agers, and distant a hundred miles from his beloved i 
mission station, Marquette died. The time was even- ' 
ing, the day May 19, 1675. One account says : ' 
" Leaving his men with the canoe he went a little 
way apart to pray, they waiting for him. As much 
time passed and he did not return, they called to mind i 
that he had said something of his death being at hand, j 
and anxiously went to seek him. They found him | 
dead ; where he had been praying he died." He was I 
buried near the mouth of a little stream which was 1 
afterward given, and, for many years, bore his name. ' 
But his bones were not to be long left in the desolate ' 
solitude where he died. They were disinterred in the ' 
following spring by some Ottawa Indians who had 
been converted by him, and carried to St. Ignace, 
where they were with due ceremony committed again 
to the earth. The grave of the missionary and 
explorer long lost has been, in recent years, discovered ; 
and marked with an appropriate monument, which \ 
serves to remind the visitor to St. Ignace of the early 
history of the Northwest, and of one of the foremost 
pioneers of France. The religious zeal and energy, 
the wonderful devotion and self-denial of the Jesuits, 
was finely exemplified in Father Marquette. He 
sought nothing for himself; he dared all things for 
the church ; his whole being was merged in it. When 
warned of dangers that lay before him in the vast 
wilderness, and urged to turn back, he replied that the 
salvation of souls was at stake, for which he would be 
overjoyed to give his life. His mind was not influ- 
enced by the important discovery of the Mississippi, 
which opened up the great valley to the enterprise of 
his countrymen; "but," said he, "if ray perilous 
journey had been attended with no other advantage 
than the salvation of one soul, I would think my 
peril sufficiently rewarded." 

Following Marquette carae two French explorers, 
differing widely from him and from^ each other — La 
Salle and Hennepin. 

Robert Chevalier Sieur de la Salle, the most 
famous explorer of the Northwest and of the 
Mississippi Valley, came to Canada in 1667, and en- 
gaged in the fur trade. He had been educated under { 
the Jesuits. He afterward publicly denounced and ' 
was very hostile toward the order, although he 
remained a stanch supporter of the Catholic faith. 
La Salle's ambition was aroused by the discoveries 
which Marquette and Joliet reported, and he resolved 

to win renown for himself in the wild regions which 
had been the scenes of his predecessors' exploits. He 
held to the quite popular opinion that the Mississippi 
flowed west or southwest to the Pacific Ocean, afford- 
ing a passage by which China and Japan could be 
conveniently reached from the New France. This 
outlet of the great river he had an ambition to dis- 
cover, and he w;is still further incited to become an 
explorer by visions of vast wealth, which he believed 
could be acquired in a monopoly of the fur trade with 
the Indian nations of the hitherto unknown interior. 
Obtaining the assistance of Frontenac, the Governor 
General of Canada, and the approval of his king, 
he immediately began preparations for his voyage. 

In September, 1678, La Salle met at Fort Fron- 
tenac the Recollet Friar Hennepin, who was to be 
his co-laborer and rival, having received from his 
superiors authority to take charge of the religious 
concerns of the expedition. On the 26th of January, 
1679, at the mouth of the Cayuga Creek, on the 
American side of the Niagara, about six miles above 
the Falls, La S;ille laid the keel of the Griflin.* 
Upon the 7th of August, 1679, the little barge was 
ready to sail, and with the singing of Te Beams and 
the discharge of arquebuses, she began her voyage. 
Hers was the first sail that cast a shadow upon the 
waters of Lake Erie, or that traversed the lakes be- 
yond. Over the swelling billows of Erie, through 
the straits and the little lake, which La Salle named 
Sainte Claire,t and through Lake Huron to Michili- 
raackinac, the voyagers sailed under pleasant skies 
and with favoring winds, except during the last few 
on Huron, when they " were troubled by a great 
storm, dreadful as those upon the sea." 

La Salle remained at Michilimackinac from the 
27th of August until the latter part of September, 
and founded there a fort. From Michilimackinac he 
went to Green Bay, and finding there a large quan- 
tity of furs which had been collected by his men, he 
determined to load the Griffin with them and send 
her back to Niagara. L^pon the 18th of September, 
the little barque set sail for her return voyage, her 
crew having orders from La Salle to bring her back 
with all possible despatch, to meet him at the mouth 
of the River of the Miamis (the St. Joseph). La Salle 
had now remaining a party of fourteen men, three 
Friars, "Hennepin, Membre and Ribourde. ten other 
Frenchmen and a Mohican Indian, who had been em- 
ployed as a hunter. This little company, imme- 
diately after the departure of the Griffin, set out in 
canoes for the St. Joseph River, proceeding slowly 

♦The name wm bestowed upon the veMel in honor of Frontenac In whoee 
crest the UrlOlu was a conspicuous 6]^ure. A carreJ Griffin adorned the prow 
of the boat. 


southward along the western shore of Lake Michigan 
— the same wild, deserted shore along which Mar- 
quette had voyaged in 1675. Their progress was 
slow as their canoes were heavily laden with merchan- 
dise and provisions, arms, ammunition, implements of 
labor and a blacksmith's forge. At night, they 
bivoucked on the bank of the lake. It was the mid- 
dle of October before they reached the site of Chi- 
cago, and the let of November when they arrived at 
the St. Joseph. Their journey had been made a 
perilous one by the prevalance of storms, and once 
they met Indians who evinced hostility ; but they 
came in contact with others who were very friendly. 
They would doubtless have died of famine had it not 
been for the liberality of the latter in supplying them 
with food. La Salle's men were anxious to push for- 
ward to the Illinois River, and it was with difBculty 
they could be restrained. The leader desired to make 
the mouth of the St. Joseph his base of operations 
on Lake Michigan, and there to await the coming of 
Tonti, his Lieutenant, from Michilimackinac, with a 
company of twenty-one men. The same royal author- 
ity which had empowered him to prosecute his discov- 
eries, had given La Salle permission to build forts at 
such points as he thought proper, in the country he 
explored. He decided to erect one at the mouth of 
the St. Joseph, while awaiting Tonti's arrival, and 
immediately began the work. The men who had at 
first been mutinous, finally yielding to his will, when 
they found that neither persuasion nor threats could 
induce him to penetrate the country to the Illinois 
villages. The fort was a small stockade. La Salle 
named it Fort Miamis, probably from the fact that the 
Miami Indians were living in the region roundabout. 
This was the first French post established within the 
limits of the lower Peninsula of Michigan, although 
several had been founded upon the opposite shores. 

Fort Miamis was nearly completed when, after the 
lapse of three weeks from the time of La Salle's 
coming to the St. Joseph, Tonti arrived at the head 
of a re-enforcing party. The entire force now con- 
sisted of thirty-three men. On the 3d of December, 
ihey were mustered, ready for departure ; the fort was 
deserted, and the company embarking in canoes, made 
their way slowly up the sinuous channel of the St. 
Joseph, and thus was resumed the "great voyage and 
glorious undertaking " of the ambitious La Salie. On 
reaching the abrupt turn in the river near the s'te of 
South Bend, Ind., they crossed by way of the portage 
which Marquette had traveled, to the Kankakee, and 
descending that stream, reached the Illinois. At the 
contiiience of the rivers, they found the clustering 
villages of the Illinois, but they were deserted, and 
hence La Salle passed on to Peoria Lake. Here he 

met with many of the natives who received him with 
friendly manner. It was not long, however, before 
they grew suspicious, and threatened the safety of the 
explorers. It has been averred that Allouez, the 
Jesuit, who was then in the country, sent Ma.scou- 
tin emissaries to them who prejudiced their minds 
against La Salle by telling them that he was the 
friend of the Iroquois. His own men, too, become 
discontented, and some of them deserted. Attempts 
were made to poison him. He was filled with anxiety 
in regard to the fate of the Griffin, of which he had 
received no intelligence since his departure from Green 
Bay, and he had a foreboding that he must soon turn 
back and abandon for the time the prosecution of his 
cherished plans. The fort which he built at the foot 
of Peoria Lake he named Crevecceur (the Broken 

But in spite of the dangers, the difficulties and dis- 
couragements with which La Salle found himself sur- 
rounded, it was very far from his purpose to relinquish 
the project of exploration. He set about building a 
vessel to take the place of the Griffin, instructed Hen- 
nepin to familiarize himself with the Illinois, left 
Tonti in command of the fort and started with a small 
party of men upon a journey of at least twelve hun- 
dred miles on foot, through the wilderness, to Canada. 
He needed sails, rigging, and an anchor for the little 
vessel of which he had laid the keel, and he had also 
to procure additional means and enlist new men to 
aid him in carrying on his great project. This daring 
journey of La Salle's led the indomitable explorer 
through, or at least very near, to the territory now in- 
cluded in the bounds of Cass County. 

La Salle, with four French companions and the 
Mohican hunter, who has been alluded to, left Fort 
Crevecceur March 2, 1680, and arrived at Fort Miamis 
three weeks later. From this point they pursued as 
direct a route as possible to the Detroit River. They 
were the first white men who crossed the great penin- 
sula from lake to lake. This stage of the now almost 
inconceivable journey, made two hundred years ago, 
is graphically described by Parkman, who translates 
and paraphrases the French manuscript journal of La 
Salle, entitled Relation des Decouverteg. 

"They were detained," says he, " till noon of the 
2oth (of March) in making a raft to cross the St. 
Joseph. Then they resumed their march, and as they 
forced their way through the brambly thickets, their 
clothes were torn, and their faces so covered with 
blood, that they could hardly know each other, 
Game was very scarce, and they grew faint with hun- 
ger. In two or three days, they reached a happier 
region. They shot deer, bears and turkeys in the 
woods, and fared sumptuously. But the reports of 


their guns fell on hostile ears. * * * On the 
evening of the 28th, as they lay around their fire, 
under the shelter of a forest, by the border of a prairie, 
the man on guard shouted an alarm. They sprang to 
their feet, and each, with gun in hand, took his stand 
behind a tree, while yells and bowlings filled the s"r- 
rounding darkness. A band of Indians were urion 
them, but seeing them prepared, the cowardly assail- 
ants did not await to exchange a shot." 

The scene of this occurrence could not have been 
far from the northeast corner of Cass County. La 
Salle had surely not progressed far from the mouth 
of the St. Joseph in three and a half days. Allowing 
that he had made fifteen miles per day, which, consid- 
ering the season and the condition of the country, is a 
liberal estimate, the explorer and his party would, by 
the time of this alarm, have penetrated the forest no 
further than the dividing line of Cass and St. Joseph 
Counties. It is not improbable that the prairie by 
which the men were encamped, on the night of the 
28th of March, was Prairie Ronde, in the southwest- 
ern corner of the present county of Kalamazoo, or it 
may possibly have been Little Prairie Ronde, in Vo- 
linia Township, Cass County. 

Parkman's account of the journey continues : "They 
crossed great meadows, overgrown with rank prairie 
grass, and set it on fire to hide the traces of their pass- 
age. La Salle bethought himself of a device to keep 
their skulking foes at a distance. On the trunks of 
trees, from which he had strippei the bark, he drew, 
with charcoal, the marks of an Iroquois war party, 
with the usual signs for prisoners and for scalps, hop- 
ing to delude his pursuers with the belief that he and 
his men were a band of those dreaded warriors. Tims 
over snowy prairies and half frozen marshes, wading 
sometimes to their waists in mud, water and bulrushes, 
they urged their way through the spongy, saturated 
wilderness. During three successive days, they were 
aware that a party of savages were dogging their 
tracks. They dared not make a fire at night, lest the 
light should betray them, but, hanging their wet clothes 
on the trees, they rolled themselves in their blankets 
and slept together on piles of spruce and pine boughs. 
But the night of the 2d of April was excessively cold. 
Their clothes were hard frozen, and they were obliged 
to kindle a fire to thaw and dry them. Scarcely had 
the light begun to glimmer through the gloom of the 
evening when it was greeted from the distance by 
mingled yells, and a troop of Mascoutin warriors 
rushed toward them. They were stopped by a deep 
stream, a hundred paces from the bivouac of the 
French, and La Salle went forward to meet them. 
No sooner did they see him, and learn that he was a 
Frenchman, than they cried that they were friends 

and brothers, who had mistaken him and his men for 
Iroquois, and, abandoning their hostile purpose, they 
withdrew peacefully. Thus his device to avert danger 
had well-nigh proved the destruction of the whole 
party. Two days after this adventure, two of the 
men fell ill from fatigue and exposure, and sustained 
themselves with difficulty until they reached the banks 
of a river, which was probably the Huron. Here the 
sick men rested, and their companions made a canoe. 
There were no birch trees, and they were forced to 
use elm bark, which, at that early season, would not 
slip freely from the wood until they loosened it with 
hot water. Their canoe being made, they embarked 
in it, and for a time floated prosperously down the 
stream, when at length the way was barred by a 
matted barricade of trees fallen across the water. 
The sick men could now walk again, and pushing 
eastward through the forest, the party soon reached 
the banks of the Detroit."* 

Crossing the river upon a raft, the little company 
made their way through the woods to Lake Erie, along 
the north shore of which they passed, in a canoe, to 
! Niagara. From thence, with three fresh men. La 
1 Salle proceeded to Fort Frontenac, where he arrived 
j on the 6th of May. During sixty-five days (from the 
j time he left Fort Crevecoeur, on Peoria Lake) he had 
! traveled more than a thousand miles, through a wil- 
1 derness inhabited only by wild beasts and wild men. 
I At the foot of Lake Erie, on the spot where the Grif- 
I fin was built, he learned of the loss of the vessel, with 
I her cargo of furs, and also of the wreck of a ship from 
France freighted with his merchandise. At Fron- 
j tenac, he received other discouraging tidings. Pushing 
\ on to Montreal, additional misfortunes were thrust 
J upon his knowledge. His creditors had become im- 
I patient and his property had been seized. 
I The heart of La Salle remained resolute in spite of 
I the complication of troubles which surrounded him. 
I In spite of his impaired credit, he succeeded in 
emyloying twenty-five men — soldiers, voyageurs, ship- 
builders and other mechanics and a surgeon, and was 
able to purchase such supplies as he needed. Then he 
! set out upon the long, weary journey to the Illinois 
country with the firm determination of now complet- 
ing the work he had been compelled to abandon in the 
spring and of realizing the great project to which he 
had dedicated his energies and his life — the explora- 
tion of the Mississippi. At the very outset he received 
news of appalling nature. When he reached Fort 
Frontenac, he found a letter from Tonti awaiting him, 
in which the faithful Italian lieutenant stated that 
nearly all the men left with him at Fort Crevecoeur 
had deserted, after destroying the fort, that they had 

i » Dlscoytrr of the Gr««t West, pp. 179-181. 



also razed to the ground Fort Miamis, and then going 
to Michilimackinac had seized La Salle's property, 
and left for the East with the avowed purpose of 
taking their master's life should they meet him upon 
the lakes. Almost any other heart than La Salle's 
would have been crushed by this last information, but 
he was not to be deterred from his purpose, even by 
the complete destruction of all that his past labors 
had accomplished. He set out upon Lake Ontario, 
met a party of the treacherous villains, boldly attacked 
them, killed several and took the others as prisoners 
to Frontenac, there to await such sentence as the 
Governor should think proper to pronounce upon 
them. Again, he set his face toward the West. He left 
Frontenac on the 10th of August, and, upon the ith of 
November, was at the mouth of the St. Joseph. The 
ruins of the fort corroborated what Tonti had written 
him. He pressed forward, by way of the St. Joseph 
and the Kan-ka-kee to the Illinois River. Passing 
by the ruined Fort Crevecoeur, he followed the Illi- 
nois to its mouth, and beheld for the first time the 
mighty Father of Waters. But this moment which 
La Salle had looked forward to through all his trials 
with the liveliest anticipations, brought little of joy 
to him. Ilis mind was filled with anxiety in regard 
to Tonti and Hennepin. He conjectured that the 
latter was upon the Upper Mississippi (for he had 
instructed him to explore that river to the northward 
as well as to traverse the Illinois), but Tonti, to whom 
he had been warmly attached, he feared had met with 
death. Along the Illinois he had found terrible 
destruction. The Iroquois had made an invasion of 
the country, and the villages of their enemies were 
now only blackened ruins amidst which lay the bones 
of hundreds of Illinois victims. He not unnaturally 
supposed that his lieutenant had met with the same 
terrible fate which had overtaken his Indian friends. 
Tonti had, in fact, been captured by the fierce Iro- 
quois, and, narrowly escaping death, and passing 
through many vicissitudes, finally made his way to 
Michilimackinac, where La Salle met him in June, 

In the meantime, however, the great explorer was 
ignorant of his whereabouts and even of his existence. 

Again we find La Salle upon the St. Joseph. He 
returned there from the Illinois in January, 1681. A 
small party of men, whom he had left at the mouth of 
the river in charge of stores in November, re-enforced 
by a number of the original force who had been left 
at Michiliraacinac — in all eighteen souls — under 
command of Sieur de la Forest, had rebuilt Fort 
Miamis, cleared a considerable space around it for 
planting in the following spring, and had made a 
saw-pit from which they had turned out nearly all of 

the timber and planks necessary for the construction ' 
of a vessel. Here, at the mouth of the St. Joseph, 
two centuries ago, was presented the first well-defined 
picture of civilization in what is now the Lower Penin- 
sula of the State of Michigan — the home of nearly a 
million and a-half of people. The little stockade was 
the abiding-place of twenty-five white men during the 
winter of 1680-81. Near by was a group of Indian 
wigwams occupied by Mohicans and Abenakis, who, 
driven from their ancestral lands near the Atlantic, 
had sought a refuge in the Far West, and located for 
the winter under the protection of the French fort. 
The winter months passed slowly and without notable 
incident. Preparations were made for resuming ex- 
ploration in the spring. The master and leading 
spirit of the company employed the days and nights 
in devising plans for future action, and in speculating 
upon the attainment of the end for which he had 
striven. " He might," says Parkman, " have brooded 
on the redoubled ruin that had befallen him — the 
desponding friends, the exulting foes, the wasted 
energies, the crushing load of debt, the stormy past, 
the black and lowering future. But his mind was of 
a diff"erent temper. He had no thought but to grap- 
ple with adversity, and out of the fragments of his 
ruin to rear the fabric of a triumphant success." 

When the first of March came, although there waa 
still snow upon the ground, La Salle, with nineteen 
men, started on a mission to the Illinois Indians, to 
induce them to make peace with the other tribes and 
to locate in the region about Fort Crevecoeur (or its 
site) under French protection. Accomplishing the 
object he sought, the party returned to Fort Miamis. 
An expedition for a similar purpose was made later 
in the spring to the great village of the Miamis on 
the portage between the St. Joseph and the Kanka- 
kee. The conference with the Miamis was success- 
ful, and La Salle congratulated himself on having 
won the friendship of the two most powerful tribes 
through whose country he must pass to the Missis- 
sippi. But before commencing his great undertaking 
he had to return again to Montreal. The long, 
weary journey was made, and in November, 1681, 
La Salle returned to Fort Miamis, accompanied by 
Tonti, whom he had found in June at Michilimack- 
inac. A month was spent at the mouth of the St. 
Joseph in preparation for the great expedition. 

This spot must ever retain an interest as the scene 
of La Salle's frequent visits, the place at which he 
passed most of his time in the Northwest, and where 
this daring but unfortunate explorer, the chief of the 
pioneers of France in Americi , matured the project 
which led him to the mouth of the majestic river. 

On the 21st of December, the first detachment of 


the exploring company commanded by Tonti left ' 
Fort Miamis, coasted along the south shore of the lake, 
and landed at the mouth of the Chicago River. There 
they were joined in a few days by the remainder of the 
force under La Salle." They reached the Mississippi 
on the 6th of February, and on the 6th of April, 1682, ; 
after many adventures, La Salle discovered the three 
passages by which the Father of Waters debouches 
into the Gulf of Mexico. On the 9th, in sight of the 
blue expanse of the sea, with great pomp and cere- 
mony, in the name of Louis XIV, King of France, 
he took possession of all the lands watered by the 
great river, bestowing upon the vast region the name 
of Louisiana. 

Li September, La Salle reached and descended the 
St. Joseph River on his way to Montreal (as he 
supposed), it being his intention to return to IT ranee, 
but at Michilimackinac he received tidings which 
turned him back to the Illinois country. 

Once more he ascended the St. Joseph — late in 
the fall of 1682 — and this was destined to be his last 
view of the beautiful sinuous stream with whose gentle 
meanders and forest-clad banks he had become so 
familiar. He returned to Lake Michigan in the fall 
of 1683, but by way of the Chicago portage, journeyed 
to Quebec, and from there sailed to France. He never 
again visited the northern region of America, but he 
made an expedition to the Gulf of Mexico, landed in 
Texas, and was there basely assassinated by some of 
his own men on the 19th of March, 1687. 

It does not appear that Fort Miamis was regularly 
occupied either as a military post or a base of supply 
by the French, after La Salle's final departure.* Com- 
paratively little is known of the history of the French 
in this immediate region during the century following 
La Salle's explorations. In a subsequent chapter, we 
ahall lay before the reader what information we have 
from various sources upon the mission of St. Joseph 
located at Fort Miamis about the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, and in the meantime conclude this 
chapter with a rapidly drawn outline of the French 
occupation of Michigan. 

The Mission of St. Ignace was founded at the 
Straits of Michilimackinac in 1671. The surround- 
ing region was known by the latter name, and the 
same appellation was given to the military post estab- 
lished there in 1680 — a post which became one of the 
most important in the whole lake region. Up to this 
time, no French garrison had been established upon 
the Detroit River, although the eligibility of the loca- 

tion had long before been noted by explorers, and the 
project of founding a settlement discussed by several 
of the Governors of New France. In 1686, Greysolon 
de Lhut, at that time commandant of Michilimackinac, 
was ordered by Gov. Gen. Denonville to establish a 
fortified post on "d'etroit,"* near Lake Erie. De 
Lhut, however, used his own discretion in so far that 
he located the post near the foot of Lake Huron 
(where Fort Gratiot was built in 1814, by an Ameri- 
can officer). Two years after it was built, this fort, 
which was named St. Joseph, f was evacuated and 
burned by Baron La Hontan, who succeeded De Lhut 
as its commandant. Soon after Fort Detroit was built 
upon the eastern shore of the lake, but, like Fort St. 
Joseph, it soon passed out of existence, and now no 
man knows exactly where it stood. 

It is probable that about this time a few French- 
men located on the Detroit River, on or near the site 
of the future city, but they were not permanent set- 
tlers. If there was any structure like a fort there, it 
must have been merely a post of the Coureurs des bois 
and not recognized by the government. One reason 
why the French had not built a stockade and located 
a garrison at this commanding point was because they 
had, in the Ottawa River, a more direct] route from 
Montreal to Michilimackinac, and the upper lakes than 
the Straits and Lake St. Clair afforded. Some time in 
the year 1700, Antoine de la Motte Cadillac, who 
had become, in 1694, the commandant at Michili- 
mackinac, recognized the fact, as others had before 
him, that the Detroit was the gateway in the direct 
route between the English Colonies and the Iroquois 
country on the one side, and the western lakes on the 
other, and that, however little the French themselves 
might need the strait, it was necessary that they 
should guard it against their allied enemies. Cadillac 
went to France to procure the full measure of author- 
ity, which he wanted, and, obtaining it, returned to 
Canada in March, 1701. On the 24th of July, in 
the same year, he arrived at the site of Detroit, then 
occupied by an Indian village, t and there founded the 
first permanent settlement in Michigan. It was the 
plan of Cadillac to gather all of the Indians of the 
lake region about Detroit, for purposes of trade, and 
he was largely successful, although his efforts were 
strongly opposed by the Jesuit influence. The com- 
pany which formed the settlement at Detroit con- 
sisted of about fifty soldiers and as many Canadian 
merchants and mechanics, a Jesuit who went out as a 
missionary to the Indians, and a RecoUet priest who 

*Sorao writers have stated that Fort Miamis was maintained as a French 
post up to the time or the ReTuiutionarjr war. Tliis is a manifest error. There 
WAS no ftarrison at the month of the St Joseph when Charlevoix visited the 
spot in 17>1. II had been removed, s.ys Judge C.mpbeli in his "OuUlnea of 
qislory," to Soatb Be 
tks year 1700. 

• Soatb Bead. The Jesuit mlsaion of St. Joseph 

ipbeli in 

■ founded about 

donbtlen to the fiict that the latter was on the St. Joseph River. 

IThls wa< a Buron village, and w u called Teuch&a Orondie (or l^j agh.mgh- 
ron.diel. It was probabljr established as earl/ as 1659, hut not permanentljr 



was Chaplain. Under Cadillac, the principal officer 
was Alphonse de Tonti, a brother of Henri de Tonti, 
the companion of La Salle. A fort was erected and 
named after the French Minister, Fort Pontchartrain. ' 
Detroit immediately became, and long remained, a 
post of large commercial consequence, and under the 
patronage of " the Company of the Colony of Can- 
ada," an organization which ha<l, by royal authority, 
a monopoly of the fur trade, it was in fact the center 
of commerce in the great Northwest. Five years 
after it was established, over two thousand Indians 
were living in the vicinity of Detroit. In 1712, it j 
became the scene of terrible carnage. In the absence { 
of the friendly Indians, the Foxes and Mascoutins be- 
sieged the garrison, which was, at that time, under 
command of M. du Buisson, and were in turn be- 
sieged by the allies of the French when they returned, 
and upward of a thousand of their number killed, the 
massacre being attended with circumstances of the 
most horrible atrocity. 

About the time that Detroit was settled, the mouth 
of the St. Joseph, where La Salle and his followers 
had so often been, and where they passed one long, 
dreary winter, again became the scene of French 
activity. The Miarais, who left the country in 1681, 
returned about ten years later, and the Jesuits, ever 
zealous to make proselytes of the natives, soon after 
established among them the mission of St. Joseph. It 
is probable that, at the same time, the name St. 
Joseph was bestowed upon the river which, in the 
earlier period of French exploration, had been called 
the River of the Miamis. The exact date of the 
founding of the mission is not known, but most 
writers place it in the year 1700.* The earliest men- 
tion of it that has been discovered occurs in a letter 
from the Jesuit. Joseph T. Marest, to the Governor 
General of Canada, dated Michilimackinac, August 
16, 1706. After mentioning a plot of the Ottawas 
(which had been temporarily frustrated) for a joint 
attack with the Sacs and Foxes upon the Miamis of 
the St. Joseph, the writer says : " I asked the savages 
if I could send a canoe manned with Frenchman to 
the River St. Joseph with any degree of safety. They 
replied that I could, and urged me to do so, seeming 
to take an interest in the fathers who are there. The 
truth is, they do not feel at liberty to make war upon 
the Miamis, while the rr.isionaries remain there, and 
for that reason would prefer that they should come to 
us. I had previously engaged some Frenchmen to 
carry the news to the River St. Joseph, and to relieve 

clearly Hn orror. LaStllri 

tliftt he fuiind the placo hod ernr be 

Stiloi ImI tail fullowon and (1678) t 

lainn wu OTtablldhed bj CUude Allonez 
country as early as 17ii5. Thin l> very 
^e liny mention which wnuld indicate 
h^lilled. Parlioian laya : ■■ Here he ( La 
1 fun, and here u afttr gtan the Jeeuila 

I our fathers if they were in any difficulty ; but one of 
I them has been so much intimidated by the represen- 
I tations of his friends that he dare not trust himself 
among the savages." 

" As affairs areat present, I do not think the removal 
of the fathers is advisable for that (St. Joseph) is the 
most important post in all this region, except Michili- 
mackinac ; and if the Ottawas were relieved from the 
existence of the mission, they would unite so many 
tribes against the Miamis that in a short time they 
would drive them from this fine country. * * j 
have at last found another Frenchman who is willing 
to go to the River St. Joseph, and I hope the four will 
now depart immediately. We have reason to feel 
anxious concerning the safety of the Fathers on 
account of so many war parties going down on that 
side. At last we shall have news from St. Joseph 
unless our men find too many dangers in the way." 

The Miamis abandoned the St. Joseph Valley and 
the country contiguous to the head of Lake Michigan 
in 1707, and it is probable that the Pottawatomies 
who succeeded them in its occupation came very soon 
after their departure. The Jesuit mission was con- 
tinued among the Pottawatomies. In 1712, it was 
reported by Father Marest as being in a very flour- 
ishing condition and the most important mission on 
the lakes, except Michilimackinac. Its condition,. one 
might judge from these words, was as favorable in 
1712 among the Pottawatomies as in 1706 among 
the Miamis. It had probably been continued without 
any intermission. A military post, too, had by this 
time been established at St. Joseph, and a little colony 
of Canadian traders had an existence under the pro- 
tection of the soldiery, and its members doubtless did 
more toward degrading the Indians than the pious 
Jesuits did toward their elevation. The Pottawato- 
mies, however, were as a nation more tractable and 
more inclined to profit by religious teachings than 
were the Miamis, or, for that matter, any of the other 
tribes of the Northwest. Years after the Jesuits left 
them, and, in fact, down to the time when the tribe 
emigrated to the far West, a large number of them, 
including some of the chiefs, remained earnest adher- 
ents to the faith their ancestors had learned of the 
Jesuits at the old mission of St. Joseph.* 

The Jesuits had another mission upon the St. Jo- 
seph River, near the southern limits of the city of 
Niles. It was established prior to 1721, for Charle- 
voix mentions a visit which he made to it in that year. 
Further than this, there is no authentic information in 
regard to this missionary station, although there are 
some quite circumstantial pretended accounts of it in 

•Th" PciltawatuniiM living io Can and Van Buren Cunnliea, and In 
Northern IndUna are, at Uiia day, with acarcely an excepUon, momben of the 
Boman Caihulic Church. 


existence, and many vague and entirely untrustworthy 
traditions afloat.* It is probable that the mission on 
the site of Niles was not continued for a very long 
period. No allusions are made in the official docu- 
ments of the time to its existence, though the mission 
of St. Joseph is frequently mentioned. But little 
remains to be said of the French occupation of the 
northern lake region. Nothing of great importance 
concerning the peninsula occurred during the period 
embracing the first half of the eighteenth century. 
The several missions were zealously supported, a vast 
traffic with the Indians was carried on, and, in 1749, 
quite a number of French agricultural settlers, en- 
couraged by grants of land, located on the banks of 
the Detroit. Their number did not, however, exceed 
twenty-five hundred in 1761 ; and there were no other 
points of settlement in the Lower Peninsula of 
Michigan except the military establishments and 
the missions. These were merely minute dots of 
civilization upon the border of an unknown wilder- 
ness, in which the savage roamed free, as he had for 
centuries before. France had won a vast though a 
transient dominion. It was destined that the Briton 
should rule the land the Gaul had found ; that the 
standard of the lion should supplant the lilies and the 
cross. Already the forces were in operation which 
were to eflect this result and to mold the future of a 



Great Britain Succeeds France in Domination of tlie Nortliwest— 
Michigan Posts Occupied by tlie Britisli— Treaty of 17G3— Hatred 
of the Western Tribes Aroused— Tliey are Craftily Encouraged in 
tlieir Enmity by tlie French— Pontiac's Conspiracy— The Potta- 
watomies join the League— Siege of Detroit— Miissacre of the Gar- 
rison at Fort St. .Joseph— An Exploit of the Tribe of Topinabe— 
Indians Propitiated by the British— The Quebec Bill— Little Ac- 
complished During a Century of French and British Occupation— 
The Revolutionary War— Comiuest of the Northwest by George 
Rogers Clark— Evacuation of Detroit. 

nnHE contest between France and England for 
J- supremacy on American soil was appealed to 
the arbitrament of the sword and settled as have been 
80 many other important issues, in blood. 

The two great powers had transferred their hatred 
from the Old World to the New, and the course of 
circumstances was such as to develop an armed 
hostility. The war of 1754-60 practically terminated 
French dominion in America. Braddock's defeat 
was avenged by the British when Wolfe gained his 
great victory over the French upon the Plains of 

• The last inicM of a small circular earthwork are remiining at Niles, and 
the prevailinK l^cal npiniun is thai this au-called " fori," which snmebrKly has 
given the nsnit* of " Fort Oola," was of French a^nstruction. The French bnilt 
no earthworks in the Indian country ; their forts were all stockades. " Fort 
Oola," of which the full outlines were plainly discernihie when the pioneers came 
into the country, undoubtedly belongs to the pre-historic period. 

Abraham in 1759. Quebec fell in the same year, 
and Montreal on the 8th of September, 1760. On 
the 29th of November, Detroit was surrendered to 
Capt. Robert Rogers and the red cross of St. George 
was raised for the first time upon the soil of Michi- 

The French were not immediately called upon to 

surrender their other points of pos.session in the West 

for the reason that the weather became so cold that it 

was impracticable for the English troops to make thalr 

way over Lake Huron. Early in August, 1761, 

however, three hundred men of " the Royal Ameri- 

j cans" — His Majesty's Sixtieth Regiment — command- 

j ed by Lieutenant Leslie, reached Michilimackinac 

' and took possession in the name of the King of 

1 England. A few days later a smaller detachment 

arrived at the St. Joseph River and occupied the fort 

at its mouth, over which the Bourbon flag had floated 

for more than fifty years — during the second period 

I of French occupation at this point. 

The treaty by which France formally ceded to 

i England all of her possessions in America was made 

in Paris in 1763. The peace which it was hoped 

this instrument would secure to the scattered inhabit- 

i ants of the Northwest was rudely broken even before 

! the treaty was promulgated — a fact for which the 

French in the New World were in ;i large measure 

I accountable. 

The change in the ownership of the soil was at- 
I tended by no immediate good results, but on the 
I contrary by many evil ones. Most of the French 
j traders left the country with the French soldiers, and 
' their places were quickly filled by Englishmen. 
Neither the English officers nor the commercial ad- 
venturers who accompanied their march into the West 
were calculated to win the friendship of the savages. 
j The soldiers treated them with rude contempt, and as 
[ vagabonds. The same line of conduct which had 
I estranged the Iroquois (the allies of the English since 
i the time of Champlain) so that they refused to aid 
Braddock in 1755, very soon aroused the hatred of 
the Western tribes. Whatever cause of grievance 
they omitted was supplied by the traders. Many 
I of these, according to Parkman, " were ruffians of the 
coarsest stamp, who vied with each other in rapacity, 
violence and profligacy. They cheated, cursed and 
plundered the Indians, and outraged their families, 
off'ering, when compared with the French traders, a 
most unfavorable example of the character of their 

The seeds of disaffection were widely sown. The 

Pottawatomies, the Chippewas and the Ojibways, were 

ready and eager to enter into the conspiracy proposed 

I by the crafty and powerful Ottawa Chief Pontiac, who 


was also the leader and head of the confederacy, com- | 
posed of the several tribes mentioned. His plan was ! 
to unite the several tribes of the Northwest, and, by a 
preconcerted signal, fall upon all of the British posts 
simultaneously, massacre the garrisons and destroy the 
forts, and so prepare for the return of the French, i 
The French Canadians craftily encouraged the savages i 
by informing them that already the armies of King 
Louis were advancing to reclaim their lost possession. 

In the autumn of 1762, Pontiac sent messengers to i 
the various nations, disclosing his plan, and inviting ! 
them to join the league. The Pottawatomies who, 
at this time, had their principal population in the [ 
country along the St. Joseph and Kalamazoo Rivers, [ 
lent a willing assent to Pontiac's request. Emmissa- 
ries were dispatched to far-distant nations, and these, ' 
in turn, sent representatives to a great council, ap- , 
pointed by the leader, at the River Ecorces, near De- i 
troit, in April, 1763. The plan of the campaign in j 
general was here arranged, and the details were per- I 
fected at a subsequent gathering, held at a Pottawato- 
mie village. The posts to be assaulted were Niagara, 
Presque Isle, Le Boeuf, Venango, Du Quesne (now 
Pittsburgh) Ouiatenon, Detroit, Michilimackinac, 
Sault Ste. Marie, Green Bay and St. Joseph, a chain 
extending along more than twelve hundred miles of 
frontier. There was gathered together for this pur- 
pose a vast concourse of Indian warriors from the 
Michigan Peninsulas, from Lake Superior, from the 
region beyond Lake Michigan, from the Ottawa 
River of Canada, and even from the Lower Mississippi 
Valley. So perfect was Pontiac's plan, and so well 
carried out by the allied tribes, that nine of the posts 
fell into their possession, and only three escaped — 
Niagara, Pittsburgh and Detroit. The time set for 
the attack was May. On the 7th of that month, Pon- 
tiac and a number of lesser chiefs presented them- 
selves at thd gates of Fort Detroit, and requested ad- 
mission, saying that they had come to hold a council 
with the commandant. Under the blanket of each 
was concealed a tomahawk and a gun, the barrel of 
which had been filed off short, that it might be more 
effectually hid. It was arranged that at a precon- 
certed signal, the warriors in the council house were 
to throw off their disguise and massacre the officers, 
and that as soon as the first shot was heard, the Indians 
outside the fort should rush in and massacre the 
entire garrison. The chiefs were admitted, but they 
were chagrined to find that knowledge of their treacher- 
ous scheme had been communicated to the command- 
ant. Maj. Gladwyn, and that the most thorough 
preparations had been made to prevent a surprise. 
The garrison was under arms, the cannoneers stood 
by their guns, and the officers who met them in the 

council house had swords and pistols at their sides. 
After a short and hollow harangue with Maj. Glad- 
wyn, Pontiac and his companions, baffled in the accom- 
plishment of their dastardly design withdrew. It is 
traditionally asserted that the British officer in charge 
had been warned of his danger by an Ojibway girl, 
who lived at the Pottawatomie village, where the 
chiefs had been in conference. 

The rage of the discomfited Indians was unbounded. 
They resolved to make an oRea attack, and on the 10th 
of May 800 warriors surrourtded the little fort, and 
assaulted it with all of the fierceness of which they 
were capable. The battle raged from dawn to dark, 
and it seemed as if the garrison must inevitably be 
overcome. The British, however, resisted success- 
fully, and, thwarted again, Pontiac determined upon 
besieging the fort and compelling it* inmates to sur- 
render. The siege was continued five months, and 
during that time several assaults were made, which 
the garrison received as a great roek does the waves 
of the sea. 

The Pottawatomies were present at the first attack 
of Detroit, and during the early stage of the siege, in 
large numbers. They fought under their chief, Ninav6, 
and were given a post of honor in the battle. After 
the unsuccessful attack, they were assigned to the de- 
struction of Fort St. Joseph, in their own country, 
and, with their thirst for blood intensified by their 
repulse at Detroit, the wolfish horde went trooping 
through the wilderness to accomplish the destruction 
of the weaker post. The day fixed upon for the mas- 
sacre of the little garrison was the 25th of May. On 
the morning of that day, the commandment of St. 
Joseph, Ensign Schlosser, was informed that a band 
of Pottawatomies had arrived from Detroit upon a visit 
to the members of the tribe in the vicinity. Probably 
he believed this story, and felt no uneasiness for the 
safety of the garrison. All accounts agree that he 
was taken completely by surprise. Not long after he 
had heard of the presence of the Indians in the neigh- 
borhood, Schlosser was visited by the chief Washash^ 
and a few others of the tribe, who announced that they 
had come for a friendly talk with the white chief. 
While he was engaged in conversation with them, a 
Canadian (who lived in the little settlement founded, 
under the protection of the fort, in 1712) came to him 
with the startling intelligence that the stockade was 
entirely surrounded with Indians, and that their man- 
ner indicated impending trouble. He quickly gave 
orders to his men to fall in instantly, with their arms, 
and returned to the parade ground. During his brief 
absence, more Indians had assembled here, and quite 
a number of tho Canadians had also come in. The 
latter the commandant endeavored to press into his 


service, but while he was talking to them, the dreadful 
war-whoop was heard, and a scene of carnage quickly 
ensueil. The garrison numbered only fourteen men, 
and i\>uld offer no adequate resistance to the horde of 
savages by which they were surrounded. Eleven men 
were killed and scalped, and the remaining three, 
with Schlosser, were taken prisoners, securely bound, 
and afterward taken to Detroit, where they were finally 
e.xchangeil for some Pottawatomies whom Maj. Glad- 
wyn had captured at the commencement of the siege. 
With the massacre of its garrison in 1763, the history 
of Fort St. Joseph ^originally Fort Miamis) is practi- 
cally closeii. There is no proof that the British again 
occupieil it as a military post, although the forts at 
Green Bay and Michilimackinac, which suftered the 
same fate during the conspiracy of Pontiac, were sub- 
sequently re-established. 

The trading-post at Fort St. Joseph was, at the 
time of the m.issacre, owneil by one Richard Winston. 
He escaped death, as did also several others besides 
the Canadians. The trading-post passed out of exist- 
ence when the garrison fell, and was probably not 

The massacre of the garrison at Fort St. Joseph, 
the only event of the Pontiac conspiracy in South- 
western Michigan, was the chief exploit of the Potta- 
watomie Indians. Soon af^er, they, with the Wyan- 
dots, pretended to withdraw from the league which 
Pontiac commanded, and suetl for peace, which was 
grantetl them by Maj. Gladwyn at Detroit. In ac- 
cordance with their treacherous natures, however, they 
still continued inimical to the British, aided in the 
attack on the force of Capt. Dalzell, which was march- 
ing to the relief of Detroit, took j>art in the slaughter 
at Blooiiy Run, on the last of July, and, a month 
later, were among the savages who made an assault 
on the schooner "Gladwyn.' In the last-mentioned 
engagement they suffered severe loss, and it was prob- 
ably their last fight during the siege. 

The war had been a severe one for the British, but 
disastrous to the plans of Pontiac. At its close, the 
English endeavored to bring about such a condition of 
affairs as would preclude the possibility of recurrence 
of hostilities. The French settlers in the West who had 
incited the Indians to war, and in some instances aided 
them in carrying it on, although they had sworn 
allegiance to the British crown, were treated with 
much greater magnanimity than their treachery merited. 
A policy of pacification toward the Indians of the 
Northwest was adopted, and the friendship of most of 


the tribes was won by their late enemy. George 
Croghan, a man familiar with Indian character, was 
sent to the West to confer with representatives of the 
several nations. He reached Detroit August 7,1765. 
The Indians were ready to accept the offers of peace, 
and the propitiatory presents which the emissary of 
Sir William Johnson brought to them. Parkinan 
speaks particularly of a band of Pottawatomies who 
were present, and whose "wise man," after hearing 
Croghan"s reasoning, (intended tosoften their antipathy 
to the English, and to expose the falsehoods of the 
French), thus delivered himself: "We are no more 
than wild creatures to you, fathers in understanding ; 
therefore, we request you to forgive the past follies of 
our young people, and receive us for your children. 
Since you have thrown down our former father (the 
French), upon his back, we have been wandering in 
the dark like blind people. Now you have dispersed 
all this darkness which hung over the heads of the 
several tribes, and have accepted them for your 
children, we hope you will let us partake with them 
the light, that our women and children may enjoy 
peace. We beg you to forget all that is past. By 
this belt we remove all evil thoughts that are in your 
hearts. Fathers, when we formerly came to visit our 
fathers, the French, they alwttys sent us home joyful, 
and we hope that you fathers will have pity on our 
women and young men who are in great want of 
necessaries, and not let us go home to our towns 

This craven, begging speech, delivered by a chief 
of the tribe which had massacred the garrison at St. 
Joseph, and had an active hand in nearly all of the 
atrocities of the Pontiac war, serves well to illustrate 
one phase of the Indian character — a phase exhibited 
in common by the Pottawatomies and all other tribes. 

From the time of the British accession until 1774, 
civil law had no existence in the western portion of 
the great territory the French had been forced to 
relinquish. Martial law was exercised, and Detroit 
was the seat of the ruling power. In 1774, however, 
the British Parliament passed what was known as the 
" Quebec Bill. " By this act. Michigan and all of the 
lands northwest of the Ohio, and between the great 
lakes and the Mississippi, was made a part of Canada. 
Sir Henry Hamilton was made Lieutenant Governor, 
and was in command at Detroit, which was the British 
headquarters for the Northwest from 1744 until 1779, 
when he was captured by Gen. George Rogers Clark, 
at Vincennes, on the Wabash. 

One hundred years of French and British domi- 
nation witnessed little progress in the condition of 
the great Northwest. In 1780, it was essentially 
what it had been a century b«»fore in the time of La 



Salle. It was to form a magnificent portion in the 
heritage of, and to be developed bv, the young, strong, 
expansive nation born amidst the throes of the Revo- 
lution. The period of the war from 1775 to 1783 
while crowdef] with results of the most rital impor- 
tance as affecting the future of this region, was not a 
period rich in events within it. There was one, how- 
ever, of immeasurable conse^juence. We refer to the 
conquest of the countrj by Gen. George Rogers 
Clark, of Kentucky, under the authority of the Com- 
monwealth of Virginia. The man who was to take 
so prominent a part in shaping the destiny of the 
great West, was in 1774 an officer in the army of 
Lord Dunmore, which marched against the Indians in 
Ohio, and in 1776 was a pioneer settler in Kentucky. 
He was a realization of the ideal soldier — cool, cour- 
ageous and sagacious, and perhaps at that time the 
most powerful and certainly the most picturesf^uc 
character in the West. It was his foresight and 
prompt, efficient action, which, at the close of the 
Revolutionary war. made the lands between the great 
lakes, the Ohio and the Mississippi, a portion of the 
United States instead of leaving it in the possession 
of the British. He foresaw that even should the 
colonies be victorious in their war for independence, 
they might be confined to the Eastern side of the 
AUeghanies, unless the West was made a special field 
of conquest. He failed to interest the House of 
Burgesses in his scheme, but obtained from Patrick 
Henry, Governor of Virginia, the authority which he 
needed to carry out his plans, viz., commissions which 
emjwwered him to raise seven companies of soldiers, 
and to seize the British posts in the Northwest. In 
January, 1778. he was at Pittsburgh securing ammuni- 
tion and provisions ; in June, he was marching through 
an unbroken forest, at the head of a small, but valiant 
army, principally composed of his fellow pioneers 
from Kentucky. His march was directed toward the 
Illinois country. His able generalship and courige 
soon placed the garrisons of Cahokia, Kaskaskia 
and St. Vincent in his possession, and his equally 
great tact enabled him to win over the French inhabit, 
ants to the American cause, and make of them warm 
allies. And thus the vast country afterward known 
as the Northwest Territory was won. Its cession by 
treaty to the United States, or rather the old confed- 
eration on September 3, 1783, "was due," says an 
eminent authority, "mainly to the foresight, the 
courage and endurance of one man who never received 
from his country an adequate recognition of his great 

The treaty was formally ratified by the American 
Congress on the 14th of January, 1784. 

•JuiM A. GarikeU in UMoricsl mUnrn d«liTn«d tn 1873. 

Notwithstanding the nature of the treaty provis- 
ions, the British for a number of years retained pos- 
session of several posts within the ceded territory — 
Oswegatchie 'Ogdensbnrg). Oswego. Niagara, Presque 
Isle (Erie). Sandusky, Detroit and Macinac. They 
rebuilt an old fort on the Maumee in 1794, and did 
not evacuate Detroit until July 12, 1796, when the 
flag of the United States was first unfurled over the 
settlement which was to become the Michigan me- 



OniinaDceof " ' Vorth- 

we« Terr . rritory 

Organiw ! . nend- 

ing Admi-- War- 

Michigan E'-nvr- iLl U;^-jr iviil_^_j .h Ucu u; ihe Mvunee 
S«am|>— B«moTaJ of the Capital— Coostlititional ConreDtion o( 
IKoO— Lists of Territorial and Slate GoTernois— PopulatloD from 
1T:« to WeU. 

\ S soon as the title to the Northwest was vested in 
-^^^ the United States, Congress took measures to 
clothe it with law. The first endeavor was futile. In 
1794, acommittee, of which Thomas Jefferson was chair- 
man, reported to Congress an ordinance for the establish- 
ment and maintenance of government in the North- 
west Territory. It contained an article prohibiting 
slavery after the year 1800, which, however, was 
stricken out before it came to its passage. The ordi- 
nance remainei] practically inoperative, and the only 
good that was accomplished by its passage lay in the 
fact that it paved the way for a subsequent act of national 
legislation. On May 20. 178.5, Congress oassed the or- 
dinance providing for the survey and sale of Western 
lands (which is spoken of at length in a subsequent 

It was not until the passage of the famous act known 
as the ordinance of 1787 that the civil law of the 
republic had anything more than a nominal existence 
in the region from which the States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin have 1 een formed. 
Even in a work which gives the history of only a small 
fragment of the great territory covered by the ordi- 
nance of 1787, we deem it appropriate to say a few 
words concerning that great instrument. It was the 
foundation upon which five splendid commonwealths 
were to be built up. the fundamental law, the consti- 
tution of the Northwest Territory, and a sacred com- 
pact between the old colonies and the yet uncreated 
Stat*^ to come into being under its benign influence. 
It forever proscribed slavery upon the soil of the ter- 
ritory it organized, and it is undoubtedly true that to 
this ordinance the people of the nation owe thanks for 
the final complete suppression of the " peculiar insti- 


tution " within its borders, for it is probable that had 
the system been allowed a foothold north of the Ohio, 
it would have grown to such proportions as to have 
successfully resisted all measures for its overthrow. 
But when the ordinance is considered simply as an 
act of legislation providing for the opening, develop- 
ment and government of the Territory, its value is not 
less apparent or admirable. It provided for succes- 
sive forms of Territorial government, and upon it were 
based all the Territorial enactments and much of the 
subsequent State legislation. It was so constructed 
as to give the utmost encouragement to immigration, 
and it offered the greatest protection to those who be- 
came settlers, for "when they came into the wil- 
derness, they found the law already there. It was im- 
pressed upon the soil while as yet it upbore nothing 
but the forest. Never, probably, in the history of the 
world, did a measure of legislation so accurately ful- 
fill and yet so mightly exceed the anticipation of the 

The authorship of the important clauses of the 
ordinance and the causes which really led to its for- 
mation, have, until very recently, been misunderstood. 
The authorship has been commonly ascribed to Nathan 
Dane, Congressman from Massachusetts, and some- 
times accredited to Hufus King of the same State, 
and to Thomas Jeiferson. And yet nothing is clearer 
than that the Rev. Manasseh Cutler, the pastor of a 
Congregational Church, at Ipswich (now Hamilton), 
Mass., and agent of the Ohio company, was the 
true author, at least of the great ideas embodied 
in the ordinance. As agent of the New England 
Ohio Company, he went before Congress to purchase 
an immense tract of land upon the Ohio River, that 
within which Gen. Rufus Putnam and other Revolu- 
tionary characters in the year 1788, made the first 
permanent English settlement in the whole Northwest 
Territory. The ordinance represented and embodied 
the advanced thought of New England — of Massachu- 
setts — and yet this act, embracing a clause prohibit- 
ing slavery was passed by the votes of Southern mem- 
bers of Congress. There were two inducements 
which operated strongly on the minds of the legisla- 
tors, influencing them to grant Dr. Cutler's applica- 
tion for the purchase of a part of the public domain. 
The first was the urgent need of an increase in the 
public revenue. The second was the apparent need 
of planting a strong colony of patriotic men in the 
West to bind it to the east, for it must be remembered 
that about that time it was seriously apprehended that 
Kentucky would embrace the first opportunity to 
separate from the Confederacy and join her fortunes 
with Spain. 

« Chief Justice Salmon 1>. Cbasc. 

The situation of affairs not only made it possible to 
secure the purchase for the Ohio Company, practically 
at his own terms, but to so mold the organic law of 
the Territory in which the lands were situated, as to 
make that purchase desirable. It is only when the 
Ohio Company's purchase and the ordinance of 1787 
are considered in connection with each other, that the 
latter can be properly understood.* 

The settlement of Marietta was made upon the 7th 
of April, 1788. The Governor, Gen. Arthur St. 
Clair arrived there in July of that year, and during 
the same month the first territorial government in the 
United States was formally established. 

Michigan, as an integral part of the Northwest Ter- 
ritory, was under this government until the year 1800. 
Wayne County erected upon the 18th of August, 
1796, by Winthrop Sargent, included the whole of 
the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, with portions of 
Ohio and Indiana. It was entitled to three members 
in the Territorial Legislature, which met in Chilli- 
cothe (Ohio). 

Indiana Territory was erected by an act of Con- 
gress passed on the 7th of May, l-sOO. It consisted 
of that part of the Northwest Territory lying west of 
a line drawn from the Ohio, opposite the Kentucky 
River, to Fort Recovery, and thence due north to the 
line dividing the LTnited States from the British pos- 
session. This line divided the Lower Peninsula 
almost exactly in the center, crossing the Straits of 
Mackinac and meeting the international line above 
the Sault Ste. Marie. Cass County, being west of this 
line, was in Indiana Territory, of which William 
Henry Harrison was appointed Governor. Ohio 
being organized as a State upon the 29th of Novem- 
ber, all of that part of Michigan, which lay east of 
the boundary line between the two Territories and which 
had remained in the Northwest Territory was added 
to Indiana Territory. The capital was fixed at Vin- 

The Territory of Michigan was erected by act of 
Congress passed on the 11th of January, 1805, 
which, however, did not take effect until June 30 of 
the same year. On the 26th of February, the Presi- 
dent nominated the Territorial officers who were en- 
dowed with legislative power. Gen. William Hull 
was nominated for Governor and Hon. A. B. Wood- 
ward for the office of Presiding Judge. Both 
were confirmed, and the officers proceeded to Detroit, 
the capital, Judge Woodward arriving there on the 
29th of June, and Gov. Hull upon the Ist of 

•Williitm F. Pool« (Librarian of llie Cliicago Public Library), In an admir- 
aMe article In the Wortt Amtrieitm Htvieie, for April, 1878, on the ordinance and 
Dr. CutlerV ajsency in ita formation, says: "The ordinance of 1787 and the 
Ohio purcliuse »er« parts of one and the same transaction The purchase 
teould not have been uuide without tlje ordinance, and the ordinance could no/ 
have been except as an essential condition of (he purchase. 



July. Upon the 2d, the Territorial government went 
into active operation. Its jurisdiction originally in- 
cluded only the Lower Peninsula, but when Illinois 
was made a State in 1818, the. region now known as 
Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula were added to 
Michigan Territory, and in 1834 the far-away lands 
of Iowa and Minnesota were attached temporarily. 

The war of 1812 was the most important event 
which occurred during the existence of the Territorial 
government. It is beyond our province to speak of 
that struggle in this chapter, and we only allude to 
it for the sake of making the observation that it 
brought about indirectly one great good for Michigan 
— the appointment of Gen. Lewis Cass as Governor. 
The oflSce was given to him upon the 13th of October, 
1813, and he held it until 1831. His administra- 
tion was an able one and he did much to promote the 
prosperity of the Territory by various wise measures. 

In 1819, Michigan was authorized to send a dele- 
gate to represent her people in Congress. The first 
delegate chosen was William Woodbridge. In 1823, a 
Legislative Council, consisting of nine members was 
appointed by the President of the United States, and 
two years later the number was increased to thirteen. 
This was a change which completely revolutionized 
the Territorial government, as it removed the legis- 
lative power from the Judges. 

The period from 1820 to 1830 was one of great im- 
provement in Michigan. The introduction of steam 
navigation (1818) and the placing of lands in the 
market had stimulated emigration. The white popu- 
lation of the Territory which, in 1820, was less than 
9,000 souls, had, by 1830, been increased to over 
31,000. The advance in legislation and method of 
government kept apace with that of material improve- 
ment. A judiciary system was established and 
militia organized. In 1827, the elective system was 
resorted to for the choice of a body of as many mem- 
bers as the Legislative Council contained, to act in 
union with that assemblage. 

In July, 1831, Gen. Cass resigned his office to 
take a seat in the cabinet of President Jackson, and 
Gen. George B. Porter, of Pennsylvania, was ap- 
pointed Governor in his place, entering upon the dis- 
charge of the duties of his office in September. 

As early as 1830, it had become apparent that 
Michigan must soon pass from the Territorial to the 
State form of government. The ordinance of 1787 
made provision for the erection of not less than three 
nor more than five States from the Northwest Terri- 
tory. Three had been formed prior to 1818, viz., 
Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. Michigan was entitled 
to knock at the door of the Union for admittance as a 
State whenever her free white population should num- 

ber 60,000. On the 29th of June, 1832, a statute 
was passed to call an election on the first Tuesday of 
October to determine whether it be expedient for the 
people of this territory to form a State government. 
" The result of tiie election," says Judge Campbell 
(in his Outlines of the Political History of Michigan) 
" was a very decisive expression in favor of the 
change." This was the first action taken tending 
toward the establishment of the State, and it does not 
appear that there was any other until 1834. In that 
year, the Territory contained a population of 87,273, as 
was shown by a census taken by order of the Legisla- 
tive Council. The increase over the population of 
1830 was 61,768. " More people had come into 
Michigan in four years than the 60,000 which entitled 
her to become a State,"* and this did not include any 
part of the emigration into that portion of the territory 
west of Lake Michigan (Wisconsin). At its session of 
January, 1835, the council passed an act authorizing 
the holding of a convention at Detroit on the second 
Monday of May following, for the purpose of forming 
a State Constitution. This convention composed of 
eighty-nine delegates met upon the day specified and 
continued in session until June 24. A constitution 
was formed which was submitted to the people upon 
the first Monday in October, at which time also a full 
set of State officers, members of the Legislature and a 
representative to Congress were elected. The consti- 
tution was ratified, Stevens T. Mison was elected 
Governor ; Edward Munday, Lieutenant Governor, 
and Isaac E. Crary, Representative. 

Michigan had now two governments, State and Ter- 
ritorial ; Gov. Mason at the head of the former, 
which still lacked the recognition of Congress and 
Secretary (Acting Governor) John S. Horner, who 
had been appointed just prior to the election, holding 
his place at the head of the Territorial Government. 

The heated controversy in regard to the Southern 
or Ohio boundary line, which has gone into history 
under the sanguinary title of "the Toledo war" 
delayed the admission of Michigan into the Union. 
This was a contest between Michigan and Ohio, in 
regard to the possession of a strip of land extending 
from the Indiana line eastward to the mouth of the 
Maumee River, embracing the site of Toledo. It was 
almost five miles wide at the west end, and eight at its 
eastern extremity. The land belonged in equity to 
Michigan, the line which her people claimed being 
that established by the ordinance of 1787. Action 
had been taken at various times by the State of Ohio, 
the Territorial authorities of Michigan and the Con- 
gress of the United States, looking toward a settle- 
ment of the rival claims, but nothing definite had 

•James V. CanipbeU's History of Michigan. 


been accomplished. On the 23d of February, 1835, 
the Ohio Legislature passed a resolution declaring the 
disputed strip to be the property of Ohio, and pro- 
viding for the re-survey of the line and the marking of 
the strip into townships. Michigan had, at this time, 
held possession of the Territory for thirty years, sue- 1 
cessfully opposing attempts to collect taxes under 
Ohiolaws,andtheLegislativeCouncil!ipprehendingtlie j 
action of the Ohio Legislature passed an act on the 12th 
of February, prohibiting any person or persons from 
exercising official functions in the Territory of Michi- i 
gan, except upon authority derived from the Territorial 
Government, or from the United States. The people 
of the tract in dispute were divided in allegiance 1 
between the contesting authorities, some taking sides 
with Michigan and some with Ohio. On the 9th of 
March, Gov. Mason ordered Gen. Joseph W. Brown, 
in command of the Third Division of Michigan Militia? 
to be ready to repel any invasion of the Territory. 
Gov. Lucas, of Ohio, with a party of surveyors and I 
about six hundred militia, approached the boundary 
line about the last of the month. Simultaneously, or 
nearly so, Gov. Mason marched into Toledo with a 
force of from eight hundred to twelve hundred men. 
Gov. Lucas made ready to attack the Michigan army, 
and serious bloodshed was probably only avoided by 
the intervention of two Commissioners, sent from 
Washington to settle the dispute. A truce was patched 
up, but after a few weeks, Gov. Lucas' surveyors 
beginning their work, were again attacked and put to 
flight. The onslaught was a bloodless one. Nine | 
Ohioans were taken prisoners. In Ohio a special | 
session of the Legislature was called to take action 
upon this insult. It met on the 8th of June, passed 
an act to prevent the forcible abduction of Ohio citi- j 
zens ; one to establish the country of Lucas in the 
disputed territory, with Toledo as its seat of justice ; 
another to hold a session of the Circuit Court there on 
the 7th of September following, and made an appro- 
priation of $300,000 for carrying on the war. Ten 
thousand volunteers were raised in short order. 
Matters were becoming serious. President Jackson 
advised that the quasi agreement made by the Gov- 
ernors before the Commissioners be observed, and 
that the parties abstain from pressing their claims 
until Congress could meet. Meanwhile the 7th of 
September approached, and to prevent the holding of 
the proposed court at Toledo, Gen. Brown repaired to 
the vicinity with a force of militia, estimated at over 
twelve hundred. It is said that the court was organ- 
ized in the night in spite of the watchfulness of the 
soldiery. However that may have been. Gen. Brown's 
force was soon after disbanded. In the meantime, 
numerous arrests had been made, a number of people 

imprisoned, some small hostilities engaged in (personal 
encounters) and a furious indignation aroused. 

Such was the condition of things (although actual 
hostilities had ceased) when on June 15, 1836, Con- 
gress accepted the Constitution of Michigan, and 
passed an act, admitting her as a State on condition 
that she accede to the boundary claims of Ohio. In 
September, a convention of regularly elected delegates 
was held at Ann Arbor, to act upon the proposition of 
Congress and rejected it. On the 14th of December, 
another convention was held, which was made up 
entirely of delegates known to be in favor of accept- 
ing theproposition. This gathering was known from 
the cold nature of the weather at the time it was held, 
and from the illegality of its action, as the "Frost- 
Bitten Convention." The convention voted unani- 
mously, and with much alacrity to accept the condi- 
tions imposed by Congress, and that body acting upon 
the acceptance formally admitted Michigan as a State 
upon the 26th of January, 1837- The principal 
irregularity in the convention lay in the fact that it 
was not called by the Legislature. Its members and 
those who had favored it were, for several years, deri- 
sively dubbed "submissionists." Theirsubmission was, 
however, an act of great value to Michigan. As an 
inducement to Michigan to forego claim to the long- 
disputed strip of land along the southern border, she 
was given the Upper Peninsula, which has proven a 
domain of far greater value. 

"The State," says Judge Campbell, "was recog- 
nized when admitted as having existed as such since 
November, 1835, when the Senators and Repre- 
sentatives, Governor and Legislature, came into 

The admission of Michigan into the Union, was 
further complicated by being connected with the 
admission of Arkansas. The measure was thus made 
one of political character. 

The seat of government, by act of the Legislature 
approved March 16, 1847, was removed from Detroit 
to Lansing. 

The new constitution — the one now in force — was 
adopted by a convention which met at Lansing June 
3, 1850, and ratified by the people at the November 
election following. 


Following are the names of the Chief Executives, 
who have governed Michigan as a part of the North- 
west Territory, Indiana Territory, Michigan Terri- 
tory, and as a State : 

Northwest Territory— Gen. Arthur St. Clair — 
1787-1800. Winthrop Sargent (Secretary and Act- 
ing Governor), 1796-1800. 




Indiana Territory — Gen. William Henry Harrison 
1800 to 1805. 

Michigan Territory — Gen. William Hull from 
March 1, 1805, to August 16, 1812. Gen. Lewis 
Cass from October 13, 1813, to August 1, 1831. 
(During his administration, William Woodbridge, the 
Secretary, was Acting Governor at several periods.) 
James Witherell, Secretary and Acting Governor 
from January 1, 1830, to April 2, 1830. Gen. John 
T. Mason, Secretary and Acting Governor from Sep- 
tember 24, 1830, to October 4, 1830, and from April 
4 to May 27, 1831. Stevens Thomson Mason, 
Secretary and Acting Governor from August 1, 
1831, to September 17, 1831. Gen. George B. 
Porter, Governor from August 6, lfe31, to death, 
July 6, 1834. Stevens Thomson Mason, Secretary 
and Acting Governor at various periods from 
October 30, 1831, to February 7, 1834. Stevens 
Thomson Mason, exofficio Governor as Secretary 
of the Territory, July 6, 1834, to August 29, 
1835. Charles Shaler was appointed to succeed 
Mason as Secretary August 29, 1835, but declined. 
John S. Horner, Secretary and Acting Governor, 
September 8, 1835, until after organization of State 

State Governors under Constitution of 1835 — 
Stevens T. Mason, November 3, 1835, to April 13, 
1838. Edward Mundy (Lieutenant Governor and 
Acting Governor), April 13 to June 12, 1838, and 
September 19 to December 9, 1838. William Wood- 
bridge, January 7, 1840, to February 23, 1841. James 
Wiight Gordon (Lieutenant Governor and Acting 
Governor), February 24, 1841, to January 3, 1842. 
John S. Barry, Governor, January 3, 1842, to Jan- 
uary 5, 1846. Alpheus Felch, January 5, 1846, to 
March 3, 1847. William L. Greenley (Lieutenant 
Governor and Acting Governor), March 4, 1847, to 
January 3, 1848. Epaphroditus Ransom, Governor, 
January 3, 1848, to January 7, 1850. John S. 
Barry, Governor, January 7, 1850, to January 1, 

Under the Constitution of 1850— Robert McClel- 
land, January 1, 1852, to January 5, 1853. Andrew 
Parsons (Lieutenant Governor and Acting Governor), 
March 8, 1853, to January 3, 1855. Kinsley S. 
Bingham, January 3, 1855, to January 5, 1859. 
Moses Wisner, January 5, 1859, to January 2, 1861. 
Austin Blair, January 2, 1861, to January 4, 1865. 
Henry H. Crapo, January 4, 1865, to January 6, 
1869. Henry P. Baldwin, January 6, 1869, to Jan- 
uary 1, 1873. John J. Bagley, January 1, 1873, to 
January 3, 1877. Charles M. Crosswell, January 3, 
1877, to January 1, 1879. David H. Jerome, Jan- 
uary 1, 1881, to . 


The population of Michigan (white) at various pe- 
riods from 1796 to 1880, has been as follows : 

1796 (cstiinateJ) 3,000 

1800 3,200 

1810 4,762 

1820 8,896 

1830 31.6.S9 

1834 87,273 

1840 212,267 

1850 397,6 4 

1854 (Sittte census) 507.621 

1860 (United Stales census) 749,113 

1864 (State census) 803,661 

1870 (United States census) 1,184,282 

1874 (Slate census) 1,334,031 

1880 (United States census) 1,636,885 



Ownersliip of the Northwest— The Claims of France and EnRland— 
Of States— Their Cession to the United States-System of Survey 
Introduced in ITSii- Its Benefits- Modifications for Michigan- 
Survey of Cass County Lands— Land Sales at White Pigeon— 
I'nfavorable Report on Michigan Lands— School Lands— Indian 
Title Extinguished— The Treaty of Chicago in 1821— Other Nego- 

FRANCE, as we have seen, was the first civilized 
nation that laid claim to the soil of the territory 
now included within the boundaries of the State of 
Michigan, as an integral portion of the great Northwest 
and the Mississippi Valley. Her claim was based 
upon the discoveries of La Salle and Marquette, and 
upon the provisions, subsequently, of several European 
treaties. The English claims rested on the priority 
of their occupation of the Atlantic coast in latitude 
corresponding to the territory claimed, upon an oppo- 
site construction of the treaties upon which the French 
relied and upon alleged cession of the rights of the 
Indians. The last was the principal ground of their 
claim. As has been heretofore shown in this volume, 
France successfully resisted the claims of England, 
and maintained control of the territory between the 
Ohio, the Mississippi and the lakes, by force of arms, 
until the treaty of Paris was consummated in 1763. 
By the provisions of this treaty. Great Britain came 
into possession of the disputed lands, and retained it 
until the ownership was vested in the United States 
and confirmed by the treaty of 1783. 

All of England's charters to the colonies 'expressly 
extended their grants from sea tq sea. From the na- 
ture of these charters, arose grave trouble when the 
American confederation was formed. The conflicting 
claims of States, or more properly colonies, threatened 
even to disrupt the infant nation. Happily, however, 
they were ceded within a few years, and all rights and 
titles were consolidated and vested in the Genenil Gov- 
ernment. New York State, which had a charter ob- 
tained from Charles II in March, 1664, embracing 


territory west of her borders (which had formerly been 
granted to Massachusetts and Connecticut) made ces- 
sion of her claim in 1781. Virginia, with a far more 
valid title, followed in 1784, making, however, a large 
reservation (in Ohio). Massachusetts ceded her claims, 
without reservation, the same year, and Connecticut 
gave up to Congress all her "right, title, interest, jur- 
isdiction and claim to the lands northwest of the Ohio, 
excepting the Connecticut Western Reserve (about 
3,300,000 acres of land in Northeastern Ohio) in the 
year 1786. 


Even before the last of the.'.e measures had been 
consummated, Congress began the consideration of 
two very important matters — the extinguishment of 
the Indian title to the soil of the Territory Northwest 
of the Ohio River, and a plan for surveying it, prepar- 
atory to sale and settlement of the lands. Passing, 
for the present, the former subject, we devote a small 
space to the consideration of the system of the gov- 
ernment survey. 

The provision under which the lands of the North- 
west Territory were surveyed into uniform sections 
and townships was contained in an ordinance passed 
by Congress May 20, 1785. Time has demonstrated 
the wisdom of its measures. They were undoubtedly 
first suggested by Gen. Rufus Putnam, in a letter ad- 
dressed to George Washington, in June, 1783, and 
modified in a small degree by William Henry Harri- 
son when he was the Representative of the North- 
west Territory in Congress in 1800, but in all essen- 
tial particulars the plan of survey prescribed by the 
ordinance of 1785 has remained unchanged down to 
the present time. The ordinance provided that "the 
surveyors, as they are respectively qualified, shall pro- 
ceed to divide the said Territory into townships of six 
miles square, by lines running due north and south 
and others crossing these at right angles as near as 
may be." * * * " The geographer shall desig- 
nate the townships or fractional parts of townships by 
numbers, progressively from south to north, always 
beginning each range with number one ; and the 
ranges shall be distinguished by their progressive 
numbers to the westward, the first range, extending 
from the Ohio to Lake Erie, being marked one. The 
plats of the townships, respectively, shall be marked 
by subdivisions into Ibts of one mile square, or 640 
acres, in the same direction as the external lines, and 
numbered from one to thirty-six, always beginning 
the succeeding range of the lots with the number next 
to that with which the preceding one concluded." 

The division of the land into townships of fixed 
size paved the way for the introduction of the admira- 
ble New England system of town or township organ- 

ization, of which political economists have had much 
to say. In nearly all of the Southern States the 
county is the unit of political organization, the 
township being scarcely known. Many writers have 
regarded the systems in vogue in the North and the 
South as in a large measure affecting the condition of 
the two sections as regards their general advancement 
and civilization. 

But considered in relation to its more immediate ef- 
fects, the system of survey and township division 
which has prevailed in the Northwest Territory has 
been one of almost incalculable good. Daniel Wester, 
speaking in the Senate of the United States in 1830, 
upon the two methods of disposing of the public do- 
main — the Northern and the Southern — said that the 
latter — that of warrants and patents— "was one 
which had shingled over the country in which it had 
been applied with conflicting titles and claims, 
causing the two great evils in a new country of spec- 
ulation and litigation." " From the system actually 
established" (in the North) said he, "these evils are 
banished. * * * I^ effecting this great system, 
* * * New England acted with vigor and effect, 
and the latest posterity of those who settled northwest 
of the Ohio will have reason to remember with grat- 
itude her patriotism and her wisdom. New England 
gave the system to the West, and while it remains, 
there will be spread all over the West one monument 
of her intelligence in matters of government and her 
practical good sense." 

The first surveying under the new ordinance was 
done in 1786, in what was known as the "seven 
ranges " in Eastern Ohio. The first land surveys in 
Michigan were made in 1816, in the vicinity of the 
Detroit River. 

In the survey of the public lands of Michigan, 
there was a departure from some of the minor and 
unimportant provisions of the ordinance of 1785. A 
base line and principal meridian were established, and 
the townships numbered north and south from the 
former, while the ranges were numbered east and 
west from the latter. The Michigan meridian was 
the first one located in the United States public lands, 
and is called " the First Principal Meridian." It 
passes through the State (of course, in an axact north 
north and south direction), from a point where the 
boundaries of Ohio and of Hillsdale and Lenawee 
Counties meet, to a point in Cheboygan County, 
nearly south of Bois Blanc Island. The base line 
crosses the State from east to west, and forms the 
northern boundaries of the Counties of Wayne, 
Washtenaw, Jackson, Calhoun, Kalamazoo and Van 

In the survey of the Territory, three lines were 



run parallel with the base line, called "auxiliary " or 
" correction lines." They are about sixty miles 
apart and all north of the base line. Another pre- 
caution taken against errors was the establishment of 
" Guide Meridians," surveyed at convenient distances 
— usually forty-eight miles apart. 

The lands of Cass County — Townships 5, 6, 7 and 
8, south of the base line, in Ranges 13, 14, 15 and 
Ifi west of the Principal Meridian — were surveyed in 
the years 1826 to 1830. Most of the boundary lines 
(township and range divisions), were surveyed by 
William Brookfield in 1827, and it is probable that 
he was responsible for the work done in all. The 
County Surveyor's book indicates, however, that the 
boundaries of Township 8 south. Range 13 west, 
were run by Robert Clark, Jr. The earliest date 
reported as that of the survey of any of the lands of 
Cass County is December, 1826. William Brookfield 
certifies that he finished running the boundaries of 
Township 7 south, Range 13 west, at that time. In 
the following year his company consisted of Orlean 
Putnam and Chester Ball, chainmen ; Nathan 
Young (after whom Young's Prairie was named), ax- 
man ; a packer, named Joel Wellman ; and Emory 
Stewart, who served in the capacity of cook. In 
1828, Orlean Putnam's brother, Benjamin, took the 
place of Ball as chainman, a man named Bartlett was 
ax-man, and one George Claypole, cook. Of this 
company of surveyors, Orlean Putnam, of La Grange 
Township, is believed to be the only one still living. 
Brookfield died in Texas. Besides the surveyors 
mentioned, there were engaged in running the sub- 
divisions (section lines) in Cass County and adjoining- 
lands, John Mullett and Calvin Britain. 


In 1818, there was brought into market the first 
public lands sold under United States governmental 
provision in Michigan.* A land office had been es- 
tablished in Detroit in 1801, and a few titles given, 
which, although they may not have been strictly legal, 
were ccnfirmed by subsequent acts of Congress. 

The lands sold in 1818 were all in the vicinity of 
Detroit. In 1823, the Detroit Land District was 
divided, and a land office established at Monroe, at 
which all entries of lands west of the principal merid- 
ian were made up to 1831. All lands were at first 
offered at public sale, and, after the bids were all in, 
the office was closed while they were being examined, 
causing a delay which greatly annoyed those i)ur- 
chasers who were or intended to become settlers. The 

*The earliest legal conveyance of land in Micliigati was in tlie time of tlie 
French ocrnpnllon, in llie year 1707, l>y Antoine do la Motte Cadllac, Ihe 
French conimamJant, to Francis Falf-irde Delorme. In tlie American State 
paper«(Public Lands), it is stated that but eight legal titles to lands In Michigan 
were given during the French and English cccnpatlon. 

plan was considered ailvantageous to the speculators, 
and on account of that fact and some others the sys- 
tem of public sales was finally abolished. 

In 1831, a land office was opened at White Pigeon 
(St. Joseph County), for the entry of lands west of 
the principal meridian, and in 1834 it was removed 
to Kalamazoo (then called Bronson), where it was con- 
tinued until about 1858. Another office was estab- 
lished at Ionia, in 1838. The sales, while the office 
, was at White Pigeon, were comparatively small. At 
Kalamazoo they were extensive, and reached the max. 
imum in 1836, when upward of $2,000,000 was re- 
ceived there. The amount of lands disposed of from 
1831 to January, 1838, are shown in the subjoined 
table : 




Amt. Kec'd. 

117,12« 26 
'.18,060 23 

1833 9.5.980.25 123,466 25 

1834 128,244.47 160,321 85 

18.55 745,661.34 932,076 64 

1836 1,634,511.82 2,048,866 87 

1837 313,855.15 394,316 77 

The total amount of moneys received in the Kala- 
mazoo Land District from 1831 to 1858, was about 
$4,375,000, of which all but about $400,000 was re- 
ceived while the office was in Kalamazoo Village. The 
area of the district was 118 townships, which would 
have included, had all been full Congressional town- 
ships, 4,248 square miles, or 2,718,720 acres. The 
fractional townships along the Indiana line somewhat 
reduces these estimates. The entire counties of Cass, 
Berrien, St. Joseph, Branch, Calhoun, Kalamazoo 
and Van Buren, and all of the counties of Barry and 
Allegan, except the northern tier of townships in each, 
were included in this district. The Registers of the 
Kalamazoo Land Office were Maj. Abraham Edwards, 
from 1831 to 1849 ; T. S. At Lee, from 1849 to 1857, 
and Volney Ilascall in the years 1857 and 1858. 

When the lands were first offered for sale in 1818, 
the price per acre was fixed at $2, one-fourth of which 
was required to be paid down, and the remainder in 

' three annual payments. The lands bought were sub- 
ject to forfeiture if the payments were not met. The 

I Government, however, did not choose to take the im- 

I provements of those settlers who were delinquent, 
and finally, about 1832, the credit system was abol- 
ished, and the price reduced to $1.25 per acre. 

An unfavorable report made upon Michigan lands 
by a military board of survey, had a marked effect in 
retarding the settlement of the Territory. An act of 
Congress of May 6, 1812, authorized the survey of 
two million acres of land in Michigan (and the same 

1 amount in each of the Territories of Louisiana 
and Illinois), to be set apart for the payment of 
the bounty_ awards of the Revolutionary soliiiers. 


The surveyors reported, after an examination of 
the eastern part of the State, that there were no 
lands there fit for cultivation, and that the character 
of the country appeared to grow worse toward 
the interior of the State. Congress assuming the re- 
port to be substantially correct, in April, 1816, passed 
an act repealing so much of the law of 1812 as per- 
tained to Michigan and ordering the location of a simi- 
lar quantity of lands in Missouri and Arkansas. The 
report and the consequent action of Congress deterred 
many people from seeking homes in the Territory, and 
it was not until after 1830 that the bad reputation of 
Michigan lands was removed by the representations 
of actual settlers and the tide of emigration which had 
been flowing to the farther West was turned. The 
report was not, however, without its good efifect. 
Had it been favorable to the location of the soldiers' 
lands, the Territory would doubtless have been over- 
run with speculators and "land sharks," who would 
have bought up many of the warrants, and in that 
event great tracts of lands would have been held by 

Cass is one of the seven counties in the. State in 
which there are no public lands for sale, the others 
being Hillsdale, Lenawee, Macomb, Shiawassee, AYash- 
tenaw and Wayne. This argues well for the quality 
of Cass County lands. 


The ordinance of 1785. for the survey of the terri- 
tory of the United States, northwest of the River 
Ohio, provided that Section 16 of every township should 
be reserved for school purposes. One of the clauses 
in the famous ordinance of 1787 declared that 
" schools and the means of education shall ever be 
encouraged." The legislators of the old States laid 
well the foundations of the new. An act passed in 
1804 providing for the sale of the lands in the Indiana 
Territory, from which was afterward carved the States 
of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, reiter- 
ated the principles laid down in former instruments, 
and expressly reserved the school sections from sale, 
and the action taken by the Territory of Michigan, 
when it was formed in 1805, was confirmatory. 
When the State government was formed in 1835, it 
was provided that Section 16 should be granted to the 
State for the use of schools. It had originally been 
designed to give each township the section within its 
own limits, but as it frequently was the case that the 
section was entirely worthless that plan would, had 
it been carried out, have resulted in an unjust distri- 
bution of benefit, which could only have been recti- 
fied through an immense deal of trouble by making 
grants in lieu, and it is doubtful indeed whether such 

proceeding could be resorted to._ As it is, all of the 
schools of the State have shared alike in the school 
fund. The number of acres, of school land in the 
State is not far from 1,000,000, of which over one- 
half has been sold. The fund derived from the sale 
is upward of $2,500,000, and, when all the lands 
are sold, it will probably reach §5,000,000. 


We have intentionally left for the conclusion of this 
brief chapter a review of those measures by which the 
Indian title to the soil was extinguished, although some 
of them belong chronologically to a period earlier than 
topics already treated of 

The National Congress, for a few years, acted upon 
the policy that the treaty of peace with Great Britain 
in 1783, had invested the United States with the fee 
simple of all the Indian lands ; but, about 1787, tlie 
Government came to regard the Indians as possessing 
a proprietary right in the soil, and all of its treaties 
with them subsequently were treaties of purchase, or 
treaties confirmatory of purchase. The various tribes 
were, of course, frequently forced to accept terms 
which they bitterly repented. Especially was this 
the case, when they came to realize how fast they 
were being dispossessed of their old domain, and pushed 
toward the far West by the provisions of the treaties 
which they had signed. 

The first treaty which bore directly upon the abro- 
gation of aboriginal title to the soil, now included in 
the bounds of Michigan, was that which was concluded 
at Greenville, Ohio, on the 3d of August, 1795, in 
which the United States was represented by Gen, 
Anthony Wayne. Among the many Indian tribes, 
whose chiefs and head men were present and signed this 
treaty, were the Pottawatomies, Ottawas and Chip- 
pewas, who had their homes in Michigan. They were 
the tribes chiefly affected by the cession to the Govern- 
ment of a strip of land six miles wide, extending along 
the west bank of the Detroit River, from the River 
Raisin to Lake St. Clair, including, of course, the 
military post at Detroit. Appended to this treaty 
was the name of Thu-pe-ne-ba (Tofinab6), head chief 
of the Pottawatomies. 

At the treaty of Detroit, negotiated in November, 
1807, by Gov. William Hull, the Pottawatomie, Chip- 
pewa, Ottawa and Wyandot tribes ceded to the United 
States their claim to a region which may be best 
described as including the whole southeastern part of 
Michigan, all east of the line on which the principal 
meridian was afterward established, and south of the 
present center of Shiawassee County. 

Instead of enforcing the forfeiture of their lands, 
of which it was considered the Pottawatomies, Ottawas 


and Chippewas were deserving, because of their alliance 
with the British during the war of 1812, the Govern- 
ment adopted a friendly and conciliatory policy toward 
them. At the treaty of Springwells (near Detroit), 
negotiated by Gen. William Henry Harrison, Gen.' 
Duncan McArthur and John Graham, Esq., all of the 
possessions, rights and privileges which these tribes 
enjoyed before the war, were restored to them. 

An immense tract of Michigan territory was ceded 
to the United States at the treaty of Saginaw, con- 
cluded September 24, 1819. This treaty was brought 
about through the instrumentality of Gov. Cass, 
ex officio Indian Commissioner. The ceded land was 
a tract which extended from the boundary line of 1807 
as far westward as the center of Kalamazoo County, 
and northward to Thunder Bay River. The cession 
was made by the Chippewas and Ottawas, the Potta- 
watomies making no claim to the territory. 

The Chicago treaty of 1821 was the one at which 
the lands now contained in Cass County were ceded. 
It was negotiated upon the 29th of August, at Fort 
Dearborn, by Gov. Cass and Solomon Sibley, with the 
Pottawatomies, Chippewas and Ottawas, the first 
named being the tribe principally interested, and the 
others signing the instrument as auxiliaries or friends. 
The boundary line of the ceded territory was described 
as follows : 

" Beginning at the south bank of the St. Joseph 
River of Michigan, near Pare aiix Vaches (the cow 
pasture), thence south to a line running due east from 
the southern extremity of Lake Michigan ; thence 
along that line to the tract ceded by the treaty of 
Fort Meigs, in 1817, or if that tract should be found 
to lie entirely south of the line, then to the tract ceded 
by the treaty of Detroit in 1807 ; thence northward 
along that tract to a point due east of the source of 
Grand River; thence west to the source of that river; 
thence down that river on the north bank to its 
junction with Lake Michigan ; thence southward along 
the east bank of the lake to the St. Joseph River ; 
and thence up that river to the place of beginning.' 

This tract contained nearly eight thousand square 
miles, and embraced the whole of the counties of Cass, 
St. Joseph, Branch, Hillsdale, Callioun, Kalamazoo, 
Van Buren, Allegan, Barry and Eaton, large portions 
of Berrien and Ottawa, and parts of Kent, Ionia, 
Jackson and Ingham. From these lands, five small 
tracts were reserved. At least three-fourths of the 
tract belonged to the Pottawatomies, and the United 
States, in consideration of their cession, agreed to 
pay the tribe yearly, for twenty years, the sum of 
^5,000 in specie, and to make for them an annual 
appropriation of $1,000 for fifteen years, for the sup- 
port of a blacksmith and a teacher. 

Upon the 19th of September, 1827, a treaty was 
held at the Carey Mission, by Gov. Cass, the object 
of which was to gain the cession of a number of small 
Indian reservations " in order to consolidate some of the 
dispersed lands of the Pottawatomie tribe in the Ter- 
ritory of Michigan, at a point removed from the road 
leading from Detroit to Chicago, and as far as prac- 
ticable from the settlements of the whites." 

A second treaty was held at Carey Mission by Cass 
and Pierre Menard on the 20th of September, 1828, 
at which the chiefs and head men of the Pottawatomies 
ceded all of their remaining lands in Michigan (they 
had already been confined to the region west of the 
St. Joseph), except a tract estimated to contain forty- 
nine square miles, upon which their principal villages 
were situated. This unceded tract extended from the 
St. Joseph River, opposite Niles, to the South line of 
Berrien County. 

Five years later, this last foothold of the tribe, in 
Michigan, was signed away, and the chiefs of the St. 
Joseph band of the Pottawatomies agreed that they 
and their people would remove from the country in 
1836. This, the last cession of Indian title to the 
soil of Southwestern Michigan, was made at the 
second treaty of Chicago, signed September 26, 1833, 
and negotiated on the part of the government by 
George B. Porter, Thomas J. V. Owen and William 

i>ii Country 
' Massacre 
lue Dance 



They Succeed the Mlauiis in the Occupation of the St. .Ii» 
—Hostilities in which tliey were EnK:iui ^1 Ih. i '.,■■■ ■ 
—Customs of the I'ottawiitomies— A l"r : .1 i' ■ M 
Deserihedby the Rev. IsaacMcCoy— !'.( 1 1 i -i saugana's 

Dream- Modes of Burial— Keligious ( . r ir> i i.iences that 

Cannibalism was Practiced by the I'ottawatoinies and Other 
Tribes— Deplorable Effects of .\rdent Spirits- Seasons of Extreme 

AS has been shown in a previous chapter, the 
Miamis were the occupants of the St. Joseph 
country when it was first penetrated by white men — 
by the French explorers and missionaries in the 
seventeenth century. They were succeeded by the 
Pottawatomies, who remained in possession until 
crowded out by the irresistible stream of emigration. 
The time when they entered this region is nQt 
definitely known, but it was probably very early in 
the eighteenth century, and as they were not removed 
until 1840, their residence here extended through a 
period of more than a century and a quarter. 

The Pottawatomies were a fragment of the great 
Algonquin' subdivision of the Indian race, wliich 
included nearly all of the Northwestern tribes. They 
were cousins-german of the Ottawas and the Ojibwfvys 



(more commonly known as the Chippewas), and were 
leagued with them for a long period in a confedera- 

The earliest authentic information which the whites 
received concerning this tribe was given by the French 
Catholic missionaries, Charles Raymbault and Isaac 
Jouges, who found many of its members as well as 
the Ojibways in the country around the Sault Ste. 
Marie. The seat of their greatest population at this 
time, however, was doubtless in the vicinity of Green 
Bay, and upon the islands at its opening into Lake 
Michigan. The tribe was certainly settled on Green 
Bay and the northwest shore of Lake Michigan in 
1669, when the mission of St. Francis Xavier was 
founded by Dablon and Allouez. At the great coun- 
cil, held at the Sault Ste. Marie in 1671, when all of 
the Indians of the Northwest were formally declared 
under the protection of France, the Pottawatomies 
were represented by a very large delegation. They 
welcomed Marquette and Joliet when they were striv- 
ing to reach the Mississippi in 1673; many of them 
accompanied the former to the country of the Illinois in 
the succeeding year, and they greeted La Salle in 1679, 
when his unfortunate little vessel, the Griffin, sailed 
into Green Bay. They were the steadfast friends not 
only of La Salle, but of Hennepin, Tonti and other 

One of the Catholic Fathers — Marest — alludes in 
a letter written in 1706 to the formation of an alliance 
between the Pottawatomies and Ottawas against the 
Miamis, and it is probable that at this time was begun 
the movement which resulted in the displacement of 
the latter tribe and the occupation of their country by 
the Pottawatomies. The migration once begun, was 
carried on slowly until almost the entire tribe had 
removed from the northwestern to the southeastern 
shore of the lake. Their territory extended to the 
head-waters of the St. Joseph, the Kalamazoo and 
Grand Rivers. Upon the north their neighbors were 
the Ottawas ; still farther to the northward were the 
Ojibways. The three nations occupied, or called 
theirs, nearly the whole of the Lower Peninsula of 

The Pottawatomies at the time Pontiac organized 
his great confederation, placed themselves under his 
command, and took a prominent part in the war 
against the English. In 1764, at the council held 
by Col. Bradstreet, at Detroit, they transferred their 
allegiance from the French to the English. During 
the Revolution, and afterward, until Wayne's signal 
victory over the united tribes in 1794, they served the 
interests of the British, and were almost" constantly 
waging war against the border settlements, either in 
Virginia, Kentucky or Ohio. 

At Wayne's treaty held in 1795, at Greenville, 
Ohio (commonly called the Treaty of Greenville), 
this tribe, like the other important ones, received 
$1,000 and the promise of a small annuity. This 
was chiefly in consideration of the cession to the 
United States of a six-mile tract at Chicago, which 
was within the bounds of the territory the Pottawat- 
omies clainjfd to own. In 1807, at a treaty made 
with Gov. Hull, they ceded their interest in lands 
lying in the Southeastern part of the Territory of 
Michigan, and in 1808 surrendered the claim which 
they assumed to certain lands along the south shore 
of Lake Erie. 

The famous Shawanese chieftain Tecumseh visited 
the Pottawatomies in the autumn of 1810, to induce 
them to enter a league with the other Western tribes, 
for the purpose of driving the whites from the coun- 
try. He was successful in his mission, for a large 
number of the St. Joseph band, with Topinabe at 
their head, and some members of the tribe from the 
southwestern shore of Lake Michigan, in all about 
three hundred warriors, promised to enter the confed- 
eracy. In the following year, they were present and 
engaged fiercely in the battle of Tippecanoe, fought 
on the 7th of November — a sharp engagement in 
which Gen. Harrison's force of about seven hundred 
soldiers were opposed by upward of one thousand 
Indians. The whites finally repulsed the Shawanese 
and Pottawatomies, and they fled in all directions. 
The Pottawatomies returned to their vilhiges on the 
St. Joseph after this defeat, and from that time until 
the Chicago massacre upon the 15th of August, 1812, 
their history exhibits no remarkable exploit. 


Allusion has already been made to a tract of land 
six miles square ceded to the United States by the 
Pottawatomies at the treaty of Greenville. Upon 
this land, where the city of Chicago now is. was per- 
petrated the greatest atrocity upon the whites of 
which the tribe was ever guilty. To the credit of the 
St. Joseph band of Pottawatomies, be it said that • 
only a small number of their warriors were engaged 
in the wholesale murder and that Topinabe, Winne- 
mac (or Winneneg) and other chiefs made strenuous 
endeavors to avert it. 

At the breaking-out of the war of 1812, Fort 
Dearborn (which had been built in 1804), and named 
after Gen. Henry Dearborn, at one time Commander- 
in-Chief of the United States Army), was garrisoned 
by about seventy-five soldiers under Capt. Heald. 
The same dispatch, from Gen. Hull at Detroit, which 
announced the declaration of war, contained instruc- 
tions that Fort Dearborn should be evacuated, and 


that Capt. Heald's force should march to Fort Wayne 
or Detroit. The bearer of the dispatch, the friendly 
Pottawatomie, Winnemac, finding the country be- 
tween Detroit and Fort Dearborn swarming with 
hostile savages, labored strongly to dissuade the com- 
mandant from carrying out the order of his superior. 
He argued that a retreat would be extremely danger- 
ous, but that if made at all, it should be done at once, 
and that the goods in the fort should be left undis- 
turbed, in order that the Indians, while plundering 
them, might allow the fugitives a better start in their 
flight. Mr. Kinzie, the post trader, gave advice simi- 
lar to that of Winnemac, but Capt. Heald paid no 
attention to his counsel, or to that of the subordinate 

The Indians had, as soon as war was declared, at- 
tached themselves to the British, thinking that they 
saw an opportunity to drive the whites j^beyond the 
Ohio. Every day they had become more bitter in 
their hatred of the Americans. Before Capt. Heald 
had finished his preparations for evacuating the fort 
the Pottawatomies jn the vicinity, were aroused to 
tlie highest pitch of war feeling. Those who were 
friendly to the trader Kinzie and a few other inmates 
of the fort, were unable, as it proved, to restrain the 
greater number, who thirsted for blood. Upon the 
12th of August, Capt. Heald met the Indians in 
council, telling them that it wa^ his intention to dis- 
tribute among them all the goods in the storehouse 
with the provisions and ammunition, and requested 
the Pottawatomies to furnish him an escort to Fort 
Wayne, promising them a liberal reward on their ar- 
rival there, in addition to the presents which he would 
give them before setting out. They were profuse in 
their professions of friendship, and assented to all 
that was proposed. Mr. Kinzie endeavored to make 
the commander realize the danger of the course which 
he proposed to pursue, but in vain. Capt. Wells, a 
brave man, who had had much experience with the 
Indians, arrived at the fort on the 14th, escorted by 
fifteen friendly Miarais, with whom he had made a 
forced march from Fort Wayne. He had heard of 
Gen. Hull's order for the evacuation of the fort, and 
foresaw the danger to which its occupants must be ex- 
posed. Mrs. Heald was his sister, and it was doubt- 
less the hope of saving her life, which had led him 
forward on his perilous journey. When he arrived, 
the goods had been distributed to the Indians, though 
the whisky, of which there had been a large quan- 
tity in Mr. Kinzie's possession, was withheld, and 
subsequently poured into the river, and this fact com- 
ing to the knowledge of the Indians, had greatly 
enraged them. It had been Capt. Wells' intention to 
dissuade the commander from leaving the fort, but 

the action already taken had rendered that plan 
absolutely impossible, and there was nothing before 
the garrison but the course on which Heald had stub- 
bornly insisted. Seeing no alternative, Capt. Wells 
did what he could to hasten the departure. A second 
council was held on the afternoon of the 14th, at 
which the Indians expressed great indignation at the 
destruction of the whisky. The ammunition had 
been withheld from them and thrown down in an old 
well. •' Murmurs and threats were heard from every 

Preparations were made for the evacuation and 
march. The reserved ammunition, twenty-five rounds 
to a man, was distributed, the baggage-wagons and 
wagons for the sick, the women and children were got 
in readiness. 

The morning of the loth dawned, beautiful and 
bright. The day that began as the sun rose from the 
waters of Lake Michigan was in strange contrast to 
the dark deeds of man to be enacted before the sun 
went down. 

The following graphic account of the massacre is 
from -James R. Albach's " Annals of the West:" 

" Early in the luorning, a message was received 
by Mr. Kinzie, from To-pe-nee-be, a friendly chief 
of the St. Joseph's band, informing him that the 
Pottawatomies, who had promised to be an escort 
to the detachment, designed mischief Mr. Kinzie 
had placed his family under the protection of some 
friendly Indians. This party, in a boat, consisted of 
Mrs. Kinzie, four young children, a clerk of Mr. Kin- 
zie's, two servants and the boatmen, or voyageurs, 
with two Indians as protectors. The boat was in- 
tended to pass along the .southern end of the lake to 
St. Joseph's. Mr. Kinzie and his oldest son, a youth, 
had agreed to accompany Capt. Heald and the troops, 
a.s he thought his influence over the Indians would 
enable him to restrain the fury of the savages, as they 
were ■much attached to him and his family. 

" To-pe-nee-be urged him and his son to accompany 
his family in the boat, assuring him the hostile Indians 
would allow his boat to pass in safety to St. Joseph's. 

" The boat had scarcely reached the lake, when 
another messenger from the friendly chief arrived to 
detain them where they were. The reader is left to 
imagine the feelings of the mother. ' She was a 
woman of uncommon energy and strength of charac- 
ter, yet her heart died within her a.s she folded her 
arms around her helpless infants.' And when she 
heard the discharge of the guns, and the shrill, terrific 
war-whoop of the infuriated savages, and knew the 
party and most probably her beloved husband and 
first-born son were doomed to destruction, language 
has not power to describe her agony. 


" At 9 o'clock, the troops with the baggage- 
wagons left the fort with martial music, and in mili- 
tary array. Capt. Wells, at the head of his Miamis, 
led the advance, with his face blackened after the 
manner of Indians. The troops, with the wagons, 
containing the women and children, the sick and lame, 
followed, while at a little distance behind were the 
Pottawatomies, about five hundred in number, who 
had pledged their honor to escort them in safety to 
Fort Wayne. The party took the road along the lake 

" On reaching the point where a range of sand-hills 
commenced (within the present limits of Chicago City), 
the Pottawatomies defiled to the right into the prairie, 
to bring the sand-hills between them and the Ameri- 
cans. They had marched about a mile and a half 
from the fort, when Capt. Wells, who, with his Miamis, 
was in advance, rode furiously back, and exclaimed : 

" ' They are about to attack us ; form instantly and 
charge upon them.' " 

• " The words were scarcely uttered, when a volley 
of balls from Indian muskets behind the sand-hills 
were poured upon them. The troops were hastily 
formed into lines, and charged up the bank. One 
man, a veteran soldier of seventy, fell as they mounted 
the bank. The battle became general. The Miamis 
fled at the outset, though Capt. Wells did his utmost 
to induce them to stand their ground. Their chief 
rode up to the Pottawatomies, charged them with 
treachery, and brandishing his tomahawk, declared 
he would be the first to head a party of Amer- 
icans and punish them. He then turned his horse 
and galloped after his companions over the prairie. 

" The American troops behaved most gallantly, 
and sold their lives dearly. Mrs. Helm, the wife of 
Lieut. Helm, who was in the action, behaved with 
astonishing presence of mind (as did all the other 
females), and furnished Mr. Kinzie with many thril- 
ling facts, from which are made the following ex- 
tracts : 

" ' Our horses pranced and bounded and could hardly 
be restrained, as the balls whistled around them. I 
drew ofi" a little and gazed upon my husband and 
father, who were yet unharmed. I felt that my hour 
was come, and endeavored to forget those I loved, and 
prepare myself for my approaching fate. While I 
was thus engaged, the Surgeon, Dr. V., came up; he 
was badly wounded. His horse had been shot under 
him, and he had received a ball in his leg. Every 
muscle of his countenance was quivering with the 
agony of terror. He said to me, ' Do you think they 
will take our lives?' I am badly wounded, but I 
think not mortally. Perhaps we might purchase our 
lives by promising them a large reward.' ' Do you 

think there is any chance?' * Doctor V.,' said I, 'do 
not let us waste the few moments that yet remain to 
us, in such vain hopes. Our fate is inevitable. In a 
few moments we must appear before the bar of God. 
Let us endeavor to make such preparation as is in our 
power.' 'Oh! I cannot die, exclaimed he ; I am not 
fit to die — if I had but a short time to prepare — death 
is awful.' I pointed to Ensign Ronan, who, though 
mortally wounded and nearly down, was still fighting 
with desperation upon one knee. 

•' ' Look at that man,' said I, ' at least he dies like 
a soldier.' 

" ' Yes,' replied the unfortunate man, with a con- 
vulsive gasp, ' but he has no terrors of the future — he 
is an unbeliever !' 

" At this moment, a young Indian raised his toma- 
hawk at me. By springing aside, I avoided the blow, 
which was aimed at my skull, but which alighted on 
my shoulder. I seized him around the neck, and while 
exerting my utmost efforts to get possession of his 
scalping knife which hung in a scabbard over his 
breast, I was dragged from his grasp by another and 
an older Indian. 

'■ The latter bore me struggling and resisting toward 
the lake. Notwithstanding the rapidity with which I 
was hurried along, I recognized as I passed them, 
the lifeless remains of the unfortunate surgeon. Some 
murderous tomahawk had stretched him upon the 
very spot where I had last seen him. 

" I was immediately plunged into the water and 
held there with a forcible hand, notwithstanding my 
resistance. I soon perceived, however, that the object 
of my captor was not to drown me, as he held me 
firmly in such a position as to place my head above 
the water. This assured me, and .regarding him 
attentively, I soon recognized, in spite of the paint 
with which he was disguised. The Black Partridge. 

" When the firing had somewhat subsided, my pre- 
server bore me from the water and conducted me up the 
sand banks. It was a burning August morning, and 
walking through the sand in my drenched condition, 
was inexpressibly painful and fatiguing, I stopped 
and took off my shoes, to free them from sand with 
which they were nearly filled, -when a squaw seized 
them and carried them off and I was obliged to pro- 
ceed without them. When we had gained the prairie, I 
was met by my fiither, who told me that ray husband 
was safe, and but slightly wounded. They led me 
gently back toward the Chicago River, along the 
southern bank of which was the Pottawatomie en- 
campment. At one time I was placed upon a horse 
without a saddle, but soon finding the motion insup- 
portable, I sprang off. Supported partly by my kind 
conductor and partly by another Indian, Pee-so-tum, 


who held dangling in his hands the scalp of Capt. 
Wells, I dragged my fainting steps to one of the wig- 

" The wife of Wau-bee-nee-mah, a chief from the 
Illinois River, was standing near and seeing my ex- 
hausted condition, she seized a kettle, dipped up some 
water from a little stream that flowed near, threw 
into it some maple sugar, and stirring it up with her 
hand gave it to me to drink. This act of kindness 
in the midst of so many atrocities touched me most 
sensibly, but my attention was soon diverted to an- 
other object. The fort had become a scene of 
plunder to such as remained after the troops had 
marched out. The cattle had been shot down as 
they ran at large and lay dead or dying around. 

" As noise of the firing grew gradually less, and 
the stragglers from the victorious party dropped in, I 
received confirmation of what my father had hurrie<lly 
communicated in our rencontre on the lake shore, 
namely, that the whites had surrendered after the 
loss of about two-thirds of their number. They had 
stipulated for the preservation of their lives and those 
of the remaining women and children, and for their 
delivery at some of the British posts, unless ransomed 
by traders in the Indian country. It appears that 
the wounded prisoners were not considered as in- I 
eluded in the stipulation and a horrible scene occurred 
upon their being brought into camp. 

" An old squaw, infuriated by the loss of friends, 
or excited by the sanguinary scenes around her, 
seemed possessed by a demoniac ferocity. She seized ; 
a stable fork and assaulted one miserable victim who 1 
lay groaning and writhing in the agony of his wounds, I 
aggravated by the scorching beams of the sun. With 
a delicacy of feeling scarcely to be expected under | 
such circumstances, Wau-be-nee-raah stretched a mat 
across two poles, between me and this dreadful scene. 
I was thus spared in some degree a view of its horrors, [ 
although I could not entirely close my ears to the 
cries of the sufferer. The following night five more 
of the wounded prisoners were tomahawked. 

'' But why dwell upon this painful subject 'i Why 
describe the butchery of the children, twelve of 
whom, place! together in one baggage wagon, fell be- 
neath the merciless tomahawk of one young savage ? j 
This atrocio IS act was committed after the whites, ! 
twenty-seven in number, had surrendereil. When 
Capt. Wells beheld it, he exclaimed, ' Is that their 
game? Then I will kill too! ' So saying, he turned 
his horse's head and started for the Indian camp near 
the fort, where had been left their squaws and chii- j 

"Several Indians pursued him, firing at him as he 
galloped along. He laid himself flat on the neck of j 



his horse, loading and firing in that position. At 
length the balls of his pursuers took effect, killing his 
horse and severely wounding himself At this mo- 
ment he was met by Winnemac and Wau-ban-see, 
who endeavored to save him from the savages who had 
now overtaken him ; but as they supported him along 
after having disengaged him from his horse, he re- 
ceived his death blow from one of the party (Pee-so- 
tum), who stabbed him in the back. 

" The heroic resolution of one of the soldiers' 
wives deserves to be recorded. She had from the first 
expressed a determination never to fall into the hands 
of the savages, believing that their prisoners were al- 
ways subjected to tortures, worse than death. When, 
therefore, a party came up to her to make her pris- 
oner, she fought with desperation, refusing to surren- 
der, although assured of safe treatment, and lit- 
erally suffered herself to be cut to pieces rather than 
become their captive. 

" The heart of Capt. Wells was taken out and cut 
into pieces and distributed among the tribes. His 
mutilated remains remained unburied until the next 
day, when Billy Caldwell gathered up his head in one 
place and mangled body in another, and buried them 
in the sand. 

'•The family of Mr. Kinzie had been taken from 
the boat to their house, by friendly Indians, and there 
strictly guarded. Very soon a very hostile party of the 
Pottawatomie nation arrived from the Wabash, and it 
required all the skill and bravery of Black Part- 
ridge, Wau-ban-see and Billy Caldwell (who arrived 
at a critical moment), and other friendly Indians, to 
protect them. Runners had been sent by the hostile 
chiefs to all of the Indian villages to apprise them of 
the intended evacuation of the fort and of their plan 
of attacking the troops. In eager thirst to participate 
in such a scene of blood, but arrived too late to par- 
ticipate in the massacre, they were infuriated at their 
disappointment, and sought to glut their vengeance 
on the wounded and prisoners. 

"On the the third day after the massacre, the fam- 
ily of Mr. Kinzie, with the attaches of the establish- 
ment, under the care of Frangois, a half-breed inter- 
preter, were taken to St. Joseph's in a boat, where 
they remained until the following November, under 
the protection of To-pe-nee-be and his band. They 
were then carried to Detroit, under the escort of Chan- 
donnai and a friendly chief by the name of Kec-po- 
tah, and, with their servants, delivered up as prisoners 
of war to the British commanding officer. 

"Of the other prisoners, Capt. Heald and Mrs. 
Heald were sent across the lake to St. Joseph's the 
day after the battle. Capt. Heald had received two 
wounds and Mrs. Heald seven, the ball of one of 



which was cut from her arm by Mr. Kinzie, with a 
penknife, after the engagement. 

" Mrs. Heald was ransomed on the battle-field by 
Chandonnai, a half-breed from St. Joseph's, for a 
mule he had just taken, and the promise of ten bottles 
of whisky. 

" Capt. Heald was taken prisoner by an Indian 
from the Kankakee, who, seeing the wounded and en- 
feebled state of Mrs. Heald, generously released his 
prisoner, that he might accompany his wife. 

"But when this Indian returned to his village on 
the Kankakee, he found that his generosity had ex- 
cited so much dissatisfaction in his band that he 
resolved to visit St. Joseph's and reclaim his prisoner. 
News of his intention having reached To-pe-nee-be, 
Kes-po-tah, Chandonnai and other friendly braves, 
they sent him, in a bark canoe, under the charge of 
Robinson, a half-breed, along the eastern shore of 
Lake Michigan 300 miles, to Mackinac, where they 
were delivered over to the commanding officer. 

"Lieut. Helm was wounded in the action and taken 
prisoner, and afterward taken by some friendly Indians 
to the Au Sable, and from thence to St. Louis, and 
liberated from captivity through the agency of the 
late Thomas Forsythe, Esq. 

"Mrs. Helm received a slight wound in her ankle, 
had her horse shot from under her, and, after passing 
the agonizing scenes described, went, with the family 
of Mr. Kinzie, to Detroit. 

" The soldiers, with their wives and children, were 
dispersed among the different villages of the Potta- 
watomies upon the Illinois, Wabash, Rock River and 
Milwaukie. The largest proportion were taken to 
Detroit and ransomed the following spring. Some, 
however, remained in captivity another year, and ex- 
perienced more kindness than was expected from an 
enemy so merciless." 

The Chicago massacre well illustrated the Indian 
character, the prominent traits of which were blood- 
thirstiness and treachery. The occurrence affords one 
of the strongest elements of opposition to the theory 
held by some persons that Indian hostilities were 
always commenced by the aggressions of the whites. 
Although the St. Joseph Pottawatomies did not take 
a prominent part in the horrible affair at Fort Dear- 
born, and notwithstanding the fact that the chiefs — 
Topinabe and others — endeavored to prevent the mas- 
sacre, they almost immediately afterward engaged in 
hostilities elsewhere. Capt. Heald, who, taken as a 
prisoner to the St. Joseph, lived with Burnett, the 
trader, says: "In a few days after our arrival there, 
the Indians all went off to take Fort Wayne." 

The Pottawatomies not only fought at Fort Wayne, 
but at Fort Harrison, where, in company with the 

Shawanese and other tribes, they were stoutly resisted 
by a small but brave band, under Col. Zachary Tay- 
lor. The tribe appeared in large force at the battle 
of Frenchtown, on the River Raisin, in January, 1813, 
and in the summer of the same year took part in the 
operations under Proctor, opposite Fort Meigs, on the 
Maumee, and on Sandusky Bay. They were, in fact, 
one of the most valuable and active allies of the 
British throughout the war. 


During the period intervening between the close of 
the war of 1*812 and the time when actual settlement 
of their country was begun, the St. Joseph Pottawato- 
mies led, so far as is known, a quiet and uneventful 
existence. The only outward influences brought to 
bear upon them were those exercised by the traders, 
and by the little band of missionaries which the Rev. 
Isaac McCoy led among them. The pioneer of Chris- 
tianity among the heathen (the founder of Carey 
Mission upon the site of West Niles in 1822), was a 
close observer of the people among whom he lived and 
labored for eight years. His book, "A History of 
Baptist Missions among the Indians," affords many 
interesting glimpses of Pottawatomie life and customs 
as they appeared during his residence on the St. 
Joseph, and we therefore make ample extracts from its 

In one place he says, " If we would form a correct 
opinion of a people, we must notice small matters as 
well as great," and then he proceeds to give an ac- 
count of a social gathering among the Pottawato- 
mies : 

" In the summer of 182.5," he says, " I attended 
an Indian festival, which, according to custom, they 
accompanied with dancing. These festivals professedly 
partake of a religious character, but in reality it seems 
otherwise. Different festivals have appropriate names. 
The seasons for some occur regularly, but most of them 
are occasional, as circumstances are supposed to sug- 
gest or re(iuire them. That which occurred at this 
time was one at which singular feats of legerdemain, 
such as taking meat out of a boiling pot with their 
naked hand, drinking boiling hot broth, eating fire, 
etc., are attempted. Some ignorant whites who have 
mingled with Indians, have reported that the latter 
were very dexterous in these feats, but we have never 
seen anything of the kind attempted among them that 
was not very clumsily performed. 

