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Full text of "History of Cayuga County, New York : with illustrations and biographical sketches of some of its prominent men and pioneers"

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1 -;•;- NEW YORK -)iv-l 






3 1833 01148 8738 



Gc 974. 



Storke , 

Elliot G. 




County , 

New York 












ipIttstrdioHj^ and ||togr3yliii;Hl ^^ftefdic^ 






F-ublished by ID. Is^^SOlST <Sc CO., 


1879 — 


Truair, Smith & Bruce, Printers. Journal Office, Syracuse, N. Y. 

"^i-f^^^^^^,^^,^^^ ,-s^.^*S^::i>^::^f^ 


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1879, 
By D. mason &. CO., 
the OfBce of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 




P.^GE ' 


OHAPTER I.— The Iroquois Confederacy— Perfection of 
its Organization — Tradition of its Origin — 
Hiawatha's Address to the Council— Extent of 
their Sway — Sources of their Power — Their 
Civil. Social and PoUtical Codes 8 

CHAPTER II.— The Iroquois and Early Colonists- 
French. Dutch andEughsh Settlements — The 
various 'Wars between the French and the 
Iroquois from the first settlement to the close 
of the Revolution 12 

CHAPTER III.— Jesuit Missions among the Cajiigas- 
The .Jesuit Relations — Dui'ation of the Mis- 
sions—Details of the various Cayuga Mis- 
sions 20 

CHAPTER IV.— Indian Habits and Usages— Indian 
DweUiugs — Indian Towns— Social Usages — 
Dances and Feasts— Biu-ials 28 

CHAPTER v.— Laud Titles— The Militaiy Tract- 
Congressional and State Land Bounties— Siu'- 
vey of the Militaiy Tract— Conflict of Claim- 
ants, 32 

CHAPTER VI.— Early Civil Dimions— Formation of 
Caj-uga Co. — First Town Sleetings and 
Elections — Formation of the To-mas — General 
Topography of Cayuga Co., 34 

CHAPTER VII.— Geological Formation— The Dau-y 
Region — The Grain Growing Region — Com- 
parative Statistics 38 

CHAPTER VIII.— Early Modes of Travel— 'Westem 
Inland Lock Navigation Co. — Early Roads — 
Stages — Erie Canal — Raih-oads, 41 

CHAPTER IX.— History of the Press— Newspaper and 

Book Publishing— Men of the Press, 49 

CHAPTER X.— Progiess of Education— Schools 57 

CHAPTER XI. —Art and Professional Artists, G4 

CHAPTER XII.— Valuation and Taxation- Support of 

the Poor — of Lunatics— County Poor, 71 


CHAPTER XIII.— Agricultural Societies— Patrons of 
Husliandry — Fire Relief Association — Agri- 
cultui'al Statistics 74 

CHAPTER XIV.— Cayuga Co. Medical Societies 8.j 

CHAPTER XV.— Early Courts. Counsellors and Cases— 

Cayuga Co. CivQ List, 90 

CHAPTER XVI.— CajTiga in the War of the RebelUon 
— Organization of the various Regiments and 
Batteries, 99 

CHAPTER XVII.— Cayuga in the War of the RebeUiou 

— lOth New York Volimteers 107 

CHAPTER XVIII.— Cayuga in the War of the Rebel- 
lion — 19th New York Volunteers 107 

CHAPTER XIX.— Cayuga in the War of the Rebellion— 

3d New York .^i-tiUeiy 113 

CHAPTER XX.— Cayuga in the War of the Rebellion— 

7.")th New York Volunteers, 125 

CHAPTER XXL— Caj-nga in the War of the Rebellion 
— Captain Kennedy's Battery — Bounties paid 
in Cayuga Co. — Amounts paid by the 
several Towns, 134 

CHAPTER XXII.— .\m-elius and Hardenbergh's Comers 
—Early Settlers — Col. Hardenbergh— First 
Mill— The "Comers" in 1^00— County Seat 
located here— Clinton's description of Auburn, 138 

CHAPTER XXIII. —History of Auburn- ViUage Incor- 
porated — First Officers — Visit of LaFayette— 
Owasco Canal — Raih-oads — Auburn College— 
Visits of Clay. VanBureu and Adams 14G 

CHAPTER XXIV.— History of Auburn- Incorporated 
as a City— First City Officers— Fort HiU 
Cemetery— Merchants' Union Express Com- 
pany — Auburn Prison — Asylum for Insane 
Convicts 151 

CHAPTER XXV.— Aubum Manufactiures 102 

CHAPTER XXVI.— Aubum ■Wholesale Basiuess— Banks 

and Bankers, 177 

CHAPTER XXVII.— Aubum Schools 184 

CHAPTER XXVIII.— Churches of Aubum 197 


CHAPTER XXIX, -Histoid of Aubui 

n— First Librai^- 


CHAPTER XL. — Histoi-y Town 

of Sennett, 


... 310 

The Water "Works Co.— The Anbiim Gas 
Light Co— The Aubnrn Steam Heating Co.— 
Fire Department— Bench and Bar— Village 


" Aurehus 

" SiJringport,... 

... 316 
... 358 

and City Organizations an 



" Fleming 

... 376 


CHAPTER XXX.— Histoi-y of Auburn— Biographical 


" Owasco 

... 382 

Sketches of Prominent Citizens, 



CHAPTER XXXI.— History Town of 


" Scipio, 

... 117 





'■ Venice 

.. 132 





" Niles, 

" Moravia, 

CHAPTER XXXIV.— ■' '• ' 



CHAPTER XXXV.— '• " ' 

" Sempronius,... 

.. 175 





" Genoa, 

.. 181 





" Locke, 

.. 507 





'• Summer Hill,. 

.. .512 




CHAPTER LI V. -Addenda 

... 517 


Armstrong D. H. , Auburn, jjortrait facing 186 

Austin Sedgwick, Sennett, portrait " 316 

Auburn, view of Genesee Street, " 138 

Am-ora, view of St. Patrick's Chm-ch " 322 

Biindy "W. L., Auburn, view of store " 212 

Briggs Lansingh, Aiaburn, portrait, (steel, ) " 236 

Benson Mrs. E. A. , Niles, portrait " 111 

Baker Abel, M. D., Owasco, portrait " 385 

Brinkerhoff David, Owasco, portrait " 387 

Court House Frontisi^iece 

Chedell -JohuH.. Aubiu-n, portrait facing 222 

Clai7 .Joseph, M. D., Auburn, portrait between 250-251 

Clary Mrs. A. M. B., Auburn, portrait " 250-251 

Castner Richard, Throop, view of residence facing 339 

Castner Richard, and wife, Throop, portraits .' " 339 

Cady Cxu-tiss C, Sennett, portrait " 311 

Cady C. C. Jr., Sennett, portrait " 311 

CobiuTi Rev. Keyes, Sennett, portrait " 310 

Coxu-tney Brothers, Sin-ingport, view of mills " 368 

Courtney John F., Springport, portrait " 368 

Coiirtney Charles E., Springport, portrait " 368 

Cascade House, Venice, Malcolm Taylor, Proprietor " 112 

Cayuga County Map " 9 

Chamberlain James, Owasco, view of residence.... " 382 

Cooke 'WiUiam C, M. D., Moravia, portrait " 175 

Chamberlain David, Owasco, portrait between 381-385 

Chamberlain James, " ■• " 381-385' 
Chamberlain Margaret, Owasco, portrait.... " 381-385 
Chamberlain Polly, •' •• " 381-385 
Curtis W. H., M. D., Moravia, portrait facing 163 

CuykendaU Solomon, Owasco, portrait facing 383 

Cook Ehsha, Venice, view of residence " 111 

Dunning Henry Silas, AubiuTi, portrait " 112 

Drew M. D., Cato, portrait " 290 

Drew M. D., Cato, view of residence " 290 

Dugan Hugh, Sterling, view of residence " 251 

EUery WiUiam, Mentz, view of residence '■ 322 

Erity E. B., Mentz, view of residence '• 311 

EUis Cyrus, Niles, view of residence ■' 115 

EUis Cyrus, and wife, Niles, portrait " 115 

Fosgate Blanchard, M. D., Aubm-n, portrait 217 

Fyler S. B., Conquest, view of Howlands Island. 

between 286-287 

Fitch J eremiah, Aurelius, view of residence, " 350-351 

Fitch Jeremiah, Aurehus, portrait " 350-351 

Frye Moses McKinster, and wife, Owasco, por- 
traits facing 388 

Greenfield Elondo, Moravia, view of residence.... " 118 
Gutchess Stephen & W. W., Mentz, view of resi- 
dence facing 321 

Grant J. Lewis, Auburn, portrait, " 153 

Genesee St. , Aiiburn, looking east " 138 

Hurlburt Amos and wife, Moravia, portraits., " 163 

Howland Aug., Ledyard, view of residence, 

between 392-393 

Harris Esther, Conquest, view of residence, facing 281 

Hiinter John, Sterling, view of residence, .. .between 261-265 

Himter John, Sterhng, portrait (steel) " 261-265 

Hunter Thomas, Sterhng, portrait (steel) facing 262 

Hunter James C, SterUng, view of residence " 251 

Healy Ebenezer, Sennett, portrait " 315 

Healy John Mason, Sennett, portrait, " 315 


HowlniuVs Islniul. Couijutst. rosideuco of S. B. 

Fyler between l'ti(!-2ji7 

Hubbard John W., Aubiini. portrait 243 

Heury John J., Meutz, portrait facing 318 

Huusikor Hojt, M. D., Owasco, jrortrait " 47ri 

Ivwiu James H. ami wife. Sterling, portraits, between 2r.O-2Gl 
Ii-win James H., Sterling, view of residence, •' 2<;o-2i;i 
Jarrod Mrs. Temssd, Aubnm, view of residence, 

between 10S-i;i!> 

JaiTod Canfield, Auburn, jjortrait •• i;i.S-lU!) 

Jarrod Mrs. Terrissa. Auburn, portrait '• lii.-^-inti 

■Johnson Robert, Sterling, view of residence facing 274 

Jump Isaac, Scipio, view of residence facing 418 

Knapp John Turner, Cato, portrait facing 2!»4 

Kellet John and wife, Springijort, portraits, between 3G4-3('.."> 

Letchworth Josiah, Auburn, portrait, (steel,) facing 234 

Legem J. C. , Locke, view of residence " ."il2 

Legem J. C. and wife, Locke, portrait ■• ,"il2 

Morgan Col. E. B., Ledyard, view of residence, 

bstween 400-401 

Morgan Col. E. B., Ledyard, portrait, (steel) 

between 400-401 

McCullen Thomas, Mentz, view of residence facing 31t< 

Myers M. S., Auburn, portrait, " 220 

'"Mount Pleasant," residence of Eloudo Green- 
field, Moravia, view •' 418 

Moreland Moses, Sennett, portrait " 341 

McCrea Thomas, Aubm-n, portrait '• 402 

Mead E. A., Moravia, portrait " 47."> 

Mcintosh John, Aiirelius, portrait, (steel,) between 348-340 

Nicholson Elizabath, Mentz, view of residence facing 31(( 

Newlaud Lemuel A. and wife, Niles, j^ortraits, betw. 44U-447 
Newlaud Lemuel A. and wife, Niles,view of residence, 

between 44G-447 

Post Geo. I., Sterling, portrait facing 2.'«3 

Patee Eliphalet and wife, Owasco, portraits '• 38U 

Powers Cyrus, Moravia, portrait " 4(j(; 

Eich Geo. K., Cato, portrait " 2'.n; 

Eichai-dson Naomi, Springport, view of r.Kidencc . facing 442 
"Rooks Nest" view of the residence of the late 

John Rooks, Niles •• 444 

Rooks John, Niles, portrait " 444 

Sewai-ilWm. H., Aubnm, portrait, (steel 1 '• 220 

Sprague C. B., Ira. view of residence '• 2M 

SearlsWm.. Auburn, portrait " 248 

Searls Theodore J., Auburn, portrait 243 

Schuch Louis, Auburn, portrait facing 2.".1 

Schuch Louis, view of hotel " 2.'il 

Suuderliu Horace, Sennett, portrait " 342 

Spencer J. 0.. Springi^ort, portrait •■ 374 

Spencer J. O., Springport, view of Agricultural 

Works ; ■• ;t74 

Sheldon Daniel and Eliza, Bmtus, portraits •• ;t24 

St. Patrick's Church. Aurora •• 322 

Sylvester Joseph H., M. D., Moravia, portrait " 4ii2 

Taylor Malcolm, Venice, Cascade House ■• 442 

Titus 'William and wife, Moravia, portraits •• 4.-,8 

Upcrnft John, Sterhng. viewof'-LakesideFami." ■• 274 

Van Petten Jacob, Sterling, view of residence •• 2i;(; 

Van Patten Fredeiick, Aubin-u, portrait '• ii;.-, 

Van Etten Abraham, Niles. view of residence " 4.11 

Van Etteu Abraham, Niles, portrait ■• 4.-,i 

Van Etten Heniy N.. Niles, portrait •■ 4.-,i 

Van Etten Mrs. Clara J.. Niles. jjortrait •• 4.".i 

Wooden Wm. D. and wife, Scipio, portraits " 423 

White Robert. Aubum. portrait " 177 

Wilcox Robert E.. Conquest, view of residence " 284 

Wilcox Ham- J., Conquest, view of residence " 282 

Wilcox Han-y J. and wife. Conquest, portraits " 282 

Willard Sylvester, M. D. . Aubnm, view of residence '• 181 
Worden Wan-en T. and wife. Auburn, portraits, 

between 244-24.J 

Worden WaiTeu T.. Aubnm. view of residence, " 244-24,"» 

Waldrou Jacob N.. and wife, Sennett, portraits facing 343 

Webster N. E., Scipio, view of residence '• 428 

Wiuslow William B. Spriugjiort. portrait.. ..between 3C4-3(;j 


Ackersou Cornelius, Sterling 2i;7 1 

Andi-ews Thomas, Sterling 2i;7 | 

Armstrong D. H., Auburn facing 186 

Austin EUsha Sedgwick, Sennett •■ 34S ^ 

Baker Abel, M. D., Owasco '• 38.-. 

Biuidy Wm. L., Auburn 247 | 

Briggs Lansingh, M. D., Auburn 237 | 

Brinkerhoff David. Owasco facing 387 

Cady Curtiss C, Sennett " 344 

C'ady C. C, Jr., Sennett '• 344 

Castner Richard, Throop 330 

Chedell John H. Auburn facing 222 

Cluiy Joseph, M. D., Auburn 2.')1 

Cobm-u Rev. Keyes, Sennett facing 340 

Cooper William, Sterhng 2C7 

Courtney John F. <fe Charles E 375 

Cuykendall Solomon, Owasco facing 383 

Chamberlain Niuian, Owasco between 384-385 

Cxirtis W. H., M. D., Moravia 47."» 

Cooke Wm. C. M. D., Moravia 475 

Cook Elisha, Venice 518 




Dugan Hugh, Sterling 205 

Dunning Heur}- Silas, Aubm-n facing 142 

EUerj' William, Mentz 322 

Frye Moses McKinster, Owasco facing 388 

Fosgate Blanchard, M. D., Aubm-n 246 

Fitch Jeremiah, AureUus between 350-351 

Grant J. Lewis, Aubum facing 153 

Gutchess Stephen, Mentz 321 

Hall Benjamin F., Aubum 238 

Healy Ebenezer. Seunett facing 345 

Healy John Mason. Seunett " 345 

Hewett Ralph, Sterling 266 

Hurlbm-t Amos, MorAvia 475 

Hunsiker Hoyt, Owasco 517 

Howland's Island, Conquest 286 

Hubbard John W., Aubiuu, 242 

Hunter James, Sterling 263 

Himter John. Sterling 264 

Hunter Thomas. Sterhng 264 

Ireland John, Sterhng, 266 

Irwin James H., Sterhng, between 260-261 

Irwin WiUiam, Sterhng 265 

Jan-od Canfield, Aubum, between 198-199 

Johnson Robert. Ira, 280 

Knajjp John Tmnier, Cato, facing 294 

KeUet John, Spriugport between 364-365 

Letchworth Josiah, Aubum, 234 

Lockwood Homer, Victor}-, 273 

Legem John C, Locke 512 

McCrea Thomas, Auburn, facing 462 

McCullen Thomas, Mentz 322 

Miller Ehjah, Aubum, 226 

Moreland Moses, Sennett, facing 341 

MyersM. S., Aubum, " 220 

Morgan Christopher, Ledyard, 399 

Morgan Col. Edwin B., Ledyard, 400 


Mcintosh John, Aurehus between 348-340 

Newland Lemuel A. , Niles, " 446-447 

Post Geo. I., Sterhng, facing 253 

Powers Cyras, M. D., Moravia, " 466 

Patee Ehphalet, Owasco, " 386 

Rich George R., Cato " 296 

Rooks John, NUes, 451 

Schueh Louis, Auburn, ' 251 

Scott John, Sterhng, 267 

Searls Theodore J., Aubum 243 

SearlsRev. Wilham, Auburn, 243 

Seward WiUiam H., Auburn 229 

Sheldon Daniel, Brutus facing 324 

Sprague C. Burton, Ira 281 

Storke EUiot G., Auburn 250 

SunderUn Horace, Sennett facing 342 

Spencer J. 0., Spriugport 374 

Sylvester Joseph H., M. D., Moravia facing 462 

Throop Enos Thompson. Aubum 225 

Titus William, Moravia facing 458 

Upcraft John, Sterhng 266 

Van Patten Frederick, Auburn facing 165 

VanPetten Jacob, Sterhng 266 

Van Petten Peter, Sterling 266 

VanEtten Abraham, Niles 451 

AValdi-on Jacob N. , Sennett facing 343 

Worden Wai-ren Thatcher, Aubui-u 244 

White Jonas, Aubiu-n 252 

White Robert, Auburn facing 177 

Wilcox Han-y Jefferson, Conquest 287 

Winslow WarrenB., Spriugport between 364-365 

Wooden WiUiam D., Scipio 423 


List of Citizens who assisted in the publication of 
the Historj- of Cayuga Coimty with 


The authentic records of Cayuga County are generally supposed to be limited to the present 
race of settlers, embracing a period of about one hundred years, and that all its anterior history was 
involved in the doubt and obscurity of vague Indian traditions. 

But civilized and thoroughly educated men dwelt here more than two centuries ago. As early 
as 1656, French Missionaries resided in this County, and instructed the Redmen, not only in the 
mysteries of their Holy Faith, but also in some of the arts and improvements of their age, of which 
interesting remains have, from time to time, been found by subsequent settlers. 

Those Missionaries wrote out full and minute accounts of their experiences with the Indians, 
including more or less of their habits and modes of life. The latter, however, were most minutely 
given in respect to the Huron and other Canadian tribes, who where first visited, and those details 
are not repeated in their account of the Cayugas. The latter are chiefly confined to a description 
of their eftbrts to Christianize the savages. These Missionary reports, denominated " Relations," 
were sent to France and hidden away in the musty alcoves of French libraries, and, so far as they 
relate to the Cayugas, have not, until quite recently, been accessible to the general reader. For the 
translation and publication of the latter we are indebted to the thoughtful eftbrts of one of our own 
citizens,* for the earliest and most interesting facts in the history of the County. 

Until the present undertaking, the history of this County has not been written. The materials 
for such a work were widely scattered. They laid in the imperfect town, county, society and private 
records, and in the vague and faded memories of individuals. The written records were often 
fragmentary and, sometimes, entirely wanting ; and of the first generation of settlers, but few only 

The great labor and difficulty of collecting and collating such material into systematic order, and 
in reconciling conflicting statements, can, therefore, be readily apprehended. Much time and diligent 
research have been required. Competent men have visited every locality in the County ; public and 
private records have been carefully examined ; well-informed residents consulted, and information 
obtained from every other available source. 

* Rev. Ch.^rles Hawley, D. D,, President of" the Cayuga County Historical Society. 


An earlier preparation of this work would have lessened the labor and produced more satisfac- 
tory results ; would have given access to the personal experience and relations of the very first set- 
tlers, with whom have died facts and incidents which are now beyond recall. 

It must, therefore, be obvious that the time for the publication of such a work had fully come, 
and a longer delay would only have added to the obscurity of the facts, and the difficulty of their 
acquisition. At this date, though we have not the personal experience, and the incidents in the lives 
of the very first settlers, as detailed by themselves ; we still have their " oft told tales " from the lips 
of their immediate descendants and can thus collect and chronicle, with a close approach to accuracy, 
the facts of early history. 

In our researches for those facts we have been greatly aided by the intelligent, industrious and 
successful efforts of the Cayuga County Historical Society in the same field, to whose interesting 
and valuable collection of historical records and papers, we have kindly been given access, and from 
which we have derived much valuable material. The following papers read before the society and 
on file with it, have especially aided us in the preparation of the chapters to which they respectively 
relate : " Travel and Transportation," by the late J. Lewis Grant ; " Art and Professional Artists," 
by Major T. J. Kennedy ; " Medical Societies," by Theodore Dimon, M. D. ; " Homeopathy," by 
Horatio Robinson, M. D.; and the elaborate and scholarly "Biography of the late Hon. Elijah 
Miller," by the Hon. Benjamin F. Hall. 

We have also consulted the following, among many other similar works : Smith's History of 
New York ; Colonial, Documentary and Natural Histories of New York ; Colden's Five Nations ; 
Kipp's and Parkman's Jesuits ; Schoolcraft's Notes ; Bancroft's and Lossing's Histories of the 
United States ; Abbott's and Greeley's Histories of the Rebellion ; Clark's Onondaga ; New 
York Civil List, 1879 > ^^'^ ^l^s of the New York and local journals. 

The data for the several town histories have been derived from the various town, society and 
private records, and from gentlemen well informed in local history. To the latter, who are too 
numerous for individual mention, we hereby express our grateful acknowledgments. 

That errors have in all cases been avoided we do not expect ; so far as we have relied upon the 
perfection of memory, our statements are subject to its lapses ; but such verbal and traditionary 
statements have in all practicable cases been verified by records, and are, in the main, believed to be 
substantially correct. 


3tAP OF 



Sccdi^-, 5Mil£s hi orii. Inch. 

T OilPKlTJiT^^S 



Cayuga County, New York 


Native Inhabitants. 

The Iroquois Confederacy — Perfection of 
ITS Organization — Tradition of its Origin 
— Hiawatha's Address to the Council — 
Extent of their Sway — Sources of their 
Power — Their Civil, Social and Political 

THE first inhabitants of Cayuga County, of 
whom authentic records have been pre- 
served, were the Cayugas, one of the five nations 
that formed the famous Iroquois Confederacy. 
That Confederacy was the best organized and the 
most powerful of any on the Continent. Its 
history is not only very interesting in itself, but 
is also very closely connected with the early 
settlement and development of this part of the 
State, and may, therefore, in a brief form appro- 
priately introduce the general history of the 
County. The history of the five nations is, also, 
the history of the Cayugas, as their interests 
were always closely allied and their habits and 
usages essentially the same. 

The Confederacy, at its first formation, com- 
prised five separate nations, — the Mohawks, 
Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas and Senecas. 
Territorially, the Onondagas were the middle 
nation. The Oneidas and Mohawks lying to 
the east, and the Cayugas and Senecas to the 
west of them. The seat of their government 
was upon Onondaga Lake, where their wise 
men, — the civil rulers of the league, — assembled 
to deliberate upon and determine all questions of 

national concern ; and here their council fires 
burned for many generations.* 

The union of the separate nations was formed 
anterior to authentic history ; its date rests only 
upon the authority of vague Indian traditions, 
which are legendary and fabulous. Like all rude 
nations, they trace their origin to supernatural 
agencies. Divested of the hyperbole of their 
language, the following is a brief account of 
their origin : 

Hundreds of years ago, Ta-oun-ya-wat-ha, the 
deity that presided over the fisheries and streams,, 
visited the earth to clear the streams, point out 
the best fishing and hunting grounds, and bestow 
good gifts upon the people. He crossed Lake 
Ontario at Osh-wah-kee, Oswego, and disclosed 
to two hunters, whom he there met, the object of 
his mission. They, at the invitation of the vis- 
itor, accompanied him over all the lesser lakes, 
when he made a full provision for the sustenance of 
all good men. He taught the people the art of rais- 

*Thc council fire at Onondaga was finally extinguished January 
19, 1777, in the following speech of the Oneida chiefs to Colonel 
Elmore : " Brother — We are sent here by the Oneida chiefs, in con- 
junction with the Onondagas. They arrived at our village yesterday. 
They gave us the melancholy news that the grand council fire at 
Onondaga was extinguished. Wc have lost out of their town by 
death ninety, among whom are three principal sachems. We, the 
remaining part of the OnonJagas, do now inform our brethren 
that there is no longer a council fire at the capital of the Six 
Nations. However, we are determined to use our fetble endeavors to 
support peace through the Confederate nations. But let this be kept 
in mind, that the council fire is extinguish:;d. It is of importance 
to nur well being, that this be immediately communicated to Gen- 
eral Schuyler, and likewise to our brothers, the Mohawks. • • " 
The reasons for this step have never been satisfactorily explained, 
and still remains a mystery. 


ing corn and beans, made fishing and hunting free, 
and distributed liberally the fruits of the earth. 

Having done all this, the spirit man decided to 
live as man, among the children of men, whose 
habits and character he henceforth assumed. He 
was given the name of Hi-a-wat-ha, — very wise 
man, — and was consulted by multitudes. After 
a few years of C|uiet, a ferocious band of warriors 
from the north of the great lakes, attacked them 
and slaughtered many of their people. Hi-a- 
wat-ha, being consulted, advised a grand council 
of all the tribes, which was held at a spot on the 
banks of the Oh-nen-ta-ha, (Onondaga Lake,) 
believed to be near the present site of Liverpool. 
Three days had the council fire burned, but Hi- 
a-wat-ha was absent. He was sought and found 
in great dejection and informed the messengers 
that he had concluded not to attend the council, 
for, he said, he had a fearful " foreboding of ill 
fortune." But the business of the council awaited 
his presence. After repeated solicitations and 
communion with the Great Spirit, he consented 
to attend the council, accompanied by a favorite 
daughter, where he was received with great re- 
spect. Soon after he was seated, a monster bird, 
of such size as to darken the sky, descended with 
the speed of lightning, piercing with his monster 
bill the body of Hi-a-wat-ha's daughter, killing 
her instantly ; the bird being also killed. The 
father was greatly dejected, and remained for 
three days prone upon the earth, during which 
no business was transacted. Finally recovering, 
he joined the council and its deliberations pro- 
ceeded. At the second days' session, he made 
them the following address : 

"Friends and Brothers — You are members of 
many tribes and nations. You have come here, 
many of you, a great distance from your homes ; 
you have convened for one common purpose, to 
promote one common interest, and that is to 
provide for our mutual safety and how it shall 
best be accomplished. To oppose these hordes 
of northern foes by tribes singly and alone, would 
prove our certain destruction ; we can make no 
progress in that way ; we must unite ourselves 
in one common band of brothers. Our warriors 
united, would surely repel these rude invaders 
and drive them from our borders. This must be 
done, and we shall be safe. 

" You, the Mohawks, sitting under the shadow 
of ' the great tree,' whose roots sink deep into 
the earth, and whose branches spread over a vast 
country, shall be the first nation, because you 
are warlike and mighty. 

" And you, Oneidas, who incline your bodies 
against ' the everlasting stone,' that cannot be 
moved, shall be the second nation, because you 
give wise counsels. 

"And you, Onondagas, that have your habi- 
tation at 'the great mountain,' and are over- 
shadowed by its crags, shall be the third nation, 
because you are greatly gifted in speech and 
mighty in war. 

" And you, Cayugas, a people whose habitation 
is ' the dark forest,' and whose home is every- 
where, shall be the fourth nation, because of your 
superior cunning in hunting. 

" And you, Senecas, a people who live in ' the 
open country,' and possess much wisdom, shall 
be the fifth nation, because you understand better 
the art of raising corn and beans and of making 

"You, five great and powerful nations, must 
unite and have but one common interest, and 
no foe shall be able to disturb or subdue you. 

" And you, Manhattans, Nyacks, Metoacks and 
others, who are as ' the feeble bushes ;' and 
you, Narragansetts, Mohegans, Wampanoags and 
your neighbors, who are ' a fishing people,' may 
place yourselves under our protection. Be with 
us and we will defend you. You of the South 
and you of the West may do the same, and we 
will protect you. We earnestly desire your 
alliance and friendship. 

"Brothers, if you unite in this bond, the Great 
Spirit will smile upon you, and we shall be free, 
prosperous and happy ; but if we remain as we 
are, we shall be subject to his frown ; we shall 
be enslaved, ruined, perhaps annihilated forever ; 
we shall perish, and our names be blotted out 
from among the nations of men. 

" Brothers, these are the words of Hi-a-wat-ha. 
Let them sink deep into your hearts. I have 
said it." 

The great Confederacy was immediately formed 
and it continued until, its power was broken by 
the war of the Revolution. Such is a summary 
of the tradition of their origin, current among 
the Onondagas, and given on the authority of 
two of their head chiefs. 

But, however or when its origin, the success 
of the union was complete. Not only did it end 
the internal wars of the separate nations, but it 
enabled the Confederacy to exterminate, or effect- 
ually subdue, their troublesome neighbors. They 
assumed the title of the " People of the Long- 
House," and started upon the war-path, to re- 
venge themselves upon their enemies, in which 
they were remarkably successful, becoming, in 
time, the dictators of the continent, holding 
practical sway over a territory estimated to be 



twelve hundred miles long by eight hundred 
broad, embracing a large part of New England 
and reaching thence to the Mississippi; while 
the Cherokees and Catawbas in the far south 
were humbled by their power. 

From the conquered nations they exacted 
tribute, and drew conscripts for their armies. 
They adopted the Tuscaroras, who resided in 
Carolina, into the Confederacy in 17 13, and were 
thereafter known as the Si.x Nations. From the 
extent of their conquests, the number of their 
subject nations, and the tribute and military aid 
rendered to them by the latter, they have been 
called the " Romans of the New World." 

This Confederacy, so widely controlling in its 
influence, held in actual possession a territory 
extending only from the Hudson to the Niagara, 
and from Lake Ontario to the Susquehanna ; 
and of their own warriors could bring into the 
fight barely two thousand braves. 

The westernmost nations, the Cayugas and the 
Senecas, occupied the most inviting part of the 
Confederacy, — the beautiful "lake country," and 
the equally beautiful but more fertile valley of 
the Genesee. Here the greatest improvements 
had been made in the building of houses, and 
the cultivation of the soil. Their traditions 
credited the Senecas with a residence in " the 
open country," and as " best understanding the 
art of cultivating beans and corn," and of " build- 
ing cabins." The correctness of these traditions 
is fully verified by the account given by General 
Sullivan when passing over this region in the 
Fall of 1779, on his famous campaign, just one 
hundred years ago, and nearly fifty years before 
the settlement of the present people. Whether 
the improvements described by him were the 
result of early missionary instruction or made by 
an anterior race is an unsolved question. The 
trees had been removed from thousands of acres ; 
old orchards existed, and evidences of long cul- 
tivation abounded. General Sullivan reports 
that in 1779, " the Indian town of Genesee con- 
tained one hundred and twenty-eight houses, 
mostly large and elegant. It was beautifully 
situated, encircled by a clear flat extending a 
number of miles, over which fields of corn were 
waving, together with every kind of vegetable 
that could be conceived of" Similar towns were 
also found at other points of his march. The 
whole valley presented the appearance of having 

been cultivated for generations, and the farms, 
orchards and gardens were cultivated with care. 
Apples, pears and peaches were among the fruits 

It is, pcrhai)s. difficult for the generation of 
young readers to now fully credit the accounts 
of the degree of civilization to which the Senecas 
had attained at that early date ; yet, Colonel 
Stone, in his life of Brant, says, "that they had 
several towns and many large villages laid out 
with considerable regularity. They had framed 
houses, some of them well finished, having 
chimneys and painted ; they had broad and 
productive fields." The "howling wilderness" 
and the " dark forest," usually associated with 
all Indian life, had here given place to cultivated 
fields, fruitful orchards and gardens, and comfort- 
able houses. The sources of the great power 
and influence of the I'"ive Nations may be found 
in their habits and modes of life, and in the rare 
wisdom of their social and political systems. 
They were forest tribes, subsisting mainly by 
the chase. 

Between the various Indian tribes of this 
country there were marked physical differences. 
The figure of the Iroquois was erect and com- 
manding ; he was reserved and haughty ; cool, 
deliberate and cunning. The prairie Indians, 
with very diflerent habits, were more nervous, 
social and excitable. Charles T. Hoffman, Esq , 
thus traces the cause of these differences: "The 
Pawnees, following the buffalo in his migrations, 
and having always plenty of animal food to sub- 
sist upon, are a much better fed and a larger race 
than those who find a precarious subsistence in 
the forest chase ; while the woodland tribes, 
who, though not so plump in form, are of a more 
wiry and, perhaps, muscular make, have again a 
decided advantage in figure and gait over the 
fishing and trapping tribes of the North-west that 
pass most of their time in canoes. This differ- 
ence in character and physical appearance be- 
tween the diflerent Indian races, or rather be- 
tween those tribes which have such different 
methods of gaining a livelihood, has not been 
sufficiently attended to by modern authors, 
though it did not escape the early French writers 
on this country. And yet, if habit have any 
effect in forming the character and temper of a 
rude people, it must of course follow that the 
savage who lives in eternal sunshine upon flowery 


plains, and hunts on horseback with a troop of 
tribesmen around him, must be a diiferent 
being from the solitary deer-stalker who wanders 
through the dim forest, depending upon his single 
arm for subsistence for his wife and children." 

But the Iroquois differed more from the other 
nations in their civil, social and political systems. 
Their Confederacy was a very efficient though 
simple plan of union. The entire control of all 
civil matters affecting the common interest was 
vested in a national council of about fifty 
sachems, — though in some instances as many as 
eighty, — chosen at first from their wisest men in 
the several nations, and afterwards hereditary in 
their families. All the nations were represented. 
Each nation had a single vote in the council, 
and no measure could be adopted except by the 
concurrence of all the nations. To produce this 
unanimity, the persuasive powers of reason and 
eloquence were constantly employed, and here 
were trained their famous orators.* 

In his own nation, each sachem was a local 
civil magistrate, and decided the differences be- 
tween his people, in public audiences of his 
tribe. In military matters he had no control; 
these were confided to chiefs of tribes. If he 
engaged in war, he held only the rank of a com- 
mon warrior. This national council met as often 
as their exigencies required, on the shore of 
Onondaga Lake, and discussed and decided all 
questions relating to peace or war; negotiations 
with other nations, and all matters of common 
interest relating to the internal affairs of the 
Confederacy. Every question was fully dis- 
cussed with dignity and courtesy. 

Each nation was divided into eight clans or 
tribes, each having a specific device or totem. 
These devices were wolves, bears, beavers, tur- 
tles, deer, herons, snipes and hawks. The first 
four, in all the nations, were accounted brothers 
of each other ; the last four, though brothers of 
each other, were cousins only to the first four. 
Each tribe composed a family, but, while all its 

I their words and in their 

* The orators studied e 
mcnt. Their graceful attitudes and gestures and their flowing 
sentences rendered their discourses, if not always eloquent, at least 
highly impressive. An erect and commanding figure, with a blanket 
thrown loosely over the shoulder, his naked arm raised, and address- 
ing, in impassioned strains, a group of similar persons sitting upon 
the ground around him, would, to use the illustration of an early 
historian of this State, give no faint picture of Rome in her early 
days. — Smith's History of Nc-w Tork. 

members were accounted brothers and sisters of 
each other, they also were brothers and sisters 
of the members of all the other tribes having 
the same device. 

Here was an ingenious linking of all the 
members of each tribe to all the others in the 
Confederacy. That bond of union was also 
further strengthened by the laws applicable to 
marriage. No one of the brothers, — that is, no 
one bearing either of the first four devices, wolf, 
bear, beaver or turtle, — could seek his bride from 
any tribe having those devices; but must take 
her from cousins, — that is, from one of the tribes 
bearing one or the other of the last four devices. 
The tribal brothers and sisters could not inter- 

It will thus be seen that in forming their social 
and political codes, the Iroquois displayed much 
shrewdness and wisdom. They bound their 
people together, not only by the strong ties of 
political interests, but of affection ; linking to- 
gether the separate parts of each tribe and nation, 
and also each nation to every other. 


Native Inhabitants, (Continued.) 

The Iroquois and Early Colonists — French, 
Dutch and English Settlements — The 
Various Wars Between the French and 
THE Iroquois from the First Settlement 
TO the Close of the Revolution — Failure 
of the French — Triumph of the English. 

FRANCE, Holland and Great Britain sup- 
plied the first colonists of Canada and 
New York. The first permanent French settle- 
ment in Canada was made in 1608, on the site 
of Quebec, by Governor Champlain. The Dutch 
built a fort on Manhattan Island in 1614, and 
one at Albany in 1615 ; but they had sent out 
ships to traffic with the natives as early as 1610. 
In 1664 the English supplanted the Dutch and 
rapidly colonized the eastern coast. These dates 
are important as showing the first opportunities 
of intercourse with the whites which the natives 
had enjoyed. 



The French maintained friendly relations with 
the Canadian and Western Indians for nearly 
one hundred and fifty years, with whom they 
carried on a large trade, supplying the natives 
with such merchandise and commodities as they 
needed, in return for furs and skins. But for 
nearly that entire period, the French were at war 
with the Iroquois, the Dutch or the English, 
always aided by their Indian allies. 

When the French built their fort at Quebec 
in 1608, the Adirondacks — a very powerful band 
of Indians — had been defeated by the Iroquois 
after several severe contests, and were not only 
driven from their lands in northern New York, 
but were pursued into Canada and driven to the 
vicinity of the French settlements. Champlain 
supplied the Adirondacks with arms, and joined 
them in an expedition against the Iroquois, and 
here began that horrible series of barbarities 
which continued for more than a century and a 
half, from which the French in Canada and the 
colonists of New York suffered beyond descrip- 
tion. The former much more than the latter, 
a just punishment, as the originators of the 
horrid work. 

The French justly expected to produce great 
terror among the Iroquois by their fire-arms, and 
to force them to easy terms of peace. They met 
and easily routed a few hundred of them on the 
shore of Lake Champlain, and then returned to 
Canada. But though greatly frightened at the 
noise and the destruction wrought by the French 
guns, the Iroquois were not induced to make 
ignoble terms of peace, but contented themselves 
for the time by hiding in the wilderness. This 
occurred in 1609, and was the first meeting of 
the Iroquois with the white men. 

The next invasion was in 1615, when Governor 
Champlain led an expedition, consisting of a few 
Frenchmen and four hundred Huron allies, in an 
attack upon an Iroquois fort, situated in the 
country of the Onondagas. According to 
Champlain's account, the village was enclosed by 
four rows of interlaced palisades thirty feet high. 
It was near a body of unfailing water, and con- 
ductors had been so arranged along the palisades 
as to lead the water for extinguishing fires. 
Inside were galleries protected by ball -proof 

At the first fire the Indians fled into the fort ; 
Champlain then constructed a movable tower of 

sufficient height to overlook the palisades and 
moved it near to the fort, placing marksmen 
therein to fire over the palisades, while the men 
themselves were protected by the tower. Un- 
successful attempts were made to fire the palis- 
ades, but Champlain's forces, consisting mainly 
of undisciplined Hurons, could not be controlled 
and they suffered severely from the arrows of 
those in the fort. Champlain himself was 
severely wounded, and many of his allies were 
killed and wounded. The latter became so dis- 
orderly as to compel the abandonment of the 
expedition, which, after lying before the fort for 
six days, started on its return to Canada.* 

The Five Nations now artfully sued for peace. 
To this the French consented on the condition 
that they might send Jesuit priests among them, 
their object in this being to win over the Five 
Nations to French allegiance ; but on the arrival 
of the priests, the Indians held them as hostages 
to compel the neutrality of the French while 
they made war upon the Adirondacks. This 
they did, and severely defeated them within a 
few miles of Quebec. So severe were the losses 
of the Adirondacks, and so terrified were the 
Indian allies of the French, that several of the 
tribes fled to the remote South-west beyond, as 
they believed, the reach of their terrible enemies. 
The Adirondacks, however, remained, and on 
them the Five Nations planned another raid. 
They gave out that they would pay the Governor 
of Canada a friendly visit, and set out upon it 
with a thousand warriors. Meeting on their way 
a leading chief of the Adirondacks, they com- 
pletely deceived him and secured his confidence. 
They learned from him that his people were 
scattered into hunting parties, whose precise 
localities they also ascertained. They then 
murdered the unsuspecting chief, and, dividing 
their own forces, fell upon the scattered parties 

* The precise location of this fort has been for some time in 
controversy. It had been considered as located upon the shore of 
Onondaga Laltc, yet General John S. Clark, of Auburn, N. Y., 
who has carefully examined the question, says: "That the cast 
branch of the Limestone is the dividing line absolutely between the 
historic and prehistoric town sites of the Onondagas ; and that 
Champlain's narrative contains internal evidence, in statements of 
fact, unquestionably, that the tort was within a few miles at least, 
and south of Oneida Lake." General Clark designates "a well- . 
known town site in Madison County on the farm of Rufus H. 
Nichols, on what is known as the Mile Strip, about three miles east 
of Perryville, as the home of the Onondagas at that period, and as 
being the identical position of the fort attacked by Champlain." 



of the Adirondacks, who became their easy prey. 
That brave and powerful nation, — the only one 
that had hitherto successfully resisted them, — 
were thus annihilated by the strategy of the 

In 1650 the Hurons and the Utawawas who 
had fled, as they supposed, beyond the reach of 
the Five Nations, were sought out by the latter ; 
but, being advised that their dreaded enemy was 
on their trail, they made their home with the 
Pottawatomies. Yet, even here, they were com- 
pelled to make peace with their old conquerors. 

In 1665 the French colony at Quebec received 
a reinforcement of some fifteen hundred soldiers. 
The Governor, now feeling himself sufficiently 
strong, resolved to punish the perfidy of the Five 
Nations by an attack upon the Mohawks. This 
he attempted the ensuing Winter, but the ex- 
pedition failed for want of supplies, the troops 
suffering greatly. The following year, 1666, the 
effort was renewed with all the available force of 
the French with the view of breaking the power 
of the Five Nations ; but,with their usual sagacity, 
the Mohawks not being strong enough to suc- 
cessfully contend against so powerful a force, 
fled to the forest on its approach, and left the 
enemy to exhaust himself in a contest with priva- 
tion and hardship in the wilderness, which he 
soon did, abandoning the expedition after des- 
troying a few hamlets. The losses suffered in 
this expedition so humbled the pride of the 
French that they negotiated a peace in 1667. 

Between the Dutch and English in New York 
and the French in' Canada there was a constant 
rivalry for the Indian trade in furs and skins, 
which was very lucrative. The Dutch and 
English maintained a nearly unbroken friend- 
ship with the Five Nations, and the latter by 
their great prowess exercised such control over 
the Western Indians as greatly to interfere with 
the French trade with them. The frequent col- 
lisions of -the colonists with each other, and with 
the Indians, grew out of the rivalry for this 
trade. In these contests for the Indian trade, 
the French were the most adventurous and suc- 
cessful, sending their traders far into the wilder- 
ness, and protecting them by forts and garrisons. 
But the Five Nations were a great hinderance to 
their success. They often interrupted supplies 
of goods and ammunition destined for their 
trading posts, as well as the furs and skins in 

their transit to the East, and made them their 
own. The Senecas were the most prominent 
in these raids, and held the French in less respect 
than any other of the Five Nations. They were 
less controlled by the Jesuit priests, who had but 
little influence with them. From the English 
they received supplies of arms, ammunition and 
other goods, and their relations to the latter were 
intimate and friendly. 

In 1685 the Marquis de Nonville succeeded 
as Governor of Canada, and, coming with strong 
reinforcements, he resolved to divert the Five 
Nations from their inroads among the river In- 
dians by giving them employment at home ; and 
especially to overawe and punish the Senecas. 
Accordingly, in 16S7 he invaded them with a 
force of two thousand French and Indians. 

The Five Nations were aware of the strong 
force sent against them, and made every possible 
arrangement for defense. In the first and only 
encounter with the Senecas, M. de Nonville's 
army was completely routed v^ith severe loss, 
being unexpectedly attacked by the Senecas 
lying in ambush. The French did not risk an- 
other engagement, but contented themselves 
with destroying a few hamlets and corn-fields 
and left for home, disappointed and chagrined at 
their failure. 

On their way they built a strong fort at 
Niagara, garrisoned it with one hundred men 
and provisioned it for eight months. This fort 
the Five Nations closely besieged, and the gar- 
rison nearly all perished by hunger. This bold 
inroad into the most powerful nation of the Con- 
federacy alarmed them, and they applied to the 
Governor of New York for protection, which 
was promised them. They were advised not to 
make peace with the French, and supplies of 
arms and ammunition were promised them. 

But M. de Nonville called a meeting of the 
chiefs of the Five Nations at Montreal, with the 
object of arranging terms of peace, and they 
decided to send representatives for that purpose. 
Adario, chief of the Western Indians, having a 
distrust of the French and anxious to prevent 
the intended peace, ambushed the embassy and 
killed or made prisoners the whole body, pre- 
tending to be acting for the French Governor 
without a knowledge of the object of the mission ; 
when informed of its object by his prisoners, he 
manifested great indignation at the treachery 



and dismissed them with presents. They re- 
turned, burning with indignation, completely 
deceived by the crafty manner of Adario. 

War followed. The French knew nothing of 
the cruel treachery of Adario, nor of the advance 
upon them of a strong Indian force. Twelve 
hundred warriors thirsting for revenge, on the 
26th of July, 1688, landed stealthily on the island 
of Montreal and began their horrid work with 
nothing to impede them. They " burned, 
plundered, sacked and laid waste the country on 
all sides," slaughtered its inhabitants without 
mercy, to the estimated number of one thousand, 
and returned glutted with vengeance, with but 
insignificant loss. In October the Five Nations 
repeated their visit to this ill-fated island, and 
ravaged, murdered and burned the lower part of 
it, taking many prisoners. 

These successes of the Five Nations were 
spread widely among all the Indian tribes, lessen- 
ing French influence with them, and inspiring 
still greater dread of the Iroquois. The French 
colony was in great disorder, and the Western 
Indians were seeking to ally their interests with 
the English. If that should be effected, the 
destruction of the colony appeared inevitable. 
They could not endure burdens much more 
oppressive than those under which they now 
suffered. They had lost several thousand of 
their people by stealthy savage inroads ; no one 
left his home without fear of a lurking foe, while 
the torch was liable at any moment to be applied 
to his cabin, and the tomahawk to fall upon the 
defenseless heads of his wife and children. Crops 
were planted and cultivated in constant fear, and 
when grown were often doomed to destruction. 
Provisions were, therefore, in short supply, and a 
threatened famine was added to the other 
horrors of the situation. 

In 1689, Count Frontenac, whose management 
of the colony had been sagacious and much more 
successful than any of the other Governors, was 
again sent to arouse its flagging spirits. He sought 
to convene a council of the Five Nations and ne- 
gotiate a peace with them. This they declined. 
He then employed force to terrify and induce 
them to remain neutral in the war existing 
between the French and English. Accordingly, 
he sent out three separate parties to attack the 
English settlements, one of which attacked and 
desolated the village of Schenectady. The 

purpose of these expeditions was to lessen the 
influence of the English with the Five Nations, 
but they failed of their object. This was in the 
Winter of idSg-'go, 

Count Frontenac still continued his eftbrts to 
bring about a peace with the Five Nations, send- 
ing ambassadors to them for that purpose ; but 
they made them run the gauntlet and then 
delivered them to the English. The Iroquois 
kept up their raids upon the French settlements, 
inflicting serious injury and producing constant 

A combined land and naval force, under the 
command of Major Peter Schuyler, made attacks 
upon Quebec and Montreal ; but they were re- 
pulsed, and the expedition proved a failure. The 
Indians, however, still continued their stealthy 
raids, which were more dreaded and really more 
destructive to the French interests than the 
more imposing efforts of their English allies. 

In the Summer of 1691, Major Peter Schuyler 
led a party of the Five Nations in a successful 
attack upon the French settlements, which they 
despoiled. The Five Nations also took posses- 
sion of the passes between the French and their 
allies, the Western Indians, and captured the 
traders and others going over those routes. 
They also made another bold incursion into the 
territory about Montreal, carrying everything 
before them except the fortresses, to which ail 
who could retired, and in which, while the In- 
dians remained, they kept themselves imprisoned. 
On their return this expedition was pursued by a 
French and Indian force, and suffered a consid- 
erable loss. 

In June, 1692, a formal treaty of alliance and 

friendship, was entered into between the English 

and the Five Nations, meanwhile Count Frontenac 

was not inactive. In January, 1693, he set out 

with a force of seven hundred French and In- 

j dians on snow-shoes, for a Winter campaign 

I among the Mohawks, and after suffering terrible 

j hardships in their long march through the forests, 

succeeded in capturing three of their castles and 

about three hundred prisoners. Though pursued 

j on their return by a party of Albany militia, they 

escaped without serious loss. This successful 

raid greatly alarmed the English settlers, and 

I dispirited the Five Nations. They saw that 

I surprises could be made by their enemies as well 

I as by themselves, and the Iroquois were now 



more inclined to listen to the French proposals 
of peace, and the latter, having been the greater 
sufferers from the war, were quite anxious that it 
should cease. 

Through the next two years, 1693-94, peace 
negotiations were carried on, to which the 
Cayugas, Onondagas, and Oneidas were more 
inclined than the Senecas and the Mohawks. 
The Senecas hated the French and were not 
so much influenced by the Jesuit priests as the 
Middle Nations, while the Mohawks were the 
immediate neighbors of the English, and much 
influenced by them in favor of continuing the war 
although they had been the greatest sufferers 
from it. 

While the question of peace was under dis- 
cussion, a prominent chief who had visited 
Canada to confer with the praying Iroquois who 
resided there, and having there learned the 
French conditions of peace, reported them to a 
general convention in Albany, composed of com- 
missioners from New York, Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut and New Jersey. The French terms 
were found to be inadmissible. They were that 
the English should not trade with the Canada 
Indians, or the other Indian allies of the French ; 
that the French might rebuild and garrison the 
fort at Cadaraqui, and their Indian allies should 
be included in the peace. To these terms the 
Five Nations would not consent ; and the nego- 
tiations failed. 

The Governor of Canada now proposed to 
force them to submission, and made arrange- 
ments to attack the Mohawks in force. But his 
plans being reported by an escaped prisoner, and 
learning the preparations made to repel him, he 
abandoned the purpose. In 1695 he sent a party 
to repair the fort at Cadaraqui which was im- 
portant to the French trade with the Western 
Indians, as a place for supplies and deposit for 
the men in the trade to and from the West and 
of security in time of war with the Five Nations. 
The fort was repaired and garrisoned and named 
Frontenac, in honor of the Governor. He now 
began preparations on a large scale to effect the 
subjugation of the Five Nations. He collected 
all his regular troops, the whole body of the 
militia of the colony, and all the Western Indians 
whom he could muster ; prepared cannon and 
mortars, and every destructive military device 
known to the times, and began his march on the 

fourth of July, 1696. Their destination was the 
Onondaga Nation, which they finally reached ; 
but the Onondagas, informed by an escaped 
Seneca prisoner of the host of the enemy and 
of the destructive engines they used, burned 
their castle and bark cabins and fled with their 
families to the forest, leaving only their fields of 
corn for the French to ravage. The Onondagas 
are said not to have lost a single man by this, 
the most formidable expedition which the French 
had ever brought against the Five Nations.- It 
was a signal failure. It was, however, a great 
drain upon the feeble resources of the colony. 
In it had embarked the great body of the agri- 
culturists, and at a season of the year when their 
labors were required to cultivate and secure their 
crops. A famine was the result, producing great 
suffering, aggravated by repeated inroads of small 
bodies of the Iroquois who carried away many 
captives and much property, keeping the settle- 
ments in constant alarm. The French, at the 
same time made similar attacks upon the English 
in the vicinity of Albany and, as most of the 
men engaged in these predatory raids on both 
sides, were Indians, the horror and terror which 
they produced can be easier imagined than 

The Western Indians, hitherto in close alliance 
with the French, and from whom the main part 
of their trade had come, now concluded a peace 
with the Five Natibns, desiring to avail them- 
selves of the benefits of a trade with the English, 
from whom they believed they could procure 
goods on better terms than from the French. 
The Cayugas in September, 1697, made applica- 
tion to the English at Albany for ammunition, in 
order to defend themselves from the French. 

By the treaty of Ryswick, signed September 
loth, 1697, peace was established between the 
English and French, but a question subsequently 
arose as to the Five Nations. The French were 
not willing to include them in the settlement, but 
the English so strongly insisted upon it, that the 
point was finally conceded, and a general peace 
for the time prevailed, both between the French 
and English, and also between the other Indians 
and the Five Nations. Still the old rivalries 
and jealousies between the French and English 
continued. The former, through the great 
influence of the Jesuit priests that resided 
with the Five Nations, had an advantage which 


the English did not possess. The priests 
induced very large numbers of the Iroquois to 
locate in Canada, where they were clothed and 
maintained by the French, instructed in the 
Roman Catholic faith, and taught to regard the 
English as enemies and the French as their best 
friends. So large had been the flow of the 
Iroquois into Canada, that Robert Livingston, 
the English Secretary of Indian Affairs, in 1700 
reported that " more than two-thirds of them had 

This alarmed the English, as they saw the 
domestic treatment of the Indians by the French 
was not only rapidly alienating them from the 
English, but secured them as residents of their 
country and in every way allying them to their 
interests. The most active steps were, there- 
fore, taken to counteract French influence and 
to win back the Five Nations to their former 
allegiance to the English crown. For this pur- 
pose repeated councils were held with them, their 
wants and grievances fully ascertained, and im- 
mediate steps taken to supply and redress them. 
The fullest assurances were given the Indians at 
these councils that the King would protect them ; 
that the English had always been their friends, 
while the French had constantly sought to 
destroy them ; that the Jesuit priests had filled 
their ears with false stories only to cheat them ; 
that the English would build them forts for their 
protection and supply them with arms and am- 
munition, and that they would supply them with 
clothing and necessary utensils, and send and 
maintain protestant priests among them for their 

The result of the several councils held with 
the English, was a pacification of the Indians. 
In a council of the Cayugas, Onondagjs, Oneidas, 
Senecas and Mohawks, held August nth, 1700, 
they declared through their chief speakers, that 
" they would discredit the idle tales of the 
French, continue firm to the crown of England, 
if it will protect them from its enemies, and were 
thankful for the promise of protestant ministers," 
and that, though the French had promised them 
Jesuit pYiests, they were determined to "stick to 
the religion of the King." Earl Belmont respon- 
ded, " we have a law for seizing and securing all 
Jesuit priests, and I would gladly put the law in 
operation against these disturbers of mankind." 
The Indians promised to seize, and bring them 

before him, and not allow them in their country. 
A fort was to be built for them at Onondaga, 
and, in case of war, one hundred English soldiers 
to be placed therein with the necessary arms 
including cannon. While the fort was building, 
Earl Belmont "gave the sachems two hundred 
bags of balls of one hundred pounds each, two 
hundred fusees, two hundred pounds of lead, two 
thousand flints, one hundred hatchets, two 
hundred knives, two hundred shirts, forty kegs 
of rum of two gallons each, sixty-three hats, 
three barrels of pipes, with tobacco, etc." 

As showing the effect of religious instruction 
upon some of the Indians at this early day, we 
quote the following answer of one of their 
principal chiefs, Sadekanaghtie, to the proposition 
to furnish them with protestant ministers : 

" God hath been pleased to create us, and the 
sun hath shined long upon us. We have lived 
many years in peace and union together and we 
hope, by your instructions, to be taught to be 
good Christians and tej die in the Christian faith. 
Let us, therefore, go hand in hand and support 
each other. We were here before you, and were 
a strong and numerous people, when you were 

I but young and striplings. Yet we were kind 
and cherished you, and, therefore, when we pro- 
pose anything to you, if you cannot agree to it 
let us take counsel together that matters may be 

j carried on smoothly, and that what we say may 
not be taken amiss. When we are to be 
instructed in the protestant religion, pray let not 
such severity be used as the Jesuits du ' -, Canada, 
who whip their proselytes with an iron chain, 
cut off the warriors hair, put them in prison, 
and when they commit any heinous sin, the 
priest takes his opportunity when they are asleep 
and beats them severely. Now, as a token of 
our willingness to be instructed in the protestant 
religion, we give nine beaver-skins." 

The peace and good-will established by these 
various acts of kindness toward the Five Nations 
bound them permanently to the English ; but 
lest the Jesuit priests should again seduce them 
from their allegiance, a stringent law was passed 
in 1700 by the Colonial Assembly of New York, 
by which the penalty of hanging was imposed 
upon every Jesuit priest that came voluntarily 
into the province. The English were most 
assiduous in their efforts to keep bright the chain 
of friendship with their Indian allies, for on that 
depended the success of their trade with them, 
and the security of their frontier settlements. 
They distributed liberal presents to their chiefs, 
five of whom were taken to England to give 



them an idea of the splendor and power of the 
government that protected them. By the treaty 
of Utrecht, concluded March 31st, 1713, the 
French relinquished all claims to the country of 
the Five Nations, which thereafter became an 
appendage of the English crown. 

There being now no war-paths in the North or 
West for the Five Nations to traverse, they 
turned their attention to the Southern Indians 
who had been engaged in hostilities against the 
white settlements in that locality ; they chastised 
their old enemies, the Flatheads, living in Caro- 
lina, and returned with many scalps and prison- 
ers. While on this expedition, 1713, they 
adopted the Tuscaroras as their Si.xth Nation. 
That nation had been one of the most powerful 
of the Southern Indians ; but had been severely 
beaten in a terrible war just before the arrival of 
the Iroquois, in which they had lost one thousand 
warriors. The Iroquois took them under their 
protection and finally located them among the 
Senecas, in the now Coufity of Niagara, where 
a remnant of them still remains. 

From 1744 to 1748 the French and EngHsh 
were again at war, which was concluded by the 
treaty of Aix La Chapelle, April 30th, 1748. 
This contest had been for the possession of the 
Mississippi Valley, which the English claimed as 
an extension of their coast discoveries and settle- 
ments, and the French by right of occupancy, 
as their forts extended from Canada to Louisiana, 
and formed a " bow of which the English colo- 
nies were the string." At this time the English 
colonists numbered over one million, while the 
French had only about sixty thousand. But 
this war had settled nothing, the question was 
still undecided. 

In 1755 the contest was renewed and what 
was called the " old French war" began, which 
was continued for eight years and was concluded 
by the treaty of Paris in 1763. In this war the 
Canadian and Western Indians adhered to the 
French, and the Six Nations to the English. 
The French were vanquished and the sovereignty 
of the country conceded to England. 

The differences hitherto existing between 
France and England and their colonies were now 
finally settled ; but the English colonists and 
the parent country were soon to engage in a war 
of equal duration with the " French war," and 
attended with greater sufferings and sacrifices. 

The Iroquois that had so long and so faithfully 
adhered to the colonists and the King in all their 
contests with the French, were now to be 
divided, the larger part siding with the King 
against their white neighbors. One thousand 
eight hundred of their warriors engaged during 
the war of the revolution in the British service, 
while but two hundred and twenty adhered to 
the colonists. The Cayugas, Onondagas and 
Senecas were of the former, and were often on 
the war-path rendering the crown very import- 
ant services. 

Their atrocities at Wyoming and along the 
frontiers of New York aroused Congress to 
earnest efforts to so effectually cripple them as 
to prevent the recurrence of similar outrages. 
Accordingly in the Summer of 1779, a formidable 
expedition, under the command of Generals 
Sullivan and Clinton, was dispatched into the 
territory of these nations with instructions " to 
cut off their settlements, destroy their crops, and 
inflict upon them every other injury which time 
and circumstances would permit."* This order 
of the commander-in-chief was most successfully 
executed. A force of five thousand men well 
armed, including artillery, and every way pre- 
pared for the work in hand, invaded the terri- 
tories of the Cayugas, Senecas and Onondagas, 
defeated the combined forces of the British and 
Iroquois, driving them from a strongly intrenched 
position about one mile from Newtown, now 
Elmira, creating the wildest panic among them. 

The following extracts from the journal of an 
ofificer that accompanied Sullivan's expedition 
will show some of the more interesting incidents 
of the campaign : 

"August 31st, 1779. — Decamped at eight 
o'clock, marched over mountainous ground until 
we arrived at the forks of Newtown ; there 
entered on a low bottom ; crossed the Cayuga 
branch and encamped on a pine plain. * * * 
Here we left the Tioga branch to our left. * * 

" September 2d. — Came up with the army at 
the town (Catharine's Town) and encamped. 

" September 3d. — Destroyed it together with 
the corn, beans, etc., and decamped at eight 
o'clock in the morning ; after marching three 
miles fell in on the east side of Seneca Lake. 
* * At two o'clock passed Apple-tree 
Town, situated on the bank of the lake. This 
day marched eleven miles over high, though 
level, ground. * * 

* Washington's letter to Governor Clinton. 



" September 4th. — Marched twelve miles, 
* * and encamped in the woods beside 
the lake. This day and yesterday passed several 
corn fields and scattering houses, which we 
destroyed as we passed along. * * 

" September 5th. — Decamped in the morning, 
and about twelve o'clock arrived at Kandaia, a 
fine town, lying about one-half mile from the 
lake; here we found a great plenty of apple 
trees ; it evidently appears to be an old inhabited 
town ; their houses were large and elegant, some 
beautifully painted ; their tombs likewise, 
especially their chief warriors, are beautifully 
painted boxes, which they build over the grave, 
of planks hewn out of timber. * * 

" September 7th. — * * Arrived at 

sundown at the north-west corner of the lake 
where we destroyed a town and some corn and 
proceeded to Kanadaseago, the capital of the 
Senecas This town lies on a level spot of 
ground about one mile and a half north of the 
lake and consists of about sixty houses and great 
plenty of apple and peach trees. * * 

" September 8th. — The army employed this 
day in destroying the corn, beans, etc., at this 
place, of which there was a great quantity. The 
rifle-men were detached this morning to Kash- 
anguash, about eight miles south. 

"September loth. — * * About two 

o'clock fell in with a small lake at the outlet of 
which lies the town of Canandaigua, consisting 
of upwards of twenty houses, which we set fire 
to and decamped. This town, from the appear- 
ance of the buildings, seemed to have been in- 
habited by white people ; some of the houses 
have very neat chimneys, which the Indians 
have not, but build a fire in the center around 
which they gather. 

" September nth. — * * Reached Han- 
neyaye. * * This town lies afr the 

head of a small lake in a rich valley, consisting 
of thirteen or fourteen good houses and neatly 
built. Here, likewise, we found a great quantity 
of corn, beans, etc. 

"September 13th. — * * Marched to 
the town where we were employed in destroying 
the corn, etc., until noon ; from this place 
Lieutenant Boyd of the rifle corps was detached 
with fifteen or twenty men to reconnoiter the 
next town seven miles distant. Killed and 
scalped two Indians in the town. On his return 
found his retreat cut off and surrounded by five 
or six hundred savages ; defended himself until 
his men were all cut off but himself and one 
man, when he surrendered ; whom we afterward 
found in Chennessee Castle tortured in a most 
cruel manner." 

The horrid death ol this young and gallant 
officer is thus related by Colonel Stone in his 
life of Brant : 

" From the battle-field. Brant conducted Lieut. 
Boyd and his fellow captive to Little Beard's town, 
where they found Col. Butler with a detachment 
of ( British ) rangers. While under the supervision 
of Brant, the Lieutenant was well treated and safe 
from danger ; but the chief being called away in 
the discharge of his multifarious duties Boyd was 
left with Butler, who soon after began to examine 
him, by questions as to the situation, numbers 
and intention of General Sullivan and his troops. 
He, of course, declined answering all improper 
questions ; whereat Butler threatened that if he 
did not give him full and explicit information he 
would deliver him up to the tender mercies of the 
Indians. Relying confidently upon the assur- 
ances of the generous Mohawk chieftain, Boyd 
still refused, and P)Utler, fulfilling his bloody 
threat, delivered him over to Little Beard and 
his clan, the most ferocious of the Seneca tribe. 
The gallant fellow was immediately put to death 
by torture, and in the execution there was a re- 
finement of cruelty of which it is not known 
that a parallel instance occurred during the 
whole war. Having been denuded, Boyd was 
tied to a sapling, where the Indians first practiced 
upon the steadiness of his nerves by hurling 
their tomahawks apparently at his head, but so 
as to strike the trunk of the sapling as near to 
his head as possible without hitting it, groups of 
Indians in the meantime brandishing their 
knives and dancing around him with the most 
frantic demonstrations of joy. His nails were 
pulled out, his nose cut oft" and one of his eyes 
plucked out. His tongue was also cut out and 
he was stabbed in various places After amus- 
ing themselves sufficiently in this way, a small 
incision was made in his abdomen and the end 
of one of his intestines taken out and fastened to 
the tree. The victim was then unbound and 
driven around the tree by brute force until his 
intestines had all been literally drawn from his 
body and wound around the tree. His sufter- 
ings were then terminated by striking his head 
from his body." 

"September 14th.— * * After fording 
the river, raised a considerable hill timbered 
chiefly with white oak and entered on another 
flat on which stands the capital of the Chennes- 
see, consisting of upward of one hundred and 
twenty houses, and vast quantities of corn, 
beans, pumpkins, potatoes, etc. 

"September 15th. — This morning the whole 
army paraded at six o'clock to destroy the corn, 
etc., which could only be done by gathering the 
corn in the houses and setting fire to them. 

"September i6th. — This morning after de- 
stroying the corn, etc., on the south-east corner 
of the flats, recrossed the branch of the Chen- 
nessee River on logs. * * 

" September 20th.— * * This morning 
detached Colonel Zebulon Butler, of Wyoming, 


with the rifle corps and five hundred men to 
Cayuga Lake to destroy the settlements there. * 
" Sepjember 2ist. — This morning detached 
Lieutenant-Colonel Dearborn, with two hundred 
men, to destroy the corn and settlements along 
the south side of Cayuga Lake. * * 

" September 28th. — Colonel Butler with his 
detachment arrived, having destroyed a vast 
quantity of corn, beans, apple-trees, etc., on the 
east side of Cayuga Lake, and burnt three 
towns, among which was the capital of the 
Cayuga tribe. This day Colonels Cortland and 
Dayton were sent with large detachments to 
destroy corn." 

This was the most terrible blow the Iroquois 
had ever received, and from which they never 
recovered. The whole country of the Onon- 
dagas, Cayugas ,and Senecas was overrun, their 
towns, orchards and crops destroyed, and them- 
selves compelled to seek refuge for support 
among other nations, as their own supplies were 
destroyed. They fled in large numbers to 
Niagara and were supported by the English, and 
few only of the whole number ever returned to 
their lands. 

The great severity with which they were 
treated may be criticised ; but the cruelties 
which they had inflicted upon the settlers at 
Wyoming, Cherry Valley and elsewhere, were 
the most horrid and wanton, and so long as they 
had the power their repetition was feared. The 
Indians scattered over their wooded country 
could not be taken, and the only way, therefore, 
by which they could be conquered was the one 
resorted to— the destruction of their means of 
living. When we read the story of Indian 
barbarities practiced upon the scores of thousands 
of New England and Eastern New York settlers, 
and the dread and fear in which they lived for a 
generation, and compare it with the quiet and 
peace that attended the early settlement of 
Central and Western New York, from which 
this campaign drove the red man, we can then 
see its beneficent results and the far-seeing 
wisdom that planned and executed it. 

The modern descendants of the ancient 
Iroquois are now largely located at Forestville, 
Wisconsin. They are said to number six thou- 
sand at that point, of whom the Cayugas form 
the larger part. Two thousand of their number 
can read and write, and they have twenty-nine 
day and two manual-labor schools. They support 
themselves by cultivating the soil, and display I 

their superiority over the other tribes in the arts 
of civilization in as marked a degree as they did 
in their old prowess in savage warfare. They are 
not dying out. Their numbers rather increase 
than diminish. The number on this reservation, 
and the descendants of the Six Nations in Can- 
ada, are believed to nearly equal the census of 
the Confederacy before its power was broken by 
the whites. 


Native Inhabitants, (Continued.) 

Jesuit Missions Among the Cayugas — The 
Jesuit Relations — Duration of the Mis- 
sions—Details OF the Various Cayuga 
Missions — Their Results — Why the Mis- 
sions Failed— Results of the Failure. 

IN the preceding chapter incidental reference 
has been made to the influence of the French 
Jesuit missions among the Five Nations. In the 
present chapter a more detailed description will 
be given of their early missionary operations 
among the Cayugas which embodies the earliest 
information concerning them, dating back more 
than two hundred and twenty years, and more 
than a century before the present race of white 
men occupied our soil. 

The history of their operations in this County 
had not until about three years since been 
accessible to our citizens. At that time. 
Rev. Charles Hawley, D. D., President of the 
Cayuga County Historical Society, a gentleman 
thoroughly informed in aboriginal history, con- 
ceived and executed the plan of supplying the 
deficiency. After considerable research, he ob- 
tained a copy of the " Relations des Jesuits," in 
the old original French, and translated and pub- 
lished so much of those " Relations" as applied 
to this county from 1656 to 1672. A copy being 
forwarded to Dr. John G. Shea, the eminent 
Indian historian, he replied, under date of New 
York, November ist, 1876, thanking Dr. Hawley 
" for his admirable translation," and for the happy 
idea of " thus giving to the present residents of 
the old land of the Cayugas these records of 
intelligent and devoted men laboring there two 


centuries ago." Dr. Shea at the same time 
offered to translate from the old " Relations" all 
that he could find applying to the Cayugas, and 
did so, carrying the history forward to 1679. It 
is from these " Relations " thus supplied by the 
courtesy of Dr. Hawley that we make up the 
record contained in this chapter. 

It will be noticed that in the relations respect- 
ing the Cayugas, very little is said of their habits 
and modes of life, except as connected with their 
religious instruction. The reason for this is 
that full and minute descriptions, bearing upon 
the former subjects, had been given in previous 
" Relations " of the Huron missions. 

These missionaries were educated men. They 
p. took careful notes of what they saw and heard ; 

made maps and drawings and made out full and 
elaborate reports of their operations, published 
in large and expensive volumes, which are 
exceedingly rare and interesting, as containing 
the first accounts we have of our native inhabit- 

The first missionaries arrived in Canada in 
1625. They came for a very different purpose 
from that which had actuated the previous set- 
tlers. The latter had come to traffic and make 
gain, and in carrying on their operations often 
deceived and swindled the red man. But the 
missionaries came to teach and christianize the 
heathen. The traders had come with guns and 
swords to inspire terror and to enforce obedience ; 
the missionaries were heralds of peace and good 
will. They came from the most enlightened 
nation of Europe to dwell among barbarians, — 
to learn their languages and usages so as to be 
able to instruct and influence them. They came 
from an old to a new country ; from a mild to a 
rigorous climate, and exchanged a life of com- 
parative ease and refinement in France for the 
privations and hardships of the wilderness 
among savages. 

As showing the discomforts of the Indian 
homes of the fathers, we quote the following from 
the " Jesuits in North America," (Parkman's,) 
being a synopsis of the relation of Lejeune, the 
first Indian missionary : 

" Here among the lodges of bark were stretched 
innumerable strings of hide, from which hung to 

parchment, the daily life of this ru 
its firesides, its funeral rites, its festi 
and vivid fidelity. — Parkman't Jesu 

n covers of begri 
nmunity (the Hur 
painted with a mi 

dry an incredible multidude of eels. A boy in- 
vited him into the lodge of a withered squaw, 
(his grandmother,) who hastened to offer him 
four smoked eels on a piece of bark, while the 
other squaws of the household instructed him 
how to roast them on a forked-stick over the 
embers. All shared the feast together, his enter- 
tainers using as napkins their own hair, or that 
of their dogs." 

But the discomforts of a Winter lodge, as 
described by the same author, were very great : 

" Enter the hut, there in a space of thirteen 
feet square were packed nineteen savages, — men, 
women and children, with their dogs,— crouched, 
squatted, coiled like huge hogs, or lying on their 
backs, with their knees drawn up perpendicularly 
to keep their feet out of the fire. The bark 
covering was full of crevices, through which the 
icy blasts streamed in upon him from all sides, 
and the hole above, at once window and chimney, 
was so large that as he lay he could watch the 
stars, as well as in the open air; while the fire in 
the midst, fed with fat pine-knots, scorched him 
on one side, on the other he had much ado to 
keep himself from freezing. At times, however, 
the crowded hut seemed heated to the tempera- 
ture of an oven ; but these evils were slight 
when compared with the intolerable plague of 
smoke. During a snow storm, and often at other 
times, the wigwam was filled with fumes so dense, 
stifling and acrid that all its inmates were forced 
to lie flat on their faces breathing through mouths 
in contact with the cold earth." 

So much for the discomforts of the missionary 
homes with the Indians. Another extract from 
the same excellent and graphic author, will show 
the horrid barbarities to which they were at all 
times exposed. Father Bressani, a missionary 
among the Hurons in 1644, was taken prisoner 
by the Iroquois and compelled to endure their 
relentless cruelties, which Mr. Parkman thus 
describes: "They split his hand w^th a knife 
between the little and ring finger, beat him with 
sticks until he was covered with blood." They 
then stripped him, and, though the weather was 
very cold, exposed him to it on the torture scaf- 
fold for two hours compelling him to sing. They 
then permitted the children to torture him by 
thrusting sharpened sticks into his bruised flesh, 
and also compelling him to dance, pulling out 
his hair and beard and burning his flesh with 
fire-brands, accompanied with the cry, " We will 
burn you to death." This was continued every 
evening for a week. After this they burned 
him with live coals and hot stones, greatly enjoy- 
ing his agony for hours. In this condition, 


bruised, burned, and lacerated as he was, they 
compelled him to undergo a march of several 
days, when they suspended him by the heels, 
and afterwards placed food for the dogs upon his 
body that cruelly hurt him in biting it off. He 
was finally liberated, sold to the Dutch, regained 
his strength and reentered the missionary field. 
Theirs was a rare and heroic self-sacrifice, and 
they devoted themselves to their appointed work 
with marvellous zeal and fidelity. They were, 
in a large degree, successful in winning the con- 
fidence of the red men, though some of them 
were submitted to the torture and the flames and 
most of them carried their lives in their hands. 
While they were sincerely and enthusiastically 
devoted to the work of evangelizing the Indians, 
it cannot be denied that many of them exerted 
a strong political influence in behalf of his most 
catholic majesty, the King of France, by allying 
the various savage tribes among whom they 
dwelt, to the French interest. 

The French missions were maintained for 
nearly a century, and of many of the tribes, little 
has been or can be known, except what is sup- 
plied by their " Relations." 

In 1645-6, Father Jerome Lallemant, compar- 
ing the different Iroquois Nations, said that "the 
Cantons of the Cayugas and Senecas surpass 
them all by the excellence of the soil, the beauty 
of the country and the mildness of the climate. 
The inhabitants, being influenced by these super- 
inducements, have always shown themselves the 
most tractable of all the Iroquois." 

The first mission founded among the Cayugas 
was in 1656, and soon after the establishment of 
the Onondaga mission. The latter was the first 
Iroquois mission and had had a favorable begin- 
ning ; a chapel had been built, a school opened, 
and a fort projected for the defense of the nation 
from its enemies. 

The missionaries at Onondaga now arranged 
to extend their labors to the Cayugas and Senecas. 
The Cayugas had been represented in the first 
missionary council at Onondaga, where they 
were received with much formality. The coun- 
cil, though engaged in important ceremonies, 
adjourned them until the following day in honor 
of their distinguished guests with whom they 
exchanged complimentary presents. Saonchi- 
ogwa, the head chief of the Cayugas, was very 
cordial to the "Black Robes," as the priests 

were called, and assured them of his desire to 
take them as brothers, understood to be a mark 
of the highest confidence, and was so accepted 
by the missionaries. The next day the several 
nations represented in the council, engaged in 
formal replies to the speeches and presents of 
the missionaries, and with their songs of wel- 

After the Onondagas had bestowed and ex- 
plained the presents, Saonchiogwa, chief of the 
Cayugas, replied in a long, eloquent and saga- 
cious speech. In behalf of his nation and him- 
self, he thanked the French for having adopted 
them, and pledged himself that they should 
never dishonor the proud distinction. They had 
never been adopted except by persons of rank ; 
but adoption by the French was the crowning 
glory of all their alliances. He closed by striking 
up a song, both new and pleasing, in which all 
his companions joined, keeping time by striking 
their mats, while he danced violently. The im- 
port of his exclamations was a warm approval of 
the whole proceedings, which he emphasized by 
a present of beads. 

In pursuance of the wishes expressed by this 
council, six Jesuit fathers left Quebec, May 17th, 
1656, and with them came also several laymen. 
A council was convened at Onondaga soon after 
their arrival and the alliance heretofore made, was 
confirmed by the distribution of additional pres- 
ents. A few weeks later a representative Cayu- 
gan, in behalf of his nation asked that one of the 
fathers might be sent to them. He assured them 
that such was the desire of all his people, and 
that a chapel would be built for their use. 

This request was granted. Father Menard 
was sent to the Cayugas, and Chaumanot to the 
Senecas. They arrived among the Cayugas in 
August, 1656, from whence, after a short stay, 
Chaumanot proceeded to his work among the 
Senecas, Menard remaining among the Cayugas. 
To preserve the alliance which had been formed 
with the French at Onondaga, "to keep bright 

* " They sang, — " Happy Land ! Happy Land ! in which the 
French are to dwell !" which was responded to by the Onondagas, 
led by their chief : " Glad Tidings ! Glad Tidings ! It is well 
that we have spoken together. It is well that we have a heavenly 
message. I salute thee. My brother, I salute thee. It is well you 
have conne to us. O, the charming voice. O, the charming voice 
thou hast." They added this: " Farewell to war ! Farewell to the 
hatchet 1 Until now we have been enemies j henceforth we are 
brothers, yes, we are truly brothers," 



the chain of friendship" with the Indians, annual 
presents must be exchanged. This Menard con- 
sidered a very agreeable necessity, as, in the dis- 
tribution of these presents, it opened the way for 
him to proclaim to them the faith here, in a way 
similar to that which had so well succeeded at 

He found, however, in fact, great antipathy 
not only against the faith but against their own 
persons also. These dislikes had come to the 
Iroquois through the Hurons, among whom the 
black-robes had labored for many previous years. 
The Hurons insisted that the missionaries 
brought with them sickness and misfortunes.* 

And so strong were their antipathies that the 
first presents which Menard bestowed were una- 
vailing, and worthless, but the principal men of 
the nation, from motives of policy, did not break 
with the missionary ; but set their Huron slaves 
at work to build a bark chapel, which at the end 
of two days was completed and ready for occu- 

The fathers spread the floor with " beautiful 
mats," and arranged two images in the chapel, 
one of our Lord and the other of our Lady. The 
effect, Menard relates : 

" So greatly surprised our barbarians that they 
came in crowds to consider it, and gaze upon the 
countenances and movements of the two images. 
I thus had abundant opportunities to explain our 
mysteries ; and so inquisitive were they about the 
images, that each day was but one asking and 
answering of questions from morning till night ; 
the result of which was that they were so sub- 
dued in spirit, that in a few days we had many 
converts, not only of the Hurons and slaves, but 
also from the natives of the country. 

" Many brought their children to me for bap- 
tism, and aided me in teaching them the prayers 
by repeating them after me ; and, in a short time 
grace brought such marvellous changes that the 

*" The persecutions of the Jesuit priests among the Hurons, had 
been marked by deeds of peculiar cruelty, originating mainly in a 
belief in their power as sorcerers and conjurers. Pierre Chaumanot 
was emerging from a house at the Huron town called by the Jesuits 
St. Michael, where he had just baptized a dying girl, when her 
brother, standing hidden in the doorway, struck him on the head 
with a stone. Chaumanot, severely wounded, staggered without 
falling when the Indian sprang upon him with his tomahawk. The 
bystanders arrested the blow. Francois Le Mercier, in the midst 
of a crowd of Indians at the town of St. Louis, was assailed by a 
noted chief, who rushed in raving like a mad man, and, in a tor- 
rent of words, charged upon him all the miseries of the nation. 
Then taking a brand from the fire, he thrust it into the Jesuit's 
face, and told him that he should be burned alive." — Parkman on 

j little children, who, at the first, made me the con- 
stant object of their ridicule and sport now ren- 
dered me the offices of good angels, conducting 
me into the cabins, attending me wherever I vis- 
ited, and giving me the names of those I baptized, 
j as well as those of their parents, that which these 
barbarians are accustomed to carefully conceal 
j from us, believing that we record their names 
that we may send them to France and there pro- 
cure their death by magic." 

The first person whom father Menard deemed 
i worthy of baptism was a man eighty years old, and 
i as he relates, " nigh unto death," and in whom he 
! found " all the dispositions of a soul chosen for 
heaven." The second was a cripple deformed 
by a cancer, by whom the father was received 
with joy, and who was so assiduous in his appli- 
cation to the work assigned him by the priest, 
that he speedily administered to him the sacred 
rite. The chief interest, however, which sur- 
rounded this second case, was that the now sufTer- 
ing Iroquois had been a renowned warrior, and 
was one of the party one thousand strong who, on 
the i6th of March, 1649, had attacked, captured, 
and burned the Huron town of St. Ignace, and 
on " that same day had slain with his own hands 
eight Hurons and taken five others prisoners," 
and had bought of the Mohawks the two captive 
fathers, Brebeuf and Lallemant, who were in the 
town at the time of its capture, in order to restore 
them to liberty. They returned the wampum 
belts, however, which had been the price of the 
freedom of the captives who were " burned with 
all imaginary fury.* 

This second convert was much esteemed by 
the Cayugas, and his conversion to the Christian 
faith led many others to embrace it ; not only by 
his influential example, but " through the zeal of 
his discourse." But Menard met the difficulties 

* Brebeuf was led apart and bound to a stake. He seemed more 
concerned for his captive converts than for himself, and addressed 
them in a loud voice, exhorting them to suffer patiently, and prom- 
ising heaven as their reward. The Iroquois, incensed, scorched him 
from head to foot to silence him j whereupon, in the tone of a 
master, he threatened them with everlasting flames for persecuting 
the worshipers of God ; as he continued to speak with voice and 
countenance unchanged, they cut away his lower lip and thrust a 
red-hot iron down his throat. He still held his tall form erect and 
defiant, with no sign or sound of pain ; and they tried another 
means to overcome him. They led out Lallemant, that Brebeuf 
might see him tortured. They had tied strips of bark, smeared 
with pitch, about his naked body. When he saw the condition of 
his superior, he could not hide his agitation and called out to him 
with a broken voice, in the words of St. Paul, ** we are made a 
spectacle oc the world, to angels and to men." Then he threw 


common to all the early French missionaries. 
He said : 

" Our faith is accused of being the murderer 
of all who profess it ; and the death of several 
christians of Onondaga, having given occasion 
for this delusion of the savages ; and the speech 
of a certain chief, an enemy of our religion, made 
at a council, served to excite still more their 
prejudices. So that not only many natives of 
the country, judging it was safer to believe what 
this man of authority among them said, than to 
put faith in the totally opposite experience of our 
ancient Hurons, have begged me to regard it well 
for them to omit attendance at prayers until their 
fear of me should abate ; but also they accuse the 
faith of the French of all the evils, both public 
and private, with which they are afflicted. Thus 
it is, that a certain apostate endeavored to make 
these barbarians believe, citing the Hollanders 
for proof of what he said, when he asserted, that 
the children of the Iroquois died two years after 
their baptism ; and that the christians, either 
broke a leg, or pierced their foot with a thorn, or 
became emaciated, or vomited up the soul with 
the blood, or were attacked with some other 
signal malady." 

In learning the Iroquois language, father Me- 
nard had for teachers three brothers, given him 
"by the providence of God," of good natural dis- 
positions, kind, patient and assiduous as teachers ; 
and he was so rapidly instructed in the language 
by them as soon to be able to reciprocate their 
kindness by giving them religious instruction, of 
which with the aid of the images, he was able to 
give them an apprehension. 

The superstitious notions of the Indians often 
put the lives of the missionaries in jeopardy. 
Menard was accused of being a sorcerer, that he 
had over the people the power of life and death ; 
that he could if he so willed, heal the sick, and 
if they died he was responsible for their death. 
Some of the more suspicious sought to rid the 

himself at Brebeuf's feet ; upon which the Iroijuois seized him, 
made him fast to a stal<e, and set fire to the bark that enveloped 
him. As the flame rose, he threw his arms upward with a shriek 
of supplication to heaven. Next they hung around Brebeuf's neck a 
collar made of hatchets, heated red-hot ; but the indomitable priest 
stood like a rock. A Huron in the crowd who had been a convert 
of the mission, but now was an Iroquois by adoption, called out with 
the malice of a renegade, to pour hot water on their heads, since 
they had poured so much cold water on those of others. The ket- 
tle was accordingly slung and the water boiled, and poured slowly on 
the heads of the two missionaries. "We baptize you," they cried, 
" that you may be happy in heaven, for nobody can be saved without 
a good baptism." Brebeuf would not flinch ; and in a rage they cut 
strips of flesh from his limbs and devoured them before his eyes. 
Other revolting cruelties followed and the horrid scene closed. — 
Condtmtdfrom Parkma>:\ Jesuits. 

nation of so powerful and dangerous a guest, but 
were restrained by others. Menard, at this his 
first visit, gained many converts, but at the end 
of two months, for reasons not explained in the 
" Relations," left for Onondaga. He, however, 
returned to the mission after a brief absence, 
accompanied by several Frenchmen, and also by 
many prominent Cayugas, who had visited him 
at Onondaga to urge his return. He found his 
chapel in the same condition in which he had 
left it and at once resumed his labors and reported 
that his prospects of success were as good as 
those of Onondaga. The first missions among 
the Cayugas and Onondagas were, however, 
of short duration. The Mohawks became jealous 
of the French, and the Oneidas murdered three 
of the colonists. The French retaliated and ill 
blood was excited. A conspiracy, involving the 
complete destruction of the colony, was disclosed 
to the French by a christian Indian, and in Feb- 
ruary, 1658, the colony secretly fled to Canada.* 
A war followed between the French and the 
Five Nations, lasting about two years. Through 
the influence of Garacontie, the chief sachem of 
the Onondagas, and a firm friend of the mission- 
aries, an embassy headed by the chief of the 
Cayugas, Saonchiogwa, was dispatched to Mon- 
treal to negotiate a peace. They arrived in July, 
1660, without previous notice to the French that 
they wished for peace. Presents were brought 

* The colony was under tlie command of Dupuys, who, relying 
implicitly upon the good faith of the Indians, had neglected to pre- 
serve his canoes. To construct new ones in view of the Indians 
would advertise them of his intentions and bring their hatchets upon 
the settlements at once. He, therefore, had small batteaux made 
in the garrets of the Jesuit's houses, and kept them concealed 
when finished. A young Frenchman had been adopted into the 
family of a chief and acquired great influence over the tribe. By 
their customs an adopted son had all the privileges of a son by 
birth. When Dupu)s had a sufficient number of batteaux finished, 
this young man went to his foster father, and, in a solemn manner, 
related that he had dreamed the previous night that he was at a 
feast where the guests ate and drank everything that was set before 
them. He asked the old chief to permit him to make such a feast 
for the tribe. The request was granted and the feast was spread. 
Many Frenchmen were present, and with horns, drums and trum- 
pets, kept up a continual uproar. The French, meanwhile, were 
diligently embarking and loading their batteaux, undisturbed by the 
feasting savages. At length the guests, who had been eating and 
drinking for hours, ceased gormandizing to take some repose. The 
young Frenchman commenced playing upon a guitar, and, in a few 
minutes, every red man was in a profound slumber. He then 
joined his companions, and before morning the whole colony was 
far on the way toward Oswego. — Lossing's Field Boot of the Revo- 
lution, yoi. I, p. 129. 



as pledges of the desired peace, and they were 
explained in an eloquent and adroit speech by 
Saonchiogvva, which he concluded thus : " A 
black-gown must come with me, otherwise no 
peace, and on his coming depend the lives of 
twenty J"renchmen." 

The proposals were accepted and Father Le 
Moyne who seven years before had first visited 
Onondaga and subsequently all of the Five Na- 
tions and was therefore well known to them, was 
sent v^ith them. He was received at the mis- 
sion house of the Onondagas, by the sachems of 
the Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca nations. The 
proceedings of the embassy were ratified, and Le 
Moyne visited different parts of the missionary 
field, spending a month with the Cayugas, where, ■ 
by the aid of a French surgeon who accompanied 
him, he successfully treated patients sick with 
the small pox. 

Le Moyne thus speaks of the reasons which 
led him to visit the Cayugas : " The Iroquois, of • 
Cayuga, who are less cruel and whom we have 
found more affectionate (than the other Iroquois 
nations,) especially in view of our sympathy for 
the remnant of the Huron church among them, 
were moved with compassion at our troubles, and 
in order to give protection to the father, invited 
him to come and instruct them until the danger 
should have passed. The father was rejoiced at 
this offer, more for the sake of the salvation of 
these barbarians, than for any consideration of 
personal safety, and went to serve them for some 
weeks. He was received with public acclama- 
tion, and found an ample field for the exercise of 
his zeal." 

The missions were now interrupted by eight 
years of war between the Iroquois and the 
French at the end of which the faithful Garacon- 
tie succeeded in his desire for the reestablish- 
ment of the missions. He went himself to Que- 
bec on this errand, and, in October, 1668, re- 
turned with fathers Miletand de Carheil. Father 
Etienne de Carheil arrived at Cayuga on the 6th of 
November, 1668. A chapel was built for him 
and the mission dedicated to St. Joseph. Of this 
mission he writes : " The church begins already 
to grow. It numbers among its converts not only 
women and children, but also warriors, two of 
whom are among the most noted, one because he 
bears the name of the Burgh of Cayuga, which 
he maintains with honor, and the other in conse- 

quence of his riches and valor. * * Beside 
the town of Cayuga, which is the seat of the 
mission, there are two others under his charge, 
one four leagues from there, and the other nearly 
six leagues. The last two are situated upon a 
river (.Seneca,) which, coming from the region of 
the Andastague, descends at four leagues distant 
from Onondaga, on its way to empty into Lake 

Father de Carheil found it very difficult to 
overcome their superstitions. He framed a 
prayer in ridicule, "according to their notions," 
addressed to the beaver, which the Cayugas re- 
garded as the " Master of their life." 

" We must pray," said he, " to the Master of 
our life ; and since this beaver is the Master of 
thy life, let us ofler him a prayer: Thou, O, 
beaver, who canst not speak, thou art the Master 
of the life of me who can speak ! Thou, who 
hast no soul, thou art Master of my life, who has 
a soul." 

Visiting a sick person, with the design of bap- 
tizing her, he is invited to a feast, the Indian 
panacea for disease, at which everything must be 
eaten as a means of curing the invalid. He thus 
rebukes the practice ; " I do not see, my broth- 
ers, that I can heal her by making myself sick 
by over eating, and by a remedy which the mas- 
ter of our lives forbids ; since it would make two 
persons sick instead of one."* 

After these rebukes, the father was often re- 
pulsed, driven from the cabins while attempting 
to offer consolation or aid to the sick. They 
believed that by pouring water upon their heads, 
as in baptism, he caused their death, and the 
most determined opposition was made to his 
ministrations. His death was resolved upon, 
and those intent upon it were only restrained by 
the active influence of his friends. He was 
chased from one cabin by a young warrior for 
refusing to admit that in " roasting an ear of 
Indian corn in the ashes, he was roasting the 
master of his life." 

But this danger soon passed, and Father de 
Carheil lived and labored among the Cayugas for 
sixteen years from 166S to 1684. He had had 
much previous experience as a missionary, having 
been sent twelve years before, 1656, as a mission- 
ary to the Hurons, and could speak their language 

days, accompanied by bowlings-; 



and that of the Iroquois with fluency, and com- 
posed valuable works in both languages. 

Father de Carheil writes from Cayuga, under 
date of June, 1670, that this Canton has three 
principal bourgs or villages: Cayuga, Thiohero 
and Ontare, or St. Rene. The Indian reverence 
for, and faith in dreams, gave Father de Carheil 
much anxiety and trouble. It was with them a 
very controlling superstition and the main source 
of their error. They regarded dreams as rev- 
elations of the Divine will, to which they must 
yield implicit obedience. 

Father Chaumanot, who came to Cayuga with 
Father Menard, in 1656, and proceeded thence to 
the Senecas, relates a few illustrative cases: 

" It is not long since, that a man of the bourg 
of Cayuga, dreamed one night that he saw ten 
men plunge into a frozen river through a hole in l 
the ice and all came out of a similar opening a 
little way beyond. The first thing he did on 
awakening, was to make a great feast, to which 
he invited ten of his friends. They all came, it 
was a joyous occasion. They sang, they danced 
and went through all the ceremonies of a regular 
banquet. ' This is all well enough.' At length 
said the host, ' You give me great pleasure, my 
brothers, that you enjoy the feast. But this is 
not all. You must prove to me that you love 
me.' Thereupon he recounted his dream, which 
did not appear to surprise them ; for immediately 
the whole ten offered themselves for its prompt 
execution. One goes to the river and cuts in the 
ice two holes, fifteen paces from each. other, and 
the divers strip themselves. The first leads the 
way, and plunging into one of the holes, fortu- 
nately comes out at the other. The second does 
the same ; and so of all of them, until the tenth, 
who pays his life for the others, as he misses his 
way out and miserably perishes under the ice." 

But a more cruel sacrifice was sometimes made 
in compliance with the demands of a dream. 
This too happened, as Chaumanot relates, to a 
Cayugan. He dreamed that he had made a can- 
nibal feast, and thereupon invites the chiefs of the 
nation to assemble in council, and informs them 
of his dream, and states that if not executed it 
will cost the life of the nation. One offers his 
brother as a sacrifice ; but the dreamer demands 
a woman ; a maiden is offered and prepared for 
the cruel ordeal ; but, while all are expecting the 
sacrifice of the innocent victim, the dreamer ex- 
claims, — " I am content, my dream is satisfied," 
and the offered victim is released. 

Among the converts to the faith in 1670, was 
the famous chief of the Cayugas, Saonchiagwa. 

He, next to Garicontie of the Onondagas,was the 
most influential of the Iroquois chiefs, and a sin- 
cere and devoted friend of the missionaries. He 
was baptized by the Lord Bishop of Canada, 
whither he had gone as the head of a commis- 
sion to negotiate a peace. The ceremonies atf- 
tending his baptism were very elaborate and im- 
posing, and calculated to make a deep impression 
upon the minds of the ignorant savages. They 
were concluded with a magnificent feast at which 
were present large numbers of Iroquois, Algon- 
quins and Hurons, all of whom were liberally 
entertained, and, on their departure, loaded with 
supplies for those left at home. 

In 167 1, Father de Carheil, on account of ill 
health, was obliged to take a rest from his labors, 
which he did for a year. Father Rafeix, of the 
Seneca mission, supplying the place in de Car- 
heil's absence ; the latter returned at the end of 
the year 1672, and remained with the mission 
until 1684. 

Of Father Rafeix's labors, de Carheil writes 
in his relation of i672-'3 : 

" The number baptized this year is fifty-five, of 
whom eleven are adults, the rest are children ; 
of whom thirteen received bapcism in the chapel 
with the ceremonies, the others without cere- 
monies. I had not yet until this year been able 
to baptize any one, except secretly and without 
any one being cognizant of it, except those from 
whom I could not conceal it, when necessity and 
an evident danger of death obliged me to prepare 
them for this sacrament by a previous instruc- 
tion, with which I could not dispense, on ac- 
count of their too advanced age. I was com- 
pelled to act in this manner, to avoid the calum- 
nies which hell raised up against me and against 
baptism, by the universal idea which he had im- 
printed on all minds that this first and most 
necessary of all sacraments had not the advan- 
tageous effects which I had declared to them ; 

; but others, quite contrary, which I concealed, in 
order to bring them to it more easily, and of 

! which the chief two which sprang from it as their 
source, were a speedy death, and an eternal cap- 

I tivity after death, under the dominion of the 
French. As the rage of the demons could in- 
vent nothing more contrary to the salvation of 
the souls of my dear mission than this thought, 
therefore, I could hope to do nothing for the 

j establishment and advancement of the faith, ex- 
cept by banishing it from their minds ; or, at 
least, gradually diminishing it, although with the 
eflbrts I had made in this direction in previous 
years, I could not see any success, and this even, I 
could hope for it still less than ordinarily ; because 

RELATIONS," 1674— 1679. 


sickness and death had been more frequent than | 
before. * * As for the eleven adults 
whom I baptized, they are all dead, inasmuch as 
I no longer baptize any who are not in danger ot 
immediate death, apart from which I find none 
who are susceptible of all the dispositions neces- 
sary to baptism. License in marrying and un- 
marrying at their option, the spirit of murder and I 
human respect prevent their becoming docile to 
instruction. Of the children baptized, eighteen t 
are dead, who, added to the adults, make in all [ 
twenty-nine. * *" 1 

The "Relations" of i674-'5 are mainly con- 
fined to a description of de Carheil's missionary 
instruction and their results, similar in charac- \ 
ter to those already quoted. { 

The "Relations" of 1676-7 are quite brief in 
respect to the Cayuga mission. A noticeable 
change of opinion in reference to the Senecas and j 
Cayugas is expressed. Le Moyne, it will have 
been noticed, gave as a reason for visiting the 
Cayugas, that they were " more tractable and af- ; 
fectionate " yet here we have the opposite opinion 
given, thus : " The upper Iroquois, that is to say 
those that are the most remote from us, as the 
Sonovvtowans, (Senecas,) and the Ouoguens, 
(Cayugas,) are the most haughty and the most 
insolent, running after the missionaries with ax 
in hand, chasing and pelting them with stones, 
throwing down their chapels, and their little 
cabins, and, in a thousand other ways treating 
them with indignity." 

But the apostolic zeal of the fathers supports 
and consoles them; "knowing well that the 
apostles did not plant the faith in the world oth- 
erwise than bypersecution and suffering." They 
say they had baptized within the year three hun- 
dred and fifty Iroquois, and that the spiritual gain 
among the Cayugas was fifty persons. 

The notice of the mission of i677-'8 is also 
very brief and of the same general tone ; "Father 
de Carheil, who had experienced most of the 
effects of Iroquois fury, and who for the last two 
years had been in aproximate danger of death, 
had not failed to administer at Ouoguen, (Cayu- 
ga,) baptism to fifty persons, and to send to 
heaven more than forty children who had died 
with baptismal grace." 

Father Dablon thus sums up the condition of 
the several Iroquois missions, for the six years, 
from 1673 to 1679: 

"By all that we have related, it may be judged 
that the Iroquois mission render great glory 

to God, and contribute largely to the salva- 
tion of souls. This encourages the missionaries, 
amid the evident danger of death in which they 
have lived constantly for three years, that the 
Iroquois speak of making war upon us ; so that 
they have not been willing to leave their mis- 
sions, although they were urged by their friends, 
who warned them of the evil designs formed 
against their persons. They accordingly per- 
severe in laboring for the conversion of these 
peoples; and, we learn that God has rewarded 
their constancy by a little calm, which he has 
given them, and by more than three hundred 
baptisms which they have conferred this last year 
to which I add that the preceding year they had 
baptized three hundred and fifty Iroquois. The 
year before Father Gamier had baptized fifty- 
five in one of the towns of the Sonovvtowans ; 
Father de Carheil as many at Ouoguen ; F"ather 
Milet forty-five at Onelout, (Oneida); Father 
Jean de Lamberville more than thirty at one of 
the towns of Agnie, (Mohawk), and Father 
Bruyas, in another, eighty ; Father Jacques de 
Lamberville. seventy-two at Onnontage, and 
Father Pierron ninety at Sonowtowan. It is 
estimated that they have placed in heaven more 
than two hundred souls of children and sick 
adults, all dead, after baptism." 

Nothing further is now accessible bearing upon 
the Jesuit missions among the Cayugas, resident 
in New York. A colony of this nation had lo- 
cated in Canada, at the western extremity of 
Quinte Bay, in fear of the Andastes, and among 
them missions were established ; but it is not 
within the scope of this work to trace their op- 
erations there, and we close this subject with the 
following succinct, able and eloquent summary 
of the causes of the failure of the Jesuits : 

" The cause of the failure of the Jesuits is 
obvious. The guns and tomahawks of the Iro- 
quois were the ruin of their hopes. Could they 
have curbed or converted these ferocious bands, 
it is little less than certain that their dream would 
have become a reality. Savages tamed, not civ- 
ilized, for that was scarcely possible, would have 
been distributed through the valleys of the great 
lakes and the Mississippi, ruled by priests in the 
interests of Catholicity and of France. Their 
habits of agriculture would have been developed 
and the instincts of mutual slaughter repressed. 
The swift decline of the Indian population would 
have been arrested, and it would have been made 
through the fur trade, a source of prosperity to 
New France. Unmolested by Indian enemies and 
fed by a rich commerce, she would have put forth 
a vigorous growth. True to her far-reaching and 
adventurous genius, she would have occupied the 
West with traders, settlers and garrisons and cut 
up the virgin wilderness into fiefs, while as yet 



the colonies of England were but a weak and 
broken line along the shores of the Atlantic ; 
and when at last the great conflict came, Eng- 
land and liberty would have been confronted, not 
by a depleted antagonist, still feeble from the 
exhaustion of a starved and persecuted infancy, 
but by an athletic champion of the principles of 
Richelieu and Loyola. 

" Liberty may thank the Iroquois, that by their 
insensate fury the plans of their adversary were 
brought to nought and a peril and a woe averted 
from her future. They ruined the trade which 
was the life-blood of New France ; they stopped 
the current of her arteries and made all her early 
years a misery and a terror. Not that they 
changed her destinies. The contest on this con- 
tinent between liberty and absolutism was never 
doubtful ; but the triumph of the one would have 
been dearly bought, and the downfall of the 
other incomplete. Populations formed in the 
habits and ideas of a feudal monarchy and con- 
trolled by a hierarchy profoundly hostile to free- 
dom of thought, would have remained a hindrance 
and a stumbling block in the way of that majes- 
tic experiment of which America is the field. 

"The Jesuits saw their hopes struck down and 
their faith, though not shaken, was sorely tried. 
The providence of God seemed in their eyes 
dark and inexplicable ; but, from the standpoint 
of liberty, that providence is as clear as the sun 
at noon. Meanwhile let those who have pre- 
vailed, yield new honor to the defeated. Their 
virtues shine amidst the rubbish of error, like 
diamonds and gold in the gravel of the torrent."* 


Native Inhabitants, (Concluded.) 

Indian Habits and Usages — Indian Dwell- 
ings — Details of their Construction and 
Uses — Indian Towns — How Built and 
Fortified— Social Usages — Law of Mar- 
riage — License— Experimental Marriages 
— Family Discipline — Employments at 
Home — Gambling Universal — Dances and 
Feasts— Five Stated Annual Festivals 
Described — The War Dance — Medical 
Feasts — Dreams— Wizards and Witches 
— Burials — Iroquois Superiority. 

WE shall close the part of our work de- 
voted to " Our Native Inhabitants," 
with some of the more striking usages which 
prevailed among them when first visited by the 

whites. These usages will throw much light in 
a concrete form, upon their character and capa- 
bility, and show them to have been " as patient 
and politic as they were ferocious." 

Indian Dwellings. ^These, though rude, 
were generally built with considerable labor and 
care. They usually were about thirty feet 
square. The sides were formed of thick sap- 
lings set in two parallel rows, the tops bent in- 
ward toward each other to form the roof, the 
upper ends fastened together, and the sides bound 
together by cross poles or guides. In some 
cases separate poles formed the rafters. An open 
space about one foot wide extended the whole 
leggth of the ridge, securing at once the double 
purpose of window and chimney. Transverse 
poles were bound to the uprights and over the 
roof, the whole covered with bark overlapping 
like shingles and held in place by smaller poles 
bound to the general frame. At each end was 
an enclosed space for the storage of supplies of 
Indian corn, dried flesh, fish, etc., which was 
kept in bark vessels. Along each side ran wide 
scaff"olds, some four feet from the floor, which, 
when covered with skins formed the summer 
sleeping places, while beneath was stored their 
firewood gathered and kept dry for use. In some 
cases these platforms were in sections of twelve 
to fourteen feet, with spaces for storage between 
them. Overhead poles were suspended for va- 
rious uses, to smoke and dry their fish and flesh, 
hang their weapons, skins, clothing, Indian corn, 
etc. In cold weather all the inmates slept on 
the floor, huddled about the fires, which were 
built upon the ground floor, up and down the 
centre of the house. 

The interiors of all these houses were thickly 
covered with smoke and soot, arising from the 
large fires maintained for warmth or for cooking. 
The effect of living in such dense and acrid 
smoke was to produce weakness of the eyes, and 
in the aged often blindness.* 

The foregoing was the general style of the 
Iroquois and Huron houses. But many of them 

* " He who entered on a winter night, beheld a strange specta- 
cle ; the vista of fires lighting the smoky concave ; the bronzed 
groups encircling each, cooking, eating, gambling, or amusing them- 
selves with idle badinage ; shrivelled squaws, hideous with three 
score years of hardship j grisly old warriors scarred with war clubs; 

young aspiran 

whose honors we 

to be ' 

chre and wampum ; restless children pell i 
'ild feature in vivid light." — Parkman, 


Iisels, gay 



were much longer ; some are described that were 
two hundred and forty feet in length, and ten- 
anted by as many as twenty families, each with 
, their wolfish dogs, the latter as regular occupants 
of the cabins as the children. 

Indian Towns. — The Indian towns were but 
an irregular and confused aggregation of Indian 
houses, clustered together with little regard to 
order, and covering from one to ten acres. They 
were often fortified with palisades about thirty 
feet high. Large trees were felled by burning, 
the process being aided by hacking off the coals 
with stone hatchets. By a similar process the 
trees were separated into suitable lengths for 
the palisades, which were set on an embankment 
surrounding the town, formed from the earth 
cast from a deep ditch. The palisades were set 
in several rows, and often interlaced with flex- 
ible branches, to prevent their destruction by 
fire, a common effort of an enemy. Wooden con- 
ductors were so placed as to conduct water to 
any part of them ; interior galleries and parapets 
were formed of timber, for the protection of those 
within the enclosure ; ladders and a supply of 
large stones completed the means of defense. 

In building and fortifying their towns, large 
quantities of timber were consumed, and about 
their villages, therefore, large tracts were cleared 
and opened to their rude cultivation. In that 
work the squaws were employed with their bone 
or wooden hoes, in planting and cultivating corn, 
beans, pumpkins, tobacco, sunflowers, hemp, 
fruit trees, etc. When the soil in one locality 
became exhausted, and the timber so far con- 
sumed as to be at an inconvenient distance from 
the towns, the latter were removed to a new lo- 
cality, these removals occurred at varying in- 
tervals of from ten to thirty years. Hence the 
numerous remains of Indian towns, orchards, etc., 
found scattered throughout the country. 

Social Usages. — The laws of marriage were 
exceedingly lax. There was no form or ceremo- 
rty. The acceptance of a gift from a suitor, by 
the intended wife, and the return on her part of 
an armful of fuel and a dish of boiled jmaize, 
sealed the compact. Marriages were dissoluble 
at the pleasure of the parties and separations oc- 
cured for trifling causes. Among the Hurons 
experimental marriages were common, which 
usually were of short duration, and sometimes a 
score of such experiments were made before a 

final settlement was concluded ; great license was 
tolerated without loss of reputation to either party. 
Notwithstanding the entire freedom of the par- 
ties to separate at will, the great majority of Iro- 
quois marriages were permanent. The wife when 
married entered the lodge of her master and, in 
accordance with the customs of her nation, be- 
came thenceforward a drudge. She tilled the soil, 
prepared the firewood, gathered the harvest, 
dressed the skins, prepared the hemp for, and 
made the nets and rush mats. She cooked the 
food, and when on the march, bore the burdens 
of the party, the men built their houses, made 
their pipes and weapons and were otherwise 
mainly employed in hunting or war. 

Family discipline was little resorted to. Fill- 
ing the mouth with water and spurting it over 
the refractory urchins, or denuding and plunging 
them into cold water, were the principal means 

Taciturn, morose and cruel as the Indians were 
usually in their hunting and warlike expeditions, 
in their own cabins and communities they were 
very social, patient and forbearing ; in their festal 
seasons, when all were at leisure, they engaged in 
a round of continual feasting, gambling, smoking 
and dancing. In gambling they spent much of 
their leisure and staked all they controlled on 
the chances of the game, their food, ornaments, 
canoes, clothing and even their wives. Various 
devices were employed, plum stones or pieces of 
wood, painted black on one side and white on 
the other, these were put into a wooden bowl, 
which, being struck heavily upon the ground, 
caused the balls .to bound upward, and the betting 
was upon the white or black faces that were up- 
permost when they fell. The game had a pecu- 
liar fascination, in which two entire villages some- 
times contended, and cases are related where 
some of the contestants lost their leggings and 
moccasins, and complacently returned home 
barefooted through the snow. Some of the Iro- 
quois believed that they would play this game in 
the spirit land. 

Dances and Feasts. — The Iroquois had five 
stated annual festivals or thanksgivings, each 
conducted in a manner appropriate to the espe- 
cial event commemorated. 

The first, in the Spring, in gratitude for the 
abundance of the sap and quantity of sugar, in 
which the aged chiefs pointed out to their young 



men the paths which they should pursue to se- 
cure the continued favor of their ruling deity, 

The second, after corn-planting, when thanks 
were rendered for a favorable seed time ; instruc- 
tions were given for the care and cultivation of 
the crop, and the great spirit was invoked to give 
to it a healthy growth and an early maturity. 

The third, when the green corn was ready for 
use, in which thanks were rendered for this valu- 
able gift, which was prepared and consumed in 
great quantity and in a variety of ways, boiled, 
roasted, in succotash, etc., closing with songs 
and dances, the head men smoking the pipe of 

The fourth, at the close of the corn harvest, in 
which thanks were returned for its abundance, 
followed by the usual festivities. 

The fifth, the crowning and concluding fes- 
tival of the year, is held immediately after the 
return of the hunters from the chase, with their 
wealth of game and skins. This is celebrated 
with peculiar pomp and ceremony. The whole 
nation is invited to assemble at the council house, 
by runners, who visit every cabin. Immediately 
the fires are extinguished in every wigwam, the 
houses purified and new fires kindled. This oc- 
cupies the first day. The managers then visit 
each house, to gather the gifts of the people, and 
all must give something, or receive a rub, from 
the managers, which leaves a mark difficult to 
erase and which remains a signet of disgrace. 
The gifts consisted of various articles of food, or 
necessary supplies. These gifts are supposed to 
represent the sins of the people, which will be 
expiated by the sacrifices soon to be made. 

Meanwhile many have met at the council house, 
and have been engaged in leaping, running, danc- 
ing, and their various national sports. When all 
the gifts of the people have been gathered, and 
which they call the illsof the nation, preparations 
are made for the great sacrifice, which is the of- 
fering of two white dogs, to which the sins of the 
nation have, by a formal ceremony, been trans- 
ferred. These dogs are suffocated and brought 
with much ceremony into the council chamber and 
laid upon the platform. Meanwhile each gift had 
been presented by the giver to the master of 
ceremonies, who had received it, ejaculated a 
prayer, and then hung it up in the council house. 
The dogs were now to be sacrificed by fire. 

which was ready outside the house. After chants 
and prayers the dogs were, in turn, cast upon the 
fire, with tobacco and sundry herbs, and were 
consumed, the whole ceremony concluding with 

War Dance. — This War Dance was intended 
to represent the return of a war party, in which 
thirty young braves, fully armed, painted and 
adorned, with representations of scalps, rushed 
into the council house and were cordially received 
by the chiefs and aged men, by whom they were 
I questioned, and to whom they recounted their 
exploits in detail, with all the earnestness and 
gesticulations of actual transactions, showing how 
and where they had met the foe, how many they 
had slain, the fortitude of prisoners under tor- 
ture, and their own willingness to again enter the 
war path. Then followed the thrilling war 
dance. Their bodies were almost naked and 
painted with striking and fantastic figures. A 
rude, but conspicuous head dress, ear and nose 
jewels, deer hoofs dangling from their ankles, 
with hatchets, war clubs and bows with full 
quivers, gave the warriors a most grotesque, yet 
warlike appearance, akin to real life. One of the 
party was bound to represent a captive, and told 
that his career as a warrior was now over, that he 
must be tortured by fire, and that his courage 
would be shown by the fortitude with which he 
should endure his sufferings. This was followed 
by a wild war-whoop. The victim manifested 
total indifference to his fate. They danced vio- 
lently about him, made continual feints as if to 
dispatch him with their hatchets or war clubs, 
the victim remaining calm and taunting them 
with their ignorance of the arts of torture, and 
lauding his own exploits. This dance lasted 
more than two hours, during which the warriors 
had exerted themselves to the utmost, were 
drenched with perspiration, their breasts heaving 
with their violent efforts. The cord binding the 
prisoner having been cut he peered slyly about 
him, and seeing an opening in the ring, darted 
for it like an arrow ; but the gleaming of hatch- 
ets, the thud of war clubs, mingled with deafen- 
ing yells, told that the effort was vain, and he 
sank, imitating perfectly the struggles of the 
dying, the slow and solemn death song, chanted 
as they marched around the dead, closed the 

* Condensed from Clark's Onondaga. 



