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Charleston and Kanawha County 

West Virginia 




Study History, for it is Philosophy Teaching by Example 

Published by 

F. J. RICHMOND, Pbes. C. R. ARNOLD, Sec. and Treas. 



The aim of the publishers of this volume and of the author of the history 
has been to secure for the historical portion thereof full and accurate data re- 
specting the history of the county from the time of its early settlement, and to 
condense it into" a clear and interesting narrative. All topics and occurrences 
have been included that were essential to this object. 

The reviews of resolute and strenuous lives that make up the biographical 
part of the volume are admirably calculated to foster local ties, to inculcate 
patriotism, and to emphasize the rewards of industry dominated by intelligent 
purpose. They constitute a most appropriate medium for perpetuating personal 
annals, and will be of incalculable value to the descendants -of those commemo- 
rated. These sketches are replete with stirring incidents and intense experiences 
and are flavored with a strong human interest that will naturally prove to a 
large portion of the readers of the book one of its most attractive features. In 
the aggregate of personal memoirs thus collated will be found a vivid epitome 
of the growth of Kanawha County, which will fitly supplement the historical state- 
ment, for its development is identified with that of the men and women to 
whom it is attributable. Sketches unrevised by subscribers are marked by a 
small asterisk "(*) placed after the name of the subscriber. 

The publishers have endeavored to avoid slighting any part of the work, 
and to fittingly supplement the editor's labors by exercising care over the mi- 
nutest details of publication, and to give to the volume the three- fold value of 
a readable narrative, a useful work of reference and a tasteful ornament to the 
library. We believe the result has justified the care thus exercised. 

Special prominence has been given to the portraits of many representative 
citizens which appear throughout the volume, and we believe that they will 
prove not its least interesting feature. We have sought in this department to 
illustrate the different spheres of industrial and professional achievement as con- 
spicuously as possible. 

To all those who have kindly interested themselves in the successful prep- 
aration of this work, and who have voluntarily contributed most useful infor- 
mation and data, or rendered other assistance, we hereby tender our grateful 

The Publishers. 

Chicago, III., November. 191 1. 



Once upon a day not long since, a good 
prohibition friend met with a jolly red-faced 
neighbor, and he wanted to know of the jolly 
friend whether he ever took a drink of whis- 
key. The interrogated friend hesitated and 
before replying wanted to know whether the 
remark was to be taken as an inquiry or an 

So as to the case at bar, — we mean of course 
the judicial bar. The "Why" may be regarded 
as the inquiry of the reader, and it may also 
be taken as the invitation of the publisher. 

If anyone should ask in earnest, "Why a 
history of Kanawha?" the reply should be, 
"Because it was greatly needed." It has been 
an age since one was written and people have 
grown to maturity since it was published; it 
is needed for the enlightenment of her inhabi- 
tants, and to set forth the accomplishment of 
her people. 

The reader is interested in the information 
contained and we are interested in giving you 
the information in such form that you will re- 
joice in the opportunity to have it. 

We have gathered facts from all sources; 
we do not propose to republish the former his- 
tories, but we propose to draw on them for 
information, as they did when they published. 
We expect some future historian to do like- 
wise with us when he wishes to make a good 
work. The History and Biography of our 
own county and people should be read next 
after the Bible, and in fact, will make good 
Sunday reading for ages to come. Kanawha 
cannot have too many good histories. 

Is it not a truthful proposition, thwi: had 

the Aborigines of this country left to us a 
more readable account of themselves — had left 
a record telling us from whence they came, 
why they left and what they accomplished 
while here, — -what an amount of wild guessing 
they would have saved. Had the Indians 
spilled more ink and less blood, and had they 
utilized the said ink in informing us what 
part they played in changing the character of 
the inhabitants, by a comparison between 
themselves and those that left when they came; 
had they told us more of their own good 
qualities, then would our historians have 
been more charitably disposed toward them; 
there would have been less to guess about and 
our own guesses more favorable to them per- 

Even as to our worthy ancestors, we have 
to deplore the fact that they too were negli- 
gent in this respect. How we would have en- 
joyed having more information of them and 
of their trials and tribulations in the early 
days of our country; what a high estimate of 
their efforts we would have had ! 

To relieve the people of the present gener- 
ation of this charge of negligence; to tell the 
future generations of the people of today, and 
of the past, so that our future readers will rise 
up and call you "blessed," has been our effort 
in this work. 

We want the present young people and those 
of the future to know who it was that made 
Kanawha and Charleston, that they may be 
encouraged to keep up the good work. — Such 
is the purpose of the Work we offer you. 

The Editor. 


Introductory 4 


Geographical Evolution of Kanawha County 19 

Frontier Counties of Virginia — Formation of Shires in 1634 — Change 
of Name — Governor Spottswood's Expedition and Discoveries — Forma- 
tion of Spottsylvania, Orange, Frederick and Augusta Counties — Settle- 
ments in the Upper and Lower Valleys — Botetourt and Fincastle Counties 
Formed — West Augusta as a District — Its Division info Ohio, Monongalia 
and Yohogania Counties — Greenbrier County Formed — Mode of Elections 
— Kanawha County Organized — Boundary of Kanawha County — Town- 
ships and Districts 1 — Location of Towns. 

Rivers 28 

New Rivera-Its Source and Direction — The Yadkin, Roanoke, Tenn- 
essee or Holstein — Elk River — The Gauley — Carnifex Ferry and Its As- 
sociations — Coal River, in Prose and A'erse — Tom Swinburn — Develop- 
ment and Prosperity of this Region — Surveys on Coal River — St. Albans 
— Coal River Railroad — Kanawha River and Tributaries — Cabin Creek ; 
Why So Named. 

Native Races 33 

The Aborigines — Obscurity of Their Origin and History — Extermi- 
nated by the Indians — Their Mounds and Other Relics — The Indians — 
Speculations as to Their Origin — Their Character — Their Cruelty and 
Treachery — Their Claims to the Land Based on Might — Some Indian 
Atrocities — Battle of Point Pleasant, 1774 — Cornstalk; His Character and 
Manner of Death — Character of Indian Warfare — Petition of Settlers of 
Great Kanawha River, 1781 — Campbell's Creek Indian Legend — Death of 
Cojeri, a Too Inquisitive Settler — Mysterious Savage Rites. 


Organization of Kanawha County 49 

The Act Organizing the County — Origin of the Name, Kanawha — 
Boundaries — "Gauley" an Indian Name — First Court Held at William 
Clendenin's — Organization of the County Court, 1789, and Justices Present 
— Other Officials — Court Houses — Clerk's Office — lail — Remarks by Dr. 


Hale — His Archaeological Enthusiasm — The First House — Trip of Anne 
Bailey — Fleming Cobb's Perilous Trip — Appointment of Constables and 
Magistrates — Land Assessments — Some "First Things" — Prison Bounds — 
Collecting Taxes in Early Days — Land Owners in 1791 — Land Books — 
Tithables in 1792 — Kanawha County Records — Justices of the Peace. 

The Pioneers 58 

The Morris and Clendenin Families — John Jones — Perils of a Set- 
tler's Life — Individuals of Morris Family, Their Record — Bishop Thomas 
Asbury Morris — Major John Hansford — John Jones — John Paddy Hud- 
dleston — Daniel Nihoof — Kanawha Valley in 1808 — Summers' Journal — 
The Clendenin Family — Payroll of Capt. William Clendenin's Company, 
1788 — Muster Roll of Capt. John Morris, 1791 — Pensioners Under Act 
of March 18, 1818 — Pension Applicants — Ruffner Family — Peter Ruff- 
ner, the Immigrant — Individual Mention — Gen. Lewis Ruffner — Daniel 
Boone — Elk River Settlers — Skeleton on Strange Creek — Early Patents of 
Elk Lands — Jarrett Ford — Rescue of Boy From Indians — White Man 
Disguised as Indian ; His Merited Death — Mrs. Mary Ingles — Abb's Val- 
ley — The Moore Family Tragedy — Rev. Jas. M. Brown — Killing of the 
Stroud Family — Wiping-out of Bull Town — Lewis Tackett — Tackett's 
Pine — Anne Bailey ; Her Interesting Story and Heroic Character — Alvah 
Hansford's Recollections — James River and Kanawha Turnpike Opened 
— Daniel Boone; His History — Simon Kenton — Simon Girty — Wilson 
Harris's Recollections — Tobacco, a Legal Tender. 


Bench and Bar 95 

Organization of the Courts — Judges John Coalter, James Allen, Lewis 
Summers, David McComas. James H. Brown, Joseph Smith, George W. 
Summers, Mathew Dunbar, James W. Hoge, F. A. Guthrie and Samuel 
C. Burdett — Judges of the Court of Appeals of Virginia — Early Attorneys 
of the Kanawha Bar — Charleston Lawyers, 191 1 — In Memorium. 


Industrial History 122 

The Salt Industry — Rock Salt and Brines — Salt Boiling by the Indians 
— Home-made Salt — The First Salt Furnace in Kanawha — Pack-saddle 
Transportation — David and Joseph Ruffner's Salt Enterprise — The Great 
Buffalo Lick — Description of a "Gum" — Early Discouragements and Ulti- 
mate Success — A Revolution in Manufacture Caused by Ccal — Mechanical 
Improvements — Burning Springs and Gas Wells — A Processor's Experi- 
ment and Its Results — Col. Levi J. Woodyard — First G'is Well Bored by 
Capt. James Wilson — Patrick's Salt Furnace — Methods of Manufacturing 
and Shipping — Waste Products — Cost of Production — Soda Ash — List of 
Kanawha Salt Furnaces — Statistics — Kanawha Salt Makers — Cannel Coal . 


Oil Manufactures on Kanawha— Great Kanawha Gas Co. — Vulcan Iron 
Works — Kanawha Brick Co. — Morgan Lumber & Manufacturing Co. — 
Gill Manufacturing Co. — Banner Window Glass Co. — Tanners' and Dyers' 
Extract Co. — Kanawha Planing Mill Co. — Standard Brick Co. — Kanawha 
Woolen Mills — Charleston Woolen Mills — Diamond Ice & Coal Co. — 
Kanawha Mine Car Co. — Ohio Valley Furniture Co. — Charleston Window 
Glass Co. — L. Long & Sons — The Kanawha Land Co. (South Charles- 
ton) — South Charleston Crusher Co. 

Kanawha Politics 152 

Early Elections — Daniel Boone a Delegate — Limited Suffrage — Politi- 
cal Organs in Early Days — Politics Confused by the War — The Preva- 
lence of Union Sentiment — Politics After the War — State Convention of 
1872 — Unclean Politics — The Necessity of Reform — Practical Sugges- 
tions — Kanawha Delegates Since 1791 — The Legislature — State and 
County Officials — Congressmen and U. S. Senators — Governors from 
Kanawha County. 

Charleston — The County Seat ■ 159 

Col. Bullitt's Survey — Lewisburg Established — Construction of Fort 
— The Beginning of Growth; — Growth of Population — Early Designations 
of Charleston — Legal Tender — First White Child Born — Charleston Le- 
gally Established — Its Condition in 1794 — The Only Good Indian — 
Tragedy of White Man's Fork — Thomas Teays Saved by an Indian — 
Murder of the Morris Girls — Charleston's "First Things" — Legislation 
Relative to Charleston — West Virginia Decisions — Charleston in 1836- 
1838 — Court House — Charleston as the State Capital — Chamber of Com- 
merce — Water and Electric Light Plant — City Officials — Population. 

Public Institutions 176 

The Charleston Public Library — Sheltering Arms Hospital — Charles- 
ton General Hospital and Training School — Charleston Day Nursery — 
Young Men's Christian Association. 


Banks and Banking 183 

Utility of Banks — State Banks — Mutual Dependence of Banks and 
Industrial Enterprises — Banks of Charleston — Their Wealth and Influence 
in Sustaining Local Enterprises — Their Policy — Sketches of the Leading 
Banks — Kanawha Valley Bank — Charleston National — Citizen's National 
— Kanawha National — Kanawha Banking and Trust Co. — Elk Banking Co. 
— National City Bank — Capital City Bank — Glenwood Bank — People's 
Exchange Bank, etc. 



Transportation 192 

Water Transportation — The Indian's Canoe — The Flat Boat — Salt 
Boats — Conveniences of Early River Boats — The First Steamboats and 
Steamboat Inventors — The Pittsburg & Cincinnati Packet Line — The 
Wheeling & Louisville Line — Decline of the Boat Business on the Upper 
Ohio — Steamboat Disasters — Barges and Rafts — Disappearance of Trees 
Along the Ohio — Description of the Kanawha — The Kanawha Boatmen — 
Salt Boat Pilots — Steam Navigation — Some Famous Steamboats — Kana- 
wha River Improvement — Locks and Dams — Advantages of Slack Water 
— Gen. William P. Craighill — Coal River Railroad — Col. Michael P. 
O'Hern — Kanawha & Michigan Railway Co. — Coal & Coke Railroad — 
Charleston Traction Co. 


Districts and Towns 215 

Township Act of 1863 — Commissioners for Kanawha County — The 
County Divided Into Ten Townships — The Word "Township" Changed to 
District — Sketches of Poca, Union, Jefferson, Washington, Loudon, Cabin 
Creek, Maiden, Elk, Big Sandy and Charleston Districts, and of Browns- 
town (or Marmet), St. Albans, Maiden and Other Towns. 

Education 240 

Early Schools and Schoolmasters — Harsh Discipline — Biennial Report 
of the State Superintendent of Free Schools — Inter-District Contests — 
Introduction of Agriculture — Free Schools of Charleston and Their 
Teachers — Negro Education. 

Churches and Religions 252 

Religious Creeds of the Early Settlers — Intolerance — The Distinction 
Between Religion and Church — Early Kanawha Churches and Pastors — 
The Baptists, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Catholics and Others — First 
Presbyterian Church of Charleston — Methodist Episcopal Church — United 
Brethren and Others — Churches in Charleston in 181 1 — Our Sermon. 

Kanawha Physicians 266 

Early Physicians — Drs. John Eoff, N.-W. Thompson, Spicer Patrick, 
R. E. Putney, J. E. Putney, T. O. Watkins, Daniel Smith, C. I. Lewis and 
Others — Character of the Profession in Kanawha County — -Charleston 


Some Old Time Citizens 272 

Brief Sketches of Geo. Goshorn, I. B. & F. Nbyes, Edmund Saunders, 
Ezra Walker, James Truslow, Rev. John Snyder, John Slack, Greenbury 
Slack, John and Levi Welch, James Nevins, Col. James Atkinson, John 


McConihay, Adam Aultz, Joseph Bibby, Mathews Family, Blackwell Chil- 
ton, Geo. Fisher, David Shirkey, Charles Brown Family, Col. Henry Fitz- 
hugh, Maj. James Bream, Col. Joseph Lovell, Bream Memorial Church, 
Whittaker Family, The Van Bibbers, Andrew Donnally, Jr., Mathew P. 
Wyatt, Aaron Stockton, W. W. Henning, Fry Family, Capt. S. C. Farley, 
Miller Family, Col. B. H. Smith. Harrison B. Smith, Gen. Daniel Smith, 
Luke Wilcox, Dr. Spicer Patrick, Shrewsbury Family, Capt. Sam Christy, 


Miscellaneous 292 

Kanawha Timber — Kanawha Riflemen — W. Va. Soldiers in the Fed- 
eral Army — Statue of "Stonewall" Jackson — U. S. Direct Taxation — 
Derivation of the Name, "Kanawha" — The Case of Jack Neal — Early 
Taverns — Newspapers — Surveyors of Lands — Fraternal Societies — Order 
of Elks — A Yankee Trick — Dissenting Opinions — Judge Lynch — Some 
Early Marriages — Some Good Old Colored Folks— Condensed Facts 
About Charleston — Census Statistics — Dates of "First Things." 


History of the Coal Industry 315 

Geography and Geology — Coal Deposits — Early Discoveries of Coal — 
John P. Turner's Coal Mine — Use of Coal by Salt Companies — The 
Rogers' Survey — Output in 1840 — Systematic Exploration in 1849 — 
Mines Opened in 1853 — First Commercial Shipments — Coal Convention 
in 1855 — The Pittsburg Seam — Bakerstown Seam — Freeport Seam — 
Lower Kitanning Seam — Clarion-Brookville Seam — Stockton-Lewiston 
Seam — Coalburg Seam — Winifrede Coal — Chilton Seam — Thacker Seam 
— Cedar Grove Seam — Peerless Seam — No. 2, Gas Seam — Powellton 
Seam — Eagle Seam — Little Eagle Seam — Other Coals — General Report of 
Analysis by the W. Va. Geological Survey — Miscellaneous Statistics. 


The Preservation of History 330 

Efforts Made to Preserve the History of West Virginia — West Vir- 
ginia Plistorical Society — The Trans-Allegheny Historical Society — The 
West Virginia Historical and Antiquarian Society — The State Department 
of Archives and History — Transfer of Title and Removal — The Museum, 


Chronological Record 342 

Chronological Record of Events Along the Border — Dates of Battles, 
Sieges and Settlements — Wealth of Charleston and Kanawha — Conclud- 
ing Remarks. 

Representative Citizens 355 


Abb's Vally settlers 79 

Abney, Francis W. » 753 

Acree, G. D 797 

Adkins, James E 594 

Alderson. Charles M .-. 1005 

Alderson Family, The 1013 

Alderson, George P 419 

Alderson, Maj. J. Coleman 1014 

Alexander, Andrew S 485 

Alexander, Henry B 476 

Alexander, William A 485 

Alexander. W. T 939 

Alford, Calvery H 476 

Allebach, Leroy 720 

Allen, Hon. James 96 

Allen, P. B 765 

Anderson, A. J 800 

Anderson, John 556 

Anderson, Capt. Lucius C. 503 

Armitage. Charles F 510 

Arnold, I. N 869 

Ashby, Hon. Walter L 385 

Ashley, John W 667 

Atkinson, Hon. George W 538 

Atkinson, Col. James 274 

Atkinson, Ulysses B 605 

Aultz, Adam 275 

Aultz, Dr. Loami L 528 

Aultz, Dr. Otis L 779 

Avis, Samuel B 799 

Backus, Dr. S. G 423 

Bailey, Anne 81 

Bailey, John 82 

BailliV, Richard 899 

Baines, John D 957 

Baird, Daniel E 606 

Banister, John 659 

Barber, Dr. T. L 270 

Barker, Joseph S 884 

Barnett, Robert E. Lee 984 

Barr, Harry S., D. D. S 635 

Barr, Rev. John C 355 

Barrett, John H 900 

Barth, Nicholas 665 

Bauer, Edward C 775 

Baxter, George S 530 

Beane, S. S 812 

Beane, W. S 820 

Beard, John L 713 

Bedell. J. Ferree E 488 

Beller, George W 666 

Benedict, Samuel 92 

Bibby, James 694 

Bibby, Joseph 275 

Binford. Bob B _ 857 

Black. Hon. Henry K 450 

Black. Valentine L 450 

Blackburn, Robert M 397 

Blair, Henry L 668 

Blake, Otis C 405 

Blancet, John H 686 

Board, Charles H 819 

Board, Patrick T 948 

Boggs, Mrs. Nancy A 601 

Boiarskv, Abraham 609 

Bonham", ' Selby F 529 

Boone, Daniel 87 

Boren, Claude M 820 

Bowen, John C 547 

Bowers, George H 705 

Bowles, Andrew J 795 

Bradford, Major William A 410 

Brady, George W 598 

Branch, William W 456 

Brannen, Patrick L 652 

Brannon, Hon. Henry ; . . 555 

Branum, Henry H 713 

Brawley, David A. .-. 495 

Bream," Maj. James 89, 277 

Breece, George E 1012 

Brightwell, Henry P 423 

Brookman, William L 861 

Brooks. Walter B 400 

Broun Family and Kindred, The 767 

Broun. Major Thomas L 754 

Brown Family, The Charles 276 

Brown. J. F 1009 

Brown, W. Frost 947 

Brown, W. L 756 

Brown, Talleyrand P 276 

Bryan, A. J ■ 936 

Bryan, Garrett D 881 

Buck. William J 896 

Burdett. Leonie E 625 

Burdett, P. W 988 

Burdett, Hon. Samuel C 816 

Burdett, Willis 684 

Burdette. Charles D 905 

Burgess. John W 565 

Burlew, Abraham 378 

Burlew, Noyes S 372 

Burruss. Beverly N 902 

Buster Family 93 

Butts, Dr. A. Henry 518 

Butts, Frank R.. D. D. S 554 

Byrne, William E. R 89 -^ 

Cabell, Charles A 788 

Cabell, G. Kuhn 947 

Cabell, Hewett L 7 ~d 

Cabell, R. W ] 39 

Calderwood, Andrew C -404 

Calderwood, William B 3fad 

Callahan. Eugene *'° 

Camp, Peter H ?°° 

Campbell. John D »40 

Campbell, S. H. ^J 

Canterbury, William H 9bb 

Capito, Charles • ™, 

Capito, Dr. Gustav B 437 

Capito, Henry C 8 ™ 

Carlon, James (his reminiscences) -^ 




Carmaek, John J "", 912 

Carrnack, Mont J 913 

Carnes, James N •. 408 

Carpenter, James G 766 

Carr, Hon. R. S 397 

Carroll, Hon. Peter 612 

Carter, • John H 501 

Carver, William A 522 

Cassady, Robinson B 821 

Champe, Dr. Ira P 443 

Chapman, Sylvester 674 

Chase, John M 893 

Chilton, Blackwell 275 

Chilton, George 468 

Chilton, John S 797 

Chilton, Joseph E 964 

Chilton, Samuel B 468 

Chilton, William E., Sr 468 

Chilton, Hon. William E 965 

Christy, Capt. Sam 290 

Churchman, Dr. Vincent T 875 

Clark, Edward 660 

Clark, James M ' 524 

Clark. James P 663 

dark, Thaddeus S 721 

Clarkson, Col. John N 716 

Clay, Buckner 433 

Clay, Eldredge B 872 

Clendenin Family 68 

Clendenin, Charles - 71 

Clendenin, William 71 

Clerks of Court of Appeals US 

Coalter, Hon. John 96 

Cobb, Fleming 52 

Cobb, Hiram 62 

Cobb's, Walter F 712 

Cochran, Edgar P 557 

Coffey, Andrew 985 

Cojen, settler, killed 47 

Colburn, Frederick 471 

Colcord, Edward C, Jr 856 

Colcord, Hon. Edward C 932 

Cole, John S 946 

Coleman, Hon. Charles B 500 

Collins, Hon. John M 802 

Comer, Isaac 764 

Comstock, Willard F 765 

Conker, Adam H 657 

Conker, Edward 925 

Conley, Hon. William G 418 

Conkl'in, Frank 834 

Connell, George W 889 

Connolly, Dr 3S 

Connor, Charles 940 

Copeland, Dr. Charles E .' 943 

i open, Vinton Z 379 

Copenhaver, Grant "4 

Copenhaver, John H 860 

("o,k, Jacob F 967 

Cornstalk, Indian chief 39, 44 

Cotton, John 98° 

Cottrell. Joel 649 

( touch, George S., Jr 511 

( ourtney, Dewitt G 652 

i tourl ney, Samuel P 655 

Courtney, Thomas E °84 

Cox Family, The 490 

Cox, Prank 4!,n 

Cox, William R., Jr 490 

Coyle, George F 455 

Craighill, Gen. William P 206 

Crane, E. C 630 

Crawford, Ellis T 571 

Crockett, Lieut. John A 578 

Cummings, Kelly 692 

Cunningham, Charles C 659 

Cunningham, Mrs. Helen M 856 

Cunningham, L. V 559 

Daffron, William H 841 

Daggs, Reuben 94 

Dana, J. Eugene 576 

Danner, Capt. George 1007 

Darst, Hon. John S 519 

Davenport, Joseph R 791 

Davidson, John 664 

Davis, Alton N 852 

Davis, Edwin R 568 

Davis, Henry 545 

Davis, John R 851 

Davis, Joshua 636 

Davis, Oratio L 757 

Davis, T. 0. M 970 

Davis, William E. 620 

Dawson, John W. 560 

Dawson, Noah W 727 

Dawson, Hon. William M. 428 

Dearien, James E 728 

De Gruyter, Hon. J. A , 618 

Deitz, Theodore A 930 

Dering, Charles W 911 

Derrick, Amanda J 586 

Derrick, F. L 444 

Dickinson, Charles C _ 1005 

Dickinson, Col. Henry C ' 751 

Dickinson, John L 993 

Dickinson, Col. John Q 1003 

Dickinson, Capt. Julian E r 527 

Dodson, Andrew J 605 

Dodson, Elisha -94 

Dodson, J. R 602 

Donnally, Col. Andrew 93, 388 

Donnally, Andrew, Jr 280 

Donnally, Moses W 816 

Donnally, William B .' 387 

Drew, Hon. James B. C 1006 

Dunbar, Hon. Mathew 109 

Dunlap, Robert 419 

Dunmore, Lord 37 

Early Attorneys of Kanawha bar 118 

Early, Capt. Samuel H 718 

Eastwood, F. M 892 

Edwards, Hon. William S 758 

Egan, David 535 

Elkins, Hon. Stephen B 986 

Elliott, Gen. Charles D 975 

Embleton, Thomas E 558 

Eskins, E. H 673 

Falone, Louis J 79S 

Farley, David T 600 

Farley, Capt. Snelliug C 384 

Ferguson, Hon. James H 465 

Fink. C. H 790 

Finney, John B • 696 



Fisher, E. C 36S 

Fisher, George 276 

Fisher, John 606 

Fitzlmgh, Col. Henry 276 

Flournoy, R. Parke 792 

Flournoy, Hon. Samuel L 792 

Fontaine, Charles De la Boulay 592^ 

Foster, William A 842 

Frankenberger, Moses 621 

Frazer, Charles H 4S5 

Fruth. Valentine 395 

Fry Family ; 283 

Fuller, Lionel '. 935 

Gabbert, Charles 544 

Gaines, Hon. Joseph H 550 

Gallaher, Dewitt C 745 

Gallaher, Florence M 745 

Gallaher, Hugh L 745 

Gallaher-Miller-Quarrier Families, The 745 

Gardner, Frederick 670 

Gardner, J. D 43S 

Gardner, John A 946 

Gardner, Thomas J 549 

Games, James A., D. D. S 622 

Games, John 377 

Gates, Daniel H 917 

Gates, James M 459 

Gates, Lowell C 610 

Gatewood, William B 959 

Geary, Whirley B 776 

Gilligan, William 587 

Gillispie, George B 742 

Gilmour, John C 637 

Girty, Simon 89 

Glasscock, Hon. William E 489 

Godbey, Dr. Martin V 708 

Good, Charles W 367 

Goodwin. William A 798 

Goodwin, William H 406 

Gordon, Dr. Patrick L 445 

Goshorn, George 584 

Goshorn, George A 584 

Goshorn, Henry D 704 

Goshorn, John' H 598 

Goshorn, W. F 608 

Graham, Rev. Christopher B., D. D .1016 

Gresham, John . . 956 

Griffith, E 470 

Griffith; Joseph B 470 

Grishaber, C. A 646 

Grishaber, Charles 670 

Grishaber, Joseph 632 

Groff, Charles C 443 

Grosscup, Col. Fred P 627 

GuiU, Albert J 699 

Guill, Richard 537 

Guthrie. Hon. Francis A 109 

Guthrie, Nathan 901 

Haas, Michael 649 

Hale, • Dr. John P 926 

Haley, Dr. Peter A 893 

Hall, Hon. Cyrus W ' 703 

Hall, Hon. Grant P 385 

Hall, Thomas C 617 

Hammaker, Frank 843 

Hammaker, W. S. . .7". 567 

Hanna, Mrs. Ruth 66 

Hansford, Alvah, his recollections 85 

Hansford, Maj. John 64 

Hansford, Dr. John H 462 

Hansha w, Francis 465 

Hanshaw, James E 902 

Hanshaw. William M 902 

Hanson, James M 648 

-Haptonstall. Francis L ' 80S 

Harless, J. B 399 

Harless, Judge Leroy 393 

Harless, Hon. Samuel C 712 

Harris. Wilson, his recollections S9 

Hartman. Howard R 771 

Harvey, Morris 63 

Hastings, George W. 467 

Henson, William L 693 

Henneman, Arthur P 1000 

Hereford. Cassius D 837 

Hereford, J. R 773 

Hereford. John R 837 

Hereford, Thomas P 837 

Hermansdorfer, George 813 

Hermansdorfer, Geo. H 923 

Herscher, Michael 1011 

Hewes, Reginald C 941 

Higginbotham. Edward W . 839 

Higginbotham, Upshur 806 

High, John H 810 

Hill, Bonner H 994 

Hill, E. Frank 548 

Hissom, Henry 507 

Hobbs, William M. B 523 

Hodge. Idon E 598 

Hof erer. Max W 799 

Hoge, Hon. James W 109 

Hogeman, William H 743 

Hogg, Samuel 753 

Holley, Hon. James A 834 

Holz. Adam W 615 

Hostetler, David F 796 

Howery, Hon. Albert M 657 

Howerv, Charles D 657 

Hubbard. Charles 1 645 

Hubbard, John F 591 

Hubbard. Robert G. 744 

Hubner, Mrs. Margaret 687 

Huddleston, John Paddy 66 

Hudnell, Hon. R. M., M. D 924 

Hudson, James F 597 

Hudson. Morris 91 

Hughey, Dr. William R 675 

Huling', Hon. James H 676 

Humphreys, A. E 972 

Humphreys. Albert J 648 

Hunter, j. Ross 780 

Hutchinson, John M., Jr S86 

Ingles. Mrs. Mary 7 s , 

Irion, Sim • 56o 

Irwin, Edward S 57S 

Isaac, David R 918 

Isaac,- William D *. 785 

Jackson. Hon. James 356 

Jackson. John T 424 

Jackson, Malcolm 867 

Jackson, O'Jennings A 537 



Jarrett. 'Squire Bennett 575 

Jarrett, Eli 78 

Jarrett, Mark S 461 

Jarrett, William R 906 

Jayne, David A 483 

Jeffries. Thomas E 781 

Jenkins, Rev. Joseph S. ; 454 

Johnson, Chas. (of "Johnson's Narratives) 40 

Johnson, Julian M 979 

Jones. Col. B. H 64 

Jones, Calvin 695 

Jones, Dr. George Mc 522 

Jones. John 59, 65 

Jones, John H 955 

Jones. Mabel Delle 773 

Jones, Van G 682 

Jones. William m 964 

Jordan, James V 911 

Judges Court of Appeals of Va 110 

Judges Supreme Court of Appeals of W. Va 117 

Kauff, Charles A 655 

Kay, James 849 

Keely, George 359 

Keely, William 359 

Keeney, James T 449 

Keeney, Rev. Thos. Y 970 

Keller, William E 574 

Kelly, Walter, killed 58 

Kendall, Junius E 555 

Kenna, Hon. John E 733 

Kennedy, James 394 

Kenton, Simon 88 

Kinser, George A S42 

King. Albert 666 

Klostermeyer, Frederick G 362 

Knight, Edward B 424 

Knight, Edward W 424 

Knight, Harold W 743 

Koontz. Arthur B 887 

Koontz, Luther V S83 

Krantz, William J 733 

Krebs, Charles E 380 

Laidley, Albert 963 

Laidley, Alex. T 961 

Laidley, Amacetta (Mrs. G. W. Summers) 963 

Laidley Family, The 959 

Laidley, James G 960 

Laidley, James M 961 

Laidley, John 961 

Laidley, Richard Q 961 

Laidley. Theodore T. S 963 

Laidley. Hon. William S 904 

Laing, James M 952 

Laing, John 699 

Landress, Meredith 681 

Langley, Augustus L 715 

Langlev, Mrs. A. L 715 

Lawson. W. A 585 

Layne, R. T 386 

Lemon, J. William 510 

Leonard, John 590 

Levi, Plus R 931 

Lewis, Charles C 590 

Lewis, Dr. Charles T 270 

Lewis, Henry P. 641 

Lewis, James F 582 

Lewis, John B 75s 

Lewis, John D 944 

Lewis, Rev. Fr., 0. M. Cap 413 

Lewis, Thomas, sheriff 55 

Lewis, Virgil A 622 

Lewis, William D 903 

Librarians Court of Appeals 118 

Linn, Robert 416 

Linn, Robert G 414 

Littlepage, Hon. Adam B : . 492 

Lively, Frank 435 

Loewenstein. Abe 407 

Loewenstein, Isaac 407 

Loewenstein. Joe 407 

Loewenstein, Solomon 407 

Long, E. Leslie 438 

Long, William F r 750 

Lorry, Christopher 707 

Lovell, Joseph 277 

Lovell. Col. Joseph 89 

Lowe. Mathew H 674 

Lueadoe, T. C 881 

Luckhardt, Adolph : 840 

McClintic, George W 369 

MeClung, Albert J 660 

McClung Bros. & Family 660 

MeClung, Joseph 660 

McClung, Samuel 660 

McClung, William -. 660 

M'Comas, Hon. David 97 

McConihay, John 274 

McDonald, Hon. John S S78 

McGee, Dr. Frank L 532 

McJones, Dr. George 522 

McMillan. Dr. William A 673 

McWhorter, Hon. Henry C 732 

McWhorter. Hon. J. M 387 

McWhorter, Hon. Louis E 387- 

MacCorkle, Hon. William A 792 

Mahan, James N., D. D. S 756 

Mairs, Dr. Adam T 695 

Mairs, J. B 619 

Mairs, Dr. William 517 

Mairs, William B 849 

Malone, John C 851 

Malone, William R 811 

Marshall. Jefferson D 582 

Martin, James 749 

Martin, Virgil G 844 

Mason. Gov. Henry M 908 

Mason, Joseph S 477 

Mason, Thomas J S23 

Massey, L. Christopher 771 

Massey, Robert L 446 

Mathews Family 275 

Mathews, Guy P 275 

Mathews, H. S 831 

Mathews, Robert L 863 

Mathews, William B 681 

Mathews, William G 908 

Matthews, Guy P 845 

Matthews. Samuel V 47.9 

May, Jacob C 845 

May, Wilber S 914 

Mayer, Daniel l»°0 

Mayer, Frank 376 

Mayer, Dr. Joseph • • • 1000 



Mays, Benjamin F 832 

Melton, James T 599 

Menager, James B 453 

Merrick. W. E 417 

Meyer, Ernest A 669 

Meyers. Alexander ' 693 

Meyers Bros 693 

Meyers, D. S 882 

Meyers, Samuel H 693 

Michie, Ernest L 495 

Milbee, Dr. John 761 

Miller, Helen Q ,': 746 

Miller, Maggie S 730 

Miller. Hon. Samuel A 746 

Minor, Berkeley, Jr 480 

Minsker, George 584 

Minsker. John L 752 

Mohler. J. Charles 951 

Mohler, William E 983 

Montgomery, James W 975 

Montgomery, Dr. L. C 837 

Moore, D. A 548 

Moore Family, The 1018 

Moore, Dr. John W 705 

Moore, John W 922 

Moore, Melchisedeek 488 

Moore, William E 868 

Moore, William G 506 

Moore, William T 882 

Morgan, Benjamin S 447 

Morgan. Sniallwood G 447 

Morris, Dr. Alfred L 36B 

Morris, Benjamin 63 

Morris, Maj. "Billy" 60 

Morris, Carroll 61 

Morris, Catherine 60 

Morris, Charles 62 

Morris, Cynthia 61 

Morris, Elizabeth 64 

Morris, Frances 64 

Morris, Henry 61 

Morris, Henry 59 

Morris, James 536 

Morris, Jane 60 

Morris, Janette 60 

Morris, John 61 

Morris, John (of , Cabell Co.) 62 

Morris, John 62' 

Morris, Joshua 62 

Morris. Leonard 59, 61 

Morris, Levi '• 63 

Morris, Bishop Thos. A 62 

Morris, William 58 

Morris^ W. H , 597 

Morris, William, inventor 127 

Morris, William (3d) 60 

Morris, William R '. 831 

Moulton, Major John 405 

Mucklow, E. P • . 805 

Mucklow. William W 802 

Myers, George 899 

Neal, Jack, case of 299 

Nevins, James 273 

Nicholson, Dr. Hugh G 358 

Nicholson, N. Gwynn, D. D. S 706 

Xihoof. Daniel 67 

Norman. A. M 609 

Norton, Wilber S 357 

Norvell, William G 527 

Noyes, Bradford — See Noyes Family 742 

Noyes Family, The 741 

Noyes, Isaac, Bradford & Franklin 61, 272 

Noyes, Philip H 505 

Nugen, William E 892 

Nutter Family, The 942 

Oakes, Eben 73s 

O'Brien, William 577 

O'Daniel, David 719 

O'Hern, Col. Michael P 210 

Old Kanawha Baptist Church 1019 

Osborne, Charles F 583 

Osborne, Charles L 822 

Oxley, Watt S 862 

Parkhurst, William B 725 

Parsons, Joshua 490 

Patrick, Dr. Spicer 289 

Payne, Charles K. . . . : 357 

Payne, James M 589' 

Payne, Oscar F ". 939 

Payne, William D 521 

Pearson, Creed J : 912 

Peeler. Samuel C 564 

Peyton, Charles G 950 

Pike, Hugh 593 

Polsue, Edwin 521 

Popp, Joseph 393 

Porter, Guy A 635 

Poston, Noah C 487 

Price, Hon. Geo. E 721 

Price, John C 726 

Price, Maleom R., D. D. S 829 

Price, Perry M 685 

Pilchard, Armstead M 441 

Prichard, Frederick C 441 

Prichard, Henry L 441 

Prichard, Dr. Lewis 441 

Prindle. R. S 925 

Pritt, A. S 563 

Pritt, J. William 425 

Pryor, James W 828 

Pryor, John H 371 

Puckett, W. M : • ■ ■ - 851 

Putney, Alex. M 859 

Putney, Dr. James E 269 

Putney, Dr. Richard 269 

Quarrier, Alex. W 749 

Quarrier Family, The 749, 919 

Quarrier, K. D 937 

Quarrier. Russell G 921 

Quarrier, William A 920 

Quick, Benjamin F 469 

Quick, George W 737 

Rand, Albert P 647 

Rand, Christopher C 669 

Ray, F. M 829 

Ray. Robert D 385 

Reed. Stuart F. 997 

Reveal. Francis M 921 

Reynolds, George G 460 

Reynolds. Robert F 676 

Richmond, Mrs. Laura A 880 



Richardson, J. Lynn g7g 

Riggs, Stephen 780 

Riley, John P 497 

Ritter, Hon. George 678 

Roach, Col. Michael T 870 

Robertson, Everett E 655 

Robertson, Hon. Grover C, M. D 891 

Robinson, H. E 740 

Roche, Joseph W 711 

Rollins, William M 788 

Ross, Charles S 740 

Ross, J. Shirley 3 70 

Ross, John Tyler 370 

Ruby, Bradford N 813 

Rudesill, Col. Ellsworth 560 

Ruffner, Alexander 418 

Ruffner, Andrew L 539 

Ruffner, J. Augustus 631 

Ruffner, David 75 

Ruffner, Col. David L 638 

Ruffner Family 74 

Ruffner, Joel 75 

Ruffner, Joel H 508 

Ruffner, Joseph , 74 

Ruffner, Hon. Joseph 742 

Ruffner, Gen. Lewis 52 

Ruffner, Meredith P 572 

Ruffner, Peter 74 

Ruffner, William H 529 

Rummel, Henry 776 

Russell, Phillip C 830 

Rutledge, James D 889 

Salmons, Harry L 972 

Sands, Mathew 805 

Saxton, William H 665 

Sehlosstein, George A 808 

Schwartz, Louis 988 

Scott, Addison M 372 

Seafler, John C H 886 

Seafler, William J. .T7 546 

Sentz, Henry W 683 

Shadle, H. Eugene 574 

Shanklin, John R 628 

Shannon, William C. 738 

Shaver, Abram C 688 

Shawkey, Hon. Morris P 728 

Shawver. William F 951 

Shepherd, Hon. Adam R 364 

Shepherd, Dr. Clarke W 914 

Shepherd, John 364 

Shepherd, J. King 815 

Shipley, C. R 858 

Shirkey, David 276 

Shirkey, H. A 626 

Shirkey, Dr. Wilbur F .* 427 

Shober, W. B 971 

Shrewsbury, George H 395 

Shrewsbury, Joel 749 

Siers, Mathias 592 

Silman, Hon. Peter 399 

Simpson, Peter A 992 

Singleton, George 814 

Sisson, William II 894 

Skinner, John V. R 840 

Slack, Greenbury 273, 436 

Slack, John 273 

Slack, John 436 

Slater, C. C 39 g 

Smarr, H. T ' " ' 703 

Smith, Col. Benj. H 286 

Smith, Col. Benj. H 949 

Smith, Gen. Daniel 338 

Smith, Harrison B 871 

Smith, Maj. Isaac N 937 

Smith, Isaac N 757 

Smith, John 455 

Smith, Hon. Joseph 101 

Smith, P. A ' ' 729 

Smith, Samuel P. 734 

Smithers, Benjamin S 715 

Smoot, D. C ., 752 

Snodgrass, Marion 907 

Snyder, James T ■ 692 

Snyder, John F 539 

Snyder, Noane 390 

Southwell, John F 585 

Spilman, Robert S 513 

Spruce, M. F 722 

Spurlock, W. H 781 

Stark, F. C ' " ' 785 

Stark, W. W 919 

Starkey, H. 704 

Stauffer, Albert 556 

Staunton Family, The 965 

Staunton, F. M 972 

Staunton, Joseph M 965 

Staunton, Dr. Sidney S 407 

Steele, John D. 937 

Steele, Robert R 778 

Stephenson, Andrew J 763 

Stephenson, Dr. E. B 478 

Stephenson, Luther C 888 

Stephenson, Samuel 420 

Sterrett, Charles F _ 509 

Stiles, Hon. Maynard F 472 

Stine, William P 1018 

Stockton, Aaron 283 

Stoffel, William T 870 

Stolle, Gustave 790 

Stroud Family massacred, The 80 

Stump, Dr. Charles E 646 

Stump, George W., Jr 922 

Stuck, Henry F 707 

Stump, Dr. Irwin C '. 436 

Sullivan, Claude A 932 

Sullivan, Frank T 686 

Summers, Christopher 651 

Summers, Hon. Geo. W 103 

Summers, Hon. Lewis , 96 

Summers, Lewis, his journal 67 

Sutherland, Dr. John H 861 

Swinburn, Leroy 923 

Swinburn, Thomas 764 

Tackett, John and Lewis 39 

Tackett, Lewis 80 

Tanners' and Dyers Extract Co 1018 

Tawney, John W 658 

Taylor, Arthur W 478 

Thacker, James M 434 

Thayer, Garland T 824 

Thayer, Harry G 824 

Thayer, James R 824 

Thayer, Otis A • 824 

Thayer, William T 514 



Teays, Thomas 39 

Thomas, A. L 872 

Thomas, Dr. Frederick S 383 

Thomas, James R 908 

Thomas, J. W 7 677 

Thomas, William H 100S 

Thomas, William M 706 

Thornhill, John L 568 

Tompkins, John G. W 782 

Tompkins, Capt. William H 498 

Tormey, Capt. T. J. 573 

Truslow, James 273 

Tucker, James P 616 

Tudor, C. M 656 

Turley. Columbus J 425 

Turner, Fletcher L 601 

Tyler, The Misses, captured 43 

Tyree, Frank L 801 

Van Bibber Family 279 

Van Bibber, Capt. John 40 

Vandine, E! F 787 

Veazey, Oscar A 809 

Venable, Matthew W 787 

Vickprs, James A 731 

Wagner, Walter W. 540 

Walker, Ezra .' 272 

Walker, Henry A 854 

Walker, Henry S 730 

Walker, Dr. John R 432 

Wanner, Mrs. Barbara S 636 

Wanner, Ulrich 627 

Ward, Charles 1010 

Washington, Robert F 618 

Watkins, Andrew J 630 

Watson, Benjamin F 691 

Watts, Hon. Cornelius C 852 

Webb, Samuel L 1001 

Webb, William F 930 

Weber, Joseph 629 

Wehrle, Dr. Mathias 806 

Weir, James B 910 

Weise, Henry E 459 

Welch, George L 864 

Welch, John & Levi 273 

Wells, J. A 752 

Welsch, William M 380 

Wheeler, John (killed) 43 

White, John D 78 

Whittaker Family 279 

Whitten, Hon. John L 293 

Whittington, A. T 480 

Wick, J. F 626 

Wick, John H„ D. D. S 501 

Wiersteiner, Carl 650 

Wilcox, Dr. J. F . 955 

Wilcox, Xuke 89 

Wiley, Robert H 885 

Wilkinson, James H 642 

Williams, Wesley 611 

■Wilson. Hon. Emanuel W 774 

Wilson, Samuel, H 619 

Wilson, Thomas 918 

Wilson, Dr. William H 875 

Wilton, William J 543 

Wines, James A 414 

Wintz, William S 531 

Wood, Charles T 531 

Wood, Gen. Edward L.. 379 

Woodall, Hon. E. A 786 

Woodman, Frank 404 

Woodroe, James D 642 

Woodrum, C. Everett 607 

Woodrum. Irvin 370 

Woodyard, Col. Levi J 129 

Wootton, John F 672 

Work, Dr. J. A 879 

Wyatt, Mathew P 280 

Young, Houston, G 979 

Young, Jasper 640 

Young, John 81 

Young, John M 788 

Young, Peter 376 

Young, Porus J ^ 851 

Young, Ulysses G •* 667 

Zimmerman, W. J 722 


History of Kanawha 
County, W. Va. 



An Index to the Past — Frontier Counties of Virginia — Formation of Shires in 1634 — 
Change of Name — Governor Spottswood's Expedition and Discoveries — Formation of 
Spottsylvania, Orange, Frederick, and Augusta Counties — Settlements in Upper and 
Lower Valleys — Botetourt and Fincastle Counties Formed — West Augusta as a District 
— Its Division into Ohio, Monongalia and Yohogania Counties — Greenbrier County 
Formed — Mode of Elections— Kanawha County Organised- — Boundary of Kanawha 
County — Townships and Districts — Location of Towns. 


The English settled at Jamestown in 1607 
and about the same time the French founded 
Quebec and called the country around "New 
France," and the English called their territory 
"New England." 

They both were claiming everything in 
sight, and the French were sending more than 
the English, for they pushed westward and 
reached the Mississippi and made a trip of 
discovery to its mouth, unfurled the French 
banner and claimed all the territory that was 
drained by the river for Louis XIV, King of 
France, and called it "Louisiana." This claim 
was to all the land between the Allegheny and 
the Rocky mountains. They claimed it by the 
right of discovery — a sort of unwritten law to 
the effect that on a country being discovered 
and possession taken at the mouth of its prin- 
cipal stream, such possession extends to and 
includes all the territory watered by such 
stream and all that flows into it. 

The French had their headquarters in Can- 
ada and their purpose was to establish their 
claim by a line of fortifications down the Alle- 
gheny river to the Ohio and down the Ohio 
to the Mississippi, and all along the latter to 
the gulf, and to show that they were the dis- 
coverers, they sent a posse of men along said 
route, and buried lead plates on the shores, at 
different and prominent places, showing that 
they had been there, the said plates being duly 
inscribed by dates, etc. They planted one at 
the mouth of the Great Kanawha in 1749, 
which was found many years later, when there 
was no need of proof. The English did not 
recognize this French claim and when the Gov- 
ernor of the Colony of Virginia heard that 
there was a French settlement at the junction 
of the Monongahela and the Allegheny rivers, 
he sent a messenger in person of Geo. Wash- 
ington, to notify these French settlers that all 
this country was English territory and that 
they must vacate and abandon all such claim, 




etc. The French officials received Mr. Wash- 
ington very politely and told him that they 
had come to stay and proposed to do so and 
did not recognize the Virginia Governor's 

Then began trouble and the English had 
more men to call on for help; but the French 
made allies of the Indians. This brought on 
the French and Indian war, which was really 
a French-English war, and General Braddock 
boastingly intended to clear up the whole west 
and drive the French back into Canada, etc., 
but he did not amount to anything and never 
reached the Ohio river. The claim for terri- 
tory between them was settled elsewhere, for 
by the treaty of Paris, in 1763, France ceded 
all the territory east of the Mississippi to the 
English, except New Orleans and by a secret 
treaty ceded the rest — west of said river — to 
Spain. , 

About this time there was a proposition to 
establish a separate . western colony on the 
Ohio, with its capital at the mouth of the Great 
Kanawha river, but the Colonial Revolution in 
America, gave people too much to attend to 
just then, and it was not carried further, for 
instead of locating a Capitol of a colony, 
there was a battle between the Indians, backe^l 
by the English, and against the Virginians 
that had gathered them under General Andrew 
Lewis and under whom some of the settlers 
of the Kanawha Valley, fought, bled and died, 
October 10, 1774. This was followed by the 
Revolution, 1776-1781, when the English 
yielded all they held in America, excepting" 

This is all a mere outline of history of 
events, each of which can be ascertained and 
enlarged at leisure, but which it would be well 
to remember. 


When the English began their settlement in 
the Colony of Virginia, they soon found out 
what a "frontier" meant, and what an Indian 
had to do with the same. 

In 1634 there were formed in the said set- 
tlement eight shires, which were to be gov- 
erned as were the shires in England. These 
people were very English then. In 1710 there 

were twenty-five counties, or shires, as they 
had been called. Which change of name indi- 
cates that they were not so extremely English 
as they had been and they were now beginning 
to be Virginians. The county of Stafford on 
the Potomac was the extreme one in that di- 
rection; that is, it was on the frontier. In 1716 
Governor Spottswood became curious to learn 
what he might discover beyond the "high 
mountain," which for want of a better name, 
the Blue Ridge was called, and he collected a 
squad of friends and followers, and marched 
to the west and crossed said mountain beyond 
the frontier. He discovered a river running 
to the north ; he expected to see the Pacific 
ocean or some stream leading thereto and re- 
ported that said river ran into Lake Erie, which 
river he called Euphrates, but which after- 
wards was known as the Shenandoah. 

Spottsylvania was formed in 1720. This 
was the first county that extended w-est of the 
Blue Ridge. One of the reasons assigned for 
its creation was that the frontier was exposed 
to danger from the Indians and the late settle- 
ments of the French to the west of the moun- 
tains ! This county extended over the moun- 
tain to the river in the Valley. 

Orange was formed in 1734. It was now 
just one hundred years since the first eight 
shires were formed, and it was said that the 
inhabitants were inconvenienced by their great 
distance from their courthouse. Orange was 
made to extend "westerly to the utmost limits 
of Virginia" and the boundary of Virginia 
was "from sea to sea." 

Frederick and Augusta were formed in 
1838. It was said that great numbers of peo- 
ple had settled themselves on the Potomac 
and its boundary on the northwest side of the 
Blue Ridge, and that the strength of the Col- 
ony, the security of the frontier, and the 
King's revenue would be augmented, should 
two counties be made out of Orange — Fred- 
erick at the lower part of the Valley with a 
court house at Winchester, and Augusta with- 
out limits and headquarters at Staunton. Al- 
though Augusta was called a tract of land, 
taken from Orange, to encourage settlers on 
the waters of the Mississippi, they exempted 
the same from public levies for ten years. 



It was found however that the House of 
Burgesses were moving too fast, probably the 
only time they ever were known to exercise 
such speed. The Lower Valley was settled 
principally by the Germans from Pennsylvania 
and the Upper Valley from Ireland, by the 

The people of the Coast Counties were too 
well satisfied at home to cross the "high moun- 
tain," and indeed there were no reasons there- 
for; they had plenty of room on the East side, 
it was safer on that side, and they did not have 
to associate with the Scotch-Irish and Dutch. 
So the Valley was left alone and it blossomed 
as the rose. 

Augusta extended from the Blue Ridge 
westward without limit, and included therein 
all of Virginia, except Frederick, (which was 
small) ; that was included in the western part 
of the colony. It was not until 1743, that 
these counties were able to organize, for the 
want of people, or settlers. In 1763, by the 
treaty of Paris, the western boundary of Vir- 
ginia was brought eastward to the Mississippi 
river. In the meanwhile, the French and In- 
dian War had taken place. 

Botetourt County, 1769 — Its boundary was 
governed by a line beginning at the Blue Ridge 
and running north fifty-five degrees west 
(N55W), "as far as the Court of the two 
counties shall extend it," and all south of said 
line was Botetourt and all the rest Augusta. 
About all that we can say is that Kanawha 
river was in Botetourt but where the line was 
or where it struck the Ohio, we do not know. 

Fincastle county was formed in 1772. Bote- 
tourt was too large for the convenience of the 
settlers also. All we can tell you of the boun- 
dary of Fincastle is that this part of the coun- 
ty was included in it. Fincastle as a county 
lasted but a short while, in consequence of the 
change that took place soon after this date. 
Events that were marking changes in the "Old 
Dominion" in so far as her English habits and 
customs went, were fast approaching and she 
was assorting herself as Virginia. 

In 1774 the Battle of Point Pleasant was 
fought between the Indians and the Virginia 
frontiersmen, and the House of Burgesses are 
not so awfully careful of the frontiersmen as 

they once were. The Indians now are to be- 
come the allies and friends of the English and 
are to be paid to kill and scalp the people that 
were encouraged to settle on the frontier. 

The year 1776 found the English without a 
head in the old colony ; Dunmore, for whom a 
county had been named had been driven away. 
Kentucky, Washington and Montgomery coun- 
ties had been formed. We shall not attempt to 
give their boundaries, more than to say that 
Kentucky began at the Mississippi, on the Ohio 
and came up to the Big Sandy river, and its 
court house was at Harrisburg. Washington 
was somewhere in the southwest and its court 
house seems to have been at Blacks Fort. 
Montgomery was made of the residue of Fin- 
castle. There we have this part of the county 
now in Montgomery, which was part of Fin- 
castle, which was part of Botetourt, which was 
part of Orange, and Fincastle became extinct. 

West Augusta was never made into a county 
by that name, nor any other name until there- 
after, but in 1776, its boundary was defined 
by legislature : that is, the line of distinction be- 
tween Augusta as a county and West Augusta 
as a district. The district had representation 
in the General Assembly of Virginia and its 
standing was an anomaly. 

After defining its boundary, the district was 
formed in 1776, into Ohio, Monongalia and 
Yohogania. Part of these counties were in 
Pennsylvania, because the line between Vir- 
ginia and Pennsylvania was in dispute and 
could not be then settled. The settlement to be 
made with King George was of more impor- 
tance and too much could not be settled at 
once. We will, however, remark that the 
County Court of Augusta county would hold 
a term in Staunton and adjourn to hold another 
in Pittsburg, and thus the latter place had one 
of the court houses of said Augusta county, 
and the record of these courts held at Pittsburg 
are yet in existence. 

Yohogania county became extinct on the set- 
tlement of the Mason and Dixon line, and the 
court house of Monongalia had to be moved 
farther south and was located at Morgantown. 
We do not know what it was called while in 

Greenbrier county, 1777. — This county was 



formed from Montgomery and Botetourt. It 
had the line of N 55 W to the Ohio river. On 
the south side of the Kanawha river was 
Montgomery and on the opposite side was 
Greenbrier county, so that for a time at least, 
the mouth of Elk river was in Greenbrier coun- 
ty. While on the subject of frontier counties 
of Virginia, we should say that Virginia held 
courts in Illinois, as well as in Kentucky county. 

The legislature of Virginia directed the 
sheriff of Kentucky to hold an election on a 
certain day to select representatives, and when 
the sheriff received his commision to hold this 
election the appointed day to hold the election 
had past ; but small matters like that did not de- 
feat a Kentucky election. The sheriff organ- 
ized his election day and held the election and 
reported that John Todd and Richard Callaway 
had been duly and fairly elected and they were 
seated accordingly. The assembly stated that 
their action in this case was not to be taken as 
a precedent, but this session was to be a very 
important session and they did not wish to 
stand on technicality this time. 

Greenbrier county remained from 1777 until 
1788, when the legislature thought that an- 
other county should be formed. 


In case the reader should desire to examine 
more in detail the subject of making states 
and counties out of the territory of Virginia, 
we shall note the book and page where the 
records of county formation may be found. 

Spottsylvania — 4 Henning Statutes, page JJ. 

Orange — 4 Henning Statutes, page 450. 

Frederick and Augusta — 5 Henning Stat- 
utes, page 78. 

Botetourt — 8 Henning Statutes, page 395. 

Fincastle — 8 Henning Statutes, page 600. 

Kentucky — Henning Statutes, page 257. 

Montgomery and Washington — 9 Henning 
Statutes, page 257. 

District of West Augusta — 9 Henning Stat- 
utes, page 262. 

Greenbrier — 1777, 9 Henning Statutes, page 

Kanawha — 1788, 12 Henning Statutes, 
page 670. 

Illinois — Act, in full, in "English Conquest," 
pages 1037 and 248-9. 


On page 670 in 12 Hennings Statutes at 
Large, chapter 14, will be found "An Act 
Forming a New County out of the Counties 
of Greenbrier and Montgomery, passed the 
14th November, 1788." 

" Be it enacted by the General Assembly, that from 
" and after the first day of October next, those parts 
" of the Counties of Greenbrier and Montgomery, 
"within the following bounds to-wit: 

" Beginning at the mouth of Great Sandy, in the 
" said county of Montgomery, thence up the said river 
" with the line of said county in the mountain gener- 
" ally known by the name of 'Cumberland Mountain ;' 
" thence a north-east course along said mountain to 
" the Great Kanawha, crossing the same at the end of 
" Gauley Mountain ; thence along the said mountain 
" to the line of Harrison county ; thence with that 
" line to the Ohio River ; thence down the said river, 
" including the islands thereof, to the beginning, shall 
" form one distinct county and be called and known 
" by the name of 'Kanawha.' " 

From the Cumberland mountain to the 
"Great Kanawha" is meant the "New River," 
or what is now known as the New River. Just 
how far this line to the Kanawha was to be 
extended depended on the beginning point and 
where it struck the said rivers. Where it 'fol- 
lowed the river and where it found the Gauley 
Mountain is rather indefinite, and where said 
mountain struck Harrison county line may have 
been very clear at the time, but is not so clear 

The line of Harrison county is found in 11 
Hennings Statutes, page 366, passed in May, 
1784, dividing the county of Monongalia by a 
line to begin on the Maryland line at the fork- 
ford, on the land of John Goff ; thence a direct 
course, to the headwaters of Big Sandy Creek; 
thence down the said creek to Tygart's Valley 
Fork of the Monongahela river; thence down 
the same to the mouth of the West- Fork river; 
thence up the same to the mouth of Bigger- 
man's Creek; thence up said creek to the line of 
Ohio county and that part of the said county 
lying south of said line, shall be known as 
"Harrison," and all the rest shall retain the 
name of Monongalia. 

Ohio county was made in October, 1776, 



from the District of West Augusta, within the 
following lines, viz : 

"Beginning at the mouth of Cross Creek 
and up the same to the head of the same, then 
southeastwardly to the nearest part of the 
ridge which divides the waters of the Ohio 
from those of the Monongahela, thence along 
said ridge to the line which divides the county 
of Augusta from the said district; thence with 
the said boundary to the Ohio; thence up the 
same to the beginning; shall be called and 
known by name of "Ohio county." 

The line between the county of Augusta and 
the district of West Augusta may have been 
known to some one, some day, but as we never 
seem to get any closer to anywhere, than when 
we started, we are going to assume that the 
lines of Kanawha and Harrison and Ohio were 
somewhere in the woods and reached the Ohio, 
perhaps, at some place unknown to any one of 
the present day. 

When Ohio county was formed, its lower 
line was at the mouth of "Middle Island 
Creek" and upper line at the mouth of Cross 
Creek, which is above Wheeling. See January, 
1904, West Virginia Historical Mag., page 


Greenbrier county was formed from Bote- 
tourt and Montgomery, by a dividing line of 
Botetourt, beginning at the top of the ridge 
which divides the eastern from the western 
waters, where the line between Augusta and' 
Botetourt crosses the same and running thence 
the same course continued north fifty-five 
(N. 55 W.) west to the Ohio. Thence begin- 
ning at the said ridge, at the said lines of Au- 
gusta and Botetourt, running along the top of 
said ridge, passing the Sweet Springs to the 
top of Peter's Mountain ; thence along the said 
mountain to the line of Montgomery county; 
thence along the same mountain to the Kana- 
wha or New river, thence down the same to 
the Ohio. "And all that part of the counties 
of Botetourt and Montgomery between and to 
the westward of said lines shall be known as 
Greenbrier county." 

We are satisfied that Greenbrier was on the 
north side of the Kanawha river at Charles- 
ton and Montgomery on the south side. But 
to locate definitely the lines of Kanawha, we 

shall not attempt. We know that Belleville, 
on the Ohio river below Parkersburg, was in 
Kanawha and the mouth of Big Sandy, now 
at the Kentucky line, was in Kanawha county. 

We might add that Augusta county was 
formed from Orange, in 1738, and extended 
from the Blue Ridge westward indefinitely. 
Botetourt was formed from Augusta. 

One term of the Augusta county court was 
held at Staunton and another of same court, 
held in Pittsburg. 

Orange county was formed from Spottsyl- 
vania, which was formed in 1720 and included 
Fredericksburg on the Potomac. 

It might be said that in 1788, neither the 
legislature, nor any one else, knew much of the 
geography of the country west of the Alle- 
henies. There were but few inhabitants and 
no surveys that would give much idea of the 
locality of streams, and a mountain is quite 
indefinite as a land-mark. Consequently, the 
description in the Acts of the Assembly could 
be but indefinite. 

"Beginning on the Blue Ridge etc.," might 
do for the eastern or western limit, but for 
north or south, it amounts to nothing. So with 
reference to the "Cumberland mountain," and 
when it comes to the "Gauley mountain," you 
find no such mountain on the map. 

As to the northern boundary of the county 
of Kanawha it seems as obscure as the south- 
ern boundary is indefinite. We are not going 
to say that the boundary was then unknown, 
but we do say that with all the description 
given and all the information we have, that 
any one could locate exactly the boundary lines 
of the said county; it might, however, be lo- 
cated in the vicinity of where intended and 
that might be sufficient, as no one would have 
been added or excluded. 


The county of Augusta extended westward 
from the Blue Ridge, without limit, ad infini- 
tum. Which of course took in that part of Vir- 
ginia which was made into Kanawha. But 
the District of West Augusta was not a coun- 
ty, yet it had a court house and a court was 
held thereat. It was given a representative in 
the Assembly and was required to furnish sol- 



diers. Its limits was scarcely known, but the 
court held at Staunton would adjourn to meet 
at Fort Dunmore, afterwards known as Pitts- 
burg, and business was transacted in said court 
at this place in 1775. 

The limit of this district was defined in 9 
Hennings Statutes 262, in 1776, and it was 

Pittsburg made claim to the forks of the rivers; 
the Pennsylvanians disputed the claim, saying 
it was in their state, and a little war was about 
ready to break out between them, and this was 
exactly what the Governor of Virginia wished 
to bring about — a little war between the col- 


OF \ 


m 6. 

made into three counties, viz : Yohogany, Mon- 
ongalia and Ohio. Harrison was taken from 
Monongalia, Kanawha joined on to Harrison, 
and with it, ran to the Ohio river. Whether 
any part of Kanawha was in the District of 
West Augusta or otherwise, we will not now 
decide, but we know that Belleville, on the 
Ohio just below Parkersburg, was in Kanawha 
county. Dunmore and the Virginians about 

The description of the boundary line of 
Kanawha was decidedly indefinite and uncer- 
tain, both as to its northern lines and as to its 
southern lines, and badly mixed in the middle. 
We have a mental reservation as to much that 
we have written and give it with the under- 
standing that it may have nothing to do with 
the boundary of Kanawha. 

Kanawha county was a large county when 



made in 1788 and it is not a small one 
at this time. As we have failed to draw 
the lines definitely, so we are unable to 
give the counties that have been taken, in 
part or in whole from Kanawha, but as 
it is not easily ascertained we shall give 
a guess and let it go, viz : Wood, Wirt, Gilmer, 
Calhoun, Braxton, Webster, Nicholas, Clay, 
Roane, Jackson, Mason, Boone, Logan, Lincoln, 
Cabell. Wayne, Mingo, McDowell Summers, 
Raleigh, Fayette and Monroe. This would not 
be amongst the 'smallest states and Kanawha 
as she is, is not one of the small counties of the 
state. She has ten districts and they are Big 
Sandy, Elk, Charleston, Maiden, Cabin Creek, 
Loudon, Washington, Jefferson, Union, Poca 
— Cabin Creek is a large district almost suffi- 
cient to make another county. When the state 
was formed in 1863, the divisions of the 
counties were called "townships" and the 
Board of Supervisors were directed to lay off 
the county as suited them, which was done in 
Kanawha, making then ten townships, which 
have remained substantially as the townships 
were made. 

Big Sandy is highest up Elk river on both 
sides, Elk comes next on both sides of Elk river, 
Maiden is on the Kanawha above Charleston, 
and Loudon on the south side opposite Maiden, 
and Cabin Creek is the upper end of the coun- 
ty. Washington is on Coal river and Jefferson 

reaches to the mouth of Coal river on the Kan- 
awha. Union takes the front on the north side 
of Kanawha and Poca between Union and Elk 
on the western part of the county. 

Besides Charleston with her 23,000 people, 
there are St. Albans and Sattes, Spring Hill 
and South Charleston and then up to Kanawha 
City, just above on the Chesapeake and Ohio 
railway — Maiden, on the opposite side on the 
K. & M. railway, just above Charleston, then 
Brownstown or Marmet, Lewiston and Coal- 
burg, Chelyan, North Coalburg, and from this 
it is town all the way up, with different names, 
to the upper line, near Montgomery. And the 
creeks are full of people, the towns are full of 
them and when it comes to voting or coming 
to a circus there seems to be no end of them. 

Off to the northwest in Poca, on Poca river, 
nestles the little town of Sissohsville ; up in Big 
Sandy district at the mouth of Big Sandy, on 
the Coal & Coke railroad is the town of Clen- 
denin, where they can find gas and oil anywhere 
at any time. At one time there was several oil 
factories making cannel coal oil, until it be- 
came so common to get oil out of the rocks, 
the factories ceased therefrom. 

While it is usual to give each county one 
delegate to the House, they find that Kanawha 
is entitled to six, all of which is here related 
in orler to give some idea of the size of Kana- 
wha as ihe is. 



New River — Its Source and Direction — The Yadkin, Roanoke, Tennessee or Holstein- — Elk 
River — The Gauley — Carnifex Ferry and its Associations — Coal River, in Prose and 
Verse — Tom Swiriburn — Development and Prosperity of this Region — Surveys on Coal 
River — St. Albans — Coal River Railroad — Kanawha River and Tributaries — Cabin 
Creek; Why so Named. 


This is a wonderful stream, because 
water will run down a hill side, and it 
seems to have always found just such hill- 
sides to run down, and much of the time 
and in many places, it is said to have fallen 

It heads away in North Carolina and 
keeps coming north on the eastern side of 
the Blue Ridge, then goes through this 
Ridge and after finding itself in Virginia, 
then gets into West Virginia and winds 
along northward until it meets the Green- 
brier at Hinton, then its course is westward 
until it meets the Gauley, and then they 
lock arms and tumble over, falling about 
twenty feet, it then gets up with a new 
name, and is called "Kanawha" and goes 
along until it finds the Ohio, at Point 

"The Way the Water Comes Down at 
Lodore," is a pretty fair description 
of the way the New River reaches the 
Gauley; not only is it like the Gauley, but 
it is even more so. It is a dangerous 
stream, even when there is no water in it. 
A stream that cannot be held within bounds 
by mountains, that will find its way through 
the Blue Ridge and the Alleghanies could 
only be happy while rushing down a hill. 

Much has been written about its name 
and the discussion seems to have settled 

down to the fact that its origin is due to 
an explorer, Mr. Woods having pronounced 
it a "New One." Col. Abram Woods in 
1654 discovered it; some called it "Woods 
River" and some called it "Kanawha," and 
some old maps had it marked as "New 
River," and an old river called "New" 
seems quite satisfactory to all people that 
have any knowledge of the stream. 

It flows through Patrick, Floyd, Pulaski, 
Giles, Mercer, Summers, Raleigh, Fayette 
and Kanawha counties some what, more or 
less. Within a radius of a few miles, four 
streams take their rise, their waters inter- 
locking with each other near the Virginia 
and North Carolina line ; then they bid 
farewell and flow of¥ each in their respective 
ways to the four corners of the earth. 

New River rises on the slope of "Grand- 
father mountain," then it strikes out nearly 
due north, into Virginia. 

The Yadkin starts from near the same 
point and flows nearly south through the 
Carolinas into the Great Pedee. 

The Roanoke, or the Dan branch of it, 
heads along on the line between Virginia 
and North Carolina, and flows nearly east, 
until it joints the Stanton. 

The Tennessee, called the Holstein, rises 
near the same line and makes its way for 
the west. 

So in the northern part of the state will 




be found another nest of rivers, the James, 
the Potomac, the Monongalela, Tygart's 
Valley, Greenbrier, Gauley, all start from 
near the same point and proceed in oppo- 
site directions to the four corners of the 
world, so to speak, and in the Kanawha will 
be found water from both of these heads of 

The country through which the New 
River flows is called the New River Canyon. 

While our state was taken from Virginia, 
which is called "East Virginia" and our 
State "West Virginia," the western part of 
East Virginia is further west than any part 
of West Virginia, and our New River is as 
old as any of them. 


This stream heads up in the Alleghenies, 
in Pocahontas, near the head of the Gauley 
and all other rivers, and its general course 
is much the same as that of the Gauley; it 
reaches the Kanawha' river about forty 
miles below the Kanawha Falls ; the mouth 
of the Gauley and about sixty miles from 
the Ohio river where the Kanawha empties 
its waters. 

The Elk is rather a quiet stream and 
makes its way along peaceably and well 
behaved, though some times it gets on a 
"high" and frightens some people that do 
not desire to become "wet." 

Although the Elk starts near the Gauley 
and runs in near same course, the lay of the 
land through which they run must be quite 
different. In Webster, at one place there 
is only a hill between them, but the Gauley 
started up much higher than does the Elk, 
and it is said that "the Gauley looks down on 
the Elk," so to speak, and should a tunnel be 
made through the hill, the Gauley would 
tumble into the lap of Elk. 

Besides Pocahontas and Webster, Elk 
river flows through Clay and Kanawha 

The Elk is a good railroad stream, really 
at times has some water and when Elk and 
Gauley rise at the same time, it makes the 
Kanawha boom. 

The Elk has some good land, good farms, 

good timber and coal and other minerals 
thereon and is a stream to be proud of. 

How it ever came to be called "Elk" we 
have not been told; perhaps it was because 
they found things thereon, "a little dear," 
or perhaps it was to furnish the order of 
Elks with some peculiarities. 


This stream heads up in the mountains 
of Pocahontas county near the head of the 
Potomac, James and Monongahela, and it 
passes through the counties of Pocanontas, 
Webster, Nicholas, Kanawha and Fayette, 
and joins the New River just above the 
Kanawha Falls, from which confluence the 
stream is called the Kanawha. 

As a river it is totally unfit for naviga- 
tion ; it is falling all the way down and at 
no one place can it be called "the Falls of 
Gauley." Start a pine log down the 
Gauley. by the time it reaches the New 
River it cannot be recognized as a log for 
lumber, but if one was searching for kind- 
ling-wood, he would know it immediately. 

The mountains of Gauley come close to 
the stream and give the appearance of the 
stream having cut its way through, and 
that it was not long in the cutting. The 
mountains are high, rough and rocky. 
Where the name for this stream was found, 
is unsettled, and in this respect it is much 
like the stream itself. 

Once, a long time ago, there was a Ger- 
man family settled on this stream some 
where, but the Indians wanted scalps and 
they took them, and burned the home. The 
name of the family was "Stroud" and there 
was nothing unusual in this case, only that 
the white people did not anticipate their prob- 
able fate for remaining unprotected. 

There is a place on this stream known as 
"Carnifax Ferry" which has become his- 
toric. Rosecrans and Cox, U. S. A. found 
Floyd and Wise, C. S. A. near this ferry 
and Gual Cox attacked General Floyd and 
they made the hills boom with their can- 
nonade during the day, and that night 
Floyd got away from there, leaving some 
pine logs in the place of his cannon "to fool 



the Yankees." Floyd and Wise would not 
aid each other and this was exactly as Gen- 
eral Cox desired, and the place with its as- 
sociations, was ever recognized as an amus- 
ing military joke. The river is not much 
of a stream for fish nor for water. 


To compare the quality and beauty of 
rivers is not a new matter. "Are not Abana 
and Pharpar rivers of Damascus, better 
than all the rivers of Israel?" This was 
said about 2800 years ago, and may we not 
ask now whether Coal river is not the best 
in the world? Listen. 

We have Tom Swinburn for the state- 
ment, as to the origin of this river, and hav- 
ing accepted this statement, cannot now 
repudiate the same altogether, and Tom, 
really, does know some things and we can 
be assured of the poetry of the authority 
given, and thus he said in the West Virginia 
Historical Magazine for July, 1902 : 

" God dropped Coal River round the hills about 
" In West Virginia. Told it to get out 
" As best it could. And then forthwith began 
" Its search to find out where its channel ran." 

yfi ip yfc -}c sp 

" Coal River is not like New River's way — 
" But moves in quiet peaceful gait along — 
" Its current running neither swift nor strong, 
" With sleepy mien as though it mattered not 
" When, where or how it reached its goal or what 
" Should happen on the way. * * * 
" Coal River runs not so, but turns away 
" Upon its heel and smiling seems to say 
" 'Oh I can find another way perhaps' — 
" Like some great vine spread out upon the ground 
" Coal River reaches all the region round — 
" Snake-like, it winds, then forks and forks again, 
" Its thousand branches branch again * * * 

" This whole extent uncursed by any town 
" Unmanned by any factory of smoky frown ; 
" No railroad jars the startled sleeper's peace 
" Nor steamboat problem * * * 


" In vain were all attempts to wake her up 
" Or break the spell of her lethean cup, 
" Tho' charmers charmed so wisely and so long, 
" She'd heard the singing of the Siren song. 
" Ask T. L. B. what years he spent 
" In weaving facts and figures, wisely blent, 
"What stacks on stacks of pages sown broadcast? 

" Coal River will wake up for good, at last. 

" I take a snap-shot at Coal River — now — " 

T. S. 

Tom Swinburn, the Coal river poet-law- 
yer, brought up on this stream, knew it and 
its people well, and all its beauty doth he 
tell, how that it is in no way to compare 
with New River or Gauley, nor really with 
any other streams, — it's best of all. 

This stream heads in Releigh county on the 
south side of the Kanawha and New river, and 
reaching "its goal," at St. Albans, on the Kan- 
awha river, twelve miles below the mouth of 

"The Marshes of Coal" means the head wa- 
ters of Coal river. It starts in a great coal 
field, and never leaves the same ; that is, it 
keeps within a wonderful coal field all the 

To do justice to the coal and timber on this 
stream in a description would be impossible, 
and if justice were approached, the reader 
would become incredulous and be like the man 
who refused "to believe the fish story." 

Coal river is indeed a wonderful stream and 
waters a great country. It is in the heart of 
the greatest coal field in the world, with many 
kinds of coal, cannel and bituminous, and 
perhaps it may sound like a "fish story," 
but there is a vein of coal 22 feet thick on 
coal river. 

As for timber there is more timber of the 
best quality than can be found elsewhere in any 
discovered country. 

It is true that we have read pages on pages, 
"stacks on stacks" of Maj. Thomas L. Broun's 
description of Boone county lands on Coal 
river, but his facts have awakened the world 
and there is now more development going on, 
to get this wealth, railroads rivalling each other 
to get there first, and lands are proving that 
the half has not been told. 

General Rosecrans was at the head of the 
Coal River Navigation Company, which built 
locks to boat out cannel coal, but while he was 
fighting it out, during the Civil war, the river 
washed out the improvements and lately they 
have substituted a railroad for boats. • 

There was a survey of land made for Wash- 
ington at the mouth of Coal river. In 1786 
there began a settlement, made by the Tacketts, 
Lewis, and perhaps others. John Young was 
with them and they erected a house, called 



"Tacketts Fort," below the mouth of Coal river, 
and a few hundred yards back from the Kana- 
wha river. 

Capt. Teays made a survey below Coal 
river. It was in 1847 that improvements were 
begun on the stream to make it navigable, which 
during the Civil War, were about destroyed, 
it being decided that they were too expensive 
to be kept up. St. Albans is the present name 
of the town at the mouth of Coal; it seems to 
have had several names since it began, and there 
is much enterprise and business going on at 
this point of Kanawha county, besides the 
changing" of names. 

The Coal River railroad starts from this 
point and reaches Boone court house, and there 
will be branches of the railroad up each of the 
forks and branches of the river. 


It has long since been settled that this river 
extends from the confluence of the New River 
with Gauley to the Ohio river, about one hun- 
dred miles. Much might be said for the Kan- 
awha, but it should be seen to be appreciated. 
From the mouth of the Gauley, it spreads out 
wide, and when it reaches the falls, it falls per- 
pendicularly about twenty feet. The Kanawha 
seems to be made up of pools, deep places with 
a ridge or shallow place between; at least this 
was the contour of the river before the U. S. 
government took 1 charge of it, and now with 
the improvements placed therein, it is pool all 
the way down. Large boats, with many barges 
of coal, can navigate the river with ease at any 
time of the year, while before it was difficult 
to have a boat of any size pass up or down in 
the summer, with or without a load. 

Too much can not be said for the Kanawha 
river improvement, and the shipping facilities 
are perfect and satisfactory in every respect. 
But for the drawback imposed on the river by 
the people of Virginia, in washing the ore, 
which renders the water muddy, it would be 
the most beautiful and the most subservient 
stream in the world, while muddy water is not 
attractive, nor healthy, and drives the fish away. 

The Kanawha is fed by numerous creeks, all 
the way down to its mouth and then there is 
also the Elk River, Coal River, and some call 

"Pocatalico" a river; it borders on the line be- 
tween a river and a creek ; it is almost too large 
for a creek and hardly large enough for a 


The main facts are clear, but the details are 
uncertain : One Mr. Flynn, some say Patrick 
and others say John, came from somewhere, 
sometime, and it is said he went up a short dis- 
tance from the mouth of a creek, on the Kana- 
wha, and there on a branch he built his cabin 
and there took bis family. He had a wife, a 
son John, some say William, and a daughter 
Rebecca, and the branch on which his cabin 
was built was called Flynn's Wet Branch 
(some say Dry Branch) and 'tis said that the 
Indians came, and took away John and Rebec- 
ca, and all the rest, with the cabin, were de- 
stroyed, some say in 1774, which probably was 
too early. John and Rebecca were made pris- 
oners and taken to Ohio somewhere and John 
made his escape and returned to Kanawha. 
Rebecca afterwards married an Indian warrior, 
who had a daughter which was called Eliza- 
beth and Elizabeth afterwards married Simeon 
Jarrett, of Monroe county, from whom de- 
scended a numerous posterity. 

John May, of Petersburg, desired to take de- 
positions in Kentucky and he had a clerk, Mr. 
Charles Johnson, and in February, 1790, they 
started by way of Kanawha and caught up with 
George Clendenin and Jacob Skiles and others 
going to the Kanawha. Mr. May purchased a 
boat at Kelly's Creek, and on this boat, May, 
Johnson and Skiles, started for Maysville, or 
Limestone, as it was called, leaving the mouth 
of Elk went to the mouth of the Kanawha and 
there they were joined by John or William 
Flynn (perhaps John William), Dolly and 
Peggy Fleming, sisters, from Pittsburg, and 
they all started for Limestone, Ky. At the 
mouth of the Scioto, two white men hailed them 
and begged to be taken aboard as they were 
escaped prisoners, and they were induced to 
land and the Indians rushed down on them and 
all were caught. May and Dolly were shot and 
killed, Skiles was caught, as were Peggy and 
Flynn, captured, being wounded. The white 
men who decoyed the boat were Devine and 
Thomas. Flynn was burned. Skiles made his 



escape. Peggy was redeemed and sent back to 
Pittsburg. Johnson wrote an account of his 
captivity, called "Johnson's Narrative." He 
was sold to a Frenchman, taken to Niagara, 
then sent home by way of New York and 
Richmond, to his home. Skiles was a Kanawha 
surveyor and owned much land. He belonged 
to the Ramsey family. Mrs. Spelman of 
Charleston was related to the Mr. Charles 
Johnson and this is the history of Cabin Creek. 
The only wonder being that nearly all the 
creeks were not so named. 

Paint Creek was so named because the In- 
dians painted some trees on this creek to mark 
their course and trail from the Kanawha to the 
New river higher up, it being a better route, a 
shorter and better road way to travel. No one 
has ever said they saw any of these painted 
trees, but it has always been called "Paint 

Briar Creek of Coal River. This creek heads 
up against the head of Lewis Creek and Davis 
Creek and joins Bull Creek, and then runs 
westward to Coal River and contains about 
6,000 acres of excellent block coal, and with a 
branch railroad is hauled down to the Coal 
River road and thence to the main line of the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad. 

The Briar Creek tract was owned before the 
war by Edward Kenna, the father of the late 
United States senator, and was sold by the 
court and purchased by Mr. D. W. Emmons of 
Huntington, and to which he added by pur- 
chases, and he sold it to Judge J. B. C. Drew, 
and by the judge to a New York Syndicate, 
who have built the railroad on the creek and 
opened up the mines and are shipping coal. It 
it a most excellent tract of land of coal and 




The Aborigines — Obscurity of Their Origin and History — Exterminated by the Indians — Their 
Mounds and Other Relics — The Indians — Speculations as to Their Origin — Their Charac- 
ter — Their Cruelty and Treachery — Their Claims to the Land Based on Might — Some 
Indian Atrocities — Battle of Point Pleasant, 1//4 — Death of Cornstalk — More Atrocities 
— More about Cornstalk; his Character and Manner of Death — Character of Indian War- 
fare — Petition of Settlers of Great Kanawha River, 1781 — Campbell's Creek Indian 
Legend- — Death of Cojen, a Too Inquisitive Settler — Mysterious Savage Rites. 


They are defined to be the earliest known in- 
habitants of a country. There were some peo- 
ple in the country, supposed, if not known, to 
have been a different grade of humanity from 
those known as Indians. 

Perhaps we should only consider the inhabi- 
tants of the Kanawha Valley, as the Aborigines 
of Kanawha. We are confident that there 
were such, but whether they came from the 
East, or from the West, or elsewhere, we do 
not know. The subject grows on us as we con- 
template it, and with all that has been learned 
or written of the Aborigines, there is but little 
really known and much that has hardly been 
guessed at yet. It has been supposed by some 
that they came by way of the Bering Strait 
from Asia; some say they came from Egypt, 
and settled in Central America, then came up 
through Mexico and spread all over the west 
and came eastward; and in the course of time, 
the Indians came from some where and the 
latter were the stronger, and you know what 
that meant to the Aborigines. They did not 
seem to be greatly superior in intelligence and 
not at all in power and in endurance, for when 
the white man came, he found the Indian and 
did not find the others. 

Some writers insist that they were only a 
different variety of Indians. There is evidence 

of a race of people having inhabited the Kana- 
wha that were different from the Indian, and 
the difference seems to have been that they left 
monuments of a character that Indians made 
no attempt to construct. 

The Indians did nothing that looked like 
work and these said monuments required a 
great deal of manual labor. The building of 
mounds of earth was one of their laborious 
works, and yet they have been called "Indian 

There were in the Kanawha Valley many 
mounds, and works of such-like formation, 
indicating the former existence of large num- 
bers of these people. Stone walls, like some 
grade of fortifications, and other classes of 
earth-work, stone works and a different sort of 
work which seems un-Indian, have been found. 
In all these works •there seems to have been no 
metallic instruments used, and none found, and 
in the case of the find of a wooden carved figure 
from wood, it seems a mystery how it was 
made, by whom and where made. This figure 
was found in a crevice of the rock in the hills 
some twelve miles above Charleston in the vi- 
cinity of Lewiston, by Master Frank McConi- 
hay, and it was deposited in the rooms of the 
Historical Society, where it can be seen. Dr. 
Hale wrote an account of the wooden figure 
and he did not tell us much about it, except that 




it did not seem to have been the work of such 
Indians as the white man learned about in later 

These rock walls, and monuments and this 
wooden figure, all indicate that they were the 
work of a labor-loving people, whom for that 
and other reasons, have been called "Aborig- 
ines" and that they inhabited the Kanawha 
some centuries ago. The Indians did not leave 
word nor did the Aborigines communicate any 
decided information on the subject of their 
origin, or any other information reliable. At- 
kinson in his history devotes Chapter Ten to 
this subject. He says the subject is too large 
to discuss in a county history, but that volumes 
on volumes have been written, facts collected 
from all over the world to prove that North 
America was known to have been inhabited 
ages before Columbus found it, a prehistoric 
nation was here. 

He then gives an account of the ancient 
rock wall on Loup Creek, about thirty-two 
miles above Charleston, and says the wall 
extended along the mountain for near two 
miles. The whole length of wall amounts 
to three or more miles. It was some six or 
seven feet high and about two feet thick 
at the base. One tree grew up in the wall, 
which indicated that the wall had been aban- 
doned over four hundred years ago, or 

There is another such wall on Paint 
Creek. At Clifton, Dego, or Pratt, as it is 
now called, there are evidences of an 
ancient city. On some of these places there 
stood trees at least five hundred years old. 

At Sattes, opposite the mouth of Coal 
River, there have been found evidence of a 
very large city, much larger than Charles- 
ton. There are also carved stones found 
in different places on the river. Earth 
works or fortifications are also found in 
several places, both on Kanawha river and 
on Coal river. Mounds have been found 
every where; some have been opened and 
nothing found that furnished any thing 
definite as to their dates of erection or con- 
struction or of the people who made them. 

A few years ago, a Mr. Norris, an expert 
on such things, came to this county and 

made a pretty thorough examination of its 
ancient land marks ; he made a report to 
the government of the United States. 

Dr. Hale wrote considerably on the 
"History and Mystery of Kanawha Valley." 

All these things go to show that the val- 
ley was at some time inhabited by a people 
that were different from the Indians. 

Probably no country contains more evi- 
dence of these mysterious people or peoples, 
though perhaps no country having so much, 
has done so little to gather the facts and 
the relics together and make a presentation 

There is an imprint made in coal, as if a 
man had placed his foot in the soft coal 
while it was warm and soft, and the im- 
press left was the exact shape of the human 
foot. It looks as though it had been made 
in coal tar which afterwards hardened, 
leaving the track of the human foot. 


When Columbus landed on San Salvador, 
he was lost, and he supposed that he had 
reached some part of India, so he called 
the natives "Indians," and no one suggest- 
ing any more appropriate name, the name 

As no one could tell anything about the 
natives, it would seem that they were lost 
also, and as there had been in pas.t ages a 
report that ten tribes of Israelites were 
lost, some have concluded that the people 
found by Columbus in America were the 
descendants of those so-called lost Jews. 
The Tews were once called "God's peculiar 
people;" those Indians are sufficiently 
peculiar for all purposes, but we doubt that 
they ever were Jews or the peculiar people 
of Almighty God. We have too much re- 
spect for the Hebrews to associate them 
with the Indians; there is no similarity 

There has been much written about the 
Indians of America, perhaps more written 
than about any other people, as a people; 
— who they were, from whence they came, 
what were their numbers, etc., are ques- 
tions that have not yet been determined. 



but what they have done has filled almost 
all of the books that have- been written 
about them. 

They are divided into many tribes and 
they have been almost all over North 
America, South America, Central America, 
Mexico and else where, not always exactly 
alike in manners and habits, but "Indians" 
all the same, natives of America — Mr. Lo, 
the poor Indian. 

The Indian men are all well developed 
specimens of manhood, tall, straight, stout 
fellows; which fact comes because had they 
not been vigorous they would never have 
been able to withstand the hardships of 
their mode of life, while young — "Survival 
of the fittest." 

Ordinarily they are said to be silent, 
quiet people, except when they imbibe too 
freely of spirituous liquors, when they be- 
come excited — they then are noisy, rude, 
infernal fiends. 