" On the present occasion a little tobacco prepared 
for the pipe, was placed in the center of the hall, on 
the bottom of a new moccasin (Indian shoe) with a 
small bundle of cedar sticks, resembling candle 
matches. Three large kettles of meat, previously 


boiled, were hanging over a small fire near the center 
of the house. 

" The aged chief Topinabe, led in the ceremonies. 
He delivered a speech of considerable length, without 
rising from his seat, with a grave countenance, and his 
eyes almost closed. He then sat and drummed with 
one stick and sang at the same time, while his aid at 
his side rattled the gourd. At length four women 
appeared before him and danced. A while after this 
he arose, delivered another speech, then drumming 
and dancing, turned round, and moving slowly around 
the dancing hall, was followed by all the dancing party. 
When he had performed his part in leading, others 
went through the same ceremonies, and these were 
repeated until every pair had twice led in the dance. 
These exercises were accompanied with many uncouth 
gestures and strange noises. Occasionally, a man 
would stoop to the kettle and drink a little soup. One 
fellow assuming a frantic air, attended with whooping, 
lifted out of a kettle a deer's head, and holding it by 
the two horns, with the nose from him, presented it, 
first upward, and afterward toward many of the by- 
standers, as he danced around, hallooing. The drop- 
pings of the broth were rather an improvement to the 
floor than an injury, it being the earth, and now be- 
coming pretty dusty. At length he tore asunder the 
deer's head, and distributed it to others, and jvhat 
was eatable was devoured with affected avidity. 

" At the conclusion, which was after sun setting, 
each brought his or her vessel, and received a portion 
of the food. Chebass, a chief, sent to me and in- 
vited me to eat with him, and I having consented, he 
placed his bowl on the earth beside me and said: 
' Come, let us eat in friendship.' The same dish con- 
tained both meat and soup. The chief took hold of 
the meat with one hand and with a knife in the other, 
severed his piece, and I followed his example. After 
eating, another speech was delivered, the music fol- 
lowed, all joined in a dance with increased hilarity, 
and most of them with their kettles of meat and broth 
in their hands, and at length breaking off, each went 
to his home." 


One of the festivals most punctiliously observed by 
the Indians was the '^Me-ta-wuk" or Medicine Dance. 
Mr. McCoy makes mention of one of these assem- 
blages which occurreil on the 11th of October, 1824, 
near the Carey Mission, probably upon Pokagon Prai- 
rie, and which was attended by a number of his peo- 
ple who wished to gratify their curiosity by witness- 
ing the curious exercises. He adds that " Old 
Topinabe, the principal chief, had a child lying a 
corpse, but he was so intent upon attending the festi- 

val that he could not attend to its burial, but intrusted 
the management of the funeral to another." 

Elsewhere, McCoy gives in his valuable book a de- 
tailed account of one of these medicine dances which 
we reproduce. He says : 

" The apartment in which the services were per- 
formed had been specially constructed for such occa- 
sions. Stakes were driven into the ground at proper 
distances, on which poles were tied horizontally, with 
bark ; on the outside of these, grass mats were fast- 
ened, which raised a temporary wall about as high as 
a man's breast. The hall was about twenty feet wide 
and sixty feet long. On three sides were spread mats 

I and skins for the company to sit upon. Through 
the center, three posts were erected, ranging with each 
other the longer way of the apartment, and extending 
so much higher than the sides that a temporary roof, 
in case of rain, might be made to rest upon poles that 
lay along their tops. 

" On our arrival, the chief was delivering to the 
few who were with him short speeches to which the 
others occasionally responded with 0-oh, in a more 
plaintive tone than is commonly heard among Indians. 
Between speeches the chief drummed and all sung. 
Two of them held in their hands a gourd, to which 
had been fastened a wooden handle. Gravel or corn 

j within the gourd made a rattle resembling a child's 
toy. The drum consisted of a skin stretched over the 
end of a small keg, after the heading had been dis- 
placed, and was beaten with one stick only ; the 
strokes, without changing their force, occurred regu- 
larly at the rate of about one hundred and thirty a 
minute. The gourds were shaken so as to make their 
rattling in unison with the strokes of the drum. 

" About 11 o'clock, thirty or forty persons, in- 
cluding men, women and children, assembled about 

I thirty yards from the dancing house, at which place 

! they had loft most of their children and some of the 
women. The others formed in single file and marched 
until the leader reached the door of the dancing hall 
and halted, the whole maintaining their order. The 
leader stamped a few times with his foot, crying Ho! 
ho! ho! Those within responded with their Ho! 
Several who were on the front end of the line sung 
for a few minutes and then all marched into the hall, 
and around the room three times, halting and singing 
twice each time. Invariably through the whole day. 
when they marched around the room, the circle was 
described by turning to the left so that if a person 
seated near the door to the right desired to walk out, 
he never retraced his steps, but walked around the 
room with his left hand toward the center, until he 
reached the door. All took their seats with their 
backs against the wall. 


" A principal man then arose and addressed the 
company in a speech of considerable length ; after 
which one drummed, two rattled gourds, several sung, 
and two women and one man danced. The musicians 
and dancers then passed round the hall, severally 
pointing a finger to each one seated, as they passed, 
and using words which I did not understand. The 
person pointed at responded each time with a mourn- 
fiil groan, A-a-a ; then all took their seats. Another 
man arose and made a speech ; two men held a short 
private consultation in a low voice, and then mixed 
some powders which they called medicine. A little 
tobacco, or rather the common mixture of tobacco and 
the leaves of some other plants which they use in 
smoking, made fine as if prepared for the pipe, was 
sprinkled at the foot of the two posts of the door, and 
of those planted along the center of the building, and 
a small quantity put into the fire. Another man 
arose and delivered a lengthy speech, which was fol- 
lowed by drumming, singing and dancing. A little 
respite ensued, which the men employed in smoking ; 
another speech was made, and followed by the danc- 
ing of ten persons to music ; another turn of smoking 
ensued and the two men who had charge of the 
medicine allowed each person to take a little between 
the fingers and put it in an otter's skin, with which 
each was furnished. These skins had been taken ofi" 
the animals entire, including the bones of the head. 
The sack thus formed by a whole skin has an opening 
into it on the throat, which is generally the fashion of 
an Indian's tobacco-pouch. These medicine-bags are 
esteemed sacred, and are used for no other purpose 
than those belonging to this festival occasion, and to 
hold the sacred medicine. Artificial eyes, usually of 
metal that will glisten, are inserted ; the teeth are 
disclosed by the drying of the skin, and the sides of 
the mouth are ornamented by soft feathers, dyed red, 
extending along the sides of the jaws three or four 
inches. The tails are ornamented with porcupine 
quills, to the end of which, and also to the feet, small 
brass thimbles and bells are suspended, which make a 
tinkling sound whenever the skin is moved. Each 
keeps his or her skin hanging upon the arm at all 
times while in the house, during the festival, except-, 
ing when seated, when they are hung upon the wall 
by the owner's seat. 

" Another speech being delivered, four men and 
two women marched out at the door of the hall with 
ho-ho's and gesticulations which cannot be described. 
They formed a semi-circle in front of the door, and 
one of the men delivered a speech which was followed 
by singing. Their otter skins were held horizontally 
in the two hands, with a tremulous motion that rattled 
the trinkets suspended to them, and which made the 

skin assume the appearance of the living animal when 
about to leap forward. While thus shaking their 
skins they ran around, now stooping toward the 
earth, and then stretching upward and hallooing; 
they then marched into the hall again, severally point- 
ing a hand to each one seated as they passed, and 
each person pointed at uttered an awful groan as be- 
fore. They marched around the hall until they 
reached the door again, when each of the four men 
pretended to swallow a small bullet, which apparently 
almost choked him, and gave him great uneasiness 
at the moment ; but as he did not fall to the ground, 
it was understood that he was wise and good, and an 
expert in the performance. 

" All these fooleries were but preliminaries to the 
regular course of exercises on which they were now 
prepared to enter. Two principal men took the lead ; 
each held in one hand a rattle, and in the other 
a piece of folded cloth to defend the hand against 
injury when the gourd should be struck against it. 
The leader delivered a speech, and all became seated 
again, when the drummer, and the gourd-men on each 
side of him, beat in unison, and the leader sung alone. 
Three or four persons presented themselves before the 
drum and danced ; when these dancers had retired to 
their seats, the musicians rose and the leader delivered 
a brief speech. They then marched twice around the 
hall with their instrumental music, stopping to sing a 
few minutes at the completion of each semi-circle. 
The drummer then facing the door, became seated by 
the middle post, with one of the rattlers in front and 
one behind ; the principal one delivered a speech at 
the conclusion of which they both commenced singing, 
and then rattled, and were joined by the drummer. 

"Now all appeared to become inspired with new 
life. Some rose and danced in their places, then 
others, until all were on their feet and dancing to the 
sound of the drum and the gourds. Suddenly, as if 
moved by supernatural impulse, one man stepped 
from his place into the space left for them to pass in 
single file around the room, which, as before observed, 
is always with the left hand toward the center ; he 
bends forward, whirls around (always to the left), ap- 
pears frantic, though not mad, shakes his otter skin, 
crying Ho-o-o-o in a quick, frightful tone. He falls 
into the rear of the music, now passing around the 
room, and somewhere in his circuit he becomes more 
frantic, gives a few louder Whoh-whohs, and suddenly 
punches the nose of his otter skin against some one of 
the company, who are all standing with their backs to 
the wall. The person punched either drops to the 
earth as if dead, like a butcher's beef, or bows and 
staggers back against the wall, uttering a horrid 
shriek of 0-ho-ho, as if pierced to the vitals. He 



now kisses the nose of his otter skin with gestures 
expressive of profound respect and warm affections. 
These fond kisses counteract the electric shock just 
received from the nose of his neighbor's otter skin, 
and in half a minute he is restored and falls into the 
rear of the company as they march around with the 

" When a person fell apparently lifeless, I noticed 
he never hurt himself in falling. Each one invariably 
fell in the same position. In about half a minute, he 
would recover and rise, and as in the other case, fall 
into the company of the music. Each one on recover- 
ing from the electric shock, before he went around the 
room once, would become frantic and Whoh- whoh oftener 
and louder than usual, and punch his otter skin at the 
nose of another person, after which he danced until he 
came around to his proper place, where he again took 
his station, with his back to the wall. In this manner 
they continued to go around the room, usually seven 
or eight persons at a time, with their music, whooping 
and dancing, and shaking their otter skins and punch- 
ing them at each other's faces. Sometimes a short 
pause is made, and again the vocal music strikes a 
new tune, and at the same instant many set up a 
hideous whoop of Ho-ho-ho, until the ear is stunned 
with almost every frightful kind of noise that can be 
imagined. Having proceeded in this way a sufficient 
length of time, the music ceased, and each took his or 
her proper place against the wall. The principal 
actor, followed by the other gourd man, with the 
drummer in the rear, went twice around the hall, 
halting and singing twice in performing each circuit ; 
at length, halting at the man who was designed next 
to use a gourd as the leader in the farce, they made an 
uncommon ado in hallooing and in singular antics and 
gesticulations, and finally laid down the gourds, 
cushions and drums at his feet. They then continued 
around the hall once more, each pointing a finger at 
every one as they passed, groaning each time, and 
being answered by the person pointed at with a fright- 
ful groan. 

" Another now takes the lead, and the same cere- 
monies are acted over again, and this round is repeated 
until every male has once led in the exercises. If, 
therefore, the company be small, the exercises will 
end the sooner. Sometimes the company is so large 
that the services continue until late in the night, and 
even all night. The females follow in all the exer- 
cises, but never lead. They carry their otter skins, 
or medicine bags, sing, dance, blow, etc., and at this 
meeting one went so far as to deliver two short public 
speeches, but this was a rare occurrence. The males 
having each led in a round of the regular ceremonies, 
all became seated to rest, and the men smoked. On 

coming together, each had brought a kettle or bowl ; 
seven or eight large kettles of boiled meat were now 
brought into the house, and every one's small kettle 
or bowl was placed near the food. A man then arose 
and delivered a speech. Next, the man who had sup- 
erintended the cookery, distributed to each a. portion, 
using a sharpened stick for a fork ; and when a piece 
was not too hot lie took hold with his hand. 

" It was now between sundown and dark ; they all 
ate, having nothing before them besides meat. An- 
other speech was delivered, and when it was concluded, 
every one rose, vessel in hand, in which remained a 
considerable portion of food. They marched once 
around the room, and the leader halted at the door, 
where he performed some antic feats, attended by 
noises of divers kinds, and then marched out of the 
house, followed by all in single file ; and those who 
did not reside at the place marched directly off" to 
their homes, not stopping within sight to speak to 
any one, or even to look back." 


The following story, illustrating Indian superstition, 
was related by Bertrand, the half breed French trader. 
The episode occurred, as he related it, while a large 
party of Pottawatoraies were on their way to the treaty 
of Wabash, in the autumn of 1826. he (Bertrand) 
accompanying them : 

" After their company was formed," said he, " which 
consisted of four or five hundred souls, they set out 
for the treaty-ground, compelled by circumstances to 
travel slowly. Within the first three days' journey, 
their most expert hunters, to the number sometimes 
of fifty, with their utmost vigilance, were unable to 
kill a deer. They saw game, and often shot at it, but 
killed nothing. The consequence was that they began 
to be distressed for want of food. Soon after, the 
company halted to encamp on the eyening of the third 
day, Saugana, a well-known chief, fell asleep and 
slumbered soundly through the night. On the follow- 
ing morning, he informed the company that in a dream 
a person had acquainted him with the cause which had 
rendered their hunting unsuccessful, which was an 
error in Chebass, a celebrated chief, who had been the 
principal agent in prevailing them to set off on the 
journey to atiend a place at which business of impor- 
tance was to be transacted, and had neglected to make 
a sacrificial feast before they started. He had started 
on this important journey, the dreamer said, as a white 
man would, without making any religious preparation, 
and, for this dereliction of duty, the whole company 
had been rebuked by being left by the Great Spirit to 
realize the scarcity of food. In order to propitiate the 
Deity, Chebass must fast that day ; twelve men, neither 



more nor fewer, with faces blacked, indicative of hunger i 
and want, and of their devotion, must proceed to their ! 
hunting, six of them on each side of the road, along 
which the company had to travel. By the time the j 
sun had risen to a height pointed out in the heavens | 
(we should say about 9 o'clock), Saugana said they I 
would have killed four deer, and he assured them that 
such would be the fact, because he had seen in the 
vision four deer lying dead. 

" The hunters set off according to instructions ; 
killed the four deer within the time spoken of, and 
brought them to the company. A general halt was 
called. The four deer, including heads, legs, feet, etc., 
were all boiled at the same time, and feasting immedi- 
ately followed, in which all participated, each receiving 
a portion meted out, excepting Chebass. The feast 
was considered his, and, on that account, it was neces- 
sary for him to fast until the sun had gone down. 
Several speeches were made during the festival. About 
noon of the same day, the company resumed their 
march, and, on the following day, they killed five deer 
and one bear, and, during the two or three remaining 
days of their journey, had plenty.'" 


Various modes of disposing of the dead were in vogue 
among the Indians. Mr. McCoy gives descriptions 
of several. 

On one occasion, when he was present with some 
other missionaries at the death of a Pottawatomie 
man, whom he says they had buried as decently as 
time would permit. He continues : " It is their 
custom to bury their dead as soon as possible. We 
were not allowed time to procure a coflBn ; but we 
placed boards about the corpse. They will not permit 
their graves to be dug so deep as civilized people 
usually inter their dead. Agreeably to their custom, 
a piece of tobacco was by them put into the grave at 
the head. The countenance of his wife indicated 
melancholy, and her sister shed tears. Before the 
burial, a nephew of the deceased, who was somewhat 
intoxicated, came running and hallooing like a madman. 
He set up a hideous lamentation, which resembled the 
howling of a wolf more than the expressions of grief 
of a bereaved relative. After some foolish incantations, 
such as blowing his breath into the nostrils of the corpse, 
etc., he declared that the deceased had been poisoned, 
and hurried off, threatening to be avenged upon the 
Indian whom he suspected of the crime. To us it was 
evident that his death had been caused by intemper- 
ance and privation.'" 

Sometimes the corpse was inclosed in a hollow log. 
The position of the body was in most cases recum- 
bent, but instances were common where the corpse 

was placed in a sitting posture, and occasionally 
standing erect. The same authority whom we have 
been quoting says that in some instances the corpse 
was placed on the surface of the earth and inclosed 
with small poles, the walls either being laid up per- 
pendicularly or inclining inward. Frequently in the 
graves of men, a small wooden post extended a few 
feet above the tomb, on which were cut notches, each 
supposed to stand for a scalp which the deceased had 
taken. Over the graves of chiefs, tall poles were 
usually erected, from the tops of which flags depended. 

Almost universally, food and various implements, 
weapons and ornaments were placed in the graves of 
the dead. In cases where the body was placed above 
ground in an inclosure of poles or logs, a small aper- 
ture was made at one end to introduce food or tobacco 
from time to time. McCoy mentions a Pottawatomie 
" who had acquired the name of Tobacco from his 
fondness for that article, and who desired to be buried 
in" a public place which travelers would frequently 
pass, in the hope that by this means he should fre- 
quently receive a piece of tobacco, the use of which 
he could not think of discontinuing." Accordingly, 
he was buried in the forks of a road between Detroit 
and Chicago. 

Disposal of the dead by placing upon an elevated 
platform, supported by poles or the limbs of trees, 
was frequently practiced by the Northern tribes, but 
seldom or never resorted to by the Pottawatomies or 
other tribes in Southern Michigan. 

An Indian funeral is thus described : " I saw a 
company of women carrying kettles of food to the 
grave of a child who had been buried a few weeks 
previously. The nature of this funeral rite, as it 
was described to me at the time, is as follows : A few 
days after the burial of a child, the father or mother, 
or if neither of these be living and present, another 
of the near relatives of the deceased, makes a feast. 
The food is prepared and carried to the grave to 
which the company of sympathizing friends repair. 
If the feast be prepared by a man, none but men 
attend, and the same principle applies to the females. 
When assembled at the grave, the ruler of the feast 
distributes to each of the attendants a portion of the 
food which has been prepared, and each, before eating 
any, puts a small quantity on the head of the grave. 
A small aperture is usually made in the poles or 
boards which cover the dead, through which the food 
is passed. If it be a company of females, and one of 
their number be esteemed profligate, she is not per- 
mitted to make the ofiiering to the dead from her own 
hands, but another receives it at her own hand, and 
oflers it in her behalf. After the offerings are made 
to the deceased, the remainder of the food is eaten by 



the company. Similar feasts are prepared for adults 
as well as for children, and when the party consists 
of males, addresses are made to the deceased. These 
festivals are usually repeated once a year. On re- 
turning from their wintering grounds to the villages, 
in the spring of the year, the grass and weeds are 
carefully removed from about the graves of deceased 
relatives and none are permitted to grow there during 
the summer. 


McCoy says : " I found none who possessed distinct 
ideas on the subject of their religious ceremonies. 
There has been a time, no doubt, when something more 
like system was observed in the small amount of relig- 
ion embraced by their pretensions ; but changes in their 
original ceremonies have been progressing ever since 
their acquaintance with white people. Keeshwa, the 
aged Pottawatomie female, * » * ^jj^ 

was long an inmate of our family, has stated to us, 
with tears, that since her recollection there had 
been great deterioration in the observance of religious 
ceremonies. Formerly, said she, ' on the return of 
the Indians to their villages in the spring, prepara- 
tion was early made for a feast. This would require 
a day or more. At noon on the day appointed, men, 
women and children would assemble, when an elderly 
and respectable man would proclaim aloud, that the 
time for them to take their seats had arrived. All 
being seated, he would make a speech to them, and 
they would sing a song to the Great Spirit. The 
elderly leader would follow with a prayer in behalf of 
the company, in which thanks would be returned for 
their preservation through the past winter, and for 
their safe arrival at their villages, and prayer made 
for a blessing on their labors through the summer. 
On these occasions such language as the following was 
employed : ' Oh ! Our Father, we want corn, we 
want beans, etc.; pity us and give us these things.' 
After the prayer, all would eat, and after a little 
respite they would again sing. Singing was repeated 
four times during the service. After the due observ- 
ance of this festival, all felt at liberty to commence 
preparations for planting their fields. These meet- 
ings, said she, ' were affecting, and frequently I wept 
all the time.' " 


The fact that the horrors of Cannibalism were occa- 
sionally practiced among the Indians is well attested. 
Schoolcraft, Parkman, Drake and various other 
writers, whose reliability is unquestionable, cite in- 
stances of the commission of this revolting crime. 

Pokagon. the Pottawatomie chief, assured McCoy 
that the Sauks frequently killed their prisoners after 
they had been a considerable time captives and that 

they ate the flesh of their victims. He said that " in 
1825, while the Sauks were making their annual 
journey to Canada, an Osage man who was a prisoner, 
when sitting in his tent unconscious of danger, was 
approached by two Sauks, who taking him by the two 
arms, conducted him out of the company and killed 
him. A woman afterward cut him to pieces and 
boiled the flesh, and it was eaten by the party." 
Such deeds were not done on account of hunger, 
but through superstition, the Indians believing that 
they were thus endowed with greater strength and 

It appears that the Pottawatomies had also practiced 
occasionally the abomination of which Pokagon ac- 
cused the Sauks. McCoy says " we were compelled to 
believe that it was such a people as this that we labored 
to improve. From well-attested facts, the recital of 
which was no less shocking than the above, we are 
constrained to believe that the Pottawatomies, Otta- 
was, Chippewas and Miamis, the tribes among whom 
we labored, have all been cjidlty of eannihalism. * 
* * If the accounts of the Indians can be credited, 
the last war between England and the United States, 
in which Indians were mercenaries on both sides, 
was disgraced by cannibalism ; the last instance of 
which we have been informed occurred near Fort 
Meigs, on the Maumee River, in 1813. Deeds, the 
enormity of which cannot be described, we know have 
been done in the country about us." 


Many of the evil deeds of the Indians were directly 
traceable to the excessive use of ardent spirits. The 
traders who located in or traveled through the country 
sold enormous quantities of whisky, and, in fact, de- 
rived their principal support from a revenue which 
produced daily murders and a very general condition 
of destitution. So eager were the Pottawatomies to 
secure their beloved "fire-water" that they would 
sacrifice any article in their possession to secure a 
sufficient quantity to make them drunk. An instance 
is mentioned by a good authority in which an Indian 
gave a trader a tine silver-mounted rifle, worth at least 
|25, for 75 cents worth of whisky. Articles picked 
up in this way by the traders were again given to the 
Indians in exchange for furs. 

When annuities were paid to the Indians by Gov- 
ernment agents the traders, who were sure to be pres- 
ent, would receive in a few days, and in some cases in 
only a few hours, almost every dollar of the red men's 
money. Scenes of the wildest debauchery would fol- 
low, and be protracted for days or weeks. It was not 
unusual, on such occasions, that murders would be 
perpetrated, and those too under the most shocking 



circumstances. Sometimes three or four or a half 
dozen would be committed in one day. 

The utterly abject condition to which the Pottawat- 
omies were degraded in the latter days of their resi- 
dence in Michigan is vividly portrayed by the language 
of one of their chiefs, used in answer to the expostu- 
lation of Judge Lieb, a Government agent, and the 
Rev. Isaac McCoy. He spoke with great feeling, 
saying: "They were all sensible of the deleterious •< 
effects of whisky, and of the ravages it had made and 
was still making among them: that they did not seek 
it, but it was brought to them ; that they could not pre- 
vent it, nor could they possibly forbear from drinking it 
when it was within their reach; that they had lost all 
their manhood with their independence ; that they 
were a degraded and disgraced race ; that they now 
looked upon the whites as so much their superiors that 
they would not attempt to resist anything they did or 
should do. But." continued the chief, elevating his 
dignified person, "if our Great Father feels such an 
interest to preserve us as you mention, all powerful as 
he is, why does he not command his people to abstain 
from seeking, in the ways you mention, our destruc- 
tion. He has but to will it, and his will will be done. 
He can punish. He can save us from the ruin which 
surrounds us. We can do nothing ourselves. If 
whisky were not brought to us, we should soon cease 
to think of it, and we should be happier and health- 
ier." And the missionary adds: '"AH this was said 
with so much feeling and truth that I blushed for my 
country, and could find no apology for my Govern- 
ment in not devising means to restrain these licen- 
tious traders, high and low individuals and companies, 
who, by every means, open and covert, are conveying 
to the Indian the poison of his life and hopes." 

Elsewhere, McCoy says: "Many of the Indians 
manifested a dislike to this trafiic in ardent spirits, 
fraught with ruin to themselves, though they seldom 
possessed fortitude to withstand the temptation to 
drink. On the 20th of August (1824), Pokagon. a 
chief, and many others, came to inform us of liquor 
in their country and expressed a wish to go and seize 
it. We could not hope that Indians, in such cases, 
would be governed by sound discretion, and therefore 
dissuaded them from their purpose. About this time 
they frequently applied to us for aid in securing their 
little property and money received from the Govern- 
ment from the rapacity of lawless white people. But 
we could oftener pity than help them." 


In May or June, the Indians usually returned to 
their villages from their winter hunt for the purpose 
of planting their fields. From this time on until their 

corn ripened or vegetables were grown was, with them, 
the most trying season of the year, because of the 
scarcity of food. The Pottawatomies in this region 
made very frequent begging visits to the Carey Mis- 
sion. Mr. McCoy, under date of July 17, 1824, 
made the following note in his journal : " The 
Indians are so exceedingly pinched with hunger at 
this season of the year that swarms of them linger 
about us in hopes of getting a few crumbs or bones 
from our table, or the liquor in which any food may 
chance to have been boiled. We are continually 
grieved at witnessing their distresses ; we cannot feed 
them, and yet many cases present themselves, espe- 
cially of women and children, too affecting to be wholly 
disregarded. Often on presenting a petition for the 
relief of hunger, they place a hand on the stomach to 
show how it is sunken for want of food. A few 
hours ago a woman appeared in our house with moc- 
casins to exchange for powder and lead ; pleading that 
she and the family with which she lived were in a 
measure starving. She had nephews who would hunt 
for wild meat, did they possess the means of taking 
it. She was informed that we could not conveniently 
grant her the articles she needed, yet she continued 
her importunity, entreating for a ' very little.' Beg- 
ging like this occurs almost hourly through the day. 
At this time, eight or ten unfortunate women are 
at our house begging for a morsel to eat. When we 
gave the old woman alluded to above a little salt, she 
said 'this will season the weeds on which I feed.' 
She ileclared to us that for several days she and the 
families with which she was connected had not eaten 
a particle of any kind of food, except weeds boiled 
without salt or grease. This is, at this time, the con- 
dition of hundreds around us." 



Indian Villages— Their Locations in Cas.s County— Pokagon 's Progres- 
sive Spirit— Indian Trails in Cj«ss County— The Chicago and Grand 
River Trails— Network of Patlis in Porter Township— Topinabe— 
Wee.saw, the War Chief— Pokagon. the Second Chief in Kank— 
Shavehead— His Enmity to the Whites— Probable -Manner of His 
Death- Indian Murders— Kenioval of the Pottawatomies to the 
West— Exemption of Pokagon and His Band— The I-atter Days of 
the old Chief. 


C^ ENERA LLY speaking, the term " permanent In- 
J^ dian village," is a misnomer. Nearly all of the set- 
tlements were abandoned in the fall or early winter, at 
which time the Indians went on long hunting ex- 
peditions, alternating the fields each season in order 
chat the game might not be exhausted. The In- 
dian method of agriculture contained nothing con- 


ducive to permanency of location, and the construc- 
tion of the lodges or wigwams was so crude and simple 
as to make their removal or abandonment a matter of 
comparative indifference to the builders or possessors. 
Encampment would, in the great majority of cases, 
be a better term than village for the habitation of a 
band of Western Indians. They had, indeed, fiivorite 
localities, but their villages in such spots had at the 
most but a few years' duration. At the time the 
whites came among the Pottawatomies, they had, 
within the present limits of Berrien and Cass Coun- 
ties, at least a dozen so-called villages, and it is prob- 
able that within the first twenty-five years of the 
present century, they had occupied a hundred loca- 
tions. Every chief of any note whatever had a '' vil- 
lage," and, with a few exceptions, they were moved 
every two or three years. Besides there were 
sugar camps, which are often confused in tradition 
with the places of more permanent residence. A 
Pottawatomie village usually consisted of a group of 
a dozen to a score of bark huts or wigwams made of 
flags, irregularly disposed in a locality offering some 
pecular advantages, such as water .supply, natural 
shelter, ground suitable for the growing of corn, etc. 
Proximity to a stream navigable for canoes, and afford- 
ing a supply of fish, was also considered desirable, 
and hence the most important villages in the region 
of the St. Joseph River were immediately upon its 
banks. After the Carey Mission was established, and 
as the result of its influence, the Indians in the vicin- 
ity began to make more valuable improvements than 
they had before attempted — to build houses instead of 
huts and wigwams, to fence their fields, and otherwise 
to imitate the methods of the whites. 

Pokagon appears to have been foremost in emulating 
the good example of his white brothers, and of im- 
proving the condition of himself and his people. 

McCoy makes mention of the fact that this chief 
and his band " had commenced a village about six 
miles from the mission, and manifested a disposition 
to make themselves more comfortable." (This village 
was undoubtedly west of the St. Joseph River in the 
Indian reservation.) " In the spring of 1826," con- 
tinues the writer above quoted, "we were about to 
afford them some assistance in making improvements, 
when one of those white men that are commonly hang- 
ing around the Indians for the purpose of flaying them, 
like crows around a carcass, interfered and made a 
contract for making improvements. This ended in 
disappointment to the Indians." Pokagon again ap- 
plied to the missionaries, and in November they hired 
white men to erect for the Indians three hewed log- 
houses and to fence twenty acres of prairie land. The 
Indians promised to pay for the labor and the mission 

' people became security for them, and saw that the 
work was properly performed. Subsequently they 
sent over to the Indian village one of their teams in 
charge of men, who plowed up twenty acres of prairie 
soil, made them a present of some hogs and loaned 

1 them a milch cow. 

I Prior to this there seems to have been little ad- 
vancement in the Indians' mode of life. Pokagon's 
action at this time was in accordance with prin- 
ciples of progress which actuated him during the 
remainder of his life, and which won for him the 

I respect of the old residents of Cass County among 
whom his latter years were spent. 

The first settlers in Cass County found within its 

i limits about four or five hundred Indians, almost all 
of whom were Pottawatomies. They were divided 
into three bands, each of which had a chief. Two of 
these chiefs — Pokagon and Weesaw, who have already 
been frequently mentioned in the previous chapter — 
were prominent characters, reputable and represent- 
ative men of their tribe, and the third — Shavehead — 

[ seems to have been a renegade, who enjoyed little 

I respect among the Indians, and found even less among 
the whites. He was, nevertheless, a man of sufficiently 
powerful personality or active influence to hold the 
position of chief over a small band of rather 
inferior Indians. 

Pokagon's band, which numbered over two hun- 
dred persons, occupied originally the prairie in the 
western part of the county, which retains the chiefs 
name ; but, as we have shown in svn extract from Mr. 
McCoy's history of the Carey Mission, their principal 
village was established in 1826 in Berrien County. 
A large part of the band continued to reside in Cass 
County, moving from place to place as the lands 
were taken up by settlers, and the latter years of the 
chief were also passed in this county. Weesaw's home 
appears to have been in the northeast portion of the 
county, in Little Prairie Ronde, in Volinia Town- 
ship, and Shavehead's in the southeastern, within the 
present limits of Porter Township. The number of 
men, women and children in the band of the former 
was about one hundred and fifty, and that of the lat- 
ter was scarcely half as large. 


The following accurate description of the Indian 
trails in Cass County, as they appeared at the time 
the United States survey w:is made (1826-28) is fur- 
nished by Amos Smith, the present County Surveyor:* 

" 1 find that nearly every township, in the olden time, 
had its highways and its byways. Some of these seem 

on llic outHoe nmp of 


to have beea of great importance, connecting localities 
widely separated from each other, while others of less 
note served only neighboring settlements. 

" It is noticeable that the principal Indian trails, like 
our own main thoroughfares, ran east and west, while 
others tributary to these came in from the north and 
south. The Chicago trail, more important because 
more used than any of the others, coming from the 
east, entered the county near the half-mile post on 
the east side of Section 1 in South Porter Township, 
and run thence westerly, crossing Sections I, 2, 3, 4. 
5, 8, 7 and 18 in South Porter ; Sections 13, 14, 15, 
16, 21, 20, 17, 18 and 7 in Mason ; Sections 12, 11, 
10, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 in Ontwa ; and Sections 12, 11, 
10, 15, 16, 17 and 18 in Milton. The Chicago road, 
as it is now traveled, varies but little from the trail as 
above described. Near the corner of Sections 4, 5, 8 
and 9, in South Porter, the Chicago trail was inter- 
sected by the Shavehead trail, a branch from the 
north. This trail, or rather system of trails, as more 
than a dozen different ones united to form it, had two 
main branches which came together on Section 29, in 
North Porter, near the lower end of Shavehead Lake. 
The west branch, which commenced near the north 
line of Penn Township, led southerly across Young's 
Prairie, dividing on Section 28 in Penn. One trail 
continued south and east to the west, and south of 
Mud Lake in Calvin, the other running between 
Donell and Mud Lakes, the two uniting near Birch 
Lake in Porter. The last-mentioned trail was of 
great service, later to the early white settlers, in pro- 
curing supplies from the old distillery, situated on the 
East Branch of the Christiana Creek, a little south of 
Donell Lake. The east branch, coming from the 
direction of Big Prairie Ronde, crossed the county 
line at the east line of Section 12 in Newberg, just 
north of Long Lake, and ran southwesterly across 
Sections 12, 13, 23, 26, 27, 34 and 33, in Newberg, 
and Sections 4, 9, 8, 17 and 20, in North Porter, and 
united with the west branch on Section 29, as before 
stated. Another branch of the Shavehead trail, of. 
less extent than either of those above described, com- 
menced at the Indian Sugar Works, near the half 
mile post on the line between Sections 10 and II, in 
North Porter, and ran thence southwesterly, crossing 
Shavehead Prairie in its course, and uniting with the 
main branch on Section 32. 

"Beside the three principal branches of the Shave- 
head trail above mentioned, there were many others. 
In fact, the whole township of Porter was a perfect 
network of trails — a regular "stamping ground" of 
the Indians, so to speak, as the numerous sugar works, 
Indian fields and villages, abundantly attest. 

" The second branch of the Chicago trail commenced , 

on Section 30, in Calvin, running thence southeast- 
erly, crossing Sections 2 and 12, in Mason, very 
nearly where the wagon road now runs, intersecting 
the Chicago trail at an Indian village, a few roads 
west of the present village of Union. 

"The third branch commenced on Section 3, in 
Mason, and ran southwesterly, entering the Chicago 
trail near what is now Adamsville. 

"^The fourth and last branch of the Chicago trail, 
coming from Fort Wayne, Ind., intersected the county 
and State line, near the southwest corner of Section 
20, in Ontwa, and running thence northwesterly, 
united with the main trail on Section 16, in Milton. 

" The trail from the Carey Mission to Grand River 
Mission, sometimes called the Grand River road, 
crossed the county line near the corner of Sections 6 
and 7, in Howard, and running thence angling across 
Howard, Pokagon, Silver Creek, Wayne and Volinia 
Townships left the county at the north line of Section 
2, in Volinia. It had no branches. The present ang- 
ling road running through the greater part of Poka- 
gon Township, the northwest corner of Howard and a 
portion of Wayne, occupies very nearly the same posi- 
tion. In fact, we are indebted to the Indian, or it 
may be to his predecessor, for some of our best lines 
of communication, and as many of these are trav- 
eled to-day, and probably will be for all time to come, 
where they were marked out hundreds, and it may be 
thousands of years ago, it shows that great skill and 
judgment must have been exercised in their location." 


The tribal chief — the chief of all the Pottawato- 
mies — was Topinabe, who died near Niles, in the 
summer of 1826. Several local historians have com- 
mitted the error of stating that the same Topinabe 
who was, in 1795. recognized as the head of his na- 
tion, and who signed the treaty of Greenville in that 
year, was living in 1833. signed the treaty at Chicago 
at that time and went WesFwith the tribe when they 
were removed, under authority of the Government, in 
1838. No statement concerning Topinabe can be more 
authoritively made than that he died in 1826. At the 
time the missionary McCoy came into the St. Joseph 
country (1822) the famous chief was upward of eighty 
years of age. He had been a man of much nobility 
of character, had exerted a very potent influence in 
his tribe and had frequently given evidences of un- 
usual friendship for the whites (as, for instance, at the 
Fort Dearborn massacre), but as early at least as 1821 
he had become hopelessly enslaved by alcohol. In the 
year mentioned, at the treaty of Chicago, he was urged 
by Gen. Cass, the United States Commissioner, to 
keep sober, if possible, and make an advantageous 


bargain for his people. His reply indicated the depth 
of his degradation. He said: ."Father, we do not 
care for the land, nor the money, nor the goods. What 
we want is whisky. Give us whisky." In May, 1826, 
one of Mr. McCoy's missionary companions, writing 
to him from Carey, says: "Since last we wrote you, 
I suppose the Indians have not passed a single day 
without drinking. Poor old Topinabe (principal chief) 
is said to be near his end from intoxication." McCoy 
himself writes: "On the ■27th of July, a poor, desti- 
tute Indian woman was murdered about a mile and a 
half from our house, under circumstances too shock- 
ing to be narrated. About the same time, Topinabe, 
the principal chief, fell from his horse, under the in- 
fluence of ardent spirits, and received an injury of 
which he died two days afterward." From this testi- 
mony, which is unquestionable, being written by a 
man who was intimately acquainted with the Potta- 
watomies, and who was living in their midst, it would 
seem that Topinabe came to his death in the latter 
part of July or early part of August, 1826. The fact 
that the name of Topinabe appears at the head of the 
Indian signatures appended to the treaty of 1828, 
made at Carey Mission, and the treaty of 1833. made 
at Chicago, does not tend to overthrow this evidence, 
for it is known there was another Topinabe in the 
tribe, a much younger man than the chief of whom 
we write. The name was undoubtedly hereditary. 
Topinabe, the valorous and cunning in warfare, the 
sagamore of his tribe, in his latter years the friend of 
the whites, has not been honored by the application 
of his name to any locality in the region where he 
dwelt, though the lesser chiefs, Pokagon and Weesaw, 
have been thus given a place in the memory of the 
race which inhabits their old hunting ground.* 

Pokagon was second in rank among the Pottawato- 
mies to Topinabe. and the most admirable character 
among the St. Joseph band. One of the members of 
the Carey Mission family says : " He was the reality 
of the noble red man of whom we read. He was a 
man of considerable talent, and in his many business 
transactions with the early settlers was never known 
to break his word." Various instances have been 
given in the preceding chapter which support this 
assertion, and prove Pokagon to have been the most 
progressive individual of his tribe. He probably owed 
his position of chief to the fact that he had a good 
command of language, and that he married the daugh- 
ter of Topinabe's brother. Ilis name was originally 
Sagaquinick. He became a convert to the Roman 
Catholic religion, and continued in the faith all of his 

• Recently the 
the Mackinnw Divigion of the 1 
u|H>n a summer roaort and embryo village i 
utaMlshecl by noiiie gentlemen of Nilon. 

life. Pokagon and most of the members of his band 
were exempted from the removal to the West which 
the Government decreed for the tribe. His chief 
objection to departure seems to have arisen from his 
fear that he and his people would lose the benefits of 
their religion and partial civilization. After the other 
Indians had been removed, Pokagon and his band set- 
tled in Silver Creek Township, of Cass County, and 
there the good chief died in 1840. As we shall have 
occasion to speak of the later history of Pokagon in 
the conclusion of this chapter, we will now pass to 
some of the other principal characters among the St. 
Joseph Pottawatomies. 

First among them (after those of whom we have 
written), was Weesaw, the war chief. He had three 
wives, of whom the favorite was a daughter of Topin- 
abe. He had a village in Berrien County, just north 
of Niles, and another (at a later period) in Volinia 

I Township, Cass County, on Dowagiac Creek on the 
farm now owned by George Newton, where, with 
about twenty families composing his band, he spent 

I several summers. In the spring, he would go to what 
is now the B. G. Bueli farm on Little Prairie Ronde, 

I and there raise corn and beans and a few other veg- 
etables. He also frequently visited the northwest 
portion of the township, in proper season, to make 
maple sugar. He only visited his hunting grounds 

I in Volinia every third year, allowing an interval for 
the restoration of game. 

j Weesaw is described by the Hon. George B. Turner 
who, when a boy, frequently saw him, as being a 
superb specimen of physical manhood, and a realiza- 
tion of the ideal Indian warrior. He was fully six 
feet high, muscular, finely formed and of stately car- 
riage. He had the appearance of one who deemed 
himself every inch a king. Fond of savage ornament 
and gaudy attire, he was usually dressed in such man- 
ner as to enhance the natural picturesqueness of his 
appearance. His leggings were bordered with little 
bells which tinkled as he walked, his head adorned 
with a turban of brilliant material, and his waist 
bound with a sash of the same, while upon his breast 
he always wore a huge silver amulet or gorget, bur- 
nished to its utmost brightness. Heavy rings of 
silver depended from his ears and nose. Occasionally 
he left off this savage splendor, and appeared in a suit 
of blue broadcloth. His favorite wife he adorned 
with a degree of Indian pomp and show, only inferior 
to his own gorgeousness, and she was always allowed 
to walk immediately behind him and ahead of the 
other wives when they accompanied their proud lord 
to the settlement of the whites. Weesaw was very 
friendly in his relations with the whites, and per- 

i formed many favors for them. Orlean Putnam has 


occasion to remember him with pleasurable and kindly 
feeling. When the surveyors were at work north of 
"the big swamp " in 1827, they became very much 
straitened for provisions, the packer who was to 
supply them having lost his way. Mr. Putnam and 
another man in this contingency were detailed to pro- 
cure such articles of food as were needed. There 
were no white settlers nearer than Pokagon Prairie, 
but knowing that Weesaw had an encampment on 
Little Prairie Ronde, they went there conjecturing, 
and rightly as it turned out, that the chief could 
supply their wants. They arrived at the Indian 
camp at night, but the squaws, by Weesaw's direction 
immediately began preparing food to be taken to the 
surveying party, and in the morning the chief and his 
favorite wife accompanied Mr. Putnam and his com- 
panion some distance on their way back, assisting 
them in carrying the liberal allowance .of provisions 
which had been given them. 

Weesaw removed from Cass County to Berrien in 
in 1832, and died there not long after, being shot by 
his own son while the latter was in an almost crazed 
condition from the eflFects of drink. 

Other chiefs among the St. Joseph Pottawatomies 
were Chebass and Saugana. The former, who was of 
high rank, had his village within the present limits of 
Berrien County. He is frequently mentioned in Mc- 
Coy's history of the Carey Mission, but compar- 
atively little is known concerning him. Saugana | 
was the chief whose remarkable dream (related in the 
preceding chapter) was believed to have saved a large , 
party of Pottawatomies from starvation when on their | 
way to attend a treaty at the Wabash in 1826. ! 

Shavehead appears rather to have been the renegade 
head of a miscellaneous group of ill-savored savages 
than a chief among the Pottawatomies. He was one 
of the most notorious characters among the Indians of 
Cass County, and many anecdotes and traditions con- 
cerning him have been handed down to the present 
generation by early settlers who knew him. He was 
a sullen, treacherous, vindictive savage — " the ugliest 
Injun of them all," according to almost universal tes- 
timony. His appearance was in accordance with his 
evil nature. He had naturally a vicious and cruel 
look, which wa.s set off by a peculiar device — that of 
shaving nearly all the hair from his head. Only a 
lock on the top and a strip down the back of his head 
was left, and this flowed down in a shape suggestive 
of the mane of a lion, or perhaps of some lesser 
beast. Shavehead never ceased to regard the white 
man as an enemy and an intruder upon the Western 
soil. It is probable that he enacted a bloody role in the 
tragedy at Fort Dearborn and took part in most of the 
hostilities against the Americans in which his tribe 

were engaged. He retained his hatred for the whites 
when all of the Pottawatomies were living among 
them in peace. His feeling may perhaps be accounted 
for by the fact that he never signed any treaties and 
consequently received no annuities. He was always 
suspected of evil designs. Hon. George Meacham is 
authority for the statement that during the Sauk war 
scare. Gen. Joseph Brown ordered Pokagon to " take 
care" of Shavehead, meaning that he should be 
watched or guarded so that he could not join the enemy 
should they penetrate the country. 

The old chief and his small band lived a part of the 
time on the prairie which bears his name, in Porter 
Township ; a part upon the St. Joseph River, in the 
extreme southeastern portion of the county ; and 
sometimes wintered east of Young's Prairie. He 
committed many petty depredations, and was very 
insolent when he dared to be. On one occasion, he 
presented himself suddenly before Mrs. Reuben Pegg, 
of Penn Township, while her husband was away, and 
impudently insisted that she should give him some tal- 
low to grease his gun. Being refused very decidedly, 
he became violent, and threatened the lady's life. 
Soon after, Mr. Pegg returned home, and, being told 
of the occurrence, followed Shavehead with a stout 
ox-goad, and overtaking him, administered a terrible 
thrashing. Mrs. Lydia Rudd, who was some distance 
from this Indian defeat, remembers that she heard 
very distinctly the thud of the stalwart blows. 

One of Michigan's pioneers,* who has written 
much, and is regarded as a good authority upon mat- 
ters of early history, relates the following concerning 
Shavehead's residence on the St. Joseph River, op- 
posite Mottville, his custom of taking toll from those 
who crossed the stream, and a whipping he received 
at the hands of Asahel Savary, of Centerville : 

" The old Chicago road where it crossed the St. 
Joseph River at Mottville was called * * * 
Grand Traverse or Portage. This road was the great 
traveled route through the southern part of the terri- 
tory to Chicago. Here at Mottville, the old chief 
Shavehead had stationed himself as the Charon to 
ferry travelers across the stream. There being no 
grist-mills nearer than Pokagon, the settlers in this 
part of the country went by this route to get their 
grinding done. Standing with gun in hand, at this 
portage, Shavehead was accustomed to demand toll of 
every one who wished to cross the stream. One day, 
Asahel Savary, of Centerville, finding the old chief 
off his guard, crossed over the St. Joseph free. But 
on his return, there the old Charon stood, gun in 
hand, to demand his moiety. Savary stopped his 
team. Shavehead came up and looked into the 



wagon, when the farmer seizing him by the scalp- 
lock, drew him close to the wagon, and with his ox- 
whip gave him a sound flogging. Then seizing the 
old chief's gun, he fired it ofi" and drove on. Old 
Shavehead never took any more toll from a settler 
crossing the St. Joseph River at Mottville." 

Concerning the death of the troublesome old chief 
(if chief he was), there has always been some mys- 
tery. Two accounts of his demise, agreeing in essen- 
tials, are extant. Both belong in the shadowy border 
land of history where it emerges in the broad uncer- 
tain domain of tradition. The first, from the writer 
we have just quoted, is as follows : 

•'An old frontiersman, who lived not far from 
Shavehead Prairie, was very fond of the woods, of 
hunting and trapping. He and Shavehead were very 
great friends, and often spent days together on the 
hunt. Their friendship had continued so long that 
the settler had begun to be considered as a sort of 
Leatherstocking companion to the old Indian. One 
day a report reached his ears that Shavehead had said 
' Deer getting scarce ; white man ' (pointing toward 
the settler's home), ' kill too many ; Injun no get his 
part. Me stop white man shoot deer.' His old 
friend interpreted this ; he knew its meaning, but said 
nothing. He and the old chief had another hunt 
together after this. Time passed on, and one pleasant 
day in autumn, the two old friends went out on a 
hunt together, and at night the settler returned alone. 
The old Indian chief was never seen in that region 
afterward. It was generally believed that the reason 
Shavehead did not return, was because he had crossed 
the river to the happy hunting-grounds on the other 
side. And it was generally conceded that the settler 
thought he or Shavehead would have to cross the river 
that day, and that he, the settler, concluded not to 


The second hypothesis of the death of Shavehead, 
by the Hon. George B. Turner, involves the eccen- 
tric Job Wright, the hermit of Diamond Lake Island, 
and intimates that he may have been responsible for 
the exit of the chief from this world. Mr. Turner 
does not vouch for the absolute truth of the story. 
We will say by way of preface that Job Wright is sup- 
posed (in the narrative) to have been one of the little 
band of soldiers attacked at Fort Dearborn by the 
Pottawatomies in 1812 ; that Shavehead took an 
active part in the massacre, and that in subsequent 
years he was suspected by Wright of burning down a 
cabin which he (Wright) had built on Diamond Lake 
Island. These statements should be borne in mind by 
him who would read understandingly what follows : 

" It was late in the afternoon of a beautiful Sep- 
tember day " [1840] * * * * " that 

we dragged our weary limbs into town [Cassopolis] 
from a long stroll in the woods with dog and gun ; and 
as we reached the public square we espied a con- 
siderable number of settlers from the country about, 
who had gathered in a compact circular body around 
some object in front of the village store that seemed 
to deeply interest them. 

" We were not long in reaching the spot ; there, in 
the center of the group stood Shavehead, the re- 
nowned Pottawatomie chief His habitual reserve 
and caution had left him, for he was gesticulating 
wildly as he told of his feats of bravery in more than 
one border conflict. It was plain to see that his 
peculiar weakness had taken possession of him ; in 
other words, that corn whisky, of which he was very 
fond, had overcome him. The men listened silent 
and sullen as he told of the scalps he had taken ; of 
the battles in which he had been engaged. Some re- 
garded his talk as the bravado of a drunken Indian, 
while a few old hunters, who hung about the outer 
circle, thought and felt otherwise. At last Shave- 
head closed his harangue by referring to the massacre 
near Chicago, at the same time exhibiting an English 
medal, in token of his bloody deeds of that eventful 

" As he closed and the crowd opened to let him 
pass, many were the curses hurled at him, many the 
threats we heard pronounced against him. Now for 
the first time we noticed the tall, gaunt form of the 
old recluse leaning upon his rifle apart from the main 
body of listeners, but near enough to hear all that was 
said. As the drunken chief stalked away. Job mut- 
tered audibly to himself, ' Yes, it is him, we fought 
by the wagons; he burned my cabin, curse him.' 
Suddenly shouldering his rifle, he disappeared from 
the village, evidently taking the route home. After 
sunset a settler who came in, reported seeing Job on 
the track of something, and moving rapidly in a 
southeasterly direction. Knowing glances were ex: 
changed among the little knot of villagers, to whom 
this story was told, they evidently believing that Job 
had gone to pay his old friend a visit. How far wrong 
they were in their conjectures, we do not pretend to 
say. One thing however, is certain ; after that day, 
Shavehead was never known to brag of the number of 
white scalps he had taken. We do not pretend to say 
that he was shot by any of the settlers — for those 
were peaceful times ; law and order prevailed all over 
the land ; the animosities engendered by the war of 
1812 had nearly all passed away. But this we do 
say, if Job Wright, the scout, the recluse, went on the 
trail of Shavehead, in all probability he found him ; 
moreov£r, if he did go, something more than an or- 
dinary business transaction was uppermost in his 



mind; and lastly, if he ever did draw a bead upon 
him across his rifle, a moment after there was one 
Pottawatomie chieftain less in Michigan." 

As a rule the Indians in Cass County were very 
respectful to the whites and seldom made any trouble. 
Among themselves they had many difliculties and sev- 
eral murders were committed. The white settlers 
paid little or no attention to these crimes, and the 
Indians themselves allowed them to pass unpunished. 
Shortly before the Pottawatomies were removed to 
the West, a murder occurred in Pokagon Township (on 
Section 19), Schotaria, a "medicine man," killing 
his squaw. The body of the dead woman was taken 
on a pony to Berti-and, on the St. Joseph River, and 
there interred in the Catholic burying-ground. About 
the same time a murder was committed in Howard 
Township, on the road that led from Summerville to 
Niles. An Indian, named Wassatto, slew his brother- 
in-law, Mashkuk, in a peculiarly brutal manner. The 
only cause known for either of these murders was the 
drunkenness of their perpetrators. 

The Indians came very near murdering a white 
man soon after the first settlement of the county. 
John Baldwin, who lived in what is now Porter 
Township, and after whom Baldwin's Prairie was 
named, was assaulted in his cabin b}' a party of 
Indians who claimed to have been cheated by him in 
a bargain. They came to his cabin in the night, 
gave him a terrible pounding with clubs, jumped 
upon him, and when there was no longer any indica- 
tion of life in his bruised and motionless body, left, 
uttering the most exultant yells. A son of Baldwin's, 
a young man, mounting a horse, galloped to White 
Pigeon and summoned a doctor, having first found 
that his father's life was not quite extinct, and with 
careful medical treatment Baldwin was restored. He 
subsequently recovered from the Indian agent nearly 
$3,000 damages, which was deducted from the 
annuities of the ofi"enders. It was asserted that 
the cause of the Indians' grievance was that they 
had received in payment for some oxen they had sold 
Baldwin a quantity of whisky which was so diluted 
with water as to render it entirely useless for the pur- 
pose of producing the intoxication they had fondly 


By the Chicago treaty of 1821, the Pottawatomies 
had ceded to the United States their right and claim to 
all of the territory lying west and north of the St. 
Joseph River. Still further cessions were made by 
the treaty of 1828, all of the possessions of the tribe 
within the Territory of Michigan being at that time 
transferred to the Government, with the exception of 
a reservation of forty-nine square miles in Berrien 

County, west of the St. Joseph, and bordered by it. 
On this tribal reservation were the chief villages of 
the Pottawatomies, and the larger part of their popu- 
lation. Their last foothold was destined soon to be 
taken from them. On September 2H, 1833, at Chi- 
cago, they ceded this reservation, and at the same 
time agreed to remove from the lands they occupied. 
The articles of the treaty were signed by George B. 
Porter, Thomas J. V. Owen and William Weatherford, 
Commissioners for the United States, and by Topina- 
be,* Pokagon, Weesaw, and forty-five other chiefs 
and head men of the Pottawatomies. The ceded land 
is described in the treaty as " the tract of land on the 
St. Joseph River, opposite the town of Niles, and 
extending to the line of the State of Indiana, on 
which the villages of To-pe-ne-bee and Pokagon are 
situated, supposed to contain about forty-nine sec- 

The clause stipulating the removal of the Indi- 
ans was the third supplementary article which read as 
follows : "All the Indians residing on the said reserva- 
tions (there were some other than the tract above 
described, smaller and farther east, but none of them 
in Cass County), shall remove therefrom within three 
years from this date, during which time they shall not 
be disturbed in their possession, nor in hunting upon 
the lands as heretofore. In the meantime, no inter- 
ruption shall be offered to the survey and sale of the 
same by the United States. In case, however, the 
said Indians shall sooner remove, the Government 
may take immediate possession thereof." 

Pokagon and some of the members of his band who 
were present at the treaty, refused to sign the instru- 
ment until they had received guarantees that they 
should be exempted from the obligation to remove. 

The Pottawatomies had no right to occupy the lands 
now included in Cass County after 1821. In 1833, 
as we have seen, they were nominally restricted to the 
reservation west of the St. Joseph, but until their de- 
parture from the region, they roamed freely over the 
adjacent country, and, indeed had a scattered popula- 
tion in the territory now within this county. They 
evinced considerable of an attachment for certain 
localities, and visited them from year to year, or in 
small bands held them continuously, until absolutely 
crowded out, not by the provisions of treaties, but by 
the actual settlement of the superior race. 

The time when the reservation was to be relinquished, 
September, 1836, arrived and passed, and the Potta- 
watomies still clung tenaciously to the little fraction 
of their ancient domain. A considerable number had 
scattered through the surrounding country — through 



all the counties of Southwestern Michigan — and were ! 
living in a state of serai-civilization, upon tracts of , 
land not entered or occupied by the white settlers. , 
Pokagon, in pursuance of his plan of remaining in the j 
country, began to enter land as early as 1835, taking 
up a small tract in Silver Creek Township. In 1830, 
he bought still more, and in 1837 added to his I 
possessions enough to make the total nearly a thou- \ 
sand acres. 

No definite action tending toward the removal of 
the Indians was taken until two years after the e.xpira- j 
tion of their privilege, and then, in the autumn of ' 
1838, Government took steps for carrying out the 
provisions of the treaty of 1833. The preliminary to 
this removal, or more properly expulsion, was a 1 
gathering of the Indians near Niles for a " talk." | 
Long before the period had expired, during which 
they had been permitted to remain, the Indians had 
repented their acquiescence to the treaty, and now at 
the meeting many of them pleaded most earnestly 
and touchingly that they might be suifered to remain 
in the land of their fathers. But the great father to 
whom they addressed their prayers was inexorable. In 
other words, the Government agents, Messrs. Godfrey 
and Kercheval, were not to be moved, and peremp- 
torily insisted that they must be ready upon a certain 
day to begin their westward journey. The agents 
endeavored to bring together the scattered bands, but 
were not entirely successful. Many were determined 
not to leave the country, and fled to localities remote 
from the surveillance of the Government's representa- 
tives; some took refuge with the Ottawas in the Grand 
River region, and not a few hid in the forest near 
their homes. Some were assisted in secreting them- 
selves by the white settlers, who felt sympathy for 
them. Upon the day appointed for the exodus, it is 
probable that about two-thirds of the St. Joseph Pot- 
tawatoraies rendezvoused at Niles, and under the escort 
of two companies of United States troops, detailed for 
the purpose by Gen. Brady, moved out on the Chicago 
road, destined for the land beyond the Father of 
Waters. It was a sorrowful and dejected body of 
human beings, this remnant of the once powerful tribe, 
which slowly and wearily wended its way from Michi- 
gan to Kansas, and their departure was no doubt 
witnessed with sincere regret by many who reflected 
upon their situation, and realized what their feelings 
must be. During the journey some escaped, and 
returned to the St. Joseph country, and in 1839 
these, with most of those who had avoided removal in 
the preceding year, were collected by Alexis Coquil- 
lard, and under his charge taken to their brethren in 
Kansas. The old trader, Bertrand, accompanied those 
who were removed in 1838, 

After the departure of the other Indians, Pokagon 
and his little band of Roman Catholics moved into the 
lands they had bought in Sdver Creek Township. 
The old chief was thus near one of his old dwelling 
places — the prairie named after him. Although the 
lands in Silver Creek, amounting to about a thousand 
acres, were entered in Pokagon's name, most of the 
other Indians in his band had contributed funds for 
the purchase, and the chief made deeds to each for 
tracts proportionate in size to the amount of individual 
investment. Pokagon exerted a benign influence over 
his fellows, setting them a good example in temper- 
ance and morality. He was a zealous Catholic, and 
in 1839-40 built the first church in Silver Creek — a 
substantial log structure, which John G. A. Barney 
and other white settlers helped him to raise. The 
good old chief was sadly victimized by the priest in 
charge of this church, when approaching his death. 
The holy father induced Pokagon when he was very 
sick, in the autunm of 1839, to give him a deed for 
forty acres of land as the price for receiving absolu- 
tion. The deed proved to be for six hundred and 
seventy-four acres instead of forty. It was received 
tor record by Joseph Harper at 6 o'clock A. M., 
upon the 10th of August, 1840, the day being Mon- 
day. The priest came to Cassopolis in great haste 
on Sunday and urged that the document be immedi- 
ately filed, but the Register compelled him to wait 
until the next day. Pokagon had died upon the 
Saturday succeeding, and the news of his demise was 
first brought to the county seat by the priest. The 
deed transferred two tracts of land; one consisting of 
four hundred and seventy-four acres, and the other of 
two hundred, from Leopold Pokagon and his wife, 
Ketesse, to Stanislaus A. Bernier, providing for a 
small reservation upon which Ketesse Pokagon and 
her four children should be allowed to live. Very 
soon after the deed was recorded, Bernier deeded the 
property to Celestine Guynemir de la Hislander, from 
whom it was subsequently recovered by the rightful 
heirs through a verdict of the Court of Chancery 
which sat at Kalamazoo, it being proved that the 
original deed w;is procured through fraud. 

The descendants of Pokagon and the other Potta- 
watomies of his band nearly all live in Silver Creek 
and number not more than seventy-five persons. The 
whole number of the tribe in Michigan does not ex- 
ceed two hundred and fifty. They are distributed in 
the Counties of Cass, Calhoun, St. Joseph, Berrien 
and Van Buren, and until his death in February, 
1882, their chief was Augustine Topash, who lived 
in Silver Creek, near the suburbs of Dowagiac. 




Its Establishment uear the Site of Nlles in 1R22— Its Effect on the Set- 
tlement of t'ass and Berrien Counties— The Rev. Isaac McCoy- 
Trials of the Missionaries— Scarcity of Food— Success! ulness of the 
School— How Regarded by the Pottawatomies— Necessity for Re- 
moval—Crowded Out by the Whtte.s— Improvements at Carey Ap- 
praised, in 18:iO, at over .?5,OU0. 

A N interesting book might be written on religious 
-i^^ zeal as a factor in the development of new 
countries. We have had occasion, in this volume, 
to remark upon the holy aspirations and ambitions 
which led the French Roman Catholics to penetrate 
the Western wilderness two centuries ago, and now we 
call the attention of the reader to the history of the 
Baptist Mission among the Pottawatomies, founded 
just west of the site of Nilesin 1822, which very mate- 
rially affected the settlement of Southwestern Mich- 
igan. It was, indeed, the Mecca toward which jour- 
neyed nearly all the pioneers who located in the 
western portion of Cass and the eastern portion of 
Berrien County. No sooner had the fact become 
generally known that Isaac McCoy had pushed for- 
ward into the Indian country and there established a 
religious mission and a school than many adventurous 
spirits in Ohio and Indiana prepared to follow in his 
footsteps, and the surrounding country was speedily 

The man* who, underthe auspices of the Baptist Mis- 
sionary Association, of Washington, founded the Carey 
Mission(so-called after a celebrated pioneer missionary 
in Hindostan), was in many respects a remarkable man, 
and his services in the cause of Baptist missions 
among the Indians, extending through a long period, 
were very valuable. His labors were not confined to 
the propagation of Christianity among the Indians, 
but he materially advanced the temporal condition of 
several tribes, and assisted in bringing about some of 
the most salutary measures of national legislation 
upon the Indian question that were ever enacted. 

Mr. McCoy's first mission school among the Indi- 
ans was established in 1804, near Vincennes, Ind. In 
1820, he removed to Fort Wayne, and from there to 
the St. Joseph River. It was in May, 1822, that the 
missionary made his first visit to the scene of his fut- 
ure labors. "On the Kith," he writes, 'we reached 
the French trading-house (Bertrand's) at Parc-aux- 
Vaches (the cow pasture), by traveling through the 
rain. I was sorry to hear that many of the chiefs, 
whom I wished to see in reference to our settlement in 
that country, had gone to Lake Michigan to engage 
in a drunken frolic, a trader having arrived in that 

*ThoKe». laaic McUoy wai liora Juno 1:!, 1788, near Oniont.iwn, P«in.; 
removed, with his parents, to J-fferson Connrv, Ky , in 1794 ; wa8 married to 
<;liristiana Polke in October, 1803, and licensed to preach In March, 1804, when 
he Immediately began his serricea among the Indians. He died at Louisville, 
Ky., in 1S46. 

locality with a quantity of whisky." The effect of this 
discouraging circumstance, however, wa.s in a iarge 
measure counteracted by the utterances of those mem- 
bers of the tribe whom McCoy did see, and who, he 
says " appeared delighted with the prospect of our 
settling near them, and by many rude expressions of 
friendship, welcomed me to their country." 

On the 9th of October, Mr. McCoy, with Mr. Jack- 
son and hi.s family, four hired men and a number of 
Indian boys, old enough to make themselves useful — 
in all twenty persons — set off from Fort Wayne for 
the purpose of erecting buildings at the site chosen 
for the new mission. On arriving there after a jour- 
ney full of privation, they immediately began cutting 
down trees, chopping out logs and preparing them to 
be laid up in house walls, Mr. McCoy himself taking 
an active part in the work, although he was still suf- 
fering from the effects of a serious fever. About the 
middle of November, leaving his men to finish the 
work, he set out for Fort Wayne and arrived there 
after a three days' ride, wet, cold, almost ftimished 
with hunger, weary and sick. There were many 
preparations to be made before the final removal to 
Carey could be accomplished, and the little company 
was not in readiness for the journey until the 9th of 
December, 1822, on the morning of which day they 
started from Fort Wayne into the woods destined 
for their new home. Mr. McCoy says in his History 
of Baptist Indian Missions:* "Our company con- 
sisted of thirty-two persons, viz., Seven of ray own 
family, Mr. Dusenberry (a teacher), six work hands 
and eighteen of the Indian part of our family. The 
health of many was by no means firm. One ■of our 
children was still unwell with its late sickness. We 
had three wagons drawn by oxen and one by horses, 
fifty hogs and five cows. On account of the ice, we 
found much difficulty in crossing the St. Mary's 
River, and were able to make only about three miles 
of our journey the first day. The. snow was about 
three inches deep, which we raked away with hoes, 
until we found earth to make our beds upon, and 
where we could kindle a fire. On the 10th, traveling 
was extremely difficult on account of snow and ice 
and many deep quagmires, in a flat, wet country. I 
lent my horse to enable some hands to go back after 
cattle that had escaped on the preceding night, and 
being compelled now to go on foot, became greatly 
fatigued and not a little indisposed. I took a hand 
and went ahead, and had a fire burning by the time 
the company came up at dark." Slowly and tediously 
the missionaries and their company made their way 
through the woods, fording streams, crossing swamps 
and encamping at night after the wearisome march 

* Published in 1840; now very rare. 


of the day in the most sheltered spots they could find. 
Various circumstances conspired to delay their pro- 
gress. Their cattle strayed away and they had to 
sear'ch for them many hours at a time ; their wagons 
broke down and it was necessary to mend them before 
the company could proceed. The weather was dis- 
agreeable and dreary; the journey full of vexation 
and discomfort and peril. On the 12th, they passed 
an encampment of Miamis who resided in the Potta- 
watomie country and with whom Mr. McCoy says he 
"had previously little acquaintance." Mr. McCoy 
had by exposure contracted a serious cold, and on the 
13th he was so ill that he could not ride on horse- 
back and was compelled to get into a wagon. On the 
14th, the company, after traveling all day through 
the fiilling snow, reached the bank of the Elkhart 
River, where they encamped and butchered a hog, 
•nvhich furnished them with supper and breakfast. On 
the following day, great difficulty was experienced 
in crossing the river, the ice having to be first cut 
away. On the morning of the 16th, McCoy left the 
camp early and wont on before the rest of the company 
to the St. Joseph River, ten miles, to examine a 
crossing. On returning, he found that the company 
had not left camp on account of fifteen oxen having 
gone astray. By night they were recovered.. On 
the morning of the 17th, McCoy, though quite sick, 
took two men with him ahead of the. company and 
made a large fire on each side of the St. Joseph, by 
which the men might warm themselves occasionally 
while the work of getting their wagons and stock 
across the icy stream was going on. All got 
through safely but with much discomfort. " On the 
morning of the 18th," says the missionary, " our 
oxen were almost worn down and the company all ex- 
ceedingly anxious to terminate thejourney. We there- 
fore made a vigorous effort to reach Bertrand's trading- 
house, which we accomplished at dark. Here we 
found a shelter from the cold and freezing rain which 
had been falling on us half the day." On the follow- 
ing day, which was the eleventh of their journey, they 
reached the mission, which was six miles from Bert- 
rand's. They forded the river, says the late Judge 
Bacon, where is now the foot of Main street in Niles, 
" crossing it diagonally, and handing near the rear of the 
garden of Mr. Colby. , In an hour thereafter, they 
reached their home in the woods."* They found 
their cabins unfinished, but they afforded a shelter so 
much superior to what they had experienced on the 
road that, in the language of the patient pioneer of 
Christianity, they " were not inclined to complain." 
Mr. McCoy notes in his book that upon the 1st of 

January, they invited Topinabe and Chebass, " prin- 
cipal chiefs and some others, to partake of a frugal 
meal with us, some attention having generally been 
paid to the 25th of December and the 1st of January, 
by white men among them, most of whom have been 
French Catholics, from whom the natives derived a 
knowledge of these holidays." The Indians fully 
appreciated the treatment they received from the mis- 
sionaries, upon this and other occasions, and one of 
them said privately to the interpreter, that " they 
could not think there were any more such good people 
among the whites." 

The experience of the people at Carey, during the 
first winter they spent there, was very severe. The 
earth was covered with snow from the time they 
reached the station until the 20th of March, and it 
was generally from ten to fifteen inches deep. The 
weather continued cold, and the houses being unfin- 
ished, were very uncomfortable. For the comfort of 
fifty people, there were but four fires, and one of them 
a kitchen fire. " Out of doors, business went on slowly, 
on account of the severity of the weather," says the 
historian, and he adds, '" our religious services ap- 
peared to be attended with cold hearts as well as cold 

Added to their other troubles during the winter of 
1822-23, was the scarcity of food. The teams which 
they had dispatched to Ohio for a supply of Hour 
soon after they arrived at Carey, and which they sup- 
posed would return within a month, were delayed, and 
from the middle of January until the 13th of February, 
when they finally did arrive, there was actual suffering 
for want of sufficient provisions. A few extracts from 
the mission journals show with painful plainness the 
situation of these isolated pioneers : 

"February 1st. — Having eaten up our corn, and 
having only flour enough for one meal, we sent five 
of our stoutest Indian boys five miles to an Indian 
trader, and borrowed a barrel of flour and a bushel of 
corn. Our teams were absent and the boys carried it 
home on their backs. The flour was damaged ; 
nevertheless it was very acceptable to us." 

" February 7. — Ate our last meal of bread for break- 
fast, which was so scarce that we had to divide it 
carefully, that every one might have a little. We 
had saved a few pounds of Hour for the small children, 
whose necessities were increased by-the want of the 
valuable article of milk. Sent out an Indian to en- 
deavor to buy corn, who returned with about six 
quarts, which was all he could get. We sent an In- 
dian and a white man to Fort Wayne to see what was 
detaining our wagons ; and should they not meet the 
teams on this si'le, they are directed to hire horses and 
fetch flour to us." 



" February 8. — Breakfasted upon the corn we hail 
procured the preceding day. Blessed be God, we 
have not yet suflfered for want of food, because corn 
is an excellent substitute for bread. But having now 
eaten our last corn, we cannot avoid feeling some un- 
easiness about the next meal." 

Regardless of the deep snow, and of his poor health, ■ 
McCoy now set forth attended by an Indian, in quest 
of corn. His thought was to procure some from the | 
Indians in the neighboring villages, who had small 
quantities buried in caches, but scarcely as much as 
they would themselves need. The missionary says : 
" My own anxieties were very great. I could not 
contemplate the destitute condition of so many persons, 
among whom were my wife and my children, when 
the probabilities of extreme suffering, not to say I 
perishing, were thickening around us, without feelings ; 
which can better be imagined than described." 

He was slowly working his way through the track- ; 
less waste of snow when he met Bertrand, the trader, i 
The old Frenchman told McCoy that it was extremely 
improbable that the Indians were at their villages, 
and that in their absence it would be impossible on 
account of the snow to discover the caches, but, said 
he generously, '■ I got some corn, some flour; I give 
you half Suppose you die, I die too." McCoy 
returned with his horse heavily loaded with corn and 
flour, anticipating as he laboriously made his way 
homeward, the joy that his success would cause at the 
mission. Arriving there, he was not a little astonished 
to find his people regaling themselves with a substan- 
tial meal of sweet corn. He had scarcely ridden out 
of sight of the mission in the morning when an aged 
Pottawatomie woman, a widow, their nearest neighbor, 
who herself had nothing on which to live except a 
limited supply of corn and beans, appeared at the 
house with a sufficient supply of sweet corn to make a 
liberal meal for the entire "family." "Thus," says 
the pious missionary, in chronicling an account of the 
day, "thus we had scarcely eaten our last meal, when 
God sent us another." On the same day, four other 
Pottawatomie women, whom the kind widow had told 
of the condition of want at the mission, came in, bear- 
ing upon their backs about three bushels of potatoes. 
On the 10th of February, two Indians brought a 
bushel of corn each, and two traders, who had received 
news of the scarcity, came into the mission a distance of 
fifteen miles, bringing " lialf of a pittance of flour 
they had." These instances of the kindness of human 
nature would bear chronicling in letters of gold. 

But now that one immediate peril was escaped, 
another arose. McCoy, whose system had been 
severely worn by labor and exposure, privation and 
9.nxiety, became very siok with a fever, suff"ered oiuob 

physical pain, and for a time lay in delerium. His 
life was despaired of, but, after a number of days of 
extreme illness, he began to improve upon the 20th 
of February. * 

The wagons with supplies which had been long ex- 
pected from Ohio, arrived on the 13th. Mr. John- 
ston Lykins, a valued assistant of Mr. McCoy's, ^yho 
had been long absent, arrived on the 21st. The re- 
turn of this useful member of the family, the arrival 
of food and other supplies and the approach of spring, 
all combined to work an improvement at the mission, 
and the hearts of the people, which had been very 
sorrowful and full of foreboding during the winter, 
grew lighter. Mr. McCoy's convalescence was slow, 
but quite regular and assuring, and the future looked 
promising and bright. Encouraging news was also 
received about this time from an agent who had been 
employed to solicit aid for the Mission, and word came, 
from various sources that benevolent people in Ohio 
and the East had increased their liberality to the 
cause and were taking a deep interest in the labors of 
Mr. McCoy and his companions among the Pottawat- 

The school had by this time thirty-six scholars. It 
had been opened on the 27th of January, 1823, in a 
building erected for the purpose, and finished at that 
time, with the important exceptions of laying a floor, 
building a chimney and hanging a door in the open- 
ing intended for one. It was used for some time be- 
fore these elements, which would now be considered as 
necessities, were added, and teachers and pupils sat 
about a fire, built on the ground in the middle of the 
room, suffering greatly from the cold and smoke. All 
was prosperous with the Carey Mission in the spring 
and summer of 1823, and Mr. McCoy was successful 
in establishing another mission, which was known as 
Thomas, upon the Grand River, among the Ottawas. 

In June, 1828, Carey was visited by Maj. S. H. 
Long and his party, who were on their way to the 
headwaters of the Mississippi. William H. Keating, 
who was one of the company, gave a very interesting 
description of the mission in the first volume of Maj. 
Long's report of the expedition. Passing from Fort 
Wayne to Chicago, he says : " There is in this neigh- 
borhood an establishment which, by the philanthropic 
views which have led to its establishment, and by the 
boundless charity with which it is administered, com- 
pensates, in a measure, for the insult offered to the 
laws of God and man by the traders. * * * 
The Carey Mission House, so designated in honor of 
the late Mr. Carey, the indefatigable apostle of India, 
is situated within half a mile of the River St. Joseph. 
* * '■ The spot was covered with a very 

dense forest seven months before the time we visited 



it; but by the great activity of the superintendent he 
has succeeded in the course of this short time in build- 
ing six good log houses, four of which afford com- 
fortable residence to the inmates of the establishment ; 
a fifth is used as a school-room, and the sixth forms a 
commodious blacksmith shop. In addition to this, 
they have cleared about fifty acres of land, which are 
nearly all inclosed by a substantial fence. Forty 
acres have already been plowed and planted with 
maize, and every step has been taken to place the 
establishment upon an independent footing. The 
school consists of from forty to sixty children. The 
plan adopted appears to be a very judicious one. 
The plan adopted in the school purposes to unite a 
practical with an intellectual education. The boys 
are instructed in the English language, in reading, 
writing and arithmetic ; they are made to attend the 
usual avocations of a farm, and to perform every 
operation connected with it, such as plowing, planting, 
harrowing, etc., and in these pursuits they seem to 
take great delight. The system being well regulated, 
they find time for everything ; not only for study and 
labor, but also for innocent recreation, in which they 
are encouraged to indulge ; and the hours allotted to 
recreation may, perhaps, be viewed as productive of 
results fully as important as those accruing from more 
serious pursuits. The females receive in the school 
the same instruction which is given to the boys, and 
are in addition to this taught spinning, weaving and 
sewing, both plain and ornamental. They were just 
beginning to embroider ; an occupation which may, by 
some, be considered as unsuitable to the situation 
which they are destined to hold in life, but which ap- 
pears to us very judiciously used as a reward and a 
stimulus. They are likewise made to attend to the 
pursuits of the dairy, such as milking of cows, etc. 
All appear to be very happy and to make as rapid 
progress as white children of the same age would 
make. Their principal excellence rests in works of 
imitation. They write astonishingly well, and many 
display great natural talent for drawing. The insti- 
tution receives the countenance of the most rtspecta- 
ble among the Indians. There are in the school two 
of the grandchildren of Topinabe, the great heredi- 
tary chief of the Pottowatomies. The Indians visit 
the establishment occasionally and appear pleased with 
it. The (mission) family have a flock of one hundred 
sheep, collected in Tennessee, Kentucky and Ohio, 
and are daily expecting two hundred head of cattle 
from the same States. These contributions, together 
with the produce of their farm, will, it is thought, 
prevent them from being exposed to suffer as much 
from scarcity of provisions as they have already 
done." * * ***** 

During a portion of this summer, the mission people 
were again on very short allowance. One day in June, 
they sent out two men to purchase corn, if any could 
be found, as they had not enough to last through the 
day. A small quantity was obtained from an Indian 
and a little damaged flour from a trader. "The In- 
dian," says McCoy, "had not the corn to spare with- 
out risking his own comfort, and refused to sell it, but 
said: ' It is too hard to be hungry. I will give my 
father that sackful. I believe I will lose nothing by 
it. I think he will give me an equal quantity when 
he shall get corn.' " 

Two day days after that occurrence, a herd of 121 
cattle arrived, a portion of the 200 which Mr. Keat- 
ing, in his report, said were expected. Some had been 
left at Fort Wayne. 

Mr. McCoy had contracted with the captain of a 
vessel on the lakes to bring them a loaS of flour to 
the mouth of the St. Joseph River. It was to be de- 
livered by the middle of June,, but did not come to 
hand, and the missionaries learned that the captain 
had violated his agreement, finding that he could dis- 
pose of his cargo at a better price than had been con- 
tracted. This was a great disappointment and sub- 
jected the people to inconvenience and loss. Their 
chief reliance for breadstuffs, until they could pro- 
duce them at the mission, was to transport them, by 
wagons, 200 miles. This was very expensive, but 
necessity induced the immediate sending off of teams 
for the purpose. 

During the summer, Mr. McCoy was busied, a large 
portion of his time, in agitating a scheme for coloniz- 
ing the Indians in the West, and carried on an exten- 
sive correspondence with Lewis Cass, Governor of the 
Territory of Michigan, and several members of Con- 
gress, as well as influential citizens of Ohio and Indi- 
ana. He also brought the matter to the attention of 
the Missionary Board. 

Although the season had been one of general pros- 
perity, there was a scarcity of breadstuffs at the mis- 
sion ; 900 bushels of corn were gathered in the fall 
and a large quantity of vegetables, but no wheat had 
thus far been grown, and all the flour used was trans- 
ported overland from Ohio. The mission was in debt 
several hundred dollars. To make matters worse, a com- 
munication was received from the agent of the Board 
of Missions, saying that its funds were exhausted and 
that no more drafts could be drawn on the Treasurer. 

The mission had grown and its expenses had in- 
creased in proporti'on. Miss Fanny Goodridge, of 
Lexington, Ky., had entered the mission as a teacher 
in November, and a Miss Wright and a Miss Purchase, 
of Ohio, and Mr. and Mrs. Polke, of Indiana, had 
either arrived or were soon expected. 



Toward the close of the year (1823), McCoy, urged 
by the growing needs of the mission and the decreas 
ing flow of aid toward it, set out upon a journey East 
in order to solicit contributions from the charitably 
disposed. He visited Washington, Philadelphia, Bos 
ton and New York and other places, making repre 
sentations of the conditions and wants of the mission 
and everywhere received liberal donations of clothing 
food supplies, books and over $2,000 in money. 

On the 25th of May, 1824, he embarked at Buffalo 
upon a schooner, which he had chartered for the pur- 
pose of taking his goods directly to the mouth of the 
St. Joseph. He left the vessel at Detroit, and crossed 
the Peninsula on horseback, arriving at Carey June 
11. There were at this time no inhabitants at the 
mouth of the St. Joseph, and McCoy sent two young 
Indians there, instructing them to keep a great fire 
burning day Snd night to attract the attention of the 
sailors upon the schooner to the point where the cargo 
should be landed. The arrival of the vessel was 
looked forward to with very pleasant anticipations 
and with considerable impatience. There was no 
flour at Carey, and the Indians who were sent down 
to the shore of Lake Michigan were told to open the 
first barrel landed from the schooner, and hasten back 
with as much as they could carry. Mr. McCoy says : 
" All except myself were in good spirits in regard to 
food, hourly expecting the arrival of the vessel. I 
feared that contrary winds or other hindrance might 
cause us to sufi'er, but I concealed my anxiety. On 
the 18th (of June) we had only corn enough for one 
day, but our merciful God was still near us. * * * 
On the evening of the 18th, to our great joy, and 
mine in particular, one of the young men arrived with 
a mule packed with flour." Their ship had come in. 

The goods unloaded at the mouth of the river were 
conveyed to Carey in pirogues (large canoes), Mr. 
Polke superintending the labor, which occupied a con- 
siderable time, the articles to be transported, includ- 
ing a hundred barrels of flour, twenty-four barrels of 
salt and thirty bushels of wheat for seed, and many 
boxes of miscellaneous supplies, clothing and books. 
" From this time forward the mission did not sufi'er 
for want of bread, nor did the pecuniary wants ever 
again become so great as they had been." It is fur- 
ther stated that " from this time until, by an arrange- 
ment with the Government in 1830, the affairs of the 
mission were wound up, the people at Carey never 
had occasion to draw on the Board of Missions." 

During the next two years, Mr. McCoy and his as- 
sociates had much to be grateful for. The Superin- 
tendent notes in his book, in the summer of 1824, 
"that it was discovered that the prejudices of the 
Pottawatomies, with which they had to contend at 

first, had almost wholly vanished from among those 
who were near us. We had never before seen a time 
when our Indian neighbors manifested so much inter- 
est in the mission. Applications to us to take their 
children into our family were frequent, and their at- 
tention to religious instruction appeared to increase." 

One or two of the neighboring Indian villages were 
visited every Sunday. The number of pupils in the 
school was considerably augmented. Materially, as 
well as religiously, the affairs of the mission were 
prosperous. More than two hundred acres of land 
was inclosed with fence, and over three hundred bush- 
els of wheat were harvested in each of the years 1824 
and 1825. A horse-power flouring-mill was also 
erected — the first in Michigan west of Ann Arbor or 

John L. Leib, Esq., of Detroit, a Government 
Commissioner appointed to examine the condition of 
affairs at the mission, spent three days there in 1824 
— the last day of October and the first two of No- 
vember. His report to Gov. Cass was very compli- 
mentary to the missionaries. One sentence from this 
paper will convey an idea of the whole. He says : 
"I beheld a colony firmly settled, numerous, uivilized 
and happy, with every attendant blessing, flowing 
from a well regulated, industrious and religious com- 

Mr. Leib made a second visit, in the latter part of 
August, 1826. We make liberal extracts from his 
report* to the Governor, describing the mission : 

"On the 15th of August, I proceeded to the Carey 
establishment, on the St. Joseph's, where I ar- 
rived on the 21st, and was much gratified with its im- 
provement in all departments. It is a world in min- 
iature, and presents the most cheerful and consoling 
appearance. It has become a familiar resort of the 
natives, and from the benefits which they derive from 
it in various shapes, they begin to feel a dependence 
on and a resource in it at all times, and especially in 
difiicult and trying occasions. There is not a day — I 
might almost say an hour — in which new faces were 
not to ♦e seen. The smithey afi'ords them almost 
incalculable facilities, and is constantly filled with ap- 
plicants for some essential service. It is a touching 
spectacle to see them, at the time of prayers, fall in 
with the members of the institution, which they do 
spontaneously and cheerfully, and, with a certain 
animation depicted on their countenances exhibiting 
their internal satisfaction. 

" The missionaries permanently connected with this 
institution, beside the superintendent and his wife, 
are Robert Simmerwell and wife, Jonathan Meeker 
and Johnston Lykins, who is now constituted the 

* The documeat is published in Mr. McCoy's history. 



The subject of this sketch was born January 20,1802, 
in Canada, and was the son of Abraham Townsend, the 
pioneer of La Grange Township. He removed with his 
parents to Huron Co., Ohio, in 1815, where he married 
in February, 1825, his first wife, Malinda Brown. In 
1826, he emigrated to Michigan from Perrysburg, 
Ohio. He was in company with Israel Markham and 
others who had two yoke of oxen. Mr. Townsend's 
team consisted of a yoke of oxen with ahorse hitched 
ahead of them. The party left Perrysburg on June 
10, and arrived at Uzziel Putnam's, on Pokagon 
Prairie, upon July 4. It is probable that the anni- 
versary of national independence was first celebrated 
in Cass County upon that day in the enjoyable meeting 
of these pioneers. Mr. Townsend's journey, occupy, 
ing nearly a month's time, was not as disagreeable as 
that of the majority of early emigrants to Southwest- 
ern Michigan, for it was made in a pleasant season of 
the year and with good company. They had cows 
with them and therefore plenty of milk to use with 
their humble but substantia! fare. They made slow 
progress and encamped in the most favorable places 
at night. While they were winding their way through 

the heavy woods between Monroe and Tecumseh, 
Israel Markham's wagon broke down and the whole 
company was delayed three days awaiting its repair. 
The subject of our sketch worked during his first 
summer in Michigan for the Carey Mission people, 
cutting with Abraham Loux forty tons of wild hay, 
near Barren Lake. The second season they cut in 
the same vicinity about eighty tons. In 1829, Mr. 
Townsend moved to La Grange Township, settling 
where he now lives. He kept the first post office in 
the township, in 1830, at his father's house. In 1832, 
when the Sauk or Black Hawk war broke out, he 
served as a Lieutenant in the militia. His first wife 
dying in 1838, Mr. Townsend married in November, 
1841, Charlotte Hunter, whose family became settlers 
in the vicinity in 1831. The children are Statta and 
Abraham (deceased); Gamaliel, a resident of the towii- 
sliip; John H., who died in California ; Otis, Clau- 
dius, Agnes, Lewis, Candice and George. For the 
past ten years, Mr. Townsend has sufi'ered the affliction 
of almost total blindness, but otherwise has enjoyed 
good health, considering his advanced age, and has been 
the deserving recipient of very many of the blessings 
of life. 


orleaN PiirNy^jvi 


superintendent of a missionary station called Thomas, 
on Grand River, a ramification from the St. Joseph's. 

" There are at present seventy scholars, forty-two 
males and twenty-eight females, in various stages of 
improvement. * * * Eight of the alumni of 
this institution, who have completed the first rudi- 
ments of education, have been transferred to acade- 
mies in New Jersey and New York. Two of the 
boys at Carey are learning the trades of blacksmith 
and shoemaker ; the remainder, of sufficient size, 
are employed occasionally on the farm. The girls 
are engaged in spinning, knitting and weaving, and 
the loom has produced 185 yards of cloth this year. 
Two hundred and three acres are now inclosed, of 
which fifteen are in wheat, fifty in Indian corn, 
eight in potatoes, pumpkins and other vegetable pro- 
ducts. The residue is appropriated for pasture. 

" There have been added to the buildings since my 
last visit a house and a most excellent grist-mill, 
worked by horses. The usefulness of this mill can 
scarcely be appreciated, as there is no other within 
100 miles at least, of the establishment ; and here, as 
benevolence is the predominating principle, all the 
surrounding population is benefitted. 

"Numerous Ifldian families have since my last 
visit settled themselves around, and have, from the 
encouragement, countenance and assistance of the 
missionary family, made considerable progress in 
agriculture. Indeed, a whole village has been formed 
within six miles of it, under its benevolent auspices 
and fostering care. I visited them to witness myself 
the change in their condition. To good fences, with 
which many of their grounds are inclosed, succeed 
domestic animals. You now see oxen, cows and 
swine grazing around their dwellings, without the 
danger of destroying their crops. These are the 
strongest evidences of their improvement, and not 
the least of the benefits arising from the neighbor- 
hood of this blessed abode of the virtuous inmates of 

"It is not in the immediate neighborhood alone 
that the efforts of missionary exertion are felt. In 
distant places, near the moutH of the St. Joseph, and 
on the Grand River, the most surprising changes 
have taken place. Strong and effective inclosures 
are made and making, and stock acquired, and at the 
latter place the missionary family have erected several 
spacious buildings, including a schoolhouse, and 
improved some lands." 

In September, 1827, the missionaries had the pleas- 
ure of entertaining a distinguished visitor, Gov. Cass, 
who had been from the first a warm friend of the 
establishment. The Governor was one of three com- 
missioners appointed by the United States to negotiate 

a treaty with the St. Joseph Pottawatomies. While 
negotiations were pending, Gov. Cass and the mem- 
bers of his party carefully investigated the management 
of the mission, and spoke of it in terms of approbation 
and admiration. 

Carey Mission had now been in existence about five 
years. Although many of the hopes entertained by 
Mr. McCoy and his helpers had been realized in the 
institution, and notwithstanding the fact that it had 
been in a general way successful, it was foreseen that 
its usefulness could not long continue. It was known 
from the beginning that when the Indian title to the 
land had been extended, and the country occupied by 
white settlers, the native people, and the religious in- 
stitution planted in their midst, must inevitably be 
crowded out. Hence, for some time prior to 1827, 
Mr. McCoy had been devoting much attention to the 
projoct of removal. The stream of immigration over- 
whelmed the mission even sooner than its people had 
expected. One of the potent evils arising from the 
proximity of the whites was the wholesale furnishing 
of liquor to the Indians, and their terrible debauchery 
through its use. The traders could not be restrained 
from the traffic in whisky, and the missionaries felt 
that their strongest efforts were powerless to advance 
the condition of the Indian while they had to contend 
with it. 

The mission was not entirely suspended until 1830. 
In September of that year, Charles Noble, Esq., of 
Michigan, and Mr. Simonson, of Indiana, made a 
valuation of the Carey property, appraising the im- 
provements at $5,080, and the growing crop at 
$641.50. The total of these amounts was paid to 
the Board of Missions by Government, and was after- 
wards applied in establishing a mission in the West. 
The school was discontinued at this time, with the 
exception of a half dozen pupils, who remained a few 
months in charge of two of the missionaries — Mr. and 
Mrs. Simmerwell — who remained in the country, 
and subsequently located at a spot not far from 

The establishment of Carey Mission, as we have 
said at the outset of this chapter, was an important 
event in the history of Southwestern Michigan. It 
was the chief nucleus of early settlement. The con- 
dition of many of the pioneers was ameliorated in a 
large measure by their close proximity to this station. 
Some of them earned money there, and made their 
start in life with the proceeds of labor performed for 
McCoy. Many of the early settlers of Cass County 
found the mission a convenient place from which to 
procure seed for planting and various necessary sup- 
plies. The mill at Carey supplied them with flour and 
meal, and obviated the necessity of making long and 


tedious trips to remote settlements, or the alternative 
of grinding by hand. In a score of ways the mission 
was advantageous to the people who located in the 
region surrounding it. 



Indian Traders— Zacclieus Wooden, the Trapper— His Visit to Cass 
Countyin 1814-15— Tlie White Man as a Permanent Settler— First 
Settlement in the Interior of the State— Earliest Settlement in Ber- 
rien County— The Pioneers Enter Pokagon— Dates of Early Settle- 
ments throughout Cass County— Causes Operating to Ketard Immi- 
gration—The Sauk or Black Hawk War Scare— The .lune Frost of 

THE earliest white men in Southwestern Michigan 
were the adventurous characters who traded with 
the Indians. At Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, Bert- 
rand and St. Joseph, in Michigan, and South Bend 
and Elkhart, in Indiana, were important trading sta- 
tions, some of which were maintained for long terms 
of years. So far as is known, there was no station 
within the present limits of Cass County. This region 
was tributary to the traders at St. Joseph, and upon 
the site of Bertrand ; and the Indians took the pel- 
tries which they gathered in its woods and upon its 
prairies, and upon the margins of its lakes, to one or 
the other of those localities. 

A Frenchman named Le Clere was the first trader 
located at Bertrand, and it is probable that he estab- 
lished himself there as early as 1775. He was suc- 
ceeded by John Kinzie, and he by Joseph Bertrand, 
after whom the place was named, in 1814. In the 
meantime, Abraham Burnett had settled at the mouth 
of the river. Both Bertrand and Burnett made im- 
provements, which indicated their intention to remain 
as permanent settlers. 

The first well-authenticated visit of a white man to 
the region now known as Cass County was made by 
Zaccheus Wooden. He was a native of Saratoga 
County, N. Y., and, in 1813, when nineteen years of 
age, he went to Cuyahoga County, Ohio. In the fol- 
lowing spring, being of an adventurous turn of mind, 
in company with eleven others, he engaged to go on a 
trapping expedition for that king of fur-traders, 
John Jacob Astor. The party proceeded through the 
woods from Cleveland to Monroe, Mich., where 
there was a small settlement, and there divided into 
pairs and penetrated the forest in various directions. 
Wooden and his companion went up the River Raisin, 
and thence to Elkhart. Making this place a rendez- 
vous, they followed the various water-courses, and vis- 
ited the lakes in the surrounding country, setting 
their traps where the otter, beaver, mink, muskrat and 
other fur-bearinp' animals did most abound. 

The only white man Wooden saw after leaving 
Monroe was a Frenchman named John Kabeau, who 
lived with an Indian wife in a little hut on the bank 
of Pleasant Lake, near the site of Edwardsburg. He 
was a trapper, and undoubtedly in the employ of 
Bertrand. Upon a little piece of poorly-cultivated 
ground near his cabin, he raised sufficient c&rn to sup- 
ply the needs of himself and dusky partner, and he 
even had a little to spare, which his visitor was glad 
to buy on several occasions. During most of the time 
that Wooden was engaged in trapping in Cass 
County, he was alone. He visited Diamond Lake and 
Stone Lake, spending two weeks upon the banks of the 
latter. Near Diamond Lake there was a beaver dam, 
and he there secured quite a large number of skins. 
His food consisted of corn-meal cake, salt, and such 
game as he chanced to secure. Beaver livers, pre- 
pared by a peculiar process and dried, were consid- 
ered a great delicacy. The trapping was carried on 
in Cass County from November to April in the years 
1814-15, and, in subsequent seasons Mr. Wooden's 
avocation led him to other parts of the country. 

There is something quite engaging in the contem- 
plation of the rude, free life of the trapper, and the 
joys that must have been his in traversing so beautiful 
a region while it was still in a state of nature. 

But it is the advent of the white man as a perma- 
nent settler which must most interest all of those per- 
sons who now enjoy, or in the future shall enjoy, 
those blessings which the pioneers of Cass County, 
having laboriously earned, left to them as a free but 
priceless legacy. 

The first permanent settlement in the interior of 
Michigan was made in Oakland County in the spring 
of 1817. 

In the preceding chapter a full history has been 
given of that guiding star of the pioneer, the Carey 
Mission, founded by the zealous McCoy in 1822. The 
effect of that missionary station in the wilderness 
has been fully described. It was the center of settle- 
ment for Cass and Berrien Counties. 

The first actual settler in Berrien County was 
S([uire Thompson, who located at Niles, in 1823, and 
brought his family there in the following year. 

In 1825, upon the 22d of November, Uzziel Put- 
nam made the primal settlement in Cass County, 
moving onto Pokagon Prairie, where he lived until his 
death, in the summer of 1881, witnessing that won- 
derful work of development which in a half century 
converted the surrounding country from an uninhabited 
and trackless expanse of woods and prairies into one of 
the best improved and most beautiful farming regions 
of the West. Baldwin Jenkins was the second settler, 
and arrived in less than a week from the time that Put- 

lllsroKY OF ("A? 


nam came into the country. In the spring of 18"27, 

Squire Thompson removed from Niles to Pokagon. 

The settlement was further increased by the arrival of 

Ira Putnam and Lewis Edwards. 

In the meantime the southern part of the county 

became the scene of pioneer beginnings, Ezra 

Beardsley making his home, in 182 •, upon the prairie 

in Ontwa, which bears his name. 

In the following year, the Pokagon settlement re- 
received accessions to its population in the persons of 

William Garwood and Israel Markhara with his several 
sons, and Beardsley was cheered by the arrival of sev- 
eral neighbors, among whom were George and Sylves- 
ter Meacham, George Crawford and Chester Sage. 

Very naturally the earliest locations were made 
upon the prairies, and the heavy timbered land from 
which farms could only be hewn out by almost hercu- 
lean toil were as a rule the last chosen by immigrants. 
Many of the pioneers had already experienced a battle 
with the forest in Ohio or Indiana, and for such the 
prairies possessed beauties which were hidden from 
other eyes. 

La Grange Prairie was the scene of the next settle- 
ment, and Abraham Townsend was the first man who 
built a cabin there. His son, Gamaliel, and himself, 
with other members of the family, airived upon the 
1st of March. Soon after, came Lawrence and James 
Cavanaugh and Abraham Loux, and in October Thomas 
McKenney and James Dickson settled on the prairie 
which bears the name of the former. In the same 
month, the family of William R. Wright located on 
La Grange Prairie. 

Penn Township was permanently settled soon after 
La Grange and had some S(juatter residents at a prior 
date. Joseph Frakes, who arrived in 1827, was the 
first of these. In 1828, after a short visit to Ohio, 
he returned, with his bride, and subsequently removed 
to Kalamazoo County. He made the positive state- 
ment to the writer of his biography in the history of 
that county that he was the first settler in Penn. In 
1828. settlements were also made by Rodney Hinkley, 
Daniel Shaffer, John Reed and some others, all of 
whom, however, sold out their claims the following 
season, except Shaffer. John Reed conveyed his im- 
provement to Daniel Mcintosh. Other settlers of 
1829 were George Jones and his sons, John Price, 
John Rinehart and sons, Stephen Bogue, William 
McCleary and Martin Shields. 

Jefferson Township was settled in October, 1828, 
by Nathan Norton, Abner Tharp, Moses and Will- 
iam Reames, all of whom made permanent locations 
except Tharp. He removed to Calvin in the spring j 
of 1829, and in 1830 returned to Jefferson. He 
soon after went to one of the Western States, but sub- 

sequently returned and settled in Brownsville. John 
Reed moved into the township from Penn, in the fall 
of 1829, and was the second settler there. 

In Porter, John Baldwin was the pioneer, locating 
on the prairie which bears his name, in 1828. Will- 
iam Tibbetts and Daniel Shellhammer settled in the 
south part of the township in 1829, and John White 
in the north part the same year. 

Volinia was settled in 1829. Samuel and Dolphin 
Morris arrived upon the 27th of March, and three 
days later Jonathan Gard settled on Gard's Prairie, 
and Elijah Goble and Samuel Rich, on the western 
side of Little Prairie Ronde. Both parties were 
guided to their locations by Squire Thompson, of 
Pokagon. In the same season, Jacob Morland and 
Jacob Charles arrived, and in the following year 
Josephus Gard, William Tietsort, John Curry and 
Samuel and Alexander Fulton. 

Elara Beardsley was the first settler in Mason in 
1830, and Denis Beardsley was the second settler, 
coming into the township in 1832. 

Howard was settled some time prior to Mason, but 
the exact date is not known. The pioneer of this 
township was William Kirk. 

Milton Township was settled about the same time 
as Mason, but it is not absolutely known who was the 
first settler. The honor belongs either to John Hudson 
or J. Mellville. The latter purchased land Septem- 
ber 24, 1829. 

In Newberg the first settlement was made by John. 
Bair, in 1831. He located in the southern part of 
the township. Daniel Driskell and George Poe ar- 
rived in 1833. The township was settled slowly until 
after 1837. 

Wayne Township was settled in 1833, and Jacob 
Zimmerman was probably the pioneer. 

In Silver Creek the pioneer was James McDaniel, 
who located there in 1834. Jacob A. Suits became a 
settler in 1836, and there were but three other men 
in the township when he arrived, viz., McDaniel, 
John Barney and Jacob Van Horn. 

Marcellus was the last township in the county to be 
settled. Joseph Haight, who arrived in 1836, was 
the earliest resident.* 

These whom we have named, their cotemporaries and 
those who followed closely after them were among the 
pioneers of one of the grandest armies earth ever knew 
— an army which came not to conquer with fire, antl 
force and carnage, but to hew away the forest, to till 
the prairie's pregnant soil, to make the wilderness 
blossom as the — the array of peace and civiliza- 
tion. The pioneers were the valiant vanguard of such 

*The Bflbject iif settlomoiit in vi-ry briefly In'atfd hcrt", iia it ri>riuii Otc iiirRer 
portion uf oiicU and ovcry chuptcr iil townsblp history. 



an army as this — an array which, after the passing of 
half a century, has not fully occupied the country 
which it has conquered, but whose hosts are still fast 
and irresistibly pressing onward. 

The settlement of Cass County did not proceed 
uniformly or unbrokenly. Several disturbing in- 
fluences had an effect upon the current of emigra- 

The first of these was the scare which the far-away 
Sauk or Black Hawk war created in 1832. The 
scene of actual hostilities was in Western Illinois and 
Wisconsin ; but the inhabitants of the less remote West 
were, and not without some reason, very much 
alarmed. There was no telegraph then as now to 
convey the news, and it came in the form of vague 
rumors, and imagination picture! a hundred horrors 
for every one related. There were two grounds of fear ; 
first that the terrible Sauks would invade the country, 
and second that the Pottawatomies. scattered through 
Southwestern Michigan, would become inflamed by 
news of the hostilities and either join the force of 
Black Hawk or wage war independently. When the 
dread tidings of the Sauk uprising were received at 
Chicago, the Government agent there sent an express 
to Michigan asking for the aid of the militia of the 
Territory in defending that point. Gen. Joseph W. 
Brown commanded his brigade to take the field, ap- 
pointing Niles as the place of rendezvous. Those 
who arrived there by the 24th of May were mustered 
and marched out toward Chicago. Cass County 
furnished as many men as her small population would 
allow. The news was brought to Cassopolis by Col. 
A. Houston and communicated to Abram Tietsort, 
Jr., whose duty it was, as Sergeant of the company, to 
notify members of the order issued by their com- 
mander. Isaac Shurte was Captain, and Gamaliel 
Townsend, one of the Lieutenants. There was great 
agitation in the scattered prairie settlements of the 
county as the order to turn out was carried from 
house to house, and still greater when the men started 
away from their homes for what their wives and chil- 
dren supposed was to be mortal combat with the fero- 
cious Sauks and Foxes. 

The terror of those left unprotected Vas very real 
and very intense, although when the actual condition 
of affairs was learned, when it was found that there 
had been no hostile Indians within two or three hun- 
dred miles of Michigan, some of the occurrences dur- 
ing the season of supposed danger appeared rather 
ridiculous. The few settlers in the central part of 
the county seriously considered the project of taking 
refuge upon the island in Diamond Lake and for- 
tifying it against the enemy, and would undoujjtedly 
have done so had their suspense not been ended just 

when it was. The plan was certainly a feasible one, 
and it is altogether probable that in past ages the 
island has served exactly the same purpose to which 
the alarmed inhabitants proposed to put it in 1832. 
It is an admirable natural stronghold. 

In the Volinia settlement — upon the farm of Elijah 
Goble or possibly that of Jacob Charles, the women 
began to erect a fortification, but had not made much 
progress with their work when Samuel Morris and 
the Rev. Mr. Pettit arrived with information which 
allayed their fears. 

During the absence of the militiamen from the 
settlements, it was a common thing for the few males 
who remained at home, and the women and children, 
to abandon their cabins at night and sleep in such 
hiding-places as they could find. They were in con- 
stant fear that the war-whoop of the Indian would 
assail their ears, and that their cabins would be fired 
to light the scenes of butchery that would follow. 

One squad of the militia returning home in the 
evening, when near Cassopolis, greatly alarmed a 
family by the name of Parker, by firing off their 
guns. The firing was intended to serve as the signal 
of joyful home-coming, but Parker mistook it f)r the 
noise of battle and fled precipitately to the bank of 
Stone Lake, and throwing himself into his canoe, 
paddled in great haste to the center of the little sheet 
of water, where he remained until morning. 

One individual in La Grange Township, who was 
prejudiced against labor, remonstrated against the 
planting of corn during the season of supposed danger. 
" Why," said he, " what is the use ; by harvest time 
there won't one of us have a scalp on our heads." 

Many of the militiamen did not go farther from 
home than Niles, but they each received a full month's 
pay and a land warrant. But whatever of benefit ac- 
crued to individuals was more than counterbalanced 
by the effect upon the country at large. Immigration 
was almost completely checked. Rumors of the 
scare found their way East, and many who contem- 
plated coming into the country either abandoned their 
plans altogether and sought locations in Ohio, or de- 
layed their settlement in Michigan for a year or so. 
Interviews with the pioneers of Cass County reveal 
the fact that very few of them arrived in 1832. 

Another cause which affected immigration to South- 
western Michigan was nothing more or less than a 
heavy frost which occurred in June, 1835. It created 
great damage to the growing crops, and the impres- 
sion went abroad that a land in which such a catas- 
trophe could come to the husbandman was not a 
desirable one to emigrate to. The reputation of the 
climate received a blow from which it did not fully 
recover for a number of years. Of course the frost 




Lewis Edwards, or, 'Squire Edwards, as he was fa- 
miliarly known during his lifetime, was perhaps more 
prominently connected with the initial events in the 
history of Cass County than any one else. 

He witnessed its transition from a wilderness to a 
highly productive and fertile country, from a sparsely 
settled region to a busy and prosperous community, 
and in his own person so typified the agencies that 
wrought these changes that no history of Cass County 
would be complete without an extended and elaborate 
sketch of his life and that of his worthy wife, who, per- 
haps, is entitled to almost as much prominence as he, 

as she bore with him the trials, hardships and depri- 
vations of the early days. 

He left an enviable name and an unspotted repu- 
tation, and so long as anything is known of the history 
of the county of which he was one of the founders, 
the name of Lewis Edwards will be held in grateful 
remembrance by those who will be reaping the 
benefits of his self-sacrificing toil, and the many 
things he did to advance the interests of the county. 

To his son, Lewis, the patrons of this volume are 
indebted for the portraits of this eminent couple, and 
to his nephew, Joseph 11. Edwards, of Cassopolis, for 
the ably written sketch of his life, which will be found 
on another page in this history. 



in June was a phenomenal occurrence. It has never 
been paralleled in Cass or the adjoining counties. 
Farmers who were living in the county at the time 
suffered quite severe losses. Very little other than 
prairie land was in cultivation at that time, and hence 
the loss was general. Corn and all other growing 
crops were cut to the ground. The wheat crop was 
an almost total failure. Many of the settlers did not 
have enough for seed, and had to go long distances to 
procure sufficient quantities for sowing ; and it often 
happened, such was the scarcity of money in those 
days, that they were obliged to pay for it in labor. 
There is some dispute among old residents as to the 
exact date of the occurrence of this frost of 1835 ; but 
good authority places it in the night of the 19-20th 
of June. 

Notwithstanding the effect of the frost in retarding 
immigration, the records show that the land sales of 
18-36 were larger than those of any former or subse- 
quent year. Just how much they would have ex- 
ceeded the amount actually reached, had not the frost 
occurred, cannot of course be determined. That in 
Cass County at least, the entries would have been 
far more numerous is beyond dispute. It is probable, 
however, that the report concerning climatic severity 
did not reach the full measure of its effect unMl 1837. 


Beauty of the Country in aState of Nature— Cabin Buildins Described- 
Furniture and Houseliold Utensils— Food— First Mill— Occupations 
of the Pioneers-" Breaking "-Women Spinning and Weaving- 
Social Amenities— First (teneral Pioneer Gathering at Eli,|ah 
Goble's in 1837— Character of the Pioneers— Two Classes— .Tob 
Wright, of Diamond Lake Island, as a Type of the Eccentric Class. 

THE pioneers who penetrated Southwestern Michi- 
gan found a land as fertile and as fair to look 
upon as heart could wish. In the spring the woods 
were odorous with the spicy exhalations of bursting 
buds, and the prairies were jeweled with strange and 
brilliant flowers? — " the stars that in earth's firmament 
do shine " — while the luxuriant growth of tall, wav- 
ing grass gave evidence of the strength of the virgin 
soil which it clothed. One early settler (George Red- 
field, of Ontwa, whose eyes for the last ten years have 
been closed to the beauties of nature which he so well 
loved) gives an enthusiastic description of the loveli- 
ness of the scene which met his gaze when he first 
visited Cass County. The profusion and the variety 
of the wild flowers was remarkable. They gleamed 
through the cool, green grass in countless millions. 
Mr. Redfield owns seven or eight hundred acres of 
Beardsley's Prairie, which has been for years in a su- 
perb condition of cultivation and inclosed with miles 

of living fence, but he says that the land has never 
appeared so beautiful to his eyes as it did when in a 
state of nature. 

The long aisles of the forest led away into mazes of 
vernal green and twilight shadow, where the swift 
deer bounded by or paused to hear the rolling echoes 
of the woodman's ax. The underbrush nearly every- 
where had been annually burned away by the Indians, 
and where the ground was level the vistas stretched 
far away, there being nothing to obstruct the vision 

I but the brown boles of the trees which appeared like 
innumerable pillars supporting the fretted ceiling of a 
vast temple. 

The placid and pellucid waters of the little lakes 
mirrored the overhanging boughs of the great trees 
which lined their banks and lent brightness and 
variety to the view. 

All about were displayed the lavish bounties of 

' nature. Animate life abounded in forest and in lake. 
Game was plenty. The waters teemed with fish. 
Water fowl — swans, geese and ducks — were in their 
season present in great flocks. 

