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\\\\ 11 The History of the 

CHAPLAIN CORPS 

United States Navy 

VOLUME SIX • DURING THE KOREAN WAR 
27 June 1950 - 27 June 1954 



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Marine bugler sounds Church Call at dedication of first permanent 
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The History of the 

CHAPLAIN CORPS 

UNITED STATES NAVY 

VOLUME SIX • DURING THE KOREAN WAR 
27 June 1950-27 June 1954 



* NAVPERS 15936 



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Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

OEC 1 - 1960 
DEPOSITOR* 



United States Government Printing Office 
Washington : 1 960 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D.C. Price $2.75 



"On behalf of the American public, I want 
to congratulate our chaplains on the fine work 
they are doing and the service they are per- 
forming. Today, as our country has joined the 
other United Nations in the struggle which has 
given us the greatest chance for lasting peace 
this generation has had, military chaplains are 
performing their services at home, on foreign 
shores, in ships at sea, and in the front lines of 
the Korean battlefield. 

"The military chaplain is a man who braves 
many dangers as he does his work serving God 
and the young men defending the nation's 
spiritual traditions." 

President Harry S Truman 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

NORTH KOREAN AGGRESSION 

27 June-2 November 1950 

Page 
Chapter 1 : 

The Pusan Perimeter 5 

First Naktong 5 

Second Naktong 8 

MAG 33 9 

7th Fleet 10 

ComNavFE 10 

Chaplains in the Fleet 11 

Chaplain SOP 12 

Letters of Condolence 13 

Mission Completed 14 

THE INCHON-SEOUL OPERATION 

13 September-7 October 1950 
Chapter 2: 

Victory Over Time and Tide 15 

Liberation of Seoul 15 

Chaplain Casualties 19 

Combat Ministry 19 

Heroic Service 21 

Chaplains Afloat 23 

Ships of Mercy 25 

"Mighty Mo" 26 

Yictorv in the Grasp 27 

COMMUNIST CHINESE AGGRESSION 

3 November 1950-24 January 1951 
Chapter 3: 

Wonsan to the Reservoir 33 

Air Wing Chaplains 34 

Chinese Intervention 35 

Thanksgiving Day, 1950 36 

Crisis at Yudam-ni 38 

The Bitter Withdrawal 39 

First Stage 40 

Psalms at Hagaru 41 

Greater Love Hath No Man 42 

... to the Sea 42 

"Shores of Tripoli" 44 

Wall of Fire 44 



Chapter 3 — Continued p age 

End of an Epic 45 

Four Chaplains Award 45 

Back to the Bean Patch 47 

Operation Helping Hand 47 

In Time of Trouble 48 

First Korean Christmas 49 

In Keeping With the Highest 51 

Enemy High Tide 52 

FIRST UNITED NATIONS COUNTEROFFENSIVE 

25 January-21 April 1951 
Chapter 4: 

United Nations Counteroffensive 53 

"Operation Ripper"' 55 

Rotation System 55 

Corps Expansion 56 

New Division Chaplain 57 

Chaplain Field Training 58 

Chaplains Wounded 59 

Chaplains Cited 59 

Chaplains at Work 61 

Easter 1951 62 

Korean Christians 63 

Special Services 64 

Relief Work 64 

Marine Air Wing 65 

Air Wing Chaplains 66 

Seaborne Artillery 66 

Seaborne Padres 67 

The Bridge of Toko-ri 67 

PatRons 67 

MSTS 68 

Itinerating 69 

Services 69 

"Operation Welcome" 70 

Annual Report 70 

MSTS Pac Roster 71 

Eve of Fury 72 

CHINESE COMMUNIST SPRING OFFENSIVE 

22 April-8 July 1951 
Chapter 5: 

Second Punch 73 

Advance to the Punchbowl 76 

First Anniversary 76 

Kelly Reporting 77 

Roster of Chaplains 77 

Chinese Strike 79 

Beginning of Advance 79 

Comic Relief 80 

Ministry to Wounded 82 



Chapter 5 — Continued Page 

Services 82 

Hill 676 82 

"Such a Man as I" 83 

First Permanent Chapel 84 

Marine Air 85 

New Wing Chaplain 85 

Further Activities 86 

ComNavFE 87 

ComNavFE Chaplain Roster 87 

Yokosuka 88 

NEW JERSEY 88 

Other Ships 88 

Commendation 89 

ComCruDesPac [Incl. Roster] 89 

Why We Fought 90 

Truce Talks 91 

UNITED NATIONS SUMMER-FALL OFFENSIVE 

9 July-27 November 1951 
Chapter 6: 

Breathing Spell 92 

Work Goes on 92 

Kaesong Truce Talks 94 

UN Offensive 95 

11-18 September 95 

Two Chaplains Wounded 96 

The "Medics" 96 

Vignettes 97 

Further Awards 97 

Chaplain Peck Comes Aboard 98 

Air Wing 100 

Moral Welfare Program 100 

Chaplain Barnes' Diary 101 

Helicopter Troop Lifts 102 

"Track Busting" 102 

BON HOMME RICHARD 102 

ESSEX 103 

ANTIETAM 103 

Seaborne Artillery 1 04 

PhibPac 104 

Hospital Ships 104 

"Talking Letters" 105 

Services 105 

"Well Done" 106 

Korean Navy Chaplaincy 1 06 

Chaplain Chung 1 07 

On Solid Ground 107 

Nationalist Chinese Chaplaincy 108 

Unit Citations 108 

Winterizing 1 08 

Talks Resumed 109 



SECOND KOREAN WINTER 

28 November 1951-30 April 1952 

Chapter 7: Page 

DivChap Slant 110 

Christmas 1951 110 

Christmas in Valley Forge Ill 

1st MAW 112 

Christmas in the Air Wing 112 

WISCONSIN 114 

Hanukkah 117 

Division Roster 118 

Korean Winter 118 

Comment on Training 119 

Composite Picture 119 

Individual Aspects 119 

"God Fixed That One" 121 

Lay Leadership 121 

11th Marines Memorial 1 22 

Rotation 122 

Chaplain T/O 122 

Air-Gun Strikes 123 

Destroyers 123 

Carrier Chaplains 124 

Escort Carriers 1 24 

Easter 1952 126 

Citations 1 27 

Ridge-runners Rewarded 128 

MAW Chaplain Personnel 129 

Divine Services 129 

Relief Work 130 

MAW Chaplains Cited 130 

COMNAVFE Chaplains Cited 130 

Atsugi Chapel 131 

PhibPac 131 

MSTS 131 

Panmunjom Talks 132 

Change of Scene 1 32 

KOREAN DEFENSE— SUMMER-FALL 1952 

1 May-30 November 1952 
Chapter 8: 

May Day 134 

Rotation of Chaplains 1 37 

Chaplain Distribution 1 38 

Chaplains Information Booklet 141 

"Marine Padres, Inc." 142 

Reserve Chaplains 143 

Chaplains in Action 143 

Chaplains' Chaplain 144 

"Bunker Hill" 146 

"Siberia" 146 

Combat Footnotes 148 



Chapter 8 — Continued Page 

Religious Ministry 148 

Chinese Upsurge 1 52 

Bronze Star Awards 1 53 

Letter of Commendation Award 153 

Air Wing Chaplain Parker 1 53 

Chaplains Aboard 156 

Relief Work 1 57 

USS HAVEN 159 

Perspective on Korea 159 

Stalemate 160 

The Corps 160 

THIRD KOREAN WINTER 

1 December-30 April 1953 
Chapter 9: 

First Marine Division Reserve Officers Association 161 

Chaplain of the Year 1 74 

Truce Talks 174 

Little Switch 174 

The First Marine Air Wing 179 

Forces Afloat 182 

MSTS 182 

Chaplain of the Year B'nai B'rith 184 

KOREAN DEFENSE 

Summer and Fall 1953 
Chapter 10: 

The First Marine Division 185 

The Chief of Chaplains' Visit 185 

Battle Reports 186 

The Truce 189 

Awards 190 

Sunday Routine 191 

The First Marine Air Wing 191 

MSTS 192 

Forces Afloat 193 

ARMISTICE AFTERMATH 

27 July 1953-27 July 1954 
Chapter 1 1 : 

The First Marine Division 194 

Big Switch 194 

Division Roster — September 1953 201 

Awards 201 

Chapels and Worship 201 

Clergy Visitations 205 

Division Roster— July 1954 206 

Third Marine Division 206 

The First Marine Air Wing 207 

Forces Afloat 208 



Chapter 11 — Continued Page 

MSTS 209 

Rest and Rehabilitation 210 

End of Campaign 210 

CIVILIAN ASSISTANCE 
Chapter 12: 

The Homeless 211 

Pusan 212 

Masan 214 

Inchon 217 

Seoul 219 

Pyongteck 221 

Pohangdon 222 

Wonsan 227 

Kangnung 227 

Refugee Camps 228 

Kumchon 229 

Others 229 

Inactive Reserve Chaplains in the Far East 229 

Orphans Adopt Marines 230 

Distribution 230 

Building Churches 231 

Civilian Worship 231 

The Interpreter 231 

On Land and Sea 231 

The Korean Service Corps 232 

Schools 234 

EPILOGUE 

Redeployment 235 

Special Emblem 235 

Operation Glory 235 

Summary 235 

Awards 238 

Silver Star 238 

Legion of Merit 238 

Bronze Star 238 

Air Medal 238 

Letter of Commendation 238 

Purple Heart 240 

Appendices: 

A. Unit Citations 241 

Presidential Unit Citations 241 

Navy Unit Commendation 241 

Army Distinguished Unit Citation 241 

Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation 242 

B. (1) 1st Provisional Marine Brigade 243 

B. (2) Chaplains' Special Action Report of 30 August-9 October 1950 5th Marines 247 

C. SOP— Chaplains, FMF, Pacific 251 

D. SOP Chaplains 1 st Marine Division 253 

E. Divine Services — 1st Marine Division — 19 February 1952 255 



Appendices — Continued Page 

Bibliography 260 

Index Proper Names 261 

Index Commands, Operations, Ships 269 

General Index 277 




Rear Adm. George A. Rosso, CHC, USN Chief of Chaplains. 

FOREWORD 

This is the sixth volume of History of the Chaplains 
Corps, United States Navy. The first volume pub- 
lished in 1949 presents a narrative account of the de- 
velopment of the Corps from the Revolutionary War 
to the declaration of a state of emergency on 8 Septem- 
ber 1939. 

The second volume continues the narrative history 
of the Chaplains Corps from 8 September 1939 to the 
spring of 1949. The next three volumes are biog- 
raphies of Navy chaplains. 

The present volume narrates the history of the 
Chaplains Corps during the Korean Conflict from 27 
June 1950 to 27 June 1954. It primarily concerns 
the chaplains in combat. Therefore, naval chaplains 
who were assigned to the 1st Marine Division and 
supporting units are most often mentioned. The 
latter category would include the 1st Marine Air Wing 
where chaplains worked with replacements and 
wounded brought from the front and still found time 
to do relief work. It also refers to the chaplains who 
were assigned to ships which were involved in surface 
and air action, and those who served aboard hospital 
and MSTS ships giving needed aid and support to all 
United Nations troops in Korea. There were others 
who served in more secondary but important billets. 

There is always a danger in the composition of a 
history that almost assuredly some "unsung heroes" 
will fail to receive recognition for their accomplish- 



ments. Every attempt has been made to "let the 
chaplains speak". Much of this volume will record 
their own accounts of what took place. 

The History of the Chaplain Corps, United 
States Navy, volume VI, has been the product of 
three chaplains working successively. As a result 
there was the situation of "planting, watering, and 
reaping." The last writer has attempted to retain 
much of the structure and planning to which he fell 
heir. 

Chaplain Clifford M. Drury (retired), formerly the 
Chaplain Corps historian and writer of the first four 
volumes, started this history. Chaplain Paul S. 
Sanders continued the collection of material and 
organizing the book. Special tribute should be given 
to Reserve Chaplain W. Ivan Hoy, associate professor 
of religion at the University of Miami, who was the 
final writer of the text. He successfully followed the 
pattern set by previous writers, coordinated the loose 
details, and completed the volume for publication. 

This volume has evolved from the plans to publish 
a volume of the history treating with the period from 
the spring of 1949 until the present. One chapter was 
to have dealt with the Korean Conflict. It became 
apparent that one chapter of reasonable size in a 
volume of this type would not do justice to the activi- 
ties of the chaplains in Korea. It was, therefore, de- 
termined that a separate volume on Korea be pro- 
duced. This was to be followed with the publication 
of the other material in an additional volume. Be- 
cause of this decision some of the material from For- 
mosa, Japan and other Far Eastern areas has not been 
included. It was decided that the present volume 
should deal for the most part with chaplains immedi- 
ately concerned with the conflict. It is to be desired 
that all material not directly concerned with Korea, 
but dealing with the Orient, be considered in the 
volume yet to be produced. 

In these pages you will find the thrilling and in- 
spiring service of Navy chaplains. Their dedication 
to God and their country should go down in the an- 
nals of our great nation. As the present Chief of 
Chaplains I look back at the Corps during those fateful 
Korean War days and proclaim that I am proud to 
be associated with such a dedicated group of clergy- 
men. They answered a call to serve and they did so 
in an outstanding manner. 

George A. Rosso, 
Rear Admiral, CHC, USN, 
Chief of Chaplains. 
November 1959. 



INTRODUCTION 

TO HALT AGGRESSION 



On 25 June 1950 North Korean forces crossed the 
38th Parallel and began an invasion of South Korea. 1 
Two days later the Security Council of the United 
Nations condemned this act of aggression as a breach 
of world peace and requested its members to come to 
the assistance of the Republic of Korea. The same 
day President Harry S. Truman announced that he 
had ordered United States naval and air forces to give 
the South Koreans "cover and support." A blockade 
of the entire Korean coast was instigated. 2 Japan- 
based Air Force units were authorized to bomb specific 
military targets north of the 38th Parallel. Gen. 
Douglas C. MacArthur, Supreme Allied Commander 
of Far Eastern Occupation Forces, with headquarters 
in Tokyo, was made the Commander in Chief of the 
United Nations Command. On 29 June the President 
authorized him to employ certain supporting U.S. 
ground forces in Korea. 



1 For background on Korea and events leading up to the 
North Korean invasion, see L. M. Goodrich, Korea: A Study 
of U.S. Policy in the United Nations (New York, 1956), chs. 
I-IV. Chap. V deals with the United Nations response to 
the armed attack upon a free republic. 

See also: Lynn Montross and N. A. Canzona, U.S. Marine 
Operations in Korea, 1950-53; vol. I, The Pusan Perimeter 
(Washington, 1954), chs. I, II and the beginning of ch. III. 
Ibid.; vol. II, The Inchon-Seoul Operation (Washington, 
1955), ch. I. Also M. W. Cagle and F. A. Manson, The Sea 
War in Korea (Annapolis, 1957 ) , ch. I. 

The North Koreans invaded the Republic of Korea at 0401), 
Sunday, 25 June 1950. Since Seoul is 14 hours ahead of 
eastern standard time, that was 1500 in New York and Wash- 
ington (then on daylight time), Saturday, 24 June 1950. 
Dates in this book are those of the place under discussion. 

The U.S. State Department received official notice of the 
invasion from Ambassador Muccio shortly past 9 p.m. on the 
Saturday night. By 3 a.m. of the Sunday morning Secretary 
General Trygve Lie of the United Nations was given the news 
at his home. The United States asked for a meeting of the 
Security Council, which met at 2 p.m. on Sunday. With the 
Russian delegate voluntarily absent and Yugoslavia abstain- 
ing, the Security Council put the blame for aggression directly 
upon North Korea and ordered a withdrawal of its troops 
from the South. 

2 A lively account of the 7th Fleet's involvement from 
the beginning is Walter Karig, M. W. Cagle and F. A. Man- 
son, Battle Report; vol. VI, The War in Korea (New York, 
1952), chs. 1-5. 

On the Navy's blockade and bombardment missions, from 
the beginning to the end of the Korean War, see Cagle and 
Manson, op. cit., ch. 9. 



Neither moral suasion nor economic sanctions had 
been sufficient in the years preceding the outbreak 
of World War II to prevent or halt the aggression of 
Japan, Italy, and Germany. The League of Nations, 
helpless before naked power, had been effectively de- 
stroyed as the agent of international order. Now the 
United Nations Security Council (with Russia volun- 
tarily absent and Yugoslavia abstaining) determined 
not only to condemn but also to combat aggression. 
Fifty-three nations (excluding only the U.S.S.R. and 
her satellites Poland and Czechoslovakia of the entire 
United Nations membership) approved the decision of 
the Security Council and pledged military, medical, 
and economic assistance. A remote Asiatic peninsula, 
whose very location was unknown to many Americans, 
thus became, before the end of the year, the scene of 
the fourth most costly war effort in American history, 
both in blood and money. 3 

When hostilities began the Marine Corps had two 
divisions, both seriously understrength. Even with 
most of the men of the 2d Marine Division trans- 
ferred to the 1st Marine Division at Camp Pendleton, 
Calif., the combined strength was still so low that 
Reserves had to be called to active duty to build the 
1st Division up to full wartime strength. The mobili- 
zation of the Marine Corps Reserve was ordered by 
President Truman with the sanction of Congress on 
19 July. 4 Maj. Gen. Oliver P. Smith assumed com- 
mand of the 1st Division, consisting of the 1st, 5th, 
and 7th Marines (infantry regiments) and the 11th 
Marines (an artillery regiment), together with the 
usual supporting battalions (Headquarters, Ordnance, 
Medical, Supply, etc.). Reserve units hastily as- 
sembled at Camp Pendleton were integrated into 
the Division. Only a cadre had been left at Camp 
Lejeune, N.C., around which to rebuild the 2d Divi- 
sion, largely of Reserves. A reinforced battalion of 
some 900 men (3d Battalion, 6th Marines, 2d Marine 



3 Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. I, p. 1. 

'Marine Corps Gazette (September 1951). E. H. Giusti, 
"Minute Men — 1950 Model: The Reserves in Action." 
Also Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. I, ch. Ill; vol. II, 
ch. II. 



1 — 



Division) attached to the 6th Fleet in the Mediter- 
ranean was sent around the world through the Suez 
Canal; arriving in Kobe, Japan, on 7 September it 
would be assimilated into the 7th Marines and 
dispatched to Inchon. 

A Marine division in World War II had an allow- 
ance of 16 chaplains. Following the war, the Tables 
of Organization of the Marine Corps were revised 
to call for 26 chaplains to a division, plus any addi- 
tional who might be assigned to attached units. The 
increase in chaplain strength was partly the result 
of the enlargement of the total strength of a Marine 
combat division; it was in part also a recognition by 
the Marine Corps of the fine work done by Navy 
chaplains serving with Marines in World War II. 

At the time of the outbreak of hostilities in Korea, 
21 Naval Reserve chaplains, on inactive duty, were 
attached to various Organized Marine Reserve units 
scattered throughout the country. When these units 
were activated the chaplains concerned were also 
called to active duty. The fact that they had re- 
ceived compensation for their service with Organized 
Reserve units was taken by the Bureau of Naval 
Personnel as an indication that they had already 
volunteered for active duty. Three of the twenty-one 
were released to inactive duty shortly after reporting. 
Among those recalled who served with the 1st 
Marine Division in Korea in the opening months of 
the conflict were Chaplains William N. Lyons, Preston 
D. Parsons, and Robert L. Patton. Chaplain Godfrey 
J. Reilly had returned to active duty in June 1950 
shortly before the North Korean invasion. 

In answer to General MacArthur's request for at 
least a Marine Regimental Combat Team, there was 
assembled at Camp Pendleton the 1st Marine Pro- 
visional Brigade; activated on 7 July, it sailed from 
San Diego on 14 July some 6,500 strong. 5 A com- 
bined ground-air team, the Brigade's ground forces 
consisted of the 5th Marines, at that time the only 
Marine infantry regiment of approximate combat 
strength, the 1st Battalion, 11th Marines (artillery), 
and company-sized support units. Air support was 
Marine Aircraft Group 33, consisting primarily of 
three fighter squadrons. Orlando Ingvoldstad, Jr., 
was the Brigade chaplain, and there were three 
others with the ground units: Bernard L. Hickey, 



5 Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 49ff. A lively 
account may be found in Andrew Geer, The New Breed (New 
York, 1952). Ch. I is entitled "A Fire Starts; the Fire 
Brigade Is Called." 

See appendix B(l) of this present volume for comments 
regarding chaplain activities on Troop Transports, in Chap- 
lain Orlando Ingvoldstad's Battle Report of 14 July-12 
September 1950. 



William G. Tennant, and Otto E. Sporrer. John H. 
Markley was chaplain for the aircraft unit. 

So hastily were the Marines hustled aboard trans- 
ports for Korea that there was no time to check them 
aboard. A head count was made after the ships were 
at sea. On one the results showed plus 12! Gen. 
Randolph McC. Pate, when afterward as Comman- 
dant of the Marine Corps he recounted this story to a 
Navy League convention, commented that the 12 
were "read off" publicly, commended privately, and 
the matter closed. 

The main body of the 1st Division sailed from San 
Diego 10-22 August and completed debarking at 
Kobe, Japan, on 3 September. 6 Chaplain Joseph G. 
Power, in his reply to a questionnaire distributed by 
the Chaplains Division in March 1954, commented on 
the work of chaplains in the trans-Pacific crossing: 

I remember the services in the GENERAL M. C. MEIGS 
on the way to Japan, with four Protestant chaplains holding 
Divine Services in different parts of the ship simultaneously. 
Each service must have had well over 200 Marines in at- 
tendance. 

Roman Catholic chaplains were also affording a 
spiritual ministry to the men of their faith. Navy 
chaplains were again observing a phenomenon fre- 
quently noticed during World War II — an increased 
interest in religion on the part of men facing grave 
danger. The old proverb was illustrated anew, that 
"man's extremity is God's opportunity." 

The duties of chaplains serving with Marines were 
outlined in the U.S. Marine Corps Staff Manual, 
1948. paragraph 241, as follows: 

Chaplain: 

a. Advises the commander and staff in religious and moral 
activities of the command. 

b. Supervises the spiritual welfare of the command. 

c. Conducts religious services, including funerals. 

d. Gives spiritual ministrations to the sick and wounded. 

e. Corresponds with relatives of deceased personnel. 

f. Coordinates the religious work of the various welfare 
agencies. 

g. Supervises and coordinates the assignment, training, 
and work of the chaplains of subordinate units. 

h. Prepares estimates and allotments of funds for religious 
activities not specifically charged to other agencies of the 
command. 

Naturally the duties of a chaplain can never be fully 
reduced to writing. How can official regulations de- 
fine the inspiration which flows forth from daily ex- 
emplary living? Or how can one adequately describe 
the ministry of giving spiritual aid and comfort to 
individuals on the battle line or in the hospital? No 



" Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. II, pp. 74ff. 



manual can ever encompass the intangibles which are 
most vital in every chaplain's ministry. 

By Executive Order No. 10179 the President of the 
United States on 8 November 1950 established the 
Korean Service medal to commemorate the service 
of members of the Armed Forces of the United States 
during operations in the Korean theater; the in- 
clusive dates were eventually set as 27 June 1950 to 
27 July 1954. 7 It was awarded for land service in 
Korea, air service over Korea and service within 
waters adjacent to Korea, within prescribed bound- 
aries, or in such other areas as Commander, Naval 
Forces, Far East, should designate as having directly 
supported the military effort in Korea. 

Engagement stars were eventually authorized for 
ten separate periods, ending with the signing of the 
armistice agreement at Panmunjom on 27 July 1953. 
Each of the following rated a battle star on the 
Korean Service ribbon. 

K-l North Korean Aggression, 27 June-2 November 
1950. 

K-2 Communist China Aggression, 3 November 1950-24 
January 1951. 

K-3 Inchon Landing, 13-17 September 1950. 

K-4 First United Nations Counteroffensive, 25 January- 
21 April 1951. 

K-5 Communist China Spring Offensive, 22 April-8 July 
1951. 

K-6 United Nations Summer-Fall Offensive, 9 July-27 
November 1951. 

K-7 Second Korean Winter, 28 November 1951-30 
April 1952. 

K-8 Korean Defense, Summer-Fall, 1952, 1 May-30 
November 1952. 

K-9 Third Korean Winter, 1 December 1952-30 April 
1953. 

K-10 Korea, Summer-Fall 1953, 1 May-27 July 1953. 

This scheme of periodization will provide the basic 
outline of the following account of Navy chaplains 
during the Korean War, with some adjustment. It 
will be noted that the official code given above num- 
bers the Inchon landing third and awards a battle 



7 U.S. Navy and Marine Corps Awards Manual. NAV- 
PERS 15,790; revised 1953 and further revised by current 
Official Change Memoranda. 



star only for the 5 days 13-17 September; this short 
period is therefore chronologically comprehended 
within the first period, 27 June-2 November 1950. 
In order to follow the action of the 1st Marine Divi- 
sion more closely, our first chapter will deal mainly 
with the Pusan Perimeter operation, followed by a 
second chapter on both the Inchon landing and the 
Seoul operation, covering the period 13 September-7 
October 1950. Chapter 3 will deal mainly with the 
Chosin Reservoir campaign, which fell within the K-2 
dates; the Marines were in their Masan rest camp 
by Christmas 1950. 

Beginning with chapter 4 our account will follow 
precisely the dating of engagements listed in the code. 
Following the chapter dealing with K-10, chapter 11 
will be occupied with chaplains in Korea following the 
Panmunjom armistice agreement. The 1-year period 
27 July 1953-27 July 1954 rates the award of the Ko- 
rean Service medal, but does not carry with it any en- 
gagement star. 

Inevitably the larger share of attention is devoted to 
chaplains serving with the 1st Marine Division and the 
1st Marine Aircraft Wing. There were others on 
board the larger ships in Korean waters, as well as 
"circuit riders" serving smaller vessels on rotation 
schedules. On occasion casualties were received as the 
result of enemy fire from shore, or from mines; the 
larger number were sustained by Navy 'and Marine 
flyers operating from carriers. In addition to other 
duties, chaplains aboard such ships ministered to the 
wounded and officiated at the last rites paid the dead. 
Still other "padres" were attached to various units 
under Commander Naval Forces, Far East, mostly 
based in Japan. Those aboard transports carrying 
troops to and from combat areas, as well as those on 
hospital ships, found many opportunities to minister 
to the physical and spiritual welfare of Navy and Ma- 
rine Corps personnel. 

For all these, as also for those chaplains only indi- 
rectly involved in the Korean War, this present volume 
of The History of the Chaplains Corps, U.S. Navy may 
serve as a memorial to their devotion to the service of 
God and man. 



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Reproduced by permission from U.S. Marine Operations in Korea. 

— 4 — 



CHAPTER 1 
NORTH KOREAN AGGRESSION 

27 June-2 November 1950 



The forces of the Republic of Korea (frequently 
referred to as ROK) proved unable to stem the offen- 
sive of the better-trained and better-equipped troops 
from the North. General MacArthur drew upon all 
available men from the occupation forces located in 
Japan and elsewhere. 1 Three U.S. Army divisions 
(24th, 25th, and 1st Cavalry), then on a peace-time 
basis, psychologically and physically unprepared for 
actual combat, were grouped as the 8th Army under 
Lt. Gen. Walton H. Walker and hurriedly sent to 
Korea. Even such reinforcements were unable to 
stem the steady southward advance of the North Ko- 
rean soldiers who, indoctrinated with a fanatical zeal, 
pressed onward confident that complete victory was 
within their immediate grasp. By late July four bat- 
tered ROK divisions and the three U.S. Army divisions 
had been driven back to within some fifty miles of the 
vital supply port of Pusan. The rim of defense around 
the last remaining free area of the Republic of Korea, 
about 120 miles long, was called the Pusan Perimeter. 
Into this critical situation General MacArthur was 
throwing every possible reinforcement in order to keep 
a toe-hold in Korea for future retaliatory action. 

The Pusan Perimeter 

On 2 August the ground forces of the 1st Marine 
Provisional Brigade landed at Pusan. 2 With the ex- 
ception of a small Marine legation guard at Seoul, it 
constituted the 1st Marine land force to fight in the 
Korean War. Four chaplains were attached to the 
ground units — Orlando Ingvoldstad, Jr., and William 
G. Tennant (Protestants) and Otto E. Sporrer and 
Bernard L. Hickey (Roman Catholics). Writing 



1 Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. I, ch. Ill (esp. pp. 
43ff.) and ch. IV (esp. pp. 68ff.) 

See also: Cagle and Manson, op. cit., ch. 2. Karig et at, 
op. cit., chs. 6-13. A preliminary Army account of the first 
6 months of the Korean War is entitled Korea, 1950 (Depart- 
ment of the Army: Office of the Chief of Military History, 
1952). Ch. II deals with the first frantic efforts to stem the 
Red advance. 

2 Montross and Canzona, op. cit.,vo\. I, ch. V. 



aboard the transport on 2 August, just before the Ma- 
rines disembarked at Pusan, Chaplain Sporrer com- 
mented on his work in a letter to Chaplain Daniel F. 
Meehan, Assistant Director of the Chaplains Division. 

We had great numbers every day at Mass and confessions 
every night. The morale is wonderful and if ever the 
Marines did a job we will do it. I am very proud and 
happy to be with them. I will never cease to thank you for 
this duty. Please don't separate me from these men until 
you absolutely have to, and then let me stay with the 
Marines until this war is over. 

On 7 August the Marines went into action in defense 
of Hill 342, southwest of Masan; the first casualties 
were received and Navy chaplains were once again 
under fire. At this time the chaplains were assigned 
as follows: Chaplain Hickey, 3d Battalion, 5th Ma- 
rines; Chaplain Sporrer (artillery), 1st Battalion, 11th 
Marines; Chaplain Tennant, "B" Medical Company, 
at Masan; and Chaplain Ingvoldstad, Rear Echelon, 
at Pusan. Hickey and Sporrer covered the forward 
aid stations, Tennant the evacuation center and the 
cemetery at Masan ; and Ingvoldstad the Army evacu- 
ation hospital at Pusan through which all patients 
passed on their way to hospitals in Japan. This 
engagement in the Chindong-ni-Kosong-Changchon 
area lasted 7-13 August. 3 Chaplain Ingvoldstad of- 
fers many valuable comments on this period based 
upon his personal experience. 

First Naktong 

On 17 August, having been regrouped at Miryang, 
well within the Perimeter, the Marines were again 
committed to action, assaulting Obong-ni Ridge, in 
what became known as the First Battle of the Nak- 
tong (River). 4 During this day Chaplains Ingvold- 



3 Ibid., chs. VI-VIII. For a journalistic, but useful 
account of the early Pusan Perimeter battles, see Geer, op. 
cit., chs. II and following. Also Korea, 1950 (Department 
of the Army), ch. III. 

* Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. I, chs. IX, X. 



5 — 

















I I ' ' 



/ miMMMHMHa 



- 



R 2 



Reproduced by permission from U.S. Marine Operations in Korea. 

— 6 — 




Improvisation. 

A camp cot is used as the base of the altar by Chaplain Otto Sporrer as he holds mass for the 11th Artillery in a 

field behind the battlelines in South Korea. 




Memorial Services. 

Squadron members bow their heads as Chaplain John H. 
Markley conducts a memorial service for fliers who were 
shot down by North Korean antiaircraft fire on a night- 
fighter mission. 

stad and either Sporrer or Hickey were in the forward 
aid station, while Tennant was at the regimental 
collecting and clearing station. The chaplains were 
constantly on the move. As far as possible it was 
planned to have a Protestant and a Roman Catholic 
chaplain available at forward aid stations all the 
time. 

On 18 August, with each of the 5th Marines 
battalions engaged, the chaplains operated as follows: 
Ingvoldstad visited the forward aid station of the 
1st Battalion, 5th Marines, then that of the 3d Bat- 
talion, then held a Protestant Service at the artillery- 



United Nations Cemetery, Masan. 

Flags fly at half-mast where fallen marines and fellow com- 
rades find their last resting place. 



unit, and finally moved on to the 2d Battalion's aid 
station for the night. Sporrer celebrated Mass at 
the artillery unit and likewise moved from one bat- 
talion aid station to each of the others. Tennant 
remained all day and night with the regimental col- 
lecting and clearing station, while Hickey visited all 
the aid stations, though staying mostly with that of 
the 3d Battalion. 

The Naktong objective was secured on 19 August 
and the Marine Brigade ordered into Eighth Army 
reserve. Its bivouac area from 21 to 31 August was 
a bean patch near Masan, from which the Marines 



7 — 




Memorial Services. 

Chaplain Orlando Ingvoldstad, Jr., is shown holding memorial 
services at the Army-Marine Corps Cemetery in South 
Korea at Masan on 24 August 1950. 

would fight their way around the peninsula and 
complete their circuit five months later (following 
the withdrawal from Chosin) to the identical bean 
patch. 5 

The chaplains were now able to conduct funeral 
and memorial sendees for the men killed in the first 
action, that of 7-13 August. Upon the suggestion 
of the Brigade commander, Brig. Gen. Edward A. 
Craig, an individual picture was taken of each grave 
with the appropriate chaplain standing by in bene- 
diction. These pictures were sent to Headquarters, 
Marine Corps, in Washington, and after casualty 
notices had been sent to next of kin, many requests 
were received from bereaved families for the pictures. 

On 22 August Chaplain Ingvoldstad wrote to 
Chaplain Stanton W. Salisbury, Chief of Chaplains: 

As I'm writing I'm sitting under a shelter in a bean field; 
it's hot, sticky, and dusty. Shooting is going on in the hills 
around us, but the activities of our camp are normal, as 
we are in reserve right now. Shortly we'll probably be in 
it again. 

Sporrer is with the Artillery battalion, but also gets up 
into our aid stations . . . Hickey, Tennant and I have been 



Burial Service. 

Chaplain William G. Tennant conducts a graveside service. 
Photographs of such services were sent to the next of kin. 



working the battalion aid stations, Hickey usually with 3rd 
Bn., Tennant and I between 1st and 2nd. Then we also 
shift around as the need is. Our battalion aid stations are 
as close as 100-150 yards from the fighting and at times under 
fire. I can truthfully say none of our wounded have left 
the zone of action without being seen by a chaplain. 

Second Naktong 

The Marines were involved in a third engagement, 
3-5 September, in the same Naktong River area, re- 
pulsing a desperate Communist attempt to breach the 
Pusan Perimeter. 6 Beginning at midnight on the 
fifth, the Brigade was withdrawn to Pusan, where 
staging began for what would be the Inchon am- 
phibious landing. In 1 month the air-ground team 
had fought 3 difficult battles, suffering 902 cas- 
ualties, including 9 missing in action, 163 deaths 
and 730 wounded. In addition to the ministry ren- 
dered the dead and wounded, the chaplains had faith- 
fully maintained Divine Services. On Sunday, 27 
August, for instance, the four chaplains conducted 
eight services. But, as Ingvoldstad wrote, "We've 
been holding services regardless of days, whenever 



s Ibid., pp. 207f. 



'Ibid., chs. XI, XII. 



we stop long enough. Had around 300 this morn- 
ing at 0700." 

Chaplain Otto E. Sporrer was awarded the Army 
Bronze Star with Combat "V" for heroism in the Pu- 
san Perimeter campaign. The citation reads as 
follows : 

As a member of the 1st Battalion, 11th Marines, 1st Pro- 
visional Marine Brigade for heroic achievement on 7 August 
1950 at Chindongni, Korea. On 7 August 1950 Lieutenant 
Commander Sporrer was in the vicinity of an artillery bat- 
tery position which was undergoing heavy enemy counter- 
battery fire. The enemy scored a direct hit on a gun posi- 
tion causing many casualties. Without regard for his own 
personal safety, Lieutenant Commander Sporrer voluntarily 
exposed himself to the heavy fire in order to assist the 
wounded. Heedless of the heavy fire, he administered effec- 
tive first aid and assisted in evacuating the wounded to a 
place of safety. The heroism displayed by Lieutenant Com- 
mander Sporrer on this occasion reflects great credit on him- 
self and the naval service. 

Each of the other Navy chaplains who took part 
in the defense of the Pusan Perimeter received the 
Bronze Star for acts of heroism and valor in later 
campaigns. Chaplain Sporrer was also awarded the 
Army Silver Star for another act of heroism which 
took place on 18 August in the battle for Obong-ni 
Ridge. This second citation reads in part: 

On this date Lieutenant Commander Sporrer in his ca- 
pacity as Catholic Chaplain visited the forward aid station 
of the Fifth Marines, then in attack on enemy positions ol 
the ridges west of the Naktong. Learning that a number 
of wounded were on the ridges awaiting evacuation, Lieu- 
tenant Commander Sporrer organized a litter-bearing team 
of Korean civilians and showing a high degree of courage 
and skill led them through heavy small arms, automatic 
weapons and mortar fire. By his leadership and example 
Lieutenant Commander Sporrer encouraged the litter-bear- 
ing team to continue even after they had been pinned down 
by enemy fire. He then succeeded in evacuating a number 
of seriously wounded to the Aid Station. 

MAG 33 

The Brigade's air support, Marine Aircraft Group 
33, had arrived in Kobe, Japan, on 31 July. Since 
Korean land-based operations were impossible, the 
planes were flown to nearby Itami for maintenance 
and testing and returned to the carriers SICILY and 
BADOENG STRAIT, from which the two fighter 
squadrons operated during the initial months of the 
war. 7 The night-fighter squadron was based in 
Japan. The helicopters included in Marine Aircraft 
Group 33 were the first such to be formed into a 
unit for combat service overseas. 8 They, together 



7 Ibid., pp. 89f. 

8 Ibid., p. 50. See also Montross, Cavalry of the Sky (New 
York, 1954), an account of the development and early use 
by the Marines of combat helicopter squadrons. 



with the observer squadron and the Air Support sec- 
tion, were ferried to Korea and came under direct 
Brigade control. 

With Marine Aircraft Group 33 was one chap- 
lain, John H. Markley, a Methodist. Subsequently, 
when the main body of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing 
arrived in September, Chaplain John P. Murphy, a 
Roman Catholic, came out with them from El Torro, 
Calif., Marine Air Station as Wing Chaplain. On 
14 September he wrote from Itami, Japan, to the 
Chief of Chaplains that he and Markley would cover 
Marine Aircraft Group 33, by then partly shore-based 
in Korea, leaving the Wing headquarters to be cov- 
ered by a Protestant Air Force chaplain and two 
American missionary priests. It was planned that 
Marine Aircraft Group 12, on arrival, would be 
carrier-based and therefore covered by ship's chap- 
lains. Adding that an aircraft group numbered about 
3,000 personnel, Murphy asked for a Protestant and 
a Roman Catholic chaplain for each group, in 
addition to himself as Wing Chaplain. 

Marine air power was early engaged in the attempt 
to block the enemy's advance. Before the Brigade's 
ground forces became operative, already on 3 August 
eight Corsairs of VMF-214 operating from the 
SICILY had made the first Marine air strike in de- 
fense of the Pusan Perimeter." On succeeding days, 
joined by VMF-323 operating from the BADOENG 
STRAIT, the Brigade's air arm continued to pound 
enemy concentrations north of Eighth Army's de- 
fensive lines. During Marine ground operations the 
three squadrons of Marine Aircraft Group 33 pro- 
vided outstanding close air support, vindicating the 
Marine Corps' doctrine of ground-air teamwork. 

Aboard the SICILY as chaplain was Cornelius O. 
Sullivan, a Roman Catholic. His counterpart in the 
BADOENG STRAIT, Chaplain Oswald B. Salyer, 
was a Methodist. Both men ministered to the Navy 
crews of their ships and the embarked Marine air per- 
sonnel as well. The first Marine pilot killed in Korea 
was Capt. V. M. Moses, of Jewish faith. No Jewish 
chaplain was available, and it fell to Salyer, a Meth- 
odist, to conduct a service for the captain on 13 Au- 
gust. Fittingly the chaplain was able to read the first 
part of the service in Hebrew. 

Writing to the Chaplains Division, Salyer described 
a helicopter highline routine which enabled Sullivan 
and himself to extend their ministry. At 0800 on 
Sunday, Salyer conducted Protestant service aboard the 
BADOENG STRAIT, Sullivan celebrating Mass 

" Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 98f. Cagle 
and Manson, op. cit., pp. 61-67. 



9 — 



aboard the SICILY. At 0900 the chaplains would be 
exchanged by the BADOENG STRAIT's helicopter, 
so that at 0915 there would be Mass in that ship and 
Protestant service in the SICILY. Afterward each 
chaplain transferred by highline to one of the ships 
of the destroyer screen for a third service, returning 
to his home ship by highline again. Thus both Prot- 
estant and Roman Catholic worship was held in each 
of the two carriers every Sunday, and in each de- 
stroyer once a month. 
Seventh Fleet 

The two senior naval commands in the Far East 
were 7th Fleet and Commander Naval Forces, Far 
East. Seventh Fleet, commanded by Vice Adm. 
Arthur D. Strubble, though dispersed in the Philippines 
and at Hong Kong, was within fast cruising range of 
Korea. Its main force, Carrier Division 3, consisting 
of the VALLEY FORGE and embarked Air Group 
Five, the cruiser ROCHESTER, and eight destroyers, 
under Rear Adm. J. M. Hoskins, was fortunately in a 
state of readiness, even though the ships' peacetime 
mission had been largely "showing the flag" around 
the Orient. 10 

Vice Adm. C. Turner Joy, Commander Naval 
Forces, Far East, had his headquarters in Tokyo. In 
the interval between World War II and the Korean 
War the chief mission of ComNavFE had been assist- 
ing the recovery of Japan. Besides supervision of the 
naval stations at Yokosuka and Sasebo, and helping to 
rebuild the Japanese merchant fleet, ComNavFE 
utilized a support force (Cruiser Division 5) consisting 
of the cruiser JUNEAU, four destroyers, and six mine- 
sweepers, under Rear Adm. J. M. Higgins, in clearing 
Japanese waters of leftover mines, Chinese pirates, and 
Japanese and Korean smugglers. 

U.S. naval forces, with 7th Fleet under operational 
control of ComNavFE, were made available to Gen- 
eral MacArthur, Commander in Chief, Far East, on 
26 June. The first surface action occurred on 2 July, 
when the JUNEAU destroyed several North Korean 
motor torpedo boats encountered north of Kangnung 
on the east coast. But the enemy had, of course, next 
to no naval power; the missions of United Nations 
naval forces were chiefly ship-to-shore bombardment 
and the launching of bombing strikes against the air- 
fields and rail facilities of the North Korean capital of 
Pyongyang and, later, the Wonsan oil refinery. 

From midnight of 24 July, when elements of 7th 
Fleet weighed anchor for the east coast of Korea, naval 
close air support began to be furnished the ground 



forces of 8th Army. 11 Coordinated through 5th Air 
Force, the squadrons of VALLEY FORGE and, after 
1 August, PHILIPPINE SEA lent their support to the 
beleaguered defenders of the Pusan Perimeter. The 
arrival of the cruisers HELENA and TOLEDO in late 
July strengthened the blockade effort; and in early 
September this would be further strengthened by the 
organization of Task Force 95, the United Nations 
Blockading and Escort Force, composed of ships of 10 
nations. 12 

The final naval contribution to the Pusan Perimeter 
duel was the rescue during the night of 16 August of 
the ROK 3d Division, which had ably held fast to 
allow inland units to withdraw but was now itself in 
danger of isolation and being cut to pieces. Sup- 
ported by the HELENA and destroyer escorts, 4 
LSTS removed 5,830 military personnel, 1,260 civilian 
refugees, and 100 military vehicles from the beach 
near Yonghae. 13 

ComNavFE 

As the Navy girded itself for a war it had not been 
led to expect, Admiral Joy's command expanded to 
furnish the United Nations Command the strongest 
possible naval striking power. Japan-based naval 
activities expanded to provide service and support 
of every sort for the ships and aircraft of 7th 
Fleet, the amphibious force, and the elements of Fleet 
Marine Force, Pacific, operating in the war theater. 

The main center at first was Commander, Fleet 
Activities, Yokosuka (Navy #3923). Two chaplains 
were aboard, Thomas V. Edwards, Roman Catholic, 
and Henry J. Beukema, Reformed. On the Fourth 
of July Beukema wrote to Chaplain Salisbury: 

We are now in Condition II. We see huge convoys of 
tanks and trucks. Ships are being feverishly loaded with 
war supplies. Today, normally a holiday, is become a work 
day. We anticipate the arrival of approximately one 
thousand officers and enlisted men to man the destroyer 
escorts recently returned by Russia. . . . All available ships 
in the area have sailed for Korea. . . . What the picture 
will be within the next thirty days is difficult to state. We 
hope that once the North Koreans are pushed behind the 
38th Parallel normalcy will ensue. . . . 

On 1 1 July Beukema wrote concerning Fleet Ac- 
tivities, Sasebo: 

The normal complement is seventy enlisted men and five 
officers. How many men will be eventually assigned to 
Sasebo is not known ; no doubt the base will serve our Korean 
task forces. Consideration should be given the placement 
of a chaplain at that activity, if only temporarily. 



1 Cagle and Manson, op. cit., ch. 2, esp. pp. 30-47. 



" Ibid., pp. 47-61. 
i: Ibid., pp. 288-298. 
13 Ibid., pp. 69f. 



10 



One interesting pause in the midst of feverish war 
activity deserves noting. On 15 July a ceremony was 
held in front of the Perry Monument at Kurihama, 
Yokosuka, to commemorate the 98th anniversary of 
the landing of Commodore Matthew G. Perry in 
Japan. Chaplain Edwards gave the opening prayer 
and Chaplain Beukema a benediction. 

On 22 July Chaplain James E. Reaves reported as 
relief for Beukema; both men wrote the Chaplains 
Division asking that Beukema be allowed to remain for 
at least several months. On 28 July Reaves wrote 
"the Chief": 

Yesterday I made the ward rounds at the dispensary and 
found it impossible to get away under 3 hours. The patient 
load is increasing there daily, and the senior medical officer 
indicated to me that they expect it to mushroom out of all 
proportion to its present size. 

As the buildup continued and casualties began 
pouring in "in a flood," the chaplains found their 
energies taxed to the limit. The Chaplains Division 
advised that the chaplains consult their command with 
reference to the establishment of additional chaplain 
billets as it was the responsibility of the latter to 
initiate a request of this nature. Chaplain Beukema 
was detached, and Edwards and Reaves carried on. 

Chaplains in the Fleet 

Large carriers were entitled to two chaplains. 
Harold E. Meade had reported aboard the PHILIP- 
PINE SEA in July as Roman Catholic Chaplain. The 
same month Chaplain Charles W. Nelson, an Epis- 
copalian, who had been serving in the ship since 
January, was hospitalized and ordered stateside for 
treatment. Chaplain John E. Zoller, attached to 
Commander Service Force, Pacific, whose regular 
duties carried him throughout the Pacific Fleet 
visiting auxiliary vessels too small to rate a chaplain, 
was temporarily on board from 1 1 July to 7 September. 
Ernest R. Barnes reported for duty as the ship's Prot- 
estant chaplain on 6 September. And thereby hangs 
a tale. 

Barnes had been serving as Camp Chaplain, Marine 
Barracks, Camp Lejeune, N.C. He had been issued 
orders the middle of June to 3d Naval District where, 
in September, he expected to begin duty under instruc- 
tion at Union Theological Seminary, New York. The 
beginning of the Korean War, however, caused the 
cancellation of the postgraduate study program and 
Barnes was ordered instead to the PHILIPPINE SEA. 
Detached from Camp Lejeune on 7 August, before 
the arrival of his relief, Chaplain Abbot Peterson, 
Barnes spent the next month trying to catch up with 



his ship. Finally, on 9 September, he wrote the Chief 
of Chaplains from Sasebo, Japan, where he had man- 
aged to report aboard. 

I shared your concern about getting to the ship as rapidly 
as possible. By keeping in touch with the Command people 
I was able to avoid the mistakes which several of the local 
Air-Traffic Control officers were about to make in routing 
me, thus arriving in Sasebo just 2 hours before the ship 
dropped anchor. Had I not kept in touch with the high 
echelons, I would have missed the ship, inasmuch as the 
traffic people were going to route me to Okinawa. 

Later on, when Chaplain Barnes was assigned in 
May 1951 as Wing Chaplain, 1st Marine Aircraft 
Wing, Chaplain Zoller would again be temporarily 
aboard the PHILIPPINE SEA, from 15 April to 3 
June. Meanwhile he had served temporarily aboard 
the cruiser ROCHESTER (7 October-3 November 
1950) and the oiler KASKASKIA (3 November- 
25 November 1950) while those ships were operating 
in Korean waters. From 8 December 1950 to 9 
January 1951 Zoller was temporarily attached to the 
U.S. Naval Hospital at Yokosuka, Japan. The short- 
age of chaplains and the exigencies of sudden war 
had made necessary many expedients, not the least 
useful of which was the attempt to supply as wide- 
spread a ministry as possible by means of such 
"circuit-riding" activities. 

Of one of his experiences, when assigned for a brief 
time to a fleet tug, Zoller wrote as follows: 

One Sunday, in extremely heavy seas, it seemed impractical 
to try to hold Divine Service. However, this was the crew's 
first experience of having a chaplain on board and . . . 
they had particularly requested Holy Communion. 

It was almost impossible to stand upright unassisted. . . . 
To ask the men to come forward for the Sacrament would 
be impossible by reason of [limitation of] space and the ship's 
movement. Further, the coordination of eye and muscle 
involved in serving by intinction seemed unattainable under 
the circumstances. Yet I felt that to deny them the Sacra- 
ment would be a grave error. 

The solution was to prepare strips of bread approximately 
one-half inch square and 2 inches long and to fill the chalice 
one-fourth full. At the appropriate time [after the elements 
were consecrated], the men were instructed to take a strip 
of bread as I passed among them, if they desired to receive 
Holy Communion. Following this, I passed among them 
again with the chalice and each man dipped one end of his 
bread into the cup. . . . 

He concluded: "It was a bit awkward, and surely un- 
orthodox, but the service was solemn throughout and 
the men spoke later of the blessing they had received." 
Aboard the VALLEY FORGE were Chaplains Ab- 
ner R. Cook (Methodist) , who had reported in March, 
and Paul J. Knapp (Roman Catholic), who reported 
in Mav. The cruisers normally carried only one 



11 — 




Worship at Sea. 

A weekday mass is held aboard the HELENA while in Korean waters. 

John J. McGowan, Jr. 



The officiating chaplain is 



chaplain. John J. McGowan, Jr., was relieved in the 
HELENA by Chaplain Jerome J. Sullivan in Septem- 
ber. Chaplain Benjamin J. Davis served in the 
JUNEAU from March 1949 to March 1951, 2 years 
being the normal tour of ship-board duty. 

Chaplain Barnes sent to Chaplain Salisbury further 
information concerning naval activities in the Far East. 
He wrote : 

At Yokosuka the buildup is like a mushroom; something 
like 7,000 there now, and to go higher. Supply is bringing 
in staff to serve 10,000. The dispensary is now a hospital, 
the wings [formerly] occupied by dependents being rapidly re- 
converted to wards. By the end of September they expect 
to have a 2,000-bed capacity. There were 431 casualties 
there the day I arrived. 

He continued : 

At Sasebo the harbor is full of ships. It looks like Pearl 
[during] the last war. Chaplain McGann called a meeting 
on his ship the 7th. There were nine of us in attendance: 
McGann, Cook, Vaughan, Knapp, Wolf, Curry, Zoller, 
Meade, and myself. 

Chaplain Francis L. McGann, then Assistant Fleet 
Chaplain on the staff of Commander Service Force, 
Pacific Fleet, was in the Far East area on temporary 
duty with Commander Service Division 3 1 . Matthew 
A. Curry was aboard the cruiser WORCESTER, being 
detached shortly thereafter. Robert A. Vaughan and 
August J. Wolf were both in destroyer tenders, the 
DIXIE and the PIEDMONT respectively. 



Barnes concluded his letter to Chaplain Salisbury: 
"Shortly the ship will put to sea again on further op- 
erations. I will keep in touch with you and Chaplain 
[Edward B.] Harp [Fleet Chaplain, Commander Serv- 
ice Force, Pacific Fleet] as opportunity to get mail off is 
afforded." The fleet too was getting prepared for the 
next move: Inchon. 

Chaplain SOP 

After each combat engagement Marine line officers 
write a Battle Report, which is afterwards closely 
studied in order to improve the Corps' fighting effi- 
ciency. Such reports were of course mandatory for 
the line but were not regularly asked of staff 
components. Although they had accompanied Ma- 
rines in many engagements, chaplains had apparently 
never made an official Battle Report. At the conclu- 
sion of the Marines' involvement in the Pusan Per- 
imeter campaign, and while aboard ship en route to 
the Inchon landing, Chaplain Ingvoldstad compiled 
a summary of the work of the Brigade chaplains from 
their departure on 14 July from San Diego through 
operations down to 12 September 1950. (See appen- 
dix B( 1 ) of this present volume.) The value of chap- 
lains thus incorporating their experiences and activi- 
ties into official records is revealed by the events which 
followed. 

As the Battle Reports of the 1st Provisional Marine 
Brigade were being forwarded to Marine Corps Head- 



12 — 



quarters, Chaplain Ingvoldstad's report of the work of 
chaplains received special attention. On 24 October 
1950 Lt. Gen. Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr., Commanding 
General, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, wrote to Chap- 
lain Salisbury (Chief of Chaplains), saying in part: 

I have recently read the report of Chaplain O. ingvoldstad, 
Jr., on the operations of the 1st Marine Brigade in Korea 
from 14 July to 12 September, and consider it outstanding. 
If this report has not been brought to your attention, I sug- 
gest you read it and I am sure you will agree with me that 
the advice obtained therein should be passed on to all 
chaplains operating with Marines in the field. 

It is the first time that I have ever seen anything in 
writing relative to what chaplains should do in combat and 
I think the notes jotted down by Chaplain Ingvoldstad may 
well be reproduced in pamphlet form to be included in 
instructions for young chaplains, especially those going to 
duty with Marines. 

In his letter of acknowledgment of 30 October, 
Chaplain Salisbury called Ingvoldstad's report "an 
excellent piece of work" and stated that "it is our 
plan to have it reproduced for use by chaplains going 
into such combat." 

On 29 October the Division Chaplain, Robert M. 
Schwyhart, sent a letter to all regimental chaplains 
attached to the 1st Division requesting each to com- 



with the purpose of preparing a Standing Operating 
pile facts and information based upon experience, 
Procedure (referred to as SOP) for chaplains. The 
material gathered was edited by Chaplain Schwyhart 
and submitted as a recommendation to the Force 
Chaplain, FMF Pac, for approval. The result was 
Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, General Order 19, dated 
28 March 1951; Subject: "Standing Operating Pro- 
cedure for the Chaplain Service of the Fleet Marine 
Force, Pacific." This order extended over eight 
mimeographed pages and spelled out in detail the 
duties expected of a Navy chaplain serving with the 
Marines. (See appendix C.) A similar order was 
subsequently drawn up for Marine chaplains serving 
in the Atlantic, which appeared as Fleet Marine 
Force, Atlantic, General Order 41, dated 31 July 
1951. 

Letters of Condolence 

One section of the SOP for chaplains, FMF Pac, 
read as follows: 

When practicable an individual picture of each grave 
with the appropriate chaplain standing by in benediction 
should be taken, so that families may secure copies if desired. 

This was done as far as possible throughout the 



Division Chaplain's Headquarters. 
The division chaplain was located in this tent which is at the command post of the division. 




13 



Korean War, having been begun with the burials of 
those killed in the Pusan Perimeter operations. Under 
the outline of duties expected of chaplains in combat 
operations were the following: 

Duties on Conclusion of Landing and Assault 
Phase : 

( 1 ) At the close of operations, unit chaplains will prepare 
letters of condolence to next of kin of those lost in action. 
These letters will be properly channeled through the com- 
mand. The office of the Division Chaplain can assist a unit 
chaplain by looking up the following information relative 
to each person deceased : 

(a) Name, rank, serial number. 

(6) Date of death, place of burial, and religion. 

(c) Name and address of next of kin. 

(d) Name of officiating chaplain at burial. 

(2) At the close of an operation, the Division Chaplain, 
with the approval of the Commanding General, should ar- 
range for a memorial service to be held at the Division ceme- 
tery or in other cemeteries where Division dead are buried. 

Such lette's of condolence were faithfully written by 
individual chaplains and, judging from the responses 
received from bereaved families, were deeply ap- 
preciated. Memorial services were held periodically 
throughout the Korean War, both on division level 
and also in smaller units. 

Mission Completed 

On 13 September the 1st Provisional Marine 
Brigade was deactivated and reabsorbed into the 1st 
Marine Division, its components resuming their old 
unit designations and embarking from Pusan to join 
the main body of the Division being embarked from 
Kobe. For its "outstanding and heroic performance 
of duty on the field of battle during the period 2 
August 1950 to 6 September 1950" the Brigade was 
awarded a Presidential Unit Citation by Syngman 
Rhee, President of the Republic of Korea. It was 



also given a Presidential Unit Citation by the Presi- 
dent of the United States "for extraordinary heroism 
in action against enemy aggressor forces in Korea 
from 7 August to 7 September 1950." 

On the eve of the Inchon assault, the following 28 
Navy chaplains were attached to the Division : 

Division Chaplain — Robert M. Schwyhart. 

Headquarters Battalion — Garson Goodman and William 
N. Lyons. 

Division Troops — Howard H. Groover, Ernest A. Ham, 
William M. Hearn, Aarne J. Juntunen, Patrick A. Killeen, 
Preston D. Parsons, Robert L. Patton, Charles S. Pigott, 
Joseph G. Power, William A. Rennie, Eugene I. Van Ant- 
werp, and Lawrence R. Phillips. 

Regimental Units: 

1st Marines— Glyn Jones (Regimental Chaplain), Kevin 
J. Keaney, and James W. Lewis. 

5th Marines — Orlando Ingvoldstad, Jr. (Regimental 
Chaplain), Bernard L. Hickey, and William G. Tennant. 

7 th Marines — John Craven (Regimental Chaplain), 
Cornelius J. Griffin, and Kester M. Hearn. 

11th Marines — Otto E. Sporrer (Regimental Chap- 
lain), Robert A. Bonner, Barker C. Howland, and God- 
frey J. Reilly. 

Goodman was of the Jewish faith. Griffin, Hickey, 
Keaney, Killeen, Reilly, Sporrer, and Van Antwerp 
were Roman Catholics. The others were Protestants. 
Chaplain Ernest A. Ham was left with the Administra- 
tive Rear Echelon at Camp Garver, near Kobe, Japan, 
primarily for the purpose of giving assistance to Ma- 
rine casualties in the hospitals at Kobe, Osaka, and 
Kyoto. Among those left behind were also some 500 
17-year-old Marines, who by order of the Secretary 
of the Navy had been removed from the troop list 
just before the Division embarked for the Inchon am- 
phibious landing. 14 



11 Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. II, p. 76. 



14 — 



CHAPTER 2 
THE INCHON-SEOUL OPERATION 

13 September-7 October 1950 



Military strategy called for a surprise landing in the 
rear of the North Korean Army. Inchon, on the west 
coast, about 20 miles from Seoul, was selected for 
several reasons. It was the port of the capital city. 
Its capture would permit the United Nations forces to 
cut the enemy's supply and communications lines. 
Moreover, because of the unusual tides in the area, 
it seemed to General MacArthur that the enemy 
would be expecting his counterattack elsewhere. The 
X Corps, commanded by Maj. General Edward 
M. Almond, was given the task of taking Inchon and 
advancing via Kimpo airfield to the Han River and 
the capital. X Corps included, besides the 1st Marine 
Division and the attached 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, 
the 7th Infantry Division, an understrength occupa- 
tion-duty division whose complement would be filled 
out with South Korean soldiers. 

The operation had been planned even before the 
1st Marine Division was fully organized. 1 Because of 
the wide range of high and low tides, the assault would 
have to made at just the right time, else the vessels 
would be stranded on mud-flats. Unless Inchon 
could be taken by the middle of September, the opera- 
tion would have to be postponed, and probably 
abandoned. Time was running out. The Division 
was embarked from Kobe on 1 1 September, minus 
the 7th Marines, not yet fully reorganized, and joined 
at a predetermined rendezvous point by its newly 
reintegrated elements which had constituted the 1st 
Provisional Marine Brigade. 

Victory Over Time and Tide 

The first objective was the island of Wolmi-Do. just 
offshore in Inchon harbor. Aerial bombardment be- 
gan on 10 September as Marine fliers started "soft- 



ening up" Wolmi-Do; they were joined by planes from 
Task Force 77 operating from the VALLEY FORGE, 
the PHILIPPINE SEA, and the BOXER. 2 This last 
ship had arrived from the States only within the last 
few days, having fought Typhoon Kezia in its last 
laps before reaching Sasebo. Preliminary bombard- 
ment was begun on 13 September by the cruisers TO- 
LEDO and ROCHESTER, in company with the 
British cruisers KENYA and JAMAICA. 

Early on Friday morning, 15 September, the 3d 
Battalion, 5th Marines landed on Wolmi-Do and an 
hour before sunset the remaining Marine units as- 
saulted Inchon itself on the evening tide. 3 Within 
24 hours the seaport of some 250,000 inhabitants was 
taken. The Marines suffered only moderate casual- 
ties as the attack took the enemy by surprise and the 
prelanding bombardment had wiped out most of his 
prepared defense positions. 

At the same time naval forces headed by the battle- 
ship MISSOURI, rushed to Korea from Norfolk, Va., 
shelled Communist troop concentrations; and the 8th 
Army, under Lt. Gen. W. H. Walker, launched a sud- 
den movement designed to break out from the Pusan 
Perimeter. 4 By 26 September elements of 8th Army- 
had effected a linkup with the 7th Army Division 
working its way southeastward from Inchon. By the 
end of the month organized NKPA resistance in the 
south had begun to collapse. 

Liberation of Seoul 

Within 48 hours after the initial landing the 5th Ma- 
rines took the important Kimpo airfield, and other 



1 Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. II, Chs. Ill— IV. 
See also Cagle and Manson, op. cit., ch. 3. Karig et al., op. 
cit., Chs. 14-21. 



2 Montross and Canzona. op. cit., vol. II, pp. 85-87. Also 
Cagle and Manson, op. cit., pp. 91-94. 

3 Ibid., pp. 94ff. Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. II, 
chs. V— VII, beginning on p. 87. 

'Korea, 1950 (Department of the Army) sketches the 
movements of other UN forces in the South while the Ma- 
rines were occupied in the Inchon-Seoul area. See pp. 147- 
150. 




Reproduced by permission from U.S. Marine Operations in Korea. 
: chart shows the rendezvous pattern for the elements making up the Inchon attack force. Wide dispersal of 
mnre' Iht im V° rt * nce A °J. T^u a "- d ^ absol "t/ necessity of making the assault on the high tide made planning 
™iVn A T Y d ' ffiCUlt - T uf lmminence of Typhoon Kezia in the East China Sea and Tsushima Strai? 
comphcated planning immeasurably more, since it was expected to arrive just in the path of the outloaded attack 
force. The main body of the 1st Marine Division embarked from Kobe, the former 1st Provisional Marine Brigade 
from Pusan. (See Montross and Canzona, U.S. Marine Operations in Korea Vol II pp 79ff ) 



— 16 — 



On.S 




Reproduced by permission from the Marine Corps Gazette. 



17 







^ 


yjT^i f 


V 


T", 



On to Inchon. 

Marines and sailors embarked and on the way to Inchon 
for the invasion take time out to attend divine services led 
by Chaplain Hickey. 13 September 1950. 



Inchon Harbor. 

This photograph was taken a few days after the invasion. 19 
September 1950. The area pictured is west of Wolmi-Do 
Island. 



units pressed forward towards the Han River. 5 Seoul, 
the capital, built around the base of tree-covered 
South Mountain, was enveloped from two directions 
by Army, Marine, and ROK Marine troops of X 
Corps. Supported by artillery and close air support, 
the operation at first met light resistance. It was even 
thought possible the city might be spared heavy de- 
struction. But the North Koreans were determined, 
and it was only after intensive street fighting during 
25-28 September, advancing yard by yard, even foot 
by foot, that the city was at last secured. 

According to Marine Corps records, total casualties 
in the Inchon-Seoul operation included 415 killed in 
action or dead from wounds, 6 missing, and 2,029 
wounded.' 1 About two-thirds of these were sustained 
in the hill battles on the outskirts of Seoul and in the 
bitter house-to-house and barricade-to-barricade 
street fighting which took place within the capital 
city. According to official records, the enemy's esti- 
mated casualties numbered 13,666 plus 6,492 prisoners. 
Throughout the Korean War, the number of casual- 
ties inflicted on North Korean and Chinese Commu- 
nist forces would be many times greater than that 
sustained by the United Nations forces. 

The Inchon amphibious assault was rated a sep- 
arate engagement, and service during the period 13-17 
September rated an individual battle star on the Ko- 
rean Service ribbon. For its action in the Inchon- 
Seoul operation, the 1st Marine Division (reinforced) 
was awarded a Presidential Unit Citation covering 



5 Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. II, chs. VIII and 
following. XIII details the fight for Seoul and the final 
chapter (XIV), the remaining Marine efforts around Seoul 
before being relieved by Army units on 7 October. 

" Ibid., appendix J, p. 333. 




the dates 15 September-1 1 October 1950, and a Ko- 
rean Presidential Unit Citation for the period 15-27 
September 1950. 

On 8 October a Memorial Service was conducted 
at the cemetery established by the 1st Marine Di- 
vision at Inchon, in honor of the United Nations per- 
sonnel who lay buried there. Some 3,000 Marines 
from the Division and the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing 
were present. Chaplains representing the three ma- 
jor faiths — Protestant, Roman Catholic and Jewish — 
took part, with Maj. Gen. Edward M. Almond, USA. 
as the main speaker. 

Chaplain Casualties 

Three chaplains — Ingvoldstad, Tennant, and Bon- 
ner — were wounded in the Inchon-Seoul operation. 
Chaplain Ingvoldstad was slightly wounded in his 
right arm by shrapnel from an exploding missile 
which killed two men and wounded eight others. He 
received treatment at the 5th Marines Aid Station 
and was able to maintain an uninterrupted duty- 
status. 

Chaplain William G. Tennant, also in the 5th Ma- 
rines, was wounded by mortar fire on 22 September 
while in the act of aiding wounded personnel. Writ- 
ing on 27 September from a Naval hospital base in 
Japan to Chief of Chaplains, S. W. Salisbury, Chap- 
lain James E. Reaves gave the following account of 
the incident : 

You may have gotten word that Chaplain Tennant has been 
wounded. Last Friday afternoon he tangled with a 120-mm. 
mortar shell. He will have to have an operation on his left 
arm for the removal of fragments and possibly some repair 
work, but so far we have no word as to how long a con- 
valescence period he will have. He lost a great deal of blood 
from a facial wound but is doing very nicely. His men tell 
me that he did a magnificent job there on the front at Seoul. 
A sergeant by the name of O'Sullivan told me that Tennant 
was up with a man who had been badly hit when he (the 
sergeant) began yelling for him to get down and crawl back 
to where he was dug in. He said Tennant ignored him and 
continued to help the man who was down. About that time 
one shell fell and got Tennant and the next got the ser- 
geant. At that time his outfit had 29 wounded and 7 killed 
outright. Every officer and man I've talked with has praised 
Tennant to the skies. 

Chaplain Tennant was air-evacuated the following 
day to Fukuoka, Japan. His wounds required treat- 
ment in a hospital for about a month. Chaplain Law- 
rence R. Phillips was transferred on 23 September 
from the 1st Combat Service Group to the 5th Ma- 
rines as Tennant's relief. 

For heroic achievement during operations against 
the enemy in the fight for the Pusan Perimeter and 



in the Inchon Landing, Chaplain Tennant was 
awarded the Bronze Star. His citation reads in part: 

Without regard for his own personal safety, he repeatedly 
exposed himself to the enemy fire to administer solace and 
spiritual guidance to the wounded and dying. Courageously 
and with no regard for personal fatigue, he constantly moved 
among the assault units to assist in the evacuation and care of 
wounded Marines. Although warned to take cover, he re- 
mained with the assault unit helping to care for and give 
spiritual ministration to the wounded Marines until he was 
wounded by enemy mortar fragments and evacuated. His 
actions throughout this period were an inspiration to all 
members of the regiment. 

The third chaplain to be wounded in the Inchon- 
Seoul campaign was Robert L. Bonner. On 27 Sep- 
tember Bonner was riding in a jeep near Seoul when 
it ran over a land mine. The resulting explosion in- 
flicted second and third degree burns on his face and 
lacerations on his wrists, and impaired his hearing. 
Within 3 hours he was received at the Division Hos- 
pital and the same day air-evacuated to Fukuoka. 
Chaplain Bonner later received the Silver Star medal 
"for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action 
against the enemy while serving as a chaplain with a 
Marine artillery regiment in Korea from 15 September 
to 27 September 1950." The following quotation 
from the citation gives additional information about 
the incident : 

Lieutenant Bonner, though not required to do so. regularly 
visited elements of his regiment attached to front line units, 
courageously exposing himself to enemy small arms and mor- 
tar fire in order to encourage and minister to the men. While 
returning to his regiment after one visit he was seriously 
wounded when the vehicle in which he was riding struck a 
land mine. With the vehicle in flames, he risked his life to 
remove three wounded comrades. Despite his own severe 
burns and painful wounds he then walked more than half 
a mile to a battalion aid station to obtain medical assistance 
for his comrades. Only then would he consent to treatment 
for his own wounds. His courageous conduct and disregard 
for personal safety combined with his constant concern for the 
officers and men in his spiritual keeping were an inspiration 
to all who served with him. 

Combat Ministry 

Some 3 weeks following the landing at Inchon on 
15 September were spent in combat. The chaplains 
found it necessary to adapt their ministry to the exist- 
ing circumstances. 7 For the most part, large gather- 
ings of men for religious services could not be held. 
Chaplain Ingvoldstad mentioned, in his answer to the 
Chaplains Division questionnaire, holding as many as 
seven religious services in one day for small and sep- 

7 See Chaplain O. Ingvoldstad's report of chaplain activities 
in one regiment, from 30 August to 7 October 1950; app. 
B ( 2 ) of this present volume. 



r>::r.:::',2 0— 60- 



— 19 




Memorial Services, Inchon. 

First Marine Division holds memorial services for its fallen 
heroes at Inchon. Conducting services are chaplains rep- 
resenting the various faiths. These shown are (from left 
to right) Chaplains John Craven, Orlando Ingvoldstad, 
Jr., Glyn Jones, Garson Goodman, Bernard L. Hickey, 
and the Division Chaplain, R. M. Schwyhart. 



fc -'5' 




Chaplain Otto Sporrer offers the requiem prayers. 







Chaplain Glyn Jones reads the service. 




Chaplain Robert M. Schwyhart, USN gives the closing prayer. 
— 20 — 



arated units prior to the Han River crossing. Once 
he held a service below an embankment while enemy 
bullets whistled through the trees overhead. 

Chaplain John H. Craven, a Southern Baptist, 
baptized three men by immersion in evaporator tanks 
of the troop transport the day before they landed at 
Inchon on 21 September. Following debarkation five 
more men were baptized in collapsible rubber water 
tanks used by the Combat Engineers in Inchon. 
Craven was Regimental Chaplain of the 7th Marines, 
newly organized in Japan and composed of officers 
and men from the former 6th Marines, 2d Marine 
Division, including its 3d Battalion, which had been 
in the Mediterranean at the outbreak of the war, and 
others drawn from posts and stations in the United 
States, plus nearly 2,000 recalled Reserves deemed 
combat-ready. 8 

Chaplain Barker C. Howland in his questionnaire 
contributed the following story : 

Baptizing a man could be a problem if done strictly accord- 
ing to the tenets of my denomination. One baptism, in par- 
ticular, I remember which was held right outside of Inchon 
after the successful conquest of Seoul. The man had gone to 
a Church of Christ church in Texas. The medical officer 
attached to our regiment recommended that I not baptize 
the man down by the shore because he felt the water was 
polluted. Several of the men in the regiment came through 
in the pinch and constructed for me a tank made out of gal- 
vanized iron which they had scrounged. Water was heated 
for it was in October and there in that tank I baptized this 
Marine. 

(The word "scrounge" had become a common word 
in the vocabulary of U.S. troops during World War 
II. No onus was attached to "scrounging." It 
meant simply getting by other than official means 
something that was needed.) 

Chaplain Joseph G. Power wrote in his question- 
naire reply: "On the morning of 15 September 1950, 
while the preliminary bombardment of the Inchon 
coastal defenses was in progress, I served Communion 
to almost an entire Marine infantry company, and 
baptized 16 men." Chaplain Craven reported that 
it was his custom to offer Communion at almost every 
service. Many of the Protestant chaplains carried 
individual communion sets so that the Sacrament 
could be administered to small groups or even to 
but one man. The Chaplains Division would later 
develop a combat communion kit, but this was not 
made generally available to the chaplains in Korea 
until after the cease-fire order of July 1953. 

On 1 October 1950 all Protestant chaplains con- 
nected with the 1st Marine Division observed World 
Wide Communion Sunday. Among the services held 
was one at the Division Hospital at Inchon where 



8 Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. II, p. 33. 



Chaplain William A. Rennie was assisted by a choir 
from a local Korean Methodist Church. At Seoul 
Chaplain Robert M. Schwyhart preached in the 
Chodong Presbyterian Church at the invitation of 
the pastor, the Reverend David Chung. This con- 
gregation met amidst the ruins of its former church. 
Meetings of chaplain and service personnel with 
Korean Christians were an inspiration for all, and 
often gave to the Americans convincing evidence of 
the results of missionary work. 

As in World War II, chaplains ministering to 
Marines under combat conditions adapted themselves 
to existing circumstances and held Divine Services 
under diverse and often adverse circumstances. 
Chaplain Craven in his reply to the Chaplains Divi- 
sion questionnaire summed up the experience of all 
of his fellow chaplains who saw service in Korea 
when he wrote: 

Conducted Divine Services under all sorts of conditions: 
in Korean houses, drug stores, nail factory, city hall, enclosed 
courtyards, barns, warehouse, railroad stations, theatre 
building, school building of a Benedictine Monastery, creek 
beds, rock quarries, shell holes, tents, reverse slopes and open 
country. The altar was rigged on ox carts, jeep hoods, am- 
munition crates, metal spools for communication wire and 
stretchers. I also set up the portable altar set on Korean 
porches, tables and desks. Many times, of course, services 
were conducted without setting up the portable altar set. 

A most unusual setting for Christian worship was 
provided on 28 September when both Protestant and 
Roman Catholic services were held in front of the 
Presidential Palace in the city of Seoul. Chaplain 
Bernard L. Hickey celebrated Mass and Chaplain 
Lawrence R. Phillips led a Protestant service, both 
for the 5th Marines. On the same day, near the 
city of Seoul, Chaplain Garson Goodman conducted 
a Jewish service. On the following day, 29 Septem- 
ber, General MacArthur, President Syngman Rhee, 
and other high ranking dignitaries met in a solemn 
ceremony within the capitol building in recognition 
of the liberation of the city. 
Heroic Service 

For heroic or meritorious achievement during the 
Inchon-Seoul operation, the following eight Navy 
chaplains were awarded the Bronze Star medal: 
Division Chaplain Robert M. Schwyhart; Regimental 
Chaplains Glyn Jones, John H. Craven, and Orlando 
Ingvoldstad; and Chaplains William G. Tennant, 
Patrick A. Killeen, Godfrey J. Reilly, and John H. 
Markley. 

Mention has already been made of the citation 



21 




Services at the Governor's Palace. 

Chaplain L. R. Phillips conducts services for Protestants on the steps of the governor's palace scarred and blackened 

by shell fire. 

Catholic services are conducted by Chaplain Hickey for marines who participated in the capture of Seoul. Services 

are held on the palace steps. 





awarded Chaplain Tennant. The citation accom- "His advice to the Commanding General in religious 

panying the medal given to Chaplain Schwyhart and morale activities of the command was of im- 

notes that he had traveled with front line units on measurable assistance to the success of the Division," 

numerous occasions while they were subjected to the citation concludes. 

enemy fire and that he had administered solace and The citations for Chaplains Jones (1st Marines) 

spiritual comfort to wounded and dying Marines. and Craven (7th Marines) were identical. Both were 



22 



for the period 23 September to 1 October. The cita- 
tions read in part : 

Acting as regimental chaplain [he] fearlessly and cou- 
rageously exposed himself to the intense enemy small arms, 
machine gun and mortar fire to visit and encourage the 
members of the front line units during the attack. His com- 
plete disregard for his own personal safety and personal 
interests shown during his constant moving among the 
assault troops and the wounded was an inspiration to all 
personnel of the regiment. 

Since Chaplain Craven had received a Bronze 
Star during World War II, he was awarded a gold 
star in lieu of a second Bronze Star. 

Chaplain Ingvoldstad (5th Marines) was cited for 
"heroic service" performed during the period 15-27 
September. "Displaying outstanding professional 
ability," the citation states, "marked courage and con- 
fidence in the performance of duty. Lieutenant Com- 
mander Ingvoldstad rendered distinguished service in 
providing for the spiritual comfort and well-being of 
all the men." 

Chaplain John H. Markley, serving with the 1st 
Marine Aircraft Wing, was cited for "meritorious 
achievement in connection with the operations against 
the enemy . . . during operations in Japan and 
Korea from 11 August 1950 to 12 October 1950." 
The citation continues : 

He met aircraft carrying the wounded and dying no 
matter what hour of arrival. He visited all hospitalized mili- 
tary personnel regardless of their branch of service. He 
ministered to their physical as well as spiritual needs, per- 
sonally seeing that the men had what they sought for or 
needed. He carried out his duties regardless of personal 
fatigue, constantly inspiring all who observed him with the 
strength of his faith in God, his humility, and his love for 
all to whom he ministered. 

Chaplain Patrick A. Killeen was awarded the Bronze 
Star for service from 15-21 September 1950. His 
citation reads in part : 

A most capable and inspiring religious guide, his wise and 
friendly counsel was constantly sought by men of all faiths 
within the battalion. His untiring efforts and unswerving 
devotion to duty were an inspiration to all who observed 
him, and aided materially in the maintenance of high mo- 
rale within the battalion. 

The citation accompanying the Bronze Star awarded 
Chaplain Godfrey J. Reilly follows in part : 

Serving with the forward medical company, where casual- 
ties were in greatest number, he frequently moved to battalion 
aid stations when he considered his services to be needed. 
Displaying at all times utter disregard for his personal safety 
and comfort, he labored long, arduous hours under extremely 
adverse weather conditions, and often under enemy fire. His 
untiring efforts contributed materially to the maintenance of 



high morale in the Division, and his wise counsel and guid- 
ance were constantly sought by men of all faiths. 

In addition to the Silver Star awarded Chaplain 
Bonner and the eight Bronze Star medals thus far 
mentioned, two other awards were given Navy chap- 
lains for outstanding performance of duty. Chaplain 
Kevin J. Keaney received the Letter of Commendation 
award citing his service during the period 15 Septem- 
ber to 2 October 1950. 

Chaplain Bernard L. Hickey, who with Ingvoldstad, 
Tennant, and Sporrer had accompanied Marine 
ground units from the early days of the Korean War, 
received the Bronze Star for meritorious service from 
15 September to 2 November, the terminal date of 
what the Defense Department later marked out as the 
First Korean Campaign. The services cited in 
Hickey's award now begin to run like a refrain through 
the commendations that would be awarded chaplains 
for devotion to duty during periods of intense fighting. 
No lesson is clearer from the experience of the Korean 
War than that it came to be expected that it could be 
said of each what was here said of a particular chap- 
lain, that he "continuously moved among the assault 
units of his regiment and conducted services, adminis- 
tered spiritual comfort to the sick and wounded, and 
assisted in the treatment and evacuation of casualties." 
Thus exceptional performance of duty sets the pace 
and in time becomes the norm by which all service is 
measured. 

Chaplains Afloat 

Elements of Joint Task Force Seven, the principal 
striking arm of United States naval power in the Far 
East, commanded by Vice Adm. Arthur D. Struble, 
had been on station in Korean waters since late June. 
Serving as chaplain in the flagship, the ROCHES- 
TER, was Fenelon D. Hewitt, Jr., Southern Baptist, 
aboard since April 1949. In September he was re- 
lieved by Edwin F. Carr, a Roman Catholic. Having 
returned to active duty on 18 August, Carr remained 
in the ROCHESTER until July 1952. Protestant 
ministrations were made available whenever possible ; 
it has been noted that Chaplain J. E. Zoller was 
temporarily aboard for the month of October. 

In the TOLEDO since 31 August was Chaplain 
Lawrence C. M. Vosseler, a Lutheran, whose 
tour of duty continued until July 1952. Aboard the 
WORCESTER since September was Chaplain 
Charles L. Dickey (Presbyterian), a Reserve, who 
remained in that ship until released to inactive 
duty in January 1952. Chaplain David J. Kosky, 



— 23 




Burial at Sea. 

Chaplain L. C. M. Vosseler conducts burial at sea for Lt. ( jg. ) David H. Swenson, of TOLEDO, off Korea. 
K. SWENSON, named for the deceased's uncle, lies in the background. 



a Roman Catholic, served in the MANCHESTER 
from September 1950 to August 1952. 

The carrier BOXER had two chaplains assigned. 
Joseph P. Cusack, Roman Catholic, had been aboard 
since July and remained until October 1951. George 
A. Hoglan, Presbyterian, another of the many Re- 
serves who voluntarily returned to active duty, re- 
ported in September 1950, finishing his tour in 
October 1952. It will be noticed that the average 
shipboard tour was about 2 years. 

One of the busiest ships in the area was the 
MOUNT McKINLEY, an AGC, or amphibious 
force flagship, headquarters of Rear Adm. James H. 
Doyle's Amphibious Group One, Pacific Fleet. Early 
in 1950 General Mac Arthur had asked for Navy and 
Marine units to train occupation forces in Japan in 
amphibious techniques. They had hardly arrived 
and begun work when the outbreak of hostilities 
turned these amphibious specialists from training to 
operational activities.' 1 On July PhibGru One put 
the 1st Cavalry Division ashore at Pohang-dong. 
For Inchon, naturally, Admiral Doyle's amphibious 
force was a mainstay; most of the planning was done 



on board the McKINLEY, and when it was time 
to mount the operation MacArthur chose to proceed 
from Sasebo to Inchon in that ship. 1 " The chaplain 
at the time was Edward E. Helmich, a Moravian, 
who was assigned additional duty as Doyle's Staff 
Chaplain. 

The largest number of troop and attack transports 
were not assigned chaplains, owing to the shortage. 
As always the Marine Division Chaplain tried to 
place his chaplains in those transports which had 
none of their own or otherwise arrange for the widest 
distribution of chaplain personnel en route to the 
invasion. At least the following transports at Inchon 
carried one chaplain each. 



BAYFIELD (APA) 


Edgar A. Day. . 


BAP (A) 


GEN. J. C. BRECKENRIDGE 


Leonard B. 


EVAN i 


(AP). 


Dohrmann 


REF 


GEN. H. W. BUTNER (AP). 


Edward R. 
Martincau 


RC 


HENRICO (APA) 


Carroll M. 


PRESBY 




Mrrshon 


(U) 


PRESIDENT JACKSON 


Harry A. 


BAP (A) 


(AP). 


Porter 




THOMAS JEFFERSON 


Henry F. Max- 


CONG 


(APA). 


well 





'Ibid., pp. 4ff.; 13ff. 



1 Ibid., p. 84. 



— 24 — 



Chaplain Maxwell described in his questionnaire 
reply something of the duty of the THOMAS JEF- 
FERSON during these early months of the war. Dur- 
ing July and August they transported troops from the 
United States to the Far East, including Marines of 
the 1st Division from San Diego to Japan. In Sep- 
tember they participated in the Inchon invasion, and 
brought out casualties on their return to Japan. In 
early November they helped put the 7th Infantry Di- 
vision ashore at Iwon, as part of the X Corps drive 
to the Manchurian border. In December the ship 
returned to San Francisco. Writing of his work, Max- 
well said : 

As ship's chaplain and librarian, as the JEFFERSON 
transported wounded back to Yokosuka, Japan, I made the 
rounds with library' books and with religious brochures, see- 
ing each patient two or three times daily to trade books, and 
visit or counsel as occasion demanded. The ship's welfare 
fund served as a source of money for purchase of comfort 



items, which the chaplain and his assistants distributed daily 
to the wounded. 

The chaplain contributed a "Thought for the Day" in the 
ship's daily newspaper, which was mimeographed and dis- 
tributed by his office staff. I endeavored to make the brief 
column timely and worthwhile: spiritual encouragement to 
men who knew that shortly some of their number would be 
dead and men also who had come through the worst and 
lived. 

Ships of Mercy 

The first hospital ship to arrive in Korean waters, 
the CONSOLATION, docked on 12 August 1950, 
while the 1st Marine Provisional Brigade was assisting 
8th Army efforts to stem the Red advance at the 
Pusan Perimeter. Since July 1949 Chaplain Charles 
F. Holland (Lutheran) had been serving aboard. He 
would be joined in November 1950 by Chaplain Vic- 
tor J. W. Lustig (Roman Catholic). On 16 Sep- 
tember, the second day of the Inchon landing, CON- 



Worship on Hospital Ship. 
Chaplain Leroy C. Austin conducts Sunday services on board the CONSOLATION in Pusan. 




25 — 



SOLATION arrived in Inchon harbor and began 
receiving casualties aboard. 

On the same day a second of these "ships of 
mercy," the REPOSE, reported for duty in Korea. 
These great white ships, a gleaming Red Cross painted 
on their sides, furnished with the best equipment and 
staffed by doctors, nurses, and hospital corpsmen, 
maintained constant vigilance to provide the best 
possible surgical and medical care for the United 
Nations personnel. Chaplains in the REPOSE were 
Henry P. White (Methodist) and Charles F. 
Karnasiewicz (Roman Catholic). 

"Mighty Mo" 

The MISSOURI was the only battleship in opera- 
tion at the outbreak of the Korean War. Its chap- 
lains were Emil F. Redman (Protestant) and Eugene 
I. Van Antwerp (Roman Catholic) . Both men were 
relieved before the ship was transferred from Norfolk 
to the Far East, Van Antwerp being ordered to the 
1st Marine Division: and when she arrived in Korean 
waters, on 14 September, her chaplains were William 



H. Hoffman (Roman Catholic) and Charles L. 
Arnold (Southern Baptist). 

On the deck of the MISSOURI, as everyone knows, 
the formal surrender of Japan took place on 2 Sep- 
tember 1945. It was after the Japanese representa- 
tives had signed the surrender documents that General 
MacArthur had concluded, "Let us pray that peace 
be now restored to the world, and that God will 
preserve it always." In a time w^hen popular senti- 
ment was inclined to the view that "it doesn't matter 
what you believe as long as you live right," Mac- 
Arthur had affirmed on this same occasion his opinion 
that the problem of war and peace is "basically 
theological." u 

Chaplain Hoffman continued the custom of daily 
prayers over the ship's speaker which was reported 
in volume II of this Chaplain Corps History. Just 
at dusk the bo'sun's pipe would sound, followed by 
the announcement, "Stand by for evening prayers." 



11 From a clipping from the Los Angeles Roman Catholic 
newspaper The Tidings; clipping undated, but contents 
indicates a date in 1951. 



Worship on MISSOURI. 
Worship is conducted under the 16-inch guns of the MISSOURI by Chaplain Arnold. 




26 — 



The two chaplains took turns in leading the short 
devotion. It would be foolish, naturally, to suppose 
that all the ship's personnel, or even the majority of 
them, were actively religious: but it should not be 
underestimated that on this ship as on many others 
prayer had become an expected part of the dailv 
routine. 

Victory in the Grasp 

In early October, Task Force 77 departed the 
Yellow Sea for Sasebo. The Marines were at Inchon, 
outloading. Eighth Army now had effective control 
of the western parts of South Korea, and the ROK I 
Corps was poised at the eastern end of the 38th 
Parallel, the enemy in rout all along the front. 
Victory seemed within the grasp. 

The success of the September. operation, one of the 
most unusual and hazardous ever undertaken, must 
be attributed to the coordinated efforts of ground. 



air, and sea forces. 1 - After the humiliating setback 
of the first weeks of the Korean War, it was with 
both pride and immeasurable relief that after Inchon- 
Seoul the United Nations Command could assure the 
world : 

A successful frontal attack and envelopment has com- 
pletely changed the tide of battle in South Korea. The 
backbone of the North Korean army has been broken and 
their scattered forces are being liquidated or driven north 
with material losses in equipment and men captured." 

The Communist challenge to the free world had been 
countered. It was now clear that only the interven- 
tion of Communist China or Soviet Russia could save 
the North Korean People's Republic from complete 
defeat. 



" For estimates of the Inchon-Seoul operation see Montross 
and Canzona, op. cit., vol. II. pp. 292-298; Cagle and 
Manson, op. cit., pp. 101-106. 

" Montross and Canzona. op. cit., vol. II, p. 298. 



27- 




Reproduced by permission from U.S. Marine Operations in Korea. 

— 28 — 



CHAPTER 3 
COMMUNIST CHINESE AGGRESSION 

3 November 1950-24 January 1951 



Within 3 months after the North Korean Army in- 
vaded South Korea, it had been decisively defeated. 
The tide which had carried the victorious Communists 
over all of South Korea except the small area behind 
the Pusan Perimeter had been turned. By the com- 
pletion of the Inchon-Seoul operation, that part of the 
North Korean Army not killed or Captured was broken 
into many small units, each trying to get back across 
the 38th Parallel the best way possible, or else remain- 
ing in hiding in the South Korean hills. 

General MacArthur called upon the North Korean 
leaders to surrender; his demand was ignored. The 
United Nations Command then decided to send its 
forces across the 38th Parallel, allowing for the possi- 
bility but not expecting that this in turn would call the 



Chinese Communists into the struggle. 1 On 7 October 
1950 the Marines in the vicinity of Seoul were relieved 
and ordered to Inchon, where they embarked on 12 
October for Wonsan on the east coast. There they 
disembarked on 25 October, after delays necessitated 
by hazardous and prolonged minesweeping opera- 
tions. 

During the time at sea, the chaplains of the 1st 
Division were busy writing letters of condolence to the 
next-of-kin of deceased Marine personnel. Most of 
the chaplains had completed this duty by the time the 
transports reached Wonsan. The processing of these 



1 Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. Ill, The Chosin 
Reservoir Campaign (Washington, 1957), ch. 1. 

See also: Cagle and Manson, op. cit., ch. 4. Karig et al., 
op. cit., chs. 22—36. 



Holy Communion at Sea. 

Communion is held aboard the BAYFIELD for United Nations troops enroute to the Wonsan invasion by Chaplain 

Edgar A. Day. 




— 29 — 




AREA OF OPERATIONS 

1st Marine Division 
October - December 1950 



Railroads 
Reads 



MAP-2 



Reproduced by permission from U.S. Marine Operations in Korea. 

— 30 — 




Reproduced by permission from U.S. Marine Operations in Korea. 



— 31 




Breakout at Hungnam. Reproduced by permission from The Sea War in Korea, by Malcolm W. Cagle and Frank A. 
Manson. Copyright 1957 by the U.S. Naval Institute. 



32 — 



letters was the responsibility of Division Chaplain 
Schwyhart. That the ministry of chaplains, and par- 
ticularly their ministry of consolation and encourage- 
ment to bereaved families, was appreciated by the 
American people may be noted from the following ex- 
cerpt from a letter sent by Gen. Clifton B. Cates, Com- 
mandant of the Marine Corps, to Chaplain Ingvold- 
stad in October 1950. 

Your diligent self-application and devotion to your sacred 
duties has been forcefully brought to my attention by the 
many letters which I have received from the grateful parents 
of young men who have made the supreme sacrifice on the 
Korean battlefields. These parents, wives, these relatives 
have paid glowing tribute to you in correspondence which 
reflects nothing but gratitude for the knowledge that their 
sons or husbands died in the company of one close to God 
Almighty. 

A few changes in the complement of chaplains at- 
tached to the 1st Division took place before 31 Octo- 
ber. Chaplain Glyn Jones was detached as Regimental 
Chaplain of the 1st Marines, in compliance with Bu- 
reau of Naval Personnel orders, and Chaplain Wil- 
liam N. Lyons, already with the Division, was ordered 
as his relief. Chaplain Kline d'A. Engle joined the 
Division before it sailed from Inchon. Certain re- 
assignments of duty were made within the Division. 
With the detachment of Chaplains R. L. Bonner and 
W. G. Tennant as casualties, the number of chaplains 
attached to the Division was reduced to 26. 

Wonsan to the Reservoir 

From the last of August United States Naval ves- 
sels had cooperated with the ROK Capital Division 
as it advanced up the east coast from Pohang. On 1 
October the ROK 3d Division had crossed the Parallel 
and began an advance of some 50 miles up the east 
coast. In the following months, the bombardment 
force would continue to furnish harassing and inter- 
diction fire against enemy positions along the eastern 
coast. Air operations were intensified when elements 
of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing began moving in to 
Wonsan on 14 October. 

The Division effected an administrative landing at 
Wonsan as part of X Corps, on 25-26 October, and 
at once fanned out in pursuit of North Korean forces. 2 
The landing was unopposed as the ROK I Corps had 
already captured the city by 10 October, without a 
fight. Delayed by the minesweeping operations, the' 
Marines were chagrined to find that air maintenance 
crews had beaten them to Wonsan by 12 days. Even 



more humiliating, on the evening of the 24th Bob 
Hope had been featured in a USO show which was 
larded with "cracks" at the hapless Division going 
back and forth like a yo-yo outside Wonsan harbor! 

The 1st Battalion, 1st Marines was dispatched south 
by rail about 35 miles to the supply center of Kojo, 
guarded by an ROK detachment. Here a two-night 
engagement took place as North Korean forces tried to 
control the main communication route through the 
valley. Chaplain Glyn Jones accompanied this unit; 
but when it became necessary for him to leave, to 
carry out orders returning him stateside, the area was 
completely surrounded by enemy forces so that he had 
to be flown out by helicopter to Wonsan. 

General Almond now ordered his X Corps forward. 
The 1st Marine Division was to branch off at Ham- 
hung and proceed north and west to the Chosin 
Reservoir. Certain ROK units were to follow the 
coastline northward; and the 7th Army Division, put 
ashore at Iwon, south of Wonsan, on 29 October was 
to move inland toward the Pujan Reservoir. 

As X Corps proceeded to its mission, 8th Army 
had begun a parallel movement northward in the 
west. 3 Elements of I Corps, including British, ROK, 
and American troops, spearheaded by the 1st Cavalry 
Division, crossed the Parallel and by 21 October had 
secured the North Korean capital, Pyongyang, and 
its port, Chinnampo. With other ROK forces in 
the middle, it was MacArthur's plan to link X Corps 
and 8th Army in a concerted drive to the Yalu River 
and the Manchurian border. 

The Marines proceeded to Hamming, about 75 
miles from Wonsan, by truck, and rail, meeting little 
opposition en route. Hamhung lies inland about 5 
miles from Hungnam, its seaport. Prior to the de- 
parture to Hamhung, Chaplains Craven, Cornelius J. 
Griffin, and Kester M. Hearn of the 7th Marines spent 
several nights in a burnt-out Benedictine Abbey in 
Tokwan, about 8 miles north of Wonsan. The three 
chaplains settled down in the Abbey's undamaged 
school building, and in the chapel each conducted 
religious services. Chaplain Griffin, a Roman Cath- 
olic, was greeted with joy by many of the natives 
who said that he was the first priest they had seen for 
over a year. 

Later Chaplain Griffin, in an interview published 
in the Monitor for 5 January 1951, commented on the 
enthusiastic reception given to him by the Roman 
Catholic Koreans at Tokwan. He said : 



! Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. Ill, chs. II-IV. 



3 Ibid., pp. 34-37. See also Korea, 1950 (Department 
of the Army), pp. 150-153. For the Navy at Chinnampo, 
see Cagle and Manson, op. cit., ch. 5. 



— 33 



The reception by the people was unbelievable. They fell 
all over me when they learned I was a priest and begged me 
to come and celebrate Mass. Several hours afterwards I 
did — my first High Mass in the Navy. 

In that time more than 500 villagers had assembled at 
the Abbey. Lt. George Balzer of San Diego and Brother 
Pincentius, O.S.B., a Korean, led a hastily assembled choir 
of more than 100 in the Gregorian music of the Mass. 
Nothing has ever sounded more beautiful to me. Practi- 
cally everybody there received Communion. 

Here the Marines were seeing at first-hand some 
evidences of the way the Communists were persecut- 
ing the Christians. They learned how the Commu- 
nists, when they retreated from the Wonsan area the 
first part of October, had spread straw through the 
beautiful Abbey church, poured on gasoline and set 
it afire. Many other examples came to the attention 
of the Americans of the repressive measures practiced 
by a Communist-dominated government against 
Christians throughout North Korea. 

Air Wing Chaplains 

When elements of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing 
arrived at Wonsan, Chaplain John P. Murphy soon 



discovered that out of a Catholic civilian population 
of about 3,000 in Wonsan, only 2,000 remained. 
Roman Catholic Christians had suffered a loss of one- 
third of their number under the Communist regime. 
The leaders had been methodically eliminated. 
Priests and seminarians had been killed or carried off 
to the North, never to be heard of again. Of the 50 
Benedictine brothers and 80 nuns, only 10 brothers 
and 12 sisters remained. The monastery in Wonsan 
had been turned into a "People's Agricultural Col- 
lege." The cross had been sawed off the top of the 
church and the interior desecrated. 

Chaplain Murphy took on a double load. In addi- 
tion to his duties with the Marines, he tried to help the 
civilian Catholic population, now led by a candidate 
for the priesthood in deacon's orders. Beginning with 
a small room in a private home, he celebrated Mass for 
the poorly clad, hungry, but devout Koreans who 
crowded in for his ministrations. The room over- 
flowed and the civilians crowded the dingy hallway 
and winding stairway. In addition to helping the 
local church, Chaplain Murphy set up the North Ko- 
rean Catholic Relief Society. The local military coin- 



Liberated grain 
arra 



Food for the Needy. 

is being passed out to all returning destitute citizens of Wonsan. Chaplain John P. Murphy (at right) 
nged the distribution. He, in predawn services, resumed celebration of mass for the parish. ' 




— 34 — 




Wonsan Pastor. 

The Reverend Han June Myung of Jesus Church, Wonsan, 
after preaching to Marine airmen, received the offering 
contributed to his work from Chaplain George W. Cum- 
mins. The Korean minister survived the masacre of 300 
civilians in a cave where they were machinegunned by re- 
treating Communists. November 1950. 



mand had taken over a large amount of barley and 
beans when the city was captured. Some of these 
supplies were turned over to the Relief Society for dis- 
tribution to the hungry people, regardless of religious 
affiliation. 

The situation in the 1st MAW had been extremely 
fluid during the first months of the war. Besides its 
headquarters base at Itami, Japan, operational fields 
at Kimpo and now Wonsan had to be covered. Chap- 
lain George W. Cummins (Southern Baptist) was at- 
tached to Marine Air Group 12, which gradually was 
established at Wonsan. At Kimpo, in the vicinity of 
Seoul, Chaplain J. H. Markley was still with Marine 
Air Group 33. Since Roman Catholic services were 
available at Itami, Murphy divided his time between 
the two operational groups. Protestant services were 
conducted by Markley or Cummins whenever they 
were able to get over to Japan. 

Cummins earned for himself the reputation of being 
a regular Humphrey Bogart of a chaplain. Accom- 
panying official photographers to an ROK command 
post, where they sought information about the scene of 
a reported massacre of hundreds of political prisoners 



by the retreating Communists, the chaplain attempted 
to explain their purpose. When words proved un- 
successful, Cummins resorted to pantomime; holding 
his arms as if handling a machine gun, he emitted a 
vocal imitation of rapid fire. It seemed to work ; the 
ROK captain's eyes lighted up in understanding, and 
he turned into the command post — to emerge bearing 
a captured "burp" gun, which he thrust upon the 
astonished chaplain. Doubtless proud of himself, he 
stood smiling after the departing jeep, in which Cum- 
mins sat holding gingerly his unexpected and un- 
wanted weapon. 

Chaplain Charles E. Webb (Roman Catholic) ar- 
rived on 15 November; but before he could report to 
Marine Aircraft Group 33, his assigned duty station, 
the Chinese offensive had forced a withdrawal of 
United Nations forces, and Webb operated in Japan 
until January when he joined Marine Aircraft Group 
12, now relocated at Pusan. 

Chinese Intervention 

The 7th Marines, the most recently formed regi- 
ment of the 1st Division, with the largest percentage 
of Reserves, spearheaded the thrust northward from 
Hamhung toward Chinhung-ni, about 35 miles dis- 
tant. On the night of 2-3 November this advance 
force engaged a full Chinese Communist division in 
the gorge country in the Sudong area a few miles south 
of Chinhung-ni. 4 Thus the 7th Marines had the dis- 
tinction of being the first American unit to be engaged 
with a Chinese Communist force in large-scale 
combat. A furious 5-day battle followed, during which 
the enemy's casualties were estimated to have run as 
high as 9,000 with over 660 killed. The Marine 
casualties included 46 dead and 264 wounded. 

During the battle, two battalions of the 7th Marines 
were attacked from the front and on both flanks for 
about 24 hours. With these two battalions were 
Chaplains Griffin and Kester M. Hearn. Here 
Chaplain Griffin so distinguished himself that he was 
recommended for and later received the Silver Star. 
A part of his citation reads as follows : 

During the late morning of 3 November, the same units of 
the 7th Marines were subjected to heavy small arms fire. 
Chaplain Griffin left the comparative security of the battalion 
sick bay where he was rendering aid to the wounded and 
moved back to the front lines. Here he repeatedly exposed 
himself without regard for his personal safety to render what 
aid he could to the wounded men in the attack. Chaplain 
Griffin served as a veritable pillar of strength for the men of 
the organization and served as an unforgettable inspiration to 
all who observed him. 



4 Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. Ill, chs. V, VI. 
also Cagle and Manson, op. cit., ch. 6, pp. 165-169. 



See 



535332 0—60- 



35 



From Chinhung-ni, which lies at an elevation of 
1,000 feet, the narrow, tortuous road climbs steeply 
for the next 10 miles over a 4,000-foot pass to Koto-ri, 
situated on a high plateau just "over the hump." 
After the decisive defeat of the Chinese Communists 
at Sudong, the Marines met little resistance on their 
march northward through Koto-ri to Hagaru-ri, an- 
other 1 1 miles distant. Hagaru-ri, 56 miles from 
Hamhung, was located at the foot of the Chosin 
Reservoir. The Marines reached this point on 15 
November. 5 

Maj. Gen. O. P. Smith, in command of the 1st 
Division, felt considerable misgivings about his posi- 
tion and about alternate operational plans being con- 
sidered by General MacArthur. He wrote to Gen. 
Clifton B. Cates, Commandant, as follows: 

I believe a winter campaign in the mountains of North 
Korea is too much to ask of the American soldier or marine, 
and I doubt the feasibility of supplying troops in this area 
during the winter or providing for the evacuation of sick and 
wounded. 

And in conclusion he expressed concern over "the 
prospect of stringing out a Marine division along a 
single mountain road for 120 air miles from Hamhung 
to the border." 6 

Small streams were noticed to be frozen over. Rice 
paddies had been glazed since October. And on 
15 November when the 7th Marines occupied Hagaru, 
the temperature was 4° below zero. Already the Ma- 
rines, though equipped with winter clothing and sleep- 
ing bags, were reporting cases of frostbite. An 
ominous calm had ensued following the battle with 
Chinese Communists at Sudong. Taking a dim view 
of the possibility of a successful race against time, 
weather, and unknown enemy, the Marines neverthe- 
less made preparations to fulfill their mission. Reports 
were received from local Koreans of the presence of 
many Chinese troops in the vicinity; yet temporarily 
the enemy refrained from offering further resistance. 

Thanksgiimig Day, 1950 

In the lull before the storm, the chaplains attached 
to the 1st Division were able to carry on most of their 
usual duties in spite of many difficulties. Writing to 
the Chief of Chaplains on 1 December 1950, Chap- 
lain R. M. Schwyhart, the Division Chaplain, sum- 
marized : 

During the month of November 1950 the Division took 
positions covering an area all the way from Wonsan to 
Hagaru-ri. In spite of this, communication with the chap- 



' Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. Ill, ch. VII. 
' Ibid., pp. 132-134. 



lains has been relatively good ; furthermore I have person- 
ally seen all but three of them during the month. All of 
the chaplains are doing a most commendable job. Perform- 
ing their tasks as chaplains amidst the barriers of the distance 
and shortage of transportation, subfreezing temperatures, 
mountains and snow has not been easily done; nevertheless, 
I have not heard or seen evidences of any complaints, only 
that this conflict cannot be brought to an end. 

Chaplain Kenneth D. Perkins, Force Chaplain, 
FMF Pac, arrived at Hamhung for an official visit on 
18 November. Of this Schwyhart wrote in his letter 
to Chaplain Salisbury: 

The next day, Sunday, he favored us by delivering the 
sermon at the Division Headquarters Protestant Divine Serv- 
ice. Later that day we attended, by invitation, a large meet- 
ing of local representatives of all Presbyterian churches in 
Hamhung. The following day we drove by jeep to Hagaru- 
ri to see the chaplains in the 7th Regiment. We spent Tues- 
day morning visiting at the Division Cemetery at Hungnam 
at which time there were 93 Marine burials. He departed 
by plane for return to Pearl Harbor at noon, 21 Novem- i 
ber 1950. 

During the few days of comparative calm spent at i 
Hagaru-ri, the chaplains gave great encouragement to ; 
the native Christians who had suffered much at the j 
hands of the Communists. Chaplain Sporrer reported , 
on his questionnaire: 

Two little churches, one of them at the Reservoir, were re- • 
opened for the first time since the Red forces closed them. ! 
The congregations had secreted the altar furnishings in their I 
respective homes, and candlesticks, pictures, and crucifixes 
appeared as by magic from all over the villages. 

One of the congregations, as a collection, placed three 
eggs on a plate in the rear of the church for me to take 
as I left. 

The native Christians looked upon the Marines as 
their heaven-sent deliverers from the Communists. 
Several of the Navy chaplains who penetrated into 
North Korea with the Marines had thrilling experi- 
ences with the Christians. Chaplain Craven reported 
one such incident in his questionnaire. 

At Hagaru-ri we met an old Presbyterian minister and 
his saintly wife. They had been hiding in the caves and 
rocks for several months before our arrival. The church 
had been destroyed but their parsonage was still standing 
with a small cross on the highest peak. We obtained per- 
mission to use the bombed out theater building for their 
first church service in several months. I returned their 
church bell which the Communists had used for an alarm 
bell in the police headquarters. The tears of joy flowed 
freely down the old Presbyterian pastor's face. He insisted 
that I preach to his people through an interpreter. Next 
day I met in the pastor's home with 35 baptized believers 
for Bible study. 

Chaplain Schwyhart in his letter to Chaplain Salis- 
bury of 1 December wrote concerning some of the 



36 — 




Ch 



;-h Bell Restored. 



Chaplain John H. Craven returns the church bell used by 
the Communists at police headquarters to its rightful own- 
ers, Christians at Hagaru-ri beside Chosin Reservoir, at the 
first religious service after 3 years of persecution. The re- 
cipient is Korean Pastor Lee In Soup. 



Something of the damage to the church is indicated in this 
photograph. Military and civilian committees began work 
to rebuild the church founded by Canadian missionaries 
but soon North Korea was taken by Chinese troops. 



Expressing Gratitude. 

The Reverend and Mrs. Lee En Suep of the Central Presbyterian Church, Hagaru-ri, thanking Lieutenant Colonel Murray for 
the liberation "of our country and our church." Participating in the thanksgiving service and pictured with the group 
is Chaplain Ingvoldstad. 




events of the preceding Thanksgiving Day: "Chaplain 
Ingvoldstad, Regimental Chaplain, 5th Marines, 
joined in a service with the local Presbyterian pastor 
at Hagaru-ri who gave thanks for the liberation of his 
Korean people from the hands of the Communists 
who had so long prevented their worship." Unfor- 
tunately for the Korean Christians, the later with- 
drawal of the forces of the United Nations left them 
at the mercy of the Communists who were ruthless 
in wreaking vengeance. This accounted in part for 
the waves of refugees who surged southward by every 
possible means to get to safety behind the anti-Com- 
munist lines. 

Thanksgiving Day, 1950, was celebrated by the Ma- 
rines of the 1st Division with special attention being 
given to the religious significance of the day. Chap- 
lain Schwyhart sent out a memorandum to all chap- 
lains of the Division suggesting that each hold as many 
services as possible. This was done. Chaplain How- 
ard H. Groover, 1st Service Battalion, held two out-of- 
door services that day; Chaplain Patrick A. Killeen, 
1st Signal Battalion, conducted two Catholic Masses, 
both largely attended; and by arrangements with the 
mess officer, each chaplain said a blessing at the "chow- 
line." 

On 25 November the Marines continued their north- 
ward march toward the Yalu River by taking the road 
which led from Hagaru-ri in a northwesterly direction 
over the 4,700-foot Toktong Pass to Yudam-ni 14 miles 
away. Here was another twisting, narrow road that 
had to be traversed. Some 15,000 Marines were now 
at the Reservoir ready to join a part of the Army which 
was advancing north by a more westerly route. But 
the union of the Marines with the Army never 
occurred. 

Crisis at Yudam-ni 

Yudam-ni marked the most northern advance of the 
Marines in Korea. 7 On the night of 27-28 November 
bugle-blowing, screaming Communists began to attack 
at Yudam-ni and it was soon apparent that they were 
present in overwhelming numbers. Shortly after- 
wards enemy forces, deployed along the thin supply 
line which connected the advance body of Marines 
with its base at Hamhung, began to cut the motor sup- 
ply route in several places. The temperature was dip- 
ping to subzero readings during the nights. Little 
wonder that many were nearing the edge' of nervous 
exhaustion: not far enough gone in battle fatigue to 



warrant hospitalization, but giving clear signs of bone- 
weariness : wan face, trembling hands. "Shook," they 
would say of such a one; "he is shook." Dietary de- 
ficiencies were beginning to appear because of the lack 
of hot food, and many of the Marines were suffering 
from diarrhea. Weapons often froze to such a degree 
they were rendered unserviceable. 

Chaplain Craven later described some of the diffi- 
culties faced regarding the care of the wounded : 

Taking care of the wounded during this period also pre- 
sented problems to stagger the imagination. During the 
first 2 days of heavy fighting at Yudam-ni, we suffered so 
many casualties that we ran out of tents in which to place 
them. I had a working party gather hay from the scattered 
stacks and spread it out on the courtyard of a native house. 
We placed the wounded foot to foot on the straw and covered 
them with a large tarpaulin. . . . This arrangement helped 
to conserve on our tentage and also facilitated our ministry 
to the wounded. 

During these days, under ever-increasing pressure 
from the enemy, the doctors and the chaplains had 
little or no time for sleep. 8 Chaplain Craven, for in- 
stance, who was working with the regimental surgeon, 
stated that he went without sleep for 3 days. Once 
he was sent to an empty tent to rest and had hardly 
stretched out when another consignment of wounded 
arrived who were put in the same tent. Of course 
there was no opportunity then for sleep when the 
wounded needed help so desperately. 

On 30 November the order was given to the Marines 
at Yudam-ni to withdraw. By that time there were 
600 wounded men, many of whom were ambulance 
cases. Transportation was a problem. The more 
serious cases were given priority in all available am- 
bulances and trucks. The need for fighting men was 
so urgent that the walking wounded were given guns. 

Just before leaving Yudam-ni, Chaplain Craven 
conducted a brief funeral service for about 80 Marines 
who had lost their lives in the fighting at that place. 
In his reply to the questionnaire Craven commented : 
"The problems involved in attempting to bury bodies 
during the Chosin Reservoir campaign when the 
frozen ground was covered with ice and snow and 
the temperature about 20 below zero are beyond 
words to describe." 

The following seven chaplains were with the 
Marines at Yudam-ni: 5th Marines — O. Ingvoldstad, 
B. L. Hickey, and L. R. Phillips; 7th Marines— J. H. 
Craven and C. J. Griffin; and 11th Marines — O. E. 
Sporrer and B. C. Howland. 



'Ibid., chs. VIII-XI. For a brief sketch of activities of 
other UN forces during this critical period, see Korea, 1950 
(Department of the Army), ch. V, pp. 227-229. 



'Marine Corps Gazette (December 1952). See Lynn 
Montross, "They Make Men Whole Again: The Medical 
Battalion and Chaplains in Korea." 



38 




Interview. 
Chaplain Craven counsels with a marine at the aid station during the 7th Marines campaign in the reservoir area. 



Brief Pause. 

marines take advantage of a lull in the continual 
from Yudam-ni to Hagaru-ri to catch a moment's 



Exhausted 
fighting 
rest. 




The Bitter Withdrawal 

The withdrawal of the Marines from Yudam-ni to 
Hamhung, which was reached on 1 1 December, proved 
to be a most bitter experience. 9 Writing to Chaplain 
Salisbury on 1 December 1950, Chaplain Schwyhart 
referred to the precarious situation in which the Ma- 
rines were then placed. "We have many wounded," 
he wrote, "and the road-blocking leading up to 
Hagaru-ri has made evacuation of the wounded nigh 
impossible." He closed his letter with the expression 
of a hope that the situation would improve. The very 
opposite was the case. Even as he wrote, the Marines 
formerly at Yudam-ni were fighting their way south- 
ward over the 4,700-foot Toktong Pass where a Ma- 
rine company had been completely surrounded by the 
enemy for 5 days before being rescued. 

Writing to Salisbury on 15 December, Schwyhart 
called the withdrawal of the Marines to Hamhung 
"the toughest and worst experience" in the whole his- 
tory of the Marine Corps. He continued : 

It is not possible to adequately describe or relate the events 
of the past 17 days: ambushed convoys leaving many men 



" Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. Ill, chs. XII XV. 
For details of Navy and Marine air coverage of the redeploy- 
ment, see Cagle and Manson, op. cit., ch. V. pp. 169fT. 
Korea, 1950 (Department of the Army) sketches in the 
withdrawal of 8th Army from the northwest ; pp. 229ff. 



39 



killed, wounded, missing or POW ; entrapped troops fighting 
their way back from Yudam-ni to Hagaru-ri, thence to 
Koto-ri, against overwhelming numbers of enemy troops and 
the elements, with temperatures going as low as 15° below 
zero; men with fr02en feet and legs; heroism and deeds of 
valor which officers and men had little thought that they 
would be called upon to perform ; the life-saving performance 
of the air-delivery platoon which dropped tons of supplies, 
including food and medical supplies, and which evacuated 
the wounded by air from Hagaru-ri and Koto-ri. 

In a Division Memorandum dated 19 December, 
Gen. Oliver P. Smith declared: "This withdrawal, 
which was concluded when the last elements of the 
Division closed the Hamhung area on December 11, 
will become an epic in the annals of the Marine Corps." 
And he added: "Seldom, if ever, have Marines been 
forced to battle against comparable odds." The tem- 
perature dropped as low as 20° below zero and the 
narrow, winding road became even more hazardous 
covered as it was with snow and ice. 

First Stage 

The withdrawal from Yudam-ni to Hagaru-ri was 
completed on 4 December at a cost of 2,260 casualties 
of whom 358 were killed, 153 were missing, and 1,749 
were wounded. In addition, another 1,072 had be- 
come nonbattle casualties, largely owing to frostbite. 
In his description of those heart-rending days. Chap- 
lain Craven wrote: 

When we left Yudam-ni we had about 600 wounded in 
trucks and strapped to jeeps and when we arrived at Hagaru- 
ri, 14 miles away, about 3 days later we had over 1,000 
wounded. Chaplain Orlando Ingvoldstad, regimental chap- 
lain of the 5th Marines, and I worked closely together in 
ministering to these wounded. During periods when the 
convoy was held up by heavy fighting, we filled the large 
native cooking vats which were a part of the kitchen 
stoves with water and heated the C-ration cans to feed the 
patients on stretchers. While this heating of food was going 
on we permitted ambulatory patients to come into the rooms 
of the native huts to warm on the radiantly heated floors. 
After 20 minutes these men would be turned out and an- 
other group admitted who had been standing outside in the 
cold. Occasionally the chaplain had to get a little rough 
with some of the men who wanted more than their share of 
the heat. 

The most heart-breaking experience came when trucks 
or weapons-carriers turned over on icy roads in the middle 
of the night, and the already wounded men would be killed 
or receive further injuries. Trying to pick up these wounded 
men and find places for them on other vehicles previously 
loaded with casualties, while the bluish-green Communist 
machine-gun bullets were flying around, was a nightmare 
I shall never forget. 