Indians do not work, and cannot be made 
to engage in manual labor, and they are 
pronounced the most lazy, indolent beings 
on earth and prefer to die rather than 
work; they become active when aroused by 
war or the chase. Mr. Lo becomes pre- 
sistently active, when seeking the life of a 
man or an animal, and perhaps equally ac- 
tive when he is seeking to save his own. 

They seem to enjoy inflicting the most 
brutal tortures that they can devise, when 
the}' have time and opportunity to so pun- 
ish their enemies and have them in their 
power. So compared with burning at the 
stake, the tomahawk was an instrument of 

There has been much wasted mercy be- 
spoken for the Indians and attempts made 
to justify his cause. Some claim for him 
great nobility of character and all that, but 
we are like those that have had the most to 
do with him, and believe that there is but 
one grood Indian, and that is the dead one. 
As for his cause, he has none ; he claims the 
earth but with no more right to any part of 
it than any one else, except to that part 
which he has actual possession of and which 
he has appropriated. One tribe recognizes 

no right in another tribe, it is purely a ques- 
tion of might, and where he pretends to sell 
and dispose of a territory, he would in a 
short while claim to own it again, no bar- 
gain or treaty in real estate amounts to any 
thing with him ; his title he gets by his 
tomahawk and his gun. 

In so far as the record goes, we see noth- 
ing recorded of him but his lust for blood 
and his inordinate desire to kill, and it 
seems that there is no discrimination in the 
object of his merciless blood-thirsty desire; 
he kills children, women and men, without 
any other excuse, whatever, (when it is not 
revenge,) than his natural in-born brutal- 
ity. Neither has he that brave noble soul 
that some would ascribe to him ; he sulks 
in the dark, in hidden ways, until he finds 
his victim is unprotected and unable to re- 
sist ; then the brave Indian shows his infer- 
nal nobility. There is no brute, unless 
w r hen suffering hunger, that shows as much 
cruelty to its victims as does the Indian. 

There may have been an exception here 
and there, but they are so few, that his 
brutality might always be relied on. 
There have been some attempts made to 
show that a lone family of white persons 
were permitted to live for awhile when In- 
dians knew of their existence, but it was so 
opposed by all Indian-nature that it cannot 
carry conviction to the mind of persons 
who had any conception of his wild, savage- 
beast-like love of blood. 

Many are the occasions recorded where 
he would go to a house as a friend, beg 
something to eat, or help of some kind and 
then murder the entire unprotected family, 
as soon as he could learn that his own 
danger was not immediate. 

When the French and Indian war began, 
about 1754, when the claim of the French 
to the Ohio and Mississippi Valley was be- 
ing set up against the English claim to the 
same country, the Indians were induced to 
leave the country east of the Alleghanies 
and move to Ohio and make their homes in 

For some cause the southern side of the . 
Ohio river had been abandoned by Indians 



either the "Six nations" had driven out the 
other Indians, or by some means it had 
been abandoned so that all that part of .Vir- 
ginia, now in West Virginia and Ken- 
tucky was not inhabited by the savages, 
but they lived in Oho, where the "woods 
were full of them." 

The settlement of the country could 
never have been made if it had had to be 
made through treaty or purchase; this 
would have been the proper way to do it 
and it would have been cheaper, but it was 
impossible. Every tribe and every Indian 
would have had to be purchased, and pur- 
chased every few weeks, and then the white 
purchaser-would have had to kill him or be 
killed by him. 

But we propose to deal only with Kana- 
wha's transactions and this was consider- 
able, in so far as the Indians were con- 
cerned. How it was, that with all the coun- 
try north of the Ohio river, they did not 
have sufficient territory on which to roam 
and hunt, no one could comprehend unless 
it was that the kind of game they wished 
for was not found, except on the south side 
of the Ohio. These Indians were continu- 
ally coining from Ohio, in squads into Vir- 
ginia, and by hiding and skulking would 
find opportunities to destroy a settler's 
family or a part of it and take prisoners 
the other. They would then put off back 
into Ohio and either burn their prisoners 
or hold them with hope of reward to re- 
lease them. 

In 1771 there were some hunters en- 
camped near the mouth of Elk river, on 
Two Mile creek of Elk river. Simon Ken- 
ton was one of them, and Yeager and 
Strader were his companions. Probably 
these were at that time the only persons 
located west of Greenbrier. These men 
were attacked by a squad of Indians. 
Yeager was killed and Strader and Ken- 
ton were wounded, and compelled to leave. 

Walter Kelly settled on the Kanawha, 
at Kelly's Creek in 1772 and he was com- 
pelled to send back his family to Green 
brier, while he remained, to be killed in 

The German, Mr. Shroud, attempted a 
settlement on Gauley, and he and his en- 
tire family were murdered and his home 

John Flinn settled on Cabin Creek, and 
he was killed. There were Indians in Giles 
county killing and capturing settlers in 
1774. Miss McKinsie was captured on 
New river and held for about eighteen 


This brought down the war by Indians 
to the fall of 1774, when Captain Stewart 
sent Hammond and Pryor to notify the 
settlers in Kanawha valley of the general 
uprising of the Indians and the impending 
danger. General Andrew Lewis marched 
to the Ohio river. There has been so much 
written of the battle of Point Pleasant that 
those wishing to learn of it more fully 
should read the book entitled "The Dun- 
more War," by R. G. Thwaites, which 
gives more information than has hereto- 
fore been written on the subject. Besides 
there is also in Atkinson's "History of 
Kanawha," Hale's "Trans-Alleghenies," 
an account by Dr. T. P. Hale, another in 
"Wither's Border Warfare," Mrs. Poffen- 
berger's account of its Anniversary, Mrs. 
D. A. McCullock's account, "The Dunmore 
War," by E. O. Randall, an article on the 
National Character of said battle, by V. A. 
Lewis, and other accounts too numerous 
to mention. 

What seems the most important question 
to decide is whether it was only a battle 
between the Indians, on their own account, 
with the white settlers, or was it, as is be- 
lieved by many a battle brought on by the 
English, to have the Indians destroy the 
Virginians under General Lewis, from the 
southwest part of Virginia, so that this 
part of these colony could take no part in 
the uprising of the Colonies of America 
against the British government, that was 
then pending? 

There is much that would lead us to be- 
lieve that this latter was the case; to give 
the King of England and the Governor of 



Virginia credit for any foresight of what 
was coming, and any credit for general- 
ship, we are forced to believe that this bat- 
tle was planned, and brought about by 

Dunmore was the English Governor of 
Virginia, and the rebellion of the colonies 
was impending. He secured the aid of the 
Indians and provoked a war between them 
and the Virginians — the "long-knives" as 
they were called. 

He ordered out an army from Augusta 
and those southern counties on the border, 
to march to the mouth of the Kanawha 
river, and promised that he would, with 
another army, meet them there, and that 
they would proceed to chastise the Indians 
in Ohio, and compel them to desist from 
their further excursions into Virginia and 
cease their massacre, and the burning and 
destroying of settlers. 

General Lewis was at the Point on time, 
Dunmore was near but never met Lew-is 
and he let the Indians attack Lewis and 
they fought all day — October 10, 1774 — 
without his coming to the aid of Lewis. 

This battle has been called "Dunmores 
War," for the reason that it was stirred up 
by Gov. Dunmore with the Indians, though 
he did none of the fighting. He pretended 
to make war on the Indians in Ohio, to 
punish them for their continued invasions 
and murders of settlers ; he directed Gen- 
eral Andrew Lewis and his troops to pro- 
ceed by way of the Kanawha valley to the 
Ohio river at Point Pleasant where he Gov. 
Dunmore would join them, but he failed 
to join and let the Indians attack Lewis 

By those in Lewise's army, this was be- 
lieved to have been treachery in the first 
degree, and its purpose to let the Indians 
cripple or destroy the army from the 
southwest of Virginia; to make the Indians 
allies of the English, and to prevent the 
Virginians from aiding the other colonies 
in their rebellion. 

This raises the question as to whether 
Dunmore was sincere in his movements in 
this campaign, or was it only a pretense 

and fraud and hypocricy on his part and 
nothing more? We know that there are 
persons who think that Dunmore was sin- 
cere at the time and that we condemn 
him for all that he ever said or did, 
because he afterwards took the side 
of the English. That history has spoiled 
him for always, before and afterwards. 
But it is the attempt to be ultra- 
unprejudiced and fair that makes some 
writers claim so much for Dunmore, 
more than what he was ever entitled to. 
They say that after the battle was fought 
and the campaign ended, the Virginians 
endorsed, his actions and thanked him for 
his services, that his army before it was 
disbanded gave .to him great praise and 
thanks, and that the "Virginia Gazette," 
the "State Courier," the Williamsburg 
authorities, the William and Mary authori- 
ties and even the Fincastle County men, 
all passed resolutions of commendation. 
All of which we admit there is evidence to 
support, but it was all a part of the play 
and a part of the deception that was being 
played. Dunmore started out to deceive 
the Virginians, to make them think he was 
doing his duty to the King and to the 
Colonies and was playing fair to both. 
Was he not a treacherous scoundrel all the 

Let us look at the other side. In Vir- 
ginia there were Tories and patriots ; some 
had sense. It was known that the King 
was disposed to insist on the absolute right 
of control of the colonies; to dictate to 
them what they should and should not do, 
and Parliament and the officials knew and 
stated that such dictation would not be re- 
ceived by the colonists. 

John Adams said that American Inde- 
pendence was born in 1760, when Otis re- 
signed rather than be compelled to enforce 
obnoxious laws. The Stamp Act was re- 
pealed in 1766 and the Colonists insisted 
that taxation without representation would 
not be endured. Resistance in the Colonies 
was general in 1772 and cargoes of tea sub- 
ject to a tax, were destroyed; the colonies 
agreed to stand by Massachusetts; con- 



gress was convened and preparations for 
war were made in every colony, and Vir- 
ginia had delegates to them all. In 1773 
it only required a match to set the world 
on fire and it was then that King George 
III sent Dunmore to Virginia. He was 
haughty and objectionable from the time 
of his arrival. He sent orders to the Vir- 
ginia council to pay his secretary's salary 
but it was not done. Because of the reso- 
lution of House of Burgesses on the clos- 
ing of the port of Boston Dunmore pro- 
rogued the House, so that there was little 
legislation done thereafter and the conven- 
tion took the place of the House of 

When the House was so prorogued the mem- 
bers formed a League to suspend all trade with 
Great Britain. Patrick Henry made his great 
speech in which he said "We must fight." 
Every one had to take sides, war was inevi- 
table and Dunmore was for his King, and con- 
sequently against the people. Then Dunmore 
desired to have a war with the Indians and his 
avowed but pretended purpose was to go to 
Ohio and chastize them. Dunmore reached 
Fort Pitt and met Dr. John Connolly and Simon 
Girty — "three of a kind." 

Green in his History, in speaking of King 
George III said that "his bribery, his patron- 
" age, his parliamentary frauds, his perfidy 
" and his lies had done much to make good 
" government impossible and to steep public 
" life deeper in corruption." To this King the 
colonists were rebels in 1766. He disposed 
of regiments, commissions and marching of 
troops in 1774 and the King said in 1774, that 
"the die was cast, the colonist must triumph or 
submit." Long instructions were sent to Dun- 
more. The Indians said that they were ap- 
pealed to, to unite with the King's troops to 
fight Boston, and Dunmore said he hoped to be 
able to collect the Indians, negroes, and others 
sufficient to subdue the rebellion, and the Eng- 
lish were furnishing guns for the savages at 
Detroit. The King directed that the Indians 
be employed and Connolly was employed and 
caught with such instructions from Dunmore. 
Dunmore's purpose was to serve the King; to 
secure the Indians as allies, who were to aid 

the British; to cause a war between the Col- 
onies. Connolly, a Pennsylvanian, became a 
staunch Virginian and was a vice-governor 
under Dunmore. Each and all of them — the 
King, the Governor, Connolly and Girty — was 
a Tory of Tories, a liar, a hypocrite and a 
fraud and doubly dyed in duplicity. 

It can be seen that with this purpose and 
with Connolly and Girty to carry out the same, 
it was easy to bring on a war. Dunmore him- 
self did not wish to be in the war, but to let 
Lewis do the fighting. The Indians did not 
pretend to attack Dunmore, though perhaps his 
was the weaker army. He was near to Lewis 
and had had communication with the In- 
dians, and Dunmore on the 9th sent Girty 
to Lewis's camp with a message that he 
had changed his plans. He could have 
joined Lewis, could have prevented the 
battle; could have given the Indians 
a severe chastisement, but he made no 
fight, but instead made a treaty of peace — made 
an ally of the Indians, he knew they were fight- 
ing on the tenth, and stated to Connolly that 
"General Lewis was having a warm time of 
it about this time." 

Burke, Withers, Doddridge, Stuart, Lewis 
and others said and had the belief, that Dun- 
more's purpose was to break the spirit of the 
Virginians. With all these facts, how was it 
possible for anything else to be true than that 
Dunmore was a treacherous old scoundrel who 
deserved hanging? It was not necessary to 
take an army to the Ohio to let the Indians at- 
tack it. Nor was it requisite that he should go 
with an army to be near that battle and not as- 
sist in defending the attack. Neither was it 
good generalship, nor good anything else to 
change the plan of the campaign after General 
Lewis was on the ground and the Governor's 
own army within a day's march though it did 
not join him; it was bad faith and treachery 
to the people of Virginia. 

Ordinarily the combination of King George 
III, Dunmore, Connolly, and Girty would be 
enough to satisfy anyone that fraud was the 
main-spring of their action, that nothing would 
be done in any way to aid the rebellion that 
was about to break out in open war, but all 
that was to be done was for the supposed bene- 



fit of the Royal cause of the suppression of 
the Colonist. Events could mean but one 
thing-, that Dunmore's purpose was to help 
the Indians and to make of them allies of 
King George and hence his change of plans 
was effected purposely in order to cause 
General Lewis's defeat. 

However, as it happened, the Indians were 
glad to get back into Ohio and to form a treaty 
with Dunmore, which ended that war. 


Hughes, a settler on the Kanawha, /at 
Hughes Creek was captured by the Indians 
and carried into Ohio and held for two years. 
We notice that this person is sometimes called 
Robert Hughes and sometimes Edward, and 
his capture was in 1776. Judge Guthre late of 
Mason county, was a descendant of Hughes. 

In 1777 Cornstalk, his son Elenepseco, Red 
Hawk and another Indian were at Point 
Pleasant, supposed to have been on a friendly 
visit to Fort Randolph under command of Capt. 
Arbuckle, and some Indians killed some white 
persons near the Fort and the soldiers of the 
Governor killed all of said Indians. This will 
be used as an excuse for Indians to continue 
their bloody work in Virginia. No doubt it 
was a mistake to kill those pretending to come 
as friends and in the Fort as such, besides it 
caused the settlers to suffer so extremely for the 

Colonel Skillem was ordered to march with 
his Augusta, Botetourt and Greenbrier volun- 
teers to Point Pleasant, to join forces with Gen- 
eral Hand, from Fort Pitt, but Hand's forces 
did not arrive. There has been but little writ- 
ten about this march. Indians attacked and 
killed Lieut. Moore and three men near Fort 
Randolph at Point Pleasant. In 1778 Fort 
Randolph was besieged by the Indians but they 
were unable to take it and started up the Kan- 
awha to find defenceless settlers. Capt. Mc- 
Kee was in command of the Fort. He called 
volunteer messengers to warn the settlers of 
the approach of the Indians. Hammond and 
Pryor volunteered and went and gave the 

An Indian raid subsequently took place into 
Greenbrier and resulted in the killing of Pryor 

and Hugh Mclver and the capture of their 
wives ; Henry Baker was also killed ; the Brid- 
ger brothers and old man Monday and his 
wife, and the wife and children of Thomas 
Drennon and Mr. Smith were made prisoners. 
Later William Griffith, wife and daughter, 
were murdered, and a son taken prisoner. This 
was the last raid made into Greenbrier. 


The trail of the last raid, showed that there 
were but two Indians ; they were followed by 
John Young, Ben Morris, William Arbuckle 
and Robert Aaron. They went up Elk, then 
up Little Sandy and their camp was found on 
a fork of Sandy. They fired on them, killed 
one and one esca.ped and the Griffith boy 
recovered. The one killed proved to be a 
white man, disguised as an Indian. The creek 
where this occurred has always since been call- 
ed "White-Man's Fork" of Aaron Fork, of 
Little Sandy. 

Mr. Carr and his two children were mur- 
dered on Blue Stone ; Thomas Hugh's family 
captured and some killed in 1782; Thomas 
Teays captured at the mouth of Coal River, 
taken in Ohio, condemned to be burned 
with Col. William Crawford, but was 
saved by an Indian whom Teays had be 
friended the year before. This is the first 
act of gratitude by an Indian that we have 
come across. 1786 James Moore, Sr., of 
Abbs Valley made prisoner, two children 
killed and the others carried off prisoners. 

Lewis Tackett was captured by Indians, and 
on his way to Ohio he was tied to a pine tree 
at Knob Shoals while his captors went to hunt. 
A storm came on which wet the buckskin 
thongs and allowed him to escape. "Tackett's 
Pine" stood for many years as a landmark. 
Tackett's Fort was built afterwards at Coal's 
mouth and afterwards this Fort was attacked 
and several persons killed. 

John and Lewis Tackett and their mother 
were captured near the Fort. Charles Tackett 
and John McElheny were the only men in the 
Fort when captured. Charles was killed, Mc- 
Elheny and wife, Betsey Tackett, Sam Tackett 
and a boy made prisoners. McElheny was 
killed. John Tackett escaped. Lewis and his 



mother were taken to Ohio and kept two years. 
John Young was in the Fort but he made his 
escape with his wife and babe, whom he car- 
ried to a canoe which he poled up to Clendenin 
and they were all saved. That babe was Jacob 
Young, who lived to the age of ninety years, 
leaving a large family. 

Near Point Pleasant the Indians missed the 
capture of Ben Eulin by his jumping over a cliff 
fifty feet high, his falling into some pawpaw 
bushes and grape vines saved his neck. He 
then made another twelve-foot leap and escaped 
with his life. 

About this time, Capt. John Van Bibber was 
attacked, near the Point and his daughter, Miss 
Rhoda, was killed, and Joseph, a younger 
brother was made a prisoner; he escaped and 
returned in 1794. It was in 1789 that William 
Wyatt was killed at mouth of Paint Creek. A 
party left the Clendenin settlement in a boat 
going to Maysville, Ky. John May, Jacob 
Skyles, Charles Johnson and John Flynn, Jr., 
the son of John Flynn who was murdered on 
Cabin Creek. At Point Pleasant two sisters, 
the Misses Fleming from Pittsburg, joined the 
party. They proceeded down the Ohio and 
were attacked by Indians. John May was 
killed, a Miss Fleming also. Skyles was 
wounded. Johnson, Skyles, Flynn and Miss 
Fleming were made prisoners. Flynn was 
burned. Johnson wrote his account of the 
matter fully. 

Mathias Van Bibber and Jacob, his little 
brother, were fired on by Indians. Mathias was 
struck in the forehead and slightly wounded 
but escaped. Jacob was made prisoner and es- 
caped after two years. 

William Carroll and family of Carroll's 
Branch narrowly escaped being murdered, their 
home was burned. 

The following is the account of the boat 
party tragedy as detailed in "Johnson's 

In February, 1790, John May and 
Charles Johnson started from Petersburg, 
Va., to Kentucky, by way of the Kanawha 
and Ohio rivers. They reached the Kana- 
wha at the mouth of Kelley's Creek, pur- 
chased a boat and directed some additions 
and accommodations made, and while wait- 

ing thereon, went to Col. George Clenden- 
in's at the mouth of Elk. 

When the boat was ready, Jacob Skiles 
(or Skyles) joined them. They proceeded 
to the Ohio river and stopped at Point 
Pleasant, where they were joined by Will- 
iam Flinn, Dolly and Peggy Fleming, and 
they started for Lime Stone, Ky., by way 
of the Ohio river. Maysville is now known 
as the place for which the started. 

At the mouth of the Scioto, they were 
•hailed by two white men who said they 
ere escaped prisoners and wanted to get 
away and go to Kentucky. They landed 
( and were captured by: Indians, and the 
white men who aided as decoys were De 
vine and Thomas. 

John May and Dolly Fleming were shot 
and thrown in the river. Flinn was made 
a prisoner and burned at the stake. Peggy 
Fleming was redeemed and returned to 
Pittsburg. Skiles made his escape and got 
back to his home ; he was a surveyor and 
a large land owner in Kanawha, was re- 
lated to the Morrises, Rumsey, Barnes fam- 
ilies, and a sketch of these families is given 
in the West Virginia Historical Magazine, 
190.?, page 188. 

Charles Tohnson was held as a prisoner 
by the Indians for years and on his return 
he wrote the "Johnson's Narratives," giv- 
ing more information of Indian habits, cus- 
toms and life, than almost any account that 
had been written, and which is an exceed- 
ingly interesting book. Mr. Johnson was 
an ancestor of Mrs. Robert Spillman of 
Charleston, W. Va. and Mr. Johnson was 
from Botetourt county, Va. This narra- 
tive was published in Harper in 1827, and 
has lately been reprinted by the Burrows 
Company, Cleveland, Ohio. See also 
Southern Historical Magazine, 1902, page 
139. Hale's Trans-Allegheny Pioneers, 

In 1790, Leonard Cooper and William 
Porter made settlements on Elk; one had 
Cooper's Creek and the other Porter's Is- 
land named for them. Squire Staten was 
killed on his way home from court in Char- 




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leston at the mouth of a branch called 
"Staten Run." 

James Hale was killed opposite Clen- 
denin Fort on Hale's Branch. The Indians 
killed cows on a creek at upper end of the 
valley and hung their bells on bushes 
which would ring when the wind blew or 
when the cows were sent for, and the par- 
ties were killed. This creek was called 
"Bell Creek." 

1 79 1 Ben Carpenter and wife were killed 
on Elk. A squad of Indians near Point 
Pleasant killed Michael See, and Robert 
Sinclair, Hampton and Northup and See's 
servants were made prisoners. This ser- 
vant was son of Dick Painter who helped 
defend Fort Donnally. 

Two daughters of Henry Morris, on 
Peter's Creek of Gauley were murdered by 
Indians. They were bringing home the 
cows. . Morris made all Indians that he 
came across suffer for this in after years. 

The Misses Tyler were captured at Point - 
Pleasant, the savages using cow bells to 
deceive them. 

John AVheeler, wife and four children 
were killed in 1792 opposite the mouth of 
Cabin Creek ; and Shadrack Harriman liv- 
ing at the lower Venable Branch, two miles 
above Charleston, was killed by Indians in 
1794 and is said to have been'the last man 
kiPed by Indians in Kanawha Valley. 

We do not pretend that we have given 
all the Indian outrages in Kanawha, and in 
all that we have found and mentioned, we 
found one case where an Indian saved a 
white man ; we also admit one case where 
the white men did wrong in killing Indians. 

We are glad to see the monument to 
Cornstalk at Point Pleasant but it was a 
small pleasure compared to what we ex- 
perienced when we viewed the monument 
erected to General Lewis and his men on 
the battlefield' at that place. There have 
been many excuses made for the savage, 
brutal Indians, but in fact, that his nature 
was what it was, is the only excuse. 

The Indian had to be exterminated or the 
county would have remained unsettled. 
He could not be permitted to run at large, 

any more than bears, wolves and cata- 
mounts. The only way was to stop his 
running in any way. Either he had to go, 
or the white man stay away. This ques- 
tion had to be decided, and it was decided, 
and there has never been any appeal al- 
lowed to the decision. 

It has been said that one cause of the 
Indians' cruelties was the fact that they 
were, always cheated by the Indian traders 
— made drunk and cheated. 

It has been written of the Pennsylvania 
Indian trader that all this was about the 
truth as far as the cheating was concerned, 
and that the trader was as bad as the In- 
dian. But cheating done at Pittsburg was 
hardly the excuse for murder and outrage 
etc., on the Kanawha by Indians from the 

Indians, like some animals, never become 
lost ; they always knew where they were, 
knew the creeks and high-ways of the 
streams. They went in small squads so 
they could subsist on the country, which a 
large number could not do. 

It may be that the inhabitants of Amer- 
ica had some rights to the country now 
known as West Virginia, but their title was 
very shadowy. 

They had no title except by mere claim 
to it ; they had no possessions, no special 
tribe ; no chief, no particular Indian laid 
claim to it. They had no boundary, noth- 
ing except the mere claim to it for the pur- 
pose of hunting thereon and that claim was 
only sustained by might, which is the same 
right possessed of a robber, and if a robber 
can establish title, why not any one? 

It may be that the Indian first discovered 
this territory and claims it under that pre- , 
text, which is but little better than none. 
The white man discovered it and took pos- 
session with no one thereon and to yield it 
simply because the Indian said he wanted 
it, is not a good ground of right. 

To permit the entire territory of America 
to be held exclusively by some Indians, 
without government or title or possession, 
and probably after having sold it two or 
three times, which sale was not ever recog- 



nized by other Indians makes the Indian 
right depend on his gun or his tomahawk. 


He was said to have been a Shawnee In- 
dian and was known to have been a Shaw- 
nee Indian Chief; it was guessed that he 
was born about 1727 and it may have been 
a good guess. Some have said that he was 
born in some Chillicothe town, in Ohio and 
some have said that he was born in the 
Kanawha Valley but it is not known that 
there were Indians in this valley residing 
at this or a near date thereto ; and it might 
be said that it is not known that there were 
Indians here, nor known that Cornstalk 
was not born here at that time. All of 
which want of information, or ignorance, 
we must admit. He is also said to have 
been tutored under Pontiac, a chief of the 
Ottawas, and may have taken a post-grad- 
uate course under Killbuck ; but we, in our 
opinion, think he needed no such educa- 
tion, but it was born in him and his life 
work was to murder and kill white people 
and all he had to do was to develop this 
inborn proclivity. He is said to have 
caused great distress and did much murder 
and destruction on the Virginia side of the 
Ohio river; that he even went to places 
under pretext of being friendly and commit- 
ted the most atrocious outrages. 

He has been credited with great military 
ability; that he managed to collect from 
the Ohio tribes quite an army, about eleven 
hundred or more and made ready to meet 
Governor Lord Dunmore of Virginia, who 
had sent General Andrew Lewis with 
eleven hundred men to the mouth of the 
Kanawha river, and Dunmore was to meet 
him there and together they would march 
into Ohio and play Indian awhile on their 
joint account ; but Dunmore went into 
Ohio a short distance above General Lewis 
and went into camp, and Cornstalk, instead 
of attacking Dunmore with the smaller 
army, passed the Ohio and attacked Lewis, 
and got defeated and then made peace with 
Dunmore, which was quite like an Indian 
and which was better than Dunmore's 

treatment of Lewis ; but of all this we have 
elsewhere written. 

Unless Cornstalk knew that Dunmore 
was not going to join Lewis and was not 
going to aid Lews, nor was going to attack 
Cornstalk, we can see no great military abil- 
ity in attacking Lewis first, but if he did 
know these facts, then he had nothing else 
to do. 

Cornstalk crossed the Ohio river in the 
night and attacked Lewis early in the 
morning and was so near that Dunmore 
heard the battle going on, on October 10, 
1774, but took no action and let Cornstalk 
get back into his own towns. Had Corn- 
stalk supposed that Dunmore was going to 
aid Lewis, he did right in attacking one 
before they had united forces, but it would 
have been better generalship to have de- 
feated Dunmore. Mr. John Stuart of 
Greenbrier says of Cornstalk that he was a 
great man in war and an eloquent and dis- 
tinguished man ; that in his personal ap- 
pearance, his gracefulness of manner, 
strength, influence, he was great. That he 
moved about among his men encouraging 
them to be strong and to fight a good fight, 
and that he would have permitted no 
cowardice among his men. But he seemed 
to know that reinforcements were ex- 
pected, and when he saw the new attack- 
ing line on his flank, he supposed it was the 
reinforcements and he permitted his men 
to drop back and get away from Lewis. 
His death was not like a warrior's. He 
went under pretext of giving information 
that the British emissaries were attempting 
to induce the Indian to aid them against 
the Virginians, and because some Indian 
had just killed a soldier, the other soldiers 
could not be restrained from killing Corn- 
stalk, his son and another with him, and 
they did kill all of the Indians in the fort. 
These Indians were buried at the fort and 
a monument was erected a few years ag"o 
with the name "Cornstalk" engraved there- 
on. It was in 1777 that he was killed and 
the Indians never seemed to have been 
satisfied thereafter, but committed havoc 



on the settlements ever after when they 
dared to try. 

For an Indian, Cornstalk may have been 
a brave warrior, but he was an Indian, and 
had done much harm to the prisoners and 
it was not unnatural that they should have 
put an end to him, even if it was wrong. 

In Harris's History of Virginia, Col. 
John Stuart wrote: "In the year 1777 
Cornstalk, with Red Hawk, paid a visit to 
the garrison at Point Pleasant, and he told 
them that the British agents were urging 
the Indians to join them in their war with 
the Virginians. He admitted that the 
dispositions of the Indians was to unite and 
give as much trouble to the settlers as pos- 
sible, but he declared that on his own part 
he was opposed to joining with the British; 
that all the Indians except him and his tribe 
were determined to engage in it and that 
he and his tribe would have to run with the 
stream. Capt. Arbuckle thought proper to 
detain him, Red Hawk and another fellow 
as hostages to prevent the nation from 
joining the British. 

"Col. Geo. Skillern had agreed to come 
from Botetourt to Point Pleasant and meet 
Gen. Hand and go to Ohio and chastise the 
Indians. The Greenbrier men joined Col. 
Skillern but did not find Gen. Hand and no 
preparation for an army. While we were 
there, two young men, Hamilton and Gil- 
more, went one day to hunt, as our pro- 
visions were about out. On their return 
to camp, some Indians had concealed them- 
selves on the bank and as Gilmore came 
along they fired on him and killed him. 
Capt. Arbuckle and I Were standing on the 
bank when we saw Hamilton run down the 
bank and called out that Gilmore was killed. 
Capt. Hall's men jumped into a canoe and 
went to the relief of Hamilton, who was 
expecting to be shot. They brought Gil- 
more's body to the canoe, bloody and 
scalped, and brought him over in the canoe, 
and I remarked that the men would kill the 
hostages, which Arbuckle did not think 
they would do, but they had hardly touched 
the bank before the cry was raised "Let US' 
kill the Indians in the fort," and they came 

up pale with rage. Capt. Hall was with 
his men and was their leader. Capt. 
Arbuckle and I were with them and tried 
to dissuade them, but they cocked their 
guns and threatened us with instant death 
if we did not desist and they rushed by us 
into the fort and put the Indians to death. 

An interpreter's wife said that the men 
had said that the men that killed Gilmore 
had come with Elenippico the day before, 
but he denied this. Cornstalk told his son 
that the Great Man Above had sent him to 
come and die with him. Red Hawk tried 
to go up the chimney but was shot down." 

Cornstalk was undoubtedly a hero, and 
had he been spared he would have been 
friendly to the Americans and nothing 
would have induced him to come to the 
garrison but to let them know the disposi- 
tion of the Indians and their purpose to 
unite with the British, that all the Indians 
were joining the British. 

The Governor of Virginia offered a re- 
ward for the apprehension of the men that 
killed him but it was without effect. After 
the battle of Point Pleasant when he re- 
turned to the Shawnee town he called a 
council of the nation to consult what was 
to be done and to upraid them for not let- 
ting him make peace before the battle. He 
told them they would have to fight now, 
for the "Big Knife" was coming and we will 
all be killed, but they said nothing. He 
then proposed that they kill all their women 
and children and then go and fight till they 
died, but no one said anything. Then he 
struck the tomahawk in the post in the 
center of the town house and said "I'll go 
and make peace," and this suited them and 
they sent runters to Governor Dunmore 
to solicit peace and the interposition of the 
Governor in their behalf. 

He made a speech while in counsel with 
the Virginians, when he called "Long 
Knives" and seemed to be impressed with 
an awful premonition of his approaching 
fate, when he said : "When I was young 
and went to war I thought it might be the 
last time and I would return no more. 
Now I am here among you, you may kill 



me if you please ; I can die but once and 
it's all one to me now or another time." 
This sentence he repeated often and at the 
end of each sentence of his speech, and he 
was killed within an hour after the coun- 
cil closed. 

We do not see exactly the purpose of 
Cornstalk coming to this fort. He admits 
that all the Indians are going to help the 
British and he has to go with them. He 
had led the Indians into Virginia to mur- 
der and burn and now he expects to begin 
anew under the auspices and pay of the 
British. Why was it not best to kill him 
at once and stop as much of it as possible. 
If ordinary war is hell, Indian war, with 
Cornstalk at the head, would be two hells, 
a pandemonium and a purgatory. 

SEPT. 19, I781 . 

From Virginia State Papers, Vol. II, pp. 

"To His Excellency the Governor, and the 
Honorable Council of Virginia : 

"The petition of sundry inhabitants of the 
County of Greenbrier, humbly showeth : thai 
during the time a garrison was maintained at 
Fort Randolph, at the mouth of the Great 
Kanawha river, your petitioners emboldened 
by the protection thereof, had taken up and set- 
tled themselves on sundry plantations on the 
Great Kanawha, above the said station, which 
on the withdrawal of the troops stationed at 
the Fort Randolph aforesaid, they were 
through fear of the Indians obliged to abandon 
and leave desolate, to the great loss and detri- 
ment of your petitioners and to the no less pre- 
judice of the inhabitants of this county in gen- 
eral, as they thereby lost a barrier, which in a 
great measure covered the frontiers. Under 
these difficulties and hardships have we lain for 
these three years past, hoping that a peace 
might come by which we might be permitted 
to return to our habitations with safety ; but 
the much desired blessing not having arrived 
and worn out with the hardships we have sus- 
tained, your petitioners humbly beg leave to 
inform your Excellency and the Honorable 

Council that we are determined to return to 
the aforesaid habitations, and propose in the 
first place to erect a station at the mouth of 
Elk river for the protection of themselves and 
families and only request of the Government 
that a lieutenant and thirty (30) men of the 
militia of Greenbrier county may be stationed 
there for our assistance. The benefits which 
station there are so obvious that they need not 
be mentioned. The finding provision for them 
will occasion no such difficulty as formerly, as 
the tax grain annually paid by the inhabitants 
would accrue to this county in having such a 
may be applied to their support. As some of the 
Honorable Council are intimately acquainted 
with the situation of the place we propose to 
erect a station and the advantages which would 
result to this county therefrom, so we purpose- 
ly omit mention of them and only pray your 
Excellency and Honorable Council to take our 
petition into your consideration and we, as we 
as in duty bound will ever pray. 

James Hugart, Samuel Vamer, John Os- 
borne, John Jones, John Patton, Pat- 
rick Murphy, Charles Gromer, John 
McCaslin, W. H. Cavendish, William 
Tones, Charles McClung, Simon Akers. 
Sam'l McGanaugh, Leonard Cooper, 
Thos. Teass, John Bellew, William Hu- 
gart, John Williams, Will Hamilton, 
James Jarrett, Peter Shoemaker, Jo- 
seph McClung, Jacob Lockhart, John 
Rogers, John Archer, William Craige, 
Charles Howard, Sampson Archer, 
Leonard Morris, James Smythe, Mich-, 
ael See, Jas. McCay, Thomas Cooper, 
Richard Williams, Sam'l McClung, Jas. 
Jordan, Jas. Patterson, Will Fullerton, 
John Lewis, Jas. Hugart, Jr., Peter Van 
Bibber, William Bleak, John Dyer, And. 
McFarran, Andrew Donnally, Thos. 
Ellis, John Patterson, William Dyer, 
John Graham, Spencer Cooper, Jas. 
Thompson, John Viney, John- Van Bib- 
ber, John Piper, Her. Miller, David 
Williams, John McFerren, Daniel Mc- 
Dowell, William Dunn, David McCoy, 
Jas. Kitchen, Shadrock Hareman, Geo. 
Malham, Jas. Hewston, Jos. Claypoole, 
John Harris, Arch Smithers, Jas. 
Flinn, Thos. Hoof." 



(This county, at this time, was Greenbrier, 
but these inhabitants were in the Kanawha 

Campbell's creek Indian legend 

About four miles above Elk river this stream 
pours its turgid spring flood into the Kanawha. 
In the summer it comes trickling down through 
a deep, wild, densely wooded gulch; just be- 
low its mouth, a curious mound juts out from 
the bank, near this mound are three large 
trees. Beyond these trees, further up the 
creek, is a natural open space, giving a free 
view of the mountain to its very top. On this 
mountain top stands a gigantic oak, rising up 
from a thicket of undergrowth. 

From no other point in the gulch is this oak 
visible, but up through this undergrowth, along 
the edge of the open space and up to this oak 
is a trail not noticed except to those who are 
seeking the top of the mountain and start from 
the points mentioned. 

It has been noticed for many ages back, that 
Indians have been accustomed to make some 
pilgrimage to this creek and always to this oak 
on this mountain top by way of this certain 
trail. No record has ever been kept of the 
time of their coming, of the number of their 
coming, from whence they come, nor for the 
purpose of their coming. In fact, they come 
in the fall about the time of the first snow, and 
the number has been noticed to grow less each 
time; their visit is always made at the full of 
the moon and after night, so that if they are 
seen at all, it is only a glimpse. 

They make no explanations, they tell no 
stories and no questions have been answered, 
if any have been asked, and long before they 
come again their visit has been forgotten, until 
again repeated. 

When these visits commenced no one knows. - 
For hundreds of years the fertile lands of the 
Kanawha were famous hunting grounds for 
the savages. Tradition has it that the first of 
these pilgrimages to be encountered by a white 
man was some time in the early '50s when a 
hunter tracking a bear was surprised by the In- 
dians and hid himself behind a fallen trunk for 
safety, and saw them come trotting up the 
creek in single file. They were in full regalia 

and numbered about a hundred, gathering 
about the tree points, they waited silently for 
the falling of darkness. At the rising of the 
moon, a signal cry brought the band into single 
file again, they plunged through the tangled 
brush and set about the ascent of the bank. 
Presently in the strong moonlight the wonder- 
ing huntsman saw the line of dusky bodies 
appear in the clearing and wind up the trail 
to the towering oak, another signal call told 
they had reached the summit and the huntsman 
stayed no longer but crept unnoticed to his 

From time to time the redskins visited this 
mysterious spot in dwindling numbers. In 
1880 a band of thirty came down the creek one 
November noon, a settler named Cojen, curi- 
ous to know what they would do, watched 
them until they set out by moonlight on the 
hidden trail, then followed. In the early morn- 
ing the band came down the creek, scattered 
and disappeared, the leader as usual with a 
bulky sack slung over his shoulder. 

Cojen's brother then made search for him. 
Anxiously and swiftly climbing to the top, tak- 
ing the black oak for a guide around the tree 
he found an area of trampled brush and the 
ashes of a big fire. Near by was Cojen's body, 
with a rifle wound in his back and his head 
scalpless. While trailing the savages he had 
been trailed and slain. 

In lessening numbers still the savages came 
every few years until, in 1900, only one lone 
Indian made the last sad pilgrimage. Now the 
hidden trail is untrodden and thickly over- 
grown. There are no ashes under the black 
oak. The last meeting of the silent night fires 
has been held at the three points. Was it some 
ancient tribal ceremony that brought these 
bands hither Was the fire on the mountain 
top part of a secret tribal rite? Did the sack 
contain some charmed medicine or the regalia 
of the high priest? 

How did the little company travel all those 
weary miles that they must have traveled un- 
discovered? To what tribe did they belong? 
These are questions none can answer, but we 
may surmise. 

Miles away on the Kanawha river are many 
Indian relics, but none on Campbell's creek. 



The woodsman has delved into the ground 
around the old black oak without results. 
There is nothing in that wild spot to tell of the 
visits of the savages, except the trodden herb- 
age and the ashes of past ceremonies. 

In the long ago, there was a salt lick near 
the mouth of Campbell's Creek, to which all 
kinds of animals came for the benefit of the 
salt. In time there was a well-worn trail to 
this oft-frequented spot on the river, so well 
known to deer and buffalo. The Indians fol- 
lowing the game, came too, to this important 
place, and here, ever afterwards held their 
gatherings, not for the salt but because it was 
the spot blessed of the "Great Spirit" for the 
good of his creatures. The great warrior and 
chief, Cornstalk, was born on the Kanawha 
and stood high in war and council in the esti- 
mation of all the tribes and after his death, in 
1777, the veneration of the Indians for him was 
so great, they established some rite or sacred 

ceremony on the mountain near the sacred spot 
blessed of the "Great Spirit" in recognition of 
his goodness to them and in memory of their 
great chieftain. What this ceremony was none 
can say; the Indian did not intend any mortal 
to know, especially the pale face. In keeping 
up these periodical visits the red man showed 
his courage, his trust in the faith of his ances- 

Daniel Boon knew of this place where game 
congregated, and settled just across the river 
from the spot. Perhaps he knew too of the 
savages' religious rites, but he never inter- 
fered nor sought to disturb them. These mys- 
terious rites are now ended, but the white man 
has remembered the greatest of Indian chief- 
tains and erected a monument to his memory, 
not at his birthplace on Campbell's Creek but 
at the place of his death and his great battle. 
Point Pleasant. 



The Act Organizing the County— Origin of the Name, Kanawha— Boundaries— "Gauley" an 
Indian Name — First Court Held at William Clendenin's — Organization of the County 
Court, 1789, and Justices Present— Other Officials— Court Houses— Clerk's Office— Jail- 
Remarks by Dr. Hale — His Archaeological Enthiesiasm — The First House — Trip of Anne 
Bailey — Fleming Cobb's Perilous Trip — Appointment of Constables and Magistrates — 
Land Assessments — Some "First Things" — Prison Bounds — Collecting Taxes Not a 
Wholesome Business in Early Days — Land Owners in 1791—Land Books — Tithables in 
i/9 2 — Kanawha County Records — Justices of the Peace. 

Henning's Statutes at Large, Vol. 12, page 
670 — October 1788, thirteenth year of the Com- 
monwealth, contains the following : 

"An Act for forming a new county, out of 
the counties of Greenbrier and Montgomery." 
Passed 14th of November, 1788: 

" Be it enacted by the General Assembly, that from 
"and after the first day of October next (1789) those 
" parts of the counties of Greenbrier and Montgomery, 
" within the following bounds shall form one distinct 
" county and be called and known by the name of 
" 'Kanawha.' " 

This name is an unusual one, and so far as 
the record goes or even the tradition appears, it 
was unusual at that time. It is said there was 
a tribe of Indians bearing that name, located 
somewhere, some time, on the upper New riv- 
er, which may be a fact; but they left neither 
record nor tradition such as would induce us 
to honor them with the name of a county. 
They must have been an unusual tribe; they 
had never been in Ohio, and their fondness for 
the long-haired, white folks' scalps had not 
been developed. 

There may have been a tribe of Indians so 
named and we must assume that the people of 
Virginia, in General Assembly, knew what 
they were doing; we should also conclude that 
by giving this name to the county, there really 
was a tribe of good Indians that deserved to 

be so honored. Only this presumption that the 
people of Virginia knew what they were do- 
ing, warrants the conclusion. But this is not 
to be regarded as precedent, or proof in all 

"Kanawha" was the name given to the new 
county. It is usually pronounced as if it was 
"Ka-gnaw-y" with the accent on the "gnaw." 
It is neither musical nor otherwise attractive, 
and being "Indian," there is nothing attractive 
about it to us; but to others, who appreciate 
Indian melody, it may be charming. There has 
been no excuse or apology placed on record to 
satisfy us for the adoption of the name, and 
we are unable to furnish any other than that 
the Assembly of Virginia knew what they were 
doing. Still we have no favorable opinion as 
to the advisability of honoring an Indian or 
Indian tribe, nor of adopting their musical mel- 
ody. It was done, however, and done in 1788, 
and no one having suggested a better name, it 
has remained and perhaps will ever remain — 
"So mote it be." 

The Act provided that the bounds of the 
county should be : "Beginning at the mouth of 
the Great Sandy, in the county of Montgom- 
ery," which means the Big Sandy that now 
divides Kentucky from West Virginia, on the 
Ohio river, "thence up the Big Sandy to the 
Cumberland mountain; thence a northeast 




course, along said mountain to the Great Kan- 
awha; thence crossing the same, at the end 
of the Gauley mountain; thence along said 
mountain to the line of Harrison county, with 
said line to the Ohio river; thence down said 
river to the beginning, including the islands 

Here comes another Indian melody, "Gau- 
ley," which has by some supposed to mean the 
word Gaul, or French, and for which conclu- 
sion there may be some authority, but it is 
not in the spelling. The river which is now 
called "New river" was then called the Great 
Kanawha river. We do not propose to ex- 
plain the names of these rivers, but we still 
insist that the General Assembly knew what 
they were doing. For explanation of this 
boundary see a former chapter. 

This Act said that the justices should "meet 
" at the house of William Clendenin upon the 
" first court day after the said county shall take 
"place" (whatever that means). We do not 
know where this house was, and there is noth- 
ing to locate it. The only house standing in the 
spring of 1788 was the Clendenin Fort, but 
this was to take place October 1, 1789, and 
they gave the Clendenins time to erect a house 
for William, in which the court was to meet. 

The Governor was by the Act, authorized 
to appoint the sheriff, that is the first sheriff, 
and the Governor appointed the first justices. 
In the future elections of a senator, Kanawha 
was to be in the same district with Greenbrier. 

It was provided : "That a place for holding 
courts for this new county and of the selection 
of a clerk, they were not to be made unless a 
majority of the justices appointed be present." 
Evidently this proviso was suggested by Mr. 
Clendenin and it had the appearance'of being 
a proviso that, would not let William Morris 
get the location of the court house in the vicin- 
ity of Morris's home, which was about twenty 
miles above that of the Clendenin home, on the 
Kanawha river. This matter of locating capi- 
tols began early to. attract the attention of land 
owners, and town builders and real estate spec- 

The Act provided that the justices should 
elect a clerk, take the bond of the sheriff and 
fix a place for holding court in the county at 

or as near the center thereof as the selection 
■and convenience will admit and thereafter to 
erect the buildings for the public use at such 
place and until such place was provided, the 
court should determine the place. It seems 
that the determination of the center of the 
county was hardly material, and almost im- 
possible, at that day and date. It might have 
located the place a long way from any settle- 
ment or Fort and the presence of some parties, 
not summoned, might have been unwelcomed 
and not disposed to obey the orders of the 
Court, as to order. 


The fifth day of October, 1789, arrived and 
the following gentlemen justices presented their 
commissions and were sworn and qualified as 
members of the County Court of Kanawha in 
the commonwealth of Virginia : Thomas Lewis, 
Robert Clendenin, Francis Watkins, Charles 
McClung, Benjamin Strother, William Clen- 
denin, David Robinson, George Alderson, 
Leonard Morris and James Van Bibber. Ten 
in all present. 

Thomas Lewis held his commission as sher- 
iff, took the oath of office and he selected John 
Lewis as his deputy. William H. Cavendish ■ 
was selected as clerk and Francis Watkins was 
made his deputy clerk. 

Reuben Slaughter was selected county sur- 
veyor. David Robinson, John Van Bibber and 
Benjamin Strother were selected as commis- 
sioners of the revenue. 

William Droddy and William Rogers were 
selected as coroners. 

For County Lieutenant, George Clendenin. 

For Colonel, Thomas Lewis. 

For Lieutenant-Colonel, Daniel Boone. 

For Major, William Clendenin. 

For Captains — Leonard Cooper, John 

For Lieutenants — James Van Biber and 
John Young - . 

For Ensigns — William Owens and 
Alexander Clendenin. 

And this seemed to have completed the 
organization of the count)'; the civil and 
military. It seems that George Clendenin 
had the control of the affairs in the new 



county, and it also looks as if men were 
scarce. The public buildings were ordered 
to be erected on the land di George Clen- 
denin, which was on the Kanawha river, 
above the mouth of Elk river. 

The settlement at the mouth of Kana- 
wha was represented by Thomas Lewis, 
James Van Bibber, Leonard Cooper and 
William Owens and perhaps others. 

The settlement at the upper end of the 
valley was represented by Leonard Morris, 
William Droddy, David Robinson, John 
Morris and perhaps others : while the 
Clendenin settlement was represented by 
nearly all the others mentioned. 

Lewis Tackett, John Young and a few 
others represented the mouth of Coal river 
which hardly amounted to a settlement at the 
organization of the county. 

If there was a settlement on Elk, it is not 
mentioned for years afterwards. Daniel Boone 
lived a few miles above Charleston in what 
is now known as "Kanawha City." The Land 
Books do not give the location of the owners, 
only the number of acres and its value. 

We should have supposed that the largest 
settlement was in the vicinity of Kelly's Creek 
and Paint Creek, and no doubt but this was 
the case for some time after the organization 
of the county. Why the residence of William 
Clendenin is not given we can not explain. 
There were two maps or plates of the town 
made, one is recorded in the county court 
clerk's office and a copy thereof in Atkinson 
History of Kanawha, and the other is in the 
West Virginia Historical Magazine for Octo- 
ber, 1904, page 323; and on these maps appear 
to be written (supposed to be) the names of 
the owners, but on neither is the name of 
William Clendenin. 


The first court house was William Clenden- 
in's residence and the next was built in 1796 
(on the present court house lot), which was a 
one-story log house ; the next court house was 
built in 1 81 7. 

The present court house was built in 1891. 
It was said that Mr. Alderson was the owner 
of the court house lot and sold it to the county 
on some settlement made between them. 

The first clerk's office was a stone building 
on the Hotel Ruffner lot; 14x14 feet, one 
story. The next clerk's office was a one-story 
brick, near the court house, with two rooms. 
In 1873 an additional room was built for the 
records of the deeds and wills, near the court 
house on the opposite side from the older 
clerk's office. 

Jail. — This was erected under contract by 
Lewis Tackett and the next by David Fugua 
on the present lot; it was made of large hewed 
logs, lined inside with sawed oak plank, about 
twelve inches wide and four inches thick, 
spiked on the walls, and not one ever escaped, 
except through the doorway, and on several 
occasions it was pretty well filled. Then there 
was a two-story stone jail, and then the iron 
cage which is now used, enclosed within brick 

Hale's "Trans-Alleghany Pioneers," 289, 
says that "It is a curious fact the legislature 
officially established the county in 1789, as 
'Kenhawa' and the town in 1794 as 'Charles- 
town,' both names by common consent became 
changed, one to 'Kanawha' and the other to 
'Charleston.' How, why or when, nobody 

In an edition of Henning's Statutes, vol. 12, 
page 670, published 1823, with a certificate 
that they have truly and accurately printed 
the statutes, except certain errata, which are 
corrected, in matters of smaller accounts. This 
act was passed November 14, 1788; the name 
is spelled "Kanawha" and so spelled in many 
places throughout the chapter. 

It is another curious fact, that even Dr. 
Hale made mistakes in his explanations of er- 
rors, and it may be that he was right, not- 
withstanding, and it is not -generally safe to 
deny a historical statement made by him. He 
sometimes became enthusiastic on a matter 
and went to extremes, as he was said to do in 
making collection of Indian flints ; he wanted 
all that he could get and purchased some valu- 
able and curious ones. It soon became known 
that he would buy any old flint, and Bob Carr 
said that "they had started a flint-factory over 
in Ohio, to furnish Dr. Hale therewith." 

The first house or residence- fort, or block- • 
house or all three in one, was the property of 
George Clendenin. then David Ruffner's, then 



James Wilson's, then became the property and 
residence of Fredrick Brooks, and after him 
John A. Truslow owned it. In 1872 Dr. Hale 
purchased and removed the building to the 
northeast corner of Brooks and Virginia, re- 
paired, painted and made it sightly and com- 
fortable, and it is now in the possession of 
Tom E. Jeffries, U. S. engineer. So that the 
said historical first house is still with us, not- 
withstanding the Indians, fires and floods, and 
the tooth of Time. 

The first white child born in Charleston was 
Gen. Lewis Ruffner, on October 1, 1797. 

Hale's branch, on opposite side of Kana- 
wha, was named for "James Hale," who was 
working for George Clendenin, and who went 
from the fort to a spring for a bucket of water 
fresh from the spring for a sick young woman 
also in the family, at the fort; he was shot 
and killed by Indians. This was about 1790 
and his name has been kept alive and ever 
will be and ever should be. 

It was about this time that "Anne Bailey" 
made one of her trips to Lewisburg for pow- 
der, and for unselfish sacrifice, she also should 
ever be remembered and the story of her life 
kept alive. She was last buried on the battle- 
field at Point Pleasant, near the monument to 
the soldiers. There should be a separate 
monument erected to her memory. 

It was about this time, perhaps 1791, that 
Fleming Cobb went to Point Pleasant, for am- 
munition for the fort in Charleston. He went 
and returned and brought the supply. He 
was strong, was cautious and careful, and al- 
though he met and encountered Indians, he 
managed to out-manage them all. Fleming 
Cobb should be honored with a monument. 

Andrew Anderson was appointed constable 
at Belleville and Amos Morris at Point Pleas- 

Abner Pryor and Joseph Woods were rec- 
ommended for magistrates. William Hughes 
was appointed constable for Capt. John Mor- 
ris's district. Thos. Asbury for Coal river, 
and Abram Baker for Clendenin's station. 
William Morris was recommended for magis- 
trate. It was ordered that "a Petition to the 
General Assembly, on behalf of this county, 
stating the disadvantages under which the in- 

habitants labored, the remoteness of this situ- 
ation, the thinness of the neighborhood and the 
frequent invasions of the Indians, and prayed 
to be exonerated from the payment of taxes, 
until the blessings of Peace are imparted, and 
they are enabled to derive those advantages 
from their labors which the fertility of the soil 


At the next session of General Assembly a 
re-assessments of the values of lands was di- 
rected and commissioners to be appointed. At 
the February term in 1790, it was ordered 
that "Andrew Donnally, Sr., William Morris, 
and Joseph Carroll do view a way at the town 
ford on Gauley river, through the narrows on 
the north side, up to Morris's cabin, up above 
the upper ford, on said river, and make re- 
port to next term." (This perhaps was plain 
when made, and may be yet to some.) 

The first deed recorded was from Thomas 
Lewis to Benjamin Eulin, for a lot in Point 

The next deed recorded is for a lot in Belle- 
ville. George Clendenin made three deeds to 
his daughters, Cynthia, Parthania, and Mary, 
giving to each two negroes, horses, cows, etc. 

Thomas Upton conveyed to Thomas Davis 
two hundred and forty acres at the mouth of 
Davis creek. 

The first will recorded was that of Thomas 
Hughes. The will of William Morris, Sr., 
was recorded in 1794. 

Administrators of the estates of James 
Hale, Michael See, Edward McClung, Roland 
Wheeler and Shadrock Herriman were ap- 
pointed by the courts. These men were killed 
by the Indians ; Shadrack Harriman marked 
the last white man killed by an Indian, March, 
1794, in the Kanawha valley. 

The prison bounds were extended, so as to 
include the garrison and house where George 
Clendenin lived, for the safety of the prison- 
ers, from the hostile invasions of the Indian 


Prison bounds were lines or boundaries out- 
side of the jail, in which prisoners were al- , 
lowed to go without forfeiting their bonds, 



tr 1 


















tr 1 

i— j 







that is, certain prisoners were considered to be 
within the jail while within these bounds. In 
those days men were imprisoned for not pay- 
ing their debts and for other cases, whose 
close confinement was not required. It might 
have been the case that some prisoners were 
within bounds and not able to go to the fort, 
in time of an invasion, and the court thought 
they were entitled to the benefit of the garri- 
son's protection; as if a man would hesitate 
about getting within the fort, whether he were 
in the bounds or not. if an Indian were after 
him ! 

We notice that Thomas Lewis of Point 
Pleasant was appointed sheriff of Kanawha 
on the morning of the first day and before 
night he came into court and resigned his 
office. What did that mean? Suppose he had 
a summons to serve on a man living at Belle- 
ville, and one on the North Carolina line, at 
the head of New river, and for such services 
he was allowed a few shillings. It was prob- 
able that Mr. Lewis knew why he resigned. 
Collecting taxes was not the most wholesome 
business in those days at best, and this also, 
perhaps, induced him to resign his office. 

But in this year 1789, in October, we see 
the county of Kanawha fully organized and 
ready for business, with a territory as large 
as some states, without a road, with but a few 
people and few houses ; but she had her Daniel 
Boone and his gun. 


The land books of Kanawha, 1791^ show 
the following names of persons owning land 
in that year: 

William Arbuckle, Henry Banks, Thos. 
Bulletts Hairs, Jos. Mayor Carington, Leon- 
ard Cooper, Jas. Carnahan, Thos. Chenowith, 
John ChenOAvith, Michael Carnes, John Cal- 
loway, James Craig, Robt.' Davis, Thos. 
Davis, Wm. Duval, Wm. Donovan, Zechariah 
Dercer, James Donnally, Marcus Elkins, 
Thos. Edar, Baird Edmonson, Wm. Trigg, 
Geo. Welch, John Finley, Michael Gratz, 
Chas. Welling, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Ga- 
briel Green, David Gourd, Levi Hallengsworth, 
Easom Hanen, Shad. Harriman, Merdecai 
Hord, Hogg and Bullett, James Hines, Moses 

Hunter, Wm. Hepburn, John Dundass, John 
Jones, Benj. Lodge, Thos. Levacy, Jacob 
Lochard's heirs, Isaac Moses, Robt. Mercer, 
Jas. Mercer, Nat. McGill, Geo. Muse, Levi 
Osborn, T. F. Preston, Wm. Pryor, Benj. 
Pollard, Ed Price, Jas. Penberry, Sam'l 
Pleasants, Geo. Snuffer, Thos. Upton, James 
Vaughan, Morris Given, Wm. Griffith, Isaiah 
Hews, Benj. Wyncoop, John Wilson, John 
Ward, Solomon A'Vilson, Geo. Washington, 
Geo. Washington and Andrew Lewis, Sam'l 
Ward, Foster Webb, Jonathan Windsor, 
Sinah West, John Young, Mathew Vaughan, 
James Wilson, Wm. Henderson and others. 

The year 1790 was the first year that there 
was a land book in Kanawha, and as this was 
smaller and badly written, we made selection 
of 1791. 

How many or rather how few of the above 
named persons were residents of the county? 

The list of Tithables is supposed to give the 
names of the residents of the county, and the 
number found on the land book and also on 
land books, will show the resident land 

Taxes were charged in English money, 
pound and shilling and pence. The dollar and 
cent were not used until 1799. 


William Allen, Davis Alderson, Charles 
Alsbury, Thos. Alsbury, Emos Alwater, 
William' Arbuckle, Daniel Boone, Jesse 
Boone, Michael Baker, David Brown, Abra- 
ham Baker, John Bailey, John Beckley, Geo. 
Clendenin, William Clendenin, Alex. Clen- 
denin, Joseph Carroll, William Carroll, John 
Childress, Leonard Cooper, William Craig, 
James Craig, Jacob Coonci, John Carter, 
John Cavender, John Campbell, Jacob Cas- 
dorph, Fleming Cobbs, Thomas Craig, An- 
drew Donnally, William Droddy, Joseph 
Don, James Ervin, David Ervin, John Ed- 
wards, Joseph Edwards, James Ferguson, 
John Fleming, Geo. Fitzwater, Leeman 
Gibbs, Edward Hughs, Thomas Hariman, 
William Hall, Joel Houston, Samuel Hous- 
ton, Thomas Hughes, Nat. Huddleston, 
John Huddleston, Daniel Huddleston, John 
Moss, Amos Morris, Chas. McClung, John 



Morris, AA-'illiam Morris, Levi Morris, Henry 
Morris, Ed. McClung, And. McClung, Will- 
iam Morris, Jr., David Milburn, Benj. Mor- 
ris, Leonard Morris, William McClung, 
Daniel Northup, Michael Newhouse, Henry 
Newhouse, William Owen, Abner Pryor, 
Edward Price, William Pryor, Allan Pryor, 
John Reynolds, Maurice Reynolds, Isaac 
Robinson, Allen Rue, Michael See, Reuben 
Slaughter, William Smith, James Shirkey, 
John Shepperd, Thomas Smith, Robt. St. 
Clair, Geo. Thornton, Isaac Taylor, Francis 
Tackett. Levi Tackett, Benj. Uland, Jesse 
Van Bibber, Peter Van Bibber, Jas. Van 
Bibber, Isaac Van Bibber, Mathious Van 
Bibber, John Van Bibber, Joseph Wood, 
Nemen Watkins, Roland Wheeler, John 
A'Vheeler, Roland Wheeler, Jr., Shadrach 
Harrinian, John Hansford, John Hart, John 
Jones, John Jenkins, Robt. Iron, W'illiam 
Wheeler, Samuel White, John Young, Con- 
rad Young, Mathias Young, Ezekiel 


Thos. Lewis resigned as sheriff. Cav- 
endish resigned as clerk and Frances Wat- 
kins was appointed as clerk in his place. 
Daniel Boone presented his commmission 
from the Governor, appointing him Lieut. - 
Colonel, who came into court and qualified 
April 4, 1 791. 

1791 — Philip Iron qualified as deputy 
surveyor for Reuben Slaughter. 

May — Andrew Donnally was appointed 
a Justice by the Governor. (What is the dif- 
ference between a justice and a magistrate ?) 

George Clendenin, William Morris, 
George Alderson and John Van Bibber, 
were licensed to keep public house and they 
gave bond and received the rates, which 
last then meant, that the court determined 
and furnished the prices to be charged for 
meals and drinks. 

Feb., 1792 — A road ordered to be cut and 
cleared from William Clendenin's to the 
Great Sandy river, and a levy of two shil- 
lings per head ordered for repairing the 
road to the top of Gau'ey Mountain. 

Jan., 1703 — Leonard and John Morris 

were appointed as administrators of Wm. 
Morris, Sr., and Jacob Carter, John Camp- 
bell, were made appraisers. Elizabeth See 
appointed administratrix .of Michael See, 
deceased, and Thos. Lewis, Leonard Cooper 
and John Van Bibber, appraisers. 

Nov., 1793 — Geo. Clendenin, clerk of this 
court, begged leave to resign. Andrew 
Lewis of Bath County, was appointed in his 
place but failed to attend. John Reynolds 
was made clerk in place of Lewis. Francis 
Watkins was made a Justice (though he is 
acting clerk). 

Thos. Upton's will is proven and Fleming 
Cobb, executor. Francis Watkins is ap- 
pointed sheriff and also commissioner of 
land tax. (Thus we have seen Francis Wat- 
kins was on the court bench, was clerk and 
sheriff and commmissioner). 

August, 1795 — Thos. Hannan versus John 
Edwards, jury trial. Joseph Ruffner made 
surveyor of roads in place of George Aider- 
son. Jesse Jarrett, Leonard Morris, John 
Miller, road surveyors. 

Nov. 2, 1795 — Georg'e Alderson is ap- 
pointed sheriff by the Governor. George 
Clendenin enters dissent against his quali- 
fication because the language of the com- 
mission is insulting and uncustomary, it 
being as follows : "Know ye that the Court 
of Kanawha having failed to nominate fit 
persons for the office of sheriff, etc." 

Nov., 1795 — Present, George Alderson, 
gentlemen, who refused to adjourn the 
Court. (The next court held Jan. 4, 1796). 

March 7, 1796 — William Clendenin quali- 
fied as sheriff. Grand Jury sworn. Geo. 
Alderson has John Allen qualified as his 
deputy. Deed of William Duval to Jas. 
Swam recorded. 

March 8, 179(3 — Committee report on 
road from Ten Mile to Point Pleasant. 
John Miller and Edward Erwiu granted 
license to keep ordinaiw. 

April 4, 1796 — There were 90 wolf scalps 
presented for payment, and allowed 2 s. 8 d. 

There was allowed to Chas. Donnalty for 
ln's house for a courthouse, 200 s. and for 
inside work of courthouse, for good floors, 


2 doors, 4 windows, one pair of stairs and 
stair door, a fashionable seat for the magis- 
trates' and the clerks' table and the attor- 
neys' bench and bar — 128s. To be chinked 
and daubed in workmanlike manner. 

August 1, 1796 — Edward Graham, pro- 
cured license to practice law in the Inferior 
and Supreme Courts of this commonwealth 
under the hand and seal of Paul Carrington, 
Edward Winston, and S. Henry, judges of 
the Superior Court. Liberty is granted to 
him to practice law in this county and said 
Edward took the oath as attorney to sup- 
port the constitution and the oath of office 
and he was appointed State's Attorney for 
this county and allowed $40.00 per annum. 
(This is the first named attorney since the 
county was organized.) 

Nov., 1796 — Presented Joseph Ruffner 
for failing to repair road. Presented Joseph 
Burrell for hunting on the Sabbath day. 
Presented William James for taking the 
Lord's name in vain. The ferries kept by 
Thos. Lewis on Ohio and Kanawha rivers, 
continued. Geo. Clendenin's ferry on Kana- 
wha, continued and assigned to Joseph 

George Alderson again protests against 
the "sufficiency of the jail." 


county from 1797 T0 ^47 

(The dates given are those of qualifica- 

1797, David Milburn, died. 

1809, Daniel Ruffer, sheriff, 1839-40, re- 
moved to Cincinnati. 

1814, Andrew Donnally, sheriff in 1843, 
his office expired in 1845. 

1817, Joel Shrewsbury. 

1821, John Slack, sheriff in 1841-42. 

1825, Jesse Hudson, sheriff in 1845-47. 

1825, Van B. Reynolds, removed to 

1825, James Staton. 

1826, James C. McFarland. 
1826, John P. Turner. 

1831, Samuel Summers, departed this life 
in 1845. 

1833, John Hansford. 
1833, William Gillison. 
1833, Philip R. Thompson. 
1835, Joel Shrewsbury, Jr. 

1835, Alex W.'Handly. 

1836, John Synder. 
1836, John C. Thomas. 
1839, Alex Wallace. 
1839, Spicer Patrick. 
1839, Isom Adkins. 

*~ 1839, Felix G. Hansford. 

1839, Allen M. Smith. 

1840, John Lewis. 

1841, Mahlon S. Morris. 

1843, Shepherd Duke, removed to Ken- 

1843, Richard E. Putney. 
1843, Joel Ruffner. 
1843, Mason Campbell. 
1843, William King. 
1843, Adam Cook. 
1843, L. H. Brannon. 
1847, John D. Lewis. 
1847, Henry H. Wood. 



The Morris and Clendenin Families — John Jones — Perils of a Settler's Life — Individuals of 
Morris Family; Their Record — Bishop Thos. Asbury Morris — Major John Hansford — 
John Jones — John Paddy Huddleston — Daniel Nihoof — Kanawha Valley in 1808 — Sum- 
mers' Journal — TKe Clendenin Family — Payroll of Capt. Wm. Clendenin's Company, 
1788 — Muster Roll of Capt. John Morris, i/pi — Pensioners under Act of March 18, 18 18 
— Pension Applicants — Ruffner Family — Peter Ruffner, the Immigrant — Individual 
Mention — Gen. Lezvis Ruffner- — Elk River Settlers — Skeleton on Strange Creek — Early 
Patents of Elk Lands — Jarrett Ford — Rescue of Boy from Indians — White Man Disguised 
as Indian; his Merited Death — Mrs. Mary Ingles — Abb's Valley- — The Moore Family 
Tragedy — Rev. Jas. M. Brown — -Killing of the Stroud Family — Wiping-out of Bull Town 
— Lezvis Tackett — Tackett's Pine — Anne Bailey; her Interesting Story and Heroic Char- 
acter — Alvah Hansford's Recollections — James River and Kanawha Turnpike Opened — 
Daniel Boone; his History — Simon Kenton — Simon Girty — Wilson Harris's Recollections 
— Coalsmouth — Tobacco, a Legal Tender. 


The upper settlement in the Kanawha 
Valley, was made by the Morris family, 
which was the first white family that be- 
came permanent settlers in the Kanawha 
Valley. About fourteen years thereafter 
there was made the lower settlement at the 
mouth of Elk river, by the Clendenin family. 

Walter Kelly previously attempted to 
make a settlement on the Kanawha river; 
he brought his family from the Greenbrier 
country and settled at the mouth of Kelly's 
creek, but he sent back his family, only re- 
maining himself. He was too early and had 
not sufficient force to maintain himself. He 
was at work and Col. Field had stopped 
with him and they had a black man with 
them ; the Indians came up on them by 
stealth and fired upon the settlers while 
they were at work making leather. They 
killed Kelly and the black man, but Field 
made his escape. 

The exact date of Kelly's coming is not 

known but he was killed early in 1773, and 
then followed the Morris family, who took 
possession of the place left by Kelly. 

William Morris was on the ground in the 
fall of 1774 and just what month he and his 
family came to the valley is not definitely 
known. But he came to stay and stayed. 
His family was large enough to make a for- 
midable resistance, and Indians did not at- 
tack when they had reason to expect a warm 

The Morris family was composed of Will- 
iam Morris, Sr. and his wife, and his ten 
children, to wit : William, Jr., Henry, Leon- 
ard, Joshua, John, Carroll, Levi, Benjamin, 
Elizabeth, who was the wife of Mr. See, and 
'Frances, the wife of John Jones. These, 
were thus eleven men and as many wives 
and many children and with each holding a 
good gun, they made too formidable an 
array for an ordinary Indian squad to attack. 

Mr. William Morris, the father, was be- 
coming old when he arrived ; he was a quiet. 



peaceable patriarch whose business was to 
protect his family. His eldest son was Will- 
iam, Jr., a strong, hale, hearty man; who, 
when he decided, executed and never let 
small objections interfere; he was the leader 
of the family and while he had not the 
benefit of an education, nevertheless he was 
a born leader of men. 

Henry was hardly second to William, a 
perfect giant physically, who suffered from 
the Indians, that killed two of his daugh- 
ters ; he swore eternal vengeance, and he 
never afterwards let an Indian escape, if 
he had. an opportunity to kill him. 

Leonard was also a strong character and 
was the best known member of the family. 
He took more interest in affairs generally, 
and was at one time supposed to have been 
the first of the family to arrive from the 
Greenbrier Country (although yet in Green- 
brier County, on the north side of the river 
and was in Montgomery County, on the 
south side of the river). 

Joshua and John were strong, reliable 
men of good judgment; there were also 
Carroll, Levi, and Benjamin, that were 
rather disposed to belong to the quiet order 
of mankind. 

Mrs. See lost her husband early ; while the 
cause of his death was not given, evidently 
we are authorized to consider that it was an 

Mrs. John Jones had a husband that was 
much of a man. He and John Morris, and 
perhaps others, were in the battle of the 
ioth of October, 1774, and it is said Mr. 
Jones also volunteered in the service of the 
state in the Revolutionary war. It would 
seem that in every way this family was ad- 
mirably adapted for the times and they made 
the most of it. It is probable that there 
were others that came with them, but we 
are unable to give their names, and no In- 
dian is recorded as having made any suc- 
cessful attack on their homes. They prac- 
ticed eternal vigilance. 

They were on the line that the travelers 
to Kentucky adopted to go to the Ohio 
river and thence down the same, and while 
the trail from Lewisburg to this valley was 

by no means a turnpike, it became the trail 
that the travelers, hunters and surveyors 
adopted and used, through a hundred miles 
of wilderness, and here it ended. 


To bring a family of men, women and 
children into a wilderness and to maintain 
them there, was no small undertaking. They 
had plenty of water and wood and the wild 
animals were all around them ; all of which 
required energy and forethought and activ- 
ity to feed and protect them. They had no 
crops, no grain, no mill, no store, no mar- 
ket, but game and fish were plenty ; there 
were nuts and wild fruits, etc., by which they 
could live for a year or so ; they had no doc- 
tors, nor ministers, nor churches, no drug 
store, and they only had what they made 
(home-made) and gathered by the use of 
their guns. All this was bad enough, but 
•it was not the worst. They had an enemy, 
a most brutal and cruel savage Indian 
enemy, whose whole purpose of life was the 
destruction of the white man, woman and 
child, and they had no nature or instinct to 
which any appeal could be made. These 
brutes came in squads and whenever they 
found a white person unprotected or a home 
that was not guarded, then they delighted 
to take scalps, which meant life. Conse- 
quently the settlers had to keep a watch and 
guard and always have their guns loaded 
and near at hand. This added greatly to 
their worry, and their fears and their dan- 

We are advised that a settler's life was no 

Your imagination will aid you when you 
hear that none went outside of the house, 
but what some skulking Indian was likely 
to fire on them from some hidden post ; but 
with all this dread and this lack of conve- 
niences and even necessities, the Morris set- 
tlement progressed, and it spread to the 
opposite side of the river, and up and down 
the river, and others came and settled. One 
may have supposed the more of them there 
w T ere. the more misery and suffering, but 
they continually improved their condition. 



The Morris family was in the Valley when 
General Andrew Lewis's army marched 
down to the Ohio river, and some of the 
Morrises joined said army and were engaged 
in the battle at Point Pleasant on October 
10, 1774. 

Boat building begun early and travel was 
made better by it ; they were able to sell 
boats and this travel was safer, and the 
settler was bettered, and his finances im- 
proved. Farms were appearing in better 
shape, fences looked better, houses and 
stables, pastures for stock, and the trade 
from the east began; they had to have pow- 
der, and they were constantly improving 
their conditions, and all the while they had 
to obtain new almanacs, time kept passing 
on, seasons followed seasons, and no note 
of time was kept. Tempus fugit. 

Major Billy Morris's wife was Catherine 
Carroll, born in 1751 ; married in 1768. 
From the death of the father, the Major 
became the head of the family, and one of 
the leading men of the county. 

The first settlement in Kanawha was 
made at the upper end of the valley, the 
lower part was not settled for some time, 
that is, in 1788, when George Clendenin 
and his friends came to the mouth of Elk 
river, at least twenty miles below that of 
the Morris settlement. 

The children of Major and Catherine Mor- 
ris were : Jane, born in 1770, married Major 
John Hansford; Gabriel, born in 1772; Will- 
iam (the 3rd), born in 1773, married Polly 
Barnes; Catherine, born in 1778, married 
Charles Venable ; Carroll, born in 1779; 
John, born in 1783; Cynthia, born in 1792, 
married Isaac Noyes. 

Th,e Morris family were English and also 
were Baptists. They first came to Phila- 
delphia, then to Culpeper, Va., then to 
Greenbrier and then to Kanawha Valley. 
They were movers and were growing all 
the time. They were land buyers and were 
on the lookout for good lands all the while. 

Jane Morris (A-l), born in 1770, became 
the wife of Major John Hansford in 1787, 
at Lewisburg, in Greenbrier County; she 
was the oldest child of Major William and 

Catherine. Major Hansford lived at the 
mouth of Paint Creek and he was in the 
Legislature, 181 1 and 1813. Jane died in 
1854 and left twelve children, one of whom 
was Sarah, born in 1792, who married a 
William Morris, whose children were : Ful- 
ton, Joshua and John. His sons were : Her- 
man, William, Morris, Felix G. John, Car- 
roll, Charley, Alva, Gallatin and Melton. 

Gabriel Morris we can get no information 
of, and we shall not undertake to guess that 
he went to Kentucky or elsewhere. 

William Morris (the 3rd), born 1775, 
married Polly Barnes, daughter of Joseph 
Barnes, and the mother of Polly was the 
sister of James Ramsey, of Shepherdstown 
on the Potomac, the inventor of the steam- 
boat. This William Morris was the in- 
ventor of the "stips or jars," a tool that 
made deep well boring possible, which in- 
vention was a public benefit. Their children 
were : Joseph Barnes, married Sally 
Hughes; Catherine, married Morris Hans- 
ford ; Roxie, married Joel Alexander ; Ja- 
nette ; Cynthia, married Wm. White ; Will- 
iam (the 4th), married Julia Mitchell; 
Maria, married Norborne Thomas ; and 
Thomas Morris. 

Catherine, who married Morris Hansford, 
had four children, viz: William, Franklin, 
Monroe and Emeline. 

Janette never married ; she lived to be 
eighty years of age, but she never grew old. 

Catherine Morris, daughter of Major 
William, was born in 1778, married Charles 
Venable in 1800; they left no children and 
he was one of the first to emancipate his 
slaves. She was a Morris by all the rules 
of inheritance and was exceedingly popular 
with the young people and there they were 
always found. She decided a question and 
then acted with determination and let no 
trifling matter interfere with her. She once 
decided to attend some gathering on the 
opposite side of the river, and there was no 
boat on her side. She took the clothes she 
wanted to wear and placed them in a sugar 
trough, shoved the same ahead of her and 
swam the river, and attended as if nothing 
unusual had transpired. She had been 



heard to say that she had done this often. 
Her home was in the lower part of Kana- 
wha City, a few miles above Charleston, on 
the south side of the Kanawha river. She 
was a woman of character and decision and 
one whom everybody admired. 

Carroll Morris, fifth child of Major Will- 
iam, married we know not whom. His chil- 
dren were : Maria, married John Hansford ; 
Letitia, married Norris Whitteker; Parth- 
enia ; Catherine, married Dr. Sutherland; 
Michael ; and Carroll, Jr. 

John Morris, born in 1783, sixth child of 
Major William and Catherine Morris, mar- 
ried Polly Duke. He sold his place to 
Aaron Stockton and moved to Missouri. He 
had a son, Granville, who was killed in the 
Black Hawk War. He decided to go West, 
he built a boat, into which he placed his 
family, servants, wagons, tools and some 
stock, etc. The entire Baptist congregation 
assembled on the shore to see him start, a 
prayer was offered for his safety and he 
launched his boat and left the Valley. 

Cynthia Morris, seventh child of Major 
William, was born in January, 1792. She 
married Isaac Noyes, who came from one 
of the northern states and was one of the 
leading merchants and salt makers of the 
Valley. His home was on south side ad- 
joining the Venable home. 

Mr. and Mrs. Noyes lived to be quite old 
and were well known and respected by all 
the people of Charleston and vicinity, and 
they were the ancestors of the families of 
Noyes, Smith, Rand. Arnold, Ruby, and 
others, of Charleston. 

Col. Benj. H. Smith and his son Isaac H. 
Smith, and his son Harrison B. Smith, were 
all lawyers of prominence, and the latter is 
so ens"aged yet. To write a full history of 
this Smith family would alone require a 

Henry Morris, the second son of AVilliam 
Morris, Sr., married Marv Bird of Bath 
County, Va., who was, with her sister, made 
a prisoner by the Indians and held for seven 
years, until she was sixteen years of age. 
Henry built his home on Gauley river in 
1791 and his only neighbors were Conrad 
Young and Edward McClung. 

Henry and Mary had eight children, 
seven daughters, and one son, John Morris. 
The girls were Leah, Catherine, Margaret, 
Polly, and Betsy, and the names of the 
others we have failed to learn. In 1792, 
while Margaret and Betsy had gone after 
the cows, they were caught and scalped by 
Indians and both buried in one grave. The 
rest of the family went to the Fort on the 
Kanawha, and Henry swore eternal ven- 
gence on all Indians. Mr. Young's family 
were boys and could handle a gun. 

Henry Morris was a large, stout, healthy 
man, had no fear and when aroused was a 
desperate one. He never recognized any 
Indian as a friend, and it was his business 
to kill all of them that he saw. He was at 
the battle of Point" Pleasant in 1774 and 
with the flanking party on Crooked creek. 
One of his daughters married William 
Bird of Bath County, and they settled on 
Twenty Mile and afterward on Sycamore. 
Another daughter married Jesse James, of 
Bath County, and they settled on Otto 
Creek. Another daughter married Conrad 
Young, Jr. Henry died in 1824. John, son 
of Henry, married Jane Brown and they 
had some sons and five daughters. Alfred 
N. Morris, son of John, was a Baptist min- 

Leonard Morris was the third son of Will- 
iam Morris, Sr. It has been said that he came 
to the valley before his father or any of the 
others, but so far as history or tradition goes, 
they all came together. He was one of the 
judges of the county court. He in 1775 saw 
the surveyors making the survey of the Burn- 
ing Spring two hundred and fifty acre tract. 
In 1798 he was the sheriff of the county, his 
home was at the mouth of Slaughter's creek, 
and his neighbor was John Flynn who was 
killed by the Indians on Cabin creek, and his 
son made a captive, taken to< Ohio and burned 
at the stake. 

He first married Miss Price and afterwards 
Margaret Likens. The children of the first 
union were as follows : 

John, went to Missouri and died about 
1831; Meredith, went South; Mary, married 
1791 Lawrence Bryan; Sarah, married 1794 
to Fleming Cobbs; Elizabeth, married Robert 



Lewis; Leonard, Jr., married Ann Austin in 

Leonard Morris's children by his second 
union were : Charles, married Lucinda 
Crocket; Nancy, married John Shrewsbury; 
Parthinia, married J. B. Crocket ; Joshua, 
married a daughter of Jonathan Jarrett; 
Hiram, never married; Peter, married a 
daughter of Jonathan Jarrett; Andrew, never 
married, died in Indiana in 1842; Cynthia, 
married Samuel Hensley; Madison, married 
Nancy Spurlick; Dickinson, married Susan, 
daughter of James Morris. 

Hiram Cobb, a grandson of Leonard Mor- 
ris, came from Point Pleasant to Charleston 
in a canoe, from sunrise to sunset, and won a 
gallon of peach brandy thereby. This is as 
fast time as the little packets usually made it 
in, the distance being nearly sixty miles. 

Charles Morris, son of Leonard, born 1790, 
died in 1861. His children were: Leonard, 
born 1 81 9, married Courtney Walker, resided 
in Brownstown, and is yet hale and hearty; 
Hamilton, born 1821, known as "Ham Mor- 
ris," the clerk, and one of the best and most 
popular men of the county ; Francis, died 
young; Andrew, born 1828, went to Texas, 
died in 1875; Charles, Jr., married Miss Fos- 
ter, died in 1875; Margaret, born 1829, mar- 
ried Mr. Samuels, attorney; Parthinia, born 
183 1, married Tom Swindler; John, born 
1833, married Miss Abton. 

Joshua Morris, fourth son of William Mor- 
ris, Sr.. married Francis Simms of Virginia; 
their children were : William, who married 
Sarah Hansford, lived at Gauley Bridge; 
Edmund ; Henry ; Elizabeth ; Lucy, married 
Mr. Chapman ; Nancy, married John Harri- 
man; Thomas; Mary; and John, born in 1794 
in Culpepper, Va. 

Joshua settled in Teays Valley, but Indians 
were too troublesome. William, his son, mar- 
ried Maria Hansford, lived near the Falls and 
moved to Missouri. Their children were 
Fenton, Joshua and John. 

The will of Joshua Morris, Sr., was re- 
corded in 1824, Will Book No. I, page 46. 

John Morris of Cabell county, son of 
Joshua, was born in 1794, in Culpeper 
coun'ty, Va. ; he married first Mary Everett, 

and their ' daughter Eliza married William 

Mary, the wife of John Morris, died and he 
then, in 18 19, married Mary Kinard and their 
children were as follows: Charles K., married 
Martha A. Kilgore; Albert A., never married; 
Joseph W., married Sarah A. Russell (he was 
a captain in the Confederate States army and 
was killed in Fredrick, Md.) ; Edna E., mar- 
ried Addison T. BufHngton; James R., mar- 
ried Helen M. Russell; Mary S., married first 
Ira T. McConihay and then John P. Sibrell. 
John Morris was an extensive stock raiser; 
he lived east of Milton, was frequently elected 
to legislature, and was known as a man of 
wealth. He went East with his slaves when 
the war came on and died in 1862, and while 
he was absent his house was burned and a 
great loss inflicted on his family. 

Joseph and James attended school in Cabell 
at Marshall Academy. Dr. McConihay of 
Charleston is a descendant of this family. 

John Morris, fifth son of William Morris, 
Sr., married Margaret Droddy and their chil- 
dren were John, Jr., Edmund, Levi, William, 
and Thomas Asbury. 

John was a captain of the Kanawha militia 
in the early days, and was an executor of his 
father's will. He lived about five miles above 
Charleston on the south side and afterwards 
moved to Cabell county and his son Edmund 
became a clerk of Cabell court in 1809. John 
Morris seems to have invested in lands on 
Hurdican and on Mud and owned one thou- 
sand acres on Mud, hence he was mound in 
Cabell county in 1809. 


The house where Thomas Asbury was born 
stood on a beautiful swell of ground, near a 
never-failing spring of excellent water, which 
house commanded a fine view up and down 
the Kanawha river for miles. All of the Mor- 
ris family were strict Baptists and while 
Thomas A. was in Cabell county w<ith his 
brother Edmund, he attended a school under 
Dr. William' Payne, who was a Methodist, 
and the education and the religion of the 
teacher became that of the pupil. Thomas 
joined the Methodist church in 18 13, and 



gave his hand to Rev. Samuel Brown, who 
was conducting the services while the congre- 
gation was singing, "This is the way I long 
have sought." He was instructed by Rev. 
Burwell and Rev. Stephen Spurlock, two 
Methodist ministers that preached for a long 
time in the county of Cabell and in Wayne. 

Thomas Asbury attended all their church 
meetings and he was licensed to preach by the 
quarterly conference in April, 1814. 

In some of these meetings he met and be- 
came acquainted with Miss Abigail Scales, a 
daughter of Major Nathaniel Scales, who 
lived on the Ohio river, where Huntington 
now is. Thomas and Abigail were married 
and they went to live at their home called 
"Spice Wood Cottage" on his father's land; 
this was in 1814. He was made a bishop in 
1836. His life was published in 1875 and 
there was written by the bishop a sketch of 
his early life. There was also published a 
sketch of the life of his first wife, Miss Scales, 
in the Ladies' Repository in 1842 and it is- 
written that she was born in Patrick county, 
Virginia, and came and lived with her father 
on the Ohio river until her marriage. Mrs. 
Morris was a sister of Mrs. Jacob Hite, Mrs. 
William Buffington, Mrs. Dr. Benjamin 
Brown and other daughters of Major Scales 
from North Carolina. His daughter Jane was 
born in Cabell county in 181 5 and she became 
the wife of Joseph G. Rust of Cincinnati, O., 
and they also had a son, who became a minis- 
ter. Rev. Francis Asbury Morris. 

The bishop lost his wife in 1842 and he 
married Mrs. Lucy Merriweather in 1844. 
She was the widow of Dr. Merriweather of 
Kentucky. She died in 1871 and the bishop 
subsequently contracted a third marriage. A 
handsome steel engraving of him is contained 
in the "Life of the Bishop" and he was a 
fine specimen of a man. 

It was said by some of the bishop's Baptist 
friends, that he chose the Methodist church 
because there were no bishops in the Baptist 
church and no opportunity for promotion. 
While Bishop Morris was one of the bishops 
of the old Methodist church, before the divi- 
sion, he made no change but remained therein 
until his death, which was in 1874. 

Bishop Morris was a talented man, of fine 
address and appearance, and perhaps may be 
said to have been the most illustrious of the 
Morris family. And as a bishop, he was sec- 
ond to none, at the time in which he served 
his church. He was a man of great executive 
ability and an earnest, faithful minister. 

Carlos Morris or Carroll was sixth son of 
William, Sr. We have no information of this 

Levi Morris, seventh son of William, Sr., 
married Margaret Starks first and Peggy Jar- 
rett secondly. The children were: Cynthia, 
married L. Brannon, the hatter; William; 
Benjamin, married Amanda Hamilton; James, 
married Sarah Shelton ; Francis, married 
William Spurlock ;_ G. W., married Sarah 
Hamilton ; Elizabeth, married Levi Spurlock; 
Martha, married Mr. Burgess. 

Levi was born in 1768 and died in 1834. 
James Morris, son of Levi, married Sarah 
Shelton, and their children were : George, who 
was killed by fall on the ice when a boy ; Levi, 
Jr., married Mary Voirs and went to North 
Carolina; Benjamin, married Ann Montgom- 
ery; James D., married Alice L. Hammaker; 
Susan, married Dickinson Morris; Amanda, 
married E. F. Flagg; Sarah, married William 
Hamilton; Ellen, married Silas Custer; Eva, 
married Dr. Manser of Kentucky; Margaret, 
married Joshua Harriman; Emma, married 
first Dr. Early and secondly William Riggs; 
Mary died young. 