The foregoing is an accurate description of the I 
war dance of the Onondagas, which is the same I 
as that of all the five nations. These dances are ' 
intended to represent actual events relating to ! 
peace or war, generally the latter, and are said to 
be such perfect representations of the scenes 
depicted as to give the beholder a knowledge of 
them, merely by the pantomime, though ignorant 
of the language. If they are going to war, the ; 
dance delineates the preparations for it and all | 
the common incidents attending it, their arming, ; 
departure, arrival in the enemies' country, the 
encampment, the attack, the struggle, the victory 
and the torture of captives ; and so vivid and 
natural are all the personations, that the beholder 
believes them real transactions, shuddering at 
the horrible and life-like representations. 

Prodigality of Feasts. — Some of their 
feasts were extremely profuse, in which the whole 
village, or even several villages were entertained. 
Cases are cited by the early missionaries where 
twenty deer and four bears were served up. The 
invitation was concise, " come and eat," and the 
guests, furnished with dish and spoon, responded. 
Songs preceded the repast, the host announcing 
the contents of each kettle, which were served 
by the squaws. 

Medical Feasts. — These were for the cure 
of the sick, and every guest must eat all that was 
set before him. If he did not, the host was 
offended, the community in great peril, for the 
vengeance of the spirits would be aroused, and 
death to the invalid and disaster to the nation be 
likely to follow. 

Other Medical Practices. — The Indians 
believed diseases resulted from supernatural 
agencies, and the curative means which they 
employed were mainly spiritual and extremely 
nonsensical. They beat, shook, pinched and bit 
their patients, and sought to expel the evil spir- 
its by deafening noises and various incantations. 
Their physical remedies were limited mainly to 
the process of sweating, which was a general and 
very efficacious resort. The reputed skill with 
which the Indians are credited in the use of 
■ herbs for the cure of diseases, is a mere fable. 
Dances, feasts, games, and unearthly din in the 
cabin of the invalid, kept up for hours, sufficient 
to make the well sick, strewing ashes about the 
hut, rolling one of the number in skins, and nu- 
merous other superstitious mummeries. These 
were their chief remedies. 

Dreams. — These were the great oracles of 
the Indians, and were implicitly obeyed. They 
believed them to be direct emanations from the 
Great Spirit, and as such, were immutable laws 
to them. From this source many of their evils 
and miseries arose. In them were revealed their 
destiny, and their duty clearly pointed out, war 
and peace, health and sickness, rain and drouth, 
all were revealed by a class of professional 

Wizards and Witches. ~ These were the 
great bane of the Iroquois. Murderers were in- 
nocents compared to them, for murder could be 
atoned for by presents. Witchcraft was punish- 
able with death in all cases. Any one might 
kill a witch on sight. They believed that witches 
could transform themselves at will into any one 
of the wild animals or birds, or even assume the 
shape of logs, trees, rocks, etc., and, in forms in- 
visible, visit public assemblies or private houses 
and inflict all manner of evils. The delusion 
was at one time so prevalent and the destruction 
of wizards and witches so great as to seriously 
lessen the population. 

Rattlesnakes. — These the Indians never 
destroyed, because they believed them to be the 
offspring of the devil, and their destruction would 
so anger the evil spirit that he would destroy 
their success in hunting. 

Burials. — The Indian corpse was fully clad, 
including a fur cap, deer skin leggings and moc- 
casins, and was thus well prepared for his long 
journey. The graves were about three feet deep, 
lined with polished bark, into which the body 
was laid. An Indian woman brought a kettle of 
provisions, deer skin and sinews of the deer to 
sew patches on his moccasins which would, they 
believed, be worn out in his long journey to the 
spirit land. These the squaws carefully laid in 
the grave ; an Indian followed, laying his weapons 
and often other valuables in the coffin, when it 
was covered with a large piece of bark and the 
grave filled with earth. For twelve successive 
days the grave was visited by friends twice daily, 
before sunrise and after sunset, and great lamen- 
tations made and mournful songs chanted. 

Among the Hurons, once in ten to twelve 
years, the skeletons and bodies of their dead of 
the entire people, were gathered together in one 
immense sepulcher embracing several acres in 
extent, for which cleared areas were chosen. At 



such times might be seen the mournful processions 
from every village of the Hurons, bearing the 
skeletons or bodies of their dead relatives to a 
common burial place. The ceremonies attending 
the event lasted for days, and were very im- 
posing. The subsequent discovery of these 
immense deposits of bones has elicted much 
curious inquiry on the part of those not familiar 
with the old French Relations. Father Brebeuf 
saw and fully explained one of these burials in 

The Iroquois' Superiority. — When com- 
pared with any other of the savage tribes of the 
country, the Iroquois stand at the head. He 
was said to be " the Indian of Indians," by whom 
were systematized and unified the elements 
that among the other nations were crude and 
disjointed. They had larger brains than any 
others of the race, the internal capacity of which 
were larger than that of the Mexicans or Peru- 
vians, an average of five heads giving a capacity 
of eighty-eight cubic inches, only one forty- 
fourth less than the Caucasian men.* 


Land Titles — Military Tract. 

Uncertainty of Military Land Titles — 
Congressional Land Bounties— Bounties 
to Higher Officers — State Bounties — 
Conditions of the Grant — Survey of the 
Military Tract — Its Location and Ex- 
tent — Names of the Original Townships 
— Distribution of the Grants — Conflict 
of Claimants — Litigation — Deeds to be 
Recorded in Albany — Commission of 
Awards — Reports on File in Clerk's 

AS the first settlers of this County and of 
this part of the State suffered greatly 
from the uncertainty of their land titles, being 
frequently ousted from their possessions by pre- 
vious claimants, a brief history of the tenure by 
which the first lands were held, becomes neces- 

Cayuga County formed a part of what was 
called the " Onondaga Military Tract," embracing 
the present counties of Cayuga, Seneca, Onon- 
daga, Cortland and parts of Wayne, Steuben 
and Oswego, which was set apart for the pay- 
ment of land bounties to the soldiers of the Revo- 
lution under the laws of Congress and of this 

The Congress of the United States, on Sept. 
i6th, 1776, enacted : 

"That Congress make provision for granting 
lands in the following proportions to the officers 
and soldiers who shall engage in the military 
service of the United States and continue therein 
to the close of the war, or until discharged by 
Congress, and to the representatives of such 
officers and soldiers as shall be slain by the 

" Such lands to be provided by the United 
States ; and whatever expense shall be neces- 
sary to procure such lands, the said expense 
shall be paid and borne by the United States, 
viz : 

" To a Colonel, 500 acres. 

"To a Lieutenant-Colonel, 450 acres. 

" To a Major, 400 acres. 

" To a Captain, 300 acres. 

" To an Ensign, 200 acres. 

"To each non-commissioned officer and pri- 
vate, 100 acres." 

By an Act of August 12th, 1780, Congress 
made the following provisions for the higher 
officers, viz : 

" To a Major-General, 1,100 acres. 

"To a Brigadier-General, 850 acres." 

The Legislature of this State, on March 27, 
1783, after referring to the above action of Con- 
gress, resolved as follows : 

" And, whereas, the Legislature of this State 
are willing to take upon themselves the said en- 
gagement of Congress, so far as it relates to the 
line of this State, but likewise as a gratuity to 
the said line, and to evince the just sense this 
Legislature entertains of the patriotism and vir- 
tue of the troops of the State serving in the 
army of the United States : 

"Rc'sohed, therefore, that besides the bounty 
of land so provided as aforesaid, the Legislature 
will, by law, provide that the Major-Generals and 
Brigadier-Generals now serving in the line of the 
army of the United States, and being citizens of 
this State ; and the officers, non-commissioned 
officers and privates of the two regiments of 
infantry, commanded by Colonels Van Schaick 
and Van Cortlandt, such officers of the regiment 
of artillery commanded by Colonel Lamb, and 
of the corps of sappers and miners as were, when 



they entered the service, inhabitants of this 
State ; such of the non-commissioned officers 
and privates of the said last mentioned two 
corps, as are credited to this Stale as parts of 
the troops thereof ; all officers designated by any 
acts of Congress subsequent to the i6th of Sept. 
1776 ; all officers recommended by Congress as 
persons whose depreciation of pay ought to be 
made good by this State, and who may hold com- 
missions in the line of the army at the close of 
the war ; and the Rev. John Mason and John 
Gano shall severally have granted to them the 
following quantities of land, to wit : 

" To a Major-General, 5,500 acres. 

" To a Brigadier-General, 4,250 acres. 

" To a Colonel, 2,500 acres. 

" To a Lieutenant-Colonel, 2,250 acres. 

" To a Major, 2,000 acres. 

"To a Captain and Surgeon, 1,500 acres. 

" To a Chaplain, 2,000 acres. 

"To every Subaltern and Surgeon's Mate, 
1,000 acres. 

"To every non-commissioned officer and pri- 
vate, 500 acres." 

On the 20th of March, 1781, the Legislature 
of this State authorized the raising of two regi- 
ments for the defense of the frontiers and of- 
fered a bounty to the officers and men equal to 
five times the grant of the United States. 

The Act of March 28th, 1783, further pro- 
vided : 

"That these lands so to be granted as bounty 
from the United States, and as a gratuity from 
this State, shall be laid out in townships of si.x 
miles square ; that each township shall be divided 
into one hundred and fifty-six lots of one hundred 
and fifty acres each, two lots whereof shall be 
reserved for the use of a minister or ministers of 
the gospel, and two lots for the use of a school 
or schools ; that each of the persons above de- 
scribed shall be entitled to as many such lots as 
his bounty and gratuity lands as aforesaid, will 
admit of ; that one half of the lots each person 
shall be entitled to shall be improved at the rate 
of five acres for every hundred acres within five 
years next after the grant, if such lots are sold 
by the original grantee, or within ten years from 
such grant, if the grantee shall retain possession 
of such lots ; and that the said bounty and gra- 
tuity lands be located in the district of this State 
reserved for the use of the troops by an act en- 
titled ' An Act to prevent grants or locations of 
the lands therein mentioned,' passed the 25th 
day of July, 1782." 

Delay ensued in surveying the land and in 
awarding the grants, and the soldiers became 
clamorous for the promised bounties. After 
various modifications of the law, the act of Feb. 
28th. 1789, finally directed: 

"That the Commissioners of the Land Office 
shall be, and they are hereby authorized, to direct 
the Surveyor-General to lay out as many town- 
ships in tracts of land set apart for such pur- 
poses as will contain lands sufficient to satisfy 
the claims of all such persons, who are or shall 
be entitled to grants of land by certain concur- 
rent resolutions, and by the eleventh clause of 
the act entitled 'An Act for granting certain 
lands promised to be given as bounty lands by 
the laws of the Slate and for other purposes 
therein mentioned,' passed the eleventh day of 
May, 1784, which townships shall respectively 
contain 60,000 acres of land, and be laid out as 
nearly in squares as local circumstances will per- 
mit, and be numbered from one progressively to 
the last inclusive ; and the commissioners of the 
land office shall designate every township by such 
name as they shall deem proper." 

The several townships were to be mapped, 
subdivided into six hundred acre lots, and con- 
secutively numbered from one upward. The 
quantity <:,{ fifty acres in one of the corners of 
each lot was made subject to a charge of forty- 
eight shillings to meet the cost of survey, and 
if not paid within two years, the same was to 
be sold. 

By the Act of February 2Sth, 1789, six lots 
were reserved in each township, one for pro- 
moting the gospel and public schools ; another 
for promoting literature ; and the four others to 
equalize fractional divisions, and to meet the 
cases of such as drew lands covered with water. 
One million eight hundred thousand acres were 
set apart for this purpose on the Indian lands in 
the western part of the Slate, their title to which 
had previously been extinguished. It was sur- 
veyed and mapped as speedily as possible, and 
on the third day of July, 1790, the following, 
twenty-six towns were reported as surveyed, 
mapped and numbered, and they were desig- 
nated by the following names : 
" Township No. one, Lysander. 

" No. two, Hannibal. 

" No. three, Cato. 

No. four, Brutus. 

" No. five, Camillus. 

" No. six, Cicero. 

" No. seven. Manlius. 

" No. eight, Aurelius. 

" No. nine, Marcellus. 

No. ten, Pompey. 

" No. eleven, Romulus. 

" No. twelve, Scipio. 

" No. thirteen, Sempronius. 

" No. fourteen, TuUy. 



"Township No. fifteen, Fabius. 

" No. si.xteen, Ovid. 

" No. seventeen, Milton. 

" No. eighteen, Loci<e. 

" No. nineteen, Homer. 

" No. twenty, Solon. 

" No. twenty-one. Hector. 

" No. twenty-two, Ulysses. 

" No. twenty-three, Dryden. 

" No. twenty-four, Virgil. 

" No. twenty-five, Cincinnatus. 

" No. twenty-six, Junius." 

" Galen" was added in 1792, to comply with 
the law requiring grants to hospitals, and " Ster- 
ling" in 1795, to meet the still unsatisfied claims 
for bounty lands, so that the military townships 
reached the aggregate number of twenty-eight. 
On the first of February, 1791, the commis- 
sioners began to draw the lots for the claimants. 
There were ninety-four in each town. One lot 
was drawn for the support of literature ; one, 
near the center of the town, was set aside for the 
support of the gospel and common schools. The 
balance went to compensate the officers and to 
those who drew lots covered' with water. This 
distribution extended at intervals over two years, 
and great embarrassments arose from conflicting 
claimants. The soldiers, in some cases, had sold 
their claims to different parties, and a large 
amount of litigation resulted, extending over 
many years. In January, 1794, an act was 
passed to prevent in the future the frauds, by 
which so many titles to the military lands had 
been decided to be illegal. It required all the 
existing deeds, conveyances and contracts for 
the military lands, to be deposited with the clerk 
of the county at Albany, and those not so de- 
posited, after a specified date, were declared 
fraudulent. The names of the claimants were 
posted in the clerk's offices in Albany and Her- 
kimer counties. 

So general and widespread was the confusion 
and uncertainty as to the titles to lands, that the 
courts could not dispose of the accumulated 
cases, and a commission was appointed by the 
Legislature consisting of Robert Yates, James 
Kent and Vincent Matthews, to hear and finally 
determine all cases of disputed military land 
titles. After years of tedious and laborious in- 
vestigation, the docket was cleared and the mili- 
tary land titles finally settled. 

The " balloting book " in which are entered 
the names and lots respectively drawn by the 

several claimants in the entire military tract ; 
the " book of awards," in which are entered the 
awards of the commissioners and the " dissents " 
therefrom, are all filed in the county clerk's office 
of this County, and date back to 1798. 


Formation and Topography. 

Early Civil Divisions — Formation of the 
County— Size of the First Towns — First 
Town Mketings and Elections — Rapid 
Set;tlement of the County — First Set- 
tler — Situation — General Topography — 
Lakes, Rivers and Streams — Formation 
OF the Several Towns — Topography of 
THE Southern Towns — Of the Northern 

earliest civil division in this part of the State 
wasTryon county, formed in 1772, and changed to 
Montgomery in 1 784. It included the entire State 
west of a north and south line drawn through 
the center of Schoharie county. Ontario county 
was next formed, January 27, 1789, and included 
all that part of Montgomery county lying west of 
a north and south line drawn through Seneca 
Lake, two miles east of Geneva. Herkimer county 
was formed in 1791, extending from Ontario 
county to Montgomery. Onondaga was formed 
from Herkimer, March 5th, 1794, and included 
the original military tract, the present counties 
of Cayuga, Seneca, and Cortland, and parts of 
Tompkins, Wayne and Oswego. Cayuga was 
formed March 8th, 1799, and then embraced 
Seneca and a part of Tompkins county. 

The early towns were very large. Whitestown, 
formed in 1788, embraced the entire State west 
of Utica, and there were in it when formed, less 
than two hundred inhabitants. The town officers 
were scattered from Geneseo on the west to 
Utica on the east. This large town was after- 
wards divided into Mexico, Peru and Whites- 
town, Mexico embracing the eastern half of the 
military tract. The first town meeting in Mexico, 
was held at the house of Seth Phelps, in the 



town of Ledyard, and the first general election 
in the town of Whitestown, was held at the 
Cayuga Ferry. If the voters residing as far east 
as Utica came to Cayuga to vote, traversing over 
eighty miles of forest roads, they paid a full 
equivalent for the right. 

The first settlement* within the present limits 
of Cayuga County was made in 1789, and the 
subsequent influx of emigrants into the County 
was very rapid. In 1800, twelve years after the first 
settler had fixed his home here, Cayuga County 
had 15,097 inhabitants, the accessions thus 
averaging for eleven years, over 1,200 per year ; 
while Onondaga had then but 7,698. 

The tendency of early emigration was, there- 
fore, to the " lake region," the reputation of 
which for health and fertility, had been widely 
circulated by the officers and soldiers of Sulli- 
van's army,t whose reports were confirmed by 
the subsequent surveyors and land seekers. 

Situation. — Geographically this County lies 
about equi-distant from Albany on the east and 
Buffalo on the west. It is the easternmost of the 
lake counties, having Skaneateles Lake on its 
eastern boundary, Owasco Lake in the interior, 
and Cayuga Lake upon the west, with Lake On- 
tario on its northern boundary; the counties of 
Oswego, Onondaga and "Cortland, bound it on 
the east, Tompkins on the south, and Seneca 
and Wayne on the west. It extends from north 
to south a distance of 55 miles, with an average 
breadth of about 14 miles, embracing an area of 
760 square miles, exclusive of 160 square miles 
of the waters of Lake Ontario, or 486,400 acres. 

General Topography of the County. — 
The inclination and drainage of the County is in 
a general northerly direction ; the table lands 
near the center of the town of Scipio, being the 
source of the principal streams which flow south- 
erly through the towns of Venice and Genoa ; 

*Roswell Franklin, from Wyoming, was the first settler, locating 
at Aurora, in 1789. He had been in the battle of Wyoming, in 
which his wife was killed and one of his children taken captive by 
the Indians. He is said to have been so much depressed by his mis- 
fortunes, as to lead him to self destruction. 

f In the first address upon the subject of agriculture delivered in 
this County before an Agricultural Society, by Humphrey Howland, 
he stated that Sullivan's soldiers, m 1779, while destroying the im- 
mense mass of corn which they found growing and ripened, or 
ripening, in the Cenesee Valley, were so impressed by the size and 
perfection of the ears, that they carried samples of them to their 
homes in their knapsacks, and thus widely advertised the fertility of 
the region. 

but, with this exception, and a part of Sempro- 
nius and Summer Hill, the waters of the 
county are discharged into Lake Ontario. 

Surface. — The surface of the county is, gen- 
erally, susceptible of easy cultivation, being 
either flat, or its ascents gradual. The hills thai 
border the valleys of the Salmon creeks in the 
towns of Venice and Genoa, and those in Niles, 
Moravia, Locke, Summer Hill and Sempronius, 
form the principal exceptions, the comparative 
elevations of which will be given in the " topog- 
raphy of the towns." -LIs' 55(32'^ 

Lakes. — Lake Ontario, lying on the extreme 
northern boundary of the County, is 130 miles 
long and 55 miles wide. It is 232 feet above 
tide-water, and its greatest depth is 600 feet. 
The only harbor on this lake in the county, is 
Little Sodus, elsewhere fully described.* 

The surface of this lake, as also of our other 
great lakes, is subject to variations of level, that 
of Lake Ontario varying about four and three- 
fourths feet between the extremes, and the period 
of variation extends through several years, caused, 
it is believed,by long prevailing winds and unequal 
amounts of rain and evaporation. Sudden and 
unaccountable variations of several feet in the 
level of the surface of this lake, have, at different 
times occurred and given rise to much specula- 
tion as to the cause. 

Cayuga Lake, on the south-western border of 
the County is 387 feet above tide, 40 miles long, 
and at and above Aurora, exceeds three miles 
in width. Owasco is 770 feet above tide, has an 
extreme width of one and one-fourth miles and 
a length of ten and three-fourths miles. This 
lake receives the drainage of the eastern parts 
of the towns of Fleming, Scipio, Venice and 
Genoa, the whole of the surface of Moravia and 
Locke, the north-western part of Summer Hill, 
nearly two-thirds of Sempronius, and fully three- 
fourths of the town of Niles, the entire surface 
drained into the lake, being over 100,000 acres. 
Cross Lake, about five miles in length by 
one mile in breadth, is formed by the discharge 
of Seneca river into a shallow basin, out of 
which it flows, the lake receiving little other 
drainage. A large swamp borders this lake on 
the west, and another on the north. 

Besides these larger lakes, there are Duck Lake 
and Mud Pond in the north-western part of Con- 

* See History of the town of Sterling, 



quest, Otter Lake and Parker's Pond in Cato, and 
Summer Hill Lake, in the town of that name. 

Rivers. — Seneca is the principal river of the 
County. It receives the entire drainage of the 
immense water-sheds that drain into Canan- 
daigua, Seneca, Cayuga and Skaneateles Lakes, 
and hence bears a large and, with the seasons, a 
greatly varying body of water. Besides the out- 
lets of these lakes it receives, as has been shown, 
the principal drainage of Cayuga County in a 
multitude of streams, of which the larger are 
the Owasco Outlet, Cold Spring, Cayuga, Crane's, 
and Bread Creeks. The principal streams in 
the south part of the County are the Cayuga In- 
let, having its source in the hills of Locke and 
Moravia, and the Big and Little Salmon Creeks, 
rising in the hills of Venice and Genoa, and flow- 
ing southerly. 

Formation of the Towns. — A town of Aure- 
lius was formed in the county of Ontario, by the 
Court of General Sessions of that county, Jan- 
uary 27, 1789. This town, it should be remem- 
bered, was outside of the territorial limits of 
what afterwards became Onondaga and Cayuga 
Counties, and should not be confounded with tHe 
Aurelius in Cayuga County, which was one of 
the "Military Townships," formed January 27, 
1789, but was enlarged by an act passed March 
Sth, 1794, " to divide the State into counties and 
towns," and described as containing "all the 
townships of Cato, Brutus and Aiireliiis and all 
of the reservation north of the town of Scipio 
and west to the center of Cayuga Lake. Auburn 
was formed from Aurelius, March 28th, 1823. 
Brutus and Cato, original military townships, but 
merged in Aurelius by the act of March 5, 1794, 
were detached and formed into separate town- 
ships on March 30, 1802 ; Conquest,* from Cato, 
March 16, 1821 ; Fleming, from Aurelius, March 
28, 1823 ; Genoa, from the "Military Tract," as 
"Milton," January 27, 1789, name changed Apil 6, 
1808; Ira, from Cato, March 16, 1821 ; Ledyard, 
from Scipio, January 30, 1823 ; Locke, from Mil- 
ton, now Genoa, February 20, 1802 ; Mentz, from 
Aurelius; as Jefferson, March 30, 1802, name 
changed April 6, 1808; Montezuma, from Mentz, 
April 8, 1859 ; Moravia, from Sempronius, March 
20, 1833 ; Niles, from Sempronius, March 20, 
1833 ; Owasco, from Aurelius, March 30, 1802 ; 

* So named from the conquest 
the division over their opponents. 

of the party fav 

Scipio, from the Military Tract, March 5, 1794; 
Sempronius, from the Military Tract, March 9, 
1799; Sennett,* from Brutus, March 19, 1827; 
Springport,t from Scipio, January 30, 1823 ; 
Sterling, J from Cato, June 19, 1812 ; Summer 
Hill, from Locke, as Plato, April 26, 183 1, name 
changed March 16, 1832 ; Throop, from parts of 
Aurelius, Mentz and Sennett, April 8, 1859; 
Venice, from Scipio, January 30, 1823 ; Victory ,§ 
from Cato, March 16, 1821. 

Topography of the Towns. — In the town of 
Sempronius is the highest land in the county, 
rising to the height of 1,700 feet above tide. 
The hills ascend sharply from the shores of Skan- 
eateles Lake to a height above the valley, of 
from 800 to 1,000 feet. Deep valleys have been 
cut through the drift and shales in this town, by 
Mill, Swamp and Fall Brooks. 

In Summer Hill, the surface lies from 1,000 to 
1,100 feet above tide, and the valley of Fall Brook 
is from 300 to 400 feet below. 

In Niles the highest elevation is 1470 feet above 
tide and 700 feet above Owasco Lake. The 
hills of Moravia rise between 300 and 400 feet 
above the flats and their sides are often steep 
and precipitous. The mean elevation of the 
hills of Locke, is about 1000 feet above tide, while 
they rise from 300 to 400 feet above the valleys, 
through which the Cayuga Inlet flows ; but they 
spread out into fine undulating uplands. In 
Genoa, the highest land is 1000 feet above tide, 
and 670 above Cayuga Lake, from which it grad- 
ually rises. The ridges, running north and south 
through the town, are divided by the two valleys, 
through which flow the Big and Little Salmon 
Creeks; the ridges rising from 50 to 150 feet 
above them. 

In Owasco, the land rises gradually from the 
lake to an extreme height of about 500 feet. 

Scipio has a high rolling or level and generally 
feasible surface for cultivation, lying on the sum- 
mit of its range of towns, the drainage from it 
being both to the north and south. It rises 
gradually about 500 feet above Owasco Lake at its 

* So named in honor of Judge Daniel Sennett, an early and enter- 
prising settler of the town. 

\ So named from two celebrated springs, which unite and form 
the water power of the village of Union Springs. 

\ So named in honor of Lord Sterling, of Revolutionary fame. 

§ So named because of the success, or victory, of the party favor- 
ing the division, over their opponents. 



highest points, except near its shores, along which 
extends a steep bhiff. 

In Ledyard from its eastern boundary, where 
it rises about 500 feet above the lake, the land 
gradually declines to its shores. Numerous small 
streams flow through it into the lake. 

In Venice are deep valleys running north and 
south, near the center of the town, and through 
which the Big and Little Salmon Creeks flow. 
Its highest summits rise from 300 to 400 feet 
above Owasco Lake. Its general surface is a roll- 
ing upland, but on the lake and the west bank of 
Salmon Creek the declivities are abrupt. 

Fleming has a northerly and easterly incli- 
nation sloping towards the lake for three-fourths 
of a mile with a rolling surface, easily cultivated. 
Its ridges run north and south, and rise from 150 
to 250 feet above the lake. 

Springport rises gradually from Cayuga Lake, 
to an elevation between 400 and 500 feet, with a 
generally plane or moderately rolling surface 

Such is the general topography of the twelve 
towns lying south of the city of Auburn. We 
will now present the topography of the northern 
towns of the County, with some contrasts between 
them and the southern towns. 

Lake Ontario, on the northern border, is 232 
feet above tide water, and 155 feet lower than the 
surface of Cayuga Lake. 

The highest ridges in the town of Sterling, rise 
200 feet above the lake, and are therefore 532 
feet above tide, or about 1200 feet below the 
highest elevation in the County in the town of 
Sempronius ; and 350 feet below the tablelands 
of Scipio. Sterling has a slight northerly incli- 
nation, and its streams flow into the Little and 
Big Sodus Bays. Courtright Brook and Little 
Sodus Creek are the principal streams. Little 
Sodus Bay is two miles long and one mile wide, 
and furnishes one of the finest harbors on the 
shore of the lake. The water is of ample depth, 
it is thoroughly land-locked by the high lands on 
three sides, and its entrance has been improved 
by liberal appropriations by the general govern- 
ment. It is elsewhere fully described.* 

East of the bay is a large swamp, embracing 
several hundred acres, and also another in the 
south part of the town. Some parts of the town 
are exceedingly stony and difficult of cultivation. 

The surface of the town of Victory is but mod- 

*See History Town of 


erately uneven, the hills not exceeding fifty feet 
in height. In the south-west part is a large swamp. 
As in Sterling, so in this town, some parts of it 
are very stony. 

In Ira, also, the surface is gently undulating, 
the hills rising from fifty to seventy-five feet 
above the valleys. 

Cato has no elevation exceeding fifty feet above 
the valleys, and not above two hundred feet above 
Lake Ontario. Seneca River bounds the town on 
the south, along which the land is flat and subject 
to overflow. Cross Lake is a body of shallow 
water, five miles long by one broad, into, and 
from which, the Seneca River Hows. Otter Lake 
is about two miles long and Parker's Pond, of 
circular form, is about one mile in diameter, the 
outlets from both, flowing into Seneca River. 
Along the river, in this town, the ground is low 
and swampy and subject to inundation. That 
part of the town of Conquest which borders upon 
Seneca River, is low and swampy and subject to 
overflow, and a swamp about eighty rods wide 
extends from the river through the town. 

Duck Lake, in the north-west part of the town, 
is about one mile in diameter. The general sur- 
face of the town is rolling upland. Howland's 
Island, in the south-west corner of the town, 
formed by a branch of Seneca River which sur- 
rounds two thousand seven hundred acres, was 
owned by Humphrey Howland, and descended 
to his son Penn. It has now passed into other 
hands. Nearly one-third of its exterior surface 
bordering the river is low and swampy and the 
balance rolling and fine upland. 

The north-western and northern parts of Bru- 
tus are level, rising but a few feet above the level 
of Seneca River, by which considerable p.ortions 
are overflowed. It is exceedingly rich and pro- 
ductive. In the southern and south-eastern parts 
rise frequent and very fertile drift-hills, from fifty 
to seventy-five feet above the general surface. 
Cold Spring Brook, in the western part of the 
town, rising in the Tyler Spring in Auburn, and 
Bread, or Putnam Brook, flowing centrally 
through the town, and having its head-waters in 
the town of Owasco, are the principal streams ; 
the latter is a canal feeder, and both empty into 
the Seneca River. 

That part of the town of Mentz, which lies 
upon the Seneca River is low and more or less 
swampy ; in the south rise fertile drift-ridges. 



The Owasco Outlet flows through the center of the 
town, and furnishes a very valuable water power. 

The town of Montezuma is enclosed on its 
western and northern sides by the Seneca River, 
which at the north-western corner of the town, 
turns sharply to the east, sending a northerly 
arm around Rowland's Island. The surface of 
this town is generally low and flat, but where it 
is susceptible of cultivation it is exceedingly fer- 
tile in the grasses and all the grains that are cul- 
tivated. This town is rich in its exhaustless 
deposits of alluvium, drained for thousands of 
years from the surface of Cayuga, Seneca, Yates, 
Ontario, and Wayne counties, and stored here 
for the use of man, and which, it is believed, will be 
utilized to restore the exhausted fertility of the 
bordering upland, and as in Holland and Belgium, 
be converted, with less labor than there, into one 
of the most valuable and productive regions of 
the globe. 

The "Cayuga Marshes," extending along the 
Seneca River in Aurelius, Montezuma and 
Mentz, embrace about forty thousand acres, and 
in the opinion of the State Geologist, are under- 
laid by shell marl.* 

This marl is an excellent fertilizer, being ex- 
ceedingly rich in animal and mineral phosphates ; 
and efforts are now being made to utilize it and 
give it a commercial value. The deposit extends 
in places to a great depth, and covers immense 
areas, being practically inexhaustible. Along the 
canal in the town of Mentz, a little west of Port 
Byron, works have recently been erected for the 
purpose of preparing it for the market. Similar 
works have been in operation for a longer period 
just across the Seneca River, in Seneca county, 
a little above Montezuma, and considerable 
quantities have been shipped to New York both 
in the crude and manufactured state. 

Montezuma also abounds in salt springs, from 
which large quantities of salt have, at different 
periods, been made ; but its manufacture has 
been abandoned owing to the superior strength 
of the Onondaga brines. The town of Aure- 
lius is flat or gently undulating, with many drift- 
hills, gradually inclining to the north and west, 
and is one of the best agricultural towns in the 
County. Owasco Outlet, and Cayuga and Crane 
Brooks, are the principal streams. 


vhere this subjc 

Sennett has a level or gently rolling surface, 
the slopes of the hills being long and gradual, 
rising from 50 to lOO feet above the valleys. 
There is very little swamp or waste land, and it 
is one of the most fertile and best cultivated 
towns in the county. 


Geology, Soil, Climate and Productions. 

Geological Formation of the Several 
Towns— Soil of the Central and North- 
ern Towns — Formation of our Best Wheat 
Lands — Soils of the Southern Towns — 
The Dairy Region — The Grain Growing 
Region — Effect of Lake Ontario on the 
Snow Fall — Comparative Statistics in 
Different Towns — Agricultural Rank 
OF Cayuga County in the State. 

GEOLOGY.* — The lowest rocks of the 
County are the Medina sandstone, out- 
cropping on the shore of Lake Ontario in the 
town of Sterling ; and the highest are the Por- 
tage and Ithaca groups, crowning the tops of the 
hills in the south part of the county. Between 
them successively appear, in an ascending order, 
the Oneida conglomerate, and Clinton groups in 
the south part of Sterling ; in Victory is the 
Lockport group ; in Cato, Brutus, Conquest and 
Mentz, the red shales of the Onondaga salt 
group ; in Auburn, Aurelius and Springport, 
and along the Cayuga Lake and its outlet, are 
gypsum beds of the same group ; in Owasco, 
Auburn, Fleming and Springport, the water-lime 
and Oriskany sandstone ; and above them suc- 
cessively appear the Onondaga and corniferous 
limestone, the Marcellus and Hamilton shales, 
Tully limestone, Genesee slate, and the Portage 
and Ithaca groups. 

In Sterling, the Medina sandstone and the 
Oneida conglomerate are quarried for building 
purposes. In Victory, the blue limestone and red 
shale are covered by deep drift. Ira is under- 
laid by the Medina sandstone, and Conquest and 

* The geological peculiarities of the several towns, will be found 
in connection with their local history. 


Cato are underlaid with disintegrated red shales. 
Montezuma is underlaid with the rocks of the 
Onondaga salt group, in which appear the red, 
green and yellow shales. In this group are found 
all the gypsum masses of Central New York. 

In Mentz, the underlying rocks are red shale, 
gypsum and limestone of the Onondaga salt 
group. In Brutus, plaster beds exist and have 
been worked to some extent. In Sennett, lime- 
stone has been quarried for building purposes, 
and burned into lime. In Auburn, the Onon- 
daga limestone has been extensively quarried for 
the construction of its public and private build- 
ings. It underlies the whole region, and its out- 
crop appears in various places covered with thin 
layers of earth and easily accessible. The same 
is true of Aurelius and Springport. Water-lime 
also abounds in Auburn, and has been consider- 
ably used as cement. In Springport are found 
and worked the most extensive plaster beds in 
the county, and there too are extensively quarried 
the best varieties of limestone both for building 
purposes and for quick-lime. This is the south- 
ern boundary of the limestone region of the 

Soil. — The soil of the different parts of the 
County is exceedingly various. From the allu- 
vial lands, and extensive flats that border the 
Seneca River, to the lofty hill ranges in the south 
and south-eastern parts of the county, there is 
found nearly every variety of productive soil, 
yielding a varied and rich return to the cultiva- 
tors. The central and northern towns abound 
in drift-hills, the soil of which is mainly formed 
from the decomposition of the shales that under- 
lie them, and are composed of very similar mate- 
rials. They are, generally, of gradual and mod- 
erate elevation and all are highly productive. 
The soil of these hills, generally, is a fine quality 
of sandy and gravelly loam,* with a due admix- 
ture of clay. Their texture is such as to permit 
the free admission of air and percolation of 

Our best wheat lands are those over which 
the materials worn off in the geologic ages from 
our limestone formation have been most largely 
deposited Aurelius and Springport furnish, 

* Loams are composed of sand, clay and lime, and ut' animal and 
vegetable matters in a state of intimate mixture, the clay varying 
from twenty to fifty per cent., and the lime rarely exceeding five per 
cent. They are our richest and best soiU. 

perhaps, the most complete illustration of this 

I statement of any of the towns of the County ; 

I although the composition of most of the drift 

I hills in the northern and central towns, is 

such as to produce large crops and a fine quality 

of wheat, the same being true of Ledyard, Venice 

and Genoa. 

In Springport and Ledyard there are but little 
waste lands and their natural drainage is good. 
Ledyard has a general north-westerly aspect, in- 
clining to and bordering upon Cayuga Lake. 
The lake is here about three miles wide, the water 
deep, seldom freezing in winter, thus modifying 
the climate and affecting the productions of the 
lands that border upon it. The soil of Ledyard 
is a sandy and clayey loam and very fertile. The 
soil of Genoa along the lake is clayey, but else- 
where consists of a rich sandy and gravelly loam 
which is very productive. The soil of Venice is 
of a fine quality of clayey and gravelly loam ; in 
that of Summer Hill the clay predominates. In 
Sempronius we find a good quality of clayey, 
sandy and gravelly loam, with a mixture of dis- 
integrated slate and limestone. In Niles, the 
soil is a gravelly and clayey loam, producing fine 
crops of grain and grass. In Locke and Mora- 
via, the soil among the hills consists of a gravelly 
loam, mixed with clay; in the valleys, it is a deep 
rich loam formed of gravel and disintegrated slate 
and limestone. 

The soil of the County, from its great variety, 
is, consequently, adapted to the various products 
which are successfully cultivated in Central New 
York. The four south-eastern towns, Moravia, 
Locke, Summer Hill and Sempronius, and a part 
of Niles, are better adapted to pasturage and 
dairy products than to the production of grain. 
All the towns of the County north of, and in- 
cluding Owasco, Fleming and Aurelius, except- 
ing the Seneca River basin, are largely composed 
of drift hills, having a generally northerly and 
southerly range ; nearly all have a deep soil and 
were originally covered with a heavy growth of 
forest trees. Some of them have now been under 
cultivation for three-fourths of a century, and 
with undiminished productiveness. They give 
rise to springs of pure water and produce rich 
and sweet grasses, and grains of the finest quali- 
ty Those who dwell upon them are above the 
" fogs of the valleys," breathe a pure and whole- 
some atmosphere, and are thus physically invigor- 



ated, while their minds are elevated and enlivened 
by varied and beautiful landscapes. 

This is the great grain producing section of the 
County. The dairy region is mainly in the towns 
of Moravia, Locke, Summer Hill and Sempronius. 
The fruit producing section, in its greatest excel- 
lence, is found on the borders of the lakes, al- 
though fine fruits are grown in nearly all the 
towns. All the grains, grasses and fruits of the 
region, excepting the peach and winter wheat, 
are successfully grown, the latter failing in a few 
localities only. 

Climate. — The great difference in elevation 
of the different parts of the County, and their 
proximity to, or distance from the lakes, make 
quite a variation in climate. The difference is 
especially manifest in the greater depth and 
longer continuance of snow in winter, and the 
later maturity of crops in the more elevated towns. 
In the entire south-eastern section of the County, 
including the towns of Scipio, Niles, and a part 
of Owasco and Moravia, Locke, Summer Hill, and 
Sempronius, the snows of winter fall earlier, are 
deeper and longer continued, than in the central 
towns, while in the towns of Sterling, Ira, and 
Victory, and to a less extent in Conquest and 
Cato, a greater fall of snow also occurs, than 
in the central towns ; but, in this case, from a 
different cause than increased elevation. Lake 
Ontario is always open in winter, and'its waters, 
warmer than the air, are constantly discharging 
vapors that, when driven by the prevailing north- 
westerly winds over the land, are congealed and 
descend upon it in snow. These snow storms 
gather over the lake, on gusty days, like sum- 
mer thunder showers and pour their fleecy con- 
tents over the land in the range of the winds, i 
intermitting with them. j 

The difference in altitude between the Cayuga 
Lake basin and the Sempronius summit, is thir- 
teen hundred and thirteen feet, and of the Lake 
Ontario basin, fourteen hundred and sixty-three 
feet. Experiments have shown that every three 
hundred feet of elevation, produces a variation of 
about one degree in temperature ; the difference 
in temperature, therefore, between these locali- 
ties arising solely from the comparative elevation 
should be over four degrees ; but the deep, broad, 
unfrozen and comparatively warm waters of On- 
tario and Cayuga Lakes exert a modifying in- 
fluence upon the air passing over them, thus 

keeping its temperature at a higher range, which 
is shown in the earlier maturity of grains and 
fruits, and in the less quantity, and earlier disap- 
pearance of snows. In the high tablelands rising 
from 500 to 600 feet above the lake in Scipio, 
Venice, Genoa, etc., the average temperature is 
several degrees lower, and in consequence, more 
injury to vegetation results from frosts while 
there is a greater depth and longer continuance 
of snow and a later maturity of crops. 

Productions. — These differences in Geologi- 
cal formations, elevation, soil and climate, result 
necessarily, in marked differences in the kinds, 
qualities and quantities of the crops grown in the 
several towns. In the following towns, the lead- 
ing interest is dairying, as shown by the census 
of 1875. In the five towns of Niles, Moravia, 
Locke, Summer Hill and Sempronius, there were 
in 1875. 6,987 cows, and but 4,416 sheep, nearly 
twice as many cows as sheep ; while in the five 
larger towns of Ledyard, Scipio, Springport, 
Aurelius and Fleming, there were but 3,5 14 cows, 
and 13,309 sheep, or a proportion of sheep to the 
cows, eight times greater than in the five former 

The five south-eastern towns raised but 54,491 
bushels of winter wheat in 1 874,while the five other 
towns named raised 233,782 bushels, or a quantity 
more than four times greater. Sempronius and 
Summer Hill together raised but 250 acres of win- 
ter wheat in 1874. The five south-eastern towns 
raised a larger proportion of Indian corn, 141,310 
bushels, while Scipio and the four other towns 
raised 257,23 1 bushels. Sempronius, though one 
of the smaller towns, mowed 4,736 acres, and 
plowed but 2061 acres. Springport mowed but 
1,782, and plowed 3,366, mowing less than half 
as much ground as Sempronius. Niles had the 
greatest number of milch cows, I,6S6, Moravia 
next, 1,519, while, of the country towns. Spring- 
port had the smallest number, 483. Of wheat 
Aurelius produced the largest quantity, 71,359 
bushels, over one-tenth of the entire product of 
the County; Cato ranked second, with 53,331 
bushels ; Springport third, with 50,273. Con- 
quest leads in the production of Indian corn, pro- 
ducing 107,412 bushels ; Genoa next, with 82,945 
bushels; Cato third, with 72,981 bushels. Ster- 
ling produced the greatest quantity of oats, 
83,160 bushels; Genoa, 78,377; and Venice, 
74,606. Of potatoes, Sterling produced a much 



larger quantity than any other town, 88,846 
bushels, and Sennett, 62,207 bushels. 

Ira produced the most apples, 80,471 bushels; 
Victory next, 67,940; Sterling next, 64,116; 
while the otherwise agriculturally rich town of 
Springport is credited with but 8,971. Moravia 
is credited with the largest production of hay, 
6,094 tons; Niles, with 6,086; and Sterling, with 
5,806 tons. Scipio leads in the production of 
barley, with 37,569 bushels ; Aurelius, with 33,- 
628 ; and Cato, with 33,197. Ira sent to the cheese 
factories the milk of 535 cows ; Moravia, 458; and 
Sempronius, 291. Conquest made in her fam- 
ilies 17,381 pounds of cheese; Owasco, 9,250; and 
Sennett, 8,299 ; while Moravia made but 525 
pounds. Niles leads in the production of butter, 
234,973 pounds; Moravia next, 195,195 ; Sem- 
pronius, 194,435, and the small town of Summer 
Hill, 186,613, more than the two large towns of 
Brutus and Cato combined. 

In comparison with the other grain growing 
counties of the State, Cayuga holds a very high 
rank as to the quantity produced per acre of 
land, which is the true test of agricultural excel- 
lence. Of the four great staples, winter wheat, 
Indian corn, oats and hay, she stands at or near 
the head of all the grain-growing counties, and 
the few counties that e.xcel her do so but in small 
degree. In v.inter wheat Cayuga is fifth, in In- 
dian corn, fourth, in oats, fourth, and in hay, fifth. 
Of winter wheat the State at large averages 16. 16 
bushels per acre, Cayuga, 18.55. Of Indian corn 
the average of the State is 32.33; Cayuga pro- 
duces 40.77. Of hay the State average is 1.13 
tons per acre, Cayuga, 1.27. Of oats the State 
averages 28.59 bushels, Cayuga, 34. 13. Wheat, 
Indian corn, hay and oats, constitute the source 
of nine-tenths of the wealth annually drawn 
from the soil. The corn, aside from the quantity 
annually marketed, is largely fed to animals, and 
forms the basis of the pork, beef, fowls, etc.; 
while the hay, an index also of pasturage, is the 
great source of the dairy interest of the County. 

The study of the census of 1875, one of the 
most careful ever made in the State, will we be- 
lieve, deeply interest the agriculturists of the 
County, and convince them that their lines have 
indeed fallen in pleasant places ; that they occupy 
a section of the State as fertile and productive as 
any within its borders. That the farmers of the 
County are disposed to keep up the fertility of 

their lands is shown by another short but com- 
prehensive paragraph in the census, viz : that 
Cayuga County used more fertilizers in 1875 
than any other two of the rural counties of the 

In a succeeding chapter we shall give a his- 
tory of the efforts made to improve the agricul- 
ture of the County, and a full detail of its pro- 
ductions from the census of 1875. 


Travel and Transportation. 

Early Modes of Travel— Difficulties En- 
countered — Western Inland Lock Navi- 
gation Co. — Canal Projected— Surveys — 
Early Roads — Stages — Freight Wagons 
Erie Canal — Its Importance — Railroads 
— Compared with Canals. 

THE routes over which the early settlers 
came to Cayuga County, and by which 
their families and their household and other 
goods were transported, were circuitous, rude and 
toilsome in the extreme. 

The first summer route was by water from 
Schenectady to Cayuga and Seneca Lakes. The 
Hudson River furnished a feasible means of reach- 
ing Albany ; but between that point and the 
mouth of the Mohawk so many difficulties were 
to be met, that the river was abandoned and the 
land route taken, a distance of sixteen miles over 
the sand-barrens, very difficult to traverse. At 
Schenectady the Mohawk was taken to near the 
Little Falls, fifty-six miles distant ; and on this 
part of the route the navigation was compara- 
tively easy, the current was gentle and the 
water sufficiently deep for the flat-bottomed 
boats used upon it. 

At Little Falls a portage of three-fourths of a 
mile was encountered, through a rocky gorge, 
over the jagged surface of which a rude and 
crooked way was made, and over it were carried 
by men the canoes and light boats, while the 
heavier boats were drawn by oxen. These larger 
boats were from twenty to thirty feet long, and 
from four to six feet wide, flat-bottomed and of 


light draft. Upon the upper edge and on both 
sides ran a wale or plank, the entire length, 
upon which the boatmen walked as they slowly 
poled the boats up stream. This was done by 
placing one end of a long pole on the bottom of 
the river and the other against the shoulder, and 
thus, by pushing, the boat was propelled. 

After passing Little Falls there was a free 
passage of six miles, to the " German Flats," 
where, by reason of shoals, a short portage was 
made. From thence to Utica, fifteen miles, the 
passage was again free. Between Utica and 
Rome the water was shallow and obstructed by 
trees felled into it by the settlers. At Fort Stan- 
wix, now Rome, immigrants left the Mohawk 
and passed into Wood Creek by a portage of 
about two miles. This was a small, yet naviga- 
ble stream, that flowed into Oneida Lake after a 
course of about thirty miles. From Oneida 
Lake the route lay through the Oswego and 
Seneca Rivers to the outlets of the Cayuga and 
Seneca Lakes. On the latter, at Seneca Falls, 
their last obstruction was met. 

The time required to make this journey from 
Schenectady to Seneca Lake was from fifteen to 
twenty days, and the bateaux then used were 
propelled by three men, and would carry about 
one and a half tons. A single family with 
few effects would, therefore, constitute a full 
load. This was the summer route of travel. In 
winter, the immigrants came on rude sleds drawn 
by oxen, through an unbroken forest, over a rude 
pathway made by widening the Indian trails, and 
often upon routes the only guides to which were 
blazed trees. 

The summer route referred to was under the 
control and management of the Western Inland 
Lock Navigation Company, incorporated in 1791. 
This Company rapidly improved the navigation of 
their line, by constructing locks at Little Falls, 
removing the other obstructions in the Mohawk, 
and connecting that river with Wood Creek by a 
canal, straightenmg the former and shortening 
the distance over it nearly one half Boats were 
now put upon the route propelled by five men, 
that would carry twelve tons, and ten days only 
were then required to go from Schenectady to 
Seneca Lake. 

These improvements, limited as they were, are 
said to have doubled the value of the contiguous 
lands. For many years the route was liberally 

patronized by the flood of immigrants that were 
seeking homes in Western New York. It was 
the great popular line to the West, passing through 
Cayuga County. It bore thousands of the early 
settlers to their new homes, brought to them 
their merchandise, and carried their produce to 
the eastern markets. 

Erie Canal. — As settlements increased, the 
shoulders of men were found inadequate to push 
through the tortuous channels of the natural 
water courses the needed supplies and produc- 
tions of the people, and as early as 1803, Gouv- 
erneur Morris sounded the key note when he 
said "Lake Erie must be tapped and its waters 
carried over the country to the Hudson." The 
project of an artificial canal between the Hudson 
and the lakes, was vigorously canvassed from 
1807 till the conclusion to build the woik was 
reached. The survey was ordered in February, 
I S08. James Geddes, of Syracuse, was entrusted 
with the preliminary surveys, and instructed by 
the Surveyor-General as follows : 

" As the provision made for the expenses of this 
business is not adequate to the effectual exploring 
of the country for this purpose, you will, in the 
first place, examine what may appear to be the 
best route for a canal from Oneida Lake to Lake 
Ontario, in the town of Mexico, and take a level 
aqd survey of it ; also whether a canal cannot be 
made between the Oneida Lake and Oswego, by 
a route in part to the west of the Oswego river, 
so as to avoid those parts along it where it will 
be impracticable to make a good navigation. 
The next object will be the ground between 
Lakes Erie and Ontario, which must be examined 
with a view to determine what will be the most 
eligible track for a canal from below Niagara 
Falls to Lake Erie. If your means will admit of 
it, it would be desirable to have a level taken 
throughout the whole distance between the 

The whole expense of this preliminary survey 
was only ^675. Mr. Geddes submitted his re- 
port on the three different routes in 1S09. He 
most favored the interior route without passing 
through Lake Ontario. 

These surveys established the practicability of 
this interior route for a canal, and the next step 
was to secure the means to build it. An effort 
was made to secure the aid of the General Gov- 
ernment in 1809, and the surveys and plans were 
laid before President Jefferson, who carefully ex 
amined them, but regarded the scheme as in the 
highest degree chimerical and disposed of it in 



the following summary way: "You talk of 
making a canal three hundred and fifty miles 
through the wilderness ; it is little .short of mad- 
ness to think of it at this day." But there was I 
"order" and energy in the "madness" of the j 
canal men at that day ; they persevered and tri- I 
umphed. ! 

In 1 810 a commission was appointed, consisting 
of De Witt Clinton, Stephen Van Rensselaer and j 
seven others, to explore the inland navigation j 
route. They did so, and made a favorable re- 
port the next year. James Geddes and Ben- 
jamin Wright were then employed as engineers, 
and a second and fruitless effort was made- to se- 
cure Congressional aid. In 1812 the commis- 
sioners reported that "the canal should be built 
by the State of New York on her own account." 
The war of 1812-15, suspended operations 
relating to the canal ; but the Legislature of 
1816 authorized the loan of a million dollars, 
and the section from Rome to the Seneca River 
was to be the first completed. This conclusion 
was based upon the possible contingency that 
the full plan might not be executed, and if not, 
the completion of this section would, with the 
Mohawk River, furnish greatly increased means 
of interior communication. 

The report of the engineers, Messrs. Geddes 
and Wright, was made in 1816, embracing a 
careful survey of the line from Rome to Black 
Rock and revised estimates of the cost of the 
entire canal, placing it at $5,000,000. 

On June 27th, 1817, the first contract was 
made, and July 4th of that year the first spade- 
ful of earth was lifted at Rome from the grand 
Erie Canal with appropriate ceremonies. The 
first contractor was John Richardson, of Cayuga 
County. Ninety-four miles of the canal were 
completed in the autumn of 1820, and in Novem- 
ber, 1825, the entire work was finished from the 
Hudson to the Lakes, at a cost, including the 
Champlain Canal, of ^8,273,122.66. 

In July, 1820, boats commenced running be- 
tween Uticaand Montezuma three times a week, 
the trip reqiuring two days, and the fare on the 
packet boats, including board, was $4. Stages 
ran from the principal interior villages for the 
transportation of passengers, and freight wagons 
for goods and merchandise. In 1821 the boats 
ran from Montezuma to Schenectady. 

In the completion of the Erie Canal our citi- 

zens took a lively interest and made arrange- 
ments to celebrate the event. On the 29th day 
of September, 1825, a meeting of the citizens of 
Auburn was held at the Western Exchange, then 
kept by Holt & Curtis; Dr. Erastus Humphreys 
was Chairman, and William H. Seward, Secre- 
tary. The following resolution was passed : 

" Resolved, That we hail with great satisfac- 
tion the approaching completion of the Erie 
Canal, the most splendid work of internal im- 
provement undertaken in any country, and that 
we will heartily cooperate with our fellow-citi- 
zens in other parts in celebrating the same." 

Elijah Miller, Erastus Humphreys and S. W. 
Hughes were appointed a committee to arrange 
for the celebration. That event occurred at Port 
Byron — then Bucksville— on the 27th day of Oc- 
tober, 1825, and was an occasion of great festivi- 
ty. An ox was roasted, cannon fired, speeches 
made and toasts given ; one of the latter, as ex- 
hibiting the enthusiasm excited by the event, we 

By James Lucky, Esq.: 

" The grand Erie Canal ; a monument of 
wonder, which at its commencement was looked 
upon by its friends with fear, and by its foes as 
an impossibility. But fear has been lost in joy, 
and impossibilities have been overcome; the 
work is completed and it is ours to ' rejoice with 
exceeding joy,' " 

" Weed's Basin " and " Bucksville" were sharp 
rivals for the honor of being the port of entry for 
the more pretentious village of Auburn, and of 
the business of the county to and from the 
canal. Stages were run over both routes, and a 
lively freight and passenger traffic was main- 
tained for fourteen years, until the construction 
of the Auburn & Syracuse Railroad. 

Eakly Roads — Stages. — The first roads 
through our County followed quite closely the 
Indian trails. In 1790, General Wadsworth and 
a party of immigrants, widened the trail from 
Whitestown to Canandaigua. In 1797, $45,000 
were raised by lotteries, under the authority of 
the State, to improve its various roads, the great 
Genesee road receiving ;^2,200, of this sum. 
That road through this County was, substantially, 
the old road through Skaneateles and Mottville, 
through Franklin street in Auburn, and 
thence westerly nearly on a line with Genesee 
street, to Cayuga Ferry, which was about one 
mile north of the present Cayuga Village. 

In 1797, the Cayuga Bridge Company was in- 



corporated, comprising Jolin Harris, Thomas 
Morris, Wiiliemus Mynders, Charles Williamson 
and Joseph Annin, the latter the Sheriff of the 
County in iSoo. The bridge was completed in 
that year, at a cost of ^25,000.00. Its length 
was one mile and eight rods. 

The Seneca Turnpike Company. — This 
company was incorporated in 1800, to construct 
a turnpike road six rods wide, from Utica to 
Canandaigua ; twenty-five feet of it, in the cen- 
ter, to be covered with gravel, or broken stone, 
to a depth of fifteen inches. They were permit- 
ted to place gates ten miles from each other, and 
to exact twelve and one-half cents toll for two- 
horse teams, and twenty-five cents for four 
horses. The Cherry Valley Turnpike was also 
laid out in that year, running from Cherry Val- 
ley, in the county of Otsego, to the outlet of 
the Skaneateles Lake, where it connected with 
the great Seneca Turnpike. 

In 1804, an act was passed giving Jason Parker 
and Levi Stevens the exclusive right to run 
stage wagons for seven years, on the new turnpike 
between Utica and Canandaigua. These were 
the first stages which ran through Cayuga Coun- 
ty. The number of passengers to each coach 
was limited by law to seven adults, and the stages 
made two trips per week. In 1805, John Post 
fitted up three stage boats, or bateaux with seats 
and oil cloth coverings, to run between Utica and 
Schenectady. The current would carry the 
boats down the Mohawk ; but they were poled 
up by men, the same as were the other boats of 
the " Navigation Company." 

The population of Cayuga County and of the 
entire Military Tract was, at this time, increas- 
ing with wonderful rapidity, and the supplies of 
merchandise which they required and the ship- 
ment eastward of their surplus productions, so 
over-taxed the public means of transportation, 
that they were supplemented by private freight 
wagons, carrying farm products to Albany and 
returning laden with merchandise. A caravan 
of teams from a neighborhood would go in com- 
pany and assist each other, by doubling teams 
up heavy hills or through the deep sloughs.' 
These long journeys, the round trip often oc- 
cupying two weeks, were thus cheered by mu- 
tual aid and sympathy, and were rather interest- 
ing episodes in the routine of early farm life. At 
the hospitable inns, which arose by the way-side 

every few miles, these hardy and happy teamsters 
would pass a noon, or night, as cheerfully as any 
modern traveler in the pretentious hotels of to- 
day. Besides these farm-teams heavy transpor- 
tation wagons were regularly run over the Seneca 
Turnpike, often drawn by from seven to nine 
horses, and carrying a proportionate load. The 
wagons were massive, with very broad tires, to 
prevent them from penetrating the road-bed. 
The writer well remembers the interest with 
which in early boyhood he viewed the broad and 
distinctly marked paths left in the highways by 
the wheels of these "big wagons," and the great 
difficulty which they encountered in passing 
through the miry road south of the " Bottsford 
Tavern," three miles north of Auburn. 

The Sherwood's and other Stage Lines, — 
In 1809, Isaac Sherwood, of Skaneateles, became 
a partner of Jason Parker of Utica, in the stage 
line through this County, carrying the United 
States Mail. In 18 16, a line of stages left Canan- 
daigua every week-day, and ran to Utica in thirty- 
six hours. The proprietors were Thomas Powell, 
J. Parker, J. Wetmore, Aaron Thorpe and Isaac 
Sherwood & Co. From Utica east, a tri-weekly 
line ran to Albany, under the control of the same 
parties. This "old line mail," held the exclusive 
control of the passenger transportation over the 
great central line of travel, until 1828, and their 
business was large and remunerative. 

In that year the "Pioneer line" of stages was 
put upon the route. It was intended to further the 
reforms demanded by a large public sentiment 
opposed to Sunday traveling. A national society 
"to promote the due observance of the Sabbath," 
had been formed. The members of this society 
were required to sign written or printed pledges 
to patronize only those lines of stages, steam, and 
canal boats, that ran only on secular days. Aux- 
iliary societies were formed throughout the coun- 
try, and liberal subscriptions made to carry out 
the plan of running " six day lines." The old 
stage companies offered to sell their stage prop- 
erty to the new organization ; but their offer was 
rejected and the gauntlet thrown down for a ter- 
rible stage war. 

The old companies were financially strong ; 
understood their business fully ; had, by an ex- 
perience of years of successful business, mastered 
all its details, and were, of course, prepared to 
maintain a sharp contest with their inexperienced 



rivals. They had but one interest over the prin- 
cipal lines of travel in the State, and they united, 
as one man, in the fight. The old contestants at 
this time were : Jason Parker, A. Shepard, S. 
D. Child, and T. S. Faxton, of Ulica ; Isaac 
Sherwood, of Skaneateles ; J. M. Sherwood, of 
Auburn ; C. H. Coe, of Canandaigua ; Adams & 
Blinn, of Rochester ; B. D. Coe, of Biift'alo ; E. 
Phillips, of Syracuse; S. Goodwin, of Madison; 
William Storey, Cherry Valley ; Asa Sprague, 
of Schenectady; and A.Thorpe, of Albany. 

Many stage lines then converged at Auburn, 
from Homer, Ithaca, Oswego, Aurora, &c., and 
hence the struggle for passengers at this point 
was sharp. The " Pioneer line" obtained control 
of the Western Exchange, then the leading hotel 
of the village, where the old line horses had been 
kept, and hoped thus to embarrass and defeat their 
rivals ; but a new place was quickly fitted up 
opposite the Bank of Auburn, entitled the " Bank 
Coffee House," and made the general head-quar- 
ters here of the "old line." 

The citizens of Auburn and of the county gen- 
erally were not idle spectators of the contest. 
They came in large numbers to the aid of the 
old stage interest, and to defend, what they 
believed to be a sacred individual right, attempted 
to be forcibly wrested from them by a class of 
men whom they denominated fanatics. At a 
very large public meeting, at which it is said one 
thousand were in attendance, Rev. John Jeffreys, 
of Mentz, stated the object of the meeting, and 
the following is one of the resolutions adopted. 

"Resolved, as the sense of this meeting, that 
all associations and combinations of men, formed 
to prescribe and dictate to others in what man- 
ner they shall observe and keep the Sabbath, are 
subversive of the free exercise of the rights of 
conscience ; and that this meeting hereby enters 
their solemn protest against the forming, or or- 
ganizing any religious party in politics." 

Archibald Green, William H. Seward, and Dr. 
Campbell, were appointed a committee to publish 
the proceedings of the meeting in pamphlet form. 
The opponents of the "Pioneer line" did not 
object to legitimate competition in running 
stages, or in other business ; but they did object 
to combining the religious opinions of a portion 
of the community, to coerce those who dil^ered 
from them. 

To secure a more rapid transit of passengers, 
and thus increase patronage, J. M. Sherwood & 

Co., caused to be built for them, a sufficient num- 
ber of light, yet strong, coaches, to carry six pas- 
sengers only, drawn by their fleetest horses, and 
driven by their most reliable men, and denomi- 
nated the "Telegraph line." 

The building of the "American Hotel," now 
St. James, was an outgrowth of the stage con- 
test. It was commenced in 1828 and finished 
and occupied in 1830, by J. M. Sherwood & Co., 
and was the head-quarters of their stage business. 
The hotel was kept by Thomas Noyes, and the 
agent of the large stage business, was the ever 
bland and courteous Consider Carter, kindly 
remembered, by all that knew him. The new and 
rapid "Telegraph line"; the building of the 
"American"; the failure to secure the carriage 
of the United States Mail ; but above all the fail- 
ing support of their enterprise by the great body 
of the people, were so many broken links in the 
chain of their hopes, that the "Pioneer" speedily 
waned, withered and died ; leaving the field 
again free to the " old line," which they held until 
January 28th, 1838. On the completion of the 
Auburn and Syracuse Railroad, the eastern 
bound stages were hauled off; and many of the 
horses were employed for about a year and a half 
in drawing the cars upon wooden rails between 
Auburn and Syracuse. 

Railroads. — The first movement towards the 
construction of a railroad from Auburn to the 
canal was made in 1828, in which year the com- 
mittee of the Legislature on Canals and Internal 
Improvements, reported favorably upon the sub- 
ject of lending State aid to the construction of 
the road from Auburn to Weed's Basin. Their 
reasons for favoring the measure were yfrj-/.- it 
would be a feasible and cheap experiment, and 
furnish a model for improvements of a similar 
kind ; second : the needed accommodations of 
the people, and tJiird : the advantage it would be 
to the interests of the State represented in the 
Auburn prison. 

The same committee add : " That in particular 
districts, and for particular objects, improvements 
by railroads can be usefully extended ; but that 
they can bear a fair competition with well located 
and well supplied canals, remains to be proved ; 
and while railroads are of minor consideration, 
yet as tributaries to the canals, they will be of 
vital importance." The committee add, " that un- 
employed convicts could be engaged in the con- 



struction of the road," and they unanimously 
agreed upon a bill for the purpose. Francis 
Granger was the chairman of the committee, and 
the presumed author of the report, but the meas- 
ure failed. 

Auburn and Syracuse Railroad. — Pursuant 
to the action of a public meeting held at the 
Western E.xchange in January, 1832, an applica- 
tion was made to the Legislature, then in session, 
to incorporate a company to construct a railroad 
to the canal. The charter was finally obtained 
May 1st, 1834; (Chapter 22S Session Laws.) 
The corporators were : Daniel Sennett, Ulysses F. 
Doubleday, Bradley Tuttle, David Munro, Grove 
Lawrence and William Porter, Jr. The following 
named gentlemen were appointed commissioners 
to receive subscriptions of stock, viz. : Daniel 
Sennett, Ulysses F. Doubleday, Bradley Tuttle, 
John Seymour, Halsey Phelps, Stephen Van 
Anden, David Munro, John Wilkinson, Grove 
Lawrence, Hezekiah Earll and William Porter, 
Jr. The organization was perfected in January, 
1835, as follows : Elijah Miller, President; A. 

D. Leonard, George B. Throop, N. Garrow, J. 
M. Sherwood, S. Van Anden, Richard Steele, 
John Seymour, Abijah Fitch, E. E. Marvine and 
Allen Warden, of Auburn, and Henry Raynor 
and Vivus W. Smith, of Syracuse, Directors ; 

E. F. Johnson, Engineer, and Levi Williams, 
Assistant Engineer ; Levi Lewis, Superintend- 
ent. About six months were spent in surveying 
and locating the road, and work was begun 
upon it in December, 1835. The first payment 
to contractors was in January, 1836. 

The construction of this road was met with 
unexpected embarrassment. The ■ very severe 
financial panic of 1837, and the general suspen- 
sion of banks and the failure of business men, 
rendered it difficult to negotiate the necessary 
funds ; but the energy and perseverance of the 
directors overcame these obstacles, and on Jan- 
uary 8th, 1S38, the road was open from Auburn 
to Geddesi the cars being drawn by horses until 
June 4th, i839,when the first locomotive was used. 
Amos Sherwood, Alfred Conklin, J. H. Che- 
dell, Thomas Y. How, Jr., John Wilkinson, C. 
C. Dennis, and George H. Wood, have been 
prominently connected with its management. 

This road was first intended to be a part of a 
line of communication extending to the head of 
Owasco Lake, and its depot terminus was to 

have been near the stone mills of Messrs. Burr 
& Thorne, and there connect with the projected 
Owasco Canal. A freight depot was secured on 
the south side of Genesee street, and used for 
some time. This road had the exceptional privi- 
lege, at that day, of carrying freight. Wil- 
liam G. Fargo commenced his eventful life in 
transportation, in the capacity of freight agent in 
this depot. Silas W. Armett and George C. 
Skinner, were, in turn, his successors. 

The freight cars then used had but four wheels, 
and three tons constituted a full load. These 
freight cars were hauled to and from the car 
house, then on Van Anden street, to the freight 
depot, one at a time, by horses owned and driven 
by Jabez Gould. " Uncle Nat Williams," long 
the prince of freight men between Auburn and 
the Erie Canal, was the freight conductor on this 
road. He was succeeded on the 5th day of Sept., 
1841, by J. Lewis Grant, this being his first expe- 
rience in railroad business in which he sub- 
sequently became distinguished as the superin- 
tendent and manager of several important lines. 
The depot was fixed at its present location by 
law, after a long and bitter controversy. 

The early passenger cars rested on four wheels, 
had three compartments, with seats running 
lengthwise upon the sides like those of an omni- 
bus, and each compartment would seat eight per- 
sons. There was no room to move about, or 
stand upright, any more than in the late stage 
coaches. Side doors opened into each compart- 
ment through which " collector," as he was 
called, could enter. He passed from one com- 
partment and car to another, by hanging to a 
hand rail near the top of the car, and walking on 
a foot piece extending the length of the car on 
the outside, and about four or five inches wide. 
Collector Wilkinson lost his life by slipping from 
his frail foot-hold one snowy night and rolling 
beneath the cars. 

The first eight-wheel coach, with center aisles 
and end platforms, was put upon the Auburn 
road in 1839, ^nd it was, for several years, the 
only eight-wheeled car upon the entire line to 
Albany. The locomotives then used were about 
one-fourth the present weight. 

The Auburn and Rochester Railroad was com- 
pleted November 4th, 1841, finishing the chain 
of roads from Albany to Buffalo, then comprising 
seven separate companies, as follows : Albany 



and Schenectady, Utica and Schenectady, Syra- 
cuse and Utica, Auburn and Syracuse, Auburn 
and Rochester, Rochester and Attica, and Attica 
and Bufl'alo. Each of these roads was operated 
separately and, at the terminus of each, the pas- 
sengers and baggage changed cars, the check for 
the baggage being a chalk mark upon it, indi- 
cating its destination. Seven different tickets 
must be procured by each through passenger, 
and there were the same number of conductors 
to " punch," not the tickets, but the sleepy and 
irritated travelers, who could take but little rest 
between the terminal stations. This annoying 
practice was soon superseded by through tickets 
and through cars. The Auburn and Syracuse and 
Auburn and Rochester Railroads, were consoli- 
dated in July, 1850, and a general consolidation 
of all the roads was effected under the general title 
of the " New York Central," on May 17th, 1853. 

The Direct Line of the New York Cen- 
tral Railro.-\d. — The line from Syracuse to 
Rochester, composed of the Auburn & Syracuse 
and the Auburn & Rochester Railroads, was one 
hundred and four miles over a crooked route with 
heavy grades. In 1849, the attention of Mr. 
John Wilkinson, of Syracuse, and others was 
called to the necessity of constructing a more 
direct and level railroad between Syracuse and 
Rochester, and with that object in view they 
organized the Rochester and Syracuse Direct 
Railroad Company, August ist, 1850, with a 
capital of $4,200,000. The surveys were made 
by O. C. Childs, and showed that a level railroad 
could be constructed twenty-two miles shorter 
than the old line. This road was built in the 
ensuing years under the direction of James Hall, 
engineer, and opened in 1853. In 1855 it 
was consolidated with the. New York Central 
Railroad Company which was formed under 
the Act of April 2d, 1853, authorizing the con- 
solidation of the several roads in operation and 
in contemplation between Albany, Troy, Buffalo 
and Niagara Falls. The stock of the company 
was received at $130, and each stockholder re- 
ceived a like amount of stock of the new com- 
pany at par, and for the difference, certificates or 
premium bonds bearing six per cent, interest, and 
payable May ist, 1883. 

Southern Central Railroad. — This road 
extends from Fair Haven, on Lake Ontario, to 
the village of Sayre, Pa. It is one hundred and 

twenty miles in length, opening a very direct and 
easy communication between the great centers of 
trade. New York and Philadelphia, and the fertile 
and productive region bordering upon, and 
tributary to the road, including the western 
part of the Dominion of Canada. It has not 
only opened to much of this region a means 
hitherto wanting, of railroad communication with 
the commercial centers ; but has also been the 
means of cheapening transportation over all the 
competing lines ; and, when we take into ac- 
count the large annual shipments both ways 
over these several routes, and the gain to the 
shippers in the reduction of freights, the neces- 
sity and value of the road can be clearly seen. 

It is largely a coal road, penetrating the 
Pennsylvania coal region and connecting it by a 
short and direct route with central and western 
New York and Canada ; its coal carriage is im- 
mense. The fisheries of the lake, the lumber 
of Canada, and the merchandise and grain of the 
tributary region furnish a large and increasing 
volume of business, for the proper transaction 
of which the officers of the road have assiduously 
prepared, by a careful ballasting and improve- 
ment of the road-bed, supplying rolling stock, 
reconstructing bridges, erecting warehouses 
and elevators, and by improved facilities for 
handling coal and grain. 

Like most of our early efforts in the construc- 
tion of railroads, those directed to the work of 
building a road over this line were a failure. 
As early as 1S52 an effort was made by the 
organization of a company entitled the " Lake 
Ontario, Auburn and New York Railroad 
Company," with a capital of $1,500,000, of which 
the directors were : President, Thomas Y. How, 
Jr. ; Secretary, B. F. Hall ; Treasurer, Joshua 
Burt ; Directors, Roland F. Russell, VVorthing- 
ton Smith, Hiram S. Farrar, Moses T. Fell, O. C. 
Crocker, Lyman Murdock, Isaac Bell, David 
Cook, Robert Hume ; Engineer, Levi Williams. 
The route was surveyed and established upon 
what is familiarly known as the Murdock Line, 
its southern terminus being Pugley's Station and 
Fair Haven its northern. The right of way was 
procured over most of the line, contracts made, 
and about $375,000 expended in grading. So 
many of the original subscribers defaulted that 
funds for its continuance could not be procured 
and the enterprise collapsed. 



The effort was renewed in 1858 and a company 
organized to construct the road and work began 
on the line from Weedsport to the lake, on 
which about ^450,000 were expended. Opera- 
tions were suspended by the rebellion, and not 
efficiently renewed until 1865, when a reorgani- 
zation of the company was effected, and the loca- 
tion of the southern line of the road changed by 
adopting the route through Moravia, Groton and 
Dryden. The several towns on the line issued 
the necessary amount of bonds to secure the 
completion of the road, which was rapidly 
effected. The officers were then as follows : 
Cyrus C. Dennis, President ; J. J. Taylor, Vice- 
President ; William H. Seward, Treasurer ; 
George I. Post, Secretary ; Thomas C. Piatt of 
Owego, William Lincoln of Newark Valley, 
Hiram W. Sears of Dryden, H. K. Clarke of 
Groton, William Titus of Moravia, Charles P. 
Wood, William C. Barber and George J. Letch- 
worth of Auburn, and John T. Knapp of Cato, 

The road was completed and trains moved 
over it in 1869. The business of this road is 
constantly and largely increasing. For the year 
ending December ist, 1877, about 240,000 tons 
of coal were transported over it, and the passen- 
ger and general freight traffic was also large. 
Its facilities have been greatly increased and its 
advantages as they become more widely known 
are better appreciated, and its patronage thereby 

It is the policy of the managers to keep the 
road in perfect order. In extensions and repairs 
they have used during the past year over ^1,000,- 
000 feet of lumber, 50,000 ties and four miles of 
steel rails. The company has now sixteen loco- 
motives, nine passenger coaches, five baggage 
cars, eight cabooses, forty-nine box cars, eighty- 
two flat cars, twenty gondolas, and two hundred 
and forty-eight coal cars. The rolling stock is 
mostly new and in good condition. The road 
has always been operated with exceptional care 
and accidents upon it have been of rare occur- 

The advantages of this road to the people of 
the County, by whose funds mainly it was con- 
structed, have already yielded a full return for 
the investments made in it, and its permanence 
is fully assured. 

The following are its present officers : Elmore 

P. Ross, President; T. C .Piatt, Vice-President ; 
J. N. Knapp, Secretary ; C. L. Rich, Treasurer ; 
Henry D. Titus, Assistant Treasurer ; J. G. 
Knapp, General Superintendent ; and Charles 
A. Warden, General Freight and Passenger 

Cayuga Southern Railroad. — This road 
extends from Cayuga to Ithaca, a distance of 
thirty-eight miles. This company was first or- 
ganized in 1865, as the Cayuga Lake Railroad 
Company, with the following directors : Henry 
Wells, E. B. Morgan, T. Delafield, J.J. Thomas, 
D. Anthony, A. Beardsley, C. H. Adams, L. A. 
Pelton, Samuel Adams, J. H. Burr, H. J. Grant, 
Joseph Esty, B. B. Howland, Henry Wells, 
President ; C. H. Adams, Secretary ; and T. 
Delafield, Treasurer. 

The line was surveyed by George Geddes, of 
Syracuse, who recommended the shore-line, on 
account of its favorable grades, and as dispens- 
ing with one line of fencing. Work was begun 
upon the road in 1 871, and completed and trains 
run over it in 1873. But the panic of the latter 
year embarrassed the finances of the company, 
and the property was sold by a foreclosure of the 
second mortgage bonds. The company was 
then reorganized as the Cayuga Lake Railroad 
Company, with a capital stock of $400,000, and 
a bonded debt of ;?8oo,ooo. The President of 
this company was T. Delafield ; Vice-President, 
F. Collins ; Secretary and Treasurer, James 
Stillman. Directors : James Stillman, D. B. 
Coe, F. Collins, G. C. Morris, James R. Cox, A. 
H. Goss, E. H. Patterson, Horace T. Cook, J. 
J. Thomas, T. Delafield, J. Lewis Grant, H. 

Under this management the road was run un- 
til 1877, when, as the earnings of the road were 
only sufficient to meet its running expenses, 
there was no alternative except the sale of the 
road by a foreclosure of the first mortgage bonds, 
and it was bought in by the bondholders, who 
sold the property to Judge Packer for $425,000 
of the stock of the Geneva, Ithaca & Sayre Rail- 

An organization was then made under the 
title of the Cayuga Southern Railroad Com- 
pany, and is run by R. A. Packer in the interest 
of the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company. The 
length of the road is thirty-eight miles, and its 
original cost, including equipments, was $1,450,- 



ooo. Of this sum the bonds of the town of 
Springport were issued for $100,000, and the 
town of Lansing for $75,000, in exchange for the 
stock of the company. The latter was blotted 
out by the sale of the road. The failure of this 
enterprise was due to a non-fulfillment of the 
original plan of a connection with the Ithaca & 
Athens Railroad. 

The Erie Canal has now been in use a trifle 
over a half century, and it has been a work of 
national importance. It opened a cheap and 
capacious means of communication between the 
populous East and the nearly unoccupied West, 
by which the manufactures of the former and 
the productions of the latter could be readily 
exchanged. The settlement of the West was 
by that means, rendered not only possible but 
profitable. To its broad and fertile prairies, the 
labor and the capital of the East and of Europe 
was speedily turned, and its settlement and gen- 
eral improvement was rapid beyond all former 
example. Beyond reasonable question, the set- 
tlement and development of the country was 
advanced a full quarter of a century beyond what 
it could have been without the Erie Canal. With- 
out it, the same settlements and improvements 
would doubtless have been made ; but at a much 
later period. Railroads, after experience had 
perfected them, would have produced similar 
results, but their construction would have been 
delayed. The passengers and the freight to be 
transported between the East and the West, 
were the outgrowth of the Erie Canal improve- 
ment, that had populated the latter. 

In 1827, the Hon. Francis Granger, a man of 
large experience, and so far as time had devel- 
oped results, of generally sound views, predicted 
that railroads could never successfully compete 
with canals, but would become valuable tribu- 
taries to them. He could not, however, foresee 
the changes which a half-century would produce, 
and in the light of present facts would doubtless 
have revised his conclusions. 

The New York Central Railroad in 1877, car- 
ried 6,803,680 tons, of which 4,300,000 was 
eastern bound freight, a quantity sufificient to 
load one of the largest canal boats of to-day 
every fifteen minutes, day and night during the 
entire season of canal navigation. The New 
York Central is but one of six trunk lines run- 
ning from the West to the seaboard, and their 

united eastern bound freight would require a fully 
loaded boat to depart every two and a half 
minutes. Were all these lines but tributaries of 
canals like the Erie, they would over-tax the 
capacity of a full half dozen of them ; but the 
present facilities for the transportation of passen- 
gers, have not only kept fully even with those for 
the movement of freights, but, in many respects, 
have surpassed them. Wherever the face of the 
country will permit it, air-line railroads have been 
constructed — connecting the main points of the 
country by the shortest practicable routes ; the 
road beds are carefully graded and firmly ballas- 
ted ; steel rails have taken the place of iron, 
securing safety and durability ; strong locomo- 
tives with an extreme power of movement of little 
less than one hundred miles per hour ; coaches 
that combine comfort and even luxury, wherein 
days and nights may be spent, the lodging and 
the larder nearly equaling those of a good hotel, 
in which may be reached in a few days the farthest 
bounds of the continent. In 1817, four days 
were required to reach Auburn, by stage, from 
Schenectady, 157 miles. In 1879, in the same 
time, the passenger can travel over 2,500 miles. 


History of the Press — Newspaper and 
Book Publishing — Men of the Press. 

Growth of the American Press — Improve- 
ments — American and European, Com- 
pared — Perfection of the Modern Press — 
Press History of the County — Number of 
Local Journals — The First Newspaper — 
The Levanna Gazette — The Western 
Luminary — The Aurora Gazette — The 
Cayuga Tocsin — The First Newspaper in 
Auburn — The Various Newspapers Pub- 
lished — Book Publishers — Books Pub- 
lished — Men of the Press. 

THE Press of this country has had a marvelous 
growth. In 1840 there were in the whole 
United States but sixteen hundred and thirty-one 
newspapers, of all kinds, now we have over seven 
thousand. The circulation, of all the newspapers 



in 1840 was one hundred and ninety-five million 
copies a year, but it is now over two thousand mil- 
lions. More than ten times greater than in 1840, 
and an average annual increase, for nearly forty 
years, of about 30 per cent. ; but in the gain in the 
size of the sheets now published, in the amount, 
quality and variety of the matter, in the number 
and character of the illustrations, in the quality of 
the paper and the perfection of the letter-press, the 
progress has been greater still. In the number 
of newspapers published, the United States are 
far in advance of any of the old nations. We 
issue more newspapers than four principal nations 
of Europe, viz : Great Britain, France, Germany 
and Italy. This fact is important as indicating 
the comparative reading habits of our people and 
those of Europe. 

The mechanical facilities for the neat and rapid 
production of press-work, have kept even pace 
with, if they have not led, the other departments 
of mechanical progress. The contrast is sur- 
prising between the rude presses of seventy years 
ago, and the marvelous perfection of the press of 
to-day. The former would print a few hundred 
small sheets daily, by the severe toil of two strong 
men ; the latter 20,000 mammoth sheets in a 
single hour, and fold and direct them ready for 
the mails, all by mechanism-, aided only by the 
slender fingers of delicate girls. 

The Press history of Cayuga County extends 
through a period of eighty-one years. Since the 
issue of the first newspaper, there have been pub- 
lished in it over sixty different local journals, and 
hundreds of thousands of standard and miscel- 
laneous books issued by the two publishing 
houses which flourished here from 1848 to 1856. 
The first settlements made in the County were 
at or in the vicinity of Aurora, Levanna and 
Cayuga. The early courts were located at one 
or the other of these places, and in this part of 
the county — then part of Onondaga— the first 
newspapers were published. 

The first newspaper, was the Levanna Gazette 
and Onondaga Advertiser, issued at Levanna on 
the 20th of July, I793,by John Delano. With the 
exception of the Ontario Gazette, issued the year 
before at Geneva, it was the first paper printed 
in the State west of Whitestown. 

The Western Luminary, was started at Wat- 
kins' Settlement, now Scipioville, on March 24th, 

The Aurora Gazette, edited and owned by the 
brothers Henry and James Pace, was issued at 
Aurora on April 30th, 1806, and continued less 
than two years. 

The Cayuga Tocsin was started at Union 
Springs in 1812 by R. T. Chamberlain. 

These four were the only newspapers issued 
in the county, outside of Auburn, until after the 
completion of the Erie Canal, in 1825. 

The First Newspaper in Auburn. — The 
Paces, not having succeeded at Aurora, and the 
county seat having been removed to Auburn, 
came hither and started 

The Western Federalist, on June 7th, 1808. 
It was printed on a blue tinted sheet, not much 
larger than cap paper, and very coarsely executed. 
The type had seen service in England, whence 
it had come with the owners, and was very 
badly worn. On the questions which led to the 
war of 18 12, these Englishmen sided with the 
mother country, ofiending many of their readers ; 
but as theirs was the only local paper, in which 
I all legal advertisements must be inserted, they 
continued the publication until compelled to 
yield by the decline of federalism and the rivalry 
of the Cayuga Patriot and the Auburn Gazette. 

The Cayuga Patriot was first published at 
Auburn by J. G. Hathaway, in 18 14. He was 
succeeded by Samuel R. Brown. The Patriot 
was politically opposed to the Federalist, defend- 
ing the supporters of the war, and sustaining 
Daniel D. Tompkins, in opposition to DeWitt 
Clinton. It was the organ of the party of which 
Enos T. Throop was a leading representative. 
It was a small quarto, coarsely printed ; but 
conducted with fair ability and well sustained. 
Its office was over a wagon-maker's shop on the 
west side of the river, near what is now Me- 
chanic Street, and here that veteran journalist, 
Thurlow Weed, was a type-setter in 18 14. James 
Beardsley published the Patriot in 18 17 and 
David Rumsey — father of the present Justice of 
the Supreme Court of that name — in 1819. At 
the later date, U. F. Doubleday bought the 
establishment. Isaac S. Allen became a partner 
eight years later, and on April ist, 1827, bought 
out Mr. Doubleday, who had been elected a 
member of Congress. Willett Lounsbury be- 
came a partner December 30th, 1833, and so 
continued until his death, May i8th, 1843. Mr. 
Allen then became the sole owner. On June 



1 2th, 1845, ^^- Doubleday bought the paper, 
and on November 17th, transferred it to Henry 
A. Havves and Henry M. Stone who published 
it under the firm name of Hawes & Stone, until 
June, 1847, when it was consolidated with the 
Tocsin, under the title of the Cayuga Neiv Era. 
The Patriot was published here over thirty 

The Auburn Gaccttc was first issued in June, 
1816, by Skinner & Crosby,— Thomas M. 
Skinner and William Crosby. It was published 
as a neutral paper, pending the reorganization of 
parties, after the decline of federalism. After two 
years it was changed to the Cayuga Republican, 
Mr. Skinner being really the sole owner and 
publisher ; yet, for political reasons, appearing 
only as printer of the paper. It soon became a 
leading and thorough party organ, advocating 
the principles of the " Clintonians." Mr. Skinner 
conducted the Republican for fifteen years, when 
in May, 1863, it was united with the Free Press. 
The peculiarity of the Republican was that its 
editors were seldom announced, and local depart- 
ments not regularly maintained. The latter 
feature was a general characteristic of the 
country press of that day. There were also few 
original articles except when important elections 
were pending, the journals being made up mostly 
of extracts from eastern city papers. 

The Evangelical Recorder, a weekly religious 
magazine, was started in January, 18 18, by Rev. 
Dirck C. Lansing, and continued for one year. 

The Advocate of the People was issued in 18 18, 
and discontinued at the end of a year. 

The Free Press was the next paper issued in 
Auburn, in 1824, by Richard Oliphant. His 
brother Henry bought the paper five years later, 
and published it till its union with the Republican, 
as stated above, the combined papers taking the 
name of the Aubimi yournal and Advertiser. 

The Free Piess was an influential, a well 
managed and successful journal. It was the 
largest newspaper in the State west of Albany, 
and a strong rival of the Cayuga Patriot, to 
which it was politically opposed. 

The Gospel Messenger was started in Auburn 
in 1826, by Rev. John C. Rudd, D. D., rector of 
St. Peter's Church, and principal of the Auburn 
Academy. It was a weekly paper, devoted to 
the advocacy of the doctrines of the Episcopal 
Church, but was liberal to all sects. It was 

ably edited. Dr. Rudd having been one of the 
clearest and most forcible of writers. From 
Auburn the paper was removed to Geneva, and 
from there to Utica. 

The Gospel Advocate was started in Auburn 
by Doubleday & Allen, January ist. 1S28, Rev. 
L. S. Everett, Universalist, editor. It was 8vo. 
in form, published semi-monthly, and continued 
for three years. Rev. O. A. Brovvnson was one 
of the contributors, then of the Universalist 
denomination ; he subsequently joined the 
Catholic Church, and became a distinguished 
writer and editor of a review. He was a man 
of vigorous talents, but of changeable views, 
having been first a Presbyterian, then a Univer- 
salist, and finally a Catholic. 

The Diamond was commenced in 1S30, and 
continued for a short time only. 

The Cayuga Democrat was started by Fred- 
erick Prince in 1833, but was succeeded in 1835 

The Auburn Miscellany, by the same pub- 
lisher. In 1839, he discontinued the il/Ma7/(r«v, 
and became foreman in the office of 

The Western Banner, started in that year with 
Francis S. Wiggins as editor. Its name was 
changed in 1841, to 

The Auburn Banner, and sold to the Metho- 
dist Book Concern in New York. 

The Primitive Christian, by Rev. Silas E. 
Shepard, Disciple, was started in 1835, and con- 
tinued for six years. It advocated the religious 
views of that sect. For nearly a year a discus- 
sion was maintained through this journal of the 
tenets of the Disciples and Universalists, by 
its editor and the Rev. G. W. Montgomery. 
The discussion was able, courteous and quite in- 
teresting. Mr. Shepard was the author of 

The Prison Chronicles, which were published 
here anonymously at this time, and in which the 
alleged cruelties practiced in the Auburn Prison 
were scathingly rebuked, and their authors most 
severely reprobated ; but who wrote or published 
these articles could not be discovered, although 
the most vigorous and searching efforts were 
made by the victims to discover the author. 
Suits were instituted against the supposed pub- 
lishers without discovering the true originator of 
them, and the matter remained a mystery for over 
forty years. In the biographical notice of Mr. 
Shepard, who died at Troy, Pennsylvania, in Oc- 


AUBURN PAPERS, i837-'48. 

tober, 1877, the fact of his authorship of the 
chronicles was confessed. The chronicles were 
ably and vigorously written, in the Biblical style, 
and were very personal and scathing.* 

The Conference Record was commenced in Au- 
burn by Rev. J. S. Chamberlain in 1837. 

The Cayuga Tocsin, second, was started April 
Sth, 1839. I*^ became the organ of the Free Soil, 
or Barn-burner division of the Democratic party. 

The Patriot, sustained the Conservative or 
Old Hunker division. These distinctions were 
kept up until 1847, when a partial truce was 
made, and the two papers were united under the 
name of the Cayuga TVitc Era, which will be de- 
scribed in its proper place. 

The Tocsin was first published by Miller & 
Hine, into which the Genoa Spy was merged, 
Gelam Hine having published the latter paper at 
Genoa. Miller & Stowe, and Merill & Hollett 
were successively its publishers and Thomas Y. 
How, editor. 

The Northern Advocate, Methodist Episcopal, 
was first started by Rev. John E. Robie, in 
April, i84i,with Revs. F. G. Hibbard and Wil- 
liam Hosmer, editors, and continued as a private 
enterprise until May, 1844, when it was pur- 
chased by the Methodist General Conference, 
and continued here as 

The Northern Christian Advocate for twenty- 
eight years, under the following editors: Rev. 
Nelson Rounds, from 1844 to 1848— four years ; 
Rev. William Hosmer, from 1848 to 1856 — 
eight years; Rev. F. G. Hibbard, from 1856 to 
i860 — four years; Rev. Isaac S. Bingham, from 
i860 to 1864 — four years; and from 1864 to 
1875, by Rev. D. D. Lore, D. D.,— eleven years, 
and until his death. The paper was, however, 
removed to Syracuse two years before his death. 
William J. Moses was the agent and business 
manager of the paper here for twenty-eight 

The Star of Temperance was started here by 
L. H. Dewey, in 1845, and removed to Roches- 
ter in 1848. 

T\\& Anburn Jotmial and Advertiser, Weekly, 
was fiirst issued here in May, 1833. In March, 
1846, Mr. Oliphant issued the weekly under the 
title of the Auburn yournal, and the daily under 
that of the Daily Advertiser, the second daily 
paper issued in Auburn. 

The telegraph wires were first brought into 
Auburn in May, 1846, and made a great change 
in the transmission and publishing of news. 
Hitherto several days had been required to bring 
news from the seaboard, which now required only 
as many minutes, and if the news was sent, it 
must be distributed promptly, creating the ne- 
cessity for a daily paper at all important business 
centers, and the Daily Advertiser was quickly 
followed by the Daily Tocsin. The telegraph 
gave a great impulse to interior newspaper pro- 

On September 14th, 1846, Mr. Oliphant sold 
his papers, the Weekly Journal and Adver- 
tiser, to Henry Montgomery, who, in about 
twenty months, assigned to Charles T. Ferris. 
Mr. Ferris afterwards bought the papers and 
published them until August 22nd, 1849, when 
he sold them to George W. Peck, Oscar F. Knapp 
taking a one-half interest therein, Mr. Mont- 
gomery and Mr. Peck, editors, and Mr. Knapp 
business manager, the firm being Knapp & Peck. 
Afterwards Mr. Peck became the editor-in-chief. 
That arrangement continued, the former gentle- 
man being aided, in later years, by his son Hor- 
ace J., and the latter by his two sons, Henry D. 
and George R. The firm so continued until the 
death of George W. Peck, in July, 1878, when 
his sons succeeded to their father's interest in the 
two papers, under the same firm name. 

These papers have been published the longest 
of any in the County under one ownership, and 
have been signally prosperous. They hold a 
prominent place amongst the larger and more 
important journals in the interior cities of the 

The Cayuga New Era, formed in I847 by the 
union of the Patriot and Tocsin, the two Demo- 
cratic rivals, was designed to heal the old di- 
visions in that party on the subject of slavery 
extension ; but time only widened the breach and 
increased the bitterness of the contest, which 
finally culminated in the terrible and disastrous 
events of a four years' war. This journal was 
published for nearly ten years, first by Merrill, 
Stone & Co., and afterwards, successively, by 
Stone, Hawes & Co. Finn Sz: Hollett, and William 
L. Finn, and discontinued in 1857. 

The Auburn Daily Bulletin, the first of that 
name, was issued as a campaign journal, in 1848, 
by Stone, Hawes & Co. 

AUBURN PAPERS i849-'74. 


Auburn's Favorite was first issued by N. P. 
Caulkins, in 1849, and the Masonic Union by 
Finly M. King, in 1S50. A few monthly numbers 
only of the latter were issued. The Spiritual 
and Moral Instructor in 185 1, the Farmer and 
Mechanic in 1856, changed in 1857 to the Teach- 
er s Education yournal, both by P. B. Becker, and 
the Spiritual Clarion, in 1856, were unsuccessful 
experiments and of little public importance. 

The Cayuga Chief vias commenced January 4th, 
1849, by Thurlow W. Brown. It was an origi- 
nal, vigorous and outspoken temperance journal, 
continued here for eight years, when it was re- 
moved to Wisconsin, and there continued under 
the same ownership. Emma, sister of Thurlow 
W., was early associated with her brother in the 
literary and business management of the paper, 
for which she evinced peculiar qualifications. 

The Christian Ambassador wdiS first established 
in New York City as the successor of the Christian 
Messejiger, on the 4th of December, 1850, and 
Rev. J. M. Austin, of Auburn, appointed editor. 
Early in January following, it was removed to 
Auburn and conducted here for about twelveyears 
under the supervision of Mr. Austin. It was 
published in the interest of the New York Con- 
vention of Universalists, by a stock company, 
and was very successful. 

The Auburn American, Daily and Weekly, was 
issued by William J. Moses in February, 1855, 
and continued until June 20th, 1859, when the 
name was changed to 

The Aiiburn Daily andWeekly Union, Moses & 
Vail, publishers. The American was the organ 
of the political party of that name, while the 
latter existed, and vigorously and ably advocated 
its principles. The Union was continued until 
March 6th, 1861, when it was sold to Knapp & 
Peck, and consolidated with the Advertiser and 

The Northern Independent was established in 
August, 1856, by Rev. William Hosmer, aided 
by a publication committee. It had its origin in 
the anti-slavery zeal of its projectors, by whom 
the regular church journals were considered as 
too conservative, and not sufficiently out- 
spoken on the slavery question. When slav- 
ery died the paper was discontinued. 

The Orphans Friend was started in 1857, 
edited by J. W. Wilkie and printed by Knapp & 
Peck, and is still continued. 

The Auburn Democrat, weekly, was started by 
Stone, Hawes & Co., in August, 1857, and con- 
tinued about five years, until Mr. Stone entered 
the army. William S. Hawley succeeded and 

The Spirit of the Times for about one year 
and a half, when it was discontinued. 

The People's Union and Advocate of Political 
Reform, was published during the local canvass 
of 1862, the contributors to which were Michael 
S. Myers, Warren T. Worden, C. L. Adams and 

The McClellan Banner was published during 
the Presidential campaign of 1864, by P. W. 
Rhodes and C. L. Adams. 

The Semi- Weekly Herald, Democratic, was be- 
gun in 1865 by N. T. Hackstafif and G. E. Bost- 
wick, and continued for about six months. 

The Cayuga County Democrat, issued in Sep- 
tember, 1866, by Charles F. Durston & Co., was 
transferred the next year to J. N. Bailey, who 
published it for four years, when the paper was 
sold to William J. Moses. 

The Atiburn Morning N'ews, daily and weekly. 
Republican, was issued in July, 1868, by Dennis 
Brothers & Thorne. William H. Barnes, editor- 
in-chief; Theodore H. Schenck, literary editor; 
and Charles A. Warden, city editor. It was dis- 
continued in January, 1871. 

Th& Auburn Daily Bulletin was started Feb- 
ruary i6th, 1870. K. Vail & Co., editors, pub- 
lishers and proprietors. It is independent in all 
things, and liberally supported. Its local depart- 
ment is conducted by Charles A. Caulkins, 
whose contributions are often quaint and humor- 

The Auburn Daily Neivs was started by the 
Auburn Printing Company, William J. Moses, 
President, and H. Laurens Storke, Secretary and 
Treasurer, on July i6th, 1872, and 

The Weekly News and Democrat, on August 
1 2th, of that year. The Daily News is a morn- 
ing paper, and is a well conducted journal. 
These are the only Democratic papers in the 

The Cayuga County Independent, was first 
issued February 8th, 1874, J. N. Bailey & Co., 
publishers ; A. B. Hamblin, printer. It is 
published weekly, is well conducted, and, as its 
name implies, is independent in its treatment of 
men and things. 



The Aiibnrn Daily Item was started in June, 
1877. by Urban S. Benton & Co., G. H. Wheeler, 
editor, November 8th, 1877, the Item was merged 

The Evening Anburnian, which was then 
enlarged and published by a stock company, of 
which Homer N. Lockwood is President ; U. S. 
Benton, Secretary ; M. C. Cuykendall, Treas- 
urer ; A. W. Lawton, Chairman of the 
Executive Committee. Its title is the " Auburn- 
ian Printing Company," and the enterprise has 
been successful. 

The Later Country Press.— Since 1827 
the following papers have been published outside 
of Auburn, namely: 

The Port Byron Chronicle, in 1844, by Fred- 
erick Prince. 

The Port Byron Ga::ctte, in 1S49, by Charles 
T. White, sold in i860 to B. W. Thompson, 
also sold to William Hosford in 1861, and 
in 1862, to Charles Marsh who changed the name 

The Nortli Cayuga Times. 
The Port Byron Chronicle was started in Oc- 
tober, 1861. In July it was sold to Edward Clarke, 
and in November, 1873, to Ransom & Johnson. 
Charles E. Johnson is now the sole owner. 

The Cayuga County Courier, was first issued at 
Moravia in October, 1863, by A. O. Hicks, who 
was succeeded in 1865, by W. M. Nichols ; and in 
March, 1867, by A. J. Hicks and A. H. Living- 
stone. In December following A. H. Living- 
stone became the sole editor and owner, and so 
continued until December 31st, 1870, having 
changed its name to 

The Moravia Courier. At the latter date M. 
E. Kenyon, became the sole owner and editor, 
and changed its title to 

The Moravia Valley Register, improving both 
its literary and mechanical departments. 

The Weekly Neivs, by Uri Mulford, was started 
at Moravia in January, 1872, and removed to 
Auburn in 1875, and, for a few months, pub- 
lished here in the interest of the Prohibition 

The Moravia Citizen, a religious, temperance 
and political sheet, begun by Rev. Charles Ray 
in June, 1876, is still continued. 

There have been two newspapers printed at 
Meridian, viz : 

The Meridian Sun, in June, 1854, and 

The Meridian Advertiser, one year after, each 
continued about one year. 

The IVeedsport Advertiser, s\.2iX\.&d \n 1827, by 
Frederick Prince, was changed three years 
later to 

The Northern Phoenix, by the same publisher. 

The Weedspori Sentinel was started in Feb- 
ruary, 1867, by John Gibbs & Son ; sold to S. 
D. Lee & Bro., four years later, and on October 
1 2th, 1872, it was bought by George R. Nash. 
J. B. Rogers then purchased a half interest 
therein, and it has since been published by them, 
under the firm name of George R. Nash & Co. 

The Cayuga Chief, second, started on June 
1 6th, 1877, by Dr. I. D. Brown & Co., editors 
and publishers. It is independent and 

" Pledged to no party's arbitrary sway ; 
We follow Truth where 'er she leads the way." 

The Cayuga Tocsin., first, was started at 
Cayuga in 1 812, and has already been noticed. 

The Cayuga Telegraphy was started by William 
Clark, in 1850. 

The Union Springs Advertiser, begun in 
April, 1865, by James B. Hoff, editor and pub- 
lisher, is still continued. 

The Central Neiv Yorker, started in April, 
1865, by P\ F. De Wolf, was continued about 
one year only. 

The Central New Yorker, second, started at 
Auburn in 1878, and published in the interest 
of the " National" party, is still continued. 

The Book Press.— The firm of Derby, Mil- 
ler & Co., was organized in March, 1848, and 
was the first regular book publishing firm in the 
County. It consisted of James C. Derby, Nor- 
man C. Miller, general partners, and James B. 
Thomson, special partner. The firm was reor- 
ganized in May, i860, Mr. Thompson retiring^ 
and Elliot G. Storke, Edward Munson and Chas. 
F. Coffin, becoming members, Mr. Storke as 
general partner. They soon established their 
wholesale house in Buffalo, retaining their manu- 
factory in Auburn. William Orton was at this 
time a partner, and was the head of their New 
York house when the latter was established, and 
so continued while the firm was in business. 

Alden & Markham and Alden, Beardsley & Co., 
were also extensive book publishers here between 
1852 and 1858, and their business was large and 
flourishing. Derby & Miller were, at one time, 
the largest miscellaneous book publishers of any 



in the State, out of the city of New York, and 
Alden, Beardsley & Co., held the second place 
among such houses. In 1857, both firms went 
into liquidation. 

The contrast between the sale of books in the 
nine years between 1848 and 1857, and similar 
sales now, is very striking. Notice the following 
sales of books made at the former period by 
Derby, Miller & Co. : 

History of the Mexican War, 35,000 copies. 

Life of General Taylor, 40,000 " 

Life of John Ouincy Adams, 40,000 " 

LifeoftheEmpress Josephine, 50,000 " 

Lives of the Three Misses 

Judson, - - 50,000 " 

Fern Leaves, by Fanny Fern, 70,000 " 

Cayuga County has been distinguished above 
any other of the interior Counties of the State, 
not only for the production of the greatest num- 
ber of books, but also for the number of local 
authors, of whom the following are a part only : 
Rev. Josiah Hopkins, D. D., Rev. Laurens P. 
Hickok, D. D., Rev. Henry Mills, D. D., Rev. 
Edwin Hall, D. D., Rev. D. K. Lee, Rev. D. 
Holmes, Rev. William Hosmer, Rev. J. M. 
Austin, Hon. William H. Seward, Hon. Samuel 
Blatchford, Clarence A. Seward, Esq., P. Ham- 
ilton Myers, Esq., David Wright, E^q , Hon. B. 
F. Hall, John S. Jenkins, Esq., Henry Mont- 
gomery, Esq, Thurlow W. Brown, Esq , Mrs. 
Helen F. Parker, and Miss Margaret Conklin. 

The first book written and published in the 
County was in 1815, by Samuel R. Brown, en- 
titled a " History of the Late War" in two i2mo. 
vols., published by J. G. Hathaway, Auburn, and 
printed at Manlius, b^^ Kellogg & Beardslee. 

Elliot G. Storke, in 1858, edited and published 
at Auburn the Family, Farm, Garden atid Do- 
mestic Animals, in one large octavo volume, and 
in 1864 wrote and published a complete history of 
the Great American Rebellion, in two octavo vol- 
umes. In 1869, Henry Hall prepared a " His- 
tory of Auburn'' in one i2mo volume, and Henry 
and James Hall, in 1873, prepared ''Cayuga in 
the Field" 

We will close the Chapter on the History of 
the Press, with brief, characteristic sketches of a 
few of the " men of the press," who, by long and 
conspicuous connection with it, have won a place 
in its annals. 

The Cayuga Patriot was the first paper pub- 
lished in the County that became thoroughly es- 

tablished and continued for a long series of years, 
under the management, for the most part, of the 
same persons. The first publisher of that 
paper of whom recollections are preserved, was 

SAMUF.r. R. Brown, with whom in 18 14, that 
veteran journalist, Thurlow Weed worked, and 
of whom he writes : 

"Nor shall we ever forget the upper story of 
a wagon-maker's s+iop, where the Cayuga Patriot 
was printed ; for there we worked, and laughed, 
and played away the winter of 1814. Samuel R. 
Brown, who published the Patriot, was an hon- 
est, amiable, easy, slipshod sort of a man, whose 
patient, good-natured wife, was 'cut from the same 
piece.' Mr. Brown the year before had been 
established at Albany with a paper called the 
Republican, under the auspices of Governor 
Tompkins, Chief Justice Spencer, and other dis- 
tinguished Republicans, with whom Mr. South- 
wick of the Register, and then State Printer, had 
quarreled. This enterprise, like every thing in 
our old friend Brown's hands, failed, and he next 
found himself at Auburn, then a small village 
without a sidewalk or a pavement, and, save 
Sackett's Harbor, the muddiest place we ever 
saw. Mr. and Mrs. Brown were originals. 
Neither of them, so far as we remember, ever 
lost temper, or even fretted. The work in the 
office was always behind hand, and the house al- 
ways in confusion. The paper was never out in 
season, and neither breakfast nor dinner was ever 
ready. But it was all the same. Subscribers 
waited for the paper until it was printed, and we 
for our meals till they were cooked. The office 
was always full of loungers, communicating, or 
receiving news." 

Ulysses F. Doubleday, long connected with 
the Patriot as editor and proprietor, was distin- 
guished for the strength, originality and accuracy 
of his mind ; for purity of purpose, and integrity 
of character. His readers, therefore, were great- 
ly influenced by his writings, regarding him as 
right in the positions he assumed, because of the 
soundness of his judgment ; and honest in the 
expression of his opinions, because of the ac- 
knowledged purity of his character. He was 
one of the most prominent journalists of the 

WiLLETT LouNSBUKY, alsoof the Patriot, was 
too diffident and retiring to succeed at the bar, 
for which he had been educated ; but he won 
success as a journalist, and, for nearly ten years, 
was the responsible editor of the Patriot, hold- 
ing that position at the time of his death. 

Isaac S. Allen, also of the Patriot, was 
business manager of that paper while connected 



with it, and its success was largely due to his 
careful prudence, of which his whole business life 
has furnished a conspicuous example. He lives 
in his green and happy old age to enjoy the 
fruits of careful industry, temperance and fru- 
gality, and is with a single exception, the only 
living representative of our earlier press. 

Thomas M. Skinnek, the oldest survivor of 
the men of our early press, at the age of nearly 
ninety, resides at his home on North street. 
Though physically feeble he has yet clear mental 
perceptions. His first connection with our press 
was sixty-three years ago. He opened the first 
book-store in Auburn, and was a newspaper pub- 
lisher here for twenty-six years. 

Frederick W. Prince had a press experience 
here and elsewhere, running through thirty-two 
years. He established, on his own account, ten 
different newspapers, in six different localities, 
and his experience was the most varied and 
eventful of any publisher in the County. He was 
a good writer, and an exemplary and highly 
respected citizen, but an unsuccessful journalist. 

Thaddeus B. Barber has been connected 
with the press of Auburn for over thirty years, in 
the various departments of the business. For skill 
and artistic neatness as a printer, he has never 
been excelled by any one of his local compeers. 

Andrew Shuman, the present editor of the 
Chicago Evening yoiirnal, and Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of the State of Illinois, was a printer boy in 
Auburn in 1846, was interested in the publica- 
tion of two papers here before he attained his ma- 
jority, was remarkable for self-reliance and indus- 
try, educated himself thoroughly in a preparatory 
school, by his own exertions, and has won his 
way to success, in his chosen field of journalism, 
and is also equally successful as a politician. 

Kendrick Vail, an associate printer's appren- 
tice with Andrew Shuman, has subsequently and 
creditably filled every position in the business, 
including that of foreman, pressman, editor, and 
publisher, and is, at present the publisher of the 
Anbiirn Daily Bulletin. 

George W. Peck was connected with our 
local press for twenty-eight years, from 1849 
to 1877, as editor and one of the proprietors of a 
very flourishing daily and weekly journal, to 
which he assiduously devoted his time and talents, 
and thereby won a liberal competence. He died 
on the 2nd day of July, 1877. 

Oscar F. Knapp, senior partner of the firm of 
Knapp & Peck, publishers and proprietors of the 
Auburn Daily Advertiser and Weekly yournal, 
was born in Groton, N. Y., February ig, 18 19. 
At seven years of age he was left an orphan, and 
at the age of fifteen, entered the office of the 
Jeffersonia7i and Tompkins County Times, to 
learn the art of printing, continuing there about 
one year. He then spent four years in the office 
of the Cortland Republican, completing his trade, 
and came to Auburn in the Spring of 1 839. Here 
he engaged as foreman in the office of the Auburn 
Journal and Advertiser, then owned and pub- 
lished by Oliphant & Skinner, and continued four 
years. His salary was small, yet by prudence 
and economy he accumulated sufficient to pay for 
and stock a fifty acre farm, bought at the low 
rates then ruling for farm lands. Having married, 
he settled upon, and cultivated it for three years, 
when, feeling satisfied with rural life and farm 
experience, he decided to return to his case and 
press, and the spring of 1846 found him estab- 
lished in the job office of the Journal and Ad- 
vertiser in Auburn, where he remained until 
August, 1849, when, as related, he became joint 
purchaser, with the late Geo. W. Peck, of the 
paper now published by his firm. 

Mr. Knapp has been engaged as practical prin- 
ter and publisher for over forty years, and for the 
past thirty years as publisher of a leading daily 
and weekly journal in Auburn. He has made 
his art the means of the most complete and grati- 
fying success and secured an ample fortune. It 
has been no sudden gain ; but the accretion of 
years of patient and assiduous toil, in which un- 
tiring industry, prudence and economy have been 
important factors. The story of his life but adds 
force to the maxim : "Wealth arises more from 
the savings than from the gains of business." 

John S. Jenkins, was an elegant and forcible 
writer, the author of several valuable works which 
were published here, and as editor of and contrib- 
utor to our local press, held a prominent position. 

Thurlow W. Brown, editor of the Cayuga 
Chief, author of the Temperance Tales and Hearth- 
stone Reveries, and a lecturer of distinction upon 
temperance, was a bold, vigorous and effective 
writer and speaker, entirely devoted to his fa- 
vorite cause. He worked here energetically for 
eight years, when he removed to Wisconsin, and 
there continued the same benevolent work. 



Rev. William Hosmer, editor of the North- 
ern Christian Advocate and of the Nortlicrn In- 
dependent, and also the author of several works 
of merit, was connected with our local press for 
about twenty years. He was distinguished for 
great independence, earnestness and zeal in the 
advocacy of his opinions. As a reformer he 
stood in the front ranks, and boldly confronted 
his opponents. Like Phillips he scorned the 
hissing mob, by whom the earlier reformers were 
assailed. He is now weakened by disease, and 
calmly awaits the final summons. 

Benjamin F. Hall, as editor and author, has 
rendered valuable services to our local press. 
He has prepared many valuable works, chiefly 
relating to legal subjects, and is a ready and fluent 

Of the book publishers of the County, James 
C. Derby and Norman C. Miller were the 
most conspicuous. They were partners in the 
business. The former was really the originator 
of regular book publishing here. By his pecu- 
liar aptitude for trade, he was well fitted to bring 
business to his firm, and in that way contributed 
largely to its success. In the manufacturing 
and accounting department, Mr. Miller had supe- 
rior efficiency, and their united efforts were, for 
many years, crowned with complete success. 


Progress of Education — Schools. 