At Hagaru-ri I worked all one night with two British 
Navy hospital corpsmen attached to the British Royal 
Marines. The three of us had four tents and two native 
houses filled with stretcher cases to care for as best we could. 



We were isolated from the large Field Hospital, and no 
doctor could be spared to stay with us. The next morning 
I secured a large utensil filled with hot cakes and a gallon 
of jam. We spread jam on the cakes, rolled them up and 
passed them out to our patients. I don't suppose anyone 
ever appreciated homemade jelly rolls as much as they did. 

At Hagaru most of the men of the 5th and 7th 
Marines enjoyed hot food again for the first time in 
8 days. Writing to Chaplain Salisbury on 5 December, 
Schwyhart stated: "I have checked on the chaplains 
of the 5th and 7th Regiments and am glad to report 
that they are well. They are dreadfully tired, having 
been without sleep for 2 and 3 days and nights." 

Among the chaplains with Division troops at 
Hagaru-ri was Chaplain W. M. Hearn. In his reply 
to the questionnaire, Hearn wrote : 

Those chaplains who were in the Hagaru area during the 
"trap" tried to cover the hospital units. I had a small 
Communion set and gave Communion to as many as possible 
as they were brought into the field hospital at Hagaru. 
Divine services involving large groups were dangerous; so I 
went from tent to tent for brief prayers during these times, 
or in foxholes or wherever men were together. My most 
memorable prayer was given on the running board of a mov- 
ing truck as I prayed with the men driving, at their request. 
Bowed heads and closed eyes were, of course, impossible — 
at least for the driver. 

Chaplain B. C. Howland in his reply to the ques- 
tionnaire likewise referred to his ministry to the men 
who escaped from the Communist trap at Yudam-ni. 
He wrote: "At Hagaru-ri, where I was stationed, 
when they came down from the Reservoir there was 
a united expression of desire to receive Communion." 
Chaplain Joseph G. Power reported holding a Com- 
munion Service with the men standing in 2 feet or 
more of snow. 

The first chaplain to be wounded in the Chosin 
Reservoir campaign was Chaplain Kevin J. Keaney 
who received three machine gun wounds in the left 
thigh and ankle on 29 November. At the time Chap- 
lain Keaney was going from Koto-ri to Hagaru-ri to 
join the 3d Battalion, 1st Marines. The convoy in 
which he was riding was attacked just above Koto-ri. 
Chaplain Keaney's description of what happened was 
published in the Newport N analog of 8 June 1951, 
from which the following has been taken : 

The Communists opened up at us with machine guns. I 
jumped behind a tree and made myself as thin as possible. ! 
The bullets chipped off hunks of bark all around me. When 
the firing quieted we could see the enemy moving about on 
the snow-covered hillsides in the distance. 

The men sought refuge in the ditch by the side of 
the road. There was but one machine gun in the 
group, in addition to side arms, so the enemy had 



— 40- 



little fear. After dark the Communists moved in 
closer, some setting up machine guns within 30 yards 
of the entrapped men. When a Marine was wounded. 
Chaplain Keaney moved to his side to give assistance. 
Seeing a jeep nearby, several decided to take a desper- 
ate chance to get the wounded man to safety. Chap- 
lain Keaney helped to get the wounded man into the 
jeep. His account continues: 

We had just got him in when I felt a sting in the lower 
part of my left leg. I jumped into the back of the jeep and 
another blast hit me in the leg. The jeep started to move. 
However, the heavy machine gun fire forced the driver to 
leave the road and the jeep careened into a ditch of near 
frozen water. It was the cold water on my wounds that 
probably saved my life. 

The arrival of a tank and some trucks rescued the 
group. Keaney was taken to Hagaru-ri, and evacu- 
ated by air to Japan on 4 December. Chaplain Pat- 
rick A. Killeen was sent by helicopter to Hagaru-ri as 
the relief of Chaplain Keaney. 

Psalms at Hagaru 

Another chaplain who had a narrow escape on this 
same road which connected Hagaru-ri with Koto-ri 
was William M. Hearn. Chaplain Schwyhart, in his 
letter of 15 December, wrote: 

The hand of God is very real. One chaplain, W. M. 
Hearn, tried to return to one of his battalion trucks after an 
ambush. Within about 20 feet of the truck he noted that 
it was being looted by Chinese troops so he fell down in a 
snow bank alongside the road and stayed there for 2 hours. 
His convoy continued on and his people felt that the chaplain 
was missing but he showed up the next day. 

While ministering to the men at Hagaru, Hearn 
found that the dramatic events through which the 
Marines were passing provided a new background for 
appreciating the Psalms. Writing to Chaplain Salis- 
bury, after the evacuation from Hungnam, Hearn 
explained: 

During our days at Hagaru, we found much consolation 
and food for thought in many parts of the Bible. This was 
especially true of many passages from the Psalms. Enclosed 
herewith is an article based on the experience of Marines 
matched with passages from the Psalms. 

The following are some extracts from the article 
which Chaplain Hearn entitled "Psalms at Hagaru." 

The sun breaks through the early morning clouds. It 
paints the snowy hills of Hagaru with a delicate shade of 
pink against blue skies. Another day, another place, this 
would be beautiful; but today there is no time for thoughts 
of beauty. There are 50,000 and more reasons why one can- 
not dwell on beauty this morning. Hidden some place in 
these hills are the 50,000 and more reasons, each armed with 
rifle, mortar or machine gun. 



And look yet again at the hills, at the snow, at the sun. 
Before the mountains were formed in the fiery fury of a 
young earth, before the snows, yes, before the sun cast forth 
its first light and flame, God was. 

"Lord, thou has been our dwelling place in all genera- 
tions. Before the mountains were formed, or ever thou hadst 
formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to 
everlasting thou art God." 

The 23d Psalm took on new meaning. "The Lord 
is my Shepherd ; I shall not want." Continuing with 
"He leadeth me beside the still waters," Chaplain 
Hearn made a reference to the "frozen ice of Chosin," 
"still waters" over which some of the Marines crossed 
to safety. 

Darkness falls and fear creeps out to cover the valley. What 
of the night ? O Lord, my God what of the night ? 

"The Lord is my light and my salvation ; whom shall I 
fear?" 

Fear stalks above and pauses in each foxhole and leaves 
with each a part of itself; unwelcome visitor, intangible, but 
more real than gun or mountain. Time creeps by despite my 
assurances unto my soul. Fear creeps in and sits beside my 
prayers. 

"The Lord is the strength of my life; of whom shall I be 
afraid?" 

As we wait in the darkness for the morning, we watch the 
shadows and listen to the stillness. They move by night, 
silently, so silently. Oh for the sun of the morning, the planes 
flying over in their dawn strike, light to send the quiet menace 
back beyond the hills. 

"My soul waiteth for the Lord more than they that watch 
for the morning: I say more than they that watch for the 
morning." 

In the early hours of morning they charge with bugles. 
Fury mounts upon fury. Hell opens its very jaws. 

"Out of the depths have I cried unto thee, O Lord, Lord, 
hear my voice." 

The waves of hell subside and grow still with the morning. 
The lines have held. Yes, we have found the deliverance for 
which we waited through the dark and fearful night. 

"Wait on the Lord: be of good courage, and he shall 
strengthen thine heart: wait, I say, on the Lord." 

When the Marines were safely behind the defense 
perimeter at Hamhung, Chaplain Hearn opened his 
Bible again to the Psalter and read Psalm 124. The 
fearful ordeal through which he had just passed gave 
new meaning to old and familiar words : 

Blessed be the Lord, who hath not given us as a prey to 
their teeth. 

Our soul is escaped as a bird out of the snare of the 
fowlers; the snare is broken, and we are escaped. 

Our help is in the name of the Lord, who made heaven 
and earth. 

Chaplain Hearn was later awarded a Letter of 
Commendation with Combat "V" for excellent service 
in the line of his profession while serving with a Ma- 
rine ordnance battalion prior to and during operations 
in Korea from 15 Auerust to 15 December 1950. 



41 



Greater Love Hath No Man 

The march south from Hagaru-ri to Koto-ri began 
on 6 December, only 2 days after the final elements of 
the Yudam-ni forces arrived at Hagaru. At 2230 of 
that day Chaplain Cornelius J. Griffin was seriously 
wounded when the ambulance in which he was riding 
came under severe machine gun fire. While en route 
to Koto-ri, Chaplain Griffin was giving the last rites of 
his church to a dying young Marine. With the chap- 
lain was his assistant, Sgt. Matthew Caruso. On a 
narrow mountainous road leading into Koto-ri, the 
convoy ran into a roadblock. Although the ambu- 
lance was clearly marked with the Red Cross, such a 
symbol of mercy was not respected by the Communists. 
A machine gun bullet tore through the chaplain's 
lower jaw, causing a deep wound. Another bullet hit 
him in the right shoulder. Sergeant Caruso flung 
himself over his chaplain just in time to catch another 
bullet which took his life. In an interview published 
in the Monitor of 5 January 1951, Griffin said: 

My clerk was killed as he lay alongside me. He was a 20- 
year-old grenadier and rifleman assigned to cover me, one of 
the finest kids I ever knew, Sgt. Matthew Caruso of Rocky 
Hill, Conn. He never left me, saved me I don't know how 
many times and even covered me with his body. He died 20 
minutes after I had given him Communion. 

Chaplain Griffin was knocked unconscious by the 
terrific blow on the jaw. Word was quickly passed to 
Chaplain Craven, who was then about a mile away, 
that Chaplain Griffin had been wounded. When 
Griffin regained consciousness, he was aware that 
some one was bending over him trying to get him to 
say the Act of Contrition : "O my God, I am heartily 
sorry for having offended thee . . . and I detest all 
my sins . . ." As the wounded chaplain began to 
repeat the words of the Roman Catholic prayer, he 
realized that the one bending over him was none other 
than his friend, John Craven, a Baptist. The story 
of this incident was recorded in the spring of 1951 and 
widely broadcast during Brotherhood Week to illus- 
trate the meaning of brotherhood. 

Several months later at a ceremony at Pearl Harbor 
when Chaplain Griffin was awarded the Silver Star 
for conspicuous gallantry while in action against the 
enemy on 3 November, Gen. Lemuel C. Shepherd said 
to Griffin as he pinned on the medal: "They don't give 
a damn whom they shoot, do they, Chaplain?" 

Chaplain Griffin was evacuated from Koto-ri to 
Japan by air on 8 December. His wound in the jaw 
required many operations and much plastic surgery 
during about a year and a half spent in Navy hos- 
pitals. Chaplain Griffin was the most seriously 



wounded of all Navy chaplain casualties of Korea. A 
chapel at Camp Pendleton has been named in honor 
of Sergeant Caruso. 

Among those who rendered notable service in the 
withdrawal from Hagaru-ri to Koto-ri were Chaplains 
Robert L. Patton and William D. Lyons. Both re- 
ceived the Letter of Commendation award for their 
tireless devotion to the men of their units, frequently 
exposing themselves to enemy fire in their efforts to 
minister to the wounded. 

In the midst of such constant danger, where death 
might come flying with the speed of a bullet and where 
no one knew what a few minutes might bring forth, 
many Leathernecks found strength and consolation in 
religion. Navy chaplains were there to lead them in 
the worship of Almighty God. Chaplain B. C. How- 
land in his questionnaire commented on an experience 
which took place at Koto-ri. 

The most impressive service of Holy Communion in my 
experience as a minister occurred at Koto-ri on the way 
down from the Reservoir. Chaplain Preston D. Parsons, 
assigned to the 2d Battalion, and I conducted the service 
with the snow lightly falling on the heads of the men knelt 
in prayer. Over 100 gathered there not knowing whether 
we would ever get back to Hamhung but thankful that so 
far the Division had been able to make it down the roads. 
The faces of those men, as I placed the wafer on their 
tongues, showed that they were putting their trust in the 
Master of all men as they united in professing their loyalty 
to Him. 

. . . to the Sea 

South of Koto-ri, the withdrawing column of Ma- 
rines ran into a new difficulty when they discovered 
that the enemy had destroyed a 29-foot section of a 
bridge on the road leading down from the 4,000-foot 
summit. The road at that point was on a shelf of a 
cliff which could not be bypassed. On 7 December a 
successful air-drop of the necessary 2,500 pound 
Treadway bridge section was made ; the necessary re- 
pairs were completed on 9 December within 3 hours 
after the materials were made available at the site, 
and the march continued. 

By the morning of 10 December the advance units 
of the 7th Marines were moving out of Chinhung-ni, 
and on the afternoon of that day they finally reached 
Hamhung, where hot food and warm shelters were 
awaiting them. The last elements of the Division 
reached Hamhung at 1300 the next day and the long 
ordeal which began at Yudam-ni on 30 November was 
over. The Marines succeeded in bringing back to 
the protecting lines around Hamhung all their 
wounded, many of their dead, much of their equip- 



12 




To the Sea. 
Marines fight their way through hordes of Chinese communists in subzero weather down the mountains. 



Mountain gale hinder their progress. 




— 43 



ment, and even some prisoners. Such items as were 
of necessity left behind had been destroyed. 

"Shores of Tripoli" 

Not only were hot food and warm shelters awaiting 
the battle-weary Marines at Hamhung but also mail 
from home. Before leaving the Mediterranean area 
on 15 August, Chaplain Craven had sent a roll of 
Kodachrome film to the processing laboratory for de- 
velopment. The package of finished slides was a part 
of the mail that the chaplain received at Hamhung on 
10 December. Among the slides was one which 
showed the chaplain in a bathing suit on the French 
Riviera. Chaplain Craven held the film up to the 
light — the contrast was striking! Four months earlier 
he was in the pink of condition. He looked in the 
mirror and saw a gaunt, drawn face. The scales told 
him he had lost some 30 pounds and the ribs showing 
through his sides bore eloquent testimony that the 
scales were not lying. Chaplain Craven held the pic- 
ture up to the light again and asked himself the ques- 
tion: "Can it be that I and this person in the picture 
are one and the same?" His experience was that of 
all the survivors of that 6th Fleet battalion. Within 3 
months these men had been taken from the balmy 
shores of the blue Mediterranean and hurled into bat- 
tle in the freezing temperatures of North Korea. And 
after another month they had become veterans of one 
of the toughest campaigns in the annals of the Marine 
Corps history. 

Chaplain Craven was awarded the Legion of Merit 
for "exceptionally meritorious conduct in the perform- 
ance of outstanding services" from 28 November to 10 
December 1950. The citation reads, in part, as 
follows : 

On one occasion, he participated in an evacuation opera- 
tion in which more than 600 wounded Marines were loaded 
into trucks and transferred to rear aid stations. By his com- 
plete devotion to his fellow man in the face of extremely 
adverse combat conditions, Lieutenant Commander Craven 
served to inspire and encourage all who observed him. His 
fortitude, professional integrity and courageous conduct 
throughout were in keeping with highest traditions of the 
United States Naval Service. 

But the stereotyped language of an official citation 
can hardly convey the living reality of the dedicated 
ministry of a chaplain. More meaningful is the fol- 
lowing letter of Capt. Don France who, before he was 
killed during the Chinese offensive on the night of 
5 December 1950, wrote about Chaplain Craven to his 
home church. 1 " 



"Marine Corps Gazette (December 1953), p. 18. D. D. 
Nicholson. Jr., "Their Faith Is Yours." 



Cathedral of Saint Phillip, 

Atlanta, Ga. 

Dear Dean Walthour: This is the interim period when 
all of us are trying to catch up with our letter writing. . . . 
I landed at Inchon on D-day, was among the 1st Marines to 
cross the Han River, fought to capture Seoul, and it was my 
regiment that made the drive to Uijongbu. ... In all those 
days one man stood out in my mind as the real leader, spirit 
and principle for which we are fighting. He is a mild- 
mannered Navy chaplain who answers to the name of John 
Craven. I met Chaplain Craven back at Camp Lejeune. 
Everyone liked him and I remember saying to myself at the 
time, "When things get rough, it is going to be comforting 
to have him around." 

Since landing in Korea, I know that Chaplain Craven has 
spent more time in the frontlines than any other man in the 
regiment. Often on patrols I encountered him talking to 
the men — the dying, and instilling confidence in all those he 
met. By his very presence everything seemed better and 
easier and the men accomplished deeds that will live for- 
ever. To all of us, he has been a shining example of a chap- 
lain, a father, and a man. 

Chaplain Craven has the distinction of having served 
with the Marines through seven campaigns — four in 
World War II (the Marshalls, Saipan, Tinian and 
Iwo Jima) and three in the Korean War. It is be- 
lieved that this has established a record in the history 
of the Chaplain Corps. 

Chaplain Ingvoldstad was also awarded the Legion 
of Merit for "exceptionally meritorious conduct in the 
performance of outstanding services" from 28 Novem- 
ber to 10 December 1950. The citation reads, in part, 
as follows: 

Untiring in his efforts to be of service to the men in his 
regiment, Lieutenant-Commander Ingvoldstad frequently ex- 
posed himself to accurate enemy small-arms and machine- 
gun fire in the field to comfort and cheer the troops, ad- 
minister first aid to the wounded, and assist in evacuating 
casualties. He directly contributed in saving the lives of 
many wounded. His constant contributions in feeding 
wounded, shifting wounded to motor vehicle hoods to keep 
the badly hit from freezing to death, patrolling the column 
to assist corpsmen in administering first aid all contributed 
immeasurably in saving some 1200 wounded. His fortitude, 
professional integrity and courageous conduct throughout 
were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United 
States Naval Service. 

Wall of Fire 

Worried by the situation in North Korea, senior 
naval officers had already in early November begun 
planning for the eventuality of a United Nations with- 
drawal." A number of ships, including the BOXER, 
en route to stateside, were recalled, and all available 
shipping began to be collected. And fortunately so: 



" Cagle and Manson, op. cit., pp. 179-192. 



— 44- 



for in December the Navy found itself ordered to take 
off 8th Army troops from the west coast, at Chinnampo 
and Inchon, and X Corps troops from Wonsan and 
Hungnam on the east. Actually, since a large part of 
8th Army was finally able to withdraw overland, the 
naval redeployment in the west was not a major task, 
and outloading at Wonsan proceeded methodically 
and with a minimum of opposition. But it was far 
otherwise at Hungnam. 

With three American divisions (1st Marine, 3d 
Army, 7th Army), a number of ROK regimental 
combat teams, and mountains of gear on the beaches, 
the Navy raised a wall of fire around the port city. As 
13 ships poured shells into a perimeter surrounding 
the area, planes from 7 carriers provided an umbrella 
overhead. VALLEY FORGE, hastily recalled from 
the United States, and PRINCETON, newly arrived 
in early December, joined LEYTE and PHILIPPINE 
SEA, which had been providing air support for X 
Corps from the beginning of this operation. Also 
present were the escort carriers SICILY and BA- 
DOENG STRAIT, now joined by the B ATA AN. In 
addition to rocket ships and destroyers, naval gunfire 
was furnished by the MISSOURI and the heavy 
cruisers ROCHESTER and ST. PAUL. 

Serving as chaplains in the LEYTE were Clovis A. 
Frame (Methodist) and Charles A. Szczesny (Roman 
Catholic) , both of whom reported on 28 August 1950. 
In the PRINCETON were Raymond F. McManus 
(Roman Catholic), from August 1950 to February 
1952, and George J. Enyedi (Presbyterian), a Re- 
serve who returned to active duty in August 1950 and 
was aboard until September 1951. The light carrier 
BATAAN had as its only chaplain a Roman Catholic, 
John J. Coffey, from July 1950 to July 1952. Chaplain 
in ST. PAUL, also from July 1950 to July 1952, was 
Faber H. Wickham, a Presbyterian (USA). 

End of an Epic 

Heavy casualties were suffered by the Marines in 
the withdrawal to Hamhung. Writing to Chaplain 
Salisbury on 5 December, Chaplain Schwyhart re- 
ported : 

I have been spending the majority of time at the clearing 
center, Yong-po Airport, where they evacuated by air from 
Hagaru-ri a thousand casualties yesterday and an estimated 
1,100 today. Today we begin a heavy schedule of burials 
at the Division Cemetery. This past week, since a week ago 
today, has been what Sherman said war was. 

On 9 December, he wrote again: 'Yesterday we 
buried 149 at Koto-ri; today more burials, now total- 
ing 216, at Hungnam." And on 15 December, in an- 



other letter to Chaplain Salisbury, Schwyhart stated : 
"At the Division Cemetery at Hungnam, there were 
324 graves, mostly Marines, a few Army, 3 British 
Commandos, and 29 ROKS." 

According to official statistics, 12 the Marine losses 
from 27 November to 11 December 1950 were as 
follows : 

Killed in action 432 

Died of wounds 101 

Missing in action 249 

Wounded 2,710 

Total 3,492 

In addition there were over 3,600 nonbattle casualties, 
largely from frostbite. Enemy losses for the same pe- 
riod were estimated at a total of 37,500 — 15,000 killed 
and 7,500 wounded by Marine ground forces, plus 
10,000 killed and 5,000 wounded by Marine air strikes. 

On 13 December a memorial service was conducted 
at the Division Cemetery at Hungnam in which the 
following chaplains took part — R. M. Schwyhart 
(Protestant), Garson Goodman (Jewish), and P. A. 
Killeen (Roman Catholic). Even as Gen. Oliver P. 
Smith, the Division Commander, delivered the ad- 
dress, preparations proceeded for the burial of the last 
bodies brought down from Chinhung-ni. 

Chaplain Goodman, attached to Division head- 
quarters at Hamhung, was the only Jewish chaplain 
with the 1st Marine Division. On 5 December he 
conducted two services for Hanukkah. As was to be 
expected, the number of men of the Jewish faith in 
the 1st Division was comparatively small; yet at one 
time Chaplain Goodman found 12 Jewish patients at 
the 121st Evacuation Hospital and 4 at the Division 
Hospital, and among markers placed over the mounds 
in the different military cemeteries were those bear- 
ing the Star of David. 

In his letter of 15 December to Chaplain Salisbury, 
written aboard the BAYFIELD, as it sailed from 
Hungnam, Chaplain Schwyhart summarized as fol- 
lows the role played by the chaplains in the Chosin 
Reservoir campaign: 

Throughout the operation the chaplains, all of them, gave 
unsparingly of themselves to render assistance and to min- 
ister as chaplains wherever and whenever possible. Frankly, 
it is not possible to point out outstanding performances, be- 
cause everyone in his own way did just that. 

Four Chaplains Award, B'nai B'rith 

Chaplain Schwyhart would be the first Navy re- 
cipient of the Four Chaplains Award, which was es- 

13 Marine Corps Gazette ( November 1951), Lynn Montross, 
"Breakout From the Reservoir: Marine Epic of Fire and 
Ice." 

45 — 




Chaplain Robert M. Schwyhart, Division Chaplain, is shown participating in the memorial services for marines after their 
breakout from the Chosin Reservoir. The services are held in the Division Cemetery at Hungnam. 

Memorial Services, Hungnam. 

Chaplains Goodman, Killeen, and Schwyhart lead the marines of the 1st Division as they remember fallen buddies at 
memorial services at the Division's Cemetery at Hungnam, following the breakout from Chosin Reservoir. 



tablished by the Alexander D. Goode Lodge, B'nai 
B'rith, of New York City. The award honors the 
memory of the four Army chaplains lost in the sink- 
ing of the Army troop transport DORCHESTER on 
3 February 1943; of these one was a Roman Catholic, 
two were Protestants and the fourth, Alexander D. 
Goode, Jewish. 



In February 1951 the Lodge presented a check for 
$500 to the Chiefs of Chaplains of each of the three 
branches of the Armed Forces for presentation to that 
chaplain in each Chaplain Corps who should be se- 
lected- as best representing the spirit of brotherhood 
and cooperation displayed by the four chaplains lost 
in the DORCHESTER. A committee of Navy chap- 



— 46 



lains appointed by Chief of Chaplains S. W. Salis- 
bury chose 1st Marine Division Chaplain Robert M. 
Schwyhart to be thus honored. 

The presentation ceremony was held 31 March 
1951, after Schwyhart had been relieved from duty 
in Korea, at the Naval Gun Factory, Washington, 
D.C. The citation reads: 

Commander Robert M. Schwyhart, Chaplain Corps, U.S. 
Navy has expressed his firm faith in God by exemplifying to 
the men whom he served, the 1st Marine Division, Fleet 
Marine Force, great steadfastness in the face of adversity; 
notable courage when circumstances tended to promote fear 
and discouragement; a broad charity which manifested itself 
in service to all his men regardless of their creed, rank, or 
position; the spirit of sacrifice which caused him to give of 
his strength with compassion and to suffer hardship and 
danger with equanimity; and faithfulness in his stewardship 
of the things of God which was consistent with that of the 
four chaplains in whose memory this award is presented. 

Back to the Bean Patch 

The battered United Nations forces, including the 
1st Marine Division, were evacuated from Hungnam 
during the period 12-24 December, in an "amphibi- 
ous landing in reverse." The summary statistics are 
nearly incredible: 105,000 military personnel (Army, 
Navy, Air Corps, and Marine, together with ROK 
units), 91,000 civilian Korean refugees, 17,500 ve- 
hicles, and 350,000 measurement tons of cargo, out- 
loaded in 193 shiploads by 109 ships." Although 
Communists were beginning to press upon the de- 
fending perimeter, the loading proceeded systemati- 
cally. By 15 December the last of the 1st Marine 
Division sailed for Pusan, where they were soon estab- 
lished in a rest camp in the former bean field near 
Masan. 

The withdrawal from the Chinese trap was exe- 
cuted against overwhelming odds: 12 Chinese Com- 
munist divisions, subzero weather, and exceedingly 
hazardous terrain. By skillful deployment of ground 
forces and effectively integrated ground-air opera- 
tions, the Division came through with tactical integ- 
rity, its wounded properly evacuated and its service- 
able material salvaged. 14 Meanwhile the enemy had 
been in large part rendered militarily noneffective and 
the evacuation of X Corps from Hungnam rendered 
possible. Military historians were quick to compare 
the withdrawal to the famous "March of the 10,000" 
described by Xenophon in his Anabasis. Weapons 
and ideologies had changed; but relying on the same 
indomitable courage, the same base of training and 
discipline, and much the same infantry tactics, the 



Marines like the Greeks before them successfully 
fought their way through Asiatic hordes to the sea. 16 
The 1st Marine Division (reinforced) was awarded 
a presidential unit citation for its heroic action during 
the Chosan Reservoir campaign, covering specifically 
the dates 27 November-11 December, from the 
Yudam-ni crisis to the completion of the withdrawal 
to Hamhung. This was the Division's second PUC 
in the Korean War, its fifth since the award was first 
established. The 1st Marine Aircraft Wing received 
the Army Distinguished Unit Citation for the period 
22 November-14 December 1950. 

Operation Helping Hand 

Worth special notice was the Navy's magnificent 
job in providing transport for more than 90,000 
Korean civilians to the relative safety of South Korea. 
When the forces of the United Nations drove north- 
ward, multitudes in the liberated areas had welcomed 
them with great joy. The Christians among them, 
many of whom had gone "underground," came out 
of hiding and made themselves known. But when 
the withdrawal began, all alike viewed with consterna- 
tion and alarm the new situation which faced them. 
To remain behind and come again under the Red 
regime was tantamount to death for the Christian 
leaders. 

As the troops of X Corps withdrew into Hungnam, 
they were followed by hordes of pitiful civilians who 
were sometimes panicked by the Chinese Communists 
harassing the rear guard of the Marine column. The 
long bitter march by foot to Hungnam was marked 
by miserable circumstances. Babies were born en 
route. People were cold and hungry. Of necessity 
the natives left behind most of their goods, taking 
with them only the barest necessities. They crowded 
into Hungnam expecting that the U.S. Navy would 
take them to South Korea — and this the Navy did. 
The first 50,000 were jammed into three Victory ships 
and two LST's. "It became standard practice to 
embark at least 5,000 on an LST, not counting chil- 
dren in arms, and one ship set a record with 12,000." 16 

Among the Navy chaplains especially active in help- 
ing collect and evacuate the North Korean refugees 
was 1st Marine Aircraft Wing Chaplain, John P. 
Murphy. Later Chaplain Murphy was awarded the 
Bronze Star. The citation mentions his work with the 
native Christians at Wonsan, to which reference has 
already been made, and then adds: 



" Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. Ill, p. 345. 
" Ibid., ch. XV. 



'''Ibid., p. 357. 

10 Marine Corps Gazette (December 1951 ) , p. 25, Lynn 
Montross. "The Hungnam Evacuation." 



47 



When the evacuation of Wonsan and Hungnam became 
necessary, he worked endless hours with military and civilian 
agencies in planning and effecting a safe evacuation of 
thousands of Christian North Koreans to a place of safety. 

And so the United Nations Command saved not only 
its troops and equipment but thousands of helpless 
civilians as well. 

In Time of Trouble 

Northeast Korea had proved a peculiarly dangerous 
and costly area of combat. As the closing months of 
1950 saw steadily mounting casualty totals, chaplains 
in ships were more and more engaged in ministering 
solace to the wounded and honor to the dead. By 
faithful performance as well as in word they pro- 
claimed, "God is our refuge and strength, a very 
present help in time of trouble." 

Even before X Corps went ashore the fleet was 
encountering serious difficulties — from mines, often 
simply let loose upstream and floated into the sea. 17 
The first casualty was the destroyer BRUSH, on 26 
September. Rendered instantly helpless, her bow a 
full fathom low, much of the ship open to the sea, 
her forward steering gear gone, BRUSH was taken 
in tow and escorted 470 miles to Sasebo, Japan. 
Thirteen men had been killed, 34 seriously wounded. 
Chaplain Charles L. Dickey, in the WORCESTER, 
wrote in his questionnaire reply: 

We had 34 casualties aboard for the 3 days we were ac- 
companying the BRUSH to Sasebo. I had prayers with 
each man every day, and two yeomen to read and write 
censored letters for each man. 

Chaplain Edwin F. Carr, in the ROCHESTER, 
flagship of Vice Admiral Struble's Joint Task Force 
Seven, wrote concerning the minesweeping operations 
at Wonsan, which had been a source of desperate con- 
cern, so thickly and thoroughly had the enemy 
planted mines there: 

I consider all the activities performed by me under these 
various headings [of the questionnaire] as merely routine. 
However, celebrating Mass in a bombed-out warehouse in 
Wonsan for the men who had given their lives on mine- 
sweeps sunk by mines was impressive. [Their devotion] 
remains to bear witness to our faith in freedom. 

Without their sacrifice the landings could not have 
been made; as it was, 15 days had been expended 
and over 200 casualties sustained. 

A happier story concerns the transfer of needed 
medical supplies from the ROCHESTER to a small 
Korean hospital in Wonsan. Employing Latin as a 
medium, Chaplain Carr was able to act as "inter- 



" Cagle and Manson, op. cit., pp. 130-146. 



preter" between the ship's doctor and a Korean priest 
representing the hospital. Thus a "dead" language 
proved effective in helping sustain life in a time of 
desperate trouble. 

Transport chaplains had their hands full. Henry 
F. Maxwell in the THOMAS JEFFERSON reported 
serious casualties "flowing in a stream" to the trans- 
ports immediately after the landings. Of the period 
barely a month later, Chaplain Leonard B. Dohrmann 
wrote : 

During the November-December 1950 evacuation of 
wounded from the Hungnam area, the BRECKENRIDGE 
carried several loads to Yokohama. I assisted in loading 
and caring for these wounded. 

Chaplain Charles W. Adams recalled that his ship, 
operating under MSTS, Pacific, ferried "shiploads" 
of wounded to Yokosuka; he called it "round-the- 
clock" duty. 

And at Yokosuka? Charles W. Lawler, Roman 
Catholic chaplain at the Naval Hospital there, later 
wrote: "Over 3,000 casualties were admitted within 
48 hours. The hospital grew from a 70-bed dispensary 
to a hospital of about 5,000 beds." Charles H. 
Shackelford, the Protestant chaplain, wrote that he 
spent every Sunday afternoon and evening adminis- 
tering Holy Communion to bed patients. "Often this 
would continue up to 2130 or 2200, because of the 
large number who wished to receive. . . ." 

Chaplain J. E. Zoller was temporarily attached there 
during the peak of the casualty load. He reported 
that it was necessary in some wards to use double-deck 
bunks, often placed so closely together that one had 
to turn sideways to slide between them. 

Many of the patients were not ambulatory and could not 
attend chapel services. Most of them were fresh from the 
combat zone. Many had not received the Sacrament for a 
long time and desired to receive it. After consecrating the 
elements in the chapel, I carried the chalice in my hand and 
went to the wards to serve individual communions. I would 
slide between two double-deck bunks and say to the four men 
(two on each side) that I was a Protestant chaplain prepared 
to serve communion to those who desired to receive it. The 
response among the Protestant patients was almost unanimous. 

Afterwards I would ask the men if they had any special 
prayer requests . . . Many were suffering a great deal them- 
selves, but in no case, not one, did a man ask prayer for him- 
self. Most frequently it was requested for his buddies back 
in the combat zone and occasionally for his loved ones at 
home. 

Back at Hungnam, as the last ships pulled offshore, 
the dock area was set ablaze and destroyers shelled any- 
thing that might be useful to the incoming Commu- 
nists. One last fighter plane from the PRINCETON 



48 



circled overhead. A long column of ships turned 
southward. Heading for home the pilot signaled the 
MOUNT McKINLEY and they "exchanged 
greetings." It was Christmas Eve. 

First Korean Christmas 

Writing to Chaplain Salisbury on 1 January 1951, 
Division Chaplain Schwyhart reported that most of 
the chaplains at Masan had been able to obtain squad 
tents to be used as chapels. "On Christmas Eve and 
Christmas Day," wrote Schwyhart, "a total of 71 serv- 
ices were conducted by chaplains in the Division with 
a total of 13,077 attending." 

Chaplain William A. Rennie wrote of his Christmas 
Eve service as follows : 

At Masan, Korea, during the winter of 1950-51, the neigh- 
boring Presbyterian church offered the use of its small sanc- 
tuary for the Protestant worship services of the Medical Bn. 
For the Christmas Eve service, one of the Catholic corpsmen 



volunteered to create a manger-scene tableau with about 10 
of the children of the church. Everything went off fine, as by 
candlelight, with the Korean congregation as our guests, the 
choir sang "Silent Night'' and the life-like tableau was posed 
in a corner of the church. Corpsmen and Marines placed 
their gifts at the foot of the cradled-babe. A very effective 
service of worship and dedication was the result. 

Incidentally, a few days later, the pastor of the church, in 
order to show the appreciation of his people for the gifts given 
to the church, presented me with about 180 pounds of roasted 
peanuts for the "church men and sick patients." 

Chaplain B. C. Howland, in his reply to the ques- 
tionnaire, commented as follows on his memories of 
that first Christmas in Korea: 

I believe our regiment was one of the first to raise money 
for a Korean church. On Christmas Sunday in our rest 
camp area at Masan both Chaplain Parsons and myself made 
an appeal to the men to help out the Presbyterian church 
which was doing such a good work. The results were heart- 
ening to both of us chaplains. 



Christmas Mass, Masan. 
Catholic marines attend mass in the 50th Marine Regiment area on Christmas Day at Masan. 




— 49 



Attending a Korean children's Christmas party is one of 
the experiences that will linger long in my memory. After 
we had raised the money on Christmas Sunday I took it to 
the Korean pastor. Through an interpreter he conveyed his 
gi of gratitude and requested that I attend the party 
on Christmas day. With me went one officer and three en- 
listed men and never in that big Sunday School room have 
we ever seen such a mass of young humanity packed like 
sardines together. The children sang the carols that we all 
knew and there were recitations as well, but when we came 
in there was a special greeting in song from the children to 
us, as they seemed to sense that we were their friends who 
would help them as much as we could. 

I found that these Christian friends of ours were ready to 
reciprocate in whatever manner they could. Because I felt 
that it would be a fine idea to have organ music at the serv- 
ices, and there being an organist in our regiment, I conveyed 
that idea to a Korean resident and member of the Presbyte- 
rian church. He immediately made arrangements through 
a music teacher in the city to borrow an organ. 

Chaplain Howland also reported an interest in 
Bible study and discussion groups. "In the rest camp 
at Masan New Testaments were greatly in demand," 
he wrote. "I would go from one tent to another and 
always I had no trouble getting rid of the Testaments 
I carried. Many a religious discussion went on in 
those tents and I was able to take part in the 
discussion." 

Nor were chaplains in the ships less busy. Chap- 



lain O. B. Salyer wrote that he organized Christmas 
caroling throughout the BADOENG STRAIT on 
Christmas Eve, with proper religious observance of 
the holy day. His usual routine, besides Sunday serv- 
ices, included daily morning prayers and Scripture 
reading in the ship's library, just after securing from 
morning quarters. Each Wednesday evening a study 
and discussion group met in the library. 

Chaplain John R. Thomas, a Reserve returned to 
active duty, was assigned to Destroyer Squadron 
Seven, operating off Korea. In his questionnaire re- 
ply Chaplain Thomas wrote : 

I served under at least 12 different destroyer captains and 
4 division and squadron commanders. Attitudes of all except 
one destroyer commander made it possible for evening prayers 
underway on the ship's intercom system. The squadron 
commander enabled us to broadcast the Christmas Eve serv- 
ice to all the destroyers in the carrier screen off East Korea, 
Christmas, 1950. 

Concerning this same Christmas Chaplain Wylie R. 
Bryant, Presbyterian (Cumb.) , one of the many chap- 
lains assigned to Military Sea Transport Service, North 
Pacific Subarea, wrote as follows: 

During the days we sat offshore at Inchon there were no 
passengers aboard, so we invited 80 soldiers aboard the ship 
on Christmas 1950. The crew and military department of 
the ship decided to forego their Christmas dinner that these 



Christmas Mass on Hospital Ship. 
Chaplain C. E. Karnasicwicz conducts Christmas mass and directs the choir aboard the REPOSE. 




50 



men might enjoy a day of rest and entertainment. Christ- 
mas services were conducted, and afterward a movie was 
given for them. 

Bryant was serving at the time in the USNS MARINE 
ADDER. Such were chartered ships operated by 
the civilian merchant marine, with a military depart- 
ment to supervise and look after the needs of military 
personnel (and in peacetime, dependents) being 
transported therein. 

The season which for Christians commemorates 
God's gift of Himself in Jesus Christ seemed naturally 
to suggest, even to men caught in the toils of war, the 
wish to do something for others. A choir of crewmen 
from the ELDORADO, an amphibious command 
ship, went aboard the HAVEN to sing Christmas 
carols in the wards. ELDORADO, as flagship of 
Commander Amphibious Group Three, had partici- 
pated in both the Inchon and Wonsan landings; her 
chaplain at the time was Richard J. Holmes, Roman 
Catholic. 

Chaplain Zoller wrote, concerning Christmas Day 
in the Yokosuka hospital, as follows: 

After an afternoon of celebrations and parties throughout 
the hospital, I took my accordion and went to the ward for 
paraplegics and multiple amputees After playing casually 
for a while, the men began requesting and singing Christmas 
carols, then folksongs, campfire favorites, spirituals, and 
hymns. 

Just after taps I stood beside the bed of a young man not 
yet 20 year^ of age. I wondered how he kept the smile on 
his face. Both feet had been amputated, and all the fingers 
on each hand. He was in constant pain. . . . 

"Chaplain," he said, "could you play 'The Old Rugged 
Cross'?" 

Then followed a request for "Rock of Ages." 

When I finished playing, he was asleep, with the trace of 
a smile still on his face. As I left the ward, nearly everyone 
was sleeping. At the office the nurse motioned me inside. 

"Chaplain," she said, "those quiet hymns did more to re- 
lax these men than any medicine. Thank you." 

In Keeping With the Highest 

The withdrawal from the Chinese trap could not 
have been effected without close air support furnished 
by Navy and Marine pilots. During the first stage 
of the redeployment, on 4 December, when LEYTE 
planes were supporting the Marines at Hagaru-ri, 
there occurred an awe-inspiring act of heroism. 1 ^ 
Ensign Jesse L. Brown, the Navy's first Negro pilot, 
was forced to make an emergency landing 5 miles be- 
hind enemy lines. Circling pilots could see that 
Brown was alive but apparently unable to extricate 
himself from the plane's slowly burning wreckage. 



™ Ibid., pp. 1 76f. 



With darkness approaching and in near-zero weather, 
Lt. (j.g. ) Thomas J. Hudner successfully landed his 
plane nearby. Finding it impossible to extricate the 
injured pilot, he radioed for cutting instruments and 
a helicopter, and then using snow extinguished the 
flames. The rescue 'copter arrived quickly, but 
Brown died before he could be freed from the wreck- 
age. For his act of selfless devotion Navy pilot Hud- 
ner was subsequently presented our nation's highest 
military decoration, the Congressional Medal of 
Honor. 

Among the chaplains commended during this time, 
three were serving on carriers. Both the Protestant 
and Roman Catholic chaplains, C. A. Frame and C. A. 
Szczesny, in the LEYTE were awarded the Letter of 
Commendation with Combat "V" for meritorious 
service during air operations against the enemy from 
8 October 1950 to 19 January 1951. For his service 
from 5 August 1950 to 9 January 1951 in the BA- 
DOENG STRAIT Chaplain O. B. Salyer was also 
honored with the Letter of Commendation award. 

Chaplain George W. Cummins, of Marine Aircraft 
Group 12, located first at Wonsan and then at Yong- 
po, was cited for the period 12 October-22 December 
1950. At Wonsan, volunteering his services as a 
member of an atrocity investigation team, Cummins 
had spent many hours in guerrilla-infested area help- 
ing ascertain facts concerning this dreadful aspect of 
man's inhumanity to man. Cummins' citation men- 
tions, in addition, his work during the redeployment 
to Hungnam. 

During this period of daily air evacuation of casualties 
from the Koto-ri airstrip, he maintained a constant vigil at 
the unloading point, giving unstintedly of his time and atten- 
tion to the wounded. 

He was awarded the Bronze Star. 

During the first 6 months of military operations in 
Korea, 21 Navy chaplains had won 28 awards, in- 
cluding 5 Purple Hearts. Fifteen of the twenty-eight 
chaplains attached to the 1st Marine Division were 
recipients of an award — a remarkably high percent- 
age. The record is even more impressive when we 
remember that some of the other chaplains received 
awards in later actions. In addition to those serving 
with the 1st Division, three chaplains attached to car- 
riers (Frame, Szczesny, and Salyer) and three chap- 
lains with the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing (Markley, 
Murphy, and Cummins) were also thus honored. 

An analysis of the awards granted shows that 5 
chaplains received the Purple Heart: 2, the Legion 
of Merit: 3, the Silver Star (including 1 from the 



.-,:;.-,:::>.;> o— 60- 



51 



Army) ; 12, the Bronze Star (including 1 from the 
Army) ; and 7, Letters of Commendation. Seven 
chaplains, including of course each of the 5 who were 
wounded, received two awards each. Such recog- 
nition speaks eloquently of their faithfulness and devo- 
tion. Official citations become formalized in lan- 
guage; yet the words with which many of them close 
are rich in meaning . . . "in keeping with the high- 
est traditions of the Chaplain Corps and of the Naval 
Service". 

That those traditions are characterized by unassail- 
able integrity is in no small part due to the ministry 
of those clergymen in uniform who through the years 
have kept faith with God and their fellows. After 
the deliverance from Hungnam 19 one chaplain who 
had seen action in World War II preached a thanks- 
giving sermon on the text from Psalm 116: 

The sorrows of death compassed me, and the pains of 
hell got hold upon me : I found sorrow and trouble. 

Then called I upon the name of the Lord ; O Lord, I be- 
seech thee, deliver my soul. . . . 

Return unto thy rest, O my soul ; for the Lord hath dealt 
bountifully with thee. 

For thou hast delivered my soul from death, mine eyes 
from tears, and my feet from falling. 

A ministry inspired by such a faith can but command 
the gratitude and respect of thoughtful men. Of it 
one may say, simply, "In keeping with the Highest." 
At Masan the battle-weary Marines spent several 
weeks recuperating and integrating newly arrived re- 
inforcements. On 31 December the Division passed 
from X Corps to 8th Army control and was assigned 
to the Pohangdong area for possible future commit- 
ment. 

Enemy High Tide 

Meanwhile General MacArthur had found it nec- 
essary to withdraw the 8th Army from north of the 
38th Parallel in the west. 20 As 1950 drew to a close 
he was trying to establish a line of defense along the 
parallel. On 23 December Lt. Gen. Walton H. 
Walker was killed in a traffic accident and was re- 
placed on 26 December by Lt. Gen. Matthew B. 



"Marine Corps Gazette (December 1953), p. 21, D. D. 
Nicholson, Jr., "Their Faith Is Yours." 

20 See Korea, 1950 (Department of the Army), ch. V, 
esp. pp. 229-232. Also John Miller, Jr., Owen J. Carroll, 
and Margaret E. Tackley, Korea, 1951-53 (Department of 
the Army: Office of the Chief of Military History, 1956), 
ch. I. 



Ridgway. On 30 December MacArthur warned the 
Joint Chiefs of Staff that the Chinese forces were 
capable of driving the United Nations out of Korea 
altogether. To General Ridgway, MacArthur gave 
complete authority over operations in Korea, passing 
on the orders of the Joint Chiefs to withdraw if nec- 
essary, while inflicting maximum damage on the 
enemy consistent with keeping his own units intact. 

After a night of artillery bombardment the Com- 
munist forces opened an attack all along the line at 
daybreak on New Year's Day, 1951. The UN forces 
were driven back some 70 miles below the 38th Paral- 
lel. Inchon, Kimpo airfield, and Seoul fell again to 
the enemy. On 13 January the 1st Marine Division 
was ordered to protect the city of Andong, northeast 
of Taegu, with the two adjoining airstrips, from fur- 
ther southward penetration of the Communists. In 
the 2-week engagement that followed the Division re- 
ported 1 1 killed and 45 wounded, all these casualties 
having been suffered by the 7th Marines. 

Clearly the enemy was not capable of following up 
his punch ; he had outrun his supply lines. His pres- 
sure now diminished, and reconnaisance patrols indi- 
cated deep areas forward of the UN defensive posi- 
tions in which no Chinese or North Koreans were to 
be found. 

Below this line there were, however, constant con- 
tacts with guerrilla bands, North Koreans who had 
been left behind when their Army had retreated to 
the north in the autumn, or others who had infil- 
trated into the south in order to harass the United Na- 
tions forces. Units of the 1st Marine Division had 
been engaged in helping suppress these irregular ac- 
tivities shortly after the Division reached Masan. 21 
During most of January and the first half of February 
they would be largely occupied fighting the guerrillas. 

As the period here under review came to an end, 
the feeling became general that the situation was now 
less desperate. Gen. J. Lawton Collins, Army Chief 
of Staff, in Korea on an inspection tour, announced 
to correspondents the intention of the United Nations 
Command to stay and fight. Eighth Army, he noti- 
fied Washington, could handle the new threat pre- 
sented by the Chinese intervention. There was no 
longer any question of evacuating Korea. 



J1 Marine Corps Gazette (January 1952), Lynn Montross, 
"The Pohang Guerrilla Hunt." 



52 



CHAPTER 4 
FIRST UNITED NATIONS COUNTEROFFENSIVE 

25 January-21 April 1951 



The changing fortunes of the contending armies in 
Korea during the early months of the war have been 
likened to the swinging of a giant pendulum. At first 
the hard-smashing North Korean People's Army over- 
ran the South Koreans and then, the U.S. Army 
troops were hurriedly thrown into the breach. The 
only free territory remaining late in August 1950 was 
that contained within the Pusan Perimeter. With the 
arrival of United Nations reinforcements the pendu- 
lum began to swing in the other direction. 

The North Koreans suffered a humiliating defeat 
in the Inchon-Seoul operation and during the succeed- 
ing weeks, as 8th Army forces pounded their way out 
of the Pusan Perimeter northward toward Seoul, link- 
ing up with X Corps on 26 September. When the 
NKPA refused to surrender, the fateful decision was 
taken by General MacArthur to strike above the 38th 
Parallel. On 1 October ROK units crossed the Par- 
allel on the east coast. In the west a multination 
force drove north and secured the North Korean 
capital of Pyongyang. On 26 October the ROK 6th 
Division had the distinction of being the first UN unit 
to reach the Manchurian border, near Chosan, in the 
northwest. For a short time it looked as though all 
North Korea would be brought under the jurisdiction 
of the United Nations. 

The entry of the Chinese Communists into the con- 
flict injected a new factor which caused the pendulum 
to swing in reverse direction. United Nations forces 
suffered a disastrous setback toward the close of 
November and early in December. Separated by pre- 
cipitous mountains when struck by the Chinese, both 
8th Army and X Corps were forced to retreat. The 
New Year's offensive launched by the Communists 
forced a further withdrawal, and for a time the United 
Nations bid to support the Republic of Korea against 
unwarranted attack seemed frustrated. 1 



United Nations Counteroffensive 

On 25 January the pendulum began swinging north- 
ward once again, as General Ridgway put in motion 
Operation Thunderbolt, a cautious and methodical 
advance all along the UN line, designed to clean out 
the enemy ridge by ridge, phase line by phase line. 2 
Meanwhile, still in the south, the 1st Marine Division 
was ordered to the Palgong-San area on 31 January 
to clean up remnants of the North Korean 10th Divi- 
sion. Air support proved particularly effective during 
"Thunderbolt," and naval bombardment along the 
west coast included the massive firepower of the 
"Mighty Mo," the battleship MISSOURI. By 10 
February the 25th Army Division had secured Inchon 
and Kimpo airfield; but so great destruction had been 
wrought in January by the evacuating UN forces that 
several months elapsed before either was fully opera- 
tional again. 

On 16 February the 1st Marine Division, relieved of 
its antiguerrilla mission, began moving into the 
Chunjo sector, the lower end of the vertical Wonju- 
Hoengsong-Hongchon axis in central Korea. 3 The 
Division was made part of IX Corps, commanded by 
Maj. Gen. Bryant E. Moore, which included be- 
sides, the 24th Infantry Division, the 1st Cavalry Divi- 
sion, the ROK 6th Division, and the 27th British 
Commonwealth Brigade. 



' When Ridgway assumed command of the U.S. 8th Army, 
MacArthur relinquished personal supervision of 8th Army 



and X Corps. X Corps was now incorporated into 8th Army, 
so that the 8th Army commander controlled all ground forces 
in Korea. The largest unit was the ROK Army, under 
Ridgway's control but not part of 8th Army. To 8th Army 
were attached certain Air Force, Marine Corps, and United 
Nations units. Ridgway commanded at this time about 
365,000 troops. So far 15 members of the UN had con- 
tributed combat forces: Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, 
Greece, India, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Philippines, 
South Africa, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, the United King- 
dom, and the United States. See Miller et al., op. cit., p. 4. 

: Ibid., ch. II.esp. pp. 13ff. 

3 Marine Corps Gazette (February 1952), p. 31, Lynn 
Montross "Buttoning up the Offensive: The Marines in 
Operation Killer." 



— 53 




54- 



On 2 1 February, to deny the enemy a chance to re- 
organize, another general advance was initiated, 
dubbed Operation Killer. 4 The Marines secured their 
initial objective, the high ground overlooking Hoeng- 
song, on 24 February; but advance was slow every- 
where along the line. The weather was still cold, 
with occasional snow and extensive rain. The begin- 
ning of the thaw was turning ravines into raging 
torrents and paddies into beds of slime. Terrain and 
weather were as troublesome as the enemy. There 
were no roads worth the name. Nevertheless the UN 
offensive kept moving, and by March first the Com- 
munist breakout had been largely repulsed. "Killer" 
came to an end on 4 March, with the Marines solidly 
entrenched on phase line "Arizona," a string of five 
hills north of Hoengsong. The entire area south of 
the Han River was again in United Nations control. 
A stable line lying about halfway between the 37th 
and 38th parallels began at Inchon, moved along the 
Han, then ran north of Hoengsong, and so northeast- 
ward out to Kangnung on the east coast. 

"Operation Ripper" 

A new advance, Operation Ripper, began on 7 
March, the purpose of which was primarily to keep 
the enemy under such pressure as to prevent his re- 
grouping for a counteroffensive. 5 Again and again 
General Ridgway insisted that gaining ground was 
secondary to the destruction of Chinese Communist 
personnel and equipment. With I Corps and the 
ROK Army holding the left and right flanks, respec- 
tively, IX and X Corps, the former including the 1st 
Marine Division, slugged slowly forward in the center 
against stubborn opposition, the enemy taking advan- 
tage of the precipitous slopes and lack of roads to hold 
on as long as possible before pulling back. On 14 
March elements of I Corps reentered Seoul and the 
Republic of Korea flag was hoisted again over the 
National Assembly building. 

The Communists now began to pull back all along 
the line, fighting only delaying actions. The 7th Ma- 
rines entered the important communication center of 
Hongchon without a fight. The enemy's object was 
to reorganize a line just north of the 38th Parallel, 
based on fortifications apparently constructed before 
the initial invasion of South Korea in 1950. 6 The 



4 Miller et al., op. cit., pp. 18f. Also Lynn Montross, 
"Buttoning up the Offensive: The Marines in Operation 
Killer," Marine Corps Gazette (February 1952). 

"Marine Corps Gazette (March 1952), Lynn Montross, 
''Advance to the 38th Parallel: The Marines in Operation 
Ripper". Also Miller et al., op. cit., ch. Ill, esp. pp. 2 Iff. 

* Miller et al., op. cit., pp. 24ff. 



central anchor of this line, dug into rock and protected 
by log and concrete reinforcement, was the area 
bounded by Chorwon, Kumha, and Pyonggang. Here, 
in what became known as the "Iron Triangle," lay the 
hub of protection for the North Korean communica- 
tion and supply network. 

Clearly the enemy was preparing to regroup. That 
he would be ready for a spring advance, with at least 
some air potential, was clear from intelligence reports. 
The UN units were by now up against the Parallel 
again. Thinking it better to keep his advantage, 
Ridgway, as the responsible field commander, ordered 
his forces toward the so-called Kansas line, north of 
the 38th. On 4 April the Marines were among the 
first UN troops to cross the Parallel. Phase line 
"Kansas" had been reached by 9 April everywhere ex- 
cept in the center. 

On 11 April 1951 General MacArthur was relieved 
of his command by the Commander-in-Chief, Presi- 
dent Harry S. Truman, and replaced by General Ridg- 
way. 7 Lt. Gen. James A. Van Fleet, Ridgeway's 
successor as 8th Army commander, ordered the tactics 
already in operation to continue. The advance con- 
tinued toward phase line "Utah," and by 21 April UN 
forces were up against Chorwon, the southwestern 
pivot of the Iron Triangle. Van Fleet's line now began 
on the west coast near Kyodong, several miles above 
Inchon, moved sharply northward in a 45° angle to 
Chorwon, nearly 40 miles above the Parallel, and then 
eastward in an irregular line which skirted the 
Hwachon Reservoir and continued on to the east coast. 
Along this line forces of the United Nations were to 
meet the unleashed fury of the Communist counter- 
attack. 

Rotation System 

Beginning in December 1950 the Bureau of Naval 
Personnel instituted a system of rotation for chaplains 
serving with Marines in Korea. All who had had 6 to 
8 months of duty during the extremely difficult and 
hazardous opening months of the war were to be or- 
dered back stateside. The first to be relieved under 
the rotation system were the chaplains who had landed 
at Pusan with the Provisional Brigade. The first re- 
placements reported for duty on 7 January 1 95 1 . 

Chaplain Ingvoldstad, Regimental Chaplain of the 
5th Marines, was relieved by Chaplain Verner N. Carl- 
sen, who reported on 7 January. Ingvoldstad was 
ordered to the faculty of the newly reestablished Chap- 

7 See M. B. Ridgway, Soldier: The Memoirs of Matthew B. 
Ridgway (New York, 1956), p. 220 and ch. 27. For Ridg- 
way's account of his months as 8th Army commander, see chs. 
23 and following. 



55 



lain School, located at Newport, R.I. He was the first 
of the chaplains who had seen duty in Korea to be 
assigned to the school. 

Previously, in October 1950, Chaplain W. N. Lyons, 
already attached to the Division, had relieved Glyn 
Jones as Regimental Chaplain, 1st Marines, when 
Jones was ordered to the Personnel Distribution desk 
in the Chaplains Division. Chaplain Leslie L. O'Con- 
nor, reporting on 1 3 January, now relieved Craven as 
Regimental Chaplain, 7th Marines; Craven reported 
for duty in the Chaplains Division, in charge of the 
Ecclesiastical Relations desk. Chaplain Joseph C. 
Fitzgerald, who reported 14 January, followed Sporrer 
as Regimental Chaplain of the 11th Marines. Other 
chaplains reporting during this first major rotation 
were John M. Quirk (7 January), Solomon K. John- 
son (14 January), George C. Bingaman and Howard 
E. Waters ( both on 1 7 January ) . 

Division Chaplain R. M. Schwyhart was having 
personnel problems. Chaplain Preston D. Parsons, 
after a jeep accident on 20 January, was evacuated to 
Japan. Within 9 days all three chaplains in the 11th 
Marines (Sporrer, Howland, and Parsons) had been 
changed. Chaplain Van Antwerp was hospitalized 
after being wounded on 26 January. On 5 February 
Chaplain Carlsen was evacuated to Yokosuka after a 
flareup of peptic ulcers. On 6 February Chaplain 
Killeen was flown from the 1st Marines area to Divi- 
sion Hospital for an emergency appendectomy. Re- 
porting all these moves, Schwyhart added : 

It does seem that we have chaplain difficulties: two in the 
hospital and another evacuated within a period of 12 days. 
I have been keeping in close communication with all other 
chaplains, by jeep, telephone, and radio, and am glad to report 
that all is well with them. On Monday, 5 February, I went 
by plane to Masan to check on some items at our Adminis- 
trative Rear Echelon and to see Chaplains Ham, Engle, and 
Bingaman, whom I hadn't seen for 3 weeks, since my move 
north. 

Chaplain Francis W. Kelly, who had served tours of 
duty with the 1st and 2d Marine Divisions during 
World War II, receiving the Legion of Merit for 
heroism in combat, was ordered as the relief of Schwy- 
hart as the Division Chaplain. Chaplain Kelly had 
performed exceptional service with the Marines in the 
battles of Guadalcanal, Tarawa, and Okinawa. His 
courage and closeness to the fighting men was depicted 
in the movie Guadalcanal Diary, with the well-known 
actor Preston Foster portraying Chaplain Kelly. In 
The Marines Take Tarawa, a Marine Corps docu- 
mentary movie, Chaplain Kelly himself plays one of the 
principal roles. Kelly had been released to inactive 
duty in July 1946 but returned to active duty 4 years 



later when the Korean hostilities began. Before going 
to Korea, he served with the 2d Marine Aircraft Wing 
at Cherry Point, N.C. Because of his distinguished 
service with the Marines, he was sometimes known as 
the "Fighting Padre." Kelly relieved Schwyhart on 
20 February 1951. 

Other replacements were gradually made during the 
spring months of 195 J so that by June a complete 
turnover of chaplains attached to the 1st Marine Divi- 
sion had been completed. After the front line became 
more stabilized, the tour of duty for chaplains serving 
with Marines in Korea would be extended to 10 months 
and finally to a year. Following the Korean Armistice, 
the duty was lengthened from 12 to 15 months. 

Corps Expansion 

The expansion of the Nation's Armed Forces neces- 
sitated by the continuing war naturally made great 
demands on the Chaplain Corps. It was Chief of 
Chaplains S. W. Salisbury's policy to meet the need 
for more personnel through a voluntary and selective 
recall of chaplains in the Inactive Reserve. 

Chaplains desiring to offer their services submitted 
a request for active duty orders to the Chief of Naval 
Personnel. A selection board consisting of both of- 
ficers of the line and members of the Chaplains Di- 
vision reviewed their jackets, taking into consideration 
each applicant's record, as well as age, rank, and 
denomination. A chaplain was then either ordered to 
active duty or else placed in category II, the latter 
making him available in the event of total mobiliza- 
tion. 

As always the needs of the service determined selec- 
tion. In the nature of the case, the chaplains in the 
Reserve tended to fall into the higher grades, whereas 
the need was for younger men in the rank of lieutenant 
and lieutenant (junior grade). Denominational dis- 
tribution also naturally entered into the picture. Each 
applicant was advised that the necessary ecclesiastical 
endorsement was the individual's responsibility; and it 
proved necessary to warn applicants not to give up 
their civilian positions or otherwise make plans for 
entering upon active duty until officially notified by 
the Bureau of having been accepted. 

The Navy Chaplains Bulletin (spring-summer, 
1951) carried a summary of the chaplain personnel 
distribution picture. As of 15 April the Corps had 
743 allowances and 608 chaplains on active duty. Al- 
though 8 percent was allowed for contingent unavail- 
ability (chaplains in transit, on sick list, etc.), the ac- 
tual figure was proving nearer 12 percent, because of 
casualties in combat, a high rate of sickness among 



56 — 



chaplains, partly due to overwork, and the long travel 
time to and from the theater of war. 

Because activities in the combat area had priority 
for personnel, other activities suffered correspond- 
ingly. Allowances in certain types of ships were given 
up altogether; the optimum in training activities was 
75 percent of allowance. 

The rotation of chaplains in combat of course af- 
fected rotation throughout the Corps. Normal tours 
of continental shore duty were shortened by as much 
as 3 to 6 months, that at overseas bases correspond- 
ingly lengthened. On change-of-duty orders, 10 days 
leave was normally granted chaplains returning from 
sea-and-foreign-shore duty, 5 days for all leaving con- 
tinental shore duty. All chaplains were advised to 
take such leave as might be possible aboard a duty 
station. 

The Chief of Chaplains commended the way in 
which all hands were meeting the emergency and 
hoped that the policies then in operation would be 
sufficient to expand the Corps to meet the need with- 
out further undue strain upon the personnel already 
involved. 



New Division Chaplain 

Chaplain Schwyhart wrote to the Chief of Chap- 
lains on 16 February 1951 : 

On the eve of Chaplain Kelly's arrival and my detachment, 
I want to state that it has been a privilege to have served as 
Division Chaplain during this time. It has been no sine- 
cure ; rather very strenuous but at the same time rewarding. 
The chaplains in the Division have performed their duties 
in a traditionally excellent manner and it has been a privilege 
for me to coordinate our mutual efforts. 

In the same letter he reported that Van Antwerp was 
about ready to return to duty, that Killeen had had to 
be evacuated, and that replacements were needed for 
Van Antwerp, William Hearn, Reilly, and Lyons, in 
that order. 

A copy was enclosed of the Standing Operating Pro- 
cedure for the Chaplains Section of a Marine Division 
which had been submitted through Force Chaplain 
Kenneth D. Perkins to Fleet Marine Force, Pacific 
with recommendation for adoption. s 



8 For examples of a Standing Operating Procedure see app. 
C (Fleet Marine Force, Pacific) and app. D (1st Marine 
Division) . 



Chaplain Robert M. Schwyhart receives Bronze Star Medal from Maj. Gen. 

Division. 



O. P. Smith, commanding the 1st Marine 




— 57 — 



On 11 March the new Division Chaplain, F. W. 
Kelly, reported to the Chaplains Division the recent 
arrival of Chaplains Joseph D. McDonald, Henry E. 
Austin, and Henry H. Hayes. Chaplain O'Connor, 
Regimental Chaplain, 7th Marines had been evacu- 
ated because of illness. Kelly continued: 

At present our 1st and 7th regiments are moving forward, 
with the 5th ready in reserve. [This was during Operation 
Ripper.] Our CP [command post] moves right along be- 
hind. Since we are in possible artillery range, we must wear 
helmets at all times, and black out at nights. The rest of 
the Division is strung back as far as Masan. I feel that it is 
better for me to be in this forward CP where I can be in 



contact with the regiments, rather than in the rear where I 
would be out of contact except by dispatch. 

Later in March Kelly reported that Chaplain 
Joseph P. Trodd had reported on the 15th. Having 
advised some of the chaplains about due for rotation 
that dispatches had been received on their reliefs, he 
reported that one looked at him "like a fairy god- 
father who waved a magic wand." The rotation 
plan, he added, was having a "fine effect on the mo- 
rale of the chaplains." 

Kelly submitted the following roster on 31 March 
1951. 



Headquarters Bn F. W. Kelly 

Garson Goodman 

H. H. Hayes 

Motor Transport Bn J. P. Trodd 

Ordnance Bn Garson Goodman 



Engineer Bn K. M. Hearn 

Shore Party Bn K. d'A Engle 

Tank Bn W. M. Hearn 

Amphibious Tractor Bn G. C. Bingaman 

Service Bn A. J. Juntunen 

1st Marines J. D. McDonald. 

C. S. Pigott 

H. E. Austin 

5th Marines L. R. Phillips .... 

J. M. Quirk 

S. K. Johnson 
7th Marines J. S. Ferris 

E. I. Van Antwerp 

R. L. Patton 

1 1 th Marines J. C. Fitzgerald 

H. H. Groover . . 

H. E. Waters 

Medical Bn G. J. Reilly 

W. A. Rennie 
Combat Service Group W. N. Lyons 



CDR 


RC 


LTJG 


JEWISH 


LTJG 


DISC 


LT 


RC 


(TAD from Headquarters 




Bn) 




LT 


METH 


LTJG 


PE 


LTJG 


BAP (A) 


LTJG 


EVAN & REF 


LT 


LUTH 


LCDR 


RC 


LTJG 


BAP (S) 


LT 


BAP (A) 


LT 


CONG 


LT 


RC 


LT 


PRESBY (US, 


LT 


METH 


LT 


RC 


LTJG 


METH 


LCDR 


RC 


LTJG 


DISC 


LTJG 


BAP (S) 


LT 


RC 


LT 


METH 


LCDR 


BAP (A) 



Chaplain Field Training 

Chaplain James S. Ferris, reporting on 30 March, 
had informed Kelly that all chaplains ordered to the 
1st Division were now being routed via Marine Bar- 
racks, Camp Pendleton, Calif., for indoctrination and 
training. Camp Chaplain J. Floyd Dreith later re- 
ported on this program. " 'Last stop before Korea' 
is the phrase applied to Pendleton not only by the 
thousands of men sent out regularly as replacements 
for the 1st Marine Division but also by the chaplains 
going out to bring spiritual enlightenment, comfort 
and courage to those men." 



Marine Corps organization, procedure, and nomen- 
clature, official and slang, were studied so that the 
chaplain might know his way around. Refresher 
courses in first aid and conferences with medical 
officers suggested ways that chaplains could be of the 
greatest possible service in working with casualties. 
And not least, there was rigorous physical training, 
"lest the hills of Korea prove too much for an in- 
adequate flesh no matter how willing the spirit." 

Most important, the chaplain was trained in ways 
to render the most effective spiritual ministry. He 
was reminded that he would have a minimum theo- 



58 



logical library. Sermons, he was told, must eventually 
result from the hammering of actual experience with 
men in combat upon the anvil of one's own spiritual 
life. The chaplain was supplied with a compact 
Communion kit, told what supplies would be avail- 
able to him in Korea, and advised not to burden him- 
self with too much equipment in any case. One 
chaplain had written back to Dreith : 

I packed my pack and set out on Saturday morning to 
hold services in the 2d Battalion the following day. For 
8 days we climbed hills, each one a little steeper than its 
predecessor; I finally held my service one week later. I 
suggest that a chaplain take along as many hymnals as he 
can conveniently carry for 8 days up rugged mountains, in 
addition of course to a 60 pound pack. 

Chaplains Wounded 

Two chaplains — Eugene I. Van Antwerp and 
Charles S. Pigott — were wounded in action during the 
4th Korean campaign. Van Antwerp received a 
flesh wound as the result of enemy mortar fire on 26 
January. He was flown back to the Division Hos- 
pital by helicopter where he received treatment. 
Chaplain Schwyhart, reporting to the Chaplains Di- 
vision in a letter dated 1 February 1951, stated: 

The doctors advised that he would be ready for a return 
to duty in about 10 days. Chaplain Van Antwerp strongly 
desires to return to his 7th Marines. Our chaplains become 
extremely devoted to their units. 

Chaplain Van Antwerp was awarded the Bronze 
Star for heroism while under fire in an engagement 
which began 20 January and included the period up 
to the time of his being wounded on the 26th. This 
occurred during the Division's antiguerrilla mission. 
His citation reads in part as follows: 

On one occasion, when a rifle company on patrol in the 
vicinity of Chiso-dong, Korea, encountered a numerically 
superior enemy force and was held up by intense small arms 
and automatic weapons fire, with complete disregard for 
his own personal safety he voluntarily moved forward of 
the front lines, over open terrain, in order to rescue a 
wounded Marine. Throughout the entire action, he worked 
tirelessly and fearlessly in assisting in the treatment of 
wounded Marines until he was seriously wounded by enemy 
fire and had to be evacuated. 

Chaplain Charles S. Pigott received a slight wound 
in the hand on 7 March. He was not incapacitated 
for duty. Chaplain Pigott later received a Letter of 
Commendation "for excellent service in the line of 
his profession while serving as Chaplain with a Marine 
infantry battalion during operations against the enemy 
in Korea from 2 January to 10 May 1951." 
Chaplains Cited 

Three other chaplains were awarded citations dur- 



ing this campaign. Chaplain Henry E. Austin was 
honored with the Bronze Star and Chaplains Paul J. 
Knapp and Abner C. Cook with Letters of 
Commendation. 

Chaplain Austin served with the 2d Battalion, 1st 
Marines at the front line in the central sector of Korea 
north of Wonju from 3 March to 4 April, when the 
Division was engaged in Operations Killer and Ripper. 
In his report to the Regimental Chaplain following 
this duty Chaplain Austin described in some detail 
the nature of his work. This account may be taken 
as typical of the activities of all Navy chaplains who 
lived up to the ideals and traditions of the Chaplain 
Corps while serving in Korea under combat condi- 
tions. Austin wrote: 

The chaplain's zone of action was the battalion aid station, 
and at times our battalion aid station was as close as 20 yards 
from the fighting, and occasionally under fire. Since joining 
this battalion, I can sincerely say that none of our wounded 
has left the front without being seen by a chaplain. Through- 
out this portion of time, the 2d Bn had 102 men wounded in 
action, three of whom died as a result of wounds. In addi- 
tion five men were killed in action. In four out of the eight 
deaths. I was able to hold a closing prayer before the men 
died (two Catholic and two Protestant prayers). 

On 1 1 March, the 2d Bn "kicked off" on a forward push 
which was to take the men in various rifle companies on 
a ridge-hopping maneuver of anywhere from 50 to 65 miles 
up and down the steepest and most rugged terrain I have ever 
walked, much less carried a full pack. At night we were all 
so tired that we were just able to dig our "foxholes" before 
"hitting the rack." Suffice it is to say, the terrain was 
"terrific" ! 

On the afternoon and evening of 15 March, the 
battalion was under heavy fire. Chaplain Austin 
assisted the doctors and corpsmen in the evacuation 
and care of the wounded. "On that night," he re- 
ported, "it was impossible to evacuate two men . . . 
who were seriously wounded in the leg and groin by 
mortar fire. In both cases I helped Dr. Dow admin- 
ister serum albumen, in addition to trying to give 
spiritual comfort to men who were obviously dying." 
He also helped in the evacuation of 47 wounded men 
that day by helicopters, "which acted as 'Angels of 
Mercy' ". 

Carrying his violin with him to provide music, 
Austin managed during a month of most adverse 
conditions to hold 20 services, with an attendance of 
1,710, and 290 receiving communion. In addition the 
chaplain reported 33 "decisions for Christ" and 14 
baptisms. 

Men travel many avenues to God; in the extremi- 
ties of human experience some draw near to Him 
through fear. In the face of imminent death, the 



— 59 




Special Music. 
A quintet of marines add to the worship service which is conducted by Chaplain Henry E. Austin out of doors. 



values of life may stand out in clearer perspective. 
Some men, indifferent to other evangelical appeal, 
respond under circumstances when even the bravest 
are not ashamed to admit they are afraid. In any 
case men are likely to be more responsive to the min- 
istry of a man of God who is sharing their own ex- 
periences. Whatever may be the final truth concern- 
ing "combat conversion," there can be little doubt 
that the combat chaplain is in a position to influence 
many who would hardly otherwise come within reach 
of a religious ministry. 

Chaplain Austin was awarded the Bronze Star "for 
meritorious achievement in connection with opera- 
tions against the enemy while serving with a Marine 
infantry battalion in Korea from 19 March 1951 to 
4 April 1951." The citation continues in part: 

Serving as battalion chaplain, Lieutenant Austin con- 
sistently displayed outstanding courage and devotion to duty 



in ministering to the spiritual needs of the officers and men 
of the battalion. Frequently exposing himself without re- 
gard for his personal safety to intense enemy mortar, artil- 
lery, automatic weapons and small arms fire, he moved fear- 
lessly with forward elements of the battalion in order to 
better perform his duties. 

The two chaplains serving aboard the VALLEY 
FORGE received the Letter of Commendation for 
combat service in Korean waters for the period 25 
June 1950 to 22 March 1951. Paul J. Knapp, the 
Roman Catholic chaplain, received a citation which 
states in part : 

By his determination to make divine services and instruc- 
tions available at all times of the day or night to the Catholic 
personnel, he rendered invaluable support to the high morale 
of that ship. The crew of his ship and its air group were 
inspired to accomplish greater achievements by his untiring 
devotion to the objectives of uplifting men's spirits and 
morale; thus, he contributed immeasurably to the successful 
conclusion of the ship's mission. 



60 




Baptism. 

A Marine is baptized by Chaplain Solomon K. Johnson dur- 
ing a lull in the Korean fighting. 



Abner R. Cook, senior chaplain aboard the VAL- 
LEY FORGE and a Protestant, was likewise com- 
mended for meritorious service. His citation reads in 
part: 

Devoting himself with energy and tenacity to all phases 
of the mental health and welfare of the officers and men 
during the period of prolonged combat operations, he per- 
formed immeasurable service in maintaining high morale. 
His broad knowledge of spiritual needs in times of stress 
contributed greatly to the success of the operation. 

Chaplains at Work 

Not all chaplains serving with the Marines in 
Korea were in the combat zone nor were those at- 
tached to combat units on the front line all the time. 
As far as the exigencies of the situation allowed, com- 
bat battalions were rotated from the front lines to re- 
serve. The ordinary duties of a Navy chaplain con- 
tinued meanwhile. Divine Services were conducted, 
the sacraments administered, the sick and wounded 
visited, and countless numbers of consultations held. 
The difficulties attendant upon fighting a war became 
part of the normal routine. The unusual became 
the usual. Some of the chaplains reporting as re- 
placements arrived without having had field training, 
but for the most part quickly adapted themselves to 
the difficult conditions. 

The questionnaire sent out by the Chaplains Di- 
vision in the spring of 1954 asked for an account of 



experiences which would illustrate unusual activities 
or initiative on the part of chaplains. In reply to 
this, Chaplain James S. Ferris, who is entitled to wear 
three battle stars for service in Korea, wrote: "What- 
ever initiative I have shown or taken is typical of all 
chaplains." Chaplain Leslie L. O'Connor com- 
mented : 

I cannot claim any unusual activity or initiative out of the 
ordinary. I was there as a chaplain, pastor, friend, and 
comrade-without-arms during the guerrilla fighting between 
Andong and Pohang-Dong and during the first phase of 
"Operation Killer." 

He told of visiting isolated companies of Marines 
in the guerrilla country with the armed chow truck 
carrying hot food and noted how appreciative the 
men were to see a chaplain. "Their smiles and con- 
versation," wrote O'Connor, "was like the winsome 
gratefulness of a tired puppy." 

Chaplains belonging to denominations practicing 
baptism by immersion often made use of clear running 
streams for that purpose. On one occasion Chaplain 
Austin baptized six Marines in the Pukhan River, 
while a congregation of native Koreans and military 
personnel gathered on the makeshift bridge over the 
swiftly flowing river. 

An interesting and potentially dangerous episode in 
the UN advance concerns this same river. Rising in 
the mountains of North Korea the Pukhan flows into 
the Hwachon Reservoir and thence southeastward to 
its confluence with the Han River near Seoul. On 
9 April the enemy opened several sluice gates of the 
Hwachon dam, thus destroying bridges on the lower 
river and providing a serious obstacle to the UN ad- 
vance as the waters of the lower Pukhan rose swiftly. 9 
A task force dispatched to wrest control of the dam 
failed; but the opening of the sluices actually affected 
UN operations less than had been feared and the 
mission was abandoned. 

Chaplain George C. Bingaman described an unfor- 
gettable Communion service which he conducted as 
follows : 

The service near Yangu in a rice paddy located near one 
of our Marine artillery battalions was interrupted by sniper 
fire directed at the chaplain preaching the communion ser- 
mon. It was the only time in my ministry where the con- 
gregation told the chaplain what the next act of the service 
was to be. I "hit the deck" like every other worshipping 
Marine, especially after they shouted to me to do so. 

The coincidence was most unusual. I had been develop- 
ing the point in my sermon on "faith" that this attitude 
was an everyday feeling of confidence in God. At this point 
came the sniper interlude. This served excellently to illus- 



Miller el al., op. cit., pp. 25f. 



61 



trate the second point which I was to make — that faith is 
also common sense. One should not ask God to do what 
you can do for yourself. In this case it was divine expedi- 
ency to "duck" rather than to depend completely upon God 
to influence the sniper to miss his aim in your direction. 
This unusual incident has always been a lesson to me illus- 
trating the fact that God expects us to do as much as we can 
for ourselves, including the protection and safeguarding of 
men, women, and children from aggression and attack. 

Chaplain Garson Goodman was the Jewish chap- 
lain with the 1st Marine Division from 6 July 1950 
to 22 May 1951. While his peculiar responsibility 
was a ministry to men of the Jewish faith in the 
Division, he found many opportunities to serve men 
of other faiths and to assist in the work for civilian 
refugees and orphans. Commenting on his work, 
Chaplain Goodman wrote: 

Not only did I carry out my duties as the only Jewish 
Chaplain for the entire Division, but I also served men of all 
faiths in my battalion. On one occasion while assigned to 
the medical battalion, I went without sleep for a 48-hour 
period serving the wounded and assisting the corpsmen as 
necessary. While attached to the Ordnance Battalion, I 
saw to it that a chapel was built for the specific purpose of 
worship. I set up a smoothly running library, and for the 
first time all the men were well supplied with writing paper, 
pens, and all toilet articles which I had "procured" from 
stateside organizations and other sources. In addition to 
being the chaplain, I was the special services officer and li- 
brarian. The greatest satisfaction derived was that the men 
found a true friend in their chaplain under all circumstances. 

Easter 1951 

Nor were other Navy chaplains any less busy. 
Easter Day was on 25 March in 1951, and was every- 
where celebrated with appropriate religious observ- 
ances. Chaplain E. R. Barnes reported a Sunrise 
Service on the flight deck of the PHILIPPINE SEA 
for not only his ship's personnel but all forces afloat in 
Yokosuka harbor. Chaplain Arthur J. Wartes, on 
board the repair ship JASON since October 1950, also 
reported a sunrise service on the top deck. Doubtless 
there were many others. 

The following account by Chaplain Charles H. 
Swift, Jr., was sent in as part of his questionnaire 
reply. 

On Easter Day, 1951, services were conducted at Naval 
Air Facility, Oppama, outdoors, as the chapel space was too 
small. An LST which had been converted to an ARVE 
[aircraft repair ship (engine)], the USS AVENTINUS, was 
moored bow first at the seaplane ramp. With the bow doors 
open and the ramp down, this formed a setting for the altar. 
The ship's company had made a large white cross which 
hung in the opening against a background of blue curtains. 
Greenery and flowers decorated the opening and formed a 
frame around it. The altar and pulpit were set up on the 
ramp. This beautiful setting, with the sun coming up in 



the East, recalled to mind that beautiful song, "Let Us 
Break Bread Together on Our Knees." 

Oppama is fairly close to the great port city of Yoko- 
suka. The Naval Air Facility was mainly concerned 
with the maintenance and repair of carriers and air- 
craft. 

Chaplain James D. Hester, aboard the THOMAS 
JEFFERSON, a transport operating under MSTS, 
Pacific, out of San Francisco, from January to July 
1951, wrote in his questionnaire of Easter celebrations 
as the ship carried personnel replacements toward the 
Far East. 

The chaplain had made provision before leaving stateside 
to provide as fully as possible for all the familiar decorations. 
These were used in both the Protestant and Catholic serv- 
ices. This particular group of replacements was landed at 
Pusan, airlifted to the perimeter of the forward battle line, 
and three days after leaving the ship committed to battle. 
On the next trip out it was learned that this group had suf- 
fered heavy casualties — about thirty per cent. It was com- 
forting to the chaplain to remember that only 10 days previ- 
ously they had knelt on the deck at the Communion Table 
and received the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. 

In the 1st Marine Division, as far as operations al- 
lowed, special services were planned for Holy Week 
and Easter. During Holy Week weather had been 
pleasant but it rained all day on Easter. Travel was 
difficult as the chaplains "rode the circuit" of their 
several separated units. Chaplain G. C. Bingaman, 
stationed with the Amphibious Tractor Battalion, held 
a service which he later described in the following 
fashion. 




Easter— 1951. 

Chaplain R. E. Jenkins holds an Easter sunrise service for the 
5th Marines. 



62 




Mass is said by Chaplain Joseph Fitzgerald. 



Shoes. 

In deference to Korean custom, marines attending worship 
at Poon-suwon Church leave their dusty field shoes at 
the entrance, alongside the sandals worn by Korean 
worshippers. 



In Masan, Korea, 1951, there was a most unusual Easter 
Day. Seven Korean Protestant congregations had commit- 
ted themselves and their choirs to worship with us in a 
beautiful mountain spot overlooking the local harbor. Their 
combined choirs had rehearsed frequently. The Marines 
erected a huge cross constructed from the native pine trees. 
The service was anticipated with a great deal of interest. 

On Easter morning a steady downpour of rain ruled out 
any thought of an outdoor sen-ice. Many Marines assumed 
the chaplain would cancel the service. However, we had 
an emergency plan — to set up indoor services in our Motor 
Transport area. Fifty Marines braved the elements to at- 
tend the indoor service. Most of us began to feel, like many 
who had stayed in their sleeping bags, that the Koreans 
would not come because of the storm. 

A few minutes before the service time our trucks arrived 
in camp with almost 100 Koreans, dressed in their finest, 
soaked to the skin because they had no protection from the 
rain. They sang the great hymns of Christendom while they 
approached our area. Never before in so dismal a situation 
had I celebrated a more triumphant Day of Resurrection. 

Korean Christians 

Contacts with Korean Christians became a normal 
part of the experience of all the chaplains serving 
there. On many occasions Koreans attended Divine 
Services conducted by the chaplains. Joseph D. Mc- 
Donald described one such experience. 

While offering Mass in a valley, about 75 Korean civilians 
were in attendance. Where they came from was doubtful. 
The area was under attack not infrequently. Their mani- 
festation of faith and gratitude was indeed a source of edifi- 
cation even to the troops. 

The chaplain was called to baptize a 2-year-old infant. 
No missionary had been in that area for over 2 years. 

Often chaplains were able to conduct services for 
the Koreans. Chaplain Thomas B. Uber II reported 



holding weekly services for "120 South Koreans at- 
tached to a labor battalion assigned to my unit," 
speaking through an interpreter. At the request of 
the United Nations Command, the Republic of Ko- 
rea had organized a Civil Transport Corps, largely 
members of the ROK National Guard who lacked 
sufficient training for military service. Willing na- 
tive laborers were plentiful, for they received not only 
food and clothing but also pay. Formed into com- 
panies, they were especially useful during the spring 
of 1951 ; working their way forward on foot, carrying 
tremendous loads on the traditional "A-frame" sup- 
ported on their backs, these native laborers furnished 
logistical support for the northward drive when mili- 
tary vehicles were often bogged to the hubs in heavy 
mud. 

When Chaplain Joseph C. Fitzgerald heard con- 
fessions, said Mass and gave Communion to a con- 
gregation of about 100 Koreans and 40 Marine artil- 
lerymen in the bullet-pocked church in Poon-suwon, 
those Koreans had the ministry of their church for 
the first time since invading Communists had mur- 
dered their native priest the summer before. As re- 
ported by combat correspondent Sergeant Ted Sell. 
USMCR, there were among the women with their 
immaculately white linen headpieces only five men, 
four grandfathers and one cripple; the rest were off 
fighting. During the service American bombers 
droned overhead; outside a bulldozer pulled off the 
road to allow an ambulance to pass on its way to the 
rear. Once more a chaplain of the Navy had ful- 
filled his duty as a servant of man and God; scenes 



63 — 



vary and circumstances change, but the Word of God 
standeth ever sure. 

Special Services 

Chaplains have long been concerned with morale 
activities as well as their more distinctively religious 
ministry. Indeed, on occasion some commands have 
seemed to treat their Chaplain Section as a glorified 
recreation department. Sometimes individual chap- 
lains have gone along with such an interpretation of 
their duties; under some circumstances chaplains have 
become involved in serious difficulties because of dis- 
agreements with their commands over the extent and 
character of their collateral duties. Since moral char- 
acter, spiritual vitality, and high morale are likely to 
be intimately related, written directives are not usually 
sufficient to define precisely the chaplain's duties 
within the command responsibility for the total wel- 
fare of its personnel. 

Cooperation with Navy Relief and American Red 
Cross activities, the administration of libraries, the or- 
ganization and execution of athletic and recreational 
programs — these and many more collateral duties have 
fallen to the lot of chaplains. In general those serving 
with Marines have had fewer such assignments than 
those serving other naval activities, especially, of 
course, in ships. A Marine Division has a Special 
Services Section, operated on every echelon from divi- 
sion throughout battalion; its duties, like those of the 
Chaplain Section, are spelled out by official regula- 
tions but their implementation naturally varies with 
circumstances. 

On 31 March Division Chaplain Kelly wrote to the 
Chief: 

I had quite a discussion with our Division special services 
officer, Lieutenant Colonel Batham, about where there might 
be confusion or overlapping of our [respective duties.] I had 
in mind particularly the recommendation of your meeting of 
District and Force Chaplains concerning collateral duties. 
We both are of the opinion that most commanding officers 
have no idea of the large scope of special services. They be- 
lieve that a special services officer merely arranges ball games, 
shows and movies. 

So we decided to draw up a resume of special services 
duties and chaplain duties, [then] visit the various command- 
ing officers and discuss the entire problem. [We hoped] to 
give the CO's a clearer view of the importance of special 
services with the hope that better fitted officers be assigned to 
that post, who will not have to depend on the chaplain. 

When asked if the special services officer could be a chap- 
lain, I agreed with qualifications. And they were, that I 
would first discuss the situation with the individual chaplains 
in the smaller units and if they feel that they could first do a 
100 percent job as a chaplain [and then] have reasonable time 
to devote to special services, it would be agreeable. However, 



with the larger units, such as regiments, I felt that being a 
chaplain was a full time job. 

So when we have threshed this out completely, armed with 
the Special Services Manual, Chaplain's Manual, Marine 
Corps Manual, and the recommendations of your conference, 
we will approach the Chief of Staff. If he agrees, we will 
approach the unit CO's. The two of us appearing together 
will remove any thought of conflict between departments, or 
that I am trying to get the chaplains out of something rea- 
sonably in their department. Colonel Batham is whole- 
heartedly in favor of this solution and feels that it will benefit 
his department. 

Relief Work 

One of the notable aspects of the work of Navy 
chaplains in Korea during and especially after hos- 
tilities was the extensive relief work carried on under 
their direction for thousands of Korean refugees. 

Reference was made in his answer to the question- 
naire by Chaplain Lawrence R. Phillips, a Protestant, 
to what was doubtless the first work of Marines with 
Korean orphans. He wrote: 

Upon entry of Inchon I found the Catholic church with 
some 40 orphans. Through cooperation with Marine author- 
ities food, medicine, and clothes were gathered for the im- 
mediate relief of the situation. 

Soon such charitable endeavor became a normal 
part of the work of chaplains and Marines. Chaplain 
Schwyhart wrote to Chief of Chaplains S. W. Salisbury 
on 16 February 1951: 

A great portion of this week has been devoted to the dis- 
tribution of 800 boxes of Marine Corps League gifts of cloth- 
ing, shoes, and toys given by the children of American 
Marines to the children of Korea. In cooperation with the 
civil affairs officer, we made distribution in 5 cities and vil- 
lages to an estimated 15,000 children. It was an experience 
I shall not soon forget. 

In his reply to the questionnaire Schwyhart enlarged 
on that particular effort. He wrote: 

During the first week in February 1951, at which time the 
1st Marine Division was in the area of Pohang-dong on the 
east coast of central Korea, a large shipment of clothing, 
shoes, and toys arrived by LST from Pusan. This shipment, 
totaling about 800 boxes, had been collected in east coast 
cities of the United States by the Marine Corps League and 
shipped to the 1st Marine Division for distribution to children 
in Korea. The commanding general of the 1st Marine Di- 
vision appointed me to organize the distribution. A staff of 
several officers and many enlisted Marines aided in the dis- 
tribution at three local points in the area of Pohang-dong. 
It was estimated that approximately 25,000 children received 
some item of clothing, shoes, or a toy on the date of distribu- 
tion, which was 12 February 1951. The mayor of the city of 
Pohang-dong and all school principals aided in organizing 
the civilian community in the distribution of clothing. 

If the number of distribution centers had been reduced 
from 5 to 3, the estimated number of children had 



■64- 



risen from 15,000 to 25,000. Perhaps the chaplain had 
received further information! Still, nothing can dim 
the luster of what was in fact a notable example of 
American philanthropy and Christian brotherhood. 

After the front lines became more established, the 
chaplains were later able to organize their relief work 
on a more permanent basis. Individual units of the 
fighting forces often accepted the responsibility of sup- 
porting a Korean orphanage in whole or in part. The 
pitiable condition of the homeless waifs of Korea 
gripped the hearts of the American service men. 
Chaplain W. M. Hearn described how the men of his 
unit sometimes "adopted" orphans. Hearn wrote: 

One time when we moved out we had three little girls who 
had lost their parents. We took them back to a MG [military 
government] unit to be sent to a home, but the whole company 
were like a bunch of bereaved parents. The fathers in the 
HQ company who had little girls at home helped to take care 
of them. When we gave them a bath we found that they 
each wore five to seven dresses, all of their worldly goods. 

At another time we left a boy at an orphanage and found 
him back in 2 days — a walk of several miles. Many times we 
had Koreans in our church services. One boy was quite dis- 
turbed by the undignified slouch of our men during services. 
As he demonstrated, they should sit erect with folded hands or 
bow their heads and hold their hands together during prayer. 




Many of the chaplains wrote letters to churches, 
service clubs, relief organizations, and individuals in 
the States urging them to send clothing, toys, and 
other needed items to be given to the needy and desti- 
tute children of Korea, innocent pawns of war. 

Particularly impressive was the initiative shown by 
the Marines in contributing money, materials, and 
labor for the rebuilding of churches, schools, and 
orphanages. The generosity of the Marines confronted 
by the needs of civilian Korean refugees proved to be 
a constantly recurrent theme throughout the story of 
UN operations there. 

Marine Air Wing 

After the evacuation at Hungnam the 1st Marine 
Aircraft Wing had found itself involved in the re- 
location problems of the 5th Air Force. Only a 
limited number of usable fields were available; and 
with the fall of Kimpo in the January Communist 
offensive Far East Air Forces, the senior air com- 
mand, had pulled many of its units back to Itazuke, 
Japan, including the jet aircraft which could not 
operate from any of the available Korean fields. 
Headquarters of the 5th Air Force, as well as that 
of 8th Army, were installed at Taegu. 

Maj. Gen. Field Harris, Commanding General of 
the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, settled both his Wing 
headquarters and those of both Marine Aircraft 
Group 12 and Marine Aircraft Group 33 at Itami, 
the Air Force base near Osaka, Japan which had been 
assigned the Wing in August 1950 by agreement be- 
tween Commanding General, Far East Air Forces and 
the Commander, Naval Forces Far East. 10 Itami had 
been all along the Wing's center for personnel re- 
assignment, supply, and repair. On 10 January 1951 
there began a giant airlift of personnel replacements 
from the West Coast, and eventually Itami became 
the air terminal for Marines en route to the Division 
in Korea. 

After helping cover 8th Army's withdrawal in 
western Korea, operating off the carriers SICILY, 
BADOENG STRAIT, and BATAAN, the tactical 
squadrons were at Itami for repairs and training. 
When in February they returned to combat the 



Guide. 

Chaplain R. L. Patton leads two small children to safety 
somewhere near the front. 



10 Brief notices in Lynn Montross, "Buttoning up the 
Offensive: The Marines in Operation Killer," Marine Corps 
Gazette (February 1952), pp. 35f; Montross, "Advance to the 
38th Parallel: The Marines in Operation Ripper," Marine 
Corps Gazette (March 1952), p. 21. 

The author was kindly permitted by Mr. Montross, of the 
Historical Branch, G-3, Marine Corps Headquarters, to 
read the first draft of vol. IV, the official Marine Corps his- 
tory of operations during the period here under consider- 
ation. Ch. I (Addendum: Redeployment of the 1st Marine 
Aircraft Wing) and ch. II are concerned with the Air Wing. 



65 



various squadrons came under direct Air Force con- 
trol, and were no longer immediately at the call of 
Marine ground units in accordance with Navy-Marine 
Corps close air support doctrine. By March first six 
squadrons were in combat, four operating from Pusan, 
one from Pohang, and one carrier-based. During the 
UN counteroffensive they supported other 8th Army 
units as well as the 1st Marine Division. 

The 1st Marine Aircraft Wing was awarded a Re- 
public of Korea Presidential Unit Citation for its 
support of the United Nations effort, from 3 August 
1950 to 26 February 1951. The earlier date marks 
the 1st Marine air strike over Korea, by eight Cor- 
sairs of VMF-214, operating from the SICILY. 

Air Wing Chaplains 

Concerning the chaplains Wing Chaplain John P. 
Murphy wrote to the Chief of Chaplains on 18 April 
as follows: 

Since the middle of February MAG 33 has occupied a field 
near Pohang and Chaplains [John H.] Markley and [Charles 
E.] Webb are stationed there. The Wing and MAG 12 
have been together near Pusan and Chaplain [George W.] 
Cummins and I have been there. 

While we have provided fair coverage we have not done 
as good a job as we should and would if we were up to T/O 
strength. There has been a great increase in the number of 
personnel attached to Marine Tactical Air Control Squadron 
and their T/O calls for a chaplain. They are scattered all 
over and it is tough not to be able to care for their small 
groups. 

This has left the Marine Wing Service Squadron at Itami 
with Marine and Naval personnel numbering one thousand 
to be cared for by Catholic civilian clergy and an Air Force 
Protestant chaplain. 

Now a couple of squadrons of MAG 12 have been sent to 
Seoul and I have not yet decided how best to cover them. 
It was because of this pressure that the Commanding Gen- 
eral on 22 March sent the following dispatch to BuPers. 

From: C. G. 1st MAW 
To: BuPers 
Infor: CMC 

Table organization 1st Marine Air Wing presently under- 
strength two chaplains X Wide dispersion units this com- 
mand necessitates complement X one Catholic one Protes- 
tant needed to accomplish mission. 

Far be it from me to attempt to say what is going to hap- 
pen in Korea and what future disposition the Air Force is 
going to make of the 1st MAW, but with the present setup 
there should be, as the T/O provides, two chaplains with 
each MAG, one with MTACS, and one with the Wing. 
Further there should be one more chaplain to take care of 
MWSS1, the Wing's service squadron at Itami . . . There 
are several Army hospitals in the Osaka-Kobe area and a 
number of Marine and Navy casualties are sent there. Liai- 
son work as well as taking care of our own will keep a 
chaplain as busy as a cat on a tin roof. 



At Pohang the chaplains of Marine Aircraft Group 
33 secured from their Commanding Officer two 
Quonset huts to be erected into a chapel. There was 
one hitch: assembling a Quonset hut requires the use 
of no less than 5,500 screws! Two Quonset huts, 
11,000 screws! Chaplain Webb wrote in his ques- 
tionnaire: 

About 20 Marines cooperated without hesitation or com- 
plaint in this thankless task during their off duty hours. [Both 
Catholics and Protestants], they had been subjected to the 
very poor acoustics of a large and "holey" hospital tent and 
realized its deficiencies in contrast to the relative solidity of 
the Quonset hut for Divine Services. 

Noting that these Marines sacrificed their time and 
energy ungrudgingly, he added: 

While this kind of spirit endures, we chaplains know that 
there will always be a definite, concerted core of strength on 
the side of God. 

He concluded: "I did not remain long enough in 
Korea to witness the finished product but have heard 
that Chaplain Cleaves carried the project to a suc- 
cessful completion." 

Seaborne Artillery 

While UN ground and air forces continued their 
assault against the Chinese Communists, naval forces 
prosecuted their assigned missions with vigor and suc- 
cess. According to the authors of The Sea War in 
Korea ll there were five ways in which the Navy kept 
the Communists on the run after UN forces resumed 
the offensive following the forced withdrawals of De- 
cember and early January 1951 . Amphibious demon- 
strations were made again and again; mindful of the 
decisive nature of the Inchon landing, the Reds were 
sensitive to the danger of surprise attack and of course 
never knew, until the critical moment had passed, 
whether such movements were feints (as they were) 
or the "real McCoy." 

Further contributing to keeping the enemy off- 
balance were frequent commando raids put ashore and 
covered by naval gunfire. Heavy bombardment was 
utilized to lay siege to important Communist ports, 
notably Wonsan ; there round-the-clock interdiction 
began on 16 February and continued to the beginning 
of the armistice, on 27 July 1953, the longest such 
operation in modern American naval history. 12 Be- 
sides Wonsan two other east coast ports, Hungnam 
and Songjin, in the far north, were besieged. 

A fourth technique was naval gunfire against the 



" Cagle and Manson, op. cit., pp. 305f. 
13 Ibid., ch. 12. 



66 



coastal flanks of the enemy frontline, directed by for- 
ward reconnaissance upon enemy troop, armament, 
and supply concentrations. And finally, along the 
enemy's exposed coastline, bombardment was main- 
tained unremittingly against all major military targets, 
inflicting both physical and psychological damage. 

Seaborne Padres 

Illustrative of the difficulties under which chaplains 
carried on their ministry during this period are sev- 
eral paragraphs from the questionnaire reply of Chap- 
lain Oscar J. Harris, who was attached to Destroyer 
Squadron 16 from August 1950 to September 1951. 
He wrote, in part, as follows: 

On a destroyer in the combat area Divine Services were 
not conducted according to schedule. A time might be set, 
but chances were the schedule would be interrupted. In 
many instances the chaplain would have to wait until after 
the evening meal. . . . 

Attendance was good considering the difficult routine the 
men had to endure. Their rest periods were interrupted by 
constant general quarters and watch-standing. Every op- 
portunity they had to "sack in" they took full advantage of. 

In one instance the chaplain was conducting a service 
when general quarters sounded. The sonarmen thought a 
submarine was lurking in nearby waters. After a 2-hour 
chase and discharging several depth charges, it was discov- 
ered that a few whales had been playing havoc on the sonar 
gear. Result : no Divine Service. 

Duty of a different sort is illustrated by the following 
excerpts from a letter to Chaplain Salisbury on 15 
February 1951, in which Chaplain Edward E. Helmich 
told of his work in the amphibious flagship MOUNT 
McKINLEY. 

We have just completed a very successful campaign for 
the March of Dimes and the Ship's Company and Staff re- 
sponded with a total of $1,422 collected and sent via chan- 
nels to the national foundation. The average came to $1.74 
per person. 

Attendance at Divine Service has showed a marked in- 
crease, and what pleases me especially is the large percentage 
of officers attending. . . . There has also been a definite 
upswing in attendance at the Sacrament of Holy Communion. 
Then too, a Sunday Bible Class, recently organized with an 
average attendance of 27 thus far, indicates a definite interest 
and appreciation for such a class. 

Several weeks ago I was able to secure the Korean Navy 
Information and Education Music Group — a 45-piece sym- 
phony orchestra and 60-voice choral group — for a series of 
3 concerts. All of us were more than pleased with the 
renditions. 

The Bridge of Toko-ri 

Diverted from their attack upon Yalu River bridges, 
carrier planes of Task Force 77 were employed from 
the end of January 1951 in attempting to disrupt the 



railway network in eastern Korea over which rein- 
forcements and supplies were moving to the front. 13 
Three main lines running south from Manchuria pro- 
vided plenty of targets: 956 bridges and 231 tunnels, 
an average of 1 bridge every 1.2 miles of track, 1 
tunnel every 5. 

On 2 March a PRINCETON pilot spotted the 
nearly perfect target: a six-span bridge 600 feet long 
and sixty feet above the floor of what the flyers came 
to call "Carlson's Canyon," a tunnel at each end, and 
paralleled by a partially completed second bridge. It 
was this which became James Michener's Bridge of 
Toko-ri. Exactly a month was spent bombing it; 
again and again the Reds desperately repaired it, until 
finally they took the only alternative and built a by- 
pass through the canyon on low ground. 

Involved in this "struggle to strangle" were the 
carriers VALLEY FORGE, PRINCETON, and 
PHILIPPINE SEA. On 27 March "Old Faithful," 
the VALLEY FORGE, was relieved by the BOXER, 
aboard which was the first carrier air group composed 
of organized Naval Air Reserve Squadrons to see duty 
in Korea. The LEYTE had left the Korean theater 
on 19 January. Concerning her skipper Chaplain 
C. A. Frame later recalled: 

The captain of our ship was (and is) a fine man. If he 
had a problem troubling him, he would call the chaplain in 
and ask for spiritual guidance. We usually ended by having 
prayer together. I felt that those talks and prayers helped 
in some way to clarify his mind and make it easier for him 
to carry on his difficult mission. Needless to say, it always 
made the chaplain feel very humble and inadequate. 

PatRons 

The necessary but largely routine activities of sup- 
port groups tend to get lost in the backwash of the 
"shootin' war." Everyone recalls the poignantly hu- 
morous efforts of "Mister Roberts" to get a transfer 
from his rusty supply ship to the firing lines of World 
War II. In the Korean War, as always, various units 
devoted themselves to the faithful performance of 
duties almost guaranteed never to make a stateside 
headline. 

Among such were the Navy patrol squadrons (Pat- 
Rons) whose vigilance added greatly to the effec- 
tiveness of 7th Fleet operations in the Far East. 14 
Surveillance of merchant shipping, antisubmarine 
patrol, weather reconnaissance, aerial mine spotting 
and destruction, occasional flaredrops for Marine 
night-fighting planes and naval gunfire target spot- 
ting, and even logistical transport — such were the 



13 Ibid., pp. 229-236. 

14 Ibid., ch. 10 and app. V. 



.".::,-.;j32 O— 60- 



— 67 



duties of men rarely in the limelight except when rare 
encounters with Chinese aircraft or surface vessels 
momentarily emphasized their continuing contribu- 
tion. 

Under overall control of Fleet Air Japan, the 
PatRons, both land and seaplanes, were grouped in 
two headquarters. Fleet Air Wing Six at Itwakuni, 
Japan, with three to five squadrons plus seaplane 
tenders, was responsible for operations in the vicinity 
of Japan and Korea, from Siberia south to Okinawa. 
Fleet Air Wing one, consisting of one land-based 
squadron (at Naha, Okinawa) and one seaplane 
squadron aboard a tender, exercised surveillance of the 
international sea lanes south through the East China 
Sea and the Straits of Formosa to the Philippines. Its 
tender anchored off the Pescadores Islands except 
when typhoons forced them to sea. 

Based in the Pescadores were some 40,000 Chinese 
Nationalist troops. No Americans had been seen there 
since World War II. There were nothing but squalid 
villages ashore and consequently no liberty for naval 
personnel. Chaplain William W. Parkinson served 
in the seaplane tender PINE ISLAND, first at Iwa- 
kuni and after June 1951 off the Pescadores. In an 
interview with the author Parkinson recalled the situa- 
tion. Swimming was prohibited, though occasionally 
the men were allowed ashore long enough to play 
baseball. It was naturally difficult to maintain esprit. 
The men were bored, their work was monotonous, and 
like many others they wondered why they were there 
at all. As the only Navy chaplain in the Formosan 
area, Parkinson ministered to the ship's company and 
the flyers who were running daily patrol missions, try- 
ing to meet some of their needs with daily religious 
services and by regular, sustained contact with all 
personnel. - 

Parkinson was followed in the PINE ISLAND by 
Robert L. McCachran in May 1952. The SALIS- 
BURY SOUND had as its first chaplain Daniel M. 
Jordan, after October 1950, and then Richard P. 
Chase, after August 1952. 

MSTS 

At the outbreak of Korean hostilities George W. 
Thompson was Staff Chaplain, Deputy Commander, 
Military Sea Transport Service, Pacific, in San Fran- 
cisco. In assigning Thompson to this new billet Chief 
of Chaplains S. W. Salisbury had written on 30 Sep- 
tember 1949: 

We will keep you informed of developments but you can 
know that it will be your responsibility to insure perfect in- 
tegration of Navy chaplains into this new type work as we 



take over from the Army between 1 October 1949 and 1 
April 1950. 

The Military Sea Transport Service had been or- 
ganized in 1949 as part of the unification program, 
to handle all ocean transportation of both personnel 
and materiel for all the Armed Forces. The responsi- 
bilities of the Chaplain Corps in this development 
were set forth by Chaplain Salisbury in a Memoran- 
dum of 3 October 1949 to all Fleet, Force, and Dis- 
trict Chaplains, from which the following extracts are 
taken. 

In accordance with this policy, present plans call for a 
chaplain to be attached to the Staff of Deputy Commander, 
MSTS, Atlantic Area (New York City), Deputy Com- 
mander, MSTS, Pacific Area (San Francisco, Calif.), and 
Deputy Commander, MSTS, North Pacific Area (Seattle, 
Wash.). Chaplains being nominated for these billets are: 
Chaplain George W. Thompson for San Francisco, Chaplain 
Daniel S. Rankin for New York, and Chaplain Seth E. An- 
derson for Seattle. It is planned to cover the Gulf Area 
(New Orleans) by giving additional duty to the District 
Chaplain, 8th Naval District. A chaplain from the Chap- 
lains Division, BuPers, will have additional duty on the Staff 
of Headquarters, MSTS, in the Navy Department. All 
other chaplains assigned to the MSTS will serve aboard the 
vessels of this service. 

At least one-tenth of our Corps will be in this given field 
at all times. The whole rotation schedule may have to be 
revamped with a return to the old days when there was 
more Sea Duty than Shore Duty. All chaplains assigned 
to MSTS will have the responsibility of not only doing their 
immediate job, but also of setting a pattern that will con- 
tinue the high standard of service for which the Navy is 
noted and in which our Corps takes pride. 

The transfer of ships and embarkation facilities 
from Army to MSTS took place during the following 
months with less difficulty than might have been the 
case; and fortunately so, for midsummer 1950 brought 
skyrocketing demands upon sea transport. Of Chap- 
lain Seth E. Anderson, Staff Chaplain, MSTS, North 
Pacific, the Army Port of Embarkation chaplain had 
written to the Chief: 

This transfer . . . could prove to be a difficult project 
should understanding and cooperation be lacking by any par- 
ties concerned. Chaplain Anderson's fairness, sincerity, and 
enthusiastic willingness to cooperate makes a difficult prob- 
lem easier to solve. 

If all Navy chaplains assigned to MSTS measure up to 
the high standard which Chaplain Anderson has already es- 
tablished [here], there will be no occasion for the least con- 
cern on your part about the success of chaplains who are un- 
dertaking this new project under your supervision. 

Chaplain Anderson was relieved by Chaplain Edgar 
C. Andrews, who reported 14 September 1950. 
Chaplain Thompson served in San Francisco from 
October 1949 to October 1952. Bv 1 March 1950, 



when the Navy assumed full command responsibility 
for MSTS, he had completed the indoctrination of 
all the chaplains assigned duty in ships of MSTS, Pa- 
cific, written a syllabus for their guidance in program 
planning, and taken responsibility for supplying audio- 
visual equipment and religious supplies to all ships of 
the command. Later he took on the further job of 
procuring and shipping, in the custody of MSTS 
ships' chaplains, religious supplies for the use of chap- 
lains in the war theater. 

Chaplains assigned MSTS duty were attached to 
the headquarters command and under the direction 
of the supervisory chaplains rotated among the various 
ships to meet the greatest need. While aboard, chap- 
lains were temporarily attached to the Military De- 
partment of the vessel. 
Itinerating 

The plan may be illustrated by reference to the 
questionnaire replies of several of the chaplains. John 
W. Myrose, for instance, wrote: 

[I was] attached to Military Sea Transportation Service, 
North Pacific Sub Area, Seattle, Wash., for duty afloat 
aboard USNS transports operating between Seattle and the 
Far East. This duty was from 25 August 1950 to 25 August 
1952. Because of a shortage of chaplains there was a rota- 
tion from one ship to another. I was aboard the following 
ships at various times in both Japanese and Korean waters: 
USNS JAMES O'HARA, USNS GEN. LEROY ELTINGE, 
USNS PVT. SADAO S. MUNEMORI, USNS MARINE 
PHOENIX, and USNS GEN. R. L. HOWZE. 

He reported a high percentage of attendance at Di- 
vine Services, daily and Sunday, on both east and west 
crossings. "Over 8,600 men attended services dur- 
ing one round trip during which a total of 12,000 were 
aboard, 3,000 at a time." 

Chaplain Cecil V. Marley had served in two differ- 
ent transports under MSTS, North Pacific, before the 
Korean War began. From August 1950 to November 
1951 he was in the SITKOH BAY, an aircraft car- 
rier operating under MSTS to ferry planes from the 
United States to the theater of war. ( SITKOH BAY 
was employed, for instance, in moving two squadrons 
of Marine fighters when the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing 
was deployed to Japan in late August 1950.) 

Chaplain Paul R. Elliott reported the following tour 
of duty: 

USNS GEN. M. C. MEIGS- December 1950-January 1951 

USNS PVT. SADAO S. January 1951 -May 1951 

MUNEMORI. 

USNS GEN. S. B. BUCK- May 1951-July 1951 

NER. 

Chaplain Prescott B. Wintersteen served in the 
MARINE PHOENIX from August 1950 to March 



1951, and in the GEN. HUGH J. GAFFEY from 
March to November 1951. Chaplain Franklin C. 
Black reported duty in the C. C. BALLOU during 
August and September 1950, and then in the FRED 
C. AINS WORTH from October 1950 to March 1951. 

Services 

Chaplain Ernest L. Carter, whose exact itinerary 
was not furnished, wrote concerning his work: 

Aboard ship we had daily noon hour devotional services 
for all faiths, using recorded hymns and prayers from the 
prayer books of the different faiths. Protestants, Catholics, 
Jews. Christian Scientists, Seventh Day Adventists, Latter 
Day Saints, and Greek Orthodox personnel attended these 
services. 

Carter also edited the ship's paper, supervised the li- 
brary, and had responsibility for recreation and enter- 
tainment on various ships. Following the Hungnam 
evacuation he wrote: 

With the last ones from the bridge on our ship, and travel- 
ing in blackout, after the noise of battlefire from shore and 
ships for 1 1 days and nights, at the Christmas Eve service we 
sang "Silent Night" in three languages: Americans in Eng- 
lish, Puerto Ricans in Spanish, and Koreans in Korean, sing- 
ing both separately and together. This was ? very impressive 
occasion for everyone and they were glad to be alive. 

Chaplain Beryl L. Burr reported over 75 percent of 
the men aboard in attendance at Divine Service after 
the departure from Hungnam. Services were held 
hourly from 0800 through 1300. 

"Over 400 attended daily services at both Protestant 
and Catholic services aboard MSTS ships going to 
Korea," reported Chaplain Edwin W. Andrews, who 
served with MSTS, North Pacific, from August 1951 
to August 1953. And Chaplain Allen L. Irwin wrote: 
"Daily services on transport with men en route to bat- 
tle areas during Korean conflict were especially well 
attended and their response was excellent. About 50 
such services were held, with a total attendance of over 
8,000." 

Chaplain Charles W. Adams held services every day 
on transports carrying troops to Korea. "As many as 
1 1 services a Sunday were held on the way to Pusan," 
he wrote. "Chaplains worked night and day on the 
many personnel problems that came to the office." He 
distributed "thousands of New Testaments" and some 
2,500 copies of the whole Bible, very few of which were 
left aboard when troops debarked. 

Chaplain William R. Petre wrote in his question- 
naire reply : 

A group of men requested the establishment of a weekly 
meeting of prayer, worship, and spiritual refreshment in addi- 
tion to the regularly scheduled services. This was done, and 



69 



largely run by the men themselves. It was an excellent means 
of religious growth. On the troopship the religious quest of 
the men was of a high order. Men going into combat eagerly 
sought a personal relation with God. 

Chaplain John E. Watts was accustomed to hold 
three Sunday morning services and a late afternoon 
vesper service, on deck, weather permitting. Chaplain 
Elliott noted, in addition to religious duties, establish- 
ment of classes for the study of Japanese and Korean, 
taught by personnel aboard familiar with those 
languages. 

Chaplain James R. Marks submitted the following 
account along with his questionnaire. 

A large number of Marines came aboard the GENERAL 
GREELY at a Japanese port for the trip to Korea. Shortly 
after the ship got underway I announced that religious serv- 
ices would be held in the designated compartment, three 
decks below the main deck. Two Protestant services were 
scheduled that afternoon. A Roman Catholic rosary service 
was scheduled for an early hour next day. 

All preparations were made and the word was passed that 
Holy Communion would be observed at 1500. Before the 
organist had completed his prelude, the room was filled. All 
chairs were occupied. Other Marines were sitting in every 
available spot on the deck. A few stood against the bulk- 
head. The majority of those present received Communion. 
It was nearly 1600 when the service was completed. Several 
minutes were required to empty the compartment, but during 
that time two Marines approached me to say there were some 
who came to the service but could not get into the compart- 
ment. I told them another service was just about to begin. 
I was surprised to see the compartment almost full the second 
time. 

Chaplain Marks also reported many baptisms on his 
several trips. Always he required the candidate to 
come to his stateroom for an interview and instruction 
"in order that each person would have an under- 
standing of its religious import." On each occasion, 
usually in the evening, the candidate came to the chap- 
lain's room accompanied by two witnesses and there 
"accepted Jesus Christ as his personal Saviour and 
Lord." 

In attempting to assess the ministry of all the chap- 
lains it must not be forgotten, however, that there are 
atheists in foxholes and that often piety evaporates in 
direct proportion as the pressure lets up. Men in uni- 
form are hardly different in this regard from any 
others. One chaplain wrote after he had returned 
from a tour of duty with Marines, "The sacraments be- 
came less important in the lives of the men [back home] 
than had been the case [in Korea]." And one MSTS 
chaplain observed: "Going to Korea attendance at 
Holy Communion was very high; but on coming home, 
troops returning had again relapsed into the normal 
tendencies of home life." 



"Operation Welcome" 

Service of a different sort was inaugurated in 1951 
by MSTS Chaplain Edwin W. Andrews. Noticing 
how shy and obviously nervous were the Japanese 
brides traveling in the USNS M. M. PATRICK with 
their servicemen husbands to life in the States, he 
began a series of informal lectures, suggested by the 
orientation program chaplains have long given troops 
bound overseas. He told them something of our cus- 
toms, government, religions, and life in our cities and 
on our farms, and followed with a question period. 
Later he added education films, such as "This Is 
America," an account of small-town life, and "Our 
Nation's Capital," a documentary about the Federal 
Government. Sometimes an interpreter was needed 
but one was always found. On one trip there were 
31 "war brides" and their husbands. "I like to think 
my lectures and movies help some of the girls adjust 
to life in the United States," the chaplain was quoted 
in a Navy press release. "The girls enjoy it and per- 
haps it helps them a little. That makes it all worth 
while." 

Annual Report 

The following data, from Chaplain Allen L. Irwin's 
annual report to the Secretary of the Navy for calendar 
year 1950, may illustrate the work of MSTS chap- 
lains. Recalled to active duty in August 1950, he was 
assigned to MSTS and spent 2 weeks aboard the GEN. 
M. M. PATRICK undergoing indoctrination. Next 
he served aboard GEN. M. B. STEWART on a cross- 
ing to the Far East. Detached in October he flew 
back from Tokyo to Seattle, where he served as As- 
sistant to the Staff Chaplain, MSTS, North Pacific. 
In December he was assigned to the M. M. 
PATRICK. 

Aboard ship basic duties were performed as follows : 

1. Conduct of Protestant Divine Services and administra- 
tion of the sacraments. 

2. Supervision of daily Protestant devotional service con- 
ducted by myself and/or passenger chaplains. 

3. Provision for Roman Catholic Mass, Sundays and daily, 
when a passenger chaplain was available; assistance to the 
Roman Catholic chaplain as needed and desired for con- 
fessions, choir practice, supplies and equipment; provisions 
for Roman Catholic Rosary Service when no Roman Cath- 
olic chaplain was aboard. 