Benjamin Morris, eighth son of William 
Morris, Sr., was born in 1770 and died in 
1829. He married Nancy Jarrett and their 
children were: Achilles, who went to Mexico 
and died; Frances, married William Shelton 
and went West; Virginia, married J. Kincaid 
of Ohio; Catherine, married Miles Manser of 
Kentucky; Jane, married Jacob Johnson; 
Celia, married Captain John Harvey; Eden, 
married Miss Edgar of Greenbrier; and Leah, 
who married Mr. Pardy. 

Benjamin Morris in 1824 built a brick 
house which is now known as the "Dunn 
House." He was a great hunter and once 
killed thirteen bears in one day. 

Morris Harvey of Fayetteville was a son of 
Capt. Tohn Harvey and the wife of Morris 



Harvey was a daughter of H. M. Dickinson 
and the sister of Morris Harvey. Miss Fanny 
married Capt. Snelling C. Farley of steamboat 

Elizabeth Morris was the ninth child of 
William Morris, Sr. She married Mr. See. 
Michael See and Adam See were sons of 
Geo. See and they came from the south branch 
of the Potomac. Michael See was in Kana- 
wha in 1792. 

Frances (or Franky) Morris was the tenth 
child of William Morris, Sr. She married 
John Jones, who was born in 1775 and died 
in 1838. He was in the battle of Point Pleas- 
ant, and from the account published of his un- 
usual conduct, he must have been excited; but 
if he ran, it was towards the enemy. He 
came from Culpepper county and he was also 
in the Revolutionary War. He settled above 
Paint Creek, was thrifty and had a good home, 
plenty of land, was generally well known and 
was a good Baptist. He delighted to tell of 
his martial experiences, while resting under 
the shade of an apple tree, brought home with 
him and growing near his house. His wife 
survived him and the monument to him and 
other members of his family she erected in 
her life time. 

Col. B. H. Jones of 60th Virginia Infantry, 
C. S. A., was a grandson of John and Franky 
Jones. He was a writer of much history of 
the late war and died in Lewisburg. 

Among the early marriages in Kanawha are 
found the following: 

1793, Sarah Morris and Charles Young. 

1795, Sarah Morris and Fleming Cobb. 

1796, Elizabeth Morris and Joshua Hil- 

1796, John Morris and Mary Ann Coleman. 

1794, Mary Morris and Lawrence Bryan. 
1800, Catherine Morris and Charles Ven- 


1802, Lucy Morris and Lucas Chapman. 

1803, Edmund Morris and Sally Estell. 

1804, John Morris and Jane Jordan. 

1805, Leonard Morris and Mary Heister. 
1806, Polly Morris and Jas. Ellison. 

1807, Cynthia Morris and Isaac Noyes. 
1807, Miriam Morris and Easom Hannon. 
1807, John Morris and Jane Brown. 

1802, John Morris and Hannah Morrison. 

For further particulars of the Morris fam- 
ily, refer to the W. Va. Historical Magazine, 
April, 1905, and for John Jones, October, 


Major John Hansford, born in Orange 
county, Va., 1765, died in Kanawha, 1850. 
He is said to have come to this valley in 1778; 
he married Jane Morris, daughter of William 
Morris and who was born in 1770 and she 
was four years old when she came to Kana- 
wha valley. Some say that he was married in 
Lewisburg in 1787. As this part of the coun- 
try then was in Greenbrier county and the 
record of the marriage was made in Lewis- 
burg, we presume that it was intended to say, 
that their marriage was in Greenbrier county; 
we should say that they were married at her 
father's house, at the mouth of Kelly's creek, 
on the Kanawha, where she lived with her 
father. John Hansford and Jane lived near 
William Morris until 1798, when they went 
across the Kanawha to a house there which 
they built just below the mouth of Paint creek. 
He had patented five hundred and thirty acres 
on Kanawha in 1793, four hundred acres on 
Paint creek in 1800, four hundred and ten 
acres on Kanawha in 181 8 and one hundred 
and ninety-seven acres on Paint creek in 1822. 
So he had land enough ; besides it is said his 
wife's father gave them a tract on which they 
built their home, which house, when built, was 
said to be the best in the valley; it was a 
frame, two-story, six rooms, the inside was 
made of cherry and walnut, but the material 
was all handmade. He is described by those 
who remember him, as a handsome, clean 
shaven man, well dressed, in blue broadcloth 
and silk hat. He entertained most hospitably 
and at eight}' was as gay as a boy. He had 
many interesting stories to tell of his time 
while in Richmond in the House of Delegates, 
for he represented Kanawha from 181 1 to 
1 81 8 inclusive, was there at the time of the 
burning of the theatre, and some solid silver 
spoons he purchased are still in existence, 
marked "J- H." He was a magistrate and a 
captain of the militia. His commission bore 



date 1809, captain of a company in the 80th 
Regiment in 13th Brigade in the 3rd Division 
of the Virginia militia. He was a Whig, a 
Baptist, a farmer, a salt maker and almost 
everything else. He drilled his company on 
each muster "day near his home and after the 
muster was over he set out "something good" 
of his own distilling, and then he took his 
leave ; and as a magistrate and as their cap- 
tain he could no more be found that day. He 
said that he wished the boys to have their own 
fun in their own way, which was to drink and 
fight as long as the brandy lasted, and we all 
know that good soldiers have been drilled to 
fight. There were no fines to pay on that oc- 
casion. He was a very industrious man all 
his life; he died in 1850, and his wife in 1854. 
Their boys were : Herman, William, born 1790, 
Morris, born in 1794, Alex G. born 1795, 
John born 1798, Carrol born 1799, Charles 
born 1800, Alvah born 1803, Marshall born 
1807, Gallatin born 1808, married Nancy 
Harriman; Milton born 181 1, married Mary, 
daughter of Andrew Parks, whose mother was 
a niece of General Washington. 

Of the family of Felix G. Hansford, we 
have learned probably the most. He was edu- 
cated under Dr. McElhamy of Lewisburg 
who as a Presbyterian minister served his 
church for sixty years. He there met Miss 
Frazier and they were married in 1821. They 
then came to Kanawha and he built a two-story 
brick residence near Paint creek in 1825. 
Their children were: James Frazier Hansford, 
who married Anne Noyes; Martha Jane, who 
married John S. Smith; Sally, who married 
Philip Doddridge; Felix G., Jr., who married 
Miss Hamilton, and Philadelphia Hansford 
who married William Hobson of Richmond. 

The home of Maj. John Hansford was a 
stopping place for travelers and the Hansford 
family was not only an early one but it was 
as good as it was early — one of the very best 
in any country. Paint creek was named from 
the fact of the Indians having painted some 
trees .there to show them that it was a high- 
way over to the New river, far in the centre 
of the state, and that it was a nearer and bet- 
ter route. 

The Morris and Hansford families inter- 

married later and they all did much to build 
up the country and the Baptist church, which 
proved their value as pioneers. 


John Jones, previously mentioned in brief, 
came to Kanawha as a pioneer and settled 
just after the end of the Revolution; he first 
came with Genl. Andrew Lewis on the way 
to Point Pleasant. He returned to his home 
in Culpepper county, Virginia, and then went 
into the Revolutionary army and remained 
until the end of the war. He was born in 
1755, finally came to Kanawha soon after the 
Yorktown surrender in 1781, and the first 
next thing he did was to marry Frances Mor- 
ris, of Kelly's creek.. In 1792 he took a patent 
for three hundred and fifty-nine acres on the 
Kanawha river, also for four hundred acres 
in the same year, and for four hundred acres 
in 1797 in the Teays valley, also for land on 
Paint creek. He is said to have controlled 
the situation from Paint creek up to the Nar- 
rows and the town of Clifton was located on 
bis farm and his own homestead was there 
also. This town was afterwards called 
"Dego" and now it is "Pratt." Why not call 
it Jonesburg? 

He was a quiet, easy, but positive man; he 
made more by attending to his own business 
on his own farm in his own way than he could 
in any other way. He had peculiar views as 
to some things, but they were his own iffair. 
He was a member of the Baptist church for 
over forty years. He made his home and his 
farm comfortable and when a traveler stopped 
with him once, he always wanted to go again. 
He was near to Capt. John Field when he was 
wounded at Point Pleasant. His will was re- 
corded in 1838 and he was buried in the Clif- 
ton cemetery. He had a son, Gabriel Jones, 
a daughter Nancy, who married Huddleston; 
Frances, who married a Shelton, and she was 
the mother of Hon. Winston Shelton of Nich- 
olas county. Several of the family went to 
Indiana and this is all we shall tell of this 
pioneer — a man who did his duty, attended to 
his own business, and was a member of the 
Baptist church for forty-two years. See Oc- 



tober, 1903, W. Va. Hist. Magazine for the 


His father Daniel Huddleston was born 
and reared in eastern Pennsylvania, and went 
to Virginia and settled in Bedford county. In 
after years Daniel Huddleston married Rachel 
Martin and their son was named "John Paddy 
Huddleston" and this family came to Kana- 
wha after the Morrises but before the Clen- 

He had a house, that tradition says, was built- 
in 1785, the style of house then built is the 
kind this house was ; a double, two-story, 
hewed-log-framed, especially when it was in- 
tended to keep travelers on the roadside; a 
tavern, inn or ordinary. At first Daniel 
stopped at Loop creek, but subsequently 
crossed the Kanawha and built on the opposite 

Daniel, when he heard of the coming battle 
by Gen. Lewis, took his gun and his canoe and 
went down the river, but reached the Point 
just after the battle, but he was doing the best 
he could. 

Owing to the location of the stream and 
mountains, the travel from the East was either 
around to the north of the Falls, and down 
Kelly's creek to the river, or they crossed 
New river higher up and came down by Paint 
creek. And those living above Kelly's creek 
were to a great extent cut off from the line of 
travel for some time. Roads were out of the 

Daniel Huddleston patented three hundred 
and eight acres on the Great Kanawha in 
1 79 1, on which he made his farm and his tav- 
ern home. Nathan Huddleston patented two 
hundred acres of land on Laurel creek in 1801 
and also two hundred acres on the waters of 
Kanawha in the same year. David Huddles- 
ton seventeen and a half acres on Loop creek 
in 1809. Daniel Huddleston in 1810, twenty- 
seven acres on Kanawha, John P. Huddles- 
ton, fifty acres on Armstrong creek, 1810, and 
fifty acres on Kanawha river 181 5, and Job 
Huddleston one hundred and sixty-eight acres 
on Jarrett's branch 1830, etc. 

John Paddy Huddleston was born in 1771, 

died in 1862 and hence he was aged ninety- 
one. He was yet a boy when Daniel Boone 
came to Kanawha and took Paddy with him 
to set a trap for beaVers, which he discovered 
in the Kanawha. This trap is now in the 
historical rooms in the Annex, left there by 
the Huddlestons. 

John Paddy married Miss Mirian Jarrett of 
Paint creek and their children were : Job Hud- 
dleston, Jarrett, Allen, Nathan, George 
Paddy, Fleming, Ruth, who married Samuel 
Hanna and lived in Clifton; Nancy, married 
first Pinckney Peeples of North Carolina and 
later John A. Dempsey, and she yet resides 
in Fayette county, is ninety-one years of age 
and is bright and cheerful as ever; Elizabeth, 
married Frederick Nihoof of Frederick City, 
Md. ; Hulda, married Maj. Hiram Marsh of 
Vermont; and Mary married John Martin. 

Mrs. Ruth Hanna was ever regarded the 
most beautiful woman in the Kanawha valley. 
There was Peter Likins who owned from 
Smithers creek to Boomers branch. Then 
came John Boomer who was a cousin to 
Paddy Huddleston, and from Boomer up, for 
about four miles, was owned by the Huddles- 
tons. There was living above them, Zack B. 
Thomas, Mr. Copeland and Mr. Keeny. 

Just when Daniel, the ancestor died, we 
have not learned, but John Paddy Huddleston 
became known of all men, and he knew every- 
body and never forgot anybody or anything. 

He was called "Paddy" and this was one 
of his names, and not a nickname, nor was he 
an Irishman. He was rather a small man and 
a very quiet, easy going man, never drank, 
although he distilled peach brandy, which all 
taverns well kept were expected to have, 
among the other good things to be found 
when wanted, and which were among the first 
things called for by tired travelers, but neither 
Paddy nor his sons ever indulged and none 
were ever known to use profane language. 

J. Paddy Huddleston was a decided Union 
man and did all he could to keep the state from 
seceding, but when the state of Virginia passed 
the ordinance and the same was ratified, then 
Paddy said, "We will have to go with her," 
but he took no part with either side in the war, 
and he and his family and his property were 



respected by all parties. He had two grand- 
sons, Dan Nihoof and William Marsh, who 
spent a part of the war time in the service of 
the "C. S. A." and lived to return home after 
it was over. 

There were several of the Huddleston name 
that moved to Indiana but the family of John 
Paddy all died at home in Kanawha, or in 
Fayette. Fleming- Huddleston died on Blue 
creek in 19 10, and Nancy still surives. The 
others have all gone. 


Daniel Nihoof, son of Frederick and Eliza- 
beth Huddleston Nihoof, was born in 1837, in 
1857 married a daughter of Joseph Perkins of 
Gauley and their children are : Frederick, who 
lives in Kentucky ; Elizabeth, married Mr. 
Tamplin and is a widow ; Anne, married Mr. 
Morris, both died ; Kate, married Mr. Easely, 
said to be the image of her Aunt Ruth; Joe, 
is in Ronceverte ; Charles, with his father at 

On the C. & O. Railroad, Mt. Carbon is at 
the mouth of Armstrong creek; at the mouth 
of Loup creek, is "Deep Water," on the Ka- 
nawha river and the C. & O. Railroad, and is 
the terminus of the Virginian Railroad, about 
half way between Montgomery and the falls 
of Kanawha. 

Mr. Nihoof tells that near his home there 
was a large flat rock in the river's edge on 
which there was engraved there distinct fig- 
ures representing an arm from the elbow in- 
cluding the hand ; a wild turkey track ; and a 
fish ; that they are well executed figures and 
have been there since the memory of man run- 
neth not to the contrary, and that the Indians 
have always been credited with the execution 
thereof; the rock is covered with the water 
since the dam has been built. 


Lewis Summers made an inspection of 
this valley in 1808, passing down it on horse- 
back, with an eye for an investment in real 
estate, and watching for the outlook, to see 
what was the income to be. Exactly how 
he heard and learned that there was a Kana- 

wha Valley we do not know, unless it was 
through George Clendenin, who had been 
in Richmond in the Legislature. 

Summers kept a journal for the use of 
his father, whereby he could make selection, 
which was retained in the family and pub- 
lished in the Southern Magazine. He left 
Alexandria, Virginia, June 22, 1808, passing- 
through Centreville, Haymarket. Fauquier 
C. H.. Culpepper, then across the Blue Ridge 
to New Market and Harrisonburg, on the 
27th. Leaving Staunton to the left, he went 
to the Warm Springs, the Hot Springs, 
Jackson's river, to Dennis Callahan's, and 
the White Sulphur Springs, then Lewis- 
burg, in Greenbrier, where the tavern was 
kept by Mr. Tyree. On the 30th he reached 
New river and " struck Kanawha river at 
Hoof's Ferry and went on down to Mr. 
Jones's, here he notes that the farms are 
larger, the houses, buildings and orchards 
are better and more comfortable. July 2d, 
he left Jones's, crossed the river and went 
clown on the north side to Ruffner's Salt 
AVorks, which had lately commenced; he 
had but 64 kettles and the parts were quite 
temporary. The salt made was good and 
50 pounds made a bushel. He dined with 
Mr. Joseph Ruffner, who said the)' made 
from 25 to 30 bushels per day and sold it 
for $2.00 per bushel. He met Mr. Whit- 
tiker at the court house. The farms in- 
creased in size as he descended the valley. 
Mr. Ruffner told him that the Dr. Craik 
land, opposite Pocatalico, was the finest 
piece of land he ever saw and was worth 
four dollars per acre, taking it all. Mr. 
Andrew Donnally, the clerk, estimated the 
best of the bottom land at twelve dollars 
per acre. That there was a fine settlement 
in Teays Valley. July 3d, saw James Wil- 
son, who had been here twelve months and 
had gone to the Mason Court ; saw Mr. 
Reynolds. July 4th, the day was celebrated 
by gentlemen and ladies, about twenty of 
each ; Mr. Reynolds, David and Joseph Ruff- 
ner and their families; Mr. Buster and fam- 
ilv : Col. Andrew Donnally and family: Mr. 
Sparks and family and others, some fine 
girls from Teavs Vallev. 


While at the court house, his horse be- 
came lame and "Mr. Reynolds proposed a 
swap, and we selected Mr. Buster and Mr. 
McGee to make the trade for us." Mr. 
Summers then proceeded down the river to 
Blakes, then to Caruthers, and on the 6th 
of July he crossed the Kanawha, at Poca, to 
the Craik land which had been laid off into 
lots from 150 to 350 acres; the first lot was 
vacant, the second was held by Caruthers, 
the third was held by Tacket, the fourth 
by Asbury. 

He crossed the river at Red-House and 
went on Johnson's in Bronaugh's bottom, 
July 7th, examined G. W. Craik's bottom 
land, Col. Powell's, Mrs. Aldrich's and G. 
W. Craik's. 

July 9th, met Mr. Hale, brother to Mrs. 
Minor ; his first wife was sister to John 
Bronaugh, and his present wife, sister to 
William Bronaugh. Concerning Point 
Pleasant, he says, nature has been liberal 
to this place, but enterprise, industry and 
capital appear to be wanting. "Proceeded 
to Gallipolis and stopped at Menager's; met 
Mr. Le Clerc, Mr. Bruno; dined with Mr. 
Hereford; went with Col. William Clen- 
denin and examined Mercer's bottom land ; 
met Mr. Andrew Lewis and Mr. McKee," 

On the 16th of July, he returned to Point 
Pleasant, and went on to Parkersburg on 
the 18th, where he saw Mr. Neal, Mr. James 
G. Laidley, and talked politics ; and went 
on to Wheeling, then through Pennsylvania 
on to the Potomac and down the same to 
his home and made his report, and his 
father purchased the Dr. James Craik place 
afterwards, who resided in Alexandria. 


It was in the spring of 1788 that the Clen- 
denins came to the mouth of Elk river and 
this family with those that came with them 
made quite a settlement below the Morrises. . 
Evidently the Clendenins knew the situa- 
tion rmd the first thing - they did was to con- 
struck a fort, or fortified house, made bullet 
proof. They had purchased the "1030 
acres" immediately above the Elk river, 

that had been surveyed for Col. Thos. Bul- 
litt, and they came prepared to stay and 
likewise had guns and axes and men. All 
these people were active and energetic and 
made the bark fly. 

They, too, came from the Greenbrier 
country; they had learned what an Indian 
was and his ways of warfare, and they felt 
that while it was bad enough, they could 
take care of themselves, and with the people 
now in the valley, they all felt that with 
care and watchfulness, they could resist any 
and all that might come againsf them. 

While the Morrises were constantly im- 
proving their acquired lands, they also were 
on the lookout for other choice lands and 
were rapidly acquiring them ; there was 
plenty of it, but there were choice pieces 
which were a good thing "to have and to 

The Clendenins were Charles, the father, 
George, William, Robert, Alexander and 
Mary Ellen. All of these were quiet, sober- 
sided, thoughtful men, good and true, kind 
and generous, able, educated and well 
trained and acquainted with the ways of 
the world. 

The settlement at the mouth of Elk was 
rushed forward and buildings around the 
fort to entertain the people that might 
come, and to shelter the farmer, that was 
clearing the land, were constructed. The 
settlement was growing, communication 
with the East more common, and business 
was looking up all along the line. No 
doubt it was quite an entertainment to have 
a blacksmith shop in their midst, and a ped- 
lar was a God-send, and besides it was not 
so lonesome. It was some fifteen or twenty 
miles from one settlement to the other, but 
between the two it was filling up with 

The Clendenins seemed to have been a 
little ahead, in some respects, of the Mor- 
rises, and although the upper settlement 
was the larger, it seemed to have been bet- 
ter satisfied with this situation, while the 
Clendenins had an "eye out" for the future 
and especially for the sfrowth of the lower 
settlement; and the Clendenins supposed 

'.;/,'/■ ■■'' 

k^ . _.'. 



a little town might get a start — at least a 
start, on Major Morris. It was not long be- 
fore it was announced by George Clendenin 
that the Legislature had made a new county 
and directed a court to be established and 
the court house was to be at "Clendenins" — 
all of which had a tendency to start a boom 
at this settlement at the mouth of Elk, 
where the people were wont to meet; to 


which place they would have to come, and 
even Major Morris, would be summoned 
to attend. 

We do not know that Clendenin "chuck- 
led" or that Major Morris "cussed," but the 
court house of "Kanawha" was located at 
"Clendenin's." Perhaps few, if any, had 
ever heard the name of the new county; 
many wondered why they had selected an 
Indian name, and more were wanting to 
know why the court house was located 
"away down" at the mouth of Elk, etc. 

Evidently the Clendenins had had a hand 
in it, if they had not been so long in it 
otherwise, and our pioneers, the Morrises, 
who had been too busy in other matters, 
were out-generaled. 

Another account of this family runs as 
follows : 

There came to Greenbrier in 1761, Archi- 
bald and Charles Clendenin, and in 1763, 
peace was made between the French and 
English and the Indians had no excuse for 
murdering raids into the settlements in Vir- 
ginia, yet there was a raid made under Corn- 
stalk into Greenbrier county that destroys 
the settlement on Muddy creek, and the 
family of Archibald and Mrs. Clendenin, 
with an infant and her brother John, were 
taken off as prisoners into Ohio. 

Charles Clendenin's home and family es- 
caped, and its location at the time men- 
tioned, is not given. Charles had four sons 
and one daughter, viz : George, William, 
Alexander, Robert and Mary Ellen. George 
was born in Scotland in 1746 and was with 
Col. John Stuart, sent from Greenbrier to 
the Richmond convention in 1788, and 
George met Cuthbert Bullett in Richmond 
and purchased from Bullett the 1030 acre 
tract of land on the Kanawha, just above 
the mouth of Elk. 

Dr. Hale wrote that on May 1, 1788, the 
Clendenins, and others were on the land 
purchased of Bullett and were at work con- 
structing a fort and a residence for his fam- 
ily and associates, and the fort was built 
and the town was begun. With Clendenin 
came Francis Watkins, Joshua Harrison, 
Charles McClung, John Edwards, Lewis 
Tackett, John Young, and others whose 
numbers were sufficient to prevent an ordi- 
nary Indian attack. The official designation 
of the fort was "Fort Lee," though usually 
known as Clendenin's Fort. And for a time 
it was used as the court house of Kanawha 
county. It was a two-story, double, hewed- 
log, bullet-proof building and near by were 
some cabins for residences. 

Charles Clendenin, the father, died in 
1790 and was buried near the fort, which 
was located about the corner of Brooks and 
Kanawha streets, where the residence of 
Charles C. Lewis, Sr., now is. The first 
county court was held Oct. 5, 1789, in the 
fort, when the county was organized. 
George Clendenin was sent to the legisla- 



ture from Kanawha in the years 1790-1791- 
1792- 1 794 and 1795. 

In 1795 the 1030 acre tract was sold by 
the Clendenins to Joseph Ruffner, except- 
ing only the lots that had before that time 
been sold, and the Clendenins went to the 
mouth of the Kanawha on the Ohio. George 
went on a visit to Marietta, Ohio, and there 
died before May, 1797. 

William Clendenin was born in 1753 and 
Margaret, his wife, was born in 1762, their 
children, Elizabeth and Sophia, were born 
in 1785 and 1787, Charles, Jr., in 1789 and 
John in 1790. 

William died in Sept., 1828, aged seventy- 
six years. Margaret died in 1833, aged 
seventy-three. He also represented Kana- 
wha in the legislature. He lived the latter 
part of his life below Point Pleasant, oppo- 
site Gallipolis. He and his family were 
buried in the Steinberger cemetery, near his 

The Clendenin family were all good citi- 
zens, good business men and reliable, quiet 
people, and are entitled to the credit of be- 
ing the founders of the town of Charleston, 
which they named after their father. 

For further details of the Clendenin fam- 
ily, we would refer the reader to the West 
Virginia Historical Magazine for July, 1904, 
and to the Southern Magazine, in which the 
journal of Lewis Summers is published, 
which gives much information as to William 
Clendenin and family. 

Just exactly why the Clendenins sold their 
holdings at the mouth of Elk, on the Kana- 
wha, has not been explained. The Indians 
had ceased to trouble, and the country was 
growing; they had great holdings for sale, 
the county was organized and they had been 
honored in every way and it looks as if they 
should have remained, and sold lots, cleared 
and cultivated land and continued to repre- 
sent the county in the legislature, but Ruff- 
ner's gold induced him to let it all go, and 
there may have been other reasons; but if 
so. it is not related; therefore we will repeat 
that it was to rest in his old days and be 
quiet and enjoy the sight of the two towns 
and the big boats, etc. 

Peace to the founders of Charleston for- 



OF ELK, IN I788 

Capt. Wm. Clendenin. 

Lieut. Geo. Shaw. 

Ensign Francis Watkins. 

Sergeant Shadich Harriman. 

Sergeant Reuben Slaughter. 

Privates. John Tollypurt, Samuel Dun- 
bar, John Burns, Isaac Snedicer, William 
Miller, John Buckle, Jas. Edgar, Michael 
Newhouse, Robert Aaron, Wm. Carroll, 
Thomas Shirkey, Nick Null, Archer Price, 
Ben Morris, Levi Morris, Jo Burwell, Wm. 
Boggs, Wm. Morris, W^m. Turrell, Wm. 
Hylliard, John Cavender, Henry Morris, 
Chas. Young, Wm. George, Alex Clendenin, 
John Morris. 


Capt. John Morris, Lieut. Geo. Shaw, En- 
sign Andrew Lewis, Ensign Alex Clendenin, 
Sergeant John Hansford, Sergeant Geo. 

Privates. Thos. Upton, David Johnson, 
Sr., Jas. Hazleton, Lewis Floyd, Wm. Mil- 
ler, Edmund Newhouse, Leonard Morris, 
Edward Price, John Moss, Reuben Slaugh- 
ter, Adon Mathews, Henry Morris, Chas. 
Young, John Jones, Wm. Droddy, John 
Tackett, John Bailey, Jr., Nathaniel Hud- 
dleston, Wm. Smith, Rowland Wheeler, 
Phillip Tuon, John Wheeler, Ezekiel 
Droddy, Wm. Pryor, John Windsor, John 
Sheppard, Michael Newhouse, John Mor- 
ris, Jr., Chas. McClung, Henry Newhouse, 
Ed. McClung, Jas. Spencer, Wm. Hall, Wm. 
McCallum, Jo Graham, Geo. Alderson, Wm. 
Griffith, Wm. Carroll, Wm. Morris, Jr., 
Jonathan Windsor, Conrad Young, Joseph 
Edwards, Levi Morris, Thos. Alsbury, Jr., 
Arch Casey, John Cavender, Roland 
Wheeler, John Childers, Samuel White, 
Wm. Hughes, Davis Alderson, John Jen- 
kins, Carrol Morris, Chas. Alsbury, John 
Sharp, Wm. Crain, Wm. Neil, Jo Burwell, 



Thomas Sammons, John Carter, Benjamin 
Johnson, Patrick Cockhern, Pleasant Wade, 
Reuben Simmons, Abram Barker, Jos. Car- 
roll, Francis Watkins, John Bailey, Wm. 
Rider, Mathias Young, Lewis Tackett, 
Benjamin Morris, Lewis Tackett, Jr., Ed- 
ward Hughes, Jo Clymer, Henny Bailey, 
Mathew AVheeler, Robt. Juon, John Case- 
bolt, Sam Peeples, Thos. Hughes, Thomas 
Shirkey, Thomas Hughes, Jr., Gabriel 
Jones, John Edwards. 

To the roll of Capt. John Morris's com- 
pany, called into service from March 13, 
1792, to Jan. 1, 1793, which is substantially 
the same as for 1791, there is appended un- 
der the head of "Remarks" a statement of 
where they did duty, etc., viz : 

Capt. John Morris performed his duty at 
his own fort and with him there were Eze- 
kiel Droddy, sergeant (he had no family) 
and Thos. Alsbury; made a crop there; 
family there also and Chas. Alsbury; made 
crop, family there also; Thos. Alsbury, 
made crop (no family), and Thos. Haman, 
part of the time at home and at George 

At Clendenin Fort was John Young, 
lieut., with family, Alex. Clendenin with 
family, made crop; also Abram Baker, his 
family; John Edwards, with family, made 
crop ; Thos. Upton with family ; Larkin 
Stone, single ; Thos. Upton, Jr., John Bur- 
well, Andrew Hamilton ; Michael New- 
house and family, made crop; Ed. New- 
house; Lewis Tackett, Sr., made crop on 
town lots, family with him ; Amos Atwater, 
Lewis Tackett, Jr., single; after death of 
Michael See; Francis Tackett, single; 
Pleasant Wade, single. 

At Col. Andrew Donnally's. Francis Wat- 
kins, resided in town; William Miller, sin- 
gle; AVm. Droddy and family, made crop; 
Thos. Smith, with family, made crop there ; 
Geo. Alderson with family, made crop at 
home on river a mile above John Shepherd, 
Avas shot in the thigh, cured by Mr. Alsbury. 

At Leonard Morris's : Edward Price and 
family ; Henry Newhouse, single ; Robt. 
Lewis and family ; AVilliam Lewis, single. 

At AVilliam Morris's: To Carroll, AA^ill- 

iam Carroll, son of Jos. Carroll, Davy Aider- 
son, John Moss (wife was daughter of Jo 
Carroll), Henry Wheeler, captured by In- 
dians ; Mathew Wheeler, killed by Indians, 
16th October, 1792; Allen Rice with family, 
made crop ; Jo Chymer, single ; William 
Smith, single. Boat building. 

Jonathan Henderson, family made crop; 
William Morris, Jr., at home ; Edward 
Hughes, single, made crop ; John Hans- 
ford, made a crop over the river; Jonathan 
Kindson, little boy of 14; Carrol Morris, at 
home ; John Cavender, single, boat build- 
ing; John Bailey, single; Thos. Castor, sin- 
gle ; Samuel AVhite, took family to Jackson 
river, had a negro ; John Nugent, single ; 
Nathan AA^heeler, single, made crop ; Will- 
iam Pryor, made crop at home ; Isaac Jen- 
kins, boy of 14, with father, John Jenkins; 
Roland Wheeler, killed Oct. 16th. 

At John Jones's : John Jones, at home, 
.kept boat yard ; John Jenkins, with family, 
made crop; John Campbell, single, made 
crop ; Nathan Huddleston, family, made 
crop ; Robt. Irwin, single ; Joseph Edwards, 
Ben Morris, Gabriel Jones, Isaac Jenkins, 
15; Thos. Hughes, Jr., boy of 15 years; 
James Shirkey, single, made crop. 

Peters. Creek Station — Henry Morris, 
two children killed, then at Jones's ; Mathias 
Young, Chas. Young, John Niddle, James 
Robinson, single ; Henry Young single. 

At Pryor's — Daniel Tawney, Allyn Pryor, 
AVm. Pryor. 


Isham Bailey, private, allowed $25.97. 
Virginia Militia, placed on pension roll Sept. 
16, 1833; pension commenced March, 1831, 
aged 79. 

William Bailey allowed $80.00, aged. 80. 

Marshall Bowman allowed $30.00, aged 


John Cassey allowed $80.00, aged 70. 
Robt. Christian allowed $23.33, aged 70. 
Peter Grass allowed $43-33, aged 79. 
Rush Millam allowed $30.00, aged 75. 
Job Martin allowed $80.00, aged 81. 



Alex. Thompson allowed $20.00, aged 71. 
Joseph Thomas allowed $43.33, aged 75. 
John Young allowed $46.66, aged 74. 
Benjamin Stono, aged 74. 


Fleming Cobb, Kanawha, did not serve 
six months. 

Thos. Smith, Kanawha, did not serve six 

Ben Johnson, Kanawha, did not serve six 

Jonathan Windor, Kanawha, did not 
serve six months. 

Chas. Young, Kanawha, served in Indian 

Samuel Martin, Kanawha, awaiting fur- 
ther proof. 

Jas. S. Wilson, Kanawha, not six months' 

Peter Cook, Kanawha, awaiting proof. 

Edward Brown, Kanawha, not six 
months' service. 


Having treated of the Morris settlement, 
and then of the Clendenin settlement, we 
come now to the Ruffner family, that takes 
the place not only of the Clendenin but also of 
the Dickinson salt property, which together 
for a long time in the history of the county is 
to control the destiny of the valley. 

The Ruffners came to Kanawha from the 
valley of Virginia, the Shenandoah valley. It 
has been stated that this family were among 
the Hessians that came with the British to 
overcome the revolution brought about by 
England's tyranny and formally announced 
in the Declaration of Independence by the 
colonies, July 4, 1776, and who remained in 
the United States after England's failure to 
hold her supremacy over the colonies — that 
her hired German soldiers chose to remain as 
Virginians instead of returning to Germany. 
But this is not true. In the first place, the 
ancestor, Peter Ruffner, was born in Switzer- 
land and came to America when a young man, 
bringing with him an only sister, who became 
Mrs. Abraham Strickler, they being the par- 

ents of the Strickler family, Jacob and Joseph 
and others of Shenandoah county, Va. 

Peter Ruffner married Mary Steinman in 
Lancaster county, Pa., and also settled in 
Shenandoah, where he lived and died. He 
was the first of the name in Virginia and he 
settled in 1739 and hence was among the first 
of the German settlers of the valley of Vir- 

"The German Element in the Shenandoah 
Valley" is a work published in 1907 by Prof. 
John W. Wayland of the University of Vir- 
ginia, who says, "One of the largest land 
holders in the Shenandoah valley was Peter 
Ruffner, who was the first of the name in Vir- 
ginia and settled at the large spring on the 
Hawksbill creek, in 1739, now close to the 
town of Luray. His wife was Mary Stein- 
man whose father gave to them a large tract 
of land on the said creek, extending eight 
miles from its mouth on both sides, and then 
Peter added to this estate extending it four 
miles further up the same." 

In one of the conveyances dated in 1746 the 
name is spelled Ruffnaugh and Ruffner, and 
Peter became the administrator of the estate 
of Abraham Strickler, his brother-in-law. It 
is said in said Wayland authority, that Peter 
was of the Menonite sect, but Daniel Ruffner 
said that the Ruffners and himself were Luth- 

The children of Peter and Mary were : Jo- 
seph, born September, 1740, died March, 
1803. He married Anna Heistand who^ also 
was born in Shenandoah in 1742; the mar- 
riage was May 22, 1764. There were some 
six or seven others of the family but as they 
never came to Kanawha, we will omit their 
mention. They were Benjamin, Catherine, 
Peter, Jr., Reuben, Tobias, Elizabeth and Em- 

The children of Joseph and Anna were : 
Esther, born 1765, died young in- Shenandoah; 
David, born 1767, died 1843 in Kanawha; Jo- 
seph, born 1769, died 1837 in Cincinnati; To- 
bias, born 1773, died 1836; Eve, born 1777, 
married N. Wood, went to Ohio; Daniel, born 
T779, died in Kentucky, July, 1865; Abraham, 
born 1 78 1, died in Ohio. 

Joseph and wife moved to Kanawha in 



1795. He had been out West before that, and 
had purchased the five hundred and two acres 
salt property including other at mouth of 
Campbell's creek, from Col. John Dickinson 
of Jackson's river. 

Joseph became interested in the town of 
Charleston and he purchased all the land that 
the Clendenins had not sold; he owned all the 
salt property that was then known; and with 
the beginning of a new county, and a new 
town, and a new business, in a new world, he 
invested heavily and wisely. Consequently 
every proposition that had for its purpose the 
aiding of the upbuilding of the town or the 
county he became interested in. He was an 
active energetic, full of a go-ahead spirit and 
determination, and made a success of every- 
thing. He did not live to be over sixty-three 
and died in 1803. His wife died in 1820 and 
was seventy-eight years of age and both are 
buried in the Ruffner cemetery. 

His son David succeeded him as the leader 
of the name ; he was prominent as a justice, 
as a salt maker and man of affairs. His wife 
was Anne Brumbach and they were married 
in 1788. Their children were: 1, Henry, born 
1790, married Sally Lyle and then Laura 
Kirby; 2, Ann E., born 1792, married Dr. 
Richard Putney; 3, Susan, born 1794, married 
Moses Fuqua; 4, Lewis, born October 1, 1797, 
married Elizabeth Shrewsbury and then Viola 

David lived in Maiden and was a very im- 
portant personage, acting as a justice, he cared 
nothing for limited jurisdiction and his de- 
cisions were often compromises and arbitra- 
tions, but always for the best of both parties. 

It is said that he never lost his German ac- 
cent and German notions and that everyone 
recognized them as good ones. 

(1) Henry, became Dr. Henry Ruffner of 
the college at Lexington, Va., and was rated as 
one of the great men of the country. He was 
the author of the "Ruffner Pamphlet," which 
advocated gradual emancipation of the slaves, 
and excited a national interest. 

Dr. Henry had a son, William Henry; a 
daughter, Miss Julia ; and a son, David Lewis ; 
all of whom were much more than ordinary 
people in point of talent and education. Will- 

iam Henry was the greatest of Virginia's 
schoolmen. Miss Julia was a teacher and 
stood among the teachers of the country as 
unexcelled, and David Lewis was a civil en- 
gineer and as such had no peer. 

For detail of these people we refer to the 
W. Va. Historical Magazine and elsewhere 

Daniel Ruffner was another son of Joseph 
and Anna; he also was born in Shenandoah, 
in the year 1779, and came as a lad with his 
parents in 1795. His first wife was Elizabeth 
Painter and their children were : I, Catherine, 
born 1799, and went to Ohio and died 1849; 
II, Charles, born 1801, married Anna Hedrick 
and had two children — Mary, who was Mrs. 
C. L. Roffe of Cabell county and Lucius; 
Charles married second Elizabeth Wilson, 
children viz.: 1, Charles, Jr., who died young; 

2, Elizabeth, who married Rev. Mr. Rider; 

3, Goodrich, who was the wife of Mr. Sim- 
mons, of Cal. ; 4, Ann Placentia, who was 

'Mrs. Watson of St. Charles, Mo.;. 5, Ella, 
who died young, Charles Ruffner died in 
1 881. 

III. Joel Ruffner, born December, 1802, 
and married Diana Mayre, of Page county, 
Va., and they were the parents of a large fam- 
ily and they lived at upper part of Charleston. 

The children of Joel and Diana are as fol- 
lows : 1, Mary E., who died early; 2, Frances 
E., married David Lewis Ruffner, born 1830; 
3, Virginia, died young; 4, Anne M., born 
1834, never married; 5, William Mayre, born 
1836, died 1896, never married; 6, Alexander, 
born 1837, married Miss Wallace; 7, Daniel, 
born 1839, joined "Border Rangers" and died 
in C. S. A., 1862; 8, a daughter that did not 
live; 9, Joel, Jr., born in 1840, died 1861 in 
C. S. A. ; 10, Lydia D., born in 1842, unmar- 
ried; 11, Catherine A., born 1844, married 
Mr. Fant; 12, Jane A., born 1845, married 
W. W. Dorsey; 13, Theda E., born 1847, 
married Mr. Brans; 14, Willie A., born 1849, 
married Chas. Blaine; 15, Louisa B., born 
1 85 1, married John Hopper; 16, James Au- 
gusta, born 1853, married Miss Bach. This 
old patriarch Joel died in 1882. 

IV. Augustus, son of Daniel, born 1805, 
married Mary Rogers, their children were as 



follows: i, Henry Daniel, married Miss Sally 
Patrick, secondly Miss Abbott; 2, Leonora C, 
married W. A. Alexander; 3, Mary E., mar- 
ried Dr. L. L. Comstock; 4, Augustus, died 
in 1855. 

V. James and Andrew Ruffner, born in 
1807 — Andrew died unmarried in 1850. 
James married ( 1 ) Martha Morton, their 
children were: 1, Adeline M., died young; 2, 
Andrew L. ; 3, Meredith P., married Miss 
Maxwell, died March, 191 1; 4, Annastine W., 
married Col. W. H. Hogeman. 

James married (2) Ellen McFarland, and 
they were the parents of Mrs. Nellie Jackson. 
James died in 1868. 

VI. Elizabeth, daughter of Daniel, born 
July, 1 810, married Nathaniel V. Wilson. 
To these were born: 1, Catherine A., who 
married P. H. Noyes; 2, Daniel A., married 
Miss White; 3, Elizabeth J., married Chas. 
C. Lewis; 4, Annie, married Mr. Allemong; 
5, Virginia, married Rev. Dr. Hall ; 6, Willie, 
married Chas. Rooke; 7, Nathaniel V., Jr., 
married a Miss Spiegel; 8, James W., died. 

Daniel Rugner married (2) to Elizabeth 
Singleton, a widow, who was a daughter of 
Samuel D. Honeyman, and they were the 
parents of the following children, viz: 

1, Walter, born 1845 an d died young; 
2, Daniel, Jr., born 1847, died unmarried in 
1909; 3, Joseph, born 1848, married Miss 
Mary Jackson ; 4, Virginia, born 1850, mar- 
ried Mr. Stroughton ; 5, William, born in 
1853, lives in Kentucky. 

The Ruffner family has not all been given 
even of the Kanawha generation, but we 
are not able to give them. 

One of the ablest men of his day was 
General Lewis Ruffner, son of David, who 
was the first white child born in Charles- 
ton, Oct. 1, 1797. He was a salt maker, a 
member of the legislature. Was prominent 
in the formation of the state of West Vir- 
ginia. Lived to an old age, and left Lewis, 
Jr.. Ernest, Joel, and Mrs. Wiley. His son 
Ernest, graduated at the head of his class 
at West Point, and stands high in Engineer 
Department, U. S. A. Joel taught Booker 
Washington all that he learned in his West 
Virginia home. Joel died in jqtt at Maiden. 

Daniel Boone had heard of the valley- and 
had come and settled amongst the Kana- 
wha settlers about half way between the 
two settlements. He wanted a new game, 
and beavers were his selection and he 
taught Paddy Huddleston how to catch 
them with their traps. In the mouth of 
each creek was the beginning of a farm ; 
the flat-boat business had continued to grow 
and boats of all kinds could now be seen. 
From the list of persons in the county, now, 
the reader will be surprised to find so many 
persons in the country, and will also find 
that other persons, not present, had taken 
out patents for so much land in this wild 

Ann Bailey had become a frequent visitor 
and had become acquainted with them all, 
houses were better and farms were more 
farmlike, the legal tender crops, tobacco, 
was being grown and they all had hopes of 
being able to pay their taxes. 

While all this was progressing, and both 
settlements were growing, there was occa- 
sionally some talk of the need of more civil- 
ization and government, and in fact, there 
had been some steps taken and members of 
the legislature had been communicated 
with. Roads were needed and only a court 
could make them ; there were many cases 
between traders which could not always be 
decided without a justice and a jury, and 
constables to keep the peace were often 
needed. Business was looking up. 


Elk river settlers, in the order in which 
they settled, prior to 1820: 

Beginning on the north side, there was 
Henry Newhouse, on Newhouse Branch, 
who came about 1801 ; next above, was Ed- 
ward Burgess, about the Connor place; 
William and John Atkinson, about the Jar- 
vis place ; James Reveal, a' boat builder, 
came in 1815: and Ephraim Foster. 

Then came Leonard and George Cooper, 
who settled on Cooper's creek ; they sold 
out to Mike Newhouse. Michael New- 
house, John Porter of Porter's Island, Na- . 
than Porter, above Cooper's creek. Then J 



/came John Slack. Thomas Joplin was lo- 
cated in 1808 where afterwards Friend's 
salt-furnace was built in 1838. Joplin sold 
to Henry, and moved to the Kanawha river, 
where the Blaine farm is. Ralph Joplin was 
a Revolutionary soldier. 

Next above came Andrew and Doss At- 
kinson ; Jacob Jarrett came next at Little 
Sandy. Jarrett's Fort, in Greenbrier, was 
built by Jacob Jarrett and he is supposed to 
have been the same man. Martin Ham- 
mock came in 1808, and settled near Little 
Sandy. James Summers came and settled 
next above, and then John, son of Martin 
Hammock. William Givens came in 181 5, 
he was the father of Adam Givens. Abra- 
ham Jarrett, came next above and then 
George Rucker, who resided opposite the 

/ mouth of Blue creek ; Benjamin Slack, at 

I Slack's Branch, at foot of Young-'s shoal. 

j John Young, the old Indian fighter, who 
helped to save the boy on AVhite Man's 
Fork, of Aaron's Fork, settled at Young's 
Shoals and afterwards went to the mouth 
of Coal river. 

John D. Young, son of John Young, came 
next. Ed. Price came next above. Samuel 
James was at Jordan's creek. Arch Price, 
above Jordan's creek, and opposite Falling 
Rock was William Cobb, and then another 
John Young and William Hays. In 1808 
came Dr. Cobbs and settled at the mouth 
of Big Sandy. He was the first doctor in 
Kanawha and he had an extensive practice 
and was prominent and of decided character. 
We will come back to the mouth of Elk, 
above the town and there was Capt. Genat, 
at the mouth of Two Mile creek and there 
was a salt furnace on Two Mile creek. 
Joseph C. Youne, a salt maker, came from 
Kentucky. William Young settled on the 
hill. Aaron Crank settled in same vicinity. 
John Buster owned the Barlow farm. An- 
drew Atkinson had a boat-yard at the mouth 
of Mill creek. William Griffith lived at the 
mouth of Mill creek; an old settler. Then 
came John Slack, the father of Greenbury, 
John and Beniamin and Mrs. Chas. Bryant 
and Mrs. High. William Porter opposite 
Cooper's creek. John Phillips, the boat 

builder. Nathan Porter, about the Graham 
mines. Samuel Henry came next; he pur-: 
chased Blaine's Island for a bob-tailed mare 
and a spotted bull; he died on the Blaine', 
farm. Sol Ratcliffe, was at Indian creek, as 
also was James Sewall, who sold to Wilson. 
Squire Jarrett and Ownen Jarrett were at 
Jarrett's Ford. Then came John Graham,' 
who killed the last buffalo. Arch Price was 
at Blue creek. Joseph Newhouse, at Wal- 
nut creek. John Young was at the narrows. 
F. Rucker was at Falling Rock creek, he 
first discovered cannel coal and was a black- 
smith. Hiram Samples, Lewis Young, son 
of John. Wilson Woods, Lewis Young and 
Edmund Price, all lived where Clendenin 
now is. 

The land books in 1812 first gave any 
description of the land, and frequently was 
satisfied with saying "on Elk." These, with 
the description "on Elk," were Martin 
Hammock, Ralph Joplin, Ed. Price, John 
Slack and others. Pat Murphy, "at mouth 
of Strange creek." David Heaton, "above 
Birch." William Cobbs, "at Little Sandy." 
Geo. Hancock, "adjoining Cooper's," etc. 

" Strange is my name and I'm on strange ground 
" And strange it is that I cannot be found." 

This was found cut on a beech tree, on a 
creek of Elk, and the skeleton of a man and 
the rusty barrel of his gun near by ; evi- 
dently he was lost. The tree and the creek 
are there and the creek is called "Strange 

Adam O'Brian lived on Elk. he built his 
cabin in a secret-like, out-of-the-way place, 
to hide from the Indians, then blazed the 
trees so he could find it. He died in 1836, 
on Big Sandy, over one hundred years of 
age. He said he liked to live on the fron- 
tier; that he could kill an Indian but he 
dared not kill a sheriff, or a justice. He 
liked it when there were no laws; he could 
fight it out with varments and savages but 
had no show with lawyers and sheriffs. 

The following are early patents of Elk 
lands: In 1787, AVilliam Arbuckle, John 
Archer, Cooper and Morris, AVilliam Grif- 
fith, John Goodman, AA'illiam Royal. AVill 



iam Smuffer, Daniel Shedey. In 1788, John 
Osborne. In 1793, John McCae, David 
Robinson, Alex. Stuart. In 1795, James 
Stroud, Jas. Givens. Elk did her duty in 
furnishing' fighting men also. 

Jarrett Ford is twelve miles up Elk river 
and for a long while there could be seen 
around his house the old patriarch, Eli Jar- 
rett, a good old man that everyone knew 
and all respected. 

In 1780 some Indians came from Green- 
brier with a lad as a prisoner. They went 
up Elk; then Little Sandy and some men 
heard of it and the Indians were followed 
by John Young, Ben Morris, William Ar- 
buckle and Robert Aaron. These men 
came up to the Indians and fired, and one 
Indian was killed and the other escaped and 
the boy was rescued. The dead Indian 
proved to be a white man, disguised, and 
the stream was ever afterward known as 
"White Man's Fork, of Aaron's Fork, of 
Little Sandy." 

The most of the information concerning 
the Elk river settlers was furnished by John 
D. White, who knew almost every one on 
Elk, in Kanawha County, and he had been 
learning about people for many years and 
never forgot anything'. It was written 
down at his dictation and preserved and 
may be regarded as reliable as one's mem- 
ory could be. 


She was in her young days Miss Mary 
Draper, and she married William Ingles ; 
she left a son, John. He left a daughter, 
who was the mother of Dr. John Hale. 
Draper's Meadows and Ingles' Ferry were 
located on New river on the frontier. It is 
stated that some Indians were removed 
from Williamsburg to Reed creek, in 
Augusta, and this creek empties into New 
river above Ingles' Ferry; this was in 1751. 
In 1749 Adam Harmon, near Ingles' Ferry, 
had some furs taken by some Indians. In 
1758 there were explorers in the vicinity 

Asa girl she went with her brother, and 
partook of his vocations; they played, 

walked, rode and talked together; she could 
cross a ditch or a fence as easily as he, she 
could stand and jump nearly as high as her 
head, and she could stand beside her horse 
and leap onto the saddle unaided. 

She married in 1750 and her brother John 
married Betty Robertson in 1754. At this 
time the Indians had never been more 
troublesome than in taking some things 
that did not belong to them ; they had hurt 
no one. In July, 1755, the Shawnees from 
Ohio fell upon the people of Draper's 
Meadows and killed, wounded and captured 
the entire inhabitants of the settlement. 
Mrs. Mary Ingles and Mrs. Betty Draper 
were made prisoners. The Indians started 
for Ohio with all they could carry away. 
They went down to Blue Stone, up Blue 
Stone to the head of Paint creek and down 
to Campbell creek, where they rested and made 
salt for several days, which was done 
principally by the prisoners. After they 
all reached the Indian town, the prisoners 
were distributed and Mrs. Ingles' two 
children were taken from her. It was not 
long before she gave birth to a little girl 
which she kept with her. 

She was required to make shirts for the 
men, after a trader had visited them and 
they had procured the goods, and the war- 
riors were greatly pleased with her work. 

The Indians went into Kentucky to the 
Big Bone Lick to make salt and they took 
Mrs. Ingles and a Dutch woman they had 
captured in Pennsylvania, and the women 
soon began to consider their chances of 
escape, after they reached the salt works 
and had opportunity to talk and had been 
allowed more time to themselves. 

They were inland from the Ohio river 
about 40 miles below Cincinnati when they 
made up their minds to make the attempt 
to return to the home of Mrs! Ingles. They 
wasted no time in getting' ready. They 
proposed to go toward the Ohio river in the 
afternoon and after getting to the river, go 
up it to Kanawha, then up the Kanawha, 
then up the Ne'w river until they reached 
the old home place. There was no trans- 
portation ; it was necessary to walk each 



step, without any road, through bush and 
briers, over sticks and stones, across rivers, 
creeks and branches, without hotel or tav- 
ern, nothing to eat except what they could 
gather of nuts, fruits and such wild prod- 
ucts of nature. 

Before Mrs. Ingles left she had another 
trial, what was she to do with her baby? 
She either had to leave it, which meant its 
certain death, or to take it with her. The 
last was impossible; for she could not 
carry it; she either had to abandon the little 
one or the trip. She took the babe in her 
arms and tenderly hugged it to her and 
kissed it and laid it carefully away to sleep 
and she started, and that was the last she 
ever heard of it. What an awful undertak- 

ing for two frail women ! 

They kept going; each mile lessened the 
long distance. They recognized places 
that Mrs. Ingles had seen; they reached 
the mouth of the Kanawha and afterwards 
saw the Kanawha Salt works, then the 
New River. They did not leave the main 
stream but kept going, growing weaker 
and more tired and feeble, as the hills grew 
less steep and high. Finally one day Mrs. 
Ingles knew she was getting close to her 
home and she went into some hunter's 
camp and began to call, and soon she was 
heard and answered and they came to her 
and she was at once recognized by Mr. 
Harmon and some young men. 

The old Dutch woman had become 
crazed and wanted to devour Mrs. Ingles 
and she had to keep away in front of her. 
Everything was done for Mrs. Ingles and 
after feeding and resting her they, placed 
her on a horse and took her home. Just 
think of it ; forty days without fire and 
tortured by semi-starvation. Mrs. Ingles 
was actually disappointed that the Indians 
had made no attempt to recapture her but 
gave her up as having been destroyed by 
the wild beasts of the forest. May no 
other woman ever have the same to suffer 
and if you wish to read the account more 
fully, see Hale's "Trans-Allegheny Pio- 


Dr. Hale wrote that pioneer history does not 
repeat itself. The history of the Trans- Alle- 
gheny country, which it has but lately passed 
through and from which the Farther West has 
hardly yet emerged, can never be repeated. The 
discovery, exploration, conquest, settlement and 
civilization of a continent once accomplished, 
is done for all time. There are no more conti- 
nents to discover, no more worlds to conquer. 

It is not supposed that this country will ever 
retrogade, but we do, not know what will hap- 
pen. The ruins of mighty empires of the an- 
cient world are now being visited as curiosi- 

ties; people go to see ruins of temples and all 
sorts of buildings. W*ho constructed the pyra- 
mids ? Where is Rome or Greece and Babylon, 
etc? These countries were once great; to be 
sure they were not Christian countries, but if 
it depends upon the religion of the people, it 
may be all to do over; the ratchets of steam, 
electricity and printing will not of themselves 
hold the world from going back. But we do 
not know, and for fear that Indian stories will 
soon all be lost and no more made, we owe it 
to Dr. Hale and Dr. Brown that both the story 
of Mrs. Ingles and that of Abb's Valley can be 
preserved for the sake of these men and also 
for the sake of the women. 

Abb's Valley was settled in 1771 by Absa- 
lom Looney. In 1786 Black Wolf and Shaw- 
nee who had destroyed Burke's Garden, came 
to the house of Capt. James Moore, who with 
his brother-in-law, John Pogue, had located 
there in 1772. They found Capt. Moore on 
his farm and shot and killed him, then killed 
two children and Mr. Simpson, a hired man. 
There were other men who fled for their lives. 
They made prisoner of Mrs. Moore and her 
four children, John, Jane, Mary and Peggy. 
John being feeble was tomahawked and scalped 
in the presence of his mother. Then Peggy 
was burned against a tree. It was decided 
that Mrs. Moore and Jane should be burned 
in retaliation for the death of some warrior. 
They were tied to stakes in the presence of the 
other daughter and Mrs. Evans, and a crowd 
of savages, and slowly tortured with fire- 
brands and pine splinters until as an an- 



gel of mercy Death came to their relief. This 
was the noble Red Man, the oppressed son of 
the forest, who thus tortured women and young 

girls to death. 

Simon Girty refused to shoot Crawford, 
when he could have shown no greater mercy. 
What cruelty not to kill! Mary Moore re- 
mained a prisoner and for much of the time 
with a white family who were more cruel than 
the Indians. 

James Moore, Jr., had been captured two 
years before and had heard of the terrible fate 
of his father's family and that Mary was still 
left a prisoner. He managed to communicate 
with her. In 1789 Mary and Mrs. Evans were 
ransomed by their friends and restored to their 
friends in the Valley of Virginia, and James. 
Jr., not long after, returned to Abb's Valley 
and died afterwards in 185 1. Mary Moore 
married Rev. John Brown of Rockbridge 
and had five or six sons, all Presbyterian 
ministers, one of whom was the Rev. James 
M. Brown, who was pastor of the Presby- 
terian church in Charleston, W. Va., for a 
quarter of a century and whose memory is 
warmly cherished by all who knew him, or 
of him. 

He has a son, Rev. Samuel Brown, and also 
another, Rev. John Brown, the first of Green- 
brier, and the latter of Maiden church. It was 
Rev. Dr. James Brown that found the boy 
Stuart Robinson and reared and educated him, 
and who became a distinguished man of na- 
tional reputation, teacher, preacher and author. 
Dr. Brown wrote the little book called the 
"Captives of Abb's Valley" and from this book 
is this story taken. 


About 1772, before or afterward, there was 
a German, who brought his family and located 
on the Gauley river. The reason why we can 
not be more definite as to date, why we can not 
tell you from whence he came, how many were 
in bis family, and give more particulars of him 
and family and of his stay on Gauley, is that 
before any. or many, white people made his 
acquaintance, there were some visitors from 
Ohio, who sought to cultivate his closer 
acquaintance, and that ended all opportunity for 

any others. They made a visit and came away 
leaving the entire family dead and his home 
burned to the ground. 

He had been somewhat known by some peo- 
ple near Hacker's Valley and they heard of the 
distressing story, and they became aroused 
after it was too late to help the German settler. 
There was not far distant a place called 
"Bull-town" on the Little Kanawha, where an 
Indian collection of huts, or town, had been 
made, and these settlers of Hacker's Valley 
made a visit to the Bull-town Indians and when 
they came away, there was no Bull-town, nor 
Indians, and it was as difficult to get informa- 
tion of the Indians as it was of the German. 

It was strange that any one family could ex- 
pect safety in the neighborhood of Indians who 
were able to have their own way with white 
people unprotected; such expectation argues a 
want of information of the Indian nature and 

What the Bull-town Indians expected is 
possibly as strange — if they had expected to 
remain in safe proximity to white settlers 
after the German family had been missed, 
without any satisfactory explanations 
having been made. 

There seems to be no question of the exis- 
tence some where, some time, on the Gauley 
river, of such a family and of such Indians, 
but all that is now tradition — an echo of what 
has been. There is no histor)^ no monument. 
This world was not large enough for all the 
parties to the story, and there is nothing more 
to tell. "Stroud's Glades" is a locality some 
where on Gauley. 


There were several of this name that came 
to the Kanawha Valley with the Clendenins 
and Lewis was just the kind of a man to make 
an Indian shudder. He was strong, athletic 
and brave, and was not afraid of the devil, 
were he in the shape of an Indian. The Tack- 
etts made a settlement near the mouth of Coal 
river where they found it necessary to con- 
struct a fort, and the name of Tackett's creek 
was given in honor of his family, who were 
Indian fighters. Lewis Tackett was given the 
contract to construct the county jail, and also 



the privilege of killing all the wild animals, in- 
cluding Indians, that his inclination dictated. 

The Indians, however, captured him on one 
occasion and started with him to Ohio, and 
after going down the Kanawha to about where 
the Knob Shoals are, they were moved with a 
desire to hunt for a deer, and so they tied 
Lewis to a pine tree, expecting him to remain 
until they returned. There came up a storm 
while they were gone, and made wet the thongs 
by which he was fastened and he was able to 
work loose and made his escape, and did not gO' 
to Ohio but went back up the Kanawha. This 
pine tree was known for many years as 
"Tackett's Pine" and was a land mark for 
the steamboat pilots on the river until a 
few years ago. 

Lewis and Samuel Tackett and John Young 
then built the Tackett's Fort. There was a 
Polly Tackett who became a Mrs. Rider, and 
whose daughter Hannah, became Mrs. Mines, 
who lived to be quite old and was known by 
everybody about Coal's Mouth. John Young's 
wife was a Miss Tackett. 

John Young came to the Kanawha about 
the same time that the Clendenin settlement 
was made. His wife was "Keziah," a 
daughter of Lewis Tackett. 

There seems to be some ^inconsistency as to 
dates in connection with Young and the Tac- 
ketts going to Coal Mouth ; some have said it 
was in 1786, some in 1788 and some later. 

There is one known fact, however, which is 
that John Young and wife and a very young 
baby were in the fort when it was attacked by 
a number of Indians, and Young became satis- 
fied that the fort would be taken, and while it 
was quite dark and during a storm, Mr. Young, 
picked up the bed with the mother and child 
and made haste to his boat and to the fort at 
Charleston, and strange to say that neither the 
mother nor the child suffered any harm from 
the exposure. The said child was Jacob; the 
mother lived to a very great age and Jacob 
was living but a few years since. He lived to 
be eighty years of age. 


Anne Bailey! There was but one of the 
name and no other of like character and 

fame ; she was the heroine of the pioneers 
of the Kanawha Valley and it is both fit 
and becoming that her history should be 
preserved in the history of this county. 
This is no fancy sketch, no imaginary out- 
line of a supposed being, but the plain facts 
of a well established and well known wo- 
man, who lived on the outposts of civiliza- 

She was an English girl, born and edu- 
cated in Liverpool, and her maiden name 
was Anne Hennis. She was born in or 
about 1742 and her education was limited; 
her father was an old British soldier. Pier 
age is obtained by the fact that Lord Lo- 
vat was executed in 1747, and Anne says 
she was present and was five years old. 

The manner in which she arrived at 
Staunton, Va., is not very clearly shown, 
and the accepted story is about like this: 
That her parents died and she was left 
.alone in the world, that she knew she had 
friends or kindred by the name of Bell that 
had g-one to Virginia and she determined to 
follow them and she went aboard of a ves- 
sel about to sail and remained aboard and 
was brought to Virginia. This was in 1761 
and by some means she heard of the Bells 
being in Staunton, Va. and she found her 
way there, and they gave to her a home 
and a welcome. 

In Augusta county, she met with Richard 
Trotter, who was a soldier defending- the 
border from the incursions of the Indians. 
He had been with Braddock in 1755. and 
he escaped and lived to return to Staunton 
and here he married Anne Hennis in 1765. 
In 1767 they had a son born, whom the}' 
called William and who was in later years 
the support and blessing of his mother 
Anne Bailey. 

The Dunmore war came on in 1774. and 
Richard Trotter was one of the soldiers 
that fought in Andrew Lewis's. army, on 
the 10th of October, 1774, at Point Pleas- 
ant, and then and there he was wounded, 
and died and there buried. 

When she heard of her husband's death, 
she was thirty-two years of age, a widow, 
with a son, seven years of age, but she de- 



termined to make the Indians suffer for her 
loss and to avenge his death. She left her 
son with a neighbor Mrs. Moses Mann, 
while Ann entered upon a career which has 
no parallel in Virginia history. 

The Revolution was at hand and Indians 
were aiding the British and she had be- 
come a Virginian. She started out as a 
recruiting agent and her appeals in behalf 
of the defenseless women of the border per- 
suaded men to enlist. She went from the 
Roanoke to the Potomac, and she became 
acquainted all along the line. 

Then she began to carry messages to the 
soldiers westward, to Fort Fincastle on Jack- 
son's river, Fort Edward on the Warm Spring 
Mountain, and, in 1778, Fort Savannah at 
Lewisburg in Greenbrier county, which was 
the most western outpost except Fort Randolph 
at Point Pleasant. 

Somewhere she 'met John Bailey, who was 
one of a band of rangers employed to scout 
the country and to> then notify the people and 
the forts. This John Bailey had no doubt ' 
heard of Ann. Time had had its usual ef- 
fects and John gained her ear and she lis- 
tened to him as she did to Richard, and 
they went together to Lewisburg, and met 
the Rev. John McCue, and if an opportunity 
was given, no doubt but that there were in 
attendance upon the marriage, many sol- 
diers, that wished Bailey and Anne a safe 
and happy life. On the 3rd of November, 
1785, they were married and through the 
offices of Rev. John McCue, at Lewisburg 
Anne Trotter became Anne Bailey, and in 
the marriage record book No. 1, page 7, 
in the county court clerk's office of Greenbrier 
county will be seen the evidence of the above 

It was when the Clendenins came to the 
Kanawha Valley and constructed the fort, at 
the mouth of Elk river, in 1788, that there 
were others came with them and John and Ann 
Bailey came along to> help garrison this fort. 
She was always ready to go, or to do, and she 
knew no fear; she was ready and willing to 
ride to any quarter of the country, and she 
handled her rifle equal to any Indian or any 
scout. When in the fort, she was the best of 

the nurses, and always ready to lend a helping 
hand. She often took messages to* Fort Ran- 
dolph, sixty miles down the river, with little 
or no road, and not a house between the forts. 
She had to make the trip in two days, and with 
one night on the road, and a cave was usually 
adopted by her for her shelter. At other times 
Anne Bailey went on the road to Lewisburg 
one hundred miles from the Clendenin's. Col. 
Geo. Clendenin was commander-in-chief of 
Kanawha, and Daniel Boone was lieutenant 
colonel of the same county, and gave in his re- 
port the following account : 

" For Kanawha 68 privates, Lenard Cooper, Captain, 
at Point Pleasant, 17 men, John Morris, Jr. Insine at 
the Bote yards 17 men. Two sypes or scutes will be 
necessary at the pint to sarch the banks of the river at 
the crossing places. More would be wanting if they 
could be aloude. These spyes must be compoused of 
the inhabitence who will know the woods and waters 
from the pint to Belleville 60 milds, no inhabitence, also 
from the pint to Elk 60 mildes, no inhabitence, from 
Elk to the Bote yards, 20 milds, all inhabited." 

This was written by Lt.-Col. Daniel Boone, 
December 12, 1791. The "Bote Yard" was 
at the mouth of Kelly's creek. 

From Point Pleasant to Elk there were no 
inhabitants, while from Elk to Kelly's creek, 
where they built boats, it was all inhabited in 

It was in this year that a body of Indians 
was said to hover near the Clendenin's fort 
and in the preparation for defense, it was as- 
certained that there was but a small quantity 
of powder remaining and they could with- 
stand an attack but a short time. To Lewis- 
burg some one must go for a supply and the 
sooner the better, and men were needed, so 
Anne Bailey said she herself would go. And 
it was but a short time before she was on her 
way, and as soon as a good horse could well 
go the one hundred miles, she went and re- 
ported at Lewisburg the purpose of her trip. 

Her horse was fed and rested, and another 
horse was sent with the ammunition and they 
returned with the powder to Fort Clendenin. 
The trip had been made, the magazine supplied 
and the garrison felt competent to take care of 
itself, and no one was hurt, but the trip made 
was one of danger, hardship and worry. Had 
the Indians started to go to Greenbrier they 
would have met her and neither she nor the 


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powder nor the horses would have reached the 
fort, and the story would have become known 
because of the want of powder. 

" The succor thus so nobly sought 

" To Charleston's Fort was timely brought 

" While Justice on the Scroll of Fame 

" In letters bold, engraved her name — Anne Bailey." 

John Bailey died about 1802, Indians had 
ceased to come any more, after 1794 and the 
influence of civilized life spread abroad over 
the county, and no more was there need for a 
squad or a gun, nor for fear nor a fort. 

She remained in Kanawha and after the 
death of Mr. Bailey she became a regular ex- 
press company for the East to the settlement 
in the West, bringing anything that could be 
carried on a horse, medicines, small packages, 
doing business from Gallipolis to Staunton. 

In all these transactions she was honest to 
a cent and was trusted by all and every one 
to make purchases for them and made pay- 
ments, etc., and while perhaps no church mem- 
ber she was a good woman and observed the 
Sabbath day and said her prayers and was re- 
ceived and welcomed into all the families. 

The last time she was known to have been 
in Charleston was in 181 7. Her son William 
Trotter married Mary Ann Cooper, a daugh- 
ter of Capt. Leonard Cooper of Mason coun- 
ty, and for whom Cooper's Creek was named. 
William settled in Ohio near Gallipolis and in- 
sisted on his mother coming and making her 
home with him, but she was opposed to going 
into Ohio, and this was not unnatural. She 
knew everybody on the Virginia side and all 
were her friends while on the Ohio side they 
were all strangers. The people of Gallipolis 
were French and she being English was not so 
familiar. She had no home of her own and 
she felt that she must go with him. He built 
for her a small house near his own where his 
family was. She had become old and died No- 
vember 22, 1825, being 83 years of age, and 
was buried near her home. 

William Trotter was a land owner, and a 
justice and died in 183 1. Their children were 
Philip, born 1801, who lived in Lawrence 
county, Ohio; Elizabeth, born 1803, who mar- 
ried William C. Irion, and left sons and daugh- 
ters; John, born 1805; William, born 1807; 

Mary, born 181 1, who married James Irion. 
Davis, born 1816, married Jas. Sarah Knight; 
Sarah, born 1816, married John Gilmore; 
Phebe, born 1818, married John Willey; Jane 
born 1820, married J. S. Northrup; Nancy, 
born in 1822, married Francis Strait. 

The remains of Anne Bailey were removed 
to Point Pleasant by the Daughters of the 
Revolution and buried near the Monument to 
the Soldiers who fell on the 10th of October, 
1774, and when you see this monument you 
will naturally think of Anne Bailey. In the 
lower part of the then county there was a cave 
known as "Anne Bailey Cave," and in the 
upper end of the county there is a branch 
known as "Anne Branch." And said names 
were given on account of her having used those 
places for shelter. There is a descendant of 
Anne Bailey now in Charleston, Mr. Simeon 
Irions, who has aided us in this article. She 
is described as having had a fair complexion, 
hazel eyes, a rather undersized but perfect 
form, a sweet disposition, and a mind strong 
and vigorous, and was always and at all 
times perfectly fearless and made herself at 
home with the pioneers. 

There should be a monument to Anne Bailey 
erected by the women of this part of the state 
and especially from Kanawha Valley. She 
was ever ready to give herself or either of her 
husbands or both of them for the good of the 
settlers in this valley and such devotion and 
sacrifice should be remembered. "Cornstalk" 
has his monument and the soldiers of General 
Lewis have their monument and it is time 
that Anne Bailey should have her monu- 
ment also. 

alvah hansford's recollections 

In 1884 Alvah Hansford gave to Col. W. 
H- Edwards of Coalburg, a long talk and 
was drawn out as to many things of the 
long ago — and the Colonel wrote it down. 

Alvah was an old bachelor who had lived 
pretty much as he pleased and he never 
hesitated to express himself, and he had no 
inclinations either to suppress or enlarge 
the facts. He was born in 1803, on the 
Kanawha near the mouth of Paint Creek, 
was a son of Major John Hansford, and his 


home was at St. Albans and his death was 
in 1886. 

Starting at Paint Creek and going down 
the Kanawha river, the first house below 
was that of John Harriman's, a log house 
where now is the brick house occupied by 
Mr. Shaver. Near where William Pryor 
now lives, then John Milburn resided. 
James Pryor, the father of A'Villiam, lived 
on an Indian mound, near Mr. Buck's 
home. The next house was built by a Mr. 
Johnson, near where the late James John- 
son lived. These were all the houses from 
Paint Creek to Cabin Creek and it was all 
in forest except a small clearing at each 
house. From Cabin Creek to Slaughter's 
Creek there was no one living, and just 
below Slaughter's Creek lived Mr. John 
Starke. On Paint Creek there were no 

Going east from Paint Creek, the only 
occupant of the bottom was John Jones, 
and his house was near the site of John 
B. Johnson's house, now in Dego. Dego 
was formerly known as Clifton, and later 
known as Pratt. John Jones's farm was not 
a very large one, but it grew. The road 
east continued up the Kanawha and New 
River and crossed Cotton Hill, leaving the 
river, going southward and again 'came to 
the river and crossed to the north side, at 
Boyer's Ferry. 

Alvah says his father finished his own 
home in 1799 and there was then only a 
small clearing and a cabin between his new 
house and Paint Creek, about where Felix 
Hansford built his brick house in 1824. 
The home of Major Hansford was the first 
frame house built on the Kanawha river 
and it was built by his father, he doing all 
the work. Alvah says there were eleven 
boys and one girl in the family, that he did 
not get to go to school much — about three 
months in the winter time — and it does not 
appear that he did much visiting away from 
home for he was eighteen years of age be- 
fore he had been to the "Licks" or Maiden 
as it now is called, and he never was in 
Charleston until he was twenty years of 
age, in 1X23. It will be remembered that 
the upper part of the Kanawha Valley was 

the most thickly settled. He says he was 
principally employed in lumbering, cutting 
saw-logs, building salt boats, etc. He built 
two salt furnaces on the home place ; one 
furnace was rented out and the other was 
worked by his father. One furnace was at 
the mouth of the Meeting House Branch 
between Crown Hill and Belmont. The 
other was where the house owned by the 
Maury Estate stands. They ran the furnace 
with wood and Alvah was a good chopper. 
He says that Mr. Oakes was the only better 
one — this was the father of Ben and Ira 
Oakes. He says that game was plenty, 
bear, deer, wild cats, panthers, wild tur- 
keys, etc. 

When he was about nine years old, he 
heard them talking of the war with Eng- 
land, the W r ar of 1812. His father was in 
the Legislature at Richmond, that he went 
on horseback for seven days. His brother 
Hiram volunteered and was a Lieutenant 
and he saw Hiram then at Kelley's Creek 
in his uniform and he and some soldiers 
took dinner there before starting off to the 
war. His grandmother lived at Kelley's 
Creek and on the hill east of the creek, 
Morris purchased the place of the children 
of Mr. Kelly, who was killed there in 1773, 
and that Mr. Morris gave to each of the 
children as they became of age, a horse, 
saddle and bridle. 

His father kept entertainment at his 
home and members of the Legislature and 
congressmen and persons hunting- for lands 
always stopped with him and his father 
made some fine peach and apple brandy 
which he kept on hand until it became 
superior. His father was a very religious 
man and was a member of the Baptist 
church before Alvah was born, and he was 
never known to swear and would not allow 
it on his premises, nor would he allow fid- 
filing and dancing in his house but on Mus- 
ter day he would set out his brandy after 
the drilling was over and pretty soon the 
fighting would begin. The Major was a 
justice but he took care to be out of the 
way, as he wanted his men to have their 

The fames River and Kanawha Turn- 



pike was opened in 1823-4 and the settle- 
ment was not great, and this road was 
made only to Huddleston, six miles below 
the falls for several years. His sister Sarah 
married William Morris, who lived at the 
Falls, and Fenton Morris was her only son. 
That his father leased some coal land at 
the lower end of the Hansford Narrows to 
Anderson and Herriman and they shipped 
coal in 1829. His father would stand 
guard with his gun in hand while his 
mother would milk the cows, as the In- 
dians were strolling about through the 
valley, coming from Ohio. Albert Galla- 
tin attended to his own surveys and had 
the most remarkable memory and made his 
headquarters with Mr. Hansford. 


This famous pioneer and frontiersman 
was born near Philadelphia in 1735 and. 
died in Missouri in 1820. He was the son 
of Squire Boone and Sarah (Morgan) 
Boone, and George Boone was the father 
of Squire. 

George was acquainted with William 
Penn in England and when he came to 
America he sailed for "Perm's Plantation," 
where there were Friends, called Quakers, 
of whom he was one. In 1748 Squire re- 
moved to North Carolina, and there Daniel 
heard of Kentucky through John Finley 
and it seemed to suit him exactly. 

He was married in 1755 to Rebecca 
Bryant. She had a cousin, Mary Bryant, 
and Mary was the grandmother of John 
L. Cole, the lawyer, surveyor, poet, artist, 
humorist and antiquarian of Kanawha. 
Boone was in Kentucky in 1769 and 
Boonesboro was one of the earliest settle- 
ments in the new county of Kentucky. 

He was continually engaged in skir- 
mishes with the Indians and at one time he 
was captured and taken to Chillicothe and 
was adopted by a Shawnee chief. "Black 
Fish." and was made an Indian : but he 
would not stay so made, for he was, one 
morning quite early, on his way back to 
Boonesboro, and he made the trip on one 

meal, in three days. He had a brother 
killed and a son, also another son wounded. 
In 1774 Lord Dunmore placed him in 
charge of several forts in the Greenbrier 
country, while the army marched to the 
Ohio. He was at Point Pleasant, at the 
mouth of the Kanawha, in 1786, and he 
subsequently came to the upper Kanawha 
and in 1789 was elected to the office of 
lieutenant colonel of the Kanawha militia 
and he made military reports through Col. 
George Clendenin to the Governor. The 
exact date of his coming- to his home above 
the mouth of Elk, is not known but he 
was well known when the county was 

His house was on the south side of the Ka- 
nawha river, opposite the mouth of Campbell's 
creek, and it was a double log house, of two 
rooms, with a passage between, and a porch 
in front. Paddy Huddleston and Mathias Van 
Bibber were both well acquainted with him, 
as they hunted together and it is stated that 
they caug'ht all the beavers on the Gauley and 
Kanawha rivers. He and George Clendenin 
were elected to the Legislature in 1791, and 
when he started to attend the session in Rich- 
mond, he took his rifle and started on foot 
through the woods for the East, but after re- 
maining a while, he tired of law-making, 
shouldered his gun and started back for Ka- 
nawha Valley and his home. 

He seemed to have been eternally on the go, 
either hunting and trapping or looking for 
choice land and sometimes making surveys or 
rescuing a captive. On a line run from Boone 
court house, or where it was afterwards lo- 
cated, he ran a line across to the Guyandotte, 
Twelve Pole creek, and Big Sandy, the Ken- 
tucky line, and on a tree were cut the names of 
his party, viz : George Arnold, Daniel Boone, 
Edmund Price. Thomas Upton and Andrew 
Hatfield. This was done in 1795. 

He made a survey at Point Pleasant in 1791, 
the original report of which is in the historical 
rooms in the Annex in Charleston and in Dr. 
Hales "Trans-Allegheny Pioneers" is a copy of 

Boone's handwriting is not the most grace- 
ful and his spelling is not according to Web- 



ster, but you can learn what he is attempting to 

He had a son, Jesse Boone, who lived in Ka- 
nawha, whose wife was Chloe Van Bibber, 
and the wives of Col. Andrew Donnally, Col. 
John Reynolds and Goodrich Slaughter were 
sisters of Mrs. Jesse Boone. 

Jesse was the first salt inspector of Kanawha 
and continued until 1816. 

Daniel Boone resided in Kanawha until 
1799 when he decided to go to Missouri. 
When he decided to go west, the day and date 
of his departure from the mouth of Elk was 
given out to the public and the entire country 
came to see him start in his canoes and Tice 
Van Bibber went with him to his new home. 
He lived until September '26th, 1820. 

Daniel Boone was one of the remarkable 
men of his time. He was a pioneer, frontiers- 
man, explorer, hunter, Indian fighter and pilot 
of civilization. There have been writers of 
his history and sketches of his life by Mar- 
shall, Bryant, Flint, Bogart, Filson, Abbott, 
Byron, Hale and others. His picture was 
painted in 1819 by Harding who went from 
New York to execute the same in Missouri, 
and his rifle and his trap are on deposit in 
the Historical Rooms in Charleston. 

Simon Kenton once saved Daniel Boone's 
life, but there is no telling how many lives that 
Boone saved. 

It would have been impossible for Boone 
to have accumulated much property ; he was 
going all the time and never remained any- 
where a sufficient time to accumulate much, 
but he was doing something for the general 
good of the country, or rescuing some poor 
Indian captive, helping to drive back the Indian 
invader, at all times, both in Kentucky and in 

While he was a citizen of Kanawha for at 
least twelve years, there are a great many 
that do not know that he was ever outside of 

Tradition says that Boone was with Wash- 
ington on the Braddock expedition, that he 
was in the Shenandoah Valley, in North Caro- 
lina, Tennessee and Kentucky and Ohio, but 
never mentions his home on the Kanawha, and 
the same report says he represented the coun- 

ty of Kentucky in the legislature of Virginia, 
in Richmond. We do not know where he was 
not, but he seems to have been in the right 
time at the right place and doing the right 
thing when most needed. 

Kanawha county should recognize his great 
services and recognize him as one of her sons 
by a monument to his memory. Daniel Boone 
was a citizen and resident of Kanawha county 
and we would record the fact and do him hon- 
or for his services and his great worth. 


Simon Kenton was born in Farrquer coun- 
ty, Virginia, April 3, 1755; he died in Ohio in 
1836. He was of obscure parentage and his 
education was neglected. At the age of six- 
teen he had an affray with another and sup- 
posed that he had killed his adversary. He 
fled west of the Alleghenies. Here he became 
acquainted with Indian traders, hunters and 
among whom was George Yeager. He also 
knew Simon Girty. He was said to have been 
engaged by Lord Dunmore and was one of 
the messengers sent to General Lewis with 
Girty on the day before the battle. He was 
the friend and companion of Daniel Boone, 
whose life Kenton saved in Kentucky. He also 
was with George Roger Clark at the Falls of 
the Ohio and elsewhere. He was captured by 
the Indians and Girty used his influence to save 
his life. The Mingo Chief Logan prevailed 
on Draya, a Canadian, to rescue Kenton from 
the Indians and he was carried off to Detroit 
and made his escape in 1779, making his way 
back to Kentucky. Having learned that his 
Virginia adversary did not die, he went back 
home in 1782 and brought his father's family to 
Kentucky and settled near Maysville. He com- 
manded a battalion under Gen'l Wayne in 
1794, was a Brigadier General of Ohio militia 
in 1805, and was at the battle of the Thames 
in 1813. He became quite poor and lost his 
land. He was regarded as second only to 
Boone as the greatest adventurer of the West. 
He was given a pension by Congress. He was 
in Kanawha county with Yeager and Strader 
in 1 77 1, and was wounded by the Indians, 
and he returned to the Ohio river and probably 


then went to Fort Pitt and afterwards to Ken- 

He was a bold daring hunter of great endur- 
ance and sagacity and had great self-reliance 
in the Indian days of the wild west. He was 
greatly beloved and treated with great respect 
everywhere and Kenton county, Kentucky, 
was named in his honor. 


Old Simon Girty was an Indian trader in 
western Pennsylvania and he had four boys — 
Tom, Simon, Jim and George. They lived near 
Harrisburg, Penn., where the whites and In- 
dians lived much as Indians lived. One day 
old man Girty was killed by an Indian. The 
old man's best friend was a fellow called Turn- 
er, and he killed the Indian that had killed old 
man Girty, and then Turner married the wi- 
dow and the mother of the Girty boys. After- 
wards the Indians captured Turner and killed 

Such was the training of Simon Girty, and' 
he grew up to be as much of a savage and more 
so than any Indian, a cruel, unprincipled man, 
a traitor to his country, a renegade, a leader 
of the Indian enemies, a coarse low type of a 
Benedict Arnold, and the most hated man on 
the border. There is no doubt of his treachery 
and blood-thirsty cruelty, or that he led the 
savages under orders from the British, and to 
those he regarded as personal enemies he was 
brutal and cruel in the extreme. He first enlist- 
ed in the war of the colonies for American In- 
dependence with the Americans, but afterwards 
he went over to the British side and was used 
by them as an Indian interpreter and scout and 
for making the Indians war against the Ameri- 
can settlers, when the Indians were disposed to 
remain neutral. Simon Girty was born about 
1740. He had been with Indians in many at- 
tacks on the settlers. He was present when 
William Crawford was burned and made no at- 
tempt to save him and he refused to shoot 
Crawford when the latter begged him to do so 
to save him from the torture. 

He had been along with Indians in their 
forays against settlers when men, women and 
children were killed and he was an Indian 
among Indians. He was much worse than the 

Indians, a mean type of very bad white man. 
He was at times very abusive, quarrelsome arid 
noisy, and was a complete slave to liquor. Af- 
ter the Revolution was over, Girty went to 
Canada and lived to be a half blind, rheumatic, 
drunken old man and died in 1818. 

Wilson Harris's recollections 

Wilson Harris was the servant of Will- 
iam R. Cox, and he has given his recollec- 
tions, and although ninety years of age, in 
some respects has a remarkably clear 
memory. He says that he was born Oct. 
28, 1 82 1, in Amherst county and that he 
and his mother were brought to Kanawha 
and their home in Snow Hill Hollow, in 
the "Licks" on the day he was six years 
old, 1827. 

That the furnace was run by Mr. Luke 
Wilcox, and that he remained at the fur- 
nace until Mr. Cox removed to Charleston 
in 1830, where he purchased a farm of 
seventy-five acres on the rear of the town, 
and which was reached by what was 
known as "Coxes Lane," now known as 
Capitol street. Mr. Cox died in 1843 an( l 
his widow afterwards built the brick house 
which was occupied by her family, after- 
wards by Col. J. N. Clarkson, then by John 
Slack, Sr. The wife of W. R. Cox was a 
Miss Hedrick and their children were 
Charles, William, George, and Frank, and 
Mrs. Cornelia Gillison, Miss Mary Ann and 
Miss Elizabeth. That Mr. Cox was a very 
active busy man, a kind hearted, generous 
man to his family and especially to his ser- 
vants. His son Frank in appearance was 
the image of his father. 

Major James Bream was a salt maker 
and Wilson Harris says he worked for him, 
that the Major was a tall stout man, an 
out-spoken, kind-hearted old gentlemen, an 
Englishman and a Presbyterian and was 
the wealthiest man in the Valley. His 
manager was AVilliam Graham. "Peter" 
was his driver and "Terry" his gentle old 

Col. Joseph Lovell was a lawyer, a salt 
maker and a merchant. His furnace was 
on the South Side about a mile above the 



upper ferry, and his residence was on Vir- 
ginia street in Charleston, and he sold his 
place of business to James A. Lewis, where 
now the twelve-story building has been 
erected. Col. Lovell was an exceeding 
kind, frank, familiar-spoken man. He be- 
longed to the Breams family. 

Col. Andrew Donnally ran a furnace on 
the South Side. Also and among the other 
salt makers that he remembers were Mr. 
Prudy, Mr. Nash, Mr. Steele and Mr. Don- 
nally, Mr. Dickinson and Mr' Shrewsbury, 
Mr. William Tompkins and others. Gen- 
eral Ruffner's furnace was in Tinkerville. 
Daniel Ruffner kept a stage stand, a tav- 
ern and stable, where Mr. Silas Ruffner 
afterwards lived. 

Commencing on the river bank, Wilson 
says he remembers the house of Mr. Gar- 
reau, the hatter, then on the corner of 
Truslow street was Mr. Brigham, then Dr. 
Patrick, then the lower ferry, then the Gos- 
horn tavern kept by Silas Cobb. Mr. Hutt 
had a grocery; one of his daughters mar- 
ried Cobb, and another daughter married 
Judge Dunbar ; he lived above Court. John 
and William Goshorn did business on the 
bank below Court street. Mr. Williams 
made furniture, just above Alderson street 
on the bank, he used horse-power to run 
his lathe. Next came the tailor shop of 
John and William Truslow; Dr. Rogers 
had a drug store on the bank and then 
came the store of Mr. Shrewsbury where 
afterwards the Goshorns kept. Then there 
was a Mr. Hutt's tailor shop where Mr. 
Beller kept after the war. George and 
Frank Allen kept hardware, where Fisher 
and Fruth does now; Frank Noyes, kept 
dry goods where Mr. Ward lately kept; 
William Brigham. clerk, was located on 
corner of Summers; Tohn Welch, dry goods, 
above Summers and Mr. Fred Brooks had 
a mill just above the wharf boat. Then 
Thomas Whitteker; then Davis Fstel', dry 
goods; then Aaron Whitteker. general 
store; then Jas. A. Lewis, dwelling; then 
the posl office in a frame building, replaced 
with a brick, built by W. Gray. Above 
Capitol street on the bank was a frame 

building, a tavern kept by James Wilson, 
father of Lewis Wilson ; then the residence 
of a Presbyterian minister, Rev. M. Cal- 
houn about where the telegraph office is 
now. Wallace Whitteker's residence, then 
Mr. Cunningham's residence, the Mrs. 
Haycock ; Mr. Trudgeon, a carpenter. Dr. 
Watkins lived above and Mr. J. H. Fry 
the sheriff, was above. 