But the pioneers came not to enjoy a life of lotus- 
eating ease. They could admire the pristine beauty 
of the scenes around them ; they could enjoy the 
vernal green of the great forest and the loveliness of 
all the works of nature; they could look forward with 

[ happy anticipation to the life they were to lead in the 
midst of all this beauty and to the rich reward that 

i would be theirs for the cultivation of the mellow, fer- 

I tile soil, but they had first to work. 

The pioneers arriving at their places of destination 

j after long and tedious journeying over Indian trails 

I or roads rudely improved by the whites, as a rule 
brought very little with them with which to begin the 

I battle of life. They had brave hearts and strong 

I arms, however, and possessed invincible determina- 
tion. Sometimes the men came on without their 

! families to make a beginning, but more often all came 

! together. The first thing done after a rude, tempo- 
rary shelter had been provided, was to prepare a little 
spot of ground for the growth of some kind of a crop. 
If the location was in the woods, this was done by 
girdling the trees, clearing away the under-brush (if 
there chanced to be any), and sweeping the surface 
with fire. Ten, fifteen, twenty, or even thirty acres 

I of land might thus be prepared and planted the first 
season. In the autumn, the crop would be carefully 
gathered and garnered with the least possible waste ; 
for it was the chief food supply of the pioneer and his 
family, and life itself might possibly depend upon its 
safe preservation. 

While the first crop was growing, the pioneer 
busied himself with the building of his cabin, which 



must answer as a shelter from the storms of the com- 
ing winter, and perhaps serve as a protection from the 
ravages of wild beasts. The pioneer who was com- 
pletely isolated from his fellow-men, occupied an 
unenviable situation ; for, without assistance, he could ' 
construct only a poor habitation. In such cases, the ! 
cabin was generally made of light logs or poles, and 
was laid up roughly only to answer the purpose of 
temporary shelter, until other settlers should come 
Into the vicinity, by whose help a more solid structure ! 
could be built. Usually a number of families came 
into the country together, and located within such 
distance of each other that they were enabled to per- 
form many friendly and neighborly offices. After 
the first year or two had elapsed from the first settle- 
ment of the county, there was no difficulty experienced 
in cabin- building. Assistance was always readily 
given a pioneer by all of the scattered residents of the 
country within a radius of several miles. The com- i 
monly-followed plan of erecting a log cabin was 
through a union of labor. The site of the cabin 
home was generally selected with reference to a good 
water supply. It was often by a never-failing spring 
of pure water, or if such could not be found in a 
location otherwise desirable, it was not uncommon to 
first dig a well. If water was reached, preparations : 
were made for building near the well. When the 
cabin was to be built, the few men in the neighbor- 
hood gathered at the site and first cut down within as 
close proximity as possible the requisite number of 
trees, as nearly of a size as could be found, but rang- 
ing from a foot to fifteen inches in diameter. Logs i 
were chopped from these and rolled to the common j 
center where they were to be used. Often this pre- 
liminary part of the work was performed by the 
prospective occupant of the cabin. If not, it would 
consume the greater part of the day. The entire 
labor of erecting the cabin would commonly occupy \ 
two or three days. The logs were raised to their | 
position by the use of hand-spikes and "skid-poles," 
and men standing at the corners with axes notched 
them as fast as they were laid in position. The place 
of " corner-man " was one of honor. 

When the cabin was built a few logs high, the work 
became more difficult. The gables were formed by 
beveling the logs and making them shorter and 
shorter, as each additional one was laid in place. 
These logs in the gables were held in position by 
poles which extended across the cabin from end to 
end, and which served also as rafters upon which to 
lay the rived "clapboard" roof. The so-called 
"clapboards" were five or six feet in length, and 
were split from oak or ash logs, and made as smooth 
and flat as possible. They were laid side by side, | 

and other pieces of split stuff were laid over the cracks 
so as to effectually keep out the rain. Upon these 
were laid logs to hold them in place, and the logs 
were held by blocks of wood placed between them. 

An important part of the structure was the chim- 
ney. In rare cases it was made of stone, but most 
commonly of logs and sticks laid up in a manner 
similar to those which formed the cabin. It was in 
nearly all cases built outside of the cabin, and at its 
base a huge opening was cut through the wall for a 
fire-place. The sticks in the chimney were held in 
place and protected from fire by a plastering of mud. 
Flat stones were procured for the back and jambs of 
the fire-place. An opening was chopped or sawed 
in the logs on one side of the cabin for a doorway. 
Pieces of hewn timber, three or four inches thick, 
were fastened on each side by wooden pins to the 
ends of the logs, and the door (if there was one), was 
fastened to one of these by wooden or leathern hinges. 
The door itself was a clumsy piece of woodwork. It 
was made of boards rived from an oak log, and held 
together by heavy cross-pieces. There was a wooden 
latch upon the inside, raised from without by a string 
which passed through a gimlet hole. From this mode 
of construction arose the old and well-known hospita- 
ble sayijig, "You will find the latch-string always 
out." It was only pulled in at night, and the door 
was thus fastened. Some of the cabins of the pioneers 
had no door of the kind here described, but instead 
merely a blanket suspended at the opening. 
. The window was a small opening, often devoid of 
anything resembling a sash or glass. In lieu of the 
latter, greased paper was frequently used and some- 
times an old garment constituted a curtain, which was 
the only protection from sun or rain. 

The floor of the cabin was made of puncheons — 
pieees of timber split from trees about eighteen 
inches in diameter, and hewed smooth with a broad 
ax. They were usually half the length of the floor. 
Some of the cabins earliest erected in this part of the 
county had nothing but earth floors. Occasionally 
there was a cabin which had a cellar, that is a small 
excavation under the floor, to which access was had 
by removing a loose puncheon. Very commonly the 
cabins were provided with lofts. The loft was used 
for various purposes, and among others as the " guest 
chamber." It was reached by a ladder, the sides of 
which were split pieces of sapling. 

While the labor of building a rough log cabin 
would be concluded in two or three days, the occu- 
pant was often employed for months in finishing and 
furnishing it. The walls had to be " chinked and 
daubed," various conveniences provided and a few 
rude articles of furniture manufactured. 



A forked stick set in the floor and supporting two 
poles, the other ends of which rested upon the logs 
at the end and side of the cabin, formed a bedstead. 
A common form of table was a split slab supported by 
four rustic legs set in auger holes. Three-legged 
stools were made in similar simple manner. Pegs 
driven in auger holes in the logs of the wall supported 
shelves, and upon others was displayed the limited 
wardrobe of the family. A few other pegs or perhaps 
a pair of deer horns formed a rack where hung the 
rifle and powder horn which no cabin was without. 

These and a few other simple articles formed the 
furniture and furnishings of the pioneer's cabin. In 
contrast with the rude furniture fashioned by the j 
pioneer with his poor tools there was occasionally to ', 
be seen a few souvenirs of the "old home." 

The utensils for cooking and the dishes for table 
use were few. The best of the latter were made of 
pewter, and the careful housewife of the olden time 
kept them shining as brightly as the most pretentious 
plate to be found in our later-day fine houses. Knives 
and forks were few, crockery scarce and tinware by 
no means abundant. 

Corn was frequently ground or pounded into 
coarse meal at home by the family of the pioneer. 
Going to mill was considerable of a task when a man 
had to journey ten or twenty miles over a bad road or 
a mere trail with his grist loaded upon a horse. The 
first mill to which the pioneers of Cass County went, 
was one built at Dowagiac Creek, near Niles, by Eli 
Ford, in the year 1827. In the following year was 
built the first grist-mill in Cass County. It was a 
very primitive affair indeed, but was a great conven- 
ience to the people. It was located near the site of 
the village of Vandalia, upon Christiana Creek, and 
was built and operated by a Mr. Carpenter. The 
buhrs and irons of this mill were brought from 
Ohio. \ 

Bread was commonly baked in a " reflector" — a 
huge tin receptacle which was placed before the fire — 
or in a bake kettle. Sometimes when these conven- 
iences were not at hand, corn-cake was baked in the 
ashes or upon a board or large chip. Wild fruits were 
made use of when they could be procured. If the 
pioneer was a hunter, as was usually the case, he kept 
the larder supplied with venison, wild turkeys, 
squirrels, and the many varieties of small game. Oc- 
casionally bear meat varied the bill of fare. Salt 
pork was a greater rarity and lu.xury however than 
the choicest game. The food of the pioneers was 
simply cooked and served, but it was almost always of 
the most substantial and wholesome kind. j 

The men were engaged constantly in the varied 
avocations of pioneer life — cutting away the forest, | 

burning the brush and debris, preparing the soil, 
planting, harvesting, and caring for the few animals 
they brought with them or soon procured. 

"Breaking" was a distinctive feature of tlie pio- 
neer's labor, and probably the most exhausting work 
that a man could perform. The turf on the prairies 
was very tough, and the ground in most places was 
filled with a network of the wire-like red-root. The 
most diflicult plowing, however, was in the openings 
and timber land, where, although the underbrush had 
been kept down by annual fires, the roots had grown 
to great size. These were called "stools." An 
ordibary plow-team would have been worthless among 
the stools and grubs, and a common plow would have 
been quickly demolished. The plow used was a 
massive construction of wood and iron, and was known 
as the "bull plow." The share and coulter were of 
iron, and made very heavy and strong. The beam 
was long and of huge proportions, to resist the enor- 
mous strain brought to bear upon it. Usually the 
weight of one of these ponderous bull plows was 
about three hundred pounds, and there was one in 
use in Cass County which weighed 500 pounds. To 
the bull plow were attached ordinarily six or seven 
yoke of oxen ; but instances have been known where 
twelve and even fourteen yoke have been used to 
advantage. With such a team, grubs as large around 
as a man's arm or leg were cut off as if they were so 
many straws. The breaking-team and the bull plow 
was managed by two men, one holding the plow and 
the other moving backward and forward along the 
line of the team, administering stimulative blows, and 
shouting the loud " gee, whoa, haw, to guide his oxen 
as they draw." 

" Breaking " was a regular business with some of 
the pioneers for several years, and was followed as 
threshing now is. The sum of $5 per acre was the 
customary price for breaking land. 

While the men were engaged in the heavy work of 
the field or forest, their helpmeets were busied with 
a multiplicity of household duties — providing for the 
day and for the year, cooking, making and mending 
clothes, spinning and weaving. ■ They were heroic in 
their endurance of hardship and privation and loneli- 
ness. They were, as a rule, admirably fitted by 
nature and experience to be the consorts of the brave, 
strong, industrious men who first came into the West- 
ern wilderness. Their cheerful industry was well 
directed and unceasing. Woman's work, like man's, 
in pioneer times, was performed under many disad- 
vantages, which have been removed by modern skill 
and science, and the growth of new conditions. The 
pioneer woman had not only to perform what are now- 
a-days known as common household duties, but many 



others. It was frequently the case that she had not 
only to make the clothing for the family, but the 
fabric for it. Money was scarce, and the markets in 
which satisfactory purchases might be made were far 
away. It was the policy of the pioneer (urged by 
necessity), to buy nothing which could be profitably 
produced by home industry ; and so it happened that 
in many of the cabins of the earliest settlers was heard 
the sound of the softly-whirring wheel and the 
rhythmic thud of the loom, and that women were there 
engaged in that old, old occupation of spinning and 
weaving — an occupation which has been associated 
with woman's name in all history, but one of which 
the modern world knows little except what it has 
heard from the lips of those who are grandmothers 
now — an occupation which seems surrounded with the 
glamour of romance as we look back upon it through 
tradition and poetry, and which conjures up thoughts 
of the graces and virtues of a generation of dames and 
damsels which is gone. The woman of pioneer times 
was like the woman described by Solomon : " She 
seeketh wool and fla.x, and worketh willingly with 
her hands; she layeth her hands to the spindle and 
her hands hold the distaff." 

The earliest pioneers of Cass County suffered much 
from apprehension of Indian hostilities. The alarm 
which was felt at the time of the Sauk war has been 
spoken of in the preceding chapter. There were 
many other occasions when the occupants of lonely 
log cabins, with their nearest neighbors miles away, 
were fearful that some roving band of savages might 
inflict atrocities upon them. The women especially 
were filled with a feeling of insecurity. Wild animals 
caused much annoyance and created great damage by 
their ravages. Wolves were very numerous for the 
first fifteen or twenty years, and it was only by exer- 
cise of the utmost care that the settlers were able to 
raise sheep. The Board of Supervisors at their Octo- 
ber meeting in 1834 resolved to give a bounty of $2 
for scalps of the large species of wolves, and $1.50 for 
the scalps of " pups and prairie wolves." In 1835, the 
bounty was raised to $5 and later to $10. The 
State also offered a bounty, and wolf-killing being 
made profitable the animals were finally exterminated. 
The great liability to sickness which always exists in. 
a new country was another source of dread. Still 
another trial which was endured by the men and 
women who first dwelt in the Western country, and 
one that was greater than is generally imagined, was 
the sense of loneliness which could not be dispelled. 
In the midst of all the loveliness of their surround- 
ings, and in spite of the active life they led, the early 
settlers experienced a deep-seated, constantly recur- j 
ring feeling of isolation, which made many stout hearts 

turn longingly back to the older settlements, the homes 
and friends, the companionship and the sociability 
they had abandoned co take up their new life in the 
wilderness. This feeling was perhaps in the majority 
of cases harder to bear than the privations and toil 
and hardship and rude living which were inseparable 
from pioneer life. 

As the settlements increased, the sense of loneliness 

[ and isolation was dispelled; the asperities of life were 
softened, its amenities multiplied. Social gatherings 
became more numerous and more enjoyable. Tlie log 
rolling, harvesting and husking bees for the men and 
the apple-butter making and quilting parties for the 

I women furnished frequent opportunities for social in- 
tercourse. A wedding was the event of most impor- 
tance in the sparsely settled new country, and when- 
ever one was celebrated the whole neighborhood turned 
out to make merry. The young people had every in- 
ducement to marry, and usually did so as soon as they 
were able to provide for themselves. 

The first social gathering in the county, which was 
distinctively a meeting of the pioneers and intended 
to be such, was held in the year 1837 at Elijah 

] Goble's, in the village of Charlestown, Volinia Town- 
ship. The occasion was the completion by Mr. 

j Goble of a tavern building. He resolved to have a 
house warming and so exten<led a general invitation 

I to his fellow-pioneers to be present upon a certain 
day with their wives and families. The day designated 
was a pleasant one and from seventy-five to one hun- 
dred people, mostly residents of the north part of the 
county, assembled and passed a most enjoyable season 
of social converse, related their experiences during the 
first years of settlement, sang old-time songs and par- 
took of a bountiful and substantial repast. A wandering 
fiddl-er, happening opportunely to make his appearance, 
was pressed into service, and the pioneer party ended 
with a merry dance. 

In the period between 1836 and 1840, immigration 
seemed to receive a new and powerful impetus and 
the country rapidly filled up with settlers. The era 
of prosperity was fairly begun ; progress was slowly 
but surely made ; the log houses became more numer- 
ous in the clearings ; the forest shrank away before 
the woodman's ax. Soon more commodious structures 
took the places of the old log cabins ; frame houses 
and barns appeared. The pioneers laid better plans 
for the future, enlarged their possessions, improved 
the means of cultivation, and resorted to new methods 
and new industries. Society had begun to form itself, 
the schoolhouse and the church had appeared and ad- 
vancement was noticeable in a score of ways. Still 
there remained a vast work to perform. The brunt 
of the struggle, however, was past, and a way made in 

ISAAC smJpje, 

f/,P,5. ISAAC SHUrTE. 

There is on earth no spectacle more beautiful than 
that of two old people who have passed with honor 
through storm and contest and retain to the last the 
freshness of feeling which adorned their youth. Such 
is a true green old age, and such are a pleasure to 
know. There is a Southern winter in declining years 
when the sunlight warms although the heat is gone. 
There are still living in La Grange two of the town- 
ship's first settlers. For over a half century they 
have observed the momentous changes which have 
culminated in the present stage of advancement. 
When they came to Cass County they found a wilder- 
ness, with here and there a clearing. Detroit had 
hardly reached the distinction of a village, and Cassop- 
olis and Dowagiac had not an existence. Beneath 
their observation in a grand life panorama, Cass 
County has been organized and developed into one of 
the foremost agricultural regions in Michigan. It is 
in keeping with the self-abnegation of such people 
that they have retired to the background and quietly 
look on as the great and varied interests of which 
they iielped lay the foundation are seen to rise and 
extend in prominence and utility. The father of 
Isaac Shurte was of Dutch descent, and a soldier of 
the Revolution. He was a staid and industrious man, 
and reared a large family, Isaac being one of the 
younger members. At tiie time of Isaac's birth (July 
11, 1700). the family were living in New Jersey. 

When a young man, he emigrated to Butler County, 
Ohio, where he married Miss Mary Wright. She 
was born in New Jersey, about thirty miles from New 
York City, June 11, 1801 ; her father was a farmer 
and soldier in the war of 1812. From Ohio Mr. and 
Mrs. Shurte came to Cass County, where they have 
since resided. By reference to history of La Grange, 
it will be seen that Mr. Shurte took a conspicuous 
part in the early affairs of the county ; the first town 
meeting in La Grange was held at his house. When 
the little settlement had reason to believe their homes 
were to be despoiled and the lives of there families 
placed in jeopardy by the Indians, Mr. Shurte took 
command of a company of men and reported for duty. 
Mr. and Mrs. Shurte have had ten children — Sally M. 
Mary A., Elizabeth, Margaret, Francis M., Susan, 
William, Sarepta, Henry and Cynthia E. Of the 
above Sarepta (now Mrs. Fletcher), Margaret (Mrs. 
Hardenbrook), Francis M., William and Henry are 
now living, the latter on the old homestead. It is 
questioned what recourse is left to the aged when no 
longer able to pursue an accustomed round of labor. 
Mr. and Mrs. Shurte are qualified to reply. They 
have led a quite home life. They have marked out 
and pursued a line of action whose goal has proved a 
satisfaction. They have enjoyed the quiet of home 
and the retirement of the farm, and their long lives 
affords a marked contrast to the brief existence of 
the votaries of pleasure. 


the wilderness by the pioneers for the army of occu- 
pation that was to come. 

The pioneers of Cass County and of all the West- 
ern country were of two classes. The greater class 
was made up of those earnest, strong, sturdy charac- 
acters who came into the wilderness with the settled 
and definite purpose of hewing out homes by dint of 
patient toil and of securing for their ftimilies the best 
possible condition in life. As a rule, they were a 
pious, God-fearing class of men. Their habits of in- 
dustry, frugality and sobriety, their patience, steadfast- 
ness and determination to succeed made them in time, 
however humble their beginnings might have been, 
substantial citizens. The memory of hundreds who 
were of this class is preserved in this volume. 

But there was another class of men among the early 
settlers well known in their day and generation, con- 
cerning whom little information is now obtainable, 
although some of their names have been made by 
legend and tradition almost as familiar as household 
words. We allude to those restless, migratory char- 
acters who formed what may be called the floating 
population of the frontier who were the human flot- 
sam and jetsam of the ocean of life, borne onward, 
and stranded here and there by the waves and surges 
of emigration. 

Among these wandering, transient pioneers there 
were many strange, interesting characters who im- 
pressed themselves strongly on the minds of the steadier 
and more solid denizens of the n&vf country. A 
marked type of this element was the eccentric Job 
Wright, who lived for a number of years upon Dia- 
mond Lake Island, and closed his strange existence in 
Cass County. 

As it would perhaps not be elsewhere presented, we 
make a place here for what little is definitely known 
about the apparently purposeless life of this erratic 

From the history of Ross and Highland Counties, 
Ohio, we learn that Job Wright was the first settler 
at Greenfield, in the latter-named county, in the year 
1799. We quote from the work mentioned. " He 
was a native of North Carolina and had emigrated 
with his father's family to Ross County, and settled at 
the High Bank a few miles south of Chillicothe, but 
not liking that locality he removed to Greenfield, 
while as yet that town had no existence save on paper. 
He made the first improvement in the village, build- 
ing a log cabin where the Harper House now stands. 
He was a hair sieve-maker, and as wire sieves were 
then unknown * * * he derived quite 

an income from his trade. * * * Mak- 

ing hair sieves, however, did not monopolize Job's 
time or talent. His principal occupation was fishing, 

and he followed it with a perseverance and patience 
worthy of his Biblical protonym and with a degree of 
success of which even Isaak Walton might be proud. 
His little cabin * * * became too 

public a place to suit Job's fancy, after a few families 
had removed to the town plat and he built another 
in an isolated locality near his favorite fishing place 
in Paint Creek, which is known to this day as ' Job's 
Hole.' * * * It was not long before 
civilization crowded Job farther west." 

He probably left Greenfield before 1807 or 1803. 
He is known to have taken part in the war of 1812. 
Wandering from one place to another, but always 
going westward, keeping upon the outposts of civiliza- 
tion, he made his appearance in Cass County in 1829. 
Very naturally he selected as the place of his loca- 
tion the island in Diamond Lak e, that being the most 
secluded situation he could find. He built a small 
log cabin near the north end of the island, and for 
some time lived there as a "squatter," but finally 
entered the land, when there appeared to be danger 
that it might pass into the possession of some one 

At his island home, Job led, the greater part of the 
time, a hermit's life. During a portion of the years 
he spent upon his little domain, however, his mother, 
son and son's wife, whom he brought from Ohio, lived 
with him. Job Wright was tall and gaunt, but power- 
ful, red headed and long bearded. Upon one hand he 
had two thumbs, and claimed that this peculiar forma- 
tion was the badge and token of the gift of prophecy 
and other endowments of occult-power. His strange 
appearance and habits, secluded life, remarkable reti- 
cence, and, the mystery in which his past was shrouded 
all combined to produce the impression that he was 
possessed of abilities not bestowed on common mortals. 
By many persons he was said to have a knowledge 
of witchcraft, and some people tell impressively at 
this day how he could stop the flowing of blood by 
simply learning the name and age of the person whose 
life was endangered, and pronouncing a brief incanta- 
tion. Most of his time was spent in hunting and 
fishing, but he cultivated a small part of the island, 
raising a little corn and a few vegetables for his own 

As the country became more thickly settled, Job 
grew uneasy and sought the still farther west. After 
several years of wandering, he returned to Diamond 
Lake Island, which was probably the home of the 
recluse pioneer for a greater period than any other 
locality. His sturdy constitution had begun to fail 
under the weight of years, when he returned to tlie 
island and he died not very long after, at the home of 
his daughter, Mrs. Cornelius Huff". 


A few friends and acquaintances among the settlers 
of the neighborhood, not more than a dozen in all, 
followed the remains of the old recluse to the Cas- 
sopolis burying-ground. George B. Turner, passing, 
and happening to notice the little knot of men gathered 
about an open grave, was led by curiosity to join 
them. There was no minister present. The prepara- 
tions were all made and the rude whitewood coffin 
was about to be lowered into the ground when one of 
the men, a rough spoten but tender-hearted and 
humane old farmer uttered a suggestion to the effect 
that some remarks ought to be made before the remains 
of a fellow-mortal were laid away to rest. He called 
upon Mr. Turner, who, after a moment's hesitation, 
stepping upon the little mound of fresh earth at the 
side of the grave, delivered Job Wright's funeral ser- 

The secret of the cause which had driven the eccen- 
tric pioneer to his life of seclusion was buried with 



The Earliest Counties Established— St. Joseph Township-Cass County 
Erected in 182;i— Berrien Attached under the name ol Niles Town- 
ship—Political Divisions— County Seat Contest— Early Meetings of 
the Supervisors— Valuations of the Townships and Taxes Levied— 
The Courts— Public Buildings— Koster of Civil Officers. 

THE first county erected within the territory now 
included in the boundaries of Michigan was the 
county of Wayne. It comprised a vast extent of ter- 
ritory — the whole of the Lower Peninsula and also 
portions of the present States of Ohio and Indiana. 
It was established in 1796, and named after Gen. 
Anthony Wayne. Detroit was the county seat. 
Other counties were erected as follows: Monroe, in 
1817; Mackinac, in 1818; Oakland, in 1820; Wash- 
tenaw, in 1826; Chippewa, in 1826; Lenawee (from 
Monroe), in 1826. On the 20th of November in the 
year last named, the Legislative Council of the Terri- 
tory of Michigan attached to Lenawee County all of 
the territory, the Indian title to which had been ex- 
tinguished by the treaty of Chicago in 1821. All of 
this territory, including from seven to eight thousand 
square miles of land, is now embraced in the counties 
of Cass, St. Joseph, Branch, Hillsdale, Calhoun, Kala- 
mazoo, Van Buren, Allegan, Barry and Eaton, and 
constitutes nearly all of Berrien and Ottawa, and parts 
of Ionia, Ingham, Jackson and Kent. 

Upon April 12, 1827, the whole of this territory 
was constituted and organized the township of St. 
Joseph, and the first town meeting was ordered to be 
held at the house of Timothy S. Smith, which stood 
very near the site of the village of Niles. On Sep- 

tember 22, 1828, the lands, of which the title was 
ceded by the Indians at the Carey Mission treaty of 
the same year, were attached to Lenawee County, and 
added to the enormous township of St. Joseph. It 
does not appear that Government had any other than 
a merely nominal existence in St. Joseph Township, 
and it is probable that no legal acts were performed 
in or by it. 


The county of Cass was constituted very nearly as 
it now exists by an act of the Legislative Council of 
the Territory of Michigan, approved October 29, 
1829. By the same act were erected the counties of 
Ingham, Eaton, Barry, Jackson, Calhoun, Kalamazoo, 
Van Buren, Hillsdale, Branch, Berrien and St. Jo- 
seph. The section defining the boundaries of Cass 
County provided " That so much of the country as lies 
west of the line between Ranges 12 and 13 west of 
the meridian and east of the line between Ranges 16 
and 17 west, and south of the line between Town- 
ships 4 and 5 south of the base line and north of the 
boundary line between this Territory and the State of 
Indiana, be, and the same is hereby set off into a 
separate county and the name thereof shall be Cass." 

The boundaries remained unchanged until March 
3, 1831, when that portion of the country lying east 
of the St. Josepli River (consisting of one whole .sec- 
tion and fractions of four others) was by act of the 
Legislative Council made a portion of St. Joseph 
County. Since that time no alteration whatever has 
been made in the territory of Cass County. 

Cass County "was organized under an act passed 
November -1, 1829, entitled "An act to organize the 
counties of Cass and St. Joseph, and for establishing 
courts therein." Of this act, we reproduce the por- 
tions having reference to Cass County. 


Be it enacted by the Legislative Council of the Territory of Mich- 
igan, That the counties of Cass and St. Joseph shall be organized 
from and after the taking effect of this act, and the inhabitants 
thereof entitled to all the rights and privileges to which by law 
the inhabitants of the other counties of this Territory are entitled. 

Sec. 2. That there shall be a County Court established in each 
of said counties; and (he County Court of the county of Cass 
shall be held on the last Tuesday of May and on the last Tuesday 
of November in each year. * * * 

Seo. 3. That all suits, prosecutions and other matters now 
depending before the County Court of Lenawee County, or before 
any .Justice of the I'eace of said county of Lenawee, shall be 
prosecuted to final judgment and execution ; and all taxes here- 
tofore levied and now due shall be collected in the same manner 
as though said counties of Cass and St. Joseph had not been or- 

Sec. 4. That the couties of Berrien and Van Buren, and all 
the country lying north of the game to Lake Michigan, shall be at- 
tached to and compose a part of the county of Cass. 



Sec. 8. That there shall be Circuit Courts, to be held in the 
counties of Cass and St. Joseph, and that the several acts 
concerning the Supreme, Circuit and County Courts of the Ter- 
ritory of Michigan, defining their jurisdiction and powers, and 
directing the pleadings and practice therein in certain cases, 
be and the same are hereby made applicable to the Circuit Courts 
in said counties. 

Sbc. 9. That the said Circuit Court shall be held at the re- 
spective county seals in said counties, at the respective court 
houses or other usual places of holding courts therein ; provided, 
that the first term of said court in the county of Cass shall be 
holden at the schoolhouse near the house of Ezra Beardsley, in 
said county. * * * 

Sec. 10. That the county of Casa shall be one circuit, and the 
court for the same shall be held hereafter on the second Tuesday 
of August in each year. 

Sec. 11. * * * For the purposes of this act, it is hereby 
enacted and declared that the counties aforesaid shall be consid- 
ered to comprehend, respectively, all the counties not organized 
and districts of country attached thereto by any law or executive 

Sec. 12. That all acts now in force, and parts of acts contra- 
vening the provisions of this act, be and the same are hereby re- 

Approved November 4, 1829. 


Originally the county was divitied into four town- 
ships — :Pokagon, Penn, La Grange and Oncwa. This 
political division was made by the Legislative Council 
of the Territory by an act passed November 5, 1829. 
Section 1 of this act provides that all that part of 
the county of Cass known and distinguished on 
the survey of the United States by Townships 5 
and 6, and the north half of Township 7 south, 
in Range 16 west (that is, the territory at pres- 
ent included in Silver Creek, Pokagon and the 
north half of Howard) be a township by the name of 
Pokagon ; that all that part of the county of Cass 
known as Townships 5 and 6, and the north half of 
Township 7 south, in Range 15 west (the present 
Wayne, La Grange and north half of Jefferson), be a 
township by the name of La Grange ; that all that 
part of Cass County known as Townships 5 and 6 
and the north half of Township 7 south, in Ranges 
13 and 14 west (the present townships of Volinia, 
Marcellus, Penn, Newberg and the north halves of 
Calvin and North Porter), be a township by the name 
of Penn ; that all that part of Cass County known as 
the south half of Township 7 ami Fractional Town- 
ship a south, in Ranges 13, 14, 1 "> and 16 west, be 
a township by the name of Ontwa. The township 
last named, a strip of territory six and one-half miles 
wide, extending across the county from east to west, 
and bounded on the south by the Indiana line, con- 
tained nearly one hundred and fifty-six square miles. 
The original Townships of Pokagon and La Grange 

Laws of llm Territory of 

each contained ninety square miles and the enormous 
township of Penn contained one hundred and eighty 
square miles. But this was not all. The county of 
Van Buren and other territory lying north of that 
county having been attached to Cass County, was 
made a part of Penn Township and so remained until 
1835. The county of Berrien, which had been at- 
tached to Cass, was organized as one township under 
the name of Niles. 

The act of November 5, 1829, named the places 
for holding the first town meetings in the several 
townships as follows: In Pokagon, at the house of 
Baldwin Jenkins ; in La Grange, at the house of 
Isaac Shurte; in Penn, at the house of Martin Shields; 
in Ontwa, at the house of Ezra Beardsley ; in Niles, 
at the house of William Justus. 

By act of the Legislative Council of the Territory 
of Michigan, passed March 29, 1833, the townships 
of Porter, Jefferson and Volinia were organized, and 
the size of the original townships of La Grange, 
Ontwa and Penn was considerably decreased. The 
act provided that all that part of Ontwa, situated in 
Ranges 13 and 14, west of the Principal Meridian, 
should compose a township by the name of Porter, 
and that the first township meeting therein should 
be held at the house of Othni Beardsley ; that all that 
part of the county of Cass, known and distinguished 
as Township 7, south of the base line, and in Range 
15 (the south part of La Grange), should compose a 
township by the name of Jefferson, and that the first 
election should be held at the house of Moses Reams ; 
that all that part of the county distinguished as Town- 
ship 5, in Ranges 13 and 14 (the present townships 
of Volinia and Marcellus), should compose a town- 
ship by the name of Volinia, and that the first elec- 
tion therein should be held at the house of Josephus 
Gard. The county of Van Buren, which had been 
attached to Penn, was now attached to Volinia, and 
so remained until March 26, 1835, when it was organ- 
ized under the name of Lafayette Township. The 
county was now divideil into seven townships. 

In the following year (1834), upon March 7, the 
township of Howard was ordered into existence by an 
act similar to those from which we have quoted. It 
was constituted as it now exists, being Township 7, 
of Range 16, and was composed from territory 
which had before this time been included in 
Ontwa and Pokagon. The first election was held at 
the house of George Fo.sdick. 

The townships of Calvin anil Wayne were erected 
with their present boundaries under the provisions of 
an act approved March 17, 1835 — the former from 
territory incluiled in Penn and Porter, and the latter 
from La Grange. The first township meeting in Cal- 



vin, it was provided, should be held at the dwelling 
of John Reed, Sr., and the first in Wayne at that 
of Joel C. Wright.' 

When the Territorial Government passed out of 
existence, Cass County consisted of ten townships. 
Under the authority of the State Legislature, ex- 
pressed from time to time in its acts, five other town- 
ships were established, viz.: Mason, Silver Creek, 
Newberg, Milton and Marcellus. Mason was estab- 
lished by an act passed March 23, 1836, and the first 
election was held at the house of Jotham Curtis. The 
organization of Silver Creek was ordered March 20, 
1837 ; Newburg, March 6, 1838 ; Milton, March 15, 
1838; and Marcellus, March 9, 1843. The first 
township election in Silver Creek was held at James 
M. McDaniel's ; in NewbeVg, at John Bair's ; in Mil- j 
ton, at Peter Tniitt's; and in Marcellus, at Daniel 
G. Rouse's. I 


July 31, 1830, the Legislative Council of the Ter- I 
ritory approved " an act to provide for establishing 
seats of justice." By the provision of this enactment, j 
the Governor was authorized to appoint commissioners 
to locate the seats of justice in the several counties 
where they had not already been located ; it was spec- 
ified that the commissioners, on being appointed, 
should duly qualify for their ofiice by taking oath 
faithfully and impartially to discharge their trust ; ! 
that having located the seat of justice of any county, 
they should report their proceedings to the Governor, 
and if he approved of the same, he should issue a proc- 
lamation causing the establishment of a seat of justice 
agreeable to the report. It was further provided that 
the proclamation should be published in the several 
newspapers printed in the Territory. 

Gov. Porter, under the provisions of this act, ap- 
pointed Martin C. Whitman, Hart L. Stewart and J 
Col. Sibley as Commissioners to locate the seat of 
justice for Cass County, and they, after some delibera- 
tion, decided upon Geneva, a village laid out on the 
bank of Diamond Lake, by Dr. Henry H. Fowler, 
as the proper location. 

The decision produced much dissatisfaction. It 
was alleged, and truly, that Sibley and Stewart de- | 
layed the announcement of the location until they 
had been able to go to the land oflRce at White Pigeon 
and enter tracts of land adjoining Geneva. 

Those who were unfriendly to the location at Ge- 
neva signed remonstrances which they addressed to 
the Territorial Council. They were effective. 

March 4, 1831, the council passed an act to amend 
that of July 31, 1830, under which the seat of jus- | 
tice of Cass County had been located at Geneva. 

* 9ee also chapter on tbe history of CaaBopolii. 

Section 1 of this act provided that the Governor 
should, by and with the consent of the Council, ap- 
point three Commissioners to re-examine the proceed- 
ings which had taken place in relation to the estab- 
lishment of the seats of justice of the counties of 
Branch, St. Joseph and Cass, and to confirm the same 
or make new locations, as the public interest might in 
their opinion require. It was provided by Section 
2 that the Commissioners should meet in Cass County 
on the third Monday in May, 1831, to examine the 
county and determine where its seat of justice should 
be located. They were authorized to accept any do- 
nations of land, money, labor or material that might 
be tendered to them for the use of the county. Sec- 
tion 3 provided that the proceedings and decision of 
the Commissioners should be reported to the Governor 
within thirty days after the termination of their serv- 
ices, and that a proclamation should be issued by 
the Governor announcing the decision and establish- 
ing such seat of justice as had been agreed upon, and 
that after the 1st day of January next ensuing, the 
places selected in the respective counties should be- 
come seats of justice. This section contained the 
proviso that in case it was made to appear to the satis- 
faction of the Governor that the Commissioners were 
guilty of any improper conduct, tending to impair 
the fairness of their decision, it should be his duty to 
suspend any further proceedings. It was further pre- 
scribed that the Commissioners be allowed $3 per 
day for their services, to be paid out of the Ter- 
ritorial Treasury, with the proviso that the amount 
thus paid should be refunded to the treasury in equal 
proportion by the persons upon whose land the seats 
of justice might be located. Section 9 read as fol- 

" That the decisions of the Commissioners heretofore appointed 
t3 locate the seats of justice in the counties of Branch, St. 
Joseph and Cass shall be and the same are hereby set aside. 

Thomas Rowland, Henry Disbrow and George A. 
O'Keefe, were appointed Commissioners under the 
provisions of this act to relocate the county seats of 
Branch, St. Joseph and Cass Counties. They located 
that of Cass County at a point- in the southeast quar- 
ter of Section 26, in La Grange Township, and their 
action was confirmed and made authoritative by the 
following proclamation of Acting Gov. Mason, issued 
December 19, 1831 : 

Whereas, In pursuance of an act of the Legislative Council, 
entitled " An act to amend an act entitled • .Vn act to provide for 
establishing seats of justice,' " Thomas Rowland, Henry Disbrow 
and George A. O'Keefe were appointed Commissioners to re-ex- 
amine the proceedings which had taken place in relation to the 
establishment of the seats of justice of the counties of Branch, 
St. .Joseph and Cass, and to confirm the same, and to make new 
locatioas, as the public's ioterest might in their opiaion require ; 



And Whereas, The said Commissioners have proceeded to 
perform the said duty, and by a report signed by them, have 
located the seat of justice of the said county of Cass, at a point 
on the southeast quarter of Section 'J6, Town 6, Range 15 west, 
forty rods from the southeast corner of said section, on the line 
running west between Sections 26 and 36; 

Now TiiEREFOKE, By virtue of the authority in me vested by 
said act, and in conformity with said report, I do issue this 
proclamation, establishing the seat of justice of the said county 
of Cass at the said point described as aforesaid. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused 
the great seal of the Territory to be affixed, on this nineteenth 
day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and thirty one, and of the Independence of the United 
States the fifty-sixth. 

(Signed), Stevens T. .Mason, 

Secretary and at present Acting Governor of the Territory of 


A majority of the Board of Supervisors of the 
county of Cass and Territory of Michigan met for 
the first time pursuant to law, at the house of Ezra 
Beardsley, in Edwardsburg, on October 4, 1831. 
Those present were John Agard, Othni Beardsley and 
James Cavanagh. John Agard. was chosen as Presi- 
dent and Alex H. Redfield was appointed Clerk of 
the Board. As two members were absent, the meet- 
ing was adjourned. On the 17th of October, the 
Supervisors again assembled at Edwardsburg. After 
examination of the assessment rolls of the several 
townships and making various alterations therein, the 
board reported the first valuation and tax assessment 
of Cass County as follows: 

Pokagon .... 


La Grange.. 



Total $1.56960 2 

523364 00 
38087 00 
23321 00 
37643 00 
33634 27 

L. Kdwards... 

D. Wilson, .Ir 

E. P. Bonnell 
H. Langslon. 
N. C. Tibbits. 


$ 82 52 
23 28 
87 88 
89 68 
87 6-2 

$370 98 

»r Township 

% 31 00 
1.5.5 61 
31 00 
92 60 
80 55 

$390 76 

At the time provided for the next meeting — Jan- 
uary 3, 1832 — there was no quorum present, nor yet 
upon the 5th of March, but upon the 31st of that 
month, the board met at the house of Ira B. Hender- 
son in Cassopolis. The Treasurer of the county was 
present and showed receipts of money as follows: 
From Lewis Edwards, Collector of Pokagon, $82.52; 
from E. P. Bonnell, Collector of La Grange, p7.88; 
from Hardy Langston, Collector of Penn, $89.68 ; 
and from Nathan C. Tibbits, Collector of Ontwa, $87.- 
62. It was shown that there was due from David 
Wilson, Jr., of Niles, the sum of $23.28, for which 
sum a warrant "was issued against the goods and 
chattels, lands and tenements of the aforesaid David 
Wilson, and delivered to George Meacham, Sheriff of 

the county, on the 20th day of February, 1832." 
Further entry shows that the business was satisfac- 
torily adjusted. 

The following table shows the tax a.ssessmeut of 
the county for 1832: 


Tax Laid 

for County 


Tax Laid 
for Township 


$47304 00;S. Hunter 

34260 00!e. p. Bonnell. 
29194 00;L. Edwards... 
40509 00. 1. Butler 

$ 70 80 
51 39 
43 79 
60 76 

$ 70 80 

La Grange 

Pokagon .... 

85 65 
102 37 

81 11 


$151167 00 

$226 74 

$339 93 

The rate of tix for township purposes was : In 1 
upon the dollar; in Pokagon, 3J ; in Ontwa, 2. 

The tax laid in 1833 was as follows : 



Jefferson .. 
Pokagon ... 



La Grange 

$21334 00 
44708 00 
12063 00 
33249 00 
26685 00 

Tax Laid Tax Laid 
Collectors. foj- Cou n tyjfor Township 
riKises. I Purposes. 

J. B. Gard.... 
Sam'l Hunter. 
L. D. Norton.. 
M. Robinson.. 

55208 00 J. L. Jacks... 
P. Bonnell. I 

$ 53 33 I $ 53 33 

111 72 : 135 00 

31 11 6 03 

83 12 ; 63 12 

66 51 jNo tax Claimed. 

138 02 82 80 

HI 39 I 66 75 

$595 20 I $397 03 

The rate of tax this year for township purposes was : In Penn, 
3.! mills on the dollar; in Pokagon, 1] ; in Volinia, 2J ; in Ontwa, 
4; in La Grange, \\, and, in Jefferson, \ mill. 

The valuation of the townships, with amount of taxes 
levied by the Supervisors for county and township pur- 
poses for the years 1834 to 1840 inclusive, is here 



$ 293958 



$ 881 87i 
1027 (Jo 
4105 02 
5442 94 i 
4098 34i 
4344 95' 
6870 64 

$ 468 38 
511 54^ 
985 32 
1323 U 
1349 70 
1732 40 
2132 67 


The courts of record which now exercise jurisdiction 
in Cass County are the Supreme Court of the United 
States, the United States District Court, the United 
States Cii'cuit Court, the Supreme Court of Michigan, 
the Circuit Court of the Second Judicial Circuit of 
Michigan and the Probate Court. The County Court 
had jurisdiction prior to April, 1833, and during the 
period between 1846 and 1851. The Court of Chan- 
cery had existence from 1836 to 1847. Cass County 
was within the jurisdiction of the Kalamazoo Circuit. 

The fii"st court established in the Territory of 
Michigan was the Supreme Court, consisting of one 
Supreme Judge and two Associates, appointed by Presi- 
dent Jefferson and confirmed by the United States 
Senate. The Judges originally appointed in 1805 
were Augustus Brevoort Woodard, Samuel Hunting- 
ton and Frederick Bates. The oflSce was declined by 



Huntington and his place was filled in 1806 by John 

The court was organized by Gov. Hull and 
Judges Brevoort and Bates on the 24th of July, 1805. 

On the 25th of July, 1805, the same authority 
created the District Courts. They had only a brief 
existence, being abolished in September, 1810. 

The next courts established (after the County Courts 
in 1815) were the Circuit Courts, which were created 
in the counties of the Territory by the Legislative 
Council in August, 1824, and re-affirmed in April, 
1825, the act to take effect in September. 

Upon the 27th of April, 1827, the Council re-en- 
acted former laws pertaining to the courts and re-es- 
tablished the Probate Courts. Cass County was 
then attached to Lenawee for judicial purposes. The 
act which erected it as a separate county contained 
clauses establishing within it the Circuit County and 
Probate Courts (see ante) and prescribing that the 
first term of the Circuit Court "should be held at 
the schoolhouse, near the house of Ezra Beardsley." 

This was the first court of any kind held in Cass 
County, of which there is record. 

The first term of the Circuit Court opened upon the 
9th of August, 1831, at the house of Ezra Beardsley 
(instead of the schoolhouse) in Edwardsburg,t the 
Hon. William Woodbridge and the Hon. Solomon 
Sibley presiding. 

The records show, that " the court being opened by 
the Sheriff (George Meacham), and organized accord- 
ing to law," and the venire having been previously 
served, there appeared the following grand jury, to 
wit: Adam Miller, Moses Finch, Reuben N. Harri- 
son, Jacob L. Kinzey, William Barlow, T. A. H. 
Edwards, Isaac Williams, James Girt, Mulford Hulse, 
Nathan Tharp, Abner Tharp, Maxwell Zane, Abra- 
ham V. Tietsort, Garrett Waldron, Isaac Shurte, 
Eli P. Bonnell, Dennis Wright, Michael I. McKen- 
ney, Wilson Blackmore. John Bogart and Sylvester 
Meacham. Adam Miller was appointed by the court 
as foreman of the jury. Eli P. Bonnell was excused 
from duty as a juror, and assigned to attend the court 
as Constable. The jury being sworn, received their 
charge, and retired for consultation. 

William H. Welch and Columbia Lancaster made 
application to be admitted as counselors and attorneys 
at law. The court appointed E. B. Sherman, Neal 
McGaffey, and J. Stetson, Esqs., a committee to 
examine the applicants, and they reported favorably 
upon their admission. 

Two suits were brought before the court upon the 

*CumpbeIl'8 "Outlines of the Political History of Michigan." 
tin H. S. Rodger's history of Cass County, it is slated that "the first 
court was held in the fall of 1832, under an oak tree just south of tne puMic 

first day of the session, viz. : Adam Salladay vs. G. 
Shurte, and John Agard vs. Sterling Adams. 

The jury returned into court, and "presented one 
presentment and one indictment, indorsed true bills." 
The District Attorney having no further cause for 
their detention, they were discharged by the court. 
It appears from the fragment of the record of this 
court that one of the presentments " was relative to 
the laws of the Territory," and upon motion of E. B. 
Sherman, it was ordered that it " be copied by the 
Clerk and sent to the Governor of the Territory, and 
that one copy be sent by said Clerk to the editor of 
some newspaper, published within the Territory, for 

The term of court lasted but two days, being ad- 
journed upon the 10th of August. 

The County Courts were established by the Terri- 
torial Governor and Judges on the 24th of Octo- 
ber, 1815. The first term of the County Court in 
Cass County was like that of the Circuit Court Reld 
at Edwardsburg, and in the house of Ezra Beardsley. 
The date was November 29, 1831. After the open- 
ing of the court by the Sheriff, the commission of 
the Hon. Joseph S. Barnard as Chief Justice was 
read, and also the commissions of Hon. John Agard 
and Hon. William Burke, Associate Justices. The 
men summoned to appear as jurors at this court were : 
John Kinzey, William Kirk, Calvin Sullivan, John 
Ray, Henry Denny, Joseph McPherson, Samuel 
Springer, John Donnel, Hiram Jewell, James H. C. 
Smith, Dennis G. Wright, Thomas Smith, Moses 
Reames, Joel C. Wright, Micajah McKenney, Arm- 
strong Davidson. William Tibbitts, John Smith, Jacob 
Virgil, William Morris, George Shultz, Ebenezer 
Thomas, Jacob Rinehart, and Nathan Norton. Of 
I these, McPherson, Donnel, Kirk and Reames did not 
i appear, and a capias was issued, summoning them to 
' appear before the next term of court, and " show rea- 
j son why they should not be dealt with as the law 
' directs." Those jurors who were present were dis- 
charged, there being no business before the court 
demanding their presence. Only one case was upon 
[ the docket — a criminal action for assault and battery 
— in which the defendant was discharged. 

The second term of the County Court was held at 

Cassopolis, opening November 27, 1832. The County 

Court consisted of a Chief Justice or Judge, and two 

Associate Justices. Various acts were passed by the 

1 Legislative Council, restricting the jurisdiction of the 

( County Courts, and transferring their powers to the 

I Circuit Courts, and finally, in April, 1833, they were 

abolished altogether in all of the organized counties 

of the Territory. 

I In 1846 a revision of the judicial system of Michi- 


gan being made, the Countj Courts were again estab- 
lished. A County Judge was elected for a term of 
four years, and at the same time a "second " Judge 
was chosen for a similar period. The County Court, 
as re-constituted, "'had original and exclusive juris- 
diction of civil actions in the county, in which the 
demand did not exceed $500, excepting actions of 
ejectment, probate proceedings, and cases within a 
Justice's jurisdiction. It also had appellate jurisdic- 
tion over Justices. Cases were removable from the 
County Court to the Circuit Court on certiorari 

The first term of the County Court of the second 
period, held in Cass County, opened in Cassopolis 
March 1, 1847, the Hon. Joseph N. Chipman on the 
bench. "There appearing to be no business, the 
court adjourned sine die." 

By the Constitution of 1850, the judicial power 
was restricted to the Supreme, Circuit and Probate 
Courts, courts of Justices of the Peace, and such Muni- 
cipal Courts as might be established by the Legisla- 
ture in cities. The County Court passed finally and 
forever out of existence in 1851. 

The last term held in Cass County commenced 
August 5, 1851, Judge Cyrus Bacon upon the bench. 

The earliest record of the Probate Court of Cass 
County, which can be found, appears upon the last 
page of an early volume of the record of Mortgages in 
the Register's office, and the beginning reads as fol- 
lows : "The Probate Court met agreeable to adjourn- 
ment on Saturday, April 14, 1832, at Edwardsburg, 
E. B. Sherman, Judge presiding." 

"John Lybrook appeared and made application for 
letters of administration on the goods, chattels and 
credit of John Ritter, deceased, died in the township 
of La Grange on the 31st day of August, 1829." 

Thomas McKenney, after whom McKenney's Prai- 
rie was named, was the first Judge of Probate appointed, 
but it is probable that he transacted no official 
business, and in fact it is not known that he quali- 
fied. Elias B. Sherman was undoubtedly che first 
Judge who filled the office. He was appointed March 
4, 1831, and succeeded by H. B. Dunning in 1838. 

The early mention of the Probate Court, which has 
been given, is a mere fi'agment and irregularly record- 
ed. In the present Probate Jutlge's office is a very 
small volume, labeled "Liber A," which contains a 
record of the court from 1835 to 1839. The first 
entry is under date of April 18, 1835. It appears 
that Judge Sherman at that time held a court at Cas- 
sopolis. One of the items of business was the proving 
and recording of the last will and testament of Jona- 
than Hussey, of Howard Township. 

While Mr. Sherman was Judge, the court was usu- 

ally held in Cassopolis, and during Mr. Dunning's 
term, which extended to 1839, the court nearly always 
sat in Ontwa or the village of Edwardsburg. 

The regular terms of the Probate Court are now 
held upon the first Monday of every month, but the 
court is in readiness to discharge the duties imposed 
upon it upon all other days, when business may be 
legally transacted. 

The Court of Chancery, which has been spoken of 
as having jurisdiction in Cass County for a term of 
years, was established by the Legislature in 1836, 
immediately after the admission of Michigan to the 
Union. Its powers were exercised by a Chancellor, 
appointed by the Governor and holding office for seven 
years. The jurisdiction of the court was substan- 
tially the same as that of the English Court of Chan- 
cery. There were three circuits of the Chancery 
Court, and terms were held at Detroit, Ann Arbor 
and Kalamazoo. Under this system, a Master of 
Chancery was appointed by the Governor, in each 
county. When the judicial system of the State was 
revised in 1846, the Chancery Court was abolished 
and its powers transferred to the Circuit Court. The 
Constitution of 1850 prohibited the office of Masters 
of Chancery and provided for the election of Circuit 
Court Commissioners, who were given a jurisdiction 
in chancery matters. 


The first public building erected was a jail. At the 
meeting of the Supervisors, held upon the 31st of 
March, 1832, it was resolved "that a gaol be built at 
Cassopolis, the county seat, to be completed on or be- 
fore the 1st day of December next, and to cost at the 
extent but $350, to be paid for out of the money sub- 
scribed for the county seat." Alexander H. Redfield, 
Esq., was appointed to make and let the contract for 
the building of the "gaol" and to collect the subscrip- 
tion moneys. It was prescribed that the jail should be 
made of hewn logs, one foot square, of hard timber, and 
that the building should be thirty feet long by fifteen 
in width and one story high. The contract was awar'l- 
ed to Eber Root and John Flewwelling. Nathan 
Baker and Andrew Woods were appointed as inspect- 
ors of the work. The jail was finished according to 
specifications, but not within the time originally speci- 
fied, because of Mr. Root's ill health. In fact the 
building was not ready for use until the early part of 
1834. In January, Henry H. Fowler (of Geneva) 
Sheriff of the county, presented a protest against the 
acceptance of the jail, alleging that it was an unsafe 
place for the "confinement of criminals and debtors." 
The building however was accepted. In March, 1834, 
the Supervisors recommended that it should be floored 



and lined with plank. This was subsequently done, 
and the logs under the plank were driven full of nails 
and bound with strap iron to make it still more diflS- 
cult for transgressors of the law to make their exit. 
The lock upon this log jail is one of the relics, which 
has lodgement in the museum of the Cass County Pio- 
neer Society. It is a massive and curious piece of 
mechanism. Its maker was George Fosdick, of Bar- 
ren Lake, who had a great reputation in early days 
for the construction of jail locks, and furnished many 
that were used in Southwestern Michigan and North 
ern Indiana. The old jail stood until very recent 
years in its original location, just south of the Lind- 
say planing-mill. It was used until a larger struct- 
ure was built in 1853. 

Steps were taken toward the building of a court 
house in the fall of 183.5. The first definite action 
was the passage of the following resolution on the 23d 
of October by the Board of Supervisors. 

" Resolved, That a wooden building be erected on Lot 4, in 
Bloclc 2 north, Range 1 west, in Cassopolis, .34 feet long by 24 feet 
wide, and to be for a court house, cost not to exceed $4-50, and 
to contain desks for the Judges and bar." 

The lot designated in this resolution is the one on 
the west side of Broadway, where John Boyd now 
resides. The contract for building was awarded to 
Joseph Harper, and he had the building in readiness 
for occupancy by May 1, 1835. It was used as a 
placefor holding courts and for various county purposes 
until 1841, when the present court house was com- 

The structure now and for the past forty years in 
use was built by a number of men who associated 
themselves together under the name of "the Court 
House Company." Upon the 7th of August, 1839, 
David Hopkins, Heni-y Jones and James W. GriflSn, 
County Commissioners, who had succeeded to the 
rights and powers of the Supervisors, entered into a 
contract with Darius Shaw, Joseph Harper, Jacob Sil- 
ver, Asa Kingsbury and A. H. Redfield (" the Court 
House Company") to build according to specifications 
a court house. The terms were §6,000, of which sum 
one-third was to be paid in cash and the remaindsr in 
village lots, which had been donated to the county by 
the proprietors of the village in consideration of the 
location of the seat of justice at Cassopolis. The pub- 
lic square was also included in the consideration, the 
Commissioners only reserving that portion (the north- 
east quarter) on which it was proposed to build the 
court house. The Commissioners made a deed of 
bargain and sale to Messrs. Shaw, Hs^rper and their 
associates, and the grantees simultaneously gave to 
the Commissioners their bond in the sum of 812,000 
for the proper performance of their undertaking. 

Following is the full text of the instrument, which 
contains the specifications upon which the present 
court house was built : 

Know all men by these presents, that we, Alexander H. 
Redfield, Darius Shaw, Joseph Harper, Jacob Silver and Asa 
Kingsbury, all of Cassopolis, Cass County, Michigan, are held and 
firmly bound unto David Hopkins, Henry Jones and James W. 
Gritfin, Commissioners of said county of Cass, and to their sue- 
•essors in office, in the penal sum of $12,000, which sum well and 
truly be paid we bind ourselves, our heirs, executors and admin- 
istrators, firmly by these presents. In witness whereof we have 
hereto set our hands and seals this 7th day of August, A. D. 
eighteen hundred and thirty-nine. 

The condition of the above bond is as follows : Whereas, 
certain village lots in said village of Cassopolis, and certain 
sums of money were formerly given to said county of Cass by the 
original proprietors of said village and by others for the purpose 
of erecting public buildings in said village for the use of the 
county ; and whereas, the said Commissioners have this day 
given to us a warranty deed for a certain part of said village lots 
and property, and also one order upon the treasury of said 
county for the sum of §2,000. Now, if we, the said Darius Shaw, 
Asa Kingsbury. Jacob Silver, Joseph Harper and .ilexaader H. 
Redfield shall erect or cause to be erected in said village within 
two years from the date hereof, on such ground as the said 
Commissioners shall select, a court house fifty-four feet in length 
and forty-six feet in width and twenty-four feet high from sills to 
the eaves ; of the following general description, to wit : It shall be 
a wood building, the frame shall be good and strong, made of 
timber of good size and quality, the building shall be placed on 
good and sufficient stone wall foundations, sufficiently sunk into 
the earth not to be afifected by the frost. Said building shall 
have built in it a brick safe sixteen (16 1 by seventeen i ITj feet, 
with two apartments therein : the walls of said safe shall be 
eighteen inches in thickness : it shall be completely arched over 
with brick, one arch over each apartment : the partition wall shall 
be a brick ; the said safe shall have two iron doors, and two 
windows with iron shutters on the inside and a brick floor, and 
shall be furnished with cases and shelving for the public books and 
papers ; thi- said house shall be inclosed with good pine siding 
neatly dressed, and covered with a good roof of pine shingles, 
with a suitable and proper cornice, principally of pine ; the 
whole house shall be well and neatly painted on the outside 
white, and lighted with at least six hundred and twenty- 
four lights of 10 by 12 glass ; there shall be two good 
entrance doors ; there shall be a hall lengthwise of the building 
12 feet wide ; all the floors in the basement and second story 
shall be neatly dressed and matched and laid down ; there shall 
be five rooms partitioned off' and lathed and plastered and 
furnished with doors on basement story. In the second story, the 
court room shall be lathed and plastered, and there nhall also be 
two small rooms cut off, and also lathed and plastered for jury 
rooms. The aforesaid safe shall be plastered ; the whole work 
shall be done in a good and workmanlike manner, and of suitable 
and proper materials. Then this obligation to be void, otherwise 
to be and remain in full force and virtue. 

Signed, sealed and delivered the day and year first above 
written, in presence of H. C. Lybrook and J. Barnum. 

A. H. Reiifieli>. [l. s.] 
DxRtrs Shaw. [l. s.] 

Joseph Harpkb. [l. s.] 
Asa KiNosBrBY. [l. s.] 
Jacob Silver. [l. s.] 

The building erected in accordance with the speci- 
fications included in the above document, was finished 



and used in 1841, but not formally accepted until the 
following year. 

In 1851, th» Board of Supervisors took steps to- 
ward the building of the second jail, and appointed 
James Taylor as Commissioner for carrying out their 
plans. The jail was built by him and finished in the 
fall of 1852. It stood upon ground just north of 
the present court house until the present jail was 
built, when it was removed. 

The county officers' building was erected in 1860, by 
Joseph Smith. It was designed to be and is a fire- 
proof structure. 

In 1852, the matter of making systematic and ade- 
quate provision for the poor was first effectually agi- 
tated. Up to this time there had been upon the 
county poor farm in Jefferson Township, bought of 
Asa Kingsbury, only a small log house. Upon the 
12th of October, 18.Jo, the Board of Supervisors re- 
solved " to build a good, sufficient and convenient 
house on the poor farm owned by the county, the ex- 
pense of which should not exceed $1,200." The 
resolution was afterward amended to read §2,000 in 
place of $1,200. Pleasant Norton was appointed 
agent to cause the erection of the building. Upon 
the 7th of January, 1854, the contract for building a 
brick structure was awarded to Lewis Clisbee & Son, 
at $1,795. The work was completed by them in No- 
vember of the same year, under the direction and to 
the satisfaction of W. G. Beckwith and Joshua Lof- 
land, who were appointed as a building committee. 
In 1868, the committee of the Board of Supervisors, 
appointed to examine public buildings, reported that 
the poor house was entirely inadequate for the purpose 
designed, and " an utterly unfit habitation for the 
paupers of the county," and the board recommended 
the raising of $15,000 in three equal annual assess- 
ments for the building of a new house. The matter 
being put to vote before the people, it was found that 
there was an overwhelming popular majority against 
the levying of the special tax. The need of a new 
house, however, was urgent, an<l the Board being ad- 
vised that they had the right to appropriate the sum 
of $1,000 for improvements, resorted to that course 
for securing the desired end. This was the begin- 
ning of the measures which resulted in tiie erection 
of the present fine home of the poor. The house 
was built in 1869 and 1870, by P. W. Silver, of 
Goshen, Ind., who took the contract for $6,300. He 
was subsequently allowed between $1,100 and $1,200 
e.xtra remuneration, and even then lost money upon 
the job. The work was performed under the direc- 
tion of D. M. Howell, James Boyd amd Gideon Gibbs, 
Superintendents of the Poor, who were constituted 
by the Supervisors as a building committee, and they 

deserve great credit for the thorough provisions they 
have made for the unfortunate. In 1871, an additional 
building was erected for the insane. This is called 
the asylum. It is two stories in height, and well 
adapted for the purpose intended. The brick work 
was done by D. W. Smith, of Niles, and almost all of 
the other work by or under the direction of Daniel B. 
Smith, of Cassopolis. Gideon Gibbs was the Super- 
intendant of construction. The asylum, with the other 
improvements and the addition made to the farm, cost 
as much, or perhaps a little more, than the poor house 
built in 1870. The whole outlay, within a period of 
about four years, was not less than $15,000. The 
county has now, upon a good farm of 280 acres, as 
fine accommodations for its pauper and insane popu- 
lation as can be found in any county of equal size 
and wealth in the West. There are but three or 
four finer or more convenient county houses in Michi- 
gan, and those are in counties of much greater popu- 
lation than Cass possesses. 

In 1878-79 was erected the present jail and Sheriffs 
residence, the newest, costliest and best of the public 
buildings in Cass County. The old jail had been 
found an unsafe place for the confinement of criminals 
several years previous to 1877. One report of an ex- 
amining committee stated that " the back door was 
shrunk and could be opened from the outside with a 
shingle." In 1877, the Supervisors spent much time 
in planning the erection of a new building. Upon 
December 14, they appointed William P. Bennett, Jo- 
seph Smith and Charles L. Morton as a committee, and 
authorized them to advertise for bids for building a 
jail in accordance with the plans of T. J. Tolan & 
Son, of Fort Wayne, Ind., which had been accepted. 
On January, 1878, the bids were opened, and that of 
W. H. Myers, of Fort Wayne, for $17,770, was ac- 
cepted. Mr. Myers entered into contract for the per- 
formance of the work and furnishing of materials. 
The erection of the jail was begun in the early spring 
and completed in February, 1879. The building com- 
mittee consisted of C. G. Banks, Charles L. Morton and 
Joseph Smith. Daniel B. Smith was local superin- 
tendent. When completed, the jail was formally 
accepted by the building committee, acting in con- 
junction with H. 11. Bement, J. H. East and R. II. 
Wiley, of the Board of Supervisors. The structure 
is one of the strongest and most substantial to be 
found in the State. 


Following is a list of the civil officials of Cass County, 
and of men from the county holding at different periods 
State offices: 

State ,?t'»ators— 1846, Alexander 11. Redfield ; 



1852, Jessee G. Beeson; 1854, Jamea Sullivan; 185*^, 
Alonzo Garwood ; 1858, George Meacham ; 1860, Gil- 
man C. Jones ; 1862, Emmons Buell ; 1864, Levi Al- 
drich; 1866, Charles W. Clisbee; 1868, Amos Smith ; 
1870, Uzziel Putnam, Jr.; 1874, Matthew T. Garvey; 
1878, James M. Shepard. 

Representatives — James O'Dell, Joseph Smith; 
1836-38, James O'Dell, William Burk; 1839-40, 
James Newton, Henry Coleman ; 1840-41, Myron 
Strong, George Redfield ; 1841-42, S. F. Anderson ; 
1842-43, S. F. Anderson; 1843-44, James W. 
GrifiBn; 1844—45, James Shaw; 1845-46, James L. 
Glenn ; 1846-47, James L. Glenn, James Shaw ; 
1847-49, George B. Turner, Milo Powell; 1849-50, 
Cyrus Bacon, George B. Turner; 1850-52, George 
Sherwood, William L. Clyborne; 1852-54, E. J. 
Bonine, Pleasant Norton ; 1854-56, Franklin Brow- 
nell, Uriel Enos ; 1856-58, B. W. Schermerhorn, Ed- 
win Sutton; 1858-60, George Newton, E. W. Rey- 
nolds ; 1860-62, Edward H. Jones, Edward Shanahan; 
1862-64, H. B. Denman, Levi Aldrich ; 1864-66, 
Lucius Keeler, Alexander B. Copley; 1866-68, Henry 
B. Wells, Leander D. Osboni; 1868-70, Uzziel Put- 
nam, Jr., James Ashley; 1870-72, Alexander B.Cop- 
ley, John F. Coulter; 1872-74, Alexander Robertson, 
Thomas O'Dell; 1874-76, John Struble, John B. 
Sweetland; 1878, Samuel Johnson, Hiram S. Chap- 
man; 1880, James H. Hitchcox. 

Members of Constitutional Convention — Detroit, 
May 11, 1835, James Newton, James O'Dell, Bald- 
win Jenkins; First Convention of Assent, Ann 
Arbor, September 26, 1836, James Newton, James 
O'Dell ; Second Convention of Assent, Ann Ar- 
bor, December 14, 1836, Edwin N. Bridge, Jacob 
Silver, Joseph Smith, Abiel Silver; Lansing, June 
3, 1850, George Redfield, Mitchell Robinson, James 
Sullivan ; Lansing, May 15, 1867, Levi Aldrich, 
Jacob J. Van Riper. 

Attorney General — 1875-77, Andrew J. Smith. 

State Treasurer — 1845-46, George Redfield. 

Commissioner of State Land Office — February, 
1846-50, Abiel Silver. 

County Court Judges — 1831, Joseph S. Barnard, 
Chief Justice ; William Burke and John Agard, As- 
sociate Justices; 1834, William A. Fletcher, Chief 
Justice ; Abiel Silver and William Burke, Associate 
Justices ; 1846, Joseph N. Chipman, first ; Mitchell 
Robinson, second ; 1849, Ezekiel S. Smith, vice Chip- 
man, resigned ; 1850, Cyrus Bacon, first ; Ezekiel S. 
Smith, second. 

Circuit Court Judges — 1837, Epaphroditus Ran- 
som, Presiding Judge ; James Cavanaugh and Richard 
V. V. Crane, Associate Judges; 1839, Myron Strong, 
vice James Cavanaugh, resigned ; 1841, Epaphroditus 

Ransom, Presiding Judge ; John Barney and Thomas 
T. Glenn, Associate Judges; 1845, Epaphroditus 
Ransom, Chief Justice ; Samuel F. 'Anderson and 
William H. Bacon, Associate Justices ; 1848, Charles 
W. W'^hipple, Circuit Judge ; 1856, Nathaniel Bacon, 
Circuit Judge ; 1864, Perrin W. Smith, Circuit 
Judge; 1866, Nathaniel Bacon, Circuit Judge ; 1870, 
Daniel Blackman, Circuit Judge; 1875, Henry H. 
Coolidge, Circuit Judge ; 1878, Charles W. Clisbee, 
Circuit Judge, vice H. H. Coolidge. resigned ; 1878, 
Andrew J. Smith, present incumbent. 

Judges of Probate — 1831, Elias B. Sherman ; 
1837-40, Horace B. Dunning; 1841-64, Clifford 
Shannahan; 1864-68, Matthew T. Garvey; 1868- 
83, William P. Bennett. 

County Clerks — 1830 (appointed by Governor), 
Joseph L. Jacks ; 1833, Martin C. Whitman ; 1835- 
40, Henley C. Lybrook ; 1840-41, H. B. Dunning; 
1842-43, H. C."^ Lybrook; 1844-49, George Sher- 
wood; 1850-51, William Sears; 1852-55, E. B. 
Warner; 1856-57, Benj. F. Rutter ; 1858-61, 
Charles G. Lewis; 1862-65, Ira Brownell; 1866- 
77, Charles L. Morton ; 1878-82, Joseph R. Edwards. 

Circuit Court Commissioners — 1852, Elias B. Sher- 
man ; 1854, Henry H. Coolidge; 1856, James M. 
Spencer; 1858-60. Charles W. Clisbee; 1862-64, 
Uzziel Putnam, Jr. ; 1866, George Miller ; 1868, 
•Joseph B. Clarke ; 1870, John R. Carr and N. B. 
Hollister; 1872, Joseph B. Clarke and George L. 
Linder ; 1874-78, George Ketcham and Joseph B. 
Clarke ; 1880, George Ketcham and John F. Tryon. 

Prosecuting Attorneys — 1831, Elias B. Sherman; 
1840-42, Ezekiel S. Smith ; 1842-52, James Sulli- 
van ; 1852-54, H. H. Coolidge ; 1854-61, Andrew 
J. Smith ; 1862-64, Charles W. Clisbee ; 1864-68, 
Andrew J. Smith ; 1868-70, George Miller ; 1870- 
72, William G. Howard ; 1872-74, Spafford Tryon ; 
1874-76, Marshall L. Howell: 1876-80, Harsen 
D. Smith ; 1880-82, Joseph B. Clarke. 

Sheriffs— im^-Z'l, George Meacham; 1832-34, 
Henry Fowler ; 1835-36, Eber Root ; 1836-40, M. 
V. Hunter ; 1840-42, Walter G. Beckwith ; 1842- 
44, James L. Glenn ; 1844-46, Walter G. Beckwith ; 
1846-49, Barak Mead; 1850-52, Andrew Wood; 
1852-54, Walter G. Beckwith ; 1854-56, Joseph 
Harper ; 1856-1860, Joseph N. Marshall ; 1860-62, 
B. W. Schermerhorn ; 1862-66, William K. Palmer ; 
1866-70, Zacheus Aldrich ; 1870-72, Levi J. Rey- 
j nolds ; 1872-74, William J. Merwin ; 1874-76, J. 
' Boyd Thomas ; 1877-80, James H. Stamp ; 1881, 
John A. Jones (present incumbent). 

County Commissioners — 1838, David Hopkins, 
Henry Jones, James W. Griffin ; 1840, William Burk, 
James O'Dell ; 1841, William H. Bacon. 



County Treasurers — 1831, Andrew Grubb (appoint- 
ed) ; 1833, Jacob Silver (appointed); 1836, Eber 
Root; 1837, Joseph Harper; 1838, Isaac Sears; 
1839, Joseph Harper; 1840-43, Amos Fuller ; 1843- 
45, Asa Kingsbury ; 1846-49, Joshua Lofland ; 1850 
-51, Henry R. Close; 1852-53, Henry Tietsort; 
1854-57, Jefferson Osborn ; 1858-59, William W. 
Peck ; 1860-61, Ira Brownell ; 1862-65, J. K. Ritter ; 
1866-6l\ Isaac Z. Edwards; 1870-73, Anson L. 
Dunn ; 1874-77, Hiram S. Hadsell ; 1878-82, R. L. 

Register of Deeds— ism, H. H.Edwards; 1835, 
Alex H. Redfield; 1836-37, William Arrison ; 1838 
-42, Joseph Harper ; 1842-54, David M. Howell ; 
1854-64, Ariel E. Peck ; 1864-67, William L. Jak- 
ways.- 1868-71, Joel Cowgill ; 1872-76, Henry L. 
Barney ; 1876-82, Stephen L. George. 

County Surveyors — 1831, E. B. Sherman ; 1834, 
John Woolman ; 1838, J. C. Saxton ; 1840, Henry 
Walton ; 1842-48, David P. Ward ; 1848-50, Charles 
G. Banks; 1850-54, David P. Ward; 1854-56, 
Amos Smith; 1856-60, Amos Smith; 1860-62, 
H. 0. Banks ; 1862-64, Amos Smith : 1864-70, H. 
0. Banks; 1870-74, John C. Bradt ; 1874-76, Aus- 
tin A. Bramer; 1876-82, Amos Smith. 

County Superintendents of Schools — April 1867, 
Chauncey L. Whitney (elected). He resigned in Oc- 
tober, of the same year, and the vacancy was filled by 
the appointment of Albert H. Gaston, who held the 
office during 1868 ; 1869-70, Irvin Clendenen ; 
1871-72, Lewis R. Rinehart; 1873-74, Samuel 

County School Examiners — 1881, E. M. Stephen- 
son, Michael Pemberton, Daniel B. Ferris (elected for 
terms of one, two and three years respectively). 



Indian Trails— The Chicago Road— The Territorial Legislative Council 
—Fostering Intenial Improvements— Roads Ordered to be Opened 
—Stage Routes— The Old Stage Coach— A Canal or Railroad Pro- 


THE earliest roads in the territory to which this work 
has especial reference were the Indian trails, and 
the chief of these was the Chicago trail, from that 
point to Detroit. It was over this path that for time 
immemorial the tribes of the Northwest had passed 
eastward and returned to their homes. The Sauks, 
the Outagamies and the Winnebagoes coming down 
the western shore of Lake Michigan and rounding its 
head, had for ages traveled this great path. After 
1815, they passed over it annually upon their way to 

Maiden, Canada, where they received their annuities 
from the British. 

Another Indian trail led from the Ottawa villages 
in the region of Little Traverse Bay, southward to 
the place where the city of Grand Rapids now is, and 
thence to the center of the Pottawatomie settlements 
of the St. Joseph. Still another connected these vil- 
lages with the Shiawassee and Saginaw Rivers. Lesser 
trails crossed the country in all directions. 

It was along the great Chicago trail that the Chi- 
cago road was laid out, the first important thorough- 
fare of the whites through Southern Michigan. The 
Indians seemed almost by instinct to select the most 
direct routes that were compatible with the topogra- 
phy of the county, and they always forded the streams 
at the best places of crossing. Hence it was natural 
that the whites when they opened roads should follow 
in their footsteps. 

When the Chicago treaty of 1821 was made, a 
clause was inserted especially stipulating that the 
United States should have the privilege of making 
and using a road through the Indian country from 
Detroit and Fort Wayne, respectively, to Chicago. 

The first of the Congressional acts which led toward 
the construction of the Chicago road was passed April 
30, 1824. It authorized the President of the United 
States " to cause the necessary surveys, plans and 
estimates to be made of the routes of such roads and 
canals as he may deem of national importance in a 
commercial or military point of view, or necessary for 
the transportation of the public mail." 

The sum of $30,000 was appropriated for the 
surveys and the President was authorized to appoint 
two competent engineers. 

The route from Detroit to Chicago was one of those 
which the Executive " deemed of national impor- 
tance," and the sura of $10,000 was set apart from the 
appropriation for the survey. 

In 1825, work was commenced at the eastern end 
of the road. The surveyor began on the plan of run- 
ning on nearly straight lines, but had progressed only 
a few miles when he came to the conclusion that if he 
carried out his original intention, the money apor- 
tioned for the work would be exhausted long before 
he could reach the western terminus. He then re- 
solved to follow the old path of the Sauks and Foxes, 
and in fact did so to the end. The road was never 
straightened, and the thousands of white men who 
have traveled over it have turned at every angle 
and bend of the ancient trail. The flagmen were 
sent in advance as far as they could be seen, the bear- 
ings taken by the compass and the distance chained and 
marked. The trees were blazed fifty feet on each sideof 
the trails, the requirement being that the road should 



measure one hundred feet in width. It was surveyed 
through Cass County in 1832, by Daniel G. Garnsey. 
The road was not worked through St. Joseph, Cass 
and Berrien Counties by the Government until after 
the Sauk or Black Hawk war. Immigrants made 
such improvements as they found necessary, and the 
stage companies worked the road sufBciently to get 
their coaches through, and built some bridges. In 
1833, the Government made thorough work of build- 
ing the road through Branch County, and in 1834, 
through St. Joseph and Cass Counties. It was 
grubbed out and leveled for a width of thirty feet, 
and the timber was cut away on each side. The 
first bridge over the St. Joseph was built in 1834, at 
Mottville, which crossing was designated as " the 
Grand Traverse." 

The Chicago road enters Cass County opposite 
Mottville, follows a generally southwesterly course 
through South Porter, and nearly reaches the Indiana 
line in Mason Township. It thence follows a north- 
westerly direction through Adamsville to Edwards- 
burg, and from the latter point passes southwesterly 
to the county line, and thence to Bertrand. Five 
and a half miles west of the second crossing of the St. 
Joseph River it crosses the State line into Indiana. 

This road was the great thoroughfare from East to 
West until about 1850, when its usefulness was super- 
seded by the railroads. It still remains as originally 
laid, but is only used for local travel. 

From the year 1829 (when Cass County was 
erected) until Michigan became a State, the Territorial 
Legislative Council seduously fostered internal im- 
provements. Acts authorizing the laying-out of roads 
and appointing Commissioners to superintend the 
work were passed at every session, and sometimes 
this business equaled in importance as well as bulk 
all other legislation. 

By act approved July 30, 1830, authority was 
granted for the laying-out of a road " commencing 
where the township road laid out by the Commis- 
sioners of Ontwa Township, Cass County, from Pleas- 
ant Lake, in a direction to Pulaski, in Indiana, inter- 
sects the southern boundary line between the Terri- 
tory of Michigan and the State of Indiana ; thence 
on the road laid out as aforesaid until it intersects the 
Chicago road a few rods west of the post office, near 
the house of Ezra Beardsley, running thence on the 
most eligible and practicable route to the entrance of 
the St. Joseph River into Lake Michigan." George 
Meacham, John Bogart and Squire Thompson were 
the Commissioners appointed to lay out and establish 
this road. 

By act of the Council in June, 1832, another Ter- 
ritorial road was authorized which was to pass through 

Cass County, viz., a road " commencing at the 
county seat of Branch County, running westerly on 
the most direct and eligible route through the seats of 
justice of St. Joseph and Cass Counties to the mouth 
of the St. Joseph River." The Commissioners ap- 
pointed to lay out the road were Squire Thompson, 
C. K. Green and Alexander H. Redfield, Esq. 

During the same season, an act was passed author- 
izing the establishment of a road from White Pigeon 
by Prairie Ronde and Kalamazoo to Grand Rapids, 
and E. B. Sherman, Isaac N. Hurd and John S. Barry 
(afterward Governor of the State), were appointed as 
Commissioners to lay it out. 

During the season of 1833, in March and April, 
the Council passed a large number of acts directing 
the making of roads. Among those authorized we 
find the following wholly or part in Cass County : 

" A road from Adamsville, on the most direct and 
eligible route, to the Paw Paw River, at or near the 
center of Van Buren County." Sterling Adams, 
Charles Jones and Lyman J. Daniels were appointed 

George Meacham, Elijah Lacey and Fowler Preston 
were appointed Commissioners to lay out a road from 
Edwardsburg, through the village of Niles, to the 
mouth of the. St. Joseph River, in Berrien County. 

An act passed March 7, 1834, appointed Henry 
H. Fowler, John Woolman and Hart L. Stewart as 
Commissioners to lay out a road from Mottville 
through Cass and Berrien Counties to the mouth of 
the St. Joseph River. 

Authority was given by an act passed January 30, 
1835, for the laying out of a road from Jacksonburg 
through Cassopolis to the mouth of the St. Joseph, 
James Cowen, Michael Beedle and D. McCauley 
being appointed Commissioners. The same act ap- 
pointed James Newton, Henry Jones and Elijah 
Lacey to lay out a road from Cassopolis to Galien 
River. The work of improvement (by act), went on 
under the authority of the State very much as it had 
under the Territory. The first Legislature author- 
ized the establishment of a very large number of roads, 
among which the following were ordered to be laid 
out, wholly or in part, in Cass County. 

"A State road from Edwardsburg, via Cassopolis, 
Volinia and Paw Paw Mills, to Allegan, in Allegan 
County," for which David Crane, Jacob Silver and 
John L. Sherer were appointed Commissioners. 

"A road from Schoolcraft, in Kalamazoo County, 
to the village of St. Joseph, in Berrien County. For 
this road Alexander Copley, Nathaniel M. Thomas 
and Albert E. Bull were appointed Commissioners. 

The following roads were authorized, by act ap- 
proved July 26, 1886 : 


A State road " from French's Tavern, on the Chi- 
cago road, at the crossing of Prairie River, to Con- 
stantino, in St. Joseph County ; thence to Cassopolis, 
crossing the river at Bucic's Tavern, and from thence 
to the mouth of the St. Joseph River." Thomas 
Langley, George Buck and E. B. Sherman, Com- 

A road "from Constantine, in St. Joseph County, 
through Berrien to New Buffalo Village." Wessel 
VVhittaker, R. E. Ward and Thomas Charlton, Com- 

A road from Constantine to Niles. William F. 
House, H. W. Griswold and Robert S. GriflSn, Com- 

A road " from Centerville, in St. Joseph County, 
through Cassopolis and through Berrien, to the 
entrance of Galien River into Lake Michigan." H. 
L. Stewart, John Withenmyer and E. P. Sanger, 

A road " from Constantine, in St. Joseph County, 
to the mouth of the St. Joseph River, by the most 
direct and eligible route." William F. House, James 
Odell and Moody Emerson, Commissioners. 

By act of March 17, 1837, the following, among 
many other roads, were authorized : 

A State road from Whitmanville to the State 
road, at or near Bainbridge. Charles J. Martin, M. 
C. Whitman, John P. Davis and Jehiel Enos, Com- 

A State road from Whitmanville to St. Joseph, 
Eleazer Morton, John Wolver and E. H. Spaulding, 

A road from Cassopolis, through Berrien to New 
Buffalo. Abiel Silver, Isaac Sumner and Pitt Brown, 

On the 16th of February, 1838, an act was passed 
authorizing the laying out of a State road from Niles 
to Kalamazoo. This »oad passed through Wayne and 
Pokagon Townships of Cass County. 

April 1, 1840, an act was passed authorizing the 
establishment of " a road commencing at some point 
at or near the north bank of the River St. Joseph, in 
the vicinity of the village of St. Joseph, thence run- 
ning in an easterly direction, on the most eligible 
route, to the village of La Grange, formerly called 
Whitmanville, in Cass County." L. L. Johnson, 
Morgan Enos and Jacob Allen were appointed Com- 
missioners. An act appropriating 3,000 acres of the 
internal improvement lands of the State for the pur- 
pose of opening and improving this road was ap" 
proved by the Legislature March 28, 1848. Seven 
tliousand acres of the internal improvement lands of 
the State were appropriated by act of April 3, 184^ 
for opening and improving the State road from Con- 

stantine, in St. Joseph County, to Paw Paw, in Van 
Buren County. 

To "lay out and establish" a road, and to open 
and improve a road were two very different things. A 
number of those authorized by the Territorial and 
State Legislature were never made passable for 
vehicles, and some were never opened at all — other 
roads which better suited the convenience of the pub- 
lic being made in their stead. 

A mania for plank roads originated about 1848, 
and a very large number of companies were incor- 
porated in the State within the next few years. The 
only one in Cass County of which we have any 
knowledge was known as the Niles and Mottville 
Company. It was incorporated March 22, 1849, and 
empowered to construct a plank road between Niles 
and Mottville, by way of Edwardsburg, Adamsville 
or Cassopolis. The persons named to receive sub- 
scriptions were James L. Glenn, H. P. Mather, J. 
M. Finley, H. B. Hoffman, Nathaniel Bacon, George 
Meacham, Ezra Hatch, Moses Joy, Hiram HoUibard, 
Orrin E. Thompson, H. Follett and Norman Sage. 
The capital stock authorized was $100,000. The 
company built only about five miles of road between 
Niles and Edwardsburg, which was used until nearly 
worn out. 


Although the Chicago road did not pass through 
Niles, a branch was established from Edwardsburg to 
that place at a very early day, and much of the travel 
went that way. 

The first stage coaches in Cass County passed 
through in the year 1830 upon the Chicago road and 
the above mentioned branch. The line was established 
by Col. Alamanson Huston, and connected Niles with 
Detroit. Messrs. Jones & Savery, of White Pigeon, 
continued to operate it until 1832, when travel was 
suspended on account of the Sauk war. It took about 
seven days to make the journey from Niles to Detroit. 
At first, two stages went over the road each week, but 
trips were made tri-weekly before the cessation of the 
business in 1832. 

In 1833, Benjamin B. Kercheval, DeGarmo Jones 
andMaj. Robert Forsythe, of Detroit, and Joseph W. 
Brown,of Tecumseh, established a line of stages between 
Detroit and Chicago. The route was from Detroit via 
Ypsilanti. Jonesville, Coldwater River, White Pigeon, 
Edwardsburg and Niles. Teams were changed about 
every twelve miles. In 1834, Messrs. Saltmarsh, 
Overton and Boardman purchased an interest in the 
line, and the concern was known as " the Western 
Stage Company." It was soon afterward divided in- 
to sections, that extending from Jonesville to Chicago 
being placed under the superintendency of Maj. 


William Graves, who located at Niles in June, 

In the spring of this year, immigration having very 
largely increased and there being many land speculat- 
ors travelling through the country, it was found that 
daily stages were demanded. They were almost inva- 
riably crowded, and the company was compelled to put 
on a double line before the season was over. Even 
then the agents were sometimes obliged to hire extra 
teams and common wagons in which to convey pas- 
sengers. The most desirable seats in the stages were 
frequently sold at a heavy premium by speculators. 
The stage companies upon this direct through line to 
Chicago were very liberally patronized and grew rich. 
They flourished finely until the iron horse and the 
railroad coach surpassed the "Concord." 

In 1836, what was known as "the Territorial road," 
was surveyed through Van Buren County, a line 
of stages was put on it by John Allen, and the busi- 
ness was subsequently carried on by other parties. 

When the Michigan Central Railroad was pushed 
westward across the State, the stage business began to 
decline, but it was continued as long as there was a 
gap between the iron rail and Lake Michigan to be 
filled. When the road was built as far as Marshall, 
stages were run from there to Kalamazoo and thence 
to St. Joseph and New Buffalo. The line to the latter 
place passed through the northwest part of Cass Coun- 
ty. It was operated by D. Humphrey & Co., and one 
of the noted drivers was Ransom Dopp, of Wayne 

The stage coach in use in Michigan during the pio- 
neer days and until a generation ago, was the "Con- 
cord," probably so named from Concord, N. H., where 
the pattern was originated. They cost from $200 to 



The following reminiscence by an old settler con- 
veys a good idea of the stage coach and of stage travel 
in Michigan in the "olden time:" 

" The old stage coach was the fastest and best 
public conveyance by land forty-five years ago. Its 
route was along the main post roads ; and although a 
third of a century has elapsed since steam was har- 
nessed to the flying car, and the whistle of the loco- 
motive usurped the place of the echoing stage-horn 
that heralded the coming of ' tlie four-wheeled 
wonder,' bearing the mail with the traveling public 
and their baggage, yet along the byways and more 
secluded portions of our country, the old stage coach, 
the venerated relic of our past, is still the speediest 
mode of travel, and the stage-horn yet gives notice of 
its approach. Thus in this direction and in many 
others we carry the past with us. 

" As one makes a pilgrimage, in imagination, along 
the old stage-route, the spirit of the past seems to 
start into life and clothes every object he meets with 
an additional charm, bringing back the old associations 
' withdrawn afar' and mellowed by the light of other 

" Reader, you can fancy this ancient vehicle — a 
black painted and deck- roofed hulk — starting out 
from Detroit, with its load of passengers, swinging 
on its thorough-braces, attached to the fore and hind 
axles, and crowded to its fullest capacity. There was 
a boot, projecting three or four feet behind, for luggage ; 
an iron railing ran around the top of the coach where 
extra baggage or passengers were stowed as occasion 
required. The driver occupied a high seat in front ; 
under his feet was a place for his traps and the mail ; 
on each side of his seat was a lamp firmly fixed, to 
light his way by night ; inside of the coach were three 
seats which would accommodate nine passengers. You 
can imagine the stage-coach thus loaded, starting out 
at the "'get ape" of the driver, as he cracks his whip 
over the heads of the leaders, when all four horses 
spring to their work, and away goes the lumbering 
vehicle, soon lost to sight in the woods, struggling 
along the road, lurching from side to side into deep 
ruts and often into deeper mud holes. 

" For bringing people to a common level and mak- 
ing them acquainted with each other and tolerant of 
each other's opinions, give me the old stage-coach on 
the pioneer road. You can ride all day by the side 
of a man in a railway car and he will not deign to 
speak to you. But in the old coach, silence found a 
tongue and unsociability a voice ; common want 
made them companions and common hardships made 
them friends. 

" Probably this was the only place where the Demo- 
crat and Old-Line Whig ever were in quiet juxtaposition 
with that acrid, angular, intens^y earnest and cordially 
hated ms^naiWeA ah Abolitionist. Spurned and tabooed 
as an agitator, fanatic and disturber of the public 
peace by both the old parties, his presence was as 
much spurned and despised as were his political prin- 
ciples. But this man, thus hated, was found ' cheek 
by jowl,' with Democrat and Whig in the old stage. 
Who shall say that these old politicians, sitting face 
to face with a common enemy, and compelled to listen 
to 'Abolition doctrines,' were not benefited by it? 
Perhaps this was the leaven cast into the Democracy 
and Whiggery of the past, that finally leavened the 
whole lump. 

" When the roads were very bad, the ' mud- 
wagon,' on thorough-braces, drawn by two horses, 
was substituted for the regular coach. The verb trot 
was obsolete at such times, but the verb spatter was 



conjugated in all its moods and tenses. The wagon, 
the horses, the driver and the passengers could testify 
to this, for they were often covered with 'free soil.' 
The driver sitting high up on the front, was monarch 
of the road. Everything that could must get out of 
his way. If there was any opposition he had only to 
slap his hand on the mail bag and say ' Uncle Sam 
don't want this little satchel detained.' And thus 
on they go. 

" The driver, as he nears a tavern, post office 
at the roadside, or village, whips out the tin horn 
from its sheath at his side, and sends forth a succes- 
sion of pealing notes, that wake the slumbering echoes, 
which reverberate and die away in the distant arcades 
of the forest. The tavern or village, catching the 
first note of the horn, is immediately awake. All are 
on the qui vine to witness the ' coming in' of the 
stage with its load of passengers, and to hear the news 
from the outer world, contained in the old pad-locked 
leathern mail-bag. The stage-coach of forty-five years 
ago was an important institution. Its coming was 
always an interesting event. It had all the enchant- 
ments about it that distance lends. The settlement 
or village hailed its advent as a ship returning from 
a long cruise bringing relatives, friends and news 
from a foreign land. It linked the woodland villages 
with each other, and kept them all in communication 
with the outside world." 


A meeting was held at Edwardsburg on February 
2, 1836. to consider the project of constructing a 
canal from Constantine to Niles. A majority of those 
present favored the idea of a railroad rather than a 
canal, and the result was that the friends of the 
enterprise secured the passage of an act by the 
Legislature (March 26, 1836), incorporating the Con- 
stantine and Niles Canal or Railroad Company 
with a capital stock fixed at $250;000. The com- 
pany was empowered to construct either a canal 
or railroad between the termini mentioned in its name 
and charter. The first Directors were William Meek, 
George W. Hoffman, Wells T. House, Watson Sum- 
ner, John G. Cathcart, Edward N. Bridge, J. C. 
Lanman, Jacob Beeson and Vincent L. Bradford. It 
is possible that a survey was made of the proposed 
line of the canal or railroad, but it is certain that no 
action was taken beyond that step, and the financial 
crash of 1837, with its following period of depression, 
put an end to the project. There were no further 
attempts to build railroads or to open canals in this 
part of the State for a number of years, but several 
other abortive efforts were made simultaneously with 
that above described. 


And now the iron trail traverses the country where 
little more than a half century since there was naught 
but the Indian path, and where within the memory of 
men not old, the lumbering stage coach was the most 
rapid medium of transportation. 

A few brief notes upon the history of the three 
lines of railroad which cross Cass County will not, we 
think, be without interest in this chapter. 

The first railroad in Cass County or Southeastern 
Michigan was the Michigan Central. As early as 
1832, the Territorial Council took steps toward the 
building of a railroad in Michigan, and upon the 29th 
of June, passed an act incorporating the Detroit & 
St. Joseph Railroad Company. The company organ- 
ized under this the first official movement toward 
railroad construction was the ancestor of the present 
corporation, the Michigan Central Railroad Company. 
The company was authorized to build a single or 
double railroad from Detroit to St. Joseph by way of 
the village of Ypsilanti, and the county seats of Wash- 
tenaw, Jackson, Calhoun and Kalamazoo Counties, 
and to run cars on the same " by the force of steam, 
of animals, of any mechanical or other force, or of 
any combination of these forces;" was bound to 
begin work within two years from the passage of 
the act, to build thirty miles of track within six years, 
to complete half of the road within fifteen years, and 
to finish the whole of it within thirty years under 
penalty of the forfeiture of its franchises. 

The route was surveyed by Lieut. Berrien, of the 
regular army, and some work was done upon it near 
the eastern terminus to secure the franchise of the 
company. Before the six years had expired in which 
it was prescribed that thirty miles of road should be 
built, new and important official action was taken. 
Immediately after the admission of Michigan as one 
of the States of the Union, upon the 20th of March, 
1837, an act of the Legislature was approved by the 
Governor, providing for the construction of three rail- 
roads by the State government across the whole 
breadth of its territory, to be called the Northern, 
Central and Southern Railroads. The Central was 
to run from Detroit to the mouth of the St. Joseph. 
The act also provided for the purchase of the rights 
and property of companies already established, 
and especially tiiose of tlie Detroit & St. Joseph Com- 
pany. The sum of $.')50,000 was appropriated for 
the survey and making of the three roads, $400,000 
of which was set apart for the Central. By anotlier 
act passed March 21, 1837, the Legislature authorized 
a loan of $5,000,000. With the money obtained 
from this and other sources, the Commissioners of 
Internal Improvements proceeded with the construe- 



tion of the Central and Southern Uailroads. Owing 
to the very slow method of carrying on the work in 
that pioneer era of railroads, the Central was not 
built to Kalamazoo until 1846. Upon March 28, 
1846, an act was passed by the Legislature which 
provided for an entire change of system in railroad 
building. A body corporate by the name of the 
Michigan Central Railroad Company was established. 
It was authorized to purchase and the State agreed to 
sell all of its interest in the Central Railroad for f 2,- 
000,000. The franchise of the company required it 
to follow substantially the route originally decided 
upon, but instead of specifying that the mouth of the 
St. Joseph should be the western terminus, allowed 
the company to build from Kalamazoo " to some point 
in the State of Michigan on or near Lake Michigan 
which shall be accessible to steamboats on said lake, 
and thence to some point on the southern boundary 
line of Michigan," the men who composed the com- 
pany insisting on the latter provision in order that 
they might have a choice of destination. As soon as 
the company had made its payment and taken posses- 
sion of the road it determined to take the nearest route 
by which communication with Chicago could be pro- 
cured, and began surveying a route to New Buffalo, 
running through the northwest part of Cass County. 
This route was adopted, laborers employed and the 
work pushed forward at a rate of speed which for the 
time was remarkable. It was finished to Niles Octo- 
ber 7, 1848, and to New Buffalo in the spring of the 
following year. In the winter of 1851-52, the road 
was opened to Michigan City, and in the spring of 
of 1852 completed to Chicago. Since that time the 
business of the Michigan Central has steadily increased, 
and it has long been recognized as one of the princi- 
pal lines in the West. 

The Michigan Southern was originally intended to 
pass through the southern part of the county, and the 
same act which provided for the construction of the 
Central authorized its building, but the route was 
subsequently so changed as to run through Northern 

The Air Line Railroad was built to open to traffic 
a fertile region through the counties of Cass, St. 
Joseph, Calhoun and Jackson, and to form a more 
direct line from Jackson to Niles than the Central 
furnished. It was opened to travel to Homer in the 
summer of 181 0, to Three Rivers in the autumn of the 
same year, and to Niles in February, 1871. The 
iron was laid to Cassopolis November 28, 1870. The 
first regular passenger train commenced running on 
the road January 16, 1871. The Air Line was built 
chiefly by parties living along the route. The road 
is now leased and operated by the Michigan Central. 

The Grand Trunk Railroad was constructed through 
Cass County about the same time as the Air Line. 
The amount of subscriptions and donations of right of 
way in the county amounted to about $100,000. To 
S. T. Read, of Cassopolis, is doubtless due the credit 
of having brought the line through Cassopolis. He 
took an active interest in the building of the road, and 
contributed liberally to the enterprise in money and 
time. Iron was laid to Cassopolis February 9, 1871, 
and regular trains East were run for the first time in 
June of the same year. The road was completed to 
Valparaiso, Ind., in 1871. The origin of the Grand 
Trunk dates back to June 30, 1847, when the Port 
Huron k Lake Michigan Railroad Company was 
chartered to construct a railroad from Port Huron to 
some point on Lake Michigan, at or near the mouth 
of Grand River. 

In 1855, the Port Huron & Milwaukee Rail- 
road Company was chartered, and not long after 
amalgamated with the first-named organization. The 
Peninsular Railroad Company was chartered October 
3, 1865, for the construction of a railroad between 
Lansing and Battle Creek, and January 3, 1868, the 
Peninsular Railroad Extension Company was char- 
tered for the extension of the line from Battle Creek 
to the Indiana State line, and the two companies were 
consolidated into a corporation as the Peninsular 
Railway Company, February 17, 1868. After numer- 
ous other consolidations and changes, the present or- 
ganization was consummated in April, 1880, under 
the name of the Chicago & Grand Trunk Railway 
Company. The length of the line froin Port Huron 
to Chicago is 330.40 miles. 



Charicter ot T'ioneer Preachers— Karl y Olergymeii of Different De- 
nmniiiations in Cass County— Sketches ot Adam Miller, John 
Byrns, Elder Jacob I'rice, Justus Gage and Others— ISishop Phi- 
lander Chiise— Collins, " the Boy Preacher "—Educational Interests 
ot the County— School Laws— Inoorporatlou ot an Academy— Pres- 
ent Method ot School Supervision— County Superintendents- 
County School Examiners. 

FROM an interesting and valuable paper on the 
" Pioneer Clergy,"* by Hon. George B. Tur- 
ner, we extract the following paragraphs upon the 
character of those avant-couriers of Christianity, who 
were known to the early settlers of Southwestern 
Michigan : 

" It is to be regretted that in the history of the 
early settlement of Southern Michigan so few facts 

» 1\w article was publistied iu the Cassopolis Nalional Democrat February S. 
1874. Several selections fr.>in it are iiicorpiratod in this chapter— in fact, all of 
the matter which appears in quotation marks, the authorship of which is not 
otherwise indicated. 


f^E'/.ADAj^ Ml LLEf^. 



have been preserved in relation to the efforts of the 
clergy of that period. As a class, none contributed 
more toward opening up the far West, as Michigan 
was called so late as 1837 — none did more toward 
spreading civilization and knowledge — toward sowing 
the seed of practical religion and nursing the early 
plants as they sprang up under their ministrations, 
until churches were organized, Sunday schools 
started, theological institutions founded, and a better 
civilization had taken the place of what they found 
among the hardy backwoodsmen of this new country. 

" The pionear clergy, with a self-sacrificing spirit j 
worthy of the earlier days of Christianity, plunged 
into the wilderness, Bible and hymn-book in hand ; 
sometimes astride a horse with saddle bags containing 
but a single change of raiment — oftener on foot, with 
a bundle of clothes thrown over his shoulder on a 
stick, he made his way from one settlement to another 
along deer paths or Indian trails, to preach the word ' 
of life to the rough frontiersman and their fiimilies. ' 
Wherever the white man penetrated the wilds of an | 
American forest, not far behind him followed the dar- 
ing Methodist circuit rider, the pains-taking and in- 
defatigable Baptist, or the stately and dignified Pres- 
byterian. If pulpit oratory, in those days, had less 
of the polish of modern times in it, certainly it had, 
as a general thing, more of the spirit of the great 
Master in it. The early preacher may have lacked , 
somewhat of the book learning of the present day, 
but he more than made up for it by an earnest, per- 
sistent, undoubting faith in the divine Word, and in 
his own mission to preach that Word to dying men 
and women. He seldom failed to impress upon his j 
hearers that hearty, enthusiastic love for the Re- 
deemer, or that dread of His retributive justice, which 
he seemed to feel and speak and act in this new and 
wild theater of action. He may at times have ap- 
peared severely personal — sometimes intolerant and 
even coarse in the demonstration of the Word ; but, it 
must be remembered, he lived and preached at a time 
and under circumstances when a faithful, fearless 
denunciation of sin in all its forms was regarded as 
the highest possible qualification for a minister of the 

" Most of the pioneer preachers were young men — 
some mere youths who had been sent into this new 
region to cultivate a ministerial talent, preparatory to 
engagement in other and more refined fields of labor. 
So far as the Methodist Church of Michigan is con- 
cerned, its ablest and best men have been through 
this backwoods probation. For example, many years 
ago, there came into the circuit two mere boys, El- 
dred and Collins. Both became eminent men. The ] 
latter, before his death, bid fair to reach the highest 

position in the church — the former now holds high 
rank in it. To write the history of Methodism in 
Michigan, with either of these names left out, would 
simply be to give to the world a broken and unsatis- 
factory view of the church in Michigan, its power 
and extent." 

The earliest minister of the Gospel in Cass County, 
concerning whom we have any authoritative informa- 
tion, was the Rev. Adam Miller, a Baptist, who 
settled in Ontwa Township in 1830. Several Method- 
ist circuit riders had preached in the county prior to 
this time. Adam Miller was born in Pennsylvania 
in the year 1781. At the age of twenty-three, he 
married Sarah Prior, and settled as a farmer in the 
neighborhood of his birthplace. About the same time, 
he began to preach, but with what success is not 
known. In 1815, he emigrated to Franklin County, 
Ohio, where he labored in his chosen fields, temporal 
and spiritual, until the year 1880, when he removed 
to Michigan. Many persons now living can remem- 
ber the emigrant wagon of fifty years ago — its heavy, 
unsightly, comfortless make-up, its roof of tent-cloth 
supported on hickory bows, its interior crow-ded with 
bundles of bedding, clothes, boxes of edibles, babies, 
boys and girls, pots, kettles, etc., etc. The wagon, 
with its heavy load, was drawn by one, two or three 
yoke of oxen. In one of these cumberous vehicles 
Elder Miller and his family made the journey from 
Ohio to Southwestern Michigan, crossing the great 
Black Swamp, and following a tortuous trail through 
the heavy forest. The passage through the swamp 
in the spring was anything but a pleasure trip. Many 
stories have been told of it which would not read well 
in the biography of a minister. After a wearisome 
journey of from three to four weeks' duration, Elder 
Miller and family reached the northwest part of 
Beardsley's Prairie, near Edwardsburg, where they 
found three cabins and a few settlers. The preacher 
bought eighty acres of land of a Mr. Coan, or Coon, 
which he immediately proceeded to plow and plant. 
Soon afterward, he entered quite a large tract of land, 
adjoining his original purchase, and lying partly in 
Michigan and partly in Indiana. Elder Miller's 
time was divided between farming and preaching. 
Laboring at agriculture through the week, he saddled 
his horse Saturday night, or early upon Sunday, and 
traveled often many miles to fill preaching appoint- 
ments, usually following Indian trails, .and occasionally 
the primitive roads cut through the woods by the 
white settlers. His first sermon in the vicinity of 
Brownsville. Calvin Township, was preached under a 
burr-oak tree. The congregation was not a large one, 
but it is safe to say that not many in the surrounding 
country, who had heard of the appointment, remained 


away. Religious meetings were very frequently held 
in the open air, but the settlers proffered the use of 
their humble homes when the weather was such as to 
forbid out-door gatherings. The field of Elder Mil 
ler's labors included Cass and Berrien Counties, and 
the counties of St- Joseph and Elkhart in Indiana. 
His simple, zealous style of preaching, and his per- 
sonal persuasion, led many to embrace Christianity. 
Among his earliest converts was an Indian, whose 
name is not now remembered. He was a very earnest 
adherent of the faith, and died in its enjoyment. The 
pioneer preacher was present at his deathbed. The 
Indian arose, and, with his eyes and arras raised 
heavenward, exclaimed as if addressing a spiritual 
personage made visible to him, " Come, Jesus ; " then, 
sinking back upon the couch, peacefully expired. 

It is said Elder Miller organized, or assisted in 
organizing. Liberty Church, two and a half miles 
south of Cassopolis ; also the Baptist Churches at 
Edwardsburg, Niles, Mishawaka (Ind.), and a number 
of others. Elder Miller had an education of only the 
merest rudimentary character in his early days, and 
whatever of usefulness characterized his after life was 
the result of self-improvement, native ability and force 
of character, combined with goodness of heart, deep 
sense of duty, and untiring zeal. He was a fair type 
of the pioneer minister of the Gospel. He was a 
man of genial temperament, and was full of kindness 
and sympathy for all mankind. Notwithstanding the 
fact that he had a large family, several poor boys, at 
different periods, found homes under his roof, and his 
ienevolence was exhibited in various deeds. He sup- 
ported himself upon the proceeds of his farm ; never 
received a salary during his fifty years' service in 
the cause of religion, and very rarely accepted a 
donation. He perceived at an early day the impro- 
priety of a minister of the Gospel using intoxicating 
liquors as a beverage in his family. He said that he 
wanted none of his boys to become drunkards through 
his influence, and poured out his stock of whisky as 
a libation to the earth. His wife anticipated diflS- 
culty in getting the neighbors to assist in raising a 
barn the following week, if they learned that liquor 
was not to be served. They were notified on being 
invited to " the raising " that the usual custom would 
not be observed, but turned out notwithstanding, and 
the barn was raised in as good shape as if the jug of 
stimulating spirits had been present. Rev. Adam 
Miller was rather singularly the seventh son of a 
seventh son, and himself the father of seven sons. 
He was twice married. His sons were John P., 
Anthony, Samuel, David, Adam, Jacob and Henry. 
Three of them, Anthony, Samuel and David, are 
ordained ministers ; two or three others are occasional 

exhorters, and all church members. His daughters 
were, by his first wife, Sarah ; by his second, Mary, 
Margaret, Elizabeth and Eliza, three of whom — Sarah, 
Elizabeth and Eliza — are now living. A grand- 
daughter, Mrs. Sarah K. Owen, resides in Cassopo- 
lis. A few years before his death. Elder Miller re- 
moved from Cass County and settled a few miles from 
Mishawaka, Ind., where he died August 27, 1854. 

In 18.32, the county was visited by a pioneer of 
Episcopalianism who was no less a character than 
Bishop Philander Chase. He came out from Ohio 
with Bazaleel Wells, of Steubenville, who wished to 
make a visit to his sons in Kalamazoo County. The 
Bishop bought land in Branch County and made a 
temporary home there, to which, because of the pro- 
ductiveness of the land he gave the name of " Gilead." 
In his published "Reminiscences," Bishop Chase gives 
the following description of Southwestern Michigan 
as it was when he first saw it : " The whole region 
of the St. Joseph, embracing one hundred miles square 
and more, never till now had an Episcopal minister 
to ofiiciate in it. All was waste in regard to the 
primitive Protestant Church. Wherever the writer 
went, he invaded no man's diocese, parish or labors. 
In and throughout this country a circuit of duty was 
planned to be fulfilled in that and coming years. This 
embraced Niles. South Bend, Beardsley's Prairie or 
Edwardsburg, Cassopolis. White Pigeon, Mongoquinon, 
English Prairie and Coldwater, besides other places 
afterward erected — Constantineand Centerville. Some 
of these appertained to Michigan and some to 

Bishop Chase married the first couple ever joined 
in the bonds of wedlock at the county seat of Cass, 
upon New Year's Day, 183-3, and performed the first 
religious services in the village afterward. 

An incident of some local interest is related as oc- 
curring in Cass County when the Bishop was on his 
way with his family to Illinois, in 1836 : " At 
Edwardsburg they were the guests of Abiel Silver. 
The Bishop's favorite horse, Cincinnatus, well along 
in years, got quite lame, and he resorted to the fol- 
lowing expedient to return him to his farm in 
" Gilead." He tied a small piece of board to his 
neck, upon which there was written, ' My name is 
Cincinnatus; I belong to P. Cha.«e, Gilead, now 
Bishop of Illinois; I am 18 years old and somewhat 
lame. Let me pass on to Gilead, where I shall be taken 
care of through the winter as a reward for my past 
services.' It is needless to say the old horse reached 
his destination and was well taken care of during the 
winter." Much of Bishop Chase's life was spent in 
the West, and he exerted a large influence in Chris- 
tianizing it. 



Elder Jacob Price, one of the foremost pioneers of 
the Baptist faith, came to Cass County in 1833. 
Probably no minister who has lived in the county was 
more widely known or generally loved. He was 
brought to Michigan through the instrumentality of 
Martin C. Whitman, a merchant of Whitmanville [ 
(La Grange), who made his acquaintance in the city 
of New York in the summer of 1833. He arrived in 
Detroit on the 1st of September, and two Sundays 
later preached at Whitmanville, where he had taken 
up his residence. He next preached at Geneva (on 
the banks of Diamond Lake), and upon the 27th of ' 
September at South Bend. While returning from 
that place, his wife was taken sick with a form of fever I 
common to the new country, from which she died, 
October 19. Elder Price resided at Whitmanville 
about three years, preaching regularly there, at Ed- 
wardsburg, and at Bertrand (Berrien County), as well 
as filling occasional appointments in all parts of Cass 
County. In 1836, he came to Edwardsburg, where i 
ho lived until 1842, when he took up his residence at | 
Cassopolis, which place he made his home until his | 
death, which occurred August 8, 1871 — a period of ' 
twenty-nine years. He was, during the whole period ' 
of his residence in Cass County, zealously engaged in | 
propagating the seed of Christian faith, and probably 
delivered more sermons than any other minister of 
the Gospel who ever had a residence in the county. 
He officiated at a very large number of funerals and 
weddings during his ministry, being sent for from all 
parts of the region around his home. Rev. Jacob 
Price was of Welsh nativity, being born in South 
Wales March 28, 179Q, and was the son of a Deacon 
in the Baptist Church. He married his first wife. 
Miss Ann Price, an English lady, in 1830, and sailed 
from England to New York in 1831. Until he re- 
moved to Michigan, he was pastor of the Second Bap- 
tist Church of Brooklyn. His second wife, whom he 
married in 1836 and who still survives, was Miss 
Sarah Bennett. 

His children were: By his first wife, Anna, now 
Mrs. Carmichael, of Benton Harbor. By his second 
wife, Sarah and Ellen, residents in Cassopolis; Mary 
(Fletcher), now in Chautauqua County, N. Y.; Carrie 
(Mrs. Orson Rudd) recently removed to Dakota; 
Judson, in Kansas; and Alfred, at present a Professor 
in Central University, of Pella, Iowa. 