4. Provision for Jewish Divine Service when a sufficient 
number of interested personnel was on board. 

5. Facilitation of meetings for other distinctive religious 
groups as desired. 

6. Arranging church parties as needed. 

7. Parish visitations: sick bay, brig, in dayrooms, about 
decks and living quarters. 



70 



8. Personal counseling. 

9. Christian instruction. 

10. Procurement and distribution of New Testaments, de- 
votional materials, and religious supplies. 

11. Orientation of passenger chaplains. 

12. Participation in orientation periods for voyage staff 
and passengers. 

13. Presentations of chaplain's lectures on "Citizenship 
and Morale" in the Troop Information and Education Pro- 
gram. 

14. Extension of aid to advanced base chaplains through 
provision of supplies, extension of ship hospitality, and 
Christian Fellowship. 

Chaplain Irwin's duties in Seattle indicate what the 
Staff Chaplain's office was doing to aid chaplains in 
the ships. He supervised a supply warehouse, pro- 
curing, and distributing gear aboard ship. He as- 
sisted the Staff Chaplain in "unofficial" inspection of 
the ships' chaplains' work, in maintaining liaison with 
the Army Port Chaplain, and in counseling MSTS 
personnel and their dependents. Further, he main- 
tained liaison with civilian religious groups and serv- 
ice clubs, occasionally "supplied" for chaplains, and 
participated in civilian religious services. 

A composite typical work day aboard ship might go 
as follows: 

Breakfast. 

Check in office; plan work of the day; arrange for 

daily services. 
Brief conferences with passenger chaplains; check on 

newspaper. 
Instruction classes; personal counseling; study; prepa- 
ration of services or administrative work. 
Lunch and free period. 

Check on libraries, special services, movie program, 
newspaper; administrative work. 



0730 
0800 



1000 



1130 
1300 



1400 Visitation, about decks, in recreation rooms, and liv- 
ing quarters. 

1500 Instruction classes, personal counseling; study or ad- 
ministrative work. 

1630 Supper. 

1715 Visits to sick bay and brig. 

1800 Check on movies; free time for attending movies, 
social visitation or study. 

2000 "Coffee hour" and social visitation ; conferences with 
chaplains, or free time. 

2230 Personal devotions and lights out. 

But, he added, "this is a highly theoretical day, 
as the program was adapted to the various needs 
according to the stage of the voyage. Many special 
occasions such as hymn sings, shows, embarkation, 
debarkation, or special problems made each day in 
the voyage a separate entity, to be dealt with as 
creatively as possible." 

Sundays were much the same as any other day, ex- 
cept for Divine Services. At that time Protestant 
service was held in the Troop Theater at 0900, with 
Mass in the lounge; at 1030 another Mass was said in 
the Troop Theater and a second Protestant service 
held in the lounge. 

Besides all this, the chaplain was charged with the 
ship's paper, library, and entertainment programs, in- 
cluding movies and assisting the special services pro- 
gram, and also assistance with the Troop Information 
and Education program. 

MSTS Pac Roster 

The roster submitted by Chaplain Thompson in 
March 1951 showed the following disposition of 
MSTS, Pacific chaplains. 



Adams, Charles W PE 

Beck, Max G LUTH (MoSy) . . 

Bost, Warren L PRESBY (USA) . 



Burr, Beryl L . . . . 
Erickson, Paul F. 
Hawkins, Elmo M. T 
Holmes, Norman B. 

Howard, Edwin R 

Lloyd, Paul A. 

Metzger, Ernest W 

NONE AT PRESENT . 

Nicholas, Philip 

Norwood, Herman R 

Somers, Lester I 

Stowater, Seattle A 

Terhune, Cornelius A . . 



BAP (A) 

EVAN MISS CONV. 

METH 

CHRI SCIENCE 

CONG 

RC 

METH 



PRESBY (USA). 

BAP (A) 

EVAN & REF . . 

UNIT 

PRESBY (USA). 

Vitz, Robert H EVAN & REF . . 

Wheeler, Wendell C CONG 

Watts, John E., Jr PRESBY (USA) . 

White, Leonard F RC . 

Below, Ralph W BAP (S) 



GEN H. J. GAFFEY 

GEN. S. B. BUCKNER 

GEN. W. WEIGEL 

GEN. S. HEINTZELMAN 

GENERAL R. L. HOWZE 

GEN. D. E. AULTMAN 

SGT. C. E. MOWER 

GEN. C. G. MORTON 

GEN. E. D. PATRICK 

GEN. D. I. SULTAN 

GEN. WILLIAM BLACK 

GEN. W. O. DARBY 

GEN. W. F. HASE 

GEN. N. M. WALKER 

SGT. HOWARD E. WOODFORD 

GEN. A. W. BREWSTER 

GEN. JOHN POPE 

AIKEN VICTORY 

GEN. E. T. COLLINS 

LT. R. O. BEAUDOIN 

GEN. A. E. ANDERSON 



— 71 



Dohrmann, Leonard B EVAN & REF GEN. J. C. BRECKENRIDGE 

Hester, James D BAP (A) THOMAS JEFFERSON 

Jenkins, Robert E BAP (A) GEN. WM. MITCHELL 

Karnasiewicz, Charles F RC REPOSE 

Kuolt, Milton G LUTH (MoSy) GEN. W. A. MANN 

Marley, Cecil V PRESBY (USA) SITKOH BAY 

Martineau, Edward R . RC GEN. H. W. BUTNER 

McCarthy, Eugene W . . . . RC WINDHAM BAY 

Meier, Kermit I METH GEN. G. M. RANDALL 

Morton, Frank R LUTH... CAPE ESPERANCE 

Porter, Harry A BAP (A) . . . PRESIDENT JACKSON 

Potter, Paul K METH HAVEN 

Reardon, John J RC HAVEN 

White, Henry P METH REPOSE 



Eve of Fury 

By 1 April 1951 ominous reports had reached the 
United Nations command of the influx of some 
700,000 fresh Chinese Communist troops via Man- 
churia. Division Chaplain Kelly had written to Chap- 
lain Salisbury on 3 1 March : "There is no spectacular 
fighting going on at present. There is always the 
ominous feeling that the Reds might unleash some- 
thing." And on 21 April, he wrote: 

Nobody knows what to expect from the enemy. We know 
they have a terrific concentration of manpower somewhere 
above us. They have concentrated supplies. Prisoners have 
given all kinds of dates for their big push. So we are just 
moving along wondering where and when they are going to 
hit. Everybody expects that when it comes, it will be all 



out. However, the general feeling is, "Why don't they start 
it? Then we will find out how tough they are." 

During the months of the First United Nations 
Counteroff ensive ( late January through the middle of 
April), UN forces were constantly striking at the 
enemy and gradually forcing him farther and farther 
northward, until they were well forward of approx- 
imately the eastern two-thirds of the 38th Parallel. 
Even as elements of the 1st Marine Division captured 
the Hwachon Reservoir on 22 April, thus securing the 
southeastern approaches of the Iron Triangle, enemy 
activity erupted all along the front. Chinese and 
North Koreans poured forth and boldly counter- 
attacked; the long-awaited spring offensive had begun. 



72 



CHAPTER 5 
CHINESE COMMUNIST SPRING OFFENSIVE 

22 April-8 July 1951 



Two reservoirs figure prominently in the history 
of Marine operations in Korea, the Chosin and the 
Hwachon. In the latter area the Division was now 
to have some of its hardest fighting, in little-known 
actions which Lynn Montross has called worthy of 
comparison with the battles of Inchon-Seoul and the 
Chosin Reservoir. 1 It was apparent that the enemy, 
with an army estimated at 700,000 Chinese and 
North Korean troops, was prepared to fight for a 
decision. His goal was nothing less than the expulsion 
of United Nations forces from the peninsula and the 
extension of Communist rule over the whole of Korea. 

The long-expected strike began at 2215 on 22 April. 
By midnight the ROK 6th Division, in the center of 
IX Corps, with the 24th Army Division on the left 
and the 1st Marine Division on the right, had given 
way. To protect its exposed left flank the Division 
ordered the 1st Marines from reserve. On the right 
flank the 1st Korean Marine Regiment, attached to 
the Division, repelled a succession of attacks designed 
to isolate the Division from X Corps on its right. The 
Division warded off threatened envelopment; but 
the enemy was attacking in such overwhelming num- 
bers and with such utter disregard for human life 2 
that, commencing on 25 April, Gen. Van Fleet ordered 
8th Army to begin moving back to prepared de- 
fensive positions. 

The attack against IX Corps proved to be a sec- 
ondary, though the initial, thrust. Some 36 enemy 
divisions were committed in the sector between 
Hwachon and the west coast. It was now clear that 
his real objective was Seoul, perhaps not so much for 
its strategic value as for its symbolic significance. To 



1 Marine Corps Gazette (July 1953), p. 17, Lynn Montross, 
"Red China on the Offensive." 

For summary information on this period see also Miller 
et al., op. cit., ch. IV, "The Enemy Strikes Back." Also 
helpful are the sections in vol. IV of the official Marine Corps 
history of operations in Korea dealing with this period, at the 
time of this writing not yet published. 

! Montross says that the enemy suffered an estimated loss 
of 70,000 during the first week of their spring offensive 
("Red China on the Offensive," p. 23). 



be able to celebrate May Day in the Korean capital 
would be to announce to the world, and more par- 
ticularly to the uncommitted smaller nations, the 
futility of resistance to Communist imperialism. 

Gen. Van Fleet, by falling back deliberately 
through a series of planned defensive positions, while 
at the same time inflicting overwhelmingly heavy 
losses upon the aggressor, was able to implement a 
policy which has been described as "trading real estate 
for destruction of the enemy." By the end of April a 
line had been stabilized in front of Seoul and the 
Han River, and there was a momentary lull. Van 
Fleet now reorganized his forces and planned a 
counter attack. 

Second Punch 

The agile Chinese command beat him to the draw; 
a second major attack was launched on 16 May. 3 
The 1st Marine Division, commanded by Maj. Gen. 
Gerald C. Thomas, who had relieved Maj. Gen. Oli- 
ver P. Smith on 25 April, was now again part of X 
Corps, commanded by (now) Lt. Gen. E. M. Almond. 
Making its main bid this time in the eastern sector, 
the Communist force pierced the UN line and poured 
through the gap left by the fall-back of two ROK 
divisions for a gain of some 30 miles, thus exposing 
the Marines' right flank. 

Tactical shifts made in Marine positions enabled 
them to contain and finally repulse the enemy's pene- 
tration. By 19 May it became evident that the second 
Chinese attack would fail of its objective. All along 
the front UN troops had brought the enemy's offen- 
sive to a standstill, and by the end of May a counter- 
attack was under way. So suicidal had been the 
massed Red assaults that his casualties for the month 
of May were estimated at 105,000. including 17,000 
dead and 10,000 prisoners. 4 



* I bid., p. 24. 

' Marine Corps Gazette (August 1953), p. 17. Lynn 
Montross, "Advance to the Punchbowl." 



73 




Map 1. — Red China on Offensive. 
Reproduced by permission from the Marine Corps Gazette. 



74 — 



ANSONC 



FRONT LINES 
22 May 51 




Map 2. — Advance to the Punchbowl. 
Reproduced by permission from the Marine Corps Gazette (August 1953) 



— 75 — 



Advance to the Punchbowl 

The UN counterstroke got underway on 22 May. 
By 27 May the Marines were fighting in a sector east 
and south of the Hwachon Reservoir, advancing 
toward Yangu on its eastern tip." During the first 
part of June the Division was moving through moun- 
tainous country with peaks rising to 3,000 feet. The 
terrain was cut by deep ravines with precipitous sides; 
roads were practically nonexistent. The enemy had 
dug in along the ridges behind well-protected log 
bunkers. The sides of the valleys were so steep that 
artillery was frequently ineffective, though tanks par- 
alleling the infantry advance poured flat-trajectory 
shells upon the entrenched bunkers. Nests of resist- 
ance had to be cleaned out by hand-to-hand combat, 
much of it at night. Yet the advance continued 
toward an objective north and east of Yangu, a cir- 
cular mountain-rimmed valley which became known 
as the Punchbowl. 

Losses were heavy, especially among the Korean 
Marine regiment, whose personnel could expect no 
mercy from their Red compatriots. 

During the first 10 days of June, in fact, 1st Mar Div 
personnel losses were higher than during any full month of 
the year so far. The 1st KMC Regt suffered more than 500 
casualties from all causes during this period, and the 1st 
Marines had 67 KIA [killed in action] and 1,044 WIA 
[wounded in action] from 1 to 30 June, most of them in- 
curred during the first 2 weeks. This was a higher total of 
battle casualties than that reported by the regiment in the 
Chosin Reservoir operation." 

In the west meanwhile I and IX Corps had exerted 
continuous pressure toward the Iron Triangle. By 
1 1 June, Operation Pile driver had brought a force 
consisting of the U.S. 3d Division, the ROK 9th Divi- 
sion, and the Philippine Battalion into Chorwon and 
another consisting of the U.S. 25th Division and the 
Turkish Brigade into Kumhw. 7 Soon the apex of 
the Triangle, Pyongyang, was secured also; but since 
the whole area was so completely dominated by sur- 



' Ibid., pp. 15ff. Also Miller et al., op. cit., ch. V. 
'Montross, "Advance to the Punchbowl," p. 21. 
' Miller et al, op. cit., p. 111. 



rounding heights, neither side attempted to hold it 
thereafter. 

First Anniversary 

The end of June 1951 found the United Nations 
occupying the most favorable line they had held since 
the Chinese intervention. Beginning at the mouth of 
the Imjin River on the west, it ran through the 
middle of the Triangle, over the mountains and along 
the southern rim of the Punchbowl, and northeast to 
the coast at Chodo-ri. The Communists held 2,100 
square miles less than when they had begun their ag- 
gression a year before. Lynn Montross has written: 8 

By the most conservative estimate considerably more than 
a million Chinese and North Koreans had been killed, 
wounded, or captured, and losses of enemy equipment in- 
cluded 391 aircraft, 1,000 pieces of artillery, and thousands 
of automatic weapons, machine guns, and mortars. North 
Korea, which had been the industrial region of the peninsula, 
lay in ruins everywhere, its cities and factories and power 
plants pounded into rubble by UN bombs and shells. 

In fact, the aggressors in Korea were defeated. 9 The 
best proof of this lies in the hints of a desire for truce 
talks which now began to be given out by the enemy. 

Summarizing the contribution of the Marines to 
the first year of the Korean War, Montross states that 
of a total of nearly 50,000 who had served so far in 
the combat theater 1,385 casualties had been returned 
stateside for hospitalization, 80 reserves sent home for 
release, and 7,352 men rotated to stateside duty. 10 

On 21 April, on the eve of the Chinese Communist 
push, Kelly submitted the following roster of the 29 
chaplains then attached to the 1st Marine Division. 
Recent arrivals had been Keene H. Capers, John E. 
Hollingsworth III, Arthur M. Kulinski, William B. 
Leonard, Jr., and Thomas B. Uber II. 

" Montross, "Advance to the Punchbowl," p. 22. 

" Montross says the enemy was not yet beaten in June 1951, 
though he had good military as well as political reasons for 
wishing to have a breathing spell (ibid., p. 23). Cagle and 
Manson both give it as their opinion and quote Gen. Van 
Fleet to the effect that the Reds were definitely whipped; but 
since the UN forces were not to be allowed to prosecute 
the war to a successful conclusion, the inevitable result was 
stalemate (op. cit., pp. 308-310). 

10 Montross, "Advance to the Punchbowl," p. 22. 



ROSTER OF CHAPLAINS 



Headquarters Battalion . 
1st Engineer Battalion. . 



1st Tank Battalion. . . 
1st Medical Battalion 



F. W. Kelly... 
H. H. Hayes. . . 
K. M. Hearn 1 . 
W. B. Leonard . 
W. M. Hearn 2 
G.J. Reilly. 
W. A. Rennie 

G. Goodman 2 



See footnotes at end of table 



CDR 


. .. RC 


LTJG... 


DISC 


LT 


METH 


LT 


PRESBY (BIBLE) 


LTJG 


BAP (A) 


LT. . 


RC 


LT 


METH 


LTJG 


JEWISH 



76 



ROSTER OF CHAPLINS— Continued 



Ordnance Battalion 

1st Amphib. Tractor Bn . . . 

1st Shore Party Bn 

1st Motor Transport Bn. . 

1st Service Battalion 

1st Combat Service Group . 

1st Marines 



T. B. Uber LT LUTH 

G. C. Bingaman LTJG EVAN & REF 

K. d'A. Engle LTJG PE 



J. P. Trodd 

A. J. Juntunen 

W. N. Lyons 2 

A. "M. Kulinski 

J. D. McDonald 

H. E. Austin 

C. S. Pigott 

K. H. Capers 

J. E. Hollingsworth . . . 

L. R. Phillips 2 

S. K. Johnson . 

J. M. Quirk LT 

J. S. Ferris LT 



LT RC 

LT LUTH 

LCDR BAP (A) 

LCDR RC 

LCDR RC 

LT . . BAP (A) 

LTJG BAP (S) 

LTJG PRESBY (USA) 

LCDR BAP (S) 

LT CONG 

LT PRESBY (USA) 

RC 

METH 



1 1th Marines 



1 Awaiting orders. 

2 Awaiting relief. 



E. I. Van Antwerp 2 LT RC 

R. L. Patton 2 LTJG METH 

J.C.Fitzgerald LCDR RC 

H. H. Groover LTJG DISC 

H. E. Waters LTJG BAP (S) 



Kelly Reporting 

A vivid picture of both the military situations and 
the chaplains' activities during this period may be 
gained from the regular letters written by Division 
Chaplain Francis W. Kelly to the Chief of Chaplains. 
Chaplain Kelly's letter of 27 April reflects the situ- 
ation which developed after the Chinese Communist 
forces launched their big drive. He wrote : 

We have come through a tough time, and we don't know 
what next. So far we have had no casualties amongst our 
chaplains although they have been exposed to terrific pres- 
sure. Everything was going along smoothly. We were ad- 
\ancing steadily when suddenly the Reds cut loose. 

We had two regiments on the front and one well back in 
reserve. The 7th had been on the lines with the 1st Cavalry 
Division. When we reached the Kansas line, the 1st Cavalry 
was replaced with our 5th Regiment. It was planned that 
the 1st Regiment would replace the 7th, so that they would 
get a rest. Our CP [command post] had moved up to about 
four miles behind the lines because such progress was being 
made. Our 1st Regiment was about 5 miles behind the 
CP. On Sunday everything was moving up. I started out 
to find an Army Battalion of the 17th Field Artillery but 
they were on the move. In looking for them I ran across 
Van Antwerp moving up with the 7th and Fitzgerald with 
the 11th. I also ran into the 5th moving up. Fortunately 
for me I didn't stay overnight in that area because . . . 
things really broke loose in that spot. All of China seemed 
to descend on us on that Sunday night. 

In a desperate effort to contain the Chinese Com- 
munist forces penetration of the front lines, the 1st 



Battalion, 1st Marines bore the brunt of some heavy 
fighting. Kelly, describing this situation, wrote: 

The 1st Marines were rushed up Sunday night and two 
battalions really ran into a terrific condition. The Chinese 
tried to smash through the area held by the 1st Battalion 
of the 1st Marines, but were unsuccessful. It looked for a 
while another Hagaru. We had no idea how many enemy 
had poured through on our left or how far they had gone. 
The ROK [6th] Division left a complete sector unguarded. 

Another view of that night of fury is furnished by 
the Bronze Star citation of Joseph D. McDonald, 
Regimental Chaplain, 1st Marines. 

Serving as regimental chaplain, Lieutenant Commander 
McDonald displayed outstanding courage and initiative when 
the battalion to which he was attached was subjected to vio- 
lent attack during hours of darkness by a numerically superior 
enemy force. Having relinquished his foxhole to a wounded 
man. he fearlessly and with complete disregard for his own 
safety moved in and about the sick bay area, which was sub- 
jected to almost constant enemy mortar and automatic weap- 
ons fire, to render aid and spiritual assistance to the wounded. 

Hi' repeatedly gathered urgently needed men to assist as 
stretcher bearers, and on at least two occasions, when adequate 
bearers were not available, moved courageously to the lint- 
through withering enemy fire to help carry casualties to the 
aid station. During the attack the following morning to 
break out of an enemy encirclement, he was continually found 
at the side of a wounded man, although this required that he 
move back through the column toward enemy-held ridge lines 
and through increasing enemy fire. When offered vehicular 
transportation, he refused it, and was among the last to leave 
the area where the enemy was closing in, leading wounded 



77 — 



Marines through heavy fire to a position from which they 
could be evacuated. His great personal bravery and con- 
stant material and spiritual assistance throughout the battle 
were an inspiration to all members of the command. 

Chaplain Kelly's account continues: 

Nobody knew when a horde of Chinese would overrun us. 
No one got much sleep with artillery and machine guns going 
all night. Tuesday morning the CP was moved back 5 /a 
miles. . . . That night we were in a CP with an artillery 
perimeter. About 200 yards away from us 8-inch field guns 
fired all night in three directions, and a battery of Marine 
artillery were facing southwest. An ambulance evacuation 
point was set up. Reilly, Capers, and Hayes covered that. 
Trodd from Motor Transport covered the hospital. The next 
day Reilly went back to the hospital and Trodd and Capers 
covered the casualties coming through. Casualties are mod- 
erate considering the situation. 

As we have seen, the Chinese Communist forces 
breakthrough obliged the UN forces to fall back in 
orderly retreat. Chaplain Kelly concluded his report 
to the Chief: 

Even though we are still dropping back, the morale is high. 
The [men] are dead-tired, but still fighting. We expect the 



CP to move back tomorrow. I am proud of the work of the 
chaplains in this tough operation. 

Chaplain Kelly's next letter to Chaplain Salisbury 
was dated 7 May. By that time Chaplains Van Ant- 
werp and William Hearn had been relieved. Chap- 
lains Harold H. Cummings (Presbyterian), Ross H. 
Trower (Lutheran), Richard T. Peeters (Roman 
Catholic), Jesse L. Swinson (Methodist), and George 
R. Brosius (Lutheran) had reported for duty. 

Regarding the military situation Kelly wrote : 

Things have settled down considerably. Our Command 
Post has stopped moving. For the past week we have been 
settled in one spot. The week before that we moved four 
times. We are getting to be like a bunch of gypsies. Our 
front is moving north again. Contact with the enemy has 
been very light. Our patrols are fanning out without much 
contact. These Chinese are odd people. They must crawl 
into the ground. One day they are running all over the place. 
The next day you can't find them. From our intelligence we 
know that they have tremendous numbers in North Korea. 
Most of the outfits are identified and their strength estimated. 
All we have to do is to guess when and where they will hit. 
The only thing we can be fairly certain is that it will be at 
night. 




Damaged Church. 

Marines examine a church atop a hill in Chunchon area 
which was shelled when the war passed through the 
area. 

Memorial Services at the Front. 

The 1st Marines hold a brief service in memory of their 
fallen comrades. Participants are (from left to right) Pfc. 
Marvin Blankficld (Jewish), Chaplain Henry E. Austin 
(Protestant), Chaplain Joseph D. McDonald (Catholic) 
and Chaplain Keene H. Capers (Protestant). 




Chinese Strike 

They had not long to wait. Kelly's letter of 25 May 
reported on events of the previous week. 

Operation Yo-yo still goes on. Last week conditions looked 
very dismal. The Chinese ran wild again. All the damage 
done has not been definitely clarified. It certainly looked as 
though they were playing for keeps. I will attempt to give 
you the picture. We were straightening out from the debacle 
at the end of April by holding a defense line and sending 
patrols up in the area of Chunchon. Just before dark on the 
evening of May 15, the 3d Battalion of the 7th Marines 
moved into a new position along the Chunchon-Wonju road. 
About 4 o'clock in the morning the Chinese tried to break 
through in lorce. The 7th really clobbered them. It was 
estimated that they suffered over 400 casualties. When they 
tried to drop back they were caught in a curtain of artillery. 
Over 60 prisoners were taken by the 7th. If they had suc- 
cessfully broken through, they were going to fan out and 
attack our lines from the rear. They did not break through. 

The South Korean soldiers, who often distinguished 
themselves by their bravery, sometimes lacked the 
tenacity to dig in and fight which was displayed by the 
U.S. Marines. Some of the most difficult conditions 
faced by the United Nations forces in this 5th Korean 
campaign resulted from the failure of ROK troops to 
hold the line. Chaplain Kelly wrote: "Somebody said, 
'The Chinese yell Banzai, the Koreans yell Pusan, and 
both take off.' " 

Referring to another bad situation which had devel- 
oped because of a Communist breakthrough, Kelly 
wrote : 

Again we were endangered on our flank. It looked for a 
while that we were going to fall back to Wonju. Elements of 
the 3d Army Division came in on the right. Now we are on 
the move again. If it works it will be very good. If it doesn't 
it will be curtains. There is a chance that we can cut off the 
Chinese who broke through. I hope it won't be another 
Hagaru-ri. 

I saw some of the results of the Chinese break through the 
other day. Our 5th Regiment jumped off Wednesday morn- 
ing, right through the territory where the 38th Army had been 
clobbered. Word came back that in their advance they found 
a lot of wounded and dead Army personnel, so I took off to 
lend a hand with the wounded. We didn't locate many 
wounded, but we found plenty of dead. 

Meanwhile Chaplains Groover, Reilly, Rennie, and 
Goodman had left for home. Goodman, the Division's 
Jewish chaplain, was replaced by Chaplain Elihu H. 
Rickel. Chaplain William A. Taylor (American Bap- 
tist) had also reported for duty with the 1st Marine 
Division. 

Chaplain Howard J. Groover, was awarded the 
Bronze Star for "meritorious achievement . . . while 
serving with a Marine artillery regiment in Korea from 
15 September 1950 to 15 May 1951." The citation 
reads in part as follows : 



Although operating under the most severe weather and field 
conditions, he, without regard for his own personal safety, 
continually ministered to the needs of the wounded. His 
presence in the front lines added immeasurably to the morale 
and spiritual well-being of the men. His outstanding conduct 
under fire in treating and giving spiritual consolation to the 
wounded served as a source of encouragement to those around 
him. 

Chaplain Kelly reported that 8th Army was hold- 
ing a memorial service at the UN cemetery. All units 
of UN forces were to be represented. Kelly was 
asked to give the invocation. Unit chaplains were 
asked to hold memorial services in their own areas as 
military conditions permitted. Again and again, as 
far as the exigencies of continuing combat allowed, 
the Marines would pause to pay their respects to their 
comrades-in-arms who had fallen. 

Beginning of Advance 

Kelly's letter of 25 May was written just after the 
beginning of Van Fleet's forward advance. During 
the heavy fighting that followed, two more chaplains 
were cited for the Bronze Star. The first was Henry 
H. Hayes, for distinguished service on 31 May. His 
citation reads in part as follows: 

Serving as battalion chaplain, Lieutenant (jg.) Hayes dis- 
played outstanding courage and initiative when an adjacent 
battalion was subjected to a devastating enemy artillery 
barrage while preparing to move forward. Hearing the 
cries for aid, he . . . ran through the heavy enemy fire to 
reach the stricken men. Despite sporadic artillery fire, he 
courageously moved from casualty to casualty, dressing 
wounds, organizing stretcher parties, and comforting the 
wounded. His great personal bravery and unswerving de- 
votion to duty were an inspiration to all who observed him, 
and aided materially in saving many lives. 

The second chaplain cited was John M. Quirk who, 
hearing that a rifle company of his regiment had sus- 
tained heavy casualties, assembled a party of Korean 
laborers to act as litter bearers and after all were 
loaded in a truck started out on the errand of mercy. 
The truck struck an antitank land mine. Chaplain 
Quirk was hurled some 50 feet through the air and 
landed in a rock-strewn field. He was painfully 
bruised and cut but not too seriously wounded. Re- 
porting on the incident to Chaplain Salisbury on 5 
June, Chaplain Kelly wrote : 

Chaplain John M. Quirk, Catholic Chaplain with the 5th 
Marines, was wounded yesterday. His condition is not too 
serious, but he will not be available for duty in less than 2 
months. He was a victim of a land mine. He received 
fragmentation wounds in the legs and right arm, a large 
wound in his left arm, and a contusion which caused quite 
a bit of swelling on the right side of his face. However, 
his eye was not injured and they don't think any facial 
nerves were affected. He also suffered shock. I tried to 



79- 



get to him, but they flew him by 'copter to a rear medical 
company. 

Chaplain Quirk's citation for the Bronze Star con- 
tains the following further account of what happened : 

Despite his serious injuries, he attempted to crawl back to 
the burning truck in order to render aid to the injured la- 
borers. His bravery and complete disregard for his personal 
safety were an inspiration to all who observed him. 

Two days after Chaplain Joseph P. Trodd replaced 
Quirk in the 5th Marines, a shell landed outside his 
tent. The chaplain's clerk and a brother officer were 
wounded by the explosion but, although Trodd was 
knocked to the ground and badly shaken, he was not 
seriously hurt. 

In this same letter of 5 June, Chaplain Kelly com- 
mented as follows on the military situation as it then 
existed : 

In my last letter I told you that we were pushing forward 
again. Well, we have really pushed forward. We are al- 
most up to where we were when things broke back in April. 
However, we are on the right side of the Hwachon Reservoir, 
whereas the first time we were on the left. The 5th and 1st 
Regiments are moving up with the 7th ready to swing in on 
the right. Resistance has stiffened very much recently. 
The regiments have been taking a pounding. The enemy 
have been using a lot of mortars and some artillery. In a 
few days with some good breaks we may reach the line 
where we will defend for a while. That is good, because 
our men are getting awfully tired. Just climbing these hills 
day after day is enough to wear them out. 

The Marines suffered severe losses during the first 
2 weeks of June 1951. Writing to Chaplain Salisbury, 
Kelly reported that in one 36-hour period, some 500 
patients had been received at "A" Medical Company. 
The work there for the chaplains became so heavy 
that four attached to other units of the Division as- 
sisted the three chaplains who were serving with the 
Medical Battalion. By the middle of the month, 
however, the daily number of Marines listed as 
casualties began to decline. 

Regarding the tactical situation Kelly wrote to 
Chaplain Salisbury in this same letter of 15 June: 

The resistance in our area has been very stiff. The enemy 
have thrown a terrific amount of mortar and artillery. 
Since they have held high ground with good observation, 
the mortar and artillery has been very accurate; hence the 
terrific damage to our men. They must have our locations 
zeroed in. Up till Wednesday the weather was bad and 
made air support impossible. They also have the quaint 
practice of rolling hand grenades down the hills on top of 
our men coming up. They have heavily mined the area 
through which we are moving. We have lost 10 tanks to 
land mines in a very short time. 

One other award, and an unusual one, was given 
a chaplain at this time. Chaplain Joseph C. Fitz- 



gerald, serving with the 11th Marines, the Division's 
artillery regiment, had utilized every available means 
of transportation to reach his separated units. He 
was now cited for the Air Medal for "making 21 
flights over enemy territory, where the plane could 
have received fire from unfriendly forces." The 
period covered was 22 December 1950-9 June 1951. 

Comic Relief 

A lighter note in the story of the chaplains' activ- 
ities during these days of fighting is found in an ex- 
perience of Chaplain Richard T. Peeters, serving in 
the 7th Marines. One day a group of Marines were 
resting a short distance behind the front lines. Sud- 
denly they were alerted by a shout from Chaplain 
Peeters: "Hey, look what I've got!" 

To the amazement of the Leathernecks, there strode 
their chaplain up the dusty Korean road with four 
ragged enemy soldiers following him! In answer to 
the incredulous queries as to how an unarmed chap- 
lain happened to be taking prisoners, Chaplain 
Peeters explained. He was just looking through some 
empty Korean houses when the four Chinese soldiers 
ran out with their hands in the air and surrendered. 
Noticing the cross on his uniform, one of the Chinese 
kept shouting: "You ding hao. You ding hao." In 
the Mandarin dialect "ding hao" means "very good." 
The Chinese may or may not have known of the 
existence of chaplains with the Marine units. How- 
ever, the very fact that they noticed the cross on the 
Chaplain's uniform is evidence that they knew he was 
a Christian and would undoubtedly exercise mercy 
in receiving them. 

After hearing Peeters' account of what must go 
down in the history of the Chaplain Corps of the U.S. 
Navy as an unprecedented experience, one of the 
listening Marines deflated any pride the chaplain may 
have felt in his exploit by saying: "Everyone's takin' 
'em today." Chaplain Kelly, reporting this incident 
to the Chief in his letter of 15 June, added: "These 
1st Division chaplains are a rugged people." 

Chaplain Peeters, for devoted service from 10 May 
to 29 June, was awarded the Letter of Commenda- 
tion. Part of his citation follows: 

During that period, in which the battalion was constantly 
in contact with the enemy, Chaplain Peeters' untiring efforts 
on behalf of the front line personnel were a source of marked 
pride to the entire command. Time and again on every 
critical operation, under the most adverse physical conditions 
and under fire from the enemy, which included heavy enemy 
mortar and artillery fire of the most intense variety, he 
worked feverishly at the forward aid stations to help the 
wounded and minister to the dying. 



— 80 




Emergency Call. Immersion. 

When communications failed at a forward aid station during Chaplain John E. Hollingsworth conducts a baptismal service 

the fighting, Chaplain Joseph P. Trodd made a hurried at a Marine command post, 

trip over treacherous roads to call for a helicopter to 
evacuate two wounded men. 

Operation Polaroid. 

Chaplain Rickel takes a picture of Chaplain Trower talking with a marine wounded the day the picture was taken. The 
camera develops the print in just a few minutes and the print is given to the man. 




81 



Ministry to Wounded 

It will have been noticed that one of the most fre- 
quently occurring references to chaplains' work con- 
cerns their ministry to casualties. Recalling the ad- 
vance to the Punchbowl, Chaplain G. A. Bingaman 
wrote: "During June 1951 nearly 1,500 Marines 
passed through an emergency aid station we had set 
up in a 3 -day period of crisis. Two doctors, two 
corpsmen, and three chaplains met a tremendous need 
in a situation described later as 'light action on the 
east-central front.' " Chaplain J. D. McDonald com- 
mented that, besides administering the last rites of his 
church to Catholic personnel, he prayed with men of 
all denominations when wounded or dying. Chap- 
lain Henry H. Hayes recalled that it was "standard 
procedure in his battalion aid station to refer all men 
admitted with 'combat fatigue' to the chaplain before 
being evacuated or else returned to duty." 

Services 

Letters and reports from combat chaplains fre- 
quently referred to the Marines' appreciation for their 
presence. Many a brief religious service was held for 
a small group in a bunker or improvised shelter, when 
the chaplain would simply read a passage of Scripture 
and lead in prayer. Sometimes even in advanced sit- 
uations Protestant chaplains would administer the 
Lord's Supper, while Roman Catholic chaplains 
would hear confessions and say Mass. Chaplains re- 
ported numerous instances where the men themselves 
took the initiative in conducting devotional services. 
Many Testaments, prayer books, and items of devo- 
tional literature were distributed. 

Chaplain Jesse L. Swinson (a one time outfielder 
for the Boston Red Sox) reported: "As Chaplain to 
the Tank Battalion I was invited by my men to ac- 
company them on patrols in enemy territory, which I 
did, and I felt it was appreciated by them. I always 
encouraged them to pray, and Holy Communion was 
available to them before and during each engage- 
ment." 

Chaplain Keene H. Capers, who was with the 1st 
Marines during some bitter fighting, wrote : 

The mere presence of a chaplain can have a tremendous 
influence on the fighting spirit of a battalion or a ship. For 
a man who has been on the line for some time the sight of 
the chaplain walking the lines specifically to talk to him, if 
he wants to talk, can affect that man's staying power. Act- 
ing as a mailman, carrying fruit juice, or any practical 
demonstration of the chaplain's abiding interests in the wel- 
fare of the men can give truth to the words he speaks to them 
in his sermons. A chaplain must be where he is needed 
regardless of personal inconvenience or danger. 



Hill 676 

During the advance to the Punchbowl, the 1st Ma- 
rines had its fiercest struggle assaulting the ridges over- 
looking the Hwachon Reservoir from the northeast. 
The battle raged most of June 9-10. A firsthand ac- 
count may be found in the following letter which 
Chaplain Henry E. Austin wrote several days later to 
some of his friends. (Hills in this mountainous area 
were most frequently razor-sharp peaks ; they received 
their names from their height, given in meters. ) Aus- 
tin's letter is so vivid in its description and so revealing 
in its account of the work of combat chaplains that it 
is given in its entirety. 

Office of the Chaplain 

2d battalion 1st marines 

F.P.O. San Francisco, Calif., 

13 June 1951. 

Dear Friends : Many thanks for your prayers and in- 
terest in my work. I received a backlog of 14 letters today — 
up on the top of bloody Hill No. 676 — elevation: 2,000 feet 
straight up! Some time ago, I said that I honestly thought 
we had the best battalion in the 1st Marine Regiment and in 
the entire 1st Division for that matter. Yesterday we met 
the test and our men covered themselves with glory — via the 
time-honored "Blood, sweat, and tears" route. 

At the moment, I have my foxhole dug right on the top of 
676 which we paid for with 261 men wounded and 16 men 
killed. Last night was our roughest night, since I joined 
the 2d Battalion, so I stayed up all night and helped the 
doctors. It was 4 a.m. before we could evacuate the first 
wounded, because we had to carry them over 2 1 /? miles along 
a mountain ridge under enemy fire in the drizzly-dark. I 
helped as stretcher bearer, prayed with the seriously wounded 
and dying, gave out cigarettes [and] water, and tried to give 
some comfort to the men. 

Some of the wounded who walked in got lost in the dark. 
We had to observe strict blackout regulations, but all were 
eventually accounted for. Everyone cooperated and did a 
magnificent job. Col. "Big Foot" Brown personally came 
by the evacuation point and thanked both the doctor, the 
corpsmen, and the "padre" for seeing all the wounded. Four 
artillery shells "hit the area" at that moment, so both he, 
the "Doc," and I "hit the deck" at the same time. 

One thing that made Hill 676 tougher than any mountain 
I've seen since Suribachi on Iwo Jima was the fact that we 
had no air-support due to bad weather. Then, since the 
slope was very steep, the artillery could only continue to a 
certain point. The Chinese and North Koreans were really 
dug in and poured murderous concussion grenades, machine 
gun and burp-gun fire, plus mortars down our throats (lit- 
erally), so in the Marine tradition our battalion took the 
objective on blood and guts alone. In the face of what 
looked like annihilation, our men stormed up 676 and se- 
cured the same at 2115 (9:15 p.m.) Sunday, June 10. 

I never prayed more sincerely in my life and God blessed 
us, because most of the wounds of our men were clean, and 



82 



I think the majority of our wounded will live. The view 
from my foxhole is beautiful, and one thing is sure — I'll never 
forget this mountain. 

We expect to hold a special thanksgiving service tomorrow. 
You'd be interested to note "The Secret Place" reading for 
June 10 was entitled "A Mountain to Climb" — coincidence, 
isn't it: Keep praying — God is blessing, over 200 men have 
accepted Christ out here, and to date I have baptized 97 of 
our fighting Marines. 
Sincerely, 

(S) H. E. Austin. 
H. E. Austin. 

Writing again to his friends on 8 July, Austin re- 
ported that his unit had been sent back to a rest area 
and that he was about to be detached to another 
unit. He wrote: 

I have just finished holding my final service with the 2d 
Battalion. Our Regimental Commander and Battalion Com- 
mander, along with 240 men, were present. Our Marine 
choir sang and it was a very touching service. We have a 
beautiful outdoor chapel here in the regimental rest area. 

Seven more men made a profession of faith in Christ today 
and I am baptizing them this afternoon in the clear waters 
of the Hwachon Reservoir. (My 110th since February 28.) 
The Lord has been at work in our midst, and I am very 
thankful for the prayers of my friends. 

Chaplain Austin was relieved in the 1st Marines by 
Chaplain George R. Brosius and assigned to the 1st 
Combat Service Group at Masan. 

"Such a Man as I" 

A splendid illustration of how one chaplain — in this 
case Keene H. Capers — dealt with a Marine facing 
the stark face of fear in his life and helped him to 
an answer founded upon religious faith is revealed 
in the following story. 11 

A Marine captain of my acquaintance, fighting in Korea 
when I was there recently, was well beloved of his men. One 
day he and two other officers undertook a reconnaissance 
patrol into enemy territory. One of the three tripped a 
concealed wire which detonated an antipersonnel mine. The 
popular captain was killed, the other two officers seriously 
wounded. 

I held memorial services for the captain whose courage 
and devotion to duty had won the admiration and respect 
of all. For my text I chose a sentence from the 6th chapter 
of Nehemiah, the 11th verse: Should such a man as I flee? 

As the service broke up I came across a young rifleman 
whose presence there surprised me. We'll call him Sam. 
I knew that Sam had been offered an opportunity to return 
to the rear, so as I greeted him I asked, curiously, "What are 
you doing here, Sam"? For reply he tossed back at me the 



11 As told by K. H. Capers to Ken Jones. First published 
in the magazine Brief (December 1952) under the title "I 
Was With Your Boy in Battle." Republished as ch. Ill of 
Ken Jones' book of Korean stories, / Was There (New York, 
1953). Used by permission. The wording here follows that 
of a typescript on file in the Chaplains Division, which is not 
exactly reproduced in either of the published versions. 



words of Nehemiah which I had just quoted: Should such 
a man as I flee? 

Without knowing the facts you might think that Sam was 
being cocky. He wasn't. In that instant a 19-year-old boy 
reached a magnificent pinnacle of inspired, determined, re- 
sourceful, and responsible manhood. Let me tell you Sam's 
story, which is typical of what many American boys are ex- 
periencing in Korea today. 

When I first met Sam he was "shook." That isn't good 
grammar but it's mighty meaningful military slang, and as 
the boys come home in greater and greater numbers from 
the fighting fronts you're going to hear the word more and 
more. The American fighting man in Korea who is "shook" 
has reached the razor edge of emotional endurance. He's 
had all he can take of mud, blood, and death. He may have 
some resources of physical stamina left, but his nerves are 
playing him false. His hands shake; his speech may be halt- 
ing and almost unintelligible; an uncontrollable fear, which 
he can't name, burns deep in his wide hollow eyes. It's an 
easy condition to recognize. Among fighting men it reflects 
no stigma of cowardice. Put under enough pressure any man 
will be "shook." These boys are under pressure. 

Our troops were seesawing back and forth over the 38th 
Parallel at the time. It was early afternoon of a fine, clear 
day. My tent had just been put up at the foot of a bluff 
on the edge of a rice paddy. I sat at my portable desk ; the 
Coleman lantern hung ready on the tentpole, and I was 
sharing a desultory bull session with my tentmates, two 
medical officers, and two TAC people — Tactical Air Control. 

Sam walked up to the tent flap and just stood there. He 
didn't say anything; he didn't have to say anything. I had 
eyes to see, and what I saw made me rise quickly, although 
I was careful to seem casual. "Suppose we take a walk, 
son," I suggested as I stepped out of the tent and left the 
others behind. This wasn't their kind of show. 

We headed toward a shallow ravine at the edge of the 
rice paddy, maybe 20 or 30 yards from the tent. Neither of 
us said anything more at the moment. When we reached 
the ravine Sam unslung his M-l from his shoulder and 
placed it carefully on the ground. We squatted facing each 
other on a small hummock which may, for all I know, have 
been a Korean grave. 

"Smoke . . .?" I held a pack of cigarettes toward the 
boy, but he shook his head. I took the brief opportunity 
while lighting my own cigarette to study Sam. He was 
young — 19, as I learned later. His beard was scraggly, and 
probably had been growing for weeks. He stood about 5 
feet, 9; I guessed his weight at 140 pounds; and where I 
could see his cheeks they were ruddy, although he was in- 
credibly dirty. 

Sam tried to speak after a moment, but emotional tension 
had him in an iron grip. His jaws worked, but no sound 
issued from his lips. Then without further ado, he burst into 
a tempest of tears. I didn't move, but I spoke to him 
softly, urging him to cry all he wanted to and pay no atten- 
tion to me. I knew, of course, that the release he would 
find through tears eventually would make it possible for him 
to gain some measure of control. Deep sobs racked him but 
after some minutes a quieter key crept in and finally, in a 
flat, desperate, hopeless voice he told me: "Chaplain, I don't 
know what's wrong, but I just can't go back on the hill!" 

Sam wasn't the first boy I'd seen and talked with who 



5.;:.:;.:;2 o— 60- 



83 




First Permanent Chapel. 

Many services were held in Korea out in the open or in tem- 
porary shelters. This permanent building with a seating 
capacity of 200 served U.S. fighting men and Korean 
Christians. 



Chapel Dedication. 

Chaplain Ross H. Trower talks with members of his con- 
gregation after the dedication. The chapel was built in 
two weeks. 



"didn't know what was wrong" but who "couldn't go back 
on the hill." And I knew at once that Sam wasn't afraid 
of any rendezvous with death which might be waiting him 
"on the hill." His problem was more subtle than physical 
fear. Sam was afraid he would be afraid. If that seems an 
anomaly, any man back from the fighting in Korea can 
explain it to you. I'll try to explain it myself a little further 
along, because it lies at the root of what's happening to 
your man in this war. (I say "your man" advisedly.) You 
may have sent away a boy, but a man will return in his 
place, and of that you may be sure! 

I got Sam talking about himself. He was an only child, 
and he and his mother had been very close to each other 
in the little midwestern town where they lived. As he talked 
the boy pulled out a badly cracked snapshot and a much- 
folded and grimy leaflet. 

"That's my mom," he said simply, offering the snapshot 
for my inspection. I studied the portrait of a rather pretty 
woman who appeared on the youngish side — a typical, whole- 
some, small-town mother. 

"And here's my church bulletin," he added, unfolding the 
grimy leaflet. "See — here's my name, right here!" The 
church bulletin, I noted, was dated sometime ago, and an- 
nounced that Sam was slated for service in Korea. He'd 
been carrying it with him as a pitiful link with a safe past 
amid the confusion and death of battle. But, as he said, 
there was his name, right there. 

The rest of my conversation with Sam need not be de- 
tailed here. 

I reminded him that we were not alone — that there was 
Another present — and that if he really wanted to, we three 
could lick any situation. I also pointed out to him — and 
this is terribly, terribly true — that it's easier for us to be 
courageous as we get older and experience more things. Sam 
was pretty new to combat. I knew that if I could help him 
overcome his fear of fear itself — get him to want to go back 
up there on the hill some way — half of his battle would be 
won. He was at the low point through which every man 
must pass on the road to becoming a battle-seasoned veteran. 
Things couldn't possibly get any worse for Sam ; they could 
get a lot better if he rose to the challenge. 



Eventually, we got to talking about the prospects of hot 
chow — always an absorbing speculation at the front. Then 
I sent Sam to the nearby river with instructions to jump in, 
dunk himself in the shallow water, relax, soak up as much 
sunshine as possible, and pick me up at my tent later in the 
afternoon. Before the sun set I walked with Sam back up 
the hill to his unit, and I left him with the reminder, "Son, 
don't forget you're never alone. There's always One other 
with you!" 

It was a month after this little episode that Sam appeared 
at the memorial service for the captain. I taxed him with 
the query, "I hear you turned down a chance to go down 
the hill?" And he gave me the ringing answer: Should such 
a man as I flee? An American man had been born. 

First Permanent Chapel 

The 1st Combat Service Group, located in the vi- 
cinity of Masan, achieved the distinction of having the 
first "permanent" chapel of any Marine group in 
Korea. ("Permanent" meant anything not a tent.) 
Consisting of a double Arctic Quonset hut, erected on 
the initiative of the command, the chapel was dedi- 
cated on 20 May 1951. 12 At a military ceremony at 
0930 the chapel was presented by the commanding 
officer, Col. John H. Cook, Jr., USMC, and accepted 
by the senior chaplain, Arthur M. Kulinski. Regu- 
larly scheduled Divine Services followed. In the after- 
noon Chaplain Ross H. Trower presided at a Protestant 
Service of Dedication, at which the choir of the Chung 
Ang Methodist Church sang. At the Roman Catholic 
Dedicatory Mass music was furnished by the choir of 
the Masan Catholic Church. Besides military person- 
nel from neighboring Army activities and the destroyer 
escort WISEMAN, guests included other chaplains in 
the area and local Korean Christian clergy. 

12 Information from material on file in the jacket of Chap- 
lain Ross H. Trower in the Chaplains Division. 



84 



In presenting the chapel Colonel Cook began by 
saying : 

One of the finest traditions of American military life is the 
desire of men to build a House of God wherever duty may take 
them. In addition to providing a place of worship, it gives 
beauty to things sometimes drab, its skyward-pointing cross 
inspiring men to finer living. 

Recalling how so many activities had built chapels dur- 
ing World War II, "taking the materials at hand to 
fashion some kind of suitable place of prayer," the 
Colonel continued: "Today we dedicate a new and 
beautiful chapel in this command. Its doors are being 
opened while we are continuing projects to build quar- 
ters, shops, offices, and recreational facilities." He 
concluded: 

It is my pleasure to present this chapel to the officers and 
men of the 1st Combat Service Group [that it may be dedi- 
cated] to the worship of Almighty God. May the prayers 
that are said here be for the comfort of our comrades in arms, 
for the realization of freedom through the world, for the 
binding together in love of our families, and for the hope of 
peace among men. 

Maruie Air 

During the intense fighting incurred in the drive 
toward the Punchbowl the Division had, fortunately, 
the close air support of elements of the 1st Marine Air- 
craft Wing. The Wing was still under operational 
control of 5th Air Force, with a joint operational center 
at Seoul; but after two squadrons had been installed 
on an airstrip at Hoengsong (K-4b), by informal ar- 
rangement 5th Air Force designated them to provide 



support for the hard-pressed Division. 13 That ar- 
rangement continued until 13 July; by then the truce 
talks had begun and the Hoengsong field was closed 
for repairs. 

As the period under review in this chapter opened, 
the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing was disposed as follows: 
Wing Headquarters and Marine Aircraft Group 12, 
with three squadrons, were at Pusan; Marine Air- 
craft Group 33 was at Pohang with two squadrons; 
and VMF-312 was operating from the light carrier 
BATAAN. Late in May the forward air strip was 
opened at Hoengsong with the arrival of VMF-214, 
followed in June by VMF-312, while VMF-323 went 
aboard the SICILY. 

New Wing Chaplain 

On 16 May Ernest R. Barnes reported to relieve 
John P. Murphy as 1st Marine Aircraft Wing Chap- 
lain. Barnes had come from the PHILIPPINE SEA 
and Murphy reported there on 2 June. In his first 
letter to the Chaplains Division, Barnes wrote that 
he had spent a day at Marine Aircraft Group 33 with 
Chaplains J. H. Markley and C. E. Webb. 

Among other things John [Markley] and I visited MGCIS- 
3 unit out on a coastal point about 22 miles away. There 
are roughly 200 people attached. Following their morning 
services at MAG 33 John and Charlie [Webb] go out to the 
point for services, returning in time for afternoon Mass and 
evening vespers at MAG 33. I would say that chaplain 
coverage up there has been excellent. The field is known 
as K-3 and is located on the east coast near Pohang. 

13 Montross, "Advance to the Punchbowl," pp. 2 If. 



Chaplain Arthur M. Kulinski celebrates mass at the Catholic 
dedication ceremonies of the new chapel 



Colonel Cook presenting the chapel. Chaplain Kulinski is 
at his immediate right and Chaplain Trower is on the 
right of Chaplain Kulinski. 




— 85 



Things were pretty quiet by then in the vicinity of 
Pohang — or so it seemed. "By May of 1951 [Chap- 
lain Markley and I]," wrote Chaplain Webb in his 
questionnaire reply, "had become so confident that 
we no longer felt that we needed the help of our 
assistant who had been accustomed to 'ride shotgun' 
with us on our trips to a radar station some 20 miles 
from K-3." 

Emboldened by the show of friendship of the natives along 
the way, I decided there would be no danger in making the 
trip alone on Monday nights [for a study class], and forth- 
with dispensed with the company of PFC Choyce Hoy, our 
genial assistant from Dallas, Tex. On 21 May 1951, while 
making this trip in a jeep that could not be moved out of 
second gear because of a mechanical defect and which re- 
quired, as a result, to be stopped several times along the way 
to allow it to cool off, an untoward incident occurred. 

About 2200, while returning from the radar station, I 
had stopped the jeep for about the third time to allow the 
cooling-off process to set in. Walking down the road a short 
distance for a bit of exercise, I heard a noise behind me and 
turned to find a Korean native about 5 yards away coming 
stealthily in my direction with what looked like the largest 
knife I had ever seen gleaming in his hand. His intentions 
were obviously evil, and in the ensuing struggle I was for- 
tunate enough to take away from his knife and throw him 
over a steep embankment ; after which I ran back to the 
jeep and drove to the base at high speed with no more 
delays. . . . Needless to say, the remaining Monday eve- 
nings on which I went to the radar station were in the 
welcome company of PFC Hoy. 

At least one had been overlooked in the Division's 
famed "Pohang guerrilla hunt." 

Chaplain Markley, who had been in Korea with 
Marine Aircraft Group 33 since the early days of the 
war, was relieved on 19 May by Chaplain Richard 
D. Cleaves. Cleaves and Webb continued work on 
the Quonset chapel, the start of which has earlier 
been noted. Barnes in his first letter to the Chaplains 
Division referred to it as "probably the first permanent 
Marine chapel in Korea," but as we have seen, Com- 
bat Service Group, not having to depend on volunteer 
labor to insert 11,000 screws, built their chapel in 4 
days, and dedicated it 2 days before Barnes wrote. 

Further Activities 

Barnes' letter to the Chief of Chaplains continued : 

The airfield here is K-l [Pusan]. We have the Wing 
Headquarters and MAG 12 on this side of the field and on 
the other side MACG-2 (Marine Air Control Group 2) and 
an Army antiaircraft battery' of about 200 men. The Ma- 
rine Ground Control Interceptor Squadron and the Marine 
Tactical Air Control Squadron came out piecemeal but now 
a command unit has arrived, namely MACG-2, with a lull 
colonel in charge to coordinate the whole activity. They 
have a T/O for a chaplain as well as a doctor: the latter is 



already here. The CO was asking me yesterday and again 
today how soon he could expect his chaplain to arrive. They 
have 800 people. . . . 

The Wing coordinates' its air support and movements to 
the need of the Division. As the situation changes they 
move their closeup fields. ... In order to give proper cov- 
erage for the fluid and widely scattered aspects of this organ- 
ization, it seems important that we obtain enough chaplains 
to fill our T/O. Presently we are understrength by two. 
One Catholic and one Protestant would seem a minimum. 

He wrote that the Marine Aircraft Wing units at 
Itami, Japan continued to be covered by civilian 
priests and Air Force Protestant chaplains. Later, 
on 26 June, he would write that he had visited Japan 
and hoped to borrow a chaplain, if only for a few 
months, from Chaplain Walter A. Mahler, Staff 
Chaplain, Commander Naval Forces, Far East. 
"Counting transients and R&R [rest and rehabilita- 
tion] personnel, Itami usually has about 1,700 there." 

Speaking of chapels, Barnes' survey report 
continued: 

The chapel here is just a bare Japanese prefab building 
used for lectures, movies, and Divine Services. It is closely 
flanked on one side with a new Quonset NCO Club and on 
the other by the enlisted beer hall. My request for a Quonset 
Chapel has been turned down by the Chief of Staff. He has 
agreed to designate the present building as chapel only and 
make some improvements. However I don't see how he will 
be able to avoid using it for lectures and when cold weather 
comes, for movies. Also the location is undesirable. 

I wish a high level decision would be reached that at all 
Marine and naval establishments, when transition from field 
tents to permanent buildings is initiated, chapels be assigned 
at least as high a priority as beer halls, NCO clubs, and officer 
clubs. I have a feeling the American taxpayer would want 
it that way. 

Whether the latter opinion be true or not, many an- 
other chaplain has echoed the underlying sentiment 
here expressed. 

Barnes had another constructive criticism to 
register. 

At the present time there are only two enlisted men in the 
Wing with spec, number [military occupational specialty: 
MOS] as chaplain's assistant. I have recommended to G-l 
that appropriate request be initiated for four more. The 
struggle for clerks is so keen that the chaplain hardly has a 
chance. My contention is that if BuPers fills the T/O with 
six clergymen, the least the Marines can do is make every 
effort to supply six assistants. 

This too would elicit a hearty Amen from many a 
chaplain. 

On Barnes' second Sunday in the Wing, 27 May, 
an offering was taken at the Protestant service for 
the Chosin Presbyterian Seminary, formerly located 
in Seoul but now established in tents in Pusan. 
Among the entries for that date in the official Wing 



86 



Diary is that of the Chaplain Section, where Barnes 
notes that the offering amounted to $72. 14 In the 
afternoon he visited the seminary and presented the 
Marines' gift to the 5 teachers and 108 students. 

Some of the chaplains' work was reminiscent of 
stateside duty. 

We are operating our Navy Relief drive about a month 
later than stateside. I think it will go off well. I have not 
done much with it except to set it up and run off some 
dodgers for distribution. El Toro Navy Relief has been very 
good to our people. It is hoped that their appreciation will 
be shown by their contributions. 

Barnes would later report that $1,694.80 was con- 
tributed and remitted by the command to the Navy 
Relief Auxiliary. Marine Corps Air Station, El Toro, 
Calif. 

Supplies were of course a continuing problem. 
Barnes noted that the Army had set up a warehouse 
for chaplain supplies at Pusan to serve all chaplains in 
Korea, including the Marine Division and Air Wing. 
Shortly after John Murphy departed, Kelly was here from 
the Division. We worked out plans whereby I will ship air 
freight to him the expendable supplies he needs for his 
chaplains. 

Noting that the Army Chaplains' Warehouse would 
also share books, magazines, and comfort kits, Barnes 
reported that he had already shipped Chaplain Kelly 
27 boxes of such items. 

On 29 June Chaplain James A. Sullivan reported 
as relief for Chaplain Webb, who departed 2 July. 
The Chaplain Section of the Wing was still under- 
staffed; because of the particular dispersal of the 
Wing's various units, the Itami contingent had no 
chaplain at all and needed one pressingly. Barnes 
wrote that as soon as his complement should be filled, 
he would detach one chaplain there. Chaplain Salis- 
bury wrote in reply : 

Up to this moment we have not been able to improve your 
situation. Our shortage of chaplains is proving very em- 
barrassing, and we are frequently forced to do things which 
we would not prefer to do. Let us hope matters improve in 
the near future, once our involuntary recall program has 
swung into high gear. 

ComXai/FE 

The expansion of Admiral Joy's command during 
the early months of the war led to the establishment of 
a Staff Chaplain billet for ComNavFE. The first to 
be assigned was Chaplain Walter A. Mahler. Ordered 
from supervision of the Reserve program in the Chap- 
lains Division. Mahler reported on 20 November 
1950. Arriving in Yokohama the chaplain was con- 

* Filed in the Library. Historical Section, G-3, Headquar- 
ters. Marine Corps, Washington, D.C. 



fronted with taking a bus which was carrying all naval 
personnel to Yokosuka. Writing to Chaplain Salis- 
bury, he described his adventures in characteristic 
vein : 

Three of us were assigned to Tokyo and we tried to talk 
our way there. No luck; and since our luggage was all 
headed for Yokosuka we decided to trail along. We arrived 
there tired, hungry', and dirty. I was determined to get to 
Tokyo that day or bust. A LCDR aviator and a pay clerk 
decided to string along with me. So, followed by my little 
army of Two, I started out to find a way. 

Going around the corner who do I bump into but [a mu- 
tual friend]. Boy, I was never so glad to see anyone in my 
life. Tears as big as baseballs welled up in my eyes. Wiping 
the tears from his own, he officially welcomed me to Japan, 
asking about the [Chaplains] Division and his old friends 
SWS [Chaplain Salisbury] and DFM [Chaplain Meehan]. I 
explained my situation. "Follow me," he says. That I did, 
that I did, and in a short while we were on our way to 
Tokyo with all our gear, in a truck. 

Arrived in Tokyo the chaplain was billeted at the 
Dai Iti hotel. 

Last night I had quite an experience — I took a bath in a 
Japanese tub. "Experience" is the only word for it. I had 
been invited to Admiral Morehouse's [ComNavFE Chief of 
Staff] home for dinner ... so thought I should scrub up a 
bit. You won't believe it, but the tub was so crowded there 
wasn't room for the soap! You get in with the aid of a 
shoe horn. I managed finally to get myself out of the thing, 
leaving bits of the tub hanging to me, and presented myself 
at the Admiral's quarters right on time. Right now my 
problem is this: Should I just be content with being the 
dirtiest chaplain here or get another tub? Your advice will 
be appreciated. 

ComNavFE Chaplain Roster 

On 6 July 1951 Chaplain Edward B. Harp, Jr., 
Pacific Fleet Chaplain, issued a roster of chaplains in 
the Fleet and Pacific Ocean Area. The following slate 
was then current in ComNavFE. 

Force Chaplain W.A.Mahler CDR RC 

ComNavFE D. R. Kabele LCDR LUTH 

Commander Serv- S. E. Anderson LCDR BAP (S) 

ice, Squadron 3. 

Commander Serv- T. J. Burke LCDR RC 

ice, Division 31. 

Fleet Activities, J. E. Reaves LCDR METH 

Yokosuka. E. D Bennett LT METH 

J.J. O'Neill LT RC 

J. L. Rernias LTJG RC 

C. H. Swift, Jr. . . . LTJG DISC 

H. E. Tillberg LTJG PE 

Feet Activities, E. M. Turner LTJG BE 

Sasebo 

Naval Air Station, C. L. Sullenberger. LT CONG 
Atsugi 

Naval Hospital, C. VV. Lawler LCDR RC 

Yokosuka C.H.Shackelford . . LCDR PRESBY 

(USA) 



87 



Yokosuha 

Chaplain Swift served in ComNavFE from Febru- 
ary 1951 to July 1952. As Ships and Docks Chap- 
lain, Yokosuka, one of his main duties was visiting 
ships in the harbor. He reported some 355 separate 
visits to ships ranging from landing ships to fast 
carriers. Most had no chaplain; even on the largest 
there might be only one, and if he were Roman 
Catholic Swift would offer to conduct Protestant wor- 
ship. In his questionnaire he recalled the following 
incident: 

On one particular Sunday a service was scheduled for a 
Destroyer Mine Sweep, to be held on the weather deck. 
However, it was raining, and no other space was available. 
Across the pier from this DMS was an LSD [Landing Ship, 
Dock]. I contacted the officer of the deck and asked if the 
LSD would be willing to act as host for the service. Ar- 
rangements were made and the service transferred to the 
LSD, with personnel from both ships in attendance. 

The chaplain had additional duty at the Naval Air 
Facility at nearby Oppama. Frequently "I would 
conduct an early service with Holy Communion 
aboard a ship, then conduct my regular service at 
Oppama, and then take a third service aboard an- 
other ship." 

Representative as it must be thought to be of the 
work of other ComNavFE chaplains, that of Swift was 
different in at least one respect. Belonging to the 
Disciples denomination, he practiced baptism by im- 
mersion. Several persons were baptized in the swim- 
ming pool in the early morning. "It was very peace- 
ful," he wrote, "and I feel that God's Presence 
hallowed the setting." 

Swift also served as supply chaplain for the Far 
East, setting up a supply center at Yokosuka and 
shipping religious gear to chaplains in Korea and in 
ships at their request. His supplies came out aboard 
MSTS ships, under an arrangement with the Staff 
Chaplain, MSTS, Pacific. Upon being transferred 
to Sasebo, where there was no swimming pool, he 
asked the maintenance officer to rig for him a portable 
baptistery. 

Instead, he selected a spot between the chapel and the 
waterfront which was semisecluded and constructed a con- 
crete baptistery. Not only did I use it, but it was made 
available and used by ship's chaplains who practiced 
immersion. 

NEW JERSEY 

The second battleship committed to action in the 
Korean War was the NEW JERSEY, which received 
its "baptism by fire" on 20 May 1951 at Kangsong. 15 



'" Cagle and Manson, op. cit., p. 306. 



Moving on to participate in the siege of Wonsan, 
she was hit on the 22d; one man was killed and three 
wounded. Chester L. Hults, Episcopalian, was chap- 
lain from October 1950 to January 1952. In his reply 
to the Chaplains Division questionnaire, he noted that 
the ship raised approximately $6,500 as a memorial 
to that man. Upon returning to the United States 
the gift was presented to the Damon Runyon Cancer 
Fund, this organization having been chosen by vote 
of the crew. Chaplain Peter H. Brewerton served as 
the NEW JERSEY'S Roman Catholic "padre" from 
January 1951 to January 1953. 

Other Ships 

Chaplains prosecuted their duties of many kinds. 
Faber H. Wickham, in the ST. PAUL from July 1950 
to August 1952, reported that during their first Ko- 
rean tour they lost 8 shipmates, and during the second, 
30. Many came to the chaplain for assistance in those 
dark hours, he reported. "The sobering effect of 
these events cannot be underestimated." 

Chaplain Charles B. Robinson, assigned to the escort 
carrier SITKOH BAY in July 1951, encouraged small 
groups of men to arrange services of their own. He 
reported that the Latter Day Saints personnel fre- 
quently did so. 

Charles W. Ackley reported a group of six men in 
the submarine tender SPERRY planning to study for 
the Christian ministry after discharge from military 
service. He organized them into a "Pastors Class," 
meeting regularly on Friday noon, for study and dis- 
cussion of their intended profession. Ackley also wrote 
that he inherited and further developed "one of the 
best hobby shops in the Pacific Fleet." He also gave 
much attention to developing an excellent ship's li- 
brary, a resource for study and recreation that chap- 
lains have long considered it a privilege to encourage. 

Collateral duties occupy a good deal of the chap- 
lain's effort, especially on shipboard, where every 
officer is likely to wear several hats. If sometimes a 
chaplain has thought his commanding officer rather 
trespassed on his primary responsibility of being a 
clergyman, another has often thought that his collateral 
ministry not only offered an avenue of service to men 
not directly interested in his spiritual functions but 
sometimes established relationships which paved the 
way for future religious ministries. 

Chaplain Merlin A. Ditmer, Jr., serving in the 
BRYCE CANYON, a destroyer tender, from Novem- 
ber 1950 to October 1952, wrote that he had organized 
volunteer variety shows which entertained casualties in 
the Naval Hospital in Yokosuka, Japan. Chaplain 



L. C. M. Vosseler organized sightseeing tours in Japan 
for his men in the TOLEDO whenever the ship's 
schedule made it possible. 

The following are excerpts from a letter written by 
Chaplain Vosseler to the Chaplains Division, 4 August 
1951. 

Since reporting to the ship we have been in the Far East 
much of the time. Is it anticipated that I'll be spending 2 
years aboard? [He had been aboard then for 1 year.] 

Recent months find Divine Services averaging over 100 
per Sunday. Catholic Mass is arranged whenever possible. 
In the past 4 months six Catholic chaplains, some of them 
more than once, have come aboard for Confessions and Mass. 

I have conducted services aboard HELENA, MANCHES- 
TER, and ELDORADO. 

Other duties include editing the daily press-news [serving as] 
adviser to the ship's paper [membership on the] Recreation 
Council, and attending Enlisted Recreation Committee 
meetings. 

Bible studies are conducted Wednesday evenings. A daily 
radio program from the library is originated each day. The 
chaplain reads the daily news, asks the crew a sports question, 
and says an evening prayer. . . . 

Commendation. 

Chaplain Harold E. Meade, who served aboard the 
PHILIPPINE SEA from August 1950 to May 1951, 
received a letter of commendation award. His citation 
reads in part: "He devoted himself tirelessly to daily 
contacts with the officers and men, being especially at- 
tentive to the embarked air group, and removed many 
of their personnel problems in order to allow their full 
attention to the operations." 

Among the activities Chaplain Meade had described 
in letters to the Chaplains Division was a March of 
Dimes collection in the astounding amount of $9,281. 
Upon hearing this Chaplain Mahler [Meade wrote] 
"went off into grand, dramatic gestures." 

From the practical standpoint, I wish to suggest that the 
materials for ships afloat outside the continental limits for 
drives such as March of Dimes, Red Cross, and Navy Relief 
be sent as far as possible in advance. Our material arrived 
on board on 23 January. 

Meade had begun his letter, "As Little Boy Blue said 
as he reached for his trumpet, 'I think I'll blow my own 
horn.' " To which the Chief replied, "I trust you re- 
member a famous sermon on the Sadducecs." 

ComCruDesPac 

Circuit-riding destroyer chaplains are an innovation 
in the Chaplain Corps. 10 After preliminary discus- 
sion initiated by the then Chief of Chaplains William 
N. Thomas, and (then) Atlantic Fleet Chaplain S. W. 



"Navy Chaplains Bulletin (Fall, 1953), pp. 7-8, W. S. 
Peck, "The Destroyer Chaplaincy." 



Salisbury, a "trial run" was organized in 1949. The 
years 1950 and 1951 saw the new program "shaken 
down" and put on a working basis. 

On 24 July 1950 billets were established for one 
chaplain on the staff of each destroyer squadron com- 
mander in the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets, except for 
destroyer escort squadrons. One chaplain was as- 
signed to each Destroyer Force as staff chaplain, with 
the rank (after February 1951) of commander. 

The first chaplain to serve on the staff of Com- 
mander Cruiser Destroyer Force, Pacific (both types 
were incorporated into one Force in the Pacific Fleet) 
was Richard P. Heyl, a Roman Catholic, who was 
relieved in September 1950 by Raymond C. Hohen- 
stein, Lutheran. Hohenstein served with ComCru- 
DesPac until February 1953, when he was relieved by 
Chaplain F. D. Hewitt, Jr. The Force headquarters 
were in San Diego. 

Chaplain Hohenstein was the first to hold the 
Force Chaplain billet. He wrote in his question- 
naire reply: 

What made this duty somewhat other than ordinary was 
the fact that the specific work at hand was to establish the 
newly authorized program of placing chaplains in destroyers 
on the staffs of DESRON [destroyer squadron] commanders 
[and] of initiating activity in character guidance and lay 
leadership in the DD [destroyer] and DE [destroyer escort] 
type ships. 

This involved public relations work with the squadron 
commanders and commanding officers in connection with all 
three of these fields; training the chaplains themselves (the 
first ones reporting direct from civilian life to which they 
had returned after World War II); and publicizing these 
activities to the personnel of the command. 

To accomplish the above, I personally conducted two 
Divine Services each Sunday aboard various type ships, and 
made periodic cruises in DDs, ADs destroyer tenders, and 
CAs cruisers — to Mare Island, Calif.; Seattle, Wash.; Pearl 
Harbor, T.H. ; and Sasebo-Yokosuka, Japan. 

It is of course impossible to mention (or, indeed, 
at the date of this writing to discover) every chaplain 
who served with destroyers in the war theater. The 
roster of chaplains issued by the Pacific Fleet Chap- 
lain in July 1951 listed the following under Com- 
mander Cruiser Destroyer Force, Pacific. 

Force Chaplain Hohenstein, R. C. . CDR LUTH 

(MoSj I 
BRYCE CANYON Ditmer, M. A LT PRESBY 

ComDesRon 8 Fay, J. P LTJG RC 

ComDesRon 16. . . . Harris, O. J LTJG BAPT 

(S) 

HAMUL Hunter, W. M LTJG REF 

ComDesRon 3 . . . . Jeffers, H. \V LTJG ME III 

PIEDMONT Keefe, J. M LT RC 

89 — 




Worship at Sea. 
Chaplain Robert A. Yaughan conducts services aboard the DIXIE. 



ComDesRon 1 1 
ComDesRon 16. 



ComDesRon 1 3 



ComDesRon 1 



ComDesRon 5 . 
ComDesRon 7 . 



La Duca. P. J' LTJG 

Lee.E.Ji LTJG 

Moran.J. L' LTJG 

Powell, W. D LTJG 

Smith, L. C LT 

Thomas, J. R LT 



RC 
BAPT 

(S) 

BAPT 

(S) 

BAPT 

(S) 

LUTH 

PRESBY 

(USA) 

METH 

RC 

RC 



DIXIE Yaughan, R. A... LCDR 

PIEDMONT Wolf, A. J.2 LT 

PRAIRIE Wren, L.J LCDR 

1 Ordered to report. 

2 Ordered detached. 

The ships listed were destroyer tenders. 

Some notice has been taken already of the work of 
chaplains assigned to destroyers operating in Korean 
waters. Chaplain John R. Thomas reported amaze- 
ment on the part of "tincan sailors" when he first 
came aboard that the Navy was interested in them and 
that chaplains were willing to serve aboard destroy- 
ers! In 15 months of such duty he had made 23 
transfers among the ships of DesRon 7. Chaplain 
W illie D. Powell reported extending his destroyer min- 
istry- to three British ships, finding excellent attendance 
at Divine Service. (He also reported holding services 
on a British hospital ship.) Powell served in Com- 
CruDesPac from February 1951 to January 1952. 

Many chaplains reported that they organized re- 



ligious schedules in each of the ships of their squadron 
so that, during the chaplain's presence in one of them, 
the personnel of the others would be prepared to carry 
on weekly Bible classes, Rosary services, and even Sun- 
day Protestant worship. This was of course part of 
an expanded emphasis upon lay leadership which was 
everywhere receiving attention during this period. 

Destroyers are often referred to as the "work horses" 
of the fleet. Certainly their chaplains worked as hard 
as the other "tincan sailors," and by their efforts suc- 
cessfully pioneered one further area in which the 
Chaplain Corps was learning to carry on its mission. 

Why We Fought 

Over and over again chaplains wrote to the Chief 
that an important part of their work was trying to 
give their men satisfactory answers to the frequently 
asked question, "Why must I be here?" Though it 
bore more urgently upon the men in the war zone 
and upon their families, it was a question on the lips 
of many others, especially Reserves whose peacetime 
lives had been interrupted by sudden recalls to active 
duty. And indeed it was a question the nation asked 
itself repeatedly. 

One answer, which may commend itself to some, 
was given in a memorandum by Col. W. S. Brown, 
Regimental Commander, 1st Marines, issued on 14 



— 90 — 



June 1951. summing up the regiment's operations dur- 
ing the preceding 2 weeks. Colonel Brown wrote : 

A lot of comrades, officers and men, have died or been 
injured in this "police action." I fear that more, very prob- 
ably, will be before it is over. But you are making tradi- 
tions of valor and professional skill that will rank alongside 
of, or outrank, the achievements of Marines of the First 
World War, the Second World War, and all our minor cam- 
paigns. And I urge you all to believe, whether or not you 
are, or have been, religiously inclined, that in this struggle 
for decency among men, we are fighting on the side of the 
Lord. The Communists who oppose us are fighting to deny 
His existence. 

One thing at least is plain: The Communist in- 
vasion of the Republic of Korea had shown itself a 
serious menace to the spirit of freedom ; this was no 
minor "police action," but full-scale war, and in the 
balance lay the future of, at the least, common decency 
among mankind. Just as plainly the balance had 
been tipped by the United Nations forces in the di- 
rection of victory. 

Truce Talks 

At this juncture the Communists made a new move. 
On 23 June 1951 Jacob A. Malik, Russian delegate 
to the United Nations, in a radio address in New York 
suggested the possibility of truce talks in Korea. 17 



17 For brief introduction, see Cagle and Manson, op. cit., 
pp. 31 Off. ; includes extended quotation from (then) Rear 
Adm. Arleigh Burke, Deputy Chief of Staff, ComNavFE, the 
second Navy member of the UN delegation. Admiral Joy- 
was, of course, head of the delegation. 



Two days later the Chinese Communist regime un- 
officially endorsed the proposal. The United Nations 
Command immediately signified its willingness to dis- 
cuss preliminary terms, and on 8 July truce negotia- 
tions began at Kaesong, a site near the Parallel and 
just inside the Communist lines. This date marks the 
end of the 5th Korean Campaign. 

The first meeting of the main delegations was sched- 
uled for 10 July. Although the talks had begun, ac- 
tual fighting did not stop, though limited to minor 
skirmishing and patrol actions. Writing to Chaplain 
Salisbury on the 10th, Division Chaplain Kelly said: 

The best news that our Division received was the word 
that we are to go into Corps Reserve of the X Army Corps. 
The plan is that we are to pull out of the line and move 
down near Hongchon for rest and training. The boys really 
need the rest. It has been a long hard grind, and our casual- 
ties have been heavy. We have been attacking and being 
attacked since February. And during that time we stopped 
two major offensives. 

The move to the rest area was scheduled to begin 
15 July. A little more than a year had passed since 
North Korean forces had crossed the 38th Parallel, the 
year of the heaviest fighting during the whole con- 
flict. Five of the ten campaigns which would be rec- 
ognized by the Defense Department had taken place 
within this period. It remained to be seen whether a 
military truce might be arranged which would allow 
representatives of the contending powers to work out a 
settlement for the political future of Korea. 



91 



CHAPTER 6 
UNITED NATIONS SUMMER-FALL OFFENSIVE 

9 July-27 November 1951 



The last 2 years of the Korean War included few 
outstanding military campaigns. The peace talks 
which began in July 1951 dragged on through inter- 
minable delays and exasperating double-talk until the 
armistice was finally signed on 27 July 1953. 1 There 
were of course combat operations during these 2 years; 
the Department of Defense has recognized five dis- 
tinct campaigns, each of which entitles personnel who 
participated in it a battle star on the Korean Service 
ribbon. For the most part limited to actions seesaw- 
ing back and forth from one hill to another, for the 
men who fought in them these operations were never- 
theless often as perilous and always more monotonous 
than had been the more renowned battles of the first 
year of the war — and mostly without the glory. War 
has a way of becoming commonplace to those on the 
"home front." 

Breathing Spell 

The 1st Marine Division had enjoyed a brief respite 
during the winter of 1950-51 at Masan. On 15 July 
1951 it went into 8th Army reserve in the Hongchon 
area, its second and last relief from the line until May 
1953. Division Chaplain Kelly suggested to the 
Chaplains Division that the truce talks might provide 
a good time for rotation; but it was felt that until the 
cease-fire negotiations should have taken effect, it was 
best to leave the current rotation system in operation. 
On 20 July Kelly held a meeting of the Division chap- 
lains, which was addressed by Colonel Piatt, G-l (Di- 
vision Personnel Officer) and Colonel Hager, G-4 
(Division Logistics Officer). Both stressed the im- 
portant work being done by chaplains and expressed 
command appreciation for it. Chaplain Kelly em- 
phasized the primacy of the chaplain's spiritual minis- 
try and the importance of his own attitude toward 
his work. "The job ahead of us," he told them, "is 
tough, but we are dedicated to God and therefore we 



'See C. Turner Joy, How Communists Negotiate (New 
York, 1955). Foreword by Matthew B. Ridgway, and 
Vatcher, Wm. Jr., Panmunjon (N.Y., 1958). 



should be ready to make sacrifices. Certainly we all 
want to go home when our time is due, but we must 
not build up arguments with men for getting out of 
here. We must help them to realize what personal 
sacrifices may be required." 

fn the rest area, although the Marines were engaged 
in training, there was time for athletics and amateur 
entertainment; the chaplains had a hand in arrang- 
ing these. Kelly felt that they were also showing 
"great ingenuity in constructing chapels." 

From this period of relative quiet Chaplain Keene 
H. Capers recalled the following delightful incident. 

We had built a beautiful little chapel in a grove of trees. 
The chapel area was surrounded by a rail fence made of 
rough logs and painted white. The altar was made of 
stone. Probably more than any other chapel, this one was 
mine. I had cut the logs, carried the stones, built the fence. 

We were having our regular Sunday morning service. I 
had asked our Jewish chaplain, Elihu Rickel, to preach the 
sermon. My organist, a Korean, was playing the prelude. 
For some reason the music was not having its usual quieting 
effect. There was more talking than usual, even laughter; 
and then I realized what it was. The organist was playing 
the old hymn "O Happy Day, That Fixed My Choice on 
Thee My Saviour and My God." But to the Marines he 
was playing "Nobody Knows How Dry I Am!" 

Work Goes On 

During these days Kelly was visited by Chaplain 
Ivan L. Bennett, Staff Chaplain, Far East Command 
(General Ridgway's command), Chaplain Tobey (8th 
Army Staff Chaplain) and Chaplain Jones (X Corps 
Staff Chaplain). At the request of Chaplain W. A. 
Mahler, ComNavFE Staff Chaplain, Kelly lent him 
Chaplain Austin on Temporary Additional Duty, with 
the proviso that in case of emergency he would have 
to be immediately recalled. Several chaplains had 
been ill, usually with dysentery; Chaplains Uber and 
Wissing both contracted hepatitis, and although Uber 
was returned to duty after hospitalization aboard the 
HAVEN in Pusan, Wissing had to be evacuated to 
Japan and did not return to the Division. 



92 




Memorial Service, Hongchon. 

Chaplain Francis W. Kelley gives the invocation at services held 3 August for marines who died in Korea. Behind him, 
left to right, are: Maj. Gen. Gerald C. Thomas, Commanding General of the Division, Brig. Gen. William J. Whaling, 
Assistant Division Commander, and Chaplain Rickel. Chaplain Hollingsworth also participated but is not pictured here. 



On 3 August a memorial service was held in memory 
of those Marines who had given their lives since 29 De- 
cember 1950. Chaplain Kelly gave the invocation, 
prayer was offered by Chaplain John E. Hollingsworth, 
and the benediction given by Chaplain Elihu Rickel. 
The address was given by Maj. Gen. Gerald C. 
Thomas, Commanding General, 1st Marine Division. 
A letter sent from General Thomas to bereaved families 
included the following: 

The ceremony . . . was held on a hillside in the valley of 
the Hongchon River, in an area where a considerable number 
of the heroes whom we gathered to honor had fallen. Several 
thousand men of the Division attended, and I know that I ex- 
press the heartfelt sentiment of each one present when I say 
that we share fully in your sorrow and bereavement. 

Chaplain Joseph C. Fitzgerald, 11th Marines Regi- 



mental Chaplain, was cited for "meritorious serv- 
ice .. . during operations against enemy aggressor 
forces in Korea from 14 January to 15 July 1951," a 
period stretching from the Pohang guerrilla hunt until 
the Division went into reserve. The citation accom- 
panying the Bronze Star reads in part : 

An able and resourceful officer, Lieutenant Commander 
Fitzgerald displayed exceptional understanding and confi- 
dence in ministering to the spiritual and physical needs of the 
men in the regiment. Exposing himself to intense enemy fire 
on many occasions, he unfailingly gave immediate consolation 
to the wounded, lending comfort to them in their distress. 

Chaplain Joseph D. McDonald, Regimental Chap- 
lain of the 1st Marines, was awarded a Gold Star in 
lieu of a second Bronze Star. His citation, covering 



93 — 



the period 25 January to 17 July, includes the fol- 
lowing : 

Working under extremely trying conditions which in- 
cluded 1 period of 43 consecutive days in the attack, he fre- 
quently was busy day and night, evacuating and cheering the 
many wounded, and often administering last rites on the front 
lines, with no regard for the danger involved nor his own 
fatigue. 

The roster of chaplains submitted on 1 August 
showed that the Chaplains Division had on the whole 
been successful in its rotation policy. Seventeen of 
those included in the roster of 21 April had been re- 
turned stateside, and 15 chaplains had reported since to 
the 1st Marine Division. Recent arrivals had been 
assigned as follows: 

Service Bn Stanley I. Rav LT PRESBY 

(USAi 
Shore Party Bn .. . . Bashford S. Power . LTJG METH 
Motor Transport . . John L. Wissing. . LT RC 

5th Marines Donald \V. Jollv LTJG PRESBY 

(U) 
Medical Bn Robert J. Schneck . LT LUTH 

A feeling of tense expectancy enveloped the 
Marines in their rest area as rumors reached them 
in August that the Communists were massing large 
reinforcements of troops and supplies in the North. 
Writing to Chaplain Salisbury on 11 August, Chap- 
lain Kelly said: "There are over 650,000 Chinese 
and North Koreans in North Korea. Including the 



troops in Manchuria, they can muster a million men." 
Allied aviators returning from reconnaissance over 
enemy territory reported a tremendous number of 
trucks heading south with supplies. The Marines 
remembered how such signs were observed on previous 
occasions before an enemy offensive. Kelly continued : 

On August 15 we shall have been in reserve for a month. 
That is about the length of time that a Division can expect 
to remain in reserve. So it is generally expected that any- 
time after that may find us committed to the lines. It is 
generally felt that should the peace negotiations break down, 
our Division will be called upon to make an amphibious 
landing behind the enemy lines. 

Kaesong Truce Talks 

The cease-fire negotiations had begun when the 
chief delegates met for the first time on 10 July, 
Vice Adm. C. Turner Joy, Far East Naval Com- 
mander, acting for the United Nations Command. 
Lieutenant General Nam II was the spokesman for 
the enemy. After settling on an agenda, they had 
become stalled during August over the first item, the 
demarcation of a buffer zone between the opposing 
forces. 

The United Nations delegation held out for a de- 
militarized strip 20 miles deep in front of the current 
UN line; the Communists insisted on a zone extending 
10 kilometers on either side of the 38th Parallel. 2 



' Britannica Book of the Year, 1952; article, "Korean 



Baptism. 
The waters of the Hwachon Reservoir are used for baptism by Chaplain Austin on 11 July 1951. 





4»» 



ft 

7 






94 — 



Besides requiring a serious withdrawal of UN forces, 
the Communist proposal would have given the UN a 
line 210 miles long as compared to the 125 miles they 
then had to defend. The Parallel was an arbitrary 
line with no military value and was, besides, objec- 
tionable to the Republic of Korea as emphasizing the 
artificial nature of the original division of Korea at 
the end of World War II. On 23 August the prin- 
cipal talks were broken off; for two months negotia- 
tions were conducted by subordinates, largely over 
alleged violations by one side or the other of the 
neutrality of the Kaesong area. 

During the early days of the talks it became evident 
that the Communists were trying to accomplish by 
devious wrangling what their armies had failed to 
achieve by fighting. Any equivocation, any delay 
that promised to serve their purposes was considered 
justified. 3 The UN Command became convinced that 
they were using the lull to build up their defense in 
depth; captured equipment proved that China was 
supplying reinforcements. At the same time hope for 
peace was stirring Americans to expressed resentment 
of what had proved an unpopular war. Increasingly 
Van Fleet would find his activities restricted by the 
Far East Command, presumably acting on instructions 
from Washington, 4 which doubtless reflected wide- 
spread unwillingness on the part of the people to sup- 
port the war to a successful conclusion. 

UN Offensive 

The breakoff of the principal negotiations oc- 
casioned by a walkout of the Red delegates on 22 
August may have signalled their readiness to resume 
large-scale combat. In any event, the United Nations 
forces seized the initiative and during the last week 
in August began attacking in eastern Korea."' 

Movement of Marine units was begun on the night of 
26 August, to relieve elements of the 2d Army Division 
and the ROK 8th Division, deployed along the Kansas 
Line on the southern fringe of the Punchbowl. A suc- 
cessful thrust in this area would provide further se- 
curity for the Hwachon Reservoir, the source of both 
water and electricity for Seoul, and for the Chorwon- 
Seoul rail line. One objective of this offense was the 
Punchbowl itself, and on 31 August the 1st Marine 



3 Cf. Joy, op. cit., passim. See also C. Berger, The Korea 
Knot Philadelphia, 1957), pp. 141ff.; Cagle and Manson, 
op. cit., pp. 310-321. Also helpful is ch. VIII of vol. IV 
of the official history of U.S. Marine operations in Korea, 
unpublished at the time of this writing. 

1 Life (May 11, 1953), J. A. Van Fleet. The Truth About 
Korea," p. 133. 

Montross, unpublished vol. IV of the history of Marine 
operations in Korea. Also Miller et al., op. cit., ch. VI. 



Division with ROK Marine Units attached opened a 
drive northward. 

Writing to Chaplain Salisbury the next day, Chap- 
lain Kelly commented on the difficult conditions under 
which they were living: 

Our Command Post has moved up pretty far. We are 
approximately 4 to 5 miles behind the front line. Some of 
the big artillery, is firing from behind us. It practically 
knocks us out of our beds when they open up. Physically 
this has been one of our toughest moves. We ran into a 
rough, rainy period. When we arrived in our new C.P. we 
found it a sea of muck. It rained for about 3 days steady. 
We arrived on Monday and finally late Friday afternoon we 
were able to move into our area and set up our tents. We 
spent all day Saturday just trying to get set up and dried out. 

11-18 September 

September saw the Division engaged in heavy fight- 
ing as they captured the Punchbowl and moved on to 
secure the northwesterly leg of the Soyang River above 
it. The worst of the fighting occurred between 1 1 
and 18 September. On 11 September, as the 1st Bat- 
talion, 7 th Marines was committed against a strongly 
defended enemy position, Chaplain Richard T. 
Peeters, Roman Catholic, and James S. Ferris, Meth- 
odist, made their way to the forward aid station. 

More details are supplied in the citations accom- 
panying the Bronze Star awards subsequently given 
these chaplains. That of Peeters read: 

For 24 hours he gave spiritual and physical aid to the 
many casualties arriving at his command post. Learning on 
the following morning that the unit of which he was orig- 
inally a member was about to be committed, he passed 
through a valley subject to enemy artillery fire to rejoin it. 
He again stationed himself at the forward aid station and 
began to give assistance. In addition to his regular duties 
he dressed wounds, organized stretcher parties, prepared hot 
food for the wounded and assisted in numerous other ways. 
Three times during the night he led native stretcher bearers 
through mined areas and enemy fire to the rear aid station, 
and on his return trips brought much needed supplies. When 
all casualties had been evacuated, he volunteered to maintain 
a security watch in order that the doctor and corpsman might 
obtain some rest, and remained awake throughout the night 
guarding the aid station. Only when the battalion was re- 
lieved was his vigil ended. 

The citation for Chaplain Ferris states in part: 

Whrn the battalion was engaged in the attack of a strongly 
fortified enemy position, he voluntarily stationed himself at 
the forward aid station where he could provide religious 
rites for, and succor to, the maximum number of Marines. 
In addition, he rendered distinct service to the battalion 
medical officer by organizing stretcher parties and performing 
the duties of a corpsman when large numbers of casualties 
were present. On one occasion, when a critically wounded 
Marine was reported lying in an exposed area under heavy 



95 — 



enemy artillery fire, he unhesitatingly proceeded to the spot 
where the wounded man lay and assisted in his evacuation. 
He continued to give assistance for a period in excess of 48 
hours without rest. 

A third chaplain was decorated for devoted action 
on that same 11 September. Henry H. Hayes, who 
had previously received the Bronze Star, was given 
the Letter of Commendation award. His citation 
reads in part: 

While under continuous fire from enemy artillery and 
mortars, he fearlessly stationed himself at the forward aid 
station, and with utter disregard for his own personal safety, 
went about ministering to the wounded and providing them 
the utmost in comfort and safety. When not performing 
these duties, he voluntarily organized and dispatched 
stretcher parties and medical supply trains to the infantry 
companies. Through his determined efforts and unselfish 
actions, the lives of many of the critically wounded were 
saved. 

Two Chaplains Wounded 

Two chaplains received light wounds during this 
period. Chaplain Ferris was wounded on 14 Septem- 
ber. Hearing that the Marine artillery unit sup- 
porting his regiment had received direct hits, Ferris 
hurried to the place and en route was knocked down 
by a shell which exploded about 10 feet from where 
he was walking. A lad accompanying the chaplain 
was killed. In a letter to Chaplain C. L. Drury (then 
Chaplain Corps historian), dated 20 August 1956, 
Chaplain Ferris described the event: 

All I can say is that the good Lord was with me. It 
wasn't until later that evening when I had returned to my 
own outfit and was changing my clothes that I discovered 
my clothes were covered with blood, not necessarily my own 
blood. My clerk noticed I had a number of cuts on my 
back. Thinking that there might be some small splinters of 
shrapnel, I reported to sick bay and found everything to 
be O.K. 

An examination showed the wounds to be slight. How- 
ever, Ferris was reported as a casualty and his wife 
received a telegram to that effect before he could write 
and let her know that he was not seriously injured. 

The second chaplain wounded was J. E. Hollings- 
worth. Somehow a report was circulated which 
reached his wife at home that the chaplain had died 
of his wounds; actually the wound was not serious 
enough to require hospitalization. He would later re- 
ceive the Letter of Commendation award for "excel- 
lent service . . . during operations against the en- 
emy . . . 20 April to 15 October 1951." His citation 
includes the following: 

Despite the threat of enemy action, he often held Divine 
Services for the infantry companies within easy range of the 



enemy positions. On one such occasion, he was wounded 
while holding services. He refused to be evacuated until he 
had reassured the Marines in their faith. 

The "Medics" 

If chaplains sometimes received decorations, and 
often both silent and expressed respect and apprecia- 
tion from their fellows, they in turn were warm in their 
regard for the sacrificial spirit evidenced around them. 

The Division's Jewish chaplain, E. H. Rickel, wrote 
of one 30-hour period in which "A" Medical Company 
cared for some 675 wounded Marines. Every man, he 
wrote, from highly trained specialist to truck driver, 
sweated and worked at furious pace according to his 
skill. And he quoted with obvious approval the re- 
mark of a surgeon, washing up after an extremely deli- 
cate operation, "I'm damned proud to be a member 
of this outfit. I've never seen anything like it." 

About 8 o'clock on Sunday evening 80 men were 
brought in from the enemy line; 78 turned out to be 
ROK Marines, 2 were North Koreans. Accompanied 
by interpreter and chaplain, a doctor began routine 
admissions work. The Korean equivalent of "Where 
do you hurt?" was repeatedly called out, as doctors 
and corpsmen ascertained the extent and nature of 
wounds and prepared initial charts. 

The chaplain bent down to hold a canteen of water to the 
mouth of one of the wounded enemy. A gleam of life flashed 
into the half-closed almond-shaped eyes; he lifted his head 
up, bowed in thanks, and drank deeply. A South Korean 
Marine looked on with amazement and shouted, "He is the 
enemy." The chaplain asked Yu to explain that here and now 
there were no enemies, only wounded. 

Chaplain Rickel's account continued : 

The devotion to duty of the medical personnel was rein- 
forced, was only equalled by the conduct of the wounded. 
Faces showed pain, involuntary anguished moans escaped, but 
at no time did anyone hear loud outbursts. The wounded 
waited patiently, with closed eyes, tight lips, and gratitude 
that they were still alive. 

And when they did talk, this is what one heard. "I'm 
okay, Doc, take care of him." "Do you think I'll make it, 
chaplain? Gee, my poor wife, she'll be so hurt." "Pray for 
me, padre, I promised my little boy that I'd take him on a 
camping trip when I got back." 

As one warrant officer said, if that number ever hit 
a hospital in the States, they'd have to declare a city- 
wide emergency. But men can and do rise above 
themselves, above what they commonly think is ex- 
pected of them and indeed expect of themselves. 
Perhaps, as Rickel said, "You have to see it to believe 
it"; but when it happens, one can only pause in 
humble gratitude. 



96 



Chaplain Harold H. Cummings also worked with a 
medical company during these harrowing days. Al- 
most overwhelmed with casualties, the "medics" 
worked around the clock, and the chaplain along with 
them. Later he was cited for the period 15-21 Sep- 
tember, being awarded the Letter of Commendation, 
which speaks of his spending "approximately 18 hours 
a day administering spiritual aid to wounded and 
dying Marines." 

Vignettes 

Two incidents from the heavy fighting in Septem- 
ber, 1951 may serve to document the experience of 
chaplains in combat. The 3d Battalion, 1st Marines 
was on the east coast north of the 38th Parallel. Mov- 
ing up with the forward aid station, Chaplain K. H. 
Capers would set up what came to be known as the 
"Chaplain's Galley." There "honest-to-goodness" 
coffee and even steak, bacon, and eggs were offered 
casualties and battle-weary Marines who chanced by. 
The helicopter pilots evacuating the wounded would 
replenish the larder on their return trips. 

On one occasion, when the aid station had just 
moved forward, it became impossible for bearers to 
evacuate litter cases over the mountainous terrain to 
the rear aid station. Until helicopters should arrive, 
there was a long wait. Capers rigged for church, 65 
stretchers providing "pews" for that many seriously 
wounded, with less serious casualties sitting around. 
The chaplain's organist, Pak, interpreted for the 
enemy casualties, among whom was a North Korean 
officer, seriously wounded, who had refused coffee and 
cigarettes and had sneered at the chaplain's efforts to 
be comforting. During the service, however, he ap- 
peared to be listening and afterward asked to talk to 
Capers. Pak interpreted : "The prisoner says that he 
knows the imperialists are butchers and show mercy 
only to gain their own ends. But he says he likes that 
Man you were talking about and would like to save 
your life. He says you'd better get out of here be- 
cause the North Koreans are going to attack tonight 
in great strength to rescue him, and if you don't es- 
cape you will be killed with the rest of the Americans." 
In fact, the Communists did not attack, though they 
were well able to do so. But that Communist pris- 
oner had been provided every ministry our own troops 
received and was evacuated by helicopter with our 
own wounded. 

Chaplain Capers was given the Letter of Com- 
mendation award for service during the period 27 
April-9 October. His citation reads in part: "He 
moved with the battalion under all conditions and re- 



mained with the forward aid station where his work 
could best be performed. His faith and sincere in- 
terest in all gave strength to the wounded and the 
weary." 

Further Awards 

By the third week in September fighting in the 1st 
Marine Division sector of X Corps front began to 
show results. There was much more to come, how- 
ever, both in the 2d Infantry Division's sector, and 
further west, along the IX Corps front. 

A fifth chaplain, Joseph P. Trodd, would be 
awarded the Bronze Star for outstanding service dur- 
ing this period, specifically for 16 September-8 Oc- 
tober. While his battalion was engaged with enemy 
forces in the vicinity of E-dong, Trodd remained at 
the forward aid station, assisting with the casualties. 
Taking no thought for his own danger or fatigue, 
tirelessly he ministered to the men who passed 
through the aid station, offering solace and reassur- 
ance and spiritual strength. 

Three others received the Letter of Commenda- 
tion: Chaplain Donald W. Jolly for excellent service 
during the period 8 July-18 October; Arthur M. 
Kulinski for 25 August-27 October; and William A. 
Taylor for the period 9 May- 19 November 1951. 

Jolly was in the 5th Marines. His citation espe- 
cially mentions an occasion when the command post 
was subjected to artillery barrages; the chaplain 
"moved about the area fearlessly, giving comfort and 
spiritual aid to the wounded men, and through the 
night maintaining a cheerful conversation. . . ." 

Chaplain Kulinski was serving in the Medical Bat- 
talion. He followed an exhausting schedule to pro- 
vide Roman Catholic ministrations for adjacent units 
lacking a chaplain of that faith. "He voluntarily 
spent many hours at the medical companies, minister- 
ing spiritual reassurance and comfort to the wounded. 
When an artillery unit was subjected to the counter- 
battery fire, he proceeded to that unit to make him- 
self available for those wounded who sought comfort 
in his encouragement and confidence." 

Taylor's award covers a long stretch, but his cita- 
tion centers upon a particular incident when his regi- 
ment (11th Marines) occupied positions in the area 
of Yanggu. 

He learned that an adjacent infantry regiment was suf- 
fering heavy casualties and was endeavoring to evacuate its 
casualties under serious handicaps and lack of facilities. He 
promptly went to the regiment's aid and established commu- 
nications, arranged transportation, and assisted in securing 
additional medical aid for the wounded. When it began to 
rain, he sought out blankets, ponchos, and shelter halves to 



97 — 




Care for the Wounded. 

Chaplain J. P. Trodd administers rites to a wounded marine 
as the corpsman gives him plasma. 




A Letter Home. 

Chaplain Elihu Rickel takes dictation at an aid station for a 
wounded marine. 




Makeshift Altar. 

It is said "necessity is the mother of invention." Pictured 
here is a demonstration of one of the methods used to set 
up an altar near the front. 



protect the wounded men. With complete disregard for 
personal comfort and fatigue, he spent long hours, day and 
night, at the evacuation relay point, giving comfort to the 
casualties and writing letters home for them. During an- 
other period, when two battalions of the regiment were being 
subjected to daily counterbattery fire, he continued to make 
frequent visits to the two units, comforting and inspiring 
the wounded, as well as those who had to continue their 
work under fire. 

Chaplains serving in the Division during this Sixth 
Korean Campaign received five Bronze Star awards, 
seven Letter of Commendation awards, and two 
Purple Heart awards. Approximately 50 percent of 
the Chaplain Section were decorated, not considering 
those who had earlier received citations or would 
later do so. Never before in the history of the Navy 
Chaplain Corps had so many from such a relatively 
small group won such recognition in so short a time. 

Chaplain Peck Comes Aboard 

From 1 August until Chaplain Kelly was relieved, 
the following new chaplains had arrived: Edmund 
W. Pipho (Lutheran), James F. Follard (Roman 



Catholic), Walter J. Vierling (Lutheran), Robert N. 
Ruleman (Methodist), and John J. O'Neill (Roman 
Catholic). On 10 September Kelly wrote to the 
Chief: 

Colonel Krulak asked me again the other day when an 
Episcopal chaplain was coming. General Shepherd, FMF 
Pacific, was here for a visit and commented that there is 
no Episcopal chaplain in any part of FMF Pacific. I know 
Krulak is Episcopal, so I guess General Shepherd must be 
also. 

Chaplain Kelly had been suffering from dysentery. 
He wrote on 17 September that the doctors had or- 
dered him to the hospital ship CONSOLATION; the 
next day, upon his evacuation. Chaplain J. C. Fitz- 
gerald was assigned duty as Division Chaplain until 
Chaplain W. S. Peck, Jr., on his way as Kelly's relief, 
should report in. Peck reported to the Division CP 
on 8 October 1951 and Fitzgerald was detached to 
return to the States. 

The Chief, replying to Peck's first letter from Ko- 
rea, requested that as Division Chaplain he continue 
certain practices which his predecessors had evolved 



98 




Seminary Gift. 

Chaplain Richard E. Barnes looks on as Sergeant Powers hands Dr. Kim Cha Choon, Acting President of Chosen Presbyterian 

Seminary a monetary gift for his institution. 



for keeping the Chaplains Division cognizant of the 
situation there. 

I would appreciate, for example, a weekly letter from you, 
no matter how brief, which will enable me to keep abreast 
with the status of our chaplains in the Division. Any letters 
of length which you have time to prepare will also be much 
appreciated, since we peruse every line with an eagle eye. 
We shall expect you to make recommendations with regard 
to your chaplains, particularly if any are not well or should, 
in your opinion, be rotated for other reasons in advance of 
the normal date. 

We would also like to receive from you a monthly roster 
of your chaplains, indicating especially their current as- 
signment and their date of reporting to the Division. . . . 
For your information, I send the word that we will no longer 
order chaplains to Korea to relieve others by name. We 
have found in several cases that the system resulted in some 
chaplains serving over the required time and others being 
returned to the States short of their normal period. We 
shall instead detach chaplains on or about the seventh month 
after reporting regardless of the arrival of reliefs and will 
depend on you to keep us current at all times as to the 
number of chaplains aboard, desirable denominational dis- 
tribution, and any other matters of that sort on which you 
have an opinion. 

We want you to feel that you have top priority of all 
commands in the field, and that you will get what you want 
if you let us know what it is, within the limitations under 
which this office works. 

On October 13-16 Pacific Fleet Chaplain George 
A. Rosso and FMF Pacific Chaplain Martell H. 



Twitchell made a visit of inspection, and were af- 
forded opportunity to see many of the chaplains in 
the field. 

On 29 October Peck issued his first Memorandum 
as Division Chaplain, establishing an SOP for the 
requisition of chaplain supplies and appointing the 
Combat Service Group chaplain as Supply Chaplain. 
Apparently the problem of supplies was a continuing 
one, for on 4 December Chaplain J. P. Mannion, 
Assistant Director, Chaplains Division, wrote to Peck 
as follows: 

We are constantly receiving complaints regarding the 
availability of chaplains supplies and equipment for the 
Division. The truth of the matter is that we have never 
received a request from the Division since it has been in 
Korea for either supplies or equipment. We know that some 
supplies have been furnished by the Staff Chaplain, Com- 
mander, MSTS, Pacific. 

It is proper to rely, in so far as necessary, upon the Army 
for equipment and supplies. However, there are certain 
items . . . which we normally supply which the Army does 
not have available. 

Would it be possible to discuss the following with your 
G-4? We are quite willing to make available, without re- 
imbursement, all portable equipment needed by our chap- 
lains. We anticipate that under the conditions under which 
you operate you need both equipment for immediate use and 
equipment in reserve. If you will give us your requirements 
by letter or by requisition, we will art on it immediately. 



-,:;r,:;:>,2 O— 60- 



99 



Our greatest need is for adequate shipping instructions. . . . 
Please let us have your G-4's reaction to this. 

Air Wing 

From the Punchbowl area and the Division's front 
ground lines our attention must be turned now to the 
air-support units and their headquarters far to the 
south. On 12 August Wing Chaplain Barnes wrote to 
Chaplain Salisbury: 

As for the "truce" talks, no appreciable progress seems to 
have been made. The troops at the front have had a lull, 
but not so the aviators. This command is carrying as heavy 
a load as ever or more so. We are regularly losing planes and 
pilots. The ground fire has seriously increased in volume and 
accuracy. 

With the arrival of Chaplain Stephen G. Horvath 
the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing was able to provide 
Roman Catholic ministrations for its personnel at 
Pusan. Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Cushman, command- 
ing the Wing, wrote to the Reverend Brian Geraghty, 
Superior of the St. Columban Missionary Society: 

During the absence of a Catholic chaplain . . . you and 
other priests of the Columban Order have graciously extended 
to us the deeply appreciated ministry of your services at Mass, 
Confessions and personal counseling. Please accept my grati- 
tude and that of my officers and men. 

Some of the more interesting of Wing Chaplain 
Barnes' reports concern the work of Marines in aiding 
the often destitute and homeless Korean civilians. On 
1 2 August he wrote : 

My work here has thrown me into contact with mission- 
aries and refugee church groups, as it did John Murphy. 
Among others is a Presbyterian Seminary, which, formerly in 
Seoul, is now in Pusan. Out of a student body of 300 they 
have assembled from the far corners 1 70 students and 5 pro- 
fessors. Their Christian faith and courage is astounding. We 
and other commands have helped them with offerings, sur- 
veyed tenting, and scrap wood. They are living and holding 
classes in two squad tents and a few nondescript shacks thev 
have built. . . . Their chow consists of two bowls of rice 
per day. It was my privilege to give one of the commence- 
ment addresses via interpreter, who by the way was the dean 
of the seminary and holds a Ph D. degree from Toronto 
University. 

The whole of South Korea is filled with amazing stories, 
stories which should thrill the church at home with the 
heroic Christian courage of this infant church to absorb 
punishment, adapt itself to disruptive and chaotic conditions, 
gather together in the most unexpected places, and hold 
church, Sunday School, and study classes. One group of 
refugee pastors on Chejudo Island of all things asked me to 
get them 20 Greek New Testaments! Believe it or not, they 
were organized into a Greek New Testament class, meeting 
every day. 

The singing of these church people is inspiring. I have 
invited two Korean church choirs and the Korean Navy 
Symphonic Orchestra and Chorus to K-l [Pusan] for con- 



certs. The officers and men could hardly believe their ears 
when these people rendered portions of the Messiah, "Open 
the Gates of the Temple," Stephen Foster folk songs and 
other numbers, and all in English. (The Korean Navy 
organization was acquired by simply taking the whole Seoul 
symphonic organization, men and women, into the Korean 
Navy.) 

The Wing continued short of its complement of 
chaplains. On occasion Chaplain Cummins of MAG 
12 went for a week to the Itami (Japan) units, and 
Barnes had himself gone over twice for counseling on 
some critical cases. The Wing's new commander, 
Maj. Gen. C. F. Schilt, on his own initiative pressed 
the matter of chaplain shortage, especially at Itami. 
Barnes wrote to Salisbury: "I gave him the picture 
and told him I had been in correspondence with you 
and that you were aware of the problem and were 
doing everything possible to bring us up to T/O." 

Moral Welfare Program 

Barnes wrote that General Schilt was greatly con- 
cerned about the moral problems confronting the 
command. During June Chaplain Cummins was 
given T.A.D. (temporary additional duty) at Itami to 
cooperate in a venereal disease control program di- 
rected by the Medical Department. On four after- 
noons the chaplain and a doctor gave lectures, and the 
new film produced by the Chaplains Division To Be 
Held in Honor was shown. During July and August 
the film, borrowed from ComNavFE Chaplain Mah- 
ler, was shown in all units of the Wing except a few 
isolated radar groups. Writing to Chaplain Edward 
J. Hemphill, Assistant to the Chief of Chaplains for 
Material and Special Projects, Barnes reported agree- 
ment among doctors and chaplains that the film was 
well done. The response of the men had been favor- 
able, although "some wiseguys always find opportunity 
to make cracks." 

Hemphill in his reply emphasized the importance of 
audience preparation. "It was not intended that this 
film would be shown . . . without first preparing 
them for the subject it treats." He suggested the fol- 
lowing as a useful procedure : 

1. A lecture by the chaplain on the moral factors of 
incontinence. 

2. The screening of the film. 

3. A discussion by the group of the meaning for them of 
the points included in lecture and film. 

4. Second screening of the film. 

Barnes and Mahler were agreed that Far Eastern 
commands deserved a high priority on distribution 
lists for moral guidance materials. Hemphill replied : 

We are quite conscious of the fact that you are located in 



100 



an area which justifies the use of a great amount of program 
resources in the field of morality training. As you know, 
there are no established Training Aids Sections nearer than 
Guam. We are quite willing to furnish the program re- 
sources if you or Chaplain Mahler will indicate from where 
they can be circulated. From here, we are not certain 
where the program resources should be sent that they may be 
available to a large number of chaplains. 

I am sure I speak for the Chief when I say we want our 
chaplains in the forward area to receive everything they think 
they need. We are willing to reduce supplies for other 
chaplains in order to meet this top priority need. Therefore, 
feel perfectly free to come directly to us with your require- 
ments, making sure that the shipment instructions are ade- 
quate to insure delivery, and we will get the material to you. 
We can worry about going through channels when you are 
out of an emergency situation. 

In August Barnes flew to Japan to confer with 
Mahler and others about the marriage of Marine per- 
sonnel to Japanese nationals. More than once the 
chaplains pointed out that their approach to problems 
of morals and morale aimed to be positive, not simply 
prohibitory. Strenuous efforts were made to acquaint 
service personnel with the better aspects of Japanese 
and Korean culture and life, and to remind them of 
the values of their own. On one occasion, 3,000 pa- 
per bound books were received by air shipment and 
distributed through the Wing. Early in June Chap- 
lain Barnes had taken steps to secure books through 
the Library Services Branch, Bureau of Naval Per- 
sonnel. 

Venereal disease was of course a continuing prob- 
lem in units more or less permanently located. While 
the chaplains willingly cooperated with their com- 
mands and Medical Departments, their primary con- 
cern was never either disciplinary or therapeutic 
measures, but moral and spiritual health as a positive 
factor in a happy, wholesome life. The chaplain's 
ministry is first and always a concern for the well- 
being of total personality. 

Barnes subsequently wrote that an active moral 
guidance program was under way and indicated that 
the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing Chaplain was in an 
excellent position to act as custodian and distribution 
source for chaplains' films. Therefore in December 
1951 Chaplain Mannion, Assistant Director of the 
Chaplains Division, made arrangements for certain 
films to be forwarded to the Wing Chaplain. He 
wrote: "As other films become available, we shall 
forward them directly to you for use with the Wing 
and the rear echelon units of the 1st Marine Division." 

Late in April 1952, after Chaplain J. F. Parker, S. 
Baptist, had become Wing Chaplain, the Chaplains 
Division would send to the Wing two of the recently 



developed "Black Magic" boards with accompanying 
cardboard symbols to be used in moral guidance lec- 
tures. This expensive visual aid equipment was in- 
tended to be circulated from the Wing Chaplain's 
office for use in individual commands. 

Chaplain Barnes' Diary 

The following notes have been taken from Chap- 
lain Barnes' monthly contribution to the 1st Marine 
Aircraft Wing Historical Diary. 6 They are here 

paraphrased. 

13 July 1951. Visited Dr. Appenzeller, Executive Head, 
Church World Service in Korea, at Pusan. Delivered to 
him eight cartons of refugee supplies shipped from churches 
in the States and Kobe, Japan. 

17 July. Accompanied Wing Surgeon to visit Danish hos- 
pital ship JUTLANDIA and refugee children's hospital, 
Pusan. 

18 July. Attended commencement exercises of Chosan 
Seminary; addressed them through an interpreter. Marines 
of Air Wing and Protestant congregation at Pusan contrib- 
uted $280 and scrap lumber for rebuilding. 

29 July. Offering of $68 for a graduate of Chosan Sem- 
inary going to Japan for further study. 

30 July. Address through interpreter at commencement 
exercises of Methodist Seminary of Seoul, now in Pusan. 

Needless to say, such contacts between Navy chap- 
lains and the leading institutions of the Korean Chris- 
tian community were helpful in building good rela- 
tions between United States military forces and Ko- 
rean nationals. 

2 September 1951. Visited Chosan Seminary with Ser- 
geant Powers to present donation of 600,000 won [$100], a 
gift from Powers' mother's church in Texas. PIO pictures 
and story prepared for release in San Antonio papers. 

1 2 September. Concert by the All-Korean Pilgrim 
Choir, 30 trained voices, all in English. Reception at Gen- 
eral Schilt's quarters for distinguished missionaries and Ko- 
rean guests before concert. 

22 September. Chapel at K-3 Pohang finished and fur- 
nished except for seating. Chapel chairs on order. 

24-28 September. Attended Protestant Chaplains an- 
nual retreat at GHQ Chapel Center, Tokyo. Speakers were 
George Buttrick, Edmund D. Soper, and Laton Holmgren. 
Arranged by Army chaplains in Tokyo. 

Barnes' letters to the Chief from the middle of Sep- 
tember on indicated the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing in 
process of moving most of its units, thus requiring new- 
plans for chaplain coverage. Chaplain Edwin R. 
Weidler, Evan. & Ref., had reported on 21 August, 
relieving George W. Cummins in MAG 12, who left 
for home. On 17 September Chaplain Howard A. 
Seymour, Methodist, arrived, and was assigned at 



1 Filed in the Historical Section, G-3, Marine Corps 
Headquarters, Washington, DC. 



101 



Itami. A Marine antiaircraft artillery battalion was 
being established at Pusan; their commanding officer 
had requested a chaplain's billet but it was disallowed. 
Barnes wrote that once the MAW had left Pusan, he 
would try to get Army or Air Force chaplains to cover 
that unit. 

On 12 October Chaplain Horvath was injured when 
a weapons carrier in which he was riding went off the 
road. A plane had gone down about 15 miles short 
of the base and Horvath was in the searching party. 
He suffered a broken hip and was evacuated to Yoko- 
suka Hospital. 

Barnes' last letter from the period of the 6th Korean 
Campaign reported further moves by the Marine air 
units. "The Wing continues to fly heavy schedules 
and we continue to lose planes and pilots. The new 
HMR-161 boys have been making the news with their 
helicopter lifts up at the front." Once again it was 
necessary to rely on missionary priests for Roman 
Catholic coverage and Barnes was hard put to dis- 
tribute the services of his chaplains to best advantage. 

Helicopter Troop Lifts 

Barnes' reference to the "HMR-161 boys" deserves 
comment. During the 1st Division's rugged fight at 
the northern rim of the Punchbowl, 1 1-18 September, 
in terrain of appalling difficulties, helicopter squad- 
ron HMR-161 began ferrying in supplies and evac- 
uating casualties. On 21 September they completed 
the first troop lift in combat, a move dubbed "Opera- 
tion Summit." During the weeks that followed they 
moved company-sized units, and in October a whole 
battalion. These maneuvers have been hailed as 
opening a new phase of Marine Corps amphibious 
doctrine. 7 The evacuation of casualties by helicopter 
also initiated ^a new technique of medical care and 
has been credited with saving countless lives of seri- 
ously wounded personnel. 

"Track Busting" 

September saw the interdiction effort of the carrier 
task force enter a third phase. 8 (The first had been 
breaking the Yalu bridges and those of the rail net in 
the northeast. The second, dubbed "Operation 
Strangle," was the effort during the summer of 1951 
to cut the highways.) Now relieved of their missions 
in support of the September ground advance, by mid- 
October the BON HOMME RICHARD, the ESSEX, 
and the ANTIETAM were concentrating on pinpoint 



1 See Lynn Montross, Cavalry of the Sky (New York, 
1954), ch. IX. 

" Cagle and Manson, op. cit., pp. 241-260. 



bombing of rail lines. Though no night carrier was 
in service, the carriers worked "round the clock," for 
it was soon obvious that the Communists worked at 
night to repair the damage. 