Having come up Front street along the 
bank, as near as his memory served him; 
he now will proceed down the street on 
the opposite side. Bradford Noyes lived 
where Mr. J. O. Dickinson now lives ; a 
Mr. Fitzhugh lived where Mr. Rand after- 
wards lived; (that Mr. Fitzhugh went 
around on the Ohio river to Ravenswood.) 
Mr. Ruby lived next ; Judge G. W. Sum- 
mers lived on the corner, and next below 
was a vacant lot ; Mr. Fred Brooks lived 
below on corner of Brooks, (this was the 
old Clendenin Fort, a hewed log weather- 
boarded house) and below this lived Col. 
Smith. Then lived Aaron Whitteker and 
then came Col. Andrew Donnally. where 
John Goshorn afterwards lived. Judge 
Dunbar afterwards came up street and his 
residence was below Col. Andrew Don- 
ally's. Dr. Patrick's residence was next 
below ; then Jas. C. McFarland, then John 
P. Hales on the lot on which the old stone 
c'erk's office was. Then came Rev. Dr. 
Brown's next below Hale street ; then Mr. 
AVi'liam Brigham, then Dr. Cotton's two- 
story brick; then, on the corner of Capitol, 
there was a store kept by Brooks Brothers. 
Just below Coxe's lane was the Bank of 
Virginia, J. C. McFarland, Samuel Hanna, 
and John M. Doddridge, the officers. In 
the rear of this bank was the office of Dr. 
Putney. The upper ferry was kept by 
Capt. Jas. Wilson. After J. A. Lewis, Mr. 
Norn's Whitteker was postmaster and the 
office was where -Mr. Burlew's Hardware 
Store is now. Then came the old "Kana- 
wha House" on the corner of Summers 
street, kept by a Mr. Withrow, then by 
Aaron Whitteker and then by John G. 
Wright; and here was the stage office, and 
here was killed Mr. Kenna by the Lewis 



brothers. This house was burned at the 
time of the retreat of Col. Leghtburn dur- 
ing the war, and the Bank of Virginia and 
others were also. 

Below Summers was a Mr. Brigham's 
store, then Dr. Patrick's residence, then 
was the law office of Judge Summers, then 
the Beech Hotel, then a tavern by Mr. Ben 
Anderson, then a vacant lot to Alderson 
street, then a tavern by Orestes Wilson, 
then Samuel Beech's shoemaker ship, then 
George Wade, a baker, then a hotel be- 
longing to Mr. John Truslow, then a store- 
house kept by Adam Wright, then a hotel, 
which Mr. O. Wilson also kept. Then 
we reach the Court House square, the 
Clerk's office which was taken care of by 
A. W. Quarrier. John and Alex Dryden, as 
assistants: then the George Bender, Sr., 
Charles Gabhart, and Mr. Hull, the black- 
smith's which was replaced by Mr. Lang- 
horn, the furniture maker, then the store 
and residence of C. J. Botkin, then Bob 
Snyder's baker shop, then Mr. Saunder's 
residence, a two-story log: then a brick 
one-story where Mr. Fox lived, and then 
the Farley House, which was said to be- 
long to "Stocking Leg Wilson" — the only 
name ever heard given to him. 

Next below Clendenin street came the 
mill built by Mr. William Rand and the 
only other house on this street, was down 
on the Point — a brick house where lived 
Mr. Charles Brown, the ferryman at the 
ferry across Elk river; his sons were Tally 
and Pitt and Porus. This Mr. Brown has 
some oropertv up Elk near the mouth of 
Magazine and he was with the Browns and 
Slaughters buried there. 

Wilson Harris has alwavs been a g-ood 
natnred co'or^d man. with good ideas of 
propriety and good manners and one 
whom the people have abvavs been will- 
in? to receive in their houses. He has 
acted as nurse in the best families, and 
perhaps attended at the death bed of more 
men than any one person in the town. 
He is unwilling to sav anything that he 
does not think is absolutely true. Of 
course, he may be mistaken : he mav for- 

get, but he is reliable as far as his disposi- 
tion to tell the truth goes; and even if it 
should be true, if not proper to repeat, it 
can not be had from him. He is now nearly 
ninety years old and time is bending him 
down some little but he is as ever, kind, 
gentle, and true to the nature of a gentle- 
man. / 


S. P. Capehart says that it was in 1786 that 
Lewis and Sam Tackett and John Young came 
to Coalsmouth and erected a fort half a mile 
below Coal river, and a few hundred yards 
back from the Kanawha river. That they did 
not pretend to own the land. The creek that 
empties into Coal river was known as Tackett's 
creek, and that it was in 1789 when the Indians 
came from Ohio and captured the fort and 
Polly and Hannah Tackett made their escape. 

Polly married a Mr. Rider and Hannah Mor- 
ris was her daughter. Stephen Teays settled 
at Coalsmouth in 1800, on the lower side of 
Coal, where he kept a tavern and a farm. The 
survey above Coalsmouth was made for Wash- 
ington ; that immediately below was for Capt. 

Morris Hudson came from Pennsylvania in 
1808 and bought from Two and Three-quarter 
Mile creek and built a large double log house. 
His sons were David Jesse and Samuel and they 
lived there until the death of their father. Jesse 
took the upper, and Samuel the lower part of 
the land. Jesse had six girls and two boys and 
Samuel had two girls and six boys. 

In 1816 Col. Philip R. Thompson came from 
Culpepper and purchased the Washington land 
up to Hudson's. Samuel T. Washington mar- 
ried a Hudson. Col. P. R. Thompson was a 
son of Rev. John Thompson. There were B. 
D. Thompson, Philip R. Thompson, John, 
Robert A., Francis, Benjamin S. Thompson, 
and A'Villiam, and daughters, Mrs. Eleana B. 
Thornton, Mrs. Eliza R. Fry, and Sara E., M. 
A. Thompson, Berseder Dand, Jesse and Sam- 
uel Hudson. There were Mrs. Sarah Philson, 
Nancy Hudson and Mrs. Abigail Jones. There 
were the Hudsons and Thompsons on the up- 
per side and the Teays and Lewis family on the 
lower side of Coal river. John Lewis, a grand- 



son of Gen. Andrew Lewis, bought large tracts 
below Coal, built a large brick dwelling, which 
he called Valconlon, and here brought his wife, 
a daughter of Andrew Donnally; and John 
brought also his brothers William and Samuel 

There was a James T. Teays and a Stephen 
Teays. John Capehart married a daughter of 
Stephen Teays, and Stephen P. Capehart was 
a son of said marriage, born 1832. The post 
office was called Coalsmouth. 

Col. Thompson laid off some lots and streets 
and sold some and called the place "Phillipi." 

Morris Hudson gave the lot and built the 
church for the Episcopalians, and Mrs. Stephen 
Teays built a log church for the Methodists 
and retained the title — this was in 1820 — and 
the brick Episcopal edifice was built in 1825. 
This was some distance above Coal. 

Samuel Benedict, in 1856, bought part of the 
Thompson tract and laid it out in lots and 
streets and called it Kanawha City. The post 
office remained the same — Coalsmouth. 

When the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad was 
being constructed the Central Land Company 
purchased the Benedict-Cunningham land, in- 
cluding Kanawha City and made that a town 
and called all St. Albans, and there was the 
end of Coalsmouth, Phillipi, Kanawha City, 
and the old name for St. Albans. Coal river 
had been improved sufficiently by 1847 so that 
they could ship cannel coal to New Orleans. 
General Rosecrans was president of the Navi- 
gation Company. 

The Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad was fin- 
ished in 1872-3. There was a Coal river 
boom on Coal river to catch and hold logs. 
Then there was a Coal river railroad built and 
which is now running, further mention of which 
may be found elsewhere in this volume. 


When the Colony of Virginia first settled 
on the James, among the many curious things 
they saw, was the Indians smoking tobacco. 
Upon examination they found that it was a 
broad leaf weed, that was cultivated, and taken 
care of until it reached a certain stage of de- 
velopment, when it was cut and dried and pre- 
pared for use, and then smoked in a clay pipe. 

One of the peculiarities was that many of them 
smoked the same pipe and they all seemed to 
enjoy it. 

The colonists began to use it and they became 
fond of it and shipped some of it to England 
and the English too, became disposed to use 
it. Perhaps because it was an Indian custom, 
it was adopted in London. In 161 6 it is said 
Governor Yeardly introduced it into England 
and there they began to call for it. There be- 
gan to be a demand and the colonists sent it 
to them, and thus began trade and commerce 
in tobacco. King James wrote against its use 
and said that it produced imbecility, etc., but 
the trade increased. In 1769 it was said there 
were one 20,000 shipped to London. 

Then King Charles attempted to monopo- 
lize the trade, but this was no more successful 
than was King James' attempt to suppress it. 

The two attempts perhaps did more to flush 
the market than anything that could have been 
done, and the beauty of the traffic was that it 
brought back to Virginia the cash. Then the 
people began to spend it in things they were 
unable to buy without this extra deposit to their 
credit in the bank. With ready cash and with 
purchases of finery as an incentive the growth 
and cultivation increased and kept up with the 
demand. The tobacco crop became the wealth 
of the people with rich land, and with the ne- 
gro to attend to it, the business flourished and 
everything prospered. Under these circum- 
stances was it a wonder that this colony was 
not loyal to the Crown? 

There was never a sufficient amount of coin 
in the country and it was not possible for the 
business to be done therewith but with the to- 
bacco crop to help out, they began to use their 
credit and paper money helped along. Then 
they began to pay their debts with tobacco and 
then they paid their taxes, their ministers' sal- 
aries and all the other official salaries were paid 
in tobacco; so that it was not surprising that 
they had two currencies — money and the money 
producer. And the one soon became the more 
common of the two, and it was not a great 
while before taxes, fines, debts, judgments and 
all other demands were payable in tobacco and 
it became a legal tender in Virginia. In the 
early days of Kanawha the people could raise 



tobacco, but they could not always raise the 
money. Other crops would some times fail and 
money would not always be plentiful and a con- 
venience was made and a price per pound estab- 
lished and either commodity was accepted. 

Among the peculiarities in its use, it was the 
custom to ask your friends to drink it, and it 
was kept for use in a lily-pod of white earth 
and lighted with a splinter of juniper or with 
a live coal held with a pair of silver tongs. 
Two pence a pound was placed on it and if the 
price was a little better, they paid their debts 
in money and sold their tobacco. 

There was some tobacco- raised in Kanawha, 
but just exactly how it was marketed, we do not 
know; probably they did not ship it, only used 
it instead of money. 


From the Kanawha Falls, down the river, 
on the South side, the first old settler was 
Isaac Jenkins. He owned all the land from 
the Falls down to Loup Creek on the river; 
his house was about three and a half miles west 
of the Falls about half a mile above Loup 
Creek. He patented ioo acres on the Kanawha 
River in 1818 and 100 acres on Loup Creek in 

Buster — This family was from Kentucky and 
there was a family from Virginia. They may 
have been of the same family long ago. 
Thomas Buster lived above Armstrong Creek 
and his holdings were from Armstrong to 
Loup. He had William, Thomas, Jr., J. R., 
Philip, Joseph and Dorcas. William B. mar- 
ried Sarah Bousman. Thomas, Jr., who was 
a physician, never married, and died about 
1885. J. R. married Elvira Dempsey; he was 
a farmer, miller and merchant. Philip went to 
Missouri. He sold out to Aaron Stockton, 
Deepwater; Joseph, died in 1839; his wife re- 
turned to Giles County. Dorcas married Ma- 
son Coleman, and a descendant of theirs re- 
sides there. He is a "long-fellow," about six 
feet, five inches. The widow married Nic 
Jones, brother of John Jones; she died in 1850. 

George Richards lived below where "Eagle" 
now is, and owned land there and the islands in 
the river. They left a son, William Richards, 
who lives at Oak Hill, aged ninety. He pat- 

ented 76 acres on Armstrong and 57 at Arm- 
strong and Kanawha in 1825. 

Next below was Ben Morris, who sold his 
brick house and farm on the north side of the 
river to his brother Levi and moved over on 
the south' side, and afterward it became the 
Montgomery farm and now the town of that 
name. Mrs. Manser, the daughter of Ben Mor- 
ris, was born in 1792. 

Aaron Stockton purchased the Kanawha 
Falls in 181 6 and also the place at the mouth 
of Kelly's Creek. Tom Buster, from Maiden, 
owned the Blue Sulphur Springs in Green 
Brier, which was a favorite summer resort. 

Col. Andrew Donnally was born in the north 
of Ireland and came to the Valley of Virginia 
in 1750. He was the county lieutenant and 
sheriff of Botetourt County in 1775. He mar- 
ried Jane McCreary of Augusta in 1776. 
Donnally 's Fort was built in 1771 near Lewis- 
burg, which at that time was in Botetourt 1 
County. Col. Donnally was county lieutenant/ 
in Greenbrier under Gov. Thomas Jefferson. 
Hammond and Prior went from Pt. Pleasant' 
to notify the settlers in Greenbrier in 1778, and 
the Indians attacked the fort soon after the 
notification. His daughter, Katie, a young girl, 
made bullets for the defenders; she married 
Capt. John Wilson. Andrew Donnally was a 
man of great natural ability, with much cour- 
age and physical strength. 

It was in 1782 that Lewisburg was estab- 
lished by law and Col. Donnally, Samuel Lewis, 
James Reed, Samuel Brown, John Stuart, 
William Ward, Thomas Edgar were appointed 
trustees. Col. Donnally went to near Point 
Pleasant and remained a year or two. He 
owned Dick Pointer, the negro who fought in 
the fort in 1778. Dick's son was made a cap- 
tive in 1790 and became an Indian Chief, but 
in 1 81 2 he sided with the Americans. 

After leaving Point Pleasant, Col. Donnally 
came to the mouth of Elk, and afterwards went 
above Charleston, about five miles, and there 
died in 1825. His son, Andrew Donnally, Jr., 
married in 1802, Marjorie Van Bibber, a 
daughter of Capt. John Van Bibber, and they 
had six sons and two or more daughters. One 
daughter married J. H. Fry and another mar- 
ried Col. John Lewis. Jesse Boone (son of 



Daniel) was a brother-in-law of Andrew Don- 
nally, Jr., and he, Jesse, went west in 1816. 
Andrew, Jr. died in 1849. 

In the early days of Greenbrier county, it 
was alleged by some Presbyterians that Andrew 
Donnally was a Romanist. The principal rea- 
son for the charge was that on some record or 
legal document his name had been spelled 
O'Donnally. This, in the county of Green- 
brier, in those early days, was a serious charge, 
in politics, except only in the "Irish Corner." 
Mr. Donnally had an investigation made and 
the statement was shown to be incorrect. The 
parties making the charge subsequently ad- 
mitted that they were in error. 

Davis Creek. At the mouth of Davis Creek, 
Fleming Cobb settled and he was a very early 
man in the valley and went to the mouth of 
the Kanawha, to Fort Randolph, to bring some 
powder to the Fort in Charleston, and on his 
return the Indians tried to capture him, but 
failed and he brought in the powder. His home 
was near the river. 

Reuben Daggs settled about four miles up 
the creek. His wife was a sister of Samuel 
Cook, who also lived on this creek. Elisha 
Dodson was also a settler and he has a son, 
James M. Dodson. His wife was Margaret 

Daggs, daughter of Reuben Daggs, and Bob 
was their son. Reuben who was born in the 
fort in Charleston, died in 1872. 

Thomas Davis died in 1878, aged about 
eighty years. He settled about six miles up 
the creek. Samuel Cook settled about four 
miles up. 

Davis creek became known as having there- 
on the Black Band Iron Ore, that is, there was 
coal found thereon in which there was iron ore 
and it was supposed that the coal would smelt 
the ore and a furnace was built to make iron 
and it was not a success for some reason, but 
it lead to a railroad being built up Davis Creek 
to bring out coal. 

We heard no more of the iron ore and fur- 
nace but there was a coal which took the name 
of Black Band coal, of the very best quality of 
block coal, which was in great demand, found 
on Davis Creek and on Brier Creek and else- 
where on the creeks of Coal River. This 
Davis Creek Railroad was built to haul this 
coal to the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad on 
the Kanawha and the coal shipped to Chicago. 

The said Davis Creek Railroad was greatly 
injured by a freshet on Davis Creek and they 
have not been shipping for some time. 



Organisation of the Courts — Judges John Coalter, James Allen, Lewis Summers, David 
McComas, James H. Brown, Joseph Smith, George W. Summers, Mathew Dunbar, James 
IV. Hoge — F. A. Guthrie — 5. C. Burdett Judges of the Court of Appeals of Virginia — 
Early Attorneys of the Kanazvha Bar — Charleston Lazvyers, ipu — InMemoriam. 


To explain the judiciary system of Virginia 
and note its changes and its growth would en- 
tail more labor than its compensation in cur- 
iosity would justify. Its interest would be ap- 
preciated only by a few lawyers, and lawyers 
are not paying men, generally. Without going 
far into details we might say, that in the Col- 
ony there was no court of final resort, except 
to the King and Council and that would gen- 
erally amount to nothing. 

There was the county court, composed of 
justices of the county and they were appointed 
by the Governor, they served without fee or 
reward ; except, that by rotation, the office of 
sheriff for two years was given to a justice, 
for his services on the County Court. 

These county courts, these justices, could 
and did almost any and everything that any- 
body could do, and were a sort of legislature, 
judicial and executive body for their own coun- 

The General Court, so called because its ju- 
risdiction was general over all persons, causes, 
matters or things at common law whether by 
original process or appeal, or any other writ, 
or other legal way or means, and its jurisdic- 
tion extended all over the state. 

District Courts were established and the civil 
and criminal jurisdiction of the General Court 
was given to this District Court by appeal, etc. 

In 1809 the District Courts were abolished 
and the Circuit Superior Courts of Law in 

each county, were substituted in their stead, 
and in 1819 there were fifteen circuits, and 
each circuit had about seven counties, on an 

There was a Supreme Court of Chancery. 
There was such courts in Staunton, Winches- 
ter, Clarksburg and at Wythe court house, 
Richmond and Williamsburg and the places 
for holding them increased. 

The Supreme Court of Appeals was estab- 
lished in 1778 but was held by Judges of other 

In 1788 this Court was organized by Judges 
to be appointed by both houses of the Assem- 
bly and it has remained a separate court ever 
since and in 181 1, there were five judges. 
Judge John Coalter was appointed on the Gen- 
eral Court in 1809 and on the Court of Appeals 
in 1811. 

That Judge James Allen's appointment to 
General Court in 181 1, must have been to fill 
the place of Judge Coalter. Lewis Summers 
was appointed on the General Court in 1819 
and served until in 1843 and after his death 
David McComas was placed on the General 
Court and this Court was abolished in 185 1, 
and the Circuit Courts of law and chancery 
substituted and the first judge for Kanawha 
Circuit was Judge George W. Summers ; he re- 
signed in 1858, and David McComas was then 
selected and he held until the war came on, 
during which he died, and then the re-organized 
government of Virginia placed Judge James H. 
Brown on the Kanawha Circuit and he after- 




wards was elected for the Supreme Court of 
West Virginia when Judge Daniel Polsley 
succeeded him, until he was elected to Con- 
gress and then Judge James H. Hoge took 
this bench and he was succeeded by Joseph 
Smith, who was followed by Judge F. A. 
Guthrie, and he was followed by Judge S. C. 
Burdette, who now presides on the bench of 
the Circuit Court of Kanawha. 


Judge John Coalter held the first court held 
in Kanawha county and it was April, 1809. 
He was born near New Providence in Augusta 
now in Rockbridge, Virginia. He was a son of 
Michael Coalter, and he studied law, went to 
Staunton to practice, and was made judge of 
the General Court and as such came to Ka- 
nawha to hold the Court here, and in 181 1 
he was promoted to the Court of Appeals, on 
which he served until 1838 when he resigned. 
He lived in his later life near Fredericksburg. 
He was married four times and he belonged to 
a good old Virginia family, and was honored 
and respected as a Judge. 

It would not do to omit Hale's joke on this 
judge. He was a stranger to the people and 
ways of Kanawha, whose only acquaintance 
with courts was their own County Court, 
whose rules were rather easy. Some offender 
was tried and found guilty of some offense 
not regarded serious and the judge gave him 
the full benefit of the law, when the convicted 
man meant to make an appeal for less sen- 
tence. Thus he spake : "See here, Judge, don't 
you think you are setting your colter a little 
too steep for a new ground?" 


James Allen was appointed on the Gen- 
eral Court in 181 1. He was from Wood- 
stock, Shenandoah county, because his son 
is reported as having been born in Wood- 
stock. This son was John James Allen, 
who went to Clarksburg, Harrison county, 
and settled, and afterwards was on the 
Court of Appeals. 

James Allen held the Circuit Court in 
Kanawha until Judge Lewis Summers was 
appointed in 1819. We regret that we are un- 

able to furnish any further data of Judge 
James Allen. 


There came from Fairfax county, Vir- 
ginia, the Summers family, consisting of 
George, the father, and Ann, his wife, and 
five sons and five daughters. This George 
Summers was the son of Francis and Jane 
Summers of Alexandria. He was born in 
1758 in Fairfax and died in Kanawha in 
1818; his wife was Ann Smith Randolffe 
and they were married in 1776. 

Lewis Summers was their first born, and 
his birthday was November 7, 1778; he 
never married and he died in August, 
1843, at tne White Sulphur Springs and 
was buried at Walnut Grove, now in Put- 
nam county, W. Va. Besides him there 
were Cotton, Jane, Elizabeth, Ann M., Fer- 
dinand, Celina, Sydney, Albert, and George 

Of Col. George Summers, the father, it 
was said, that in all the relations of life, he 
manifested a vigorous and correct under- 
standing and an integrity the most inflex- 
ible. He served several sessions in the As- 
sembly at Richmond, and was in the Con- 
vention of 1800,- and was once the sheriff 
of his county. 

In 1810 he made a tour of inspection, 
following the route that Lewis had pre- 
viously marked out and came to the Kana- 
wha Valley, and went down the Ohio as 
far as Guyandotte, and returned by way of 
AVheeling and then back home to Alexan- 

The trip resulted in the purchase of 
Walnut Grove, known as the estate of Dr. 
Craik, also of Alexandria. In 1813 he 
came to take possession of his land and 
prepare a home for his family and in Jan- 
uary, 1814, the calvacade moved westward. 
They reached their new home and he spent 
the rest of his life in fixing his farm and 

After four years on the Kanawha, he 
was laid to rest, with his fathers. Lewis 
Summers then became the head of the 
Summers family in Kanawha. He pos- 



sessed a liberal education, and was ad- 
mitted to the Bar at twenty-two years of 
age, and was also much interested in polit- 
ical affairs. It was in June, 1808, he made 
a trip and passed down the Kanawha Val- 
ley and spent a few days in Gallipolis, 
Ohio, thence up the Ohio to Wellsburg and 
then up the Monongahela and down the 
Potomac to his home and in the fall of the 
same year, he made his last trip and settled 
in Gallipolis. While in Ohio he was 
elected to the Senate, but he did not long 
remain in that state and in 181 5 returned 
to Virginia and made his home in Charles- 
ton. He beg'an the practice of law and 
also was one of a commercial firm, after- 
wards known as Summers, Scales & Co., 
which was a leading firm from 1816 to 1822. 
He was also engaged in salt making until 
1833. His mother and two brothers, 
Albert and George, came from the Grove 
to Charleston and lived with Lewis, after 
the death of the father in 1818. Albert 
died in 1824. In 1821 the boys being off to 
school, the mother returned to the Grove 
and Lewis attended her and ever after- 
wards made that his permanent home. He 
built at the Grove a large flouring-mill, es- 
tablished a large warehouse and general 
merchandise store and with his houses 
there was quite a little villag'e. He ac- 
cumulated a good large library of law and 
miscellaneous books. He became a judge 
of the General Court and Judge of the Ka- 
nawha Circuit Court in 1819, and he re- 
mained on the bench until his death in 1843. 
He was able and conscientious and his 
court was one of great dignity and de- 
corum. He was elected to the General As- 
sembly in 1817 with Tohn Hansford. He 
and others were appointed to equalize the 
lands known as the "Savage Grant," lo- 
cated between Guyandotte and Catletts- 
burg and their report is yet on file. He 
was greatly interested in the improvement 
of the water ways and highways and was 
interested in the Board of Public Works, 
etc. He never married, and the Summers 
family were ah Episcopalians. He was a 
supporter of that church and gave aid to 

the building of St. John's church in Charles- 

There is a portrait in oil in Charleston, 
at his niece Mrs. A. J. Ryan on Broad St., 
who prepared a sketch of him which was 
published in the July, 1903, W. Va. His- 
torical Magazine, which is more fully and 
at large set forth, and from which this is 


He was the son of General Elisha Mc- 
Comas, and the wife of the Judge was a Miss 
French. He was a member of the General 
Court of Virginia, a judge of the Kanawha 
Circuit Court and was at one time a state sen- 
ator from the Kanawha district. He was born 
in 1795 and died in Giles county, Va., in 1864. 
He was full of humor, good natured and was 
a distinguished judge. 

There are many stories told of him — of his 
"negligence of dress and other habits. He gen- 
erally on his circuit neglected to relieve his 
soiled clothes but left them at his boarding 
house. He and his wife went to Cabell to visit 
his relations and made a visit to them all, ex- 
cept one unfortunate brother and he told his 
wife that they must go and see him, and she 
inquired whether he was not at the poor-house. 
"Yes," said the Judge, "but there is no differ- 
ence between him and myself; he is on the 
county and I am on the state." 

It has been said that he made the first 
straight-out secession speech that had been made 
in Virginia, while he was in the state senate. 
His home was for some time in Charleston on 
Virginia street above the old Episcopal church. 
He left no children. Judge McComas, not- 
withstanding some personal peculiarities, was 
ever held in high esteem acting as a judge of 
correct principle and a learned man, and was 
highly esteemed as a man. 


He was the son of Dr. Benjamin Brown of 
Cabell county, who came from Prince William 
county, Va., to Cabell county in 1805. He 
was born in 1818, was educated in Marietta 
College, Ohio, and in Augusta College, Ky. 
He read law with John Laidley of Cabell, was 


admitted to the bar in 1842 and practiced in 
Cabell, Wayne, Logan, Jackson and Kanawha 
and in the Appellate Court and in the Federal 
Courts. In 1848 he removed to Kanawha and 
made Charleston his home, and here he went 
into the Courts where there were older and 
younger lawyers and where the bar was recog- 
nized as a strong one. He made the trial of 
land cases a specialty and he took conditional 
fees and won cases and gained lands. 

When the war came on he was elected to 
succeed Judge David McComas, who went 
South and died; Judge Brown was judge of 
the Eighteenth Judicial Circuit of Virginia. 
He resigned his seat in the legislature and in 
the constitutional convention being held at 
Wheeling. To hold a circuit court in this 
circuit was a dangerous undertaking, while at 
Wheeling he was protected by the military 
forces of the U. S., but in holding circuit 
courts, the military forces about, sometimes 
wore the grey, instead of the blue, and then 
he had to adjourn his court, sine die, and get 
into different quarters. 

At a court held in Mason county, they did 
not give him very ample notice and his leaving 
there was under fire. At a court in Cabell, he 
received a little more notice and he reached 
Guyandotte in time to secure transportation 
on a steamboat that was held up, waiting for 
him, by the Federal forces, and brought him 
again within the Federal lines. It was well 
known that to capture any officer of the Wheel- 
ing government was the special duty of all 
Confederate soldiers. 

The new state of West Virginia was formed 
in June, 1863, and new officers had to be se- 
lected and Judge Brown was elected as one of 
the Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals, 
for eight years ; and he served his term on that 
Court, which of course vacated his judgeship 
on the old circuit court of Kanawha under the 
old state. 

By the* time that his term on the Supreme 
Bench expired, the party that had elected him, 
renominated him, but this party by that time 
had lost its power in the new state, and he re- 
tired and again began the practice of the law, 
with his sons in partnership with him. He was 

always respected and honored as an able, up- 
right and conscientious judge. 

He was in his ante-bellum days an old time 
Democrat, and when the war came on, he had 
come to a parting of the ways; he was no be- 
liever in secession, and parties now were di- 
vided into Union and Secessionist, and he be- 
longed to the Union party. This party after 
the war almost unanimously became Republi- 
cans and he was no exception ; he had made 
the choice for the Union and he stood by that 
selection. No doubt he often had a bitter pill 
to swallow, but he took his medicine. He was 
nominated on the Republican ticket for the 
Legislature and on the Democratic ticket his 
son, James F. Brown, was a candidate for the 
same office, and both were elected. 

He was of the Presbyterian faith, and his 
church divided and here he stood by his colors, 
and remained with the General Assembly of the 
U. S. and let go the synod of Greenbrier which 
had gone further South. He died in October, 
1900, aged 82 and a suitable monument marks 
his resting place in the cemetery of Charles- 
ton. He was a man that everyone respected, 
whether they agreed with his views or not. 

In Memoriam 

Hon. James H. Brown, 

A former judge of the 

Supreme Court of Appeals 


West Virginia 

At a special term of the Supreme Court of 
Appeals of West Virginia, continued and held 
in Charleston, county of Kanawha, on the 30th 
day of March, 1901, Wesley Mollohan, on be- 
half of the Bar of Kanawha county presented 
to the court the resolutions of the Kanawha 
County Bar, respecting the late Judge James 
H. Brown, as follows: . . • 

"Resolved, That by the death of the Hon. 
James H. Brown, the Bar of the Kanawha has 
lost its oldest and most learned member, and 
the state and county one of our most useful and 
honored citizens. 

"He was not only learned and distinguished 
in his profession but was an able and upright 



"In personal and public affairs he was a man 
of sterling honesty and intrepid courage and 
very vigilant in promoting by every fair and 
honorable means the best interest of his com- 
munity, his country and his state. His life 
and profesional career furnished an example of 
probity, energy and success well worthy of the 
highest emulation. 

"Though ever courteous and generous to his 
brethren of the Bar, yet he was ever faithful 
to and tenacious of every right of his clients. 
"It is difficult to adequately express our ap- 
preciation of his many virtues and noble quali- 
ties, but we desire to here place upon record 
humble though insufficient tribute to his mem- 
ory as a man, a citizen, and a lawyer." 
W. Mollohan. 
G. E. Price. 
Malcolm J. Jackson. 
H. C. McWhorter. 
E. W. Wilson. 
Thomas L. Broun. 
"And said Mollohan addressed the Court 
touching the life and career of Judge Brown as 
a lawyer and a member of this Court, and it is 
ordered that the resolutions so presented be 
spread on the records of this Court and the ad- 
dress of Mr. Mollohan be filed and published in 
the reports of this court." 
(A true copy, attest) 


Remarks of W. Mollohan on presenta- 
tion of resolutions of Kanawha Bar on the 
death of Judge James H. Brown : 

"Some time ago Judge James H. Brown 
departed this life at his home in this city. 
After his death there was held a meeting 
of the Kanawha Bar at which meeting cer- 
tain resolutions were adopted and I was ap- 
pointed to present the resolutions to this 
honorable Court, which I now do, and in 
connection therewith I deem it my duty, as 
well as honored privilege, to say some- 
thing by. the way of elaboration to what is set 
forth in the resolutions as to the career of 
this distinguished man. 

"Judge Brown was born in Cabell county, 
Virginia, (now West Virginia) December 
the 25th, 1818, a son of Dr. Benj. Brown, 

who removed to the banks of the Ohio 
where Huntington now stands in 1805, 
from Prince William county, Virginia, 
where the family had lived since 1636, de- 
cendants of William Brown, who emigrated 
from England at about this date. He had 
attended Marietta College but, owing to ill 
health, left college and spent some time in 
travel and afterwards completed his college 
course and graduated at Augusta College, 
Kentucky; read law with the late John 
Laidley, Sr., of Cabell county; was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1842, practicing on the 
circuit in Cabell, Wayne, Mason, Jackson, 
and Kanawha, and in the Federal and Ap- 
pellate Courts. In 1848 he removed to 
Kanawha county and ever after made 
Charleston his home. From 1848 until 
1852 he was in partnership in the practice 
with the late J. M. Laidley, Esq., and later, 
with the late W. S. Summers, the latter as- 
sociation continuing until the war, when 
Mr. Summers went South in the Confeder- 
ate army. 

"Shortly after his admission to the bar, he 
entered politics, taking an active interest in 
public affairs; he was an old time Demo- 
crat and as such took an active part in the 
campaign of 1844 and in the advocacy of 
the then paramount issue, the annexation 
of Texas. In 1854 he was delegate from 
Kanawha to the State convention as- 
sembled at the White Sulphur Springs to 
consider the subject of internal improve- 
ments ; was chosen one of the vice-presi- 
dents, and pressed on the convention the 
importance of the early completion of the 
Covington & Ohio railroad, now Chesa- 
peake. In the winter of 1854-5, he was a 
delegate to the Democratic State conven- 
tion at Staunton, which nominated Henry 
A. Wise for Governor; in 1855, was candi- 
date for State Senate from the Kanawha 
district, but was defeated by the Whig 

"In the winter of 1856, he was dele- 
gated to the convention at Parkersburg, 
which nominated A. G. Jenkins for Con- 
gress. In the spring of 1861 he was dele- 
gate to the Congressional convention at 



Parkersburg which nominated J. S. Carlile. 
At the outbreak of the war, he opposed the 
dismemberment of the Union, and made 
a vigirous campaign against the Ordinance 
of Secession. He was a member of the 
Wheeling convention of 1861 which sub- 
mitted the question of a new State, and 
was an earnest advocate of all that that 
implied. At the same time he was a mem- 
ber of the Legislature, taking active part 
in both bodies. In all these matters he 
was a man, earnest and untiring in labors, 
conservative in views, but prompt in ac- 
tion, and content with no half-way meas- 

"In winter of 1861-2 he was elected and 
commissioned judge of the Eighteenth 
Judicial Circuit of Virginia, succeeding 
the Hon. David McComas. January 14, 
1862, he resigned his membership in the 
Legislature, and on February 14, 1862, his 
seat in the convention and qualified as 
judge the following day; entered at 
once upon the duties of that office, and 
held, mid many perils and all manner of 
difficulties incident to the then condition 
every term of court in every county of his- 
circuit until his promotion to the Supreme 

"February 3, 1863, he was re-elected from 
Kanawha county to the Constitutional 
convention, to fill the vacancy occasioned 
by his own resignation, and took his seat 
upon the reassembling of that body to 
consider the amendment to the Constitu- 
tion proposed by Congress. 

"While opposed to the arbitrary action 
on the part of Congress he urged the ac- 
ceptance of its demands as the lesser of 
the two evils, and advocated the adoption 
the Constitution, both in the convention 
and at the polls. 

"He was chairman of the committee on 
the judiciary, and as such, had much hand 
in shaping important provisions of the 
Constitution of 1863. 

"He continued on the bench as circuit 
judge until 1863, when he resigned, having 
been elected to the Supreme Court of Appeals. 
No appeal was ever taken from any decision 
rendered by him while circuit judge. May 

28, 1863, he was elected to the Supreme 
bench and commissioned in June follow- 
ing; served eight years; was re-elected by 
his party but suffered defeat along with 
the rest of the ticket, and returned to the 
practice ; was again nominated for the same 
office in 1876, and ag-ain went down with 
his party. In 1875 he was the caucus 
nominee of his party for the United States 
Senate, and in 1883, and again in 1886, its 
nominee for Congress from the Third Con- 
gressional district. He was elected in 1882 
to the Legislature, and was the acknowl- 
edged leader of his party on the floor of the 
House . 

"In 1881, he was a delegate from the 
West Virginia State convention to the In- 
ternational Sunday School convention at 
Toronto, Canada. In 1883, a commissioner 
from the Presbytery of West Virginia to 
the Presbyterian General Assembly, at 

"In 1888, a delegate from West Virginia 
State Bar Association to the National con- 
vention at AA^ashington, D. C, which 
formed the National Bar Association, and 
was chairman of his State delegation. In 
July, 1888. he attended the National con- 
vention of the National Education at San 
Francisco, California, and, in 1891, was 
delegate to the National Mining Congress, 
held at Denver, Colorado, and a member 
of the executive committee. 

"Though he retired from active practice 
in 1885, his interest in public affairs and 
matters affecting the community in no 
wise abated. He devoted himself to lit- 
erary pursuits, reading and traveling, and 
up to the time of his death, kept abreast 
of the times with the best. He retained 
his physical vigor up to his last brief ill- 
ness, and his mental vigor unimpaired until 
the Grim Reaper stood in his presence, at 
the ripe age of nearly ninety-two. 

"Pie was twice married, first to Louisa 
M. Beurhing, daughter of Hon. F. G. L. 
Beuhring, of Cabell, who died in 1872; 
afterwards to Sallie S., daughter of the late 
W. D. Shrewsbury, Esq., who survives 

"He was a man eminently just in his 



home, leaving that impress upon all, but 
with it combined in a rare degTee those 
qualities which drew the members of his 
family very near him, and while they hon- 
ored his life and character in those aspects 
with which the world was acquainted, they 
loved the side that showed itself at home. 
,"He was a man who calmly formed his 
opinions and then dared ever to maintain 
them. He never 'counted the cost' when 
conceived a principle involved. There 
never was a man of more striking instances 
of unswerving moral courage. He never in 
a single instance shrunk or flinched when 
put to test ; policy, interest or influence 
counted for naugdit in determining his 
views and shaping his action, and yet, with 
all this, he had ever for his opponent a 
courteous consideration that stamped him 
among the first gentlemen of the old 
school. While always of strong convic- 
tions, openly expressed, he was broad and 
liberal in his views political and religious, 
and in all matters affecting the public and 
private interest, generous and lberal, but 
always in an unostentatious way, mindful 
of the injunction not to let the right hand 
know what the left hand was doing, care- 
less of popular approval or praise, ever un- 
obtrusive save where he thought duty 
called for speech or action. 

"He was a scholarly man, a great reader 
and student, nor confined his reading to 
the line of his profession. His inclination 
and training led him into the wide fields of 
history, literature, science and the classics, 
and with all this, he kept in constant touch 
and abreast with current events ; his broad 
knowledge, always up to date, super-added 
to his general unassuming manner, made 
of him an ever charming companion for his 
friends and those admitted to the inner 

"His nature was intensely loyal; 
whether it be to friends or to his country, 
his State, his county, or his town, his ser- 
vices and his best were to command. He 
loved West Virginia ; born on her soil, yet 
present and assisting at her birth in the 
throes of mortal aeony, mid which she was 

brought forth. He loved the country of 
his adoption and sought at first with suc- 
cess, to christen the new State 'Kanawha' 
in its honor. He was foremost in all ef- 
forts to develop her resources and advance 
her interests. He loved his town and le,ft 
no stone unturned to make it what it is, 
and, in the Constitutional convention 
which formed the State, inaugurated the 
movement that ultimately gave to it the 
capitol of the State. I knew him well from 
my boyhood days, and appreciated during 
that long period, his sterling and manly 
qualities. In the evening of his life he 
stood among us as stands the giant trees 
of the forest — the growth of former gener- 
ations, and with his death there passed 
away the last of a remarkable class of men 
who lived in this section of the state and 
whose reputation for strong intellectual 
qualities, learning and ability in their pro- 
fession and distinction in public affars, 
were known not only among the people of 
our present State but through the old com- 
monwealth and beyond." 


A Biographical Sketch of an Interesting Life. 

Ravenswood, W. Va., Nov. 30, 1887. The 
announcement last week of the death, on 
Thursday, Nov. 24th, of Judge Joseph Smith, 
at Ripley, W. Va., was read with feelings of 
sadness by a wide circle of friends of the de- 
ceased. Enemies, he had none, for his kindly 
nature void of malice toward any human being, 
dispelled all enmity. Meek and humble under 
all circumstances he did not seem to be elated 
by wordly honors, nor cast down by losses or 
disappointments : and but few men have en- 
joyed or suffered more of both of these experi- 

I beg pardon for troubling you with the pass- 
ing tribute of a few words in memory of my 
dear old friend. 

Judge Smith was descended from early set- 
tlers in the Ohio Valley. His father, William 
Smith, Esq., and his mother, whose maiden 
name was Bane, were of the best and most 
wealthy families among the rich and cultivated 



people where they were raised. He was born 
in 1816 on Indian Short creek, near the Ohio 
river, in Jefferson county, Ohio. His boyhood 
was devoted to hard work at his father's mill 
and farm; he attended the common school in 
winter near his home until he was 18 years 
old, when he was sent first to Salem Academy, 
Pa., and then to New Athens College, Ohio. 
He read law in Steubenville, Ohio, with Hon. 
Edward M. Stanton under the same preceptor 
and for a short time had a law office in Wheel- 
ing, but was induced by the late Hon. Andrew 
Wilson, who then lived at Cottageville Mills, 
to open a law office at Ripley, Jackson county, 
in 1841. Here he married Minerva, daughter 
of the late Robert Lowther, Esq., a practicing 
attorney at Ripley and a descendant of Col. 
William Lowther , of Harrison, one of the 
earliest and most prominent pioneers west of 
the mountains. In 1846 he moved to Wells- 
burg, Brooke county, where he practiced law 
two years and then returned to Jackson. Up 
to that time, in Virginia, the right of suffrage 
was restricted to the white freeholders, or to 
such as paid state taxes, and even they could 
only elect members of the Lower House of 
Congress and of the State Legislature. The 
Legislature elected the governors and judges 
and the county officers were appointed by the 

The people of Western Virginia had from 
an early day demanded a change in the organic 
law and when after a long struggle, a consti- 
tutional convention was called, they aimed to 
elect to it their ablest and best men in order to 
compete with the leading statesmen of old Vir- 
ginia, who were to be in that body. By the act 
calling the convention this district, composed of 
the counties of Jackson, Wirt, Gilmer, Lewis, 
Upshur, Randolph and Barbour, was entitled 
to four members. There were seventeen can- 
didates and Joseph Smith stood second on the 
list of those elected. These were J. S. Car- 
lisle, Joseph Smith, Thomas Bland, and Samuel 
L. Hayes. In the convention which sat in 
Richmond in 1851 Judge Smith was an influ- 
ential member and his reported speeches com- 
pare favorably with those of the ablest men 
in thai body. The result was claimed as a 
triumph for the people of the West, as the right' 

of suffrage was extended to all white citizens 
over 21 years of age, and all offices were made 
elective by the people and much also was 
gained by the West in fixing the basis of rep- 
resentation and taxation as between the con- 
flicting interests and sections of the old state. 
At the first general election of officers under 
the new regime in 1852 he was elected prose- 
cuting attorney for Jackson county, and sig- 
nalized his entrance into that office by the dis- 
missal of a large number of indictments for 
petty matters too trivial in his opinion to jus- 
tify the costs of prosecution. By this course 
he secured for himself the approbation of the 
courts and of the people generally. He made 
it a rule never to allow the public tribunals un- 
der his care to be used for persecution by un- 
worthy men to vent private spite, but he dis- 
liked to prosecute anyone, preferring to take 
the side of the defense; and was not a candi- 
date for re-election when his term of four years 

When the Civil War came on in 1861, Judge 
Smith was justly regarded as quite a wealthy 
man, and but for the war would no doubt have 
left a large estate; but the civil strife came on 
so suddenly that when he went unexpectedly 
South, his affairs were left in a bad condition, 
so that during his absence his large property, 
real and personal, was wasted and squandered, 
and on his return after the war he had to be- 
gin the battle of life anew, for the earnings of 
his professional efforts during his absence had 
been paid in a currency that lost its purchasing 
power by the result of the conflict. But with 
characteristic pluck, he began life anew for a 
livelihood for self and family. 

In 1872 he was elected by the public, irre- 
spective of party, over an able and popular 
judge, J. W. Hoge, as judge of this circuit 
for the term of eight years and served out his 
term faithfully and well. He was created on a 
big scale, and of large proportions' of body and 
mind ; his open and intelligent face beamed 
with benevolence ; his judgment was enlight- 
ened by study and reflection, and by the rare 
natural gift akin to genius, called common 

As an advocate, in jury trials, Judge Smith 
had no superior at the bar; his appearance, 



manner, mode of thought, and language were 
peculiar and striking and attracted and held 
the attention. While taking up only the ma- 
terial points of the case in hand, his arguments 
were always plausible and often unanswerable. 
His habits of life were simple, temperate and 
pure. He cared for neither dress nor display, 
and his daily intercourse with the people was 
ever marked with unaffected candor, courtesy 
and kindness to all. A life long student of the 
sacred scriptures, he was deeply versed in the 
oracles of truth and imbued with a spirit of 
respect and reverence for the religion of our 
fathers. Yet in this as in all other matters, 
he was devoid of affectation and hypocrisy, 
while he believed and upheld the divine doc- 
trines revealed to man in the life and ministry 
of our Saviour. 

In all the changing scenes of his eventful 
career, Judge Smith was aided and comforted 
by the ever kind and faithful wife of his youth, 
who thus proved herself indeed a helpmeet for 
such a husband, and who survives him to mourn 
her irreparable loss. The days of the years 
of his pilgrimage on the earth having exceeded 
the allotted threescore and ten, came on his 
last illness, the result of a painful malady by 
which he had been a sufferer for many years, 
but he remained cheerful and resigned, and at 
God's appointed time, he quietly retired to rest 
"as one who wraps the drapery of his couch 
about him and lies down to pleasant dreams." 

Robert S. Brown. 
Memo, Sept. 19th, 191 1. 

The foregoing was taken from the family 
"scrap book" of the late Judge R. S. Brown 
for Mrs. Fred H. Green, daughter of the late 
Judge Smith of Ravenswood, W. Va., by C. 
L. Brown. 

He died in 1887, at Ripley, W. Va. He was 
a communicant in the Episcopal church, and a 
lay-reader in the church. 

W. S. L. 


He was born in Fairfax county, Virginia, 
March 4, 1804, and he died in Kanawha coun- 
ty, West Virginia, Sept. 19, 1868, aged 64 

He was the youngest child of Col. George 
Summers, who was the son of Francis Sum- 
mers of Fairfax county, near Alexandria, 

Col. George Summers purchased a tract of 
land on the Kanawha river, of Dr. James Craik 
of Alexandria and others, and he removed 
thereto in spring of 1814. 

Those desiring to know more of the Sum- 
mers family and of Judge Lewis Summers, 
who was a judge of the Kanawha circuit court 
until 1843, w iH nn d a sketch thereof written 
by Mrs. Ann Isabell Ryon, formerly Summers, 
in the West Virginia Historical Magazine, for 
July, 1903, and also in the Southern Histori- 
cal Magazine, Vol. 1, page 49, February, 1892, 
in which is published the Journal of Lewis 
Summers, of a tour from Alexandria, Va., to 
Gallipolis, Ohio, in 1808, which latter maga- 
zine was edited by Virgil A. Lewis. 

George W. Summers first attended the 
schools in Charleston, and attended Washing- 
ton College, Va., and he afterwards graduated 
at the University of Ohio, at Athens, O., in 
1826 where there were many persons from 
this part of Virginia attending school in those 

After returning home from school he read 
law under the tutorage of his brother Judge 
Lewis Summers, and he was admitted to the 
bar of Kanawha Courts in 1827, and continued 
to practice in the courts of this county, and in 
the U. S. courts, and the Courts of Last Re- 

One of the great points of his success as a 
lawyer, was his ability to examine and cross- 
examine witnesses, or as has been said of him, 
he could come as near getting from the wit- 
ness what he wanted and to leave unsaid that 
which he did not want, as any lawyer on 

But his strong point was that of an advocate 
before a jury. He could make himself under- 
stood and present the facts so clearly and sat- 
isfactorily, and apply the same to the law of 
the case that he seldom failed to secure a ver- 
dict; or, as has been said of him, by one of the 
younger lawyers, but an able one, that with 
Judge Summers before a jury, he was almost 



So, too, was he before the people as a can- 
didate. He was elected to the Legislature of 
Virginia in 1830, and in 1831, and afterwards 
again in 1834 and 1835. 

He also was sent to Congress in 1841, and 
1843. He was a member of the Virginia Con- 
stitutional convention of 1850, where was con- 
tinued the contest between the East and West- 
ern part of Virginia, that was begun in the 
convention of 1829-1830, where the question 
of taxation of property according to its value, 
where the basis of representation, and other 
like questions between the two parts of the 
state were discussed until the division of the 
state was threatened, and all these were again 
discussed in 1850. No abler debater ever was 
found for the interest of the West, and Judge 
Summers was credited with being an orator 
that few cared to contend with. 

In both of these Virginia conventions did 
the West endeavor so to conduct the affairs 
of the state that Virginia would need not to 
have gone in debt, or if she did, that she 
should have been able to have discharged her 
liabilities within a short time. 

But the people of Virginia had the control 
within that part of the state east of the Blue 
Ridge and they kept that control there, but little 
good was effected in 1829-30, but the people 
became aroused and those of the West were 
educated to a better understanding of the un- 
fairness of the East, and in 1850, there were 
many changes brought about, but it was not 
until 1 86 1 that the Eastern people would even 
agree to place in the constitution "that all 
property should be taxed according to its 

In 1852, for the first time, did the people 
have a right to elect very many of the officers, 
before which time they were appointed at 
Richmond. In this year he was nominated for 
Circuit Judge and he was elected. 

He was candidate for governor of his state 
in 185 1, as a Whig and the Democrats of Vir- 
ginia thought they had better run a western 
man, so they brought one — Hon. Joseph John- 
son, of Clarksburg, who was a good strong 
man, but they found that Judge Summers by 
his speeches throughout the state was stirring 
up iliings tn such an extent that it was neces- 

sary to do something to counteract his influence 
on the stump. He soon found that he was 
charged with being an "Abolitionist," and the 
Democratic committee made an unusual call 
on the "Tenth Legion" for them all to turn 
out, and when out, they always voted the same 
way and all they wanted to know was who were 
on the Democratic ticket. 

With being charged in Virginia as an Aboli- 
tionist, and in the Tenth Legion as a Whig, as 
it has been expressed, "he stood no more show 
ner a rabbit." Mr. Johnson was of course 
elected. Perhaps the Judge had more colored 
servants than most of those who became fright- 
ened at the charge that was made against him, 
and perhaps had General Wise known when he 
was in this Valley that President Lincoln had 
contemplated, if not offered the Judge a place 
in his Cabinet or a place on the Supreme bench, 
that he, General Wise, would have executed 
his threat made before he reached here, "that 
he was going to hang Summers." 

Judge Summers was married in February, 
1833, and resided in Charleston. His wife was 
Miss Amacetta Laidley, a daughter of John 
Laidley of Cabell county, and his home was on 
Kanawha street where now resides Mr. W. T. 
Thayer, just above Morris street. There were 
several children but two of whom attained 
their manhood — Lewis and George — in fact 
George while but a boy left home and went 
with some others into the Confederacy, with- 
out consulting their parents. He was not long 
away before he was taken with the measles and 
died in camp. Lewis remained at home and 
continued to live at Glenwood. He married 
Miss Woodbridge of Marietta and they had 
four children, viz : George W. Summers of 
Washington, D. C. ; Mrs. R. G. Quarrier of 
Charleston; Lewis Summers, Jr., who resides 
on the original Summers Home, "Walnut 
Grove" in Putnam county. They lost one 
daughter, Miss Amacetta Summers. 

From 1852 until 1858 he was neither a can- 
didate nor was he practicing law, but was hold- 
ing the Kanawha Circuit Court, and becoming 
tired of his quiet retired life, he decided that 
he preferred the place at the bar rather than 
that of the bench. One of the last acts as 
judge, was the trial and sentence of Presley 



S. Turley for the murder of his wife and he 
was found guilty and was sentenced at the June 
term, 1858, to be hung and it was executed in 
September following. He had determined to 
quit the bench on July 1, 1858, and his resigna- 
tion had been sent in accordingly, which fact 
was known to the Bar. On the Law Record, 
Volume No. 9, pages 421-2 will be found the 
action taken by the attorneys constituting then 
the Bar of said Court as here follows: 

JULY 1, 1858. 

David McComas was called to the Chair, Andrew 
Parks was appointed Secretary. Thereupon Benjamin 
H. Smith, James H. Brown, Nicholas Fitzhugh, and 
Thomas L. Brown were appointed a Committee to pre- 
pare and present Resolutions on the occasion of the 
retirement of Judge Summers from the Bench of this 

Thereupon the following Resolutions were presented 
and were unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, the Honorable George W. Summers has 
this day terminated his services as Judge of this Cir- 
cuit, and the Bar of this County regarding it a suitable 
occasion to express their opinion of his judicial char- 
acter and capacity, do concur in the following Resolu- 
tions : 

First — That we unhesitatingly declare that he has 
faithfully and with distinguished ability discharged the 
onerous duties imposed on him, as Judge of this Circuit : 

Second — That we heartily unite in the expression of 
our admiration of the stern impartiality, which he has 
uniformly exhibited in the administration of the Law, 
the crowning virtue of Judicial character : 

Third — That upon his retirement from the Station 
he has occupied for the last six years, we tender to 
him our sincere esteem and respect : 

Fourth — That Major Andrew Parks, the Prosecut- 
ing Attorney, do present the foregoing Preamble and 
Resolutions, and ask the Court to enter the same of 

Whereupon the meeting adjourned. 

David McComas, Chairman, 
A. Parks, Secretary. 

In 1861 he was sent to the Peace Con- 
ference at Washington and he attended 
and did all he could to secure peace and 
prevent disunion. While in - Washington, 
he and Dr. Spicer Patrick, his neighbor, 
were elected delegates to the Virginia 
Convention, and they both attended and 
remained until after the Convention 
adopted the ordinance of Secession on 
April 17, 1 86 1, when they came home. It 
-was in this convention that he made the 
greatest effort of his life and his whole ef- 

fort was to keep the State from seceding 
from the Union and joining the Confed- 
eracy, and his speeches portrayed the con- 
sequences of such action, as if he had writ- 
ten the same subsequent to the war. His 
speech was very lengthy, and too long to 
be inserted. The Kanawha members went 
to said convention as Union men and they 
remained as such and came away as such 
and ever after so remained. 

There were other able men in the con- 
vention, both Union and Secessionist, and 
it is a fact that but for the action of the 
President in making a call on Virginia for 
soldiers with which to coerce the seceded 
states of the South, that Virginia would 
never have left the Union: but with the 
South doing all she could to excite and 
cause the Virginians to become excited 
and to become offended, and with this call 
upon Virginia to furnish men to fight 
against the South, it was more than even 
the most of the Union men in the conven- 
tion could stand and it was like "throwing 
the fat in the fire," and it caused the, adop- 
tion of the Ordinance. But even with all 
this the Kanawha delegation remained 
firm and resisted the passage thereof. In 
short, the Judge did all in his power to pre- 
vent the war, and when he had exhausted 
his power, he came home and remained 
quiet, because there was nothing* more he 
could do. He resigned his seat in the con- 

We have been asked to state the differ- 
ence between the two judges Summers — 
brothers. Judge Lewis and Judge George. 
Judge Lewis was a stern, quiet, dignified, 
judicial character, more on the order of 
men that would be expected among the 
ancient order of Virginians in Fairfax. 
Judge George was more of the ancient 
order of Charlestonians. While of suffi- 
cient dignity, he was not so much so but 
that he could afford to see the humor of a 
thing, without giving way to too much lev- 
itv. One was always stern, while the other 
was at times much less so. 

Judge Lewis instructed his servant man, 
Williams, (not Bill) never to sign a paper 



without first reading it. The fame of Judge 
Lewis rested on his thorough judicial 
knowledge and his strict adhesion to the 
precedent and the common law, while that 
of Judge George was known better among 
the people as the orator and the advocate, 
where humor and pathos were exhibited, 
and the crowd or the jury or both, were 
moved along, taken up and carried, as it 

On one occasion Judge George W. Sum- 
mers was defending one Mr. Johnson, 
charged with taking a horse that did not 
belong to him, and it was supposed that 
the prospect of conviction was almost cer- 
tain, but the jury said "not guilty" and 
when he was discharged, the Judge took 
his client to his office to attend to the finan- 
cial part of the case, and after all had been 
duly attended to, he stated to Johnson, that 
the matter was concluded and he was in no 
further danger. Tell me, whether or not 
you did really take the horse ? Johnson 
said, "Judge I always thought I did until I 
heard your speech." 

It was after the war, and aJ poor unfor- 
tunate unmarried woman was tried on the 
charge of having killed her child, a very 
young one too, and her friends feared the 
result of the trial. Judge Summers was 
secured as her advocate and much time 
was taken in the examination of the wit- 
nesses. When finally it was all through 
and it was known that the Judge would 
speak in her defense in the afternoon, long 
before the hour for the Court to meet, the 
Court House was crowded, and he was lis- 
tended to with the utmost attention, and at 
times he had the audience in tears, and 
again in smiles. The verdict was "not 

The sheriff was greatly interested and 
manifested much concern for the fate of 
the poor woman, and when the case was 
over, his comment was that it was "not 
much of a case no how ;" he had been carried 
along with the jury so that he did not see 
how the jury could have done otherwise, 
and really thought the judge's effort was 
overdone and not at all necessary. 

When the Convention met, Judge Sum- 
mers was opposed to establishing a con- 
federacy, if it had been possible, but he 
saw that it was not possible, and the result 
would be disastrous to the South, and espe- 
cially to Virginia. Then when he came 
home he was, by some who imagined that 
he was in their way to some place they 
were seeking, was charged with disloyalty 
to the Federal Government. 

This was done by the editor of the 
"Wheeling Intelligencer" who wanted to be 
a Senator, and fearing that others much 
more prominent than he might be consid- 
ered, he attacked those with the charge of 
disloyalty, and in Wheeling and Western 
Virginia, such a charge was equal to that 
■of being an Abolitionist in Virginia. The 
charge amounted to nothing as to Mr. 
Summers for two reasons, first because he 
was not seeking the place and then he was 
too well known to be affected by anything 
that said paper could say or do, 

After the war, and after almost all the 
people interested in the controversy that 
had brought on the war, had departed this 
life, there 1 was a man in Chicago that had 
been employed on said Wheeling paper, 
who was an Abolitionist aborigine, who had 
retained copies of the said paper and who 
supposed that he could, by making' a book 
with all sort of charges against all promi- 
nent men in West Virginia as to their loy- 
alty, create a sensation andi make a finan- 
cial success in the sale of his book, but it 
failed and fell flat. He charged Mr. Sum-- 
mers with having had it within, his power 
to prevent the war and that he did not ex- 
ercise that power, which the bare state- 
ment shows on its face to be ridiculous, 
and untrue. This book contains the elec- 
tion squibs that the said editor had pub- 
lished to prevent Mr. Summers from being 
voted for, and which were intended to be 
used and thought of only with reference to 
the election of the United States Senator, 
and not to be taken seriously. Then in the 
life of President Lincoln, the editors found 
some facts and evidence that arose in some 
spirited controversy between J. M. Botts 



and J. B. Baldwin, taken by some commit- 
tee of Congress, in relation to what tran- 
spired about the first of April, 1861, be- 
tween Mr. Lincoln and the Union men in 
the Virginia Convention. The editor of 
said book referred to what was found and 
states that the evidence taken was very- 
contradictory and he undertakes to estab- 
lish facts by taking" a midway course with 
a leaning to Mr. Botts' side, he being a 
friend of the President politically, and 
against Mr. Baldwin, who was a decided 
Union man, until the call for 75,000 troops 
to coerce the south changed his views, 
when he entered the Confederate army 
and resisted coercion. All this grew out of 
the fact that Mr. Lincoln, on April 3, 1861, 
sent a speical messenger to Richmond, ask- 
ing Mr. Summers to come to AVashington, 
or else send some good man in his place. 
Both the President and Secretary were ac- 
quainted with Mr. Summers and knew his 
relation and standing in the convention. 
When this message reached Mr. Summers, 
he called several of the leading Union men 
together and laid the same before them. 
and it was decided that Mr. Summers 
should not then leave, that it was very 
important that he should remain in the 
convention daily, and that he was to make 
his speech before the proposition should be 
voted on and no one knew when it might 
be, or what might happen. These Union 
men agreed upon sending, in the place oi 
Mr. Summers, Mr. John B. Baldwin of 
Staunton, Va., and he left immediately and 
went with the messenger to AVashington. 
and reported to the President and they had 
a consultation, and as to what Mr. Lincoln 
said was the controversy between Mr. 
Botts and Mr. Baldwin, after the war — 
Mr. Botts said that the President offered 
to withdraw all troops from the port at 
Charleston, S. C, if Virginia would adjourn 
her convention and send the delegates 
home, while Mr. Baldwin said that no such 
proposition was made to him. 

In 1866 Mr. Baldwin published a pam- 
phlet giving in detail all that transpired in 
relation to the matter, and he also inserted 

the statements of the persons known to the 
same, viz: the messenger sent to Richmond, 
Mr. J. F. Lewis, Judge Thomas, G. AV. 
Summers, John Janney, A. H. H. Stewart, 
Governor Samuel Price, Robert Whitehead 
and others, — all of whom concur with Bald- 
win's statements. 

The supposition was that the Union men 
in the convention never presented Mr. Lin- 
coln's offer to the convention, and it was never 
acted on, but the same was suppressed, and 
thus it was all charged to Mr. Summers as 
having had it in his hands to stop the war and 
as having declined to use such power. The ab- 
surdity is on its face. Mr. Lincoln never made 
such a proposition in the first place, and there 
is no evidence of his own that he ever said 
so. Mr. Botts says the President told him that 
he did, but Baldwin denies it and gives the 
facts detailed. As to what took place between 
Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Baldwin — as no one else 
was present — they only know what took place. 
.We have Mr. Baldwin's but not Mr. Lincoln's 

Mr. Botts and Mr. Baldwin were not friend- 
ly — and Mr. Baldwin's testimony as to all 
other matters is corroborated, and then what 
earthly purpose would have been served by the 
suppression of the proposition of the Presi- 
dent ? What did the Union men want if it was 
not to save the Union and prevent the war? 

Whatever may have been the facts, there 
was nothing in the case by which Mr. Sum- 
mers could have been blamed and in the state- 
ment of the editor of the Life of President 
Lincoln, they were so far from the truth of the 
case, that nothing therein contained should re- 
ceive the least consideration concerning this 
matter; and the Chicago book was written 
without the facts and only that book on the 
Life of the President and the "Wheeling In- 
telligencer," with an evident disposition to dis- 
close a mare's-nest, bolster up the charge. 

During the war, Judge Summers remained 
at his home, and while General Wise was in 
the Valley, he was placed under arrest but the 
General left rather hurriedly and did not take 
time to execute his threat. While the Federal 
soldiers were in occupancy of the Valley, there 
was no disturbance of any one that went about 



their business and were not caught in any in- 
terference with the business of the military. 

It was during the time that the Federal of- 
ficers were in control that occasionally a rebel 
soldier or other person was brought in and a 
court martial ordered to try the prisoner. Once 
there was one Absalom Knotts brought and 
placed in the guard-house, and a trial ordered 
on the charge of his being a spy found within 
the Federal lines. The charge was a serious 
one, and the prisoner was regarded as worthy 
of death, from the reputation given to him from 
his own neighborhood and the soldiers did 
not hesitate to declare that he would be hung. 

Judge Summers was employed for the pris- 
oner and he worked hard to save his life and 
to have him treated as a prisoner of war. It 
took some time to go through the testimony and 
the Judge studied the law bearing on the case 
and after the same was submitted, the Court 
held that he was no spy. Knotts gave his note 
for the Judge's fee, but he refused to pay it 
after the war was over, although he was amply 
able so to do, and he was sent to the Legisla- 
ture of West Virginia. 

There were many able men in Kanawha, 
many that ranked high as men, as politicians, 
statesmen, lawyers, but there was no one that 
stood higher in either of these stations than 
did George W. Summers, and if you ask the 
old people who was the ablest man this county 
has ever produced, they will uniformly tell you 
that it was Mr. Summers, the lawyer and ad- 

Not a great while ago, a grandson bearing 
the name of the late George W. Summers, in 
Washington, was called on by Col. Mosby, 
the Confederate cavalryman, and the Colonel, 
learning who the said Mr. Summers was, told 
him what he thought of his grandfather. The 
Colonel said he was in Richmond while 
the convention was in session and while he did 
not then agree with Mr. Summers, that Sum- 
mers, though surrounded with great men, was 
the most brilliant man in .the convention of 
i.Sf,r. That he was a giant among the giants, 
the most brilliant, the most powerful, the most 
eloquent man in the gathering, etc., etc. 

The writer, W. S. Laidley, was the brother 
of Mrs. Summers and he visited them in 1863, 
and begun to read law with the Judge in his 

home office and remained with him until his 
death. That he was the Judge's amanuensis, 
aid was in the office with him and after Decem- 
ber, 1865, was a partner under the firm name 
of Summers and Laidley, and he knew the 
Judge's views on those matters of which he 
expressed any views. 

It was in 1866 that Judge Summers was in 
Mason county attending court, and was taken 
ill, and was brought home by his associate, 
James W. Hoge. Dr. Spicer Patrick and Dr. 
Cotton attended him. 

It was in 1867 that Mrs. Summers was taken 
ill and lived but a short time. She was well 
known in Charleston and was beloved by all 
her associates. She was a gentle, sweet, lovely 
Christian character. 

It was in the fall of 1868, the Judge seemed 
to so improve that he gave promise of recov^ 
ery. He went about all the time around the 
house, took an interest in everything and espe- 
cially in Col. Smith's campaign for governor. 
On September 19, 1868, there was a polit- 
ical meeting and barbecue and many people 
called together. In the late afternoon the mem- 
bers of the family that were in town reached 
home and some of them were relating the 
events of the day to the Judge when he was 
suddenly stricken with total paralysis and died 
immediately. Doctor Cotton was present at 
the time. 

The Summers cemetery is at Walnut Grove 
in Putnam county, the orignal home seat of his 
father Col. Summers, and the family were up 
to that date all buried there. 

Judge George W. Summers was a mem- 
ber of St. John's Episcopal church of Charles- 
ton, and he was the owner of a pew in the first 
Episcopal church erected here, and he and his 
family all attended the same, and he was one 
of the vestry of said church and aided in its 
support. He was a Christian gentleman and 
worshipped in spirit and in truth. He was well 
known throughout the county and he loved to 
be with his acquaintances, he was full of humor 
and was kind and gentle to all. 

During the war a tenant lost a child, and in 
their distress, there being no minister conve- 
nient, he attended to the burial and read the 
burial service. 

His whole life testifies to his Christian spirit. 



in the 

He was but sixty-four years of age and 

very strength of his ability as a lawyer, judge 

or advocate. 


Judge Dunbar was born in Monroe county in 
1 78 1 and came to Kanawha a young man well 
educated, and he read law with James Wilson, 
the prosecuting attorney, and was admitted to 
the bar in 18 18. He was a great slave man 
and paid strict attention to his individual af- 
fairs, and in whatever office he held he gave it 
his strict attention and was a most competent 
and efficient holder. He was sent to the House 
of Delegates with Mr. James Wilson in 1823, 
with Daniel Smith in 1829- 1830. He was 
Judge of the Circuit Court for a while and 
under the Constitution of 1852, he was elected 
the prosecuting attorney for the county. He 
had two daughters and one son: Mrs. Eben- 
ezer Brown and Mrs. James L. McLain and Dr. 
William Dunbar. He was a consistent Pres- 
byterian and died in the faith in 1859, and was 
a lawyer in whom all persons had confidence in 
his integrity. 

John Dunbar Baines, attorney, was a son 
of Ebenezer Baines and a grandson of Judge 
Dunbar. He was born in Charleston, educated 
here and was a well read, scholarly man. He 
was elected mayor of the city, and served as 
councilman many years. He read law and was 
admitted to the bar. but never devoted much 
of his time to the trial of causes. He was an 
exact, conscientious Presbyterian elder, in 
whom all had confidence. His wife was the 
daughter of James M. Laidley and they had 
one daughter. His father, an Eglishman, did 
not become naturalized, and paid no attention 
to politics, but his son was not a Republican, 
and always votes, sometimes for the man, and 
not always for the man or the party. His 
wife was Mrs. Hallie, and his daughter was 
Miss Allie Baines. 


He was the oldest child of Rev. P. C. Hoge 
and his wife Sally (Kerr) Hoge, and was born 
in Augusta county, Virginia, near Middle- 
brook, on the 30th day of April, 1830, but he 
grew up near Scottsville in Albemarle, except 

while attending the Shenanah Academy. He 
finished his law course before he was twenty- 
one years old, and he was a good Latin scholar. 
He was licensed to practice by Judge Lucas 
P. Thompson, Briscoe G. Baldwin and Richard 
H. Fields in the year 1850. He first settled 
at Harvardsville, but some one from Putnam 
county persuaded him to come to Winfield, 
Putnam C. H., in 1852. In 1856 he was 
elected prosecuting attorney and again in i860. 
He married in 1857 Miss Sarah C. Wright, 
daughter of John G. Wright of Charleston, 
and they settled in Winfield. 

He was commissioned colonel of the 181st 
Regiment of the 22nd Brigade of the 5th Di- 
vision of the Virginia Militia in 1859, and he 
was elected member of the Virginia Conven- 
tion of 1 86 1, as a Union man, and he re- 
mained such and voted accordingly. He was 
elected prosecuting attorney for Fayette 
county in 1865. He was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Boreman as judge of the 7th Judicial 
Circuit, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the 
resignation of Judge Daniel Paisley in 1867 
and was afterwards elected in 1868. In 1872 
he was given a banquet by the attorneys. He 
died in 1882, leaving his widow and eight 
children. Mrs. Hoge was sister of Mrs. Julia 
Forbes, who was the widow of Mr. Forbes, 
the first clerk of Putnam county, and who was 
another daughter of Mr. John G. Wright of 
the Kanawha House in Charleston. Judge 
Hoge was well known in Kanawha as a law- 
yer and better as a judge. He had all the 
qualifications of a good judge, learned in the 
law, strictly honest and impartial and a Vir- 
ginia gentleman, he easily won the confidence 
and respect of everyone that came in contact 
with him. 


Judge Francis A. Guthrie, a descendant of a 
prominent Scotch family, was born in Tyler 
county, Virginia, April 12, 1840. His mother 
was Elizabeth Hughes of Nicholas county, Va. 
He attended Allegheny College at Meadville, 
Pa., until his enlistment in the Civil War, volun- 
teering as a private Sept. 10, 1861. He was 
promoted to sergeant, November 2, 1861, to 
first lieutenant, November, 1862, and to captain 



of Company E, inth Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Volunteer Infantry on March 30, 1863. 

After the war, he attended college at Ann 
Arbor, Mich., and graduated in law. He mar- 
ried Clara Van Gilder of Cheshire, Ohio, April 
30, 1866, and located at Point Pleasant, W. Va. 
where his only child, Lewis V. Guthrie, was 
born in January, 1868. 

He was elected prosecuting attorney for Ma- 
son county in 1870. In 1880 he was elected 
judge of the Seventh Judicial Circuit, compris- 
ing the counties of Mason, Putnam, and Ka- 
nawha. He was re-elected in 1888 and for a 
third term in 1897, which position he held con- 
tinuously for nearly 24 years, and at the time 
of his death, August 16, 1904. 

In politics Judge Guthrie was a life-long 
Republican. He was the possessor of a winning 
personality, which made him friends every- 
where he went, was a good story teller and an 
entertainer of rare qualities. 

His knowledge of the fundamental principles 
of the Law was profound, and his insight into 
the essential points of a case was exceptionally 
keen. He was particularly courteous and con- 
siderate of the young practitioner, and was es- 
teemed and respected by the Bar throughout 
the State. 

Judge Guthrie loved the wild flowers, and the 
forest, and was an ardent sportsman. He had 
great faith in the intrinsic value of the vast 
tracts of mountainous land and made several 
profitable investments in the undeveloped parts 
of the State. 

Judge Guthrie, being the son of a Methodist 
preacher (Rev. Francis Guthrie), with twelve 
other children to be provided for, was compelled 
to make his own way in life from about fifteen 
years of age. He taught school in the winter 
and worked in the harvest fields in the summer 
to procure sufficient money to attend college 
and complete his education. 

Judge Guthrie succeeded Judge Joseph 
Smith of Jackson county. He died at Point 
Pleasant from the results of gastro-enteritis, 
and was buried in Lone Oak cemetery near that 


Judge Burdett came to Kanawha from Ohio 

during the Civil war and has ever since made 
his home in Charleston. He came to the front 
as a speaker on temperance and there were few 
speakers that were preferred to him on this 
subject. In later years he began to make 
speeches on political campaigns and has always 
been known as a Republican. He read law 
afterwards and has been practicing law in the 
Courts of Kanawha for several years. He was 
nominated for judge of the Circuit Court, suc- 
ceeding Judge F. A. Guthrie on the same Court. 
He conducts his court with decorum, his man- 
ner is agreeable, and his opinions are generally 
expressed with well chosen words, which state 
his meaning clearly and to the point. 


The first court of appeals, elected December 
24, 1788, by the legislature, consisted of Ed- 
mond Pendleton, John Blair, Peter Lyons, 
Paul Carrington and William Fleming. 

Edmond Pendleton was a poor boy, and 
Mr. Robinson saw in him the making of a 
man, took him into his office and taught him 
law. Mr. Robinson was speaker of the House 
of Burgesses and Pendleton also became a 
member, and he was also a member of the con- 
vention of 1775, and on the death of Peyton 
Randolph was made president of the conven- 
tion and of the succeeding one which made 
the constitution of Virginia. He became 
judge of the high court of chancery and by 
virtue thereof was the president of the first 
court of appeals, and he was made president 
on the reorganization and held that place until 
his death in 1803. His biographer says his 
poverty made him great, and his industry gave 
him fame, and says the "spear of necessity" 
must have been driven deep when it made him 
read the English law reports for amusement. 

John Blair was chief justice of the general 
court and also a judge of the high court of 
chancery and a judge of the first court of ap- 
peals, and he was for a few years on the L). 
S. supreme court, which he resigned and died 
in 1800, in the sixty-ninth year of his age. 

Peter Lyons came to Virginia from Ireland 
and studied law and was a friend of the col- 
onies. In 1779 he was made judge of the 


















general court and thereby became a judge of 
the court of appeals. He was possessed of 
both integrity and urbanity and made an up- 
right and impartial judge. 

Paul Carrington was the son of a wealthy 
gentleman, made, in 1779, a judge of the gen- 
eral court and afterwards a judge of court of 
appeals. H-e was upright and impartial and 
at the age of seventy-five resigned in 1807. 
He lived to be ninety-three years of age. 

William Fleming was a member of the con- 
vention of 1775, was made a judge of the gen- 
eral court and of the first court of appeals, 
and died while a member of that court. He 
was honest and correct. 

Robert Carter Nicholas was bred to the bar 
and on familiar terms with Lord Botetourt, 
governor of Virginia. Both the governor and 
Mr. Nicholas were popular and both religious 
men. Judge Nicholas died in 1780. 

Bartholomew Dandridge was made a judge 
of the general court in 1788, and hence was 
on the first court of appeals. He was gener- 
ally esteemed as a judge by both bench and 
bar. He died in 1785. 

Benjamin Walker was a lawyer and was 
made clerk of the general court, and was often 
consulted in chambers, and was made judge of 
the Virginia court of admiralty in 1777 and 
hence one of the first court of appeals. He 
would not leave Williamsburg and go to 
Richmond. He was universally respected. 

William Roscoe Wilson Curie was a law- 
yer, judge of the Virginia court of admiralty 
and judge of the first court of appeals. 

Richard Cary was a judge of the Virginia 
court of admiralty and a judge of the first 
court of appeals. He was an educated, schol- 
arly man. 

James Henry, a Scotchman and a Philadel- 
phia lawyer, was judge of Virginia court of 
admiralty and was on first court of appeals. 

John Tyler, the father of President Tyler, 
was on Virginia court of admiralty and on 
the first court of appeals. In 1808 he was ■ 
governor' of Virginia, in 181 1 was U. S. cir- 
cuit judg'e in Virginia. 

James Mercer was on the general court and 
on the court of appeals. He died in Rich- 
mond while attending court. 

Henry Tazewell was on the first court of 
appeals by reason of his being on the general 
court. He married daughter of Judge Waller, 
and was a man of fortune, was U. S. senator, 

Richard Parker was born on Northern 
Neck, became a judge of the court of appeals 
in October, 1788, by being a judge of general 
court. He was a learned lawyer and an up- 
right judge, and a friend of the Lee family 
and hated the British. 

Spencer Roane was born in Essex in 1762, 
attended the lectures of Chancellor Wythe, be- 
came member of legislature, married a daugh- 
ter of Patrick Henry, then governor, was 
made judge of the general court in 1789, and 
when Judge Tazewell -went to U. S. senate 
he was elected to the supreme bench. He dis- 
liked aristocracy and family pride and played 
the fiddle and died in 1822. 

St. George Tucker was made a judge of 
the supreme court in 1804, was born in Ber- 
muda, settled in Williamsburg. In 1797 he 
married Mrs. Randolph, the widow of John 
Randolph of Matoax; was colonel of a regi- 
ment at Guilford Court House. His wife 
died in 1788, and she was the mother of the 
celebrated John Randolph of Roanoke, and he 
took the place of Edmond Pendleton in 1803 
at the death of Pendleton, which he held till 
he resigned in 1811. In 1813 he was made 
judge of the U. S. district of Virginia. His 
second wife was a Miss Carter. He favored 
the gradual emancipation of slaves. He died 
in 1827. His son, Henry St. George Tucker, 
became president of the court of appeals. 

Henry St. George Tucker was born near 
Petersburg in 1780, and went to Winchester 
to live in 1802, and married Ann Evelina 
Hunter in 1806, and one of his sons was John 
Randolph Tucker of the Cleveland cabinet 
and president of the American Bar Associa- 
tion. In 1807, Henry St. George Tucker was 
elected to the legislature. He took part in 
the War of 1812, and in 1815 was sent to 
Congress. Then he was in the senate of Vir- 
ginia for four years and in 1824 was elected 
chancellor of the fourth judicial district in 
place of Dabney Carr, promoted to court of 
appeals, and Mr. Tucker founded the Win- 



Chester Law School, among whose students 
were Green B. Samuels, Geo. H. Lee, William 
Brockenbrough, R. M. T. Hunter, Henry A. 
Wise and others equally distinguished. In 
1830-31 Judge Tucker was elected president 
of the court of appeals over Brookes, Carr and 
Cabell. He resigned in 1841, and was given 
a professorship in the University of Virginia, 
but in 1845 retired, and died in 1848. 

In March, 181 1, Francis T. Brooke and 
James Pleasants, Jr., were elected judges of 
the court of appeals, but Mr. Pleasants re- 
tired and William H. Cabell was commis- 
sioned to take his place. Judge Brooke quali- 
fied in 181 1 and remained long and faithful. 
He was born in 1763, near Fredericksburg, 
and his father was with Governor Spottswood 
when he crossed the Blue Ridge in 171 5 and 
held a golden horseshoe set with garnets. 
Robt. Brooke, a brother of the judge, was 
governor of Virginia and was afterwards 
elected attorney-general over Bushrod Wash- 
ington. Francis and John were twin brothers. 
He was quite busy in the War of 1812, and 
as one of the events of his life, while the legis- 
lature was in Staunton (having been driven 
there by the British), he heard Patrick Henry 
and Richard Henry Lee speak. 

He says that after receiving his license to 
practice law, he began in the wilds of Monon- 
galia, at Morgantown, and was appointed the 
attorney for the commonwealth, and there 
met the famous Albert Gallatin. He was mar- 
ried in 1791 to Miss Spottswood, who had 
"luxuriant brown hair." Another great event 
was seeing Washington open a great ball in 

Judge W. H. Cabell belonged to an old 
English family and rendered distinguished 
service both in war and in peace. He was 
born in 1772 in Cumberland county and was 
a grandson of Col. George Carrington. He 
was licensed to practice law in 1793, was sent 
to the assembly in 1796 from Amherst, he 
supported the famous resolution of 1798, was 
elected governor in 1805 and represented the 
majesty of the state with propriety, dignity 
and grace. The trial of Burr and the firing 
of the frigate "Chesapeake" by the British 
sloop in 1807, both awakened public interest. 

He was elected to general court in 181 1 and 
to court of appeals in same year. In 185 1 he 
retired, and died in 1853. 

He was on the bench for fully forty years 
and was one of the ablest judges that ever sat 

John Coalter was commissioned by Gov- 
ernor Monroe to fill the vacancy caused by 
resignation of St. Geo. Tucker in 181 1. This 
court of appeals in 1789 consisted of five 
judges. He had been on the general court 
prior thereto. 

John W. Green was appointed to fill the va- 
cancy caused by death of Judge Spencer 
Roane in 1822. He died in 1834, and was 
succeeded by William Brockenbrough, who 
died in 1838, and he was the father of Judge 
John W. Brockenbrough, of the U. S. district 

Dabney Carr was appointed in 1824 to fill 
a vacancy caused by death of Judge Fleming. 
Dabney Carr, Jr., was the son of Dabney 
Carr, who died in 1773, a rival of Patrick 
Henry and a friend of Thomas Jefferson, 
whose sister he married. Dabney, Jr., was 
born in 1773 and died in 1837. He and Will- 
iam Wirt were young lawyers at Charlottes- 
ville. He was said to be one of the ablest 
judges on the bench. His integrity and purity 
of life commanded universal respect. 

Richard E. Parker in 1837 was appointed 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Dab- 
ney Carr. He was a son of Judge Richard 
Parker of the first court of appeals. Judge 
Richard Parker was of the circuit court, was 
a son of Judge Richard E. Parker, was resid- 
ing in Winchester, who presided at the trial 
of John Brown in 1859. 

Robt. Standard was appointed to fill a va- 
cancy caused by the death of Judge Brocken- 
brough in 1839. Judge Standard was born in 
1 78 1 in Spottsylvania and died while writing 
an opinion in 1846. He was a brilliant and 
talented lawyer. He was in the famous con- 
vention of 1829-30. He relied on common 
sense. He was said to be particularly strong 
before judges. 

John James Allen was appointed to be judge 
of the 17th circuit to fill a vacancy caused by 
death of Judge Allen Taylor in 1836. J. J. 



Allen was not known generally when ap- 
pointed. He was born in Woodstock in 1797, 
read law with his father, Judge Allen, and 
after securing his license he went first to 
Campbell Court House, then to Clarksburg. 
In 1840 Judge R. E. Parker died and J. J. 
Allen was elected to fill said vacancy. 

In 11 and 12 Leigh, 1 and 2 Robinson and 
first sixteen volumes of Grattan, Reports, may 
be seen the character of his work. He lived 
to be seventy-four years of age and was 
buried with his father. He was the associate 
of Cabell, Brooke, Standard and Tucker. He 
retired in. 1865. 

Briscoe Gerard Baldwin, a relation of the 
author of "Flush Times of Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi," was the eldest son of Dr. Cornelius 
Baldwin and his wife Mary, who was a 
daughter of Col. Gerald Briscoe of Frederick 
county and was born in Winchester in 1789. 
He entered W. and M. College, and studied 
law with Judge William Daniel, Sr., who was 
grandfather of the U. S. senator Daniel. He 
afterwards settled in Staunton and practiced 
law till 1842, and was then elected to supreme 
court and held this office until his death in 
1852. He was married in 181 1, he repre- 
sented Augusta county in assembly in 18 18, 
and was afterwards elected to second term. 
He was a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1829-30. At the bar he was able, 
eloquent and skillful. The able attorneys of 
the Staunton bar were Chapman Johnson, 
Daniel Sheffy, John H. Payton and Briscoe G 
Baldwin. In 9 Leigh, 434, the court changed 
its opinion for him. He helped decide 1 Grat. 
169 — 1 Grat. 217, which made the law of ad- 
versary possession. He was the father of Col. 
John B. Baldwin, one of the greatest orators 
of the state, and in the Civil War was no be- 
liever in the doctrine of secession, but went 
with his state because of the love of his people. 
The early death of Judge Baldwin was a great 
loss to the state. 

Judge William Daniel was born in 1806 in 
Cumberland county, was educated at Hamden- 
Sidney, studied law in 1827-28, and was li- 
censed to practice before he was twenty-one, 
and was elected to legislature and served 
while he was a minor. In 1846 he was elected 

a judge of the court of appeals and was re- 
elected after the constitution of 1851, and 
served until 1865. His first wife was Susa 
A. Warrick, daughter of Maj. J. M. Warrick 
of Lynchburg, and she was the mother of 
Senator Daniel, the author of Daniel on Neg. 
Notes. Judge Daniel died in 1873 at Farm- 

ville. He held that to call one a d d liar 

was equivalent to the first blow, and this is 
the established doctrine of the Virginia courts. 
One of the celebrated cases he decided was 16 
Grat. 139, in 1856, which was an act to pre- 
vent escapes of slaves on vessels. 

R. C. L. Moncure came early to the bar, 
was sent to the general assembly in 1849-50, 
and was placed on committee for revision of 
the law, to fill the vacancy caused by Judge 
Brooke's death. He was elected to fill the 
vacancy in 1851. The constitution of 185 1 
vacated all commissions of judges and he was 
re-elected. He continued to hold his place in 
the court till near the close of the war, when 
he retired to private life, but as soon as our 
government was restored, he was again elected 
to said court, and when the Old Dominion 
became a military district, he was compelled 
once more to retire to private life, but after 
the adoption of the constitution he was again 
elected as one of the judges of the court of 
appeals, where he remained until his death 
in 1882. He was elected to the same position 
four times and was on the bench for more 
than thirty years, and his reputation un- 

Green B. Samuels, of Rockingham, was in 
1852 elected a judge of the supreme court by 
the people, and he died in 1859. 

W. J. Robertson of Charlottesville was born 
in Albemarle in 1817, was educated at the 
university, with his diploma of LL.B. He 
was made commonwealth attorney. He was 
in 1859 elected to the supreme court of ap- 
peals over the distinguished J. B. Baldwin of 
Augusta, to fill the vacancy caused by the 
death of Green B. Samuels. He served until 
April, 1865, then he returned to the bar. He 
was general counsel for Gen. C. Lee in the 
Arlington suit. He was general counsel for 
the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad and for the 
N. & W. R. R. He was elected the first 



president of the Virginia Bar Association, 
and he recommended the abolition of the com- 
mon law forms of pleading. He was married 
twice, first to the daughter of General Gordon 
of Albemarle and next to Mrs. Alice Watts 
Morris, the famous Virginia belle. 

Geo. H. Lee, a native of Winchester, was 
elected while living in Clarksburg. He never 
sat on the court after 1861. 

Lucas P. Thompson was elected to the 
court, but died before he took his seat. 

Alexander Rives was made a judge of su- 
preme court in the year 1866. 

William R. Joynes died in Petersburg in 
1874; he was born in Accomac in 181 7, and 
settled in 1839 in Petersburg. He married a 
daughter of Judge May. He was appointed 
U. S. district attorney and in 1863 was elected 
judge of the first judicial circuit (Confederate 
States). In 1865 he was elected to the legis- 
lature and was then elected to the supreme 
bench. He resigned in 1873 on account of 
ill health. 

Wood Bouldin was born in 181 1 in Char- 
lotte county. He died in 1876. He was con- 
nected with the Tylers. His father, Thomas 
Tyler Bouldin, while in Congress, arose to ad- 
dress the House, began his address by a ref-, 
erence to John Randolph, who had lately died, 
and before he finished, he himself dropped 

Wood Bouldin attended the academy of 
Rev. Nicholas Cobb, afterwards the bishop of 
Alabama. He then read law under William 
Leigh. After coming to the bar, he went to 
Richmond and became a partner of Robt. 
Stauard. He purchased the estate formerly 
owned by John Randolph. His integrity was 
of the highest order, during the war he was 
sent to the legislature. After the war he re- 
turned to Richmond. He was in the capitol 
when the floor gave way in 1870, but not seri- 
ously injured. In 1872 he was elected to a 
seat on the court of appeals to succeed Judge 
Joynes. The first opinion 22 Grat. Carr vs. 
Carr, a divorce suit, won for him a high posi- 
tion as a judge. In 1876 his health failed him 
and he retired to his farm and died. 

Judge Joseph Christian took his seat on the 
bench of the supreme court and retired in 

Walter R. Staples was born in 1826 in Pat- 
rick county, read law with William Ballard 
Preston, secretary of the navy. He was sent 
with W. C. Rives, R. M. T. Hunter and Judge 
Brockenbrough to the provisional congress at 
Montgomery, Alabama, in April, 1861. He 
was re-elected in 1863 and served until the 
close of the war and in 1870 was elected to 
the supreme bench. In 1882 the readjusters 
and associates were not re-elected. 

Francis T. Anderson was chosen in 1870, 
with R. C. L. Moncure, W. T. Joynes, Walter 
R. Staples and Joseph Christian as the court 
of appeals. 

Edward C. Burks succeeded Judge Bouldin 
in 1876. 