Physical and Mental Progress Compared — 
Effects of Pioneer Life — Early Disad- 
vantages — School Buildings — Books — 
Teachers and Teaching — School Dis- 
cipline — Its Barbarous Modes — Incen- 
tives to Study — County Supervision^ 
Improved School Books — Teachers' Asso- 
ciations — Institutes — Normal Schools — 
Public Schools of Auburn. 

THE historic records of our County would 
be incomplete if there were not found in 
them some account of the means and agencies 
employed for the intellectual and moral develop- 
ment ol the people. If there has not been as 

manifest and decided progress in the means for 
the mental, as for the physical improvement of 
our people, there have, nevertheless, been very 
decided advances made in the former, as will 
clearly appear in a review of the early history of 
our schools. 

Physical progress, the world over, has always 
outrun the mental. For this the reasons are 
obvious. Physical wants are imperious and their 
supply is necessary to existence. Life depends 
upon attention to them. Moreover, physical 
progress is easily seen and appreciated by the 
simplest observer and its necessity and import- 
ance acknowledged. All can see it, for it is 
manifest to the external senses. The millions 
that crowded to our Centennial Jubilee, saw with 
wonder and admiration, understood and appre- 
ciated the marvellous creations of the mechanical 
and artistic genius of the world. In that display, 
where the genius and skill of cultivated minds 
were manifested in external and sensible objects, 
all were interested, as they could appreciate the 
results of skill and toil applied to material things. 
But mental and moral progress are less apparent 
and the means and agencies by which they are 
affected are not so easily seen. They operate so 
slowly and so obscurely, and their results are so 
widely separated from their causes, as to appear 
only in the lives and characters of the developed 
man and woman. 

It has been well said that " the pulsations of 
a nation's heart are to be counted not by sec- 
onds, but by years ;" and so the formative efl["ects 
of culture are fully manifested only in matured 
lives, and those effects are so far removed from 
the causes which produced them that their con- 
nection is rarely traced except by the educated. 
It really requires culture to understand the needs 
and advantages of culture. 

But our early settlers were surrounded by cir- 
cumstances quite unfavorable to mental progress. 
The country was new, the people poor, and all 
their surroundings demanded close attention in 
order to meet the absolute wants of their physi- 
cal natures. While nearly all of the descendants 
of New England ancestry in this County and in 
the State, and their number was relatively large, 
brought with them a love of learning, as they 
understood it, their conception of the import 
of the word was very different from ours. To be 
wholly unlettered was a disgrace ; but to be able 



to read, write and cipher, was regarded as amply 
sufficient, and all beyond that, except for the 
learned professions, was held to be a mere waste 
of time and money. 

Of culture, of that discipline and training of 
the faculties by which the thorough student of 
to-day is prepared, solely by the unaidpd exercise 
of his own disciplined powers, to go on almost 
indefinitely in the attainment of knowledge, they 
knew little. Such was the popular estimate of 
education among the masses seventy-five years 
ago. It was the " dark age" in our intellectual 
history ; dark by reason of the inevitable exclu- 
sion of intellectual light. The dense trees of 
the unbroken forest excluded the sunlight from 
the soil not more fully, than did the unfavorable 
surroundings of the settler shut out from his 
children the light of intelligence ; and this was 
the common condition of education in the cen- 
tral counties of the State, where the same gen- 
eral causes, the same hinderances and helps 
operated to produce kindred results. 

Why our Early Schools Were Poor. — The 
energies of the first generation were so severely 
taxed to remove the forests and all the other di- 
versified obstacles which beset them as to leave 
little opportunity for mental improvement. Dis- 
cipline of muscle, rather than of mind, was the 
great demand, imperious physical wants engrossed 
and compelled attention for many years. 

The first generation in this County were, nev- 
ertheless, thoroughly educated in many very im- 
portant respects, in lessons not sufficiently taught 
in the vaunted schools of to-day. They were 
taught many of the nobler lessons of true man- 
hood. Their education gave them sound bodies, 
sterling common sense, pure minds and indus- 
trious and economical habits. They were thor- 
oughly schooled in self-denials. A sense of 
mutual dependence cultivated in nearly all a 
mutual sympathy and helpfulness. To aid the 
needy, was a common characteristic, whether in 
sickness or in the common aflairs of life. They 
were, moreover, homogeneous, had similar habits, 
tastes and aspirations, and were, mainly, of simi- 
lar nationalities. 

As communities, they were kind, social and 
orderly ; quite unlike the gold-hunters and other 
speculating adventurers of to-day, or the recent 
immigrants of diverse, and often opposing nation- 
alities and creeds, who have since thronged our 

shores, filled our towns, or spread over our broad 
domains. The early settlers of this County and 
State also differed greatly both from the settlers 
of Plymouth and from those who have recently 
formed, and now form, the great bulk of our 
western settlers. 

The settlers of Plymouth comprised a large 
proportion of thoroughly educated men, capable 
of organizing the State, the church and even the 
university. The leading minds in that commu- 
nity were men of marked individuality, distin- 
guished alike for boldness of thought and inde- 
pendence of action. They had fled from tyranny 
at home to seek freedom of opinion here, at the 
cost of privation and hardship ; and New Eng- 
land owes to those bold, brave spirits, much of the 
prestige which she has always maintained in 
politics, religion and learning. 

But the struggles and privations of a new 
country for a century and a half, while they did 
not lessen the enterprise and vigor of their de- 
scendants who successively tenanted new regions, 
took from them the means of mental culture, 
so that, for several generations, instead of pro- 
gress, there was really a retrogression of learning. 
But the West was mostly peopled by those who 
lived at the East after the " revival of learning," 
and had carried with them, and planted along 
our western parallels, a more enlightened and 
liberal system of instruction, perfected during the 
period from 1830 to i860. 

Early Disadvantages. — The children of the 
first settlers of this County opened their eyes 
upon rude surroundings. Those settlers lived in 
log houses and, generally, were descendants of 
pioneers in other places, who for a generation or 
more had combated similar difficulties. Their 
own education was limited. They themselves 
felt the need of more thorough instruction, and 
were anxious to give it to their children. But 
how could this be done ? Where were the books, 
or the teachers ? Suitable books, for the instruc- 
tion of children and youth had not been intro- 
duced and competent teachers were not in the 
County. But schools they must, and schools 
they did, maintain, for longer or shorter periods 
each year. 

A brief glance at the early school buildings, 
school books, the teachers at their daily work, 
and their method of discipline and instruction, 
will show the early condition of oiir schools. 



Our Early School Buildings, like the homes 
of the children, were generally of logs. The win- 
dows were small and far between, the otherwise 
deficient light being supplied by the capacious 
chimneys, and by crevices in the walls and ceil- 
ings. This is no fancy picture ; nor need we go 
any further back in our history than 1844 to find 
full counterparts of just such school buildings, 
still in use in this County. They were fully 
described in the reports of the supervisory offi- 
cers of that day. In such buildings our ancestors 
in this County received their first lessons ; among 
them was one who became president of the 
United States.* 

On dark days the pupils would be arranged 
before, and around the base of, the large chimney, 
utilizing the light which poured down its capa- 
cious throat, and without which, study would 
have been impossible. The floor and ceiling 
were of loose, rough boards, through the joints of 
which the wind would freely circulate, affording 
an abundance of fresh air. The seats were often 
formed of riven portions of forest trees, or, where 
saw mills existed, of planks or slabs, supported at 
either end by roughly formed and acute angled 
legs, and without backs. Those legs would often 
seek in vain for a secure rest upon the uneven 
floor, but without doing so. From such .seats, 
sufficiently high for adults, dangled for si.x tedious 
hours daily, the uneasy limbs of children from four 
to six years of age, with no support for either the 
legs, arms or backs. Here they must cling to 
the plank, or slab, and keep quiet, under the pen- 
alty of a blow from the whip, or ferrule, of the 
master, or mistress, of ceremonies. When weary, 
and they would soon become so, sleep would over- 
take, not only their limbs, in which the circulation 
was impeded by the sharp-angled seats, but also 
their entire bodies, and a careless rock of the un- 
easy seat would precipitate the sleepers to the 
floor. But the broad open fire-places of those 
primitive school rooms were objects of the highest 
interest. It was not alone the light which they 
supplied, grateful and necessary as that often 
was ; they were miniature bon-fires, on which 
the otherwise underlighted eyes of the pupils 
rested with pleasure. They would gorge, at 
once, and without crowding, a full quarter of a 
cord of wood, and, when in full blast, glowed like 
the log heaps of the settlers' fallow ground. 

* Millard Fillmore. 

Around the blazing pile, the pupils on their 
entrance would range themselves, and by re- 
peated turnings, would at length so saturate 
with warmth their thick, home-made clothing 
as, for a short time, to be comfortable upon their 
seats, but for a short time only ; for " may I go 
to the fire ?" was, on cold days, the constant cry 
of the pupils. In summer those open fire-places 
were beautifully adorned by the skill and taste 
of the sylvan mistress, with various green 
branches from the near forest, and with such 
wild flowers as the season afibrded. Carving was 
one of the arts into which the school boys of that 
day were thoroughly indoctrinated, and the use 
of the pocket knife was well understood by them ; 

"The Yankee boy before he's sent to school 
Well knows the uses of that magic tool. 
The pocket-knife," 

and the benches and forms of all the early 
school rooms were honey-combed by his industry. 
Not having congenial employment for his head, 
he sought and found it for his hands. Such 
were the general condition of the school houses 
of the County, for a full generation after its first 
settlement, and very many of the same sort 
existed as late as 1840. 

The School Books. — It should be remem- 
bered that at the time, and for many years after 
the first settlement of the County, books of any 
kind were a luxury rarely seen in the homes of 
of the people, excepting the family Bible and 
hymn book, and the annual calendar, or almanac. 
School books were then very few, and confined 
to the three subjects, of reading, spelling and 
arithmetic ; the latter for the boys in all cases, 
but not always for the girls. The girls, it was 
thought, were sufficiently educated if they were 
taught to read and write. Their fathers, 
brothers, or husbands could do the " reckoning" 
for them. The first books were of English pro- 
duction. Dilworth's spelling book and arithmetic 
had been generally used in New England, and 
many of them found their way into the early 
schools of this County, having descended to the 
children from the parents, who had used them. 
Webster's Spelling Book, published in 1783, was 
the first American school book printed in this 
country, and it soon found its way into our schools 
to the exclusion of nearly every other spelling 
book, and became the constant companion of all 



the pupils, from their entrance to their exit, and 
they were so long and so thoroughly drilled upon 
it that some pupils would recite half the words 
contained in it. 

The New Testament was a common reading 
book in the earlier periods into which the pupil 
graduated directly from the spelling book. 
There were then no " grades " in the schools, or 
any first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth 
readers, as at the present day. Usually one 
reading book sufficed ; but pupils would read in 
whatever book the parents might send, no matter 
what its title or subject. It might be Robinson 
Crusoe, or Pilgrims Progress ; and it was all the 
same, if there was but one book of the kind in 
the school. Webster's Spelling Book, however, 
soon became nearly universal. Murray's Eng- 
lish Reader and the Columbian Orator followed, 
and were fixtures in the schools for a full quarter 
of a century. 

These books comprised the finest classical 
productions of the men of the age ; but were 
utterly unsuited for the children into whose 
hands they were placed, and who mumbled and 
stumbled through their classic paragraphs, with 
as little comprehension of them, as though they 
had been written in a dead language. But it 
should be remembered that comprehension of a 
lesson, at that time, was not considered impor- 
tant ; that was not the object. The pupils were 
then taught simply to read, not to comprehend. 
They were too young to understand the lesson, 
but would do so when they were older. This 
false and pernicious error ran through every 
study. Lessons were put into the hands of a 
child of eight years of age, which developed 
minds only could comprehend. 

Teachers and Teaching. — It will be con- 
ceded that the teachers of that day, as a class, 
were not competent to their work, nor their in- 
struction guided by any intelligent rules. They 
had been very imperfectly educated, and could 
not teach others what they did not know them- 
selves. The very perfect text-books of to-day 
supply largely the deficiencies of teachers ; but 
then both teachers and text-books were deficient, 
and the result was what we have described. But 
all the schools and teachers of the first genera- 
tion were not equally inefficient. There were in 
the hamlets and villages a few well educated 
teachers, who were good instructors ; and fine 

scholars have graduated from even our early 
backwoods schools ; geniuses, whom no obstacles 
could repress, and whose peculiar mental vigor 
led them on to conquer every obstacle in their 

The early school discipline was but a counter- 
part of the prevailing errors of the time. It was 
mainly physical. The whip and the ferrule were 
as constant companions to the teacher as the 
book, or the pen. The book in his hand, the 
whip or ferrule under his arm, and the pen over 
his ear, all were equally intended for use. 
The pupils were urged to be orderly and dili- 
gent by pungent and often painful persuasion. 
A goodly store of well seasoned switches was al- 
ways ready for extra occasions, when, as often 
happened, wholesale floggings were to be in- 
flicted. The whip in the hand of the teacher 
fell frequently upon the mischievous or the idle, 
and generally without warning or explanation. 
This impromptu discipline and the thorough 
preparation of the teachers for offense or de- 
fense, created in many schools a state of merely 
suspended warfare ; the relations between the 
teacher and the pupils being essentially bellig- 
erent, and liable at any time to break out into 
open warfare. 

In the teacher, therefore, strong physical pro- 
portions and firm courage were very necessary to 
success. On the entrance of a new teacher, he 
would be as carefully scanned as competitors in 
the prize ring, not to estimate his mind, manners, 
or morals, but the power of his muscles, and the 
probable chances of success if a conflict should 

With young pupils the whip and the ferrule 
were supplemented by many ingenious yet cruel 
devices, a gag in the mouth, a most barbarous 
punishment, standing on one foot, holding an 
object in the extended or uplifted hand, resting 
one hand and one foot upon the floor, holding a 
heavy weight in both hands, the body inclined 
forward. These and many other cruel tortures 
which the law forbids to be inflicted upon the 
felons in our prisons, were regularly used for 
more than a generation in Cayuga County, to in- 
cite in children the love of order, of books and of 
schools. Is their general failure a wonder '>. 

Incentives to study, as we have just shown, 
were mainly coercive, but emulation and rewards 
were also employed ; emulation mainly confined 


to the spelling exercises, and rewards to the pri- 
maries, place-taking in spelling, and simple gifts 
to the small children. The post of honor, the 
head of the spelling class, was eagerly sought for, 
and, in the absence of other proper incentives, 
doubtless benefited the brighter pupils, who 
usually would carry off the palm ; but the less 
gifted were depressed by thus constantly pub- 
lishing their inferiority in the little community in 
which they daily moved. 

Emulation was also employed in an interesting 
and exciting form in the process termed " spell- 
ing down," an exercise still continued ; but the 
greatest interest centered in the spelling schools 
of the time, which for the lads and lasses, had 
connected with them more pleasant and endear- 
ing associations than any or all of the other 
school exercises. 

Of all the studies pursued in our early schools, 
reading was the most imperfectly taught. The 
unnatural, listless, drawling monotone in prose, 
or the sing-song in poetry, was nearly universal. 
It was the result of a habit formed in childhood, 
continued and confirmed in youth, and im- 
movably fixed in manhood. So general was this 
habit of expressionless reading that a good reader 
was seldom heard. The schools tended only to 
form and fix the habit, and books and newspapers 
were so rare that home reading, except of the 
Bible, was little practiced, and the idea that the 
Bible must be read in a peculiarly solemn tone did 
not help to form good readers. Among the masses 
of the people of this County for about a quarter 
of a century, good reading had nearly become 
one of the "lost arts " It was, at least, but im- 
perfectly preserved, amid the rigid demands and 
privations of forest life. 

Arithmetic was better taught. Its utility was 
apparent to all, and every boy was initiated into 
its mysteries, or rather its mummeries, for its 
mysteries were seldom revealed. Its operations 
were largely mechanical, yet so long and con- 
tinuous was the drill that most of the boys could 
"do the sums" as far as the "rule of three," be- 
fore they left school. Each pupil was taught 
singly without classes or blackboards. Indeed, 
in 1842, there were but two blackboards in the 
entire County. It was a slow and laborious op- 
eration for the teacher to " work out " the various 
" sums " for the pupils on their slates as models 
for them to imitate, for the progress was chiefly 

one of imiiatioit, the pupils, by long practice 
learning to follow their teacher's model or method 
of solving the questions under the different 
" rules." " Please show me how to do this sum .'" 
was a question constantly repeated in all the 
early schools. 

It would be interesting to compare the copy- 
books and the facilities for acquiring the art of 
writing, existing in our schools fifty to seventy- 
five years ago, with those of to-day. The pupils 
came with home-made copy-books of coarse, un- 
ruled paper, varying in quantity from one to a 
half dozen sheets, home-made inks compounded 
of domestic dyes, a flat lead pencil formed of 
hammered lead, a goose quill and a ruler. Ready- 
made writing books, ruled paper and steel pens 
were yet in the future. Pens were " made" and 
copies "set" by the teacher. "Please make" 
or " Please mend my pen," were regular appeals 
to the teacher. In cold weather, the fire-place 
would, each morning, be surrounded by ink- 
stands to thaw their frozen contents. The teach- 
ers generally were clumsy penmen, and being 
changed every few months, there were very few 
decent chirographers among the pupils. 

This rude condition of our popular schools was 
gradually changed. The rapid increase of our 
population, averaging for the first thirty years 
more than twelve hundred per year, led to a cor- 
responding improvement in the means and con- 
dition of the people. Hamlets and villages arose 
and educated men in large numbers became resi- 
dents of them. The professions and most of the 
employments soon had in them men of liberal 
attainments, whose children were to be educated. 
Nearly all of this class were the organizers and 
patrons of private schools, the popular schools 
not being at that time, in their judgment, or in 
fact, worthy of intelligent patronage. Hence, 
though there were a few educated and competent 
teachers thus employed in the instruction of the 
children of the more intelligent, the public 
schools were still neglected, and in them very 
little improvement was made. 

From 1789 to 1838, the State from time to 
time, from the sale of lotteries, appropriations of 
public lands, and from revenues derived from 
United States deposit funds and other sources, 
had been accumulating a fund, the income of 
which was annually appropriated to the support 
of common schools. This fund in 1838 amount- 



ed to over three-fourths of a million of dollars. 
From the administration of Governor George 
Clinton, every Governor and Secretary of State 
has advocated and recommended a liberal en- 
couragement of common schools, and laws for 
their internal administration have been enacted, 
and from time to time changed. The first gener- 
al law was passed in 1795. It appropriated 
^50,000 annually, for five years, to the support of 
the common schools. Each county was required 
to raise by tax an amount equal to one-half its 
distributive share of this sum, and town com- 
missioners and district trustees were authorized 
to be appointed. On this subject, at that time, 
Governor Clinton said : 

" While it is evident that the general estab- 
lishment and liberal endowment of academies are 
highly to be commended and are attended with 
the most beneficial results ; yet it cannot be de- 
nied that they are principally confined to the 
children of the opulent, and that a great portion 
of the community are excluded from their need- 
ed advantages. The establishment of common 
schools throughout the Stale is happily calculated 
to remedy this inconvenience, and will, therefore, 
engage your early and decided consideration." 

The same liberal support was given to the 
common schools by Governors Jay, in 1800, Clin- 
ton, in 1802, Lewis, in 1805, and Tompkins, dur- 
ing his administration, and defects in the laws 
were sought to be corrected. In 181 1 a com- 
mission was appointed by the Legislature, con- 
sisting of five persons, to revise the system of 
common school organization, whose report in 
1812 was adopted, and Gideon Hawley was ap- 
pointed State Superintendent, which position he 
held until 1 821, when the Secretary of State was 
made ex-officio Superintendent of Schools. 

But the practical operation of the school sys- 
tem of the State was far from satisfactory. At- 
tempts were regularly made to correct defects. 
Eight academies, one in each Senatorial district, 
were designated in 1835, for the instruction of 
common-school teachers. District school libra- 
ries were established in 1S38; and in 1841 the 
supervision of the schools was confided to Deputy 
or County Superintendents. In 1843 Town In- 
spectors and Commissioners were superceded 
by one Superintendent of Schools in each 
town. A State Normal School was organ- 
ized in 1844, especially intended for the in- 
struction of common schoolteachers, and opened 
on the 18th of December following. 

The office of County Superintendent was con- 
tinued for six years, and had been the means of 
effecting important improvements in the schools, 
but the appointments, made by the County Su- 
pervisors, were, in some instances, injudicious, 
and the office was brought into disrepute and 
abolished in 1847, against the earnest protest of 
the best friends of education in the State. It 
was, however, practically restored in 1856, by the 
institution of the office of School Commissioner, 
which is still continued. Free schools throughout 
the State were established in 1849, the act being 
submitted to the people, by three-fourths of whom 
it was approved. Its practical operation was 
found to impose unequal taxation and a re-sub- 
mission of the law to a popular vote was de- 
manded. In 1850 the vote was taken, and the 
law again sustained, but by a lessened majority. 

The free school law was abolished the year 
following, and the provision was made to raise 
$800,000 annually, by State tax, which was af- 
terwards changed to a three-fourths mill tax, by 
which the country schools were mainly relieved 
from rate bills. The establishment of free, 
union, or high schools was permitted by law in 
1853. There has, therefore, been no lack of 
interest in education on the part of the State, 
and it has, from first to last, liberally contributed 
to its support and advancement. But the great 
difficulty has been amongst the people them- 
selves, as to the right use and application of the 
means provided, and a lack of intelligent com- 
prehension of the best method of giving to their 
schools the highest efficiency. 

Between 1830 and 1850 is the period during 
which thorough improvements in our schools 
had their origin ; and the first important impulse 
was given by the introduction of improved 
school books, prepared by intelligent educators. 
In that period, also, the range of studies was 
greatly enlarged. Grammar, geography, natural 
philosophy and algebra found their way into the 
common schools, and chemistry, botany, astron- 
omy, geology and mental and moral philosophy, 
into our public high schools. 

Much of the credit of this reform must be con- 
ceded to that now troublesome and importunate 
class, the authors and publishers of school books. 
There was a great need of better books, and 
authors and publishers came in swarms to supply 
it. Each author, or publisher, acting as critic 



of the detects of rival books, and as instructor 
in the great method of teaching the subjects 
embraced in his own. This gradually led to a 
more careful consideration of the whole subject 
and was the first step in educational reform. 

There was a coincident and great change in 
the educational literature for children and youth, 
of which the " Peter Parley" and the " Abott's 
Books." weree.vamples, and of which millions of 
copies were sold, and whose influence upon the 
young was most wholesome. S. G. Goodrich, 
the author of the Peter Parley books, who wrote 
more books for youth than any other American, 
and who has been called the " Napoleon of the 
Pen," gave, in four lines, the " Golden Rules " 
which should be the guide of the educator, 
whether parent or professional teacher. 

"Begin with simple lessons — things 

On which the children love to look ; 
Flowers, insects, pebbles, birds on wings, 
These are God's spelling book." 

Between 1830 and 1850 was also the period 
during which education and the best means for 
its improvement formed the great subject of 
discussion, in which were engaged the ripest 
scholars and soundest educators of the age : Em- 
erson, Mann, Woodbridge, Alonzo Potter, David 
P. Paige, and scores of others. They prepared 
masterly papers or books, which were widely dis- 
seminated over the country, enlightening the 
public and leading to the institution of the county 
supervision of our schools in 1841, the estab- 
lishment of teachers' institutes in 1842, of the 
State Normal School for the special training of 
teachers, in 1844, followed by seven other simi- 
lar institutions in different parts of the State, 
and of provisions for the free education of all the 
youth of the State a few years later. 

The county supervision of the public schools, 
established in 1841, was the most efficient agenc}' 
that had theretofore been employed to reform 
their great deficiencies. The officers entrusted 
with this duty, became among the people educa- 
tional missionaries, carrying into all the schools 
the usages and practices of the best educators 
and acting as the instructors of both teachers 
and patrons. The people of the several districts 
were frequently convened, and the wants and de- 
ficiencies of the schools and the means of sup- 
plying them carefully pointed out. The teachers 
themselves were separately convened in county 
meetings and practical teaching discussed. Regu- 

lar teachers' associations arose from these meet- 
ings and have been continued to the present 
time, forming important links in the chain of 
reform ; but the limited time to which these 
meetings were restricted, prevented a satisfactory 
consideration of the various topics presented. 

Teachers' institutes were a direct and necessary 
outgrowth of these associations in which the 
teachers of a county were held in an annual ses- 
I sion of about two weeks and carefully instructed 
by competent educators in the science and art of 
teaching. The first teachers' institute in the 
State was held in 1842. They were held in 
Cayuga County among the earliest, and at the 
first three sessions there was an attendance of 
; over five hundred teachers. These institutes so 
enlisted the public favor that they have been 
I regularly maintained for the last thirty-five years, 
I have been recognized, and in part sustained by the 
State, and organized in most of the counties. 
I They were held in 1877 '" fifty-five counties, at 
which there was an attendance of 11,892 teach- 

In 1845, coincident with or very soon after the 

formation of teachers' associations and institutes 

in the counties, the State teachers' association 

was formed and has since been maintained. 

The County and State association and teach- 

, ers' institutes were accompanied by the organiza- 

I tion in 1S43, of a State Normal School, located 

I at Albany, and specially designed for the training 

I of public school teachers. It was so satisfactory 

in its results that it was afterwards followed by 

seven similar institutions in other parts of the 

State, and they are to-day in active and efficient 

operation. The free school system of the State 

and of its cities and villages, was also the direct 

outgrowth of the educational activity during the 

decade from 1840 to 1850. 

The results of all these agencies have been a 
marvelous change in many of the common and 
high schools of the State, and Cayuga County 
has not fallen behind in the march of improve- 
ment. Her public schools, especially in the city 
of Auburn and in the principal villages, that in 
1840 were " a by-word and reproach," not patron- 
ized by the wealthy and the intelligent, nor worthy 
of it, are now the recipients of the patronage of 
all classes, and, for the right instruction of chil- 
dren and youth, are, beyond question, the best 
i schools in the County. In the city of Auburn, 



the change has been the most marked and de- 
cided, and is mainly due to the intelligent and 
persistent efforts of a few devoted men, amongst 
whom C. P. Williams, long a teacher in the 
city and officially connected with the administra- 
tion of the schools holds a conspicuous place. B. 
B. Snow, under whose quiet but thorough course 
as superintendent for many years, the schools 
have constantly improved, deserves special men- 
tion for the important aid which he has rendered 
and is rendering in school reform. 

The board of education of the city, to whom, 
by law, are confided the care and management of 
the schools, are so soon convinced of their efficien- 
cy by personal inspection, as to lead them cheer- 
fully to adopt the measures necessary to maintain 
it. The greatest improvement arose from the 
institution of the academic high school, which is 
the rallying point of the hopes, and goal of the 
ambition of all the grades below it. Few, in- 
deed, may enter it, yet most of the pupils hope 
and strive to do so, and it is a constant stimulant 
to all in the public schools. Much has been done 
for the improvement of popular education in 
Cayuga County; yet "eternal vigilance" is nec- 
essary to maintain and perpetuate it. 


Art and Professional Artists. 

Architects — Sculptors — Engravers — Por- 
trait AND Landscape Painters — Lady 
Artists — Eminent Local Artists. 

THE large number of artists who were na- 
tives, or have been residents of Cayuga 
County, and the eminence to which several of 
them have attained, were a surprise to us as the 
long list has gradually been unfolded, and as our 
readers examine it, we believe that they too will 
find it greatly to exceed their expectations. 


The architects of this County have, for the 
most part, been also practical builders, their genius 
and taste leading them so to cultivate their natur- 
al powers as to give them leading positions as 
designers and draughtsmen. 

Lawrence White, judging the genius of the 
man by the perfection of his work, was not only 
the first in point of time, but also the first in 
skill in his line, in this County. He designed 
and erected the old First Presbyterian church in 
Auburn, said, by experts, to have been as pure an 
exemplification of the Corinthian order of archi- 
tecture as existed in the State, and was so com- 
plete an illustration of the skill of the man that 
no other example need be cited. 

Deacon John I. Hagaman, from a carpenter's 
apprentice, became a thorough expert in archi- 
tectural drawing and designing, and was an in- 
structor in the art in Auburn for many years as 
well as the designer of many of its public and 
private buildings, including the Second Presbyte- 
rian church, the court house and the town hall. 
He projected the map of the city of Auburn, 
published in 1836, and the buildings illustrated 
upon it. 

William B. Olmstead followed the business 
of architect and builder in Port Byron and in 
other parts of the County, and at present ranks 
among the first architects of the city of Brooklyn. 

Calvin Otis was a pupil of John I. Haga- 
man in 1841, and attained distinction as an archi- 
tect, practicing his profession in Geneva and in 

John Maurice practiced architectural drawing 
successfully in Aurora, in 1858, and afterwards 
in St. Louis, Mo., and was a designer and builder 
of good reputation. 

MuNROE Hamlin is one of the very few men 
now working at his trade as a carpenter and 
joiner, who served in it a regular apprenticeship. 
He is not only an excellent practical workman 
but a good architectural designer and draughts- 

Nelson Hamblin, a native of the County, 
learned the trade of a carpenter here ; studied 
and practiced architectural drawing in the city 
of Brooklyn for twenty years, and recently in 
Auburn for a few years, designing several im- 
portant buildings here. He now resides in 

Samuel D. Mandell, a native of Aurora, in 
this County, began architectural drawing in 
1848, studied it thoroughly, and became distin- 
guished. He designed Wells College, E. B. 
Morgan's residence, and two churches in Auro- 
ra, and afterwards many elegant and costly build- 



ings in California, and in Kentucky. He now 
resides at Aurora. 

Blanchard Fosgate, Jr., perfected himself 
in architectural drawing and designing by careful 
study and practice, and now devotes himself suc- 
cessfully to the work in the city of Elizabeth, 
New Jersey. 

Charles Frederick Schweinfurth, could not 
well avoid being an artist, as his parents, on both 
sides, are such. After carefully studying archi- 
tecture, under a competent master, he received 
an appointment in the office of the Supervising 
Architect at Washington, where, for five years 
he has been perfecting himself in his art, in 
which he is destined to attain preeminent dis- 

Of engravers we may mention : 
George Whitfield Hatch, who was a half- 
brother of Governor Enos T. Throop, with whom 
he began the study of the law in Auburn. His 
tastes led him to study engraving, and he en- 
gaged with A. B. Durand, of New York. He 
became one of the great firm of Rawdon, Wright 
& Hatch, celebrated for their perfect bank note 
engraving, and as the originators of the "Ameri- 
can Bank Note Engraving Company," which 
executed the larger share of the engraving of the 
. notes and bonds of the Government. Mr. Hatch 
was reputed to be one of the best plate engravers 
in the country. His remains repose in Fort Hill 

John Chester Buttre is a native of Auburn, 
born in 1821 ; he received an academic educa- 
tion, and a few private lessons in drawing from 
which his own genius led him to painting, in 
which he received casual instruction. Not suc- 
ceeding in his first eff"orts at painting to his satis- 
faction, he tried wood engraving, for penny toy 
primmers, and persevered under many disadvan- 
ges, in various forms of that work. 

At twenty-one years of age, by the kindness 
of Mr. Hatch he was given desk-room in the 
engraving department of Rawdon, Wright & 
Hatch. Here he so rapidly perfected himself as 
an engraver as very soon to secure remunerative 
orders ; and from that day to this he has followed 
his chosen profession, and has attained in it 
eminent success, professionally and financially. 
In native professional sculptors, Cayuga County 

has been deficient, being credited with but one 
such, though Erastus D. Palmer honored us by 
a residence in the County of about two years. 

Byron N. Pickett, son of a Port Byron bar- 
ber, was a born sculptor, and developed such 
marks of genius and perfection of work, without 
instruction, as to arrest the attention of Mr. 
Palmer who kept him for several years in^his em- 
ploy. He is now established in New York, and 
has produced several valuable works, including a 
model of the bust of Professor Morse, cast in 
bronze, and erected in Central Park, New York. 

Erastus D. Palmer, though not a permanent 
resident of the County, was nevertheless employed 
here about two years in the execution of orders 
from prominent citizens, of Aurora and Auburn, 
and in the production of ideal pieces. He is a 
sculptor of great and deserved celebrity. 

Walter G. Robinson, from the business of 
grave-stone cutting, developed the true genius of 
a sculptor. A bas-relief of Secretary Seward 
executed by him, is an excellent likeness, and a 
marble bust of the Secretary, cut by Mr. Robin- 
son, is considered by the family superior to all 

Portrait and Landscape Painters. 

With these, Cayuga has been exceptionally 
favored as will be seen in the following brief 

William Dickinson, residing in Auburn, in 
1816, and Daniel Steele, a native of Aurelius, 
were our earliest portrait painters. Mr. Steele 
and his wife were both artists. They have prac- 
ticed their profession in Washington, D. C, and 
in the West and South. 

Jehu Knapp was born in Connecticut in 1801, 
took his first lessons in arabesque painting from 
William Dickinson, of Auburn, and subsequently 
studied in New York and Philadelphia, after 
which he established himself in Auburn. He 
here painted a portrait of William H. Seward, 
now in the possession of the family. Though 
Mr. Knapp was a good artist, he was compelled 
to supplement his artistic with practical work in 
house and sign painting to gain a livelihood. 

Charles Loring Elliott, one of the most 
distinguished artists that our country has pro- 
duced, was born in a rude dwelling near Scipio 
Center, in 1812. He removed with his parents 
to Auburn. His father, who was a builder, 



erected a house on the corner of William street 
and Love Lane, and here the boyhood of the 
great artist was passed. He was a natural me- 
chanic, and fond of the pursuit. He early mani- 
fested a fondness for drawing and painting, from 
which his father and friends sought to dissuade 
him, as a poor paying employment. But his love 
of art grew, which his father sought to overcome 
by placing him first in a store, and next at school. 
It was, however, all the same in both places ; 
• neither business nor books would draw him away 
from his pencil and his brush. Seeing this, his 
father sought to direct the boy's genius to archi- 
tectural drawing, as more profitable. That work 
he could do, but it did not please him ; he wanted 
to paint. At length he was placed under the 
instruction of Colonel Trumbull, the eminent 
painter, and president of the Academy of Fine 
Arts in New York. He next studied with 
Onidor. But his means failing, he left the city, 
and, for the next ten years, took his lessons in 
the school of nature. In 1845 he returned to 
New York, and for the rest of his life, was emi- 
nently successful, and had the reputation of being 
the best portrait painter of his time in the coun- 

Edwin W. Goodwin was an artist of good 
reputation, resident in Auburn in 1835. He was 
expelled from a Methodist Church here for his 
anti-slavery views, in the expression of which 
he would not be restrained. He died at Ithaca, 
New York, in 1845. 

Charles W. Jenkins was born in Owasco, 
July 9th, 1821, a son of a house painter, which 
business he pursued in Auburn for a time, until 
he entered the studio of E. W. Goodwin. He 
practiced his profession here until 1837, when he 
removed to Syracuse, thence to Utica, and in 
1848 removed to New York city, where he has 
since practiced his art. 

Randall Palmer located in Auburn in 1839. 
Among the portraits which he painted here 
were those of that notorious hero of the "Patriot," 
or "Rheuben" war, William Johnson, and of the 
bold and devoted daughter of the latter. He 
painted well, and was an artist of merit. He 
died about 1S42, from the effects of a fall. 

T. J. Kennedy, was born at Saratoga Springs, 
New York, October 13th, 1820. He began the 
work of painting, as an apprentice, in Troy, N. 
Y., at the age of twelve years, was soon employed 

in ornamental coach painting, decorating them 
with landscapes, and allegorical pictures, many 
of which were fine works of art. Here he also 
received, for the six years of his apprenticeship, 
lessons in drawing and painting landscapes, and 
in portrait painting, from the best artists in those 
branches in Troy. He came to Auburn in 1838, 
at the instance of Col. J. M. Sherwood, then a 
large stage proprietor here, and has since resided 
here. He has executed several large and fine 
pieces, "Mazeppa" and the "Last Arrow," 
among them, and many landscapes that have 
received favorable notices of art critics. He is 
an amateur artist of much merit, though the 
business of paint merchant and sign and house 
painting, has engaged his principal attention. He 
was the first man in the County to practically 
prepare for the great rebellion, by enlisting men, 
and was actively and efficiently engaged in the 
service during the war. 

George L. Clough was born in Auburn 
September i8th, 1834. His father died while 
George was yet an infant, leaving a widow with 
slender means and six dependent children. As 
early as ten years of age he developed a taste 
and tact in art, and his first picture, executed 
about this time, on a fragment of a board, is still 
preserved. From ten to eighteen years of age 
he was employed in compounding medicines, 
working by the piece for Dr. Blanchard Fosgate, 
and finding time to practice his favorite art. 
The excellence of his work arrested the attention 
of the artist Palmer, and the latter induced the 
mother to let her son go into his studio, where 
his chances of improvement were much increased. 
Here he continued until 1844, when he opened 
a studio of his own. About this time Charles 
L. Elliott came to Auburn to paint the portrait 
of Governor Seward, and fortunately for Clough, 
selected his room for the purpose. He was 
much benefited by the example and kindly 
hints of this great master. But his patrons 
were few, and the young artist was severely 
taxed for the means of support. William C. 
Barber generously gave him an order for six 
pictures, paying him one-half in advance. These 
were followed by other orders, and he soon 
found himself able to spend a few months with 
Elliott in New York, there perfecting himself in 
portrait painting. When he reopened his room 
in Auburn, he met with fair success, and married 



a daughter of Robert Peat, in 1848. Under the 
patronage of the Barbers and other friends, he 
visited Europe in 1850, spending about a year in 
the principal art galleries of Germany, France 
and Italy. Since his return he has devoted his 
time mainly to landscape painting, to which his 
taste has always inclined him, and in which he 
is a close and severe imitator of nature. 

There are, it is said, in the city of Auburn 
alone, over four hundred of his paintings, indi- 
cating clearly that as a painter, George L. 
Clough has been highly honored and liberally 
patronized by those among whom he has chiefly 

William E. McMaster came to Cayuga 
County with his parents when a lad, worked at 
carriage painting at Weedsport with his father, 
and evinced an early and great fondness for 
portrait painting, receiving therein some instruc- 
tion from Miss Munson of that place, and also 
from the artist Palmer. He was afterwards a 
student of Charles L. Elliott, and of the great 
painter, Vanderlin. In his habits he has been 
cosmopolitan, practicing his art in the various 
cities, towns and villages of this country and 
in Europe. He is an artist of genius and has 
executed a vast number of portraits of eminent 
personages, including those of President Buchan- 
nan, and of Marshal McMahon, President of the 
French Republic. He has also been prominent 
as a political writer and speaker, and as a pro- 
fessional sportsman. 

Joseph R. Meeker was a native of Newark, 
New Jersey, born in 1827, and came with his 
parents to Auburn about 1836. Here he 
engaged first in a printing ofiSce, and next with 
T. J. Kennedy in painting, being anxious to be- 
come an artist. In the preliminary lessons he 
was instructed by Mr. Kennedy. In 1845, he 
went to New York to perfect himself in art 
studies, depending for his support upon the 
practice of plain painting. Here he spent three 
years of struggle and toil, when he returned to 
Auburn, greatly improved in his chosen art. He 
roomed with Mr. Clough in cheap quarters, 
they boarding themselves and studying together 
about a year, when Mr. Meeker established his 
easel in Buffalo, N. Y. Here, after a hard 
struggle, he won gratifying success. In 1852, 
he removed to Louisville, Ky., where for seven 
years his success was indifferent, and he re- 

moved to St. Louis, Mo., where he " pitched his 
tent," in 1859. ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^'' ^°°" followed and 
broke up his business. He then secured the 
position of paymaster in the navy, and there con- 
tinued for four years. On the steamboats upon 
the Mississippi he had a fine opportunity to see 
and delineate the interesting natural scenery 
upon its shores, and he improved it, carrying 
back with him to St. Louis, at the close of the 
war, much material for future use. He has 
since steadily pursued his profession, and won in ^ 
it abundant success. Mr. Meeker is not alone 
distinguished as a successful and accomplished 
artist ; he is an able writer on art, and is dis- 
tinguished for his general culture. He was the 
originator, and is the President of the St. Louis 
Art Society, among the most successful of such 
associations in the country. 

Henry Wells, the son of a shoemaker in 
Clarksville, was, at the age of fourteen, bound an 
apprentice to T.J. Kennedy,to learn plain and sign 
painting. Mr. Kennedy soon discovered the boy's 
genius in art, and instructed him in its elemen- 
tary principles, for about three years, when he 
gave the boy his indenture, and advised him to 
go to Philadelphia, to pursue and practice art, 
and support himself meanwhile by plain paint- 
ing. There he found an opportunity to draw on 
wood, and was well paid for it. Going to Mount 
Vernon, he drew the house and tomb of Wash- 
ington, had them engraved and published on his 
own account. Being novelties, the picture had 
! a good sale, five hundred copies having been 
, purchased in Auburn alone, and the enterprise 
paid well. He continues his designs on wood for 
the magazines and other publications, and also 
paints fair pictures in oil. He has been a dili- 
gent student and is a cultured and refined gentle- 
man, now about forty years of age. 

John R. Page, was born in Elbridge, Onon- 
daga county, in 1821 ; was first a cabinet-maker 
! and next a farmer, and is still engaged in the lat- 
i ter pursuit. He took up art at the age of thirty, 
as an aid to his judgment of cattle, though al- 
ways fond of delineating animals. In that spe- 
cialty he has become so thorough an expert in 
I the critical judgment of blooded horses and cat- 
1 tie, that he has few, if any, equals in the country. 
He will read off" the points and pedigree of an 
' animal on first sight with great rapidity and with 
surprising accuracy, being rarely incorrect in his 



judgment. He paints cattle in oil, giving nearly 
perfect representations of the originals, and 
executes neat engravings of them on wood or 
stone. In 1851, he prepared all the illustrations 
for the Catalogue of Cattle issued by Col. Morris, 
of Fordham, the first one of the kind issued in 
this country. The excellence and perfection of 
that work gave to Mr. Page a national reputa- 
tion, and the claim upon his time and talents for 
similar work has since been very great from all 
parts of the country, including California and the 
Pacific Coast. He illustrated the American Herd 
Book of Short-Horn Cattle, in sixteen volumes, 
and also the Canada Herd Book. His services 
have been sought in England. As an auctioneer 
in the sale of valuable animals he has no supe- 
rior. He sold the famous York Mills herd, one 
cow in which brought the fabulous price of forty 
thousand dollars. He owns and neatly cultivates 
a farm in Sennett, rears choice animals and good 
products, is a genial and social gentleman, a fine 
specimen of genius practically and usefully ap 

Frederick M. Coffin, a native of Nantucket, 
born in 1822, came to Auburn with his parents 
in 1845, and is the only surviving son of his wid- 
owed and aged mother, with whom he resides, and 
to whose comfort he administers with true and ex- 
emplary filial affection. He early manifested a 
genius for art by drawing and grouping animals. 
In 1846, he engaged as clerk in the store of F. 
L. Griswold & Co., in Boston. We next find 
him engaged in sketching and drawing figures 
for a fresco painter in Boston. He returned to 
Auburn and engaged again as merchant's clerk, 
but keeping up his habit of sketching and draw- 
ing, producing striking representations of groups 
of people whose portraits were readily recog- 
nized. In 1849, h^ drew on wood for engravers 
and executed portraits in crayon. He next spent 
a year in the collector's office in Buffalo, and 
three subsequent years in designing and drawing 
on wood for the publishers. He illustrated sev- 
eral of the books published in Auburn by Derby, 
Miller & Co., as well as works for Buffalo, and 
New York publishers. In 1854, he took up his 
residence in New York and devoted himself ex- 
clusively to drawing and designing for the maga- 
zine and book publishers of that city and Boston. 
Too close application impaired his eyes and he 
traveled for a season as a means* of restoration. 

He enlisted and served three years in the war of 
the Rebellion, sketching many military and natu- 
ral scenes. He then directed his attention to 
painting cattle in oil, locating himself with his 
parents in Sennett, where he industriously applied 
himself to painting horses, cattle and pastoral 
scenes, adding greatly to his already large store 
of art productions. But the death of his father 
and brother devolved upon him the sole care of 
his aged mother and aunt, for whose comfort he 
generously relinquished his art studies and duti- 
fully devoted himself to his relatives — an inter- 
esting and forcible illustration of the beauty of 
his character. 

George H. Matthews, a native of Utica, 
born in 1834, removed in early life to Buffalo, N. 
Y., where he pursued art studies under various 
masters, and came to Auburn at nineteen years 
of age. He has been principally engaged here 
in portrait painting, and has probably executed 
more portraits of the citizens of Auburn than 
any other resident artist, and his portraits are 
all faithful likenesses of their subjects. His 
merits as an artist are appreciated, and he is so 
liberally patronized that he makes his profession 
a financial success, which is a rare thing in a city 
the size of Auburn. Notwithstanding his com- 
plete success as a portrait painter, he has con- 
tinually expressed a wish to change his employ- 
ment. He has a great fondness for the works of 
the dramatists, and the facility with which he can 
recite their productions is a marvelous illustra- 
tion of the power of his memory. It is said that 
he can repeat verbatim fifty entire plays, of 
Shakspere, Bulwer, Sheridan and Knowles, 
and, when on his walks, is often so absorbed in 
their silent recitation, as to pass his most familiar 
friends unnoticed. 

Joseph Haskill, son-in-law of the late Joseph 
Choate, has painted portraits in Auburn, and 
elsewhere in the County for many years, and in 
New York City, Detroit, &c. He now resides 
and practices his profession in Syracuse. 

Frank. R. Rathbun, a native of Burlington, 
Vermont, was early inclined to sketch mechanical 
objects, and those relating to natural history. 
After preliminary studies, he was engaged in the 
geological survey of Vermont, in sketching the 
scenery and animals to illustrate that work. He 
went out with the Nineteenth Regiment and 
made drawings of the birds of the Chesapeake. 



Subsequently he was mechanical draughtsman 
for a firm of manufacturers of cotton machinery 
in Worcester, Mass. He is now engaged in 
this city in painting objects of natural history, 
drawings of birds. \'arious designs for book 
publishers, and artistic ornamentation generally. 

Nicholas B. Kittell was a resident in 
Auburn in 1865, and for several years painted 
portraits here quite satisfactorily, and is now con- 
tinuing his profession in New York City, and 
maintains a fine reputation, both as an artist and 
a social and pleasant gentleman. 

Mr. and Mrs. William B. Gifford are 
natives of Aurora, N. Y., the latter, grand- 
daughter of Humphrey Rowland. They possess 
ample pecuniary means, and are both enthusi- 
astic lovers of art. They are yet young, and 
have been, and are, carefully perfecting them- 
selves in art studies in the best schools in this 
country and in Europe, devoting to them their 
time and all the necessary means. They both 
paint portraits, and are now pursuing their 
studies in New York City, with every prospect 
of attaining eminence in their profession. 

George W. King was born in Auburn in 
1836, and worked at the carpenter's trade until 
twenty-five years of age. He had a natural 
taste for art which was early and constantly shown 
by the use, first of his pencil, and subsequently of 
crayons. He would employ nearly every frag- 
ment of leisure in delineating some animal or 
other object upon a board or box, or whatever 
was at hand, on which he could construct the 
image of his fancy. 

His mechanical employment did not please 
him ; but his love of art was controlling, and it 
impelled him to its pursuit against strongly 
opposing obstacles. He had slender means, 
without influential friends, and was of amiable 
and modest disposition, and not calculated to 
push his way to success through an adverse and 
jostling crowd. His early struggles, between the 
strong promptings of his taste and his inability 
to gratify it, were therefore severe ; yet he 
decided to go to New York at a venture, and to 
test what might come of it. 

He accordingly went thither and entered the 
drawing class at the Cooper Union. Fortun- 
ately for him he soon made the acquaintance of 
the kind-hearted and distinguished portrait 
painter, Page, who became his firm friend and 

benefactor ; and when Mr. King's means failed 
he aided him in procuring work in coloring 
photographs, which partly relieved his necessities. 
His generous patron went farther and invited 
Mr. King to accompany him and his family to 
Eaglewood, N. J., and to make his home with 
them, and he did so. 

Here he had the good fortune to meet and se- 
cure the warm friendship of the artist, Innis, 
who became so much interested in Mr. King as, 
for nearly a year, to give him voluntary and val- 
uable instruction in landscape painting, and to 
compliment him for his skill in that department 
of art, in which his progress was rapid'. He was 
greatly encouraged by the flattering approval of 
so competent a master, with so full an oppor- 
tunity for critical and careful judgment. 

In 1864 he returned to Auburn and opened a 
studio; but like most young artists, he did not 
secure satisfactory patronage. Returning to New 
York, he worked at a salary on crayon heads, for 
which he was well paid. He again came to Au- 
burn, and went thence to Oswego, where, for 
three years, he found liberal patronage, and, ob- 
taining commissions, he went to California, 
made numerous sketches of the Yo Semite valley 
and has finished several fine paintings of that re- 
markable region, which are much admired. 

In the spring of 1873, he went to Europe and 
devoted about a year and a half to a careful study 
of its works of art. He then returned to Au- 
burn, and in 1876 removed to Philadelphia which 
has since been his home. 

Alexander F. Loamans, a French artist of 
genius and ability, and a connoisseur in his pro- 
fession, came to Auburn in 1854, and painted 
here for about two years. He had many marked 
peculiarities. He could paint with great rapidity, 
and could with little apparent efibrt make showy 
pictures, which he could, and did sell cheap ; yet 
realizing a full equivalent for the time devoted to 
them. He would frequently arise from his bed 
at night, and by the light of a lamp lay his ideal 
subject rapidly upon the canvas for future study, 
and at other times, for weeks together would 
work with a peculiar zest, as if inspired with a 
supernatural enthusiasm. Like most artists he 
was a wanderer and his whereabouts and sub- 
sequent career are unknown to us. 

Sanfokd Thayer, the son of a small farrier, 
was born in the town of Victory, in this County, 



July 19th, 1820. At the age of fourteen his 
father died, leaving his family in such poverty as 
broke it up, and scattered its members, and 
young Thayer was left to shift for himself For 
four years he worked at farming, barely support- 
ing himself his art genius burning for gratifica- 
tion. At this time, slender in purse and ward- 
robe, he came to Auburn to learn to paint. He 
was directed by the artist Goodwin, to whom he 
applied for a position, to go to a carriage painter, 
to take lessons in plain painting, and this he did; 
but failing of employment, he returned to his 
old work upon the farm and in the smithy. He 
was finally employed in Skaneateles in car- 
riage painting. Fortunately, Elliott, the great 
painter, then resided in Skaneateles, engaged in 
the execution of a design on a fine carriage. 
Thayer watched with great eagerness the work 
of this master, and attempted to copy it when 
completed. While absorbed in the effort he was 
surprised by Elliott, who kindly criticised and 
complimented the rude, yet promising effort of 
the young man, giving valuable practical hints to 
the great joy of the would-be artist, who was 
thus firmly fixed in his purpose to become an ar- 
tist, and he fully executed it. He applied him- 
self diligently to his work, and years after he 
again met Elliott in Syracuse, to whom he ex- 
hibited a portrait of a boy which he had painted, 
and was delighted and encouraged by words of 
commendation. The friendship thus formed be- 
tween these two geniuses continued till Elliott's 
death. The latter painted two splendid portraits 
of Thayer, which were said to have been his 
finest productions. He was selected to complete 
the orders left unfilled when Elliott died, a com- 
pliment of significant import. Mr. Thayer still 
resides in Syracuse and, as health permits, still 
executes fine works of art. 

Lady Artists. — Miss Celia Murdock resides 
with her father in the town of Venice in this 
County. She is an artist of much merit, and has 
practiced and taught art successfully for many 
years. She is now traveling in Europe. 

Miss Carrie Woodruff NoYES.isa cultivated 
lady, a professional and accomplished artist, con- 
ceded by art critics to draw and paint better in 
water-colors than any other resident lady artist. 
Mrs. Mary Vigus, was a native of Port Byron 
and a self-taught artist. She became an instruc- 
tor in art at a ladies' seminary in Memphis, 

Tenn. ; married, and on the death of her hus- 
band supported, and still supports, herself and 
two boys by her profession. 

Miss Lou Ann Munson, when a resident of 
Weedsport in 1841, and afterwards, painted por- 
traits in oil with much acceptance. She is now 
Mrs. Sunderlin.and resides in Philadelphia. She 
is a sister of Mrs. James Henderson of Auburn. 

Miss Gertrude L. Stone, daughter of Col. 
Henry M. Stone, late of Auburn, early evinced 
an excellent taste and tact in drawing, and has 
taught pencil and crayon drawing for many years 
in schools of her own, and in young ladies' 
seminaries. She is now an instructor of art in 
a ladies' school in Ohio. 

Miss Elizabeth M. Bemis, a native of Auburn, 
is a lady of good general culture, and has been 
specially instructed in drawing in the New York 
Academy of Design. Her work is strongly com- 
mended by art critics, as indicating skill, culture 
and care. She is now acceptably teaching draw- 
ing in the public schools of Auburn. 

Miss Fannie Bemis, sister of the foregoing, 
was educated in pencil drawing and crayon work, 
in Cooper Institute and the New York Academy 
of Design, and was the recipient of the first prize, 
a gold medal for the best drawing, a compliment 
well merited, as evinced by the excellence of her 
work. Her crayon portraits are much com- 
mended by competent critics, and give full satis- 
faction to her patrons. For some three years she 
taught drawing in the Howland school at Union 

It will thus be noticed that Cayuga County has 
been the home of a very large number of pro- 
fessional artists, of varying ability and success, 
most of whom contended against poverty and 
adverse circumstances, and won their reputations 
by following their own native impulses for art, 
which no obstacles, however severe, could repress. 
They were born artists, and their birthright they 
claimed and won. 

Of engravers, we may well be proud of George 
Whitfield Hatch and John Chester Buttre ; the 
former, the foremost of bank note engravers, and 
the latter the peer of any in steel portrait engrav- 
ing ; while Elliott, in portrait painting, won a 
national reputation, and Meeker, Thayer and 
Page, with the long list of other artists, whose 
careers we have briefly chronicled, won deserved 
distinction in their several fields of labor. 





Valuation and Taxation. 

Valuation from 1800 to 1877 

— Study of the 

Table — Comparative Valuation of Farm 

Lands — Of Real and Personal Property 


ve Taxation— 

Support of the 

Poor — Lunatics — County 

Poor House. 





: of Real and 

State Tax. 




1 1 
1 } 






"S 1 -o 






< 1 

H \ < 




< 1 <! 




1,839, 111' None. 



!9o| 3,582 

948,856 in 

948,856 " 



2,1081 1 8,693 

■ ,!S2,6l6 Real. 

i,582,6^6 ;| 


3,759 j 7,381 


4,780,850 io6,422' 



4,19s, 9,728 


4,5i4,869 384,896 

4',9l8',76S " 1 1,680 


3,405 lo,^97 


4,5)4,869 !J0,440 

4,911,509 9,730 1,7^0 

4,451! 20,187 

4,515,599 )6j,lll 

4,876,8^o 9,752 2,201 


6,.96 1 22,046 


4,!45,J29 ^i^JSi 

4,578,692 9,iS7| ■,67^ 


4,930 ; 22,402 


4,i4fi,5^y l86,iS7 

4,552,685 4,555 ■,92^ 


S,n9 18,985 

4,!46,!29 159,985 

4,486,514 4,534 2,579 


5,553 20,^04 


J, 284,795 1-5, 595 

5,408,188 5,408 2,570 





2,465,695; 127,845 




2,465,705 155,157 




3,511,501 5:7,"9 

3,858,750 4,07s 2,367 





5,5^l,50l| 580,555 

3,792,054 9,509 2,375 





4,75S,S5S| 490,558 

4,259,076! 2,795 2,29s 




3,557,574 577,4)5 

4,135,009 None. 2,783 



2 ■,602 

!, 517,574 545,7-9 

4,064,305 " , 2,797 





3,517,574 6c9,56o 

4,227,134 " i 2,753 




3,517,574 520,192 

4,157,766 " ' 2,865 



3,517,574 655,500 

4,154,074 " 2,595 




3,517,574 579.015 

4,196,589 " , 2,785 





3, 517,574 700,205 

4,2^7,779 " 1 2,529 

■ 6,069 

24, 505 

■ 8jj 

3,517,574 552,378 

4,159,952 " 2,528 


SI719 84) 



5,516,628 856,559 

4,452,167, " 2,625 


6,986| 867, 27,847 


3,516,028 927,145 

4,443,174 " 2,655 


5,0801 934! 25,424 



4,497,074 " 1 2,490 

26, 507 

6,8S^|l,2ll' 35,579 


4,545,131 1,459,400 

6,005,65 ■ " 2,520 


6,413|^,^75 39,704 


4,545,251 1,585,868 

5,951,899 " , 5,552 


6,0191,520 41,071 



2, ■50,762 " 1 6,225 


7,l47j.,!69 4.,!5. 



2,5^2,656 " 6,79^ 


6,7191,090 41,714 


10,524,472 i,5^7, 558 

1,941,850 " 9,999 


6,2021,240 4i,5!2 


10,749,045 ■,548,^6o 

2,690,875 12,875 5,978 


6,500^,352 5!,68i 


No record No rec'd No record 15,588 5,945 


6,90^ ^,^80^ 53.515 



9,705,915 io,58l 5,978 


6,3741 794! 44,291; 



9,478,125 5,856 S,5<W 


6,225 9)8 )6,954 



9,908,854 5,891 5,241 


8,350 i,o!5 4!, 296 



0,401,129 5,971 5,24 


8,812 ■,363 35,857 


8,920,78 ill, 61 1, 753 

0,5)2,554 10,858 5,454 


8,540 ■, 217 46,591 

1 849 


■ ,505,951 5,39s 5,626 

8,525 9S2 58,297 


9,)4S,257 1,809,584 

1,154,641 5,581 5,459 


8,8oSi,^29 5^,01 1 1 


■ 7,828,0085,275,081 

21,103,089 10,402 ■2,265 


8,527'i,575 59,847 


17,677,568 5,098,^27 

20,775,9t5 5,20^ ■4,667 


9,8401,250 61, ■so 

■ 85! 


20,897,343 20,i/D9 ^4,287 


■ 0,655 ■,472, 76,147 



20,7^^,564 15,54)13,022 


20,961 1,797! 85,479 



20,682,209 25,85512,17 


l5,855'i,5o7| 94,362 


17,734,375), 299,10) 

21,053,478 21,05515,77 

■ 7,888 1,96s 97,920 


17,545,141 5,448,942 

20,795,085 45,78815,0./ 




15,82^,22S, 3,7)3,492 

19.554,720 54,220 ■4,65<; 


12,790 1,608 ■o.;,828 


■ 5,562,72715,633,228 

19,195.955 55,62514,41 


12,871 1,651 107,534 

■ 860 

15,407,559 3,256,57! 

18,674,152, 59,24514,41 





18,652,994 60,045 14,4^ 



■ 862 


■8,798,5)91 87,768 ■6,45f 


■ 85! 


■ 9,222,0521 94,741 16,71 


54*674 ■^774 225^75 


15,711, )534,i48,24l 

20,059,594 98,051 16,53 

295,77) 2,54) 52^,28) 

15,758,778 4,293,'>97 

20,052,475 81, ■5915,55 


■ 11,5962,495514,825 




56,8512,086 505, 5^l 


i5,ol9,^77 1,511,950 

20,35^,^27 ■35,25626,25 



■ 858 


20,850,135 9<,,145 26,41 


73,072 2,7^i5vS,S57 

■ 869 

■ 6,28l,S2l|4,oo8,(K)8 

20,550,5^9, 96,90627,68 

■ 72,6^ 

■ 00,564.. .. iC.;,la; 


■ 6,37S,62^ 5,520,45s 

■ 9,894,056126,68226,33 


9^, 175 5,085 45i,6<.7 

■ 871 

■5,574,521 5,132,161 

i9,7of.,785 92,88726,53 


■ ■■,558 2,8,5 2S4,82^ 


16,940,534 !,o2l, 177 

I9,96^,7ii ■55,57825,16 


■ 38,5992,884391,670 


17,046,521 2,735,35s 

■ 9,852,889 ■■2,512 24,67 

57,8 ■ 

■ 45,1443,58' !57,))9 


34,271, 217!4,5S7,8S4 58,857,951 114,54225,82 



■ 875 


55,875,022 98,(,57 25,96 

129,879 3,059 524,357 



35,651,550: 49,08227,78 


|l6^,o^»5,057| 508,765 

■ 877 28,497,684 !,20!,440 !2,!iS,078: 54,858 jo,2j 


147,919 3,149! 289,272 

In iSoo, the towns in Cavuga County were Mi 

ton, (n 

w Genoa,) Sempro- 

nius, Ovid, Romulus, Ulysses, Aurelius and Scij 

,E 1,947 inhabuants. 

In 1852, the County 

ounties paid to volunt 

ounted to $12,250. 

Town bounties, includnig the town expenses tha 

t year. 

amounted to $7,517- 

In 186!, the County bounties charged to the 

and included in the 

town expenses, amounted to *!i,4oo. There wa. 


d in the County tax 

of I 

863, on ac 

count of bounties, »2,37i. 

Study of the Foregoing Table. 

IN a single year from 1 8 1 2 to 1 8 1 3 there was a 
sudden increase in the valuation of the County 
of more than three-fold. That increased valua- 
tion from $1,382,616, to $4,887,252 was main- 
tained with slight variation until 1 821, when a 
large reduction was made, from an average of over 
$4,000,000 to about $2,500,000. From 1825 to 
1836, eleven years, it stood at between $4,000,000 
and $5,000,000. In 1837 it was raised to over 
$6,000,000, in 1839 to over $12,000,000, the 
valuation being doubled in two years. In 1845 
it was reduced to less than $9,500,000, in 1851 
it was ad.vanced to over $21,000,000. The 
amount varied from $19,000,000 to $21,000,000 
for the next twenty-three years until 1874, when 
the valuation was raised to nearly $39,000,000. 
This amount was reduced in 1877 to $32,000,000. 

We state the amounts here in round numbers, 
the e.xact figures will be found in the foregoing 

The following was the assessed valuation of 
the farm lands of the County in 1837 and in 

1837. 1877. 

Aurelius^ $12.00 $57-52 per acre. 

Brutus 5.88 41-32 

Cato 6.00 48.83 

Conquest 4.75 39.06 " 

Fleming 10.75 52.85 

Genoa 11.25 49-73 

Ira 6.00 48.83 

Ledyard 14.00 50.95 

Locke 6.90 29.96 " 

Mentz 9.50 45-7' 

Moravia 8.00 32.20 

Niles 9.00 37.45 

Owasco 12.00 3923 " 

Sempronius 5.00 23. S3 _ " 

Sennett 11.00 52.05' 

Springport 14.00 59-77 

Scipio 12.00 53.74 

Sterling 4.75 31-89 

Summer Hill 4.04 22.08 

Venice 11.50 45-9^ 

Victory 5.75 34-59 

The above equalization of 1877 includes the 
farm lands only, excluding village and railroad 
property ; in 1837 all the property of the towns 
was included. The very great advance in the 
estimated value of farm lands will arrest atten- 
tion. It will be noticed that in 1837 the prices 
ranged from $4.04 per acre for the lowest to 
$14.00 for the highest, and that in 1877 the same 



towns had been advanced from four to eight-fold, 
while the personal property of the County had 
in the same period increased only about two- 

Comparative Valuations of Real and Per- 
sonal Propekty.— The foregoing table furnishes 
a guide as to the relative estimated value of the 
real and personal property at the different pe- 
riods from 1814 to 1822. The personal property 
of the County was assessed at one-seventeenth 
of the value of the real property. But, for the 
next two years, from 1822 to 1825, it was sud- 
denly raised to one-fifth, an increase in two 
years in the assessed value of the personal estate 
of the County of more than three hundred per 
cent. From 1835 to 1838 it was still farther ad- 
vanced and reached the highest relative amount 
at any period in the whole history of the County, 
and was rated at one-third of the real estate. 
Here the increase ended. From 1838 to 1850 
the personal property fell off one-half and was 
rated only one-si.\th the real. From 185 1 to 
i860, very nearly the same proportion was main- 
tained, but from 1873 to 1877 the proportion was 
lower than at any other period during the last 
fifty years and was less than one-seventh of the 
real property. 

Taxation. — The foregoing table also supplies 
some interesting facts relating to taxation. In 
1840, but thirty-seven years ago, (the table 
closes with 1877,) the gross tax upon the County 
and the towns for all purposes, was but ^41,632. 
The population was then in round numbers 
50,000 ; the taxation, therefore, was about eighty 
cents /«' capita of the population, and that was 
the highest tax which up to that time, a period 
of more than forty years, had been levied upon 
the County. 

The amount for the next ten years did not 
greatly vary from that, and in 1850 the gross tax 
was but $50,000, about the same/fr capita as in 
1840. The gross tax upon the County between 
1850 and i860 was more than doubled, arising 
mainly from the large increase during that de- 
cade, of the State tax, which, it will be noticed, 
had arisen from $5,581 in 1850 to $59,245 in 
i860, the increase from all other sources during 
those ten years being only $28,092. But the 
great flood of taxation rolled in upon us from 
1863 to the present time. At the former date 
the war claims were being paid, and the gross 

taxation reached its climax in 1864, when we 
paid $62 1,285, about $ioforeach man and woman 
and child in the County. From that time it has 
been gradually lessening until now. During 
these fourteen years the County of Cayuga paid 
$5,431,623 in taxes, an amount greater than the 
entire property valuation of the County at any 
time during the first forty years of its existence. 
An examination of the foregoing table will 
show the sources of the trouble and also our 
gradual release from it. Up to 1863 our County 
and town taxes had been relatively light, less 
than $50,000 for the former, and an average of 
about $12,000 for the latter. But they suddenly 
arose to hundreds of thousands in consequence 
of the military expenses of the time, and, in re- 
spect to the towns, the added burden growing out 
of their indebtedness for the construction of rail- 
roads. The State tax, owing to the same gen- 
eral causes, was enormously increased, rising in 
I 1872 to $163,578 ; but the latter has been re- 
duced to $54,868 in 1S77, only about $9,000 
more than it was in 1857, twenty years before. 
The County taxes have fallen to $55,910, but the 
town taxes still aggregate high figures, $197,919, 
owing mainly to liabilities incurred for railroad 

Early Supervisors. 

The Supervisors of the County of Cayuga in 
1818 were the following: William Allen, Scipio ; 
William Clark, Genoa ; Nehemiah Wisner, Au- 
relius ; James Leonard, Mentz ; Charles Cham- 
berlain, Locke ; William Satterlee, Sempronius ; 

' Elijah Devoe, Owasco ; Rufus Sheldon, Brutus ; 

I Augustus F. Ferris, Cato ; John McFadden, 
Sterling, — representing ten towns. 

The town of Auburn was first represented in 
the Board of Supervisors in 1824, Elijah Miller 
being the first Supervisor from that town. There 
were then eighteen Supervisors, as follows : 
Auburn, Elijah Miller ; Aurelius, Robert Cook ; 
Brutus, Sylvester Sheldon ; Cato, John Jackway; 
Conquest, William Crowell ; Fleming, Lyman 
Loomis ; Ira, William H. Noble; Genoa, Wil- 
liam Wilber ; Locke, Silas Bowker ; Ledyard, 
Ephraim C. Marsh ; Mentz, James Leonard ; 
Owasco, Geo. R. Brinkerhoff ; Springport, Asa 
W. Burnham ; Scipio, John Daniels ; Sempro- 
nius, William Satterlee ; Venice, John Beards- 
ley ; Victory, Roswell Enos. 



The fact is disclosed by the proceedings of our 
early Supervisors that the principal sources of 
local taxation were damages paid to land owners 
for new roads laid through their lands ; bridging 
streams, for the support of the poor, and for 
bounties paid for the destruction of wild beasts. 
Pauperism. —Contrary to the common belief, 
we have had the poor with us always. The early 
settlers were not all self-supporting. The hard- 
ships and privations of the early emigrants caused 
much sickness amongst them ; many heads of 
families died, leaving sick and dependent mem- 
bers who required temporary support from the 
more favored. There were not then many 
chronic paupers, but the aggregate assistance re- 
quired was relatively large. 

Before the erection of the County Poor House, 
in 1825, the amount paid by the towns for the 
support of the poor, was nearly equal to all the 
other town expenses. 

Aside from the maintenance of the paupers 
and the expenses incident to opening new roads, 
the other town expenses were very light. The 
town of Aurelius, which in 1818 included the 
village of Auburn, paid in the four years from 
1818 to 1 82 1 inclusive, for all local purposes 
^3,244.04, of which sum ^2,354, or more than 
two-thirds, went for the support of the poor, and 
a similar expense, for the same purpose, was im- 
posed upon the other towns of the County. We, 
therefore, had indigence and pauperism sixty 
years ago, relatively to the numbers of the peo- 
ple, nearly as great as at the present time. 

In 1823 the town of Auburn was formed and 
in 1824 the entire town expenses were but 
$302.21, or excluding damages incurred for lay- 
ing new roads, it amounted only to about one 
hundred dollars. In 1825 the town paid ;g200* 
to improve highways and the same amount for 
the support of the poor, and for all other local 
expenses $47.36. In 1827 it was still less. We 
append the items as found in the records of the 
Supervisors proceedings of that year. 
Asa Munger com. of schools three years, $11.25 
Hackaliah Burt, " " two " 7.50 

John Patty, " " one " 3.75 

Samuel Dill, com. of highways, i.oo 

Collector's commission, 1.59 

Total, $25.09 

It is quite apparent from the early records of 

the bills audited by the Board of Supervisors of 

the County, that official incumbents did not then 
depend upon office for their support. 

In further demonstration of the poor expenses, 
before the erection of the County Poor House, 
we append the following : The town charges of 
Scipio in 1824 were $380.41, of which sum $250 
was for the support of the poor ; Ledyard 
$288.68, of which $250 was "poor money"; 
Owasco, $182.37, of which $ico was "poor 
money " ; Locke, $2 1 2, of whicli $ 1 50 was " poor 
money" ; Sempronius, $447, of which $250 was 
appropriated for the support of the poor, and so 
on through the list of towns and the records of 

These heavy expenses for the support of the 
poor, led the Supervisors at their session in 1825 
to take measures for the erection of a County 
Poor House, a site for which, comprising seventy- 
nine acres, was procured on the farm of Thomas 
Stevenson, then in the town of Brutus. George 
Casey, Daniel Sennett, Henry Polhemus and 
Salmon Tyler were appointed superintendents 
for the erection of the building and superintend- 
ing the general object of County pauperism. 
Two thousand dollars were appropriated in 1825 
to this object, and three thousand dollars in 
1826. The building was completed in the latter 
year, during which fifty-two paupers were re- 
ceived, and in 1827 the number had risen to 
one hundred and fifty, a number of inmates 
exceeding the present average. 

The first lunatics were sent to the Insane 
Asylum from this County in 1S43, when four 
were taken to Utica by Dr. J. D. Button. The 
present number of insane maintained by the 
County in the two asylums of Utica and Willard 
is seventy, — fifty two at the latter who are con- 
sidered incurables, and eighteen at the former 
many of whom are considered as curable cases. 
The whole number of insane persons in the 
County in 1875, was 157, an increase in this un- 
fortunate class within twenty-five years of about 
three-fold, and nearly equaling the aggregate 
number of the blind, idiotic and deaf and dumb 
in the County. The cost to the County of 
maintaining the insane in the asylums, exclusive 
of clothing, is four dollars per week at Utica, and 
two dollars and sixty cents at Willard, thus im- 
posing in the support of these unfortunates, an 
annual tax exceeding $12,000. 
i Sylvester Willard, M. D., was the first physi- 



cian to the poor house. Dr. Boyce has held that 
position for the past seventeen years, receiving 
a salary of ^250. In 1843 the cost of maintain- 
ing the poor of the County outside of the poor- 
house was $7,224.55, and at the poor house 
$3,707.62, a total cost of $10,932.17. In 1877, 
at the poor house the cost amounted to $7,741.94 
and outside of it $31,407.21, an aggregate cost 
for the maintenance of the poor of $39,149.15, 
nearly four times the aggregate of 1843. The 
present average weekly cost of the maintenance 
of the paupers at the County Poor House is one i 
dollar and fifty-six cents, independently of the 
annual products of the farm. E. L. Phelps held 
the position of Keeper of the Poor House for 
seventeen years, and Morris M. Olmstead that 
of Superintendent of the Poor for twenty, and 
is the present incumbent of that office. 


Agricultural Societies and Statistics. 

Early Disadvantages— First Society and 
its Proceedings — Second Society — Its 
Officers and Proceedings — Moravia Ag- 
ricultural Society — North Cayuga Agri- 
cultural Society — General History of 
THE Patrons of Husbandry — Cayuga 
County Patrons — Fire Relief Associa- 
tion—Agricultural Statistics. 

IN a County naturally so favorable to so varied 
and abundant agricultural productions as 
Cayuga, associations might be expected among 
the farmers for their own mutual improvement ; 
but for nearly a quarter of a century the early 
emigrants had to maintain a stern contest with 
rude nature and had little time or means for any- 
thing else. The forest had to be removed, roads 
constructed, streams bridged, mills erected and 
most of their own clothing prepared. Those 
who enjoy the improved facilities of the present 
day, with all the arts and conveniences of life, 
can but feebly conceive the difficulties and em- 
barrassments under which the first settlers 
labored. They had a fertile soil to cultivate, when 
once the trees were removed, which needed no 

phosphates to enrich it, yet mowers and reapers 
tedders and hay-rakes, had they then been known, 
could not have been used among the knolls and 
stumps of the early farms. The old " bull 
plow" with its wooden moldboard, and wrought 
iron and steel-.pointed share ; the home-made 
drag, supplied with wooden teeth, and formed of 
the forked branch of a tree ; the native cattle, 
pastured in the woods in the summer and often 
" broused " in winter upon buds and branches of 
forest trees ; the swine, fed upon the native roots 
and nuts and running free and wild in the woods, 
all as nimble as the other wild animals ; all 
these rude accompaniments were not suggestive 
of public exhibitions. 

The "art and science of agriculture" was not 
then known to., or thought of, by the early farm- 
ers. "What they knew about farming," was to 
clear the land and cast and cover the seed ; pro- 
tect its growth from the ravages of beasts and 
vermin ; harvest and secure the products, and 
then to find some means to grind enough grain 
for the family supply, and to find a market for 
the remainder, which for a few years was sup-v 
plied by the needs of the new comers. 

In 1818, however, a successful effort was made 
to form the Cayuga County Agricultural Society. 
On the fourth day of February in that year a 
a meeting was held at the house of Amos Adams 
in Scipio, and an organization completed. David 
Thomas, was made President; Silas Holbrook, 
Vice-President ; John Tifft, Treasurer ; and 
Joshua Baldwin, Recording Secretary. On Sep- 
tember 7th following, David Thomas delivered an 
address before the society, which is believed to 
have been the first address upon agriculture 
delivered in the County. 

In that address Mr. Thomas said ; " Cayuga 
County, which we have to cultivate, contains 697 
square miles with less than one square mile of 
waste land ; nearly every other part is suitable 
for a garden." 

David Wright, Esq., of Auburn, also addressed 
the same meeting and said : " If the farmers of 
Cayuga County do not march in the van of the 
agricultural host, the fault must be theirs. 
Nature has been no step-mother to them. With 
a soil of great fertility and well adapted to the 
growth of the principal agricultural productions 
of this latitude we have, in addition, inexhaust- 
ible beds of gypsum, quarries of lime-stone, 



swamps of marl and a fair promise of an abun- 
dance of salt." 

On the20th of October ensuing, the first Fair 
and Cattle Show in Cayuga County, was held at 
Auburn. The animals were e.xhibited in a field 
on the farm of William Bostwick, south of the 
Court House, and the other articles in one of the 
stores of the village. The fair was held for two 
days and was an occasion of great interest, being 
largely attended. The church bells were rung I 
for a half hour in the morning of each day, an 
expression of the jubilant satisfaction of the 
people of the village at the presence of their rural 
friends. The exhibition was closed by a long 
and formal procession from the Court House to 
the Presbyterian church. Here prayers were 
offered, hymns sung and an addresg delivered by 
David Thomas, full of sound practical thoughts. 
Twenty-five prizes were awarded, consisting of 
silver cups and teaspoons, of the aggregate value 
of two hundred and thirty-one dollars. One of 
these cups then awarded is still in the possession 
of H. H. Bostwick, Esq., of Auburn. 

These Fairs were annually held for many years, 
and were a decided benefit to the farmers of the 
County. But the burden of maintaining them 
fell upon a few who became weary of bearing it 
and, after about fifteen years, the enterprise was 

Another society was organized on the 22d day 
of July, 1841, of which Humphrey Howland was 
the first president, and the following gentlemen 
were the Vice-Presidents : John M. Sherwood, 
of Auburn; Loring Willard, of Aurelius ; Isaac 
Bell, of Brutus ; Luke Hollister, Cato ; Levi 
Colvin, Conquest ; David O. Durkee, Ira ; Wil- 
liam F. Tompkins, Fleming; Mathias Hutchin- 
son, Genoa ; Wing Tabor, Moravia ; Samuel 
Bell, Mentz ; Isaac Sisson, Locke; John I. 
Brinkerhoff, Owasco ; Jonathan Richmond, 
.Ledyard ; Mr. Fuller, Sempronius ; John W. Mc- 
Fadden, Sterling ; E. A. Howland, Venice ; 
Mathias Vanderheyden, Victory ; John Sittser, 
Sennett ; U. F. Doubleday, Scipio ; Luther Ful- 
ler, Niles ; Henry Crane, Springport ; and 
Martin Barber, Summer Hill. 

The following were the Presidents of the 
Society from 1841 to 1855 inclusive, namely; 

Humphrey Howland, 1841 

John M. Sherwood, 1842-1845 

Ezra W. Bateman, 1846 

Chester Gridley, 1846- 1849 

Lyman Sherwood, 1850 

William Howard, 1 851- 1852 

E. W. Sheldon, 1853 

John S. Clark, 1854 

Abraham Burlew, 1855 

The following were the Secretaries of the 
Society for the same period : 

William Richardson, 1 841- 1845 

Benjamin F. Hall, 1845-1848 

JohnB. Dill, 1849 

T. M. Pomeroy, 1850 

H. H. Bostwick, 1850-1853 

Luman W. Capin, 1854 

John B. Dill 1855 

There was a reorganization of the Society 
under the act of April 15th, 1855, when new 
articles of association were formed under the 
name of the Cayuga County Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society. The first associates were 
Thomas S. Bentley, Charles P. Wood, David 
Wright, Abraham Burlew, Harrison Hopkins, 
Henry Fellows, Benjamin Ashby, Henry S. 
Dunning, John B. Dill, Harvey A. Lamphere, 
Hiram O'Hara, Henry H. Bostwick, I. W. 
Quick and others. 

The first directors were Thomas S. Bentley, 
of Brutus, President ; Horace T. Cook, of Au- 
burn, Secretary; H. H. Bostwick, Treasurer; 
William D. Osborn, of Mentz ; Abraham Burlew, 
of Springport ; Henry Conklin, of Owasco ; 
Charles P. Wood, of Auburn ; and Mathias 
Hutchinson, of Genoa. 

The Presidents of the Society from its reorgani- 
zation until the present time have been as follows : 

Thomas S. Bentley, 1856 

Grove Bradley, 1857 

Henry W. Dwight, 1858-1859 

William Webster, i860 

Alanson M. Clark, 1861 -'2-'3-'4-'5-'6-'7-'8 

Allen D. Morgan, 186S-1869-1870 

Jay Lewis Grant, 1871-2-' 3-4 

John B. Shank i875-'6-'7-'8 

The Secretaries of the Society since its reor- 
ganization have been the following : 

Horace T.Cook, 1856 

Earned C. Mann, i857-'8-'9 

B. B. Snow, i860 

John G. Hosmer, iS6i-'2-'3-'4-'5-'6-'7 

A. S. Hamblin 1868-9 

John G. Hosmer, _i870-'7i-*72 

A. B. Hamblin, i873-'4-'5-'6-'7-'8 

The Vice-Presidents were Henry Willard, of 
Aurelius ; Harvey A. Lamphere, of Brutus ; 
Moses Robinson, of Cato ; Hardy Cole, of Con- 



quest : Calvin Leach, of Fleming ; Henry Pardee, j 
of Genoa ; John E. Terpening, of Ira ; J. Hewitt, j 
of Moravia ; John S. Clark, of Mentz ; M. D. 
Murfey, of Locke ; George Thomson, jr., of 
Owasco ; Elijah Brown, of Niles ; Samuel C. 
Crowley, of Ledyard ; Hector C. Tuthill, of 
Sempronius ; Morell S. Fitch, ofScipio; Henry 
Fellows, of Sennett ; George W. Truesdell, of 
Springport ; J. Barber, of Summer Hill ; Joseph 
Eldridge, of Victory ; Mason White, of Venice ; 
and George B. Cole, of Sterling ; Horace T. 
Cook, Secretary. 

Larned C. Mann has held one or the other of 
the responsible offices of secretary or treasurer 
of this society since its reorganization twenty- 
three years ago. H. H. Bostwick held the office 
of treasurer for six years, John G. Hosmer that 
of secretary for ten years, and A. B. Hamblin the 
same office for eight years. It is a compliment to 
the capacity and fidelity of these officers that 
they continued so long to discharge, for a trifling 
consideration, so arduous a duty, and that the 
records and accounts of the society, for so long 
a period, have been so faithfully kept. 

Among those who have delivered addresses 
before the society are David Thomas, David 
Wright, Humphrey Howland, B. P. Johnson, 
Nathan Burchard and A. S. Divens. 

In 1856 a new departure was taken by the in- 
troduction of riding, driving and trotting matches. 
In the "ladies' riding match" in 1856, nine 
prizes were offered and awarded to as many dif- 
ferent ladies, and in the " ladies' driving match " 
seven prizes, Mrs. Henry taking the first 
prize in both, Miss Smith, the second prize in 
the " riding match," and Miss Cuykendall, the 
second prize in the "driving match." It was 
the first and only experiment of the kind. 

In 1856 the conclusion was reached to pur- 
chase permanent exhibition grounds and to erect 
thereon buildings and show-pens, and grade a 
half mile track. Nineteen acres were bought for 
this purpose of Henry S. Dunning, at ^150 per 
acre, and the ground fenced and improved with 
the track, show-pens and necessary buildings, 
costing in the aggregate about $6,000 and forming 
ample and very complete accommodations for 
the intended purpose. An effort was made to 
change the location of the grounds to the eastern 
part of the city, provided a sale of present 
grounds could be made on satisfactory terms. 

They were accordingly advertised ; but satisfac- 
tory offers for the same not being made the con- 
templated change was not effected. This offer 
to sell the property created the false impression 
among many that the society was about to dis- 
band, which was not contemplated. 

Among the novelties and objects of interest 
often shown at the annual fairs, was an old and 
unique clock, shown in 1859 ^Y James Law, 
which was owned by an English sovereign three 
hundred years ago, a card upon which bore the 
following inscription : 

" Three hundred years have nearly fled 
Since my royal owner lost her head ; 
Amid her country's pomp and power, 
I marked the time and told the hour." 

Moravia Agricultural Society. — The con- 
stitution of this society was adopted September 
20th, 1 858, and its by-laws on the 26th of the same 
month. Sidney Mead was the first president of 
the society ; M. W. Alley, secretary, and E. P. 
K. Smith, treasurer. Its first purpose was to 
perfect a town organization for social and agri- 
cultural improvement. The first fair was held 
October 12th, 1858, and annual fairs have now 
been held for twenty years with very gratifying 
success, both as respects its financial receipts, 
which indicate the attendance, and the display of 
the animals and agricultural and mechanical pro- 
ducts, which have regularly increased. 

The entire receipts of this society the second 
year of its existence, from all sources, was but 
$114, while the total receipts for 1877 were 
^1,229.01. It was early found that the residents 
in the ten southern towns of the County took a 
lively interest in this organization, to the admin- 
istration of which they were admitted in 1859, with 
the following Vice-Presidents : G. L. Mead, Mo- 
ravia ; E. W. Bateman, Venice ; J. C. Smith, 
Scipio ; H. C. Tuthill, Sempronius ; E. E. 
Brown and H. W. Lockwood, Niles ; Grover 
Stoyell, Summer Hill ; Jonathan Conklin, Locke; 
Albert Lester, Genoa ; and Thomas Gould, Led- 
yard. The Directors appointed at the same time 
were Sidney Mead, James H. Jewett, P. M. Stod- 
dard, John Cortright, E. P. K. Smith, and P. D. 
Livingston. The southern towns of the County 
were this year cordially invited to participate in 
all the operations of the society and the invi- 
tation was generally accepted. This coopera- 
tion has since been uniformly maintained, so that, 
though bearing the local name of the town in 



which the enterprise originated, and to which is 
due the credit of its institution, it is still in its 
practical operations the " South Cayuga Agri- 
cultural Society," which as the antithesis of the 
" North Cayuga Society," would be now its ap- 
propriate name. 

As the means of the society increased, suitable 
buildings and show-pens have been provided in- 
cluding a track for the trial of the speed of 
horses. The history of this society, as shown by 
its records, presents a very gratifying exhibition 
of progress, indicating that the localities which 
for twenty years have sustained it with increasing 
interest, will continue to do so, and that it will 
remain a fi.xed and permanent organization. 

The following gentlemen have been the Presi- 
dents of the society : Sidney Mead, C. C. Jewett, 
John Stoyell, James H. Jewett, C. S. Jennings, 
and E. Greenfield. The latter gentleman has 
held the office from 1866 to the present time. 
The following have been the Secretaries of the 
society : M. K Alley, William Tallman, John L. 
Parker, M. L. Everson, Henry Cutler, Jr., A. H. 
Livingston, B. Alley, M. E. Kenyon, W. H. 
Day and Edward Thomas, the latter gentleman 
having held the office for four years. The fol- 
lowing have been the Treasurers : E. P. K. 
Smith, B. F. Everson, H. H. Tuthill, B. F. Ev- 
erson, Thomson Keeler, three years, M. L. Ev- 
erson, C. S. Jennings, M. R. Allen, S. Edwin 
Day, L. D. Sayles, William E. Keeler, the latter 
for the past four years. 

The society has had in its Board of Directors 
and as vice-presidents and patrons, many of the 
best practical farmers of the towns which patron- 
ized it. The present Directors, 1879, are : C. S. 
Jennings, Moravia; J. Grant, Locke; J. H. i 
Holden and M. Rooks, Moravia; V. S. Richard- 
son, Sempronius ; O. Snider, Moravia ; John 
Tifft, Genoa. The Vice-Presidents are : D. B. 
Satterlee, Locke ; Emmett Leghorn, Locke ; 
Walker Wood and Chauncey Hamblin, Genoa ; 
Delos Kimball and Harmon Mosher, Venice ; 
Calvin Tracey, Scipio ; G. B. WyckofF, Owasco 
Lake ; Henry A. Morgan, Aurora ; John R. 
Austin, Owasco ; A. W. Ellis and E. Brown, 
Niles ; Julius Fitts and Gardner Mason, Dress- ! 
erville; F. Mix and B. Robbins, Summer Hill ; i 
Lorin Smith, Fleming. i 

North Cayuga Agricultural Society. — j 
This society was organized in 1878 with the fol- | 

lowing officers : President, Harvey A. Putnam ; 
Vice-President, Millard Colburn ; Secretary, E. 
C. Bryant ; Treasurer, D. Seward Sheldon. 
Directors : Brutus, W. G. Pierce, William Hen- 
derson, Phillip Martin and C. A. Wilson ; Cato, 
W. E. Robinson and John W. Smith ; Con- 
quest, T. E. Montayne and Grover Lane ; Ira, 
Harvey Ferris and W. H. Carr ; Mentz, Orrin 
Paddock and O. V. Lewis; Montezuma, John 
Mills and James D. Ney ; Sennett, John R. 
Page and Fred. Fellows; Sterling, H. C. Curtis 
and Isaac Turner ; Throop, Chauncey Wethey 
and Egbert Hadden ; Victory, John D. Lane and 
N. Jones ; General Superintendent, Charles 

The first annual fair of this society was held at 
Weedsport in October, 1878, and was well patron- 
ized and attended notwithstanding the inclemency 
of the weather. The ten towns embraced in this 
society are among the richest in the County and 
their varied and fine productions of grain, fruits, 
anim.als and vegetables and the handicraft of 
their households and mechanic shops, furnish 
ample material for exceedingly interesting public 
exhibitions, which, it is believed, now that they 
have beep inaugurated, will be permanently 

General Considerations. — Agricultural so- 
cieties were early fostered and patronized by the 
State. Its contributions to this purpose v/ere not 
large and were conditioned upon the raising of 
an equal amount by the societies to which the 
State patronage was extended. * The small pit- 
tance bestowed by the State stimulated the 
activities of the farmers so generally as to lead 
to the formation of such associations in nearly 
all the counties and a large number of towns and 
districts of the State. 

Their great utility, when properly managed, 
cannot be questioned. The best skill and the 
greatest success of the practical farmers of the 
section represented at the fairs, are brought to 
the notice of all who attend them. Proper emu- 
lation is excited by seeing what others have done 
and an ambition is aroused in many observers 
to imitate their example, whether it be in the 
production of grains or fruits, the rearing of ani- 
mals, or in the utilizing of the improved tools 
and implements which are thus brought to their 

Agricultural fairs have not only an economic, 



and a money value in the direction intimated ; but 
when instituted in and conducted by a rural popu- 
lation, and confined to the exhibition of farm and 
household products, and the tools and imple- 
ments appropriate to their production, they are 
occasions of pure and pleasant social inter- 

Counting the several annual County Fairs, 
from their first institution to the present time, 
they cover a period of over fifty years, and the 
interest in them is greater to-day than at any 
former period of our history. Under the pres- 
ent County Society, they embrace a period of 
thirty-eight years, in which the organization has 
been maintained intact, and exhibitions continu- 
ous. The district associations which had been 
formed, independently of the central society, 
have withdrawn some of the patronage which the 
latter would otherwise have enjoyed ; yet these 
local societies have done, and are doing great 
good. They have brought nearer home the ex- 
hibitions of agricultural progress and success ; 
and a larger number can therefore conveniently 
patronize and attend them, than could be induced 
to gather at a County center. Large and deeply 
interested throngs attend them, the, premiums 
offered are satisfactory, and the receipts equal or 
exceed the expenses. 

The town, district and County associations, 
are auxiliary to the State Agricultural Society, to 
which they report. The State society was formed 
in 1832, revived and extended in its scope in 
1841, when the first State fair and cattle show 
was held. Since the latter date, annual fairs 
have been held, and a large and exceedingly 
valuable volume of the " transactions" of the 
society annually published. That work has now 
reached its thirty-eighth volume. These trans- 
actions have been published in large numbers 
and widely circulated in this County and through- 
out this State. They comprise papers of great 
value to our farmers, and have tended greatly to 
improve the agriculture of the State. 

Cayuga County has supplied but one president 
of the State society. Col. John M. Sherwood, of 
Auburn. Col. Sherwood began his agricultural 
career at 50 years of age. He had spent his life 
till then in management of the great stage lines 
running from Albany to Buffalo, of which a full 
account is given under the head of transportation 
and travel. He carried to his farm the same 

energy and force of character which had marked 
his management of the great stage lines of John 
M. Sherwood & Co., but not with equal success. 
His large farm was finely improved and thor- 
oughly cultivated and stocked with the choicest 
of flocks and herds. He reared none but the 
finest animals which he spared no care nor cost 
to procure. In that respect he benefited his 
County and State more than himself The flocks 
and herds which have descended from those of 
his introduction still remain and some have been 
exported as very superior animals. Col'. Sher- 
wood was president of the first reorganized 
agricultural society of the County in 1842. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 

General History of the Order. ^ — This 
association of the tillers of the soil originated 
with O. H. Kelly, a farmer of Minnesota, his 
purpose being to unite and secure the cooperation 
of the various agricultural societies of the coun- 
try, for their mutual aid and benefit. He sub- 
mitted his plans to various gentlemen in Wash- 
ington, D. C.,and elsewhere, in cooperation with 
whom the draft of the first degree of the Order 
was completed on August 6th, 1867. 

In September following, a circular was pre- 
pared by the leader of the movement, and sent 
to individuals, prominent in agriculture, by whom 
the plan was very cordially and generally ap- 
proved. Some fifty different names were sug- 
gested ; yet " Patrons of Husbandry " was chosen 
as the most appropriate name and the word 
"Grange" selected to designate the place of 
meeting. These facts then should be borne in 
mind, — the individual is a " Patron of Husband- 
ry," the place of meeting is a " Grange." 

The National Grange was organized, Decem- 
ber 4th, 1867, at the office of Master Wm. B. 
Saunders, at Washington, D. C, there being less 
than twenty members present. 

The following were the first officers : Master, 
William B. Saunders, Washington, D. C. ; Over- 
seer, Anson Bartlett, of Ohio ; Lecturer, J. R. 
Thompson, of Vermont ; Steward, Wm. Muir, 
of Pennsylvania ; Assistant Steward, A. L. 
Moses, of New York ; Chaplain, Rev. A. B. 
Grosh, of Pennsylvania; Treasurer, Wm. M. 
Ireland, of Pennsylvania ; Secretary, O. H. 
Kelly, of Minnesota ; Gate-Keeper, Edward P. 
Farris, of Illinois. 



The Patrons of Husbandry embrace the fol- 
lowing subordinate organizations : First degree, 
Laborer, (man), Maid, (woman) ; second degree, 
Cultivator, (man), Shepherdess, (woman) ; third 
degree, Harvester, (man). Gleaner^ (woman) ; 
fourth degree, Husbandman, (man), Matron, (wo- 
man). State Grange — fifth degree, Pomona, 
(hope). National Grange — sixth degree, Flora, 
(charity) ; seventh degree, Ceres, (faith). 

New York State Grange was organized in 
November, 1873, first Master, George D. Hink- 

Cayuga County Patrons of Husbandry. — 
The first introduction of the Order into this 
County, was made January 12th, 1874, by the 
organization of Cayuga Grange, No. 47, at 
Meridian, in the town of Cato. This was fol- 
lowed, at different times, by the organization of 
the following in the different towns : Brutus, No. 
48 ; Mentz, No. 49 ; Throop, No. 70 ; Union, 
of Owasco, No. — ; Scipio, No. 74 ; Union, of 
Springport, No. 86 ; Logan, No. 107 ; Kings 
Ferry, No. 125 ; Springport, No. 182 ; Levanna, 
No. 187; Moravia, No. 201; Sherwood, No. 
208 ; Home, No. 232 ; Fleming, No. 258 ; 
Owasco, No. 271 ; Aurelius, No. 371 ; Sennett, 
No. 383 ; Genoa, No. — ; making a total of 19 
Granges with a total membership of about 

Embraced in the number are very many of the 
best agriculturists of the County, and by frank 
intercourse with each other in the Grange, very 
interesting social and business acquaintances 
have been made. 

Among the many worthy gentlemen who have 
served in the several offices of the Order, may be 
mentioned, Milton Rude, M. C. Remington, Milton 
Munroe, H. H. Treat, J. E. Hadden, H. A. Put- 
nam, E. B. Marvin, Abraham Brinkerhoff, from 
the north, and J. W. Shank, J. and A. Baker, 
John Shank, J. C. Peckham, Wm. Peckham, J. 
L. Searing, Wm. P. Sisson, D. C. Gould, L C. 
Goodyear, J. Corwin, from the south part of the 
County, together with a large number of other 
gentlemen, equally active and efficient, whose 
names we have not the space to record. 

In the spring of 1876, the National and State 
Granges recommended the counties to organize 
the Pomona, or fifth degree. This was not sat- 
isfactory to the delegates in Cayuga County ; 
but the latter determined to reorganize the local 

council, and appointed a committee to draft a 
constitution and by-laws. This constitution was 
adopted by the council on June ist, and the 
following officers elected : Master, Wm. Sisson ; 
i Overseer, Abraham Brinkerhoff; Lecturer, J. C. 
Peckham: Chaplain, Milton Rude; Steward, 
William Peckham ; Assistant Steward, Edgar 
Howell ; Secretary, C. W. Brown : Treasurer, 
A. House ; Gate-Keeper, Millard Coburn ; Ceres, 
Sarah Van Sickle ; Flora, Mrs. E. Culver ; 
Pomona, Catherine Eaker ; Lady Assistant 
Steward, Minerva Hadden. Executive Commit- 
tee, E. B. Marvin, H. H. Treat and J. W. 
Shank. Purchasing Agent, M. C. Remington. 

The annual meeting of this council is held in 
the city of Auburn, on the first Tuesday in June, 
and quarterly meetings, are held in June, Sep- 
tember, December and March, at the different 
Granges, as may be determined, and special meet- 
ings are called at the pleasure of the council. 

Though this council was not strictly regular, 
or in full compliance with the rules of the Order, 
it was nevertheless of much practical benefit in 
the purchase of agricultural implements, grocer- 
ies and fertilizers. The executive committee ar- 
ranged with dealers in Auburn and elsewhere, to 
procure goods for awhile at highly satisfactory 
discounts ; yet from neglect, or other cause, the 
members of the Order did not generally avail 
themselves of the full benefits thus offered them. 
The purchasers were too generally anxious to 
avail themselves of the advantage of wholesale dis- 
counts on the purchase of single articles, or goods 
in small quantities'; and dealers soon saw that 
in a trade so conducted, the advantages were all 
on one side, and the measure, for the time, was, 
to a large extent, a failure. At present there is 
no organized system of trade existing in the 
Order in this County, though purchases are 
made by some of the Granges, through systems 
successfully maintained in other counties, and an 
indirect and decided benefit has resulted, particu- 
larly in the purchase of fertilizers. 

In this item alone there has been saved by the 
farmers of the County many thousands of dollars, 
and intelligence has been gained, which will inure 
to their future benefit. In the sale of their products, 
in the purchase of implements and tools, in the 
benefits of the Patrons' Fire Relief Association, 
in the social and educational influence of the Or- 
der, by which each of its members become pos- 



sessed of the information of all, consists a 
part of the advantages which the Patrons of 
Husbandry confer upon its members. It is 
more comprehensive than the Farmers' Club, in 
that it embraces both sexes and is rendered more 
attractive by a pleasing ritual, and the subtle 
charm of secrecy. 

Patrons of Husbandry Fire Relief As- ' 
sociATiON. — This association was the happy 
thought of the Hon. Milton Rude, of Weeds- , 
port, and first made known at a meeting of the j 
County councils of the " Patrons " on the first [ 
day of March, 1877. A committee was ap- ] 
pointed to draft articles of association, consisting 
of Milton Rude, H. H. Treat, Elisha Cook, J. J. 
Ammerman, and J. L. Giles. These articles 1 
were adopted by the council on the seventh day ! 
of June following. On June 30th, 1877, pursuant j 
to request of the council to send one representa- | 
tive from each grange to perfect their organiza- 
tion, there met in convention in Auburn the fol- 
lowing representatives : 

P. O. Address. No. of Grange. 

Milton Rude Weedsport, N. Y. 48 

J. L. Searing Poplar Ridge, N. Y. 208 

H. H. Treat Box 80, Auburn, N. Y. 70 

J. L. Giles Skaneateles, N. Y. 271 

Pardon Brown__ Aurora, N. Y. 187 

D. B. Post Ovvasco Lake, N. Y. 258 

S. C. Van Sickle Cayuga, N. Y. 86 

J. H. Baker Aurelius, N. Y. 371 

George W. Bell- - Montezuma, N. Y. 107 

C. H. Corwin.. Five Corners, N. Y. 132 
Alfred Lanterman Kings Ferry, N. Y. 125 
Joseph Eldridge_ Union Springs, N. Y. 182 

L. W. Treat Port Byron, N. Y. 49 

Upon consultation it was found that there were 
fifty-six applications for insurance in the pro- 
posed organization, of property to an amount ex- 
ceeding ^100,000, and that the plan was received 
with great favor. By-laws were adopted and 
the following officers chosen : 

Milton Rude, President, Weedsport, N. Y., 
Grange No. 48. 

J. L. Searing, Vice-Pres't, Poplar Ridge, N. 
Y., Grange No. 203. 

J. H. Baker, Secretary, Aurelius, N. Y., 
Grange No. 371. 

H. H. Treat, Treasurer, Auburn, N. Y., Box 
80. Grange No. 70. 

The members present were declared directors 
of the association. The members reassembled 
pursuant to adjournment, on July 28, at which 
applications for insurance were reported, amount- 

ing to ^133,611, and the decision was made to 
carry out the purpose of the organization. The 
rates fixed in the first instance were one-ninth 
of one per cent, on the less hazardous, and one- 
seventh on the more hazardous risks, the money 
thus obtained being intended to meet the few ex- 
penses incident to the organization and main- 
tenance of the business. 

The necessary books and blanks were procured 
by the treasurer, the cost of which was ^i 13. 12, 
and the association was now ready to commence 
business. The first policies were issued on the 
eleventh day of August, 1877, and at the next 
annual meeting on September 19th, ^197,412 
worth of property had been insured owned by 
eighty-one persons. 

The compensation of the officers is two dollars 
per day for necessary services, and the secretary 
is allowed fifty cents additional for the issuing 
of each policy. The local directors are each 
allowed one dollar for survey and application. 

On the 27th of July, 1878, one year after the 
organization of the association, there had been 
one hundred and twenty-one policies issued on 
property to the amount of ^302,921, with no 
loss during the year, nor any assessment. 

No one can become a member of this associa- 
tion who is not a member in good standing, of 
the Patrons of Husbandry. All the farm prop- 
I erty usually insured is embraced in the policies 

of the association. 
j The successful initiation and progress of this 
1 association is certainly remarkable. It is entirely 
j voluntary, without legal sanction, and bound to- 
I gether only by the honor of its members. The 
principle on which it is founded is clearly a sound 
one. It is a mutual insurance company in which 
the risks and benefits are as nearly equal as it is 
possible to have them. The members are all 
engaged in the same pursuit and their property is 
about equally exposed to destruction by fire, and 
when so destroyed, the associates are united to 
mutually bear the loss in proportion to their re- 
spective interests in the common organization as 
represented by their several policies. 

The following tables taken from the census of 
1875, will show by towns the area of farm lands, 
the value of farms, of farm buildings, of live stock 
and of implements, the area of crops and the 
amount of agricultural productions : 


Civil Divisions. 


Woodland Other 


I Of Farm 


other than 

I Dwellings. 

Dollars. | 



21 1,010 


92,1 10 

Cost of 


bought in 


Dollars. Dollars 

City of Auburn . 
















Sempronius. . . . 


Springport .... 


Summer Hill.. . 




II, 1 12 

















918 292 





1,014,1 15 

rotal 336,16559,667 22,37328,864,270 3,682,477 3,215.413 1,127,428 45,018 2,866,435 
















5. 742 























Civil Divisions 

City of Auburn 




















Summer Hill 




Total |ios,3os|io2,526i89,899[9o,467|79,534[7S,957|iot,266|6,oii|i5,489[i8,89o]376,6o8 


Civil Divisions. 




City of Auburn 








Ledyard .... 



Montezuma ... 
Moravia. ..... 




Sempronius . . . 


Springport . . . 


Summer Hill. 




Total. . . . 


21 I 





















































28,24911,083,548 32,921 34,930 



45 436 














33 22 


4] 16 

'I ." 







Civil Divisions. 

Area. Produced 

Acres. Acres. 


Area Sown. Produced. 

74^1 1874. 

1874. j 1875. 
Acres. Acres 

Acres. I Acres. 


Acres. Acres. 



City of Auburn . 











Montezuma . . . 





Sempronius. . . . 


Springport... . 

Sterling . . . . . . 

Summer Hill . 




Total . 

























1,1 1 1 












371 560 17, 





38,253 39,973 709,442 940 933 428 340 6,089 129 124 2,242 









Civil Divisions 

City of Auburn 




















Summer Hill . . . 




Total . 

Acres. Acres. 


1 874. 









62 207 

Sq. Rods. Sq. Rods. Pounds. 

36 |io,9r2 5,893 6,6721670,68338480 32720306535414205632 




















2 0,949 
1 1,890 



















in 1S74. 

June ., ,875. | 


Civil Divisions. 







Colts of 

Colts of 



Mules or 





Value of 
eggs sold. 














City of Auburn. 


















































4 574 
















































3,906; 2,839 
3,6671 2,794 
4,838 3.361 

5.2'9| 3-324 
5.468 5,, 54 
2,264 1,562 
2.437 957 
2,132 1,788 
2,761 2,014 
4,229 3,776 
2,598 2,681 
1,849! 2.186 
2,0701 1,247 
3,48il 1,928 
3,074' 2,126 
7.383! 3,4'3 
1,9141 1.324 
2,998| 2,613 
4,237; 4.521 
5.214! 2,787 



Mentz . . . 










Summer Hill.. . 




















Number Shorn. 


Lambs Raised. 




Killed by 


On Farms. 

Jt.NE ., .87s. 


Pork made 

Pigs of 1 Of l87i 




I,. 96 
2 922 




■ 875. 

and_ older. 





























1. 179 







































City of Auburn. 




13 581 






































" "e 




















Montezuma. . . 





Sempronius. . . 


Springport . . . 


Summer Hill.. 






Total ... 













Auburn . . 
Aurelius. . 
Brutus . . 


Fleming . 
Genoa . . . 


Ledyard. . 
Locke . . . 
Mentz . . . 
Niles .... 
Owasco . . 
Scipio . . . 
Sennett .. 
Sum. Hil 
Throop.. . 
Venice... , 
Victory. . , 


Bulls of oxen and 
all ages. ] steers. 





3,786! 4,708 5,, 





N umbe r. 








I 233 





































2,689! 2,153122,341122,525 


1874. 187;. 

Number, Number. 
40 40 

18 74 








,628 2,443 2,555,361 




























53,436 220,895 



Study of the Census. 

Proportion of Wood-Land. — The census 
shows the entire County to contain 418,205 acres 
of land. Of this 336,165, or more than three- 
fourths, is improved, while there are in wood-land 
59,667 acres, and 22,732 acres, or an average of 
nearly one thousand acres to a town, which is 
reported as not being wood-land and as " other- 
wise not improved." There are in the County 
an average of two acres of wood-land to fifteen 
acres of cleared-land. Sempronius and Sterling 
have nearly one-third of their soil covered with 
wood ; Conquest and Cato nearly one-fourth ; 
Victory more than one-fourth ; Niles and Mora- 
via more than one-fifth ; while Springport has 
less than one-tenth, and Sennett less than one- 
twelfth, and the least proportion of wood of any 
town in the County. 

Cash Value of Farms. — The census reports 
the average value of farms in Springport at about 
$109 per acre, Aurelius ^91, Sennett ^83, Cato 
$^6, Ovvasco $61, Summer Hill $51, and Sem- 
pronius ^45, and the average value of the County 
at $6<^. 

Value of Stock. — The gross sales from all 
the farms of the County in 1874 were ^2,886,435, 
of which Aurelius supplied the largest amount, 
$184,442 ; Cato next, 5174,375, and Conquest 
third, 5170,154. 

Use of Fertilizers. — Ledyard used the 
most fertilizers, the cost being $7,968 ; Venice 
next, 57,020. Fleming expended 55.742 for fer- 
tilizers, and Genoa 55.442. All the towns in the 
County used fertilizers more or less, the least 
being used in the town of Ira — but 531 worth. 

Plowed Land. — It will be seen that the 
grain-growing towns of Aurelius, Springport, 
Sennett, Cato, etc., plowed an average of about 
one-third of their improved lands, while the dairy 
towns of Niles, Summer Hill, Sempronius, etc., 
plowed about one-sixth only. 

Grapes. — Two towns, Ledyard and Spring- 
port, supplied two-thirds of the grapes grown in 
the County, while the northern towns, in which 
they would succeed finely, show a very small 

Maple Sugar — Two towns. Summer Hill 
and Sempronius, supply two-thirds of all the 
maple sugar produced in the County. 

Rye. — There was but 381 acres of rye grown 
in the County, of which three-fourths was pro- 

duced in the towns of Conquest, Sterling and 

Tobacco. — There were 32,720 pounds of 
tobacco grown in the County, of which Ledyard 
supplied nearly one-half, and in sixteen towns 
the plant was not cultivated. 

Hops. — There were but 36 acres planted to 
hops in the County. 

Farm Buildings. — Of the rural towns, Cato 
shows the greatest value in farm buildings, 5244,- 
360 ; Niles next, $21 1,540 ; Ledyard third, 52 11,- 
264, and Genoa fourth, with 5211,010. 


Cayuga County Medical Societies. 

First Society — Irs Members and Proceed- 
ings — Society Library — Disbandment 
AND its Cause — Formation and Proceed 
iNGS OF the Second Society — Membership 
in Auburn— History of Homeopathy — Its 
Introduction and Progress in the County 
— Homeopathic Society and Physicians. 

I^'HE Legislature of 1806 authorized the 
formation of county medical societies 
upon which certain powers were conferred and 
duties imposed. Previously, all persons desiring 
to practice physic and surgery, were required to 
present evidence of their competency to the 
Chancellor of the State, to a Judge of the Su- 
preme or Common Pleas court, or to a Master in 
Chancery, and on receiving a certificate entitling 
them to practice, to file it in the county clerk's 
office, under penalty of receiving no remunera- 
tion, or in case pay was received, to be fined $25 
each time it was received. The law authorizing 
medical societies conferred authority on them to 
grant licenses and recognize diplomas from 
other States and countries, but such licenses and 
diplomas were required to be filed in the county 
clerk's office under like penalty. 

At that time there were not more than forty 
physicians in the County, which was then con- 
siderably larger than now. One-half of them met 
at the tavern of Daniel Avery in Aurora, August 
7, 1806, and organized the Cayuga County Medi- 



cal Society. They were Nathaniel Aspinwall, and 
Ebenezer Hewitt, of Genoa, David Annable, of 
Moravia, William C. Bennett, of Aurelius, Josiah 
Bevier, and Jacob Bogart, of Ovvasco, Nathan 
Branch, Joseph Cole, of Auburn, Asahel Cooley, 
of Fleming, Frederick Delano, of Aurora, Isaac 
Dunning, Luther Hanc.hett, Silas Holbrook, 
Barnabas Smith and Ezra Strong, all five of 
Scipio, Consider King, of Venice, Parley Kinney, j 
of Sherwood, and James McClung, John Post 
and Matthew Tallman, of Scipioville. Frederick 
Delano was elected President, James McClung, 
Vice-President, Jacob Bogart, Secretary, and 
Consider King, Treasurer. At a meeting held 
in Levi Stevens' tavern, in Scipio, the first Thurs- 
day in November of that year, by-laws were 
adopted, five censors were elected, Doctor Bar- 
nabas Smith elected delegate to the State Medi- 
cal Society, the present seal of the society ordered, J 
and a tax of $4 a year levied on each member, 
to procure a library and provide medical appara- 
tus. The anniversary meetings were fixed to 
be held on the first Thursday of November, and ! 
the quarterly meetings on the first Thursday of 
February, May and August, and dissertations 
and discussions upon medical and surgical topics 
were provided for. The licentiates of the society 
were required to sign the following declaration, 
and the society archives contain a long file of the 
declarations signed by men honored in their day 
and generation for a faithful compliance there- 
with : j 

"I do solemnly declare that I >j'ill hon- 
estly, virtuously and chastely conduct myself in 
the practice of physic and surgery, with the j 
privileges of exercising which profession I am j 
now to be invested ; and that I will with fidelity 
and honor, do everything in my power for the j 
benefit of the sick committed to my charge." 1 

As the law required societies to enforce its 
provisions in their respective counties, Enos T. I 
Throop was appointed law-counselor in August, | 
1807 ; thereafter the records show that prosecu- j 
tions were numerous against irregular practi- [ 
tioners. The by-laws required then, as now, that 
the place of meeting should be determined from 
year to year. In November, 1806, the office of 
Doctor Barnabas Smith, of Scipio, was selected 
as the place of meeting for the succeeding year. 
The library also was directed to be kept there, 
and Doctor Smith was appointed librarian. The 
selection of the place of meeting occasioned much 

strife between Auburn and Aurora, (Scipio being 
accepted as a compromise,) from this time until 
1818, when the southern towns relinquished their 
.claims, and the meetings have since been held at 
Auburn by a tacit consent, and until 1848, atCoe's 
or Hudson's tavern or the Western Exchange. 
The library ceased its peregrinations and settled 
there also. 