BON HOMME RICHARD 

From February 1951 to January 1953 the senior 
chaplain in BON HOMME RICHARD was Howard 
M. Day, a Southern Baptist. The following excerpts 
from his questionnaire reply present a vivid picture. 

The executive officer asked me if I would say grace before 
each meal in the wardroom. This was quite an unusual 
procedure at that time, though I understand it is now becom- 
ing commonplace. The Catholic chaplain said grace at the 
first sitting and I at the second, at lunch and dinner. No 
blessing was said at breakfast since it was served over a period 
of time. The reaction was universally favorable . . . and 
several expressed regret that it was not feasible to have a 
similar arrangement for the general mess. 

( In the general mess there are no "sittings," but con- 
tinuous serving by means of a cafeteria line. Grace 
at meals has, of course, had a long, if sporadic, history 
in the Navy.) Chaplain Day's account continued: 

When operating off Korea it was not possible to use either 
the mess decks or the hangar deck for Sunday services. We 
therefore held services in the wardroom, utilizing the lounge 
and main section. About 400 could be accommodated by 
using folding chairs and having many stand. 

This resulted in considerable inconvenience for our officers, 
who had to eat breakfast in the small after-section of the 
wardroom on a "hot seat" basis. My executive officer was 
somewhat dubious as to the reaction ... to this arrangement, 
but there were no complaints at all. 

In fact several officers started attending as a result of 
hearing our services on the public address system while eating 
their breakfasts. As one jokingly expressed it, "Efficiency is 
a good thing, but trying to feed the body and the spirit at the 
same time is carrying efficiency too far. I'm going to do my 
eating between services and start attending as I should." 

As on many ships, there were evening prayers just 
before Taps over the P. A. system. Chaplain Day 
alternated this duty with John A. Keeley, Roman 
Catholic chaplain from May 1951 to January 1952. 

At first we thought to have such prayers only while at sea. 
When we stopped the practice, upon first entering port, a 
large number of men wanted to know why we had stopped. 
Thereafter prayers were said both at sea and in port. . . . 
There were a great many favorable comments from both 
Christian and non-Christian men. 

Chaplain Day made use of laymen in holding two 
Bible classes each week, one for elementary, another 
for more advanced study. He thought discussion was 
better when laymen were in charge. "It did not reduce 
my workload, however," he wrote, "since I still had 
to prepare each lesson, assist the teacher in his prepa- 



102 



ration, and be ready at the class to answer questions 
that were raised." 

Assigned additional duty as special services officer, 
the chaplain supervised the library, which was kept 
open at least 8 hours a day while at sea; published the 
daily press news and the weekly ship's paper; super- 
vised the athletic officer's work and the hobby shop; 
edited the ship's cruise book; supervised the daily 
4-hour broadcast of transcriptions and "disc jockey" 
programs; and provided "live entertainment" in the 
form of "Happy Hours" at sea and professional acts 
in port. Added to all this he arranged sightseeing 
tours in various ports. "At sea, reading was perhaps 
the major form of recreation. Approximately 18,000 
pocket books (of considerably higher quality than 
found on the average newstand) were secured and 
distributed during the 23 months I was aboard." 

Day worked alone until joined by Chaplain Keeley 
in May. Upon reporting, Keeley wrote to the Chief: 

This ship is still in the process of breaking in, though the 
worst is over. The men have been driven hard but have 
maintained their spirits admirably. Church attendance has 
been exceptionally good for both of us and cooperation from 
the command had been from good to excellent. We are 
short on space and the workload demands more men than 
we have at our call, but we shall get along all right. 

Near the main gate of the U.S. Naval Base, 
Yokosuka, men on liberty from BON HOMME 
RICHARD passed a small, faded sign reading "Mikasi 
Chapel." Investigation led Chaplain Keeley to the 
Japanese pastor, Father Hatada, and from him was 
learned the need of a new building. Back at sea the 
men began making contributions at Sunday masses, 
and only one month later, when the ship was again 
in Yokosuka, $200 was contributed to the building 
fund. To express their gratitude, Father Hatada and 
a choir of 40 Japanese children came aboard to sing 
in Latin the traditional chants of the Mass. 

ESSEX 

Among the missions of the carrier ESSEX was a 
raid, long desired by the Far East Command and 
finally approved, subject to careful precautions, by 
the Joint Chiefs of Staff, on the port of Rashin in the 
far northeast of Korea, 1 7 miles from the Soviet fron- 
tier and less than 110 miles from Vladivostock. 9 The 
immunity afforded Rashin by Washington's care not 
to violate the Russian border had allowed it to become 
a most important supply center for the Communist 
war effort. Finally in August 1951 the strike was 
accomplished by B-29's, escorted by jets from ESSEX. 

• Ibid., pp. 245-7. 



Her chaplains at the time were Joseph J. Buzek and 
Paul C. Morton. Recalled to active duty in Septem- 
ber 1950, Chaplain Buzek reported aboard ESSEX 
in June 1951. His activities may be taken as typical. 
Arising before dawn he would administer Holy Com- 
munion to pilots preparing for an early morning strike. 
After breakfast, he checked incoming messages to see 
whether any of them might call for the chaplain's help 
in breaking news to a crewmember. Next followed 
the daily visit to the sick bay, and then a tour of the 
ship, dropping in on the men in their working 
compartments. 

Afternoons were spent in prayer and study, inter- 
spersed with conferences with those seeking advice 
and help. Daily mass was said at 1630, in a class- 
room. Evenings were devoted to choir practice, re- 
ligious instructions, and devotions. When the ship 
was not engaged in actual operations, Sunday services 
were held on the hangar deck, with a Hammond organ 
to aid the "church atmosphere." At other times 
services were held in the crew's messing compartment, 
which made necessary several services to accommodate 
all who wished to attend. 

In December 1951 Chaplain Buzek arranged for 
Archbishop Maximilien de Furstenburg, Apostolic 
Delegate to Japan, to administer Confirmation to a 
group of 19 sailors whom he had prepared for that 
sacrament. The rite took place in the Archbishop's 
private chapel in Tokyo. 

Chaplain Morton had been in ESSEX since Jan- 
uary 1951. The following story, taken from his ques- 
tionnaire, reply, gives its own quiet but eloquent 
testimony. 

On the night of 26 September 1951, after a crash, explo- 
sion, and fire on the flight deck, I was in the sick bay with 
the injured. One young man was so badly burned he was 
not expected to live. He was not what one would call re- 
ligious. In his pain he would say, "Chaplain, just stay where 
I can see you." Six weeks later he died, but not until he 
had accepted Christ. 

ANTIETAM 

Senior chaplain in the carrier ANTIETAM was 
Paul C. Pirri, from June 1951 until his release to in- 
active duty in July 1952. Pieri had been a member 
of an Organized Reserve unit and was recalled to ac- 
tive duty in August 1950, being first assigned to Ma- 
rine Barracks, Camp Pendleton, Calif. 

His cohort, Protestant Chaplain Don M. Michael, 
was just out of Chaplains School (class 2-51), report- 
ing also in June 1951. Michael served until Septem- 
ber, when he was transferred to the IOWA where he 



103 



remained until November 1952. His 2-year sea tour 
was completed by duty in the repair ship BRIAREUS, 
to July 1953. 
Seaborne Artillery 

Other ships meanwhile were lending their support 
in engagements of various kinds. Destroyers sought 
out coastline bridges and railroads to shell. 10 Heavier 
ships added their fire to frontline targets. In late 
July, to counteract the Communist claim at the Kae- 
song talks that the Reds controlled a large area south 
of the Parallel and to keep the approaches to Seoul 
open, a naval force entered the Han estuary and 
lobbed shells into the frontlines, guided by plane 
spotters. 

The leading ship in this demonstration was the 
LOS ANGELES, whose chaplain was William J. 
Organ, a Presbyterian. In September her fire power 
would be used against enemy troops and gun positions 
in the Kojo area, and again in November, when shell- 
ing from LOS ANGELES was instrumental in saving 
the ROK I Corps, low in ammunition and in danger 
of being overrun by a Communist breakthrough. The 
NEW JERSEY was similarly engaged in support of 
the 1st Marine Division during September and early 
October. 

PhibPac 

From the beginning ships of the Amphibious Force, 
Pacific had been engaged in the Korean conflict. 
Besides Force Chaplain William J. Kuhn and two 
others stationed at the Amphibious Base, Coronado, 
Calif., the following chaplains were on duty with 
PhibPac in July 1951. 

Day, Edgar A LT BAP (A) BAYFIELD 

Helmich, Edward LCDR MORAVIAN MT McKIN- 

C. LEY 

Holmes, Richard J. LT RC ELDORADO 

Kokoszka, William LT RC GEORGE 

J. CLYMER 

Ruder, Frederick LT METH CALVERT 

A. 

Of these ships BAYFIELD, GEORGE CLYMER, 
and CALVERT were attack transports; MT Mc- 
KINLEY and ELDORADO, amphibious command 
ships. Chaplain Robert T. Noland, Southern Baptist, 
served with Naval Beach Group ONE from September 
1950 to January 1952. 

Hospital Ships 

Brief mention was made in chapter 2 of the arrival 
of the hospital ships CONSOLATION and REPOSE 

10 Ibid., pp. 323-30, for this and following paragraph. 



in the war zone. Serving in CONSOLATION was 
Protestant Chaplain C. F. Holland. After a month 
at Pusan, the ship moved to Inchon to receive casual- 
ties from the Inchon-Seoul operation, and later, 
following in the wake of attacking UN forces, to 
VVonsan and thence to Hungnam. 11 

In November Roman Catholic Chaplain V. J. W. 
Lustig reported aboard, having traveled to Korea in 
the tanker CIMMARRON. He wrote later that the 
crew had told him he was the first chaplain ever to 
have ridden in CIMMARRON, and that to the best 
of their knowledge his was the first Mass celebrated 
aboard. He mentioned also holding a "general 
service," a type of worship held for Protestants by 
Roman Catholic chaplains in the absence of a Protes- 
tant chaplain. The Catholic men had been holding 
Rosary services on their own, he reported, and the 
Protestants informal gatherings for worship. Lustig 
was aboard on Thanksgiving Day and was invited to 
say a blessing at dinner. 

Serving aboard the CONSOLATION, Chaplain 
Lustig had a special cabinet built in his stateroom for 
the reservation of the Blessed Sacrament. "Thus I 
could give daily Communion to those who desired [it]. 
Some days as many as 38 patients received in their 
wards. Holy Viaticum was thus always available for 
the dying, even though we had no chapel aboard the 
ship." 

Chaplain Holland was relieved by Leroy C. Austin 
in the summer of 1951. Lustig served until April 
1952, being replaced by Chaplain Martin J. Hoar. 
Austin was relieved by Chaplain Franklin C. Black 
in July 1952. Arthur M. Kulinski, who had earlier 
seen duty with the 1st Marine Division, would later 
relieve Chaplain Hoar in July 1953. There were thus 
(after the initial buildup) two chaplains aboard at all 
times, their tours staggered so that continuity was 
provided by one experienced chaplain as the other 
was in turn relieved. 

The second AH (hospital ship) to report for duty 
in the war theater was REPOSE, arriving 16 Septem- 
ber 1950. Aboard were Chaplains Henry P. White 
(Methodist) and Charles F. Karnasiewicz (Roman 
Catholic), both of whom had reported in August. 
Others subsequently assigned to REPOSE were : 

Allen L. Irwin CONG August 1951-October 1952 

Leonard F. White. . . . RC June 1951-October 1952 

Luther E. Olmon . . LUTH September 1952-July 1954 

Earl W. Smith RC August 1952-March 1954 



" Montross and Canzona, op. cit., vol. III. p. 139. 



— 104 — 



On 13 October 1950 a third hospital ship arrived 
for Korean service. In the HAVEN were Chaplains 
John J. Reardon, Roman Catholic, and Paul K. 
Potter, Methodist, both of whom had reported in 
September. Reardon was relieved in October 1951 
by Francis J. Klass, and Potter in December by Edwin 
R. Howard. Howard in turn was relieved in October 
1952 by Chaplain John R. Tufft, and in December of 
the same year Klass was replaced by Chaplain John 
D. O'Leary. 

It will be noticed that the average tour was approxi- 
mately 1 year during the earlier part of the war; 
after 1952 the time began to be extended to from 
18 months to 2 years. 

In chapter 3 has been mentioned the hazardous 
minesweeping of Wonsan harbor by the U.S. Navy. 
At the same time General Walker's 8th Army had 
captured the North Korean capital, Pyongyang, and 
the need for opening Chinnampo, its port, was im- 
perative; it too was heavily mined. The Navy took 
on a second simultaneous minesweeping job. Finally, 
on 20 November 1950, a deep channel was opened; 
the first deep draft vessel to be piloted in was the 
hospital ship REPOSE, with less than 1 foot of water 
to spare. The officer in charge of minesweeping 
radioed his congratulations to the pilot, an Australian 
naval officer named Gladstone, regretting however 
that he must stay aboard overnight. Gladstone re- 
plied that he could doubtless stand the company of 
50 nurses for 1 night! 12 

"Talking Letters" 

The summer of 1952 saw introduced a novel service 
for badly wounded patients, unable to write letters 
home. Free disc recording was instituted by the ship's 
welfare departments. It came about when REPOSE, 
returning stateside after a 16-month tour in Korean 
waters, was being resupplied. Professional type re- 
corders were purchased from welfare funds, one for 
each of the three hospital ships. It is believed that this 
is the first time such facilities were made available in 
forward areas. 

The chaplains were alerted to watch for an inca- 
pacitated patient, who was asked if he would like to 
make a recording and have it sent home without 
charge to himself or his family. After clearance with 
the commanding officer, the man was given time to 
plan what he wished to say and a time set for the 
actual recording. 

Ten minutes was required to fill a disc on both 

1! Cagle and Manson, op. cit., p. 162. The whole of ch. 5 
concerns the Chinnampo minesweeping operation. 



sides. Often the chaplain would begin, and some- 
times the ward nurse would add a few words of 
encouragement for the "folks back home." The man 
himself then used the remaining time, the microphone 
being set up by his bunk. Enclosed with a letter 
from the commanding officer, the disc was then mailed 
in a special envelope first class to any desired address 
in the United States. 

The superiority of "talking letters" over those 
which otherwise would have been written by the chap- 
lain or someone else, is obvious. Nothing could more 
personally convey to a man's family a sense of his 
individuality than his own voice, even on a record. 

Services 

Services of worship were held daily in the hospital 
ships by both Protestant and Roman Catholic chap- 
lains. It was possible for men in their bunks to listen 
in over the head-sets which also carried news, music, 
and diversionary fare. Usually morning and eve- 
ning prayers were also carried to the patients in this 
fashion. 

The following examples of work by chaplains serv- 
ing later on may be taken as representative. Chap- 
lain J. D. O'Leary noted in his questionnaire reply 
that his duty in the HAVEN was particularly satisfy- 
ing, administering Extreme Unction, Confessions, and 
Holy Communion daily. At the request of the com- 
manding officer of the Danish hospital ship JUT- 
LANDIA, he cared for Roman Catholic personnel 
and patients aboard. Twice a week opportunity for 
Confessions and Communion was offered confined 
patients, and each Sunday, ambulatory patients. This 
schedule was followed from February to June 1953. 
when the JUTLANDIA returned to Denmark. 

Aboard both that ship and his own. O'Leary found 
it necessary to hear the confession of non-English- 
speaking personnel. To meet this need questionnaires 
were prepared in Danish. Greek. Italian, and Korean, 
"keyed to our own English questionnaire." 

The chaplains found opportunities to minister to 
other than their own particular "parishioners." 
Chaplain L. E. Olmon reported holding services 
aboard APA's (attack transports) and CVE's (escort 
carriers) without a Protestant chaplain. "Special 
attention was also given to small ships anchored with 
us and to Fleet Activities and MSTS, Inchon." 

As the story of the Korean War unfolds, it becomes 
increasingly clear that laymen were beinc; encouraged 
to, and were taking responsibility for religious services 
in the absence of chaplains. Olmon wrote: "Reports 



105 





International Conversation. 

Chaplain Walter S. Peck talks with Wong Dong Lee of the Korean Navy who is studying methods used by American 

Chaplains in serving United Nations Forces. 



from patients that prayer groups and Bible study 
groups were held in frontline bunkers by lay person- 
nel. Ships without a chaplain reported that enlisted 
men and officers were conducting worship services, 
hymn sings, and Bible study." Anchored at Inchon, 
Olmon was frequently consulted for advice concern- 
ing such lay work, and made available supplies of 
religious literature. 

"Well Done" 

Two of the hospital ships were honored with the 
Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation for serv- 
ice terminating during the period here under review. 
CONSOLATION was cited for the period 1 1 August 
1950 through 31 August 1951. REPOSE was awarded 
the KPUC for service from 16 September 1950 
through 31 July 1951. HAVEN would later receive 
the same award for service from 18 October 1950 
through 25 June 1952. 

Korean Navy Chaplaincy 

Chaplain H. P. White, in the REPOSE, was early 
in contact with the Korean Navy Chaplain Corps in 
its formative stage. He wrote to Chaplain Salisbury: 

I have tried to assist the ROK Navy in every possible way, 
and in turn the ROK Navy has been very helpful to us in the 



REPOSE. For sometime. Admiral Sohn [Soh Won II (?)] 
of the ROK Navy was a patient aboard this ship, and we were 
fortunate in having his Navy band, more than 50 pieces, 
aboard for a concert. . . . 

The first Chief of Chaplains of the Republic of 
Korea Navy was Lt. Comdr. Dall Bin Chung, origi- 
nally commissioned a line officer in 1948. Graduate 
of the Kwang Sung Methodist mission school, he later 
received a divinity degree from the Kwan Sei Uni- 
versity in Japan. Pastor and teacher before entering 
the Navy, Chaplain Chung had headed the educa- 
tional department of Methodist headquarters in Seoul 
and served as chaplain to the well-known Ewha Girls 
School there. In the Navy he rose to the position of 
Chief of Education and Information, and on 24 May 
1951 was appointed to head the newly organized 
Chaplain Corps. 

Chaplain White's letter continued : 

When Chaplain Chung was made Chief of Chaplains. 
I did everything possible to help him get started. Words of 
gratitude and appreciation arrived from Admiral Sohn for 
this service. Chaplain Chung's office is not too far from the 
REPOSE, and I go over there as often as I can to assist him 
in getting his organization set up. He makes frequent visits 
to my office, and I'm sure this splendid relationship will prove 
enriching and rewarding. 



— 106 



At the time of White's writing, there were nine ROK 
Navy chaplains on active duty, seven with ROK 
Marine units, two at naval bases. 

Further information was supplied by Chaplain A. 
M. Oliver, obtained from Korean Chaplain Won 
Dong Lee, serving the 1st ROK Marine regiment. 
Converted to Christianity by Presbyterian missionaries, 
Chaplain Lee was graduated from the Chosen Presby- 
terian Theological College and had served one pastor- 
ate before entering the Navy. 

He reported a gratifying response to his military 
ministry', saying that the non-Christians usually re- 
spected his effort and many listened to his preaching 
of the Gospel. "I believe that one day Christianity 
will be the dominant religion throughout Korea." 
he added. "It is the one cause in which both my 
people and the North Koreans can always find a 
common devotion." 

According to Lee, it was the remarkable impression 
made upon high ranking Korean military officials 
observing U.S. Marines attending Divine Service at 
the time of the Inchon landing that led some of them 
to ask American officers to explain the place and 
function of the chaplaincy in the United States military 
establishment. Although only a small percent of 
Koreans were Christian, it was decided to organize a 
Korean chaplaincy. 

Chaplain Chung 

Actually it appears that Chaplain Chung had had 
some such idea all along, even when he entered the 
Navy as a line "jg." and spent 3 years doing "PIO" 
work. 11 The actual beginnings of the chaplaincy 
predate its official commissioning. Admiral Soh Won 
II, then ROK Chief of Naval Operations, allowed 
Chung time to cany on his religious ministry, including 
both counselling and holding services. The latter 
were held in private homes in Seoul, and after the 
retreat began, wherever Chung found himself. 

With the formal establishment of the Corps, Chung's 
first task was to recruit and send chaplains to the 
newly organized ROK Marine Corps, placing in direct 
charge Chaplain C. S. Park. Much time was spent 
expanding and consolidating the embryonic Corps. 
Lent a copy of the U.S. Navy Chaplains Manual by 
Chaplain White, together with copies of the Navy 
Chaplains Bulletin, Chung drew up a leadership man- 
ual for his own chaplains, compiled a bilingual hymn- 
book, a catechism, and a character guidance manual, 

"Navy Chaplains Bulletin (Fall, 1954), D. J. Silver, 
"Chaplain Chung's Corps." p. 13. Also A. M. Oliver. "Of 
One Blood All Nations." ibid. (Spring-Summer, 1952). p. 12. 



and began publishing a monthly bulletin. After a 
while he was able to put chaplains aboard Korean 
vessels. 

Chaplain Frederick W. Brink, when serving at Fleet 
Activities, Sasebo, wrote the Chaplains Division that 
he had assisted ROK Chaplain S. F. Shin in the 
baptism of 2 1 officers and men from the crew of ROK 
ship TAEDONG, all previously Buddhists. The 
sacrament was administered in the Fleet Activities 
Chapel. 

Supplies had been begged, borrowed, or "scrounged" 
from the beginning. Chaplain White helped when 
he could, and later, in 1952, Chaplain Harry F. 
Fenstermacher, 1st 90-mm Gun Battalion, FMF 
Pacific, aided Chung 14 in regularizing the receipt of 
supplies through the Korean Base Section (Army > . 
He managed to submit to the U.S. Naval Korean 
Military Advisory Liaison Group what one of their 
officers estimated as "one of every three requests for 
supplies we received !" 

One of Chaplain Chung's most ambitious projects 
was the operation of a Navy-Marine Wounded Soldiers 
Vocational Training School, near the naval base at 
Chin Hai. "The closest Korea comes to the Veterans 
Administration," one chaplain described it. Under 
the direction of Chaplain Park Bun, 200 disabled 
veterans every 6 months were being given vocational 
therapy and training in such fields as auto mechanics, 
farming, watchmaking, and even photography. 

On Solid Ground 

In 1954 Chaplain Chung, by then promoted to the 
rank of commander, visited the Chaplains Division in 
Washington. His dream was becoming an impressive 
reality. By then his Corps numbered 30 and he had 
established some 40 Navy and Marine chapels. In 
1953 the first Roman Catholic chaplain was commis- 
sioned and by 1954 there were four. (Korean Protes- 
tants are reported to outnumber Roman Catholics by 
more than 10 to 1.) There was even a "chaplains 
school," meeting in Chung's office — which will remind 
old hands of the beginnings of our own training pro- 
gram. The conduct of common worship held priority 
with Chung's "padres," and counseling next; but there 
was no charitable cause or work of mercy in which 
they had not found a way to involve themselves. 

Described by his friends as a forceful man, Chaplain 
Chung was not to be satisfied until his work of building 
was set on a firm foundation. Publicly honored by the 
ROK Chief of Naval Operations and by the Minister 



"Cp. p. 192 



— 107 



of Defense, his solidest monument is, as Chaplain 
Daniel J. Silver wrote, "the thriving existence of a 
Chaplain Corps which bears his signature and 
imprint." 

Nationalist Chinese Chaplaincy 

Brief notice may be taken of the emergence of 
another Chaplain Corps in the Far East, serving the 
Nationalist Chinese armed forces on Taiwan (For- 
mosa). Although sanctioned by the government, it 
had no official military status, being recruited and 
supported by ladies meeting in a Prayer Group with 
Madame Chiang Kai-shek. Concerned for the morale 
and welfare of Nationalist troops concentrated in the 
already overcrowded city of Taipeh, these ladies looked 
for evangelists and pastors to work among the troops. 

Supervising the program was the Reverend Wei- 
ping Chen, retired clergyman from the mainland and 
personal pastor of the Generalissimo and Madame 
Chiang. Begun in May 1950, by 1952 this "Corps" 
had 14 "chaplains" serving, one in a recruit training 
center, another in the Navy base, most of them in 
military hospitals. 

Chaplain W. W. Parkinson, on duty with the Patrol 
Squadrons of 7th Fleet, occasionally made contact 
with the Nationalist Chinese chaplaincy and helped 
in whatever ways were possible. 

Writing to Chaplain Salisbury in October 1951, the 
Reverend Wei-ping Chen stated : "Our work in these 
hospitals (21) is very successful. Some superintend- 
ents of these hospitals are Christians. They welcomed 
us from the beginning while others hesitated. Today, 
however, they all appreciate our service." He re- 
ported that some of the worst troublemakers among 
the military patients had responded to the Gospel 
ministry; some even had become "chaplain's assist- 
ants," doing valuable work in teaching the Bible and 
hymns to other patients. 

Unit Citations 

The 1st Marine Division was awarded its third 
Presidential Unit Citation during the Korean hostili- 
ties (the Division's sixth) for its gallantry in action 
during three periods of intense combat: 21-26 April, 
16 May-30 June, and 11-25 September, all in 1951. 
The first two periods fell within the 5th Korean Cam- 
paign, the initial one covering the Chinese Communist 
offensive in April, the latter covering the counter- 
offensive which brought the Marines to the southern 
rim of the Punchbowl. The third period was the 
September drive which for the Marines constituted 
the heart of the United Nations fall offensive. 



The 1st Marine Aircraft Wing also received a Presi- 
dential Unit Citation covering the dates 8 March- 
30 April, 18 May-30 June, and 3 August-29 Septem- 
ber, 1951. These dates reflect missions flown largely 
in support of Division operations during approxi- 
mately the same periods. 

The Navy Unit Commendation was awarded a 
number of ships and smaller commands for varying 
periods of service. BADOENG STRAIT and SICILY 
each was cited for the period 3 August 1950 — 1 August 
1951. VALLEY FORGE received the unit decora- 
tion for the period 3 July- 18 November 1951. 
LEYTE had already been cited for her service from 
9 October 1950 to 19 January 1951; and PHILIP- 
PINE SEA had received two awards, the first covering 
the period 4 August 1950 to 30 March 1951, the 
second, 31 March-31 May 1951. PRINCETON'S 
unit commendation covered the period 5 December 
1950 to 10 August 1951. 

Winterizing 

While acting Division Chaplain, Fitzgerald had re- 
ported the arrival of John L. Curtis (Southern Bap- 
tist), who was assigned to the 11th Marines. On 8 
October Joseph P. F. Gallagher (Roman Catholic) 
reported in and was assigned to Motor Transport. 
Commenting on the activities of the Division Chaplain 
for the period 15-23 October, Peck noted the arrival 
of four more new chaplains, assigned as follows: 

Shore Party Bn . William E. Brooks. . LCDR BAPT (A) 

Medical Bn Vincent J. Lonergan LCDR RC 

Ordnance Bn . . . Barney L. Jones .... LT METH 

7th Marines Alan R. Gibbons. . . LTJG RC 

The United Nations drive during the summer and 
fall of 1951 was the last big offensive of the Korean 
War. By the end of October the frontlines were 
fairly well stabilized and hostilities were largely re- 
stricted to outpost warfare and patrol activities. Peck 
wrote to Salisbury on 25 October: 

We seem to be digging in for winter, and it is none too soon. 
The nights are getting bitter cold, although the days when 
the sun is out are fairly comfortable. The lines are becoming 
more fixed. Continual raids and patrol actions by both sides 
cause daily casualties although not as many as on a push. 
I am encouraging the chaplains to prepare themselves for a 
program to combat the loneliness and depression which will 
come to their men through the winter if the front remains 
stable. 

He added: "I wish to say that the main impression 
I have gained is to be deeply impressed with the work 
of the chaplains out here; from all sides, officer and 
enlisted, comes nothing but high praise." On 31 



— 108 — 



October Peck again commented on conditions in the 
frontlines: 

The approach of winter is the main concern here. The 
men and officers, including the chaplains, in the infantry 
regiments are having an increasingly difficult time. The 
stable lines mean less moving around and in cold weather 
that means long cold hours in the night and dreary days in 
the unheated bunkers. Keeping warm is difficult and posi- 
tions must be kept. The 1st and 7th Regiments are on the 
line now. 

A week later, he wrote: "Chaplain Brooks is in a 
forward battalion whose position requires his living 
in an earthen bunker and since it is high in the hills, 
he has had an uncomfortable time of it, but is in good 
spirits, has no complaints and says he is getting along 
fine." On 10 November two more chaplains reported 
in: Melvin E. Torstrick and Arnold P. Spohn, making 
a total of 30; but orders were expected for 6 then on 
board, 5 of whom were detached by 21 November. 

On 14 November the 5th Marines relieved the 1st 
Marines in the front line and Chaplain Ruleman 
found himself occupying the earthen bunker formerly 
used by Chaplain Brooks. Back at the Headquarters 
Battalion, Chaplain Peck succeeded in "winterizing" 
the chapel by securing two stoves. Squad tents were 
secured to use as chapels in each of the three battalions 
in the reserve area with ordinary planking for pews. 
As usual, the chaplains were adjusting their lives and 
ministry to render the best possible service under what- 
ever conditions might prevail. 

Following the Punchbowl engagements the chap- 
lains were busy, as they and their units prepared for 
the coming winter, writing letters to the next of kin 
of service personnel who had become casualties. It 
has been mentioned earlier that an SOP was estab- 
lished whereby no unit chaplain would write such 
letters until he had received from the Division Chap- 
lain's Office (Rear) amplifying information on each 
casualty, which was secured from the Division Casu- 
alty Office. In practice, while hopefully the unit 
chaplain's work was thus simplified, the results were 
not satisfactory. Peck issued a Memorandum to the 



Division chaplains on 24 November 1951, pointing out 
that in many cases letters had been received in units 
from next of kin in reply to the commanding officer's 
casualty letter before the unit chaplain had been able 
to secure the necessary information to write his own 
letter of condolence. Therefore, Peck directed the 
chaplains to obtain the needed information directly 
from the Amplifying Reports furnished his unit com- 
mand. Where letters of inquiry should be received 
from next of kin before amplifying information was 
obtainable, chaplains were to reply, stating simply 
that the situation (not the death) was being investi- 
gated and another letter would follow when further 
information became available. 

Talks Resumed 

While X Corps, including the Marine division, had 
been moving forward in the east, elements of IX Corps 
had secured the eastern point of the Iron Triangle. ir ' 
Farther west elements of I Corps had established the 
Jamestown Line along a 40-mile front from the vicin- 
ity of Kaesong eastward to Chorwon, the western pivot 
of the Triangle. Successful offensives during August 
to October had thus given the UN forces a firm hold 
on commanding positions all along their front. 

Perhaps because of this pressure the Communist 
indicated a willingness to resume negotiations. After 
preliminary sparring by liaison officers, finally, on 
25 October 1951 the chief negotiators resumed their 
talks, but now in a tiny village, Panmunjom, on the 
Seoul highway north of the Imjin River. 

For the fighting man the war went on, though the 
military picture remained essentially unchanged 
through the following months. Patrol activity was 
stepped up on both sides, and occasionally the Com- 
munists threw a battalion, and once a regiment, at the 
United Nations line. Guerilla harassment continued, 
and occasionally Marine units were ambushed; but 
nearly as serious as the enemy's opposition was the 
hardship entailed by the onset of winter. 



,r ' Miller et at., op. cit., p. 1 1 7. 



109 



CHAPTER 7 
SECOND KOREAN WINTER 

28 November 195 1-30 April 1952 



The closing months of 1951 witnessed a return to 
the stalemate that had settled over the Korean con- 
flict in July and early August, when the "peace talks" 
had first begun at Kaesong. Now that they were re- 
sumed, at Panmunjom, both sides adopted a largely 
defensive posture, content for the most part to rein- 
force established positions or capture others for the 
purpose of straightening or strengthening a front line. 1 

General Ridgway ordered the UN front stabilized 
and an outpost line established three to five thousand 
yards forward of the main positions. The main line 
of resistance (MLR) stretched for 155 miles, from the 
Yellow Sea to the Sea of Japan, manned by the fol- 
lowing (in west to east order) : U.S. I Corps, from the 
confluence of the Imjin and Han Rivers to a point 
between Khorwon and Kumhwa, along the base of 
the Iron Triangle; IX Corps, northward to Kumsong 
and thence east to the Pukhan River; X Corps, includ- 
ing the 1st Marine Division, eastward up and over the 
mountainous backbone of the Korean peninsula down 
to the Nam River; and, as eastern anchor, the ROK I 
Corps, whose line extended northward from the Nam 
to Kosong on the east coast. 2 

DivChap Slant 

The situation at the beginning of this period, as 
it affected the work of the chaplains, may be high- 
lighted by the following extracts from weekly letters 
from Division Chaplain Peck to the Chief of 
Chaplains. 

28 November 1951. 
Winter is here and is complicating living and supply prob- 
lems. The front ahead of us is stable, with military activity 
confined to aggressive patrols and mortar and artillery ex- 
changes. This results in daily casualties but not great num- 
bers of casualties. The chaplains still have the lines to walk. 



1 Miller et al, op. cit., p. 206. 
= Ibid. 



the hills to climb to reach their men, and the cold when on 
their rounds. 

The chaplains are in high spirits and they are a continuing 
inspiration and source of pride to me. I have a helicopter 
trip scheduled for next Thursday to visit Chaplain Ruleman 
up in his isolated area. It is 3 hours by trail from the farthest 
jeep point and, due to infiltrators, one is allowed to go up 
and back only with a large convoy, so to visit by foot is a case 
of up one day and back the next. 

5 December 1951. 

This week I covered all the infantry battalions on the line, 
and in regimental reserve behind the line, plus the regimental 
CPs on the line. To get to Chaplain Ruleman's position on 
top of a mountain, I took my first 'copter ride. ... It was 
quite an experience. The officers and men to whom I talked 
praised their chaplains without exception. 

The chaplains are especially busy with the Christmas 
season here. Some things which seem simple enough nor- 
mally, like obtaining decorations, getting out special bulletins, 
getting a Christmas music program together, all become 
major projects under conditions out here. The chaplains are 
not easily discouraged and keep plugging until they get them. 

13 December 1951. 
This is not an easy time, however, from a morale stand- 
point — standing by, as it were, for these Cease Fire Talks is 
proving a strain. I think everyone's nerves would be more 
relaxed if the talks would go one way or the other. Strangely 
enough the nearness of Christmas seems to aggravate the 
situation in many ways — the men have time to think, and the 
Christmas season with its rich memories of home only adds 
to the burden. Some of the chaplains are restless themselves: 
I counsel them to dig into the Christmas season and give the 
men the spiritual gems from the season to counteract the 
men's nervousness — and their own. 

Christmas, 1951 

This second Christmas in Korea was considerably 
different from that of 1950, when the last elements 
of the Division were still being brought into rest areas 
following the terrible withdrawal from the Chosin 
Reservoir. True, Marines were on the front lines, 
but combat was limited and the situation was relatively 
quiet. Special Services had distributed decorations 
and each unit has lighted Christmas trees. Those 



— 110- 



desiring them had been furnished Christmas greet- 
ing cards to mail home. Incoming mail brought not 
only greetings and gifts from families, but from in- 
dividuals and groups who had voluntarily provided 
gifts for Korean troops, among them the Armed 
Forces Wives Club of Boston, the Women's Division 
of the Jewish Welfare Board, and employees of the 
Kiplinger News Agency in Washington. A USO 
troupe provided entertainment, in addition to movies. 
President Truman's Christmas message was screened. 
Tons of hot turkey with trimmings were flown by 
helicopter to forward positions where men relieved 
one another from the line long enough to eat Christ- 
mas dinner. 

Cardinal Spellman was in Korea for a Yuletide visit 
to the U.S. forces in the Far East. He celebrated 
Mass at the Division Command Post on Christmas 
Day, with an estimated 3,000 in attendance. 

Division Chaplain Peck wrote to Chaplain Salis- 
bury: 

The Christmas coverage was tops. Things were quiet 
enough, militarily speaking, that a full religious observance 
could be made. The chaplains really put out: I am proud of 
them. For men in bunkers on the line, the infantry chap- 
lains walked the hills to take the message of Christmas to 
them. One chaplain had 8 services, another 1 1 . Chap- 
lains Felder of the Engineers and Stamper of the 11th 
Marines had laymen, officers and enlisted, conducting 
Christmas Eve services throughout their units — 19 such lay- 
directed services were held. 

Felder had prepared a mimeographed Order of 
Service which was used in each of four simultaneous 
services in outlying companies of the 1st Engineer 
Battalion, with laymen reading a sermon prepared by 
the chaplain. Felder took his own congregation, 
augmented by Korean personnel, out on a mountain- 
side where, as they sang Christmas carols in both 
English and Korean, two loudspeakers were directed 
out over a valley holding several thousand troops. 
Truly the "welkin rang" as the valley echoed "Glory 
to the new-born King." 

At the suggestion of his commanding officer. Chap- 
lain R. C. Fenning of 1st Signal Battalion conducted 
a 10-minute service nightly during the week preceding 
Christmas. Consisting of carols sung by a 12-man 
choir and a brief talk, each service was broadcast 
throughout the entire battalion area, reaching about 
1,000 men. 

On Christmas Eve a songfest followed by coffee and 
cake was held in the mess tent of each of the 23 batter- 
ies of the 11th Marines. Regimental Chaplain R. L. 
Stamper had arranged with line officers to organize 




Christmas Decorations From the States. 

Chaplain Henry C. Duncan assisted by Sergeant Beeson opens 
a shipment of Christmas decorations sent to the chaplain 
by Becson's mother, who belonged to the Navy Mother's 
Club the chaplain had contacted for such items. 



carol-singing and to read the Nativity story. Protes- 
tant services were held in two battalions and midnight 
Mass celebrated in two, with further services on 
Christmas Day. 

Christmas in VALLEY FORGE 

The VALLEY FORGE spent its second consecuti\ e 
Christmas "on the line." Many of her personnel had 
been aboard both those holidays, away from home and 
all it means at that season. Chaplain Abner R. Cook, 
one of those, was determined to make it as cheerful as 
possible, and his captain heartily concurred. 

With the good help of a sailor named Wheeler, who had 
been a choir director in a Presbyterian church in Los Angeles, 
a small choir had been trained. Instead of the usual bugle 
for reveille, on Christmas morning the crew was awakened 
with appropriate music by this group. During the day, when 
they were not singing in one of the several Divine Services, 
they went to many sections of the ship, from the Admiral's 
cabin to sick bay, and sang. Usually the officers and men 
joined in. 

By night everyone wanted to sing so all hands, except those 
on watch, crowded on the hangar deck and in total darkness. 



— Ill 



for no light was permitted, sang Christmas carols far into the 
night. Presently the sound of the singing carried to other 
ships. While we were too far apart to sing together, they 
caught the spirit and we could hear them singing. 
It had been a good Christmas. 

1st MAW 

Chaplain E. R. Barnes was detached before the 
arrival of his relief and on 27 November 1951 Chap- 
lain Howard A. Seymour, who had been at Itami since 
his arrival in September, was ordered to duty as Acting 
Wing Chaplain by the Wing Chief of Staff. Writing 
to Chaplain Salisbury on 14 December, Seymour 
indicated progress along several lines: a new jeep for 
the chaplain, a much better qualified chaplain's assist- 
ant, a chapel in the Wing's new location, including 
office space for the chaplain, and living quarters in a 
building rather than a tent. Seymour had, in addition 
to taking Protestant services at Wing headquarters, 
arranged for missionary priests to afford Roman 
Catholic coverage where needed. He noted preaching 
in a nearby Presbyterian Church through an inter- 



preter, keeping in touch with the chaplains of the 
Wing, and attending the Command Staff meeting on 
Monday mornings. Concerning relief work he wrote : 

In line with the policy of the command, clothing sent to 
the Wing from the States for the refugees and all excess food 
has been distributed from this office through proper organi- 
zations. We have concentrated our efforts on the Presby- 
terian Seminary in Pusan and the Korean Blind School. 
However, because of the extremely cold weather here we have 
handed out many coats directly to Korean refugees who live 
near by. 

Christmas in the Air Wing 

The Wing headquarters had before Christmas 
nearly completed its move from Pusan to Pohang, 
farther up the east coast. (See ch. 6.) The new 
chapel was unfinished ; Seymour described it as "an 
adequate structure seating 160 personnel," adding that 
through his contacts at Itami he had "scrounged" 
white paint for the interior. "The General insists upon 
a dedication service before the arrival of the Wing 
Chaplain; so Chaplain La Duca and I are aiding him 



Chaplain Stephen Horvath reads the epistle at Christmas Eve mass at the First MAW chapel. 




— 112 




Chapel for MAG 12. 
This is a chapel located on the east coast at K-18 above Pohang. The group was later moved to K-l. 



A New Dress. 
Chaplain Weidler and Sergeant Pearson admire a little Korean girl's new dress which has arrived from America. 




;| 




113 



in that service on Sunday afternoon, 13 January." 
Roman Catholic Chaplain Paul J. La Duca reported 
the first week in January. 

Concerning Christmas activities Seymour wrote on 
6 January: 

Our Christmas activities at the Wing were not as complete 
as we would have desired due to the fact that the camp was 
in process of moving. However, we had a Mass and a 
Protestant Divine Service in the unfinished Chapel on Sunday, 
23 December. On Christmas Eve we had a Protestant 
Communion service at 2330 and a Catholic Mass at 2400. 
We were able to find a French priest who was very willing 
to aid us, even though he could not speak English. A newly 
formed choir from the band aided in both services. We had 
a watch night service on New Year's Eve. 

Chaplains Horvath (who had returned to duty) and 
Weidler were building a chapel at Marine Aircraft 
Group 12, which was far enough along to be used for 
Christmas services. MAG 12 was now located at 
Kangnung, just south of the 38th Parallel on the east 
coast. 

On 24 December at 1900 Chaplain Weidler led the Christ- 
mas carolers to Kangnung where carols were sung at the two 
orphanages; later the party returned to the base and sang at 
the enlisted men's club. At 2200 he offered Christmas Eve 
Communion in the group chapel. The choir of Central 
Church, Kangnung, sang at this service. 

At 2400 Chaplain Horvath offered High Mass and the 
orphans of the Kangnung Catholic Orphanage sang the Mass. 
On 25 December Sunday schedule was maintained. 

On Christmas Day orphans from the four Kangnung 
homes (one Roman Catholic, the others administered 
by the UN Civil Assistance Commission, Korea) were 
guests of MAG 12. They were treated to dinner, 
movies, and a complete outfit of clothing. 

Chaplains Sullivan and Cleaves were doing out- 
standing work in Marine Aircraft Group 33, at Po- 
hang. According to Seymour's report to the 
Chaplains Division, Cleaves was especially active in 
refugee work, having aided in building a church and 
establishing an orphanage. 

Their Christmas activities consisted of the regular services 
with a Christmas emphasis on Sunday, 23 December, a Christ- 
mas Eve Protestant Communion Service at 2100 and a Cath- 
olic High Mass at 2400. Chaplain Cleaves supervised a 
caroling party which sang at all commands in the area. 
Both chaplains attended Christmas parties at orphanages. 

Chaplain Charlie R. Harrison had reported in No- 
vember and had been left with the units remaining 
behind at Pusan. He acted also as Supply Chaplain 
for the Wing, being the only one left near the Army 
Chaplains Supply Depot. Conducting Protestant 
worship, he had secured the services of a civilian priest 



for Christmas masses. The Wing units at Itami had 
been covered by Air Force chaplains. 

Cardinal Spellman arrived in the Wing on 29 De- 
cember. Seymour wrote : 

We had a schedule arranged for him and he followed it to 
the letter. Chaplains Sullivan, Horvath, Cleaves, and I ac- 
companied the generals and the Cardinal in the tour of our 
activities. Arrangements were made for him to meet the 
troops, which he did very graciously. The commanding 
general, Maj. Gen. C. F. Schilt, is very kindly disposed to- 
ward the Chaplain's Department and took the entire day 
attending . . . the Cardinal. 

Wisconsin 

During the winter months from November 1951 
onward, the Division faced an enemy securely dug in 
on the reverse of the heights, manning the forward 
slopes with mere sentry forces. 3 It was the opinion 
of Maj. Gen. J. T. Selden, 1st Marine Division com- 
mander, that only naval gunfire could effectively 
destroy such positions, some of them regimental com- 
mand posts, often connected by long tunnels with the 
exposed forward positions. 

Consequently, for 2J/2 months, guns of the WIS- 
CONSIN and the cruisers ST. PAUL, ROCHES- 
TER, and MANCHESTER supported the Division 
by deep naval gunfire, at a range of from 10 to 16 
miles. Not only were enemy bunkers and artillery 
emplacements reduced, but enemy morale was notably 
shaken. One prisoner revealed that his battalion's 
political "commissar" had thought the American 
Navy was using atomic artillery, so huge were the 
craters resulting from the explosion of 16-inch shells. 

The WISCONSIN was the third battleship recom- 
missioned and ordered to duty in Korea. (MIS- 
SOURI had been relieved in March 1951, and would 
return in October 1952. NEW JERSEY was relieved 
in November 1951, returning to the war in April 
1953.) In December she participated in a heavy 
bombardment of the east coast port of Wonsan, as 
part of the siege which had been going on since 
February. 4 

The Roman Catholic chaplain in WISCONSIN 
was Eugene J. Kapalczynski, who had reported to the 
ship in Norfolk on 21 October 1951. Attached to 
the 2d Marine Division, Kapalczynski had received 
his orders "in the field," for the Division was engaged 
in maneuvers on the island of Vieques, P.R. After 
flights via Roosevelt Roads and San Juan, P.R., 
Miami, and Marine Air Station, Cherry Point, N.C., 



' Cagle and Manson, op. 
t Ibid.,-p. 414. 



cit., pp. 332-4. 



— 114 — 




Cardinal in Korea — 1951. 
Francis Cardinal Spellman thanks men of MAG 33 for "the wonderful job you're doing for America here in Korea.' 



Mass Aboard Ship. 

haplain Eugene J. Kapalczynski holds Mass aboard the 
WISCONSIN of the U.S. 7th Fleet. 



The Morning Scripture Lesson. 

Personnel of the WISCONSIN hear the reading of Scripture 
by their chaplain, H. W. Buckingham. 




S35332 — 60 9 



115 



the chaplain was detached by Commanding Officer 
(Rear Echelon), at Camp Lejeune, and proceeded to 
join his ship. He was, he wrote the Chief of Chap- 
lains, received most cordially by Chaplain Herbert W. 
Buckingham, Bapt. (A) , who had been aboard already 
since January. 

During service in the war theater the chaplains kept 
busy. Kapalczynski reported that during General 
Quarters he took his battle station on the bridge. It 
was his practice to pronounce a General Absolution 
and the Lord's Prayer over the "I.M.C." (an internal 
communication system operating directly from the 
bridge) . Like so many others, he offered his services 
to ships without a chaplain. "Even during opera- 
tions, on and off the Korean bombline, Sunday Divine 
Services were conducted for destroyers. Transporta- 
tion was by helicopter or highline." 

Cardinal Spellman came aboard during Christmas- 



tide, arriving by helicopter, and was greeted by Vice 
Adm. H. M. Martin, Commander 7th Fleet, whose 
flag had been transferred to WISCONSIN. During 
a day of touring the ship he chatted with officers and 
men, delivered a Christmas message over the ship's 
radio station, WHIZ, and offered to send a personal 
message, when he returned home, to next-of-kin of 
any personnel desiring it. (More than 600 took him 
up on the offer. ) Next day, following an early Mass, 
the Cardinal returned ashore. 

Chaplain Buckingham reported that occasionally 
members of ship's company were wounded by enemy 
fire and sometimes others brought aboard for treat- 
ment. In December an unidentified North Korean 
prisoner of war, severely wounded, was transferred to 
WISCONSIN. A hospitalman, Harold Berger, do- 
nated blood for use during an operation but strenuous 
efforts to save his life failed. The next day, in a 



Casualty Coming Aboard. 
Helicopter approaches the landing platform of the CONSOLATION with a casualty. 




— 116 — 




Absent Rabbi. 
In the absence of a Jewish chaplain, Lt. (jg. ) William Jasper leads the services on the ANTIETAM. 



surely unusual ceremony, that former enemy was 
buried at sea. Eight sailors acted as pallbearers, and 
the ship's Marine detachment and band provided 
military honors. Both chaplains read prayers. 

Hanukkah 

There are usually only a limited number of Jewish 
chaplains on active duty, assigned to large bases. The 
T/O also allowed a Marine division one Jewish chap- 
lain. Those who served in the 1st Division in Korea 
had been Garson Goodman, Elihu Rickel, and, in the 
period here under review, Reuben Siegel. In No- 
vember 1951 Arnold J. Wolf was ordered to Fleet 
Activities, Yokosuka to minister to Jewish personnel in 
units under Commander Naval Forces, Far East. 

Often other chaplains encourage Jewish men to 
conduct their own services and sometimes they do so 
on their own initiative. One such group was to be 
found in the ANTIETAM. Composed of 25 officers 
and men, the congregation was organized in Septem- 
ber 1951 shortly after the ship sailed for Korea. Jew- 
ish religious affairs tend to be democratically organ- 
ized and the presence of a rabbi is not necessary for 



the conduct of worship. It is, however, customary to 
have a "president" — in this case Lt. (j.g.) William 
Jasper, a dental officer. 

Some of the men were from Conservative back- 
ground, others Reform, and still others Orthodox. 
The problem of what type service to hold was settled 
by encouraging a different person to conduct worship 
each week, so that from week to week the service would 
reflect first one tradition and then another. 

Probably the Jewish congregation in the "Flying A" 
was the first to celebrate Rosh Hashanah, 5712 (1951). 
The ship had just crossed the date line, and thus its 
service really began the New Year for the Jewish 
world. Only 14 hours later would the hour of usher- 
ing in the New Year have arrived in New York, and 
21, in Hawaii. 

On Yom Kippur the ship was docked at Yokosuka, 
and arrangements were made for the men to attend 
Day of Atonement services in the Army chapel at 
Yokohama. Sukkoth (Feast of Booths) found the 
ship in the Sea of Japan, so the congregation held 
their own service. 



— 117 — 



Hanukkah came while the ship was again at sea. 
Air operations made it impossible for the Menorah 
(the traditional eight-branched candelabrum) to be 
lighted on each of the eight nights, but on the first 
night the first one was lighted and a discussion of the 
meaning of the festival followed. 

A strong feature of ANTIETAM's Jewish religious 
program was a weekly discussion held after the Sab- 
bath eve service. Topics included differences in the 
three American Jewish communities, as well as such 
as the following: the American Jew and the State of 
Israel, religion by television (based on an article in 
the New York Times), and Jewish post-Biblical 
literature. 

Division Roster 

On 1 January 1952 Chaplain Peck sent to the Chief 
of Chaplains the roster of chaplains then serving with 
the 1st Marine Division in Korea. With the excep- 
tions of Chaplains Power, Jolly, and Schneck there 
had been a complete change from that given for 1 
August 1951. 



Peck, W. S., Jr. 



CDR 



Brooks, W. E LCDR 

Ecker.J. L LCDR 

Stamper, R. L LCDR 

Felder, G.,Jr LCDR 

Schneck, R. J LCDR 

Pipho, E. W LCDR 

Ruleman, R. N LCDR 

Oliver, A. M LCDR 

Yierling, W. J LCDR 

Lonergan, V.J LCDR 

Gallagher, J. P. F. LCDR 

Follard,J. F LT 

Curtis, J. L LT 

Jones, B. L LT 

O'Neill, J. J LT 

Penning, R. C LT 

Power, B. S LT 

Spohn, A. P LT 

Jolly, E. W LT 

Forney, J. F LT 

Torstrick, M. E LTJG 

Gibbons, A. R LTJG 

Siegel, R LTJG 

Duncan, H. C LTJG 

Hoar, M. J LTJG 

Wolfe, B. N LTJG 

Korean Winter 

There was no significant change in the pattern of 
ground hostilities during the first 4 months of 1952. 
Peck wrote to Chaplain Salisbury on 4 January: 



Div Chaplain . 


PRESBY 




(USA) 


1st Marines. - . 


BAP (A) 


Hdq Bn 


RC 


1 1th Marines. . 


PRESBY 




(US) 


1st Eng Bn. . . . 


LUTH 


7th Marines. . 


LUTH 


1st Marines. . . 


LUTH 


5th Marines . . 


METH 


Hdq Bn 


METH 


1st AmTrac Bn 


LUTH 


11th Marines. . 


RC 


1st MoTr Bn. . 


RC 


Med Bn 


RC 


Serv Bn 


BAP (S) 


1st Ord Bn. . . 


METH 


5th Marines. . . 


RC 


1st Sig Bn. . . . 


LUTH 




(MoSy) 


5th Marines. . . 


METH 


7 tli Marines. . . 


LUTH 


1st CmbSerGp 


PRESBY 




(US) 


1 1 th Marines. . 


DISC 


1st ShParBn. . 


BAP (S) 


7th Marines . . 


RC 


Hdq Bn 


JEWISH 


1 st Tank Bn . . 


METH 


1st Marines. . . 


RC 


1 1th Marines. 


BAP (S) 



There is no change in the military situation, except the 
knowledge that the enemy can now bomb us if they desire. 
Therefore our foxholes have been dug a bit deeper than 
before, and many rear area chaplains (including me!) who 
formerly hadn't bothered have now what might be called 
an alternate residence, in case of necessity. 

Since November, in fact, the Chinese had begun to 
show unusual activity in the air. Intelligence reports 
indicated their possession of 1,400 planes, about half of 
them Russian MIG jets. 5 For the first time the enemy 
began seriously to challenge United Nations air 
supremacy in Korea. As the front lines dug in and 
became more and more stable, there was less need of 
close air support. Air Force B-29's continued their 
smashing of supply and communications lines behind 
the enemy front, but more and more F-86 Sabre jets 
were needed to escort them. The area from the Yalu 
River south to the North Korean capital at Pyongyang 
in northwest Korea was dubbed "MIG Alley" by 
UN aviators. In February more than 3,500 sight- 
contacts of MIG's were made and at least 51 were 
shot down or damaged in aerial combat. 6 At sea 
naval units of nine nations maintained a coastal block- 
ade, and naval bombardment joined artillery and air 
bombing to reduce enemy logistic support. 7 

Enemy guerillas continued to harass the UN forces 
back of the front lines; larger patrols were sent out 
into "no-man's land" ; the weather during January 
and February remained cold, sometimes going to ten 
or twelve degrees below zero; artillery duels continued. 
Writing on 25 January Peck told Chaplain Salisbury: 
"One company area received over 600 incoming 
rounds in one day alone. ... So far none of the 
chaplains has been hit, but it is becoming routine for 
them to get pinned down a part of each day." 

In January Peck issued another memorandum con- 
cerning chaplain supplies. The Combat Service 
Group chaplain was continued as Division Supply 
Chaplain. It was noted that an order had been 
placed with the Chaplains Division, Bureau of Naval 
Personnel, for certain items of field equipment. The 
Supply Chaplain was to secure supplies from Navy 
channels (Chaplains Division, as well as Pacific Fleet 
Chaplain, FMF Pac Chaplain, or COMNAVFE 
Chaplain) as possible, and from the Army Chaplains 
Warehouse, 2d Logistical Command, at Pusan. Fur- 
ther, each chaplain was furnished a list of all items 
available to him through his unit S-A (supply) sec- 



5 Britannica Book of the Year, 1952; article, "Korean 
War." 

' Ibid., 1953 ; article, "Korean War." 

'Cagle and Manson, op. cit., pp. 330ff. (on "seaborne 
artillery'"); PP- 254ff. (naval air missions). 



118 



tion. Chaplain Peck noted in a letter to the Chief of 
Chaplains on 1 1 January 1952 that the "supply picture 
seems to be clarified." 

Comment on Training 

It seemed to Peck that much of the training time at 
Camp Pendleton for chaplains ordered to Korea was 
not really justified. He wrote to the Chief of Chap- 
lains on 29 December 1951: 

The type of operation the Division is presently engaged in 
makes the necessity of a long training period open to ques- 
tion. Of course the situation of a year ago could repeat itself 
but that is unlikely. It appears from here that the Pendleton 
training for chaplains without prior Marine experience would 
be sufficient with a maximum of 20 days. Further, a period 
of 7-10 days should be sufficient for chaplains with prior 
Marine experience. 

I am convinced that the medical phase of the Pendleton 
training is of little value. ... At the present time there are 
Hospital Corpsmen stumbling over each other throughout 
the Division. That is to say, the medical people have their 
own program well-organized. Even if the Division should 
become engaged in full-scale combat, there would be no 
necessity for a chaplain to perform Corpsman's duties, as 
was the case in the early days of the Korean conflict. 

On 17 January 1952 he wrote again: 

At the risk of stepping out of the area of my responsibility, 
may I state that it is my conviction, based on my own obser- 
vations and the opinions expressed by many of the chaplains 
serving here who have gone through the training at Pendle- 
ton, that much of the training which is designed either for 
medical personnel, or for enlisted and line personnel, is no 
longer greatly applicable to the work of chaplains in Korea 
at the present time. ... A longer time than the 20 days he 
had recommended earlier might be indicated for men fresh 
out of Chaplains School. But I think that for more expe- 
rienced hands, even the 20 days could be cut in half without 
any serious loss of effectiveness in their ministry in Korea. 

The Chaplains Division was of course desirous of 
giving its men whatever training would render them 
most effective; at the same time, being short-handed, 
it could not afford needless delay of chaplains from 
actual duty. Chaplain Mannion wrote on 6 February 
from the Chief of Chaplains' office, "We appreciate 
your suggestion to send chaplains . . . without too 
much delay at Camp Pendleton and arc in hearty 
agreement with you on this score." 

Composite Picture 

In order to obtain definite information on the re- 
ligious coverage within the Division, Chaplain Peck 
assembled data from which a statistical analysis was 
made, listing the actual coverage throughout the Di- 
vision by denominational services held, by chaplains 
conducting the services, and by units where services 



were held. One section of this report is included as 
appendix E to this volume. While obviously some of 
the information would be out of date by the time it 
appeared in print, inasmuch as services were fre- 
quently shifted because of work schedule or tactical 
situation, the report gives a dramatic sampling of the 
work actually being done at a particular time. 

During the period 1-15 February, Chaplain Peck's 
semimonthly report to the Assistant Chief of Staff, 
G-l, detailed the following chaplains' activities. 

A. Number of Sunday services conducted — 134. 

Attendance — 6,655. 
Number of week-day services conducted — 207. 
Attendance — 4,583. 

B. Adequate Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Jewish cover- 

age was afforded all Medical Companies of the 1st 
Medical Battalion. Regimental and battalion aid sta- 
tions were afforded continued Protestant and Catholic 
coverage. 

(a) Number of visits to hospitals and aid stations — 

157. 

(b) Number of patients visited — 952. 

C. In addition to the above, the chaplains attached to the 

1st Marine Division, FMF, held 1,327 counselling in- 
terviews, wrote 157 letters with reference to personnel 
problems, and conducted 91 special services or Bible 
class sessions. 

Typical of other reports for similar periods, the 
figures cited here indicated that a higher percentage 
of the 1st Marine Division personnel were attending 
Divine Service than was probably the case in the aver- 
age civilian community in the States. 

Individual Aspects 

With no decisive battles being fought, the winter 
and early spring of 1952 were nonetheless grim 
enough. Taking a religious ministry to the men of 
the 1 st Division was always difficult and often hazard- 
ous. Algernon M. Oliver, Regimental Chaplain. 1st 
Marines, writing for himself and his associates. Chap- 
lain Melvin E. Torstrick and Martin J. Hoar, 
reported : 

A large number of services arc necessary if all the men are 
to be given the opportunity to attend. In some cases services 
are held for units as small as a platoon, since men on the 
lines often cannot leave their positions to attend services as 
a company CP. Recently I conducted eight services in one 
day, on the move from early morning until late afternoon. 
In a short time you learn every hill in your sector and know 
just how long it will take you to go from one place to another. 

Perched high atop Korean mountains, many of the 
men could be reached only after an exhausting climb 
up icy. treacherous trails. Word that the "padre" 
was about to have Divine Service would be passed 
from bunker to bunker. The small portable altar 



119 




A Spiritual Haven. 

As the Korean war rages with fury a short distance away, 
marines able to attend divine services are calmed by the 
words delivered by Chaplain A. M. Oliver. 



would be set up, using ammunition boxes, C-ration 
cases, or the top of a bunker. Usually the men stood, 
though when Communion was served some of them 
would kneel in ice and mud. Under such conditions 
baptisms would sometimes be administered. On one 
occasion, within a short distance of entrenched Chi- 
nese and North Korean positions, with friendly artil- 
lery beating a deafening accompaniment, Oliver 
baptized Marine Pfc. M. P. Longon, using the "all- 
purpose" helmet as a baptismal font. 

From a news release written by M. Sgt. J. P. Shee- 
han, Marine combat correspondent, comes the fol- 
lowing account of a Memorial Service held by the 5th 
Marines during the bleak mid-winter. 

As the strains of the National Anthem echoed away 
through the snow-covered valley, the Regimental Com- 
mander, Col. Frank P. Hager, introduced the 1st Marine 
Division Commanding General, Maj. Gen. John T. Sclden. 
He reminded the Marines that "we are gathered here today 
to pay homage to our comrades who are no longer with us. 
They died with the spirit that is so well known in your 
unit, the 5th Marines, from Belleau Woods of World War I, 
to the Pacific islands of World War II, and now here in 
Korea. This spirit has been handed down to all those who 
have ever served the 5th. May God rest their souls and may 
you live up to the spirit for which they died." 

Prayers were offered by Chaplains Bashford S. Power 
(Protestant), James F. Follard (Roman Catholic), 
and Reuben Siegel (Jewish). The roll of the dead 
was read by Chaplain J. P. F. Gallagher. 



With the reading of the last name, a Marine firing squad 
fired three volleys and a bugler sounded Taps. The Marines 
marched off the parade ground. There were tear-stained 
faces but they all were faces of men who shared a particular 
pride and a rededicated resolution. 

On a typical day Chaplain Henry C. Duncan would 
leave his battalion CP in the early morning, follow- 
ing the trail used by the "Chigger Bearers," as the 
civilian Korean laborers were called who carted sup- 
plies to the front lines on their backs. Accompanied 
by his assistant, Marine Corporal Keith Bacus, he 
would climb the trail straight up from a river valley 
some 2,300 feet to the skyline. Once on the jagged 
ridgeline he would go from bunker to bunker, hold- 
ing brief services with small groups of men, as incom- 
ing mortar and artillery shells crashed around. 

After the service the chaplain (a former Marine 
line officer, with combat service at Peleliu and Oki- 
nawa) would give the men a briefing on the news of 
the day, including the tactical situation — for front 
line troops never know much of the "big picture," 
but only what transpires in their own small sector. He 
went loaded down with stationery, corncob pipes, and 
other "luxury" items procured from friends and vol- 
unteer groups stateside, and undertook commissions 
from the men for money orders to be sent home, radio 
batteries, and the precious mantles for the gasoline 
lanterns which provided their light. Each day's 
"ridge-running" complete, the chaplain would slip and 
slide down the precipitous trail to finish his duties at 
the CP, ending the day by attending the staff briefings 
and working into the night to write his day's report 
and prepare his messages for the following day. 

The other chaplains were similarly engaged. Chap- 
lain Hoar reported: "I conducted five services on Ash 
Wednesday with an attendance of 207. Holy Com- 
munion was taken to the men on the frontlines." 
Chaplain William E. Brooks reported making approx- 
imately 650 contacts while visiting Marines in front- 
line dug-in positions, and Chaplain Edmund W. Pipho 
spent the first twelve days of March visiting men on 
frontline outposts and holding Divine Services there. 

Chaplain Fredric J. Forney, 11th Marines, organ- 
ized a chapel choir, reporting that it helped increase 
attendance at Divine Service. Chaplain Billy N. 
Wolfe wrote that services were frequently interrupted 
by artillery fire but "always completed." As a South- 
ern Baptist Wolfe was accustomed to use grape juice 
for Communion. "However, in the Korean winter 
the grape juice froze solid and I was faced with a hard 
decision: either deny my men the Communion serv- 
ice they wanted, or use wine contrary to my church's 



120- 




Chaplain Distributes Religious Literature. 

Chaplain Arnold P. Spohn distributes religious literature to 
newly arrived Marine replacements. 



practice and custom. I served my men and asked 
God's pardon under the circumstances." 

Chaplain Arnold P. Spohn, while in the 7th Ma- 
rines, at the front, administered Holy Communion at 
each service, including "at least three services on Sun- 
day at the Command Post and larger mortar groups, 
and also approximately three to five services 4 days 
each week in the platoons along the line." 

Chaplain Robert J. Schneck one Sunday afternoon 
"rigged for church" on the hood of a jeep in a dry 
stream bed. Enemy action had been relatively light 
and the banks appeared to afford cover. Some 20 
men attended and received Communion. Schneck's 
own account continues: 

All went well until the chaplain was facing the altar for 
postcommunion prayers. The enemy took that opportunity 
to lob a few rounds of artillery into the valley. When the 
chaplain turned, his congregation had all but disappeared. 
The chaplain again faced the altar, and as he turned a sec- 
ond time to pray the benediction, his congregation had some- 
how returned. The benediction pronounced, the chaplain 
again faced the altar. As he turned the third time, to say a 
few parting words, he discovered his congregation already 
departed. 

With a sigh of thanks that nothing had happened, he 
turned to the altar preparatory to packing up. He was sur- 
prised to see everything secured and the chaplain's assistant 



already stepping on the jeep's starter. With a fine grin and 
an impatient wave the assistant declared, "Come on, Boss, 
let's get out of here before the blessing wears off." 

"God Fixed That One" 

A young Marine, perhaps 19 years old, had been 
brought into "A" Company, 1st Medical Battalion, in 
mild shock and losing blood from a missile wound 
through the main artery of the upper leg. The sur- 
geon, himself young, perhaps 27 or so, was faced with 
a difficult decision. To amputate would be relatively 
safe but would condemn the young man to a life of 
handicap. To attempt to repair the artery was a 
delicate operation requiring great skill; the surgeon 
had seen it done but had never performed it himself. 
It might save the leg, but the chances of success were 
slighter. Chaplain Schneck was standing by. He 
later wrote : 

The surgeon closed his eyes and so did the chaplain. And 
then the operation to repair the artery began. It was long 
and tedious. 

Two days "post-op" I happened to be in the surgical 
ward tent at the same time our surgeon friend was making 
his rounds. I was behind him when he reached the cot of 
our young Marine. ... He began to talk to the patient 
and, while talking, almost hesitatingly touched the foot of 
the shattered leg. A smile appeared. Turning around, the 
surgeon saw me. "It's warm," he said. Those two words 
meant that the arterial repair had been successful since 
blood was reaching the foot. I congratulated the surgeon 
with great warmth and respect. He looked at me momen- 
tarily and then remarked, "Thanks for the prayers, padre. 
God fixed that one." 

Chaplain Felder made a practice of following up 
through weekly visitations the men from his unit 
evacuated to rear area hospitals. He would carry 
greetings from the officers and men of the man's unit, 
and wrote letters of appreciation to those men for 
their service, for the signature of the battalion 
commander. 

Lay Leadership 

Numerous instances were reported of laymen assist- 
ing in the conduct of religious activities. A Marine 
major in his artillery battalion assisted Chaplain 
Forney by taking services when the chaplain was ful- 
filling commitments elsewhere. Felder reported that 
officers and men conducted their own services or held 
prayer groups between the chaplain's visits, often 
utilizing literature which he brought to them. In 
Marine Observation Squadron VMO-6, its leading 
chief, M. Sgt. C. W. Horton, USMC, conducted semi- 
weekly Bible classes at his unit's small air strip within 
sound of enemy fire. 



121 



11th Marines Memorial 

Of all the ties of respect and friendship developed 
within small fighting units, perhaps none was closer 
than that frequently found in the "gun sections" of 
the artillery. Precision and skill were essential to com- 
bat effectiveness, but no more so than the cooperation 
of the gun section members working as a team. Such 
comradeship received overt recognition when the 2d 
Battalion, Uth Marines dedicated a memorial hall in 
honor of men from their unit who had given their 
lives in line of duty. 

To save material the large tent served a triple pur- 
pose: it was mess hall, theater, and chapel in one. 
An altar was constructed of precious plywood, with 
a background made from cargo parachutes, and am- 
munition boxes fastened together provided seats. As 
the battalion gathered for the dedication ceremony, 
under the leadership of the battalion commander, men 
of all faiths listened in respectful silence as the names 
were read of those artillerymen, their "buddies," 
whose lives had become a sacrifice in the cause of 
justice and world order. Both Protestant and Roman 
Catholic chaplains took part. 

Rotation 

The tour of duty for chaplains in Korea had thus 
far averaged around 6 months. Chaplain J. P. Man- 
nion, Assistant Director of the Chaplains Division, 
wrote to Chaplain Peck on 6 February 1952 : 

On the recommendation of the Fleet and Force Chaplains 
and responsible line officers, it has been determined to 
lengthen the tour of duty in Korea to about 10 months. 
This change in policy will not affect chaplains presently on 
duty, but only those who will be ordered after 1 February. 
We shall do everything in our power to relieve the chap- 
lains presently on duty with the 1st Marine Division at the 
end of the sixth month or during the seventh month. How- 
ever, as you know, there are so many due for rotation in 
April that we may find difficulty in getting them all out on 
schedule. 

Beginning in February orders were written so that 
a chaplain might be detached, not when a named re- 
lief reported in, but within a 1- to 2-month period. 
Giving the Division Chaplain a measure of latitude 
regarding the detachment of chaplains serving with 
him was thought by Peck to have several advantages. 
He wrote on 14 February. 

We have received the dispatch containing orders for de- 
tachment of Chaplains Ruleman, Vierling, and Fenning in 
March or April, and Chaplain Curtis in April or May. That 
is the best way of writing orders, as far as coverage is con- 
cerned out here. I believe that method of naming 1 or 2 
months will keep a situation from developing where we are 
overstrength or under on our coverage. 



On 29 February, he wrote further: 

The information [in a recent letter from the Chaplains 
Division], from which I can figure ETA [estimated time of 
arrival] in Korea is a tremendous help. That information 
coupled with the way the orders are now being written . . . 
will make it possible not to have so many switches of assign- 
ment right after a man gets here, as happened when I first 
came and there were the same large numbers of chaplains 
being replaced. It will also prohibit an overlay of chap- 
lains by having us at no time over our complement (except 
over Easter, perhaps, when you said to retain the chaplains 
in order to be amply strengthened at that time) . 

This is a really perfect system from our standpoint. To 
know in advance who is coming and when, and who is to go 
and when, makes it possible for whoever has my job to do a 
far better job, and by not being faced with necessity of 
changing the chaplains around too much, they can do a 
better job. 

Later Peck reported, "The command here waits for 
word from this office before executing orders on 
chaplains." 

Chaplain T/O 

With units of the Division increasingly deployed 
over widespread areas, it was difficult with seven 
Roman Catholic chaplains to effect adequate cov- 
erage. Peck frequently noted in his weekly letters 
to the Chief of Chaplains the need for an additional 
one, especially since rear echelon units had of neces- 
sity been receiving Catholic ministrations from Army 
chaplains and non-English speaking Korean priests. 
Notified that an eighth Roman Catholic chaplain 
was on his way, Peck wrote on 29 February: 

We are especially glad for the eighth Catholic chaplain; 
he is more needed now than before. To give you some idea 
of our geographical problem, these two new concentrations 
of our men [1,000 in 1 new place and 1,500 in another] are 
approximately 55 miles apart, 1 of them 8 miles over rugged 
hills from the Division CP, the other 47 miles the other way. 

In the same letter Peck wrote concerning the Table 
of Organization for chaplains serving with a Marine 
Division. 

If this Division is committed to action it needs all of the 
chaplains listed on the complement given at the top of my 
roster; of these eight (8) should be Catholic. If a cease- 
fire and armistice is reached, and the Division becomes a 
part of occupation troops, I am convinced adequate cov- 
erage could be given . . . with four (4) fewer Protestants. 
With a different geographical and terrain setup, which would 
be the case if we were pulled out of Korea, that could be 
increased to read five (5) fewer Protestants and one (1) less 
Catholic. However, that is only in the case of a so-called 
peacetime setup and not committed to action. 

Someone did a splendid piece of work when the comple- 
ment for a Marine Division was set up. It is perfect for 
times when committed to action. It is a bit heavy otherwise. 



-122 




Worship at Pusan. 
Chaplain Edwin F. Carr conducts services on board the ROCHESTER in Pusan Harbor. 



Air-Gun Strikes 

In April Admiral Joy ordered a series of coordinated 
air and surface ship gun strikes, the first against 
Chongjin. 8 Carrier plans from the BOXER and 
PHILIPPINE SEA joined ST. PAUL and U.S. and 
British destroyers in the effort. Two weeks later 
IOWA, joined by three destroyers and planes from 
Task Force 77, again pounded that target. Such 
combined operations were to be continued to the 
end of the war. 

IOWA was the fourth and last battleship returned 
to active duty, serving in the war zone from late 
March to mid-October 1952. Senior chaplain was 
Jerome J. Sullivan who, after some 14 months in the 
HELENA, was ordered to the IOWA, where he 
served for a year. Junior chaplain was Don M. 
Michael, who was transferred from ANTIETAM. 

The chaplains tried to serve the destroyers operat- 
ing with them, usually crossing by helicopter. 
Chaplain Michael reported visiting the destroyer 
MACKENZIE on Easter Day to celebrate Holy Com- 
munion. On his own ship the service was held below 
decks while her guns were firing support missions for 
troops on the front. Of this he later commented: 



1 Ibid., pp. 347-9. 



"The contrast was evident to the men in attendance 
between the tenets of Christian faith and the conflicts 
of men." Experience taught him the need for a state 
of constant readiness; because of frequent changes in 
the daily operating schedule of IOWA, arrangements 
for Divine Sendee often had to be altered and services 
held on "as little as 15 minutes notice." 

When Chaplain Sullivan was transferred to the 
IOWA, C. W. Ackley had become chaplain in 
HELENA. (HELENA was then out of the war zone, 
but would return in June 1952.) George R. Brosius 
had succeeded Ackley as chaplain in SPERRY. 

JUNEAU, after participating in the first, second, 
and fourth Korean campaigns, returned in April 
1952. Her chaplain from May 1951 to May 1953 was 
Arthur L. Dominy, following B. J. Davis. 

E. F. Carr was still chaplain in the ROCHESTER, 
D. J. Kosky in MANCHESTER, and F. H. Wickham 
in ST. PAUL. Chaplain W. J. Organ was still serv- 
ing in LOS ANGELES and L. C. M. Vosseler in 
TOLEDO. In May 1952 the BREMERTON would 
take up station in Korean waters; her chaplain was 
Louis C. Smith. 
Destroyers 

Chaplain H. W. JefTers, previously attached to De- 
stroyer Squadron 3, reported aboard the tender 



— 123 — 



DIXIE in January 1952, relieving R. A. Vaughan. 
"Tin can" chaplains were evidently still working out 
patterns for their ministry. Of his work Jeffers wrote : 

The Commodore, not knowing exactly how to govern my 
work, gave me permission to move at will from ship to ship 
on the condition that I keep him informed of my location. 
While in the forward area I tried to move at least once a 
week to another ship in my division to better cover the 
division and encourage the lay leadership program. Com- 
manding officers ware very cooperative in passing the chap- 
lain when another ship in the division came alongside with 
the mail or during refueling or replenishing operations. 

Other changes were made. W. S. Powell was 
transferred from ComDesRon 1 to the tender FRON- 
TIER. Charles E. Hailstone had reported to DesRon 
5, Harold F. Symons to DesRon 7, Raymond W. 
Moore to DesRon 9, and George B. Riley to DesRon 
13. Edward O. Riley was assigned to Commander 
Destroyer Division 32. 

When it is noted that all these chaplains except 
Edward Riley were Protestants, it would appear that 
the need for equitable coverage demanded that the 
Roman Catholic chaplain be assigned to a larger 
command, in order to be able to move more freely 
and extend his ministry more widely. 

Carrier Chaplains 

The carriers continued interdiction campaigns dur- 
ing this period. J. P. Murphy was still in the 
PHILIPPINE SEA. He wrote to Chaplain Salisbury 
of the arrival on 16 March of Gordon B. Galaty, an 
Episcopalian. The "Phil Sea" had been short a chap- 
lain; for when Barnes and Murphy had, in effect, ex- 
changed assignments in the carrier and 1st MAW, 
the former Roman Catholic chaplain, H. E. Meade, 
was also transferred. Since then nearly a year had 
elapsed. Murphy expressed delight that the Chap- 
lains Division had decided to "have two chaplains 
aboard the CV's." 

There was one hitch, however. Galaty had re- 
turned to active duty in August 1950 and it appeared 
that, according to current regulations, he would be 
eligible for return to inactive duty in late November. 
There was clearly still a shortage of chaplains, and the 
release of Reserves who had fulfilled their obligated 
service would in the future add further pressures. 

In the PRINCETON Chaplain R. F. McManus 
was relieved by Thomas F. McNeill, a Reserve who, 
having returned to active duty in September 1950, 
would serve 27 months before being released to inac- 
tive duty in January 1953. 

Chaplain Cook was relieved in VALLEY FORGE, 
after nearly 2 years, by Prescott B. Wintersteen. In 



its third combat tour, the ship had long since come 
to appreciate the nightly "lights out" prayer given by 
the chaplains over the "inter-com." One prayer of 
Chaplain Cook's may be thought worth recording. 

Almighty God, our Father, our thoughts turn tonight to 
our comrades-in-arms in Korea. Be pleased, we pray Thee, 
to grant them Thy most gracious protection against the 
enemy and the weather and from every peril. Let Thy 
fatherly hand be over them, and grant them sure trust in 
Thee. 

In these critical hours of negotiation for a cease-fire agree- 
ment, guide our leaders that they make no decision that 
will compromise truth, and no error in judgment of righteous- 
ness and justice: for we fight for truth and justice for all 
men. 

If peace means the sacrifice of these, for us or those who 
shall live after us, grant us the courage and fortitude to 
continue, in war if necessary, by peaceful means if possible, 
until, if it be Thy holy will, a lasting peace of freedom from 
tyranny, freedom from fear, freedom from want shall come 
to all the nations of earth. We pray in the name of Jesus our 
Savior, our friend, and our companion of the way. Amen. 

Paul J. Knapp had served with Chaplain Cook dur- 
ing the first year of the war. Because of serious fam- 
ily illness he was detached without relief and VAL- 
LEY FORGE was without a Roman Catholic chap- 
lain until Pius F. Keating reported in March 1952. 
Keating was a "jg." with less than a year's active duty, 
having served at Naval Hospital, Camp Pendleton, 
after graduation from Chaplains School in Class 1-51. 

Chaplains in the BOXER, now in its fourth Korean 
tour, were G A. Hoglan (who had been aboard since 
his recall in September 1950) and J. A. Keeley. Kee- 
ley had previously served in BON HOMME 
RICHARD but when that ship returned stateside in 
December 1951, the chaplain was transferred in Ala- 
meda, Calif., to the BOXER, before she started to the 
Far East once again. It thus appears that the Chap- 
lains Division was forced to transfer chaplains, even 
after only a few months, from ships leaving Korea 
in order to keep the complement filled on those slated 
for active war service. Even so it was not always pos- 
sible to have two chaplains in the large carriers. 

Escort Carriers 

Chaplain O. B. Salyer was relieved in BADOENG 
STRAIT in June 1951 by Warren L. Wolf, who 
would remain until May 1953. Chaplain C. O Sul- 
livan was relieved in SICILY in December 1951 by 
George A. Jacobs, who served until his release to in- 
active duty in December 1952. Both followed the 
practice of their predecessors in trying to get around 
to as many small ships as possible, administering Com- 



124- 




Seder. 

Chaplain Reuben Siegel is shown with Lt. Col. Sidney J. Altman. division provost marshal, Chaplain Slattery, Mr. Peterson, 
Red Cross representative of the division, and Chaplain Ernest Wolfram as they partake of the Seder meal in celebration 
of Passover. 



Marines Sing Hymns. 

Voices of marines break the cold crisp night air in Korea as they sing adoration to God during a mission conducted in 

preparation for the coming lenten season. 




125 — 



munion and encouraging whoever might be carrying 
on religious activities. 

Chaplain J. J. Coffey was still aboard the BATAAN. 
Chaplain R. W. Moore, serving in DesRon 9, replied 
in his questionnaire: 

During Holy Week 1952 it was arranged with the chap- 
lain in USS BATAAN to have him visit my destroyers for 
Roman Catholic masses, while I conducted Good Friday 
services in his ship and other Holy Week services in the re- 
maining destroyers. We were operating off the coast of 
Korea. These transfers were accomplished by helicopter. 

Two other escort carriers were operating in the 
war theater during this period. The BAIROKO had 
been in Korean waters from November 1950 to Sep- 
tember 1951; returning in December 1951, she was 
present until June 1952. Her chaplain was David M. 
Humphreys, from August 1950 to August 1952. The 
RENDOVA served in Korean waters only from Au- 
gust to December 1951. Chaplain Hugh T. McManus 
had been aboard since March. 

Easter 1952 

Chaplain Salisbury had planned to visit Korea for 
Easter, 1952. Maj. Gen. John T. Selden, command- 
ing the 1st Division, wrote to Salisbury expressing his 
hope that the visit could be accomplished. Invita- 
tions were extended to the Chief of Chaplains to 
preach at an all-Division Sunrise Service and else- 
where in the Division. But it was not to be possible. 
Salisbury wrote on 8 March, "There are a number of 
matters which keep me here and my superiors feel 
that it would be best for me to remain within calling 
distance." 

During March the picture began to change. The 
following are excerpts from Peck's letters to the Chief 
of Chaplains: 

11 March 1952. 

It looks as if the worst of the winter is over. Our nights 
are cold, but the days are brisk, sunny springtime days — and 
it certainly lifts the spirits. 

On the military front it has been a week of a great deal 
of incoming mortar and artillery rounds. The men in our 
sector have taken a pounding and the chaplains of the 
5th and 7th Marines have had a rough go of it making the 
ridge-lines on their rounds. . . . The order has gone out 
prohibiting any walking of the ridge-line during the daylight 
not dictated by absolute military necessity. Therefore the 
chaplains are experimenting with covering the lines during 
the evening hours, talking to men in bunkers. 

17 March 1952. 
There is considerable activity here right now. I cannot 
say more except to advise you that some of my next letters 
may have to be handwritten, although I will do my best to 
type them, since I always send copies to the CINCPAC 
Fleet Chaplain and the FMF Chaplain. 



Peck was referring to a major move then under- 
way. Until 12 March 1952 the Division had been 
located on the east flank of the X Corps sector, with 
the ROK I Corps between it and the Sea of Japan. 
In the middle of March it began moving to the west- 
ernmost end of the UN line. The excerpts from 
Peck's letters to Chaplain Salisbury continue: 

26 March 1952. 

We are moved and back in business. The situation is en- 
tirely new and in a great state of flux from a religious cover- 
age standpoint . . . I'm glad that Chaplain Slattery [Peck's 
relief] is here for he can learn this picture from the start 
and be in on whatever decisions have to be made. . . . 
There is even a larger geographical area we have to cover 
than we had before, but we are out of the mountains. 

There will be a VD problem here for we have many 
civilians around. That will get the chaplains into a phase 
of activity which we haven't needed to have during the 
winter. 

We are also located where we will get many church 
VIP's. I wrote once before they didn't get up into the moun- 
tains where we wintered but they are sure to come here. 

As it turns out, with conditions as they are here now, I'm 
sure you'll find your visit later in the year will be more 
satisfactory. In this turmoil we couldn't have done your 
visit justice. I am still going to have an Easter Sunrise 
Service but it will not be the all-Division affair I'd planned 
in the other area. We will have to have a number of them. 

3 April 1952. 
We have the problem of coverage pretty well in hand now. 
Palm Sunday, Holy Week, Easter, and Jewish Passover Serv- 
ices will all be held now, and everyone will have an op- 
portunity to participate. They moved units and then moved 
them again, until it was quite a race to keep our plans for 
total coverage up to date. . . . Field conditions create a 
need for flexibility that no other place demands. 

During Lent four Roman Catholic chaplains 
(Joseph P. F. Gallagher, John J. O'Neill, Vincent J. 
Lonergan, and James F. Follard) were able to con- 
duct a 3-day mission in a rear area. Each evening 
as approximately 500 personnel of the 5th Marines 
gathered in a makeshift chapel, the chaplains 
preached words of guidance and comfort; and 
through the cold, crisp air could be heard the sound 
of prayers for the repose of the souls of fallen com- 
rades, for world peace, and for protection amidst the 
perils and sin of the world. 

On Easter Day Chaplain John L. Curtis, 1st Sup- 
ply Battalion, conducted a Sunrise Service at Head- 
quarters, 8th Army (Advance), at Munsan-ni, the 
camp of the UN delegates, preached the sermon. 
(General Harrison was well-known for his personal 
interest in Christian faith, and active in the promotion 
of the Officers' Christian Union, an interservice asso- 
ciation of Protestant churchmen.) 



— 126 — 




I Believe. 

Father James Follard, CP, teaches the beliefs of the Catholic 
faith during a mission conducted in Korea. Chaplains 
(left to right) lending their support are John O'Neill, 
Joseph Gallagher, and Vincent Lonergan. 



Front Line Easter Services. 

Chaplain Melvin E. Torstrick conducts Easter morning 
services for the 3d Battalion, 1st Marines, near the front 



Chaplain Edward A. Slattery, having reported to 
the Division earlier, relieved Peck on 17 April. In 
his first letter as Division Chaplain to the Chief of 
Chaplains, he reported: "On Easter we had over 80 
Divine Services. In order to conduct them the boys 
hit the road for a total of well over 500 miles and 
that mileage is not on any straight smooth highway." 

Just before Peck was relieved he had been visited 
by his opposite number, the Reverend W. W. P. 
Rhys, senior chaplain to the Forces of the 1st Com- 
monwealth Division, an Anglican priest, veteran of 
campaigns with the Royal Army in North Africa, East 
Africa, and Palestine. Slattery was present at the 
meeting. 

Toward the end of his duty Chaplain Peck wrote 
to Chaplain Salisbury: 

I can honestly say this tour of duty has taught me a great 
deal as a senior chaplain, and it has been a constant inspira- 
tion and challenge to see the way the chaplains give of them- 
selves to stomp these hills in the cold to visit their men. 
I feel like Bob Schwyhart [Division Chaplain from September 
1950 to 20 February 1951] who wrote me when I was com- 
ing out — he said he wouldn't want to go through it again, 
but he wouldn't take anything for the experience. I believe 
some of our most trying times are our most rewarding 
experiences. 

Citations 

Chaplain Peck was subsequently awarded the Le- 
gion of Merit w'h Combat "V" for "exceptionally 



Chaplain Walter S. Peck, Jr., is relieved 
by Chaplain E. A. Slattery (left) 



as division 
17 April 1 



chaplain 
952. 




127 




Field Mass. 

Chaplain John J. O'Neill celebrates mass in the field for 
marines at a forward position. 



meritorious conduct ... as Division Chaplain for 
a Marine division during operations against the enemy 
in Korea from 8 October 1951 to 16 April 1952." 
The citation continues: 

Commander Peck displayed exceptional ability and fore- 
sight in caring for the spiritual welfare of all the Marines 
coming under his jurisdiction. An understanding and capa- 
ble leader, wise and persevering, he organized his section in 
such an outstanding manner that spiritual services and 
guidance were always available to those who were in the 
greatest need. Frequently making journeys throughout the 
entire division in the most adverse conditions of weather and 
terrain, he worked long and arduous hours with little con- 
cern for his personal health, in order to insure that all 
Marines received the opportunity to attend services in their 
own particular faith. 

Chaplain John J. O'Neill was awarded the Air 
Medal for the period 19 November 1951 to 8 January 
1952. His citation reads in part : 

Utilizing air transportation to reach the front line units, 
Lieutenant (jg. ) O'Neill repeatedly flew over action combat 
areas in a slow, unarmed aircraft to conduct religious 
services for friendly troops at the front. 

Chaplain O'Neill also received the Letter of Com- 
mendation award for action on 8 January 1952. 

When well-entrenched enemy forces gained fire superi- 
ority over a Marine patrol, inflicting heavy casualties, Lieu- 
tenant O'Neill left his battalion command post immediately 
and proceeded to the scene of the battle in order to give 
spiritual aid to members of the patrol. Alone and unarmed, 
with no thought for his own personal safety, he fearlessly 
worked his way through intense enemy fire to reach the 
patrol and for 45 minutes exposed himself while adminis- 



tering last rites to the wounded and dying. To the other 
members of the patrol, his shouted words of encouragement 
served as a constant source of inspiration. 

Ridge-Runners Rewarded 

Five other chaplains received the Letter of Com- 
mendation with Combat "V" for periods of service 
terminating within the 7th Campaign. It is instruc- 
tive to read their citations, noting how frequently is 
mentioned their ministry to small Marine units dug in 
on the mountainous slopes of northeastern Korea. 

The citation of Chaplain Robert N. Ruleman, for 
the period 14 September 1951 to 17 January 1952, 
reads in part: 

On numerous occasions he refused opportunities to retire 
to safer areas in the rear. His creed lay in serving with the 
"Fighting Man," and regardless of the situation he remained 
with the front line troops. Whether it was to solace the 
weary, comfort the wounded, or dispense the Word of God, 
he discharged his responsibilities in a manner which pro- 
vided a reverent inspiration to all who observed him. 

Chaplain William E. Brooks, Jr., was cited for the 
period from 29 October 1951 to 29 January 1952. 

While the regiment was committed in defensive action 
against the enemy, he personally visited every man on the 
front lines many times. He conducted divine services in 
the forward-most areas when it was impossible for men to 
attend services elsewhere. 

Chaplain Vincent J. Lonergan's citation, covering 
the period from 28 October 1951 to 4 February 1952, 
indicates how widespread a chaplain's ministry might 
be. 

Lieutenant Commander Lonergan, serving as the regi- 
ment's Catholic chaplain, worked tirelessly with complete 
disregard for his health and personal safety, to give spiritual 
aid not only to the men in the regiment but to two medical 
companies, Army engineers, Marine engineers, and Marine 
service troops. On one occasion he fearlessly exposed him- 
self to intense enemy fire to give spiritual consolation to the 
wounded Marines of an artillery battery and to members of 
an infantry regiment's command post. 

Chaplain Joseph P. F. Gallagher was commended 
for service as a regimental chaplain from 16 January 
to 4 April 1952. 

Working for the most part under the most adverse ter- 
rain and climate conditions, and often in areas that were 
exposed to enemy mortar and small arms fire, he faithfully 
held services for and administered to the men and officers 
of the regiment. 

The citation accompanying Chaplain Robert G. 
Fenning's award, covering the period 26 January-30 
April 1952, states the case very explicitly. 

He constantly ministered to the spiritual needs of the 
men in the battalion by going from bunker to bunker in 
order not to assemble a group of men where they could be 



128 — 



targets for enemy artillery or mortar fire. Traveling through 
extreme cold, stormy weather over rugged mountainous 
terrain, he continually stayed with the men, giving instruc- 
tions and conducting religious services without regard for 
his personal safety. 

MAW Chaplain Personnel 

Acting Wing Chaplain Seymour's report to the 
Chief of Chaplains dated 12 February 1952 detailed 
the following personnel picture. Chaplain R. D. 
Cleaves had departed on 1 February, and Seymour 
was giving Protestant coverage to Marine Aircraft 
Group 33 in addition to his own duties. Chaplain 
Horvath, transferred to headquarters, was replaced at 
Marine Aircraft Group 12 by Chaplain La Duca. 
E. R. Weidler remained as Protestant chaplain in 
MAG 12. J. A. Sullivan continued as Roman 
Catholic chaplain in MAG 33. Chaplain Harrison 
was still in Pusan, attached to the Marine antiaircraft 
artillery battalion. There was no Navy chaplain with 
the units at Itami. 

The Chaplains Division had run into unexpected 
difficulties in detailing a replacement for Chaplain 
Barnes as Wing Chaplain. Barnes had received or- 
ders in October 1951 detaching him on the arrival of 
his relief, Chaplain E. R. Brewster. Because of 
serious illness in his family, Barnes was detached in 
November without relief. On 5 December Chaplain 
Brewster's orders were modified, granting him 20 days 
delay because of the illness of his father; and on 19 
December his orders to the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing 
were canceled because of further illness in his family. 
On 26 December Chaplain Joseph F. Parker was or- 



Worship for Replacements. 

A large group of Marine replacements on their way to front- 
line duty with the 1st Division attend services conducted 
by Chaplain Robert C. Fenning. 



1 


1 *\ 


J?. 1 


i V 


*5 J0[ 


f^M 



dered to the Wing but his orders were canceled be- 
cause his wife was critically ill. On 29 December 
Chaplain William J. Kuhn was ordered but upon 
physical examination was hospitalized in San 
Francisco. 

After this series of setbacks the Air Wing Com- 
manding General, C. F. Schilt, wrote directly to Chap- 
lain Salisbury: 

The 1st Marine Air Wing is one of the few organizations 
of the Naval Service engaged in land combat and has per- 
sonnel at five main locations in Korea and one in Japan. 
As you know an adequate number of competent chaplains 
is essential to good morale in an organization committed as 
we are. Under the circumstances I believe you will agree 
with me that the Wing has not received proper treatment, 
having been without a Wing Chaplain since November. 

After commending Seymour's work as Acting Wing 
Chaplain and suggesting a couple of chaplains he 
would like to have if available, the General concluded, 
"If a more senior chaplain is not readily available, 
Chaplain Seymour is entirely acceptable as Wing 
Chaplain." A postscript, handwritten, extended an 
invitation to the Chief of Chaplains to come to Korea 
himself for a tour of inspection. 

Chaplain Salisbury's reply, after explaining the sit- 
uation described just above, noted that Chaplain Par- 
ker's orders had been reinstated, and added, "I only 
wish that I could get out to see you but there are cer- 
tain pressures here which require my presence for 
sometime to come." Parker reported on 18 April 
1952 and the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing once again 
had a Wing Chaplain. 

Divine Services 

Most chaplains would regard their religious ministry 
as encompassing more than services of divine worship, 
but nothing they do, they would say, is more funda- 
mentally important. The following statistics, included 
in the quarterly report ending 31 March 1952 sub- 
mitted by Force Chaplain Martell H. Twitchell, cov- 
ering all activities of Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, 
indicate the zeal of "clergymen in uniform" in provid- 
ing a ministry of worship. During March 14 chap- 
lains reported conducting from 32 to 96 separate 
services each. The five who conducted the greatest 
number were the following : 







Serv- 
ices 


Attend- 
ance 


Com- 

muni' 
cants 


J. H. Sullivan 


MAG 33 


96 


2, 163 


1, 132 


H. A. Seymour. 
R. C. Fenning 
E. R. Weidler. 


1st MAW. . . 
5th Marines 
MAG 12 


53 

45 
43 


1,663 

984 

1,570 


360 
136 
190 


Geo. Felder, Jr 


7th Marines . 


40 


647 


364 



129 



Relief Work 

Chaplain Weidler wrote that during January and 
February 1952 numerous North Korean children 
were airlifted from advance airstrips to the Kangnung 
field, in need of food, clothing, and a place to live. 

The local orphanages are the first places the youngsters 
receive assistance on their way south. This section of Korea 
has been overrun four times by war in less than a year. 
The buildings where the children were placed required a 
lot of repair work. Our men have donated many hours of 
labor and have written home describing the plight of the 
children. 

From our Protestant chapel offering we have spent $585 
for clothing to meet the immediate needs of the youngsters. 
We have been joined by the Marines at El Toro. . . . We are 
receiving on the average of 10 large boxes of clothing each 
day from people at home, in response to the letters written 
by the men out here. 

There are 3 UNCACK [UN Civil Assistance Commission, 
Korea] and 1 Catholic orphanage with a total of over 250 
children depending on us for fuel, clothing, and food. The 
chaplains serve as liaison between the Air Group and the 
UNCACK and civil relief personnel in making assistance 
available where most needed. 

Commander William Lederer of CINCPAC spent a week 
with us, obtaining material for a story on our Air Group 
and its work with these children. You should be able to 
read his own account of our work here in Korea, in an 
early issue of "This Week," if his plans materialize. 

According to Chaplain Twitchell's report, cited 
just above, Weidler had reported that Marines of 
Marine Aircraft Group 12 had provided clothing for 
350 children in the 4 Kangnung orphanages and that 
$1,200 from the Chapel fund had been donated to 
them during March. 

MAW Chaplains Cited 

Chaplain Richard D. Cleaves was awarded the 
Bronze Star for his service with Marine Aircraft 
Group 33 from 23 May 1951 to 1 February 1952. 

Constantly concerned with the welfare of the men of the 
group, he frequently spent long hours in helping to seek a 
solution for individual tribulations. Always ready to assist 
in the struggle to aid an impoverished country, he guided 
and directed the Marines in founding and maintaining 
orphanages in the vicinity of the airfield where he was 
serving and elected to remain at his post rather than avail 
himself of the rest and recreation facilities in Japan. 

Two of the Air Wing chaplains received the Letter 
of Commendation award for outstanding performance 
of their duties during periods ending before the termi- 
nal date of the 7th Korean Campaign. For meri- 
torious service as Acting Wing Chaplain from 27 
November 1951 to 7 April 1952 Chaplain Seymour 
was cited for his "thorough understanding of the 
various complexities confronting the fighting man." 



His work in aiding civilian refugees was singled out 
for comment. 

Sparing no efforts in assisting the United Nations struggle 
to help an impoverished country, he supervised the generous 
efforts of Marine personnel in their desire to establish and 
maintain orphanages in the vicinity of Pohang Airfield. 

Chaplain James A. Sullivan was commended for 
service with Marine Aircraft Group 33 from 30 June 
1951 to 10 April 1952. "His concern for the spiritual, 
mental, and physical welfare of the men prompted 
him to assist them in their difficulties and troubles at 
any hour." His citation continues : 

Not confining his Christian work to his unit alone, Lieu- 
tenant Commander Sullivan assisted the United Nations 
efforts to help an impoverished country by aiding in the 
rehabilitation and maintenance of churches and orphanages 
in the vicinity of the airfield where he was serving. 

COMNAVFE Chaplains Cited 

As the first chaplain to serve on the staff of Com- 
mander U.S. Naval Forces, Far East, Walter A. 
Mahler had successfully and with constant good 
humor planned and supervised the many activities 
necessary to meet the greatly increased scope of re- 
quirements for the chaplains' ministry throughout 
the command. In addition he carried duties as 
Headquarters chaplain. He was given the Letter of 
Commendation award covering service from 20 No- 
vember 1950 to 11 January 1952. Part of his 
citation reads as follows : 

His ability to achieve and maintain the proper and delicate 
balance between the religious and naval aspects of personnel 
relations and problems was outstanding. His integrity and 
his staunch, unswerving faith and piety set an inspiring 
example for all who knew him. 

Chaplain James E. Reaves, Senior Chaplain, Fleet 
Activities, Yokosuka, also received the Letter of Com- 
mendation with ribbon for faithfulness to duty during 
the period 25 June 1950 to 15 November 1951. 

Chaplain Mahler was relieved by Daniel F. Mee- 
han. Other changes in the command since the roster 
given in chapter 5 were as follows. Chaplains E. D. 
Bennett, J. J. O'Neill, J. E. Reaves, and E. M. Turner 
had been relieved. Raymond A. Beaulieu had been 
assigned to Naval Air Station, Atsugi. Gerard J. 
Clark had reported to Naval Hospital to relieve C. W. 
Lawler, awaiting orders. Benoit R. Galland had re- 
ported to Fleet Activities, Yokosuka. Charles J. 
Horejs was ordered to the repair ship HECTOR and 
Bob G. Rochelle to the DELTA. Edward G. Swain 
was assigned to Camp Otsu, which functioned largely 
as a Marine casual company. In addition, A. J. 
Wolf, as noted earlier, had been assigned as Jewish 



130 — 



chaplain for COMNAVFE, attached to Fleet 
Activities, Yokosuka. 

Atsugi Chapel 

On the air station, which the Navy had taken over 
from the Air Force in 1951, stood a large building, 
formerly a Japanese gymnasium and then used by the 
Air Force partly for storage, partly for religious pur- 
poses. During World War II Japanese pilots had used 
it for practicing Kendo, an ancient game of tilting 
involving the use of heavy staves. Included in the 
building were a banquet hall and a small Shinto 
shrine. Before Kamikaze pilots would leave on a 
mission, they were feasted and decorated and then 
participated in a Shinto ritual before the shrine. 
Chaplain C. L. Sullenberger, when assigned to the 
Naval Air Station, had been instrumental in securing 
the use of the entire building for religious purposes. 
In the years following, during the tours of Chaplains 
Orlando Ingvoldstad and D. M. Humphrey, this Jap- 
anese building would become the nucleus of a well- 
planned, expanded religious center for American 
personnel. 

PhibPac 

In the Amphibious Force, Pacific, Chaplain Earl R. 



Brewster had replaced W. J. Kuhn as Force Chaplain. 
A roster dated March 1952 shows that Alvin O. Col- 
lins had reported to the staff of Transport Division 
15. Chaplains E. A. Day, W. J. Kokoszka, and F. A. 
Ruder were now listed on the staffs of TransDiv 14, 
TransDiv 12, and TransDiv 13, respectively, rather 
than as attached to individual ships as formerly. 
Chaplain Jacob R. Thomas was ordered to relieve R. 
T. Noland at Naval Beach Group ONE, after nearly 
a year of duty with ComServPac as the Fleet's free- 
wheeling circuit rider. 

The amphibious command ship ELDORADO had 
returned stateside in September 1951, her place taken 
by the ESTES, whose chaplain was William R. Petre. 
MT. McKINLEY, which had been relieved in June 
1951, returned to Korean service in March 1952 as 
flagship of Rear Adm. F. X. Mclnerney, Commander 
Navy Amphibious Forces in the Far East. Her chap- 
lain was Thomas M. Gibson. 

MSTS 

Chaplain George W. Thompson, Staff Chaplain, 
Military Sea Transportation Service, Pacific Area, 
submitted on 15 April 1952 the following list of chap- 
lains serving in MSTS ships. 



Bol, Peter 


REF 


GEN G. M. RANDALL 


Bruns, Bruno 


REF 


THOMAS JEFFERSON 


Childress, Elmer H, Jr. . 


BAP (S) 


GEN. N. M. WALKER 


Dohrmann, Leonard B . . . . 


EVAN & REF 


GEN. J. C. BRECKENRIDGE 


Erickson, Paul F 


EVAN MISS CONV 


GEN. E. D. PATRICK 


Handran, Ralph E 


RC 


GEN. A. E. ANDERSON 


Hemphill, Edward J., Jr 


METH 


GEN. H. W. BUTNER 


Holmes, Norman B 


CHRI SCIENCE 


GEN. WM. WEIGEL 


Irwin, Paul I 


METH 


GEN. JOHN J. POPE 


Karnasiewicz, Charles F . . 


RC 


. GEN. WM. BLACK 


Kennedy, Deane W 


METH 


GEN. W. A. MANN 


McCarthy, Eugene W . . . 


RC 


WINDHAM BAY 


Moran, John L., Jr 


BAP(S)... 


GEN. E. T. COLLINS 




LUTH 


CAPE ESPERANCE 


Nolan, William F 


RC. 


GEN. A. W. BREWSTER 


Potter, Paul K 


METH 


GEN. W. H. GORDON 


Robinson, Charles B 


PRESBY (USA) 


SITKOH BAY 


Singer, Wilson H 


METH 


. : . . GEN. M. C. MEIGS 




UNIT 


DAVID C. SHANKS 


Sydnor, Charles E 


BAP (A) 


GEN. WM. MITCHELL 


Terhune, Cornelius A . . . . 


PRESBY (USA) ... 


GEN. D. I. SULTAN 


Tullev, Edward M 


RC. 


GEN. W. F. HASE 


Wartes, Arthur J 


PRESBY (USA) 


PRESIDENT JACKSON 


Watts, John E., Ir 


PRESBY (US). 


FRED C. AINSWORTH 


Wheeler, Wendell C 


CONG 


GEN. C. G. MORTON 



Chaplains Thomas P. Dunleavy and George J. 
Enyedi had been recently detached. Five ships had 
at the time no chaplain. The WINDHAM BAY, 



CAPE ESPERANCE, and SITKOH BAY were 
escort carriers used to ferry planes and personnel to 
the war theater. Aboard SITKOH BAY Chaplain 



535332 O — 60 



131 



Robinson held services in the hangar deck or forward 
elevator when troops were embarked and in the ready 
room or compartment formerly housing catapult 
machinery when traveling without troops. 

Chaplain Handran found an "amazing response to 
daily services on transports." In addition to daily 
Mass, he arranged a service for Protestants composed 
of Bible reading, prayers, and hymns, "usually con- 
ducted by a lay leader." All were well attended, 
though, he added, "It may be they had no place else 
to go." Chaplain Holmes reported a daily weekday 
attendance at Protestant services between 250 and 300 
men. "On a single voyage into Korean waters, as 
many at 600 copies of the complete Bible would be 
distributed to men requesting it." 

Chaplain Sydnor reported that in addition to their 
contribution to the March of Dimes, sailors in the 
GENERAL WILLIAM MITCHELL pledged $900 
to help a young lady, Miss Bunting, in California at- 
tend commercial art school. Miss Bunting who was 
stricken 5 years before with polio was a guest of the 
ship in port, and was presented to the captain and 
taken for a tour of the vessel. 

MSTS chaplains, under the leadership of Staff 
Chaplain Thompson, cooperated with the annual 
American Red Cross campaign. The first ship mak- 
ing its contribution in 1952 was the GENERAL E. D. 
PATRICK, where Paul F. Erickson was chaplain. 
Chaplain Thompson reported to the Chaplains Divi- 
sion that in 1951 MSTS ships in the Pacific area had 
contributed $47,67 1 to various charities. 

Panmunjom Talks 

Meanwhile, during the entire 5 months of the 7th 
Korean Campaign, full-scale talks had continued at 
Panmunjom. Resumed on 25 October 1951, a month 
had been consumed in debate over the position of a 
buffer zone and the related question whether the 
cease-fire should be put into operation immediately 
after agreement on that, or only after agreement had 
been reached on all other items of the agenda. The 
United Nations delegations insisted on the latter 
course lest a premature truce allow a Communist 
buildup while the talks continued. 

Finally on 27 November (the date later designated 
as the end of the 6th Korean Campaign) agreement 
was reached on the establishment of the demilitarized 
zone: each side should withdraw 2 kilometers from 
the present point of contact if an armistice should be 
signed within 30 days, or from whatever lines should 
be held at the time an armistice should be agreed 
upon. The 27 November line started along the 



Sachon River on the west and ran north and east 
through the Iron Triangle, thence to a point about as 
far north as the apex of the Triangle; from there the 
line dipped southward, though still above the Punch- 
bowl, and afterwards turned north and ran out to the 
sea at Kosong. The United Nations thus held posi- 
tions north of the Parallel everywhere except in the 
extreme west, where the truce line dipped slightly 
below it. 

On 30 November the delegates began discussion 
of the composition and functions of a Supervisory 
Commission and matters pertaining to military stance 
after an armistice should be reached : troop rotations, 
replacement of equipment, and rehabilitation of air- 
fields. With no agreement having been reached on 
these matters, on 1 1 December the negotiators began 
concurrent discussions of the prisoner of war issue. 
On the 18th POW lists were exchanged. UN pro- 
posals for Red Cross teams to investigate POW camps 
were spurned by the Communists. Talk ranged over 
such questions as whether the prisoners should be 
exchanged "one for one" or "all for all." It was 
agreed to screen the prisoners in order to separate 
bonafide civilians from combatants. The most serious 
stumbling-block concerned the disposition of prisoners 
who did not want to be repatriated. 

In April 1952 the UN Command began a screen- 
ing of the North Korean and Chinese prisoners it 
held to determine their wishes; of the approximately 
121,000 in UN camps, approximately 38,000 indi- 
cated their desire not to return. 9 On 28 April the 
UN delegation offered the Communists a "package 
deal" on the three main disputed issues: They would 
not be party to forcible repatriation; they would 
concede the buildup of damaged airfields; and they 
would accept Poland and Czechoslovakia as members 
of a Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission, but not 
Russia, and asked the Communists to accept Sweden 
and Switzerland. Thus far had the talks come when 
the period here under review came to an end. 

Change of Scene 

The 7th Korean Campaign drew to a close with 
the end of April 1952. The battleground had be- 
come a narrow band across the peninsula, bounded 
by the main defensive lines of the UN forces on the 
south and of the Communist forces on the north. 
Both opposing armies were capable of offensive opera- 
tions but remained for the most part in static defense 



War.' 



' Britannic a Book of the Year, 1953, article, "Korean 



132 — 



positions. 10 Actual fighting occurred more often than 
not between combat outposts and opposing probing 
patrols. 

In the east the lines lay well north of the 38th 
Parallel, slanting up and down steep hills divided by 
valleys wide enough only for a little stream or some- 
times a narrow, twisting road connecting one tiny 
inhabited area with the next, usually a considerable 
distance away. This area, which would always be 
associated in their minds with the craterlike Punch- 
bowl, Marines of the 1st Division had now left behind, 
doubtless without regret. After 600 trucks had shut- 
tled back and forth transferring some 6,000 loads of 
gear a distance of 180 miles, the Division dug in as 



the western anchor of the 8th Army front. 11 Now 
under operational control of I Army Corps, its mission 
was to block the way to Seoul should the Communists 
attempt a new invasion of the South. Both the Di- 
vision and the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing were now in 
new locations, their individual units often widely 
scattered. From the latter part of March 1952 the 
scene of the operations with which our account is 
chiefly concerned shifted to the western side of the 
Korean peninsula. Division Chaplain Slattery wrote 
to the Chief of Chaplains on 21 April: "Spring is 
upon us, thanks be to God the Commies are not. 
Blossoms are on the hillsides. Dust is thick on our 
hides but our hearts are high." 



10 R. A. Gugelcr (ed.), Combat Operations in Korea 
(Washington, 1954), pp. 243f. Miller, op. cit., p. 210. 



" Lynn Montross, Cavalry of the Sky, p. 180. 



133 — 



CHAPTER 8 

KOREAN DEFENSE— SUMMER-FALL 1952 
1 May-30 November 1952 



With the truce talks still continuing there were few 
major engagements during the summer and fall of 
1952. 1 The lines were relatively stable, the United 
Nations troops often facing the enemy across no more 
than 50 yards, though sometimes separated from them 
by as much as 10 miles. The importance of hills and 
mountains for observation purposes made the battles 
for peaks particularly tense, especially when such an 
elevation protruded forward of one's own sector into 
the enemy's lines. Then there ensued stubborn fight- 
ing and peaks would change hands several times in 
seesaw actions. In such engagements artillery and 
close air support were often of decisive importance. 
Wherever the opposing units remained dug-in and 
contact limited, there was less need for air support. 
Navy and Marine fighters then concentrated on sup- 
porting Air Force missions aimed at the destruction 
of railroads and highways, rolling stock and trucks, 
marshalling yards, and supply depots. The B-29's 
were systematically engaged in neutralizing Commu- 
nist airfields in the North. 

The enemy had at no time during the Korean War 
posed a serious threat at sea. United Nations naval 
forces were engaged largely in siege and interdiction 
operations. Wonsan, on the east coast, which had 
fallen to the enemy with the withdrawal of UN forces 
from north of the 38th Parallel in December 1950, 
was denied access to the sea by continuous siege. By 
the end of October 1952 4 battleships, 8 cruisers, 16 
aircraft carriers and approximately 80 destroyers had 
been at one time or other deployed in Korean waters. 2 
Of the carriers 1 3 were United States vessels, 2 British 
and 1 Australian. 

Perhaps the most spectacular event of early summer 
was the rioting of Communist prisoners-of-war on the 
island of Koje-do, off the southern coast. 3 A hard 



1 Britannica Book of the Year, 1953; article, "Korean 
War." 

' Ibid. 

2 Ibid. 



core of Communists had kept the compound there in 
turmoil for months, fomenting serious riots in Febru- 
ary and March. Finally, on 7 May, the prisoners 
succeeded in seizing control of the camp and held 
Brig. Gen. F. T. Dodd, UN commander, hostage un- 
til his deputy signed a statement which practically 
conceded charges of maladministration which the 
Communist negotiators at Panmunjom had been urg- 
ing against the United Nations Command. On 12 
May Gen. Mark W. Clark succeeded General Ridg- 
way as commander-in-chief of United Nations forces 
in Korea and promptly repudiated the so-called "con- 
fessions," making clear to the world that it had been 
secured by violence and repeating the proposal already 
frequently made at Panmunjom to open the POW 
camps of both sides to international inspection. 

May Day 

May first is of course a "holy day" for international 
Communism and UN forces were on the alert as the 
day approached. On 29 April Bishop Harry S. Ken- 
nedy, Episcopal bishop of Honolulu with responsibil- 
ity as that church's Military Ordinary for the Pacific 
and Far Eastern area, arrived at the Division Com- 
mand post at the invitation of Lt. Gen. Franklin 
A. Hart, FMF Pac Commanding General. Division 
Chaplain Slattery had written on 21 April to Chief 
of Chaplains S. W. Salisbury: 

Chaplain Boyer plans a Division Episcopal service at 1830 
on 30 April and I have written a memorandum to the Chief 
of Staff requesting that unit commanders be authorized to 
release the officers and men who may wish to attend the 
service. It will depend, of course, on the tactical situation 
and with 1 May looming up I am under the impression that 
the Commanding General will hesitate to issue such 
authorization. 

Although his arrival was unexpectedly a day early, 
and both the Bishop and his military escort were ill 
from food poisoning (they had first visited an Army 



134- 




Visitor. 

The Episcopal Bishop of Honolulu, the Right Reverend Harry S. Kennedy (right) speaks to men after his service at the 
1st Division. He is greeted by the Senior Chaplain of Her Majesty's Forces, Wynn Rhys. At left is Chaplain Alex- 
ander W. Boyer of the Motor Transport Battalion. Bishop Kennedy was Episcopal Representative for the Armed 
Forces in the Far East. 



installation, Slattery reported gleefully!), neverthe- 
less a dispatch to the lines brought a few representa- 
tives from each unit and a service was held on the 
evening of the 29th, with General Hart and Maj. Gen. 
John A. Selden, 1st Marine Division commander, 
present. Accompanying the Bishop was Episcopal 
chaplain A. W. Boyer of the Division and on hand to 
greet him was the Reverend Wynn Rhys, senior chap- 
lain of the British Commonwealth Division. 
On 5 May Slattery wrote : 

Due to Fenning's orders we had to detach him on 30 
April; no relief being in sight Chaplain Brooks volunteered 
to plug the gap at Chaplain Fenning's battalion. That was 
on 30 April and 1 May. Needless to say, he slept little 
and then fitfully, due to a certain amount of "incoming" 
plus a volume (for the occasion of May Day) of "outgoing." 

On 17 May the chapel which had been erected at 
the Division Command Post following the Division's 
move to the western front was dedicated. General 
Selden gave the address, and Chaplains Slattery (Ro- 



Chapel — 1st Marine Division. 

The new 1st Marine Division Chapel leaves its doors open to 
members of all faiths. 




— 135 




Chaplairts at Dedication. 

The 1st Marine Division's Command Post Chapel was formally dedicated on Armed Forces Day. In attendance were 
24 of the Division's 28 chaplains. They are shown here in front of the new chapel. First row, from left are: E. S. 
Jones; R. H. Willets; B. N. Wolfe; E. A. Wolfram; J. T. Callahan; A. W. Boyer. Seated: O. Weber; A. D. Prickett; 
E. A. Slattery, Division Chaplain; Maj. Gen. J. T. Selden; A. M. Oliver; W. P. Lane; W. D. McCabe. Standing: 
N. A. McDowell; H. C. Duncan; V. J. Lustig; C. W. Herrick; C. T. Duggan; A. F. Mendosa; A. W. Robertson; M. E. 
Torstrick; R. Siegel; R. F. Barlik ; B. J. Nowakowski. Missing from the picture are H. C. Bowling; C. H. Elliot; L. A. 
Guillaume; and J. H. Muller. 



Dedication. 

Maj. Gen. John T. Selden, Commanding General of the 1st Marine Division, delivers the dedicatory address at the opening 
of the Division Command Post Chapel on Armed Forces Day. Seated from left to right are Chaplains Reubin Siegel, 
Edward A. Slattery and (obscured by the rostrum) Algernon M. Oliver. 