R. C. L. Moncure died in 1882, was suc- 
ceeded by Judge L. L. Lewis. 

F. T. Anderson was born in 1808 in Bote- 
tourt, he read law, and in 1830 married Mary 
Ann Alexander, daughter of Andrew Alexan- 
der of Rockbridge, to which county he re- 
moved in 1855. He was an elector of Bell 
and Everett, for whom the vote of Virginia 
was cast — the first time she did not vote for 
a Democrat. He did not believe in coercion 
and went South with his state. In 1870 he 
was chosen one of the judges of the court of 
appeals and on which he served until 1883. 
He died in 1887, in the seventy-ninth year of 
his age. 

Edward C. Burks was born in Bedford in 
1 82 1, he graduated in law at the University 
of Virginia in 1842, and practiced until elected 
in 1876 to the supreme court of appeals, on 
which he served for six years. 

Lunsford L. Lewis was born in Rocking- 
ham in 1846, graduated in law department at 
university, was appointed by President Grant 
district attorney for the eastern district until 
elected to court of appeals, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Judge Moncure, said 
to be a man of incorruptible integrity. 

Benjamin W. Lacy, born in 1839, was with 
Lee when he surrendered; had been three 
times wounded ; was elected to court of ap- 
peals in 1880. 

Thomas T. Fauntleroy was bom in Win- 
chester in 1823, is a maternal grandson of 
Col. Charles Munn Thurston and a grandson 
of Col. Charles Magill, and son of Thos. T. 



Fauntleroy, who was colonel Maryland Dra- 
goons and resigned. He graduated in law 
class in 1844 in the University of Virginia, 
and practiced in Winchester. He participated 
in capture of John Brown, and was a lieuten- 
ant in the military service of Virginia. In 
1883 was elected to supreme court of appeals, 
has been twice married, has ten children. 

Drury A. Hinton left the university in 1861 
to enter the C. S. A. in 41st Virginia Regi- 
ment as first lieutenant Company G. He was 
elected in 1882 to court of appeals. He dis- 
sented in case of Commonwealth vs. Cleveri- 

Robert A. Richardson is from Smythe 
county, is a manly judge and very much liked 
by the bar. 

Lewis, Lacy, Fauntleroy, Hinton, and 
Richardson were elected in 1882 for a term 
of twelve years, which expired January, 1895. 

Thus we have seen the first court of appeals 
of Virginia and then the supreme court of 
appeals of Virginia and the readjusters court 
of appeals, and at no time has there ever been 
a question of the integrity of a single judge. 
There were never seen better judges and they 
were honest and sincere men whose impar- 
tiality and integrity were never questioned. 

OF THE COURT, JULY 9, 1 863, AT 

William A. Harrison, president for twelve 

James H. Brown of Kanawha, for eight 

Ralph L. Berkeshire of Monongalia, for 
four years. 

William A. Harrison was born in 1795; 
served till September 1, 1868, when he re- 
signed; died in Clarksburg December 1, 1870. 

Ralph L. Berkeshire, born April, 1816, 
served four years till December 31, 1866, and 
again from January, 1869, to December, 1872, 
when filling unexpired term of W. A. Harri- 
son. Died November 8, 1902. 

James H. Broun, of Kanawha, born Decem- 
ber 25, 1818, served till December 31, 1871. 

Died October 28, 1900, in Charleston. (See 
sketch. ) 

Edwin Maxwell of Harrison, born July 16, 
1825, elected for twelve years from January, 
1867, till December 31, 1872, when his term 
was ended by the new constitution. Died 
February 5, 1903. 

Charles Page Thomas Moore of Mason 
county, born in 1831, elected in 1870 for 
twelve years; term ended December, 1872; 
was re-elected for twelve years and served 
from 1873 to December, 1880, when he re- 

John S. Hoffman of Harrison, born in 
1 821; on reorganization of court in 1883 he 
drew a short term of four years, to Decem- 
ver, 1876. Died November 18, 1877. 

James Paull of Ohio, born 1818, served 
from January, 1873, till May, 1875, when he 
died in office. 

Alpheus F. Haymond of Marion, born 
1823, served from January, 1873, to January 
1, 1877, was re-elected for twelve years till 
1883, when he resigned. Died December 15, 

Mathew Edminston of Lewis, born in Po- 
cahontas in 1814, was appointed on the court 
of appeals as successor of Judge Hoffman, 
who resigned in 1876, served till 1877. Died 
at Weston, 1887. 

Thomas C. Green of Jefferson, born in 
1820, was appointed in 1875 as successor of 
Judge Paull; elected in 1876; re-elected in 
1880 for twelve years; served until his death 
in 1889. 

Okey Johnston of Wood, born in 1834, 
served from January, 1877, till December, 
1888. Died in June, 1903. 

James French Patton of Monroe, born 
1843, was appointed in 1881 to fill a vacancy 
caused by the resignation of Judge Moore, 
served until his death, March 30, 1882. 

Adam C. Snyder of Greenbrier, born in 
1834, was appointed in 1882 to fill vacancy 
caused by death of Judge Patton; served till 
1885; was elected for full term in 1884; 
served till 1890, when he resigned. Died 
July 24, 1896. 

Samuel Woods of Barbour, born in 1822, 
appointed in 1883 to fill vacancy caused by 



resignation of Judge Haymond, served till 
January, 1889. Died February 17, 1897. 

Henry Brannon of Lewis, born in 1837, 
was elected in 1888, and re-elected for another 
full term from January, 1901. 

John Warth English of Mason, born in 
1 83 1, was elected in 1888 for twelve years. 

Daniel Bedinger Lucas of Jefferson, born in 
1836, was appointed in 1889 to fill unexpired 
term of Judge Green, served from January, 
1890, till December, 1892. 

Homer A. Holt of Greenbrier, born in 
1 83 1, was appointed in 1890 as successor to 
Judge Snyder, served from 1890 to Decem- 
ber, 1895. Died January 7, 1898. 

Marmaduke H. Dent of Taylor, born in 
1849, was elected in 1892 for twelve years 
from 1893 to December, 1904. 

Henry Clay McWhorter of Kanawha, born 
in 1836, was elected for twelve years till De- 
cember, 1908. 

George Puffenbarger of Mason, born in 
1 86 1, was elected for twelve years from Jan- 
uary, 1 90 1. 

Warren Miller of Jackson, born in 1848, 
was appointed in 1903 ; served till December, 
1904; was succeded by Joseph M. Sanders. 

Frank Cox of Monongalia, born in 1862, 
was elected for twelve years from January, 
.1905; resigned to take effect January, 1907, 
and Judge W. N. Miller was appointed as his 

Joseph M. Saunders of Mercer, born in 
1866, was elected for twelve years from Jan- 
uary, 1905 ; resigned October, 1907. 

William N. Miller of Wood, born in 1855, 
appointed January, 1907, to fill vacancy caused 
by resignation of Judge Cox. Elected in 1908 
for unexpired term. 

Ira E. Robinson of Taylor, born in 1869, 
appointed in 1907 as successor of Judge 
Saunders, elected for unexpired term of eight 

Luther J. Williams of Greenbrier, born in 
1856, elected in 1908 for twelve years from 
January, 1909. 


Sylvanus W. Hall of Marion, born in 1838, 

served from July 9, 1863 to August 18, 1874., 
when he resigned. Died March, 1908. 

Odell S. Long of Ohio, born in Westmore- 
land, Pa., in 1836, served from August, 1874, 
to December 26, 1897, the date of his death. 

James A. Holly of Lincoln, born in 1855, 
served from January, 1898, till November 17, 
1902, when he resigned. 

William B. Mathews of Marshall, born in 
1866, served from November, 1902. 


John L. Cole of Kanawha, from March, 
1 87 1, till June, 1875. 

Edward L. Wood of Kanawha, from June, 
1875, till March, 1877. 

Edward L. Wood of Kanawha, from 
March, 1877, until March, 1881. 

Edward L. Wood of Kanawha, from 
March, 1881, until October, 1882. 

Benjamin H. Oxley of Lincoln, from Feb- 
ruary, 1890, till April, 1 89 1. 

Edward L. Wood of Kanawha, from 
March, 1893, to March, 1897. 

Pleasant S. Shirkey of Kanawha, from 
July, 1898, to March, 190 1. 

Samuel W. Starks of Kanawha, from 
March, 1901, to April, 1908. 

John C. Gilmer of Kanawha, from 1908. 


The record does not show that the bar of 
Kanawha court was crowded with attorneys 
for some time after court was organized. The 
Kanawha county court began in October, 
1789, and while there were suits tried, with 
and without juries, and the record states that 
"the parties appeared by their attorneys," it 
had failed to show the name of a single attor- 
ney that had been admitted to practice, until 
August 1, 1796, when it appeared that Ed- 
ward Graham produced a license signed by 
Paul Carrington, Edward Winston and S. 
Henry, judges of the superior court, etc., was 
admitted to practice law in this Kanawha 
court and took the oaths prescribed, and he 
was thereupon appointed the attorney for the 
commonwealth for this county. On July 3, 
1797, William H. Cavindish was admitted. 



On August 7, 1797, Augustus Woodward was 
i admitted. 

To _pbtain license to practice law, one had 
to apply to three judges and secure a certifi- 
cate from them of his proficiency. Just where 
the applicants would find the judges to exam- 
ine them would depend much on circum- 
stances. It does not seem that the attorneys 
were crowding to the Kanawha courts to 
practice law in the early Indian days, but the 
court proceeded along without them. After 
the Indians ceased to come, then the attorneys 
began, as did the doctors and ministers. 

In 1799, William Sterrett was admitted 
and in 1800 James Davenport and Gilbert 
Christian were admitted. Afterwards Cap- 
tain Cartmill, James Wilson, Charles Bald- 
win, Joseph Lovell, Mathew Dunbar, Andrew 
Parks and from that on, they were admitted 
without end. 

To explain the judiciary system of Virginia, 
and note its changes and its growth would 
entail more labor than its compensation in 
gratified curiosity would justify. Without 
going too far into details, we might say, that 
in the colonies there was no Court of final 
resort, except to the King and council, and 
this would generally amount to nothing. 
There was the county court, composed of jus- 
tices of the county, and they were appointed 
by the governor. They served without fee or 
reward, except that by rotation, the office of 
sheriff for two years was given to a justice, 
for his service on the county court. These 
county courts, these justices could and did al- 
most any and everything that anybody could 
do, and were a sort of legislature, judicial and 
executive body for their own county. 

The general court was so called because its 
jurisdiction was general over all persons, 
causes, matters or things at common law, 
whether by original process or appeal, or any 
other writ, or other legal way or means, and 
its jurisdiction extended all over the state. 

District courts were established and the 
civil and criminal jurisdiction of the general 
court was given to this district court by ap- 
peal, etc. In 1809 the district courts were 
abolished and the circuit supreme courts of 
law, in each county, were substituted in their 

stead, and in 1819 there were fifteen circuits, 
and each circuit had about seven counties, 
on an average. There was a supreme court 
of chancery. There was such court in Staun- 
ton, Winchester, Clarksburg and Wythe Court 
House, Richmond and Williamsburg, and the 
places for holding them increased. 

Circuit Court. — The supreme court of ap- 
peals was established in 1778, but was held by 
judges of other courts. In 1788 this court 
was organized by judges to be appointed by 
both houses of the assembly, and it has re- 
mained a separate court ever - since, and in 
181 1 there were five judges (see 2d Va. 
Cases). This says that John Coalter was ap- 
pointed on the general, court in 1809 and on 
the court of appeals in 181 1. That James 
Allen was appointed to general court in 181 1; 
he must have taken the place of Judge Coal- 

Lewis Summers was appointed to the gen- 
eral court in 1819, and served until in 1843, 
and after his death David McComas was 
placed on the general court, and this court 
was abolished in 185 1, and the circuit courts 
of law and chancery substituted. The first 
judge for Kanawha circuit was Judge George 
W. Simmons; he resigned in 1858, and David 
McComas was then selected, and he held until 
the war came on, during which he died, and 
then the organized government placed Judge 
James H. Brown on the Kanawha circuit, and 
he afterwards was elected for the supreme 
court of West Virginia, when Judge Paisley 
succeeded him, until he was elected to Con- 
gress. Then Judge James H. Hoge took this 
bench, and he was succeeded by Joseph Smith, 
who was followed by Judge F. A. Guthrie, 
and he was followed by Judge S. C. Burdett, 
who now presides on the bench of the circuit 
court of Kanawha. 

Judge Lewis Summers' last order was en- 
tered June 20, 1843. Judge Joseph L. Fry 
held the next term. The spring term, 1844, 
was held by Judge David McComas. Octo- 
ber, 1847, term — Judge E. S. Duncan held the 
term. The spring term, 1848, was held by 
Judge Lee and also the fall term. In May, 
1850, Judge Mathew Dunbar was the judge 
of' the Kanawha court until October, 185 1, 



and Judge David McComas held the courts 
thereafter. From July i, 1852, Judge George 
W. Summers held the circuit court, being 
elected by the people under the new constitu- 
tion, and Mathew Dunbar was elected the 
prosecuting attorney. 

The attorneys under this new court were 
Mathew Dunbar, David McComas, C. E. 
Doddridge, J. N. Read, J. M. Laidley, An- 
drew Parks, E. W. McComas, Nicholas Fitz- 
hugh, J. A. Warth, Edward Kenna, T. B. 
Swann, John L. Moseley, Isaac N. Smith, J. 
H. Brown, Charles Hedrick, Col. B. H. Smith 
and others. Judge Geo. W. Summers con- 
tinued as judge until July 1, 1858, when he re- 
signed and was succeeded by David McComas, 
and he continued until the war came on, dur- 
ing which time he died. Judge J. H. Brown 
in May, 1862, succeeded Judge McComas. 
The attorneys present and qualified at this 
time were F. A. Lovell, Andrew Parks, John 
A. Warth, W. E. G. Gillison, J. M. Laidley, 
Col. B. H. Smith and Geo. W. Summers, and 
W. L. Hindman was the prosecuting attorney. 
Judge Daniel Paisley held the first W. Va. 
circuit court in October, 1863, and C. A. 
Sperry, G. W. Summers, Col. B. N. Smith, 
F. A. Lovell and W. L. Hindman were the at- 
torneys qualified. In October, 1866, the last 
court was held by Judge Paisley, and in April, 
1867, Judge Hoge held his first term. Judge 
Smith held his first term in May, 1874, and 
his last in June, 1880. Judge Guthrie began 
in February, 1881, and Judge Burdett in June, 



Albertson, Ulysses S. ; Alderson, Chas. M. ; 
Alderson, George P. ; Alexander, A. S. ; Alle- 
bach, Leroy ; Anderson, H. M. ; Avis, S. B. ; 
Ashby. W. L. ; Atkinson, U. B. 


Ballard, Albert M. ; Black, V. L. ; Belcher, 
A. M. ; Bledsoe, T. A.; Bobbitt, Oliver B. ; 
Briggs, Murray; Broun, Thos. L. ; Burdette, 
I'. G. ; Byrne, George; Brown, James F. ; Bur- 
lew, Abram; Byrne, W. E. R. ; Broun, C. 
Beverley; Bouchelle, J. F. ; Burdette, E. M. ; 

Barnhart, W. G. ; Bostic, H. B. ; Boiarsky, 
Moses; Bowen, Samuel E. 

Cato, Henry S. ; Chilton, J. E. ; Chilton, W. 
E. ; Chilton, Samuel B. ; Carr, F. N. ; Clark, 
T. S. ; Clay, Buckner ; Cork, J. F. ; Couch, 
Geo. S. Sr. ; Couch, G. S., Jr. ; Couch, C. B. ; 
Clayton, Bruce; Campbell, J. Edgar; Carter, 
E. R. ; Chappelle, John W. 

Davis, D. C. T., Sr. ; Davis, Staige; Don- 
nally, J. C. ; Dyre, E. B. 

Edwards, W. S. ; Ellison, James B. 

Fitzgerald, O. P., Jr.; Flournoy, S. L. ; 
Flournoy, P. P. ; Fry, Henry. 

Gallaher, D. C. ; Green, S. S. ; Gaines, J. 
H. ; Goldbarth, Irwin S. ; Goshorn, Fred; 
Good, C. W. ; Goettman, Chas. E. 

Higginbotham, Upshur; Hardy, Waller C. ; 
Hall, E. C. ; Hays, G. W. ; Hill, F. J. ; Hous- 
ton, H. T. ; Hyndly, J. H. ; Harless, Floyd 
PL; Hunt, J. H. ; Hall, Grant P.; Harrison, 
E. C. ; Higginbotham, Marshall. 

Jones, John B. ; Jackson, Malcolm; Jordon, 
I. C. 

Kennedy, J. W. ; Knight, E. W. ; Keatley, 
E. M. ; Kenna, J. N. ; Kenna, John ; Koontz, 
A. B. ; Kimbrough, C. E. ; Kerse, T. L. 

Laidley, W. S. ; Laidley, W. Sydney, Jr.; 
Linn, R. G. ; Littlepage, A. B. ; Littlepage, S. 
D. ; Littlepage, S.- Collette; Littlepage, B. 
Kemp; Loeb, Leo.; LaFollette, L. M. ; Little- 
page, Chas. F. ; Lively, W. W. ; Lively, Frank ; 
Long, E. L. 

Mollohan, Wesley; McClintic, G. W.; 


McCorkle, W. A.; MacCorkle, A. D. ; Couch. James H. ; Cracraft, John W. ; Cotton, 

McCorkle, W. G. ; McDonald, A. VV. ; Mena- John. 

ger, J. B.; McCabe. R. E. ; McWhorter, H. (D) 

C, Judge; McWhorter, L. E. ; Mathews, Doddridge, C. E. ; Dawson. R. F. ; DuBois, 

Daniel; Mathews, W. D. ; Miller, J. B. ; D. 

Minor, Berkeley, Jr.; Morgan, Ben S. ; Mur- (F) 

phy, r. H. s-KT-, Ferguson, James H. ; Ferguson, J. D. ; 

(^) Fitzhugh, Nicholas; Flournoy, S. L. ; Fon- 

Nash, J. H. ; Nash, J. H., Jr. ; Nutter, T. G. taine, Peter. 

(O) ( G ) 

Owen. Morgan. Gray, James H. 

(P) ( } 

^ ; Hoge, James H.; Hedrick, Charles; Hoge- 

Payne, J. M. ; Payne, W. D. ; Price, G. E. ; m Wm H Hall Cyrus; Hall, C. W. ; 

Price, J. E. ; Price, R. M. ; Prichard, A. M. ; Hindman, W. L. 

Painter, Graham C. ; Poteet, L. E. Q) 

(Q) Johnson, Judge Okey. 
Quarrier, R. G. 


Reedy, E. K. ; Ruffner, Joseph ; Robertson, 

M. M. ; Robertson, E. E. ; Rummel, H. D. (L) 

.„. Lovell, Fayette A.; Laidley, James M. 

Smith, H. B.; Spilman, R. S. ; Shrewsbury, (M) 

G. H. ; Stiles, M. F. ; Seaman, Jas. A.; Shir- Middleton, James E. ; Middleton, Henry 

key DM O. ; Miller, Samuel A.; Morris, William H. 

( T ) (N) 

Thayer, J. A. ; Taylor, D. W. Nashj j ames H 

(V) • (?) 

Vickers, Lorenzo. Patton, Oliver A.; Patton, Geo. W. ; Pals- 


Knight, Edward B. ; Kenna, John E. 

(W) le y> J ud g e Daniel. 


Watts, C. C; Waters, J. T. ; Wiley, Carl 

C. ; Webb, B. H. ; White, J. B. ; Webb, S. L. ; Quarrm, William A. 
Wertz, W. W.; A¥alker, P. G. (R) 

in memoriam Ruffner, David L. 

A list of members of the Kanawha bar that (S) 

have, since the Civil War, departed this life. Smith, Benjamin H. ; Smith, Isaac Noyes; 


Smith, Charles B. ; Summers, Geo. W. ; Sum- 
mers, William S. ; Swann, Thomas B. ; 
Adams, W. W. ; Armstead, William. Swami; John s . Stoutj Traverse ; Sperry, C. 

(B) A.; Shrewsbury, Harvy D. 

Brown, Judge James H. ; Brown, Joseph (T) 

M. ; Blair, A. C. ; Boggs, H. L. Tebbitts, A. G 

(C) (W) 

Carr, James Lawrence ; Cole, John L. ; Warth, John A. ; Wilson, E. Willis. 



The Salt Industry — Rock Salt and Brines — Salt Boiling by the Indians — Homemade Salt — 
The First Salt Furnace in Kanawha — Pack-saddle Transportation — David and Joseph 
Ruffner's Salt Enterprise — The Great Buffalo Lick — Description of a "Gum" — Early 
Discouragements and Ultimate Success — A Revolution in Manufacture Caused by Coal — 
Mechanical Improvements — Burning Springs and Gas Wells — A Professor's Experiment 
and its Results — Col. Levi J. Woodyard — -First Gas Well Bored by Capt. James Wilson — 
Patrick's Salt Furnace — Methods of Manufacturing and Shipping — Waste Products — Cost 
of Production — Soda Ash — List of Kanazvha Salt Furnaces — Statistics — Kanawha Salt 
Makers — Cannel Coal Oil Manufactures on Kanazvha — Great Kanawha Gas Co. — Vulcan 
Iron Works — Kanawha Brick Co. — Morgan Lumber & Manufacturing Co. — Gill Manu- 
facturing Co. — Banner Window Glass Co. — Tanners' and Dyers' Extract Co. — Kanazvha 
Planing Mill Co. — Standard Brick Co. — Kanawha Woolen Mills — Charleston Woolen 
Mills — Diamond Ice & Coal Co. — Kanazvha Mine Car Co. — Ohio Valley Furniture Co. 
• — Charleston Window Glass Co. — L. Long & Sons — The Kanawha Land Co. (South 
Charleston) — South Charleston Crusher Co. 


From a paper on salt written by J. P. Hale 

Fossil or rock salt has not been found in the 
state; but salt brines of greater or less 
strength, and in greater or less abundance, are 
found by artesian borings, at various depths 
throughout the Appalachian coal field, which 
underlies the greater portion of our state. 

The strength of these brines varies in differ- 
ent localities, and in different wells in the same 
locality; the range may be stated at, say six 
degrees to twelve degrees by the salometer, 
Baume scale (distilled water being zero, satu- 
ration twenty-five degrees), but the average 
strength of the brines from which salt is now 
made is about eight degrees to ten degrees. 
The value of these brines depends, of course, 
upon their location, as regards accessibility, 
and cheap transportation of the products to 
market, as well as the convenient proximity 
of cheap coal for fuel, and timber for barrels. 
Only locations on the navigable rivers, or lines 

of railways at present fulfill these indications ; 
but, as population increases, and new routes of 
travel and traffic are opened up, it is probable 
that new salt manufacturing localities will be 

The principal points at which salt has been 
manufactured in the state, are Charleston on 
the Great Kanawha river; from West Colum- 
bia to Hartford City on the Ohio river : at 
Bull-town on the Little Kanawha; at Louisa 
on the Big Sandy; in Mercer county on New 
river; near Birch o-f Elk river; (at the mouth 
of Otter creek on Elk), and at a few other 
less important points, on a very small scale 
for local use. At present, owing to the greater 
facility of reaching the markets of the great 
West by cheap water transportation, and the 
advantages of cheap fuel, salt is only manu- 
factured, on a commercial scale near Charles- 
ton on the Great Kanawha, and in Mason 
county on the Ohio. 

The Kanawha salt works were situated in 




Kanawha county, on the Kanawha river, com- 
mencing about three miles above Charleston 
and extending up the river for several miles, 
on both sides. 

These "licks" as they are called, have not 
only been known and extensively worked 
from the first settlement of the valley by the 
whites, but have been known and used, from 
time immemorial, by the Indian tribes, and 
frequented by swarms of buffalo, elk, deer, 
and other wild animals, before the advent of 
. the white man. 

In 1753, when all this region was an un- 
broken wilderness, which had never been 
penetrated by the most adventurous white man, 
a party of Shawnees who dwelt upon the 
Scioto, in what is now Ohio, made a raid 
upon the frontier settlements of Virginia, in 
what is now Montgomery count}'. Having 
taken the settlers unawares, and after killing, 
burning, and capturing prisoners, as was their 
custom, they retreated, with their captives, 
down the New, Kanawha, and Ohio rivers to 
their homes. One of these captives, Mrs. 
Mary Ingles, who afterwards made her escape, 
and was returned to her friends, related that 
the party stopped several days at the salt 
spring on the Kanawha river, rested there from 
their weary march, killed plenty of game and 
feasted themselves on the fat of the land : in 
the meantime, boiling salt water and making 
a supply of salt, which was carefully packed 
and taken with them to their western homes. 
This is not only the first account we have of 
salt making on Kanawha, but anywhere else 
west of the Alleghanies. In fact, if there is 
any earlier record of salt-making from brine 
springs, anywhere in the United States, I am 
not aware of it. 

The earliest settlement made by whites, in 
the Kanawha valley, was by Walter Kely and 
family, at the mouth of the creek, which bears 
his name, in the spring of 1774, several months 
before the battle of Point Pleasant, where the 
combined .Indian tribes, under the celebrated 
Sachem, Cornstalk, were defeated and driven 
back by the Virginians, under Gen. Lewis. 

Kelley and his family paid the forfeit of 
their lives to their temerity; they were all 
killed by the Indians ; but after the battle of 

the Point, whein there was greater security for 
life, the valley was rapidly settled, mostly by 
Virginians, and in great part by the hardy 
soldiers who had followed Lewis to Point 

The early pioneer settlers, in a wilderness, 
without communication with other settlements, 
except by foot or bridle paths, depended upon 
the Kanawha licks for their scanty supply of 
salt. In those days of simple economy and 
provident thrift, when everything useful was 
made the most of, the women's wash-kettles 
were put under requisition for a fourfold duty ; 
they boiled the daily hog and hominy, and 
other wholesome, frugal fare ; once a week they 
boiled their clothes, on wash day; semi-occas- 
ionally they boiled the salt water for a little. of 
the precious salt, and every spring they went to 
the sugar camp, to boil the annual supply of 
maple sugar and molasses. 

It is related that at one time, when there was 
on apprehended attack from the Indians, the 
few early settlers were posted at the mouth of 
Coal river, for protection. Being out of salt and 
suffering for the want of it, they sent some of 
their hardy and daring young men in canoes 
up to the salt spring, where they dipped the 
canoes full of salt water; and, getting safely 
back, the water was boiled, and the precious 
salt made under cover of the fort. 

Among the earliest land locations made in 
the valley was one of 502 acres, made in 1785, 
by John Dickinson, from the Valley of Vir- 
ginia, to include the mouth of Campbell's creek, 
the bottom above, and the salt spring. Dickin- 
son did not improve or work the property him- 
self, but meeting with Joseph Ruffner, an en- 
terprising fanner from his Shenandoah estates, 
he sold to Ruffner, and in 1795 removed him- 
self and family to Kanawha to look after his 
salt property. Upon arriving here, however, 
his penchant for rich farming lands overcame 
him. and he purchased, from George and Wil- 
liam Clendenen, the large river bottom of 900 
acres extending from the mouth of Elk river up 
Kanawha ; and upon 40 acres of which the vil- 
lage of Charleston had been laid out and started 
the previous year. This last purchase, and the 
subsequent attention to clearing and improving 
the farm diverted Ruffner's attention for a time, 



from the salt project. The delay was fatal so 
far as he was concerned ; he did not live to ex- 
ecute his pet scheme or realize his cherished 
hopes. Dying in 1803, he willed the property 
to his sons, David and Joseph, enjoining it up- 
on them to carry out, as speedily as practicable, 
his plans of building up extensive salt manufac- 
tories to supply not only the increasing local 
demand, but a larger and still more rapidly 
growing demand, which was now coming 
from the many thrifty settlements through- 
out the Ohio Valley. During the elder Ruff- 
ner's life, however, he had leased to one Elisha 
Brooks, the use of salt water and the right to 
manufacture salt; and in 1797 this Elisha 
Brooks erected the first salt furnace in Kana- 
wha, or in the western country. It consisted 
of two dozen small kettles, set in a double row, 
with a flue beneath, a chimney at one end, and 
a fire bed at the other. 

To obtain a supply of salt water he sank two 
or three "gums" into the mire and quicksand 
of the salt lick, and dipped the brine with buc- 
ket and swape, as it oozed and seeped in 
through the sand below. 

In this crude, rough-and-ready way, Brooks 
managed to make about 150 pounds of salt per 
day, which he sold at the kettles, at 8 to 10 
cents per pound. No means were used to set- 
tle or purify the brines or salt, as the salt wa- 
ter came from the gum, so it was boiled down 
to salt in the kettle, with whatever impurities 
or coloring matter it contained. As it issues 
from the earth it holds some carbonate of iron 
in solution; when it is boiled, this iron becomes 
oxidized, and gives a reddish tinge to the brine 
and salt. 

This Kanawha salt soon acquired a reputa- 
tion for its strong, pungent taste, and its sup- 
ior qualities for curing meat, butter, etc. A 
great many who used it and recognized these 
qualities in connection with its striking red- 
dish color came to associate the two in their 
minds in the relation of cause and effect, and 
orders used to come from far and near for 
some of "that strong red salt from the Kana- 
wha Licks." 

Almost the only mode of transporting salt 
beyond the neighborhood, in those early days, 
was by pack-horses, on the primitive, back- 

woods pack-saddle. So much of this was 
done, and so familiar did the public mind be- 
come with the term, as used in that sense, 
that even to this day, among a large class of 
people, the verb "to pack" is always used in- 
stead of other synonymous terms, such as 
carry, transport, fetch, bring, take, etc., and 
the "tote" of Old Virginia. 

It was not until 1806, that the brothers, 
David and Joseph Ruffner, set to work to as- 
certain the source of the salt water, to procure, 
if possible, a larger supply and of better quali- 
ty, and to prepare to manufacture salt on a 
scale commensurate with the growing wants of 
the country. 

The Salt Lick, or "The Great Buffalo Lick," 
as it was called, was just at the river's edge, 12 
or 14 rods in extent, on the north side, a few 
hundred yards above the mouth of Campbell's 
creek, and just in front of what is now known 
as the "Thoroughfare Gap," through which 
from the north as well as up and down the 
river, the buffalo, elk, and other ruminating 
animals made their way in vast numbers to the 
lick. I may mention en passant that so great 
was the fame of this lick, and the herds of 
game that frequented it, that the great hunter, 
explorer, and conqueror of the "bloody 
ground" of Kentucky, Daniel Boone, was 
tempted up here, made a log cabin settlement, 
and lived just on the opposite side of the river, 
on what is now known as the Donnally farm 
or splint coal bottom. I have had, from old 
Mr. Paddy Huddlestone who died a few years 
ago, at nearly one hundred years of age, many 
interesting anecdotes of their joint adventures 
in hunting and trapping. Boone still lived 
here in 1789-90, when Kanawha county was 
formed and in 1791 served as one of the dele- 
gates for the county, in the Legislature at 

But to return to the Licks, and the operat- 
ions of the Ruffner brothers. In order to 
reach, if possible, the bottom of the mire and 
oozy quicksand through which the salt water 
flowed, they provided a straight, well-formed, 
hollow sycamore tree, with 4 feet internal diam- 
eter, sawed off square at each end. This is 
technically called a "gum." This gum was set 
upright on the spot selected for sinking the 



large end down, and held in its perpendicular 
position by props and braces, on the four sides. 
A platform, upon which two men could stand, 
was fixed about the top; then a swape erected, 
having its fulcrum in a forked post set in the 
ground close by. A large bucket, made from 
half of a whiskey barrel, was attached to the 
end of the swape, by a rope and a rope attached 
to the end of the pole to pull down on, to raise 
the bucket. With one man inside the gum 
armed with pick, shovel, and crowbar, two men 
on the platform on top to empty and return 
the bucket, and three or four to work the 
swape, the crew and outfit were complete. 

After many unexpected difficulties and de- 
lays, the gum at last reached what seemed to 
be rock bottom at 13 feet; upon cutting it with 
picks and crowbars, however, it proved to be 
but a shale or crust, about 6 inches thick, of 
conglomerated sand, gravel and iron. Upon 
breaking through this crust the water flowed 
up into the gum more freely than ever, but 
with less salt. 

Discouraged at this result, the Ruffner 
brothers determined to abandon this gum, and 
sink a well out in the bottom, about 100 yards 
from the river. This was done, they encount- 
ering, as before, many difficulties and delays. 
When they had gotten through 45 feet of al- 
luvial deposit, they came to the same bed of 
sand and gravel upon which they had started 
at the river. 

To penetrate this, they made a 3^ inch 
tube of a 20 foot oak log, by boring through 
it with a long-shanked augur. This tube, 
sharpened, and shod with iron at the bottom, 
was driven down, pile-driver fashion, through 
the sand to the solid rock. Through this tube 
they then let down a glass vial with a string to 
catch the salt water for testing. They were 
again doomed to disappointment ; the water 
though slightly brackish, was less salt than that 
at the river. 

They now decided to return to the gum at 
the river, and, if possible, to put it down to the 
bed rock/ This they finally succeeded in do- 
ing, finding the rock at 16 to 17 feet from the 

As the bottom of the gum was square, and 
the surface of the rock uneven, the rush of out- 

side water into the gum was very troublesome. 
By dint of cutting and trimming from one 
side and the other, however, they were, at 
last, gotten nearly to a joint, after which they 
resorted to thin wedges, which were driven 
here and there as they would "do the most 

By this means the gum was gotten sufficient- 
ly tight to be so bailed out as to determine 
whether the salt water came up through the 
rock. This turned out to be the case. The 
quantity welling up through the rock was ex- 
tremely small, but the strength was greater 
than any yet gotten, and this was encouraging. 
They were anxious to follow it down, but 
how ? They could not blast a hole down there, 
under water, but this idea occurred to them; 
they knew that rock blasters drilled their pow- 
der holes two or three feet deep, and they con- 
cluded they could, with a longer and larger 
drill, bore a correspondingly deeper and 
larger hole. 

■ They fixed a long iron drill, with a 2.y 2 inch 
chisel bit of steel, and attached the upper end 
to a spring hole, with a rope. 

In this way the boring went on slowly and 
tediously till on the 1st of November, 1807, 
at 17 feet in the rock a cavity or fissure was 
struck, which gave an increased flow of strong- 
er brine. This gave them encouragement to 
bore still farther, and so, by welding increas- 
ing length of shaft to the drill, from time to 
time, the hole was carried down to 28 feet, 
where a still larger and stronger supply of salt 
water was gotten. 

Having now sufficient salt water to justify 
it, they decided, and commenced, to build a 
salt furnace ; but while building, they continued 
the boring, and on the 15th January, 1808, 
at 40 feet in the rock and 58 feet from the top 
of the gum, they were rewarded by an ample 
flow of strong brine for their furnace and 
ceased boring. 

Now was presented another difficulty ; how 
to get the stronger brine from the bottom of 
the well, undiluted by the weaker brines and 
fresh water from above. There was no pre- 
cedent here; they had to invent, contrive, and 
construct anew. A metal tube would naturally 
suggest itself to them ; but there were neither 



metal tubes, nor sheet metal, nor metal work- 
ers — save a home-made blacksmith — in all this 
region, and to bore a wooden tube 40 feet long, 
and small enough in external diameter to go 
in the 2^ inch hole, was impracticable. What 
they did do, was to whittle out of two long 
strips of wood two long half tubes of the 
proper size, and fitting the edges carefully to- 
gether wrap the whole from end to end with 
small twine; this, with a bag of wrapping near 
the lower end to fit, as nearly as practicable, 
water tight, in the 2^ inch hole, was cau- 
tiously pressed down into. its place, and found 
to answer the purpose perfectly; the brine 
flowed up freely through the tube into the 
gum, which was now provided with a water 
tight floor or bottom, to hold it; and from 
which it was raised by the simple swape and 

Thus was bored and tubed, rigged and 
worked, the first rock-bored salt well west of 
the Alleghanies, if not in the United States. 
The wonder is not that it required eighteen 
months or more to prepare, bore and complete 
this well for use, but, rather, that it was ac- 
complished at all under the circumstances. In 
these times, when such a work can be accom- 
plished in as many days as it then required 
months, it is difficult to appreciate the difficul- 
ties, doubts, delays, and general troubles that 
beset them. Without preliminary study, prev- 
ious experience or training; without precedents 
in what they undertook in a newly settled 
country; without steam power, machine shops, 
skilled mechanics, suitable tools or materials — 
failure rather than success" might reasonably 
have been predicted. 

The new furnace, which for some time had 
been under construction, was now complete. 
It was simply a reproduction of the Elisha 
Brooks kettle furnace, on a larger scale. There 
were more kettles, of larger size and better 

On the 8th of February, 1808, the Ruffner 
brothers made their first lifting of salt from 
this furnace, and simultaneously reduced the 
price to the (then) unprecedentedly low figure 
of 4 cents per pound. 

From tin's lime forward, salt making, as 
one of the leading industries of Kanawha, was 

an established fact, and Kanawha salt one of 
the leading commercial articles of the West; 
and wherever it has gone, from the Alle- 
ghanies to the Rocky mountains, from the 
Lakes to the Gulf, its superior qualities have 
been recognized and appreciated. 

The neighboring property owners, who had 
watched the progress and result of the Ruff- 
ner well with such deep interest, now institut- 
ed borings on their own lands, above and be- 
low, and on both sides of the river. Among 
these earlier, enterprising experimenters were 
William Whittaker, Tobias Ruffner, Andrew 
Donally, and others. All were more or less 
successful in getting a supply of brine, at depths 
varying from 50 to 100 feet, and by 181 7 there 
were some 30 furnaces and 15 or 20 wells in 
operation, making in the aggregate 600,000 
to 700,000 bushels of salt. 

In this year an important revolution in the 
manufacture of salt was effected by the dis- 
covery of coal. Although in one of the finest 
coal fields of the world, coal had not, hitherto, 
been found here in workable seams, nor been 
used at all, except for blacksmith's purposes. 
Wood had been the only fuel used in salt mak- 
ing, and for other purposes, and all the bot- 
toms and convenient hill slopes for several 
miles up and down the river had been stripped 
of their timber to supply this demand. 
1 David Ruffner, true to the spirit of enter- 
prise and pluck which animated him when he 
bored the first well, was the first here to 
use coal as a fuel. This would appear to be 
a very simple matter now ; but was not so then. 
It was only after many months of discourag- 
ing efforts, and failing experiments, that he 
finally succeeded in getting it to work to his 
satisfaction. Its value established, however, 
its use was at once adopted by the other fur- 
naces, and wood ceased to be used as a fuel 
for salt making in Kanawha. 

Other important improvements were grad- 
ually going on in the manner of boring and 
tubing, after Ruffner's compound wood-and- 
wrapping-twine tube, being made by a tinner 
who had located in Charleston to make tin cups 
and coffee pots for the multitude. He made 
tin tubes in convenient lengths, and soldered 
them together as *-hey were put down the well. 



The refinement of screw joints had not yet 
come, but followed shortly after, in connection 
with copper pipes, which soon took the place 
of tin, and these are recently giving place to 

In the manner of bagging the wells, that is, 
in forming a water-tight joint around the tube 
to shut off the weaker waters, above from the 
stronger below, a simple arrangement, called a 
"seed-bag" was fallen upon, which proved very- 
effective, which has survived to this day, and 
has been adopted wherever deep boring is done, 
as one of the standard appliances for the pur- 
pose for which it is used. This seed-bag is made 
of buckskin, or soft calf-skin sewed up like the 
sleeve of a coat or leg of a stocking, made 12 
to 15 inches long, about the size of the well- 
hole and open at both ends ; this is slipped over 
the tube and one end securely wrapped over 
knots placed on the tube to prevent slipping. 
Some six or eight inches of the bag is then 
filled with flaxseed, either alone or mixed with 
powdered gum tragacanth ; the other end of the 
bag is then wrapped, like the first, and the tube 
is ready for the well. When to their place — 
and they are put down any depth — to hun- 
dreds of feet — the seed and gum soon swell 
from the water they absorb, till a close fit and 
water-tight joint are made. 

The hydraulic contrivance for raising salt 
water from the gums, consisting of a bucket, 
a swape and a man, was simple, slow and sure ; 
but the spirit of progress was abroad and it 
soon gave place to a more complicated ar- 
rangement, consisting of a pump, lever, crank, 
shaft, and blind, horse or mule, that revolved 
in its orbit around the shaft. This was con- 
sidered a wonderful achievement in mechanical 
contrivance, especially by the men who had 
worked the swapes. 

For several years this "horse-mill," as it was 
called, was the only mode of pumping salt 
water on Kanawha but in the fullness of time 
it also went to the rear — in 1828 — and the 
steam engine came to the front, not only for 
pumping but also for boring wells and various 
other uses. 

In 183 1 William Morris, or "Billy" Morris, 
as he was familiarly called, a very ingenious, 
successful and practical well borer, invented a 

simple tool, which has done more to render 
deep boiing practicable, simple and cheap, than 
anything else since the introduction of steam. 

This tool has always been called here "Slips," 
but in the oil regions they have given it the 
name of "Jars." It is a long double-link, with 
jaws that fit closely, but slide loosely up and 
down. They are made of the best steel, are 
about 30 inches long, and fitted, top and bot- 
tom, with pin and socket joint, respectively. 
For use they are interposed between the heavy 
iron sinker with its cutting chisel-bit below, and 
the line of auger poles or ropes above. Its 
object is to let the heavy sinker and bit have a 
clear, quick, cutting fall, unobstructed and un- 
encumbered by the slower motion of the long 
line of auger poles above. In the case of fast 
auger or other tools in the well, they are also 
used to give heavy jars upward or downward, 
or both, to loosen them. From this use the oil 
well people have given them the name of 

Billy Morris never patented his invention, 
and never asked for nor made a dollar out of 
it, but as a public benefactor he deserves to 
rank with the inventors of the sewing-machine, 
reaping-machines, planing-machine, printing 
cylinders, cotton gin', etc. 

This tool has been adopted into general use 
wherever deep boring is done, but, outside of 
Kanawha, few have heard of Billy Morris, or 
know where the slips or jars came from. 

The invention of this tool, the adoption of 
the heavy sinker and some other minor im- 
provements in well boring, gave a great im- 
petus to deep boring in Kanawha. Wells were 
put down 500, 1,000, 1,500 and 1,800 feet, 
and one — the deepest in Kanawha — by Charles 
Reynolds, to about 2,000 feet. These borings 
would doubtless have been carried to a much 
greater depth, but that the fact soon got to be 
understood, that tlje salt-bearing strata had 
been passed, and that no brines were obtained 
at a- greater depth than 800 to 1,000 feet. The 
limit of salt-bearing rocks is readily told by the 
character of the borings. Within this limit 
are sandstones, shale, coal, etc., of the coal 
measures lying nearly horizontal, though dip- 
ping slightly to the northwest ; below is the 
carboniferous limestone which underlies the 



coal measures, and crops out ioo miles to the 
eastward. This limestone, when penetrated, is 
known to the well-borers as the "long-running 
rock," from the fact that a boring bit will run 
a long time in it without being dulled. 

No regular suites of samples of borings from 
the Kanawha wells have ever been kept. This 
is not important, however, as the strata are 
well known, and can be examined along the 
New river canon as they crop out to the east- 

The Kanawha borings have educated and 
sent forth a set of skilful well-borers, all over 
the country, who have bored for water for ir- 
rigation on the western plains, for artesian 
wells for city, factory, or private use, for salt 
water at various places, for oil all over the 
country, for geological or mineralogical ex- 
plorations, etc, etc. 

Nearly all the Kanawha salt wells have con- 
tained more or less petroleum oil, and some of 
the deepest wells a considerable flow. Many 
persons now think, trusting to their recollec- 
tions, that some of the wells afforded as much 
as 25 to 50 barrels per day. This was allowed 
to flow over the top of the salt cisterns, 
on to the river, where, from its specific 
gravity, it spread over a large surface, and by 
its beautiful iridescent hues, and not very sav- 
ory odor, could be traced for many miles down 
the stream. It was from this that the river re- 
ceived the familiar nickname of "Old Greasy" 
by which it was for a long time familiarly 
known by Kanawha boatmen and others. 

At that time this oil not only had no value, 
but was considered a great nuisance, and every 
effort was made to tube it out and get rid of 
it. It is now the opinion of some competent 
geologists, as well as of practical oil men, that 
very deep borings, say 2,500 feet, would pene- 
trate rich oil-bearing strata, and possibly in- 
exhaustible supplies of gas. 

In 1775, Gen. Washington visited the Ka- 
nawha Valley in person ( ?') and located some 
very valuable lands for his military services. 
About three miles above the Salt Lick, he set 
apart and deeded to the public, forever, a 
square acre of land near the river, on which 
was a great natural wonder, then little under- 
stood, called a "burning spring." For many, 

many years after, it was visited by every one 
who came to or passed through Kanawha, as 
one of the great curiosities of the region. It 
was simply a hole in the ground, which filled 
with water when it rained, and up through 
which issued a jet of gas, giving the water the 
appearance of boiling, and when lighted burned 
with a bright flame until blown out by high 

In 1841 William Tompkins, in boring a salt 
well a short distance above the burning spring, 
struck a large flow of gas, which he turned to 
account by "boiling his furnace," and making 
salt with it, effecting a great saving in fuel 
and economy in the cost of salt. 

In 1843 Messrs. Dickinson and Shrewsbury, 
boring a few rods below, tapped at about 1 ,000 
feet in depth, nature's great gas reservoir of 
this region. So great was the pressure of this 
bore-hole, that the auger, consisting of a heavy 
iron sinker weighing some 500 pounds, and 
several hundred feet more of auger poles, 
weighing in all, perhaps 1,000 pounds, was 
shot up out of the well like an arrow out of a 
cross-bow. With it came a column of salt 
water, which stood probably 150 feet high. 
The roaring of this gas and water, as they is- 
sued, could be heard under favorable condi- 
tions for several miles. 

It would have been difficult to estimate with 
any approach to accuracy, the quantity of gas 
vented by this well, and no attempt was made 
to measure it. I heard it roughly estimated 
as being enough to light London and Paris, 
with, perhaps, enough left to supply a few such 
villages as New York and Philadelphia. But 
as this is a salt well, as well as gas well, I 
suggest that the gas estimate be taken, "cum 
grano salts." 

While this well was blowing, it was the 
custom of the stage drivers, as they passed 
clown by it, to stop and let their passengers take 
a look at the novel and wonderful display. On 
one occasion a professor from Harvard Col- 
lege was one of the stage passengers, and be- 
ing a man of investigating and experimenting 
turn of mind, he went as near the well as he 
could get for the gas and spray of the falling 
water, and lighted a match to see if the gas 
would burn. Instantly the whole atmosphere 



was ablaze, the Professor's hair and eye-brows 
singed, and his clothes afire. The well-frame 
and engine-house also took fire, and were much 
damaged. The Professor, who had jumped 
into the river to save himself from the fire, 
crawled out and back to the stage as best he 
could, and went on to Charleston, where he 
took to bed, and sent for a doctor to dress his 

Col. Dickinson, one of the owners of the 
well, bearing of the burning of his engine- 
house and well-frame, sent for his man of af- 
fairs, Col. Woodyard, and ordered him to fol- 
low the unknown stage passenger to town, get 
a warrant, have him arrested and punished for 
wilfully and wantonly burning his property, 
"unless," concluded Col. Dickinson, as Wood- 
yard was about starting, "unless you find that 
the fellow is a natural d — d fool, and didn't 
know any better." Arriving at Charleston, 
Woodyard went to the room of the burnt pro- 
fessor at the hotel, finding him in bed, his face 
and hands blistered, and in a sorry plight gen- 
erally. He proceeded to state in very plain 
terms, the object of his visit, at which the pro- 
fessor seemed greatly worried, and alarmed, 
not knowing the extent of this additional im- 
pending trouble, which his folly had brought 
upon him. Before he had expressed himself 
in words, however, Woodyard proceeded to 
deliver, verbatim, and with great emphasis the 
codicil to Dickinson's instructions. The pro- 
fessor, notwithstanding his physical pain and 
mental alarm, seemed to take in the ludicrous- 
ness of the whole case, and with an effort to 
smile through his blisters, replied that it seemed 
a pretty hard alternative ; but, under the cir- 
cumstances, he felt it his duty to confess under 
the last clause, and escape. "Well," said 
Woodyard, "if this is your decision, my duty 
is ended and I bid you good morning." 

Col. Levi J. Woodyard was born in Fair- 
fax county, Va., February 14, 1800. His 
father came to Wood county when Levi was 
but six years old. Levi was raised on a farm 
and went to school and obtained some little 
education. He came to Kanawha county in 
1825. He became an oarsman on a flat-boat, 
shipping salt to the lower Ohio, and kept up 
this business for several years. He was then 

given the place of manager of a salt furnace by 
Dickinson and Shrewsbury, which place he 
held as long as this firm continued in the salt 
business. He was made the agent for Kana- 
wha salt in the West and held this until the 
war came on, when business suspended; he 
then returned to Charleston and resided there 
until his death. He was a man that attended 
to his own business and let others do likewise. 
He became president of the Kanawha Valley 
bank and his manner was rather rugged for a 
position where a somewhat different style was 
required from that which was appropriate to 
the manager of a salt furnace. He was an 
earnest, sincere, honest and sober man and 
went at his work, whatever it might be, with 
all the vim that was in him, but there was but 
little else than his rugged way. 

The oil and gas from this well were par- 
tially collected, and conveyed through wooden 
pipes, to the nearest furnace, where they were 
used in making salt. 

For many years this natural flow of gas lift- 
ed the salt water 1,000 feet from the bottom 
of the well, forced it a mile or more through 
pipes, to a salt furnace, raised it into a reser- 
voir, boiled it in the furnace, and lighted the 
premises all around at night. About the only 
objection to the arrangement was, that it did 
not lift the salt and pack it in barrels. 

The success of this well induced other salt 
makers to bore deep wells for gas, and several 
were successful. Messrs. Worth & English, 
Tompkins, Welch & Co., William D. Shrews- 
bury, J. H: Fry, and J. S. O. Brooks, got gas 
wells and used the gas either alone, or in con- 
nection with coal, for fuel in salt making. 
Gas was also struck in a few other wells, but 
did not last long, and was not utilized. 

The first flow of gas ever struck in Kana- 
wha, was as far back as 181 5, in a well bored 
by Capt. James Wilson, within the present city 
limits of Charleston, near the residence of C. 
C. Lewis, Esq. The Captain had not gotten 
as good salt water as he expected ; but instead 
of being discouraged, he declared in language 
emphatic, that he would have better brine or 
bore the well into — lower regions, with higher 
temperature. Shortly after this the auger 
struck a cavity which gave vent to an immense 



flow of gas and salt water. The gas caught 
fire from a grate near at hand, and blazed up 
with great force and brilliancy, much to the 
consternation of the well borers and others. 
Capt. Wilson thought it would be a reckless 
tempting of Providence to go any deeper, and 
ordered the boring stopped. This well is now 
owned by the Charleston Gas Light Company, 
who at some future time contemplate re-open- 
ing it to test the gas for lighting the city. 

Of the many wells in the neighborhood, that 
have furnished gas, some have stopped sud- 
denly, and some by a slow and gradual pro- 
cess. Whether these stoppages have been from 
exhaustion of gas, or sudden, or gradual stop- 
page of the vent-ways, has not been definitely 
determined. It is known, however, that in 
the Dickinson and Shrewsbury well, which 
blew longer than any other, the copper pipes in 
the well, and the wooden pipes leading to the 
furnace, were lined with a mineral deposit, in 
some places nearly closing them. This deposit 
has not been analyzed, but may possibly be sili- 
cate of lime. A system of torpedoing might 
break up these incrustations from the walls of 
the well and rock cavities, and start the gas 
again. From the results of such wells in Penn- 
sylvania, and New York, we have large en- 
couragement to hope for similar results here. 
A few wells intelligently manipulated, might 
give gas enough to boil all the salt manufac- 
tured here, and run all the machinery in the 

After the introduction of steam power, and 
the use of coal for fuel, no striking change was 
effected in the process of salt manufacture for 
a number of years. What improvements were 
made, were simply in degree. Wells were 
bored deeper, the holes were bored larger, the 
tubing was better, the pumps and rigging sim- 
pler. The furnaces were larger, better con- 
structed, and more effectively operated, the 
quality of salt improved and the quantity in- 
creased, but still they were kettle furnaces of 
the original type. 

The mammoth of the kettle era was that of 
Joseph Friend & Son, at the mouth of Camp- 
bell's creek, on which they made 100,000 bush- 
els of salt per annum. The usual capacity of 

the other furnaces was 25,000 to 50,000 bushels 
per annum. 

Patrick's furnace 

This was about the condition of the salt 
manufacture here in 1835, when there were 
all told, about 40 furnaces, producing annually 
about 2,000,000 bushels of salt. During this 
year George H. Patrick, Esq., of Onondaga, 
New York, came here, to introduce a patent 
steam furnace. 

The furnace proper, after it was developed 
and improved, consisted of cast iron pans, or 
bottoms, 8 to 10 feet by 3 feet. Eight or ten 
of these pieces were bolted together by iron 
screws, forming one section 24 to 30 feet long, 
by 8 to 10 feet wide. There were two, three 
or four of these, sections according to the size 
of the furnace. Over each of the sections was 
constructed a wooden steam chest, bolted to the 
flanges on the sides of the pans, and otherwise 
held together by wooden clamps and keys, and 
iron bolts and rods, all made steam and water 
tight by calking. These several sections were 
set longitudinally on the furnace walls to form 
one continuous furnace. 

After the furnace comes a series of wooden 
vats or cisterns, a usual size for which, is about 
10 feet wide and 100 feet long. The number 
of these cisterns varies according to the size 
of the furnace. They were constructed of 
poplar plank, 4 to 5 inches thick, dressed to 
joints, and fitted in a frame of oak by sills 
and clamps. They are tightened by driving 
wooden keys, and then calked to make them 
water tight. This system of clamping and 
keying cisterns was introduced here from a 
model brought by Col. B. H. Smith, from the 
navy yard at Norfolk. It was very simple and 
effective and has been retained to this clay, with- 
out improvement or change. 

There are two sets of these cisterns, the first 
in which the brines after boiling in the furnace 
proper are settled, and at the same time 
strengthened up to saturation ; the latter in 
which the salt is graduated from the clear sat- 
urated brines. Thus settling and graining cis- 
terns are very much alike, except that the 
grainers. are but 15 to 18 inches deep, while 






► ft 

CO o 














t" 1 





the settlers may be double that or more. 
Through each and all of these cisterns from end 
to end are three rows of copper pipes, usually 
5 inches in diameter. 

After the salt water is boiled in the furnace 
proper, it runs into these settling cisterns, and 
after being thoroughly settled and saturated, 
is drawn into the grainers, where the salt is 
deposited, and once in 24 hours is lifted out 
by long handled shovels, on to a salt board, 
suspended above the grainer, and from which, 
after proper graining, it is wheeled in wheel- 
barrows to a salt house, where it is packed 
in barrels ready for shipment. 

The steam generated by the boiling in the 
furnace proper is carried from the steam chest, 
by wooden pipes, to the copper pipes and 
through the settlers and grainers. This steam 
giving up its heat in passing through these cis- 
terns, keeps up the temperature of the brines, 
and causes rapid evaporation. The tempera- 
ture of these cisterns varies from 120 to 
190 ; an average would probably be 16.5 . 

This in short, is a description of the steam 
furnace, after it was improved, and the first 
mistakes and crudities eliminated. In the first 
experiments only very slight heat was imparted 
by the steam to the brines, and only very coarse 
or alum salt made. It was very simple, ac- 
complished all that was expected, and so soon 
as it was fairly tested, improved up to its 
working condition, and its advantages demon- 
strated, the days of kettle furnaces were num- 

Andrew Donnally and Isaac Noyes were the 
first to try and adopt the plan. Then followed 
John D. Lewis, Lewis Ruffner, Frederick 
Brooks, and others, till all had made the 
change; and when the Ohio river furnaces 
were built, the system was fully adopted there. 

It is now about 40 years since George Pat- 
rick introduced the steam furnace, but it still 
holds its position securely, and without rival. 

Minor improvements have been made, and 
the furnaces much enlarged, but the general 
plan has not been changed. From the 2,000 
or 3,000 or 4,000 bushels per month of the 
earlier furnaces, the production has been in- 
creased to 20,000, 30,000 or 40,000 bushels 
per month. The writer's furnace, Snow Hill, 

has made in one year, independent of all stop- 
pages, delays, etc., 420,000 bushels, the largest 
single month's run being 41,000 bushels. This 
furnace has 20,000 square feet of evaporating 
cistern surface, and over 1,300 square feet of 
metal-pan furnace-surface. About 1,200 bush- 
els of coal per day are consumed in the furnace 
proper, and about 300 more for engines, houses, 
and other purposes. 

How far this will be exceeded in the future 
remains to be seen. The same progress has 
occurred in freighting salt, as in the manufac- 
ture. In the days of Elisha Brooks, the neigh- 
bors took the salt from the kettles in their 
pocket handkerchiefs, tin buckets, or pillow 
cases. Later, it was taken in mealbags, and 
on packsaddles. 

The first shipment west, by river, was in 
1808, in tubs, boxes, and hogsheads, floated on 
a raft of logs. Next came small flat-boats, 50 
to 75 feet long and 10 to 18 feet wide, "run" 
by hand, and in which salt was shipped in bar- 
rels. These boats increased in size up to 160 
feet or more long and 24 to 25 feet wide, and 
carried 1,800 to 2,200 barrels of salt. 

These boats were all run by hand, at great 
risk, and although the Kanawha boatmen were 
the best in the world, the boats and cargoes 
were not unfrequently sunk, entailing heavy 
loss upon the owners of the salt. The late Col. 
Andrew Donnally used to ask, when he heard 
of one of his boats sinking, whether any of 
the boatmen were drowned ; if not, he con- 
tended it was not a fair sink. But all this is 
now done away with. Salt is now shipped 
eastward by rail, and to the nearer westward 
markets by daily and weekly steamboat pack- 
ets, and to the more distant markets by tow- 
boats and barges. A towboat will now take 
8,000 to 15,000 barrels at one trip, landing 
them at Louisville, Evansville, Nashville, Mem- 
phis, St. Louis, or elsewhere. 

In the matter of packages, no change has oc- 
curred here since the first use of barrels, the 
principle change being a gradual improvement 
in the quality of the cooperage. Our neigh- 
bors in Mason county, ship some salt in bulk, 
and some in bags, but the larger portion ir 

Kanawha uses barrels exclusively. We use 



two sizes — 280 pounds and 350 pounds net 
salt, respectively. The pork packing trade, 
takes the larger size, and the retail trade the 
smaller chiefly. 

These barrels are made of white oak staves 
and hickory hoops, and it is believed that noth- 
ing cheaper or better can be devised for salt 
packages. They are cheaper than bags, more 
convenient to handle, more convenient to store, 
stand rougher usages, and more exposure to 
the weather. Markets having choice of salt 
in bags or barrels, generally prefer the barrels. 

In the earlier times of salt making here, va- 
rious substances were experimented with for 
the purpose of settling and separating the im- 
purities from the brine. Blood, glue, jelly, 
lime, alum, etc., were used. Something of the 
sort was necessary when the brine was boiled 
down in kettles with all its impurities but they 
are all useless, and worse than useless in the 
present process, and have long been abandoned. 
Plenty of settle-room and plenty of time, are 
all that are needed to have the brines as clear 
as spring water. The bitterns, after the salt 
is granulated, are thrown away, or used for 
other purposes. 

It has long been known that a small portion 
of some greasy or oily substance, on the sur- 
face of the brine helped "to cut the grain," and 
hasten the granulation. Butter, tallow, lard, 
rosin, oils, etc., have been tried. Of these, 
butter is far the best, and next to butter, tal- 
low ; lard and some of the others are positive- 
ly detrimental. 

What the action of butter is, whether chem- 
ical or mechanical, or both, I think has never 
been determined, but certain it is, that a very 
small quantity of butter on the surface of 
brine, while it is granulating very much im- 
proves the salt, making the grain finer and 
more uniform. 

Heat, too, is an important condition in mak- 
ing fine salt. The higher the temperature, 
other things being equal, the finer the salt. In 
making the finer grades of table and dairy salt, 
it is necessary to have the brine up to, or near, 
the boiling point. 

On the other hand, the coarser grades of 
salt, preferred for meat packing and other 

purposes, are made at temperatures of from 
100 to 150 F. 

A still coarser grained, or larger crystalled 
salt, known as alum salt or solar salt, and 
made in the open air by solar evaporation, is 
not made here, but there is no reason why it 
should not be to great advantage, as we have 
longer summers and wanner suns, than at 
Onondaga, New York, where it is very largely 
made, and with more profit than other grades 
of salt. 

Some of the waste products from salt mak- 
ing are recently being utilized. Mr. Lerner, 
an enterprising German, is manufacturing bro- 
mine (both here and at the Mason county fur- 
naces) from bitterns, and Mr. Bemmelmans, 
a Belgian chemist, is erecting works to manu- 
facture hydrochloric acid from bitterns, and 
pigments from the impalpable oxide of iron 
which is deposited from salt brines. 

The cost of manufacturing salt on Kana- 
wha varies, of course, from time to time, with 
the varying price of living, labor and supplies. 
It also varies with each particular furnace ac- 
cording to size, and the greater or less advan- 
tages which it possesses. The larger the fur- 
nace, other things being equal, the cheaper it 
will make salt. The general superintendence 
and management of a large furnace costs very 
little, if any more, than for a small one; and 
a given quantity of coal will make more salt 
on a large furnace than a small one. 

The best furnace will make one hundred 
bushels of salt with eighty to ninety bushels 
of coal. A good average result is a bushel of 
salt for a bushel of coal, and the least econom- 
ical consume about one hundred and twenty- 
five bushels of coal per one hundred bushels of 

Some of the furnaces mine their own coal, 
and some buy fine or nut coal from mines that 
are shipping coal. Even the best furnaces do 
not use coal at all economically or to the best 
advantage. There is, in this respect, great 
room for improvement. 

The cost of coal delivered at the furnaces 
ranges from 2^4 to 4 cents per bushel. The 
present cost of barrels is 25 to 28 cents for the 
smaller size and 28 to 32 cents for the larger. 



The cost of common day labor is $1.00 to 
$1.25 per day. Coal miners, get 2 cents per 

The cost of producing salt at these figures 
may be stated at 8 to 11 cents per bushel in 
bulk, or 13 to 16 cents in barrels, ready for 

The present cost of boring a salt well here, 
say 1,000 feet, after engine, well frame, etc., 
are ready, is $1,200 to $1,500. The time nec- 
essary to bore and ream it complete is 60 to 
90 days. The cost of a salt furnace, complete, 
depends upon size, etc., and varies within wide 
limits. It may be stated roughly at $40,000 
to $100,000. 

The people of the United States consume 
more salt than those of any other country, the 
estimated average consumption being one 
bushel of 50 pounds, per capita, for the entire 
population. The great Western markets, 
where our product goes, consumes even more 
largely than the general average, as this is 
the largest pork-packing region on the globe. 
This portion of the country is rapidly increas- 
ing in population, and as rapidly in its meat 
crop and salt consumption. 

It is well known to chemists that salt is a 
valuable fertilizer on most soils for wheat, 
cotton, grass, potatoes, turnips, and other 
crops ; and as an ingredient in compound ma- 
nures it has a wide range of value. It is often 
recommended by the highest authorities, but, 
as yet, very little is so used in this country. 
When agriculture gets to be better understood 
and practiced, and agricultural people under- 
stand their interests better, a large demand 
and consumption will doubtless be developed 
in that direction. 

The most important and, prospectively, 
promising development in the manufacture of 
salt here is its probable use on a large scale in 
the manufacture of alkalies and other chem- 
icals having salt as a basis or important con- 

With a population of forty million and cov- 
ering the greater part of a continent, it is an 
astonishing fact that our last census does not 
report a single soda ash works in operation in 
the United States, while the official returns 

show the importation of these chemicals into 
the country to be enormously large. 

In 1872 the importation of soda ash, caustic 
soda, etc., was over 100,000 tons, in 1873 
118,000 tons, in 1874 140,000 tons. 

These figures, together with the following 
article, cut from the New York Tribune, a 
few years ago, are strikingly suggestive and 
instructive, and present, in a very forcible 
manner, the great and rapidly growing im- 
portance of this manufacture to this country. 

"give us the soda ash manufacture" 

"Soda ash, within ten days, has gone up J^ 
cent a pound. Well, what of that? Just this: 
For the bread we Americans eat, for the win- 
dow glass that lights our houses, and in fact 
shelters iis from the weather, for every pound 
of hard soap that we use, for every sheet of 
our letter cap and printing paper, for the 
bleaching of our cotton cloths, and very many 
other blessings, we are absolutely dependent 
upon Great Britain. Her manufactories of 
soda ash have the monopoly of furnishing the 
United States with that article, indispensably 
necessary in itself, and in its correlative prod- 
ucts, to the supply of the commonest wants of 
our social and domestic life. There is not a 
soda ash manufactory in the United States. 

There are the skeletons of many, killed dead 
under a competition under free trade tariffs, 
or free trade clauses in protective tariffs, which 
represents the difference of wages paid to 
common laborers in the United States and 
Great Britain, 50 cents a day there, and $1.50 
a day here. But there is not a single living, 
kicking s'oda ash factory in our whole coun- 
try. Let us restate this, our nation's depend- 
ence. If a war should break out between Great 
Britain and the United States we would be 
instantly cut off from the supply of the mate- 
rials to make bread, soap, glass, and paper. 
The manufacturing interests dependent upon 
soda ash and its correlation would forthwith 
be brought to the greatest distress, or to ab- 
solute ruin. So soon as the imported stock on 
hand was exhausted, we should have to depend 
on blockade running to obtain the chemical 
element necessary to enable the nation to wash 



its clothes and raise its bread and cakes. In 
the event of such a war, soda ash would go up 
to $2.00 per pound; indeed, it could not be 
gotten at any price. Our people would expiate 
with widespread distress their folly in not hav- 
ing encouraged and established this article of 
prime and indispensable necessity, at least to 
the point of independence from foreign supply. 

"But soda ash has gone up j4 cent a pound. 
It is a new fluctuation, which we simply wish 
to employ in urging the solemn duty to make 
this nation independent of Great Britain, for 
the comfort of its social and domestic life. 
The fluctuation in the price of soda ash in 
1865 was between 3^2 cents the pound and 
12V2 cents. During that time, the profit the 
British manufacturers and importers made out 
of us ranged between 200 and 400 per cent. 
Money enough was sent out of this country, 
to pay inordinate profits, to foreigners, to have 
paid for the successful establishment here of 
the soda ash manufacture in at least eight dif- 
ferent states, and to have secured a perma- 
nently low and steady price of the article in 
all the American markets. This rise of yZ 
cent a pound, a British tax on every glass, 
soap, paper and cotton manufacturer in this 
country, will not excite a protest. How wise 
it would be for these manufacturers, quitting 
forever their chronic protests against a tariff 
on soda ash, to unite in demanding one that 
should immediately establish the manufacture 
here, and save them forever from those inev- 
itable fluctuations in the price of the foreign 
article, and the extravagant profits from 
which only home competition between estab- 
lished producers saves the consumer." 

All, or nearly all, of our supply of these 
chemicals comes from Great Britain. Official 
reports of 187O) giving the operations of 1869, 
will give an idea of the extent and importance 
of the manufacture in that country. 

In that year the manufactories there con- 
sumed 10,184,000 bushels of salt; 26,908,000 
bushels, or 961,000 tons of coal; 281,000 tons 
of limestone and chalk; 264,000 tons of py- 
rites ; 8,300 tons of nitrate of soda ; and 33,000 
tons of timber for casks. 

The manufacture, I am told, has largely in- 
creased since 1869, but I have not seen official 
reports of a later date. 

Is there any sufficient reason why this man- 
ufacture should be so neglected and ignored 
in this country? On the contrary the advan- 
tages are so great and so palpable that it is 
difficult to understand why capital and enter- 
prise have not been enlisted in it. To illus- 
trate, compare the conditions of manufacture 
at New Castle, on the Tyne, the seat of the 
largest manufacture in England, with what 
they would be on the Kanawha. 

The New Castle manufacturer buys his salt 
in Cheshire and transports it several hundred 
miles by rail. He buys his coal from neighbor- 
ing collieries, paying railway transportation 
on that to his works. His pyrites and man- 
ganese come from Spain and his timber for 
casks from Canada or Norway. 

When the chemicals are made, he sends 
them to Liverpool or Glasgow by rail for 
American shipment, thence by steamers to 
New York, paying ocean freight, insurance, 
and government duty. At New York he pays 
commission, cartage, etc., and thence railroad 
freight to the Western markets, say to Pitts- 
burg, St. Louis, etc. 

Per contra, the Kanawha manufacturer 
would have salt and coal at his doors, at a 
small margin over producer's cost, if he did 
not produce them himself at actual cost. On 
the line of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, 
accessible, cheap and convenient, are inex- 
haustible mines and beds of superior pyrites, 
manganese and limestone, and timber of the 
finest qualities abounds throughout the region, 
and is extremely cheap. 

The product, when ready, could be rolled 
from one door of the factory into boats or 
barges, and in a short time, by cheap water 
transportation, be landed at these same large 
Western consuming markets from Pittsburg 
to St. Louis, inclusive; or from the opposite 
door of the factory, on the cars of the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio Railroad for early delivery into 
any of the Eastern cities. 

It will be readily seen, I think, that the 
advantages are greatly in favor of the Amer- 
ican manufacture, and especially at Kanawha, 
where there are, probably, more advantages 
combined than at any other point in the coun- 

With cheap salt, cheap coal, cheap sulphur- 



ets, cheap manganese, cheap limestone, cheap 
timber, cheap labor, and cheap transportation, 
there is nothing lacking but capital to make 
the Kanawha the Tyne of America. 

West Virginia should at least supply soda 
ash, caustic soda, and bleaching powder to the 
great chemical consuming markets of the West, 
so near and cheaply accessible to us, if not, 
indeed, to the whole continent, thus saving to 
the consumers millions of dollars of extra cost 
for the foreign article, and saving the country 
from the risk of the unpleasant contingencies 
described in the foregoing Tribune article. 

The inauguration of this industry here on 
a large scale, it is believed, would promote 
other enterprises depending largely upon these 
products as well as upon cheap coal and cheap 

Glass works, soap factories, paper mills, etc., 
might, with advantage, be located here, con- 
venient to salt and chemical supplies. The 
products of these establishments would, of 
course, have the same advantages of cheaply 
reaching the great consuming and rapidly 
growing markets of the West. 

The Great Kanawha coal field, within which 
lies the Kanawha salt basin, is one of the finest 
known coal fields in the world. We have coal 
of the finest qualities, splint, bituminous and 
cannel, hard block coal, suitable for iron mak- 
ing; soft, rich coal for gas; good cooking coal; 
steam coal and grate coal. Our cannel coals 
for parlor use or gas making are unexcelled. 
Iron ores, carbonates of the coal formation, 
are found throughout the region, red and 
brown haematites and specular ores are 
cheaply accessible by rail, and black band of 
superior quality is found here in large abun- 
dance. As a timber region, especially for the 
hard woods, this can hardly be excelled on the 

It is not my purpose, however, in this paper 
to describe the coal, iron or timber; they will 
doubtless be written up by others; but I 
wished, simply in a few words, to call attention 
to the conjunction, or convenient proximity 
of these great leading staple, raw materials, 
herein described or mentioned, and all on a 
great line of railroad and a navigable river, 
connecting with all the sixteen thousand miles 

of waterways draining the interior of the con- 
tinent into the "Great Father of Waters," the 
Mississippi, and reaching the teeming millions 
of population who dwell upon his fertile shores 
to their farthest limits. 

It is upon such valuable, staple raw mate- 
rials as I have named, and so favorably lo- 
cated as here, that communities and nations 
found their industries and build their wealth. 

I will not undertake to give any detailed 
description of the geology of this salt basin — 
to do so would be to give the geology of the 
Appalachian coal field. The strata here are 
simply the Usual strata of the coal measures, 
lying nearly horizontal, and saturated in an 
unusual degree with valuable brines. 

Pure salt, or chloride- of sodium, is the same 
under all circumstances, but no commercial salt 
is entirely pure. Sea water, brines, springs, 
rock salt, and all sources of commercial sup- 
ply contain, associated with common salt, other 
saline ingredients. These are chiefly sulphates 
and chlorides, in greater or less quantity and 
varying proportions. 

Probably the most common, as well as the 
most deleterious of these compounds is sul- 
phate of lime. Our salt has the advantage of 
being absolutely free from lime and other sul- 
phates : our process of manufacture, perhaps 
better than any other, enables us to separate 
the hurtful compounds and purify the brines. 

The salt when carefully made analyzes q8 
to 99 per cent of pure chloride of sodium, the 
remaining fraction being made up of chlorides 
of magnesium and calcium. These absorb a 
little moisture from the atmosphere, relieve 
the salt from a chappy dryness, and impart 
to it that valuable property of penetrating and 
curing meat in any climate or weather, for 
which it has so long enjoyed a high reputa- 
tion. In fact, the distinctive characteristics 
of Kanawha salt may be stated as follows : 

ist. It has a more lively, pungent and 
pleasant taste as a table salt than any other 

2nd. It is the only commercial salt that is 
absolutely free from sulphate of lime. 

3rd. It does not, under any conditions of 
climate and weather, cake or crust on the sur- 
face of the meat, but penetrates ,it and cures 



it thoroughly to the bone, so that in large pork 
packing establishments in Cincinnati and else- 
where, it is found to save meat in very un- 
favorable weather, where with any other salt 
known or used the meat would have been in- 

4th. On account of its pungency and pene- 
trating qualities a less quantity of it will suffice 
for any of the purposes for which it is used 
— whether table, dairy, grazing or packing. 

Certificates from numerous Western firms 
show that the Mason county salt quotes with 
this ; though at the same price consumers pre- 
fer that from the Kanawha wells. 

There are in this salt district about 120 
salt wells, all told. Some of these being in- 
ferior, have been abandoned, and will probably 
never be used again. Others are good wells, 
the furnaces connected with which have been 
dismantled by "dead rents," or other causes. 
These furnaces may be rebuilt, and restarted. 
The good wells, if all run, would supply brine 
for about 5,000,000 bushels of salt per year. 
Each furnace requires three to five wells. 

There are at present ten furnaces here, of 
which the following is a list, with name of 
furnace, name of owner, and capacity. The 
aggregate capacity is about 2,500,000 bushels 
per year, if all were run full time. Two of 
the furnaces, however, are not in repair, and 
some others that had been idle have only re- 
cently been repaired, so that the product of 
1875 was very small. 


Name of furnace, Daniel Boone; name of 
owner, W. B. Brooks; bushels, 300,000. 

Name of furnace, Crittenden; name of 
owner, W. D. Shrewsbury; bushels, 280,000. 
Not in repair. 

Name of furnace, Snow Hill ; name of 
owner, J. P. Hale; bushels, 420,000. 

Name of furnace, Washington; name of 
owner, J. D. Lewis ; bushels, 230,000. Not in 

Name of urnace, Pioneer; name of owner, 
Gen. L. Ruffner; bushels, 180,000. 

Name of furnace, Quincy ; name of owner, 
J. Q. Dickinson; bushels', 210,000. 

Name of furnace, Burning Spring; name of 

owner, Mrs. R. Tompkins; bushels, 160,000. 

Name of furnace, Alden; name of owner, 
Mrs. S. Dickinson; bushels, 240,000. 

Name of furnace, Lorena; name of owner, 
Splint Coal Co. ; bushels, 240,000. 

Name of furnace, Kenton; name of owner, 
Splint Coal Co. ; bushels, 240,000. 


1797 — 150 pounds per day. 
1808 — 25 bushels per day. 
1814 — 600,000 bushels per year. 
1827 — 787,000 bushels per year. 
1828 — 863,542 bushels per year. 
1829 — 989,758 bushels per year. 
1830 — 906,132 bushels per year. 
183 1 — 956,814 bushels per year. 
1832 — 1,029,207 bushels per year. 
1833 — 1,288,873 bushels per year. 
1834 — 1,702,956 bushels per year. 
1835 — 1,960,583 bushels per year. 
1836 — 1,762,410 bushels per year. 
1837 — 1,880,415 bushels per year. 
1838 — 1,811,076 bushels per year. 
1839 — 1,593,217 bushels per year. 
1840 — 1,419,205 bushels per year. 
1841 — 1,443,645 bushels per year. 
1842 — 1,919,389 bushels per year. 
1843 — 2,197,887 bushels per year. 
1844 — 1,874,919 bushels per year. 
1845 — 2,578,499 bushels per year. 
1846 — 3,244,786 bushels per year. 
1847 — 2,690,087 bushels per year. 
1848 — 2,876,010 bushels per year. 
1849 — 2 ;95 I >49 1 bushels per year. 
1850 — 3,142,100 bushels per year. 
185 1 — 2,862,676 bushels per year. 
1852 — 2,741,570 bushels per year. 
1853 — 2,729,910 bushels per year. 
1854 — 2,233,863 bushels per year. 
1855 — 1,483,548 bushels per year. 
1856 — 1,264,049 bushels per year. 
1857 — 1,266,749 bushels per year. 

No record. 

No record. 

No record. 

No record. 

No record. 

No record. 

1 o.S» 





-1,300,000 bushels 




- 861,973 bushels 



1866 — 1,275,017 bushels 




-1,321,066 bushels 



1868—1,528,282 bushels 




-1,822,430 bushels 




-1,721,963, bushels 




No record. 


No . record. 


No record. 


No record. 


- 967,465 bushels 




On the south side — Joseph Lovell, B. Allen, 
I. Noyes, 2, Lorena, Tunace, Kenton, Jas. 
Brooks, Withrows, Donnallys — 2, Hurt, 
Woods, Chas. Reynolds, Frys, Warth & Eng- 
lish, R. Clendenin, E. Reynolds, Van Don- 
nallys, Dryden Donnallys, Ankrown, John 
Crockett, Wilcox, Nash, Geo. Patrick, Steele, 
Dr. H. Rogers, Sam'l Hanna. 

On the north side of Kanawha — Big Chim- 
ney, on Elk, Wilson, Black Hawk, Brighams, 
Daniel Boone, Patrick, Lovell, Snow Hill, 
White Hawk, McMullens, Wilcox, Scott & 
Milbe, Watt Trimble, Sam Early, John D. 
Lewis, F. Ruffner, Gen. Lewis Ruffner, Cox 
and Hanna, Nat Fuqua, Shrewsbury, Georges 
Creek, Dickinson & Shrewsbury, H. Clay, B. 
Franklin. Burning Springs, Mouth of Hollow, 
Black Rock, Barretts, Crockett Ingles, J. D. 
Lewis, Sam'l Shrewsbury, Joel Shrewsbury, 
Unknown, Orleans. 


1797, Elisha Brooks. 
1806, David Ruffner. 
1806, Tobias Ruffner. 
1 81 5, Aaron Stockton. 
1818, William Tompkins. 
1820, William Dickinson. 
1820, Joel Shrewsbury. 
1820, Peter Grant. 
1820, James Hewitt. 
1820, Armstrong. 
1820, John Reynolds. 
1820, Luke Wilcox. 



















































Lewis Ruffner. 
Dr. John Cabell. 
Isaac Noyes. 
William Whitteker. 
Charles Venable. 
Bradford Noyes. 
Frank Noyes. 
Charles Reynolds. 
John Rogers. 
Stuart Robinson. 
Sam'l Shrewsbury. 
R. C. M. Lovell. 
Henry Chapell. 
Job. E. Thayer. 
John Welch. 
Nat Wilson. 
J. D. Lewis. - 
J. B. Davenport. 
J. S. O. Brooks. 
George Warth. 
Job English. 
J. G. Foure. 
Thos. Friend. 
W. A. McMullin. 
Henry H. Wood. 
Ira Hunt. 
Thomas Wells. 
Sam'l Watson. 
Walter Trimble. 
Dr. R. E. Putney. 
Moses Fuqua. 
Sam'l Early. 
W. D. Shrewsbury. 
J. H. Fry. 
Jas. E. McFarland. 
Dr. Spicer Patrick. 
Robt. Clendenin. 
Henry Robinson. 
Dr. Henry Rogers. 
Amos Barrett. 
Brayton Allen. 
W. C. Brooks. 
James Coney. 
Silas Ruffner. 
Jacob Darneal. 
Charles Cox. 
Win. Gray. 
Mrs. Charles Cox. 
Mrs. W. R. Cox. 
Thomas Scott. 



1845, Wm. Graham. 

1845, Wm. A. Brigham. 

1845, John Clarkson. 

1845, David Clarkson. 

1845, A. F. Donnally. 

1845, Abe Williams. 

1847, Dr. J. P. Hale. 

1847, Fritz Walker. 

1850, Gus Ouarrier. 

1850, N. O. Brooks. 

1850, Van Donnally. 

1850, H. W. Goodwin. 

1850, A. B. Ault. 

1850, Dryden Donnally. 

J 853> Jesse Hudson. 

1853, Charles Atkinson. 

1853, John Slack and Jas. Ogborn. 

1855, Dr. F. A. A. Cobbs. 

1855, J. M. Laidley. 

185.5, A. P. Fry. 

1855, Jas. L. Davis. 

1857, Otey Alexander. 

1857, W. R. Cox. 

i860, Lewis Ruffner, Jr. 

i860, C. C. Lewis. 

i860, G. W. Morrison. 

i860, J. W. Oakes. 

1 86 1, Wm. Dickinson, Jr. 

1 86 1, F. A. Laidley. 

1861, T. F. Holt. 

1863, A. W. Reynolds. 

1866, L. F. Donnally. 

1866, W. C. Reynolds. 

1866, J. D. and W. P. Shrewsbury. 

1866, John Watson & Bro. 

1866, Henry Clay Dickinson. 

1869, Walter B. Brooks. 

1869, W. H. Tompkins. 

1872, Rev. Tallman. 

1874, Dryden Harris. 

1875, Jas. Corbin. 
1875, John Harris. 
T 875, J- Q- Dickinson. 

1875, Geo. H. Hiding. 
187s, Isaac Ruffner. 

1876, O. A. Thayer. 
1878, Elizabeth Rooke. 
1878, Moses Norton. 

1881, James Nouman. 

1882, W. D. Lewis. 
1882, D. C. Boyce. 


There were at least three of these factories, 
counting the Cannelton Oil Factory, which was 
in Cannelton, either in Kanawha or in Fay- 
ette, it being near the line. The Mill Creek 
Cannel Coal and Oil Company, and the Staun- 
ton Bros. Oil Company were on Mill creek, 
Kanawha county. 

In 1857 Lewis Ruffner conveyed some land 
on Mill creek to Worthington Hale and Long- 
more, and they to Collins and Finnell and also 
to J. G. Staunton, and by that time the war 
came on. In 1867 a suit was brought to en- 
force collection of the purchase money, and 
it was found that the deed by Lewis Ruffner 
was of a tract by definite description when he 
owned but an undivided part, and when a 
partition was made or about to be made, the 
part bought for its cannel coal did not fall to 
the vendor of said land. In other words, the 
said land was land that he could not deilver, 
and 16 W. Va. 208 held in the case of Worth- 
ington vs. Staunton, et al, that such a sale 
could not operate to the prejudice of the other 
tenants in common, in said land. In this suit 
it was averred that it was the coal in the hun- 
dred acres that was of any value to them or 
that afforded them any prospect of recover- 
ing back any part of the $50,000 expended 
in erecting improvements for the purpose of 
making oil from the cannel coal in said land. 

The case is cited to show that there was 
much money invested in the oil works. The 
litigation began in 1867 and the decision of 
the court of appeals was decided in April, 
1880, and somebody lost a lot of money, per- 
haps more on account of the finding of oil in 
Pennsylvania and Ohio, and the better under- 
standing of how to refine and prepare it, drove 
the manufacturers of oil from coal, out of 

General J. W. M. Appleton, then Major 
Appleton, resigned from the U. S. Army to 
take carge of the Mill Creek Company, and 
he was sent in 1855 to Kanawha, before 
which time it had been in charge of Theodore 
Maher, chemist, and was making oil and par- 
affine, etc. Their factory was out near Mor- 
gan's cooper shop, on Elk, in Charleston. 

(From a Painting) 




Maj. Appleton removed the stills, etc., from 
this lot in Charleston to Mill creek, where the 
cannel coal was found. He placed these stills 
on a flat boat and took the boat up Elk river 
to Slack's landing, thence up Mill creek to the 
coal bank, and set up the machinery for' mak- 
ing oil, paraffine, etc. The Staunton Bros, 
property adjoined that of Maj. Appleton's, 
and they made a good oil which they sold in 
Philadelphia for seventy cents, and in Charles- 
ton fifty cents for burning oil. This oil was 
hauled to Elk river at Slack's landing, taken 
by flat boats to the- mouth of Elk from which 
the steamboats took it. 

The Cannelton works were perhaps more 
extensive, and they shipped to Maysville, Ky., 
where Mr. Barbour, the superintendent, made 
refined oil and paraffine, candles, etc. 

There were, farther up. the river, about the 
mouth of Armstrong creek, further prepara- 
tions to make oil from coal, and considerable 
money was spent in developing the same, as 
was also done on Paint creek. There was 
cannel coal found in other places in the county, 
but the making of the oil, etc., therefrom had 
not developed to such an extent that they at- 
tempted to make oil therefrom wherever 
found, and the petroleum business developed 
faster than did the manufacturing business, 
and the latter had to go out of business en- 
tirely. The cannel coal could always find pur- 
chasers in the Eastern cities and it was shipped 
as fuel afterwards, and was also used for mak- 
ing gas, and natural gas has about driven this 
out of business in many places. 


The Great Kanawha Gas Company was or- 
ganized on February 3, 1909, and purchased 
the properties of the Capital City Natural Gas 
Company, consisting of about three thousand 
acres in Roane .and Kanawha county under 
lease, and the properties of the Coal River Oil 
& Gas Company, comprising about the same 
number of acres in Cabell county. These com- 
panies had about ten productive gas wells, but 
had not begun to market gas. The new com- 
pany at once began active development work 
in both fields, and on September 1, 191 1, had 
twenty-six producing gas wells, with an aggre- 

gate daily production of about eight million 
cubic feet, together with one small oil well. 

It is the intention of the management of the 
company to continue drilling in both fields, 
until the entire territory has been thoroughly 
tested, and it is very probable that a large 
part of this development work will be done 
within the bounds of Kanawha county. The 
officers of this company are as follows : Presi- 
dent, W. C. Sproul, Chester, Pa. ; vice-presi- 
dent, J. E. Chilton, Charleston, W. Va. ; sec- 
retary and treasurer, F. M. Staunton, Charles- 
ton, W. Va. ; auditor, W. T. Moore, Charles- 
ton, W. Va. 

The Vulcan Iron Works of Charleston, W. 
Va., a pioneer concern, was organized in 1900 
with a capital stock of $18,000. The officers 
are Frank Woodman, president and treasurer, 
and N. C. Woodman, secretary. The concern 
is engaged in all kinds of job repair work, 
such as boiler, machine, foundry and forge 
work, besides general repair work. This is 
among the oldest machine works in Charles- 
ton. The plant was first operated by George 
Davis, and later by Luckadoe & Hagen, and 
after that it was known as the Elk Foundry 
& Machine Company. Since 1900 it has been 
operated as The Vulcan Iron Works. It is 
located on the corner of Virginia street and 
Columbia avenue, on the west bank of the Elk 
river. Mr. Frank Woodman has been con- 
nected with the concern during the past fifteen 
years. Twenty-five men are employed. 

The Kanawha Brick Co. was organized in 
1889 for the purpose of manufacturing build- 
ing and paving brick and also pressed building 
and paving brick. The capital stock of this 
concern is $35,000. It has a capacity of 50,000 
brick a day. The company has two plants. 
One is located in the city of Charleston on the 
west side of the Elk river, and the other is 
on the Kanawha river above Charleston on 
the south side of the river. Their output is 
about 8,000,000 brick annually. The officers 
are : William D. Isaac, president ; Frank 
Woodman, secretary; and George D. Isaac, 
treasurer. About fifty employees are on the 
payroll. The Kanawha Brick Co. has fur- 
nished the brick for many of the finest and 
most substantial buildings in Charleston. 