The membership of the society was large, and 
included most of the leading physicians in the 
County ; many of whose names recall recollec- 
tions of active, useful and honorable lives. That 
they maintained a creditable professional stand- 
ing is evidenced by the following citations from 
the society records entered in the words of Doc- 
tor Silas Holbrook, of Scipio: 

"August 3, 1 8 16, Doctors B. King, Silas Hol- 
brook, August Miller, Andrew Groom, and Fred- 
erick Delano met at the house of Mr. Roger 
Kinney, of Scipio, where Doctor Delano per- 
formed lithotomy on the daughter of William 
Kinney, aged 7 years; the stone weighed 13 
pennyweights, 14 grains. They then proceeded 
to Jonathan Winslovv's, where Doctor Delano 
performed the same operation on a daughter of 
Mr. Winslow, about the same age; the stone 
weighing 5 pennyweights, 5 grains. The stone 
in the last mentioned case appeared to be a light 
porous substance and composed of different 
laminae, with an intermediate diploe, and nearly 
the size of the former." 

In 1834, Doctor Frank H. Hamilton was ap- 
pointed to report on the botanical and agricul- 
tural products of the County ; Doctor Hum- 
phries, on its mineralogy and geology ; Doctor 
Ira H. Smith, on its diseases, and Doctor Lan- 
singh Briggs, on its statistics, &c. In 1836, the 
society offered a ^25 prize for the best essay on 
the endemic fevers of the Western country. Doc- 
tor Frank H. Hamilton obtained the prize, and 
the essay was published in the medical periodi- 
cals of that day. 

At the annual meeting in November, 181 1, a 
committee of three was appointed to act in con- 
cert with the trustees of Cayuga Academy, at 
Aurora, to devise the best means to obtain from 
the Legislature a grant to the academy for the 
purpose of erecting and continuing an anatomic- 
al, surgical and chemical school in said acade- 
my, and the committee were empowered to use 
the authority and influence of the society for 
that purpose. The project failed at that time, 
but was not given up. At the annual meeting 



in 1817, Doctors Pitney, I. H. Smith, and Cole 
were appointed a committee to consider the pro- 
priety of a medical school, at Auburn, and in 
1819, the society petitioned the Inspectors of the 
State Prison, at Auburn, to give the bodies of 
deceased convicts for dissection. The Legisla- 
ture subsequently by law appropriated all such 
bodies unclaimed by friends for that purpose. A 
special meeting of the society was held in Jan- 
uary, 1820, to further the project of a medical 
school in Auburn, a committee was appointed to 
circulate a petition to the Legislature in its be- 
half, and Doctor Erastus D. Tuttle, then physi- 
cian to the prison, was delegated to go to Albany 
at the expense of the society to promote this ob- 
ject. These efforts were put forth more es- 
pecially with a view to utilizing the prison hospital 
for clinical instruction, and the unclaimed bodies 
of deceased convicts for instruction in anatomy. 
At the society meetings of 1825 to 1831, the un- 
dertaking was continuously prosecuted, but with- 
out avail. Hobart College, of Geneva, founded 
in 1825, finally succeeded in diverting the pro- 
jected institution to that place. But meanwhile, 
aided by the grant of unclaimed deceased con- 
victs for dissection, and the prison hospital for 
clinical instruction. Doctor E. D. Tuttle, the 
prison physician, assisted by Doctor James 
Douglass, of Philadelphia, and Doctors Jedediah 
and Ira H. Smith, as lecturers and teachers, and 
Doctor Thomas N. Calkins as anatomical dem- 
onstrator, opened and conducted a medical 
school, in a building erected by Doctor Tuttle for 
that purpose, next above the Bank of Auburn, 
on Genesee street, and from 1825 to 1829 classes 
of students were yearly instructed there, while 
the Legislature was annually besieged for a 
charter. At the death of Doctor Tuttle, June 
22d, 1829, at the age of 39 years, Doctor John 
G. Morgan was appointed physician to the pris- 
on, and, associating with himself Doctor Thomas 
Spencer, Frank H. Hamilton and others, con- 
tinued the school in a building on North street, 
on the west side, between Genesee and Water 
streets. The lectures and course of instruction 
at these schools were of a creditable character, 
and Doctors Spencer and Hamilton here com- 
menced careers, which were so signally distin- 
guished elsewhere, as professional instructors and 

The North Street School was at one time the 

subject of a popular outburst on account of the 
dissections carried on there, which, however, 
subsided without much harm. When Geneva 
secured the charter for which Auburn had 
striven, the voluntarily maintained Auburn 
School received its death blow, and Doctors 
Spencer and Hamilton became professors at 
Geneva. But Geneva, not possessing the advan- 
tages of a hospital for clinical instruction, was 
obliged at length to yield the coveted prize to 

The spirit and standing of the society is fur- 
ther illustrated by the adoption at the January 
meeting in 1842, of a resolution appointing a 
committee of five, of which Doctor S. Gilmore, 
now of Fleming, was chairman, to publish at the 
expense of the society, a journal of medical news 
and papers prepared by members of the society. 
One number of this paper was published in 
pamphlet form, at a cost to the society of ;^8o, 
and proved too expensive to be continued. This 
number contained a paper on Asiatic cholera, 
and several others, among which was one by 
Doctor Consider King, of Venice, on Acute 
Peritonitis, in which he advocated the use of 
efficient doses of calomel and opium in its treat- 
ment, an early recommendation of what is now 
considered a standard practice. In 1841, Doctor 
Joseph T. Pitney, who died in Auburn, April 
20th, 1853, performed successfully on a woman 
in Scipio, the capital operation of tying the sub- 
clavian artery on the left side above ^e clavicle, 
in the second part of its course, for aneurism. 
To American surgery very much is due for es- 
tablishing the propriety of successful operations 
upon the large arteries, and to American surgery 
is exclusively due the credit of originating the 
operation of ovariotomy. Doctor Lansingh 
Briggs was the first to perform the latter opera- 
tion in this County — October 3d, 1867 — and was 
successful in the result. He has performed the 
operation thirteen times, in eight of which he 
was successful. These evidences of a high 
standing of professional intelligence and skill 
might be largely added to. Previous to 1806, 
when the evidence of qualification to practice 
was certified by the courts, the following inter- 
esting incidents are recorded : October 6th, 
1797, Judge Wm. Stevens, of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, certified that Doctor John H. Fris- 
bee had exhibited to him a certificate from the 


Chevalier St. George, Surgeon-in-Chief of Kings 
Hospital, at Port Au Prince, of Doctor Frisbee's 
service under him at said hospital and of his 
qualification to practice medicine and surgery in 
any part of the world. A certificate of license 
for another member of the society was based 
upon the diploma granted by the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons of London, England ; 
and one, decidedly Hibernian, was upon the cer- 
tificate of two gentlemen, who each stated that 
the other was a physician in Galway, county 
Galway, without stating from what source their 
own right to be deemed physicians was derived. 
The number of members who have joined the 
society, is about 230, who have held diplomas 
granted by the Medical Colleges of this State, 
of Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and by the State and 
County Societies. 

The society library was commenced in 1806, 
from the support derived from a yearly tax on 
the membership of an amount equal to $20. It 
grew to a respectable size and was valuable in 
its composition. Its books and journals were cir- 
culated throughout the County and it continued 
to flourish till 1848, when the society virtually 
disbanded and sold the library at auction. The 
explanation of this action is to be found in the 
act of the Legislature, passed in 1845, affecting 
the practice of medicine in this State, and which 
it was thought would prove detrimental to the 
interests of the profession. It has, however, 
worked beneficially, in resting the prestige of the 
profession upon its real rather than its assuriied 
merits ; but it was not until 1864 that the society 
aroused from the torpor which followed this 
action and renewed its career of usefulness. It 
now numbers thirty-six members, who are drawn 
from all parts of the County. 

The following are the members who resided 
in Auburn at the time of joining the society, 
with the date of joining : 

David H. Armstrong, June 6, 1866; Chester 
Bradford, May i, 1828; Asahel M. Bennett, May 
5, 1814; Leander Bigelow, August 7, 1828; 
Lansingh Briggs, May 5, 183 1 ; J. D. Button, 
February 3, 1831 ; Truman S. Brinckerhoff, 
August 31,1 864; C. C. Bates, September 10, 1 873 ; 
Joseph Cole, August 7, 1806; A. H. Cogswell, 
May 6, 1824 ; A. L. Cooper, August i, 1833 ; 
T. N. Calkins, August 7, 1834; J. Ambrose 

Crane, June i, 1837; Edward C. Cadwell, Jan- 
uary 4, 1838; Walter Channing, May 10, 1876; 
R. H. Chase, June, 1871 ; J. P. Creveling, June, 
1871 ; Theodore Dinion, June 3, 1841 ; David 

Dimon, June 2, 1842; Dirker, September 

12, 1871; Iddo Ellis, November 6, 1806; Charles 
E. Ford, January 6, 1820; Walter Fosgate, Au- 
gust 7, 1828; Blanchard Fosgate. June 2, 1843; 
C. L. George, October 3, 1866 ; Cornelius Groot, 
June 6, 1866; John Gerin, October 7, 1872; 
Erastus Humphreys, August 6, 1824 ; Frank H. 
Hamilton, August i, 1833: Charles A. Hyde, 
January 7, 1841; Edward Hall, August 31, 1S64; 

C. M. Hobble, June 2, 1871 ; Burton B. Hoxie. 
June 2, 1871; William O. Luce, November 10, 
1875; Stephen Mosher, May i, 1817; John G. 
Morgan, February 3, 1825; O. Munson, June 8, 
1838; Daniel Monroe, June 3, 1869; Francis 
O'Brien, October 12, 1864; Joseph T. Pitney, 
November 5, 18 12; Aaron Pitney, February 6, 
1824; Ira H. Smith, November 5, 1812; A. R. 
Shank, January, 186S ; C. J. Spratt, June 2, 
1S69; Charles P. Sanford, June 2, 1869; Erastus 

D. Tuttle, August 6, 1818; Anna H. Searing, 
January 14, 1874; Amanda Sanford, June, 1871; 
Charles Van Eps, August 7, 1828; Charles E. 
Van Anden, January 18, 1861 ; Joseph M.Wood, 
August 7, 1827; Sylvester WiJlard, May 6, 
1S24; Andrew D. Wood, February 2, 1832; 
Noel Weaver, June 4, 1838 ; J. W. Wilkie, June 
1,1865; H. L. Wood, June 2, 1S75, John I. 
Brinckerhoff, Jr., June 2, 1S69. 

Only two women have been members of this 
society. Their names are included in the above 

Cayuga County Homeopathic Society. — 
The therapeutics of the Homeopathic school of 
medicine is founded on the theory of siniilia 
similibiis ciiraniur. The principle was discovered 
and applied by Samuel Hahnemann, an accom- 
plished and skillful German practitioner of the old 
school of medicine, who abandoned a lucrative 
practice under Government patronage, at Gom- 
meon, near Magdeburg, on account of conscien- 
tious scruples against administering drugs ac- 
cording to the vague formulas then in use. Hav- 
ing proved certain remedies upon himself and 
others, he commenced the practice of his new 
theory at Leipsic, whence he was soon driven by 
the bitter opposition he encountered to Paris, 
where he met with success and secured converts, 



among whom was Doctor Gram of Copenhagen, 
who, having won the highest grade of merit in 
the Royal Academy of Surgery in that city, came 
to New York in 1825, and introduced the new 
practice into America. It spread rapidly, not- 
withstanding the prejudice and bitter opposition 
against it, and was first introduced into Cayuga 
County, in May, 1841, by Doctor Horatio Robin- 
son, sr. Dr. Robinson commenced the practice 
of allopathy in 1826 in the towns of Stonington, 
Conn., and Westerly, R. I., which he continued 
there 12 years, in company with his father-in-law. 
In 1838, he removed to the town of Potter, Yates 
county, N. Y., and in the fall of 1840, having 
been called in consultation with Doctors Wil- 
liams, Heath and Childs, residing at Seneca 
Falls, he became acquainted with Doctor Biegler, 
who removed that fall to Rochester, from Albany, 
having settled there some five years previously 
from Germany. Doctor Biegler was a disciple of 
Hahnemann, and after a consultation with Doc- 
tor Robinson, furnished him with books and 
medicines and gave him directions to guide him 
in his experiments with the latter. Doctor Rob- 
inson became a convert to the new system of ther- 
apeutics and removed to Auburn in May, 1841, 
where he commenced practice. He formed a 
copartnership with Dr. E. Humphrey, then 
physician to the prison, whom he accompanied 
by invitation the next day after his arrival, to 
see a patient, a son of Sherman Beardsley, 
then one of the wealthy and influential mer- 
chants of the place. The patient was a boy 
about 10 years old, who had been sick seven 
weeks with fever, supervening measles and 
whose case Doctors Pitney and Bigelow, who 
had been in consultation with Doctor Humphrey, 
had considered a doubtful one. " The patient," 
says Doctor Robinson, "had no pain, but a dry, 
hot skin, dry, tickling cough, no expectoration, no 
soreness about the chest, constipation, constant 
thirst, no appetite, and extreme emaciation. 
The second day from this visit Doctor Humphrey 
left for New York, and I took charge of the pa- 
tient. On visiting him in the morning, there be- 
ing no change in his condition, I dissolved a few 
globules of aconite in a half tumblerful of wa- 
ter and directed a teaspoonful every four hours. 
In thirty-six hours the fever was entirely sub- 
dued. Hepor. sulph. soon removed the cough, 
and Pulsatilla and chammomilla completed the 

cure, and in eight days he was dismissed cured." 
This was the first casein Cayuga County treated 
homeopathically. Doctor Robinson's first con- 
1 vert to homeopathy was Doctor McCarthy, of 
j Throopsville, the determining cause being a suc- 
I cessful treatment by Doctor Robinson of a pa- 
I tient who had been treated by himself and Doctor 
Clary, and consigned to Doctor Robinson's care 
because considered incurable. Doctor McCarthy's 
duties were excessive as his ride extended over 
the northern part of the County. In 1858 or 
1859 he was thrown from his carriage and re- 
ceived a severe contusion upon the right side of 
the head and face, which resulted in a corcinom- 
atous tumor, involving the parotid gland, the 
submaxillary, and a portion of the thyroid gland. 
This injury so much impaired his naturally strong 
constitution that he sank into a premature grave 
in 1863. The second convert to homeopathy 
in this County was Doctor Cator, of Moravia, 
who was led to make inquiries concerning it from 
the effect of Doctor Robinson's treatment of a 
patient of his — a daughter of Judge Smith, sister 
of the late Doctor Smith, of Auburn — who, 
though suffering from tubercular phthisis in an 
incurable form, was so much improved as to be 
able to visit around the village, and inspired her 
friends with the hope of her recovery ; and upon 
his, Cator's wife, who was suffering from a se- 
vere case of gastritis, which yielded to the 
remedies successfully. This was in the fall of 
1841. Doctor Hiram Bennett, a partner of Doc- 
tor Cator's, ventured an investigation with like 
result. Doctor Cator removed about this time 
to Syracuse, and introduced homeopathy 
into Onondaga county, and Doctor Bennett, 
to Rochester, where he died. The late Doctor 
Smith, of Auburn, who was then pursuing his 
studies with Doctors Bennett and Cator, being 
thus left without a preceptor, took up the home- 
opathic practice, and continued in Moravia till 
1862, when he removed to Auburn. During the 
first four years' practice in Auburn, Doctor E. 
C. Witheral, a brilliant student, graduated and 
settled in Cincinnati, where he worked up a 
splendid practice, and continued until he died, 
much lamented by both schools of medicine. 
Doctor C. E. Swift, now of Auburn, and Doctor 
George Allen went from Doctor Robinson's office 
and pursued a successful practice, although Doc- 
tor Allen's life was a short one. He was cut off 



by consumption after about two years' practice. 
Doctor Peterson, of Union Springs, a lawyer by 
profession, turned his attention to the study and 
practice of homeopathy, but having no diploma, 
suit was brought against him before Squire Bost- 
wick, of Auburn, and after a full trial the jury 
brought in a verdict of three-fourths of a cent to 
the plaintiff and donated their fees to the defend- 
ant. Doctor C. W. Boyce came to Auburn and 
commenced the practice of his profession in the 
winter of 1847. In the spring of 185 1, Doctor 
Horatio Robinson, Jr., graduated from the West- 
ern Homeopathic College, in Cleveland, Ohio, and 
commenced practice in Auburn. A little later, 
Doctor Hewitt located in Genoa, where he still 
resides ; Doctor Gwynn, at Throopsville ; Doctor 
Parsels, at Weedsport ; Doctors Frye, Sprague 
and T. K. Smith, at Auburn ; and others in vari- 
ous parts of the County. Doctor Strong, a con- 
vert from allopathy, was located at Sennett. He 
subsequently removed to Owasco, where he re- 
sided several years, then left for the west. 

Thus the new system of therapeutics con- 
tinued to spread ; the literature of the school, to 
increase ; and new remedies, to multiply. In 
1 862 the Legislature of this State granted a char- 
ter to the State Homeopathic Society and in the 
following May, the Cayuga County Homeo- 
pathic Society was formed according to the re- 
quirements of the statue. In 1825, when Doc- 
tor Gram introduced homeopathy into New 
York, he stood alone in this country. In 1841, 
when Doctor Robinson introduced it into this 
County, there were not more than thirty to thirty- 
five practitioners in the country. But now the 
State numbers them by the thousands, the coun- 
try, by tens of thousands. Within the last twenty 
years the system has made rapid progress. Its 
literature has been largely increased by the addi- 
tion of new works on pathology, therapeutics, 
and a new materia medica ; eight or ten colleges 
one State insane asylum and numerous hospitals 
have been established under its auspices ; and 
the intensely bitter opposition which heralded its 
inception and marked its early growth, has 
measurably diminished, although a strong pro- 
fessional prejudice against it still exists. 

Following is a list of the physicians of all 
schools now practicing in Auburn ; Loyal W. 
Allen, David H. Armstrong, C. C. Bates, C. W. 
Boyce, Lansingh Briggs, J. S. BrinkerhofF, James 

D. Button, Thomas N. Calkins, Joseph P. 
Creveling, David Dimon, Theodore Dimon, Geo. 
S. Everts, Blanchard Fosgate, Charles A. Fos- 
ter, Moses M. Frye, C. A George, Edward Hart- 
man, B. K. Hoxie, James N. Jenkins, W. O. 
Luce, David Munroe, Horatio Robinson, Horatio 
Robinson, Jr., Amanda Sanford, Charles P. San- 
ford, Alexander R. Shank, Truman K. Smith, 
William M. Sprague, Charles E. Swift, Daniel 
M. Tournier, Henry D. Whitbeck, T. J. Wilson, 
and A. A. White. 


Early Courts, Counselors and Cases. 

First Courts in Onondaga— In Cayuga — 
Proceedings — Court Rules — Jail at 
Cayuga — Grand Jurors — Jail at Aurora — 
Trial, Conviction and Execution of Indian 
John — Trial of David Williams — County 
Seat at Auburn — Court Houses— Fir^t 
Court at Auburn — Cayuga County Civil 

IN 1794 Onondaga County included also 
Cayuga, Seneca and a part of Tompkins. 
The first court was held in a corn-house owned 
I by Asa Danforth ; Seth Phelps of Scipio presided, 
I assisted by John Richardson, Silas Halsey and 
William Stevens, Judges. Two lawyers only 
attended this court, Thomas R. Gould and Ar- 
thur Breese. There were then no lawyers resident 
in the county. 

The first session of the court of Oyer and Ter- 
miner, for the County, was held at the house of 
Asa Danforth, on the 21st day of July 1794, at 
which the presiding Judge was the Hon. Egbert 
Benson, a Justice of the Supreme Court, assisted 
by Seth Phelps and Andrew Englis. Attorneys 
were present from Herkimer and Whitestown. 
James Fitzgerald was the only criminal tried, and 
was found guilty of assault and battery and at- 
tempted robbery. The petit jurors on this trial 
were John Brown, William Linsley, Thomas 
Morgan, Henry Watkins, Benjamin Depuy, Nehe- 
miah Smith, Isaac Strong, John A. Thompson, 
Noah Olmstead, Jr., Isaac Bailey, William Stev- 




ens and Thomas Osman. Several of these jurors 
were from this section of the County, two from 
Aurelius, whose attendance upon the court must 
have required a very tedious journey through the 
wilderness. That John Stoyell of Moravia, a 
justice of the peace, should have been fined thirty 
shillings for non-attendance, was no wonder, for 
it was a cheap means of relief. 

Seth Phelps, County Judge, held a Court of 
Common Pleas, at Aurora, on the 4th Tuesday j 
in December, 1795, at which the Assistant Jus- 
tices were John L. Hardenbergh and Benajah 
Clark. j 

The attorneys and counselors present at this | 
court, were Thomas Mumford and Daniel Shep- \ 
ard, Thaddeus M. Wood and Benjamin Hall 
were admitted as attorneys and counselors. 

In 1796 the courts were held at Manlius, in 
Onondaga County ; in 1797, at Ovid, in the 
County of Seneca; in 1798, at the house of Com- 
fort Tyler, in Manlius, and also at Ovid. 

In the latter year James Kent, a justice of the 
Supreme Court held a court of Oyer and Termi- 
ner at the house of Seth Phelps, at Aurora, as- 
sisted by Seth Phelps and William Stevens, 
Judges. At this court the following persons 
were admitted to practice in the Supreme Court 
as attorneys and counselors : Hermanus H. Bo- 
gart, Daniel Shepard, Vincent Mathews, Thad- 
deus M. Wood, Glen Cuyler, Thomas Mumford, 
Elijah Miller, George Hall, Robert W. Stoddard, 
Nathaniel W. Howell, Eben F. Norton and 
Silas Marsh. 

On the 3d Tuesday in May, 1799, Seth Phelps, 
County Judge, held the first court in Cayuga Co,, 
at Cayuga Ferry. At this court it was " ordered 
that John Harris have the liberty faithfully to 
keep and attend a ferry at Cayuga Village across 
the Cayuga Lake." The following rates of toll 
were permitted : 
One wagon or cart, with four horses or 

oxen, , $ .88 

One wagon or cart, with two horses or 

oxen, .66 

Each person, .09 

Man and horse, .25 

Horses and horned cattle, each, . \2i 

Sheep and hogs, .02 

At this court it was also ordered, " that the 
following rules be observed by all and every of 
the officers, counselors, attorneys and ministers 
hereof and by all other persons in any wise con- 

nected therewith." Here follows thirty-five spe- 
cific rules, which many years since were copied 
verbatim from the originals by the late Hon. 
Christopher Morgan. This copy has been depos- 
ited in the collection of the Cayuga County His- 
torical Society, by Michael S. Myers, Esq. Thos9' 
rules furnish a clear compend of the practice o. 
our courts three-fourths of a century ago. 

At this court it was also ordered, that the 
" liberties of the gaol " in and for the County of 
Cayuga, be established at Cayuga Village. This 
was done in conformity to an act which gave to 
the County Courts authority to fi.x the " gaol lib- 
erties " in the several counties of the State and 
I determine the places at which the courts were to 
be held. 

The County courts were mostly held at Cayuga 

I until 1804, when the "gaol liberties " were form- 

! ally transferred to Aurora. Seth Phelps held 

! County courts at Cayuga in 1799, iSoo, 1801, 

1802, 1803, and 1804, at which, at difterent times, 

: the Associate Judges were: Seth Sherwood, John 

Tillottson, William Brewster, and Joseph Annin; 

1 and the Justices were: Elisha Fitch, Ezekiel 

' Crane, John L. Hardenbergh, and John Beards- 

'■ ley. At Cayuga was the easiest passage over 

the lake, and it was nearly central to the then 

: territory of the County, which included parts of 

what are now Wayne and Tompkins counties, 

and all of Seneca county. 

A log jail was erected at Cayuga near the 
shore of the lake and against the bluff bank, 
which at that point arose to the full height of the 
' building. It was built of hewn logs and located 
at the east end of the Cayuga bridge, the toll- 
house of which was erected directly over it, the 
top of the jail being the floor of the toll-house. 
Prisoners were let down by ladders through a 
trap door. 

Among the attorneys that were then prominent 
in the practice before the courts, were Elijah 
Miller, Daniel Shepard. Thaddeus M. Wood, 
Walter Wood, Thomas Mumford, Vincent Math- 
ews, Glen Cuyler, Silas Marsh and Eleazer 

Morgan Lewis, afterwards Governor of the 
State, held a Circuit Court at Cayuga Ferry, on 
the 3d day of June, 1800, at which the following 
were the grand jurors : 

Jabez . Bradley, Amos Rathbun, Israel Smith, 
David Avery, Augustus Chidsey, Wilhemus 


Mynders, Grove Smith, Adonijah Tillottson, 
Elijah Price, Samuel Crossett, Jonas Ward, Ben- 
jamin Hutchins, Salmon Buck, Jacob T. C. De- 
Witt, Ansell McCall, Noah Olmstead, Jr. 

At a court of Common Pleas, held by Seth 
Phelps, at Cayuga Ferry, on the third Tuesday 
in January, 1802, Amaziah Hutchinson was 
licensed to keep a ferry across Cayuga Lake, on 
lot No. 75, in the township of Milton, at the fol- 
lowing rates of toll : 

Double team and loaded carriage, ^i 25 

Single " " " i.oo 

Man and horse, .50 

Single team, .75 

Single horse, or cutter, .25 

A sheep, .06 

A hog, .04 

In I Sot the Court licensed James Kidder to 
keep a ferry across Cayuga Lake in the County 
of Cayuga, at the following rates of toll: 

Double team and loaded carriage, ^125 

Single " " " I.oo 

Single " without a load, .75 

Man and horse, .50 

Single horse, or cutter, .25 

A sheep, .06 

A hog .09 

Jonas C. Baldwin was also licensed to keep a 
ferry at the Jonathan Brownell landing, at the 
last preceding rates of toll. 

Joseph L. Richardson was admitted to prac- 
tice in 1802. 

In 1S07 the court licensed David Follett to 
keep a ferry across Seneca River, opposite his 
dwelling house, at the following rates of toll : 

One span of horses, or yoke of oxen, $ ,25 

Man and horse, .12 

One man, .06 

Cows, steers, bullocks two years old, each,_ .12-0- 

Yearlings, '. .06 

Hogs or sheep, .03 

Jail Changed to Aurora. — At a court held 
at the school house at Cayuga, in January 1804, 
the "gaol liberties" at Cayuga were vacated 
and they were removed to Aurora in the town- 
ship of Scipio. 

Ambrose Spencer held a court of Oyer and 
Terminer, at the Aurora Academy in 1804, at 
which the Indian "Delaware John," was arraigned 
for the murder of Ezekiel Crane. The prisoner 
plead guilty to the indictment, and thereupon the 
court ordered " that the said John, a Delaware 
Indian, otherwise called Delaware John, for the 
felony aforesaid, be hung by the neck until he be 

dead, by the sheriff of this County, on Friday the 
17th day of August next, between the hours of 
one and three in the afternoon of that day ; and 
further, that the body of the said John be deliv- 
ered over by the said sheriff to Frederick Delano 
for dissection." The sentence was duly executed, 
the Indian pleading earnestly to be shot, which 
the law would not permit. The Indian carried 
with him upon the scaffold pipes and tobacco, and 
in answer to the question why he did it, replied 
that they were to smoke the "pipe of peace" 
with Mr. Crane in the spirit world. Why he 
wished to do this the sequel will show. 

Ezekiel Crane, the murdered man, was killed 
by mistake, the Indian supposing him to be 
another man. Crane was one of the earlier and 
more prosperous settlers in the town of Tyre, 
now in Seneca, but then in this County. At 
that time the settlers were sparse and widely 
separated, and the Indians frequently came to 
their cabins in quest of food, tobacco, or " fire- 
water." Among them was an old Indian called 
Delaware John who lived in the vicinity. He 
was of irascible temper and a full believer in the 
superstition of witch-craft, so common among 
the natives. He was a very skillful, and, hith- 
erto, had been a successful hunter. 

Late in the autumn of 1803, a settler of the 
name of George Phadoc and Delaware John 
agreed to go out together to lay in their winter 
supply of game. Phadoc was very successful, 
killing a large number of deer and other game ; 
while the Indian, from some unexplained cause, 
failed in nearly every shot he made. He was 
sulky and silent, his anger arose to an uncon- 
trollable degree under the belief that Phadoc had 
bewitched his gun, and the old superstition that 
it was allowable to kill witches, took posses- 
sion of him. He planned Phadoc's death. They 
returned home on the 1 1 th of December. On the 
following morning Phadoc brought home a deer 
which he had killed the evening before, and when 
near his cabin, and as he was about to lay it 
down, the Indian fired and only slightly wounded 
him, the ball first passing through the game. 
Phadoc fled to the house of Asa Smith, a neigh- 
bor, and gave the alarm. Meanwhile Ezekiel 
Crane, followed by his man Ezra Degarmo, ap- 
proached Phadoc's cabin to get some venison, 
ignorant of what had happened. Supposing Crane 
to be Phadoc returned home, the Indian pierced 

^ ) 



him with a bail, which proved fatal a few clays 
after. Degarmo fled and carried the news to the 
family of Mr. Crane. The alarm spread, and 
toward evening, the neighbors gathered and sur- 
rounded the hut of " old John," who, after consid- 
erable bluster, consented to a parley. He was then 
disarmed, bound and confined in the log jail at 
Cayuga until the intensely cold weather set in, 
when be was removed to the jail at Canandaigua, 
v,fhence he was taken to Aurora for trial. This 
was the first homicide in Cayuga County, but not 
committed by a settler. It resulted from the im- 
pulses of a wild Indian superstition and was the 
only Indian murder of the settlers of the County. 

The second homicide in the County was com- 
mitted by a man named David Williams who was 
finally decreed to be insane. The case was tried 
before Daniel D. Tompkins at a court held at 
the Academy in Aurora in 1805. He was at first 
declared sane by a jury impanelled to try the 
question, and convicted and sentenced to be 
executed, but on a review of the case on appeal, 
Williams was adjudged to be a lunatic, and con- 
fined in the Bloomingdale asylum where he died. 
The victim of his mania was James Lane. 

Seneca county was detached from Cayuga, 
March 27, 1804, which so materially changed the 
location of the people relatively to the places 
where the courts had been held, as to necessitate 
a change to a more central position. A law was 
surreptitiously enacted by which the site of the 
Court House was fixed at Sherwood Corners in 
the town of Scipio and a provision was inserted, 
directing the raising of $1,500 for building a 
Court House at that point, and appointing John 
Tillottson, Augustus Chidsey and John Grover 
commissioners to build it. 

This action of the Legislature was very unsat- 
isfactory to a large part of the people of the 
County and their opposition to the location was 
so decidedly manifested, that the commissioners 
above named suspended action and the obnoxious 
law was repealed. 

On the i6th day of March, 1804, three other 
commissioners were appointed with power to lo- 
cate the county seat. They were Edward Sav- 
age, James Burt and James Hildreth, men resid- 
ing in other parts of the State and free from per- 
sonal bias. In June following, they designated 
Hardenbergh's Corners as the site of the court 
house, much to the gratification of its citizens 

and equally to the disappointment and disgust of 
their many rivals, Aurora, Sherwood, Cayuga 
and Levanna. 

The condition of the location required the 
gift by the locality, of an acre of land on what 
was then the farm of William Bostwick, which 
was readily acceded to, he receiving from a few 
citizens $200 for the plat on which are now lo- 
cated our county buildings. 

From the location of the site for several years 
a controversy was maintained with the super- 
visors, wfio refused to levy the tax for erecting 
the necessary buildings. The citizens were, 
however, determined and finally began the erec- 
tion of a court house with their own funds, taking 
meanwhile the necessary steps to compel the su- 
pervisors to raise the tax by procuring the pas- 
sage of a law imposing a fine of ;^200 upon each 
supervisor refusing to levy the tax. This legis- 
lation was effective, the tax was raised, and the 
court house completed in 1809, at a cost of 
g 1 0,000. 

It was built of wood, the jail in the first, and 
the court room in the second story, the latter 
consisting of hewn logs. As yet no clerk's office 
had been erected. While the work of building 
the court house had been suspended, the courts 
were continued at Aurora. The records of the 
County were brought to Auburn in 1807, by the 
then county clerk, Peter Hughes, and kept in 
his house, now the residence of C. L. George, 

I M. D., and they were so kept until the clerk's 

! office was built in 1814. 

, The present stone court house was projected 
in 1835, during the wildest period of the "flush" 
that immediately preceded the panic of 1837. 
It was of course intended to be a magnificent 
affair, in harmony with the spirit of the times, 
for the city and County, in the estimation of the 
people, were then rich and able to gratify all their 
ambitious tastes. It had been intended to sur- 
mount the already overcumbered dome with a 
statue of Justice, and Liberty and Temperance 
were to adorn the portico, but the financial crash 
of 1837 changed the plan. 

The building cost about $30,000 and is an 
architectural deformity, a continual offense to the 
educated eye. It was, for many years, an equal 
offense to the auditors, as its internal arrange- 
ments were such as to produce a perfect medley 
of sounds, impossible of comprehension ; its in- 



terior has been so changed as to obviate most of 
the old acoustic difficulties. 

The first County Court in Auburn was held in 
the new and unfinished Court House in May, 
1808. The preceding January term had been 
held at Aurora. The presiding Judge was Elijah 
Price ; Barnabas Smith and Charles Kellogg, 
were the justices. 

At this court the following were the Grand- 
Jurors : 

Moses Lyon, Edward Stevenson, John Walters, 
Dan. Hyde, John Patty, Noah Olmstead Jr., 
Shadrach Terry, Robert Dill, Ebenezer Hig- 
gins, Parsons Clarke, Ruben Bierg, William 
Branch, Amos Tyler, Nathaniel. Garrow, Epaph- 
roditus Strong, Calvin Cole, Edward Wheeler, 
Roswell Franklin, Samuel Chidsey, Jonathan 
Russell, Gilbert Tracy. 

The first circuit court was held in Auburn 
by Ambrose Spencer, in July, 1808. 

Cayuga County Civil List. 

Cayuga County holds a distinguished position 
in the civil list, having furnished a President of 
the United States, Millard Fillmore, who was 
elected Vice-President in 1848, and succeeded 
Zachary Taylor, as President, on the death of 
the latter, July 9, 1850, holding the office the re- 
mainder of the term ; two Governors of New 
York State, Enos T. Throop, elected in 1830, 
ind Wm. H. Seward, elected in 1838, and re- 
elected in 1840, the latter of whom was also ap- 
pointed Secretary of State in President Lincoln's 
cabinet, March 5, 1861, and held that office till 
1869; two Canal Appraisers, Allen Warden, 
who was appointed April 18, 1840, and held the 
office three years, and Wm. Wasson, who was 
appointed April 5, 1855, and again April 27, 
1865 ; a Diplomatic Officer, Enos T. Throop, 
who was appointed Charge d' Affaires to the Two 
Sicilies, February 6, 1838 ; an Associate Judge 
of Colorado, Benjamin F. Hall, who was appoint- 
ed March 25, 1861 ; a United States Marshal 
for the Northern District of New York, Nathan- 
iel Garrow, who was appointed February 25, 
1837, and again June 27, 1841 ; a Quarter- 
master-General on the Staff of the Commander- 
in-Chief of the State of New York, John N. 
Knapp, who was appointed January i, 1873 > ^ 
Secretary of State, Christopher Morgan, who 
was appointed November 2, 1847; a State 

Treasurer, Charles N. Ross, who was appointed 
November 2, 1875 ; and a State Assessor, John 
S. Fowler, who was appointed February 19, 

Justices of the Supreme Court. 

Cayuga County has been represented in this 
court by three judges only — Enos T. Throop, in 
1823 ; JohnMaynard, from January 7, 1847, till 
his death, March 24. 1850; and Charles C. 
Dwight, appointed in place of Judge Wells, de- 
ceased, in 1 868; elected for full term in 1869, 
and reelected in 1S77. 

County Judges. 

While Cayuga County formed a part of On- 
ondaga county, Seth Phelps, residing at Au- 
rora, was appointed County Judge in 1794, and 
on the organization of Cayuga County, was con- 
tinued in the same office here. His successors 
have been as follows : 

Walter Wood, February 26, 18 10. 

Elijah Miller, March 13, 1817. 

Gershom Powers, January 31, 1823. 

Joseph L. Richardson, January 8, 1827. 

In 1846, the county judges were made elective 
and their terms of office four years.- Since then 
the following have been the judges : 

John P. Hulbert, June, 1847; George Hum- 
phreys, November, 1851: Charles C. Dwight, 
November, 1859; William Hughitt, November, 
1863 ; S. Edwin Day, November, 1877. 

Special Judges. 

The office of Special Judge is authorized by 
the State Constitution, and was created in this 
County by an act of the Legislature passed April 
lOth, 1849, the term being three years. It is an 
elective office and has been filled by the follow- 
ing named individuals, who were elected in No- 
vember, as follows : Charles J. Hulbert, 1852 ; 
Fayette G. Day, 1857; Amzi Wood, 1S63; Wil- 
liam B. Mills, 1872; Reuben F. Hoff, 1874; 
Frank M. Parsons, 1877. 


These officers, previous to 1821, were desig- 
nated by the Council of Appointm.ent ; from 182 1 
to 1846 by the Governor and Senate ; and since 
the latter date have been elective by the people. 



Moses De Witt, appointed March 14, 1794, 
and Thomas Mumford, October i, 1797, were 
the Onondaga County Surrogates. 

Cavug.a Surrogates. 

Glen Cuyler, March 14, 1799; Eleazer Burn- 
ham, February 5, 181 1 ; Glen Cuyler, February 
26, 1813 ; Eleazer Burnhani, February 28, 1815: 
Seneca Wood, June 7, 1820 ; Benjamin L. Cuy- 
ler, February 14, 1821 ; John Porter, March 12, 
1828 ; Thomas Y. How, Jr., March 18, 1836; 
George H. Wood, April 14, 1840; Charles B. 
Perry, February 15, 1844; Jacob R. How, June, 
1847; William B. Woodin, November, 1859; 
John T. M. Davie, November, 1S71. 

Special Sukkogates. 

The office of Special Surrogate, like that of 
Special Judge, is authorized by the State Con- 
stitution, and was created at the same time, in the 
same manner and for a like period as the latter. 
It also is elective and has been held by the fol- 
lowing named persons, who were elected in No- 
vember, as follows: Solomon Giles, 1852 ; Camp- 
bell W. Haynes. 1855 ; John T. M. Davie, 1S61; 
Gardiner C. Giflbrd, 1867 ; John T. M. Davie, 
1870 ; Richard C. Steel, 1S71 ; James A. 
Wright, 1877. 

District Attorneys. 

These officers are now elected by the people 
for three years, one in each county. Previous to 
1818 the district in charge of a single attorney 
was large, including several counties. The fol- 
lowing have been the attorneys for Cayuga 
County at the specified dates : 

William Stuart, appointed March 2, 1802; 
Daniel W. Lewis, March 9, 1810 ; William Stu- 
art, February 12, 1811; Vincent Matthews, 
March 12, 1813 ; Daniel Conger, April 17, 1815 ; 
Joseph L. Richardson, January 11, 1818; John 
Porter, February 14, 1821 ; Theodore Spencer, 
1828; Richard L. Smith, January 2r, 1832; 
Michael S. Myers, January 25, 1838; Dennison 
Robinson, January 27, 1841 ; Luman Sherwood, 
June 3, 1844; EbenezerW. Arms, January 1847 ; 
Theodore M. Pomeroy, November, 1850; Solo- 
mon Giles, November, 1856 ; George I. Post, 
November, 1859 ; Richard C. Steel, November, 
1862; Charles C. Dwight, (appointed) March 27, 

1S66; Wm. B. Mills, November, 1866; Sereno 
E. Payne, November, 1872. 

While Cayuga formed a part of Onondaga, 

previous to March 8, 1799, the following were 

j the sheriffs : John Harris, appointed March 14, 

I 1794; Abiather Hull, February 9, 1796; Com- 

I fort Tyler, February 27, 1798. 

Cayuga County. — Joseph Annin, appointed 
March 14, 1799 ; Peter Hughes, August 10, 
1 801 ; Solomon Buell, January 13, 1804 > John 
S. C. Dewitt, March 13, 1806; Jonathan Rich- 
mond, February 24, 1S08 ; Zenas Goodrich, Feb- 
ruary II, 1812 ; Charles E. Morrell, March 3, 
1813 ; Nathaniel Garrow, February 28, 18 15; 
Archibald Green, February 13, 1819; Nathaniel 
Garrow, February 12, 182 1. At the latter date 
the office was made elective, and the term three 
years, the incumbent being ineligible to the office 
for the next succeeding term. 

Nathaniel Garrow, elected November, 1822 ; 
Archibald Green, November, 1825 ; Peleg Gal- 
lup. November, 1828 ; Peter Yawger, November, 
1831 ; Warren Parsons, November, 1834 ; George 
H. Carr, March 30, 1838, to fill vacancy; Au- 
gustus Pettibone, November, 1844; Joseph P. 
Swift, NovemlJer, 1847; Stephen Fancher, No- 
vember, 1850; John T. Knapp, December, 1852, 
to fill vacancy ; John T. Knapp, November, 1853 ; 
Edwin P. Hoskins, November, 1856; Daniel D. 
Buck, November, 1859; James Mead, Novem- 
I ber, 1862 ; Sidney Mead, November, 1865 ; John 
! E. Savery, November, 1868 ; John G. Hosmer, 
November, 1871 ; Andrew J. Sanders, Novem- 
j ber, 1874; Thomas Reed, 1877. 

! Clerks of Cavuga County. 

j County Clerks are now elected for three years 
and their seals are declared to be those of the 
I Supreme Court in their respective counties. 

Onondaga Countv. — Benjamin Ledyard, ap- 
pointed March 14, 1794. 

Cayuga County. — Benjamin Led)ard, ap- 
pointed March 14, 1799 ; Peter Hughes, January 

13, 1804 ; Enos T. Throop, February 5, 181 1 ; 
Elijah Miller, February 26, 1813 ; Enos T. 
Throop, February 13, 1815 ; James Glover, 
March 2, 1S19; George B. Throop, February 

14, 1821 ; George B. Throop, November, 1822 ; 



Abraham Gridley, November, 1825 ; Michael 
S. Myers, November, 1828; William Richard- 
son, November, 1837; Philip Van Arsdale, No- 
vember, 1843 ; Ebenezer B. Cobb, November, 
1846; Edwin B. Marvin, November, 1852 ; Ben- 
jamin B. Snow, November, 1858; John S. Lane- 
hart, November, 1864; Lyman C. Comstock, 
November, 1870; Sidney J. Westfall, November, 

State Senators. 

The Counties of Cayuga and Wayne now form 
the Twenty-fifth Senatorial District, and Sena- 
tors are elected for two years. Under the sec- 
ond Constitution, that of 1821, Cayuga formed a 
part of the Seventh District, which included the 
Counties of Cayuga, Onondaga, Ontario, Yates, 
Wayne and Cortland, and senators were elected 
for four years. Under the first Constitution, 
Cayuga was in what was called the " Western 
District," embracing a territory which now con- 
tains over twenty 'counties. Under this Consti- 
tution the territory of Cayuga County supplied 
but four Senators, namely: John Richardson, 
Aurelius, 1797 ; Seth Phelps, Scipio, 1798 ; Jo- 
seph Annin, Aurelius, 1803 ; and Lyman Paine, 
Auburn, 1820. 

In 1823 the following were the Senators from 
the Seventh District : Silas Bowker, Bryan Green, 
Jesse Clark, Jonas Earll, Jr.; in 1S24, the Sena- 
tor elect was Jedediah Morgan; 1825, John C. 
Spencer; 1826, Truman Hart; 1827, William 
M. Oliver ; 1828, George B. Throop ; 1829, Hi- 
ram F, Mather ; 1830, Thomas Armstrong ; 
183 1, William H. Seward; 1832, Jehiel H. Hal- 
sey ; 1S33, Samuel L. Edwards ; 1834, Thomas 
Armstrong; 1835, Chester Loomis; 1836, John 
Beardsley ; 1837, Samuel L Edwards; 1S38, 
John Maynard ; 1S39, Robert C. Nicholas ; 1840, | 
Mark H. Sibley; 1841, Elijah Rhoades ; 1842, | 
Lyman Sherwood and William Bartlit ; 1843, 
John Porter ; 1844, Albert Lester: 1845, Henry 
J. Sedgwick ; 1846, Richard H. Williams; 1847, 
Abraham Gridley; 1848, William I. Cornwell ; 
1849, William Beach; 1853, William Clarke; 1 
1855, Samuel C. Cuyler ; 1857, Alexander B. ' 
Williams; 1861, Chaunccy M. Abbott; 1863, ' 
Stephen K. Williams ; 1869, William B. Woodin; | 
1877, Theodore M. Pomeroy. 

Members of Assembly. 

As the ratio of the population of the County to 

that of the rest of the State was varied, so has her 
representation in the Assembly, the extremes 
having been one and four. She has now two 
members, elected annually by districts. 

Onondaga County. — 1797, Silas Halsey, Com- 
fort Tyler; 1798, same; 1799, Edward Paine, 
John Richardson. * 

Cayuga County. — 1800, and 1801, Silas Hal- 
.sey; 1802, Salmon Buel ; 1S03, Salmon Buel, 
Silas Halsey, Thomas Hewitt ; 1804, Silas Hal- 
sey, Thomas Hewitt, Amos Rathbun ; 1805, 
John Grover Jr., Amos Rathbun; 1806, the 
same; 1807, the same; 1808, Elijah Price, 
Richard Townley ; 1809, Henry Bloom, Ebene- 
zer Hewitt, Charles Kellogg; 1810, Henry 
Bloom, Charles Kellogg, Stephen Close ; 181 1, 
Stephen Close, Ebenezer Hewitt, Elisha Dur- 
kee ; 18 12, Stephen Close, Humphrey Howland, 
Thomas Ludlow ; i8i3,Wm. C. Bennett, Thomas 
Ludlow, William Satterlee ; 1814, William C. 
Bennett, William Satterlee, Silas Bowker ; 1815, 
John H. Beach, Silas Bowker, Barnabas Smith ; 
1816, John H. Beach, John Brown, Jr., John Mc- 
Fadden, Barnabas Smith ; 1817, John H. Beach, 
John Brown Jr., John McFadden, Rowland Day ; 
1 8 18, William Clark 2d, Thatcher I. Ferris, Isaac 
Smith; 1819, William Allen, Elijah Devoe, 
Henry Polhemus ; 1820, William Allen, Samuel 
Dill, John Haring ; 1821, John Haring, Charles 
Kellogg, Henry Polhemus ; 1822, Samuel Dill, 
Charles Kellogg, Ephraim C. Marsh ; 1823, Jo- 
siah Bevier, Elijah Drake, John Jackway, John 
O'Hara ; 1824, Josiah Bevier, Silas Bowker, 
Asahel Fitch, Augustus F. Ferris; 1825, Elijah 
Devoe, Roswell Enos, John W. Hulbert, Eph- 
raim C. Marsh ; 1826, Eleazer Burnham, 
Aaron Dennis, Thatcher I. Ferris, Camp- 
bell Waldo ; 1827, James Kenyon, Gardner 
Kortright, Andrews Preston, Peter Yavvger ; 
1828, Henry R. Brinckerhofif, Philo Sperry, 
Gardner Kortright, William H. Noble ; 1829, 
Henry R. Brinckerhoff, William H. Noble,. 
Wing Taber, Ephraim Hammond ; 1830, Eph- 
raim Hammond, Solomon Love, William H. No- 
ble, Richard L. Smith; 183 1, Solomon Love, 
Elias Manchester, George S. Tilford, Peter Yavv- 
ger ; 1832, John Beardsley, George H. Brincker- 
hoff, John W. Sawyer, George S. Tilford; 1833, 
John Beardsley, George H. Brinckerhoff, John W. 
Sawyer, Simon Lathrop ; 1834, Dennis Arnold, 
Cornelius Cuykendall, Andrew Groom, Noyes 



Palmer; 1835, Cornelius Cuykendall, Andrew 
Groom, Noyes Palmer, Andrews Preston ; 1836, 
Dennis Arnold, Charles E Shepard, Richard L. 
Smith, William Wilbur; 1837, Curtiss C. Cady, 
Charles E. Shepard, William Wilbur ; 1838, 
Henry R. Filley, Isaac S. Miller, Nathan G. 
Morgan ; 1S39, Nathan G. Morgan, Henry R. 
Filley, John Mcintosh ; 1840, Artemas Cady, 
John W. McFadden, Andrews Preston; 1841, 
Darius Adams, Osman Rhoades, John W. Mc- 
Fadden ; 1842, John L. Cuyler, Vincent Ken- 
yon, Alvarez Tupper ; 1843, Vincent Kenyon, 
Alfred Lyon, Darius Monroe; 1844, Ashbel 
Avery, Benj. F. Hall, Robert Hume; 1845, 
David Gould, Leonard Searing, William Titus ; 
1846, Samuel Bell, William I. Cornwell, John 
T. Rathbun ; 1847, Samuel Bell, William I. 
Cornwell, John T. Rathbun ; 1848, Ebenezer 
Curtis, John I. Brinckerhofif, Hector C. Tuthill ; 
1849, James D. Button, John I. Brinckerhoff, 
Hector C. Tuthill ; 1850, Hiram Coon, John 
Richardson, Ashbel Avery ; 1851, Levi Colvin, 
George Underwood, Delos Bradley; 1S52, Wil- 
liam Hayden, George Underwood, Delos 
Bradley ; 1853, William Hayden, Terance J. 
Kennedy, Mathias Hutchinson ; 1854, Justus 
Townsend, Moseley Hutchinson, Mathias Hutch- 
inson ; 1855, Moore Conger, David L. Dodge, 
William B. Woodin ; 1856, Sardis Dudley, 
Leonard Simons, Tolbert Powers ; 1857, James 
J. Owen, Theodore M. Pomeroy, Hiram Tifft ; 
1858, David B. Baldwin, Chauncey M. Ab- 
bott ; 1859, William W. Payne, Chauncey M. 
Abbott; i860, William W. Payne, Allen D. 
Morgan ; 1861, Heman Benton, Smith An- 
thony ; 1862, William A. Halsey, Smith An- 
thony ; 1863, George I. Post, William P. Robin- 
son ; 1864, Benjamin M. Close, Wm. P. Robin- 
son ; 1865, Benjamin M. Close, John L. Parker ; 
1866-67, Homer N. Lockwood, John L. Parker ; 
1868-69, Charles H. Weed, Sanford Gifford ; 
1870, Wm. H. Eaker, Stephen S. Hewitt; 1871, 
Charles H. Curtis, Stephen S. Hewitt ; 1872, Ira 
D. Brown, Elijah E. Brown ; 1873, Leonard F. 
Hardy, Elijah E. Brown; 1874, Leonard F. Hardy, 
Erastus H. Hussey ; 1875, C. S. Beardsley, jr., 
Erastus H. Hussey ; 1S76, George I. Post, John 
S. Brown ; 1877, George I. Post, John S. Brown ; 
1878, Howell B. Converse, William L. Noyes. 
Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. 
Silas Halsey represented Cayuga County in 


the first Constitutional convention in i8or. In 
1 82 1, the second convention, Cayuga had three 
delegates, namely : 

David Brinckerhoff, Rowland Day, Augustus 
F. Ferris. In that of 1846, the County had also 
three delegates : Daniel John Shaw, Elisha W. 
Sheldon, and Peter Yawger. A fourth Consti- 
tutional convention was held in 1S67, and over 
si.\' months devoted to the consideration of pro- 
posed changes in the fundamental laws, but it 
did not complete its work. In that convention 
the delegates were Charles C. Dwight and George 

Pkesidential Electors. 

Cayuga County has been represented in the 
Electoral college as follows : 1 8 1 2 Jotham Jay ne ; 
1816, Richard Townley ; 1824, Eleazer Burn- 
ham ; 1828, Asaph Stowe ; 1832, Seth Thomas ; 
Elector-at-large, same year Nathaniel Garrow ; 
1836, Peleg Slade; 1840, Albert Crane; 1844, 
Daniel Hibbard ; 1848, Stephen Fancher; 1852, 
William C. Beardsley ; 1856, Eleazer Biunham ; 
i860, William Van Marter; 1864, John E. Seeley; 
1868, James McLean; 1872, John H. Camp; 
1876, George W. Knowles. 

Representatives in Congress. 

The following have been the representatives 
from Cayuga County in the Congress of the 
United States at the times and for the periods 
named : 

Silas Halsey i8o6-'o8, two years. 

Daniel Avery i8ii-'i3, " 

Enos F. Throop__- 1815-17, 
Nathaniel Garrow — 1827-29, 
Gershom Powers — 1829 -'31, " 
Ulysses F. Double- 
day i83i-'33-'35-'37, four years. 

Thomas Y. How, Jr., i833-'3S,two 
Christopher Morgan __ 1839-41, two " 

George Rathbun 1 843-47, four " 

Edwin B. Morgan 1853-59, si.x 

Theodore M. Pomeroy.i86i-'69, eight " 
Clinton D. McDougall. 1 87^-77, four " 

School Superintendents and Commis- 

By an act passed April 17, 1843, the Boards of 
Supervisors of the several counties were directed 


to appoint County Superintendents of Common 
Schools, and Elliot G. Storke was selected for 
the office in Cayuga County. The office was 
abolished March 13, 1847, and in 1856, (chapter 
179, Laws of 1856,) the office of School Com- 
missioner was created and made elective. The 
first election under the act creating the office, 
was held in November, 1859. The office has 
been held in Cayuga County by Jordan R. Chap- 
pell, Joshua C. Goodrich, David Currie, Howard 
Thompson, Israel Wilkinson, Robert L. Drum- 
mond, Samuel A. Cole, Hulbert Daratt, Albert 
W. Morehouse, Ezra Dean, William Hart, Wil- 
liam G. Ellery, John S. Bristol, Leonard F. Har- 
dy, Charles H. Greenfield, Wesley Mason, Eli 
N. Botsford, Alanson Boughton, Phineas B. 
Young, Archibald Mc Intosh, Jr., Lewis V. 
Smith, Lauren M. Townsend, Albert W. More- 
house, Wesley Mason and Benjamin B. Snow, 
the latter three of whom are the present in- 

County Treasurers. 

County Treasurers are elected, under the Con- 
stitution of 1846, for a term of three years. 
They were formerly appointed by the Boards of 
Supervisors in the several counties. Horace T. 
Cook was elected to that office in November, 
1848, and has been reelected every subsequent 

Inspectors of Auburn Prison. 


Date pf Appointment. 

Ashby, Benjamin 


ited Febr'y 7, 1840. 

Brown, Samuel 

March 2, 1843.- 

Cady, Artemas 


April 16, 1822. 

Cook, Robert 

April 23, 1839. 

Dennis, Seneca B. 

April 10, 1818. 

Doubleday, Ulysses F. " 

Febr'y 25, 1834. 

Fitch, Charles D. 


May 3, 1845. 

Fosdick, Peter G. 

Febr'y 7, 1840. 

Garrow, John 

Febr'y 25, 1834. 

Gilmore, Samuel 

May 3, 1845. 

Goodwin, Stephen 

A. •■ 

March 2, 1843. 

Hardenburgh, John H. " 

March 28, 1848. 

Haskins, Joshua 

April 10, 1838. 

Hills, Horace 


March 13, 1824. 

Hills, Horace appointed 

April 2, 1830. 

Hills, Horace 

April 6, 1832. 

Hinman, Hervey 

April 6, 1832. 

How, Thomas Y. Jr. 

Febr'y 25, 1834. 

Howland, Ellery A. 

Febr'y 7, 1840. 

Ivison, Henry Jr. 

April 18, 1840. 

Jewett, Freeborn G. 

April 10, 1838. 

Lounsbury, Willet 

April ID, 1838. 

Lyon, Harvey 

Febr'y 7, 1 840. 

Myers, Michael S. " 

March 2, 1843. 

Noble, William H. 

March 2, 1843. 

Palmer, Eleazer R. 

May 3, 1845., Henry 

May 8, 1839. 

Potter, John 

April 6, 1832. 

Powers, Gersham 

April 2, 1830. 

Rice, Woodin 

March 13, 1824. 

Rice, Woodin 

April 16, 1827. 

Sherwood, Luman 

May 3, 1845. 

Tuttle, Bradley 

April 6, 1832. 

Tuttle, Bradley 

Febr'y 25, 1834. 

Van Duzen, Horatio 

April 10, 1838. 

Weed, Walter 

March 13, 1824. 

Weed, Walter 

April 16, 1827. 

Weed, Walter 

April 2, 1830. 

Wheeler, Elijah 

March 2, 1843. 

Williams, Ezekiel 

March 13, 1824. 

Williams, Ezekiel 

April 16, 1827. 

Williams, Ezekiel 

April 24, 1830. 

Williams, Ezekiel " 

April 6, 1832. 

Williams, Ezekiel 

Febr'y 25, 1834. 

Wilson, Jared 

May 10, 1835. 

Previous to 1846 the office of Prison Inspector 
was appointive, the power of appointment having 
been conferred on the Governor and Council of 
Appointment, April 2, i8i9,andon the Governor 
and Senate, April 19, 1823. The Constitution 
of 1846 made the office elective, and provided 
for the election of three Inspectors ; to hold 
office for three years, one of whom was to be 
elected annually. Only two from this County 
held the office under this law, viz : David D. 
McNeil, who was elected November 3, 1868, and 
Thomas Kirkpatrick, who was elected November 
7, 1 87 1. The office was abolished on the ap- 
pointment of Superintendent of Prisons, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1877, in pursuance of an amendment 
to the Constitution, approved and ratified at the 
general election, held November 7, 1876. This 
amendment makes the office appointive, and 
relegates the power of appointment back to the 
Governor and Senate. 



Cayuga in the Rebellion. 

Cause of the War — First Call for Troops 

— Captain Kennedy's Efforts — First 
Public Meeting— Enthusiasm of the Peo- 
ple — Rapid Enlistments — 19TH Regiment 

— Kennedy's Battery — 75TH Regiment 
— Careful Provisions — Call for More 
Troops — Military Districts Formed — 
iiith Regiment — i6oth Regiment — 
Drafts — Immense Bounties — Final Ef- 
forts—Close OF the War. 

THE war of the Rebellion was forced upon 
the nation, to maintain its unity, and, 
as was generally believed at the North, its very 
existence. It was a war of one section of the 
country against another, of the slave States of 
the South, against the free States of the North. 
It arose from a fierce conflict of opinion between 
the two sections as to the place which the insti- 
tution of slavery should hold in the government, 
a conflict which had continued from the origin 
of the government. 

The bitterness of the discussion and the an- 
tagonisms of the parties to it, increased with 
time, until, on the election to the Presidency of 
Abraham Lincoln in the autumn of i860, a ma- 
jority of the slave States of the Union resolved 
to sever their political connection with the free 
States, and to form a Southern Confederacy, in 
which the institution of slavery could have free 
and full development. 

That bold step was accordingly taken. The 
Confederacy was formed and the most active 
military preparations made to sustain and defend 
its pretensions. Dominion was claimed over all 
the national property within its territory, which, 
so far as possible, was seized and garrisoned. 
Its claims were resisted, and a long and terrible 
war followed. 

The events and consequences of that great 
struggle, are too recent, have been too fully re- 
corded and are too well known to need repeti- 
tion here. But its local incidents, the part which 
Cayuga bore in it should, so far as the plan and 
limits of this work will permit, be spread upon 
the pages of our local history. We shall give a 
succinct account of the efforts and sacrifices 

made by our citizens in enlisting their quota of sol- 
diers, and a brief review of the field operations 
of our earlier regiments, regretting that the time 
within which this work must issue, and the diffi- 
culties and delays attending the collection of re- 
liable information of the specific services of each 
regiment in the field, prevent a fuller notice. 

President Lincoln had been inaugurated on 
the 4th of March, 1861 ; Fort Sumter was at- 
tacked on the 1 2th and surrendered on the 13th 
of April, following ; Congress was convened in 
extra session and the President called for 7S,ooo 
volunteers. Within the next fifteen days three 
hundred and fifty thousand had offered them- 
selves, of whom only the number called for could 
be accepted. 

Cayuga County came promptly forward to aid 
the government. Indeed, one of her citizens, 
Captain T. J. Kennedy, had anticipated this ac- 
tion of the government by several months, and 
had written to Governor Morgan as early as Jan- 
uary 6th, 1861, for permission to raise troops, to 
which the Governor replied on the 17th of that 
month, that "if the necessity arises your services 
will be accepted." This is believed to have 
been the first offer of military service in the re- 
bellion made by any of our loyal citizens. Cap- 
tain Kennedy believed that the " necessity" al- 
ready existed and acted accordingly. He sent 
out at his own instance and personal cost, re- 
cruiting sergeants to the different villages in the 
vicinity, Jordan, Skaneateles, Seneca Falls, 
Springport and Aurora, and also opened a re- 
cruiting office in Auburn, thus liberally devoting 
his time and limited means to this patriotic ser- 
vice. He wrote stirring articles for the press 
and sought by every means in his power to im- 
press his countrymen with the reality of the ex- 
isting danger. Our citizens were, however, slow 
to believe that the rash act of secession would be 
followed by a real war, and Captain Kennedy was 
considered by some as crazed by his enthusiasm. 
He proceeded nevertheless, and on the day of the 
attack upon Fort Sumter, had one hundred and 
seventy-five recruits drilling in an open field near 
the city. The events thus justified the sagacity 
and wisdom of his preparations. 

Captain Kennedy now applied to the Governor 
for arms and equipments ; but the "necessity" 
for them had not been anticipated, and they were 
not ready. The South had been actively pre- 


paring for war for more than six months, while 
the North had reposed in idle and fancied se- [ 
ciirity. Had our people generally been as i 
" crazy" as Captain Kennedy was thought to be, 
and as orderly and intelligent in their madness, 
the war of the rebellion, it is believed, would 
have made for our record quite a different his- 

There were for this splendid company of re- 
cruits no guns, no harness, no general equip- 
ments. What was to be done ? The Governor 
stated the simple facts and inquired if the men 
would accept rifles and go out as infantry. This, 
forty only consented to do ; yet by energetic ef- 
forts on the part of the Captain and his assist- 
ants, a full infantry company was enrolled which I 
joined the 19th regiment at Elmira. 

Efforts were made to recruit the 49th regi- 
ment to ten full companies, pending which, the 
Legislature authorized the enlistment of thirty 
thousand volunteers and voted three million 
dollars to arm and equip them. This compelled 
the abandonment of the plan to fill up the old 
regiment, and efforts were at once directed to 
perfect organizations under the State call. 

First Public Meeting of the Citizens of 
Auburn. — On the 20th day of April, the citi- 
zens of Auburn met at the Court House to de- 
vise plans in aid of enlistments. While the peo- 
ple were assembling, the news reached them of 
the attack upon the Massachusetts troops in 
their passage through the city of Baltimore. 
The effect upon the people was electrical. 
Rarely has there been seen deeper or more in- 
tense feeling than at that hour swayed the large 
audience. General Jesse Segoine, C. S. Burtis, 
C. C. Dennis, T. M. Pomeroy, S. Willard, Rich- 
ard Steel, Rev. D. K. Lee, E. B. Lansing and 
others addressed the assembly, and their earnest 
and_ impassioned utterances aroused the people, 
stirring them beyond the power of language to 
express. They resolved to maintain the Union, 
and yielded to it every possible support. They 
raised an impromptu fund of four thousand 
dollars for the support of the families of the vol- 
unteers, the distribution of which was entrusted 
to Charles P. Wood, John H. Chedell and the 
Mayor of the City, George Humphrey, a trust 
involving much difficult labor, devolving largely 
on Mr. Wood, but which was faithfully and judi- 
ciously executed. 

The following Sunday presented a scene of 
patriotic enthusiasm, never before paralleled in 
the history of the County, and rarely in that of 
any community. The late sleepers were aroused 
by the thunder of cannon, and the streets were 
filled by squads of soldiers under drill of their 
officers. At the several recruiting stations large 
crowds assembled, and the number of enlist- 
ments was very large. The national emblem 
was everywhere displayed, not excepting the 
churches, wherein patriotic discourses were de- 
livered, to intensely interested auditors. At the 
Second Presbyterian and the Catholic churches, 
the pastors were especially earnest and eloquent in 
behalf of a cause which then thrilled all hearts. 
Sixty recruits left the latter church in a body, 
under the influence of the stirring appeal to their 
love for their adopted country, and enlisted under 
Captain Gavigan. Three full companies were 
that day completed. Captain Kennedy had a 
surplus of fifty-six men, who were transferred to a 
company being organized by Captain Theodore 
H. Schenck. Captain Charles H. Stewart, in a 
single day, April 24th, recruited his company to 
the maximum standard. Captain Solomon Giles, 
of Weedsport ; James E. Ashcroft, of Seneca 
Falls ; Nelson T. Stephens, of Moravia ; and 
James R. Angel, of Union Springs, were each, 
at this time, recruiting a company for the. regi- 
ment then organizing. 

A mass meeting of the citizens of the County 
was held at the court house on the 24th of April, 
presided over by the Hon. John Porter, who 
made a patriotic address. Four military com 
panics entered the building, whose presence pro- 
duced great enthusiasm. A committee on reso- 
lutions was appointed, and stirring addresses 
were made by Clarence A. Seward and Rev. B. 
I. Ives. The closing resolution was as fol- 
lows : 

" Resolved, That in this hour of our country's 
peril, we know no flag but that of our fathers ; 
and in one solid phalanx, we will march under 
the stars and stripes, to victory or death." 

The popular sympathy for the volunteers found 
expression in various ways. Banners, books, 
flags, swords and pistols, were presented with 
formal ceremonies, to the several oflficers. Cap- 
tain Baker was presented by the Sons of Tem- 
perance, with a fine brace of pistols. Major Thad. 
B. Barber was honored by the gift of a splendid 


sword, Captain Kennedy, also with a brace of i 
elegant pistols accompanied by a presentation 
address, from which we extract the following : 

" You, sir, were among the first to hear and 
the readiest to respond to the patriotic call ; 
home, family, and friends, with all their endear- 
ing associations, could not hold you back ; a 
prosperous business, dependent for its success on 
you alone, could not hold you back ; but with 
alacrity and enthusiasm, you were first at the 
muster, as no doubt you will be, in the coming 

Captain Kennedy also received an elegant 
Bible from the Board of Education. Cap- 
tains Gavigan and Schenck and their subal- 
tern officers, received swords and pistols from 
their friends, and the ladies of Auburn presented 
Captain Stewart with a fine Bible, Doctor Hun- 
tington making the presentation address. 

The early preparations were now nearly com- 
pleted Five full companies had been mustered 
into the service and were awaiting orders to 
move. The movement began April 24th. 

Departure of the First Troops. — It 
was a novel and exciting scene. Few of the 
generation, then beholding it, had ever seen a 
force marshalled for real war. Here, however, 
were seen husbands and fathers, sons, brothers 
and lovers, bearing arms, and bound for fields of 
carnage, from which many would never return. 
Crowds were present from city and country, all 
actuated by deep feeling, some with the glow of 
patriotism, but more by the deeper emotion of 
affection ; while in the eyes of thousands trem- 
bled the tear of affectionate solicitude for the wel- 
fare of those with whom their hopes of happiness 
were closely allied. 

It was estimated that eight thousand specta- 
tors witnessed the departure of the first battal- 
ion from Cayuga County for the seat of war. 
The companies that formed the battalion were 
those of Captains Baker, Kennedy, Schenck, 
Gavigan and Ashcroft, and their first destination 
was the military depot at Elmira. The compa- 
nies of Captains Stewart and Amnion were mus- 
tered into the service May 6th, and moved also 
to Elmira. 

The iqth Regiment. — This regiment, com- 
prising the foregoing companies, was mustered 
into the United States service on the 22d day of 
May, as the 19th New York State Volunteers, 
and officered as follows : 

Field and Staff Officers. 

Colonel, John S. Clark ; Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Clarence A. Seward ; Major, James H. Ledley ; 
Adjutant, Henry M. Stone ; Surgeon, Theodore 
Dimon ; Quartermaster, John Chedell ; Quarter- 
master-Sergeant, Dennis Scheil; Sergeant- Major, 
Charles Tomlinson. 

Company Officers. 

Company A — Captain, John T. Baker ; Lieuten- 
ant, Charles White ; Ensign, Martin Laughlin ; 
Sergeants, Charles Tomlinson, John T. Potter, 
David McCreary, Barnett Nagle. 

Company B — Captain, T. J. Kennedy ; Lieu- 
tenant, John Poison ; Ensign, Henry C. Day ; 
Sergeants, Andrew Cowan, William H. Genett, 
David C. Hutchinson and William H. Barnes. 

Company C — Captain, James E. Ashcroft ; 
Lieutenant, Samuel C. Day ; Ensign.'Charles B. 
Randolph ; Sergeants, Charles C. Graves, Adol- 
phus W. Newton, Alonzo Jordan, and Edward 

Company D — Captain, Owen Gavigan ; Lieu- 
tenant, William Boyle; Ensign, Luke Brannock ; 
Sergeants, Patrick Dwyer, Daniel Downing, Pat- 
rick Handlen, and Daniel McCarten. 

Company E — Captain, Theodore H. Schenck; 
Lieutenant, David A.Taylor; Ensign, Edward 

C. Burtis; Sergeants, Henry F. Rider, Austin 
Haynes, Charles A. Henry, and James Harris. 

Company F— Captain, Nelson T. Stephens ; 
Lieutenant, Watson C. Squire ; Ensign, Edward 

D. Parker; Sergeants, Edward B. Warren, Da- 
vid F. Bothwell, Barna C. Goodrich, and Robert 

Company G — Captain, Charles H. Stewart ; 
Lieutenant, John Wall ; Ensign, Antonio E. 
Robinson ; Sergeants, Lewis Manders, John 
White, Charles B. Quick, and George E. Sher- 

Company H — Captain, Solomon Giles ; Lieu- 
tenant, Augustus Field ; Ensign, Marquis D. 
Nichols; Sergeants, Charles M. Whiteside, Wil- 
liam A. Hedges, Willis Watson, and Montra- 
ville M. Hedges. 

Company /—Captain, John H. Ammon ; Lieu- 
tenant, George W. Thomas ; Ensign, Randolph 
B. Kimberly ; Sergeants, Horace Silsby, Wil- 
liam A. Kelsy, Thomas J. Lomore, and James 
S. Fuller. 


Com/>anj> K^ Captain, James R. Angel ; Lieu- 
tenant, A. H. Carr ; Ensign, Lester W. Porting. 

The uniforms which were supplied to this reg- 
iment were composed of that miserable shoddy 
material with which many of our first volunteers 
were clothed, but it called forth such an earnest 
remonstrance from our citizens to the authorities 
as led to a correction of the shameful abuse. 

Elegant regimental and national flags were pre- 
sented to the regiment at Elmira in behalf of the 
ladies of Auburn ; the former by the Hon. 
Charles C. Dwight, and the latter by Hon. B. F. 

The 7STH Regiment. — The first seventy-five 
thousand men had been called into service for 
only three months, but it soon became evident 
that their time would expire before they could 
be fully armed and equipped. On the 4th of 
May, therefore, the President issued his call for 
volunteers to serve for three years, or during the 
war, and on the first day of July following, 
two hundred and eighty regiments had been 
accepted. Congress met on the fourth of July 
and voted five hundred millions of money and 
five hundred thousand more troops. The quota 
of New York, under this call was twenty-five 
thousand men which were called for on the 25th 
of July, after the disastrous battle of Bull Run. 

Preparations were, therefore, at once made to 
organize a second Cayuga regiment at the in- 
stance of Col. John A. Dodge, who unfolded his 
plans to a meeting of citizens on September 2, 
1 861, at which Chas. P. Wood presided. He 
would form a military depot in Auburn and arm, 
equip and drill the soldiers here, and thus secure 
them from the gross impositions inflicted upon 
the 19th regiment by heartless contractors. The 
plan was reasonable, and permission to execute 
it was obtained from Governor Morgan by a com- 
mittee of citizens, consisting of Dr. Willard, T. 
M. Pomeroy, Wm. C. Beardsley and Col. Dodge, 
who visited Albany for the purpose. Col. Dodge 
was fully authorized to raise, equip, supply and 
drill a regiment here. These careful and authori- 
tative proceedings, gave confidence to both 
officers and men ; and the work of recruiting 
proceeded rapidly under the following company 
commanders : Captains, Charles C. Dwight, Wm. 
Hart, John Choate, Wm. H. Cray, C. D. Mc- 
Dougall, Luther Goodrich, E. A. Thomas and 
Charles Hayden. 

On Sept. 10, Capt. McDougall reported a full 
company ; on the 12th Truman K. Fuller, a com- 
pany from Port Byron, and William H. Gray one 
from Auburn. On October gth, Lansing Porter, 
reported a full company. Mr. Hart having ac- 
cepted the chaplaincy of the 19th, transferred his 
men to Capt. Cray. 

So rapidly had the regiment been recruited 
that the barracks were not prepared for them, 
and temporary quarters were, meanwhile pre- 
pared for them in the city, until the 9th of Octo- 
ber, when they took possession of the barracks. 
The regiment was raised to nine hundred men 
and was designated as the 7Sth N. Y. V. On 
the 30th of November, the regiment, pursuant to 
order, left camp to report at New York. 

As on the departure of the 19th regiment, so 
now, the crowd was immense. The peisoimel of 
the regiment was much superior to the average 
of military organizations. It contained very 
many of the best citizens of the County ; thor- 
oughly educated and cultured men, who were 
voluntarily casting themselves upon the altar of 
their country and trusting their lives to the for- 
tunes of war. 

The following were its officers : 

Field and Staff. 

Colonel, John A. Dodge ; Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Robert B. Merritt; Adjutant, E. B. Lansing; 
Surgeon, MichaeJ D. Benedict ; Quartermaster, 
Lewis E. Carpenter ; Chaplain, Thomas B. 

Company Officers. 

Company A — Captain, Clinton D. McDougall ; 
Lieutenants, Robert B. Merritt, James H. Hin- 
man ; 2d Lieutenants, Erastus E!. Brown, and 
Benjamin F. Thurber. 

Company B — Captain, Truman K. Fuller; 1st 
Lieutenant, Wm. H. Stevenson ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Anson Tuller. 

Company C — Captain, William H. Cray ; 1st 
Lieutenant, Chas. Wilson Drew ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Augustus W. Benedict. 

Company D — Captain, Chas. C. Dwight; ist 
Lieutenant, Andrew S. Corning ; 2d Lieutenant, 
George D. Robinson. 

Company E — Captain, Luther Goodrich ; ist 
Lieutenant, Wm. L. Stanford ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Francis A. Hopping. 



Company F— Captain, Henry Bates Fitch ; ist 
Lieutenant, William Elias Avery ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Horace B. Fitch. 

Company G — Captain, John E. Savery ; 1st 
Lieutenant, Lewis E. Carpenter; 2d Lieutenant, 
William D. Hamilton. 

Company H — Captain, John Choate ; ist 
Lieutenant, Elbridge C. Miles; 2d Lieutenant, 
James E. Whiteside. 

Company /—Captain, Lansing Porter ; ist 
Lieutenant, E. B. Lansing ; 2d Lieutenant, Wm. 
H. Hosmer. 

The regiment was assigned to duty in the de- 
partment of the south. The field operations of 
this regiment will be considered in a future chap- 

Kennedy's Independent Battery. — Coinci- 
dent with the recruiting of the 7Sth regiment. 
Captain T. J. Kennedy had received permission 
to raise an independent battery of artillery ; and 
in less than two months had one hundred and 
twenty-five men on his rolls. It was entitled, 
"Kennedy's ist Light Battery N. Y. S. Volun- 
teers," and was mustered into service, for three 
years on the 23d day of November 1861. Its 
officers were: Capt., T. J. Kennedy ; First Lieu- 
tenants, Andrew Cowan and William P. Wright ; 
2d Lieut., James A. Woodruff. The under ser- 
geants were, H. C. Vaughn, Nathaniel Thomp- 
son, O. Van Etten, James B. Wood, J. E. John- 
son, and H. S. Steele. Capt. Kennedy left with 
his Battery, for the seat of war on December 2d. 

Rapid Enlistments. — Thus in about seven 
months Cayuga had sent into the field two full 
regiments and a battery of artillery. 

The 19th regiment had, meanwhile, been re- 
organized as the 3d artillery, and to fill it to its 
desired size required some three hundred men ; 
an effort was made to recruit them, but for 
nearly two months little was effected. In Feb- 
ruary and March ninety men were recruited who 
went forward under Lieuts. Boyle, Allen, and 
Kirby of the 3rd artillery. 

Other Calls — Military Districts formed. 
— The military disasters of the summer of 1862, 
induced the President early in July, to call for 
three hundred thousand men for three years, or 
during the war, and, on August 4th, for another 
three hundred thousand. This of course meant 
very earnest work, and it came home to the 
hearts and sensibilities of our people, and aroused 

them to corresponding action. Cayuga was not 
backward in her responses to these calls. 

Military Districts were formed, Cayuga and 
Wayne being one. The Governor appointed the 
following persons as the district military com- 
mittee, Wm. C. Beardsley, Dr. S. WiUard, Wm. 
H. Seward and N. T. Stephens, of Auburn ; C. 
M. Abbott of Niles ; and E. B. Morgan, and 
Smith Anthony, of Ledyard. To this commit- 
tee was confided the entire control of the recruit- 
ing service of the district. The committee was 
soon enlarged by adding thereto the names of 
W. H. Adams, Joseph Welling and J. B. Gavitt 
of Lyons ; G. W. Cowles of Clyde ; J. E. Walker, 
Pomeroy, and W. C. Nottingham of Pal- 
myra. At a meeting of the committee on the 
I2th of July, the following gentlemen were added : 
S. K. Williams, E. A. Thomas, L. S. Ketchum, 
Geo. W.Cuyler, Wm. T.Barney, W. T. Gaylord, 
of Wayne; and Theodore M. Pomeroy, Henry 
W. Dwight. Wm. A. Halsey, Geo. B. Gillespie, 
Wm. P. Robinson, A. L. Smith, William Hosford, 
Chas. Near, Philo Camp, Amzi Wood, William 
C.Cramer, and D.J. Van Auken, of Cayuga. 

Formation of the iiith Regiment. — The 
committee designated General Jesse Segoine as 
regimental commander, and appointed sub-com- 
mittees to promote enlistments ; these committees 
called war-meetings in different parts of the dis- 
trict, which were well attended, and at which 
spiritedaddresses were delivered. A mass-meet- 
ing was called at Auburn, on the 17th and at 
Lyons, Wayne county, on the 19th of July. Both 
were largely attended, the one at Auburn was 
especially enthusiastic, and stirring appeals 
! were made by Gen. Segoine, Theodore M. Pome- 
I roy. Rev. Mr. Warner, and others. E. E. Mar- 
I vine offered ten dollars each to ten volunteers ; 
and Col. E. B Morgan said he was authorized to 
offer two hundred dollars to the first company 
organized under the call, one hundred to the 
second, and fifty to the third. The authorization, 
it was believed, came from Col. Morgan's own 
patriotic and liberal impulses. 

These efforts of the war committees, gave a new 
[ impulse to enlistments, which, especially in 
Wayne county, were rapidly progressing. The in- 
ducement of a national bounty of one hundred 
I dollars, of a State bounty of fifty dollars, and a 
j town, or ward bounty of twenty-five dollars, the 
I latter paid by individual subscriptions, filled the 


quota of the regiment in about four weeks. Its 
official organization was as follows : I 

Field and Staff. ; 

Colonel, Jesse Segoine ; Lieutenant- Colonel, 
Clinton D. McDougall ; Adjutant, Henry H. 
Segoine ; Surgeon, William Vosburgh ; Quarter- 
master, James Trulan. 

Company Officers. 

Company A — Captain, Aaron P. Seely ; ist 
Lieutenant, Samuel B. Mclntyre ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, Ezra A. Hibbard. 

Company B — Captain, John S. Coe ; ist Lieu- 
tenant, Jacob T. VanBuskirk; 2d Lieutenant, 
John Tremper. 

Company C — Captain, Ed. A. Thomas; 1st 
Lieutenant, Ira Jones ; 2d Lieutenant, Theodore 

Company D — Captain, Sebastian D. Holmes ; 
1st Lieutenant, Hasseltine S. Moore ; 2d Lieu- ! 
tenant, Erastus M. Granger. j 

Company E — Captain, Isaac M, Lusk ; ist 
Lieutenant, Andrew D. Soverill ; 2d Lieutenant, | 
John A. Lanig. I 

Company F — Captain, Benjamin W. Thomp- i 
son; 1st Lieutenant, Robert C. Perry; 2d 
Lieutenant, John H. Drake. 

Company G — Captain, Lewis A. Husk ; ist 
Lieutenant, John I. Brinkerhoff ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Edgar J. A. Hueston. i 

Company H — Captain, Ezra H. Northrop; ist ' 
Lieutenant, Frank Rich ; 2d Lieutenant, Reuben \ 
J, Myres. 

Company I — Captain, Sidney Mead ; ist Lieu- 
tenant, Merrill W. Murdock; 2d Lieutenant, 
Arthur W. Marshall. 

Company K — Captain, S. A. Tremaine ; 1st 
Lieutenant, George M. Smith ; 2d Lieutenant, 
A. B. Capron. 

Another Call, 138TH Regiment Formed. — 
The call of Aug. 4th for "three hundred thousand 
more" quickly followed ; and full and prompt com- 
pliance therewith, was the only condition by which 
a draft could be avoided. Efforts were, therefore, 
at once directed to the formation of a fourth regi- 
ment, for which authority was obtained, on the 
application ofWm. H. Seward, Jr., Gen. Segoine 
and Capt. N. T. Stephens, who had proceeded to 
Albany for that purpose. 

Joseph Welling, of Wayne county, was selected 
as regimental commander, and enlistments were 

made with great rapidity. Ten full companies 
were mustered in, within eighteen days from the 
issuance of the order, of which number, about 
three hundred were enrolled before the order 
was made. Its officers were : 

Field and Staff. 

Colonel, Joseph Welling ; Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Wm. H. Seward, Jr.; Major, Edward P. Taft ; 
Adjutant, Wm. R. Wasson ; Sergeant-Major, 
Lyman C. Comstock ; Quartermaster, Henry P. 

Company Officers. 

Company A — Captain, James W. Snyder; ist 
Lieutenant, James H. Hyde ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Rufus M. Campbell. 

Company B — Captain, Truman Gregory ; ist 
Lieutenant, Nelson F. Strickland ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, William E. Greenwood. 

Company C — Captain, Loyal W. Alden ; 1st 
Lieutenant, Harvey Follett ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Marshall B. Burke. 

Company D — Captain, Charles L. Lyon ; ist 
Lieutenant, Anson S. Wood ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Samuel C. Redgrave, 

Company E — Captain, Selah Corn well ; ist 
Lieutenant, Seth F. Swift ; 2d Lieutenant, 
George C. Stoyell. 

Company F — Captain, Charles Burgess ; ist 
Lieutenant, Geo. W. Bacon ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Sullivan B. Lamereaux. 

Company G — Captain, William Wood; ist 
Lieutenant, Wm. Hawley ; 2d Lieutenant, Sey- 
mour Woodward. 

Company H — Captain, John L. Crane; ist 
Lieutenant, Tunis Vosburgh ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Daniel B. Harmon. 

Company I — Captain, Hugh Hughes; ist 
Lieutenant, Orson Howard ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Philip R. Freeoffi 

Company K — Captain, Irwin Sawyer ; ist Lieu- 
tenant, Dennis E. Flynn ; 2d Lieutenant, Geo. 
P. Knapp. 

160TH Regiment. — Although this military 
district, Cayuga and Wayne counties, had now 
sent into the field four full regiments and a bat- 
tery of artillery, besides supplying many recruits 
to the old regiments, her quota on the call of Au- 
gust 4th was not yet full, and a dreaded draft was 
therefore impending. To avoid that the most 
strenuous efforts were now made. The super- 



visors of Cayuga County, convened, by whom a 
bounty of fifty dollars was offered to volunteers. 
The stores in Auburn were, by agreement, closed 
at four o'clock each afternoon, that the energies 
of all might be directed to filling our quota. The 
mayor, by proclamation, urged the cooperation 
of all our citizens. Public meetings were held 
on the streets, and the flags of recruiting stations 
waved in all parts of the town. War commit- 
tees were appointed to aid the work. The gen- 
eral committee decided to raise a full regiment, 
and selected Capt. Charles C. Dwight, of the 7Sth 
regiment, then in New Orleans, as its Colonel. 
He reached Auburn on the 20th of October, was 
received with flattering honors and took com- 
mand of the camp, in which the enlisted men 
were quartered. The regiment was completed 
and mustered into service as the t6oth New 
York Volunteers, November 22d, 1862, with the 
following officers : 

Field and Staff. 

Colonel, Charles C. Dwight ; Lieutenant-Col- 
onel, John B. VanPatten ; Major, William H. 
Sentell ; Adjutant, Gordon W. Allen ; Surgeon, 
Cyrus Powers ; Assistant-Surgeon, David H. 
Armstrong ; Chaplain, William Pultman ; Quar- 
termaster, Dighton H. Winans. 

Company Officers. 

Company A — Captain, William Potter; ist 
Lieutenant, William J. VanDeusen ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant, James B. Vaughn. 

Company B — Captain, H. P. Underbill; ist 
Lieutenant, L. L. Wheelock ; 2d Lieutenant, 
James Kelly. 

Company C — Captain, B. B. Rogers; ist Lieu- 
tenant, Robert B. Ennis ; 2d Lieutenant, James 
V. D. Westfall. 

Company D — Captain, J. D. Bunerd ; ist 
Lieutenant, Myron ti. Shirts ; 2d Lieutenant, 
E. H. Sentell. 

Company E — Captain, Henry Moore; ist 
Lieutenant, James Gray ; 2d Lieutenant, Nicho- 
las McDonough. 

Company F — Captain, Josiah C. Jewett ; ist 
Lieutenant, Gideon F. Moorey ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Edwin Kirby. 

Company G — Captain, Malcom Wright ; ist 
Lieutenant, Horace Silsby ; 2d Lieutenant, A. 
S. Stillman. 

Covipany H — Captain, Daniel S.Vaughn ; ist 
Lieutenant, Charles R. Caltord ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Miles L Jones. 

Company I — Captain, Allen L. Burr; 1st 
Lieutenant, Newton De.xter ; 2d Lieutenant, 
Robert R. Seeley. 

Company A'— Captain, L. B. Hunt ; ist Lieu- 
tenant, George L. Merrill ; 2d Lieutenant, John 
H. Shaver. 

This ended the efforts at recruiting in this 
district, for 1862. Great efforts had been made 
and they had been crowned with gratifying suc- 

A Draft Ordered. — In April, 1 863, John N. 
Knapp, Esq., of Auburn, was appointed provost- 
marshal for this military district ; James M. Ser- 
vis, of Wayne, commissioner of enrollment ; and 
D. R. Davis, M. D., of Seneca Falls, surgeon. 
They proceeded to make a complete enrollment 
of the entire district. A draft was ordered to 
take place on July 23, to fill the places of the two 
years' men whose term of service would soon ex- 
pire. While the dreaded ballots were being drawn 
at the Court House in Auburn, the terrible New 
York riots were in progress, and intense agita- 
tion prevailed. Precautions were taken against 
apprehended resistance here but the draft was 
quietly concluded, resulting in drawing about two 
thousand conscripts. On the payment of three 
hundred dollars each, they could be relieved, and 
all but about four hundred and fifty did so. 

The general failure of this draft to supply men 
led to another call for three hundred thousand 
men. On October 17th, 1863, another draft was 
ordered, and the most vigorous efforts were made 
to escape it by filling the quota with volunteers. 
Cayuga County offered a bounty of three hun- 
dred dollars, issuing its bonds to raise the neces- 
sary funds ; the effort succeeded and by the 10th 
of January the quota of the district was filled. 
But two hundred thousand additional troops were 
called for on February i st i S64, and our quota was 
filled within twenty days. The recruits realized 
from the last two calls went mainly to supply 
deficiences in the old regiments. 

Two other calls were made, the first for five 
hundred thousand one year's men in July 1864, 
and the second, and last on December 19th of that 
year, for three hundred thousand men, and fifty 
days were given in each case to fill the quotas 
by volunteering. 



Immense Bounties. — The times were very 
eventful. Organizations were making for what was 
believed to be the closing movements of the war, 
which were to finally crush armed rebellion. 
On August 1 8th the Supervisors granted a 
bounty of three hundred dollars to each volunteer, 
and the common council of Auburn one hundred 
and fifty dollars for each recruit credited to the 
city. On the 19th the Supervisors raised the 
bounty to six hundred, si.x hundred and fifty and 
seven hundred dollars respectively, for one, two 
and three years' men. Individuals, expecting and 
dreading a draft, offered and paid enormous sums 
for substitutes, as high as ten, twelve and even 
fifteen hundred dollars. It was the golden harvest 
for bounty brokers, and they vigorously plied 
their vocation. 

All these various and energetic efforts, the 
enormous bounties offered, and the conviction 
that the war would soon close, succeeded in filling 
the quota under the call of July, by Sept. lOth. 

Final Efforts. — Another struggle was yet 
to be made, the final call of December 19th, for 
three hundred thousand men, followed ; final, as 
we afterwards knew it to be, but then known only 
as one of a mighty series of exhaustive drafts, 
the end of which could not then be determined. 

It produced great depression. The energy and 
spirit of the people had, for nearly four terrible 
years, borne them up and there had been no sign 
of faltering ; but after all they had done, after all 
the sacrifices of time, money and life which they 
had made, each effort in raising troops having, 
for sometime, been regarded as the last which 
they would be required to make, and, after hav- 
ing put forth nearly all their remaining strength 
in raising their quota of the last five hundred 
thousand men, theimmediate call for another three 
hundred thousand was very disheartening. 

Renewed, but relatively unsuccessful efforts 
were made to recruit another regiment by vol- 
unteering. In the city of Auburn efficient and 
active ward committees were formed as follows : 
First ward, J. M. Hurd, E. C. Selover, and 
William Lamey ; Second ward, Richard C. Steel, 
E. H. Avery, Albert H. Goss, John S. Fowler, 
B. B. Snow, and Wm. B. Woodin ; Third 
ward, John Choate, E. G. Miles, Rolin Tracy, 
Enos Bostwick, Josiah Field, Chas. Wellner, 
William J. Moses, William B. Stevenson, Chas. 
A. Myers, and John S. Brown ; Fourth ward, 

Myron Cowell, Chester Wier. In the country 
towns, corresponding efforts were made. 

Draft Ordered. — Every preparation for a 
j draft had, for some time, been in complete readi- 
ness, and the fated ballots must again be drawn. 
Captain John N. Knapp had resigned the office 
of provost-marshal of the 24th district on January 
1st, 1865, and was succeeded by B. B. Snow. 

Volunteering was continued until March 15th, 
when Capt. Snow began the draft at the Court 
House in Auburn, in the presence of a deeply 
interested audience. The draft was continued 
about ten days, for a few hours each day, recruit- 
ing filling the intervals, and drafting resorted to 
only when the officers were not engaged in the 
business of mustering recruits. 

Richmond fell on the 2d of April and volun- 
teering was thereafter greatly increased until 
ordered closed on April 14th, 1865, just four 
years after news had reached us of the fall of 

The 193D Regiment was rapidly organizing in 

camp, and very soon had its full complement of 

one thousand men and several hundred had been 

sent in squads to the general military camp at 

I Elmira. 

The 193d regiment was formed as follows : 

Colonel, J. B. VanPetten; Lieutenant-Colonel 
I John C. Gilmore ; Major, Alfred Morton ; Ad- 
jutant, Thurlow B. Wasson ; Quartermaster, 
j Chas. H. Bailey ; Surgeon, David H. Armstrong; 
j Chaplain, W. D. Chase. 

i Captains, John Jones, Edwin C. Knapp, VVm. 
H. Porter, Archibald H. Preston, Joel Reed, 
James H. Hitchcock, Sidney W. Ainsworth, 
Orrin D. Staplin, Wm. L. Yeckley and Wm. H. 

The fall bf Richmond on the 2d of April and 
the surrender of the Confederate forces on the 
18th, necessarily closed all enlistments here, and 
led to the speedy closing of the office of the 
provost-marshal and all other military prepara- 

For four full years, the people of this County, in 
common with those of the entire country, had 
suffered as never before in all their history. Nearly 
two million men had been enlisted and there 
were on the rolls and in the actual service of the 
United States, at the close of the war one million 
one hundred thousand men. Nine hundred thou- 
sand had fallen from the ranks, of which number 



two hundred thousand filled soldiers graves, four 
hundred thousand were disabled, or rejected on 
second examination, or deserted, and three hun- 
dred thousand were honorably discharged, dur- 
ing or at the end of the war. Of this number, 
this military district supplied about six thousand. 


Cayuga in the Rebellion, (Continued.) 

19TH New York Volunteers — Term of 
Enlistments — Misunderstandings — Un- 
pleasant Results — In Camp at Washing- 
ton — With Patterson — Military Expe- 
rience — With General Banks — New Uni- 
forms — Held for Two Years — Recusants 
Punished — Reduced to a Battalion — 
Changed to 3D Artillery — Subsequent 

IN the preceding chapter, we have given a 
connected account of the enrollment of the 
six regiments from this military district, and of 
Kennedy's battery, and of their departure for 
their respective fields of duty in the service of 
the State and of the United States. In the en- 
suing chapters devoted to this subject, we shall 
subjoin as full an account of their field and camp 
service as our limits will permit. 

19TH New York Volunteers. — The com- 
panies comprising this regiment, pending its full 
completion, had been quartered at the military 
depot at Elmira, where they were initiated into 
the earnest and severe experiences of camp-life, 
as contrasted with the home quiet, and the con- 
veniences and comforts to which most of them had 
been accustomed. The rough barracks, the 
coarse and poorly cooked food, and the beds of 
straw had to be accepted as the inevitable lot of 
the soldier and was borne with varying degrees 
of patience, conesponding to the individual tem- 

The first five companies of the regiment 
reached Elmira on the 29th of April ; Captains 
Stewart, Giles and Ammon, arrived on the 9th of 
May ; and on the 14th, all the companies having 
arrived, orders were issued by the State military 

board " that the several companies commanded 
by Captains John T. Baker, Owen Gavigan, Theo- 
dore H. Schenck, Chas. H. Stewart, John H. 
Ammon, Solomon Giles, Nelson T. Stephens, 
J. E. Ashcroft, T. J. Kennedy, and J. R. Angel, 
be severally accepted and formed into a regiment 
to be numbered 19, and that orders be forthwith 
issued for the election of regimental officers 
thereof" A brisk and spirited canvass followed, 
in which were considered the names of Colonel 
John M. Dodge, H. V. Howland, Gen. Segoine, 
and Major John S. Clark, resulting in the choice 
of the latter for Colonel, by a nearly unanimous 
vote, and of the other officers as stated in the 
official organization of the regiment in the pre- 
ceding chapter. 

Attention had been called to Major Clark for 
the reason of his general qualifications for the 
position, and particularly by a voluntary, perilous, 
and successful act of heroism in running the rebel 
blockade between Baltimore and Washington a 
few weeks before, wherein several previous mes- 
sengers had been turned back. He, by his 
perseverance, skill and boldness, succeeded, con- 
veying dispatches to our forces, with which he 
returned to Washington. 

Regular and thorough drills were maintained, 
though the weather was rainy and inclement, 
and the men not sufficiently clothed to comforta- 
bly resist the chills and damps of the season. 
The men of this regiment had enlisted for two 
years and doubtless felt themselves bound to that 
term of service should the war continue so long. 
The military board of the state, as early as May 
1st, 1861, had offered to furnish thirty-eight regi- 
ments for two years' service and the offer had 
been promptly accepted on May 3d. The Nine- 
teenth regiment having enlisted for two years and 
the military authorities of the state having offered, 
for two years, the services of thirty-eight regi- 
ments, of which the Nineteenth was one, which 
offer had been accepted, it was clearly the duty of 
the mustering officer to have sworn them in for 
that period. But a bad blunder was made, and 
the men of the Nineteenth regiment were sworn 
into the United States service, on May 22d, for 
three months only. 

As might have been expected if the war con- 
tinued, trouble came of it. We had sanguine men 
who at that time believed the war would be short, 
and their council may have governed in the mus- 



tering of the 19th for three months. However that 
may have been, the error was committed and 
unpleasant results followed. The rank and file 
were ignorant of the real facts in the case, were 
not informed of the action of the State and Na- 
tional authorities, and when sworn into the ser- 
vice for three months regarded the contract as 

On May 24th, the men received their uniforms, 
which by a most shameful fraud of the contractors, 
were composed of that miserable shoddy ma- 
terial, and the color, instead of the regulation 
blue, was a dingy gray, the cloth, of which they 
were composed had no inherent strength and the 
garments very soon fell to pieces. Our spirited and 
proud boys were therefore clothed in uncomforta- 
ble and unseemly rags, mortifying to their feel- 
ings, and an affront which deeply wounded them. 
In this affront to the regiment, their friends at 
home fully participated ; a public meeting of citi- 
zens was called, and a deputation sent to Albany, 
to protest against the outrage and to seek to 
right the wrong which, after long delay, was 
finally done. 

Meanwhile on May 31st Colonel Clark ap- 
plied for marching orders, and was directed by 
the Secretary of War to proceed to Harrisburgh, 
Pa., for which place the regiment started on June 
6th, 750 strong. On their way through Pennsyl- 
vania, they received flattering and grateful ova- 
tions from the people, who lavished upon them 
the most generous and liberal hospitality. 

At Harrisburgh, Col. Clark received a dis- 
patch from General Patterson, to proceed at once 
to Chambersburg, but before doing so, the for- 
mer telegraphed both to General Scott and Pat- 
terson, and the former ordered the command to 
Washington, whither it immediately proceeded. 
This proceeding of Colonel Clark gave offense to 
General Patterson who afterwards remembered, 
and resented it to the prejudice of Colonel Clark. 
At Baltimore the regiment prepared for antici- 
pated trouble from the rebel and rowdy elements 
of the city ; the bayonets were fixed and rifles 
loaded, each with a ball and three buck shot and, 
formed in column of half companies, they reso- 
lutely and firmly marched through the rebel city 
amid the taunts and jeers of a rough and excited 
populace, from whom an attack was momentarily 
expected. But the demonstrations proceeded 
no further than taunts, vile imprecations upon 

the "hated Yankees," and repeated jostlings 
of the regiment, which passed unharmed on to 
Washington, arriving at three o'clock P. M. 

The regiment was soon ordered into a camp 
of instruction, located on the hills north of the 
city, whither it proceeded on the loth of June. 
Cayuga was the name given to their quarters. 
The camp was soon arranged in systematic order, 
tents floored with boards, and thorough military 
rules enforced. Regular drills were instituted and 
maintained, and the hitherto novices in tactics 
soon became familiar with the manual and ma- 
neuvers. The season of the year was inviting, 
the weather pleasant, and the health of the regi- 
ment generally good, though measles were to 
some extent prevailing. 

The regiment remained here nearly a month, 
when, a decision having been reached to advance 
upon Richmond, orders were given to Colonel 
Clark, by Major-General Sandford, on July Sth to 
be ready with his command to march by noon of 
the day following. 

The plan was, that General McDowell, who 
lay with his army opposite Washington, was to 
proceed directly upon Richmond, while General 
Patterson was to demonstrate from Williamsport 
upon the army of General Johnston, then near 
Winchester and detain the latter, while the for- 
mer movement was being made. General Pat- 
terson had under his command a force of over 
20,000 men ; but he had so hesitated and delayed, 
that General Sandford with four New York regi- 
ments, of which the 19th was one, was sent to 
reinforce him. 

The 19th promptly executed the order and 
filed out of camp before noon of the loth. Gen- 
eral Sandford with the balance of the regiments 
following the next day. Colonel Clark proceeded 
by the way of Baltimore to Harrisburgh and 
Chambersburg to Hagerstown, where the com- 
mand debarked. Orders were met here to follow 
General Patterson, who had gone on to Martins- 
burgh, sixteen miles from Winchester ; and also 
to bring with them a thirty-pound rifled gun, 
which was expected to have reached Hagerstown 
before the arrival of the regiment, but as it was, 
it did not reach there until thirty-six hours there- 
after. From Hagerstown to Williamsport is six 
miles, and the heavy ordnance must be trans- 
ported on trucks over the common highways. 
Col. Clark decided not to wait for the arrival of 



the gun with his full command, but detached I 
Capt. Kennedy with his company to await its 
arrival and to bring it forward, the balance of the [ 
regiment making a night march to Williamsport. 
Early the following morning the march for Mar- 
tinsburgh was resumed. The Potomac, which at 
the crossing was about three feet deep, was 
reached and forded, giving the regiment its first 
experience of the kind. 

Captains Schenck and Stewart with their com- 
mands were left at the ford to aid Capt. Kennedy, 
when he, with his cumbrous freight, should 
arrive ; but when the regiment had advanced to 
Falling Waters, six miles from the ford, those | 
two companies were ordered to rejoin the regi- 
ment, and the whereabouts of Capt. Kennedy ! 
were sought for. | 

The long delay had not been anticipated, and 
when finally the gun came, there were also with 
it a large quantity of stores ; the gun required ten ', 
horses to transport it, and the whole train com- | 
prised seventy-five wagons. It was put under way ! 
as soon as possible to join the regiment. This 
is but one of a long series of mistakes which 
characterized the earlier movements of our armies. 
It was a very hazardous movement to entrust so 
large and valuable a train in the enemy's country 
to the escort of a single company, but it reached 
its destination without interference. Meanwhile ; 
the regiment had reached Hagerstown, and were, 
with a battery and three other regiments, on the 
nth of July, brigaded as the 8th brigade, and 
placed under the command of Col. Schwarzwal- i 
der, and constituted a part of the 3d division of 
Gen. Patterson's command. Gen. Sandford com- j 
manding the division, about 8,000 strong. j 

Gen. Patterson's forces now exceeded 23,000 : 
men, with two batteries, and lay, for about one 
mile, along the hills south of Martinsburgh, con- 
fronting, the rebel force under Gen. Johnston of j 
20,000 men, that lay at Bunker Hill, a few miles [ 
distant ; so close indeed were the two armies 
that their respective pickets were in immediate j 
proximity, and rebel cavalry scoured our out- 
posts. The 19th was posted on the extreme 
right, the post of danger, and a nightly fusilade 
was kept up from the rebel picket line upon our 
outlying post. Here the regiment lay for several 

Corporal Martin Webster and private S. J. 
Tobias sought to vary the monotony of camp 

life by a short foraging expedition ; but were 
captured by a squad of rebel cavalry, after a 
sharp skirmish with them, which the boys main- 
tained from behind a stone-wall, and in which one 
of the assailants was killed, and Tobias wounded. 
They were taken to Libby prison, where the latter 
died, and the former, after being taken, first to 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and next to Salisbury, N. 
C, was exchanged, and rejoined his regiment in 
June, 1862. 

Colonel Clark led out repeated foraging ex- 
peditions in quest of army supplies. On the 11 th 
of July, he took out on such an errand, seven 
companies from the 19th, and three from the 28th 
N. Y. While engaged in gathering supiplies he 
sent a company up the road, with directions to 
lie in ambush, and to permit all that came, to 
pass, but to intercept their return. Soon about 
forty cavalry came dashing down the road, and 
discovered some of the decoy party, who had 
strayed.into view and were fired upon. The main 
body, too eager to wait, returned the fire. The 
other companies under the lead of their Colonel, 
rushed upon the scene : but the assailants, firing, 
wheeled and fled. In this affair one of the 12th 
New York was killed and three of the cavalry 
were wounded. 

Before leaving Washington, disafiection toward 
their Colonel had arisen among several of the 
officers of the 19th, and they had drawn up 
formal charges against him, among which were 
those of harsh and ungentlemanly treatment of 
officers and men, and profanity. These were 
laid before General Patterson, at Martinsburgh, 
who had not forgotten Col. Clark's neglect of his 
first order, nor his failure to escort the heavy gun 
and the accompanying stores with his full com- 
mand. The General suspended Colonel Clark 
from the command of the regiment, which then 
devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel Clarence A. 
Seward. Col. Clark was put under arrest to be 
tried by court-martial ; but though he repeat- 
edly demanded to be tried, his demand was never 
granted. It is perhaps a sufficient commentary 
upon the merits of this whole question, to state 
the view taken of it by Gen. Banks, who suc- 
ceeded Gen. Patterson, and who, after a full ex- 
amination of the facts, voluntarily relieved Col. 
Clark from all the disabilities growing out of his 
suspension from command, and gave him his 
1 choice of the old position in the regiment, or a 


position on the staff of the Major-General com- 
manding. Col. Clark accepted the position of 
aidde-campon the staff of Gen. Banks, and held 
it through all that General's campaigns, render- 
ing, on several occasions, signally important 

After lying four days at Martinsburgh, the 
order was given on July 14th to advance to 
Bunker-Hill, which was reached with only a 
slight skirmish of the advance with six hundred 
of Stev,?art's cavalry, but who were speedily 
stampeded by our artillery. The New York 
troops encamped that night in a wheat-field, the 
sheaves of which supplied them with pillows and 
couches. Foraging had been forbidden ; yet the 
army would not go hungry with an abundance 
of supplies within reach. They took the liberty to 
help themselves, and fed bountifully upon the 
various productions of old Virginia, including 
poultry, pigs, mutton, beef, vegetables and fruits 
and whatever edibles came within their reach. 

Patterson halted here, hesitating what to do. 
He had received peremptory orders from Gen- 
eral Scott, either to fight Johnston, or so demon- 
strate against him as to prevent his junction with 
the rebel General Beauregard, against whom 
McDowell was advancing ; but he did neither. 
His dilatory and unsoldiery conduct greatly in- 
censed General Sandford ; but, as a subordinate, 
he could only advise, not direct the operations to 
be made. On the 17th of July, Gen. Patterson 
moved, not toward, but away from the enemy, 
toward Charlestown, opening an easy and undis- 
puted pathway for Johnston to unite his forces 
with those of General Beauregard, and thus de- 
termined the issue of the bloody field of Bull Run 
on the 2 1st of July. 

On his march to Charlestown rebel cavalry 
watched and reported the movements, and when 
they found them to be no feints, but a direct re- 
tirement of the army, the enemy unmolested, 
quickly marched through the gap thus opened 
for him and accomplished his awful work. What 
a fearful responsibility rests upon the cowardly, 
or traitorous head of the vascillating General. 
Patterson reached Charlestown on the evening 
of the 17th, the 19th regiment encamping in a 
field near that in which John Brown had been 
hung, many of the men visiting the scene of the 
tragedy. Here the army lay idly for four days, 
until the morning of that fatal Sunday, on which 

was fought the disastrous battle of Bull Run, 
when it moved to Harper's Ferry, and encamped 
upon Bolivar Heights. On the 25th of July, Pat- 
terson was superseded by General N. P. Banks, 
and sent home, followed by the execrations of the 
army and the country. 

General Banks found his army so weakened 
by the expiration of the terms of service, as to 
make it necessary in the then defeated and dis- 
organized condition of Mc Dowell's forces, to 
withdraw across the Potomac. In preparation 
for this movement, and to guard the passage, 
General Banks despatched Captain Kennedy with 
his own company and those of Captains Schenck, 
Gavigan, and Stewart, with two guns of the 
Rhode Island battery to occupy the heights on 
the Maryland side of the river. The army moved 
over and encamped on this side, picketing its 
shore for some forty miles up and down the river. 
The rebels occupying its opposite banks. 

Here the army lay for three weeks pending its 
reorganization and was thoroughly drilled and 
disciplined. In the reorganized army the 19th 
regiment formed a part of the eighth brigade 
which was commanded by Colonel George H. 
Thomas, who soon became here very popular and 
efficient as he afterwards was in more trying and 
responsible positions. 

The shoddy rags which till now had dangled 
from, and deformed the bodies and mortified the 
spirits of the men of the 19th Regiment, were, on 
the 30th of July, duly exchanged for neat and 
substantial uniforms, which were at once the com- 
fort, pride and joy of the long abused soldiers. 
While lying here. Captain Kennedy proceeded 
with a detachment of about one hundred men in 
a night march to Lovettsville, three miles from 
the river, to attempt the capture of a rebel cav- 
alry patrol that was in the daily habit of recon- 
noitering in the vicinity. But on this occasion 
the cavalry came by a different route from that 
usually taken by them, and fled so quickly when 
they discovered our detachment that only a long 
range shot could be obtained, resulting in wound- 
ing a few of them and in capturing trifling sup- 
plies. The incident was not important in itself, 
except as a relief to those engaged in it from the 
tedium of camp life. 

While lying idly in camp, and the three months 
limit of their time of service rapidly approaching, 
the men matured their plans for returning home. 


to which, so far as they knew, there was no ob- 
jection. The sthand I2th New York regiments 
brigaded with them, returned home on the 30th 
of July and the first of August, forcibly reminding 
the members of the 19th that on the 22d of the 
latter month they too would leave for their homes. 
Rumors were, however, circulated that they were 
to be retained for the full period of their enlist- 
ment, two years, and an appeal was made to Gen- 
eral Banks for his judgment in the premises. He 
expressed the opinion that they could be held 
only for three months, the period of their muster. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Seward, then in command of 
the regiment, and an able lawyer, coincided with 
General Banks. 

But special orders No. 323 issued at Albany, 
August 2d, 1861, finally settled the matter. It 
directed that Colonel Clark should " report with 
his command to the Adjutant-General of the 
army for duty under the orders of the United 
States government, for the remainder of the term 
of the enlistment of the regiment, into the service 
of the United States." 

On the 1 2th of August the order was an- 
nounced in camp producing great surprise and 
indignation. The men were greatly disappointed, 
they had made every arrangement to return, and 
had been cruelly kept in ignorance of their legal 
obligations. Had section 3d of the New York 
act of April i6th been promptly read and fully 
explained to them, they would have clearly seen 
their obligations and obeyed them. The phrase- 
ology of that act was as explicit as words could 
be, thus : 

" They," the enlisted men, " shall be at all times 
liable to be turned over to the service of the 
United States, on the order of the Governor, as 
a part of the militia of the State, on the order of 
the President, &c." 

That was the obligation which the men of the 
19th assumed on their enlistment, and special 
orders 323 legally bound them to service for the 
full two years. But the 22d of August had not 
yet come. The regiment moved with the army 
to Hyattstown, ten miles south of Frederick, and 
encamped. Here the subject was thoroughly 
canvassed by officers and men, all of the former 
and the great body of the latter, though disap- 
pointed in their expectations, still accepted the 
inevitable, against which they clearly saw it was 
useless to contend. 

The 22d of August came at length and the 

test of compliance with, or resistance to the order 
was to be made. The 19th was formed and over 
it was placed a strong body of armed men, includ- 
ing a battery of artillery, to quell instantly any 
and all attempts at mutiny or insubordination. 
Major Ledlie, in a few words, informed the regi- 
ment that they were turned over to the service 
of the United States for the remainder of the 
two years. Adjutant Stone read the special 
order 323. Their arms were then stacked. Major 
Ledlie then commanded the men to advance and 
take their arms. All the officers at once did so, 
as did all of the men in the companies of Cap- 
tains Kennedy and Stewart, except a single 
recusant in the latter. Companies C, H, and K, 
stepped forward with few exceptions ; but the 
larger part of the others held back. There were 
280 who refused to obey. In Captain Gavigan's 
company, but one of the men obeyed, and he, 
because his time would soon expire, as his term of 
enlistment had been special. The recusants who 
wereput under arrest, finally numbered 203. Cap- 
tains Kennedy and Stewart were congratulated by 
Colonel Thomas on the noble conduct of their 
respective commands, but on hearing a full ac- 
count of the case declared the men free from 
blame, and that they had not " been treated 
right," a conclusion to which all dispassionate 
men must arrive. 

General Banks, understanding the great griev- 
ances of the men, gave them time to consider the 

I matter. They were labored with by their offi- 
cers, and the whole case, its causes and necessary 

I consequences, was fully explained to them. Gen- 
eral Banks and Father Creedon, of the Holy 

1 FamilyChurchin Auburn, earnestly pressed upon 
them their obligations, and all but twenty-three 

! finally returned to duty. The recusants were 
tried by court martial and sentenced to the Dry 

[ Tortugas for two years. They were pardoned 
the following November on condition of serving 
out the remainder of their time honestly and 
faithfully, and they did so. 