Mr. Turner says of Elder Price : •' Perhaps no 
clergyman who ever ministered to our people was 
more universally and thoroughly known to them at the 
time of his death or more generally beloved, than this 
truly good man. * * * He was not what would 
be called a great preacher; that is, one of those 
possessed of the marvelous power to stir up at will 

the emotional in men and women, and promote wide- 
spread revivals. But in one sense he was a great 
man. His humble life, his uniform goodness of heart, 
his unvarying piety, which, taught every day, as well 
by example as by precept, endeared him to our people, 
and stamped him as a Christian of extraordinary 
purity of character. In that sense, he was a great 
man — a profound preacher." 

A beautiful monument in the Cassopolis Cemetery, 
reared to the memory of Elder Price through the 
contributions of hundreds of citizens of the county, 
will bear testimony for centuries to the esteem in 
which he was held. 

Universalism was preached in Cassopolis in the 
year 1836, by the Rev. George R. Brown, and he was 
the first settled pastor of any denomination in the 
county seat. 

The Rev. Justus Gage who died in Dowagiac on the 
21st of January, 1875, was, however, the best known 
clergyman of the Universalis! faith in the county, 
and has been commonly regarded as its pioneer 
preacher. He settled in Wayne Township in 1837, 
coming from New York, in which State, the county 
of Madison and village of De Ruyter, he was born on 
tiie 13th of March, 1805. He became a Universal- 
ist in 1822, and was soon after licensed to preach. 
Until declining health forbade, he continued to exer- 
cise his high calling. He was the organizer of the 
Dowagiac Universalist Church, which enjoyed his 
ministry for many years, and has been a flourishing 
society. Mr. Gage was a man of much public spirit, 
and took a deep interest in educational matters and 
various secular subjects as well as religious. He was 
prominently identified in the organization and build- 
ing up of the County Agricultural Society, and for 
eight years was a member of the State Board of 

Another early preacher of Universalism in this 
county was the Rev. J. P. Averill. " He was re- 
garded as a young man of much promise, and during 
his short career in this vicinity made many warm 
friends. His early death deprived the church of a 
strong pillar and society of a genial, warm-hearted 

Among the early Methodist ministers of note who 
resided for a long term of years in the county, 
were "Father" McCool and Rev. John Byrns, both 
of whom settled in Pokagon. Of the first named, Mr. 
Turner writes : "He was a man of large frame, of 
strong native ability, and possessed a fair amount of 
book-learning. As a preacher, he was not of the 
sympathetic order. He rather held up the pains and 
penalty of a violated law, and thundered anathemas 
upon the heads of obdurate sinners ; and among that 



class in which fear of a hereafter was the main in- j 
centive to religious life, he was unusually successful. | 
Combativeness was a strong element in his character. 
He never, so far as I knew, declined a discussion with 
one of another denomination. His meetings in the 
early days of his ministry were remarkably orderly. 
If bis intellectual forces were not sufficient to reduce 
the refractory young men to order, his physical forces { 
were, and when he did bring them into action, woe 
was it to the luckless sinner who felt his strong hand 
grasp him. Not long since (1874), this really good 
and useful man passed to his reward." i 

A man of quite different character in many essen- 
tials is the Rev. John Byrns, who settled in Pokagon 
in 1837. He is a native of Ireland ; was born in • 
1816, and came with his parents to America when he 
was six years of age. Prior to his emigration to 
Michigan, he resided in Syracuse, N. Y. In 
1840, he was converted, joined the Methodist Church, 
and it was not long thereafter that he was licensed to 
exhort. In 1841, he was licensed to preach. Since i 
that time, he has devoted himself unselfishly to the 
church, and been very active in its service. Few men 
have done more for the advancement of Methodism in 
Southwestern Michigan than Mr. Byrns. He never 
joined the Conference, but has been appointed to and ' 
has filled numerous circuits, and when not so em- j 
ployed has had charges nearer home. He has main- ' 
tained himself by industrious farming, and his labors > 
for the church have been performed through the most 
strenuous extra exertions. He has often been obliged 
to travel from fifty to seventy-five miles upon horse- 
back at the end of the week, besides doing his regular 
work upon the farm. 

Collins, " the Boy Preacher" (afterward in the front 
rank of Methodist divines) and the impression he pro- 
duced in Cassopolis, in the fall of 1839, are described 
by Mr. Turner, in his paper on "The Pioneer Clergy," 
very happily : 

"I naturally looked toward the speaker's stand. 
There, occupying his chair, sat a youth, who seemed 
to be eighteen or nineteen years of age, yet he was 
probably several years older than his looks indicated. 
He was of good size, well proportioned, with a full, 
fresh beardless face and flaxen hair. His garments, 
which were of some dark gray material, seemed, in 
every way, too small for him, and evidently made him 
feel uncomfortable, for I noticed him occasionally try j 
to lengthen out his pants by thrusting his thumbs just 
inside of the pockets and pushing down on them. 
Then he would pull at the bottom of his vest, so as to 
close up the open space between it and the waist-band 
of his pani,s. Now and then he would catch, with his 
fingers, the lower end of his coat sleeve and pull it | 

down, in order to cover much of the wrist left exposed 
by the extreme scantiness of the cloth. While sitting 
there, his eyes, the most of the time, were cast down 
to the floor, but occasionally he would raise them for 
a moment, and take a glance at the congregation, as 
if to take in its character and capacity, then let them 
fall again. 

" The time for service had come. He slowly raised 
to his feet, and, in a tremulous, indistinct manner, 
read a hymn, which having been sung, he knelt down 
and made a brief but certainly not a powerful, prayer. 
Then rising to his feet, he gave out his text, which 
may be found in the first epistle general of John — 
' God is love.' 

" Up to this time, he had not made a very favorable 
impression upon bis audience. Indeed, some of the 
old campaigners of the church began to hang their 
heads, feeling that Methodism would suffer in the 
hands of the ' Boy Preacher.' His manner, his read- 
ing, his prayer all fell short of what was expected of 
one sent to take charge of so large and important a 
field of labor as Cass Circuit." 

" My sympathies, however, were strongly enlisted 
in his favor from the first. He was young and inex- 
perienced. He must begin his career somewhere. The 
Conference, no doubt, regarded our circuit as a new 
field, comparatively, and eminently fit ground for a 
young theologian to practice in. Then, as now, the 
most matured talent of the church was thrown into 
the cities and larger villages. But, notwithstanding 
all the drawbacks that the ' boy ' had to contend with, 
I felt, if there was any truth in physiognomy, he had 
within him the germs of a noble manhood — the indices 
of a great mind. If he had disappointed his hearers 
in the preliminary exercises of the morning, his slow, 
hesitating words and awkward gestures at the opening 
of his discourse, bid fair to intensify that feeling be- 
fore its close. Yet, as he stumbled along, there was 
something in his honest face, something in his clear, 
blue eyes, that gradually attracted and fixed the at- 
tention of his audience. It was a kind of magnetic 
influence, such as some of our best public speakers 
possess and often wield to control the masses on great 
and important occasions. 

" By degrees the embarrassment under which he 
labored wore off; his language and gestures im- 
proved ; his Methodist friends began to look up 
again, and hope at least that he would not disgrace 
them. His slow, broken utterances gave way to a 
stronger, better-connected and clearer train of thought. 
His eyes, which had before sought the floor, now 
looked confidently up, and his countenance beamed 
with an intelligence so grandly good as to rivet the 
attention of every one who could see and hear him. 



The transformation from the uncouth, inexperienced, 
stammering boy to the convincing, powerful minister 
of God's word was now complete." * * * * 

" Concluding his discourse by a brief exhortation, 
Brother Collins sat down, and for a time all was 
wonderfully still in the house. That he had made a 
decidedly favorable impression was clearly apparent. 
A satisfied and pleased expression lit up the faces of 
many, especially of church members. Others, un- 
usually sympathetic in their feelings, wept freely ; 
and not a few seemed thoughtful and solemn. * * 

" From that day we kept the young brother in 
view. With each succeeding year, he grew in impor- 
tance among the Methodists of Michigan and the 
public generally. His acknowledged ability placed 
him in the front rank of his denomination. He be- 
came a leader ; honors upon honors were showered 
upon him, and had his life been spared, the crowning 
one of them all in the church militant would have 
been his — a Bishopric." 

Presbyterian ism had among its leading early ex- 
ponents the Rev. Mr. Bryant, and the Rev. Mr. 
McClaren — " both eminent for piety, learning and 
ability. Perhaps none who preceeded them, and cer- 
tainly none who came after them, exercised so great 
an influence for good in the church as these pioneers. 
They were industrious and earnest in their advocacy 
of the cause they had espoused." 

Roman Catholicism was first preached in Cass 
County to the Pottawatomie Indians. The Chief, 
Pokagon, and his followers, built a small log church 
in Silver Creek Township, on the north bank of Long 
Lake, in 1838. The first priest who regularly visited 
them was the Rev. De Salle, who came from the Col- 
lege of Notre Dame, at South Bend, Ind.* 


The ordinance of 1787 for the government of the 
Northwest Territory contained the declaration that 
" schools and the means of education shall forever be 
encouraged." An ordinance for the sale of Western 
lands, passed by Congress in 1785, provided that Sec- 
tion 16 in every township should be reserved for the 
use of schools, and that wise and beneficent measure 
has been re-enacted and enforced by subsequent legis- 
lation — the acts for the sale of lands in the Indiana 
Territory, for the organization of Michigan Territory, 
and the ordinance admitting the State of Michigan 
into the Union. The original and the present consti- 
tutions of the State required that the proceeds of 
these lands should remain a perpetual fund for the 

»The intercnting history of tho Silver Croek Catholic Church is given at 
UiiKth In the chapter devoti-il to the townnhlp. 

fli^iliicalionnl niiittera are here treated only in a eenernl way — as per* 
tjiining to tho county an a whole. Detailed hiatorieM of the principal achoola of 
tho connty appear in their appropriate placm In liila work. 

purpose originally designed. The measure was sub- 
sequently modified to the advantage of the State as 
a whole.* 

The success of the sciiool system of the State is 
very largely due to the foresight and wise manage- 
ment of its organizers. Educational interests have 
nowhere in the Union received more attention or been 
more enhanced by the people than in Michigan. School- 
houses everywhere dot the landscape. The cities and 
villages have vied with each other in erecting the best 
school edifices, and it is no rare thing to see in towns 
of one, two or three thousand population schoolhouses 
admirable in architecture and arrangement, which 
have cost ten, twenty or thirty thousand dollars. 

In 1827 was enacted the first Territorial school law. 
This law ordained that the citizens of any township 
having fifty householders should employ a school- 
master of good morals to teach the children to read 
and write, and that the citizens of any township hav- 
ing two hundred householders should secure the 
services of a schoolmaster competent to teach Latin, 
French and English. The townships which neglected 
to observe this law were liable to the payment of a 
fine of not less than $50 or more than $150. 

This law gave place to another in 1833, which re- 
enacted many of its leading provisions and placed the 
school lands which had formerly been under the super- 
vision of the Governor and Legislative Council, un- 
der the management of three Commissioners and 
ten Inspectors. The oflSce of Superintendent of Com- 
mon Schools was also created. 

In 1837, a primary school law was enacted by the 
State Legislature. This law, which was almost identical 
with that of New York, provided for the division of 
the State into districts, each containing a sufficient 
number of inhabitants to support a school with a 
single teacher. The districts were divided and sub- 
divided as the population increased. 

The union or graded schools followed by a natural 
process of growth, and these liave been constantly 
developed until at present they are the glory of the 

During the later years of the Territorial and the 
early years of the State government, there was a pop- 
ular rage for the establishment of academies. Charters 
were secured for their organization in almost every 
county in Southern Michigan. As a matter of course, 
many of them never progre.ssed beyond 'the stage of 

An act of the Territorial Legislative Council, ap- 
proved April 19, 1833, incorporated the Cass County 
Academy. The corporators were Baldwin Jenkins, 
William Burke, Isaac Shurte, Jacob Silver, Martin 

* See (ante thin volume) chapter on landn. 



Shields, Abiel Silver, Alexander H. Redfield, Demster 
Beatty and Elias B. Sherman. The charter granted 
to the corporators the privilege of building an acad- 
emy in Cassopolis, and stipulated that the amount 
of property owned by the incorporation should not 
exceed in value §20,000. No action was taken to- 
ward carrying out the objects for which this corpora- 
tion was made. 

As the common schools were developed, it was uni- 
versally recognized that they would supply very 
nearly the same kind of education which the acade- 
mies were designed to afford. There are now in the 
State about three hundred graded schools doing the 
work of academies. Each of these has a board of six 
Trustees, two of whom are elected annually for a term 
of three years. 

General supervision of the work of education in the 
State is exercised by the Superintendent of Public 

Local supervision has, during most of the years of 
Michigan's history, been exercised by township or 
village officers chosen for the purpose. 

The schools first came under county management 
in 1867, through the operation of a law passed at the 
session of the Legislature for 1866-67. This was 
entitled "An act to provide for County Superintend- 
ents of Schools." It prescribed the election of a 
County Superintendent in every organized county of 
the State having more than ten school districts. It 
was provided that the Superintendent should be 
elected for a term of two years, and that the first elec- 
tion should be held on the first Monday of April, 1867. 
The compensation was to be decided by the Board of 
Supervisors. The duties of the County School Su- 
perintendent were explicitly defined. Among others 
were those of examining all persons ofi"ering them- 
selves as teachers, attendance in each township at 
least once a year, the issuance of certificates of three 
grades to those applicants passing examinations, and 
the visitation of every school in the county. He was 
also required to examine into the condition of school 
buildings, suggest plans for new or repairs on old ones, 
and to advance the interest in and efficiency of instruc- 
tion by the holding of institutes, delivery of lectures 
and other means in his power. 

The first County Superintendent of Schools elected 
in Cass County was Chauney L. Whitney, elected 
April 1, 1867. He resigned the position in the fall 
of the same year, and the Rev. Albert H. Gaston was, 
upon October 22, appointed by Orimel Hosford, State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, to fill the va- 
cancy. In 1869, Irvin Clendenen was elected, and 
in 1871 Lewis P. Rinehart. Samuel Johnson was 
chosen in 1873, and filled the office until 1875, when 

it was abolished. From 1875 to 1881, public instruc- 
tion was managed by township authorities. 

In 1881, the examination of teachers and other 
details of the supervision of educational interests was 
vested in a County Board, provided for in each county 
of the State by act of the Legislature. The board, 
it was specified, should be composed of three persons 
elected by the chairmen of the Township Boards of 
School Inspectors. In accordance with statutory pro- 
vision, a meeting was held at Cassopolis upon the 12th 
of August. At this meeting E. M. Stephenson was 
elected to serve for a term of one year, Michael Pem- 
berton for two years and Daniel B. Ferris for three 
years. Mr. Stephenson was subsequently chosen 
Secretary and Michael Pemberton Chairman of the 



Alexander H. Kedfleld— Elias B. Shennaa— Old Time Non -Resident 
Lawyei-s Sketched by one who knew Them—" Black Chip " 
and " White Chip"— Biographical Sketch of James Sullivan— 
Ezekiel S. Smith— Henry H. Coolidge— Clifford Shanahan— Daniel 
Blacknian— George B. Turner— Andrew J. Smith— Younger At- 
torneys who have Practiced at the Cass County Bar. 

THE first lawyers in the county were Alexander 
H. Redfield and Elias B. Sherman. They were 
associated together in the proprietorship of Cassopolis? 
and it was principally through their influence that it 
was designated the county seat. 

Alexander H. Redfield was the seventh son of 
Peleg Redfield, and was born in Manchester, Ontario 
Co., N. Y., October 24. 1805. He studied three 
years at Hamilton College, Clinton, N. T., but 
graduated from Union College, Schenectady, in 1829. 
He studied law with James R. and Grove Lawrence and 
with Hon. Samuel Hammond, and was admitted to 
practice in the Supreme Court of New York in July, 
1831. In August of the same year, he came to Cass 
County. After assisting in laying out Cassopolis and 
securing the location of the seat of justice, he for 
many years made the village his home. He assisted 
in raising the first frame building in the town and 
was appointed the first Postmaster. In 1832. as a 
Colonel in the Michigan militia, during the Sauk or 
Black Hawk war, he went to Northern Illinois and 
for many days encamped on the site of Chicago. 
During his residence in Cassopolis, he not only prac- 
ticed law but carried on a very extensive miscella- 
neous business, of which, however, land speculation 
formed the greater part. His office was the brick 
building, still standing upon Broadway, in Cassopolis, 
next door to Capt. Joseph Harper's residence. Mr. 
Redfield was a man of very methodical business and 



professional habits. It is related by his friends that he 
could, in the darkest night, go to his oiSce and select 
any book or package of papers he desired with abso- 
lute certainty. He was noted for his love of order. 
A cotemporary says that his chief excellence as a 
lawyer consisted of his thorough knowledge of the 
routine of office business. He was an able and safe 
counselor, but did not possess remarkable oratorical ; 
talent. His social qualities marked him as a thor- 
ough gentleman and made him a most genial com- 
panion. There was much of quiet humor in his 
composition, and a uniformity of good nature, which, 
with his rare mental characteristics, made him very ' 
popular as man and friend. His integrity was un- 
questioned, and he therefore possessed the almostuni- 
versal respect of the people among whom he dwelt. | 
Those persons who entertained for him any other feel- 
ings than those of friendship, admiration and respect, 
were very few, and their coldness was, almost without 
exception, of the kind that must arise occasionally 
from political differences. Mr. Redfield's large land 
business withdrew his attention more and more, as 
time went by, from the law, and interfered materially 
with his professional success. He also entered the 
field of politics, which claimed and received much of 
his time and energy. In 1847, he was elected State 
Senator from the Fourteenth District, and not long 
afterward moved to Detroit. An able and useful 
man was thus lost to Cass County. In 1856, he was 
elected to the State Senate from Detroit. Prior to 
this time, he served several years as one of the Re- 
gents of the State University. In 1857, he received 
from the President a commission appointing him as an 
agent among the Indians of the Upper Missouri. In 
this capacity, Mr. Redfield's services were responsible, 
arduous, and, to the Government, very valuable. Dur- 
ing the several years that he held the position, he 
made a number of expeditions through the region oc- 
cupied by the tribes to whose charge he had been as- 
signed, which included the head-waters of the Yellow- 
stone and the Missouri, and held councils with thou- 
sands of the Indians, perfecting some beneficent meas- 
ures. In one journey he traveled 7,000 miles. On 
the expiration of his term of service as Indian Agent, 
he returned to Detroit and was soon afterward ap- 
pointed as Comptroller of the city, which office he 
held until failing health compelled him to resign it. 
He died November 24, 1869. It has been said that 
in every public trust imposed upon him, he gave en- 
lire satisfaction, and that of all the vast sums of pub- 
lic money disbursed by him, every penny was faith- 
fully accounted for. Mr. Redfield married, in 1842, 
Miss Phebe C. Dean. Their children, four in num- 
ber, were all born in Cassapolis. 

Eiias B. Sherman was born in Oneida County, N. 
Y., in 1803, removed with his parents to Cayuga 
County when four years of age, and there acquired his 
education. In 1825, he emigrated to Michigan, and 
after spending a season at Detroit went to Ann 
Arbor, where he was admitted to the bar in 1829. In 
September of that year, he first visited Cass County. 
In 1831, he took the leading part in the laying-out of 
the village of Cassopolis, and in securing the seat of 
justice, the story of which is told in the appropriate 
place in this volume. Messrs. Sherman and Red- 
field appeared in the first court held in the county. 
Mr. Sherman was appointed by Gov. Cass, November 
7, 1829, as the first Prosecuting Attorney of the 
county, and held the position until 1836, when he 

I was elected by the people. He was appointed Dis- 
trict Surveyor July 31, 1830, and held that office for 
six years. On March 4, 1831, he received appoint- 
ment to the office of Probate Judge, in which he 
remained until 1840. Mr. Sherman never had an 
extensive law practice. His time, during the earlier 
years of the history of the county, was devoted very 
largely to his official duties, and in later years he 
directed his attention entirely to farming. He has 
done much for the benefit of the village which he 
founded and for the county at large. Mr. Sherman 
was married to Sarah, daughter of Jacob Silver, on 
January 1, 1833, by Bishop Philander Chase, of the 
Episcopal Church, the ceremony being the first cele- 
brated in Cassopolis. 

What we may call strictly the Cass County bar, 
was very small during the first ten or twelve years 
after settlement and the organization of the courts. 
Several of the old attorneys of adjoining counties who 

I practiced in the Cass court?, owing to the small num- 
ber of the resident lawyers, have been very nicely 
sketched from memory by the Hon. George B. 
Turner : 

" First, there were the two Chipmans — familiarly 
called " White Chip " and " Black Chip." Our im- 
pression is they were in no way related. The former, 
a resident of this county, was, we believe, a native of 
New England ; tall and straight as an arrow ; to a 
stranger he st-emed rather pompous and distant in his 

1 demeanor, yet he was as companionable and good- 

I hearted as any attorney it was our lot to meet. 

" He was regarded as a fair lawyer and an honest 
one. At one time he was a member of the State 
Senate from our district, and was afterward elected 
County Judge for Cass County. So far as we can 
recollect, he gave general satisfaction in both posi- 

["White Chip," Joseph N. Chipman above de- 
scribed, had only a short residence in Cass County, 


and lived most of the time in Niles. He was born in 
Vermont in 1803, and descended from a family in 
which were same of the most distinguished lawyers in 
that State. He settled in Niles in 1836, and died 
there in the year 1870.] 

" John S. Chipman (" Black Chip"), of Berrien 
County, was, we think, a native of the State of New 
York. Like his namesake, he was tall and com- 
manding in person, but unlike him had raven black 
hair and eyes to match, and a facial development gen- 
erally, which rendered him always a terror to weak- 
kneed and timid witnesses. Mr. Chipman was regarded 
by many as one of the ablest lawyers in this judicial 
district, though we never believed him to be as deeply 
learned in the law as some others. He was a bold, 
impulsive and at all times an eloquent speaker ; pos- 
sessing a rich, full voice over which he had perfect con- 
trol. More than once have we heard him use it with 
decided effect, either to build up or demolish the char- 
acter of witnesses or suitor. His eloquence after all 
partook more of the ' spread eagle' character than 
of that fascinating kind, which, while it electrifies, 
impresses one thoroughly with the speaker's deep and 
scholarly attainments. He was never a favorite with 
the younger members of the bar, in consequence of 
his brusque manner of dealing with them. Toward 
witnesses, he was at times abusive ; but take him all 
in all he was a good lawyer. Elected to Congress 
from this district, he made a speech soon after reach- 
ing Washington, and, to use his own language 
' planted himself on the ramparts of the Constitution' 
and doubtless would have remained there had not a 
wicked and mischievous Southern gentleman reached 
up and pulled all of the feathers out of his wings so 
that he came fluttering down to the level of his fellow- 
members. His morals were bad in several respects ; 
finally he went to California and, report says, died there 
an inebriate. With all his faults, John S. Chipman 
possessed many qualities, which his intimate personal 
friends might havo-eolitrolled to his great advantage 
— to his final redemption from the principal evils 
which beset him — had they chosen to exert their power 
over him in that direction." 

Charles Dana, who practiced much in this county 
during early years, was a resident of Berrien, and died 
at Niles many years ago. Mr. Turner has made the 
subjoined pen sketch of him : " He was a thin, dried 
up little man, with a remarkable feminine voice, but 
by all odds the best special pleader at the bar. Every- 
body liked Dana both for his goodness of heart and 
his unquestioned ability as a lawyer. In chancery 
practice, where plethoric bills or answers were to be 
drawn up or their framework dissected, he was per- 
fectly at home. As a speaker, he was dry and un- 

interesting to the masses, yet at the same time was a 
close, sharp, logical reasoner. He ranked among the 
first lawyers of the State." 

.Vincent L. Bradford was another practitioner well- 
known in Cass County. He settled in Niles in 1837, 
and did not remain very long in the West, but re- 
turned to Philadelphia from whence he had emigrated 
to Michigan. The rough and ready manners of the 
majority of the law practitioners of the new county 
and the social habits of the people were not tasteful to 
him. Mr. Turner considers him to have been one of 
the finest specimens of physical manhood he ever saw, 
and describes him as " always dressed with scrupulous 
neatness, each particular hair, pleat and rufile being in 
its proper place. Withal, he was refined, sociable, 
gentlemanly, to an eminent degree. As a lawyer, he 
was thoroughly posted ; as a speaker, rapid and easy; 
yet we cannot say he was always interesting ; on the 
contrary, somewhat tiresome ; his argument was 
usually spread over too much ground." 

" Charles E. Stuart," says the writer we have 
above quoted, "or 'Little Charley,' as his ardent 
country admirers used to call him, was a native of the 
Empire State, and in their estimation held the first 
position at the bar of Kalamazoo and its adjoining 
counties. As a jury lawyer, he was certainly very 
successful ; for nearly all of the elements which go to 
make an attorney invincible before such a body, he 
possessed to a rare degree. Cool and self-possessed, 
with language smooth and insinuating, accompanied 
with an air of sincerity, and with a certain dignified 
and polished manner, which well-trained rhetoricians 
know so well how to bring to bear upon their hearei'S, 
his speeches always pleased and interested ; exer- 
cising strong common sense, a pretty accurate knowl- 
edge of the law, as well as human nature, we have the 
key to Mr. Stuart's success as a lawyer." He repre- 
sented this district in Congress at one time, and 
later was United States Senator from Michigan. 

Samuel Clark, also of Kalamazoo County, a mem- 
ber of Congress from New York State before he set- 
tled in Michigan, " was regarded by many as the peer 
of Mr. Stuart at the bar, though differing from him 
in more respects than one. He was tall, rather slen- 
derly built, with black hair and eyes, always sustaining 
himself with a quiet, honest dignity of manner and 
speech, which won for him hosts of friends wherever 
he went. He was in truth a sound lawyer ; not really 
brilliant before a jury, but he possesseil the happy fac- 
ulty of convincing that body that he was honest in 
the advocacy of his client's cause, and had the law and 
the facts on his sidle to sustain him. We would not 
detract one iota from the solid or brilliant acquire- 
ments of any other member of the bar, when we say 



that Samuel Clark was our beau ideal of the gentle- 
man and lawyer combined." 

At a later day many other attorneys, not residents 
of the county, have practiced in its courts, among the 
earlier of whom were James Brown and Nathaniel 
Bacon, of Niles, and Henry H. Riley, of St. Joseph 
County. In later years, the principal practitioner at 
the Cass bar, not residing in the county, was Frank- 
lin Muzzy, of Niles, who was admitted to the bar in 
Berrien County in 1842. 

The name of James Sullivan recalls to the minds 
of those who knew him, a character in which was 
combined rare qualities of the mind and heart. In 
every sense of the word, except the chronological, he 
was unquestionably the first lawyer of the Cass 
County bar. James Sullivan, practitioner at this bar 
from 1838 to 1878, was born in Exeter, N. H , 
December 6, 1811. His ancestry was illustrious. 
Darcey McGee, in his history of the Irish settlers of 
North America, says : " In the year 1723, the Irish 
settlement of Belfast was established in Maine by a 
few families. Among them was a Limerick school- 
master by the name of Sullivan." His sons, John 
and James reached the height of civil and military 
authority. James was a Representative in Congress 
and Governor of Massachusetts ; John (the grand- 
father of our subject), was the noted Gen. Sullivan, 
of the Revolution, was a Representative in Congress 
from New Hampshire, and Governor of the State from 
1786 to 1789. His son, George, was for many years 
one of the most eminent members of the New Hamp- 
shire bar. Attorney General and successively member 
of the State Senate and of Congress. James Sulli- 
van had the fineness and the force of his fathers. It 
was not strange that with such an ancestry he should 
himself achieve eminence. He graduated from Dart- 
mouth College at the age of eighteen, ranking high 
in his class, and after practicing for a short time at 
Concord, N. H., he came in 1837 to Niles. He re- 
moved soon after to Edwardsburg, Cass County, and 
from there in less than a year to Cassopolis, where he 
achieved great success. 

In 18.53, he took up his residence in Dowagiac, 
where he resided until his death. His ability as a 
lawyer was of the highest order. He was a man of 
fine scholarship, of culture, and possessed a remark- 
ably clear and logical mind. He comprehended fully 
whatever subject he was considering, and seemed to 
recognize from the first the point upon which a case 
must ultimately turn. One of his brother members 
of the law says : " His statements were clear and his 
language accurate, and we can all say his logic was 
honest. He would not usurp or misrepresent the law, 
and he scorned the use of any trick or chicanery to 

achieve a temporary triumph, and despised any one 
who would stoop to it." Another says : "That mag- 
netic fire of eloquence which sways the minds and 
hearts and passions of men, despite their reason and in 
defiance of logic, Mr. Sullivan did not possess ; or, 
certainly if he did, disdained to employ it. His elo- 
quence was of the higher and purer type, and was 
addressed to the intellect alone. His was a close-knit, 
logical, skillful and vigorous statement, displayed in 
apt and nervous language." 

In moral character, Mr. Sullivan was all that the 
allusions to his professional honor would imply. He 
was unsuspecting, frank, his nature as guileless as that 
of a child. Some slight errors of conduct indeed ap- 
peared, but they could always be imputed to the nerv- 
ous impulses of his nature, rather than to any wrong 
intention. No man was ever more ready than he, 
when convinced of error, to make ample acknowl- 
edgement and reparation. He was eccentric and 
erratic, nervous and intense, and yet no man of gen- 
tler nature or kinder heart has been known to the old 
residents of Cass County. His nervousness was phe- 
nomenal, a source of much annoyance to himself, 
wonder to strangers and often of amusement to his 
friends. He seemed to have an instinctive dislike 
and distrust of all animals, and his morbid fear of 
riding behind a horse was often illustrated. The 
least irregularity in the gait of the animal, any slight 
and unusual motion of the head or ears, would 
throw him into a state of painful uneasiness, and 
sometimes a shying movement of the horse would 
cause him to leap from the carriage. An unfortunate 
deafness caused him also considerable trouble, and 
was a disadvantage which undoubtedly had a marked 
effect upon his life. It is probable that had it not 
been for this physical disability, the highest judicial 
honors in the State would have been his. His in- 
firmities did not disqualify him for the ordinary duties 
of his profession, but they contributed in no small 
degree to prevent his acceptance of positions which 
he could have well filled. 

Mr. Sullivan was for a long time Prosecuting At- 
torney of this county ; was a State Senator and 
a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1850. 
While that body was in session he made a speech 
upon the Grand Jury system, which at the time was 
regarded as a master-piece of eloquence and logic, and 
gave evidence of the most profound study. He died 
in August, 1878. 

John T. Adams came to the county about 1835, 
and settled at Edwardsburg. He had a small practice 
during his brief residence in the county. In 1836, 
he was elected Probate Judge, but did not qualify for 
the oflSce. We have no biographical facts concerning 


Mr. Adams, and about the only thing which old resi- 
dents remember concerning him is that he was a 
remarkably fine looking man. 

Frederick Lord was a resident of the county for a 
short time prior to 1839. in which year he removed 
to Van Buren County, and settled at Paw Paw. 

In the year 1839, a young man named Masters, 
from Albany, N. Y., became a practitioner at the 
Cass bar, but he soon disappeared, moving probably 
to the farther West. 

Ezekiel S. Smith came to the county in 1840, with 
a commission from Gov. Woodbridge as Prosecuting 
Attorney. After his term was served out, he prac- 
ticed law more or less, until about 1852, when he 
removed to Chicago, where he died in 1880. While 
here he followed successively the occupations of 
editor and merchant, as well as that of the lawyer, 
and found time to " take a hand in politics." As a 
lawyer, he is described as having been energetic, almost 
without parallel, in getting evidence, but not so good 
in the management of his cases in court. He was 
bold and aggressive, but lacked ability as a logician. 
Mr. Smith was fertile in resources ; would take hold 
of almost any project, and was always well provided 
with great plans for the future. He is said to have 
been a man of very fine appearance. 

Judge Henry H. Coolidge, now of Niles, resided in 
Cass County for a term of about fifteen years, and 
has practiced at the Cass bar and presided over its 
court since his removal. He was born at Leominster, 
Mass., in August, 1811, and educated at Amherst 
College. He came to Michigan and settled at Ed- 
wardsburg in 1836. He was admitted to the bar in 
1844, elected Prosecuting Attorney in 1850, and 
removed to Niles in 1859. He was elected Prosecut- 
ing Attorney for Berrien County in 1862, and a 
delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1867. 
In 1872, he was appointed as Circuit Court Judge to 
fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Judge 
Daniel Blackman. and in 1876 was elected to the 
same office, which he resigned about two years later. 
His son, Orville W., who was admitted to the bar in 
Cass County in 1865, now resides at Niles. 

George Brunt Turner, of Cassopolis, was one of 
the earliest resident practitioners at this bar. He 
was born in Franklin County, N. Y., March 1, 1822. 
and was the youngest son of Ralph and Mary 
(Thompson) Brunt, natives of the North of Ireland, 
who had emigrated to America a short time before his 
birth. When the subject of our sketch was three 
years old, both of his parents died of malarial fever, 
and he was adopted by Sterling A. Turner, a Virginian, 
taking the name of his benefactor. He was educated 
in the public schools of New York until thirteen 

years of age. In 1835, Sterling A. Turner emigrated 
to Michigan, and as he passed through Detroit he 
found a place for his adopted son in an auction and 
commission house. Mr. Turner settled in Niles, to 
which place George B. followed him, and, in July, 
1836, they removed to Cassopolis. In this place, 
which, as it proved, was to be his permanent home, 
the lad was occupied for the first four years, or until 
1840, in attending school, teaching and clerking. 
During the next four years, he studied law in the 
office of Alexander H. Redfield, Esq., and was admit- 
ted to the bar September 27, 1844, before Judge 
Epaphroditus Ransom, the Examining Committee 
being Ezekiel S. Smith, James Sullivan and Alexan- 
der H. Redfield. In the meantime, he had by the 
aid of his preceptor and other gentlemen, who had 
taken an interest in him, acquired a knowledge of the 
higher mathematics and the languages, and pursued a 
systematic course of reading in history, acting under 
the advice of Nathaniel (afterward Judge) Bacon. 
He had also practiced in the justice courts, and thus 
obtained not only a valuable experience, but some 
remuneration. An event which occurred upon the 
day he was admitted to the bar serves to illustrate one 
phase of Mr. Turner's character, and in a certain 
degree the state of society at that time. He had not 
long before stabbed with a pocket knife and danger- 
ously wounded a notorious bully who had made an 
unprovoked assault upon him to revenge a spite, Mr. 
Turner having made efibrts to force the payment of a 
debt owed by the bully, which had been given to him 
for collection. The Sheriff who arrested him became 
his bondsman, and every member of the bar present 
at the term of court volunteered his services free of 
charge in his defense. There were several counts 
in the indictment, the first being assault with intent to 
kill and murder, and another, simple assault. Mr. 
Turner was acquitted of the more serious charge and 
found guilty upon the smaller offense. Public opin- 
ion was in favor of his entire acquittal, and the jury 
would doubtless have so decided had there not been a 
couple of Quakers in the body whose strong non-com- 
bative principles urged them to bestow a slight repri- 
mand. The same Judge before whom Mr. Turner 
was admitted to the bar heard the trial for murder and 
imposed the lightest fine allowed by law for assault. 
The incident was used against him by Mr. Turner's 
political opponents, when he was a candidate for 
the Legislature in 1848, but as a campaign gun it 
proved ineffectual. He was elected and served so 
satisfactorily that he was returned in 1849. In 1850, 
he was compelled to abandon his profession by reason 
of ill health, and removed to a farm in Jefferson Town- 
ship. In 1856, he was nominated upon the Demo- 



cratic ticket for State Senator, but the Republican 
party organized that year swept the State, and Mr. 
Turner, like others of his party, was defeated. Mr. 
Turner has been active in the affairs of his party, and 
a man always trusted and very frequently honored by ! 
it. Twice he has been a camlidate for the office of 
Probate Judge, and once for that of Prosecuting j 
Attorney. He was nominated for Secretary of State 
in 1866; was Presidential Elector on the Seymour 
ticket in 1868, and, in May, 1876, was a delegate to 
the National Democratic Convention at St. Louis, 
which nominated Samuel J. Tilden for the Presidency. 
Had he been a Republican he might have been " 
advanced to distinguished positions, but he has pre- 
ferred to be loyal to his political convictions at the 
price of losing honored public place, and has enjoyed 
private life in a degree which, perhaps, only one man 
in a hundred is qualified for. Mr. Turner was for 
several years editor of the first paper published in 
Cass County — the Cass County Advocate, now the 
National Democrat, and has been a valued contributor 
to the local press, the Jackson Patriot and other pub- 
lications at periods during the past thirty years. He 
has been noted for his strict integrity, untiring indus- 
try, energy and earnestness. Politically, he has ever 
been a Democrat of the Jeffersonian school, has vigor- 
ously asserted and supported what he has conscien- 
tiously believed correct political principles, and, in '. 
so doing, has made some bitter enemies, as well as : 
many friends. In 1874, he returned to Cassopolis, 
where he has since resided and carried on an exten- 
sive business in real estate, insurance, etc. Mr. Tur- ; 
ner was married, in 1845, to Harriet, daughter of Allen 
Munroe, who died in 1858. In 1863, he married the 
widow of John Tytherleigh, an English lady, who came [ 
to this country in 1850. Mr. Turner had by his first [ 
wife six children, two of whom died in infancy. Two 
daughters — Mary (Bosworth) and Lotta (Banks) have { 
died in recent years, and two sons are now living — j 
Ralph B., located at Jackson, Mich., and Sterling B., 
at Bremen, Ind. 

Clifford Shanahan, although a member of the bar, 
was more generally known to the people through his 
long occupation of the office of Probate Judge. He 
was born in Sussex County, Delaware, February 4, 
1801. His mother died when he was eleven years old, 
and he was brought up by an uncle. After he was 
twenty-one years of age, he worked on a farm summers 
and taught school winters, for three or four years. He 
also carried on for a time a cabinet shop and preached 
quite frequently for the Methodist denomination, of 
which he was a member. April 8, 1828, he married 
Miss Mary Lowrey. In the spring of 1834, he moved 
to Michigan, and settled at Edwardsburg, Cass County. 

There he worked at his trade of cabinet-making, served 
as a Justice of the Peace and preached occasionally. 
He was elected Probate Judge, in 1840, upon the 
Whig ticket, and served in that capacity until 1864, 
the extraordinary period of twenty-four years. In 
1845, he removed from Edwardsburg to Cassopolis 
and soon after that was admitted to practice. He died 
August 1, 1865. He was the father of eight children, 
the oldest of whom, Sarah E., now deceased, was the 
wife of Judge Andrew J. Smith. Another daughter, 
Harriet (Pollock), now resides in Cassopolis. 

Noel Byron Hollister came to the county in 1850 
and was the first resident lawyer of Dowagiac. He 
was originally from Victor, Ontario County, N. Y., 
but removed to Dowagiac from Clinton County, Mich. 
Mr. Hollister, besides practicing law, engaged in busi- 
ness as a druggist. His father, Joseph Hollister, who 
was also a lawyer, became a resident of Dowagiac, but 
did not long remain there. Noel B. Hollister, after a 
few years removed to Perryville, Ind. 

Samuel N. Gannt, of Baltimore, Md., came to Do- 
wagiac early in the fifties and obtained a small prac- 

Daniel Blackman, one of the ablest lawyers and 
most marked characters of the county bar, resided at 
Cassopolis for a period of twenty-one years. He was 
born in Newtown, Conn., December 31, 1821 ; was ad- 
mitted to the bar in December, 1845, and practiced 
five years in Danbury, Conn. In July, 1851, he 
settled in Cassopolis. He was elected Circuit Judge 
on the peoples' ticket, in November, 1869 ; resigned 
November 1, 1872, and removed to Chicago, where he 
is now practicing law as a member of the firm of Fair- 
child & Blackman. In politics, Mr. Blackman is, and 
has been, a Democrat. He is a man of large ability 
and many peculiarities. While he lived in Cassopo- 
lis, he was identified with a number of public meas- 
ures. In company with Joseph Harper, he located the 
site of the new schoolhouse ; he induced the building 
upon the public square, and did much to bring the 
Peninsular Railroad through the village. 

Judge Andrew J. Smith, son of White B. and Arriette 
(Brown) Smith, was born near Chillicothe, Ross County, 
Ohio, whither his parents had emigrated from Delaware, 
on the 2d of September, 1818. His mother died when he 
was nine months old, and his father, who was a house- 
joiner and farmer, removed the family a few years 
later — in the fall of 1826 — to Rush County, Ind. 
From there they went to Porter County, in the same 
State, in 1835, and settled where the town of Valpa- 
raiso has since been built. The subject of our sketch 
enjoyed very limited educational advantages. He at- 
tended the district school a few winter terras, but the 
greater portion of his time he was at work upon his 



father's farm, until he was twenty years old. In the 
spring before he arrived at his majority, he was elected 
Constable of Valparaiso. Soon after this time, he 
resolved to abandon farming. He conceived a great 
liking for study, and determined to improve himself 
mentally. He began teaching the district school in 
winter arid studying in summer. In the summer and 
fall Df 1840, he became much interested in politics, 
attended the immense Whig Convention at Tippecanoe, 
and rendered some services during the campaign in 
the neighborhood of his home. In December, 1840, 
he removed to Edwardsburg, Cass County, where he 
attended school alternately as teacher and pupil, most 
of the time for seven years. During this period, he 
also read law. Mr. Smith moved to Cassopolis in 
June, 1847, and taught school there in the fall and 
winter succeeding, after which he clerked in " Uncle 
Jake " Silver's store. Subsequently, he entered the 
employ of Asa and Charles Kingsbury, and was sent 
by them, in 1851, to carry on a branch store in Van- 
dalia. In the mean time, he had industriously pur- 
sued the study of law. He was admitted to practice 
in 1853, and elected Prosecuting Attorney in 1854. 
In the spring of 1856, he gave up the mercantile 
business, returned to Cassopolis and devoted himself 
wholly to the practice of law, and the discharge of his 
official duties. He was elected County Prosecutor five 
times in succession, and served from 1854 to 1864. 
After an interval of two years, he was again elected, 
and thus served altogether in this capacity twelve 
years. In 1874, Mr. Smith was elected Attorney 
General of the State, and served in that capacity for 
two years. In his official capacity as Prosecuting At- 
torney, he rigidly enforced the anti-liquor laws, and 
brought about a very salutary condition of things in Cass 
County. The number of saloons in the county was 
decreased to the minimum, and there were none at all 
in Cassopolis from 1857 until the license law came 
into force. While he was Attorney General, the con- 
stitutionality of the liquor tax law was tested, and, 
notwithstanding the fact that he was personally op- 
posed to such a law, and believed in prohibitory legis- 
lation, he decided it admissible under the constitu- 
tion. His briefs in favor of the law attracted atten- 
tion not only in Michigan, but in all the States in 
which similar questions were before the people. He 
gained a reputation second to that of none who have 
held the position. In the fall of 1878, Mr. Smith 
was elected Circuit Judge in the Second Judicial Dis- 
trict, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Judge Coolidge, and in the spring of 1881, he was 
re-elected without opposition. On that occasion he 
published the following card, which may very appro- 
priately be inserted here : 

Cassopolis, April 11, 1881. 
I take this opportunity to return my thanks to the people of 
this Judicial Circuit for the unanimous support they have given 
me for the office of Circuit J udge. It is certainly very gratifying to 
me to be re-elected without opposition from any parly, and I 
especially tender my thanks to the people of Cass County for the 
hearty support they have always given me whenever I have been 
a candidate for their suffrage ; and the unanimous indorsement 
the people of this circuit have given me at this time is the more 
gratifying to me, as this is the last time I shall be a candidate for 
any office. If I shall live to the close of this term, I shall have 
served the people nine years as Circuit Judge, two years as Attor- ■ 
ney General of the State, and twelve years as Prosecuting Attor- 
ney of Cass County. This is certainly all that I could ask or de- 
sire, and if I live to see that time, I shall retire from public life. 
Again thanking the people of this circuit for the confidence re- 
posed in me, I assure them that I shall endeavor to discharge the 
duties of the office impartially and to the best of my ability. 

.A. J. Smith. 

Judge Smith has held many positions of trust in 
Cassopolis; been active in promoting the welfare of 
the village, and a liberal supporter of all good institu- 
tions. He has been a member of the Council for a 
number of years, and has served twelve years on the 
School Board. He joined the Presbyterian Church, of 
which he has been a very influential member, in 1845, and 
hasbeen a member of the Masonic fraternity since 1853. 
Judge Smith's strict integrity, untiring industry and 
strong determination, have been the forces which have 
made his career one of success. He has always com- 
manded the respect of the people with whom he has 
come in contact, as being a conscientious man and one 
of remarkable fidelity to fixed principles. In politics, 
he has been a Whig, a Free-Soiler and a Republican. 
He was married in 1844, to Sarah E. Shanahan, 
daughter of Cliiford Shanahan, who was Probate 
Judge of Cass County for twenty-four years, and of 
whom a sketch appears in this chapter. Mrs. Smith 
died January 1, 1873, leaving a son and daughter of 
mature age. 

James M. Spencer was born on board of a British 
merchantman, in British waters, on the 14th of Sep- 
tember, 1833. His father was in command of the 
ship, and his mother accompanied her husband on 
the voyage. Not long after his birth, his parents re- 
moved to this country and located in New Orleans. 
After carrying on a mercantile business there for a 
year or two, the father and family removed to Cincin- 
nati, and in 1836 or 1837, to Monroe, Mich. He in- 
vested his money in wild lands lying west of that 
place, and soon after died. The mother's death fol- 
lowed a few years later, and the family of three boys 
and two girls were left to care for themselves. The 
subject of this sketch worked his way upward in the 
world without any assistance (some defect in the title 
to the estate purchased by his father causing it to be 
lost to the children). He went in turn to Ypsilanti, 


Ann Arbor, Jackson, Kalamazoo and Dowagiac. In 
September, 1853, he was admitted to the bar at Cass- 
opolis by the Hon. Nathaniel Bacon, then Circuit 
Judge. From that time until August, 1865, he re- 
sided and practiced in the county. He writes that 
"he made many friends, and doubtless some enemies. 
My fourteen years' sojourn in Cass County, as a 
whole, were pleasant and profitable to me." Mr. 
Spencer was elected a Justice of the Peace in Po- 
kagon Township, and discharged the duties of the 
office for four years; he was Circuit Court Com- 
missioner for two years, and subsequently Assessor 
of Internal Revenue for the General Government 
for the district including Cass County. In 1862, he 
was appointed to a position in the War Department, 
which he occupied for about eight months. In 1865, 
Mr. Spencer removed to Topeka, Kan., where he has 
since been engaged in the practice of his profession. 

Charles W. Clisbee, son of Lewis and Hannah 
(Farr) Clisbee, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, July 24, 
1833. He moved to Cassopolis with his father's 
family in 1838. In 1846, he went to Oberlin, Ohio, and 
spent five years in preparing for college, maintaining 
himself in various ways during the whole period. He 
entered Oberlin College in 1851, but left very soon 
afterward to recruit his finances, and after teaching 
one year at Rochester, Oakland Co., Mich., entered, 
in 1852, Williams College, Massachusetts, where he 
spent three years. He passed his senior year at Ham- 
ilton College, New York, in order to enjoy the advan- 
tages of its law school, and graduated in 1856. He 
then went to Cleveland, Ohio, and entered the law 
office of the Hon. John Crowell. In 1858, he was 
admitted to the bar and served the four years follow- 
ing as Circuit Court Commissioner. He was elected, 
in 1862, as Prosecuting Attorney of Cass County. In 
1864, he was a delegate at large from Michigan to the 
National Republican Convention, held at Baltimore, 
which nominated Abraham Lincoln for the second 
term. He was elected "State Senator from Cass 
County in 1866. In 1868, he was a Presidential 
Elector from Michigan, and in the following year was 
appointed Reading Clerk of the House of Represen- 
tatives of the Fortieth Congress, which oflBce he held 
until 1875. He then returned to Cassopolis and fol- 
lowed his profession. He was Reading Secretary of 
the Republican National Convention, which assem- 
bled in (.'hicago in 1880, and in December, 1881, was 
appointed to his old position as Reading Clerk of the 
House, a place which he is eminently fitted to fill. 

Joseph B. Clarke was born in Connecticut, edu- 
cated at Pompey Academy, Onondaga County, N. Y., 
and at the Rennselaer Scientific School (now called 
institute), at Troy, N. Y., of which he is a graduate. 

He studied his profession principally at Rochester, 
N. Y., and has been admitted to the Supreme Court 
of the United States, to the Federal, Circuit and Dis- 
trict Courts of several States and to the State Courts 
of New York, Michigan and several other States as 
his business has required. Before his admission to the 
bar, he was editor of daily newspapers at Rochester 
and Buffalo, N. Y., Inspector of United States Cus- 
toms for the Genesee District, including the port of 
Rochester, in that State, and acted as Professor of 
Chemistry, botany and other branches of natural 
science in the Vermont Medical College, at Wood- 
stock, Vt., and in several institutions in the State of 
New York. He commenced practice in this State at 
Coldwater, Branch County, in 1855, removed thence 
to Dowagiac, in 1859, and has practiced there ever 
since, with the exception of three years during the 
war when he held positions in the War and Interior 
Departments at Washington, resigning in February, 
1866. He has held the oflSce of Circuit Court Com- 
missioner in this and Branch County, eight years ; 
is now and for fifteen years has been United States 
Commissioner for the Western District of Michigan? 
and is now the Prosecuting Attorney for this county. 
Whilst at Washington, during the war, and when it 
was surprised by the appearance upon its northern 
border of Early's army of eighteen thousand in the 
summer of 1864, he, with others in the civil service, 
volunteered and was mustered into the military serv- 
ice of the United States, in a force extemporized for 
the defense of the national capital. 

George Miller came to this county from Preble 
County, Ohio, in 1859. He had practiced law in 
Ohio two years prior to that time. He was admitted 
to the bar of the several courts in this State at the 
March terra of the Circuit Court in 1860, and at once 
opened an office at Dowagiac, obtaining a fair share 
of business. In 1861, he was elected Justice of the 
Peace for a term of four years. He resigned the 
office, however, in February, 1862, for the reason 
that upon the 22d of the preceding month he had 
been commissioned as Captain of Company L of the 
Ninth Regiment of Michigan Cavalry, which was 
then in camp at Coldwater. He remained in the 
army until March, 1865, when he returned home 
and commenced the practice of his profession a 
Dowagiac. In the fall of 1866, he was elected Circui 
Court Commissioner, and in 1868 Prosecuting At- 
torney. In May, 1871, he removed to Berrien County 
three years later to La Salle, 111. ; in 1875, re 
turned to Cass County, and in 1881 removed to 

Lowell H. Glover was born in Orleans County, N. 
Y., February, 25, 1839, and removed with his parents 


the same year to White Pigeon Prairie, St. Joseph 
County, Mich. In the fall of 1840, the family 
removed to Edwardsburg, Cass County. The father 
of the family died in 1852. The subject of our 
sketch attended school for two years, and then took 
charge of a grocery belonging to his step-father, and 
pursued his law studies while carrying on the store. 
In the meantime, he had lost his right hand by the 
bursting of a shot-gun. In April. 1861. Mr. Glover 
removed to Cassopolis and became a student in the 
office of Daniel Blackman. He was admitted to the 
bar at the October term of the Circuit Court in 1862, 
Judge Nathaniel Bacon presiding, and Henry H. 
Coolidge. A. J. Smith and the late James Sullivan 
constituting the examining committee. In April. 1862, 
he was elected Justice of the Peace, and has held the 
office ever since with the exception of one year. He 
was married in October. 1865. to Maryette, youngest 
daughter of Joseph Harper. 

Jacob J. Van Riper, the present Attorney General 
of the State of Michigan, was a practitioner in Cass 
County for nearly nine years. He was born at Hav- 
erstraw, Rockland Co., N. Y., March 8, 1838, and 
was the son of John and Leah Van Riper, who after- 
ward were settlers at La Grange Village. Cass County. 
The young man w:as reared in New York City, and 
there received a good academic education in the Con- 
ference Seminary and Collegiate Institute. He came 
to La Grange in March, 1857, about six months after 
his parents located there. After teaching school for 
two years in the village, he attended law lectures at 
Michigan University in 1860 and 1861. He was ad- 
mitted to the Cass County bar in January. 1863, 
subsequently to the bar of the Supreme Court of the 
State and, in May, 1881, to the bar of the Supreme 
Court of the United States. He commenced practice 
in 1863. taking up his residence at Dowagiac. His 
practice was carried on, with only slight intermission, 
until 1872, when he removed to Buchanan, Berrien 
Co., where he has since lived. During the war, he 
was Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue for Cass 
County. He was elected a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1867. and was a member of the 
Judiciary Committee and Committee on Bill of Rights. 
He was elected, in 1876, Prosecuting Attorney for 
Berrien County, reelected in 1878, appointed to the 
Board of Regents of the State University in January, 
1880, and, in the same year, was elected to the office 
of Attorney General. Mr. Van Riper was married, 
in 1858, to Miss Emma E. Brouner, of Y'ork Mills, 
N. Y. 

Freeman J. Atwell was born in Orleans County, N. 
Y., December 24, 1831, where he was reared and ed 
ucated. taught school and read law. He went into 

the Union army May 21, 1861, and remained until 
1863, serving in the Twenty-seventh Regiment New 
York Infantry, which had, perhaps, more heavy losses 
than any other from the State, coming out of the war 
with only 400 men of a total enlisted of 2,200. Mr. 
Atwell was on detail duty most of the time. On his 
return home, he was admitted to the bar, in 1863, at 
the Supreme Court, which sat in Buffalo. In 1864, 
he went to Memphis to join the forces of Gen. Slo- 
comb; but that officer having gone to Atlanta, Mr. 
Atwell remained in Memphis and began the practice 
of law. He remained there until 1868, when, becom- 
ing partially blind, he gave up his business and spent 
nearly a year in wandering, his infirmity disabling 
him for close attentiou to professional duties. In 1869, 
he came to Dowagiac, with no definite intention of re- 
maining there; but his sight improving and business 
coming to him, he did so, and has since practiced un- 
interruptedly and with fine success. He is rejcognized 
as the leading lawyer of Dowagiac and the equal of 
any in the county. He married, in October, 1871, 
Miss Ellen T. Clark. 

John A. Talbot, son of Edward and Aseneth 
(Green) Talbot, of Penn Township, was born Febru- 
ary 27. 1847. When only seventeen years of age. he 
enlisted in the First Regiment of Michigan Sharp- 
shooters, and went into active service. He was 
obliged, at one time, to return home on account of 
sickness, but when his health was sufficiently re- 
covered, again went into the army, and remained 
until the war was nearly over. He graduated when 
in his twenty-first year from the Law Department of 
the State University of Michigan, and began practice 
in Cassopolis, continuing about ten years, or until 
the sickness which ended in his death, December 24, 
1878, incapacitated him for labor. Mr. Talbot 
was a good lawyer, a man of fine qualities, almost 
universally liked, and, had he been longer spared, 
would undoubtedly have made for himself more 
than a local reputation in the law. or some other 
intellectual field. During the last three years of 
his life, he compiled " Talbot's Tables of Cases," a 
law book which has received high praise from mem- 
bers of the profession. 

The law firm of Messrs. Howell i Carr, of Cass- 
opolis, was formed May 10, 1870. At the start the 
firm possessed a library of ten volumes, and they now 
take a laudable pride in pointing to the complete re- 
ports of nine States, and about two hundred and fifty 
volumes of law text-books, costing not far from 
§4.000. This firm, which has enjoyed a lucrative 
and constantly increasing practice, is composed of 
Marshall L. Howell and John R. Carr. 

-Marshall L. Howell, son of David M. and Martha 


A. Howell, was born in Cassopolis January 25, 1847. 
He received the degree of Bachelor of Science from 
Kalamazoo College June 17, 1867, and the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws from the University of Michigan in 
March, 1870. His preceptor, with whom he read 
law one year, was the Hon. Daniel Blackman. He 
was elected Prosecuting Attorney of Cass County in 
1874, and defeated in 1876, when he was also candi- 
date for Presidential Elector on the Democratic ticket. 
He ran again for Prosecuting Attorney in 1880, but 
made no canvass, and was defeated by Joseph B. 
Clarke. Mr. Howell was married to Miss Emma 
Banks October 11, 1870. 

John R. Carr was born May 18, 1841, at North 
St. Eleanors, Prince Co., Prince Edward Island, 

B. N. A. His father and mother, Hugh and Sophia 
(Ramsey) Carr, both of whom were born upon the 
Island, are still living, and reside at the old home- 
stead. They are- of Scotch and English descent. 
John R. Carr came to Michigan at the close of the 
war ; taught school, studied law, entered the Law 
Department of the University of Michigan in 1868, and 
graduated therefrom in March, 1870, receiving the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Law. He was immediately after- 
ward formally admitted to the bar at Paw Paw, Mich., 
and was also admitted to the United States Courts at 
Grand Rapids in May, 1873. Mr. Carr was called upon 
in the summer of 1881 to defend a man charged with 
murder in Dakota, and appearing as his attorney in the 
court at Fargo, cleared him. Upon October 10, 1868, 
Mr. Carr married Olive, only daughter of John and 
Ann Lyie, of Dowagiac. 

Harsen D. Smith was born near Albion, N. Y., 
March 17, 1842. He received an academic educa- 
tion, and at the age of seventeen commenced teaching 
school. In 1863, he was Principal of the Union 
School at Eldora, Iowa, and the following year be- 
came Assistant Professor of Mathematics in the Iowa 
Lutheran College at Albion, Iowa. In 1865, he re- 
turned to New York and commenced the study of the 
law in the office of Hon. George F. Danforth, of 
Rochester, now one of the Judges of the Court of 
Appeals of that State. In 1867, he came to this State 
and was admitted to the bar the same year at Cold- 
water, Branch County, by Hon. Nathanial Bacon, 
Circuit Judge. He commenced practicing at Jack- 
son, Mich., the following year, and remained there 
until August, 1870, when he removed to Cassopolis 
and formed a copartnership with Hon. Charles W. 
Clisbee for the practice of law. He remained in 
partnersiiip with Mr. Clisbee until August, 1872, at 
which time he opened an office by himself. October 16, 
1873, he was married to Miss Sate Read, daughter of 
S. T. Read, Es(j., of Cassopolis. January 1, 1875, 

' he formed a law partnership with Hon. A. J. Smith, 
under the firm name of A. J. k, H. D. Smith, which 
continued until the senior member was elected Circuit 
Judge in the fall of 1878, since which time Mr. Smith 
has been practicing at Cassopolis without a partner 
in business. In 1876, Mr. Smith was elected Prose- 
cuting Attorney of Cass County, upon the Republi- 
can ticket, and was nominated and re-elected in 1878, 
and in 1880 declined to be a candidate for re-nomina- 
tion. In politics, Mr. Smith has always been a Re- 

William G. Howard was a native of Cass County, 
being born in Milton Township, on the 18th of May, 
1846. He was raised on a farm and lost his left hand, 
it being cut off by a mowing machine, when he was 
about ten years of age. After attending district 
school and a higher school at Kalamazoo, he entered 
in the year 1863 Olivet College, where he remained 
until 1865. He then returned to Kalamazoo College, 
from which he graduated in June, 1867, at the age of 
twenty-one. Commencing to read law in the fall of 
1867 with Messrs. Balch, Smiley & Balch, of Kala- 
mazoo, he remained in their office continuously until 
the fall of 1869, with the exception of a term spent 
at Ann Arbor Law School. He was admitted to the 
bar at Kalamazoo in 1869, and on the 1st of Febru- 
ary, 1870, began the practice of law in Dowagiac, in 
partnership with James Sullivan. At the election 
that fall he was elected Prosecuting Attorney, run- 
ning on the Democratic ticket. He remained in the 
practice of law at Dowagiac until 1873, when he re- 
moved to Kalamazoo, and formed a partnership with 
H^n. N. A. Balch, which existed until 1878. He 

I then formed a partnership with Arthur Brown and 

I Ebert S. Roos, under the firm name of Brown, How- 

i ard & Roos. 

George Ketcham was born in Mason Township, 
Cass County, January 9, 1850, a son of Samuel 
and Abigail (Pullman) Ketcham. When eighteen 
years of age, he went to Hillsdale College, from which 
he graduated in 1873. He studied law with Judge 
Henry H. Coolidge, at Niles, and was admitted to the 
bar at Cassopolis, in 1874. In 1875, he was elected 
Circuit Court Commissioner and has held the office 
three terms since. 

Merritt Alonzo Thompson, who lived at Vandalia 
and practiced law in the county from 1874 to 1881, 
was a native of Penn Township, and was born in the 
old homestead, where his mother and sister still reside, 
upon the 26th of April, 1847. He attended the com- 
mon schools until he was sixteen years of age, and 
worked at farming after that until he was twenty. In 
the spring of 1868, he entered the State Agricultural 
College, which he attended two years. In 1870, he 


entered the law department of the State University, i 
from which he graduated in March, 1872. In June 
of the same year, he was admitted to the bar at Cass- 
opolis. In 1873, he began practice at Osceola City, 
Mich. ; but in 1874 returned to Cass County and 
opened an office at Vandalia, in partnership with ' 
George L. Linden. In 1875, Mr. L. withdrew and 
Mr. Thompson continued alone until October, 1881, 
when he removed to Little Valley, Kan. 

John Wooster was born in Wheatland County, 
Mich., February 1, 1847. He graduated from Hills- 
dale College in 1873, and spent the two years follow- 
ing in reading law in the office of the Hon. Henry 
F. Severns, in Kalamazoo, being admitted to the bar 
in that county December 30, 1875. In the following 
year, he opened an office in Constantine, but not find- 
ing the location a favorable one fo'r a young lawyer, 
removed in the fall of the same year to Dowagiac, j 
where he has since lived and carried on a general law i 
business. He was admitted to practice in the United i 
States, District and Circuit Courts in the fall of 1878. I 
Mr. Wooster is at present City Attorney of Dowagiac, ' 
having been elected to that office in the spring of 
1880, and re-elected in the spring of 1881. 

Joseph L. Sturr, of Vandalia, was born in Bergen 
County, N. J., in February, 1842, and lived there 
until 1854, when he removed with his parents to this 
county. He entered the army in July, 1861, and 
was in the service until September, 1864, when he 
received an honorable discharge. Upon his return 
home, he went to Wexford County, Mich., of which 
he was several times elected Sheriff. He studied law 
with the Hon. N. A. Balch, of Kalamazoo ; was 
admitted to practice there, and located at Vandalm. I 

L. B. Des Voignes, of Marcellus, was born at 
Mount Eaton, Wayne Co., Ohio, October 15, 1857. In 
1861, he removed, with his parents, to Mendon, St. 
Joseph Co., Mich., and, in 1875, entered the office 
of 0. J. Fast, Esq. (then Prosecuting Attorney for i 
the above county), to read law. In 1876, he was ad- 
mitted to practice at the bar of St. Joseph County, 
and was the youngest attorney ever admitted there. 
He then entered the Law Department of the State 
University, from which he graduated in 1878. Upon 
October 2 of that year, he located at Marcellus, where 
he has since followed his profession. He has been, 
for the past three years. City or Village Attorney. 

Frank H. Reshore, of Dowagiac, was born in Ohio, 
in 1853, and removed to Michigan, with his parents, 
the next year. He graduated from the Dowagiac pub- 
lic schools in 1870. His father, Louis Reshore, who 
was an energetic Dowagiac merchant, dying that year, 
the young man took his place in the store, and man- 
aged it successfully for several years. While thus 

engaged, he began reading law. He attended the 
Law Department of Michigan University from 1873 
to 1875, graduating in the latter year. He was 
obliged to give up his profession and engage, for a 
time, in business ; but resuming his law studies in the 
office of Spaffi^rd Tryon, he was admitted to the bar 
in 1879, and in 1880 opened an office in Dowagiac. 

W. J. Sampson was admitted to the bar in Cass 
County August 7, 1880, and has since that time 
practiced at Marcellus. He was born in Hillsdale 
County, Mich., and received his education at Hills- 
dale College. 



Practitioners in Cass County, Past and Present— Biographical Sketches 
—The Succession of Physicians in Cassopolis, Edwaidsburg, Van- 
dalia, Dnwagiac, Pokagon and Sumnerville— Physicians of La 
Grange, Brownsville, Jones, .^.damsville, Williamsville and Mar- 


THE first physician in the vicinity of Cassopolis, 
or the central part of the county, was a Dr. Grant, 
who made his arrival in 1830 or 1831, and boarded 
with Judge Barnard, of La Grange Prairie. He re- 
moved some time before 1835, "and left no mark." 
Little is known concerning his personality. 

Henry II. Fowler settled at Geneva, on Dia- 
mond Lake, in 1831, and in 1835 went to Bristol, 
Ind. He was not prominent professionally, but be- 
came well known through his establishment of the 
village above named, and the manipulations by which 
he caused that place to be designated as the seat of 
justice for the county. 

Isaac Brown, a native of Virginia, settled in 
Cassopolis in the year 1835, and about two years 
later moved to Prairie Ronde, where he continued to 
practice until his death. 

Charles L. Clowes (pronounced Clews), a broth- 
er-in-law of Dr. Brown, and also from Virginia, 
came to the county seat in 1835, and remained in 
active practice from that time until his death, in 
March, 1850. 

David E. Brown, a brother of Isaac Brown, prac- 
ticed in the village a short time at a period subse- 
quent to the above. 

Benjamin F. Gould, a native of New Hamp- 
shire, born in 1804, came in 1837, and practiced 
until his death, in November, 1844. Dr. Gould was 
a man of fine medical and general education, and a 
graduate of Dartmouth College. 

David A. Clowes, son of Charles L. Clofres, 
came to Cassopolis with his father in 1835, and prac- 
ticed with him during the last few years of his life. 



Subsequently, he was associated for a short time with 
Dr. David E. Brown, and in 1854 he removed to 

James Bloodgood came to Cassopolis in 1838, 
and practiced for about ten years. He was born, 
May 1, 1813, in Albany, N. Y., and on first coming 
to Michigan, in 1835, located at Niles. He was mar- 
ried, July 3, 1843, to Miss Louisa Beckwith, sister 
of Walter G. Beckwith. Leaving Cassopolis about 
1848, he went to Niles ; from that place not long 
after, to Chicago, and from that city to Dowagiac, 
where he died quite suddenly, April 24, 1865. 

E. J. Bonine, now of Niles, was one of the 
early and prominent practitioijers in Cassopolis. He 
was born in Richmond, Ind., September 10, 1821, 
and was the son of Isaac and Sarah Bonine, who were 
of Quaker descent, and emigrated from Tennessee to 
Indiana at an early date. The young man entered the 
office of Dr. J. Prichet, of Centerville, Ind., and 
remained there three years and #half. In 1844, he 
removed to Michigan and settled in Cassopolis. From 
that time, onward, until the breaking-out of the war 
of the rebellion, he resided in this place and Vandalia, 
and carried on an extensive practice. 

He was elected to represent Cass County in the 
Lower House of the State Legislature in 1852. The 
Doctor became quite prominent in politics, and in his 
later years has held several offices by election and 
appointment. He was originally a Whig, then a 
member of the Free-Soil party, and subsequently 
aided in the organization of the Republican party, of 
which he has ever since been an adherent. On the 
breaking-out of the civil war, he enlisted as a private, 
and was soon afterward appointed by Gov. Blair as 
Surgeon of the Second Regiment of Michigan In- 
fantry. He received steady promotion through the 
various grades to the position of Surgeon-in-Chief for 
the Third Division of the Ninth Army Corps, which 
consisted of about 30,000 men. During his services, 
he participated in twenty-nine engagements, the prin- 
cipal ones being the battles of Yorktown, Williams- 
burg, Fair Oaks, the seven days' fight before Rich- 
mond, the second battle of Bull Run, Chantilly and 
Fredericksburg. In 1864, he returned to Michigan 
and located at Niles. He was elected to the Legisla- 
ture, but preferred to accept the position of E.xamin- 
ing Surgeon on the Provost Marshal's Staff for the 
Western District of Michigan, with headquarters at 
Kalamazoo, where he remained until the close of the 

He was subsequently elected Mayor of Niles 
two terms ; in 1873, was appointed Postmaster and 
re-appointed in 1877 and 1881. He has been Vice 
President of the State Medical Society, and for the 

past twenty-five years a surgeon of the Michigan 
Central Railroad Company. 

L. D. Tompkins, of Cassopolis, the oldest med- 
ical practitioner in the county, arrived in 1848, 
and had a large experience of the pioneer physician's 
life. At the time he began practice in Cass County, 
the labors of physician were much more arduous than 
they now are, and involved not a little of hardship. 
The Doctor soon secured a very fair practice and had 
an extended ride. During the first eight or ten years 
of his residence in the county, he almost invariably 
traveled upon horseback. The roads were not then as 
numerous as now, and most of those which had been 
cleared and improved were in a condition inferior to 
that of the present. Large bodies of land were 
unfenced, and it was the universal custom among 
those persons familiar with the country when travel- 
ing in the saddle to save time by " going across lots " 
by way of the numerous paths through the " open- 
ings " and the heavy timber. Dr. Tompkins rode 
very frequently upon these paths and often in the 
darkness of night was obliged to lean forward upon 
his horse's neck to avoid being brushed from the sad- 
dle by overhanging limbs of the trees. Sometimes, 
wearied with travel and loss of rest, he would fall 
asleep in the saddle, but the trusty horse, plodding on 
through the darkness along the winding, narrow path, 
would bring him safely home. Dr. Tompkins was 
born in Litchfield, Oneida County, N. Y., February 
15, 1817. His parents, Elijah and Minerva (Barber) 
Tompkins, emigrated from New York to Trumbull 
County, Ohio, in 1832, and there the subject of 
our sketch learned the trade of cloth dressing and 
wool-carding which he followed at Newton Falls 
for three years. He studied medicine three years 
in Portage County, Ohio, practiced in North Bend, 
Columbiana County, about one year ; another year 
in Carroll; removed to Logan County, Ohio, in 
1844, and from there to Cassopolis in May, 1848. He 
has since been in constant practice except during the 
interval when he attended the Rush Medical College 
at Chicago, from which he graduated in the winter of 
1851-52. Dr. Tompkins was married December 19, 
1850, to Miss Frances S. Bostwick, who is still living. 

Alonzo Garwood, son of Isaiah and Caroline 
(Culver) Garwood, born October 15, 1824, in Logan 
County, Ohio, came to Cassopolis in 1850, and is still 
in practice in the village. His medical education 
began in reading with Dr. James Hamilton in East 
Liberty, in his native county, in the year 1847. He 
continued under the preceptorship of Dr. Hamilton 
for one year ami a half, then went to Columbus, Ohio, 
attended lectures at the Starling Medical College, and 
studied in the office of Dr. Howard, the Professor of 



Surgery, and an eminent member of the College Fac- 
ulty. He graduated from the institution above men- 
tioned in 1850, and came directly to Cassopolis. Upon 
the 22d of October of the same year he returned to 
Ohio and married Miss Elvira E. Brown. Dr. Gar- 
wood has taken a deep interest in the affairs of the 
community in which he has lived, has been promi- 
nently identified with the management of the schools, 
and in 1857, was honored with election to the State 
Senate and filled that position satisfactorily to his 

Richard M. Wilson came from Niles in 1854, 
and practiced until 1864, when he returned to his 
former location. He was of the eclectic school, and 
a graduate of the college of Cincinnati. 

Alonzo B. Treadwell, one of the prominent and 
successful physicians of the village and one of its most 
popular citizens during his life, began practice here in 
1864, and continued it until his death. Dr. Treadwell 
was born in Monroe County, N. Y., January 9, 1825. 
He obtained a good common school education mainly 
through his own exertions, and in 1845 or 1846 came 
with his father's large family to Calhoun County, Mich. 
Soon after their settlement, the young man left home 
rather against his father's wishes, and entered Albion 
College, and a year or so later went to Detroit to con- 
tinue his study of medicine. In 1850, he commenced 
practice in Hudson, Mich., in company with Dr. Buch, 
and remained there about two years, when he was called 
home to see a sick brother, whom the attending physi- 
cians had given up to die, but who was saved probably 
through the Doctor's skillful treatment and nursing. 
He soon after formed a partnership with a physician at 
Battle Creek, and while living in that place married 
Miss Augusta Phillips, who was attending school there, 
but whose home was in Cortland County, N. Y. From 
Battle Creek Dr. Treadwell went to Albion, and from 
there to Northville, Mich., where he remained five or 
six years, obtained a large practice and broke down j 
under hard work. The next four years he spent upon ! 
a farm. At the breaking-out of the civil war, he en- I 
listed in the army and was commissioned as a Second j 
Lieutenant, but, owing to an unfortunate accident, was 
incapacitated for the service. In 1864, his health was 
so far improved that he resolved to again commence 
the practice of his profession, and in the spring brought 
his family to Cassopolis. He was for a time in part- j 
nership with Drs. Tompkins and Kelsey, and after- 
ward with Dr. F. F. Sovereign. He died April 21, 1 
1874, universally lamented by those who knew him, 
and highly regarded both as a generous and kindly 
man and an able, conscientious physician. 

William J. Kelsey, of the firm of Tompkins & 
Kelsey, was born in Niagara County, N. Y., August 

20, 1839, and came to La Grange Township, Cass 
County, the same year, with the family of his father, 
James Kelsey. He studied medicine with Dr. C. P. 
Prindle, of Dowagaic, and attended the Rush Medical 
College, of Chicago, from which he graduated in 1865. 
In February of that year, he came to Cassopolis, and 
formed a partnership with Dr. L. D. Tompkins, which 
has existed uninterruptedly since. The firm has en- 
joyed a very large practice. 

Robert Patterson came from Edwardsburg in 1867, 
and was a practitioner in the village for a period 
of about two years ; after which he returned to Ed- 
wardsburg. He is now located at Leonia, Jackson 

A little later than Dr. Patterson's time. Dr. Fred- 
erick F. Sovereign, now of Three Oaks, Mich., prac- 
ticed in the village for a short time, and following him 
came Dr. M. C. McOmber, a homeopathic physician, 
who remained about two years. 

Fairfield Goodwill was born in Madison County, 
N. Y., May 12, 1835. His father and his grand- 
father were both physicians. His father's family re- 
moved to Detroit when Fairfield was only a year old, 
and the boy was reared in that city and there obtained 
a common-school education. He began the study of 
medicine in 1859, reading with Dr. D. Alden, in Pon- 
tiac, Mich., for two years. Upon the breaking-out of 
the civil war, he enlisted in Taylor's Chicago Bat- 
tery. He was promoted rapidly, and held every non- 
commissioned office below the rank of Captain. At 
the battle of Shiloh, he was seriously wounded and 
went home, being assigned to the recruiting service. 
He raised a company of men at Pontiac — Company 
C of the Eighth Regiment Michigan Cavalry — and, 
in January, 1862, was mustered as its Captain, in 
which capacity he served until the close of the war. 
Upon returning to Michigan, he clerked two years in 
Detroit, then went back with his old preceptor, and, 
upon his death, succeeded to his practice. In 1871, 
he went to Detroit, and entered the office of Dr. Will- 
iam Brodie, and, in the fall of the same year, began 
attendance at the Medical Department of the State 
University. After taking three courses of lectures, 
he graduated in 1874, and, in the same year, located 
in Cassopolis, where he has since practiced very suc- 
cessfully. Dr. Goodwin has, in the comparatively 
brief period of his residence in the village, done much 
to advance its interests. Few of its citizens have ex- 
hibited an equal degree of enterprise and public spirit. 
The block on the east side of Broadway, in which is 
Goodwin's Hall, is noteworthy as a single example of 
the Doctor's zeal in building. Dr. Goodwin was first 
married December 25, 1861, in Pontiac, to Miss Mary 
Gordon, who died several years later. Upon January 


15, 1879, he was united with his present wife, who 
was Miss Lida Wadsworth, of Lansing. 

F. P. Hoy was born at Bellefonte, Centerton 
Co., Penn., in 1854 ; graduated at the Hahnemann 
Medical College in New York in 1870, and after 
taking extra courses of lectures, located in Cassopolis 
in the fall of the same year. 

William E. Parker, born in Jefi'erson Town- 
ship, Cass County, in 1854 — a son of John and 
Sarah J. (Ingling) Parker — graduated from the Rush 
Medical College, of Chicago, in 1879, and located in 
Cassopolis in 1880, after practicing one year in the 
eastern part of the county. 

J. D. Mater, a graduate of the University of 
Virginia, came to Cassopolis in 1881, from Parke 
County, Ind., and formed a partnership with Dr. 


The first physician who practiced here was a Dr. 
Martin, a young man who came to the village in 1829. 
He remained only a short time. 

Henry H. Fowler, afterward of Geneva, practiced 
in Edwardsburg a short time prior to 1830. He 
came from Connecticut a single man, and soon re- 
turned there and married. When he came back to 
the village with his bride, they boarded at John 
Sibley's, on Pleasant Lake. 

Dr. Meacham, a cousin of George Meacham, was 
another early practitioner. 

P. P. Barker located here as early as 1834 or 1835, 
and died in the village. He was a man of much pro- 
fessional ability, and had been a surgeon in the 
regular army. 

Henry Lockwood was one of the most prominent 
and popular physicians ever in the village. He was 
born in Little Falls, N. Y., in 1803, read medicine 
with a Dr. Green of that place, graduated at the West- 
ern Medical College, located at Fairfield, Herkimer 
Co., N. Y., and after practicing for several years in 
that region, emigrated to Michigan and settled in 
Edwardsburg in 1837, or the following year. In 
1862, he left Edwardsburg, spent the winter and 
spring in New York State, and, returning, made a 
Western visit in the summer. On coming back to 
Michigan he determined to locate in Dowagiac, but 
had not fairly settled there when his death occurred 
upon the 17th of December, 1863. His remains 
were taken to Edwardsburg for interment. Dr. 
Lockwood was a leading member of the Odd Fellows 

Isr.ael G. Bugbee, another well-known practitioner 
of Edwardsburg, was born in Putney, Vt., April 11, 
1814. Some time in the thirties he came to Edwards- 
burg, and soon after commenced the study of medi- 

cine with Dr. John Treat. He afterward went to 
the State of New York and attended lectures at Fair- 
field Medical College. He practiced Medicine for a 
time in Livingston County, N. Y., and there married. 
June 16, 1839, Elizabeth Head. Shortly after his 
marriage, he returned to Michigan, at first locating in 
Oakland County. In 1840, he removed to Berrien 
Springs, Berrien County. He remained there but a 
few months, and then went to Edwardsburg, where he 
formed a partnership with Dr. Henry Lockwood. 
With Dr. Lockwood he organized Ontwa Lodge, No. 
49, I. 0. 0. F., at Edwardsburg, and he was its 
first chief officer. He was elected Grand Warden of 
the Grand Lodge of Michigan, in 1847, and Grand 
Master of the order in 1859. He was Representa- 
tive of the Grand Lodge of Michigan to the Grand 
Lodge of the United States, for the years 1861-62. 
In 1852, he was Democratic candidate for the office 
of Sheriff" of Cass County, and was defeated by 
twelve votes. He was a successful business man and 
practitioner in Edwardsburg, until the fall of 1869, 
when he met with an accident which made him an in- 
valid for the remainder of his life. He died May 18, 

Dr. Alvord and Dr. John Treat practiced in the 
village a portion of the period covered by the resi- 
dence of Drs. Lockwood and Bugbee. The latter 
sold out in 1839 or 1840, to Philogene P. Mallard, 
a West India man, who had received his medical edu- 
cation at Philadelphia. He went from Edwardsburg 
to Niles. 

A Dr. Wheeler, a young man, was in partnership 
with Dr. Lockwood for a brief period, about 1845-46, 
and a Dr. Sargent came to the village in 1847. 

Enos Penwell, a man who became very prominent, 
and gained a large practice, came to Edwardsburg in 
1846, from the Medical College at La Porte, Ind. He 
moved away in 1854, and is now at Shelbyville, III. 
During a portion of Dr. Penwell's practice in Ed- 
wardsburg, he had as a partner. Dr. Edgar Reading, 
whose parents lived in the township of Ontwa. He 
was also a graduate of the college at La Porte. He 
went to Niles in 1853, built the Reading House 
there, and subsequently removed to Chicago. 

John B. Sweetland came to Edwardsburg in 1861, 
having graduated from the University of Buffalo in the 
same year. He was born in Tompkins County, N. Y., 
in 1834. He enlisted in the Fourth Regiment 
Michigan Cavalry, in August, 1862. About a year 
later, he was made a surgeon in the regular army, 
and sent to Louisville. In this position, he gained an 
experience which has been of great value to him in 
subsequent private practice. In 1875, he was sent to 
the Legislature as Representative of Cass County, 



being elected upon the Republican ticket. Latterly 
he has found time for journalistic labors in addition to 
his large medical practice, and has ably edited the 
Edwardsburg Argus. Dr. Sweetland was married, 
February 19, 1868, to Frances E., daughter of Will- 
iam Bacon, one of the pioneers of Ontwa. 

Levi Aldrich, born in Erie County, N. Y., Jan- 
uary 27, 1820, was the son of James and Hannah 
Aldrich, who at an early day settled in Milton Town- 
ship, where Levi was reared. He studied with Dr. 
J. V. D. Sutphen, of Bertrand, for a year and a 
half, and then went to Erie County, N. Y., and finished 
under the preceptorship of Dr. George Sweetland. 
He then took a course of lectures at Buffalo, another 
at Albany, and the final one at Buffalo, graduating 
there in 1849. He practiced in Erie County and then 
came to Edwardsburg, where he has successfully 
practiced ever since. 

Robert S. Griffin was born in Erie County, N. Y., 
September 25, 1828, and came with his parents to 
Cass County when quite young. The family located 
near Edwardsburg. Young Griffin read medicine 
with Dr. Henry Lockwood, and with Drs. Penwell 
& Reading. He graduated from the Indiana Medi- 
cal College at La Porte, in 1849 ; then practiced at 
Baldwin's Prairie (where now is the village of Union); 
removed to Edwardsburg in 1853, and to Van Buren 
County in 1855. Afterward, he spent one year at 
South Bend, and in 1875 returned to Edwardsburg, 
where he still resides. 

Frank Sweetland has practiced in the village about 
four years, and James H. Williams for a short time. 

Marion Holland, born in Oakland County, Mich., 
graduated from the Medical Department of the State 
University in 1875, and from the Dental Department 
in 1877. After his graduation, he located in Cassopo- 
lis and practiced a short time ; then went to Grand 
Rapids, and in 1880 came to Edwardsburg, where 
he has since practiced and carried on a drug store. 

William I. Lusk was born in New Y^ork. He is a 
graduate of the Cincinnati Homeopathic College, and 
the only homoepathic physician in Edwardsburg. 


Dr. A. L. Thorp was the first physician who set- 
tled in this village. He came in 1849, remained for 
two years, and then, after an absence of two years, 
returned, and has since practiced continuously. 

Dr. E. J. Bonine practiced here for several years 
subsequent to 1851. (See Cassopolis). 

Dr. Leander Osborn was born December 27, 1825, 
in Wayne County, Ind., and in 1835, removed with 
the family of his father, Josiah Osborn, to Cass 
County, settling in Calvin Township, then an almost 

unbroken wilderness. There were no schools in the 
neighborhood, and he received the rudiments of an 
education at home, his mother being his teacher. 
The first occupation to which he devoted himself after 
arriving at his majority was teaching a district school. 
He was examined by and received a certificate from 
Dr. Taylor and the Rev. George Miner, who compli- 
mented him highly upon his acquirements. His 
school was in what was known as the " Shavehead 
District," in Porter Township. Shortly after this he 
made the acquaintance of Dr. E. J. Bonine, then a 
young practitioner in Cassopolis, and determined to 
study and follow the medical profession. He com- 
menced reading with Dr. Bonine in 1847 ; attended 
the usual course of lectures at the Rush Medical Col- 
lege, of Chicago, in 1851 and 1852, and commenced 
the practice of his profession in Vandalia in 1853. 
For two years he was in partnership with Dr. Bonine. 
In 1856, he was elected Justice of the Peace, and has 
since occupied that ofiice continuously, with the ex- 
ception of an interval of two years. He had pre- 
viously held the office of Supervisor of Calvin 
Township. In 1866, he was elected to the State 
Legislature, served two years and had the pleasure of 
voting to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment to the 
Constitution of the United States. Dr. Osborn was 
married November 12, 1854, to Miss Helen M. Beall, 
of Centerville, Wayne County, Ind. 

H. H. Phillips was born in Scott, Cortland 
County. N. Y., July 2, 1843, and removed with the 
other members of the family to Minnesota in 1859. 
He enlisted when eighteen years old in the Fourth Regi- 
ment Minnesota Infantry, and served three years and 
two months, the last two years in the medical depart- 
ment. He commenced studying medicine while in the 
army in 1863. He came to Cassopolis in the spring 
of 1866, continued the study under the direction of 
Drs. Tomkins, Kelsey and Treadwell ; subsequently at- 
tended the State University and graduated from the 
medical department in 1868. He commenced the prac- 
tice of medicine and surgery at Vandalia in the sum- 
mer of the same year, and has since carried it on. 

D. L. Flanders, of St. Joseph County, practiced 
in the village from 1871 to 1873, and Dr. D. Teague, 
of Wabash, Ind., from 1865 to 1868. 


There have been fifty phsicians in Dowagiac from 
the time of its establishment as a village to the present 
writing. The greater number of these have been 
transient residents concerning whom no extended men- 
tion could be made even if it was desirable. A few 
have been men of high standing in their profession, 
and have practiced long in the community. Of all 




such, biographies are given whore it lias been pos- 
sible to secure the data. 

Thomas Brayton was the first physician in the 
place and began practice in 1848 or 1849. He was 
a native of Steuben County, N. Y., and both as man 
and physician, of good repute. His practice in Dowa- 
giac extended from the time of his arrival until his 
death, which was caused by a railroad accident some 
time in the sixties. Dr. Brayton had some original 
methods of treatment. As an example, when Nicho- 
las Book's daughter (now Mrs. William Larzelere) was 
very sick with a fever and not expected to live, the 
physician brought Fred Werz, the village fiddler, to 
the bedside and commanded him to remain there day 
and night and fiddle his most inspiriting tunes when 
the patient had sinking spells. The Doctor's orders 
were followed to the letter, and the patient recovered. 

Dr. Barnum came soon after Dr. Brayton, but left 
in 1852. 

A Dr. Jarviscame to the village about the time Dr. 
Brayton left, and remained for a number of years. He 
was more noted as a drayman than a follower of the 
healing art, and for some time attracted attention by 
driving a bull or steer instead of a horse. 

L. R. Raymond came to Dowagiac about 1851 and 
left five or six years later. He was from Evans, Erie 
County, N. Y., and returned to that place. He was, 
during his stay, regarded as one of the leading physi- 
cians of the county. 

Dr. Keables, now of Decatui-, practiced here a short 
time in the fifties. 

C. W. Morse came to Dowagiac in 1851, and with 
some intervals has since lived here and enjoyed a large 
practice. He was born in Orange County, Vt., June 
26, 1827, but left there when twenty years of age. 
He read medicine with a brother, A. H. Morse, in 
Erie County, N. Y. After coming to Dowagiac, he 
went East, received a diploma from the University of 
Buffalo, in 1864, and also took a course of lectures at 
Cincinnati. Soon after coming to Dowagiac, he bought 
the place where he now resides. For about four years 
he was in the drug business with N. B. Hollister. 

Hiram Crapper and a Dr. Richards practiced for 
brief periods from 1853 to 1856. 

Dr. C. P. Prindle had an extensive practice in 
Cass County, and followed it for a long term of years, 
residing at Dowagiac, of which community he was a 
highly valued citizen. He was born in Spafford, 
Onondaga County, N. Y., May 25, 1825. His 
boyhood days were passed in the usual manner of 
well-conditioned children. Under the supervision of 
loving parents, in moderate though comfortable cir- 
cumstances, he had little to mar his pleasures. He 
was light-hearted and merry, and made the most of 

life. When he was eleven years of age, however, his 
father died, leaving him, with other children, to the 
guidance of his mother. Time passed on and at the 
age of sixteen he commenced the study of medicine 
in the office of Dr. Morrel, of Borodino, Onondaga 
County. Passing through the required course of 
reading and obtaining much practical knowledge in 
the office from other sources than books, he went to 
Geneva College, from which institution he graduated 
in 1846. He desired to gain further knowledge in 
the line of his chosen calling, and with that end in 
view decided to go to New York and enter the great 
Bellevue Hospital, which has been a valuable school 
for hundreds of physicians. In order to pay his ex- 
penses, he was first obliged to work for six months. 
This he did and then carried out his plan. He re- 
mained for about a year at Bellevue, and also attended 
lectures during that period. Returning from the city, 
he spent a year in the central part of New York 
State. He had some thoughts of removing to the 
West, but it was with difficulty he made up his 
mind to do so. At last he came, and for a short time 
was located in Sumnerville, Pokagon Township, Cass 
County. Feeling that he could not have sufficient 
latitude at that place, he went to Lawrence, Van 
Buren County. There his ride soon became very ex- 
tensive and he felt that his labors as a physician had 
commenced in earnest. This was in 1850 and 1851. 
It was during his residence at the last-named place 
that he married Miss Adaline S. Case, of Onondaga 
County, N. Y. The winter of 1854, he spent in New 
York City, attending lectures and ministering to the 
needs of a friend who was seriously ill. In the city, 
he was brought into close intercourse with his old 
preceptor. Dr. Alonzo Clark, which he felt was a 
great advantage to him, as a young physician. In 
March, 1855, he came West again and located at 
Dowagiac, where he spent the remainder of his life. 
He practiced thirty years, and those the best years of 
his life. His death occurred August 2, 1876. He 
built several houses in Dowagiac, and was closely 
identified with its best interests ; but it was as a 
physician that he was best known and appreciated 
there and in the county. He was very much devoted 
to his profession and nothing daunted him in his zeal 
and determination to honor it. A writer in one of 
the local newspapers said of him at the time of his 
death : " For twenty-one years, although often racked 
with pain and fatigue, such as few imagined, never in a 
single instance when able to ride did he refuse to attend 
the call of suffering — whether coming from friend or 
foe, rich or poor, it was all the same to him." He 
detested " the professional quack in medicine," and 
few things hurt his feelings as much as did the often 



sad results of their insincerity and ignorance. He 
disliked, too, anything like pretentiousness, or the 
use of high-flown language. On one occasion when 
returning from a long country ride, he observed as 
he drove into town quite a large gathering of men 
around one of his cotemporaries, a young doctor who 
was giving his ideas of a case of illness, and ostenta- 
tiously displaying his knowledge of the technicalities of 
medicine, using all the terms in the category of the 
" Materia Medica," and, for that matter, in the whole 
range of the literature of the healing art, which he 
could possibly find excuse for. After listening for a 
few moments, he stepped up to the young M. D., say- 
ing, in his outspoken manner, " Young man, you are 
disgracing your Alma Mater. How do you expect 
these men to understand what you are trying to ex- 
plain in your high-flown language ? Always use plain 
and simple language ; then there will be no mistakes." 
He often spoke against professional bombast, and said 
that there should be no secrets in the true practice. 
The doctor was known as a strong, earnest, manly 
character, and was almost universally esteemed for 
his worth as a man and his qualities professionally. 

" His death," continues the obituary notice, from 
which we have already made one brief quotation, 
" caused widespread sorrow in many homes, where 
for years he had been the trusted physician, the tried, 
true friend. His funeral was very largely attended, 
the stores and business places in Dowagiac being 
closed by common consent." 

Dr. Prindle left at his death a wife and two chil- 
dren. Flora H. Prindle. the elder, and Edward C. 
Prindle, the younger, who is now a practicing physi- 
cian, having graduated from Ann Arbor University 
with the class of 1876, and also from the Columbia 
College of New York City in 1877. . 

A. B. Hall followed the profession here from 1854 
to 1858 or '59. 

William E. Clarke, M. D., was formerly in practice 
here as physician and surgeon for some ten or twelve 
years prior to the breaking-out of the war. He is a 
native of Lebanon, Conn., was educated at the Roches- 
ter (N. Y.) Institute, and in his profession chiefly 
under the tuition of Prof Edward M. Moore and 
Frank Hamilton, then of that city, with several courses 
of lectures at the Williamstown (Mass.) and Vermont 
Medical Colleges, of which they were professors. In 
the summer of 1861, and while in practice at Dowa- 
giac, he was commissioned Surgeon of the Fourth 
Regiment of Michigan Infantry ; served with it in the 
Army of the Potomac, until after McCiellan's cam- 
paigns of 1862 ; was transferred to the Nineteenth 
Infantry, organized at Dowagiac, in the fall of 1862, 
and thence, in 1863, to Carver General Hospital at 

Washington, and thence, at the close of the war, to 
a regiment still on duty in North Carolina. After 
his discharge, he commenced and has since continued 
the practice of his profession at Chicago, where he has 
been President of the Medical Society of the city. 

Moses Porter came in 1854, and after practicing 
eight years, removed to Kalamazoo. 

A. J. Leonard followed the profession for a short 
time, and then removed to Whitewater, Wis. 

Theodore P. Seeley was, for a year or so, in part- 
nership with William E. Clarke. He went into the 
army, and on his return settled in Chicago. 

J. H. Beals was for a short time associated with 
Dr. Brayton, afterward went into the army, and was 
a Lieutenant of cavalry. 

James Bloodgood came here in 1864 and died in 
1865 (see Cassopolis). 

Dr. Odeil and Dr. Salter each practiced for a short 
time, as did also Dr. Martin, now of Berrien Springs. 

Cyrus J. Curtis was the pioneer Eclectic physician 
of Dowagiac and of Cass County. He was born in 
St. Lawrence County, N. Y., January 31, 1819 ; re- 
moved with his father's family to Erie County, Penn., 
in eai-ly boyhood, and there received his education at 
the Waterford Academy. He studied medicine with 
a Dr. Smith, in Erie, and graduated at the Worthing- 
ton Medical College of Ohio. In 1844, he was mar- 
ried to Lucinda Brace, of Erie, Penn., and removed 
to Adrian, Mich. Four years later, he returned to 
Erie County, Penn., where he practiced until 1860. 
His health failing that year, he removed to Berkeley 
Springs, Va. At the outset of the war, he was obliged 
to leave at a great personal sacrifice, and located in 
Portage County, Ohio. His wife died there May 2, 

1864. and in December of that year he removed to 
Michigan and located at Dowagiac, bringing with him 
his children and Dr. S. T. McCandless, who was as- 
sociated with him in practice. He married his second 
wife, Lillie A. Mills, of New Milford, Ohio, in May, 

1865. The labor of an extensive practice in Penn- 
sylvania and Ohio had so impaired his health that he 
was unable to follow a general practice after coming 
to Dowagiac, and devoted himself to the treatment of 
chronic diseases, and soon established an enviable 
reputation through his marked success. During most 
of the time of his residence in Dowagiac. he had part- 
ners who gave their attention to the general practice. 
Dr. S. T. McCandless was with him from December, 
1865, until January, 1867 : D. B. Sturgis and Will- 
iam Flory from September 1, 1868, to March 10, 1869 ; 
Linus Daniels from May, 1869, to May, 1870 ; Dr. 
H. S. McMaster from September, 1871, to Septem- 
ber, 1873, and his son, E. A. Curtis, from December, 
1873, until his death, which occurred April 21, 1875. 

iX/z- C^^'^ 




During his early professional life, Dr. Curtis took an 
active part in public affairs, especially educational 
matters. He was a charter member of the Eclectic 
Medical Society of Michigan, and its President ; a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and of 
the Masonic Order, The last year of his life was 
spent in traveling in Colorado, in the vain hope of re- 
storing his health. 

S. T. McCandless, a graduate of the Eclectic 
Medical Institute of Cincinnati, came to Dowagiac 
in 1864, associated as has been said, with C. J. j 
Curtis. He removed to Alliance, Ohio, in January, 

D. B. Sturgis came to Dowagiac in September, 
1868 ; was associated with C. J. Curtis, under the i 
firm name of Curtis & Sturgis until March 10, 1869, \ 
when he removed to South Bend, Ind. 

William Flora was a partner of C. J. Curtis, and a 
son-inlaw of D. B. Sturgis. He came to Dowagiac in > 
1868, having graduated from the Bennett Medical 
College of Chicago. 

Linus A. Daniels, also an Eclectic physician, came 
to Dowagiac in May, 1869, and was in partnership 
with C. J. Curtis until May, 1870, when he removed 
to Plainwell, Mich. He attended the Medical Depart- 
ment of the State University, but graduated from the 
University of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia. 

Henry Lockwood practiced here a very short time. 
(See Edwardsburg.) 

A Dr. Barnes was here several years. 

James D. Taylor came to Dowagiac in 1858, and prac- 
ticed his profession until his death. February 11, 1871 
His wife (who waa Miss Elizabeth A. McMain) and 
two children still reside in Dowagiac. Dr. Taylor 
was born near Elyria, Ohio, December 2, 1828, and 
obtained his medical education in Cleveland and Chi- 
cago, receiving his diploma from the Hahnemann 
College of the latter city in 1868. 

P. I. Mulvane was born in Newcomerstown, Tus- 
carawas Co., Ohio, December 13, 18-36. He was ed- 
ucated at the University of Michigan, and received 
his medical diploma from the Rush Medical College, 
Chicago, in 1870. He commenced practice in Illi- 
nois in 1862, and in the same year entered the army. 
In 1865, he came to Dowagiac, and remained in prac- 
tice there until 1873, when he removed to Topeka, 
Kan. At one time Dr. Mulvane was associated with 
Dr. C. P. Prindle, and again for two years or more 
was in partnership with Dr. C. W. Morse. He was 
quite prominent as a physician, and had a large prac- 
tice. Since residing in Kansas, he has been Presi- 
dent of the State Eclectic Board of Medical Examiners, 
ever since the new medical act has been in force. 

"Dr." Whitehead, an Indian "medicine man," 

came to the town in 1862, or about that time, and for 
a short time occupied an office near where Mosher & 
Palmer's store now is, and exercised the " herb art " 
upon a few credulous people. 

J. H. Wheeler came to Dowagiac in 1867, and 
soon became one of the leading and influential physi- 
cians of the town. He was born in Cheshire County, 
N. H., October 17, 1812; removed with his father 
and other members of the family to Western New 
York in 1821, and emigrated to Cass County in 1835. 
He was a practical surveyor, and in his leisure mo- 
ments studied medicine. He took his degree in Phil - 
adelphia in 1844, and in the same year began practice 
in Edwardsburg; removed to Berrien County in 1847, 
and from there, twenty years later, to Dowagiac. He 
died here, January 5, 1877, in his sixty-fifth year, 
leaving a wife and three children. 

Dr. Sherwood was in partnership with Dr. Wheeler 
from 1872 to 1874. 

G. W. Fosdick practiced (homoeopathy) for a short 
time, and removed to a farm in Volinia in 1876. 

L. V. Rouse came in the sixties, and still practices 
in the city. 

Edward Sawyer Stebbins settled here in 1868. 
He was born in the town of Norwich, Vt., January 
17, 1820, and resided there until 1839, when he went 
to Worcester, Mass. He began the study of medicine 
in part for the purpose of curing himself of consump- 
tion, with which he was then afflicted in its incipient 
but well marked stages. Succeeding in this, he at- 
tended the prescribed courses of lectures in the New ' 
England Botanical College, at Worcester, Mass., in 
1845 and 1846. In 1844, he was united in marriage 
with Harriet Goddard, of that city. He continued to 
res ide in Worcester until his removal to the West, 
and in 1867 was el ected Representative to the Mas- 
sachusetts Legislature, on the Republican ticket. In 
1869, the year after the Doctor removed to Dowagiac, 
he lost his wife, a very estimable lady, who left four 
children to mourn her loss. With the exception of 
a short interval when he was in business with his son- 
in-law, L. E. Wing, he continued to follow his pro- 
fession, until 1879, when he abandoned a lucrative 
practice for a larger field, and removed to East Liver- 
pool, Ohio, where he now resides. Dr. Stebbins is a 
scholarly man, a great reader and an untiring student 
of specialties. In electrical therapeutics, he probably 
had no equal in Western Michigan. 

Hamilton Sheldon McMaster was born December 
80, 1842, in West Sparta, Livingston Co., N. Y., in 
a log house, on the banks of the Genesee Valley 
Canal, and was reared on a farm one mile from his 
birthplace until he was nineteen years of age, attend- 
ing district school in the winter. August 6, 1862, 



he enlisted in Company B, One Hundred and Thirti- 
eth Regiment New York Infantry, afterward changed 
to the First New York Dragoons. He was AVard- 
master eight months in Douglass Hospital, Washing- 
ton, D. C. (after getting up from a siege of typhoid 
fever), in 1863-64, and his experience there has been 
of value to him in subsequent practice. He served in 
the army two years and ten months, being discharged 
June 6, 1865. In October, 1867, he came to Michi- 
gan. He received a good academic education at 
Dansville Seminary, in New York, Lima Seminary of 
the same State, and Albion College, Michigan. He 
taught school a couple of terms before coming to 
Michigan, and four in this State, the last three (one 
year) being in a graded school at Blissfield. His sum- 
mer vacations were spent upon a farm, and his even- 
ings occupied with study. He attended lectures at 
the Eclectic Medical Institute, Cincinnati, and at 
Bennett Medical College, Chicago, graduating from 
the latter in the class of 1871. He commenced prac- 
tice in Onondaga, Mich., in 1870, and was there six 
months before going to Chicago ; went to Battle 
Creek in June, 1871, and came to Dowagiac in Sep- 
tember of the same year, and has resided here ever ■. 
since, with the exception of a little more than a year 
spent in Grand Rapids. In 1872, he was married to 
Miss Mary F. Stebbins, daughter of Dr. E. S. Steb- 
bins. Dr. McMaster is well known in his profession 
as a frequent contributor to the medical journals, such ; 
as the Medical Times, of Chicago, the Eclectic Medi- 
cal Journal, of Cincinnati, the Medical 7ribune, of 
New York, and the Therapeutical Gazette, of De- 
troit ; also as a defender of the liberal, non-sectarian 
principles and ethics of the Eclectic school of practice, 
and advocate for a high standard of qualifications for 
graduation in the colleges that are recognized by 
the National Society. He has prepared several 
papers for the State and National Medical Societies. 
He was the first City Physician of Dowagiac ; is now 
a Trustee and Director of the schools : President of 
the Ladies' Library Association ; President of the 
Dowagiac Union Medical Society ; Secretary of the 
State Eclectic Medical and Surgical Society ; the 
editor of the report of its annual transactions, and I 
the Vice President of the National Eclectic Medical 
Association. He is best known outside of his pro- , 
fessional practice as a persistent advocate of equal 
rights for the Eclectic school of medicine, before 
the law, in the University, in the State Board of 
Health, and in other institutions of Michigan. Dr. 
McMaster has taken an active part in public affairs, 
and been a leading spirit in temperance reform. His 
heart is always on the right side. This is not merely 
a rhetorical figure — true metaphorically — but a phys- 

ical fact, and one which has been attested by various 
examinations by medical gentlemen. 

E. B. Weed, a homoeopathic physician, came to 
Dowagiac in 1871, and remained until 1877, when he 
went to Grand Rapids. He now resides in Detroit. 

Eugene A. Curtis, an eclectic physician of Dowa- 
giac, was born in Waterford, Erie County, Penn., 
December 17, 1852, and came here in 1864 with his 
father. He studied medicine with his father. Dr. C. 
J. Curtis, and graduated from the Bennett Medical 
College of Chicago in 1873. He began practice with 
his father and Dr. H. S. McMaster. He was asso- 
ciated with Dr. W. F. Ball during 1877, but termi- 
nated the partnership to reside in Chicago. After 
spending nearly two years there in attendance at the 
colleges and hospitals be returned to Dowagiac in the 
summer of 1879, and has since been in practice here. 

W. L. Marr came to Dowagiac in 1874, having just 
graduated from the State University, and remained 
until 1879, when he went to Chicago. 

E. C. Prindle, son of Dr. C. P. Prindle, graduated 
from the State University in 1876, and has since 
practiced here. 

Theodore Rudolphi has been in practice in the city 
since 1877. 

John Robertson, now of Pokagon, was in practice 
here from 1877 to 1880. 

W. F. Ball, an eclectic physician and a graduate of 
the Philadelphia Medical Institute, came here in 
1877 and left in 1878, going to East Liverpool, Ohio. 
He was in partnership with Dr. E. A. Curtis. 

E. W. Eldridge, a graduate of the Cincinnati Col- 
lege of Medicine and Surgery was in the city in 

J. H. Ludwig, a homoeopathic physician, came 
here in 1879, and still remains. 

W. W. Easton, eclectic, graduate of the Bennett 
Medical College of Chicago, has been here since 1880. 
He is a son of Thomas Easton of Silver Creek. 

D. W. Forsythe has been in practice in Dowagiac 
since 1880, coming directly from the Bennett Medical 
College of Chicago. He was born in Canada in 

W. J. Ketcham, for about six years a practitioner 
in Volinia, has lately formed a partnership with Dr. 
C. W. Morse. He studied with Dr. C. P. Prindle, 
and is a graduate of the State University. 


Dr. Jacob Allen located in La Grange (then called 
Whitmanville) in 1837, and practiced there with mod- 
erate success until 1852, when, on account of failing 
liealth, he went to California. He was afllicted with 
asthma, but became entirely relieved of the disease 

vVlLLlAjM J, K ELSE/ Jv(. D, 








when lie readied the plains, and was free from it 
until he came East upon a visit. He returned to the 
Pacific Slope, and now resides at Los Angelos, Cal. 


The physicians at present residing at Pokagon are 
Dr. C. P. Wells, Dr. Charles A. Morgan and Dr. 
John Robertson. Dr. Henry Leeder (now deceased) 
formerly practiced in the vicinity, residing between 
Pokagon Village and Sumnerville. Dr. James Leeder 
now resides at the latter place. 

Dr. John Robertson was born in the town of Ar- 
gyle, Washington Co., N. Y., September 25, 1820. 
In 1835, he moved, with his parents, to Onondaga 
County, of the same State, and, in 1844, commenced 
reading medicine with Dr. Isaac Morrell, in that 
county. He attended the Medical Institution at Pitts- 
field, Mass., and graduated at Castlets, Vt. In the 
summer of 1848, he came to Michigan, and settled in 
Sumnerville, where he practiced his profession for ten 
years very successfully. In 1850, he bought property 
in what is now the village of Pokagon, and built the 
residence where he still resides. He has had an ex- 
tensive practice, but has been compelled recently to 
abandon it, because of failing health. It has been 
said of Dr. Robertson, by a friend: "Whenever his 
patrons or strangers required his aid, he never refused 
to go, no matter how dark and stormy the night, how 
bad the roads or whether the mercury stood a hundred 
degrees above or thirty below zero." 

Charles P. Wells was born in Conquest, Cayuga 
Co., N. Y., May 26, 1834, and came, with his parents, 
Jonathan and Sylvia P. Wells, to Niles, Mich., in June, 
1835. They soon after purchased land previously 
entered by Arthur Johnson, on which was four or five 
acres of "slashing," and a log cabin, situated one and 
a half miles east of Niles and near 'Yankee street," 
in Section 31, Howard Township, Cass County. 
There they settled, and, in 1836, erected the third 
frame dwelling in the township, and remained for 
many years. The subject of this sketch entered upon 
the study of medicine November 1, 1852, in the office 
of the late Dr. Joel Loomis, of Niles, and completing 
the usual course of study under his preceptor and at 
the medical college, graduated at Cincinnati, Ohio^ 
May 13, 1856, and during the following summer, en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession at Plymouth, 
Ind., and, after several seasons of travel, mostly in the 
Northern States and Territories, came to Pokagon in 
November, 1865, and, associated with. A. L. Abbott, a 
merchant of the place, opened the first drug store ever 
kept in the village, of which he subsequently became 
sole proprietor, and has continued the business unin- 
terruptedly, in connection witli his practice, and may 

be counted the oldest and only dealer remaining in 
any branch of trade that was here when he came. 
May 21, 1870, he was married to Josephine V., 
daughter of Benjamin Curtis, of Berrien, Berrien 
Co., Mich. 

Dr. Charles A. Morgan, born in Wales in the year 
1841, came with his parents to Michigan in 1848, 
and the family settled in Cass County, near its west- 
ern border. He worked upon his father's farm until 
1861, when he entered the army. He served until the 
close of the war, and was taken prisoner at the battle 
of Pittsburg Landing. Soon after the close of the 
war, he attended Kalamazoo College, where he studied 
until 1868, in which year he entered the office of Drs. 
Bonine &. Dougan, in Niles, and began to read medi- 
cine. He graduated from the Medical Department of 
the State University in 1871, and established himself 
in practice at Sumnerville soon afterward. 


Henry Follett, one of the earliest and most noted 
medical men of Cass County, was born in Eastern 
New York November 5, 1789 ; went to Cayuga 
County at an early age ; studied medicine with Dr. 
Pitney, of Auburn, and served under him in the war 
of 1812, as assistant surgeon, being stationed at 
Niagara. He commenced the practice of medicine 
after the war, near Weedsport, Cayuga Co., N. Y., 
and soon afterward moved into Weedsport. He was 
married on the 26th of February, 1816, to Mary 

In 1836, he started with the family, consist- 
ing of his wife and six children, for the far West, 
journeying from Niagara through Upper Canada to 
Detroit, and thence to Adamsville, in this county, 
arriving in the latter part of August. He at once 
commenced the practice of his profession ; in 1838, 
moved onto a farm a mile and a half east of Adams- 
ville, and there continued practice until his death, 
which occurred December 14, 1849. 


Dr. Phineas Gregg, of Brownsville, was born in 
j Ross County, Ohio, on the Slst of March, 1800. He 
has been a lifelong member of the Society of Friends. 
In 1812, the family moved to Knox County, in the 
above State, and Phineas was there married, in 1827, to 
Lydia Carpenter, who was born in Vermont in 1806. 
They moved to Logan County in 1834, and thence to 
Brownsville, Cass Co., Mich., in the year 1848, 
where they are both still living at this writing. The 
Doctor commenced the practice of medicine on 
botanic principles in Ohio, but since coming to Michi- 
gan took up the Eclectic system. 