The Morgan Lumber and Manufacturing 
Co., of Charleston, W. Va., is the largest and 
most up-to-date concern of its kind in the 
state of West Virginia. It was organized 
February 26, 19 10, with a capital stock of 
$100,000. The office and yard are located on 
Columbia avenue and the mills are on Penn- 
sylvania avenue, occupying all the space be- 
tween the two streets or avenues. The officers 
are as follows: H. E. Shadle, president and 
general manager; H. L. Huggman, vice-presi- 
dent; Idon E. Hodge, secretary; S. C. Peeler, 
treasurer; and H. P. Henneman, architect. 
The concern is engaged in the manufacture of 
all kinds of specialty work, such as desks, 
stone fronts, stair casing and office furnish- 
ings. The Sterrett Bros, and also the Frank- 
enberger display cases were turned out by the 
Morgan Lumber and Manufacturing Co 
With the exception of four or five machines, 
all are propelled by individual motors. 1 The 
electricity for power and lighting is generated 
in the plant. The space covered is two and a 
half acres, half of which is covered with build- 
ings, including the stock shed. The main 
building is 160x80 feet, which does not in- 
clude the dry kiln, stock sheds and power 
plant. It is a two-story brick building (as are 
also the power plant and stock shed), modern 
in every respect and has a cement floor and 
electric elevator. There is a single-story pine 
shed while the wareroom is three stories. The 
office consists of five rooms, toilet and bath, 
and a large hall constructed of buff brick and 
modern in architecture. 

There are seven salaried, men and fifty-five 
laboring men, a large number of whom are 
skilled in their respective lines of work. The 
business, which was founded by J. C. Roy, 
has been under the Morgan name for more 
than thirty years. The Morgan Lumber and 
Manufacturing Company succeeded the Mor- 
gan Lumber Co., who had succeeded the Mor- 
gan Company. Before that the firm was 
known as John and J. S. Morgan, and before 
that the Morgan and Gardner Co., who had 
succeeded John Morgan & Co. 

The business is growing rapidly, the vol- 
ume approximating $200,000 annually. Prep- 
arations are under way for operating two or 

three sawmills in the woods to provide lumber 
< for the plant. Formerly the business was of a 
local or retail nature for want of proper ar- 
rangements for shipping, but during the past 
year attention has been given to the wholesale 
trade with much success. The plant is ably 
managed and is a model of its kind and is a 
valuable addition to the industrial growth of 

The Gill Manufacturing Company was or- 
ganized in 1902 by Charleston capitalists for 
the manufacture of dressers, tables, kitchen 
cabinets and other articles of household fur- 
niture. The capital stock of this concern is 
$15,000. There are twenty-five employees on 
the payroll. The plant is small but can safely 
be placed among the sound and successful in- 
dustries of Charleston. The officers are: 
Frank Woodman, president; and E. C. Daw- 
ley, secretary and treasurer. 

The Banner Window Glass Co. of South 
Charleston is one of the many prosperous 
manufacturing plants of the city of Charles- 
ton. The plant is located in South Charleston 
at the end of the South Charleston electric car 
line. The firm was incorporated in June, 1907, 
with a capital stock of $50,000, and began 
operations December 12, 1907. The plant 
was moved to South Charleston from Shirley, 
Indiana, where it had been operated from 1898 
to 1907. The principal reason for locating in 
Charleston was because of the cheap gas and 
excellent shipping facilities to be had here. It 
is modern and is conducted on the co-operative 
plan, the stock being owned and the plant oper- 
ated by the skilled men in its employ, all of 
whom with one or two exceptions being stock- 
holders. The employees number one hundred 
men. The product of the plant is window 
glass. The concern has been successful from 
the start and has never shut down since it be- 
gan operations, except for repairs. The offi- 
cers of the company are elected annually from 
the employees by the employees themselves, 
who are the stockholders. The present offi- 
cers are : Felix Dandois, president ; Gustave 
Dupierreux, vice-president ; Louis Waterloo, 
secretary; and Julius Champagne, treasurer. 

Dunkirk Window Glass Company of South 
Charleston was incorporated under the laws 



of Indiana April 7, 1896, and operated at Dun- 
kirk, Indiana, to 1906, when the plant was 
moved to South Charleston, W. Va. The 
concern had been located in St. Louis, Mo., 
and was moved from there in 1894. In St. 
Louis the business was owned and operated 
by two brothers, George Schlossstein and Dr. 
Adolph Schlossstein, parents of the present 
owners. The plant was founded and operated 
prior to 1878 by a party of Frenchmen in the 
city of St. Louis. The capital stock of the 
present company is $50,000. The officers are: 
George Schlossstein, president; Dr. Adolph 
Schlossstein, vice-president; and Edward T. 
Schlossstein, secretary and treasurer. The 
reasons for coming to South Charleston were 
on account of the cheap gas and the excellent 
shipping" facilities. The output of the plant 
is 100,000 boxes window glass annually, and 
the product is shipped from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific coast and from Canada to the Gulf 
coast. There are two hundred employees. 
The plant is a large structure erected of 
cement blocks. The officers and men who own 
and operate the Dunkirk Window Glass Com- 
pany are men of many years' experience in 
the manufacture of window glass, having been 
identified with the manufacture of glass prac- 
tically all their lives. The concern has an an- 
nual payroll of about $85,000. The combined 
payroll of the three plants (each of which is 
a separate corporation), when operating to 
capacity, averages seven to eight thousand dol- 
lars a week in money paid out to employees. 
The Tanners' and Dyers' Extract Company 
of Charleston, W. Va., began business as a 
close corporation in 189 1. The concern was 
incorporated by persons from Philadelphia and 
Hanover, Pa., for the purpose of manufactur- 
ing refined tanning extracts and other prod- 
ucts manufactured from wood and bark, but 
after a short time the operations were confined 
to the manufacture of a refined chestnut bark 
tanning extract for high grade oak tannages 
made from chestnut, oak and hemlock bark 
and chestnut wood. The product is held to be 
of a superior quality and the output is dis- 
posed of to tanners in this and foreign coun- 
tries. It is manufactured by a process pecul- 
iarly their own. The plant was destroyed by 

fire in 1896, but was immediately rebuilt when 
the Philadelphia people disposed of their in- 
terest to the present owners. 

The capital stock of the corporations is 
$108,000, which has never been increased, al- 
though the plant has been increased from time 
to time as necessity required it, and the prod- 
uct has increased from 100 to 700 barrels a 
week. There are at present improvements be- 
ing made which will cost $50,000. While the 
output has increased as stated, the foreign 
markets have of late of necessity been 
neglected in order to meet the demands of the 
home market. The plant is located on the 
south bank of the Kanawha river. The plant 
was again partially destroyed by fire in 1898. 

The concern employed fifty men the first 
year and now has on its payroll 250 men, in- 
cluding those engaged in getting out the mate- 
rial and those employed at the plant. The 
Tanners' and Dyers' Extract Co. places in 
circulation in Charleston and the immediate 
vicinity about $5,000 a week. The greater 
part of the raw material used in the manufac- 
ture of the extracts would not be merchant- 
able for any other purpose than for that which 
it is used, and may be described as a waste 
product. The labor represents at least three- 
fourths of the cost of production. The plant 
is supplied with modern machinery, coal, gas 
and waste material supplying the fuel. The 
original officers were : H. N. Gitt, president 
and treasurer, Hanover, Pa. ; E. N. Wright, 
Jr., secretary, Philadelphia, Pa; W. P. Stine, 
general manager. The present officers are as 
follows: H. N. Gitt, president and treasurer; 
Morris B. Stine, vice-president; G. H. New- 
comer, secretary; W. J. Stine, general man- 
ager; and E. J. Stine, assistant manager. 

The Charleston Lumber Company of Charles- 
ton, W. Va., was organized in 1895 an d its 
present capital stock is $45,000. The concern 
is engaged in the manufacture of lumber and 
all grades of builders' material. The building* 
sheds are of brick. The machinery is all of 
the latest and most improved type. The con- 
cern enjoys a large wholesale and retail trade. 
The volume of business runs from a quarter of 
a million to $300,000 annually, giving regular 
employment to 75 men, which number is in- 



creased to ioo when the saw-mills are in op- 
eration. The output is 1,000,000 feet per 
month. The plant has been enlarged to keep 
up with the growth of the business. It is lo- 
cated on the corner of Elk and Bullitt streets 
on the east bank of Elk River. The officers of 
the concern are composed of the following: W. 
L. Savage, president; S. C. Savage, vice-pres- 
ident; and A. Baird, secretary and treasurer. 

The Elk Milling Company of Charleston 
was organized in 1907 by James Kay, Geo. E. 
Thomas, Jack Carr, D. F. Hostetler, and Le- 
roy Swinburn, for the milling of feed and meal. 
The mill and ware room are located on Bullitt 
street along the tracks of the K. & M. R. R. 
This concern is engaged in the wholesale flour, 
grain, hay and produce business. The output 
of the mill is 1,000 bags of 100 pounds each 
daily. The following are the officers : James 
Kay, president; George E. Thomas vice-pres- 
ident ; D. F. Hostetler, secretary and treas- 
urer; and Leroy Swinburn, manager. The Elk 
Milling Co. has been under the present manage- 
ment from the start. 

The 'Kanawha Brewing Co. of Charleston, 
W. Va., was organized in 1907 with a capital 
stock of $150,000, since which date the capital 
stock has been increased to $300,000. The 
buildings were started August 1, 1903, by the 
Charleston Brewing Co. The first brew of 
beer was made June 20, 1904. The first sale 
of the product was made August 1, 1904. The 
name was changed in 1907 to the Kanawha 
Brewing Co., under new management. The 
plant has a capacity of 50,000 barrels annually, 
bottling capacity of 150 barrels, daily. The 
plant which is located on the corner of Bullitt 
and Patrick streets on the line of the K. & M. 
Railroad, is new and modern in equipment. 
The new office and bottling house was begun 
Nov. 1, 1910, and first occupied July 1, 191 1. 
The employees number forty. The officers of 
the company are as follows : George Englert, 
president ; G. A. Sexauer, secretary and treas- 
urer; and J. Fred Englert, manager. 

The Charleston Manufacturing Company of 
Charleston, W. Va., was established in 1902 by 
the Abney Barnes Company for the manufac- 
ture of working-shirts, overalls and pants. The 
officers are: W. O. Abney, president; E. A. 

Barnes, secretary and treasurer; and A. J. 
Davis, manager. The concern is located at 91- 
93 Charleston St. and employs 125 people and 
occupies three floors. The product is placed on 
the market through the Abney-Barnes Com- 
pany and is sold principally in the southern and 
western markets. The factory is up-to-date. 

The National Veneer Company is located on 
Pennsylvania Ave., Charleston, W. Va., and 
has a capital stock of $80,000. The product is 
compounded wood, and employment is given 
to sixty men. The floor space covers 80,000 
sq. feet; the annual sales amount to $150,000. 
The officers of the plant are : G E. Breece, 
president; J. 0. Dickinson, vice-president; F. 
M. Staunton, treasurer; and H. B. Smith, sec- 

The Kelly Axe Manufacturing Company of 
Charleston, W. Va., bearing the reputation of 
being the largest concern of its kind in the 
world, was incorporated in 1874. The founder 
of the plant was Mr. W. C. Kelly, the presi- 
dent. The home of the concern for many years 
was Alexandria, Inch, but through the efforts 
of the Chamber of Commerce, represented by 
some of Charleston's leading financiers, the 
owners and managers of this plant were in- 
duced to visit Charleston and consider the 
many advantages presented why Charleston 
should be selected as the future home of this 
great industry. There has never been any cause 
for regrets on the part of those who repre- 
sented the city of Charleston in securing this 
plant nor the owners and managers of the con- 
cern, since much has been added to the mate- 
rial growth of the city as well as to her repu- 
tation as a manufacturing center. The owners 
have been amply rewarded for the loss of time 
and the great expense incurred in change of 
location by results obtained. The Kelly Axe 
Manufacturing Company is not only the largest 
plant in the city of Charleston but is .the largest 
concern of its kind in the world. It has added 
much to the already increasing value of real 
estate, especially to the West End of the city. 
Commercial, financial, industrial and all other 
interests have been benefited. The Kelly Axe 
Manufacturing Company is capitalized at 
$2,041,000. There are 1,200 men in all the 
departments. The plant covers about 25 acres 



and manufactures axes, scythes, hatchets and 
handles. The plant was located in Charleston 
in 1904. The buildings are constructed of 
brick and are of modern architecture. The 
corporation is a member of the National Associ- 
ation of Manufacturers of the U. S. and the 
American Manufacturers Association. The of- 
ficers are: William C. Kelly, president; James 
P. Kelly, vice-president; Robert C. Thompson, 
treasurer; Geo. T. Price, secretary, and Wm. 
B. Lockett, assitant secretary. 

The Charles Ward Engineering Works was 
incorporated in 1907. The business was es- 
tablished in 1872 by Mr. Charles Ward, presi- 
dent of the concern, who conducted it under 
his own name until the incorporation of the 
plant in 1907, when the style, The Charles 
Ward Engineering Works, was adopted. The 
plant was first located on the corner of Kana- 
wha and Goshorn streets, where the first 
boiler was made, this being for the steamer 
"Wild Goose," for Dr. J. P. Hale. The plant 
was located at various places in the city before 
the present site, which formerly was the loca- 
tion of the Kanawha Pump Works. For a 
time operations were confined to the construc- 
tion of boilers. The second boiler made was 
for the steamer "Katydid," which ran between 
Charleston and Gallipolis. This steamer 
brought the Cincinnati daily papers to the city 
of Charleston on the day of issue. After the 
development of the manufacture of boilers the 
output of the plant was largely used by New 
York parties for the construction of yachts. 
In 1834 the board of U. S. Naval Engineers 
conducted a series of experiments on the boilers 
at the New York navy yards, which was the 
beginning of the introduction of the boilers by 
the navy department for launches, since which 
time the Ward boilers or type have been al- 
most exclusively used for that service. In 1888 
the naval department issued a circular letter 
requesting builders of water-proof boilers to 
submit boilers to a test to be conducted by the 
U. S. Navy Department. In 1890 Mr. Charles 
Ward set up a boiler in his works and offered 
it for a test before this board of engineers. 
While many others agreed to submit, there was 
really only one competitor, viz. : William 
Cowles, of New York. The Ward boiler made 

the best showing and as a result this company 
received the contract for building the boiler 
for the U. S. coast defense vessel Monterey. 
This was the first installation of water-proof 
boilers for war ships in this country. This 
type of boiler was adopted by the U. S. Rev- 
enue Department after which many of the ves- 
sels were furnished or equipped with boilers. 
In 1893 the first light draft tunnel steamer 
built in America was built for the U. S. Engi- 
neering Corps and equipped with Ward boilers 
and machinery. The boat was 61 ft. long, 8 
ft. wide, draft 14 inches, speed, 13 miles per 
hour, a performance never before accomplished 
in this country. The greater part of the work 
turned out is for the U. S. government. Later 
several boats of the same type were built for the 
U. S. government. 

In 1903 this concern designed and built for 
the government the first twin-screw tunnel tow 
boat built in America, which embodied all the 
economical machinery — quadruple expansion, 
condensing engines, etc., attaining the same 
economy as that attained by ocean steam- 
ers. This boat was built with a guarantee that 
it should equal the handling qualities of the 
stern-wheel steamer, with the understanding 
that it was not to be paid for until all require- 
ments were fulfilled. It was accepted and paid 
for in full. The name of this vessel was the 
James Rumsey. 

Following the James Rumsey, Mr. Ward 
built the twin-screw tunnel tow boat, A. M. 
Scott, about double the size and power of the 
Rumsey. The Scott was submitted to a board 
of engineers appointed by the chief engineer of 
the U. S. Army to construct experimental tow 
boats of different types for service on the 
Western rivers. 

The Charles Ward Engineering Works was 
incorporated in 1907 with a capital stock of 
$250,000. The officers are : Charles E. Ward, 
president; H. M. Ward, vice-president; 
Charles Ward, treasurer; and William Keely, 
secretary. The plant employs from forty to 
sixty men. Much time and money have been 
spent in the development of the most advanced 
ideas. The concern manufactured boilers ex- 
clusively for a time but later manufactured 
engines and boats. 



The Kanawha Hotel Company, of Charles- 
ton, W. Va., was organized February 27, 1902, 
with a capital stock of $250,000. This 
amount was increased to $300,000 in 1906. 
The officers are: F. M. Staunton, president; 
Benjamin Baer, vice-president; Geo. E. Suther- 
land, secretary; and L. E. Smith, treasurer and 

The Kanawha Hotel, located on the corner 
of Virginia and Summers streets, fronting 
Postoffice Square, was erected in 1902 and 
opened for business in 1903. The new ad- 
dition was made in 1906. The building is 
modern in architecture and has all the latest 
conveniences to be found in the largest hotels 
in this country. The structure is of pressed 
buff brick, trimmed with stone, and has a 
height of seven stories and basement. There 
are two elevators. The Kanawha is the larg- 
est hotel in the state of West Virginia. It 
owns its own dynamos from which electricity 
for lighting purposes is generated and manu- 
factures its own ice for the large cold storage 
plant. The hotel is conducted on both the 
American and European plans. More than half 
the rooms are supplied with baths and all are 
provided with running hot and cold water. 
There are 200 bedrooms furnished with brass 
beds. The furniture is of oak and mahogany. 
There are public and private dining rooms, 
grill room and ladies' cafe. The rooms are 
well ventilated and elegantly furnished. Of the 
more than three acres of floor space, there is 
more than an acre of tile flooring. The wains- 
coting is of marble and the halls and corridors 
are elegantly lighted. 

The Ruffner Hotel, located on the corner of 
Kanawha and Hale streets, is owned by a 
stock company. The building was erected in 
1885 on the site of the Hale House. The latter 
was erected in the latter part of the seventies by 
Dr. Hale and was the leading hotel of Charles- 
ton until its destruction by fire about 1885. 
M. T. and A. L. Ruffner erected the present 
splendid and modern hostelry, which was a 
five-story structure but to which in 1903 two 
more stories were added, making a seven-story 
building containing 175 bed rooms, large of- 
fice, writing rooms, fine dining room and cafe, 
conducted on both American and European 

plans. The hotel manufactures its own heat 
and has two generators for lighting purposes, 
refrigerators, cold storage plant, etc. The 
present manager is Mr. Bruce Bond. 

The Kanawha Planing Mill Company of 
Charleston, W. Va., was organized under the 
laws of West Virginia in 1901 with a capital 
stock of $25,000, which was later increased to 
$50,000. The officers are: P. W. Burdett, 
president; E. A. Reid, vice-president; and V. 
G. Martin, secretary and treasurer. The plant 
is located on Fourth avenue and Stockton 
street. The greater part of the material (prin- 
cipally yellow poplar) is sold in the Middle 
West. A total of about 6,000,000 feet of 
rough stock is handled annually, the average 
shipments being two cars a day. 

The buildings and offices of the company 
cover about one acre ; the yard, including 
buildings, four and a half acres. This plant 
has been in operation for ten years and is 
numbered as one among the many successful 
business enterprises of Charleston. The 
plant is located on the K. & M. R. R., in 
West Charleston. 

The Standard Brick Company, of Charles- 
ton, W. Va., was organized April 2, 1906, 
with a capital stock of $100,000. The officers 
are: F. M. Stanton, president; S. Pr Baird, 
vice-president; and George E. Sutherland, 
secretary and treasurer. The company manu- 
factures building, paving and fire-brick. The 
plant is being extended for the manufacture 
of tile. The output is 50,000 brick daily. The 
firm employs forty men and has a payroll of 
$2,500 monthly. Eight thousand dollars' 
worth of gas is used annually. 

The plant and yards of the company are 
located one mile west of the city of Charleston 
on the Kanawha river and the K. & M. R. R. 
Paving brick is shipped to various parts of 
West Virginia, and building brick is shipped 
to points on the C. & O. R. R. in West Vir- 
ginia, Virginia and Kentucky. The com- 
pany's land consists of ten acres at plant and 
103^ acres of clay. The clay is transported 
from hills to the yard by means of an air 
tram-road covering a distance of 3,000 feet. 
The firm operates steadily in all months suited 
to outdoor work. 



The Kanawha Woolen Mills, located on the 
corner of Virginia and Clendenin streets, 
should be classed as a pioneer among the man- 
ufacturing plants in Charleston. The present 
concern dates back to 1874, when the Kana- 
wha Woolen Mills were erected. The build- 
ings were erected in June, 1874. The capital 
stock of the concern is $50,000. The em- 
ployees number seventy-five. Yarns, flannels 
and jeans were formerly manufactured, but 
for some time attention has been given ex- 
clusively to the manufacture of blankets, the 
output being shipped to all parts of the coun- 

The officers are : George Minisker, presi- 
dent; Frank Woodman, secretary and treas- 
urer; -and H. L. Minisker, superintendent. 
The mills have been under the present man- 
agement for about thirty-six years. Several 
additions have been made since 1874. The 
oldest building was erected by Parsons, Ap- 
pleton & Co. Frank L. Woodman, the sec- 
retary and treasurer, purchased the plant about 
1876. George Minisker, the president, be- 
came identified with the mills first as an em- 
ployee and since 1873 as an official. He suc- 
ceeded his father at the latter's death as super- 
intendent and later became president. Solo- 
mon Minisker, father of George Minisker, was 
the first superintendent and a very skilled man. 
When George Minisker became president he 
was succeeded by a brother of H. L. Minisker. 

The Charleston Woolen Mills. It was 
while Major Appleton was in the oil business 
and was residing at Waldingfield, his post 
office on Mill Creek of Elk river, he was aided 
by a relative, Mr. William Parsons, a cousin 
who desired to go into business in Charleston, 
and Mr. Parsons and Major Appleton bought 
an interest in a woolen mill in Charleston that 
was being run on a small scale by Rand, Min- 
isker and Eastwood, and others, and the new 
business was run 'in the name of Parsons, 
Appleton & Co., and afterwards as the Kana- 
wha Woolen Mills Co., and they built the 
mills on Clendenin street. This company did 
not achieve the success they were striving for, 
and they sold out, and Frank Woodman 
bought the property, and he is yet the owner 
thereof. Mr. Woodman had Mr. George 
Minisker, Sr., for his manager, and no better 

skilled mechanic was known, and he continued 
as long as he lived, when his son, George 
Minisker, Jr., took his place as the second best 
man for the place. It is still progressing and 
it sounds like an awful busy place to anyone 
visiting it. Perhaps Mr. Woodman could tell 
us about the tariff on wool — how it affects 
his enterprise. 

The Diamond Ice and Coal Company, of 
Charleston, W. Va., was organized in 1883. 
The capital stock at the present time is $250,- 
000. The officers of the company are: F. M. 
Stanton, president; and I. N. Smith, secre- 
tary and treasurer. The concern is engaged 
in the manufacture of ice, and conducts a cold 
storage plant, and in addition to this carries 
on a retail coal business. - Two ice plants are 
owned by the company. One, with a capacity 
of a hundred tons, is located on Elk river and 
on the K. & M. R. R., and the other, of fifty 
tons capacity, is on Smith street. The Dia- 
mond Ice and Coal Company is said to be one 
of the oldest, if not the first concern engaged 
in the manufacture of artificial or manufac- 
tured ice in the United States. The daily out- 
put has increased from two tons to 150 tons. 
The cold storage capacity is 150,000 cubic 
feet. The company's office is located at 807 
Kanawha street. 

The Kanawha Mine Car Company was or- 
ganized in 1902 for the manufacture of mine 
cars, lumberman's supplies, all kinds of repair 
work and general machinist and foundry. The 
following are its officers: M. T. Davis. Jr., 
president and general manager; T. C. Boyce, 
vice-president; E. H. Jones, secretary; and J. 
T. Parks, treasurer. The plant is located on 
the K. & M. R. R. at the end of Wilson street. 

The needs and plans of the factory origi- 
nated with Mr. M. T. Davis, Jr. Employment 
is given to fifty-five men. The corporation 
has enjoyed a steady increase in business, its 
volume being now about four times what it 
was the first year of operation. About 95 per 
cent of the wheels used on the mine cars were 
patented by Mr. Davis, and owned by Mr. 
Davis and Mr. Parks. The plant is a valu- 
able addition to the manufacturing interests 
of Charleston. The paid in capital is $50,000 
— authorized capital, $100,000. 

The Ohio Valley Furniture Company, or- 



ganized in 1900 with a capital stock of $500,- 
000, has the following officers : W. B. Shober, 
president; James P. Hays, secretary; and B. 
F. Ford, treasurer. The firm is engaged in 
the manufacture of chamber and dining-room 
furniture. The concern has two plants located 
in Gallipolis, Ohio, which were erected in 1868 
and employ about two hundred employees. 
The Charleston plant, which is located on the 
K. & M. R. R. in West Charleston, was 
erected in 1891 and has on its payroll 150 
employees. The three plants do a volume of 
business amounting to $450,000 annually. 
The value of the product turned out at the 
Charleston factory reaches about $200,000 
annually. The business is inter-state. 

The Charleston Window Glass Co. is lo- 
cated in West Charleston. Its charter was se- 
cured June 28, 1910, and it has an authorized 
capital of $75,000. The concern located along 
the line of the K. & M. R. R., where it has 
convenient shipping facilities. The plant is 
well equipped for the manufacture of a high 
grade of window glass. One hundred men 
are employed. Charleston was selected as the 
location for this company because of its sup- 
ply of natural gas and the reasonable price at 
which it can be obtained. The men who were 
active and instrumental in bringing this im- 
portant factory to the city of Charleston added 
much to an already growing and important 
industry. The product is shipped to all parts 
of the country. The following are the officers : 
Alfred Gilbert, president and general mana- 
ger; Robert D. Andris, vice-president; A. T. 
Lefevre, secretary; and John Hirsoux, treas- 

F. Long & Sons, manufacturers of oak 
mouldings and trimmings for buildings, in- 
corporated in January, 1910, with a capital 
stock of $25,000. Their plant is located on 
Fifth avenue on the line of the K. & M. R. R. 
The officers are as follows : Edward Lory, 
president; Fred Lory, vice-president; Albert 
Lory, secretary and treasurer. The greater 
part of the product of the factory is shipped to 
New York City. Eighteen men are employed. 
Charleston Milling & Produce Co. — This 
company manufactures 500 barrels of flour 
daily. They also handle 150 tons of feed daily, 

25 tons of meal and one car of all kinds of 
grain and also two cars of hay. They also 
handle potatoes, cabbage, apples, onions, 
oranges and lemons. This company was in- 
corporated in 1902 with a capital stock of $200- 
000. The present officers are as follows : R. 
G. Hubbard, president ; F. W. Abney, vice- 
president; H. R. Hartman, secretary and treas- 
urer; H. W. Sendg, general manager. The 
plant is located on Morris St., adjacent to the 
C. & O. freight yards. The tracks from the 
C. & O. and K. & M. railroads run into the 
mill. The building is four stories high and is 
modern in equipment. The company have their 
own light and heating plants, blacksmith and 
woodworking shops, and manufacture their 
own barrels in their cooper shop. The number 
of men employed as salesmen and inside force 
numbers 60 in all. 

The Yellow Pine Lumber Company, a very 
successful concern, dealing in lumber both re- 
tail and wholesale, was organized in 1903 and 
has an authorized capital stock of $100,000. 
The officers of the company are as follows: 
James H. O'Neill, president; Walter Perkins, 
vice-president; W. O. Daum, secretary and 
treasurer; and A. M. Finney, general manager. 
They handle lumber and building material of 
all grades for interior and exterior work — 
doors, sash, windows, blinds, mantels, tiling, 
grates, etc., everything in the building ma- 
terial, except hardware. The offices and yards 
are located on Wilson Street in the C. & O. 
Railroad yard. About twenty-five men are 


The Kanawha Land Company, the corpora- 
tion controlling South Charleston, was organ- 
ized by Charleston capitalists in July, 1906. 
They secured title to about two thousand acres 
of hill and bottom lands adjoining Charleston 
on the south side of Kanawha river, and pro- 
. ceeded at once to build up South Charleston 
as an industrial suburb of Charleston. 

The management of the company has suc- 
ceeded in locating three large factories. The 
Banner Window Glass Company and the Dun- 
bar Window Glass Company are two of the 
largest and best equipped glass plants in the 



state, while the Kanawha Chemical Fire En- 
gine Manufacturing Company is the only fac- 
tory of its kind in West Virginia. All three 
of these have built large modern plants and 
have contributed largely to the growth of 
South Charleston. 

The officers of the Kanawha Land Com- 
pany have also succeeded in interesting out- 
side capital in building a foot, wagon, railroad 
and street-car bridge connecting Charleston 
with South Charleston. Upon the completion 
of this undertaking, the bridge was purchased 
by the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Company, 
and is used by them for the transfer of freight. 
and by the Charleston Interurban Railroad 
Company as an entrance to South Charleston. 
Regular street-car schedule is now in effect 
between the city of Charleston and South 
Charleston, and the Charleston Interurban 
Railroad Company contemplates the extension 
of their line through South Charleston and 
eventually to St. Albans, or below. 

The Kanawha Land Company has expended 
a large sum of money in improving its prop- 
erty, having laid sidewalks upon all the prin- 
cipal streets and invested largely in house 
building for the accommodation of factory 
workers. This company is making every 
effort to obtain other factories, and holds itself 

in readiness at all times to do everything pos- 
sible to induce industries to locate at South 

The officers of the Kanawha Land Co. are 
as follows: President, W. A. McCorkle, 
Charleston, W. Va. ; vice-president, W. C. 
Sproul, Chester, Pa. ; secretary and treasurer, 
F. M. Staunton, Charleston, W. Va. ; assistant 
treasurer, W. T. Moore, Charleston, W. Va. 

The South Charleston Crusher Company — 
This company was incorporated on June i, 
1907, and purchased a tract of about twenty 
acres of land just below Spring Hill, Kana- 
wha county, W. Va., containing a very valu- 
able deposit of sandstone. The company has 
installed a very modern and up-to-date stone 
crusher, and has an output of about 500 yards 
per day. The product is taken largely by the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Company, being 
used by them as ballast on their extensions. 
This company employs local labor and has a 
payroll running from $2,000 to $2,500 per 
month. Its officers are : President, W. A. 
McCorkle, Charleston, W. Va. ; vice-president, 
W. C. Sproul, Chester, Pa. ; secretary and 
treasurer, F. M. Staunton, Charleston, W. 
Va. ; auditor, W. T. Moore, Charleston, W. 



Early Elections — Daniel Boone a Delegate — Limited Suffrage — Political Organs in Early Days 
— Politics Confused by the War — The Prevalence of Union Sentiment — Politics after the 
War — State Convention of 1872 — Unclean Politics — The Necessity of Reform — Practical 
Suggestions — Kanawha Delegates since 1791 — The Legislature — State and County Of- 
ficials — Congressmen and U. S. Senators — Governors from Kanawha County. 


We have been told that in early days, this 
county was of the Jeffersonian democracy. Dr. 
Hale is the authority that at the first election 
held in Kanawha, the polls were kept open for 
three days and there were thirteen votes cast at 
the courthouse and that was the only precinct in 
the county ; it would seem then that a question 
of politics had but little to do with it. Daniel 
Boone was elected to the House of Delegates, 
and I've a doubt whether he ever troubled 
himself with questions concerning the policy 
of the administration, unless it was with rela- 
tion to Indians. The right of suffrage was 
limited to a very few, and there were fewer al- 
lowed to vote than were expected to fight when 
it came to a question of Indians or other pub- 
lic enemies. 

Until the salt making business became pretty 
large, there was not much question of politics, 
and democracy had the lead in Kanawha; but 
the salt makers began to think their special 
interests needed protection and that it required 
a Whig to attend to them, and they began to 
elect Whigs. It has been said that Joseph 
Lovell and Henry Clay were responsible for 
this change, which may have been time, or it 
may have been that among the emigrants from 
Virginia there happened to be more Whigs 
than Democrats and the majority naturally 
selected their own men. 

It so continued for many years, when the 

Democrats began to claim that the salt interest 
was not the only one to be considered. The 
contest began to wax warm, while Kanawha 
could elect Whigs to the House, the Senators 
were always Democrats; but this was not al- 
ways. The Whig party was represented by the 
"Kanawha Republican," edited by Mr. Newton, 
and the Democrats published the "Kanawha 
Valley Star," edited by Mr. Rundle. Both of 
these papers were assisted by the attorneys as 
far as the political editorials were concerned. 


When the war came on in i860 and 1861, 
the politics began to get confused and the lines 
of division were Union and Secession, and then 
the parties were different from what they had 
been before. Generally the Democrats were fa- 
vorable to secession, but as stated, the county 
was largely favorable to the Union. 

We heard of one locality where the people 
were warmly opposed to all disunion senti- 
ments and gave it out that no man should 
vote for secession there without having to take 
a ducking in Coal river to cool him down, 
while farther up the said river, it was stated 
that if any one there voted against secession 
they would give to him a ducking in the river, 
and one man had to take water. 

Politics after the war was all one way, and 
one's loyalty was doubled if it was known that 
he did not vote the Republican ticket. This, 
however, did not last long ; for the laws made 




to keep the Republican party in power began to 
do more harm than good and in 1872, there 
was held a State convention, which was not 
altogether Republican but undid much that was 
regarded as unfair towards the Democrats and 
then the State began to elect Democrats. 


' The desire of each party to select their can- 
didates has lately become so strong, and the 
contention so warm, and politics in Kanawha 
have become so bad that her name has suf- 
fered. Even in primary elections within each 
party, or in conventions, the unfairness and 
injustice was so apparent that this county be- 
came a by-word for infamy. Kanawha politics, 
without reference to either party, became so 
bad that it was feared that elections could not 
be held, and it has been said that the noxious 
odors arising therefrom would drive a polecat 
into bankruptcy, and it has been understood 
that to be a good party man, a man must go to 
each election, with his ticket in one hand and 
his nose in the other, and vote at least once, 
for one ticket, no matter how offensive it 
might be. 

It is hoped, however, that all this has passed 
away, and that the people without regard to 
party, are asserting their own notions, and 
that when it is known that an election or con- 
vention is unfairly held the voters are not ex- 
pected to be bound thereby. 

Once the politicians find that the people will 
not be bound, it will be dangerous to attempt 
to cheat or defraud. It is hoped that a pri- 
mary election law will be so guarded and the 
law conducting elections so rigid, that it will 
not pay the persons expected to do villainy to 
risk it. 

In theory our government is to be run by 
the people, and in some other places the gov- 
ernment runs the people. There may be ad- 
vantages in each way, but it must be true that 
without honesty, there is no good in either 
way and the people suffer. Whether the people 
have sufficient intelligence and integrity to gov- 
ern themselves has not yet been fully decided. 

The people are at fault, and too many are 
willing for a dollar or two to vote as they 
are paid. This destroys the government and 

makes money the boss, and gives control to 
tyrants. It is giving up a good government 
for gold, principle for paltry politics. It has 
been said that with plenty of money and 
fraud and corruption, Kanawha can be carried 
for anything, but this is a slander. If this con- 
dition ever existed, it is now passed by; the 
people will not stand for it longer. 

Each party should nominate their best men 
and then the people should select the best and 
elect them, and this being done, the officials 
will be the best to be had, the parties will be 
purified, and the county saved, and the people 
happy. On the other hand, let fraud and de- 
ception, bribery and corruption control, and a 
decent man cannot afford to be a candidate and 
cannot be elected; the people are on the right 
road to the devil, and the county is unfit to be 
the home of a respectable man. Then let us 
vote down every candidate that is not known 
to be honest; if his nomination is a fraud, he 
will be one also. If he is nominated for a pur- 
pose, vote him down. If money can nominate 
him, cash will control him after he is elected. 
Never support a candidate that makes promises 
of what he will do for you, which generally is 
something wrong, and it is intended as a 
bribe, and there is no telling how many such 
promises have been made to others, — vote him 
down ; for he is not honest. Restore Kanawha 
to the people's control, and they will reduce 
taxation, for villainy is expensive and the 
people have to pay the bills. Let the good 
people stand together and we are safe. 


This list appears to be authoritatively given, 
and the first time we find this county mentioned 
was the year 1790. 

1790 — George Clendenin and Andrew Don- 

1791 — George Clendenin and Daniel Boone. 

1792 — Henry Banks and William Morris. 

1793 — George Clendenin and William Mor- 

1794 — William Morris and George Clen- 

1795— Thomas Lewis and George Clendenin. 
Our senator, John Preston. 



1796 — William Clendenin and William Mor- 
ris, Jr. Our senator, John Preston. 

1797 — Edmond Graham and William Mor- 
ris, Jr. Our senator, John Preston. 

1798 — Thomas Lewis and Joseph Ruffner. 
Our senator, John Preston. 

1799 — Thomas Lewis and David Ruffner. 

1800 — William Morris. Our senator, John 

1 80 1 -2 — William Clendenin and David Ruff- 
ner. Our senator, John Preston. 

1802-3 — Robt. McKee and David Ruffner. 

1803-4 — William Clendenin and Andrew 

1804-5 — David Ruffner and Carroll Morris. 
Our senator, Dan C. Sheffey. 

1805-6 — William Morris and L. Wood. Our 
senator, Dan C. Sheffey. 

1806-7 — John Reynolds and Edmond Mor- 

1807-8 — William Morris and John Rey- 

1808-9 — J°hn Reynolds and Edmond Mor- 
ris. Our senator, Alex Smith. 


1810-11 — John Reynolds and Claudius Bus- 
ter. Our senator, Francis Smith. 

1811-12 — John Hansford and David Ruff- 
ner. Our senator, Francis Smith. 

1812-13 — David Cartmill and John Hans- 
ford. Our senator, Francis Smith. 

1813-14 — John Hansford and John Wilson. 
Our senator, Henry Chapman. 

1814-15 — John Wilson and John Hansford. 
Our senator, Henry Chapman. 

1815-16 — John Wilson and John Hansford. 
Our senator, Henry Chapman. 

1816-17 — Thos. L. Buster and John Buster. 
Our senator, Gen. Francis Preston. 

1 81 7- 1 8 — Lewis Summers and John Hans- 

1818-19 — John Hansford and P. R. Thomp- 

1819-20 — Claudius Buster and Joseph Lov- 

1820-21 — Nat Thompson and Joseph Lovell. 

1821-22 — Joseph Lovell and Lewis Ruffner. 
Senator, E. S. Duncan. 

1822-23— Mathew Dunbar and James Wil- 
son. Senator, E. S. Duncan. 

1823-24 — Jas. Wilson and Van B. Reynolds. 
Senator, E. S. Duncan. 

1824-25 — Joseph Lovell and John Welch. 
Senator, Jo. L. Fry. 

1825-26 — Lewis Ruffner and Van B. Rey- 
nolds. Senator, Jo. L Fry. 

1826-27 — Jas. H. Fry and Lewis Ruffner. 
Senator, Jo. L. Fry. 

1827-28 — Jas. C. McFarland and Daniel 
Smith. Senator, Jo. L. Fry. 

1828-29 — Daniel Smith and Mathew Dun- 
bar. Senator, J. J. Allen. 

1829-30 — Mathew Dunbar and Daniel Smith. 
Senator, J. J. Allen. 

1830-31 — George W. Summers. Senator, 
Wm. McComas. 

1831-32 — George W. Summers. Senator, 
Wm. McComas. 

1832-33 — James H. Fry. Senator, Wm. 

1833-34 — James H. Fry. Senator, Benj. H. 

1834-35 — George W. Summers. Senator, 
B. H. Smith. 

1835-36 — George W. Summers. Senator, 
B. H. Smith. 

1836-37 — Andrew Donnally. Senator, B. 
H. Smith. 

1838 — Daniel Smith. Senator, B. H. Smith. 

1839 — Henry Farley. Senator, B. H. 

1840 — Van B. Reynolds. Senator, R. A. 

1 84 1 — Andrew Donnally. Senator, R. A. 

1842 — Daniel Smith. Senator, R. A. 

1843 — Andrew Parks. Senator, R. A. 

1844 — John Lewis. Senator, R. A. Thomp- 

1845 — Daniel Smith. Senator, R. A. 

1846 — Spicer Patrick. Senator, R. A. 

1847 — Spicer Patrick. Senator, Jas. H. 

1848 — Andrew Parks. Senator, Jas. H. Fry. 

1849, — James M. Laidley. Senator, Jas. H. 



1850 — Spicer Patrick. Senator, Jas. H. Fry. 

185 1 — Spicer Patrick. Senator, E. Ward. 

1852 — Spicer Patrick and Andrew P. Fry. 
Senator, E. Ward. 

1853 — Spicer Patrick and Andrew P. Fry. 
Senator, E. Ward. 

1854 — Spicer Patrick and Daniel Smith. 
Senator, E. Ward. 

1855-6— B. H. Smith and Charles Ruffner. 
Senator, Andrew Parks. 

1857-8 — Charles Ruffner and Nicholas Fitz- 
hugh. Senator, J. A. Waith. 

1859-60 — Isaac N. Smith and J. A. Welch. 
Senator, W. D. Pate. 

1862 — Senator, W. D. Pate. 

1864 — Welch and V. Hendrich. Senator, 
James M. Lawson. 


1863 — Spicer Patrick and Lewis Ruffner. 
Senator, G. Slack. 

1864 — E. W. Newton and Lewis Ruffner. 
Senator, G. Slack. 

1865 — Spicer Patrick and William Morris. 
Senator, G. Slack. 

1866 — William Morris and H. C. McWhor- 
ter. Senator, G. Slack. 

1867— John W. Cracraft and H. C. Mc- 
Whorter. Senator, G. Slack. 

1868— John L. Cole and H. C. McWhorter. 
Senator, G. Slack. 

1869 — L. A. Martin and C. W. Smith. 
Senator, G. Slack. 

1870 — Benj. H. Smith and A. E. Summers. 
Senator, Spicer Patrick. 

1871 — L. A. Martin and B. F. Wyatt. Sen- 
ator, Spicer Patrick. 

1872 — John D. Lewis and A. E. Summers. 

1872-3- — W. S. Laidley, T. E. Rogers and 
W. H. Hudson. Senator, A. E. Summers. 

1875— H. Agee, S. Chapman and S. A. Mill- 
er. Senator, W. T. Burdett. 

1877 — J. H. Ferguson, W. A. Quarrin and 
E. W. Wilson. Senator, W. T. Burdett. 

1879— A. A. Rock, Martin Hill, J. C. 
Montgomery. Senator, A. E. Summers. 

1881 — W. A. Ouarrier, J. H. Ferguson, E. 
W. Wilson. Senator, A. E. Summers. 

1883— J. H. Brown, J. F. Brown, J. M. 
Collins. Senator, B. W. Byrne. 

1885— J. B. Fleming, H. C. McWhorter, 
A. A. Rock. Senator, B. W. Byrne. 

1887— H. C. McWhorter, W. H. Toler, L. 
H. Oakes. Senator, R. S. Carr. 

1889— A. E. Autiz, D. Mayer, W. Parrish. 
Senator, R. S. Carr. 

1891— E. B. Dyer, J. H. Ferguson, T. E. 
Kendall. Senator, C. C. Watts. 

1893— W. S. Edwards, J. B. Floyd, W. W. 
Riley. H. J. Wills. Senator, C. C. Watts. 

1895— W. H. Toler, L. A. Martin, P. F. 
Jones, W. S. Edwards. Senator, G. W. Pat- 

1897— W. H. Toler, J. H. Hunt, R. E. 
Hughs, P. F. Jones. Senator, G. W. Patton. 

1901 — C. C. Colerd, M. Jackson, S. John- 
son, L. A. Martin. Senator, W. L. A. 

1903 — C. N. Edgington, M. P. Shavvkey, O. 
E. Rudesill, Shelton Johnston, G. E. Wermer. 
Senator, E. C. Colcord. 

1905 — F. P. Grosscup, T. S. McDonald, L. 
E. McWhorter, B. E. Carney, George Walker. 
Senator, E. C. Colcord. 

1907 — F. M. Staunton, John Nugent, M. T. 
Roach, R. D. Sheppard, L. C. Massey. Sena- 
tor, A. B. Littlepage. 


Governor — W. E. Glasscock. 

Secretary of State — S. F. Reed. 

Auditor — J. S. Daret. 

Treasurer — E. L. Long. 

Commissioner of Banking — S. V. Mathews. 

Superintendent of Free Schools — M. P. 

Attorney General — W. G. Conley; Assistant, 
Frank Linty. 

Private Secretary to Governor — H. P. 

Adjutant General — C. D. Elliott. 

Commissioner of Labor — I. V. Barton. 

State Tax Commissioner — Fred A. Blue. 

Archivist — Virgil A. Lewis. 

State Law Librarian — T. C. Gilmer. 

State Commissioner Public Roads — C. P. 

State Board of Control — J. S. Larkins, E. P. 
Stephenson, J. A. Sheppard. 

Chief of Department of Mines — John Laing. 




Judges — Ira E. Robinson, Henry Brannon, 
George Poppenbarger, W. N. Miller, L. J. 

Clerk— W. B. Mathews. 


Judge— B. F. Keller. 


County Commissioners — D. A. Brawley, A. 
R. Shepperd, Dr. M. P. Malcolm. 

County Clerk — L. C. Massey. 

Sheriff — J. Preston Smith. 

Clerk of Circuit Court — Ira H. Mottes- 

Prospecting Attorney — S. B. Avis. 

Judge Criminal Court — H. K. Black. 

County Surveyor — Frank D. Barron. 

Circuit Court of Kanawha County — S. C. 
Burdett, Judge. 


Democrats — 15. 
Republicans — 15. 


1 Henry Zilliken, Dem., Wellsburg. 
Julian G. Hearne, Rep., Wheeling. 

2 W. C. Grimes, Rep., Cameron. 

Geo. B. Slemaker, Dem., Sistersville. 

3 C. P. Craig, Rep., St. Marys. 

W. G. Peterkin, Dem., Parkersburg. 

4 J. O. Shinn, Rep., Ripley. 
Ben A. Smith, Rep., Walton. 

5 D. B. Smith, Rep., Huntington. 
R. A. Salmon, Dem., Winfield. 

6 H. D. Hatfield, Rep., Eckman. 
M. Z. White, Rep., Williamson. 

7 Joe L. Smith, Dem., Beckley. 
D. E. French, Dem., Bluefield. 

8 E. T. England, Rep., Logan. 

W. A. McCorkle, Dem., Charleston. 

9 W. S. Johnson, Rep., Hill Top. 
Jno. A. Preston, Dem., Lewisburg. 

10 Jake Fisher, Dem., Sutton. 
R. F. Kidd, Dem., Glenville. 

1 1 W. S. Meredith, Rep., Fairmount. 
Hood Phillips, Dem., Grafton. 

12 Chas. G. Coffman, Rep., Clarksburg. 
Geo. W. Bland, Dem., West Union. 

13 Howard Sutherland, Rep., Elkins. 
Sam'l V. Woods, Dem., Philippi. 

14 J. W. Flynn, Rep., Kingwood. 
O. A. Hood, Rep., Keyser. 

15 A. C. Mclntire, Dem., Berkeley Spgs. 
Gray Silver, Dem., Martinsburg. 


Democrats — 63, Republicans — 23. Total 86. 

The figure preceding the name of the county 
indicates the number of delegates to which the 
county is entitled. 

1 Barbour, Thos. W. Ice, Dem., Philippi. 

2 Berkeley, C. M. Siebert, Dem., Martins- 

Berkeley, John W. Sperow, Dem., Mar- 

1 Boone, B. M. Hager, Dem., Hewitt. 

2 Braxton, Frank Kidd, Dem., Burnsville. 
Braxton, Lafe Shock, Dem., Falls Mills. 

1 Brooke, D. F. Henry, Rep., Wellsburg. 

3 Cabell, C. W. Campbell, Dem., Hunting- 

Cabell, P. C. Buffington, Dem., Hunting- 
Cabell, S. J. Jane, Dem., Milton. 
1 Calhoun, G. W. Hays, Dem., Arnolds- 
1 Clay, A. J. Pugh, Dem., Warfield. 
1 Doddridge, Jos. L. Walton, Dem., New 

3 Fayette, H. C. Skaggs, Rep., Kay Moor. 
Fayette, John Nuttall, Rep., Nuttallburg. 
Fayette, Richmond Morton, Rep., Sun. 

1 Gilmer, C. W. Marsh, Dem., Glenville. 

2 Greenbrier, John C. Dice, Dem., Lewis- 

Greenbrier, E. D. Smoot, Dem., Smoot. 
1 Grant, Geo. S. Van Meter, Rep., Corner. 
1 Hampshire, H. B. Gilkeson, Dem., Rom- 

1 Hancock, John Porter, Rep., Congo. 

1 Hardy, G. W. McConley, Dem., Moore- 


2 Harrison, Jas. W. Robinson, Dem., 

1 Flarrison, Jesse D. Kennedy, Dem., Lost 



2 Jackson, Warren Miller, Rep., Ripley. 
Jackson, H. W. Huey, Rep., Ravens- 

I Jefferson, C. M. Wetzel, Dem., Millville. 
5 Kanawha, R. M. Hudnall, Dem., Cedar 
Kanawha, A. M. Belcher, Dem., Charles- 
Kanawha, Peter Carroll, Dem., Charles- 
Kanawha, F. N. Carr, Dem., Charleston. 
Kanawha, H. D. Currie, Dem., Charles- 
I Lewis, E. A. Brannon, Dem., Weston. 
i Lincoln, M. D. Good, Dem., Griffittisville. 

1 Logan, R. E. Vickers, Dem., Chapmans- 


3 Marion, C. L. Shaver, Dem., Fairmont. 
Marion, W. B. Ice, Jr.. Dem., Barracks- 

Marion, J. Robert Burt, Dem., Manning- 

2 Marshall, C. A. Barlow, Rep., Benwood. 
Marshall, E. F. Moore, Rep., Mounds- 


2 Mason, A. A. Parsons, Dem., Leon. 

2 Mason, Chas. S. Edwards, Dem., Mason 

2 Mercer, F. M. Steele, Rep., Elgood. 
Mercer, B. W. Pendleton, Dem., Prince- 

i Mineral, Jas. C. Liller, Rep., Keyser. 

i Mingo, Wells Goodykoontz, Rep., Will- 

2 Monangalia, S. L. Wildman, Rep., Mor- 
Monangalia, D. H. Courtney, Rep., Mor- 

i Monroe, Clarence, Syneres, Dem., Peters- 

i Morgan, V. E. Johnson, Rep., Berkeley 

2 McDowell, G. T. Enling, Rep., Key- 
McDowell, Jas. A. Strother, Rep., Welch. 

I Nicholas, F. N. Alderson, Dem., Rich- 

4 Ohio, Nelson C. Hubbard, Dem., Wheel- 


Ohio, Dr. Harry Hubbard, Dem., Wheel- 
Ohio, C. G. Whitham, Dem., Wheeling. 
Ohio, Thos. L. Padden, Dem., Wheeling, 
i Pendleton, J. D. Keister, Dem., Brandy- 
i Pleasants, R. L. Pemberton, Dem., St. 

1 Pocahontas, Jno. A. McLaughlin, Dem., 


2 Preston, S. C. Felton, Rep., Whetsell. 
Preston, S. L. Cobun, Rep., Masontown. 

1 Putnam, Ben Morris, Dem,. Winfield. 

i Raleigh, Geo. W. William, Dem., Beck- 
i Randolph, Jno. T. Davis, Dem., Elkins. 

2 Ritchie, J. C. Lacy, Dem., Ellenboro. 
Ritchie, Newton Law, Rep., Cairo. 

2» Roane, W. W. Ogden, Dem., Newton. 

Roane, H. D. Wells, Dem., Spencer. 
I Summers, A. P. Pence, Dem., Pence 

i Taylor, T. P. Kenny, Dem., Grafton. 

1 Tucker, R. J. Clifford, Dem., Hambleton. 

2 Tyler, Riley Mclntire, Dem., Alvy. 
Tyler, A. A. Meredith, Dem., Sisters- 


1 Upshur, H. F. Ours, Rep., Buckhannon. 
i Webster, W. S. Wysong, Dem., Webster 


2 Wayne, Frank W. Terill, Dem., Wayne. 
Wayne, W. W. Marcum, Dem., Ceredo. 

2 Wetzel, Septimus Hall, Dem., New Mar- 

Wetzel, J. F. Throckmorton, Dem., Lit- 
i Wirt, W. T. Owens, Dem., Elizabeth. 

3 Wood, A. G Patton, Dem., Parkersburg. 
Wood, L. H. Jeffers, Dem., Mineray 

Wood, J. K. Jolly, Rep., Parkusby. 
i Wyoming, H. W. Sanders, Dem., Oceana. 


West Virginia Governors : — Arthur I. Bore- 
man, Republican; William E. Stevenson, Re- 
publican; John J. Jacob, Independent; Henry 
Mason Mathews, Democrat; Jacob B. Jackson, 
Democrat; E. Willis Wilson, Democrat; A. 
Brooks Fleming, Democrat ; W. A. MacCorkle, 



Democrat; G. W. Atkinson, Republican; A. B. 
White, Republican; W. M. O. Dawson, Repub- 
lican; and W. E. Glasscock, Republican. 

West Virginia Congressmen, including Ka- 
awha District : — Kellian V. Whaley, Daniel 
Paisley, John S. Witcher, Frank Hereford, 
John E. Kenna, C. P. Snyder, J. D. Alderson, 
I. H. Huling, C. P. Dorr, D. E. Johnson, Joe 
H. Gaines, A. B. Littlepage. 

U. S. Senators, West Virginia: — Waitman 
T. Willey, P. G. Van Winkle, A. I. Boreman, 
H. G Gaines, A. T. Caperton, Samuel Price, 

Frank Hereford, J. N. Camden, J. E. Kenna, 
C. J. Faulkner, S. B. Elkins, N. B. Scott, C. 
W. Watson and W. E. Chilton. 

Kanawha County in the state government — 
Governors, E. W. Wilson, W. A. MacCorkle 
and G. W. Atkinson. 

Secretaries of State — Charles Hedrick, H. I. 
Walker, W. E. Chilton. 

Attorney General — C. C. Watts. 

Treasurer — Peter Silman. 

State Librarians — John L. Cole, E. L. Wood, 
P. S. Shirkey, S. W. Starke and J. C. Gilmer. 



Col. Bullitt's Survey — Lewisburg Established — Construction of Fort — The Beginning of Growth 
— Growth of Population — Early Designations of Charleston — Legal Tender — First White 
Child Born — Charleston Legally Established — Its Condition in 1794 — The Only Good In- 
dian — Tragedy of White Man's Fork — Thomas Teays Saved by an Indian — Murder of the 
Morris Girls — Charleston's First of Things — Legislation Relative to Charleston — West 
Virginia Decisions — Charleston in 1836-1838 — Court House — Charleston as the State Cap- 
ital — Chamber of Commerce — Water and Electric Light Plant — City Officials — Population. 

will was probated in Faquier in 1778, and the 
patent for the 1 ,030 was given to Cuthbert Bul- 
litt in 1779, and Cuthbert's will was recorded 
in Prince William in 1781, and he gave the 
1,240 to his four daughters. The 1,030 acres 
Cuthbert conveyed by deed dated Dec. 28, 1787 
to George Clendenin, a copy of which is found 
in 10 W. Va. Reports 404. 

In the patent it says the survey was made in 
May> 1775 and the grant in 1779; and while 
on the subject of title, we might add, that Clen- 
denin conveyed to Joseph Ruffner and he to 
his sons, and much of it is yet in the Ruffner 

There were with Geo. Clendenin, also his 
father Charles, and his brother William, Rob- 
ert, Alexander Clendenin and also Josiah Har- 
rison, Francis Watkins, Shadrack Harriman. 
Chas. McClung, John Edwards,' Lewis Tack- 
ett, John Young, James Hale and others con- 
tinued to come. 

It was in 1788 that George Clendenin began 
to construct the fort on the 1,030 acres and it 
was the 1,030 acres covered with elm, syca- 
more, beech and such like trees that had to be 
removed, and some of them used to build the 
fort, to be thick enough to stop a bullet and 
there was no saw mill. 


It seems that in dealing with this locality we 
should begin with Col. Thomas Bullitt, who 
was the first one to see that its location was a 
good one. He was born in 1730, in Prince 
William County. In July, 1754, he was a 
Captain with Washington at the Great Mead- 
ows, (but not making hay). In 1756 he was 
at Winchester, on May 1st, and on Jackson's 
river in July and in November back at the 
Fort Cumberland, and in 1758 he was a cap- 
tain in Major Andrew Lewis's command, and 
when they captured Fort du Ouesne, he was 
called the "bold and ardent bullitt." In 1759 
he was at Winchester, guarding ammunition 
provisions and wagons with a very few men, 
when he was attacked, defeated and lost heav- 

In 1760 he was made a surveyor and as- 
signed to work on the Ohio. In 1773 he was 
on the Kanawha and there were with him others 
going to Kentucky : to wit : James Douglas, 
James Harrod, John Fitzpatrick, James San- 
dusky, Isaac Hite, Abraham Haptonstack, 
Abram Senous and John Cowan, and this year 
he made' surveys for Frankfort and Louisville. 
He made a survey on Kanawha of 1,030 acres 
above Elks mouth and 1,240 acres below the 
mouth of Elk. He also owned a square of 
land of 2,618 acres opposite St. Albans. His 


Charleston was said to have begun to grow 




May I, 1788. It was located on the east bank 
of the Kanawha river, immediately above the 
mouth of Elk River, which empties into the 
Kanawha. There has always been a little ir- 
regularity as to the points of the compass at 
this point. We speak of North Charleston and 
if you proceed in same direction across Elk, 
there it is called West Charleston or the West 
End, and if you go across the Kanawha, they 
call it South Charleston; so that, in fact, the 
compass seems to have nothing to do with the 
naming of names. Charleston was started be- 
fore the county was organized, that is the town 
began to grow, while the county was made 
Oct. 5, 1789. 

It is said that there were seven houses made 
in 1790, and probably this is all that were then 

The growth in population of Charleston has 

been about as follows : 

From 1778 to 1790 35 

From 1790 to 1800 60 

From 1805 to 1810 100 

From 1810 to 1820 500 

From 1820 to 1830 750 

From 1830 to 1840 1,200 

From 1840 to 1850 1,500 

From 1850 to i860 1,800 

From i860 to 1870 4,000 

From 1870 to 1880 4.500 

From 1880 to 1890 8,000 

From 1890 to 1900 11,099 

From 1900 to 1910 23,000 

There were two streets laid off, running up 

from Elk, to where Capitol street now is, and 



The Bullitt Surveys. 

Thomas Bullitt made two surveys at the Mouth of Elk on the 
Kanawha — one above and one below Elk, both of which are 
covered by the city of Charleston (Surveys were Steps to be 
Taken Preparatory to obtaining). 

needed. The fort could hold all that came, but 
the houses were more comfortable. 

Charleston is in line of 38^2° north latitude 
which is the same as San Francisco, St. Louis, 
Washington, D. C. yet we are a little south, of 
the center of the state. There is no prospec- 
tive rival in any other city, unless it is Kanawha 
City and that will be absorbed or Kanawha 
City will absorb Charleston, and they will make 
one good large city. So far as town room is 
concerned, we are surrounded by an "embar- 
rassment of riches." All of Kanawha City on 
the south, all creation on the north and west, 
so that there is no lack of room. 

there were cross streets on the lots between. 
This map was made by the surveyor of Green- 
brier County, a Mr. Welch. There was sub- 
sequently another map found in William Clen- 
denin's possession with the streets somewhat 
extended, but practically the same. The houses 
at first located were about as this, to wit : 

One on the upper corner of Kanawha and 
Truslow ; one at the upper corner of Kanawha 
and Court; one between Alderson and Sum- 
mers on Kanawha; one at N. W. corner of 
Kanawha and Summers; one at N. W. corner 
of Kanawha and Capitol; one at N. E. corner 
of Kanawha and Flale. 



In 1789 when the county was organized, 
there were seven houses. In 1798 there were 
about twelve, from 1803 to 181 o, about twenty. 
The town had no name specially. It was called 
"The Town at the Mouth of Elk," and was 
sometimes known as "Clendemn Settlement" 
or his Fort. The pound, shilling and pence, 
English money, was used in Kanawha until the 
dollar and cents were used in 1799. But there 
was not sufficient money in Virginia to answer 
the purpose of trade and business, and tobacco 
was made a legal tender and thus used. The 
assessor's books show the use of English money 
for some years after the county was organized 
and the calculation is not now easy, nor was 
the payment of taxes with tobacco, nor with 

General Lewis Ruffner was the first white 
child born in Charleston and he was born Oc- 
tober 1, 1797. Joseph Ruffner came from the 
valley of Virginia and started from his farm 
with a view of investing in iron lands in the 
Alleghanies. He met Col. John Dickinson and 
learned of the great salt springs at the mouth 
of Campbell's Creek on the Kanawha and also 
learned that said salt was on Col. Dickinson's 
502 acres, and Ruffner purchased the same in 
the year 1793. He then went on and when he 
saw the Clendenin 1,030-acre tract, with the 
county and town started, he purchased that 
also. This was the beginning of the Kanawha 
Ruffners, and there has never been any end. 

Charleston was established by Act of Assem- 
bly Dec. 19, 1794. "It was enacted that forty 
acres of land, the property of George Clendenin, 
at the mouth of Elk River, in the County of 
Kanawha, the same as laid off into lots and 
streets, shall be established as a town by the 
name of "Charles Town," and Reuben Slaugh- 
ter, Andrew Donnally, Sr., William Clendenin, 
John Morris, Sr., Leonard Morris, Geo. Alder- 
son, Abram Baker, John Young and William 
Morris, gentlemen, are appointed trustees." 

Says John P. Hale: "On the 19th of Decem- 
ber, 1794, the legislature of Virginia for- 
mally established the town, and fixed its name 
as 'Charlestown.' It is a curious fact that, 
although the legislature had officially estab- 
lished the county, in 1789, as 'Kanhawa,' and 
now the town, in 1794, as 'Charlestown,' both 

names by common consent, became changed — 
one to 'Kanawha' and the other to 'Charleston.' 
How, why or when, nobody knows. Some 
years ago there was much trouble and annoy- 
ance about our mail matter, growing out of 
the confusion of the post-office names of our 
Charleston, and Charlestown, Jefferson county. 
With a view to remedy this, a public meeting 
was called here to discuss the propriety of 
changing the name of our town from Charles- 
ton to 'Kanawha City.' It was warmly dis- 
cussed, but defeated, mainly on the sentimen- 
tal ground that it would be sacrilege to abol- 
ish the name of the dear old pioneer who had 
shed his blood and risked his life here, "in an 
early day," among the Indians ; had founded 
the town, given it his own name, and built a 
fort to protect and defend his neighbors as 
well as himself, etc. Sentiment prevailed, and 
the name remained unchanged; but the writer 
took some pains to look up the early history 
of the settling and naming of the town. It 
was soon discovered that the founder's name 
was George, not Charles. 

This somewhat staggered the sentimental- 
ists, but they recovered, saying that George was 
a very modest gentleman, and, instead of tak- 
ing it himself, he had conceded the honor of 
the name to his brother, whose name was 
Charles; and they clinched this by quoting 
Howe, who, in his History of Virginia, so 
states; and other historians all follow Howe. 
But a further investigation of the family rec- 
ords showed that George had no brother 
Charles; then it was conjectured that the name 
was probably given in honor of his son Charles, 
but a still further investigation of the family 
genealogies proved that he had no son. After 
much search of records, and tracing of tradi- 
tions among the old timers, the writer has but 
recently arrived at the facts of this case 
through Mr. C. C. Miller, of Mason county, a 
descendant of the Clendenins. He says the 
town was named by George Clendenin, the 
founder, in honor of his father, whose name 
was Charles. He was an elderly gentleman, 
who came here with his sons, died in the Gen-- 
denin block house, and was buried near the up- 
per end of the garden. 




There was a court, a court house, a jail and 
other like conveniences and accommodations for 
civilized man, there was a fort, stockade and 
block-house for the benefit of Indians and other 
uncivilized men. There was plenty of water 
and wood, a very little salt, no coal (visible), 
and in the upper end of the county there were 
farms with everything thereon that a farm 
ought to have, there were fishes in the river, 
and bears in the woods with other animals 
which hunters like to find; and this year we 
hear the good news that in the wars between 
the white and red soldiers the Indians are glad 
to make peace and that the heretofore eternal, 
skulking, scalping Indian will bother the peo- 
ple no more. 

We cannot avoid thinking that an Indian is 
a very poor citizen. Bears, wolves, wild cats, 
snakes and objectionable "varmints" are bad 
enough but they are no meaner than, or by no 
means so bad to have around as, an Indian, 
and whoever it was that said that there was but 
one good Indian, was about right when he 
made it perfectly plain that the good one was 
the dead one. 

It may have been intended that the people 
of the earth were to live together on the face 
of the planet, and it can be done, but the In- 
dians were an exception. It was the delight of 
the Indian to find unprotected white people, 
people that had no gun. They had their own, 
and it was useless to preach peace — you'd got 
to die. Cruelty was the Indian's most agree- 
able pastime. 

We must not omit the case of the "White 
Man's Fork." About 1780 some Indians made 
their way into Greenbrier and there were among 
others killed, John Pryor, Hugh Mclver, Henry 
Baker and the Bridges brothers, one of their 
wives, and some other women, and some chil- 
dren taken prisoners. 

A short time thereafter, William Griffith, 
and his family were killed and there was one 
lad, his son, that was made a prisoner by them. 
There were two came down the river with the 
boy and they made their way up Elk river, 
when it was discovered and made known. 
There was John Young, Ben Morris, William 

Arbuckle and Robert Aaron, who took their 
guns and followed up some creek, out to the 
west of Elk — some unknown and unnamed 
stream, they came up to the camp of the In- 
dians, they fired on them and killed one and 
the other made his escape, and young Griffith 
was secured and taken back with the white men. 
The man that was killed, although disguised 
as an Indian was a white man — a dead one, 
too. This creek was ever known as the "White 
Man's Fork" and it was the fork of Aaron 
Fork of Littly Sandy. Long live the names 
of the men that killed that scoundrel white man 
that was willing to take unto himself the nature 
of an Indian. 

Just one more, about Thomas Teays, who 
was captured by Indians in 1782. It was pro- 
posed to take him to Sandusky to be burned 
with William Crawford, but there was one In- 
dian in the meeting that recognized Teays, to 
whom Teays had shown some favor, and his in- 
fluence in Teays' behalf secured his release. 
Just one lone Indian, who had manifested some 
gratitude! We would not take one grain of 
good from any one — glad to credit one Indian 
with a spark of mercy to one who had showed 
it to him. We would like to record another, 
but we can but recall the two girls of Henry 
Morris, who went out to drive in the cows and 
both were killed; which deed so roused in 
Henry Morris eternal hatred to all Indians 
that he never again let one live; he treated 
them as the man did in the show, when he saw 
the snakes. "He always killed them whenever 
he saw 'em." 

Charleston's "first of things" 

"1 hey were such men, take them for all in all, 
We shall not look upon their like again." 

This is what Dr. Hale said of the people 
of Charleston and Kanawha county, when he 
wrote his "Trans-Allegheny Pioneers." 

I refer to his book for the following state- 
ments : 

The first pottery factory for milk crocks, 
whiskey jugs, etc., was by Stephen Shepperd, 
about 1 81 8. 

Mr. Gabriel Garrau was the first to carry on 
the hatters trade; he began about 1816 and we 



should guess he was 
not. James Truslow 
1 815. The first 
Mitchell, about 181 5. 
makers began among 
were no mosquitoes, 
1840. Volney visited 
by Audubon, in 1812 
Witt Clinton located 
early days." "Old 

also the last, but he was 

was the first tailor, about 

shoemaker was George 

The first cart and wagon 

the salt furnaces. There 

nor mosquito bars until 

Charleston in 1776 and 

Albert Gallatin and De 

lands in this county "in 

Greasy" was the name 

sale liquor house was by S. Strauss & Co. in 
1876. The first wholesale shoe house was by 
Jelenko and Loeb, in 1877. The first hearse 
and dray was by Noah Colley soon after 1830, 
previous to this, transportation was by oxen, 
and pack-horses. The first public school build- 
ing was erected in 1870 on State Street. The 
first wharf-boat was established by H. W. Good- 
win in 1865. The first machine barrel fac- 
tory was started by Morgan and Hale in 1872. 

Plat of Charleston, as Laid Down by the Clendenins, Showing the Streets and Lots. 

given to Kanawha river, on account of the oil, 
petroleum, seen on the surface of the river. 

Charleston and Cincinnati were settled in the 
same year, 1788, the former in May and the 
latter in December. 

Near Kanawha & Goshorn streets there was 
an ancient cemetery of some primitive race. 
This was exposed by the caving in of the river 
bank. The first wholesale grocery was by 
Ruby and Hale in 1872. The first wholesale 
dry goods house was by Jelenko Bros, in 1874. 
The first wholesale hardware house was by W. 
F. & J. H. Goshorn, in 1875. The first whole- 

The first foundry and machine shops erected 
in 1 87 1. The first woolen-mill by Rand and 
Minsker, in 1866. The temporary capitol was 
erected in 1871, the permanent capitol in 1885. 
The first steam brick machine was introduced 
in 1870. The first natural gas well in town, 
was bored in 181 5 by Capt. Jas. Wilson and 
was the first in America, as far as heard from. 
The Charleston Extension Co. bought the Cox 
farm, and sold it in lots in 1862. J. B. Walker 
purchased the land below Elk in 1871 and laid 
it off in lots. The Glen Elk Co. purchased and 
sold, up Elk in 1881 on the west side of Elk. 



The Brooks property, on which was the Clen- 
denin block-house, was sold in lots in 1859. 
The first dry-docks were established by J. J. 
Thaxton & Co. in 1873 at the mouth of Elk. 
The first Opera House was built in 1873, and 
called the "Cotton Opera House." The first 
mayor of Charleston was Jacob Goshorn in 
1 86 1. The first ice factory was by Lieut. 
Staunton, erected in 1885. The water-works, 
by Col. E. L. Davenport was begun in 1885. 
Ward's patent tube boiler was established by 
Chas. Ward in 1883. The Kanawha Military 
School was established by Major Thomas Sny- 
der in 1880. The U. S. Post Office building 
was completed in 1884. The Ohio Central 
Railroad was completed in 1884. In 1875 
Judge Lynch held his first court here, and Es- 
tep, Dawson and Hines on December 24th, 
at night, (by about 300 men), were taken to 
Campbell's Creek and hung. Kanawha river 
improvement was begun by the United States 
in 1873. Brick pavement on Summers street 
was laid in 1873. Chesapeake & Ohio Rail- 
road opened for travel in 1873. The Hale 
House was opened in January, 1872 and de- 
stroyed by fire in 1885. In May, 1871, Charles- 
ton was lighted by gas. Spring Hill Cemetery 
was established in 1871. The first steam ferry 
was established in 1871. The streets of the 
city were given new names and recorded in 
1 87 1. The highest water known in the Kana- 
wha river, was in 1861, and the next highest 
in 1878. The most violent hurricane was in 
1844; its mark was left from central Kentucky 
to central Pennsylvania. Cholera visited 
Charleston in 1832 and again in 1849. High 
water was around the Court House in 1822. 
The Elk Log Boom was constructed in 1869 
by Huling Brokerhoff & Co. The Keystone 
Bridge was built in 1873, destroyed by ice 
gorges in 1879, and rebuilt in 1882. The Sus- 
pension Bridge across Elk was built in 1852. 
Ferries across Kanawha were established in 
1820. The first ferry was by Geo. Clendenin in 
1794, across Elk and Kanawha river; John and 
Langston Ward in 1809 lived on the South 
Side and ran a ferry, from Ferry Branch to 
mouth Elk, on either side. The Bank of Vir- 
ginia established a branch in 1832. The first 

Brass Band was established in 1858 by Prof. 
Carl Fine. The first newspaper was in 1819. 
The first Post Office was April 1801, the first 
post master was Edward Graham. The next 
was Francis A. Du Bois, Jan. 1, 1803, then 
William Whittaker, Oct. 1, 1808 and was for 
years managed by James A. Lewis. The of- 
ficial name of the postoffice was "Kanawha 
Court House" until Sept. 30, 1879. The first 
blacksmith was John Greenlee, and Jack Neal 
the second. The first school teachers were : H. 
P. Gaines, next Levi Welch, then Jacob Rand, 
followed by James A. Lewis, Lewis Ruffner 
and Ezra Walker. Mercer Academy was built 
in 18 18. The first Drug Store was by Dr. 
Rogers, father of Dr. J. H. Rogers in 1825. 
The first Undertaker was S. A. Skees in 1869. 
The first tan-yard was by William Blaine, be- 
low Elk "in early days." The first fruit trees 
were brought by Fleming Cobb. Anne Bailey 
brought the first pair of geese from Lewisburg. 
The first watch and clock-maker was in 1808, 
Thomas Mathews, Sr. He said the first set- 
tlers were all healthy, peaceable, moral and 
happy, until the doctors, lawyers and preachers 
came; then they began to get sick, to quarrel 
and law, and developed all sorts of meanness. 
The mail came from Lewisburg every two 
weeks, until 1810 on horse-back. The price 
of whiskey and peach brandy, per gallon $2.00 
in 1820. The first resident physician was Dr. 
EofT, in 181 1, then Dr. W. W. Thompson and 
Dr. Spicer Patrick, came in 181 6. The first 
taverns were the Boston tavern and the Griffith 
tavern both on Kanawha Street. Dr. Henry 
Ruffner was the first Presbyterian preacher in 
18 16. Rev. Asa Skinn was the first regular 
Methodist preacher for the circuit. The Bibby 
Flooring Mill was operated by Joseph Bibby in 
1837. The first Saw Mills were on Two-Mile 
of Elk between 181 5-1820. 

It is claimed that John Welch was a hatter 
and his shop was a log house, on the corner of 
Kanawha and Truslow street. 

That Buster's Tavern was on the upper cor- 
ner of Kanawha and Court. The proprietor's 
name was Thos. Buster and his house was the 
most noted house between Richmond and the 
Ohio river ; and now it appears that Ellis Brown 



kept a hatter shop where Dr. Roger's Drug 
Store has been so long. And John Hart also 
was a hatter. 

Griffith's Tavern was where Frankenberger's 
store now is. 

Norris Whitteker was born where Dr. Hale's 
residence was, and Mr. Atkinson says, he was 
the first white child born in Charleston, al- 
though the date of Genl. Lewis Ruffner came 
earlier than Whitteker by four years. Dr. 
Patrick took down the log house and erected a 
brick, which is owned by the Kanawha Pres- 
byterian church, known as the "Manse." The 
Central House was burned in 1874, just below 
Alderson street on the Kanawha Street. 
Charleston was incorporated December 19, 
1794. named for the brother of George Clen- 
denin, says Mr. Alderson, while Hale says he 
had no such brother. Maps of Charleston are 
of record in the County Clerk's office, in the 
Circuit Court Clerk's office in land cases rec- 
ords and in the West Virginia Historical Mag- 


Act of Dec. 19, 1794, established the town 
of Charleston at the mouth of Elk, on the Kana- 
wha, on forty acres of land, the property of 
George Clendenin, and appointed the following 
trustees, viz : Reuben Slaughter, Andrew Don- 
nally, Sr., William Clendenin, John Morris, 
Leonard Morris, George Alderson, Abraham 
Baker, John Young and William Morris. 

Act of Jan. 29, 1805, appointed John Rey- 
nolds, William C. Williams, Joseph Ruffner, 
Andrew Donnally, Jr., David Ruffner, gentle- 
men, trustees of the town of Charleston, in the 
county of Kanawha in the room of those for- 
merly appointed and in case of death or resig- 
nation, the remaining ones were authorized to 
supply the vancancy. 

Act of Jan. 19, 1818, incorporating the town 
of Charleston. — "Be it enacted," etc., "that the 
town of Charleston, in the county of Kanawha, 
including the same as laid out, including the 
shores and bank between Front street and 
Kanawha river, is hereby erected into a town 
corporate, to be known by the name of Charles- 
ton" and provision was made to elect by bal- 
lot its president, recorder and trustees, etc. 

Act of Jan. 21, 1821. — "Be it enacted," etc., 
"that the land adjoining the town of Charles- 
ton in the following bounds, * * * be- 
ginning at upper corner of said town on the 
river bank at low water mark then 40 poles to 
a stake," * * * "and Samuel Shrewsbury, 
Charles Morris, Philip R. Thompson, Jesse 
Hudson and Andrew Parks, gentlemen, are ap- 
pointed to lay out and make the survey and 
plats and deliver one to the commissioners and 
the other to be recorded," etc. 

Act of Feb. 4, 1825, amended Act of Jan. 19, 
18 1 8, giving to the president, recorder and trus- 
tees power to assess and collect taxes on the 
property in said town, and extending the lim- 
its, etc., beginning at the" upper back corner of 
the town lot of Philip G. Todd; then by cross 
street toward the hills 25 poles; then by line 
parallel with back street to Elk river, to be 
laid of into lots, etc. 

Act of Feb. 19, 1833. — Be it enacted, etc., 
that James C. McFarland, Samuel Chilton, 
John P. Turner, Aaron Whittaker, Spicer 
Patrick, George Goshorn, James Y. Quarrier 
and Henry Rogers are appointed commissioners 
to raise by lottery money not exceeding $10,- 
000 to be applied to paving the streets in the 
town of Charleston in Kanawha county. This 
in an act for improving the ways of the peo- 
ple of the town, by way of a chance, as a lot- 
tery is a game of chance, and this act makes it 
legal to improve said ways. 

Act of March 5, 1846, to extend the limits 
of the town of Charleston which is to include 
Lovell's Addition, and the brick house of James 
Downard, Thomas Whittaker, W. R. Cox, etc. 

Act of Feb. 15, 1849, amending act incorpo- 
rating the town of Charleston, etc. 

As the town grew the limits were changed, 
and as there would be no end to such acts, we 
have concluded that for the purposes of history 
the above are sufficient. 


16 West Virginia, 282 — Gillison, Trustee, 
vs. Charleston. Surface water. 

17 West Virginia, 628 — Fisher vs. Charles- 
ton. Mandamus. 

27 West Virginia, 681 — City vs. Reed. 
Fire Ordinance. 



41 West Virginia, 658 — Ch. & S. Bridge 
Co. vs. Kan. Co. Erro. Acct. of Bridge 

43 West Virginia, 62 — Blair vs. Charles- 
ton. Change of grade. 

45 West Virginia, 44 — Charleston vs. Bel- 
ler. City non-liability for costs. 

46 West Virginia, 88 — Arthur vs. Charles- 
ton. Streets — negligence. 

57 West Virginia, 433 — Shaw vs. Charles- 
ton. Prison damages. 

62 West Virginia, 654 — Cavender vs. 
Charleston. Liability for bridges. 

62 West Virginia, 665 — Fellows vs. 
Charleston. Ordinance Injunction. Hagar 
vs. City. Injunction. Street assets or assess- 


Author, Dr. Caruthers. 

Builders, John Mays, Norris Whittaker, 
John True John, Thos. R. Fife. 

Butcher, John G. M. Spriggle. 

Blacksmith, John Hill, John Hall. 

Boatman, James Mays. 

Bakers, Justin White, John and Charles Al- 

Bank Officers, J. C. McFarland, Samuel 
Hanna, John M. Doddridge. 

Brick Makers, Norris S. Whittaker. 

Brick Mason, Andrew Cunningham. 

Cabinet Maker, James G. Taylor. 

Crockery Maker, Stephen Taylor. 

County and Circuit Clerk, Alex. W. Quar- 
rier, Wm. Hatcher, Dpy. 

Coal-haulers, Dock and Gabe. 

Constable, William Hutt. 

Carpenters, Charles Neal, Silas Cobb, John 
Wilson, John Truejohn, Thos. R. Fife, John 
Starke, Thomas C. Thomas. 

Drayman, Noah Colley. 

Editor, Mason Campbell. 

Ferrymen, Charles Brown, Geo. Goshorn, 
Lewis D. Wilson. 

Farmers, Bradford Noyes, W. R. Cox,, 
Charles Brown. 

Hatter, Gabriel Garrou. 

Hotel-keeper, H. B. Sanders, Geo. Goshorn, 
John Mays, Aaron Whittaker, Capt. Jas. Wil- 
son, L. D. Wilson. 

Jailors, W. A. Kelly, William Hatcher. 

Lawyers, M. Dunbar, G. W. Summers, B. H. 
Smith, J. M. Laidley, C. E. Doddridge, J. L. 
Carr, Jas. Hedrick, Joseph Lovell. 

Merchants, Joseph Caldwell, Crockett Ingles, 
Thomas Whitteker, Gilbert Adams, Mason 
Campbell, Joseph Friend, W. T. Rand, James 

A. Lewis, Franklin Noyes, Joel Shrewsbury, 
Jr., J. F. Foure, N. B. Coleman. 

Miller, Joseph Bibby. 

Magistrate, William Gillison. 

Preachers, John Snyder, Jas. M. Brown, 
James Craik. 

Physicians, Spicer Patrick, Thompson C. 
Watkins, Harry Rogers, Dr. Caruthers, Noah 

Post-master, James A. Lewis. 

Salt-makers, Crockett Ingles, Joseph Friend, 
Isaac Noyes, F. Brooks, W. T. Rand, J. H. 
Fry, Franklin Noyes, W. R. Cox, Joel Shrews- 
bury, Jr., T. F. Foure, Joseph Lovell, N. B. 

Salt Inspector, Franklin Reynolds. 

Saw-mill-man, Thomas Whitteker. 

Silver Smith and Watchmaker, Wm. Honey- 

Supt. River Improvement, Ezra Walker. 

Sheriff, Jas. H. Fry, Deputy Jas. Y. Quar- 

Shoemaker, Andrew Beach. 

School Teachers, Mrs. Alethia Brigham, W. 
J. Rand, Jacob Rand. 

Toll Collector on River, W. Whitteker, Sr. 

Tailors, Garrett Kelly, John A. Truslow, 
James Truslow. 

Saddle and Harness Maker, W. W. Kelly. 

Steamboat Captains, Snelling C. Farley, N. 

B. Coleman. 

• Stage-runner, H. B. Saunders. 

Widows, Mrs. S. Cook, Mrs. Chilton, Mrs. 
Todd, Mrs. Snyder. 

Washer-women, Judy Grinnam, Nancy 


(From 1861) 

1. Jacob Goshorn. 

2. John A. Truslow. 

3. John Williams. 

4. George Ritter. 

atoneivati Jackson ^Monument, 
Charleston, ft). Va. 







■ J. VV. Wingfield. 


H. Clay Dickinson 


John P. Hale. 


C. P. Snyder. 


John D. White. 


John C. Ruby. 


C. J. Botkin. 


R. R. Delaney. 


John D. Baines. 


J. H. Huling. 


Joseph L. Fry. 


J. B. Pemberton. 


E. VV. Staunton. 


J. A. deGruyter. 


W. Herman Smith 


John B. Floyd. 


George S. Morgan 


C. E. Rudesill. 

2 3 

John A. Jarrett. 


James A. Holley. 


There has always been more or less mystery 
concerning the location of the lot in Charleston 
for the court house of the county. In so far 
as is deemed sufficient, we give the proceedings 
of the court in relation thereto; we imagine 
that there was never any deed made or there 
would never have been any mystery about it. 

On the first day of the County Court of said 
County of Kanawha, which was the 5th day of 
October, 1789, after the said Court had been 
organized, amongst many other things we find 
the following: 

"October 5th, 1789, — Ordered, that the pub- 
lic buildings for said county be erected on the 
lands of George Clendenin, and until so erected, 
to hold the said Court at the mansion House 
of the said George Clendenin. 

"May 2nd, 1790, — Ordered, that George Al- 
derson do recover back his lot which the Court 
had purchased and, George agrees to return 
his one hundred dollars. 

"Aug. 2nd, 1796, — Ordered that George 
Alderson be allowed $100.00 for his lot, for 
erecting balance of the building on for the 
County, Ed Graham and John Reynolds are 
appointed commissioners to let the contract for 
the Court House. 

The bond by Goodrich Slaughter for com- 

pleting the house of Charles Donnally for the 
Court House, be given up to him as the con- 
tract has been cancelled. 

"Aug. 7, 1797, — Win. Morris, Joseph Ruff- 
ner and John Reynolds do report a plan of 

"George Alderson, Sheriff, protests against 
the sufficiency of the present jail. 

"Nov. 7, 1797, George Alderson protests 
against the sufficiency of the jail. 

"April 18, 1798. — On settlement with Will- 
iam Clendenin, late sheriff, there is a balance 
in favor of the county for nineteen pounds, 
three shillings and three pence, less the sum of 
three pounds, seven shillings and six pence 
paid Goodrich Slaughter for building the 
Court House. 

"June 16, 1798, George Alderson came into 
Court and acknowledged a sale of one acre 
lot, to the magistrates and their successors ; it 
being the lot on which the Court House now 
stands and a conveyance is to- be made at next 
Court, and a credit to be given George Aider- 
son for one hundred dollars, the purchase money 
on his account with the Court. 

An allowance made for one lot, $100.00. 
Ordered that George Alderson do appear at 
next September Court, to adjust his account 
with the Court respecting the County and Par- 
ish levies for the year 1797. 


For the following account of the removal of 
the capital from Charleston to Wheeling, and 
the subsequent action of the people, our readers 
in Kanawha county are indebted to Hon. 
Charles Hedrick, at that time secretary of 
state, by appointment of Governor Jacob, who 
knows whereof he speaks, as the citizens of 
Kanawha county do not need to be told. Says 
Mr. Hedrick : "I was appointed Secretary of 
State by Governor John J. Jacob, Aiarch 4, 
1873, and the appointment was confirmed by 
the senate. This was while the State capital 
was at Charleston, whither it had been removed 
from Wheeling in 1870, and where the law 
declared it should be located permanently. But 
by another act of the legislature, passed Feb- 
ruary 20, 1875, to take effect ninety days there- 
after, it was directed to be again removed to 



Wheeling, until otherwise provided by law. 
An injunction was sued out by some of the 
citizens of Charleston, restraining the removal 
of the records, papers and property pertaining 
to the capital. The Governor and other exec- 
utive officers started on the day appointed by 
law, May 20th, but took no records or other 
public property with them. 

"The suit was carried to the Supreme Court 
of the State, and after very able legal argu- 
ments on both sides, the injunction was dis- 
solved, whereupon the archives, property, etc., 
of the State were removed to Wheeling, and an 
old building called Lindley's Institute, was oc- 
cupied as a capitol. This is the same build- 
ing formerly used by the State government as 
the capitol before the removal from Wheeling 
to Charleston under an act passed February 
20, 1869, which took effect April 1, 1870. 

"It remained as the capitol until a new one, 
built by the city of Wheeling, was completed 
in 1876. 

"The people of West Virginia never intended 
that Wheeling should remain the permanent 
seat of government, so the legislature passed 
an act February 21, 1877, authorizing the sub- 
mission of the question of the permanent loca- 
tion of the capital to a vote of the people, the 
vote to be cast for Clarksburg in Harrison 
county, Martinsburg in Berkeley county, and 
Charleston in Kanawha county, and for no other 
place. After an earnest and excited canvass 
Charleston was chosen by a large majority. 

"The act provided that the place receiving 
the largest number of votes should be the per- 
manent seat of government of the State, from 
and after the first day of May, 1885. And 
further, that it should never again be removed 
except by a vote of a majority of the qualified 
voters of the State, cast at an election held for 
the purpose in pursuance of an act of the legis- 
lature, the adoption of a new constitution, or 
an amendment of the present one. That the 
act should be deemed to be a contract between 
the State and the persons who might donate 
real estate or money, or both, as provided by 
the act ; that the seat of government should not 
be removed except as therein provided; and that 
the circuit court of the county in which it should 
be located, should have jurisdiction and power 

upon a bill filed by any such donor (or his heirs 
etc.), or any one or more of the taxpayers of 
the county, to perpetually enjoin the removal 
if attempted in any other way than the act pro- 

"A fine and commodious building is now be- 
ing erected by the State, on the site of the 
former capitol, which was donated to the State 
by certain citizens of Charleston and accepted 
by the State. It will be a handsome building, 
and finished by the time the seat of government 
is to be removed. Thus it is shrewdly sug- 
gested that the location at Charleston will be 
doubly permanent." 