I The men who manifested such remarkable 

I firmness in their resistance to what they believed 
to be a great wrong were " Michael Banett, Wm. 
Buckley, Thomas Burke, Daniel Doyle, James 
Downell, James Dwyre, Wm. Galvin, Thomas 
Green, Thomas Head, John Hogan, Patrick Kel- 

! laher, Michael Lacy, Francis McCarthy, John Mc- 

I Kean, John O'Brien, and James Tracy of Co. D ; 


John L. Crounce and James Gaffney, Co. E ; 
Morgan L. Joslyn, Co. G ; Samuel Barr, John 
P. Barber, Walter M. F"owIer and Morris Ryan 
of Co. I. 

The camp of the regiment was now changed 
to Seneca Creek, in the vicinity of Hyattstown, 
where it remained until the 24th of September. 
Meanwhile the brigade commander had been 
changed, Colonel Biddle succeeding Colonel 
Thomas, who was transferred to a command in 
the West. At the latter date the regiment was 
ordered to Muddy Branch, to guard the depot of 
supplies established there, where from ten to fif- 
teen hundred wagons were daily loaded and 
despatched. In this duty great vigilance was 
required to protect the very valuable freight from 
rebel raids upon it, and heavy picket and patrol 
duty was exacted. The regiment remained here 
through October and November and fitted up 
their tents with comfortable fire-places of their 
own invention, consisting of a covered ditch ex- 
tending outwards a few feet from the tent and 
connecting with a fire-pit within it, the latter cov- 
ered or nearly so with a flat-stone, while the 
outer terminus of the flue surmounted with a 
barrel, or other arrangement for a short chimney, 
finished the work ; such fire-places, very quickly 
constituted, became common in all our armies 
during the rebellion. 

By furlough, discharges on account of disa- 
bility, and other causes, the regiment was reduced 
in September ist to 639 men, and on the 2d 
Capt. Kennedy was detached for the recruiting 
service in Cayuga County. Lieut. -Colonel Sew- 
ard resigned his commission on the 13th, owing 
to impaired health, and was succeeded by Major 
Ledlie, Capt. Stewart being elected Major. It 
was expected that Colonel Clark would soon 1 
resign his commission and the command of the j 
regiment devolve upon Lieut-Colonel Ledlie. ■ 
In the frequent absence of the latter, the com- \ 
mand and drill of the regiment mainly devolved 
upon Major Stewart, who from that time forward, 
in an especial manner, displayed his admirable 
military and soldierly talents and won the deserved 
esteem of officers and men. The regiment was 
reduced to a battalion by consolidation of com- 
panies, and Captains Stephens and Angel, and 
Lieutenants Squires, Parker, Carr, Posting, and 
Field were at their own request, mustered out, 
Capt. Angel raised a new company. 

On Sept. 25th, the 19th Regiment was trans- 
ferred to the third brigade under command of 
Colonel G. H. Gordon, and on the 8th of Octo- 
ber, that brigade was placed under the command 
of Gen. A. S. Williams, who instituted a thorough 
course of military instruction. In October and 
November a large number of desertions occurred, 
which the vigilance of the officers could not pre- 
vent ; sixty-seven deserted in October and 
November, fifty in a single night. On Decem- 
ber 1st, the regiment numbered but 425 effective 
men. Capt. Baker resigned and left Nov. 5th. 

The plan of consolidating the 19th Regiment 
with the 28th N. Y. Volunteers was now broached, 
but a display by its officers before Gen. Williams 
of the thoroughness of its drill and the zeal and 
capacity of its officers, defeated the scheme and 
new and vigorous efforts were made to replenish 
the regiment. Capt. Giles, Lieut. Boyle, and 
Sergeant Barrus were detached on recruiting 

Col. Clark having been relieved by Gen. 
Banks from all disabilities arising from his sus- 
pension from command and been offered and ac- 
cepted a position on his staff, he resigned the 
command of the 19th Regiment. Major Ledlie 
then became Colonel, Major Stewart, Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel, and Captain Giles, Major. 

The plan of converting the 19th Regiment 
into artillery v/as now formed and successfully 
executed. The singular and sad fortune of the 
regiment, the zeal, fidelity and admitted capacity 
of its officers, and the fact that it had come from 
the home of Secretary Seward, had not only 
drawn public attention to it, but had prepared the 
way for successful appeal in its behalf Justice, 
long deferred, was soon to be awarded to it. Col. 
Ledlie visited Washington, had an interview 
with Secretary Seward, and proposed his .plan, 
which was cordially endorsed by the Secretary. 
The latter accompanied Col. Ledlie on a visit to 
Gen. McClellan, the result of which was that an 
artillery regiment, 1,900 strong was authorized 
to be raised, of which the 19th was to form a 
part. The order for this purpose was dated De- 
cember nth, 1861, and in addition to directing 
the formation of the regiment of heavy artillery, 
the design of which at that time was to defend 
the Capital, there was this significant clause : 

"And any companies which may now be serv- 
ing as light artillery, will be detached, and mus- 


tered as independent companies, and their places 
in the regiment will be supplied by other compa- 

This clause was interpolated to do justice to 
Captain Kennedy, who, when detached on re- 
cruiting service as theretofore related, had raised ' 
a battery of artillery that had been mustered 
into the United States service on November 
23d, as the 1st Independent N. Y. Battery. ; 

This gave a new and strong impulse to re- j 
cruiting, in which all heartily joined. On De- I 
cember iSth, Captain Angel reported with a full j 
company, K, William Richardson, First, and T. j 
J. Messereau, Second Lieutenants. 

The autumnal rains and the heavy traffic over 
the roads, rendered them so heavy as to compel 
Gen. Banks, on December ist, to change his 
base of supplies from Muddy Brook to Frederick. 
Here they established winter quarters. The I 
march of thirty miles to this point over horribly 
muddy and half frozen roads, was extremely fa- 
tiguing, but it was accomplished in two days. 
A camp was here selected in a piece of woods, 
through which ran a fine stream. Substantial 
huts were built, with a base of logs three to four 
feet high, the crevices filled with mud, surmount- 
ed with tents, and then floored and supplied with 
fire-places. Here the regiment remained in com- I 
fortable quarters, until January 6th, when the 
threatening movements of the enemy under 
Stonewall Jackson, in the vicinity of Hancock, j 
demanded attention. That village, where was 
stationed a Union brigade, was shelled on the 
13th of December, and the attack vigorously re- 
pelled by our artillery. Jackson had concentrat- 
ed along the Upper Potomac a force of some 
20,000 men, and to strengthen our lines there, it 
was decided to forward thither the 3d Brigade, 
then consisting of the loth and 28th New York, 
5th Connecticut and 46th Pennsylvania Regi- 
ments, Gen. Williams, commanding. The march 
was through snow several inches deep, and the 
first night, while under the temporary command 
of Col. Donnelly, it was compelled to encamp in 
the open fields without the protection of tents, 
and suffered intensely. The cruel commander was 
severely reprimanded by Gen. Williams for his 
harsh treatment of the men. The third night 
the regiment found quarters in Hancock. 

Here they were subjected to all the privations 
and hardships incident to a winter campaign, un- 
til February i8th, 1862. Heavy patrol, picket 

and engineer duties were required of the men. 
The village was small, and its accommodations 
insignificant. Exposure brought on colds and 
fevers, including the dreaded typhus, attended 
with many fatal results. As a sanitary measure 
the camp was removed to the open fields, and the 
men supplied with Sibley tents, holding fifteen 
men each, warmed with the Sibley stoves, and 
well ventilated. 

At the date mentioned, pursuant to the order 
of the War Department, the regiment started on 
its return march to Washington, in furtherance 
of Special Order No. 584, issued on the 30th of 
December, reciting that " the 19th Regiment of 
New York State Volunteers is hereby organized 
into an artillery regiment, to be known and des- 
ignated as the 3d Regiment of New York Vol- 
unteer Artillery." Before leaving, the Brigadier- 
General commanding complimented the regi- 
ment, officers and men, for their good order, dis- 
cipline and their marked improvement in drill. 
A three days toilsome march over very bad roads 
brought them to Frederick, where cars awaited 
them, and in which they reached Washington on 

Here closed the career of the "Old Nine- 
teenth " without a battle, after much toil and 
many sacrifices on the part of both officers and 
men, and with little of that eclat usually attach- 
ing to successful military achievements. Subse- 
quently, in another organization, and under a new 
name, the same officers and men won many lau- 
rels upon sharply contested fields, and earned 
the undying gratitude of the country. 


Cayuga in the Rebellion — (Continued.) 

The Third New York Artillery — Organ- 
ization — In Fort Corcoran— Changed to 
Light Artillery — Service in New Berne 
— Expedition to Goldsboro — Battle of 
Whitehall — Attack on New Berne — Iron 
Clad Albermarle — Various Military 
Operations — Services of the Several 
Batteries — Membership and Losses. 

THE Special Order, No. 584, directing the 
formation of the 3d New York Heavy 
Artillery, bore date December 11, i86i. At 


that time the efforts which had been made to re- 
cruit for the 19th Regiment by Captains Ken- 
nedy, Giles and Angel were supplemented by 
the personal efforts of Colonel Ledlie and 

Recruiting for the 3d Artillery was not, how- 
ever, confined to the 21st Military District. 
Accessions were obtained from various sources. 
Captain Edwin S. Jenney, of Syracuse, raised in 
his vicinity one hundred and forty-two men ; 
Battery H of the regiment was formed from 
skeleton companies from Uticaand Rome ; Bat- 
tery M came from Cortland and Battery B from 
New York City, and all these recruits concen- 
trated at the latter point, and were clothed in 
heavy artillery uniforms and supplied with, and 
drilled in the use of rifles, a requirement of the 
arm of the service for which they were destined. 
They numbered five hundred and thirty men and 
were accompanied to Washington by Major 
Giles, where they arrived on the 21st of Febru- 
ary, joined the camp of the "Old Nineteenth." 
They were assigned by General William F. 
Barry, commanding the defences of Washing- 
ton, to Fort Corcoran, on Arlington Heights. 
This was one of the series of five forts, on the 
west side of the Potomac, intended for the pro- 
tection of the Capital. It was on the plantation 
of the Rebel General Lee, whose elegant and 
costly mansion was occupied for his headquarters 
by Lieutenant-Colonel Stewart. It was an ele- 
vated, healthy, and in every way, a very pleasant 
location for an army. With the Sibley tents well 
floored, warmed and ventilated, the camp well 
laid out and supplied, the men of the 3d Artil- 
lery began a very agreeable military experience. 
At this time the official organization and nu- 
merical force of the regiment were reported as 
follows : Colonel, James H. Ledlie, November 
18, 1861 ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Charles H. Stew- 
art, December 23, 1861 ; Majors, Henry M. 
Stone, December 25, 1861, Solomon Giles, Jan- 
uary 23, 1862, T. J. Kennedy, January 23, 
1862 ; Adjutant, J. Fred. Dennis, December 23, 
1861 ; Quartermaster, John H. Chedell, May 29, 
1861 ; Surgeon, Theodore Dimon, May 20, 1861; 
Assistant Surgeon, William H. Knight, October 
17, 1861; Chaplain, William Hart, November 14, 
1861; Commissary Sergeant, George E. Ashby ; 
Sergeant-Major, Frank G. Smith. 

Company A — Captain, Charles White, 35 men; 

Company B — Captain, J. J. Morrison, loi men; 
Company C^Captain, James E. Ashcroft, 63 
men ; Company D — Captain, Owen Gavigan, 95 
men; Company E — Captain, Theodore H. 
Schenck, 64 men ; Company F— Captain, Edwin 
S. Jenney, 142 men ; Company G — Captain, John 
Wall, 89 men ; Company H— Captain, William 
J. Riggs, 102 men ; Company I — Captain, John 
H. Ammon, 96 men ; Company K — Captain, 
James R. Angel, 96 men ; Company M— Cap- 
tain, James V. White, 145 men ; a total of 

On the 23d of the previous November, Cap- 
tain Kennedy's Independent Battery had been 
mustered into the United States service and had 
up to this time been attached to the army of the 
Potomac, rendering important service. Colonel 
Ledlie desired to attach it to the 3d Artillery and 
to secure the revocation of the order constituting 
it an independent command, in which he suc- 
ceeded, and it was entered on the rolls as Com- 
pany L, and as such a few reports were made by 
Captain Kennedy, but when he was elected Ma- 
jor in the 3rd Artillery the command of the bat- 
tery devolved upon Captain Cowan, who, for 
reasons never fully explained, maintained its 
•independent existence to the end of the war. 

In Fort Corcoran the 3rd Artillery were thor- 
oughly instructed in the heavy artillery exercise 
in all its parts, the men being divided and drilled 
in the different forts. They were nearly all raw 
recruits in this arm of the service, and its very 
alphabet had to be taught them, but they had 
intelligent and thorough commanding officers, 
and rapid progress was made. Accessions were, 
from time to time, made to the regiment, so that 
by April it numbered 1,350 men. So many new 
men brought together during the inclement sea- 
son, subject to heavy guard and patrol duty, was 
attended by much sickness, the veterans of the 
old 19th mostly escaping. 

The old acqueduct bridge over the Potomac 
was strictly guarded and no one permitted to 
pass unchallenged. One night, however, an at- 
tempt was made to do so by the driver of a heavy 
carriage from the Maryland side, on the plea that 
it contained distinguished official persons, a prob- 
able ruse to test the fidelity of the guards ; but 
their pretensions were useless. The carriage and 
its inmates were promptly arrested and brought 
into the presence of Lieutenant Stewart, who 


found he had as prisoners, President Lincoln, 
Secretary Seward, and General McClelian who, 
having sufficiently assured themselves of the 
vigilance of the watch, retired, proceeding to 
General Porter's headquarters. 

The cruel and blundering heartlessness with 
which men in authority sometimes treated our 
soldiers, was exemplified at Fort Corcoran. Doc- 
tor Lyman, medical director of Porter's division, 
ordered all the sick to report to Surgeon Dimon 
without previous notice, and for whose comfort 
no proper accommodations existed. In a few 
days five hundred invalids were thrust upon his 
care without any reports of their previous treat- 
ment, without nurses, sufficient medicines, or any 
suitable place for them, and this in the inclement 
month of March, with good hospitals one and a 
half miles distant. As soon as possible tents 
were erected in which to shelter the sick, and all 
the aid administered which was possible by the 
daily and nightly attendance of the Surgeon. 
Here the suffering men remained until the 24th 
of March, notwithstanding the continued efforts 
of the Surgeon to secure their transfer to hospi- 
tals. They were then transferred to the hospital 
at Georgetown. 

The regiment was now to be changed to light 
artillery, for which purpose, on the 22d of March, 
they drew new uniforms, and on the 24th re- 
ceived matching orders. They had been selected 
as one of four regiments destined to reinforce 
General Burnside, then successfully operating on 
the coast ot North Carolina. On the 25th they 
broke camp at Arlington and proceeded to An- 
napolis, whence, with three other artillery regi- 
ments, they embarked in transports for Hatteras 
Inlet, on the 28th. They were accompanied by 
the 2d Maryland, 17th Massachusetts, and 3d 
New York, the whole under command of Col. 
T. C. Amory, of the 17th Massachusetts. The 
entire 3d Artillery Regiment with its 1,300 men, 
its 700 horses, and several companies of the 103d 
New York, were stowed away in the capacious 
steamer Fulton, which proceeded with its con- 
sorts bearing the other regiments to the place of 
destination. After an experience of sea-sick- 
ness rarely equalled, the expedition arrived at 
Hatteras Inlet on the 30th of March. They 
were here transferred to lighter vessels and as- 
cended the river Neuse about one hundred miles 
to New Berne, which had on March 14th, been 

captured by General Burnside, and which lies 
above the confluence of the rivers Trent and 
Neuse and contains about 8,000 inhabitants. 
Camp was formed on the western bounds of the 
city, where they were visited by General Burn- 
side, who was very much delighted with the fine 
personnel of the regiment and its complete equip- 
ment, which he highly complimented. Burn- 
side arranged to fortify New Berne strongly on 
its western side by the erection of forts ; the 
strongest was named Fort Totten, and became 
identified afterwards with the heroic achieve- 
ments of the regiment. 

Captain Amnion, at his own request, was per- 
mitted with his company armed as infantry, to 
participate in the siege of Fort Macon, which 
guarded the entrance to Beaufort harbor, then 
proceeding under General Parke. His company 
was landed eighteen miles below New Berne, 
whence they marched to their destination and 
joined the forces operating against the fort. Fort 
Macon was a very strong fortress and had been 
early occupied by the rebels. It mounted sixty 
ten-inch columbiads and was garrisoned by a 
force of four hundred and fifty men. 

Captain Ammon, with Company I, were now 
to put into practice some of the lessons in the 
use of heavy artillery which they had learned at 
Fort Corcoran. They proceeded to Bogue Is- 
land opposite the fort, under fire of its batteries, 
but fortunately, owing to the imperfections of 
their range, no casualties occurred. At night 
they moved over to the side of the island nearest 
the fort, and began the erection of a battery 
within four hundred yards of it, an earthwork on 
which to mount ten-inch mortars. They raised 
the loose sand eight feet high and kept it in 
place on the inside by sand bags wired together. 
Lieutenants Kelsey and Thomas erected another 
j battery in the vicinity and there was erected 
{ in front and in advance of the others another 
j earthwork on which were mounted four parrot 
, guns. Nearly two weeks were spent in the 
erection of these works and mounting the guns 
and mortars; eight mortars and four parrot guns. 
The latter were brought up and placed in posi- 
tion at night ; a fusilade of shot and shell was 
kept up from the fort while the work was pro- 
ceeding, yet the men learned to listen to the re- 
ports of the enemy's guns and to watch and 
dodge the approaching missiles. 


The fort was summoned to surrender on the 
24th, and our batteries opened upon it the 25th, 
the blockading fleet cooperating. General Parke 
had posted a strong picket line to protect the 
batteries from assault. At five o'clock A. m., 
the parrot battery opened on the fort followed 
instantly by all the eight mortars. After about 
twenty minutes the fort responded vigorously 
with eighteen guns, one of them a 128 pounder 

Such an armament industriously handled would 
hurl an immense amount of metal at the works 
of the besiegers, and it did so, casting up im- 
mense clouds of sand, which would sometimes 
nearly bury the men without materially inter- 
fering with the operation of the batteries, which 
soon obtained an accurate range and maintained 
a very destructive fire. About nine o'clock four 
of our gunboats steamed up and commenced an 
enfilading fire ; but the water was too rough for 
effective work and they were compelled to re- 

The effect of the fire upon Captain Ammon's 
works finally began to tell, and, pending repairs, 
it was for a short time silent; but the mortars 
were soon again at work with their former accu- 
racy of range and destructive efifect, manifest 
in the growing weakness of the fire from the 
fort, whose guns, one after another, had been dis- 
mounted until at three o'clock, p. m., all but one 
had been disabled and silenced. The end was j 
close at hand. j 

At four o'clock a white flag was displayed from | 
the fort and after a parley, an armistice was agreed j 
upon until the following day, when the fort sur- 
rendered with all it contained. In the fort eight 
men were killed and twenty wounded, and four 
hundred and thirty prisoners were captured, also 
four hundred stands of arms, twenty horses, and 
one ton of powder. One man only of the be- 
siegers was killed, William Dart, of Ammon's 
Battery, who had imprudently exposed himself 
and was struck by a solid shot. 

The success of the siege and the freedom of 
our men from casualties was certainly marvelous. 
The fort was reputed second in strength only to 
Fort Sumter, was heavily armed and sufficiently 
garrisoned, while it was assailed and carried by 
hastily erected sand batteries, made under the 
direct fire of the fort. That men in such a posi- 
tion, under the fire of such a fort, should escape 

with a single fatal casualty and yet capture the 
fortress, was so signal an instance of military 
success as to crown the participants in it with 
deserved renown. General Burnside gratefully 
acknowledged the service in a special order, and 
Captain Ammon received from the field and stafT 
of his regiment a rich and beautiful flag, in- 
scribed "Fort Macon, April 16, 1862," with a 
very complimentary note. 

During April, work on Fort Totten was con- 
tinued and several acres were enclosed by a sand 
wall eight feet high and from 12 to 15 feet thick, 
in which 28 heavy guns were mounted, compris- 
ing 32, 60 and 100 pounders. These were all in 
position and the fort in a good defensive state by 
the first of June. 

The 3d Artillery hitherto had been unsupplied 
with field guns. General Burnside had with him 
but one other field battery, the First Rhode Is- 
land, and was therefore anxious to complete the 
armament of the 3rd Artillery at the earliest 
possible moment. Major Kennedy had come on 
from the Army of the Potomac and been placed 
in command of one of the three battalions into 
which the regiment was now divided, the other 
commanders being Majors Giles and Stone. The 
batteries were but slowly supplied, and, at first, 
with guns of various calibres, entailing much 
trouble to supply them with the requisite ammu- 
nition, as they ranged from 12 to 24-pounders. 
The full complement of a battery is six guns, 
six limbers, six caissons, forge, baggage-wagon 
and one hundred horses. In the work of sup- 
plying and drilling the several batteries both in 
light and heavy artillery practice, the summer 
and autumn of 1862 was mainly spent. Several 
details were made however. Battery G, Captain 
Wall, on the 28th of May, was sent to garrison 
the fort at Washington, North Carolina ; Battery 
K was sent to General Reno ; and Battery M, 
Captain White, was sent to garrison Fort Reno, 
on Roanoke Island, but was soon transferred to 
Fort Hatteras. 

General Burnside's Coast Division, aggregating 
nearly 15,000 men, was now in a condition, it was 
believed, to strike effective blows by advancing 
into the interior of North Carolina and cutting 
the rebel communications between that State 
and Virginia, supplementing the advance of the 
Army of the Potomac under General McClellan. 
Orders were accordingly given on July istfor an 



advance in the direction of Kinston, for which 
full preparations were made, but the disas- 
ters which had befallen the Northern army 
in the Chickahominy caused a sudden change 
of plan. The advance was arrested by tele- 
graph from Washington, and orders given to 
General Burnside to forward the brigades of 
Generals Parke and Reno to Fortress Monroe, to 
provide against threatened disaster from that 
quarter. They were speedily sent, General 
Burnside following on the 4th of July. Thus 
was withdrawn fully two-thirds of the forces 
operating in North Carolina, and the small force 
left to hold our various positions there was put 
on the defensive. General Foster was entrusted 
with the command of the Department. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Stewart was made Chief-Engi- 
neer of the Department on General Foster's 
Staff, on the loth of August, and was especially 
entrusted with the defenses of New Berne, which, 
with its diminished garrison and the offensive 
demonstrations of the rebels, required close and 
intelligent care. Strong defensive works were be- 
ing erected about the town, which in January, had 
been so far completed as, it was believed, to se- 
cure the place from capture. The work was 
mainly done by contrabands, hundreds of whom 
were employed. 

As illustrating one of the thousand forms of 
swindling to which the temptations of the war 
gave birth, it should here be noticed that these 
contrabands knew nothing of the value of the 
money in which they were paid and a trifling 
part only of what was their due was paid to them, 
while their marks were afff.xed to vouchers for 
the full aggregate, the balance going to enrich 
the miserable swindlers. This practice was con- 
tinued for months, before it became known and 
was arrested. 

On June 27th, Capt. John Wall, of the 3d Artil- 
lery, with ninety men, had been sent, armed as 
infantry, to strengthen the garrison of Washing- 
ton, North Carolina, a town of three thousand 
inhabitants, situated on the north bank of the 
Tar River. Here they were employed in per- 
fecting, through the months of July and August, 
the defenses of the place, and in drilling. The 
swamps surrounding them produced so much 
sickness in August, as to bring into the hospital, 
an old academy building in the town, nearly two- 
thirds of Captain Wall's men. 

At four A. M., August 6th, a cavalry force of 
four companies and a battery of four guns of the 
3d New York Artillery, Captain William J. 
Riggs, marched through Washington, on a re- 
connoitering expedition to Rainbow Bluff. At 
this time a dense fog prevented the rebels from 
discovering this movement. Just at this time a 
raiding party of the enemy, five hundred strong, 
and two companies of cavalry, came suddenly 
into the town through a corn-field, the fog ob- 
scuring all observation, capturing our sentinels. 
Two regiments from their barracks were prompt- 
ly on hand, and, hearing the firing. Captain 
Riggs and the four cavalry companies returned 
and joined in the defense of the town. The 
rebels, with dogged obstinacy maintained a 
street fight for hours, the obscurity of the dense 
fog aiding their operations. The four guns of 
battery G, stored in the hospital grounds, the 
men being too sick to use them, were the first 
object of attack and capture, showing that the 
party was posted as to the enfeebled condition of 
the garrison. They had horses ready harnessed 
to hitch to the captured guns, which were 
speedily turned upon our men. The gun-boats 
Picket and Louisiana steamed up and rendered 
what aid they could ; but the former e.xploded 
her magazine and retired, an accident by which 
nineteen men were killed. The assailants, after 
a loss in killed and wounded of nearly one-fourth 
their number, fled the town pursued by the 
cavalry. The 3d Artillery lost four killed, eight 
wounded, nine prisoners and four guns. 

Both batteries engaged in this affair, B and H, 

inscribed "Washington, North Carolina, Sep- 

I tember 6th, 1S62," upon their flags. 

\ Captain Kennedy, with four batteries and 

j twenty guns, was sent with an expedition ten 

I thousand strong, designed to cut the Weldon 

j Railroad. It started on the 3d day of Novem- 

I ber, but on reaching Tarboro, so strong a force 

I of the enemy was found concentrated in their 

front, that the expedition returned, leaving the 

batteries at Plymouth to protect the town. 

The next important movement in which the 
3d Artillery participated was the expedition to 
Goldsboro, twelve thousand strong, intended to 
engage the enemy in that quarter and prevent 
his concentrating against General Burnside, who 
was then moving upon Fredericksburgh, Va. 
Lieut. -Colonel Stewart accompanied the expedi- 


tion, with several contrabands, ready for rough 
engineering, and they found ample employment 
in removing fallen trees and other obstructions 
Irom the path ol the army. On the i2lh, slight 
skirmishes with the enemy took place with no 
damage to us. On the 13th, at the passage of 
South West Creek, opposition was met, but it 
was speedily dispersed. On the 14th the army 
had neared Kinston, and, two miles in advance 
of the town, the enemy six thousand strong was 
encountered, strongly fortified, holding the route 
of our advance. The position was assaulted and 
a severe action followed, in which the 3d Artillery 
played a conspicuous part. After a persistent 
defense in which they received and inflicted severe 
losses, the enemy fell back to Kinston, which 
was abandoned as our forces proceeded. Our 
loss was thirty-eight killed and one hundred 
and eighty-five wounded. The 3d Artillery had 
no killed and only ten wounded. The rebel loss 
was 250 killed and wounded, 400 prisoners, 500 
small arms, 11 cannon and other stores. Burn- 
side's defeat at Fredericksburgh left a large rebel 
force free to resist Foster's contemplated advance 
to Goldsboro. He decided, nevertheless to pro- 
ceed, and at Whitehall next day he met a force 
of the enemy, 10,000 strong with ten pieces of 
artillery. A brisk artillery and infantry fight 
ensued. Our batteries of thirty guns were 
brought to bear on the enemy's position for over 
two hours, by which his guns were silenced. 
General Foster had no time to lose, and has- 
tened on his march to Goldsboro. Our loss in 
this engagement was 75 killed and wounded. 
The 3d Artillery had but two killed and thir- 
teen wounded. 

That day the army came within two miles of 
the railroad bridge, over the Neuse, to destroy 
which was one of the objects of the expedition. 
The bridge was sharply defended, but fired and 
burned, and the railroad torn up, thus severing 
the main line of rebel communication in this 
quarter. The purpose of the expedition being 
accomplished, a return march began. The rebels 
had already massed a large force in the vicinity, 
and the army was, at first, threatened with an 
attack, but it safely returned to New Berne. 

Colonel Ledlie was promoted to the rank of 
Brigadier General on December 24th, and the 
command of the regiment devolved upon Lieut.- 
Colonel Stewart, who, in 1863, was promoted to 

the Colonelcy. Major Stone was made Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel and Captain Jenney became Major. 
The forces in North Carolina were increased to 
an army corps and Major-General Foster placed 
in command. 

The Confederate government was greatly an- 
noyed by General Fosters's energetic move- 
ments, and resolved to drive him from the State, 
sending for this purpose General D. H. Hill with 
fully 20,000 men. The first demonstrations of 
this force were against New Berne, on March 13th, 
at three diliterent points ; an actual attack being 
made only on Fort Anderson, an unfinished earth- 
work. This was vigorously assailed by General 
Pettigrew, but was so resolutely and skillfully de- 
fended that the assailants retired. They could 
not capture the weakest of our defenses and 
therefore abandoned the hope of capturing New- 

But Washington was less strongly fortified, 
and that town, General Hill believed, could be 
regained. He proceeded thither, planted his bat- 
teries, and bombarded it for ten consecutive days, 
wasting an immense amount of Confederate 

The Tar river, on which the town is situated, is 
three-fourths of a mile wide and navigable. The 
enemy erected heavy batteries below the town on 
the river, intended to prevent communication 
with New Berne ; but General Foster neverthe- 
less cast himself into the fort and directed its 
defense. As ammunition or provisions grew short 
they were supplied by running the batteries at 
night. In the fort were 2,200 men, assailed by 
20,000 commanded by an able General, well sup- 
plied with artillery and every means of offense. 
The persistence of the siege, induced General 
Foster to raise it, and running the batteries, he 
proceeded to New Berne to prepare for it ; but 
General Hill, anticipating his purpose, retired, 
abandoning the siege. 

In May the two years' limit of the enlistment 
of the members of the old 19th would expire, and 
on the 20th of that month they sailed for home, 
reaching Auburn on the 26th. They were 
received at the depot by military and civic escort, 
conducted to the Western Exchange, where they 
were welcomed by a patriotic address by John 
N. Knapp, the provost-marshal, and supplied 
with a bountiful collation. They were mustered 
out the 2d of June and paid off on the 6th. 



The companies that returned and the number 
in each were as follows : 

Battery A — Captain White, and Lieutenants 
Tomlinson and Potter; 75 men. 

Battery C — Lieutenant Randolph ; 83 men. 

Battery D — Captain Gavigan and Lieutenants 
Boyle, Brannick and Dwyer ; 63 men. 

Battery E — Lieutenant Dennis ; 80 men. 

Battery G — Captain Wall and Lieutenant 
Thompson ; 56 men. 

Battery I — -jZ men. 

Battery K — 78 men. 

A total of 524 men. Surgeon Dimon return- 
ed with this section of the regiment. On the 
withdrawal of these two years' men, the 3d Ar- 
tillery was reduced to 889 men, comprising the 
following companies : 

Battery B — Captain Ashcroft ; 142 men. 

Battery E — Captain Schenck ; 105 men. 

Battery /"—Captain Taylor ; 133 men. 

Battery //—Captain Riggs ; 133 men. 

Battery /—Captain Animon ; 113 men. 

Battery 7T/^Captain Howell ; 131 men. 

Colonel Stewart's request to recruit for the 
regiment was granted, being cordially endorsed 
by General Foster, who added that from the 3d 
Artillery had been drawn "all the excellent light 
artillery batteries we have formed in this depart- 
ment, * * * nine in number." 

The enlistments added about 300 recruits to 
the regiment. The two departments of Virginia 
and North Carolina were, on July iSth, placed 
in command of General Foster, with headquarters 
at Fortress Monroe, General John J. Peck com- 
manding the District of North Carolina. Gen- 
eral Peck made a careful inspection of his effec- 
tive forces, and of the difficulties and dangers of 
his position, and became fully convinced that it 
was the resolute purpose of the enemy to drive 
him from North Carolina and rescue the State 
from Federal control. He therefore diligently 
strengthened his defenses, and prepared for the 
expected attack, which came on February ist, 
1864, when, about two o'clock a. m., in a thick 
fog, the rebels, 12,000 strong, attacked one of the 
outposts of New Berne, nine miles from the city. 
The garrison defended themselves bravely, and 
fell back in good order, reinforcements being sent 
to their support. Beach Grove, another outpost, 
one and a half miles distant from the position 
first attacked, was occupied by Lieutenant Kirby 
and a strong force of the enemy was interposed 
between him and our main works, rendering his 

position untenable, and obliging the garrison to 
surrender. The officers were sent to Libby 
Prison and the men to ]5elle Isle, where the latter 
nearly all died. The former were successively 
transferred to Macon. Charleston and Columbia. 
While engaged in cutting wood at the latter 

] place Lieutenant Kirby, Colonel Sidney Meade 

I and Lieutenant Oliphant made their escape and 

safely reached our lines at Knoxville, Tennessee 

The assailants, after two days' vigorous efforts, 

! became convinced that New Berne was too strong 

i ly fortified for successful assault, and retired 
having lost 35 killed, 100 wounded and 1,000 de 
serters. Our loss was 100 killed and w<.unded 

! and 2S0 prisoners. 

I This raid upon New Berne was a warning which 
led General Peck to immediately erect more and 

I stronger defensive works. The enemy remained 
in the vicinity, threatening every assailable point, 
inciting constant alarm, and compelling unceas- 
ing vigilance. 

The rebel iron-clad Albermarle was at length 
ready and came forth to aid in the rescue of the 
State. It drove our wooden vessels out of the 
Roanoke, and, acting in concert with General 
Hoke with 7,000 men, on April 20th captured 
Plymouth and 2,000 prisoners. 

General C. N. Palmer succeeded General Peck 
on April 25th, the latter being called to Virginia. 
Washington was evacuated, fearing that the fate 
of Plymouth would, otherwise, befall it, as we had 
then at this point, no vessels which could resist 
the formidable Albermarle. 

On the 4th of May, New ]?erne was assailed 
by the rebel General Hoke, who drove in our 
pickets toward night, and demonstrated strongly 
the next day, waiting for his formidable ally, 
the Albermarle ; but that craft was so severely 
handled by our war vessels at the entrance of 
the sound that she withdrew altogether from 
the fight, and in October was sunk by a torpedo. 
General Hoke, relying upon that vessel, sum- 
moned the city to surrender on the 6th, but was 
sternly refused, and, learning the fate of the 
Albermarle, retired from New Berne. 

The Confederate necessities at this time in 
Virginia caused the withdrawal from North Caro- 
lina of its forces, and left it open to new inroads 
by our troops, which were frequently made. 

The forces which General Foster had collected 
for a contemplated attack upon Wilmington were 


diverted to aid in the reduction of Charleston, 
and sailed for Hilton Head, arriving there at dif- 
ferent dates during the first week in February, 
1864. They numbered about 11,000 men. Ac- 
companying the force was a brigade of light and 
heavy artillery, commanded by Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Ledlie, a large battalion of which, from the 
3d Artillery, was commanded by Major Ken- 
nedy, comprising 400 men, 22 guns, and 400 

On the gth of February, the artillery had en- 
camped on the Island of St. Helena, on the 
north side of Port Royal harbor. General Hun- 
ter was then in command at Charleston, and to him 
General Foster reported. The latter was coldly 
received, and, on communicating with Commo- 
dore Dupont, found him «ot ready to cooperate, 
and that there was an evident " hitch " in the plan 
of operations. General Foster left for Fortress 
Monroe ostensibly for siege guns, but he did not 
return. General Hunter embodied the entire 
corps as as reinforcements, against which many 
of its officers protested. General Ledlie, at his 
request, was permitted to return to New Berne. 
Major Kennedy's battalion of the 3rd Artil- 
lery was retained and lay in comparative idle- 
ness for nearly two months ; but on April 3d set 
sail with the fleet, bearing the troops from St. 
Helena, destined for Stono Inlet, to aid in the 
contemplated attack upon Charleston. 

During the attack of the fleet upon Fort Sum- 
ter on the 7th, Batteries B and F of the 3rd Ar- 
tillery and 4,000 troops, were landed on Folly 
Island, commanded by General Seymour, ready 
at the proper time with pontoons, to sieze Mor- 
ris Island. 

The attack upon Charleston failed of success, 
and on the 12th of April the fleet, with the lOth 
Army Corps, returned to Port Royal. The 3rd 
Artillery, excepting Batteries B and F, was re- 
tained at Beaufort and St. Helena until near the 
end of May, when it was ordered to New Berne. 
Batteries B and F were retained by General Hun- 
ter, and by his successor in command. General 
Gilmore. These two batteries participated act- 
ively in the several operations of the army on 
Folly Island, in the capture of Morris Island and 
Fort Wagner and Fort Gregg, and in the long 
continued bombardment of Fort Sumter. The 
batteries led the advance of the army, supporting 
the pickets, and were much exposed in the erec- 

tion and working of batteries covered by the ene- 
my's guns. They performed much valiant and 
efficient work. 
j On the loth of July, the attack on Morris Is- 
land was made, in which about fifty guns were 
brought to bear upon the enemy's works. The 
batteries had been so quietly placed and so thor- 
oughly covered that their position and force were 
I a surprise to the enemy, who soon replied vigor- 
; ously. The iron-clad fleet, consisting of five 
i monitors, steamed up and so effectively seconded 
the land batteries that, after a contest of three 
hours, the rebel works were assaulted and car- 
ried by the infantry, capturing nine cannon, two 
mortars, a variety of stores, and many prisoners. 
j The victory was promptly won and with trifling 
loss, placing our forces within six hundred yards 
of Fort Wagner. In the attack. Batteries B and 
F were distinguished for their rapid and accurate 

On the following day an attempt was made to 
storm Fort Wagner by the brigade under com- 
mand of General Strong. It was resolutely and 
bravely made, but repulsed with the loss of 150 
i in killed, wounded and prisoners. The work was 
I found to be stronger than was anticipated, and 
Gen. Gilmore resolved to silence it by heavy bom- 
bardment and then assail it with an overwhelm- 
ing force. Seven days were spent in the erec- 
tion and mounting of batteries, and on the i8th 
of July the fleet in the harbor and the batteries 
on the island opened upon the fort a furious can- 
nonade, which had few parallels during the war. 
I This was continued for twelve hours, when, at 
I evening our troops gathered on the beach for the 
j terrible assault. It was made in force, pushed 
I with fruitless bravery and failed ; the assailants, 
j in their approach to the fort were exposed to a 
terrific fire and the enemy came out of their 
strong bomb-proofs, uninjured by the heavy bom- 
j bardment. For three terrible hours the assail- 
I ing column persevered in the desperate work and 
I was finally compelled to retire with a loss in 

killed, wounded and missing of 1,530. 
j A siege followed ; twenty-nine days and nights 
j were spent in incessant toil, and formidable bat- 
teries were completed. Batteries B and F of 
the 3d Artillery occupied the right of the line. 
The wall of Fort Sumter facing our batteries was 
strengthened by sand bags to the height of forty- 
five feet, and fifteen feet thick, which, with the 


brick wall made a total thickness of thirty-six 
feet. The fort was in range of our batteries over 
two miles distant, and the purpose of our prep- 
arations was thought by the enemy to be a proba- 
ble attack upon it, and they judged rightly ; on 
the i6th of August experimental shots were dis- 
charged at the fort, and an effective range secured. 
The iron-clad fleet joined in the bombardment of 
Sumter. The batteries for seven days, gave 
their undivided attention to the rear wall, which 
was pierced and crumbled into ruins, and the fort 
practically disabled. Its surrender and that of 
the works on Morris Island were demanded and 
refused, and notice given that the bombardment of 
the city of Charleston would speedily follow, which, 
although five miles distant, was found to be within 
effective rangeof Gilmore's heaviest guns, the mis- 
siles from which reached the heart of the city. 

Coincident with the preparations for the bom- 
bardment of Sumter, General Gilmore had vig- 
orously prosecuted the work of his approaches 
to Fort Wagner, on which he was employed from 
the 1 8th of July to the 6th of September, when 
the long and difficult work was completed and 
orders given for the assault on the following morn- 
ing. The enemy, however, evacuated both Wag- 
ner and Gregg during the night, leaving in our 
hands nineteen heavy guns, a large supply of 
ammunition and seventy prisoners. This placed 
the city and harbor of Charleston directly within 
the sweep of our guns. 

The fame of the 3d Artillery had become so 
noted, that it was the great rallying point for 
recruits. It had upon its rolls in June, 1,700 
and in October, 2,500 men and 1 1 full batteries, 
forty guns and 1,000 horses. 

In October the dreaded and fatal typhus fever 
prevailed to an alarming e.xtent and several offi- 
cers of the 3d Artillery were attacked and two 
died, Lieut. -Colonel Stone and Lieut. Hilles, and 
also, sixty men. The death of Colonel Stone 
was deeply lamented and was a serious loss to 
the regiment. He was a very active and efficient 
officer and his many excellent qualities of head 
and heart, greatly endeared him to his comrades 
in the army, and his friends at home. 

Various and relatively unimportant details from 
the 3d Artillery were sent out during Decem- 
ber and January, whose contests and captures 
were mainly with and of pigs and poultry, which 
we cannot take the space to chronicle. 

Battery F", Captain Day, had been sent on 
September 5th, with an expedition to Jackson- 
ville, Florida, where it remained over two months. 
Captain Day, in October, returned home on a 
furlough, when the command of the Battery de- 
volved upon Lieutenant Titus, who, with Cap- 
tain Messereau of Battery B, was ordered to join, 
under General Foster, an exjiedition intended to 
cooperate with General Sherman in his great 
march to the sea. The final point of destination 
was Grahamsville, ten miles inland from Boyd's 
Neck, where General Foster's forces were landed. 
The object was to blockade the railroad there. 
The force comprised 5,000 men, largely composed 
I of colored troops. A brisk skirmish with the 
i enemy took place within a few miles of Grahams- 
i ville, in which both of the Batteries actively par- 
ticipated, and in which Lieutenant Wildt of Bat- 
j tery B was killed. The Confederates fell back 
j to Honey Hill, where strong fortifications had 
been erected. They were here attacked, and, 
f for the rest of the day a desperate and bloody 
; battle was maintained with great bravery and at 
i a fearful sacrifice of life by our troops. The two 
Batteries, B and F, were engaged in the fight 
' and were more exposed to the fire of the infantry 
and sharp-shooters than is usual with artillery, 
and suffered correspondingly. Lieut. Crocker 
was wounded in the right eye, but kept his place 
for a full hour after receiving his wound; many of 
the men were also wounded, but none killed. 
Our efforts to open the way to Grahamsville failed. 
1 The rebels held the Hill, and our army, sadly 
depleted, fell back toward the Landing, having 
' lost in killed and wounded 746 men. 
j On the 6th of December a new and successful 
attempt was made to reach the railroad at 
another point, this time from Devaux's Neck, 
whither they proceeded in gun-boats. The. rail- 
road was ten miles distant from the Landing. 
1 The advance of the army was resisted by a strong 
force of the enemy, and on the 7th a four hours' 
engagement was maintained, in which we lost 
So killed and wounded. Battery F, one wounded. 
The railroad was reached and carefully guarded, 
preventing the passage of trains. 

Here news was received that General Sher- 
man had reached Savannah, and General Foster 
opened communication with him by sea, strongly 
fortifying the railroad with heavy guns to pre- 
I vent the rebel General Hardy from escaping 


over it from Savannah ; but he fled the city in 
another direction. Sherman's and Foster's 
forces now took the necessary rest and made 
preparations for further movements. Savannah 
was placed under the command of General Fos- 
ter, who was also to cooperate in the movement 
upon Charleston, while General Sherman was to 
continue his triumphal march until its final close 
at Spottsylvania Court House. 

General Foster's movements began on the ist 
of February, with four army corps, and with them 
were the fighting Batteries, B and F. But they 
had little else to do than march, watch the move- 
ments of the enemy, stop, or advance, as the 
general events of the campaign required. The 
fall of Savannah on the 2ist of December, and 
the combined movements of Sherman and Fos- 
ter, led also to the fall of Charleston on the i8th 
of February, after as gallant, successful and pro- 
tracted resistance against the mightiest enginery 
of modern warfare, as was ever made by a belea- 
guered town. 

Little else now remained for the army in this 
quarter to do, except to " hold, occupy and pos- 
sess the places and the property belonging to the 
Government," and this it proceeded to do. Bat- 
teries B and F, after their long and arduous ser- 
vice, accepted with gladness the order " to help 
occupy, hold and possess," the city of Charles- 
ton, where they remained until the conclusion of 

While Batteries B and F, and those at New 
Berne, had been employed as we have related, 
other portions of the 3rd Artillery had been em- 
ployed in other and equally important fields of 
duty, for the several batteries composing the regi- 
ment were, as necessity demanded, detached on 
special service. Battery H, Captain Riggs, and 
Battery M, Captain IJowell, were, in October, 
1863, ordered to Fortress Monroe, in which vi- 
cinity they were chiefly employed in guard duty, 
until General Butler's plan of proceeding to 
Richmond had been matured. In April, 1864, 
those batteries were attached to Butler's forces 
in the attempt to capture the rebel city, as were 
also two other batteries drawn from New Berne, 
Battery E, Captain Ashby, and Battery K, Cap- 
tain Angel. The four batteries were under com- 
mand of Major Schenck. 

Battery E proceeded to Bermuda Hundreds 
and participated in the bloody battles at Drury's 

Bluff on May 13th and 14th, and was in the hot- 
test of the fight. Captain Ashby displayed 
great coolness and bravery under the most trying 
circumstances, his battery contributing largely 
to the escape of our army from capture in the 
battles of the 14th. By some blunder his bat- 
tery was left without infantry supports, and the 
enemy charged upon it. Two charges were re- 
pulsed by the rapid volleys of the artillery, pro- 
tected by the obscurity of a dense fog, which 

j prevented the contestants from seeing the posi- 
tion or judging the number of their foes. 

At the third and most furious assault, the bat- 
tery was overcome and three of its guns cap- 
tured, the horses being shot. Captain Ashby 
and Lieutenant Fuller were wounded and one of 
his men was killed and several wounded. Under 
the circumstances, the small number of casualties 
was a marvel. Our losses in these terrible bat- 
tles were 4,000 killed, wounded and prisoners ; 
and the rebel loss was 3,000. Battery E, during 
the battle, fired 419 rounds. For the next two 
weeks there were almost daily battles between 
Butler's forces and the enemy. While Battery 
E had been winning laurels in the Peninsula, 
Battery M had been in garrison at Fort Powhat- 
tan, resisting rebel attacks; in an expedition to 
Spring Hill, resulting in the capture of the place ; 
at Wilson's Landing, repulsing a desperate rebel 
charge ; after which they came to the front and 

j shared in the toils, conflicts and dangers of the 

i long and bloody siege of Petersburg. Battery 
K joined in the siege on May i6th, building, gar- 
risoning and defending a fort at Spring Hill, from 
repeated rebel attacks. The battery participated 
in the attack upon Petersburg June 14, 1S64, 
opening the first fire upon the enemy's line of 

j defenses, resulting in its capture, including its 
material, and 300 prisoners. But the city was 
not captured ; like Richmond and Charleston, it 
was destined to be one of the "last ditches" 
wherein the rebellion was to die, and for ten long 
and fearfully tragic months it successfully resisted 
all our efforts to capture it, and surrendered only 
on the collapse of the rebellion. 

We have not the space to chronicle in detail 
the varied services of Batteries B, K, M and H, 
in the numerous and important parts borne by 
them in that long siege. The thorough experi- 
ence of both the officers and men, their expert- 
ness in handling and firing their batteries, and 



their coolness and good judgment under the most 
trying circumstances, were so well known and so 
highly appreciated in the army that they were 
actively engaged in responsible positions during 
nearly the whole progress of the siege, attended 
by almost daily battles, suspended only during 
the inclement winter weather. On the night of 
April 2d, both Richmond and Petersburg were 
evacuated, and the several batteries of the 3rd 
Artillery, which so long had lain before and 
about the latter city, proceeded to and occupied 
Richmond, whence they were ordered home for 
final muster out. | 

It now only remains for us to trace the opera- 
tions of Batteries A, Captain Russell ; C, Cap- 
tain Mercer ; D, Captain Van Heusen ; G, i 
Captain William H. Kelsey ; and I, Lieutenant 
Richardson, each having about 180 men. 
These several Batteries on March 3d, 1865, ac- 
companied an expedition from New Berne, 6,000 
strong, under the command of General Co.x, 
destined for Goldsboro, which place in the then I 
condition of our military affairs, it was important 
to take and hold ; and this expedition was but a 
cooperative force acting in concert with Major- 1 
General Schofield, then commandant of the de- 
partment, having under his conmiand an aggre- 
gate force of 21,000 men. 

Colonel Stewart had been so fortunate, as to 
have found a map of the region over which they 
were to go, carefully drawn by rebel engineers l 
from accurate surveys, and so minute in its data 
that he could and did prepare, in advance, suita- 1 
ble bridges for the several streams over which 
they were to pass, in anticipation of their destruc- 
tion. This enabled the army to advance with 
less delay at the streams, though the roads were 
blocked by fallen trees. At a tributary of the 
Neuse, its passage was on the 7th, strongly con- 
tested, both by infantry and artillery, holding a j 
fortified position. After feeling the position of 
the enemy, and believing it to be a strong one, 
General Cox decided to entrench and await re- 
inforcements, which were soon to arrive. The 
position was in a heavy and dense wood, and the 
entire night was industriously and, events showed, 
very wisely spent in perfecting defensive works 
by felling the trees, lopping the branches and 
throwing up breast-works of earth and timber. 

In the morning, the enemy appearing quiet, a 
reconnoissance was made by two regiments of | 

infantry, a squad of cavalry and a section of Bat- 
tery I, Lieutenant Seymour. The artillery 
opened on the enemy, and eliciting no response 
the filing was kept up at intervals for nearly 
three hours without any reply, when they sud- 
denly found themselves flanked and enveloped 
by three rebel brigades, that had made a wide 
detour. Our force was overpowered and one of 
its guns and seven hundred prisoners captured ; 
including five from Battery I. One man from 
the latter was killed. 

General Hoke, commanding the rebels, then 
attacked our position with great violence; but 
the men had so thoroughly protected themselves 
by fallen trees and earthworks that they held 
their ground and kept the enemy at bay, though 
they outnumbered us two to one. Pending the 
fight. General Ruger arrived from New Berne 
with a division of infantry, and, joining in the 
battle, quickly drove the enemy from our front. 
Our men were so well protected that notwith- 
standing the large force of the enemy and the 
fury and persistence of the attack, our losses in 
killed and wounded were small. Tlie 3d Artil- 
lery lost but one man killed, William A. Foster, 
of Battery I, and five wounded. Batteries C and 
D did very effective work in this engagement, 
and though much exposed, they fired their dis- 
charges so rapidly upon the assailing columns as 
to check and repel them. Batteries G and I 
were also briskly engaged in the work of repel- 
ling the eager assaults of the enemy. 

The next day it rained incessantly and it was 
spent in comparative quiet ; the enemy had been 
reinforced and occupied a carefully entrenched 
position, which we did not care at that time to 
assail, as we were waiting the arrival of General 
Couch with reinforcements. On the morning of 
the loth, Hoke, relying on his superior numbers, 
threw a heavy force suddenly upon our rear, but 
he found us prepared to receive him. Here the 
batteries again displayed their effective skill and, 
united to the destructive infantry fire, after a 
short, but to the enemy a very destructive con- 
test, they fled in disorder. After a short inter- 
val, heavy masses of men were again rushing 
upon our works determined to take them, this 
time entering the heavy abatis by which our po- 
sition was defended, but it was useless, they only 
came into the "jaws of death," and after a half- 
hour's effort, retired. Our loss was less than two 



hundred ; that of the Confederates, over two 
thousand; four hundred of their dead and wounded 
were found in the abatis after the fight. As il- 
lustrating the comparative safety of artillerists in 
action, it may be stated that the 3rd Artillery 
had but two men wounded in this hotly contested 

On the iilh General Couch arrived, swelling 
Schofield's army 20,000 men. When Hoke de- 
camped to reinforce Johnston in his final strug- 
gles with Grant and Sherman, Schofield was in 
communication with the latter, and they were to 
combine their forces at or near Goldsboro. Scho- 
field proceeded by the way of Kinston, leaving 
a brigade and Batteries A and B, 3rd New York 
Artillery, to hold the town, he proceeded with 
the balance of his forces, including Batteries C, 
D and I, on his way to Goldsboro, living upon 
the country, as Sherman's policy was : " If any- 
body must suffer let the rebels suffer." The 
army made the first day eighteen miles, more 
than half the distance to Goldsboro. The next 
day, March 21st, heavy skirmishing was maintain- 
ed and a large force of negroes employed in repair- 
ing roads and bridges ; but Goldsboro was 
reached and the army commenced entrenchment 
at once. Signal guns were fired by Battery I to 
advise Sherman of their arrival, until responses 
were received, when a courier was sent to Sher- 
man. The latter reached Goldsboro on the, 23d 
of March, and was received with a Major-Gen- 
eral's salute from Battery I. He proceeded on the 
25th, to City Point, and held a conference with 
General Grant, returning on the 30th to Golds- 

On the 22d, the army of the Ohio had been 
reinforced. General Schofield appointed Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Kennedy his chief of artillery, 
comprising thirteen batteries. General Sher- 
man's army, after its terribly exhausting march 
of over six hundred miles perpetually harrassed 
by the enemy, sadly needed rest and refitting. 
Most of the men had worn out their shoes, were 
barefooted, and their clothing tattered. To rest 
and refit this army, the time from the ist to the 
loth of April, was spent. On the latter day, 
the whole army, 70,000 strong, set out for Smith- 
field, in pursuit of Johnston, who had about 35,000 
infantry and 10,000 cavalry. Smithfield was en- 
tered on the nth, and here the news was re- 
ceived of Lee's surrender, and especial efforts 

were to be made to arrest the further retreat of 
Johnston ; but that officer had also received the 
news, and seeing the folly of any further effusion 
of blood, made overtures of surrender. Terms 
were finally agreed upon, ending the great rebel- 
lion and the toils and sacrifices, not only of the 
3rd Artillery, but of all our soldiers in the field. 

Final Review. — The light batteries encamped 
at Raleigh until early in June. Here the whole 
army was reviewed, and the splendid artillery 
brigade, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Ken- 
nedy, especially attracted the attention of the 
commanding General, and the 3rd New York 
Artillery received his particular commendation. 
In the latter part of June they were paid off, 
mustered out, and returned to their several 

Membership of the Third Artillery. — 
When mustered out the 3rd Artillery numbered 
2,200 men. The lowest number at any time had 
been 600 men, and its highest, 2,550, and it had 
connected with it in the aggregate, at different 
times, 4,408 men. 

LosbES. — The losses by disease were 247, in 
battle, 15, in rebel prisons, 70, wounded, 233, by 
desertion, 347 ; ten guns were lost in action. 
The number killed and wounded was, therefore, 
less than one in ten of the average number of 
the regiment, while the number that died of dis- 
ease, independent of the prisoners, was nearly 
equal to the killed and wounded. 

When we know that the regiment engaged in 
sixty-four battles, sieges and skirmishes, the fore- 
going list of casualties seems surprisingly small. 
It is, however, due to causes that fully explain 
the reason. Artillery generally engages its 
enemy at long range, and its guns and gunners 
are usually protected by natural or artificial hills, 
or works of their own erection. Unlike infantry, 
they occupy a small space ; to shell a position 
successfully, test shots are required and a change 
of position prevents the enemy from obtaining an 
accurate range. It is with artillery the same as 
with general officers ; it occupies positions re- 
mote from the center of conflict and, except 
when flanked, surprised, or in the confusion of 
defeat, is much less exposed than infantry, as the 
very instructive experience of the 3d Artillery 
repeatedly and abundantly proved. For the 
most part they had an excellent equipment; they 
had been most thoroughly drilled by officers who 



knew and conscientiously performed their duty, 
and the men therefore knew how to handle their 
guns with telling effect ; and when a body of 
grays came within the sweep of their guns, they 
suddenly bit the dust or retired before them. 
Their exceptional freedom from casualties was, 
therefore, due to their less exposure, to the skill 
and efficiency of the officers and men of the reg- 
iment, and to the further fact, that on very few 
occasions, were they engaged where our forces 
were defeated, and where, in the confusion of re- 
treat and the swoop of cavalry, artillerymen often 
greatly suffered. 


Cayuga in the Rebellion, (Continued.) 

The 75TH New Yokk Volunteers — Organi- 
zation — Service on Santa Rosa Island- 
in New Orleans— La Fourche Expedi- 
tion — Attakapas Expedition — Siege of 
Port Hudson — Expedition to Texas — Its 
Various Military Services in the South- 
west — Ordered to Washington — In the 
Shenandoah Valley — Mustered Out. 

THE organization of this regiment has been 
given in a previous chapter; its camp and 
field operations were as follows : The regiment 
was destined for the defense of Fort Pickens, 
Florida, where they arrived on the 14th of De- 
cember, 1861, and encamped on Santa Rosa Is- 
land, in " Camp Seward." 

Opposite to theircamp, across the channel, and 
a little over a mile distant, stood Fort Mc Rae, 
which, with the navy yard and all the other gov- 
ernment property in that vicinity excepting Fort 
Pickens, had been seized by the rebels. The 
latter fort had been defended and held by a loyal 
and brave officer, Lieutenant Slemmer, until 
reinforced in July by the 6th New York regi- 
ment, the Billy Wilson Zouaves. Colonel Harvey 
Brown, of the regular army, at this time com- 
manded the post. 

This position of the 75th was, in many respects, 
a very trying one. The island on which they 
encamped was composed of barren sand, without 

any vegetation whatever. From its white sur- 
face the glaring rays of the sun were reflected as 
from a field of snow, and the ocean winds which 
swept over it, would carry its fine sharj^ particles 
into the nostrils and eyes and cover the bodies 
of the men. Its loose and yielding particles 
made the traveling through it very laborious and 
it was besides the abode of innumerable and very 
large fleas hungering and thirsting for Yankee 
blood, which they drew as eagerly as the hot- 
headed rebels themselves. Water could be 
obtained only by sinking barrels a few feet in the 
sand, when the sea water that filtered in, could 
be used for a few days, when it would become 
brackish and new pits were sunk. 

In the vicinity, occupying Fort Mc Rae, in 
and on the adjacent mainland, lay General 
Bragg, with a force more than double our own. 
While, therefore, we had a strong fortress for 
our protection we could only act on the de- 
fensive, and keep ourselves in close proximity 
thereto. The health of the regiment suf- 
fered greatly from the change of climate and 
of habits, giving the surgeons active employment 
in attentions to the sick, and many deaths 

The command lay quietly in the camp for about 
two weeks, when a rebel flag on a passing 
steamer, presented a too tempting target not to 
be fired upon, and a salute from battery Lincoln 
was given it and a shot thrown into the navy 
yard. This provoked a return fire both upon 
the fort and the camp. One of the earliest shots 
had struck so closely to the head-quarters of the 
75th as to compel the removal of the regiment 
farther back. The two forts and all the batteries, 
on both sides, kept up an artillery duel until 
4 o'clock A. M. of the next day. Fort Mc Rae 
was seriously damaged by our fire, and several 
buildings in the navy yard set on fire. Very little 
injury was inflicted on Fort Pickens, and but 
one man seriously hurt. The abandoned camp 
even remained uninjured. The night following 
the " long roll " was sounded and the line quickly 
formed, but it was a false alarm. The regiments 
were called out repeatedly in that way, and kept 
in constant preparation to resist night attacks 
which were feared from the superior force of the 
enemy lying near. Frequent reconnoissances 
were made up the island to be assured that all 
was right, and great vigilance was maintained. 



In January regular and thorough company and 
battalion drills were instituted and maintained, 
and the regiment soon became as expert as regu- 
lars. Here the regiment lay through the winter. 
On the gth of May 1862, the rebels evacuated 
and burned Pensacola, including the navy 'yard. 
New Orleans had been captured, and General 
Butler could now easily obtain forcible possession 
of Pensacola, with its valuable stores. These, so 
far as possible, the enemy removed, the balance 
was abandoned and burned. The main force 
from Santa Rosa then moved over to Pensacola 
and established themselves there in comfortable 
quarters, without opposition, gladly exchanging 
the Sahara-like island, for the cheerful inland 
verdure. Here they found solid earth to tread 
upon, welcome shade to exclude the fierce rays 
of the sun and, as regarded physical comforts, the 
men were well provided for. Here they remained 
nearly four months. Major Babcock was provost- 
marshal and Captain Dvvight served on General 
Arnold's staff, as Assistant Adjutant-General and 
Assistant Inspector-General; and Chaplain Hud- 
son took possession of the Episcopal church edi- 
fice in which to hold the regimental services. 

With a wily General in his vicinity, having a 
force superior to his own, General Arnold knew 
the hazards of his position and took the precau- 
tion to fortify it carefully. He sent out frequent 
reconnoitering parties in search of information, 
and foragers for whatever would contribute to the 
sustenance of the army. He acted on the con- 
viction that he was in an enemy's country and 
that it was all right to sustain his men upon its 
available resources. Cattle, sheep, pigs, po'ultry, 
and the fruits of the region were therefore liber- 
ally appropriated. The various expeditions sent 
out from Pensacola during the four months of 
encampment there, though successful in captur- 
ing supplies, did not encounter the enemy. 

Lieutenants Stevenson and Miles, who had 
been home on recruiting service, returned on the 
24th of June with forty-one recruits, who were 
organized as Company K, placed under the 
command of Captain Stevenson and sent over to 
garrison Fort Pickens, relieving Company I, 
which, with a Company of regulars, had formed 
the previous garrison. Here their discipline and 
drill were thorough, being instructed by officers 
of the regular army. 

The climate, as the hot season came on, began 

to tell on the health of both officers and men, 
producing much debility and sickness. Chaplain 
Hudson resigned in July, and Sergeant Powers 
obtained leave of absence. Colonel. Dodge was 
also so severely affected by the climate as to ask 
leave of absence, for recovery, but General Hun- 
ter denied it. The Colonel was therefore com- 
pelled to offer his resignation, which was accepted, 
and he returned home. Captain Mc Dougal, 
who had received a flesh wound in the thigh, by 
the carelessness of a picket, returned home for 
recovery and there accepted the position of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of the riith New York Volun- 
teers. On the 31st of August, the 75th em- 
barked for New Orleans, where they arrived on 
the 3d of September, and were placed under com- 
mand of General Butler, who mustered out the 
regimental band. Here Captain Dwight took 
formal leave of the regiment to return and assume 
command of the i6oth New York Volunteers, 
much to the regret of his associates of the 7Sth, 
to whom he was greatly endeared. Illness com- 
pelled Captain Choate to resign. Lieutenant 
Corning succeeded Captain Dwight. Lieuten- 
ant Miles became Captain of Company H, and 
Lieutenant Stanford of Company K. 

On the 28th of September, General Butler 
organized a reserve brigade, the 2Sth, compris- 
ing four regiments, of which the 75th was one, 
two batteries and several companies of cavalry, 
intended for the celebrated " La Fourche expe- 
dition" into the interior of Louisiana to secure 
control of the railroads in that section, and of the 
large supply of sugar and cotton there produced. 

The brigade was under the command of Gen- 
eral Godfrey Weitzel, a competent and gentle- 
manly officer ; Major Lewis E. Carpenter acted 
as Brigade Quartermaster. 

On the 25th of October the brigade landed a 
few miles below, and marched to Donisonville, 
occupying the town which, the night before, had 
been abandoned by the rebels. Here a levy was 
made by Quartermaster Carpenter on what horses 
and mules could be found, and the men on such 
poultry and pigs as came in their way. 

On the next day the army was put in motion 
down the eastern side of the Bayou La Fourche, 
between which and the river was the levee or 
artificial embankment. Abundant stock was 
secured and crowds of slaves came within the 
lines, the planters generally retiring, as our 



soldiers advanced. In the afternoon they were 
advised by a negro that there was a large force 
of the enemy down the Bayou and scouts con- 
firmed the report. They did not however make 
a stand until the next day, when in a favorable 
position for them.'near LabadievilJe, they dis- 
puted our passage ; but after a sharp action of an 
hour's duration, they were flanked and put to 
flight, losing 60 killed and wounded and 150 pris- 
oners. The 75th was so posted in this action as 
to lose but a single man, Abram Terwilliger, yet 
the brigade lost 18 killed and 74 wounded. Af- 
ter the action the dead were buried, and the 
wounded cared for, when the army encamped 
near the field. 

Ne.xt day the march was renewed and, except- 
ing slight skirmishing, met no opposition, and in 
the afternoon the army entered and occupied 
Thibodeaux, a village of about 3,000 inhabitants. 
The 75th went into camp, with the Brigade, 
one mile below, and remained here for more than 
three months. Here was the center of the sugar 
producing region, and Captain T. K. Fuller of 
the 75th was especially charged by General But- 
ler with the duty of securing it for the govern- 
ment. Very large quantities were taken ; libera- 
ted negroes, confiscated mules, and wagons being 
used for the purpose. It is stated that General 
Butler confiscated over a million dollars worth of 
sugar while at New Orleans. He believed in 
the war maxim "that to the victors belong the 
spoils" and he took them without stint. 

While in camp here scenes of not unusual 
occurrence elsewhere during the war were daily 
presented. The masters had left, and the slaves, 
for the time, had taken their places, and were 
greatly elated at the eminence so suddenly at- 
tained. The mansions were deserted by their 
owners and many things about them were appro- 
priated by the darkies and brought into camp, 
including every variety of clothing and provisions, 
and even personal and household ornaments. 

Three miles from the camp was the residence 
of General Braxton Bragg, commanding the rebel 
forces in that quarter. His mansion and the 
grounds had been extremely elegant, but the 
vandalism of the soldiers had made a wreck of 
the mirrors, pictures, carpets, and costly furniture, 
and transferred its useful articles as chairs, stoves, 
&c., to the Quartermaster's department. 

Early in November, Chaplain Q. S. S. Goss 

arrived to supply the place made vacant by Chap- 
lain Hudson's resignation. 

On December 7th, commissions were received 
for Lieutenant-Colonel Merritt, who was made 
Colonel ; Major Babcock, Lieutenant-Colonel ; 
and Quartermaster Carpenter, Major. Lieuten- 
ant J. H. Hinman was made Captain of Com- 
pany I. Camp rest was soon to be broken and 
an active campaign begun. 

On December i6th, 1862, General Banks as- 
sumed command of the Department of the Gulf 
and, receiving large reinforcements, formed the 
19th Army Corps. Among the reinforcements, 
was the i6oth New York, which was brigaded 
with the 75th, and was included in the First Di- 
vision, Second Brigade. 

On the 1 0th of January, General VVeitzel, with 
the Second Brigade, was sent on an expedition 
designed to capture the rebel iron-clad gunboat 
Cotton, then in Bayou Teche. Four small gun- 
boats, Calhotin, Kingsman, Estclla and Diana, 
were to cooperate in the attack. The troops 
reached on the afternoon of the 13th the ham- 
let of Pattersonville, on the bank of the Atcha- 

Here the brigade was formed in order of bat- 
tle, and advancing two miles, reached the Teche, 
when skirmishing commenced with the cavalry 
posted here, ending in a volley of musketry, and a 
few shells, which dispersed the enemy. Our army 
encamped here for the night. In the morning. 
Captain Fitch was detailed by General Weitzel, 
with sharp-shooters, to pick off the gunners on 
the Cotton, and Captain Savery, with Company 

j G, afid Lieutenant Thurber, Company A, were 
sent out on the picket line to push the enemy 
lying in the earthworks. 

The gunboats now came up as near the Cot- 
ton as the obstructions in the river would per- 

I mit, and opened on the vessel and the rebel bat- 

i teries further up. The foremost of the boats ran 
upon a torpedo and was disabled, and Commo- 
dore Buchanan was killed. The boats took no 

' further part in the action. Captain Fitch, with 
sixty sharp-shooters, now came up on a run and 
poured such a fire upon the gunners on the Cot- 
ton as to kill or drive them all below. The boat 
tried to escape, and finally cut the hawser and 
proceeded up the stream. Our soldiers followed 
closely. In this service. Lieutenant Whiteside, 

I a brave and noble young officer, fell mortally 



wounded, urging on his boys to finish their work 
and not to mind him as he was past help. The 
gunboat Cotton finally came under the protec- 
tion of an artillery redoubt which drove off our 
sharp-shooters. Further effective work at that 
point was discontinued ; but between the rebel 
infantry and Captain Savery's skirmishers during 
the forenoon, a brisk affair occurred in which the 
Captain and his men drove the rebel line from 
ditch to ditch across the cane field, for over two 
hours, occupying in succession the ditches from 
which they drove the foe when, the latter being 
reinforced, our boys retired. 

We lost in this day's engagement in killed. 
Lieutenant James E. Whiteside, and private 
John Noble; wounded, i6. The brigade en- 
camped on the field expecting further work in 
the morning, but before daylight the enemy set 
fire to the gunboat and retreated. The object of 
the expedition, the destruction of that vessel, was 
thus accomplished, and the expedition returned 
to camp where, for the next three weeks, little of 
interest occurred. 

Early in February, the 75th and the i6oth, 
were sent to Brashear, and were here joined by 
the 114th New York. The post was called 
Camp Reno, and commanded by Colonel Smith 
of the 114th. The time was here spent in drills 
and guarding the gunboats at 
night, and various expeditions in the boats to 
look after the movements of the enemy in that 
quarter. On one of these expeditions, a party 
from the i6oth New York, on the Diatia, were 
captured with their vessel. 

Learning from deserters that the rebels from 
the vicinity of the Teche, 5,000 strong, were ar- 
ranging to attack Camp Reno, Colonel Smith 
called for reinforcements, and two regiments and 
a battery were added to his force. 

Major Carpenter was assigned to the Quarter- 
master's department in New Orleans ; Colonel 
Merritt was made Brigade Inspector. Their 
places were supplied by Captains Cray and Sa- 
very. Surgeon Benedict had been promoted to 
chief medical officer of the brigade. Assistant 
Surgeon Powers was Surgeon of the i6oth, and 
Doctor D. M. Root was his successor. Captain 
Fitch, on the 9th of March, was detailed as pro- 
vost marshal at Brashear, and afterwards as acting 
Commissary of Subsistence. Lieut. Fitch was 
made acting ordnance officer on Weitzel's staff. 

Negro troops were now being rapidly enlisted. 
Captain Luther Goodrich was made Colonel of a 
colored regiment, the 17th, and Lieutenant Fran- 
cis A. Hopping succeeded to the command of 
Company E. Willis G. Goodrich, Silas R. Bar- 
ber and C. S. Bentley, held commands in the 
17th colored regiment. 

Chaplain Goss, who had been very sick, resigned 
his commission early in March, unable to endure 
the effects of the climate. Captains Miles and 
Porter, for the same reasons, resigned their 
commissions ; the former was succeeded by 
Lieutenant George H. Curtice, and the latter by 
Lieutenant Frank Silsby. 

No event of especial importance in which the 
75th was engaged, occurred until General Banks 
began his famous expedition for the conquest of 
what was called the Attakapas country, one prep- 
aration for which had been the destruction of the 
gunboat Cotton, as we have related. This coun- 
try was the garden of Louisiana. Its planters 
were rich and rabid secessionists. It was a flat 
region, filled with bayous, and sluggish though 
navigable streams. 

General Banks' forces exceeded 12,000 men, 
including Weitzel's brigade, in which was the 
75th and i6oth New York. The forces reached 
Burdick on the 9th and loth of April, and on the 
nth an advance was ordered to Pattersonville, 
nine miles above, skirmishing continuing nearly 
all the way, the 7Sth being deployed. The 
next morning, April I2th, General Banks made 
a careful reconnoi.ssance and then moved forward 
in force. General Weitzel's brigade in the advance. 
The enemy soon appeared in numbers and drew 
up in line of battle in front of a large sugar 
house. The Union cavalry was sent forward to 
attack them, but on their approach the rebels 
fled across the Teche. 

The enemy had constructed a strong line of 
earthworks, extending on both sides of the river, 
some three-fourths of a mile, in which were 
mounted about thirty gunsi defended by a strong 
rebel force, commanded by Dick Taylor, son of 
the ex-president. The river had been obstructed 
by an old bridge, and the now rebel Diana, with 
her powerful armament, patrolled it above the 
obstructions. One brigade, Goodwin's, crossed 
the river on pontoons and were to operate in the 
rear of the works. Four of our gunboats on the 
river cooperated. 



During the afternoon of the 12th, from three 
o'clock till dark, there was heavy firing on both 
sides, the commanding General having advanced 
his men sufficiently near the enemy's works to 
draw their fire, and thus learn their position and 
the strength of their batteries, the Diana also 
joining on the rebel side. 

On the 13th the battle was renewed and rein- 
forcements crossed to the opposite side of the 
river. The contest was mainly with the artillery. 
The charges which had been made by the enemy 
met so valiant and strong resistance as each 
time to repel them. The Diana was soon dis- 
abled and compelled to withdraw, and our strong 
and sustained fire began to tell upon the works of 
the enemy, many of whose guns were dismounted, 
and the fire of their batteries lessened. 

General Banks had learned that General 
Grover was advancing on Franklin, but ten miles 
above them on Bayou Teche, and that, therefore, 
his plan of attacking the rebel front and rear 
would be likely to succeed. He was by no 
means inclined to abandon it. The severe re- 
sults to the enemy's works of the firing on the 
13th had assured them of the extreme doubt of 
their withstanding another day's siege, so they 
quietly withdrew during the night and escaped. 

The casualties in these series of contests were 
not large, when the exposure of the men and the 
duration of the fight are considered ; it did not 
exceed 250 killed and wounded, and the 75th lost 
but 3 killed and 15 wounded. 

On the 14th the army advanced to Franklin 
with no other interruption than slight cavalry 
skirmishing, and encamped a mile beyond the 
town. The main reliance of the enemy, in this 
quarter, had been their defensive works and their 
gunboats on the river, all of which were now 
destroyed. Little other opposition here was 
therefore expected. 

On the morning of the 14th of April the 
march was resumed and continued for eighteen 
miles, and on the 15th extended to twenty miles, 
passing two miles beyond the town of New 
Iberia, a few miles to the west of which were 
salt works of great value to the Confederacy. 
These the cavalry destroyed. Here Lieutenant- 
Colonel William H. Seward brought dispatches 
to General Banks from Washington, and he was 
a very welcome guest in the camp. 

The army had now reached a rolling region 

away from the swamps and morasses over which 
they had been so long marching, and large fields 
of cane and herds of cattle abounded. 

The advance continued on the 17th until two 
o'clock, when they found the bridge over the 
Bayou Tortue destroyed ; but in two hours it 
was repaired and passed, and the march contin- 
ued without much interruption to Opelousas, 
which was reached on the 20th of April, coinci- 
dently with the capture of Butte la Rose by 
the navy. General Weitzel's brigade was posted 
in the vicinity of Opelousas. Here some two 
weeks were spent in gathering together and 
shipping the vast amount of cotton stored in the 
vicinity. Some had been burned, but the 
amount collected was large ; all the transporta- 
tion and negroes that could be found were im- 
pressed into the service of collecting and ship- 
ping it. 

On Monday, May 14th, the march was renewed 
and, after four days of continuous and toilsome 
tramping in the heat, but without opposition from 
the enemy, the army reached Alexandria, and 
rested until Saturday, when Generals Weitzel's 
and Dwight's brigades were sent in pursuit of the 
enemy who had fled up the Red River. After 
a two days' march, during which the enemy fled 
before our advance, orders were received from 
General Banks to return to Alexandria, as the 
decision had been made to attack Port Hudson, 
abandoning for that purpose the Red River ex- 
pedition. The movement upon Port Hudson 
was in cooperation with General Grant's opera- 
tions against Vicksburg ; Generals Weitzel and 
Dwight therefore returned to Alexandria. 

On Sunday, May 17th, Gen. Weitzel's brigade 
began its march for Port Hudson, and Gen. Banks' 
entire forces had concentrated in its vicinity by 
the 25th and were so disposed as to make upon 
the place a simultaneous attack. On the 27th 
General Weitzel's brigade, which included the 
two Cayuga regiments, was on the right of the 
army. General Grover commanding. 

At the appointed time Gen. Weitzel's brigade 
was in position, but the time of attack had been 
changed from five to six o'clock, A. m. Between 
our lines and the enemy's work, lay a line of 
woods. Through this screen, promptly at the ap- 
pointed hour, General Weitzel advanced, meeting, 
as he emerged from the woods, a fierce fire from 
the rifle pits, and a storm of grape and cannister 



from the enemy's batteries, on a hill beyond. 
This checked his advance for a time, when the 
second line advanced and stormed and captured 
the first line of rifle pits : but there now appeared 
before them a deep gorge or valley, lOO rods 
wide, broken by numerous ravines and obstruct- 
ed by trees, forming a nearly impenetrable abat- 
is hidden in which were two regiments of sharp- 
shooters. Beyond this, rose an eminence, on 
which were the nearly finished works of the ene- 
my, in which batteries were placed. Into such 
a terrible jungle the 75th Regiment, led by Col. 
Babcock, plunged on the run. The color-bearer 
was the first to fall, but his place was quickly 
filled. Lieutenant Avery was killed, and many 
of the men wounded. In this valley, for hours 
a contest was maintained with the sharp-shoot- 
ers, many of whom were killed and hundreds 
captured. The ravine was wooded and a sort of 
Indian combat was maintained from tree to tree 
and from stump to stump. Gradually and in scat- 
tered groups, they ascend the slope toward the 
main work of the enemy, maintaining throughout 
the day their position, and keeping by their accu- 
rate firing, the heads of their enemies behind 
their parapets, and the gunners from their batter- 
ies. Heavy batteries were, during the fore- 
noon, placed in position, and these maintained a 
furious and effective bombardment upon the forts 
of the enemy; and from the river flats a simul- 
taneous bombardment was kept up upon the 
town into which were dropped hundreds of 13 and 
15-inch shells. 

At nightfall the army held the positions it had 
gained during the day. In this encounter, the 
7Sth bore the brunt of the battle and suffered 
severely, having 15 killed, including four officers, 
Lieutenant William E. Avery, First Sergeant, 
William H. Storke, Color- Sergeant, Lyman Hill, 
and Sergeant A. H. Earll, and 86 wounded. 

From this time until the 14th of June, Port 
Hudson was closely invested ; the 75th was re- 
lieved from duty at the front in consideration of 
its valor and sacrifices on the 27th. Heavy siege 
guns and mortars were brought round from the 
river flotilla and placed in commanding positions; 
in all 103 pieces of ordnance were brought to 
bear upon the enemy. These, with the coope- 
rative fire of the fleet, kept up a nearly incessant 
roar, and cast into the enemy's works a vast num- 
ber of shot and shell. 

It was believed that the enemy was short of 
artillery ammunition as, for some time past, 
their artillery fire had greatly slackened. To 
test this. General Banks ordered and main- 
tained for thirty-six hours a continuous bombard- 
ment, but nothing was developed by it. A feigned 
attack was then made along the entire front 
about midnight on the 9th of June, and a fire of 
infantry and artillery was delivered, to which the 
besieged replied vigorously with their infantry, 
but feebly with their artillery. This done, the 
infantry was ordered to lie down and the fight 
was continued over them by sharp-shooters in 
the rifle pits, and by the artillery. A rain began 
and the advance withdrew. Few casualties re- 
sulted from this night attack ; none in the 75th. 

On the night of Saturday, June 13th, another 
attempt was made to take the works by assault, 
and in this, as in the first assault, the 75th were 
assigned a responsible and dangerous part ; they 
executed it bravely but without success, and after 
an entire day of resolute and fierce combat, 
which fully convinced the commanding General 
that the works in his front were too strong to be 
taken by assault, he withdrew his men. 

Our losses were severe, numbering in the 7Sth, 
1 1 killed and 74 wounded, amongst whom were 
Lieutenant Hutchinson, Sergeants Orville W. 
Munroe, P. D. Olmsted, and Corporals Albert 
O. Remington and Charles Hilliard, killed; and 
Lieutenan't-Colonel Willoughby Babcock, severe- 
ly wounded in the thigh ; also Captain John E. 
Savery in the arm and knee, severely; First Lieu- 
tenant Benjamin E. Thurber, in the knee, seri- 
ously ; First Lieutenant Anson Fuller; Second 
Lieutenant, Charles W. Crocker. 

After this repulse little effective work v/as 
done, except to keep up at intervals the bom- 
bardment and the duel of sharp-shooters, driving 
saps, and talking of a third assault, to which the 
army, in view of recent experience, were not much 
inclined. But news came on the 7th of July 
that Vicksburg had surrendered, with its 27,000 
men and 125 guns. Port Hudson followed as 
soon as the terms could be settled, and over 6,000 
prisoners were secured. 

The 75th led the column into the captured 
town, a post of honor, won by its distinguished 
gallantry and purchased by the blood of so many 
of its comrades. At night the troops were put 
aboard transports in the river. 



While our army had been engaged before Port 
Hudson, the enemy had regained Alexandria, 
Opelousas, Thibodeaux, Berwick and Brashear. 
Donaldsonville had been attacked, but success- 
fully defended. The next movement was to regain 
the lost ground, no longer tenable to the rebels 
since Vicksburg and Port Hudson had fallen and 
the Mississippi was opened for its entire length. I 

The army proceeded with no important oppo- 
sition to Donaldsonville, which it occupied on the : 
lOth of July. In the absence of General Weitzel | 
in New Orleans the command of his brigade > 
devolved upon Colonel Merritt, whose Acting 
Assistant Aid-de-Camp and Provost-Marshal was ; 
Lieutenant Lansing, whose place as Adjutant was 1 
filled by Lieutenant Hosmer. Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Babcock was called to New Orleans to act 
as Provost Judge. j 

Three weeks were spent here with but a single I 
feeble effort of the enemy, on the 13th, upon two ! 
of our brigades, Dudley's and Morgan's, which 
was promptly repelled and with small loss. On ' 
the 30th of July, the 2d brigade, Weitzel's, was 
placed in charge of La Fourche district as far as 
Brashear, and moved its camp thirty miles to 
Thibodeaux, on the 3d of August. 

Furloughs and leaves of absence were here 
granted many of the men and officers under the I 
belief that active operations would during the j 
intensely hot weather be suspended. But on j 
the 31st of August they were started on an ex- 
pedition, the object of which was to regain at 
least possession of the seaports of Texas. The 
Sabine Pass, at or near the mouth of that river, 
was to be the first point of attack. 

The force sent on this expedition was about 
4,000 men from the igth corps, and General 
Weitzel's brigade ; the force to be under the 
command of Major-General Franklin. Commo- 
dore Bell, commanding the West Gulf Squad- 
ron, was to reduce the fort, when the troops were 
at once to occupy the town. But in attempting 
to land, the troops were barred by an impassable 
swamp, the Grariite OVy protecting them in their 
attempts to find solid ground. The other three 
steamboats drew up towards the fort and threw 
into it their huge shells, without eliciting any 
response. They finally opened on the gun- 
boats with eight heavy guns. The Sacliem, the 
lightest draft of the four gun-boats, was gradually 
working into a position where she could attack 

the fort in a weaker part when she had her steam 
chest penetrated by a shot, completely disabling 
her, and compelling her to surrender. The Clif- 
ton, approaching the Battery to deliver her broad- 
sides with more effect, ran aground directly 
under the guns of the fort, of which she became 
a still target, and her boiler was pierced when 
Captain Crocker fired a nine incii siiell through 
the vessel from stem to stern, so disabling her as 
to render her of no value to the enemy. The 
other two vessels retired from the now fierce con- 
test. Our killed, wounded and prisoners in this 
engagement were 250 ; in the 75th, 92 men, in- 
cluding six killed. The expedition was an utter 
failure, and the 7Sth returned to Algiers'. 

A land expedition to Texas was next attempt- 
ed, and a force of about 20,000 men was placed 
under command of General C. C. Washburn. 
The 75th formed a part of this command, and 
left for Brashear on the 15th of September, 
whence, by easy marches, the army proceeded to 
New Iberia, where it arrived on the 6th of Octo- 
ber, the enemy retiring as we advanced with but 
little skirmishing. During the 7th and 8th the 
army moved on to the crossing of the Vermillion 
River, where the enemy had erected some de- 
fenses, which, when flanked by the cavalry, were 
quickly abandoned by them, and the command 
reached the Bayou Carrion-crow, where ten days 
were spent in refitting the army with new shoes, 
clothing and blankets. While here, an effort was 
made to mount the 7Sth Regiment by levying 
horses, saddles, &c., upon the planters, and with 
partial success. It required all the ingenuity of 
the Yankee boys to find the hidden animals and 
equipments which were concealed with all possi- 
ble care. Many pathetic appeals were made by 
the plundered inhabitants to spare the much 
needed family horse, but the boys, anxious to be 
relieved from the toils of the long marches before 
them, did not heed the appeals, but took all they 
could find which would possibly answer the pur- 

Not only were horses and their equipments 
thus taken from the rebels, but army supplies of 
all descriptions, forage, flour, sugar, groceries, cat- 
tle, pork, etc., so far as the region afforded them; 
but the supply obtainable was small. Two large 
armies had already traversed this region and an- 
other was now a third time gleaning from its 
scanty supplies. The vigorous men, both white 



and black, were in or with the rebel army, and 
only the women, old men, and a few slaves were 
left ; and the latter, as our army advanced, fol- 
lowed it. The people were generally helpless 
and could only plead for the protection of their 

The rainy season had set in; the roads became 
nearly impassable; and the question of supplying 
so large an army became a very serious one, so 
serious as to lead to the abandonment of the 
campaign, and the army fell back to New Iberia. 

The 75th, being now mounted, was detached 
from General Weitzel's brigade and ordered to 
report to General Lee of the cavalry, at New 
Iberia. They were here brigaded with two 
other cavalry regiments, the brigade being com- 
manded by Lieutenant-Colonel Redfield, and the 
75th by Captain Thurber. Adjutant Lansing 
had resigned and returned home. 

Foraging expeditions, a few brushes with the 
scattered rebel forces without loss to the regi- 
ment, the reenlistment for three years of most of 
its members, about eighty only excepted, and 
supplying themselves with cavalry uniforms, 
formed the principal incidents during its stay at 
New Iberia. 

On the 8th of January, 1864, the regiment 
started on its return home on a furlough of thirty 
days, granted as one of the conditions of their 

The prisoners from the 7Sth, about eighty in 
number, who had been captured at the unfortu- 
nate attack upon the Sabine Pass, were confined 
about three months in a stockaded prison near 
the town of Hempstead, fifty miles north-west of 
Houston. Their fare and treatment here were 
much better than had been accorded to our men 
in the more northern prisons. They were pa- 
roled on the 1 8th of November, 1863, and es- 
corted by a guard over a march of three hundred 
miles, occupying nineteen days, and lodged in a 
camp nine miles from Shreveport. Here they 
passed three very disagreeable months, often tan- 
talized with the hope of exchange, which Colonel 
Dwight, the exchange commissioner, finally effect- 
ed, and the men relieved from a captivity of ten 
months' duration. 

Upon the expiration of their furloughs the 
75th, numbering about 400 men, started for the 
front and reached Washington on the 5th. Here 
a great disappointment awaited them. The con- 

dition of being mounted, on which they had en- 
listed, was to be denied them. They were re- 
manded to the infantry service under the com- 
mand of Colonel Merritt. 

On the 19th of May, in the steamer Daniel 
Webster, they again set sail for the Department of 
the Gulf, reaching the mouth of the Mississippi on 
the 30th. At Morganza Bend they were brigad- 
ed with five other regiments, as the ist brig- 
ade, 2d division, and 19th corps, under the com- 
mand of General Franklin. The division was 
commanded by General Grover, and the brigade, 
temporarily, by Colonel Merritt. At Morganza 
Bend were about 15,000 troops. Here they lay, 
comparatively inactive, from the 4th of June to 
the 3d of July, when, with their division, they em- 
barked for New Orleans, destined to reinforce 
the army of Virginia. The command of the 
brigade was transferred to Brigadier-General 
Birge. On June i i-th Major Carpenter resigned 
and returned home, much to the regret of his 
associates. On July 13th they sailed for Bur- 
muda Hundreds, reaching their destination on 
the 22d and encamping in close proximity to the 
rebels. Here they were held in various defens- 
ive duties, without engaging the enemy, until 
the 31st, when with their own and another bri- 
gade, they were ordered to Washington, to pro- 
tect it from raids with which it was threatened. 
They remained in its vicinity for two weeks. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Babcock here joined and 
assumed command of the regiment. Colonel 
Merritt, owing to ill health, had been transferred 
to hospital duties at Washington. 

On the 14th of August, the 2d division was 
ordered to join the army operating in the Shen- 
andoah Valley. After a week's march the army 
reached Charlestown and encamped in its vicinity, 
where, expecting an attack, earth-works were 
constructed ; but the camp was changed nearer 
Harper's Ferry during the night, encamping on 
Bolivar Heights. The 75th was sent out on a 
reconnoissance the next day, the 23d, and skir- 
mished the entire day with the enemy's pickets. 
Colonel Babcock on the 24th, was sent out with 
three regiments, and skirmished briskly with the 
enemy. On the 28th the 75th moved to its old 
camp near Charlestown, resting two or three 
days to strengthen its old defenses. On the 
29th, in a cavalry skirmish, 500 of the enemy 
were captured. The camp was next moved to 



Berryville, twelve miles distant, and fortifications 1 
constructed. Here the troops remained for two 1 
weeks, with an active and close watch over the I 
wily rebel General Early, by his equally vigilant j 
foe, General Sheridan, who, when the proper I 
time should come, was prepared to "send him 
flying through Winchester." 1 

Winchester was eleven miles from our camp 
at Berryville, and here and in the vicinity' Gen- 1 
eral Early's force lay, the pickets of the two j 
armies being not far apart. On the morning of [ 
September 19th, the two armies came in coUis- ! 
ion and the furious and bloody battle of Win- ; 
Chester was fought. By a stratagem. Early at 
first succeeded in routing and stampeding a por 
tion of our army, which indicated its complete 
defeat ; but, stimulated by the magnetic presence 
of General Sheridan, the escaping fugitives were 
reformed and returned to their work with such 
bravery and persistence as to transform what 
threatened to be a rout, into a complete victory 
for our troops, and Early was thrown into even 
greater disorder than were our own forces earlier 
in the day. He fled through Winchester to a 
defensive and fortified position, at Fisher's Hill, 
three miles south-east of Strasburg, pursued on 
the following morning by our army. Here we 
flanked the enemy's position and by a concerted 
and simultaneous charge drove him from his 
position in great disorder and pursued his 
shattered forces for several miles, inflicting a 
loss from the 19th to the 2Sth of fully 10,000 
in killed, wounded and prisoners. Our losses 
were severe, numbering in the 75th a total of 
81, of whom 16 were killed, 51 wounded and 
14 prisoners. Colonel Willoughby Babcock was 
mortally wounded. 

The Valley of the Shenandoah is an exceed- 
ingly fertile region, producing wheat of excellent 
quality and in great abundance, as well as other 
grains, hay, vegetables, &c. Its productions 
went to supply the hordes of guerrillas that 
preyed upon our sick and wounded or any of our 
men on whom they could pounce and carry off". 
The rebel army were largely fed and supplied 
from this " Garden of Virginia," therefore, after 
Early's defeat, General Sheridan's army was in- 
structed to destroy the barns, stacks and stores 
of hay and grain, wherever found, reserving only 
what was necessary to supply our own forces. 
The rich valley of the Shenandoah and its 

affluents were swept as with a devouring fire, 
and became, in the track of the army, a scene of 

The Confederates were unwilling to see their 
fair fields thus desolated and their su[3plies cut 
off, and were determined to drive General Sheri- 
dan from the valley. General Lee, therefore, 
sent Early a reinforcement of 16,000 veterans to 
accomplish that object. General Early's forces 
on the 1 8th of October were concentrated near 
the base of Fisher's Hill ; General Sheridan oc 
cupied an entrenched position on Cedar Creek. 
The night of the i8th was foggy and dark and 
by taking a wide detour. General Early envel- 
oped the left flank of our army by three full di- 
visions, captured our pickets and suddenly and 
fiercely fell upon our camp before the men could 
be formed. It was utterly dark, and our unform- 
ed lines were swept back in confusion and dis- 
order. The surprise was so complete that many 
of our men left their tents hatless and shoeless. 
The 8th Corps was thoroughly routed, their ar- 
tillery and camp captured, their guns turned upon 
the disordered fugitives that rushed in wild dis- 
order upon the 19th Corps, which also gave way. 
The 6th Corps was also forced back, losing heavi- 
ly in killed, wounded and prisoners, and twenty 
cannon. The Army of the Shenandoah was 
thus driven back nearly three miles, forced off 
the turnpike, and stragglers were scattered along 
the way to Winchester, twelve miles distant, 
where General Sheridan had staid the night be- 
fore. He was quickly in his saddle and dashed 
forward to the scene of the disaster. Facing the 
stragglers he rallied them with the encouraging 
words : " We are going back to our camp. We will 
lick them out of their boots." And he did it. 

The enemy, supposing the foe completely rout- 
ed, had made no disposition for defense, but were 
occupied in plundering our camp. General Sheri- 
dan gathered his scattered forces in order with 
magic celerity, returned, fell furiously upon 
Early's forces, and completely routed them, fol- 
lowing them with his cavahy sixteen miles. He 
compelled them to abandon everything that 
would impede their flight — cannon, small-arms, 
knapsacks and clothing. Forty cannon, includ- 
ing the twenty captured from us in the morning, 
sixteen hundred small-arms, fifteen hundred pris- 
oners and two thousand of the enemy's killed 
and wounded, were left in our hands, 



Our losses in the morning had been heavy, 
but were trifling in the evening, aggregating al- 
together 3,000 killed and wounded and 800 pris- 
oners. The 75th had three killed, sixteen 
wounded and thirty-one missing. 

History records no more remarkable instance 
of the retrieval of a lost battle, without rein- 
forcements, solely by the energy and ability of 
the commanding general. General Grant, 
in communicating the intelligence of the victory 
to the War Department said, " It stamps Sheri- 
dan, what I always thought him, one of the 
ablest of Generals." 

For the ne.xt six weeks there was some skir- 
mishing with Early's cavalry, but he carefully 
avoided a general engagement. General Sheri- 
dan fulfilled his instructions in a further and most 
thorough destruction of supplies in the Blue 
Ridge valley. On the 9th of November camp 
was moved to Winchester, where the now veter- 
ans were mustered out, including Surgeon Bene- 
dict, Chaplain Worth, Major Thurber, and Cap- 
tains Fuller and Silsby, and a consolidation of 
the regiment into five companies followed with 
many changes in the company officers. 

The battle of Cedar Creek was the last en- 
gagement in which the 75th participated, and 
here really closed their active military history, 
but not their military organization. That battle 
was fought on the 19th of October, 1864, and 
the regiment did not reach home until Septem- 
ber 24th, 1865. Meanwhile they were ordered to 
various points and changed as the demands of 
the service required ; to Stephenson's Depot on 
the 19th of December ; to Baltimore on the 6th 
of January, 1865 ; and to Savannah on the nth of 
January, where they remained six months, acting 
chiefly as police to maintain order in the city. 
The regiment was sent on July 24th, 1865, to 
Hawkinsville, 200 miles west of Savannah, but 
ordered back to be mustered out on the 9th of 
August following. 

The regiment very gladly received the intelli- 
gence. The war had really closed four months 
before, and both officers and men were very 
anxious to bid adieu to the sunny, suffocating and 
malarial South, and to breathe once more the 
peaceful and pure atmosphere of their native 
latitude. They longed for home with its affec- 
tions, its freedom, its peace and quiet. Four full 
years in camp and field, had given them a satia- 

ting experience of war, its discomforts, toils, sac- 
rifices and horrors ; but they had the satisfying 
conviction that the land which they had helped 
to save was now " all ours," 

" Ours from the North Lake's crystal waves, 
To the silver Southern foam ; 
Ours by the changeless right of graves. 
Ours by the lives to come." 


Cayug.^ in the Rebellion, (Continued.) 

Captain Kennedy's Battery — War Ex- 
penses — Bounties Paid by Cayuga County 
FROM 1862 TO 1865, Inclusive — Cayuga 
County War Loan Bonds — Amounts Paid 
BY the Several Towns. 

CAPTAIN Kennedy, it will be remembered, 
first raised an independent battery of 
artillery, but, for want of guns and equipments, 
was compelled to charge it to an infantry 
company. He still cherished his first idea 
and sought to realize it. He had, while absent 
on a recruiting service, been supplanted in 
the line of promotion by junior officers, and felt 
a strong desire to disconnect himself from a 
regiment in which he believed his just claims 
had been disregarded. Through the influence of 
the Secretary of State, he finally secured an or- 
der authorizing him to raise a battery of artillery, 
to be attached, " until otherwise ordered," to the 
19th Regiment ; one condition of which was that 
it was to be completed in 30 days. By very en- 
ergetic efforts it was completed in 28 days. Col. 
Nichols, of the regular army, one of the staff of 
Governor Morgan, being at this time in Auburn 
to muster in the 75th New York Volunteer In- 
fantry, was consulted by Captain Kennedy, who 
made known to the Colonel his military grievances 
and expressed his wishes to be organized into an 
independent command. Colonel Nichols admit- 
ted the justice of Captain Kennedy's claims and 
instructed him as to the course to be pursued to 
be mustered out of the 19th Regiment and into 
an independent battery, which was carried out. 
The commissions were forwarded to the company 
officers and Captain Stevenson, of the regular 



army, then recruiting at Seneca Falls, duly mus- 
tered the company as an independent battery of 
artillery. This is a concise, and is believed to 
be a correct account of the organization of Ken- 
nedy's Battery. 

On the 2d day of December, 1861, orders were 
received by Captain Kennedy to report with his 
battery at Washington, D. C, which was prompt- 
ly executed. The battery was here inspected by 
Major- General Barry and Staft^, and orders given 
for mustering it. General Barry became and 
continued a warm friend of the battery. It was 
ordered to Camp Barry near Washington, for in- 
struction. The battery while here was honored 
by a visit of the Secretary of State and also with 
an invitation to visit the White House, which 
was accepted. President Lincoln, and Secreta- 
ries Seward and Chase, each addressed the mem- 
bers of the battery, to which Captain Kennedy 

Major-General Doubleday, a native of Auburn 
and an artillery officer of distinction, rendered 
the battery kindly assistance. The first battery 
of Rodman guns distributed to our army was to 
Captain Benson of the regulars, and the second, 
to Captain Kennedy's Battery. There was a 
great deficiency of guns at this time, and to re- 
ceive their equipment, while even the batteries of 
the regular army were unsupplied, was a flattering 

Being fully equipped. Captain Kennedy ap- 
plied for marching orders to General Barry, and 
was directed to report at Baltimore, to Captain 
Ayers of the Regular Army, then commanding 
a battalion of light artillery attached to the 6th 
army corps, commanded by General W. F. 
Smith. At this time the battery was in perfect 
trim in every respect, supplied with every needed 
requisite and the men and animals in fine condi- 
tion. The battery was reviewed on its depar- 
ture by General Barry. In Camp Griffin, at Bal- 
timore, the time was passed in routine camp du- 
ties, company and battalion drills and in target 
firing. The 6th corps was composed of veter- 
ans and the men of the battery found their posi- 
tion here very pleasant. 

Orders were given to march some fifteen miles 
to join the head of General Hancock's command. 
The day was rainy and the marching very heavy. 
The battery encamped on Flint Hill, near Fair- 
fax Court House. Here the army remained sev- 

eral days and was reviewed by General Mc- 
Clellan. The next movement was toward Fall's 
Church, six miles distant. There were eleven of 
the battery then on the sick list, and these were 
left behind in a hospital tent, with a nurse to care 
for them. They could not be moved for want of 
proper transportation. The distance was rapid- 
ly made over a very muddy road and through the 
rain. The army encamped at Fall's Church at 
night and the following day advanced to near 
Fairfax Seminary and encamped. The soil here 
was a quicksand, thoroughly saturated by the 
protracted rain, which continued to fall in torrents, 
accompanied by a fierce wind, which blew down 
the soldiers' tents, and compelled them to pass a 
night of extreme discomfort. In the morning 
the stream over which the army was to pass was 
found to be greatly swollen by the rains. The 
attempt to ford it was made, but the ambulances 
were capsized and many sick and wounded men 
were drowned. The camp on the following day 
was changed to a more favorable locality, where 
the soil was firmer. In sight of the camp were 
quartered one hundred thousand soldiers. Here 
the battery was drilled in the manual of the 
piece and saw a review of the " Grand Army " by 
Generals McClellan and McDowell. 

Here Captain Kennedy was ofl^ered the com- 
mission of Major in the 3d Artillery, and Colonel 
Ledlie and Lieutenant-Colonel Stewart, through 
whom the offer was made, claimed the battery as 
part of the 3d Artillery. Captain Kennedy de- 
nied the claim and refused to be sworn as Major, 
and for the time remained with his battery, par- 
ticipating in the varied movements, at that time 
being made by our army, to Ale.xandria City, 
Fortress Monroe, Hampton City, Newport News, 
Youngstown and Warwick River, where the bat- 
tery fired upon the rebel gunboat To7scr,and where 
an artillery duel was for two days maintained with 
the enemy, the nights being devoted to the con- 
struction of earthworks, in which service both 
officers and men were greatly exhausted. The 
third day, after a march of six miles through deep 
mud, the battery was posted at Lee's Mills, in 
front of the enemy's works, and were held in re- 
serve, exposed to the enemy's fire for six hours, 
when they were ordered forward to join the bat- 
tle. They were ordered to fire upon certain works 
of the enemy, preparatory to their assault, which 
was gallantly and effectively done. As a mark 



of honor, Captain Kennedy was directed to hold 
his ground and discharge half-hourly guns 
through the night. The battery remained in the 
trenches several days, and moved forward with 
the army from before Yorktown. 

While lying before Yorktown, which is not far 
from'Lee's Mills, Captain Kennedy, acting under 
the advice of Major-General Sumner, accepted 
the proffered commission of Major in the 3d Ar- 
tillery, on the i6th day of April, 1862. The bat- 
tery was then formally turned over to Lieutenant 
Andrew). Cowan, who was its commander dur- 
ing the remainder of the war. Captain Kennedy 
left his battery with much reluctance ; between 
him and his command the relations were mutually 
pleasant. A striking evidence of the attachment 
of the men to their commander is found in the 
fact that a petition to Secretary Seward to use 
his influence to secure the transfer of the battery 
to the 3d Artillery, was signed by all the ofificers 
and men then connected with it, excepting two 

The battle of Williamsburgh was about to fake 
place and Major Kennedy applied to Major-Gen- 
eral Smith for permission to remain until it was 
over, which was granted. He was placed upon 
the General's staff, and during the three days of 
that desperate battle he rode along the lines col- 
lecting and reporting information at head-quar- 
ters. In that battle his Battery did effective 
work. After the battle the Major bade adieu 
to his old command, and left for his new field of 
duty. His old Battery remained with and shared 
the varied fortunes of the army of the Potomac, 
and won for itself imperishable honors. 


It will be seen from the following tables and 
statistics that Cayuga County's part in the war 
of the Rebellion was one of which she has just 
reason to be proud, one to which her sons in fu- 
ture ages will recur with pride and satisfaction. 
Her commendable promptitude and generous re- 
sponses to the successive calls for men and her 
lavish expenditure of means, alike evince a high 
order of patriotism and a keen appreciation of 
the merits of the question which that fearful and 
desperately sustained contest settled forever ; 
forever, because in the interest of truth and jus- 
tice, which, though " crushed to earth will rise 

again." She aided not more by her contributions 
of men and means to the successful issue of the 
war than by the statesmanship and sagacity of 
her Seward, whose voice in the highest councils 
of the nation, and whose shrewd diplomacy, 
holding at bay the hostile armies of unfriendly 
nations, made easier and more certain the victo- 
ries gained by our armies in the field. 

The following three tables, for which we are 
indebted to Horace F. Cook, Esq., the very care- 
ful and accurate County Treasurer, will show the 
sources and amounts of the "war taxes" paid by 
our citizens for bounties to volunteers, dur- 
ing the Rebellion ; to which should be added the 
large sums paid by individuals for substitutes, 
and also the immense "Internal Revenue taxes," 
imposed upon the various objects and industries, 
and for which large sums are still paid, fully 
equalling, it is believed, the bounties paid to vol- 
unteers. The .'•lartling aggregate of these vari- 
ous "war taxes and expenses" sufficiently ex- 
plain where the resources of the people h&ve 
been expended. 

Bounties paid by the County, from 1862 to 
1865, inclusive : 

Two Calls of 1862 for 600,000 Men. 

In 1862 the bounties paid were ^50 and ^lOO, 
and in the following proportions : 

Number of men paid Sso each 196, amount $ 9,Sco oo 

Calls for 1863 and 1864 Aggregated 
800,000 Men, 
To whom bounties, on our quotas were 
paid as follows : 

Number of men in 1863 paid ;^ioo each 48, amount $ 4,80000 

1864 " 300 " 1144, " 343,200 00 

" " " " 650 " s, " . 3,15000 

^t '* •■'■ ^' 700 ^* 127, '■^ 88, goo 00 

Call OF 1864 for 300,000 Men. 
In the year 1865, ^500 and 1^300 were 
paid to one year men, ;?400 to two years' 
men, and ^600 to three years' men ; 
the number in each class was as fol- 
lows : 

Number paid $Soo each i, amount i !oo co 

" 300 " 39, " 11,70000 

51,446,550 00 

There was paid in 1864 for procuring recruits $1 ,005 00 

In 1865 "hand money" 68,025 0° 

Incidentals..'. ".S-o '3 . S°'34° -3 

$1,516,990 u 
Thus making the total number of men receiving bounties J,42S, and the 
total amount paid, gi, 526,990 i). 



Cayuga County War-Loan Honos. 

Principal and interest which have been paid 
thereon : 

sil jpiPi 


H- U 1 3 ^^5-S S ^s °-S 

: i IllpSgJlS 

; i ■ 

|:r-i : ■ 

g.: : : • (3; : : 

• ;;;-;;■ 

■ 1 

. : : : 5-: ■ : 


: ; : : ■ S-- . . 

; ! 




I, "- |S;2^-°iI t^t I a. 

8 8 88 I'- 
S^coS '"is- 

?^»5 *5 Is 


r 1^ 


^I::;^! 88::88 888 

mm I 
11 i I'll 

The money for the payment of the foregoing 
sums has been received from the following 
sources, namely : 

I State bond of $87^000, sold by direction of S 

deposifi and other items 3/'?8 }9 

ged to towns 31,40000 





Favoring Circumstances— Character of the 
Settlers — Formation and Changes of the 
Town — Territorial Description and 
Early Settlement of Hardenbergh's Cor- 
ners — Col. Hardenbergh — His Habits 
and Characteristics — Why the Indians 
Dispersed — The First Mill — Roads — 
Early Colonies — The First Sermon — Bu- 
rial-Ground — First Inn — Jehial Clark — 
First Tannery — Town Government — The 
" Corners" in 1800— Slaves — First Post- 
Office — Progress — Wild Animals — Coun- 
ty Seat — Name Changed — Clinton's De- 
scription OF Auburn — War of i8i2-'i5. 

UNTIL June, 1803, Hardenbergh's Corners 
had been the name of the hamlet out of 
which grew the village and city of Auburn. The 
settlement formed a part of the town of Aurelius 
and was under its government. 

The circumstances attending the settlement of 
Aurelius, of the County of Cayuga, and of western 
New York, were peculiarly favorable as com- 
pared with those attending the settlement of the 
eastern portions of the State, and of the country 
generally. Sullivan, in his famous campaign 
against the Six Nations in 1779, had whipped 
them into such thorough submission that they 
had left, or were about leaving their lands, which, 
for the most part, they had ceded to the State. 

The settlers, therefore, could safely penetrate 
the wilderness and establish their homes " with 
no one to molest or to make them afraid ;" with- 
out any dread of the tomahawk, gun and scalping- 
knife of the savage, which in the East, the South 
and the West had been the terror of the settlers, 
whose cabins were often consumed and their 
families slain by the lurking foe. We, happily,, 
had no Indian wars to fight, and the settlement 
and development of this part of the State was 
thus exceptionally favored. 

The difficulties, toils and dangers which, our 
early ancestors in this region encountered, were 
those only which are common to a densely wooded 
region and a rigorous climate, where abounded 
numerous and ferocious wild beasts, and where, 
for nearly a generation, few of the comforts of 

civilization could be enjoyed. But the men and 
women who first peopled this region were equal 
to the task before them. They were brave of 
heart and strong of hand. They were hopeful, 
vigorous and enterprising. Present self-denials 
were cheerfully borne as the price of future good, 
and one of the most interesting facts in the lives 
of the pioneers of this region is the admission 
made by nearly all of them, that those early years, 
notwithstanding their hardships and privations, 
were, nevertheless, the happiest of their lives. 

In 1789 the territory of Cayuga County was 
divided into townships, and opened for settle- 
ment. Aurelius and Milton, the latter changed 
to Genoa, were formed Jan. 27th, 1789. Aurelius 
was then in the county of Montgomery, which, at 
that time, included all the western part of the 
State, from a line drawn north and south through 
the center of Schoharie county. Its name had 
been changed from Tryon after the Revolution. 
Herkimer county was formed from Montgomery, 
February i6th, 1791 ; Onondaga, from Herkimer, 
March 5th, 1794, and Cayuga, from Onondaga, 
March 8th, 1799. 

Aurelius was at first a military township, but 
was so enlarged as to include several townships.* 
That part of Aurelius which became the village 
of Auburn, comprised six town lots, viz : thirty- 
seven, thirty-eight, forty-six, forty-seven, fifty- 
six and fifty-seven. Lot number thirty-seven 
lies in the north-west section of the plot and be- 
came the property of Robert Dill, who held and 
improved it, though before his purchase it had 
passed through several hands from the soldier to 
whom it had been awarded. His title is dated 
December !2th, 1791 ; he sold in 1796 to Amos 
and Gideon Tyler, one hundred acres to each 
from this lot, Amos paying 40;^ and Gideon 
86^" for their respective purchases. 

Lot number thirty-eight, in the north-east cor- 
ner of the city, was purchased after the comple- 
tion of the survey, on February 27th, 1789, by 
Garrett Van Wagener, and the sum paid for it is 
not stated, the title having also previously passed 
through several hands. 

Noah Olmstead, Jr., bought the south half of 
this lot in December, 1794, paying for it 120^, 
about $2 per acre, a part of which is now the 
beautiful farm of Charles Standart, Esq. 

Lot number forty-six lies in the west part of 

* See " formation of towns," page 36. 



the city. Five hundred acres became the property 
of Robert Dill, for gi,200, and 100 acres lying in 
the south east corner of the lot, in what is now 
the heart of the city of Auburn, was bought by 
William Bostwick for $750, in 1794. 

Lot number forty-seven embraced the south- 
eastern section of the city, and on it was the main 
water-power of this locality. It was purchased 
by John L. Hardenbergh. He paid 90^ — 
about 75 cents per acre — for his purchase. The 
bond he gave for the purchase money is dated 
February 20th, 1792, and a receipt of its full pay- 
ment, is dated July 1 7th, following. This bond is 
on file in the collection of the Cayuga County 
Historical Society. 

Mr. Hardenbergh had been one of the survey- 
ors of the military lands. He had marked this lot 
in his field notes as "a good mill site," and had 
evidently fixed his mind upon its acquisition. 
Captain John Doughty, had drawn the lot, and 
sold it to Martin and Josiah Ogden Hoffman, of 
whom it was purchased by Mr. Hardenbergh. 

Lot number fifty-seven was awarded to Peter 
Gansevoort, who, rightly estimating its prospect- 
ive value, held it until 1805, when he sold it for 
about six dollars per acre to Samuel Swift. 

Colonel John L. H.\rdenbergh, the founder 
of the settlement which bore his name, was of 
Dutch, descent and a native of Ulster county, in 
this State. He had more than the ordinary cult- 
ure of the times, was a good practical surveyor 
and engineer and a captain in the Revolutionary 
army. In the latter capacity he accompanied 
General Sullivan in his expedition against the 
Six Nations, and when the military tract was sur- 
veyed he was employed in that work. He wrote 
up a daily journal of the movements of the army, 
as did many of the officers of the expedition.* 
The Owasco Outlet particularly attracted 
his attention as furnishing ample water-power ; 
also the beautiful and fertile regions border- 
ing upon it. Hence his efforts to secure lot 57, 
in which he succeeded. 