Thomas L. Blakeley, of Newberg (Jones' Station), 
was born in Niagara County, N. Y., July 5, 1839. 
When a small boy, the family removed to Huntington 
County, Ind., where his parents died. In 1857, he 
removed to Vandalia, Cass County, where he lived un- 
til 1861, when he enlisted in Company E, Eleventh 
Regiment, Michigan Volunteer Infantry. In 1865, he 
returned from the war and located in Buchanan, Ber- 
rien County, where he married, July 1, 1866, Mary J. 
Batchelar. They removed to Nicholsville, in this 
county, in 1869, and there the Doctor began the 
practice of medicine in accordance with the Eclectic 
system. In 1872, they removed to their present 
home, Jones' Station. Dr. Blakley was the first 
physician who located there. In 1873, he opened a 
drug store, which he carries on in connection with his 
practice. He was elected Justice of the Peace on the 
ticket of the National Greenback party in 1879. 


Otis Moor was born at St. Joseph, Mich., July 12, 
1847. He moved with his parents to Chicago in 
1852, married Miss Mary Conkey, of that city, in 
1866 ; graduated from the Rush Medical College in 
1872, moved to Williamsville, Cass County, in the 
same year, and has since continued to practice there. 
Dr. Moor has been twice elected as Justice of the 
Peace, and is at present Superintendent of Schools of 
Porter Township. 


H. Carbine has been in practice since 1871, when 
he came from Decatur, and has had considerable suc- 
cess. In partnership with him is F. Grant, a gradu- 
ate of the State University, who has been in the 
village about a year. 

C. E. Davis came to Cass County in 1861, from 
Huron County, Ohio, where he was born in 1846. 
His father's family settled in Howard Township. Dr. 
Davis enlisted, February 22, 1864, in Company 
A, of the Twelfth Michigan Infantry, in which he 
served two years. He studied medicine with Dr. A. 
J. Mead, of Niles, and began practice in the spring of 
1869. In 1871, he went to Philadelphia, and took a 
two years' course of lectures in the University of 
Pennsylvania, from which he graduated in 1873. In 
the following year he located at Marcellus. 


First Newspaper Published in Cassopolis— The Xatimial Democrat 
and the Fi{)ti!an(— History of the Dowagiae Press— The ReimhUcaii 
and the Tinxx— Papers in Kdwardsburg— Marcellus-Vandalla. 


THE first newspaper established in the county was 
the Cass County Advocate, the first number of 
which was issued March 11, 1845. It was a small 
but well-printed sheet, issued as a weekly, and bore 
at the column head the name of E. A. Graves, who 
was editor and proprietor. In politics it was Demo- 
cratic. Abram Townsend purchased the paper in 
1846, but failed to build it up to a prosperous condi- 
tion. In 1850, it fell into the hands of Ezekiel S. 
Smith, Esq., who removed it the same year to Do- 

The National Democrat was established by a stock 
company in 1850, and the first number published 
March 17. George B. Turner was the first editor 
of this journal, and conducted it with ability, making 
a lively, spicy paper, which nevertheless did not lack 
solidity of character and dignity of journalistic tone. 
H. C. Shurter was the publisher for the company. 
In the spring or summer of 1854, the paper was pur- 
chased by G. S. Bouton, who sold out to W. W. Van 
Antwerp upon September 5, of the same year. 
While the paper was owned by Mr. Van Antwerp, it 
was edited by Daniel Blackman, Esq., now of Chicago. 
In 1858. the original stock company again became the 
owners of the Democrat, and employed Blackman as 
editor and H. B. Shurter as publisher. During the 
next three years, the oflBce was not in as prosperous 
condition as was desirable, and in 1861 it came under 
the Sheriff's hammer. The purchasers were Pleasant 
Norton, D. M. Howell and Maj. Joseph Smith. It 
was transferred by them to L. D. Smith, who managed 
it during the first two years of the war. In March, 
1863, it again became the property of Messrs. Norton, 
Howell & Smith, and for a short time was edited by Maj. 
Smith. C. C. Allison had been employed as publisher 
in 1862, and upon May 5, 1863, bought the property. 
He has since been its owner, and has personally edited 
the paper and managed the office. The Democrat, 
under his control, has been enlarged and improved 
from time to time, and made a valuable, local news; 
paper, as well as a political factor of much influence. 
The Democrat has always been an advocate of those 
principles which its name would indicate. 

An ephemeral and unremunerative journalistic en- 
terprise was inaugurated in 1846, in the publication 
of the Literary News. This paper was a small sheet, 
devoted, during its short existence, to social gossip and 




The Cassopolis Vigilant was established as a Re- 
publican newspaper on the 16th of May, 1H72, D. B. 
Harrington and M. H. Barber being its projectors. 
It was purchased by C. L. Morton and W. H. Mans- 
field, on the 28th of February, 1873, and in July, of 
the same year, Mr. Mansfield became the sole pro- 
prietor. He continued the publication alone until 
1876, when he associated with himself James M. 
Shepard. This gentleman, in 1<S7S, purchased Mr. 
Mansfield's interest, and has since that time managed 
the paper alone. The Vigila7it, has been and is a 
live, cleanly, well edited newspaper, and it receives 
the hearty support of the people of Cass County. 


The first paper published in Dowagiac was one re- 
moved from Cassopolis, by the proprietor, Ezekiel S. 
Smith, in 1850. It was called the Cass County Ad- 
vocate. The building containing the office was situ- 
ated on Front street, nearly opposite the northern 
terminus of Beeson street. Mr. Smith soon disposed 
of his interest to L. P. Williams, who changed its 
title to Dowagiac Times atid Cass County Republican. 
In 185-1, Mr. Williams returned from a short busi- 
ness trip to find the building containing the office de- 
stroyed by fire. He made no effort to resurrect the 
paper, and abandoned the field. 

In 1854, Mr. James L. Gantt established the 
Dowagiac Tribune, and continued its publication until 
1859, when he sold the good will of the office to W. 
H. Campbell. During the previous year, W. H. 
Campbell and N. B. Jones hatl established another 
newspaper entitled the Republican, and the last- 
named paper now occupied the field without op- 
position. Mr. Gantt removed his printing material 
to Mackinaw, published a paper there a short time, 
and finally removed to Baltimore, Md. The cause 
which led to the establishment and final success of the 
Republican was, that the course of the Tribune be- 
came very distasteful to the Republicans of the 
county, and in January, 1858, a meeting of the county 
officers and leading Republicans was called to con- 
sider the matter. Overtures were made to Mr. Gantt 
to either dispose of the paper or to allow a committee 
to select an editor, in which case the expense would 
be paid, but all offers were rejected. It was then de- 
cided to establish another paper which would more 
clearly represent the views of the party. Thereupon, 
negotiations were entered into with Jones k Camp- 
bell, of Jackson, Mich., and the Republican was es- 
tablished. The co-partner.ship continued but three 
months, when Mr. Jones retired. The committee 
which was instrumental in establishing the Republican 

•The history of the Dowagiac prem ia by Mr. O. J. Oreenlcaf. 

consisted of Justus Gage, Jesse G. Beeson, W. G. 
Beckwith, Jo.shua Lofland and William Sprague, of 
Kalamazoo. The last-named gentleman had pre- 
viously represented the district in Congress, and was 
then engaged in business in Dowagiac. Mr. Camp- 
bell continued the publication of the Republican until 
Januai-y, 1865, when Mr. Charles A. Smith pur- 
chased the office and published the paper for a period 
of about two years. While the paper was under Mr. 
Smith's administration, it continued to prosper, was 
ably edited, and, being the official organ of the county, 
was well patronized. It still maintained the old-time 
out-and-out Republican principles, and did every- 
thing in its power to aid the Union cause during the 
dark days of the rebellion. It was a journal of wide- 
spread influence, and an advocate upon which the 
party could with safety depend. Mr. Smith was quite 

young at the time, being but little more than twenty- 
one years of age, but having learned his trade in the 
same office, and having studied the desires and pecu- 
liarities of the citizens of the county, and, being withal, 
a firm and unflinching advocate of Republican princi- 
ples, managed to furnish his readers with a good, 
sound, local paper. Mr. Joseph B. Clarke, a promi- 
nent lawyer, and yet a resident of the city, and 
a brother of " Grace Greenwood," frequently con- 
tributed political articles which were highly appre- 
ciated by the readers of the paper. He was a man of 
gi-eat talent, and his writings always had the same 
painstaking precision which characterize his legal 
practice, in which profession he was a jurist wliom 
few equal and fewer excel. Mr. Smith, wishing to 
engage in another branch of business, disposed of the 
office to Mr. Jesse J. Roe, of Buchaniin, Mich., who 
retained the same but a few weeks, when he sold the 


concern to its founder, Mr. Campbell. Mr. Roe was 
not a practical printer, and knew little about the 
business, whicli was doubtless the cause of his retire- 
ment after three weeks' experience. Mr. Smith is at 
present, we understand, residing in Chicago, having 
been a resident of that city some dozen years. Soon 
after his arrival in that city, he became editor of the 
Real Estate and Building Journal, and in one year 
became half-owner of the same concern. He was con- 
nected with the Journal as its editor four years in all. 
It was a large twenty-four-page paper. He is, we 
believe, now engaged as proof-reader for the large 
printing house of Culver, Page, Hoyne & Co. 

In 1868, the paper was sold to H. C. Buffington, 
under whose management the name and politics 
remained unchanged. Mr. Campbell later removed 
to Minneapolis, Minn., where he still resides. He 
was a practical printer and formerly worked on the 
Lockport (N. Y.) Democrat. 

Mr. Buffington continued the publication of the 
Republican until September of 1875, when it was 
purchased by Richard Holmes and C. J. Greenleaf 
Mr. Holmes was a practical printer of many years' 
experience, he having once owned half-interest in the 
La Porte (Ind.) Herald, and he had also served Mr. 
Buffington some years as foreman of the office. Mr. 
Greenleaf had been a .resident of the village some 
years, and had acquired a local repute as a writer of 
some ability. 

About a year after Mr. Buffington had retired from 
the Republican, he again entered the newspaper field 
by the purchase of the Van Buren County Republican, 
located at Decatur. By the influence of influential 
politicians, he was appointed Consul at Chatham, Can., 
which office he still holds. Under the management of 
Holmes & Greenleaf, the Republican paid much atten- 
tion to purely local matters, and was fairly successful. 
In August, 1880, Mr. Holmes disposed of his interest 
in the office to his partner, and in the next month Mr. 
Greenleaf sold the office to Mr. R. N. Kellogg, of 
Ellsworth, Kan. Of the former proprietors, Mr. 
Holmes formed a co-partnership with Mr. Kellogg, 
under the firm name of Kellogg k Holmes, but soon 
retired, and again resumed work before the case as 
foreman of an office. Mr. Greenleaf turned his 
whole attention to the photographic trade, in which he 
had been engaged many years. Mr. Kellogg had 
been engaged for some years in the publication of 
the Ellsworth (Kan.) Times, but hearing of the lively 
little city in Michigan, he sold out and determined to 
locate there. Under his management the name was 
changed from the Cass County Republican to the 
Dowagiac Republican, and the paper changed from a 
seven-column folio to a six-column quarto. It has 

recently been changed back to a seven-celumn quarto. 

I Mr. Buffington purchased the Van Buren Repub- 
lican of Mr. W. M. Wooster, who then turned his 
eyes longingly on the journalistic field at Dowagiac. 
He therefore purchased the material of the Lawrence 

; Advertiser, and removed it to Dowagiac. September 

I 1, 1880, he issued the first number of the Dowagiac 
Times. The paper claimed to be independent in poli- 
tics, but before the experiment became an assured 
success, Mr. Wooster met with a severe accident on 
the railroad, inflicting such injuries that he was forced 
to abandon his work. On March 15, 1881, the mate- 
rial and good will were purchased by Mr. A. M. Moon, 

I of the Marcellus News. Mr. Moon had been pub- 
lishing the Netvs for nearly four years, and, moving 
part of the material to the Dowagiac office, he contin- 
ued the publication of the Times, changing its politics 
from Independent to Democratic. Careful attention 
is paid to local news, and the enterprise promises a 

I fair degree of success. It is a five-column quarto in 

I Among the more ephemeral ventures in the Dowa- 
giac journalistic field might be mentioned a paper 
called the Herald, published by Samuel N. Gantt soon 
after the commencement of the rebellion. The sol- 
diers demanded its suppression, and its editor, deem- 
ing discretion the better part of valor, announced its 
suspension by order of Gen. Burnside. 

The Monitor, started in 1875 by C. W. Bailey, 
had a short and deservedly unsuccessful career of a 
few months only. The first daily ever issued here 
was, on Monday evening, April 22, 1861, by William 
H. Campbell. Only a few numbers were issued. 
November 11, 1879, Ward Brothers, of Port Huron, 
started the Cass County Daily Netvs. It was a little 
leaflet about 14x20 inches in size, and expired after a 
troubled existence of eighty-nine days. 


[ The publication of a newspaper was commenced in 
this village, by M. M. Edminston, December 3, 1874. 
It was called the Edwardsburg Index, and the first 
issue was printed in Mishawaka, Ind. This paper 
was suspended September 25, 1875, and the portable 
property of the office, together with the proprietor, 
disappeared suddenly. The Index has been described 
as "neutral in politics and destitute of religion." 
William A. Shaw began the publication of the Ed- 
wardsburg Argus October 5, 1875, and, not long 
after, H. B. Davis became its editor. He sold out to 
F. M. Jerome. The paper continued to be neutral in 
politics until 1878, when Jerome formed a partnership 
with G. F. Bugbee, and it was made a supporter of 
Democracy. Dr. John B. Sweetland took charge 


of the paper February 6, 1879, since which time it 
has " been neutral in nothing, independent in every- 
thing." It has been liberally sustained, both by sub- 
scription and advertising patronage, and deservedly, 
for it has been a well-couducted local newspaper. 


The first newspaper in this village was the Messen- 
ger, started, in 1874, by S. D. Perry. The paper was 
not remarkably successful, and the material used for 
its printing and publication soon passed into the hands 
of tiie Goodspeed Brothers, of Volinia. They re- 
sumed the issuance of the paper, under the name of 
the Marcellus Standard, with R. C. Nash as manager. 
The Standard passed over to the silent majority of 
local papers in August, 1876. 

Upon July 13, 1879, A. M. Moon brought out the 
first issue of the Marcellus News. It was established 
as an independent journal, but, eight months later, 
made an organ of the Greenback party. In March, 
1881, Mr. Moon removed to Dowagiac, taking the 
machinery and material of the News, and purchased 
the Dowagiac Times, which he has since conducted. 
Mr. Moon had quite a large experience in newspaper 
making before coming to Cass County, having been 
connected with the Lawton (Mich.) Tribune, with the 
Bee Keepers' Journal and Agriculturist, with his 
father, establishing Moon's Bee World at Rome, Ga., 
and holding a position, more recently, on the Bee 
Keepers' Journal, published by H. A. King, in New 

The Netvs, at present published in Marcellus, and 
a bright, newsy sheet, was established by C. C. Alli- 
son, proprietor of the Cassopolis National Democrat, 
upon December 24, 1881, and is now published by 
Messrs. Allison & Parker. 


The Vandalia Journal was first issued June 14, 
1881, by William A. De Groot, an old and expe- 
rienced printer, who had started a paper of the same 
name at Constantine in 1876, and subsequently re- 
moved to White Pigeon, where he remained in busi- 
ness until coming here. The Vandalia Journal was 
established as a six-column folio, and soon afterward 
made a five-column quarto. 



The two Lines of the Underground Kailroad which fi)rnied a .lunction 
in Cass County— Station Agents and tMiidnotors— Their Methods- 
Spies sent out from Kentucky Id lind liigitivc Slaves— Kidnapers 
foiled in Calhoun County— Warniiik's sent by Friends to the Cass 
County Colored Colonies— Raid cf the Kentucliians In August, 
1847— Incidents— The Raiders' Plans frustrated by tlie Aboli- 
tionists and other Friends— Riot and Bloodshed narrowly Ks- 
caped— " Nigger Bill" .Tones, the Baptist Minister and the Negro 
Baby — Excited Condition of the Public Mind — Legal Pro- 
ceedings In Cassopolis— Negroes discliarged from Custody and 
Spirited away to Canada— Suit against the Fugitives' Friends by 
the KentucUians. 

THE so-called Kentucky raid, which grew out of 
the workings of the " Underground Railroad," 
was a very unique and interesting episode in the his- 
tory of Cass County, and one which produced some 
far-reaching results. 

The Underground Railroad, as it has been happily 
called, from the dark, mysterious nature of its opera- 
tions, was organized and carried on by a few hundred, 
or perhaps thousands, of earnest philanthopists, 
scattered through Ohio, Indiana, Illinois- and Michi- 
; gan. Its founders and operators were men who en- 
1 tertained a firm conviction that human slavery was a 
! sin, and that it should, therefore, be combated. They 
assisted many thousand fugitive slaves in their journey 
j toward the north star and freedom. The railroad 
j which afforded transportation to the poor blacks, was 
I one of many ramifications, a vast system of routes, 
each one of which exten,ded from some point on the 
I border of the Slave States to the Canada line. Two 
j of these routes, one from the Ohio River and the other 
! from the Mississippi, formed a junction in Cass County. 
The first of these was known as the " Quaker line," 
; and the other as the " Illinois line." Of the latter, 
John Cross was the projector. It was put into opera- 
tion in 1842. The " Quaker line," so called because 
I almost entirely managed by the Quaker settlers in 
I Indiana and Michigan, was opened to travel prior to 
j 1840. Every Quaker settlement along the line was 
a station. At all of them were afforded rest, refresh- 
ment and that retirement from publicity which was 
always grateful to the colored traveler. 
\ In Cass County, the houses of Ishmael Lee, Stephen 
Bogue, Zachariah Shugart and Josiah Osborn (all 
Quakers), were stations of much importance. W. S. 
Elliott, conductor, brougiit fugitive slaves through to 
these men from L. P. Alexander, agent at Niles, and 
they were sent onward toward Canada by way of 
Flowerfield, in St. Joseph County, and Schoolcraft, 
in Kalamazoo County. William Wheeler was the 
agent at the former, and Dr. Nathan M. Thomas at 
the latter station. William Jones, of Calvin, known 
as "Nigger Bill," and Wright Modlin, of Williams- 



ville, were famous "nigger runners," and made fre- 
quent trips to the Ohio River, and sometimes to 
Kentucky soil, for the purpose of assisting and guid- 
ing fugitives to freedom. The number of runaway 
slaves who passed through Cass County, prior to 
1848, and who were given aid in one way or another 
by the Abolitionists, was probably not less than fifteen 
hundred. Dr. Thomas, of Schoolcraft, estimated that 
he had assisted at least a thousand upon their way, 
and he by no means received all who journeyed 
through this county. 

The men engaged in "nigger running," and those 
who gave the slaves food and shelter along the road 
were engaged in a business which made them amena- 
ble to law, and which placed their property, and even 
their lives sometimes in jeopardy. Operations were, 
therefore, carried on with the utmost cunning and 
stealth. The trains upon the Underground Railroad 
were usually run at night, and the human freight, 
when unloaded at a station, was carefully concealed. 
Each station agent knew the name of the next agent 
ahead of him, but was ignorant of the identity of the 
one behind, unless he learned it by accident. The 
conductors, when applying for hospitality for their 
passengers, either at regular stations, or occasional 
stopping-places, to which they resorted in case of 
accident on the road, invariably used as a password 
the query, " Can you furnish entertainment for my- 
self and another person ? " The form of question 
never underwent the slightest change. 

Often the owners of escaped slaves, or agents em- 
ployed by them, came through the country in search 
of their property, and many amusing tales might be 
told of the manner in which they were sometimes 
foiled. Occasionally the fugitives were discovered, 
and marched back to slavery ahead of their master's 

As time progressed, the slaves enjoyed greater im- 
munity from the danger of pursuit and recapture, and 
many of them finding occupation in Michigan, re- 
mained here with friends, thinking that they would 
be nearly as safe as in Canada. 

In Cass County, in the beginning of the year 1847, 
there were at least fifty runaway slaves. The num- 
ber has been estimated as high as one hundred, but 
the former statement is nearer the truth. Most of 
them were in Penn and Calvin Townships, where 
the chief Quaker .settlements were located. All of 
the Quakers entertained Abolition sentiments, and 
there were many people in this vicinity who, as a 
rule, sympathized with them. Another colony of 
colored people was formed in Calhoun County. 

Some of the fugitives who had settled down in Cass 
County owned small tracts of ground, for which they 

were about equally indebted to their own industry, 
and the generosity of their white friends. All were 
willing to work and conducted themselves in an in- 
offensive manner, gaining the respect of the people 
around them. That they were not secure in their 
newly-found homes was soon made manifest. During 
the years 1846 and 1847, spies were sent out from 
Kentucky to hunt for fugitive slaves in various neigh- 
borhoods in Ohio, Indiana and Michigan. One of 
them who came to Michigan, was in the employ of an 
association of Bourbon County, Ky., planters, formed 
for the purpose of recovering their runaway slaves. 
Perhaps no neighboroood in the whole South had 
suffered more losses than Bourbon County, and it so 
happened that a large proportion of the blacks who 
had colonized in Cass and Calhoun Counties, were 
from that region. 

Early in 1847, a young man who gave his name as 
Carpenter, arrived in Kalamazoo, and entered the 
law office of Charles E. Stewart, for the alleged pur- 
pose of studying law. He represented himself as 
from Worcester County, Mass., and professed to be a 
strong Abolitionist. He was in reality a spy sent 
out by the planters of Bourbon County, Ky. 

After remaining a short time in Mr. Stewart's 
office, and gaining some information in regard to the 
location of the fugitives' settlements, he started out to 
visit them, thus to obtain more minute and definite 
knowledge. Still playing the role of the Yankee 
Abolitionist, he went in turn to the Calhoun and Cass 
County colonies, spending considerable time in each. 
Adopting the shrewd device of canvassing for Eastern 
Abolition journals, he readily obtained admission and 
hospitable entertainment at the houses of the Quakers 
and other friends of the negro, and easily received 
such information as he desired. He ascertained the 
number and the exact location of the fugitives, and 
the places from which they had "emigrated " in Ken- 

Not long after his visit to Calhoun County a party 
of Kentuckians, led by one Francis Trautman, ap- 
peared there and endeavored to kidnap the Crosswhite 
family, former slaves. In this they were foiled by 
the neighbors who came to the defense of the negroes 
some two hundred strong. The slave-hunters returned 
to Kentucky, and great excitement was aroused by 
the tales which they told of the Abolition outrage. In- 
dignation meetings were held and a memorial presented 
to the State Legislature setting forth in vigorous lan- 
guage the wrongs which the would-be kidnapers* and 
the owners of the slaves had suffered. An appropriation 

* The term " kidnapers" haa been commonly used in Michigan &s an appetla 
tion for the KentucltianB and appears; frecniently in this chapter, but as a mattel 
of fact they were not in the eye of the United Slates law" liidnapers" at all 
but simply men engaged in the recovery of their legal property. 




was made by the State to aid her citizens in seeking re- 
dress. Suit was brought by the owners of the slaves 
against a number of the leading citizens of Calhoun 
County to recover the value of their chattels and 
damages because of riot. The parties made defendants 
to the suit were Dr. 0. C. Comstock, Charles T. 
Gorham (late United States Minister to the Hague) 
and Jarvis Hurd, they being among the crowd as- 
sembled on the occasion of the alleged riot, who were 
known to be responsible financially. The first trial 
resulted in a divided jury, and the second, which 
came off in 1848, in a verdict against the defendants 
for $1,900 and costs. The late Zachariah Chandler 
was brought into political prominence indirectly by 
this suit. He headed a subscription paper with 
$100 and succeeded in raising (principally in Detroit) 
the amount which the defendants were required to 
pay. His activity did much to make him popular 
among the people who afterward gave him their suf- 

Before the Calhoun County riot case was brought to 
a conclusion in the courts, another and similar one 
was commenced — that which grew out of the Ken- 
tucky raid in Cass County. 

A party of thirteen Kentuckians driving fine hores 
attached to comfortable covered wagons, arrived in 
Michigan about the 1st of August, 1847. They 
made their first stop at Battle Creek, took lodgings at 
the hotel, and representing themselves to be engaged 
in vending some kind of domestic machinery, made 
excursions into the country, ostensibly to conduct busi- 
ness with the farmers"! There were a number of fugi- 
tive slaves living in the vicinity of Battle Creek, and 
the Kentuckians had doubtless gone there to capture 
them. Before their plans were perfected, however, 
their mission was discovered. Erastus Hussey, gath- 
ering the strangers in the village tavern, told them 
that the citizens knew them to be slave-hunters and 
that they must depart immediately from the town and 
its neighborhood. He further informed them that the 
people would not allow any of the negroes there to be 
returned into slavery, and intimated that those who 
contemplated seizing them for that purpose, were en- 
dangering themselves by longer remaining in the 
vicinity. The Kentuckians left. 

Immediately after their departure, Mr. Hussey, 
conceiving that they would visit the Cass County 
negro settlements, dispatched letters to Stephen Bogue 
and Zachariah Shugart, to put them on their guard 
against the invasion. It transpired subsequently that 
Mr. Hussey 's kind intention failed in its object, be- 
cause of the slowness of the mails. Another warning, 
which had its source in Kentucky, also arrived too 
late. It was forwarded through the efl"ortsof the late 

Levi Coffin, "the reputed President of the Under- 
ground Railroad," who, in his "Reminiscences," has 
told the story as follows : 

* * * " Slaves often have friends living in Slave 
States — people whose principles are unknown to the 
slaveholders. One of this class, a man living in 
the neighborhood of the Kentucky slaveholders, became 
apprised of all their plans for capturing the fugitives 
in Michigan, but was misinformed in regard to the 
time they were to start. He wrote to a confidential 
friend in Cincinnati, informing him of all the plans of 
the raiders, but stated the time of their starting incor- 
rectly — they started several days earlier. His friend 
came directly to me, and gave me all the information 
he had received. I at once set about to intercept their 
plans. I was well acquainted at Young's Prairie, 
Mich. There was a settlement of friends there, many 
of whom had emigrated from Wayne County, Ind., 
and were among the early settlers of the neighbor- 
hood. Some had formerly been my neighbors in Ind- 
iana. I had been at Young's Prairie and visited sev- 
eral of the families of fugitives in that settlement. 
Friends had established a school among them, and 
they seemed to be prospering. I decided to send a 
messenger at once to apprise them and their friends of 
the danger. At that day, letters were often eight or 
ten days in reaching Young's Prairie, and I knew it 
would not do to risk sending a message by mail ; it 
would not reach them in time. 

" A young man then boarding with us, an active 
and energetic Abolitionist, volunteered to go if his were paid. I agreed to pay his expenses, 
and started him at once. As there were no railroads 
or stage lines then, we had to depend on private con- 
veyance for the journey. I gave the young man let- 
ters to my friends in the various neighborhoods in 
Indiana, through which he would pass, requesting 
them to furnish him with fresh horses on the stages of 
his journey. This was promptly done on his way 
through Wayne, Randolph and Grant Counties, Ind., 
and greatly facilitated his journey to Michigan. But 
his laborious effort proved too late; the raid was 

But to return to the Kentuckians. Upon leaving 
Battle Creek they had driven southward into Indiana, 
and rendezvoused at Bristol. After remaining there 
a day or so, they moved northward after nightfall into 
Cass County, entering Porter Township, and travers- 
ing it until they reached a point near the southeast 
corner of Calvin, where a halt was made. It was 
their intention to kidnap the negroes in Calvin and 
Penn, and retreat as quickly as possible to Bristol. 
They had in their possession, as was afterward ascer- 
tained, very accurately drawn maps upon which the 



houses which sheltered the fugitives were carefully 
designated. These had undoubtedly been made by 
Carpenter, the spy. They had little difficulty in fol- 
lowing the roads which the maps exhibited, and made 
their way quietly and without being observed, to the 
vicinity of Josiah Osborn's dwelling, near the east 
line of Calvin (Section 24). Their wagons had been 
left two miles down the road where the party had 
halted, and they were thus enabled to proceed more 
rapidly and more stealthily. At Osborn's, several of 
the raiders stopped, but the larger number pushed on 
to the other localities in which they knew their human 
chattels were to be found. The plan was to divide, 
seize them as nearly simultaneously as was possible, 
hasten back to Osborn's, join the men left there, pro- 
ceed together to the point where the wagons were left, 
and then drive rapidly southward a -little over three 
miles and cross the Indiana line. But " the best laid 
plans of mice and men gang aft aglee." 

Several months before the time of which we write, 
a family of five fugitive slaves, tired, foot-sore and sick, 
had arrived at Mr. Osborn's, on their way to Canada, 
and had been allowed to stop and rest. Subsequently, 
as they were satisfied to remain, thinking they had 
traveled far enough north to be safe, they had been 
given employment on the farm. The family consisted 
of an old man, his wife, two sons and a daughter. 
They occupied a small house, a few rods from the one 
in which the Osborn family lived. The three males 
of this slave family were the first persons captured by 
the raiders. They were seized and handcuffed in bed, 
making little or no resistance. The mother and 
daughter escaped by jumping from a window and 
concealing themselves. The men, manacled together, 
were marched out to the road. Josiah Osborn imme- 
diately sent out messengers, who apprised the farmers 
in the neighborhood of the capture, and, in an almost 
incredible short time, a large and excited company 
had gathered at his house. 

The party who made the arrest at Osborn's had in- 
tended to await the return of their comrades from 
Young's Prairie, but finding themselves surrounded 
by a throng of angry and threatening men, among 
them some free negroes, they became uneasy. They 
were annoyed, too, by the delay of their friends, and, 
as the night wore away and they did not return, were 
filled with apprehension that they had met with the 
same kind of trouble experienced by themselves. 
After anxious consultation, they moved off to the 
northward, with their three captives, closely followed 
by the crowd of men and boys who had assembled 
about them. 

In the meantime, the other company of slave hunt- 
ers had made captures in Penn Township, and met 

with a reception similar to that of the party at Os- 

They went first to the East settlement in Calvin, 
where William East and several sons, all members of 
the Society of Friend-, had their residence. Here 
they captured three men, a woman and a child. The 
raiders were resisted by one of the male slaves, but 
they battered dowa the door of his cabin and over- 
powered him. They found lying upon the bed a 
child about two years old, which one of the Kentuck- 
ians, the Rev. A. Stevens, a Baptist minister, claimed 
as his property. He was the owner of the mother, 
and although the child had been born on free soil, it 
was his, according to the principle of slave law, which 
declared that a child followed the condition of its 
mother. The mother had made her escape when the 
cabin was attacked and could not be found. But the 
Rev. Mr. Stevens secured her by a stratagem. Tak- 
ing the babe in his arms and making it cry, he started 
toward the road. The voice of the infant reached the 
mother, as was intended, and emerging from her hid- 
ing place she was made a captive. 

The raiders went next to the neighborhood of Zach- 
ariah Shugart's house, which stood where A^'andalia 
now is. One of the families of fugitives who lived 
here had leased a piece of land of Mr. Shugart, built a 
snug cabin upon it and were prospering finely. The 
cabin was approached stealthily and suddenly entered. 
A negro man was seized but his wife made her 
escape unobserved through a window. She ran to 
Zachariah Shugart's, aroused the family, gave the 
alarm and then secreted herself and managed to es- 
cape capture. 

Immediately upon being informed of the raid by 
the slave woman, Shugart mounted his horse and rode 
as fast as he could to the house of Stephen Bogue, 
who lived about two miles west. Bogue had a very 
fleet horse, which he saddled and rode at its utmost 
speed to Cassopolis, to give the alarm and to have the 
proceedings of the kidnapers arrested. 

Passing ou to Stephen Bogue'a, the party secured 
a man who lived in a cabin upon his farm. Here 
they met with determined and vigorous resistance. 
The door of the cabin was securely fastened. The 
negro's master demanded admittance, but his voice 
was recognized and the occupant of the cabin refused 
to throw open the door. It was soon battered down, 
however, and the black man overpowered, though he 
fought stoutly against his enemy. The blow which 
finally prostrated him was dealt with the butt-end of 
a heavy riding whip and it cut a terrible gash through 
his ear and across the side of his head. 

The company of raiders now turned southward to 
effect a retreat into Indiana. A crowd of excited 



men gathered about and followed tliem. The night 
was liow nearly gone. The alarna had been spread with 
amazing swiftness, and the throng rapidly increased 
in numbers. At Odell's Mill, a short distance south 
of the site of Vandalia, the company from the prairie 
with its undesired escort of Abolitionists, met the party 
who had kidnaped the negroes from Osborn's and 
the East settlement. About the same time and just 
as daylight came on, a large number of people from 
Cassopolis, to whom Stephen Bogue had carried the 
news, arrived upon the scene. Their leader was 
Moses Brown, a powerfully built blacksmith, and as 
staunch an Abolitionist as any in the land. " Nigger 
Bill" .Jones was also present and several other resolute 

The Kentuckians were now given to understand 
that they could not proceed further southward, unless 
they went without the negroes. They were all armed 
with pistols and bow^ie knives. Nearly every man 
among their opponents had a stout club in his hand, 
and tliere were doubtless some other weapons carried 
less conspicuously. Angry words were exchanged, 
violent threats made, and it was evident that a feeling 
existed which might become- uncontrollable. A battle 
was imminent, and might at any moment have been 
precipitated by a single act of violence. But there 
were many Quakers present — men like the Orsborns, 
Bogues, Shugarts and Easts, and their wise counsel 
that only peaceable and lawful measures should be em- 
ployed to attain the desired end, finally triumphed 
over the sanguinary spirit exhibited by the larger 
part of the mob. 

It was agreed, after much discusssion, that the 
Kentuckians should go to the county seat, submit 
their case to a Justice of the Peace, and prove their 
property, as the law required. 

"Nigger Bill" Jones particularly distinguished 
himself during the excited conference at Odell's Mill, 
and upon the march to Cassopolis. It is said that he 
dextrously disarmed a man who drew a pistol and 
threatened to shoot him, and several other similar 
acts are reported of which he was the hero. Soon 
after the motley crowd started from Odell's Mill, 
Jones compelled Hubbard Buckner, one of the Ken- 
tuckians, to dismount from his horse in order that one 
of the negroes taken at Osborn's, who was sick, might 
ride. Having thus unhorsed one of the enemy, 
Jones playfully slipped the shackle which had bound 
the negro's wrist upon his own. It closed with a 
snap, and could not again be opened, the key being 
lost. Consequently the wearer trudged along the 
road manacled to the remaining one of the original 
pair of chained chattels. The Rev. A. Stevens was 
compelled to carry the babe which he had captured. 

About 9 o'clock in the morning, the strange pro- 
cession entered Cassopolis. It was composed of thir- 
teen Kentuckians, their nine shackled captives and a 
crowd of at least three hundred citizens. During the 
time that had elapsed between the bringing of the 
news and the arrival of the concourse in town, it had 
been constantly increasing in size, by reason of the 
addition of various small parties met upon the road 
ami merged in its mass. 

In Cassopolis, the utmost excitement prevailed. 
The public square was thronged with people, the ma- 
jority of whom, though not Abolitionists, sympathized 
with the negroes and plainly indicated their intense 
disapprobation of the Kentuckians. 

The slaves were soon conducted to Joshua Bar- 
num's tavern and a guard stationed at the door of the 
room they occupied. 

The Kentuckians had not been long in Cassopolis 
before they secured the services of George B. Turner, 
at that time a young man and only the year before 
admitted to the bar. He told them very frankly that 
although the law was up on their side, it would be almost 
an absolute impossibility even if an order was secured 
from any court in Cass County, remanding their 
slaves, to take them from the county. Mr. Turner 
offered nevertheless to take every legal step which 
was possible, and he did so. 

Preparations were made to prove the ownership of 
the slaves and to recover possession of them, a writ of 
restitution being applied for before D. M. Howell, Jus- 
tice of the Peace, under provisions of the law of 1793. 
EzekielS. Smith, Esq., and James Sullivan, Esq., ap- 
peared on behalf of the fugitives and obtained an ad- 
journment of the case for three days. 

Sheriff Barak Mead immediately after the adjourn- 
ment was secured served a writ upon all of the Ken- 
tuckians (except one Graves, whom the defense had in 
hiding) for kidnaping, arrested four of them on 
the charge of trespassing upon the premises of Josiah 
Osborn, and one upon the charge of assault and bat- 
tery. Theirbail was fixed by Justice Howell at $2,600, 
and Asa Kingsbury, Amos Dow and Daniel Mc- 
intosh were accepted as sureties for the amount. The 
names of the raiders which have been preserved, in 
the memory of old residents, are nine in number, as 
follows : Rev. A. Stevens, Hubbard Buckner, C. 
B. Rust, John L. Graves (Sheriff of Bourbon County), 
James Scott, G. W. Brazier, Thornton Timberlake, 
Bristow and Lemon. 

A. H. Redfield, Esq., who was at that time Circuit 
Court Commissioner of Cass County being absent, the 
friends of the fugitives sent to Niles to secure a writ 
of corpus, under which tiiey might take them 
to Berrien County. -James Brown, Esq., of Niles, 



volunteered his services as assistant counsel for the 
fugitives, with Messrs. Sullivan and Smith, and ad- 
vised Mr. Mcllvain that he might legally go to Cass 
County to try the case. He accordingly did so, and 
a writ of habeas corpus was sworn out, which required 
the Kentuckians to show cause why the alleged slaves 
should not be discharged from custody. The Com- 
missioner heard the case on Monday, and decided ad- 
versely to the Kentuckians. Mr. Turner, their law- 
yer, offered, first, the statutes of the State of Kentucky, 
which included the State and National Constitutions, 
as evidence that the institution of slavery existed in 
that State, and argued that the Commissioner, as well 
as all the courts. State and National, were bound to 
notice judicially the existence of slavery in the States 
where it was recognized by the Constitution or laws 
of the United States. Upon this latter point, he 
made his strongest argument, but upon both was over- 
ruled by the Commissioner. In this connection, it 
may not be amiss to state that Mr. Turner offered 
oral testimony, as well as documentary evidence from 
courts of record in Kentucky, to show that slavery 
had a legal existence in that State, but he was, on all 
points, overruled. Mr. Turner then boldly charged 
the Commissioner with illegal and corrupt rulings; 
amongst other things, that he had no jurisdiction of 
the case and came to the county as the willing tool 
of men bent on violating the laws of the State and 
the United States. It was generally acknowledged 
that Mr. Mcllvain did not have jurisdiction in Cass 
County, and it was afterward so held by the United 
States District Court at Detroit, and further held that 
even if the Commissioner had jurisdiction, he was 
bound to recognize, officially, the existence of slavery 
as a legal institution in States where recognized by 
the laws of the United States. But the Commission- 
er's decision nevertheless liberated the nine fugitives. 
They were immediately taken to the house of Ishmael 
Lee, a mile south of Cassopolis, and a few days later, 
with more than forty others, left for Canada on a train 
of the Underground Railroad, of which Zachariah 
Shugart was conductor. 

Three days had elapsed between the time the raiders 
arrived in Cassopolis and the day when Commissioner 
Mcllvain rendered decision against them. During 
those three days, they had been angered almost be- 
yond endurance by colloquys with various citizens, 
and several times personal encounters seemed immi- 
nent; but disgraceful scenes of that kind were, hap- 
pily, averted. When the Circuit Court Commission- 
er's decision was rendered, and the fugitives renloved, 
there was no longer any object in prosecuting the 
raiders, and the suits against them were dropped. 
They were crestfallen at the turn affairs had taken, 

and their only recourse was to bring suit for recov- 
ery of the value of the slaves against citizen^ who 
were financially responsible, and this they made prep- 
arations to do. In the meantime, a single and small 
grain of comfort was left them. A runaway slave, 
whom one of them claimed as his property, had been 
convicted of some petty crime a short time before the 
raid was made, and, being unable to pay the fine im- 
posed upon him, was serving out a sentence in the 
county jail. This man, at least, the Kentuckians 
thought they had secure. He certainly could not be 
spirited away to Canada. But lo ! when they looked 
for him at the jail, he was gone. Some ardent Ab- 
olitionist had paid his fine and set him free. 

An incident of some interest, the particulars of 
which have never yet been related in print, occurred 
just after the Kentuckians started from Cassopolis 
upon their return South. They were preceded upon 
the road by Josiah Osborn, who was going to his home 
in Calvin ; and that was a very fortunate circumstance 
indeed for the Kentuckians. Osborn had gone but 
a little way along the road in Calvin, when he espied 
four negroes in a cornfield. They were armed with 
rifles, and a little questioning revealed the fact that 
they were lying in ambush for the purpose of firing 
upon the slaveholders, whom they knew must soon 
pass by. They expressed a very firm determination 
to carry out their design, and were laboring under 
considerable excitement. It required all of the good 
Quaker's power of argument and his most earnest 
protestation , to prevail upon them to desist from their 
murderous purposes, but they finally promised to do 
so and dispersed. A half hour later the raiders passed 
safely by the spot where, but for Osborn's lucky dis- 
covery, some of them must inevitably have met with 
death. The negroes afterward denied that they had 
intended to take life, but said their plan was for each 
of them to take such aim as to break a man's leg and 
kill the horse he rode. Then they intended to make 
their escape to Canada. They said they " wanted to 
give the slaveholders something to remember Michi- 
gan by," and it is altogether probably that their 
bitter hatred would have led them to shoot in such 
manner as to kill instead of wound their victims. 

In February, 1848, the Kentuckians brought suit 
to recover the value of their slaves, in the United 
States Circuit Court, at Detroit. The defendants 
were D. T. Nicholson, Stephen Bogue, Josiah Osborn, 
Ishmael Lee, Zachariah Shugart, Jefferson Osborn, 
William Jones and Ebenezer Mcllvain. Abner Pratt, 
of Marshall, and Francis Trautman (the Kentuckian 
who acted as leader in the Calhoun County raid) ap- 
peared in behalf of the plaintiffs, and Jacob M. How- 
ard, of Detroit (afterward United States Senator) 


James L. Jerneygan, of South Bend, Ind., and Eze- 
kiel S. Smith, were the attorneys for defendants, the 
last named being the attorney of record. 

The case was continued several times, and finally 
came to trial in the latter part of 1850. In January, 
1851, it was concluded, the jury disagreeing. The 
principal witness for the prosecution, Jonathan Cruise, 
of South Bend, was arrested on the charge of perjury 
as soon as he left the stand, and the jury before which 
he was tried, stood nine to three for his conviction. 

At the disagreement of the jury, D. T. Nicholson 
paid th% sum of $1,000 to clear himself and Ishmael 
Lee. This virtually settled the cause of the Ken- 
tucky slave-owners against the Michigan Abolitionists. 
The total costs of the case, which amounted to about 
$3,000, were borne by the several defendants, Nichol- 
son included. The number of witnesses subpoenaed by 
both sides was somewhere from forty to fifty, and 
many depositions were taken, especially by the plaint- 
iffs. The witnesses for the defense charged, as a 
rule, only the amount of their actual expenses. Had 
they received the legal fees, the costs of the suit would 
have been much larger. 

The sum of $1,000 paid by Mr. Nicholson, was ac- 
cording to rumor, appropriated by Abner Pratt, Esq., as 
his fee in the case, and the slave-owners never received 
any portion of it. And so ended, as far as the Cas* County 
people were immediately interested, tliis " celebrated 
case." The Kentucky raid, however, had other effects 
than those locally observable. With the Van Zant case 
in Ohio, it had a strong bearing upon the passage of 
the fugitive slave law of 1850, which, in turn, brought 
slavery into a more pronounced position as a political 
issue, and powerfully influenced in one way or another 
all subsequent legislation upon the " peculiar institu- 



The First ('ompany of Soldiers raised in tlie County— Its Organization 
— Attaelied to tlie Forty-second liiinois Infantry— Brief History of 
tliat Keginient— Koster of tlie Officers and Men of the Forty- 
second, from (ass County— Other Full Companies from the County 
—The Sixth Michigan Infantry— Brief Histories of the Twelfth and 
Nineteenth Infantry -Kegiments, with Koster of Men from Cass— 
The First Michigan Cavalry. 

rpiHE first demonstration made in Cass County 
-L toward taking a part in the armed protection of 
the .Union, was made at Dowagiac by the Cass County 
Guards, upon the 22d of April, 18G1, at which time 
they elected officers, "voted to drill every Saturday 
afternoon until accepted in the service of the State," 
and passed a resolution in favor of publishing the pro- 
ceedings of their meetings " in the Dowagiac Daily 
Union and other papers in tlie county friendly to the 

stars and stripes."* The officers elected were : Cap- 
tain, D. McOmber; First Lieutenant, W. N. S. 
Townsend ; Second Lieutenant, N. H. De Foe. 
The remainder of the officers chosen were as follows : 
L. Andrews, First Sergeant ; L. Roberts, Second 
Sergeant ; James Wiley, Third Sergeant ; Joseph 
Johnson, Fourth Sergeant; L. H. Barney, First 
Corporal; Charles Root, Second Corporal; B. F. 
Griffin, Third Corporal; Edward Herson, Fourth 

This company singularly enough became a portion 
of an Illinois regiment. The company was re-organ- 
ized upon the 18th of May, but without essential 
change of officers, and was then the twenty-seventh 
company organized in the State. They remained in 
barracks at Dowagiac six weeks : were assigned to 
the Fourth Regiment Michigan Volunteer Infantry, 
which was in process of formation at Adrian ; subse- 
quently changed to the Sixth, and before they could 
report, the officers were ordered to Detroit for military 
schooling, and the privates ordered to disperse. An 
effort was made to have these orders rescinded, but it 
was unavailing, and refusing to comply with the Gov- 
ernor's requirements, the members of the company, 
by a unanimous vote, decided to proffer themselves for 
enlistment in the Douglas Brigade, then organizing 
in Chicago. This brigade was not accepted until 
after the first battle of Bull Run, and the company, 
which had gone to Chicago in June, had returned 
: home; but upon the 26th of July, 1861, they were 
mustered in at Dowagiac by Capt. Webb, United 
States Mustering Officer, as Company E, of the 
Forty-second Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and left for 
Chicago, where they remained ten weeks. 

We herewith present a condensed history of the 
regiment : 


j This regiment was mustered into service at Chi- 

I cago, 111., July 22, 1861. Its first movement was 
to St. Louis, Mo., September 21, 1861. October 

; 18, it arrived at Tipton, Mo., and was assigned to 
Col. Palmer's brigade. October 25, it was at War- 
saw, fro'n whence it moved, November 1, to Spring- 
field, arriving there November 4, after a march of 
ninety-seven miles. December 13, they went into 
winter ([uarters at Smithton, Mo., where they re- 
mained until February 3, 1862, when they marched 
to St. Charles, Mo. February 20, they were at Fort 
Holt, Kentucky ; Columbus was occupied March 4, 
and March 10 saw them on their way to Island No. 
10, where they were engaged until its surrender, 

I April 11, 1862, at which date they joined Gen. Pope's 

♦Dowaulac Umly Union, A|)rirz4, 18111. 
1 t From report of the A^jutint Uonentl uf [lllnoirt. 


army, and moved to Fort Pillow the 14th. Hamburg, 
Tenn., was the next point in the march, arriving 
there April 22. They were engaged at the siege of 
Corinth, Miss. May 19, 1862, we find them engaged 
in battle at Farmington, Miss., where the regiment 
lost two killed, twelve wounded, and three missing. 
After this fight, they were in the advance, in pursuit 
of the rebel army, under Beauregard. From July 
25 to September 3, they were occupying Courtland, 
Ala., when they left for Nashville, Tenn., at which 
place they arrived September 13, having had on their 
march a battle at Columbia, Tenn., in which they lost 
one man. 

They were in Nashville during the siege, and on 
December 20, 1862, marched out on the Nolensville 
pike six miles. December 16, engaged in the Mur- 
freesboro campaign. December 31, 1862, they were 
in the battle of Stone River, losing 22 killed, 116 
wounded, and 85 prisoners. 

March 5, 1863, engaged in the pursuit of Van 
Dorn to Columbia, returning to camp at Murfrees- 
boro the 14th ; entered upon the Tullahoma campaign 
June 24 ; camped at Bridgeport, Ala., July 31. 
September 2, engaged in the Chattanooga campaign. 
Marched to Alpine, Ga., thence to Trenton, and 
crossed Lookout Mountain ; was in the battle of 
Chickamauga, Ga., losing 28 killed, 128 wounded, 
and 28 prisoners, and retreated to Chattanooga. At 
the battle of Mission Ridge, November 28, 1863, the 
Forty-second was on the skirmish line during the 
whole engagement, losing 5 killed and 40 wounded. 
Pursued the enemy to Chickamauga Creek and re- 

The East Tennessee campaign was entered upon 
November 28, 1863. December 27, 1863, camped 
at Stone's Mill. 

January 1, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted and be- 
came a veteran volunteer organization. Dandridge 
was the next point, arriving there January 15. Feb- 
ruary 2, arrived at Chattanooga. February 21, 
moved by rail for Chicago. March 2, the men re- 
ceived a thirty days furlough, returning April 2, and 
arriving in Chattanooga April 27, 1864. May 3, 
they began the Atlanta campaign and were engaged 
in battles at Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Adairs- 
ville. New Hope Church, Pine Mountain, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro and 
Lovejoy Station, encamping at Atlanta September 8. 
Total 'loss of the campaign, 20 killed, 89 wounded 
and 7 prisoners. 

Moved, September 25, by rail, to Bridgeport, Ala., 
and to Chattanooga October 19 ; then marched to Al- 
pine, Ga., and returned October 30. 

Moved, by rail, to Athens, Ala., then marched to 

Pulaski, Tenn., arriving there November 5. Began 
retreating for Nashville November 22, 1864, and on 
the march fighting the rebels at Spring Hill and 
Franklin, and losing 24 killed, 95 wounded, and 30 
prisoners. Arrived at Nashville December 1. The 
battle of Nashville occurring the 15th and 16th, the 
regiment engaged and lost 2 killed and 11 wounded ; 
then pursued the enemy eighty-two miles, and camped 
at Lexington, Ala.. December 31, 1864. January 6, 
1865, they were in Decatur, Ala., remaining there- 
until April 1, 1865. They went to Nashville, going 
through Bull's Gap and Blue Springs. June 15, 
1865, they went by rail to Johnsonville, Tenn., and 
thence by water to New Orleans. July 18, they pro- 
ceeded to Port Lavaca, Tex , and went on post duty. 
December 16, 1865, they mustered out and left In- 
dianola, Tex., the 20th. Left New Orleans the 24th 
and arrived at Camp Butler January 3, 1866. Janu- 
ary 10, 1866, received final payment and discharge. 

Company E. 
Capt. Daniel McOmber, Uowagiac. 
Capt. William H. Colburn, Silver Creek; com. April 11, 1865; 

m. 0. Dec. IG, I860; 1st Lieut. May 17, 1864; Sergt. vet. 

Jan. 1, 1864 ; Corp., July 26, 1861. 
First Lieut. William H. Clark, Dowagiao, May 17, 1864; declined 

Second Lieut. Nathan H. DeFoe, Uowagiac, Jan. 22, 1861 ; res. 

Mayjl, 1862. 
First Sergt. William T. Codding, Dowagiac, July 22, 1861 ; m. 0. 

.Sept. 16, 1864. 
Sergt. Jehiel Hall, Dowagiac, July 23, 1861 ; killed at Stone 

River Dec. 31, 1862. 
Sergt. Cyrus Phillips, Dowagiao, July 22, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 1, 1864 ; 

prom. 1st Lieut. Co. F. 
Sergt. Leonard H. Norton, La Grange, Aug. 10, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 

1, 1864 ; died of wounds March 5, 1864. 
Corp. William H. Colburn, Silver Creek, July 26, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 

1 , 1 864 ; prom. Ist Lieut, from Sergt. 
Corp. Asher Huff, Dowagiac, July 26, 1861 ; dis for clisahility 

March V?., 1863. 
Corp. Comfort P. Estes, Dowagiac, July 26, 1861; vet. Jan. 1, 

1864; killed at Kenesaw June 18, 1864. 
Corp. Christopher Harmon, Dowagiac, July 26, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 1, 

1864 ; m. 0. Sergt. Dec. 16, 1865. 
Corp. Theo. De Camp, Silver Creek, July 26, 1861 ; dis. for dis- 
ability March 11, 1863. 
Corp. William H. Clark. Dowagiac, July 26, 1861: vet. Jan. 1, 

1864; m. 0. as Sergt. May 28, 1865. 
Corp. Victor Wallace, Dowagiao, July 26, 1861; vet. Jan. I, 

1864; ra. 0. as Sergt. Dec. 16, 1865f 
Arnold, Desire, Silver Creek, July 26, 1861 ; killed at Stone 

River Dec. 31, 1862. 
Brownell, Lorenzo D., Dowagiac, July 26, 1861 ; dis. for dis- 
ability Nov. 18, 1862. 
Barrack, Jonathan A., Calvin, Aug. 1, 1S61 ; dis. for disability 

Aug 17, 1862. 
Burling, Robert G., I'okagou, July 26, 1861 ; dis. for disability 

Oct. 24, 1862. 
Bragg, Gustavus, Pokagon, Aug. 7, 1861 : died of wounds at Tren- 
ton, Ga., Sept. 10, 1863. 
Caston, Hiram. Jefferson, July 26, 1861 ; ra. 0., wounded, Sept. 

16, 1864. 


Cone, Hulett, Dowagiae, Aug. 31, 1861 : died at Park Barracks' 

Ky., Nov. 6, 1862. 
Calhoun, .\lbert, Aug. -SO, IS61 ; died in rebel hogp., Wilniinglon. 

N. C, March 5, 186-5. 
Day, Lucius C, Dowagiae, .July 'JG, 1861 ; vet. 1, 1864; m. 

0. July 15, 1865. 
Finehart, Daniel P., Pokagon, .luly 26, 1861 ; died Feb. 8, 1862. 
Fleming, James H., Volinia, Aug. — , 1^61; died of wounds at 

Atlanta, Ga., Dec. 25, 1863. 
Heath, Edward C, Pokagon, July 26, 1861 ; Corp. ; died Aug. 2;-!, 

Hill, James, Dowagiae. July 26, 1861; vet. .Ian. 1, 1864; m. o. 

Dee. 16, 1865. 
Hanna, Nathaniel L., Dowagiae, Aug. 10, 1861 ; dis. for disability, 

March 27, 186,3. 
Hover, John B., Calvin, Aug. 21, 18fil ; vet. Jan. 1, 1864; prom. 

Prin. Mus. 
Higgins, George W., Dowagiae. July 26, 1861 ; dis. for disability 

March 27, 1862. 
Henderson, George H., Dowagiae, July 26, 1861 ; m. o. July 15, 

Hitsman, Sidney, Dowagiae, July 26, 1861; vet. Jan. 1, 1864; 

m. 0. Dec. 16, 1865. 
Higgins, Daniel, Dowagiae, Aug. 1, 1861 ; dis. Dec. 5, 1862. 
Krisher, John, Jr., Calvin, Sept. 9, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 1, 1864; m. 

o. Dec. 16, 1865. 
Lc'on.ard, William, Cassopolis, July 26, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 1, 1864; 

m. 0. Dec. 16, 1865. 
Lucas, Henry, Newburg, July 31, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 1, 1864; de- 
tached at m. 0. 
Lewis, Edwin H., Cassopolis, July 26, 1861; vet. Jan. 1, 1864; 

dis. for disability April 18, 1862. 
Miller, William H. H., Calvin, .luly 26, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 1, 1864 ; 

killed at Franklin, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1864. 
Munger, Charles A., Dowagiae, .July 26, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 1, 1864; 

prom. 1st Lieut, from Sergt. 
Momany, Oliver F., Dowagiae, July 26, 1861; wounded; trans- 
ferred to Vet. Res. Corps Feb. 16, 1864. 
McDonald, Alva, Pokagon, Aug. 1, 1864; m. o. Oct. .3, 1864. 
Northrup, Adoniram, Calvin, Aug. 1, 1864; killed at Stone River 

Dec. 31, 1862. 
Nevill, John G., Dowagiae, Aug. 1, 1864; wounded; transferred 

to Vet. Res. Corps April 16, 1864. 
Orange, Andrew, Dowagiae, Aug. 10, 1861 ; dis. Dec. 5, 1862. 
Peters, John, Calvin, Aug. 1, 1861 ; dis. for disability May 26, 

Picrson, Bartley, Calvin, Aug. 1, 1861 ; dis. for disability .May 3, 

Corp. Peter Rummels, Silver Creek, July 26, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 1, 

1864; m. o. Dec. 16, 186.5. 
Rea, Albert W., Calvin, Aug. 1, 1861 ; vet. Jan. I, 1864; died of 

wounds Dec. 15, 1861. 
Spieer, George G., Dowagiae, July 26, 1861; vet. Jan. 1, 1864; 

m. 0. Dec. 16, 1865. 
Shanafelt, Albert A., Dowagiae. July 26, 1861 ; m. o. Sept. 28, 

Shan.afelt, Herbert R., Dowagiae, July 26, 1861 ; died of wounds 

Columbia, .S. C. . 
Shearer, James H., Dowagiae, Aug. 1, 18<)1 ; died at Smithlon, 

Mo., Jan. 29, 1862. 
Stevens, Joseph H., Dowagiae, Aug. 1, 1861 ; died of wounds .luly 

7, 1864. 
Stevenson, Zimri, Calvin, Aug. 1, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 1, 1864; ni. o. 

Dec. 16, 1865. 
Sturr, Joseph L., Calvin, Aug. 1, 1861 ; m. o. Sept. 18, 1864. 
Tillotson, John D., Calvin, Aug. 1, 1861 ; m. o. Dec. 16, 1.865. 
Trenholm, Benjamin, Calvin, Sept. 9, 1861 ; m. o. .Sept. 16, 1864. 

Worden, Amasa P. R., Dowagiae, July 26, 1861 ; died of wounds 
April 7, 1864. 


Morse, Abel S.., Silver (>eek ; dis for disability Aug. 15, 1861. 
Row, Ferd. P., Silver Creek ; dis. for disability, Sept. 10, 1861. 
Stage, William, transferred to .Sappers and Miners Sept 5, 1861. 


The second company, organized in the County, was 
Company D of the Sixth Michigan Infantry. This 
company was organized at Dowagiae, with Charles E. 
Clarke, as Captain ; Frederick J. Clarke, First Lieu- 
tenant ; James Ellis, Second Lieutenant, and William 
H. Gage, Orderly Sergeant. The Captain of the com- 
pany arose to the position of Colonel,* James Ellis to 
the rank of Captain, and Orderly Sergeant Gage to 
that of Lieutenant. First Lieutenant Clarke became 
acting Captain, and was killed at Port Hudson. f 

The history of the Sixth Regiment is briefly as 
follows : 

It was what was known as a " camp instruction regi- 
ment;" was oi'ganized in the summer of 1861, and 
was rendezvoused at Kalamazoo. The commissioned 
officers were selected by the Governor, and they in 
turn selected the non-commissioned officers of their re- 
spective companies, and both commissioned and non- 
commissioned officers then went into a camp of instruc- 
tion at Detroit, where they were thoroughly drilled 
for nearly two months. The regiment left Kalamazoo 
for the East, August -SO, 1861, with 944 men, and 
remained in Baltimore for nearly six months on 
garrison duty. On February 22, 1862, the regiment 
went to Newport News (Fortress Monroe), and, on 
the 4th of March, left with other regiments for New 
Orleans, embarking just in time to encounter a ter- 
rific gale off Cape Hatteras. The Sixth was the first 
Union regiment which occupied New Orleans in the 
day time (a few had entered in the night). On the 
9th of May, the regiment, with its brigade, proceeded 
up the Mississippi, taking possession of various 
places, but meeting with no opposition until it arrived 
at Warrenton, a small place near Vicksburg. The 

♦Colonel Charles E. Clarke, formerly of Dowagiao, is a native of Lebanon, 
Conn. For several years prior to liis residence at Dowagiae, be was Captain of 
Bteiimboats on tlioOhio and MissiHsippi Riv,-r.^. Tn ilie summer of 1861, ho was 

(afterwanl made Heavy Artilt.M >-. i i. ..,. .^,,vi. pr,.iii .ti..ri.. h.-rjime its 

Colonel. Ho served with hi»n _)Mi,i.l li.iiil. ~ imil.-r Gens. 

BiitlorandB:4nks, in the Low.-i M v. . .inm iniril tl,,. |,riiM ipal part 



. I n>> was mustered out with bis 

.; was soon aftercommissioned 

V I milk of M^Jor, conferred "for 

I i!i III' rrgutar army, chiefly as com- 

,it]i. ami was transferred to the retired 

t (and Acting Captain) Frederick J. Clarke, wasa native of 
of .Toseph B. (Jlarke and nephew ofOol. Charles E. Clarke. 

buried in the National Militory i;emetory at Baton llouge. 



enemy was fortified there and refused to surrender. , 
They were not dislodged, and on the 5th of June the j 
brigade returned to Baton Rouge, where they en- I 
camped the next day. On the 20th of July, six 
companies of the regiment, in command of Col. 
Clark (T. S.), made a raid in the direction of Camp 
Moore, sixty miles eastward of Baton Rouge, for the 
purpose of capturing Charles M. Conrad, who had 
been Secretary of War under President Fillmore, and | 
a number of other rebels. At Benton's Ferry, a rebel ! 
force was encountered, and a running fight ensued. ! 
On August 5, while Baton Rouge was being heavily 
atttacked by the rebel forces under Breckinridge, the 
regiment, then under command of Col. Charles E. ; 
Clarke, received and repulsed the principal attack, 
which, had it been successful, would have resulted in 
the loss of a large quantity of artillery and stores. 
The loss of the regiment was twenty killed, forty-three ! 
wounded and six missing. Capt. Clarke, Acting Lieu- 
tenant Colonel, and Lieut. Clarke, were especially men- ' 
tioned for meritorious action in the reports of their ] 
superior officers. After the evacuation of Baton'Rouge 
by the Union forces on the 20th of August, 1862, the i 
Sixth was stationed at Mettarie Ridge, guarding one of 
the approaches to New Orleans. Owing to the un- 
healthiness of the locality only 755 men were fit for , 
duty when they arrived at New Orleans December 6, 
but those sick soon recovered there. On the 14th of 
January, 1863, the regiment participated in an ex- [ 
pedition, under Gen. Weitzel, to Bayou Teche, 
which destroyed the rebel gunboat Cotton. On the 
the 23d of March, it attacked the rebels at Poncha- . 
toula ; was engaged with the enemy April 3, at 
Amite River; at Tickfaw River on the 12th, and 
again at Araite River on the 12th of May. On a 
later date, the Sixth made a raid up the -Jackson Rail- 
road, destroying the enemy's camp at Pangipaho, | 
capturing sixty prisoners and appropriating or destroy- ! 
ing property valued at ^400,000. The regiment i 
then returned to New Orleans, and upon the 23d, as : 
a part of Gen. Banks' force, arrived in front of Port , 
Hudson, and was placed in one of the most exposed 
positions. On the 27th, the Sixth was engaged in the 
celebrated and deadly assault on Port Hudson, in 
which a third of its men were killed. The regiment 
in this finely fought combat, was under the command 
of Col. T. W. Sherman (who should not be confounded | 
with Gen. William T.. Sherman). The siege of Port 
Hudson followed. On the 5th of June, the regiment 
took part in a less disastrous assault. The Sixth 
was stationed at Port Hudson until March 11, 1864, 
where 247 men re-enlisted, a sufficient number of 
veterans to preserve the organization. It started 
for Michigan under command of Col. Edward Bacon, 

and after arriving at Kalamazoo, was furloughed for 
thirty days. Having again re-assembled it returned to 
the South, arriving at Port Hudson on the 11th of May, 
with a large number of recruits. On the 6th of June, 
it was ordered to Morganzia and remained there until 
the 24th, when it was ordered to Vicksburg. From 
that point it went to St. Charles, Ark. After the 
siege of Port Hudson, the Sixth had been made an artil- 
lery regiment, but it was now attached to an infantry 
regiment. Remaining but a short time at St. Charles, 
the regiment returned to Morganzia, where, for a 
short time, it was employed as engineers, but was soon 
after returned to duty as heavy artillery. The regi- 
ment was present at the bombardment and surrender 
of Fort Morgan, Ala., but arrived too late to partici- 
pate. Almost the entire service of the Sixth was 
rendered in the extreme Southern States. On the 
the 1st of November, 1864, Col. Charles E. Clarke, 
commanding, it was stationed in Alabama. Com- 
panies A, B, D, G and K garrisoned Fort Morgan 
and Fort Gaines, Dauphin Island, Mobile Bay, while 
the other companies were detached in December and 
joined an expedition against Mobile. After a fine 
career, the regiment came North at the close of the war, 
and was paid off and discharged at Jackson, Mich., 
September 5, 1865. The Sixth, during its term of serv- 
ice, met the enemy at Sewell's Point, Va., March 5, 
1862 ; Fort Jackson, La., April 25, 1862 ; Vicks- 
burg, Miss., May 20, 1862 ; Grand Gulf, Miss., May 
27, 1862; Amite River, Miss., June 20, 1862; 
Baton Rouge, La., August 5 and 7, 1862 ; Bayou 
Teche, La., January 14, 1863 ; Ponchatoula, La., 
March 24, 25 and 26, 1863 ; Baratoria, La., April 
7, 1863 ; Tickfaw River, La., April 12, 1863 ; Amite 
River, Miss., May 7, 1863 ; Ponchatoula, La., May 
16, 1863 ; siege'of Port Hudson, May 23 to July 8, 
1863; Tunica Bayou, La., November 8, 1863; Ash- 
ton, Ark., July 24, 1864 ; Fort Morgan, Ala., August 
23, 1864; Spanish Fort, Ala., April, 1865; Fort 
Blakely, Ala., April, 1865 ; Fort Huger, Ala., 
April, 1865 ; Fort Traeey, Ala., April, 1865 ; siege 
of Mobile, Ala., from March 20 to April 12, 1865. 

The total enrollment of the Sixth was 1,957 officers 
and men ; its losses 542 ; of which 2 officers and 43 
men were killed in action ; died of wounds, 21 men ; 
and of disease, 6 officers and 470 men. 

Field and Staff. 
Col. Chas. E. Clarke, Dowagiac, com. October 16, 18G4 ; m. o. as 
Lieut. Col. Sept. 7, 1865; com. Lieut. Col. Feb. 1, 1864; 
Maj. June 21, 1862; Capt. U. S. Army July 28, 1866 ; Brevet 
Major March 7, 1867, for gallant ami meritorious services in 
the siege of Port Huron, La. ; retired June 28, 1878. 
NoN Commissioned Staff. 
Sergt. Maj. Henry W. Ellis, Pokagon, com. May 13, 1865; m. o. 
.\ug. 20, 1865. 



Principal Musician Geo. 'L. Hazen, Calvin, e. .Ian. 1, 1862; vet. 

Feb. 1, 1864 ; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Musician John R., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. by order Sept. 20, 



Briggs, George, Porter, e. Aug. 30, 1862 ; dis. by order July 22, 

Woodard, Alvah, Porter, e. Aug. 30, 1862: died of disease at 

Ft. Morgan, Ala., Sept 24, 1864. 

Company C. 
First Lieut. Jas. A. Ellis, Donagiac, com. Dec. 1, 1862; trans. 

1st. Lieut, to Co. D. July 20, 1863. 
Anderson, Andrew J., Calvin, e. Jan. 11, 1864; trans to 7th 

U. S. Heavy Artillery June 1, 1864. 
Freeman, Henry W., Porter, e. Jan. 20, 1864 : trans, to Veteran 

Reserve Corps. 
Gilbert, Alson, Wayne, e. Dec. 21, 1863 ; died of disease at New 

Orleans, La., Oct. 12, 1864. 
Hawks, Henry, Mason, e. Jan. 11, 1864; trans, to 7th U. S. 

Heavy Artillery June 1, 1864. 
Turnley, Hiram M., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for disability March 

28, 1864. 

Company D. 
Capt. Charles E. Clarke, Dowagiac, com. Aug. 20, 1861 ; prom. 

Capt. James A. Ellis, Dowagiac, com. Sept. 1, 1863 ; resigned July 

19, 1864; trans. 1st Lieut, from Co. C, July 20, 1863; 2d 

Lieut. Co. D, Aug. 20, 1861. 
First Lieut. Frederick J. Clarke, Dowagiac, com. Aug. 19, 1861 ; 

killed in battle at Port Hudson, La., May 27, 1862. 
First Lieut. William W. McIIvaine, Cassopolis, com. Sept. 1, 

1863 ; com. 2d Lieut. Dec. 1, 1862 ; Sergt. Aug. 20, 1861 ; re- 
signed as 1st Lieut. July 20. 1864. 
First Lieut. Charles St. John, Dowagiac, com. March 7, 1865 ; m. 

0. July 20, 1865; 2d Lieut. Co. F; Sergt. Co. D; vet. Feb. 

1, 1864. 

Second Lieut. John G. Allison, Porter, e. Sergt. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

vet. Feb. 1, 1864 ; m. o. as Sergt. July 20, 1865. 
Sergt. Hiram Meacham, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for disability Oct. 

14, 1862. 
Sergt. William 0. Kellam, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for disability 

April 30, 1864. 
Sergt. Ira Coe, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; prom. 2d Lieut. U. S. C. T. 
Corp. Charles K. Weil, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; prom. 1st Lieut. 1st 

La. Battery, Nov. 29, 1802. 
Corp. Ira Coe, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 

Corp. Thomas M. Sears, La Grange, e. Nov. 21, 1862; vet. March 2, 

1864: dis. by order Aug. 20, 1865. 
Corp. James K. Train, e. Dec. 10, 1863 ; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Corp. Theodore Perarle, Ontwa, e. Dec. 2, 1804; m. o. Aug. 20, 



Aikins, Alexander, Calvin, e. Oct. 7, 1863 ; m. o. Aug. 20, 

Baker, Ferdinand, m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Bell, James M., Jefferson, e. Aug. 20. 1861 ; vet. Feb. 1. 1864 ; 

dis. for disability Aug. 1, 1865. 
Brown, Francis D., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of .service, Aug. 

23, 1864. 
Carter, Elijah H., Porter, e. Aug. 12, 1862 ; died at Port Hudson, 

La., of wounds, May 27, 1863. 
Carter, John M, Calvin, e. Aug. 12, 1862; died of disease at 

Port Hudson, Sept. 2, 1863. 
Christie, Willard, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of service, Aug. 

23, 1864. 

Curtis, Edward, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at New Orleans, 

La., Nov. 30, 1862. 
Cushing, James H., Silver Creek, e. April 12, 1864; dis. by 

order, Sept. 5, 1865. 
Dorr, Peter, Penn, e. Aug. 20, 1861; vet. Feb. 1, 1864; m. o. 

Aug. 20, 1865. 
Estabrook, Aaron L., e. .\ug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of service, 

Aug. 23, 1864. 
Estabrook, George R., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for disability, Oct. 

14, 1862, 
Fraker, Oliver P., Porter, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; vet. Feb. 1, 1864 ; 

dis. for disability. May 18, 1865. 
Gannett, Lewis, e. .\ug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 

Grennell, Oliver C, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for disability Oct. 14, 

Gales, Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at Baltimore 

Oct. 8, 1861. 
Gilbert, Allison J.. Wayne, e. Dec. 21, 1863; dis. for disability 

June 2, 1865. 
Goodrich, Noah, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis for disability Oct. 12, 

Gregg, James H., e. .\ug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Aug. 

23, 1864. 
Greenman, James J., Porter, e. Aug. 12, 1862; m. o. July 21, 

Hall, George M., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for disability Oct. 6, 

Hall, Philander W., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; vet. Feb. 1, 1864; m. o. 

Aug. 20, 1865. 
Harmon, Benjamin H., died at Port Hudson, La , of wounds. 

May 27, 1863. 
Harmon, James, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. by order March 28, 

Harmon, Sylvester, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at Port 

Hudson, La., Aug. 13, 1863. 
Herrod, Francis M., Porter, e. Jan. 2, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 

Horr, Calvin L., Calvin, e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; m. o. July 21, 1865. 
Hover, Evart, Silver Creek, e. March 31, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 

Jackson, J. J., Porter, e. Aug 27, 1862 ; dis. for disability March 

10, 1863. 
Johnston, Albert, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. by order Feb. 10, 1863. 
King, Edward, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 

King, John, e. Jan. 1, 1862 ; vet. Feb. 1, 1864. 

Kidder, Norman C, e. Aug. 12, 1862 ; m. o. July 21, 1865. 

Kirk, George W., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at Camp 

Williams Nov. 21, 1862. 
Lake, William H., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Aug. 

23, 1864. 
Lewis, Peter, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at Port Hudson, 

La., Aug. 12, 1803. 
.Mcintosh, Jacob M., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Aug. 
23, 1864. 
j Meacham, Cyrus, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for disability Oct. 14, 
I 1862. 

j Meacham. William J., e. Jan. 1, 1862; dis. for disability Oct. 
1 14, 1802. 

Miller, James M. ;.di3. for disability Sept. 18, 1803. 
Montgomery, .Milton, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at Baton 

Rouge, La., Aug. 3, 1862. 
Montgomery, Samuel, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at Port 
Hudson, La., July 18, 1863. 
i Myers, George R., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at New 
I Orleans, La., Aug. 12, 1862. 



Nesbitl, William, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dig. for disabililj Ocl. 14, 

Neville, Jerry, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 22, ISCS : in. o. Aug. 20, 

Osborn, Allen S., Calvin, e. Aug. 11, 1862 ; m. o. July 21, 1865. 
Osborn, Arthur, e. Nov. 10, 1862 ; in. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Osborn, Job E., Calvin, e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; died of disease at Port 

Hudson, La., Oct. 4, 1863. 
O'Neil, Timothy, Silver Creek, e. Nov. 21, 1863 ; ni. o. Aug. 20, 

Overmeyer, Thomas J., e. Aug. 20, 18i;l : dis. at end of service 

Aug. 23, 1864. 
Owen, Andrew J., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of 

23, 1864. 

Patrick, Levi \V., died of disease at Baton Rouge, La., July 3, [ Corp. John R. Lee, e. Aug 

First Lieut. .John Jacks, Edwardsburg, com. Sept. 1, 1862; dis. 

for disability Oct. 27, 1863. 
First Lieut. Edw.ard C. Beardsley, Dowagiac, com. Nov. 25, 

Second Lieut. .John Jacks, Ontwa, com. .\ug. 20, 1863; prom. 

First Lieut. 
Second Lieut. Edward C. Beardsley, Dowagiac, com. June 3, 

1864 ; prom. First Lieut. 
Sergt. Charles Morgan, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of service 

Aug. 23, 1864. 
Sergt. E. C. Beardsley, e. Aug. 20, 1801 ; prom. Second Lieut. 
Aug. j Sergt. John P. Carr, Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, 1861; vet. Feb. 1, 
0. Aug. 26, 1865. 

il ; trans, to regimental band. 
Corp. Alouzo Benedict, e. Aug. 20, 1861; dis. for disability Oct. 

26, 1862. 
Corp. Leonard Sweet, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for disability Oct. 
26, 1802. 

23, 1864. I Corp. David Ogden, e. Aug. 20, 1861; vet. Feb. 1, 1,864; m. o. 

Reynolds, Paul S., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Aug. i ^ug. 20, 1865. 

Randall, Lorenzo D., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Aug. 

23, 1864. 
Reynolds, George, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Aug. 

23, 1864. 
Rinehart, Henry, e. Aug. 18, 1862 ; m. o. July 21, 1805. 
Ring, John. e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for disability Oct. 14, 1862. 
Robb, John, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for disability Jan. 20, 1862. 
Rogers, Leroy, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. .at end of service Aug. 23, 

Sickles, George VV., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died in action at Port 

Hudson, La., June 30, 1863. 
Starka, William, Silver Creek, e. April 12, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 

Shawl, Merrin, Silver Creek, e. April 12, 1864 ; ra. o. Aug. 20, 

Stockwell, John, e. Aug. 20, 1851 ; dis. for disability Oct. 14, 

Stone, Edmund, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at New Orleans, 

La., Aug. 12, 1862. 
St. John, Charles, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 2U, 1861 ; vet. Feb. 1, 

1864; dis. for prom. 2d Lieut, this regt., Co. J, Nov. 1, 

Swinehart, Lewis, Porter, e. Aug. 18, 1862; died of disease at 

Port Hudson, La., Aug. 29, 1863. 
Tracy, Spencer, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at Port Hudson, 

La., Sept. 22, 1863. 
Wallace, William, Wayne, e. Dec. 19, 1863 ; m. o. July 21, 1865. 
Wheeler, Thomas, Penu, e. Aug. 25, 1864 ; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Wicting, John, Silver Creek, e. March 31, 1864 ; dis. for disability 

Dee. 15, 1864. 
Wilsey, William H., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at Carrol- 
ton, La., March 6, 1863. 


Second Lieut. Charles St. John, Dowagiac, prom, from Sergt. 
Co. D, July 18, 1864; prom. 1st Lieut., Co. I). March 7, 

Company F. 


Corsclnian, Levi, Marcellus, c. March 1, 1862 ; dis. by order Sept. 

14. 1865. 

Company G. 


Clark, (leorge 11., Wayne, e. Dec. 19, 1863; m. o. Aug. 20, 

Dewey, Enoch, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. Aug. 20, 

Stevens, Isaac R., Silver Creek, e. Oct. 20, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 


Corp. James H. Smith, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for disability Jan, 

20, 1862 
Corp. John Chatterdon, Howard, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; vet. Feb. 1, 

1864; m. o. Aug. 11, 1865. 


Barrett, Ransom, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at Port Hud- 
son, La., June 25, 1862. 
Bramhall, Nathan W., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at Port 

Hudson, La., FeJ). 6, 1864. 
Brunson, Perry, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. to enter Regular Army 

Dec. 23, 1862. 
Bump, Adolphus, Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; vet. Feb. 1, 1864; 

m. 0. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Coder, Willett G., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for disability Oct. 26, 

Cole, Johnson B., e. Aug. 20, 1861; dis. for disability Oct. 29- 

Eby, George W. N., e. Aug. 20, 1861 : dis. for disability Jan. 5, 

Hanson, Benjamin, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at Ship 

Island, La., March 18, 1862. 
Haskins, Calvin, Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; vet. Feb. 1, 1864; 

m. 0. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Heyde, Henry, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 

Joy, Elias W., Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; vet. Feb. 1, 1864 ; m. 

0. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Kieffer, Jacob, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 

Lamson, Horace, dis. at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864. 
Lockwood. Henry P., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at 

Baton Rouge, La., July 24, 1863. 
McKinstry, Albert, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. by order March 9, 

Mott, Sylvester, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease at Camp Will- 
iams Oct. 8, 1862. 
Putnam, Uzziel, Pokagon, e. .\ug. 20, 1861 ; dig. for disability 

Jan. 26, 1864. 

, , Niles, vet. Feb. 1, 1804 ; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 

Rourke, Patrick, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; vet. Feb. 1, 1864 ; m. o. Aug. 

20, 1865. 
Shiry, William, Baton Rouge, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of disease 

New Orleans. La., Sept. 11, 1862. 
Smith, Mathew, e. Aug. 20, 1862 ; died of disease at New Or- 
leans Aug. 29, 1868. 
Sweet, Leonard, re-e. Dec. 6, 1863 ; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 


Thayer, Kira, .lefferson, e. Aug. 20, 18lil ; vet. Feb. I, 18ti4; m. 

o. Aug. 20, I860. 
Wesifall. Mivrvin F., Jefferson, e. Aug. 2(1, 18(11 : ve(. Feb. 1 , 1864 ; 

(lis. for disability .lune •), 18(55. 
Williams, George W., e. Aug. 20, 18('.l ; (lis. at end of service 

Aug. 23, 1864. 


A large number of Cass County men were in 
this regiment. Company A, raised by Capt. Joseph 
Harper of Cassopolis, was composed almost entirely of 
men from this county. They were enlisted at Casso- 
polis, in the fall of 18(31, and the company was orga- 
nized at Niles, which place was selected as the place 
of rendezvous for the Twelfth Regiment, in the spring 
of 1862. Charles A. Van. Riper was First Lieutenant, 
and David M. McLelland Second Lieutenant. 

The Twelfth completed its organization, and was 
mustered into service, on March 5, 1862, with a 
strength of 1,000 officers and men. The regiment 
moved from Niles, on the 18th of March, taking the 
route to St. Louis, from whence it was hurried forward 
by steamer, by the Mississippi. Ohio and Tennessee 
Rivers, reaching Pittsburg Landing in time to take 
part in the important engagement, fought at that 
place on the 6th and 7th of April. The Colonel 
commanding was Francis Quinn, of Niles. The regi- 
ment was assigned to Col. Peabody's brigade of Uen. 
Prentiss' division, and was one of the first regiments 
attacked by the enemy, sufi"ering a severe loss. The 
battle of Shiloh was an important event in the history 
of the Twelfth. During April and May, it remained 
at Pittsburg Landing, and in June and July was in 
Jackson, Tenn. In August, it was stationed at Boli- 
var, in the same State. Under command of Col. 
Uraves, the regiment was on picket duty, near the 
field of action, at luka on September 2, and was in 
the battle of Metamora, on the Hatchie River, October 
.'), with loss, and was complimented in the report of 
Gen. Hurlburt for efficiency and bravery in the action. 
The other engagements with the enemy, in which the 
Twelfth took part, were at Middleburg, Tenn., De- 
cember 24, 1862; Mechanicsville, Miss., June 4, 1868; 
siege of Vicksburg, Miss., June and July, 1863 ; 
siege of Little Rock, Ark., August and September, 
ISO-]; Clarendon, Ark., June 26, 1S64; Gregory's 
Landing, September 4, 1864. 

The regiment was, for some time after the close of 
active hostilities, engaged in guarding public property 
in, but came north, in February, 1866, and 
on the 6th of March, the men were paid off and dis- 
charged at Jackson, Mich. The total membership of 
the regiment was 2,32.^. and its losses 432, of which 
number 1 officer and 23 men died of wounds ; 28 men 
were killed in action ; 3 oflicers and 377 men died of 

Cdmpanv A. 
('apt. .Foseph llarper, Ossopolis, com. .Sept. 26, 18(51 ; resigned 

May 7, 1862. 
First Lieut. Charles A. Van Riper, La (irange, com. Oct. 4, 1861 ; 

resigned Feb. 28, 1863. 
First Lieut. Austin L. Abbott, Pokagon, com. Feb. 23, 1863 ; 

resigned .luly 3, 1864. 
Second Lieut. David M. McLelland, Dowagiac, <:oni. Oct. 14, 

1861 ; resigned Nov. IG, 1862. 
.Second Lieut. Robert .S. M. Fox, H(.ward, com. April 8, 1864 ; 

prom. 1st Lieut. Co. G. 
Sergt. Austin L. Abbott, Pokagon, e. .Sept. 28, 1861 ; prom. 1st 

Lieut. Co. A. 
Sergt. George B. Crane, Pokagon, e. Oct, 4, 1861 : died of disease 

at Little Rock, Ark., .July 23, ]8(i4. 
Sergt. 15en,iarain F. Dunham, (^assopolis, e. Oct. 4, 1861 ; prom. 

(^m. Sergt. April 1, 1862; died of di8ea,se at St. Louis, .Mo., 

May 24 1862 
.Sergt. .James Hill, Cassopolis, e. Oct. 9, 1861 ; dis. for disability 

May 31, 1864. 
Sergt. Joseph R. Edwards, Pokagon, e. Sept. 28, 18C1 ; dis. at 

end of service Jan. "J, 1865. 
Sergt. Robert S. .M. Fox, Howard, e. Oct. 2, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 25, 

1863; prom. 2d Lieut. Co. A. 
Sergt. Isaac D. Harrison, Pokagon, e. Sept. 28, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 

25, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Corp. Isaac D. Harrison, 
t'orp. William E. Stevens, Mason, e. Oct. 22, 1861 ; prom. 2d Lieut . 

Co. K. 
Corp. Lewis Van Riper, La Grange, e. Oct. 4, 1861 ; dis. for .Usa- 
bility Jan. 21, 1862. 
Corp. William Lingual, Pokagon, e. .Sept. 31, 1861 ; dis. at end of 

service Feb. 14, 1865. • 

Corp. Almon W. Eck, Wayne, e. May 18, 186:5; vet. Feb. 2!J 

1S64; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Musician Wellman Blanchard, Pokagon, c. Oct. 15, 1861 ; dis. for 

ilisability Aug. 16, 1862. 

Allen, Alonzo W., Pokagon, e. Sept. 28, 1861 ; died of disease at 

Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 25, 1863. 
Allen, Nelson K., Porter, e. .Ian. 30, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Barker, George F., e. Dec. 15, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 5, 18(53; m. o. Feb, 

16, 1866. 
Bilderback, Peter, .Silver ( 'reek, e. Oct. 31, 1861 ; dieil of wounds 

at Pittsburg Landing, June 5, 1862. 
Bilderback, Wesley B., Silver Creek, e. Oct. 31, 1861 ; dis. for 

disability Nov. 14, 18(53. 
Broniier, David, Penu, e. Oct. 18, 1861 ; died of disease .\pril — , 

Brown. Albert E.. Ontwa, e. March 2, 1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Brown, Charles G., Dowagiac, e. Sept. 5, 1862; dis. at end of 

service .Sept. 9, 1865. 
Buckley, Peter, Pokagon, e. March 18. 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Bucklin, George S., Wayne, e. Nov. 12, 1861; dis. for disability 

Sept. 9, 1862. 
Hush, Asa L., Dowagiac, e. Feb. 18, 1862; died of disease at 

Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 20, 1863. 
Bycrs, Charles F., La Grange, e. Aug. 19, 1864; dis. at end of 

service Sept 9, 1865. 
i;arr, Allen .M., Ontwa, e. Feb. 25, 1864; dis. for disability May 

22, 1865. 
Caves, Samuel, died of disease at Niles, Mich., March 23, 1862. 
Chisby, James, La Grange, e. Feb. 18, 1862; dis. a( end of serv- 
ice Feb. 17, 1865. 
Campbell. Daniel, Pokagon, e. March 18, 1863; died of wounils 

ai Cuniden, .\rk., Oct. 6, IsCo. 



Cleveland, Cliailes E., e. Jan. 27, 1«02; dis. ai end of service 

, Jan. 27, 1865. 
Colby, James, e. (Id. 14, 18iil ; died in action at ShUoh April 

6, 1862. 
Colvin, James M., e. Oct. 29, 1861; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; acci- 
dentally killed Sept. o, 1864, 
Curtis, Franklin P., Mason, e. Feb. 14, 1864 ; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866, 
Davis, Edson, Uowagiac, e, Oct. 5, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 25, 1863 ; m. o. 

Feb. 15, 1866. 
Delauey, Thomas, Cassopolis, e. Oct 9, 1861 ; vet. Dec, 25, 1863; 

dis. by order Aug. 14, 1865. 
Denison, Franklin, Cassopolis, e, Oct. 9, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 28, 

1863; dis. for disability .May 11, 1865. 
Eggleston, William J., Mason, e. Feb 16, 1865; dis. by order 

May 22, 1865. 
Emmons, Darius, Dowagiac, e. Feb. 22, 1864; dis, by order May 

22, 1865. 
Emmons, Jonathan, Dowagiac, e, Feb. 22, 1864; m, o, Feb. 15, 

Emmons, Wm. A., Dowagiac, e. Feb. 22, 1864 ; m. o, eb. 16, 1866. 
Foster, Francis M,, Penn,, e. Feb. 23, 1864; m. o. Feb, 15, 1866, 
Gallagher, James, Jefferson, e. Dec, 8, 1863; m, o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Gilbert, Samuel, Mason, e. Oct. 25, 1861 ; dis. by order Sept. 7, 

Gillespie, George, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 28, 1861 ; dis. by order April 

25, 1863. 
Goodrich, James, Jefferson, e. Feb. 22, 1864 ; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866, 
Goff, Hiram, Wayne, e. Nov. 9, 1861 ; died at home, 
Graham, Edward R., Cassopolis, e. Feb. 21, 1862; dis. at end of 

service Feb. 21, 1865, 
Graham, Henry C, La Grange, e, Sept. 7, 1864 ; dis. al end of 

service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Haas, Jacttb, Howard, e. Sept. 23, 1864; dis. at end of service 

Sept. 9, 1865. 
Haines, Thomas L., Outwa, e. March 2, 1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Hartsel, Edward, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 5, 1861 ; died of disease at 

Columbus, Ohio. 
Hatfield, Andrew V., dis. by order Jan, 24, 1866. 
Hauser, Michael B., Pokagon, e. Oct. 15, 1861 ; dis. for disability 

Aug. 28, 1862. 
Heaton, Abram, Porter, e. Dec. 5, 1863 ; m. o. Feb 15, 1866. 
Heaton, Lester iM,, Porter, e, Dec, 29, 1863; m, o, Feb, 15, 1866, 
Higgins, Benjamin F,, Newburg, e. Oct. 12, 1861 ; dis. by order 

.\pril 21, 1863, 
Higgim, James P,, e, Dec, 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; dis, for 

disability July 8, 1864. 
Higgins, Jonn, Newburg, e. Dec. 11, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 25, 1»63 ; 

m, 0. Feb, 15, 1866. 
Higley, Solomon G., Ontwa, e. Dec. 29, 1863 ; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866, 
.Higley, William, Ontwa, e. March 2, 1865; m, o, Feb, 15, 1866. 
Hill, Henry T., Cassopolis, e. Feb. 18, 1862 ; dis. at end of service 

Feb. 17, 1865. 
Kibray, Jacob P., Newburg, e. Oct. 3, 1861 ; died of disease at 

Montgomery, Ala., May I, 1862. 
Hitchcock, Lucius P., Porter, e. Feb. 5, 1864; m. o. Feb, 15, 1866 
Holmes, Henry, Pokagon, e, .March 18, 1863; died of disease at 

Dowagiac Oct. 2(i, 1863. 
Holmes, William, Silver Creek, e. Nov. 19, 1861 : died of disease 

at Dowagiac June lU, 1863, 
Horner, James, La Grange, e. Oct. 18, 1861 ; vei. Dec. 28, 1863; 

m. 0. Feb. I i, 1866. 
Hudson, James, Jefl'erson, e. Dec. 16, 1863; m. o. Feb. 16, 1866. 
Huff, Charles H,, La Grange, e. Jan. 17, 1866 ; dis. by order Jan. 

24, 1866. 
Hunt, John H,. Jefferson, e. Nov. 11, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 26, 1863: 

m. 0. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Ireland, Elon M., m, o. Feb. 16, 1866. 

Jackson, Erastus M., Porter, e. Feb. 7, 1864; m. o. Feb, 15, 1866. 
Jackson, George, Mason, e. Feb. 14, 1865; m o. Feb, 15, 1866. 
Jackson, John S., Porter, e. Feb. 7, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Jennings, Abram, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 15, 1861 ; dis. by order July 

23, 1862. 
Johns, Aaron, Mason, e. Oct. 18, 1861 ; m. o. Feb, 15, 1866, 
Kugan, Edward, Jefferson, e. Feb, 28, 1862: captured at Little 
Rock, Ark., Sept. 3, 1864; exchanged May 27, 1865; dis, at 

end of servici' July 8, 1865. 
Kelley, John H., Calvin, e. Feb. 7, 1866; died of disease at Wash- 
ington, Ark., July 2, 1865. 
Kelley, Joseph, Calvin, e. Peb. 26, 1864 ; dis. by order May 22, 

Keyes, John, Wayne, e, Nov, 9, 1861 j dia. by order July 16, 1862. 
Landon, Edward, .Mason, e. Feb. 16, 1865; m, o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Langley. Zachariah B„ Pokagon, Oct 13, 1861 ; dia, at end of 

service Jan. 7, 1865. 
Lillie, John, La Orange, e, Dec. 28, 1861 ; dis. at end of service 

Jan. 7, 1865. 
Liphart, George M,, La Grange, e. Oct. 31, 1861 ; died al Indian- 
j apolis, Ind., April 17, 1865. 

Lewman, Simon, La Grange, e. Feb. 22, 1864; died of disease at 
i Duval's Bluff, Ark., Dec. 16, 1804. 

I Maloney, Lawrence, Pokagon, e. Feb. 3, 1864 ; died of disease at 
I Camden, Ark., Dec, 9, 1865. 

.Marsh, Benjamin, La Grange, e. Dec. 7, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Marsh, Nathan, La Grange, e. March 16. 1865; m. o. Feb. 16, 

Miner, William A., La Grange, e. Oct. 6, 1801 ; vet. Dec. 25, 

1863 ; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Munson, Allen C, Volinia, e. Sept. 2, 1864 ; dis. at end of serv- 
ice, Sept. 9, 1865. 
.Myers, George, Volinia, e. Feb. 18, 1864 : died of disease al 

Camden, Ark., Dec. 9, 1865. 
Neft', Aaron, Jefferson, e. Feb 22, 1864 ; ui. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Niblett, James, Mason, e, Feb. 8, 1864 ; dis. by order .May 22, 

Nichols, Arthur. Penn, e. Dec. 11, 1»61 ; dis. for disability 

July 17, 1862. 
Norton, Bela A., La Grange, e. Jan. 27, 1802; dis. at end of serv- 
ice, Jan. 27, 186-J. 
Odell, Victor M , e. Feb. 1, 1862: missing in battle al Shiloh. 

April 7, 1862. 
Pratt, Henry D., Pokagon, e. Nov. 17, 1801 ; died of disease al 

St. Louis, Mo,, June 5, 1862. 
Pratt, James i:.. La Grange, e. Oct. 21, 1801 ; vet. Jan. 2, 1864 ; 

m. 0. Feb. 16, 1866. 
I'hilips, William J.. .Mason, e. Jan. 18, 1864; died of ilisease at 

Duval's Bluff, Ark.. Nov. 26, 1864. 
Post, John H., Pokagon, e. Oct. 8, 1861 : dis. al end of service, 

Jan. 27. 1865. 
Reams, Peter, Jefferson, e. Feb. 23, 1864; dis. for disabilily May 

26, 1865. 
Roberts, James H, Mason, e, Feb. 15, 180.5; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Robinson, Levi, Pokagon, e. Oct. 15, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 25. 1863; 

dis. by order March I. 1864. 
Rogers, .lesse. Potter, e, Dec 5, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1860. 
Root, Charles. La Grunge, e. Feb. 22, 1804; died of disease at 

Little Rock, Ark.. Aug. 8, 1864. 
Root, Josiah C, La Grange, e. t)ct. 31, 1801 ; dis. for disability 

July 17. 1862. 
Rosburgh, Enos. Jefferson, e. Feb. 26, 1862; dis. by order Nov. 

16, 1K62. • 
Rost, John A., La Grange, e. Feb. 18, 1862; dis. for disabilily 

June 4, 1802. 



Keh.2H, 18li4 


Kussey. .lohn M., tji (irangc, e. Feb. 21, 1W2 

m. o. Feb. lo, 1866. 
Sergt. .lames M. Savage, La Grange, e. Oct. 31, 18i'>l : vet. Dec. 

■>o. 1863: m. o. Feb. 15, 18H0. 
Scotten, William, Ontwa, e. March '2, 1865: iii. o Feb. 15, 1866. 
Secor, Isaac, La (irange, e. Oct. 28, 18^1 ; ilied at .laekson, Tenn. 

(railroad accident,) .Sept. 24, 1862. 
Secor, Joseph VV., La Grange, e. Oct. 24, 1861 ; dis. by order 

Sept. 1, 1862. 
Shanafelt, William H., e. Oct. 81, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 26, 1863; m. 

0. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Shepard, Charles, Calvin, e. Feb. 25, 1864; died of disease at 

Niles, Mich. 
Shuste, Thomas P , La Grange, e. Nov. 11, 1861 ; dis. for disability 

Sept. 20, 1862. 
Simpson, Thomas, La Grange, e. Oct. 20, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 25, 

1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866 
Soules, Peter, Pokagon, e. Oct. 15, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 38, 1863; m. 

o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
.Stanage, Benton, La Grange, e. Feb. 20, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, (,„i,b, Albert T., Dowagiac, e. Dec-. 25, 1861; dis. for disability 


Una.*, George, La Gran're, e. Dec. 1, 1863; ni. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Haas. .lohn. La Grange, e. Dec. 1, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Haas, .lohn A., La Grange, e. Dec. 1, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Higby, Calvin .J., Newburg, e. Sept. 5, 1864 ; dis. at end of serv- 
ice, Sept. 9, 1865. 

Ilnyck, William D., dis. for disability, Nov. 9, 1865. 

.Mosher, Isaac, Pokagon, e. Feb. 16, 1865 ; m. o. Feb. 15, 18ii5. 

Palmer. Charles H., vet. .Ian. 2, 1864. 

Parkertdn. William, Dowagiac, e. Feb. 19, 1862; vet. Feb. 27, 
1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Peltus, Luther, La Grange, e. Dee. 1, 1863; died of disease at 
Camden, Ark., Sept. 1, 1865. 

Rose, .lohn. Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; dis. at end of service, 
Sept. 9, 1865. 

Wheeler, Kdwin. Marcellus, e. Feb. 29, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Ashley, Horace, e. Dec. 31, 1861 ; discharged for disability .July 

19, 1862. 
Barmore, .lohn E., e. Dec. 5, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 29, 1868. 

Stephenson, .James B., .letTerson, e. Feb. 22, 1864; died of dis. 

ease at Little Rock, Ark., .lune 28, 1864. 
Steere, William H., Wayne, e. Nov. I'.l, 1861 ; dis. for disability 

Aug. 2, 1862. 
Stevens, Samuel. .Mason, e. Feb. 15. 1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Smith. Nelson A., Porter, e. Oct. 13, 1861 ; il 

Jan. 7, 1865. 
Temple, Franklin, Ontwa, e. March 2, 1865; m. o. Feb. 15. 

Thomas, Noble O., La Grange, e. Oct. 31. 1861 ; dis. at end of 

service, Jan. 7, 1865. 

Feb. 25, 1862. 
Doty, James H., Porter, e. Feb. 22, 1864; vet. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Doty, William J., e. Dec. 7, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 24, 1868; m. o. Feb. 

15, 1866. 
Griffith, Samuel, Milton, e. Oct. 25, 1861; vet. Dec. 24, 1863; 

m. 0. Feb. 15, 1866. 
end of service (.^^p charies Hungerford, Dowagiac. e. Oct. 25, 1861; dis. by 

order June 30, 1862. 
Kappelman, John, Pokagon, c. March 1, 1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 

King, Samuel P., Porter, e. Feb. 22, 1864 ; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Kirk, William H., Porter, e. Feb. 22, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

homas, Sherwood, La Grange, e. Oct. 31, 1861 : dis. at end of ^^j^^^^ j^^^ Dowagiac, e. Feb. 15, 1862 ; vet. Feb. 25, 1864 

.\IcGee, Lemuel S., Dowagiac, e. Jan. 4, 1862; vet. J 

service, Jan. 7, 1865. 
Thompson, Smith, Marcellus, 

864 : 

)cl. 20, 1861 ; dis. at end of 

service, Jan. 7, 1865. 
Townsend, William, La Grange, e. Oct. 31, 1801 : died of disease 

at St. Louis, Mo., Nov. II, 18ii3. 
Tubbs, Lester, Porter, e. Dec. 5, 1803; m. o. Feb 15, 1866. 
Upham, George, La Grange, e Feb. 23, 1864 ; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Van Tuyl, Richard, Mason, e. Feb. 27, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
White, Seth, Wayne, e. Nov. 12, 1861 : vet. Dec. 25, 18<;3; ra. o. 

Feb. 15, 1866. 
Wilcox. Henry, Pennsylvania, e. Feb. 4, 18t;2; killed in railroad 

accident at Jackson, Tenn., Sept. 24, 1862. 
Wiltard, John, e March 3,1804; died of disease at St Louis, 

Mo., Oct. 20, 1863. 
Williams, Samuel, Jefterson, e. Feb. 23, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Winfrey, George, Dowagiac. e. Dec. 15, 1861 : dis. by order July 

24, 1862. 
Wing, Orlaudo, Jefferson ; e.- Dec. 2, 1862; ni. o. Feb. 15, 1866_ 

m. 0. Feb. 15, 1860. 
Olmstead, John, e. Feb. 8 1862 ; dis. by order March 18, 1«62. 
.Sergt. John H. Patterson, e. Nov. 25, 1861 ; vet. Dee. 24, 1863; 

m. 0. Feb. 15, 1866 
Sanders, Daniel, Pokagon, e. Feb. 21, 1865; ni. o. Feb. 15, 

Stillwell, lidwiu C, Dowagiac, e. Jan. 6, 1802; vet. Dec. 31, 

Tliompson, Reason, Porter, e. Feb. 23, 1864 : died of disease at 

Camden, Ark., Sept. 8, 1866. 
Welch, John C, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 35, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 31, 1863; 

prom. 2d Lieut. Co. 1 July 3, 1864. 

Company D. 

Simmons, Peter W., Mason, e. .\ug. 31, 1864; dis. at eml of ser- 
vice Sept. 9 1865. 

Sirriue, Henry F., Volinia, e. Sept. 2, 1864; dis. at end of service 
Sept. 9, 1865. 

Wolfe, Franklin, e. Feb. 26, 1862; vet. Feb. 29, 1864 ; m. o. Feb. Springsteen, John W., Volinia, e. Sept. 6. 1864; dis. at end of 

16, 1861; 

WooUey. Lewis, La Grange, e. Oct. 4, 1861 ; died of disease at 
Camp Logan, Tenn., May 21, 1862. 

Bsldwin, IMwin K., La Grange, e. Dec. 1, 1863; m. o. Feb. 

Bell, Richard H., Howard, e. March 29, 1862; vet. March 

1864; m.o., Feb. 15, 1866. 
Bryant. Thomas G., Mason, e. .March 1, 1865; dis. at en« 

service, Sept. 9, 1865. 
Dennis, John, Milton, e. .March 1, 1865; ni. o. Feb. 15, 1860. 
DriscoU, Noah, Porter, e. Feb. 13, 1864; in. o. Feb. I'l, 1806. 
Dunn. Ambrose, Cassopolis, e. Feb. 15, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1: 

service Sept. 9, 1865. 

coMP.tN^ i:. 

Barton, Reuben. Pokagon, e. .Sept. 3, IS64 ; dis. by order Sept. 

14, 1865. 
Beebe, William H.,died of disease at St. Louis, Mo. June 1, 1862. 
Leach, James M., Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; dis. by order June 

20, 1865. 
OJell, ,lo8eph, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; dis. by order Sept. 14, 

Perkins, Harvey W.. Howard, e. Oct. 18, 1864 ; dis. by order Oct. 

24, 1865. 
Walz, John, Silver Creek, e. Feb. 29, 1864; died of disease at 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 



Second Lieut. William Horton, Jr., Dowagiac (Sergt. Co. I), re- 
signed June 12, 1865. 

.Sergt. Philo H. Simmons, dis. for disability March IG, 1862. 

.Sergt. aobert A. Walton, Howard, e. Oct. 12, 1861 ; vet. .Jan. 1, 
1864; m. o. Feb. :'), 1866. 


Albrecht, Jacob G., Torter, e. Feb. 22, 1864; m. o. Feb. ir,. 1866. 
Bellows, Job S., Ontwa, e. Sept. 2, 1864 ; dis, at end of service, 

Sept. 9, 1865. 
Brown, Luman, Jefferson, e. Nov. 25, 1861 ; died .May I, 1862, of 

wounds received at Shiloh April 6, 1862. 
Butler. Henry M., m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Dean, Thomas, Ontwa, e. Nov. 8, 1861 ; dis. at end of service 

Jan. 7, 1865. 
Durstern, Michael, e. March 16, 1862; discharged by order July 

1.5, 1862. 
Hawkins, Charles, Pokagoii, e. Dec. 30, 1863 ; m. o. Feb. 16, 1866. 
Hawkins, Benjamin, vet. Dec. 30, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Hawkins, Charles, discliarged by order June 17, 1865. 
Inman, Isaiah, La Grange, e. .\ug. 31, 1864; m. o Feb 15, 1866. 
Leich, Elias, Milton, e. Dec. 5, 18G1 ; trans, to Veteran Reserve 

Corps Jan. 15, 1864. 
Lewis, George W., Jefferson, e. Nov. 22, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 30, 1863 ; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Lynch, William J., Milton, e. Oct. 15, 1861 ; died on hospital 

boat May, 1862. 
■Markle, John, Milton, c. Feb. 22, 1862; vet. Feb. 24, 1864 ; m. o. 

Feb. 15, 1866. 
McNitt, Charles W., Porter, e. Feb. 26, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Mitchell, Robert, Pokagon, e. Feb. 21, 1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Morau, James, Jefferson, e. Dec. 2, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 30, 1863; m. 

0. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Morgan, Charles A., Milton, e. Oct. 15, 1861; vet. Jan. 1, 1864; 

m. 0. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Noble, James M., Milton, e. Dec. 3, 1861 ; dis. by order June 25, 

1862; re e. March 8, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
O Keefe, Eugene, Silver Creek, e. Oct. 30, 1861 ; dis. at end of 

service, Jan. 7, 1865. 
Parks, Almenon, e. .March 7, 1862; vet. Marcli 8, 1864; m. o. 

Feb. 15, 1866. 
Reigle, Goorge W., Porter, e. Feb. 22, 1864 ; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Reynolds, Henry C, La Grange, e. Sept. 23, 1864 ; dis. at end of 

service Sept. 29, 1865. 
Rogers, Charles F., Pokagon, e. Nov. 19, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. 

Res. Corps Jan. 15, 1864. 
Rogers, Hiram, Ontwa, e. Nov. 21, 1861 ; dis. for disability March 

16, 1862. 
Rogers, Kiram L., Pokagon, e. Oct. 14, 1861 ; died of disease at 

Keokuk, Iowa, May 6, 1862. 
Simmons, Joseph, Jefferson, e. Dec. 2, 1861 ; dis. for disability 

March 16, 1802. 
Snow, William H., Jefferson, e. Nov. 22, 1861 ; dis. at end of 

service Jan. 7, 18115. 
Tuttle, Jacob, Milton, e. Oct. 15, 1861 ; dis. for disability March 

16, 1862. 
Whitmore, George A., La Grange, e. March 15, 1865; m. o. Feb. 

15, 1866. 
Wilson, James, Ontwa, e. Dec. 13, 1861 : vet. Dec. 3, 1863 ; m. o. 

Feb. 15, 1866. 
Wilson, Joseph S., Outwa; e. Dec. 14, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 3. 1863; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Warden, George, R., Jefferson, e. Dec. 5, 1861 ; dis. by order 

July 25, 1862. 
Wyant, James, Ontwa, e. Nov. 21, 1861 ; dis. by order July 8, 



Zeek, William F., Ontwa, e. Sept. 2, 1864 ; dis. by order Oct. 31, 

Company G. 
First Lieut. Roberts. M. Fox, Howard, com. Oct. 19. 1864; re- 
signed .Sept. 18, 1865. 

Lawrence, Joseph, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 19, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Nichols, Warren W., Marcellus, e. Sept. 27, 1864; dis. by order 
Sept. 30, 1865. 

Schuh, Nicholas, La Grange, e. Dec. 3, 1803; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Shiwl, Alexander, Pokagon; e. Sept. 3, 1864; dis. at end of serv- 
ice, Sept. 9, 1865. 

Shiver, Walter, Ontwa; e. Dec. 24, 1863; m. o. Feb. 10, 1866. 

Stamp, David, Porter, e. Dec. 5, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Ties, Anton, La Grange, e. Dec. 3, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Company H. 
Bailey, James E., Silver Creek, e. Feb. 14, 1864; dis. by order 

May 22, 186.5. 
Born, Henry, Mason, e. Sept. 3, 1864 ; dis. at end of service Sept. 

9, 1865. 
Conrad, Jacob, Volinia, e. Feb. 20, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1860. 
Eggleslon, Harvey, Porter, e. Aug. 11, 1862; vet. Dec. 26, 1863 : 

dis. by order Sept. 30, 1865. 
Franklin; Samuel W., Mason, e. Jan. 29, 1864 ; died of disease 

at DuvhII's Bluff, Ark., Oct. 21, 1864. 
Salyer, James, Mason, e.; died of ilisease at Duvall's Bluff, Ark., 

Sept. 24. 1864. 

Company I. 
Second Lieut. John C. Welch, Dowagiac, com. July 3, 1864 ; 

prom. 1st Lieut, (^o. A, Jan. 7, 1865. 
Allen, Israel M., Pokagon, e. Sept. 2, 1864; Ah. at end of 

service, Sept. 9, 1865. 
Aumack, Jacob, Pokagon, e. Sept. 2, 1864; dis. at end of service. 

Sept. 9, 1865. 
Cole, William L., La Grange, e. Jan. 17, 1864; m. o. Feb. IJ, 

Corin Robert, Ontwa, e. Sept. 2, 1864 ; trans, to 5th U. S. Coloreil 

Infantry, April 1, 1865. 
Curtis, Thomas J., Mason, e. .\ug. 31, 1864; died of disease at 

Duvall's Bluff. Ark., Nov. 1, 1864. 
Fisher, John, Pokagon, e. Feb. 21, 1865; m. o. Feb. 15,1866. 
Hayden, Edward W., e. Dec. 25, 1861 ; dis. for disability July 

26, 1862. 
Iloyt, Henry, Ma.son, e. .\ug. 31, 1864; dis. at end of service, 

Sept. 9, 1865. 
Johnson, Uriah, died of disease at Decatur, Mich., June 1, 1862. 
Johnson, Egbert, Mason, e. Aug. 31, 1864 ; died of disease at 

Washington, Ark., July 1, 1866. 
Leader, Nathan H., Pokagon, Sept. 2, 1864 ; dis. by order .May 6, 

Horton, William, Jr , Dowagiac, e. Dec. 11, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 25, 

1863 ; .Sergeant, prom. 2d Lieut. Co. I. 
Knapp, Bruce, Silver Creek, e. Feb. 24, 1864 ; dis. for dis- 
ability Aug. 23, 1864. 
Tuttle, Royal J., Silver Creek, e. Feb. 1864; died of disease at 

Duvall's Bluff, Ark., Aug. 12, 1864. 
McMichael, Albert, Ontwa, e. Feb. 24, 1862; vet. Feb. 26, 1864: 

m. 0. Feb. 15,1866. 
Nye, Isaac, Jefferson, e. Sept. I, 1864; dis. at end of service, 

Sept. 9. 186... 
On, Adam, .Mason, e. .\ug. 20, 1864; dis. at end of service, Sept. 