-136- 



man Catholic), Siegel (Jewish), and Oliver (Protes- 
tant) took part. Twenty-five of the chaplains as- 
signed to the Division were present. 

Regarding the military picture Slattery wrote: 

Action remains sporadic. Chaplain Robertson who is 
with Tanks had a narrow squeak recently. He was with one 
of his companies when a considerable amount of "incom- 
ing" arrived. His jeep was damaged but, thanks be to 
God, Chaplain Robertson was not in it at the time. 

I worry about these lads so much and keep urging them 
to be extremely cautious. They are prudent but even that 
is not a safeguard against the dangers which surround them. 
Chaplains Duncan and Mendonsa displayed courage and 



their spirit of dedication a week ago in remaining at a for- 
ward aid station through a mortar barrage. 

Rotation of Chaplains 

On 19 May Slattery submitted a periodic roster to 
the Chaplains Division. He noted : 

We now have 17 Protestant chaplains, 9 Catholic and 1 
Jewish chaplain. With Torstrick detached we will be one 
Protestant under the minimum need. I understand that 
Chaplain Pat Adams is due here, which will bring the number 
of Catholics up to 10. Do you intend it to be so or have you 
plans to detach one of the Catholics sooner than expected? 
Naturally we can use everyone you send and more, but I 
do not want to be "piggish" about it. 



ROSTER OF CHAPLAINS, 19 MAY 1952 



Name 

SLATTERY, E. A CDR 

H. C, JR LT. . 



Rank 



Assignment Church affiliation 

Div Chaplain RC 

BOWLING, H. C, JR. . . LT.. 1st Cmb Ser Group METH 

OLIVER, A. M.i LCDR Headquarters Bn METH 

PRICKETT, A.D LCDR Headquarters Bn BAP (S) 

LUSTIG, V. J LCDR 1st Medical Bn RC 

WEBER, O LT 1st Medical Bn LUTH 

MULLER, J. H LTJG 1st Shore Party Bn REF 

WOLFRAM, E. A., JR LT 1st Engineer Bn LUTH (MoSy) 



B.J 



NOWAKOWSKI 

SIEGEL, R 

BARLIK, R. F 

ROBERTSON, A. W 

BOYER, A. W 

WOLFE, B. N.> 

JONES, E. S 



LT 1 st Amphibian Trac Bn RC 



LTJG 
LTJG. 
LTJG. 
LTJG. 
LTJG. 
LTJG. 



FIRST MARINES 



MCCABE, W. D.2.. 
CALLAHAN, J. T. . . . 
TORSTRICK, M. E.». 



LCDR. 

LT . . . 
LTJG 



Headquarters Bn JEWISH 

1st Medical Bn RC 

1st Tank Bn BAP (S) 

1st Motor Tr Bn PE 

1st Service Bn BAP (S) 

1st Armored Amp Bn METH 

2d Battalion PRESBY (USA) 

3d Battalion RC 

1st Battalion BAP (S) 



FIFTH MARINES 

MENDONSA, A. F.' LT 2d Battalion RC 

ELLIOTT, C. H., JR LT 3d Battalion PE 

DUNCAN, H. C.i LTJG 1st Battalion METH 

SEVENTH MARINES 

WILLETS, R. H.2 LT 1st Battalion BAP (S) 

HERRICK, C. W LT 2d Battalion PRESBY (USA) 

GUILLAUME, L. A LTJG 3d Battalion RC 

ELEVENTH MARINES 

LANE, W. P.2 LCDR Headquarters RC 

FORNEY, F. J.' LT 1st Battalion DISC 

MC DOWELL, N. L LT 4th Battalion BAP (S) 

DUGGAN, C. T LTJG 3d Battalion RC 

1 Indicates chaplains ordered detached. 

J Indicates regimental chaplain. 



Of the 27 chaplains shown on Division Chaplain 
Peck's roster of 1 January 1952, only Chaplains Dun- 
can, Torstrick, Oliver, Siegel, Wolfe, and Forney re- 
mained. Since that date 22 new chaplains had 
arrived, making a total of 28 on the 19 May roster. 



Chaplains Prickett and Duggan had reported just 
prior to this roster, thus making possible within a few 
days the detachment of two of the five designated as 
awaiting detachment. 

According to rotation policy then in effect, a chap- 



— 137 — 




V. 




Outdoor Worship. 
Chaplain A. W. Robertson mounts his portable altar on a T46 tank at a forward outpost in Korea and conducts services. 



lain serving with the Division was ordered detached 
after 6 or 7 months; the actual date of detachment, 
within the terms of the Bureau of Naval Personnel 
orders sent to Division Headquarters, was left to the 
discretion of the Division Chaplain. Normally de- 
tachment was effected in order of priority of report- 
ing, though the overriding consideration always was 
the most economical distribution of chaplains through- 
out the Division's units. Siegel, of course, had to 
await the arrival of a Jewish relief, being the only 
chaplain of that faith in the Division. Chaplains E. 
A. Wolfram, Jr., and Ward D. McCabe completed the 
list (including the six above) of eight chaplains who 
had reported before 31 January, who could expect 
rotation in accordance with the earlier policy. Chap- 
lains reporting on or after 1 February would be ex- 
pected to serve 10 months in Korea. 

Chaplain Distribution 

The administrative processing of chaplains attached 
to the 1st Marine Division was a G-l (Division Per- 
sonnel) function, acting for the Chief of Staff and 
with the advice of the Division Chaplain. The chap- 
lains had no direct command link with the Division 



Chaplain; once assigned they were under the mili- 
tary jurisdiction of their respective commanding of- 
ficers. The Division Chaplain served, however, as an 
effective liaison between the various unit chaplains 
and the Division subordinate commands. 

Chaplains were reassigned within the Division from 
time to time, so much so during certain periods that 
trying to follow them resembles unscrambling a maze. 
There is clearly much in favor of keeping a chaplain 
with the same unit for an extended period, and in 
peacetime, at least, as long as both unit commander 
and chaplain are satisfied, "long pastorates" are more 
likely the rule. Under field conditions, however, 
itinerancy provided the only adequate and economical 
distribution of the services of a limited number of 
chaplain personnel (frontier churches had of course 
had the same experience in the early days of the west- 
ward expansion of our country) . 

It was the function of the Division Chaplain to see 
that the available chaplains were so assigned that 
their ministry might be utilized to the benefit of the 
largest number of personnel. According to the Divi- 
sion T/O the Division Chaplain and all others not 
assigned to regimental organizations were carried by 



138 



Headquarters Battalion, to form a "pool" upon which 
the Division Chaplain could draw for assignments to 
the separate battalions. The first roster given in this 
account, that of Division Chaplain Schwyhart on the 
eve of the Inchon landing, indicated such a distribu- 
tion. 4 Under field conditions, however, it usually 
proved more satisfactory to attach a chaplain directly 
to the Headquarters Company of the separate bat- 
talions. In most rosters such distribution will be seen. 
Each regiment was entitled to three chaplains, 
normally all attached to the regimental headquarters, 
the senior being regimental chaplain and a member of 
the regimental staff. He was responsible for the place- 
ment of himself and the other two chaplains within 
the regiment. An infantry regiment had, besides its 
Headquarters and Service Company and 4.2 Mortar 
Company, three infantry battalions. Under combat 
conditions it was customary for one chaplain to be with 
each battalion, the regimental chaplain also main- 
taining contact with the regimental CP and providing 
a ministry there. Usually the Headquarters would 
be located near enough one or other of the battalions 
to make this feasible. Since there were normally two 
Protestants and one Roman Catholic per regiment, a 
certain amount of rotation within the regiment was 
usually thought necessary for religious coverage. In 
addition exigencies arising under field conditions dic- 
tated rather frequent shifts, so that a chaplain would 
be found now in the first battalion, later in the third 
or again in the second. 

Regimental chaplains were not always in agreement 
with one another on the best policy regarding this 
point; some of the differences stemmed from the na- 
ture of the varied operational assignments. One 
would keep himself in Regiment and assume respon- 
sibility for one of the battalions, and then assign, 
semiofficially and temporarily, one chaplain to each 
of the other two battalions. Another regimental 
chaplain, feeling that all three chaplains should be 
sensitive of their responsibility to the entire regiment, 
would keep himself and both the others attached to 
Regiment, but working in more or less orderly rota- 
tion throughout the subordinate units. While the Di- 
vision chaplain would be advised on these shifts, the 
actual placement of chaplains within a regiment, once 
assigned there, was the prerogative of the regimental 
commander with the regimental chaplain as his 
adviser. 

As a member of the Commanding General's staff 
the Division chaplain found many of his duties to be 



* See ch. 1. 



administrative, though he furnished a ministry repre- 
senting his particular faith at the Division CP and 
Headquarters Battalion. Also at Headquarters would 
be a chaplain of the Christian faith different from 
that of the senior chaplain; for instance, through most 
of the period here under review, Chaplain A. D. 
Prickett, Southern Baptist, worked with Chaplain 
Slattery. In addition, the single Jewish chaplain was 
always assigned to Headquarters Battalion, though his 
duties carried him through the entire Division and on 
occasion he would be given temporary additional duty 
orders to one or other of the separate battalions. 
Sometimes this was necessary to provide a chaplain 
in a given battalion ; besides, it gave the chaplain an 
opportunity to gain experience as chaplain in an inde- 
pendent unit. One or both of these chaplains were 
sometimes referred to as assistant division chaplain. 

In filling the regimental chaplain billet seniority 
naturally was an important factor. Usually a lieu- 
tenant commander was assigned, though on many 
occasions a lieutenant filled the billet. For instance, 
on Slattery's 19 May roster only the 1st and 11th Ma- 
rines had a lieutenant commander (McCabe and 
Lane), while the 5th and 7th Marines each had a 
lieutenant (Mendonsa and Willets). As far as pos- 
sible these billets were rotated among Protestants and 
Roman Catholics. All other factors having been 
weighed, it sometimes happened that all three regi- 
mental chaplains would be of the same faith ; but with 
new arrivals shifts would be made to bring that aspect 
of the distribution picture into normal alinemrnt. 

Other reassignments were made, as chaplains at- 
tached to separate battalions became senior to more 
recent arrivals and were shifted to regimental chap- 
lain billets and relieved in the separate battalions by 
their less experienced colleagues. Sometimes chap- 
lains were shifted from separate battalions to regi- 
mental billets, because of their own request for 
infantry duty, or because they seemed to the Division 
chaplain especially suited for such duty or because 
denominational and rank requirements dictated such 
changes. Chaplains serving with regiments would 
sometimes be reassigned to rear-area battalions; on 
occasion it was felt a chaplain had had all the front- 
line duty he could take for a while, or again he would 
have displayed particular abilities that recommended 
him to the Division chaplain as the right man for a 
particular assignment. One such situation can be in- 
ferred from the following paragraph in Chaplain 
Slattery's letter of 5 May to the Chief of Chaplains. 

Chaplain Stamper took over in Combat Service Group 
when conditions there were, to say the least, unsavory. The 



139 — 



officers were rather, shall we say, flamboyant in their conduct 
and attitude. Others followed suit. Bob Stamper who has 
been one of the top men here handled the situation with 
firm diplomacy and he reports that things are in hand now. 
He urged me to fill the billet with a "field grade" [in Marine 
terms, a major; hence, lieutenant commander] chaplain. 

Another illustration may be seen in the exchange 
of Chaplain T. A. Newman, Service Battalion, with 
Chaplain C. W. Herrick, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, 
and Prickett of Headquarters Battalion with Willets, 
regimental chaplain, 7th Marines. Concerning these 
shifts Slattery wrote on 15 September: "The moves 
were made in order to give Chaplains Willets and 
Herrick a rest from the pressure they have been under 
in 'enemy engaged' units. Both are pleased to move 
to rear units and Chaplains Newman and Prickett are 
the 'gung-ho' guys who wanted to get a taste of the 
fighting front." He added: "I intend shortly to make 
a similar switch of Adams [7th Motor Transport] and 
Callahan [3d Battalion, 1st Marines]." 

Concerning a plan for more stable assignments 
which he was trying to effect, Slattery wrote on 9 June, 
after a meeting of the chaplains, "All agree that the 
present plan to keep each chaplain with his originally 
assigned battalion is the one most beneficial to the 
men and the individual chaplain." 

Apparently Slattery and his regimental chaplains 
were assigning chaplains within a regiment at bat- 
talion level. For instance, the 19 May roster showed 
W. D. McCabe as regimental chaplain, 1st Marines, 
with duty in the 2d Battalion; J. T. Callahan was as- 
signed to the 3d Battalion and M. E. Torstrick to the 
first. The 1 September roster showed K. D. Killin 
(ordered but not yet reported) as McCabe's relief, 
both as regimental chaplain and in the 2d Battalion. 
Callahan was still in the 3d Battalion. Oscar Weber, 
who had been in the Medical Battalion on the May 
roster, was now in the 1st Battalion. But the latter 
assignment had not been uncomplicated. E. S. Jones 
had relieved Torstrick when his time was up, coming 
from the Armored Amphibian Battalion. Jones was 
accidentally injured and sent to the HAVEN in Pusan. 
Weber had then been drawn from the Medical 
Battalion to replace Jones. 

A comparison of the 19 May and 1 September 
rosters in the case of the 5th Marines shows A. F. 
Mendonsa as regimental chaplain, with duty in the 
2d Battalion, on both dates; Calvin H. Elliott in the 
3d Battalion on both dates; and H. C. Duncan, who 
had returned stateside, relieved in the 1st Battalion 
by Chaplain J. C. Brown, who had reported to the 
Division on 30 May after duty with the Air Wing's 
unit at Itami since 20 March. 



In the 7th Marines the slate was unchanged: R. H. 
Willets was regimental chaplain, with duty in the 1st 
Battalion, on both rosters; C. W. Herrick, 2d Bat- 
talion, and L. A. Guillaume, 3d Battalion. 

In the 11th Marines, with a normal complement 
of four battalions, W. P. Lane appears on both rosters 
as regimental chaplain carried at Headquarters, F. J. 
Forney, detached, had been relieved in the 1st Bat- 
talion by H. C. Bowling, who had previously been 
in Combat Service Group. N. L. McDowell contin- 
ued in the 4th Battalion and C. T. Duggan in the 
3d. Whether Lane covered the 2d battalion 
does not appear from Slattery's rosters. In any case 
the 11th Regiment was well served, with four aboard 
on a T/O calling for three. 

When Forney had been due to be relieved the new- 
est replacement was M. J. Strumski, a Roman Catho- 
lic without previous Marine duty. Lane and Duggan 
were also Catholic. So Bowling was brought up from 
Combat Service Group to the 1 1th Marines. 

Otherwise [as Slattery wrote to the Chief] the 1 1th Marines 
would be without adequate Protestant coverage. There are 
four battalions, the 11th CP and three batteries of reinforce- 
ments from the Army scattered over many miles of front. 
I made an analysis of the possibility of coverage for Prot- 
estant services from one of the other units but find it is 
beyond the capabilities of the chaplains, due to heavy 
schedules of their own and the tactical location of the 
artillery. 

After a short period of indoctrination at Headquar- 
ters Battalion Strumski was assigned to Combat Serv- 
ice Group, a rear unit not likely to be involved in 
combat. As things turned out, it was a happy move. 
On 29 July Slattery wrote : 

The arrival of Chaplain Strumski was fortunate as Combat 
Service, which had depended on an Air Force chaplain for 
Catholic services, was suddenly bereft of his services due to 
a move by the Air Force. By coincidence the Army ordered 
a Protestant chaplain to a camp just 100 yards away from 
our Combat Service Group. So I was able to parlay the 
moves to our advantage. 

At Division Headquarters a comparison of the May 
and September rosters shows the same slate, except 
that Siegel had been relieved on 10 July by Chaplain 
Samuel Sobel. (But as we have seen, within 2 weeks 
of the latter roster, Prickett and Willets would be 
exchanged.) In some of the separate battalions, the 
picture was unchanged: A. W. Boyer was still with 
Motor Transport, R. F. Barlik with the Medical Bat- 
talion, B. J. Nowakowski with the AmTracs, A. W. 
Robertson with Tanks, and J. H. Muller with Shore 
Party. 



140 — 



But there had also been changes. V. J. W. Lustig 
had been assigned to the Armored Amphibian Bat- 
talion when Jones had replaced Torstrick at 1st Bat- 
talion, 1st Marines. Weber had replaced Jones there 
when the latter was injured. Both Lustig and Weber 
had been drawn from the Medical Battalion; one 
would infer the need for chaplains there was not 
pressing at the time. Upon Jones' return to duty he 
was assigned there, giving the Medical Battalion once 
more its normal complement, one Protestant and one 
Roman Catholic. 

E. A. Wolfram had been detached and replaced by 
G. E. Kuhn (ordered but not yet reported) in the 
Engineers. Wolfe had likewise been transfered state- 
side and replaced in the Service Battalion by T. A. 
Newman, who reported on 5 July. Bowling had been 
replaced at Combat Service by Strumski. The Ord- 
nance Battalion, which had no chaplain at the time 
of the May roster, was now to be covered by R. C. 
McMillan, ordered but not yet reported. The Signal 
Battalion had no chaplain attached at either date but 
was covered for services; probably it would have been 
near enough Headquarters Battalion to make that 
feasible. Chaplain Patrick Adams, who reported 
23 May, had been assigned to 7th Motor Transport, 
a unit not formerly allowed a chaplain. The 1 Sep- 
tember roster showed a total of 28 chaplains, includ- 
ing the 3 ordered but not yet reported, with none at 
that time awaiting detachment. 

This somewhat cursory and perhaps confusing sur- 
vey at least indicates the nature of the Division Chap- 
lain's job in trying to make sure that the complement 
of chaplains was distributed in such manner as to 
provide the most adequate ministry to the most men 
in any given set of circumstances. Not least of the 
changing conditions was the mobility of the Division's 
units, often necessitating this month a reshuffling of 
what had only last month seemed a workable distribu- 
tion. Despite Slattery's "new plan" of keeping chap- 
lains with their originally assigned battalions, it could 
be implemented only in part. The chaplain himself 
wrote to Salisbury on 22 September: 

I am sure that you agree we should not indiscriminately 
assign a 'body" to a battalion, but should try to fit the man 
to the type work involved. At least, we have tried to do so, 
as some jobs here are more challenging than others and de- 
mand more forceful chaplains. 

A survey extended through 30 November, the end of 
the 8th Korean Campaign, would doubtless show still 
further reassignments; but all the "chess playing" was, 
hopefully, in the interest of a more effective ministry. 



Chaplains' Information Booklet 

In May the Division Chaplain issued a mimeo- 
graphed Chaplains' Information Booklet. Purely in- 
formational and advisory, and in no sense an official 
directive, it consolidated within one cover a good deal 
of pertinent information based upon the Marine Corps 
Manual, the Chaplains Manual, the FMF Pac Gen- 
eral Order setting forth the SOP for chaplains serv- 
ing with a Marine division and current Division 
orders. 

A section on casualty letters attempted once more 
to clarify the procedures to be followed in writing 
letters to the next of kin of deceased personnel. It is 
quoted here in its entirety. 

ENCLOSURE (2) 

Chaplain's Casualty Letters to Next of Kin 
Ref: (a) Chaplain's Manual, NavPers 15664, Sec. 5102. 

(b) Par 4c(l), FMF Pac General Order 19. 

(c) Par 3b (7), Annex K, IstMarDiv General Order 

50. 

1. In compliance with references (a), (b), and (c), a 
chaplain's casualty letter will be sent to the next of kin of all 
deceased personnel of the battalion to which the chaplain is 
attached, regardless of status of death. 

2. It is recommended that the following procedure be fol- 
lowed in compiling necessary data, writing and submission 
of the casualty letter: 

a. Upon receipt of the casualty report, information 
such as rank, name, service number, component, organiza- 
tion, next of kin, and address of next of kin should be pro- 
cured from personnel records as soon as possible. The re- 
ligion of the individual should be ascertained by contacting 
the administrative rear, or the administrative section of the 
organization prior to the time the service records are mailed 
to Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps. This information 
should be held pending receipt of the Casualty Amplifying 
Report, which will be forthcoming in approximately two (2) 
to three (3) weeks after the individual becomes a casualty. 

b. Upon receipt of the Casualty Amplifying Report, the 
information contained thereon, such as rank, name, service 
number, etc., should be checked against the information you 
have been holding. A check should then be made to deter- 
mine that the designation and address of the next of kin you 
have obtained from examination of records compares with 
the addressee of the Company Commander's condolence let- 
ter. This will insure that the same person will receive both 
letters. All information should be checked thoroughly be- 
fore a letter is written. It is suggested that no letter be 
written until the amplifying report has been received, as 
that report will contain information relative to the disposi- 
tion of the remains and will therefore be conclusive. In the 
event letters are received from the next of kin or relatives, 
they should be acknowledged, with a statement that the sit- 
uation (not death) is being investigated and that information 
will be forthcoming as it becomes available. 

c. After all data has been compiled and thoroughly 
checked, a chaplain's casualty letter to the next of kin will 
be drawn up, for the signature of the chaplain, along with 
an envelope addressed to the next of kin. Chaplain's cas- 



— 141 



ualty letters will be transmitted through official channels to 
the Commandant of the Marine Corps (Code DGU) for 
forwarding to the next of kin. Copies of this correspondence 
and of the casualty letter should be retained in the chap- 
lain's files for reference and information. A copy should be 
made for each via in the chain of command, and an extra 
copy for the Commandant of the Marine Corps for inser- 
tion in the jacket of the individual at Headquarters U.S. 
Marine Corps. 

Another section of the Information Booklet dealt 
with publicity concerning chaplains' activities in Ko- 
rea. It quoted excerpts from several letters received 
from the Chief of Chaplains. 

We are still concerned about receiving pictures and stories 
on chaplains' activities with the Marines in Korea. There 
are two fields which have not been publicized, but which we 
feel contain excellent possibilities for public relations. First, 
our Office and the Marine Corps Public Information Office 
would like very much to publicize the work of the Marines 
who are serving as chaplains' assistants. 

Secondly, we are interested in securing the reactions of 
men in combat to religion. Would you please request the 
chaplains of the Division to secure some statements from 
the men in their units, who felt that religion had helped 
them when they were involved in fighting at the front. We 
are especially interested in learning of men who have had 
only a superficial relation with religion before. A great 
deal has been said and written concerning the help and 
strength of religion to men in combat. But we actually have 
very little from the men themselves as to just how they were 
helped and how much they feel this would affect their future 
life when they return home. 

We continue to receive requests for pictures of men in 
combat engaged in religious activities. Recently we re- 
ceived an excellent picture of a Marine saying the rosary. 
It is this type of picture that we need for illustrations in 
religious periodicals. 

We have recently learned of several awards for Navy 
chaplains who have served with Marines in Korea. We are 
embarrassed when we send out publicity concerning their 
awards because many times we would not have pictures of 
them made with the Marines in Korea. Chaplain Craven 
[now in the Chaplain's Division] would appreciate it if you 
could speak to the Public Information Officer about getting 
a picture of every chaplain serving with the Division while 
he is engaged in conducting Divine Service, interviewing a 
Marine, assisting with the wounded, or similar scenes of 
chaplains' activities. 

Other sections dealt with supplies, the semimonthly 
report of chaplain activities required by a Division 
memorandum and the monthly report required to be 
submitted to the FMF Pac Chaplain for inclusion in 
his quarterly report to the Chaplains Division. 

Concerning assistance to the work of the Red Cross, 
the booklet advised : 

1. On occasion the American Red Cross field director will 
request a chaplain to deliver a notification of death in the 
family. 



2. It is expected that such requests will be expedited and 
that American Red Cross will be notified of "mission 
accomplished." 

3. When an American Red Cross field director requests a 
chaplain to accompany him for notification, the chaplain 
will do so for the purpose of giving spiritual comfort. 

Because on "rare occasions" (as Slattery put it), 
commanding officers had assigned chaplains collateral 
duties which were a handicap to their basic work, 
especially in the field, the chaplains were reminded 
of paragraph 6, Annex K to Division General Order 
No. 50, here quoted : 

The primary work of the chaplain is spiritual and moral 
leadership. He will therefore not be required to undertake 
duties of any other nature that would absorb the major 
portion of his time, and thus cause him to neglect his 
chaplain duties. 

The booklet included a list of the chaplains then 
on duty in order of their reporting to the Division, 
with the dates of reporting, and the probable or 
anticipated date of detachment. Finally there was a 
list of all the chaplains who had served or were cur- 
rently serving in the 1st Marine Division in Korea, 
compiled from such records as were available in the 
Division Chaplain's Office. 

"Marine Padres, Inc." 

The chaplains were dependent on their units for 
transportation and only rarely were actually assigned 
a vehicle. Often the chaplain's personal relationship 
with his unit CO or transportation officer had much 
to do with the availability of "wheels." Early in June 
the Division chaplain held a conference at which all 
27 chaplains aboard were present. After being ad- 
dressed by the Commanding General and the G-l 
(personnel officer), there was a roundtable discussion, 
during which "the same old subject of transportation 
came up. However, it is clear that all CO's are 
furnishing wheels when a chaplain has a scheduled 
Divine Service." Slattery's conclusion on this matter 
would be echoed by every chaplain in the Corps: 
"Maybe someday Congress will make an appropria- 
tion for jeeps to be specially allotted to chaplains!" 

The British chaplains were at least better off on 
that point, though from the American point of view 
they suffered some disabilities in turn. 

One of our pleasant associations here has been with the 
Padres of the British Commonwealth Division. I visited 
their senior chaplain last Wednesday. You know their sys- 
tem, of course. They are envious of the fine integration of 
our Protestant and Catholic chaplains and of the considera- 
tion the Chaplains Division gives to the men in the field. 
Their tour is almost 3 years in comparison to our Marine 
tour. Of course they are on an Army plan. I guess the 



142 — 




Marine Padres, Inc. 

The corporation is composed of the following chaplains (left 
to right) Albert D. Prickett, Samuel Sobel, and Edward 
A. Slattery. 



only field in which they outdo us is in their mobility, due to 
the jeep situation. 

But at least one office had its own vehicle. Over 
the jolting roads of Korea there used to roll a battered 
jeep carrying across its windshield base in bold letters 
MARINE PADRES, INC. On one side of this leg- 
end was a cross, on the other a Star of David. Used 
in turn by the three chaplains at Division Headquar- 
ters, the jeep was "kept in operation with repairs from 
at least a half dozen units," as it kept breaking down 
on the road. 

That jeep was more than simply a means of trans- 
portation; it became a symbol of interfaith coopera- 
tion and of the concern of American Marines for the 
work of God. Concerning it Slattery wrote : "Marine 
Padres, Inc., declares regular dividends, spiritual in 
nature, but more real than gilt-edged bonds. Out of 
the treasury of the Bible and of religious tradition is 
drawn a currency which the Communists across the 
hills cannot counterfeit. Marines facing the fire of 
the enemy hear the sound of the shofar, the melody of 
a field organ, the tinkle of a Sanctus bell, and each 
in his own faith finds strength." 

Reserve Chaplains 

With the outbreak of the Korean War the Chap- 
lains Division, traditionally opposed to using any but 
volunteers, was not at first willing to recall any chap- 
lains to active duty without their consent. (As has 
been earlier noted, chaplains in pay billets with Or- 
ganized Marine Reserve units had been mobilized with 



their respective units.) When the procurement of 
USN chaplains and the voluntary return of USNR 
chaplains proved insufficient to meet the needs of the 
service, the Chief of Chaplains reluctantly decided 
on a program of involuntary recall. The first thus 
recalled to duty were given a refresher course in the 
reactivated chaplains school in October 1951. A 
chaplain involuntarily recalled who had had a year's 
active duty between December 1941 and September 
1945 was obligated to serve 17 months. Involuntary 
recallees without such prior active duty had to serve 
24 months, as did chaplains who had volunteered to 
return to duty and those who had been mobilized with 
Marine Reserve units. 

Now for the first time some chaplains serving in 
Korea were beginning to anticipate the end of their 
obligated service. On 26 May Chaplain Slattery 
wrote the Chief: 

If I am not mistaken, three of the chaplains here are due 
for release from active duty in January 1953. I mention it 
at this time to assist your detail desk in their long range plans. 

To this Salisbury replied: 

I want to assure you that we will release Reserve chap- 
lains when they come due. There is no intention of holding 
anyone beyond his obligated term of service. Of course you 
realize that the world situation could change this policy, but 
short of all-out mobilization no change is anticipated. 

Since chaplains arriving on or after 1 February 1952 
were expected to serve a 10-month tour in Korea, the 
question arose of how this would apply to Reserve 
chaplains whose obligated service would expire before 
their 10 months were up. Slattery wanted to know 
whether they would be returned stateside in time to 
be released at the termination of their required duty 
or whether they would be expected to remain in 
Korea at least until suitable reliefs should arrive. He 
felt that both he and the chaplains concerned should 
have a firm commitment from the Chaplains Division. 
Chaplain Mannion replied on 22 July: 

We will not hold chaplains beyond the period of their 
obligated service or the date that they request inactive duty, 
whichever is later. Chaplains in Korea scheduled to be re- 
leased from active duty will be returned to the United States 
in time to be released on schedule. 

Chaplains in Action 

Excerpts from Chaplain Slattery's frequent letters 
to Chaplain Salisbury reveal a man devoted to his 
work and keenly appreciative of the work of his 
colleagues. 

16 June 1952. 

This past week we have had the pleasure of a visit from 
[FMF Pac] Chaplain [M. H] Twitchell who has seen all the 
chaplains of the lit Marine Division. . . . 



143 



On 1 1 June Chaplain Willets received a slight wound on 
the chin. He was about to conduct a service at Company 
level when a round came in. After his wound was dressed 
he returned to conduct the service. 

5 July 1952. 

The chaplains' reports for the month of June indicate how 
completely devoted most of them are to their religious duties. 
A total of 1,298 Divine Services were held during June: 
392 Sunday, 495 daily, and 41 1 special services. 

The chaplains here celebrated July Fourth by having a 
softball game. Due to our "advanced years" we only played 
five innings but found that sufficient to discover a few unused 
muscles. . . . After the game we all went for a swim in 
the Imjin River. The Southern Baptists were intent on duck- 
ing the rest of us, on the grounds that our baptisms needed 
some amplification. The Rabbi must have suspected that 
we would all try to baptize him as he stayed on the river 
bank to heckle us. 

15 July 1952. 

Our Catholic chaplains have sent over $1,300 to the 
Chaplain's Aid Association. General Sclden gave his ap- 
proval to the collection, which was requested by Bishop 
Griffiths of the Military Ordinariate Office. 

On 29 July Slattery wrote further about the situ- 
ation in the 1st Combat Service Group. 

In order to pin down the picture ... I asked for TAD 
for 5 days and went by train from Seoul to Pusan. There I 
conferred with the Second Logistical Command which 
handles our supplies. ... By convoy I went to Masan. 
Convoy is required due to guerilla activities. The situation 
there is now well in hand. You may refer to my letter of 
5 May for Chaplain Stamper's estimate of the situation there. 
A reformation has been accomplished, however, by a very 
alert CO. 

The chaplain flew from Masan to Pohang for a 
conference with the Air Wing chaplains, finding it 
"a treat to sleep between sheets for a change." From 
there he flew to Taegu, to visit at 8th Army Head- 
quarters. 

We are not accountable to 8th Army, but since we take 
care of some Army units and they in turn service some of 
our Marines, I thought it advantageous to visit them. . . . 
Eighth Army is very pleased with Marine chaplains' co- 
operation and our high standards of personnel and "pro- 
duction." 

These letters often contained pleasant comment as 
well as businesslike assessment of the work of his chap- 
lains and the needs of the Division. For instance, 
earlier in the summer: 

The weather is fine, dry, and warm. The nights cool off 
to the point where a sleeping bag is a most welcome refuge. 
As we wake in the morning we are greeted by the sound of 
coo-coos in the valleys. At first we thought we were hearing 
ourselves crack up! Washington should import a few to 
go along with the atmosphere. 

His return to the Division CP after the journey 



just described was reported in a letter containing the 
following : 

The weather has turned precipitously, if I may play on 
words. Roads have become greasy, dangerous ways, topped 
by a few inches of what resembles melted chocolate ice 
cream. [He then reported accidents to Chaplains Jones and 
Mendonsa.] Both are with outfits on the line, but we have 
plugged the gaps by having a couple of the Padres triple in 
brass. They have already been doubling in brass. 

On 1-2 August the Division was visited by Dr. 
Stewart Robinson, Chairman of the General Commis- 
sion on Chaplains. After protests from Slattery his 
visit had been extended from the few hours which I 
Corps, in charge of arrangements, had first allotted. 
Accompanied by Chaplain Morse of 8th Army and his 
own son, a lieutenant in Combat Service Group, the 
visitor was 

given the plush treatment by General Selden, who ordered 
'copters to hop Dr. Robinson about. Included in the itin- 
erary were two visits to General Harrison at Base Camp 
and a tour to a front line company in Chaplain McCabe's 
sector. The details of the visit here were handled most ef- 
ficiently and courteously by Chaplain Prickett. 

(Maj. Gen. William K. Harrison, an Army officer 
with a long record of interest in the work of chap- 
lains, had succeeded Adm. C. Turner Joy on 22 May 
as senior delegate of the United Nations Command 
at the Panmunjom truce talks.) 

Chaplains' Chaplain 

Among the standard items of social small talk to 
which chaplains are routinely subjected is the tired 
old question, "Say, 'padre,' who do you take your 
troubles to?" No chaplain will, of course, give the 
answer that rises first to his mind, for such occasions 
are hardly appropriate for a serious rejoinder. The 
answer ought to be obvious to anyone who knows 
what a chaplain is; like all sincerely religious men, he 
takes his troubles to the Lord. Still, human mediation 
is as frequently helpful to the servant of God as it is to 
his lay brethren. The ideal supervisory chaplain is 
one who can be at the same time firm enough not to 
overlook the needs of the service and sympathetic 
enough to be of aid and comfort to his colleagues. 
He should be, in the traditional sense of the term, 
the "bishop" of his brethren. 

Three chaplains in the Division were called upon 
to face difficult personal situations during the summer 
of 1952. Early in May Chaplain B. N. Wolfe was 
informed that his father was in the terminal stages 
of a grave illness. He requested information via the 
Red Cross and asked for emergency leave. Slattery 
wrote to Chaplain Salisbury: 



— 144 — 




Commission Visitor. 

Dr. Steward Robinson (center, first row), Chairman of the General Commission of Chaplains meets with the Protestant 
chaplains of the 1st Marine Division in Korea. Standing (left to right) : Chaplains Oscar Weber, First Medical Bat- 
talion; Robert H. Willets, 1st Battalion, 7th Marine; Ernest A. Wolfram, Jr., 1st Engineer Battalion; Alexander W. 
Boyer, 1st Motor Transport Battalion; Alia W. Robertson, 1st Tank Battalion; Thomas A. Newman, Jr., 1st Service 
Battalion; and Carl W. Herrick, 2d Battalion. Sitting (left to right) Ward D. McCabe, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines; F. E. 
Morse, deputy Army chaplain (EUSAK) ; Dr. Robinson; A. D. Prickett, assistant chaplain of the division and John H. 
Muller, 1st Shore Party Battalion. 



Leave requests are extremely tight here. In the event 
that he is granted leave our G-l intends to request his 
detachment. We have orders for his detachment in July; 
his reporting date here was 20 December 1951. Will you 
be kind enough to alert the proper desk for such a con- 
tingency and perhaps send out a replacement for him 
quicker than anticipated? We will be able with a little 
juggling to cover the Protestant services he has been 
handling. 

Wolfe's leave was denied, but upon further assurance 
from Slattery that the situation in the Division could 
be adequately covered, Salisbury ordered him de- 
tached on 23 June. Wolfe left, as Slattery wrote, 
"deeply grateful for your consideration in sending or- 
ders for detachment earlier than July." 

On 5 August he wrote: "Perhaps you have heard 
that Chaplain Callahan's mother died on 26 July." 
In accordance with policies then in effect the chaplain 
was denied emergency leave. 



On Saturday, 2 August, the Catholic chaplains went to 
Callahan's battalion where we sang a Solemn Requiem Mass 
assisted by Pat Adams and Gus Mendonsa. The rest of us 
sang the Mass and were a little bit pleased with our memory 
of the music, as many of us have not been at a Solemn 
Requiem in some time and had neither notes nor organist 
to accompany. 

The results were neither lugubrious nor ludicrous and I 
am sure Chaplain Callahan's spirits were lifted consider- 
ably. Due to Dr. Robinson's tour our fellow chaplains were 
not able to attend. One consoling note was the turnout of 
enlisted men of the battalion. Protestant lads stood the 
outposts for the Catholic lads who came to kneel in the 
rain and mud, garbed in full battle dress of helmet and 
armored vest. 

A month later Slattery was writing to the Chap- 
lains Division, "Chaplain Weber's father died on 10 
September. He received the telegram notifying him 
of the death but no further details have arrived as 
yet." Unless the serviceman's presence was adjudged 



— 145 — 



positively necessary that he might attend to family 
matters, emergency leave was not normally granted 
in the case of the death of a parent. 

On this entire matter Slatery wrote on 17 October: 

Speaking of morale, we have a new directive from the 
Marine Corps Commandant, which is much more "humane," 
on emergency leave requests, and a new Chief of Staff who is 
not quite so adamant as was the former Chief of Staff. 

The proper balance beween a man's own assessment 
of his personal needs and the command's judgment 
concerning his usefulness to the military service is not 
one always easily arrived at. At this point chaplains 
often are able to be of service both to the command 
and to its members; and sometimes, as this account 
shows, a chaplain was himself involved in the 
dilemma. 

"Bunker Hill" 

Reduced for the most part to "trench warfare" this 
summer's fighting was only occasionally punctuated 
by violent combat. Such were the furious episodes 
which occurred in August over two hill outposts, 
dubbed by the Marines "Bunker Hill" and "Siberia." 
Directly involved in both were units of the 1st Ma- 



Prelude to Bunker Hill. 



Chaplain Oscar Weber holds communion services for marines 
before they join in the fight for Bunker Hill. 




rines. Writing soon afterwards, on 17 August, Slat- 
tery told the Chief: 

Two of your chaplains distinguished themselves by their 
devotion to duty. . . . Chaplains McCabe and Callahan 
stood by their men through the long nights. At one time 
McCabe was at an aid station which was surrounded. . . . 
Neither suffered any wounds, though both looked extremely 
weary when I went up to see them on Wednesday. 

And he went on: 

Chaplains Weber and Guillaume backed up their efforts 
by working at the front, although both their battalions had 
been in reserve. Tex Robertson followed his Tankers right 
into the thick of it too. 

At the medical companies an outstanding job was done 
by Chaplain Barlik, who shifted from the Operating Room 
to the Admission Ward, saw wounded off in the 'copters and 
at the same time managed to sandwich in his services with the 
Korean Marine Corps unit nearby. The Korean Marines, 
incidentally, expect the assignment of a Korean Catholic 
chaplain shortly, which will relieve us of the responsibility. 

Flying over the 3d Battalion, 1st Marines, com- 
mand post during the "Bunker Hill" holocaust was a 
green brocade banner depicting the Archangel Mi- 
chael, his feet resting on the vanquished hammer and 
sickle of Communism. Lt. Col. G. T. Armitage, bat- 
talion commander, deciding that his men needed to be 
reminded of the dependence of their cause on God, 
secured permission from Headquarters, Marine Corps, 
to fly the banner. Designed by Capt. J. B. Ord, a 
company commander, it was embroidered by Korean 
children in the Star of the Sea Roman Catholic or- 
phanage at Inchon. On 25 July the Roman Catholic 
personnel of the battalion were dedicated to the protec- 
tion of St. Michael, and each company furnished a 
burgee of the banner. Capt. H. J. O'Conner, a com- 
pany commander, commented: "Regardless of their 
creed, our men felt the banner to be a very personal in- 
centive." Flown for the first time at "Bunker Hill," 
the flags accompanied the battalion in subsequent ac- 
tions and were still flying when the guns at last grew 
still across Korea. When the original had become bat- 
tleworn beyond repair, it was duplicated by wives of 
Korean Marines and the tattered relic sent to Marine 
Corps Headquarters. 

"Siberia" 

"Siberia" was a hillcrest in the Panmunjom corri- 
dor where a terrible, indecisive 24-hour battle took 
place. During the darkness a United Nations outpost 
manned by ten Marines was overrun by a reinforced 
company of Chinese; two were killed and seven of 
the remaining eight wounded. An undersized platoon 
attempting a counterattack was quickly beaten back. 
With morning close air support was brought into play 



— 146 




International Chaplains' Conference. 

Chaplain Ward D. McCabe is host to visiting chaplains. Left to right Chaplain Roy H. McKenzie, Unit No. 16 Field 
Regiment, Royal New Zealand Artillery, 1st Commonwealth Division, Chaplain McCabe. and Chaplain Roy Liddell, 
1st Battalion of the King's Own Scottish Battalion. 



and a reinforced platoon charged the hill, but after 
an hour and a half ordered to withdraw, so devastat- 
ing was the opposition. 

Air strikes were made on "Siberia" all afternoon 
and at first dark, as a ripple of rockets hit the hill, 
the Marines moved out once more. By midnight the 
battle had become, as Marine Corps Combat Corre- 
spondent T. Sgt. Jim Coleman put it. a "hand-to- 
hand slugging match." Although driving the Chinese 
down the reverse slope the Marines were finally un- 
able to hold the hill and were ordered to withdraw. 
Throughout the fight Chaplains McCabe and Calla- 
han stayed with their Marines, helping the wounded 
and acting as stretcher bearers when not attending 
to their religious duties. 

Both chaplains were subsequently given the Letter 
of Commendation award. That of Chaplain Ward 



D. McCabe covered the period 28 April— 3 1 August 
1952. "During periods when the regiment was en- 
gaged in combat against the enemy," the citation read 
in part, "he worked long, tedious hours, with no con- 
cern for his personal safety, to aid and comfort the 
sick and wounded. His courage and initiative in 
helping to evacuate the wounded were an inspiration 
to all who observed him." Chaplain James T. Calla- 
han was cited for services from 22 March to 26 Sep- 
tember, the citation reading in part: 

During periods when the regiment was engaged in combat 
against the enemy, he devoted long, arduous hours, with 
complete disregard for his personal safety, providing aid and 
comfort to the sick and wounded. . . . His cheerfulness, 
sympathetic understanding of individual problems and his 
ever ready willingness to offer advice and comfort to all 
were outstanding. 



:,X,:.:.-j. O— 60- 



147 




Mass on the Western Front. 

Chaplain James T. Callahan holds mass for the 1st Marines 
immediately behind the frontlines. 



Combat Footnotes 

A realistic picture of what actually went on in 
Korea must sometimes be obtained from what appear 
as merely "footnotes to history." Incident upon inci- 
dent would be needed to fill in with meaningful detail 
what often appears in an historical account as only 
a bare outline. Many such were reported, often full 
of courage, sometimes of pathos and not seldom of 
humor also. Chaplain Slattery once wrote : 

One lad stopped me and asked if I would hear his con- 
fession, as his company was moving out. I squatted on the 
hillside and suddenly had a line of forty or more waiting 
to be "shriven." With all due respect to the seriousness of 
the sacrament and the occasion, I couldn't help chuckling 
when one lad knelt down and said, "Father, I haven't been 
to church in a long time; may I have another chance?" 

He added: "They are fine lads. I suggested to each 
one that a clean conscience is like a clean weapon, in- 
valuable in battle." 

On one occasion Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 
7th Marines was moving up. S. Sgt. E. A. Seneri, 
heavy machine gun section leader yelled to his men, 
"No matter what happens up here, I don't want any 
man leaving any weapon or part behind. When we 
move out, leave nothing!" That night a fierce battle 
took place; next morning, the action over, the sergeant 
took inventory and found a machine gun barrel and 
accessory parts missing. Shouted the sergeant, "No 
man leaves here until those parts are produced!" 
That afternoon Seneri sheepishly accepted the parts 



from Chaplain Prickett. Pfc. L. E. House, Jr., had 
been wounded and on being evacuated had refused to 
leave behind his spare machine gun parts. About to 
be sent to a hospital ship, he was still clutching them 
when the chaplain came along and promised to see 
that they were returned to the careful sergeant. 

Concerning Chaplain Samuel Sobel the Division 
Chaplain once wrote, "He sparkles as does the Star 
of David we have on the chapel here." (The Division 
chapel was embellished with a glistening white cross 
and six-pointed white star on its front wall.) 

Sam suggested that he would take a picture of the crowd 
leaving a Sunday Mass as "proof" of fine attendance at the 
"Synagogue." I agreed to line up some likely candidates 
and have two fine young Marine officers — O'Hara and 
O'Brien — who could pass for Cantors to flank the good 
Rabbi. 

During a bit of fierce fighting in October the Rev- 
erend Wynn Rhys of the British Commonwealth Divi- 
sion came over to offer Slattery the loan of some of 
his chaplains if the Marines became short-handed. 
As they stood talking the two chaplains witnessed an 
awesome scene. 

One of our Marine pilots was caught by antiaircraft fire. 
He was too low to bail out and fought to bring his crippled 
plane back over our lines. But he could not land safely 
and went in with a crash, the plane a blazing inferno. 
Wynn and I prayed from the distance for his soul. . . . 

Religious Ministry 

More important in their own eyes than all their 
other work was the chaplains' religious ministry, 
which under the circumstances presented its familiar 
aspects not only to the chaplains but to their military 
"parishioners" as well. Rarely, even in the most stable 
units, with chapel facilities somewhat approximating 
those back home, did Divine Service fail to seem dif- 
ferent from worshiping in the familiar, hallowed sur- 
roundings of one's own church or synagogue. Know- 
ing that, the chaplains helped to bridge the difference. 
They tried to make real to their congregations, large 
and small, in open-air or log-buttressed bunker or 
Quonset chapel, the Presence of God. As they knew 
or sometimes rediscovered, and as their Marines often 
learned for the first time, a man is never nearer home 
than when he prays. 

Statistics give at least a skeleton outline of the chap- 
lains' ministry. The May figures below were taken 
from a report made by the Division Chaplain to the 
conference of chaplains held in June, where they were 
listed individually after each chaplain's name. Slat- 
tery thought this would "help keep the boys on their 
toes." The September figures have been taken from 



148 — 




the semimonthly reports submitted by the Division 

Chaplain to the Division G-l. ^^^^^^M|Mg| 

September | .^»/-» 

May 1952 1952 ■ - 

Sunday services conducted 309 351 « ^fci« 

Attendance 1 5, 532 18, 505 <fe| 

Daily services conducted 493 607 

Attendance 9, 022 9,758 Wf £bm&± 

Special Services, etc. 1 358 540 

Attendance 9, 736 14, 466 

Visits to hospitals, aid stations. . . . 403 501 

Patients visited 3, 057 3, 528 

Letters written 840 807 

Counseling interviews 8, 401 5, 794 

Visits to Brig Not listed 9 

Prisoners interviewed 59 ** //^i » ^B 

1 Including Bible classes, rosary devotions, character guidance 
lectures, and other special or supplementary services. 

The chaplains of course had no control over weather, 
strategic moves, tactical situations, or other influenc- 
ing factors, but the fact that, as they held more serv- Anointing With Oil. 

ices, the men generally attended them in larger num- Chaplain August F. Mendonsa anoints a candidate for 
bers would seem to bear out Slattery's expressed hope ap ism W1 01 ' 

in May that, while they were already doing a good 

job, the chaplains could "step up production" some- . , , , , , __ ,,..,, 

. ned spread on the work of Navy chaplains in Korea, 

w bat. , . . _ ,,._, ,,, ., , . 

t-« ■ t «. i ■ ,„.,, , , „„ „ featuring A. r. ( Gus ) Mendonsa in a generous 
During June Chaplain Willets conducted 29 Sun- . ° . - . . ^ 4 , ■ , . 
, . . ,_ . ., , . . «- number of field photographs engaged in typical chap- 
day services and 57 daily services, for a total of 86, , ■ ... f ... , , , . 

,, ,. ^ „. -, „, , ,. , , . , . lain activities: hearing confessions and celebrating 

topping the list. The Roman Catholic chaplains had ,- . , , . . , "? 

J., ,,-r., ,„ , p Mass, typing letters (to parents or wives of wounded 

each conducted ID Sunday masses (3 on each of 5 w • 1 . , • r , , ■„ . . 

c ,,,.,.., , „ , Marines, to bereaved relatives of those killed in action 

Sundays) and a Mass daily, plus usually some other , , . . , , . 

. i . , . , . or to anyone else to whom it was a service to a Marine 

service, such as a rosary devotion or catechetical in- , . . ...... . , , 

to have a letter written), visiting in hospitals and en- 
struction. . . ,. ... , . . 

-.. r\ ^ i. Lrii- ii. . S a g ln g ln counseling in all sorts of situations, even 

During October the following chaplains each con- ° ° . , ° .- . 

j^, - n . . ,. , r distributing cakes and cookies sent over by a women s 

ducted over 50 services, as indicated : . , , , . . . _, 

church group in the United States. The text read: 

Sunday Daily Total Like anyone e i se m the United Nations Military Forces 

p h p nCke " 62 8 ° he finds that there are no set hours of work. On the battle- 

' ' field, especially, the call to duty is frequent and the hours 

18 long and arduous. At all times of the day and night, the 

•»■•••..«-, . , wounded and the dying cry out for the chaplain. And the 

rive others had conducted 40 or more services each c « c -.u u ^ j u • • . • » ■»■ 

*"*"•- »»»■"'«> to >-" men of all faiths who serve God by ministering to His peo- 

during the month, including Sunday and daily: W. pie are always there to heed the cry. 

Rowland, 45; J. H. Muller, 44; O. Weber, 43; and So, too, in the rear echelons and the base camps, the 

A. F. Mendonsa and E. A. Slattery, 40 each. chaplains are ready to serve the men. While their first duty 

The chaplains too were often in need of spiritual is t0 care for the men ' s spiritual welfare > there are many 

, . A . _, . times when they take a hand in material things, 

retreshment. A retreat (or as Slattery wrote, since TL ■ , -\ u- u- 

v «. v.* u'«""j «»v/n., num. jjjg ser viceman s family, his pay worries, his entertain- 

"Marines never retreat," a Recollection) for the Ro- ment and general welfare, all these are often the province 

man Catholics was held in August at the Columban of the chaplain. He must be the priest, the confessor, the 

Fathers' House in Seoul, the chaplains going in two counsellor, and the brother of those he serves. 

shifts so as to keep the Division covered for emer- Reminiscent of the Old Testament story of Moses 

gencies. The Protestants also planned a retreat at and the Exodus was the Ark that "went to war" in 

Seoul. Korea. When Chaplain Sobel was slated for the Di- 

The weekly Roman Catholic newspaper Our Sun- vision, he had the Ark constructed in Honolulu and 

day Visitor carried in its 5 October 1952 issue a digni- brought it out with him. An upright chest of Philip- 

— 149 — 



pine mahogany, its opened doors revealed superim- 
posed upon them hand-carved candelabra, gilded to 
symbolize the Golden Candlestick of the Jerusalem 
Temple and fitted with flame-shaped bulbs. Veiling 
the parchment scroll of the Torah there hung a hand- 
some curtain embroidered with a crown and a Star of 
David. The two Tables of the Law affixed at the top 
were surmounted in turn by a burning light symboliz- 
ing the Eternal Light which is the Word of the Lord. 
Used in Jewish services in various chapels, the Ark 
was so compact that the chaplain was able to carry it 
in its specially made canvas case to front line units as 
well. 

As summer turned into fall Sobel made plans for 
observing the High Holy Days, beginning with Rosh 
Hashanah (New Year) and ending with Yom Kippur 
(Day of Atonement). An accompanying photograph 
shows the chaplain with the shofar (ram's horn) 
raised to his lips, sounding the age-old call that brings 



Israel to the sanctuary of her God. Services were 
held not only in the Division chapel, but also in 
smaller units. (Wrote Slattery, "Sobel went on Fri- 
day to conduct services at the Shore Party Battalion, 
where Chaplain Muller had gathered about 30 Jew- 
ish personnel.") On occasion, as conditions allowed, 
the Jewish chaplain would fly to the 1st Marine Air- 
craft Wing to hold services there. 

This history cannot and indeed need not detail the 
activities of each individual chaplain; from the ma- 
terial available accounts have been selected which 
were either unusual or else typical enough to illustrate 
the work of all the chaplains. We should like to echo 
a word included in FMF Pac Chaplain M. H. Twitch- 
ell's quarterly report of 2 May 1952. 

The pointing out of certain outstanding work on the part 
of particular chaplains named in this report is not intended 
to reflect in any way on the quality of performance by the 
other chaplains. The . . . monthly statistical reports, and 



Jewish Services. 
Chaplain Samuel Sobel conducts Jewish services for 1st Division Marines. 




150- 




Mural Dedication. 

Maj. Gen. Edwin A. Pollock, Commanding General, 1st 
Marine Division, and Private Sedney S. Levy, the artist, 
stand by a mural dedicated in the Division Chapel on the 
177th anniversary of the founding of the U.S. Marine 
Corps. The mural depicts the work of the chaplains 
among marines. 



reports received from other sources, reveal that the chaplains 
are giving an outstanding performance of duty in their min- 
istry with the personnel they serve. 

And in one of his letters to Chaplain Salisbury, 
Slattery wrote : 

In reviewing some of my letters, I noted that I have not 
made mention of Chaplains Muller and Strumski. Both are 
working in rear area billets which are both demanding. 
They are two unsung heroes, in the sense that their work is 
not of the "headline" variety. 

Both chaplains were not only working faithfully with 
their own Marine charges, but were busy in helping 
the civilian populace, in leper colonies, orphanages, 
schools, and local churches. 

Chaplain Muller was attached to the first shore 
party, located in an area known as Ascom City. There 
he had the use of a handsome chapel built in 1945 by 
American troops on occupation duty in Korea fol- 
lowing World War II. An all Korean choir trained 
by M. Sgt. P. C. Payne and Pfc. Fred Bussa under the 
chaplain's guidance sang at numerous service func- 
tions and broadcast weekly in the Seoul-Inchon area 
from the Segaly Methodist Church in Bupyong. 

Muller wrote of preaching in a former Buddhist 
temple which, with its attendant buildings, had been 
previously turned into an orphanage caring for 350 



children, its main shrine now a place of Christian wor- 
ship. Wrote the chaplain: 

We have preached the unsearchable riches of Christ in 
mess halls, a maintenance shop, movie theaters, the open air, 
in classrooms, and in our lovely chapel, and in Korean 
schools, orphanages, and churches. We average seventeen 
services a week. 

Included among his ''converts to Christ" were Amer- 
ican servicemen, ROK soldiers and wounded veterans, 
and personnel from the Korean Service Corps — the 
civilian laborers attached to military units; and the 
chaplain added, probably remembering by contrast 
most civilian parishes at home, "The majority of them 
are men!" 

The Chaplain Section had an appropriate gift for 
the 177th Marine Corps Birthday celebrated, as it is 
annually, on 10 November. Two large murals for 
the Division CP chapel, painted by Pfc. Sid Levy, were 
dedicated in a service led by the Headquarters Bat- 
talion chaplains, with Maj. Gen. Edward A. Pollock, 
new Division commander, giving the address. 

The general commended the artist for having 
caught the "religious spirit of the fighting Marines 
who dedicate themselves daily to a cause of justice 
and honor." He continued: 

As we observe Marines worshiping in the field, we forcibly 
realize that in their hearts there is a fervent, undying faith 
which blood and death and the clamor of battle cannot sup- 
press. . . . The hundreds of thousands who have attended 
various services since the Brigade first came to the shores of 
Korea will be as lasting a contribution to the redemption of 
this country as the blood shed and the lives given. 

A handsome bulletin carried photographic repro- 
ductions of the murals under the legend "My house 
shall be called a house of prayer for all people." Each 
mural was composed of montage arrangements of 
small scenes of chaplains engaging in their combat 
ministry, dominated in the upper section by helmeted 
faces, in one mural two representing the Army and the 
Air Force, in the other, two representing the Navy and 
the Marine Corps. Included in the responsive read- 
ing were two intensely compelling verses: "Behold 
how good and pleasant it is for brethren to dwell to- 
gether in unity" and "Except the Lord build the 
house, they labor in vain who build it; except the 
Lord keep the city, the watchman waketh but in 
vain." 

From January to November inclusively the chap- 
lains conducted 3,662 Sunday services with 193,787 
attending and 5,513 daily services with 101,180 at- 
tending. Special services (Bible classes, etc.) totaled 
3,852, with 100,630 in attendance. They had held 



— 151 



56,857 counseling interviews, made 4,475 visits to the 
sick and wounded, and written 8,522 letters. 

Chinese Upsurge 

During October and November action at the front 
was stepped up; more frequent clashes were marked 
by extremely bitter fighting. On 9 October Chaplain 
Slattery wrote. 

As you have gathered from the news reports, we have 
had an extremely busy few days. Chaplains Jones and 
Barlik, at the medical companies, went sleepless a few nights 
due to patient load. 

And on 27 October: 

Once again we had a busy night on the front. The 
Chinese Communists seem to be celebrating their second 
anniversary of entrance into the Korean War by pushing 
hard against outposts of ours. 

The next day he reported on the action in a long 
letter to Chaplain Salisbury. 

The Marines have won another great battle. The papers 
are probably calling it the "Battle of the Hook." As usual 
your chaplains performed well, which is expected of them 
now. 

Chaplain Prickett spent the first night of the battle at 
a forward aid station. I went up to see him yesterday and 
he was pretty tired. . . . Chaplain Guillaume had spent 
the night at the battalion aid station, and Chaplain Pat 
Adams came up for last night. When Guillaume went to 
the forward aid station. Prickett and Adams took care of 
the evacuees at Battalion. I went to see Prickett again 
this morning. He was much refreshed and spent the day 
visiting his unit casualties who had not been already evacu- 
ated to the hospital ship. 

As usual the medical companies are rushed. Moore 
teamed up with Jones and Lane and they did a wonderful 
job at Charlie Med. Barlik and Herrick teamed up at 
Easy Med. 

Incidentally Barlik received some garbled publicity, a 
United Press report which states the chaplain has a medical 
degree. It was one of those wrong slants that eager jour- 
nalists get. Barlik has given unselfishly of his strength and 
the medicos really have words of high praise for his assistance 
in the OR [operating room]. I have seen him work there 
and he does have pretty good technique. I want to assure 
you, however, that he is not "practising medicine and 
surgery." 

Barlik was consequently awarded the Letter of 
Commendation, which cited among his other minis- 
tries his help to the surgeons: "Performing in the ca- 
pacity of an assistant at surgical operations, he con- 
tributed materially to the success of more than 75 
surgical cases." The award was for the period 30 
March-3 November 1952. 

Savage as it was on occasion, the fighting continued 
to be sporadic. In the intervals and in those units 
not directly engaged, life went on much as usual. On 



18 October Slattery wrote that 1st Aircraft Wing 
Chaplain Parker had flown up "to see how we were 
caring for two of his 'chopper' units. We gave him 
the $64 tour of the front lines, which he enjoyed 
tremendously." 

On 26 October Chaplains Weber, P. Adams, and 
Sobel held a Memorial Service for Marine and Navy 
personnel of the 1st Marines and attached units lost 
in combat from 26 -July to 12 October 1952. The 
cover of the service folder displayed a bronze plaque 
affixed to a stone building, with the shadow of a 
Marine in combat dress falling across the inscribed 
words : 

THAT THE BEAUTY OF 

HIS COUNTENANCE BE 

NOT HIDDEN FROM 

HIS OWN 

THAT HIS WOUNDS 

AND WOE WHEREIN 

HE WROTE HIS LOVE 

BE KNOWN TO 

ALL THE PEOPLE 

HE REDEEMED 

Chaplain T. A. Newman, Jr., a former Navy hos- 
pital corpsman and according to Slattery a man of 
"naturally sympathetic disposition" was able to render 
exceptional service in motivating Marines who had 
developed "nerves" to return to the lines. On 10 
November his battalion commander authorized him 
to go to one of the forward outposts, carrying a Marine 
Corps birthday cake. "Chaplain Newman said some 
prayers for the lads on the outpost, then all hands 
sang the Marine Corps Hymn and they all sat in a 
cave to feast." Slattery added : 

Incidentally, I have a standing agreement with all bat- 
talion commanders that chaplains will not go forward of 
the MLR [main line of resistance] to OP's [outposts] without 
specific authorization. "Real estate" forward of the MLR 
is under hot dispute too often for the Padres to tour without 
a special visa. 

Concerning this point Chaplain Mannion wrote in 
reply: 

I certainly agree with [your policy]. . . . The unnecessary 
exposure to danger may be commendable to a limited de- 
gree, but certainly our chaplains should not be foolhardy, 
exposing themselves to unnecessary danger and running the 
risk of cutting off their services to God and country. 

As November drew to a close, after appropriate 
Thanksgiving services everywhere throughout the Di- 
vision, the men's thoughts began turning toward 
Christmas and home. Ten boxes of gaily wrapped 
Christmas gifts arrived in the Division chaplain's office 
from the employees of the Kiplinger Organization in 
Washington, D.C. Writing to them on 3 December 



— 152 — 



Slattery said, "Even though it seems as though we are 
rushing the season a little, the packages have been 
distributed to the men on the line." 

Bronze Star Awards 

Four chaplains received the Bronze Star for serv- 
ices in the 1st Marine Division during the 8th Korean 
Campaign or for periods whose terminal dates fell 
within that time. Chaplain James C. Moore was 
awarded the Bronze Star for "meritorious achieve- 
ment . . . while serving with a Marine infantry bat- 
talion in Korea from 12 February to 5 July 1952." 
After citing his initiative, courage, and industrious- 
ness in providing a ministry to his men, Moore's cita- 
tion continues: "He was consistently present in the 
front line trenches when friendly patrols and raids re- 
turned from making contact with the enemy." 

Chaplain Noah L. McDowell was cited for coura- 
geous action on 13 September 1952. The Fire Direc- 
tion Center, Battery C, 159th Field Artillery Battalion 
received an intense concentrated shelling by hostile 
fire, one shell scoring a direct hit on a squad tent, kill- 
ing four men and wounding five others. Chaplain 
McDowell, who was with the 4th Battalion, 11th Ma- 
rines, when word was received of the situation in the 
Army unit, immediately made his way there. His 
citation continues the story : 

Entering a gun section tent where a direct hit had killed 
or wounded the occupants, he bravely remained with the men 
in the face of grave danger to render spiritual comfort and 
to administer first aid. After helping to move the wounded 
to nearby sheltered bunkers for further medical treatment, 
Lieutenant McDowell remained with them until they were 
evacuated. 

Chaplain Robert H. Willets, who received the Pur- 
ple Heart after being wounded on 12 June, was also 
awarded the Bronze Star for his service as regimental 
chaplain, 7th Marines, covering the period 2 May-20 
September 1952. 

Although frequently exposed to enemy mortar, artillery 
and small arms fire and wounded in action on one occasion, 
he persevered in his efforts to aid and comfort the men of 
the regiment, constantly leaving sheltered positions and mov- 
ing through interdicted zones to minister to the spiritual 
needs of the stricken men. By his marked coolness under 
fire, strength of faith and unswerving devotion to duty, Lieu- 
tenant Willets served to inspire and encourage all who ob- 
served him. . . . 

The fourth was Chaplain Lionel A. Guillaume 
whose Bronze Star award for the period 29 April-8 
November 1952 cited his untiring labors in the face of 
enemy fire. 

Despite extremely adverse conditions, he constantly moved 
among the wounded Marines with words of encouragcnn nt, 



attempting to make the casualties as comfortable as possible 
and, in many instances, administering first aid to the stricken 
men. 

Letter of Commendation Award 

Nine chaplains serving in the 1st Marine Division 
received the Letter of Commendation for duty during 
the 8th Korean Campaign or for periods whose ter- 
minal dates fell within that time. Those of Chaplains 
McCabe, Callahan, and Barlik have been noted. 

Chaplain Alan R. Gibbons was cited for service 
from 15 October 1951 to 7 May 1952, almost all of it 
within the 7th Campaign. His citation notes that 
"his courageous and selfless actions were directly in- 
strumental in saving the lives of several wounded Ma- 
rines." Chaplain Henry C. Duncan's award covered 
the period 18 January-29 May 1952, noting that 
"working under hazardous conditions, he was con- 
stantly at hand to administer spiritual guidance and 
assistance to the men. . . ." 

Chaplain Jonathan C. Brown, Jr., was cited for 
excellent service from 30 May to 4 November 1952; 
Chaplain Alia W. Robertson for service with the Tank 
Battalion from 2 March to 7 November 1952; and 
Chaplain Oscar Weber, for the period 2 August-30 
November 1952, the latter part as regimental chaplain, 
1st Marines. All three were commended for their 
devotion and courage in providing a religious minis- 
try to men in combat, earning by their attitude the 
respect and gratitude of the men they served. 

The ninth chaplain to receive the Letter of Com- 
mendation was Ernest A. Wolfram, Jr., for service in 
the 1st Engineer Battalion from 15 January-1 Septem- 
ber 1952. His citation read in part: 

Lieutenant Wolfram conducted services for all units of 
the battalion and planned services to meet the religious needs 
of all faiths. With no concern for his personal safety, he 
went to companies in direct support of front line units to 
hold church services, although often subjected to enemy 
sniper, mortar and artillery fire. On one occasion, while 
visiting members of the battalion working on a road within 
close proximity to the enemy, he was pinned down an hour 
by enemy mortar fire. . . . His conduct throughout was in 
keeping with the highest traditions of the United States 
Naval Service. 

Chaplain Wolfram died on 30 July 1955, while serv- 
ing in the cruiser MANCHESTER. 

Air Wing Chaplain Parker 

Joseph F. Parker had reported on 18 April 1952 as 
Wing Chaplain. Something of his activities at the 
outset of the 8th Korean Campaign can be described 
by means of excerpts from the Historical Diary sub- 
mitted by him for inclusion in the Wing's Historical 



153 — 




Wing chapel with newly constructed front. 



All Hands Evolution. 

Even the generals turned out when Chaplain Parker called for 
volunteers to help paint the newly constructed chapel of 
the air wing. Pictured here wielding paintbrushes are Brig. 
Gen. Clayton C. Jerome and Brig. Gen. Frank H. Lamson- 
Scribner, commanding general and deputy commander 
respectively. 



Chapel Painting. 

Seabee Lawrence Schoenrock puts the finishing touches on a 
religious painting for the MAG 33 new chapel as Chaplain 
Gerard J. Clark looks on. 



Korean Painter. 

Jung Na Vi is shown with his painting of Christ executed for 
the MAW Chapel. The artist was an art professor at the 
University of Seoul. 





■ 



— 154 — 



Report, which in turn became part of the official rec- 
ords of the Marine Corps' participation in the Korean 
War. (The selected entries are here paraphrased.) 

I May. Distributed clothing. Wrote to theological 
schools stateside asking for Greek New Testaments for semi- 
nary professor in Pusan. 

4 May. 0900, Communion at MAG 33 in absence of 
Chaplain Seymour, on leave in Japan. Communion at 1015 
in Wing Chapel. Drove to MGCIS-3 for Communion at 
1300. 1500, another service and Communion at MAG 33. 
Brief devotional, MAG 33, 1800. Preached to Korean 
Presbyterians at Do Koo through interpreter at a night 
service. 

8 May. Visited Orphanage, taking scrap building mate- 
rials and clothing. 

I I May. Mothers Day. Twenty children from orphan- 
age sang at 1015 service in Wing Chapel; large congregation. 

Children ate with the men in the mess hall. 1300 service 
at MGCIS-3 and 1800 service at MAG 33. 

13 May. Received overstocked dry cereals and powdered 
milk from station and divided it in equal parts for Catholic 
Orphanage, Pohang City Orphanage, and Marine 
Orphanage. 

19 May. Two loads of scrap lumber with no salvageable 
value to the Armed Forces given to Chung Nim Dong 
Church. 

28 May. Attended dedication of Chung Nim Dong 
Church. Donated 600,000 won from Protestant Chapel 
Fund. Gave the sermon and conveyed best wishes from the 
Staff. 

30 May. Spent morning with aid of interpreter examin- 
ing account books of the U.S. Marine Orphanage. Books 
in good order. 

Other entries in the same Historical Diary indicate 
that the chaplain was busy with the more or less rou- 
tine duties of his office. In the absence of the Amer- 
ican Red Cross Field Director he acted in cases 
requiring Red Cross assistance. Meanwhile he was 
holding choir rehearsals, consulting with men who 
came to him for help, visiting Sick bay and brig, secur- 
ing and distributing supplies to his Wing chaplains, 
attending Staff meetings, and in other ways supervis- 
ing the overall moral and religious ministry of the 
MAW. 

Improvements on the new Wing Chapel continued. 
On 6 May a new altar was installed, behind which 
were painted three murals by L. F. Schoenrock, a 
Seabee BU2 stationed with the Marine Aircraft Wing, 
who gave his spare time to the project. On Sunday, 
18 May, some 200 officers and men gathered at 1300 
and within 2 hours the exterior had been painted. 
Among those wielding paint brushes were Brig. Gen. 
C. C. Jerome, Commanding General of the Wing, and 
his deputy, Brig. Gen. F. H. Lamson-Scribner. "The 
band furnished music, hot dogs and cokes were served 
and all hands had a good time." Later in the month 




Choir Robes. 

Here is shown the choir of the 1st Air Wing dressed in their 
new choir gowns made of parachutes. 



brass candelabra were secured from the Army Chap- 
lains Warehouse, and 20 small trees were secured and 
planted around the chapel. 

Deciding that the new chapel warranted a properly 
vested choir, the chaplain went to the parachute pack- 
ers of the Air Wing, who dug up several parachutes 
which could not be salvaged. Half of the nylon ma- 
terial was dyed black at a native dyeing establishment, 
the rest left white; a local Korean tailor turned the 
'chutes into choir robes. Marine personnel wore the 
black robes over their green dungarees; the white robes 
were worn by Korean girls, employed on the base, 
who participated in the chapel services. 

Parker wrote later, "We are proud of our chapels. 
The one at the Wing is being constantly improved 
and is now the best in Korea, though I may be a little 
prejudiced." Both Marine Aircraft Group 12 and 
Marine Aircraft Group 33 were enlarging and beauti- 
fying their chapels and a new one was built at 
MGCIS-3, although it had no chaplain aboard. "We 
have developed a friendly competitive spirit as to who 
is going to have the best chapel." 

On 5 May the Wing was visited by Chaplain H. E. 
Austin, formerly attached to 1st Marine Division, then 
assigned to Air, FMF Pac, Marine Corps Air Station, 
El Toro, Calif. Austin had been delegated to speak 
for the Chaplains Service Corps, a voluntary group 
in Los Angeles, offering welfare items and religious 
equipment for the use of chaplains. 

Parker issued regular memorandums to the Win« 
chaplains. That of 7 May, for instance, requested an 
inventory by each chaplain of the religious supplies 
and recreational gear in his possession, together with 
a reminder on accountability procedures where ap- 
propriate. Other items concerned chapel funds, ex- 



— 155 — 



pendable altar supplies and monthly reports. The 
chaplains were advised of the Wing Chaplain's 
planned itinerary for the forthcoming month. 

The Memorandum of 13 June reminded the chap- 
lains that according to the 1949 Geneva Convention 
their ID cards should be stamped with a red cross; 
they were referred to Bureau of Naval Personnel letter 
31-52, dated 29 February 1952. There were two 
other reminders: that chaplains' records are retained 
in a Marine unit's Medical Office and that the Chap- 
lains Division expects to receive direct from each 
chaplain concerned a complete set of any change of 
duty orders, with all endorsements. 

Chaplains Aboard 

From Chaplain Parker's roster submitted on 8 July 
the-following distribution of chaplains in the 1st MAW 
appears : 



Wing J. F. Parker CDR 

Wing E. C. Mulligan LCDR 

MAG 33 H. A. Seymour LCDR 

MAG 33 E. M. Lynch LCDR 

MAG 12 E. R. Lineberger, Jr . . LTJG 

MAG 12 P.J. LaDuca LTJG 

MWSS-1 W. B. Conn LT 

(Itami) 

1st 90 AAA C.R.Harrison LTJG 



BAP (S) 

RC 

METH 

RC 

LUTH 

RC 

METH 

DISC 



Welcome and Farewell. 



Orphans and Christians from a Methodist Church hold a 
dinner for Chaplain Edwin R. Weidler who was returning 
to the United States, and for Chaplain Ernest R. Line- 
berger, Jr., who is Weidler's relief. 




Lynch had reported on 7 April relieving Chaplain 
Sullivan. Lineberger reported on 15 May relieving 
Chaplain Weidler. Chaplain Conn reported on 22 
May and was assigned to Itami relieving J. C. Brown, 
who was transferred to the 1st Marine Division after 
2 months duty in the Wing. Mulligan arrived on 
14 June, replacing Chaplain Horvath. Only Seymour 
had been with the Wing longer than 8 months. 
Parker wrote to the Chief: "The average tour of 
duty is seven (7) months for aviators and ten (10) 
months for line and staff. I understand the present 
policy of the Bureau is to keep chaplains in Korea 
for the same length of time as other officers." Parker 
asked for a Roman Catholic when Harrison should be 
relieved; Conn could then be assigned to the AAA 
Battalion and the Catholic assigned at Itami, where 
the Air Force already had a Protestant. Chaplain 
Mannion replied for the Chief of Chaplains concern- 
ing the matter of chaplain rotation : 

It is our intention to make the tour of duty with 1st 
Marine Air Wing in Korea 12 months; however, if other offi- 
cers remain there only 10 months we feel that we should fall 
in line. Let us put it this way: The duty will be 12 months 
but we will attempt to relieve chaplains at the end of 10 
months. 

Chaplain Lynch was hospitalized in Naval Hospital, 
Yokosuka, in June. He returned to duty after a 
month but, not recovering satisfactorily, was detached 
to the States. In October Chaplain Conn also became 
seriously ill and was transferred stateside. The roster 
of 1 October showed the following: 

Wing J. F. Parker CDR 

Wing E. C. Mulligan LCDR 

MAG 33 E. R. Lineberger, Jr . LTJG 

MAG 33 G. J. Clark LT 

MAG 12 J. H. Lampe LCDR 



BAP (S) 
RC 

LUTH 
RC 

PRESBY 
(USA) 
RC 
METH 



MAG 12 P J. La Duca LTJG 

MWSS-1 J.W.Paul LCDR 

(Itami) 

Lampe had reported on 7 July, Clark on 10 September 
and Paul on 1 1 September. Chaplain H. F. Fenster- 
macher reported on 18 October and was assigned to 
the AAA Battalion at Pusan. 

The 1st Marine Aircraft Wing was thus better sup- 
plied with chaplains than at any previous time. Its 
complement was actually six, but having to cover the 
AAA Battalion (which had no chaplain allowance) 
and the Service Squadron at Itami (which ordinarily 
might have been expected to be with the Wing head- 
quarters) raised the requirements. 

Concerning Itami Parker wrote on 28 October: 
MWSS-1 has an average strength of 600 officers and 
enlisted men permanently attached and in addition is the 



— 156 



unit through which all replacement and rotation personnel 
are processed. Itami Air Force Base is also the facility used 
as a meritorious rest and recreation center for personnel of 
the First Marine Aircraft Wing. Approximately 65 officers 
and 385 enlisted men from units in Korea are temporarily 
attached at all times in addition to the regular complement. 
In view of these factors it is highly desirable that proper 
religious guidance be available. The situation is aggravated 
by problems involving relationships with Japanese women. 

Since the Air Force chaplain aboard was also a Prot- 
estant, Roman Catholic ministrations continued to be 
furnished by American missionary priests. 

Relief Work 

With the Wing headquarters now located near Po- 
hang, Chaplain Parker took an active hand in the 
affairs of the Marine-supported orphanage begun 
there with the help of Chaplain Cleaves. Cleaves had 
joined with American Presbyterian missionary William 
B. Lyon and the Pohang Presbyterian ministers to ini- 
tiate the project. With money given by Air Wing 
Marines some land and a few buildings were pur- 
chased, a board of directors organized, and the insti- 
tution incorporated in the name of the Presbyterian 
holding body as the Marine Memorial Orphanage. 
After a few months 50 children were being cared for. 

The directors were soon faced with a choice be- 
tween seemingly endless expansion on a day-to-day 
basis or an attempt to make the home self-sustaining 



while caring for fewer children. The solution was 
a compromise: limited expansion little by little, and 
at the same time the purchase of productive rice land. 
Less than a year after its start, the orphanage owned 
over 2,000 pyong (a plot 6 feet square) of rice land. 
On one occasion, as he presented the latest Marine 
contribution — four and a half million won ($750) — 
Chaplain Parker commented, "Much of the food on 
which orphans will live this winter will be harvested 
by the older children off their own paddies. By this 
time next year, if donations do not fall off, there will 
be enough rice to feed them all year and perhaps 
some left over to market." 

MAG 12 moved to Pyongtaek, on the west coast, 
some 250 miles from the Wing headquarters and 
MAG 33. There Chaplain E. R. Weidler was instru- 
mental in establishing a new orphanage. In his reply 
to the Corps historian's questionnaire of March 1954 
he noted that before the home was set up, children 
had been living in caves and trenches. He added 
that Commander Lederer had contributed $550 from 
what he had received for the story he had written 
about the work of MAG 12 with Korean orphans. 

Three chaplains of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing 
were cited during the period under review, one re- 
ceiving the Bronze Star and two, Letters of Commen- 
dation. Chaplain Edward M. Lynch was awarded 
the Bronze Star for service from 9 April to 15 August 



Marine Memorial Orphanage. 
Gifts of clothing, shoes, and dishes are left by the wing chaplain for the orphans. 




157 




Visit to Buddhist Temple. 

Chaplain Stephen G. Horvath talks to a Buddhist priest at a Korean temple a few miles from a forward airbase of the 

1st MAW. 



1952; his citation mentions his faithfulness in minis- 
tering to the spiritual needs of his men and cites his 
outstanding work with the orphanages in the Pohang 
vicinity. "A diligent and tireless worker, he traveled 
regularly to hold services and consultations with men 
stationed at a remote camp." 

Chaplain Stephen G. Horvath's Letter of Com- 
mendation, covering the period 19 July 1951 to 18 
June 1952, noted that "his excellent cooperation with 
chaplains of other faiths was such as to gain him re- 
spect and popularity." The chaplain was commended 
also for work with orphanages at Pusan, Kangnung, 
and Pohang; he had raised over a thousand dollars 
for the Roman Catholic orphanage in the latter place. 

The Letter of Commendation awarded Chaplain 
Edward R. Weidler for service from 22 August 1951 
to 19 May 1952 singled out for special praise his work 
with Korean civilians, including North Koreans "who 



were enduring the hardships of a severe winter with 
inadequate means of subsistence." The citation 
concluded : 

Lieutenant Weidler's activities throughout were completely 
dedicated to the humanitarian principles embodied in the 
precepts of Christianity and in the Charter of the United 
Nations and were in keeping with the highest traditions of 
the United States Naval Service. 

Chaplain Parker was cited by the Republic of Ko- 
rea. This citation in part reads, 

Despite the tremendous hardships Chaplain Parker de- 
voted much of his time to organizing specific aid projects 
and allocating the vitally needed relief goods for those "lost 
children." The sympathetic concern exhibited through the 
establishment of an orphanage at Pohang on May 10, 1952, 
for alleviating the suffering orphans confronted with the 
threat of disease, starvation, and exposure has made sub- 
stantial contribution to our relief works and has materially 
raised the standards of care in the institution. 



— 158 — 



USS HAVEN 

In addition to these individual awards, the hospital 
ship HAVEN, which has figured in our account on 
several occasions, received the Presidential Unit Cita- 
tion of the Republic of Korea for distinguished serv- 
ice from 18 October 1950 to 25 June 1952. Chap- 
lains serving in the HAVEN during those dates were 
the following: 

Paul K. Potter METH September 1950-Decembcr 

1951 
John J. Reardon . RC September 1950-September 

1951 
Edwin R. Howard. . CONG December 1951-October 

1952 
Francis J. Klass . .. . RC October 1951-December 

1952 

Perspective on Korea 

At the invitation of the Chiefs of Chaplains of the 
Army, Navy, and Air Force the Reverend Dr. Joseph 
R. Sizoo, professor of religion, George Washington 
University, and formerly minister of St. Nicholas Col- 
legiate Church, New York and dean of the New 
Brunswick Theological Seminary, made a month's 
visit to Japan and Korea in October 1952. He held 
conferences with line and staff officers and with chap- 
lains, met the troops and talked with them and in 
other ways attempted to study American involvement 
in the Far East that he might help the churches in- 
terpret it back home. 

The following lengthy quotations are from a digest 
of the address that he gave to denominational repre- 
sentatives at the General Commission on Chaplains 
"Chaplains' Memorial Building" in Washington soon 
after his return. 

What I saw and heard has deeply moved me. I'm not 
here as a lecturer reciting a travelogue. I'm here as a min- 
ister to read you a footnote to the "Acts of the Apostles." 

There is much we shall have to learn and unlearn. I 
learned that this is no "phony war." I had to unlearn that 
this is just a regrettable, unfortunate minor holding opera- 
tion which we had to go through with until, sooner or later, 
when they got around to it, the political leaders of the world 
would declare peace on earth, good will toward men. 

That's not true. It's war! I was in an area where there 
were 1,200 casualties in 1 day. I talked to a general who 
had just come down from a hilltop where they had counted 
2,000 enemy dead. I've been on the side of a ridge when a 
helicopter came down out of nowhere and men strapped the 
wounded in baskets on both sides and flew them back to the 
hospital. I've been in a hospital where there were 1,500 of 
our wounded men. When you have 125,000 casualties in 
our ranks and over a million casualties in the enemy's, you 
can hardly speak of a minor holding operation 



You get a feeling that our men are embittered. After all, 
so much of what is happening should not have happened, 
could have been otherwise. The truce talks have left them 
bitter. We kept our word and didn't build up our army ex- 
cept to provide replacements for those who returned. The 
enemy built up an army of one million who've had military 
training for a whole year. What's more, these million men 
have had a year to be indoctrinated. The old army was 
often glad of the chance to surrender. That's no longer 
true. There were on one occasion, when I was there, some- 
thing like 1,800 casualties of the enemy — and we took only 
8 prisoners. 

Although this is a war that is grim and cruel and costly, 
our army is an army of peace, and our soldiers are men of 
compassion. 

To understand this you really have to see Korea: The 
most tormented country you can possibly imagine. Twenty- 
two million people go to bed hungry every night. Since 
I've been back, sometimes I think of it and I can't swal- 
low. . . . General Van Fleet told me the day that I saw him 
that we were feeding that day 2 million Koreans to keep 
them alive. There are three scourges in Korea today: 
tuberculosis and cholera and smallpox. Our doctors and 
medical corps, when they are through with their chores, will 
go out to some nearby village and they'll vaccinate 700. 
They'll build little hospitals. 

I've seen what the enemy did to Korea. But our men are 
not plunderers. Our men are helpers. They are not de- 
stroyers, they really are saviors. 

I preached in a chapel one Sunday morning with a hand- 
ful of men. The chaplain told me they were accustomed to 
take up a voluntary collection and send it to some Korean 
enterprise. For many months at the end of a month they had 
sent a check for $500. Just a handful of men! I was with a 
certain Corps where they took up a collection of $84,000 
for the hospitalization of Korean refugee children. 

You can't explain our army and you can't explain its ex- 
pression of compassion without talking about the chaplain. 
After all, because he is what he is, that army is what it is. 
I've met with chaplains in groups. I've walked with them, 
slept with them, eaten with them, prayed with them; and 
I've come to know them as men. They are a very superior 
corps. 

One thing which impressed me was the way the Protestant 
and Catholic and Jewish chaplains worked together, with a 
great sense of comradeship of the Spirit. 

Now I want to make a few observations about these 
chaplains: 

1. They preach what is central in our religion and they 
stick to it. They do not indulge in trivialities. They do 
not take the thing that is in the center and push it beyond 
the circumference or take the thing that lies on the circum- 
ference and put it in the center. 

2. These chaplains practice what they preach. They live 
it. They don't give men an argument; they give them the 
example of a Christ-filled life. I have never . . . seen 
anywhere a more completely dedicated group of men. 

3. These chaplains have quickened the sense of compas- 
sion. They keep alive in our troops a concern for the people 
in whose land they are fighting. Wherever you go in Korea, 



— 159 



if you see a little hospital or clinic or asylum, you just know 
there's a chaplain behind it. 

4. These chaplains are true missionaries of the Christian 
faith. . . . The great missionary enterprise in East Asia is 
being carried out by our chaplains, and I hope that the mis- 
sionary world will capture something of their imagination. 

5. These chaplains are going to be the leaders of the 
church of tomorrow. Some day the soldiers are coming 
back with their frustrations and bewilderment and embitter- 
mint, and they are going to ask some uncomfortable ques- 
tions. They will say to us, "Brother, where were you when 
we were in Korea?" But when the chaplain stands there 
with them, they will believe him and follow him." 

Stalemate 

The Department of Defense would later designate 
30 November 1952 as the end of the 8th Korean 
Campaign. The date itself meant next to nothing. 
The front lines remained substantially where they had 
been at the beginning of the campaign. The peace 
talks continued, but an impasse seemed to have been 
reached on the issue of involuntary repatriation of 
prisoners of war. The end for which the United 
Nations had gone to Korea — to counter Communist 
aggression and to bring peace as quickly and perma- 
nently as possible to that devastated land — remained 
after twenty-nine months unaltered but unaccom- 
plished. Men continued their monotonous vigils in 
outposts and bunkers, and occasional outbursts of vio- 
lence added to the already long roster of the wounded 



and dead. 1 ' And now the raw winds began to sweep 
down from the North, bringing the first snows of 
winter. Na\y chaplains, ministers of the peace of 
God, prepared themselves and their fellow-country- 
men to celebrate a third Korean Christmas. 

The Corps 

Thus far in the Korean War another splendid 
chapter had been written in the annals of the Navy 
Chaplain Corps. By 1952 some 800 regular and re- 
serve chaplains were on active duty, approximately 1 30 
of these assigned duty at Marine stations and with 
Fleet Marine Force units. From 30 to 35 chaplains 
were on duty with Marines in Korea, and others serv- 
ing in ships or stations in the Far East area. Though 
new conditions frequently demanded unusual initia- 
tive and flexibility in the performance of duty, the 
mission of the Corps remained the same : to protect, 
encourage, and train personnel of the naval establish- 
ment in the realization and development of mora! and 
spiritual values consistent with the religious beliefs 
of the individual concerned. 

Unfortunately the number of chaplains available 
was not sufficient to enable the Bureau of Naval Per- 
sonnel to fill all billets. 



"The Chaplain, vol. 10. No. 3 (June 1953) 



"Total United States casualties through 24 October 1952 
were 123,395, of which the Navy had suffered 1,679, the 
Marine Corps 23,193. There had been 21,471 deaths; 
91,260 personnel had been wounded: and there were 12,868 
missing. The Marines alone had suffered 20,218 wounded 
and 2,928 dead [Britannica Book of the Year, 1953; article, 
"Korean War"). 



— 160- 



CHAPTER NINE 

THIRD KOREAN WINTER 

1 December 1952-30 April 1953 



Once again winter descended upon Korea and with 
it an accompanying decline in military activity. For 
over a year the conflict had been in a state of stale- 
mate. During this period both sides had so reinforced 
their positions that they could be captured only at 
great cost to the attacker. 

On 5 December President-elect Dwight D. Eisen- 
hower left to visit the forces in Korea. A number 
of other visitors were to pay a call upon the military 
forces before the New Year. 

The truce talks had been indefinitely suspended in 
October and many men looked quizzically at the beam 
of the searchlight at night and the balloons at day 
which marked the location of Panmunjom, the site 
of the negotiations. They were wondering "when 
will it all end?" 

Naval action was confined to minesweeping, block- 
ade escort duty, carrier strikes, surface and aerial pa- 
trols in the Yellow Sea, the Sea of Japan, the Korean 
straits and the coastal waters of Formosa. As early 
as October the "Cherokee" plan was developed, which 
was defined as a plan "to destroy enemy's logistics at 
the battle line." l A number of sorties just behind 
enemy lines were made by the planes of KE ARSARGE, 
PRINCETON, and ESSEX. These were referred to 
by pilots as hot strikes because of the amount of flak 
which was encountered on these missions. 

November 18 marked the first encounter with Rus- 
sian MIGs. The three American pilots who partici- 
pated in this engagement were interviewed by Eisen- 
hower during his December visit. 

January saw a few meetings between liaison officers 
at Panmunjom. February marked an upsurge in the 
Cherokee strikes. The following month, March, was 
the one well remembered by Marine chaplains. On 
the 5th Stalin died ; the month also saw riots by die- 
hard Communists, this time on Yongcho and Koje 
Islands, but it was the activity on the front held by 



Cagle and Manson, op. cit., p. 462. 



the 1st Division which the Marines remembered best. 
On the 26th a sector of the I Corps was under attack 
and lost ground. This attack included the battles of 
HOOK, VEGAS, RENO, and CARSON. By launch- 
ing a strong counterattack the Marines in this sector 
were able to regain their positions. 

April brought a more hopeful outlook at Panmun- 
jom. On the 6th talks began which led to an agree- 
ment on the 11th to what was called "Operation 
Little Switch." This operation consisted of the ex- 
change of prisoners which occurred on the 20th when 
6,670 Communist personnel and 684 UN prisoners 
were exchanged. Of the latter 149 were U.S. person- 
nel. Finally, after a suspension of 199 days, the ar- 
mistice negotiations were resumed. 

1st Marine Division 

Chaplain Lonnie W. Meachum reported as the Di- 
vision Chaplain of the 1st Marine Division on 10 
December. Chaplain Slattery wrote to the Chief of 
Chaplains on the 17th indicating that a painting of 
Christ is to be presented to General Pollock for his 
promotion of chaplains' activities. In this same letter 
he mentions that Billy Graham is expected to preach 
at a pre-Christmas Service on Monday the 22d, and 
that Cardinal Spellman is to celebrate Mass on Christ- 
mas. Chaplain Meachum's reaction to his new duty 
assignment is revealed in his letter of the 30th to the 
Chief of Chaplains in which he says in part, 

This has been a madhouse since the day I arrived. Chap- 
lain Slattery said that the pace is normal procedure. 

The office is like 42d and Broadway with "visiting fire- 
men" from UN outfits, our own chaplains, and VIPs from 
the States. It seems that everyone coming to Korea wants 
to visit the Marines. 

We had Billy Graham on 23 December. About 1,000 Ma- 
rines gathered to hear him. Approximately 200 stood when 
he challenged them to rededicate and consecrate their lives 
to Christ. At first the General was not going to stay for his 
sermon, but upon meeting him he (the General) was 
charmed with Graham's personality. General Pollock was 



— 161 





Christmas Visitor. 
Billy Graham chats with Maj. Gen. 
Edwin A. Pollock, commanding 
general of the 1st Marine Division 
during Graham's visit to Korea 
during the Christmas season, 1952. 




New Chapel. 
A new chapel is erected near Wosan- 
ri by the 1st Engineer Battalion to 
which Chaplain Karl H. Ernest is 
assigned. The chapel was dedi- 
cated 4 January 1953 with General 
Pollock and Chaplain Meachum 
participating in the service. 



Mural. 
This painting is the work of artist, 
Sgt. Russell Vickers, and was given 
to the 1st Engineer Battalion 
Chapel where it was placed over 
the altar. 



Chaplains. 

General Pollock has his picture taken with the chaplains of 
his division. The photograph was taken 19 December 
1952 at Yongji-ri. 



The Predecessor. 

Here is pictured the chapel formerly used by the 1st Engi- 
neering Battalion. Note the stacks which indicate the 
presence of an underground heating system fashioned after 
the Koreans. 




— 162 — 




Stateside Christmas Gifts. 

Children of St. Paul Orphanage receive Christmas gifts sent from the States and delivered by the 2d Battalion. 1st Marines. 
Their chaplain, Gerald E. Kuhn, is seen on the right holding one of the orphans. 




^^ 



Chaplains' Conference. 

The chaplains gather for a conference at the 1st Marine Division Command Post. In the front row (from left to right) 
are Chaplains A. W. Boyer; E. A. Wolfram, Jr.; Oscar Weber; R. F. Barlik ; J. T. Callahan; (in the second row: ) N. L 
McDowell; J. C. Brown, Jr.; B. N. Wolfe; R. Siegel ; C. E. Elliott, Jr.; P. Adams; (in the third row; ) A. F. Mendonsa; 
W. P. Lane; A. D. Prickett; E. A. Slattery; W. D. McCabe; R. H. Willets; V. J. Lustig: B. J. Nowakowski : (last row) 
E. S. Jones; F. J. Forney; G. W. Herrick : A. W. Robertson; L A. Guillaume; C. T. Duggan; H C. Bowling, Jr.: and 
J. H. Muller. 



.-,:«:«■.• o— 60- 



163 



one of those who stood to rededicate himself. We would 
have had more to attend if I Corps had not changed the day 
and hour at the last minute. We were told at first that 
he would be here on the 22d. 

Cardinal Spellman's Mass was at 0830 on Christmas Day. 
About 2,000 attended. He preached a fine sermon and 
shook hands with about 1,000 men. Strumski developed a 
good choir for the Mass. 

Our own services were "out of this world" on Christmas. 
One's limit in Spiritual Ministry here is his physical stamina. 
I preached six times the first Sunday. However, I am ar- 
ranging for church parties to come in to headquarters so I 
can visit more. For instance, I have been to one chapel 
dedication and General Pollock and I are to go to another '' 
next Sunday. 

Chaplain Slattery came to my candlelight service and I 
went to his Mass. I accused him of stealing my "thunder" 
in bis sermon. Then Spellman stole from both of us. 

Ed was a very popular Division chaplain. He received the 
Legion of Merit on Christmas night. He left on Saturday 
with tears in his eyes and joy in his heart. 

Chaplain Slattery's Legion of Merit was awarded 
by General Pollock. The citation reads in part as 
follows : 

Commander Slattery displayed outstanding ability and 
foresight in caring for the spiritual welfare of all the Ma- 
rines in the division. An understanding, capable, wise, and 
persevering leader, he organized his section in such a man- 
ner that spiritual services and guidance were always avail- 
able. Frequently making journeys throughout the division, 
in the most adverse weather and terrain conditions, he ex- 
pressed little concern for his personal welfare in order that 
all the Marines might receive the opportunity to attend serv- 
ices of their own particular faith. Commander Slattery's 
perseverance, friendly manner and selfless devotion to the 
men he served were an inspiration to all who observed him. 
His skilled service and exemplary conduct throughout this 
period were in keeping with the highest traditions of the 
U.S. Naval Service. 

Combat "V" was authorized. 

With the approach of Christmas other Marine 
chaplains were busy with holiday projects. Chaplain 
G. E. Kuhn worked with the 2d Battalion, 1st Ma- 
rines, in distributing gifts sent by the Telephone Em- 
ployee's Volunteer Service of San Francisco. Visits 
were paid to orphanages operated by the Yong Nok 
Presbyterian Church and the Sisters of St. Paul. Once 
again children were happy because Marines had 
played Santa Claus. 

Another such project was described by Chaplain 
Thos. Allen Newman of the 2d Battalion, 7th Ma- 
rines. Because of the scarcity of material a small 
Santa Claus suit was constructed. "Toys were a 
must, for children had to have toys at Christmas . . . 
The supply system of a Marine battalion does not have 



! Chapel for 1st Engineering Battalion. 



such items in stock so many Marines were enlisted in 
the search for candy and toys. Where all the mate- 
rials and toys came from is a mystery left unsolved." 
Forty foster fathers were selected from the Marines. 
Children were found in a refugee village. In fact 
there were over a thousand there. The ones doing 
best in school were selected. The mess hall was dec- 
orated with real trees. Christmas cards were on each 
table with plenty of candy for the children. 

At the appointed time a tuck picked up its colorful and 
unusual cargo. The children, ranging in age from 8 to 1 1 
but looking much younger, were dressed in bright Korean 
costumes and as they traveled along they sang Korean songs 
for their escorts. Their arri'a! was eagerly awaited by all 
who wanted "a kid of his own." Bashful and a little 
frightened the children climbed down from the truck into 
the many pairs of outstretched Marines arms. Rivalry was 
keen to get a particular child and cries of "that one is mine," 
started a small "discussion" in several cases. The foster 
father secured food for the child and assisted in the cutting 
and eating of it. Some children were too frightened by the 
mass of men to be very hungry while others didn't care for 
the food. The bolder ones ate with complete disregard for 
the huge group of interested spectators. Peculiar appetites 
soon became evident, for some children would eat only bread 
and jam while others would only eat potatoes. One thing 
that all enjoyed was the candy; no one had any trouble feed- 
ing "their kid" candy. Several Marines insisted that their 
charges take home vast numbers of candy bars which they 
placed in the pockets and hands of the little ones. Im- 
promptu singing would start in one corner of the hall and 
all would stop to listen as one small girl would sing the Ko- 
rean love song A Arirang; joining in all the children would 
sing with her. This pleased the Marines and resulted in 
loud cheers and applause. 

Santa Claus was next on the program. Outside the mess 
hall beside one of the Christmas trees St. Nick sat with 
his bags of toys. Each child got the presents which were 
intended for him or her and then with the help of the foster 
father they would play with them. These were toy trains, 
clowns, Santa Clauses, and dolls. The children received 
gum and candy again and again as Santa Claus emptied 
his bags. Several hundred onlookers crowded around the ac- 
tivity taking pictures; holding the children or playing with 
them. Each man wanted his picture taken with one of the 
children. The 1st Marine Division Band was there to play 
for the affair. Seated in the outdoor movie area with their 
guardians the children listened to the American music. They 
in turn sang in Korean for ill the Marines such songs as 
Silent Night and other Christmas carols. The Marines, not 
to be inhospitable, responds d with a loud rendition of 
Jingle Bells. 

As the children began to ! >t restless and tired, the signal 
was given for all children to be returned to the truck. Their 
hands full of candy and toys each child was tenderly lifted 
up into the truck by strong hands. A count was made and 
it was discovered that two children were missing. Two of 
the Marines had taken their "offspring" to answer the call 
of nature. Even in Korea the duties of a "parent" never 
change. The farewell was very different from the welcome. 



164 



Now the boys and girls were happy and few were afraid. 
Singing as they left, the children made their mark upon the 
Christmas of a battalion of Marines; made it one they would 
never forget! Santa Claus had been there that day! 

Another Christmas project was that undertaken by 
the chaplains of the 11th Marine Artillery Regiment, 
Chaplains William P. Lane, Catholic, and Noah L. 
McDowell, Southern Baptist. Through the courtesy 
of Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co., and the 
Revere Camera Co., 5,000 recording tapes were flown 
to Korea. Brief messages were recorded by thousands 
of Marines and mailed to their loved ones back home. 
In addition the "homefolks" could record and return 
reply messages to the Marines. 

Just prior to Christmas Chaplain Charles T. Dug- 
gan completed his tour of duty with the 1st Division. 
He was subsequently awarded a Commendation 
Medal with Combat "V". The citation read in part, 

During an intense barrage of enemy mortar fire, he un- 
hesitatingly went to the forward area to give spiritual guid- 
ance and aid the wounded. On one occasion, he voluntarily 
went to a forward aid station to be with the wounded during 
a period of intense enemy action. 

The new roster of the 1st Division for January in- 
cluded a number of new chaplains. These were 
Chaplains G. E. Kuhn, Lutheran; W. Rowland, Epis- 
copal; K. D. Killin, Presbyterian, USA; J. C. Moore, 
Methodist; R. W. Shreffler, Presbyterian, USA; K. H. 
Ernst, Presbyterian, USA; A. S. M. Kirkland, Naza- 
rene; J. P. Byrnes, Catholic; R. L. Crabtree, Method- 
ist; R. G. Hutcheson, Jr., Presbyterian, US; L. W. 
Meachum, Southern Baptist; E. J. Kelly, Catholic; 
W. H. Vinson, Southern Baptist, and J. T. Moore, 
Catholic. 

In a letter of the 29th Chaplain Meachum indi- 
cated that another visitor was expected on the 31st, 
Bishop Austin Pardue, Episcopal, from Pittsburgh. 

Also things were about to happen in Washington. 
After a long and fruitful period as Chief of Chaplains, 
Chaplain Stanley Salisbury was turning over the helm 
to Chaplain E. B. Harp, Jr. This transfer occurred 
on the 1st of February. Chaplain Salisbury had had 
more than 30 years of naval service. He entered the 
naval chaplaincy in 1921, but he had served in World 
War I as an Army chaplain. He served as Chief of 
Chaplains from 1 September 1949-1 February 1953. 
His new position was in the service of his denomina- 
tion in a new post as chairman of a special committee 
of chaplains and service personnel (Presbyterian 
Church, USA). 

The ninth Chief of Chaplains, Rear Adm. Edward 
B. Harp, Jr., was a clergyman of the Evangelical and 



Reformed Church, and came to his new position with 
a wealth of naval experience, having served in a num- 
ber of billets during the course of 23 years. His most 
recent assignment had been Assistant for Planning in 
the Chaplains Division. 

To return to the 1st Division, in February Chaplain 
Calvin H. Elliott was detached from the Division but 
not without recognition by the Commanding General. 
His citation reads in part, 

During periods when the unit was engaged in extensive 
combat against the enemy, he provided moral and spiritual 
guidance to all men of the regiment. Expressing complete 
disregard for his personal safety and comfort, he aided in the 
evacuation of the wounded. 

The following month saw the detachment of an- 
other chaplain, Albert D. Prickett, who was awarded 
the Bronze Star medal. Of the deeds of this chaplain 
the following are among those listed, 

Through his profound sincerity and unerring skill in the 
administration of the spiritual needs of the command, he 
was a constant source of inspiration and comfort. Despite 
the extreme danger of enemy mortar and artillery fire, he 
expressed complete disregard for his personal safety and 
made repeated trips to the front lines in order to aid the 
men. During one engagement, he unhesitatingly directed 
armored personnel carriers loaded with wounded Marines 
through impact areas to a place of safety. As a result of 
his personal courage and selfless devotion, he was instru- 
mental in saving the lives of several wounded Marines. 

For something on the lighter side as reported by 
Chaplain Homer L. Schnick, Southern Baptist, of the 
1st Service Battalion, who at least on one occasion 
went on a tour of the various shower units attached 
to the infantry battalions, he states, 

It was amusing to think about how men were required to 
wear helmets and flack jackets to the showers and then take 
their showers, sans everything. In connection with the 
shower units, it is well to point out that the shower units in 
operation near the front line positions where the men could 
clean up occasionally and exchange their dirty clothes for 
clean ones (even if they didn't always get the proper sizes!) 
were among the best morale boosters the men had. Men 
came from the muddy trenches and bunkers covered with 
mud and dirt, and left clean and considerably braced up. 
Sometimes rear area units may not be credited properly for 
the part they had in supplying gear and services, but having 
served with such a group, I believe that they deserve a pat on 
the back for a job well done. From showers to bread to 
ice cream (one assistant I had stated that the first meal 
that he had in Korea after he got to the front lines in the 
month of February 1953, he had ice cream, among other 
things, for breakfast!) to shoe, tent, and flack jacket repair 
the services of the 1st Service Battalion ran. Morale was not 
as good in the rear areas probably because the sense of mis- 
sion and glory was not as keen, but they served as did the 
front line riflemen. 



165 — 



During its stay with the Division, Chaplain John 
P. Byrnes reports that he administered the Sacra- 
ments for the Army detachment at Panmunjom once 
a week, and Chaplain Karl H. Ernst reports that he 
never worked so hard in his life in the holding of 
services. Chaplain Ernst also reports on the value of 
tours to Seoul that gave his men an opportunity to 
see another side of the Korean people and their 
culture. 

It was about this time that some consideration was 
given to an extension of the period of a tour of duty 
for the chaplains to 12 months instead of 10. On 26 
February Chaplain Meachum wrote to the Chief of 
Chaplains stating, "I am glad that you decided to 
keep it at 10 months. This is tough going in the dust, 
cold, heat, mud, 'incoming,' and what with one and 
two services a day and all a man can stand up to on 
Sunday." 

A glance at the roster of February indicates the 
following new chaplains, J. B. Conlon, Catholic, A. J. 
Barn-, Catholic, R. E. Brengartner, Catholic, E. V. 
Lyons, Presbyterian (USA), L. F. Rice, Catholic, T. 
V. Edwards, Catholic, and W. H. Nordby, Lutheran. 

In March the Division Chaplain indicates that there 
is a concentrated effort in the promulgation of Char- 
acter Education Programs underway. In a personal 
letter (entered in his file) dated 20 March we also 
read for the first time of retreats being set up for chap- 
lains'. He writes, 

All of our chaplains are invited to meet Chaplain Bennett 
at I Corps Chapel on 8 April. In lieu of this trip to I Corps 
we will not have our regular monthly Protestant retreat in 
April. 

We have had fine fellowship at these meetings since I 
came. Our fellows did not pay much attention to the re- 
treat before the January meeting. They do not feel that 
they should leave their outfits. However, I am going to 
insist that they go. We get a chance to meet the chaplains 
in the Commonwealth and 2d Divisions. They secure an 
outstanding missionary or native to speak in the morning and 
the divisions rotate with the devotional period after lunch. 

He further mentioned action on the front 18 
March ; he says, 

We had 89 casualties the night of the 18th, 9 KIA's with 
superficial wounds accounting for the most of the others. 
Our boys (CHC) are doing a wonderful job. 

The battles which took place this same month 
caused a number of chaplains to record their experi- 
ences. One such account was entitled "On a Hill Far 
Away" and was written by Chaplain Allen Newman. 
Because it vividly describes a chaplain in action it is 
recorded in full as follows, 



I couldn't get any closer to the ground which I hugged 
with all my body. The enemy mortars and artillery shells 
were landing and whistling around us. How did I, the 
chaplain, ever get way out here was the question I kept 
asking myself? It all happened so fast! It wasn't planned 
that way! The plans were for a show the next Sunday; a 
choir that was to sing for Easter: a series of Lenten services. 
A nice and quiet weekend. The men had been rehearsing 
for the Palm Sunday variety show during the past 4 nights. 
The choir just 2 nights ago had practiced for Sunday serv- 
ices. Then last night in the middle of rehearsals the 30 
minute alert was given to all troops of the 2d Battalion, 
7th Marines. There was trouble on the lines; several out- 
posts were under attack. With rapid and precisionlike move- 
ment the 2d Battalion began to ready for battle. 

The trucks started arriving during the night, their engines 
roaring out the noise of their coming. In the darkness of 
the early morning the men climbed into the trucks bound 
for a destination unknown. There were no bands to cheer 
them, only the voices of the platoon sergeants and officers 
piercing the night with curt cries, "all right keep moving." 
There was excitement in the air and anticipation made many 
a heart beat faster. One company, then another, pulled out 
toward the front line in the direction of the 5th Marines 
sector and away from the security and peace of our reserve 
camp. We had been in reserve for just 2 weeks and 
expected to stay there for at least 2 more weeks but the 
enemy wasn't cooperating with our plans and hopes. All 
that night the sound of artillery and the light of flares re- 
minded us that there was crisis ahead — a dangerous oppor- 
tunity for the battalion. 

With the coming of daylight the flares and artillery shells 
stopped their ceaseless flow. Quiet became the early morn- 
ing hour's song. I tried to take stock of all my men; to 
locate all the widely scattered companies. All the companies 
were still waiting the word as to what they were going to 
do. The outposts Reno and Carson had fallen to the enemy 
during the night. Rumors were making a rapid tour of 
the companies — "Easy Company is going to take Reno 
back" — "Dog Company was to help." No one knew just 
what was going to happen. Easy Company was in a position 
to move out at any moment. I walked among these men 
that I knew and loved, talking, joking, just being with them 
as they worried and wondered what was in the future for 
them. I wondered too. The morning passed quickly with 
Easy Company. Early in the afternoon word came that Fox 
Company had been committed to recapture outpost Vegas 
from the enemy. They had already started up the hill and 
were in close range fighting with the enemy. 

The battle was on! There were four chaplains besides 
myself in the immediate vicinity. They were seeing the 
wounded and dead as they came through the medical aid 
stations. My men were fighting for their lives. I had to 
go with them. And there I was in the advanced Fox Com- 
pany OP. which was set up in a gully at the closest tip 
of Vegas. It was 1630 on Friday, 27 March when I got 
out there. I had gone out with a platoon of Weapons 
Company men who had been organized into stretcher teams 
and supply carriers. We were waiting for darkness to come 
so that we could remove the many wounded men who were 
still up on the hillsides. It was too hazardous to attempt 
relief during the daylight hours. Bad news travels fast and 



— 166 




Christmas Day on the Front. 
Chaplain Allen Newman offers a prayer for all fighting marines at Christmas Day services at the front. 



I was told that one of the men who was a soloist in the 
variety show and was to sing for Easter services had been 
killed early in the fighting. His name was Matthews, Sgt. 
Daniel P. Matthews. That was the first of much sad news 
that came to me. The battle was more personal than before. 
Since there was nothing I could do but wait for darkness. 
I began to make the rounds of the men who were crouch- 
ing in the gully. There were men from the 5th Marines 
waiting to help remove the wounded to the main line of 
resistance. I talked to as many of the men as possible in 
between the enemy mortar barrages. During one heavy at- 
tack a cry went out behind me, "Help me I'm hit." And 
the word "corpsman" echoed from man to man in the 
gully. The man just a few feet in front of me was moaning. 
A piece of an enemy shell had hit him in the head. Rapidly 
the corpsman, James McCrabe HM!I. and I dressed his 
wound. Quickly we placed him on a stretcher and started 
across the rice paddies that separated Vegas from the 
friendly lines. I had known this particular man for several 
months as he had often attended church services. He was 



afraid that something like this would happen to him — and 
it did. As fast as was possible we rushed him to the doctor, 
but in spite of using eight men and the speediest route, he 
soon gave up the fight for his life. More and more of my 
men were coming back that way. 

With darkness came the wounded, carried by their buddies 
who stumbled in the darkness. Eager hands reached down 
to pick up stretchers for the long and wearisome trip back 
to the lines. Names were called out, "Smith! Wooten! 
Ward!'' as attempt was made to find out who was on the 
stretcher. Strong and then sometimes feeble voices answered 
back, "I'm all right, one of my buddies is still out there; 
take care of him first." I could hardly recognize any of 
the forms or faces as men I had known before and yet they 
were the same men who had climbed into the trucks just 
a few hours ago. They were surprised to hear my voice. 
The word was soon passed that the chaplain was "out here." 
A few asked me in weak voices to write their mothers. 
Others were too far gone to say anything. One boy who 
had his chin hanging far below its normal place needed 



167 



another bandage, and as I placed a new battle dressing on 
his damaged chin, he kept saying he was O.K. I hadn't 
even recognized his face at all. No tears were shed by 
those whose bodies ached with pain; no words of self-pity 
or complaints were said that night. 

The long trains of men carrying stretchers — four men 
carrying one wounded began the many journeys that were 
to continue during the night. Back and forth went Marines 
and Koreans carrying supplies out to Vegas and the dead 
and wounded back in again. Word was passed that there 
were 16 seriously wounded up in the lowest trench line. 
A group of stretcher bearers, enough to carry back 12 
wounded, under the leadership of Sergeant Schrum started 
out to make this journey. I went with them to help and 
encourage the tired and weary men. We traveled the three 
or four hundred yards to the place where the men were 
waiting. There in a shallow trench were the men who had 
been waiting for hours for us to come and get them. They 
were all seriously wounded. We had to decide which ones 
we could take and which ones would be left until the next 
trip. A decision like that might mean the difference between 
life and death for some of them. There was never a word 
or outcry from any as we quickly and painfully lifted them 
onto the stretchers we had carried out. Broken legs, miss- 
ing legs, torn bodies, dirty wounds, all were common to 
those who depended upon our skill and judgment for some 
chance to live. Those who had cared for them told us that 
there were six more seriously wounded farther up the trench 
line. We had to leave some so we picked the ones we 
thought needed to get back quickest. One after another 
the stretcher teams of four would leave with their burden 
and start the hazardous and difficult journey through dark- 
ness to life and safety. I left with the last team. Our 
stretcher was a broken one so that delayed us until we could 
find another out there on the hill. By that time all of the 
other teams had disappeared into the night and we had to 
find our way alone. We lost our way once, but soon found 



the gully where the other teams were waiting to make the 
last leg of the trip. 

Fox Company made one mere assault on the outpost early 
Saturday morning. They refused to allow anyone to leave 
the lines during the attack to go to Vegas so I decided I 
had better see what had happened to Easy and Dog Com- 
panies. Finding that they were not committed to action, 
I returned to the Battalion Command Post to eat and wash. 
Early Saturday afternoon Dog Company started out to Vegas 
to assist in the fighting. Enemy artillery caught them in 
one of the valleys beside Vegas and they sustained 40 
casualties. Returning to the lines again Dog Company 
brought back the dead and wounded. The men worked 
frantically to bind up the injuries and evacuate the casual- 
ties. It all came so quickly and was such a surprise that 
most of the men still didn't realize what had happened. I 
walked around the group of dazed men who still remained 
in Dog Company talking to most of them. Many were in 
a state of shock or stunned by the sudden attack which 
struck them. It took several hours to clear the wounded 
and take them to the field hospitals. Once again an ache 
was in my heart and a wound in the side of the battalion. 

Night brought sleep for me and a few other fortunate 
men who did not or could not stand a watch that night. 
The first rays of sunshine brought Palm Sunday to Korea. 
As I climbed Vegas hill to see the men of Easy Company I 
thought, "What a different Sunday this was than the one 
that had been planned." No human choir was to sing for 
my men that day, only the chorus of enemy shells singing 
around them. No sermon telling of Jesus' entry into Jeru- 
salem filled their hearts. But they were to feel the eternal 
Presence of God as they crouched in the trenches or hid in 
their rabbit holes for hours during the nights and days ahead. 
No one had to ask them to pray. They did it naturally as 
a man would cry out for help if he were helpless. Easy 
Company that Palm Sunday morning was digging into the 
debris-filled mountain top. The sun was warm and kindly 



Chaplain Gives Lecture. 
Chaplain Matthew J. Strumski delivers an educational lecture on character to rrarines in Korea. 




168- 




Preparation for Vegas. 
Chaplain James Kelly prays with marines from the 2d Battalion, 7th Regiment as they stand by to move out to hit the enemy. 



to those who still felt and saw its radiance. There were 
those men who had grown cold with death and now only 
felt the warmth of heavenly sunshine. We began the slow 
and difficult task of bringing the dead down from the top 
trenches. Every man in the trench would help as the 
stretcher was carried down the trench line. In the trench 
I saw faces I had known before — men of Easy Company — 
tired, dirty, afraid, and heart-sick from the loss of friends 
and buddies. When 1030 came I thought of the church 
service that I should be conducting back in the reserve area 
for the 3d Battalion, 7th Marines. These men on Vegas 
needed the reassurance that God hadn't forsaken them. They 
needed so much that only God could give. 

Sunday morning and part of che afternoon we searched the 
hillsides of Vegas looking for the dead who had been left 
behind in the excitement of the fighting. I collected men 
who were not busy fighting wherever I could find them and 
formed them into stretcher earns. My friend Sergeant 
Matthews was still lying out tf ere somewhere and I wanted 
to bring him back again. We failed to find any trace of his 
body. More than a week lat< r he was found and recom- 
mended for the Medal of Honor for his heroic deeds. We 
found other men, broken bodj»s sprawled behind bushes in 
hideous ways hardly recognizab e as men we had once known. 



Since we were under enemy observation, we worked rapidly 
and in small teams of four. The hill having been cleaned 
of its burden of human flesh as far as we could go, our sad 
procession started in with our heavy loads. Once again the 
church music was lacking — only the voices of tired men 
calling out commands or cheering each other on. What an 
entry was being made by these men who had found the 
eternal peace that they had fought to gain. If only the 
world could see the sorrow in this scene! 