He came on to improve his property in 1793. 
The records which he left behind him, show him 
to have been systematic and methodical in his 
habits. His "Journal," " Orderly Book," and the 
" Field Notes," and other books and papers, now 

* GenerTl^ohn S. Clark, of Auburn, by diligent and careful 
research, has gathered together and copied some twenty of these 
military journals, which throw much light upon the previous ac- 
count of General Sullivan's campaign. 

carefully preserved by the Cayuga County His- 
torical Society, attest this. 

In his " Field Notes " of the surveys of the 
towns of Aurclius, Brutus, Cato, Scipio, Locke 
and Sempronius, he carefully notes the size, 
density and quality of the timber, the kind of soil, 
the rivers and streams, and the general topogra- 
phy of the region surveyed. 

His had been just the experience to fit him for 
being the founder of a new settlement. He was 
capable, hardy, and enterprising. He had long 
dwelt in, and traversed the woods, and was so 
inured to their hardships and discomforts that for 
him, a new country had no terrors. 

When he came, the old Indian trail from Utica 
to Canandaigua had been widened, and upon 
this rude way the first settlers of Auburn built 
their cabins.* 

Colonel Hardenbergh built his cabin in the 
rear of the present City Hall. The first tree 
felled on the site of Auburn was chopped by the 
competent and faithful slave of the Colonel, Harry 
Freeman, and the first acres were cleared by him 
and Gilbert Goodrich. 

His cabin was strongly built to resist the in- 
gress of wild beasts, which were then bold and 
abundant, and was without a fire-place, or chim- 
ney. A " Dutch back," against which the fire 
was kindled, and a large opening in the roof for 
the discharge of smoke, comprised the simple 
arrangements for warmth and cooking. 

But rude as was the home of the first settler 
of Auburn, it was, nevertheless, the scat of a wide 
and generous hospitality, dispensed alike to the 
native Indian and the hardy emigrant. A few 
red men yet lingered here, without disturbances, 
either among themselves, or between them and 
the whites. 

But an enemy soon appeared which quickly 
and effectually gained a complete mastery over 
them and drove them from their village. Stores 
were started at the "Corners" about 1797, at 
which the Indians procured such articles as they 
desired, and among them was strong drink, the 
deadly foe of the savage, as it is also of the civ- 
ilized man. Its effects upon them were quickly 
manifest in repeated brawls and fights, which, for 
a time, the friendly influence of the whites so 
restrained as to avoid serious results. But on 

,own by 

laying oi 

ails, it has been shown by careful mvcstiga 
t feasible routes, and were generally followed 



one occasion, their village was the scene of a 
severe and terrible combat. So drunk and crazed 
were the Indians, that the whites could not ap- 
pease them and they were left to fight off" their 
debauch. In the morning, it was found that 
they had nearly all deserted their village ; the 
great body of them, it so proved, had left- the 
region altogether, and of the remaining few nearly 
all went upon their reservation near Union 
Springs. Those that remained here dwelt in 
their village on the site of the Auburn Prison. 

The great western trail led through the " Cor- 
ners " and crossed the outlet just below North 
street. Large stones at proper distances 
had been placed in the stream, and these 
tradition represents to have been once so con- 
nected by bark as to form a bridge. 

The First Mill. — One of the greatest dis- 
advantages to which the earliest settlers were 
exposed, was the want of mills for grinding grain 
and sawing lumber. The more thrifty and en- 
terprising pioneers early directed their attention 
to supplying this imperious want. Colonel Har- 
denbergh had located his lot with the special 
aim of supplying that demand. As soon as pos- 
sible he began the work of building a grist-mill. 
He threw across the Outlet a log dam just above 
the present stone dam of the Lewis mill. Ed- 
ward Wheeler and Eldad Steel were the builders 
of the mill, which was made of logs and covered 
with boughs. When finished the mill would 
grind with its single run of stones about one 
bushel an hour. 

Hitherto the nearest mill had been at Seneca 
Falls, or at Ludlowville, the latter now in 
Tompkins county, and the journey to either place 
over the forest roads by plodding ox teams, was 
long and toilsome in the extreme. Many of the 
settlers had extemporized domestic and very 
simple mills, consisting of huge mortars, formed 
by hollowing out large stumps with fire and 
gouges, and suspending from spring-poles huge 
pestles, by which the grain was reduced to coarse 
flour, nutritious and healthy. 

The erection of Colonel Hardenbergh's mill 
was, therefore, the great event of the settlement. 
It drew hither most of the settlers in the vicinity, 
whom it relieved from long journeys, or laborious 
poundings of their own grain. They came not 
only to the Corners to mill, but for general sup- 
plies and general business purposes as well. It 

brought his property into immediate notice and 
greatly increased its value'. It was the center of 
business of a large bordering area. 

Roads, as a means of access to the country 
and as aiding or retarding its settlement, as they 
were good or bad, form a proper subject of in- 
quiry. The old Genesee road from Uticato Can- 
andaigua, was the first one built and the most 
used. It had been so improved in 1793, when 
the first settler came to the Corners, as to be 
passable with sleighs and wagons. This im- 
provement had been made by the State. The 
" old Chenango road " leading from Chenango 
county along the east side of Owasco Lake to the 
"Corners," is believed to have been the next 
road built. A road was also constructed to 
Montezuma as early as 1794, and after 1797 was 
much used by the settlers in procuring salt from 
that place. 

All these early roads were necessarily very 
rude. They ran through dense woods, the swamps 
and sloughs but little improved and most of the 
streams unbridged. In summer streams were 
forded, and in winter they were bridged with ice. 
In the latter season the families and goods of 
the early settlers were mostly transported over 
such roads; and into a densely wooded region 
our first settlers came, literally hewing for them- 
selves a pathway to success. 

The vicinity of Gettysburg, Pa., supplied an 
early colony consisting of ten families, amongst 
whom were RoelifF, Jacob and Luke Brinker- 
hoff, Charles and James VanTyne, Philip O'Brien, 
Thomas and Abraham Johnson, and Albert De- 
maree. They left their homes in 1791, des- 
tined for what is now the town of Owasco, but 
were detained at Ludlowville in perfecting their 
land titles for two years, not reaching their con- 
templated home until 1793. Anotherpartyfrom 
the same place, consisting of David, Isaac and 
John Parsell and two sisters, came on the same 
year and settled in the same town. 

Solomon Tibbies came on in 1794. Jacob Van 
Doran settled upon the lot on which is now the 
residence of Peter Sittser, and Mrs. Van Doran 
planted the poplars in front of this dwelling in 
1800. She lived to the remarkable age of 103 

The First Sermon. — Elder David Irish is 
said to have preached the first sermon to white 
men in the County of Cayuga, in 1794. In 1795, 



Major Noah Olmstead, Jr., Zenas Huggins, Gid- 
eon Tyler and his sons Elliot, Warren, Salmon 
and Gideon, settled here. 

The First Burial Ground was on the lot 
on which is now the residence of C. M. Howlett, 
and for a time was the only burial place. In 1795, 
three-fourths of an acre was cleared in the north- 
west corner of the North Street Cemetery and 
fenced with logs. Gideon Tyler, Jr., was the 
first person buried there. 

The First Store at Hardenbergh's Corners, 
was opened in a log building on the site of the 
town hall, by James O'Brien, in 1795. Dr. Sam- 
uel Crossett soon after opened another store, 
also in a log building, on the site of the First 
Church chapel. 

The First Physician. — Dr. Samuel Crossett 
was the first physician, and Dr. Ellis the second. 
Dr. Burt read medicine with Dr. Crossett in 

The First Inn. — Samuel Bristol opened the 
first Inn in 1796, on the corner of North and 
Genesee streets, where is now the store of H. J. 
Brown. It was a small log cabin in which a store 
was also kept. A framed addition to it was built, 
and it was retained for many years as a public 
house. Nehemiah Smith built in 1796, a log 
house where is now the residence of James Sey- 
mour, on North street. Mr. Smith planted the 
poplars which were last year (1878) removed by 
Mr. Seymour and which, therefore, had stood 
there over eighty years. St. Clair Smith settled 
the same year in Aurelius, and Jehial Clark in 
Clarksville, the year before ; the latter en- 
gaged largely in milling in opposition to Colonel 
Hardenbergh, in the eastern part of the settle- 
ment. They were both vigorous and enterpris- 
ing men and between them there was a sharp ri- 
valry as to which should draw to his locality the 
greatest number of settlers and secure the most 
business. Clark's Village was the name which 
first designated the western settlement. It was 
afterwards changed to Clarksville. 

Mr. Clark had a fine water power on the stream, 
which he utilized by the erection of a substantial 
saw and grist mill, the latter with two run of 
stones. He also opened and improved the roads 
leading to his mills and the prospective village, 
of which he regarded his property as the center. 
His mill is yet standing and forms a part of the 
Mayflower Mills. 

William Bostwick and Dan Hyde, arrived 
in 1798. The former was a builder and 
erected a large double log house on the north 
side of Genesee street where now stands the 
Beach block. Here he opened a tavern. The 
building was made conspicuous by a coat of 
whitewash both inside and out. A stump in the 
rear yard supported the family oven. 

The First Tannery. — Mr. Hyde built a tan- 
nery on the site of the Knight block, which in 
1S05, became the property of Elijah Esty : the 
former engaging in the mercantile business with 
Dr. Burt. The latter, two years later, became the 
sole owner of the business, and the former en- 
gaged in milling. 

Organization of the Town, — The town gov- 
ernment of Aurelius was first formed in 1794. 
The town meeting was held at the house of Col. 
Hardenbergh. The voters that attended that' 
meeting were an honest, hardy, and weather- 
beaten band, in strong contrast with similar gath- 
erings of to-day. They selected their super- 
visor, town clerk, school committee, overseers ot 
the poor, highway commissioners, and all the 
other town officers. 

These elections were held annually for nine 
years at the house of Colonel Hardenbergh, and 
afterwards at some tavern or school-house in the 
town, at the "Corners," or the "Openings," as 
the light timbered lands to the west of the Cor- 
ners were called. 

Early Town Clerks. — The early town clerks 
of Aurelius were as follows : Colonel John L. 
Hardenbergh, from 1794 to 1S02; Samuel Cros- 
sett, M. D., from 1802 to 1803 ; John Harring, 
from 1803 to 1807; Dr. Hackaliah Burt, from 
1807 to 1810 ; John Harring, from 1810 to 181 1; 
David Brinkerhoff, from 1811 to 1S13 ; Nathan- 
iel Garrow, from 1S13 to 1814 ; David Brinker- 
hoft", from 18 14 to 1833; and David Calkins, 
from 1822 to 1823. 

In 1800, the "Corners" were really yet "in 
the woods ;" there were only about 150 acres of 
cleared land, and the general appearance of the 
place was far from inviting. Large and dense 
hemlock, covered all the lower parts of the ham- 
let, and bogs, ponds and small streams covered 
large areas. The roads through the place were 
generally wet, very muddy and difficult of pas- 

Through the hamlet passed the great flood of 



western emigration and its appearance rather 
repelled than invited settlers ; other sections pre- 
sented to the emigrants more inviting prospects. 
The " Openings" or light timbered lands in the 
western part of the town, and the fertile and ap- 
parently more favored regions bordering on Ca- 
yuga Lake, were strong rivals. 

Slaves. — Slaves were at this time held by 
such of our citizens as could afford their cost, 
and slavery was tolerated by law and upheld -by 
public opinion. One of Colonel Hardenbergh's 
slaves purchased his freedom by clearing for his 
master eighty acres of heavily timbered land ; 
and two slaves of Peter Hughes purchased their 
freedom in the same way. Liberty, to those who 
paid for it so great a price, must have been highly 
prized. Slaves were then advertised and sold as 
other chattels. Such advertisements may be 
seen in the early newspapers of the village. 

The First Birth of a white child at the 
" Corners," was that of John H., son of Colonel 
Hardenbergh, in 1798. The Colonel is said to 
have made the acquaintance of the lady he mar- 
ried, a daughter of Roeliff Brinkerhoff, of Owasco, 
while she was waiting for a grist to be ground, 
which she had brought on horseback several 
miles through the forest. Harriet and Polly, 
daughters of William Bostwick, were the first 
girls born at the Corners, of white parents. 

The First Post-Office was established in 
1800, at which time a mail was received once in 
two weeks. Stages were run over the Genesee 
road the same year, traveling only in the day time 
and making exceedingly slow progress. As late 
as 1 8 17, four days were required to reach Al- 
bany. In 1804 stages ran twice a week, and four 
years later, three times per week. Isaac, father 
of the late Colonel John M. Sherwood, and 
Jason Parker, were the first mail carriers, the 
mail being borne on horseback. 

The first bridge across the outlet was built of 
logs, in 1800. Teams had previously forded it, 
and footmen had passed over it on the trunks of 
trees felled across the stream. 

A broad and substantially built plank bridge 
was thrown across the outlet in 1802 and was a 
favorite place of resort of the citizens for various 
athletic sports. Hard as they toiled, they yet 
had sufficient vigor to enjoy physical sports. 

In 1800, Daniel Grant, Zenas Goodrich, Fran- 
cis Hunter and Elijah Esty became residents. 

The latter, in 1805, bought the tannery on North 
street, of David Hyde. The large elm now in 
front of the property was soon after planted when 
a mere shrub, by his daughter, the late Sally 
Wood. This tree has now had a growth of over 
70 years, and is a conspicuous monument of the 
past. Abner Beach, John Kellogg, Moses Saw- 
yer, Bradley Tuttle, and Richard L. Smith, all 
prominent and useful citizens, took up their resi- 
dence here in 1801. Messrs. Kellogg, Sawyer 
and Smith were lawyers of distinction. Bradley 
Tuttle bought and conducted the Goodrich 
tavern for many years ; but subsequently fol- 
lowed his trade as a builder, in which he became 

The First Hatter in the place was Seth 
Burgess, in 1803. Nathaniel Garrow came the 
same year, and Lyman Payne and Henry Am- 
merman in 1804. The latter, for about twelve 
years, kept the leading hotel of the place, the 
Centre House, in the long room of which for 
several years public and religious meetings were 
held ; dancing parties, mountebank shows and re- 
ligious meetings succeeding each other. 

The brothers Robert and John Patty began 
business here in 1805. They had been traveling 
peddlers. They first opened a general store and 
afterwards engaged also in tanning, carrying on 
a large and prosperous business. 

Wild Animals. — The early settlers of Auburn 
and of the County at large, were both favored 
and annoyed by the great abundance of wild 
game. They were annoyed by foxes destroying 
their poultry and lambs ; wolves were destruc- 
tive to sheep, lambs, calves and other small do- 
mestic animals, and children and even adults 
were not safe from their ferocity, when they 
roamed in packs. Deer, bears, squirrels, and 
raccoons were great plunderers of the growing 
crops ; yet the flesh of many of these animals 
served a valuable purpose for food and their 
skins were utilized for various domestic purposes, 
those of the deer, bear and wolf serving the 
double purpose of bedding and clothing. 

To guard against the entrance to their houses 
of the voracious wolves and the bold and greedy 
bears, some of their cabins were entered through 
high windows by means of ladders, and their 
domestic animals corralled in high log pens at 

The township of Aurelius, in 1797, voted a 

IPhoto by Squj-er & Wright. 

Hen f\y Silas Dunning. 

Henry Silas Dunning, was born in Aurelins. Cayuga Couu- 
Xy, New York. September Oth. lf<l(j, on the farm were his 
grandfather Silas Dunning settled in 17!ii;. When a j-ouug 
man he learned the machinist's trade which he followed some 
eight or ten years, becoming very expert and was often sent 
away to the Southern States and other distant places to su- 
perintend the erection of machinery. His health failing 
through overwork on one of these expeditions, he was obliged 
to resort to the out-door life of farming, and commenced in 
the j'ear 1842, on the farm then owned by his father-in-law, 
JoseiJh Wadsworth, on Genesee street, near the western 
limits of the city of Auburn. 

He soon afterpurchasedother lands adjoining this farm and 
afterwards from time to time other adjoining farms until he 
finally aeqiured a farm of some .300 acres, which became through 
his careful and successful management one of the finest 
in New York State. He was always foremost among fanners 
in introducing and employing labor-saving machinery- in 
farming operations, and iu imi:)roving his farm by a tliorough 
system of tile di-aiuing (which at that time had few supjiort- 
ers, ) and in imjiroving his cattle and horses by the introduc- 
tion of improved breeds. He was verj- successful iu intro- 
ducing and gi-owing the best varieties of apples, in some 
years selling one thousand barrels from his orchard of tweu- 
ty-five acres. His %-iews were often sought by other farmei's 
and he was an occasional contributor to the agricultural press 
on various topics. Mr. Dunning was prominent in many 
connections outside of his farm. He was the fii-st alderman 
elected to represent the n^w territory known as the 7th ward 

afh-r its auuexation to the city. Hu was uouuect.-d with the 
Cayuga County Agi-icultural Society from its orgauizatiou, 
and during most of the time iu official cai)acity. 

He was elected a Director in the Auburn Gas Light Com- 
pany iu ISGn and iu LSii.") was elected its Superintendent and 
Treasurer. Through his enterprise and activity the busiuess 
of tlie company was largely extended and improved. Not 
possessing a strong constitution the excessive labor again told 
upon his health and he* was obhged to relinquish the charge 
of the company iu ixc,'.) to one of his sous. The death of his 
wife August 7th, 1)<(!!I was a severe blow from which he nev- 
er recovered, and his health gradually failed from that time 
until his death April L'2d, 1871. 

Mr. Dimuing was man-ied October 7th. 1840, to Jane 
AVadsworth, daughter of Josei)h Wadsworth, then a promi- 
nent manufacturer of agrieultm-al hand implements iu the 
western part of Auburn. She was a person of extraordiuaiy 
energy, yet of quiet and unassuming character : her influence 
was felt far and wide through the Chmxh. the Ori)hau Asy- 
lum, towards the poor, always in the cause of charity aud 
humanity, aud toward the improvement of her fellow-beings. 
They both became membere of the Baptist Church at Au- 
burn, at an early period, and were always afterward among 
the most active and influential members thereof, contributing 
Uberally towards its siipport. Mr. Duuuing was a lift mem- 
ber of the American Baptist Home Missiouan- Society. They 
both died at a comparatively early age and left a large family 
of children, six sons and one daughter, to mourn their un- 
timely loss. 




bounty of " three pounds for the head of every 
full grown wolf" taken in the town. This bounty 
was continued until those terrible and destruc- 
tive beasts were exterminated, to accomplish 
which required nearly a generation. The town 
bounties were, for many years, supplemented by 
County bounties. The hand and purse of every 
settler were enlisted in this work, and large sums 
were expended for their destruction. 

Long after the settlement was made at the 
Corners, the bears and wolves would enter the 
hamlet in search of food, and the houses were not 
secure from their depredations. For years the 
settlers went armed in the woods for self-protec- 
tion. Venison was a common article of food, for 
deer were so abundant as to be easily taken. 
Corn and wheat fields were generally seriously 
damaged by squirrels, a pest which continued 
much longer than the larger animals, and they 
are yet abundant in our more wooded towns. 
They long furnished very interesting sport to 
gunners in the trial of skill in what was called 
" squirrel hunts ;" a neighborhood, and sometimes 
an entire town, engaging in the sport for a fixed 
period. Competing sides were chosen, compris- 
ing equal numbers, and numerical scales agreed 
upon for the heads or scalps of the different 
kinds of game. This done, the hunters entered 
the woods in pursuit of game. The grand aggre- 
gate of the scalps were counted by the captains 
of the contesting companies, at a time and place 
agreed upon, and the defeated party supplied re- 
freshments to the entire company. The quan- 
tity of game thus obtained was often very large, 
extending to several thousand squirrels, with 
large numbers of hawks, owls, crows, foxes, &c. 

It was very fine sport for the hunters and 
greatly reduced the number of depredating birds 
and animals. Fish in the lakes, rivers, and 
brooks were also very abundant, and were easily 
taken in large quantities, largely supplying with 
food the tables of the early settlers. 

The early pasture grounds were the unbroken 
forests, and the animals fed on the succulent 
branches of young trees and such herbage as the 
woods afforded. Cattle of the same herd would 
usually keep together and take wide ranges in 
search of food. The bells which were attached 
to nearly every cow had each its peculiar tone, 
and every owner could distinguish the sound of 
his own bells, which could be heard for long 

distances. They guided the search of the owner 
of the herd, whose milch cows would generally 
return to the cabins at evening, though long 
rambles were frequently necessary to find them. 
Along the Seneca River were the best natural 
pastures and here the young animals were driven 
in the spring and remained until autumn. 

The tavern long known as the Western Ex- 
change, was continued as such for over 60 years. 
It was first erected by William Hostwick, in 1803. 
It was two stories high and had in its second 
story a ball or long room, as it was generally 
called, which was used for all kinds of public as- 
semblages. Canfield Coe became the owner in 
1 816, and made an addition to the eastern side. 
R. D. Hudson succeeded Mr. Coe, and added a 
third story and a rear wing, greatly enlarging its 
accommodations. It yielded in 1S63 to the 
march of improvement and an elegant block of 
buildings was erected on its site. 

In this tavern was held the first public ball of 
the village, the great feature of which was the 
time at which it opened and closed. It was held 
in the daytime, opening at three o'clock v. m., 
and closing at night-fall. 

The first celebration of the anniversary of the 
nation's birth was on July 4th, 1804. A liberty- 
pole was raised, and red silk substituted for a 
banner. The " red " was regarded as symboliz- 
ing England, and gave great offense ; an effort 
was made to shoot it down, and the excitement 
ran so high as to break up the celebration. The 
following year the effort was successfully renew- 
ed, and the day celebrated in a manner common 
to the period, by reading the Declaration of In- 
dependence, an oration, a public dinner, toasts 
and firing of cannon. 

In June, 1803, the " Corners" were given the 
shorter and more euphonious name of "Auburn." 
The place had been designated as the county 
seat, and a more dignified name than " Corners " 
was desired, which, after considerable discussion 
they found in that of Auburn. 

County Sfat. — The selection of the county 
seat was attended with difficulties and delays. 
Until 1803 the courts had been held at Cayuga 
and Aurora, but efforts were made to establish 
the county seat elsewhere. It was first changed 
to Sherwood Corners, but so earnest and decided 
was the opposition, that the local commissioners 
to whom was confided the erection of the court 



house, withheld action, and a new commission of 
disinterested men, resident in other parts of the 
State, was appointed to settle its location, and by 
them Hardenbergh's Corners was designated as 
the site, much to the gratification of its residents 
and to the disgust of rival claimants. The funds 
for the erection of the County buildings were re- 
fused by a majority of the Supervisors, and the 
erection of the buildings delayed. A law was 
then passed imposing a fine of $250 upon each 
Supervisor refusing to vote the tax, which was 
effective. The tax was raised, and a wooden 
court house and jail erected — the latter on the 
first floor of the building, the court room on the 
second floor. The court house was located in 
1803, but not finished until 1809. 

Rapid Settlements, Taverns. — The popu- 
lation of the County at this time was increasing 
at a rate exceeding 1,200 a year, and the central 
and western counties were also rapidly settling. 
The main line of travel was the old Genesee turn- 
pike, which was constantly lined with emigrants, 
for whose accommodation inns or taverns were 
greatly multiplied. At one period there were 
fifteen of these public houses between Cayuga 
village and Skaneateles, one to a mile, and they 
were all liberally patronized. The canal and rail- 
roads of a later day destroyed the business of 
these country " taverns," and the patronage of 
the traveling public was crowded into the more 
imposing city and village "hotels." In 1805 
there were four taverns in Auburn and the "Cen- 
tre House " was building, on the site of the store 
now occupied by Kerr & Devitt. It was built by 
David Horner, and, for the time, was an elegant 
structure. Its ball room was used for various 
public assembhes. It was occupied by the First 
Presbyterian Society as a place of worship for 
several yeare. 

The County records were brought to Auburn 
in 1807, by the County Clerk, Peter Hughes, and 
kept at his residence, a Clerk's office not being 
erected until 18 14. 

In 1810 there were in operation in Auburn, 
five saw-mills, four grist-mills, two carding and 
fulling-mills, two distilleries and one oil-mill. 
D. M. Hyde built a dam and grist-mill in 1808 
on the site of the present " big dam," and Ro- 
bert Dill the next year erected a dam, saw-mill 
and forge on the site of Barber's factory. The lat- 
ter were built in a thick wood. Jehial Clark 

had in operation at this time, in Clarksville, a 
j saw and grist-mill. 

; In 1810 Auburn contained about 100 houses 
^ and was a very active business place. There 
were very few idlers ; industrial pursuits engaged 
the active attention of nearly all the people, who 
j were ambitious and hopeful. 
j The following very interesting and minute de- 
scription of Auburn is from the pen of DeWitt 
j Clinton, who, in that year, visited the village, 
I while making the tour of the State. We give it, 
j as a very interesting description in itself, and as 
showing the inquisitive and careful habits of that 
distinguished statesman : 
j "Auburn derives its name from Goldsmith. 
. It contains three tanneries, three distilleries, one 
coach maker, two watch makers, four taverns, 
: two tailors, six merchants, three shoemakers, two 
i asheries, two wagon makers, three blacksmiths 
two chair makers, three saddlers, three physi- 
cians, a Presbyterian clergyman and an incor- 
porated library of 220 volumes. It is the County 
town, and has about ninety houses, three law 
I offices, a post-office, a Court house and the Coun- 
' ty Clerk's office. It is a fine growing place, and 
is indebted to its hydraulic works and the Court 
j house for its prosperity. There are sixteen law- 
I yers in Cayuga County. Auburn has no church. 
t The Court house is used for divine worship. 

" It is situated on the Outlet of Owasco Lake, 

I on Nos. 46 and 47, Aurelius. One hundred 

i acres of 46 belong to William Bostwick, inn- 

I keeper, and the remainder to Robert Dill. The 

[ former has asked ^150 for half-acre lots, the 

I Court house, being on his land ; and the latter 

! has asked ;^300 for a water lot on the Outlet, 

which is not navigable. No. 47 belongs to the 

heirs of John L. Hardenbergh, and covers the 

best waters of the Outlet, a fine rapid stream. 

Auburn is eight miles from Cayuga Lake, three 

from Owasco Lake, and not seventy-five from 

Utica. Owasco Lake is twelve miles long and 

one wide. The Outlet is fourteen miles long, and 

on it are the following hydraulic establishments : 

nine saw-mills, two carding machines, two turner 

I shops, one trip-hammer and blacksmith shop, 

I two oil-mills, five grist-mills, three fulling mills, 

j one bark-mill and several tanneries. At the 

i lower falls Mr. Dill has a furnace, in which he 

i uses old iron, there being no iron ore. 

"At this place there is a federal newspaper 
I published by Pace, the former partner of James 
' Thompson Callender. Pace settled first at Au- 
rora, being attracted there by Walter Wood, and 
\ being starved out, came here and is principally 
: supported by advertisements of mortgages, which 
! must, if there be a newspaper in the county 



where the lands lie, be printed in it, and this is 
the only one in Cayuga County. 

" The machine for picking wool, Jehial Clark's, 
is excellent. The carding machine is ne.xt used, 
and turns out the wool in complete rolls. It can 
card 112 pounds per day, and one man attends 
both. Four shillings per pound is given for 
wool. Carding, picking and greasing wool, the 
grease furnished by the owner of the wool, is 
eight pence per pound. There are upwards of 
twenty carding machines in this County, and 
great numbers of sheep are driven to the New 
York markets. The Linseed Oil Mills, Hyde 
& Beach's, can press fifteen gallons of oil in a 
day, and with great effort, a barrel. The fla.x- 
seed is broken by two mill-stones, placed per- 
pendicularly, like those of bark-mills, and follow- 
ing each other in succession. Seed costs from 
two to seven shillings per bushel, and each bushel 
produces three or four quarts. The oil sells at 
the mill at nine shillings a gallon. Oil is also 
expressed from the seed of the sunflower. One 
bushel makes two gallons. It is excellent for 
burning and makes no smoke. Oil is also made 
here from Pahiia Chrisii. 

"At a mill north-west from Auburn, on Lot 37 
Aurelius, a spring rises perpendicularly out of 
the level earth. It produces two hogsheads a 
minute and immediately forms a mill stream. A 
few yards below is a fulling-mill. The water is 
uncommonly good and cold. I found in it a 
honey-comb fossil, like those at the Sulphur 
Springs, at Cherry Valley, and near Geneva. 
This spring is called the Cold Spring. There 
are two or three others near it, and the creek 
formed from them, called the Cold Spring Creek, 
contains excellent trout ; about a mile from the 
Cold Spring there is a sulphur spring. From 
the fossil found at the Cold Spring and the cold- 
ness of the water, it must run over sulphur. 
There is a sulphur spring on the margin of Cay- 
uga Lake." 

A Literary Association was formed in Auburn 
in 1812. A small library was procured and 
meetings held for the discussion of previously 
assigned topics. John Sawyer was the first 
President, and A. H. Howland, David Brinker- 
hofif and Eleazer Hills, the first trustees. A 
similar association was also formed in 1838, of 
which Stephen A. Goodwin was the first Presi- 
dent, William Richardson, Vice-President, S B. 
Dennis, Secretary, and B. F. Hall, Reader ; Dr. 
Frank H. Hamilton, Peter Myers, Dr. Erastus 
Humphreys, William Hopkins and S. S. Dennis, 
were the Executive Board. In 1841 the associa- 
tion was duly incorporated, and was efficiently 
continued for about ten years, and its organiza- 
tion maintained until the war of the Rebellion. 

Lectures and the discussion of assigned topics 
were regularly maintained, the lectures mainly 
delivered by our own citizens, and the discussions 
were by the members of the association. They 
were largely attended. It was before the era of 
lecture bureaus or of professional star lecturers, 
and the main purpose of the association was the 
edification and improvement of its members. 
The debates were free and so also were the lec- 
tures as a rule ; but when, as was sometimes the 
case, expenses for foreign lecturers were incurred, 
a fee was charged to meet them. So unused were 
our people then to pay for literary entertainments 
that the attendance was usually so small as to 
discourage their continuance, even at the small 
admission fee of twelve and a half cents, and the 
interest in the association so rapidly declined 
when the public was charged for admission to its 
meetings that its discontinuance followed. 

Military Organizations. — On the declara- 
tion of war in 1S12, the military organization of 
the County was very imperfect. In the town of 
Aurelius a regiment was enrolled, commanded by 
Colonel John Harris, of Cayuga. The men were 
unprovided with suitable arms or equipments, 
and undisciplined. Three of the companies of 
this regiment were organized in Auburn and 
were better disciplined and supplied than the bal- 
ance of the regiment. Captain Bradley Tuttle 
commanded an independent cavalry company, 
Captain Henry Ammerman an infantry company, 
and Captain John H. Compston a company of 
artillery ; the latter was supplied with two si.x- 
pounder brass pieces. 

Soon after war was declared the regiment was 
mustered and volunteers called for, resulting in 
the formation of two volunteer companies, com- 
manded by Captain David Eldridge and Captain 
Henry Brinkerhoff. Those two companies and 
Captain Compston with his artillery, were soon 
after forwarded to the army commanded by Gen- 
eral Stephen Van Rensselaer, near Niagara. The 
infantry companies participated in the atlack by 
our forces upon the village of Lewiston, and a 
party volunteered to cross the river into Canada 
under Colonels Scott and Wool ; but so many 
refused to do so that those who did cross were, 
after heroic resistance, overcome and captured. 
Captain Compston did not arrive in time to par- 
ticipate in the battle. The battery remained 
1 about three months on the frontier and engaged 



in several skirmishes, in one of which a gun was 
lost. Its term of service was three months, at 
the end of which the battery returned to Auburn. 

During the war the roads through Auburn were 
frequently traversed by troops and heavy supply 
trains. The great western turnpike passing 
through Genesee street, which was then unim- 
proved, was the great line of military travel and it 
was rendered nearly impassable during the wet 
seasons by heavy truckage over it; yet the passage 
through the village of large masses of troops to 
and from the West, that often encamped here 
and procured supplies, made the business of the 
place active and profitable while the war lasted. 

Buffalo was captured and burned by the ene- 
my in the winter of 1813 and the interior of the 
State was thus laid open to their incursions. 
They were expected to invade Western and Cen- 
tral New York and a wild panic seized the people. 
Fugitives fled eastward and spread intense 
alarm : and the " loveliest village," it was expect- 
ed, would be one of the objects of the enemy's 
attention and consequently it participated in the 
general fear. The news reached them in the 
evening that the " British were coming," and a 
.sleepless and very active night followed. Major 
Noah Olmstead ordered out the companies of 
Captains Ammerman and Tuttle, to march on the 
following day westward, and a general search 
was made throughout the village for every availa- 
ble fire-lock, of which, in proper order for efficient 
use, few only could be found. The cavalry com- 
pany was better supplied, and was soon formed 
and put under way, followed in the morning by 
two infantry companies, in which very many of 
our citizens were volunteers. At Cayuga they 
halted to await the mustering of the regiment, 
which, under the excitement of the occasion was 
promptly effected, and the rude, undisciplined and 
poorly armed force moved forward to meet the 
veteran red coats. A voluntary reconnoissance 
had been made as far as Canandaigua by public- 
spirited citizens, who found the alarm groundless, 
that there were no movements of the enemy to- 
ward the east and the patriotic band gladly re- 
turned to civil life. A company of regulars was 
recruited in Auburn for service in the war of 
i8i2-'iS, and also a company of riflemen com- 
manded by the brave and impetuous Captain John 
Richardson. The latter company participated in 
several severe battles and incited by the daring 

heroism of their captain, were, at all times, distin- 
guished for bold and resolute deeds on the Niag- 
ara frontier and especially at the sortie from Fort 
Erie, in which the advance works of the enemy 
and a large body of prisoners were captured. 

At the close of the war of 1S12, Auburn con- 
tained about 200 buildings and 1,000 inhabitants. 
For the population of the place there was rela- 
tively a very large number of stores and taverns, 
there being some thirty of the former and six of 
the latter. The taverns were Demaree's, Farm- 
ers' Inn, the Centre House, Tracy's, the Western 
Exchange and Pomeroy's, and among the stores 
were those of Hyde & Beach, Robert and John 
Patty, store and tannery, Joseph Colt, Samuel 
Compston, Horace Hills, and George Leitch. 

Between Genesee street and the Outlet, at this 
time, was a nearly unbroken wood, and an apple 
orchard occupied the space between the Exchange 
and the court house. State, Dill and Water 
streets were then a swamp and covered with 
shrubs and bushes, which were being gradually 
removed and the sloughs reclaimed by drainage. 
Few of the present residents unfamiliar with the 
condition of Water, Dill and State streets, at that 
time, can form any true conception of their for- 
bidding aspect, nor did those who then saw the 
morass, anticipate that, within a single life-time, 
neatly laid and thoroughly drained streets and 
laro-e and imposing buildings, would adorn the 
wild and forbidding swamp. 


History of Auburn, (Continued.) 

Village Incorporated— First Officers — 
Improvements — Bible Societies — Sabbath 
Schools — • Cotton-Mill — Paper-Mill — 
Militia System — First Market — Visit of 
La Fayette — Growth of the Village — 
Speculative Progress — Extravagant Ex- 
penditures ON Streets, Buildings and Pub- 
lic Works — Owasco Canal — Railroads — 
Auburn College — Crash of 1837— Its Con- 
sequences — The Patriot War — Visits of 
Clay, Van Buren and Adams — Woolen- 

IN 1815, Auburn was the largest village in 
Central or Western New York. Rochester 
and Syracuse had not then been incorporated as 



villages, Buffalo had been reduced to ashes and 
Geneva and Canandaigua were behind the " love- 
liest village " in population and general business 

Hitherto it had been under the town govern- 
ment of Aurelius ; but in April, 1815, it was in- 
corporated as a village, with ample powers for the 
necessary improvement of the place. The first 
president was Joseph Colt, and the first trustees 
were Enos T. Throop, Bradley Tuttle, Lyman 
Payne and David Hyde. 

Protection of the village from fire and the im- 
provement of the streets and walks were among 
its first official acts. A fire engine was purchased 
in New York and shipped by boat up the Hud- 
son. At Newburgh the boat was ice-bound, and 
the engine brought thence by team, which re- 
quired fifteen days. 

Auburn had a notorious reputation for mud. 
Its walks, where any were found, consisted of 
slabs irregularly laid in the spring, but regularly 
consumed for fuel in the winter, and her streets 
were a sea of mud during the wet season ; hence 
the ordinances of the trustees for the protection 
and improvement of the place were seconded by 
the hearty cooperation of the citizens. For a 
further view of this subject see " Village Govern- 

The Cayuga Bible Society was formed 
at a public meeting, in Auburn, February 22d, 
1815, more than one year before the formation 
of the American Bible Society, and the au.xiliary 
Bible Society, in June, 18 17. The object of the 
latter was the gratuitous distribution of the sa- 
cred Scriptures among the poor of the County. 
In 1 8 18 the first Sabbath School in Auburn was 
begun by Dr. Richard Steel, Henry Ammerman 
and Noble D. Strong, for the religious instruc- 
tion of the colored people of the village. It was 
organized in the face of much ridicule and oppo- 
sition, but the men having the enterprise in 
charge, were not to be turned aside by the idle 
badinage of the thoughtless or prejudiced crowd. 
They were men of clear heads and pure hearts 
and their enterprise led not only to the success 
of the colored schools, but one for the white 
children as well, which was speedily followed by 
others. The hearty approval of the whole 
religious public was soon secured, and Sabbath 
Schools were soon iristituted by the churches 

Cotton-Mill. — The first manufactory of cot- 
ton goods in Auburn is due to the enterprise of 
Elijah Miller and John H. Beach, who in 1814 
began the erection of the cotton-mill at Clarks- 
ville. It went into operation in 1817. The mill, 
in 1822, was sold to a company, of which Alvah 
Worden was President, and Robert Wiltsie, Sec- 
retary. It was chiefly occupied in the manufac- 
ture of ticking. Robert Muir, George B. 
Throop and Nathaniel Garrow, bought the 
property in 1S27. Though for a time the mill 
was operated profitably, its financial aflairs final- 
ly became so embarrassed as to necessitate its 
sale. It then passed through several hands, by 
none of whom was its prosperity restored until 
it was purchased in 1S53 by L. W. Nye, by 
whom and the lessees, Howlet & Bailey, it was 
run with highly satisfactory results. 

The First Paper-Mill. — Thomas M. and 
George C. Skinner and Ebenezer Hoskins, erect- 
ed, below the cotton-mill just described, the first 
paper-mill in Auburn, which was put in opera- 
tion in 1S29. It made chiefly fine writing papers, 
which found a ready market for several years ; 
but in 1837 they, in common with nearly all busi- 
ness men, were forced to close out their business 
and their interest in the property was transferred 
to the Cayuga County Bank in 1840. The sub- 
sequent lessees of the mill were L. W. Nye and 
Charles Eldred, who were succeeded by David S. 
1 West, Henry Ivison and Chauncey Markham. A 
! company was formed in 1849 with a capital of 
} ^20,000, the trustees of which were David S. 
West, L. W. Nye, John C. Ivison, David Foote, 
Henry Ivison, Aurelius Wheeler, Asahel Cooley 
and Russell Chappel. The business department 
of the company was placed in charge of S. H. 
Henry, and William H. Barnes superintended 
the manufacturing department. In 1854 there 
was a reorganization of the company with an in- 
creased capital, and its business was greatly en- 
larged. The two large publishing houses here 
of Derby & Miller and Alden, Beardsley & Co., 
were large consumers of the paper produced by 
this company. In 1858 the mill was destroyed 
by fire and the business discontinued. 

The first Auburn Bank was organized in 1825, 
the instruments being procured by the liberal 
subscriptions of our citizens. 

In 1828 a memorable effort was made in Au- 
, burn and throughout the country, to promote the 



due observance of the Sabbath by organizations, 
the object of which was to prevent Sunday 
travel. State, central and local auxiliary socie 
ties and a large combination of individuals were 
formed to effect this object. The incidents and 
results of this movement are given in the article 
relating to " Travel and Transportation," to which 
the reader is referred. 

The militia system of the State was, at this 
time, very imperfect. It was regarded by our 
citizens as the merest farce, and unsuccessful 
efforts were made to reform it by a change in the 
laws of the State. Failing in that, a few public- 
spirited men attempted to supply the deficiency 
by voluntary efforts to raise, equip and drill an 
artillery regiment, to comprise five companies, 
one from each of the towns of Auburn, Brutus, 
Scipio, Locke and Genoa. The Auburn company 
was commanded by Captain William H. Seward. 
The regiment was finally organized in 1829 with 
Mr. Seward as Colonel ; John Wright, Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel ; Lyman Hinman, Major ; Oscar S. 
Burgess, Adjutant ; John H. Chedell, Quarter- 
master ; Nelson Beardsley, Paymaster ; Frank 
L. Markham, Surgeon ; Dr. Blanchard Fosgate, 
Surgeon's Mate. The regiment was denomina- 
ted the 33d Artillery. The organization was kept 
up about 13 years, when it was disbanded. 

FusiLEERiNG. — The military system of the 
State was regarded as so farcical and inefficient 
that an attempt was made to so scandalize it as 
to shame the authorities into the adoption of 
measures for its improvement. For this purpose 
bodies of Fusileers, so called, were formed and 
rigged out in the most fantastic style. They 
were mounted, the better to carry and display 
their bulky and varied trumpery of immense 
wooden swords six to eight feet in length, their 
straw valises the size of small cotton bales, their 
bedaubed and clay faces and calico uniforms of 
every conceivable size and shape, the whole form- 
ing a most ridiculous burlesque when mounted 
and piled upon nags, that were as unique in de- 
formity as were the loads they bore. 

These Fusileers exhibited their fantastic drill 
and discipline and their ridiculous uniforms, on 
occasions of the militia parades, drawing im- 
mense crowds of spectators, and so incensing the 
legal " trainers " as, in some cases, to lead to 
their expulsion from the field. Though the bur- 
lesque was ridiculous in the extreme, it led to the 

revision of the laws and to the improvement of 
the militia system. 

The First Market in Auburn was opened 
in 1S20, by Edward Patten, and the business is 
still continued here by his descendants. 

La Fayette made a tour of the country in 
1825, accompanied by his son George Washing- 
ton La Fayette. His reception in Auburn was 
very enthusiastic. Vast crowds from the village, 
the County and adjoining counties, came to greet 
him. He was met at Cayuga by a reception 
committee in carriages, and an escort of cavalry 
and mounted citizens. He rode in a barouche 
drawn by six beautiful chestnut horses, supplied 
for the occasion by the Sherwoods, who were 
then the great stage proprietors of this route. 
An imposing display of military companies, Revo- 
lutionary soldiers and Free-Masons lined the road 
in front of Fort Hill, across which an evergreen 
arch was thrown, bearing the words : 

" Hail Patriot, Statesman, Hero, Sage ! 

Hail Freedom's Chief ; hail Gallia's Son ! 
Whose laurels greener grow with age, 
Won by the side of Washinoton." 
On passing the arch a salute of artillery was 
fired from the hill above them, the bells of the 
village pealed their welcome, and deafening cheers 
were given by the thousands that lined the way- 
side. It was a bright and beautiful day in June, 
and everything conspired to give eclat to the im- 
posing event. It is related that on reaching the 
Western E-xchange, the General recognized in 
the crowd an old soldier who had served under 
him and rushing to him, he threw his arms about 
him and heartily kissed him, to the great amuse- 
ment of the crowd. 

He was received by Colonel John W. Hulbert, 
in an elegant and patriotic speech, to which the 
General made a graceful and fitting response. 
Introductions and greetings followed, succeeded 
by a repast, served in a shaded 'field in the rear 
of the hotel. Toasts were drank from the wine 
cups, and, as was the usual practice of the times, 
accompanied by volleys of artillery and martial 
music. A ball followed in the evening which 
was visited by the Marquis, from which at eleven 
o'clock, p. M., he departed in a carriage for Syra- 
cuse, escorted as far as Elbridge by a committee 
of citizens. It is now easy enough to take a 
midnight train to Syracuse ; but at that time it 
was no special luxury to drive twenty-six miles 
after eleven, p. m., over the hilly and rough roads 



which then formed the thoroughfare to Syracuse; 
yet the General was due there on the following 
day, and he kept his engagement. From Syra- 
cuse eastward, he traveled by way of the grand 
Erie Canal, whose packet boats were then re- 
garded as the perfection of luxurious travel. 

Preparing for a Panic. — In the fifteen years, 
between 1820 and 1S35 Auburn had rapidly in- 
creased in population, having risen from 2233 in 
the former, to 5363 in the latter year, and im- 
provements of all kinds had increased in a still 
greater ratio. As before the panic of 1873, there 
was scarcely any limit to the expenditures for 
public or private improvements, so, for several 
years before that of 1837, the expenditures for 
buildings, street and other improvements, and in 
the purchase of real estate, had been on the most 
extravagant scale. Every one believed himself 
rich, or at least, that he would soon be so. Money 
was abundant, easily obtained, and very liberally 
used. As usual, at such times, credits were 
readily granted, and indebtedness largely in- 
creased. The streets were graded and mac- 
adamized, and shade trees planted by the con- 
current action of the citizens. The wooden 
bridge over the Outlet on Genesee street was 
replaced by a costly stone bridge, so imperfectly 
constructed, that when the supporting wooden 
arches were removed it fell into ruins. Eighty 
new residences were erected in 1835, and the 
same year, the eleven stone stores comprising the 
Exchange block. The old market and present 
City Hall, costing about $30,000, was erected in 
1836. The plan had been to locate in the first 
story ail the butcher's stalls, and to confine their 
business exclusively to this building; but John 
E. Patten, under legal advice, refused to obey the 
ordinance, which the courts declared illegal, and 
the plan was abandoned. The building has re 
cently been refitted for the several city offices. 
The court house was erected in 1836, costing 
about the same as the town hall. The Auburn 
House and Merchants' Exchange, completed in 
1839, was another expensive enterprise of this 
year, undertaken by an association of our citizens 
But the ambition, enterprise and resources of 
our citizens were not bounded by merely local 
improvements, extensive and magnificent as 
these were. In 1835, The Owasco Canal Com- 
pany engaged their earnest attention and they 
resolved to go forward with the work, to lay, on 

the 14th day of October, the foun'dation stone of 
the " big dam," which was to raise the waters of 
the Outlet to a level with the surface of the lake, 
and that the Hon. Wm. H. Seward be requested 
to deliver an address on the occasion. Arrange- 
ments were made for a grand and imposing pro- 
cession in which a special and interesting feature 
was the appearance of the several trades, plying, 
on appropriate cars, their respective arts. The 
day was fine and the attendance very large. Mr. 
Seward's address was one of his happiest, and 
the liveliest enthusiasm was aroused. 

The exercises were followed by a dinner at the 

American, with toasts, and concluded by a ball 

in the evening. The construction of the dam 

was at once commenced and carried up as the 

water permitted during the next three years to 

the height of 25 feet. Thirty-eight feet had 

been the proposed height o( the dam. In the 

I meantime the financial collapse of 1837 had cotne 

j and borne down many, on whom the progress of 

the work depended, and it was suspended. Had it 

I been otherwise, and had no " Mill River" disaster 

resulted from the giving away of the big dam, it 

would have largely added to the water-power of 

the city, estimated at 700 horse power, and would, 

in that view alone, have been an important and 

I paying investment, while the proposed naviga- 

i tion of the Outlet would, in the light of subse- 

j quent improvements, have been of no practical 

I consequence. 

j The project of a railroad to the canal at Weeds- 
I port and to Syracuse were also suggestions of 
j the vigor and enterprise of our citizens, resulting 
I in the building of the latter. Of the $400,000 of 
I authorized capital of the latter road, Auburn 
I and its immediate vicinity supplied $350,000. 

AunuKN College. — The ambition of the 
1 " Loveliest Village" was by no means satisfied 
) with the public, private and internal improve- 
' ments in which she had so liberally engaged. 
She also aspired to the honor and literary advan- 
tages to be derived from the location of a college 
here, under the patronage and direction of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

It was suggested by the Oneida Conference 
and approved by that of Genesee. The plan also 
met the hearty approval of our principal citizens, 
including such influential and substantial men as 
Seward, Garrow, Throop, John Seymour and 
others. The purpose was really entertained ancj 



earnest and hopeful efforts at one time made to 
carry it into practical effect. At a meeting called 
to consider the subject and held at the Methodist 
Church, in Auburn, g 18,000 were subscribed, 
a committee to solicit additional subscriptions 
appointed, and a board of trustees organized. 
So encouraging were the prospects that the trus- 
tees obtained the consent of the Regents of the 
University to charter a college whenever the pro- 
posed conditions were complied with, viz. : A 
building erected of the value of $30,000 and an 
endowment of $50,000, which the trustees be- 
lieved, in the then condition of the country, could 
be readily procured. Such, doubtless, would 
have been the case if the season of prosperity, 
so called, had been continued a year longer. As 
it was, $40,000 was pledged, a fine site, compris- 
ing ten acres, donated, plans prepared and every 
preparation made for building. But the crash 
came and the plan of the Auburn College sank 
in the general ruin. j 

The Financial Crash of 1837. — As we have 
seen, the business prosperity of Auburn for sev- [ 
eral years previous to 1837 had been unchecked ! 
and, on the approach of the new year, the peo- | 
pie were animated by the same golden visions by j 
which the last few years had been gladdened. 
"A Happy New-Year" had come, and the dis- ' 
tant rumbling of the coming storm was soon j 
heard. The banks of the State manifested symp- 
toms of distress. On them rested the risks of 
the general business of the country. They were I 
the dispensers of mercantile and business credits 1 
and were sound only as their customers were so. I 
In the fancied prosperity of the previous years | 
and the visionary wealth which floated before the 
minds of the people, the latter had freely in- 
dulged in expensive luxuries, and the large 
amount of foreign goods which had been con- 
sumed had drained the country of specie to meet 
the large balances of trade ; and when, as was now 
speedily manifest, the banks saw that the large 
discounts to their customers could not be paid, 
further accommodations to them became impos- 
sible and a general suspension of specie pay- 
ments by the banks followed, as well as the gen- 
eral stoppage of payment by creditors of all 
classes. The suspension of specie payments by 
the banks of the State for one year was author- 
ized by law, and the circulation of bills of a less 
denomination than five dollars was prohibited. 

This latter measure was a source of great in- 
convenience and compelled corporations and in- 
dividuals to issue their checks of small denomi- 
nations, varying from five cents to three dollars, 
and these checks and notes were the principal cir- 
culating medium for years, of which at one time 
their amount was estimated at $ 1 50,000. A part 
was lost or worn out and the balance redeemed. 

The depression in its worst form continued 
about five years, during which the decline in real 
estate was very large, sales being made at one- 
si.xth of the fictitious valuations of 1836. It fol- 
lowed necessarily that large fortunes were swept 
away, enforqed economy in expenses induced, 
projected enterprises abandoned, and the progress 
of the village arrested, throwing large numbers 
out of employment and producing much distress. 
The village recently so active, so full of hope and 
visions of greatness, was suddenly deserted, and 
disappointment and despondency reigned in their 

Several of our citizens took an active part in 
what was called the " Patriot War," the object 
of which was to revolutionize the government of 
Canada. The leader of the movement was an 
enthusiastic Canadian of the name of W. L. Mc- 
Kenzie, an editor of more zeal than discretion, 
though a good writer and effective speaker. He 
secured a large number of followers in Canada 
and made an unsuccessful military demonstration 
upon Toronto. He then came to the United 
States with the view of organizing here a military 
force of sufficient strength to accomplish his pur- 
pose. In furtherance of his plans he visited the 
region bordering upon Canada and organized se- 
cret lodges of Patriots or Reubens, one of which, 
in Auburn, is said to have comprised 700 mem- 
bers pledged to his cause. After perfecting his 
plans, the proposed invasion was attempted on 
the 7th day of November, 1838, with a small 
force, of which about 40 were from the Auburn 
lodge. They landed at Windmill Point, and 
after a short conflict with the Canadian forces, 
were overpowered, and such of them as had 
landed were taken prisoners, four of whom were 
Auburn men, namely, E. P. Senter, Oliver Law- 
ton, Asa Priest and Bemis Woodbury. The 
prisoners were tried and sentenced to death, but 
Senter and Lawton were pardoned, and the sen- 
tences of Priest and Woodbury, commuted to 
twenty-five years banishment. 


Auburn was honored, at different periods, by 
visits from three eminent statesmen, Henry Clay, 
President Martin Van Buren, and John QLiincy 
Adams; the two former in 1839, and the latter 
in 1843. Mr. Clay was welcomed by an elo- 
quent address by Parliament Bronson, Esq., to 
which he responded in his own peculiarly happy 
and eloquent style. Mr. Van Buren was ad- 
dressed by George Rathbun, Esq., and the re- 
sponse from the President was forcible and pleas- 
antly expressed. E.x-President Adams was wel- 
comed to Auburn by Governor Seward, in a class- 
ical and beautiful address, and the reply of "the 
old man eloquent " engaged the fixed attention 
of an immense audience. The e.x-President 
while here, was the guest of Governor Seward. 

The First Woolen-Factory. — The site for 
the mill was selected on the property of the 
Owasco Canal Company, by the Auburn Woolen 
Company, of which the following were the offi- 
cers : John Porter, President ; Henry G. Ells- 
worth, Manufacturer; Joseph T. Pitney, John 
H. Chedell, Abijah Fitch, E. P. Williams, Wil- 
liam C. Beardsley, Bradley Tuttle, and C. D. Mc- 
Intyre, Directors. The capital was fixed at 
$100,000, but was increased to $158,400 in 
September, 1851, in order to finish and properly 
supply the mill. 

While the first results of the operation of the 
business were satisfactory, it soon proved unre- 
munerative to the owners, by whom it was sold 
to Philadelphia parties at a heavy loss to the 
stockholders. The mill passed afterwards into 
the hands of Samuel Bush and an associate. In 
1859, C. N. Fearing bought the establishment. 
Of the present organization of the company, 
which has existed since 1864, Mr. Fearing is 
the President, associated with Benjamin L. Swan 
and William G. Wise, as Trustees. The latter 
is the Secretary and Treasurer of the Company, 
and Samuel Laurie is the Superintendent. The 
capital of the present company is $200,000 and, 
under the existing management, the mill has 
been steadily and successfully operated, and has 
greatly aided the settlement of the eastern por- 
tion of the city and, by its large pay roll, con- 
tributed to the advancement of the place. 

The Company have a branch mill in the western 
part of the city, upon the Outlet, which is under 
the same management, and has added largely to 
the growth and prosperity of that locality. 


History of Auburn, (Continueo.) 

Incorporation of the City — First City Of- 
ficers— Population— Interest IN Educa- 
tion — Fort Hill Cemetery — Business 
and the War of 1861 — Merchants' Union 
Express Company — Its First Successes^ 
Causes and Results of its Failure — P'irst 
State Prison — Auburn Prison — Its Erec- 
tion AND History — Convict Labor — Silk 
Cui.TUKK— Causes of Its Failure — The 
Asvlum for Insane Convicts. 

ON thecist day of March, 1848, Auburn 
was incorporated as a city, having then a 
population of 8,500, the first Mayor being Cyrus 
C. Dennis. 

• Eleven years had now passed since the crush- 
ing ordeal of 1837, and the wounds of that dis- 
aster had healed slowly, yet but few disabling ef- 
fects remained, and despondency and inertness 
had given place to hope and activity. Aside 
from the general interest felt and manifested in 
improving the means for public education and 
those for the institution of the seminary here for 
the higher education of young ladies, measures 
were taken for the organization of the Fort Hill 
Cemetery Association. Twelve Trustees were 
chosen, namely : E. T. Throop Martin, Thomas 
Y. How, Jr., James C. Derby, Benjamin F. Hall, 
William C. Beardsley, Isaac S. Allen, Cyrus C. 
Dennis, Z. M. Mason, Nelson Beardsley, John 
H. Chedell, M. S. Myers and John W. Haight. 
The grounds were duly consecrated with solemn 
ceremonies on the 7th of July, 1S52, Michael S. 
Myers, Esq., delivering the introductory address. 
Two odes were sung, one composed by Henry 
Oliphant, and the other by Rev. J. M. Austin, 
and a concluding and very appropriate address 
delivered by the Rev. Prof L. P. Hickok, D. D. 
The grounds were neatly graded and improved 
and have since been the general burial place of 
the city, in which repose the remains of many of 
our honored citizens, including those of two cx- 
Governors — William H. Seward and Enos T. 

Business and the War ok 1861. — The im- 
pulse given to the business of the country by the 
war of 1861, had been unparalleled in all its 



previous history. The immense sums which 
were loaned and disbursed during the decade 
from 1862 to 1872 for various purposes, by the 
general government, the loyal States, counties, 
towns, cities, corporations, individuals and asso- 
ciations, have been estimated at ten thousand 
million dollars. 

This vast sum was rapidly and widely distribu- 
ted to the families of soldiers in bounties and 
wages, to producers of all kinds to supply the 
necessities and the waste of war, to laborers of 
all kinds engaged in the production of supplies, 
to manufacturers for whose productions the de- 
mand exceeded the supply, to railroads and ship- 
pers, whose facilities for transportation were 
generally inadequate, necessitating new roads 
and rolling stock, new boats and ships to meet the 
extraordinary demands. Every miner of coal and 
worker in iron or wood was constantly employed, 
as well as those engaged in the manufacture of 
fabrics and clothing. There was apparently no 
limit to the demand, and arrangements to supply 
it were constantly and largely augmented. 

Manufacturing centered in the villages and 
cities, wherein the demand for all sorts of labor- 
ers was constant, and to them they flocked from 
the country in crowds. It is shown by the State 
Census of New York, that during the period under 
review, the cities and villages of the State gained 
seventeen inhabitants where the country gained 
but one ; a convincing proof, if such were needed, 
of the abnormal condition of the industry of the 
country, wrought by the incidents of the war. 

Accommodations must of necessity be provided 
in the villages and cities for this vast influx of 
population, for whom buildings must be provided, 
and their erection in large numbers gave addi- 
tional activity to the already over-excited indus- 
tries, and dwellings, stores and shops of all kinds 
were augmented in proportion to the increase of 

The extreme demand for labor and all its pro- 
ducts, advanced their prices to rates hitherto un- 
known, and the liberal compensation made the 
laborers free purchasers and good customers of 
the several dealers, whose business was corres- 
pondingly large and profitable. 

The ten years under consideration brought a 
marvelous change in all our cities and villages, 
and Auburn shared in the general change. Dur- 
ing that period her population and material 

wealth were doubled, and her churches, halls and 
stores assumed palatial magnificence. The habits 
of our citizens had also greatly changed, and 
their average living expenses had more than 
doubled. Taxes had increased more than four- 
fold, and to meet the large augmentation of ex- 
penses, required a corresponding increase of 
receipts, or a radical change of habits. 

When the reaction of 1873 occurred, a sud- 
den and general check was given to the recent 
business activity, followed either by a general 
stoppage or the unprofitable use of the wheels of 
industry, and throwing out of employment much 
of the labor hitherto fully employed and liberally 
rewarded. Few of that class had expected or 
were prepared for the emergency of enforced 
idleness. Although for years they had received 
fully double the usual compensation, their current 
expenditures had, in nearly all cases, equalled 
their current receipts, and want and distress im- 
mediately followed the stoppage of work. 

A rapid decline in property followed from the 
fabulous values of the ten years of inflation, and 
many fortunes were thus blotted out, or largely 
diminished. The general effect has been to 
amass the wealth of the city and country in fewer 
hands, in those of the cautious and conservative 
class, who, familiar with the laws of business and 
the reactions inseparably following excessive 
overtrading, kept themselves aloof from the haz- 
ardous and speculating ventures in which v/ere 
engulfed the fortunesof the less cautious and dis- 

Auburn suffered much less from the reaction 
of 1873 than from that of 1837, mainly for the 
reasons of the greatly increased wealth of her 
citizens, their less relative liabilities for works of 
public or private improvements and the generally 
sound condition of the banking institutions of 
the country. Hitherto the banks of the country, 
being on a specie basis, felt, and generally gave 
way from the effects of commercial distress 
among the first, and withheld from the manufac- 
turing and commercial classes their usual accom- 
modations at just the times when those accommo- 
dations were indispensable to them. The banks 
in 1873 were non-specie paying and by carrying 
their customers over the tidal wave of reaction, 
saved very many of them from commercial ruin. 

The Merchants' Union Express Co. — This 
enterprise originated in Auburn. It was based 


Justus Lewis Grakt was descended from New Enaland an- 
cestors. His father. Justus Fales Grant, was boru at Wrentham, 
Mass., July 4tlj, 1799. The maiden name of his mother was 
Hannah Hale, and they were married at Dunstable, now Nash- 
ua, New Hampshire, about 1816. Mr. Grant's father was an 
edge tool manufacturer, and a superior mechanic. Justus Lewis 
was born at Nashua, N. H.. November 4th, 1818. Wheu he was 
eleven years of age, in 1839. his father located iu Auburn, and 
enfraged in the establishment of Joseph Wadsworth, iu the manu- 
facture of scythes, hoes, &c., with whom, and his sou Samuel, he 
continued until his death, iu 1845. He died suddenly of paralysis. 
The writer of this sketch has often heard Mr. Grant, when re- 
ferring to the sudden death of his father, express the fear that 
he too might die suddenly and of a similar disease. J. Lewis Grant 
was twice married. His first wife was Miss Betsey Allen, whom 
he married Dec. 5th, 1835. They settled in Michigan where, in 
the fall of 1838, his wife died, and the same vear he returned to 
Auburn. On Oct. 37tb, 1839, he married Abbev Jauette Mills. 

Mr. Grant was systematic and methodical in his habits. He 
kept a diary, from which we take the followius extract ; 

" During the four years succeeding our arrival in Auburn, I 
passed most of ray time at school, under the kind and intelligent 
teaching of Mr. Jonah J. Underbill. At the age of fourteen, my 
father desired me to assist him in the support of his family. 
With assurances from him that I might choose any other trade or 
profession in the spring, I entered the trip hammer shop under 
his instruction. My proficiency was even greater than I had 
dared to hope. I was well pleased with the business, and was 
satisfied to adopt that trade in preference to any other." 

Here he continued until he was twenty-three years of age. 

Mr. Grant was a natural mechanic, and rapidly becamean ex- 
pert worker in metals. His subsequent success"es as a railroad 
man are largely due to the practical knowledge thus obtained, 
which supplemented and perfected his natural genius. His first 
railroad experience was on the Auburn and Syracuse Railroad, 
in September, 1841, under the superintendency of E. P. Williams, 
as freight conductor. His capabilities as a mechanic were soon 
so manifest that he was appointed locomotive enaineer of that 
road, and was afterwards entrusted with the charge of its entire 
motive power, a very responsible trust, but one which he dis- 
charged with singular acceptance and success. 

In August, 1850, he was appointed " Superiutendent of motive 
power " of the Rome and Watertown Railroad and took up his 
residence in Rome, where he remained some six years ; when, in 
February, 1856, he was called to Toronto, Canada, to take charge, 
as General Superintendent, of the Northern Railway of Canada. 
Here he remained and successfully discharged his duties until 
December 31st, 1868, when the bitterness of feeling which grew 

out of our civil war led to the demand that he should take the 
oath of alleaiance to the British Crown. This he refused to do, 
and resia:ned his position and returned to Auburn, purchasing 
the VauTnvlfarm, intending to devote his life to rural quiet. 

But that was not to be. He was too thorough au expert in 
railroad affairs and the value of his services as such too widely 
known, to permit his retirement. On the importunity of the 
late Dean Richmond, he consented to take the Superintendency 
of the Buffalo & Erie Railroad, on May 6th. 1864. That position 
he was induced to resign iu August of that year, to assume the 
General Superintendency of the Merchants' Union Express Com- 
panv, whose business was then widely extended. This positiou, 
chiefly office work, and very different from his previous expe- 
rience, was not comieuial to" him, and he resigned to enter again 
his chosen field, as President of the Southern Central Railroad, 
an enterprise which had engaged, from its inception, his live- 
liest interest, and to the success of which he had devoted his 
time and means. His next and last railroad experience was as 
Superintendent of tlie Cayuga Lake Shore Road. He was at the 
time of his death, and for some time previously had been. Su- 
perintendent of the Auburn Water Works Company, 

The death of Mr. Grant was sudden and sad. He was return- 
ing from the west accompanied by his wife and daughter. Mrs. 
Parish. He was apparently iu his usual health and geniality of 
spirits. The train had passed Rochester, and, expecting his son 
Herbert, and son-in-law, Mr. Parish, to pass them, was standing 
in the rear doorway to greet them. He was there strickeu with 
apoplexy, and immediat'ely expired, Oct, 19th, 1878, aged 60 years. 

Mr. Grant left a widow, three sons, Julius Herbert, J. Lewis 
and Albert Edward and one daughter, Ivola Jauette. Mrs. Par- 
ish. He had lost by death one son and two daughters. 

It was in his social relations in his home and the commu- 
nity, that the beauty and excellence of his character conspicu- 
ously shone. He was eminently social, kind and generous. 
No one could know him intimately, who had a mind to perceive 
and a heart to feel, and not be impressed with his kind and genial 
spirits. Blessed with a peculiarly happy temperament himself, it 
was his deliaht to make others happy, and few if any of our 
citizens had more or warmer friends. For one who through 
life had been engrossed with other pursuits, he possessed and 
cultivated in an unusual degree a literary taste. He was fond 
of iioetry and has written and published many pieces of merit. 
To the interests of the Universalist Church, of which he was a 
member, he devoted all the activities of his generous nature, and 
there his loss will be more deeply felt than anywhere else outside 
of his own family. It is rare indeed that we find united in one 
person the same business capacity, and the same genial and hap- 
py social temperament that distinguished J. Lewis Grant. 



upon the conviction that the merchants of the 
country, being the principal patrons and sup- 
porters of the express business could, by a con- 
cert of action, establish and successfully maintain 
an express company in their own interests and 
greatly lessen the exorbitant charges which had 
hitherto been exacted by the old express com- 
panies controlled by few men whose profits had 
been very large. 

At a conference of Elmore P. Ross, William 
C. Beardsley, John N. Knapp, and Elliot G. 
Storke, a prospectus was adopted, in which the 
necessity, plans, purposes and benefits of the pro- 
posed organization were fully set forth, and the 
proposal made to form a joint stock association, 
under the laws of New York, of the merchants 
and business men of the country. The plan was 
received with great favor and was carried into 
effect in the spring of 1866 by the following or- 
ganization : Elmore P. Ross, President ; William 
H. Seward, Jr , Vice-President ; John N. Knapp, 
Secretary ; William C. Beardsley, Treasurer ; 
Theodore M. Pomeroy, Attorney ; the Executive 
Committee comprised the following gentlemen : 
H. W. Slocum, Elmore P. Ross, Elliot G. Storke, 
William C. Beardsley, Clinton T. Backus, William 
H. Seward, Jr., John N. Knapp and John A. 
Green, with sixteen prominent merchants, located 
at the principal commercial cities of the country 
as local trustees of the company. 

The nominal capital was fixed at $20,000,000, 
on which such assessments only were to be made 
as might be necessary to meet the demands of 
the business as it developed. 

The plan was submitted to the business men of 
the country and the subscriptions were so liberal 
as to compel the limiting of the amount of indi- 
vidual subscriptions and to the speedy closing 
of the books. The stock was widely distributed, 
and the number thus interested in making the 
enterprise successful was very large. 

Equipments were speedily supplied and con- 
tracts for transportation upon the railroads made. 
Agents, messengers, superintendents and other 
necessary officials were procured, largely from 
the experienced men of the old companies, and 
the business of shipping goods by express began 
in the autumn of 1866. 

The old express companies, the Adams, 
American and United States, had long held the 
monopoly of express transportation. They had 

worked in harmony, each company having par- 
ticular routes, the goods received by either com- 
pany were, when necessary, forwarded to their 
destination by transferrence to the others. 

The new company had, therefore, to meet the 
competition of three thoroughly organized and 
wealthy companies, entirely familiar with the busi- 
ness, and determined to retain it by crushing out 
the proposed competition. The competition was 
therefore sharp from the beginning. That com- 
petition was manifested in the extremely low 
rates at which the old companies offered to 
' transport goods, so low indeed that before the 
1 struggle ceased goods were transported by ex- 
I press on passenger trains, at about the rates of 
ordinary freight carriage, and the mass of goods 
thus thrown upon the express lines was so enor- 
mous as greatly to embarrass and delay the pas- 
senger trains, by overloading them and by the 
I delays at stations in discharging and loading 
goods. The number of coaches loaded with ex- 
' press goods often exceeded those occupied by 

The managers of the principal railroad lines 
soon saw that they could not long sustain the 
draft thus made upon them for freight carriage 
arrd that they must adopt some method to close 
the fight. They shrewdly adopted a method of 
doing so and at the same time one that, while it 
lasted, paid them well. They advanced the rates 
I of transportation of express goods from three to 
six hundred per cent., the effect of wftich in- 
creased enormously the losses of the several com- 
panies and made it a question of time only, when 
ruin or a compromise must ensue. After a 
plucky and resolute contest of over two years 
during which the Merchants' Union had covered 
with its express lines nearly all the Northern 
' States, and had drawn from the stockholders and 
expended some five millions of dollars, and the re- 
sources of the competing companies were also 
"reatly depleted, a compromise and final union 
was efl'ected, by which the Merchants' Union 
and American Express Companies were merged 
under the name of the American Merchants' 
Union, and a satisfactory division of assets and 
shares in the profits were mutually arranged. 
The combined companies are now operated under 
the old title of the American Express Company. 
1 The plan of the Merchants' Union was at once 
bold in conception and vigorous in execution. It 



was a very strong organization, composed as it 
was of some ten thousand of the principal mer- 
chants and shippers of the country ; men of 
means, whose patronage was regarded as a surety 
of success. It would clearly have been so but 
for the difficulty not fully anticipated, of trans- 
portation. That difficulty was fatal, and ren- 
dered the contest a hopeless one from the time of 
the imposition of such enormous freight charges. 
No organization which has originated in Au- 
burn, has ever given to the city a wider public 
reputation, or, while it lasted, engaged more gen- 
erally the interest of our citizens. It was an ear- 
nest and zealous effort to break up the control of 
powerful and exacting monopolies, and has effec- 
tually demonstrated the dangers of their exist- 
ence and the difficulties of their eradication. 


The prison system of this State was first in- 
stituted eighty-two years ago, by the erection, in 
the city of New York, of the Newgate Prison, 
first brought into use in 1797. Previously 
thereto various severe punishments had been in- 
flicted upon the criminals of the State, the stocks, 
public whippings and brandings, and the death 
penalty were inflicted for some sixteen enumerated 
offenses. This extremely rigorous and cruel code, 
an inheritance from the barbarous statutes of 
England, was offensive to the enlarging humane 
spirit of the age and .the suggestion to substitute 
for it confinement in the State Prison was re- 
ceived with satisfaction. Such confinement, it 
was believed, would accomplish a three-fold ob- 
ject : the humane treatment of felons, the relief 
to society from their depredations, and, in many 
cases, their reformation. 

But the plan of organization first adopted, ow- 
ing to inexperience, was by no means perfect. 
It included the employment of the convicts at 
hard labor during the day, and their confinement 
at night in squads of from ten to twenty in one 
apartment. It was soon found that the great 
leniency with which the convicts were treated 
and the abundant comforts with which they were 
supplied, rendered their confinement of no par- 
ticular terror to evil doers. The social inter- 
course of their lodgings, in which were mingled 
old and hardened offenders with tyros in crime, 

had the effect to deprave the latter, becoming to 
them schools of vice, with expert teachers, who 
gloried in instructing them in the arts and de- 
vices of criminal practice. Such prison disci- 
pline did not deter from crime nor reform the 

The contrast between the sanguinary code 
which had recently existed and the freedom and 
comforts of a prison home as then supplied, made 
the latter utterly ineffectual. Convictions were 
greatly increased, and within ten years, Newgate 
Prison was filled, and the necessity existed of 
pardoning the less notorious criminals to make 
room for the newly convicted, and to such an 
extent was this necessary that the reports 
show the pardons and convictions in 1809 to be 

This large number of criminals regularly let 
loose upon society created alarm and led to the 
adoption of measures for the erection of a new 
prison, the site of which was fixed at the village 
of Auburn. It was commenced in 1816 and 
completed in 1820. The main building and 
cells and apartments were, however, so far com- 
pleted in 1817 as to admit of the reception of 
convicts, but the work-shops were yet incom- 

The convicts first received were employed in 
the erection of the prison and when that was 
finished, in job work of various kinds, the same 
as that done by the jobbing shops of the village, 
and under the supervision and in behalf of the 
State. The contract system had not then been 

Defective as the first experiment at Newgate 
had proved it was' nevertheless, continued in 
Auburn, and was followed by the same results, 
the insubordination and demoralization of the 
convicts. The prisons of the State were not re- 
alizing the public expectation, and a change was 
demanded. The trouble, it was believed, arose 
mainly from the laxness of discipline and the 
promiscuous mingling of convicts in their lodg- 
ing rooms. These were the convictions of those 
most thoroughly conversant with the practical 
workings of the system then existing. There 
was, nevertheless, in the public mind a morbid 
sensitiveness upon the subject of rigid convict 
discipline and much controversy over the ques- 
tion. As to the seclusion of the convicts in 
separate cells at night there was great unanimity 



and the north wing of the prison was, therefore, 
constructed on this plan, and each convict com- 
pletely isolated from his fellows at night. In the 
day time he was kept at work by the careful sur- 
veillance of his keepers, and enforced silence 
maintained. The rules of silence, diligence and 
order were enforced by the thorough use of the 
" cat." 

The " cat-o'-nine-tails" was the instrument 
chiefly used in flogging convicts. That em- 
ployed in the prison had, however, but six tails, 
lashes or strands. These were distributed along 
the broad edge of a triangular piece of fle.xible 
leather, which, at its point, was fastened to a 
handle about two feet long. The lashes were 
about eighteen inches long and were formed of 
hard wa.xed shoe thread and would cut the flesh 
like " whips of steel." In the hands of a mus- 
cular officer, anxious to subdue refractory con- 
victs, they were cruel instruments, but efiectual 
in securing obedience. A bath of brine, applied 
to the lacerated skin after flogging, was not, at 
first, a very soothing anodyne, though its ultimate 
effects might be beneficial. 

This arrangement of cells and change of dis- 
cipline was made by William Britton. the first 
agent, who died in 1821. He was succeeded by 
Captain Elam Lynds, by whom the most rigor- 
ous discipline was enforced. Under his adminis- 
tration the whip was not spared and the " ways 
of the transgressors were emphatically hard." He 
abolished the table system, compelling the con- 
victs to take their meals in their cells, and the 
manner of marching to and from the shops now 
in use was of his introduction. Under his ad- 
ministration the experiment was made of classi- 
fying the prisoners into three divisions — those 
who were serving second, or more terms, formed 
the first class, and were doomed to solitary con- 
finement ; the second class, the next in hardi 
hood, were alternately confined and permitted to 
labor ; and the least hardened were regularly 
employed. It was a very dangerous experiment 
to make, and one, the result of which, led to its 
speedy abandonment. Of the eighty-three men 
of the first class, who were immured in solitary 
cells, five had died in less than a year, and an- 
other, in a fit of delirium, had leaped from the 
upper gallery to the floor of the wing. 

Such a system, so destructive of the mental 
and physical powers, could not long be maintain- 

: ed, and the law authorizing it was repealed in 

I The outside public, influenced by distorted 

and exaggerated accounts of the cruelties prac- 

I ticed in the Auburn Prison, became much excited 

I and the influence of the popular sentiment pene- 

I trated the thick walls of the prison itself, and led 

! to the positive refusal of some of ihc officers to 

j inflict upon certain convicts the punishment de- 

, manded of them. This humanity was, however, 

exceptional ; the rule being a ready compliance, 

on the part of subordinates, with the exactions 

i of their superiors. In December, 1825, a female 

I convict died, as was alleged, from the cfl'ccts of 

i brutal whipping, leading to the apjjointment of 

a Legislative Committee of Investigation and to 

j a change in the agency of the prison. Gershom 

j Powers became the agent. 

! Mr. Powers took the middle ground between 
i the extremes of lenity and severity, and the pru- 
j dence and wisdom of his administration won the 
popular approval, while the discipline and effi- 
ciency of the prison was fully maintained. In 
! order that the officers and the public might at any 
I time and unobserved by those in the shops, see 
I what was going on within them, he caused pas- 
! sages to be constructed around them with narrow 
i slots, through which those in the passages could 
' see the convicts and the officers while they were 
1 themselves unseen. Through these passages 
' only the visiting public were admitted. Two 
benefits were claimed for this, a satisfaction of 
the public suspicion, and a secret scrutiny of the 
interior affairs of the prison, the latter leading to 
a more faithful discharge, by subordinates, of their 

The prison for the ten years from 1828 to 1838 
was very satisfactorily managed by the agents, 
Levi Lewis and John Garrow. At this latter date 
Elam Lynds, to the great surprise and indigna- 
tion of the people, was again appointed agent. 
He at once signalized his advent by the introduc- 
tion of very obnoxious changes ; he again abol- 
ished the table system of feeding the convicts, 
took from them knives and forks, and compelled 
them to adopt the Turkish mode of eating with 
their fingers. This unnecessary and barbarous 
exercise of tyranny aroused anew public indigna- 
tion. Public meetings were held and denuncia- 
tory resolutions passed ; a serial publication, en- 
titled the CliroJiidi!^, was anonymously issued, in 



which the barbarities practiced in the prison were 
severely rebuked. 

Agent Lynds was indicted by the grand jury 
and strenuous efforts were made for his removal. 
About this time a convict was choked to death 
by a piece of meat lodging in his throat, attribu- 
ted to eagerness to eat, impelled by extreme 
hunger, and hence that the convicts were not 
properly supplied with food ; or, that not having 
a knife and fork to properly divide his food, the 
accident arose from that cause. 

The public clamor now rose louder than ever 
and was so decided and emphatic in its tone as 
to compel the resignation of Captain Lynds and 
those of the inspectors who had been his special 
advocates and supporters. He was succeeded by 
Dr. Noyes Palmer, by whom the old order of 
things was restored, and the public agitation 

The use of the " cat "* in our prisons was abol- 
ished in consequence of the death, from whipping, 
of a convict, who, it was claimed, had feigned 
sickness to avoid labor. The excitement which 
grew out of it led to the substitution of the show- 
er-bath, yoke, paddling,! and other forms of pun- 

Government of the Prisons. — For twenty- 
eight years, from 1818 to 1846, the control and 
managementofthe prisons was invested in a Board 
of five local inspectors, appointed for two years 
by the Senate, on the nomination of the Gover- 
nor. Those inspectors appointed all the subor- 
dinate officers of the prisons, and directed their 
general management. By the Constitution of 
1846 this plan of government was changed, and 
the prisons of the State, were placed in charge 
of three State inspectors, holding their offices 
for three years, one of whom annually retired 
and a successor was chosen. In practice this 
change was really no improvement over the pre 
vious system. The prisons that had hitherto 
been self-sustaining and had often shown balances 
in favor of the State, were, from year to year exhib- 
iting increasing deficiences, and large annual ap- 

* Under the present prison system the Superintendent of Prisons 
can employ any method or degree of punishment which he may 
deem necessary. The existence of this power is, oi' itself, a check 
upon disobedience 

f Spanking with a paddle, or flat piece of wood, three feet long, 
two feet of which is used as a handle. The blade part of the paddle 
is about three and a half inches wide and one foot long, covered with 
leather, with which the convicts were punished upon their naked 
bodies by blows of from twelve to eighteen in number. 

propriations were required to meet them. Thesfe 
deficiences at length attained alarming magni- 
tude and so clearly indicated dishonesty and fraud, 
that a very capable committee of investigation 
was appointed by the Legislature with full power 
to probe to the bottom the prison affairs of the 
State. That committee consisted of Louis D. 
Pillsbury, George R. Babcock, Sinclair Tousey 
and Archibald Niven. They commenced their 
investigations in June, 1876, and made their re- 
port to the Legislature in December following. 
Their report embraced over eight hundred pages, 
containing the questions propounded and the 
answers given by the various officers and con- 
tractors in the different prisons, and corroborat- 

I ing testimony of convicts. 

i They summarize the sources of the pecuniary 
losses of the State as follows : 

"First — In the great lack of discipline among 

1 the convicts, which put it in their power to do 
much or little of the labor required of them in a 

j given time. 

I "Second~'Y\\\& stale of things prevented the 

' agent and warden, or other authorized officials, 
from making contracts for convict labor on terms 
as favorable to the State as if the convicts were 

j under proper discipline. 

"Third — Contractors of doubtful pecuniary re- 
sponsibility were thus enabled to contract labor 
because a lack of discipline lessened the compe- 

i . tition for such labor. 

"Fourth — Contractors were not required to pay 
promptly for convict labor ; nor was ample se- 

i curity, in many cases, required of them. 

I "Fifth — Property belonging to the State has 

i been sold on credit to irresponsible persons, 

1 without security. 

' "Sixth — Purchases for the prisons ha\e been 
made at large and even exorbitant prices. 

"Sevetith — Extravagant prices have been paid 
for work done at the prison and for materials 
furnished, in and about the manufacture of lime, 
iron, &c. 

"Eighth — Too many employes have been re- 
ceiving pay for services which were unnecessary 

j and could have been dispensed with. 

I ''Nintli — A general want of economy in nearly 

j everything connected with the prison. 

"Tenth — Prison officials have received and ap- 

I propriated State property to their own use with- 

i out making compensation therefor. 

i "EUtentli — Extra services and traveling ex- 

' penses, unauthorized by law and unnecessary, 
swell the indebtedness." 

I These several specifications were fully sustain- 

: ed by the testimony, and so strong a case was 

1 presented in the general facts of the deficiencies 



and in the preliminary report of the commission, 
that the proposal to so change the Constitution 
of the State as to confide the care of the prisons 
to one superintendent was triumphantly endorsed 
and Louis D. Pilsbury was appointed Superin- 
tendent of the prisons of the State. Mr. Pils- 
bury had long been connected with the manage 
ment of the Albany penitentiary, of which his 
father had been the founder, and which had won 
and held the reputation of being one of the best 
managed penal institutions of the country. 

The superintendent appointed the wardens, 
physicians and chaplains who were removable at 
his pleasure; the comptroller appointed the 
clerk, and the several wardens appointed their 
subordinates in their respective prisons and were 
held responsible for their internal administration. 
Thoroughly informed of the previous mal- 
administration of the prisons by months of the 
closest scrutiny into their affairs as a member 
of the committee of investigation, and prepared 
by education and experience to correct existing 
defects and abuses, Mr. Pilsbury entered vigor- 
ously upon the work. He had no untested ex- 
periments to make ; he was an expert, a thorough 
professional in prison management and discipline, 
which was quickly manifest in the improved 
regularity and order with which the prisons were 
in all respects managed. There were no divided 
councils. He alone was umpire, and he assumed 
and, so far, has judiciously discharged the great 
responsibility. In the two years of his adminis- 
tration he has reduced the annual prison deficit 
nearly $500,000, made the Sing Sing Prison, 
which had been the greatest leech upon the 
treasury, self-supporting, and Auburn Prison, it 
is believed will, during the ensuing year, show a 
balance in favor of the State. 

The ta.x levied upon the people of the State to 
meet the deficiencies in the several prisons for 
the last ten years, has been as follows : 

In 1869 ^595,774-45 

1870 461,304.99 

1871. 470,309.23 

1872 405,88 [.84 

1873 597,289.01 

1874 588,537-42 

1875 545.549-69 

1876 704,379-85 

1877 369,688.08 

1878 229,971.83 

Thus reaching in 1876 the enormous aggre- 

j gate of $704,379-85- 

I The two months of December and January 
indicate that, under the administration of Hon. 
William J. Moses, the present Agent and War- 
den, Auburn Prison will yield a revenue instead 
of showing a deficit, as the receipts for those 
two months exceed the disbursements by over 
$1,700. The average cost of every description 
per convict in the Auburn Prison for the month 
of December, as compared wiili the prisons at 
Sing Sing and Clinton, was as follows: 

State Prison Expenditures : 
Auburn $10,429 63 

I Average per convict 8. 94 

Sing Sing 15,888.19 

1 Average per convict 9-49 

I Clinton 10,643.02 

I Average per convict ■7-J4 

For Ordinary Support : — 

Auburn $5,527.07 

Average per convict 4.75 

Sing Sing 9,301.00 

Average per convict 5.56 

I Clinton 7.339-37 

Average per convict 11.85 

, The prison at Sing Sing offers, in its superior 

! facilities for cheap transportation, advantages to 
the contractor not possessed by the Auburn 
Prison, and for that reason, with equal economy 
and efficiency of internal administration, should 
make the better exhibit, but instead, the 
foregoing figures indicate the reverse, and 

I show that the cost of maintaining a convict in 
Sing Sing during December, was $14, 85, in Au- 
burn, $13,69, a difference in favor of the Auburn 
Prison, $1,16 per convict. " Reform" in prison 
administration is thus clearly shown to have been 
inaugurated and the efforts of officials in our 
penal institutions are directed earnestly to secure 
both their economical and efficient management, 
enforcing discipline and order and as a concomi- 
tant, securing profitable industry, profitable to the 
contractor and the State. The great need and 
the real progress of prison " reforms " are shown 

I by the following expressive figures, which need 

I no comment ; 

Statement of Earnings, Expenditures and 
Deficiencies of the Auburn Prison for the years 

I 1875-76- '77 and '78, together with a statement 



of the Earnings, Expenditures, Deficiencies and 
Surplus for January i876-'77-'7S and '79 : 


$76,557.20 I $192,944.50 
78,025.99 194,505.28 
80,615,22 I 179,865.13 

116,641.18 1 150,820.42 








$6,568.74 $17,189,3 

6.730.86 16,038.16 

9.170.87 13,298,95 
11,411.47 9.749-53 

Convict Labor. — Wlien the Auburn Prison 
was erected the village contained only about one 
thousand inhabitants, of whom a sufficient num- 
ber were mechanics and artisans to meet the de- 
mands of the business which centered in the 
place. The convicts, who exceeded them in 
number, were mainly employed upon the same 
kinds of work, and were, so to speak, employes 
of the State, gathered from the entire prison 
district, and their labor put in direct competition 
with that of a small village. That competition 
took the bread from the artisan class, and was 
too serious to be patiently borne. It drove 
many of them to other localities, or employments, 
as a means of livelihood. 

At first these complaints were local only, for 
the effects of the competition were local; but with 
the increase in the number of convicts and the 
introduction of the contract system a greater 
amount and variety of goods were manufactured, 
which were sold in the general wholesale markets, 
when a broader and more general complaint 
arose, and efforts were made to employ the con- 
victs upon such work as would not compete with 
the general industry of the country. The manu- 
facture of silk, it was believed, would meet the 
case and prove advantageous to those employed 
in it directly, and indirectly to the country and 
State in the production of cocoons. 

In 1841, under the agency of Henry Polhemus, 
the test was made and continued for several 
years. It was entered upon with much hopeful- 
ness and enthusiasm. The measure had been 
urged upon the Legislature by Governor Seward 
as one calculated to relieve the embarrassments 
attending the question of convict labor, and the 
experiment was fully authorized by law. The 
results of the limited tests which had been made 

in the production of silk in this country had 
been satisfactory. The quality of the article and 
the profits of its production were alike encour- 
aging. John Morrison, an expert in silk pro- 
duction, was, at this time, in partnership with 
Josiah Barber in the carpet business in Auburn 
Prison. He strongly favored the enterprise and 
his knowledge and experience had much influence 
in settling the question of silk production in the 
prison. He could intelligently direct the several 
necessary processes from the culture of the mul- 
berry on which to feed the worms co the final 
preparation of the article for market. The pro- 
duction of the mulberry was, of course, the first 
step to be taken ; buds of the trees were procured 
and theirculture at once commenced, and as rapid- 
ly extended as the shrubs could be procured. 
Cocooneries were erected and the feeding of the 
worms began. The first results were entirely 
satisfactory, the operations being directed by the 
intelligent advice of Mr. Morrison. The silk 
produced was of good quality, met a ready sale 
and gave a good profit to the producers. The 
experiments so far made were on a small scale 
only ; but the first successes stimulated en- 
terprise. Bounties on cocoons were offered by 
the Legislature and agricultural societies and 
their production extended with marvelous rapidi- 
ty. In 1 84 1 a sufficient supply of cocoons had 
been produced to justify the authorities of the 
prison in beginning their enterprise. The prices 
first paid for cocoons were from three to four 
dollars per bushel. The product per acre of the 
trees was estimated at one hundred bushels, and 
the pecuniary promise of the new industry was 
very flattering. The facilities for the manufac- 
ture of silk at the prison were from lime to time 
increased and the vacant prison grounds devoted 
to mulberry trees. So far everything promised 
the most complete success and the liveliest 
hopes were excited. All the cocoons offered 
were promptly taken, and their cultivation was 
rapidly and largely extended. Cocooneries were 
multiplied. Breeding and feeding silk worms be- 
came a general occupation— a real mania, and 
speculation in the eggs and plants ran wild. 
Single buds were said at one time to have been 
sold at a dollar. ^The furor extended from coun- 
ty to county and from State to State, and the sup- 
ply of cocoons offered was very large. 

The silk produced at Auburn was at first of 



excellent quality and found a ready market at 
seven dollars per pound, yielding a profit of 
twenty-five per cent, to the manufacturers. But 
with an increase in the business difficulties were 
encountered in the peculiar character of prison 
labor. The convicts were continually changing 
and it was difficult to secure a sufficient number 
of faithful and skillful men. The quality of the 
product of such labor could not fully be main- 
tained, and from that cause and for other reasons 
not explained, the Auburn silk lost favor and 
was reduced in price from seven to five dollars 
per pound. At the latter price it could not be 
produced except at a loss, and the experiment of 
silk manufacture in the prisons of the State, from 
which so much had been expected, was reluc- 
tantly abandoned. The inflated bubble of specu- 
lation in the mulberry was thus suddenly burst 
and very heavy losses were sustained by those 
who had engaged in it. 

With the abandonment of silk culture the au- 
thorities settled upon the old and varied indus- 
tries, in which the convicts of the State have 
since been employed. Complaints against it are 
still heard in the resolutions of political conven- 
tions; but the necessity for its continuance is so 
imperious and the difficulties of employing the 
thousands of convicts, except in the usual me- 
chanical industries, are so great, that the discon- 
tinuance of the present system can only take 
place when some practical substitute for it shall 
have been tested and its success fully estab- 

Prison Discipline. — As the Superintendent 
of Prisons is at full liberty to employ any method 
of discipline which he may deem best, this fact 
of itself operates as a check upon insubordina- 
tion, and, with the other judicious changes which 
have been introduced, have reduced the cases of 
discipline to one-tenth their former number, while 
better order and greater industry and fidelity 
have also been obtained. The rules as to com- 
mutation of the time of service in the prison for 
good conduct, or the forfeiture of that favor for 
misdemeanors, are rigidly enforced, and consti- 
tute the strongest incentive to good conduct. 
Insubordination or mischievous behavior, is sure 
to lengthen their confinement which, being well 
understood, insures general obedience. The 
" hard cases " are confined for short periods on 
short rations of bread and water in dark cells. 

The cell in which the murderer Barr hung him- 
self, is an especial terror to such, and confine- 
ment in it twenty-four hours humbles them more 
than severe physical chastisement. The average 
period of confinement in such cells before full 
penitence, is less than two days, and in very 
obdurate cases it is extended to eight or ten days. 
The " cap," not a source of pain, or physical 
discomfort, but a badge of dishonor, is also, for 
certain ofienses, effectually used. Severe physic- 
al discipline is very seldom required. The pre- 
vailing sentiment among the convicts is strongly 
in favor of good order as the best means of se- 
curing their own comfort and lessening their 
terms of confinement. 

The spirit of riot and mischief, so prevalent a 
few years ago, has been checked by the strict yet 
just and humane rules now in force, and by the 
regular employments to which the convicts are 
now subjected. The chaplain, Rev. William 
Searls, who holds toward the convicts more inti- 
mate and confidential relations than any of the 
other officers, expresses his decided conviction 
that the work furnished the jjrisoners " has done 
more to produce the good order we now see in 
this prison than anything else that can be 
named." He adds that " labor is as much an 
auxiliary to virtue as it is a means of support," 
and that "work is the cure for the unrest and 
disorder in the prisons of the land." 

The following will show that the panacea of 
labor is thoroughly applied. 

Employment of Convicts — There were few 
idle convicts of the 1,146 confined in Auburn 
Prison on the first day of January, 1879; 876 
were on contract, 231 on State work, 22 sick, or 
infirm, and 31 unemployed. At that date 562 
convicts were employed at fifty cents per day, 
113 at forty-two cents, and 184 at forty cents. 

Prison Officials and Salaries. — The num- 
ber of officers now (January, 1879,) in charge of 
the Auburn Prison is 61 ; in October, 1876, it was 
80. There are now 

I Agent and Warden, salary, $3.500 

I Physician, " 2,000 

I Chaplain, " 2,000 

I Clerk, " 2,000 

I Principal Keeper, " 1.500 

I Store Keeper, " 1,200 

I Kitchen Keeper, " 1,200 

I Hall Keeper, " 1,200 



I Yard Master and 

Engineer, " 1,200 

32 Keepers, each, " . . . _ 900 

I Sergeant of Guard, " 900 

ig Guards, each, " 780 

The Educational Condition of Convicts. 
— Academical, 38; collegiate, 13; high school, 
32; common school, 531; no education, 149; 
read and write, 270; read only, 160. 

Habits. — Intemperate, 416 ; moderate drink- 
ers, 342 ; temperate, 435. The number less 
than 35 years of age is S03. In the present 
prison family Cayuga has twelve representatives. 
Of the inmates 309 are of foreign birth ; En- 
gland supplying 48 ; Germany, 58; and Ireland, 


Prison Building. — This is situated on the 
west side of State street, bordering the Owasco 
Outlet on the south and Wall street on the north. 
It is in the form of a parallelogram, one thousand 
feet from east to west, with a breadth of five hun- 
dred feet. The central building fronting State 
street is three hundred and eighty-seven feet 
wide. The walls on State street are fourteen 
feet eight inches high. On Wall street they vary 
from twenty to twenty-six feet ; west wall twenty- 
eight to thirty-one feet ; south wall, inside, thirty 
feet six inches, outside, thirty-five to fifty-one 
feet. The thickness of the walls varies from four 
to five feet. The offices of the agent and war- 
den, the clerk and the superintendent, the dwell- 
ing for the warden, and the main and keepers' 
hall are in the main building. The walls are sur- 
mounted by a wide stone coping, bordered by an 
iron hand-rail. On this coping during the day 
the guards patrol over designated sections, bear- 
ing loaded rifles. 

The workshops and interior buildings are ar- 
ranged in the form of a hollow square, inclosing 
a spacious court-yard, in which are walks and 
drives, leading to the several shops. The inte- 
rior shops and buildings are separated by a drive- 
way from the outer walls. The cells occupy the 
intermediate space in both wings, facing toward 
the outer walls, and the latter are supplied with 
windows, affording light and the means of ven- 
tilation. The cells are constructed of solid ma- 
sonry, are three feet eight inches by seven feet, 
and seven feet in height. From each cell ven- 
tilating tubes extend to, and connect with pipes 
in thereof, effecting thorough ventilation. There 

are five tiers of cells, access to which is obtained 
by galleries. The number of cells in the north 
wing and its extension, is eight hundred and 
thirty, and in the south wing, four hundred and 
forty-two, a total of twelve hundred and seventy- 
two. The mess-room is sixty-seven by one hun- 
dred and ten feet, with a seating capacity for 
twelve hundred and forty-three. The chapel is 
of the same size and will seat an equal number. 

Ample arrangements have been perfected 
within the prison for extinguishing fires by the 
proper distribution of twelve hydrants, a supply 
of hose, and the organization of a fire brigade. 

The sanitary condition of the prison has re- 
cently been much improved and the general 
health of the convicts is excellent. At this writ- 
ing (F"ebruary Sth, 1879,) there are but six inva- 
lids in the hospital, less than one-half the yearly 

How 'I HE Prisoners are Fed. — The follow- 
ing will show the great variety and liberal amount 
of food supplied to the convicts, for which we 
are indebted to the Hon. William J. Moses, the 
agent and warden of the Auburn Prison : 

Gross daily consumption of meats, breadstuffs, 
vegetables, &c., based upon the number of in- 
mates, which, at present writing, is 1,140. 

Sunday. — 1,900 lbs. flour, 30 lbs. coffee, 60 
lbs. sugar, 30 gals, milk, 8 gals, molasses, hash, 
200 lbs. corn beef, 15 bushels potatoes and 6 
barrels of apples. 

Monday. — 1,300 lbs. corn beef, 34 bushels po- 
tatoes, 5 bushels onions, 1,900 lbs. flour, 12 gals, 
molasses, 5 gals, vinegar. 

Tuesday. — 600 lbs. pork, 22 bushels potatoes, 
22 bushels turnips, 15 bushels beets, 6^ bush- 
els beans, i bushel carrots, 1,900 lbs. flour, 12 
gals, molasses, 5 gals, vinegar. 

Wednesday. — 1,100 lbs. fresh beef, 28 bushels 
potatoes, 1,900 lbs. flour, 6 bushels onions, 3 
bushels turnips, 2 bushels carrots, 40 lbs. rice, 
12 gals, molasses, 5 gals, vinegar. 

Thursday. — 600 lbs. pork, 39 bushels potatoes, 
6i bushels beans, 1,900 lbs. flour, 25 heads cab- 
bage, 12 gals, molasses, 5 gals, vinegar. 

Friday. — 300 lbs. codfish, 17 bushels potatoes, 
5 bushels onions, 1,900 lbs. flour, 15 gals, milk, 400 
lbs. corn meal, i bushel turnips, i bushel carrots, 
12 gals, molasses, 5 gals, vinegar. 

Saturday. — 1,100 lbs. fresh beef, 35 bushels 
potatoes, 40 lbs. rice, 1,900 lbs. flour, 3 bushels 



turnips, 2 bushels carrots, 12 gals, molasses, 5 
gals, vinegar. 

In addition to the ordinary daily rations there 
are also furnished for the use of the inmates the 
following articles : 

Per moiitJi. — Pepper-sauce, 12.V pepper-pods, 
210 lbs. mustard, 210 lbs. pepper, 20 bbls. salt, 
50 lbs. hops, 100 lbs. malt, 60 lbs. saleratus. 

Per ration. — 1,000 pickles, 15 bushels pickled 

During the season they are also supplied with ; 

Per ration. —2,800 ears green corn, 1,700 lbs. 
beet greens. 40 bushels tomatoes, 600 heads cab- 
bage, 20 bushels parsnips, 450 doz. eggs (Easter 

Upon the three holidays during the year the 
following extra rations are issued : 

4TH OF July. — 1,100 lbs. ham, 700 lbs. hali- 
but, smoked, 350 lbs. cheese, 400 lbs. crackers, 
40 lbs. coffee. So lbs. sugar, 25 gals, milk, gin- 
gerbread, (in the making of which is used 1,000 
lbs. flour, 40 gals. N. O. molasses and 35 lbs. 
spices,) 10 barrels apples. 

Thanksgiving. — 90 gals oysters, 30 lbs. but- 
ter, 400 lbs. crackers, 350 lbs. cheese, 40 lbs. 
coffee, 80 lbs. sugar, 25 gals milk, 10 barrels ap- 
ples, and gingerbread of same quality as above. 

Christmas. — 1,200 lbs. chickens, 400 lbs. 
crackers, 350 lbs. cheese, 40 lbs. coffee, 80 lbs. 
sugar, 25 gals, milk, 10 barrels apples, rusks, 
(in the making of which is used 1,000 lbs. flour, 
160 lbs. sugar and 10 gals, of milk.) 


This institution is situated in the Fourth ward 
of the city of Auburn, on a tract of land contain- 
ing about eight acres, fronting on Wall street, 
and enclosed on all sides by a stone wall, twelve 
feet high. The original structure was commen- 
ced in 1857, and opened for the reception of pa- 
tients February 2d, 1859. ^^ t^hen comprised a 
center, or administration building, with a wing 
on either side for patients, accommodating about 
forty each. An additional wing has since been 
attached to the west end of the building, making 
the present total capacity of the asylum one hun- 
dred and sixty. The front of the building is of 
stone and the rear of brick, the whole presenting 
an imposing structure, consisting of a central 

building, forty-four by si.\ty-six feet, three stories 
high and a basement, with wings on either side, 
one hundred and twenty feet in length, and ter- 
minating in their extremities in a transept sixty- 
six by twenty-five feet. The wings and transepts 
have each two stories and a basement. 

The enlargement, commenced in 1873, is a con- 
tinuation of the south transept of the west wing, 
except that it is wider ; it is about one hundred 
feet long and terminates in a transept, which is 
about seventy-five feet in length. In its external 
appearance the new wing corresponds, approxi- 
mately, to that of the original structure, but varies 
somewhat from the old building in its internal 
arrangement. It comprises three stories, in the 
lower one of which are located the patients' 
kitchen, employes' dining-room, store-rooms, &c., 
and a small ward for working patients. On the 
first floor of the central building are located the 
offices, reception room and di.spensary ; the sec- 
ond and third floors comprise the superintend- 
ent's apartments ; and the basement is devoted 
to a business office, waiting-room, kitchen, etc. 

The wings and tran.septs are set apart entirely 
for the use of patients. They consist of a corri- 
dor, or ball, about twelve feet wide, running the 
entire length, with single dormitories opening 
therefrom, on one side in the old wings, and both 
sides in the new one. These dormitories are about 
eight by ten feet, and about thirteen feet high, 
having an average of about one thousand and 
forty cubic feet or space, and each is lighted by a 
large window, protected by an iron grating, and 
looking out upon the beautiful flower garden and 
grounds. The basement halls underneath the 
corridors of the old wings serve as passage-ways, 
and contain the main steam and water pipes 
leading to the wards and kitchens. 

Immediately in the rear of the central building, 
and connected with it by corridor, is a two story 
brick structure, ninety feet in length by forty in 
breadth, in the lower story of which are located 
the bakery and dormitories for the employes 
who are not occupied in the wards ; the second 
story contains the chapel, .sewing room, store- 
room for goods, and the officers' quarters. Vege- 
table cellars are located beneath a jjortion of this 
building. The out-buildings, excepting the coal 
shed, are of brick and comprise a laundry, boiler- 
house, repair shop, meat and ice-house, barn and 
j wagon house, green-house and piggery. 



This institution was created as an asylum for 
insane convicts and received only that class of 
patients up to 1869, when its corporate name 
was changed, by the Legislature, to that of "State 
Asylum for Insane Criminals ;" the object of the 
change being to provide for the confinement 
therein of an additional class, namely, the so- 
called " criminal insane," i. e. " Persons accused 
of arson, murder, or attempt at murder, who shall 
have escaped indictment, or who shall have been 
acquitted on the ground of insanity." By the 
same act provision was made whereby persons of 
this class could be transferred to this institution 
from the other asylums of the State. This in- 
stitution was an experiment, being the first and 
only one of the kind then, or now, in the United 

The first superintendent was Dr. Edward Hall, 
of Buskirk Bridge, Washington county, N. Y. 
He was appointed in November, 1858, and con- 
tinued until June, 1S65, when he was superseded 
by Dr. Charles E. Van Auden, of Auburn, N. Y., 
who in turn was superseded by Dr. J. W. Wilkie, 
alsoof Auburn, February 17th, 1870. The latter 
died in office, March 13th, 1876, and the vacancy 
thus created was filled by the appointment of the 
present superintendent. Dr. Carlos F. Mc Don- 
ald, formerly superintendent of the Kings county 
lunatic asylum, near Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The scope and aim of the institution is, the 
protection of society from the violence of dan- 
gerous lunatics, the relieving of the inmates of 
ordinary asylums from contact with objectionable 
associates, and, at the same time, to secure kind 
care, and proper hospital treatment for the insane 
of the criminal class. 

The present standard of the institution, as a 
hospital for the criminal insane, not only proves 
its utility, but has demonstrated the complete 
success of the experiment. 

The present number of inmates is one hun- 
dred and twenty-one, one hundred and nine men 
and twelve women, of whom ninety-three are con- 
victs and twenty-eight unconvicted. 

The buildings used for the confinement of in- 
sane convicts are in the same general inclosure 
as the prison proper, to the west of which they 
are located, being separated therefrom by a high 
wall. The grounds surrounding them are beau- 
tifully laid out and adorned with trees and 

The following table shows the annual per capita 
cost of maintaining patients since the opening of 
the Asylum : 

Average No. 

Present Dur- Total Current Total Cost 

Year. ing the Year. Expenditures. Per Capita. 

859 271-73 ^16,387.07 ^606.615 

860 48 1-2 17,491.50 360.649 

861 62 14,173.85 228.610 

862 782-3 12,674.01 161. 1 10 

863 801-10 12,03580 150.259 

864 791-12 13,942.07 176.296 

865 722-3 16,699.18 229.542 

866 701-5 15.93715 227.024 

mj 746-17 16,93394 227.974 

868 755-8 17,876.61 230.146 

869 791-2 13,95492 175-546 

870 78 19.879-39 254.864 

871 676-100 19,332.66 288.288 

872 84 22,174-37 263.976 

873 905-100 22,35408 24S.240 

874 9512 23,200.73 242.938 

875 105 25,163.60 239.653 

876 100 1-2 29,511.23 293.644 

877 98 1-2 23,979.37 243 445 

878 1 13 3-4 23,027.30 202437 

The present officers of the Asylum are : Louis 
D. Pilsbury, Superintendent of Prisons, Manager ; 
Carlos F. MacDonald, M. D., Superintendent ; 
W. A. Gorton, M. D. Assistant Physician ; John 
Grant, Supervisor ; Rev. William Searls, Chap- 


Auburn Manufactures. 

Their Extent and Importance— Description 
OF the Principal Manufactories. 

THE manufacturing interests of Auburn are 
varied and important as to value and mag- 
nitude. They furnish the staple of its commerce, 
and give life and activity to its other industries. 
They give direct employment to nearly one-sev- 
enth of its entire population, besides requiring 
the services of about nine hundred convicts in the 
State Prison; thus demanding the labor of a num- 
ber equal to nearly one-fifth of the population, 
or, taking the statistical average as a basis of 



calculation, of one from each family. With these 
facts before us it is not difficult to understand 
how vitally is the prosperity of Auburn affected 
by the activity or depression of its manufactures, 
which, from its position with respect to the great 
highway of travel and commerce, must continue 
to be its great dependence. 

The Ovvasco Outlet, which flows centrally 
through the city and has a total descent within 
its limits by a succession of falls and rapids of 
about 180 feet, furnishes a splendid hydraulic 
power, which has been very largely utilized, there 
being no less than ten dams within the limits of 
the city, each furnishing power to one or more es- 
tablishments. The New York Central and the 
Southern Central railroads open up accessible 
markets, and furnish avenues of transportation 
not only for the products of the manufac- 
tories, but also for the raw material consumed 
in them, and coal from the Pennsylvania mines, 
which is used in some of the larger establish- 
ments to generate steam, as an additional motor 
to the water from the Outlet, which, in some 
instances, is found to be inadequate. 

Auburn, besides furnishing the capital for these 
enterprises, also furnishes a very large proportion 
of that employed in conducting the operations of 
the Oswego Stakch Factoky, which is by far 
the largest establishment of its kind in the world, 
and which may very properly take the lead in this 
chapter on the manufactures of Auburn, which 
is and has been from the inception of that enter- 
prise the headquarters of the concern ; the finan- 
cial office and a majority of the directors being 
located here. 

The Oswego Starch Company was the first 
company organized under the law of February 
17th, 1848. Their organization and incorporation 
date from March 29th of that year. The incor- 
porators were Erastus Case, Sylvester Willard, 
M. D., Roswell Curtis, Nelson Beardsley, A. H. 
Goss, Alonzo G. Beardsley, Theodore P. Case 
and Augustus Pettibone of Auburn, and Thomas 
Kingsford of Oswego, of whom Dr. Willard, Nel- 
son and Alonzo G. Beardsley and Theodore P. 
Case are living and connected with the company. 
The capital, which at the organization was $50,- 
000, has been increased from time to time to 
$500,000. Dr. Willard was elected president at 
the organization of the company and has per- 
formed the duties of that office with singular ac- 

ceptance ever since. At the twenty-fifth annual 
meeting of the Board of Directors, he was unex- 
pectedly presented with an elegant and costly 
fpergiic, as an evidence of the esteem in which he 
was held by his associates and in recognition of 
his services in that capacity for a quarter of a 
century. He also acted as treasurer from the 
organization till January, 1858, when the duties 
of that office devolved upon Alonzo G. Beardsley, 
who succeeded Albert II. Goss in tlie secretary- 
ship, January 20, 1849, ^"^ who is still the in- 
cumbent of both offices. Nelson Beardsley has 
held the office of vice-president from the date of 
organization to the present time. In 1874, Wm. 
P. Beardsley of Auburn, was appointed assistant 
treasurer of the company, which office he now 
holds. The present directors are Sylvester 
Willard, Nelson Beardsley, Alonzo G. Beardsley, 
Wm. Allen, Theodore M. Pomeroyand Wm. H. 
Seward of Auburn, Thomson Kingsford of Os- 
wego, Edwin B. Morgan of Aurora, and Edward 
C. Chapin of New York city. 

The manufactory was established in Oswego 
in the spring of 1848, and went into operation in 
the fall of the same year. The works were placed 
under the supervision of Thomas Kingsford and 
his son Thomson, to whose energy, perseverance 
and business capacity the great success which 
has attended the enterprise is mainly due. Since 
the death of his father, the supervision of the 
works has devolved entirely upon Mr. Thomson 
Kingsford, who possesses in an eminent degree 
those qualities which distinguished his father's 
management. At the Centennial exhibition this 
company made an elaborate display of its pro- 
ducts, which, for the elegance and expensiveness 
of the cases inclosing their exhibit attracted more 
attention than any other thing of that character. 


Reaper Works. — This is ilecidedly the most im- 
portant industry in the city of Auburn as respects 
j the number of hands employed, the amount of 
! local material used, and the amount regularly dis- 
tributed to the labor and conimcrce of the city. 
Its eight hundred and fifty employes, many of 
them heads of families, would with those depen- 
dent upon them, form a village of respectable 
size, and constitute a very important factor in the 
I progress and prosperity of the city. 
I The funds disbursed by this company are 
I drawn mainly from distant States, or from for- 

1 64 


eign countries, and are, therefore, so much added 
to the wealth of the locality. Unlike the com- 
mercial exchanges of one citizen with another, 
which is mere change of possession without any 
increase of the local aggregate, this establish- 
ment brings in and locally distributes funds, 
which otherwise would never reach us. The 
future growth and prosperity of the city are 
mainly dependent upon the continued success of 
this and its other industrial establishments, 
whose products are sold in distant markets. 
When, therefore, as in this case, the history of 
an enterprise, running through twenty years, 
shows a constant, and, for the last decade especial- 
ly, a marvelous progress, it should be to us a 
source of gratification. 

This company was started in 1858, with the 
manufacture of the Kirby reaper and mower, by 
David M. Osborne and O. I. Holbrook, and but 
twelve men were employed and one hundred and 
fifty machines made in that year. During the 
year the firm of D. M. Osborne & Co. was 
formed, which comprised D. M. Osborne, C. C. 
Dennis and Charles P. Wood. The latter re- 
tired in 1862, and Mr. Dennis died in 1866. 
After Mr. Dennis' death, John H. Osborne and 
Orrin Burdick were admitted to the firm. Mean- 
while its business had rapidly increased. The 
single building at first used had been supple- 
mented by several others ; the twelve men with 
which the enterprise started had been increased 
to several hundred ; the machines annually made 
had arisen from hundreds to thousands, and 
every needful manufacturing facility had been 
correspondingly increased. This was then but 
one of three establishments engaged here in the 
same business, each with large capital and each 
producing several thousand machines per year. 
The Cayuga Chief and the Dodge & Stevenson 
manufacturing companies were rivals for the 
trade. The latter company went into liquida- 
tion, and there was a consolidation of the Cayuga 
Chief with D. M. Osborne & Co., under the 
latter name. 