9, 1865. 
Searles, Henry M., Mason, e. Feb. 24. 1861 ; vet. Feb. 26, 1864; 

m 0. Feb. 15, 1866. 


.Smith, Hiram, La Grange, e. Aug. 20, 1864 ; dis. al end of ser- 
vice, Sept. 9, 1865. 
Stephenson, Harvey, I'okagon, c. Sept. 1, 18lU; dis. at end of 

service, Sept. il, 186-5. 
St. Joljn, John, Pokagon, Sept, 3, 1864 : dis. at end of service, 

Sept. 9, 1865. 
Tibbits, Nathan, Porter, e. Dec. 15, 1863 ; died of disease :it 

Hunlersville, Ark., .July 2, 1864. 
Treat, Horace .1., Silver Creek, e. Oct. 10, 1861 ; died in action at 

Pittsburg Landing, April 6, 1862. 
Vawkey. Amos, Howard, e. March 7, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Vetter, .loshua T., vet. Dec. 29, 1863. 
Willard, William, iefferson, e. Dec. 3, 1863 ; died of disease at 

Duval's Bluff, Ark., .Tan. 6, 1865. 

Company K. ^ 
Second Lieut William E. Stevens, Mason, c. Oct. 22, 1861 ; vet. 

Dec. 25, I860 ; Sergeant Co. A, com. April 2, 1865 ; m. 0. Feb. 

15, 1866. 
Bidlack. Charles E., Porter, e. Oct. 14, 1864; dis. by order, Oct. 

27, 1865 
I'randall, Lewis, Wayne, e. Feb. 22, 1864 ; ni. 0. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Drake, Lnri-nzo, dis. hv onler. Aug. 12, 1865. 
Karnham, Erastus S., e. Dec. 9,1861 ; dis. at end of service, Sept. 

7, lfS65. 
French, Noah, Sergeant, e. Dct. HI, 1H61 ; dis. by order, .July 19, 

Hardy, Robert, Milton, e. Oct. 21, 1861 ; dis. by order, Oct. 17 

Nostrand, .lohn .1., Silver Creek, e. Nov. II, 1861 ; dis. at end of 

service, .Ian. 7, 1865. 
Kawson, Charles W., Volinia, c. Sept. 7, 1864; dis. at end of 

service, Sept. 9, 1865. 
.layers, James, Pokagon, e. Feb. 24, 1863; dis. by order, June 1, 

Shepard, Caleb, Howard, e. Dec. 28, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 29, 1863 : 

dis. by order, Aug. 12, 1865. 
Tappan, Harlow, Marcellus, e. Feb. 25, 1864; m. n. Feb. 15, 

Weatherwax, John G., Porter, c. Feb. 13, 1864: died of dis- 
ease at Little Rock, Ark., June 13, 1864. 
Webber, Geo. W., Ontwa, e. Feb. 29, 1864; m. 0. Feb. 15, 1866. 


Gompany A of this regiment, Joel H. Smith, 
Captain, was compose<i almost wholly of Cass County 
men, and there were many in other compjinies of tlie 
regiment. The First Lieutenant, George T. Shaffer, 
of Calvin, arose to the position of Colonel. The 
Second Lieutenant was Reuben B. Larzelere. The 
company was organized in Dowagiac, in September, 

The Nineteenth Regiment was assigned to the Sec- 
(iinl Congressional District to be recruited in the 
counties of Branch, St. Joseph, Cass, Berrien, Kala- 
mazoo, Van Buren and Allegan. Recruiting was 
commenced July 15, 1862. The camp of the Nine- 
teenth was at Dowagiac, and the Hon. Henry C. Gil- 
bert was its commandant and charged with the 
organization of the regiment. The regiment broke 
camp September 14, and in command of Col. Gilbert, 
took its route To Cincinnati, its strength being W:'> 
officers and men. It was attached to the first division 

of the Army of the Ohio, and was stationed in Ken- 
tucky October, November and December. On the 1st 
of January, 1868, the regiment was stationed at Dan- 
ville, and belonged to Col. Coburn's brigade, Baird's 
division. Army of Kentucky. This army having 
been transferred to the department of the Cumberland 
as a " reserve corps," the Ninetenth moved with its 
brigade to Nashville, where it arrived February 7, 
proceeding thence to Franklin. On the 4th of March, 
with 600 Ciivalry and 200 additional infantry, it took 
part with its brigade in a reconnaissance in force. 
After a march of four miles, skirmishing began with 
the enemy's scouts and advanced pickets, but the 
rebels retiring the brigade encamped, the Nineteenth 
having lost in the skirmish one wounded. The march 
having been resumed, the enemy was met upon the 
following day in force, at Thompson's Station, nine 
miles from Franklin. The Nineteenth with others 
fought stubbornly, against iintnense odds, repulsing 
attack after attack, struggling bravely but without 
hope. Defeat being inevitable, they finally surren- 
dered. The engagement was sanguinary. At times 
the contest was severe and the fighting terrific. Three 
charges were made by the enemy and gallantly 
repulsed. In one charge the Nineteenth captured the 
colors of the Fourth Mississippi and several prison- 
ers The surremler did not occur until after five 
hours of fighting. The rebel force proved to be the 
entire cavalry force of Bragg's army, 18,000 strong, 
under Gen. Van Dorn. The Nineteenth went into 
the action with 572 officers and men, of which num- 
ber 11-3 were killed and wounded. Such was the 
"baptism of fire" which this regiment received. 
The regiment was re-organized at Camp Chase, Ohio, 
and on the 8th of June, 1863, left Columbus, arriv- 
ing at Nashville on the 11th. It took part in the 
advance on Tallahoma in June. On the 28d of July, 
the regiment was ordered to Murfreesboro, and went 
upon garrison duty in the fortifications. From this 
time on till the close of its service, the Nineteenth 
took part in the following engagements : Nashville iV 
Chattanooga Railroad, Tenn., October 5, 1863; 
Resaca. Ga., May 15, 1864 ; Cassville. Ga., May 
10, 1864: New Hope Church. Ga., May 25, 1864; 
Golgotha, Ga, June 15, 1864; Gulps Farm, (Ja., 
June 22, 1864; Peach Tree Creek. Ga., July 20, 
1864; siege of Atlanta, Ga., July 22 to September 
2, 1864; Savannah, Ga., December 11, 18, 20, 21, 
1S64; .\verysborn, N. C, March 16, 1865; Benton- 
ville, N. C, March 10, 1865. 

The entire membership of the regiment was 1,288. 
of which it lost 237 men, as follows : 4 officers and 50 
men killed in action ; 3 officers and 38 men <lied of 
wounds, and 142 of disease. 



.Surgenn William E. Clarke, Dowagiac, Sui-geon 4th Mich. Infantry, 
trans. Surgeon to 19th Infantry Aug. 12, 18H2; resignefl 
July 18, 1863. 

Asst. Surgeon Leander D. Tompkins, Cassopolis. com. .\ug. I'J. 
18H2 : resigned for disability Sept. 7, I7H8. 


i,;uariermaster Sergt .lohn M. Myers, Cassopolis, c. ,\ug. '.i, 1862: 
appointed 1st Lieut, and Quartermaster ; m. o. .lune 10, 1865. 

I'ommissary Sergt. George S. Larzelere. Silver Creek, com. .Jan. 
14, 186.3: ni. o. .June J5, 1865. 

Principal Musician Kxekiel Owen, La Grange, e. Aug. 0, 1862; 
m. 0. June Id, 1865. 


('apt. Joel H. .Smith, Dowagiac, com. July 22, 1862; resigned 
July 11. 1864. 

Capt. George T Shaffer, Calvin, com. May 15, 1864 ; promoted 
Maj. 28th Mich. Inf.; wounded in action June 22, 1864. 

First Lieut. George T. Shaffer, Calvin, com. August 2, 1861 ; pro- 
moted Capt. 

First Lieut. Henry J. Ohls. Marcellus, com. May 8, 18ii5 ; Sergt. 
Aug. 8, 1862; m. o. June 10. 1865. 

.Second Lieut. Reuben B. Larzelere, Dowagiac, com July 28, 
1862; resigned Aug. 7, 1863. 

Sergt. Isaac '/.. Edwards, Pokagon, e. Aug. 6, 1862: promoted 2d 
Lieut. Co. E. 

Sergt. Norman B. Farnsworth, Silver Creek, e. .Vug. 2, 1864 ; dis. 
for disability Sept. 2, 186-3. 

Sergt. John S. Gritfis, Wayne, e. .\ug. II, 1862 ; killed at Resaca, 
Ga., May 5, 1864 

Sergt. Barker F. Rudd, Newburg, e. Aug s, 1862 ; dis. for wound 
Oct. 23, 1863. 

Sergt. George S. Ltrzelere, Silver Creek, e. Aug. '.•, 1862: ap 
pointed Commissary Sergt. 

Corp. George H. Batten, Penn, e. Aug. 9, 1862; died of disease 
at Murfreeshoro, Tenn., Aug. 29, 1863. 

Corp. Zach Aldrich, Newburg, e. Aug. .\ug. 9, 1862: prom, sergt. 
dis. for loss of an eye Feb. 9, 1864. 

Corp. John Manning, Marcellus, e. .\ug. 13, 1862; dis. forwnund, 
lost hand, .May 9. 1863. 

Corp. Alexander Kirkwood, Wayne, c. .\ug. 9, 1862: prom. Ist 
Lieut. Co. I. 

Corp. .\mos D. Stocking, Pokagon, e. Aug. 2. 1862; dis. for dis- 
ability Feb. 1, 1863. 

Corp. Albert T. Cobb, Wayne, e. Aug. 5, 1862 : dis. for disability 
Feb. 8, 1863. 

Corp. William Slipper, Penn, e. Aug. 2, 1862; m. o. Sergt. .lune 10, 

Corp. James S. Ciego, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 7, 1862: m. n. Sergt. 

Musician Ezekiel Owen, La Grange, e. Aug. 9, 1862; prom Prin- 
cipal Musician Sept. 1, 1863. 

.Musician Franklin It, Sherman, Pokagon, e. July 31, 1862; m. o. 
June 22, 1865. 

Wagoner Isaac Hamlin, Pokagon, e. July 20, 1862: died of dis- 
ease at Washington, D C, Feb. 17, 1863. 


Allen, Loren A., Pokagon, c. Aug. 16, 1862; m. o. June 10, 

Allison. George W., Pi)kagon. e. .\ugust 7, 1862; m. o June 

10, 1865. 
\llisnn, Henry C., La Grange, e. Aug. 3, IS64: m. u. May I'.i, 

\nderson, Jacob M., Newburg, e. Aug. 22, 1863; trans. |o V^i. 

Hes- Corps. 

died of disease at Nicho 

' Baker, .Albert, Mason, e. Aug. 

lasville, Ky., Dec. 5, 1862. 
Bell, Simuel D., Silver Creek, e. Aug. 8, 1862; m. 0. .lune 10. 


Benton, Elic, Pokagon, e. ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 

Bend, Thomas F., Wayne, e. Aug. 6, 1862; dis. for woun^l April 

28. 1865. 
Bowerman, Addison, Newburg, e. Aug. 27, 1863; died of disease 

at Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 25, 1864. 
Bridge, Daniel G., Marcellus, e. Aug. 8, 1862; m. 0. June 10, 

Corbit, James. Penn, e. Aug. 8, 1862: killed on picket before At- 
lanta, Ga.. July 23, 1864. 
, Corwin, Amos B., Penn, c. Aug. 8, 1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
[ Cooper. Harley R., Jefferson, e. Dec. 15, 1863: m. 0. May 26, 

Crawford, George, Pokagon ; e. Aug. 8, 1862 ; Sergt.; lu. o. June 

10, 1865. 
Crocker. Milford, .Silver Creek, e. Dec. 16. 1864 ; m. 0. June 

10, 1»65. 
Fos.lick, Franklin H., Penn, e. Feb. 27, 1864; .lis. for ilisabiliiy 

June 27. 1865. 
Danahy, Timothy, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 9, 1K62 : died of wounds 

at Resaca, Ga., May 25, 1864. 
Davis, Norman, Pokagon. e .-Vug. 7, 1862; dis. for disability Feb. 

8, 1863. 
Davis, Reason, Newburg. e. Aug. 13, 1862; m. o- June 10, 1865. 
Davis, William, Penn, e. Aug. 9. 18. i2; m. 0. June 10, 1865. 
Edwards, Henry, Pokagon, e .\ug. 9, 1862; m. o. June 10, 

Evans, John, Pokagon, e. Aug. 9. 1862; m. 0. June 10, 1865. 
Freeman. .\din. Silver I'reek, e .Vug. 2. 1862; killed in action at 

Thompsons Station, Tenn., March 5, 1863. 
Fuller, Oren A., Penn, f . Aug. 7, 1862 ; dis. for w..unds May 20,. 

Fuller, William R.. Wayne, e. Aug. 6. 1862; m. 0. June 10, 

Garwood, Levi. Volinia, e. .4ug. 8, 1862; dis. for disability .Vug. 

21, 1863. 
George, Stephen L., Silver Creek, e. Aug. 9, 1862; dis. for dis- 
ability Jan. 14, 1864. 
Gilbert, Jeremiah B., Penn, e. Feb. 27, 1864; m. 0. June 10, 

Gillon, Patrick I., Pokagon, c. Aug. 9, 1862; m. 0. June 10, 

Gleason, Charles H., P.ikagon, e. Aug. 9, 1862 : m 0. June 10, 

Grinntll. Sylvester M., Penn. e. Feb. 27, 1864; m. 0. .lune 10, 

Hagerman, Noah D., Penn. e. .\ug. 9, 1862: m. o. June 10, 

Hamilton, .lohn P., Wayne, e. -Vug. II, 1862; died in action at 

Thompson's Station, Tenn., March 5, 1863. 
Hannah, James -V., La Grange, e. Vug. 9, 1862 ; died in action at 

Thompson's Station, Tenn., March 3, 1863. 
Hawes, Jerome B., Pokagon. 0. Aug. II, 1862; m. 0. June 10, 

Hoover, Calvin, La Grange, e. .Vug. 8, 1862; m. June 10, 1865. 
Hungerford, Homer M., Wayne, e. .-Vug. 9, 1862: missing in ac- 
tion near Dalton, Ga., I8l'-4. 
I.aylin, Oren, Wayne, e. Aug. 6, 1862; lu. o. June 10, 1865. 
Lilly. Aaron. Wayne, e. Aug. .s, 1862; m. 0. June 10, 1865. 
Lundy, Ira C, Penn. e. Aug. S, 1862; in. 0. June 10, 1865., Robert. Penn. e. Aug. 11. 1862; .lis. for disability Feb. 8, 

Lundy, Thoniiu), Penn. e. .\ug. 8. 1S62 ; died of dise^eat Annap. 

olis. Md., April 13. 1863. 



l.ylle. William M., Marcellus, c. Jan. I. I»ii3; dis. for wound 

Nov. 12. iw;i. 
Mearl, Smilh. Silver Creek, c. .\ug. 2. 18ii2; in. o. .lune 10. lxiir>. 
Means. Andrew. Pokagun. e. .\ug. S, I8il2; dis. for disability 

Aug. IS. \HiV.i. 
Muncy. Nioirod. Wayne, e. Aug. 2. I.''il2; m. o. .lune HI. IKii:;. 
Nicholas. Kzra W . .Marcellus. e. .\ng. 9, ISr,2; died of wounds at 

Vining's Station. Ga., Sept. 4. lS(i4. 
Nich(d8. William H., Marcellus, e. .Ian. 1. I81I8; died of wounds 

at Chattanooga. Tenn.. June 20, 1804. 
Parker. Haynes <i.. Calvin, e. Aug. 8, lHi>2; died of ilisease at 

Nashville. Tenn., July 13, 18li4. 
Parker. Roniaine. Pokagon, e. Aug. 4, 18ii2; ni 0. June 10. IWir). 
Parker. Thomas S.. Calvin, e. Aug. 8. lHti2; ni. 0. June 10. ISii.l. 
Peters. John. Silver Creek, e. Dec. 22, IWi.S; died of wounds at 

Chattanooga. Tenn.. .lune 20. 18t;4. 
T'otter. Thomas, Jefferson, e .\ug. 7, lHi'i2; dieil nf at 

Lexington. Ky.. Nov. 13. 18(12. 
Reams. Caleb M.. Penn. e. Aug. 2i;, 18ti2; m. o July 10. ISiii. 
Reams. Isaiah G.. Penn. e. Sept. 12, 18ii2; m. 0. July in, 18(i5. 
Reams. Silas G.. Penn, e. .\ug. 31, ]8ii3: m. 0. May 24. 18(15. 
.'lavage. Henry B.. Marcellus. e. Aug. 12. 18(12; died in action at 

Thompson's Station. Tenn.. March 5. 18(13. 
Schideler. John. Silver Creek, e. Aug. 7. 18(12; ilied in rebel prison. 

at Richmond. Va.. March — , 18(13. 
Schideler. Robert. Silver Creek, e. Aug. ", 18(12; dis. f'lr disability. 
Shawl. Madison. Silver Creek, e. July 25. 18(12: m. 0. June 10. 

Shepard, Purley, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 2. 18(12; dieii of disease 

at Lookout Mountain. Tenn., Oct. 26, 18(14. 
Sherman. C. C, Pokagon. e. July 23, 1862; m. 0. June HI, 1865. 
Spaulding. Joel. Xewburg. e. Aug. 9. 1862; m. 0. May 10, 1865. 
Spencer. E.lward. Wayne, e. Aug. 9. 1862; m. o June 10. 1865. 
Siedman. Livingston, Pokagon, e .\ug. 8. 1862; m. 0. June 10. 

Stuart. Salmon, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 9. 1862; m. 0. June 10, 

Suits, Jacob, Wayne, e. Aug. 9, 1862 ; m. 0. June 10, 1866. 
Suits. Solomon A., Silver Creek, e. Aug. 9. 1862; m. 0. June 10, 

Sullivan. Solomon .\.. Wayne, e. Aug. 4, 1862; m. 0. June 10. 

Taylor, John. Pokagon. c. Aug. 4. 1862; m. 0. June 10. 18(15. 
Thompson. Francis M.. Wayne, e. Aug. 11. 18(12; ni. o. June 10. 

Underwood. Enos. Newburg. e. Aug. 9. 18(12; 

lune 10. 

L'nderwood. Stephen W.. Penn. e. Aug. 9. 1862; in. 0. July 11. 

Wickham, William C. Silver Creek, e. .\ug. 13, 18(12; died of 

ilisease at Danville, Ky.. Dec. — . 1862. 
Wiggins. George E., Wayne, e. .\ug. 11. 1862; died of wounds at 

Richmond. Va.. March — , 1863. 
Wiggins. Lorenzo R.. Wayne, e. .-Vug. 7. 1862; died in rebel 

prison. Richmond. Va.. .March — . 1863. 
Winchell, Seneca W.. Pokigon. e. Aug. 2. 18(12: ra. 0. June 10. 


('l)MrANT <.'. 

Phillips. John II . Newburg. clan. 17. 18(14; m 0. July 19. I,sil5- 


Second Lieut. Isaac Z. Edwards. Pokagon. trans, from tlo. E July 
27. 1863; prom Ist Lieut. June 1. 1864; resigned as 2d 
Lieut. Aug. (1. 18(14. 

Ilarrigan. Mnnellus. e. Sept. 15. 1864; in. 0. June 23. 

Wright, Giles, Newburg, c. Sept. 5, 1863; ni. o. July 19, 1865. 

Company E. 
Second Lieut. Isaac 7,. IMwards. Pokagon, com. May I. 1863; 

trans. 2d Lieut, to Co. D. 
Ashley, William H , e. Aug. — , 1862; confined in Libby Prison; 

died at Annnpolis, Md.. April II, 1863. 
Basley. Hiram E., .lefferson. e. Deo. 16, 1863, in 10th Infantry. 
Hollister, Albert E , Penn, e. Sept. 29. 1864. in lOlh Infantry. 
Mahey. Martin. Silver Creek, e Dec. 22, 1863. in loth Infantry ; 

(rans. to lOth Michigan Infantry. 
Martin, George H., m. 0. Aug. 3, 18(15. 
Miller. (Charles 7... c. Aug. — . 18(12; died at Nicholasville, Ky., 

Dec. 13. 1862. 
Qwiy. William II., Newburg, e. .Ian. 23, 18(14; died of disease at 

-Nashville. Tenn.. March 21. 1864. 
Quay, Edward L.. Newburg, e. Dec. 21, 1863 ; m. 0. .luly 19, 1866. 
Welch. Thomas C.. .lelferson. e. Dec 15. 18(13; m. o. July 19, 

White. Knos H., Pokagon. e. No 



Beaman. Alonzn P. Newburg. e. Jan. 5. 1864; m. 0. July 19, 

Boghai-t. Peter C. Newburg. e. Jan. 5. ISH4; in V\b Infintry ; 
died of disease March 3. 1864. 

Madden, Michael. .Silver Creek, e. Dec. 23. 1863; m. o. July 19, 

McCoy. John, .Silver Creek, e. Dec. 23. 1863; m. o. July 19. 1865. 

Reams. Erastus. Dowagiac. e. Sept. 12. 1862 ; m. o. June 10. 1865. 

Reed. Henry S.. Newburg. e. Jan. 5. 1864 ; died of disease at Chat- 
tanooga. Tenn.. June 30. 1864. 

Reed. William T., Newburg. e. Jan. 5. 1864; died of disease at 
Chattanooga. Tenn.. \ug. 7, 1864. 

Trattles, Daniel, Newburg. e. Aug. 11. 1862 ; m. 0. June 10, 1865 

Bair. Myron M.. New6urg. e. Jan. 20. 1864; m. 0. June 10. 

Hawkins. Isaac. Dowagiac. e. .\ug. 13. 1862; m. 0. Jun6 10. 

Musician George N. Rosebrock. Ontwa. e. 13. 1862; died 

of disease at Covington. Ky., Oct. 21. 1862. 
Teagen. Samuel. Porter, e. Aug. 13. 1862; dis. for disability 

July 6. 1863. 

First Lieut. Alexander Kirkwood. Wayne, com. Nov. 11. 1864; 

m. 0. June 10. 1865. 
Bultrick. William, Wayne, e. Jan. 4. 1864; m. 0. June 24. 1865. 
(Jarroll. Thomas. Wayne, e. Dec. I". 18(13: m. o. July 19. 1866. 
(hooper, .\9bury. Jefferson, e. Dec. 15. 1863. in lOth Infantry; 

trans, to lOth Michigan Infantry. 
Havens. .Vdam. Wayne, e. Jan. 4. 1864. in 10th Infantry; trans. 

to 10th Michigan Infantry. 
White. William L.. Wayne, e. Dec. 4. 1863: trans, to Vet. 

Res. (^orps. 


Company M, of this organization, was from this 
county, and there were a considerable number of Cass 
men scattered through the regiment. 

The First Cavalry commenced recruiting August 21, 
1861, at Camp Lyon, near Detroit, the work of organ- 
ization being carried on by Thornton F. Broadhead, 
afterward Colonel of the regiment. The First was 
mustered into service on the 13th of September, 1861, 



with 1,144 officers and men on the rolls. On the 
29th, it left Ciirnp Lyon, under orders to proceed to 
Washington ; lay in camp at Frederick, Md., a 
considerable portion of the winter, and its principal 
service following was in the Shenandoah Valley, in the 
Upper Potomac Valley and near the eastern slopes of 
the Blue Ridge. The regiment engaged with the 
enemy at Winchester, Va., March 23, 1862 ; Middle- 
town, Va., March 25, 1862 ; Strassburg, Va., March 
27. 1862; Harrisonburg, Va., April 22, 1862: Win- 
chester, Va., May 24, 1862 ; Orange Court House, 
Va., July 16, 1862 ; Cedar Mountain, Va., August 
0, 1862 ; Bull Run (second). Va., August 30, 1862 ; 
Occoquan, Va., February — , 1863 ; Thoroughfare 
Gap, Va., May 21, 1863 ; Greenwich, Va., May 30, 
1863. After a winter of grand guard duty in front 
of Washington, the First was assigned to the Mich j 
igan Cavalry Brigade, of which the gallant Custer 
was Commander, and its services were from that time 
chiefly rendered with the brigade. I 

Sergt. Maj. .lames S. .VloEllieay, Dowagiac. e. Aug. lo. l.sill ; 

prom. 2d Lieut. Co. G. 
Hosp. Steward James R. Leader, I'okagon ; uj. o. Ucl. lxn:i. 

Company A. 
First Lieuc. .Sidney G. Morse. Cassopolis. oum. June 18i'i2; 1st. 

Sergt. Co. M. May 12. 18ii2; killed in battle at Second Bull 

Run. Aug. 80, ISr,2 
First Lieut. John H. Simmons, Dowagiac, com. March 7. 18ii.5 ; 

m. 0. Nov. T, 18ii5. 
Private Richard L. Crawford. I'eiin. e. Feb. 4, l<sii4; m. o. Jan. 

23, 18(16. 

Co Ml A .NY B. 

Capt. KoUin C, Deiiisou. Dowagi.ic, Iraus. from Co. M, (>ct. 18(11 ; 

trans, to Co. M. November ISill. 
Capt. William Heazelil, Dowagiac. Irans. from Co. K. ,luly IS. 

18(;2: m. o. Oct. 30, 18(i4. 
Second Lieut. John .'>immons, Dowagiac, prom. Ist Lieut. Co, X. 

March 7. ISC-a 


Kaidall. Wesley C, .letferson. e, March ]■:. IsCo ; m. o. May 1'.), 


Company I), 
Bugler, (Jeorge Krupp. I'ok.agon. e. Dec. 30. I»(i?. ; m. o. March 

2.5, ISiiii. 
Shanafels, George. Calvin, e. Feb. li. I8(io; in. o. Dec. '), IHCa. 

First Lieut. John Munson. Volinia. com. March 7. !8iij; 2d 
Lieut. Dec. 4, l.S(;4; m. o. trans, to Co. G. .March 10. 18(16. 

Company G. 
First Lieut, James .S. .McKlhony. Dowagiac. com. .May IS. ISd.!; 

2d Lieut, Nov, 12, 18(12: killed in action at Monterey. Md,, 

July 4, 18(13. 
First Lieut, John Munson. Volinia. Irans. from Co. D. Ist Lieut. 

March Id, ISil."): m. o. March 10, 18(1(1. 
Trivate Warren Simpson, Jetterson, e, Feb, 8. 18(15; ni. o. Di-i- 

5, 18(15, 

Company K, 
Capt, William M. Hazelet. Dowagiac, com. Nov, 12, 18(12; L'd 
Lieut, Co, M ; wounded in action at Gettysburg July 3, 18(13 : 
and at Cold Harbor June 1, 18(i4 : trans. Capt, to Co. B : m. 
o. Oct. 30, 18(14. 


Apted. William, Volinia, e. Feb. 15. 18(15: m. o. Dec. 5, 18(15. 
Conner, Isaac B., Volinia, e. Feb. 17, 18(15 : trans, to Co. G. 
Fonger. William. La Grange, e. Nov, 30, 18(13. 
Hanna, Hezekiah. Volinia. e. Nov. 2(1, 18(13 : died at Washington. 

D. ('., July 11. 18(14. 
Herbert. William 1'., Corp.. Volinia. e. Dec, \o. l.S(13 ; m. o. .March 

10, 18(15. 
James, Lewis, Volinia, e, Dec. Id. ISI13: m. o. March 10. ISdti. 
Kenny. James, blacksmith, Volinia. e. Nov. oO, 18(1.!: m. o. Jan. 

10, 18(15, 
Munson, John, saddler, Volinia. i-. Nov :io, isii:?: prom. 2d Lieut. 

Co. D, Dec, 4, 18(14. 
.Myers. James W„ Jefferson, e. Feb. 7. Isdo: m. o. Dec. s, 18(15. 
Sweet. George W.. Volinia. c. Dec. 1(1. ISd:; : m. u. .Inly 1(1, I8(l.">. 
Welcher. Nelson, Volinia, e. Nov. 3(l. IS(13 ; died .1 Detroit. Mich.. 

Oct. 27. 18(14. 
Winegarden. Abram S.. Voliua. e. Nov. .;o. 18d:i : dis. by order 

July 7. 18(15. 


Corp. Albert Vincent. Volinia. e. Aug. 20, l.sdl ; died in rebel 


Ivooiise. Herbert. Mason, e. Jan. 2d, 18(14; m. o. .Sept. 25, 18(15. 
Kedman, ,1. W.. .Mason, c. Feb. 2(1. I.S(15 : m. o. Dec. 5. lsi.5. 

Company M, 
Capt. Kollin C. Deuison, Dowagiac, c im. .\ug 12, isdl ; resigned 

April 23, 1863. 
Capt. David W.Clemmer, Dowagiac, com. May 2, 1863; mounded 

in action at Gettysburg, I'enn., July 3, 1863 ; m, o. Dec. 1 I, 

First Lieut. Charles H. Sprague, Dowagiac, com. .Vug. 12, 1861 ; 

prom, Capt. Co. A. 
First Lieut, David W. Clemnier, Dowagiac, com. Nov. 12, 1862; 

prom. Capt. May 2, 1863. 
Second Lieut, David W. Clemmer, Dowagiac, com. .M.iy 12, ISdJ ; 

prom. 1st Lieut. Nov. 12, 1862, 
Second Lieut. William M. Ileazlit, Dowagiac, com Aug. 12, 1861 ; 

prom. Capt. Co. K, Nov. 12, 1862. 
First .Sergt. David W. Clemmer, Dowagiac, c. .\ug. 12, 1861 ; 

prom. 2d Lieut. May 12, 1862. 
.Sergt. Sidney G. Morse, Cassopolis: 1st Sergt. May 12, 18i)2 : 

Commissary Sergt. Aug. 16, 1801 : prom. 1st Lieut. Co. A. 
Sergt. William Dickson, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 12, 1861 ; prom. 2d 

Lieut. May 12, 1862: dis. for disability January, 1864. 
•Sergt. .loseph L. Tice, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 22, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 

1863; dis. by order Aug. 1, 1865. 
Sergt. John H. .Simmons, Dowagiac; prom. 2d Lieut. Co. D. 
Sergt. Matthew B. Dopp, Dowagiac, e. Aug. lit, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 

21, 1863; m. o, March 25, 1866, 
Sergt, Gilbert Vincent, Volinia, e. Aug. 20, 1861 : dis. for dis- 
ability Nov. 1, 1862; 
Sergt. .lohn W. Robinson, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 22, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 

21, 1863; in. o. March 25, 18(i6. 
Corp. James S. .McElheny, Dowagiac, c. Aug. 15, 1861 : prom. 

Sergt, January, 1862; Sergeant Maj, October, 1862. 
Corp. Charles Allen, Dowagiac e. .Vug. 16, 1861 ; prom, Sergt. 

October, 18(12; died in rebel prison at Florence, Ala. 
Musician .lohn H. Simmons, Dowagiac, e. Aug. Id, 1861 : vet. 

Dec. 21, 1863; promoted. 
Musician (ieorge W. Pierson, Dowagiac, c. .\ug. 1(1, l.Sdl ; vi^t, 

Dec. 2'.i, 1863; m. o. July 29, 18(1.".. 


Kanier Aliriiin K. Sigcrfoos, Uowagiac, c. Aug. 19, 18iil ; vcl. 

Dec. 21. IH6:?: m. o. July 31, lS(;r>. 
Wagoner Daniel Kummell, Dowagiac, e. Aug. Ifi, 18G1 ; vcl. Dec. 

•Jl. 1S63: m. o. Aug. S, 1865. 


.lames K. Leailer, Tokagoii c. Aug. 20, ISOl ; pronioled llnsiiilal 


Aug. IG, 1801 : dis. for disaliilily 

Henry W. Ellis, Dowa 

Not. 1, 1862. 
Cliarlcs ('. Wilco.\, Uow.-igiac. c. .\ug. 16, 1861 ; prom. Sergt.: ili; 

at eud of service. 
.)i)lin II. Simmons. Dowaginc, c. Aug. 16 1861 ; prom. .'^ergt. 
Albert II. Lewis, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 16, 1861 : vel Dec. 21, 186:; 

m. o March 2'.', 1866. 


vet. Dec. 21. 1868; 

.\nglc, Philip, Wayne, e. .Vug. l'•^ 
0. March 25. 1866. 

liarualiy. .Vlvin 1'., Voliniii, c. .Ian. 2o, IHiU; dis. by order May 
8, 17I-.5. 

liarney, William W.. I,a lirange. e. Feb. 1-5. 1864: died of disease 
Aprils, 1S64. 

Becraft. William F.. Dowagiac. e. Aug. 20. isiil; vet. Dec. 21, 
ISCS; dis. by order May Ml. 18ii5. 

Itentley. Pardon F., Pokagon, e. Aug. 13, Isnl : vet. Dec. 21, 
I8i;3: died at Alexandria. Va. Nov. 22. lsr,4. 

Bilderback. John. Silver Creek, e. Aug. 20. 18r,l ; vet. Dec. 21, 
lS(i3 ; prom. Sergt.: trans, to Co. D. 

I'.ulhand, Joseph L.. Kdwardsburg. e. Aug. 22, 18iil : vet. Dec. 21, 
ISiiS: m. 0. March 2'), 1H6(;. 

Cables, Jerome I., Volinia. e. Aug. 17, 18i;l : vet. Dec. 21. lf<63: 
m. 0. Aug. 7, 1865. 

Chatterson. Joseph. Silver Creek, c. .\ug. Hi, 1S61 ; vet. Dec. 21, 
ISC,:!; m. o. Nov. 24, lsc,5. 

Clock, Miles A., Porter, e. ; m. o. .Uig. 7, lsii5. 

Colby. Frank. Penn, e. Feb. 2, I8c,4: vet. Dec. 21. 18ii:i; m. o. 
July 10. 1865. 

Cook, .\lbert H., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 21. Isfil ; dis. at end of serv- 
ice, Sept. 24, 18114. 

Crawford, Charles!'.. I'enn, e. Feb. 16, 1861: died in action Wil- 
derness, Va.. May 6. 1864. 

Day, James E.. I'orler. e. Feb. H. 1S64: m. o. March 25, ISiiii. 

Dewilt. Isaac A.. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 19. ISlil ; vcl. Dec. 21, lH(i:3 ; 
m. 0. March 2.'), I8i;i;. 

Urunimond, Alcius, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 22. IStil ; dis. for disability 
April 10, 186.3. 

Ellsworth, Andrew J.: ni. o. March 2'). iscc. 

.Ensign. Leroy. Pokagon, c. Aug. 13. IWil : died in battle at Win- 
chester. Va.. May 24, 1«62. 

fiates, Henry C, Dowagiac. e. Sept. 5, I81II ; died of disease at 
Alexandria. Va., Sept. 24. 1S62. 

Crush. John, Volinia, c. .\ug. 16. IS61 ; vet. Dec. 21. 1863: ni. 0. 
March 25, lHi;i;. 

Ilutson, Edward R.. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 12, I8I1I : dis. for dis- 

Hull', Franklin, Dowagiac. e. Aug. 22, 1861 : vel. Dec. 21,IMii3: 
dis. at end of service. .Vug. 22. 18114. 

King. John R., e. Oct. 10. 1X62: died in rebel prison, Richmond, 
Va., Feb. 3, 1X64. 

Labadie. A. C, Dowagiac. e. Aug. HI, I81II ; dis. lor disabilily 
April 3, 18113. 

Laniphere. Elias, Dowagiac. e. Aug. 12, 1861 ; dis. for disability 
April. 1862. wounded. 

liillie, (ieorge, Dowagiac. e. Aug. 17. ixdl ; dis. fordisabilily .Ian. 
13, 1863, wounded. 

Lyons, John. Dowagiac. e. Aug. 16, 1861 ; dis. for disability Sep- 
tember. 1S(12. 

McCreevy, Hiram. Dowagiac. e. Aug 17. 1861: vet. Dec. 21, 1863 . order July 31, 18ii.5. 
.Meacham, Charles, Dowagiac. c. .Vug. Di, 18'11 ; vcl. Dec. 21 ■ 

1863 ; m. 0. March 25, ISilH. 
Morland, Joseph, Volinia, e. Jan. In. I,s(i4 ; ni. o. March 25, 

.Norton, Cassius M., Dowagiac. e. Oct. 21, 1S62; dis. by order 

June 19, 1865. 
Niver, William C. Ontw.i. e. Vug. 22, isnl ; die.l of disease at 

Annapolis, Mil., Oct. 3, IS112. 
Ornt. Eli, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 22, 18(11 ; dis. at end of service. 
Olney, Darwin, Dowagifto, e. Aug. 19, 18111 : yet. Dec. 21, 1X63: 

killed in battle at Gettysburg, Penn.. July 3, 1X(13. 
Oyler, John. Dowagiac, c. Aug. 22, I811I : dis. for disability .luly. 

Peck, Coleman C, Cassopolis, e. Aug. 19, 1X61 : dis. at end of 

I'eltigrew, William M., Uowagiac. e. Aug. 22, ixr.l ; vet. Dec. 21, 

1X63; m. 0. .May 11. Is6ii. 
Pierce, Thomas P., Dowagiac. e. Aug. 16. 1X61 : died of disease at 

Richmond. Va. 
Reimer. Henry, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 16. 1X61 : dis. for disabilily 

Nov. 29, 1862. 
Robinson. Richard M., Dowagiac. c. .Vug. 22. 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 

1X(13; m. 0. Aug. 22, 1864. 
Roberts. Luman C, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 12, 1861: vel. Dec. 21, 

1863: m. 0. Nov. 24. 1865. 
Rose, Alexander, La Grange, e. Dec. 21, 18il3 ; in. o. Aug. s. 

Rutter, Benjamin II., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 20, 1x61 : dis. iit end of 

service, Sept. 6, 1X64. 
Rutter. Henry C, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 17. ix-il : died of disease 

.Vpril. 1862. 
Serrine. Ezra, Dowagiac. e. Aug. Hi. 1x61 : dis. fordisabilily May, 




Stulls. Seth S., Dowagiac. e. Vug. 26. 1861 

Sergt.: trans, to Co. F. 
Shrackengast, George W., Dowagiac, e. .Vugust 22, 186 

21. 1X63. 
Shaw, John N., Corp., Dowagiac, c. Aug. 16, 1861 : ilis. at end of 

Simons, Joseph R. ('., Dowagiac. e. .Aug. 22. 1861 : vet. Dec. 21. 

1863: died at Ft. Bridger, Utah, Nov. 18, 1S6">. 
Smyth, Daniel, Dowagiac, e. .Vug. 22. 1X61 : dis. for disability 

Jan. 14. I8fj3. 
Spillman, Jacob, Dowagiac, e. .Vug. 26, IXol ; dis. by order. 
Stone, George. Corp., Jefferson, e. Feb. 7, 1865; m. o. March 25, 

Snydam, William II., Silver Creek, e. Dec. 36, 1X63; dis. by 

order Vug. 3, 1865. 
Taylor. Ilalbert R. Wayne, e. Dec. 28, isr,:!; m. o. .Much 25, 

Thomas. Cassius. Porter, e. Feb. 19. IsiU ; died of yellow lever 

May 6. IX(i4. 
Tinkler, George W.. Dowagiac.' e. .Vug. 16. IXiil ; dis. at end of 

Tice. Myron C. Dowagiac. e. Aug. 19. Isr.l ; ni. o. .Inly I i. 18115. 
Watson. Joseph H.. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 21. IXill ; taken prisoner 

in aation at Kobh's Tavern. Va. 
Wilber. Oscar, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 22, IxiU ; died of disease .Vug. 

29. 1X112. 
Wiley, James P.. Dowagiac. c. Aug. 17. 1861 ; vet. Dec 21. 1X113 ; 

m. 0. March 25. 1866. 





<jiiarterma3ler Sergl. S. .1. W. Thomas, e. 1862 ; killed at battle of 
Bear Rivei-, Feb. 29, 18fi3. 

Andrews, James H., Mnson, e. Aug. 27, 18fi4: dis. by order .lu 
.3, 1W5. 

.sei-oiid, Thiril, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Ninth and Eleventh Cavalry— First Barker, John C 

.ight Artillery— Fourteenth Biittery--Inf:iiitry Organizations— The 
Ninth. Kleventh, Thirtpnnth. In\irtpeiith, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, 
Spvpnteonth, Twenty-foin I h, 1 «r)ity-nftli, Twenty-eight and Thir- 
tieth— Tlic One Hundred ami Se'oinl r. S. Colored Infantry— Cass 

e. Ilcl. 


•A. Kes. Corps. 
1864; ni. o. Aug. 

ion at Mossy Creek, 
t>, 1864 : m. o. Aug. 

IN the foregoing chapter have been given the rosters 
of ail of the full companies from Cass County, to- 
gether with very brief histories of the regiments to 
which they were assigned. In the present chapter 
appears the roster of Cass County soldiers in miscella- 
neous organizations of the infantry, cavalry and artil- 
lery service. Great care has been exercised in the 
compilation of this roster. It contains every name 

and fact procurable from the Adjucant Generals office, Griffith, John W., e. Sept 
at Lansing. The lists have also been verified in all 
cases where it was practicable by members of the com- 
panies to which they have reference. If the roster as Hewitt. Henry W., e. Sept, Kl, 1861 ; dis. for disability May :iO, 

here presented is incomplete or inaccurate (as it '*"'-^- 

Burns, Lawrence, c. .Sept. 14, ISfil ; 

action in Alabama Oct. 7, 18K4. 
Burns, Roger, e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; vet. , 

Carlisle. William, e. .Sept. 14, 1861 ; I 
Dailey, Hiram, e. .Nov. 14, 1861 ; ve 

17, 18<i5. 
Kisele, Felix, e. Sept. 24, 1K61 ; died 

nee. 27, 186:1. 
Kisele, Martin, e. Sept. 24. 1861 ; vet 

17. 1SH.5. 
Goodrich, J. T., e. Nov. 1, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 5, 1SH4 

, 1864 , m. 0. .Vug. 
1. :<, 1864; died in 
864; m. o. Aug. 17, 

an. 6, 1864; m. o. Aug. 
Hanson, John, e. Sept. 16. 1861 ; dis. at end of service Oct. 22, 


doubtless is in some degree), the fact is attributable to 
the neglect of officers, whose iluty it was to return 
full and complete lists to the Adjutant General. 

Fellows, Austin 1'., Milton, Nov. 8, 186:^ ; m. o. Aug. 17, 18C,.-, 

Kelchnm, Alonzo,c. Sept. 14. IStil ; vet. Ja 

1864 ; m. o. Aug. 

Furrier, .John H. Ashley, .Mason, e 

order June 20, 1865. 
Rix, Alfred, Mason, e. Aug. 24, 18ii4 

Creek, Ala., Nov. 5, 1864. 
Stephens, George, Mason, e. .Vug 24, 

20, 1865. 

Aug 24, 1864; dis. by 
taken prisoner at Shoal 
1861; dis. by order .lune 

ora. Au 

24, 1861 : resigned 

First Lieut. Andrew J. Fi 

Aug. 31, 1862. 
First Lieut. John H. hution, com. Sept. 9, 1862; 2d Lieut. Au 

24, 1861 ; resigned for disvhility April 0, 1864 
(Juirtermaster Sergt. William P. Thomas, e. Sept 12, 186 

died of disease at Corinth, Miss., .lune 25, 1862. 
Sergt. .lay Blodgett, e. Sept. 16, 1861 ; dis f .r <lis=ihiliiy Sept. 

I.ayton, James L., Newhurg. m. o. Aug, 17, 1865. 
Loveland, Andrew J., e. Sept. 21, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Lowry, William S., e. Sept. IX, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 5, 1864; dis. by 

order June 4, 1865. 
Lyhacher, I'orter, Mason, e. Aug. 14, 1861 ; m. o. July 5, 1865. 
Mallory, Marquis D., e. Oct. 1, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Oct. 

22, 1864. 
.Manco, Theo., e. Sept. LS, 1861; vel. Jan. 5, 1864; in. o. Aug. 

17, 1865. 
Mann, George H., Mason, e. Aug. 14, 1862; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Mannering, W. H., e. Oct. lo, 1861 ; dis. for disability Aug. 16, 

Marshall, .lames M., Mason: c. Aug. Ml, 1862; dis. for disability 

Dec. 6, 1862. 
Moore, Lorenzo D., e. Sept. 24, 1861 : vet. Jan. 5, 1864 ; diedo f 

wounds at Shoal Creek, Ala., Dec. I, 1864. 
Nelson, Edgar, e. Sept. 16, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 5, 1864 ; dis. by order 

May I'.l, 18155. 
I'arker, Chandler, e. Nov. 1. l.Hiil ; vet. Jan. 5, 18(i4 ; m. o. Aug. 

17. 18(i5. 
Shockley, Alfred, e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; vel. Jan. 5,1864 ; m. o. Aug. 

17, 1865. 

18iil ; dis. at end of service Oct. 22, 

'orp. John K. Slark. e Sept. 17.18 

14. 1862. 
^)rp. Harvey L. Drew, e. .Sepi. 16. 1 

2, 1861. 
.'orp. Albert I'. Anderson 

Smith, Henry, e. Sept. 

Smith, Waller, e. Sept. 17, ISiil ; dis. at end of service Oct. 22, 

Siark, Edward, e. .Sept. 24, ISill ; dis. for disability Oct. 20, 18il2. 
Stilson, Hiram, mason, e. Aug. 14, 18il2; trans, lu Vet. Res. 

Corps Feb. 15, 18ii5. 
Sept. 14, 18111 ; died of wounds Stilson, John, Mason, e. Sept. I, 18il4; m. o. Aug. 17, I8ii5. 

for disability Aug. 
ms. to au Cav. Nov. 

near Boonville .Miss., July 3, 1862 
Corp. William H. Todd. e. .Sepl. 16, 

Dec. VI, 1862. 
Corp. Samuel .Maxham, e. Sept. 18, 

Dec. 6, 1862. 
Corp. Vbner I'. Slimp40u, e. Sept. I I, 1 

m. o. Aug. :10, 1865 
Wagoner Robert Lingrell, e. Sept 8, 

prom. Sergt,; m. o. .•Vug. 17, 1865. 

Slillson. Willi; 

C, Ma 

e. Aug. 24, 18H4: 

0. Aug. 


dis for disability 
dis. for disability 

Welling, Jacob, dis. for disability March 25, ISilo. 

^Villiams, Richard J., e. Sept. 14, ISHl ; vet. Jan. 5, 18il4; dis. 

for promotion Sept. 20, 18114. 
Williama. TUeodoie. e, Sepl. 18, 1861 ; killed by guerrilla-s at 

Madisonville, Tenn., March 7, 18il4. 
Wooden, Timothy, e. Sept. 16, 1861 ; died of disease at St. Louis. 

Mo., Jan. 31, 1862. 




Smith, George W ., Vi 

Feb. 1ft, 18d4 ; m. o. Fch. 12, 186li. 

Sccoml Lieut. Morrel Wells, La tirange, e. Seyl. M), I8fil. corp , 

vet. .laji. 19, 1864; sergt ; prom. 2<l Lieut, i'o. F; |iroin. 

1st. Lieut ("0. 1, Nov. 17, 18f,4: m. o. Feb. 12, ISfili. 
Second Lieut. Robert H. Carr, nowagiac, e. Sept. 26, ]St;i; 

Corp., scrgt.. 2d Lieut, .luly 4, 1861 ; m. u. as sergt., Feb !"2, 


Beebe, BcDJaniin, F., Volinia, e. Feb. 24, ISill ; died ol' disease 

Duval's Bluff, Ark., .lul.y 29, 1864. 
Vance, William. I., Volinia, e. .Ian. 19, 1864; m. o. Feb. 12, 1866 
Wallace, .lohn I., Dowagiac, e. Sept. :'>i), 1861 ; dis. for prom., 

.lunc 2(1. 186.5. 

Company I. 
First Lieut. Morrel Wells, La Grange, com. Nov. 17, 1864; in. u. 

Feb.' 12, 1866. 

CdMI'.^NV M. 

Foster, David, Pokagon, c. Dec. 29, 1868; m. ». Feb. 12, 1866. 


Company A. 
McManus, .lohn. La Grange, e. Nov. .">, 1863 ; m. o. Aug. l-'i, 

Company C. 
McCoy, William, D. P. R., Aug. 1. 1862; m. o. .luly 1, 186-5. 
Partridge. Edwin l>. Pokagon, e. Dec. 5, 1863; m. o. Aug. \o, 

1 865. 
Kiggs, Rensselaer, P iter. e. Aug. 18 1864; ni. «. .luly 1, 1865. 
Shoemaker, .John H., Maroellus, e. .luly 15, 1862; ni. o. .July 1, 

Company G. 
Cowles, David B., Howard, e. Nov, 3, 1863 : trans, to Veteran 
Reserve Corps, Aug. 17, 1864. 

Company I. 
Bedwell, George W., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 11, 1862 ; in. o. .July 1, 

Corp. Brown, Preston W., Dowagiac, e. .luly 29, 1862; ni. o. .luly 

1, 1865. 

Driskel, Noah, Porter, e. Aug. 11, 1862; dis. for disability April 

2, 1863. 

Eaton, Frank P.. Dowagiac, e. .\ug. 11, 18ii2; dis. for disability 

March 3, 1863. 
Fetterly Charles, Dowagiac. e. Aug. 2, 1862 ; ni. o. .luly 1, 18t;5. 
.loy, Franklin D., Penn, e. Aug. U, 1862 ; m. o. May 3, 1865. 
Kennedy, David A.. Penn, e. Aug. II, 1862; m. o. July 1, 1865. 
Powers, Samuel (I., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 11, 1862; died of disease 

at Nashville, Tenn.,. Ian. 12. 1863. 
Uober.son, .lohnathan S., corp.. e. .Vug. 2. 1862 ; trans, to \'et. 

Res. Corps Sept. 1. 1863. 
Matthews. William. Penn. e. Aug. 11. l.';r,2; sick at Nashville 

First Lieut, lliram F. Heals, Dowagiac. com. .Aug. l:'.. 18ii2. 
(.iuartci master Sergt. William H. Davis. Dowagiac. c. .luly 26, 

18112; dis. by order May 19, 1865. 
Commi-sary .Sergt. .lames W. .Vrgo. e. .July 2L I8ii2; m. o. .luly 

1. 1865. 
Scrgl. .lames D. Dawson, e. .Vug. II. 18i;2; dis. fur disiibiliiy 

.luly 8. 1863. 
Sergt. Edward Peaice. Wayne, c. Aug. 15. lKi,2; ni. o. .luly I. 

t'orp. Truman P.ind. VVaync. e. Aug. 2. 1862; died of disease at 

Louisville. Ky.. Oct. 27. 1 862. 
Corp. George .Scott, Volinia, e, Aug. 5. I8il2; dis. for ilisahilily 

.Ian. I. 1863, 
Corp. .lohn Fo.\. Milton, e. Aug. 7, 1862; dis. by order May I'l. 

Corp. Elias Ingling, Dowagiac. c. Vug, 9. 18112; m, o, .luly 1. 

Corp. .lohn W. Bowles. Volinia. e. .\ug. 7, 18(12; absent sick at 

m. o. 
Farrier Henry Cooper. Dowagiac. e. .\ug. 13. 1862; m. o. ,luly 

1. 1865. 
Teamster (.'harles D. Northrup, Dowagiac. e. Aug. 5. 1862; m. o. 

.luly 1. 1865. 
Wagoner, .Josiah I pes. e. Vu;.'. 2. 18(12 ; m. o. .luly I. I8(;5. 


Morton, Charles L.. Porter, e. Aug. II. 18(12; 

Feb. 27. 1863. 
Sigerfoos, Albertus. Porter, e. Aug. II. I8il2: sick at Na.shvillc 

Scrgt. Witherell. Ileury A.. Pokagon. e. Vug. II. 1862; died of 
disease at Nashville. Tenn.. April, 9. 1864. 

Lewis, .lames. Newburg, e. Vug. 11. 1862; killed in aelioii .it 
Stone River. 

Lewis. Franklin B., e. .Vug. 11, 1S(12 ; died of digease at Nash- 

.\bbott, Hiram, .Milton, e. Aug. 16, 1862; m, o. .luly 1, 1865 
Aldrich, James M., e. Aug. 12, 1862; died nf oisease at Lebanon. 

Ky., Nov. 18,'1862. 
Arnold, Alvin, Newburg, e. .Vug. 13. 1862; trans, to Vol. Res. 

Arnold, Robert, Volinia, e. Aug. II, 1862; m. o. .luly 1, 1865. 
Baldwin, Thomas, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 5, 1862; ni. o. July 1, 1865. 
Dunbar, George W., Milton, e. Aug. 13, 1862; m. o. July !, 1865. 
Finch, .Mathew, Volinia. e. Aug. 10, 1862; dis. for disability May 

1, 1863. 
Ferris, Albert P., Volinia, e. Aug. 11, 1862; dis. by order .May 3, 

Garwood, Levi J., Volinia. e. Aug. 2, 18(i2; dis by order .luiie 
29, 1865. 
i Higgins, George W., Dowagiac, e. .luly 26, 1862; ui. o. July 1, 
I 1865. 

I Haight, Horatio, Marcellus, e. Aug. 7, 1862; m. o. July 1, 1865. 
! Hoyt, Henry, Dowagiac, e. .Vug. 2, 1862 ; died of disease at Nash- 
i ville, Dec. 26, 1862 

I Huft\ Simon, Volinia, e. Aug. 15, 1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
j Humiston. Perry, e. Aug. 8, 1862; m. o. July 1, 1865. 
j Jaquays. William, Volinia, e. Aug. 15, 1862; transferred lo 
Vet. Res. Corps Jan. 15, 1K64. 
Little, .lohn H., Volinia, e. Aug. 6, 1S62; dis. for disability Feb. 
I 11, 18113. 

Northrup, Freeman G., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 6, 18(12 ; died of disease 

at .Mitchellville, Tenn., Nov. 22, I8(i2. 
Parks, James, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 6. 1862; dis. by order .Vpril 2s, 
j 1865. 

' Pond, Wesley D., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 9, 18(12; ni. o. July I. IN(15. 
Quick, Robert I., Dowagiac, c. Vug. (l, IS(l2; dis, for di-iahility 

Feb, 4, 18113. 
Rankin, John E,, Dowagiac, e. Aug, 12. 1X62; ni, o. July I, 1.S65. 
Shanahan, Henry, e, Aug, 12, 18112; m, o, July 1, 1x65, 
Southworth, George M,, Volinia, e. Vug. II, l.X(i2; ni. n, .luly I, 

.Sweelland. James ,M,, Dowagiac, c. ,Vu!;, 7, 1862; dis, lor 
l)ility Jan, 7, 1863, 


Swcetland, John B., Edwardsburg, e. Aug. 12, lm2 ; dis. by order 

to appointment as I'nited States .Medical Cadet Sept. 20, 1W3. 
Taylor, Nelson, m. o. .July 1, M'lO. 
Thompson, Benjamin F., .Milton, e. Aug. 15, lS(i2; prom, to Corp. 

1863, after the battle of t-tone River; dis. for disability 

Xov. 11, 1K(14. 
Tharp, John L., Penn e. Aug. '.•. 18ii2; dis. for disability March 

25, lK(i4. 
Van Tuyl, John, Dowagiac, e. Aug. hi, 18112; ni. o. July 1, 18115. 
Vaughn, Dewitt C, t'alvin, e. Aug. H, 1K(12; died of disease in 

Indiana March Is, 1,H(13. 
Welch, Michael, La Grange, e. .\ug. o, 1X62; died in rebel prison, 

Richmond Va.. Dec. 18, 1W12. 
Welcher. -Sherman B., Volinia, e. Aug. H, 18r,2; died of disease at 

Woodsonville. Ky.. Dec. — , 18ii2. 
Wilson, Samuel, Dowagiac, e. Aug. H, 1,hii2; m. o. July 1, 18115. 


Brown, Simeon, Wayne, e. Nov. 18, 18(13. 
Day, Robert B., Wayne, e. Dec. 21, 18(13. 
Rigin. Thomas, Mason, e. Nov. 3, 18(13. 
Ross, William, Silver Creeli, e. Dec. 23, 18(13. 
Randall, Charles, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 30, 18(14. 
Shoemaker. Franklin ('., Penn, e. Dec. 23, 18(l3. 
Williams, Leonard W.. Penn, e. Xov. 3, 18(13. 



Surg. Sylvester L. Morris, Dowagiac. Oct. 23, IK(13; A3«istau 
Surgeon Sept. 3, 18(13; resigned July 28. 18(14. 

Dean. Kdw.ird, La (irange, e. Jan. 23, 18(15; transferred to Isl 

Michigan Cavalry. 
Randall. Wesley C, Jefferson, c. .March 13, 18(15; m. o. May 1'.), 

Shilling, Lemuel C, Voliiiia, e. March 15, 18(15; in. o. Jan. D, 


King. Franklin T., La Grange, c. Jan. (1, 18(15; tiansferred to 

Ist Michigan Cavalry. 

('0Mr\.\v K. 
Iluyck, Alva H., Volinia, e. March 15, IK(15; transferred to 7lh 

Michigan Cavalry. 


Harrington, Silas. Silver Creek, e. Feb. 17, 18(15; transferred (o 
7(h Michigan Cavalry. 



Savage. Frank'', Marcellus. e. .March -11, 18(15: ui. o. Feb. 1(1, 

lll.MCA.NY G. 

Branch, Arthur K. Silver Creek, c. .March 7, 1865; m. o. Feb. 

16, 1866. 
Nearpass, Ira N, Newberp, c. .March 31, 1865; in. n. May 16, 



Potts. Janice II., Silver Cicek, e. March 10. 1865; in.... March 
31, 1866. 

('OMl'ANV L. 

Bliss, Edwin S.. Newberg. o .Ian. 26, 1864; m. o. May :10. 

Dewey, Orlando, Marcellus; in. o. March 25. 1866. 
Kilmer, George P., I'enii, e Feb 11, 1864; m. o. .Iiine 24. 1865. 

Mathers, William, Silver (reek, e. Feb. 17,1865; m. o. March 
10, 1866. 


Cole, Hiram G., JeHerson, e. Feb. 6, 1865; m. o. Feb. 8, 1866. 
Deline, Frank H., Calvin, e. Feb. 6, 1865; died of disease at St. 
Louis, Mo., June 24, 1865. 


.\lexander, ."^amuel, Jefferson, e. Sept. '.(, 1862; missing in ac- 

Crocker, William A., Jefferson, e. Sept. 0, 1862; tri^ns. to Invali.l 

Corps Sept. 10, 1863. 
(Jollins, Joseph E., Pokagon, e. Sept. 12, 1862; died at .\lexan- 

dria, Va., 12, 1864. 
Foster, Zaoh ; trans, to Isl Mich. Cav. 
Harrison, Jesse, Jefferson, e. Sept. 'J. 1862; trans, to Vet. Res. 

Corps, April 10, 1864. 
Henderson, William, Milton, e. Dec. 20, 1862; m. o. June 7, 1865. 
Huyck, John. 

Maloy, Thomas, Pokagon, e. Sept. 29, 1862; m. o. Dec. 15, 1865. 
Vlilliman, Samuel, Pokagon, e. Sept. 18, 1862. 
i Nels.m, Walter, Pokagon, e. Sept. 29. 1862 ; died in battle at Get- 
tysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863. 
Peck, George P., Jefferson, e. Sept. 9, 1862; dis. for disability 

Nov. 25, 1862. 
Richardson, Varnum, Pokagon, e. Sept. 15, 1862; dis. for dis. 
i ability March 28, 1863. 

I Smith, Thomas J., Milton, e Dec. 25, 1862; m. o. July 6, 1865. 
I Stout, John, Milton; m. o. Dec. 15, 1865. 
i Wortler, George A., Milton, c. Dec. 27, 1862. 

Irwin, .Vndrcw ; m. o. Dec. 15, 18(35. 



Chaplain John Fletcher, Edwardsburg, Aug. 23, 1864 ; m. o. July 

21, 1865. 

Company L. 
('apt. George Miller, Pokagon.'Nov. 3, 1862; resigne.l March 12, 

Commissary Sergl. James F. Prater, Wayne, e. Dec. 12, 1862; 

prom Regimental Commissary Sergt. May I. 1864 ; m. o July 

21, 1865. 
Sergl. Henry L. Barney, Wayne, e. Dec. 1, 1S62; prom, in U. S. 

Cav. Troops. 
Sergt. (lagon Dunham, Volinia, e. Dec. 28, 1862; ni. o. June 30. 

Corp. Martin Ijuinlan, Volinia, e. Jan. HI, 1863; m. o. .luly 21, 

Teamster John Oyler, Pokagon. e. Nov. 12, 1862; m. o. Dec. 5, 

Barrett, George, Wayne, e. Dec. 28, 1862; m. o. June 13, 1S65. 
Blackman, Jerome, Dowagiac, e. March 24, 1863 ; in. o. July 

21, 1865. 
Brownell, William, Wayne, e. Dec. 27. 1862; m o. May 27. 1865. 
Ellsworth, Daniel, Howard, e. Jan. 1.1863; dis. for .Usability 

June 9, 1865. 
Elliott, Franklin, Jefferson, c. .Ian. 1, 1863: died in rebel prison 

at Richmond, Va., Feb. 17, 1864. 
tiarrigan, John, Volinia, e. Dec. 18, 1862: died in rebel |iris..n 

pen. Andersonville, Ga., June 19. 1864. 
Kelly. E.lgar D.. Waynf. e. Dec. 13. 1862: m ... July 21, 1865. 
Rose, .lolui H.; D.>wagiac, e. April 28, 1863: dis. for disability 

June 9, 1865. 



Smiih, JuJson, Wayne, e. Jan. 12, 18H3: m. o. July 21, 18ii5. 
.Siiiilli, Henry, Silver Creek, e. Jan. 12, 18i;:?; died of disease in 

Tennessee, Dec. 27, 18i;8. 
Travis, I'lzekiel, Wayne, e. Nov. 11, 18i;2: m. o, Dec. •">, 18i',.5. 
Oveiheck, Augustus, Volinia, e. .Ian 8, ISr,:!; died at Dandridge, 

Tennessee, Dec. 15, 18f,3. 
Willi.ims, James A., Corp., Venn e. Dec. 2!l, 18(;2 ; in. o. July21, 


Davis, M. Barney. 
Willis Barney. 


I'OMl'.KXY (.i. 

Canning. George. Marcellus. e. Nov. ,'), 18(5.'? ; m. n. N'ov. 2, 1865. 


Allen, William H., I'enn, e. ,>^epl. Ui I8i',.3; m. o. May 17, 1805. 
Canning, Tlionins, Miircellus, e. .Sept. Ifl, 18113; ni. o. Aug. 24, 

I.etlick, Wil 

La Grange, e. Dec. 7, 18113 ; ni. o. Sept. 22, 18(15. 

Company K. 
•Sergl. Horace ft. Brown, Ontwa, e. Sept. 22, 1.^(18; died of dii 
ease at Le.\iDgtiin, Ky., Jnly 8, 1,S(14. 

Blackburn, Thomas, Ontwa, e. Nov. 2, 18(13; 


Blue. Krwin, Ontwa, e. Nov. 2, IWi : killed by accident at Shel- 
by ville, Ky., July 17, 18114. 

Brown, Carlton, Ontwa, e. Sept. 30, 18i!3; ni.o. July 18, 18(1.-). 

Lofand, Joshua, Ontwa, e. Sept. 1, 18(13; ni. o. Sept. 22, 18(15. 

Farrier William W. Marr, Ootwa, e. Sept. 22, 18(13; m. o. Seiil. 
22; 18(16. 

Saddler .\lbert H. Raymond, Ontwa, e. Oc(. !), 18(13 ; m. o. Sept. 

Shideler, George, Ontwa, e. Oct. 2(1. 18(13; m. o. .Sept. 22. 18(15. 
Shiar, .\lonzo S., Ontwa, e. Sept. 22, 18(13 ; died of disease at 

Ashland, Ky., July 11. 18(14. 
Stark, Edward, Silver Creek, e. Sept. 10, 18(1.!; m. o. Oct. 9, 

Steele, John S. Ontwa, e. Oct. 14, 18(13 ; m. o. Sept. 22, 18(15. 
Farrier Wieling, .lacob H., Silver Creek: e. Sept Id, 18(13; ni. 

0. .Sept. 22, l.H(15. 

Battbkv .\. 
Second Lieut. George J. .Nash, Vulinia, March (1, 18(l.'i; m. o 

28, 18115. 
(lanning .Samuel ; m. o. July 28, 18(1). 
Ilickox, William If., La Grange, e. Dec. 30, 18(13; m. o. 

28, 18(10. 
Mesler, William, La Grange, e. Dec. 25, 18(13; m.o. July 28, 
(dy28, 18 

Willianis. Levi P., I', 

, Feb. •\, 18(13 

Battkhy I'.. 
Abliolt, .Seneca W., Ontwa, e. Sept. .■>, 18(14 : ni. o. Aug. 30, 

Norris, Webb ; m. o. .\I« 


Smith, Horace, .Sergl., Adamsville, e. Nov. 23, 18(11 ; dis. f« 

ability Aug. 25, 18(1;;. 
Wickerly, David, e. Dec. 15, IHd 


. for disability July 



Armstrong. Benjamin F., Fokagon, e. .Sept. 17, 18(13; dis. for dis- 
ability .May 15, 18(1.5. 
Arnold, Kdward R., Corp , Volinia, e. Oct. !(, 18(18 ; m. o. July 1, 

Barney, Myron F., Newberg, e. Sept. 7, 1803; m. o. .Inly I, 

lilanchard, George L., I'okagon, e. Sept. 6, 1804; m. o. .luly I, 

Burnham, Charles M., Jetferson, e. Dec. 31, 1803 ; ni. o. .luly 1, 

Canfield, Washington B., .Mircellus, e. Sept. 17, 1803; .lis. for 

disability Jan. 12, 1805. 
Crane, Judson J., I'okagon, e. Sept. 3, 1804 ; m. o. .July I, 1805. 
Day, Alexander P., Volinia, e. Sept. 3, 1804 ; m. o. July 1, 1805 
Davis, Charles J., Newburg, e. Sept. 7, 1803; m. o. July 1. 

Drake, George S., Newberg, e. Oct. 3, 1803: m. o. July I, 1805. 
j Goff. William 11., Penn, e. Sept. 4, 1803 ; m. o. July 1, 1805. 
Goff, Stephen C, Peun, e. SepL 3, 1804; m. o. July 1, 1805. 
j Golf, Sylvester J., Volinia, e. Sept. 3, 1804; m. o. July 1, 1805. 
Goodrich, George, Pokagon, e. Sept. 5, 1804; m. o. .luly I. 

Harwood, William M., Penn, e. Aug. 2!l, 1804; m. o. July 1, 

Holloway, Charles, Newberg, e. Sept. 12, 1803; m. o. Julyl, 

Holloway, William, Penn, e. Aug. 25, 1804 ; m. o. July 1 , 1805. 
Hutchings, William W., Newberg, e. Sept. 2(1, 1803; dieil of dis- 
ease at Washington, I). C, March 21, 1804. 
Lemon, John F., Penn, e. Sept. 1, 1804; m. o. July I, 1805. 
Martin, Robert N., Penn, e. Sept. 6, 1803; dis. for disability Nov. 

23, 1804. 
Murphy, William, Jefferson, e. .Ian. 2, 1804 ; m. o. July 1, 1805. 
Patrick, Christopher, Corp., .Marcellus, e. Sept. 7, 1803; mo. 

July 1, 1805. 
Pembcrton, Eliphalet, Marcellus, e. Oct. 3, 1863 ; m. o. July 1, 

Pound, Isaac S., Pokagon, e. Sept. 1. 1804; m. o. July 1, 1805. 
Rudd Baruk L., Newberg. e. Sept. 9, 1803; m. o. July 1, 1805. 
Shoemaker, Frank C, Pokagon, e. Aug. .30, 1804; m. o. July 1, 

Skinner, James R., Marcellus, e. Oct. 2, 1803; m. o. July 1, 

Skinner, Harrison H., Marcellus, dis. for disability Dec. o. 1804. 
Tompkins, .Melvin R., Newberg, e. Sept. 20, 1863; ra. o. July I, 

Turengo, Andrew, Jefferson, e. ,Ian. 4, 1804: m. o. July 1, 1805. 
Vincent, Henry, Volinia, e. Oct. 2, 1803 : m. o. July 1, 1805. 
Wetherell, Smith D., Corp., Volinia. e. Nov. 5, 1803 ; m. o. July 1, 

Wilsey, Erasmus, Marcellus, e. Sept. 10, 1804; m. o. July 1, 


Sergt. Frank Upson, Howard, e. July 17, 1801 ; died in aedon at 
Gaines' Mills June 27, 1802. 



Corp. .loel (Juwgill, Calvin, e. May 25, 1801 ; (rans. to Vet. 

Res. Corps July I, 1803. 
Sergt. Johns. Gliddou, e. .May 21. 180! ; vet Dec :'.l, ; .lis 

by order Sept. 15. 1804. 



rrivate William Jackson, Jefferson, e. May 2r., l?in : vet. Bee. 

Dec. 31, 18i;3 ; in. o. July 28, ISti.i. 
Sergt. Benjamin F. Lee, Ontwa, e. May 25, 18K1 : died May, 18, 

I8ii2, of wounds received at Williamsburg. 
Corp. Henry Meacham, Ontwa, e. May 25, ISHl : trans, to Vet. 

Res. Corps Feb. 15, 18i>4. 

CO.MP.*.NY 1. 

Coleman, Franci.* A., Wayne, e. Feb. 21, IMtio ; dig. by order June 
15, 18ti5. 


Company A. 
Haigh, William, e. Aug. 28, ISHl ; vet. Dec. 15, 18i)8. 

Co.Mi-.\!«v l). 
Stamp, F,. M., Porter, e. Sept. 18, 18112; m. o. June .3, 18i;.".. 


.\asistant Surgeon Cyrus Bacon, Ontwa, enrolled June HI, 18111, 
at Fori Wayne (near Detroit), Mich ; mustered in Aug. 22, 
18111: resigned May il, 18ti2; appointed Ass't Surgeon of 
Regular Army July :J, 18il2; died .Sept. 1, 18(18. 



.\yers, Tliuinas B., Porter, e. Oct. 27, 1864; m. o. July 19, 18il5. 
Barker, Peter, Marcellus, e. Oct. 31. 18114; m. o. July 19, 18115. 
Brown, William A., Calvin, e. Nov. 2, 1864: m. o. July 19, >8il5. 

Baer, Westell, Marcellus. e. Oct. 2il, 18tl4: 

July 111, 1811.-.. 

Com p.* XT K. 
Philips, John, NewI.erg. e. Jan. 17, 18K4; m. o. July 19, 18ij5. 

FANTRY (old). 
Company C. 

.\ngle, John A., Wayne, e. -•Vug. 24. 18H1 : died of disease ai 
Bardstown, Ky., March 20, 18H2. 

Beardsley, Elisha L., e. Nov. 22, I81II ; died of disease at Bards- 
town. Ky.. June 31,181.2. 

Birdgeit, John, e. Aug. 24. I81U : dis. for disability Sept. 15, 

Parnham, John B., Ontwa, e. Ang. 24, ISill ; died of disease at 
Bardslown, Ky., Feb. 6. 18t;2. 


Company A. 
Grant, William, Pokagon, e. Dec. 21, 18t;3 ; died in aition near 

Petersburg, Va., June 27, 1864. 
Lane, Thomas, Milton, e. Dec. 22, 1863; m. 0. July 30, 18i;5. 



Ayres, Sylvester B.. Howard, e. Oct. I. 1804; dis. by order June 
20. IH115. 


Uougherly, Thomas, Howard, e. Sept. 29, I8G4: ilis. by onler 
June 20, 1865. 

Medger, Charles W., Pokagon, e. Feb. 9. 1^06; m. 0. Sept. 15, 

Kelly, Ethan, La Grange, e. March 17. 1865; dis. by onler Aug. 
10, 1865. 

Mater, John, e. 1861 ; dis. 1862; re-e. in same company, and fi- 
nally dis. Sept. 26, 1863. 

Fisher, Franeis. Porter, e. Oel. 1, 1864; ni. 0. June 20, IS65. 

Company It. 
Bender, .Joseph D., Newberg, e. April 5. 1865; m. o. .Se)U. 15, 

Hendricks, Clark, Pokagon, e. Sept. :l, 1864 ; m. o. June 20, 1865. 
II iggins, Charles J.. Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1S(I4; m. o. .hine 20, 


Company 0. 
Cole, Brayton M., La Grange, e. March 25, 1865, in. 0. Sept. 15. 

Myers, William, ."silver Creek, e. October 4, 1864 : absent sick at 

Company H. 
i^altsgiver, Henry, Porter, e. Oct. 3, 1864; m. n. Sept. 15, 1865. 


Thompson, John K., Howard, e. Sept. 30, 1864; m. o. June 20, 

Hathaway, Henry C., e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; absent sick at m. 0. 
Lucas, William H., e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; killed al Stone River. 
O(3onnor, Cyrus W., e. .\ug. 24, 1861 ; dis. al end of service 

Sept. 30, 1864. 
I'iiilips, William J. e. .Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. at eud of service Sept. 

30. 1864. 

Company K. 
Corp. Ilavid Klase. 


Baldwin, Daniel, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; died of wounds near Atlanta, 

Ga.. Aug. 7, 1864. 
Blakely, Thomas L., e. Aug. 24. I8H| ; dis. for di.sabilily Aug. 4, 

Booth, Zeivala, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; ilis. al end of service Sept. 30, 

Chamberlain, William L., e. Aug. 24. 1861 ; dis. al en.l of service 

Sept. 3t), 1864. 
Haines, James L., dis. at end of service. 

Latham, Kneeland, e. .•Vug. 24, 1861 ; dis. by order July I, 1863. 
Milliman Bryant, dis. at end of service. 
MiiHgn, Sidney S., e. .Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. al end of service Sept. 

.30, 1864. 
Noilinghain, Jud.son, dis. at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864. 
Poorman, John, e. .■Vug. 24, 1861 ; dis. al end of service Sept. 

30, 1864. 
tjuay. George W., e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; died near .\llanta. Ga., of 

wounds, Aug. 7. 1864. 
Ryan, James X. C, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Sept. 

30, 1864. 
.Schug, Emanuel, e. .Vug. 24, 1861 ; dis. at end of service .Sept. 

30, 1864. 
Schug, William F., e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, 

Nov. 15, 1863. 
.Shoemaker, Samuel S., dis. for ilisabilily. 
Smith, Cyrus, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Sept. 3o, 

Tayler, George, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; died of at Bardslown, 

Ky.. Feb. 5, 1862. 
Thompson. Smith, e. Aug. 24. 1861 ; ,lis. for disability Sept.. 1861. 
Vanordslranil, John, e. Aug. 24, 1861; dis. at end of service 

Sept. 30. 18t,4. 



Van \ alkeiibuig. Ben.iaiiiii>. e. Aug. J4, IMil ; clis. al eml nf serv- 
ice Sept. :^0, \SM. 

Vanordstranil. lerome 1'.. Sergl., e. Aug. "24, 1H61 ; dis. at end of 
service Sept. 311, l.Hr,4. 


Bryan, .);imes, dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 1«S4. 

Br_v;iu, Moses, died of wounds at Chaltanoogn, Tenn., Sept. 1^, 

Granger, Chauncey, dis. for disability .June 8, 18(54. 
Haines, James L., dis. at end of service Sept. 36, 18t)4. 
Higgins, Thomas W., died of disease March 18, 1862. 
Nichols, Charles N.. dis. at end of service Sept. 30, l8t)4. 
Nichols, James 0., died at Cbickamauga. Tenn., Sept. 20, 186:1. 
Scott, Lorenzo H., dis. at end of service Sept. 3li, 1864. 
Skinner, Harrison H.. Corp., dis. for disability ; Feb. 15, 1.S62. 

Moody. I.oren. 1) 
m O.July 25 

v.igiao, f. Oct. -12. 

Company G. 

("lendenning, James, e. Dec. 13, 18(11 ; dis. for disability Oct. 2'J, 
I 1863. 

I Roy. William G.. I'enn. e. Oec. 12, Isi.l ; vet. Jan. Is, lHi-.4; 
Sergt: ra. o. July 2'>. 1S65. 
Salter. James, e. Dec. 12. 1K61 ; vet. Feb. 13. l.siU: .lis. by order 
June 20. 1865. 
j Salter, Silas, e. Dec. 12, 1861 ; dis. for disability Sept. 12. 1862. 
i Weist, William F., Dowagiac. e. Oct. 22, 1861 ; dis. for disability 
Nov. 23, 1863. 

, nOMP.4NV H. 

Clampbell. Seth R.. Silver Treek, e. Feb. 2", 1.H65: ni. o. .luly 25, 

Wrisrht, Gilbert. Silver Creek, e. Feb. 27. 1865; m. o, July 25, 

Company E. 
Sergt. Joel Cowgill, Calvin, e. March '.I, 1K65; m. o. Sept. 16, 

Musician Charles E. Deal, La Grange ; Co. F; e. March, 

m. 0. Sept. 16, 1M65. 

.Musician Elaui Dacy, La Grange ; Co. F.; e. m. o. 

Sept. 16, 1,S65. 



Company A. 

Beaman, .Marvin D., Penn, e. Feb. 29, 1864 : m. o. July 25, 1865. 

VVoliver, Philauder J., Marcellus, e. Dec. .^, IW,'. ; Corp; in. o. 

Wail, Byron. Jellerso 
ville, Ky., July 

of disease at L( 

Company B. 
Austin. Harvey H., e. Nov. 25, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 4. 1864. 
Cope, Jacob, e. Oct. 5, 1861 ; dis. at end of service. 
Eaton, -\bner, e. Dec. 18, l!S6l ; dis. for disability .Ian. 10, 1863. 
Garner, Henry, I'orter, e. Nov. 28, isr.l ; vet. .(an. 4. I8i'.4: m. o. 

July 18, 1865. 
.Moore, Jared C, m. o. .luly 18. 1S65. 
Morse, Albert J., e. Jan. 2, 1862; vet. Jan. 4, 1864 : m o July 

18. 1865. 
Stewart, Jiuiiea A., vet. Jan. 4, 1864; m o July 18, 1865 

Blood, Charles H. Voliua, e. Feb. 26, 1864 ; m. o. July 25, 1865. 
Blood, George A., Volinia, e. Jan. 2, 186'J ; vet. Jan. IS, 1864; 

m. o. July 25, 1865. 
liailey, William S., Porter, e. Dec. 13, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 18, 1864 ; 

m. 0. July 25, 1865. 
11 aefner, Christian G., Volinia, e. Feb. 27, 1864: m. o. July 25 

Jaciuays, Smith C, Volinia, Feb. 26, 1864 ; ilied of disease al 

Philadelphia, .May 20, 1865. 
Johnson, Heniy .\l., Porter, e. Dec. 13, 1861 ; .lied of liisease al 

Danville, Ky.. Nov. 2(1. 1862. 

Company K. 
Brown, William H., Pokagon, e. Feb. 2'.l, 1864 ; m. o. 
Caldwell, William W., Pokagon, e. Oct. 22, 1861 ; vet. Jan Is 

1864: m. o. July 25, 1865. 
Crego, Hilance J., Pokagon, e. Oct. 22, 1861 ; .1 

16, 1863. 
Fluallen, Simon K., Corp Sergt., e. Gel. 22, 1861 ; vei. Jan. 18, 

1864; m. o. July 25, 1865. 
llazeii, Charles, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 27, 1861; dis, for disability 

Sept. 20. 1862. 
lIuDgerford, Calvin A., Dowagiac. e. Oct. 22, 1861 ; vet. Jan. Is, 

1864; m. o. July 25. 1,S65. 
Iliingerford, Mason, Dowagiac. e. Oct. 22, 18(;i ; m. o. al end of 

service Jan 1(>, 18(i5. 
Ilutson. Edward R.. Dowagiac, e. Oct. 22. 1861 ; vet. Jan. Is, 

1864; m. 0. July 25, 1865. 
Kegley. William, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 22, 1861 ; vet, Jan. 18, 1864; 

m. 0. July 26, 1865. 
Lewis. Ephraiui, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 22. 1.861 ; vet. Jan. 18. 1864; 

m. o July 26, 1865. 

Calkins. I'liomas J., Porter, e. Sept. 27, 1864 ; m. o July IS, 1865. 

Company F. 
Wilson, John, m. o. .luly 18, 1865, 
Zimmerman. Michael, Porter, e. Sept. 27, 1865; mo July 18. 1865 

Company 1. 
Rogers, (jeorge. Porter, e. Sept. 27, 1864; m. o. July 18. 1865. 

Company A., Alonzo, Porter, e. .Sept. 27, 1864; .lis. by or.ler May SH, 

Company H. 
ler April B„el, Leon, Volinia, e. May 27, 1865: m. o, Aug. 13, 18C5, 

Leiti, Joel B, .Marcellus, e. Oct. 22, 1864; died of disease al 
Jan. 18, Alexandria, Va., June 3, 1805. 

Mowry, Jacob, Marcellus, e. Oct. 22, 1864; .lis. by or.ler Sept. 
11, 1865. 

Company C. 

Mice, John, Volinia, e. March 18, 1865; m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Park, .John, (Mvin, e, Nov, ;{0, 1864; dis, by order Aug. 2, 1866. 
Parsons, E/.ra, Calvin, e. Oct. 22, 1864; m, o. Aug. 13. 1865. 
Kacey, Robert, Milt.ui, e, Oct. 22, 1864; dis. by or.ler June 25. 

Sampson, .lolin, Calvin, Ocl. 21, 1864; m. o. Aug. 13, 1865 

Id. 22, 1864, m. o. Aug. LI, 1865. 
March 18, 1866; mo. Aug. 13, 1865, 


Dunn, Anson L., Newberg, e. Nov. 4, 1861 ; ra. o. Aug. 13. 1865. 
Wagner, John, Calvin, e. Dec. 5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 13, 186-5. 

Company E. 
Descartes, Peler, (lis. at end of service Jan. 28, 1865. 
De Witt, James, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 23, 1861 ; dis. for disabilily 

May 19, 1862. 
Doherty, Charles, dis. at end of service Jan. 28, 1805. 
Ducat, Duffy, dis. by order July 21, 1865. 
Gee, Alexander, m. o. Aug. 9, 1865. 
Girirdin, Richard, dis. by order Sept. 9, 1865. 
Greenwood, Anthony, dis. for disability July 9, 1802. 
Johnson, Fred., Dowagiac, e. Dec 21, 18C1; vel. Jan. 25, 18i!4; 

dis. by order Aug. 5, 1805. 
KfUy, John, m. o. Aug. 1?., 1865. 
Liltlejohn, William, dis. for disability Aug. 3, 1802. 
Logan, John, dis. for disability Aug. 3, 1802. 
McTaggart, Archibald, dis. for disability Aug. 3, 18o2. 
Nephew, Anthony, dis. foi disability Aug. 11, 1802. 
Nye, Theo., dis. at end of service Jan. 28, 18ri5. 
Walustrand, Julius, Marcelliis, e. Oct. 22, 1804: m. o. Aug. 13, 


Company G. 
East. Alva, Porter, e. Oct. 10, 1804: died of disease at Baltimore. 

Md., Feb. 21, 1805. 

Company H. 
Harder, James E.. Howard, e. March 18, 1805: m. o. .\ug. 13, 

Honeywell, Newell, Howard, e. Oct. 6, 1804; m. o. Aug. 13, 1805. 
Howard, John F., Howard, e. .April 1, 1805; m. o. Aug. 13,1805. 
Hudson, William, Howard, e. April 1, 1805; m. o. Aug. 13, 1805. 
.lohnson, John S., m. o. Aug. 13, 1805. 
Koot, John W., V.iliniv, e. March 18, 1865; dis. by order Sept 20, 


Company I. 
Bell, Edward 15., e. Feb. 5, 1802 ; .lied of .lisease at Griffith's 

Landing, Miss.. Oct. 3, 1803. 
Joslin, Hiram, Newhurg, e. Feh. 10, 1802; di^. for di^^ahilily Aug. 

25, 1802. 


Hogeboom, Cornelius 1'.. m. o. .\ug. 13, 1805. 

Company C. 
Kapp. George. Volinia. e. Jan.. isi;'); m. n. Julys. l,si;5. 

Company K. 
I'rebanisky. Frank, Volinia. e. March 30. I8i;-. ; ra. o. July s. I.S05. 

Company B. 
Hick. William M.. Howard, e. July 2. 1802; m. o. June 3. 1,S05. 
Doau. Tlionms R., Howard, e. .\ug. 3. 1802; killed on Mis.sissippi 

River by explosion .\pril 28. 1805. 
Earl. Levi F.. Howard, e. Aug. 2, 1802. 
Foote. John M.. Howard, e. Aug. 5. 1802; transferred to Vel. Res. 

I'orps Dec. 15. 1803. 
Harder. Tunis J.. Howard, c. Aug. 5. 180 >; m. o. June 3. 1,805. 
Kenyon. Varnum. Howard, e. Aug. 0, 18(;2; ilied of disease at 

Fredericksburg. Va.. Feb. 5. 1803. 
Kenyon. Jesse .\.. Howard, e. Aug. 0. 1.SI12; died of woumls at 

Washington Dec. 10. 1802. 
.Schell. (ieorge I* Ktnv>(rd. *• Aui^ 1 ls<;2: di* by oriler June 

10. 1805. 

Taylor. Fred. Howard, e. .Vug. 7. Isi;2; dis. for disability Dec. s, 

Company A. 
Bowen. Henry H., Porter, e. Feb.'27, 1805; m. o. June 30, 1805. 
Goldsmith, Henry, Porter, e. Feb. 27, 1805: m. o. June 30, l.Hi;5. 
Hunt, Henry H., Porter, e. March 9. 1805; m. o. June 30. 180.5. 
Luhbow, William, Porter, e. March 7, 181)5; m. o. June 30, 1805. 
Powers. William, Porier. e. March 1, 1805; m. o. June 3(», 1805. 
Preston. Winfield S.. Porter, e. March 5. 1805; m. o. June 30, 

Rinehart. Nathan, Porter, e. Feb. 27. 1S05: m. o. .lunc 30, 1805. 
Stearns. Warren S., Porier. e. Feb. 27. l-iio; m. o. .lune 30. 1805. 
Stnry. Milton, Porier, e. Feb. 27, 1805; m. o. June 30, 1S05. 
Slory, William A.. Porier, e. Feb. 27, 1805; m. o. June 30, 1805. 
Sloul. Stephen S., Porier, e. March 9. ]8r,5 ; m. o. June 30. 1805. 
Sutton. John W., Porter, e. Feb. 28, 1805; m. o. June 30, 1805. 
Sulton, Joshua L., Porter, e. Feb. 27, 1805; m. o. June 30. 1865. 
Weaver. William H., .Milton, e. March 15, 1805; m. o. June 30. 

Williams, Charles H.. Porter, e. Feb. 27, 1805; m. o. June .30, 


Company B. 
Bell, John P., Milioii. e. Aug. 25, 1804; ra. o. .lune 30. 1805. 

Avery. Charles, Porier, e. March 5. 1805; m. o. June 30. 1805. 
Calkins, Henry H.. Porier, e. Feb. 21, 1805; m. o. June 30. lsi,5. 
Hilton. Hiram, Porter, e. Feb. 27, 1805; ni. o. .lune 30, ISO.", 
Jessup, A. H.. Porter, m. o. June 30. 1805. 
Kyle. J. C, Porter, ra. o. June 30. 1805. 
Kyle. A. R., Porier. ra. o. June 30. 1805. 

Company E. 

Averill, Pliny T., Penn. e. March 10, 1865; m. o. June 30, 1805. 

Hlanchard. Bradford. Pokagon. e. .March 7. 1805; m. o. June 30, 

Curtis. George, Ontwa, e. Sept. 5. 1804; died of disease al Chi- 
cago, 111., March 15. 1865, 

Kenyon. Hiram. Pokagon. e. March 10. 1805 ; m. o. June 30. 1805. 

.McKinstry, Charles. Pokagon, e. March 7, 1805; m. o. June 30. 
1 805. 

Parker. Augustus N., Pokagon. e. March 13. 1805; ra o. June 
30. 1865. 

Parker, William H.. Pokagon. e. March 7. 1805: m o, June 30, 

Penrod, Nathan. Penn. e. March 10. 1805; m. o. June 30. IS05. 

Steinbeck, Morgan. .Milton, c Aug. Hi. 1804; in. o, .lune :.0 

Wilherell. Diiane, Poka£on, e. March 7. 1805 : m. o. June 30, I8i;5. 

Van Tuyl. George 

June 30. 180: 

Company H. 
Hodges. Benjamin. Penn. e. March 10, 1805; ra. o. June 30. 180. 
Re I. John, Penn, e. March 10. 1805; m. o. June 30, 1805. 
Share. Edwin. Milton, e. .8i-pt. 12. ISOl: m. n. June 30. 18i;5. 


Ames, Bela, m. o. June 30. 1805. 

Meacham. Oliver (1.. Porier. e. Feb. 27, 1805; ra. o. Jii 

June 30, 1865 



Rceil. Dtis. m. o. June 30, I860. 

Reese, John M.. MiUon, e. Aug. 24, 1864; m. o. June 30, 1865. 

Company D. 
Sergl. Amos \V. Poorman, Maroellus, e. Aug. 9, 18112; (lied of dis- 
ease at Nivsliville, Tenn., June 13, 1864. 
Corp. Roswell Beebe, Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 1802; killed at 
Tebbs' Bend, Ky., July 4, 18il3. 


Babe, Bruce, Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 18(;2; m. 0. June 24, 1865. 
Musician Joseph Beck, Newberg, e. Aug. 16, 18G2 ; ni. o. June 

24, 1865. 
Musician Samuel P. Beck, Newberg, e. Aug. 15, 1862 ; dis. for 

disability Jan. 6, 1863. 
Beebe, Gideon, Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 1862; dis. for disability 

March 4, 1865. 
Butler,- Ransom L., Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 1862; dis. by order 

■July 26, 1863. 
Kent, Daniel, Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 1862; dis. by onler March 

19, 1863. 
McKibby, Daniel, Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 1862; m. o. June 24, 

Messenger, Edward, Marcellus, e. .\ug. 11, 1864; dis. for dis 

ability Feb. 5, 1863. 
Nottingham, Horace M., Marcellus, e. Aug. 8, 18152; m. o. 
Nottingham, Oscar H., Marcellus, e. Aug. 8, 1862; died of dis- 
ease at Bowling Green, Ky., March 14, 1863. 
Poorman, John A., Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 1862; m. 0. June 24, 

Root, Jacob, Marcellus. e. Aug. 12, 1862; m. 0. June 24, 1865. 
Shears, Martin V., Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 1862; m 0. June 24, 

Shoemaker, Samuel, Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 1862; m. 0. June 28, 

Taylor, Charles A., Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 1865; m. o. June 24, 

Taylor, Timothy A., Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 1865; m. 0. May 13, 

Young, Simon, .Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 1865; trans, to Vet. Res. 

Corps Feb. 15, 1864. 

Company E. 
Bristol, Luther, Milton, e. Sept. 6, 1864; m. 0. June 24, lSi;5. 

Bows, William, Newberg, e. Aug. 21, 1.S62 : trans, to Vet. Res. 
Corps June 9, 1865. 

Benman, William II., Newberg, e. Aug. 22, 1862 ; m. 0. June 24 

Bennett, John J., Porter, e. Aug. 12, 1862 ; m. o June 24, 1865. 

Bird, William, Newberg, e. Aug. 21, 1862; m. 0. June 24, 1865. 

Cook, Orlan P., Newberg, e. Aug. 22, 1862; dis. for disability 
Sept. 23, 1863. 

Crump, William, Marcellus, e. Aug. 22, 1862 ; died of disease at 
Lebanon, Ky., April 24, 1863. 

Kenney, Fernando, Newberg, e. Aug. 22, 1862; m. 0. June 24; 

Neumann, Louis, Newburg, e. Aug. 13, 1862; m. 0. June 24, 1865. 

Stickney, Sidney M., Marcellus, e. Aug. 22, 1862; died of dis- 
ease at Louisville, Ky., Oct. 30, 1862. 



Lieut. Col. George T. Shaffer, Calvin, com. Dec. 10, 1864: Maj. 

com. Aug. 15, 1864. 
Brevet Col. and Brevet Brig. Gen. S. S. Volunteers, March 13, 

1866 ; for gallant and veritorious services at battles before 

Atlanta, Ga., and at Wise Fork, N. C. ; m. 0. June 5, 1866. 
Surg. Alonzo Garwood, Casaopolis, com. Aug. 15, 1864 ; m. 0. 

June 6, 1866. 

Company A, 
Sergt. Thomas J. Baunder, Voliuia, e. Sept. 1, 1864 ; m. o. June 

7, 1865. 
Schooley, Henry, Voliuia, e Sept. 8, 1864; m. 0. June 5, 1866. 

Company E. 
Avery, David C, Voliuia, c. Sept. 7. 1864 ; m. o. May 4, 1865. 
Baird, John, Howard, e. Oct. 18, 1864; m. 0. June 5, 1866. 
Baird, William S., Howard, e. Oct. 17, 1864 ; m. 0. June 5, 1866. 
Davis, Lowell, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864 ; m. 0. June 7, 1865. 
Emery, Robert, Volinia, e. Sept. 12j 1864; dis. for wounds, June 

30, 1865. 
Pope, Lyman A. m. o. .\ug. 16, 1865. 
Randall, William, MiUon, e. Sept. 3. 1864; m. 0. May 22, 1865. 

Company G. 
Blackman, David R., Volinia, e. Sept. 15, 1864; m. o. June 5, 

Company F. 
Bement, George, Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Bradbury, Benjamin P., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 13, 1H62; died of dis- 
ease at Bedford, Ky., June 7, 186 !. 
Colby, Ira O.. Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 1862; died of disease at Mum- 

fordsviUe, Ky., Jan. 1, 1863. 
Day, Perry U., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 9, 1862; died of wounds at 

Tunnel Hill, Ga., May 12, 1864. 
Goodrich, Levi C, Dowagiac, m. 0. June 24, 1865. 
Hastings, Justus H , Ontwa, e. Aug. 11, 1862; m. 0. June 24, 

Loux, Edwin G., Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Mcars, John, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 11, 1862; trans, to Vet. Res. 

Corps Feb. 15, 1864. 
Meredith, Nathaniel, Onlwa, e. Aug. 13,1862; m. 0. June 14, 

McFaren, Henry, Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 1862; m. 0. June 24, 1865. 
Nioletl, William E., Ontwa, e. Aug. 19, 1862 ; m. 0. June 24, 1865. 
Kozelle, Joshua C, Ontwa; e. Aug. 13, 1862 ; died of disease at 

Bowling Green, Ky., Feb. 2'i. 1863. 

Delong, Henry, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; m. 0. June 5, 1866. 
Hill, Charles A., Jefferson, e. Sept. 29, 1864; m. 0. May 31, 

Nichols, Tyler, Volinia, e. Sept. 5, 1861 ; m. 0. June 19, 1865. 

Company H. 
Bates, Buel H., Penn, e. Aug. 22, 1864; m. 0. May 29, 1865. 
Bogert Cornelius, Penn, e. Aug. 20, 1864; dis. by order May 27, 

Clcndenning, H. M. T., Penn, e. Aug. 10, 1864; m. 0. June 8, 

Deacon, Isaac, Volinia, Sept. 20, 1864; m. 0. June 5, 1866. 
Kinney, Nelson, Corp., Penn, e. Aug. 20,1864; m. 0. June 5, 

North, Nathaniel, La Grange, e. Aug. 30, 1864; died of disease 

at Charlotte, N. C, June 7, 1865. 
North, Norman, La Grange, e. Aug. 30, 1864; m. o. June 6, 

Patterson, James, 2d Lieut., Penn, e. Aug. 23, 1864; died of 

disease at Alexamlria, Va., Feb. 21, 1865. 



Pemberton, Nathan, Peuu, e. Aug. 28, 1864; m. o. June o, 18(56. 

Robinson, Edmund, died of disease at Davids Island, N. Y., 
April 16, 1865. 

Tappan, William E., Penn, e. Aug. 29, 1864 ; died of disease at 
Alexandria, Va., Feb. 4, 1865. 

Trill, George, Pokagon, e. Sept. 1, 1804; died of disease at Alex- 
andria, Va., Feb. 12, 1865. 

Company I. 
Bryant, James, Milton, e. Sept. 16, 1864; m. o. June, 5, 1866. 
Freeman. Miles, Howard, Oct. 18, 1864; m. o. May 30, 1865. 
Mitchell, Alonzo J., Milton, e Sept. 14, 1864 ; m. o. Jan. 9, 


Harris, Benjamin S., Poltagon, e. Feb. 10, 1805 ; m. o. May 30, 

Smilh, Carlton, Pokagon, e. Feb. 16, 1805; m. o. Feb. 19, I860. 

Company H. 
Harwood, Henry W., Ontwa, e. Dec. 2, 1864; m. o. June 30, 

Harwood, Jacob W.. Jefferson, e. Dec. 6, 1864; m, o. June 30, 

Hirons, Oliver C, Jefferson, e. Dec. 2, 1864 ; ni. o June 30, 1865. 
Massey, Robert D., Sergt., Ontwa, e. Nov. 28, 1864; m. o. June 

30, 1865. 
Massey, Peter, Corp., Ontwa, e. No. 28, 1864; m. o. June 30, 

Shaw. Edwin O., Corp., Ontwa, e. Nov. 30, 1864; m o. June 30, 

Smith, Frank A., Corp., Ontwa, e. Dec. 2, 1864 ; m. o. June 30, 



Company B. 

Allen, Nathan S.. Penn, e. Aug. 19, 1864 ; m. o. July 28, 1865. 

Company E. 
Second Lieut. Winfield S. Shanahan, Cassopolis, March 7, 1865; 
Corp. March 6, 1863 ; m. o. July 28, 1865. 

Company I. 
Beach, Myron W., Volinia, e. Sept. 7, 1863; dis. for disability. 
Bedford, William, Pokagon, e. Aug. 3, 1863; m. o. July 28. 1865. 
Fessenden, Clement, Volinia, e. Sept. 21, 1863; dis. for disability 

April 7, 1865. 
George, David L., Silver Creek, e. Aug. 25, 1863 ; died of wounds 

received at Wilderness May 6, 1864. 
Huff, Asher Silver Creek, e. Aug. 24, 1863 ; dis. by order Deo. 

28, 1864. 
Huff, Isaac, Volinia, e. Sept. 7, 1803 ; missing in action before 

Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. 
Nash, Charles, Volinia, e. Sept. 21, 1803; m. o. July 28, 1805. 
Nash, Theodore, Volinia, e. Sept. 21, 1863 ; died near Petersburg, 

Va., June 20, 1804. 
Waterman, Charles, Silver Creek, e. July 28, 1803; died near 

Petersburg, Va., June 28, 1864. 

Company K. 
Johns, Dftvid, La Grange, e. Jan. 27, 1865; m. o. July 28, 1865. 


Bibbins, Charles, Ontwa, e. April 13, 1863; missing in action 

at Cold Harbor June 12, 1864. 
Nichols, Alexander, Ontwa, e. April 12, 1863 ; m. o. July 25, 

Wyant, George, Ontwa, e. March 6, 1863 ; m. o. Aug. 7, 1865. 

Company F. 
Reigar, Daniel H., Sergt., Ontwa, e. May 4, 1803; m. o. July 28, 

Company G. 
Jackson, Henry H., Pokagon, e. Aug. 12. 1863 ; died of disease 

at Chicago, 111., Oct. 3, 1863. 
McNeil, William B., Ontwa, e. Aug. 12, 1863 ; dis. for disability 

March 9.2, 1864. 
Smith, Wight D., Dowagiao, e. July 4, 1863 ; m. o. July 28, 1865. 

Company H. 
Northrop, William B , (Mvin, e. Feb. 26, 1864; died of wounds in 

General Hospital. 
Northrop, Marion A., Penn, e. Feb. 20, 1864 ; died of disease at 

Chicago, III., April 17, 1864. 

Company A. 
Hood, Philander, Pokagon, e. Aug. 17, 1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 


Company B. 
Alexander, Jacob, Howard, e. Oct. 1, 1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1805. 
Brown, John, Calvin, e. Oct. 20, 1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Brown, Stuart, Calvin, e. Oct. 20, 1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Butcher, David, Calvin, e. Oct. 21. 1863; m. o Sept. 30, 1865. 
Callaway, Giles, Porter, e. Oct. 21, 1863 ; m. o Sept. 30, 1865. 
Coker, James, Calvin, e. Oct. 10, 1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Coker, Michael, Calvin, e. Oct. 18, 1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1805. 
Curtis, George H , Calvin, e. Dec. 4, 1863; m o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Dungie, John, Calvin, e. Oct. 7, 1803; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Gibbins, William, Jefferson, e. Aug. 24, 1804 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 

Harris, Charles W., Howard, e. Oct. 1, 

Hawley, William, Calvin, e. Oct. 22, 1803 

26, 1804. 
Howard, William, Calvin, e. Oct. 5, 1864 ; 
Limus, John. Pokagon, e. Oct. 10, 1863 ; ; 
Little, Stewart, Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; 
Mathews, Allison L., Calvin, e. Sept. 23 

at Orangeburg, S. C, Aug. 6, 1865. 
Newman, William H , Calvin, e. Oct. 7, 1863 ; m. 

Seton, Joseph, La Grange, e. Oct. 18, 1803 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1805. 
Stewart, George W., Calvin, e. Nov. 20, 1863 ; died of disease at 

Beaufort, S. C, July 27, 1864. 
Stewart, James M., Calvin, e. Oct. 18, 1863 ; 
Stewart, John T., Calvin, e. Oct. 21, 1863 ; 
Wade, Berry, Corp., Calvin, e. Oct. 7, 1863 

Beaufort, S. ('., Aug. 22, 1864. 
Williams, George W., Calvin, e. Oct. 21, 1863 ; died of disease at 

Columbia, S. ('.Aug. 12, lf<65. 
Wood, John W., Calvin, e. Oct. 19, 1863 ; m. 0. Sept. 30, 1865. 

1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 

dis. for disability May 

m. 0. Sept. 30, 1865. 
n. 0. Sept. 30, 1865. 
m. 0. Sept. 30, 1865. 
1864; died of disease 

Sept. 30, 

m. 0. Sept. 30, 1865. 
1, 0. Sept. 30, 1865. 
died of disease at 

Company ('. 
Ford, William, La Grange, e. Feb. 17, 1865 
Hill, Dennis R., Howard, e. Oct. 1, 186^; 
Redman, Willis, Howard, e Oct. 1, 1864; 
Wallace, James H., Ontwa, e. Sept. 5, 1864 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Wilson, Nathaniel, Calvin, e. Oc(. 18, 1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1805. 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
0. Sept. 30, 1865. 
0. Sept. 30, 1805. 


Company D. 
Artis, George, Calvin, e. Nov. 5, 1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Barrister, Guatavus, Howard, e. Oct. 1, 1864; m. o, Sept. 30, 

Calloway, Creed, Porter, e. Nov. 18, 1863; m. o. Sept. 80, 1865. 
Hunt, Jordan P., Calvin, e. Oct. 23, 1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Mattock, Henry, Pokagon, e. Feb. 16, 1865 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Simons, William H., Calvin, e. Nov. 17, 1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 


Vaughn, James, Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1.S65. 

Company F. 
Brown, John, Howaid, e. Dec. 19, 1863; died (if disease Jan. IT, 

Bowden, John, La Grange, e. Nov. 28, 1803 ; died of disease at 

Beaufort, S. C, Nov. 14, 1864. 
Boyd, Anderson, Howard, e. Dec. 12, 1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 

Conner, William F., Sergt., Penn, e. Dec. 11, 1863; m. o. Sept. 

30, 1865. 
Dungil, Wright, Penn. e. Aug. 22, 1864 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Ford, Edward, Milton, e.; died of disease at Beaufort, S. C, Jan. 

14, 1865. 
Harrison, Milford, Howard, e. Dec. 12, 1803; m. o. Sept. 30, 

Hays, Arick, Penn, e. Aug. 24. 1864 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Hays, William H., Calvin, e. Oct. 4, 1864; absent sick at m. o. 
Henry, Martin V . Penn, e. Dec. 2, 1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Hill, Anthony, Pe-n., e. Sept 1, 1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Howard, Ezekiel, Porter.e. Oct. 3, 1864 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Lett, Zach.,Corp. Penn. e. Dec. 14, 1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Mathews. Henry A., La Grange, e. Sept. 5, 1864 ; m o. Sept. 

Plowden, William P., Howard, 


0. Sept. 30, 

Kamsay, Joseph, Penn, e. Dec. 11. 1803; m. o. Sept. .30, 1805. 
Roberts, John, Penn, e. Aug. 18, 1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Van Dyke, Lewis, Sergt., Penn, e. Dec. 11. 1803; m. o. Sept. 30, 


Ashe, Joseph C, Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1804 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865- 
Bricey. George, Howard, e. Dec. 19, 1803; dis. for disability May 

26, 1864. 
Boyd, Lawson, Calvin, e. Dec. 29, 1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1805. 
Bird, James M., Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1804 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1806. 
Bird, Turner, Calvin, e. Sept 23, 18t;4 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Farrar, Alfred, Corp., e. Dec. 21, 1803; absent sick at ra. o. 
Heathcock, Bartlett, Porter, e. Dec. 29, 1803; died of disease 

in Michigan April 5, 1864. 
Heathcock, Berry, Porter, e. Dec. 29. 1863; dis. for disability 

May 28, 1866. 
Hill, Jackson, Penn, e. Sept. 1, 1864 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1805. 
Huston, John. Silver Creek, e. Dec. 26, 1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 

Jefferson, Thomas, Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 1803; m. o. Sept. 30, 

Lawrence, Alfred, Howard, e. Dec 12, 1803 ; m. o Sept. 31), 1865. 
Russell, Henderson, Pokagan. e. Dec. 30, 1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 

Russell, Jacob, Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 1863; dia. for ilisability 

June 8, 1865. 
Russell, John, Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 1863; dis. for woumls June 

8, 1865. 
Stewart, John £., Calvin, e. Feb. 28, 1864 ; m. o. Sept. 30. 1866. 
Stewart, Sylvester, Ontwa, e. Dec. 28, 1863; dis. for disability 

May 30, 1865. 
Thornton, Henry, Calvin, e. Sept. 29, 1864 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Windburn, George, Howard, e. Sept. 23, 1864 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 

Wines, Ebenezer, Howard, e. Sept. 23, 1864 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Company H. 
Corp. Aquilla R. Corey, Howard, e. Dec. 24, 1804 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 


Cousins, Ely, Porter, e. Dec. 26, 1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Cousins, David, Penn. e. Dec. 4. 1863 ; absent sick. 

Dorsey, James W., Howard, e. Dec. 24, 1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 

Gibson, Marquis, Penn, e. Aug. 19, 1864 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1866. 
Griffin, Solomon, Penn, e. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Hill, Allen, Penn, e. Sept. 1, 1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1866. 
Sanders, Peter, Porter, e. Dec. 9, 1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
White, Henry, Calvin, e. Dec. 13, 1K63; died of disease at Beau- 
fort, S. C, Aug. 7, 1804. 
While, Wright, Li Grange, e. Feb. 17, 1865; m. o. Sept. 30, 1805. 
Washington, George, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 18, 1863 ; m. o. Sept. 

30, 1865. 
Sergt. James Wheeler, Wayne, e. Dec. 29, 1803 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 


Company I. 
Anderson, Amos, Porter, e. Sept. 17, 1864; m. o. Sept. .30, 1865. 
Anderson, Jefferson B., Porter, e. Jan. 11, 1804; m. o. Sept. 30, 

Gillan, Andrew, La Grange, e. Dec. 31, 1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 

Morton, Henry, Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1805. 
Sharpe, Joseph, Silver Creek, e. March 16, 1865 ; dis. by order 

Oct. 28, 1866. 
Wilson, Joel, Howard, e. Dec. 24, 1803 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Company K. 
Sergt. Abner R." Bird, Calvin, e. Jan. 10, 1804; m. o. Sept. 30, 

Harris, William, Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1804 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1805. 
Murphy, Percival, Calvin, e. Jan. 16, 1864; dis. by order Nov. 

13, 1865. 
Stafford, James K., Porter, e. Aug. 24, 1801 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1806. 
Talbot, William H., Porter, e. Oct. 5, 1804 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Wilson, Giles B., Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1805. 


(Company C. 

Dickerson, Albert, died of disease at Louisville. Ky.. Feb. 24, 1804. 

Peachey, Aaron, Marcellus, e. Aug. 23. 1804; died of disease at 

Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 21. 1804. 

Company D. 
Gaines. Franklin. Pokagon, e. Dec. 29. 1803; m. o. Sept. 22, 1805. 
Little, John H., Mircellu^, e. Aug. 23, 1804; dis. by order June 
li, 1806. 

Company F. 
Williams, Isaac N.. Penn, e. Aug. 21, 1804 ; dis. by order June 0, 

Company G. 
Cramplon, Abel, Pokagon, e. Dec. 16, 1808; m. o. Sept. 22, 1805' 
Gait, Freeman H.. Pokagon, e. Deo. 15. 1803; died of disease at 

Ringoold, Ga., Aug. 6. 1804. 
Rogers. Lucius, Ontwa, e. Jan. 4. 180.4 ; dis. by order June 0, 

Stanley, James S., Ontwa, e. Jan. 4, 1S04; ra. o. Sept. 22, 1806. 
Van Tassell, David, Ontwa. e. Jan. 4. 1804; died of disease Feb, 
10, 1804. 


Cu,M£-ANi- K. 

Isham. William, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 21, 1803; m, o. Sept, 22, 

White, William It., Silver Creek, m, o. Sept, 22, 18i;.5. 

Mershon, Andrew, dis. by order July 2, 1863, 

Company K. 

Fir.^t Lieut. Charles W. Thorp, Nicholasville, Nov. 27, 1803 ; Sec- 
ond Lieut. Oct, II, 1862; Corp., Aug 12, 1861; dis. for dis- 
ability May 24, 1864. 