The light melted into another period of darkness again 
and with the night came increased enemy activity. Death 
and injury once again touched the hilltop of Vegas. It was 
late that night before I found my way out to the hill. 
Stretcher teams were going back and forth between the hill 
and the wire which marked the main line and safety. Most 
of the Marines were exhausted from the days without sleep 
and the emotional strain of the battle. Finally an opportu- 
nity to help presented itself — they needed someone to show a 
group of 48 Korean stretcher bearers the way to Vegas. 
One Marine thought he knew but wasn't certain. Quietly I 
offered him my services and stepped in front of the long line 
of men to start the journey out to pick up 1 2 wounded Ma- 
rines. The Marine asked me where my weapon was : my 
comment was, "I have none.' He said no more but still 



169- 



didn't realize that I was a chaplain. I didn't disclose my 
identity since he might be embarrassed to let a chaplain lead 
him out to Vegas. We crossed the rice paddy which divided 
the outpost Vegas from the check point and friendly forces. 
Breaking the group into two equal parts, I instructed the 
second half of men to come up Vegas hill after the first 
group had reached the top and had started down with their 
cargos. Flares lighted the area around the outpost so that it 
seemed like daylight. It was easy to find the trail which 
led to our goal. The men followed with silent steps. Upon 
reaching the trench line of Vegas the wounded and dead 
were quickly placed on stretchers and started toward the 
main lines. There was no need to tell the Koreans to hurry; 
they moved as fast as they could. Occasionally enemy mor- 
tars reminded us that it was unhealthy to spend much time 
there unprotected by any trench or cover. "Doc" Minter, 
the corpsman, moved through the trench line calling out, 
"any wounded up there; anyone who needs a doctor?" The 
word went from tired and trembling lips to all who could 
still hear and understand. There was one Marine who 
crawled down the trench line, dazed and quiet. He was 
suffering from concussion. We told him to follow the 
stretcher which contained a wounded Marine. Back to the 
peace and safety of the aid station started the small groups 
of four carrying their precious burdens away from the mess 
and chaos of that hill. 

Most of the men had to remain on Vegas. They were 
held in fixed positions by duty and valor. Their only ques- 
tion was, "when do you think we'll get off this hill?" They 
had a job to do, but they still wanted to taste the fruits of 
victory. They wanted to live just as I wanted to live. That 
was the last time I walked up Vegas hill where the "valley 
of the shadow of death" was a reality to all who passed by. 
What heroes were left out there the world will never know. 
When the next afternoon brought relief to Easy Company 
the men returned to camp without a complaint, too tired 
and weary to act like the returning conquerors that they 
were. 

That night after showers and the first warm food for days 
the men began to talk in small groups gathered together in 
their tents. As I moved from tent to tent I could hear the 
retelling of a hero's deed, or softly the mentioning of a 
buddy's name and then the deep silence that comes when 
death has passed that way. Empty cots and empty hearts 
were silent reminders of friends who had gone their way. 
Lives were changed [in] those past few days. God had made 
His Presence felt to men who never felt they needed Him 
before. A trench became for some the stepping stone to 
heaven while to others it was the beginning of a new life 
with God. None were ashamed to admit their need of 
God — none held back a word of praise about Him. 

In one group a reporter was gathering details for a story. 
He was going to tell the world about Vegas. Man after man 
gave him bits of battle news; told of friends who were brave 
and true. With eager and professional hands the reporter 
recorded dates, times, and facts in his notebook. Later he 
would weave into words the meaning of their actions. How- 
ever, no written or spoken word could ever tell the thoughts 
of men who had fought and won a battle for an unknown 
outpost. How could anyone explain what was in their 
souls; these men who had seen the agony and pain of 
friends whose lives were touched by war? These men who 



had lived in the hands of God "on a hill far away . . .?" 
God alone was the recorder of their lives. 

Chaplain Newman was awarded a Silver Star for his 
part in the engagement from 26-27 March. His 
citation reads as follows and includes the fact that he 
courageously gave up his armored jacket, which was 
a very scarce item. 

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action against 
the enemy while serving with a Marine infantry battalion in 
Korea on 26-27 March 1953. Serving as a chaplain, Lieu- 
tenant (jg.) Newman displayed outstanding courage, initia- 
tive, and devotion to duty. During the assaults on vital 
enemy held outpost positions, he continuously exposed him- 
self to devastating enemy mortar and artillery in order to 
assist the stretcher bearers and comfort the wounded. Ex- 
pressing complete disregard for his personal safety, he 
courageously gave his armored vest to a Marine whose vest 
was unfit for wear and for the remainder of the 2-day period 
he went without this added protection in an area interdicted 
by hostile fire* During the reorganization phase when the 
enemy was only fifty to one hundred yards away, he fear- 
lessly walked about the trench line offering words of en- 
couragement and spiritual guidance to the men. His pres- 
ence was a distinct comfort to the men and contributed in 
great measure to the maintenance of spirit and high devotion 
to duty among them. Lieutenant (jg. ) Newman's out- 
standing actions and indomitable spirit served as an inspira- 
tion to all who observed him and were in keeping with the 
highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. 

Chaplain Newman described the activity of a chap- 
lain on the line. He said, 

When the battalion is on the line, he trudges the ridgelines 
to hold services with a different company every day. He 
writes to the family of every new man who joins the battal- 
ion, regardless of faith. 

He keeps a note pad full of requests to purchase things 
for the man when he goes to Seoul twice a month. He goes 
down with a jeep and trailer loaded with candy, clothing, 
and other supplies for orphans. 

He comes back loaded with candles, radio tubes, gasoline 
lanterns and anything else his men have requested. Some 
of this he can get from the Army post exchange. 

Chaplain Newman's devotion to his men and the 
Marine Corps is demonstrated by the occasion of the 
birthday of the Marine Corps. One is told that Chap- 
lain Newman 

. . . managed a cake and took off, unarmed and on foot, 
along a trail leading to the most extended outpost of the 
battalion. 

Shells were landing on the position when Newman jumped 
into the main bunker with the cake. The handful of men 
holding the lonely post were cheered for days by his act. 

Chaplain Nordby gives a general picture of the area 
occupied by the Division at this time, 



1 The italics are the historian's. 



— 170- 



A chaplain recalled to duty from his civilian parish finds 
that there is little here in Korea to remind him of the vast 
sweep and scope of the fast moving actions of World War 
II days. The front lines facing no-man's land extend for 
miles up and down hills, winding like the Great Wall of 
China across rolling terrain, rice paddies and great jagged 
peaks. The men live in sand bagged bunkers; two. three, 
and four to a bunker. The architecture and innovations in 
these dwellings depend upon the ingenuity of the occupants — 
and the American young men have never lacked in original- 
ity and imagination. Some of the bunkers are veritable bear 
traps and pitfalls of gadgets, latches, stoves, collapsible 
bunks, pinup pictures and the ever present supply of C-ration 
cans mixed with a ready stock of hand grenades. Prac- 
tically all bunkers have some type of stove for heating and 
coffee making. In most cases one hot meal a day is carried 
up to the lines or troops are brought down in reliefs to ad- 
vance mess tents. 

The chaplain finds that his congregation on the line does 
not lead a safe and comfortable life. These men are harassed 
by rats and insects to say nothing of mud or the reddish 
colored Korean dirt. In spite of all this the morale of the 
troops on the front lines is the best in the service. It is 
here that one enjoys that peculiar feeling only experienced, 
unfortunately on the field of battle: the feeling that everyone 
is concerned with taking care of the other person. Such 
great passages as "Greater love, hath no man than this: 
that he lay down his life for a friend." becomes a beautiful 
common experience. Marines will not be stopped from go- 
ing out under fire to get a buddy. None complain if they 
have to carry a friend a great distance to the forward aid 
bunker. 

As for the battle actions, they are usually localized strug- 
gles involving squads, platoons and companies, sometimes 
battalions. However, the size of the units fighting is not a 
measure of their bitterness as far as the individual is con- 
cerned. The actions that carry up steep, 60° slopes in face 
of artillery and mortar fire and the desperate last stands of 
small units on outposts are as grim in their ways as any- 
thing the Marines witnessed on Guadalcanal. Tarawa, or 
Saipan. Many of the actions consist of night patrols and 
ambushes well forward of the lines, fought out in the dark 
at conversational range with both sides making desperate 
attempts to capture prisoners. Then again there are the 
quiet periods of waiting, listening, but little action for days 
or weeks at a time, and then it may break wide open. 

Chaplain James C. Moore. Methodist, describes his 
experiences in the Reno and Vegas operations by 
saying, 

The Chinese began an assault on these positions just at 
dusk, preceded by a tremendous artillery and mortar barrage 
which was to be numbered in the thousands of rounds. Such 
an assault meant casualties, so the chaplains gathered in the 
aid station at 1st Battalion. 

The first casualties were already there, having been hit in 
the battalion command post itself. Shells were still coming 
in intermittently, so each man had his eye on the nearest 
hole. The wounded were taken care of, put on ambulances, 
and sent back to the medical companies in the rear. The 
doctors, the corpsmen, and the chaplains, settled down in 



foxholes to wait for the first load of casualties to come from 
the line. Everyone knew that the night would not be used 
for sleeping. 

Those waiting at battalion aid pieced together what news 
they had. Outpost Reno had been overrun, and all the 
men on it were lost — Vegas had been taken — all the men 
were lost or captured — "Fox" company, from the 2d Battal- 
ion, was going out to Reno — the outposts must be retaken — 
there were many casualties. And so they waited. 

The first wounded from the line came in. Bodies torn 
and bleeding — minds shaken from the incessant pounding 
they had received. The doctors worked quickly — putting 
on bandages — giving life-saving albumin — directing the 
corpsmen. The chaplains knelt over the men. The priest 
heard confessions and gave absolution — the Protestant chap- 
lains prayed with them — all trying to comfort men whose 
bodies were suffering. 

And the casualties continued to come. 

Some of the men had no wounds on their bodies, their 
tags having only one word — "concussion." These men were 
wounded in their minds. They needed rest and sleep to wipe 
away the shock which had numbed their minds to reality. 
Some were shaking uncontrollably — some muttered words 
without meaning — but most just sat and stared — their eyes 
blank — seeing nothing. 

The doctors asked the chaplains to take care of the men 
suffering from concussion, for the seriously wounded were 
demanding all their attention and skill. Then, the chap- 
lains began a process which became all too familiar in the 
days which followed. The less serious cases were led away 
to places where they could sleep; the more serious were 
taken to one side and held for the doctor's examination when 
the rush slackened. The human mind can take great pres- 
sures, up to a certain point, and these men had passed that 
point. 

On the outposts, the fighting continued; while in the rear 
areas, all efforts were turned towards assembling enough 
men and material to drive the Chinese from our old positions. 

The coming of day brought to light many things. The 
supply tent near battalion aid, had received a direct hit 
from an enemy shell, but of all the medical supplies stored 
there, only a bottle of poison ivy lotion was broken. Around 
the aid station was the evidence always left by the wounded ; 
blood-soaked clothing — torn and muddy — gaping helmets — 
empty boots, all bearing the individual imprint of their for- 
mer owners. 

The Marines began to send more men out to Vegas, so the 
chaplains had another task to perform. They hurried to the 
areas where the men disembarked from trucks, before be- 
ginning the long trek out to the hill. There, if time allowed, 
short services were held, and at the very least the Navy 
padres had prayer with the men. Whatever hour the men 
went out, the chaplains tried to be there — from early in the 
morning, until late at night. 

One day ran into another, the fight went on without let 
up. All through the days and nights, the wounded con- 
tinued to pour in. Men became groggy from lack of sleep, 
and the few minutes they managed to spend napping, only- 
served to emphasize their need for real rest. The infantry 
went out to Vegas, were relieved, only to go out again. Men 
lost all sense of time. 

You know the rest of the story. Vegas was retaken, and 



171 — 





■*&'■ 










Memorial Service. 

A battalion commander in the 5th marines calls off names of men killed in the "Vegas" operation who were members of 
his unit at a regimental memorial service near the front. 



is now held by the forces of the United Nations. The men 
who fought so hard for those hills are not there now. Some 
of them have gone home; some are resting, in reserve areas; 
some are still in hospitals; and there are many who are gone 
forever. 

Chaplain E. Vaughan Lyons, Jr., Presbyterian, 
USA, adds the information that he and Chaplain Ed- 
ward J. Kelly, Roman Catholic, were with Chaplain 
Moore. He adds, 

It seemed as though the stream of wounded and dying 
would never cease. All night long the chaplains knelt be- 
side the steady flow of litters, sometimes to repeat a passage 
of scripture, sometimes to give words of reassurance or com- 
fort, sometimes to hear confessions or to administer the last 
rites, sometimes to merely joke or light a cigarette, but al- 
ways they knelt beside each man to pray. For 5 long days 
the chaplains kept their vigil beside the wounded, while 
nearly 1,000 men passed through the aid stations. Thanks 
to the heroic and tireless efforts of doctors, corpsmen, and 
litter bearers hundreds of them are alive and recovered to- 
day. Few of them were evacuated without the ministry of 
a chaplain. 

When it was over three weary chaplains tired, hungry, 
and dirty, returned to their tents to face the grim task of 
writing the heartbreaking letters informing the next of kin 
that the battle is forever ended for their husband or son. 
Not until this was done was there time for reflection. What 
about those who live through such an experience? What 
happens to them? 



Combat is both a terrifying and an exhilarating experi- 
ence. The pressure of combat intensifies the whole range of 
human emotions. Men in the strain of battle hate intensely, 
love intensely, fight intensely, and at the same time exhibit 
intense compassion for their buddies. Friendships are for- 
ever solidified. A spirit of camaraderie develops which is un- 
like anything else. 

No one thinks of himself as a hero. Afterwards, each 
one thinks only of how much more he could have done or 
should have done. Whatever he did, it was not enough. 
He was there to do a job and at the time he did it as best 
he knew how. Riflemen, mortar men, wiremen, machine 
gunners, corpsmen, platoon leaders, doctors, chaplains ac- 
cepted their role with only one thought and prayer. "Lord, 
give me the strength to do my job as well as possible." 
Afterward, whatever was done never seems to have been 
sufficient. 

Chaplain Lyons said concerning the evacuation of the 
dead and wounded from Reno, "It was like the blind 
leading the blind. Some could not see, so others car- 
ried them along and held them up. Many of the 
men couldn't bring their stretchers off the hill." An 
observer says that "through the maelstrom of flying 
metal and destroyed life went the chaplain and his 
20-man "crew" — cooks, clerks, radiomen, messengers, 
supplymen, truck drivers, and mess waiters, but all 
Marines." It was their job to save the remnants of 
the unit that had faced a thousand Chinese troops. 



— 172 



Chaplain Edward J. Kelly, Roman Catholic, is re- 
ported 5 holding the services on Palm Sunday for the 
veterans of Outpost Vegas by John Casserly. The 
reporter records. 

I looked about the small, windblown tent at the faces of 
these young men. Some of their lips trembled out swift, 
short prayers. Others had their heads bowed, almost rest- 
ing them on the backs of crude wooden benches ... A 
young leatherneck's field pants were ripped down the left 
leg from the hip to his ankle. The back of his right boot 
was cut away. He wiped bleary eyes on a sleeve that had 
hit the dirt many times. 

He walked to the Communion rail with a limp. Others 
followed. . . . After the service a sergeant asked, "What 
about the men on Reno?" ... He quickly added: "What 
about the last few men?" 

"They're all gone," I said. 

He looked away and put his helmet on and began walk- 
ing down the steep hill . . . 

Shortly after the battle a Marine correspondent, 
T. Sgt. Bill Daum, described a memorial service con 
ducted by a chaplain, 

With the First Marine Division in Korea — "Greater love 
hath no man than this ; that a man lay down his life for 
his friends." 

The words echoed between the brown hills and were swept 
away on a chill spring wind. 

This was Korea. The men assembled with bowed heads 
were Marines — members of the 5th Regiment — gathered in 
a memorial service for buddies killed in action on bloody 
Vegas. 

Most of these men had lost someone during the 3-day 
siege which saw first Chinese, then Marines, holding the 
battered knob. Anyone watching the hundreds of battle- 
hardened Leathernecks would find it hard to believe that 
10 days before, this silent, prayful group had shattered one 
Red assault after another in a life and death struggle. 

Battalion commanders called off a somber roll: Marines 
who would never again answer up at a muster. These were 
the dead. 

Three volleys rang out and were lost on that same chill 
wind which took the chaplain's prayer. 

Then came "Taps"; the finale in this drama of battle, its 
emotions and men. 

Two chaplains were released from duty with the 
Marines in June and were presented with awards. 6 
The first was Chaplain John P. Byrnes who was 
awarded the Bronze Star with a Combat "V." His 
citation reads in part, 

When elements of the regiment were committed to the 
main line of resistance and subjected to intense enemy ac- 
tion, he traveled over roads that were under constant enemy- 



observation administering both spiritual and physical aid to 
the wounded. Disregarding his personal comfort, he made 
continuous daily visits to men on the front line exerting 
every effort to render spiritual guidance to those in need 
ot his services. Often, whenever patrols and raids were con- 
ducted forward of the main lines, he would spend long 
hours awaiting their return to be of whatever assistance he 
could. 7 

The second was Chaplain Gerald E. Kuhn who 
received the Commendation Medal with the authori- 
zation of a Combat "V," concerning this award was 
the following statement in part, 

He provided moral and spiritual guidance and comfort to 
the personnel of the regiment and during periods when the 
unit was engaged in extensive combat operations, he disre- 
garded his personal safety and comfort in order to assist in 
caring for the sick and wounded. Although frequently ex- 
posed to the hazards of enemy small arms, mortar and ar- 
tillery fire, [he] helped evacuate the wounded and tendered 
spiritual consolation and peace to the severely injured. 

Chaplain Walter Nordby, who was involuntarily re- 
called to active duty, wrote, 

I have learned much more during this tour in Korea and 
Pendleton than I did all during the last war. I am sold on 
the Marine Corps 100 percent. My ministry has surely been 
a rich one with the Marines. In reserve my Character 
Guidance lectures were very well received with good discus- 
sions following. After the word got around that I wasn't 
trying to deliver sermons I even had the company command- 
ers and platoon leaders attending. Things like that made me 
feel like a part of the fighting team. 

It was at Easter time that Chaplain Matthew J. 
Strumski crusaded for Peace in Korea by traveling 
with an officially consecrated Pilgrim Virgin Statue 
sent from the Bishop of Fatima, Portugal. 

Chaplain Samuel Sobel, Jewish Chaplain, was de- 
tached from the Division on 13 April. He was 
awarded a Bronze Star for his activity. His citation 
states in part, 

Carrying out frequent trips to the front lines, he imparted 
strength and peace of mind to the troops throughout many 
days and nights while under heavy enemy artillery and mor- 
tar fire. Conscientious in his devotion to the fulfillment of 
his mission, he ministered to the spiritual needs of the 
wounded and dying at the front lines, forward aid stations 
and medical companies of the division. His inspiring efforts, 
resourceful initiative and unswerving devotion to duty 
throughout reflect the highest credit upon Lieutenant Sobel 
and the United States Naval Service." 



1 In the Philadelphia Inquirer, 30 March 1953. 
' These awards are noted here because of their application 
to this period. 



' This chaplain was also awarded the Purple Heart for 
wounds sustained 27 February 1953. 

8 The Purple Heart was also awarded for wounds sus- 
tained on 29 March 1953. 



173 








,*** 



Rainbow Village — Site of Little Switch. 
An overall view of the village set up by the 1st Engineers Battalion. The main entrance is on the left. 



Chaplain of the Year — Reserve Officers Association 

The Reserve Officers' Association chose Chaplain 
Sobel as the "Chaplain of the Year" ( 1955) noting his 
work with Marines in Korea. The Four Chaplains 
Award was made by the Department of the District of 
Columbia at the dedication of the $100,000 Four 
Chaplains Memorial Fountain at National Memorial 
Park, Falls Church, Va., on 25 September 1955. 
Chaplain E. B. Harp, Jr., Chief of Chaplains accepted 
for Chaplain Sobel who was stationed overseas at the 
time. In part the citation read, 

As the only Jewish Chaplain in the Marine Division he, 
without regard to his own personal safety, made frequent 
trips to the front lines and spent many days and nights with 
the men under heavy artillery and mortar fire in order to 
bring them the strength and consolation of their faith as 
well as many physical comforts and food. 

Disregarding his personal comfort, he ministered to the 
spiritual needs of the wounded and dying at the front lines, 
forward aid stations, and medical companies of the Division. 
As a result of his spirit of self-sacrifice he was wounded in 
action. 

Truce Talks 

The resumption of the truce talks in April which 
were to lead to "Little Switch" focused world atten- 
tion upon the participants in the true talks. Some in- 
dication of the character of the chief U.N. nearotiator 



may be gained by the comments of two chaplains. 
Chaplain Newman stated that he served as Protestant 
Chaplain in the United Nations Peace Camp, conduct- 
ing services for the delegates at Munsan-Ni. He testi- 
fies that Maj. Gen. William K. Harrison was a 
frequent attendant at these services and that he gave 
encouragement to the chaplain in his work. Chaplain 
Schnick while serving with the 1st Service Battalion 
also conducted worship services at the United Na- 
tions Base Camp. He tells of General Harrison, as he 
was leaving one of the services, taking the hand of the 
chaplain and saying, "Chaplain, you believe in the 
Bible, don't you?" Chaplain Schnick replied "Yes, 
sir, I do." The chaplain states, "He then said, in a 
way I won't forget and with feeling 'I do too.' This 
was one of the most memorable experiences that I had 
while serving in Korea." 

Little Switch 

Finally on 20 April the day had come when the 
prisoners, some of them after long periods of cap- 
tivity, were to be returned. The Division Chaplain 
writes to Chaplain Harp concerning the exchange of 
prisoners, commonly called "Little Switch," which 
occurred on 20 April, 

Today was a day of liberation for some of our prisoners 
of war who came through Panmunjom into open arms and 



174 — 



warm hearts at Freedom Village in the 1st Marine Division 
sector. Everything possible was done to welcome them and 
make them comfortable. 

This event marked one of the greatest opportunities for 
chaplains in the U.S. Naval Service. We were standing in 
our section of the processing lines by our altars ready to 
extend the hand of Christian fellowship to soldiers and 
Marines of many nations. They were eager and happy to 
receive our spiritual ministry. Many wept with joy in their 
hearts. We had prayer with them. We served Holy Com- 
munion; gave them New Testaments, Missals, and rosaries. 

We made our sections as attractive as possible by getting 
flowers from the hillsides. We pinned the religious posters, 
church pennants, and spare altar cloths to the walls of the 
tents. The impression on the prisoners was terrific — as well 
as on generals, newspaper men, photographers, and all hands 
who were engaged in the processing work. I was never so 
proud and humble in trying to minister as a military chap- 
lain. 

I remember one man who wanted me to read a few 
verses from the Bible. He had been a prisoner for 29 
months; I read the 23d Psalm. If I had not known it from 
memory I would have stalled on the verse: "Though I walk 
through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, 
for Thou art with me." Both his and my eyes were full of 
tears. Then I read the Beatitudes and a part of I cor. 13. 

It seems that they were allowed to conduct church services 
by holding prayer meetings and singing a few familiar songs 
from memory while prisoners. The ones with whom I talked 
said that they did not have any clergyman or priests to 
help them. 

Tomorrow we will be back. Our chaplains in the lines 
and medical companies are ministering to battle casualties 
every day and night. Every chaplain I have is doing a 
wonderful job. 



This letter speaks for itself, and bears eloquent testi- 
mony as to the work of the chaplains on this memo- 
rable day. Chaplain Meachum's own activity was 
pictured in a number of press releases. 

There are other accounts of "Little Switch" as given 
by participating chaplains. The chaplains had ar- 
ranged folding altars at the exchange site for Protes- 
tants, Catholics and Jews in one of the long rows 
of hospital tents erected by the United Nations. Their 
part in the operation became quickly apparent when 
the first 50 American prisoners arrived and sought 
first of all spiritual comfort after their long ordeal 
of sickness, pain, and captivity. Of those first 50, 
35 took communion as their first act of freedom. 

A number of the chaplains state that much of the 
credit for setting up the program should go to Chap- 
lain Meachum. The men were brought in ambu- 
lances from the Panmunjom exchange point and un- 
loaded. They were separated into four lines which 
went through two tents each. In the first tent Chap- 
lain E. Vaughan Lyons, Jr., states that, the returnee 

. . . was given a physical examination, preliminary medi- 
cal treatment, and a new issue of clothing. He was then 
taken to the records section to establish identity and clarify 
his status. From there he was ushered into the press tent 
for interviews by representatives of the press, provided the 
returnee was willing for such an interview. From the press 
he was taken to the nourishment section where he sat down 
and was given a cup of soup or coflfee. 

It was at this stage that chaplains talked with the 
men. Chaplain Leo F. Rice, Roman Catholic, de- 



Freedom Sign 

A marine of the 1st Engineer Battalion puts the finishing 
touches on the sign to be placed at the medical camp where 
the prisoners will be received. 



Released POW Pfc. Billy Brown talks with Chaplain Andrew 
J. Barry, Jr., upon arrival at Freedom Village. 




— 175 — 




Scenes From Little Switch 

Chaplain Lonnie Meachum serves communion to Billy Penn 
shortly after his repatriation from the Communists. 



Chaplain Richard W. Shreffler prays for Pfc. Reggie A. Sul- 
livan shortly after the latter's release and arrival at Freedom 
Village. 



scribes his experiences in a paper entitled "Rebirth in 
Freedom Village." He affirms that, 

In the Marine tents we chaplains were placed in an ideal 
location. After the men had been given a military briefing, 
had been interviewed by the press, had changed from their 
blue Chinese uniforms of repatriation into the uniforms of 
free peoples, they were brought to the nourishment section. 
Here we chaplains were invited to meet them. In the four 
lines of tents each line was terminated by a visit to a little 
chapel. In this part of the tent a Protestant altar was set 
in one corner, a Catholic altar was in the other corner, and 
the Jewish chaplain was called when needed. 

The men with whom I talked touched me deeply. They 
came in various conditions: some healthy and trim looking 
(with a wind burn from their long ride of several hundred 
miles), some just skin and bones. Some had stumps of legs 
left, some had withered arms. . . . Some looked as though 
they were TB cases, some looked emotionally aroused and 
confused. In some cases their hearing was impaired. 

Our job as chaplains was not so much to question them 
on what had happened in general but to make them feel at 
home, to get them to relax a moment, to direct their thoughts 
along a religious line, and then to see if they wanted to make 
an act of thanksgiving to Almighty God. In general, most 
of the men did want just that, ASKED for it, and the greater 
majority of them wanted to receive Holy Communion. 

When we met them at the coffee table usually a Catholic 
priest and a Protestant chaplain seated themselves with the 
man. We asked if they had been to church. They usually 
said: "On Christmas and Easter yes, but not most Sun- 
days." One man showed us some pictures he had taken with 
a camera up there — and some pictures of what he said was 



a religious ceremony. They told us that sometimes a man 
was allowed to keep his New Testament with him. I know 
of only one Catholic man who had an English missal with 
him on his return — although they had them when captured. 

Chaplain Lyons records, 

A very large percentage of the returnees requested com- 
munion: it was the first time that some of them had received 
the sacrament for 2 or more years. While prisoners they 
were permitted to hold religious services. At least that was 
true in the later months of their imprisonment. In the early 
days of the war, services were prohibited. 

Since there were no chaplains in the camps the men or- 
ganized their own services of worship. They sang hymns 
which they remembered. A few of them managed to keep 
New Testaments or Bibles, but most of them were con- 
fiscated when they were taken prisoner. The men reported 
that Chinese guards who understood English were present 
for each service and the scripture lesson as well as the hymns 
and sermon had to be cleared in advance of the service. 

Chaplain Lyons gives testimony to the fact that. 

The privilege of distributing the sacrament to these men 
will long live in my memory as one of the great thrills of my 
ministry in the service. Participating in these individual 
communion services I gained a new appreciation of the 
meaning and significance of the sacrament. 

Chaplain Rice speaks of the reports concerning 
worship, 

Some Protestant men told me the Catholics would gather 
for devotions. Other men tell us that when the rosary was 
said the Communists would break up the meeting because 



— 176- 




Thomas H. Waddill is given communion by Chaplain Vaughan Lyons at Freedom Village. 

Communists in the Reno action. 



Waddill was captured by the 



they said "we don't know what you are doing." Since 
there are captive priests admittedly, and these could have 
been made available to the Catholic men. it is apparent that 
these men were deprived of an essential element of their 
religion — namely, the administration of the sacraments by 
legitimately ordained priests. 

Some of the men made their own crosses and cruci- 
fixes by melting down the metal from their toothpaste 
and shaving cream tubes. There are a number of per- 
sonal accounts given by chaplains. Chaplain Rice tells 
how, 

One man really touched me. He sat down at the coffee 
table. I introduced the Protestant chaplain and then my- 
self as the Catholic priest. He told us that he had not been 
to the Sacraments the whole 2 years in prison. He said his 
rosary had been taken from him. He asked for a rosary and 
also to go to confession and communion. He then looked 
around, his eyes twinkled and he said: "Gee, I'm free." 
And then he filled up, sobbed heavily, and after a few sobs 
said "Gee, Father, I'm sorry I'm crying." I said "That's all 
right — I'm with you." And I'm sure those others sitting at 
the table with him were crying too. The Division chaplain. 
Chaplain Meachum, stepped up behind the man, braced the 
man's shoulder and said: "All right son, come along and 
you'll be all right." We all stood up and directed him to 
the chapel. I took him by the arm and led him to the chair 



for confession. He was then ready for communion. As he 
sat down to make his thanksgiving I gave him a rosary. He 
asked me to put it around his neck. I suppose his feeling 
was: On my neck it's more my own." Also, the rosary is an- 
other one of the signs we use to indicate the members of the 
union of communion of saints. As he stood up I put my 
arms around his shoulder and led him to the man who was 
to take him to the Army hospital just outside our tent. "I 
hope to see you back in the States," I said in farewell. 

Other Roman Catholic Chaplains were also 
serving. Chaplain Elmer F. Ernst was with Chaplain 
Rice. Chaplain Andrew J. Barry was on hand to as- 
sist where the British Commonwealth men were being 
processed. Chaplain Thomas Edwards assisted with 
other UN troops. Two other chaplains, Edward J. 
Kelly and John T. Moore participated. The Jewish 
chaplain attached to the Division at this time was 
Chaplain Murray I. Rothman. He worked along 
with the other chaplains in both "Little and Big 
Switch." 

Chaplain Lyons adds this story. 

About a month before Marines of the 5th Regiment were 
engaged in a heavy battle for three forward outposts. Out- 
post Reno and Vegas were completely overrun by the Com- 
munist forces. A few Marines were recovered from Vegas, 



— 177 — 



but there was no indication of what had become of the men 
on Reno. It was known that many of them had been 
killed and that perhaps a few had been captured. Among 
the men on Reno was a Navy Hospital corpsman from Fort 
Worth, Tex., named Thomas Waddill. About 2 weeks after 
the engagement Mrs. Waddill wrote to the regimental chap- 
lain of the 5th Marines stating that she had received a tele- 
gram from the Navy Department informing her that her 
her son was missing in action. Since there were no survivors 
from Reno it was not known what had become of any of 
the men It was believed that most or all of them had 
died, although this information was not conveyed to her. 
The chaplain's closing sentence of his reply was, "We unite 
with you in our prayer for peace and for safety of your son." 

Again Mrs. Waddill wrote a beautiful letter to the chap- 
lain in which she said, "While we still hope, it is good to 
know too that Tom enlisted in the Navy, and also volunteered 
to go with Marines to Korea because he considered it his 
duty, that he had hospital training to offer. He believed 
the war worth while." In closing she stated, "Our faith is 
in God, and in the ultimate goodness of his plans." 

The chaplain was amazed to see Corpsman Thomas Wad- 
dill walk through the line on Thursday as a returned pris- 
oner of war. Even though Mrs. Waddill was immediately 
informed that her son was returned, the chaplain wrote to 
assure her that he was well and on his way home for a happy 
day of reunion. Such are the experiences of the chaplains 
at Freedom Village. Each man has his own story to tell. 

Chaplain Rice concludes, 

To hear them tell that they did try to gather for Divine 
Service, that many of them did pray every day shows that 
these men have the elements of free men in them. They 
have initiative in them : for even now they feel that others 
worse off than they should have been released before them 
(and they so told the Commies) ; that they wanted to make 
use of confession and communion, receive a new rosary, 
say a psalm of thanksgiving, or pray with their Rabbi — 
these are real men . . . These are the men whose eyes 
lighted up when the chaplain would tell them: "This is 
'Operation Little Switch' — We hope it is the start of 'Opera- 
tion Big Switch' — and the still bigger switch to the ways of 
Peace." 

Chaplain Rice seems to express it for all the chap- 
lains when he says, "It was the most touching thing 
in my life." 

Chaplains of the Division observe the Sabbath on 
every day of the week. Among the accounts of "Con- 
tinuous Sabbath" is the one given by Chaplain Rich- 
ard G. Hutcheson, Jr., which he calls "Sunday Comes 
on Wednesday in Korea." 

Sunday comes on Wednesday at Easy Battery. The Prot- 
estant chaplain is a jeepborne circuit rider, with scheduled 
services at 1 3 different places each week. So Protestant 
church-goers at "E" Battery, 2d Battalion, 11th Marines, 
congregate at 3 o'clock on Wednesday afternoons. It makes 
little difference to them. Manning the 105-mm howitzers, 
light artillery workhorses of the 1st Marine Division, is a 
24-hour-a-day, 7-day-a-week job. Days pass in nameless 
succession for men at war. 



A jeep, identified as that of the chaplain in appropriately 
ecclesiastical Old English script, rolls into the Battery area. 
The time is 1415 on Wednesday, 22 April 1953. For Chap- 
lain R. G. Hutcheson, Jr., one of the four chaplains serving 
the 11th Marines, this is the fourth stop of the day. He 
started the morning with an early, unscheduled visit to a 
Rockets Battery, where night before last one man was killed 
and several others injured in an operational accident. From 
there to "D" Battery for a 10:30 service and for lunch in 
the new mess tent (incoming enemy artillery rounds showed 
an uncomfortable liking for the vicinity of the old one a 
couple of weeks ago!). Then on to "F" Battery for another 
service right after chow. And now "E." This will be the 
chaplain's last service of the day, but there is a Bible class 
tonight at the CP of another battalion. 

Easy's guns are quiet now, but the first glance shows that 
everyone is hard at work on the parapets and bunkers. 
Winter weather took its toll of sandbags. They were service- 
able as long as they stayed frozen, but now spring has thawed 
them and the rotten ones must be replaced quickly, the 
bunkers rebuilt. It is hard, backbreaking work. The chap- 
lain makes the round of the gun positions, stopping briefly 
to chat with the men as they work. If someone has a prob- 
lem to talk over with him an appointment is arranged after 
the service. At Gun No. 1 work on the parapet has been 
completed and several of the men are taking a break. The 
chaplain sits down to visit. S. Sgt. Stuart H. Floyd of 
Chester, Ga. — a member of the First Baptist Church there — 
wonders if the chaplain has heard how many sick and 
wounded Marines have been returned at Panmunjom so far. 
What about their physical condition? What have they said 
about the treatment they received from the Chinese? The 
talk goes on from there to a discussion of the possibility of 
a truce, and then to rotation. All topics lead eventually 
to rotation! 

It is 10 minutes till 3, and the chaplain walks up to the 
mess tent, now converted into a chapel. Sergeant Floyd, a 
regular churchgoer, says he will be on up in a few minutes. 
A look inside the tent shows that everything is ready. Pfc. 
Kenneth L. Terrell of Des Moines, Iowa, a future Baptist 
minister and now a very capable chaplain's assistant, has 
been hard at work. The portable altar kit has been brought 
in from the jeep and arranged on a mess table at one end. 
Benches have been placed in front of it, between the tables. 
The folding organ is open, in its place to the left of the altar. 
Hymnals are on the benches. 

Pfc. Edward J. Evans, of Trenton, N.J., has arrived early 
for a few words with the chaplain before the service starts. 
Last Wednesday Eddie was baptized, and a letter is now on 
the way to Ewing Township Presbyterian Church in Tren- 
ton, asking that he be received into membership. His wife is 
already a member, and he hopes, sometime after next Octo- 
ber, to walk into that church with a brand new baby to be 
baptized! Eddie has been reading his Bible regularly, and 
he has come across a passage in St. Matthew that he doesn't 
entirely understand. After a few minutes' discussion its 
meaning is cleared up. 

The congregation is arriving now. As the men take their 
seats rifles are laid aside, but kept close at hand as regulations 
require. Attendance is small today. Most of the regulars 
are present, though. S. Sgt. Philip L. Foss, of the Elm St. 
Methodist Church in South Portland, Maine . . . Phil was 



178 — 



very active in his home church. President of the Youth Fel- 
lowship at one time, and secretary-treasurer of the Sunday 
School. Cpl. Allen N. Turner, of Statesville, N.C. — former 
Sunday School superintendent at Pleasant Grove Presbyte- 
rian Church. Cpl. Samuel M. Baer, member of the Lu- 
theran Church in Watsonville. Calif. Cpl. Samuel B. Fielder, 
Jr., of Bel Air, Md., where he belongs to Mount Zion Meth- 
odist Church, Cpl. Gayle E. Bracken of Mundy's Corner, 
Pa., member of Pike Brethren Church. Pfc. Harrison C. 
Grimes — not a church member at present, but thinking of 
joining — a future Baptist. 

The service opens, as usual, with hymns requested by the 
men. Today the first request is for "Jesus Calls Us, O'er 
the Tumult." Then "Stand Up, Stand Up for Jesus"; "I 
Love to Tell the Story"; "Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Al- 
mighty" ; and "Rock of Ages, Cleft for Me." Nobody asks 
for "The Old Rugged Cross" today, although that one is 
seldom overlooked ! 

Time for hymn singing is about up, and the more formal 
part of the service begins with a responsive reading. Today's 
selection is entitled "Trust in the Lord" — part of the 63d 
Psalm. During the reading the guns of the Battery, silent 
until now, open up with a "Battery one." Temporarily the 
voices are drowned out. The worshipers are conscious of the 
fact that outside the tent their buddies in the parapets are 
still fighting a war; that a few thousand yards to the north 
are the Chinese Communists who will be on the receiving end 
of the rounds that just left the guns; that a few miles to the 
west sick and wounded prisoners are being exchanged at Pan- 
munjom; that truce talks will reopen there on Saturday, in 
a renewed attempt to end the war which is all around — 
which, in this service of worship to Almighty God is so far 
away, yet so very close. The service continues with prayers, 
a Scripture reading from the Book of Job. The chaplain, 
in his sermon, talks about the way Job met tragedy and suf- 
fering in his life. He knows that one of the buddies of the 
men present was killed 2 weeks ago and that they felt it 
deeply; he knows that before rotation date rolls around oth- 



ers may be touched by tragedy. The sermon is designed to 
show that in a firm faith men find their greatest strength 
to meet life's hardships. The men sing "Faith of Our 
Fathers" as the service closes, and as always they sing 
heartily. After the benediction they pick up their rifles, 
shake hands with the chaplain, and return to the guns. Ser- 
geant Foss sticks around for a minute. He has just received 
the first pictures of his brand new daughter — taken 12 hours 
after she was born, on April 3d — and he wants the chaplain 
to see them. He is very proud of her, and he has a right 
to be. 

A few minutes and the church is folded up, packed away 
in the jeep. The tent is once more a mess hall. Sunday is 
over, and it is Wednesday again at Easy Battery. But for a 
short time 11 men, from 10 States, from 7 denominations, 
have been a Christian Church. It happens hundreds of 
times every day, in the 1st Marine Division and all across 
the Korean front. It is a commonplace, a normal part of 
service life. But it is a source of pride, too, this knowledge 
that wherever the American Soldier, Sailor, Airman, or Ma- 
rine is, there the Christian Church is. 

About this time Chaplain Kenneth D. Killin was 
awarded a Letter of Commendation for the period 26 
November to 20 April 1953. Chaplain Killin is de- 
scribed as one who constantly disregarded his personal 
safety and comfort "in order to minister aid and com- 
fort to the wounded . . . His determined efforts and 
selfless devotion to duty served as a constant inspira- 
tion to all who observed him." 

The 1st Marine Air Wing 

The chaplains continued their fine work at the 1st 
Marine Air Wing. There were few changes in 
the Roster of Chaplains. Chaplains F. P. 
O'Malley and J. F. Cloonon, Roman Catholics, were 



MAG 12 Chapel (Exterior). 

This chapel was located at K-6, south of Seoul. Note the 
sandbags on the roof placed there to protect the roof against 
high winds. 



MAG 33 Chapel. 

Using flat stone from the ocean floor on the east coast of 
Korea this chapel located at Pohang (K-3) has a striking 
appearance. The bell was specially cast in Taegu and was 
paid for by selling fertilizer bags from the air strip. 




:,::. -.::r, 2 O— 60 13 



179- 




Monthly Meeting. 

Chaplain Parker dressed in Korean garb welcomes Brig. Gen. Alexander W. Kreiser, Jr., assistant commanding general of 
the 1st MAW. The other chaplains do not appear to be overburdened although they are equipped to "carry the load." 
Other than Chaplain Parker and the general those pictured here are: Chaplain J. H. Lampe; Col. Samuel S. Jack, 
Chief of Staff; Chaplains G. J. Clark; E. C. Mulligan; E. R. Lineberger; and J. W. Paul. 



on board prior to 6 January. They were assigned to 
MAG 12 and Hedron 1 respectively. Publicity and 
citations acknowledged the accomplishments of the 
chaplains. Noteworthy is the award of the Bronze 
Star to Chaplain Paul J. La Duca covering the period 
29 January to 21 December. Besides traveling over 
hazardous terrain in subzero weather to minister to 
his own men, the chaplain 

directed the members of his congregation in helping the 
orphans of the area and assisted in providing aid to 2 
destitute orphanages with a total enrollment of approxi- 
mately 250 children, thereby implementing the work of 
agencies concerned with creating a strong feeling of 
friendship to those in need. 



Chaplain Parker wrote on 6 December referring to 
the Marine Memorial Orphanage at Pohangdong 
and of the Eden Marine Orphanage at MAG 12. He 
also stated that during the 8 months that he had been 
in Korea that he had distributed 24 tons of clothing 
from the States. "The Post Office men are often angry 
because of the weight of the packages. The Com- 
manding General has requested me to keep his jeep 
loaded with bundles of clothes so he can pass them 
out to the Korean naked." He further stated that a 
film called "Operation Orphans" was made for TV. 
"At no other time in my naval career have I had such 
an opportunity to help suffering humanity," he af- 
firmed. 



— 180 — 




Visitor. 
Francis Cardinal Spellman with Chaplain Mulligan and Chaplain Parker during his Christmas visit to K-3 in 1952. 

Christmas Scene. 

Chaplain Twitchell, FMF, Pac, Chaplain, stands with Chaplain O'Malley and Chaplain Parker beside the wing chapel 

nativity scene. 




181 



Chaplain M. H. Twitchell, FMF chaplain, visited 
the Wing and the Division the last of December and 
the first of January. 

It is noted in the later award of his Commenda- 
tion Ribbon that Chaplain Edwin C. O'Malley was re- 
sponsible "for the inspirational appearance of His 
Eminence, Francis Cardinal Spellman before Wing 
personnel on 31 December 1952." 

Chaplain J. H. Lampe cites the Christmas party of 
1952 as an outstanding experience. MAG 12 had 
on board, 400 orphans from 4 different orphanages, 
which they supported. They each received gifts and 
saw Santa, but ". . . the tremendously important 
thing was that the men got to see or care for these 
children as if they were their own . . . and these chil- 
dren had a firsthand experience of being cared for 
by someone who, for the moment, was a real "daddy." 
It was more than the giving of gifts — it was the giving 
of themselves and their love that made the experience 
a vital, living thing for all concerned." 

Articles appeared in the Ladies Home journal 1 and 
the National Geographic Magazines 3 concerning the 
work of the unit with orphans. The former article 
described "Operation Kidlift" and told about the work 
of Marines at Kangnung, and presented the part 
played by Chaplains — Weidler and La Duca. 9 A TV 
film was produced to present the story of the MAG-12 
orphanage at Kecksa-ri. By this time the Marine 
Memorial Orphanage at Pohangdong has 6 buildings 
and 5,700 pyong of ricelands (a pyong is 36 square 
feet) . The MAW also took over the support of an 
orphanage at Pyongtaek, 40 miles south of Seoul. 
Chaplain O'Malley noted on 3 March that a number 
of the Roman Catholic chaplains were about to go on 
a retreat to Seoul for a Day of Recollection. 

Chaplain Fenstermacher, assigned to the Gun Bat- 
talion and the H&S Battery in Pusan, found that it 
was much better to have services on weekdays rather 
than to try to serve all batteries on Sunday. It ". . . 
permitted me more time (for) visiting and counselling 
with the men at the batteries both on Sunday and 
weekdays." 

By this time the Wing has five chapels constructed. 

Forces Afloat 

No vessels of our forces were sunk during the period 
under consideration, although previously, in August, 
the tug SARSI, was sunk by a mine resulting in nine 
casualties. There was an increase in antiaircraft fire 



1 Ladies Home Journal, December 1952. 

3 National Geographic Magazine, February 1953. 

"Cp. p. 227f. 



and for the period 1 June 1952 to 31 May 1953 Ma- 
rine and naval units lost 170 aircraft from that source, 
but only three were lost in aerial combat. There was 
enough action on ORISKANY for the chaplain to 
have the problem of where Mass should be held. 
Chaplain G. J. Barras states, "The wardroom was 
used for the first Mass at 0800 to the accompaniment 
of launching planes and bouncing bombs." They 
moved below to the crew's lounge for the remaining 
two masses though at times they moved down even 
one more deck. 

Chaplain Warren L. Wolf was cited (in lieu of a 
Bronze Star) for his work aboard the BADOENG 
STRAIT. Many fine things are said about this chap- 
lain including "While in the Yellow Sea, this officer 
conducted services on numerous United Nations ships 
of the screening element in addition to those on his 
own ship, which services . . . were invariably well 
received by his hosts." Chaplain Wolf indicates that 
he felt like "the Bishop of the Yellow Sea as I serv- 
iced Canadian, British, and American Destroyers. 
The Dutch could not use me as my German was too 
out of date." He also indicates an improvement at 
the staging area, Sasebo, and states that Chaplains 
Lonergan and Brink, who were stationed there, were 
very helpful. Chaplain Walsh relieved the former 1 
April. 

A number of chaplains in the Fleet note the zeal of 
their personnel for religious administrations. It is 
evident that the chaplains were doing a great deal to 
accept the challenge thus presented. As in previous 
periods the ships' companies were awake to the needs 
of others and contributed generously to worthy causes 
both in America and in Korea. 

The hospital ships the REPOSE, HAVEN, and the 
CONSOLATION continued to carry out their mis- 
sions of mercy. They too expressed an interest in the 
orphans in Korea. 

MSTS 

A number of chaplains continued to serve with 
MSTS. Their reactions to their duty is of great inter- 
est. Chaplain John W. Robb pointed out that the 
ship's primary function was transporting troops to the 
war area. He felt the importance of not "preying 
upon the fears of the men, but rather in making a con- 
structive religious appeal." 

Chaplain Reginald A. Berry tells of the cooperation 
of the Commanders of the Military Departments 
aboard the ships on which he had served. He tells 
how the executive officer of the Military Department 
of the USNS Gen. D. E. AULTMAN held Roman 



182 — 



Catholic Rosaiy Services when Catholic Chaplains 
were unavailable. Chaplain James R. Spaid tells of 
the reaction of some commanding officers to the work 
of chaplains. He affirms that several commanding 
officers stated that until they came to transport duty 
and saw the program of chaplains working under 
them, they had not realized the importance of the 
chaplains in the military organization and have thus 
given them including himself, their full and complete 
cooperation. 

Chaplain Spaid also tells of an Army lieutenant who 
had come 

. . . aboard for a voyage to Korea who had no use for the 
Church and anything it stood for due to some unfortunate 
experiences his family had had in his younger days. He 
stated that he had given chaplains a "hard time" at every 
opportunity. Upon his seeing our full schedule of daily 
services for almost every faith, the schedule for Bible classes, 
choir practices etc., he decided to check in on a few and talk 
a little with the men hoping to aggravate them a bit and 
knock the program apart. About half way out from the 
States this officer took sick for the first time in his life and 
called for me and in the course of our conversation he un- 
covered his plan, but he admitted it had utterly failed for 
he said he had absolutely no success in discouraging the men 
attending these various activities; in fact, he felt himself 
being influenced by the services. So he saw me each day 
for a period of instruction and I don't believe he missed a 
single daily service after that for the balance of the trip. 
I wrote his wife at the officer's request, in relation to his 
decision which made her most happy and inspired her to get 
back in active work in her former church. I thought it 
might be a temporary thing, but I have the word of the Port 
Chaplain at Pusan, Korea that this officer during his rutin 
stay in Korea was one of his most loyal supporters and was 
very active in assisting the chaplain there. The officer now 
has returned to the States and now I have had several let- 
ters from them stating that they feel that their decision has 
brought a closeness in their lives they have never before 
experienced. 

Each voyage of an MSTS ship is a new experience. 
New leadership is sought and found. Chaplain Spaid 
speaks of his volunteers, saying, 

. . . the most glory is due those many young men who vol- 
unteered their services to assist me in the entire program. 
Those men who played the organ, directed our many choirs, 
those who sang solos, who did the ushering, who assisted in 
the libraries as well as the religious services as well as those 
who actually conducted rosaries. Bible classes etc.. did a 
magnificent job in the making of our program possible. 
Without them we would never have been able to have such 
a complete program. On transports, we have a very mini- 
mum of our own personnel and as a result our congregations 
are different each trip: these volunteers did an invaluable 
piece of work and certainly should be recognized for their 
most unselfish efforts. 

Chaplain Nelson speaks of the Bible study class as 



the best source for Sunday School teachers and choir 
members. 

Chaplain Spaid says concerning the variety of 
services, 

It was nothing unusual to have Protestant, Catholic, Jew- 
ish, Latter Day Saints, Christian Science, Pentecostal, 
Seventh Day Adventist (and even Mohammedan on one 
trip) and others . . . held on one day. Catholic and 
Protestant services are held daily and many of the other 
groups especially the L.D.S. had services on a daily basis. 
In addition to the services, Bible classes and instruction 
classes were conducted daily along with daily choir practices. 

Chaplain Nelson reports on counseling stating that 
it varies greatly, depending on whether a person is 
going to Korean waters or away from them. Sex ed- 
ucation, marriage, and family life were the emphasis 
on the way out. On the way back the main emphasis 
was on civil readjustment. He also speaks on counsel- 
ing men who are interested in full time or part time 
religious vocations. Chaplain Jesse D. Harder also 
confirms the latter stating that "Several men have in- 
dicated their desire to become chaplains. A number 
of men want to become chaplain's assistants." From 
the reports of the chaplains it would appear that char- 
acter education lectures were held aboard MSTS ves- 
sels and were well received. Collateral duties were as 
numerous as ever. Chaplain Nelson says that in the 
Special Services program alone, "On some trips we 
have as high as 50 members of ship's company and 
troop personnel under our supervision." From the 
listing of activities aboard his ship it would appear 
that Chaplain Peter J. Matron would need as much 
help as Chaplain Nelson had. 

Chaplain Rauzelle M. Johnson tells of a voyage on 
an ocean that was "pacific" in name only. In fact he 
was packing his congregation in. He recalls that, 

The chapel area was filled. The ship took a roll while 
we were reading the responsive reading ; we had to stop the 
reading. A crowded chapel was about half full since the 
men were sliding from side to side. When the reading was 
resumed the chaplain read: "Arise, O Lord." And the 
congregation read: "And save me. (). my God." And they 
meant every word of it. The normal trip took 12 days; 
this one took 19 days. 

Chaplain Norman B. Holmes calls attention to his 
2-year shipboard duty serving the Korean theater as 
marking "the first time in more than 25 years that a 
Christian Science Navy Chaplain has served afloat and 
in combat waters." It also appears that Chaplain 
Holmes was the second chaplain of his affiliation to 
serve in the naval chaplaincy. Concerning services 
aboard his ship. Chaplain Holmes reports, 



183 



Aboard each ship my primary duty was to provide for the 
spiritual welfare of all embarked personnel. To this end I 
conducted Sunday and daily Protestant Church services un- 
derway with one Communion service each outbound and 
inbound voyage. In addition Sunday and daily Roman 
Catholic Rosary services were arranged for personnel of that 
faith whenever there was no passenger Catholic chaplain 
available to hold Mass. Furthermore, services were ar- 
ranged weekly for personnel of the Latter Day Saints and 
Jewish faiths. Finally, since I am a member of the Chris- 
tian Science Church, I also conducted Sunday and midweek 
Christian Science services. 

Chaplain of the Year, B'nai B'rith 

On 12 February 1953 Chaplain Robert D. Goodill 
was serving on the GEORGE CLYMER when 75 
miles away the SS PRESIDENT PIERCE was shaken 
by a blast after which fire broke out on the vessel. 
While the CLYMER was hastening to assist the 
stricken ship the chaplain asked for and received per- 



mission to board the vessel upon arrival. It took 5 
hours to arrive on the scene. Meanwhile some of the 
injured had been transferred to the BARRETT. The 
PIERCE was determined to continue on course but 
requested a fire-fighting party. At 0300 Chaplain 
Goodill was the first to board the vessel. He headed 
to the scene of action where a hatch had been blown 
completely open. He assisted in fighting the fire 
which was consuming' part of the cargo of oxygen 
tanks, rubber tires, and other inflammable material. 
Learning of casualties he went to minister unto them. 
Later he attempted to go to the BARRETT as he 
was informed that one of the men taken aboard had 
died. He notified the Captain of the PIERCE of 
this loss and returned to the wounded. He "offered 
spiritual consolations to the sufferers regardless of 
their religious affiliations." He subsequently was des- 
ignated as "Navy Chaplain of the Year," for 1953 by 
the Chaplain A. D. Goode Lodge of B'nai B'rith. 



— 184 — 



CHAPTER TEN 
KOREAN DEFENSE 

Summer and Fall 1953 
1 May-27 July 1953 



After the prisoners had been exchanged in the 
"Little Switch" Operation the UN representatives on 
26 April began full negotiations for an Armistice. The 
problem had been made difficult by the refusal of 
114,500 Chinese and 340,000 North Koreans to return 
to their homeland. It was further complicated by 
the Communists insisting that they be returned to them 
even if force had to be used. 

The war was "stepped up" late in May and by the 
first of June whenever truce prospects brightened the 
enemy would increase his efforts to gain ground along 
the MLR (Main Line of Resistance). A number of 
outposts changed hands with no appreciable change 
occurring in the territory held by either side. The 
attacks ranged from company to division size with the 
heaviest concentration located in the eastern sector. 
Anchor Hill and Hill 812 passed into enemy hands 
in late May and early June. Heavy action followed 
in the central sector. The ROK forces were pushed 
back in several areas, and the Fleet was called to sup- 
port them. The ships involved in this support action 
were the BOXER. LAKE CHAMPLAIN, PHILIP- 
PINE SEA, and the PRINCETON. One of the heav- 
iest bombardments of the war occurred in the effort to 
recapture Anchor Hill. The NEW JERSEY, BREM- 
ERTON, MANCHESTER and the ST. PAUL as- 
sisted in this action. 

It was evident as early as the end of the first week 
of June that the anticipated terms of the Armistice 
which involved a divided Korea did not please Presi- 
dent Rhee. He asserted that the South Koreans 
would fight to the bitter end for a United Korea. 
This feeling of discontent erupted in demonstrations 
staged by the South Koreans on 26 June. Seemingly 
in reply to these demonstrations the Communists 
launched one of their heaviest attacks of the war. 
They struck with 6 divisions on 13 July using 80,000 
troops against 60,000 ROK soldiers on a 20 mile front. 
The South Koreans were pushed back as much as 7 



miles. In support of the ROK forces over 500 sorties 
were flown daily by the Fleet aircraft. 

The "East Berlin" attack occurred on Sunday night, 
19 July. It was preceded by a Communist concert 
of Chinese and American music after which at 2030 
the Chinese attacked with 1,500 troops. Rather bitter 
fighting followed. On the 24th "Boulder City" was 
under attack. The next day what was called a "flare- 
up" took place at Outpost Esther and at the Berlin 
complex. It was on this occasion that the 5th and 
7th Marines repulsed a 3,000 man attack. 

Fleet action continued until the cease fire with the 
ST. PAUL firing the last round of the war at sea 
at 2159, 27 July 1953. Peace had come but only 
after 136,862 American casualties of which 24,386 
had been killed or died of wounds. A bugler sounded 
"Taps" at the 1st Marine Division. 

The 1st Marine Division 

The 1st Division was removed from the line 4 May 
1953 after 20 months of fighting. On the 29th they 
returned to repulse a 2-day attack by the Communists. 
They were again returned to reserve on 5 June and 
remained there until 8 July when they were ordered 
into the sector previously manned by the 25th Infantry 
and in time for "Berlin." It was about 2 weeks later 
that "Boulder City," the last major action of the war, 
took place. 

The Chief of Chaplain's Visit 

One of the important events during this period of 
"Korean Defense" was the visit of the newly appointed 
Chief of Chaplains. 

On 16 May Chaplain Edward B. Harp, Jr., Rear 
Admiral, left Washington for the Far East. He was 
accompanied by Chaplain Joseph P. Mannion, Assist- 
ant Director of the Division. At Pearl Harbor Chap- 
lain Warren F. Cuthriell, Fleet Chaplain, joined the 
group. Most of the 200 chaplains in the Pacific Ocean 
area were visited. Chaplain Harp brought the Me- 



185 — 




Chief of Chaplains Visits. 

A number of chaplains accompany the chief of chaplains on his visit to the 1st Marine Division, on 29 May 1953. Pictured 
here are (left to right) Chaplain Bak Jong Won, Korean Marine Corps; Chaplain W. F. Cuthriell, Pacific Fleet; Rear 
Adm. E. B. Harp, chief of chaplains; Chaplain J. P. Mannion, assistant. Chaplains Division; Chaplain Kim Dole Son, 
Navy chaplain with Korean Marines; Chaplain D. J. Silvers, COMNAFE; Chaplain J. A. Whitman, COMNAFE ; and the 
division chaplain, L. W. Meachum. 



mortal Day Message at the 1st Marine Division. 
These words of Chaplain Harp deserve attention: 

... let me hasten to say that there is ample justification 
for your presence here in Korea. No — it's not for political 
or economic reasons, as we might be tempted to feel at times. 
This conflict here is not an isolated incident far removed 
from the rest of the world. On the contrary, this might be 
one of the last bastions upon which hangs the very fate of 
our western civilization. 

You are here because Communism is endeavoring to engulf 
the world. It is no more or less than that. For a long time 
too many of us have maintained a stubborn blindness — too 
many have gravely underestimated the diabolical forces which 
the Communists have let loose upon our world. It's hardly- 
necessary for me to tell you that we are not up against some- 
thing superficial, but something that is critical and profound. 
We are up against a way of life, a philosophy, yes — a reli- 
gion, if you will — which seeks to destroy the very concept 
of God — all personal freedom and thereby enslave the whole 
human race. And no where are we in closer grip with this 
force than right here in Korea. 



What happens here and the ultimate decisions that will be 
made, may very easily determine the very fate of our civi- 
lization — of our way of life, possibly for generations to come. 
It is for this that our departed heroes — those whom we are 
now honoring — have fought and have died. 

Chaplain Harp was told by General Pollock, the 
commanding general, that the chaplain is one of the 
most important persons in the Division. 

The Chief of Chaplains returned to Washington on 
10 June, expressing his gratitude for the fine work of 
the chaplains he had visited and for the keen interest 
in and support of the programs of chaplains on the 
part of commanding officers. He found an increased 
emphasis being placed upon the Character Education 
program. He felt that the morale of military person- 
nel was excellent. 
"Battle Reports" 

Chaplain Meachum in a letter of 23 June notes 
that General Pate cut the ribbon and made a speech 



— 186 — 



at the dedication of the new division chapel the pre- 
vious Sunday. On 25 July he writes : 

We hope we are just through winding up another hasse] ' 
that started early last night. The 7th Regiment took another 
beating, along with some elements of the 1st and the 5th 
Regiments. I was up all night visiting the medical com- 
panies and supervising the assignment and work of chaplains. 
A few casualties were expected to arrive late at the medical 
companies when I left at noon. 

The infantry chaplains are doing a superb job in their 
battalion aid stations. Chaplains attached to separate bat- 
talions are relieving the medical battalion chaplains to give 
constant coverage in the medical companies. These are the 
worst "clobbered" of any hassel since I've been out here. 
We are having many head and chest casualties, and many 
arm and leg amputations. 

The last accounts of the battle action are given by 
several chaplains. Chaplain Peter J. Bakker, Ameri- 
can Baptist, tells something of the fighting as seen in 
his sector: 

On the 7th of July we moved on the line in the Chang 
Dang sector, just north of Seoul, and had our camp at the 
foot of Hill 229. Berlin and Esther were on our right flank. 
My opportunities were practically limitless. I held two or 
three services a day with the men right on the Main Line 
of Resistance, and in front of it on the Outpost. This re- 
quired a good deal of hiking, but that never hurt anyone. 
The services were small, but very profitable. 

The enemy — Luke as we call him — 3 years ago we called 
them — "Gooks" apparently did not always appreciate the 
services. We had just finished a service in the Easy Com- 
pany area when 13 or 14 76 shells came flying in on us. 
The men holler: "Chink on the way", and everyone ducks 
into a bunker, and it is quite an experience . . . especially 
with a large quantity of Napalm stored near by. 

Some may say that it just happened that way, but I be- 
lieve it was God's guidance and protection. Early one after- 
noon my driver, Pfc. B. Holloway, and I were on our way 
down the Panmunjom road for a service when I noticed an 
outpost some distance in front of the MLR, and wondered 
who was up there. We investigated, and found a group of 
Korean Marines, and a group of Marines from another regi- 
ment. They said that they did not have a service for 3 
months. We had a wonderful time — including songs by the 
Koreans, and preaching to them through an interpreter. We 
then proceeded to our original point, and found that while 
we were at the service, many "rounds" landed on and around 
the bunker where we were going to hold our service. 

Our first Marine to be hit last month was the result of a 
mortar blast — hitting the man, Private (First Class) Hansen 
in the chin, neck and left arm. One of our corpsman was 
hit about the same time by a mortar. Our first KIA (killed 
in action) was a Lieutenant Stumbo from Lancer, Ky. A 
mortar blast hit right over him, and a deep gash right be- 
hind the ear did the damage. I had a memorial service for 
him by the Battalion Aid Station, just after he was hit, with 
his commanding officer and fellow officers paying their last 
respects to a fine Marine. 



1 Boulder City. 



Land mines proved to be a continual source of trouble. 
Our patrols were continually stepping on them, and the 
terrific blast that it gives a man in the legs is anything but 
pretty. We lost quite a few legs because of them. I had 
the opportunity on several occasions to help carry some of 
these men back up the hills after they were wounded. God 
was merciful in particular with two of these men — one Al- 
fred Kalinowski, sergeant, had his leg in a horrible condi- 
tion. The corpsman did a wonderful job in stopping the 
flow of blood, and even though he lost a leg, he is coming 
along nicely. Another lad, a big colored boy, stepped on a 
mine, and has lost both of his legs, but is coming along in 
good shape. 

One of our patrols going out to hill No. 90 was ambushed 
about 10 p.m. Reinforcements were sent out, and another 
group had to be sent out to retrieve that angel squad. We 
were busy ministering to the wounded all that night, and 
on through the morning. We only were able to get two of 
the KIA's, and I had the privilege of taking them back to 
our C.P. During the next day we spotted five more dead 
lying on the hill, but were unable to go out and pick them 
up as Luke had the entire area zeroed in. That evening 
the funeral procession went to pick up the fallen Marines. 
We plastered the surrounding area with outgoing of various 
kinds. The men made a sweep of the hill, picked up seven 
valiant Marines. I proceeded with a squad of men to the 
bottom of the hill and helped carry those seven out to the 
Panmunjom road and safety. As you may observe, we were 
right adjacent to the Panmunjom area with its no fire zones, 
etc. As I rode back to our Command Post in an APC (ar- 
mored personnel cargo) vehicle, I prayed for the next of kin 
of each one, and remembered that each one was dear to God, 
and to an entire circle of loved ones at home. Right behind 
our procession, Luke was blasting our trail with mortars. 

Late one evening we received the word that some men on 
our left flank had received some mortar blasts. I carried one, 
George Hallabaugh, Jr., from Billings, Mont., into the aid 
station. He had just received a chest wound, and Dr. Roger 
Milnes asked for a copter to take him to the Medical Bat- 
talion. We carried George up the hill to the copter strip and 
waited for the helicopter. I was holding George's hand, talk- 
ing to him, and praying for him. After assisting him in the 
copter I gave him a parting prayer, and told him everything 
would be all right, and closed the door. We all skooted 
down a small bank, hid our eyes from the dust and heard 
the copter take off, only to sputter and then saw this horrible 
crash with several flashes of light. We raced the 20 yards 
to the copter, and I saw three people — two inside the plane, 
and one pinned underneath. I asked where the third man 
came from, and someone said, "He's one of the guards." Two 
guards, who had just joined the outfit, were guarding the 
road, and the crash caught both of them, killing them in- 
stantly. We got George and the pilot, who were both un- 
conscious, out of the copter. George now had his forehead 
split somewhat. Another copter was ordered and George 
was flown out to Able Med. for treatment, and the pilot who 
was all right was sent out by ambulance (crackerbox). We 
had a memorial service for the two men killed: Pfc. Floyd 
McCoy and Pfc. Delton Mclnnis, the next morning which 
was Sunday. 

Concerning the helicopter accident and other inci- 



187 




Worship on the Front. 

Chaplain John T. Moore who is pictured here states that this picture was taken during the bitter fighting for "Berlin and 
East Berlin" outposts just before the truce in Korea. Several of the marines who received communion were killed the 
same day. 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, suffered 450 alone. 



Chaplain and Men Before Battle. 
A chaplain and marines pause for a moment of prayer before going to battle during the fight for "Boulder City. 




— 188 



dents, Bakker's citation for a Letter of Commendation 
has this to say about the chaplain himself. 

Exhibiting personal courage and initiative, he conducted 
religious services in front line trenches, bunkers and platoon 
areas. Expressing complete disregard for his personal safety 
he frequently exposed himself to enemy mortar and artillery 
fire to conduct religious services on the main line of resistance 
for the marines manning combat outposts. On one occasion, 
when a helicopter evacuating a seriously wounded marine 
crashed, he personally removed the wounded man, the in- 
jured pilot and the bodies of two sentries killed in the crash. 

Chaplain John T. Moore, Roman Catholic, sent 
some action photographs of the fighting around the 
"Berlin and East Berlin" outposts. He stated that 
some of the Marines who received Communion were 
killed the same day. He states that the ". . . 3-7, 1st 
Mar Div suffered 450 casualties alone." 

Chaplain Homer L. Schnick, Southern Baptist, has 
this to say : 

With Chaplain Paul C. Hammerl, I visited the wounded 
at "E" Medical Company during the last serious fighting 
before the truce in July 1953. A sober sense of the awful 
reality of war surrounded the room where the men were being 
brought in — ambulatory and stretcher cases. One young 
fellow I'll never forget. He was muddy and wet and in 
considerable pain and discomfort. Being thirsty, he asked 
for a drink. After a corpsman got some wet pads for me, 
I cleaned around his mouth, eyes and ears (the mud was 
caked in his ears) and applied the pad of water to his lips. 
In talking with him, I learned that after he was wounded, 
he had been dragged up and down the muddy trench line 
by the Communists before being rescued by men of his 
outfit. The shock was most evident as the men were first 
brought in, but it was amazing to see the men return to 
normalcy so rapidly in the succeeding days that we visited 
them. One felt a real sense of mission as he assisted the 
doctors and corpsmen in their busy times. Once, when talk- 
ing with one of the doctors, he said that he didn't know 
whether he could take much more or not. It was good to 
be able to be there just to talk with them. No door was 
closed to the chaplain. He was well received and was an 
integral part of the team. 

Chaplain Robert E. Brengartner tells of a Navy 
Chief Corpsman who was so impressed by the peace 
and joy which the Sacraments brought to the wounded 
that he himself took instructions and was received 
into the church. 

Chaplain Brengartner is later awarded the Letter 
of Commendation with "Metal Pendant and Combat 
Distinguishing Device" authorized. In the citation 
are found these words: 

During the period when the battalion was engaged in 
extensive combat operations against the enemy, he contin- 
uously worked long and arduous hours, frequently under 
intense enemy shelling in order to provide comfort and aid 
to the sick and wounded. His courage and determination 



in helping to evacuate and in tendering spiritual consolation 
to the severely wounded men won the admiration and confi- 
dence of all who served with him. 

The following incident demonstrates the type of 
work done by the chaplains, 

Assisted by a four-man Marine squad Lt. Robert E. Bren- 
gartner, CHC, USN, led in the dramatic rescue of a 
wounded Puerto Rican Marine left in no man's land, Korea, 
by Chinese Red captors. 

After a Chinese loudspeaker boomed to United Nations 
forces that a "squad would be allowed to remove the soldier 
without being fired upon," Chaplain Brengartner led the 
Marines toward the victim. Despite his wounds the Marine 
tried twice to walk to the Allied line, but collapsed. 

On reaching the man, Father Brengartner gave him Ab- 
solution. The Marine, clad only in winter underwear and 
a sweater stuffed with Red propaganda leaflets, was clutching 
his Rosary Beads. The Chinese covered the area with their 
rifles but did not fire as the rescuers took him to the Allied 
line. 

The Truce 

Chaplain Bakker - writes concerning the last day 
of the war: 

I WAS THERE— THE SIGNING OF THE TRUCE 

On Monday morning of 27 July at 10 o'clock General 
Harrison walked into the Truce Pagoda which we had 
watched during its construction from our outpost, sat down, 
and signed the truce. Folks — I was there. I decided that 
two-fifths ought to be represented, as I came over with the 
brigade 3 years ago, and so was present. I sat in the chair 
that the general sat in, and had my picture taken. I also 
got shots of the general, the pen he used (a Parker 51), and 
surrounding areas. It was quiet, semitense, nondramatir 
and yet deeply historical. When our grandchildren study 
about it in school — you tell them, Uncle Peter, and Grandpa 
Pete was there. 

The look, and feeling of utter contempt that the Chinese 
Communists have for us is something to see. I felt like 
decking the entire group of them. The hatred in their 
eyes seems to stem from the bottom of their high top boots. 

Chaplain Hutcheson states that "Three out of four 
'Services of Thanksgiving for Peace Restored,' con- 
ducted on the day the Korean Armistice was signed 
(during 12-hour period between signing and effective 
hour) were interrupted by incoming artillery fin!'' 

Chaplain Meachum was asked for a statement for 
the press : 

He wanted my reaction to the truce which had been 
signed a short distance up the road at Pan-Munjan. My 
first reaction was: Thank God this "Meat grinder" has 
stopped. The more I thought, the harder it was for me to 
give a short concise statement. 

Briefly I would like to write a few thoughts and reactions. 



2 Chaplain Bakker is known among other things for his 
ability as a wrestler. He at one time asserted that he found 
a better counseling relationship after wrestling with a man. 



189 



First, I thought of our front line troops who have been 
fighting in the Division in Korea since August 3, 1950. Of 
course, many who fought with this Division have gone home. 
Such places as Inchon, Chosen Basin, Seoul, Pusan Perim- 
eter. In these places the Marines fought a moving war, but 
on March 15, 1952, this Division moved from the east coast 
to the west coast of the 155 mile battle front and relieved 
the ROKs about 30 miles north west of Seoul with Pan- 
Munjan located in the center of our front. 

Here we have fought a bloody, vicious, trench, bunker, 
and outpost stalemate. Patrols went out in front of the 
Main Line of Resistance each night. Artillery pounded and 
planes rained fire on the enemy around the clock until 10 
p.m., July 27, 1953. The last 27 days of fighting were as 
vicious as any battles previously fought. 

I went to a battalion command post on the 27th to visit 
Chaplain E. O. Floyd. While talking to him, a young Ma- 
rine who was muddy and tired walked up to us and asked 
for communion. His request was from a heart of gratitude 
that the firing had stopped. 

At another battalion, I found Chaplain C. P. Hoff wet 
with perspiration at the close of a thanksgiving service. In 
the same chapel where he had conducted his service, Chap- 
lain R. E. Brengartner was holding Mass. And so it was 
with other chaplains all along the line. 

For the officers and men there was rest and sleep) — a 
chance to bathe and wash clothes. Yet they know that the 
job here is not over until the terms of the truce have been 
effected. 

Second, I thought of answered prayers. Here is a quote 
from a letter which I picked up on the battle front: "I would 
love to see you tonight. Well, Ray, you be good and pray. 
I am praying for you every day and night for the dear Lord 
to watch over you and take care of you and bring you back 
home safe and all right. The dear Lord is good and He 
will hear and answer prayers if we have faith in Him and put 
our trust in Him. Love, Mother." 

The above statement is virtually the same thing that Lt. 
General William K. Harrison, the head of our truce delega- 
tion, said to me on Monday when I commented in his quar- 
ters at Base Camp that I know he is happy that the pressure 
on him will be relieved now that a truce has been signed. 

Third, I thought when I heard the last firing mission of 
our 155-mm howitzer — the battery fired about an hour be- 
fore the flares were fired over the battle lines signaling cease 
fire — How long will our guns remain silent in the face of our 
enemy? I hope that I will never have to hear them "bark" 
again. When will human beings stop trying to destroy each 
other? 

One fact remains evident. We must be alert and on guard 
until the Communists show good faith in trying to bring 
about peace. 

Fourth, the Christian and charitable relations cultivated 
between the officers and men of the 8th Army and Koreans 
make this beautiful country one of the most promising mis- 
sion fields in the world. The old oriental religions are empty 
and do not hold inspiration, hope, and salvation. Koreans 
are turning to Christianity. Conditions here are as they 
were in the Greek and Roman culture during the 1st century 
when Christianity overcame paganism. 



Awards: 

A number of chaplains were recognized for their 
fine work during this period. Chaplain Newman was 
again decorated. This time it was the Bronze Star. 
Concerning his work the citation informs one that : 

Working long hours under adverse conditions, he person- 
ally met each casualty as he arrived at the aid stations, re- 
gardless of the hour, both day and night. He wrote to the 
realtives of each man, regardless of the seriousness of the 
disability and followed the initial correspondence with prog- 
ress report letters. He spent countless hours traveling to 
various aid stations and hospitals where casualties of the 
battalion had been evacuated for treatment. Despite the 
extreme danger, he often held religious services on the main 
line of resistance and voluntarily advanced to the outpost 
positions forward of the main lines in order to be of service 
to the Marines in these exposed areas. Through his deter- 
mined efforts and understanding attitude, he restored con- 
fidence in many of the battle weary Marines who had been 
sent to rear areas as a result of excessive front line duty. 

The other Bronze Star was awarded to Chaplain 
Elmer F. Ernst 

... he frequently made visits to tank crewmen who were 
manning positions on the main line of resistance. Expressing 
complete disregard for his personal safety, he repeatedly 
exposed himself to murderous hostile mortar and artillery 
fire in order to reach the tank crewmen and offer them 
spiritual guidance. He voluntarily and habitually was 
aboard armored vehicles when they were employed in the 
evacuation of wounded Marines and so was enabled to render 
aid, spiritual assistance and consolation to the many wounded. 

The "Commendation Metal Pendant" with Combat 
"V" was awarded to Chaplain John B. Conlon, Roman 
Catholic, Chaplain Roger L. Crabtree, Methodist, and 
Chaplain Samuel D. Chambers. Chaplain Conlon 

. . displayed outstanding ability and professional skill. 
His highly commendable ministrations to the wounded and 
sick aided immeasurably in the excellent morale sustained 
among the patients. When heavy casualties arrived, he 
demonstrated outstanding attention to duty and personally 
rendered spiritual guidance and advice to those in need. 
Throughout the entire period, he diligently brought to each 
wounded Marine consolation and spiritual comfort which 
contributed materially in the treatment of pain and suffering. 

It is said of Chaplain Crabtree that 

... he exhibited tireless efforts and outstanding attention 
to duty as he regularly visited the widely scattered elements of 
the battalion, as well as the provisional regiment of which the 
battalion was a part, in order to minister to the needs of the 
men. Sustaining an exceptionally vigorous schedule, he 
normally conducted 14 religious services each week. These 
included services at the forward elements of the unit where 
he was sometimes exposed to enemy artillery and mortar fire. 

Of Chaplain Chambers it is said that 

On numerous occasions, he disregarded his personal safety 
and visited the main line of resistance units in order to render 



190 — 




Flying Chaplain. 

Chaplain Leo F. Rice adjusts his parachute in preparation for 
a takeoff in a Marine aerial observation plane. His destina- 
tion is the camp of a Marine observation squadron and his 
mission is to hold mass. 



counsel and words of encouragement to Marines during 
intense enemy mortar and artillery fire. On one occasion, 
ignoring his own safety, he skillfully assisted in the evacuation 
of one wounded and two dead Marines. During a critical 
3-day period when a strategic position was being subjected to 
vicious hostile attacks, he continually attended to the spiritual 
needs of wounded Marines brought to the battalion aid 
station. 

Although the citations may sound repetitious, it is 
a repetition which brings great glory to the U.S. Naval 
Chaplain Corps. Attention is called to Chaplain 
Crabtree's work with civilians in his citation. 

His effective personal contacts with the large Korean ci- 
vilian population throughout the sector and his support of 
Korean religious and charitable organizations established 
cordial relations which assisted materially in the successful 
accomplishment of the unit's assigned mission. 

Chaplain Rice writing on 20 July concerning his 
return from the front, tells of his work with the Com- 
bat Service Group in Masan. He states that the "big 
problem here is to keep the men busy on the compound 
so that the moral problems can be licked." Academic 
work and vocational courses were offered and plans 
were laid for hobby programs. A citation in connec- 
tion with the award of a Bronze Star on October 1953 
states that he continually demonstrated 
. . . Exceptional ability in dealing with the most difficult 
ieligious. morale and personal problems. His skillful coordi- 
nation and efficient administration of the charitable efforts of 



the command increased the prestige of the United States 
Forces in the area. Disregarding his personal fatigue, he 
conscientiously worked extremely long hours in order to 
effectively discharge his responsibilities. 

Concerning his previous work the citation has this 
to say: 

... he frequently went to the scene of battle to administer 
last rites to the dead and offer prayers for the wounded. 
He diligently visited the sick and wounded in hospitals and 
regularly visited refugee villages in the vicinity of the regi- 
ment to offer religious guidance to the predominantly 
Christian population. In the absence of chaplains in other 
United Nations units, he visited those units to conduct serv- 
ices and attend to the religious needs of the personnel. 

Another Roman Catholic Chaplain, John T. Moore, 
received the Bronze Star for the period 2 April- 
1 August. One learns that: 

When the infantry companies and other elements of the 
regiment were committed to the main line of resistance 
and subjected to intense action, he expressed complete 
disregard for his personal safety and traveled over roads 
that were under constant enemy observation and frequent 
mortar and artillery fire in order to carry out his duties. 
He was continuously on hand at forward aid stations adminis- 
tering both spiritual and physical aid to the wounded men. 
He made daily visits to the men on the main line of resist- 
ance, holding services in bunkers and exerting every effort 
to administer spiritual guidance to the men. 3 

"Sunday Routine" 

A Marine Correspondent, M. Sgt. James F. Frye 
writes of the Chaplain's Sunday activity. He fol- 
lowed Chaplain Homer L. Schnick, Southern Baptist, 
of the 7th Regiment. There were four services that 
day. The regimental service consisted of Marines and 
a British Commonwealth Division. Late in the after- 
noon there was a visit to the MLR, ". . . the busy 
chaplain climbed precipitous hills to reach defensive 
positions sprinkled over rugged countryside so he could 
spend time with those in need of his advice and 
counsel." 

The 1st Marine Air Wing 

Most of the information on the work of the Chap- 
lains of the Wing comes from their citations. Men- 
tion has been made of Chaplain E. C. Mulligan's 
Commendation, but it should also be noted that he 
was instrumental in the establishment of a special 
Catholic Orphanage nursery for destitute infants at 
Pohang, Korea. 

He enhanced goodwill for United Nations forces through 
his ceaseless endeavors to aid needy civilians and by main- 



' Chaplain Moore was wounded the day before the truce 
was signed, and thus became the last naval chaplain casualty 
of the Korean conflict. Chaplain Willetts was wounded 
about 2 weeks earlier. 



191 



taining liaison with the Korean Catholic Bishop of the 
Taegu Diocese . . . Dedicated to the humanitarian prin- 
ciples embodied in the precepts of his faith, Commander 
Mulligan's activities resulted directly in greater comfort and 
welfare for hundreds of helpless Korean families and orphans 
and enhanced the morale and efficiency of the 1st Marine 
Aircraft Wing. 

He was detached in June. 

Chaplain Parker was relieved as Wing Chaplain in 
May by Chaplain Allen Jones, Presbyterian, US. On 
25 June Chaplain John J. Burns relieved Chaplain 
Mulligan. Chaplain Gordon Griffin reported aboard 
in May. Chaplain Lineberger left in May. He had 
been cited by the Korean government and also had 
been awarded the Bronze Star. For the latter it was 
said that he 

. . . supervised the construction and furnishing of [a] chapel 
where he instituted regular classes in religious instruction, 
and often led services for congregations of other religious 
denominations when chaplains for those faiths were com- 
mitted elsewhere in the forward area. Sparing no efforts to 
aid the less fortunate in the war-torn country, he participated 
in the establishment of two separate orphanages for helpless 
Korean children and was largely responsible for the creation 
of the United States Marine Memorial Children's Clinic 
designated to provide advance medical care for destitute 
women and children in the vicinity of Pohang. In addition, 
he was instrumental in the purchase of rice land for hungry 
Koreans and in the delivery of tons of clothing and toys to 
needy civilians in the combat zone. By his inspiring efforts, 
resourceful initiative and unswerving devotion to duty, 
Lieutenant, Junior Grade, Lineberger directly aided in 
increasing the health, comfort, and welfare of hundreds of 
helpless Korean families and orphans and contributed mate- 
rially to the overall morale and efficiency of the two Marine 
Aircraft Groups. 

The citation by Korea was like the one received by 
Chaplain Parker. It concluded, 

His demonstration of energetic efforts and generosity in 
working for the betterment of the Korean war orphans 
left homeless in the midst of the war in which the peace- 
loving people stand firm in the path of aggression to safe- 
guard freedom and human dignity has elicited the highest 
possible praise from all those cognizant of his fine spirit. 

Chaplain Fenstermacher tells of his contacts with 
the Korean chaplains, 4 

In Pusan I had contacts with the chaplains of the Republic 
of Korea Navy Chaplain Corps. Their Chief of Chaplains. 
Cmdr. D. B. Chung, ChC, ROKN, had his offices there. 
My first contact with the ROK Navy chaplains, however, 
came through their Senior Chaplain of the Korean Marine 
Corps, Lt. Cmdr. C. S. Park, who visited me at our Battalion 
Headquarters early in January 1953. Chaplain Park and 
I discussed the work of a chaplain in general, as well as 
the language barrier ... I helped him out with quantities 



of chaplain supplies ... I met the Chief of Chaplains, as 
well as all his chaplains who served the ROK Navy and 
Marine Corps, nine altogether. All are men consecrated to 
God as far as I could see, serious about their work, and 
hard workers. 

On 14 June 1953 I was guest preacher at a Divine Service 
in which we commemorated the Fifth Anniversary of Chap- 
lain activities in the ROK Navy. I preached in English 
and Chaplain Chung interpreted what I said in Korean. 
The service was held in the Korean Navy Church in Pusan, 
the church being set up in the well deck of an LST which is 
tied up to the dock at Pier No. 1 in Pusan and used for 
church services every Sunday. Nearly 500 attended this 
anniversary service, including high-ranking ROK Navy offi- 
cers, the ROK Navy Band, and a large well-trained choir. 

"MSTS" 

One chaplain 5 submits a very interesting account 
of a draft of Marines arriving in the Far East just 
after the truce had been signed. 

The fighting in Korea was very fierce last summer and 
replacement drafts from Camp Pendleton were seriously 
training for combat. I was given the task to accompany 
the July 1953 replacement draft to Korea. We were to travel 
on the USNS GEN. NELSON M. WALKER and there was a 
Protestant chaplain aboard. I was to conduct Catholic 
services for the men. 

It was a noisy group of Marines that I joined in San 
Diego, on July 16, 1953. The next afternoon we were given 
quite a farewell with the Marine Corps band and three 
generals to see us off. The approaching dangers of combat 
were forgotten for the moment as the ship sailed out of the 
harbor. Most of the men were looking at the pier for a 
last glimpse of a relative or friend. Others just gazed 
at the city and wondered when they would see San Diego 
again. The older men realized that some of these men 
would probably never see the United States again for they 
would be in combat in a few weeks. 

As we neared Japan the tension mounted and the men 
spent more time at church services, preparing their souls 
should they be called upon to sacrifice their lives. The news 
dispatches were avidly read daily. The mail boxes were 
always crammed with letters to mothers and fathers, to wives 
and sweethearts. 

But it was a wonderful feeling when the news of the truce 
reached us three days out of Japan. The carefree attitude 
of the young men returned and a prayer of thanksgiving was 
sent heavenward. We all looked forward to Japan and 
Korea confident that the danger of death was passed. 

The conditions of the truce made it impossible to enter 
Korea immediately and we went from Kobe, Japan to Sasebo, 
Japan where we spent 5 days. It gave us an opportunity to 
see a bit of the Japanese people and customs. Finally on 
August 7 we arrived at Inchon, Korea, and were put ashore. 
Again the conditions of the truce changed our plans. We 
were not allowed to bring any weapons ashore with us and 
all rifles and pistols were collected. [A] provision of the truce 
specified that we could not add to our forces in Korea. So 
before we could land, troops to be taken to the United States, 
had to be taken aboard. We used a shuttle system. First 



*Cp. pp. 107ff. 



' This account is credited to Chaplain Normand A. Ricard. 



192 



a boatload of men would board the ship and would return 
with their replacements. As I was in the liaison group that 
was on T.A.D. orders I was in the first group to leave the 
ship. But it was a happy, excited group of Marines, to whom 
I waved goodby. 

As we approached the landing at Inchon, I thanked God 
that the truce had been signed and prayed that the peace 
would be permanent and that no more lives would be sacri- 
ficed for the preservation of freedom. 

Forces Afloat 

During this period a variety of items of iterest come 
from the Fleet. Chaplain Ralph Handran, Roman 
Catholic, speaks of the transporting of prisoners. He 
states that the ANDERSON usually carried 45 
prisoners from the Far East. For the most part they 
were men who had gotten into difficulty in Korea and 
had been sentenced by courts-martial. They were 
very bitter and the chaplain held services for them in 
the brig on Sundays because they did not want to 
appear on deck. 

Work aboard the hospital ships continued. Chap- 
lain Luther E. Olmon, Lutheran, in the REPOSE 
wrote, 

At present we are in Korean waters supporting the 
Marines. The Korean truce talks seem to be at a standstill 
at this time. Our patient load has kept about the same. 
The chaplains have a fine opportunity aboard a hospital 
ship. 

Circuit riding was rather commonplace. Chap- 
lains Andrew J. Grygiel in the ORISKANY, and 
Lawrence R. Phillips in the ESSEX speak of transfers 
by highline and helicopter to other ships in the task 
force. Chaplain Gordian V. Erlacher tells of being 
transported from the NEW JERSEY to Wonsan Har- 
bor to conduct services on the Island of Yodo. Where 
circuit riding was not possible Lay Leaders are 
reported doing a fine job. For example, on the 
JOHN R. CRAIG, Catholic Services were led by the 



Executive Officer and Protestant Services by the First 
Lieutenant. The destroyer MOALE had an or- 
dained Baptist minister in the Gunnery Department 
who not only had held services all around the globe 
on naval vessels, but on this ship he found time to 
mimeograph bulletins for all Catholic and Protestant 
services held aboard ship and to broadcast his own 
religious program over the ship's PA system each 
Wednesday. On one cruise he organized a choir of 
45 voices consisting of officers and enlisted men. 

It is encouraging to find that some of the ships 
during the Korean conflict found room enough aboard 
ship to set up a chapel. This has been something of 
an accepted custom in the British Navy. Chaplain 
B. E. Heuer, Lutheran, reports that the CORREGI- 
DOR set up a permanent chapel in the quarters 
formerly used as a Pilot's Ready Room. 

Chaplain George W. Thompson, who as an enlisted 
man in World War I rose to Quartermaster Second, 
was doing a fine job on the VALLEY FORGE. His 
Sunday starts with 

... a Communion service, includes Sunday School classes 
and two regular church services, and ends with a Protestant 
Fellowship and Evangelistic Service. During the week, he 
leads a Bible class which meets three times a week, and 
holds Protestant Devotional Services twice daily — in the 
early morning and late evening. He is continuing a tradi- 
tion carried out by his predecessors on the ship by pronounc- 
ing a short prayer for all hands at "Tatoo" over the ship's 
public address system. 

In summary it is seen that this period began with 
the conflict still in progress. Several bitter battles 
were fought. Once again the chaplains had acquitted 
themselves in a manner to deserve high praise. The 
truce was signed and with it were to come different 
problems to surmount ; different victories to be 
achieved. 



— 193 



CHAPTER ELEVEN 

ARMISTICE AFTERMATH 

27 July 1953-27 July 1954 



It was an uneasy truce but peace had come to a war 
torn area. The United States, as did the United 
Nations, recognized the Korean campaign as 
active for the campaign ribbon could still be earned 
for the period ending 27 July 1954. ' It is this date 
that has been considered as the end of the Korean 
Police Action. 

The summer was best known for "Big Switch" and 
then inevitably there was another Korean winter. By 
this time there were a number of shifts in personnel. 

The 1st Marine Division 

On 1 August the Divisions withdrew to lines stipu- 
lated by the Armistice agreement. Soon thereafter 
there began a very busy period for the Marines for on 
5 August "Operation Big Switch" was set in motion. 
This return of Allied prisoners of war began at "Free- 
dom Village" which was located in the 1st Marine 
Division sector. On 4 September the 1st Provisional 
Demilitarized Zone Military Police Company was 
activated from 1st Division troops, for the purpose of 
enforcing the neutrality of the buffer zone between the 
territory of the United Nations and North Korea. 
"Operation Big Switch" was completed on 6 Septem- 
ber. The Division now devoted most of its time to 
training and position improvement and in the program 
of Armed Forces aid to Korea for reconstruction and 
rehabilitation of that war torn country. There was a 
short period ending on 21 January 1954, when the 
last of the prisoner exchanges took place with the 
transfer from the Division's area of those prisoners of 
war who refused to return to their lines. 

It is evident that many units held memorial services. 
The 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, had theirs on 9 August 
at which General Pate dedicated the memorial wreath. 
It was about this time that the commanding general 
also presented to the 30 division chaplains the new 
altar kits. These were described as 



. . . resembling a woman's large shoulder pocketbook, are 
made of canvas and contain vestments, altar linen and all 
other necessities for conducting church services in the field. 
Eventually, they will be issued to "Padres" serving with all 
Marine divisions and to a few on small naval craft. 

Big Switch 

"Now hear this. Now hear this." Over the loudspeaker 
comes an authoritative voice. "Serial Two passed Check 
Point Five at one — zero — three — two hours. Approximate 
time of arrival, 3 minutes. All processing personnel man 
your stations." * 

Marine M.P.'s, Navy corpsmen, Army and Marine per- 
sonnel men. Chaplain Meachum accompanied by four Prot- 
estant and four Catholic chaplains together with all others 
concerned with the reception of American repatriates move 
quickly to their posts. On a platform overlooking the 
entrance to the building, press photographers ready their 
cameras. 

Into the enclosure moves a line of ambulances, their 
great red crosses bright against squares of white. From 
them emerge young Americans of all sizes and shades of 
color, most of them in the shapeless blue cotton outfits 
furnished by the Chinese Communists but some stripped to 
their white cotton shorts, clutching ditty bags with their 
few personal belongings. Strong hands help them down 
from the vehicles ; warm smiles greet them. Some shout 
"Freedom! Freedom! Wonderful Freedom! " Some hop out 
of the ambulances without saying a word ; their eyes and 
expressions bespeak a new life and a new hope. A few are 
brought out on stretchers, but the greater part walk eagerly 
and unassisted through the wide doorway under the red and 
gold sign "Gateway to Freedom." 

At the first station the returnees are dusted with dis- 
infectants to reduce the possibility of disease. Next they 
are given a preliminary medical check. It is determined 
whether they are physically fit to continue the rest of the 
processing which includes among other things an interview 
by the press and regular chow. Tags are given noting these 
facts. At the third station they are registered with repre- 
sentatives of the Adjutant General's Corps of Marine person- 
nel and the names of their next of kin are checked. The 
Adjutant General will notify their next of kin regarding 
their recovery and general physical condition. Then, tagged 



1 No engagement star was authorized as the actual fighting 
had ceased. 



"' This account is a compilation of various chaplains' 
accounts. 



194- 




Memorial Services. 

The National Colors are carried to the 2d Battalion, 5th 
Marines Chapel as the memorial services begin in memory' 
of the men in the battalion who have lost their lives in 
Korea. 



and clutching numerous papers as well as their ditty bags, 
the repatriates meet the chaplain at the fourth station.' 1 

Chaplain Meachum says, "We were standing in our 
section of the processing lines by our altars ready to 
extend the hand of Christian fellowship to soldiers and 
marines of many nations.'' The room was dominated 
by a large mural depicting the varied activities of chap- 
lains with the 1st Marine Division. Chaplain 
Meachum describes the setting 

We made our sections as attractive as possible by getting 
flowers from the hillsides. We pinned the religious posters, 
church pennants, and spare altar cloths to the walls of the 
tents. The impression on the prisoners was terrific — as 
well as on generals, newspaper men, photographers, and all 
hands who were engaged in the processing work. 

The chaplain extends his hand in warm welcome to 
the serviceman. After a brief get acquainted period, 
the chaplain determines the religious affiliation of the 
man. If not of his own faith the man is introduced 
to a chaplain who is. The chaplains claim the men 



3 Note: Chaplain William H. Vinson tells us that "as 
planning for 'Big Switch' came into its final stages, the many- 
lessons learned during 'Little Switch' were applied. One of 
these lessons had to do with the chaplains section in the 
processing line. It was decided that food for the soul should 
come before the food for the body. In the previous opera- 
tion, the chaplains section was set up behind the nourishment 
section and offered very little privacy or atmosphere of 
reverence to the worshipers." 



In a service conducted by Chaplain Peter J. Bakker the names are read of those who gave the supreme sacrifice and who 
were members of the 2d Battalion, 5th Marines. 




r,:'.r>.':;!2 O— 60 14 



— 195 




Altar Kit. 

Chaplain John T. Moore shoulders the new compact altar 
kit provided by the Chaplains Division. It is designed 
to make it easier for chaplains of all faiths to bring church 
services to marines in the field. 



A closeup of the contents of the kit. 



of their own faith and sit down with them for a 
friendly chat. The Catholic chaplain dons a violet 
stole, hears confessions, administers communion, and 
presents rosaries, medals, prayerbooks, and missals as 
desired. 

Chaplain Rice, says, 

Because we were not certain of the physical condition of 
the returning PW's at Freedom Village the priests of the 
Marine Division were ready to give the sacraments to any 
requesting them. The idea caught the imagination of the 
PW's and a great percentage wanted communion after con- 
fession. Having chapels at Freedom Village turned out 
to be a big consolation to men of all faiths. One cor- 
respondent said to the Catholic Far East news represent- 
ative: "How come the priests are administering confession 
and communion to the PW's? After all you don't meet 
people with the sacraments coming back from a trip." I 
proposed this to one of the returning prisoners. He an- 
swered : "I spent 3 years in prison and I examined my con- 
science all the time. I sure want to go to confession. I'm 
starting in a new life right here." 

Another Roman Catholic Chaplain, Paul C. Ham- 
mer], has these incidents to relate, 

. . . listen to some of them at Freedom Village. "I never 
prayed before at home but, I prayed up there and I don't 
see why I should stop now." "My girl tried to get me to 
go to church, but I couldn't see why then, but now I know 



better." "I didn't have many instructions in the faith, 
but I will learn all I can in the future." 

If you may think God isn't in the hearts of our young 
men, listen to their stories and see how they formed study 
clubs, how they exchanged thoughts of God as often as they 
could. It would do many a doubter good to see the crosses 
they molded out of toothpaste tubes so they could have a 
reminder of Christ about their person. Some had Bibles 
they received years ago from their pastor, now worn and 
well used. Others on their own, bound up their Bibles to 
make them last and treasured them above everything else. 
Our men came back with little in the way of material goods, 
but if they had salvaged and saved a medal, a Bible, or a 
rosary, they took it along to bring back home. One lad 
carried a Bible of his buddy who died. "I want to give it 
to his mother to show her he prayed and used it regularly." 
What a consolation such will be for the brokenhearted 
mother. 

For adherents of Judaism, Chaplain Murray I. 
Rothman was present to take them before the Ark 
with its sacred scrolls of the Torah (Law) for the 
traditional prayers of Israel. Protestant chaplains 
held services of thanksgiving and served communion 
to those who desired it. Chaplain William H. Vinson 
affirms that over one-half of the men did receive Com- 
munion. Chaplain Walter H. Nordby tells of some 
of the experiences of the men, 

One prisoner looked at you and in reverent tones slowly 



196 




Big Switch. 

Chaplain R. N. Stretch, 11th Marines, holds service for two 
repatriated POW's at Freedom Village Chapel. 



Chaplain Paul C. Hammerl counsels with a returned POW at 
Freedom Village. 



Division Chaplain Francis T. O'Leary administers communion during a mass celebrated at Freedom Village for UN POW's 
repatriated from North Korea on 6 September 1953 at Munsan-ni. 




said, "Thank God I am here able to experience this moment 
of freedom after 32 months of living hell." 

Another rather thin, but sun-tanned southern soldier 
quietly stated, "We had a couple of good fellows who held 
services for us whenever possible." One tall Texan said, 
"They took our Testaments away and only let us have short 
supervised services on Christmas and Easter." 

A great number of the returning Americans wore lead 
crosses made from melted toothpaste tubes. Catholics and 
Protestants alike possessed them. 

As you looked into the eyes of these men you felt proud 
of them. Think of what they had endured for their country. 
Think of the one named Valdery who showed you a torn bit 
of scripture he had carried all the way. He said, "The 
Lord has been with me through two death marches, first 
Bataan and now this past one. I want to thank Him now." 

. . . You can't help but remember the proud Marine who 
came through the gate that separated the Americans from the 
Commonwealth and other U.N. troops. The officer asked, 
"American?" The reply was, "Yes, Sir!" Not this 
fellow, he replied, "Marine, Sir!" He was courteous and you 
immediately liked him — you were proud he was a 7 th 
Marine — your outfit. 

. . . There were some sad moments, men on stretchers, 
some men with Chinese symbols like the dove of peace of Chi- 
nese numbers tatooed on them like medieval prisoners . . . 
Life would hold great moments ahead for all, even the sad. 
As one man said, "Today it is like I have been born all over 
again." 

Chaplain Robert W. Smith tells the story of an Air 
Force sergeant who was shot down while making a 
bombing raid over North Korea. He descended by 
parachute into the midst of enemy troops. He 
resigned himself to immediate death or torture. He 
was overwhelmed by a longing to live. As he walked 
off toward prison he could hardly believe his ears for 
he heard North Korean children singing, "Jesus loves 
me. This I know, for the Bible tells me so." This 
one song changed his outlook "and he felt if these 
children can sing about Jesus then surely they do have 
respect for life." He 

. . . came back to tell that story. He wasn't a church 
member, he seldom went to church, he had taken Christianity 
for granted and now he realized that America's greatness was 
not in her tanks, planes, or bombs but in her God, in Jesus 
Christ, her Freedom, everything revolved around Him, 
and it took that simple little Sunday School song, "Jesus 
Loves Me" to awaken him. 

... I have seen them accept Jesus Christ as their Saviour 
as they knelt at the altar here in Freedom Village, I have 
heard them tell me how Christ saved them at the prison 
camps, how they were "Born again" — a spiritual birth into 
God's Kingdom. I have watched tears roll down sunken, 
sun-tanned cheeks as we talked about our Lord. I have 
heard men tell me that if God calls them they will become 
missionaries. 



Chaplain Vinson states, 

In the early months of the war, no religious services 
were permitted in the camps. Some few loyal Christians 
began to request permission to hold services. One lay 
preacher, Alfonso Johnson, from Columbus, Ohio, likened 
his experiences to those of the Apostle Paul, as he too, 
was jailed for attempting to hold services. I asked where 
he found words of comfort and encouragement in the time 
of trials. He replied, "I just kept reading more about Paul, 
finding that he met the same problems as I, and was 
triumphant, many years ago." In later months the prison 
officials permitted the men to hold religious worship services 
in small groups under the watchful eye of an interpreter. 
On occasions like Christmas and Easter, large services were 
held with excessive photographic coverage for propaganda 
purposes. 

Most of the men desired to stop for a moment of prayer 
in thanksgiving to God for their freedom and His ministry 
to them during the long prison months. We retired to one 
of the small chapels, located adjacent to the waiting room, 
to bow in a moment of prayer. It was indeed a privilege 
to kneel there before the altar and pray with these men. 
More touching was the occasional man who desired to lead 
in prayer himself. These men poured out their hearts to 
God in joyful thanksgiving at their first opportune moment 
after coming back to freedom. 

Some stories were elicited by the question put by 
Chaplain Vinson, "Do you have your New Testament 
with you?" Many said, 

. . . that their Testament was taken from them along with 
other possessions when they were captured. Some lost them 
in the hospitals. Some reached down in their personal 
effects bag and brought out their prized possession, a well 
worn dog-eared Testament. Many had crude canvas backs; 
the result of a prison camp rebinding to try to preserve the 
book. On the pages of these testaments were marked the 
favorite passages that had brought comfort in the time of 
misery, hope in the time of despair, light in the time of 
darkness. All the men liked to tell about the place the New 
Testament had played in their lives. Each man was pre- 
sented with a fresh, new Testament to carry with him on his 
journey back home. 

Chaplain Bakker said that the men told him, "You 
couldn't get my New Testament from me" and showed 
him copies well worn and somewhat frayed. 

After a final blessing the man next goes to the 
Refreshment Section. The procedure for the rest 
of his time at Freedom Village is described by Chap- 
lain Stretch, 

In the Refreshment Section is usually a general of the 
Army or the Marine Corps to greet and chat with his 
men. From here those who wish to be interviewed by- 
newspaper and magazine correspondents are taken into the 
Press Section. Then come ditty bags of toilet articles handed 
out by an attractive Red Cross girl, the shedding of prison 
clothes and hot showers. In pajamas, bathrobe, and slippers 
the man proceeds into the Army Evacuation Hospital set up 
alongside the warehouse, for chest X-ray and thorough 



physical examination. Here he has his dinner and receives 
any mail which awaits him. Later, returning to the ware- 
house, he is issued new clothing of his own branch of service 
and waits for further transportation to Inchon and the 
ships which will take him to the United States. His waiting 
is in a comfortable lounge maintained by the Red Cross, 
where light refreshments are served and the scenes and events 
of home are presented in posters, photographs, magazines, 
and newspapers. 

Chaplain Bakker also has this general note, 

On Wednesday, 5 August at 9 a.m. we started receiving 
our POWs. I was on hand to shake the hand of nearly all 
our UN personnel, and many of the South Koreans. The 
number of Marines returned was very few. The first one of 
our men that I welcomed there in the shadow of the Truce 
Pagoda was Pfc. Francis E. Kohus. Jr., from Cincinnati, 
Ohio. He was captured on Warsaw in 52. One of the lads 
returned was captured in March of this year on Vegas, where 
this outfit suffered many casualties. I had a service with 
his company last week, and will have another one there every 
Thursday. 

As you have read in the papers, the men were not too 
emotional — they looked as though they had all the stuffings 
beat out of them. By contrast — these Communists come 
by singing and shouting and waving their flags — there goes 
another truck load of them. Of course our men have 
been beaten down for a long time, without proper food — 
they told me that two of our chaplains starved to death — 
one of whom was repeatedly kicked in the stomach. The 
commies never had it so good with food, medicine, etc. 

On the 10th of this month I saw the men being loaded on 
an LST, awaiting transportation out to the GENERAL 
WALKER for passage home — they still looked somewhat 
gaunt, peaked, and washed out. The trip home with good 
food, etc., should do them a world of good. 

Chaplain Meachum concludes with this statement, 

When the gate swung wide on 5 August at Freedom 
Village, ambulances, 4 to 6 in a serial, came through 3 or 
4 times a day with returning POW's to be processed, 341 
Americans were received. Approximately 90 percent of 
these were Negroes. This week was a "field day" for me as a 
Baptist chaplain, because most of these men were Baptists. 
They greeted me, one after another, with a big smile, 
"Chaplain, I've been waiting many months to talk to you!" 
Whereupon they would pour out their hearts in relating 
their religious experiences during the long months of their 
imprisonment. They were permitted to gather in large num- 
bers for religious services on special occasions, such as 
Christmas, Easter, and Thanksgiving. Many of them related 
that they had gathered in small groups regularly to worship. 
The first man with whom I talked, by the name of Dobbins, 
told me from his stretcher that he conducted services until 
he became ill and was sent to the hospital. 

The chaplains of the 1st Marine Division were designated 
to minister at Freedom Village under the Detachment Com- 
mand of Colonel Metz, USMC. The 25 chaplains of the 
division will participate in the entire processing with groups 
of 8 working 1 week at a time. At the end of this first 
week, every chaplain who participated, including Protestants, 
Catholics, and a Jewish chaplain, had a rich experience in 



his religious ministry . . . For all these returned, we chap- 
lains thanked God that these have been able to endure the 
awful hardships of the Chinese Communist's imprisonment. 
. . . One said that he was a Christian before being cap- 
tured, but that while he was in prison God laid His hand on 
him, calling him to become a minister of the Gospel, and so 
he will go to school in Atlanta, Ga., to prepare himself. 

It is in order here to quote Chaplain John W. 
Berger, Methodist, who was in the GEN. N. M. 
WALKER, 

While aboard the GEN. N. M. WALKER (T-AP125) 
the first group of returning prisoners in Operation Big Switch 
were brought aboard at Inchon. Chaplains at Freedom 
Village had evidently done an excellent job of ministering to 
the immediate needs of these men. It fell to us (Maj. Henry 
Durand, USA, Roman Catholic, and myself, Protestant) to 
accompany these men back to the States. 

The constant interrogation to which these men were sub- 
mitted left little time for planned religious activity. 
Consequently, while we had two services daily (one each), 
most of our time with these men was spent regularly at 
irregular hours. We spent this time in their berthing com- 
partments talking both with individuals and groups as the 
occasion presented itself. However, I did not once leave 
a compartment without one man asking, "Chaplain, could I 
talk with you a few minutes?" — and often it was two or 
three asking. 

All the 300 plus men certainly knew there were chaplains 
aboard during those 2 weeks enroute home. But some 
in particular sought us out. My memory still vividly recalls 
the confidences brought to me by men who now had a new 
fear — of their own companions. There were at least a half 
dozen with whom I counseled that had yielded to the pressure 
of prison life and availed too much of enemy propaganda. 

But it was not ours, as chaplains, to investigate. For 
such matters we urged re-counsel with the CIC team aboard. 
As such, we, as chaplains, acted in the true and accepted 
capacity of letting the confessor think out loud and begin 
that period of catharsis which would in some measure bring 
him back into harmony with his prior environment. 

In addition, there were all the rest who reflected their 
months in prison with that noticeable reticence to converse 
with anyone. And I think this is where we did our best 
work — by simply being among them hours at a time, working 
quietly, slowly, in Christian love and fellowship. (My own 
particular interest in the returning prisoners lay in the fact 
that somewhere among them was a young man who had been 
a part of my young people's group, and because of a broken 
home, also a part of my own home. I looked anxiously for 
him, but he was not among this first group.) 

Besides the above mentioned "progressives," I had partic- 
ular fellowship with one Negro sergeant. He had led many 
of the religious services while in prison camps and had a 
particular ministry through music. He provided three quar- 
tets while aboard ship, indicating that that was one of their 
means while in camp to revive their spiritual needs. The two 
of us worked together in the compartments. 

While much will be written about these men, more will be 
left unsaid. God only knows how so many men survived the 
ordeals reflected in their thoughts and bodies. It seemed a 



— 199 — 



little out of place to have such a grandiose welcome by tele- 
vision, bands and speeches upon arrival in the States — these 
men who simply wanted to return to the peace and quiet of 
their homes. 

Chaplain Bakker tells of the return of General Dean, 
stating that he 

. . . was returned just like the rest of the officers and men. 
He rode in the same ambulance, went through the same line, 
and knelt in prayer in the same chapel for a prayer of thanks- 
giving. He wanted everyone to know that, "I was not hunt- 
ing tanks with a bazooka when I was captured." 

It was during "Big Switch" that Chaplain 
Meachum was relieved by Chaplain Francis T. 
O'Leary as Division Chaplain of the 1st Marine 
Division. As a result both participated in the pro- 
gram. Both were cited for their work. Concerning 
the work of Chaplain Meachum, for which he was 
awarded the Bronze Star, one reads, 



. . . Frequently making trips throughout the division area, in 
most adverse conditions, he expressed complete disregard for 
his personal welfare in order that all the Marines might 
receive the opportunity to attend services of their own 
particular faith. During the repatriation of United Nations 
personnel from enemy prison camps, he was constantly 
present to insure that the men who had undergone the hard- 
ships of prison life had every opportunity to receive, upon 
their return, the spiritual guidance they so eagerly sought. 
Commander Meachum's highly competent leadership, organi- 
zational ability, and tireless efforts served as an inspiration 
to all who observed him. 

Chaplain Meachum summarized the Big Switch 
Operation by saying that 

... of the 3,600 prisoners passing through to Freedom, at 
least 95 percent sought religious assurance and comfort 
as their first act; from the chapels they went on to those 
other comforts of the American way of life — ice cream and 
fresh milk. To the 3,600 freed prisoners the chaplains gave 
out 1,800 new testaments, 500 rosaries. 



Some of the Participating Chaplains in Big Switch. 

A photograph taken at the time of the relief of Chaplain Lonnie Meachum by Frank T. O'Leary as division chaplain. 
Pictured are (first row, left to right) W. H. Vinson; F. T. O'Leary; Major General Burger; Major General Pate; 
Colonel Nelson; L. W. Meachum; E. V. Lyons. (Second row. left to right) P. J. Bakker; L. F. Rice; S. D. Chambers; 
E. F. Ernst; R. N. Stretch; J. B. Conlon; M. I. Rothman. 




200 



"It was the men who had good religious and home training 
who stood their ordeal best," the chaplain said. 

General Mark Clark states, "We have solid evi- 
dence after all the returns were in from Big Switch 
that the Communists still held 3,404 men prisoners, 
including 944 Americans." 

In September Chaplain O'Leary issued the follow- 
ing roster of Chaplains of the Division : 

Church 
Name Rank Assignment affiliation 

O'LEARY, F. T CDR Div Chap. . . . RC 

MOORE, J. T LTJG Hq Bn RC 

ROTHMAN, M. I . . . LTJG Hq Bn JEWISH 

EDWARDS, T. V LT Sh Pty Bn . . . RC 

HAMMERL, P. C. LTJG "E" Med. . . . RC 

PIEPER, P. F. W LTJG Sh Pty Bn . . LUTH 

RICE, L. F LCDR 1st CSG RC 

SCHNICK, H. L LTJG 1st Svc Bn. . BAP (S) 

SCHROERLUKE, LTJG 1st Arm EVAN& 

H. P Amph REF 

SMITH, R. W LTJG 7th MT Bn . . BAP (S) 

TACKETT, J. H LTJG 1st Eng Bn . . METH 

VINSON, W. H LTJG 1st Ord Bn . . BAP (S) 

1ST MARINES 

HOFF, C. P LCDR 1st Bn LUTH 

CHAMBERS, S. D LT 2d Bn PRESBV 

BRENGARTNER, LT 3d Bn RC 

R. E. 

5TH MARINES 

LYONS, E. V LCDR 1st Bn PRESBY 

BAKKER, P. J LT 2d Bn BAP (A) 

ERNST, E. F LTJG 3d Bn RC 

7TH MARINES 

NORDBY, W. H LT 1st Bn LUTH 

FLOYD, E. O LTJG 2d Bn BAP (S) 

BARRY, A. J LTJG 3d Bn RC 

I1TH MARINES 

STRETCH, R. N LCDR Hq Btry PE 

BASSETT, W. T LTJG BAP (S) 

CONLON, J. G LTJG 4th Bn RC 

DOWD, F. A LT RC 

KANE, J. A LTJG RC 

Awards 

Two chaplains were given Letters of Commendation. 
Chaplain E. Vaughn Lyons as regimental chaplain 

. . . displayed outstanding ability and professional skill. 
Throughout the period, he diligently provided moral and 
spiritual guidance and comfort to the men of the unit. 
During periods when the regiment was engaged in combat, 
he devoted extremely long hours and disregarded his per- 
sonal fatigue in order to aid and comfort the wounded 
Marines. On numerous occasions, he rendered invaluable 
assistance in evacuating the casualties. His outstanding 
attention to duty, initiative and resourcefulness served as 
an inspiration to all who observe[d] him. 



Similarly, it is said of Chaplain Richard G. 
Hutcheson, Jr., that he 

. . . displayed outstanding ability and professional skill. 
When the battalion was deployed in support of the main line 
of resistance, he labored unceasingly in ministering to the 
moral and spiritual needs of all Marines in his care. He 
made himself constantly available and sought opportunities 
to counsel and aid those in need. Despite heavy artillery 
and mortar fire, he could always be found in an endangered 
area rendering medical and spiritual aid. His outstanding 
example of integrity and physical and moral courage served 
as an inspiration to men of all faiths and contributed 
materially to the high morale of the battalion. Lieutenant 
Hutcheson's indomitable spirit and conduct throughout were 
in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval 
Service. 

With the cessation of fighting on the front there 
was an accompanying increase in attendance at Divine 
Worship in the Division. 

Chapel & Worship 

A great deal of interest was paid to the construc- 
tion of houses of worship by the various units. Win- 
ter would arrive all too soon and buildings would not 
only provide shelter but would also enhance the 
spirit of reverence at the services. One such project 
was that of the 2d Battalion 1st Marines. Chaplain 
Chambers states that, 

The last engagement of the war before the ceasefire had 
been very intense, fraught with heavy casualties on "Boulder 
City" and "East Berlin." Consequently, when we moved off 
of the MLR on the appointed day after the truce, the men 
were anxious to have their own chapel of more permanent 
construction than merely a tent or a cleared spot on the 
side of a hill; and they wanted a memorial chapel to the 
memory of those who were left behind. What they turned 
out was a prize of ingenuity. 

The MLR had to be vacated within 72 hours, as I recall, 
and a demilitarized zone established. That meant that what- 
ever was to be salvaged from the line bunkers had to be 
brought south quickly. The men of the battalion worked 
around the clock to dismantle and save the tremendous 
amount of wood, metal, and other construction items stowed 
up forward. Captain Paul Reigert, our S-4 officer, provided 
one truck for the chapel and into it went a load of 
the huge timbers used in the bunker constiuction. The 
beams were 12 x 12 x 16 feet long. They were taken right 
out of the front line fortifications. Our problem, however, 
now was to get these into usable timber for a chapel. Three 
cartons of cigarettes did the trick. An old Korean with a 
sawmill worked feverishly to cut these monsters into 2 x 4's 
and 4 x 4's. 

We selected the highest hill of our new encampment for 
the chapel site. A dozer cleared a level plain and the con- 
struction began. The beams cut by the Korean provided the 
framework and skeleton of the chapel. It was 24 feet wide 
and 70 feet long with a 10-foot chancel area. Around the 
frame we stretched chicken wire 3 feet high on both sides 



201 




Conference. 

A conference is held at the 5th Marine Regiment's officers mess. Left to right: Chaplain F. T. O'Leary; Col. E. D. Martin, 
Jr.; commanding officer, 5th Regiment, Chaplain S. D. Bennett, FMF Pacific chaplain, and Chaplain R. E. Jenkins. 



of the chapel's length. A good mixture of mud and straw was 
applied to this to make a very substantial wall. The upper 
area of about 3 feet was left open since the weather was still 
exceedingly hot. 

The roof posed the next problem, but a carton of soap was 
traded for a truck of straw and a thatched roof took shape. 
We gave it a "haircut" and it looked as shipshape as any 
Korean dwelling. A steeple topped the front of the chapel 
and we capped that with straw too. A Major Young, our 
S-3 officer, ran across a bell in a neighboring community. I 
never did learn what the barter price was but he donated 
that and every week thenceforth it woke him up for Divine 
Services. 

... a 16-foot white cross on the hill overlooking the camp 
made this the most significant sight for miles around. It 
was not long until the steps up the side of the hill were worn 
smooth by those who came to worship in the 2d Battalion's 
Memorial Chapel. 