In his own behalf Mr. Hedrick adds: "I was 
violently opposed to the removal of the capital 
from Charleston. It was my home. Nor 
would I have gone with the other officers, but 
would have resigned, had not Governor Jacob, 
who had kindly given me the office when it 
was desirable, urged me to remain with him. 
So, like my somewhat remote ancestors, Adam 
and Eve, when they were removed from the 
first seat of government of which we have any 
account, "with wandering steps and slow," I 
took my weary way to Wheeling, remaining 
in the office during Governor Jacob's guberna- 
torial term." 


Some apt turner of phrases has denominated 
the Chamber of Commerce a "city's power 
house." The Charleston Chamber of Com- 
merce has been no exception to this character- 
ization during the last five years of its existence 
and it justifies the appellation today. Origi- 
nally incorporated a little more than ten years 
ago as a close corporation of the city's leading 
business men, smacking more of the club than 
of the commercial organization as it is under- 
stood and developed today, this policy was 
changed six years ago when Charleston en- 
tered upon an era of industrial growth and the 
idea has been broadened and strengthened ever 

The Charleston Chamber of Commerce was 
incorporated as a stock corporation in 1901, 
application for charter being made October 
26, 1900, and the following citizens signed 
the original charter: Charles Capito, Charles 



Loeb, Kanawha Valley Bank, E. A. Barnes, 
Jack Carr, C. C. Lewis, Jr., C. K. Payne, P. 
H. Noyes, Geo. F. Coyle, Ben Baer, I. Schwabe, 
Lewis Loewenstein, H. P. Cannon, W. B. Don- 
nally, W. F. Goshorn, Philip Frankenberger, 
N. S. Burlew, F. J. Daniels, Frank Woodman, 
Kanawha National Bank and W. S. Lewis. 

The purposes of the Chamber were indicated 
as follows : "For the purposes of collection and 
preservation of statistical information connected 
with the commercial and manufacturing inter- 
ests of Charleston; promoting just and equit- 
able principles in trade ; establishing uniformity 
in the commercial usages of said city; settling 
differences speedily and without litigation and 
promoting the general progress and prosperity 
of the community." The corporation was orig- 
inally empowered to hold, lease, sell and con- 
vey real property to the value of $2,500 and 
this provision was later amended to cover 
$100,000 of real and $25,000 of personal prop- 
erty. The first officers of the Chamber were 
as follows : Charles Capito, president ; Charles 
K. Payne, vice-president ; Charles Loeb, sec- 
retary; J. L. Dickinson, treasurer, and W. S. 
Lewis, F. M. Staunton, R. G. Hubbard, E. A. 
Barnes and Philip Frankenberger, with the of- 
ficers as directors. President Capito, Secre- 
tary Loeb, Treasurer Dickinson and Directors 
Staunton, Hubbard and Barnes held their of- 
fices for more than ten years or until the reor- 
ganization of the Chamber on June 1, 191 1, 
with the employment of S. P. Puffer as a sal- 
aried secretary to succeed Mr. Loeb and the 
creation of an Industrial and Traffic depart- 
ment with R. P. De Van as secretary and man- 

The early work of the Chamber of Com- 
merce was marked by the closest interest of the 
body in civic affairs, especially in co-operation 
with the city political and administrative bodies 
in the adjustment of taxation and the develop- 
ment of improvements, more particularly those 
relating to sewage and street paving. Some fac- 
tories were located, the first being the National 
Veneer Company, and much attention was paid 
to the development of the city's transportation 
facilities, and water, gas, electric and insurance 
rates with marked beneficent results. 

In 1903 the preparatory work leading to 

the campaign for the location of industries was 
begun with the visit of Charles Capito and D. 
C. Boyce to the Indiana oil and gas fields where 
investigations were made which later lead to 
the acquisition of the Kelly Axe Manufactur- 
ing Co., the largest concern of its kind in the 
world. , The acquisition of this plant stimulated 
interest in the work of the Chamber, largely 
increased its membership and influence and lead 
to the later development of South Charleston 
as an industrial suburb where several important 
industries were located in the years 1904, 1905 
and 1906. 

In August, 1903, the Chamber secured its 
present permanent quarters in the Kanawha 
Banking & Trust Co. building. In 1910 there 
was much activity on the part of the Chamber 
in the discussion of a public market project, in 
the investigation of proposed industries and in 
the preparation of a water works franchise. 

With the reorganization of the Chamber in 
June, 191 1, and the employment of salaried sec- 
retaries, the Chamber entered upon a new era. 
Its affairs have been put upon a business basis 
and regular office hours are maintained. The 
work of the newly organized industrial and 
traffic bureau has been recognized as produc- 
tive of results. A membership campaign, pend- 
ing at the time of the publication of this book, 
bids fair to increase the membership of the 
Chamber to satisfactory proportions and to 
cover all elements and interests of the city while 
several important industries are now seeking lo- 
cation in Charleston and may be secured before 
this publication leaves the presses. 

The Chamber of Commerce owns a lot on 
Quarrier street where some day it may erect a 
permanent office building and home. 


The Kanawha Water & Light Company sup- 
plies water and electric light to the city of 
Charleston. It is a corporation chartered 
under the laws of the state of West Virginia. 

These utilities have during their existence 
been under many different ownerships, and the 
evolution of them is somewhat interesting. 
During these times of rapid progress in busi- 
ness we are^ led to overlook the many incon- 
veniences we have heretofore labored under. 



Up to the early eighties the city of Charleston 
had no waterworks system, either for domestic 
purposes or fire protection. The city depended 
upon their water supply by securing it from 
the Kanawha river, or wells. Parties at that 
time being in the business of delivering water 
in barrels. In November, 1884, the city 
granted to one E. R. Davenport a franchise 
for the erection if a waterworks system, and 
soon after the granting of the franchise, work 
progressed on the erecting of the plant. The 
corporate limits of the city at that time being 
very limited — close to what is now the center 
of town, only eight miles of small size pipe, 
eight and ten inches being the largest size 
which was to be laid, and only a few fire hy- 
drants were ordered installed. The contract 
with the city at that time was that the water 
company install pumping machinery capable of 
pumping one million gallons of water in twen- 
ty-four hours. The plant was installed on 
Slack street and the water supply taken from 
Elk river. At a later date a small reservoir of 
about 800,000 gallons capacity was erected. 
Col. Davenport interested Judge J. H. Brown, 
C. C. Lewis and Col. W. H. Hogeman, who 
began to prepare for the organization of the 
company. Col. Hogeman's death destroyed 
the enterprise insofar as the organization was 
concerned and Col. Davenport had his fran- 
chise, and a limited time in which to construct 
the works, but without money or a company. 

He failed for some time to interest any par- 
ties when he satisfied W. D. Laidley that his 
plan was a feasible one, and by certain negotia- 
tions, a quantity of pipe was ordered and 
when it came, was placed in the ground. 

After a while the National Tube Works 
came on, by its officers, to see about the pipe 
that had been sent, and they found no com- 
pany, no money, with the pipe under ground, 
and Davenport satisfied them that the enter- 
prise was an excellent one and all they had to 
do was to put it through ; and it looked that 
this was the only thing to do, and they did it. 
They were required to throw water over 
the top of the flagstaff on the capitol and it 
was done, and they continued to do all that 
was required of them. Mr. Frank Woodman 
and others became interested after the Tube 

Works men got the waterworks built. To 
Col. Davenport is the town indebted for the 

In its earlier history many Charleston people 
were interested in its management, among 
whom were Mr. Frank Woodman, Mr. J. A. 
DeGruyter, Mr. James Brown, Mr. E. W. 
Knight, Mr. W. S. Laidley. 

In 1 87 1 an artificial gas plant was started 
by Charles Ward, and in 1880 it was reorgan- 
ized by E. B. Knight and others. The Kana- 
wha Electric Company was organized in 1887 
by Philip Frankenberger and O. H. Michael- 
son for the purpose of supplying electric light. 

In 1 89 1 the Charleston Gas and Electric 
Company was organized and merged with it 
the Artificial Gas Plant and the Kanawha Elec- 
tric Company. The gas plant being operated 
on Virginia street between Truslow and Gos- 
horn streets, and the electric light plant on 
Alderson street between Virginia and Kanawha 
streets. This company had at that time some 
dynamos which were modern in those days. 
Officers of this company were Frank Wood- 
man, president ; W. S. Laidley, secretary ; J. 
A. DeGruyter, treasurer, and J. A. Hatcher, 
superintendent; O. H. Michaelson, manager. 

In 1902 the Kanawha Water & Light Com- 
pany was organized by the different parties 
named, and merged with it the Charleston 
Water Works, the Artificial Gas Plant, and the 
Charleston Gas & Electric Company, and the 
necessary electrical equipment was installed 
with the water plant, after which the Alderson 
street electric plant was shut down. Then the 
local owners continued the management for a 
time, after which the company was sold to 
Wheeling capitalists headed by Mr. Howard 
and associates, who operated the property until 
March 1, 1906; at which time the property 
was sold to the present owners. 

Up to this date the capacity, and efficiency 
of these properties were taxed by reason of the 
fact that Charleston had experienced an ex- 
tensive growth, both as to population and ter- 
ritory, and as the machinery and equipment 
through its years of constant usage were not 
able to cope with the situation, lines which were 
at one time large enough to deliver the neces- 
sary water to the small territory were found 



to be too small. Pumps at the plant were be- 
coming obsolete and not capable of furnishing 
the required volume and pressure. 

The following are the claims of the present 
company : The present owners, while being 
in possession of the property but a short time, 
began in 1907 to install and equip a modern 
and up-to-date water and electric light plant. 
Two (2) new Allis-Chalmers high duty pumps 
were installed with a capacity of ten million 
gallons in twenty-four hours. A modern me- 
chanical filter plant was installed with a daily 
capacity of eight million gallons of filtered 
water. Instead of depending upon a ten-inch 
line from the pump house to the center of the 
city, there was installed a new 20-inch line. 
In the power plant all the old electrical equip- 
ment was disbanded, and modern machinery 
installed. New steam lines were installed, in 
fact everything installed is practically in dupli- 
cate for the purpose of furnishing a continuity 
of service. The new equipment represents an 
expenditure of over $400,000. The installing 
of the new electrical equipment has enabled the 
company to furnish first-class service both for 
lighting and power. 

The officers of the company are: President, 
W. O. Johnson, Chicago, 111. ; Secretary, Wal- 
ter M. Johnson, Chicago, 111. ; Treasurer, W. 
C. Davisson, Charleston, W. Va. 

The Southern Bell Telephone & Telegraph 
Co. The head office of this company is lo- 
cated in Atlanta, Georgia. The company op- 
erates in seven states, this territory being di- 
vided into six divisions. Operations in 
Charleston, W. Va. were begun in 1888 or 
1889, at which time the company has in all less 
than one hundred telephones. The long dis- 
tance lines of the American Telephone & Tele- 
graph Co., with which the Southern Bell Tele- 
phone & Telegraph Co. connects, were brought 
into Charleston in October, 1897. Following 
the general development in Charleston, the tele- 
phone system also grew, and by 1901 700 tele- 
phones belonged to the Charleston exchange be- 
sides fifty miles of toll lines from Charleston. 

In 1 90 1 Mr. Williams, who is now commer- 
cial and traffic superintendent of the Charles- 
ton Division of the Southern Bell Telephone 
and Telegraph Co. began his duties as man- 

ager of the Charleston Exchange and has been 
promoted successively until he has reached his 
present position. Under Mr. Williams the 
Southern Bell Telephone & Telegraph Co. has 
increased from 700 to 3,550 telephones in the 
city of Charles and 1,000 miles of toll lines 
into Charleston and connections with long dis- 
tance lines of the American Telephone & Tele- 
graph Co., with which the Bell Telephone & 
Telegraph Co. coming into Charleston con- 
nects and controls. The Southern Bell Tele- 
phone & Telegraph Co. has been under the 
present management since 1901. There are 
twenty-five exchanges in the Charleston Divi- 
sion giving regular employment to 265 people 
in this one division and at times many more in 
the extension of lines and improvements. The 
physical condition of the lines is good which 
adds materially to the business. Of these em- 
ployees, consisting of the office force and those 
engaged in outside work, about 100 are in 
Charleston. Mr. Williams was the first and 
only commercial traffic superintendent of the 
Charleston Division since the creation of the 
same. Charleston is not only the district but 
division headquarters. Charleston is supplied 
with the most up-to-date equipment in use 
anywhere in the country. The first home of 
the Southern Bell Telephone & Telegraph Co. 
was in what is now the barber shop of the 
Ruffner Hotel, sharing the office with the 
Western Union Telegraph Company and the 
city ticket office of the Chesapeake & Ohio 
Railroad until 1896. In 1896 the Southern 
Bell Telephone and Telegraph Company moved 
into the building where the Western Union 
Telegraph Company is now located, both oc- 
cupying the same building. The Southern 
Bell Telephone & Telegraph Company was on 
the floor above the Western Union Telegraph 
Co. In 1906 and 1907 the Southern Bell Tele- 
graph & Telephone Company erected its splen- 
did office building at 210 Hale St. and moved 
into it in 1907. 

The local officers are Mr. Williams, first su- 
perintendent division offices at Charleston ; C. 
M. Boren, district and commercial manager; 
W. G. Ranch, division plant superintendent ; D. 
J. Collins, district plant chief; J. S. Kirk, dis- 
trict traffic chief. 



The Charleston Home Telephone Company 
began business in Charleston in 1895 and in 
1 901 rebuilt and installed a new plant. This 
concern was absorbed by the Southern Bell 
Telephone & Telegraph Company during the 
summer of 1911 (Aug. 27, 191 1). The South- 
ern Bell Telephone & Telegraph Company has 
four large office buildings in Atlanta, Georgia. 


The deed to the first cemetery tract of land 
made to the town of Charleston was for one 
acre on the road above the city and was made 
by Daniel Ruffner in 183 1. Just what dis- 
position was made of the dead previous to 
that time we are not advised. There was an- 
other graveyard on said road nearer the town, 
but it was not conveyed to the town but be- 
longed to Lewis D. Wilson. 

About 1859 a company was formed — the 
Kanawha Cemetery Company — which pur- 
chased about 20 acres on the hill just back of 
the town and a good road was built up to it, 
just at the beginning of the Civil War, being 
finished perhaps in i860 or 1861. This road 
was made by Henry Chappell, but there were 
but one or two burials made when from the 
United States hospitals and the ranks of the 
Federal Army in the valley a few soldiers were 
buried in the new cemetery, called the "Spring 
Hill Cemetery," which name was given be- 
cause of the spring at the foot of the hill on 
which the cemetery was located. This tract 
contained some twenty acres and since this 
purchase by this company, it was bought by 
the city, and other lots or parcels of land have 
been added to the cemetery. One, for in- 
stance, by purchase from E. A. Bennett of 
thirteen acres, and others of smaller dimen- 
sions — all of which will be found of record in 
the office of the clerk of the County Court of 
Kanawha County. 

We refer to deed book H, page 3 for deed 
.from Daniel Ruffner to the town, to deed book 
No. 37, page 270, where information will be 
found in reference to the original purchase by 
the company. See also the exchange of deeds 
with Richard Walls, p. 272 and also exchange 
deeds with the Hebrew Ed. Society in 99, p. 
532, and in <\(xd book No. 47, p. 26 and 28. 

In the vicinity of the original tract were 
lands laid off in lots by G. L. Jeffries, some of 
which have been purchased. A map thereof 
is found in map book No. 1, page 72 and lots 
5, 11, 14 and 15 were conveyed by Mr. Ben- 
nett _in 47 p. 26 and by others since. 

There was purchased a tract adjoining that 
held by the city in the rear, where the Roman 
Catholic Church buried its dead. The Hebrews 
have a lot adjoining the City Cemetery, which 
they use. 

A company has erected a cement building 
near the city cemetery called a "mausoleum," 
where persons are entombed above the ground. 

Spring Hill Cemetery has been laid off into 
lots and roads and has been kept in fairly good 
condition, and there have been erected therein- 
many monuments, some imposing, some beau- 
tiful, some handsome, and all good. 


While there are a large number of council 
men, the business of the city is done by the 
Board of Affairs, and this board is made of 
four persons, two Democrats and two Republi- 
cans, and one of the four becomes the Mayor 
for a certain time, which is what is called a 
nonpartisan arrangement, and is a late thing 
in municipal government. For the year 191 1, 
the officials were: 

Mayor — James A. Holley. 

Recorder- — J. Shirley Ross. 

City Sergeant — Chas. I. Hubbard. 

Treasurer — J. F. Bedell. 

City Solicitor — Upshur Higginbotham. 

Auditor — H. L. Flournoy. 

City Engineer — William A. Hogue. 

Police Judge — A. D. McCorkle. 

Chief of Police— A. T. Guill. 

Chief of Fire Dept.— C. C. Rand. 

Lock-up Keeper — M. P. Spradling. 

Health Commissioner — O. L. Aultz. 

Street Commissioner — William F. Kain. 

Building Inspector — James H. Cain. 


J. A. Holley, J. B. White, H. • B. Buster, 
and L. L. Price. During the year there was an 
election — White and Buster retired and J. F. 
Bedell and O. A. Petty were elected and Bedell 


became Mayor. Upshur Higginbotham, so- the Coal & Coke Railroad, and the Kanawha 

licitor, died in September. and West Virginia Railroad, and the Virginia 

Charleston, Kanawha C. H., W. Va., popu- Railroad comes to the Kanawha river at deep 

lation in 1900, 11.099; population in 1910, water, and has its trains come to Charleston 

23,000. From Charleston it is 63 miles to on the C. & O. tracks. 

Wheeling; 23 miles to the head of navigation. The Coal River Railroad makes connection 

Charleston is on the Chesapeake & Ohio with the Chesapeake & Ohio at St. Albans. 
Railroad, the Kanawha & Michigan Railroad, 



The Charleston Public Library — Sheltering Arms Hospital — Charleston General Hospital and 
Training School — Charleston Day Nursery — Young Men's Christian Association. 


By Miss Mabel Delle Jones, Librarian. 

The Charleston Public Library was founded 
June 3, 1909, by the Woman's Kanawha Liter- 
ary Club, theactive committee being Mrs. 
George Lounsbery, Mrs. Fred Paul Grosscup, 
Mrs. M. P. Ruffner, Mrs. John E. Norvell, 
Mrs. Benjamin Caruthers, Mrs. M. M. Will- 
iamson and Miss Sue Staunton. The commit- 
tee interested the public through personal ap- 
peal and public mass meetings, and since its 
organization has been in charge of Miss Mabel 
Delle Jones, a graduate librarian of the Western 
Reserve University of Cleveland, O. It has 
been maintained by popular subscription and 
public entertainments. At a recent session of 
the state legislature a law relative to founding 
and maintaining a city library was passed. 
This is a free public library to which every 
white citizen of Charleston is welcome. The 
methods of conducting it are modern and ex- 
pansive, so that the library may not be called 
upon to change the system as it develops. The 
two library rooms are given free of rent by 
the local Y. M. C. A. and were furnished by 
the Library Association. At the opening of the 
library there were 800 books on the shelves, 
all of which had been donated. After two 
years of existence there are 3,300 books, 2,200 
borrowers, a daily circulation of eighty books 
and more than 100 daily visitors to its read- 
ing and reference rooms. The library board 
is made up as follows : George S. Laidley, 
president; Mrs. Benjamin Caruthers, secretary; 
Miss Sue Staunton, treasurer; and C. M. 

Alderson, Mrs. George Lounsbery, William 
Burdette Mathews, Mrs. William E. Glass- 
cock, Mrs. Frank Woodman, A. J. Hum- 
phreys, W. E. Connell and Rabbi Leon Vol- 
mer. The future prospects are bright for the 
permanency and extension of the library, the 
Chamber of Commerce having recently recom- 
mended the purchase of a lot and the providing 
of a fund for the maintenance of the public 
library, a Carnegie library being among the 


This admirable institution had its origin in 
January, 1886, and was organized and has 
been maintained for the purpose of healing 
the sick and injured of the Kanawha and 
New river districts, special reference being 
had to the mining population and to the men 
employed on the railroad. For this purpose 
suitable property was secured at Paint Creek 
(now Hansford), on the C. & O. Railway, 
in the heart of the mining region, and about 
twenty miles east of Charleston. This prop- 
erty, which was purchased at a cost of $2,500, 
included about thirteen acres of land and sev- 
eral small buildings. 

By the efforts of Bishop Peterkin, Archdea- 
con Spurr, and others, further funds were se- 
cured and in 1888 additional buildings were 
erected, costing about $2,000, and the hospital 
was opened in the fall of that year, having a 
capacity of about twenty patients. During the 
, summer and fall of 1891 about $3,000 were 
; raised and spent in further additions and im- 
provements and the capacity of the institution 




was increased to about thirty patients. For 
these first years — 1889, 1890, 1891 — the cost 
of maintenance was about $2,000 annually. 

The people were at first somewhat slow- to 
appreciate or avail themselves of the privileges 
offered, but soon about 600 names were en- 
rolled on the list at the nominal rate of ten 
cents a month, a rate increased in 1907 to fif- 
teen cents a month. Up to the summer of 1890 
the hospital has about 27 patients, a number 
that had increased to 116 by the year 1893-94. 
In 1907-08 the hospital cared for nearly 800. 
During these years additions were made to the 
building and heating and electric light plants 
installed at a cost of about $10,000. A neat 
chapel and a home (costing about $4,500) to 
serve as the headquarters of a missionary, 
etc., were also erected on the grounds, and up 
to the summer of 1907 the whole property 
had increased in value to somewhere near 

In the meanwhile a kind friend in New Jer- 
sey, the late Mrs. Chas. S. Olden, of Prince- 
ton, left a legacy amounting to $17,160. The 
institution also benefited by $1,000 from the 
estate of Mrs. Waters, of Charleston, and by 
an anonymous gift of $5,000 from someone in 
Virginia. The increase from these legacies with 
the Thanksgiving-Day offerings of the church 
throughout the diocese, ranging from $500 to 
$1,000, supplemented by boxes of supplies 
from branches of the Woman's Auxiliary and 
other friends; all these added to the regular 
income from the dues of the miners, which 
range from $10,000 to $12,000, enabled the 
management to carry on the work successfully, 
the income from pay patients being compara- 
tively small. To the original institution a 
Training School for Nurses was now added, 
from which several are graudated each year. 

The present neat and commodious building 
was opened July 15, 1908, at which time 
Bishop Peterkin delivered an interesting ad- 
dress, among other speakers being President 
Stevens and Archdeacon Spurr. The oc- 
casion was a notable one and many distin- 
guished guests were present. The hospital 
now has accommodations for more than 100 
patients, with an average of sixty patients a 
day, and twelve hundred patients a year are 

The hospital received patients with acute, 
curable, and non-contagious diseases, without 
distinction of creed, nationality or color. Pa- 
tients not able to pay receive free treatment. 
There are a limited number of beds in wards 
for pay patients, and also a department for 
pay patients in private rooms. Visitors are 
admitted daily between 2 and 5 p. m. 

The following are the officers and directors 
of this institution, as given in its twenty-first 
annual report. 


Rt. Rev. Geo. W. Peterkin, D. D., L.L. D., 
president, Parkersburg. 

Rt. Rev. W. L. Gravatt, D. D., Charles 

Capt. W. R. Johnson, vice-president, Cres- 

Rev. R. D. Roller, D. D., chaplain and sec- 
retary, Charleston. 

D. T. Evans, Powellton. 
C. A. Cabell, Carbon. 

Archdeacon B. M. Spurr, Moundsville. 
C. C. Beury, Claremont. 

E. W. Grice, Hinton. 


Rev. R. D. Roller, D. D., Charleston. 

C. A. Cabell, Carbon. 

D. T. Evans, Powellton. 


C. A. Cabell, Carbon. 


Ben R. Roller, Hansford. 


Superintendent — J. Ross Hunter, M. D. 
Resident Physician — S. H. Yokeley, M. D. 

Superintendent of Nurses — Miss Mary J. 
Parry, R. N. 

Head Nurse — Miss Amy C. Dunlap, R. N. 


The Charleston General Hospital and Train- 
ing" School, a brick construction located on 
Richmond Drive, was erected by the city of 
Charleston in 1896 at a cost of approximately 



$30,000. The institution is modern in both 
architecture and equipment. The contract for 
grading and building was let on April 10, 
1896, to Minnotti and Summers, the contract 
price being $24,311.50. However, owing to 
changes in the specifications not called for in 
the original contract the building when turned 
over to the trustees cost several thousand dol- 
lars more than the contract price. For illus- 
tration — the grading for the foundation called 
for the removal of dirt, but instead there was 
found a large amount of stone which had to 
be removed by blasting, and this had not been 
contemplated in the original contract. The 
site on which the hospital is located was owned 
by the city of Charleston a number of years 
before the institution was erected. The hos- 
pital was conducted by the city until March 
4, 1904, and after that date Dr. F. S. Thomas 
was for a time in charge. 

Since March, 1906, a body of prominent 
physicians formed a corporation to take over 
the institution, the personnel of which is com- 
posed of the following physicians, viz. : John 
W. Moore, M. D., president; G. C. School- 
field, M. D.; H. H. Young, M. D. ; R. T. 
Davis, M. D. ; Eugene Davis, M. D. ; and J. 
E. Cannaday, M. D. 

The city in turning the hospital over to the 
new management and paying a stipulated 
amount and providing the public service con- 
veniences, has made appropriate arrangements 
for the care of all city patients. It is con- 
ducted as a general hospital and is open to all 
physicians of good standing. There are two 
general wards — male and female — besides 
twenty rooms for private patients. There are 
fifteen nurses under training for a period of 
three years. The hospital has accommodations 
for fifty patients and from eight hundred to a 
thousand patients are received and treated an- 

The present is the first and only board of 
trustees and is composed of the following: 
J. Q. Dickinson, president; George Minisker, 
secretary; J. F. Brown, J. R. Seal, Charles 
Capito, Charles Loeb and Peter Simian. 

The Kanawha County Infirmary is located 
about eight miles below Charleston in Union 
District on the right bank of the Kanawha 

River and on the line of the K. & M. R. R. 
The county purchased the farm, consisting of 
200 acres of land in 1882, paying $1,319.76 
therefor. The first buildings were small cot- 
tages, but by 1890 these had become practi- 
cally unfit for use, when the county court de- 
cided that it would be more practical as well 
as economical in the end to put up a suitable 
building. John S. McDonald and W. S. Laid- 
ley were members of the county court or com- 
mission. The work was done by the county at 
a cost of about $20,000. The building is a 
large plain brick structure, cut off into rooms, 
being two stories high over the cellar. The 
water is pumped from a pure stream for some 
distance in the rear of the building. The build- 
ing is heated through with steam. In addi- 
tion to the main building there is a separate 
house for the superintendent. The products 
grown on the farm are all consumed on the 
premises. The infirmary during 1910 cost Ka- 
nawha County $7,080.53. The entire poor 
fund raised and paid out in 19 10 amount in 
round numbers to $14,000. This includes the 
cost of the infirmary and the amount used in 
the districts in helping those in need. The 
total cost in 1907 for maintaining the infirmary 
and the county poor reached $19,000. 


This institution was founded by T. L. Bar- 
ber, M. D., which at first consisted of a few 
rooms for electric and orthopaedic treatment. 
The hospital was opened April 1, 1905, as an 
orthopaedic institution but later was made a 
general hospital under Dr. John Cassaday 
after the failure of the health of Dr. Barber. 
The present building, a brick structure, was 
erected by Dr. T. L. Barber in 1907 and has 
nine private rooms for the care of patients 
and contains two wards, one for male and the 
other for female patients. The institution 
furnishes accommodations for the treatment of 
fifteen patients. Dr. Barber, the founder, died 
in February, 19 10, but the hospital has been 
in charge and under the management of Dr. 
Hugh C. Nicholson since the fall of 1908. 
It is located at 1012 and 1014 Virginia street. 







x? O 

tr 1 




The Davis Child's Shelter, located at No. 
1118 Washington Street, Charleston, W. Va., 
was named in honor of Hon. Henry G. Davis, 
ex-U. S. senator, who donated the Home for 
charitable purposes in May, 1896. The insti- 
tution is state-wide in its operation and is 
maintained by charities chartered under the 
laws of West Virginia. Mr. Davis purchased 
the property at a cost of $13,500 and subse- 
quently built an addition to it at his own ex- 
pense, its present value being in the neighbor- 
hood of $30,000. 

The institution receives all children sound 
in mind and body from twelve months to 
twelve years of age, and also infants under 
twelve months, provided the mother of the 
children is dead. At the present time from 15 
to 20 are received monthly, the highest num- 
ber in any one month being 22. As soon as 
possible the children are placed in good homes, 
preference being given to such persons as may 
desire to legally adopt them. The character 
of every person seeking to adopt a child is care- 
fully investigated before the latter is turned 
over to them, the qualifications chiefly required 
being financial responsibility and moral fitness. 
There are now forty-seven children in the home 
in preparation for placement. 

Since it was founded up to the present time 
(October, 191 1) the Home has cared for 625 
children. Its capacity is 50 inmates, though a 
few more can be accommodated by crowding". 
There are at present 47 inmates, and the larg- 
est number at any one time has been 49. The 
Home is well furnished and presents a neat 
and attractive appearance. Mr. Davis contrib- 
utes $100 per month to the institution, which 
is the only permanent fund it has, the rest of 
the funds needed being raised by annual sub- 
scriptions all over the state. The work has 
grown to the point where it requires to meet 
the field expenses of the transportation of the 
children to and from the institution, $800 per 

The Home is under control of an Executive 
Committee chosen by the State Board of Di- 
rectors, and at present consisting of the fol- 
lowing individuals : Hon. G. W. Atkinson, LL. 
D., Rev. R. D. Roller, D. D., Rev. T. C. John- 

son, D. D., Hon. Geo. E. Price, Hon. H. G 
Davis and Hon. H. C. McWhorter. 

We append a summary of the report of the 
Home for the year ending May 31, 191 1 — 


Children carried from last year 41 

Children committed during the year 52 

Returns for placements 45 

Total to be accounted for 138 


By first time placements 44 

By placements oftener than first time 58 

Total placements . . . . 102 

Returned to parents, or relatives 6 

Died during the year 3 

Committed to other institutions 2 

On hand at the close of the year 25 

■ Total accounted for 138 

It will be seen by the above report that 93 
different children have been cared for, and the 
45 returns will give the equivalent of 138 
children cared for without a cent of cost to the 

This is our Child Rescue Campaign for the 
last 12 months. 

Our 15 years of Child Rescue Campaign em- 
braces 579 different children cared for at 
Davis Child's Shelter, which number furnished 
about 220 returns for replacements in homes, 
making an equivalent of 747 different children 
cared for, without a cent of cost to the State. 

There are ^2 counties from which we have 
the average of 10 children, taking some out 
of the County Infirmaries, and saving others 
from going there. Allowing $100 for the care 
of a child for a year, and it will appear that 
we are saving these counties the great sum of 
$32,000 annually, so long as they would have 
cared for these children. And while we are 
saving this money for these counties, we are 
making their dependent little ones into good 
citizens. Are we not worthy of help and en- 
couragement ? 

Without hesitation, we answer the above 
query in the affirmative. 

There is published at the Home a monthy 
paper, entitled "The Children's Home Friend," 



edited by Rev. N. O. Sowers, state superin- 
tendent of the Children's Home Society of 
West Virginia, which gives much detailed in- 
formation in regard to the institution and its 
work, and which contains interesting pictures 
of some of its inmates. 


The Charleston Day Nursery was organized 
about 1903 by Mrs. T. M. Jones. The object 
of the institution is to aid mothers to take care 
of their children and not to give them up. 
About $60 per month are received from sub- 
scriptions, the mother, or other parent paying 
one dollar a week for the board of the child. 
The ladies interested in the institution also 
raise some additional funds. The nursery is 
well patronized, there being usually from 30 
to 37 children accommodated, which is about 
its full capacity. It is located at the corner 
of Morris street and Piedmont road. Mrs. 
E. W r . Bowyer is superintendent and the board 
of management or control is composed as fol- 
lows: Mrs. Malcolm Jackson, Mrs. D. W. 
Patterson, Mrs. Harrison Smith, Mrs. J. R. 
Thomas, Mrs. William Tilton, Mrs. E. W. 
Knight, Mrs. J. D. Lewis, Rev. R. D. Roller, 
D. D., and W. C. D. Moore. 


Charleston is a loyal Y. M. C. A. city. As 
far back as 1871, Charleston sent A. F. Gib- 
bens to the first state Y. M. C. A. convention. 
The Association here at that time was an or- 
ganization in name only. 

In the early nineties there was an Associa- 
tion organized which had rooms over Ruby 
Bros, grocery store, and which in 1891 had a 
membership of 250 although the population of 
the town at that time was only 6,742. 

The Board of Directors consisted of J. D. 
Baines, president; F. W. Schwabe, vice-presi- 
dent ; Wm. Keely, recording secretary ; Neil 
Robinson, treasurer; Geo. S. Laidley, J. C. 
Roy, Bradford Noyes, H. C. McWhorter, H. 
B. Smith, G. F. Coyle, A. F. Waller,, Dr. T. 
L. Barber, David Dick, and J. R. Shanklin. 
Of the above, Prof. Laidley is the only mem- 
ber of the present board. 

Tn the last few years of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, the Association occupied a dwelling re- 

modeled for the work, and located on the 
present Davis Square. C. Hely Molony was 
general secretary for a number of years, but 
the work was suspended for lack of facilities 
and funds, and the property sold to pay the 
incumbrances on it. 

It remained for the permanent work to be 
reorganized in this new century. The four 
heroic canvasses for funds are all well remem- 
bered by our generous citizens. W. F. Damn 
was the first general secretary. He was suc- 
ceeded by W. C. Florain who continued until 
the present year until after the final campaign 
for funds to complete and furnish the building, 
when he was succeeded by L. E. Hamlet. 

The new building of the Association, the 
dedication services of which were held Oc- 
tober 9-15, 191 1, is "the most complete and 
beautiful Association building yet erected in 
the state of West Virginia," and is thoroughly 
fireproof. The architecture is in the Italian 
renaissance style. The valuable lot was do- 
nated by Hon. Henry G. Davis. In general 
the plans give the basement to the Social, 
Physical, and Boys' Work Department; this 
floor containing eight shower baths, swimming 
pool, two bowling alleys, locker and pool 
rooms, and two large rooms for the exclusive 
use of the Boys' Department. 

The most striking feature is the main re- 
ception hall, or lobby, on the first floor. Ad- 
joining this are located the general office, gym- 
nasium and Stephenson Auditorium. The 
decorations of this hall are very pleasing. 

The second floor consists of the educational 
department, which is to be known as "Ed- 
wards' Institute," dining-room, kitchen, con- 
ference room, etc. There are thirty-five well 
equipped sleeping rooms on the third floor. 
The total valuation of the property is $150,- 
000. The present membership is three hun- 

The present board of directors are Judge G. 
W. Atkinson, president; Peter Silman, vice- 
president; W. B. Mathews, treasurer; F. M. 
Longanecker, recording secretary ; C. C. Ward, 
Geo. S. Laidley, John Davidson, Claud A. 
Sullivan, W. B. Brooks, Geo. E. Price, Grant 
P. Hall. G. A. Bolden, A. S. Alexander, W. 
A. Abbitt, Judge L. Judson Williams. 



Utility of Banks — State Banks — Mutual Dependence of Banks and Industrial Enterprises — 
Banks of Charleston — Their Wealth and Influence in Sustaining Local Enterprises — Their 
Policy — Sketches of the Leading Banks — Kanawha Valley Bank — Charleston National — 
Citizen's National — Kanawha National — Kanawha Banking and Trust Co. — Elk Banking 
Co. — National City Bank — Capital City Bank — Glenwood Bank — Peoples Exchange 
Banks, etc. 

There are but few cities in the United 
States that can make favorable comparison 
with the city of Charleston in the number of 
banks and in the amount of capital employed 
by these institutions; especially is this true of 
cities of 25,000 population or thereabouts. 
Charleston, the thriving metropolis of the Ka- 
nawha valley has ten banks of a combined 
capital of $2,000,000, with a surplus of more 
than $1,500,000 and' deposits of about $7,000,- 
000. The above statement is a satisfactory 
answer and a sufficient reason to offer why 
Charleston is one of the best and most pro- 
gressive cities of 25,000 population in the 
United States. We may add that the men who 
created these institutions and are responsible 
for them are identified in many ways with the 
industrial growth of Charleston and West Vir- 
ginia. Their aggregate wealth totals many 
millions of dollars. Their names are associ- 
ated with nearly every important business en- 
terprise or industry in the southern half of 
West Virginia, and many of these men have 
interests in other sections of the country than 
West Virginia, but the greater part of their 
time and wealth has been used for the devel- 
opment of Charleston and that section of the 
state within a radius of fifty miles of Charles- 
ton. The officers and directors of these insti- 
tutions pursue a liberal policy toward all 
worthy enterprises, but are never swerved by 

rash promises from conservative business 

Banks are the arteries of commerce, and 
there is no more certain way to determine the 
health and prosperity of trade than to ascer- 
tain the condition of these avenues through 
which flow the large volume of business. A 
season of disaster to banks is always one in 
which the tradesmen and people complain of 
financial distress. With the rise of important 
business projects in the Kanawha valley can 
be dated the appearance of banks, and as the 
commercial interests of this valley have grown, 
so have banking institutions increased and 

The first institution of this kind in this por- 
tion of the state was established in 1832. 
That was when nearly all the states had what 
was known as the state bank. Soon after that 
date was inaugurated the system of wildcat 
banking, which was attended with such dire- 
ful consequences in many portions of the land, 
but more particularly in the states lying farther 
to the west. In the year just named the State 
Bank of Virginia established at Charleston, 
a branch, of which J. C. McFarland was made 
president, Samuel Hannah, cashier, and J. M. 
Doddridge, teller. 

At that time salt manufacturing was devel- 
oping into such proportions as to render ex- 
change and banking facilities almost necessary. 




Upon the decline of that industry the coal and 
lumbering interests grew into such magnitude 
as to require additional accommodation from 
local banks. Under that old and sometimes 
disputed commercial adage, "the demand reg- 
ulates the supply," new organizations of ample 
capital were instituted at various periods. 


It is said that when the salt business called 
for more than the ordinary amount of money, 
the mercantile establishments at first attempted 
to furnish it; but this became onerous in time. 
The demand made plain the fact that there was 
need for a bank, and the first one was estab- 
lished in Maiden. This institution had no par- 
ticular name, or, if it had, it is not now known, 
but it might have been named very appro- 
priately the Salt-Maker's Bank. There was a 
bank started before 1832 and doing business 
in Maiden, but it was in that year that the first 
purely financial institution was organized in 
Charleston by the Bank of Virginia starting a 
branch, with James C. McFarland, president; 
Daniel Hanna, cashier, and J. M. Doddridge, 
teller. The building stood on Kanawha (or 
Front) street, and the present location of the 
Kanawha Valley Bank was the original loca- 
tion of the Branch Bank of Virginia. It had 
large pillars in front and made a massive, im- 
posing appearance. It was not only a popular 
institution, it made money. 

This bank conducted business until the war 
came on, when the assets were withdrawn to 
the East and it closed its doors. In Septem- 
ber, 1862, General Loring drove the United 
States forces under Colonel Lightburn back 
down the Valley, and the Colonel, to keep his 
stores and commissary from falling into the 
hands of the rebel general, set fire to several 
stores, from which the flames spread to the 
bank, the hotel and several other buildings. 
This closed up the Bank of Virginia in Ka- 

The Bank at Maiden was removed to 
Charleston and was called the Bank of Charles- 
ton, with Henry Fitzhugh as president and 
Spencer Nye, cashier. Some of its notes are 
yet in existence. When the war cloud came, 
Mr. Fitzhugh picked up his cash box and went 

On one occasion, after the two banks were 
doing business in Charleston, there was an old 
man who wanted some cash accomodation 
which was not convenient for the houses in 
Maiden to furnish, so he came to Charleston 
and was accomodated to all he wanted to the 
tune of ten per cent. When the paper matured 
the old man had forgotten all about it and it 
was thereupon duly protested. The endorser 
sent for the maker and proceeded to give him a 
lecture on the financial conduct of banks. The 
old man was perfectly solvent and good and his 
only explanation was that he "did not know 
that it made any difference, nor that this place 
was any more than any other store." 

There was an easy going set of people in 
Kanawha for business and its reputation for 
payment was not always the best, but that a 
man could not always be prompt, was never 
considered a sufficient excuse for him to com- 
mit suicide, or even to "tear his shirt." Most 
of them would pay if they were able; some of 
them would if it were convenient; many would 
make a noble effort so to do, -while the rest 
were just sure to do so. But to a great many, 
going to protest was not going to the devil. 
The people generally were hospitable, gener- 
ous, kind, whole souled, good people. 


W. J. Rand and John Claypool, while the 
war was progressing, took one of the rooms 
in the "Virgin Row" and started a little dis- 
counting business, which subsequently devel- 
oped into the Bank of the West, occupying the 
late residence of Col. Benjamin Smith on the 
lot now occupied by the Hotel Ruffner. For 
some reason the Bank of the West was changed 
into the First National Bank of Charleston, 
and was brought down to the corner of Capi- 
tol and Kanawha, on the upper side, with I. 
N. Smith as president and John Claypool, W. 
E. Truslow and Albert Doyle, cashiers, etc. 
In after years it was made into a state bank 
and named the State Bank of West Virginia, 
and was moved down next to Rogers' drug 
store; subsequently it was placed into the hands 
of a receiver. 

The Banking House of J. M. Laidley & Co. 
began about 1867, in a room setting back on 
the lot now occupied by Frankenberger, just 



below Summers street, on Kanawha. Subse- 
quently it was made into the Merchants' Bank 
of Charleston, with J. M. Laidley, president, 
and W. S. Wheatley, cashier. They built a 
place next to Rogers' drug store, on the upper 
side. Mr. George L. Jeffries was placed in 
charge and after his death, Napoleon B. Ca- 
bell became president and J. M. Doddridge 
cashier, but the panic of 1873 caused this in- 
stitution to wind up. 


About the same time or a little later, the 
Kanawha Valley Bank started, and perhaps 
for a while did business on the Frankenberger 
lot where J. M. Laidley & Co. began, but Col. 
William Dickinson rebuilt the Bank of Vir- 
ginia building and took possession with the 
Kanawha Valley Bank and Col. Levi J. Wood- 
yard. This withstood the panic of 1873 and 
went on gaining strength until both of said 
colonels passed away. Since then John Quincy 
Dickinson has been president, and the cashiers 
have been Dabney Reynolds, Charles C. Lewis, 
Robert T. Oney, and now John Lewis Dick- 
inson, with a half dozen assistants. The build- 
ing has been added to until it is one of the 
largest and best buildings in town and prepared 
especially in which to do business. Perhaps it 
now leads any bank in the state, outside of 
Wheeling, in the matter of surplus and deposits. 


Its officers and directors are as follows : 

Officers — John O. Dickinson, president; 
James F. Brown, vice president ; John L. Dick- 
inson, cashier; John C. Malone, and J. W. 
Crider, assistant cashiers. 

Directors — John O. Dickinson, James W. 
D. Payne, E. W. Knight, R. G." Hubbard, 
James F. Brown, A. S. Thomas, C. C. Dick- 
inson and John L. Dickinson. The following 
is a condensed statement of condition at the 
close of business September 1, 191 1. 


Loans and discounts $2,696,062.55 

Bonds 17,000.00 

Real estate 131,279.66 

^Cash in our vaults and banks. . 594,476.54 

Total $3,438,818.75 


Capital stock $ 400,000.00 

Surplus and profits (earned) . . 558,067.42 

Dividends (unpaid) 288.00 

Deposits 2,480,463.33 

Total $3,438,818.75 


The Charleston National Bank, of Charles- 
ton, W. Va., was organized in 1884 with a 
capital stock of $50,000. In 1886 the capital 
stock was increased to $75,000, and again in 
1890, to $100,000. In 1895 the amount was 
raised to $300,000 and in 1903 another in- 
crease made the capital stock $500,000, the 
present amount. The bank was first opened 
for business on Virginia street, and later it 
was moved on Capitol street, south of the post- 
office. Its first president was George S. Couch 
and the first cashier was C. P. Mead, who 
later became president. Dr. Lewis Prichard 
became president in 1888 and has 'filled that 
office to the present time. The first cashier 
was C. P. Mead who was succeeded by W. B. 
Seaton. He was succeeded by E. A. Reid 
and he in turn by H. L. Prichard, the present 
cashier. The present home of the bank was 
erected in 1906 and is located on the west side 
of Capitol street at the intersection of Quar- 
rier street, adjoining Postoffice Square. The 
lower floor of the building is occupied by the 
bank and a shoe store. The building is con- 
structed of pressed brick, is seven stories high, 
fireproof, and was erected at a cost of over 
$100,000. The interior finish is of marble and 
it is numbered among Charleston's finest build- 
ings. It is equipped with two elevators. There 
are fine vaults and officers' and directors' 
rooms and the bank employs eleven men, in- 
cluding officers. The upper floors of the build- 
are used for modern offices, many of which are 
equipped with vaults. The bank's statement 
at the close of business September 6, 191 1, was 
as follows : 




Loans and discounts $ 'a, 026,224.06 

Overdrafts 8,529.89 

U. S. bonds 501,000.00 

Other bonds 44,800.00 

Banking house 102,869.52 

Cash and due from banks 237,726.00 

Redemption fund with U. S. 

treasurer 25,000.00 

Total $2,946,149.47 


Capital stock $ 500,000.00 

Surplus and undivided profits. . . 554,876.87 

Circulation 500,000.00 

Dividends unpaid 80.00 

Deposits 1,391,192.60 

Total, $2,946,149.47 


The Citizens National Bank of Charleston 
W. Va., was organized as a national bank, 
in August 1890, it having been conducted as a 
state bank for a short time previously. The 
bank was organized with a capital stock of 
$125,000 paid in. The surplus and undivided 
profits are $150,000 earned. This places the 
Citizens National Bank on the honor roll. 
Of the 6,000 national banks in the United 
States there are 1200 in that class. Since it 
opened for business in 1890, the bank has 
pursued a conservative course but at all times 
it has endeavored to accommodate its patrons 
where such a course could be followed on 
conservative business lines. This institution has 
earned and paid in cash dividends to July 1, 
191 1, $186,250. For the year closing June 
30, 191 1 the net earnings were over twenty- 
five per cent. The bank has been designated as 
It is the only bank in the Southern Judicial 
a general depository of the United States. 
District of West Virginia for the accounts of 
general disbursing officers. The first home of 
the bank was on Capitol street, corner of Vir- 
ginia street, where the Capital City National 
Bank is now located. The present home of the 
Citizens National Bank was completed in 1898. 
It is located on the southeast corner of Capi- 

tol and Ouarrier streets, on one of the most 
valuable corners in the city of Charleston. It 
is the first modern fire-proof office building 
erected in Charleston.' The building is five 
stories exclusive of basement and is con- 
structed of stone, steel and tile and with iron 
stairways. Further changes and improve- 
ments are contemplated in order to increase 
space or to provide more room for the office 
force. The first president of the bank since its 
organization into a national bank was Neil 
Robinson, who was succeeded by W. Mol- 
lohan, who fills the office at the present time. 
M. M. Williamson, the present vice-president, 
succeeded J. A. McGreffin in 1907. Mr. 
Williamson hacTserved from February 1, 1893 
to that time as cashier, and J. N. Carnes who 
had been assistant cashier, then became cash- 
ier, which position he fills at present. The 
Citizens National Bank publishes monthly a 
general letter on trade conditions and a busi- 
ness forecast for the benefit of the patrons of 
the bank. Their statement at the close of busi- 
ness June 7, 191 1 was as follows: 


Loans and Investments $ 734,751.06 

United States Bonds 275,000.00 

Banking-House and fixtures. . . . 77,000.00 
Cash and due from banks 


Five per cent fund 6,250.00 193,192.82 



Capital Stock paid in $ 125,000.00 

Surplus fund earned 125,000.00 

Undivided Profits 22,960.96 

Circulation 125,000.00 

Deposits 881,982.92 



The Kanawha National Bank of Charles- 
ton, W. Va., was organized November 26, 
189 1 with a capital stock of $100,000, which 
was increased in 1905 to $250,000. The sur- 
plus and undivided profits are $155000. The 
first president was George S. Couch, the first 




> W 

CO > 

25 s; 




vice-president, J. D. Baines (now deceased), 
and the first cashier, E. A. Reid. Charles 
Capito, the present president, succeeded Mr. 
Baines as vice-president and in September, 19 10 
became president. The present vice-president 
succeeded Mr. Capito when the latter became 
president. Mr. E. A. Reid, the present cash- 
ier, has held that office since the organization 
of the bank. W. A. Cracraft is assistant cash- 
ier. The bank began business on Virginia 
street, and the building now occupied, on the 
northeast corner of Capitol and Virginia streets, 
has been its home since 1893. The Kanawha 
National Bank is recognized as one of the sev- 
eral financial institutions that have contributed 
much toward the development of the city. The 
building has been remodeled into an attractive 
home for the bank. Ten men constitute the 
officers and office force. A condensed report 
of condition at close of business June 7, 191 1 
was as follows : 


Time and Demand Loans $ 


U. S. Bonds to Secure Circulation 

Premium on U. S. Bonds 

Bonds, Stocks and Securities . . . 
Banking House, Furniture and 


Other Real Estate Owned 

Cash $ 77,234-48 

Due from Banks. . . . 100,366.54 
Due from U. S. 

Treasurer 12,500.00 









Total $1,513,690.39 


Capital Stock $ 250,000.00 

Surplus and Undivided Profits. . 152,965.54 

Circulation 250,000.00 

Individual Deposits. $780, 158.33 

Due to Banks 40,566.52 820,724.85 

Bills Payable 40,000.00 

Total $1,513,690.39 


The Kanawha Banking and Trust Company, 
of Charleston, W. Va., was organized in Oc- 

tober, 190 1 with a capital stock of $200,000 
and a paid in surplus of $50,000. Two years 
after its incorporation the capital stock was in- 
creased to $250,000 and the surplus to $200,- 
000. The undivided profits are $25,000. The 
deposits run from $900,000 to $1,000,000. 
The first officers were as follows : Charles C. 
Lewis, president; F. M. Staunton, vice-presi- 
dent; and H. B. Lewis, cashier. Mr. Charles 
C. Lewis retired from the presidency in 1905 
at which time Mr. F. M. Staunton succeeded 
him. The office of vice-president thus made 
vacant was filled by Mr. Geo. E. Price. The 
present officers are F. M. Staunton, president; 
George E. Price, vice-president; H. B. Lewis, 
cashier; and George E. Sutherland, assistant 
cashier. The present -board of directors con- 
sists of Peter Carroll, Ex-Gov. William M. O. 
Dawson, Howard S. Johnson, Harrison B. 
Smith, George E. Price, F. M. Staunton and 
Henry B. Lewis. 

The bank opened for business at No. 13 
Capitol St., where it remained until the fall of 
1903 when it moved into its present quarters 
on the northeast corner of Capitol and Ouar- 
rier streets. The building having been pur- 
chased, was remodeled and fitted up for a model 
up-to-date bank building. It is four stories in 
height, the second, third and fourth floors be- 
ing occupied by offices. The bank is one of 
the strong financial institutions of the city of 
Charleston. It has always been liberal in the 
treatment of its patrons in so far as has been 
consistent with good business principles. 


The Elk Banking Company is located on the 
corner of Charleston St. and Tennessee Ave. 
It was chartered in 1903 and opened for busi- 
ness November 16, 1903. It has a capital 
stock of $50,000; surplus, $8,000; undivided 
profits, $1,000; deposits, including savings, 
$160,000; total resources, $242,000; loans and 
discounts, $175,000; the banking house, includ- 
ing real estate account and furniture $43,- 
000. The first home of the bank was on 
Charleston St. near the present location. The 
present building was erected in 1905-06. 
The dividends paid to stockholders run as 
high as six per cent. The building is a 



fine three-story building, the first floor of which 
is used for the bank and store room. The sec- 
ond floor is used for offices and the third for a 
lodge room. The building is modern in every 
particular. The interior of the bank is of ma- 
hogany and marble finish and there is steam 
heat and electric light throughout the entire 

The following are the present officers of the 
bank : Harrison B. Smith, president ; A. J. 
Humphreys, vice-president (who have filled 
their offices since the organization of the bank) ; 
and Wilbur Stump, cashier. The first cashier 
was Frank Field, who was succeeded in 1905 
by the present incumbent. The directors of 
the bank are F. W. Abney, H. B. Smith. A. J. 
Humphreys, C. Summers, C. Pickens, H. M. 
Carson, W. M. Mottisheard and J. L. Stump, 
M. D. 


The National City Bank of Charleston, W. 
Va., was opened for business March 1, 1907 
near the site of the present handsome home 
of the bank. The first place of business was 
on Kanawha St. The bank was promoted 
and organized through the efforts of its cash- 
ier, Mr. J. S. Hill. The capital stock is $125,- 
000. The bank purchased the property on the 
northeast corner of Capitol and Kanawha 
streets at a price that appeared at the time of 
its purchase a very reasonable figure and since 
has proven to be a bargain. On this site was 
erected a modern bank and office building, eight 
stories high besides basement. The structure 
is of a fine grade of pressed brick with interior 
finish of white marble. The first floor is oc- 
cupied by the bank and the second, third and 
fourth floors are devoted to offices. The fifth, 
sixth, seventh and eighth floors are used as the 
general offices of the K. & M. Railroad. The 
property is valued at $100,000. The building 
is fire-proof and modern in all respects. The 
site was purchased in 1908, work was started 
on the building in the spring of 1909 and com- 
pleted in the spring of 1910. While the Na- 
tional City Bank is a new institution it has had 
very rapid growth. Its capital stock is $125,- 
600. Its surplus and undivided profits total 
$18,899.23. The deposits were $578,257.91 

on September 1, 1911. The officers are: Jo- 
seph E. Robins, president; Andrew C. Calder- 
wood, vice-president; John L. Thornhill, vice- 
president; Joseph S. Hill, cashier; J. Russell 
Blake, assistant cashier. The bank's statement 
for Sept. 1, 191 1, was as follows: 


Loans and Discounts $502,435.57 

Overdrafts 729.77 

U. S. and Other Bonds 130,500.00 

Banking House 107,500.00 

Cash on hand, with Banks and U. 

S. Treasurer 106,741.80 



Capital Stock $125,000.00 

Surplus and Undivided Profits . . . 18,899.23 

Reserved for Taxes 750.00 

Circulation 125,000.00 

Deposits 578,257.91 



The Capital City Bank of Charleston, W. 
Va., was organized March 20, 1907 with a 
capital stock of $250,000. It is located on the 
corner of Capitol and Virginia streets. The 
officers were Enoch Smith, president; J. C. 
Morrison, vice-president ; L. M. Lafollette, 
vice-president ; and J. D. Foster, cashier. The 
present officers of the bank are : J. C. Morrison, 
president ; George S. Laidley, vice-president ; 
L. M. Lafollette, vice-president ; Edward W. 
Bradford, cashier; and George D. Cochran, as- 
sistant cashier. The bank was moved to its 
present quarters on the northwest corner of 
Capitol and Virginia streets in October, 1910. 
The bank has a long lease on the building which 
it has remodeled and has offices, rooms, etc., 
for the officers and directors. Statement for 
September 1, 191 1 : 


Loans and discounts $396,228.30 

Overdrafts, secured and unsecured 104.69 

Stocks and securities, including 
premiums 3,000.00 



Banking house, furniture and fix- 
tures 9,293.77 

Due from banks 75,116.98 

Checks and other cash items 5,161.57 

Lawful money reserve in bank. . . 10,313.99 

Expense 1,000.66 

Due from U. S. Treasurer 500.00 

Total .' $500,719.96 


Capital stock paid in $207,300.00 

Surplus fund 6,219.00 

Undivided profit 6,131.88 

Due to banks 7,618.19 

Subject to check $214,092.59 

Demand certificates... 8,175.05 

Savings deposits 51,072.00 273,339.64 

Certified checks . 1 1 1.25 

Total $500,719.96 


The Glenwood Bank of Charleston which is 
located in West Charleston, was organized un- 
der the laws of West Virginia and has a cap- 
ital stock of $50,000. It is a state depository. 
The bank was opened for business May 2, 1908. 
It has a fine home, the building in which it is 
located being three stories high. The first floor 
is used for banking purposes and for several 

fine store rooms and the second and third floors 
are used for flats and offices. The bank has 
had a gradual but steady growth since its or- 
ganization. The present officers and directors 
are among Charleston's most able and repre- 
sentative business men. They are as follows: 
Peter Silman, president; J. J. Melton, vice- 
president ; Emmet Silman, cashier. Directors : 
J. J. Melton, R. N. Moulton, Grant P. Hall, 
R. G. Quarrier, Peter Silman, F. H. Staats, S. 
A. Gregg, Ira H. Mottesheard, O. J. Cox. 


The Peoples Exchange Bank, of Charles- 
ton, W. Va. This bank, a state institution, 
was organized November 12, 1909 with a cap- 
ital stock of $30,000. .Its resources and lia- 
bilities amount to $89,514.80. As an institu- 
tion the bank is comparatively young, but it 
has enjoyed a healthy growth since its organi- 
zation. It is located on Summers Street oppo- 
site the post office. The officers are: H. Lewis 
Wehrle, president; Herbert Frankenberger, 
vice-president; A. S. Guthrie, vice-president; 
and C. A. Young, cashier. The directors are: 
D. M. Young, A. S. Guthrie, Herbert Frank- 
enberger, E. M. Burdette, John A. Thayer, 
Grover Kauffman and Joseph Schwabb. This 
bank is a state depository. 

Mention of banks outside of Charleston may 
be found in the chapter on Districts ond Towns. 



Water Transportation — The Indian's Canoe — The Flat Boat — Salt Boats — Conveniences of 
Early River Boats — The First Steamboats and Steamboat Inventors — The Pittsburg & 
Cincinnati Packet Line — The Wheeling & Louisville Line — Decline of the Boat Business on 
the Upper Ohio — Steamboat Disasters — Barges and Rafts — Disappearance of Trees along 
the Ohio — Description of the Kanawha — The Kanawha Boatmen — Salt Boat Pilots — 
Steam Navigation — Some Famous Steamboats — Kanawha River Improvement — Locks and 
Dams — Advantages of Slack Water — Gen. William P. Craighill — Coal River Railroad — 
Col. Michael P. O'Hern — Kanawha & Michigan Railway Co. — Coal & Coke Railroad — 
Cliarleston Traction Co. 


The Indian had a very light bark canoe, so 
that when he came to an obstruction, he could 
pick up his boat and carry it around and then 
resume his way. 

The white man was not satisfied with this 
frail Indian craft, so he cuts down a poplar 
tree, takes off the bark, digs out the inside, 
leaving only a shell, and he calls that a canoe. 
When the tree was large and long, and made a 
correspondingly long boat, he called it a pirogue, 
and this was made for large loads, for it would 
carry a great deal and ride waves that the 
small ones might founder in. When the white 
man came to the Kanawha Valley, from the 
Falls down, this canoe was greatly in need. 
Above the falls, on either the Gauley or New 
river, was no place for water craft ; but below, 
as there were no roads, and no bridges across 
the small streams, it was no place for wagons, 
so the choice for the pioneer was a canoe or a 
horse. The canoe, though not large, would 
carry all that he had to ship and it would beat 
walking, especially going down stream. But the 
traveller going to Kentucky or the West, with 
his family or his party, needed something bet- 
ter than a canoe or a pirogue ; he wanted a flat 
boat, with a roof, and with more inside room. 

He did not intend to go Up stream with his 
boat and all he asked was that it would float, 
keep dry and furnish plenty of room, and this 
was the boat that he called for. This boat 
building began at the mouth of Kelly's Creek 
but was not confined absolutely to Kelly's 
Creek, for at the mouth of Paint Creek, at Maj. 
John Handsford's, boats were built as well, and 
later at other places, for after the salt business 
was enlarged, the transportation of salt to the 
lower Ohio towns, was done principally by salt 
boats. These boats were from 60 to 100 feet 
long, more or less, and 15 to 25 feet wide, the 
sides 5 to 7 feet high, built on gunwales with 
heavy stout plank for the bottom and sides, and 
with a roof and oars. This aquatic convey- 
ance, could be made with rooms, and be made 
very comfortable, while the cabin for salt boats 
was decidedly limited. 

After the steamboats began to run, passen- 
gers abandoned flat boat transportation, but the 
salt boat was used as long as the salt makers 
made salt, in any quantity. 

In 1793, in a Cincinnati newspaper, called 
the "Centinel of the Northwest Territory," 
there was an advertisement to this effect : 
"That there will run regularly two boats from 
Cincinnati to Pittsburg and they will make the 
trip in four weeks," and it also announced that 




shortly there would be two other boats to enter 
the same trade and one would leave Cincinnati 
every Saturday morning; that the boats would 
have the accommodations as agreeable as they 
could be made, and that no danger need be ap- 
prehended from the enemy, as every one on 
board, would be under cover, made proof 
againts rifle or musket ball; that everything 
would be made convenient for firing out of the 
port holes, and each boat would be armed with 
six pieces, each carrying a pound ball, and a 
number of muskets, with a supply of ammuni- 
tion manned with good choice hands and a 

There would be "a separate cabin for ladies, 
well supplied with provisions and liquors of all 
kinds, of the first quality and at the most rea- 
sonable rates possible." 

These boats were not steamboats, for the first 
steamboat on the Ohio was the one built by 
Fulton, at Pittsburg in 1811 ; which was called 
the "New Orleans," and which went to that 
city but never returned. "The Comet" was the 
next, built in 1812-13; the "Enterprise" was 
built at Brownsville in 181 4 and she was the 
first that ever returned, which she did in 18 15 
and made the trip from New Orleans to Pitts- 
burg in 35 days. Then there was the General 
Washington, the General Pike, The Ohio. 
These steamboats all had brick chimneys, until 
about 1820, when the change was made. The 
Robert Thompson, it is said, was built in 1819, 
and in that year, the first steam vessel crossed 
the ocean. 

James Rumsey, of Berkley County, Virginia, 
on the Potomac, at Shepperdstown, was the in- 
ventor of the steamboat, — Fitch got his ideas 
from Rumsey, but these men died before they 
perfected their boats. Fulton became ac- 
quainted with Rumsey in London and after 
Rumsey 's death, brought the invention into 
practical operation on the Hudson and on the 

Washington saw Rumsey's steam-boat on the 
Potomac and pronounced it a success, but it 
was evidently not satisfactory to Rumsey him- 
self. The sketch of Jas. Rumsey and his in- 
vention is discussed in July, 1903, West Vir- 
ginia Historical Magazine. 

We have stated on the authority of Dr. Hale 

that the "Robert Thompson" was built in 1819, 
but evidently it was in 1821. We are in- 
formed that she was built at or near Steuben- 
ville, and that her first trip w-as to Pittsburg 
March 17, 1821, that she was 65 feet keel, 17 
feet beam, three feet hold with side wheels, that 
she was built for the Cincinnati and Louisville 
trade and with her, steam navigation began to 
be a practical thing. 

Before the Civil War, steamboats on the 
Ohio and Mississippi had grown to immense 
proportions, yet the railroad competition had 
done much to lessen it. Between 1857 and 
1875 there was built on the upper Ohio and 
Monongahela, 649 steamboats with an aggre- 
gate value of $22,000,000. "The Great Re- 
public" built in 1867 -cost $375,000 was said 
to be the best and finest steamboat that ever 
left the wharf at Pittsburg. She was 300 feet 
long, 30 feet wide and 18 feet high. 

There were two lines of packets, one from 
Pittsburg to Cincinnati, and one from Wheel- 
ing to Louisville, which furnished two large 
fine boats up and two down each day, not count- 
ing the local packets, the St. Louis boats and 
tow-boats, etc. In fact they kept the Ohio 
river in commotion all the time. A steamboat 
race on the Mississippi river became a national 
affair and they have not yet been forgotten. 

The Pittsburg and Cincinnati packets were, 
the Crystal Palace, Cincinnati, Buckeye State, 
Hibernia, Allegheny, Pittsburg and Messen- 
ger. The Buckeye State was regarded the fast- 
est of this line. The Wheeling & Louisville 
packets were : Alvin Adams, David White. City 
of Wheeling, Baltimore, Thomas Swann, For- 
est City and Virginia. 

Charles Dickens traveled on the "Messen- 
ger" from Pittsburg to Cincinnati in 1842. He 
said it seemed strange that a vessel should 
have no mast, cordage, tackle, rigging, etc. — 
but turn to his "American Notes" and read for 
yourself. The same steamboat "Messenger" 
had for a passenger from Cincinnati to Pitts- 
burg, in later years, the great singer, "Jenny 

The boat business on the upper Ohio in later 
years declined so that there was no more of 
these fine boats; they were transferred to the 
lower Mississippi river. Later there were 



smaller boats and stern-wheel boats took the 
place of the former boats, to wit : the Stock- 
dale, Buckeye, Hudson, Granite State, Scotia, 
Andes, and the side wheeler, St. Lawrence." 

In all these years there were, at times, some 
serious disasters and sometimes they were 
brought about by negligence, in consequence 
of races between the boats, but the rules of the 
U. S. government have done much for the pro- 
tection of passengers. In 1910 the Pittsburg 
packet, "Virginia," was going down the Ohio 
river, just below Ravenswood; the river was 
high, and the wind was blowing and she under- 
took to make a landing on the West Virginia 
side, and it was said that the water was run- 
ning over the bank into a field, and the wind 
blowing in the same direction and the boat 
by the current and the wind was sent into' this 
cornfield, where she stuck on a sand bank and 
before she could be straightened up, and 
brought out, the wind ceased and the current 
was left to go on down the river, so that there 
was not water left enough to float the steamer 
out, and she stuck fast in the cornfield. It 
was an odd sight to see her there, and there she 
remained some time, but she was afterwards 
replaced in the river and went into business 
without being much injured. Towboats with 
barges became able to transport larger quanti- 
ties of coal than that which required a train of 
cars two and one-half miles in length. These 
figures we shall not verify. 

On the Ohio at one time, a pine raft trans- 
ported an immense amount of pine lumber and 
shingles, without the aid of any steamboat or 
other craft. These pine rafts covered acres in 
area, with cabins erected thereon-. There was 
no danger of sinking, nor of any explosion, 
and with oars, they managed to keep them in 
the river, and off the bars and banks. The boats 
had to take care of themselves, if they could 
find room to pass. 

When there was plenty of water and no ice, 
the amount of transportation thus made was 
almost without limit, especially as it was to be 
made down stream. The Ohio river was orig- 
inally called the "beautiful river" and perhaps 
it was before it lost its trees on the banks, but 
that it is such yet, depends upon one's ideas 
of beauty. Whether the destruction of the 

river banks was caused by the waves of the 
boats or not we know not but trees grew along 
the banks until the steamboats came and they 
did not last long afterwards. 

But when we come to the consideration of 
the Kanawha river we must be more consider- 
ate, and not so general. 

This river from the Falls of the Kanawha to 
the Ohio river is about one hundred miles and 
not all of this, as yet, has sufficient water at 
all times to maintain a steamboat. It has been 
said that there have been times when a boat 
was able to go above the Falls and did so. 

One man (or woman) was heard to bewail 
the fate of the Confederacy, because he or she, 
said "that never before was a boat known to do 
such a thing and here a large government boat 
had been able to do so with ease and bringing 
stores, etc., above the falls, which fact was re- 
garded as sufficient proof that 'the God of 
Battles' was on the Yankee side." 

This river could always be called a beautiful 
stream and the banks yet maintain their trees 
and hence their beauty. It was never noted 
for its quantity of water, but the flood would 
some times come and when the New, the Gau- 
ley and the Elk, would all at the same time, 
get on a "high" together, then watch out below, 
especially if the Ohio was up. But the Kana- 
wha does its duty generally in short order, it 
comes up in a hurry and goes down quicker. 
Then again it used to have a way of going al- 
most dry in the summer and old Capt. Farley 
had "to jack up the bow of his boat and jump 
her over the bars;" but this could hardly be 
called water transportation. 

The white man had not been long in this 
valley when boats were found convenient and 
a plat of Charleston made by a surveyor, dis- 
closed that there were boats on the stream at 
the very earliest days known. When Gen. 
Lewis's Army went down this river in 1774, 
they made use of boats after reaching the Elk, 
perhaps they were not large ones — but were 
used to transport commissary stores. 

It was said that a good light canoe could go 
up Elk, on a heavy dew, but there were some 
who had doubts, and took a horse and saddle. 
This Kanawha river is unlike any other; for 
instance a rise in the Ohio at Pittsburg of four 



feet would not afford more than two and a half 
feet at Point Pleasant, while a rise at Hinton 
of two feet would amount to ten times as much 
at Charleston. It runs down the hill so fast 
from Hinton, that it cannot get out of the way 
below the Falls, and so it has to pile up and 
makes a large stream. 

There is another peculiarity of the Kanawha, 
for the boatmen have said, and they know, and 
what they know and told was bound to be cor- 
rect, that if the wind blew down the river, thus 
coming from the South, the river would rise, 
whether it rained never a drop or did rain all 
the time, at Charleston. 


These same boatmen were a noted set of men, 
and became a class such as never were known 
elsewhere. A boat was ladened with salt in 
barrels, the pilot was the Captain, and he se- 
lected his crew and was given control and his 
only instructions were to take his boat to a cer- 
tain town on the lower river, and deliver it to 
a certain person. He did the rest, if it could 
be done. Sometimes he lost the whole boat 
and load, but he never lost his credit and he was 
given another boat, all the same, because it was 
known that all was done that mortal man could 
have done. And this confidence was never 
misplaced. These Kanawha Salt boatmen were 
reliable ; they knew their business, and were 
careful ; and this was all that could be expected 
from any one. 

There was one good thing about the Kana- 
wha — these pilots could go in the summer and 
make a personal examination of the river and 
know all about it — both where the water was, 
and where the bars, rocks and snags were ; and 
so they learned it, from the Licks to the Ohio, 
and they never forgot it. 

The pilots on the steamboats had to know 
even more, for the pilot of the salt boat did not 
land till he reached his port, while the steam- 
boat pilot was landing his boat every half 
mile, and the location of the river bed and 
banks had to be known all the way, on both 
sides. Going down on the "Kanawha Belle," 
there was a hail received from the shore and as 
the location seemed a bad one to make a landing, 
the boat was stopped and held up while the 

mate was sent in her yawl to investigate 
whether it could be safely made, and his re- 
port was "Yes, but you must run in like hell 
and back out equally as quick." Which, being 
interpreted, meant, you could get in, but if al- 
lowed to float down stream, the boat would be- 
come involved among some snags, hence there 
must be no time lost. Everybody on the shore 
knew everybody on the boats, no matter how 
many boats there may be and every farmer had 
his own landing, and no one failed to hail his 
boat for any purpose he might desire. "That's 
what she was for." There was more accom- 
modation on the Kanawha River than else- 
where, it was a sort of a private little river 
owned by the people along its banks. There 
was a lawyer, who was also a farmer, living 
between Mason and Putnam Court Houses, 
and he went to each by steamer and whenever 
he went aboard, he went to the pilot house and 
took the wheel and guided the boat until his 
journey was ended; this was James H. Couch, 


There was a lot of men that should ever be re- 
membered by the people of Kanawha because of 
their ever reliable and skilled work, and they 
were the pilots of the salt boats. Salt was placed 
in barrels, and then in the flat boats, and then 
handed over to a pilot, who selected his men, 
and the directions were given to this pilot to 
take this boat, or sometimes two boats lashed 
together, to a certain salt agent at a certain 
town on the Ohio river, most anywhere between 
home and the mouth of the Ohio river. If 
there was not plenty of water, it was a single 
boat, with an oar at each side and at each end 
of the boat, and a cook, making five men to the 
boat and if there was plenty of water, there 
were nine men — eight at the oars and one cook. 

This pilot had control of the boat and men 
and he decided all questions that might arise. 
When they reached the Falls at Louisville, they 
secured a Falls pilot to put them below 7 the 
Falls. If they went below Cairo, they took a 
Mississippi river pilot. 

As soon as they delivered the salt to the 
agent they started back home and reported as 
soon as they reached home. If a boat was lost. 



it was so reported, but there was no losing of 
places, for it was known that all had been done 
that could have been done, and another boat 
was given to the same pilot, hoping for better 
luck next time. 

We have been furnished with a list of pilots 
but not all of them. There were Peter Simp- 
son, Job Stanley, Herod Huffman, Ben Lowen, 
Morris Gillaspie, Billy Patchell, John Roberts, 
Garner Stinson, Annias Means, Brad Acres, 
Ben Horger, Jim McMullin, Bluford Burks 
and Jack Hardin and others. Their occupation 
has gone, and so have they — all gone. 


The complete success attending the experi- 
ments in steam navigation on the Hudson and 
adjacent waters, previous to the year 1809, 
turned the attention of the principal projectors 
to the idea of its application on the western 
waters. In the month of April of that year, 
Mr. Rosevelt, a distinguished civil engineer 
of New York, pursuant to an agreement with 
Chancellor Livingston and Robert Fulton, vis- 
ited those rivers for the purpose of ascertain- 
ing whether they admitted of steam navigation. 
At this time but two steamboats were afloat, 
viz : the "North River" and the "Clermont," 
both running on the Hudson. Mr. Rosevelt 
surveyed the river from Pittsburg to New Or- 
leans, and reported to his employers the feasi- 
bility of the project. It was therefore decided 
to build a boat at the former town. This was 
done under the supervision of Mr. Rosevelt, 
and in the year 181 1, the first steamboat was 
launched upon the waters of the Ohio. It was 
called the "New Orleans," and in October, left 
Pittsburg on an experimental voyage. Late 
at night on the fourth day after leaving Pitts- 
burg, she rounded in at Louisville, having been 
but seventy hours descending upwards of seven 
hundred miles. The novel appearance of the 
vessel, and the fearful rapidity with which it 
made its passage over the broad reaches of the 
river, excited a mixture of surprise and ter- 
ror among many of the settlers on the bank, 
whom the rumor of such an invention had never 
reached. It is related that on the unexpected 
arrival of the vessel before Louisville, in the 
course of a fine still moonlight night the extra- 

ordinary sound which filled the air as the pent- 
up steam escaped from the valves on sounding 
in, produced a general alarm, and multitudes 
arose from their beds to ascertain the cause. 
The problem was solved; steam navigation on 
the western rivers was demonstrated; theory 
reduced to practice and steamboat building rap- 
idly developed into one of the most active in- 
dustries of the age. But in order to make those 
rivers the theatre of the most extensive in- 
land commerce in the world, it became neces- 
sary to make many improvements upon the 
rivers themselves, and this at once engaged the 
attention of the general government, and of the 
State legislatures also. In the year 1819, a 
steamboat called the "Robert Thomson" as- 
cended the Kanawha river for the purpose of 
ascertaining whether it was navigable to 
Charleston. She ascended to Red House, 
where she spent two days in trying to get 
through the shoals, but failing to do so, she re- 
turned to the Ohio. The officers reported the 
result of the voyage to the legislature of Vir- 
ginia, and that body passed in the year 1820 
a bill providing for the improvement of the 
Great Kanawha river. The contract was let 
out to one John Bosser, and the work was im- 
mediately commenced at the mouth of Elk, 
Johnsons, Gylers and Red House shoals, and 
continued for two years, when the funds were 
exhausted and nothing more was done for 
four years. The legislature then made another 
appropriation, and the completion of the work 
was undertaken by a number of Pittsburg gen- 
tlemen who completed the contract in 1828. 

The second steamboat on the Kanawha was 
the Eliza, which succeeded in reaching Charles- 
ton in 1823. ' She was built at Wheeling for 
Messrs. Andrew Donnally and Isaac Noyes, at 
a cost of $35,000. She was built expressly for 
the Kanawha and Wheeling trade and took in 
a cargo of salt at the Salines for the latter 
place, but upon returning to the mouth of the 
Kanawha it was found that she could not stem 
the current in the Ohio, and Captain White, 
who had brought her out from Wheeling, de- 
termined to discharge her cargo in the then em- 
bryo Queen City of the West. She arrived 
safe in Cincinnati where she was remodeled 
and named the Virginia. She never afterwards 



returned to the Kanawha. It will be remem- 
bered that at the time the Eliza reached 
Charleston there were neither coal nor wood- 
yards upon the river, and she depended upon 
purchasing dry fence rails from the farmers 
along the river for fuel. 

The first Charleston and Cincinnati packet 
was the Fairy Queen, which was built at Cin- 
cinnati for Messrs. Andrew Donnally and A. 
M. Henderson. She entered the trade in 1824 
and continued to ply therein for several years. 

The second boat in the same trade was the 
Paul Pry, built and owned by Messrs. Joel 
Shrewsbury and Captain John Rodgers. She 
entered the trade in the year 1826, and contin- 
ued to make regular trips for two years, when 
she exploded her boilers at Guyandotte, at 
which time the engineer, Thomas ■ Phillips, of 
the Kanawha Salines, and Lewis Handley, of 
Teays valley, were killed. 

In the year 1830 the Enterprise, the first 
towboat on the river, reached Charleston. She 
was built at Pittsburg and commanded by Cap- 
tain James A. Payne, then quite a young man, 
but one whose name was afterward to become 
familiar not only along the Kanawha river, but 
to the utmost boundaries and most distant 
parts of western and southern inland naviga- 
tion — one. whose active industry and enter- 
prise have perhaps done more to develop this 
most important industry of our country than 
any other whose name appears in the early an- 
nals of western navigation. 

The "Enterprise" continued to transport salt 
to the western and southern markets for sev- 
eral years, when the machinery was removed 
from her and placed upon a new boat called the 
Hope, which was built at Point Pleasant by 
Captain Payne and John Hall, Esq. An ex- 
perienced commander was placed upon the roof 
and Captain Payne repaired to Red House 
shoals where he built and launched another 
steamer which he christened the Lelia. She 
was the first boat that broke the solitude of the 
hills and mountains of the Kanawha Valley 
with the shrill scream of the steam whistle ; and 
the writer is informed by the oldest boatman 
on the river that she was the first steamer that 
ever reached the Falls of Kanawha. Captain 
Payne sold her to Messrs. Jesse Walton and 

Alexander McMullin, who continued to run her 
in the Cincinnati and Charleston trade, and he 
built another boat at the Red House shoals, 
which he named the Jim, upon which the ma- 
chinery taken from the "Hope" was placed. 
She went to Cincinnati, and from there Captain 
Alfred Brown ran her to Mobile, where he ex- 
changed her for another boat called the "Ca- 
tawba," a side-wheel steamer. She made one 
trip up the Kanawha as far as Red House 
shoals, where she was sold and taken to the 
Tennessee river. 

In the year 1837, a company, composed of 
Cincinnati gentlemen, built a large passenger 
steamer for the Kanawha river trade. When 
she was ready to come out, a gentleman resid- 
ing in the eastern part of Virginia wrote the 
company that he would give them fifty dollars 
for the privilege of naming the boat, which 
was destined to navigate the waters of his na- 
tive State. The offer was accepted, the money 
and the name forwarded, and the new steamer 
Tuckahoe, left Cincinnati for the Kanawha 
river in the autumn of that year. 

In the spring of the year 1838 Dr. Putney, 
William Atkeson, and Samuel Summers built 
a steamer at Buffalo, which they named the 
Osceola. She was taken to the Missouri river, 
where she ran for several years. Her com- 
mander, Captain William Atkeson, died in St. 
Louis, in 1846. He seems to have had a pre- 
sentiment of his approaching death, for before 
leaving Lexington, where he resided, on his 
last trip, he accompanied the sexton to the cem- 
etery and showed him the spot where he wished 
to be interred. 

About the year 1832 a large steamer was 
built at the mouth of Elk by Captain Andrew 
Ruffner, and received the romantic name of 
Tisilwaugh, which is the Wyandotte name for 
Elk river. It signifies "plenty of big elk." 
Captain Ruffner ran her in the Kanawha and 
Cincinnati trade for some time, when she was 
sold' and taken to the western river, whence 
she never returned. 

Captain Payne, after having sold the Lelia, 
as before mentioned, went to Cincinnati and 
bought a new steamer called the Lawrence, 
built by Captain James Thomas, at the mouth 
of Big Sandy river, which he put in the Kana- 



wha river trade, where she continued to run 
for nearly two years, when she sank in a col- 
lision with the steamer Linden, at Concord, 
near the mouth of Bush creek, in the year 1842. 

The machinery was taken from the wreck 
and placed upon a new boat, which Captain 
Payne had built to fill the place of the lost 
steamer. She was called the Laurel, and came 
out in 1845. She ran in the trade about a 
year, when she was sold to parties in Vicks- 
burg, Mississippi, and placed in the Yazoo 
trade, when she was freighted with supplies for 
the American army in Mexico, and sent to Rio 
Grande, where she sank in 1848. 

In the year 1837, the Summers brothers built 
a boat at the mouth of Big Buffalo creek, which 
they christened the Texas. After running 
about a year she collapsed a flue at Red House 
shoals, and was taken to Gallipolis, where she 
was repaired and renamed the Salines. She 
then went to the Arkansas river, from which 
she never returned. 

In the year 1839, James M. Laidley, of 
Charleston, built a steamer at that place, which 
he named the Elk. She entered the Kanawha 
river trade and in 1840 she and the Hope were 
chartered to make an excursion to Pomeroy, 
Ohio, at which place General William H. Har- 
rison was to make a speech. The two boats 
were lashed together and carried a large house, 
built of Buckeye logs, representing Ohio, the 
Buckeye State. Mr. Laidley sold her to Clay- 
burn A. Wright and John Dickenson, who con- 
tinued to run her until she was condemned. 

In the year 1843, Captain Payne built an- 
other boat at Red House which he called the 
Ark. Her machinery was taken from a Pitts- 
burg steamer called the "Julia Graciot," which 
was brought to the Kanawha by Captain James 
Timms. When the new boat was launched 
Captain Payne placed Captain I. B. Parker — 
who had been his engineer for many years — 
on the roof. She was a heavy draught boat, 
and we are informed that she carried the heav- 
iest cargo of salt from the Salines ever taken 
out of the Kanawha river; but her name be- 
came a synonym for all that was slow. We 
have heard it related that on a certain occa- 
sion when she was ascending the Ohio, a num- 
ber of boys ran down along the beach and threw 

stones at her, and that Captain Parker, hav- 
ing despaired of escaping from the bombard- 
ment, ordered the pilot to put on all available 
steam, and evade the deadly missiles by steer- 
ing in all haste to the opposite side of the river. 

Another character now appeared upon the 
scene in the person of Captain B. J. Caffrey, 
who built and launched the new steamer Tri- 
umph, in the year 1846; but shortly after she 
came out, her captain sold her to a transporta- 
tion company in Vicksburg, who placed her in 
the Yazoo trade, where she continued to run 
until she was condemned. At this time Captain 
Payne had almost absolute control of the Kana- 
wha river trade, having at one time no less 
than five steamboats plying upon it and contig- 
uous waters. 

In the year 1846, Messrs. Warth and Eng- 
lish built a large boat at Cincinnati, designed 
to run between that city and Charleston, which 
they launched and named the Blue Ridge. 
Captain Payne having an eye to business, sent 
an agent to Cincinnati, who, when she was 
ready to come out, purchased her and put her 
in the trade for which she had been built, with 
Captain William Summers in command She 
continued to make regular trips for two years, 
when she exploded her boilers at a point on the 
Ohio, four miles below Gallipolis. Many per- 
sons yet residing along the river remember the 
sad disaster by which fourteen persons lost 
their lives. Among the killed were Joseph Mil- 
ler, of Point Pleasant; John Carr, of Buffalo; 
William Whitteker, a merchant of Charleston; 
Francis Sanns, of Gallipolis; Albert Chapman, 
P. Carpenter and a Mrs. Mayse. The names 
of the other victims the writer has been unable 
to learn. 

In the year 1830, Armstrong, Grant & Co. 
bought and placed in the Kanawha trade a 
large steamer which was called the Oliver H. 
Perry. She was commanded by Captain Wil- 
liam Rand, of Charleston, and V. B. Donnally 
presided in the office. She collapsed a flue at 
Red House shoals, and was taken to Gallipolis, 
where she was repaired, and under the name of 
the "Daniel Webster" entered the Ohio river 

In 1847, Captain Payne repaired to Buffalo, 
where he built a steamer which he named the 



Herman. She was built for the Kanawha and 
Cincinnati trade, but soon after she was 
launched, she was chartered by the government 
and sent to Mexico with a cargo of supplies for 
the American army, then concentrating on the 
banks of the Rio Grande. She never returned 
to the Kanawha river. 

In the year 1832 a steamer was built at John 
Mayes Landing, by Captain William Keys, who 
took her to the Galena Lead Mines, where she 
was loaded with lead ore for the Mobile market, 
and upon her arrival in that distant port was 
sold to merchants of that city.' 

About this time Captain J. B. Parker re- 
signed his commission as captain of the "Ark" 
and repaired to Vintroux Landing, and, asso- 
ciating himself with Mr. L. E. Vintroux, they 
began the construction of a boat which they 
called the Olevia. She entered the trade in the 
year 1847, with the following complement of 
officers : Captain, I. B. Parker ; first clerk, John 
W. Wyatt and Riley Finney, pilot. Captain 
Shipley, later commanding the steamer "City 
of Alton," of the Mississippi Anchor Line, was 
her second clerk. Shortly after she came out 
she collapsed a flue at Tinkersville, in the Kana- 
wha Salines, which caused the death of Charles 
H. Parker, the captain's brother. Soon after- 
ward she was sold to Jerry H. Baldwin, of St. 
Louis, and by him taken to the Tapper Missis- 

Having now noticed the most important 
steamers on the river prior to the year 1850, it 
will be unnecessary to mention those since that 
date, for the reason that almost every one is 
familiar with the navigation of the river since 
that time ; and, furthermore, a bare mention of 
the many steamers on the river in recent years 
would weary the reader by its similarity. The 
boats of the first half century were crude and 
illy-built compared with our palatial steamers of 
to-day. Many of them had the cabin and cook- 
house both on deck, and the writer is informed 
that the first steamer that ascended the river was 
nothing more than a barge with an engine 
placed upon it. It is worthy of remark that 
this boat made its ascent of the river in the 
same year (1819) that the first steamship 
crossed the Atlantic ; and if the appearance of 
the "Thomson" on the Kanawha river was a 

surprise to the settlers residing upon its banks, 
how much greater must the surprise have been 
when the "Savannah" steamed into the ports of 
Western Europe ! 

The earliest settlers of the valley were hardy 
pioneers, who "came to conquer." They were 
endowed with the spirit of progress which has 
ever characterized the Anglo-Saxon race, thus 
distinguishing it from the other races of the 
world. Their first object was to expel the ruth- 
less savage from the beautiful valley which they 
had chosen for their future home. This ac- 
complished, they set about felling the gigantic 
forests which, in their primeval grandeur, cov- 
ered the hills and vales of the entire valley. 
The next step was to develop the mineral re- 
sources, which were hid away in inexhaustible 
supplies, which ages of most active industry 
could not consume. This begun, they must have 
communication with the outside world, and the 
improvement and navigation of their beautiful 
river next engaged their attention; and here, 
again, they exhibited that indomitable energy 
and enterprise which gave the Kanawha river 
boatmen notoriety wherever inland navigation 
extended ; and whenever they came in contact 
or conflict with the boatmen of other rivers, 
they invariably came off conquerors, as in the 
following instance : 

About the 1837, a number of Kanawha boat- 
men from the Salines, were at the mouth of the 
Cumberland river, and being desirous of return- 
ing home, they chartered a small boat called the 
Dove, to convey them to their destination. The 
boat brought them to Louisville, when the 
captain found that he could do a more lucra- 
tive business than to make a trip to the Kana- 
wha river, and accordingly he refused to pro- 
ceed further. Whereupon, the boatmen quietly 
arrested the captain and entire crew and 
placed them in close confinement, then proceeded 
to elect a complement of officers from their own 
number, who ran the boat to Charleston, where 
they released the crew, and permitted the boat 
to return. Thus, they were noted not only for 
discharging their own obligations, but also for 
compelling others to do likewise. 