Christie, Walter T., Marcellus; die I of wounds at Washinglon, 
D. C., May 12, 1863. 

Goodspeed, Edwin C, 

Beebe, George S. 

McClelland, William. 

Thoop, Sylvester A. 

Company I. 

Lieut. William Stesart, Sept. 1, 1802; m, o, at end of service at 
end of war, Jan. 1, 1865. 

Corp, Samuel Inling, Newberg, e. Sept, 1, 1802; trans, to 5th 
Mich. Inft.; m o. 

Company U. 
Beekwith, Henry L . e. Feb. 22 1864; vet. recruit; m. o. July 
7, 1865. 


Company H. 
Graham, S. J., Mason, e. April, 1861 ; dis. for disability 1861. 


Company E. 
Graham, Sidney J., Mason, re-enl. Sept., 1861 ; vet. Feb. 1864 ; m. 

o. May 20, 1865 ; wounded in left arm at Rocky Ridge, May 

9, 1865. 

Company F. 
Williams, Henry, Mason. 


Tompkins, Newberg. 

Graham, Sidney J , e. April 17, 1861, in Co. H ; re-e. in (.'o 
E, 49th Ohio Vol. Inft. (See above). 


Its Organization— Constitution and ii.v-Laws— Annual Picnics— List of 
Olflcers from 1873 to 1881 Inclusive— An Incident of the Meeting of 
18«1— Roster of Members— Age, Nativity and Date of .Settlement— 
I'Mourishini; Condition of the Society. 

WE make no apology for presenting a very full 
history of the Cass County Pioneer Society. 
Very nearly 600 names have been subscribed to its 
constitution, and we say no more than what is obvious 
to every reader when we state that its membership 

exceeds, by a considerable number, that of any organ- 
ization in the county. It is moreover the largest and 
most flourishing pioneer society in the State of Mich- 
igan, and the interest which is felt in its affairs is 
attested by the immensity of the attendance at the 
annual re-union picnics. 

The society was organized on the 9th of October, 
1873, at a meeting, held in Cassopolis pursuant to 
call, at which about 200 persons were present. This 
was a large attendance, and indicated quite a remark- 
able degree of interest. Over seventy pioneers put in 
an appearance at the morning session. Hon. George 
Newton, of Volinia, was made temporary Chairman, 
and Hon. A. B. Copley, of the same Township, was 
chosen as Secretary. Joseph Smith, of La Grange, 
moved the appointment of a committee, consisting of 
one gentleman from each township, to report on rules 
of organization and order of business, and the follow- 
ing were elected, viz. : A. B. Copley, of Volinia; 
P. B. White, of Wayne ; J. A. Ruddick, of Silver 
Creek ; Uzziel Putnam, Sr., of Pokagon ; Joseph 
Smith, of La Grange ; John Nixon, of Penn ^ B. F. 
Rudd, of Penn ; George Meacham, of Porter ; Amos 
Northrup, of Calvin ; George B. Turner, of Jefferson ; 
Joseph L. Jacks, of Ontwa and David R. Stevens, of 
Mason. The Townships of Marcellus, Milton and 
Howard were not represented. In the afternoon, when 
the attendance was increased to 200, the committee 
reported for permanent Chairman Uzziel Putnam, Sr., 
of Pokagon (the first white settler of the county) and 
for Secretaries C. C. Allison and William H. Mans- 
field. They also recommended that a committee of 
one be appointed from each township, with leave to 
sit during the winter, and adopt a constitution and 
by-laws, which' they should report at a picnic to be 
held in June of the following year, at the fair grounds 
at Cassopolis. Subsequently, this action was amended, 
it being moved that the committee should report 
at an adjourned meeting to be helil four weeks later. 
The following gentlemen were appointed, viz.: Abijah 
j Huyck, of Marcellus ; Reuben Henshaw, of Volinia ; 
P. B. White, of Wayne ; J. A. Ruddick, of Silver 
Creek ; Uzziel Putnam, Jr., of Pokagon ; Daniel S. 
Jones, of La Grange; John Nixon, of Penn ; E. H. 
Jones, of Newburg ; Horace Thompson, of Porter ; 
George T. Shaffer, of Calvin ; George B. Turner, of 
Jefferson ; William H. Doane, of Howard ; William 
H. Olmstead, of Milton ; I. G. Bugbee, of Ontwa ; 
D. R. Stevens, of Mason. A committee was also 
appointed to gather the history of the county, and, 
after some interesting remarks by Uzziel Putnam, Sr., 
in which he related his experience as a pioneer, the 
meeting was adjourned. 

The adjourned nipoting was held November G. The 



committee on organization, appointed at the previous 
meeting, through its Chairman, Hon. George B. 
Turner, reported a constitution, which, after sundry 
amendments had been made, was adopted, as follows: 



The UDiiersigneil, residents of Cass County, being among the 
eiiiliest settlers of Southwestern Michigan, in order to perpetuate 
the facts, circumstances, recollections and anecdotes connected 
with the early settlement of that part of the State, and particu- 
liir y of Cass County, do make and establish this constitution for 
the government of a society this day organized by us, to be called 
•■The Society of the Pioneers " of Cass County, Mich. 

.Article 1. — The officers of this society shall be a Presilent, 
Vice President, Secretary, Assistant Secretary and Treasurer, to 
be elected by ballot at each annual meeting by a majority of the 
members present and voling. 

AiiT. II. — The President shall preside at all meetings of the 
society; countersign all orlersforthe payment of moneys from 
its funds. In case of his absence, or at his request, the Vice 
President shall perform such duties. 

Art. Ill — The Secretary shall have charge of and keep ihe 
records of the society, and shall also keeji the minutes of all 
meetings of Ihe same. 

Art. IV.— All books, papers, documents, mementoes or arti- 
cles illustrating the physical geography of the county oY its state 
and condition prior to 1S40, shall be deposited with the Secretary 
and remain in his keeping until his successor is elected or ap- 
pointed, to whom the same shall be delivered over. 

Art. V. — The Secretary in person or by his assistant, .shall 
keep his books and all things appertaining to his office, at Cass- 
opolis, where only records, articles, or mementoes, deposited for 
the use of the society may be copied or examined by any resident 
of the county, under such rules as the Executive Committee may 
adopt. He shall sign all orders for the payment of moneys from 
Ihe funds of this Society. 

.Vht. VI. — The Treasurer shall receive all moneys paid to or 
for Ihe use of the society, and shall pay out the same only on the 
order of Ihe Secretary, counter.signed by the President. 

Art. VII. — The officers and committee elected under the con- 
stitution sliall hold their respective offices until the firs' annual 
meeting of the society, which shall be held on the third Wednes- 
day of June, 1X74. 

Art. VIII. — An Executive Committee, consisting of one from 
eai-li township, shall be elected annually (viva voce), by a major- 
iiyofthe members present and voting, and the President and 
Secretary of this organization shall be ex officio members of said 
Executive Committee. 

Art. IX. — The Executive Committee or a majority of those 
present shall h.ave power to make such by daws rules and regula- 
tions for the convenience and government of the Society as they 
may deem proper, not inconsistent with this constitution ; and all 
powers necessary to carry out the objects of this society, not 
delegated to other officers named, may he exercised by the Execu- 
tive Committee. 

.Vrt. X. — All members of the Society who came into or resided 
in (^888 County prior to 1840, shall be deemed " Pioneers of Cnss 

Art. XI.* — Every person (male or female), residing in this 
county prior to 18.'>0, may become members of this society by 
subscribing to this constitution, and the payment of 25 cents, 
either in person or by proxy, and every person so becoming a 
member shall be deemed a voter, and be entitled to all the privi- 

ciirrcd Id the article. 

tity ■ 

leges of the society, and that hereafter all persons having resided 
in Ihe county twenty-five years shall in like manner become 

Art. XII. — A majority of the voters present at an annual 
meeting may alter or amend this constitution, notice thereof to be 
filed with the Secretary six weeks prior to said annual meeting. 

Under this constitution, and upon the same day it 
was adopted, the first officers of the society were elected 
as follows: President, Uzziel Putnam, Sr. ; Vice 
President, George Meacham ; Secretary, A. B. Cop- 
ley ; Assistant Secretary, John Tietsort ; Treasurer, 
Joseph Smith. Executive Committee — Abijah Huyck, 
of Marcellus ; Georgt! Newton, of Volinia ; Philo B. 
White, of Wayne ; Daniel Blish, of Silver Creek ; 
Uzziel Putnam, Jr., of Pokagon ; Daniel S. Jones, 
of La Grange ; William Jones, of Penn. ; J. R. 
Grennell, of Newberg ; Horace Thompsoft, of Porter ; 
George B. Turner, of Jefferson ; William H. Doane, 
of Howard ; Richard V. Hicks, of Milton ; Israel G. 
Bugbee, of Ontwa ; James H. Graham, of Mason ; 
and George T. Shaffer, of Calvin. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee, held on 
January 21, 1874, the following by-laws were 
adopted : 


Article 1. — Elections under this constitution shall be held at 
11 o'clock A. M., on ihe third Wednesday of .June, in each year, 
in the court house at Cassopolis. or some other convenient place 
t ) be designated by the Secretary or his assistant. 

Art. 2. — The Secretary or his assistant shall give receipts for 
all books, documents, relics, or other articles contributed or de- 
posited in the museum of the society. He shall cause to be pub- 
lished in the newspapers at the county seat an acknowledgment of 
such contributions from time to time, and. in connection with the 
Treasurer, make arrangements for a suitable place to deposit all 
colleclionH for the museum, and make out semi-annually, a cata- 
logue of Ihe same for publication. 

Art. 3. — Thi- members of the Executive Committee are severally 
charged, in their respective townships, with procuring and fir- 
warding names for membership, and the fees thereon, to the 
Treasurer ; collecting books, maps, pictures, relics, and all articles 
or things of interest for the museum, and forwarding the same to 
the Secretary. They shall also carefully prepare manuscript 
statements from the early settlers, in their respective towns, in 
regard to the early settlement and progress of Ihe town previous 
10 the year 1840. and report the same to the society at its annual 
meciings in each year. 

Art. 4. — The Executive Committee shall make suitable ar- 
rangements for holding Ihe annual meeting of the Pioneers on the 
third Wednesday of June in each year. They shall arrange for 
taking proper care of Ihe Pioneers from abroad, while attending 
such meetings, procure speakers, take up collections to aid in de- 
fraying the exjienses of the society, if deemed nece,ssary. and 
extend invitations to persons out of the county who have long 
been residents of the State. 

Art. .1 — At the time of Ihe election of officers, the outgoing 
officers shall make their annual reports, and file the same with 
their successors. 

Art. ii — All the laws or regulations necessary for the govern- 
ment of this society shall be made, altered or amended by the 
Executive Commiliec at any regular meeting thereof 

Art. 7. — The Secretary or his assistant, with the Treasurer 



and President, may call a meeting of the Executive Committee 
whenever demanded by the interests of the society. 

Art. 8.— The Execulive Committee shall appoint one female 
assistant in each township to aid them in the discharge of their 

The first festival or picnic of the Pioneer Society 
was held on the fair grounds at Cassopolis on the 17th 
of June, 1874, and was a largely attended and very 
enjoyable affair. Vice President George Meacham 
occupied the chair, the President being indisposed. 
The Cassopolis Band was present, and played enliven- 
ing airs during the day. The substantial pioneer 
dinner was supplemented by a feast of reason and a 
How of soul, and that in turn by the most enjoyable 
social converse. Hon. James Ashley delivered a 
spirited address, and remarks were made by Uzziel 
Putnam, Jr., of Pokagon, Dr. I. G. Bugbee, of Ontwa, 
Hon. George B. Turner and Joseph Smith. 

Officers for the ensuing year were elected viva voce, 
and all of those who had served the preceding year 
were retained. The Executive Committee was consti- 
tuted as follows : Abijah Huyck. of Marcellus ; 
Milton J. Gard, of Volinia ; John S. Gage, of Wayne ; 
William Bilderback, of Silver Creek ; Uzziel Putnam, 
Jr., of Pokagon ; Daniel S. Jones, of La Grange ; 
John Nixon, of Penn ; Edward H. Jones, of New- 
berg; Hiram Meacham, of Porter; George T. Shaffer, 
of Calvin ; Hiram R. Schutt, of Jefferson ; William 
H. Doane, of Howard ; James M. Truitt, of Milton ; 
J. Boyd Thomas, of Ontwa ; David R. Stevens, of 

In 1875, the society had another large picnic meet- 
ing upon the 16th of June, on which occasion the 
chief address of the day was delivered by the late Hon. 
F. J. Littlejohn, of Allegan. An original poem on 
pioneer life, was read by Edwin Barnum, of Paw Paw, 
Van Buren County, and short addresses made by E. 
0. Briggs, of the same place ; by George B. Turner ; 
J. R. Monroe, President of the Van Buren County 
Society, and others. Many interesting relics were 
exhibited, and many reminiscences related. 

The officers elected this year were : President, 
Uzziel Putnam, Sr. ; Vice President, John Nixon ; 
Treasurer, Asa Kingsbury ; Secretary, John T. Enos ; 
Assistant Secretary, W. H. Mansfield ; Executive 
Committee — John C. Bradt, Marcellus ; R. Henshaw, 
Volinia ; L. Atwood, Wayne ; John Swisher, Silver 
Creek ; Joseph E. Garwood, Pokagon ; G. B. Turner, 
La Grange ; J. E. Bonine, Penn ; Anson L. Dunn, 
Newberg ; Harvey Hitchcock, Porter; Beniah Tharp, 
Calvin ; James Loman, Sr., Jefferson ; E. C. Smith, 
Howard ; U. Enos, Milton ; M. H. Lee, Ontwa ; 
J. H. Burns, Mason. 

In 1876, the pioneers were addressed by the late 
Hon. John J. Bagley, then Governor of Michigan. 

who delivered a very interesting and appropriat® 
speech. Other speakers on this occasion were John 
Jenkins, of Indiana ; George Redfield, of Ontwa, and 
Royal T. Twombley. The meeting was held at the 
fair grounds (as have been all of the other annual pic- 
nics of the society) and the number of people assembled 
was larger than on former occasions, the society 
receiving many accessions to its roll of members. 

The annual election of officers resulted in the choice 
of those who had served the year before, with the 
exception that John Tietsort was made Treasurer. 
The Executive Committee was constituted as follows : 
John C. Bradt, Marcellus ; Reuben Henshaw, Volinia ; 
John Green, Wayne ; A. Conklin, Silver Creek ; 
James E. Garwood, Pokagon ; G. B. Turner, La 
Grange ; J. E. Bonine, Penn ; A. L. Dunn, Newberg ; 
H. J. Hitchcock, Porter ; L. J. Reynohls, Calvin ; 
James Lowman, Jefferson ; E. C. Smith, Howard ; 
John Barber, Milton ; M. H. Lee, Ontwa ; James 
Ashley, Mason. 

The annual picnic of 1877 was held on the 20th of 
June. The attendance was variously estimated at from 
3.500 to 5,000. The meeting was called to order by 
Hon. George B. Turner, the President being unable 
to preside. Mr. Turner made a very happy speech 
of welcome, and the exercises of the day consisted of 
the customary readings, music and brief addresses, 
there being on this occasion no set speech delivered. 
The following officers were elected : President, Uzziel 
Putnam, Jr., ; Vice President, John Nixon ; Secre- 
, tary, Lowell H. Glover; Assistant Secretary, John 
T. Enos; Treasurer, John Tietsort. Executive Com- 
mittee — John C. Bradt, Marcellus ; John Struble, 
Volinia ; T. M. N. Tinkler, Wayne ; John T. Swisher, 
Silver Creek ; Robert J. Dickson, Pokagon ; H. S. 
Hadsell, La Grange; Ebenezer Anderson, Penn; 
Anson L. Dunn, Newberg: George Meacham, Porter ; 
James H. Graham, Mason ; B. A. 'L'harp, Calvin ; 
W. G. Beck with, Jefferson; James Shaw, Howard; 
John M. Truitt, Milton; Joseph L. Jacks, Ontwa; 
Daniel Blish, Dowagiac. 

The fifth annual picnic was held June 19. 1878, 
and the following officers were elected for the year, 
viz. : 

President, Uzziel Putnam, Jr ; Vice President, 
John Nixon ; Secretary, Lowell H. Glover : Assistant 
Secretary, William W. Peck ; Treasurer, John 
Tietsort. Executive Committee — George W. Jones, 
Marcellus ; James Wright, Volinia ; James Laporte, 
Wayne ; William Bilderback, Silver Creek ; Robert 
J. Dickson, Pokagon; H. S. Hadsell, La Grange; 
D. M. Howell, Penn ; Anson L. Dunn, Newberg ; 
Lucius Keeler, Porter; Herman Strong, Mason; B. 
F. Beeson, Calvin: William Weaver, Jefferson; 



Rodney Van Ness, Howard ; Hiram Rodgers, Milton ; 
M. H. Lee, Ontwa; Daniel Blish. Dowagiac. 

The principal speaker was the Hon. Salathaiel C. 
Coffinberry, of Constantine. Remarks were made by 
Rev. E. P. Clisbee, Hon. George Meacham, Hon. E. 
Shanahan, Maj. Joseph Smith, A. D. Lothrop and 
A. B. Copley, and the pioneer necrology was read by 
C. W. Clisbee, Esq. 

The sixth re-union and picnic was held June 18, 
1879. At this meeting, L. H. Glover introduced res- 
olutions in memory of Uzziel Putnam, Sr. and William 
W. Peck, the President and the Assistant Secretary 
respectively of the society, both -of -whom had passed 
away since the last annual meeting. The orator of 
the day was the Hon. Levi Bishop, of Detroit, who 
made an admirable address. LTpon its conclusion, the 
whole society joined in singing to the tune of •' Old 
Hundred," an anthem composed by Mr. Bishop. This 
meeting was a very large one, and very enjoyable. 
The officers elected were : President, George B. 
Turner ; Vice Presidents, Joseph L. Jacks, George 
Meacham, John Nixon, George Redfield and Milton 
J. Gard ; Treasurer, John Tietsort ; Secretary, Joseph 
Harper ; Assistant Secretary, Irving V. Sherman 
(Mr. Glover continued to serve as Secretary, the Sec- 
retary elect not assuming the duties of the office). 
Executive Committee — Abijah Huyck, Marcellus ; 
Elias Morris, Volinia ; George Laporte, Wayne; 
Henry Keeler, Silver Creek ; Henry Michael, Do- 
wagiac; Robert J. Dickson, Pokagon ; Jesse G. Beeson, 
La Grange ; Nathan Jones, Penn ; Anson L. Dunn, 
Newberg ; James H. Hitchcox, Porter ; D. R. Stevens, 
Mason ; Eli Benjamin, Ontwa ; David T. Truitt, 
Milton ; William H. Doane, Howard ; E. Shanahan, 
Jefferson ; Jefferson Osborn, Calvin. 

On the occason of the seventh annual picnic held 
June 16, 1880, the chief address was that by the 
President, Hon. George B. Turner. The election of 
officers resulted as follows : President, George B. 
Turner; Secretary, Lowell H. Glover; Assistant 
Secretary, Irving V. Sherman ; Treasurer, Jolin 
Tietsort. Executive Committee — Abijah Huyck, 
Marcellus ; Milton J. Gard, Volinia ; George La 
Porte, Wayne ; Henry Keeler, Silver Creek ; Henry 
Miciiael, Dowagiac; Robert J. Dickson, Pokagon; 
Jesse G. Beeson, La Grange ; John Nixon, Penn ; 
Jerry R. Grinnell, Newberg ; J. H. Hitchcox, Porter ; 
Jefferson Osborn, Calvin ; J. N. Marshall, Jefferson ; 
Mason Doane, Howard ; James H. Beauchamp, Mil- 
ton ; R. D. May, Ontwa ; D. R. Stevens, Mason. 

Largest of all the meetings of the Cass County 
Pioneer Society was that of June 1"), 1881 — the 
eighth annual meeting. Estimates of the attendance 
place it as high as ten thousand. At 3 o'clock in the 

afternoon, men were posted at the gates of the fair 
ground, who counted the teams and people who passed 
out from that time until the grounds were entirely 
vacated at night fail. They counted 1,327 teams and 
5,796 persons, and it was estimated that of the former 
300 had passed out, and of the latter over 1,500 before 
the count was commenced. It is probable that the 
actual number of persons on the ground was 7,500 or 
upward. We give the foregoing figures to show by 
indisputable authority the great size of the gathering. 
It was undoubtedly the largest assemblage ever known 
in Cass County. That so numerous a throng could 
be gathered togetlier, speaks volumes of praise for the 
wise management of tlie officers of the society. It is 
remarkable, that while contemperaneous societies in 
adjoining counties have retrograded the Cass County 
Pioneer Society has steadily accumulated strength, 
the interest in its object developing from year to year. 
Its annual meetings have exceeded in size and in 
merit those of any other similar organization in the 
State, and it is to be hoped that the spirit of its mem- 
bers will not be less when it becomes an historical 
ratiier than a pioneer society (as it inevitably must 
at no very distant day). The address on the occasion 
of which we have just spoken was delivered by Gov. 
David H. Jerome, and was an unusually eloquent and 
interesting one. He paid a high tribute to the pio- 
neers, and urged the youth of the land to emulate 
their many sterling qualities. This meeting of the 
society was the last which the pioneer of Cass County 
— Uzziel Putnam — attended. A few weeks later, he 
was laid away to rest, but at this meeting the old man 
— almost fourscore years and ten — sat on the platform 
by the speaker, and was much moved by his words. 
One of the local newspapers, in closing its account of 
the meeting, and of Gov. Jerome's address, gave the 
following paragraph. 

«■ * * We cannot forbear to mention an episode which took 
place on the stand at the conclusion of his speech. Uzziel Putnam, 
the first white settler of Cass County— the man who turned the 
first furrow in her virgin soil and chopped the first tree in its 
limits, so far as is known— had been listening with deep interest 
to the G ivernor'g remarks. As he closed, the old pioneer, bent 
with many years of toil and hardship, arose to his feet, tears 
streaming down his wrinkled face, and tottering up to the Gov- 
ernor, grasping him by the hand, thanked bim fervently for the 
g.)od words he had spoken for the pioneers, and. above all. for the 
sound advice he had given the young. This scene, witnessed by 
but few on the crowde.l stand, made a marked impression upon 
those who did witness it. 

The officers elected in 1881 were: President, Jo- 
seph Harper; Secretary, Lowell H. Glover; Assist- 
ant Secretary, C. C. Nelson ; Treasurer, John Tiet- 
.sort. Executive Committee— .\bijah Huyck, Marcel- 
lus ; M. J. Gard, Volinia ; Lafayette Atwood, Wayne; 
W. M. Frost, Silver Creek ; Robert J. Dickson, Po- 



kagon; B. W. Schermerhorn, Dowagiac; George B. 
Turner, La Grange; W. E. Bogue, Penn; W. H. H. 
Pemberton, Newberg; James H. H. Ilitchcox, Por- 
ter; B. F. Beeson, Calvin; H. B. Davis, Jefferson; 
Jerome Wood, Howard ; J. H. Burns, Mason ; R. D. 
May, Ontwa; J. 11. Beaucharap, Milton. 


In conclusion, we give the full list of the members 
of the Cass County Pioneer Society, together with 
their ages at the time of signing the constitution, their 
places of residence and nativity and date of settle- 
ment (or of birth, as the case may be). It will be 
noticed that prior to 1877, the year in which different 
membeis registered their names and age is not given, 
and this fact should be borne in mind by the reader 
who examines the list. Otherwise, apparent discrep- 
ancies will appear in the column headed "age." The 
record has been made with great care from the jour- 
nal of the society. 

A. B. Copley .51 Volinia.. 

.Joseph Harper .. 
D. M. H .well .... 
Ichabod Pierson. 

G. W. Jones 49 

Lueinda Atwood. 

Abijah Huyck 5') .Marcellus . 

Lila Huyck 44 Marcellus . 

F M. Tinkler (i3 Wayne. 

Robert Watson 71 Dowagiac 

N. Bock 7.S Dowagiiic . 

.\rlhur Graham 61 Dow.igiac . 

Silas A. Piicher "1(1 Wayne 

Adam Smith ',1 Silver Creek., 

.Justus (i:igc ii'i Howagiac 

Jacob Hurtle 1; I Downgiac 

J. A. Barney liii Dowagiac 

S. T. Read.." ..VJCassopolis .... 

Orson Rudd li l'a.«sopolis 

William Sears Ofjt 'assopolis 



George Redfield 77|ontwa 

Uzziel Putnam, Jr 48;Pokagon... 

George M'acliam 75 Porter 

Peter Shatler 88 Calvin 

Henry Tielsort ifi La Grange 

John Tietsort 47 Cassopolis. 



.\ew York.... 



(i4iVolinia ... 



Xew York 

North Carolina. 

.^orth Carolina. 

North Carolina.. 

La Grange Ilmliana 

Calvin lohio 

.I.lTiTsoii Delaware 

I ussnj, ,!is Virginia 

I '^i-^.-^'il'iilis I'ass County Ohio 

Jfrterson JNew York... 

William Jones 

Elias B. Sherman... 

John Nixon 

Reuben Henahaw... 

Abijah Henshaw 

Mrs. C. .Messenger | 

George T. Shafter 1 

E. Shanahan i 

Joseph Smith 

L. D. Smith 

D. S.Jones 

G. B. Turner 

Julia Fisher (wife ofl [ 1 

Henry Tiet«orl ) 1.51 La Grange lOhio 

H. Meicham pW;Porter jCnss County... 

J. R. Grenell 14!) Newberg (New York 

Correl Messenger j65iLa Grange Connecticut . . 

G. J. Carmiehael (wife I 

of Geo. T. Shatter). 4.5 Calvin ilhio 

Charlotte Turner JSS Jefferson iTnunton, Eng.... 

Esther Ni.xon j.5!l Penn Ohio 

Miss Hannah Ritter...|5.5JLa Grange 'Indiana 

James Boyd jrt7lLa Grange iNew York.... 

Lafayette Atwoud IQlWayne New York...., 

Sarah Miller (wife of| 

Clias. Kingsbury).. .144 Cassopolis jOhio 

Charles W. Clisbee 4(1 Cassopolis jOhio 

R. V. Hicks |54!Milton lEngland. 

Philo IS. White 162^ Wayne 'New York 

A. D. Northrup j.51|C,ilvin iVerraont 

.■\mo8 Northrup 74 Calvin IVermont 

Moses H. Lee j41 Ontwa New Hampsh 

Henry L. Barney ISA Ciiasopolis Ohio, 

.Tames E. Boninc |56Penn Ind 

Maria 0. Jones i4!1 Penn |New York 

Samuel Graham t7(;|Ca8sopolis jl'enn.sylvania 

John Strublc •50[ Volinia jl'enn.sylvania 

.laseph U. Graham 40Miison Ohio 

SiUxa Marwood |45JNewberg INew York, 







James Oxen 

Pleasant Norton 

Rachel Norton 

Richard B. Norton... 

James Tiwnsend 

EzraB. Warner 

L. D. Wright :, 

Nathan Jones 

Isaac Bonine 

Lowell H. Glover 

Thos. J. Casterline.... 

Asa Kingsbury 

Eli Green 

Samuel Squires 

Leander Haskins 

Maria M, While 

L. S. Henderson 

I'heodore Stebbios .... 
Mrs. Theo. Stebbins.. 

John S. Gage 

Mrs. John S. Gage.... 
Mrs. Lucretia Gage ... 
Mrs. Thomas Tinkler. 

Chester C. Morton 

Mrs. C C. Morton 

E. 0. Taylor 

Mrs. E. O.Taylor 

Ebenezer Copley 

George Whilbeck 

Mrs. Geo. Whitheck... 
Mrs. Ebenezer Copley. 

William G. Blair 

.lonathan Olmstead.... 

Horace Vaughn 

Chauncey Kennedy ... 

John S. Juchs 

Horace Cooper , 

David Bemenf 

(jharles Haney 

B. F. Wilkinson 

Charles Morgan 

William R. Sheldon .., 

H. H. Bidwell.... 

R D. May 

Satnuel H. Lee 

John M. Brady 

Noah S. Brady 

.John Gill 

Valentine Noyes 

I. G. Bugbee 

Elizabeth H. Bugbee.. 
Aaron Shellhammer.... 

John Shellhammer 

James II. Hitchcox 

Horace Thompson 

Mr.s. Horace Thompson 

Joshua Brown 

Lucius Keeler 

Penn Ohio 

Jefferson 1 ) 1 1 i " 

Marcellus Ohio 

W.ay n e 1 M iohigan 

New York 

Pennsylvania . 

New York 





New York 

New York 

On the ocean.. 

Pennsylvania . 

New York 





Jefferson 'Virginia . 

Jefferson Tennessee 

Jefferson ...Ohio 

Penn lohio 

La Grange New York 

La Grange 




La Grange.. 

Dowagiac .. 


Dowagiac .. 

Dowagiac . 

Dowagiac .. 

Dowagiac .. 

Dowagiac .. 

















Ontwa , 














60 Onlwa 











New York 

New Y'ork 

Massachusetts .. 
Cass Co., Mich.. 


New York 


New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

Ohio , 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

Massachusetts . 
Cass Co., Mich.. 



Baden, German V 

New York .". 


Connecti' ut 

New Y'ork 

New York 

New Hampshire 
New York.... 


"e of Man. 
New York..., 


Dartmouth, Eng 
Pennsylvania , 
Pennsylvania . 

New York 

New York.;, 

Porter INew York,. 



DBtf of 


Date ol 

Caw" Co. 
(or of 









(or of 


Willifira Trftltlcs 





George Evans 




Mrs. William Tratlles. 



Canada East 


James M. Dyer 


New York 


.\hel Ueebe 



New York 


PhebeC. Dyer 


New York 


Mrs. .\belBeebe 



Pennsylvania ... 


Rebecca Jones 


New York 


.lames Motley 




1 836 

M..ry Driskell 




Mrs. James Motley 



New York 


Dennis Driskell 




George Whiled 





Edward H. Jones 


New York 


Mrs. George Whited... 



Cass Co., Mich. 


Samuel Everhart 


Pennsylvania ... 


Mrs. Betsey Whited . . 




Mary Everhart 


New York 


Hall Beardsley 



'\ii'ch.', Cass Co; 


Thomas W. Ludwick.. 




Mrs Hall Beardsley... 





Julia A. Ludwick 




Henry Lang 



Massachusetts .. 


Amos Cowgill 

60 La Grange 



Edward Lang 


Cass Co., Mich. 


Mrs. E. E. Cowgill 

53 La Grange 

New York 


Oscar Lang 



Massachusetts .. 


Mrs. M. A. Bucklin... 

>5|La Grange 



Mrs. Oscar Lang 



New York 


Laura S. Henr-erson... 

5' Wayne 



A. H. Ling 


.Massachusetts .. 


Lewis Kinehart 




Mrs. .-v. H. Lang 


New York 


Anna Rinehart 

61 Porter 



.Incob Rinehart 





LeRoy Curtis 


New Ynik 


Mrs. .Iftcob Rinehart.. 





Hardy Langston 

72 Berrien County. 

North Carolina.. 


.\lbert Thompson 





Mary Langston 

59 Berrien County. 



.Sa'uuel Rinehart 





Washburn Benedict... 

53 La Grange 



Mrs. Sam'l Rinehart.. 





L. Curtis 


New \ork 


Ahram Rinehart 



Albert Jones 


New York 


Mrs. Abram Rinehart. 



New York 


H. D. Shellenbaiger.. 

45 Porter.. 



T. A. llitchcox 



Ne.v York 


Sarah Shellenbarger... 

35 Porter 



(iideon Hebron 





William Renesten 

781 La Grange 



.Mrs. Gideon Hebron .. 




C. C. Grant 

61 Mason 

New York 


Marcus McHuran 



Cass Co., Mich. 


Margaret Davidson 

59 La Grange 



Mis. Marcus MoHuran 


Cass Co.. Mich. 

Sarah Hebron 


North Carolina.. 


.lohn M. Fellows 





Nathaniel Black. uore.. 


New York 


Amos Huff. 



New York 


John Main, Jr 




James M. Wright 





Jesse G. Beeson 




Mrs. J. M Wright 





Mary Beeson 


La Grange 



Elizabeth Squires 





Isaac A. Huff 


La Grange 



George 8picer 





Isaac N. Gard 





Mrs. George Spicer .... 





Divid Hain 


La Grange 

North Carolina.. 


George Newton 





Leander Osborne 

48 Penn 



Esther Newton 




Harrison Strong 


New York 


Milton J. Gard 




•Fidelia A. Strong 

55 Mason 

New York 






" 18.36 

.Margaret Stevenson.... 

51 Mason 

New York 


J.K. Riller 



Berrien County. 


Samuel Patrick 




Henry Shanafelt 


La Grange 



Mos.sN. Adams 




Mrs. H Shanafelt 


La Grange 



Elenora E. Stephens.... 

47 Mason 

New York 


E. R. Warner 



New York 


We-ley Hunt 




Mrs. D. M. Warner.... 



H.A. Wiley 

57 Oik wa 



(• Z. Termilleyer 


Volinia ; 



S C. Olmsted 




Joseph M. Truilt 



Cass Co., Mich. 


W. 11. Hain 


La Grange, Mich 


Margaret I". Truitl.... 



Berrien County. 


Elmira Gilbert 

76! Porter.... 



Cliarlotte Morris 





L. Dickson 


New York 


llattieC Bucll 



Cass Co., Mich. 






(i. J. Townsend 



Cass Co., Mich. 


Lucinda Davi,s 

63 Pennsylvania... 



!•:. 11. Townsend 


Cass Co., Mich. 


David R Stephens 

51 Mason 

New York 


John H Rich 


Volinia '.'.'.'.'.' 

Cass Co., Mich. 


Elias. Jewell 

<i3 Wayne 

New Jersey 


George Lyon 





I. A. Shingledeckef... 

5r|La Grange 



Selina Green 



North Carolina.. 



48| La Grange 



Tobias Riddle 


Berrien Co 



William Weaver 


New York 


Asahel Z. Copley 



New York 


Elizabeth Weaver 




Leonard Goodrich 



New York 


L. II. Gilbert 

30 Purler 

New York 







John (-.Chirk 

60' La Grange 



Joiin Rinehart 





James P. Doty 

'^''1 Grange 

New York 


Daniel Vantuyl 



New Jersey 


K. J. Dickson 

31 Pokrtgon 



James East 





Hannah B. Dickson... 


New York 


E. C Smith 



New York 


Elizabeth Gaid 




Mrs. E. C. Smith 



.New York 


John Hain 

76|La Grange 

North Carolina.. 


Kavid Histcd 


New York 


Elizabeth Gilbert 




Charles Smith 



New York 


William Saulsbury 




Harriet Smith 



New York 


Peter Huff 




James Shaw 



New York 


Cool Runkle 


New York 




New Jersey 1845 

Margaret Runkle 




William Bilderbeclc .... 

Silver Creek 

New Jersey 1846 

Meriitt A.Thompson.. 




.Sarah Bilderbeck 


Silver Creek 



J. B.Thomas 


Penn jlvania ... 


lliram Rogers 



New Jersey 


Mrs. J. B Thomas 

34 0ntwa 

Ontwa, Mich 


S. M. GrinneU 


New Yoik 


B. R. .Jones 




Jane A. Grinnell 



New York 


Isaac Wells 

44 La Grange 


1 8:'.2 

J. Ered Mertitt 



Cass Co., Mich. 


William J. Hall 




Mary A. Merritt 


Porter ,. 

Cass Co., Mich. 


B. F. Kudd 

•H Ncwberg 



Martha Warren 



New York 


1.0 mis li. Warren 

47 Volinia 

New V..rk 


Nelson A. Hulchings.. 





Orlcy Ann Warren 


Cass County 



Susan-vh Davis 

Reuben B. Davis 

John Barber 

Mrs. KateE. Barber... 

Leonard Koene 

Alsey Keene 

Ebenezer Anderson.... 

George Laporte 

Peter Youngblood 

John Rosebrough 

James W. Robinson.... 

O. L. Tiarp 

J. H. Thomas 

G. A. Meacham 

William Llark 

Edwin T. Dickson...... 

Lahan Tharp 

Lydia Tharp 

Sanford Ashcrafi 

Abigail .\shcraft 

R. Russell 


B. Lincoln 

Acacha Lincoln 

William D. Brownell... 

James L.Glenn 

Hei ry Kimmerle 

M. J. Kimmerle 

D. A. Squier 

K. H. Wiley 

H. S. Rodgers 

M. A.Pullman 

Spencer Williams 

J. Wood....; 

0. C. Ellis 

H. M. Osborn 

Sleph' n Jones 

Elias P.ardee 

C. C.Allison 

Josi.ah Kinnison 

Henry Michael 

Hir.vm Lee 

David B. Copley 

Mrs. Abbey H.Copley 

H. A Chapi., 

P. W. Southwonh 

Mrs. J. A. Southwonh 

Asa Hnntingt.n 

Zeva A. Tyler 

William Allen 

Lyman B Spalding.... 
Mrs. M. S. Robinson.. 

David Gawihrop 

Henry W. Smith 

Mrs. Nancy J. Smith.. 
Eli Benjamin 

<\1 Ca'vin .. 

7-5 Pennsylvania . 

69 Wayne 

63|La Grange 

64 Jefferson 







Berrien County 




6.5|Penn , 


...I Jefferson . 
...I Jefferson. 

^!i Milton.... 
:5.5 Milton .. 

, Calvin. 





North Carolina. 


New Jersey 






New York 

North Carolina 




Vew York 

New Vork 

■^ew York 


La Grange... 

La Grange.... 


La Grange.... 






Penn , 

52,La Grange 

tniPokagon , 

34'La Grange 


49iSilver Creek. 









La Grange- 



43 Volinia 


CaM Co. 
(or of 

New York. 

N'ew Vork 

Pennsylvania . 


Pennsylvania . 


New Y'ork 

New Vork 





New York 

New York 





New York 


Li Grange 







John M. Tiuiit 1.58 

Ann E. Truitt 47 

Z. Tinkham 72 

John T. Miller Ifi7 

W. H.Smith 60 

Robert D. Merrill 39 

Mrs Robert Merritt... 40 

Nathan Skinner 55 

Mrs. Nathan Skinner.. 53 

W. G. Beckwilh 67 

J.M.Jewell... 42 

Elias Jewell |66 

James L. Odell 47 

Mrs. John L. OdcU 30 

Mrs. W. H. Smith !4- 

John Williams !42 

Emmelt Dunning |45 

P. A. Tharp lo3 

Dyer Dunning |42 

Kmily Taylor l61 

KS APDKI) IN ■4 877. 

Milton Delaware 

Milton Delaware 

Pokagon New York 

Jefferson 'Pennsylvania . 

Volinia jOhio 

Porter Michigan 

Porter \Hchigan 

Porter Ohio 

Porter Ohio 

Jefferson JNew York 

W..yne Ohio 

Wayne New Jersey.... 

Porter Michigan 

Porter :Ohio 

^'olinia Ohio 

Jefferson Michigan 

Howard Pennsylvania. 

Calvin Ohio 

Milton |Pennsylvania . 

Wayne iNew York 








C. M. Doane 

Emory Doane 

Green Allen 

Isaac Johnson 

Russell Cook 

Mrs. KussellCook 

M. Carpenter ,77 

Mrs. Eliza Carpenter...|7 

P.ter Truitt 78 

J. S. Shaw [50 

W. W. Smith 

H. A. Parker 

C. P. Wells 

James P. Smith.. 
Susan A.Smith.. 

J. E.Garwood 45 

Mrs. J. E.Garwood.... 38 

Joseph Kirkwood 66 

Harrison Adams 6f 

Mrs. Harrison Adams. 4-. 

Solomon Curtis 5 

Mrs. Louisa Curtis {56 

Ann Coulter 67 

Ann M. Hopkins.... 
Mrs. Norton Buckl 
Mrs. J. J. Ritter.... 
William R. Merritt. Jr.!43 
William Rot.bins.... 
Matilda P. Gr.ffith 
Lizzie E. Tewksbury...j48 




La Grange.. 





La Grange 















La Grange 







U. Joseph Co , hd. 

Cass Co. 
(or of 



North Caroli: 

V irginia 

New York... 
New Hampshire 

Michigan. . 


New Y'ork. 
New Y'ork. 
New York. 
Michigan .. 




New York- 
New York.. 




New York.. 



Amos Smith J48Penn Pennsylva 

M illiam l,'ondon 62 Jefferson Ireland.... 

Mrs. L. Goodspeed J48JVolinia JNew Y'ork 

Daniel Blish 66 Dowagiac New Hampshire 

.Mrs. Julia Blish 58!Dowasriac New Y'oik 

Pennsylvania . 

New Y'ork 

New York 

New York 

New Jersey.... 

New York 

Connecticut. . , 


Michigan . 

I'atheiine Roof. 59'Porter... 

Hugh C. McNeil .55|Mason... 

Joseph Spencer 66|Wayne.. 

LauraSpenccr 64 Wayne... 

Samuel Decou ttfl'PeiMi 

li'abella Batchelor l6|Milton... 

, -V. A. Goddard i72|Mason... 

C. VI. Morse |5) Dowagiat 

L. B. Patterson |40jPokagon, 

Hannah M. Patterson.. 33'Pokagon 'Cass County 

William Hicks 56|Miltou England 

Jacob Tittle :57|Milton jOhio 

Henry Fred ricks fi6|Porter Pennsylvania ... 

Henry Harmon uSiPorter !Ohio 

Henry Bloodgood ■iOICnsfopolis New York 

Asa B. Wetherbee 54[Newherg New York 

Abram Fiero 5l|La Grange 'New Y'ork 

Hannah Henshaw Volinia Indiana 

Eli Bump •■)9 Penn Ohio 

James Pollock .'idiPenu iOhio...... 

Leandcr Bridges ol|Marc'llus iNew Y'ork 

Harriet A. Bridges*... 43 Newberg New Y'ork 

Mary J. Kenmerle 40La Grange La Grange 

Ira J. Putnam 51 Pokagon jCass County..... 

.lohn F. Dodge 66 Newberg New York 

Avril Earl fiSLa Grange iNew York 

(liimaliel Townsend.... 76 La Grange Canada West 

John Hain, Sr 78 La Grange North Carolina.. 

P. P. Perkins 55 Howard New York 

E. P. Clisbee .57,Oberlin jOhio 

I) lean Putnam 70LaGrange New York....... 

AureliaPutnam 62 La Grange New York..i..';^ 

.liimesA. Lee 62 Dowagiac New York....,.,j 

Patience Lee 61 Dowagiac New Vork 

John Bedford 73 Dowagiac England 

Nathan Phillips SSIPokngon New York 

The lirst y 

& child t>om in Newberg Township. 


George Rogers 49'Ontwn New York 

Abraham Rinehart 61 Porter Virjiinia 

Hannah E. Rinehart... 52 Porter 'New York 

John Lybrook 8 |La Grange Virginia 

Joseph Lybrook 33!La Grange Cass County... 

Ellen P. Hibrey IS.SiCassopolis 'Wales 

Adelia T. Merritt 66lBrislol, Ind New York 

Daniel Mcintosh 74,Penn Marylind 

Hugh P.Garrett -ISIU Grunge Ohio 

John MePherson .54 Jelferson |Ohio 

William Young Rl Howard iVermont 

John A. Jones oSCassopolis | Pennsylvania . 

Zora E. Jones 25;<'a?sopoIis 

Roderick L. Van Ness.. 33'Cassopolis Howard 

Julia E. Van Ness 26Ca*opoIis Volinia 

Joseph L.Jacks TSEdwardsburg ... Pennsylvania. 

Dr. C. J. Boughton....66|Wakelee 





Amos Jones 


58 La Grange 

71 Jefferson 



North Carolina. 


William Reames 


55 Volinia 

Samuel Morris 

Ohio.. . . 


David Beardsley 

Mrs. Mary Dewey 

Valentine Dyer 










New York 

Polly M. ."^hellhammer 
James W East 




New York 

Rho'e Island... 




Archibald Dunn 



George Smith 



William Lawson 

Ephraim Hanson 

Jonathan Colyer 

Sarah Atwo^d 

Catherine Colyer 








North Carolina.. 

New York 

North Carolina. 
I'ennsylvani i ... 


Pennsylvania .. 

New York 

New Vork 

New York 

New York 





Mary Jane Smith 

Salicia Emmons 



"OCalvin '... . 


Nathan Norton 



John A. Reynolds 

Laura J. Koynolds.... 
Joshua Leaoh 






New York 

New York 



Charity Rich 

U.S. Goodenough 

George Long^dnff.... 

Margaret Leaves 

George L. Stevens 

Elias Morris 

Charlotte Morris 


New York 



Pennsylvania ... 




La Grange 




Eliza Goble 

66 Dowagiac 



69 Porter 


Levi Springstine 

Braddock Carter 

Caroline Carter 

New York 

New York 




Mefaitable Ross 


New York 




Elizabeth llilchcox 

38 Mason 


George BemenI 






New York 


New York 


New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 


Mrs. Betsey Gardner.. 

David T. Truitt 

A J. Gardner 






David Beardsley 

Mrs. Belinda Miller... 
Ann C Miller 


Virgil Turner 

Arietta Van Ness 




Elizabeth D. ICeeler ... 

Joshua Richardson 

Eveline E. Richanison. 

Thomas Slapleton 

Mrs. C. J. Greenleaf... 
Maryette H. Glover... 

Thomas Odell 

Henry J. Brown 

Sadie Huyck 

.Jacob B. Breece 

Sarah M. Bieece 

Aaron J. Nash 

Margaret R. Nash 

59 Porter 

1)0 Porter 

49 Porter 

45l(^as8opolis . 





Marcellus . 

Jefferson ... 



New York 









P<>nnsylvania . 
Pennsylvania . 

New Vork 

New York 

William H. 01mstead..]57 

Sarah A. Olmsteail 50 

Jacob Suits 

Mary Reames 

John E. Reames 48 

Lovinia Reames 8 

Samuel Ingling jo 

Jane D. Ingling [4 

Jos. H. Burns 6' 

Ann E. Burns 5 

John Bilderback '3 

Cynthia Bilderback. ...:3 
Eleazer Hammond ... 
Reason S. Pemherton 
Margaret Pemberton 

Erastus Z. Morse 

Israel P. Hutton 

John H. Hutton '46 

Anne Moorlag 154 

Sarah Ann Moorlag.. .|20 

William Loupe 46 

Mary Loupe 36 

lantha Wood 53 

William H. Doane 71 

Lois A. Doane 158 

Milton jNew York 

Milton New York 

New Vork , 

Jefferson Ohio 

Jefferson Ohio 

Jefferson Kentucky 

Dowagiac Kentucky 

Dowagiac New York 

.Mason New York 

Mason New York 

Silver Creek Ohio 

Silver Creel! .Mi-liigan 

Milton New York 

Vandalia.. Indi.ina 

v'andalia Germany 

Berrien County. Pennsylvania . 

Penn Holland 

Penn Indiana 

Porter Pennsylvania . 

Porter [Michigan 

Howar' New York 

Howard New Vork 

Howard JNew York 



NAMKS Anl>Ell 

Gabriel Eby 63 Porter... 

Caroline Eby 54 Purler.. 

Hiram N. Wocdin 54 Mason .. 

Martha C. Wodin 47 Mason .. 

H. H Poorman 64!Marcell 



. Germany.... 

. New York. 

, New Vork. 

. Pennsylvan 

Henry E. Hain J45| Edwardsburg.. ..Michigan.. 

William M. Has- 48'La Grange Illinois 

Nancy Simpson 57lPokagon Virginia ... 

J. M. Huff 47|Vollnia Ohio 

Josephine B Smith ...j47UMilton .Delaware.. 

Perry Curtiss 43 Silver Creek Michigan.. 

G. W. Smith SOMilton Delaware . 

Alfred Shockley 52 Milton Delaware .. 

11. B. Shurter 'Jefferoi. New York., 

Martin Stamp 35 Pinn Michigan.. 

A. D. Thompson 48 Milton Delaware... 

C. M. Odell 43;Howard Michigan .. 

Kinney Shanahan 27(Jntwa Michigan.. 

Samuel A. Breece 38 Newberg Michigan... 

Jacob Reese 

Marcus Sherrell 

H. D. Bowling 

Mrs. Mary Childs... 

A. J. Ditz 

William W, CarpcnK 
George W. Willii 

.59 Milt 

. 41 .lefferson lefferson. 

. 38 Pokagon Ohio 

. 33'Calilornia Indiana . 

.jt9| Mason .New York 

. 5IJMilton Delaware. 

.!42i Howard [Delaware. 

... Michigan . 

Jasper K. Aldrich l32'Milton .... 

Mrs. Emily Curtis [...JNewbcrg 

lOnos Roseliraugli '41'Jefferson Michigan. 

George Tharp 38.1efferson |.Michigan 

Peter Fox 42 Howard Delaware 

John Hess lOJefferson Ohio 

Henry D. Goodrich... 38 Jefferson Illinois ... 

.Inhn O. Pollock 51 Penn Ohio 

William 1). Kox 38 Howard Delaware.. 

Julia A. Parsons |33;Vlilton [Michigan.. 





Nathaniel B. Crawford 61 

Byron H Cast 
George S. H:i- 
DaviiJ l». ilt;!'! 
Horace \V:„rr 
Harvey |i.-|h, 
George i;. i i;i 
Asher .1, SI,:,. 
Kohert, N\ Mmi 
John R. Everl 

Sarah Driscol Everhart 59 Porler 

John Manning 47 Porter Co., 

Richard M. Williams.. 40 L> Gr.inge. 

U Penn Michiga 

M Dowagiao Ohio ... 

Ml Penn Ohi( 

14 Newberg [Michigan 

■.4|Penn [New York 

'.-La Grange Ohio 

.1 Howard Michigan 

iVPenn Ohio 

57 Porler. Pennsylvania . 

. Ohi. 



The total number of naine.s registered is five hu 
dreil and ninety-one. 



OrKanization of the Cass County Agricultural S.ciely in 1851— The 
First Fair Held— A Speech by llciuaii Keillield— Condition of the 
County Thirty Years Ago— HorscN, I ;,,i[, :iii,i si,,,|,— "Ten Tliou- 
snnd Things by 'Wolvenne Aii,i . , ~>>iiie "—Complete 

Premium List of the Fair of is,.i i. . i -, ,- ,,1 History of the 

Society— Cass County Bible Society or^.uii,:,,: m i.->.,l— County Med- 
ical Societies— Farmer's Mutual Fire Insurance Company. 

TFJE Cass County Agricultural Society came into 
existence in the spring of 1851. and the first fair 
was held in the fall of the same year. The exact date 
of organization cannot now be ascertained (the records 
having been lost), but it was probably in March or 
April. The President was Justus Gage, and the Sec- 
retary, George B. Turner. 

IMay 13, the National Democrat made a strong ap- 
peal to the farmers of the county to become members 
of the society, and pay into its treasury the sum of 
50 cents each, thus enabling the society to make out 
a good premium list. 

On the 24th, the E.xecutive Committee held a meet- 
ing in Cassopolis, at which Judges were appointed for 
the ilifferent departments of the proposed fair, and the 
President, Justus Gage, was authorized to procure 
some suitable person to deliver an address, on the oc- 

It was resolved thac the first annual fair be held at 
Cassopolis on the 18th day of September, 1851, pro- 
vided the citizens of the place would, at their own ex- 
pense, prepare the grounds, pens, etc.. and, in case 
they should not accede to this arrangement, it was pro- 
vided that the committee, having the matter in charge, 
should select some other place the citizens of which 
would be willing to make all of the necessary prepara- 
tions free of charge. 

The following committees of arrangements were ap- 
pointed : 

Gentlemen s Committee — Asa Kingsbury, G. B. 
Turner, James Sullivan, Joseph Smith, E. B. Sher- 

Ladies Committee — Mrs. James Sullivan, Mrs. W. 
G. Beck with, Mrs. Jacob Silver, Miss. A. M. Redfield, 
Miss. E. Sherman, Miss. Sarah Lindsey, Mrs. Barak 
Mead and Mr-t. S. F. Anderson. 

The fair was duly held, and in Cassopolis, hence it 
is to be presumed that the people of the village ma'de 
sufficiently liberal preparations. The show grounds 
for stock were "south of Joshua Lofland's premises 
and east of Mr. Root's," and the hall of the court 
house was used for the display of fruits, vegetables and 
articles of domestic manufacture, and was under the 
charge of ladies. The attendance was quite large and 
the exhibition was generally pronounced a success. 
The National Democrat said " it vastly exceeded 
our expectations, not only in regard to quantity of 
stock and number of articles exhibited, but in the 
superior quality and excellence of both. We venture 
the assertion" the writer continued, " that no one 
county in the State can bring forward as good stock 
as Cass. This is saying much for her but no more 
than she is' able to back up by an actual showing." 

An interesting feature in the programme of this 
first fair was an address by Heman Redfield, delivered 
before a large audience at the court house. The con- 
eluding portion of the speech makes interesting read- 
ing at the present day, and gives a good idea of the 
agricultural condition of Cass County in 1851. Mr. 
Redfield said : 

" That the experiment has been successful and that 
our society is established upon a permanent founda- 
tion has been most amply demonstrated. May we 
not now indulge the agreeable conviction that each 
returning exhibition will derive additional interest and 
value, until our county shall assume that position to ' 
which by nature it is entitled, as the first among the 
agricultural districts of our beautiful State ? 

'■ The variety and fertility of our soil, the abun- 
dance of our water privileges and the unlimited mar- 
kets almost surrounding us, in connection with the 
energy and enterprise of our population, as this day 
witnessed, would seem to indicate the possibility of 
such an event at no distant period. 

"A reference to the statistical report of the Secre- 
tary of State to the last Legislature, discloses the fact 
that few counties in the State in proportion to the 
territory ami number of population, produce an equal 
amount of wheat and other grain, and very few, if 
.my, excel us in this respect. 


" Now we have in our county about tiO.OOO acres of 
improved land, something less than a quarter of our 


territory, and the total value of our property of all 
kinds, is, as assessed, about $800,000, with a popula- 
tion of 11,000. In 1849. we raised from 18,000 
acres about 160,000 bushels of wheat, something over 
thirteen bushels to each individual, and yet this was 
only an average of about ten bushels per acre, for a 
soil of the most productive character; not over half a 
crop at the best calculation. I believe it is gener- 
ally admitted that our .soil must be deepened before it 
can be permanently improved, and that one acre of 
soil twelve inches deep, is worth more to make money 
from by cultivating it, than four acres six inches deep. 
Admitting that under the best circumstances an acre 
of soil six inclies deep will produce fourteen bushels 
of wheat, and that twelve bushels will pay the ex- 
penses, and we have two bushels as profit. Now 
double the depth of the soil and the amount of the 
crop, making the former twelve inches instead of ^ix 
and the latter twenty-eight bushels instead of four- 
teen ; fifteen bushels instead of twelve will now pay 
all expenses and leave a net profit, not of two but 
thirteen bushels to the acre. Manure well, plow 
deep, sow in good season, then trust in Providence 
and instead of selling $60,000 worth of wheat we can 
market three times that amount. 

" There was raised in our county two years ago 
600,000 bushels of other grain, of which at least one- 
half was a surplus, worth as much as the wheat crop, 
and susceptible by good' husbandry of equal augmen- 
tation in amount and value. 

" We own three thousand horses, worth on an aver- 
age say $40 or a total of $120,000. Now it costs 
no more to raise a colt worth at four years old $80 
than one hard to jockey off at $40. And a little re- 
flection will convince any one that the above value can 
be doubled in five years. 

"The enterprise of a fellow-citizen offers you % 
stock of as good blood and reputation as can be found, 
and which he has, I think safely, challenged the State 
to equal. And there are several other excellent 
breeders of that noble animal among us. We certainly 
should exert ourselves to patronize and sustain them. 

" We possess 8,000 head of cattle, generally of an 
inferior size and quality, and are selling the average 
of our young cows and steers at from $8 to $10. 
when in good condition, and 1 am fully satisfied 
that the value of this stock can be easily doubled 
by an importation of thoroughbreds, the judicious 
patronage of those we have and a more general at- 
tention to care and keeping. 

" We have likewise 17,000 sheep, shearing in 184!l, 
44,000 pounds of wool, about two and a half pounds 
per head, and worth that year an average of .'50 
cents per pound, a gross value of about $14,000. We 

have in our limits as good stock sheep as can be found 
in the country, and a general attention to this depa)t- 
ment of our industry will enable us to increase the 
weight of the fleece to four pounds, worth 40 cents 
per pound, and the value of the carcass proportionally. 

" In addition to the above list, we have among our 
grubs and in our puddles, about ten thousand things 
which Wolverine audacity has denominated swine — 
variously known as Naragansetts, alligators, land 
sharks, a.n^ flee breeders. In one sense indeed this 
class of our domestic animals has received much at- 
tention, but that attention has resulted from wonder 
and disgust, and has been expressed in unmeasured 
ridicule, sarcasm and invective. It is well known that 
a well-bred and well-kept hog can be easily made to 
weigh, in eighteen months, 400 pounds, worth $3 
per hundred weight, while it is a hard matter to make 
the critters I speak of ever weigh 200 pounds, and a 
harder matter to dispose of the compound of acorns, 
[ ground nuts and carrion for %iper hundred iveiyht." 

There has been an improvement in Cass County 
swine during the past thirty years. 

Following is a complete list of the premiums awarded 
at the fair of 1851 : 


B. W. Philips, La Grange, for best Durham bull, cash 

Joseph Smith, .Jefferson, for second best Durham 
•bull, diploma. 

James E. Bonine, Penn, for best bull under two 
years, cash premium. 

Thomas Tinkler, Wayne, for best grade bull, di- 

William Jones, Pennsylvania, for best milch cow, 
cash premium. 

David Brady, La Grange, for best yoke work oxen, 
cash premium. 

B. Bullard, Mason, for second best work oxen, di- 

Jesse Jones, Mason, for third best work oxen, 


B. W. Philips, La Grange, for best stallion, cash 

Lewis Riiiehart, Porter, for second best stallion, 
cash premium. 

Archibald Jewell, Wayne, for best brood mare, cash 

A. J. Luther, Ontwa, for best span matched horses, 
cash premium. 

James Townsend, Penn, for second best span 
matched liorses, cash premium. 

Isaac A. Huff, La Grange, for best colt under two 
years, cash premium. 



David Finch, La Grange, for best colt under three 
years, cash premium. 

M. Rudd, Penn, for best single horse in harness, 
cash premium. 


Joseph Smith, Jefferson, for largest hog, cash 

James E. Bonine, Penn, for best boar, cash pre- 

Justus Grage, Wayne, for second best boar, diploma. 

Daniel Mcintosh, Penn, for best breeding sow, 
cash premium. 

Edward Beech, La Grange, for second best breed- 
ing sow, diploma. 

Nathan Aldrich, Ontwa, for third best breeding 
sow, diploma. 

Daniel Mcintosh, Penn, for best lot of pigs, 

Nathan Aldrich, Ontwa, for second best lot of 
pigs, diploma. 


Benjamin Gage, Wayne, for best wheat, diploma. 

Archibald Jewell, Wayne, for second best wheat, 

William Allen, Mason, best lot of beans, diploma. 

D. T. Nicholson, Jefferson, for best lot of sweet 
potatoes, diploma. 


Morris Custard, La Grange, for best two-horse 
wagon, cash premium. 

Nathan Aldrich, Ontwa, for best two-horse plow, 
cash premium. 

Heman Redfield, Mason for best beehive, cash 

Heman Redfield, for best straw cutter, cash pre- 

C. Smith, Mason, for best cheese press, cash pre- 

John Gage, Wayne, for best Spanish Merino buck, 
cash premium. 

J. E. Bonine, Penn, for two best Spanish Merino 
bucks, cash premium. 

F. Brownell, Penn, for four best Merino yearlings, 


Daniel Carlisle, La Grange, for best ten pounds of 
maple sugar, diploma. 

Amos Northrup, Calvin, for best lot of honey, 
cash premium. 

Philo White, Wayne, for second best lot of honey, 

Mrs. E. Thomas, Ontwa, for beat worsted work, 

Mrs. E. Thomas, Ontwa, for best paintings, di- 


H. Thompson, Ontwa, best embroidered shawl, 

Mrs. E. Thomas, Ontwa, for best linen hose, 

Mrs. E. Thomas, for best table spread, diploma. 

Mrs. Beckwith, Jefferson, for best quilt, diploma. 

Mrs. E. Thomas, best bureau cover, diploma. 

Mrs. Sullivan, La Grange, best hearth rug, diploma. 

Mrs. A. B. Copley, Volinia, best five yards of 
flannel, diploma. 

George Meacham, Porter, for three best cheese, 


Benniah Tharp, Calvin, for best plowing with 
oxen, diploma. 


Heman Redfield, for best and largest variety of 
apples, thirty-four varieties, cash premium. 

Miss Julia A. Redfield, Ontwa, for best ftill apple, 
cash premium. 

A. A. Goddard, Mason, for fourteen varieties of 
apples, diploma. 

Miss Julia A. Redfield, Ontwa, for best winter apples, 

D. T. Nicholson, Jefferson, for four varieties winter 
apples, diploma. 

Mrs. McKyes, Wayne, for best lot of peaches, 

Heman Redfield, Mason, for three varieties of 
quinces, cash premium. 

The Committee also noticed favorably fine speci- 
iftens of peaches offered by C. C. Landon and others ; 
some apples exhibited by D. T. Nicholson, and a 
variety of pears by Nathan Aldrich. 

The Committees of Judges who made the awards 
were constituted as follows: 

On Horses — Arch. Jewell, P. Norton, Wm. Jones. 

On Cattle— Moses Joy, Reuben Allen, B. W. Phil- 

On Sheep — A. Redding, John Nixon, George Red- 

On Swine — James Bonine, 0. Drew, Jonathan 

On Agricultural Implements — Gideon Allen, Na- 
than Aldrich, Jesse G. Beeson. 

On Grain and Vegetables — Hiram Jewell, M. Sher- 
ill. W. G. Beckwith. 

On Plowing Match — David Brady, Joseph Carpen- 
ter, T. M. N. Tinkler. 



On Miscellaneous Articles — William Allen, B. 
Hathaway, S. T. Read. 

On Fruits and Flowers — Heman Redfield, E. S. 
Smith, D. Jewell, Mrs. E. S. Smith, Mrs. G. Sher- 
wood, Mrs. J. Gage, Mrs. G. B. Turner. 

On Domestic Manufactures — Lewis Edwards, A_ 
B. Copley. Cyrus Bacon, Mrs. G. Allen, Mrs. A. 
Redding. Mrs. S. F. Anderson, Mrs. L. Edwards. 

The second annual meeting of the Cass County 
Agricultural Society, for the election of officers, was 
held at the office of George B. Turner, Esq., in Cass, 
opolis. on Monday, the Ist of March, 1852. The 
following officers were chosen for the year : President, 
Justus Gage, of Wayne; Treasurer, Joseph Smith, of 
JeffiEjrson; Secretary, G. B. Turner, of La Grange; 
Corresponding Secretary, D. M. Howell, of La 
Grange; Vice Presidents — John S. Gage, Wayne. 
Sullivan Treat, Silver Creels ; William L. Clyborne^ 
Pokagon; Hiram Jewell, La Grange; John Nixon, 
Penn; Ira Warren, Newberg; Oscar N. Long, Por. 
ter; J. S. Bennett, Mason; S. T. Read, Calvin; 
Pleasant Norton, Jefferson ; Henry Heath, Howard ; 
A. Redding, Ontwa; Peter Truitt, Milton; H. Mc- 
Quigg, Marcellus; B. Hathaway, Volinia. 

The history of the Cass County Agricultural So- 
ciety has not been one of either marked or uniform 
success. The fairs were held until 1857 on Samuel 
Graham's land, but in that year the society bought 
land, where the Air Line Railroad depot now is, 
which the society was compelled to abandon, when 
the Peninsular (Grand Trunk) Railroad was con- 
structed. The next location was in the way of the 
Air Line Railroad and that, too, had to be given up. 
The present grounds were purchased in 1871, of 
Samuel Graham, at an expense of $3,000. The tract 
includes twenty acres of land finely adapted to the 
purpose for which it is used. A considerable sum of 
money has been expended in the erection of buildings 
and in making other improvements. 

Most of the exhibitions given by the society have 
been very creditable; but the formation of other agri- 
cultural associations in the county has of course been 
disadvantageous to the old organization. 


This was the first county society organized and had 
its origin in 1831. It was recognizeii by the Ameri- 
can Bible Society as an auxiliary in February of that 
year. The officers were : President, Elder Adam 
Miller ; Corresponding Secretary, Rev. Luther Hum. 
phrey ; Treasurer, Sylvester Meacham. Mr. Hum. 
phrey seems to have served only a year, for in 1832, 
Alexander H. Redfield appears as Corresponding 
Secretary. Alfred R. Benedict held that position in 

1834. In 1836, Martin C. Whitman was President; 
Rev. Luther Humphrey, Corresponding Secretary, 
and Mr. Meacham continued as Treasurer. Samuel 
F. Anderson was President in 1837, the other officers 
remaining the same. Dr. John J. Treat was Presi- 
dent in 1838, Azariah Rood was President in 1839 
and Clark Olmsted, Treasurer, and they were still in 
office in 1841. In the first ten years of its existence 
the Cass County Bible Society remitted to the parent 
society $151.30. There was no change in officers 
until 1844, when Hon. Clifford Shanahan became 
President. In 1846, Cyrus Bacon was President 
and Alfred Bryant, Secretary, Mr. Olmsted still con- 
tinuing as Treasurer. 

Of the foregoing there is no record upon the local 
society's books. The data was procured from the 
Secretary of the parent society by Mr. Joseph K. 

It appears that the society was re-organized in Janu- 
ary, 1861. Samuel F. Anderson was elected Presi- 
dent ; James Boyd, Vice President ; Joseph K. Ritter, 
Treasurer ; W. W. Peck, Secretary, and the Revs. 
Miles and Hoag, Messrs. Joseph Harper, Joshua 
Lofland and S. T. Read as members of the Executive 

Following are the present officers, viz. : President, 
Joseph Harper; Vice President, D. B. Smith ; Treas- 
urer, C. G. Banks ; Secretary, Joseph K. Ritter. 
Executive Committee — D. B. Ferris, Jesse Harrison, 
W. W. Mcllvain. 


The first medical society in the county was organ- 
ized in August, 1851. The officers elected were : 
President, Dr. D. E. Brown ; Vice President, Dr. 
Henry Lockwood ; Secretary, Dr. Alonzo Garwood ; 
Treasurer, Dr. E. Penwell ; Standing Committee, 
Drs. I. G. Bugbee, J. Allen and B. Wells. The 
objects of this society were similar to those of the 
present organization, that is, the advancement of the 
profession, social intercourse, the establishment of a 
schedule of charge's for professional services, etc. 

But possibly there was not a clear understanding 
of the purposes of the society in the minds of the 
people at large. At any rate, one man seems to have 
had only a partially defined idea of them. George 
P. Coffey, a resident of Mechanicsburg, and a "log 
house carpenter " by occupation, when he contem- 
plated going West, thought it would be well to join 
the society, that he might be able "to show where he 
degraded from." 

The schedule of rates on which the society agreed, 
placed the amount of money to be charged for an 
■' ordinary visit in the village " at 50 cents; " raedi- 



cine and attention " was to be charged for at the rate 
of $1 per day ; " medicine and visit, one mile, $1 ; " 
visit and medicine, from one to two miles, $1.25 ; " 
"visit and medicine, from two to four miles, $1.50;" 
each additional mile 25 cents. " Quinine and night 
visits were to be extra in all cases." Surgical opera- 
tions, etc., were to be performed for $5 ; visit and 
consultation within three miles was to entitle the 
physician to a remuneration of $3, and the same 
within a distance of from three to ten miles to f5 


was organized at a meeting held at Cassopolis June 26, 
1877, Dr. C. W. Morse, of Dowagiac, in the Chair. 
The following officers were elected for the year 1 877-7 8 : 

President, Dr. C. W. Morse; Vice Presidents, Drs. 
A. Garwood, L. Osborn, R. Patterson ; Secretary, Dr. 
W. J. Kelsey; Treasurer, J. B. Sweetland. 

Following are the names and residences of the orig- 
inal members of the society, viz.: 

Dr. C. W. Morse, Dowagiac; Dr. W. J. Kelsey, 
Cassopolis ; Drs. Robert Patterson and John B. Sweet- 
land, Edwardsburg ; Drs. L. D. Tompkins, A. Gar- 
wood and F. Goodwin, Cassopolis ; Dr. J. Robertson, 
Pokagon ; Dr. Edward Prindle, Dowagiac ; Drs. L. 
Osborn, H. H. Phillips and Otis Moor, Vandalia ; 
Dr. W. J. Ketcham, Volinia ; Dr. 0. W. Hatch, 

Since the society was formed, the following persons 
have been added to the membership roll : 

Dr. I. Bugbee (honorary), Edwardsburg ; Drs. Hor- 
ace Carbine and E. C. Davis, Marcellus ; Dr. Phineas 
Gregg (honorary), Brownsville ; Drs. Levi Aldrich, 
Frank Sweetland and Fred W. Sweetland, Edwards- 
burg ; Dr. J. M. Wright, Brownsville; Dr. William 
E. Parker, Cassopolis ; Dr. A. J. Landis, Adamsville ; 
Dr. Reuben Schurtz, Jones. 

The following preamble to the constitution of the 
society, sets forth its objects : "We, the undersigned, 
practitioners of medicine and surgery in the county of 
Cass, for the mutual advancement in medical knowl- 
edge, the elevation of professional character, the pro- 
tection of the interests of its members, the extension 
of the bounds of medical science, and the promotion 
of all measures adapted to the relief of suffering, do 
constitute ourselves a Medical Society." 


This company, doing business in the counties of 
Cass, Van Buren and Berrien, was organized May 8, 
1863, with the following as it officers: President, 
Jesse G. Beeson ; Treasurer, Archiablc Jewell, of 
Wayne Townsliip; Secretary, A. D. Stocking, of 

Dowagiac ; Directors, W. G. Beckwith, of Jefferson ; 
Israel Ball, of Wayne; William R. Fletcher, of 
Wayne ; Frank Brown, of Pokagon ; and Daniel 
Blish, of Silver Creek. The object of the com- 
pany is the insurance of farm dwellings and out- 
buildings at a minimum price, and upon the mutual 
plan, as the name implies. The present number of 
members is about fifteen hundred, and the amount of 
property at risk is valued at $2,500,000. The present 
Board of Officers and Directors is as follows : Presi- 
dent, John Cady ; Treasurer, Enoch Jessup ; Secre- 
tary, Cyrus Tuthill ; Directors, Jerome Wood, James 
H. Hitchcox, Lafayette Atwood, Milton J. Gard, 
John A. Reynolds. 



Population by Tovvnsliips, 1837 to 1K80— Vote on the Constitutions and 
for Presirtents— Gubernatorial Vote of isso, by Tovvnsliips— Valua- 
tion— Productions. 


The population of Cass County was, in 1830, 919 ; 
in 1834, 3,280; in 1837, 5,296; in 1840, 5,710; 
in 1845, 8,073; in 1850, 10,907; in 1854, 12,411; 
in 1860, 17,721 ; in 1864, 17,066 ; in 1870, 21,096 ; 
in 1874, 20,525; in 1880, 22,008. 

The following table presents the statistics of popula- 
tion of Cass County, by townships, as taken at nine State 
and National censuses, from 1837 to 1880, inclusive. 
The wide variations between the population given in 
certain townships at periods four or six years apart, 
is occasioned by the inclusion of village population 
in the statement for some years, and exclusion from 
other statements. Other variations are attributable 
to changes in boundary of townships. Thus Ontwa 
appears to have had in 1837 1,012 residents, while in 
1840 it contained but 543. Milton, however, which 
was a part of Ontwa in 1837, was made an indepen- 
dent township prior to 1840, and by the census of 
that year is shown to have had a population of 439 : 



.JeflFerson ... 
La Grange .. 






Pokagon .... 


Silver Creek 








i29Bi.->710 10907 12411 





















































J 102 


















|S}-nw^',,f ^' • 

Yjew or GassopoXxK^ 




o S a 

" 03 3 

5 II 

2 >- s 


a 2 
































































































ill i 

55= < 













If J 















The following exhibits the population of ten of the 
principal villages of the county in 1850, 1860, 1870 
and 1880: 























Pavid Jerome, 

Fred. M. Hol- 
loway, Pem- 

David Wood- 






■ 17 


Dowagiac City 



La Grange 








Silver Creek 









Isaac McKeever. Prohibitionist, received four i 

1 Calvin Township. 


The following exhibits the number of votes cast in 
the county for and against the constitutions, and the 
votes cast by each party in Presidential elections : 


1835— (November) Yes, 345 ; No, 20. 

1850— (November) Yes, 1,069 ; No, 323. 

1867— (Voted upon in April, 1868), Yes, 1,190 ; 
No, 2,371. 

1873— (Submitted, November, 1874), Yes, 713; 
No, 2,697. 


1840— Harrison, Whig, 670; Van Buren, Demo- 
crat, 527. 

1844— Clay, Whig, 760 ; Polk, Democrat, 715. 

1848— Taylor, Whig, 783 ; Cass, Democrat, 901 ; 
Van Buren, F. S., 191. 

1852— Scott, Whig, 988 ; Pierce, Democrat, 984 ; 
Hall, F. S., 95. 

1856 — Fremont, Republican, 1,703 ; Buchanan, 
Democrat, 1,165. 

1860 — Lincoln, Republican, 2,065 ; Douglas, Dem- 
ocrat, 1,624. 



iy64 — Liucoln, Republican, i,7t55 ; McUlelian, 
Democrat, 1,435. 

1868— Grant, Republican, 2,471 ; Seymour, Dem- 
ocrat, 1,926. 

1872— Grant, Republican, 2,432; Greeley. D. and 
L., 1,830; O'Connor, Democrat. 24; Black, Prohi- 
bition, 2. 

1876 — Hayes. Republican, 2,750 ; Tilden, Demo- 
crat, 2,336 ; Cooper, G. B., 173; Smith, Prohibition, 

1880 — Garfield, Republican, 2,859; Hancock, 
Democrat, 2,180 ; Weaver, G. B., 415 ; Dow, Pro- 
hibition, . 


The following table exhibits the valuation of real 
and personal property, as assessed and as equalized, 
for the year 1881*: 


























fiS94 3 



























Founding of the Village— County Seat Contest— A Souvenir— Letter 
from Alexander H. RedUeld— First Death, Biith and Marriage— 
Cassopolis as it Appeared in 1835— The Campaign of 1840— Joli 
Wrighfs Prediction— The Only General Militia Muster— Little- 
jolin's Temperance Revival of 1845— Corporation History— Roster 
of Village Ofiieials— The Public Squaie Case— Mercantile and 
Manufacturiug Matters— Banking— Hotels— Post Office— Religious 
History- Public Schools— Cemetery-Societies. 


IN 1830, Abram Tietsort, Jr.f (father of J5hn 
Tietsort), built a small log cabin on the east bank 
of Stone Lake, near the spot where the bowl factory 
now stands, and he and his family became the pioneer 
settlers of Cassopolis. 

To this cabin, upon the bank of the lake, there came 
one day, a young man, a stranger, whom the Tietsorts 
learned a few days later was Elias B. Sherman. 
He was a lawyer by profession, but just then engaged 

* For the T« 

Bee Chapter XI 

t See chai.te 

ring the early years of the e 

in seeking profitable land investment and a location 
in which he might settle permanently and grow up 
with the country. He had come from Detroit to 
Southwestern Michigan, in the fall of 1829, and 
spent much time in looking over St. Joseph, Cass 
and Berrien Counties. At first he had made a claim 
on Little Prairie Ronde (which he sold to Elijah Goble, 
in 1830, for $65), and subsequently he had assisted 
Dr. Henry H. Fowler to procure the location of the 
county seat at Geneva, the village which he had laid out 
upon Diamond Lake. For his services in this matter 
he had expected to receive a village lot, but had been 

There was much dissatisfaction in regard to the es- 
tablishment of the seat of justice at Geneva, and Mr. 
Sherman was one of the many who believed that a 
change of location could be effected. He was more- 
over one of those who proposed to bring about a 
change and to profit by it. 

Upon the day when he was received as a caller at 
Abram Tietsort's cabin, he had examined the south- 
east quarter of Section 26 in La Grange Township 
(the site of tlie villiige of Cassopolis), and had become 
favorably impressed with the advantages which it 
offered. He considered the " lay of the land" 
and its proximity to the geographical center of 
the county as the fulfillment of very necessary 
requisites, and resolved to enter a sufficient tract to 
include the desirable village site. But how to effect 
this purchase with his limited means was a question 
which required some thought. It was the question 
upon which he was cogitating as he sat in the cabin 
and as he ate supper at the simple board of his host 
and hostess. His thoughts were given an impetus 
during this time by a conversation to which he was a 
listener. Three brothers, the Jewells, newly arrived 
neighbors of the Tietsort family, who had put up a 
cabin about where the Air Line Railroad depot now 
is, dropped in to make a friendly visit, and some of 
their remarks revealed the fact that they intended to 
enter the very same piece of land which he had in 
mind. This piece of information accelerated his 
movements toward the realization of the plan which 
had been forming itself in his mind. Mr. Sherman 
said nothing of his own intentions, but as soon as he 
could do so started on foot for Edwardsburg. He 
had there a friend — or an acquantance rather, for he 
had only met him a few days before at White Pigeon 
— whom he decided to make his partner in the newly 
conceived real estate project. This individual was 
none other than a young lawyer, named Alexander 
H. Redfield, who was destined to take a prominent 
part, not only in the affairs of Cassopolis and of the 
county but in those of the State. 



Mr. Redfielii warmly approved the plan which Mr. 
Sherman detailed to him. He was unable, however, 
to furnish one-half of the cash capital which this 
speculation in land must absorb. The total amount of 
money needed to make the purchase or entry at the 
White Pigeon Land Office, was $100. Sherman had 
$50 ; Redfield only $40. There was a way out 
of this difficulty, however. Redfield gave Sher- 
man a letter to a friend of his at White Pigeon, 
requesting a loan of $10, and the latter with this 
document in his pocket, set out on foot for the land 
office. The night was dark and cold, and rain was 
falling. When he reached George Meacham's cabin, 
he was tired and chilled, but borrowing a horse he 
continued upon his way, following the Chicago trail. 
Somewhere in Porter Township he sought rest and 
shelter from the storm in a deserted cabin. At day- 
dawn he remounted his horse, soon crossed the St. 
Joseph River at Mottville, and while it was still early 
morning, rode into White Pigeon, seven miles be- 
yond. The loan was obtained of Mr. Redfield's 
friend, the coveted eighty acres of land duly entered, 
the money paid and Mr. Sherman now started on his 
way back to Edwardsburg to receive the congratula- 
tions of his partner. 

He had been none too diligent or expeditious in 
attending to his business for he had proceeded but 
a few miles from White Pigeon, when he met the 
Jewell brothers bound upon the same errand which 
he had just accomplished. 

Messrs. Sherman and Redfield now associated with 
themselves, the owners of the land adjoining the 
eighty acres which they had entered. The parties 
were Abram Tietsort, Jr., who added forty acres in 
Section 35, Col. Oliver Johnson, who added twenty 
from his lands in Section 25, and Ephraim McLeary, 
who added a similar amount from land which he had 
entered in Section 36. 

An active fight was now begun for the county seat. 
There were many persons who were dissatisfied with 
the location of the seat of justice at Geneva, and they 
urged the Legislative Council of the Territory to an- 
nul the action of the Commissioners, and appoint a 
new Board of Commissioners, to whom authority 
should be given to make another location. Gross ir- 
regularity in the proceedings of the Commissioners 
invalidated their decision. It was notorious that they 
had planned to profit unduly by their own official 
action, and that they had withheld from the public 
information concerning the locality they had decided 
upon for the seat of justice, until they had themselves 
entered at the land office adjoining tracts. This fact, 
as attested in petitions, very numerously signed, was 
doubtless the chief cause of the reconsideration of the 

Commissioners' proceedings, under authority of the 
Council — the death of Geneva and the birth of Cass- 

Upon March 4, 1831, the Council passed an act* 
providing for the relocation of the seats of justice of 
Cass, Branch and St. Joseph Counties, and authoriz- 
ing the appointment of a new Commission. 

Thomas Rowland, Henry Disbrow and George A. 
O'Keefe were appointed Commissioners. 

Various parties now prepared to exhibit the advan- 
tages which tiieir lands offered for the location of the 
seat of justice, but when the Commissioners arrived, 
the only claims they had to consider were those made 
by the persons interested in Geneva, and the proprie- 
tors of Cassopolis. 

Messrs. Sherman and Redfield and their associates 
in the mean time had their land carefully surveyed, 
and a town platted which they called Cassapolis. 
Three of the streets were named in honor of the Com- 
missioners, and doubtless some other influences equally 
subtle were brought to bear upon those worthies to 
make them see the surpassing fitness of Cassopolis as 
the county seat. At any rate, the Commissioners de- 
cided in their favor, and, upon the 19th of December, 
1831, Cassopolis was formally proclaimedf by the 
Governor as the seat of justice of Cass County. 

One of the conditions on which the seat of justice 
was heated at Cassopolis, was the donation to the 
county of one-half of all the lands in the village plat. 
The lots donated were disposed of afterward by agents 
appointe<l by the Supervisors. 

Upon the 19th of November, 1831, the platj was 
recorded by the proprietors E. B. Sherman, A. H. 
Redfield, Ephraim McLeary, Abram Tietsort, Jr., and 
Oliver Johnson (by his agent Mr. Sherman). The 
acknowledgment was made before William R. Wright, 
Justice of the Peace. 

In recent years the village has been enlarged by 
several additions. The first was made by Henry 
Bloodgood, May 25, 1869. E. B. Sherman and 
Samuel Graham made additions, respectively, upon the 

*See synopsis of the a 
ter XI. 

tThe proclmiiittii.ii in 

^Following l8 II il-'-' r 

liigapart of Socii..nH .;'., 

from which r-ngea nr- iii 
til ■ other streetrt ht<- four 
>lic square i 

r bearing upon this subject in Chap- 

jN iihi .li; Slatf street is made a base line, from 
ii>['li Hill] south; Broadway Is made a meridian, 
.1..I .lust and west. They are both six rods wide; 
epttiig Lake street which Is two rods wide The 
Mity-six ro IS, designed for buildings for public uses, 
rhe Ids are five rods by eight, i-xceptlng Lots No. 7 and 14. in Ranges 2 W(«t 
and 2, :t and 4 e;i8t, which are eight rods by nine. The same In Blocks 1 east 
and 1 west are nine by eight and one-eighth. Nns. 4, 6, 6, 7, 8, U, II, 12, U and 
14, ill Blocks No. 1 niirtb and south, lUng'^s I east and west, are four by eight. 
Nils. 1 anil :t in same blocks and ranges are three by ten. Nos. 2 are three and 
thre'- i)uart4>rs by ten. Nos. I. 2, 3 and 4, in Blocks I north and south. Ranges 2 
west and 2, :i and 4 east, are four h, ten Irregular lots adjoining the lake are 
of variiiiis »i/.e». The whole plat is I19>!; by 1»1 rods. 

liliirkH No. 7, i:i and U, in Range'2 west— 7 and 14, in Ranges I west and 
easl. HI... k J north ; the whole of Block 2 north, Hange 2 east ; Noe. 6, 7, 8, 9. 
10 II, 12. I.I, 14, 15 and IG In Block 1 north. Range 2 east ; Nos 2,3,4,Gand6 
in lil.ick 3 south ; 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12, In Blocks 2 and 3 south, and S, 0, 7,8, 9, 
10, II, 12, l:t, 14, 1.'> and 111, In Rlick I, south of Range2 east; Nos. 7 and 14, in 
Range 3 east; 7, II, 12, 13 anil 14, Block 2 north. Range 4 east; Blocks 2 and 3 
south. III Range 4 east, an- donated to the county, to be disposed of by their 



ocli and 9t,li of Decumber, 1 70, siuJ S. F. AnJeisoa 
laid out the villa of Andersonville upon lands adjoin- 
ing the town plat, August 20, 1871. 


An interesting memento of the founding of Cassop- 
olis was received by the corporation officers in 1868, 
and is carefully preserved. The relic is a cane made 
from a pole cut on the site of the village in 1831, by 
Alexander H. Redfield, and used by him and Mr. 
Sherman in measuring distances. Following is the 
interesting explanatory letter from Mr. Redfield 
which accompanied the gift. 

" In Sepiemher or (Ictoher, 1831, Elias B. Sherman, Esq , of 
Cassopolis. and I, came on foot from Edwardsburg to the site of 
Cassopolis, and slopped at ihe house of Abram Tietsort, Jr., 
situaled on the bank of ihe lake. We wished to determine whether 
it was not a good place for the county seat. We htood upon the 
beautiful elevation, now the public square, and desired to know 
the distance from the ceuter of the hill to ihe first section corner 
east. With my pocket knife 1 cut a hickory pole and with my 
hands, measured off, as near as I could, one rod, and with that 
pole we measured up from the section corner west to the center 
of the hill, and found the distance to be forty rods. We then j 
planted the pole in the ground at or near the present center of 
the public square. The Commissioners, Me:<srs. Rowland, I)is- 
hrow and OKeefe, appointed by the Territorial Legislature, soon 
after established the county seat at the point selected by us. The 
pole stood where we had planted it till the village plat was sur- 
veyed and marked, and clearing and building began. Passing 
one day across the public square I found that a brush heap 
had been burned near where the pole stood and that the 
whole of it had been burned except a small piece from which this 
cane has been made. I have cvrefuUy preserved the st:ck thirty- , 
seven years, as a memorial of early times and ol I friends and as<o- 
ciations, and now respectfully request the corporation of Cassop- 
olis to accept this cane with my warmest wishes that the beauti- 
ful village, in the founding of which and the building up I took 
an humble but eirnest part during seventeen years in which it 
was my home, may be blessed and prosperous, and its citizens 
happy." A. H. Redfield. 

Dated Detroit, October 24, 1868. 


When the plat of Cassopolis was recorded there 
was not within its bounds a single dwelling house, 
but very soon there appeared tangible tokens of the 
village that was to be. Ira B. Henderson erected a 
log cabin on the ground in front of which Mcllvain, 
Phelps & Kingsbury's store now stands ; John 
Parker put up a hewed log house on Lot 5, Block 1 
south, Range 1 west, and in the spring of 1832 
Messrs. Sherman and Redfield put up a large, frame 
house on the northwest side of the public square — 
which is still standing and the oldest house in Casso- 

The cabin of Abram Tietsort, Jr., was not included 
in the original limits of the village, but its site is 
inside of the present boundaries. Julia Ann Tiet- 
ort (now Mrs. Gates, of Orleans County, N. Y.) 

was born there July 3, 1830, and was the first 
white child which had its nativity in Cassopolis. 

The first death was that of Jason R. Coates, and 
occurred August 7, 1832. He was killed by being 
dashed against the limb of a tree by a spirited saddle 
horse which became unmanageable and ran away with 
him. The funeral was attended from Henderson's 
tavern, and the remains were interred where they now 
rest in the cemetery. A portion of the ground in 
the burial-place was set apart at that lime by Mr. 

Upon January 1, 1833, was celebrated the first 
wedding, the parlies to which were Elias B. Sherman, 
and Sarah, daughter of Jacob Silver. Mr. Sherman 
had arrived at the realization of the great truth 
that is not good for man to be alone, and, having 
induced Miss Silver to believe that it was not alto- 
gether good for woman to be alone, they set the day 
for the happy event which should make them one. 
There was no minister in Cassopolis at that time, and 
none in the immediate vicinity. Miss Silver's 
especial choice was to have the marriage ceremony 
performed by an Episcopalian, and learning that 
Bishop Philander Chase had just located at '' Gilead," 
about sixty or seventy miles east of Cassopolis, Mr. 
Sherman was sent out to secure, if possible, his serv- 
ices. Early one morning, mounting a trusty horse, 
he set out upon his journey and at nightfall arrived 
at the Bishop's cabin. He was successful in his mis- 
sion and upon the following morning started upon his 
return trip. Miss Silver was delighted with the idea 
of being married by a Bishop, and elaborate prepara- 
tions were made for the ceremony. The morning of 
the 1st of January dawned auspiciously. The 
sun shone brightly and the weather was as mild as 
May. The Bishop was on hand according to agree- 
ment, the people of the little hamlet and of the sur- 
rounding country were filled with pleasurable excite- 
ment and all went '• merry as a marriage bell." The 
guests assembled in the second story of the building 
in which Jacob Silver sold goads — since known as 
''the old red store." The large room had been espe- 
cially prepared for the occasion and made as pleasant 
as was possible. The weather was so balmy and 
warm that the windows and doors were left open. 
Spring-like breezes floated through the apartment, 
and wild flowers picked in the morning upon Young's 
prairie brightened the costumes of some of the maids 
and matrons who were present. Benjamin F. Silver 
and Charlotte Hastings acted respectively as grooms- 
man and bridesraiiid. Not all of the names of those 
present can be remembered, but among the guests at 
this first social gathering in Cassopolis were Alexan- 
der H. Reilfield. Dr. Henry H. Fowler, Benjamin F. 


^7)-'^^ y^i^c^^^^ 


Silver. Ira B. Henderson, John Parker, Honley C. 
Lybrook, David Brady, George Jones, Peter and 
David Shaffer, Robert Wilson, the Mcintosh and 
Shields families, Joel Wright, Isaac Shurte, Eli P. 
Bonnell, Job Davis and Abraham Townsend. Almost 
all of these were accompanied by their wives and 
families and the company was, considering the time, 
a very large one. The pair joined in wedlock upon 
that bright, balmy New Year's Day are still living 
and surrounded with a circle of warm friends who 
hope to see them celebrate tlieir golden wedding and 
many succeeding anniversaries of their marriage. 


The infant Oassopolis attained the age of four years 
in 1835. A few. a very few, gray-bearded men, look- 
ing through the picture galleries of their memory, can 
find a more or less faded representation of the seat of 
justice of Cass County as it appeared forty-six years 
ago; but scrutinize the picture closely as he will, no 
one of them can detect suggestions or promise of the 
beautiful and thriving village of to-day. 

There was a little clearing in the wooils, which con. 
tained a straggling group of perhaps a dozen houses 
and log cabins. Through the forest surrounding this 
small, new d)t of civilization, here and there paths or 
trails wound away t )ward other settlemunts. There was 
one e.Ktending to the southward to Edwardsburg, not 
where the present road is, but over the hdl by Mrs. 
Anderson's residence. Another led across the ground 
now used as a burial-place, and northwesterly to La- 
Grange Prairie, from whence it bore southward to 
Pokagon. Nearly all the travel between the latter 
settlement and Cassopolis was by this round. ibout 
route. Bearing off from the La Grange Prairie road 
to the nortiiward, was a trail to Whitinanville. Ex- 
tending eastward from the little hamlet there was a 
path by way of Diamoml Lake to Young's Prairie, 
and beyond, and branching from it there was one 
which led down to Mottville. The road to Niles in 
those days led through the woods on the high ground 
west of Stone Lake, where it may still be traced, and 
forms indeed a beautiful woodland path. 

Travelers (and there were many of them going about 
the country looking for land locitions in the time of 
which we write), riding into Cassopolis on any one of 
the winding trails above mentioned, drew up at the 
tavern kept by Eber Root. This was a framed build- 
ing, anil stood on the ground now occupied by the 
Cass House. Its exterior was not particularly allur- 
ing in appearance, but within was a genial landlord 
and good cheer. The wayfarer and the stranger, if 
the season were winter, could warm himself before a 
crackling wood fire in the bar-room, and supplement 

the external comfort by internal, through the agency 
of the honest whisky which Root sold for three cents 
a glass. One barrel and a few bottles usually con- 
tained the whole of the liquid stock in trade, but the 
single barrel was very frequently replenished from the 
Silver's distillery down by the lake. Whisky was 
almost universally drank in those days, and Root sel- 
dom kept any other form of spirits. When court sat, 
however, there was demand for beverages either milder 
or more aristocratic, and wines and brandies were im- 
ported for the occasion. The bar-room of the tavern, 
however, was not suppi)rted entirely by the patronage 
of the traveling people. The distillery was a home 
institution, and at that time about the only manufact- 
uring establishment in Cassopolis, and the " drouthy 
neebors " of the village gave it a hearty support, even 
going so far as to sit up nights and dispose of its pro- 
ducts, and that, too, very often, after devoting the 
entire day to the same work. 

If the stranger who visited Cassopolis in 1835 
desired the services of a lawyer, he found Alexander 
H. Redfield, who was boarding at the tavern, or Elias 
B. Sherman, who lived in the frame house which still 
stands on its original site, back of the county offices, 
and is now owned by Mrs. Caroline Bisbee. This 
house was built by Mr. Sherman for a hotel, but at 
the time of which we write, it was a private dwelling 
house, occupied by M.r. Sherman and " Uncle Jake 

Rivaling in importance, as a social center, the tav- 
ern, there was Silver's store, " the old red store," 
which stood where is now the ware room occupied 
with a portion of French's hardware stock. Here 
the Silvers dispensed goods in small quantities and 
great variety, to the few people of the village, and the 
larger number who dwelt in the region round about, 
and here lawyer Redfield kept the post office. 

Upan the lot back of the present place of business 
of Mcllvain, Phelps & Kingsbury, stood a little log 
building, originally built by Ira B. Henderson, for a 
hotel, in one end of which the village smithy had his 
forge, while the other end was occupied by a family. 

Not far away from this building, on the lot now 
best described as south of the Lindsey plaaing-mill, 
was a small log building, with a big, formidable lock 
upon its door, tiio county jail, which is elsewhere de- 

Besides these buihlings, Cassopolis contained, in 
18-35. a half dozen others, or, to be exact, seven. 
There was, to begin the enumeration, the distillery, 
to which allusion has been made ; a little house where 
•loel Cowgill now lives, in which resided Catherine 
Kimmerle, a widow ; one in which David Ro )t and 
his mother lived ; the house just west of Lindsey's 



planing-raill, now owned by James Boyd ; a story and 
a half frame house where Myers' store is; the small 
structure still standing east of Joseph Graham's resi- 
dence ; and down near the lake, a one story log 
cabin, in which dwelt "Deaf Dick" and "Aunt 
Peggy," both of whom were deaf and dumb. 

The village looked very new and crude, stumps ap- 
peared in all directions, and the huge trunks of trees 
that had been chopped down still lay prostrate on the 
ground along what is now Broadway, between Root's 
tavern and the Silvers' store. Where Joseph Harper 
now lives was a little vegetable garden, cultivated by 
Eber Root. North of this point, the street was not 
cut through the timber, and, in fact, it bore little 
semblance to a street south of it, in the very center of 
the village, owing to the presence of the logs and 
brush, and the litter of the woodman's ax. Little 
brown paths, worn through the grass into the sandy 
soil, led hither and thither across the clearing, the 
centers of their convergence being the tavern and the 

Just beyond the village limits, upon the bank of 
the lake, between the sites of the foundry and bowl 
factory, was the cabin of Abram Tietsort, Jr., and not 
far away was a log building in which he worked at 
his trade, cabinet making. Besides the rude but sub- 
stantial articles of furniture, for which there was a 
demand among the pioneers, the solitary workman in ^ 
the log cabin made occasionally a plain and simple 
coffin, for death had come already to the infant village, 
and there were four graves in the little burying-ground 
in 1835. I 


"Oh! there never was a campaign like that, and \ 
there never will be another, never ! " exclaims one | 
who hurrahed for Harrison in 1840, and his face 
grows animated as he recalls the humors of the great 
partisan contest, and, perhaps, fancies that he hears 
the faint reverberations of all those thunders of ap- I 
plause and ringing cheers that so long ago made the i 
woods echo. In 1840, the West rose up in its might 
to honor him to whom honor was due, the hero of 
Tippecanoe, and of the Thames, and soon the wave of i 
enthusiasm inundated the whole land. 

It was a great campaign indeed, that of 1840, re- 
markable alike for the heat of its partisanship and ! 
the quaint and humorous forms in which the super- 
abundant zeal of the people was expressed. It was 
interesting as being the first shurj) political contest in 
the West, [n character as well as time, it was the 
campaign of the pioneers. Their enthusiasm was due 
more to the fact that William Henry Harrison was a | 
high type of their own class than a successful General 

in tlTe war of 1812, although his military achievements 
had first brought him into prominence, and nearly all 
of the electioneering devices used in the Western 
.States were of such nature as to keep before them the 
idea that the Whig candidate was one of them. Hence, 
the log cabin with the "latch-string out," the barrel 
of hard cider and the coon skin were in constant use, 
and were painted on the banners under which Harri- 
son's forces marched on to victory. 

The asperities of the campaign have been softened 
by the flowing away of forty years, the bitter asper- 
sions have been forgiven or forgotten, and the old 
men who shouted for " Tippecanoe and Tyler, too," 
looking back upon the whole affair, regard it at a dis- 
tance rather as a prolonged season of uproarious 
merry-making than as the bitter political contest it 
really was. 

One of the local incidents of the campaian of 1840, 
is well worth recording in the history of Cassopolis. 
We refer to the great mass meeting — the first political 
assemblage of any consequence in the county — and 
the largest of any kind, excepting only the meetings 
of the past few years. We have secured the account 
from an Old-Line Whig (the memory of the Whigs 
being, it is thought, just a trifle more accurate con- 
cerning the aifairs of 1840 than that of their op- 

A brief digression to touch upon the great mass 
meeting held at Tippecanoe, Ind., will not be out 
of place, as it was from the big fire which burne<l on 
the old battle ground, that the most earnest Whigs 
of Cass County, in common with those of Southern 
Michigan, brought the brands to light their home 
bonfires for the purpose of warming their colder 
brethren. The convention was held on the 29th of 
May, 1840. A sufficient number of men went from 
Cass County to employ six teams in their transporta- 
tion. They were gone about a week, took provisions 
with them and encampeii nights along the way as the 
pioneers did when they came into the country. 
From Cassopolis and its immediate vicinity, those 
in attendance were Joseph Harper, Cornelius V. 
Tietsort, Abram Loux and William H. Brice, and 
from Young's Prairie, " Big Bill" Jones, George 
Jones (father of the present Sheriff) and Ephraini 
arrd Samuel Alexander. They heard some very able 
and eloquent speeches made by Henry S. Lane (mem- 
ber of Congress and afterward Governor of Indiana), 
James lirooks., of New York, and others ; saw an im- 
mense concourse of people, a great many log cabins 
and canoes; feasted at the big barbecue ; gazed on a 
colossal "Johnny Cake," measuring about three by 
sixteen feet, and came home even more enthusiastic 
about William Henry Harrison, than they had been 



when they started upon their journey of more than a 
hundred miles to attend the meeting. 

The memorable day of the campaign in Cass County 
was July 6. The morning was forbidding and the 
day wet, but notwithstanding an immense crowd of 
people assembled and the rain did not seem to put a 
damper on tlieir ardor. They came from all parts of 
Cass and the adjoining counties and from Indiana, to 
the number, it is said, of 5,000, which for the time 
was certainly a great gathering. Inhabitants of dif- 
ferent localities and individuals of the same vied with 
each other in getting up noticeable turnouts and big 
teams. Several log cabins, one of them quite large 
ami very nicely made, were brought in from the coun- 
try, and there were a plentiful supply of canoes and 
the various other emblems of the party. The big cabin 
was hauled in by a team of five horses, Jonathan 
Gard riding upon the nigh wheel-horse. From the 
cabin door dangled a conspicuous latch string, and 
Col. James Newton, of Volinia (a member of Michi- 
gan's First Constitutional Convention), rode on top of 
the cabin, astride of the ridge-pole, holding in his 
embrace a fine fat coon. Another turnout which at- 
tracted much attention was gotten up by E. H. Spald- 
ing and others in Whitmanville and its vicinity. It 
consisted of a team of twenty-six yoke of oxen, a pair 
for each State then in the Union, attached to a huge 
wagon containing a very considerable portion of the 
population of Whitmanville. W. G. Beckwith was 

The principal speaker of the day was George Daw- 
son (for the past thirty-five years editor of the Albany 
Journal), who held his audience for two hours and a 
half with argument and wit. He spoke in the pres- 
ent court house which was then in process of con- j 
struction and had been roofed but not floored. The 
speaker occupied a stand erected for the occasion and 
the people in his audience stood closely crowded to- 
getiier on the ground inclosed by the temple of jus- ! 
tice. Some disappointment was felt at the nonap- I 
pearance of Gov. Woodbridge and George C. Bates, 
of Detroit, who had been expected, but several other 
speakers were present, and while Mr. Dawson was 
holding forth to the audience in the court, they ad- 
dressttd another in the Oak Grove, which then covered 
the lot now known as the Kingman property. The 
people dispersed at night in the best of humor and 
filled with a sense of conviction that they had done 
their duty for the Whig cause. 

Later in the season, a meeting was held at Edwards 
burg, which was addressed by Jacob M. Howard, of 
Detroit, candidate for Congress, and Joseph R. Will- 
iams, of Constantine, who was running for the State 
Senate. The attendance was surprisingly large, but 

the meeting was not to be compared in point of size, 
merriment, enthusiasm and rude spectacular display 
with the Cassopolis rally. 

The log cabin brought into town by Jonathan Gard 
and Col. Newton was presented to Joseph Harper, and 
remained for a long time where it was deposited, in 
York street, east of Broadway. Mr. Harper, who was 
then Register of Deeds, had his office where Dr. 
Tompkins now resides. After the campaign was over, 
the cabin was moved back in the lot, and converted 
into a pig sty. After all of the activity of the Whigs 
in Cass County, the great meeting and their wild en- 
thusiasm, they gave their candidate a majority of 143 
votes ; Harrison received 670 and Van Buren 527. 

Cassopolis realized one benefit which was permanent, 
from the excitement of the campaign. Joseph Harper 
wagered a village lot with Jacob Silver on the issue 
in Pennsylvania, and, winning, received a deed for Lot 
No. 8, in Block 1 north, Range 2 east, which, two 
years later, he gave to the district for school purposes. 
Upon it was erected the first frame schoolhouse in 
the village. 

.JOB Wright's prediction — the eagle's flight. 

What may be termed another incident of the cam- 
paign of 1840 was the prediction of Harrison's early 
death by Job Wright, " the recluse of Diamond 
Lake Island," who, we will remark, had fought under 
the old General. The account here presented is from 
a sketch of Wright, by the Hon. George B. Turner.* 

* * * " Harrison was elected by an overwhelm- 
ing majority. On the 4th of March following, the 
Whigs of Cass County assembled at Cassopolis in great 
force to do honors to their chief on the day of his inau- 
guration. Amongst the many devices to give eclat to 
the occasion was the letting loose, at a given time, of 
an eagle that hail been captured a few days before. A 
large crowd had gathered in front of the village tavern 
to witness the flight of the proud bird. Just as they 
were about to let it go, the recluse of the Island 
came along the outskirts of the assembly, and was 
told how, in a few minutes, this eagle, emblematic of 
our nation's power and freedom, would be released to 
seek his mate in the rerie from which he was torn but 
a few days before. 

" Now be it known that the recluse possessed, or 
supposed he did, the power of divination, accruing 
to hira by virtue of an extra thumb on the right 
hand. He had two thumbs where ordinary mortals 
had but one. He could not only tell what the future 
would bring forth, but claimed to be able to read the 
past with equal facility, though a century had elapsed 
to bury it from the memory of man. 

•Publinbed in the Sational Democral August 21, 1873. 


" As the master of ceremonies was about to give 
the word which would set the eagle free, the old man, 
in a solemn and impressive voice, was heard to say : 
' So many rods as that bird flies, so many weeks will 
Harrison, my beloved General live, and no longer.' 

" He pulled his slouched hat over his eyes and soon 
passed on toward his home, disregarding <he taunt 
and jeer that was flung at him by the overzealous 
friends of Harrison. The eagle was released. It 
flew to a small, hickory tree, near where the Baptist 
church now stands, and alighted upon one of its 
branches, remaining there twenty minutes or more, 
apparently bewildered by the sounds it heard and the 
sights it saw. 

" Some boys soon came along and brought him 
down and gave him a prey to some dirty curs in the 
crowd who rended it in pieces. The distance it flew 
was some eight or ten rods. The student of Ameri- 
can history, as he compares this flight with the brief 
weeks the General enjoyed his proud position, will 
wonder how inspiration could prompt the old recluse 
thus surely to name bounds for the life of our Chief 


In October, 1842, occurred the only general militia 
muster in the annals of Cass County. It was a 
peculiarly interesting and amusing affair, in all essen- 
tials equal to the " trainings " so happily and humor- 
ously described by Tom Corwin. of Ohio, in his reply 
to Gen. Crary, of Michigan, upon the floor of the 
House of Representatives. 

The able-bodied, white male citizens of the county, 
between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, were 
notified to meet at Cassopolis in pursuance of a liw 
enacted by the State Legislature in 1841. This act 
specified the purposes of the militia assemblage as 
" inspection, drill-service and martial exercise." 
These were precisely the elements of human action 
which were lacking in the Cassopolis training of ' 
1842. Upon the day designated for the gathering of ; 
the soldiery, nearly a thousand men assembled upon 
the public square to go through those military evolu- 
tions calculated to prepare them for " the trade of 
death," which, by some remote possibility, they might 
be called upon to follow. 

The Colonel of the regiment was James L. Glenn ; 
the Lieutenant Colonel, Asa Kingsbury, and the 
Major, Joseph Smith. The latter was probably the i 
only oflicer who had any knowledge of the methods 
of infantry drill or military discipline. He had served 
in the Ohio militia in former years. 

Maj. Smith labored lustily to educate his fellow- , 
citizens in tho mysteries of military evolutions, but 
failed signally in the accomplishment of his object. 

He had, perhaps, the rawest raw material which ever 
vexed a martial commander, and his failure could not 
be considered as casting any reproach upon his ability 
as an oflicer The militia, privates and subaltern 
ofiicers, were attired in all imaginable fashions, and 
their equipment was as varied as their clothing. Some 
carried rifles, some shotguns, others rake handles, 
sticks or clubs, and not a few of them bore those 
terribly effective bucolic weapons, the common employ- 
ment of which earned for the amateur soldiery of forty 
years ago the characteristic title of the " Cornstalk 

The day was very disagreeable, the air being filled 
with mingled snow and rain, and the earth .saturated 
with water. The men, after tramping about in the 
mud and becoming wet and cold, lost what little desire 
for a military education they might have had at the 
outset, and became thoroughly demoralized. The 
officers could not evolve order from the chaos which 
ensued, and confusion was soon worse confounded by 
reason of indulgence in liquor; "whisky, that great 
leveler of modern times," was here. The brave miliiia 
men did not literally follow the example of Tom 
Corwin's militia, and drink it from the shells of water- 
melons, in imitation of the Scandinavian heroes, who 
quaffed wine from the skulls of those whom they had 
slain in battle, but used tin cups to convey the fiery 
spirit to their lips. Judging from the effect produced, 
there were not many slips, on this occasion, between 
the cup and lip. A large quantity of the liquor was 
consumed. Barrels of it were rolled out upon the 
public square, and each Captain secured a pail, which 
being filled with whisky, was carried up and down 
the lines until all of the men in each company were 
liberally served. Afterward many helped themselves 
from the barrels. Innocent hibirity, moderate banter 
and friendly trials of strength were among the first 
results of their potations, but it was not long before 
bad blood was aroused, and angry altercations took 
the place of harmless wrestling matches. Several 
disgraceful scenes followed. All idea of continuing 
the training was abandoned. The crowd gave itself 
up completely to revelry, and it was continued until 
nightfall. The debauch was general. There arc a 
considerable number of individuals in Cass County, 
each one of whom claims to have been the only sober 
m:in in Cassopolis upon the day of the great militia 
muster. As a matter of fact, the labor of taking the 
census of unintoxicated persons present upon that oc- 
casion would be very trivial. 


Only a few ripples of the temperance tide of 1840, 
the Washingtonian movement, reached Cassopolis, but 



The subject of this sketch, probably the most suc- 
cessful of the business men of Cass County, was born 
at Newton Heights, near Boston, Mass., May 28, 
1806. In 1830, he removed to Cleveland, Ohio, 
where he was engaged for a period of about three 
years in the manuf:icture of glue. In 1833, he was 
given an opportunity to go farther West, which he 
embraced, after short reflection, and as his remark- 
able success has demonstrated, very fortunately. A 
business man of Cleveland desired him to take his son, 
a wild, reckless young man, and in return for his 
trouble, volunteered to furnish him with whatever capital 
he might need for the enterprise in which he might en- 
gage. Mr. Kingsbury chartered a schooner, and 
loading her with about $3,000 worth of miscellaneous 
goods, started up the lakes, bound for any port where 
he could advantageously dispose of his cargo, or find 
an opening for trade. While passing up the St. 
Clair River, Mr. Kingsbury was relieved from the 
care of his protege, the young man deserting the 
vessel. Mr. Kingsbury went to Green Bay, but not 
liking the location, sailed up the lake to St. Joseph, 
where, after being long delayed' from landing by rough 
weather, and narrowly escaping shipwreck, he finally 
disembarked and had his goods unloaded. In pros- 
pecting for a good location for opening business, he 
visited Bertrand, which was then enjoying its palmiest 
days. Liking the appearance of the place, he had his 
goods brought up the river and went into business. 
In 1834, it became apparent to Mr. Kingsbury that 
the village, which had only the year before seemed so 
prosperous, had begun to retrograde. Hence, he re- 
moved to Cassopolis, which was a promising hamlet. 
His first venture was the management of a distillery 
and store, which he purchased of .John M. Barbour. 

From that time on, Asa Kingsbury has been inti- 
mately and extensively identified with the business 
interests of Cassopolis. In 1837, his brother Charles 
came to the village, and a general mercantile business 
was opened by the firm of Asa & Charles Kingsbury, 
which was carried on for a period of twenty years, or 
until 1857. They also dealt extensively in real estate. 
In June, 18.55, Asa Kingsbury opened a private 
banking office, in which he did business until the 
First National Bank was established in 1871. Of 
this institution, Mr. Kingsbury may be properly 
termed the founder. He has been its President from 
the time of its organization to the present. In politics, 
Mr. Kingsbury has been a Democrat. While taking a 
citizen's interest in political affairs, he has not been 
an active office-seeker. He was once a candidate for 
the position of State Senator, and in 1842 was elected 
County Treasurer. Mr. Kingsbury has been very 
successful in business, and accumulated a large property, 
of which he has been a worthy steward. His benevo- 
lence, never ostentatiously displayed, has been in pro- 
portion to his ample means, and could be attested by 
hundreds of worthy and needy men. His character 
and ability are well known to the people among whom 
he has dwelt. 