One distinctive feature of the chapel was a picture 
which was hung over the altar. This was a print of 
a likeness of Christ composed of over 86,000 Korean 
letter characters made by a prisoner behind the 
bamboo curtain. The ideograms were quotations 
from the Gospel of Matthew by the artist which he 
had recalled while in prison. This picture was 
donated to the chapel by the Young Nak Orphanage. 
It is partly this work in building the chapel that is 
cited in the award of a second Letter of Commenda- 



tion to Chaplain Chambers. His additional work 
in the field of relief is noted, 

... he contributed immeasurably in the construction of a 
modern battalion chapel. Constantly aware of the problems 
of the men whose moral and spiritual guidance was his pri- 
mary goal he was sympathetic, realistic and always helpful. 
He earned the confidence and loyalty of the officers and 
enlisted men with whom he was associated. On another 
occasion he cheerfully worked long and arduous hours in 
preparation for a series of Christmas parties held for Korean 
children and residents of the refugee center. His thorough 
planning and sound supervision were evidenced by the great 
volume of contributions received and the ultimate success 
of regimental area Christmas parties. His steadfast devotion 
to duty and dedication to a worthy cause maintained a better 
understanding between the Republic of Korea and United 
Nations Forces. 

Another chapel built and dedicated to those lost in 
the unit was that constructed by the 11th Marine 
Artillery Regiment. It was called the St. Barbara 
Chapel. Col. Manly L. Curry, Commanding Of- 
ficer, presented a bell to the chapel. The first 
services were conducted by Chaplains R. N. Stretch 
and J. A. Kane. The latter was assisted in the cele- 
bration of the Mass by Chaplain O'Leary. The cost 
of the chapel was defrayed by offerings of members 
and friends of the regiment. The stonework was 



202 





Church Call is sounded announcing the dedicatory service for the chapel of the 2d Battalion, 1st Marines. 
Chambers led the men in the building of this place of worship. 



Chaplain 



designed and built by men in the unit. This chapel 
was also built in the center of the 11th Marine Com- 
mand Post. It was completed and dedicated on 
Thanksgiving Day, 1953. Chaplain S. B. Bennett, 
chaplain, FMF, Pac, writing later about the chapels 
as he saw them on an inspection made in May, had 
this to say, 

I recently visited these chaplains serving with the Marines 
in Japan and Korea. The effective work they are doing is 
exemplified by the large church attendance in their beautiful 
chapels. The most conspicuous and the most central spot 
was selected for the location of these chapels. No other 
building in the area is photographed as often as they are. 
They stand as a constant reminder of God and His everlast- 
ing presence. There is an atmosphere of reverence and 
appreciation wherever they can be seen. The commanding 
officers and the men are proud of these monuments of joy 



and beauty because they made them possible by various 
means of forethought and labor. Of course they require 
constant vigilance for cleanliness and upkeep. The new 
men soon feel these chapels belong to them. 

About this time Chaplain Murray I. Rothman was 
awarded the Letter of Commendation. Concerning 
this chaplain it is noted that 

. . . His personal warmth, initiative and keen understanding 
of the fighting men and their problems made his presence 
an important factor in maintaining the high morale of the 
division. As the only chaplain of his particular faith in 
the division, he made weekly visits to each front line regiment 
and battalion conducting religious service, personal con- 
sultations and spiritual ministration. Expressing complete 
disregard for his personal safety, he once visited the personnel 
on an outpost located far forward of the main line of re- 
sistance for religious consolation and ministration despite 



203 — 







Saint Barbara's Chapel. 
Chaplain E. J. Nerthling, left, chaplain with the the 1 1th Marine Regiment shows Chaplain S. B. Bennett, FMF Pacific chaplain, 

the memorial plaque on the new chapel. 



Chaplain Bennett Pays a Call. 

Chaplain Bennett talks with the chaplains in front of the 5th 
Marines Memorial Chapel. (Left to right) Pictured here 
are P. A. Johnson; Chaplain S. B. Bennett, FMF Pacific 
chaplain ; R. F. Jenkins ; and F. A. Dowd. 



Another Meeting. 

Chaplain C. E. Rains meets Chaplain Bennett in front of the 
chapel of the 2d Battalion, 7th Marines. 




— 204 — 



the fact that he was subjected to hostile mortar and small 
arms fire. His regular visits to the hospital ships were of 
great comfort to the wounded Marines of all faiths within 
the division. He was selected and served commendably as 
chaplain during the repatriation of prisoners of war. 

Chaplain Rothman was released from active duty on 
27 November 1953. The new Jewish chaplain was 
Richard Saul Sternberger, who reported 1 7 November. 
Another chaplain receiving the same decoration was 
Chaplain Emmet O. Floyd in which it is stated that 

. . . During the last days of bitter fighting he frequently 
disregarded his personal safety by exposing himself to heavy 
concentrations of enemy artillery and mortar fire to aid 
the wounded and render spiritual comfort to the personnel 
of the regiment, regardless of faith. During the period of 
reorganization and development of the main battle positions 
following the cessation of hostilities, when the situation was 
tense and the troops performed hard physical labor under 
extremely adverse field conditions, he continued to circulate 
amongst the men delivering spiritual solace to those who 
requested it and by his personal example contributed mate- 
rially to the successful accomplishment of the regiment's 
assigned mission. 

Clergy Visitations 

Two distinguished visitors paid visits to the 
forces in Korea during the Christmas Season. One 
was Bishop William C. Martin, President of the 
National Council of Churches of Christ in the U.S.A. 
and President of the Council of Bishops of the Meth- 
odist Church, who returned from his trip commend- 
ing the commands for their interest and concern in 
moral and spiritual matters. He praised the work 
of the chaplains and was especially impressed with the 
1st Marine Division. Bishop Martin said, 

Thousands of them came during that snowy, freezing 
Christmas week, to bow in prayer in the chapels they had 
built with their own hands. As we reached the front lines, 
where they look across the 2 /a -mile- wide No-Man's Land of 
the demilitarized zone to watch the enemy digging in, 
many hundreds of them came to services, their guns in 
their hands. 

Cardinal Francis Spellman, a perennial 4 visitor of the 
troops, reported that he had his largest congregation 
since making these trips. 5 He stated that more than 
6,000 men attended one of the services held for the 
1st Marine Division. It was also about this time that 
Rabbi Eichhorn conducted a series of retreats for 
Jewish chaplains in Japan and Korea. 

Chaplain Cameron P. Hoff tells about the first 
Christmas after the truce. He says, 

We heard the bells at Christmas. Over the frozen rice 
paddies they pealed their joyful song. Salvaged from some 

4 This was his third Christmas tour of the Korean area. 

5 His visit was from 22 December^!- January. Chaplain 
Giles Webster was his personal escort. 



ruined temple where once a pagan god was worshipped their 
melodic voices now praised the Living God. From the 
thatch-roofed native dwellings bright-eyed babies and 
wrinkled, old, "papa-sans" watched in wonder as the grace- 
ful, lighted Christmas tree shed its colorful radiance upon the 
frozen parade ground. Where only a Christmas ago the 
sullen throb of bombers filled the air now the heavens were 
glad with the sound of carols. 

We heard the bells at Christmas as we gathered in our 
chapel on the hill. A hundred candles spoke softly to the 
night, and we remembered when lights were afraid to shine 
as we listened in the unrelieved darkness and sirens shrieked 
their warning. We know the meaning of a silent night. We 
have lived through other nights made hideous by the shriek of 
shrapnel, the deadly chatter of machine gun and rifle, the 
dull crash of enemy mortar and artillery. Now in a silent 
night "all is calm, all is bright." 

We heard the bells at Christmas while we remembered 
those for whom the bells tolled not many months ago. They 



Christmas Vistor. 

Bishop W. C. Martin looks through a B.C. Scope at an ob- 
servation point overlooking Panmunjom, on his visit during 
the Christmas holidays. Bishop Martin was the president 
of the National Council of Churches. 




— 205 — 



were among the worshipers last Christmas, meeting in tiny- 
groups wherever the chaplain could call a congregation 
together. They gave their lives on the treacherous raids and 
patrols in "no-man's land." They died valiantly on savage 
Korean hills in a war-spawned hell of steel and flame and 
fanatic enemy hordes. Now the bells are singing "sleep in 
heavenly peace, sleep in heavenly peace." 

We heard the bells at Christmas and they brought to mind 
the church bells which ring out in country and city and town 
back home. Some of our men are spending their first 
Christmas far from their homes and loved ones. There are 
lonely hearts in Korea at Christmas. Many of the familiar 
Christmas customs are missing. All but the simplest holiday 
trappings are absent. The mission of American forces in 
Korea cannot pause even for this Holy Day. The lonely 
outposts overlooking the demarkation zone must be manned. 
The fortified bunkers and the long main battle position must 
be occupied. Even in the various command posts there are 
security tasks and essential services which must be performed. 
Still the bells are singing a glad song at Christmas. The 
glory and wonder of the Saviour's birth lies upon the earth 
this night. Over the still-broken native villages, over the 
shell-cratered hills, over the silent wasteland where the 
enemy keeps his careful vigil the bells are sounding. As the 
chaplains go from chapel to mess-hall to crowded bunker 
the carols follow and the Christmas Gospel gladdens the 
hearts of men. 

One problem was created when Chaplain Stern- 
berger was released from active duty about the middle 
of May and the Division was left without a Jewish 
chaplain. He had stayed until after the celebration 
of Passover. Chaplain O'Leary wrote in July, "We 
run into trouble every Sunday in our attempts to 
'chopper' an Army Jewish chaplain for services. 
Please rush the new rabbi to us as fast as practicable." 
Due to the scarcity of Jewish chaplains Chaplain H. T. 
Miller did not arrive until 24 September to represent 
that faith. 

Chaplain O'Leary was detached as Division chap- 
lain the 1st of July. He was relieved by Chaplain 
L. M. C. Vosseler. He was awarded a Letter of 
Commendation, the citation of which reads in part, 

He demonstrated a remarkable foresight and determina- 
tion in caring for the spiritual welfare of all the Marines 
in the division. An understanding, capable, and persevering 
leader, he skillfully organized his section in such a manner 
that divine services were conducted within all the units of 
the division and spiritual guidance was available to all. De- 
spite the most adverse conditions of terrain and weather 
and with complete disregard for his personal comfort, he 
repeatedly traveled long distances to the most remote units 
in order that all Marines might have the opportunity to at- 
tend services of their particular faith. He was constantly 
present during the repatriation of United Nations prisoners 
of war to ensure that the men who had so recently undergone 
the hardships and deprivations of prison life had every oppor- 
tunity to receive immediately on their return the spiritual 
consolation and guidance they so eagerly sought. 



By the time of the change of divisions chaplains so 
many changes had been made in the roster that the 
list for 1 July 1954 contains nearly all new chaplains. 



Name 

O'LEARY, F. T 

TUXBURY, V. W . . . 
BARRENGER, A. N . 

HEIM, R. L 

JONES, W. L 

KENNY, T. A 

KUHLMANN, J. L. . 

MARSH, H.J 

JOHNSON, D. A 



Rank 
CDR 
LCDR 
LTJG 
LTJG 
LTJG 
LTJG 
LTJG 
LTJG 
LTJG 



Assignment 
Div Chap 
Hq Bn Chap 
1st Ser Bn. . 
1st MT Bn 
7th MT Bn . 
1st SP Bn . .. 
1st Eng Bn 
1st Tk Bn 
1 st Ar Am Bn 



Church 
aff'hation 

RC 

BAPT (A) 
PE 
RC 

BAPT (Si 
RC 
AofG 
L. D. S. 
EvMiss- 
Cov 



1ST MARINES 



MARTINEAU, E. R . . LCDR H&S Co 
CANFIELD, R LTJG 2d Bn . . 



FAY, C. I LTJG 

HITCHENS, W. C LTJG 



RC 

PRESBY 
(U) 

1st Bn METH 

3d Bn METH 



5TH MARINES 



JENKINS, R. W LCDR H&S Co. 

ELWOOD, C LT IstBn... 

IVERS, V. J LTJG 3d Bn . . 



BAPT (A) 

LUTH 

RC 



THEOBALD, D. K 



;th marines 



LCDR H&S Co 



KIEFER, R. W LTJG 

RAINS, C. E LTJG 

GIBBONS, M. F LTJG 



PRESBY 

(USA) 

IstBn LUTH 

2d Bn BAPT (S) 

3d Bn RC 



1 1TH MARINES 



HqBtry LUTH 

2d Bn Chr. SC 

4th Bn RC 



NETHERLING, E. J . . LT 
QL ISENBERRYJ.W LTJG 
KANE, J. A LT 

3d Marine Division 

Mention should be made of the reactivation of the 
3d Marine Division which took place on 7 January 

1952. This division was moved to Japan on 3 August 

1953. It included 25 chaplains of whom Chaplain 
I. W. Stultz was the Division chaplain. He wrote in 
December about the ministry in Korea and Japan 
saying, 

In a sense our ministry in Japan and Korea is more im- 
portant now than under combat conditions. We are up 
against all the problems that are created when troops are 
garrisoned in a foreign country. We are fighting monotony, 
immaturity, moral illiteracy, and every factor that makes a 
contribution to moral degeneracy. 

He then speaks of the chapel centered programs and 
moral leadership programs which were geared to meet 
the situation. In June 1954 Chaplain Maurus F. 
Cook relieved Chaplain Stultz. 



206 



The 1st Marine Air Wing 

For the most part the recognition given to the 
chaplains of the Wing was for their participation in 



relief work. This will be more fully considered in 
a subsequent chapter. The roster of the command 
was as follows, 



jones, a. cdr 

burns, j. j . ... lcdr 

lampe, j. h lcdr 

fenstermacher, h. f lcdr 

o'malley, f. p lt 

smith, j. r lt 

cloonan, j. f lt 

stroman, h. w ltjg 

Mcknight, p. c ltjg 

1 McKnight was Paul's relief. 



Wing Chap PRESBY (US) 

FMAVV RC 

MAG-12 PRESBY (USA) 

lst90MMAABn EVAN & REF 

MAG-12 RC 

MAG-33 CHRISTIAN 

MAG-33 RC 

NAZARENE 

MAG-16 PRESBY (USA) 



In September Chaplain Paul was detached. His 
Letter of Commendation includes the following 
comments, 

He continually gave his attention to sick and wounded 
patients who were flown to Japan at all hours of the day 
and night, and greatly assisted the medical officers by main- 
taining an exceptionally high degree of morale among the 
patients. Lieutenant Commander Paul met and assisted all 
replacement drafts reporting for duty in the forward area. 



Chapel — Third Division. 

A view of a chapel used by marines of the 3d Division. This 
chapel is located at Camp McNair, Japan, where the 12th 
Marines was located. Mount Fuji is shown in the back- 
ground. 




It is evident from this that the Wing participated 
actively in the movement of the sick and wounded 
and of replacements. 

Chaplain Lampe was awarded a Bronze Star about 
this same time. His citation emphasizes the work 
which was done for needy civilians, 

Continually seeking ways to aid Korean civilians, he in- 
stigated and supervised the construction and furnishing of 
a new orphanage building to house 150 destitute Korean 
children. His ceaseless endeavors permitted the purchase 
of rice land for hungry Koreans and the delivery of tons 
of clothing and toys to needy civilians in the combat zone. 
Dedicated to the humanitarian principles embodied in the 
precept of his faith, his activities resulted directly in greater 
health, comfort and welfare for hundreds of helpless Ko- 
rean families and orphans, and enhanced goodwill for all 
United Nations forces. 

Before the change of Wing Chaplains, Chaplain 
Bennett, FMF Pac chaplain, on his visit in September 
1953 noted the high morale of the chaplains, the new- 
chapels under construction, and other aspects of the 
command. 

Chaplain Paul of MSWG-17 had been detached 
without a relief at Itami. Chaplain McKnight was 
selected to go there. It would appear that, like other 
areas where troops were stationed in Japan, problems 
of morality and intermarriage were present at Itami 
so that a chaplain was essential. Chaplain McKnight 
was to continue covering MAG-16 (at Honshin 
which was about 15 minutes away by helicopter). 
Chaplain J. D. Gould, Southern Baptist, arrived Oc- 
tober 1953. 

Upon the detachment of Chaplain Allen Jones, 
Wing Chaplain, he was awarded the Legion of Merit. 
Concerning his work one reads, 

Thoroughly understanding the problems confronting men 
in a combat zone, Commander Jones capably administered 
to the spiritual needs of military and civilian personnel of 



207 — 







Gift From the Fleet. 

Chaplain John J. Burns, left, and Chaplain Allen Jones both 
of the 1st Marine Air Wing exhibit money orders received 
from the VALLEY FORGE for the Memorial Orphanage. 



all faiths. Handicapped by the widespread dispersion of 
Wing units, he traveled throughout the combat area to 
establish a close and effective liaison between the chaplains 
of outlying units and the Wing chaplain's office . . . His 
talks to civic organizations in Korea and Japan promoted 
good will and mutual understanding between the Wing com- 
mand and the populace of these two countries. Dedicated to 
the humanitarian principles embodied in the precept of his 
faith, he was instrumental in the purchase of rice land for 
undernourished Korean orphans and the delivery of tons of 
clothing and food to needy civilians in the combat zone. 
His untiring efforts resulted directly in greater health, com- 
fort, and welfare for hundreds of helpless Korean families, 
thereby greatly enhancing indigenous friendship for all 
friendly forces in Korea. 

With the departure of Chaplain Jones the new Wing 
Chaplain, Jeremiah F. Gearan, Roman Catholic, took 
over the spiritual leadership of the command. 

Another chaplain decorated with the Bronze Star 
at this time was Chaplain Harry F. Fenstermacher. 
It is recognized that 

His endeavors permitted the purchase of rice land for 
hungry Koreans and the delivery of clothing and toys to 
needy civilians in the combat zone. Working in close liaison 
with Korean military personnel, he was instrumental in help- 
ing to establish the Chaplains Corps for the Republic of Ko- 
rea Navy. Dedicated to the humanitarian principles 
embodied in the precept of his faith, his activities resulted 
in greater health, comfort, and welfare for helpless Korean 
families and orphans and enhanced goodwill for all United 
Nations forces. 

A Letter of Commendation was awarded Chaplain 



Joseph F. Cloonan calling attention to the fact that 
he 

. . . provided inspirational guidance in ministering to the 
spiritual needs of men in the forward area. He was instru- 
mental in the direction of the successful operation of a spe- 
cial Catholic orphanage at Pohang, Korea. Enhancing good 
will through his ceaseless endeavors to aid needy civilians, 
he personally delivered hundreds of packages of food and 
clothing to destitute Korean families. Dedicated to the hu- 
manitarian principles embodied in the precept of his faith, 
Lieutenant Cloonan's activities resulted directly in greater 
comfort and welfare for many helpless Korean families and 
orphans, and enhanced the morale and efficiency of the 1st 
Marine Aircraft Wing. 

One other award of the Commendation Ribbon 
was made to Chaplain Francis P. O'Malley which 
noted that his 

. . . endeavors assisted in the construction of a school for 
a Korean orphanage and the delivery of clothing, food, and 
milk to needy civilians in the combat zone. He gave val- 
uable and untiring assistance as a member of the Korean 
Rehabilitation Board which controls the building of schools, 
milk stations and sanitation facilities for Korean refugees 
and orphans. Dedicated to the humanitarian principles em- 
bodied in the precepts of his faith, his activities resulted in 
greater health, comfort, and welfare for helpless Korean 
families and orphans and enhanced goodwill for all United 
Nations forces. 

The wing also built chapels. As Chaplain James 
B. Martin expressed it, 

Our Marine Air Group has been working its way out of 
the mud. Fortunately, in 3 months we were able to give 
the men a newly painted and 100 percent enlarged chapel, 
seating 154. It is converted to two small chapels for weekly 
and private devotions. No one under the same circum- 
stances has a nicer religious arrangement, anywhere in the 
1st Marine Air Wing. 

Chaplain Samuel B. Bennett had previously stated 
that this Chapel — MAG-1 1 — was too small, but plans 
were being made to enlarge it. 

Forces Afloat 

The continual problem for chaplains afloat was the 
matter of coverage. During October through De- 
cember, at the invitation of RADM, W. D. Johnson, 
Chaplain Herbert C. Albrecht of the KEASARGE 
functioned as coordinator for all the ships in Task 
Force 77. Dispatches were sent out to the ships 
inviting them to send in requests for services prior 
to 1200 Friday. Chaplains were then scheduled for 
the extra services. 

. . . the admiral issued a regular operational plan for 
Sundays to move chaplains around in the task force mostly 
by helicopter. Chaplains were "hopping" all over the task 
force in accordance with this "Sky Flight Plan." 



— 208 



The Flag PIO issued this communique : 
From CTF 77 

FOR PIO X RELIGIOUS SERVICES ON SUNDAY ARE 
A USUAL ROUTINE FOR FOLKS WHO LIVE ON 
LAND BUT TO SEAGOING MEN, SCATTERED IN 
FORMATION WITH A NAVAL TASK FORCE THEY 
ARE SOMETHING SPECIAL X PARA X TODAY, 
WITH TASK FORCE 77, OPERATING IN THE FAR 
EASTERN WATERS ON TRAINING EXERCISES, 
NEARLY EVERY SHIP IN THIS UNIT WAS AF- 
FORDED AN OPPORTUNITY TO PASS THE WORD 
THAT RELIGIOUS SERVICES WOULD BE HELD X 
MANY OF THE SMALLER SHIPS DO NOT HAVE A 
CHAPLAIN ABOARD AND HELICOPTERS WERE 
USED TO FLY 6 NAVY CHAPLAINS FROM CAR- 
RIERS AND A CRUISER TO DESTROYERS OF THE 
FORCE X THE AERIAL "SKY PILOTS" CONDUCTED 
19 SERVICES FOR THEIR SEAGOING CONGREGA- 
TIONS IN MESS HALLS, RECEPTION ROOMS AND 
ON HANGAR DECKS X 

Admiral Johnson stated that the willingness of the 
chaplains concerned to travel by helicopter and high- 
line in order to conduct services has been an inspira- 
tion to all hands. Chaplain Joseph M. Broadley 
reports on his circuit riding during this period 

While attached to the Staff of Commander Landing Ship 
Flotilla ONE, and in the Far East, I followed the practice 
of riding on different ships of the Flotilla (LST, ARL, 
LSMR). During October 1953, I spent 2 weeks on the 
LSMR 401 while it was on patrol along the west coast of 
Korea. To my knowledge this type ship had not had a 
chaplain aboard for duty, other than to conduct Divine 
Worship, prior to this time. 

Chaplain Kenneth D. Killin of the BATAAN car- 
ried a small kit which he had made himself for the 
purpose of holding services for small groups. 

A number of chaplains assisted the fleet as they had 
in the past. Chaplain Thomas D. Parham is men- 
tioned as conducting Character Education lectures 
for Destroyer Squadron 22. Chaplain Daniel J. Sil- 
ver reports that he conducted Jewish services over a 
territory extending from the Formosa Straits to Korea. 
He also found time to coach a football team, the 
Yokosuka Seahawks. 

Chaplain Hedges Capers in the SICILY tells of the 
fine group of Christian laymen which he had on 
board 

The active participation of the men on the USS SICILY 
was unusual. We had a group of approximately 15 who 
consistently took part in all worship services. For the Sun- 
day services, one man would read the scriptures, another 
would lead in the responsive reading. This same practice 
prevailed in the Tuesday night Bible class. The Thursday 
night fellowship hour was conducted exclusively by the men 
with previous assistance by me. I used to end this meeting 
with closing remarks. The Saturday night prayer meeting 



was conducted solely by the men. The Sunday evening 
service was conducted by the men. My only contributions 
took the form of advice and coaching beforehand. This 
entire program was carried on while we were at sea and in 
foreign ports. 

Hospital ships continued in the area. Chaplain 
O'Leary in the HAVEN indicates that he aided a 
number of servicemen of different nationalities. 

MSTS 

Chaplain James R. Spaid speaking of the daily 
newspaper aboard his ship had this item of interest, 

On a number of occasions we have carried United Nations 
troops (Puerto Ricans, Ethiopians, Greeks, French, Turks 
etc.), and in each instance a special effort was made to 
condense the world news, [draw up] schedules of religious and 
other activities that would be of interest to these men and 
published [them] in the regular daily paper in their own re- 
spective languages. While on board the GEN. WM. BLACK 
(T-AP135), we carried the French Battalion from Inchon, 
Korea to Saigon, Indo-China (during the last week of Oc- 
tober 1 953 ) . Since these were the only troops aboard we 
published the entire paper in French and English in columns 
side by side. In this way the French troops had an op- 
portunity to pick up a little English and our Military Depart- 
ment and Crew were able to study the equivalent in French. 
The men seemed to appreciate this effort on the part of the 
newspaper staff which also happened to be staffed by French- 
men with the exception of my yeoman. 

Chaplain Russell A. Cervin wrote a lengthy pic- 
ture of the work of the MSTS Chaplain called "To 
Korea and Back."' The closing paragraphs capture 
the feeling of the troops as they went to, or returned 
from Korea. 

Early in the summer of 1951 a process of rotation of 
troops in Korea began. Prior to that time many of our ships 
returned to the United States without passengers. Before 
that time everything was going the other way. Since that 
time we have carried full loads both ways. 

Embarkation of troops leaving the States for Korea has 
its sorrows. I've seen women cling to their men and have 
to be forcibly pried loose from them so they could board 
the vessel. Just after pulling away from the dock an of- 
ficer of many years in the Army said to me one day, "After 
being in the Army as long as I have you are supposed to be 
tough. But I'm not very tough right now." A tear glistened 
on his cheek as his wife and child were standing on the dock 
straining for a last glimpse of husband and father. 

The attitudes of men going to combat are different from 
those of the men returning from it. On the way over they 
are somewhat tense as they face an unknown future. There 
is a certain amount of effervescence in church going which 
is sloughed off on the way home. Outbound church serv- 
ices are crowded with habitual churchgoers plus those with 
"foxhole religion." On the way home the men who have 
always gone to church are present plus a number of others 
who have found a vital religious experience on the way over 



209 






or on the field of battle. Though the attendance going 
home is not quite as large, it is often more stable. 

When leaving the States for Korea the men are more 
serious in attitude than the men returning, though those 
coming home are more mature. Especially is this evident in 
the harbor at Inchon. Going down our gangway headed for 
a long period of duty in Korea the men are serious and quiet. 
But when the LSU's pour out the homecoming troops on the 
floating dock there are wild shouts of joy and a great deal of 
joking and laughter. I took some pictures of the dock full 
of happy soldiers waiting to climb our gangway. Everyone 
yelled and waved and wanted to get into the act. They 
were filled with relief and joy at leaving Korea. 

Rest and Rehabilitation 

One of the problems that existed among troops 
should be mentioned. This had to do with R and R 
(Rest and Rehabilitation) . Chaplain James A. Whit- 
man, Bapt(A), ComNavFe Chaplain, writing in 
March states that the 1st Division and the 1st MAW 
send men to Japan for R and R continually. Chaplain 
Whitman insisted on the necessity of the proper brief- 
ing of newly arrived chaplains because of this 
problem. 

This R and R situation is a most serious problem effecting 
American prestige in the whole Far East. I feel this brief- 
ing is very vital and most important to the moral welfare of 
the men the chaplain will serve in Korea. Part of the brief- 
ing process is to encourage the chaplain to go to Tokyo 
where he contacts chapel centers, religious leaders and tries 
to get a fair picture of what worth-while things servicemen 
can do in a city like Tokyo. (Most men gravitate to Tokyo 
no matter where their R and R transportation drops them 
off.) 

The Far East Command Chaplains' Committee, of which 
I am a member, is trying desperately to determine how to 
improve the R and R program and how to help servicemen 
better use their time spent in Japan, especially those who 
come for 8-day periods from Korea. 

Far East Chaplains of Army, Navy, and Air Force are all 
sure that much of the problem must be solved through the 
leadership and "on the spot knowledge" of chaplains serving 



units in Korea; and this character training must be done ' 
largely before the briefing given to men just before jumping | 
to Japan for leave. 

End of Campaign 

The campaign was over. Many of the Reserve 
chaplains had already or were planning to return to 
civilian activities. As has been noted most of the 
men now with the divisions and the airgroups were 
new. An audit of the Korean conflict reveals that 
out of 

. . . the nearly 950 chaplains who were on active duty 
during the time of the Korean hostilities — i.e., from June 
1950 to the cease-fire agreement of July 1953 — 166 Navy- 
chaplains had served with the Marines in Korea and ap- 
proximately 150 others served aboard U.S. ships in Korean 
waters, making a total of about 316. This was 35 percent 
of the total Corps. 

Chaplain Samuel B. Bennett answers the question 
that many people in the United States were asking, 
"What are the chaplains doing now that hostilities 
have ceased?" It is not a difficult question to answer, 
because it is what they always do in peace time. 
Chaplain Bennett's reply was 

They are ministering to the needs of the men. These 
needs are not peculiar to Korea and Japan. Perhaps there 
is more sensitivity toward God and our homes because they 
are so far away. I know there is a constant hunger for 
companionship and fellowship. This gives the chaplain an 
opportunity to be close and offer guidance and give assurance 
that God cares and that each person counts. 

Korea must still be occupied. The needs of the 
civilian population were crying to be met. The prob- 
lems of all occupation troops were now to descend 
upon the chaplains. In most cases a great deal of 
the attention of the men was directed toward helping 
others and in the process their own problems faded 
into insignifiance, something of the magnitude of 
these projects is now to be considered. 



— 210 — 



CHAPTER TWELVE 



CIVILIAN ASSISTANCE 



Civilian Assistance 

"I have given it to . . . the sojourner, the father- 
less, and the widow according to all the command- 
ments which Thou hast commanded me." Deut. 
26:13. 

No history of naval chaplains in Korea would be 
complete if it were confined purely to chaplains' activi- 
ties in assigned military units. It is essential that one 
have at least a partial picture of the deeds which the 
chaplains accomplished in other areas. Nationals 
came out of the hills on numerous occasions to at- 
tend the divine services held by chaplains. Through 
the chaplains' examples at Inchon the Korean Marine 
and Navy chaplaincies were established. 

Korean service troops worked and died beside the 
Marines and were ministered unto by Navy chaplains. 
Through chaplains working among civilians, churches 
were rebuilt, sermons were preached and sacraments 
were administered even for those confined to leper 
colonies. Hospitals, schools, and clinics were aided 
and even at times established to care for the needy. 
The greatest accomplishment was found in the con- 
cern the chaplains, and the personnel of their units, 
had for the "little hungry ragged beggar orphans 
who roamed the streets and fields," and what they 
did for them. 

In recounting this saga, due to lack of information, 
many groups and individuals will not be given their 
full credit but the true recognition of the deeds of 
men are best written in the hearts of those whom they 
aid. However, it is hoped that this account will at 
least, in part, pay tribute to one of the truly great 
achievements of Navy chaplains in Korea. 

Previously in this work certain individual projects 
have been noted, but it is felt that special attention 
should now be called to these projects collectively. 

The problems of Korea were felt all during the con- 
flict, but they did not end with its cessation. With 
the complete destruction of one-half million homes 



and an equal number damaged, the primary task was 
to assure the survival of a good percentage of the 
population. In fact 9 million people were homeless 
or refugees. Though 80 percent of the hospitals were 
demolished even more destructive was the loss of both 
parents on the part of 100,000 children. 

The chaplains' story of participation in the civilian 
projects began virtually when the first chaplain ar- 
rived and continued as long as a charitable man of 
the Armed Forces remained. It did not include just 
Korea but it extended throughout the Far East. 
Many ships, stations and units not only assisted in this 
program, but also continued to remember charities at 
home with additional donations to Red Cross, March 
of Dimes, Navy Relief, and in the case of the WIS- 
CONSIN participation in the Madison (Wisconsin) 
Community Chest. A lengthy catalogue could be 
drawn up of all the benefactors and their recipients. 
And even that would only begin to tell the story. It 
has been estimated that in services and supplies al- 
most $365 million for relief had been given by the 
end of 1953, and there are still agencies today who 
continue the work. 

As most of the Christian population of Korea was 
Presbyterian much of the relief work was done among 
members of this denomination. Someone has ranked 
the religious groups according to numerical strength 
in the following order: Presbyterians, Roman Cath- 
olics, Methodists, Korean Holiness (not to be confused 
with the Holiness groups in America | and the Sev- 
enth Day Adventists. 1 One of the wonderful things 



1 Muller gives estimates in his book: 

Presbyterians 650, 000 

Methodists 200, 000 

Korean Holiness 50, 000 

Others: 

Baptist, Church of Christ, Salvation Army. 

Episcopal, Seventh Day Adventists *50, 000 

Roman Catholics 250,000 

•President of Korean National Christian Council gives a 
total of a million and a half Protestants. 






-.:;r,::::j <> i;n 



— 211- 



was the fine spirit of cooperation among the diverse 
groups of Christianity. Where the need was, attempts 
were made to meet it by everyone irrespective of 
religious affiliation. Pictures and articles show 
Protestant Chaplains helping Roman Catholic insti- 
tutions and vice versa. When human beings needed 
clothing, food, and shelter or else they would die, 
chaplains did not pass by on the other side. America 
can well be proud of the Good Samaritans of all rates 
and ranks in the Armed Forces of Korea. 

Pusan 

At the beginning one should start with Pusan. It 
was about the closest to Japan and it was here in the 
early days of the conflict that many of the refugees 
gathered. As has been noted seminaries moved here 
from Seoul. Even today refugee problems remain in 
this city. Chaplain Henry F. Maxwell, of the USS 
THOMAS JEFFERSON, states that in 1950 he had 
only brief contacts with the Korean Christians at Pu- 
san, but already he was encouraging the sending of 
money and clothing to the destitute. Chaplain Edgar 
A. Day tells of the evacuation of Chinnampo and 
transporting the refugees to Pusan in December 1951. 
He says, 

We had been at Yokosuka, Japan, only a few days when 
we received urgent orders to proceed to Chinnampo to 
evacuate refugees and ROK soldiers. We arrived there 
December 4. We worked all night taking those poor people 
aboard; men, women, and children. The saddest thing was 
bringing the ROK soldiers aboard. Over 600 were wounded, 
500 being stretcher cases. Their wounds had been unat- 
tended for 10 days. They were hungry, cold and in great 
pain. Yet, few of them moaned or complained of their pain. 
They are rugged people with seemingly a stoical approach 
to pain and disaster. Of course, I was at a disadvantage 
not speaking their language. Our ship wasn't prepared to 
care for so many people, especially so many wounded. We 
had our ship's doctor, two South Korean doctors, one South 
Korean nurse and woman chemist. We never did get to 
change all the dressings or do the necessary surgery that 
many needed. They were aboard 2 days. I spent my time 
carrying water and emptying urinals, etc. Yet there were 
rewards. 

Very few spoke English. Most who did were Christians. 
One young man who spoke fair English asked me one day, 
"Why are you so kind to poor Korean soldiers?'' I told him 
I was a Christian and a minister. He then told me that he 
was a Christian also. The Korean doctor and nurse who 
were with me at that time said they were also Christians. 
They didn't understand English but seemed to know what 
the word "Christian" meant. Out of the 600 men I had 
several expressions of appreciation, if not in words, in the 
expression of their faces. 

I mention the above because I got disgusted several times 
at the lack of concern for each other among the soldiers. 
Few indeed, would carry water and care for the physical 



needs without direct orders and careful supervision. We 
would get some able-bodied soldiers to work carrying refuse 
up and out of the compartment. Then they would disappear. 
We then had to round up more men and watch them most 
of the time to see that they, too, didn't take off. 

We had five men who were "YMCA men" from Chin- 
nampo. They had their English-Korean Dictionary and 
phrase books. Hung Seek Ann was the son of a Methodist 
pastor in Chinnampo. His father was murdered by the Com- 
munists as they fled northward. As the Communists were 
now threatening the city all Christian leaders were forced to 
flee to save their lives. Kee Taik Bak was a pastor of the 
Duk Lunk Ree Church. He also was studying at a seminary 
in the city. I couldn't quite understand all the details of 
his life. He said he had a large family of little ones and 
property in Chinnampo. Therefore, he couldn't take them 
with him. Since he was a pastor he would be immediately 
shot. I suppose he feels that his family would be reasonably 
safe since it was the leaders who would be in danger. He 
came to my room and wanted to sing. He hummed the 
hymn, "My Country 'Tis of Thee." So we two sang the 
entire song through. He sang in English most of the time, 
occasionally lapsing into his native tongue on a word or two. 
Then we sang all the Christmas hymns we could locate. I 
tell you it was a lovely duet. Then we had prayer. He 
prayed fervently. Seldom have I heard a more sincere 
prayer. I reached over and placed my hand on his knees 
to show I understood. Hot tears washed my hand literally 
in a stream. Later on he and three buddies came back and 
we duplicated the service. They loved "My Country 'Tis of 
Thee." After seeing the country I would say it appplied to 
Korea as much as to America. It was a great experience. 
We left the refugees at Pusan. 

Chaplain Charles E. Webb tells of another group 
of refugees from the other side of the peninsula. 
They were brought back by Chaplain John Murphy 
from the North Korean city of Hungnam and were 
classified into two groups, "one consisting of a Cath- 
olic priest and six nuns in charge of a large number 
of small Korean orphans and a small contingent of 
aged people; the other was a group of sick adults 
between the ages of 20 and 50." In order to make 
these groups at least partially self sustaining a laundry 
was set up in their dwellings and the Marines of MAG 
12 gave of their dirty linen to be washed by this grate- 
ful group. The second group was supplied with items 
needed to make clothing. Many of these items, in- 
cluding a sewing machine, were secured by the chap- 
lains from Japan. 

Chaplain Wendell C. Wheeler on MSTS duty re- 
ports bringing clothing, powdered milk, and vitamins 
to Inchon and Pusan which had been donated by a 
west coast group. Chaplain Barnes notes refugees from 
Seoul in Pusan and the fact that assistance was ren- 
dered to Chosen Theological Seminary. 2 As has been 



See pp. 99, 101, 112. 



212 



1-.S..S 




It If 




Ewha University. 

Dr. Helen Kim, president of Ewha University expresses her 
appreciation for the aid given by U.N. troops in Korea at 
services at the 1st MAW. 



Dedication of the 1 1th Marine Memorial School for Girls. 

iishop Choi delivers a brief message during the dedication of 
the school at Masan to which the 11th Marine Regiment 
contributed $12,000. 



noted the seminary had only two squad tents and 
nondescript shacks constructed of surveyed material 
given by the military. It was here that they lived and 
studied. Offerings were taken at the services of the 
1st MAW and given to the president of the seminary. 
As the only institution licensed by the government to 
grant a B.D. degree, they continued under these ad- 
verse conditions to turn out ministers for work in their 
country. 

Another institution that had moved to the Pusan 
area from Seoul was Ewha University, one of the old- 
est institutions of higher learning for women in Asia. 
It, too, was aided by the Marines. Later the New 
York Times in an editorial of 18 June 1956 called 
attention to the 70th anniversary of the university and 
stated that it had an enrollment of 5,000 students. It 
further stated that gifts from the United States made 
possible the dedication of a new building and facilities 
"this week" at Seoul. 

Clothing was given to orphanages and "Light- 
house" — the Korean organization for work with the 
blind. The existence of the Korean Blind School in 
Pusan has previously been noted. 

The USS BATAAN delivered 4 tons of clothing to a 
transport for transshipment to Korea. Chaplain John 
J. Coffey was among those who accompanied the ship- 
ment to Pusan. It was thought that this ship was the 
first to collect and deliver a large load of clothing to 
Korea. Distribution was made to the Maryknoll Sis- 
ters Clinic, the Sae Dul Children's Home and the Cen- 
tral Presbyterian Church. The REPOSE gave $2,000 
to Pusan Orphanage the winter of 1952. 



Chaplain Fenstermacher tells of the situation in 
Pusan during his stay there, 

There was no combat in the Pusan area during the period 
I was there. It was a rear area, and since it is a large city 
it became one of the main havens for refugees and was filled 
to overflowing with people. The overflow built themselves 
makeshift shacks of any kind of scrap materials they could 
gather — wood, tin, discarded beer cans- in any open spaces 
they could find in alleyways, along the edges of fields or the 
banks of the river, and on the hillsides. Then came the prob- 
lem of making a living for the family in a city already over- 
staffed with employable people. The orphans took refuge 
in the many orphanages which had been set up in and around 
the city. These were filled, but they always seemed to be 
able to make room for more. Some orphaned children 
roamed the streets and slept wherever they could find room, 
such as at the railroad depot or under the piers along the 
waterfront. On inquiry I found that many of these did 
this by choice; they had been admitted to orphanages, but 
would not submit to the discipline and attendance at school 
demanded by the orphanages, or else felt they could get 
more food by begging or by some other means of their own. 
So they left the orphanages. 

Anything we could do would be only a drop in the bucket 
among so many poverty-stricken people. But as a battalion 
we tried. We had our personnel write home to ask for used 
clothing to be distributed to help keep these Koreans warm 
during the winter. The response was very good. Packages 
of clothing began to arrive within several weeks, and con- 
tinued to arrive from then on. As much as possible I had 
the men themselves deliver the clothing for distribution to 
the needy. Since all the firing batteries were located near 
some village, some of the clothing went to these villages to 
be given to the needy in the villages, the deputation of Ma- 
rines often consulting with the "head men" of the villages 
to determine the needy. Other clothing went to the Baptist, 



213 



Methodist, Presbyterian, Seventh Day Adventist, and Roman 
Catholic Missions. They had constant calls for clothing, 
never seemed to have enough to go around ; and they eithei 
knew the people asking for clothing or else often investigated 
the family before giving (an important point, since Koreans 
have been known to feign extreme poverty, accept clothing, 
and then sell it at the market). Other clothing we took 
directly to orphanages and to the Old Folks' Home at 
Tongnae, near Pusan. 

. . . H and S Battery held a Christmas Party to which 
60 orphans from the Cross Orphanage were invited. In 
addition to clothing, canned and packaged foods, candy, and 
toys were given to the orphans. At the same time, all the 
firing batteries held parties to which they invited the chil- 
dren of the villages located near them and gave them similar 
gifts. The children of the Cross Orphanage were trained 
to put on a show consisting of tumbling, singing, and skits. 
They staged their show at each of our batteries at least twice, 
always receiving an offering in Korean money for the support 
of the orphanage besides other gifts. 

Not all of the relief items necessarily arrived at their 
destination. Chaplain Philip P. Shannon, Roman 
Catholic, states that several cases of powdered milk, 

. . . destined for an orphanage in Pusan and transported 
from the States aboard the GENERAL STURGIS, were 
seized by Japanese sentries in Yokohama as possible black 
market merchandise. The reporting chaplain was "simply'' 
attempting to leave the milk with the port chaplain, Yoko- 
hama, for the first available shipment to Pusan. Since the 
GENERAL STURGIS was departing immediately for 
Inchon, a frantic call was made to the port chaplain's office. 
However, time did not allow the "black marketing chaplain" 
to see the outcome of the incident nor has he ever found out 
what became of the skimlac. 



Chaplain Preston C. Oliver, Presbyterian (US), in 
the USS VULCAN met a young Korean who was 
attending the seminary in Pusan who became his 
interpreter. Later the chaplain arranged for the 
man to attend seminary in the United States. 

There were a number of recipients of relief goods. 
These included the Christian Social Service Center 
(Methodist), the Chief of Chaplains of the ROK 
Navy for further distribution and others. The CON- 
SOLATION aided the Maryknoll Clinic. One of 
the relief projects was "Operation Goodwill" which 
was put on by the MT. McKINLEY. Her Chap- 
lain, Thomas M. Gibson, reports that clothing was 
collected on the west coast and delivered to the Hope 
Hospital in Pusan, a hospital sponsored by the Re- 
formed Church of Holland, Mich. Chaplain Ken- 
neth W. Carlson tells of ships making contributions 
to Pusan after her disastrous fire. 

Mas an 

About 30 miles to the west of Pusan there was 
another city which was assisted by our forces. It 
was the city of Masan. Chaplain William A. Rennie 
tells of the winter of 1950-51. The Medical Bat- 
talion was invited by the neighboring Presbyterian 
Church to use their sanctuary for worship. 

For the Christmas Eve service, one of the Catholic corps- 
men volunteered to create a manger-scene tableaux 
with about 10 of the children of the church. Everything 
went off fine, as by candlelight, with the Korean congrega- 



BATAAN Delivers Clothing. 

Crates of clothing are brought on Navy trucks to the Mary- 
knoll Sisters Clinic at Pusan. 



Lt. (jg. ) Joseph Holtzer (left) ; Chaplain John J. Coffey (cen- 
ter), and Cmdr. Ralph W. Arendt of the BATAAN pose 
with children at the Sae Dul Children's Home in Pusan. 
They helped deliver over 7,500 pounds of clothing brought 
by the ship from San Diego to the Far East. 




214 








it/ &' ■ 



Marines Discuss School. 

The future of the 11th Marine Regiment Memorial School in Korea is discussed by. lift to right. Lt. Col. R. D. Heinl, Jr., 
executive officer: Chaplain Leo F. Rice: M. Sgt. J. D. Sharpe : M. Sgt. R. M. Tarlton; and Col. Janus E. Mills, com- 
manding officer of the regiment. 



tion as our guests, the choir sang "Silent Night" and the 
lifelike tableaux was posed in a corner of the church. 
Corpsmen and Marines placed their gifts at the foot of the 
cradled-babe. A very effective service of worship and 
dedication was the result. 

Incidentally, a few days later, the pastor of the church, 
in order to show the appreciation of his people for the gifts 
given to the church, presented me with about 180 pounds 
of roasted peanuts for the "church men and sick patients." 

Chaplain Bingaman ; affirms that the offering taken 
from January to May 1951 resulted in the eventual 
establishment of a Catholic parochial school. The 
Protestant offerings were distributed to the seven na- 
tive congregations. It was through these offerings that 
the Methodist and the Presbyterian congregations 
were enabled to renovate the interior of their sanc- 
tuaries. The parochial school referred to above was 
built by the 11th Marines and was called the 11th 
Marine Memorial School for Girls, (or St. Joseph 
Catholic School) "in memory of our Regiment's dead 
and disabled." Chaplain Kulinski credits the build- 
ing of the school to the desire of the Marines to make 
amends for the devastating artillery damage suffered 
by the city. It is interesting to note that some of the 
funds contributed to this school came from the contri- 



' See p. 62f. 



bution of refunds on "coke" bottles. Chaplain Rice 
writes. 

The education problem is great. The children love to 
learn. There is a big beautiful school built by the 11th 
M, nines in town: It is a middle school, for girls, and trains 
500 girls between 12 and 17. 

There are several other middle schools and many grammar 
schools. But some of the classrooms are made of salvage 
tenting. One principal had a plan for a good school. The 
people were willing to help — but a hill occupied the spot. 
The Marines sent out bulldozers and leveled the place that 
would have taken several months by Korean methods. 

In another note Chaplain Rice states that the girls of 
the school put on "a parade to show their apprecia- 
tion of the $12,000 contributed by the 11th . . . 
Marines." 

This chaplain also tells of 

... a village of some 7.000 people right behind n 
back-line. The interpreter helped us when we distributed 
candy and clothing. When I asked him if the people had 
any religion, he said: "We arc all Episcopalians." Monsignor 
Carroll at Pusan was able to send me a hundred bags of 
clothing from the NC'.W ( 

Chaplain Waters tells of aiding a seminary in 
Masan, 

In May 1951, I [surveyed] eight "shotup" tents and gave 



— 215 



[them] to the Masan Seminary which was forced to leave 
Seoul. There were about 90 students and 10 teachers and 
they were attempting to carry on their classes in various 
homes and churches. In order to realize any shelter from 
these eight tents, we placed four tents over four in such man- 
ner that the bullet holes would not be in the same places. 
Under these the seminary was able to carry on its work for 
another month until it was moved to a former Japanese 
Temple. 

He also tells of the remodeling of the churches men- 
tioned above but states that the Methodist Church 
had been destroyed by fire. "We gave an offering to 
either one of the churches, the orphanage, the sem- 
inary, a kindergarten, or the Korean hospital." He 
states that his unit, the 1st Amph. Traction Battalion 
raised $1,396 for these causes. 

In Chaplain Austin's monthly report of 30 July 
1951 of the Chapel Fund it was indicated that the of- 
ferings were given to the Reverend Kim Chang Ho, 
president of the local pastor's organization, for dis- 
tribution among refugees, school children, and 
orphans. 

Chaplain Rice adds color to ones view of Korean 
life by telling of the 

. . . festival of the eighth moon and the town of Masan — 
like other towns in Korea — would celebrate the harvest with 
3 days of festivity. 

To us Americans it seemed strange to see this type of 
Thanksgiving Day. The fields of grain were ready for cut- 
ting. The stems of high grass weighted with grains of rice 
waved gently in the paddies. Sorghum stood, with bent tas- 
sle, like the blossoming corn at home. Children stood guard 
over every terrace — acting as live scare crows. Here was a 
harvest yet to be taken. 

Masan has something to be grateful for. The path of war 
has not shattered the mud walls of its homes. The guerillas 
are not active in this area. The military salvage points give 
the refugees a great deal of work. The people seem ever to 
be on the go — either to market or home again — but they 
realize little for all their work. 

Problems face this harbor town. Sewage and garbage 
disposal seem to be nonexistent — or perhaps it is that the 
open sewers were adequate when the town was smaller. 

. . . To make the festival of the eighth moon a better 
day — to show that we Marines noticed their sorry plight — a 
group of Marines decided to do something. We could 
brighten the day for the most abandoned at least on this 
festival. 

Clothing had been sent from the States and 

By this time we knew fairly well the need of the people. 
The directors of the homes of old ladies, for orphans, for 
the refugees, know that the chaplain will listen to their re- 
quests. By this time we had a list of all the asylums in town. 
So one fine day off we went. 

Captain Davis, six Marines and the chaplain headed for 
the neediest "homes." Under the bridge there lived some 
38 women, as many men again, and children. In all about 



80 people lived under that bridge. The roof was good, if a 
little damp: it was a concrete bridge. The floors of the 
shacks underneath were more scanty: they were drafty, and 
would let in the flow of water when the stream would rise. 
The Marines went to each woman and presented her with a 
bundle of clothing — trying meanwhile to avoid a stampede. 
Then we went off to the refugee centers. They live in tents. 
By now the tentage has faded under the sun and has been 
beaten by the weather. No longer does it keep out the rain. 
In an area 20 by 20 thsre will be 8 families housed. We 
brought the truck in close to a building allowing room for a 
single lane of persons. When the women came through that 
lane they could not stampede the Marines. By the time we 
had given out the bundles a few had caught on to the idea 
that they could crawl under the truck and beat the line. 

Next we went down to the beggars' center. Before we 
reached this place we sent our interpreter ahead to speak 
to the boss and tell him what would happen. One Marine 
spotted a dirty old beggar, crouched against a fence. He 
brought her a bundle. She took it with joy and sorted its 
contents. Right before our eyes she changed into the 
clothing. She was very modest about the whole thing. A 
person in the latest beach tent could not have changed 
clothing better. One Marine said: "I'll never forget that 
sight till my dying day." 

At the old ladies' home the poor old folks came out to 
meet us. These little people greet you like grandma on 
Mother's Day. They will work these pieces of clothing 
over. At the end this clothing will meet the Korean size 
and style. We did not hesitate to leave old overcoats and 
those old kimonos, night gowns and house dresses here 
They will all be used. The old ladies once asked for a 
sewing machine. Now I see why. 

Up to the orphan asylums we drove. The collections 
donated at the Catholic and Protestant services on Sundays 
had helped these places. In one place the Sunday collection 
was enough to put in a radiant heating system (for $50 
the Koreans can install such a system: they merely have a 
small stove at a very low angle on one end of the house. 
As the flue rises, it proceeds diagonally upward under the 
floor, so that the flue rises at the other end of the house. 
Meanwhile the heat of the flue will heat stones under the 
floor and provide the heat.) As a result of our visits to 
these orphan homes the children knew us. They put on a 
little show for us. We left them sweaters and whatever little 
bit of children's clothing we had. 

The festival was a happier day — for the orphans, house 
girls, people living under the bridges, beggar centers, refugee 
centers and many more. In all, some 750 bundles were 
given out — clothing for an estimated 2,000 people. And 
the Marines were happy in this task. When asked why his 
eyes were so red one Marine said: "I'm allergic to the dust 
we pick up in the warehouse when we opened those bags: 
but I love this job." 

Most likely these poor people we helped were amongst the 
people who could not afford to buy a ticket for the arena. 
That afternoon we saw a thousand people or more peeping 
over the fence watching the ox fight, a mild Korean custom. 

Another city in this area was Chinhae. It was 
here that the PIEDMONT left gifts of money and 
clothing according to Chaplain Harold F. Symons. 



— 216 




Visitors on the PIEDMONT. 

Chaplain James F. Heffernan is host to a group from the Sacred Heart Kindergarten, Chinhae, Korea. 

on a show in Korean dress for the ship's company. 



The children put 



Inchon 

Chaplain Rennie writes that 

A few days after going ashore at Inchon with the 1st 
Marine Division, through one of the Korean workers, I made 
contact with a local Methodist Church on the outskirts of 
town. The church had sustained some bomb damage. The 
pastor of the church would not accept help but rather 
offered a choir for the Sunday services at the Division 
hospital.* 

Chaplain Wylie R. Bryant tells a story of refugees 
in this area while he was serving aboard a MSTS 
vessel. He writes, 

On a bitter, cold night of early January 1951, the watch 
officer of the USNS MARINE ADDER, anchored in Inchon 
Harbor, Korea, heard cries for help coming from the sea. 
The searchlights revealed a 20-foot wooden boat filled with 
Korean refugees sinking some 100 yards off starboard of the 
ship. Life boats were immediately launched and the refu- 



'Cp. p. 21. 



gees were brought aboard the ADDER. There were 27 
people, 18 of whom were small children. These Koreans 
had left their home in Seoul to escape the Communist in- 
vasion, and with the last money they had they had purchased 
this decrepit boat in an attempt to escape by sea to a refuge 
in South Korea. Only a few miles from shore the boat 
began to sink. 

When we brought them aboard they were sick, hungry, 
and very frightened. Medical care and food was immedi- 
ately given to them. The crew and military personnel of 
the ship gave items of their own personal gear to supplement 
their clothing. They were bedded down in one of the com- 
partments for the night, and were transferred on the next 
morning to a Destroyer of the South Korean Navy which 
took them to a safe refuge. 

Somewhat later a MSTS Chaplain, William J. 
Trower, Roman Catholic, learned of the Tabitha 
Home for Widows and Orphans, which included 
women who had lost their husbands as a result of the 
war: some had been soldiers but others had been 
purged by the Communists. They needed a sewing 



217 



machine. The crew of his ship heard of this and 
four machines were obtained in Japan together with 
19 bolts of cloth. Over and above this, materials 
were brought back for the use of missionaries. Chap- 
lain Richard J. Holmes in the ELDORADO spent 
many months at Inchon during which time he states 
that a great deal of work was accomplished among 
the refugees and the orphans. Food, clothing, and 
toys were supplied to two orphanages in Seoul, two in 
Inchon, and two in Pusan. In addition assistance 
was given to a hospital. The hospital ships, REPOSE 
and HAVEN, brought food, milk, sewing machines, 
spoons, bowls, etc. Chaplain O'Leary states that the 
HAVEN brought about 10 tons of supplies in Janu- 
ary 1953 including in addition to the above: medi- 
cines and bedding. Forty boxes and burlap bags of 
supplies were brought over in 1954. Surveyed 
medicines were given to the clinics. 

A number of ships contributed to the Woman's 
Police Orphanage. Some of these were the GEORGE 
CLYMER, CONSOLATION, and the LOS AN- 
GELES. Letters of appreciation were received from 
many groups of which the one from this institution is 
typical, 

this civil war has made plenty of poor orphans who are lost 
their parents and warm cradle, they were wandered on the 
cold street during cold winter night, but now this orphanage 
Fortunately have men like you who are very kind helper 
in the world especially UN force, We have feeling very 
thankful day and night (English translation of the Korean). 

In addition Chaplain Black of the CONSOLA- 
TION speaks of interest in the work of the First 
Presbyterian Church of Inchon among widows and 
unwed mothers. A number of the chaplains of the 
1st Division speak of aiding Inchon orphans. 

Most of the ships mentioned above and units of 
the 1st Division supported the Star of the Sea Or- 
phanage and hospital operated by the sisters of St. 
Paul. Parentless babies were cared for here. Most 
of the major equipment had been destroyed by the 
Red troops, but an up-to-date dispensary was able 
to care for most medical needs. The Catholic 
institution also cared for many older children. 

The story of a foundling is interesting. He was 
found on the dusty, war-torn streets of Inchon. He 
was temporarily cared for at the dispensary of the 
Army Service Command headquarters, commonly 
called "Ascom City,' - from there he was transferred 
to The Star of the Sea where Chaplain Edward O. 
Riley became interested in the lad. Chaplain Riley 
of the POINT CRUZ brought the child aboard the 
CONSOLATION for a physical examination. It was 



after the examination that the examining doctor told 
the chaplain he wanted to adopt the child. Arrange- 
ments were made. The child was brought aboard 
the chaplain's ship for transportation but was sud- 
denly transferred to the transport GENERAL GAF- 
FEV to go to Seattle, much to the consternation of the 
carrier's personnel. Father Riley was temporarily de- 
tached from his ship to escort the baby to Seattle. 
Because the child was nameless he was called George 
Cruz Anscom. 

It was also at Inchon that St. Paul's Cathedral, 
which was badly damaged by the North Koreans when 
they occupied the city, was redecorated by the volun- 
tary contributions of money and labor by UN forces. 

A unique establishment was that of Inchon Sungyuk, 
on the island of Fushi (Fussito, Fusshi-do). When 
the Communist invaders entered Inchon they took 
over the buildings of the Inchon Christian Orphanage, 
which had been established in 1946 by Holiness 
Church Missionaries. The children were left to fend 
for themselves. Kwak Sun Yong, a Holiness mission- 
ary, picked some of them up, but he was caught be- 
tween enemy fire. He finally brought them to the 
island where he and his wife took on the responsibility 
of caring for the group which consisted of 34 little 
boys in addition to his own family. The children 
learned gardening and fishing, both of which are im- 
portant vocations on the island. They also were given 
basic education by their "parents." The "Family" 
was found and mentioned aboard ship by a working 
party of the ST. PAUL which was sent ashore to set 
up a navigation marker. It was nearly an "all hands 
evolution" in an attempt to aid the orphanage.'" 
Chaplain Faber H. Wickham lists the work done by 
the ST. PAUL for this group during the winter of 
1950-51. Housing facilities were rebuilt; food, cloth- 
ing, and money were donated. Requests made to 
U.S. families for help, as in other instances, met with 
a fine response. The LOS ANGELES, in which 
Chaplain Organ " was assigned, took over the project 7 
from the ST. PAUL. There was also an assist from 
the TOLEDO according to Chaplain Vosseler. By 
this time the number of orphans had risen to 42. 



5 See article entitled "Armed Forces Care Through 
CARE," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings. August 1955, 
vol. 81, No. 8, pp. 897ff. 

" An interesting side note concerning this chaplain is that 
he repairs watches as a hobby. His repair equipment was so 
bulky that when the question of his detachment came up, his 
commanding officer requested that he be retained until the 
ship came back to the States so that the equipment could 
more easily be removed from the vessel. This was granted. 

7 This ship reports having aided 10 orphanages and hos- 
pitals in Korea. 



218 




Korean Lepers. 

One hundred forty of the 300 patients of Son Ke Won 
Leper Colony crowd into their small church for Sunday 
services conducted by Chaplain Muller. The girl on the 
left is collecting the church offering. 



Operation Love. 

Chaplain Martineau shows Whang In Sun a part of a bolt of 
white English wool sent by the BOXER as a part of Opera- 
tion Love which brought over 30 tons of clothing to Korea. 



Chaplain Muller tells somewhat in detail his work 
at Ascom City and environs in his book "Wearing the 
Cross in Korea." s He restored the brick chapel there 
for worship which he calls "second to none in Korea." 
Through the contributions of an aunt. Delia Muller, 
the first Christian church was erected in a Korean 
Veterans' Camp ( Wha Ran" ) . Chaplain Muller tells 
of the new building constructed for the Yaktai Church 
and a framed tent church for the Sixth Presbyterian 
Church at Inchon, and also for a new church at 
Ta-nam-lee. 

Chaplain Muller performed outstanding work with 
the leper colony at Song-Ke-Won, about 2}/z miles 
from Ascom City. At his first service he had 150 
present. Through gifts of the men at Anscom Chapel 
and a group of Army personnel at Inchon Chapel 
and friends in the United States, together with a small 
gift from the lepers themselves, a chapel was con- 
structed and dedicated on 23 November 1952 with an 
attendance of 405. Chaplain Muller also conducted 
a successful work in the Prisoner of War prisons. 
Kim i Mok san-nim) , Muller's interpreter, planned to 
become a minister and it was the ambition of the Ma- 
rines of Muller's unit to help him do so. 

Chaplain John W. Robb, when he went to Mem- 
phis from duty with MSTS, showed colored slides and 
because of the interest created in that U.S. city money 



was sent to the Kae Sung Orphanage. The LOS AN- 
GELES also contributed to the Sung Kwang 
Orphanage which was established by Capt. Joseph 
Bolan, Jr., UNCACK representative in Inchon. One 
of the cleverest young hoodlums of the city was per- 
suaded by Bolan to recruit other boys to clean the 
ground for this orphanage and thus aided in its estab- 
lishment. Also noteworthy was "Operation Good 
Will" which brought assistance to the Star of Hope 
Orphanage (Catholic). 

Chaplain Edward R. Martineau, Chairman of the 
Armed Forces Assistance to Korea Program, spurred 
by the success of his 1953 Christmas party set in motion 
his "Operation Love" with mimeographed letters being 
sent to the United States. Beginning on the east coast 
with 60 barrels of clothing the operation ended in the 
fall with over 30 tons at Inchon harbor for distribu- 
tion by the chaplains of the 1st Marine Division.'' 

Seoul 

Chaplain Theobald, who had sailed into Inchon 
Harbor on the flagship of the 7th Fleet for the libera- 
tion of Korea in 1945, states concerning the capital 
city, after seeing it again in 1955, "Now, the streets 
and buildings of Seoul bore little resemblance to the 
ones I saw in 1945. How could this little country 
ever recover from such complete destruction?" 

Because of its size and importance Seoul had many 



" The Society for Reformed Publications, Grand Rapids, 
1954. See also p. 260. 



9 See also p. 64. 



— 219 




Severance Hospital. 
Chaplain Kenneth D. Killin visits the orphaned sick and crippled children at Severance Hospital. 



relief problems. There were many institutions 
that tried desperately to cope with the needs. One 
of these was the Sam-Ae Children's Home. This 
orphanage had 365 children many of whom came 
from North Korea. It was located in an old Jap- 
anese Buddhist temple. The 1st Division gave this 
group assistance. 

Severance Hospital was a recipient of aid from 
the MAW. Comdr. Calvin T. Doudna, chief medical 
officer, took a special interest in this institution, which 
had been founded in 1884 and is partially church 
supported. It had trained almost one-third of the 
doctors in Korea (1,300) and 500 nurses. Three 
invasions of the city had left its first modern hospital 
in shambles. Wiped out were the maternity ward, 
three nurses' residences, the auditorium, the main 



classroom of the medical school and other buildings. 
The situation was further complicated by the scar- 
city of usable equipment. The prewar bed ca- 
pacity of 150 had been built back to accommodate 
66, but crowds, mostly destitute, appeared daily for 
help since the reopening of the facilities in 1951. | 
Dr. Florence J. Murray stated "nearly 125 patients ! 
are treated daily at the clinic. No one is turned j 
away without aid . . . although we cannot afford | 
all the medicines and supplies needed and considered 
necessary in a modern hospital." Some supplies were I 
delivered by Commander Doudna and Chaplain 
Kenneth D. Killin. 

A number of the 1st Division chaplains speak of 
contact with Methodist missionaries. One was Dr. 
W. E. Shaw whose son had been a Naval Intelligence 



— 220 — 



officer and had lost his life while serving with the 
Marines. 

Chaplain Rennie found a prospective Methodist 
minister among the Korean workers following the 1st 
Medical Battalion and had the satisfaction of seeing 
him make a start in that direction. Chaplain Hoff 
organized aid for a building program of a Methodist 
church. Chaplain Prickett enlisted help for the 
Nam-Buk Orphanage. 

The 7th Motor Transport Battalion assisted a 
Methodist Orphanage, and their Chaplain, Robert W. 
Smith, delivered money to Korean pastors to be used 
to build a church. This same unit sponsored the 
procurement of weaving machines which would pro- 
duce rice bags. The plan was to purchase enough 
material to make 1,000 machines. The recipients 
were to be the people of Puja-Gun County. The 
first machine was presented by General Pate to Lee 
Chong Song. "Gun-Su" or chief of the county. 
Chaplain Smith indicated that the machines would 
produce six bags a day and increase the villages' 
monthly income by $20,000. 

Chaplain Patrick Adams speaks of monthly visits 
to Seoul for a Day of Recollection whenever it was 
feasible. As a result of these visits liaison was estab- 
lished with the priests and nuns of Seoul which re- 
sulted in quantities of supplies being directed by the 
chaplains to Catholic orphanages and other institu- 
tions serving the needy. Chaplains Kuhn and 



Duggan are known to have worked for St. Paul's 
Catholic Orphanage in Seoul. 10 

The largest church in Korea was the Young Nak 
Presbyterian Church. It would be assumed that this 
church operated the Young Nak Presbyterian Orphan- 
age, which was under the supervision of the Reverend 
and Mrs. Edward Adams, and which cared for about 
130 children most of whom were under 6 years old. 
Chaplain E. V. Lyons, in reporting the nature of the 
assistance program of the regiment, points out the value 
of having servicemen see the way missionary work is 
carried out and in having them take a part in it them- 
selves. Chaplain McCabe, as well as Chaplain Lyons, 
also speaks of helping the Young Nak Orphanage. 

There are many accounts of Christmas parties being 
given for children. As Chaplain Newman indicates, 
for the first time, the children had an opportunity 
to meet Santa Claus. Wounded children were among 
those brought aboard the HAVEN for a visit, with 
Chaplain Tufft acting as host. 

Bishop Ro of Seoul was presented with money for 
the needy of South Korea by some units. 

Pyongteck 

Chaplain O'Malley writes about the two orphan- 
ages, the Catholic and the Episcopal, at Pyongteck. 
Two thousand dollars was raised to purchase 500 sec- 
tions of rice land to support the orphans when the 



Nam-Buk Orphanage 

Chaplain A. D. Prickett and Cpl. John A. Buxton visit the 
orphanage to bring clothing for the children. The institu- 
tion is located in Seoul. 



Gift. 

Chaplain Robert W. Smith is shown giving money to the 
pastors of the Korean church at Kumchon-ni. A Korean 
Army chaplain is pictured on the right. The money was 
donated to help complete the church building which is 
under construction in the background. 




221 



Leathernecks left. The contributions were made by 
MAG-12 and other interested people. In a recent 
letter Chaplain O'Malley states that the name of the 
Catholic Orphanage was Holy Angels. He also states 

The orphanage building we put up was a two story affair. 
The marines had donated approximately $1,000; then the 
Army allowed the orphan youngsters to salvage loose cement 
from broken bags in boxcars. There were close to 130 
orphans at this location. The kids lived in squalid hovels 
prior to the erection of the building. Clothes wise and for 
food we relied on help from the States, and also "garbage" 
from the marine kitchens. 

Chaplain O'Malley was not earth bound in his re- 
lief work for he relates that 

. . . being with an air group I did have access to the use of 
a helicopter. Maj. John Lavoy did the piloting and we 
wandered far and wide around the area giving help to 
refugees. Our method of delivery was simple Our engine 
noise flushed refugees out of their caves; then we dropped 
food and clothing. We also used the helicopter to take 
serious medical cases back to our base for emergency treat- 
ment by our doctors. Major Lavoy and his 'copter certainly 
were angels of mercy to thousands of refugees. 

Chaplain Paul J. La Duca also aided the Catholic 
institution mentioned above which cared for 125 
orphans. 

Chaplain Joseph H. Lampe appears to have spear- 
headed the creation of the Eden Orphanage at Pyong- 
teck. 11 MAG-12 bought and helped to build 
the facilities. Here the Marines housed, clothed, and 
fed 150 orphans with a strong assist from the folks 
back home. Other clothing was made available and 
Chaplain Lampe states that it was distributed through 
the local Presbyterian Church. 

... to some of the more than 50,000 refugees which were 
in the area ; always the pastor made the recipients realize 
that it was out of the Christian love of the American people 
which prompted the sending of the clothing, resulting in a 
new respect for the Christian way of life. Some helicopter 
pilots came in to get clothing, then go off on a trip, watch- 
ing for small refugee groups where they could land and dis- 
tribute the clothing to the very needy. Preaching in Korean 
churches, sometimes 35 miles or so away from the base, helped 
us to come close to the people and let them know we were 
concerned about them. 

Chaplains La Duca and Lampe worked hard to 
meet the needs of the poverty stricken people, faced 
with another Korean winter. Lampe wrote, 

The situation here is very critical. Unless we can get 
much more clothing and provide more food and shelter, 
thousands of Koreans will die as the treacherous winter takes 
its toll of the homeless and the hungry. It is hard to de- 
scribe the suffering of these people. 



A playground was constructed by the Marines and 
through their gifts a $2,000 brick western style dormi- 
tory was constructed with housing for about 150. 1 - 

Pohangdon 

Chaplain Webb once again entered the laundry 
business. This time it was 

... in a small village about 8 miles from K-3 (Pohang). 
It had been reported that a French bishop lived outside the 
village, caring for a group of women and orphans. With 
a guide I found the Most Reverend Germaine Mousset of 
the Paris Foreign Mission Society and former Ordinary of 
the Diocese of Taegu in charge of a small number of Korean 
women who had been on the verge of being instituted as a 
religious congregation just before the war began and lines 
of communication had been temporarily severed. Although 
in the clothing of laywomen they maintained a religious 
discipline and way of life which was remarkable. And there 
were, of course, the ever present orphans of war, sickly and 
hungry. Again a laundry was set up on a fairly large scale, 
vehicles commandeered for transportation, word-of-mouth 
publicity effected, and the same successful results achieved. 
I should like to add here that the Marines of MAG-33 
were very generous to this orphanage. Not only did they 
bring their laundry there (when it could have been brought 
to other and nearer laundries) but when I requested dona- 
tions of money these were given willingly and freely by Ma- 
rines of all sects, both officers and enlisted men. During a 
period just less than five months which I spent at K-3 
Bishop Mousset reported that he had received in actual 
American money (changed into Korean won) a sum slightly 
more than $2,000. This splendid generosity is indicative of 
American charity for the unfortunate everywhere and is one 
of my warmest memories of the men of Marine Air Group 33. 

Chaplain Webb tells of overcoming the language 
barrier through the use of Latin. But he still felt 
handicapped for according to him, 

... I told Bishop Mousett that my lack of remembrance of 
many words severely restricted my sinning for I could only 
commit those sins for which I knew the words; otherwise in 
my confessions to him I would be making sacrilegious con- 
fessions and adding another burden of sin. 

In the course of the war at Pohangdon the Catholic 
Orphanage 13 was damaged by Communist artillery. 
This institution had been directed by Father Des- 
Landes of Vichy, France, for 31 years. He had also 
established an old people's home and an institute for 
the blind and crippled. A number of tiny refugees 
from Seoul, Chongju and Suwon and from all parts of 
Korea found their way to this center. The Pohangdon 
Catholic Orphanage feeds and clothes about 150 chil- 
dren from 3 months to 17 years of age. A number 



"On p. 157 Chaplain Weidler is mentioned as being 
instrumental in establishing a new orphanage at Pyongteck. 



12 This evidently has reference to Eden Orphanage men- 
tioned above. 

13 Also called Po Hang Catholic Orphanage and Little 
Flower Catholic Orphanage. 



222 




Orphans Will Keep Warm. 

Chaplain Lampe distributes clothing to orphans of Eden 
Orphanage. 



MAG Eden Orphanage. 

An interior view. Note the American newspapers used to 
cover the ceiling. 



of gifts were presented to the orphanage one of which 
was a late model station wagon presented by Chap- 
lain J. F. Gearan. 

In 1952 MAG-33 gave enough money to build the 
first Catholic church in the town, St. Michaels. 
It was well constructed and met a great need. The 
first pastor was Father Aloysius Kim Dou-Ho. 

Later, on 19 September 1952, Gen. Clayton Jerome 
received a very gracious letter from Father Kim ex- 
pressing appreciation of clothing distributed by Chap- 
lain Parker. In it he says that the clothing was dis- 
tributed to "over 300 poorer houses." 

They have been deprived of their estate, family, and every- 
thing comfortable by this war, accordingly they were so 
starvating, desperate, and degraded that they might be in- 
clining their mind to communism. 

But those who have never touched were receiving your 
gifts, fruit of your love, in tears from deep emotion from no 
their own neighborhood, but American marine corps who 
are fighting for us. Seeing these scene, I could find again 
the Christian love which they had been lost, and through 
which they can see our Lord in their warm hearts that made 
their tears shed. 



Therefore we must notice that your American young men 
at active services are the combatants who kill the Red by the 
bullets, in contrast with this, your people in the relief work 
are the crusader of love who protect these people from the 
Communists by the Christian love (English translation of the 
Korean) . 

The Wing also was instrumental in the construction 
of a Protestant church called the Ochun Protestant 
Church, at Ochun, Korea. On 29 October 1952 Jung 
Duck Soo wrote a letter to Chaplain Cleaves thanking 
him for "relief goods'' and signing the letter "Clergy- 
man of the Ochun Church" which would indicate that 
the church was well established by the autumn of that 
year. 

Another recipient of aid from the 1st MAW was the 
Agapei Orphanage near Hunghei. 

The Marines left their name attached to two insti- 
tutions in Pohang, the U.S. Marine Memorial Chil- 
dren's Clinic, and the Marine Memorial Orphanage. 14 
Chaplain James R. Smith, who served as a director of 



"Cp. p. 157. 



223 



both in 1954, states that two Korean doctors and three 
registered nurses served the clinic. He also says that 
there were 112 children and a staff of 11 at the 
orphanage. 

Discussions concerning the orphanage began in No- 
vember 1951 under the direction of Chaplain Cleaves 
of MAG-33. Three thousand five hundred dollars 
was contributed by the 1st MAW for the initial site 
which was purchased on 28 November 1951 and 
which consisted of 15 acres of land. W. O. Philip 
Slocum was one of the leaders in the campaign. The 
actual construction began in February 1952 under the 
direction of Chaplain Seymour. The orphanage was 
completed 1 month later and housed 12 children. 
This number was increased to 35 by the end of March 
1952. By the end of the first year the number was 66 
and still later the number was reported as 109. 

The institution was officially dedicated as the U.S. 
Marine Memorial Orphanage on 16 March 1952. 

Less than a year later it had six buildings and rice 
land valued at more than $38 million won or $6,500 
and was incorporated by the Presbyterian ministers of 
Pohang. Chaplains Parker 15 and Lineberger, through 
an extensive publicity campaign, continued to collect 
clothes, raised money to buy land, and constructed 
three additional buildings. It appears also that a rice 
mill was purchased. Improvements continued to be 
made until the orphanage was called the newest and 



the most modern in Korea. The orphans were taught 
to farm the land and harvest the crops, so that when 
the Marines should leave, the institution would be able 
to continue its work. Chaplain Gould reported a cam- 
paign to set up a TB sanitarium at the orphanage to 
isolate and treat cases of this disease among the chil- 
dren. A new kitchen was also in the plans. Since 
1956, total support of this orphanage has come from 
funds through World Vision Inc. 

In June 1953 the second phase of the project was 
begun with the dedication of the Marine Memorial 
Children's Clinic. It also was a project of the Prot- 
estant Men of MAG-33 and Headquarters Squad- 
ron- 1. Two large Japanese constructed two story 
buildings had to be obtained about a quarter of a 
mile from the Marine Memorial Orphanage. There 
were two purposes in mind in the establishment of the 
clinic. One was to give free medical care to all 
orphans and the secondary one was to offer prenatal 
care for expectant mothers. 

The clinic started in a small downstairs room, but 
with the addition of new floors on the second floor, 
wards were set up there and plans were underway for 
"in-patient care." At the time of its inception the 
clinic was the only one of its kind in South Korea. 

Both Catholic and Protestant personnel aided an- 
other institution in Pohang, the Pohang City Orphan- 
age, 16 which was partially supported by the citizens of 
the town. It was said to care for 130 children. 



,r Cp. pp. 180-2. 



10 Also known as Po-hang Orphanage and Eden of Angels. 



Eden is Paradise. 

The marines of MAG 12 feed and clothe 150 Korean homeless 
children, but most of them give credit to their families back 
home for much needed packages of clothing. 



Orphanage at Pyongtaek. 

A group of the orphans is shown with Chaplain Paul J. 
LaDuca, Kim Soon Nam, teacher, and Father Lee Su Yung, 
who combine their efforts to manage the orphanage. The 
orphanage is aided by MAG 12. 




224- 




Eden Orphanage. 

Chaplain Joseph H. Lampe is shown putting the finishing 
touches on the first permanent building of the orphanage 
which was built by men of the Marine Air Group 12 on land 
which they purchased for that purpose. 



Say It With Flowers. 

The Korean lass is doing just that. The recipient is Chaplain 
Stephen G. Horvath of the 1st MAW in gratitude for his 
work for the Saint Michaels Church in Pohang-dong. 
The church was built with donations from his unit and 
this is the occasion of the dedication of the church. 




Gratitude. 

A hand woven tapestry is presented to Chaplain Richard D. 
Cleaves for his assistance to the Ochon church. 



Visiting Orphans. 

Pohang Catholic Orphanage is visited by Force Chaplain S. B. 
Bennett and other chaplains. Pictured here are (left to 
right) Father Lois Leo DesLandes, who is in charge of the 
orphanage; Chaplain John D. Gould, Chaplain Jeremiah 
F. Gearan : and Chaplain Bennett. 



225 




Ochon Church. 

Chaplain Richard D. Cleaves stands in the pulpit of the 
Ochon Church which he helped build with donations from 
the Marines. With him, on the right, is the Reverend 
Teun Byung Sik, of Pohang, and on the left is Elder Jeung 
Duck Su of the Ochon Church. An interpreter stands on 
the far side. The church is filled to capacity twice on 
Sundays. 



A Memorial Check. 

Chaplain Allen Jones gives a check sent by Mrs. O. P. Hige 
as a memorial to her son, who was a Marine pilot killed 
action in Korea, to a representative of the Aga 
Orphanage near Hunghei, Korea. The son's name \ 
Capt. William Higgins. 




St. Michael's Church. 

of the Catholic church to which the 1st MAW 
contributed $4,000 for its erection. 



U.S. Marine Orphanage. 

An aerial view of the orphanage. The section in the back 
was the first section. The section on the left was built 
later. Interestingly, it has a roof made of beer cans. The 
land which was purchased for cultivation was to the right of 
of the photograph. 




The Eden of Angels. 

This city operated orphanage extends helping hand to all 
orphans. It is supported for the most part by donations 
from the 1st MAW and feeds and clothes about 150 chil- 
dren from 3 months to 1 7 years of age. 



I S Marine Orphanage — 1959. 

The institution is still in need of help. Here is a view of the 
section built during the Korean conflict. 



— 226 




Visiting Chaplain at Clinic. 

Chaplain Bennett, force chaplain, pats a child on the head 
which is strapped to the back of the mother, as a group of 
of patients await their turn at the U.S. Marine Memorial 
Children's Clinic, Pohang, which welcomes all Korean 
babies and children for treatment. Chaplain Bennett vis- 
ited the clinic during his tour of the 1st MAW. 



U.S. Marine Orphanage — 1959. 

Chaplain R. W. Aldrich meets with the superintendent of 
the orphanage who is holding one of his charges. His name 
is Chung Jin Yuri. His assistant who is also pictured on 
the left is Su Tu Po. The" plaque reads "Marine Memorial 
Orphanage, Founded by First Marine Air Wing, USMC", 
and contains the Marine insignia. In the background one 
sees a present day picture of what was the first buildings 
of the orphanage somewhat improved. 



I Wonsan 

Although American troops were only in North 
I Korea for a brief time they gave as much aid as they 
could to the civilians they found there. 

In Wonsan as has been noted 1T Chaplain Murphy 
of 1st MAW reorganized the Catholic group and in 
addition formed the North Korean Catholic Relief 
Society. He arranged for captured grain and beans 
i to be rationed daily to the poor of the city. The 
Tuck Won Monastery which had been razed by the 
Communists was repaired by UN forces. Chaplain 
Carr and Chaplain Kenneth W. Carlson, Baptist 
(Gen. Conf. of America) , tell of the need of the medi- 
cal facility at Wonsan, speaking of the limited inven- 
tory consisting of a bottle of pills and a snake bottled 
in formaldehyde. Both appear to have used a Korean 
priest and Latin to translate the names and usages of 
the drugs surveyed by the ships' medical officers and 
given to the facility. 

In the winter of 1951-52 the WISCONSIN picked 

"Cp. pp. 34f. 



up a North Korean in Wonsan harbor who had been 
fired upon when he evidently was attempting to swim 
to an UN occupied island. He was given blood 
transfusions and every effort was made to save his 
life. He died and both chaplains, H. W. Buckingham 
and E. J. Kapalczynski, participated in the committal 
service. 17 " Chaplain John H. Shilling, Methodist, in 
the PHILIPPINE SEA tells of planes taking supplies 
obtained from the states to Koreans on YVotje Island, 
in Wonsan Harbor, who were cut off from a normal 
source of supply by Communists. 

Chaplain Garson Goodman assisted in the project 
of helping a Korean YMCA in Hamhung to reestab- 
lish itself. But, of course, all these activities in North 
Korea soon again came under Communist control. 

Kangnung 1! * 

Much has already been written about "Operation 
Kidlift" which brought 139 children, who had come 



" Cp. pp. 1 16f. 
See also pp. 114, 130, 158, 182. 



s:i: j ,2 () — RO lfi 



227 — 



through the front lines on the east coast from North 
Korea, by plane to Kangnung. During that winter 
of 1951-52, 450 1! ' orphans were cared for in four dif- 
ferent orphanages. Over 40 tons of clothing were 
received from the churches in America for the chil- 
dren. Chaplain Weidler describes K-18 (Kang- 
nung), where MAG-12 was located, as ". . . the 
most advanced aviation unit in Korea. The installa- 
tion here is of a semipermanent nature." He added. 

The work with the youngsters has provided an activity 
for the men, whereby they can convert some of their spare 
time to a worth-while cause. This work together with the 
contact with church groups, here at our chapel services, 
has provided more acceptable contact with Korean civil life 
than would normally be possible. 

Among the orphanages at Kangnung there was the 
Kangnung Columban Fathers Orphanage with which 
Chaplain Horvath worked devotedly. Photographs 
show the dedication of a Methodist orphanage in 
Korea "which was founded by Chaplain Weidler with 
the help of marines stationed nearby." This orphan- 
age appears to have been in or near Kangnung. 

Refugee Camps 

A number of refugee camps were set up in Korea. 
One of these was at Munsan-ni. 2 " Chaplain Billy N. 
Wolfe describes what he saw, 



"' Other sources give a smaller figure. 
; "Cf. p. 126. 



I witnessed the heartache of South Korean families being 
evicted from their houses in the front line area. In "No 
Mans Land" I counted 74 orphan children, as our convoy 
moved along the road [from] Munsan-ni to Panmunjom. 
They held out their hands begging for food, many of our 
G.I.'s tossed candy and C-rations to them and they lined the 
road each day looking for and expecting the food. 

Chaplains Hammerl, Rice, Nordby, J. Brown, and 
Stretch distributed relief items to refugee camps. The 
KEARSARGE contributed 1,200 pounds of clothing 
for children abandoned at the front. Chaplain Mc- 
Dowell tells of sending trucks for children from the 
refugee village for a Christmas party and when they 
did not return he went to the village for the children 
himself. His unit ended up with twice as many 
children as planned. Many other units had Christ- 
mas parties. Chaplain Rains tells of one for 2,000 
refugees which must have been one of the largest. 
Perhaps the biggest project in Christmas parties was 
that of Chaplain Bakker who was cited for conduct- 
ing Christmas parties for ". . . 2,800 needy Korean 
children . . ." 

One of the great projects in relief occurred during 
the winter of 1952-53 when the 1st Engineer Bat- 
talion adopted Paju, a refugee village of 1,500 people. 
Chaplain Ernst affirms that an offering was taken in 
order to buy food on the native market. "Once a 
week men of the battalion visited the village and 



A Baby Doll. 

Chaplain R. N. Stretch of the 11th Marines gives a doll to 
a Korean girl at Munsani Refugee Camp. 



Distribution. 

Aside from clothing and food there was also candy for the 
children. Here Chaplain Leo F. Rice is seen handing a 
Korean boy a bar of chocolate. 





This Is School. 

It looks like tent city but it is part of the Kumchin Primary School. The school was composed of but two small permanent 
buildings and the rest of the classes were normally held in these unheated tent-classrooms. As many as 80 children 
attend classes in each of these tents. Marines of the 5th Regiment and Korean school officials are inspecting the 
school with a view toward improvement of facilities. 



brought food, clothing 

lasted 14 weeks." 



firewood . . . [The] project 



Kumchon 

The 1st Marine Division occupied the Kumchon 
area on the west coast from March 1952 until August 
1953. Of the 112,701 civilians in the area 69,369 
were refugees and "19,755 suffering from causes other 
than land losses." The Civil Affairs group organized 
a 4-H Club, PTA, and Korean Young Men's Associa- 
tion. Aid was given in getting basic industrial plants 
into operation. Orphans were processed through the 
Civil Affairs Section and turned over to the Po Wha 
Orphanage at Seoul. The Division maintained seven 
refugee camps with the total population given as 
14,355. The two main relief organizations were the 
Federation Farmers Association, which was Korean 
and distributed grain for seed and relief, and 
UNCACK, which was the UN agency for the distribu- 
tion of grain and supplies for relief. This gives some 
idea of the broader relief program. 

More specifically Chaplain Vinson tells of the work 
which was done with the Presbyterian Mission of 
Kumchon. Particular interest was shown in its school 
which grew from 75 in January to 225 pupils by Au- 
gust. The Marines gave surveyed tents and fixed 
"ammo box decking" for additional school rooms. 
Some civilians were treated at the 1st Corps, Civil 
Affairs, 1st Marine Division Kumchon Hospital. An- 
other source tells one that the 7th Motor Transport 



Battalion donated and erected the Presbyterian 
Church at Kumchon. 

Toward the end of 1954 it was stated that 1,500 
students were to be taught that year in the 3 buildings 
of the Kumchon Primary Schools constructed under 
the sponsorship of 1st Battalion, 5th Marines. The 
school was said to be the largest of any of the Armed 
Forces Assistance to Korea Schools ( AFAK) to date.- 1 

Others 

The Nam Buk Orphanage in Yongdongpo, and the 
Christian Children's Home in Anyang were aided by 
the 2d Battalion, 7th Marines and the 1st Service 
Battalion. 

There were numerous institutions that were aided 
by the Marines but not a great deal of information is 
available concerning them. Among these were the 
Catholic Orphanage at Anchoong, which cared for 
125 children, St. Camellia's orphanage operated by 
French nuns, Children's Garden of Holy Mind at Bup 
Yong, an Orphanage at Wonju, and at Kecksa-ri and 
the Dong Dwang Orphanage which was almost fully 
supported by the 1st Division. 

"Operation Uncle" was a program led by the chap- 
lains of Marine units which had as its goal the "adop- 
tion" of 3,000 orphan boys. 

Inactive Reserve Chaplains in the Far F,a\l 

Chaplain Whitman notes the presence of three inac- 
tive reserve chaplains in the Far East. At least two of 



See p. 234. 



— 229 — 



these were active from time to time in the program of 
the chaplaincy. Chaplain C. E. Blackler, Baptist ( N ) , 
performed training duty at Yokosuka as did Chaplain 
Worth C. Grant, Baptist. In addition to these, Chap- 
lain Stanton R. Wilson, Presbyterian (USA), began 
serving as a missionary in Korea at Andong in Jan- 
uary 1953. 
Orphans Adopt Marines 

There were some children that did not want to stay 
in an orphanage, but persisted in staying at Marine 
encampments. Chaplain Fenstermacher tells of such 
a case, 

One cold night in December 1952 several of our hospital 
corpsmen heard someone crying outside the fence around our 
compound, near the sick bay. They called the officer of the 
day and me, and we went out to investigate. It was a small 
Korean boy, barefooted, bareheaded, and with only an old 
burlap bag covering his body for clothing. We took him 
into the sick bay for examination. No part of his body was 
frozen, but his body temperature was a great deal below nor- 
mal. The corpsmen fed him and kept him over night in a 
warm bed, and in the morning my clerk, Sergeant Tracey, 
and I found him a home in one of the orphanages. He was a 
refugee from the combat area and didn't know what had hap- 
pened to his parents or where they were. 

Later on, but still during the winter, another small Ko- 
rean boy was taken in under similar circumstances at one of 
our firing batteries. The Marines kept him and cared for 
him for a few days, and liked him so well that they wanted 
to adopt him as the Battery Mascot. However, it was against 
the policy of the command to have Koreans as mascots. It 
was felt that if we opened the door to one, more would 
surely follow and the practice might get out of hand; and 
that it actually would be a disservice to the mascot in the 



long run, since living with the Marines would make him 
become used to a way of life and a standard of living which 
would make it extremely difficult to readjust to the Korean 
way of life after the Marines were gone, and would tend to 
keep him from attending school. 

Accordingly, I was called upon to find a place for the boy, 
now known as "Sammy" to the Marines, in an orphanage. 
This I did. But within 3 days Sammy was back at the bat- 
tery. Upon questioning him through an interpreter we 
found that he didn't care for the meals served at the orphan- 
age nor did he appreciate the discipline and the attendance 
at school required of him. The diet at an orphanage hardly 
could compare with the menus served in our mess halls nor 
did it include the large amount of American candy and chew- 
ing gum which Sammy received as mascot. As for discipline, 
by comparison there was none for Sammy with the Marines. 
So he ran away from the orphanage to return to the battery. 

Two more times I took Sammy to an orphanage, and each 
time he returned within a few days. Finally, I made arrange- 
ments for the boy to be taken to the headquarters of the 1st 
Marine Aircraft Wing, about 90 miles from Pusan, there to 
be taken in by the Marine Memorial Orphanage which is 
supervised by and supported by Marines. There Sammy 
made his adjustment, and seemed to be content to stay. He 
was still there and doing well when I left Korea. 

Naturally by the time we found Sammy a home where he 
would stay, everybody in the Battalion knew him or at least 
about him and was interested in the final disposition of the 
case. So we ran an article in the battalion newspaper en- 
titled "Sammy Adopts the Marines," in which we covered the 
history of his case. 

A number of chaplains tell similar experiences. 

Distribution 

It was not always easy to get supplies to the needy; 
Chaplain Ralph H. Walter, Presbyterian (USA) 



Chalice for Korean Church. 

Maj. Joseph P. Gushing, Commanding Officer of the 2d Motor 
Transport Battalion, Camp Lejeune, presents a gold chalice 
to Chaplain Martineau to be delivered to the Immaculate 
Conception Church which he helped to rebuild in 
KalkO-ni, Korea. 



MAG — Marine Orphanage — Keoksa-ki, Korea. 

An aerial view of the building and grounds of the orphanage 
supported by the Marines. 




230 — 




Chung Im Protestant Church. 

This small church at Chung Im. Korea, was financed with 
gifts of marines. The Koreans spoke of it as "Parker 
Memorial Church." 



Distribution of Scripture. 

Chaplain E. R. Barnes is pictured with Korean children who 
have just received a copy of the scriptures. 



states that "many times I have lugged gear over the 
side only to have to lug it back to another port until 
I was able to find some kind soul who would deliver 
it to Korea." 

In addition to food and clothing there was the 
distribution of the Scriptures. Chaplain Taylor tells 
of giving Korean New Testaments to civilians and to 
Korean Marines serving with his unit. Chaplain 
Barnes distributed Bibles to Korean children. There 
was a call for Greek New Testaments by refugees on 
an island who had established a Bible class. 

Building Churches 

As has been mentioned before, a number of churches 
were built. 22 It should be noted that Chaplain Rains 
helped in the design and building of a church. Chap- 
lain Horvath worked to open a Korean chapel and 
Chaplain Spohn lent a tent to a young minister so 
that he could organize a new church in a nearby 
community. And so it goes, some were temporary 
structures, others were rather impressive. One of 
them was the Chung Im Protestant Church which was 
financed by Marine gifts. 

Civilian Worship 

There were any number of contacts which chap- 
lains made in the conduct of worship services. To 
cite a few, Chaplain Mulligan visited another island, 
Cheju-do, where prisoners were kept, and held serv- 

23 The work of Chaplain Muller and others has been 
previously mentioned. 



ices. In the case of Chaplain Martineau, he was 
adopted by a refugee group as their priest, since the 
regular came to them only twice a year. 

The Interpreter 

Very few chaplains could speak Korean; as a result 
great use was made of interpreters. One chaplain in 
answering his questionnaire spoke of his "interrupter." 
Although this is probably a misspelling it is all too 
true. One preaches for a minute or two and then 
waits for the translation, and so it goes. Chaplain 
Wolfe used a Korean Marine Chaplain; Chaplain 
Capers had the services of a son of a Methodist Ko- 
rean pastor named Pak. 2i Chaplain Forney states that 
his civilian interpreter was introduced to Christianity, 
accepted Christ and was a great help to him. Almost 
entirely on his own the Korean learned to play the 
pump organ. Chaplain Crabtree says that it was the 
work of the Marines at an orphanage in Kang Wha 
Do that won his interpreter to Christianity. Were 
all the facts available, the story of winning Koreans, 
interpreters and others, to Christianity by the chap- 
lains would be quite revealing. For example, in the 
case of Koreans, Chaplain Muller lists 1,256 conver- 
sions 24 during his tour of duty. 

On Land and Sea 

Chaplains were in touch with Koreans aboard ship 
as well as on land. Chaplain Symons writes of two 



■" Cp. pp. 232f. 

'* In addition 106 American servicemen conversions art 
listed by this chaplain. 



231 




Interpreter. 

Kim Hae Jong interprets for Chaplain John H. Muller as he 
delivers a Monday night sermon to his congregation of 200 
at the Song Won Leper Colony. 



Joint Sunday Service. 

A Korean and an American Navy Chaplain join in conduct- 
ing religious services for American and Korean marines in 
Korea. 



ROK ensigns who were aboard a destroyer for train- 
ing. They expressed an interest in his religious min- 
istry "as it might pertain to them" and requested 
assistance in English grammar and speech. For 2 
months they met and discussed these subjects. 

Chaplain Crabtree tells of meeting Lieutenant 
Colonel Choi, who was in command of a battalion of 
the Korean Marine Corps and who was a sincere 
Christian. In March 1953 Lieutenant Colonel Choi 
invited the chaplains and the commanding officers of 
the units in the area to attend a Korean Memorial 
Service. "This service generated unity, understand- 
ing, and good will among Koreans and Ameri- 
cans . . ." 

Chaplain Robertson for a time conducted services 
for the Korean Marine Corps Tank Company before 
they were assigned a Korean Chaplain. The services 
of Chaplain Ruleman held for an attached Korean 
Marine Tank Company are described as follows: 

. . . Seated cross-legged on immaculate mats with shoes 
removed and carefully lined along the center aisle, were 75 
Korean Marines, among the toughest fighting men in the 
world. Captain O, commanding officer, had told them all 
men should be present and should remain quiet. He re- 
mained for the service and joined in the warm hearted 
singing from the United Nations Hymnals printed in both 
Korean and English. 

. . . Lt. Hong, the interpreter, was raised as a Presby- 
terian Christian who hopes to study in America after the war 
and return to Korea to build a new school. 

Chaplain E. F. Ernst made a trip of 160 miles by 
jeep twice a month to visit the island of Kangkwa to 



preach to the American troops attached to the 2d 
Guerilla Partisan Pact which was composed principally 
of North Koreans fighting on the side of South Korea. 

The Korean Service Corps 

The Korean Service Corps was a quasi-military 
body consisting of inducted laborers organ- 
ized in 1951 under the control of the ROK army. 
Prior to that time Koreans were hired directly for 
certain tasks in the U.S. military installations. The 
men of the Corps generally worked 10 hours per day 
and in emergencies 14 hours. A rest period of 24 
hours was given every 15 days. The period of en- 
listment was for 6 months. The Corps was composed 
of men who failed to qualify for the armed forces of 
Korea because of age or some other disability. Some 
remained in the organization after the 6 month's pe- 
riod because of the scarcity of employment on the 
outside. The 1st Division had about 5,000 of the Corps 
attached to it and in addition hired 650 civilian work- 
ers. The main tasks of the members of the Corps were 
to carry supplies, evacuate the wounded, and to do 
general police or manual labor about the camp. 

Chaplain Capers in his work with the Corps secured 
hymn books with parallel English-Korean. Through 
the aid of Pak - 5 a large church attendance was at- 
tained. Chaplain Muller notes the large percentage 
in his group that had not attended a Christian service 



Cf. p. 231. 



— 232 



before.- 1 ' Chaplain Uber tells of good attendance 
from the 120 men attached to his unit. Chaplain 
Brosius tells us of Pak and Lee. It is presumed that 
it was the same man to whom Chaplain Capers made 
reference. The first mention of these two civilian la- 
borers was when they volunteered to leave North Ko- 
rea and embarked with the 1st Division from 
Hungnam in December 1951. Chaplain Brosius 
"spotted" Lee in his first service with the group be- 
cause of his beautiful baritone voice. He was used in 
the choir henceforth. Pak repaired an old smashed 
Japanese organ which he practiced upon assiduously. 
Both managed to be assigned to work in sick bay. 

Pak gave much of his life's blood for an American marine. 
In September 1951, during the battle for Hill 749, one of 
our men tripped off a Communist shoe box mine just a short 
distance from our battalion forward aid station. The enemy 
spotted the explosion, and began dropping mortar rounds 
into the general area. Without stopping to think twice of 
their personal safety, Pak and Lee grabbed a stretcher and 
ran through a mined area ahead of a corpsman. They began 
evacuating the marine, and in so doing Pak also set off a 
mine and was critically wounded. He lost a leg, was partially 
blinded and received many severe wounds in his efforts to 
assist one of our men. Lee remained with us as a faithful 



"'" In Ch. V of his book "Wearing the Cross in Korea." 



assistant up until the time I left the lines. These two men 
were truly "God's own," serving to the best of their ability 
where their duty called. 

Chaplain Felder obtained a series of phonograph 
records in the Korean language. These records in- 
clude hymns, scripture passages and sermons. As a 
result of these records several men volunteered to 
conduct further Korean services. 

As a result of these sen-ices, other Korean services 
were started in other units. Two of these units were 
"C" and "D" Company of the 1st Engineer Battalion. 
These were two outlying companies serving the in- 
fantry regiments on the lines. These services brought 
about a better understanding between the Koreans 
and the American servicemen as was evidenced in their 
contacts with one another. 

On Christmas at 

Midnight 1951 the Koreans worshipped at the midnight 
services with American personnel. At the conclusion of the 
midnight services practically all personnel in attendance 
walked to the side of a mountain where a public address 
system had been rigged previously. From here the Ameri- 
cans and Koreans sang Christmas carols together. They 
sang carols alternately, that is the Americans would sing 
one in English and the Koreans one in their native tongue. 

A solo was sung by a Marine major and a solo sung by 
a Korean Christian. A truly inspirational Christmas Serv- 



Final Tribute for a Korean. 

Taps is sounded at a funeral service conducted by Chaplain Joseph Gallagher for a member of the Korean Service Corps 
who was killed in action while carrying supplies to frontline infantrymen of the 1st Marine Division. 




— 233 




Crazy Man. Crazy. 

This "real gone" troupe of pint-sized song and dance men is celebrating the dedication of Bong III Chon Primary School, 
one of the 14 projects completed by the 1st Marine Division under the Armed Forces Assistance to Korea Program. 



ice. In the valley below were located several thousand 
American personnel among whom were patients in two 
forward hospitals. 

Schools 

Interest in the education of the children of Korea 
was doubtless the concern of many from the beginning 
of the conflict but it was not until 1953 that the 
Marines appear to have been able to set up a con- 
structive program of action. It was during this 
period that M. Sgt. John T. Cain became so touched 
by the needs of the children for education that he 
determined to investigate the matter. After talking 
with officials at a school near his air base he attempted 
to change military funds into Korean currency to 
spend for children's school expenses. Not only was 
he able to convince the paymaster to exchange his 
money, but he also enlisted a few other contributors. 
Thus he was able to have three boys and six girls 
enrolled that had not been in school since 1950. The 
tuition was $6 per year per child. 

The idea caught fire and Cain had to put some 
Marines on the waiting list until he had screened more 
children. The second month Cain flew 30 missions 
and yet worked at his investigations. He said, "I 
plan to put five or six more children back in school 
next week, as soon as I can sandwich in trips to the 
schools between flights." Shortly thereafter he was 
shot down over North Korea and listed as missing in 
action. Lt. William P. Lane picked up the leader- 
ship of the project and the number of children being 
educated in this manner rose to 20. It was the hope 



of Lieutenant Lane to add 100 more pupils to the 
program before Christmas. It was grand news when 
"Big Switch" brought the return of Sergeant Cain 
to the Marines. 

The Marine program had so developed that in No- 
vember of 1954 members of the 1st Division Head- 
quarters and the 5th Marines joined villagers in 
dedicating four new schools. The projects had cost 
about $30,000 and would provide facilities for 3,742 
students. These schools brought to 14 the number of 
AFAK projects completed in the division area. The 
new schools included three primary schools at Chug- 
won-ni, Bong 111 Chon. and Kumchon. The latter 
was the largest with 1,500 students. The fourth school 
was the most advanced institution of learning spon- 
sored in the division area up till that time. It was the 
Munsan-ni Agricultural High School. 

It may be assumed that many other schools were as- 
sisted directly or indirectly. One such project was 
to help the Chosen Theological Seminary to reestab- 
lish itself in Seoul. Books for the library and other 
items were sought and given according to Chaplain 
Schroeluke. 

It is recognized that this chapter gives but a glimpse 
of what was done for Korean civilians. Only time 
will tell how lasting and how valuable the work of 
the American servicemen has been. It is beyond con- 
tradiction that it can not help but have its impact not 
only in Korea but throughout the Orient. America 
will fight for freedom, but America also will lend a 
helping hand to those who suffer from the ravages of 
war. 



— 234 



EPILOGUE 



Redeployment 

In a sense the Korean situation is still an active one. 
The MLR is quiet. There are few UN or American 
troops there. After 27 July 1954 the military con- 
tinued the relief program. Gradually the troops were 
relieved by fresh replacements. During the early part 
of March 1955 the redeployment of the 1st Marine 
Division to Camp Pendleton began. Gen. John E. 
Hull. L T N Far Eastern Commander, paid tribute to 
the Division on the 3d saying. "You have added a new 
chapter to the already proud history of the Corps and 
it is with a sense of regret that the United Nations 
Command and the Far East Command mark your 
departure from this theater of operations after four 
and one-half years in Korea." 

Spei ial Emblem 

The preceding November a special ceremony was 
held in Washington by Gen. Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr., 
Commandant of the Marine Corps, in which the first 
of the new emblems, authorized for the service rib- 
bons of naval personnel who have had combat with 
the Marines, was awarded. Among the first three men 
to receive the emblem was Chaplain John H. Craven 

Operation Glory 

The ceremony held on 20 January 1956 associated 
with the removal of the first 50 of approximately 850 
bodies of unknown servicemen to their final resting 
place in the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pa- 
cific in Honolulu began what was termed "Operation 
Glory.'' The impressive ceremony was held alongside 
the MANCHESTER and honored all the unknown 
who had fallen on the field of battle on Korean soil. 
General Lemnitzer. CinC of the Far East and UN 
Commands, paid tribute to the Korean dead savins. 
"Their sacrifice has given reality, meaning and pur- 
pose to the guarantees inscribed in the United Nations 
charter that all peoples of all nations . . . may live 
securely in dignity, in freedom, and in justice."' 

Summary 

No adequate summary will ever be written of the 
work of the naval chaplains in Korea. Their contri- 
bution may be considered as dual in nature for they 



gave unstintingly to their military personnel but also 
found time to heed the cry for help from a civilian 
population. 

The courage displayed on the battlefield by the 
chaplains as they ministered to the spiritual needs of 
their men will go down in history as one of the greatest 
epics in the existence of the Corps. Almost without 
exception the Marine Corps recognized this in the 
awards which they gave to the chaplains concerned. 
Their extraordinary devotion to their men and tire- 
less work among the wounded, their ceaseless visita- 
tion on the front in the face of incoming shells were 
noted as in the "highest tradition of the naval service" 
but they also tame to be so universal that they were 
expected of every chaplain as normal procedure. 

The Marines had increased the number of chap- 
lains in a Division after World War II which was 
tacit recognition of the value of having chaplains w r ith 
their units. Now with this display of sacrificial service 
the chaplains were not hampered by collateral duties. 
They were working day and night at their own ap- 
pointed tasks. Daily worship services in the bunkers, 
administration of communion, holding confessions, 
praying for and w ith the wounded or dying completely 
eclipsed lesser things. These and many more activ ities 
endeared the chaplains to the fighting men. The last- 
ing influence of these representatives of God upon the 
men as they make their contribution to American life 
may be incalculable, but it cannot help but be great. 

Certainly in the Chaplain Corps a standard has 
been set that will be hard to maintain and certainly 
will be extremely difficult to excel. It is only hoped 
that chaplains in the future, if they have to serve on 
the held of battle, will measure up as well as have 
these in Korea. 

Not all the battles were on the main line of re- 
sistance. As one chaplain puts it 

Many chaplains fought a desperate battle against the im- 
moral influences that would destroy the moral fibre of the 
young men who served tours of duty in the Far East. These 
chapters of heroic Christian effort cannot be written but 
the results of these battles have saved many a sailor or 
marine from disgrace and shame. 

It is expected that in a subsequent volume of the 
historv the development of the Moral Leadership 



235 




Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish chaplains head the procession of pallbearers as the four caskets, containing the unidentified 
American servicemen, move toward the prow of the MANCHESTER. 



Pallbearers from the Tokyo Tri-Service Honor Guard stand at attention as final rites are performed under the 8-inch guns 

of the MANCHESTER. 




236 



Program will be traced, but with troops in far away 
parts of the world, "eternal vigilance" is still the 
watchword in this program. 

The chaplains, who were not with their men in com- 
bat but had to wait until they flew back on missions, 
worked just as faithfully with their men but whether 
aboard a vessel or at an air base they were able to de- 
vote more time and effort to care for the needs of the 
refugees. This does not mean at all that the infantry 
did not also work in this area, for all participated. 
The hospital ships, the MSTS, the battleships — all 
answered the call for help. The whole effort in re- 
storing or establishing schools, hospitals, and churches 
was a gigantic one, and one which appears unique in 
the annals of history. Armies are considered in the 
destructive sense. Whoever heard of an army taking 
time to rebuild what had been torn down by the shells 
of their own or their enemy's guns? Since when had it 
been the concern of the fighting units to care for the 
widows, orphans, the sick and the destitute? And 
yet here it happened — in a section of the world where 
life had been considered cheap. Suddenly a western 
nation had shown compassion, had cared. Back of it 



all was the chaplain giving leadership and guidance 
to these projects. 

A number of practical improvements came out of 
the conflict. Better combat altar kits, better meth- 
ods and techniques in implementing the Moral Lead- 
ership Program were among these. But in the words 
of Maj. Gen. Clayton C. Jerome, Commanding Gen- 
eral of the 1st Marine Air Wing, as he spoke of the 
relief work of this command 

The men of this command have undertaken completely 
on their own a tremendous project worthy of our finest 
Christian traditions, and it should be an inspiration to the 
millions of Americans who have loved ones here . . . Here 
is democracy as it is throughout the free world. 

It is this great display of humanitarianism that stands 
out so vividly as one looks at Korea. 

Thus one leaves the story of the naval chaplain in 
Korea. A story of bravery beyond the call of duty, 
a story of caring for one's fellowmen but as the his- 
tory closes the fighting man was to remain still in 
Korea. On bleak austere mountains he would watch 
across the neutral zone, but he would not be alone. 



God Is With Him. 






Silver Star 

Bonner. R. A.. USNR. BIBLE PRESBY 
Griffin, C. J., USN, RC 
Newman, Thomas A. Jr., USNR, BAP (A) 
Sporrer, O. E., USN, RC 

Legion of Merit 

Craven, J. H.. USN, BAP (S) 
Ingvoldstad, O., Jr. (LUTH) 
Jones, Allen, USNR, PRESBY (US) 
Peck. W. S., USN, PRESBY (USA) 
Slattery. E. A.. USN, RC 

Bronze Star 

Austin. H. E.. USN, BAP (A) 

Byrnes. John P., USN. RC 

Cleaves, R. D., USNR, BAP (A) 

Craven,* J. H., USN, BAP (S) 

Cummins, G. W., USNR, BAP (A) 

Edwards, Thomas V., USNR, RC 

Ernst, Elmer F.. USNR. RC 

Fenstermacher. Harry F.. USN. EVAN REF 

Ferris. J. S.. USN, METH 

Fitzgerald, J. C. USN, RC 

Gallagher, Joseph P. F.. USNR. RC 

Groover, H. H., USNR. DISC 

Guillaume. L. A., USNR. RC 

Hayes, H. H. USNR. DISC 

Hickey, B. L., USN, RC 

Hoff, Cameron P., USNR, LUTH 

Ingvoldstad, O., USN, LUTH 

Jones. G, USN, BAP (A) 

Killeen, P. A., USN, RC 

LaDuca, P.J..USNR, RC (OFM CAP) 

Lampe. Joseph H.. USNR, PRESBY (USA) 

Lineberger, Ernest R., USNR. LUTH 

Lynch, E. M., USNR, RC (OMI ) 

Markley, J. H., USN, METH 

Meachum, Lonnie W., USNR, BAP (S) 

Mendonsa, A. G., USNR, RC 

Moore, James C, USN, METH 

Moore, John T., USNR, RC (CSP) 

Murphy, J. P., USN, RC 

McDonald,* J. D.. USN, RC 

McDowell, N. L., USNR, BAP (S) 

Newman, Thomas A., USNR, BAP 

Peeters, R. T., USNR, RC 

Prickett, Albert D., USNR, BAP (S) 

Quirk, J. M. ; USNR, RC 

Reilly, G. J., USNR, RC (CP) 



;a) 



*Received two Bronze Star medals. 



Rice, Leo F., USNR, RC 
Schwyhart, R. M., USN, BAP (A) 
Sobel, Samuel, USN, JEWISH 
Sporrer, O. E., USN, RC 
Tennant, W. G., USN, METH 
Trodd, J. P., USN, RC 
Van Antwerp, E. I., USNR, RC 
Willets, R. H.. USNR. BAP (S) 

Air Medal 

Fitzgerald. J. C, USN, RC 
O'Neill, J. J., USNR, RC 

Letter of Commendation Awards 

Adams. Patrick, USN, RC 

Bakker, Peter J.. USNR. BAP (A) 

Barlik, R. F., USNR, RC 

Brengartner, Robert E., USNR, RC 

Brooks, W. E., USN, BAP (A) 

Brown, J. C, USN, BAP (S) 

Callahan, J. T., USNR, RC 

Capers, K. H., USN, PRESBY (USA) 

Chambers, Samuel D., USNR, PRESBY (USA) 

Cloonan, Joseph F., USN, RC 

Conlon, John B., USNR, RC 

Cook, A. R., USN, METH 

Crabtree, Roger L., USN, METH 

Cummings, H. H., USNR, PRESBY (US) 

Duggan, Charles T., USNR, RC 

Duncan, H. C, USN, METH 

Elliott, Calvin H., USN, PE 

Ernst, Karl H., USNR, PRESBY (USA) 

Fenning, R. C, USN, LUTH (MoSy) 

Frame, Clovis A., USN, METH 

Gallagher, J. P. F., USNR, RC 

Gibbons, A. R., USNR, RC 

Hayes, H. H., USNR, DISC 

Hearn, W. M., USN, BAP (A) 

Hollingsworth. J. E„ III, USN, BAP (S) 

Horvath. S. G„ USNR, RC 

Hutcheson, Richard G, Jr.. USN, PRESBY (US) 

Jolly, D. W., USN, PRESBY (U) 

Keaney, K. J., USN, RC 

Killin, K. D., USNR, PRESBY (USA) 

Kirkland, Albert S., USN, NAZARENE 

Knapp, P. J., USNR, RC (OFM) 

Kuhn. Gerald E., USNR, LUTH (MoSy) 

Kulinski, A. M., USNR, RC 

Lane, W. P., USNR, RC 

Lonergan, V. J., USN, RC 

Lyons, Earle V., USN, PRESBY (USA) 

Lyons, W. N., USNR, BAP (A) 



238 




Chaplain Otto E. Sporrer 




Chaplain Cornelius J. Griffin. 



Chaplain Edward A. Slattery. 







Chaplain Robert A. Bonner. 



Chaplain Thomas A. Newman. 




/ 



i 



■ '' 



/m 




Chaplain Orlando Ingvoldstad, Jr. 



Chaplain Allen Jones. 




Chaplain Walter S. Peck. 

— 239 — 



Chaplain John H. Craven. 



Mahler, W. A., USN, RC 

Meade, H. E., USN, RC 

Meehan, Daniel F., USN, RC 

Mulligan, Edwin C, USNR, RC 

McCabe, W. D., USNR, PRESBY (USA) 

Nordby, Walter H., USNR, LUTH 

O'Leary, Francis T., USN, RC 

O'Malley, Francis P., USNR, RC 

O'Neill, J. J., USNR, RC 

Pattern, R. L., METH 

Paul, James W., USNR, METH 

Peeters, R. T., USNR, RC 

Pigott, C. S., USN, BAP (S) 

Reaves, J. E., USN, METH 

Robertson, A. W., USN, BAP (S) 

Rothman, Murray I., USNR, JEWISH 

Ruleman, R. N., USN, METH 

Salyer, O. B., USN, METH 

Seymour, H. A., USNR, METH 

Smith, James Rex, USNR, DISC 

Sullivan, J. A., USN, RC 

Szczesny, C. A., USN, RC 

Taylor, W. A., USNR, BAP (A) 



Weber, Oscar, USNR, LUTH 
Weidler. E. R., USNR, EVAN & REF 
Wolfram, E. A., Jr., USN. LUTH ( MoSy) 
Wright, George Arthur, USN, EUB 

List of Purple Heart Medals 

During the 3-year Korean War, no Navy chaplains 
were killed in action. The following 15 received 
Purple Heart medals for wounds as they were received : 

Orlando Ingvoldstad, Jr 15 September 1950 

William G. Tennant 22 September 1950 

Robert A. Bonner 27 September 1950 

Kevin J. Keaney 29 November 1950 

Cornelius J. Griffin 6 December 1950 

Eugene I. Van Antwerp 26 January 1951 

Charles S. Pigott 26 January 1951 

John M. Quirk 4 June 1951 

Joseph P. Trodd 8 June 1951 

John E. Hollingsworth 20 June 1951 

James S. Ferris 14 September 1951 

John P. Byrnes 27 February 1953 

Samuel Sobel 29 March 1953 

Robert H. Willetts 11 June 1953 

John T. Moore 26 July 1953 



— 240 — 



APPENDIX A 

UNIT CITATIONS 
PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATION 

1st Provisional Marine Brigade 7 August-7 September 1950 

1st Marine Aircraft Wing 

One award covering three periods 8 March-30 April 1951 

18 May-30 June 1951 

3 August-29 September 1951 

1st Marine Division (Reinforced): 

(1) First PUC for action in Korea: the Division's fourth PUC. Includes Marine 15 September-11 October 1950 
Aircraft Group 33 and other supporting units. 