This was a very judicious movement and 
brought under one general organization abundant 
capital, and superior business and mechanical 
talent. William M. Kirby, C. Wheeler, Jr., and 
Orrin Burdick were each distinguished for supe- 
rior inventive and mechanical skill and each had 
given many years attention to the improvement 

of mowers and reapers. It was therefore a very 
strong company, financially, mechanically and 
commercially. There was no lack of vigor or 
energy in the development of their business. 
They extended it over the United States and 
Canada, and into the following countries : South 
America, Great Britain, France, Germany, Aus- 
tria, Italy, Russia, Norway, Sweden, Australia 
and New Zealand. They sell to foreign nations 
annually two thousand five hundred machines. 

This company now make annually about fifteen 
thousand machines, averaging while at work over 
five completed machines an hour, or one in twelve 
minutes ; they consume annually five thousand 
tons of coal, or over sixteen tons per diem ; an 
equal amount of pig iron and two thousand tons 
of bar iron and steel ; of lumber they consume 
two and one-half million feet, and disburse an- 
nually about one million dollars. They employ 
eight hundred and fifty men, to whom thirty-five 
thousand dollars are paid monthly. 

These expressive figures so emphasize the 
magnitude and importance of this enterprise as 
to render further comment superfluous. The 
officers of the present consolidated company are : 
President, D. M. Osborne ; Treasurer, A. G. 
Beardsley ; Secretary, John H. Osborne. The 
Trustees are : D. M. Osborne, A. G. Beardsley, 
John H. Osborne, C. Wheeler, Jr., William A. 
Kirby, H. Morgan and O. H. Burdick. 

Auburn Manufacturing Company. — This 
important enterprise was organized as the E. C. 
Tuttle Manufacturing Company in 1867, with 
the following officers : Charles P. Wood, Presi- 
dent ; Israel F. Terrill, Vice-President ; Delos 
M. Keeler, Secretary and Treasurer ; James 
Henderson, Agent ; and E. C. Tuttle, Superin- 
tendent of the manufacturing department. 

The capital of the company was ;^30o,ooo, 
which was promptly subscribed, chiefly by the 
citizens of Auburn. The buildings were erected 
on the west side of Division street, corner of 
Clark, and cost at first $120,000, to which large 
additions have since been made to meet the de- 
mands of the continually increasing business. 

In 1871 the title of the company was changed 
as above, with E. C. Denio, as Superintendent, 
and Charles M. Howlet, Treasurer. Under the 
management of these gentlemen the manufac- 
turing and commercial departments of the com- 
pany were vigorously prosecuted in the face of 

[Photo by Squyer & Wright.l 

Fr^eder^ck Van Patten. 

Frederick Van Patten, of Auburn, was born 
in the town of Victory, Cayuga County, N. Y., 
September 22d, 1836. At an early age he at- 
tended district school, and later was sent to Syra- 
cuse, where he made rapid progress for the limi- 
ted time there. At the age of sixteen he became 
an apprentice with Mr. Joel G. Northrup, of Syra- 
cuse, to learn the machinist's trade, remaining 
three years. He then went to Hartford, Conn., 
where he found employment in Colt's Armory. 
Soon his ability was recognized and he was placed 
in charge of one of the most important depart- 
ments of that establishment. Here he remained 
until 1861, when he was induced to accept a po- 
sition with the Remingtons,' the celebrated man- 
ufacturers of fire-arms, of Ilion, N. Y. He re- 
mained with them until 1864, when he went to 

Auburn, and was made Superintendent of the 
celebrated E. D. Clapp manufactory, or the 
Fifth Wheel Works, of Auburn. In 1867 he be- 
came a partner in that establishment, but still 
continues the superintendency. He has aided in 
the development of the works, and the quality of 
their productions is now unequalled by any other 
similar establishment in the world. In 1857, 
Mr. Van Patten married Miss Caroline Hass, of 
Bridgeport, Conn., who died in 1871. The fruit 
of this union was two daughters. In Septem- 
ber, 1876, Mr. Van Patten married Miss Libbie 
Steel, of Ilion, N. Y. 
I Mr. Van Patten's life has been sedulously de- 
I voted to his business and he has consequently 
gained a thorough knowledge of it in all its 
I branches. 




strong competition ; the business annually in- 
creased, and the mechanical neatness and per- 
fection of their goods gave them precedence over 
their rivals. Markets were sought for their pro- 
ducts throughout this country, and their home 
trade largely increased. At the same time suc- 
cessful efforts were made to sell abroad, and a 
large and profitable trade was established. 

The goods which they manufacture embrace 
nearly every variety of agricultural hand imple- 
ments, extending to several hundred varieties, 
and including hay and manure forks, and straw 
and spading forks, grain, grass and bush scythes, 
socket, shank, planters, cotton, mortar and street 
hoes, cast-steel and malleable iron garden rakes, 
hay, straw and corn knives, grain cradles, scythe 
snaths and hand rakes. All the implements 
made by this company are of the latest and neat- 
est designs, combining beauty of appearance and 
convenience and durability in use. The stock 
used and the mechanics employed are the best of 
their class, and the goods produced deservedly 
rank with the best anywhere made. 

The company have ample facilities for the 
rapid, cheap and perfect production of stock. 
Their buildings have been from time to time ex- 
tended and now cover several acres. They con- 
trol two water-wheels equaling four hundred 
horse-power; and the most complete machinery 
is employed, adapted to each special class of 

The goods of this company are very widely 
distributed throughout the United States and 
Canada, the principal nations of Europe, in 
South America, New Zealand and Australia. 

It is an interesting fact that the forks, hoes, 
&c., made by this company, are sold to the old 
and mechanically famous nations of England, 
France and Germany, and are preferred by their 
farmers to the clumsy and heavier tools of their 
own production. 

When put in competition with similar produc- 
tions of the world, as the goods of this company 
have been on two notable occasions — at our own 1 
Centennial and the Paris Exposition — they re- | 
ceived on both occasions medals of the highest , 
merit. At all the fairs where an exhibit of their 
goods has been made they have been awarded 
first premiums ; but a more significant proof of j 
their superiority is found in the continually in- I 
creasing orders from the same locality, where, I 

after having been thoroughly tested by practical 
use, they have been approved and " more of tlie 
same sort" called for. "The annual product of 
this company of hand tools is believed to be the 
greatest in variety and quantity of any factory in 
the world."* 

The present officers of the company are T. 
M. Pomeroy, Vice-President ; C. I\I. Iloulet, 
Treasurer ; E. C. Denio, Superintendent. 

The E. D. Clapp Mfg. Co. — This business 
was commenced in a small way in 1865, by E. D. 
Clapp & Co., in a part of the City Mills, on Me- 
chanic street. The mechanical supervision of 
the work was in charge of Mr. F. Van Patten, a 
mechanic of rare ability and large experience in 
the armories at Springfield, Hartford, and Ilion. 
Mr. Clapp had been a carriage maker, and was 
familiar with the wants of that trade. 

The first articles made were tiiill couplings, 
and to these were soon added fifth wheels. Mr. 
Van Patten and M. S. Fitch were admitted to the 
firm, and the business, within the first four years, 
had outgrown the limited c|uarters on Mechanic 
street. The firm, in 1S69 erected a large three- 
story factory on Water street, ample, it was be- 
lieved, to meet the demands of their business for 
many years to come. 

Here new lines of goods were added, including 
stump-joints, kingbolts, and the Miner, Stevens' 
and Saunders' patent coupling, the latter being 
the only patent thill coupling of the hundreds 
invented, that has ever become a standard arti- 
cle in the trade. Their business so increased as 
to demand the work of two sets of hands, the 
factory running, for the most part, night and day. 

Mr. Fitch retired from the firm in 1873 and 
the business was continued by Messrs. Clapp and 
Van Patten. 

The factory, ample as it had been considered, 
was found inadequate to mCet the demands of 
their augmenting business, and they erected, in 
1 874, a much larger factory, on extensive grounds, 
on the corner of Genesee and Division streets, 
directly on the line of the Southern Central K. R., 
affording facilities for the convenient receipt and 
distribution of their large amount of freight. 

The rapid growth of the business now necessi- 
tated a further enlargement and, in 1S75, an 
addition was erected 40 by 100 feet. A growth 
so rapid and continuous, for so long a period, and 

* Great Industries of the United States, page 698. 



during such severe and general commercial and 
manufacturing depression, resulted from potent 
and peculiar causes. The manufacture of forged 
carriage irons by machinery is of comparatively 
recent origin. Before i860, the forging of small 
pieces of iron in dies, by drop-hammers had been 
done in New England to a limited extent only. 
The war gave a great impetus to the science of 
drop forging for gun-work, and at its close, the 
experience thus gained, was directed largely to 
improvements in the manufacture of carriage 
hardware. Mr. Van Patten was entirely familiar 
with that form of forging and die-sinking and 
prepared to successfully adapt it to the new in- 
dustry ; while the practical experience of Mr. 
Clapp in carriage-building, enabled him wisely 
to direct the kind and style of work to be done. 

Hitherto this work had been done by hand, 
with less perfection and at much greater cost. 
A blacksmith shop and carriage shojj had been 
necessary complements of each other. Now, 
very little hand forging for carriages is done, and 
only in remote localities. 

This radical change in the methods of ironing 
carriages, is largely due to the persevering and 
intelligent efforts of Messrs. Clapp and Van Pat- 
ten, who have made and generally introduced a 
more varied and practical assortment of carriage 
forgings than any other manufacturers in this 
country. They have introduced and are continu- 
ally introducing new lines of goods ; have invent- 
ed and patented new articles and processes of 
manufacture, and secured the control of patented 
articles, which have acquired great popularity in 
the trade. Their Centennial exhibit embraced 
nearly four hundred pieces, which were the most 
complete and perfect of their kind exhibited, and 
were models of practical utility and mechanical 
perfection. Fifth wheels have been a specialty 
of their business, of which they can produce over 
100,000 per year, without diminishing the pro- 
duction of their other goods. 

A stock company was organized August 1st, 
I S76, comprising some of the most conservative 
and substantial citizens of Auburn. The paid 
up capital was $150,000, and the management 
of the business remained with the old firm, who 
were the largest stock-holders. The following 
named gentlemen comprised the first board of 
trustees: E. D. Clapp, F. Van Patten, Charles 
Standart, Byron C. Smith, James G. Knapp, 

William B. Woodin, C. C. Dwight, J. N. Knapp, 
L. E Carpenter, D. E. Clapp, P. S. Hadger, 
and W. H. Meaker. The officers were, Presi- 
dent and Treasurer, E. D. Clapp ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, L. E. Carpenter ; Secretary, D. E. Clapp ; 
Superintendent, F. Van Patten. The same trus- 
tees and officers have since been continued. 

The business of the company soon demanded 
further accommodations and, in 1878, a large 
store-house was erected over the trestle-work at 
the north end of the company's grounds, and the 
foundations laid for new buildings, both on Gene- 
see and Division streets, and brick offices were 
erected. Work is in progress on a three story 
brick building, 40 by 80 feet, fronting on Genesee 
street. When the buildings now in process of 
erection are completed, the factory will be of the 
following dimensions : Main building used for 
forge room and iron house, 281 by40 feet; machine 
shop 40 by 80, three stories high and basement ; 
office and warehouse, 70 feet on Genesee street, 
and extending back on Division street, 236 feet, 
to the track of the Southern Central Railroad, 
store-house and pattern-rooms on the north side 
of lot, 50 by 40 feet. The quadrilateral will be thus 
enclosed by buildings, the exterior frontage of 
which will exceed 800 feet. 

The company have a large wholesale and retail 
coal trade and a trestle about 250 feet long, a part 
of which is covered and used as a freight depot. 
Huge drop hammers, which vary in weight from 
500 to 1,500 pounds, and rise and fall by means 
of friction rollers, from seventy to ninety times a 
minute, executes their work with great perfec- 
tion and dispatch. These drops and the dies 
which form the pieces, are all made in the fac- 
tory. The red-hot iron is pressed by the blows 
of the drops into steel dies or moulds, which give 
the shape intended. Of some kinds from 3,000 
to 4,OCO pieces can be thus forged in a day. 
They are afterwards finished and fitted ready for 

The company employ about 150 men and finish 
fully double the product which was possible but 
a few years ago. Hay den and Smith are the sole 
agents for the sale of their goods, which are sold 
in all parts of the United States, in Canada and 
Australia, and which include every piece of forged 
iron used in ironing a carriage, in a form and 
finish ready for application to the wood-work. 
Among the principal pieces are thill couphngs, 



fifth wheels, king-bolts, axle clips, perch plates, 
stump-joints, joint-ends, steps, shifting-rails, 
body-loop ends, slat-irons, king-bolts, and axle- 
clip ties, fancy-bolts, top-props, etc. These are 
supplied in complete sets, or in detached parts as 
desired. No other manufacturers supply, as do 
this firm, complete sets of forged iron work for 
carriages. The sets for top buggies contain over 
one hundred pieces of hardware. 

Empire Wringer Company. — In April, 1872, 
a copartnership firm was organized to manufac- 
ture and sell clothes-wringers, under the above 
title. The copartners were : C. M. Howlet, 
H. N. Lockwood, John S. Fowler, Jacob Brink- 
erhoff, J. N. Starin, H. V. Quick and L. G. 
Barger. C. M. Howlet was appointed manager 
and the firm commenced the business of manu- 
facturing clothes wringers under the patents 
obtained by J. BrinkerhofiF. 

Subsequently Messrs. Starin and Quick sold 
their respective interests in the business to C. 
M. Howlet, N. B. S. Eldred and A. S. Lee. 
In 1874, Mr. Eldred sold his interest to L. W. 
Ney and Mr. Lee to C. M. Howlet. On Sep- 
tember 1st, 1876, C. M. Howlet and E C. Denio 
purchased the entire business pursuant to the 
conditions of the original copartnership. 

In December, 1876, a company was incorpo- 
rated under the laws of this State, with a capital 
of $64,000. The president and manager was C. 
M. Howlet and the secretary, E. C. Denio ; Jacob 
Brinkerhoff, general sales agent and Henry J. 
White superintendent of the manufactory. 

During the year, 1876, 24,000 wringers were I 
made and sold. During the same period, patented ' 
folding cots and washing benches were added to , 
the product, and in 1877 the manufacture of the [ 
Empire steel-band, barbed fencing was intro- [ 
duced. Of the features which have given de- 
served popularity both to the wringers and steel 
band fencing of this company, they have the 
monopoly, under exclusive and definite patents. 1 

The special merits of the Empire Wringer and | 
the enterprise of the company in making them 
known have led to their rapid and wide introduc- 
tion, not only in this country, but also in many i 
foreign countries, in South and Central America, 
New Zealand, Australia, Sweden, Norway, Rus- : 
sia, France and Austria and to England and 
Germany. Large shipments are made monthly, 1 
upon regular standing orders. | 

The development of this business to its present 
magnitude has, it will be noticed, taken place 
during a period of general commercial depression, 
indicating at once unusual merit in the goods 
produced and skill in their commercial manage- 

The power is derived from the Outlet, in the 
seventh v^ard. The capacity of the manufactory 
is one hundred wringers and five miles of fencing 
per day ; force employed from forty to forty-five 

Messrs. Sheldon & Co., are very extensively 
engaged in the manufacture of the iim/ior l>?aiici 
axle. This business was establislied by Baiber, 
Sheldon & Co., in 1865, in the prison, at which 
time they employed one hundred convicts in the 
manufacture of axles and the Cnyiiga C/iu/rcaper 
and mower. In 1866, this company, Burlis & 
Beardsley and Reynolds & Co., each of whom 
were manufacturing the Cayuga Chief, consoli- 
dated and ' formed a stock company under the 
name of the Cayuga Chief Mfg. Co., with a capi- 
tal of ^500,000, and carried on business in D. M. 
Osborne &Co.'s shop No. 2, opposite the prison, 
where the castings and malleable iron used in the 
construction of the machines manufactured by 
the latter firm are now made. In 1869, Charles 
L. Sheldon, Franklin L. Sheldon (deceased,) and 
Henry Morgan, members of the firm of Barber, 
Sheldon & Co., purchased Eugene C. Barber's 
interest, and in 1875 the reaper and mower es- 
tablishment was mcrg(4^ into that of D. M. Os- 
borne & Co. 

Messrs. Sheldon & Co. employ 240 convicts 
and 100 citizens, the latter of whom are mostly 
engaged in their rolling mill, forges and machine 
shop, located at Hackney Falls, now in the 
Seventh Ward of the city. The rolling mill is 
situated on the west side, and the machine shop 
and forges directly opposite, on the east side of 
the Outlet. The machine shop was formerly oc- 
cupied by the Auburn Tool Co, and owned by 
Geo. Casey, of whom it was bought in 1870, by 
the present firm, who added some sixty feet, re- 
paired it, and at the same time erected a large 
forge shop. They havejust completed (1878) a 
second forge shop, 100 by 40 feet, to meet the re- 
quirements of their increasing business, which 
now probablv exceeds that of any other three 
similar establishments in the world. They con- 
sume daily about twenty tons of iron and steel, 



the former of which is made in their own shops, 
and make 180,000 sets of axles per annum. 
Their works in the prison are propelled by power 
furnished by the prison dam, which has a fall of 
eight feet, and a 150 horse-power engine. In 
March, 1877, they put a 250 horse-power engine 
into their machine and forge shops, the heavy 
machinery, to which additions have recently been 
made, requiring more power than was furnished 
by the water from the Outlet, which has, at this 
point, a fall of twelve feet. The goods made by 
this firm have, from their excellence, gained for 
them a good reputation in the markets of this 
and other countries. 

Dunn, Salmon & Co., of Syracuse, com- 
menced the manufacture of boots and shoes in ihe 
prison in 1865, in which year they succeeded 
McDougal, Fenton & Co. They have an invest- 
ed capital of ^250,000. They contract for the 
labor of 200 convicts at fifty cents per day. They 
give employment to 250 persons, twenty-five to 
fifty of whom are resident citizens, and are mak- 
ing sixty-five cases of goods per day. 

JosiAH Barber & Sons, manufacturers of 
woolen goods and carpeting, on Washington 
street and the Outlet. This is one of the oldest 
business establishments in the city. It was 
started in 1829, by Josiah Barber, who came in 
that year from Hudson, Columbia county, where 
he had carried on the woolen business some 
twenty years, having been preceded in the same 
business by his father, ^e commenced opera- 
tions in the prison, where he continued till 1857, 
being associated for several years with John 
Loudon. In 1846-47 he erected the buildings 
he now occupies, on the site of the saw and card- 
ing-mills of Samuel Dill. The carpet-mill is 150 
by 50 feet, five stories high, and the woolen-mill 
238 by 54 feet, four stories high, both being built 
of brick, and standing one on either side of the 
Outlet. The woolen-mill contains ten sets of 
cards and forty-eight broad looms, and the car- 
pet-mill six sets of cards and twenty-six power 
carpet looms. The machinery is driven by wa- 
ter from the Outlet, which furnishes a power 
equivalent to 500 horses. In 1859, his sons Wm. 
C. and Geo. E. Barber, were admitted to partner- 
ship, and the business has since been conducted 
in the above name. The capital invested is 
$350,000. They employ 250 to 280 hands, 
about two- thirds of whom are females. Their 

pay roll amounts to $8,000 per month. The 
product of their looms in 1877 was 340,000 
pounds of woolen goods and 150,000 pounds of 
carpets ; 520,000 pounds of wool being consumed 
in the manufacture of the former, and 180,000 
pounds in that of the latter. 

Hayden & Smith, manufacturers of and deal- 
ers in carriage and saddlery hardware. This 
business was established in 1830 by C. & P. Hay- 
den, and was probably the first manufactory of 
saddlery hardware of any importance in the 
United States. Previous to 1830, and indeed 
for several years thereafter, nearly all these goods 
were imported from England. In 1833, Cotton 
Hayden died and the business has since been 
conducted by Mr.'P. Hayden, who resides in New 
York. He has been associated with difierent 
partners, the principal of whom have been Wm. 
A. Holmes, who became a book-keeper in the es- 
tablishment in 1836, and a partner in 1840, which 
relation he held till 1850; Geo. J. Letchworth, 
who became clerk in 1844, and succeeded Mr. 
Holmes in the partnership in 1 850, and continued 
till 1873, when Byron C. Smith, the present 
resident and courteous manager, who entered the 
establishment as clerk in 1852, succeeded to 
the partnership. O. P. Letchworth, son of Geo. 
J. Letchworth, who was also a member of the 
firm, dissolved that connection in January, 1876, 
by selling his interest to the remaining partners, 
at which time the firm name was changed from 
Hayden, Letchworth & Smith to Hayden & 

The firm have employed prison labor almost 
uninterruptedly since the business was com- 
menced, beginning with only six men. They 
now employ the labor of 125 convicts, for which 
they pay fifty cents each per day, besides that of 
twenty-five persons, in various capacities, outside 
the prison. The value of their manufactured 
goods is about $100,000 per annum. Their fac- 
tory is in the prison ; and their office and ware- 
rooms at No. 9 East Genesee street. They make 
a specialty of wood hames, of which they manu- 
facture annually about 100,000 pairs, comprising 
some two hundred varieties. They are shipped 
to all parts of the civilized world. 

This firm are also the exclusive agents for the sale 
of the carriage hardware made by the E. D. C'app 
Mfg. Co. Their capital has been increased from 
time to time to meet the requirements of their 



increased business, till at present about ^200,000 
are invested. 

In 1876 they increased their facilities and have 
since then done their own brass founding and 
nickel plating. Julius Robbin is foreman in the 
hame shop and N. S. Possons, in the foundry and 
buckle shop ; the former having an experience of 
eight years and the latter of ten. Mr. P. Hay- 
den, one of the founders of this establishment, 
has since established similar enterprises in New 
York city, Newark, N. J., Columbus and Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, Detroit, Mich., St. Louis, Mo., 
Syracuse, N. Y.,San Francisco and Sacramento, 
Cal., and Galveston, Te.xas, all of which, except 
the latter, are still in existence, and some of them 
doing a much larger business than the parent 
firm. The Galveston enterprise was started just 
before the war, and the stock, valued at about 
$40,000, confiscated by the Confederate govern- 
ment and worked up into confederate harness. 
Several who have been educated in this estab- 
lishment as clerks have started the business else- 
where. Among these are Messrs. Olmsted & 
Jones, who are now proprietors of the establish- 
ment in Syracuse. 

Sartwell, Hough & Co., manufacturers of 
and dealers in boots and shoes, at Nos. 2 and 4 
E. Genesee street. This business was com- 
menced in 1866, by Elbridge G. Miles, D. M. 
Hough, H. J. Sartwell and Wads worth Hollis- 
ter, under the name of Miles, Hough & Co., at 
No. 6 State street. In 1867 Mr. Hollister sold 
his interest to W. Crocker, when the firm became 
and has since remained Sartwell, Hough & Co., 
Mr. Miles having also severed his connection 
with it. In 1872, feeling the need of more room 
and power than their old quarters aftbrded, they 
removed to their present location. They use a 
capital of about $100,000, give steady employ- 
ment to about one hundred hands, about one- 
half of whom are females, manufacture a general 
line of ladies' wear, to the extent of $150,000 to 
$200,000 worth per annum, and do a jobbing 
business in all kinds of boots and shoes to the 
amount of $250,000 to $300,000 per annum. 

FoxELL, Jones & Co., commenced the manu- 
facture of stove hollow ware in the prison, about 
the middle of October, 1877, Messrs. Foxell & 
Jones having previously carried on the business 
at Troy for ten years. The capital invested is 
about $50,000. They employ 160 convicts and 

seventeen citizens, and are doing a business of 
about $100,000 jier annum. The motive power 
is furnished by a sixty horse-power engine. They 
first contracted for 100 convicts, and subsequently 
for 165. 

Nye & Wait, carpet manufacturers, located 
on Factory street, between Wall and Clark streets. 
In 1852, Carhart & Nye leased Josiah Barber's 
factory and rim it till 185S, in which year they 
dissolved, and L. W. Nye bought the building 
erected in 1816 by Elijah Miller and John H. 
Beach, who, in 1814, purchased of Samuel Dill 
ten acres, including the fall, on lot 46 of the mili- 
tary tract. This building was used as a cotton 
factory and was continued as such by Mr. Nye 
till 1 868, in October of which year he leased it to 
Howlet & Bailey. April ist, 1869, it caught fire 
and was partially burned. In 1870 it was rebuilt, 
the portion not burned, the walls of the north 
part, being retained and forming a part of the 
four story stone building used by this firm as a 
carpet factory, for which purpose it was then fitted 
up. It is 40 by 110 feet. In 186S a second 
building, 48 by 85 feet, also of stone, was erected, 
the main floor of which is used for the manufac- 
ture of worsted for the carpets made by Messrs. 
Nye & Wait, the latter of whom ( Wm. F. Wait) 
was admitted to partnership March 1st, 1871. 
Geo. N. Nye, son of L. W. Nye, became a partner 
October ist, 1876, without any change in the firm 
name. They use a capital of $80,000, employ 
100 hands, and make 177,000 yards of extra su- 
perfine ingrain carpets and over 65,000 pounds 
of worsted per annum. The motive power is 
furnished by water from the Outlet, with a fall of 
26.9 feet. 

Geokge Corning, Sr., having contracted for 
100 convicts for five years, at forty cents each per 
day, commenced the manufacture of shoes in the 
prison, January 1st, 1874. He also employs six 
citizens who act as foremen. He uses a capital 
of about $50,000, and is making about 300 pairs 
of shoes per day. Mr. Corning was formerly 
from St. Louis, where he carried on the same 

David Wadsworth & Son, scythe manufac- 
turers, on the Outlet, near the west line of the 
city. This is one of the oldest of Auburn's 
manufacturing establishments. It was started in 
18 1 8, on the site subsequently occupied by the 
Dodge & Stevenson Manufacturing Company, by 



Joseph Wadsworth. In 1829, Mr. Wadsworth 
bought of Benjamin Sweet the tract of land he 
now occupies, upon which was an old carding 
mill. This he converted into a scythe factory 
and soon after removed his establishment to that 
locality. He continued till about 1845, when his 
son, Joseph Wadsworth, rented the property and 
carried on the works till 1849, in which year it 
was willed to David Wadsworth, who has since 
carried on the business, having been associated 
as partner with Nelson Fitch from 1867 till July, 
1872, and with his son, David Wadsworth, Jr., 
since July ist, 1876. The present buildings were 
erected from 1860-67. These works give employ- 
ment to 65 men and annually turn out about 
30,000 dozen scythes, hay, corn and straw knives, 
and grass hooks. 

The Auburn Tool Company is the outgrowth 
of an enterprise started in the prison in 1823, by 
Truman J. McMaster and Hon. Nathaniel Gar- 
row, who then commenced the manufacture of 
carpenters' planes and plane irons, and carried on 
the business till about 1833, when Alonzo Mc- 
Master and Jacob Young bought the establish- 
ment and continued the business under the name 
of Young & McMaster till 1838, when the prop- 
erty was bought by the firm of Z. J. McMaster 
& Co., which was composed of Z. J. McMaster 
Paul D. Cornell and Aurelius Wheeler, who, in 
1847, sold to George Casey, Adam Miller, Josiah 
Douglass and Nelson Kitchell, by whom the bus- 
iness was conducted till 1858, under the name 
of Casey, Kitchell & Co. In 1858, Mr. Casey 
bought the interest of his partners and admitted 
to partnership J. N. Starin, Nelson Fitch, Abijah 
Fitch, Noah P. Clark and Alonzo G. Beardsley, 
who carried on the business under the name of 
Casey, Clark & Co , till October 8tb, 1864, when a 
stock company was formed and incorporated, with 
a capital of ^75,000, which was subsequently in- 
creased to ^100,000, and the business has since 
been carried on under the name of the Aitburti 
Tool Company, the parties 'last named being the 
incorporators and the first trustees. George 
Casey was elected President and has held that 
office to the present time. Nelson Fitch was 
elected Secretary and held that office till April 
22d, 1868, when he was succeeded by N. P. Clark, 
who still holds the office. George Casey also 
acted as Treasurer till June 2d, 1867, when N. L. 
Casey, who has since held the office, was elected. 

The works were removed from the prison August 
I St, 1 877, and now occupy a depression on the east 
bank of the Outlet, on Aurelius Avenue. This 
company employ thirty hands and make about 
100,000 planes and plane irons per annum. The 
motive power is furnished by the Outlet, which 
has a fall at this point of \'j\ feet. George Casey 
came to Auburn from Dover, Dutchess County, 
in 1813, and, with the exception of Jasper Trow- 
bridge, has lived here longer than any other resi- 

The Auburn Collar Company manufacture 
horse collars of various designs in the prison. 
The business was commenced in 1 871, by Craw- 
ford Parks and Charles Pomeroy, under the title 
of the Dttrant Flag Collar Co., and continued by 
them till April 5th, 1872, when Byron C. Smith 
bought Mr. Pomeroy's interest, and C. C. Du- 
rant and S. B. Roby were admitted to partner- 
ship. In 1873 William H. Meaker bought Mr. 
Park's interest. Previous to the fire in the pris- 
on the company were engaged exclusively in the 
manufacture of the Durant flag collar, but after 
the fire, being unable to immediately procure 
flag with which to resume that business, and hav- 
ing a number of convicts on their hands to pro- 
vide work for, they began the manufacture of 
leather collars, and soon after changed their name 
to the Aiibnni Collar Co. The partnership was 
dissolved by limitation in April, 1877. S. B. Roby 
and Byron C. Smith withdrew previous to this 
time, the former's interest having been bought 
by James Gorsline in the spring of 1876, and the 
latter's by the company. The partnership was 
continued without further change till Nov. ist, 
1877, when Mrs. Chloe Wasson acquired an in- 
terest. July 1st, 1878, Jas. Gorsline retired from 
the firm and Mrs. Wasson also acquired his in- 
terest. The company employ a capital of about 
^20,000, and make about a hundred leather and 
fifty flag collars per day. They contract for 
fifty convicts, at fifty cents per day, but usually 
employ a number in excess of that. 

The Auf.urn Iron Works were built in 1853, 
by Chas. Richardson, who ran them till 1868. 
They remained idle till February, 1870, when 
they were bought by Messrs. Tuttle, Reed and 
Dennison and put in operation. In March, 1878, 
Messrs. Tuttle & Reed, the present proprietors, 
bought Mr. Dennison's interest. The works 
were built for the manufacture of car axles and 



were used for that purpose till 1859, when they 
were changed to a manufactory of bar iron 
and horseshoes, which was continued till the close 
of 1868, horseshoes being the principal article 
of manufacture. Thirty men are now employed 
in the manufacture of merchant iron. The 
capacity of the works is 1500 tons per annum. 
Their product in 1877 was iioo gross tons. 
The motive power is furnished by two engines, 
oneof eighty horse-power and the other of twenty 
They are supplied with a fifty horse-power steam 

Beardsley, Wheeler & Co., manufacturers 
of the Dodge mower and reaper at 19 Water 
street. These works were formerly occupied by 
the Dodge & Stevenson Mfg. Co., who com- 
menced the manufacture of these machines in 
1858, and continued till 1875, when they went 
into liquidation. They were bought at sheriff's 
sale by the above firm, who employ some twenty 
men about six months of the year, principally in 
the manufacture of parts to the machines now in 
use. During the prosperity of the Dodge & 
Stevenson Mfg. Co., these works gave employ- 
ment to 300 to 400 hands. 

Card Clothing Establishment. — In 1824 
Isaac C. Bradford came to Auburn from Coop- 
erstown,N. Y.,and commenced the manufacture 
of card clothing by hand, on Exchange street, 
nearly opposite the post-office. In 1829 he went 
East and bought three card-setting machines, 
and employed a workman here the same year to 
make others like them. About 1834 his brother 
became interested with him and they continued 
the business in company some two or three years. 
In 1840 the establishment was removed to a 
wooden building erected for the purpose, which 
occupied the site of the present three story brick 
building, which is 54 by 30 feet, was erected in 
1853, and is situated near the " big dam." In 
1841 Rufus Sargent, the present proprietor, 
bought an interest in the business and was asso- 
ciated with Horace Hotchkiss, under the name 
of Hotchkiss & Sargent. In 1842, Edmund 
Mortimer bought a halfof Hotchkiss' interest, and 
the name was changed to Hotchkiss, Sargent 
& Co. In 1843, John G. Hopkins bought Hotch- 
kiss' remaining interest, when the firm became 
Hopkins, Sargent & Co. In 1S45, Hopkins sold 
his interest to the remaining partners, who car- 
ried on the business under the name of Sargent 

& Mortimer, till February, 1855, when Mr. Sar- 
gent bought Mr. Mortimer's interest and has 
since conducted the business alone. Mr. Sar- 
gent uses a capital of about ;g20,ooo, and gives 
employment to nine hands, the work being done 
mostly by machinery. There are in use twenty- 
four card- setting machines, of diflcrcnt styles, 
adapted to all the kinds of cards in use. They 
are unique, complicated and ingeniously con- 
structed machines, and perform their work with 
rapidity and accuracy like intelligent automatons. 
The capacity of the establishment is about 24,000 
square feet of cards per annum. The annual 
product is valued at about $35,000. The motive 
power is furnished by water drawn from the east 
race, with a fall of twenty-four feet. This is the 
only establishment of the kind in the State, and 
there is only one other outside o( the New Eng- 
land States, at Philadelphia. There have been 
fifteen in the State within forty years, but all ex- 
cept this have succumbed. 

Isaac W. Quick, manufacturer of the im- 
proved Hussey combined mower and reaper, on 
Mechanic street. This machine was the first one 
to successfully cut grain. It was invented by 
Ovid Hussey and patented by him in 1837, the 
same year in which Cyrus H. McCormick took 
out his patent for the Virginia Reaper. McCor- 
mick's machine proved a failure, owing to a de- 
fect in the cutters. The Hussey machine had 
from the first the same style of cutters at present 
in use on all machines. Its manufacture was 
first begun in Baltimore by Ovid Hussey, and 
was continued there by him till his death during 
the war. About 1840, Thomas R. Hussey, 
brother of Ovid, commenced its manufacture in 
Auburn, in the old oil-mill which stood on the 
ground now occupied by the establishment of 
D. M. Osborne & Co. He subsequently re- 
moved to the site of the Osborne House, where 
he was in partnership with Charles Eldred. 
After a short time he returned to his original lo- 
cation, where he was burned out, when he re- 
moved to Mr. Quick's present location in 1864. 
November 22d, 1849, Isaac W. Quick and Geo. 
S. Hall, who were carrying on the grocery busi- 
ness under the name of Quick & Hall, bought a 
half interest with Hussey & Eldred. In 1850, 
Eldred sold his interest to the remaining part- 
ners. At the death of Hall, in 1S54, Mr. Quick 
bought his interest ; and in iS68he bought that 



of Mr. Hussey, since which time he has carried 
on the business alone. He uses a capital of 
about $15,000 ; gives employment to twelve to 
fifteen men ; and makes about 100 machines per 

Robert Peat, furniture manufacturer, on 
Franklin street. In 1825, Robert Peat, father of 
the present proprietor, who came to Auburn 
with his father's family from Hull, England, in 
1819, commenced the manufacture of furniture 
where his son's warerooms now are, on Market 
street, opposite the city hall, and continued there 
till his death in 185 i, when his sons Robert and 
Edward Lawrence succeeded him, under the 
name of R. & E L. Peat. In 1861, Robert 
bought his brother's interest and has since con- 
ducted the business alone. In 1848, the facilities 
for manufacturing were increased by renting a 
place on the site of E. C. Selover's brick building 
on East Genesee street, where, in February, 
1866, they were burned out. The present brick 
factory on Franklin street, which is 96 by 30 feet, 
with two stories and basement, was erected and 
occupied July 4th of that year. The office and 
warerooms occupy three adjoining buildings, with 
a frontage of 1 1 2 feet on Market street, and e.x- 
tending back forty feet. One is of wood, two 
stories, and forty feet front ; the others are of 
brick, each three stories high. Mr. Peat em- 
ploys twenty to twenty-five hands, and annually 
turns out goods valued at ^25,000. He also 
deals in furniture manufactured elsewhere. The 
machinery in the factory is propelled by a ten 
horse-power engine. 

W. W. Crane, founder and machinist at 27 
and 29 Water street. This business was estab- 
lished in 1839, by John Gaylord, who erected the 
foundry that year and the machine shop soon 
after 1846, the latter being used by him for fit- 
ting up plows, in the manufacture of which he 
was extensively engaged. Mr. Gaylord contin- 
ued the business till 1862, when he rented the 
property to Merrill, Wilder & Co., who first made 
use of the latter building as a machine shop- 
In 1875, W. W. Crane, W. C. Locke and Isaac 
Richardson rented the property, and earned on 
the business under the name of W. W. Crane & 
Co. till 1876, when Messrs. Locke and Richard- 
son retired from the firm, and Mr. Crane has 
since conducted the business alone. He has 
about ^16,000 invested in the business, and em- 

ploys some twenty-four men, about one-half of 
whom are engaged in the foundry. His monthly 
pay roll foots up to about g 1,000. He makes 
steam engines, and Jones' Little Giant Water- 
Wheel, both to order, of the latter about twenty 
per annum, for Geo. H. Jones, the patentee. 
His principal business is jobbing and general 
mill work. For the last seven months the casts 
have averaged three to four tons per day. 

L. M. Woodcock & Co., founders and ma- 
chinists, commenced business in October, 1876. 
They occupy the basement of L. W. Nye's car- 
pet factory for a machine shop, and a building 40 
by 60 feet, also owned by L. W. Nye, and erect- 
ed by him in 1S76, for an iron and brass foundry. 
The capital is ^10,000, and is furnished by Nye 
& Wait, who are members of the firm. They 
give employment to thirty or forty men, and 
make a specialty of gear cutting, besides doing 
a general jobbing business. 

The Stevens Thrasher Works were start- 
ed in the village of Genoa about 1838, by A. W. 
Stevens, a native of Genoa, where thirty to thirty- 
five men have been employed in the manufacture 
of thrashing machines, of which about fifty have 
been made per annum. These works were 
moved to Auburn, October ist, 1878, into the 
buildings formerly occupied by the Dodge & 
Stevenson Mfg. Co., which have been leased for 
a term of five years. With the increased facilities 
here afforded, they give employment to fifty men 
and turn out about 100 machines per annum. It 
is an important acquisition to the manufacturing 
interests of Auburn. 

J. H. Woodruff's Button P'actory. — This, 
though a comparatively recent, is a very impor- 
tant and valuable accession to the manufacturing 
interests of the cily. Mr. Woodruff, who is a 
native of Auburn, commenced the manufacture 
of composition and pearl buttons in New York 
city, in the summer of 1876. The following fall 
he transferred his works to Auburn, to the build- 
ing in the rear of the post-oflfice, formerly occu- 
pied by the A7ib7irn Paper Bag Company, em- 
ploying at first only ten hands. Such has been 
the rapid development of this business that, at 
the expiration of the second year, we find him 
not only giving steady employment to 200 per- 
sons, about one-half of whom are females, but 
reaching out for additional room and increased 
facilities ; the present condition of his business, 



he assures us, warranting the employment of an 
additional hundred hands. When we reflect that 
this business has been wholly built up during the 
prevalence of an almost unprecedented financial 
crisis and business depression, its results are 
simply astounding, and challenge the annals of 
manufacturing enterprise for a parallel. Mr. 
Woodruff is erecting on Logan street, a three 
story brick building, with basement, 132 feet 
front, with a wing running back 75 feet, and an 
independent boiler house 20 by 30 feet. His 
monthly pay roll exceeds $2,500; and the pro- 
duct of his factory 5,000 gross per month, all of 
which are shipped to a distant market. The pro- 
cess of manufacture is an interesting one, but the 
limits of this work will not admit of a descrip- 
tion of it. 

The Aubukn Glove and Mitten Company, 
No. 80 Genesee street. The proprietor is Ed- 
win R. Fay, who, in 1869, commenced the manu- 
facture of all kinds of gloves and mittens. He 
employs thirty persons, about two-thirds of whom 
are women. The average sales are about $4$,- 
000 per annum. 

Throop's Grain Cleaner Company, was in- 
corporated in 1867, and the business established 
in Syracuse in that year with a capital of ^100,- 
000, which has been reduced to $35,000. In 
1869, G. E. Throop, the present proprietor, ac- 
quired the whole interest, and in 1875 he removed 
the works to their present location, in the rear of 
Barber's south factory, by means of a shaft from 
which the motive power is furnished. Ten men 
are employed, and from 150 to 400 grain cleaners 
for flouring mills made per annum, besides con- 
siderable custom work in perforating sheet metal. 

Calvin W. Conklin, boiler maker. No. 38 
Water street, commenced business in 1872. He 
employs nine men, and makes about thirty boil- 
ers per annum, besides repair work. He was 
associated as partner with Alex. Forbes during 
the first two years. Mr. Conklin is reputed to 
be one of the best boiler makers in the State. 

Conniff & Yantch, manufacturers of agri- 
cultural implements, 43 State street. This busi- 
ness was established some twenty-five years since 
by Milton Alden & Son, who carried it on about 
fifteen years, till the death of the elder Alden, 
when it was sold to Merrill & Wilder, who con- 
tinued it for two or three years, and sold to S. D. 
Wackman & Co., by whom it was conducted two 

and a half years, till January 27th, 1876, and sold 
to the jjrcscnt proprietors, Jolin ConnifT and 
Godfried Yantch, who employ a capital of about 
$10,000, give employment to ten men, and make 
a specialty of Alden's patent horse-hoe and cul- 
tivator, of which about 400 are made per annum. 

The Stone Mill, at the junction of Genesee 
and E. Genesee streets, is owned and occupied 
by Orlando Lewis, who, in company with E. C. 
Hall, bought the property of Wm. Hills, May ist, 
1865, for $32,500. In 1870, Mr. Lewis bought 
his partner's interest, and has since been alone 
in the management. He came here from Sjien- 
cer, Tioga county, in 1857, and was ctigngcd in 
the lumber business previous to purchasing the 
mill property. The present mill was built in 
1S25 '6, by John H. Hardenbergh, son of Col. 
John L. Hardenbergh, the first settler in Auburn. 
It occupies the site of the old log mill built by 
the latter soon after his settlement here, and the 
plank mill, with which that was soon after 
replaced. The log mill was twenty-one feet 
square, and is variously stated to have contained 
one and two run of stones. Its attendant was 
accustomed, it is said, to gauge his grists, and 
leave the mill to do its own grinding, allowing it 
to run in this manner night and day. The second 
and third mills on this site were each built to 
meet the increased demands which were in e.xcess 
of the capability of their predecessors. The pres- 
ent mill contains si.x run of stones, four for wheat 
and two for feed, which are propelled by water 
from the Outlet, with a fall of twelve and a half 
feet. It gives employment to eight men. Its 
capacity is 1 10 to 120 barrels of flour per day of 
twenty-four hours. Mr. Lewis has twice rebuilt 
the interior, the last time in 1875, when $10,000 
were expended in supplying the most improved 
modern mill machinery and adapting it to the 
manufacture of flour by the new process. It is 
both a custom and flouring mill, about one-third 
of its business being custom work. 

The Auburn City Mills, on Mechanic street, 
were built in 1838, by Sherman Beardsley, who 
run them several years. In 1870, Chas. P. Burr 
bought a half interest of John Y. Selover, who 
had run them some five or six years. In 1871, 
Mr. Burr bought Mr. Selover's remaining interest, 
and formed a cupartnership with Chas. E. Thorne, 
under the name of Burr & Thorne. The mill is 
a substantial stone structure, containing four 



stories besides basement. The main part is 
strictly a flouring mill, and was provided in 1873 
with an entire new set of machinery, with espe- 
cial reference to the manufacture of flour by the 
new process. It contains five run of stones, 
which are capable of grinding about 200 barrels 
of new process flour per day of twenty-four hours; 
flour made by the new process requiring about 
double the time consumed in its manufacture by 
the ordinary process. In 1875, the addition 
formerly used as a wheel-house, when an over- 
shot wheel was employed, was converted into a 
grist-mill, and two run of stones put in, one for 
flour and one for feed, the former with a capacity 
of converting 100 bushels of wheat into flour, and 
the latter of grinding 400 bushels of feed per day. 
The motive power is furnished by means of a 
race, which draws water from the " big dam," 
and gives a fall of twenty-six feet. Five men and 
a capital of about $75,000 are employed in operat- 
ing the mills. This firm were the first to do a 
strictly flouring business in Auburn. They 
started that enterprise in 1873, when their mill 
was supplied with new machinery, and have suc- 
ceeded in placing Auburn flour in markets in 
which it was previously unknown. They have 
thus been instrumental in largely improving the 
local wheat market. They are buying about 
100,000 bushels of wheat per annum ; and made 
in 1877 a little over 20,000 barrels of flour. 

The Aurelius Avenue Mills, owned by 
John S. Bristol, who acquired possession in April, 
1878, consist of a grist and flouring mill, with 
four run of stones, and a saw mill, containing one 
muley saw, which are operated by water from the 
Outlet. They occupy the site of the mills erected 
by Jehial Clark, in 1798; indeed the massive 
timbers used in the frame-work of those struc- 
tures enter into the composition of the present 
ones, they having been used in the construction 
of the " Mayflower Mills," by which name they 
were formerly known. This property has passed 
through the hands of several different owners, 
among whom are Edward Allen, Llewellyn and 
James Davis and Messrs. Coe & Slee. 

Francis Ditton, tanner and currier and har- 
ness maker and dealer, Nos. 16 and 18 Mechanic 
street, commenced the harness business in 1858. 
In June, 1877, he formed a copartnership with 
his nephew Thomas Ditton, and in that year they 
erected the building now occupied as a tannery, 

at a cost of $2,000, and commenced the manu- 
facture of harness leather to be used by them in 
the manufacture of harness. The tannery con- 
tains thirteen vats and turns out about six hun- 
dred sides per annum. Two men are employed 
in the tannery and ten in the manufacture of 
harness and trunks. In July, 1878, Francis 
Ditton bought his nephew's interest. He pur- 
poses soon to enlarge the capacity of the tan- 

S. W. Palmer & Co., manufacturers of snow 
shovels and laundry machines, the latter consist- 
ing of washer, wringer and mangle combined, 
are located on Mechanic street, near the Auburn 
City Mills. In 1855, S. W. & J. F. Palmer com- 
menced the manufacture of bench planes. In 
1863, J. F. Palmer sold his interest to Charles 
Coventry. In 1871 the partnership was dis- 
solved, S. W. Palmer continuing the business in 
company with C. M. Palmer, who compose the 
present firm. Their capital is about $10,000. 
They usually employ ten hands, but have em- 
ployed twenty during the larger portion of the 
past year. In 1877 they made 30,000 snow 
shovels and io,ooo ash sieves. They made during 
the year 1878, 20,000 wash boards and 1,000 
churns. They have made about 50,000 washing 
machines. They occupy the building erected by 
Sherman Beardsley, shortly previous to 1840, for 
a distillery, for which purpose it was used till 
soon after the beginning of the war, when Wil- 
liam H. Halladay converted it into a machine 
shop and erected the addition now occupied by 
Isaac W. Quick, and C. J. Schweinfurth. 

D. P. G. & W. O. Everts & Co., contractors 
and builders, and proprietors of the sash, door 
and blind factory, at the " big dam." The busi- 
ness was commenced in 1864, by D. P. G. & W. 
O. Everts, in the old Selover building, which 
stood on the site of the brick block now occu- 
pied by Sartwell, Hough & Co., on Genesee St. 
After two or three years they formed a copart- 
nership with Joshua Burt, David Simpson, James 
E. Tyler, Israel Shoemaker, Josiah Douglass and 
Adam Miller, under the name of Burt, Simpson 
& Co., and took a prison contract for the manu- 
facture of sash, doors and blinds, which business 
was continued under various names till 1873. In 
the winter of 1868-9, the Everts withdrew from 
the firm and bought the property formerly owned 
by the Auburn Tool Company. In August, 



1870, the building was burned and their present 
bricic structure, 56 by 45 feet, two stories and 
basement, with an engine room 28 by 40 feet, 
was erected the same year at a cost of about 
$5,000. In 1869, William S. Everts was ad- 
mitted to partnership and the firm name was 
changed to D. P. G. & VV. O. Everts & Co. 
They give employment to nine men. They draw 
water from the " big dam," and have a fall of 
twenty-one feet. 

John L. Selover, proprietor of the planing 
mill on East Genesee street, opposite Seminary 
Avenue, commenced business in 1874. The 
capital invested is about $2,000. Three men are 
employed. The motive power is furnished by 
a twenty horse-power engine. 

Anderson & Dyek, proprietors of the planing 
mill at 18 Market street, commenced business in 
1866, on the site of Sartwell, Hough & Co.'s shoe 
factory, where they were burned out the same 
year. They then bought the site they now occu- 
py of Robert Peat, paying therefor $1,500, and 
erected the two story brick building the same 
year. They have a capital of about $6,000, and 
employ four men. The motor is a twenty horse- 
power engine. 

H. G. TiiOKNTON, proprietor of the file factory, 
at 19 Market street, commenced business in 1865. 
He occupies a brick building 22 by 120 feet, the 
front half being two stories and the rear half, 
one story high, erected by him in 18G6. He has 
a capital of $25,000 invested in the business, 
employs 25 hands, and makes about 25,000 files 
of all sizes per annum. 

Reynolds & Co., manufacturers of steel cul- 
tivator teeth and workers in all kinds of sheet 
metal, are located on Washington street near 
Barber's mills. The busin'ess was established in 
1861, on Mechanic street, near the Auburn City 
Mills, by Asa R. Reynolds and his sons Samuel 
P., Mark and Napoleon. Mark died in 1862. 
The business was continued till 1868, when their 
father withdrew, and C. Eugene and William C. 
Barber were admitted to partnership, the name 
was changed to Reynolds, Barber & Co., and the 
manufacture of the clover leaf plane-irons v;as 
added to the business and continued till 1871. 
In 1869, Samuel F. Reynolds and C. Eugene 
Barber bought the interest of Napoleon Rey- 
nolds, and the following year that of William C. 
Barber. In 1871 the partnership was dissolved, 

and Barber went to Europe as agent for the 
Champion reaper, of Springfield, Ohio, in vyhich 
business he is still engaged. Samuel F. Rey- 
nolds resumed the business in 1875, and in 1877, 
C. C. Trowbridge became his partner, and the 
business has since been conducted under the 
name of Reynolds & Co. In the latter year they 
removed to their present location. They em- 
ploy a capital of about $10,000, and give employ- 
ment to some ten men during the winter. 

Charles F. Guion, manufacturer of sash, 
doors and blinds, corner of Aurelius avenue and 
Wadsworth street, commenced business in 1SC6, 
in company with C. G. Milk, under the name of 
C. G. Milk &Co., who carried on the business 
till the death of Milk in 1870, when Guion bought 
his interest. He employs a capital of about $15,- 
000, and generally about twenty persons. The 
motive power is furnished by the Outlet, which 
has a fall of eleven feet. 

Thomas Peacock, wood worker, at 20, 22 and 
24 Dill street, commenced business in April, i S77, 
at which time he took a prison contract for one 
year. At the expiration of that time he removed 
to his present location. He bought the building 
of "the heirs of the late John H. Chedell, paying 
therefor a little less than $4,000. The capital 
invested is about $10,000. He employs twenty 
hands, and manufactures 10,000 children's sleds, 
15,000 snow shovels, 60,000 wash-boards, and 
100,000 fork, hoe and rake handles per annum. 

Charles H. Shaplev, pattern maker, 25 Wa- 
ter street, came to Auburn in the spring of 1865, 
having served nearly four years in the army, 
where he was wounded at Winchester, Va., by a 
rifle shot in the hip, and left unattended upon the 
field under the supposition that he could not live. 
After working four years under instructions with 
Merrill Brothers and B. B. Snow & Co., he com- 
menced business for himself at his present loca- 
tion, February 1st, 1874. He employs one man 
besides himself and occasionally two. 

Charles J. Schweinfurth, carver, turner 
and pattern maker, on Mechanic street, com- 
menced business in 1858, at 89 State street, and 
in 1866 removed to his present location. He 
employs three men, and is largely engaged in 
making pulpits, church furniture, baptismal fonts, 

Wm. Sutcliffe, brewer and maltster, 88 and 
90 Clark street, commenced business in i860, in 



company with his father, Henry C. Sutcliffe, and 
his brother, John, under the name of Sutcliite & 
Sons. Henry C. Sutcliffe died January ist, 1876, 
and John, in October of the same year, since 
which time the business has been conducted in 
the above name. The brewery and malt house 
is 200 by 60 feet, three stories, and built of brick. 
The capacity of the brewery is forty barrels per 
day ; and of the malt house 15,000 bushels. This 
building was erected in 1868, on the site of the 
one erected in i860, which had become too small 
to meet the demands of the increased business. 
A brick beer vault, sixty feet square, two stories 
high, was erected in 1874. An addition 86 by 30 
feet is now being built to the malt house, which 
will increase its' capacity to 20,000 bushels. 
Eight men are employed, and about 5,000 barrels 
of ale and lager made per annum, requiring a 
capital of ^70,000. 

BuRTis & Son, brewers and maltsters, 32 and 
34 Water street. The business was started some 
thirty years ago by Thomas W. Cornell and 
Cary S. Burtis, under the name of Cornell & 
Co., who carried on the business some ten years, 
when Robert Syme bought Cornell's interest and 
the name was changed to Burtis & Co. After 
four or five years Burtis bought Syme's interest, 
and in 1867 admitted his son Edwin C. to part- 
nership. The brewery is 40 by 140 feet, and 
the malt house 30 by 100 feet, with a capacity of 
about 20,000 bushels ; both are two stories high. 
Eight men and a capital of ^40,000 are employed, 
and 2,000 to 3,000 barrels of ale and lager made 
per annum. 

G. S. Fanning, brewer and maltster, 3 and 5 
Garden street, commenced business 101864, in 
company with Norman H. Kennedy, whose in- 
terest he bought in 1868. He employs a capital 
of ^65,000, and thirteen men. The brewery is 
88 by 35 feet, with three stories and basement ; 
and its capacity 7,000 barrels of ale per annum. 
An addition of 82 by 35 feet is being built for 
the manufacture of lager, with a capacity of 10,- 
000 barrels per annum. The malt house is 119 
by 55 feet, with two stories and basement, and is 
provided with patent iron kilns. Its capacity is 
50,000 bushels. He is now making twenty-five 
barrels of ale per week. 

Wm. Koenig, brewer and maltster, corner of 
State and Grant streets, commenced business in 
1868, in which year his brewery was erected. 

He employs three men, and makes about twenty 
barrels of lager per day. 

Edwin B. Parmelee, maltster. Barber street, 
near Washington, erected his malt house in 1875. 
It is a large stone structure, with a capacity of 
about 40,000 bushels per annum. 

Mrs. M. J. ScHicHT, manufacturer of paper 
and cigar boxes, 13 Hoffman street, office 76 
Genesee street, 2d floor. The business was 
commenced in 1S68, by R. Schicht & Co., and 
conducted by them about six years, when it came 
into the hands of the present proprietor. The 
capital invested is about |^4,ooo. Fifteen to 
twenty-five persons are employed, mostly girls, 
and about 1,000 boxes made daily. 

The AunuRN Oil Works, Corner of Clark and 
Monroe streets, J. A. Cook, proprietor. The 
works were erected in 1864, for an oil refinery, 
by Burgess Bros., who failed in 1868. In i86g, 
Mr. Cook leased the property, in company with 
Enos Laney, whose interest in the stock and 
fixtures he bought in the fall of that year. In 
April, 1875, he bought the buildings, and has 
since increased the capacity of the works four- 
fold by the introduction of additional machinery. 
Mr. Cook is also a dealer in oils of various kinds, 
and is handling about 8,000 barrels per annum. 
For the last eight years, with but two or three 
exceptions, each month's business shows an in- 
crease as compared with the corresponding 
months of previous years, and during the whole 
period has increased from 2,200 to 8,000 barrels 
per annum. The capital invested is about ^15,- 
000 ; the number of men employed, four. 

Coventry & Co., (P. V. R. Coventry and N. 
H. Kennedy,) cigar manufacturers, Genesee 
street. This firm commenced business in July, 
1874, Mr. Coventry having been engaged in the 
business some thirty-five years, a part of the time 
in company with his uncle, Chas. Coventry. 
They give employment to nineteen persons, and 
make 200,000 cigars per annum. 

The Centennial File Works, 15 Garden 
street, were established in 1876, by Wm. A. 
Dolphin and Frederick Tesh, the present pro- 
prietors. They employ three persons and make 
about ^60 worth of files per week. Their prin- 
cipal business is recutting 

John Elliott, proprietor of soap and candle 
factory, 27 Garden street, commenced the busi- 
ness in 1854. He employs three persons, and is 

[Photo hy Ernsberger A Ray.] 


Mr. Robert White was born in Aurelius, 
Cayup;a County, N. Y., June 27th, 1829, and is 
the eldest son of William and Elizabeth White, 
who had six children, of whom but three are now 
living. Robert, during his boyhood days, worked 
on the farm a large portion of each year, attend- 
ing district school in the winter until arriving at 
the age of nineteen, when he ap.prenticed himself 
to Mr. S. S. Worden of Skaneateles, to learn the 
j carriage and sleigh business He remained with 
him for two years and then completed his trade 
under other instructors. He then came to Au- 
burn and engaged with the firm of J. & G. Clapp, 
remaining with them for three years. In the 


spring of 1855 he purchased the business of Ap- 
plegate & Seymour, and took his brother William 
as partner, continuing the business under the 
firm name of R. & W. H. White. In 1858, the 
business not being successful, the firm dissolved, 
W. H. retiring. Robert continued the business 
alone until 1878, when R. G. Rowe entered into 
partnership with him under the tirm name of 
White & Rowe, located at No. 22 Dill street, 
Auburn, N. Y. 

In 1 862, he married Mary A. Dougall, daughter 
of George and Margaret Dougall, of Fleming. 
They have had four children, Gertrude E , Mary 
E., Margaret and George Robert. 



making about 8,000 pounds of soap and 60,000 
pounds of candles per annum. 

The manufacture of wagons and carriages en- 
gages the attention of several individuals and 
firms, prominent among whom arc : 

Charles E. Mills, 20 East Genesee street. 

Jamks a. Stevens, i Seminary avenue. 

B. Cook & Co., 22 and 24 Dill street. 

S. Wakburton, State street, opposite the 

White & Rowe, 22 Dill street. 

HoRNE & Slayton, 20 Water street. 

Although the business consists largely in re- 
pairing, the capital invested aggregates about 
$12,000; about thirty men find employment, and 
over one hundred wagons and carriages are made 

Some t wen ty-si.\ individuals find employment in 
the manufacture of cigars under various proprie- 
tors, among whom are : 

Edwin D. Parker, 14 State street. 

Vanderbosch Bros., 21 Dill street. 

John E. Percy, 82 State street. 

Jno. B. Richardson, 6gl Genesee street. 

W. H. Zeim', 5 North street. 

H. B. Fay, 5 Exchange street. 

W. H. S. HuRLBERT, 121 Genesee street. 

Martin Bricks, State street, near Water. 

Some $20,000 capital is used in this business, 
and 77,000 cigars made per month. 

A. McCrea, 12 State street, employs nine 
persons in the manufacture of confectionery, of 
which from $35,000 to $40,000 worth are made 
per annum. 

Trowbridge & Jennings and Senter & Car- 
penter, the former at 9 Exchange street, and 
the latter at 127 Genesee street, each employ 
two men in the manufacture of frames, in which 
business some $18,000 are invested. 

John B. Gaylord, iron founder, at the head 
of Mann street, is agent for his daughter, Mary 
Ann Gaylord, in the manufacture of plows and 
all kinds of job castings, which business he com- 
menced the latter part of February, 1878, the 
building he occupies having been erected the 
preceding January. Mr. Gaylord first com- 
menced the foundry business in 1839, in the 
buildings now occupied by W. W. Crane, which 
were erected by him, and rented in 1862, to 
Merrill, Wilder & Co. He did an extensive busi- 
ness there, and in 1872-4 built the Gaylord 

House. He lost a handsome property by ex- 


ng pecuniary accommodations to his friends. 


History of Aut.urn, (Continued.) 

Wholesale Dealers — Bank of Auburn — 
James S. Seymour — Cayuga County Bank — 
Auburn Savings Bank — National Ex- 
change Bank OF Auburn— Wm. H. Seward 
& Co.'s Banking House— First National 
Bank of Auburn - Cayuga Co. Savings 

THE wholesale JMisincss ol Aiibuni is not 
extensive, aside from that which is inci- 
dental to its manufacturing interests, and whicli 
has been noticed in that connection. 

Dunning & Co., are the most prominent whole- 
sale dealers. They deal in hardware and mer- 
chant, bar and pig iron, and are located at I02 
and 104 Genesee street, corner of Exchange. 
The business was established in 1836, by I. F. 
Terrill, who conducted the business till 1850, 
when A. W. Johnson was admitted to partner- 
ship, and the business was carried on under the 
name of Terrill & Johnson, till 1864, when F. 
M.. Terrill, son of I. F. Terrill, became a partner 
and the firm name was changed to Terrill, John- 
son & Co. In 1S67J. W. Dunning, who had 
been with the concern since i860, was admitted 
to partnership, without any change in the firm 
name. In 1871, Mr. Johnson retired from the 
business, but the name was retained till the ex- 
piration of the partnership in 1873, when a new 
partnership was formed under the style of Ter- 
rill & Dunning, the parties interested being F. M. 
Terrill and J. W. Dunning, general partners, and 
S. J. Terrill, special partner. This partnership 
was renewed by the same parties at its expiration 
March ist, 1876, for three years. At the death of 
F. M. Terrill, June 5th, 1877, a new partnership 
was formed by J. W. Dunning and A. W. John- 
son, general partners, and S. J. Terrill, special 
partner, under the name of Dunning & Co., to 
last for five years from March ist, 1877. The 
business was first begun in the Exchange Block, 
in the store now occupied by A. T. Miller. In 



1869-70 their present fine four-story brick build- 
ing was erected and occupied by them in Novem- 
ber of the latter year. They employ a capital of 
$60,000. The business rapidly increased from 
;^6o,ooo in i860 to $500,000 in 1866, and con- 
tinued at the latter figures two or three years ; 
but as prices declined it diminished to about 
$300,000 per year, which it averaged till 1877, 
when, by the addition of some lines, it increased 
to $400,000. 

They occupy the entire four floors of their large 
store, besides a large adjoining iron warehouse 
on Exchange street. 

Edward D. Parkek, wholesale liquor dealer, 
7 State street, commenced business in 1870, in 
company with Wm. M. Thomas, under the name 
of Thomas & Co. At the death of Mr. Thomas, 
April 15th, 1878, Mr. Parker acquired his interest. 
The capital invested is about $25,000. The an- 
nual sales are about $48,000, but the business 
has declined as compared with former years. 

Adam Eckekt, wholesale liquor dealer, 27 
Genesee street, commenced business in the 
spring of 1871, in company with his brother, 
Francis Eckert Jr., whose interest he bought in 
August, 1875, since which time he has conducted 
the business alone. He employs a capital of 
$S,ooo. The sales, which were between $19,000 
and $20,000 the first year, increased till 1873, 
since which time they have diminished to about 
what they were the first year, by reason of the 
necessity for a more rigid scrutiny of the con- 
dition of those to whom credits are extended. 

Charles F. Smith, wholesale and retail dealer 
in crockery, 83 Genesee street, commenced busi- 
ness in March, 1877, with a stock valued at $6,- 
GOO, which he has since increased to $12,000 to 
$15,000. flis sales have been largely increased 
and necessitated the fitting up of a basement for 
storage and the accommodation of his wholesale 


The banking business of Auburn was an out- 
growth of its manufacturing and commercial in- 
terests, to the convenient and successful transac- 
tion of which banks were indispensable. The 
business of the village had been transacted for 
about twenty years without them and their 
necessity was so apparent as to unite the wealth- 

ier men of the County in a project for organizing 
a bank. 

The National Bank of Auburn, on Genesee 
street, opposite State street, was incorporated 
March 31st, 18 17, as the. Bank of Aiibjirn, with a 
nominal capital of $200,000, which was not paid 
in full till 1835. At a meeting held at the house 
of Canfield Coe, July 7th, 1817, Nathaniel Garrow, 
Enos T. Throop, George Leitch, John Bowman, 
James Porter, Archy Kasson, Hezekiah Good- 
win, Horace Hills, Walter Weed, David Brincker- 
hoft', Wm, McCartey, Joseph Cott and Thomas 
Mumford, all of whom are dead, were elected 
directors. Thomas Mumford was elected Presi- 
dent and held the office two years, when Daniel 
Kellogg was chosen and performed the duties of 
theofficetill 1835. He was succeeded by John 
H. Beach, who retained the office till 1839, 
when choice was made of George F. Leitch, who 
served in that capacity till Dec. 24th, 1845, when 
Cornelius Cuyler was elected. He was succeeded 
in 1849 by James S. Seymour, who performed 
the responsible duties of the office till his death 
Dec. 3d, 1875. C. H. Merriman was President 
one year, and was succeeded by S. L. Bradley, the 
present incumbent. The first cashier was James 
S. Seymour, who performed the duties of that 
office till he was chosen president in 1849. C. H. 
Merriman succeeded to the cashiership, and he 
also retained that position till he was promoted 
to the presidency in 1875. He was succeeded 
by James Seymour, who still holds the office, and 
who performed the duties of teller of this bank 
from 1850 till promoted to the cashiership. With 
the exception of Thomas Alcott of Albany, Mr. 
James S. Seymour was, at the time of his death, 
the oldest bank officer in the State, he having 
performed the duties of cashier and president in 
this bank a period of fifty-eight years. To his 
energy, prudence and ability, is the success of 
this institution very largely due. His memory 
is redolent of good deeds and kindly acts. 

He needs no other monument to endear his 
memory to posterity, than his own beneficent 
gifts. His noble charities evince at once, the 
purity of his character and the wisdom of his 
judgment. Religion and learning, the orphans, 
the dependent poor, and the sick, were all re- 
membered, and he made a wise and liberal pro- 
vision for each and all. Calvary Church, the 
Seymour Library, the Orphan Asylum, the Old 



Ladies' Home, and the Auburn Hospital were 
but a part of the objects upon which he bestowed 
liberal proportions of his large estate, furnishing 
in his beneficence, and in his wise discrimination 
of objects, an admirable model for the imitation 
of the opulent. 

Mr. Merriman held the positions of teller, 
cashier and president of this bank forty-two 
years, and until ill health compelled him to retire. 
This was the first bank in Auburn, and it has 
exerted a vast and beneficial influence upon the 
material interests of the community, although it 
was its misfortune, at an early day, to experience 
much bitter opposition from certain of its share- 
holders, who contended for its control, and sought 
to accomplish that purpose by eftbrts to depress 
its stock. But, happily, it outlived that antago- 
nism, and although it has passed through many 
hard struggles and sustained many losses, it has, 
upon the whole, been very successful. The total 
amount of dividends paid to its stockholders to 
July, 1 878, is $1,290,202, which is alittlemore than 
ten and a Iialf Y>er cent, per annum on the present 
capital, which was not paid in full till 1835. The 
change in name occurred Aug. 17th, 1S65, when 
it became a National Bank. The bank first oc- 
cupied a room in Demaree's tavern which was 
fitted up for its use, and removed thence to the 
handsome brick building now occupied, which 
was erected for its use in 18 18. Following is the 
official report to June 29th, 1S78 : 

Loans and Discounts $442,514 72 


U. S. Bonds to secure circulation, 

(par value) 

U. S. Bonds on hand, (par value)-_ 
Other Stocks, Bonds and Mortgages, 
Due from approved Reserve Agents, 

Due from other National Banks 

Due from State Banks and Bankers. 

Real Estate $3,408 15 

Furniture and Fixtures, 500 00 
Checks and other cash items, includ- 
ing stamps 

Bills of other Banks 

Fractional Currency, (including 


Silver Coin 

Legal Tender Notes 

Redemption Fund with U. S. Treas- 
urer, (not more than five per cent, 
on circulation) 

.S75 57 



30,000 oo 

7.540 00 

31.072 49 

4.067 98 

27S 94 





132 50 

1.774 9' 

21,750 00 


Cajiital Stock paid in j 

Surplus Fund 

Undivided Profits 

Circulating Notes received from 

Comptroller $154,800 

Less amount on hand with 

Comptroller for burning- 1,000 

Dividends Unpaid 

Individual Deposits subject 

to Check $178,488 97 

Demand Certificates of 

Deposit 77.3S0 23 

Due to other National Banks 

Due to State Banks and Bankers.. 
Bills Payable 

,000 00 
,000 00 
,286 06 

,800 00 
I, III 00 

255,869 20 
$738,600 8z 

208 81 
325 76 00 

$738,600 83 

The Cayuga County Natu)Nal Bank, 43 
Genesee St., was incorporated March 14th, 1833, 
under the safety fund banking law of the State 
of New York, with a capital of $250,000, which 
was r.educed in October, 1874, to $200,000. As 
an evidence of the prosperity of the village at 
that time, the abundance of money and the con- 
fidence in banking, it may be stated that five 
times the amount required for the cajiital of this 
bank was subscribed, of which each subscriber 
could hold but his/zv rain share. The first Di- 
rectors were Geo. B. Throop, Nathaniel Gar- 
row, John Seymour, Robert Muir, Fleazer Hills, 
Isaac S. Miller, Levi Lewis, Stephen Van Anden, 
Rowland Day, Peter Yawger, Wm. H. Noble, 
Sherman Beardsley, and Charles Pardee, all of 
whom have long since passed away, e.Ncept the 
last, who died a few months since, while residing 
at Skaneateles. Nathaniel Garrow was elected 
President and held that ofifice till his death, in 
1839. He was succeeded by John Beardsley, 
who performed the duties of that ofifice till 1843, 
when, having been appointed agent and warden 
of Auburn Prison, he resigned, and his son, Nel- 
son Beardsley, was elected to that position and 
has since held it. The latter gentleman accepted 
the position at a time when its duties were ex- 
tremely onerous, and with the full expectation of 
speedily resuming his professional duties. The 
interests of the bank were very much depressed, 
and he came into office as the representative of 
a party who realized that its condition required 
1 heroic treatment to restore it to a sound financial 

I So 


basis. The task was a herculean one, but Mr. 
Beardsley's persistent and well-directed efforts 
have been rewarded with a most gratifying suc- 
cess, though he has not felt at liberty to resume 
legal practice until it was too late to be desirable 
to do so. Geo. B. Throop was elected cashier 
and held that office till late in 1840. In January, 
1841, Josiah N. Starin was selected to fill the 
position vacated by Mr. Throop, and performed 
the duties it devolved upon him, till June, 1873, 
when he resigned and was succeeded by A. L. 
Palmer, the present incumbent, who had pre- 
viously acted in the capacity of teller, succeeding 
Geo. Pomeroy. On Mr. Palmer's promotion to 
the cashiership, Chas. C. Button, who for four- 
teen years previously had been discount clerk, 
became teller, a position he still occupies. Jan- 
uary 1st, 1863, the bank was reorganized under 
the general banking law of the State, with the title 
of Cayuga County Bank, under which it did busi- 
ness till 1865, when it became a national bank, 
under its present title. The building now occu- 
pied by the bank was erected in 1834, at a cost of 
^35,000. It is a plain, substantial structure, 
built of Cayuga limestone. It was repaired dur- 
ing the year 1878, at a cost of $5,000, and is 
now commodious and convenient. The upper 
rooms have been fitted up for offices. 

Following is an official report of its condition 
June 29th, 1878 : 


Loans and Discounts 1^528,674 51 

Overdrafts 413 18 

U. S. Bonds to secure circulation. 200,000 00 

Other Stocks, Bonds and Mort- 
gages 8,040 00 

Due from approved reserve agents, 57,577 20 

Due from other National Banks__ 5,167 80 

Due from State Banks and Bank- 
ers 3,448 89 

Real Estate, furniture and fixtures, 23,500 00 

Checks and other cash items 6,618 13 

Bills of other Banks 7.365 00 

Fractional Currency, (including 

nickels) 70 28 

Specie, (including gold Treasury 

Certificates) 1,017 60 

Legal Tender Notes 27,000 00 

Redemption Fund with U. S. 
Treasurer, (five per cent, of cir- 
culation) 9,000 00 

Total 1^877,892 59 


Capital Stock paid in $200,000 00 

Surplus Fund 7,000 00 

Undivided Profits 7,070 22 

National Bank Notes outstanding. 180,000 00 

Dividends unpaid 40 00 

Individual deposits subject to 

check 174,224 61 

Demand Certificates of Deposit-- 252,155 94 

Due to other National Banks. . . . 13.478 60 

Due to State Banks and Bankers- 1.923 22 

Notes and Bills re-discounted 42,000 00 

Total $877,892 59 

The present Directors are: Nelson Beardsley, 
A. G. Beardsley, M. S. Myers, W. E. Hughitt, T. 
J. Munro, David Titus, R. A. Nelson, Chas. N. 
Ross, Elmore P. Ross, and D. Warren Adams. 
The bank has sustained some serious reverses, 
but on the whole has enjoyed a very fair degree 
of prosperity. The average annual dividend dur- 
ing the whole period of its existence is eight and 
onc-fonrtli per cent. 

The Auburn Savings Bank was organized 
under a charter granted by the Legislature of 
New York, March 19th, 1849, as the Auburn 
Savings Institution, and its name changed by act 
of the Legislature, April 24th, 1869. The first 
trustees were Charles B. Perry, Nelson Beards- 
ley, Daniel Hewson, Thomas Y. How, Jr., C. C. 
Dennis, John Olmsted, John L. Watrous, Syl- 
vester Willard, James O. Derby, Spencer Par- 
sons, Samuel Blatchford and J. N. Starin ; Wil- 
liam Beach, the thirteenth trustee, being absent. 
Judge Charles B. Perry was elected President, 
and Charles P. Wood, Treasurer, each of whom 
filled his respective position till his death, the 
former, December 30th, 1859, and the latter Oc- 
tober 7th, 1878. T\\e. Institution began business 
on Saturday, May 19th, 1849, in the front room, 
second story, north side of Genesee street, over 
the store then occupied by A. W. Hollister & 
Co., and owned by Eleazer Hills, the room being 
now a part of the carpet room of Charles A. Lee. 
The rate of interest allowed on deposits to Janu- 
ary, 1854, was four per cent. At that date it 
was increased to five per cent., and subsequently 
to six per cent, per annum ; but the statute now 
provides that it shall not exceed five per cent, 
per annum. In 1859, having outgrown its sec- 
ond story office, it was removed to the south side 
of Genesee street, occupying the ground floor of 
No. 72, a building erected for it by Alonzo G. 




Beardsley. January iSth, i860, Sylvester Wil- 
lard, M. D., was elected President, in place of 
Charles B. Perry, deceased, and still continues in 
that office. In 1S69, purchases of ground were 
made and plans arranged for the erection of the 
handsome and commodious banking house on 
the corner of Genesee and South streets. This 
building was completed in 1871, and occupied by 
the Bank on the 19th of May of that year, the 
twenty-second anniversary of its business e.xist- 

From the date of its removal to 72 Gene- 
see street, where it first assumed the outward 
appearance of a bank, it grew rapidly in favor, 
its deposits steadily increased, and in 1876, 
reached the aggregate of $2,042,253, including 
surplus. The aggregate deposit, including sur- 
plus, July 1st, 1878, the date of the last report 
to the Bank Department, was $1,660,975. Since 
its organization, it has dealt with 22,800 deposi- 
tors, and has paid them, in interest alone, more 
than $1,100,000. The present number of open 
accounts is about 6,600. The present trustees 
and officers are : Sylvester Willard, M .D., Presi- 
dent; John Olmsted, first Vice-President ; Jos. 
Osborn, second Vice-President ; Nelson Beards- 
ley, Attorney ; David Wright, Isaac S. Allen, 
Lorenzo W. Nye, John W. Haight, S. L. Brad- 
ley, I. F. Terrill, D. M. Osborne, Dennis R. Al- 
ward and William C. Beardsley. P2dward H. 
Townsend, the Assistant Treasurer, has held that 
position nineteen years. 

The National Exchange Bank, corner of 
Genesee and South streets, was organized Jan- 
uary 30th, 1856, as The Auburn Excliauge Bank, 
under the law of April i8th, 1838, entitled "an 
act to authorize the business of banking," with a 
capital of $150,000, which was increased to $200,- 
000 in February, 1857. The first directors were 
W. T. Graves, W. C. Beardsley, Sedgwick Aus- 
tin, Charles G. Briggs, Nathan Burr, Cary S. 
Burtis and J. Ives Parsons. W. T. Graves was 
unanimously elected President, and W. C. 
Beardsley appointed Cashier, March 5th, 1856. 
Hezekiah Earll of Skaneateles was elected 
Vice-President, April 21st, 1856, and was suc- 
ceeded by Nathan Burr, June 24th, 1862. Jan- 
uary 26th, 1S63, C. S. Burtis was elected Vice- 
President, and A. G. Beardsley, Director, to fill 
vacancies occasioned by the death of Nathan 

The resignation of W. T. Graves as President^ 
was tendered January 26th, 1S64, and accepted 
January 30th, 1864, with highly complimentary 
resolutions. At the latter date Wm. C. Beards- 
ley, the former Cashier, was elected President, 
and John Y. Bostwick, Cashier, to fill the vacan- 
cy occasioned by the promotion of Mr. Beards- 
ley. Lyman Soule was elected Director and 
Vice-President in June. 1865. June 12th, 1865, 
the Directors were authorized to take action un- 
der the name of 'J7n- A'dlioiial Excliauge IniiiK- of 
Auburn, to secure the benefits of the Assembly 
act of January 19th, 1865, enabling the banks of 
this State to become associations for the purpose 
of banking, under the law of the United States, 
entitled "an act to provide a national currency, 
secured by a pledge of United States bonds, and 
to provide for the circulation and redemption 
thereof." approved June 3d, 1864. The bank 
was authorized to do business under that name 
and act of June 28th, 1865. J. Y. Bostwick 
resigned as Ca.shier, February 19th, 1866, and 
Charles A. Myers was elected to that position 
June 14th, 1866. September 27th, 1867, W. C. 
Beardsley resigned as President, and Lyman 
Soule, as Vice-President, to take effect October 
2d, 1867, and W. T. Graves was elected to fill 
the vacancy occasioned by the former, and W. 
C. Beardsley, that occasioned by the latter. 
Julius Earll was elected Vice-President, January 
nth, 1870, and was succeeded by O. Lewis, 
January 16th, 1872. Wm. B. Woodin, January 
14th, 1873, and Cary S. Burtis, January 13th, 

Charles A. Myers resigned the position 
of Cashier October 14th, 1874, and Edwin S. 
Newton, the present incumbent, was appointed 
to fill the vacancy October i6th, 1874. The 
present Directors are : Lyman Soule, Charles G. 
Briggs, Cary S. Burtis, Orlando Lewis, W. T. 
Graves, Robert G. Stewart, and Gurdon S. Fan- 
ning. The bank commenced business in the 
Colonnade Block, and was removed thence to its 
present location. May ist, 1877. The dividends 
paid by this bank have averaged ciglit and one- 
/ialf]}&r cent, per annum for the whole period of 
its business. This fact evinces the excellent 
business qualifications of its managers, and dis- 
closes the secret of the deserved popularity of 
this bank. The following is a report of its 
condition June 29th, 1878 : 




Loans and Discounts ^313,921 40 

Overdrafts 1,560 31 

U. S. Bonds to secure circulation 137,000 00 
Other Stocks, Bonds and Mort- 
gages 4,000 00 

Due from approved reserve agents 16,562 55 
Due from other National Banks__ 10,433 5o 
Due from State Banks and Bank- 
ers 496 17 

Checks and other cash items 7,323 25 

Bills of other Banks 1,23700 

Fractional Currency, (including 

nickels) 234 27 

Specie, (silver coin) 1,267 1° 

Legal Tender Notes 6,165 00 

Redemption Fund with U. S. 
Treasurer, (5 per cent, of circula- 
tion,) 10,000 00 


Capital Stock paid in 58200,000 00 

Surplus Fund 11,000 00 

Undivided Profits 12,426 64 

National Bank Notes outstanding- 123,300 00 
Individual deposits subject to 

check 104,702 82 

Demand certificates of deposit — 55>277 54 

Due to other National Banks 3,279 TJ 

Due to State Banks and Bankers. 214 38 

$510,201 15 

Wm. H. Sewakd & Co.'s Banking House 
was organized in i860 as a private bank, under 
the name of Wm. H. Seward Jr. & Co., by 
Genl. Wm. H. Seward Jr., in copartnership with 
Hon. Clinton D. McDougall. It was organized 
for the purpose of transacting a strictly banking 
business, and the prosperity which has attended 
this House is due largely to the fact that such 
purpose has been rigidly adhered to. The origi- 
nal copartnership was continued till 1869, when 
Hon. Theodore M. Pomeroy, at present a mem- 
ber of the firm, was admitted to an interest in 
the business. In 1870 Mr. McDougall withdrew 
and the business has since been conducted by 
the remaining partners. In 1876 the firm name 
was changed to Wm. H. Seward & Co. The 
original capital has been steadily increased from 
time to time as the wants of the business de- 
manded, until now, in capital, deposits, discounts 
and business generally it takes rank with the 
best chartered banks in Central New York, and 
its credit is unquestioned with all banking insti- 

tutions in the United States and Canada. This 
House early recognized the necessity of meeting 
the demand for foreign exchange more efficiently 
than had been done, and has established such 
relations for that purpose as now enable it to 
draw its own drafts upon all the principal com- 
mercial centers of the civilized world. This 
branch of its business has proved of great ad- 
vantage to the citizens of Auburn and vicinity in 
making foreign remittances. The banking house 
of the firm is located at the corner of Genesee 
and E.xchange streets, in a new and elegant 
building erected especially for the purpose by 
Mr. Seward, and furnishing one of the most com- 
modious and best arranged banking offices to be 
found in the State. Its vaults and safes are all 
new and of the most approved patterns, thorough- 
ly fire proof, with as perfect protection in all 
respects as the present attainments of mechanical 
skill can provide. Mr. George M. Watson, the 
teller, Mr. Joseph C. Anderson, the book-keeper 
and Mr. S. Cady Titus, the discount clerk, have 
been long connected with this institution and are 
widely and most favorably known throughout the 

The FiKST National Bank of Auburn, 106 
Genesee street, was incorporated Jan. 15th, 1864, 
with a capital of $100,000, which was increased 
in 1875 to $300,000, by consolidation with the 
Auburn City National Bank, which was organized 
July 8th, 1853, commenced business on North 
street, under the Academy of Music, subsequent- 
ly removed to the corner of Genesee and North 
streets, to the place now occupied by H. J. Brown, 
and thence to the building erected for it and oc- 
cupied since the consolidation by Tlie First Na- 
tional Bank of Auburn, which commenced busi- 
ness at 123 Genesee street. The incorporators 
and first directors of the latter bank were Nelson 
Beardsley, E. P. Ross, Alonzo G. Beardsley, 
Josiah N. Starin, Wm. Hills, and Charles P. 
Wood. E. P. Ross was elected President and 
held that office till January, 1876, when he was 
succeeded by Charles N. Ross, the present in- 
cumbent, who was President of the Auburn City 
National Bank on its consolidation with this. 
Alonzo G. Beardsley was elected Cashier, and was 
succeeded July 8th, 1864, by Chas. N. Ross, who 
held the office till the consolidation, when Charles 
O'Brien, the present incumbent, who was cashier 
of the Auburn City National Bank at the time of 



the consolidation, was appointed to that position. 
The present Directors are, E. P. Ross, Nelson 
Beardsley, Augustus Howland, A. G. Beardsley, 
Charles N. Ross, I. F. Terrill, James Kerr, 
Samuel D. Otis, Benj. A. Fordyce, W. E. Hewitt 
and James Fitch. This bank, with a single ex- 
ception, has uniformly paid a four and ^'iv per 
cent, semi annual dividend. 

Following is an official report of its condition 
June 29th, 1878 : 


Loans and Discounts $731,898 79 

Overdrafts 10,303 66 

United States Bonds to secure 

Circulation 257,000 00 

Other Stocks, Bonds and Mort- 
gages 17.941 30 

Due from approved reserve agents 17,816 84 

Due from other National Banks__ 3,422 05 

Due from State Banks and Bankers 1,716 29 

Real estate, furniture and fixtures 30,659 87 

Current expenses and taxes paid 4.327 65 

Checks and other cash items 6,742 36 

Bills of other Banks 5.757 00 

Fractional Currency 556 59 

Specie .... 1,100 00 

Legal Tender Notes 29,000 00 

Redemption Fund with United 
States Treasurer, (5 per cent, of 

circulation) ''.5^5 00 

Due from United States Treasurer 
(other than 5 per cent. Redemp- 
tion Fund) 1,500 00 

$1,131,307 40 


Capital Stock paid in §300,000 00 

Surplus Fund 15,00000 

Undivided Profits 39.S97 55 

Circulation 231,300 00 

Dividends Unpaid 122 GO 

Individual Deposits subject to 

check 217,754 Gy 

Demand Certificates of Deposit__ 270,949 06 

Due to other National Banks 1.784 12 

Notes and Bills rediscounted 54.SOO go 

$1,131,307 40 

The Cavuga County Savings Bank, corner 
of Genesee and State streets, was incorporated 
by special act of the Legislature, in 1864, as Tlie 
Mutual Savings Bank of Auburn, with the fol- 
lowing named incorporators, who were the first 
trustees, viz., James S. Seymour, Augustus How- 
land, Cyrus C. Dennis, Elmore P. Ross, Hon. 

Edwin B. Morgan, Corydon H. Merriman, Hon. 
Christopher Morgan, Benjamin B. Snow, William 
H. Seward, Jr., Hon. Theodore M. Pomeroy, 
Horace T. Cook, Samuel Adams, Guernsey Jew- 
ett, Horatio J. Brown, David Tompkins, Daniel 
Hewson and Morcll S. Fitch, and perfected its 
organization February 1st, iS65,by the election 
of the following named officers: Cyrus C. Den- 
nis, President ; H. J. Brown, Vice-President ; 
W. H. Meaker, Secretary and Treasurer ; and 
Richard C. Steel, Attorney. The name was 
changed July ist, 1875. The Bank commenced 
business on the corner of Genesee and North 
streets, with the Auburn City National Bank, .nnd 
removed with that bank to their new building 
in March, 1869. They bought the property 
where they are at present located, January ist, 
1872, and occupied it July 31st, 1875. H. J. 
Brown was elected President July loth, 1S66, on 
the death of Cyrus C. Dennis, in May of that 
year, and Horace T. Cook was elected Vice- 
President the same date, to fill the vacancy occa- 
sioned by Mr. Brown's promotion to the Presi- 
dency. Both these gentlemen still hold the 
offices to which they were respectively elected. 
On the change of the law in 1875 requiring two 
vice-presidents, Daniel Hewson was elected Sec- 
ond Vice-President, which office he still holds. 
Mr. Meaker has been Secretary and Treasurer 
since the date of its organization, and July loth, 
1866, he was elected Trustee to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the death of C. C. Dennis. July 
loth, 1866, David Tompkins resigned as Trustee, 
and his son, Henry G. Tompkins, was elected in 
his stead. On the death of the latter, Hon. 
Charles C. Dwight was elected July 27th, 1875, 
to fill the vacancy thus occasioned. November 
23d, 1875, Cyrenus Wheeler, Jr., was elected 
Trustee to fill the vacancy occasioned by the res- 
ignation of Samuel Adams. December 28th, 

1875, Charles Standart was elected Trustee to 
fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of James 
S. Seymour. April loth, 1876, Hon. E. B. Mor- 
gan and M. S. Fitch, resigned the Trusteeship, 
and William C. Barber and William G. Wise, 
were elected to fill the vacancies. April 25th, 

1876, Oscar F. Knapp was elected Trustee to 
fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of 
Augustus Howland. June 26th, 1S77, Edward 
H. Avery and Joseph W. Dunning were elected 
Trustees to fill vacancies occasioned by the deaths 



of C. H. Merriman and Hon. Christopher Mor- 
gan. The following is a copy of the official re- 
port to the Bank Department July ist, 1878 : 


Bonds and Mortgages $309,335 00 

Stock Investments at cost 206,978 58 

Amount Loaned on Stocks 6,700 00 

Banking house and adjoining store, 

at cost 27,000 00 

Other Real Estate, at cost 1 1.747 16 

Cash on deposit in Banks or Trust 

Companies $44,213 25 

Cash on hand 5,871 75 

50,085 00 

Amount of other assets 28,333 63 

$640,179 37 


Amount due Depositors, 

principal $583,899 12 

Interest for six months 

ending July ist 13-376 33 

597.275 45 

Interest on Deposits to July ist, 

1 878, on outstanding certificates, 481 86 

Surplus 42,422 06 

$640,179 37 


History of Auburn, (Continued.) 

Schools — Imperfection of the Early Rec- 
ords — Action of the Legislature — Early 
Schools — School Association — First 
Academy — Miss Bennett's School— Other 
Schools of the Village — Progress of Im- 

. provement — County Supervision — Female 
Seminary— Free Schools— Academic High 
School — Progress and Present Condition 
OF the City Schools — Theological Semi- 
nary — Young Ladies' Institute— Orphan 

IT is to be regretted that the materials for a 
complete history of the early schools of Au- 
burn are not now attainable. The actors in 
them are dead, and no satisfactory records of 
them have been preserved. 

The schools in this locality were always par- 
tially under State patronage, the first step in a 
system of State education having been taken in 
1784, by the creation of the Board of Regents, 
which was organized in nearly its present form 
in 1787. By an act of the Legislature passed 
February 28th, 1789, one lot of 600 acres was set 
apart in each township of the Military Tract for 
the support of public schools. In 1795, at the 
suggestign of the Regents, made first in 1793 
and renewed the two succeeding years, a com- 
mon school system was established, and $50,000 
annually for five years was appropriated from the 
public revenues for encouraging and maintaining 
schools in the various cities and towns. 

In April, 1796, the third year of settlement 
here, the settlers took the initiatory step toward 
securing the benefits sought to be conferred by 
these acts. A meeting was held at the house of 
Col. John L. Hardenbergh, and that gentleman 
together with Ezekiel Crane, Joseph Grover 
and Elijah Price, were appointed a town com- 
mittee on schools. This year a log school house 
was built on the west side of North street, in the 
locality of the Church of the Holy Family, and 
was taught by Benjamin Phelps, who was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Hackaliah Burt. A second 
school was soon after opened in Clarksville, in a 
log cabin which stood on the south-east corner 
of Genesee and Division streets. A frame 
school house, with one room, and painted yellow, 
was erected in 1 801, on the east side of South 
street, and was taught first by a Dr. Steadman, 
subsequently by David Buck, and in 1806, by 
Benjamin Phelps, the pioneer teacher. When 
South street was straightened in later years this 
building was found to stand in the center of the 
street. It was removed and subsequently used as 
a store. 

Benjamin Phelps opened a fourth school this 
same year (180 1 ) in a log building which stood 
on the north side of Franklin street, between 
HoUey and Fulton streets, and was accustomed 
to assemble his pupils by means of a cow bell. 
This school was continued only a year or two, 
when the building was used as a dwelling house. 
In 1 80 1, an act was passed authorizing the es- 
tablishment of four lotteries, to raise the sum of 
$25,000 each, one-half of which was to be paid 
to the Regents, and the other to the State Treas- 
ury, to be applied for the use of common schools. 



This was the foundation of the Hterature and 
common school fund. In 1805, the net pro- 
ceeds of 500,000 acres of the public lands, and 
3,000 shares of bank stock, were appropriated as 
a fund for the use of common schools, the inter- 
est of which, after it had accumulated to $50,000 
per annum, was to be distributed as the Legisla- 
ture should direct. But the provisions of this 
act measurably impaired its usefulness and effi- 
ciency, by deferring its benefits to a future day. 
As a consequence, the schools, left to local en- 
terprise, languished, and the wealthier classes 
withdrew their patronage and encouraged the 
establishment of select schools. 

In the fall of 1810 the project of starting an 
academy was mooted, and in December of that 
year subscriptions for that object to the amount 
of $4,110 were secured. Jan. 5th, 1811, the sub- 
scribers formed themselves into the Auluini 
School Association, with Hon. Elijah Miller, Da- 
vid Buck, Major Noah Olmstead, Hon. J. L. Rich- 
ardson, John H. Compston, John Sawyer, Jehial 
Clark, David Horner aud David Hyde as the first 
board of trustees. Jan. 31st, 181 1, Robert Dill, 
who had otherwise contributed liberally toward 
the enterprise, deeded a tract of five and three- 
fourths acres for a building site for an academy, 
to Rev. David Higgins, Elijah Esty, Thomas 
Wright, Wm. Bostwick, and Dr. Hackaliah Burt, 
who were to hold the same as a committee of 
trust till an incorporation was effected, when they 
were required to convey it to the trustees of such 
corporation, which they accordingly did Sept. 
15th, 18 1 7. February 22d, i8l r, articles of agree- 
ment were entered into by Noah Olmstead, Josejjh 
L. Richardson, David Buck, John Sawyer, David 
Horner, John H. Compston, Elijah Miller and 
David Hyde, trustees of the Auburn School As- 
sociation, and Bradley Tuttle and Jehial Clark, 
by which the second party agreed, on or before 
Jan. 20th, 18 12, to build "one house or mes- 
suage," si.xty feet long and twenty-five feet wide, 
the foundation to be built of stone, sunk thirty 
inches below the surface of the ground and ele- 
vated the same distance above the surface, to be 
thirty inches thick, and three feet of the upper 
part of the foundation to be laid in lime mortar. 
The residue of the building was to be made of 
brick, which were to be not less than eight inches 
in length and otherwise proportionate, and laid 
in good lime mortar. The building was to be three 

stories high. The first and second stories were 
to be ten feet in the clear, and divided into two 
rooms of equal size, with a hall ten feet wide 
passing through the center ; the third was to be 
eleven feet, arched overhead, and finished in one 
room. The floors of the first two stories were 
to be made of oak plank one and one-half inches 
thick ; that of the third, of one and one half inch 
pine, all planed and matched. The rest of the 
joiner work was to be of pine. Each room, to- 
gether with the hall, was to be ceiled up to the 
surbase. It was to be provided with two panel 
doors, made of two inch pine, one at each end of 
the lower hall. The wall of the first story was 
to be of the thickness of the length of two and a 
half bricks ; the second, not less than the length 
of two bricks ; and the third not less than one 
and one-half bricks. The front and rear were to 
contain fourteen windows, each to contain twen- 
ty-four lights, nine by eleven inches, and be 
placed, four in the first, and five each in the 
second and third stories. A semi-circular win- 
dow, with dead light, was to be put over the front 
door, which was also to have two side windows, 
each containing ten lights, nine by eleven inches. 
There was to be si.x windows of same size as the 
above in each gable end. It was to be provided 
with two pair of stairs, with cherry hand rail, run- 
ning up to the respective halls. The doors and 
windows were to be cased and roped in "fash- 
ionable style." The top was to be ornamented 
with a cupola with open belfry pointing from the 
center of the roof An iron spire with vane was 
to be erected from the roof of the cupola, which 
was to be proportioned to the building and of 
sufficient strength to su])port a bell of 250 jjounds 
weight. It was to be furnished with twenty-one 
movable writing desks of .si.x and one-half feet 
length and three and one-half feet width, with a 
shelf underneath with a partition board running 
lengthwise through the center between the shelf 
and lid, and a similar partition rimning cross- 
wise ; also with forty-two substantial movable 
benches, each si.x and one-half feet long, and six- 
teen movable benches of twelve feet. A perma- 
nent seat was to be fixed quite round the sides 
and ends of the upper room. They were also to 
affix a lightning rod, providing the parties of the 
first part furnished one ready to be put up before 
the expiration of the contract. In consideration 
of which the trustees agreed to pay $3,700 

1 86 


from the moneys subscribed by the stockholders 
in the Auburn School Association, as soon as the 
money could be collected by virtue of such sub- 

This contract is signed by all the before-mention- 
ed persons, except David Buck and Elijah Miller. 
February 3d, 1812, an acceptance of the build- 
ing and contract as being completely fulfilled is 
endorsed thereon. It would be interesting to 
trace the varied experiences of this institution, 
which played so important a part in the educa- 
tion of Auburn's youth, were the means at hand; 
but unfortunately its records were twice destroyed 
by fire and hence the data is not attainable. The 
building above described was destroyed by fire 
in 1816. Another was erected on its site in 1827, 
and was advertised Nov. 28th, 1827, as being 
so far completed as to permit the schools to com- 
mence there on Monday, Dec. 3d, 1827, at which 
time John C. Rudd was the principal. After the 
fire the academy was continued in the north 
wing of the Theological Seminary. It was 
removed thence, after 1822, to a two story build- 
ing which had been previously used as a dry 
goods store and grocery, and which occupied the 
site of the City Hall. It was continued there 
till the completion of the new building, which is 
the main part of the present one on Academy 
street, occupied by the High School, and which 
was transferred to the Board of Education in 
1866, for a nominal rent ; two-thirds of the trus- 
tees, viz : P. P. Bishop, S. H. Boardman, John 
Brainard, Henry Fowler, A. H. Goss, F. L. 
Griswold, Charles Hawley, H. Robinson, H. 
Woodruff and R. Fisk, favoring, and one-third, 
viz : M. S. Myers, who was then the president of 
the board, Charles G. Briggs, Wm. Hosmer, C. H. 
Merriman and Blanchard Fosgate, who was then 
the secretary of the board, opposing the transfer. 
There were, in the construction of the first 
academy, some peculiarities which indicated the 
educational and disciplinary views of that day, 
and which it may be interesting to chronicle. To 
guard against the propensity to whittle the desks, 
which then so generally prevailed, they were 
sanded, which, it was believed, would repel the 
attempt. But our youth were ingenious and en- 
terprising and were not to be debarred of their 
favorite school employment by so flimsy a device. 
They soon found a way to raise the sanded wood 
and to freely use their knives, in which they found 

unusual pleasure, as a triumph over the older 
heads, who had thought to outwit them. The 
desks were whittled and haggled into deformity. 
Compare the desks of that period with those of 
our schools of to-day and the contrast is very 
striking. The latter are kept as free from 
scratches and injury as the furniture in our dwell- 
ings, and the effort necessary to protect it, edu- 
cates the pupils in habits of neatness and care. 
In the first academy dark cells were provided in 
which to confine the ugly boys, a method of dis- 
cipline which our laws will not now permit to 
be used, except upon the most obdurate of our 

In 181 1, preparatory steps were taken by the 
Legislature to organize the common school sys- 
tem, which, though established in 1795, lacked 
eilficiency from its imperfect organization. Five 
commissioners, viz., Jedediah Peck, Samuel Rus- 
sell, John Murray, Jr., Roger Skinner and Rob- 
ert Macomb, were appointed to devise a plan of 
organization, and June 19th, 1812, an act was 
passed embodying the features of their recom- 
mendations. In 1 813, Gideon Hawley was ap- 
pointed superintendent of common schools, an 
office which was abolished in 1821, when the 
care of the schools devolved upon the Secretary 
of State. This action of the Legislature gave 
the State a supervisory control of the common 
schools and held those immediately entrusted 
with their care to that degree of responsibility 
which gave them an importance in the public 
estimation, which hitherto they had not enjoyed. 
It stimulated local enterprise and numerous new 
schools were established, the most prominent one 
of which in this locality was the one on the site 
of the Fulton street school, known as the hell 
school, from the fact that it was the only one in 
the village provided with a bell. It was a brick 
structure, containing only one room, erected in 
181 8, and was conducted on the Lancasterian 
plan, which was then quite popular. It was 
taught by a Quaker named Stephen Estes. A 
second Lancasterian school was opened in the 
winter of 1822-3, in what was then known as 
the western district. It was also built of brick, 
contained one room, and occupied the south-west 
corner of St. Peter's Episcopal church-yard. 
The third quarter's school was opened there 
Monday, July 21st, 1823, by Isaac Mott, "who 
came highly recommended by Mr. Dale, the pre- 



Hebron, Washington County. 

as four years old bis father, 
the town of Hebron and 
county, where he bought 

David H, Armstrong was born 
X. Y., January iTth. isar. When he w 
Robert C, ArmstrouK, sold his farm 
moved to the town of Argyle in th» sa 
the farm of his brother. William Armstrong, There Robert raised 
his family, which was six in number After receiving a dis- 
trict school education, a portion of the time under the tutorship of 
Rev, Alonzo Flack. A. M.. the present accomplished principal of the 
Clarerack- College •(ml Uiulmn /liter Institute, in Columbia County. 
David was sent to the Argyle Acad.-my. .111.) at the nui- '•! twenty 
commenced teaching school at South Amyle Th.- f ilhuvin,- y,.,ir 
be went to Wayne County. X,Y.. an. 1 utteiih-,! --bn,,i m tli- a.,iil- 
emy at Red Creek, in that _^j^-,^— 
county. During the fol- 
lowing winter be taught 
school in the northern 
part of Cayuga County, 
The succeeding spring ■ 
he returned east and 
commenced the study ol 
medicine with Orville P. 
Gilman, of Salem, N. Y . 
a graduate of Dai-tinouth 
Medical College. He 
pursued his medical 
studies that year, and 
then attended lectures 
in Dartmouth Medical 
College, where E R 
Peaslee and D Crosby 
were at thai time pro 

He subsequently foi 

school in Whitehall, in 
his native counts and 

March 0, isr,4, testifies to his exemplary conduct in the discharge of 
his duties, and says; ■ Last summer, during the siege of Port Hud- 
son, when I was unavoidably [absent] from illness, and being on 
detached service, he had the sole surgical care of the regiment, 
and acquitted hiinseir with great credit," A petition recommend- 
ing his promotion, dated in Camp near Franklin. La,. March 7, ISC4, 
is numerously signed by the oiBcers of the IHOth Regiment, from the 
Colonel down, and bears evidence of the esteem in which he was 
held. After citing his worthiness for promotion, it says : "While wo 
wiiiiM re-ret to have him taken from the reaiment, wo would still 
r. 1 .1. . Ill >ee him promoted to a place he is so well quallHed to fill, '• 
A iM Titir.n similarlo the last wiis circulated while the regiment lay 

;near Charleston, Va,- 

Augustao. ISW. whenDr, 
Powers tendered his res- 
ignation as surgeon of 
the regiment, and bears 
the approval of C. B, 
Hutchins. Chief Sur- 
geon of the Ist Division, 
litth A. C, Under the 
same date, William R, 
Brownell. Medical Direc- 
tor of the I'Jth A, C, in a 
communicatiim to J. B, 
■n, Lt, Col, 
Comdg. the Regt.. rec- 
ommending Dr. Arm- 
strong for promotion, 
says : ' I bear witness to 
his faithful and untiring 
whilst he has 


the office 

of the (. 

The follow ing jear he 
returned to balem and 
again pursued his stud 
ieswith Dr (jilman, and 
attend ed lectures in 
Castleton, Vt 

In the spring of lt>5J, n t 
the age of twenty fi\e 
years, he graduated and 
commenced the practice 
of medicine at West Ar- 
lington, Vt.,in one of the 
numerous valleys among 
the Vermont hills. There 
little opportunity was af- 
forded him for an cxten- 

vith 1 

and would call to your 
mind particularly his pa- 
tience and untiring zeal 
during the siege of Port 
lOn, when the 
tst and firmest 
« ^re nearly ready to 
Meld from heat and fa- 
tigue No one can de- 
ser\e promotion more 

August 34, IS&t, while 
the legimont lay near 
Hiri)ei3 Ferry, Lt. Col. 
\ .11 I'etti n made oppll- 
uitionto Brig. Gen, J, T, 
•^I ni_'up \. 0„ of New 


sive practice, and he ^ - ______^ y ^-s 

removed to East Green- /Oo y^^<r\ ^ 'y ' //j /T 

at the expiration of one ^ ^ 

year to Red Creek, 

Wayne County. N. Y., where he practiced his profession until the 
breaking out of the war of the Rebellion. 
Dr. Armstrong took an active part in recruiting the regiments 
cality. and on the srth of September. 1862, he was 
by Capt. John X, Knapp, in the old 

eled by I 

■r of State and Dill streets, now being remod- 
for a restaurant and saloon. He entered the 
1. \ols.. raised in the district composed of 
» 'ies. as Assistant Surgeon, and ' ' 

Cayuga and Wa; 

that capacity till his promotion, in the fall of~l 
surgeon of the same regiment. Dr. Armstrong also 1 
position in the IMd Regiment, X. Y. Vols., which was 

the office of 

this locality, 

Dr, Armstrong's professional 
high order and elicited warm cc 
arms, who give abundant testi 
skill and his untiring devotion t_ 

under his care. The highly cultured" DrTcyrusPow"ersrofMo'ravra", 
then Surgeon of the IWth Regiment, in a communication to L V, P. 
Quackenbush. Surgeon Ueneral of Xew York, dated Franklii " 

'ices during the war were of a 
endation from his associates in 
y of his medical and surgical 
the unfortunate sufferers placed 

, promotion to 
it ion vacated by 
.ignation of Dr, 

iiiiini ntii n the follow- 
ii_ bij to Dr, Quacken- 
l burgeon General 
)f New \ ork, he says of 
Dr. Armstrong: " I re- 
gard his claims and mer- 
its of a superior order. 
He had experience in 
Gen. McClelland's army. 
and consequent upon Dr. Poxers" ill health, which made it necessary 
for him to be detached. Dr. Armstrong has been our Surgeon in charge 
nearly two years, in seven battles and all our field service. At the 
battle of Bisland and the siege of Port Hudson, he was so eminently 
useful that Gen. Wirtzel gave him a letter, strongly urging bis pro- 
motion, and advised him to endeavor to secure it. and at the same 
time he was also recommended for promotion by all the field ofocers 
and surgeons of the Brigade. As there was no vaconcy on which 
he had special claim, he was not promoted. He has been very faith- 
ful to our regiment, and we have great respect for him as a talented 
and excellent surgeon and physician," 

A memorial drawn up on the steamboat Clmmpion. on the Missis- 
sippi River, and signed bv forty-two officers of various grades and 
commands, bears grateful tribute to Dr. Armstrong's virtues as a 
man : to his faithfulness, while himself an invalid, in ministering to 
the bodily infirmities of the passengers on that steamer : to his 
solicitude for their comfort : and generosity in supplying with bis 
own means such medicines as they needed. 

In March, 1k6«, Dr, Armstrong located in Auburn, where be now 
enjoys an extensive practice. 




ceptor of the celebrated Lancasterian School at 
Albany." The tuition at this school, and indeed 
at most of the schools of that period, was $1.50 
per quarter. 

John Grover, Zenas Huggins and Cromwell 
Bennett, were elected the first board of commis- 
sioners, and Hon. Elijah Miller, Hon. John H. 
Heach, David Hyde, Reuben S. Morris and Ste- 
phen Wheaton, the first board of trustees of Au- 
relius, (which then embraced the city of Auburn,) 
under the provisions of the law of 1S12, which 
was amended in 18 14, to give it greater effi- 

In addition to the district schools, private and 
select schools were opened about this period. 
The first of which we have any account was 
opened by Miss l^ostwick, who kept it a few 
years and closed it in 18 15. In 18 16, Miss Al- 
mira M. Bennett, (now Mrs. Dr. Clary,) who 
came to Auburn in 18 14, in company with her 
brother, Hilem Bennett, from Sheffield, Berkshire 
Co., Mass., opened a select school for young la- 
dies where the Cayuga County Bank now stands, 
which she kept till the fall of 1823, when she re- 
moved to the foot of Owasco Lake, in the present 
town of Fleming, to which locality her father's 
family had moved in 18 19, and opened a boarding 
school there, which she kept twelve years, com- 
mencing with twelve pupils and closing with 
about fifty. Miss Bennett was married May 28th, 
1837, to Dr. Joseph Clary, then a resident of 
Throopsville, where he died in 1863. Mrs. Clary, 
now nearly ninety-two years old, (was ninety-one 
in January, 1878,) is living in Auburn, in excel- 
lent health, and with mental faculties wonder- 
fully preserved. 

A Miss Parrott kept a select school a few years 
subsequent to Miss Bennett's departure, on Gene- 
see street, in the old Underwood building. E. 
Howard was teaching a school here in 1822, and 
advertised that "he would open an evening school 
in his school room on the academy green, Jan. 5th, 
1823, for the instruction of young ladies and gen- 
tlemen in writing, arithmetic and English gram- 
mar." A Mr. King opened a school Monday, De- 
cember 1st, 1823, in the yellow building ojjposite 
the Presbyterian meeting-house. The stone dis- 
trict school house in Clarksville was built in 1824. 
A small brick school on North street, was erec- 
ted in 1827, and a similar building was erected 
in 1828 on School street, which derived its name 

from that building. It has since been enlarged 
and altered and is now used as a dwelling- 

From iSigto 1827 various appropriations of 
lands, stocks and money were made for the in- 
crease of the school fund; and $100,000 were or- 
dered to be annually distributed, while an equal 
sum was required to be raised by tax. In 1835, 
teachers' departments were first e.stablished in 
academies. In 1838 the common schools were 
reorganized and assumed the form, which, with 
few exceptions, they retained till 1S49. An an- 
nual appropriation from the United States de- 
posit fund of gi 10,000, an amount equal to the 
revenue then derived from the common school 
fund, was provided for, and an additional ;?55,ooo 
annually from the same fund was granted to be 
expended in the purchase of suitable books for 
district libraries, the establishment of which was 
recommended in 1830. This $220,000 was ap- 
plied to the payment of teachers' wages, and was 
apportioned among the several counties, towns 
and wards, according to their population, and 
paid over to the treasurer of each county for dis- 
tribution. The Supervisors were required to 
raise annually by fax a sum equal to the amount 
thus received ; and were empowered to raise an 
additional amount, not exceeding twice that sum, 
which the electors of a town might vote for 
school purposes. 

In 1841 the office of Deputy Superintendent 
in counties was established ; and in 1843 the 
offices of Town Inspectors and School Commis- 
sioners were abolished, and that of Town Su- 
perintendents created. In the latter year K\- 
liot G. Storke, then a resitlent of Sennett, was 
elected County Superintendent, and through his 
indefatigable efforts, ably seconded by those of 
Philo H. Perry, who was elected the same year 
Town Superintendent of Auburn, great improve- 
ments were made in the condition of the com- 
mon schools of the city and County, and valuable 
information obtained, which ultimately led to 
official recognition of existing defects, and the 
establishment of a free school system. Mr. 
Storkc's investigations disclosed the fact that out 
of the 226 district schools in this County at that 
time, only one contained more than one room ; 
and that while many of them were so rudely 
built and sadly out of repair as to cause the 
wealthy classes to shun them, they were also 


neglected by the poorer classes, who were unable 
to pay their children's tuition and unwilling to 
bear the reproach of being exempted therefrom 
by the trustees. 

In this year also (1S43) permission was grant- 
ed, under certain restrictions, to expend the ap- 
propriation for school libraries, for maps, globes 
and other school apparatus. This diversion and 
the insufficiency of local aid greatly impaired the 
usefulness of the district libraries, which, in 1866, 
were consolidated and made the nucleus of the 
Central Library in the High School building. 

Previous to this, in June, 1837, Mr. and Mrs. 
E. Hosmer started the Auburn Female Seminary 
on the corner of Genesee and Washington Sts., 
on the site of the house now owned by Charles 
M. Howlet. It had a large attendance from the 
beginning, not less than 140 pupils, the unsatis- 
factory condition of the common schools securing 
for it a liberal patronage. The Hosmers re- 
moved after a few years to Moravia, where they 
also kept a school, and were succeeded here by 
John Wilson, who kept the seminary a number 
of years. Mr. Scribner succeeded, but remained 
a short time only, when Rev. Mr. Rudd, a grad- 
uate of Auburn Theological Seminary, under- 
took its management, and during his occupancy, 
in 1849, the building was destroyed by fire and 
the seminary abandoned. 

In September, 1846, a school was opened in 
the wooden building on Washington street, occu- 
pied by the A. M. E. Zion Church, for the benefit 
of thecolored children who were numerous, but ex- 
cluded by prejudice from the other schools, to 
which they were admitted in 1S51. 