Mr. Kingsbury has been three times married. His 
first wife was Adaline M. Fisk, of Massachusetts. 
The children by this marriage were Charles H. and 
Amanda (Mrs. J. K. Ritter). Mr. Kingsbury's 
second wife was Emily, daughter of Allen Monroe. 
After her decease he married Mary Jane Monroe. The 
offspring of this marriage were Nancy E. (Hull), now 
of Jackson, Mich., Asa, Allen M., Ruth T. (wife of 
James Hayden), Hattie J. (wife of Dr. Holland, of 
Edwardsburg), George, Cyrus, Georgianna, David, 
Emmeline, Blanche, Verna D. and Winnie May. 



in 1845, the village had a revival of peculiar character, 
which was all its own — an agitation which in some 
respects has had few if any parallels in Southwustern 
Michigan. Its originator and conductor was Augus- 
tus Littlejohn (a brother of the late Judge Flavius J. 
Littlejohn). He was an independent, peripatetic, re- 
ligious exhorter, a man of very good education and of 
fair native ability. He is sometimes described as a 
man in whom there was a strong vein of eccentricity, 
but, to change the figure of speech, he seems rather to 
have been entirely woven of eccentricities — the whole 
warp and woof of his nature made up of curious strands 
of some very strange materials. 

Littlejohn had been speaking in various localities in 
the southern part of the county upon the subject of 
temperance, and a number of the citizens of Cassopo- 
lis thinking that he might accomplish some good in 
the seat of justice, prevailed upon him to visit the 
place in February, 1845 No church had been built 
in Cassopolis up to that time, and the temperance re- 
former was granted the use of the court house. 

His first audience was one of fair size, and the meet- 
ing of perhaps more than ordinary interest. The 
speaker exhibited earnestness and eccentricity in about 
equal proportions, and the impression produced was 
such as to encourage the friends of teiirperancc that a 
succe.ssful revival could be carried on. Upon the 
second night the audience was larger than upon the 
first. The third was still greater, and the interest 
seemed to increase in arithmetical, or perhaps geomet- 
rical progression with the members of the meeting. 

Littlejohn grew more fervid and vehement in his 
style of oratory from night to night, and produced a 
marked eff"ect upon his audiences. Many were in 
(luced to sign the pledge of total abstinence. After the 
lecturer had spoken nightly for about two weeks, such a 
furor was aroused that the court house was crowded 
to its utmost capacity. Reports of the great revival, 
and of the eccentricity of the conductor, spread through 
the country, and the farming population from that 
time onward formed a large element in the nightly 
gatherings. .\s evening approached, the streets were 
filled with teams and the village bore very much the 
appearance that it now does upon fair days or when 
great political meetings are held. Some attended 
through friendship for the temperance cause and some 
from mere curiosity. The manner and methods of 
tiie lecturer were certainly such as to cause :i sensa- 
tion. He usually spoke for a time from the platform, 
delivering a more or less argumentative address and 
gradually working himself into a fervent heat he re 
sorted to the style of the religious exhorter, better, 
however, a generation ago than at present. He was 
a very small, spare niau, and it j^eenied at times as if 

he must be literally riven asunder by the force of his 
own passion. As regards the physical man, this catas- 
trophe, as a matter of fact, never took place, but the 
demonstrations of the revivalist indicateil at least a 
mental explosion. Leaving the platform, he would 
walk down the aisle, wildly gesticulating and shouting 
a frantic appeal to his auditors to sign the pledge. Oc- 
casionally he would suddenly cease from speaking and 
begin the singing of a hymn or of a temp'^rance song. 
The people were provided with pamphlets containing 
these songs, and from tlieir sale Mr. Littlejohn de- 
rived the only revenue which rewarded his labors. 
The singing was conducted with much enthusiasm 
and some eccentricity. Prayers were offered at the 
beginning and of each meeting and at intervals 
during the evening. Mr. Littlejohn's prayers were 
not less peculiar than his style of oratory and his 
singing. He was earnest even to vehemence, and had 
a way of introducing personal allusions which was 
often anything but agreeable to the people whom he 

With all of his peculiarities the temperance lecturer 
had an honest desire to do good, to improve the con- 
dition of his fellow-men, and lie labored to that end 
with a zeal which is seldo n paralleled and with much 

The series of m^-etings held at Cassopolis continued 
for forty- two nights, and the interest of the people 
showed little abatement, even toward the close. The 
excitement was intense. Several hundred people 
signed the pledge and many of them faithfully kept 
it. There was of course an clement which could not 
be held, but the " back-sliders" were, perhaps, no more 
numerous in proportion to the number of signers than in 
other similarily conducted temperance revivals. Back- 
sliding was certainly not so near a universal thing as 
it was in the case of a certain religious revival carried 
on by the same Mr. Littlejohn once upon a time in 
Newberg. A few months after the close of the gen- 
tleman's season of labors in that locality, on being 
asked how those people " liehi out" who had made a 
confession of faith and resolved to lead better lives, 
he said, " 0, they are all going back. WeMl have to 
convert every blamed one of 'em over again next fail." 


. Cassopolis was incorporated in 18(5 i, under the 
authority of the Board of Supervisors of Ca,ss County, 
and in accordance with the provisions of a general 
" Act to provide for the incorporation of villages" 
approved Feb. 17, 1857. The following petition, 
signed by a number of citizens, accompatiied liv a re- 
port of a special census of Cassopolis, showing ihir 
population to be 475 (exceeding the requirement], was 



submitted to the board at its meeting of October 

To the HmorahU Boird ■•/ Su"eri,istrs •■( Cas^ County. Michigan : 
Yonr appticiinlsand petitioners, residents in anJ legal voters of 
the territory hereinafter descrilieJ, would respecifcilly petition that 
the following described territory, of not more than one square 
mile, he incorporated :n a village, to be known as the village of 
Cassopolis, according to the provisions of Chapter 72 of the com- 
piled taws of Michigin and the acts amendatory thereto. Said 
territory to he so incorporited being kaowii and described as fol- 
lows, to wit : The southwesi quarter of Section twenty-five (2')). 
the southeast quarter of Section tweniy-^ix (2Ci). the northeast 
quarter of Section thirty-five (<■'>) iiid the ,imrihwe=t quarter of 
Section thiily-six (Slj) all in T..wnship six (11) .sou li. of Range 
fifteen ( 15) west, in the county of (lass. etc. 

Viiur Tetilioners would respectfully represeni that they have 
caiiseil to he taken an accur iie cen-iiis of f e resident populat on 
of said territory, above and herein' efore de-cribeil and duly 
verified by the affidavit ot Charles W. ' li bee. theicto annexed, 
which said census contains and exhibits the name of every heail 
of a family residing within said territory on the fourth day of Sep- 
tember, in the yeir o' oi.r Lord one thousand eig'it hun Ired and 
sixty-three and the number of jiersons then belonging to such 
family therein named plaied opposite to the respective family 
head, and which svid census, so taken as aforesaid, in accord- 
ance with the provisions of Seitiou 2,liiil of ihe Compi ed Laws 
of Michigan, so verified as aforesa^l. is her. i" annexed, and 
respectfully submitted, your petitioners hivin; cau-e I the same 
crn-us to be taken as aforesaiil. by Ch irle" W Clisbee. 

An 1 y.iur peiitioner^ would further repr.-sen' of persons re-id- 
ing in such territory heretofore describe 1 accnnling to such cen- 
sus is the number of four bun Ire 1 and seventy-five persons, 
r.inl to which your petitioners nould respectliil'y refer. 

And your petitioners will ever pray. etc. 
Dated t'AssiipoLTS, Cass County, Michigin, September 4, 18t)3. 

.Joseph Smith. 

.lac.ib Silver, 

O.S. Custard. 


J. Tietsort, 

.lohn McManus. 

M. Graham. Kely. 

M. B. Custard, 

David Histel. 

J. r. Osborn. 

,lo<eph Harper. 

A. Smith, 

Thomas Stapleton 

.lohn II. Powers. 

L. II. Glover. 

D. L. French. 

Bar holomew We 

Isaac Brciwn. 

L. wis Clisbee. 

1 . C. Allison. 

Ira Urownell. 

Bariik Mead. 

Heniy Wal on. 

II. K. McManus. 

1. V. .Sherman. 

M. B.ldwin, 

Charl.s Hartfelte 

M. .1. Baldwin, 

II. 1,. King. 

Ityron Br.idley, 

A. K. fleveland. 

S. S. Chapma-n. 

Chaile- W. Hrott 

E U. .Sherwood, 

Hiram Br wn. 

Charles W. Clis'.ee. 

.lefierson Brown 

.■Sanfor.i Ashcr..fl. 

Peter Snirr. 

J. K. Hitcr. 

D. Blackman 

A Garwood. 

W. K. IMmer. 

S. T. Head. 

G. A, 

George W. Van Antwerp 

Daniel li Smith. 

L. U. Read. 

R. M. Wilson. 

.lames Norton. 

S. Pl-yfor.1.' 

U. S. Jones. 

L. I) Tompkins. 

Henry Shaffer. 

•Joseph Graham. 

.!. B. Chapman, 

Charles .V. Hill. 

.lames Boyd. 

election of officers should be held at the court house 
on the second Monday of November (the 9th). and 
appointed Joseph Smith, Henry Walton and Charles 
W. Clisbee as Inspectors. 

Following are the officers chosen on this occasion : 
President, Joseph Sraith; Trustees, Henry Wal- 
ton, Peter Sturr, Barak Mead. Charles W. Clisbee, 
Alonzo Garwood, Charles G. Batiks ; Treasurer, 
Charles H. Kingsbury; Clerk, Joseph Harper; 
Assessors, John H. Powers, John Tietsort ; Street 
Commissioners, David Histed, Sylvador T. Read, 
Isaac Brown ; Marshal, William K. Palmer ; Fire 
Wanlens, Murray Baldwin, Joseph Graham, Lafa- 
yette R. Reatl, Henry Shaffer, Arthur Smith. 

Below are given the officers who have served in 
each of the subsequent years from 1864 to 1881 
inclusive : 

1864 — President, Joseph Smith ; Trustees, Daniel 
Blackraan, Peter Sturr, Barak Mead, Charles G. 
Banks, Charles W. Clisbee. Alonzo Garwood ;* Treas- 
urer. Charles H. Kingsbury ; Clerk. L. H. Glover ; 
Assessor, Henry Walton ; Street Commissioner, 
David Histed: Marshal. James Boyd ; Fire Wardens, 
Charles W. Brown. Lafayette R. Read. 

1866 — President, Hiram Brown ; Trustees, Daniel 
Blackman, Barak Mead, William W. Peck, Peter 
Sturr. Isaac Brown, S. T. Read ; Treasurer. Charles 
H. Kingsbury : Clerk. L. H. Glover ; Assessor, 
Henry Walton ; Street Commissioners, John Tietsort, 
Joseph Graham; .Marshal, Byron Bradley; Fire 
Wardens, Byron Bradley. Joseph Graham. 

1866 — President. Isaac Brown ; Trustees. Daniel 
Blackman. Sylva.lor T. Read. William W. Peck. Ira 
Brownell, Darius L. French ; Clerk, L. H. Glover ; 
Treasurer, Charles H. Kingsbury ; Assessor, Daniel 
S Jones ; Street Commissioners, Sylvador T. Reatl, 
William W. Peck; Marshal, James L. Norton; Fire 
Wardens, Ira Brownell, Alonzo B. Morley. 

1867 — President. Ibaac Brown ; Trustees, Daniel 
Blackman, Sylva.lnr T. Read, William W. Peck, 
Elias B. Sherman, Charles H. Kingsbury, Darius L. 
French; Clerk, L. H. Glover; Treasurer, Jeremiah 
B. Chapman; Assessor, Henry Tietsort ; Street Com- 
tnissioners. James Boyd. Charles G. Banks ; Mar- 
shal. Daniel B. Smitlit; Fire Wtirdens, Eber Reyn- 
olds, Henry Shaffer. 

1868— President. Joseph Harper; Trustees, Will- 
I im W. Peck, .Andrew J. Smith. B. Shermtm, 
Christopher C. Allison. Sylvailor T. Reatl, Louis D. 
."^mith ; Clerk, L H. Glover ; Treasurer, Jeremiah 
B. Chapman; Assessor, William L.Jakways ; Marshal, 

•Garwood resignwl and William W Perk was appointed Trustee to flit tlie 

The Boaril granted tlii" petition, ordered that an 



John Shaw ; Street Commissioners, Charles W. Chis- 
bee, Isaac Brown ; Fire Wardens, Charles G. Banks, 
Darius L. French. 

1869 — President, Joseph Harper ; Trustees. C. C. 
Allison, John Tietsort, Jordan P. Osborn. Daniel 
BlHckman, Morris B. Custard, C. C. Nelson ; Clerk, 
L. H. Glover; Treasurer, Barak Mead; Assessor, 
Alonzo Garwood ; Marshal, Jsicob Mcintosh ; Street 
Commissioners, David Histed. Charles Berry ; Fire 
Wardens, Wilson Kingman. Darius L. French. 

1870— President, William P. Bennett; Trustees, 
John Tietsort, Morris B. Custard, Andrew Woods, 
C. C. Nelson, Henry J. Webb, Alonzo B. Morley ; 
Clerk. Ellery C. Deyo ; Assessor, Andrew Woods ; 
Marshal, Jacob Mcintosh ; Treasurer, Albert Magin- 
nis ; Street Commissioners, Morris B. Custard, James 

A. Fuller; Fire Wardens, Wilson Kingman, Darius 
L. French. 

1871 — President, William P. Bennett; Trustees, 
C. C. Nelson, Joel Cowgill. John A. Talbot. Zacheus 
Aldrich, Matthew T. Garvey ; Clerk. Ellery C. 
Deyo; Treasurer, Albert Maginnis; As.sessor, Mor- 
ris B. Custard; Marshal. Daniel H.Rugar; Street 
Commissioners, Orson Rudd, John Shaw; Fire 
Wardens, Jordan P. Osborn, Henry C. French. 

1872— President, L. H. Glover*; Trustees, W. 
W. Mcllvain, Jordan P. 0.-<born, Henry Shaffer^ 
Abijah Pegg, John R. Carr, William P. Bennett; 
Clerk, Eber Reynolds; Treasurer, Albert Maginnis ; 
Assessor, L. H. Glover ; Marshal, Owen L. Allen ; 
Street Commissioners, Hiram Norton, Henry Blood- 
good ; Fire Wardens, Daniel B. Smith, Henry C. 

1873 — President, John Tietsort; Trustees, Morris 

B. Custard. William D. Reames, Marshall L. Howell. 
W. W. Mcllvain, Jordan P. Osborn ; Clerk, Eber 
Reynolds ; Treasurer, Albert Maginnis ; Assessor, 
Charles G. Banks; Marshal, Owen L. Allen; Streo^ 
Commissioners, Owen L. Allen, Zncheus Aldrich • 
Fire Wardeiis, Jordan P. Osborn, William W. Peck. 

1874 — President, John Tietsort; Trustees, Orson 
Rudd, Andrew J. Smith, Jeremiah B, Chapman, 
Morris B. Custard, William D Reames, Marshall L. 
Howell ; Treasurer, William W. Peck : Clerk, Wil 
liam Jones ; Assessor, Joel Cowgill ; Marshal, Owen 
L. Allen ; Street Commissioners, John Reynolds, 
Owen L. Allen; Fire Wardens, Jordan P. Osborn, 
Saniuel C. Van Matre. 

1875 — President, Jordan P. Osborn; Trustees. 
William D. Reames. W. W. Mcllvain, William P. 
Bennett, Orson Rudd, Andrew J. Smith, Jeremiah 
B. Chapman; Clerk, William Jones; Assessor, D. 

. Glover resigned the office o 

ViifCUHt I'J. Knd S. S. CliHimi i 

B. Ferris; Treasurer, William W. Peck; Marshal, 

A. B. Morley ; Street Commissioners, Charles G. 
Banks, Jolin Tietsort ; Fire Wardens, S. C. Van 
Matre, A. B. Morley. 

Upon the 23d of April of this year, a special charter 
was obtained from the Legislature, which i'^ now in 
force, and under which the administration of copora- 
tion affairs has been considerably changed and largely 
improved. The corporation limits were extended, so 
that they now include all of the southwest quarter 
and the south half of the northwest quarter of Section 
25 ; the southeast quarter and south half of the north- 
east quarter of Section 26 ; the northeast quarter and 
north half of the southeast quarter of Section 35, and 
the northwest quarter and north half of the south- 
west quarter of Section 36. 

The officials elected in the spring of 1875, under 
the old corporation regulations, had only short terms 
of service, being superseded by a new corps, chosen 
at a special election, held May 4. Following are the 
names of the men elected : 

President, Jordan P. Osborn ; Trustees, W. W-. 
Mcllvain, Eber Reynolds, William D. Reames, 
Stephen Jones, S. C. Van Matre, James Boyd; Clerk, 
William Jones ; Treasurer, James H. Farnum ; 
Marshal, Alonzo B. Morley ; Overseer of Streets and 
Highways, Charles G. Banks ; Fire VVardens, Alonzo 

B. Morley, Henry C. French ; Attorney, L. H. 
Glover ; Deputy Marshal, Zacheus Aldrich. 

1876— President, Jordan P. Osborn; Trustees, 
Samuel Graham, S. C. Van Matre, James Boyd, W. 
W. Mcllvain, Eber Reynolds, William D. Reames; 
Clerk, William Jones ; Marshal, Avery S. Root ; 
Treasurer, James H. Farnum ; Assessor, Daniel B. 
Ferris; Overseer of Streets, Charles G. Banks; Fire 
Wardens, Alonzo B. Morley, W. W. Peck ; Attorney, 
L. H. Glover; Deputy Marshal, Zacheus Aldrich. 

1877 — President, Henry C. French ; Trustees, 
Alonzo B. Morley, Abijah Pegg, W. W. Peck, 
Samuel Graham, S. C. Van Matre, James Boyd; 
Clerk, William Jones; Marshal, Zacheus Aldrich; 
Treasur.r, Romi W. Goucher ; Assessor. Daniel S. 
Jones; Overseer of Streets Charles G Banks; Fire 
Wardens, L. D. Tompkins, S. B. Thomas ; Attorney. 
L. H. Glover; Deputy .Marshal. Ira J. Putnam. 

1878 — President, S. S. Chapman ; Trustees. Sam- 
uel Graham. James Townsend, Joseph K. Ritter, 
Alonzo B. Morley, Abijah Pegg, W. W. Peck ; Clerk. 
Thomas W. Smith; Marshal, John T. Enos ; Treas- 
urer, Stephen L. George; Assessor, Daniel S.Jones; 
Overseer of Streets, Charles G. Banks ; Fire Ward- 
ens, S. B Tliomas. L. D. Tompkins; Attorney. I-. 
II. Glover; Deputy Marshals, William Emmon-. 
.John 11. King. 


1879— President, H. S. Hadsell ; Trustees, S. S. 
Chapniiin. W. G. Watts. Henry Shaffer, Samuel 
Graham. James Townsend, Joseph K. Ritter; Clerk, 
William Jones ; Treasurer, S. L. George ; .\3sess0r, 
Daniel S. Jones ; Mar ;hal, John H. Kcene ; Over- 
seer of Streets, John H. Keene ; Fire Wardens, L. 
B. Tompkins, S B. Thompson; Deputy Marshal, 
Henry McCay. 

1880 — President, Kiram S. Hadsell; Trustee.', 
William Davis, Thomas Stipleton. Lsaac H. Wolf, S. 
S. Chapman, William G. Watts,* Henry Shaffer; 
Clerk, William Jones : Assessor. Daniel S. Jones ; 
Treasurer, Stephen L. George ; Marshal. John H. 
Keene ; Overseer of Streets. John II. Keene ; Fire 
Wardens, John Tietsort and J. P. Osborn. 

1881— President, Henry J. Webb; Trustees. 
Hiram S. Hadsell, Darius L. French. William G. 
Watts, William Davis, Thomas Stapleton, [saac H. 
Wolf; Clerk, Williani Jones; Treasurer, Stephen L. 
George; Assessor, C. C. Nelson: Marshal, John H. 
Keene; Overseer of Streets, John H Keene: Fire 
Wardens, John Tietsort and J. P. Osbirn : Health 
Officer, Dr. W. J. Kelsey. 

It may interest some persons to know tiiat nearly all 
of the earliest ordinances for the government of the 
corporation were drawn by Charles W. Clisbee, Esq., 
and the larger number of the liter ones by L. H. 
Glover, Esij. 


There is a somewhat remarkable chapter in a certain 
history of Ireland which is entitled " The Snakes of 
Ireland." and the chapter consists simply and solely 
of the declaration, "■ there are no snakes ui Ireland."' 

Under the caption of the Public S(iuare of Cassopo 
lis. it may be state^l. There is mj public square in 
Cassopolis. There was one once, however, and it 
seems proper to show how it has come about that there 
is none now. 

When the village was platted in 18:31, the proprie- 
tors donated a considerable number of lots to the 
county, to be disposed of by their agent, and also a 
square designateil as the '■ C issopolis Public Square," 
and declared to be "designed for buihlings for public 
use." This square, the center of which was at the 
intersection of Broadway an<I State street, measured 
twenty-six by twenty rods, the greater distance being 
that from north to soutli. The square was for many 
years an open common, but eventually those portions 
which were not occupieil by public buildings were 
taken possession of by individuals. These persons 
the Board of Supervisors of Cass County endeavored 

by suit brought in the Circuit Court, March 12, 
1879, to eject. Judge John B. Shipman decided 
ailversely to the county, ami the case was carried up 
to the Supreme Court of the State of Michigan, and 
heanl at the October term, 1880. Edward Bacon 
appeare t for the plaintiffs, and Howell & Carr for 
the defendents, viz., Charles G. Banks, John Tietsort, 
Sylvador T. Read, John L. Yost, Joseph Smith, 
Andrew J. Smith, Stephen Harrington, Granville 
Smith, Jeremiah B. Chapman, James H. Farnum, 
Asa Kingsbury, Henry C. French, Darius L. French, 
William W. Mcllvain, Orlando Phelps and the 
First National Bank of Cassopolis. 

The Supreme Court sustained the court below, the 
opinion being delivered by Justice Cooley ; and so 
emled a quite remarkable suit. 

From the decision we condense in part, and in part 
quote, the history of the Public Square of Cassopo- 

"In October, 1835, the Board of Supervisors voted 
to erect a court house on a lot designated, not the 
public square, and one was erected and used until 
1841. when a new one was built. August 7, 1839, 
the County Commissioners of Cass County, who had 
succeeded to the rights and powers of the Supervisors, 
for the nominal consideration of $6,000 gave a deed 
to Darius Shaw, Joseph Harper, Jacob Silver, Asa 
Kingsbury and A. H. Redfield of all that certain tract 
or parcel of land in said village of Cassopolis, first, 
the public square and public grounds with their priv- 
ileges and appurtenances, for the uses and purposes 
for which said square and grounds were conveyed to 
said county, reserving the privilege to erect a court 
house on the north east quarter ; and, second, a large 
number of other lots which had been donated to the 
county. The deed was an ordinary deed of bargain 
and sale, and contained the usual covenants. Simul- 
taneously, the grantees in this deed gave to the Com- 
missioners their bond in the penal sum of $12,000, 
conditionetl as follows: ' Whereas, certain village lots 
in said village of Cassopolis, and certain sums of money 
were formerly given to said county of Cass, by the 
original proprietors of said village, and by others, for 
the purpose of erecting public buildings in said village 
for the use of the county, and whereas, the said Com- 
missioners have this day given to us a warranty deed 
fir a certain part of said village lots and property, and 
.ilso one onler upon the treasury of said county for the 
sum of $2,000. Now, if we, the said Darius Shaw, 
.Vsa Kingsbury, Jacob Silver, Joseph Harper and 
.Vlexaiider H. Redfield, shall erect, or cause to be 
elected in said village within two years from the date 
hereof, on such ground as the said Commissioners shall 
select, a court house, 54 feet in length (etc., giving 



full specifications), then this obligation to be voiil, 
otherwise to be and remain in full force and virtue.' 
The court house was completed in accordance with 
this undertaking, the northeast quarter of the public 
square having been designate'! as the location. 

" [n 1853, a new jail was erected by the county 
on the same quarter of the public square with the 
court house, and, in 1860, a building for county officers 
was erected on the northwest quarter of the same 
square. These are all the public buildings, which 
have ever been erected on the public square, and they 
left the south half of the square entirely unoccupied. 
When the county ordered the erection of the build 
iiigs for county officers, on the northwest quarter of 
the square, the grantees in the deed from the County 
Commissioners of August 7, 1839, protested against 
their action, and notified the Supervisors that the 
county did not own all of the public square, but their 
protest was not heeded It will be perceived that this 
action took place twenty-nine years after the plat was 
made, an<l after the square was dedicated to the public, 
if any dedication was made by that plat. 

"The condition of the square, then, in 1860, was 
this : The county had placed two public buildings on 
the northeast quarter, and one on the northwest quar- 
ter. The other two quarters, which wore separated 
from the occupied parts by streets, were not occupied 
by the county in any manner, nor does it appear that 
there was any proposition by the county to make use 
of them for any public purpose. A deed of the whole 
square had been given by the County Commissioners 
to the [larties wiio erected the court house, but what 
idea respecting its ultimate disposition was in the 
minds of the parties at the time, we are not advised. 
The uses for which the square was conveyed to the 
county were alluded to, as if they were to be observed 
and accomplished ; but. if the square was to be devoted 
exclusively to public buildings for county use and 
occupation, it seems a very idle ami absurd thing to 
include it in the deed at all The other lots conveyed 
were for the benefit and enjoyment of the grantees, to 
compensate them for their expenditures in erecting 
the court house, and a strong inference arises that 
some personal advantage to the grantees from the con- 
veyance of the square was expected also, or at least 
was looked upon as possible. It may perhaps have 
been thought that only a part of the square would be 
required for public buildings, and have been intenied 
that the remainder would belong to the grantees. It 
is certain that as early as 1860, these parties began 
to claim as their own all that had not been previously 
appropriated by the county for a court house site. 

'In 1886, Kingsbury commenced business as a 
merchant in a store situated immediately south of the 

southwest quarter of the public square, and used in 
connection therewith, a part of that quarter for the 
storage of lumber, shingles, barrels and boxes and 
with a hitching rack for horses. In 1856, he built a 
new store seventy-two feet in length, with stone founda- 
tion, one foot of which for the whole length was upon 
the square. The cellar-ways for the store were on the 
square, and were walled up at the sides with stone. 
This store with the cellar-ways has since been occu- 
pied by Kingsbury and his lessees, and use has been 
made of the southwest quarter in connection there- 
with. From 1858 to 1869, a tenant had heavy scales 
on the square, set over a walled pit, near the center 
of the quarter; he moved them this year last men- 
tioned to another part of the same quarter where he 
continued to use them. 

In 1865, Joseph Harper and Darius Shaw deeiled 
their interest in the public square to Daniel Black- 
man. Redfield also deeded to Blackraan in 1869. In 
1870, Blackman deeded to Kingsbury ; the heirs of 
Tietsort gave him a deed in the same year, and Silver 
another in 1873. Blackman, it seems, had set up 
some claims of title to the southeast quarter of the 
square in 1863, and had erected a building upon it 
which he rented for a law office until 1878, when it 
was moved away and a brick store erected in its place. 
The Judge's finding states that the southeast quarter 
is now built up and claimed by the occupants. In 
1868, Kingsbury platted the southwest quarter of the 
square into six lots, and sold five of them to persons 
who erected two-story brick stores thereon, which 
they now occupy and claim as owners. Kingsbury 
also erected a similar building for a banking-house. 
The value of these buildings is $35,500 ; the value of 
the six lots without the builiiings, $2,200. The build- 
ings were completed :n 1869-70 ; they have been 
taxed to the occupants and the taxes paid ever since 

" In addition to the foregoing, it seems important to 
mention only the following facts : In 1842, the Board 
of Supervisors by resolution lequesteil the prosecuting 
attorney to examine the records of the county and 
ascertain whether there was on record any deed or 
deeds from the original proprietors of the village of 
Cassopolis conveying to the county the whole or any 
part of the county square for the purpose of erecting 
the necessary county buildings, and if so, whether suffi- 
cient or not. and if not, what means should be employed 
to perfect the title. The records of the Board do not 
appear to show any response to this resolution. In 
March, 1865, the board passed a resolution reciting 
that certain individuals had put buildings or other fixt- 
ures on the public s(juare which the board had here- 
tofore permitted to remain without rebuke; therefore, 


John and Samuel Jennings carried on business for 
about one year. 

Henly C. Lybrook and Baltzer Lybrook formed a 
partnership and began business about the same time 
as the above. The former soon bought out his part- 
ner's interest and went in with W. G. Beckwith. 
About 1845, H. C. Lybrook, B. F. Silver and Simeon 
E. Dow formed a partnership and carried on business 
for a number of years. 

In 1846 or the following year, Ezekiel S. and Joel 
H. Smith opened in business where L. D. Smith is 
now located, and from there moved to the Morse 
property on the corner of Broadway and York streets. 

Silver & Dow sold out of the firm of Lybrook, 
Silver & Dow and Joshua Lofland bought in. In 
1847, Lofland k Lybrook took as a partner Maj. 
Joseph Smith. The brother of the latter, Henry 
W., also had an interest in the store, and in 1850 
Lofland & Lybrook sold out to the Smiths and 
went to Dowagiac, where they took as a partner G. C- 
Jones. The firm of Joseph Smith & Co was dis- 
solved two or three years after its formation, Henry 
W. retiring. Joseph Smith carried on the business 
alone until 1855 when he sold out to S. T. & L. R. 
Read. The business was carried on in the brick 
building now occupied by Mr. Davis as a restaurant, 
which was built by Mr. Smith in 1851. Not long 
after the Messrs. Read bought the stock of goods, 
they moved them to another building, and Mr. Smith 
some time afterward resumed business and followed 
it with some intervals until within a few years of his 
death in 1880. He built in 1869 the large, double 
store which his son, L. D., who was his partner and 
successor, now occupies. 

In 1851, a partnership was formed between the 
Dowagiac firm of Lofland, Lybrook & Jones and J. 
K. Ritter, of Cassopolis, for carrying on business in 
the latter place. The firm name was J. K. Ritter 
& Co., and the interest was divided equally between 
Mr. Ritter and the company. In 1855, Mr. Rilter 
bought out his three partners and conducted the busi- 
ness alone from that time until 1858, when B. F. 
Beeson became a partner. They discontinued in 

M. B. Custard and Clark Bliss opened a store in 
1855, but did not long remain in business. 

In this year, as has been said, S. T. k L. R. 
Read bought out Maj. Smith. Mr. L. R. Read re- 
tired from the store to his farm, however, in 1857. 
Three years later, he ajrain went into partnership with 
S. T. Read, and remained until 1865. His place in 
the firm was taken by W. W. McUvain. In 1871, 
S. T. Read sold out to Orson Rudd, and the firm was 
known as Rudd & Mcllvain. In 1873, Mr. Mcllvain 

became the sole proprietor, but a short time after 
took in Orlando Phelps. In 1880, George Kings- 
bury became the third partner. 

M. B. Custard and Dr. A. Garwood bought out 
Maj. Smith in 1862, and continued in business for two 
or three years, selling out to a Mr. McKee, who in 
turn sold to a Mr. Birney. 

From 1856 to 1861, -lohn Tietsort carried on the 
first store in which boots, shoes and clothing were 
sold exclusive of other goods. 

W. W. Peck, who came to Cassopolis in 185^, and 
clerked for Lofland & Ritter, went into business on 
his own account in 1860. A year later the firm was 
Banks (Charles G.) & Peck. In 1863, the firm sepa- 
rated. John Tietsort formed a partnership with 
Banks, and they carried on business together for ten 
years, or until 1873, when they closed out. On 
closing his partnership with Mr. Banks, in 1863, Mr. 
Peck went into company with Albert P. Maginnis, 
with whom he remained until his death in 1879. A. 
H. Myers was then associated with Mr. Maginnis, 
j and the next change resulted in the establishment of 
Myers Brothers. 

J. K. Ritter and A. E. Peck formed a business 
partnership in 1865, but Mr. Ritter soon bought his 
partner out, and continued the business alone until 

Orlando Phelps and H. L. Cornwell began business 
in 1870, in the store now occupied by L. D. Smith, 
and continued for about four years. 

The various firms thus far mentioned carried on 
"general" stores, the earliest of them having the 
most comprehensive stocks of goods. The several 
lines of trade have not had a separate line of existence 
until comparatively recent years. Especially is this 
true of the grocery line, in which the first store was 
started by Charles E. Voorhis. S. B. Thomas and 
A. Hilts followed him, the former in 1876 and the 
latter in 1879. - 

Drugs were kept by all of the merchants at an early 
day, and were not made a specialty until about 1846, 
when Alexander H. Redfield and George B. Turner 
opened a store in the brick building which stands 
next to Capt. Harper's residence. The firm also sold 
fine family groceries and books. They sold out to 
Horace B. Dunning. He continued in business alone 
until 1859, when he took A. B. Morley as a partner. 
They carried on business alone until Dunning died, 
and then Morley continued it until his death. The 
stock was then bought by Shelly k Banks, of whom 
W. D. Shelly is the successor. 

Dr. L. D. Tompkins began selling drugs in 1S57. 
James Boyd became his partner in 1859, and in 1865 
the firm was Tompkins, Kelsey & Treadwell. Dr. 



The subject of tbiB sketch is a man ^Lose life has been prominently identi- 
fied with the Interests of Cassopolie and of Cass County. He was born in 
Champaign County, Ohio, May 27, 1817, and waetheson of Joshua and Cbriatina 
Howell, who reared a family of six children, of whom the subject of our sketch 
was the youngest. Hie father was a Virginian by biith and his mother was 
born in Maryland, but reared in Virginia. In that State they were married in 
the year 1800, and ten years later emigrated to Ohio. Subsequent to the birtb 
of D. M. Howell, the family moved to Darke County, and from there they came 
to Michigan in 1834. They stopped for a short time with Joseph Barter, one 
of the pioneers of Howard Township, whose wife was a daughter of Joshua 
Howell ; but soon after their arrival the father located at Bertrand, Berrien 
County, where be kept a hotel for a number of years. The son divided his time 
between the house in Bertrand and bis brother-in-law's in Howard (spending 
the greater part in the latter place), and in 1842 both parents and son removed 
to Cassopolie. Mrs. Howell died in 1866, and so were separated husband and 
wife who had lived together for the extraordinary period of sixty-six years. She 
was eighty-eight years old at the time of her death. Mr. Howell removed to 
Dowagiac and made his home with a daughter until his death, which occuried 
npon the ninetieth anniversary of bis birth in 1869. 

The cause of the removal of the family to the county seat in 1842 was the 
election of David M. Howell to the office of Register of Deeds, in November of 
that 3 ear. Just here we may perhaps more appropriately than elsewhere al- 
lude to the great misfortune under which the subject of our sketch labored. 
When two years and a half of age he became a hopeless cripple, losing the use 
of his lower limbs. His parents, however, not willing to admit the entire hope- 
lessness of his case, continued for several years to seek a cure, visiting many 
eminent physicians and receiving varied counsel as to the treatment of the 
little unfortunate, but all to no avail. The boy was given a good common- 
school education, and, being naturally bright and of quick perceptions, learned 
rapidly in that other school in which the teachers are observation and experi- 
ence. I^pon arriving at manhood be was well equipped mentally for the work 
of the world, but physically incapacitated from entering many of the callings 
open to others. His election to office was hence to him a greater boon than it 

would have been to most men. It gave him a etait in the world, and it was 
gratifying besides es showing the good will of the people and their recognition 
of bis intellectual capacity. He had before ttis been twice elected as Clerk 
and once as Justice of the Peace of Howard Township— positions which were of 
very trifling value save for the compliment which was conveyed in its bestowal. 
"When he entered the cfl^ce of Register of Deeds, he was the possessor of just 
95 cents in money. He retaintd the office by euccetsive elections for 
twelve years. During one-half of that period he was also a Justice of the Peace' 
and for a long term of years he did the business of Deputy County Cleik and of 
Treasurer. In 1846, he bought the land in Penn Township, just east of Cassop- 
olis, on which he has lived since 1S58. It was covered with timber when purchased 
by Mr. Howell, and has been cleared and improved under his direction. Mr. 
Howell, since his removal from the village, as before, has taken an active part 
in business and public affairs. He has ever been a zealous advocate of improve- 
ment in educational methods, and a friend of almost every project for the ad- 
vancement of the good interests of society. He took a prominent part in the 
organization of the Cass County Agricultural Society and for many years was 
one of its officers. Be was one of the original stockholders of the First National 
Bank, was elected its first Vice President and has held that position continu- 
ously since. Three times he has been elected as CouLly Superintendent of the 
poor, and he 6er\ed in that capacity almost nine years. 

Mr. Howell has always desired in some public manner to express the senti- 
ment he has entertained toward the people of Case County irrespective of party 
—a sentiment of profound gratitude for the many favors be has enjoyed at 
their hands and for the confidence they have reposed in him. To this he at- 
tributes chiefly the successfulness of bis life. But it is due bim to say that he 
possessed in himself the integrity, the industry and the ability which com- 
manded the respect of the people and which made it possible fur him to dis- 
charge the duties of those stations to which he has been called. 

On the Ibt of March, 1846, Mr. Howell was married to Miss Martha Ann 
Anderson, of Pokagon Township, who lived with him until her death in 1869. 
The offspring of this union was one son, Marshall L., who occupied a prominent 
position at the bar of Cass County. Mr. Howell was married to hissecond wife, 
Mrs. Charlotte Reynolds, in 1870. 

History of cass county, Michigan. 

A. B. Treadwell remained in the partnership but one 
year, and the firm has since been Tompkins & Kelsey 
(W. J.) H. J. Webb started in the drug business in 
1870, sold out to Albert Gaston, but soon repurchased 
the store and has since carried on the business unin- 

In the line of men's clothing, furnishing goods 
and boots and shoes, the oldest of the present houses 
is that of Read (S. T.) & Yost (John L.), who began 
business in 1871. Chapman (J. B.) & Farnum (J. 
H.) have sold boots and shoes and furnishing goods 
nearly as long, and Moses Stern since 1880. 

Harrington & Smith opened a large general store 
in 1876. 

The first man who sold hardware exclusively was 
D. L. French. He began business in 1862, coming 
from Dowagiac, and bringing a very small stock of 
goods and a few implements for carrying on the 
tinner's trade. He began alone, and three years later 
took his brother Samuel into partnership. This 
business relation did not last more than a couple of 
years, and two years after its expiration Mr. French 
associated with himself the Rev. William L. Jakways. 
After a year and a half, they dissolved partnership 
and Mr. French bought another stock of goods of 
George Berket, of Cassopolis, to which he added a 
stock purchased in Buchanan of H. C. French, who 
became associated with him under the firm name of 
D. L. & H. C. French. This was in 1869. The 
firm has carried on business since then until Novem- 
ber, 1881, when H. C. French withdrew. 

Rev. William L. Jakways continued in the hard- 
ware business only about a year and a half, a portion 
of the time having a Mr. Codding as partner. 

Wilson Kingman and H. J. Webb began in this 
business in 1867 and carried it on for a year. 

Zaccheus Aldrich and A. N. Armstrong opened a 
hardware store in 1877. Mr. Aldrich soon withdrew 
and Mr. Armstrong carried on the business until 
January, 1882, when he sold to Wagor & Reynolds. 

Messrs. Sears & Messenger have carried on a busi- 
ness in agricultural implements since 1879, and Mr. 
William Sears, the senior partner, has been in the 
business for a long term of years. 

Thickstun & Beringer, dealers in lumber, coal, salt, 
etc., have been established since 1878. The business 
has been in the hands of D. C. Thickstun. This 
company bought out McConnell & Son. Orson Rudd 
and a Mr. Granger have also had lumber yards in the 

Harness was first manufactured and sold by P. B. 
Osborn as early as 1843. J. P. Osborn, his brother, 
went into business with him in 1844, and since 1847 
has carried on the business alone. 

In the line of manufacturing industry, the first vent- 
ure was made by the Silvers — Jacob, Abiel and Ben- 
jamin F. — in 1833. In the fall of that year, they 
put up the distillery near Stone Lake, which has been 
alluded to in this chapter. The frame was so large 
and made of such massive timber that it required the 
efforts of a very large number of men to raise it. The 
raising occupied three days' time, and was an episode 
of great interest in the history of the settlement. Nearly 
all of the male population of the central portion of 
the county assisted in the work, and each man was 
well rewarded by the Messrs. Silver. Each night 
Jacob Silver took two pans, one filled with dollars and 
the other filled with half dollars, and passing them 
around through the crowd requested each man to help 
himself to whatever amount he considered himself 
entitled to for his day's work. The raising was super- 
intended by Amos Huff, of Volinia, the contractor, 
Eber Root, being sick at the time. The distillery 
was run to its utmost capacity for a number of years, 
and the farmers in. the surrounding country received 
a great deal of money from its proprietors for their 
surplus corn. In 1836, the Silvers sold the property 
to John M. Barber, who, in the following year, trans- 
ferred it to Asa Kingsbury. It was subsequently 
carried on by Samuel Graham, and he in turn trans- 
ferred it to Charles Kingsbury. 

The present manufacturing interests of Cassopolis 
are comprised in the bowl factory of Aldrich, Yost, 
& Co. (Jesse Harrison and James H. Stamp) ; the foun- 
dry of Messrs. Welling, Patch & Welling ; the steam 
saw-mill of William and Joshua Berkey ; the Alden 
Drier, carried on by Jones & Snyder; the flouring 
mills of ihe Messrs. Rudd and Matthew Lindsey ; the 
cabinet and furniture shops of D. S. Jones & Son 
and Miles H. Barber; the ashery of Charles F. Shaw 
and the steam gristmill, owned by Hopkins & Sons. 

The bowl factory was started in 1876, by G. G. 
Williams, and the Alden Drying Works were put up 
the same year. The foundry, which antedates them 
both, was started by John Decker. The steam grist- 
mill and the ashery were put in operation in the latter 
part of 1881. An establishment of the latter kind 
was started prior to 1850, by J. C. Saxon, and for a 
time carried on by Samuel Graham, who did a large 
business. The Messrs. Rudd were actively engaged 
for a number of years during the seventies in manu- 
facturing a patent gate, which was extensively sold 
in Cass County. 


Asa and Charles Kingsbury began a private banking 
business in 1855, but dissolved partnership in 1857, 
and Asa Kingsbury carried on the business alone until 



the present National Bank was organized in Novem- 
ber, 1870. The incorporators and stockholders were : 
Asa Kingsbury, S. T. Read, Joseph K. Ritter, Isaac 
Z. Edwards, David M. Howell, Charles W. Clisbee, 
Charles H. Kingsbury, Joel Cowgill, E. B. Sherman, 
Amanda F. Ritter and Daniel Wilson, of Cassopolis ; 
David Lilley, of Dowagiac ; James E. Bonine, of 
Vandalia ; N. Boardman, of Three Rivers ; E. M. 
Irvin, of South Bend ; D. C. Read, of Kalamazoo ; 
and Henry F. Kellogg, of Elkhart. The first Direc- 
tors chosen were Asa Kingsbury, Joseph K. Ritter, 
David M. Howell, David Lilley, James E. Bonine 
and E. B. Sherman. The officers have remained the 
same from the organization to the present, viz.: Presi- 
dent, Asa Kingsbury ; Vice President, David M. 
Howell ; Cashier, Charles H. Kingsbury. The capi- 
tal of the bank is $50,000. 


Ira B. Henderson was the first man who enter- 
tained " the wayfarer and the stranger" in Cassopolis. 
He opened a hotel in a double log cabin in 1831. In 
the following year Eber Root and Allen Munroe were 
licensed as tavern-keepers by the township authorities, 
who " considered taverns a necessity and the appli- 
cants of good moral character and of sufiicient ability 
to keep a tavern." Mr. Root erected a frame building 
where the Cass House now stands, and Munroe became 
landlord of the house built by Elias B. Sherman, 
which is still standing upon its original site back of 
the county offices. This was known as the Eagle 
House. Root's hotel is at present the planing-mill of 
Matthew Lindsey, and still bears in faded letters the 
name, " Union Hotel." It was moved away from its 
original site in 1867, when the Cass House was built 
by M. J. Baldwin. 

Eber Root built a second hotel upon the ground 
where now stands the Baptist Church. It was 
destroyed by fire in 1859, at which time it had ceased 
to be used for hotel purposes, and was occupied by a 
number of families. 

In 1850, Samuel Graham put up the building now j 
occupied by Myers Brothers with a stock of dry i 
goods, and carried on the hotel business in it for 
about seventeen years. 


The first Postmaster at Cassopolis was Alexander 
H. Redfield, Esq., who served until the appointment 
of George B. Turner, who was succeeded by Horace 
B. Dunning. The succeeding Postmasters, in the 
order named, have been F. A. Graves, Barak Mead, 
Horace B. Dunning, Alonzo B. Morley, Joseph 
Harper and the present incumbent, C. C. Nelson. 


In the winter of 1832-33, religious services were 
held in Cassopolis for the first time, the officiating 
divine on that occasion being no less a personage than 
Bishop Chase, of the Northwestern Episcopal Diocese. 

! The small audience which the celebrated man of God 
addressed assembled in a room over the Silvers store. 
It was not long before the Methodist circuit riders 
visited the village and filled regular appointments. 
The Methodists were the first denomination which 
effected an organization. 

The Rev. George R. Brown is believed to have 
been the first minister who took up residence in Cass- 
opolis, but he could hardly be called a settled clergy- 
man. He was a Universalist, and coming to Cassop- 
olis in the winter of 1835-36, he labored zealously 

j for about a year to awaken an interest in that faith. 
He was compelled, however, to abandon the field 

{ because of meager support. 


The Methodist Church of Cassopolis had its origin 
in 1838. It was within the Edwardsburg Circuit, 
which was established the same year. The early 
records of the church have been lost, and it is there- 
fore impossible to give a detailed history of the begin- 
nings of this religious society. Meetings were held 
in the court house and the schoolhouses until 1846. 
In that year, Jacob Silver and Joshua Lofland erected 
a small house of worship on Rowland street. Mr. 
Silver was an Episcopalian, and Mr. Lofland a Method- 
ist, and the building was intended for the use and 
occupation of their respective denominations, and as 
a place for general religious worship. This building 
was sold, in 1854, to the United Brethren, William 
Shanafelt becoming responsible to Mr. Silver for 
payment for his share, and a mortgage being given to 
Mr. Lofland. The society was unable to pay for the 
building, and in January, 1855, Messrs. Lofland and 
Shanafelt presented it to the Methodist Society, who 
continued to occupy it until 1874. At this time, it 
was moved away to make room for the handsome new 
edifice which the society now occupies. This house of 
worship arose through the labors of the Rev. J. P. 
Force, who exerted himself unceasingly to secure the 
necessary funds, and did, in fact, raise about three- 
quarters of the total amount which the church cost. 
The building committee were W. W. Peck, the Rev. 
William L. Jakways, D. B. Smith and John Boyd, 
and the builder was Mr. Smith. On November 22, 
1874, the building was dedicated, the Rev. A. J. 
Eldred presiding at the meeting, the indebtedness 
which amounted to $1,600, being cleared on that occa- 
sion. The total cost of the building was about $6,000. 



This church, with its furnishings and the parsonage 
on the corner of O'Keefe and York streets, consti- 
tutes a property worth not far from $8,000. 

The ministers who have preached for the Meth- 
odists of Cassopolis, from 1838 to 1882, are the 
following: Knox and Williams, Knox and Harrison, 
Jones and Van Order, Meek and Tooker, Collins and 
Worthington, Kellogg and Eldred, Cook and Granger, 
Shaw and Erkenbrack, John Erkenbrack, Horace 
Hall, J. W. Robinson, T. H. Bignal, V. G. Boynton, 
Isaac Abbott, P. H. Johnson, E. L. Kelogg, G. W. 
Hoag, Isaac Bennett, Edgar Beard, A. G. Graham, 
J. Fowler, James Webster, J. P. Force, William M. 
Coplin, J. W. H. Carlisle, William Prouty, H. H. 
Parker, J. M. Robinson and W. M. Colby. 

A union Sunday school was conducted during the 
summer seasons until 1859, supported chiefly by 
Methodists and Baptists. H. B. Dunning, Barak 
Mead and Joshua Lofland were usually the leaders or 
superintendents. The school was however small in 
numbers, and consisted of about as many adults as 
children. The Methodist Sunday school as a distinct- 
ive organization came into existence in 1859, when 
the Rev. E. Kellogg was sent to Cassopolis by the 
M. E. Conference. It was organized under the in- 
fluence of the wife of this minister, and Charles G. 
Banks was elected Superintendent. He continued in 
charge of it for over nine years, or until April, 1865. 
The school opened with about twenty-five pupils, but 
the number was soon increased to three times its origi- 
nal size. 

In 1866, the number enrolled, young and old, 
including ofiicers, was one hundred and fifty. Rev. 
G. W. Hoag and wife rendered able services to 
the school, in 1861, and 1862 ; Rev. Isaac Bennett 
in 1863 and 1864; Rev. E. Beard in 1865 and 1866; 
Rev. A. Y. Graham in 1867 and 1868; Rev. J. 
Fowler in 1869 and 1870 ; Rev. J. Webster in 1871 ; 
Rev. J. P. Force in 1872 and 1873 and until Sep- 
tember, 1874. Mr. Banks' successor as Superin- 
tendent, elected in April, 1868, was the late William 
W. Peck, who had as an assistant Mr. D. B. Smith. 
Mr. Peck remained in charge continuously from this 
time until 1874, with the exception of one year, when 
Rev. William L. Jakways was Superintendent. In Jan- 
uary, 1875, Charles G. Banks was again chosen to 
fill the place, and served until January, 1878, when 
William W. Peck succeeded him. D. B. Smith was 
the assistant of each of the above Superintendents. 
Mr. Peck was taken sick in November, 1878, and 
died April 5, 1879. Upon his death, Charles G. 
Banks was elected to fill the vacancy, and re elected 
in 1881, when he declined to serve. C. H. Funk 
served for a few months during the early part of the 

year, and Mrs. Charlotte S. Colby was elected in 
September, with Charles G. Banks as assistant. The 
chief musicians have been John Tietsort and Henry 
Deyo. The Sunday school, by the aid of John Tiet- 
sort and Mr. Banks, made a purchase of a fine organ 
in 1865, which is still in use. 


This church was organized in 1842, under what 
was known as the "accommodation plan." Its es- 
tablishment was in a certain measure due to the 
American Home Missionary Society, and for several 
years it received a small amount of aid from that body. 
The Home Missionary Society consisted of Congrega- 
tionalists and Presbyterians. One of its by-laws, or 
rules, provided for the organization of churches under 
its auspices which should not partake of the distin- 
guishing characteristics of either. The church came 
into being under the name of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Cassopolis, upon the 19th of March, at 
which time the Rev. Noah M. Wells delivered an ad- 
dress before a small gathering of people who favored 
the organization. Its original members were Samuel 
F. Anderson, Mahala P. Anderson, Carlos W. Bald- 
win, Amelia Fuller, Margaret Sears, Eliza Ann 
Beckwith, Hervey Bigelow, Wells Crumb, Lucy Ann 
Crumb and Susannah Hopkins. These persons were 
received on presentation of letters from other churches 
and the following (the same day), upon confession of 
faith, viz.: Joseph Harper, Caroline Harper, Will- 
iam F. Huyck and Lewis C. Curtis. On the follow- 
ing day Phebe Wheeler, Harriet Smith, Miss L. A. 
Hurlbut, Amos Fuller, Mathias Weaver and Catharine 
Weaver were received by letter, and William and 
Margaret A. Mansfield and William Sears on con- 
fession of faith. 

The Rev. A. S. Kedzie was employed in Novem- 
ber as the first Pastor of the church. Samuel F. 
Anderson and Hervey Bigelow were the first Deacons. 
Mr. Kedzie was only engaged for a period of six 
months, and in July, 1843, the Rev. Alfred Bryant 
was employed as minister. The succeeding clergy- 
men, who have had charge of the flock, have been the 
Revs. M. Harrison, James McLauren. M. Bacon, 
Thomas Jones, George 0. Overhiser, Eli W. Taylor, 
George H. Miles, E. B. Sherwood, A. H. Gaston, 

Theodore B. Hascall. 0. H. Barnard Wilson 

and M. Q. McFarland. 

The erection of the house of worship of this society 
was commenced in 1845. It remained unfinished, 
however, until November, 1846, because of the lack 
of funds to carry on the work. The parsonage 
property upon the corner of O'Keefe and State streets, 
was purchased June 13, 1855. 



A large and interesting Sunday school is carried 
on in connection with the church. 


This church was organized on the 8th day of 
March, 1862, with twelve constituent members, viz. : 
Elder Jacob Price, Sarah B. Price, Sarah B. Price, 
Jr., Ellen Price, Mary Price, Carrie Price, P. A. Lee, 
Barak Mead, Harriet E. Mead, Elizabeth A. Magin- 
nis, Robert H. Trip, Jemima Smith. A council was 
called, and met June 10, 1862. The prayer of recog. 
nition was oifered by Rev. E. J. Fish ; sermon by 
Rev. J. L. McCloud ; address to the church by Rev. 
S. H. D. Vaughn. The church was received into the 
St. Joseph River Association, which the following day 
assembled at Niles. Elder Jacob Price, who had 
preached and labored for the welfare of the church, 
soon after this took pastoral care of the same, preach- 
ing once in two weeks for two years. 

As early as June 28, 1862, efforts were made to 
procure a lot for the building of a house of worship. 
This purpose was never abandoned, although for five 
years the work was delayed. In the spring of 1867, 
a plan was procured and a lot decided on. The 
house was built, and, upon the 16th of March, 1869, 
formally dedicated. The dedicatory sermon was 
preached by the Rev. Kendall Brooks, President of 
Kalamazoo College, from Job, xxi, 15. Rev. L. B. 
Fish, of Lansing, preached in the evening. The 
church was built at a cost of $4,765, of which amount 
all but $1,000 was paid when it was completed. 

In February, 1869, a call was extended to Rev. B. 
P. Russell, then pastor of the Niles Church, to be- 
come pastor. This call was accepted, and Liberty 
Church, which united in making the call, divided with 
the Cassopolis Church in the maintenance of the min- 
ister. The ministers who have served the church 
since Mr. Russell removed have been the Rev. T. S. 
Wooden, E. H. Brooks, D. Morse and E. M. Ste- 
phenson. A portion of the time the church has been 
without a Pastor, and has been ministered to by sup- 
ply Pastors. The church is at present in a good con- 
dition, and has a membership of about sixty. A 
Sunday school is conducted in connection with the 
church which has a membership of about one hundred. 


The first school teacher in Cassopolis was Mrs. 
Jane Beach, a widow. The schoolhouse was a little 
log cabin which stood where Joel Cowgill now lives. 
A man named Harrison was the second teacher. 

From the earliest settlement of the village, when 
the above named lady and gentleman taught until 
1843, schools were held in various places by a number 

of more or less successful teachers. In the year men- 
tioned, the first frame building was erected which was 
used exclusively as a schoolhouse. It was located on 
Lot 8, in Block 1 north, Range 2 east, donated to 
the district for the purpose by Joseph Harper. The 
building was a very good one for the time when it 
was built, and sufficiently commodious to accommo- 
date all of the children of the district. In 
1857, however, it was found that a larger structure 
was needed, and the union schoolhouse was built on 
contract by Daniel S. Jones, at a cost of about $1,500. 
Some additions and improvements were made in this 
building from time to time, and it remained in use 
until April 29, 1878, when it was completely destroyed 
by fire. The building was valued at that time at 
about $5,000, and was insured for $3,000, which 
amount (minus a slight deduction) was paid to the 
district officers. When the house burned, the trust- 
ees, with a promptness that was highly creditable to 
them, made preparations for the continuance of the 
schools in other quarters, and soon the work of the 
several departments was being carried on successfully 
in Oren's Hall, the Reform Club rooms and D. B. 
Smith's carpenter shop. The High School Depart- 
ment lost only two days' time. 

It was decided to expend the sum of $10,000 in 
building a new schoolhouse, and upon the 21st of 
May, W. P. Bennett, A. Garwood, J. K. Ritter, S. 
C. Van Matre, J. R. Carr and W. W. Peck were ap- 
pointed as a building committee. After examining 
several architectural designs for the proposed building, 
the one presented by Messrs. Hopkins k Osgood, of 
Grand Rapids, was chosen. Proposals were adver- 
tised for, and on the day appointed for their examina- 
tion, June 13, the contract was awarded to Messrs. 
Manning & Smith, of Niles, for $9,000, exclusive of 
seating. The work of construction was commenced 
immediately, and pushed so rapidly that the building 
was finished by the 1st of December. S. C. Van 
Matre was the local superintendent. The building 
had still to be seated, but that work was completed 
within a hionth, and upon the 9th of January, 1879, 
the new schoolhouse was ready for occupancy, and 
the winter term was begun upon that day. 

The total cost of the building was $10,619.86, of 
which amount, $9,176.71 was paid to Messrs. Manning 
& Smith ; $800 for seats ; $146.66 for a bell ; $18.33 
for window shades; $66.05 for extra painting, etc.; 
$64.05 for Local Superintendent's services, etc. : 
$22.52 forelocks; $73.82 for drainage; and $251.60 
for architect's plans. 

The building, which is of a modified gothic form 
of architecture, and built of white brick with red 
trimmings, stand.i nearly in the center of grounds. 



three acres in area, well adapted for the purpose they 
serve. There is probably no more beautiful or sub- 
stantial school building in Michigan which has been 
erected for $10,000, and there are certainly many 
which have cost more that do not e(iual its appearance 
or practical advantages. It is two stories in height, 
with an eight-foot basement under the whole building. 
The dimensions are 78x62 feet. There are seven 
rooms available for school purposes, not all of which 
are now used. Upon the first floor there are four 
rooms and upon the second three, the high school 
room occupying the entire front. The second floor is 
reached by a broad, platform staircase. All of the 
wood work is pine, oiled and varnished, and the 
mellow hue of the natural wood produces a very 
pleasing effect. The rooms are supplied with the 
best blackboards, the most approved forms of seats 
and desks and have all the requisites of model school- 
rooms. Ample and convenient cloak-rooms adjoin 
each. In the basement, a novel and excellent pro- 
vision has been made for the younger pupils in two 
large play rooms, where they can obtain needed rec- 
reation and exercise without the discomfort or danger 
to health, which in cold weather would attend their 
out-door play. The arrangement of the building is 
admirable. The provisions for heat and ventilation 
are perfect, and the rooms are all well lighted. In 
short, the Cassopolis school building is one of which 
the people may well feel proud, and a credit alike to 
its architect and the committee under whose super- 
vision it was erected. 

The following is believed to be a very nearly 
perfect list of the principal teachers or superin- 
tendents who have taught in Cassopolis during the 
past thirty years (a period which extends back to the 
origin of advanced school teaching in the village) : 

John 0. Banks began teaching in IS.'JS or 1854, 
and continued until Charles Ayer came in 1858. Ho 
was succeeded by a Mr. Miles in 1859, who taught 
only about two months, and he by G. M. Trowbridge, 
who remained until the fall of 1860. Since then 
the succession has been : R. H. Tripp, two years 
W. I. Baker, two years ; M. D. Ewell, one year 
S. M. Burton, one year; Jason Newton, one year 
F. A. Herring, two years ; H. C. Baggerley, one 
year ; Eugene Ketcham, one year ; J. F. Downey, 
one year ; J. C. Clark, one year ; Levi B. French, 
one year ; F. H. Bailey, two years ; H. C. Rankin, 
three years, and G. 0. Osinga since the fall of 1880. 


Immediately after the death of Jason R. Coates — 
August 7, 1832 — a village lot was chosen and set 
apart by Elias B. Sherman for a burial-place. Jn 

this lot, constituting a part of the present cemetery, 
Mr. Coates was buried. Not long after, graves were 
made to receive the mortal remains of a Mr. Shields 
and of Charles Tarbos. The first woman interred in 
the little burying-ground was Mrs. Mary Root, who 
died August 22, 1834 (although the tombstone says 
1835), and the second was Mrs. Allen Munroe. 

The burying-ground was enlarged subsequent to 
1840, by the addition of several lots, donated by the 
Court House Company. In 1879, the cemetery 
came under the management of the corporation, and 
in that year an addition of about three and a quarter 
acres was made to its area, the land being purchased 
from Ritner Graham. 

Mr. John Tietsort has for several years superin- 
tended the improvements made in the cemetery, and 
has most of the time served without any remuneration. 
To him the public is indebted for very much of the 
beauty of these grounds, where rest the dead of a half 
century. ' The old portion of the cemetery has been 
placed in excellent order, and the new very tastefully 

The oldest person who has died in Cass County is 
buried here. The tombstone bears the inscription, 
" Mary, wife of C. Earnest, died June 25, 1871, 
aged 109 years and seven months." 

Near by is the monument reared to the memory of 
the venerated Elder Price, upon which is inscribed 
the following : 

"Erected by the many friends of Elder Price as a 
token of their high esteem of him as a man, and their 
appreciation of his earnest, faithful and self-sacrificing 
labors among them for so many years as a minister of 
the Gospel of Christ." 


An ^ organization was effected under this name 
October 14, 1870, and incorporated February 11, 
1871, under an act of the Legislature, by W. W. 
Peck. William P. Bennett, Charles S. Wheaton, John 
T. Stevens, A. Garwood, A. B. Morley, A. Magin- 
nis, H. Norton, 0. Rudd, M. L. Howell, John Tiet- 
sort, James M. Shepard, L. H. Glover and J. B. 
Boyd. The objects for which the'society^was incor- 
porated were "the establishment and maintenance of 
a library and reading room ; the procuring and fur- 
nishing of lectures on literary and scientific subjects, 
and the affording of such other means of literary, 
scientific and intellectual improvement as'the associa- 
tion by its by-laws may provide." A, public reading 
room was established, but only kept^up six or eight 
months. The library Jias been maintained uninter- 
ruptedly, and at present contains about seven hundred 


well-selected volumes. The ladies of Cassopolis have 
been very active in supporting and managing the 


" The first secret society of which there is any 
record was a lodge of the Ancient and Honorable 
Order of Eclampsus Vitus, which was instituted in 
the spring of 1846 with Dr. E. J. Bonine, Laban 
Harter, J. P. Osborn and Dr. L. O.sborn as charter 

" The order was in broadest burlesque of legiti- 
mate secret organizations, and was afterward merged 
in the " Sons of Malta," which died from exposure 
(by Frank Leslie) in the next decade. 

" The candidates for admission were bound fast, 
blindfolded and dragged into the hall by halters. 
They were placed in the most ludicrous positions and 
required to pledge themselves to performances and 
courses of conduct which by a cunningly devised 
double, entendre in the wording of the pledges were 
either impossible or eminently ridiculous. 

" A peculiarity of human nature which renders the 
victim of a 'sell' restless and unhappy until he has 
inveigled others into the same meshes, insured the 
rapid growth and financial prosperity of this mon- 
strous hoax. Numerous Neophites were found to 
assuage the grief and soothe the wounded pride of the 
earlier victims. 

" A grand ball \tas given by the lodge in the winter 
of 1846-47, at the Union Hotel, at which over two 
hundred badges of the ' Ancient and Honorable 
Order ' were displayed, and that, too, by men who 
stood the highest in popular esteem and respectability. 

" The (dis)order collapsed in 1847, partly from lack 
of raw material and partly from a growing satiety 
amounting to disgust on the part of the better pertion 
of the members, but it was successfully resurrected in 
1860 under the alias of the 'Brothers of Charity.' 

"The second edition, although enlarged and im- 
proved, was ' of few days and full of trouble ' to all 
except the charter members." 

I. 0. 0. F. 

The first legitimate secret society organization 
effected at Cassopolis was that of Cass County Lodge, 
No. 21, I. 0. 0. F. The dispensation authorizing 
the institution of the lodge was granted Grand Mas- 
ter Andrew J. Clark January 16, 1847. The lodge 
was instituted on February 18, following. On this 
occasion the following officer.s were elected : N. G., 
Alexander H. Redfield ; V. G.^ George B. Turner ; 

'James M, Shep»rd, In Rogor'a" History of C«a« Coanty." 

Secretary, George Sherwood ; Permanent Secretary, 
Henry R. Close ; Treasurer, W. G. Beckwith. In 
1849, the lodge purchased a portion of the lot upon 
which the county jail now stands, and remodeled a 
building which stood upon it, making a very comfort- 
able hall in which to hold their meetings. The prop- 
erty passed into the hands of Henry Tietsort in 1854, 
and he subsequently gave the lodge a perpetual lease 
of the hall and its approaches. When the lot upon 
which the building stood was sold to the county the 
building was moved to its present location on Broad- 
way. The organization is at present in a flourishing 
condition, financially and otherwise. 

Cass Encampment, No. 74, L 0. 0. F., was organ- 
ized May 11, 1874, by G. P. Fayette S. Day, and 
consisted originally of seven members. The first 
officers elected were C. P., R. H. Wiley ; H. P., H. 
H. Bidwell ; S. W., J. W. Argo ; J. w!, H. Dasher; 
Scribe, A. P. Gaston ; Treasurer, H. Tietsort. 

The first meeting of members of this fraternity was 
held June 12, 1852, in the Union Hotel. At this 
gathering, a petition was drawn up, praying for a dis- 
pensation authorizing a local organization. July 9, 
1852, the members met pursuant to the terms of the 
dispensation, and organized under the name of Backus 
Lodge, that appellation being assumed in honor of 
Grand Master Backus. The first officers elected were 
W. M., James M. Spencer ; S. W., Asa Kingsbury ; 
J. W., Elias B. Sherman. The lodge held meetings at 
Odd Fellows Hall until 1860; after that in Kingsbury's 
Hall until 1876, and since that time has occupied the 
second floor of the Chapman building. The lodge 
has a membership of eighty, and owns $500 worth of 
property. Its meetings are held Mondays, on or be- 
fore the full moon. 

Kingsbury Chapter, No. 78, R. A. M. (named in 
honor of Asa Kingsbury), was organized March 10, 
1871, with the election of the following officers, viz.: 
H. P., Isaac A. Shingledecker ; K., Asa Kingsbury ; 
S., Charles W. Clisbee ; C. of H., James H. Farnum ; 
P. S., Henry Tietsort ; R. A. C, George T. Shaff"er ; 
M. 3d v., Samuel Stephenson; M. 2d V., Jonas 
Mechling; M. 1st V"., Amos Smith; Treasurer, Will- 
iam Condon ; Guard, L. D. Tompkins. The Chap- 
ter has a membership of thirty-three, and owns $400 
worth of furniture, regalia, etc. Its meetings are on 
Tuesdays, on or after the full of the moon. 

Organizations of several other orders have had an 
ephemeral existence at various periods. 

A division of the Sons of Temperance was instituted 
in 1848, and, at the same time, or soon after, an au>(- 
iliary union of the Daughters of Temperance. 



In 1852, a lodge of the Independent Order of Good 
Templars was organized, which existed for several 
years. A second lodge of the same order was organ- 
ized in the summer of 1865, which remained active 
for about four years. 

Mr. Harper was born December, I'J, 1805, in 
Washington County, Penn., upon a farm where 
his grandparents, immigrants from Belfast, Ireland, 
had settled soon after the Revolutionary war. 
Robert, son of .John and Margaret Harper, married 
Tamar Johnson, who was of Scotch descent, and 
belonged to a family who settled at an early date 
in Washington County. The subject of this sketch 
was the sixth child in a family of ten. He was reared 
upon the home farm. After spending two years in 
Pittsburgh and a short period in the village of Wash- 
ington, he started for the then far West. It had been 
his intention to locate in Chicago, but, by one of those 
seemingly inconsequential happenings, of which time 
develops the importance, he became a resident of the 
then new village of Cassopolis. The exact date of 
his arrival was February 3, 1835. In Pennsylvania, he 
had learned the carpenter's trade, and he followed it 
after coming to Cassopolis for many years. He was 
the builder of the first court house, upon which he 
began work in 1835, and also of the present court 
house. Very soon after coming to Michigan he was 
made Deputy Sheriff of Cass County, under Eber 
Root, and remained in that capacity until the State 
was organized in 1836. While occupying this office, 
he served the first legal papers in Van Buren County, 
thatcounty being attached to Cass forjudicial purposes. 
In 1836, he was elected Justice of the Peace, and took 
the office July 4. In the fall of 1838, he was elected 
Register of Deeds, and re-elected in 1840. In 1837, 
he was chosen County Treasurer to fill a vacancy, 
and again in 1839, to fill another in the same office, 
caused by the death of Isaac Sears. Capt. Harper 
(as he is commonly called) has been complimented by 
the bestowal upon him of a number of other offices of 
honor and trust. He was Superintendent of the 
Poor for several years subsequent to 1847 ; has been 
President of the corporation a number of times and 
is now the President of the Cass County Pioneer So- 
ciety. In 1850, he went to California and followed 
mining there for four years. Upon his return, in 
1854, he was elected Sheriff upon the first Republican 
ticket. Prior to the organization of the Republican 
party he was a Whig, and was prominently identified 
with the famous campaign of 1840. When the war 
broke out, his popularity made it an easy matter for 

him to raise a company of men and did so, going to 
the front in September, 1861, as Captain of Company 
A of the Michigan Twelfth Infantry. Upon May_^ 
27, 1862, he resigned and received a discharge for 
disability. His army experience was unfortunate in 
that it undermined his health and he was for two years a 
sufferer with diseases which threatened very serious 
consec(uences. In 1864, with a view to the im- 
provement of his health, he went to Montana, and 
for three years followed mining. The experiment 
was successful, and he returned so benefited that he 
is to-day as hale a man for his years as can be found 
in the State. In the spring of 1869, Capt. Harper 
was appointed Postmaster of Cassopolis, an office 
which he held until January, 1878. Since that 
time he has not been actively engaged either in pub- 
lic or private employment. Capt. Harper now, at the 
age of more than three score years and ten, as we have 
implied, preserves in a remarkable degree his physical 
powers and mental faculties. His memory is wonder- 
fully retentive — a storehouse full of the facts accumu- 
lated by the observation and reading of a long life-time. 
His accurate recollection of local affiiirs has been of 
peculiar value in the preparation of this work, and it is 
safe to say that no one man in Cass County has been 
able to contribute so much of reliable information for 
the benefit of the historian and for posterity. And 
now in the old age of a correct life, with family 
and friends about him, he enjoys both the present and 
the past. Religiously, Capt. Harper has been an al- 
most life-long believer in the principles of Christianity, 
and has striven to conform his daily life to them. 
Capt. Harper was married October 25, 1836, to Miss 
Caroline Guylford, a native of Massachusetts, born 
September 4, 1816. Her parents were early settlers of 
Cuyahoga County, Ohio, and came from there to 
Michigan. The offspring of the marriage were four 
girls, of whom three are living in Cassopolis. Emily 
S., the eldest, is the wife of J. B. Chapman ; Melissa 
C, is Mrs. Joseph Graham ; Janette, Mrs. C. L. 
Morton, died February 27, 1880 ; Maryette is the 
wife of L. H. Glover. Esq. 

William P. Bennett, or Judge Bennett, as he is 
familiarly known, was born in Maulmein, British East 
India, October 17, 1831, and was the son of Cephas 
and Stella (Kneeland) Bennett, both natives of the 
State of New York. The elder Bennett was a printer 
by occupation, and, in 1829, was sent out by the 
American Board of Foreign Missions with the first 
iron printing press over operated in Central Asia. 
In 1840, he returned to America with his family, 



and, after a stay of about a year and a half, returned 
to India, leaving William P. at New Woodstock, N. 
Y., where he remained until 1845, when he came to 
Tecumseh, Mich., but subsequently returned to New 
York. He was educated at the Cortland, Woodstock 
and Groton Academies and at the Oneida Conference 
School at Cazenovia. October .5, 1850, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Louisa Brokaw, of Cayuga County, N. 
Y., and, in 1851, the young couple came to Michigan 
and, in October of 1852, settled in Marcellus Town- 
ship, then a new country, and began the construction 
of a home. His ability was soon recognized by the 
people, and for ten years he was their representative 
on the Board of Supervisors. 

In 1868, he was elected to the most important and 
responsible position in county affairs, that of Probate 
Judge, and such has been the appreciation of the 
people of the manner in which he has discharged the 
duties of the office that he has held the position unin- 
terruptedly since. In politics, -ludge Bennett is an 
unswerving Republican. He takes a deep interest in 
political matters, using the term in its broadest and 
best sense, and has always been active in advancing 
the best interests of the community. He is a man 
of large reading, and his acquaintance with general 
literature seems as intimate as his knowledge of the 
topics of the day. He is not a church member, but 
a man of good habits and morals and of sturdy char- 
acter. His mode of thought is vigorous and his con- 
versation plain and direct. He is a man in whom 
dignity is finely tempered with kindness and affability, 
and the pleasant vein of humor in his composition 
renders him engaging in his manner. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bennett have a family of three chil- 
dren — Alton W., a resident of Big Rapids, Mich. ; 
Frank M., a graduate of the Naval School at Annap- 
olis ; and Stella M., now Mrs. Lieut. Douglas Roben, 
an officer on the retired list of the United States 

The grandfather of the subject of this biography, 
Gilbert N. W^atkins, when the war of the Revolution 
opened, was living in Massachusetts. He took up 
arms to defend the patriot cause, received a commis- 
sion as Captain signed by John Hancock and was 
assigned to report to Gen. Gates. He served through 
the whole war, a period of seven years and six months, 
and was one of those who signed a receipt for the 
full amount of pay without receiving it. He was 
afterward offered a land warrant but refused it, and 
before his death made a codicil to his will enjoining his 
heirs from receiving any bounty or pension from the 
Government, on pain of being deprived of other 

benefits of the will. After the close of the war, 
Gilbert N. Watkins and his wife, Sarah, settled in 
Tompkins County, N. Y. There the former died in 
1827. His wife survived, and emigrated to Michi- 
gan. Esther, the fourth child of this couple, was 
married in 1814 to Titus R. Read, a native of Peru, 
Mass. He was a soldier, and worthy of the daughter 
of so gallant and patriotic a man of arms as Gilbert 
N. Watkins. Mr. Read served in the war of 1812 
as a First Lieutenant, being wounded at the battle of 
Queenstown. He was one of the two-thirds of the 
force present who volunteered to go over the line and, 
the Captain being killed, led the company. 

Sylvador T. Read was born in Tompkins County, 
N. Y., January 12, 1822, and was the third child 
and first son of Titus R. and Esther (Watkins) Read. 
The family removed to Erie County, Penn., and from 
thence, in 1831, to Michigan. While they were 
passing through Ashtabula County. Ohio, Mrs. Read 
was taken sick and died. The bereaved husband 
journeyed on to Michigan and located in Leonidas, 
St. Joseph County. He subsequently removed to 
Volinia, Cass County, and put out a nursery on 
Little Prairie Ronde, grafting improved stock upon 
the roots of crab-apple trees. He was doubtless the 
first man in the county who undertook this method of 
fruit propagation. He was a resident of Cass County 
until his death, which occurred January 6, 1863, 
when he was in his seventy-third year. 

But to return to the immediate subject of our 
sketch. Sylvador T. Read, upon the death of his 
mother, returned to New York, and for a short period 
lived in Ontario County. In 1832, he came to Michi- 
gan with his grandmother and uncle, Nathan G. 
Watkins. Subsequently he went to school for three 
years in Erie County, Penn., and there became 
acquainted with the lady who was to be his wife — 
Rhoda A. Hayden. They were married in 1843, and 
the same year settled in Calvin Township, where Mr. 
Read, who had several times passed through the 
county, had bought land. Farming was for a number 
of years Mr. Read's chief occupation, but he also 
followed "breaking" as a regular business, and 
guided the great plow, weighing 500 pounds, through 
many acres of Cass County grubs. He dealt largely 
in horses and cattle and other live stock. In 1848, he 
took a large drove of cattle to Chicago, and in the 
following year drove a fine lot of horses to Oswego, 
N. Y. These were the first horses raised in Cass 
County which went to an outside market. In 1854, 
he drove a herd of cattle, consisting of over a hundred 
head, to California, and disposed of them to good 
advantage. In 1855, he returned, located in Cassop- 
olis, and immediately went into business. His first 


stand was in the building latterly known as the Davis 
restaurant. He rented this of Maj. Joseph Smith, 
bought the store fixtures, put in a new stock of goods. 
Four years later, he moved to the store now occu. 
pied by Mr. French as a wareroom, and there 
remained until January, 1870, when he sold out to 
Orson Rudd and W. W. Mcllvain. In August, 1871, 
he opened his present store in company with John 
Yost. In addition to his other business, Mr. Read 
carried on extensively for about fifteen years, subse- 
quent to 1857, the shipping of cattle, sheep and hogs 
to New York, and he built for that purpose a shipping 
yard at Dowagiac. 

Large as Mr. Read's private business has been, it i 
has not claimed all of his attention or activity. To 
him Cassopolis and Cass County are indebted beyond 
any doubt for the Grand Trunk Railroad, a brief his- 
tory of which is given in a chapter of this work. It 
was he who first suggested to the President of the 
Canadian Railway, which had its terminus at Port 
Huron, the scheme of crossing the Michigan Penin- 
sula and reaching Chicago, and it was due almost 
entirely to Mr. Read that, when that project was 
decided upon, the line was run through this county. 
He gave liberally both of his time and money to efi"ect 
that end. 

The subject of our sketch has been an earnest 
and energetic worker in every measure or project 
in which he has engaged, and the people, recog- 
nizing that quality in his nature, combined with 
shrewd common sense, have frequently placed him in 
positions where his energies might be of value to the 
public. He has served upon the Cassopolis School 
Board for twelve years and as a member of the Council 
for eight years. Before he took up his residence in 
the county seat, he held various ofiBces in the gift of 
the people of Calvin Township. While taking a deep 
interest in political affairs, he has never been an aspi- 
rant for political oflSce. The oflBce of Sheriff' might 
easily have been his at one time had he not refused 
the nomination, and various other positions of honor 
and trust would have been given to him had he cared 
to accept them. His political affiliations have been 
with the Abolitionist and Republican parties. 

Mr. Read has been associated with the Presby- 
terian Church for forty-two years, and is a member 
of the organization of that denomination in Casso- 

We have already mentioned the fact that Mr. Read 
was married in 1843 to Rhoda A. Ilayden. Their 
children are Helen Jane (Mrs. W. W. Mcllvain), 
Ophelia A. (Mrs. Orlando Phelps), Martha 
(deceased), Sarah I. (Mrs. H. D. Smith), Frank 
(deceased), and Nettie N. 

Mr. Lofland was born in Milford, Del., September 
8, 1818. At the age of eighteen, he was placed in a 
store, and for several years remained in that position, 
gaining the rudiments of a practical business educa- 
tion. In 183(3, with his mother and the rest of the 
family, he removed to Michigan. His first business 
was the management of a grocery store in Cassopolis, 
which belonged to Lucius Hoyt, of Niles. When that 
business closed, he visited his old home in Delaware, 
remaining there several montlis, during which time he 
connected himself with the M. E. Church. In 1840, 
he returned to Cassopolis, and was employed as a 
clerk by Jacob Silver. In 1841, he formed a partner- 
ship with Mr. Silver, to continue five years, Mr. Sil- 
ver furnishing all of the capital. At the end of the 
time specified, the firm dissolved, and divided $16,000 
equally. During this co-partnership, Mr. Lofland was 
elected County Treasurer. In 1841, he married Lo- 
retta, daughter of Josiah and Polly Silver. In April, 
1847, Mr. Lofland formed a partnership with Henly 
C. Lybrook, under the firm name of Lofland & Ly- 
brook, in the dry goods business. In June, 1850, 
this firm began business in Dowagiac, and soon after 
took a half-interest in a dry goods store in Cassopolis, 
which Mr. Lofland managed. In 1854, they closed 
out their business in Dowagiac. Not long afterward, 
Mr. L. bought the Vanderhoof farm, on La Grange 
Prairie, and lived there the rest of his life, making a 
successful farmer. He died February 27, 1862, after 
long suffering with consumption. Mr. Lofland was a 
very popular man among the people of Cassopolis and 
others with whom he was associated, and possessed the 
respect of all who knew him. His excellence of char- 
acter is very fre(iuently spoken of by old residents. 

The late Joseph Smith, commonly spoken of by 
old settlers as Maj. Smith, was born in Botetourt 
County, Va., April 11, 1809. His parents, Henry 
and Sarah (Shaff"er) Smith, early removed to Clark 
County, Ohio, and settled near Springfield, where his 
father engaged in farming. Joseph Smith obtained 
only the rudiments of a school education. At the 
age of eighteen, he left home, and spent two years in 
clearing for diff"erent owners heavily timbered lands 
in his own and adjacent counties. With a capital 
of about $350, he removed, in 1829. to the locality 
now known as Northampton, Ohio, built the first 
house there, and opened a small store. ' In 1832, he 
removed to Cass County, where he bought a saw- 
mill, which he carried on for about two years. At 
the end of that time, he sold out and bought 1,000 


acres of land in Jefferson Township. He then began 
farming, and continued it about eighteen years, 
toward the close of that period establishing a mercan- 
tile business in Cassopolis. This he carried on very 
successfully until 1875. He bought large tracts of 
land near the village, and became the owner of a 
very extensive property, which, as well as his mer- 
cantile and general business, he managed with signal 
ability. He was a Captain of militia in Ohio, and 
Major of the regiment of militia organized in Cass 
County in 1841. He was a member of the first 
Legislature elected under the State Constitution in' 
1836, and was re elected in 1837. In local affairs, he 
took a prominent part, being several times elected to 
such offices as Supervisor, Justice of the Peace, and 
President of the village. In politics, he always acted 
with the Democratic party. His death occurred in 
April, 1880. Maj. Smith was married in February. 
1830, to Jemima Lippincott, daughter of Obadiah 
Lippincott, of Clark County, Ohio, who still survives. 
They were the parents of eleven children, the first 
two of whom died in infancy. The others are — Lewis 
Davis, merchant of Cassopolis; Eliza J. (widow of 
John Shaw), also of Cassopolis ; John Henry and 
Emily, deceased ; Margaret (wife of Lester Graham, 
of Jefferson Township) ; Sarah (Bell), deceased ; 
Thomas J., Sabrina(Mr3. E. R. Graham), and James 
P., of Cassopolis. 


Mr. Eber Root was an early hotel-keeper of Cass- 
opolis, whose name is frequently mentioned in 
the history of the village ; he came here in the 
year 1832, from Huron County, Ohio, and was 
the builder of the old log jail, or " gaol," as it is 
called in the Supervisors' records, and was Sheriff in 
1835. Mr. Root was a man of good character, and a 
genial, pleasant landlord. His first wife, Mary 
Gamble, who came with him from Ohio, died in 1834, 
and hers was the second deatli which occurred in Cass- 
opolis. His second wife, Eliza Wells, who came 
from Edwardsburg, is still living. Mr. Root retired 
to a farm in La Grange Township early in the fifties, 
and died there June 19, 1862, aged sixty-three years. 
His children are Isabella (Mrs. J. P. Osborn), Mary 
(Worthington) and Jane (wife of L. D. Smith). 

The subject of this sketch, one of the early resi- 
dents of Cassopolis, was born in Northampton County, 
N. C, July 5, 1791, and was reared in Southampton 
County, Va. He was a soldier in the war of 1812, 
iind served under Gen. Wade Hampton. He was in 

the battle of Plattsburg, and one of the party engaged 
in the retaking of the brig from the British in Bufi"alo 
Harbor. At the close of the war, he received an hon- 
orable discharge at Covington, Ky., and soon after 
settled in Franklin County, N. Y. In 1835, he came 
to Michigan, and in 1836 to Cass County, locating at 
the county seat. He followed the trade of harness 
making, and for many years lived in the house now 
occupied by Capt. Joseph Harper. For a long period, 
he was a Justice of the Peace, being several times 
re-elected. He died May 10, 1.851, mourned by a 
large circle of friends. Mr. Turner was a man of fine 
character, and universally respected in the community 
in which he dwelt. 


Mr. Tietsort was born in Miltonville, Butler 
County, Ohio, November 22, 1826. and was the oldest 
son of Abram Tietsort, Jr. (see history of La Grange 
Township). He came with his father to Niles, Mich., 
in April, 1828, and from there to what is now Cass- 
opolis in the spring of 1830, the family being the 
first settlers on the site of the village. Mr. Tietsort 
has ever since resided in Cassopolis, with the excep- 
tion of two years spent in California, whither he went 
in 1850, with Joseph Harper and others. He has 
lived longer in the village than any other resident. 
During the greater part of the period from 1846 to 
1873, he was engaged in the mercantile business 
He has been one of the most useful and popular citi- 
zens of the place. A man of generous impulses, and 
always having the best interests of the community at 
heart, he has done much for the benefit of Cassopolis. 
The citizens are largely indebted to him for the beauti- 
ful arrangement of the village burying-ground and its 
admirable condition. His services have usually been 
bestowed without the expectation of or the desire for 

Mr. Tietsort has been married three times. His 
first wife, with whom he was joined November 25, 
1852, was Ellen Silver Sherman, daughter of Elias 
B. Sherman. She died August 26, 1862. He was 
married to Eleanor Robinson, January 26, 1864. 
Her death occurred October 27, 1869, and upon July 
17, 1871, Mr. Tietsort married Addie Silver Robin- 
son. He has three daughters and one son, all living 
in Cassopolis. 

Mr. Kingsbury was born, May 14, 1812, in Nor- 
folk County, Mass., and remained in the vicinity of 
his native place until he arrived at years of maturity, 
when he went to Augusta, Me., with a small stock of 


miscellaneous goods, such as were then commonly 
kept in "general" stores. After he had remained 
there a few years, he closed out, with the intention of 
going to Chicago, and started on a journey for that 
purpose. After long and wearisome travel, he stopped 
at Cassopolis, to see his brother Asa. He gave up 
his original intention of going to Chicago, and re- 
solved to go into business with his brother in this 
then small village. This was in the M\ of 1837. 
He purchased and cleared land just west of the vil- 
lage, on the north side of State street, and built the 
house still standing upon the hill, which was his home 
for about thirty years. He was married to Sarah 
Miller, at the house of her father, J. P. Miller, in 
Jefferson Township, by Elder Jacob Price, March 
12, 1851. His death occurred December 23, 1876. 
Charles Kingsbury was a man of quiet habits, a great 
reader and well informed in history, politics and gen- 
eral literature. During the whole of his mature life, 
he spent a portion of each day in reading the Bible, 
and he considered its precepts man's best guide, spir- 
itually and morally governing his life thereby. He 
was always kind to the poor and suffering, and never 
refused them aid when it was in his power to extend 
it, often suffering financially by reason of his benevo- 
lence. His attachments for home and friends were 
very strong. He had a large musical talent, was a 
good singer and played readily upon almost any 
instrument. Politically, he was a Whig and after- 
ward a Republican, adhering to the principles of the 
latter party until his death. 

Mr. Mcllvain is of Scotch-Irish descent, his an- 
cestors having emigrated from Scotland to Ireland 
during one of the turmoils that occurred in their 
country in e.arly times. His grandfather emigrated 
to America and settled in Pennsylvania, and, going to 
Kentucky soon after th^ settlement of that State, was 
captured by a band of Indians who made a raid from 
Ohio, and kept in bondage by them for two and a 
half years. He afterward made a permanent settle- 
ment near Lexington. It was in that locality that 
the subject of this sketch was born in 1802. When 
he was three years old, his parents moved to Cham- 
paign County, Ohio, where he resided for thirty-one 
years, or until coming to Michigan in 1836. Mr. 
Mcllvain settled in Jefferson Township and lived there 
until 1867, when he removed to Cassopolis, where he 
has since resided with his son. Mr. Mcllvain is a 
quiet, unassuming man, who has always commanded 
the respect of the people among whom he has dwelt. 
He has held positions of honor and trust, He 

was married in Ohio to Charity Carmichael. Their 
living children are William W., Nancy J., the wife of 
Henry W. Smith, and Mary E. (Gregg) — the last 
mentioned of whom is at present a resident of Rock- 
well City, Iowa. 

William W. Mcllvain, the well-known merchant of 
Cassopolis, has been in business here since the close 
of the war. He served in tlic army nearly four years, 
enlisting in Company D, of the Sixth Michigan In- 
fantry as a private, and being promoted to the posi- 
tion of First Lieutenant. He was wounded at the 
siege of Port Hudson. 

Joseph K. Ritter was born in Berrien County, 
Mich., May 7, 1829, and was the son of John and 
Sarah (Lybrook) Ritter, who came to Michigan in 
October, 1828. They settled first at Niles ; but, in 
August, 1829, removed to La Grange Township, Cass 
County. John Ritter was killed by a- stroke of light- 
ning on the 31st of the same month. Joseph K., the 
subject of this brief sketch, came to Cassopolis in 1851, 
and for the following ten years was engaged in the 
dry goods business. During the first four years, he 
was in partnership with Joshua Lofland, Henly C. 
Lybrook and G. C. Jones, under the firm name of J. 
K. Ritter & Co., and afterward was alone until 1858, 
when he took into partnership B. F. Beeson, who 
remained with him until 1861. In 1862, Mr. Ritter 
was elected County Treasurer, and served in that 
capacity for four years. In 1865, he again went into 
business, having, as a partner, for a brief period. A . 
E. Peck. He continued in active mercantile life until 
1875, and since that time has been engaged in buying 
grain. Mr. Ritter was married September 18, 1856, 
to Amanda F., daughter of Asa Kingsbury. 

Samuel and Edward Graham have been residents 
of the village, respectively, since the years 1847 
and 1850. Samuel Graham was born, in Erie 
County, Penn. Since coming to Cass County, he 
has resided at the place which is now his home, 
enjoying at once the advantages of farm and village 
life. His first wife was Anna Taylor; his second, 
Emma Jane (Hancock). ni;e Deacon. He had by his 
first wife nine children, of whom one, Marvin M., 
lives in Cassopolis ; and by his second, four, of whom 
three are living in town. Edward Graham was born Sep- 
tember 11, 1810. His wife was Desire Ilisted. They 
have nine children, all of whom reside in Cassopolis, 
or its vicinity, viz.: Henry C, Lester, William, E. 
R., Raensallaer, Florence, Joseph, Frank and David, 



Mr. Banks was born in McDonough, Chenango Co., 
N. Y., in 1825. He came to Cassopolis in 1844. 
He followed surveying, taught school for four or five 
years, and clerked for S. T. & L. R. Read. From 
1863, in company with John Tietsort, he carried on a 
successful mercantile business. Mr. Banks has been 
prominently identified with the best interests of the 
village, and has taken an active part in educational 
affairs. He was married to Amanda, daughter of 
Pleasant Norton. John C, Harlow and Aaron, 
brothers of Charles G. Banks, have resided at different 
periods in Cassopolis, and the first named was one of 
the prominent school teachers of the village. 

The subject of this sketch was a son of Isaac Dun- 
ning, and was born near Sempronius, Cayuga Co., 
N. Y., September^ 18, 1802. In 1834, the family 
emigrated to Cass County and settled near Edwards- 
burg. Upon October 12, 1836, Horace B. was mar- 
ried to Sarah A. Camp, who lived six miles west of 
Buffalo, N. Y. In 1837, he was elected Probate 
Judge, in which office he served until January, 1841. 
In 1840, he was elected County Clerk ; began his 
duties in that position in January, 1841, and soon 
after removed to Cassopolis. He was for several years 
Acting Treasurer. In 1844, he bought out the drug 
business of Alexander H. Redfield, which he carried 
on until his death. He was appointed Postmaster in 
1861. Mr. Dunning's death occurred May 30, 1868. 
His children were Helen C. (Draper), now living in 
Big Rapids ; Delia and Huldah (deceased), and Sarah 
L., widow of the late A. B. Morley. 

Mr. Peck was born in Shelby County, Ohio, Sep- 
tember 22, 1830, and came to Cassopolis in 1853. 
His first employment was as a clerk with Joshua Lof- 
land and J. K. Ritter. In 1860, he went into themer- 
cantile business for himself, and carried it on success- 
fully for a number of years, during a portion of the 
time having Albert Magannis as partner. He was 
elected and served acceptably as County Treasurer. 
Mr. Peck took an interest in public aft'airs to the ad- 
vantage of the community, and was especially active 
in enhancing educational interests. He was a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Peck's 
death occurred April 6, 1879, after a long and ex- 
ceedingly painful illness. He was married, December 
27, 1853, to Elizabeth, daughter of Pleasant Norton, 
who survives him. 

Mr. Shaw was born in Westfield, Chautauqua Co., N. 
Y., March 10, 1824. He learned at an early age the 
trade of cabinet-making. In 1853, he went to Cali- 
fornia where he remained two years. The steamer 
in which he took passage for his return trip was the 
ill-fated Yankee Blade, which was totally wrecked 
near Lookout Point on the Mexican coast, a great 
many of the passengers losing their lives. He was 
one of the survivors. In 1856, he came to Cassopo- 
lis to visit relatives, and while here became acquainted 
with Miss Eliza, daughter of Maj. Joseph Smith, to 
whom he was married the same year. He took his 
wife to his old home, Westfield, N. Y., and remained 
there one year, when he returned to Cassopolis, 
where he lived until his death, which occurred June 
25, 1878. His wife and only son, Charles W., survive 

C. C. Allison, editor of the National Democrat, 
was born in Blackberry, 111., about thirty miles west 
of Chicago, in September, 1840. He came to Cass- 
opolis in 1818, and has since resided here. In 1855, 
he obtained his introduction to the printing business, 
entering the Democrat office as an apprentice. It was 
in this school that he obtained the principal part of 
his education, "picking it out of the case." He 
worked for about one year in Dowagiac on the Cass 
County Tribune, under James L. Gannt, and on the 
present Dowagiac Republican at the time it was 
founded by Messrs. Jones & Campbell. In 1862, he 
took charge of the National Democrat as publisher, 
and, as a matter of fact, as editor, for he did all of the 
writing except an occasional article from Maj. Jo- 
seph Smith. When Mr. Allison first became identi- 
fied with the Democrat, it was owned by a company of 
stockholders; but, in 1864, he purchased the paper. 
Since then he has edited and published it and with 
fine success. • 

Mr. Shcpard was born in North Brookfield. Mass., 
November, 24, 1840, and at a very early age removed 
to Boston. He is the youngest son of Lucy (Bush) 
and Jiev. James Shepard, of the New England Method- 
ist Episcopal Conference, andgramlson of Gen. James 
Shepard, of the army of the Revolution. After 
preparatory study at the Wilbraham Academy, he 
entered the Wesleyan University at Middletown, 
Conn., and there received a thorough classical educa- 
tion. Subsequently he studied medicine and dental 
surgery at Boston. During the war, he served in the 
medical department of the United States Navy. Upon 

^, Y,^a1u.€^^^ 

F^ESlDEjviCE OF S.T. F^Ey\D; cy\SSO PO L I S. [Vl I C |H 


the 3d of September, 1868, he located in Cassopolis, 
where he has since resided, following, until 1876, the 
profession of dental surgery, and since then journal- 
ism. He has been sole proprietor of the Vigilant 
since 1878. Mr. Shepard was elected as a Repub- 
lican to the State Senate from the Twelfth District 
(Cass and Van Buren Counties), in 1878, receiving 
5,257 votes against 1,208 for Josiah R. Hendryxi 
Democrat, and 4,230 for Aaron S. Dyckman, National' 
He served acceptably to his constituency and was a 
valued member of the Senate. He was Chairman on 
the Standing Committees on the Liquor Traffic, and 
on Printing, and a member of the committees on 
Education and Public Schools, Mechanical Interests 
•and Engrossment and Enrollment. In 1870, Mr. 
Shepard was united in marriage with Alice, eldest 
daughter of Hiram and Margaret Silver Martin. They 
have two children. 

A. E. PECK. 
Mr. A. E. Peck was, for many years, a resident 
and prominent man of Cassopolis. He was born 
in Jefferson County, N. Y., in 1819. He moved 
to Ohio in 1840 ; to Livingston County, Mich., 
in 1842, and to Cassopolis in 1846. In 1854, 
Mr. Peck was elected Register of Deeds, and 
entering upon the duties of that office in January, 
1855, served until 1865. filling the position to the 
entire satisfaction of the public. For some time sub- 
sequent to the latter date, he was engaged in business 
in Cassopolis, and in October, 1874, removed to 
Gentry County, Mo., where he died July 16 of the 
following year. Mr. Peck was a very worthy man, 
and enjoyed the esteem of all who knew him during 
his long residence in Cassopolis. 

James Oren, of Cassopolis, came to the county April 
11, 1848, and is, therefore, an eleventh-hour pioneer, 
according to the rules of the Pioneer Society. He 
was born in Clinton County, Ohio, January 29, 1825. 
In the winter of 1848-49, he taught school in what was 
called the brick schoolhouse, two and a half miles 
south of Cassopolis, and for five or six years following 
he continued to teach during the winters in the schools 
of Calvin Township. He soon afterward made an 
unfortunate investment in a mill property. In the 
fall of 1X51, he married Angeline Osborn, daughter 
of Josiah and Mary Osborn. Both were at the time 
members of the Society of Friends ; but, being mar- 
ried by a Baptist minister, contrary to the discipline 
of the church, they were disowned and deprived of 
the privilege of membership. Their sympathies, how- 
ever, remained with the Quakers, and the policy of 
the society being changed in some respects, they were. 

nearly twenty years afterward, invited and welcomed 
back into the church. One son, James Albert Oren, 
was the offspring of their union. After his marriage, 
Mr. Oren settled in Calvin and cleared up a fine farm. 
He was quite prominently'identified with the affairs 
of the township, being .several times elected to the 
offices of School Inspector, Clerk and Supervisor. 
Both his son and wife died in 1873, the former upon 
June 30 and the latter on August 23. Not long after 
these sad occurrences, Mr. 'Oren removed to Cassop- 
olis. and, a year later, married Sarah, widow of Charles 
Kingsbury and daughter of John Miller. 


Beginning and Development— Causes Combining to Create a Town— 
The Paper City o£ Venice— Grace Greenwood upon Early Dowa- 
giac— Original Plat and Additions— Some Initial Events Mercan- 
tile and Maiuifacturing History— Banking— Hotels— Post Office- 
Railroad Statioji-Amount ol Freight Shipped— Church History— 
The Public Schools- Lists of Trustees and Teachers-Secret and 
Benevolent Societies— Ladies' Library— Village Incorporation and 
City Charter— omcers from 1858 to 1881— Fire Uepartment— The 
Large Fires of 18G4 and 1866— Burial Places -Fair Association— 


VILLAGES and cities do not come into existence 
and flourish except through definite cause — a de- 
mand and a need for their being on the part of the 
people who occupy the contiguous country, or perhaps 
a broader commercial necessity. Towns may be pro- 
jected and established where these conditions do not 
exist, but they fail to develop unless there is natural 
reason for development, and either remain as unnour- 
ished germs or pass entirely out of existence. Their 
growth cannot be arbitrarily forced. 

These general remarks might be illustrated by many 
exatnples, but there is one which is particularly ap- 

The site of the flourishing city of Dowagiac was 
selected at an early day for a village by one of the 
pioneer proprietors of the land. As early as 1836, 
the village of Venice was laid off, by Orlando Craine, 
on the southwest quarter of Section 31, in Wayne 
Township. The plat was extensive, occupying fully 
160 acres of land, and it was .admirably arranged. 
The ground was well adapted to the building -of a 
hamlet or village, and the proprietor was a popular 
man, who offered his land to the people at very rea- 
sonable terms. But, notwithstanding these facts, not 
a single house was built, the lands remained under 
farm cultivation and there was no mark established to 
indicate the ambition its owner had once cherished. 
The village of Venice had no existence save on paper 
in the County Register's office and in the imagination 



of Mr. Craine. There was, in 1836, no need or de- 
mand for a village at this point. The sparse popula- 
tion illy sustained the few centers of trade which 
already existed, and the scanty products of the country 
required no new outlets or markets. 

But in a dozen years the conditions had changed, 
and a village — Dowagiac — sprang up and flourished 
on the soil which had proven barren before. 

The country had become more thickly settled, and 
the farms better improved and more productive, but 
these facts were not sufficient alone to cause the 
growth of a village in the northwestern part of Cass 
County. A new force came into operation — the rail- 
road — and all along its line through the fertile farm- 
ing region of Southern Michigan, there were formed 
new clusters of dwellings, and new places of trade and 

Nicholas Cheesborough (quite widely known through 
his connection with the Morgan abduction case) had 
been engaged in 1847 in the purchase of right of way 
for the Michigan Central Railroad from Kalamazoo 
to Niles. As soon as it was decided to locate one 
of the stations of the line at the point now known 
as Dowagiac, he associated with himself Jacob Beeson, 
of Niles, and they together purchased from Patrick 
Hamilton (of whom we shall have much to say in this 
chapter) a tract of land consisting of eighty acres in 
the northeastern corner of the Township of Pokagon. 
Upon a portion of this land they proceeded to plat and 
lay out the village of Dowagiac, of which they made 
a record at the Register's office, in Cassopolis, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1848.* The land was bought and the plat 
of the village recorded in the name of Mr. Beeson. 
This gentleman, although he never became a resident 
of the village, did much for the welfare of the place 
in various ways, not the least of which was his gener- 
osity or shrewd policy in making various donations 
of land for the use of churches and schools (as speci- 
fied in the note) and his grant to the railroad 

of the Dorth 
ODe hundred 

;t ths place of beginning." The 
Indiana street, Michigan 

pumllel ' 

1 Township, running thence v 

1 street is fiv 

by lands belonging t 

street and Chestnut street, art 

Main street is one hundred and eight feet wide, and HigUt street 
wide, both running parallel with IJomniercial street. The alleys i 
with Front street, and all are sixteen and a half feet wide. 

The plat consisted of ten whole squares or blocks, and fractious of twelve 
others, the whole blocks being twenty-four rods long and thirteen rods wide, 
and euch divided into twelve lotj^. The entire number of lots was one hundred 
and fifilily-fnin, miA tli.- wli .1.- tul-s iii'H'Ui-il four by six rods each. 

Tit.- i.iMjirift.r nttij.- -.'Vera! -I -irtti-.i,- nti certain specified conditions as fol- 
lows 111. n. 11,1 N., 11 In i!,,. lir-i K|iiwopal Society; fractional Lot No. 
Itoili. FiiM^t l',pi-i ,,|,;, I s.irj.ty. luid fractional Lots No. 7 and 61 tu 
tb.- Iir-1 il..[i uiii, 111 .fi r ih:i!, iliun.- iitiint-d, who should first erect buildings 
u(K,[, tIm 111 Til ii!i. r i,r ihr iinildings to be worthless than ^00. It was provided 

tbiit Mil i!li. 1 iif thr Kits designated were *'to revert to the proprietor, bis 

heirs III ii-sit;ii-. ii[i III the contracting of or existence for one year of a debt 

agiiiii-i wi> 1 1 i!ii' i-ongregattons or societies." Fractional Lot No. 62 was 

given li\ il.i- in ij.i ti> the citizens of tile village for the erection of a school- 
liouse, »n.i lor tlieir perpetual use for a boys' school.und fracilonal Lot No. 83 for 
a girls' school, and fur perpetual use as such, and it was provided that prior to 
the ye<ir 185.5, either of the lots might be used for both sexes. 

of depot site and adjoining grounds, the latter of 
which, by an agreement with the railroad company, is 
forever to remain a park. The railroad, projected by 
the State, was originally intended to have as its 
western terminus the town of St. Joseph, but the 
Michigan Central Railroad Company, by whom it 
was purchased, greatly increased its value, and pro- 
moted the growth of the villages along the line by 
pushing it around the end of the lake to Chicago. 

The little village laid out by Jacob Beeson quickly 
received population. Enterprising men readily saw 
that a town, situated upon a railroad, in the midst of 
a rich agricultural region, and with no important 
stations near it, must become not only a good place 
for mercantile business, but a shipping-point of con- 
siderable consequence. 

From the very beginning of its life, the success of 
Dowagiac was assured. Within two years, merchants 
and tradesmen had assembled in considerable number, 
and the infant village contained nearly all of the 
simpler elements of industrial life. It was so clearly 
perceived that the village was destined to grow and 
thrive, that men who owned land adjoining the plat 
proceeded to lay out additions to accommodate its 
expansion, and profit by it. The first of these was 
Patrick Hamilton, who owned and resided on a farm 
in the southeast corner of Silver Creek Township. 
He laid out what was known as Hamilton's First 
Addition to the village of Dowagiac, in the spring of 
1849, the plat being recorded upon the 14th of April. 
This addition included the lots along ihe west side of 
Division street, extending from Nicholas Bock's Hotel 
north, and as far northwest as Spruce street. Jacob 
Beeson made a small addition to the village March 13, 
18-50, from the Pokagon tract of land, which he had 
purchased, and Jay W. McOmber added a number of 
lots from his land in Wayne Township February 19, 
1851, while Mr. Hamilton made his second addition 
to the town plat upon the 5th of the same month, and 
Erastus H. Spalding enlarged the area of the town by 
laying off streets and lots from his possessions in the 
summer of this year. Thus the limits of the town 
were gradually extended, as the actual or prospective 
growth of population demanded. From time to time 
other additions* have been made, until at present the 
original plat forms only a small fraction of the whole 

' Th I'llii ii> II t iiii-ntioned above are the following: 

I' ' Thinl Addition, recorded December 12, 1864. 

.Iii\ '. M - iid Addition, recorded June 2, 1854. 

I'll! II 1 ill Ih Addition, recorued October 14, 1850. 

Daniel .Mci'mUer s .\.lditim', recorded January 20. 1858. . 
Justus tiage's Addition, recorded November 8, 1858. 
Tiitbill and Sturgis' Addition, recorded March 24, 1858. 
Jay W. and Daniel M. McOmber's Addition, recorded June 30, 1869. 
Sarah E. Sullivan's Addition, recorded June 19, 1863. 
Joel H. Smith's Addition, recorded October 2, 1865. 
An addition, platted by Elam Barter, Joel Andrews and Williuni i 
recorded January 8, 1867. 




The town has had, during its thirty-three years of 
existence, quite an even growth, although in some 
years the increase of population has been retarded by 
various causes. Chief among these, perhaps, was the 
prevalence of typhoid fever in 1852, only four years 
after the founding of the village, which led many per- 
sons to think the locality dangerously unwholesome. 
As a matter of fact, the disease was imported. Lorane 
McArthur came home from Jackson not feeling well, 
and a Mr. Coan returned sick from a visit to New 
York. The first two cases of the fever were in the 
Dowagiac House. The disease rapidly spread, and 
many were afflicted. Some people moved away, and 
others who were stricken down were obliged to send 
abroad for friends to take care of them. At one time 
there were scarcely enough well persons in the place 
to attend the sick. Mr. Coan and his wife and sister 
died — the entire family. Of thirteen persons attacked, 
soon after the disease made its first appearance, 
eleven died — Henry Michael and a Mrs. Bull escap- 
ing. In the winter of 1857-58, and in the year 
1870, there were epidemics of scarlet fever, which 
carried off many children. The unhealthiness of 
Dowagiac, however, has probably been no greater 
than that of the average of towns of its class in South- 
western Michigan, and the unenviable reputation 
which it temporarily bore after the epidemic of 1852, 
has not since attached to it. 

The two large fires of 1864 and 1866, which are 
elsewhere spoken of in detail, caused serious losses ; 
but they cannot be considered as untoward events, 
viewed in the light of the great improvements they 
made possible. 

As young as is Dowagiac, it has entered upon what 
may be called the second era of its life. At first all 
advancement was in the hard, straight line of utility. 
There was time for none but the sternly-practical 
duties of life. Necessities were provided ; luxury 
and elegance little thought of The village, when it 
was ten years old, appeared undoubtedly very crude 
and painfully new. There was no special natural 
attractiveness in the site on which it was built, and its 
residents had not yet devoted their attention to beauti- 
fying their homes. About the year 1858, the well- 
known writer, Grace Greenwood (Mrs. Lippincott), 
paid a visit to her brother. Dr. William E. Clarke, 
who had settled here a short time before, and during 
her stay sent to that famous old literary paper of 
Philadelphia, the Evening Post, a description of the 
village which considerably incensed some of its peo- 
ple. The letter was undoubtedly a racy and graphic 
pen-picture of the Dowagiac of those days, colored all 
too correctly. The bare, white houses reminded the 
writer of rocs' eggs lying on the desert sand. She 

complained that the people did not plant shade trees 
in their door yards or the streets, and that the burn- 
ing sun shone down pitilessly on the grassless ground 
and unprotected dwellings. The letter, as we have 
said, caused some ill feeling at the time it appeared, 
but it had the good eflect of setting people at work to 
beautify the village by planting trees and cultivating 
grass plats. A very general improvement was 
noticable in a short time. The village authorities, as 
well as individuals, took up the work of which they 
had been rather sharply reminded, and one result of 
their action we find chronicled in the records under 

date of 1859, in the item, " Ordered that 

be paid 25 cents each for removing eighty-three 
stumps from the streets." The planting of shade 
trees was carried on for several years, until the village 
was well provided with them, and now, having attained 
a good growth, they make the streets and private 
grounds very attractive. If that person is a bene- 
factor who causes two blades of grass to grow where 
but one had grown before, how much greater a bene- 
factor is Grace Greenwood who indirectly caused the 
growth of several hundred beautiful trees where none 
(or at least a very few\ grew before. 


The first preaching in the village was by the Rev. 
Jacob Price (Baptist), of Cassopolis, who, in July, 1848, 
addressed an audience assembled in the old freight 
house. The Rev. Richard C. Meek, a Methodist 
circuit rider, was probably the next minister who 
delivered a sermon in Dowagiac, and the Rev. S. H. 
D. Vaughn, of the Baptist Church, was the first 
settled pastor. 

Noel Byron HoUister was the first resident lawyer.