2 I The Division's fifth PUC 27 November-1 1 December 1950 

(3) The Division's sixth PUC. One award covering three periods 21-26 April 1951 

16 May-30 June 1951 
11-25 September 1951 

A number of smaller commands, to which no chaplains were attached, also received the Presidential Unit Citation. (See 
Cagle and Manson, The Sea War in Korea. ) 

NAVY UNIT COMMENDATION 

1st Marine Division (Reinforced). One award covering two periods 11 August 1952-5 May 1953 

7-27 July 1953 
1st Marine Aircraft Wing 1 August 1952-27 July 1953 

SHIPS* 

BADOENG STRAIT 3 August 1950-1 August 1951 

BON HOMME RICHARD 22 June-18 December 1952 

ESSEX! 21 August 1951 5 March 1952 

LEYTE 9 October 1950-19 January 1951 

PHILIPPINE SEA 4 August 1950-30 March 1951 

31 March-31 May 1951 
31 January-27 July 1953 

PRINCETON 5 December 1950-10 August 1951 

15 April- 18 October 1952 
13 March-15 May 1953 
11 June-27 July 1953 

SICILY 3 August 1950-1 August 1951 

VALLEY FORGE 3 July-18 November 1951 

I January-5 June 1953 

II December 1951-11 June 1952 

ARMY DISTINGUISHED UNIT CITATION 
1st Marine Aircraft Wing 22 November- 14 December 1950 

*Except in the case of BADOENG STRAIT and SICILY 
the award covers appropriate embarked air groups. 

A number of smaller commands, to only one of which was 
a chaplain assigned, also received the NUC. That was 
USS HENRICO (APA 45), for the period 15 September- 
25 December 1950. (See Cagle and Manson, The Sea War 
in Korea, app. IV.) 

— 241 — 



REPUBLIC OF KOREA PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATION 

1st Provisional Marine Brigade 2 August-6 September 1950 

1st Marine Aircraft Wing 3 August 1950-26 February 1951 

1st Marine Aircraft Wing 27 February 1951-11 June 1953 

1st Marine Division (Reinforced) 15 September-27 September 1950 

1st Marine Division (Reinforced) 26 October 1950-27 July 1953 

Hospital Ships: 

USS CONSOLATION 11 August 1950-31 August 1951 

USS HAVEN 18 October 1950-25 June 1952 

USS REPOSE 16 September 1950-31 July 1951 

7th Fleet 1 July 1950-27 July 1953 

Plus certain Task Force commands, certain Fleet Activities commands. Fleet Air Wing SIX, certain Surgical Teams, 
and other smaller and specialized units, for specified dates. 

(Sources: U.S. Navy and Marine Corps Awards Manual (NAVPERS 15,790. Revised 1953, and further revised by 
current Official Change Memoranda.): Cagle and Manson, The Sea War in Korea (1957): Montross and Canzona, 
U.S. Marine Operations in Korea (1954- ). 



242 



APPENDIX B f 1 



FIRST PROVISIONAL MARINE BRIGADE 

FLEET MARINE FORCE (REINFORCED) 
C/O FPO, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



14 July-12 September 1950. 

14 July 1950 — Embarked aboard ships with 1st 
Marine Brigade. Chaplains and assignments for 
shipping: 

Lt. Comdr. OttoE. Sporrer, Catholic. 1 lth Marines. 
Aboard USS PICKAWAY. 

Lt. William G. Tennant, Protestant, 3/5 Marines. 
Aboard USS PICKAWAY. 

Lt. (jg.) Bernard L. Hickey, Catholic, 2/5 Marines. 
Aboard USS GEORGE CLYMER. 

Lt. Comdr. O Ingvoldstad, Jr., Protestant, 1/5 and 
HS/5 Marines. Aboard USS HENRICO. 

The faith of ship's chaplains was taken into con- 
sideration so that, as far as possible, a Catholic and 
Protestant Chaplain were in each transport. The 
HENRICO was the only ship that had no Catholic 
chaplain for the trip, but when it was forced to stop 
in San Francisco for emergency repairs, Comdr. D. F. 
Kelly, Catholic, of Alameda Naval Air Station was 
invited aboard on 17 and 19 July to hear confessions 
and say Mass. 

During the remainder of the trip on the HENRICO 
daily Protestant Vesper Services were conducted by 
the chaplains and daily Rosary Services were con- 
ducted by two of the Marine Catholic officers. This 
latter was done with the assistance of the chaplains. 

On the PICKAWAY and CLYMER daily Mass 
was held and Protestant Services were held on Sunday. 
On the PICKAWAY the chaplains initiated and 
assisted in conducting several Happy Hours. 

All ships arrived in Pusan, Korea, the evening of 
2 August 1950. 

COMMENTS REGARDING CHAPLAINS WITH TROOPS AND 
ON TRANSPORTS 

1. Protestant chaplains, in the main, should be 
more aggressive to conduct daily devotions, vespers, 
or Bible studies. Under proper leadership Protestant 
men respond well. 

2. Determined effort should be made to see that 
chaplains are either placed in rooms with fewest 
possible room mates, or are afforded a place for con- 
sultation, because of the number of men who desire 
to talk in private. 

3. Chaplains should "advertise" their presence 



aboard. A temporary cardboard sign in the passage- 
way outside their room is a great help. 

4. Transport chaplains should carry all types of 
religious material far above their normal needs to 
accommodate troops and troop chaplains whose gear, 
of necessity, must be placed in holds. They should 
anticipate needs of embarked troops. One ship was 
completely out of New Testaments before the trip 
was completed. 

Immediately after arrival in Pusan. troops debarked 
and made a night movement to Changwon. At this 
time chaplains were assigned and made movements 
with: 

2 5 Marines— Lt. (jg.) B. L. Hickey. 

3 5 Marines — Lt. W. G. Tennant. 

Brigade Rear Echelon — Lt. Comdr. O. Ingvoldstad. 
naving been turned in to Sick Bay, which remained 
,n Pusan. 

1 11 Marines — Lt. Comdr.O. E. Sporrei 

During the period 3-6 August the chaplains ren- 
dered services with the units to which they were 
attached and also other units in the bivouac area. 

On 7 August the troops went into their first action 
south and west of Masan. Korea. At this time chap- 
lains were assigned as follows: 

3 5 Marines — Lt. (jg.) B. L. Hickey. 

1 1 1 Marines — Lt. Comdr. O. E. Sporrer. 

"B" Medical Co. at Masan — Lt. W. G. Tennant. 

Rear Echelon, at Pusan — Lt. Comdr. O Ingvold- 
stad. 

First casualties were received and chaplains were 
under fire for the first time. This engagement con- 
tinued for the period 7-13 August 

During this period Chaplains Hickey and Sporrei 
covered the forward aid stations: Chaplain Tennant 
covered the Navy and Army evacuation centers and 
cemetery at Masan; Chaplain Ingvoldstad covered 
the Army evacuation hospital at Pusan, through which 
all of our patients passed on their way to the hospitals 
in Japan. Chaplain Ingvoldstad was released from 
medical treatment on 12 August and that day joined 
the forward aid station, having made arrangements 
with the Army chaplains to conduct Catholic and 
Protestant and Jewish services for the Rear Echelon 
in Pusan. 



— 243 






COMMENTS CONCERNING PERIOD 7-13 AUGUST 

1. While chaplains in the field are, and should be, 
given great freedom of movement in order to render 
services where most needed, they must, at all times, 
keep their immediate command informed with up-to- 
the-hour information as to their whereabouts. Prac- 
tical knowledge of various types and means of 
communication should be had and utilized. 

2. Protestant chaplains should be more alert to 
conduct worship services whenever opportunity 
affords, without waiting for Sunday. 

3. It is valuable to have a chaplain at each battalion 
aid station, the collecting and clearing station, and 
the hospital. This would have taken six chaplains 
in this operation. Where a choice must be made, it 
is preferable to have a chaplain with the forward aid 
stations, not only for the wounded but the morale of 
the troops who are entering the engagement and see 
the chaplain up close with them. 

4. Chaplains must give an air of calmness and 
assurance, give of their faith and courage, give their 
church's ministry and beware of asking operational 
questions, repeating ill-founded rumors, and becoming 
"amateur strategists." A chaplain in combat must 
giv e, give, give of the best he has ! 

5. Where chaplains must cover much mileage to 
reach separated units, a jeep of his own is invaluable. 
However, alertness and initiative can get him around 
much also, although not with much, or any, church 
gear. 

6. Chaplains should know the location and activity 
of units other than their own and think of chances 
for services of worship for them. Use of operational 
maps and communications makes this feasible. 

7. Chaplains should be cognizant of the duties of 
the Graves Registration Office and alert to check on 
the accuracy of their records. Chaplains should main- 
tain their own record of burials for future reference 
in letters to next of kin. They should ascertain the 
official dates of death so that no discrepancies occur 
between their letters and the official death notice. 

8. Chaplains should have a note book for jotting 
down names and services rendered, especially to seri- 
ously wounded or dead, in aid stations. Slips of 
paper with checkoff list of services rendered and 
placed in patients' pockets are not practical. 

9. Chaplains should remember that, in a way, they 
are personal representatives of the next of kin and act 
accordingly. 

10. Navy chaplains are not able to conduct funeral 
services for all of their own men because Army chap- 



lains cover Army cemeteries and also operational 
demands delay their return to the cemetery. However, 
they can secure the records of which chaplain and 
when the funeral services were conducted for their 
own men. 



On 14 August the Brigade was ordered to proceed 
as quickly as possible to Miryang for assistance in the 
Naktong breakthrough. They arrived at Miryang 

15 August. 

Chaplain Ingvoldstad, having been assigned a jeep 
and trailer, traveled independently via Pusan where 
additional Catholic and Protestant religious supplies 
were obtained from our reserve and the Army. 

Two Protestant and Catholic services were held on 

16 August and at 2000 the troops began to move 
forward. 

1 7 August. 2 5 Marines went into attack at 0800. 
In the afternoon 1/5 Marines continued the attack. 
During this day over 300 casualties were handled in 
the forward aid station. Chaplains Ingvoldstad and 
either Sporrer or Hickey were in the forward aid sta- 
tion all day, with Chaplain Tennant at the Regimental 
Collecting and Clearing Station. That night Chap- 
lains Tennant and Hickey were in the forward aid 
station. Chaplain Ingvoldstad at Regimental Col- 
lecting and Clearing, and Chaplain Sporrer with 
1 1 1 Marines. 

18 August. 15 Marines continued the attack and 
later in the morning 3/5 Marines went into attack, 
taking the third and final objective with light casual- 
ties. 2/5 Marines in late afternoon moved forward 
through 1 /5 Marines and secured objective two. Dur- 
ing this day and and night chaplains were placed as 
follows : 

Chaplain Ingvoldstad — 15 aid station, 3 5 aid 
station, 111 Marines for church 2 5 aid station for 
night. 

Chaplain Sporrer — 11 1 Marines and visited all aid 
stations. 

Chaplain Tennant — Regimental Collecting and 
Clearing Station. 

Chaplain Hickey — visited all aid stations; mostly 
with 3 5 aid station. 

19 August. The Brigade was relieved by the Army 
and returned to Miryang. Chaplain Ingvoldstad vis- 
ited the Armj cemetery at Miryang and obtained 
records; also visited the Army hospital and Naval 
Operating Unit and patients there. Chaplain Ten- 



244 — 



nant returned with Regimental Aid, Hickey with 3/5 
Marines Aid, and Sporrer with 1/11 Marines. 

20 August. Protestant and Catholic services were 
conducted for Brigade and also Engineers. The 
Army hospital and cemetery were again visited. In 
the evening the Brigade began to entrain for return 
move to Chang-won-Masan area, arriving the next 
morning. 

COMMENTS REGARDING PERIOD 14-20 AUGUST 

1. With two Protestant and two Catholic chaplains 
and only one battalion at a time in the attack it was 
possible to have both a Protestant and Catholic chap- 
lain in the forward aid station at all times and also 
to cover the Regimental Collecting and Clearing Sta- 
tion with a chaplain. 

2. Chaplains can and should judiciously exchange 
places so that a continued chaplain's ministry is avail- 
able and the physical demands are evenly distributed. 

3. Under fire and being close to the front lines 
chaplains may be tempted to go forward of the aid 
station to do the job of a front line corpsman. A chap- 
lain should refrain from this because while he is 
assisting 1 or 2 and exposing himself to enemy fire, 
8 or 10 may have been brought into the aid station 
from other sectors and his services may be permanently 
lost as a chaplain. 

4. Funeral and Memorial Services were again not 
conducted by Navy chaplains as we departed the area 
prior to burial of all of our men and the cemetery 
was in no condition for the holding of a large service. 



From 21 August to 31 August the Brigade was in 
Army reserve status bivouac area. During this time 
it was possible to hold daily Mass, and Protestant 
services were often conducted. Arrangements were 
made for funeral and Memorial Services at the 25th 
Division, U.S. Army Cemetery, Masan, Korea, for 
all of our men buried there as a result of our first action 
7-12 August. This was attended by the Brigade Gen- 
eral and Staff and 500 men and all chaplains partici- 
pated. Pictures of this service are on file in 

Commandant of Marine Corps (Code AO) 
Washington 25, D.C. 

It was the general's desire that an individual picture 
of each grave with the appropriate chaplain standing 
by in benediction be taken so that families could 
secure copies if they so desired. Such pictures were 
taken during this period at Masan and also at Miryang 



Cemetery for deaths resulting from 17-19 August 
action. 

Protestant and Catholic services were conducted 
for the first time at the Brigade air component located 
at Chinhae. 

Sunday, 27 August, the greatest number of services 
in one day (eight) were conducted: Protestant and 
Catholic services at bivouac area for all of Brigade 
there, at Masan for Medical Detachment and Service 
Battalion, at Chindong-ni for 1 1th Marines who were 
on detatched duty in support of Army, and at Chinhae 
for the air components. 

COMMENTS REGARDING PERIOD 2 1-3 1 AUGUST 

1. While the physical strain of combat, travel, and 
diarrhea causes a chaplain to want mainly to rest 
and write personal letters in bivouac, he should move 
about among his troops. This can be done, with 
chaplains attached to a regiment, by eating each meal 
with a different battalion. It also helps the troops to 
understand that the chaplain does not belong to only 
one particular battalion or only to Regimental H & S. 
A chaplain attached to a regiment should be able to 
feel at home in any battalion and should use time in 
bivouac area to help the troops understand this fact. 

2. Facts concerning next of kin, official dates, and 
burial records can and should be compiled during this 
bivouac time, even though letters cannot now be 
written. 



The morning of 1 September 1950 a warning order 
to return to Miryang for assistance in another Naktong 
breakthrough was received. In the afternoon the 
move began and was completed early the next morn- 
ing. The afternoon of 2 September Brigade moved 
forward close to Yongsan. Sunday, 3 September 
1950, 2 5 Marines went into attack, followed by 1 5 
Marines. This day chaplains were placed thus: 

2/5 aid stations, Chaplains Hickey and Ingvoldstad. 
Regimental Aid, Chaplain Tennant. 
1/1 1 and 2/5, Chaplain Sporrer. 

Monday, 4 September, 3/5 Marines passed through 
into the attack and Chaplains Hickey and Ingvoldstad 
moved to 3/5 aid station. That night Chaplain 
Ingvoldstad moved to 1/5 aid station as they went 
into attack in the morning along with 3/5. 

Tuesday, 5 September, Chaplains were placed : 

111 and visiting aid stations, Chaplain Sporrer. 

3/5 aid station, Chaplain Hickey. 

1/5 aid station, Chaplain Ingvoldstad. 



— 245 — 



Regimental Collecting and Clearing, Chaplain 
Tennant. 

Having again reached its objective, the Brigade that 
night was relieved by the Army and returned to Pusan 
on 6 September. 

Chaplains returned with their units as follows: 

1/11, Chaplain Sporrer. 

3/5, Chaplain Hickey. 

Reg't/5, Chaplain Tennant. 
Chaplain Ingvoldstad returned independently via the 
cemetery and the hospital at Miryang where burial 
data was obtained and patients visited. 

COMMENTS REGARDING PERIOD 1-6 SEPTEMBER 

1. Chaplains again must be warned against going 
ahead of forward aid stations and also using slack time 
for exploring and investigating in GI fashion. While 
all chaplains were under some sort of fire, there is no 
reasonable excuse for being under fire when away from 
place of duty. Though a man may be curious to see 
what is going on and infected with souvenir collecting, 
a chaplain should hold himself in check because of his 
value as priest or pastor. 

2. Again because of rapid movement we were 
unable to conduct funeral services at 24th Division. 
U.S. Army Cemetery, Miryang, Korea. 

3. Chaplains, as troops, should keep personal gear 
at a minimum and in a state of readiness and neatness 
so that they are not caught unprepared for rapid 
moves. 



The period 6-12 September Brigade was in Pusan 
in warehouses on the docks. For this period chap- 
lains were placed : 

1/11, Chaplain Sporrer. 

Regiment and 1/5, Chaplain Tennant. 

3/5, Chaplain Hickey. 



Brigade and 2/5, Chaplain Ingvoldstad. 

This period was used in preparing and mailing 
letters to next of kin, conducting services for all units, 
and preparing for going aboard ships for next 
operation. 

COMMENTS REGARDING THE PERIOD 6-12 SEPTEMBER 

1 . Extreme care must be taken in writing letters to 
next of kin to assure correct official date of death and 
burial location. 

2. With extra effort monthly reports can be 
accomplished. 

3. Use of initiative on chaplains' part in conducting 
services in smaller ships and other units should be 
encouraged and used. 

4. Chaplains should do the superhuman and refrain 
from non-constructive recounting of front line and aid 
station experiences. Much talk on part of chaplain, 
even though true, has an adverse effect on listeners as 
regards the chaplain. 

The chaplains connected with 1st Provisional 
Marine Brigade conducted themselves well, gave brave 
and valuable ministry under fire and in bivouac, and 
also learned much concerning service with the Marines 
in attack. 

One chief regret was the impossibility of conducting 
funeral services after the last two engagements, even 
though graveside services were conducted by Army 
chaplains. 

O. Ingvoldstad, Jr. 
Enclosures : 

(A) Type of chaplain ministration card to be 
placed in patient's pocket, which proved impractical. 

(B) Type of letter written to next of kin by Protes- 
tant chaplains. 

(C) Type of letter written to next of kin by Catho- 
lic chaplains. 



— 246 



APPENDIX B (2) 

CHAPLAIN'S OFFICE, 5TH MARINES, FMF 1ST MARINE DIVISION, FPO, 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



Chaplain's Special Action Report, 30 August 
to 9 October 1950 

1. 30 August to 6 September. 5th Marines were in 
reserve at Masan and in action at Miryang, Korea. 
This phase is covered in a previous report. During 
this time the chaplains were informed that there would 
be an amphibious landing in the near future, and that 
one chaplain was to accompany each battalion. 

2. 6-12 September. Protestant and Catholic serv- 
ices were held at various dock areas at Pusan and on 
various ships in which our troops were embarked. 

3. Chaplains were assigned and accompanied troops 
as follows: 

LT. COMDR. O. INGVOLDSTAD, JR., 2/5 on 
USS CAVALIER (APA 37). 

LT. W. G. TENNANT, 1/5 on USS HENRICO 
(APA 45). 

LT. (JG.) B. L. HICKEY, 3/5 on USS FORT 
MARION (LSD 22). 

4. Services were held aboard ship at sea. 

5. At Inchon, Korea, on 15 September 1950 chap- 
lains landed with battalion aid stations. Chaplain 
Ingvoldstad received a minor shrapnel wound. 

6. 15-17 September. Because of rapid advances 
and separated sectors of battalions, no interchange of 
chaplains between battalions was possible, nor were 
services able to be held. 

7. 18-19 September. Catholic and Protestant 
services were held in 2/5 and 3/5. 

8. 20 September. The Han River was crossed and 
the Regiment advanced toward Seoul, chaplains re- 
maining with respective battalions. 

9. 22 September. Chaplain Tennant was wounded 
by mortar shrapnel and evacuated. Division Chap- 
lain was requested to send a replacement. 

10. 23 September. Lt. L. R. Phillips, CHC, USN, 
joined Regiment. Chaplains were then assigned as 
follows : 

LT. COMDR. O. INGVOLDSTAD 1/5 and 2/5 
aid station. 

LT. L. R. PHILLIPS Regimental aid station. 

LT. (JG.) B. L. HICKEY 3/5 aid station. 

On this day heaviest casualties to date were received 
by 2/5, 91 passing through the aid station and many 
dead were unable to be removed from the field of 



action. This action continued the following day for 
2/5 with 125 casualties, but moderated on 25 Septem- 
ber with 65 casualties and advance to outskirts of 
Seoul. 

11. 26 September. Protestant and Catholic serv- 
ices were again held in Regiment, 1/5 and 3/5. 

12. 27 September. 3/5 reached Capitol Building 
in Seoul and mopping up activities continued to 
29 September. 

13. 29 September. Chaplains were reassigned as 
follows: 

LT. COMDR. O. INGVOLDSTAD, JR., Regi- 
ment. 

LT. L. R. PHILLIPS, 2/5. 

LT. (JG.) B. L. HICKEY, Regiment. 

This enabled Chaplains Hickey and Ingvoldstad to 
work on letter to next of kin while Chaplain Phillips 
accompanied 2/5 on a separate mission some 10 miles 
away from Regimental Headquarters. 

14. 30 September-4 October. Mopping up in 
Seoul and advance northwest of Seoul, farthest point 
being 18 miles, reached by the 3d Battalion. 

15. 5 October. 5th Marines moved to assembly 
area, Inchon, preparing to embark for next operation. 

comments regarding this period 

1. In spite of the confusion of loading ships, chap- 
lains could and did hold numerous services so that all 
units had opportunity for worship before being 
separated on ships not having chaplains. 

2. Opportunity was also given so that each man 
could have his own personal Testament or Prayer 
Book. The Chaplains Section of Pusan Base Com- 
mand was very helpful and generous in giving needed 
supplies. Catholic and Protestant chaplains should 
be concerned and prepared to offer supplies to men of 
each other's faith. 

3. Assignment of chaplains to definite battalions 
for an operation seems to be the best way to operate. 
However, in a regiment going through several opera- 
tions it is best to rotate the chaplains between the 
battalions so that men of various faiths in each bat- 
talion may have the closer services of a chaplain of 
their own faith at some time during the campaign. 

4. In this operation it was not possible for chap- 



247 



lains without jeeps to move to battalions other than 
their own for services. 

5. The system whereby the Division chaplain was 
able to replace a wounded chaplain in less than 24 
hours was very commendable. 

6. The Regimental Aid Station also acted as a 
Clearing and Collecting Section of the Medical Bat- 
talion. In this arrangement it is very desirable to 
have four chaplains to a regiment so that one chap- 
lain could be at Regiment at all times. 762 casualties 
were handled by Regimental Aid during the period 
15-30 September. 

7. Burials were accomplished under supervision of 
the Division chaplain by chaplains of supporting or- 
ganizations. In a shorter or less extended operation 
it would be well if chaplains of units to which the 
deceased belonged could also conduct their funeral 
services. 

8. It was commendable that a Division Memorial 
Service was conducted prior to departure from the 
area. 

9. The system of assembling all next of kin and 
burial information by the Division chaplain was of 
invaluable help to regiments whose personnel records 
are not available in combat. 

10. Chaplains again did their best to conduct 
themselves and offer their services in a manner of 
inspiration and helpfulness to the men of this 
command. 

11. During this period the Chaplains Section 
operated in accordance with the following: 

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR 
CHAPLAINS SECTION 

I. MISSION 

A. To bring men to God and God to men by: 

1. Providing adequate spiritual and moral 

leadership. 

2. Making adequate provisions for formal 

worship services. 

B. Under the Commanding Officer to assist in 

maintaining a high state of morale. 

II. ORGANIZATION 

A. Table of Organization (* denotes wartime 
complement only) . 



Position 
Regimental chaplain 
Assistant reg't chap- 
lain. 

Chaplain* LTJG 

Clerk CPL 

Clerk CPL 



Rank/rate Service Mo. MOS Church 

LCDR 4100 

LT 4100 



4100 
5243 
5243 



Clerk* CPL 5243 

B. Present Organization 

Regimental chaplain: 

O. Ingvoldstad.Jr. LCDR 223739 4100 LUTH 

Assistant Chaplains: 

L. R. Phillips LT 381175 4100 CONG 

B. L. Hickey LTJG 527073 4100 RC 

E. R. Buhman . . . . SGT 1087908 5243 RC 

P. B. Barger PFC 649497 5200 METH 

III. OPERATION 

A. Regimental Chaplain 

1. The Regimental Chaplain is a member of the 
Commanding Officer's Special Staff. As such 
he 

a. Is present at all Staff Conferences which in- 

clude the Special Staff. 

b. Advises the Commanding Officer in mat- 

ters relating to the Chaplains Mission. 

c. Acts as representative of the Commanding 

Officer in those matters relating to the 
Chaplains Mission. 

B. Assistant Chaplains 

1. The duties of the Assistant Chaplain are: 

a. To conduct such religious services and 

functions as his church requires. 

b. To assist the Regimental Chaplain in the 

accomplishment of the Chaplains Mission. 

C. Regarding Embarkation 

1. Regimental Chaplains should maintain a full 

supply of consumable, nonperishable church 
equipment crated and ready at all times for 
embarkation. This would include: 
1,000 New Testaments (American Bible 
Society preferred because of prayers 
and hymns inserted which makes it 
possible to be used for field services). 
500 Protestant Prayer Books 
500 Catholic Military Missals 
500 Rosaries 
200 Field Hymn Books 
1 Portable Field Organ 

2. The church affiliation of ship's chaplains are 

then taken into consideration so that, insofar 
as possible, a Protestant and Catholic chaplain 
may be on each transport. 

3. Chaplains' office equipment in Line No. 2 ma- 

terial for shipping. As such it may or may 
not be available during the voyage; but by 
personally contacting the regimental embarka- 
tion officer, certain pieces of equipment can 
be made accessible for use during the trip and 
combat loading. 
D. Regarding Debarkation 

1. Chaplains debark and go ashore in company 

with the aid station of the battalion to which 
they are operationally attached. 

2. Supplies and equipment of minimum nature, de- 

pending on operation, accompany them. 

3. Remainder of supplies are to accompany Ad- 

ministrative Section of Regiment. 

248 — 



E. JJndir Battle Conditions 

1. It has been found advisable to have one chap- 

lain and clerk with each battalion. Chap- 
lains and clerks remain administratively 
attached to Regimental Headquarters and 
Service Company but are attached to the bat- 
talions for operational control Assignments 
are made by Regimental Chaplain. At op- 
portune times chaplains are rotated between 
battalions so that each battalion may have the 
benefit of each chaplain's particular ministry. 

2. Chaplains may, and should, use their initiative 

to visit other battalions so that both Protes- 
tant and Catholic services are frequently in 
each battalion. If possible the Regimental 
Chaplain should be informed beforehand, but 
in any event he should always be informed as 
as soon afterward as possible, of the services 
that are held by the Assistant Chaplains. 

3. Although there is no Table of Equipment for 

the Chaplains Section, the equipment necessary 
for this type of operation for each chaplain is: 

a. Jeep and trailer, in which are carried: 

b. One typewriter, chest, and office supplies. 

c. One portable altar kit (supplied by Navy). 

d. Adequate Testaments, Prayer Books, and 

religious supplies (supplied from re- 
ligious sources). 

e. One portable organ and hymn books (sup- 

plied by Navy) . 

f. Two camp stools. 

4. In addition to clerical and musical abilities, 

chaplain's clerks should be qualified jeep 
drivers and, as far as possible, be assigned to 
chaplains of similar faith. 

5. The chaplain's base of operation shall be the aid 

station of the organization to which he is op- 
erationally attached and in no case shall he 
leave the battalion without notifying proper 
authority in the battalion. 

6. It has become a cherished custom and tradition 

for Marines to hold a Memorial Service for 
their departed comrades before leaving the 
theater of action. These and funeral services 
are normally conducted under the supervision 
of the Division Chaplain. 

At times the Regiment may be on a separate 
mission and these services will be conducted 
by the Regiment. A tested and satisfactory 
type of combined Funeral and Memorial 
Service is as follows: 

Setting: One Marine who knew the departed 
stands at the head of each grave. Funeral 
party assembles at foot of cemetery, chaplains 
facing funeral party. 

Service : 

1. Catholic Prayers, Scripture. 

2. Protestant Scripture, Prayers. 
Regimental Chaplain says: "Let us all kneel in 

honor and memory of our departed comrades 
while the chaplains go to each grave for the 
graveside service". (Funeral party and Ma- 
rines at each grave kneel.) 



3. Chaplains go to respective graves for 

graveside service. Regimental chap- 
lain says: "Let us stand." 

4. Catholic Prayers, Scripture. 

5. Protestant Scripture, Prayers. 

6. Lord's Prayer by all. 

7. Benediction. 

8. Firing of three volleys. 

9. Sounding of Taps. 

If it is to be a Memorial Service only, No. 3 of 

the Service may be: 
Regimental chaplain says: "Let us all kneel in 
honor and memory of our departed comrades 
while the chaplains lead us in prayer." (Fu- 
neral party and Marines at each grave kneel 
while chaplains turn and face toward graves 
and offer prayers of intercession and blessing.) 
7. Letters to next of kin should be written by the 
chaplain most closely connected with the de- 
ceased. Copies of such letters are sent to the 
Division Chaplain. Letters are not mailed 
directly to the next of kin, but are sent, signed 
and unsealed, in a larger envelope to: 
Commandant 
United States Marine Corps (Code 

DGU) 
Washington, 25, D.C. 
where they are mailed. This is to prevent 
letters being mailed to next of kin who have 
not been officially notified. Extreme care 
should be taken that dates and grave num- 
bers are the same as the official records show 
F. In Bivouac or Rest Area 

1. A Chaplain's Office for all chaplains of the regi- 

ment is maintained in a centrally located, 
easily accessible position. It should be so ar- 
ranged that each chaplain has a private room 
for consultation and outer office for clerks. 
Although there is no Table of Equipment for 
the Chaplains Section, the equipment neces- 
sary includes desks, typewriters, file cabinets, 
chairs, and book cases sufficient to accommo- 
date the staff. If the bivouac area is 
unimproved, three storage tents should be pro- 
vided: one to be used as office and the other 
two together to form a chapel. 

2. The Regimental Chapel should also be located 

in the central part of the Regimental Area, 
close to the Chaplains Office, and used only 
for religious services. These services would 
include daily Catholic Mass, Protestant Bible 
classes and week-day services, in addition to 
the Sunday services. 

3. While it is desirable that chaplains are out visit- 

ing the units of the regiment, at least one 
chaplain is to always be in the office during 
working hours. When battalions have their 
own Mess Hall, the method of regularly con- 
tacting each battalion is for each chaplain to 
spend the hour or two preceding and follow- 
ing the noon meal with a different battalion 
each day. 



249 



4. General supervision and making of duty and ices and functions as his particular church 

chapel schedules is the responsibility of the requires, but planning and scheduling of same 

Regimental Chaplain, although he may dele- is coordinated by the Regimental Chaplain. 

gate such details as he sees fit. /*• i - 

, i • ■ i r 11 Conclusion 

5. The senior enlisted clerk is in charge of all en- 

... , , . , ,. r-i.o«i»i«. !• The Chaplains' Manual, NavPers 15664, 1949 edi- 

listed personnel assigned to the Chaplains ... 

_ . , .. . , , . , tion, is the guide and authority for the chaplains 

Section and responsible ior their performance . r 

duties. 

2. Common sense in the rapidly changing conditions of 

Assignments to specific duties will be made by ^^ remembering to pursue the goa , of .. Bring . 

him, subject to the approval of the Regi- ing men to God and God to men „ under aU con . 

mental Chaplain. Such duties include typ- ditions and at all times is the constant and 

ing, filing, upkeep and cleaning of chapel and unchanging form for all chaplains. 

offices, music for chapel services, etc. O. Ingvoldstad, Jr. 

6. Each chaplain is to conduct such religious serv- LCDK, CHC, USN. 



250 



APPENDIX C 

HEADQUARTERS 

FLEET MARINE FORCE, PACIFIC 

C/O FLEET POST OFFICE, SAN FRANCISCO 



28 March 1951. 
Fleet Marine Force, \ Standing Operating Procedure 

Pacific for the Chaplain Service of 

General Order No. [ the Fleet Marine Force, 

19 j Pacific 

1. The following procedure will be used as a guide 
by chaplains on duty with the Fleet Marine Force, 
Pacific. 

2. General: 

a. The Force Chaplain is on the Special Staff of the 
Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. 
He shall advise and inform the Commanding Gen- 
eral in matters pertaining to divine services, religious 
activities and interests, and personnel of the Chaplain 
Corps on duty in the Force. 

b. The Division, Air Wing, or Brigade Senior Chap- 
lain is normally assigned as Division, Air Wing, or 
Brigade Chaplain on the Special Staff of the Com- 
manding General. He shall advise his Commanding 
General on the assignments and activities of the chap- 
lains within the Division, Air Wing, or Brigade. He 
will coordinate and generally supervise the work of 
these chaplains. 

c. Unit chaplains have the same functions in their 
organizations as the Division, Air Wing, Brigade, and 
Force Chaplains, as concerns the advising of com- 
manding officers about the religious provisions for the 
unit. 

d. Specific duties of chaplains assigned to Marine 
Corps units are given in the Marine Corps Staff Man- 
ual, paragraph 241. 

3. In Bivouac or Garrison: 

a. The functions of the Chaplain Section will be 
carried out in accordance with the Chaplain's Manual 

(NavPers 15664); Navy Regulations, article 0807; 
BuPers Manual C-12202, C-12205, Staff Manual 
(1948) NAVMC 1022-DPP, and current directives 
of the Chaplain's Division of BuPers. 

b. Chaplains will engage in field training with the 
organization to which attached. 

c. Chaplains will be used in Character Guidance 
Lectures. They will seek opportunities for showing 
religious and morality films issued by the Navy 
Department. 

d. Prior to operations in the field, chaplains will 
procure the portable ecclesiastical equipment issued 



by the Chaplains Division, BuPers. Care should be 
taken that each chaplain has enough consumable altar 
supplies for at least one month's use. The Division 
or Wing Chaplain will procure replacements through 
regular supply channels. Arrangements should be 
made for the following items in the field : a portable 
typewriter with office supplies, a small 2.9 cubic foot 
field desk, and two camp stools. 
4. In Combat Operations: 

a. Duties of chaplains between the ports of embar- 
kation and assault beaches : 

( 1 ) The Division chaplain will arrange by consulta- 
tion with the Embarkation officer for at least one 
chaplain to sail on each ship (transport, LST or LSD) 
if practicable. Some ships will have ship's chaplains, 
either Protestant or Catholic, which will be taken into 
consideration in the distribution of chaplains. 

(2) The unit chaplain will schedule religious serv- 
ices and other religious activities after consultation 
of the commander of troops, commanding officer of 
the ship and the ship's chaplain, if one is on board. 

( 3 ) Chaplains should be placed in rooms with few- 
est room mates, or be afforded a place for consultation, 
because of the number of men who desire to talk in 
private. 

(4) Chaplains should make their location aboard 
known by a sign in the passageway outside their room 
or office. 

(5) Prior to sailing, the troops' chaplain will con- 
fer with the ship's chaplain regarding the amount of 
religious supplies aboard which will be available for 
his use at sea. 

(6) Chaplains will assist, where needed, with the 
entertainment and recreational program aboard ship 
for troop personnel. 

(7) Troops will expect some special service of wor- 
ship on the eve of debarkation. Upon approval of the 
Commanding Officer, and in cooperation with the 
ship's chaplain, a Mass for Catholics and a Com- 
munion or other service for Protestant personnel 
should be scheduled. A Jewish service should be ar- 
ranged if numbers warrant. 

b. Duties of chaplains in the assault phase: 

( 1 ) In an amphibious operation, each chaplain 
will go ashore with the echelon assigned, usually with 
the unit Aid Station, equipped for immediate minis- 



251 



tration. As soon as practicable after landing, each 
chaplain of the Division will establish liaison with the 
unit Personnel Section and Surgeon. 

(2) Upon landing, the Division Chaplain establishes 
liaison with the Division Personnel Officer (G-l), 
Surgeon, and Graves Registration Officer. 

He obtains from the Division G-4 the location of 
the Division Cemetery. 

He establishes and maintains contact with Field 
Hospitals in Division area. 

He coordinates the combat ministration plan for 
chaplains of the Division, and makes recommenda- 
tions for replacement of chaplain casualties. 

He assists the Graves Registration Officer in co- 
ordination of all graves registration and burial activity. 

He provides for proper religious rites for burial of 
the dead in the Division area. 

(3) The Regimental chaplain lands with the eche- 
lon to which assigned, equipped for immediate 
ministrations. 

He establishes liaison as soon as practicable with 
the Adjutant, S-l, Regimental Surgeon, Graves Reg- 
istration Section Chief, and other chaplains of the 
Regiment. 

He obtains information as soon as possible from S-l 
as to the location of the temporary Regimental 
cemetery. 

He establishes and maintains contact with the Reg- 
imental collecting section, and the Battalion Aid 
Stations. 

He provides for proper religious rites in the burial of 
the deceased personnel in the Regimental area. 

He establishes and maintains contact with Field 
Hospitals in support of the Regiment. He and the 
other chaplains should visit daily the Field Hospitals 
and when required take names of the more seriously 
wounded, communicating with the parents of the 
wounded relative to their condition. 

He performs Divine Services as prescribed by the 
Commanding Officer, whenever and wherever 
practicable. 

He will make special effort to insure that chap- 
lains are present whenever companies or battalions 
come out of the front lines to go into rest or reserve 
areas and also when reserve companies or battalions 
are about to move into the front lines. 

(4) The unit chaplain's battle station during com- 
bat will most generally be the Battalion or Regimental 
Aid Station. 

(5) An additional chaplain will be available from 
the supporting elements of the Division or the Divi- 
sion chaplain's pool for each infantry regiment during 
the assault phase. This provides four chaplains, one 



for each Battalion, and one for the Regiment. Fol- 
lowing this, the additional chaplain will resume his 
previous duty in the Division. 

(6) During combat operations, unit chaplains will 
communicate frequently with the Division chaplain 
by telephone or guard mail. They will keep their im- 
mediate commanding officer informed at all times of 
their whereabouts. 

(7) Unit commanders will provide transportation 
as necessary to enable chaplains to execute their 
duties. 

(8) When practicable an individual picture of each 
grave with the appropriate chaplain standing by in 
benediction should be taken, so that families may se- 
cure copies if desired. 

c. Duties on Conclusion of Landing and Assault 
Phase : 

( 1 ) At the close of operations unit chaplains will 
prepare letters of condolence to next of kin of those 
lost in action. These letters will be properly chan- 
neled through the command. The office of the Divi- 
sion chaplain can assist a unit chaplain by looking up 
the following information relative to each person 
deceased : 

(a) Name, rank, serial number. 

(b) Date of death, place of burial, and religion. 

(c) Name and address of next of kin. 

(d) Name of officiating chaplain at burial service. 

(2) At the close of an operation, the Division chap- 
lain, with the approval of the Commanding General, 
should arrange for a memorial service to be held at the 
Division cemetery or in other cemeteries where Divi- 
sion dead are buried. 

5. Conclusion: 

Common sense in the rapidly changing conditions of 
battle, initiative for which there is no substitute, and 
the reminder to pursue the goal of "bringing men to 
God and God to men" under all conditions, are the 
constant criteria for every chaplain. 

By Command of Lieutenant General 

Shepherd: _ 

J. C. Burger, 

Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps 

„ Chief of Staff 

Distribution: ' ' " 

Case 1. 

Case 2; A, B, C, D, E, G, X, Y. 

Case 3. 

O-f-f-i-c-i-a-l: 

(S) C. C. Henderson, 

C. C. Henderson, 

Major, USMC, 

Adjutant. 



— 252 



APPENDIX D 

HEADQUARTERS 1ST MARINE DIVISION (REINF), FMF 
C/O FLEET POST OFFICE, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



19/twh 

15 Aug 1951 

Annex K to 

Division General Order SOP, Chaplains 

No. 50 

Standing Operating Procedure for the Chaplain 
Service of the 1st Marine Division, Fleet Marine 
Force. Pacific. 

1. General 

a. The Division chaplain is a member of the Spe- 
cial Staff, and will advise the Commanding General 
and staff on matters pertaining to religion and re- 
ligious activities. He will advise the Commanding 
General on the assignment and activities of the chap- 
lains within the Division, and will coordinate and gen- 
erally supervise the work of all Chaplains. 

b. Unit chaplains as a member of the respective 
special staffs will advise the Commanding Officer con- 
cerning religious provisions and religious activities for 
the unit. 

2. In Reserve, Bivouac or Training Area 

a. The functions of the Chaplain Section will be 
executed in accordance with Chaplains Manual 
(NavPers 15664); Navy Regulations, Article 0807; 
BuPers Manual, Articles C12202, C12205, U.S. Ma- 
rine Corps Staff Manual (1948) NAVMC 1022- 
DPP, and current directives of the Chaplains Division 
of BuPers. 

b. Each chaplain will arrange to conduct or have 
conducted Divine Services on Sunday within his own 
area. The responsibility for the availability of both 
Protestant and Catholic Services for their personnel 
rests upon individual unit chaplains. The unit chap- 
lain will also arrange for attendance at Jewish Serv- 
ices when a Jewish chaplain is available. 

c. The Unit chaplain will arrange some form of 
daily Religious Service in his area. 

d. Chaplains may be employed in the presentation 
of Character Guidance Lectures, and will hold them- 
selves available to assist unit Surgeons in preventive 
lectures on Spiritual and Moral views of V.D. Control. 

e. The chaplains assigned to infantry and artillery 
Regiments will be retained administratively in regi- 
mental headquarters, for deployment in accordance 
with the recommendations of the regimental chaplain. 



3. Chaplain duties in Combat 

a. Amphibious Operations. 

( 1 ) The Division chaplain will endeavor, after 
consulting with the Embarkation Officer, to deploy his 
chaplains aboard the ships so as to obtain a maximum 
of spiritual assistance for personnel of all Faiths. He 
will take into consideration the fact that some ships 
will have chaplains, either Catholic or Protestant, 
regularly assigned. 

(2) The Unit chaplain aboard ship will schedule 
services and other religious activities after consulting 
with the Commanding Officer of Troops, the Com- 
manding Officer of the vessel and the Ship's chaplain. 
The Unit chaplain will attempt to adhere to any 
schedule already arranged by the Ship's chaplain. 

(3) Unit Commanders will undertake to procure 
private quarters for the Unit chaplain where prac- 
ticable or, should that be impracticable, he will pro- 
vide some place which affords privacy for consulta- 
tions. Personnel will not discuss private problems in 
the presence of others. 

(4) Once the chaplain has been assigned a suitable 
location, he should insure that this information be 
made known to all personnel. 

(5) If possible the Unit chaplain should attempt to 
bring aboard sufficient religious supplies for his troops. 
This will not be necessary if consultation with the 
Ship's chaplain discloses that he has an abundance of 
supplies. 

(6) Chaplains will assist, when needed, with the 
recreational program aboard ship for troop personnel, 
but not in a degree which will affect adversely the 
conduct of their spiritual activities. 

(7) The chaplain will plan a Special Worship 
Service on the eve of debarkation, with the approval 
of the Commanding Officer, and in cooperation with 
the Ship's chaplain, a Mass for Catholic personnel and 
a Protestant Service for Protestant personnel. Where 
possible, and if numbers warrant, a Jewish Service 
should be arranged. 

b. Duties of chaplains in the Landing and Assault 
Phase and thereafter. 

( 1 ) Each chaplain will land with the echelon as- 
signed, usually with the Unit Aid Station. This 
should be at the earliest moment that his presence 
ashore is warranted. As soon as practicable after 



253 



landing, the chaplain will establish liaison with the 
Unit Personnel and Medical Sections. 

(2) Upon landing, the Division chaplain, will 
establish liaison with the Division Personnel Officer, 
the Surgeon, and Graves Registration Officer. As ap- 
propriate thereafter he will accomplish the following: 

(a) Obtain from Division G-4 the location of the 
Division Cemetery. 

(b) Establish and maintain contact with field hos- 
pitals in the Division area and insure coverage for 
them by chaplains. 

( c ) Coordinate the combat ministration plan for the 
chaplains of the Division and endeavor to have avail- 
able ready replacements for chaplain casualties. 

(d) Assist the Graves Registration Officer in co- 
ordination of all graves registration and burial 
activities. 

(e) Provide for proper religious rites for burial of 
the dead in the Division area. 

(3) The Regimental chaplain lands with the eche- 
lon to which assigned. Upon landing he will establish 
liaison with the Adjutant, Regimental Surgeon, Graves 
Registration Section, and other chaplains of the Regi- 
ment. At the earliest practicable time he will estab- 
lish contact with the Division chaplain. As 
appropriate thereafter he will accomplish the 
following : 

(a) Obtain information as soon as possible from the 
Adjutant as to the location of the temporary Regi- 
mental Cemetery. 

(b) Provide for proper religious rites in the burial 
of deceased personnel in the Regimental area, should 
a temporary Regimental Cemetery be established. 

(c) Establish and maintain contact with medical 
installations in support of the Regiment, making daily 
visit to those installations along with other chaplains. 

(d) Administer spiritual aid and conduct Divine 
Services. 

(e) Offer assistance to the wounded in communicat- 
ing with relatives in order to alleviate undue anxiety 
and worry. 

(f) Perform Religious Services where and when- 
ever possible. The approval of the Commanding Of- 
ficer will be obtained when arranging any Service 
which would require a gathering of a group of men. 

(g) Assure the availability of chaplains for men 
coming out of action and those about to enter combat. 

(4) The Unit chaplain's ordinary battle station 
during combat will be the Battalion or Regimental 
Aid Station. Chaplains will not limit their availabil- 
ity by joining any small unit or individual patrol. 

(5) Chaplains of supporting Units will be held 
available by the Division chaplain to be used with 



forward units or for immediate replacement for chap- 
lain casualties. Chaplains thus used will be returned 
to their units when no longer needed with combat 
elements. 

(6) Unit Commanders will provide necessary 
transportation to enable chaplains to carry out their 
duties expeditiously. 

(7) As soon as the opportunity is afforded, Unit 
chaplains will prepare letters of condolence to next 
of kin of those lost in action. These letters will be 
properly channeled through the command. Should 
the operation be extended over a long period of time, 
the Division chaplain, when the opportunity permits, 
will process these letters. The Division Chaplain's 
Office will assist by obtaining the following necessary 
information relative to the deceased : 

(a) Name, rank, serial number. 

(b) Date of death, place of burial. 

(c) Religion. 

(d) Name and address of next of kin. 

(8) At such intervals as are appropriate, the Divi- 
sion chaplain, with the approval of the Commanding 
General should arrange a Memorial Ceremony at the 
Division Cemetery or at a site selected by the Com- 
manding General. 

4. Equipment 

(a) Prior to operations in the field, chaplains will 
procure the portable ecclesiastical equipment issued by 
the Chaplains Division, BuPers. Care should be taken 
that each chaplain has enough consumable altar sup- 
plies to last for at least 1 month's use. The Division 
chaplain will procure replacements through regular 
supply channels. To expedite this procurement a 
chaplain with a rear Unit should be designated as a 
supply chaplain. Arrangements should be made for 
the following items in the field : a portable typewriter 
with office supplies, a 2.9 cubic foot field desk, and 
two camp stools. 

6. Collateral Duties 

(a) The primary work of the chaplain is spiritual 
and moral leadership. He will therefore not be re- 
quired to undertake duties of any other nature that 
would absorb the major portion of his time, and thus 
cause him to neglect his chaplain duties. 

By Command of Major General Thomas: 

V. H. Krulak, 

Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps, 
Official : Chief of Staff. 

[S] H. E. Hire, 
H. E. Hire, 
Lt Col USMC, 
DivAdj. 



254- 



APPENDIX E 

OFFICE OF THE DIVISION CHAPLAIN, 

1ST MARINE DIVISION, FLEET MARINE FORCE 

C/O FLEET POST OFFICE, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



WEBjr:jel 
19 Feb. 1952 



Divine Services 
breakdown by denominations 

Catholic* 

0900 — Hamblin Theater (Division Reserve Area) 

1st Motor Transport Battalion 

Headquarters Chapel, 1st Marine Division 
0930— 4th Battalion, 11th Marines CP 
1000 — Regimental CP, 7th Marines 
1030 — 1st Battalion Theater (Division Reserve Area) 
1100 — 1st Engineer Battalion 

1st Ordnance Battalion 

3d Battalion, 11th Marines CP 

Reserve Battalion, 7th Marines 
1300 — 1st Service Battalion 
1330 — "D" Company, 1st Medical Battalion 

1st Battalion, 5th Marines CP 
1400 — Regimental Rear Chapel (Division Reserve Area) 
1430— 3d Battalion, 7th Marines CP 
1500 — "A" Company, 1st Medical Battalion 

Regimental CP, 5th Marines 
1530 — 1st Shore Party Battalion 
1 800— Regimental CP, 11th Marines 
1030 — Reserve Battalion, 5th Marines CP 

1800 — "D" Company, 1st Medical Battalion (Rosary and Night Prayers) 
2000 — 3d Battalion, 1st Marines CP (Division Reserve Area) — Rosary and Benediction Service 

1st Motor Transport Battalion (Rosary) 

1000 — "F" Company, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines 
1200— 2d Battalion, 5th Marines CP 

1330 — "A" Company, 1st Engineer Battalion (Punch Bowl) 
1530 — 3d Battalion, 1st Marines CP (Division Reserve Area) 
1545 — "A" Company, 1st Medical Battalion 
1600 — 1st Motor Transport Battalion 
1400 — "E" Battery, 2d Battalion, 11th Marines 
1800 — "D" Company, 1st Medical Battalion (Rosary) 
2000 — 3d Battalion, 1st Marines CP (Division Reserve Area)- 
lst Motor Transport Battalion (Rosary) 

1400 — "E" Company, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines 

1200 — Reserve Battalion, 5th Marines 

1400— 4th Battalion, 11th Marines CP 

1600 — Headquarters Chapel, 1st Marine Division 

1530 — 3d Battalion, 1st Marines CP (Division Reserve Area) 



-Rosary 



* Where not otherwise designated, Mass is meant. Editor. 



255 



Tuesday — Continued 

1600 — 1st Motor Transport Battalion 
1800 — "D" Company, 1st Medical Battalion (Rosary) 
2000 — 3d Battalion, 1st Marines CP (Division Reserve Area)- 
1st Motor Transport Battalion (Rosary) 



-Rosary 



Wednesday: 1600 — Reserve Battalion, 7th Marines CP 

1200 — "I" Company, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines 

1400— 3d Battalion, 11th Marines CP 

1600 — Headquarters Chapel, 1st Marine Division 

1530 — 3d Battalion, 1st Marines CP (Division Reserve Area) 

1600 — "E" Company, 1st Medical Battalion 

1615 — 1st Service Battalion 

1800 — "D" Company, 1st Medical Battalion (Rosary) 

2000 — 3d Battalion, 1st Marines CP (Division Reserve Area) — Rosary 

Thursday: 1030 — "G" Company, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines 
1230 — "E" Company, 2d Battalion, 5th Marines 
1400— 1st Battalion, 11th Marines CP 
1600 — Headquarters Chapel, 1st Marine Division 
1530 — 3d Battalion, 1st Marines CP (Division Reserve Area) 
1600 — "E" Company, 1st Medical Battalion 
1630 — 1st Ordnance Battalion 

1800 — "D" Company, 1st Medical Battalion (Rosary) 
2000 — 3d Battalion, 1st Marines CP (Division Reserve Area) — Rosary 
1st Motor Transport Battalion (Rosary) 

Friday: 1000— 3d Battalion, 7th Marines CP 

1200 — 81 -mm Mortar Company, 5th Marines 

1400— 2d Battalion, 11th Marines CP 

1600 — Headquarters Chapel, 1st Marine Division 

1530 — 3d Battalion, 1st Marines CP (Division Reserve Area) 

1600 — "D" Company, 1st Medical Battalion 

1st Motor Transport Battalion 
1800 — "D" Company, 1st Medical Battalion (Rosary) 
2000 — 3d Battalion, 1st Marines CP (Division Reserve Area) — Rosary 
1st Motor Transport Battalion (Rosary) 

Saturday: 1230 — 4.2" Mortar Company, 5th Marines 
1800— 1st Tank Battalion 

1100 — "H" Company, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines 
1600 — Headquarters Chapel, 1st Marine Division 
1 530 — 3d Battalion, 5th Marines CP (Division Reserve Area) 
1600 — "D" Company, 1st Medical Battalion 

1st Motor Transport Battalion 
1800 — "D" Company, 1st Medical Battalion (Rosary) 
2000 — 3d Battalion, 1st Marines CP (Division Reserve Area) — Rosary 
1st Motor Transport Battalion (Rosary) 



Protestant 
Sunday: 0900 — 1st Signal Battalion 

1st Service Battalion 
1st Battalion, 1st Marines CP (Division Reserve Area) 

— 256 — 



0900 — Continued 

1st Ordnance Battalion 

"E" Company, 1st Medical Battalion 
0930 — 4th Battalion, 11th Marines CP 

Reserve Battalion, 7th Marines CP 

3d Battalion, 11th Marines CP 

1st Battalion, 5th Marines CP 
1000 — Headquarters Chapel, 1st Marine Division 

1st Tank Battalion 

1st Combat Service Group 

1st Amphibian Tractor Battalion 

2d Battalion, 7th Marines CP 

3d Battalion, 5th Marines CP 
1030 — "C" Company, 1st Medical Battalion 

Hamblin Theater (Division Reserve Area) 

"A" Company, 1st Medical Battalion 
1030— HMR 161 

1045— 2d Battalion, 5th Marines CP 
1100— 1st Battalion, 11th Marines CP 

Regimental CP, 7th Marines 

2d Battalion, 11th Marines CP 

"D" Company, 1st Medical Battalion 
1130 — 4.2" Mortar Company, 7th Marines 
1300 — 1st Motor Transport Battalion 

Rear Area Chapel (Division Reserve Area) 

"A" Company, 1st Engineer Battalion (Punch Bowl) 

Regimental CP, 5th Marines 
1330 — 1343 Army Engineer Battalion 

"A" Company, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines 

3d Battalion, 7th Marines CP 
1400 — 1st Shore Party Battalion 
1500 — Regimental CP, 11th Marines 

"H" Company, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines 

"G" Company, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines 

"D" and "C" Company, 1st Engineer Battalion 
1745— 1st Shore Party Battalion (Bible Study) 
1815 — 1st Service Battalion 
1830 — 1st Combat Service Group 
1900 — 1st Engineer Battalion (Korean Service) 
2030 — 1st Ordnance Battalion (Korean Service) 

0830— 1st Battalion, 11th Marines CP 

1830 — 1st Amphibian Tractor Battalion 

1030 — "G" Company, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines 

1745— 1st Shore Party Battalion (Bible Class) 

1830 — 1st Combat Service Group 

1915— 4th Battalion, 11th Marines CP (Bible Study) 

1030 — "A" Company, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines 

1100 — "G" Company, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines 

1330 — "I" Company, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines 

— 257 — 



Tuesday: 1900— 2d Battalion, 11th Marines CP (Bible Study) 
1600— 1st Battalion, 5th Marines CP 
1915— 4th Battalion, 11th Marines CP (Bible Study) 
1830 — 1st Combat Service Group 
2000— HMR 161 (Bible Class) 
1745— 1st Shore Party Battalion (Bible Class) 
1030 — "I" Company, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines 
1830 — 1st Amphibian Tractor Battalion 
1930 — 1st Amphibian Tractor Battalion (Bible Study) 
0830— 1st Battalion, 11th Marines CP 
1300 — "H" Company, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines 

Wednesday: 1030 — "B" Company, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines 

1915— 4th Battalion, 11th Marines CP (Bible Study) 

1600 — 1st Motor Transport Battalion 

1815 — 1st Service Battalion 

1830 — 1st Combat Service Group 

1745 — 1st Shore Party Battalion (Bible Class) 

1900 — 1st Engineer Battalion (Korean Service) 

1800— 3d Battalion, 5th Marines CP 

1830 — 1st Amphibian Tractor Battalion 

0830— 1st Battalion, 11th Marines CP 

Thursday: 1900— 2d Battalion, 11th Marines (Bible Class) 
1800— 2d Battalion, 5th Marines CP 
1915— 4th Battalion, 11th Marines CP (Bible Study) 
1830 — 1st Combat Service Group 
2000— HMR 161 (Bible Class) 
1745 — 1st Shore Party Battalion (Bible Class) 
1500 — "I" Company, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines 
1830 — 1st Amphibian Tractor Battalion 
0830— 1st Battalion, 11th Marines CP 
1100 — "F" Company, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines 
1400 — "E" Company, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines 

Friday: 1030 — "C" Company, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines 

1915— 4th Battalion, 11th Marines CP (Bible Study) 

1830 — 1st Combat Service Group 

1745 — 1st Shore Party Battalion (Bible Study) 

1800— 3d Battalion, 5th Marines CP 

1830 — 1st Amphibian Tractor Battalion 

0830— 1st Battalion, 11th Marines CP 

1300 — "D" Company, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines 

Saturday: 1430 — "E" Battery, 2d Battalion, 11th Marines 
1800— 1st Battalion, 5th Marines CP 
1915— 4th Battalion, 11th Marines CP (Bible Study) 
1830 — 1st Combat Service Group 
1745 — 1st Shore Party Battalion (Bible Study) 
1030 — 4.2" Mortar Company, 5th Marines 
1830 — 1st Amphibian Tractor Battalion 
0830— 1st Battalion, 11th Marines CP 

— 258 — 



Jewish 

Sunday: 1100 — Headquarters Chapel, 1st Marine Division 

1600 — Camp Tripoli 
Wednesday: 1000 — Regimental Reserve Battalion, 5th Marines 

1400 — Regimental Reserve Battalion, 7th Marines 
Note: Plus visit each month to 1st Combat Service Group and 1st Amphibian Tractor Battalion. 

Episcopal 
Saturday: 0930 — Headquarters Chapel, 1st Marine Division 

Lat>er-Day Saint Services 

Sunday: 1000 — 2d Battalion Chapel, Camp Tripoli (1st Marines) 

1000 — Reserve Battalion, 5th Marines 
1400 — Reserve Battalion, 7th Marines 



535332 O—60 18 — 259 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



General Sources 

Berger, C, The Korea Knot, Philadelphia, 1957. 

Britannica Book of the Year, "Korean War," 1952. 

Britannica Book of the Year, "Korean War," 1953. 

Cagle, M. W. and Manson, F. A., The Sea War in Korea, 
Annapolis, 1957. 

Clark, Gen. Mark W., From the Danube to the Yalu, New 
York, 1954. 

Geer, Andrew, The New Breed, New York, 1952. 

Goodrich, L. M., Korea: A Study of U.S. Policy in the 
United Nations, New York, 1956. 

Gugeler, R. A. (Ed.), Combat Operations in Korea, Wash- 
ington, 1954. 

Jones, Ken, / Was There, New York, 1953. 

Joy, C. Turner, How Communists Negotiate, New York, 
1955. 

Karig, Walter, Cagle, M. W. and Manson, F. A., Battle Re- 
Port; Vol. VI, The War in Korea, New York, 1952. 

Korea, 1950 (Department of the Army). 

Miller, John Jr., Carroll, Maj. Owen J., and Tackley, Mar- 
garet E., Korea, 1951-53, Washington, D.C., 1958. 

Montross, Lynn, Cavalry of the Sky, New York, 1954. 

Montross, Lynn and Canzona, N. A., The Chosin Reservoir 
Campaign, Washington, 1957; U.S. Marine Operations in 
Korea, 1950-53; The Pusan Perimeter, Washington, 
1954—. 

Muller, John H., Wearing the Cross in Korea, California, 
1954. 

Ridgway, M B., Soldier: The Memoirs of Matthew B. Ridg- 
way, New York, 1956. 

Thomas, Maj. R. C. W., The War in Korea 1950-53, Alder- 
shot, 1954. 

Vatchee, William, Jr., Panmunjon, New York, 1958. 

Periodicals 

Ladies Home Journal, December 1952. 
Lederer, W. J., "Operation Kidlift" 
Life: 

Van Fleet, J. A., "The Truth About Korea," May 11, 
1953. 
Marine Corps Gazette: 

Giusti, E. H., "Minute Men — 1950 Model: The Reserves 

in Action," September 1951. 
Montross, Lynn, "Advance to the 38th Parallel: The 

Marines in Operation Ripper," March 1952. 
"Advance to the Punchbowl," August 1953. 
"Breakout From the Reservoir: Marine Epic of Fire 

and Ice," November 1951. 
"Buttoning Up the Offensive: The Marines in Opera- 
tion Killer," February 1952. 
"Red China on the Offensive," July 1953. 
"The Hungnam Evacuation," December 1951. 



"The Pohang Guerilla Hunt," January 1952. 
"They Make Men Whole Again: The Medical Batta- 
lion and Chaplains in Korea," December 1952. 
Nicholson, D. D., Jr., "Their Faith Is Yours," Decem- 
ber 1953. 
National Geographic Magazine, February 1953: 

Mosier, Robert H., T. Sgt. USMC, May 1953, "The 
G.I. and the Kids of Korea." 
Navy Chaplains Bulletin: 

Peck, W. S., "The Destroyer Chaplaincy," Fall, 1953. 
Silver, D. J., "Chaplain Chung's Corps," Fall, 1954. 
The Tidings, Los Angeles, c. 1951. 
U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, "Armed Forces Care 

Through CARE," August 1955. 
U.S. Navy and Marine Corps Awards Manual, NAVPERS 

15790; revised 1953. 
Stars and Stripes — Korean edition. 

Unpublished Sources 

J. Floyd Dreith, Chaplain, USN. MS report to Chief of 
Chaplains on Chaplain Field Training, Marine Barracks, 
Camp Pendleton, Calif. 

Letters of individual chaplains to the Chief of Chaplains. 
Especially important have been the very frequent letters of 
the supervisory chaplains (Division Chaplain, 1st Marine 
Division, and Wing Chaplain, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing). 
Letters are cited in each case by date, name of sender. 

Diary of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing Chaplain. 

Battle Reports by Chaplain O. Ingvoldstad. See appendix 
B. Copied from Ingvoldstad's personal records, by 
permission. 

Statistical reports of chaplain activities submitted to the 
Chief of Chaplains, Bureau of Naval Personnel. Normally 
individual chaplain's reports were combined into more in- 
clusive reports before being forwarded by supervisory 
chaplains en route. 

Questionnaire prepared by the then Historian of the Chap- 
lain Corps, Chaplain C. L. Drury, and distributed through- 
out the Corps in the spring of 1954. Each reply was num- 
bered as it came in, and the appropriate number placed by 
the chaplain's name in a master code. Thus it was possible 
to read each questionnaire without knowing the name of 
the chaplain who had supplied the answers, if anonymity 
were wanted ; or, conversely, the chaplain's name could be 
obtained if needed. As is usual with questionnaires, some 
of the material furnished was of little or no use. On the 
other hand, a large amount of interesting and sometimes 
very important data has been derived therefrom. Some 
material was not included because of the failure to record 
the date and place of events. 

Official Memoranda and Instructions in the files of the Chief 
of Chaplains, Bureau of Naval Personnel. 



260 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



Ackley, Charles W., 88, 123 

Adams, Charles W., 48, 69, 7 1 

Adams, Rev. and Mrs. Edward, 221 

Adams, Patrick, 137, 140, 141, 145, 152, 221 

Albrecht, Herbert C, 208 

Almond, Maj. Gen. Edward M., 15, 19, 33, 73 

Anderson, Seth E., 68, 87 

Andrews, Edgar O, 68 

Andrews, Edwin W., 69, 70 

Ann, Hung Seek, 212 

Appenzeller, Dr., 101 

Armitage, Lt. Col. G. T., 146 

Arnold, Charles L., 26 

Austin, Henry E., 58, 59, 60, 61, 77, 82, 83, 92, 155, 216 

Austin, Leroy C, 104 

Bacus, Cpl. Keith, 120 

Baer, Samuel M., 179 

Bak, Kee Taik, 212 

Bakker, Peter J., Chaplain, 187, 189, 198, 200, 201, 228 

Balzer, Lt. George, 34 

Barlik, R. F., 137, 140, 146, 152, 153 

Barnes, Ernest R., 11, 12, 62, 85, 86, 87, 100, 101, 102, 

112,124,129,212,231 
Barras, G.J, 182 
Barrenger, A. N, 206 
Barry, A. J, 166,177,201 
Bassett, W. T., 201 
Batham, Lt. Col., 64 
Beaulieu, Raymond A, 130 
Beck, Max G, 71 
Below, Ralph W, 71 
Bennett, E. D, 87, 130 
Bennett, Ivan L, 92 

Bennett, Samuel B, 166, 203-207, 208, 210 
Berger, Harold, 1 16 
BergerJohnW, 199 
Berry, Reginald A, 183 
Beukema, Henry J, 10, 1 1 
Bingaman, George C, 56, 58, 61, 62, 77, 82, 215 
Black, Franklin C, 69, 104, 218 
Blackler, C. E, 229- 
Bogart, Humphrey, 35 
Bol, Peter, 131 



Bolan, Joseph, Jr., 219 

Bonner, Robert A, 14, 19, 23, 33 

Bost, Warren L, 7 1 

Bowling, H.C, 137, 140, 141 

Boyer, A. W, 134, 135, 137, 140 

Bracken, GayleE, Cpl, 179 

Brengartner, Robert E, 166, 189, 190, 201 

Brewerton, Peter H, 88 

Brewster, Earl R, 129, 131 

Brink, Frederick W, 107, 182 

Broadley, Joseph W, 209 

Brooks, William E, Jr., 108, 109, 118, 120, 128, and 

135 
Brosius, George R, 78, 83, 123, 233 
Brown, Jesse L, 51 

Brown, Jonathan C, 140, 153, 156, 228 
Browns, W.S, Col, 82, 91 
Brans, Bruno, 131 
Bryant, WylieR, 50, 217 
Buckingham, Herbert W, 1 16, 227 
Bun, Park, 107 
Bunting, Miss, 132 
Burke, Thomas J, 87 
Burns, John J, 192, 207 
Burr, Beryl L, 69, 71 
Bussa, Pfc. Fred, 151 
Buttrick, George, 101 
Buzek, Joseph J, 103 
Byrnes, John P, 165, 166, 173 

Cain, John T, 234 

Callahan, James T, 137, 140, 145, 146, 147, 153 

Canfield, R, 206 

Capers, Kenne H, 76, 77, 78, 82, 83, 92, 97, 209, 231, 

232 
Carlsen, Verner N, 55, 56 
Carlson, Kenneth W, 214, 227 
Carr, Edwin F, 23, 48, 123, 227 
Carter, Ernest L, 69 
Caruso, Matthew, Sgt, 42 
Casserly, John, 173 
Cates, Clifton B, Gen, 33, 36 
Cervin, Russell A, 209 
Chambers, Samuel D, 190, 201, 202 



261 — 



Chase, Richard P., 68 

Chen, Wei Ping, 108 

Childress, Elmer H., Jr., 131 

Choi, 232 

Chung, David, Rev., 21 

Chung, Dell Bin, Lt. Comdr., 106, 107, 192 

Clark, Gerard, Jr., 130, 156 

Clark, Mark W., Gen., 134, 201 

Cleaves, Richard D., 66, 86, 1 14, 129, 130, 157, 223 

Cloonan, J. F., 180,207, 208 

Coffey, John J., 45, 126,213 

Coleman, Jim, T. Sgt., 147 

Collins, AlvinO., 131 

Collins, J. Lawton, Gen., 52 

Cook, Abner R., 11, 12, 59, 61, 111, 124 

Cook, John H., Jr., 84, 85 

Cook, Maurus F., 206 

Conlon, John B., 166, 190, 201 

Conn, Worth B., 156 

Crabtree, Roger L., 165, 190, 191, 231, 232 

Craig, Edward A., Brig. Gen., 8 

Craven, John H., 14, 21, 22, 23, 33, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 

56, 142, 235 
Cruz, George, 218 

Cummings, George W., 35, 51, 66, 78, 100, 101 
Cummings, Harold H., 97 
Curry, Manly L., 202 
Curry, Matthew A., 12 
Curtis, John L., 108, 118, 122, 126 
Cusack, Joseph P., 23 
Cushman, Thomas J., 100 
Cuthriell, Warren F., 185 

Davis, Benjamin J., 11, 123, 216 

Daum, Bill, 173 

Day, Edgar A., 24, 104, 131, 212 

Day, Howard M., 102 

Dean, Gen., 200 

Des Landes, Father, 222 

Dickey, Charles L., 23, 48 

Ditmer, Merlin A., 88, 89 

Dobbins, 199 

"Doc" Minter, 170 

Dodd, F. T., Brig. Gen., 134 

Dohrmann, Leonard B., 24, 48, 71, 131 

Dominy, Arthur L., 123 

Doudna, Calvin T., 219 

Dow, Dr., 69 

Dowd, F. A., 201 

Doyle, James H., Rear Adm., 24 

Dreith, J. Floyd, 58 

Drury, Clifford L., VII, 96 



Duggan, C. T., 137, 140, 165, 221 
Duncan, Henry C, 118, 120, 137, 140, 153 
Dunleavy, Thomas P., 131 
Durand, Henry, Maj., 199 

Edwards, Thomas V., 10, 11, 166, 177, 201 

Ecker, J. L., 118 

Eichhorn, Rabbi, 205 

Eisenhower, Dwight D., 161 

Elwood, C, 206 

Elliott, Calvin H., Jr., 137, 140, 149, 165 

Elliott, Paul R., 69, 70 

Engle, Kline d'A, 33, 56, 58, 77 

Enyedi, George J., 45, 131 

Erlacher, Gordian V., 193 

Erickson, Paul F., 71, 131, 132 

Ernst, Elmer F., 177, 190, 201, 228, 231 

Ernst, Karl H., 165, 166 

Evans, Edward J., 178 

Fay, C. J, 206 

Fay, J. P., 89 

Felder,G., Jr., 111,118, 121,129,233 

Fenning, R. C, 1 1 1, 1 18, 122, 128, 129, 135 

Fenstermacher, Harry F., 107, 156, 182, 192, 207, 208, 

213,230 
Ferris, James S., 58, 61, 77, 95, 96 
Fielder, Samuel B., Jr., 179 

Fitzgerald, Joseph C, 56, 58, 63, 77, 80, 93, 98, 108 
Floyd, E.O., 190,201,205 
Floyd, Stuart H., 178 
Follard, James F., 98, 1 18, 120, 126 
Forney, Fredric J., 118, 120, 121, 137, 140, 231 
Foss, Philip L., 178,179 
Foster, Preston, 56 
Foster, Stephen, 100 
Frame, Clovis A., 45, 51, 67 
France, Captain Don, 44 
Frye, James F., 191 
de Furstenburg, Archbishop Maximilien, 103 

Galaty, Gordon B., 124 

Gallagher, Joseph P. F., 108, 118, 120, 126, 128 

Galland, Benoit R., 130 

Gearan, Jeremiah F., 207, 223 

Geraghty, Brian, Rev., 100 

Gibbons, Alan, R., 108, 1 18, 153 

Gibbons, M. F., 206 

Gibson, Thomas M., 131, 214 

Gladstone, 105 

Goode, Alexander D., 46, 84 

Goodill, Robert D., 184 

Goodman, Garson, 14, 21, 45, 58, 62, 77, 79, 1 1 7, 227 



262 



Gould, J. D, 207, 224 

Graham, Billy, 161- 

Grant, Worth C, 230 

Griffin, Cornelius J., 14, 33, 35, 38, 42 

Griffin, Gordon, 192 

Griffiths, Bishop, 144 

Grimes, Harrison C, 179 

Groover, Howard H., 14, 38, 58, 77, 79 

Grygil, Andrew J., 193 

Guillaume, L. A., 137, 140, 146, 152, 153 

Hager, Frank P., Col., 92, 120 

Hailstone, Charles E., 124 

Hallabaugh, George, 187 

Ham, Ernest A., 14, 56 

Hammed, PaulC, 189, 196, 201, 228 

Handran, Ralph E., 131, 132, 193 

Hansen (Pfc.),187 

Harder, Jesse D., 183 

Harris, Oscar J., 67, 89 

Harris, Field, Maj. Gen., 65 

Harrison, Charlie R., 114, 129, 146, 189 

Harrison, William K., Lt. Gen., 126, 144, 174, 190 

Harp, Edward B., Rear Adm., 12,87, 174, 185, 186 

Hart, Franklin A., 134 

Hatada, Father, 103 

Hawkins, ElmoM. T., 71 

Hayes, Henry H., 58, 77, 78, 79, 82, 96 

Hearn, Kester M., 14, 33, 35, 58, 77 

Hearn, William M., 14, 40, 41, 57, 58, 65, 77, 78 

Heim, R. L., 206 

Helmich, Edward E., 24, 104 

Hemphill, Edward J., 100, 131 

Herrick, C. W., 137, 140, 152 

Hester, James D., 62, 71 

Heuer,B. E., 193 

Hewitt, Fenelon D., Jr., 23, 139 

Heyl, Richard R., 89 

Hickey, Bernard L., 2, 5, 7, 8, 2 1 , 23, 38 

Higgins, J. M., Rear Adm., 10 

Hitchens, W. C, 206 

Ho, Kim Chung, Rev., 223 

Hoar, Martin J., 104, 1 18, 1 19, 120 

Hoff, C. P., 190, 201,205, 221 

Hoffman, William H., 26 

Hoglan, George A., 23, 24, 124 

Hohenstein, Raymond C, 89 

Holland, Charles F., 25, 104 

Hollingsworth, John E., 76, 77, 93, 96 

Holloway, B. (Pfc), 187 

Holmes, Richard J., 51, 104, 218 

Holmes, Norman B., 71, 131, 132, 183, 184 



Holmgren, Laton, 101 

Hong, Lieutenant, 232 

Hope, Bob, 33 

Horejs, Charles J., 130 

Horton,C.W., M.Sgt., 121 

Horvath, Stephen G., 100, 101, 114, 129, 156, 158, 231 

Hoskins, J. R., Rear Adm., 10 

House, L. E., Jr., 148 

Howard, Edwin R., 71, 105, 159 

Howland, Barker C, 1 4, 2 1 , 38, 40, 42, 49, 50, 56 

Hoy, Pfc, 86 

Hoy, W. Ivan, vii 

Hudner, Thomas J., 5 1 

Hull, John E., 235 

Hults, Chester L., 88 

Humphreys, David M., 126, 131 

Hunter, W. M., 89 

Hutcheson, Richard G., 165, 178, 189, 201 

II, Sat Wan, Adm., 106 

II, Nam, Lt. Gen., 94 

Ingvoldstad, Orlando, Jr., 2, 5, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 19, 21, 

23,33,36,38,40,44,55,56,131 
Irwin, Allen L., 69, 70, 71,104 
Irwin, Paul I., 131 
Ivers, V. J., 206 

Jacobs, George A., 124 

Jasper, William, 1 17 

Jeffers,H. W.,89, 123, 124 

Jenkins, Robert E., 7, 206 

Jerome, C. C, Brig. Gen., 155, 223, 237 

Johnson, Alfonso, 198 

Johnson, P. A., 206 

Johnson, Rauzelle M., 183 

Johnson, S. K., 56, 58, 77 

Johnson, W. D., 208, 209 

Jolly, Donald W., 94, 97, 118 

Jones, Allen, 192, 207,208 

Jones, Barney L., 108, 118 

Jones, E. S., 137, 140, 141, 144, 152 

Jones, Glyn, 14, 21, 22, 33, 56, 92 

Jones, W. L., 206 

Jordan, Daniel M., 68 

Joy, C. Turner, Vice Adm., 10, 87, 94, 123, 144 

Juntunen, Aarne J., 14, 58, 77 

Kabele, D. R., 87 

Kai-shek, Chiang, Madame, 108 

Kai-shek, Chiang, Generalissimo, 108 

Kalinowski, Alfred, 187 

Kane, J. A., 201, 202, 206 






— 263 — 



Kapalczynski, Eugene J., 114, 116,227 

Karnasiewicz, Charles F., 26, 72, 104, 131 

Keaney, Kevin J., 14, 23, 40, 41, 124 

Keating, Pius F., 124 

Keefe, J. M., 89 

Keeley, John A., 102, 103 

Kelly, Edward J., 165, 172, 173, 177 

Kelly, Francis W., 56, 57, 58, 64, 71, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 

87,91,92,94,95,98 
Kennedy, Deanne W., 131 
Kennedy, Harry S., Bishop, 134 
Kenny, T. A., 206 
Kiefer, R. W. 

Killeen, Patrick A., 14, 23, 38, 41, 45, 56, 57 
Killin, Kenneth D., 21, 140, 165, 179, 219 
Kim ( Mok san-nim ) , 2 1 8 
Kirkland, A. S. M., 165 
Klass, Francis J., 105,159 
Knapp, Paul J ., 1 1 , 1 2, 59, 60, 1 24 
Kohus, Francis E., Pfc, 199 
Kokoszka, William J., 104, 131 
Kosky, David J., 23, 123 
Krulak, Colonel, 98 

Kulinski, Arthur M., 76, 77, 84, 97, 104, 215 
Kuhn,G. E., 141, 164,165,173,221 
Kuhn, William J., 104, 129, 131 
Kuhlman, J. L., 206 
Kuolt, Milton C, 72 

La Duca, P. J., 89, 112, 114, 129, 156, 180, 182. 222 

LampeJ. H., 156, 182, 207, 222 

Lamson-Scribner, F. H., Brig. Gen., 155 

Lane, W. P., 137, 139, 140, 152, 165, 234 

Lawler, Charles W., 48, 87, 130 

Lederer, William, Comdr., 130, 157 

Lee, E. J., 89, 233 

Lee, Won Dong, 107 

Lemnitzer, General, 235 

Leonard, William B., Jr., 76, 77 

Levy, Sid, Pfc, 151 

Lewis, James W., 14 

Lineberger, E. A., Jr., 156, 192, 224 

Lloyd, Paul A., 71 

Lonergan, Vincent J., 108, 118, 126, 128, 182 

Longon, M. P., Pfc, 120 

Lustig, Victor J. W.,25, 104, 137, 140, 141 

Lynch, E. M., 156, 157 

Lyon, William B., 157 

Lyons, E.V, 166, 172, 175, 176, 177,201,221 

Lyons, William N., 2, 14, 33, 42, 56, 57, 58, 77 



McCabe, Ward D., 137, 138, 139, 140, 144, 146, 147, 

153, 221 
McCachran, Robert L., 68 
McCarthy, Eugene W., 72, 1 3 1 
McCoy, Floyd, Pfc, 187 
McCrabe, James, 167 
McDonald, Joseph D., 58, 63, 77, 82, 93 
McDowell, Noah L., 137, 140, 153, 165, 228 
McGann, Francis L., 12 
McGowan, John J., Jr., 1 1 
Mclnerney, F. X., Adm., 1 3 1 
Mclnnis, Delton, Pfc, 187 
McKnight, P. G., 207 
McManus, Hugh T., 126 
McManus, Raymond F., 45, 124 
McMillan, R. C, 141 
McNeill, Thomas F., 124 
MacArthur, Douglas C, Gen., 1,2, 5, 10, 15, 21, 24, 26, 

29,33,36,52,53,55 
Mahler, Walter A., 86, 87, 89, 92, 1 00, 10 1 , 1 30 
Malik, Jacob A., 91 

Mannion, J. P., 99, 101, 119, 122, 143, 152, 156, 185 
Markley, John H., 2, 9, 2 1 , 23, 35, 5 1 , 66, 85, 86 
Marks, James R., 70 
Marley, Cecil V., 69, 72 
Marron, Peter J., 183 
Marsh, H. J., 206 
Martin, H. M., Vice Adm., 1 16 
Martin, James B., 205 
Martin, William C, Bishop, 205 
Martineau, Edward R., 24, 72, 219, 231, 206 
Matthews, Daniel P., 167, 169 
Maxwell, Henry F., 24, 25, 48, 2 1 2 
Meachum, Lonnie W., 161, 165, 166, 175, 177, 186, 

189,194,199,200 
Meade, Harold E., 11, 12, 89, 124 
Meehan, Daniel F., 5, 87, 130 
Meier, Kermit I., 72 

Mendonsa, A. F., 137, 139, 140, 144, 145, 149 
Mershon, Carroll M., 24 
Metz, Cal, Col. USMC, 199 
Metzger, Ernest W., 71 
Michael, Don M., 103,123 
Michener, James, 67 
Miller, H. T., 206, 
Milnes, Roger, Dr., 187 
Minter, "Doc", 170 
Montross, Lynn, 73, 76 
Moore, Bryant E., Maj. Gen., 53 
Moore, James C, 153, 165, 171, 172 
Moore, John T., 165, 177, 189, 191,201 



264 — 



Moore, Raymond W., 124, 126, 152 

Moran, John L., 90, 131 

Morehouse, Admiral, 87 

Morse, Chaplain, USA, 144 

Morton, Frank R., 72, 131 

Morton, Paul C, 103 

Moses, V. M., 9 

Mousset, Germaine, Most Rev., 222 

Muller, Delia, 218 

Muller, J. H., 137, 140, 149, 150, 151, 218, 231-232 

Mulligan, E. C, 156, 191, 192, 231 

Murphy, John P., 9, 34, 35, 47, 51, 66, 85, 87, 100, 124, 

227 
Murray, Florence J., Dr., 219 
Myrose, John W., 69 

Nam, Lieutenant General, 94 

Nelson, Charles W., 11, 183 

Netherling, E. J., 206 

Newman, T. A., 140, 141, 152, 164, 166, 170, 

174, 190, 221 
Nicholas, Philip, 71 
Nolan, Wm. F., 131 
Noland, Robert T., 104, 131 
Nordby, W. H., 166, 170, 173, 196, 201, 228 
Norwood, Herman R., 71 
Nowakowski, B. J., 137, 140 

O'Brien, 148 

O'Conner, H. J., Capt., 146 

O'Connor, Leslie L., 56, 58, 61 

O'Hara, 148 

O'Leary, John D., 105, 209, 218 

O'Leary, Francis T., 200, 201, 202, 206 

Oliver, Algernon M., 107, 118, 119, 120, 135, 137 

Oliver, Preston C, 214 

O'Malley, Edwin C, 182 

OMalley, F. P., 179-180, 182, 207, 208, 221 

Olmon, Luther E., 104, 105, 106, 193 

O'Neill, J. J., 87, 98, 118, 126, 128, 130 

Ord, J. B., Capt., 146 

Organ, Wm. J., 104, 123, 218 

O'Sullivan, Sergeant, 19 

Pak, 97, 233 

Pardue, Austin, 165 

Parham, T. D., 209 

Park, C.S., Lt. Comdr., 107, 192 

Parker, J. F., 101, 129, 152, 153, 155, 156, 157, 158, 

180, 192,223,224 
Parkinson, Wm., W., 68, 108 
Parsons, Preston D., 2, 14, 42, 49, 56 



Pate, Randolph McC, Gen., 2, 187-221 

Patton, Robert L., 2, 14, 42, 58, 77 

Paul, J. W., 156-207 

Payne, P. C, M. Sgt., 151 

Peck, W. S., Jr., 98, 99, 108, 109, 110, 111, 118, 

119, 122, 126, 127, 128, 137 
Peeters, Richard T., 78, 80, 95 
Perkins, Kenneth D., 36, 57 
Perry, Matthew G., Commodore, 1 1 
Peterson, Abbott, 11 
Petre.Wm. R.,69, 131 
Phillips, Lawrence R., 14, 19, 21, 38, 58, 64, 

77, 193 
Pieper, P. F. W., 201 
Pieri, Paul C, 103 
Pigott, Charles S., 14, 58, 59, 77 
Pincentius, Brother, 34 
Pipho, Edmund W., 98, 118, 120 
Plat, Colonel, 92 
Pollock, Edward A., Maj. Gen., 151, 161, 164, 

186 
Porter, Harry A., 24, 72 
Potter, Paul K., 72, 105, 131, 159 
Powell, W. D., 90, 124 
Power, Bashford S., 94, 118, 120 
Power, Joseph G., 2, 14, 21, 40 
Prickett, A. D., 137, 139, 140, 144, 148, 149, 152, 165, 
221 

Quirk, John M., 56, 58, 77, 19, 80 
Quisenberry, J. W., 206 

Rains, C. E., 206, 228, 231 

Rankin, Daniel S., 68 

Ray, Stanley I., 94 

Reardon,JohnJ.,71, 105, 159 

Reaves, James E., 1 1, 19, 87, 130 

Redman, Emil F., 26 

Reigert, Paul, 201 

Reilly, Godfrey J., 2, 14, 21, 23, 57, 58, 77, 78, 79 

Remias, J. L., 87 

Rennie, William A., 14, 21, 49, 58, 77, 79, 214, 217, 221 

Rhee, Syngman, 14,21,185 

Rhys, Wynn W. P., 127, 135, 148 

Rice, L. F., 166, 176, 177, 178, 191, 196, 201, 215, 216 

228 
Ricard, Normand A., 193 
Rickel, Elihu H., 79, 92, 93, 96, 1 1 7 
Ridgway, Matthew B., Lt. Gen., 52, 53, 55, 92, 1 10, 134 
Riley, Edward O., 124,218 
Riley, George B., 124 
Ro, Bishop, 221 






— 265 



Robb, John W., 182,219 

Robertson, Alia W., 137, 140, 153, 232 

Robertson, Tex, 146 

Robinson, Charles B., 88, 131, 132 

Robinson, Stewart, Dr., 144, 145 

Rochelle, BobG., 130 

Rosso, George A., vii, 99 

Rothman, Murray I., 177, 196, 201, 203, 205 

Rowland, W., 149, 165 

Ruder, Frederick A., 104, 131 

Ruleman, Robert N., 98, 109, 1 10, 1 18, 122, 128, 397 

Salisbury, Stanton W., 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 19, 36, 39, 40, 
41, 45, 46, 56, 64, 67, 68, 71, 78, 79, 80, 87, 89, 91, 95, 
100, 106, 108, 111, 118, 124, 126, 127, 129, 134, 141, 
143, 144, 145, 152, 165 
Salyer, Oswald B., 9, 50, 51, 124 
Sam, 83, 84 
Sammy, 230 
Sanders, Paul S., vii 
Schilt, C. F., Maj. Gen., 100, 1 14, 129 
Schneck, Robert J., 94, 118, 121 
Schnick, Homer L., 165, 174, 189, 191,201 
Schoenrock, L. F., 155 
Schroerluke, H. P., 201, 234 
Schrum, Sergeant, 168 
Schwyhart, Robert M., 13, 14, 21, 33, 36, 38, 39, 40, 

41, 45, 46, 47, 49, 56, 57, 59, 64, 127, 139 
Selden, J. T., Maj. Gen., 1 14, 120, 126, 135, 144 
Sell, Ted, Sgt., 63 
Seneri, E.A.,S. Sgt., 148 
Seymour, Howard A., 101, 112, 1 14, 129, 130, 155, 156, 

224 
Shackelford, Charles H., 48, 87 
Shannon, Philip P, 214 
Shaw, W.E.,Dr.,221 
Sheehan, J. P., M. Sgt, 120 

Shepherd, Lemuel C, Jr., Gen., 1 2, 42, 98, 235 

Sherman, General, 45 

Shilling, John H., 227 

Shin,S.F., 107 

Shreffler, R. W., 165 

Siegel, Reuben, 1 1 7, 1 1 8, 1 20, 1 34, 1 37, 1 38, 1 40 

Silver, Daniel J., 108,209 

Singer, Wilson H., 131 

Sizao, Joseph R., Dr., 159 

Slattery, Edward A., 126, 133, 134, 135, 137, 139, 140, 
141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 148, 149, 150, 151, 
152,161, 164 

Slocum, Philip, 224 

Smith, Earl W., 104 



Smith, James R., 207, 224 

Smith, Louis C, 90, 123 

Smith, Oliver P., Maj. Gen., 1, 36, 40, 45, 73 

Smith, R.W., 201-221 

Sobel, Samuel, 140, 148, 149, 150, 152, 173, 174 

Sohn, Admiral, 106 

Song, Lee Chong, 221 

Somers, Lester I., 71 

Soo, Jung Duck, 223 

Soper, Edmund D., 101 

Spaid, James R., 183, 209 

Spellman, Francis Cardinal, 111, 114, 116, 161, 164, 

182,205 
Spohn, Arnold P., 109, 118, 121,231 
Sporrer, Otto E., 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 23, 36, 38, 56 
Stalin, 161 

Stamper, Robert L., 111,1 18, 139, 140, 144 
Sternberger, Richard Saul, 205, 206 
Stowater, Seattle A., 71, 131 
Stretch, R. N., 198,201,202 
Stroman, H. W., 207 

Strubble, Arthur D., Vice Adm., 10, 23, 48 
Strumski, M. J., 140, 141, 151, 164, 173 
Stultz, I. W., 206 
Stumbo, Lieutenant, 187 
Sullenberger, C. L., 87, 131 
Sullivan, Cornelius O., 9, 124 
Sullivan, James A., 87, 114, 129, 130, 156 
Sullivan, Jerome J., 11, 123 
Sullivan, J. H., 129 
Swain, Edward G., 130 
Swift, Charles H., 62, 87, 88 
Swinson, Jesse L., 78, 82 
Sydnor, Charles E., 131, 132 
Symons, Harold F., 124, 216, 232 
Szczesny, Charles A., 45, 51 

Tackett,J.H., 201 

Taylor, William A., 79, 97, 231 

Tennant, William G., 2, 5, 7, 8, 14, 19, 21, 23, 33 

Terhune, Cornelius A., 71, 131 

Terrell, Kenneth L., 178 

Theobald, D. K., 206, 219 

Thomas, Gerald C, Maj. Gen., 73, 93 

Thomas, Jacob R., 131 

Thomas, John R., 50, 90 

Thomas, William N., 89 

Thompson, George W., 68, 71, 131, 132, 193 

Tillberg, H. E., 87 

Tobey, 92 

Tracey, Sergeant, 230 

Torstrick, Melvin E, 109, 118, 119, 137, 140, 141 



— 266 



Trodd, Joseph P., 58, 77, 78, 80, 97 

Trower, Ross H., 78, 84 

Trower, William J., 217 

Truman, Harry S., President, 1, 55, 111 

Tufft, John R., 105, 221 

Tulley, Edward M., 131 

Turner, Allan N, 179 

Turner, E. M., 87, 130 

Tuxbury, V. W., 206 

Twitchell, Martell H., 99, 129, 130, 143, 150, 182 

Uber, Thomas B., II, 63, 76, 77, 92, 233 

Valdery, 198 

VanAntwerp, Eugene I., 14, 25, 56, 57, 58, 59, 

77, 78 
VanFleet, James A., Lt. Gen., 55, 73, 79, 95, 159 
Vaughan, Robert A., 12, 90, 124 
Vierling, Walter J., 98, 118, 122 
Vinson, W. H., 165, 194, 198, 201, 229 
Vitz, Robert H., 71 
Vosseler, Lawrence C. M, 23, 88, 89, 123, 206, 

218 

Waddill, Mrs., 178 

Waddill, Thomas, 178 

Walker, N. M., Gen., 199 

Walker, Walton H., Lt. Gen., 5, 15, 52, 105 

Walter, Ralph H., 230 

Walsh, W. J., 182 

Walthour, Dean, 44 

Wartes, Arthur J., 62, 131 



Waters, Howard E., 56, 58, 77, 215 

Watts, John E., Jr., 70, 71, 131 

Webb, Charles E., 35, 66, 85, 86, 87, 212, 222 

Weber, Oscar, 137, 140, 141, 145, 146, 149, 152, 

153 
Webster, Giles, 205 
Weidler, Edwin R., 101, 114, 129, 130, 156, 157, 

158, 182, 228 
Wheeler, Wendell C, 71, 131, 212 
Wheeler, 111 

White, Henry P., 26, 72, 104, 106, 107 
White, Leonard F., 71, 104 
Whitman, J. A., 210, 229 
Wickham, Faber H., 45, 88, 123, 218 
Willets, R. H., 137, 139, 140, 143, 149, 153, 191 
Wilson, Stanton R., 230 
Wintersteen, Prescott B., 69, 124 
Wissing, John L., 92, 94 
Wolf, Arnold J., 117, 130 
Wolf, August J., 12, 89 
Wolf, Warren L., 124, 182 
Wolfe, B. N., 118, 120, 137, 141, 144, 145, 228, 

231 
Wolfram, E. A., Jr., 137, 138, 141, 138, 153 
Won, Soh, Adm., 107 
Wren, L. J., 90 

Young, Major, 202 
Yong, Kwak Sun, 218 

Zoller, John E., 11, 12, 23, 48, 50 



267 



COMMANDS, OPERATIONS, SHIPS 



AAA Battalion, 156 

Agapei Orphanage, 223 

AIKEN VICTORY, 71 

Air Group Five, 10 

Air Wing Unit, 140 

Alexander D. Goode Lodge, Bnai B'rith, 45, 184 

"A" Medical Company, 80, 96, 121 

Amphibious Group One, 24 

Amphibious Squadron Three, 51 

Amphibious Tractor Battalion, 58, 62 

Anchoong, 229 

Anchor Hill, 185 

ANDERSON, 193 

Andong, 52, 61, 230 

Anscom Chapel, 2 1 9 

AnscomCity, 218 

ANTIETAM, 102, 103, 117, 118, 123 

Anyang, 229 

ARIZONA, 55 

ARL, 209 

Armistice, 185 

Armed Forces Aid to Korea, 194 

Armed Forces Assistance to Korean Schools (AFAK), 

229, 234 
Armored Amphibian Battalion, 140 
Army Port of Embarkation, 68 
Army Service Command Headquarters, 218 
AscomCity, 151,218,219 
Ascom Chapel, 219 
Atrocity Investigation Team, 51 
Atsugi, 87, 130 
AVENTINUS, 62 

BADOENG STRAIT, 9, 45, 50, 51, 65, 108, 124 

BAIROKO, 126 

BARRETT, 184 

B ATAAN, 45, 65, 85, 1 26, 1 96, 209, 2 1 3 

Battalion Headquarters, 192 

Battle of the Hook, 152 

BAYFIELD, 24, 45, 104 

Berlin, 187, 189 

Berlin Complex, 185 

B'nai Brith, 184 

Bong ILL Chon, 234 



BON HOMME RICHARD, 102, 103, 124 

Boston Red Sox, 82 

Boulder City, 185, 201 

BOXER, 15, 23, 44, 67, 123, 124, 185 

BREMERTON, 123, 185 

BRIAREUS, 104 

British Commonwealth, 177 

British Commonwealth Division, 142, 191, 

BRUSH, 48 

BRYCE CANYON, 88, 89 

BUNKER HILL, 146 

BupYong, 151,229 

CALVERT, 104 

"C" Company, 148, 233 

CampGarver, 14 

Camp Lejeune, 1,11 

CampOtsu, 130 

Camp Pendleton, 1,2,42 

CAPE ESPERANCE, 72, 131 

"Carlson's Canyon", 67 

Carrier Division Three, 10 

Carson, 161, 166 

Catholic Institution, 218, 222 

Catholic Orphanage, 146, 155, 191, 221, 222, 229 

Catholic Parochial School, 215 

Catholic Relief Society, 227 

C. C. BALLOU, 69 

Central Presbyterian Church, 213 

Chang Dang Sector, 187 

Character Education Program, 186 

Chejudo Island, 100,231 

Cherokee strikes, 161 

Chief of Chaplains, ROK, 214 

Children's Garden of Holy Mind, 229 

China Sea, 68 

Chindong-Ni-Kosong-Changchon, 5, 9 

Chin-Hai (Chinhae),107,216 

Chinhung-ni, 35, 42,45 

Chinnampo, 33, 44, 105, 212 

Chiso-dong, 59 

Chodong Presbyterian Church, 21 

Chodo-ri, 76 



— 269 — 



Chongjin, 123 

Chongju, 222 

Chorwon, 55, 76, 95, 109, 110 

Chosan (Chosen) (Chosin), 41, 53, 73, 101, 107, 

110 
Chosen Theological Seminary, 86, 212, 234 
Chosin Basin, 190 
Chosin Reservoir, 3, 7, 33, 36, 38, 40, 41, 45, 47, 

73, 76, 110 
Christian Children's Home, 229 
Christian Social Service Center, 214 
Chunchon-Wonju, 116 
Chung Im Protestant Church, 231 
Chung Nim Dong Church, 155 
Chungwon-Ni, 234 
Chunjo, 53 
Cimmarron, 104 
Civil Affairs, 64, 229 
Civilian projects, 211 
Combat Service Group, 58, 139, 140, 191 
Combat "V", 164, 165, 173 
Commander Amphibious Group Three, 51 
Commander, Cruiser Destroyer Force, PAC, 89, 

90 
ComDesRonOne, 90, 124 
ComDesRonThree, 89, 123-124 
ComDesRonFive, 90, 124 
ComDesRonSeven, 90, 124 
ComDesRonEight, 89 
ComDesRonNine, 124, 126 
ComDesRonEleven, 89 
ComDesRonThirteen, 90, 124 
ComDesRonSixteen, 89 
Commander Naval Forces, Far East, 3, 10, 65, 

86, 87, 88 
Commander Service Division, Thirty-one, 87 
Commander Service Force, Pacific, 11, 12 
Commander Service Squadron, Three, 87 
Commonwealth, 166, 196 
Communist China, 27 

CONSOLATION, 25, 98, 104, 106, 182, 214, 218 
CORREGIDOR, 193 
I Corps, 33, 55, 76, 109, 133, 144, 161, 166 

IX Corps, 53, 55, 73, 76, 97, 109, 110 

X Corps, 15, 18, 33, 44, 47, 48, 52, 53, 55, 73, 
91,92,97,109, 110, 126 

Cross Orphanage, 214 
Cruiser Division Five, 10 
CTF, 77-209 

Dai Iti Hotel, 87 

Damond Runyon Cancer Fund, 88 



DAVID C. SHANKS, 131 

"D" Battery, 178 

"D" Company, 233 

DELTA, 130 

Destroyer Division Thirty-two, 124 

Destroyer Squadron Seven, 50 

Destroyer Squadron Sixteen, 67 

Destroyer Squadron Twenty-two, 209 

Diocese of Taegu, 222 

DIXIE, 12, 90, 124 

Dog Company, 166, 168 

Do Kau, 153 

Dong Dwang Orphanage, 229 

DORCHESTER, 45, 46 

Duk Lunk Ree Church, 212 

East Berlin, 185, 189, 201 

"E" Battery, 2d Battalion, 1 1th Marines, 178,179 

Easy Company, 166, 168, 169, 170, 187 

Eden Marine Orphange ( Eden Orphanage) , 180, 222 

E-dong, 97 

Eighth Army, 5, 7, 10, 15, 25, 27, 33, 44, 45, 52, 53, 

55, 65, 66, 73, 79, 92, 105, 126, 133, 144, 190 
Eighth Korean Campaign, 141, 153, 160 
ELDORADO, 51, 89, 104, 131,218 
Eleventh Marines, 1, 2, 5, 9, 14, 38, 56, 58, 77, 80, 93, 

97,111,118,140,178,215 
Eleventh Marine Artillery Regiment, 165, 202 
Eleventh Marine Command Post, 140, 202 
Eleventh Marine Memorial School for Girls, 215 
Eleventh Regiment, 140 
El Toro, Calif., 9 
"E" Medical Company, 187 
Engineer Battalion, 58 
Episcopalians, 215 
Episcopal Orphanage, 221 
ESSEX, 102, 103, 161, 193 
ESTES, 131 
Esther, 187 
Ewha, 106,213 
Ewha University, 213 

"F" Battery, 178 

Falls Church, Va., 174 

Far East Command, 92, 95 

Far East Command Chaplains Committee, 210 

Federation Farmers Association, 229 

Fifth Air Force, 10,65,85 

Fifth Korean Campaign, 108 

Fifth Marines, 1, 2, 7, 9, 14, 15, 19, 21, 23, 36, 38, 40, 

55,58,77,79,80,94,97, 109, 118, 120, 126, 129, 140, 

166,167,178, 185,234 



270 



Fifth Regiment, 173, 177,187 

Fire Direction Ctr., Battery C. 159 Field Artillery 

Bn., 153 
First Amphibious TrBn., 77, 118, 137,216 
First Armored Amphibious Bn., 137, 206 
First Battalion, Eleventh Marines, 2, 5, 9, 137 
First Battalion, First Marines, 33, 77, 137, 140, 201, 

206 
First Battalion, Fifth Marines, 7, 206, 229 
First Battalion, Seventh Marines, 95, 146, 206 
First Cavalry Division, 5, 24, 33, 54, 77 
First Combat Service Group, 19, 77, 83, 84, 85, 118, 

137 
First Commonwealth Division, 127 
First Division Headquarters, 161, 234 
First Engineer Battalion, 77, 111, 118, 137, 153, 206, 

228, 233 
First Infantry Regiment, 1 
First Korean Campaign, 23 
First Korean Marine Regiment, 73, 76 
First Marines, 1, 14, 22, 33, 40, 56, 58, 73, 77, 80, 82, 

83, 90, 93, 1 18, 1 19, 146, 152, 153, 219 
First Marine Aircraft Wing, 3, 9, 11, 15, 19, 23, 33, 34, 

35, 47, 51, 65, 66, 69, 85, 87, 100, 101, 108, 109, 129, 

133, 150, 152, 156, 157, 191, 207, 208, 213, 223, 224, 

230 
First Marine Division, 93, 108, 110, 161, 165, 179, 185, 

186, 189 
First Marine Division Band, 164 
First Medical Battalion, 77, 1 19, 137, 221 
First Motor TrBn., 77, 118, 137 
First 90MMAABn, 107, 156,207 
First Ordnance Battalion, 1 18 
First Presbyterian Church, 218 
First Provisional Marine Brigade, 2, 5, 9, 12, 14, 15, 

25,55 
First Provisional Demilitarized Zone, Military Police 

Company, 194 
First Regiment, 58, 77, 80, 82, 109, 187 
First ROK, 107 

First Service Battalion, 38, 77, 137, 165, 174, 206, 229 
First Shore Battalion, 77, 118, 137, 151 
First Signal Battalion, 38, 111,118 
First Supply Battalion, 126 
First Tank Battalion, 77, 118, 137, 206 
Fleet Air Wing One, 68 
Fleet Air Wing Six, 68, 124 
Fleet Marine Force Pacific General Order, 13, 14 
Flotilla One, 209 
FMFPac, 10, 12, 13, 37, 203, 207 
FM AW, 179,207 



Formosa, 68, 108, 161 

FourChapalins Memorial Fountain, 174 

Four-H Club, 229 

Fourth Battalion, 11th Marines, 137, 140, 153, 201,206 

Fourth Korean Campaign, 59 

Fox Company, 166, 168, 171 

FRED C. AINS WORTH, 69, 131 

Freedom Village, 174, 175, 176, 178, 194, 198, 199, 201 

French Battalion, 209 

Frontier, 1 24 

Fukuoka, 19 

Fushi (Fussito, Fuschi-do), 218 

GEN. A. E. ANDERSON, 71, 131 

GEN. D. E. AULTMAN, 71 

GEN. WILLIAM BLACK, 71, 131, 209 

GEN. J. C. BRECKENRIDGE, 24, 48, 7 1 , 1 3 1 

GEN. A. W. BREWSTER, 71, 131 

GEN. S. B. BUCKNER, 69, 7 1 , 1 3 1 

GEN. H. W. BUTNER, 24, 72 

GEN. E.T.COLLINS, 71, 131 

GEN. W.O DARBY, 71 

GEN. LEROY ELTINGE, 69 

GEN. HUGH J. GAFFEY, 69, 71,218 

GEN. W.H.GORDON, 131 

GEN. GREELY, 70 

GEN.W.F.HASE, 71,131 

GEN. HEINTZELMAN, 71 

GEN. R. L. HOWZE, 69, 71 

GEN. W. A. MANN, 72, 131 

GEN. M. C. MEIGS, 2, 69, 131 

GEN. WILLIAM MITCHELL, 72, 131, 132 

GEN. C. G. MORTON, 71,131 

GEN. JOHN J. POPE, 7 1 , 1 3 1 

GEN. E. D. PATRICK, 71, 131, 132 

GEN. G. M. RANDALL, 72, 131 

GEN.STURGIS,214 

GEN. M. B. STEWART, 70 

GEN.D. I. SULTAN, 71,131 

GEN. N. M. WALKER, 71, 131, 192 

GEN. W. WEIGEL, 71, 131 

GEORGE CLYMER, 104, 218 

Gospel of Matthew, 202 

Great Wall of China, 171 

Guadalcanal, 171 

Guadalcanal Diary, 56 

Gun Battalion, 182 

Gun-Su,221 

Hagaru-ri, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 45, 51, 77, 79 
Hamhung, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 47, 
227 



271 



HAMUL, 89 

Han estuary, 104 

Han River, 15, 18, 19,44, 55, 61, 73, 110 

HAVEN, 51, 72, 93, 105, 106, 140, 159, 209, 218, 221 

Headquarters Battalion, 137, 139, 140 

Headquarters Battalion, 1st Division, 1,58, 77, 137, 139 

Headquarters Battery, 206 

Headquarters Company, 1st Marines, 139 

Headquarters, 11th Marines 

Headquarters, Squadron- 1, 180, 224 

HECTOR, 130 

Hedron 1, 180 

HELENA, 10, 11,89, 123 

HENRICO, 24 

Hill 90, 187 

Hill 229, 187 

Hill 342, 5 

Hill 676, 82 

Hill 749, 233 

Hill 812, 185 

HMR-161, 102 

Hoengsong, 55, 85 

Holy Angels Catholic Orphanage, 222 

Hook, 161 

Hongchon, 55,91,92, 93 

Hong Kong, 10 

Hope Hospital, 214 

Honshin, 207 

H&S Battery, 182.214 

H & S Company, 5th Marines, 206 

H&S Company, 7th Marines, 206 

Hunghei, 223 

Hungnam, 33, 36, 41, 45, 47, 48, 51, 52, 65, 66, 69, 

104,212,233 
Hwachon Reservoir, 55, 61, 72, 73, 76, 80, 82, 83, 95 

Imjin River, 76, 109, 110, 144 

Inchon, 2, 14, 15, 18, 19, 21, 24, 25, 27, 29, 44, 52, 53, 

55, 64, 66, 104, 105, 106, 107, 146, 190, 192, 193, 

199, 209, 211, 212, 214, 217, 218, 219 
Inchon Chapel, 219 
Inchon Christian Orphanage, 218 
Inchon Harbor, 217,219 
Inchon landing, 6, 8, 12, 14,19,25,51,66,139 
Inchon-Seoul, 18, 19, 21, 27, 29, 53, 73, 104 
Inchon Sungyuk, 2 1 8 
IOWA, 103, 123 

Iron Triangle, 55, 72, 76, 109, 1 10, 132 
Island of Yodo, 193 
Itami, 9, 34, 65, 66, 86, 87, 100, 101, 112, 114, 129, 

140, 156,157,207 
Itazuke, 65 



Iwakuni, 68 
Iwon, 25, 33 

JAMAICA, 15 

JAMES O'HARA, 69 

Jamestown Line, 109 

Japanese Temple, 216, 220 

JASON, 62 

Jewish Welfare Board, 111 

JOHN R. CRAIG, 193 

Joint Task Force Seven, 23, 48 

JUNEAU, 10, 11, 123 

Jutlandia, 101, 105 

K-3, 85, 86, 222 

K-18, -228 

Kaesong, 91, 95, 104, 109, 110 

Kae Sung Orphanage, 219 

Kangkwa, 231 

Kangnung, 10, 55, 114, 130, 158, 182, 227 

Kangnung Central Church, 1 14 

Kangnung Columban Fathers Orphanage, 114, 228 

Kangsong, 88 

Kang Wha Do, 231 

Kansas Line, 55, 77, 95 

KASKASKIA, 11 

KEARSARGE, 161, 228 

Kecksa-ri, 182, 229 

KENYA, 15 

Kimpo Airfield, 15, 35, 52, 53, 65 

Kiplinger Organization, 111, 152 

Kobe, 2, 9, 14, 15, 66, 101, 193 

Koje-do, 134 

Koje Islands, 161 

Kojo, 33, 104 

Korean Armistice, 56 

Korean Blind School, 112, 213 

Korean Defense, 185,221 

Korean Marine Corps Tank Company, 232 

Korean Marine Regiment, 76 

Korean Memorial Service, 232 

Korean Policy Action, 194 

Korean Rehabilitation Board, 208 

Korean Service Corps, 151, 232 

Korean Straits, 161 

Korean YMCA, 227 

Korean Young Men's Association, 229 

Kosong, 110, 132 

Koto-ri, 36, 39, 40, 41, 42, 45, 51 

Kumchon, 228, 229, 234 



— 272 



Kumchon Hospital, 229 

Kumchon Primary Schools, 229 

Kumha (Kumhwa) , 55, 76, 1 10 

Kumsong, 110 

Kurihama, 10 

Kwan Sei University, 106 

Kwang Sung, 106 

Kyodong, 55 

Kyoto, 14 

LAKE CHAMPLAIN, 185 

Leper Colonies, 21 1,219 

LEYTE, 45, 51,67, 108 

Lighthouse, 213 

LOS ANGELES, 104, 123, 218, 219 

LSMR, 209 

LST, 199,209 

Lt. R.O. BEAUDOIN,71 

Luke, 187 

MACKENZIE, 123 

Madison, Wisconsin Community Chest, 211 

Main Line of Resistance, 167, 185, 187, 190,201 

MANCHESTER, 23, 89, 1 14, 123, 153, 185, 235 

Manchuria, 67, 72, 94 

Manchurian Border, 25, 33, 53, 72 

MAG-1 1,208 

MAG-12, 9, 35, 51, 65, 66, 85, 86, 100, 101, 114, 129, 

130, 155, 156, 157, 180, 182, 207, 212, 222, 228 
MAG-16,207 
MAG-33, 2, 9, 35, 65, 66, 85, 86, 114, 129, 130, 155, 

156,157,207,222,223,224 
March of Dimes, 89, 1 32, 2 1 1 
MARINE ADDER, 50, 2 1 7 
Marine Aircraft Control Group 2, 86 
Marine Corps Band, 192 

Marine Memorial Childrens Clinic, 192, 223, 224 
Marine Memorial Orphanage, 155, 157, 180, 182, 223, 

224, 230 
Marine Observation Squadron VMO-6, 121 
MARINE PHOENIX, 69 
Marine Tactical Air Control Squadron, 66, 86 
Marine Wing Service Squadron, 66 
Marines Take Tarawa, 56 
Maryknoll Sisters Clinic, 213, 214 
Masan, 5, 7, 47, 49, 50, 52, 56, 58, 62, 83, 84, 92, 144, 

191,214,215,216 
Masan Rest Camp, 3 
Masan Seminary, 215 
MAW, 182, 220 

Medical Battalion, 80, 94, 108, 118, 140, 214 
Medical Battalion, 1st Division, 1, 49, 58, 62, 140, 187 



Medical Company, 5, 80 

Memorial Wreath, 194 

Memphis, 219 

Methodist, 21 1,214 

Methodist Church, 216 

Methodist Missionaries, 221 

Methodist Orphanage, 221, 228 

MGCIS-3, 85, 86, 155 

MIG Alley, 118 

Mikasi Chapel, 103 

Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company, 165 

Miryang, 5 

MISSOURI, 15, 26, 45, 53, 1 14 

MLR, 187,201 

MOALE, 193 

Motor Transport Battalion, 58, 63, 78, 94 

MOUNTMcKINLEY,24,48,67, 104, 131,214 

MSTS, 68, 69, 70, 88, 2 1 7, 2 1 9 

MSTS Chaplain, 217 

MSTS NorPac, 50, 68, 69, 70 

MSTS Pacific, 48, 62, 68, 69, 88 

MSWG-17, 207 

Munsan-ni, 126, 174,228 

Munsan-ni Agricultural High School, 234 

MWSS-1,156, 157 

Naktong (River), 5, 7, 8, 9 

Nam-Buk Orphanage, 221, 229 

Nam River, 110 

National Assembly Building, 55 

Nationals, 211 

National Memorial Park, 174 

National Memorial Cemetery (Honolulu) , 235 

Naval Air Facility, Oppama, 62 

Naval Beach Group One, 104, 131 

Navy Marine Wounded Soldiers Vocational Training 

School, 107 
Navy Relief, 64, 86, 89, 211 
NEW JERSEY, 88, 104, 1 14, 185, 193 
NCWC, 215 
"No Man's Land", 228 
North Korea, 27, 33, 36, 44, 47, 48, 52, 53, 61, 76, 78, 

94, 198, 227, 233, 234 
North Korean Catholic Relief Society, 34, 227 
North Korean 10th Division, 53 
Nuns, 212 

Obong-ni-Ridge, 5, 9 

Ochun, Korea, 223 

Officers Christian Union, 126 

Ochun Protestant Church, 223 

Okinawa, 11,68, 120 

Old Folks' Home, Tongae, 214 



273 



Old Ladies Home, 216 

Operation Big Switch, 177, 178, 194, 199,201,234 

Operation Goodwill, 214, 219 

Operation Kidlift, 18, 21, 130, 227 

Operation Killer, 55, 59, 61 

Operation Little Switch, 161, 174, 175, 177, 178, 185 

Operation Love, 219 

Operation Orphans, 180 

Operation Pile Driver, 76 

Operation Ripper, 55, 58, 59 

Operation Strangle, 102 

Operation Summit, 102 

Operation Thunderbolt, 53 

Operation Uncle, 229 

Operation YoYo, 79 

Oppama, 88 

Orient, 234 

Ordnance Battalion, 1st Division, 1, 58, 62, 77, 108, 

141 
ORISKANY, 193 
Orphan Asylums, 216 
Orphanage at Wonju, 229 
Osaka, 14,65,66 
Outpost Esther, 185, 187 
Ox Fight, 216 

Palgong-San, 53 

Pan-Munjan (Panmunjon) , 3, 109, 110, 132, 134, 144, 

146, 161, 175, 178, 179, 187, 189,228 
Paris Foreign Mission Society, 222 
Patrol Squadrons, 67 
Peleliu, 120 
Pescadores Islands, 68 
Philippine Bn., 76 
PHILIPPINE SEA, 10, 11, 15, 45, 62, 67, 85, 89, 108, 

123, 124,185,227 
PIEDMONT, 12,89,216 
PINE ISLAND, 68 

Pohang (don) Catholic Orphanage, 222, 223 
Pohang-dong (Pohang) (Pohong), 24, 33, 52, 61, 64, 

66,85,86,93, 101, 112, 114, 130, 144, 157, 158, 180, 

182, 191, 192,208,222,223,224 
Pohong City Orphange, 155, 244 
Po Wha Orphanage, 229 
Point Cruz, 218 
Poon-Suwon,63 
Port Chaplain Yokohama, 214 
PRAIRIE, 90 

Presbyterians, 36,38,211, 214 
Presbyterian Church, 36, 49, 222, 229 
Presbyterian Mission, 229 



Presbyterian Seminary, Pusan, 1 12 

PRESIDENT JACKSON, 24, 72, 131 

PRESIDENT PIERCE, 184 

PRINCETON, 45, 48, 67, 108, 124, 161, 185 

Prisoner of War Prisons, 2 1 9 

PVT. SADAO S. MUNEMORI, 69 

Provisional Brigade, 55 

PTA, 229 

Puja-Gun County, 221 

Pujon Reservoir, 33, 76 

Pukhan River, 61, 110 

Punchbowl, 76, 82, 85, 95, 99, 102, 108, 109, 132, 133 

Pusan, 5, 8, 14, 47, 35, 62, 64, 66, 79, 85, 86, 
87, 93, 100, 101, 104, 112, 114, 118, 129, 140, 
144, 156, 158, 182, 192, 212, 213, 214, 215, 218 

Pusan Orphanage, 213 

Pusan Perimeter Operation, 3, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 
15, 19, 25, 29, 53, 55, 190 

Pyongyang, 10, 33, 53, 55, 76, 105, 118 

Pyongtaek (Pyongteck), 157, 182, 221, 222 

Rashin, 103 

Red Cross, 42, 64, 89, 132, 142, 144, 155, 198, 

211 
Reformed Church of Holland, Michigan, 214 
Regimental Headquarters, 139 
RENDOVA, 126 

Reno, 161, 166, 171, 172, 177, 178 
REPOSE, .26, 72, 104, 105, 106, 193, 213, 218 
Republic of Korea, Eighth Division, 95 
Reserve Officers Association, 174 
Revere Camera Co., 165 

ROCHESTER, 10, 11, 15, 23, 45, 48, 114, 123 
Rockets Battery, 178 
ROK Army, 55, 232 
ROK Capital Division, 33 
ROK I Corps, 27, 33, 104, 110, 126 
ROK Navy Band, 192 
ROK Third Division, 10, 33 
ROK 6th Division, 53, 73, 77 
ROK 8th Division, 95 
ROK National Guard, 63 
ROK 9th Division, 76 
Roman Catholics, 211 
Roman Catholic Missions, 214 
Roman Catholic Orphanage, 158 

Sachon, River, 132 

Sae Dul Children's Home, 2 1 3 

Saigon, 209 

Saipan, 44, 171 

SALI