In 1847, the office of county superintendents 
was discontinued, and Teachers' Institutes, which 
had previously existed as voluntary associations, 
the first having been held at Ithaca in 1843, were 
legalized. The agitation in favor of free schools 
culminated in their establishment March 26th, 

1849. This action was submitted to popular 
vote and sustained by a large majority, but its 
unequal operation excited discontent, and a vote 
taken in 1850 showed a largely reduced majority 
in its favor. The act was repealed in 185 1, and 
the rate bill again introduced. April i6th, 1867, 
a free school act was again passed. April loth, 

1850, an act was passed to regulate free schools 
in the city of Auburn. It provided that the 
offices of the several trustees, clerks, collectors 

and librarians of the districts of the city, should 
cease on the third Tuesday of April, 1850, and 
on that day each district should elect one trustee ; 
that the common council at their last regular 
meeting next preceding the above date, should 
appoint a superintendent of common schools to 
hold for two years, and a school commissioner for 
each ward in the city ; and that these trustees 
and commissioners, together with the mayor and 
the superintendent, should constitute " the Board 
of Education for the City of Auburn," of which 
the mayor was constituted the president and the 
superintendent the clerk. The trustees were to 
hold office for one year; the commissioners, for 
four years, and were to be divided into classes by 
lot. The first Board was composed of the fol- 
lowing members : Hon. Aurelian Conklin, Presi- 
dent ; Levi Johnson, Superintendent and Clerk; 
E. N. Kitchell, trustee of District No. i ; I. S. 
Allen, trustee of District No. 2 ; Z. M. Mason, 
trustee of District No. 3 ; J. S. Bartlett, trustee 
of District No. 4 ; and Isaac Sisson, Jr., trustee 
of District No. 5 ; S. W. Arnett, commissioner 
of the 1st ward ; B. Fosgate, commissioner of 
the 2d ward ; I. T. Marshall, commissioner of 
the 3d ward ; and C. P. Williams, commissioner 
of the 4th ward. The classes of commissioners 
were arranged by lot as follows : I. T. Marshall, 
to serve one year ; C. P. Williams, two years ; 
S. W. Arnett, three years ; and B. Fosgate, four 

The office of " City Superintendent of Com- 
mon Schools," was abolished in 1866, and the 
Board empowered to appoint their own secretary, 
but the office was reestablished in 1871. 

In 1869, three new wards and one district were 
established and the Board consequently increased 
by three commissioners and one trustee. In 
1866, provision was made by an amendment to 
the act of 1850, for the establishment of The 
Aubtirn Academic High School, and the Board of 
Education were constituted a body corporate un- 
der that name, with " power to establish, organize 
and maintain a classical department or school un- 
der their charge," " and purchase a site and erect a 
building therefor, in their discretion." It was made 
subject to the visitation of the Regents of the 
University, and to all the laws and regulations 
applicable to incorporated academies, and was 
endowed with all the privileges of such acade- 
mies, including a share in the distribution of the 



moneys of the literature fund. The Board was 
empowered, " with the consent of two-thirds of 
the trustees of the Auburn Academy, to use and 
occupy the said Auburn Academy property for 
the purposes of said Academic High School," and 
to take a transfer of said property, " and thereaf- 
ter the same shall be used and occupied as an 
Academic High School, pursuant to the provis- 
ions of this act ; and tuition in the said Aca- 
demic High School shall be forever without 
charge to all children residing in the city of Au- 
burn." Negotiations for the transfer of the prop- 
erty of the Auburn Academy were at once be- 
gun and terminated successfully October 8th, 
1 866, when, at a full meeting of the trustees of 
that Institution, the following resolution was 
adopted by the bare two-thirds majority re- 
quired : 

" Resolved, That we hereby consent to the 
transfer of the Auburn Academy property to the 
Board of Education of the city of Auburn, to be 
occupied for the purposes of an Academic High 
School, as set forth in the act of the Legislature 
of the State of New York entitled 'an act to 
amend an act to regulate Free Schools in the 
city of Auburn,' passed April 10, 1850." 

Pending the negotiations for the Academy 
property, arrangements were progressed for the 
opening of the school, which convened the first 
Monday in September, 1866, and was held dur- 
ing the term in school-house No. 4. Warren 
Higley was selected as Principal, and also Clerk 
of the Board of Education and Superintendent 
of Schools. His assistants were Miss Sarah E. 
Sedgwick, who was appointed preceptress, and 
H. S. Barnum and Henry A. Duboc, the latter 
of whom taught French only. Charles M. Davis 
was appointed associate principal, but ill health 
prevented his acting as such. The school opened 
very auspiciously with seventy-seven pupils, 
which number was increased during the term to 
one hundred and seven. The ne.xt term of school, 
which commenced Jan. 2d, 1867, was held in the 
Academy building, and opened with 132 pupils. 

March 14th, 1871, the Legislature passed "an 
act to amend and consolidate the several acts 
relating to the public schools of the city of Au- 
burn, by which provision was made for the elec 
tion of district clerks, whose duties are therein 
defined ; and the trustees and commissioners 
constituted the Board of Education, with power 
to choose a president from their own number 

and to appoint a secretary and superintendent of 
public schools, both to hold ofiTice during their 
pleasure. The board was constituted a body cor- 
porate and vested with the title to all property 
accjuircd or which should thereafter be acquired 
for the schools, and with power to sell and dis- 
pose of such property, under certain restrictions. 
It was left discretionary with the board to charge 
tuition for instruction in the Greek, Latin, French 
and German languages, and they were empowered 
to pass ordinances for the government and man- 
agement of schools, school officers and school 
property, and to impose penalties for their viola- 
tion ; to determine annually the amount neces- 
sary to defray the ordinary expenses of the schools, 
which should in no case exceed si.x times the 
amount apportioned by the State for the year 
next preceding, and to demand not to exceed 
$8,000 in any one year for the erection of new 
schools ; and it was made the duty of the Com- 
mon Council to levy and raise such sum as was 
demanded. It was made the duty of the board 
"annually to raise such sums as may be neces- 
sary for the employment of necessary teachers in 
the Cayuga Asylum for destitute children, and to 
employ all such teachers in the same manner 
and under the same regulations as teachers of 
other public schools of said city arc employed, 
and said school shall be subject to visitation and 
regulation by said board, or its officers, the same 
as any of the public schools of said city." The 
composition of the first board under the provis- 
ions of this law was as follows : Miles Perry, 
trustee of Dist. No. 3, president ; David H. 
Scboonmaker, trustee of Dist. No. 1 ; Theodore 
M. Pomeroy, trustee of Dist. No. 2 : James Kerr, 
trustee of Dist. No. 4 ; Wheelock H. Derby, 
trustee of Dist. No. 5 ; Byron C. Smith, John 
S. Fowler, VVm. J. Moses, \Vm. Hayden, Charles 
P. Williams, John S. Clark and John Under- 
wood, commissioners of the rst, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 
6lh and 7th Wards respectively ; and Benj. B. 
Snow, secretary. In June following the Board 
decided to charge tuition for those studies for 
which the law made it permissible, but such dis- 
approbation of this action was matle manifest in 
the various district meetings which followed, that 
it was rescinded, thus virtually removing the last 
barrier to complete free education in Auburn. 

In 1874, the Legislature passed "an act to 
secure to children the benefits of elementary 



education," or what is popularly known as the 
"compulsory education act," which, as appears 
from the report of the Secretary for the year 
1877, "has been practically a dead letter, so far 
as its operation in [this] city is concerned. This 
has been the result of no disposition on the part 
of the Board to ignore the provisions of the law, 
but from a well considered conviction of the in- 
practicability of executing them." Tardiness is 
not permitted in the public schools in Auburn. 
Each pupil who is late is excluded from that ses- 
sion and charged with a half day's absence. It 
is interesting to note the effect of the enforce- 
ment of this rule on the general attendance, 
which is exhibited by the following figures from 
the report of the Secretary for 1877 : The num- 
ber of cases of tardiness reported for the respect- 
ive years from 1874-77, both inclusive, were 
1,554 in 1874, 368 in 1875, 47 in 1876, and none 
in 1877. The per cent, of attendance on the 
basis of total attendance and absence was 91.87 
in 1874,93.41 in 1875, 94.09 in 1876, and 94.42 
in 1877. The per cent, of the whole number 
registered, who attended more than twenty 
weeks, or one-half of the school year, was 64.36 
in 1874, 71.13 in 1875, 73.45 in 1876, and 75.49 
in 1877. In 1874, thirty-seven pupils only were 
neither absent nor tardy for the year ; while for 
the year 1877 the number reached 149. In 1871, 
of something over 2,500 pupils enrolled in the 
public schools for the year, four only were neither 
absent nor tardy, viz.: Ella M. Gridley, Sarah A. 
Olmsted and C. Eugene Kirkpatrick of the High 
School, and Kittie Wheaton of School No. 5, 
now Seymour Street School, the Board having 
decided in July, 1877, to designate the schools 
by the names of the streets on which they are 
located, instead of by numbers. By this ar- 
rangement No. I is known as Fulton Street 
School, No. 2, as Genesee Street School, No. 3, 
as Grover Street School, No. 4, as North Street 
School, No. 5, as Seymour Street School, No. i, 
Primary, as Bradford Street Primary, No. 5 Pri- 
mary, as Division Street Primary, and the new 
school since established on Franklin street, as the 
Franklin Street Primary. 

June loth, 1875, the several acts relative to 
public schools in the city of Auburn were again 
revised and consolidated. The several districts 
were consolidated and formed into one district ; 
the schools were put under control and manage- 

ment of nine commissioners, to be known as 
"The Board of Education of the City of Au- 
burn," and elected on the third Tuesday of May 
in each year, in three classes, to serve for one, 
two and three years respectively. The duties of 
secretary and superintendent were devolved 
upon one person to be elected by the Board. 
Permission was given to raise an amount in ex- 
cess of ;^8,ooo in any one year for building pur- 
poses by and with the unanimous consent of the 
Board. The Board was clothed with general 
powers similar to those enumerated in the pre- 
vious act. 

The school year consists of a fall term, com- 
mencing the first Monday of September, con- 
tinuing sixteen weeks, and followed by a vacation 
of one week ; a winter term, commencing the 
first Monday in January, continuing fifteen 
weeks, and followed by a vacation of two weeks; 
and a summer term, commencing at the expira- 
tion of the spring vacation, and continuing nine 
Rates of Tuition for Non-Resident Pupils. 

Fall Term. Winter Term. Summer Term. 

High School $\i 50 ^1050 ^650 

Second four years . 6 50 6 00 3 75 

First four years .... 4 00 350 250 

The tuition in the High School for common 

English studies is $9.00, ^8.50 and ^5.25, for the 

terms respectively. 

The financial report for the year ending July 

31st, 1877, sufficiently indicates the liberality 

with which the schools are supported. We pre- 
sent it below : 

Balance on hand per last report__ $14,255 09 
Received from State. 

Apportionment according to dis- 
tricts $2,387 60 

Apportion'ent accord- 
ing to population. . 7,681 87 

Apportionment for li- 
brary 195 32 

Apportionment for su- 
perintendent's sal- 
ary 800 00 

Literature Fund.... 759 02 

$11,823 81 

Received from Local Sources. 

City Tax $19-734 96 

Tuition, &c 742 09 

Interest on Deposits. 385 98 

20,863 03 

Total $46,941 93 




Salaries of teachers and superin- 
tendent $26,259 00 

Janitors and Janitors' 

supplies 1. 554 17 

Repairs 1,078 25 

Fences, yards, &c . . . . 168 26 

Furniture, stoves, &c. 775 46 

Fuel 1,544 69 

Stationery 192 1 1 

Insurance 300 00 

Books for indigent 

children 120 76 

Taking census 73 00 

Apparatus for High 

School 49 63 

Printing and advertis- 
ing 387 52 

Encyclopedias 395 75 

Gas . . ■ 13 39 

Rent for secretary's of- 
fice 250 00 

Election expenses .... 66 40 

Franklin St. Primary, 

lot and building .... 2,65 i 00 

Sheriff's fees in Quick 

suit 18 29 

High School Com- 
mencement expenses 53 00 


$10,990 65 

These disbursements were apportioned among 
the different schools as follows : 

HigJi School. 

Teachers' wages .... $4,550 00 
Other expenses 941 04 

Fulton Street School. 

Teachers' wages $4,636 50 

Other expenses 1,238 72 

GcHcsce Street School. 

Teachers' wages $3,59 1 25 

Other expenses 893 1 1 

G rover Street School. 

Teachers' wages $2,691 25 

Other expenses 755 06 

North Street School. 

Teachers' wages $2,700 00 

Other expenses 674 57 

i>5.49i 04 


.,484 36 

3.446 31 

3.374 57 

Seymour Street School, 

Teachers' wages $2,840 00 

Other expenses 960 71 

Bradford Street Primary. 

Teachers' wages $800 00 

Other expenses 35 1 90 

3,800 71 

.15' 90 

Division Street Primaty. 

Teachers' wages $800 00 

Other expenses 265 36 

1.065 36 

Franklin Street Primary. 

Lot and building, erected in 1S77. 2,651 00 

Orphan Asylum. 

Teachers' wages $450 00 

Fuel, $53.73; Books, $8. . 61 Ji 

5" 73 

Contingent and general expendi- 
tures 4,099 oS 

Total . 

§35,95' 28 

The cost of tuition for each pupil, 

on basis of total registration, 

was S13 74 

The cost of tuition for each pupil, 

on basis of average number at - 

tending '9 44 

Or deducting the cost of the Franklin St. Pri- 
mary, which does not properly belong to the cur- 
rent expenses of the year, it was $12.72 for the 
former, and $18.00 for the latter. The total num- 
ber of pupils registered for the year 1877, was 
2,616, an increase of 73 over the previous year, 
and fifty-one per cent, of the school poj^ulation ; 
to which if we add the number claimed to have 
been enrolled in parochial schools, we find that 
seventy-five per cent, of the school population at- 
tended school some portion of the year. The 
average attendance for the year was 1,849, as 
against 1,696 the preceding year. The number 
of teachers employed was fifty-two, twenty-two 
of whom were graduates of the High School. 

High School. -The main portion of the 
High School building is 57 by 37 feet, inside. 
The study room on the third floor is provided 
with desks for 118 pupils. The other two floors 
contain halls, cloak rooms, three recitation rooms, 
a laboratory and the office of the City Superin- 
tendent of Schools. In the wing, which was 
added in 1873, and first occupied September 30th 



of that year, are two study rooms, with desks for 
fifty-eight pupils in each. All the rooms are 
provided with blackboards. The building is con- 
structed of brick, is in good repair and well 
The present estimated value of the 

lot is $ 5.000 oo 

The present estimated value of the 

building is 15,000 00 

The Academy library, containing 300 

volumes, is valued at 300 00 

The present value of philosophical ap- 
paratus is 489 50 

The present value of pianos is 300 OO 

The present value of pictures, busts, 

carpets, &c.. 

250 00 

Total value of property $21,339 50 

The revenue of the school for the year ending 
July 31st, 1878, was. 
For tuition collected or considered 

collectable $ 443 66 

Apportionment from Literature Fund 766 97 
Local taxes 4,516 01 

Total $ 5.726 64 

The number of teachers employed in the 
academic department in 1877, was six, two males 
and four females, viz.: John E. Meyer, A. M., 
principal, (a position he has held since 1870, hav- 
ing previously acceptably filled the position of 
associate principal of this school,) who was edu- 
cated at Williams College, has taught fifteen 
years, teaches the Natural Sciences and Latin, 
and receives a salary of $1,600 ; Richard S. 
Holmes, A. M., professor of Greek and Latin, 
who was educated at Middlebury College, has 
taught eleven years, and receives a salary of 
$1,000; Sarah E. Sedgwick, preceptress, who 
was educated at Poughkeepsie Female Seminary, 
has taught eighteen years, gives instruction in 
Higher English, and receives a salary of $750 ; 
Ursula L. Sittser, teacher of Common English, 
who was educated at Auburn Academy, has 
taught nineteen years, and receives a salary of 
$600 ; Annis D. Kenney, teacher of Common 
English, who was educated at Cayuga Lake 
Academy, has taught ten years, and receives a 
salary of $600 ; and S. Belle Sherwood, teacher 
of Common English, who was educated at Elmira 
Female College, and receives a salary of $350. 

The average number of pupils attending the 
High School in 1877 was 177, an increase of 

fifteen over the previous year. The graduating 
class for that year comprised seven members, six 
in the academic and one in the classical course. 
The first graduates (in 1868) were Arthur 
Stephen Hoyt and James Hall, both in the class- 
ical course. The whole number who have gradu- 
ated to the close of the year 1877 is 106, forty- 
four in the classical and sixty-two in the academic 

The appended table shows the thoroughness of 
the instruction imparted here, when it is remem- 
bered that the written examinations held at stated 
times are made the basis for determining the dis- 
tribution of the Literature Fund : 























$28, 9S 




44^ Jl 



6.y 8s 










759 ol 

Mr. Chas. P. Williams, dealer in books and 
stationery, taught school from 1844 to 1854, first 
in the school on School street, and afterwards on 
North street. Pie was superintendent of schools 
and clerk of the Board of Education from 1856 
to 1866, and school commissioner twelve years. 
Mr. L. Paddock, the present superintendent of 
streets, taught in the public schools some fifteen 
to eighteen years, first in the School street school, 
and afterwards in the " bell " school-house. 

Board of Education i878-'9. 

President — John T. M. Davie. 

Commissioners — David W. Barnes, Delamer E. 
Clapp, Orlando S. Clark, J. T. M. Davie, Amasa 
B. Hamblin, Orlando Lewis, Wm. J. Moses, 
Miles Perry and Bradley A. Tuttle. 

Superintendent and Secretary — B. B. Snow. 

Standi?ig Committees. — Finance, Wm. J. Moses, 
Delamer E. Clapp and Orlando S. Clark ; Schools, 
Miles Perry, Bradley A. Tuttle and Amasa B. 
HambHn ; Teachers, V>x2,A\Qy A. Tuttle, Orlando 
Lewis and Miles Perry ; High School, Orlando 
Lewis, Wm. J. Moses and Delamer E. Clapp ; 
Text Books, Delamer E. Clapp, Amasa B. Hamb- 
lin and Orlando S. Clark ; Grievances, Orlando 
S. Clark, Miles Perry and David W. Barnes ; 



Supplies, Amasa B. Haniblin, David W. Barnes 
and Orlando Lewis ; Buildings ami Repairs, Da- 
vid W. Barnes, Wm. J. Moses and Bradley A. 

The regular meetings of the board are held the 
first Tuesday of each month, at 7 o'clock P. M. 
from Oct. 1st, to April ist, and at 7 1-2 o'clock 
P. M., from April ist, to Oct. rst, at the Com- 
mon Council chamber. 

Auburn Tiieologicai. Skminarv. 

Founding.— The Auburn Theological Semin- 
ary is a school for the education of candidates for 
the ministry of the Presbyterian church. It was 
established by the Synod of Geneva in 1S19, and 
chartered by the State April 14th, 1820. The act 
of incorporation contains a proviso that no student 
of any Christian denomination shall be excluded 
from a participation in the privileges of the insti- 
tution on the ground of his religious persuasion. 
The seat of the institution was fi.xed at Auburn 
in consequence of a liberal contribution towards 
its endowment by several of the citizens. The 
valuable ground for its location was provided by 
the donation of si.x acres by the heirs of Col. John 
L. Hardenbergh and two acres by Glen Cuyler, 
and the purchase of about as much more. By 
the growth of the city around it, it has now come 
to be quite centrally situated, and presents the 
only considerable piece of open and public ground 
within the city limits. j 

Buildings. — Upon this ground there was 
erected in the years 1820 and 1821, the original 
Seminary building, afterwards added to and im- 
proved, at a total cost of about ^40,000. It in- 
cluded a chapel and lecture rooms and accommo- 
dations for si.xty or seventy students. The 
building was substantial, but plain and unorna- 
mental, and imperfectly provided with appliances 
for ventilation. As it faced north and south the 
northern rooms received but little sunshine at 
any period of the year and were objectionable 
from the liability to cold and dampness. The 
whole building was much below the standard of 
architectural beauty and convenience now thought 
necessary in public edifices. These inconven- 
iences were remedied by the erection in 1874-5 
of Morgan Hall, the beautiful and perfect build- 
ing now used. It is built of the blue limestone of 
the County picked out with Medina sandstone ; is 
five stories in height, and faces east and west, so 

that every room has the benefit of the sun's rays 
during a part of the day. It is 216 feet in length 
by 45 in breadth, and provides accommodation 
for seventy-si.x students, each with a parlor and 
bed-room. The stairways are broad and easy ; 
and there is an elevator for raising baggage or 
other heavy material. The rooms are neatly fur- 
nished with everything necessary for the student.s' 
convenience. The whole building is heated by 
steam and supplied with gas and water. For the 
use of all these conveniences the students pay the 
sum of 525 each per year ; and are subject to no 
other charge whatever for enjoying the advanta- 
ges of the institution. Besides this, all students 
for the Presbyterian ministry wliose circum- 
stances require it are aided from the Seminary or 
other public funds to the amount of from ;$ir)Oto 
$200 per year. 

The cost of Morgan Hall was about 5100,000. 
three-quarters of which was the donation of Col. 
Edwin B. Morgan of Aurora. Besides this noble 
benefaction Col. Morgan furnished one-half the 
cost of the beautiful Dodge and Morgan Library 
Building, standing on the opposite or east side of 
the Seminary quadrangle. The Hon. W. E. 
Dodge, a liberal benefactor of the Seminary, of- 
fered to furnish half the amount necessary for 
the erection of a fire-proof building for the library. 
The offer was taken up by Col. Morgan. The 
entire cost of this elegant building, confessedly 
one of the finest in the country, was about ^40,- 
000. It is constructed of the same kind of ma- 
terials as Morgan Hall, and is arranged with 
shelves on the floor and galleries, lo hold 60,000 

To complete the plan on which these two 
buildings have been put up there is needed a new 
building to contain a chapel and lecture rooms in 
a corresponding style. If this should take the 
place of the present unsatisfactory chapel, there" 
would only be needed a gymnasium building on 
the north side to complete the quadrangle, and 
furnish every necessary material accommodation 
for the good of the students. 

Students. — The first class of students for the 
ministry graduated from the Seminary in 1824. 
Since then there has left the institution each year 
a class of young men well prepared for the work 
of preaching the gospel until the aggregate ex- 
ceeds a thousand. These have furnished pas- 
tors not only for the Presbyterian churches in 



Central and Western New York, which was the 
first and immediate demand of the Seminary, but 
for the new States and Territories of the West, 
and for missionary service abroad. 

It is expected that each class will supply sev- 
eral laborers'both for the home and foreign field. 
The students while still in the Seminary engage 
in evangelistic labors as far as possible ; teaching 
the convicts in the State Prison, conducting Sun- 
day schools and Bible classes, and supplying 
feeble and destitute congregations in the neigh- 
borhood with the preaching of the gospel. 

Course of Instruction. — The Presbyterian 
Church, as is well known, favors a thorough prep- 
aration for the work of the Christian ministry. 
The classes in the Seminary are divided into 
juniors, middle and seniors, and the course of 
instruction extends over three years. Most of 
the candidates are graduates of our best colleges ; 
and either a college diploma, or a corresponding 
evidence of acquaintance with the languages, arts 
and sciences is usually required in order to secure 
admission. The following is an outline of the 
course of study : 

Jtuiior Year. — Hebrew and Chaldee ; Canon 
of the Scriptures ; Biblical Criticism ; Critical 
Reading of Old and New Testaments ; Church 
History begun ; Natural Theology ; Questions 
in Mental Philosophy ; Exercise in Lecture 
Room Talks throughout the year, extempore. 

Middle Year. — Evidences of Christianity ; In- 
spiration of the Scriptures ; Christian Theology ; 
Hebrew and Greek Exegesis continued ; Bibli- 
cal Interpretation ; Church History continued ; 
Lectures on the Sermon and on Style; Exercise 
in the Preparation and Criticism of Plans ; Ex- 
tempore Preaching. 

Senior Year. — Lectures on Preaching and Pas- 
toral Theology ; Exercise in the Criticism of 
Plans continued ; Preaching — Extempore and 
from Manuscript ; Critical Analysis of Sermons ; 
Personal Drill and Sacred Oratory ; Greek Exe- 
gesis continued ; New Testament Literature ; 
Church History continued ; Church Polity ; The 
form of Government and History of the Presby- 
terian Church ; Church Parliamentary Law. 

Government of the Seminary. The Au- 
burn Theological Seminary is regarded as the 
property of the Presbyterian Church. Its finan- 
cial administration is vested in a body of trustees 
who hold the real and personal estate under the 
provisions of the charter. The trustees are elected 
by the commissioners, composing the coordinate 
body administering the affairs of the Seminary. 
This body consists of a representation of two 

clergymen and one layman from each of the 
Presbyteries comprised in the bounds of the sy- 
nods of Albany, Central New York, Geneva and 
Western New York. These Presbyteries are at 
present eighteen in number, and the Board of 
Commissioners therefore consists of fifty-four 
members. The commissioners appoint the pro- 
fessors and, with the concurrence of the trustees, 
fix the salaries and make all necessary appropria- 
tions of funds. Each commissioner holds his 
office for three years, one going out of office and 
the Presbytery supplying his place by a new 
election each year. A body of examiners, com- 
posed of the senior commissioner of each Presby- 
tery, attend at the annual examination of the 
classes in May, at the end of the Seminary 

Professors. — The board of instruction in the 
seminary consists at present of five professors in 
the several departments of Christian Theology, 
Church History and Government, Biblical Criti- 
cism, Study of the Hebrew Language and Lit- 
erature, and Sacred Rhetoric and Pastoral The- 
ology. Each professor, at his inauguration, de- 
livers an address and subscribes to the following 
pledge : 

" In the presence of the omniscient and heart- 
searching God, I do solemnly and sincerely af- 
firm and declare that I believe the Scriptures of 
the Old and New Testaments to be the Word of 
God and the only infallible rule of faith and prac- 
tice ; that I do receive and adopt the Confession 
of Faith and the Catechisms of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States of America as con- 
taining the system of doctrine taught in the Holy 
Scriptures ; that I do approve of the government 
and discipline of the Presbyterian Church as pre- 
scribed in the form of government of the Pres- 
byterian Church in these United States ; and I 
do solemnly promise to maintain with zeal and 
fidelity the truths of the gospel, and to be faith- 
ful and diligent in all such duties as may devolve 
on me as a professor in this seminary, according 
to the best of my knowledge and abilities." 

The present faculty of the seminary are the 
following : Rev. Samuel M. Hopkins, D. D., 
Hyde Professor of Ecclesiastical History and 
Church Polity ; Rev. E. A. Huntington, D. D., 
Taylor, Seymour and Ivison Professor of Bibli- 
cal Criticism ; Rev. Willis J. Beecher, D. D., 
Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature ; 
Rev. Herrick Johnson, D. D., Bellamy and Ed- 
wards Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Pastoral 
Theology ; and Rev. Ransom B. Welch, D. D., 



L. L. D., Richards Professor of Christian The- 

Seminauy Lirkaky. — The Seminary Library 
consists of about 12,000 volumes, mostly theo- 
logical, but many also critical, historical and 
philosophical. These have been judiciously 
arranged by the librarian, with reference to sub- 
ject and time, according to the method of many 
of the best European libraries. Interesting ad- 
ditions lately made are the great facsimile of 
the Tisc/iaidorff Ms. of titc Nc7v Testament, ( the 
Sinaitic Ms.) and the Abbe Migne's splendid 
edition of The Fathers, (the Latin and Greek 
Patrologia) in four hundred volumes. The library 
is freely open for the use of clergymen and citi- 
zens of every denomination. Several hundred 
volumes are annually added ; but as the building 
is shelved for 60,000 volumes, many of the al- 
coves are still empty and suggest a splendid op- 
portunity for generous benefactions, as an indi- 
vidual possessing the means and disposition to 
aid the cause of sacred learning, can scarcely do 
better than adopt one of the vacant alcoves to 
bear his name and fill it with appropriate books, 
which, in this elegant fire-proof building, would 
no doubt remain a safe deposit to bless many 
coming generations. 

Auburn Young Ladies' Institute. — This 
educational institution is located at 68 and 128 
North street. In the winter of 1S53, on the in- 
vitation of prominent citizens, Mr. Mortimer L. 
Browne, then a teacher in Syracuse, and Emer- 
son J. Hamilton, a teacher in Bath, N. Y., visited 
Auburn with reference to establishing a seminary 
for the higher education of young women. Great 
interest was manifested by the citizens and the 
expectation was awakened that substantial aid 
would be given to the enterprise. About the 
time that an effort was to be made to procure 
subscriptions, such a stringency occurred in 
financial matters that it was deemed wise to defer 
the attempt until it could be made under more 
favorable circumstances. Meantime, Mr. Browne 
unexpectedly received the appointment of super- 
intendent of public instruction in Syracuse, and 
Mr. Hamilton was called to the principalship of 
the High School in Oswego, and the Auburn en- 
terprise was indefinitely postponed. 

In the autumn of 1854, Mr. WinthropTappan, 
from Augusta, Maine, came to Central New 
York seeking a suitable location for the estab- 

lishment of a select school for young ladies. On 
reaching Auburn he received such encourage- 
ment that he opened a small school in Corning 
Hall block. This e.xijerinicnt v/as so successful 
that Mr. Tappan soon visited Syracuse and in- 
vited Mr. Browne to become associated with him 
in establishing a school to be known as the Au- 
burn \'oung Ladies' Institute, to be located in 
the City Hall, which the citizens of Auburn had 
engaged to remodel for educational purposes, and 
make free of rent for the first three years of the 
school. The proposition was accepted by Mr. 
Browne, who resigned his office in Syracuse, and 
became associated with Mr. Tappan in organizing 
the Institute in May, 1855. These gentlemen 
were thus associated for three years, during which 
time the reputation of the Institute became so 
extended that an urgent demand existed for the 
accommodation of pupils from abroad. 

Their joint principalship and proprietorship 
having expired by limitation in 1858, and Mr. 
Tappan preferring to retire from the institution, 
his interest was purchased by Mr. Browne, under 
whose sole management and control it has since 
remained. His residence on Genesee street be- 
ing insufficient to meet the demand for boarding 
facilities, Mr. Browne purchased the " Goodwin 
Place," 128 North street, which he so remodeled 
and enlarged as to accommodate twenty or more 
young ladies. Three or more acres of grounds 
are connected with the residence, and are so ar- 
ranged and adorned as to produce the most beau- 
tiful landscape effects. Their attractiveness, the 
daily walk to and from the residence to the day 
school and the provisions for carriage and sleigh 
riding, promote that high physical culture without 
which the best intellectual development cannot 
be secured. 

In 1 87 1, after occupying the City Hall over 
sixteen years, Mr. Browne purchased the north 
building of the Knight block, 68 North street, 
erected a large addition thereto, and converted 
the whole to the purposes of the day school. Its 
long occupancy of the City Hall forbade the in- 
corporation of the Institute by the Regents, and 
it has thus been debarred from any share in the 
annual school appropriations by the State. In 
consideration of this disability, and in deserved 
recognition of its usefulness in the cause of edu- 
cation, a petition was numerously signed by the 
best citizens of Auburn, and through Hon. Wm. 



B. Woodin, Senator from this district, was pre- 
sented to the Legislature of 1871, asking that 
^3,000 be appropriated to it, to be applied to the 
purchase of apparatus, library and cabinet. The 
appropriation was made, and expended for the 
purposes stated, and has thus added to the effi- 
ciency and reputation of the Institute. With this 
exception, since its establishment in 1855, this 
institution received no assistance from any 
source, and whatever reputation or success it has 
achieved is due alone to its intrinsic merit. From 
the last circular, issued in 1878, we summarize 
the characteristics of this Institute as follows : 
The most liberal provision for physical comfort ; 
facilities for thorough and symmetrical mental 
culture ; unusual attention to individual develop- 
ment ; and, paramount to all other considera- 
tions, the formation of elevated moral and re- 
ligious character. From the same circular it ap- 
pears that the patron references are from thirteen 
different States. Its present Board of Trustees 
comprises Sylvester Willard, M. D., Elliot G. 
Storke, Miles Perry, Jno. W. Haight, Alonzo G. 
Beardsley, Oscar F. Knapp, Wm. Allen, David 
M. Osborne, and Hon. Theodore M. Pomeroy. 

Cayuga Asylum for Destitute Children. 
— This asylum, which occupies a pleasant site, 
ornamented with shade trees and shrubbery, on 
Owasco street, between Walnut and Bradford 
streets, was founded by the unwearied efforts of 
a few benevolent ladies, in the spring of 1852, 
and incorporated by act of the Legislature the 
same year. Its object, as stated in the act of in- 
corporation, is " to provide a temporary home for 
orphan, half-orphan and destitute children, sup- 
ply their necessities, promote their moral, intel- 
lectual and religious improvement, and fit them 
for situations of usefulness." Its corporate pow- 
ers, as regards its property, are vested in a board 
of nine male trustees ; and as regards the ap- 
propriation of its income, the care and manage- 
ment of its children, and of its internal and do- 
mestic concerns, in aboard of female managers, 
consisting of a first, second and third directress, 
a treasurer, a secretary and twenty-seven other 
female managers, residing at the time of their 
election or appointment, in the County of Cay- 
uga. The first trustees, as named in the charter, 
were John H. Chedell, John W. Haight, Franklin 
L. Griswold, Zebrina M. Mason, Henry Under- 
wood, J. Ives Parsons, Charles N. Tuttle, Ros- 

well Curtiss and Ebenezer B. Cobb ; and the 
first board of managers, Harriet T. Pitney, First 
Directress ; Mrs. Zebrina M. Mason, Second Di- 
rectress ; Mrs. Jesse Segoine, Third Directress ; 
Caroline F. Blatchford, Treasurer ; Harriet S. 
Conklin, Secretary; Mrs. John W. Haight, Mary 
C. Morgan, Florence Mellen, Mrs. Crane, Fran- 
ces M. Goodwin, Margaret R. Watson, Mrs. 
Rice, Charlotte P. Underwood, Sally N. Bacon, 
Mrs. John McFarlan, Julia C. Clark, Mrs. W. I. 
Preston, S. Maria Reed, Abbey Warden, Henri- 
etta Parsons, Melita Chedell, Mrs. S. L. Bradley, 
Deborah Ann Bronson, Lydia H. Young, Caro- 
line Ross, Mary Fowler, Jane H. Woodruff, Mary 
Ann Robinson, Eliza Lewis, Andalusia Starin, 
Celuta Cook and Mary Kipp. 

The managers are empowered " to govern the 
children committed to their care, and prescribe 
the course of their instruction and management 
to the same extent and with the same rights as 
exist in the case of natural guardians ;" to bind 
out such children " to some suitable employment 
in the same manner as overseers of the poor are 
authorized to bind poor and indigent children," 
but to see that provision is made whereby they 
shall be secured " an education proper and fitting 
to the condition and circumstances in life of such 
a child, and instruction in mechanical or agricul- 
tural pursuits." The amended act authorizes 
the board of supervisors " to instruct the super- 
intendents of the poor * * * to annually contract 
with the managers of said asylum, to board and 
clothe all children thrown on the county for sup- 
port, who are of a proper age to receive its bene- 
fits, at a price not exceeding eighty cents each 
per week ;" and the board of supervisors are 
" authorized to levy and collect annually, in ad- 
vance, in the same manner as other county 
charges are levied and collected, such sums of 
money for the above purpose " as they " may 
deem necessary and expedient." Article IX of 
the by-laws provides, that " no person shall be 
considered eligible to the office of superintendent 
who is not a professed believer in the doctrines 
of the Bible, and competent to give religious in- 
struction to the children, abstaining also from all 
sectarian influence." 

The school law of the city of Auburn passed 
June lOth, 1875, authorized the board of education 
" to employ a teacher or teachers in the asylum 
for destitute children of said city, and to pay 



therefor out of the public school fund, in like 
manner as other teachers are paid ; and said 
board is authorized to supply said asylum with 
fuel for school purposes, in like manner as other 
schools are supplied ; and the said board shall 
have the same care, oversight and direction of 
said school as of the other public schools of said 
city ; but nothing in this act shall be construed 
to give the board of education any control over 
the management of said asylum except as herein 
provided. The board of managers of said asy- 
lum, with the concurrence of said board of edu- 
cation, may at any time discontinue such school, 
in which case the pupils therein shall be entitled 
to all the privileges of any other of the public 
schools of said city." 

The first meeting of the ladies, on record, was 
held May 5th, 1852, when the society was organ- 
ized, and the managers elected as named in the 
act of incorporation. The asylum was first 
opened in 1852, in a wooden house on the east 
side of James street. In 1853 the lot on which 
the asylum now stands was purchased for $3,500. 
With the additions subsequently made, at a cost 
of $3,200, it comprises about two acres. In 
1857, the main asylum building, which is a fine, 
three-story brick structure, was erected at a cost 
of over $8,000 ; and in 1858, a rear addition, for 
a school-room and other purposes, was built at a 
cost of $6,000. In 1S70, a flag-stone walk was 
laid and curb set at a cost of $1,400. In 1871 
the main building and fence were repaired and a 
new and more desirable walk from the street to 
the front steps laid, at a cost of about $2,000. 

From the report of the Secretary for 1877, it 
appears that the number of children in the asy- 
lum during the year was 167 ; of whom 107 were 
boys and 60 girls. The number of children 
then in the asylum was 98. The smallest num- 
ber in the institution at any time was 78. The 
number who have found homes was 57. The 
present number of inmates, (October 1st, 1S78,) 
is 95. The receipts from all sources in 1877, in- 
cluding an appropriation of $3,000 from the Su- 
pervisors and the balance on hand at the begin- 
ning of the year, were $4,937.74 ; the expendi- 
tures, $4,855.89. 

The board of managers issue monthly a pa- 
per called The Orphan's Friend, which is a great 
assistance to the asylum in enlisting the sympa- 
thy and aid of the public, while it gives informa- 

tion to the friends abroad of its management, 
and the history of the children committed to its 

On the death of Mr. James S. Seymour, who 
was the president of the board of trustees of 
the asylum from its organization, and a liberal 
benefactor, the asylum received a bequest of 
$10,000 as a permanent fund, the interest only to 
be used. It has been the recipient of legacies 
from other individuals from time to time, among 
them $2,700 from Dr. Healy, of Syracuse ; 
$5,000 from Laban Hoskins, of Union Springs ; 
$1,440 from Mr. Baker, of Fleming ; $300 from 
Mrs. Mary Miller, of Auburn ; $100 from Mrs. 
Dr. Rudd, of Utica ; $1,059 ^om Kittlewells ; 
and $1,310 from Hugh McDowell, of Niles ; be- 
sides innumerable donations of various sums. 


History ok Auisukn, (Continukd.) 

Churches in Aukelius and Auburn — Eaki.y 
Religious Teachers — First Religious So- 
ciety — First Congregational Church in 
AunuKN — Its Changes and Histokv — St. 
Peter's Church — First Battist Church — 
First Methodist Episcopal Church — 
Other Church Organizations. 

REV. David Thatcher, from Orange, N. J., 
made, in 1 795, a missionary tour through 
this region, and held religious services at the 
scattering settlements. Rev. Asa Hillyer, also 
from New Jersey, engaged in a similar work at 
Aurora, in the town of Milton, now Genoa, and at 
Hardenbergh's Corners, in 1798. Elder David 
Irish, is said to have preached here in 1794, and if 
so, his was probably the first sermon to white men 
at the hamlet. 

New Jersey must be credited with the honor of 
an early religious culture of this wilderness field, 
and it is worthy of remark, that three young min- 
isters from that State itinerated over this ground, 
when most of their routes were either well trod- 
den Indian trails, or in the absence of these, the 
freshly blazed trees of the forest. Their names 
were Matthew La Rue Perrine, James Richards 


and Henry Mills; they in after years, became emi- 
nent and honored professors in the Auburn Theo- 
logical seminary. The father of a fourth profess- 
or, Aaron Condit, was also an early missionary 
from New Jersey, and held services at Aurelius. 
Seth Williston and Jedediah Bushnell labored 
here in 1799, and aroused a deep and abiding re- 
ligious interest. 

The first religious society incorporated in this 
vicinity was the Reformed Protestant Dutch 
Church in Owasco, organized September 23d, 
1796. In the same year a Baptist Church was 
organized in Fleming, and in 1799 another of the 
same denomination in Brutus, now Sennett. 
These were followed in iSoi by the organization 
of the "First Congregational Society of Aurelius," 
consisting of five members, namely : Samuel Col- 
ver, Gilbert Weed, Josiah Mix, Rebecca Mix and 
Jacob Shaw. 

The place of meeting, was at the house of Icha- 
bod Wilkinson, on the Poplar Ridge road. Its 
trustees were drawn from different and, when the 
facilities for traveling are considered, from widely 
separated settlements. They were : Thomas 
Mumford, of Cayuga ; Joseph and John Grover, 
of Fleming Hill ; Henry Moore, residing on the 
road to Union Springs ; Hezekiah Goodwin, one 
mile from the Half Acre ; William Bostwick, of 
Auburn; Jesse Davis and Joseph Taylor, residing 
in the south part of the town ; and Moses Lyon, 
near the Half Acre. David Higginswas called 
to the pastorate, in May, 1802, and his salary was 
fixed at Jgsoo. His family comprised ten mem- 
bers. For the annual support of each of whom 
there was thus the pittance of fifty dollars only. 

In 1809, a partially finished church at the Half 
Acre, was occupied by this society where they 
worshiped until November, 1810, when Mr. 
Higgins, tired of the neglect of the congregation 
to finish the house, and being offered the pas- 
toral care of a congregation in Auburn, resigned, 
to serve the " First Congregational Society" of 
that place. This society was organized Sep- 
tember 17th, 1 8 10, with the following trustees : 
Robert Dill, Silas Hawley, Henry Ammerman, 
Moses Gilbert and Noah Olmstead.Jr. The so- 
ciety soon after its organization adopted the Pres- 
byterian form of government. The sum sub- 
scribed for the salary of Mr. Higgins was less 
than ^500. A regular church organization was 
not effected until January 14th, 181 1. It 

comprised nine persons, namely : David Herring, 
Silas Hawley, Oliver Lynch, Eunice Higgins, 
Sarah Gilbert, Betsey Tyler, Rachel Parker, 
Sarah Hawley and Anna Coggswell. Within the 
first year of its organization the membership had 
risen to seventeen.* 

In February, 181 3, Mr. Higgins resigned and 
was succeeded by Hezekiah N. Woodruff", who 
had officiated for nine years at Aurora. In his 
letter of acceptance, he expresses the fear that 
the provision made for his support " will not be 
fully adequate to free him from worldly care and 
embarrassment." When Mr. Higgins resigned, 
the Church consisted of twenty-seven members, 
twenty-four of whom were women. Mr. Wood- 
ruff" was installed June 22d, 1813, and continued 
until August 29th, 1816. During his pastorate 
the first church edifice was erected, at a cost of 
^16,000 and dedicated March 5th, 1817. Its 
cost had been fully paid and the prosperity of 
the society was not checked by the burden of 
debt. Hitherto their meetings had been held in 
the school-house on South street and in the 
"long room" of the " Centre House." 

Mr. Woodruff" was succeeded March 3d, 1817, 
by Rev. Dirck C. Lansing, of Onondaga, where 
he had held a pastorate for eight years. He con- 
tinued here until June i6th, 1829, over twelve 
years. He then assumed the charge of the Sec- 
ond Church of Utica. 

Dr. Lansing's services with this Church were 
signally successful, in which he had very little 
assistance from any of the evangelists, excepting 
Mr. Finney. He was aided by him for a short 
time only, in 1826. The accessions to the Church 
in the first four years of his ministry were four 
hundred and seventy-five. Dr. Lansing, by his 
great influence over all with whom he came in 
contact was well calculated to win converts, not 
only to his faith, but also to its successful propa- 
gation by means of an educated ministry. He 
suggested the establishment of the Theological 
Seminary in Auburn, and it received from him a 

* On one occasion in the absence of Mr. Higgins, William Bost- 
wick, an Episcopalian, was invited to read the Episcopal service and 
a sermon, which he did, without objection by any one. On the 
Sunday following the return of the pastor, the act was severely con- 
demned from the pulpit, which led to the secession of the Episcopal 
attendance, and to their organization of a society of their own faith. 
This occurred while Mr. Higgins was in charge of the religious ser- 
vices of several settlements and while he was only an occasional min- 
istrant here, to a society composed of different religious beliefs. 


Panfield Jarrod. 



Mr. Canfield Jakrod was born November 
21, 1801, in Warren, Dutchess county, N. Y., and 
soon after removed with his parents to Salisbury, 
Litchfield county. Conn., where he remained 
until 1820, when he removed to Wolcott, then 
in Cayuga county, N. Y. 

His employment was farming, though he en- 
gaged in wool buying and as an insurance agent. 
His attachment to a particular spot was not very 
strong, and he frequently changed his residence. 
In 1858 he came to Auburn, where, until his 
death in 1867, he chiefly resided. His widow 
survives him and now resides on North Street. 
Mr. Jarrod married Miss Terrissa Skeel in 1823. 
She was born in Warrensburg, Rensselaer 
county, N. Y., February 22, 1800, and with her 
parents moved to Sterling, in Cayuga county, in 
1 8 17. Mr. and Mrs. Jarrod have had no children. 

but have made their house a pleasant home for 
five orphans, whom they reared, educated and 
assisted to business employments. Four survive, 
some of whom are in the Government service in 
Washington, D. C. Mr. and Mrs. Jarrod united 
with the Wesleyan Methodist Church in 1846. 
Politically, Mr. Jarrod was a firm Republican, 
using his influence for the liberation of the 
slaves, and his house was one of the stations 
on the " underground Railroad," where many 
a sable traveller, bound for Canada, found refuge, 
sympathy, rest and refreshment. Their sym- 
pathy for the unfortunate and care for their 
wants are proverbial, and Mrs. Jarrod now en- 
tertains and befriends the Onondaga women, 
who are selling Indian trinkets in this vicinity. 
A view of her residence may be seen in another 
part of this work. 





support at once so earnest, forcible and persist- 
ent as to win to its support, not only his own so- 
ciety, but secured, so generally, the cooperation 
of the Presbytery of Cayuga and of the Synod, 
as to secure the object sought. The seminary 
was located and completed and between that insti- 
tution and the First Presbyterian Society of Au- 
burn, there has always existed the most intimate 
relations, resulting in reciprocal benefits. Most 
of the ample grounds and nearly one-half of the 
sum raised in the country for the erection of the 
first buildings, were contributed by members ot 
this society. 

Recently the same beneficent spirit led to the 
bestowal of $80,000 upon that institution as a 
condition of its retention in Auburn. This large 
gift to the seminary was added to the heavy bur- 
den then recently incurred in the erection of their 
magnificent church edifice the cost of which was 
1^140,000. It is worthy of remark that this so- 
ciety has expended upon its church edifices and 
the seminary buildings and endowments about 
equal sums, aggregating the large amount of 
over $240,000, more than one-third of which has 
been contributed by two wealthy and liberal citi- 
zens, Sylvester Willard, M. D., and Theodore P. 
Case, Esq. 

Rev. Josiah Hopkins, D. D., succeeded Dr. 
Lansing, and was installed September 28th, 1830. 
He continued until April 21st, 1846, fifteen years 
and eight months. The Church, under his min- 
istry, greatly prospered and large accessions were 
made to it. He was aided at different times by 
eminent evangelists ; by Charles G. F"inney, for 
six weeks, in the winter of 1831, the result of 
whose labors is said to have been over five hun- 
dred conversions ; by Rev. Jedediah Burchard, in 
1833, a theatrical and very eccentric preacher, 
who drew immense audiences, that came both 
from the city and country and the influence of 
whose labors were widely extended over the 
country; by Rev. Mr. Avery in 183S; and by Rev.* 
Samuel G. Orton in 1S40. 

Dr. Hopkins resigned April 21st, 1846, be- 
cause of failing health, and Henry A. Nelson 
was installed July 29th, 1846, soon after his 
graduation from the Auburn Seminary, and con- 
tinued in the pastorate for over ten years. 

To succeed two such experienced and very able 
and eloquent men as Drs. Lansing and Hopkins, 
was certainly a very trying ordeal for a young 

minister; yet Mr. Nelson fully sustained himself- 
by his talents and great industry, and ably and 
acceptably filled the responsible position until 
September 8th, 1856, when he acccjitcd the call 
of an im|)ortant chinch in St. Louis. 

Rev. Charles Hawley, D. D., succeeded Mr. 
Nelson, November 5th, 1857, and still holds the 
position, having now served the congregation over 
twenty-one years. 

The church has a peculiarly interesting histo- 
ry, embracing a period of about seventy years, 
over sixty years of which the society has been 
served by four pastors only, and for more than 
one-third of that long period it has been under 
the care of the present pastor. Whoever will 
compare this record with that of the other church- 
es of the county as contained in this volimie, will 
be forcibly impressed with tiic rcmarkiihlc con- 

The present officers of this clnirch and society 
are as follows : 

Pastor — Rev. Charles Hawley, D. 1). 

^•/./^n— Richard Steel, Sylvester Willard, Is- 
rael F. Terrill, H. Woodrufi', James Hyde, Ebe- 
nezer K. Jones, F'ranklin L. Griswold, Charles 
A. Lee, Mortimer L. l^rowne, James Seymour, 
Jr., William E. Hughitt, Richard H. Hloom. 

/Av?tw«— Eliphalet F. Putnam, H. Brooks, 
Chas. P. Williams,* Edward C. Selover, Richard 
S. Holmes, William H. Meaker. 

7)7/.v/rt'J— John S. Fowler, H. Woodruff, John 
Olmstead, Horace T. Cook, B. C. Smith. V.A- 
ward C. Selover, Warren Crocker. 

Communicants, 650, as reported May, 1S78. 

St. Petek'.s PROTK.STAN-r Episcopal Church. 
— The following very interesting notes on the 
origin, progress and present state of this society 
is from the pen of its accomplished and respected 
rector. Rev. John ]?rainard, D. D. 

It is now nearly three score and ten years since 
this parish was organized. For nearly all that 
time, its church, with its beautiful enclosure, has 
formed one of the objects of interest in this the 
" loveliest village" of the plain. Compared with 
religious establishments of the old world, or even 
with many in New ICngland, its history may seem 
brief and uneventful, yet it extends back almost 
to the beginning of the settlement of this region 
by a band of men as noble and devoted as 
ever leveled the forest and tilled the soil of any 

Dcceascl Janu.iry I4tli, 1879. 


new country. They were men of religious train- 
ing, and no sooner had they marked out the 
places for their homes than their thoughts were 
turned to the worship of Almighty God and the 
building of temples in honor of His name. It 
was not strange, considering the strength of the 
Episcopal Church in Connecticut and in many of 
the eastern counties of this State, that among the 
early settlers of this region there should be many 
whose training and education would lead them to 
desire the privileges to which they had been ac- 
customed in their Eastern home. These feelings, 
so natural and commendable, were doubtless 
strengthened, as from time to time opportunities 
of public worship were afforded them by some 
devoted missionaries from the East ; or when, at 
intervals less rare, they gathered together to hear 
the service of the Prayer Book read by some in- 
telligent layman. In that company of zealous 
laymen towards whom the Church of this day 
turn with gratitude and affection, were two 
whose zeal and liberality had very much to do 
with the foundation, growth and prosperity of 
this parish. Their names were Hackaliah Burt 
and William Bostwick, and the parish records 
bear abundant tokens of their loving interest. 

It was not, however, until the iSthday of July, 
1805, when the missionary visits of Rev. Daven- 
port Phelps had become more frequent and regu- 
lar that St. Peter's Church was organized. The 
meeting for this purpose was held at the house 
of Mr. Burt, and Rev. Davenport Phelps pre- 
sided. Toward the erection of a church edifice, 
no steps were taken until January 7th, 181 1, 
when William Bostwick, Ebenezer Phelps and 
Hackaliah Burt were appointed a committee for 
that purpose. The location of the church was 
settled by the generous gift to the parish by Wil- 
liam Bostwick of a noble lot. The work upon 
the church progressed with little interruption 
and on the 22d day of August it was duly con- 
secrated to the worship of Almighty God, by the 
Right Rev. John Henry Hobart, Assistant 
Bishop of the Diocese of New York. Within 
this church the fiock was gathered and fed by 
several successive pastors, until February 5th, 
1832, when the church, having been recently en- 
larged and improved, was destroyed by fire. The 
destruction of the church was a great loss to the 
little band of Episcopalians in Auburn. Yet 
they met the crisis with a degree of heroism, 

which speaks well for their constancy. They de- 
termined to build of stone a larger and more ex- 
pensive church than the one they had lost, and to 
accomplish this a committee was early appointed. 
To Trinity Church, New York, the parish did 
not look in vain, receiving from that corporation 
the sum of $2,500. 

It is proper to speak at this point of the death 
of Bishop Hobart, which occurred in the rectory 
of St. Peter's Church, on the 13th of September, 
1830. He came to Auburn in the regular dis- 
charge of his official duties, and after an illness 
of several days entered into rest. His name and 
influence in the American church will never be 

Allusion has been made to the rectory. It was 
in the year 1828 that the lot and brick house 
east of the church were purchased as a home for 
the rectors, thus adding greatly to their comfort 
and convenience. The new church was conse- 
crated on the 81I1 day of August, 1823, by Bishop 
Onderdonk. It was here, on Ascension Day^ 
May 9th, 1839, that Rev. William Heathcote 
Delancey, D. D , was consecrated the first 
Bishop of Western New York. 

In I S49 steps were taken for a very decided 
improvement and enlargement of the church, 
consisting of a recess, chancel and transepts. 
This is the best indication that could be given of 
growth and progress. During the next twenty 
years no great change occurred. Several rectors 
in turn served the parish. In 1864 extensive 
improvements in the rectory changed that edifice 
to its present condition, affording one of the most 
complete and inviting parsonages in the land. 

In 186S steps were taken for the building of 
the present church, and the parish entered upon 
the work with most gratifying unanimity. Henry 
Dudley was chosen architect, and Easter Sunday, 
1870, was rendered more joyous by the fact that 
the new and beautiful church was ready foroccu 
pancy. Its cost had been about $70,000. Its con 
secration was delayed until the i8th of October 
following, when the Right Rev. Frederick D 
Huntington, D. D., assisted by the Right Rev 
Arthur Cleveland Cox, D. D., in the presence of 
a large congregation, dedicated the church to the 
service of the Almighty God. The sermon on 
this occasion was preached by Rev. William F. 
Morgan, D. D., of St. Thomas' Church, New 
York city. In April, 1873, through the gener- 


osity of General John H. Chedell, the tower and 
spire were completed. This was but one of a 
lengthened series of beneficent acts on the part 
of this gentleman, who was never weary of well 
doing for St. Peter's Parish. This noble gift of 
$10,000, was followed by a bequest of a similar 
sum, which relieved the parish from all indebted- 
ness growing out of its costly pile of buildings. 

In July, 1875, by the f.raiseworthy exertions of 
Edward Davies, a superior chime of ten bells 
from the foundry of Messrs. Meneely of West 
Troy was secured and placed in its tower. The 
cost was $5,000, and was secured by the gener- 
ous subscriptions of a large number of persons. 

It is well to notice that at Easter, 186S, a new 
parish was formed in Auburn, under the name of 
St. John's. With the most commendable dili- 
gence they are seeking to carry forward the work 
of our Divine Lord, and it is hoped and believed 
that the day is not far distant when they will en- 
joy the reward of their labors in the completion 
of a parish church. 

The following is a list of the rectors who have 
officiated here : 

Rev. Davenport Phelps, from 1805 to 181 1. 
" William A. Clarke, D. D., from iSii to 

Rev. D. McDonald, D. D , from 181310 1817. 

William H. Northrup, from 18 17 to . 

Lucius Smith, from iSiQto 1823. 
Samuel Sitgreaves, from 1824 to 1826. 
" John C. Rudd, D. D., from 1826 to 

Rev. William Lucas, from 1S33 to 'S39. 

Charles W. Hackley, D. D., from 183910 

Rev. William Croswell, D. D., from 1840 to 

Rev. Samuel Hanson Co.xe, Jr , D. D, from 
1844 to 1846. 

Rev. Walter Ayrault, D. D., from 1847 to 

Rev. E. H. Cressy, D. D., from 1853 to 1859. 
Charles H. Pratt, from i860 to i86r. 
Joseph W. Pierson, from 1862 to 1863. 
" John Brainard, D. D., from 1863. 

He is the present rector, having now occu- 
pied the position for sixteen years. 

This parish embraces about two hundred and 
eighty families and about one thousand indi- 
viduals. The number of communicants is over 

four hundred. The Sunday School includes over 
three hundred children and the Industrial School 
two hundred. 

Its present officers are : 

AVcVcr- Rev. John Hrainard, D. D. 

W'ardtiis- Joseph Osborn and Samuel Lyon. 

/(T/zj/z/w— William Allen. James A. Suydam, 
P:dward H. Groot, John N. Knapp, Noah P, 
Clarke, D. M. Osborne, Nicholas L. Casey and 
Charles A. Noble. 

Parish C/«-/C-— Charles A. Noble. 

Avery gratifying fact in respect to the first Pres- 
byterian and Episcopal Churches should be em- 
phasized, that while they have, at very heavy cost, 
put their church buildings and property in per- 
fect order, they have been entirely relieved from 
indebtedness by the liberal benefactions of a few 
of their wealthy members. 

The P"ikst Baptist Chukch of Audukn was 
organized February 17th, 1 8 19, by a council com- 
posed of delegates from the First Church in Au- 
relius (now Fleming,) and the churches in Mentz, 
Brutus and Owasco, convened for that purpose. 
As a preliminary step to the formation of a 
church, a number of brethren had met in the 
house of James Randall, September 4tli, 1817, 
and formed themselves into a body, afterwards 
known as the " Auburn Baptist Conference." 
About two weeks subsequently delegates were 
appointed and a letter addressed to the associa- 
tion, which met in Camillus. The following is 
an extract from that letter : 

" The brethren and sisters composing the Au- 
burn Conference, beg leave respectfully to repre- 
sent to the Association, the motives which actu- 
ate us in endeavoring to maintain a visible ap- 
pearance in this part of the Zion of God, our 
present state and circumstances and our desire 
and wishes relative to our future s[Mritual welfare 
and the welfare of the brethren and sisters in this 

" Viewing ourselves under the highest obliga- 
tions to embrace and defend the great doctrines 
as revealed to us in the Word of God, and deeply 
impressed with a sense of the importance of 
watching over each other in Jove, and maintain- 
ing the worship of God in this place, and consid- 
ering our local situation is such as renders it in- 
convenient, if not impossible, for us to attend the 
meetings of Baptist churches in this town [Aure- 
liusj or elsewhere, we, therefore, on the 4th of 
September, in a meeting appointed for that pur- 
pose, voted to form ourselves into a Conference 
to be styled ihc Aiibiini Baptist Conference. 


"We also at the same time agreed to adopt 
the Confessions of Faith adopted by the Associa- 
tion at its last annual meeting, September, 1816. 
We would further state that the number compos- 
ing our conference is twenty, and from many cir- 
cumstances we are induced to believe that our 
number will increase. Such, dear brethren, are 
our motives and such our present condition and 

" As a standard, therefore, is erected in this 
place for the worship of God, you will readily 
perceive the necessity of our having such minis- 
terial assistance from time to time as shall be 
calculated to promote the cause of Christ in this 

" From some recent appearances we cannot but 
hope that the Lord will continue His glorious 
work among us, and make bare His arm in the 
salvation of many precious souls. 

" Sensible of present weakness, ourearnest de- 
sire is that you would make such arrangements as 
shall be thought most proper in regard to sup- 
plying us with ministers as often as it can be 
done consistently. We are persuaded that such 
efforts may be abundantly blest and that num- 
bers will yet flock to our little society, and that 
through the Divine blessing, we shall so become 
an organized church of Christ." 

Signed, "James Buck, 

" James N. Seaman." 
The conference thus formed, continued its 
meetings for prayer and praise till December 
17th, 1S18, when, meeting as before at the house 
of James Randall, they agreed that the time had 
come when it was their duty to be known as a 
church of Christ ; and at a meeting held the 
26th of the same month, a council was called to 
meet with them February 17th, 1819, at which 
time, after a proper examination, they were recog- 
nized as a church . At that time they numbered 
thirty-six, fourteen males and twenty-two females, 
twenty-one of whom were dismissed for the pur- 
pose, from the church in Throopsville. In Sep- 
tember, 1 8 19, they were received to membership 
in the Cayuga Association, and reported si.xteen 
baptized and a total membership of fifty-five. 

From their organization in 181 7, till Decem- 
ber, 18 1 8, they were without a stated ministry; 
but about that time an arrangement was made 
with Elder Elkanah Comstock to supply them 
half the time, which he continued to do about ten 

Their first pastor was Elder C. P. Wyckoflf, 
who was called to the pastoral care of the church 
in 1820, and preached his iirst sermon in the 
court-house, then occupied as their place of wor- 

ship, June 4th of that year. At the close of a 
ten years' pastorate he left them in possession of 
a convenient place of worship, with a character 
established and influence largely increased. He 
was succeeded by Elder John Blain, who entered 
upon his labors in 1830, and continued them three 
years. During Mr. Blain's pastorate a powerful 
revival was experienced, as the result of which 
157 were added to the church by baptism. So 
large an addition to the congregation made in- 
creased accommodations necessary, and these 
were supplied in i833-'4, by the erection of a 
new stone edifice, eighty by sixty feet, which was 
opened for worship in March of the latter year. 
During the entire time of Mr. Blain's pastorate, 
which was terminated by his resignation in the 
fall of 1833, igi were added to the Church by 
baptism. He was succeeded that fall by Rev. I. 
M. Graves, who became so unpopular before the 
close of his second year as to make it necessary 
for him to leave. He afterwards became a Uni- 
versalist minister. During the winter following 
his settlement with the church, a protracted 
meeting was held, in which he was assisted by 
Elder Jacob Knapp, and sixteen were received by 

Their next pastor was Elder S. S. Parr, who 
commenced his labors in the fall of 1835 and 
closed them in 1838, having been greatly blessed 
in all his eflbrts to promote the interests of the 
church and the Redeemer's cause. During the 
winter of i83S-'36, a revival was experienced, by 
which thirty were added by baptism ; and during 
the winter of 1837, another protracted elfort, in 
which the pastor was assisted by Elder J. S. 
Backus, resulted in the addition of forty by bap- 
tism. After Mr. Parr left, the pulpit was supplied 
for six months by Brother Wilson, whose labors 
proved both acceptable and profitable. 

Their next pastor was Elder James Johnson, 
who took the pastoral charge in 1839, and re- 
mained a little more than a year. During his 
short pastorate the church passed through a severe 
trial of faith, which resulted in a division and the 
organization of a new interest; but the new body, 
failing to secure a recognition from the council 
which convened for that purpose, finally disbanded 
and returned to the church. Elder Johnson was 
succeeded by A. Pinney, who commenced his la- 
bors with the church as a licentiate in 1841, but 
was afterwards ordained pastor, and continued 



with them two years. His labors were blessed 
by another powerful revival, by which 95 were 
added by baptism. He was succeeded in the 
spring of 1S43 by Elder J. S. Backus, whose 
pastorate covered a period of seven years, and 
was blessed with four seasons of revival and 86 
baptisms. He left them in the spring of 1850, 
united and prosperous, having relieved them from 
heavy pecuniary embarrassments, and allayed the 
differences of opinion upon subjects connected 
with the labors of former jjastors. 

The ne.\t pastor was W. P. Pattison, who com- 
menced his labors in 185 land closed them in 
1855, having received during his ministry, by pro- 
fession of faith, 79. A. McGregor Hopper, who 
was a very acceptable preacher, and especially 
popular with the congregation, served them as 
pastor from 1857 to 1859, and added 82 to the 
membership. He was succeeded in 1861 by P. 
P. Bishop, who was a good scholar, a sound rea- 
soner and acceptable pastor, and during whose 
seven years' ministry 75 were added. 

Rev. Dr. W. H. Maynard was called to the 
pastorate in January, 1S69, and served as such 
seven years. The addition to the church during 
his ministry was 124. A revival was enjoyed 
during the winter of 1874, and a series of meet- 
ings held for several weeks, the pastor being aid- 
ed largely in the work by Rev. H. G. Dewitt, an 
evangelist. As a pastor and preacher few, if any, 
of his predecessors surpassed Dr. Maynard. As 
pastor he sought out the sick and afflicted and 
ministered to their wants ; as preacher, his ser- 
mons were characterized by research in church 
and Biblical history. They were marked by orig- 
inal thought and enforced by original illustra- 
tion, and were therefore instructing and edifying. 

The present pastor. Rev. Willard H. Robinson, 
who graduated from Yale College in 1872, entered 
upon his pastoral relations with the church in 
June, 1876. This is his first pastorate, under- 
taken at the completion of a post-graduate year 
at Rochester Theological Seminary. Under his 
ministrations the church is united and prosper- 

Some si.\ years ago their church edifice was 
thoroughly rejuvenated, at a cost of about $15,- 
000; and in October, 1S77, they paid oft" an in- 
debtedness of $6,300, leaving the church entire- 
ly free from debt. The present house, a plain, 
substantial stone structure, erected in iS33-'34, 


stands on the south side of Genesee street, a 
little west of Mechanic street, and took the place 
of the first, a brick structure, erected in 1S25, at 
the junction of South and E.xchangc streets, which 
was afterwards occupied by the Universalist So- 
ciety, and at present by the furniture establish- 
ment of Messrs. D. C. & G. W. Richardson. 

Since the organization of the church there has 
been expended in houses of worship about $50,- 
000 ; for pastoral salary, ^43,500. They have 
received by bai)tism, letter and exjierience 1698 
members; dismissed, 88 1 ; excluded, 113; 
dropped, 41. The number who have died is 162. 
The present membership is 501. 

The Sabbath School work connected with the 
church and society has received increased atten- 
tion during the last few years. The school is in 
a flourishing condition, numbering in attendance 
200 to 225. It is under the supervision of 
Messrs. O. F. Knapp and E. Stanton Perry, 
who are aided by an efficient corps of teachers. 
The Owasco Chapel School, sustained by this so- 
ciety, has a membership of 150, and an average 
attendance of 120. It is under the superintend- 
ance of Charles A. Cobb, and is doing a good 

The following named persons have officiated 
in this church, viz.: John Ward, John JcftVies, 
Muier, Randall, Dudley Everts, Gar- 
diner Jeffries, George Covert, Freeman Richard- 
son, Joseph Choate, Oliver Chappel, Abizur 
Pierce, Nelson Payne, Z. M. Mason, Samuel C. 
Lester, Paul D. Cornell, O. F. Knapp, T. B. 
Brown, S. B. Harlow, Jabcz Whitnee and John 
S. Bristol, as Deacons ; and Nathaniel Garrow, 
David S. Sears, Henry Polhemus, Dudley Everts, 
Aurelius Wheeler, Russell Chappell, James E. 
Tyler, Daniel Woodworth, E. B. Cobb, Z. M. 
Mason, Harrison Hopkins, PZdward Allen, Paul 
D. Cornell, Miles Perry, W. W. Payne, Henry 
S. Dunning, Wm. E. Vail, James M. Gale, Geo. 
S. Westlake, Joseph H. Dunning, S. E. Payne^ 
John Choate, J. Y. Bettys, D. M. Hough, Dr. 
W. O. Luce and H. J. Eddy, the last seven of 
whom, except Hough, are the present trustees. 

Among the earliest members, in addition to 
those already named, are Seth Burgess and wife, 
Mrs. Hannah Wadsworth, Mrs. Cyria White, 
Mrs. Thankful Lewis, Mrs. Urania Catlin, My- 
ron Strong, U. F. Doubleday, Peter Doty, Mrs. 
Susannah Culver, Jonathan and Martha Hawes, 



Mrs. Webster, Milo Webster, Mrs. Daniel Wood- 
worth, Lydia Reynolds, and Lois Sexton.* 

First Methodist Episcopal Church. — This 
society was first organized April 24th, 1819. 
Auburn was then included in the " Cayuga Cir- 
cuit." In 1820 it became a separate charge and 
its first pastor was Gardner Baker. The society 
then comprised fifty-one members and they erect- 
ed a plain wooden chapel on the site of the pa- 
rochial school building on Chapel street, in which 
they worshiped until 1834. 

In 1832, John Seymour and Tallmage Cherry 
erected with their own funds a substantial stone 
church on the corner of North and Water Sts., 
at a cost of $13,000, which was dedicated Feb- 
ruary 6th, 1833. Rev. John Dempster officiated. 
The society bought the building one year later. 
In April, 1867, the church edifice was destroyed 
by fire and the loss was a serious one to the so- 
ciety, as they had just completed extensive re- 
pairs and paid off all indebtedness upon it. Rev. 
William Searls had just been assigned to this 
charge, and he found his people without a place 
of worship. The loss was promptly supplied. 
A lot was purchased on the west corner of South 
and Exchange Sts., and a beautiful church edifice 
erected upon it at a total cost of about $40,000. 
The society also owns a parsonage of the esti- 
mated value of $4,000. There remains an in- 
debtedness of $11,000 on the entire church 
property. The new church was dedicated Jan. 
7th, 1869. 

The following are among the regularly appoint- 
ed pastors of this society : 

Gardner Baker, John C. Cole, John E. Robie, 
George Peck, Z. Paddock, James Richardson, 
Joseph Castle, H. F. Row, Selah Stocking, Thos. 
H. Pearne, A. J. Crandall, D. W. Bristol, Wm. 
H. Pearne, David Holmes, A. J. Dana, B. I. 
Ives, Wm. Ready, A. S. Graves, D. W. Thurs- 
ton, D. A. Whedon, W. C. Steele, Wm. Searls, 
E. Horr, Jr., William Annable and John Ala- 

Present Officers — Bishop, Gilbert Haven. 

Presiding Elder— R&v. U. S. Beebe. 

Pastor — John Alabaster. 

Members of Annual Conference— K^v. B. I. 
Ives and Rev. Wm. Searls. 

*Compiled from the History of the Cayuga Baptist Assotialion and 
from an article from Mr. O. F. Knapp, published in the AtSurn 
Daily Ad-vertisrr^ December 2d, 1876. 

Local Ministry — Rev. Julius Robbins, Rev. 
Frank Houser, Rev. A. B. Benham, Rev. A. J. 
Sanders, and Rev. Allen E. Atwater. 

Trustees — John W. Haight, President ; John 
F. Driggs, Secretary and Treasurer ; John Elli- 
ott, Andrew J. Sanders, George H. Evans, D. H. 
Schoonmaker, and William J. Moses. 

This society embraces about four hundred and 
twenty-five members, and the scholars of all ages 
in the Sabbath School, are three hundred and 
fifty, under the superintendence of Mr. Elmer 

The Church of the Holy Family on North 
street near Chapel, was organized as the Fourth 
Roman Catholic Church of IVestern New York, 
August 3d, 1820, with Hugh Ward, John Con- 
nor, James Hickson, Thomas Hickson and David 
Lawler, as trustees. They worshiped first and 
for several years in the court-house and the school 
house on the academy grounds. In 1834 they 
bought the wooden building on Chapel street, 
then recently abandoned by the Methodist socie- 
ty, by whom it was erected in 1821, and dedi- 
cated it October 23d, 1834. The pastors from 
this period were Revs. F. Donohue, Grace, Brad- 
ley, and Thomas O'Flaherty, the latter of whom 
officiated from 1845 to 1856. He was succeeded 
by Martin Kavanagh, from 1856 to 1857, and by 
Michael Creedon, from 1857 to 1862. During 
Father Creedon's pastorate, in 1859-61, the pres- 
ent brick church on North street was erected, at 
a cost of $35,000. Their next pastor was James 
McGlew, who commenced his labors in 1862 and 
closed them in 1864, when he was succeeded by 
Thomas O'Flaherty, whose second pastorate con- 
tinued till 1869. He was succeeded in that year 
by Martin Kavanagh, which was also a second 
pastorate, and continued till 1874. During Fa- 
ther Kavanagh's second pastorate, in 1873, the 
present brick school on Chapel street was built, 
at a cost of $15,000, the old church, near the 
same site, having till then been occupied as a 
school-house. Edward McGowan succeeded 
Kavanagh and remained three years, till 1877, 
in September of which year Wm. J. Seymour, 
the present pastor, commenced his labors. The 
parsonage belonging to this church is valued at 
$7,000, and the convent occupied by the Sisters 
of Mercy, at $5,000. Both are located on Chapel 
street. The present membership of the church 
is about 3,500. The parochial school connected 



with the society is taught by the Sisters of 
Mercy. It has ten teachers and five hundred 

The Second Presbyterian Society of Au- 
burn was organized at the Western E.xchange, 
January 2d, 1829, by persons who were formerly 
members of the First Church, and who were ir- 
reconcilably opposed to the demonstrative meth- 
ods which characterized the spiritual ministra- 
tions of Rev. Dirck C. Lansing, who was then, 
and for thirteen years previously, pastor of the 
First Church. The name then adopted was The 
Second Presbyterian Society of the Village of Au- 
burn, and the following named trustees were duly 
elected : 

First r/rtJ-f- -Bradley Tuttle, John Patty and 
Stephen Van Anden ; Second Class — Walter 
Weed, John M. Sherwood and Abijah Fitch ; 
Third Class — Wm. Brown, James Little and Hor- 
ace Hills. 

The reasons for separating from the parent 
church and forming a new society are set forth in 
the following resolutions, adopted at a meeting of 
a part of the First Presbyterian Society of Au- 
burn : 

" Resolved, That, in the opinion of this meeting, 
the organization of a second Presbyterian church 
and society in this village would, under the pres- 
ent circumstances, conduce to the advancement 
of the Presbyterian interests and to the promo- 
tion of real and genuine religion ; for the follow- 
ing reasons among others : 

"First— \u. any large community like ours, 
there will, from the nature of the human mind, 
be such a discordance of taste and opinion on 
religious subjects, as that no minister can be ex- 
pected, for any great length of time, to meet the 
views and feelings of the whole. 

"Secondly— Th^ course pursued by our present 
minister under the sanction of a part of his ses- 
sion for the last two or three years, (whether 
right or wrong we pretend not to decide,) has 
produced a complete division in the public opin- 
ion. To a portion of the Church and Session 
and to a portion of the sober and respectable 
members of the society, that course has seemed 
ill-advised, and calculated in its very nature, to 
sow division in the church, and to banish peace 
and charity, and to excite in the breasts of young 
or weaker and less experienced and less informed 
brethren, the feelings of spiritual pride and spir- 
itual domination. 

"Thirdly — In consequence of the above, so 
many have been grieved, so many have been 
prejudiced, so many have been disgusted, that 
the number of those who assembled with us to 

hear the preaching of the Gospel has greatly 
diminished, and is constantly diminishing, while 
at the same time the population of the village 
has been constantly increasing. 

"Fourthly — ]?y the organization of a new 
church and society, and under the administration 
of a second minister, we would hope to arrest the 
minds of the wandering, and bring them again un- 
der the influence of the true Gospel, preached with 
power and accompanied by the Holy Spirit ; that 
so their souls may be saved. 

"Fifthly — ]5ythe organization of a new church 
and society we would further hope to lay the 
foundation of permanent peace and brotherly 
love among ourselves, by placing the two great 
divisions into which a diversity of taste and 
judgment has divided us, each under their ^)?f« 
chosen minister; so ihsii a\\ occasion of collision 
and crimination shall be removed ; and the only 
strife shall be, which shall best exemplify the re- 
ligion we profess, and most advance the King- 
dom of our Redeemer, and the salvation of our 
fellow men." 

At a meeting of the citizens of Auburn, friend- 
ly to the formation of a second Presbyterian So- 
ciety in this village, held at the Western Ex- 
change, December i ith, 1S28, the following pre- 
amble and resolution were adopted: 

" Whereas, The iniblic sentiment in favor of 
organizing a second Presbyterian Society in this 
village has been clearly expressed by a subscrip- 
tion for purchasing a site and building a church, 
to the amount of $8,000: and 

" Whereas, Most of the leading members of 
the first society, who do not join us, have ex- 
pressed themselves in favor of said object ; there- 

"Resolved, As the sense of this meeting, that 
a second church and society be organized with 
all convenient speed; and that the chairman and 
secretary of this meeting be requested to give 
the necessary notice of the time and place of 
holding a meeting for the purpose of organizing 
a Second Presbyterian Society under the statute 
in such cases made and provided." 

In conformity with this action the meeting of 
January 2d, 1829, at which the organization was 
perfected, was held. March 2d, 1S29, a plan for a 
church, presented by Messrs. Tuttle & Hagerman, 
was adopted, and the trustees agreed to raise on 
their joint security the balance necessary to com- 
plete the house, not exceeding $3,000. 

Aug. I2th, 1830, a call was extended to Daniel 
C. Axtell, who was ordained and installed pastor 
Nov. loth, 1830, by the Cayuga Presbytery, met 
at the church of this society, which then came 
under its care and recognition. Mr. Axtell re- 



quested the church to unite with him in asking a 
letter of dismission Jan. 2d, 1836, which the 
church assented to Jan. 4th. 1836. A call was 
extended to Leonard E. Lathrop, D. D., Aug. 
29th, 1836. July 7th, 1851. the resignation of 
Dr. Lathrop was accepted, to take effect Sept. ist, 
1851. Jan. 26th, 1852, a call was extended to 
Richard S. Dickinson of New York city, but 
declined. May 12th, 1852, the services of Edward 
D. Morris were engaged for one year from June 
1st, 1852. His ministry proved satisfactory, and 
a call was given him Jan. 6th, 1853, to become 
their settled pastor. He continued to discharge 
those duties with ability and fidelity till Novem- 
ber, 185s, when his pastoral relations were dis- 
solved. The church enjoyed the ministrations 
of Ezra A. Huntington, D. D., from 1855 till 
1858. July I2th, of the latter year a call was 
extended to Henry Fowler, of Rochester, and 
Sept. 6th, 1 86 1, the church decided by a vote of 
forty-one to thirty-six to ask the Presbytery to 
dissolve the pastoral relations. June i6th, 1862, 
a call was extended to S. W. Boardman, D. D., 
of Westboro, Mass., whose pastorate covered a 
period of more than fifteen years, the longest the 
Church has enjoyed, and was marked by a " sys- 
tematic/and unflagging industry," " deep, warm 
and heartfelt sympathy with the sick and afflict- 
ed," and an " ardent zeal for revivals of religion 
and for the conversion of sinners." Sept. 17th, 
1877, at his request, the church united with him 
in asking the Presbytery to dissolve the pastoral 
relations. Rev. Herrick Johnson, D. D., sup- 
plied the pulpit during the six months ending 
May 27th, 1878, since which it has been supplied 
by casual comers. In the summer of 1878 a 
fund was raised sufficient to payoff an indebted- 
ness of ^, and to make repairs on the church 
to the amount of ^ i ,500. Their house of worship 
is situated on South street, between Lincoln and 
Genesee streets. The present membership of 
the church is 320; the average attendance at 
Sabbath school, about 130. 

The First Universalist Society in Au- 
burn. — The Universalists in Auburn first be- 
came an organized body April 12th, 1821, at 
which time a meeting was held in the school- 
house on Academy street, and was attended by 
Lyman Paine, Azer Brown, Geo. Standart, James 
Francis, Michael Nicholson, Jacob Chrysler, Jar- 
vis Swift, Aaron Clough, Benj. Wright, Geo. 

Crowl, Joseph Dresser, Geo. Church, Daniel 
Shields, Jno. Follet, Matthias Calkins, Jno. A. 
Brown, Wm. Paine, Elijah Swift, Noah Taylor, 
Henry Roberts, (afterwards a preacher,) Samuel 
Hunter, Francis Hunter, Rodman Sargent, 
Wilder Pierce, Michael Bowers, Chancey Howe, 
Nathan Webster, Wm. G. Burr and Ulysses F. 
Doubleday, now nearly or quite all deceased. 
Another meeting was held Dec. 18th, 1822, at 
the house of Jarvis Swift, to devise ways and 
means for obtaining funds to obtain a lot and 
erect a house of worship. Another meeting was 
held for the same purpose Jan. nth, 1S23, butit 
was not until ten years later that this wish was 
consummated. During this interval the society, 
which for some time held meetings in the court- 
house, academy and various other places, had 
practically disbanded or ceased to have a recog- 
nized existence. Tuesday, April 9th, 1833, a 
preliminary meeting of Universalists in Auburn 
was held at the school-house occupied by Josiah 
Underbill, to take steps to organize a religious 
society. Wednesday, April 24th, 1833, the or- 
ganization was perfected at the Western Ex- 
change, under the statutes of New York for the 
organization of religious societies, and the follow- 
ing named trustees were elected : Allen Wor- 
den, Ezekiel Williams and Wm. H. Coffin, first 
class ; Josiah Barber, Salmon Tyler and John G. 
Paul, second class, and Stephen Lombard, Jr., 
Ethan A. Worden and Jarvis Swift, third class. 
May nth, 1833, the church bought of Capt. Geo. 
B. Chase, the brick building at the junction of 
South and Exchange streets, formerly occupied 
by the Baptists, the consideration being a due- 
bill for $ 1 ,000, and a bond and mortgage for $3,400, 
to be paid within two years. It was repaired, 
repainted and re-dedicated in the spring of 1833, 
the dedicatory sermon being preached by Rev. 
Dolphus Skinner of Utica. 

There were services conducted by ministers of 
this denomination as early as 1821, among whom 
were Revs. Whitnell, Flagler, Miles and Root. 
The first settled pastor of whom there is any ac- 
count was Rev. L. S. Everett, who came here 
from Buffalo in 1827, and remained about a year, 
returning to Buffalo in December, 1828. He 
was followed by Rev. O. A. Brownson, whose 
ministry terminated in 1829. 

The first pastor employed under the organiza- 
tion of 1833 was Geo. W. Montgomery, D. D., 



who commenced his labors in September, 1833, 
and closed them in 1843. He was succeeded in 
October, 1843, by H. L. Hay ward, who served 
them one year, when, in September, 1844, failing 
health compelled him to leave, and finally to leave 
the ministry and seek a home in the far west, 
where he is still living, though in feeble health. 

J. M. Austin assumed the pastoral care of 
this church in October, 1844, and discharged 
thoseduties till June 29th, 1851, when he re- 
signed and became editor of the Christian Am- 
bassador, a denominational journal of this per- 
suasion, then published in Auburn, in which du- 
ties he was engaged twelve years, till 1863, when 
he became United States Paymaster. At the 
close of the war he returned to Auburn, where 
he now resides, and has been engaged until re- 
cently in missionary labors. 

The next pastor was W. R. G. Mellen, who 
served them from July, 185 1, till July, 1855, and 
was succeeded by D. P. Livermore, who re- 
mained from November, 1855, ^ October, 1856. 
His accomplished wife, who has since become so 
distinguished as a public lecturer, was here with 
her husband during that period and removed 
with him to Chicago. 

Rev. D. K. Lee, D. D., took the pastoral 
charge in July, 1857. He remained eight years 
and removed to New York in 1868. He was 
succeeded July 7th, 1865, by Richmond Fisk, D. 
D., who remained till the fall of 1868, and is now 
in charge of the church in Syracuse. 

Rev. J. G. Bartholomew, D. D., commenced 
his labors with this church October 29th, 1868, 
and, after a very eminent and successful minis- 
try of three years, was released September 17th, 
1871, at his own request and that of the church 
in Syracuse, which represented that his presence 
as pastor was necessary to harmonize difficulties 
which then existed in that society. 

November 27th, 1871, a call was extended to 
J. J. Twiss, who commenced his pastoral labors 
February 1st, 1872, the pulpit having been sup- 
plied from October ist, 1871, by C. B. Lombard, 
L. W, Price, G. W. Montgomery, E. J. Canfield, 
J. H. Himes, J. J. Twiss and Brothers Mont- 
gomery, Saxe, Crane, Goodenough and Barber 
successively. Mr. Twiss' resignation was ac- 
cepted October i6th, 1872, to take effect Novem- 
ber nth, 1872. A call was extended to J. W. 
Keyes, February 3d, 1873. He entered upon his 

duties as pastor in April following, and continued 
them till the last of September, 1876, when ill 
health compelled him to resign. The pulpit was 
supplied from October ist to December 31st, 
1876, by Revs. Allen P. Folsom, of ]5oston ; 
O. A. Rounds, of Bridgeton, Me.; G. S. Weaver, 
D. U., of Akron, Ohio; L. L Briggs, of Bos- 
ton; S. L. Beals, of Brockton, Mass.; T. F. 
Dean, of Afton. N. Y. ; G. W. Montgomery, D. 
D., of Rochester, and Mr. Pullman, of New 
York city. 

A call was extended to L. L. Briggs, D. D. , 
the present pastor, December 22d, 1876, and he 
commenced his pastoral labors February ist, 

Mr. Montgomery may be called the founder 
and builder of this congregation. F'or ten years 
belabored with zeal and faithfulness, and suc- 
ceeded in laying its foundations deep and endur- 
ing. His good work was perpetuated by Mr. 
Lee, whose kind deeds, piety and Christian fideli- 
ty are still remembered by a grateful people- 
Mr. Keyes came in a time of greatest need. 
Through his instrumentality to a good degree the 
church has been remodeled, rejuvenated and 
beautified at great expense, in the midst of a 
financial crisis of an intensity unknown in many 
years. Messrs. Lee and Bartholomew are dead. 
Their present church edifice was erected in 
1846-7, and was dedicated July 21st of the latter 
year. In 1876, the front portion and the steeple 
were added, and the interior of the old portion 
repaired. The Sunday School room and parlor 
were built in 1870, at a cost of $6,727.81. 

The Sunday School connected with this church 
was started in 1834, by Rev. G. W. Montgom- 
ery, in the old red brick church, opposite to 
where they now are. Mr. Montgomery was su- 
perintendent during his pastorate of ten years, 
and had with him as teachers Mr. and Mrs. Ethan 
A. Warden, Ira Curtis, Miss Angcline Warden, 
Mrs. Bacon, Mrs. Sheldon and others. The 
first Sunday Schoolexhibition occurred December 
24th, 1844, and consisted in speaking and sjnging 
by the children, led by Olive Drake, the chorister, 
and accompanied on the piano by Miss Winnifred 
Coffin, the present efficient organist. Among 
those who took part in the former were Misses 
Cornelia Barber, Margaret and Elizabeth Robin- 
son, the daughters of Messrs. Backus, Fosdick, 
Standart and Austin ; and among the boys were 



Horatio and Wm. Robinson, Amos, Charles and 
John Underwood, Henry and Clement Austin, 
B. B. Snow, now superintendent of public schools 
in Auburn, Rufus Sheldon and Charles A. War- 

The Sunday School has not only sustained it- 
self, but in many instances it has contributed lib- 
erally toward supporting the church. Rev. W. 
R. G. Mellen was made the recipient of a gold 
watch by the teachers and scholars of the Sun- 
day School. 

Following Mr. Livermore's pastorate there was 
an interval when there was neither pastor nor 
church services, and few if any gentlemen at- 
tended the Sunday School. Its fate was left to 
the faithful and persevering women of the society, 
who carried it through its trials, until D. K. Lee 
was called to the pastorate and revived the former 
interest in it ; an interest which, through the 
persevering efforts of the successive pastors, su- 
perintendents and others interested, has contin- 
ued to the present time. 

The a. M. E. Zion Church, on Washington 
street, between Genesee and Orchard streets, was 
organized about thirty-five years ago, by Rev. 
Mr. Johnson, with only two or three families. 
Their house of worship was erected about thirty- 
two years ago. It is a wooden building, and has 
thrice undergone slight additions and repairs. 
Their first pastor was Rev. Mr. Johnson. They' 
have since enjoyed the ministrations of Revs. 
Joseph P. Thompson, John Thomas, Inskipp, 
Anderson, Wm. Cromwell, James Green, Bosley, 
Solomon Jones and Singleton H. Thompson, each 
of whom served them three years, and G. W. 
Lacey and H. R. Phoenix, each one year. Rev. 
James A. Wright, the present pastor, commenced 
his labors with them September I2th, 1876. At 
an early period in the history of the church its 
membership had been reduced to a single indi- 
vidual. The present membership is thirty-six. 
Sixty members are enrolled in the Sabbath School, 
which has an average attendance of thirty. Their 
church will seat about two hundred. The con- 
gregation are improving in everything pertaining 
to their mode of worship, and quite an interest 
is manifested in Sunday School work. 

The First Congregation of Disciples in 
Auburn was organized December nth, 1849, ^s 
The first Congregation of Disciples of Chi ist of 
Auburn and Clarksville, at the stone school-house, 

which occupied the site of the present brick school 
house on the corner of Van Anden and Division 
Sts., and D. C. Goodrich, J. C. Worden and Wm. 
Allen elected trustees. Immediate steps were 
taken to build a church edifice, and the present 
wooden structure on Division street was erected 
in 1850. December 19th, 1865, the name was 
changed to The First Coiigregation of Disciples of 
Auburn, and January 14th, 1873, the trustees 
were authorized tochange the name of the church, 
as recorded in the clerk's office, to The First Con- 
gregation of Disciples in Auburn. The records 
of the church, which are very meagre, do not 
give the' names of the successive pastors who 
have served them, but we have been able to 
obtain them from those at present belonging to 
the church The church is at present without a 
pastor. Their last pastor, Rev. James Hart, 
commenced his labors among them October ist^ 
1876, and closed them October ist, 1S78. The 
present number of members is about two hun- 

The pastors have been as follows : Rev. J. M. 
Bartlett, from 1849-50; Rev. W. W. Clayton, 
from 1854-5 ; Jesse H. Berry, from 1861-2 ; J. 
C. Goodrich in 1865 ; D. C. Calderwood in 1866; 
L. F. Bittle, from 1 866-8 ; A. B. Chamberlain, 
1871-4; John Encell, from 1874-5 ; W. H. 
Rogers and James Hart, from 1876-8. During 
the intervals between these pastorates the pulpit 
has been supplied. 

St. Alphonsus' German Catholic Church, 
located on Water street, near North, was organ- 
ized in 1853. The first meeting was held in May 
of that year, at Frank's Hotel, Water street, and 
was attended by Wm., Henry and Max Kosters, 
Prof. Stupp, B. Schmienk, Aug. Kern, Wm. 
Vanderboush, Johannes Kirst, Matthias Linen- 
bach, Edward Phillipson, Martin Gallvan, 

Mahoney, McGarr, Peter Shields, Mc- 

Guin, and J. H. Frank. They were attended 
first by the Redemptorist Fathers of St. Joseph, 
Rochester ; their meetings being held on Wall 
street, in a building previously occupied as a 
cooper shop, and bought in 1853 for the use of 
the church for ^400. 

The first regular settled priest was Rev. 
Zacharia Kunze, who entered upon the duties of 
pastor in August, 1854. He was succeeded by 
Rev. M. O'Laughlin, who served them from 
June, 1855, to November of the same year; by 



Rev. Dominick Geymer, from November, 1855, 
to November, 1S56; and by P.J. Byrne, till Oc- 
tober, 1857. From this time to 1868, the church 
was attended monthly by Rev. Fathers I. De- 
Dycken, Joseph Wissel, N. Van Emstede, M. 
Schaffler, Thaddeus Alexander, Michael Dausch, 
T. Majerus, M. Steissberger, L. Holzer, C. 
Wenscerski, Julius Kuenzer, Bernard Beck, B. 
Klaphaka and P. Cronenberg, all from St. 
Joseph's, Rochester. November 12th, 1865, 
Rev, Father Xavier Kofler was sent by Rt.Rev. 
Bishop Timon, but changed the ne.xt Sunday. 
During this time, March 26th, i86i,they bought 
for $1, goo the house formerly occupied by the 
" Millerites," erected in 185 5, and owned by Eras- 
mus Curtis, who gave that society its use, and 
gave in part pay the property on Wall street, val- 
ued at $1,100. Rev. Charles Vogel became 
their pastor in August, 1868. He built the pres- 
ent parsonage in 1869, the site having been 
bought the year previous for $1,200. He also 
greatly improved the church by the addition of a 
steeple, new roof and gallery, in which he was 
aided by the kindness and liberality of the citi- 
zens generally. Rev. C. Ulrich, the present pas- 
tor, commenced his labors with this church Au- 
gust 6th, 1873, in which year he bought the 
building afterwards used as a parochial school 
by this society, for $2,400. Mr. Ulrich also 
■ bought a new organ for $650 and started a so- 
ciety for improvement in church music. 

The membership, which at first comprised 
about thirty families, has increased to 130 or 140 
families, with an average of about fifty baptisms 
per annum, and 380 to 400 communicants. The 
attendance at Sabbath School is about 100. 

The first canonical visitation by the Bishop 
took place September 3d, 1878. 

The Wall Street M. E. Chukch, located 
at the corner of Wall and Washington streets, 
was organized August 26th, 1856, with about 
twenty members, prominent among whom were 
Rev. R Berry, class leader and local preacher, 
Wm. Jones, Supt. of Sabbath School, Alonzo 
Munsell and wife, Hannah Berry, Esther M. Cook, 
Elizabeth Goodsell, Emma Godden and Mary A. 
Wills. The application was made by Alonzo 
Munsell and F. M. Wilson. The following named 
persons were elected the first trustees : Wm. H. 
Barnes, A. Munsell, Wm. H. Halliday, T. I. 
Francis, and John W. Haight. This society is 

an offshoot of the North Street M. E. Church, 
and its first meetings were held during the pas- 
torate of B. I. Ives, then pastor of that church, 
in the school-house on the corner of Washington 
and Seymour streets. After a while, meeting 
with opposition from some of the neighbors 
whose sympathies were not with the church, the 
building was bought, and used until the erection 
of the new church in i860, during the pastorate 
of Rev. E. C. Curtis, at a cost of $3,500, exclu- 
sive of lot. 

This church has enjoyed the ministrations of 
the following named pastors : B. I. Ives, from 
1856-8; E. C. Curtis, from 1858 '60; L. M. 
Kern, from iS6o-'2; Wm. N. Cobb, from 1862 '4; 
R. Townsend, from 1864-6 ; S. Stocking, from 
1866-7; S. M. Fisk, from iS67-'8; J. H. Bar- 
nard, from iS68-'9 ; T. B. Shepard, from i869'72, 
T. R. Green, from 1872-5; U. S. Beebe, from 
1875-7 ; and Thomas Stacey, the present pas- 
tor, who commenced his labors here in 1S77. 
During these years all these ministers have been 
assisted by Revs. Wm. Hosmer and Wm. Searls, 
who have filled vacancies and in many ways aided 
the church, which, from the beginning, has 
worked earnestly, and enjoyed revivals of religion 
in almost every pastorate, notably in those of B. 
I. Ives, R. Townsend, T. B. Shepard, T. R. 
Green and U. S. Beebe. During the present 
pastorate their house of worshijj has been re- 
paired and beautified at a cost of $800 ; and the 
spiritual condition of the church is very satisfac- 
tory. The present membership is 200 ; the 
number of Sunday school scholars, 279, and the 
average attendance of the latter during the past 
year has been iSo. 

One of the members of this church. Miss Mary 
A. Priest, has just gone to Hakodadi, Japan, as 
missionary of the " Woman's Foreign Missionary 
society of the M. E. Church." 

This Church has an honored past, and a pros- 
pective y>////;r of usefulness, honor and success. 

St. John's Chukcii, (Prot. Epis.,) on East Gen- 
esee street, between Hoffman and Fulton streets, 
was organized April i3lh, 1868, the meeting to 
secure the incorporation having been held in the 
school-house of Dist. No. i, where services were 
also held until the completion of their present edi- 
fice in December, 1869. The meeting was pre- 
sided over by Rev. John Brainard, then rector of 
St. Peter's Church, from'which this is an off- 


shoot, and Harvey Wilson and Wm. Lameywere 
elected wardens, and Wm. F. Gibbs, John M. 
Hurd, Rufiis Sargent, Henry Hall, Edward C. 
Marvine, Isaac L. Scovill, Charles M. Knight 
and George F. Brown, vestrymen. 

Previous to this, in 1854, efforts were made at 
the instigation of Rev. E. H. Cressy, then rector 
of St.. Peter's Church, to establish a church of 
this denomination in the eastern part of the city. 
Rev. John M. Guion, relying for a portion of his 
support upon the chaplaincy in Auburn prison, 
which Mr. Cressy was able to obtain for him, 
came to Auburn and conducted services some 
five months in a large room over Kerr & Devitt's 
store, the rent of which was paid by Mr. Cressy 
and A. Hamilton Burt ; but he removed to a more 
promising field of usefulness, and the project was, 
for the time being, relinquished. 

Their first pastor. was Rev. James Stoddard, 
who commenced his labors with them in Octo- 
ber, 1868, and remained till February, 1869, ser- 
vices having previously been held, until Mr. 
Stoddard took charge, and conducted by Mr. 
Brainard, rector of St. Peter's. In 1869, their 
house of worship was erected at a cost of about 
$2,200, and was first occupied in December of 
that year. The lot on which it stands, 200 
feet on East Genesee street, and no on Fulton 
street, was donated to the society, June 1st, i868, 
by Gen. John H. Chedell, who also bequeathed 
them $10,000 for the erection of a new church 
edifice, which has already been begun, on the site 
of the present structure, the estimated cost of 
which is $17,000. It is to be built of stone, 
84 by 52 feet, and when completed will be a 
sightly structure. 

Rev. Charles R. Hale succeeded Mr. Stod- 
dard in the rectorship in October, 1870, and of- 
ficiated in that capacity till October, 1873. Rev. 
E. B. Tuttle commenced his labors with them 
the following November, and continued them till 
October, 1876. Rev. W. H. Lord, the present 
pastor, entered upon his labors as rector in Au- 
gust, 1877, having previously supplied the pulpit 
five months. The church is in a prosperous con- 
dition. The congregation has doubled within a 
year ; and the membership, which now comprises 
eighty-five communicants, has largely increased 
under Mr. Lord's pastorate. The average at- 
tendance at the Sabbath School is about 100 
with 140 scholars enrolled. 

Central Presbyterian Society. — This so- 
ciety was organized in 186 1. It was an offshoot 
of the Second Presbyterian Society of Auburn^ 
then under the pastorate of Rev. Henry Fowler. 
Mr. Fowler was an earnest and forcible advocate 
of the freedom of the slaves, and in his pulpit 
ministrations gave frequent and full expression 
to his convictions. It was a time of intense ex- 
citement, when armed rebellion confronted the 
nation and when party lines were tightly drawn, 
producing wide division in churches as well as in 
secular organizations. With the anti-slavery 
views of the pastor the great majority of the con- 
gregation participated, resulting in the secession 
of the colony that formed the Central Presbyte- 
rian Society. 

The first organization comprised the following 
officers : Elders, Lewis Seymour, Peter Burgess, 
and Josiah P. Bailey ; and the first Trustees were : 
D. M. Osborne, E. G. Storke, H. W. Dwight, 
Rufus Sargent, Charles P. Wood, D. T. Fowler 
and David P. Wallis. 

The first meetings of the society were held in 
the rooms of the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation, then on Genesee street, where they wor- 
shiped until their chapel was erected on West 
Genesee street, costing about $5,000. The pur- 
pose had been to carry up the walls of the chapel 
as m-eans to do-so could be secured ; but in 1869 
the plan was changed, the property sold, a lot 
procured on William street, and the present 
church edifice erected. The corner stone was 
laid August 12th, i86g, and the church was dedi- 
cated October 24th, 1870. The cost of the 
building and grounds was about $40,000, and of 
the organ $5,000. 

Rev. Henry Fowler retained the pastoral care 
of this church about ten years, when his failing 
health compelled him to resign, which he did 
October 31st, 1871. Rev. Henry F. Hickok, of 
Orange, N. J., was the next pastor, installed Oc- 
tober 1 2th, 1872. He occupied the pulpit v/ith 
great acceptance until June 30th, 1875, when he 
resigned and resumed the pastorate of his society 
in Orange. Rev. Samuel W. Duffield was chosen 
acting pastor November ist, 1876, and continued 
until May, 1878, when Rev. C. C. Hemenway, 
a licentiate of the Auburn Theological Semi- 
nary, was called to the pulpit, and is the pres- 
ent pastor. 

The present membership of the church is 331; 


in Sabbath School 230, with an average attend- 
ance of 150. 

The present officers of this society are the fol- 
lowing : 

Pastor — Rev. C. C. Hemenway. 

Elders— Yei<tr Burgess, J. T. M. Davie, T. S. 
Gage, Zenas Hovvland, Charles M. Howlet and 
Samuel S. Smith. 

Deacons — George Anderson, Wm. S. Shourds. 

Trustees — Willis J. Beecher, Chas. C. Dwight, 
Charles M. Howlet, Theodore M. Pomeroy, Wm. 
H. Seward, George H. TenEyck, Wm. F. Wait 
and Frank D. Wright. 

St. Mary's Church, (Roman Catholic,) was 
organized in September, 1868, by Thomas A. Ma- 
her, the first pastor, who was sent here by the 
Bishop of Rochester, in July, 1868, and held 
meetings a few weeks in his house, and subse- 
quently in Tallman's Hall, on the corner of State 
and Dill streets. A temporary wooden building 
was erected in 1869, and in this rough, unsightly 
structure they held their meetings till the erec- 
tion of the present house was begun in 1S70, on 
the same site, when they occupied the Academy 
of Music till the basement was finished, after 
which their meetings were held there. Father 
Maher was succeeded in September, 1869, by 
Rev. M. J. Laughlin, whose pastorate continued 
till September 2d, 1877, when W. Mulheron, the 
present pastor, commenced his labors with them. 
Father Laughlin's ministry gave a great impulse 
to the growth of the church, which, within ten 
years, has increased from the mere handful who 
separated from the CJutrcIi of tlic Holy Family to 
constitute this, to a present membership of about 

Their church edifice was begun in 1870, in 
September of which year, the corner stone was 
laid by the Bishop of the Diocese, and was con- 
secrated May 1st, 1877, by Rt. Rev. Bishop Mc- 
Ouaid, assisted by numerous church dignitaries. 
It is situated on the corner of Clark and Green 
streets, and is a fine specimen of French Gothic 
architecture. The interior is admirable. The 
windows of the south transept bear the follow- 
ing names, "Gift of C. D. S.;" "In Memoriam, 
Jos. A. Keeler;" gifts of Joseph P. Carrigan, 
John Hoey, Daniel O. Carr, Jr., Eliza and 
Bridget Scully, M. D. Kavanaugh ; thpse in the 
south aisle include these names, James Bryan, 
James Driscoll, Patrick Reagen, W. H. Rcilly 

and John Delaney. In the vestibule arc the fol- 
lowing names : Thomas Murphy, W. Chajiman, 
Hugh Smith, Margaret and Mary Quinn, Michael 
P. Holmes and Mary T. O'Hara. The center 
window of the organ loft bears the names of the 
Rosary and Scapular Societies. The side win- 
dows were given by the Societies of St. Joseph 
and Children of Mary. In the north aisle are 
recorded the names of Mary O'Neil, Patrick Kel- 
ly, Daniel Tehan, and Mrs. A. M. Doyle. The 
windows of the north transept bear the names 
of Matthew and Catharine Byrne, Michael 
Hughes, Daniel Kelly, Mrs. Mary Sullivan, 
Harry Reagan, Frank Byrne and Jno. Kccly. 
The confessional at the north-east corner of the 
transept is a room by itself and completes the 
list with the gifts of Wm. Jos. O'Neil and Eliza 

Connected with the church is a Parochial and 
Sunday School, the former of which was estab- 
lished in September, 1873, is under the super- 
vision of the resident pastor, and is taught by the 
Sisters of St. Joseph, who were established here 
the same year by the Mother School in Roches- 
ter. It is the province of these Sisters to teach 
as it is that of the Sisters of Mary, connected with 
the Holy Family Church to attend to the sick 
in hospitals, &c., though they also visit the sick 
and are a charitable institution of the church. 
The convent comprises ten inmates, nine of whom 
are teachers. The number of scholars attending 
the Parochial School is 500, but the average at- 
tendance is somewhat less. 

The church property consists of the church 
and parsonage, which, together are valued at 
$125,000; the Convent of the Sisters of St. 
Joseph, which is adjacent to the church on Clark 
street, valued at $7,000 ; and the school house, 
on Clark street, near Washington, valued at 

St. Mark's A. M. Iv Chukcm was organized 
with sixteen members, July 6th, 1870, by Rev. J. 
G. Mowbray, who was the first pastor. The 
first trustees were John Pernell, Nelson Davis, 
Jno. H. Waire, Isaac White and J. H. Sanford. 
Mr. Mowbray's pastorate lasted only one year. 
He was succeeded by E. B. Davis, who also re- 
mained but a year. The next pastor was N. W. 
]5ovvman, who served them two years, and was 
succeeded in 1874 by Rev. Mr. Frisbee, who re- 
mained only two months. A. S. Amos sue- 


ceeded Mr. Frisbee and continued his labors 
with them till May, 1878, when William B. F. 
Marshal], the present pastor, took charge of their 
spiritual interests. The present membership is 
twenty, and the attendance at Sabbath School 
about the same number. 

Their services were first held for nearly a year 
in Markham Hall, afterwards in the City Hall. 
In 1S72 they were held over 80 Genesee street, 
and in 1874 the society removed to a room over 
Richardson's livery, near the corner of Genesee 
and South streets. Since the fall of 1S77 their 
meetings have been held in the court-house. In 
1870, the church bought a lot on Mechanic St., 
near the Big Dam, on which, in 1874, they built 
the stone foundation for a church edifice, but they 
have not been able to gather sufficient funds to 
further their object beyond that point. 

Calvary Pkesbytekian Church. — This, the 
fourth and youngest of the Presbyterian churches 
in Auburn, received from the elevated ground on 
which it stands the name of Calvary. The lot 
was the gift of the late James S. Seymour. It 
forms the western ape.x of a triangle between 
Franklin and Capitol streets. The neat and 
pretty church building which looks down Frank- 
lin street, consists of the identical materials which 
composed the First Presbyterian Church before 
it was taken down to make room for the splendid 
Gothic structure which succeeded it. These ma- 
terials Mr. Seymour transported to the lot he had 
donated and put them up at his own expense on 
a somewhat reduced scale. A religious society was 
formed and the lot and building made over to the 
elected trustees by the generous donor. The 
building received in his honor the name of Sey- 
mour Chapel. On the 20th of November, 1870, 
a church was organized with a membership of 
twenty-five persons, by Rev. Dr. Charles Haw- 
ley, who preached the sermon, and religious ser- 
vices were regularly held. The church has en- 
joyed the pastoral services of Revs. H. S. Hun- 
tington, M. Woolsey Striker, and J. B. Stewart, 
the latter of whom is the present pastor. The 
present membership of the church is about one 
hundred. Mr. Seymour, by his will, endowed 
the chapel bearing his name with the sum of 
$ 1 2,000. The name was changed as above at the 
organization of the church. 

St. Lucas' Church, (German Evangelical Lu- 
theran,) on Seminary avenue, was organized 

March i6th, 1873, by Rev. Charles Shopflin, of 
Syracuse. The first members were Frederick 
Hartmann, Charles Strohmenger, H. Traub, Jno. 
Smith, William Rabtto, Peter Lambert, Peter 
Jeckel and Jno. Miller. Their first pastor was 
Charles Shopflin, who served them one year, and 
was succeeded by Adam Burkhard, whose pas- 
toral labors covered a period of one and one-half 
years. Their next pastor was Zur Nedden, who 
served them a like period. George Teld, their 
present pastor, came from Buffalo, and com- 
menced his labors with this church February ist, 
1878. Their meetings were held first for a year 
and a half in the rooms of the Y. M. C. A., and 
for a like period in St. George's Hall. They 
now worship in the seminary building. Their 
church edifice is in process of erection, and will 
cost, when completed, about $6,000. The stones 
used in the basement of this church composed 
the west wing of the old Auburn Theological 
Seminary building, which was bought by Mr. H. 
Traub in 1877, and generously donated to this 
society. The superstructure is of brick. The 
dimensions of the building are 80 by 38 feet, and 
will have a seating capacity for 450 persons. The 
church comprises about thirty families. The 
average attendance at Sabbath School is fifty. 


History OF Auburn, (Continued.) 

First Library — School Libraries — Seymour 
Library — Organization and History of 
THE Water Works Company — The Auburn 
Gas Light Company — The Auburn Steam 
Heating Company — Fire Protection as it 
Was and Is — Distinguished Members of 
THE Auburn Bar — Present Lawyers — Vil- 
lage AND City Organizations and Offi- 

THE diary of Gov. DeWitt Clinton, who vis- 
ited Auburn in his travels in 18 10, shows, 
in connection with his description of the settle- 
ment at that time, that Auburn then had an in- 
corporated library of 220 volumes. 

School Libraries. — Notwithstanding the 

Jewelrt Store of W.L.BUNDY. Nc. 90 Genesee St. Auburn, N.Y. 




excellent nucleus for a public library thus early 
established, Auburn has not enjoyed for a long 
series of years any better accommodations 
in this respect than those afforded by the dis- 
trict school libraries, though the excellent library 
connected with Auburn Theological Seminary, 
and the less extensive academy library, together 
with the many extensive and valuable private li- 
braries, may have compensated for and measur- 
ably supplied this want. 

Legislative provision for the establishment of 
district school libraries was made in 1838, and 
notwithstanding their necessarily limited and 
imperfect character and the many abuses to 
which they have been subject, they have been 
very serviceable to many whose means did not 
enable them to cultivate their literary tastes in a 
more desirable way. In accordance with the 
amended school law of 1866, the district libraries 
in this city were consolidated and placed in a 
room in the High School building, which was 
open for the withdrawal of books one hour every 
Friday afternoon during school term. The libra- 
ry then contained upwards of 2,000 volumes, 
many of which were valuable works, in addition 
to the 300 volumes which originally belonged to 
the Auburn Academy and comprising many books 
valuable for reference. It was largely patronized 
by school children, and to some extent by adults; 
and if the annual appropriations made by the 
State for additions to it had been scrupulously 
applied to that object, its usefulness and popu- 
larity would have been largely enhanced ; but 
they were usually misapplied or not applied at all, 
and although this application toother and foreign 
purposes was not an unmixed evil, the interest 
in the library as a consequence materially dimin- 

Seymour Libr.aky Association.— The mu- 
nificent benefactions of the late James S. Sey- 
mour, which have provided for so many of Au- 
burn's necessities, were considerately extended 
to this. Among his many public bequests was 
one of $18,000 with residuary, and the store No. 
Soon the south side of Genesee street, with the 
lot in the rear, valued at §8,000, " for the purjiose 
of founding a public library in the city of Au- 
burn." The residuary has thus far increased the 
monetary part of the bequest to §25,500, and an 
additional §1,500 will probably be realized. This 
bequest was made without any other restriction 

than the naming of a portion of the first trustees, 
as follows : Hon. Charles C. Dwight, J. li. Con- 
dit, D. D., C. II. Merriman, and the pastors of 
the First, Second and Central rresbytcrian 
churches, and of the IkjUist, St Peter's and South 
street Methodist churches. An organization 
was perfected and incor[)oratcil under the above 
name May 20th, 1876, and the above indicated in- 
dividuals, except Dr. Conilit, who had died, and 
the pastor of the Ceiitral Presbyterian church, 
which then had no pastor, together with six other 
citizens of Auburn appointed by the Association, 
were constituted the Board of Trustees, who met 
in August, 1876, and elected Hon. Charles C. 
Dwight, President, Charles Hawley, D. D., Vice- 
President, Iknj. H. Snow, Secretary, and James 
Seymour Jr., Treasurer, each of whom still holds 
his respective office. Thoy soon after secured 
the services of Wm. L. Poole of Chicago, the 
leading American librarian, to aid thcni in the 
selection of books. Since then rooms have been 
rented over the Auburn Savings Bank, and books 
obtained by gift and purchase to the number of 
62,066 volumes, 1,617 of which are the gift of 
the citizens of Auburn. It was found to be a 
work of considerable magnitude to select and 
catalogue the books, the latter of which was done 
under the supervision of the librarian, Miss M. 
A. BuUard. The Association have realized in 
addition to the bequest, $1,400 from life members, 
and about $500 for membership dues. The 
library was opened to the public October 1st, 
1S7S, and starts off with the number of well se- 
lected books above mentioned all paid for, a store 
bringing in an income of §Soo per annum, and 
$20,000 of invested funds, thus having a fixed in- 
come which exceeds its present running expen- 
ses. At present $2 per year is charged for en- 
joying the privileges of the library, but it is hoped 
that sufficient additions will be made to its funds 
to make it a free library, as Mr. Seymour designed 
it should be. 

The Library committee is composed of Hon. 
C. C. Dwight. D. M. Osborne, VV. G., 
Rev. C. Hawley, D. D., and Kev. John Brain- 
ard, D. D. 

The sto