They were also famous for throwing stones. 
As long since as the writer can remember, he 
has heard the boulders lying along the Ohio 



river called the Kanawha boatman's '-'confi- 
dence," and the boatmen themselves called 
"limestone artillerymen." How the art of 
throwing stones, which has distinguished dif- 
ferent nations and tribes from the days of Go- 
liath down to the present time, became asso- 
ciated with the Kanawha boatmen, we do not 
know, but, nevertheless, they gained a national 
reputation for the accuracy with which they 
threw them. 

When the bill providing for the removal of 
the Cherokees, Seminoles and Choctaws beyond 
the Mississippi was before the Senate, Thomas 
H. Benton, then United States senator from 
Missouri, opposed the appropriation asked for 
by the committee to defray the expense of re- 
moval, and in a speech at that time, said that 
if the government would furnish him with a 
train to haul stones, he would pass down the 
Kanawha river, collect the boatmen, and drive 
every Indian from the southern States within 
three months. Another characteristic of these 
men was the manner in which they sustained 
losses in business. If one lost a steamer by col- 
lision or otherwise, he immediately set about 
building another. 

As an instance of almost reckless daring we 
note the following: In the year 1841, Captain 
Payne contracted to remove all salt from the 
yards of Thomas Friend, a prominent salt man- 
ufacturer of the Salines. The water was so low 
during the summer that he was compelled to 
transport it in flatboats to the mouth of the 
Kanawha. Upon one occasion, when one of 
these boats was descending the Kanawha, it 
reached Johnsons Shoals just at dark, and the 
pilot refused to run through the chute until the 
next morning, whereupon Captain Payne, who 
was himself aboard, declared that the boat 
should go through that night and that he would 
run it through. Accordingly the boat was 
pushed off and when about half way through, 
struck a rock, and in a few minutes was torn to 
pieces. Captain Payne seized hold of a piece 
of gunwale, and with his boat a total wreck, and 
2,000 barrels of salt in the bottom of the river, 
remarked, with the utmost sangfroid, that if 
he could get the gunwale home it would make a 
good bee stand. 


The first record of navigation of the Kana- 
wha was in 1 774, when General Andrew Lewis 
had canoes constructed at the mouth of Elk, in 
which he transported a part of his supplies and 
ammunition which had been brought thus far 
on pack horses; and on such road, it was a 
great relief to ship by boat. 

In 1788, Fleming Cobb made the trip in a 
canoe to Fort Randolph and return, for ammu- 
nition, and he made it safely, but at great risk, 
being pursued by Indians. The inmates of Fort 
Tacket being in want of salt in 1788, sent a 
canoe to Campbell's creek, filled it with salt 
water and took it back to the Fort, and boiled 
it down to salt. John Young navigated the 
said river from Coal's mouth to Elk's mouth 
by canoe with his wife and baby, with the In- 
dians after him, through storm and rain and 

Salt was shipped after the quantity increased 
and this was done in 1808 by logs fastened to- 
gether by hickory poles and the salt placed in 
barrels on the raft floated it down to the new 
settlements. In the removal of families to 
the West, they had boats built at Hughes' 
creek, Kelly's creek and Paint creek, with 
which the transportation was made comfortably. 

Salt boats built at these points were made 
to carry 2,000 barrels, and were sold when the 
salt was disposed of. For up stream transpor- 
tation of family supplies, the boat was made 
with more care and were called batteaux and 
keels. Steamboats began in 181 9- 1820. This 
necessitated some improvement by removal of 
sunken logs, projecting trees, etc., and the 
legislature of Virginia, in 1820-21, passed an 
order directing the "James River and Kanawha 
Company," to cause improvements to be made 
in the river so there would be at least three 
feet of water all the year from the Falls to 
the mouth of the Kanawha. This was easier 
said than done and they had no appreciation 
of the magnitude of the work that they were 
ordering. In 1825, it was attempted by chutes 
and wing-dams. Messrs. Moore and Briggs, 
contractors, did much work, they cut the old 
chute through the rock at the Red House, re- 



paired the chutes at Tyler, at Debby, Eighteen, 
Knob Shoals, Tacket, Johnston, etc., so well 
remembered by the salt flat-boatmen. 

In 1838 there was a survey of the entire 
river made by E. H. Gill, engineer under Col. 
Charles Ellett, Jr., chief of engineers. In 1855 
large shipments of cannel coal were made from 
Cannelton, Elk, splint coal from Field's creek, 
Paint creek, Armstrong's creek, also shipments 
of oil manufactured from cannel coal from said 
places. With the coal production, oil, salt, etc., 
an improvement in the river was urgently 
called for. Another survey of the river was 
made by John A. Byers, engineer under Col. 
John A. Fisk. Two systems were discussed 
and advocated respectively and a report made 
to the director of the James River and Kana- 
wha Company in 1858, all of which were con- 
sidered by the engineers of the county. The 
reservior system was an untried experiment, 
which might prove a dangerous experiment, so 
they continued to improve by wing-dams and 
sluices, and Barton and Robinson had a con- 
tract for such work when the Civil War inter- 

In 1863, West Virginia took charge of the 
said river, created a board to carry on the 
improvement, yet it was manifestly inadequate, 
and it was determined to make application to 
the government of the United States to take 
control of the same. There was a general inter- 
est in the matter of water-ways throughout the 
West by said government, and a commission 
appointed to gather information for Congress 
and President Grant, and this led to the inves- 
tigation by United States engineers, whose re- 
port was voluminous and favorable. 


In 1873-4 Congress made two small appro- 
priations of $25,000 each and in June, 1873, 
the work commenced on the river under Col. 
W. E. Merrell, of U. S. engineer corps, and 
Mr. Addison M. Scott, as resident engineer. 
The first work was to do on a large scale 
what the Kanawha board had been doing on a 
small scale, that is dredging, sluicing, wing- 
dams, to assist current navigation, but it was 
considered that nothing short of slack water 

by locks and dams would give satisfactory 

In 1874 the work was placed under Col. W. 
P. Craighill, of the U. S. engineer corps. That 
fall a survey for slack water was made by 
Resident Engineer A. M. Scott, assisted by 
Civil Engineers C. K. McDermott and John S. 
Hogue, and a preliminary location of locks 
and dams made from Loup creek to the mouth 
of the river, and under date of January 29, 
1875, Mr. Scott submitted a report with esti- 
mates of cost, to Col. Craighill on three differ- 
ent systems of improvements, viz : 

( 1 ) For lock and dam improvement from 
the falls to foot of Paint creek and for sluice 
navigation in the remainder of the river, as- 
sisted by a reservoir or Meadow river. 

(2) For a lock and dam improvement, by 
fixed dams, throughout. 

(3) For fixed dams in the upper and mov- 
able dams in the lower part of the river. 

In this report (Report of Chief of Engineers 
U. S. A. for 1877), Mr. Scott decidedly recom- 
mended a lock and dam improvement instead of 
the old reservoir and sluice plan. In March 
following congress appropriated $300,000 with 
which to commence the permanent improve- 
ment of the river. Soon after a board of 
U. S. engineers, consisting of General H. G. 
Wright, Col. W. P. Craighill, General O. M. 
Poe, recommended the adoption of the lock 
and dam slack water improvement, with the use 
of permanent dams at and above Paint creek 
and movable or adjustable dams below that 
point. These recommendations were adopted 
and approved by the authorities at Washington 
in the fall of 1875, and locks No. 4 and 5 
were placed under contract. It was first con- 
templated to have twelve locks and dams from 
the Falls to the mouth of the river. There 
were to have been three fixed or permanent 
dams and nine movable ones. The estimated 
cost of the whole was $4,071,216. No. 1 was 
to have been a fixed dam and located at the 
foot of Loup Creek Shoal, was considered of 
less urgent necessity than the others and has 
not been constructed. 

In the progress of the work it was found, 
by careful measurements and engineering calcu- 
lations that one of the nine movable dams 



could be dispensed with by dividing the lift 
between the others which was done thus re- 
ducing the whole number in the series to ten 
instead of eleven or twelve. 

No. of lock and dam, 2. Location, 1 mile be- 
low Montgomery. Distance from mouth of 
river, 84 }4 miles. Style of dam, fixed. Height 
of upper pool above sea level, 597.75 feet. 
Maximum lift, 10.33 ^ eet - Length of dam, 
524.0 feet. Lock dimensions : clear width, 
50 feet; length between quoins, 308 feet. Fin- 
ished in 1887. 

No. of lock and dam, 3. Location, 1 mile 
below Dego. Distance from mouth of river, 
ygyi miles. Style of dam, fixed. Height of 
upper pool above sea level, 587.42 feet. Maxi- 
mum lift-of 13.67 feet. Length of dam, 564.5 
feet. Lock dimensions: clear width, 50 feet; 
length between quoins, '312 feet. Finished in 

No. of lock and dam, 4. Location, i l / 2 
miles below Coalburg. Distance from mouth 
of river, 7 3% miles. Style of dam, movable. 
Height of upper pool above sea level, 573.75 
feet. Maximum lift, 7.50 feet. Length of 
dam : navigation pass, 248.0 feet ; center pier 
(width), 10. o feet; weir, 210.0 feet; total 
468.0 feet. Lock dimensions : clear width, 50 
feet ; length between quoins, 300 feet. Finished 
in 1880. 

No. of lock and dam, 5. Location, 9% 
miles above Charleston. Distance from mouth 
of river, 67J4 miles. Style of dam, movable. 
Height of upper pool above sea level, 566.50 
feet. Maximum lift, 7.50 feet. Location of 
dam: navigation pass, 250.0 feet; center pier 
(width), 13.5 feet; weir, 265.5 f eet ! total, 
529.0 feet. Lock dimensions : clear width, 50 
feet ; length between quoins, 300 feet. Finished 
in 1880. 

No. of lock and dam, 6. Location, 4 miles 
above Charleston. Distance from mouth of 
river, 54 miles. Style of clam, movable. Height 
of upper pool above sea level, 559.0 feet. Max- 
imum lift, 8.50 feet. Length of dam: naviga- 
tion pass, 248.0 feet; center pier (width), 10.0 
feet; weir, 310.0 feet; total 568.0 feet. Lock 
dimensions: clear width, 55 feet; length be- 
tween quoins, 342 feet. Finished in 1886. 

No. of lock and dam, 7. Location, ij4 

miles below St. Albans. Distance from mouth 
of river, 44 miles. Style of dam, movable. 
Height of upper pool above sea level, 550.50 
feet. Maximum lift, 8.25 feet. Length of dam : 
navigation pass, 248.0 feet; center pier (width) 
10.0 feet; weir, 316.0 feet 1 ; total, 574.0 feet. 
Lock dimensions: clear width, 55 feet; length 
between quoins, 342 feet. Finished in 1893. 

No. of lock and dam, 8. Location, 2j/ 2 
miles below Raymond City. Distance from 
mouth of river, 36 miles. Style of dam, mov- 
able. Height of upper pool above sea level, 
542.25 feet. Maximum lift, 8.00 feet. Length 
of dam: navigation pass, 248.0 feet; center 
pier (width), 10.0 feet; weir, 292.0 feet; to- 
tal, 550.0 feet. Lock dimensions: clear width, 
55 feet; length between quoins, 342 feet. Fin- 
ished in 1893. 

No. of lock and clam, 9. Location, 3^4 
miles above Buffalo. Distance from mouth of 
river, 25% miles. Style of dam, movable. 
Height of upper pool above sea level, 534.25 
feet. Maximum lift, 6.25 feet. Length of 
dam : navigation pass, 248.0 feet ; center pier 
(width), 10. o feet; weir, 284.0 feet; total, 
542.0 feet. Lock dimensions: clear width, 55 
feet; length between quoins, 342 feet. Fin- 
ished in 1898. 

No. of lock and dam, 10. Location, 2% 
miles below Buffalo: Distance from mouth of 
river, 19 miles. Style of dam, movable. 
Height of upper pool above sea level, 528.00 
feet. Maximum lift, 7.00 feet. Length of 
dam : navigation pass, 248.0 feet ; center pier 
(width), 10.0 feet; weir, 284.0 feet; total, 
542.0 feet. Lock dimensions: clear width, 55 
feet ; length between quoins, 342 feet. Finished 
in 1898. 

No. of lock and dam, 11. Location, foot 
Three Mile Bar. Distance from mouth of 
river, ij4 miles. Style of dam, movable. 
Height of upper pool above sea level, 521.00 
feet. Maximum lift, 11.20 feet. Length of 
dam : navigation pass, 304.0 feet ; center pier 
(width), 10.0 feet; weir, 364.0 feet; total, 
678.0 feet. Lock dimensions: clear width, 55 
feet ; length between quoins, 342 feet. Finished 
in 1898. 

Low water in Ohio river at mouth of Great 
Kanawha river, 509.80 feet. 








tr 1 











The lucid detail description of the locks and 
dams furnished by Mr. A. M. Scott might be 
exceedingly interesting to engineers, for which 
those interested would prefer headquarters 
therefor, and all others would find it more 
lucid without detail. 

It is well to note that the locks and dams are 
of cement mortared masonry built on solid rock. 
The gates are 22 feet high, 32 feet 8 inches 
long and two feet thick, weighing about 38 
tons. The pool formed by lock and. dam No. 
6 is nearly 14 miles long. It raises the water 
at Charleston 4 feet 8 inches above low water 
mark and makes good 7 feet 6 inches depth for 
tows at the old slacking place at the foot of 
Elk Shoal. Pool No. 6 is no doubt destined 
to be one of the largest and most important 
coal harbors in the world. 


The experience with movable dams on this 
river has been very satisfactory. They are 
easily and rapidly maneuvered, and the expense 
attending their operation is but little more than 
the fixed dams and they are highly satisfactory 
to the river interests. These dams are kept up 
when there is not water enough for coal boat 
navigation and down at other times, with fixed 
dams, everything must pass through the locks, 
and navigation is suspended when the river is 
near or about the lock walls, while with mov- 
able dams the locks are only used when the dis- 
charge of the river is so small as to make them 

This advantage has long since been recog- 
nized in Europe. In 1878 there were 124 mov- 
able dams in operation in France alone, and 
the Kanawha river has the honor of possessing 
the first movable dams in America. During the 
summer season five men are employed regularly 
at each movable dam, and there are provided 
comfortable houses for the said employees and 
each is provided with a garden spot. 

The average time to raise one of these dams, 
by four or five men, is about nine hours, and 
it is lowered by the same force in about two 
hours. The office of the resident engineer is 
in the city of Charleston, and a telephone line 
from the falls of the Kanawha to lock No. 11, 
passes through the said office and the same is 

always in direct communication with each lock 
at all times, and also connected with each other. 
There are gauge reports received at the Charles- 
ton office daily from the falls and from Hinton 
and Radford on the upper New river, all of 
which is necessary for the same operation of 
the locks and dams and the regulation of the 
pools. The force keeps a small tow-boat to 
transport supplies, material and labor from one 
point to another, to tow dredges, crane boats, 
dump scows ; to remove obstructions, snags, 
trees, wrecks, etc., left in the channel by high 
water, and a light draught steam launch is used 
by the engineers for trips of inspection and to 
carry light articles. 

The original estimate of the cost of the work 
was $4,071,216, and the whole amount appro- 
priated to date is $4,208,200, through the years 
from March 3, 1873 t0 J une 4> I &97- The cost 
of the work was really less than the estimates, 
although there were some modifications of plans 

The Kanawha river at its mouth, is 510 feet 
above tide and at Loup creek, the head of the 
upper pool, 596 feet, giving a fall of 86 feet, 
in that distance in the natural river, or an ag- 
gregate lift of 86 feet by the several dams. 
The river was lowest ever known in 1838, then 
in 1 88 1 it was measured and estimated to dis- 
charge, below Elk river, 1,183.5 cubic feet 
per second. In 1878 measurements were made 
while there were 34^ feet above low water 
mark and the discharge was 188,347 cubic feet 
per second, and Elk furnished of this 32,950 
cubic feet. A 6-foot, open river, would dis- 
charge about 10,000 cubic feet per second and 
at a 7-foot stage, about 13,500 feet. 


The coal barges cost from $1,400 to $1,800 
each and last about ten years. They generally 
are about 130 feet long, 25 feet wide and 7^ 
feet deep, and a barge carries from 10,000 to 
15,000 bushels or from 400 to 600 tons; 520 
tons or 13,000 bushels per barge is a fair av- 
erage, equal to a train of 26 cars of 20 tons 

A small tow of four barges, easily handled 
by a small tug, will have near or quite 50,000 
bushels, or enough to fill 100 freight cars, and 



a good tow-boat handles from 4 to 14 barges, 
and from Point Pleasant down, a fleet of 30 
barges or a train about 7 miles long. The 
tow-boat "Andrews" took out 28 barges or 
420,000 bushels, which would fill 840 cars, 
which would require a track about 8 miles 

The average rate on coal handled by the C. 
& O. R. R. in 1899, was 2.74 mills per ton 
mile, which is considered among the lowest 
rates of railroads in the U. S., but for water 
transportation, the rate is about one-half of 
that, to Louisville 1.21 mills per ton per mile, 
and to New Orleans about one- fourteenth of a 
cent per ton per mile, and as low as these rates 
are, there is coal shipped at still cheaper rates. 



This more than doubles the time 
which coal can be shipped and greatly reduces 
the cost and risks of transportation. Before 
the locks and dams were built, there was on 
the average but 136 days per annum when coal 
could be shipped. Now there is 6 feet, or 
more, nearly all the year round in Kanawha. 
The average shipping time for coal in the Ohio 
from Point Pleasant down is 250 days, which 
will be greatly bettered and increased in the 
course of a few years by the completion of the 
locks and dams now under way in that river. 

In this connection, reference should be made 
to the "flooding out" of coal barges from the 
mouth of the Kanawha by supplementing small 
risers in the Ohio with water drawn from the 
pools of the movable dams. This was inaugu- 
rated by Engineer A. M. Scott soon after the 
completion of the dams; in the fall of 1899, 
4,000,000 bushels of Kanawha coal were 
shipped to market in that way. This plan 
afterwards met with opposition from the de- 
partment, or the engineering officer in charge, 
but under the present able and progressive 
management — that of Capt. Alstatter and his 
resident assistant, Mr. Thomas E. Jeffries, this 
novel and important feature of the movable 
dams is now successfully followed. The com- 
pletion of this work gives safer, cheaper, 
quicker and more continuous navigation and 
makes an era of improvement in the Kanawha 
valley, and cannot be overestimated. 

In 1875 there were shipped from the Great 
Kanawha river 4,048,300 bushels or 161,932 
tons, while in 1900 it was 31,017,000 bushels 
or 1,240,680 tons, and the increase seems to be 

Not only coal, but timber, staves, bark, wood, 
poles, lath, railroad ties, shingles, brick, salt, 
merchandise and produce, making in the year 
1900 a tonnage of other things than coal, of 

1 .475.93° tons- 
Owing to the fact that the Kanawha mov- 
able dams were the first built in America, and 
to the marked success of the Kanawha im- 
provement, both from an engineering and a 
commercial standpoint, much — volumes it may 
be said, has been written about it. Much of 
this information is found published in official 
government reports and in technical journals; 
for a more detailed account than can be given 
here of the construction and operation of this 
important work, and of the personnel of the 
engineering and inspection force identified with 
it, the lay reader is referred to the B. & F. His- 
tory of the Kanawha Valley (1891), and to 
the West Virginia Historical Magazine of 
April, 1 90 1. 


By Addison M. Scott. 

No history of the Great Kanawha river im- 
provement would be complete without promi- 
nent reference to the late General William P. 
Craighill, under whose supervision the slack- 
water system was begun and nearly completed. 
This distinguished engineer officer was born in 
Charleston, Jefferson county (then Virginia), 
in 1833. He graduated at West Point, second 
in his class, in 1853, served first as second 
lieutenant of engineers and was advanced suc- 
cessively to the different grades in his corps to 
the highest, being made brigadier general and 
chief of engineers in May, 1895. 

He gave up charge of the Baltimore district 
of fortifications and river and harbor improve- 
ments, the latter including the works from the 
Susquehanna to Cape Fear, and as far west 
as the Great Kanawha river (a post he had 
filled since 1865) when appointed chief of en- 
gineers thirty years later. This district em- 
braced some important works both in the line of 



fortification and river and harbor improve- 
ments. The deep dredged channel in the Balti- 
more harbor constructed under him, bears his 
name. The closing of one of the mouths of 
the Cape Fear river by use, in part, of log and 
brush mattresses, afterwards extensively used 
along the coast, was a notable engineering suc- 
cess and a work of much importance. 

In a memoir of General Craighill, published 
in "Transactions" (Dec. 1909) of the Ameri- 
can Society of Civil Engineers, a review of the 
various important works executed in the Balti- 
more district under him concludes as follows : 

"Perhaps the most notable and successful of 
the works was the canalization of the Great 
Kanawha river, in which the Chanoine system 
of movable dams is used * * * the first 
Chanoine dam actually constructed and placed 
in service in the United States was in the Great 
Kanawha river under Colonel Craighill." 

To recur to his early manhood; at the out- 
break of the Civil War Lieutenant Craighill, 
though decidedly a "Union man," thought seri- 
ously of resigning from the army and following 
the fortunes of his native state, rather than 
take up arms against the South; he was per- 
suaded, it is said, by General Winfield Scott, 
not to resign on condition that he be kept in the 
engineer corps. His record as an engineer of- 
ficer during the war — a highly creditable one, 
can be but briefly referred to here. On March 
3, 1865, he was made brevet lieutenant colonel 
"for faithful and meritorious services during 
the war, and particularly for services rendered 
in defense of Cumberland Gap and the ulterior 
operations of General Morgan's forces." He 
also received the brevet of colonel "for gallant 
and meritorious services during the rebellion," 
but this he declined. 

After graduating in 1853, Lieutenant Craig- 
hill was on duty several years at important 
points on fortifications and improvements along 
the coast — at Savannah, Dry Tortugas, 
Charleston Harbor, etc. In 1856, he went to 
Washington as assistant to the chief of engi- 
neers, and' both before and after the war served 
for considerable time as assistant professor of 
engineering at West Point. 

His services after November, 1865, the date 
of his taking charge of the Baltimore district 

of fortifications and river and harbor work 
have been briefly referred to. In addition to 
his regular duties he served on many boards 
formed for the consideration of projected im- 
provements, embracing many of the principal 
rivers and harbors throughout the United 
States. He made five trips to the Pacific coast 
on this duty. 

From 1884 until 1895, Colonel Craighill, 
while retaining charge of the Baltimore dis^ 
trict, was division engineer of the southeast di- 
vision which included several other districts of 
the river and harbor work. In this connection, 
the following additional extract from the me- 
moir before referred to is interesting, particu- 
larly as showing his general method of looking 
after his numerous wor-ks. 

"The division engineer's visits were always 
welcome, and he took a keen interest in the 
work of the younger men, approving their 
methods whenever practicable ; for he said T 
have found that generally there are several 
ways of accomplishing a given result and that 
it is best to follow the plan of the man who 
is to do the work, provided that plan is sensible.' 
A truth not always appreciated by superiors. 
At another time he said to a young officer who 

— , I 

was reporting to him for duty — 'Mr 
propose to be the laziest man in this district and 
do not propose to do anything that can be done 
by my assistants.' It is needless to say that 
under such a man, the assistants always did 
their best." In this connection, it is natural to 
refer to another peculiarity or principle of the 
man (a somewhat rare one too, it must be 
said), still better calculated to make men under 
him do their best — that of giving them due 
credit for their work. His sense of justice was 
too great, and he was too big a man to do 
otherwise, and his assistants knew that their 
chief not only appreciated good work and faith- 
ful service, but would take pleasure in acknowl- 
edging it. He was a close observer and a 
good judge of men. If he trusted a man, he 
was inclined to trust him fully. On the other 
hand, it used to be said, and I think with much 
truth, that if a man once fell under his distrust 
he never escaped from it. 

Though as an army officer he properly took 
no part in politics, he was active and promi- 



nent in many lines of civic duty. The Episco- 
pal church, of which he was a lifelong mem- 
ber, made him its deputy from the diocese of 
West Virginia to ten successive general con- 
ventions, and also a delegate to the Pan-Angel- 
ican conference in London, in 1908. He was 
a member of the Malta Lodge of Masons, 
Charlestown, West Virginia, from 1855, to his 
death. He was a member of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, 
and the sole honorary member of the Historical 
Society of Maryland. In 1897, the Washing- 
ton and Lee University conferred on him the 
degree of LL. D. 

The following offices were offered to him at 
various times and declined, viz : Commandant 
of Cadets at Virginia Military Institute; charge 
of the water department of Baltimore ; superin- 
tendent of West Point Academy; president of 
the University of West Virginia ; superin- 
tendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey and 
membership in the Isthmian Canal Commission. 

He became a member of the American So- 
ciety of Civil Engineers in 1885, served on the 
board of direction two years, and was elected 
president in 1894. As president, he made an 
enviable record; something of an understand- 
ing of this and of his unusually fine social quali- 
ties will be gained from the following extract 
from the memoir before quoted from, found in 
the Transactions of the Society. "As a presid- 
ing officer, he was exceedingly efficient, com- 
bining in a rare degree seldom equalled, affa- 
bility, tolerance, tact, dignity, retentiveness of 
memory and a swift comprehension of a contro- 
verted point. A decision never appeared to be 
made too quickly nor was there any uncertainty 
when rendered. 

"It is believed that no officer of the society 
made, in so few years, so many friends among 
the younger members of the society ; for to the 
young engineer, his courteous and kindly at- 
tention were equally a delight to the recipient 
and to the observer. 

"He was in all respects well rounded — a man 
of many parts. * * * He undoubtedly 
possessed the attributes essential to success in 
any walk of life, wherein he would as surely 
have made his mark, as he did in that of the 
engineering profession which he adorned so 

General Craighill was twice married, first 
in 1856, to Mary A. Morsell, daughter of 
Judge Morsell of Washington, D. C, and in 
1874, several years after his first wife's death, 
to Rebecca C. Jones, daughter of Rev. Alex- 
ander Jones of Richmond, Virginia. He had 
three sons and three daughters. Two of his 
sons are civil engineers, one in military and 
the other in civil life. The one in the army, 
William E., graduated second in his class at 
West Point in 1885, and is now major of en- 
gineers. The other son. Dr. James M. Craig- 
hill, resides in Baltimore. . 

General Craighill died at his home and 
birthplace in Charlestown, West Virginia, June 
18, 1909, and is buried there. 

This brief and inadequate sketch leaves un- 
noticed many of the fine attainments and noble 
characteristics of an able, accomplished, up- 
right and warm hearted man — one who filled 
well his part in life and of whom his native 
state has just cause to be proud. 


Kanawha and Charleston have numerous 
railroads, which may be mentioned as the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, the Kanawha 
and Michigan Railroad, the Virginian Railroad, 
The Coal and Coke Railroad, the Kanawha and 
West Virginia Railroad and the Coal River 
Railroad. The branches of these various rail- 
roads, extending up the various streams to 
bring out the coal, timber and other products 
— short lines and feeders — are too numerous 
to mention. 

The Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. The 
Legislature of Virginia, in 1836, chartered a 
railroad with a capital of $300,000, to build a 
road through the county of Louisa, from the 
Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potoi"nac Rail- 
road. This was known as the Louisa Rail- 
road. It was completed from Hanover Junc- 
tion to Louisa Court House, thirty-six miles, 
and was operated for some time by the Rich- 
mond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Co. It 
was subsequently extended in short sections, 
first fourteen miles to Gordonsville, thence 
twenty-one miles to Charlottesville, thence 
thirty-nine miles to Staunton, thence forty 
miles to Millsboro, and thence twenty miles to 
Jackson's river. The war came on and it re- 



mained stationary until 1867, when it was com- 
pleted to Covington, a distance of ten miles. 
It was known as the Virginia Central, now the 
Chesapeake and Ohio. 

It required an extraordinary effort to get 
rid of the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Poto- 
mac Company in its control of the new road. 
The want of means, rival interests and other 
matters, made it difficult to construct the same, 
and it will be seen that it progressed but slowly. 
In 1848, it placed a contract for an independent 
route from Richmond to where the junction 
was with the R. F. & P. Co., twenty-seven 
miles. In 1850, the name was changed to Vir- 
ginia Central, and Virginia guaranteed its 
bonds for $100,000, the policy of the General 
Assembly being to carry the road to the Wa- 
ters of the Ohio River. The construction of 
the road from Staunton to Covington was one 
of great difficulty. While waiting for the com- 
pletion of the tunnel through the Blue Ridge, 
they hauled the rails across the ridge at Rock 
Fish Gap and laid the road from Waynesboro 
to Staunton. They found this too expensive. 
Instead they built a track over the top of the 
mountain, with grades of 300 feet to the mile, 
and worked it until the tunnel was completed. 
It contemplated having a terminus at Big 
Sandy, also at Point Pleasant, and never ceased 
until it aimed to have a line from Norfolk to 
San Francisco, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 
E. Fontaine was the first president and served 
up to 1868. 

See Act incorporating Louisa Railroad (Va. 
Legislature), Feb. 18, 1836. 

Act extending the Louisa R. R. to Blue 
Ridge, March 8, 1847. 

Act for extension to the dock in Richmond, 
March 27, 1848. 

Act incorporating Blue Ridge Road, March 
5. 1849. _ 

Extension from Staunton to Covington, Jan- 
uary 30, 1850. 

Changing name to Virginia Central, Febru- 
ary 2, 1850. 

Increasing capital stock of the Central R. R., 
December 15, 1852. 

Incorporating the Covington and Ohio, Feb- 
ruary 26, 1866. 

Same by West Va. Legislature, March 1, 

Commissioners on the part of Virginia, ap- 
pointed by last act, -were John B. Baldwin, 
George W. Boiling, T. S. Flournoy, R. H. 
Maury and W. J. Robertson. On the part of 
West Virginia: George W. Summers, James 
Burley, Barton Daspard, Joel McPherson and 
James O. Watson. 

Act for completion of line from Chesapeake 
to the Ohio River, March 1, 1867. 

Same in West Virginia, February 26, 1867. 
Act amending charter of West Va. Central, 
February 26, 1867. 

Act amending charter of West Va. Central. 
March 3, 1868, 

After the appointment of the commissioners 
above named, they went to New York to see 
what could be done and these consultations 
were continued from time to time. The first 
commissioners died and others were substituted 
until C. P. Huntington obtained the line of 
road, the franchise and benefits, and proceeded 
with the work. About 1872 the work was 
completed and the road was running through 
to the Ohio River in 1873. It continued mov- 
ing along westward to Cincinnati, and from 
Ashland through Kentucky to Louisville. 
There was a road made down the James River, 
along the canal from Lynchburg, and extended 
up to Clifton Forge, this becoming a part of 
the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. 

During the time that Mr. Huntington was 
building the line to the Ohio, it passed through 
several gradations and sales, under several 
names, but kept along westward and toward 
its completion until it has become one of the 
main lines of the country. It has its extension 
to the Pacific, even from Newport News on the 
Atlantic. The subject has become too large to 
treat of in detail in one book. 


The "Coal River Basin" is a territory lying 
southeast of the city of St. Albans about seven- 
teen miles, and comprises about 800,000 or 
1,000,000 acres of land, under which are de- 
posited some of the finest bituminous coal veins 
in the world ; considering the width of the veins 
and the richness of the same, as well as- their 
great variety, it may be said with safety that 
they are unequaled in richness in the United 



This great basin lies enclosed within the wa- 
ters of the "Big Coal River" and its principal 
branch, the Little Coal River, which when 
united flow into the Kanawha at St. Albans. 

Obviously this rich coal basin many years ago 
attracted the attention of investors and coal 
operators. As early as 1852 large tracts of 
lands were purchased by Major Peyton and as- 
sociates on the waters of Big Coal River, and 
an extensive opening and operation was made 
by them on Drawdy Creek in a very rich vein 
of cannel coal. This operation was known as 
the "Peytona Cannel Coal Co." and in order 
to get their coal to market, the "Big Coal 
River" was navigated by a series of locks and 
dams, operated by an auxiliary company known 
as the "Coal River Navigation Company." 
This improvement extended from Peytona to 
the City of St. Albans, where the barges were 
floated out into the Great Kanawha River, and 
from thence to the Ohio River, and down the 
Ohio and Mississippi to New Orleans, where 
the product was marketed. 

This enterprise was successfully prosecuted, 
but owing to the great expense of maintaining 
the locks and dams, which were constructed of 
timber, the costs of maintenence seriously re- 
duced the profits. 

This continued up to the time of the Civil 
War, when the locks and dams fell into decay 
and were dismantled. After the close of the 
war, the Cannel Coal Company resumed oper- 
ations, repaired the navigation system, and con- 
ducted the business successfully until about 
1876. In the meantime the Chesapeake & Ohio 
Railroad Company had constructed its lines 
through St. Albans, and a branch line of that 
road was constructed to the first lock of the 
navigation system, and the coal was from thence 
trans-shipped from the barge to the car and 
distributed into Washington, Baltimore and 
New York. Finally, however, the navigation 
system became dilapidated and out of repair, 
and the mining company at Peytona became in- 
volved in serious litigation, and thus in about 
the year 1880, the workings of the company 
were suspended. 

After that, various attempts were made to 
construct a railroad into this important coal 
field; capitalists were tempted by the long dis- 

tance by the river's course to make short cuts 
into the basin by constructing railroads up the 
creeks that flow from the Northern rim of the 
basin into the Kanawha. Short lines were 
constructed up Davis Creek, Lens Creek, Fields 
Creek, and Cabin Creek, but all of these efforts 
were unsucessful owing to the heavy grades and 
the impossibility, without great expense, of tun- 
neling the mountain range that forms the North- 
ern boundary of the "basin." 

Various charters were taken out to construct 
the railroad up the Coal River route, but noth- 
ing was done with them until- the appearance of 
a gentleman in St. Albans by the name of Col- 
onel Michael Patrick O'Hern, who was in- 
timately connected with this enterprise, and 
was a gentleman of such remarkable character 
that we desire to give a brief sketch of the 
man and his career. 


As indicated by his name, he was born in 
Ireland — in the city of Limerick — and at an 
early date emigrated to the United States; he 
learned the bookbinder's trade in New York, 
and became one of the largest blank book man- 
ufacturers in the United States, at that period. 
He rapidly rose in wealth and distinction, until 
about 1849 and 1850, when the gold excitement 
broke out in California. He then promoted a 
syndicate which purchased and equipped a large 
fleet of clipper packet ships, and established a 
freight and passenger line between New York 
and San Francisco. Apprehending the con- 
struction of the Panama railroad, he sold out 
his interest in this fleet for a very large sum of 
money, and at an enormous profit, and engaged 
in railway construction. He constructed various 
lines of railroad in the United States, among 
which was the "Belt Line," around the City of 

Seeing the rapid demand for bituminous coal, 
in the sixties, he purchased and opened the 
celebrated Georges Creek field in Maryland, 
and at one time was one of the largest bitumin- 
ous coal operators in the United States. Un- 
fortunate investments and speculations carried 
him down in the panic of 1873. Some years 
after that his attention was attracted, together 
with another wealthy coal operator, Burr Wake- 



man, to the Coal River coal basin, and he spent 
the balance of his life in the endeavor to push 
a railroad into that great field. He also con- 
ceived the real truth as a railroad constructor, 
that the only way to gain entry into the "Coal 
River Basin," was by constructing a railroad 
along the banks of Coal River; as he used to 
say frequently, "railroads will run where rivers 

This gentleman organized the St. Albans & 
Coal River Railroad Co. in 1886, or 1887, se- 
cured rights of way by purchase through the 
narrows of Coal River, and spent the balance of 
his life in endeavoring to secure the capital to 
construct it. However, he became advanced in 
years, his sight was impared, and having little 
money of his own, he was unable to secure the 
confidence of capitalists in his ability to handle 
the enterprise, although no question was made 
as to his integrity, character, or honesty of pur- 
pose. He was a gentleman with the most pleas- 
ing and gentle manners, kind and generous, and 
in every way loveable to all those friends who 
knew him well. He died in 1897. 

During the latter part of his life, his legal 
counsel was Judge J. B. C. Drew of Charles- 
ton, and after his death, his only daughter and 
heir, Miss Sally O'Hern, advised Judge Drew 
that she neither had the inclination or the means 
to prosecute the railway enterprise, but re- 
quested him to make arrangements whereby her 
father's indebtedness, and the indebtedness of 
the railroad company could be paid out of the 
property; whereupon Judge Drew organized a 
syndicate of himself and associates, paid the 
judgment liens and other debts against Mr. 
O'Hern's estate, and reorganized the company 
under the statutes of West Virginia under the 
name of the St. Albans & Boone Railroad Com- 
pany. The syndicate purchased a terminal at 
St. Albans of about 500 acres, and various tracts 
of land in the Coal River Basin, and endeav- 
ored to secure capital for the construction of 
the railroad, but owing to the quiet opposition 
of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad Company, 
who desired to exploit this great coal basin at 
their own time, and by extending their own rail- 
road there, but little progress was made until 
some years later, when General C. C. Watts and 
associates conceived and actively prosecuted the 

Seeing that there was not room for two rail- 
roads, the two enterprises were practicaly con- 
solidated, and General Watts and Judge Drew 
united their efforts to build the railroad, but 
were unsuccessful up to 1901, when General 
Watts opened negotiations with John V. R. 
Skinner and E. E. Fox of Massillon, Ohio, who 
organized a syndicate composed of themselves 
and others from Cleveland, Canton, and Coshoc- 
ton, Ohio, prominent among whom were Con- 
gressman J. W. Cassingham, and Judge Wm. 
A. Lynch. This organization owned large and 
important tracts of coal land in the Coal River 
basin. A "memorandum plan" was adopted 
whereby a portion of the railway stock was sold 
to the Ohio syndicate, and an agreement was 
made for the issuance of bonds of the railroad 
company, which were subscribed and purchased 
by the Ohio syndicate, and out of the funds 
thus furnished, the first actual construction of 
the Coal River Railroad was begun in August, 
1902. The work was under the supervision of 
Mr. Skinner, and was completed to the mouth 
of Fork Creek on Big Coal River, a distance of 
17 miles, in 1904. 

The road was equipped, and operated for a 
period of about eighteen months, when the 
shareholders of the railroad company made sat- 
isfactory arrangements with the Chesapeake & 
Ohio Railway Co. for the shipment of the coals 
from the lands owned by them ; the General 
Watts Syndicate and the "Ohio syndicate" then 
sold their shares to Senator W. A. Sproul of 
Pennsylvania, who subsequently sold the same 
to the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Co. who 
are operating the road at this time, having ex- 
tended the system up both Big and Little Coal 
rivers, embracing a mileage of about eighty- 
five miles. 

Marvelous developments have attended the 
building and extension of this railroad, until 
it has become the principal freight and passen- 
ger feeder of the main line of the Chesapeake 
& Ohio Railway west of Richmond. 

In 1899 Judge Drew and associates had pur- 
chased of the late D. W. Emmons of Hunting- 
ton, a tract of land on Brier Creek, of the 
waters of Big Coal River, of about 6,000 acres 
in extent, underlaid with the celebrated "Black 
Band coal ;" they opened mines on the same, and 
constructed a line of railroad into the interior 



of the tract about four miles in length, connect- 
ing with the main line of the Coal River Rail- 


The present company was twenty-one years 
old on April 25th, 1911, having been incorpo- 
rated in 1890, but before that date the railway 
itself had appeared under many different names, 
the first being the Guyandotte and Ohio River 
Railroad and Mineral Company, chartered by 
an act of Legislature, February 28, 1872, to 
build a railroad, but which was unable to carry 
out its intention. Possibly the name was too 
much of a handicap for on April 26, 1881 it 
was changed to the Atlantic and Northwestern 
Railroad Company. 

The Richmond, Toledo and Chicago Railroad 
Company on February 21, 1881, was incorpo- 
rated to build from some point on the Ohio 
River in Mason County through the Counties 
of Mason, Putnam, Kanawha, Fayette, Raleigh, 
Summers, Monroe and Mercer to the state line 
and on June 27, 1881 this company sold its 
oroperty, rights and franchises to the Atlantic 
and Northwestern Railroad Company. 

North of the Ohio River the Atlantic and 
Lake Erie Railway Company was incorporated 
June 12, 1869, to build from Pomeroy on the 
Ohio River in Meigs County, northward 
through central Ohio to Toledo. This company 
likewise found it desirable to change its name 
April 29, 1876 to the Ohio Central Railway 
Company, which succeeded in building 28 miles 
of line between Bremen and Central City, 
Ohio, before passing into the hands of a re- 
ceiver, July 9, 1877. March 26, 1878 the Co- 
lumbus and Sunday Creek Valley Railroad 
Company purchased the middle portion of the 
unfinished line, namely between Central City 
and Athens, and on the same day the Ohio 
Central Railroad Company purchased the north 
end of the line between Central City and Toledo 
and the south end between Athens and the Ohio 
River. December 20, 1879 these companies 
were consolidated as the Ohio Central Railroad 
Company, by January 1, 1880, the line had been 
completed from Thurston to Corning, and June 
30,1882 the line having been constructed from 
'wniing to the Ohio River, was consolidated 

with the Atlantic & Northwestern Railroad 
Company under the name of the Ohio Central 
Railroad Company, this company went into 
the hands of receivers Oct. 31, 1883, in the 
meantime .however, the bridge over the Ohio 
river had been constructed and the line extended 
from Pt. Pleasant to Charleston. On October 
22, 1885 the railroad in Ohio was sold to the 
Ohio and Kanawha Railway Company, the 
portion in West Virginia to the Kanawha and 
Ohio Railway Company, on June 25, 1886, the 
bridge was sold to the Pt. Pleasant Bridge 
Company. The two ends of the railroad were 
again consolidated April 20, 1886 as the Kana- 
wha and Ohio Railway Company, which how- 
ever passed into the hands of a receiver Feb- 
ruary 19, 1889. The present company, the 
Kanawha and Michigan Railway Company, was 
incorporated April 25th, 1890 and on July 1, 
1890, purchased the Charleston and Gauley 
Railway from Charleston to Dickinson which 
was then extended to a connection with the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Railway at Gauley Bridge 
and opened for operation August 21, 1893. 

For the first ten years of its existence the 
present company was controlled by The Toledo 
& Ohio Central Railway Company and made 
little, if any, advancement; for the next ten 
years it was controlled by the Hocking Valley 
Railway Company and during this period its 
first real development took place. Through the 
financial aid and co-operation of the Hocking 
Valley Railway Company it was enabled to se- 
cure the equipment necessary to secure traffic 
and its earnings were used to bring the line up 
to the requirements of modern transportation. 

In March, 1910 the control of the company 
again changed hands and is now owned jointly 
by The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway Company 
and The Lake Shore and Michigan Southern 
Railway Company, each of which owns more 
than four-ninths of its capital stock. The con- 
trol of the property by these two great cor- 
porations, which are vigorous competitors for 
business at all points, augurs well for the future 
of the property and assures its continuous de- 


This line of transportation extends from 
Charleston on the Kanawha up Elk River to 



Elkins in Randolph county, where it unites with 
other roads, going eastward to the coast at Bal- 
timore and other cities. This road began as 
a small affair, and was known as the Black- 
Jack-Railroad. But little had been done there- 
on when it went into the hands of the Charles- 
ton-Clendenin and Sutton Railroad Company 
in 1 890- 1 904, when it became the Coal and 
Coke Railroad. Henry G. Davis is the presi- 
dent thereof. 

While in the control of the Charleston-Clen- 
denin and Sutton it was built to Clay Court 
House — about sixty miles — and by the C. & C. 
Ry. Co. to "Roaring Creek," near Elkins — 183 
miles. Senator Elkins was greatly interested 
in the Coal & Coke Railroad and was doing 
much to make it pay. 

We find in the Superior Court of Appeals 
the record of the suit in which is involved the 
question whether the two-cent railroad fare 
was or was not legal in the case of this road, 
owing to the fact that the country through 
which it runs is a sparsely settled one with but 
little development, etc. 

Like all railroads, the C. & C. Ry. Co. has 
had complaints made of it, to the effect that it 
was running to help its own concerns and in- 
dustries and that when there was waiting to 
be done, it was the other fellows that had to 

This road passes through territory filled with 
coal, timber, oil and gas, that may make a good 
farming country some day. It has the pros- 
pects for great wealth in its future development 
and in the hands of Mr. Davis, its president, it 
should grow in favor of all men. 


The Virginian Railroad. — This railroad runs 
its cars from Charleston to the South and East, 
through the great Pocahontas coal field, 
through Blue Stone, Bluefield, Radford and 
Roanoke to Norfolk. It is a different road 
from all other roads ; it is well built and well 
managed and, while it may not make as much 
noise as some, it keeps going and hauls as much 
coal or more and does as much business as any 


The Kanawha and West Virginia Railroad 

This is a short line running up Elk, on the 
north side of Elk River, until it reaches the 
mouth of Blue Creek, and then it crosses Elk 
River and the Coal and Coke Railroad and 
proceeds up the creek known as Blue Creek to- 
ward the Gauley River. It is passing through 
coal, oil, gas, timber, farming land and a good 
country, and is developing all of these products. 
Lately an oil well has been found at the mouth 
of Blue Creek which promises a new oil field. 

c. c. & s. R. R. 

The Charleston, Clendenin & Sutton R. R. 
Co. was built from Charleston 64 miles up Elk 
river; 28 miles was added and crossed Elk and 
from Elkins to Charleston is 175.6 miles; with 
its branches, C. & C. is- 199.8 miles. It con- 
nects at Charleston with the Kanawha & Mich- 
igan Railroad and over the K. & M. tracks with 
the Chesapeake & Ohio. The Coal and Coke 
trains arrive and depart from the depot in 
Charleston from the station of the Kanawha & 
Michigan Railroad. They have thirty loco- 
motives, twenty-four passenger cars, and 2,186 
freight cars, etc. ; and cost of this equipment is 
$1,885,956.30. From Elkins via Western 
Maryland R. R. you pass through Parsons, 
Hendricks, Thomas to Piedmont on the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad. 


The Davis Creek Railroad has been in a 
crippled condition, owing to the overflow of 
said creek and the washing-out of many of its 
bridges and culverts about the time of a change 
in the management of the coal property along 
its line. This property must vjrae to the 
front as a coal property and it must have this 
railroad repaired. 

b. & o. R. R. 

There is the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 
with its main line through the north end of the 
state, from Wheeling and from Parkersburg 
to Grafton and eastward to Washington and 
Baltimore ; also from Pittsburg down the Ohio 
river through Ravenswood, Millwood, Point 
Pleasant, Huntington and Kenova, and from 
the Ohio to Spencer in Roane County and to 



Ripley in Jackson; and other lines directing 
their ways to Kanawha on all sides. 

The Norfolk and Western Railroad is al- 
most the only road that has not made an at- 
tempt to reach Kanawha County. We know 
that it runs from Hagerstown, Md., south 
through Virginia to Barie and to Roanoke. 
We know that it runs from the Ohio river at 
Kenova up Dandy river, through Wayne, Lo- 
gan, Mingo, through the towns of Welch, 
Bluefield, Radford and Roanoke, and from 
Roanoke to Norfolk. 

With the railroads and the rivers, it must 
be said that the Kanawha country is blessed 
with the facilities to go almost anywhere with- 
out doing much walking, which was not the 
case when Daniel Boone represented this 
county in the legislature, for, it will be remem- 
bered, he walked all the way to the Capitol and 
back home again, carrying his baggage. 


This may be called a short line, or a begin- 
ning of a line that may be made a very im- 
portant one to Charleston. It runs on the 
lower side of Elk river, opposite to that occu- 
pied by the Coal and Coke R. R., and when it 
reaches the Blue Creek vicinity, it crosses Elk 
River and goes up Blue Creek into the coal-oil- 
gas country, heading its way into the Gauley 
river country. It finds plenty of coal and tim- 
ber to haul, and like the C. & C. R. R., can 
hitch on to the Kanawha and Michigan Rail- 
road and ship almost anywhere ' north, of it 
may utilize the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad or 
the "Virginian" and ship east or south. 


In 1898 the Charleston Traction Company 
was bought at sheriff's sale by W. W. Hazard. 

At that time the Company had its lines on Vir- 
ginia Street, Capitol, Washington, and Brad- 
ford Streets, Tennessee and Bigley Avenues. 
The cars, six in number, were of the single 
truck type, with only one man, the motorman, 
in charge of each car. In 1900 it was bought by 
T. J. Carmack, and its name changed to the 
Kanawha Valley Traction Company ; and under 
this management several new cars were placed 
in service. He, in turn, sold to the United 
States Natural Gas Company, in 1904, and the 
next year the road was bought by W. C. 
Sproul and associates, among whom was Hon. 
W. E. Chilton. The road remained in the 
hands of this company for five years, during 
which time it developed into a modern and up- 
to-date traction line. Track was laid on Up- 
per Virginia and Washington Streets, Dryden 
and Patrick Streets, and the line was extended 
to the Kelly Axe Plant in West Charleston and 
to Edgewood Park. The company bought 
eighteen new cars and otherwise increased the 
efficiency of the service. 

At the beginning of 1910 the Charleston Iii- 
terurban Railroad Company was formed, with 
Hon. W. E. Chilton as president, Hon. W. A. 
MacCorkle, vice-president and F. M. Staunton, 
secretary and treasurer. This company leased 
the present lines of the Kanawha Valley Trac- 
tion Company, with the intention of extending 
the road to St. Albans in one direction and to 
Montgomery in the other. The line was im- 
mediately extended as far down the river as 
South Charleston and will be, as soon as is 
practicable, further extended. The company 
employ about 75 men and operate 11 cars reg- 
ularly. The large power plant and car barns 
are located on Virginia Street near Tennessee 



Township Act of 1863 — Commissioners for Kanawha County — The County Divided into Ten 
Townships — The Word "Township" Changed to "District" — Sketches of Poca, Union, Jef- 
ferson, Washington, Loudon, Cabin Creek, Maiden, Elk, Big Sandy and Charleston Dis- 
tricts and of Brownstown (or Marmet), St. Albans, Maiden, and Other Towns. 

The State of West Virginia was formed by 
setting apart certain counties in the western 
part of Virginia to constitute said state. After 
the state was made, the said Counties remained 
the same, and then the Constitution of 1863 
provided that each county should be divided into 
townships, not less than three, nor more than 

This division was a new thing in name and 
it was borrowed from the northern states — 
each Township should elect its own officers — 
the Supervisors, elected by each Township, 
should constitute a Board, known as the Super- 
visors of the county, the governing body of the 

An Act (ch. 27, 1863) provided for the ap- 
pointment of commissioners to divide each 
county into townships — for Kanawha, the Com- 
missioners were ; George Belcher, John T. Rey- 
nolds, John Atkinson, Hiram Holston, Andrew 
Cunningham, David Shirkey and John L. Coke. 

The Townships for Kanawha were ten in 
number, and the names given were ; Big Sandy, 
Elk, Poca, Union, Jefferson, Washington, Lou- 
don, Cabin Creek, Maiden and Charleston; 
they met and made, laid out and bounded, each 
township, which is made of record. 

The Constitution of 1872, provided that each 
county should be laid off into Districts, not less 
than three, nor more than ten, and that the 
"present subdivision of the counties by town- 
ships shall constitute such districts," etc. This 
abolished townships and supervisors and substi- 

tuted districts and the County Court, in the 
place thereof. 


Big Sandy District. This lies on both sides 
of Elk River, next to Roane and Clay Counties 
and includes the territory watered by Big Sandy 
River, and part by Little Sandy, on the North 
side of Elk; and on the South side, by Morris 
Creek, Leather Wood and Falling Rock Creeks. 
The district is noted for its coal, oil and es- 
pecially its natural gas. It has many good 
farms and good substantial people, plenty of 
timber, bark and whoop-poles, and it has one 
town Clendenin, on Elk, at the mouth of Big 
Sandy, which has saw-mills, a national bank, 
two bridges and stores, shops and things that a 
town generally has, and a good place to locate 
factories, where cheap fuel is desired, and good 
people are appreciated. They have no saloons, 
but do have churches and schoolhouses. 

Big Sandy is the most eastern of all the dis- 
tricts into which Kanawha is divided. Roane 
county forms its northern boundary, Clay 
county lies to the east and Elk district to the 
west. Elk river flows in a southwestern direc- 
tion and divides it into two nearly equal parts. 
Falling Rock creek, Leather Wood creek and 
Morris creek rise in the southern part, have 
a northwest course, and empty into Elk river. 
Big Sandy creek drains the southwestern part 
of Roane county and finds its way in a south- 
west direction through this district and dis- 




charges its waters into Elk, four miles below 
Queen Shoals. 

John Young, the first white settler in the dis- 
trict, located on what is now known as the old 
"Norman Young plantation," about the year 
1790. William Naylor came in 1795 and set- 
tled at the mouth of Jordan's creek, seventeen 
miles above Charleston. When he came he 
found John Slack living just above the mouth of 
Mill creek, John Young, as before mentioned 
nearly opposite Falling Rock creek, Edmund 
Price nearly opposite the mouth of Blue creek 
and William Cobb, M. D. — the first physician 
on Elk river — residing one mile up Big Sandy, 
not far from the present site of Osborn's Mills. 
These were the only settlers in this part of the 
Elk valley in 1795; but soon thereafter John 
Stricklin, John Hayse, George Osborne, John 
Snyder, James Hill and Henry Hill found 
homes on the banks of Elk river. 

Frontier life as it really appeared to these 
early settlers, was well described by Stephen 
Naylor — a son of William — who when a boy 
played amid the wild scenery of this then wild 
country. Mr. Naylor said : "My first school 
teacher was John Slack ; the second was Robert 
Mitchell. We had two ways of getting bread 
— the hominy-block and hand-mill; for a sieve 
we stretched a piece of deer skin over a hoop 
and then perforated it by burning holes with 
an ordinary table fork. After several years my 
father built a mill on Jordan's creek— the first 
in the Elk river country — after which we fared 
better. Our clothing was made from flax and 
cotton which we raised and manufactured with 
our own hands. The' supply of meat came from 
the forest; we killed bear, deer and turkeys, 
and got our salt from salt springs on Kanawha." 


Mr. Naylor farther said : "I remember the 
killing of the last elk killed on Elk river. It 
was on Two-Mile creek. It seemed to be a 
stray one that the wolves or hunters had sep- 
arated from the herd, and driven eastward from 
the wilderness then lying between the Elk and 
Ohio rivers. Its tracks had been discovered on 
the headwaters of Pocatalico river and Big 
Sandy creek, and several hunters were in pur- 
suit of it. One of the name of Burgess shot 

at it while it was swimming Elk river, but 
missed it. Once south of the river it crossed 
the Elk road at the east end of the Cabell farm 
where then stood a large walnut tree. Old 
"Billy" Young saw it from his house and pur- 
sued it to Two-Mile creek, where he shot it 
while standing in a hole of water. He sent 
my father some of the meat, and kept the horns 
for many years. They were so large that when 
standing upon their points a man of ordinary 
height could walk between them without stoop- 
ing. This elk was killed in the year 1818, and 
was the last ever killed in this part of Vir- 

The first minister who visited this section ap- 
pears to have been the Rev. John Bowers, of 
the Methodist Church, in the year 1800. The 
first society organized was that of the M. E. 
Church at Falling Rock creek in 1837. The 
meeting was held in a log cabin and the mem- 
bership at the time of the formation numbered 
40; they continued to worship here until 1857, 
when the place of meeting was removed to Jor- 
dan's creek. 

The Village of Chilton is situated on the 
north bank of Elk river at the mouth of Big 
Sandy creek, twenty-one miles from Charles- 
ton. It was laid out in the year 1877 by William 
E. Chilton, the former proprietor of the lands 
on which it stands. Its present population is 


The town of Clendenin was incorporated 
May 20, 1904. This municipality is located 
on the east bank of Elk river in Big Sandy 
district of Kanawha county, at the mouth of 
Big Sandy river on the Coal & Coke Railroad, 
twenty miles from Charleston. There are by 
the census of 1910 a population of 815 persons 
therein — and this is the first time that it has 
been numbered. 

It is the outgrowth of the Coal & Coke 
road and the Charleston, Clendenin & Sut- 
ton Railroad, the C. & C. succeeding the C. C. 
& S. R. R. Previous to said railroad running 
there, a town was on the opposite side of Elk, 
and was sometimes designated as "Mouth of 
Big Sandy" and sometimes known as "Chil- 
ton" after Squire Chilton, who for several 



years resided therein, and represented said 
district on the old county court. 

The municipal part of the business is now 
done on the east side of Elk near the depot, 
and the station is known as "Clendenin." Be 
sides the railroad, there are several county 
roads leading into the town, coming down Elk 
on both sides and other roads coming frorn^ 
other parts of the county — if we may be par- 
doned for speaking of the ways as roads, for of 
all ways that either teams or horses or people 
ever had to pass over, some of these are the 
worst, and few, if any, could be worse than 
the streets. All this is made so by the un- 
usual amount of hauling with heavily-laden 
wagons, which is in consequence of the oil and 
gas pipes taken from Clendenin. 

Navigation on Elk and Big Sandy rivers 
is about the same as it has ever been, but the 
encroachment on the roads is somewhat im- 
proved of late and the road packets generally 
come in on schedule time or next week. 

The town is not very old but it is very lively. 
The depot indicates much business and the 
bank indicates that it is being transacted. The 
hotels seem to be pretty well filled and so do 
the churches. There is no end to the stores 
and shops and the weekly newspaper gives us 
the latest local news. The merchants have 
abundant stock and a large trade with the 
people and almost everybody has a gas or an 
oil lease to rely on, and the town is growing. 

James Jarrett a few years ago had a fairly 
good cornfield, which has been spoiled with 
streets, alleys, lots and horses. There is 
plenty of good Elk river water to drink, gas 
to burn, but they have voted out the saloon 
and have no use for policemen. This locality 
used to have a few politicians and many Re- 
publicans but they have become too busy to 
waste time in a struggle for petty offices and 
they are now looking for their best men to 
attend to their business. We used to boast 
of Squire Swaar, of James Kelly, of Curt 
Young, Squire Lynch and Squire Young. 
Now we find Mr. James Jarrett, L. L. Kounts, 
Mr. Osborne, Mr. Wiley, Henry B. Campbell, 
Squire Stump and a host of others too 
numerous to mention. 

Among the early families about the mouth 

of Sandy were the Cobbs, including Dr. Cobb, 
who was said to have located there about 
180S-1810; the Prices, Jarretts, Youngs, 
Stricklins, Hays, Mr. Woods, Mr. Davis and 
others. Arch Price killed the last buffalo on 
Elk. In the vicinity there are some queer 
names: "Falling Rock," "Blue Creek," "In- 
dian Creek," "Pinch" and "Potato" creek. 
Clendenin was named for the first settler at 
the mouth of Elk, who was really the founder 
of Charleston in 1788. 

We find, besides, the commercial part of 
the town, the mills, the gas wells and the fac- 
tories therefrom and many lumber enterprises. 
The descendants of Lieutenant John Young 
and Bob Aaron still reside on Elk. Once there 
was a log boom on Elk and small packets 
ran also. There are two bridges at mouth of 
Sandy — one across Big Sandy and the other 
across Elk near by. This town only wants a 
railroad up the Sandy to bring away the coal 
and timber and take the necessities for oil and 
gas wells and the pipes therefor, the grain 
and such like products — this line across to 
Spencer would be a wonderful advantage. 

There are four oil and gas companies ope- 
rating: United Fuel Gas Company, and Hope 
Gas Company, branches of the Standard Oil 
Company, which have been operating here for 
six or seven years ; Koontz Oil and Gas Com- 
pany, organized in 1907 and the Clendenin 
Oil & Gas Company, organized in 1910. 

The First National Bank of Clendenin was 
organized in 1902 with a capital stock of 
$25,000. The deposits amount to $150,000. 
The officers are L. V. Koontz, president ; J. 
A. Osborne, vice-president ; and C. F. Os- 
borne, cashier. 

Among the business enterprises of the town 
we find the following: Robertson & Parris 
Company, general store ; Clendenin Bargain 
Store, dry goods and notions : C. M. Morri- 
son, general store; Roush, Robertson Com- 
pany, general store; P. D. Matheny & Joshua 
Parsons, grocers; J. B. Cook, grocer; King 
Hardware Company, J. W. Parris Lum- 
ber Company; a flouring mill operated by 
David Pettigrew and F. Crowell. The phy- 
sicians of the place are : Dr. Grover C. Rob- 
ertson, Dr. A. L. Morris, Dr. A. C. Van- 



dine, Dr. Charles Stump and Dr. Fox. The 
dentists are : Dr. Milton and Dr. Games. 
The present postmaster is Mr. Riley. 

Thert is a Southern M. E. church in Clen- 
denin. the pastor of which is A. H. Perkins. 
They held services for some time before 
erecting their church building. 

The Baptist church has been organized since 
the town was laid out. Rev. Jonathan Smith 
is the pastor and he is one of the oldest pas- 
tors in the state. There is also a Northern 
M. E. church, whose pastor is Rev. Fallen. 

The first mayor of Clendenin was L. V. 
Koontz and the last, E. R. Oglevee. 

In 1910 the town installed a system of 
waterworks and in the same year a ladder hose 
company was formed, there having been a 
bucket fire department for four or five years. 
In 1905 and 1908 the town was visited by 
fire. There is a very good high school build- 
ing. The public school and high school build- 
ing combined was built in 191 1. 

Fraternally there is the Clendenin Lodge 
No. 26, A. F. & A. M., a lodge of the I. O. O. 
F. and one of the Improved Order of Red 


Poca District lies on the northwest side of 
the county adjoining Jackson county, and is on 
the stream known as Pocatalico river, which 
flows into the Kanawha river about fifteen miles 
below Charleston. It is rather sparsely settled, 
but has some good farms, plenty of timber and 
coal, oil and gas, and is a good district in which 
to live a quiet life and behave yourself. The 
people generally vote the republican ticket. 
They have one town Sissonville, named for an 
old resident, who is almost forgotten, and it 
has not made any special effort to enlarge its 
borders or crowd its boundaries. There are 
some good people in this district, and it adjoins 
Jackson and Roane Counties, which are over- 
flowing with oil and gas, and there are coal 
works on the waters of Poca. 

Kelly's creek, Frogg's creek, and Derrick's 
creek, named respectively from the first settlers 
upon their banks, all flow south and empty into 
Pocatalico. Tupper's creek, named from an 

early trapper, runs northeast and falls into Poca- 
talico. First and Second creeks, named in their 
order from Fisher's settlement at the mouth of 
Tupper's creek, are likewise tributaries of Po- 

The surface of Poca for the most part is 
broken and hilly. Limestone is found in con- 
siderable quantities on Pocatalico near the 
mouth of Kelly's creek. Iron ore also abounds ; 
by analysis it is shown to contain sixty per cent 
of iron. The soil consists chiefly of a red clay, 
and ranks among the best wheat lands in the 
county. The principal varieties of timber are 
hickory, poplar, beech and oak. 

The first settler in the district was a man of 
the name of Johnson, who, about the year 1802, 
erected a, cabin near the mouth of Tupper's 
creek. He was not long permitted to enjoy the 
solitude of his mountain home, for other set- 
tlers soon moved in; and among his earliest 
neighbors were Joseph Hines, Jonathan Der- 
rick, who came in 1810, John Fisher, James 
Sisson, John Dawson, Robin Atkinson, George 
Boggess, and David Shirkey. 

The first grist mill was built by Johnson, the 
first settler; it was located on Tupper's creek 
on lands now owned by Robert Ransom. It 
was but a shed covered with clapboards, under 
which were one run of stone twenty inches in 
diameter— water was the propelling power. 
The first saw-mill was built by John Parsons, 
on the site where Sissonville now stands ; it was 
constructed after the old "sash saw" pattern, a 
"flutter" wheel being used as the driving 
power. It was built at an early day, but the 
exact date is not known. 

The first schoolhouse was built at the mouth 
of Schoolhouse branch, now called Second 
creek. It was a common, round, log cabin, one 
end of which was entirely taken up by a huge 
fireplace. Of the present schoolhouses in the 
district the most are for white, but several for 
colored pupils : and there is a good general at- 

The oldest church edifice was the Mount 
Zion Methodist Episcopal church, which for- 
merly stood in the "Low Gap," one-fourth of 
a mile south of Sissonville. It was a hewed log 
building erected by Henry Sisson, John Sisson, 



James Sisson, David Shirkey, and John Fisher. 
Castello H. Bates did the carpenter work. It 
was pulled down in 1873. 


Sissonville is the only town; it is located on 
the north side of Pocatalico river, in the central 
part of the district. The land on which it 
stands formerly belonged to John Sisson, and 
was laid out by him, he disposing of the lots. 
The first merchant was a man of the name of 
Reynolds, while William Lynch was the first 
"Son of Vulcan" who wielded the sledge and 
blew the bellows. It has at present a population 
of about 150 or more, with good stores and 
up-to-date people. 

Its nearest railroad shipping point is 
Charleston, sixteen miles distant. Humphreys' 
Flouring Mill, roller process, steam and 
water power, flour and feed exchange, is lo- 
cated there. It is five stories including base- 
ment, and has a capacity of 100 barrels of 
flour daily. The present mill was built about 
10 years ago. The old mill, which was 
erected at a very early date — perhaps 75 years 
ago — was destroyed by fire. 

Among the merchants of Sissonville there 
are the following: F. H. Staats, general mer- 
chant and undertaker, who is also postmaster 
of the place; Charles Newhouse, general mer- 
chant ; J. D. Thaxton & Son, general merchan- 
dise; and E. M. Derick, general merchant. 

The Southern M. E. church of Sissonville, 
was erected about 40 years ago. It is a frame 
building and is used for services by all de- 

Dr. W. J. Glass and Dr. Caldwell are phy- 
sicians located in Sissonville. There is a 
lodge of Odd Fellows, which owns a hall and 
has a good membership of about 75. There is 
another church two miles south of the town 
at Tupper's creek known as Tupper's Creek 
Bridge Chapel, a northern M. E. church. 

Well known, old families of Sissonville are 
the Sisson, Newhouse, Shirkey, Bean, Fisher 
and Milams families. 

The two hotels of the place are Matthews 
House, Mr. Matthews, proprietor; and Gib- 
son House, Mr. Gibson, proprietor. 


Union District lies on the Kanawha river, 
west of Charleston, and on the north side of 
the river, adjoining Poca, Elk and Charleston 
districts, and has therein a part of Poca river, 
Tyler creek, Two-mile creek and other branches 
and creeks. It has good farms and farmers, 
and is a little more democratic than Poca. On 
the river, it has Lock 6 at the upper end and 
Lock 7 at the lower end. It has the County 
Infirmary, and at Sattes, opposite St. Albans, 
there is almost a town, made up of saw-mills, 

Union district lies south of Poca, and may be 
called the central one of the western tier. Po- 
catalico river flows through the northwest cor- 
ner, and forms what is" known as the Horse 
Shoe bend. It is here that the first settlement 
was made in the district. In 1798 Adam Aults, 
a German, and Elijah Towler arrived here and 
erected their cabins. They were actual set- 
tlers; both purchased land and lived here until 
removed by death. The next settlers were 
James McCown, afterwards a soldier in the 
War of 1812, and John Casey, and a year later 
came Moses and Aaron Kelley. Other early 
settlers were John Young, Andrew Hannis, 
James Anderson, John Martin, Daniel Hill, 
John Dawson, James Roberts, Greenbury Sam- 
uels, and Alexander Wallace, all of whom were 
actual settlers. 

The first election held in the district was in 
the year 1863, at which time the commissioners 
were James High, J. C. Burford and J. Gilispie. 
The following were among the voters : H. Gil- 
ispie, J. O. Shoemaker, W. T. Johnson, W. A. 
Howell, W. D. McCown, Robert Johnson and 
James McCown. 

John Martin erected the first grist mill about 
the year 1808. It was a water-mill, and had a 
capacity of cracking twelve bushels of corn per 
day. The patience of the pioneer was not 
thought to have been sufficiently tested unless 
he had "waited his turn at Martin's mill." 

Tzvo-Mile Spring. Situated in this district, 
two miles west of Charleston,, is a never-fail- 
ing spring, whose history may be traced back- 
ward through more than a hundred years. Dur- 
ing the late Civil war, in the year 1861, Gen- 



eral Wise, with a large force of the Confed- 
erate army, encamped on the Two-Mile creek 
upon the lands of Dr. Spicer Patrick and A. 
B. Littlepage, and during their stay he and his 
forces relied upon this spring for supplies of 
fresh water, and when General J. D. Cox, of 
the Federal army, compelled the Confeder- 
ates to retreat from the valley, thousands of 
his dust covered and weary, worn soldiers 
quenched their thirst from the bubbling waters 
of this fountain. During the marches and 
counter-marches, soldiers of both armies gladly 
welcomed the site of the Two-Mile spring. 

In 1817, Benjamin Rust built the first saw- 
mill, but soon after its completion, a rise in 
Pocatalico river swept away the dam, and 
otherwise injured the mill to such an extent 
that it was never used. 

The first school taught in the district was by 
James Rust, in the year 18 17, in a cabin on 
Pocatalico river, eleven miles from its mouth. 
There were but five pupils in attendance, and 
these Mr. Rust taught gratuitously. The dis- 
trict is now well supplied with good school- 

Among the early church organizations was 
that of the' Hopewell Baptist, formed on the 
31st day of March, 1834, in what is known as 
the flat woods of Pocatalico, by Elders John 
Ellison and William Martin. Since then the 
Methodist Episcopal, Baptist and Second Ad- 
vent or Millerite denominations have estab- 
lished each one or more churches. 


Elk District lies on both sides of Elk river, 
between Charleston and Big Sandy districts. 
It almost encircles Big Sandy district, and ex- 
tends from Roane, around by Charleston, to 
Clay county. On the west side of Elk are Lit- 
tle Sandy and its branches and Cooper's creek. 
On the east side there are Mill, Indian, Pinch 
and Blue creeks. 

It has a railroad from Charleston, on the 
west side, up to Blue creek, where it crosses 
Elk and goes up Blue creek. On the east side 
of Elk, it has a railroad from Charleston, on 
through the entire district, and county, to El- 
kins, etc. 

It has no town, but has many beautiful 
foundations and prospects of towns, to be 
named by the parties developing the same. It 
was in this district that the Indian fighters cap- 
tured the boy prisoner, killed the white man 
that was playing Indian and gave the name 
"White Man's Fork" of Aaron's Fork of Lit- 
tle Sandy. Everybody claims to have coal, oil 
and gas, in every hill. 

At "Big Chimney" are the remains of a van- 
quished industry, where stood a salt furnace — 
on Mill creek, where they once made oil from 
Cannel coal. Now they are pumping it from 
the rocks, and gas is being wasted in many 

The surface of the district for the most part 
is rough, the hills high, and, in most instances, 
rising abruptly from the narrow valleys at 
their base. Coal exists in abundance, and the 
Peacock variety, which is found near what is 
known as the "Big Chimney," is said to be the 
best in the State. 

The first settlers were Michael Newhouse, 
Martin Hamock and Allen Baxter, all three 
coming in 1783. Newhouse settled on the west 
side of Elk river, five miles below Jarrett's 
ford; Hamock one mile above the mouth of 
Little Sandy, and one-half mile below Jarrett's 
ford, and Baxter at Baxter's shoals on Elk, 
four miles from Charleston. The next set- 
tler was John Young - , who chose as the site of 
his future home a spot four miles above Jar- 
rett's ford and sixteen from Charleston. He 
was a noted scout and Indian fighter, and for 
many years did he wander, rifle in hand, over 
the hills and valleys lying between the Alle- 
ghenies and the Ohio, and his practiced eye 
enabled him to usually be among the first to 
discover the presence of the ruthless foe. 
Other early settlers were Henry Newhouse, 
who located near the mouth of the branch 
which still bears his name, William Porter, 
who reared his cabin on the north bank of Elk, 
and Edward Burgess, who built his near what 
is now known as Moore's dam, three and one- 
half miles above Charleston. 

The first salt ever produced on Elk river was 
made within the present limits of Elk district 
by a Frenchman named Jinott, in the year 18 17. 
In more recent years it was produced in con- 



siderable quantities, at what is now called the 
"Big Chimney," nine miles above Charleston. 

The first grist mill was built in 1817 by a 
man of the name of T£dmunxl .Price. It has 
a water-mill, situated on Elk Two-Mile, two 
and one-half miles from Charleston. John Mc- 
Collister was drowned in the dam at this mill, 
in the year 1826; the body was afterward re- 
covered, and buried at the foot of a large beech 
tree upon the bank. Nothing, not even a rude 
stone, now marks the spot to show the passer- 
by the location of the grave. The first saw- 
mill was erected in 1831 by a man of the name 
of Joseph Moore ; it was located three and one- 
half miles from Charleston. 

When the first school was taught we cannot 
now learn, but among the pioneer teachers were 
John Slack, Sr. , James S. Riley, Eli Chamber- 
lain, Joseph Blackeny, Andrew Newhouse, 
Robert Malcome, Mrs. Fannie Thayer, James 
Eddy and Rev. William Gilbert. Such are the 
names of those who trained a generation now 
grown old, and as such they have now gone to 
meet earth's greatest teacher — He that taught 
in Jerusalem nineteen centuries ago. But they 
left an impress upon the age which succeeded 
them ; their work was not in vain, and who can 
tell what the end shall be? 

Among those who nearly a century ago 
called men to repentance were the Revs. Asa 
Shin, Jacob Truman, Samuel Brown, John 
Cord, Samuel Dement, William Picket, Henry 
B. Bascom, Thomas A. Morris . Thomas Lpw- 
ry, Burwell and Stephen Spurlock, Francis 
Wilson, Garland A. Burgess. Bishop Cavenau, 
William Martin and Dr. William Gilbert. All 
have gone to their reward but their work has 
been like bread cast upon the waters, and to- 
day there are within the district hundreds of 
members of the Baptist, Methodist, Presbyter- 
ian and other churches. 


Jefferson District extends along on the south 
side of the Kanawha river, from Davis Creek, 
near to Lock No. 7, just above Scary Creek. 
It includes Gallaton's branch. Coal river and 
Tacket's creek and branches. Two and Three- 
quarter Mile creek. Watton's Creek, Spring 
Hill Station and St. Albans. Then there are 

Fall Creek of Coal River, Brown Creek, with 
Amandaville and Lewis Station. 

It is noted for having the most crooked 
stream in the world. A man can place his corn 
on his back, then go to his boat and float down 
to the mill and get his meal, put it on his back, 
and float on down the stream and get back to 
his house. 

At Tornado, there are the upper falls of 
Coal River, but there is no telling where the 
lower falls are. The Coal River railroad forms 
a junction at St. Albans, and coal, timber, and 
almost everything can be brought down on this 

Coal (formerly Cole) River divides this dis- 
trict into two unequal parts. This stream has 
its source in the countie.s of Boone and Fay- 
ette, and flows in a northwest direction until 
it discharges its waters into the Kanawha, 
twelve miles below Charleston, and forty-eight 
above Point Pleasant. It is a beautiful moun- 
tain stream, and was named in honor of Lewis 
Cole, who was a soldier in the Big Sandy ex- 
pedition under General Lewis, in 1756. To 
prevent starvation, the army disbanded or 
broke up into small companies, that they might 
be the more successful in hunting; the party 
to which Mr. Cole belonged came over upon 
the waters of this stream, and were thus its 
first discoverers, and in honor of the leader of 
the party, it was named Cole river. Since 
the discovery of vast deposits of bituminous 
coal along its entire course, it has been spelled 
C-o-a-1, but upon the early maps of Virginia 
and by early writers, as well, it is spelled 

The first settler upon its banks, or in the dis- 
trict, was Lewis Tackett. He first located 
some distance up the river, but soon removed to 
the mouth, where he built Tackett's fort, at 
the time (with the exception of Fort Randolph 
at Point Pleasant) the most western outpost in 
Virginia. It was destroyed in the year 1788 
by a powerful band of Shawanese Indians. 
Soon after its destruction other pioneers came 
to assist in rebuilding it. Among them were 
Joseph Thomas, James Thomas, Richard 
Teays, a Mr. Roberts and Samuel Turley. All 
were actual settlers, and all became prominent 
in the early history of the Kanawha valley. 



The first marriage in this district was that 
of Levi Jones and Mary Thomas. 

The first grist-mill, not only in the district, 
but the first worthy of the name in Kanawha 
county, was built at the upper falls Coal river, 
by Joseph Thomas, in 1801 or 1802. Our 
informant says that "it accommodated the 
county for fifty miles around." The first post- 
office established was at Colesmouth. 

Among the earliest ministers were the Revs. 
Lee and George, Baptist ministers, and Francis 
Guthrie and Burwell Spurlock, of the Metho- 
dist Church. By a reference to the old rec- 
ords of the Greenbrier Association (Baptist) 
it will be seen that the Coal River Church was 
admitted into that bodv in 1803, and this was 
doubtless the first society formed in this sec- 
tion of country. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church (South) 
was organized by the Rev. Amos, in 1857, with 
the following membership : Stephen Capehart, 
John Overshiner, Jerry Searhol, Anderson 
Rock, George Overshiner, Wyatt Creasy, Mat- 
tie Wilson, Parthena J. Wilson, Parthena Wil- 
son, Mrs. Lasley, Ann Willimson, Branche 
and Wilkinson. At the same time there was 
organized a Sabbath school in connection with 
the church. Stephen Capehart was the first 
superintendent. With the exception of a short 
time during the Civil war, it has never sus- 


St. Albans is a growing, booming town. It 
has mills, natural gas, coal water and railroad 
transportation, the Bank of St. Albans, every- 
thing that a manufacturing company wants, 
and plenty of good people, with churches, 
schools, and water to drink. 

The town of St. Albans was incorporated 
in 1868 by an act of the Legislature under the 
name of Kanawha City and a short time after- 
ward the name was changed to St. Albans, the 
exact date of change of name not being re- 
corded on the town records. The name of St. 
Albans was given by an Englishman who at 
that time was associated with C. P. Hunting- 
ton in the construction of the C. & O. R. R. 
The place was named for St. Albans, England, 
though there are some who think it was called 

St. Albans after St. Albans, Vt. At the first 
town election there were eighteen votes. At 
the second election there were two candidates 
for mayor, eighteen votes being cast and each 
candidate receiving nine, making a tie vote. If 
the voters had increased from the first to the 
second election, the returns did not show it. 
The officers were elected annually. The first 
mayor of St. Albans was John P. Turner. In 
1 910 there were 282 registered voters and about 
250 votes polled at the election. 

The first town hall was located almost on 
the identical spot of the present one. The first 
was the school building and was used as the 
town or city building until the present building 
was erected. The latter is a two-story struc- 
ture, built of buff brick, with large council 
room and recorder's office on the second floor 
and fire department on the first floor. In 1908 
there was a $5,000 bond issue to raise the 
money for the new town hall. In 1906 $17,- 
000 worth of bonds were issued to pay for 
the sewerage system and to lay the concrete 
sidewalks. The water and electric light plant 
was put in about May, 1907 by William E. 
and Thomas Mohler. The water is of a fine 
quality, the supply coming from Coal river. 
The power plant is at the end of B street on 
the Coal River road as is also' the pumping 
station. The service is excellent. There is a 
natural water pressure of 100 pounds on Main 
Street. W. E. Mohler is president and Thomas 
Mohler, treasurer of the Electric Light and 
Water plant. 

The St. Albans Fire department is com- 
posed of volunteer firemen, organized by a few 
persons under the name of the St. Albans Sal- 
vage Corps in 1907. After getting together 
considerable equipment the same was turned 
over to the town and has since been supported 
by the municipality. It has four hand reels, 
one ladder, one extinguisher cart, and 1,000 
feet of hose in use. 

The necessity of a good fire department was 
keenly felt after the two very disastrous fires 
of 1906, which occurred a little less than two 
weeks apart. The first occurred Jan. 31, 
1906 and the town was visited by the second 
fire February 12, 1906. The first fire de- 
stroyed all Main Street, on both sides between 



Second and B streets. The second fire de- 
stroyed between A street and an alley east; 
practically all the business section was wiped 
out, also the Baptist Church and Mrs. S. L. 
Cato's house, the oldest residence in St. Al- 
bans. The oldest residence still standing is the 
old Turner residence, a log house, but it is in 
such a dilapitated state that it is no longer 
used for a residence. The oldest house in the 
business section is a two-story frame structure 
on the A. M. Smith Estate. Mr. A. M. Smith 
conducted a mercantile business for a number 
of years and after his death his son-in-law, 
Mr. A. A. Rock, carried on business in this 
building. One feature of this building is that 
the name of Mr. A. M. Smith has been painted 
over several times but it still shows to this 
day to the observer, which speaks well for both 
the paint and painters in those days. Among 
the oldest residences, though both are located 
beyond the corporate limits of St. Albans, are 
the James Teays residence west of the town 
and the residence of Judge John A. Warth, 

There are two land companies in St. Albans 
— the St. Albans Land Company, adjoining the 
corporate limits and the Virginia Land Com- 
pany, organized principally to deal in oil lands. 

The Atkinson foundry and car shops were 
located in St. Albans in 1908. 

The McGregor Manufacturing Company op- 
erated a plant for a time, turning out wood 
work, columns, etc., but it has not been in 
operation for several years. 

The greatest industry in St. Albans is her 
lumber interests. There are several large con- 
cerns with plants, yards and mills. The vol- 
ume of business runs annually into millions. 
The Mohlers with yards and office are on the 
opposite side of the Kanawha River from St. 
Albans. Then there are the American Col- 
umn & Lumber Company, and the Bowman 
Lumber Company 

The American Column & Lumber Company, 
of St. Albans.— In 1899, Mr. W. W. Stark, a 
prominent ' business man of Mansfield, Ohio, 
became interested as one of the organizers of 
the American Column Company, establishing 
its plant at St. Albans, W. Va., contiguous to 
the timber supply. The need for a larger or- 

ganization, created by the rapid growth of this 
business, gave life in 1905 to the American 
Column & Lumber Company, at which time 
F. B. Squire and Francis AVidlar, of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, capitalists, and M. W. and E. M. 
Stark became associated with him. 

The business then organized has since de- 
veloped into the immense lumber enterprise 
of the present day, to which we devote a few 
words of description, scarcely adequate, how- 
ever, from lack of space, to its size and im- 
portance. The company has large timber 
holdings and an up-to-date saw-mill at Ward, 
the latter erected in 1909 and having a daily 
capacity of 50,000 feet (in 10 hours), not 
counting a large daily output of lath and hard- 
wood chair stock ; 40,000,000 feet of lumber 
being carried in stock at all times. It has also 
a large plant at Colcord, in Raleigh county, 
with extensive holdings extending eastward 
along the Clear fork of Coal river, a distance 
of nine miles from the town of Colcord. 

The company owns its own timber, and has 
adopted the policy of cutting only that which 
virtually is matured." 

The company's holdings, located in the 
southwestern part of Kanawha and the ex- 
treme northeastern part of Raleigh counties, 
West Virginia, comprise about 20,000 acres of 
land, which will cut an average of 6,000 to 
7,000 feet of selected timber per acre, giving 
it an original resource of about 140,000,000 
feet, the largest portion of which is poplar and 
oak. The poplar logs cut by the American 
Column & Lumber Company are splendid spec- 
imens, from which some remarkably fine, wide 
stock is secured. The white oak is of equally 
high order, and is unsurpassed in color, texture 
and figure. 

Of other woods there is a wealth of varie- 
ties, namely: hickory, beech, maple, basswood, 
black walnut, buckeye, black gum, red oak, 
chestnut, ash, cherry and sycamore, all of un- 
usually high quality. 

At St. Albans is located also the company's 
planing mill which has a floor space of about 
one and one-half acres and a capacity of 30,000 
to 40,000 feet a day. The dry kiln capacity 
is 24.000 feet a day. One hundred or more 
skilled workmen are employed continually in 



getting out its various products. The location 
of the planing mill where it has favorable 
freight rates enables the company to purchase 
the output of smaller mills, as well as other 
desirable blocks of stock in poplar and oak, 
which avoids the necessity of sorting its own 
lumber for use in the planing mill. 

The planing mill is equipped with all the 
best machinery for the economical manufacture 
if its product, including planers, matchers, 
molders, band, rip and resaws, cutoff saws 
and a well equipped blacksmith and machine 
shop, all driven by a 24x48 Corliss engine. An 
electric lighting plant of ample capacity makes 
night running practicable during the busier 

In the storage shed, with a capacity of 
1,500,000 feet, is kept a complete assortment 
of the different widths, lengths, and grades of 
standard stock. Under the covered platform 
five cars can be loaded at one time, and pro- 
vision is made for the loading of mixed cars 
with rough and finished lumber at the same 
time. The company has also at St. Albans a 
large distributing yard, where it keeps a com- 
plete stock, consisting of about 4,000,000 feet 
of hardwood lumber in the various grades and 
thicknesses. Here it can load cars containing 
rough and dressed lumber, siding, flooring, 
moldings, dimension stock, lath, ceiling — in 
fact, all the hardwood products, both rough 
and finished. 

The Bowman Lumber Company of St. Al- 
bans, W. Va., was organized in 1886 with a 
capital stock of $100,000. The concern owns 
50,000 acres of timber in Raleigh County, W. 
Va. The capacity of the mill is 50,000 feet 
daily of soft wood and 40,000 all grades of 
hard and soft wood. The mill, which is a 
large modern one, began operations in 1888. 
It and the yards are located on Coal River, 
St. Albans. The officers are: S. C. Rowland, 
of Baltimore, Md., president; J.' Roman Way, 
of Williamsport, Pa., secretary and treasurer, 
and Hon. E. C. Colcord, of St. Albans, W. 
Va., general manager. 

D. J. Lewis erected the St. Albans Flour- 
ing Mill for a bark mill, which was later con- 
verted into a tobacco warehouse and so con- 
tinued for one year during which time $60,000 

were lost. Golden & Jordan then made it a 
flouring mill. It was built just before the panic 
of 1873, and it was four or five years after 
it was built that it was changed to a flouring- 
mill. The owners of the mill after Golden & 
Jordan were : Samuel Jordan, then Calvert & 
Nurnberger; then T. W. Shank, then Nurn- 
berger & Baldwin; Mr. Nurnberger then 
bought Mr. Baldwin's interest. The mill is 
now owned by Joseph Nurnberger. It has a 
capacity of 25 barrels of flour a day, besides 
a car load of meal and feed. The building is 
a large frame structure, facing the C. & O. 

There is a tobacco warehouse in St. Albans, 
which is leased by the American Tobacco 
Company. In 1910, 2,000,000 pounds of to- 
bacco were sold in St. Albans. The Atkinson 
Foundry and Car Shops was built in 1908. 
The McGregor Manufacturing Co. built a plant 
for manufacture of columns and balusters. 

The Bank of St. Albans. This bank was 
organized August 14, 1900 and the present 
substantial brick building erected in December, 
1906. Since then it has paid in dividends to 
stockholders $30,000.00. C. D. Hereford is 
president, W. E. Mohler, vice-president, and 
C. A. Zerkle, cashier. The directors are E. C. 
Colcord, G C. Weimer, J. V. R. Skinner, H. 

B. Smith, W. E. Mohler, C. D. Hereford and 

C. A. Zerkle — all business men of acknowl- 
edged ability and among St. Albans' foremost 
citizens. This bank extends to all every ac- 
commodation consistent with good banking. 
It conducts a savings department, paying three 
per cent, with interest compounded twice a 
year, and deposits may be made in any amount 
and withdrawn without notice. It also has 
safety deposit boxes for those who wish to 
avail themselves of this convenience, the boxes 
being rented at $2.00 per year. The bank is 
conducted on safe and conservative lines but 
follows a liberal policy within proper limits. 
Its statement for March 17, 191 1, was as fol- 
lows : 


Loans and Discounts $127,637.31 

Overdrafts 523.76 

Banking House 17,500.00 



Due from Banks 31,195.1s 



Capital Stock $ 30,000.00 

Surplus Profit 3,000.00 

Undivided Profits 2,032.71 

Due to Banks 3>7 8 9-59 


George Weimer & Sons of St. Albans; Kana- 
wha County, W. Va., who have operated here 
since 1889,- are jobbers and wholesale dealers 
in rough and dressed lumber. They handle 
about 10,000,000 feet of all kinds of lumber 
annually, covering all grades of wood in the 
building line. The firm is composed of George 
Weimer and his sons, George C. Weimer and 
James Weimer. The Weimers moved from 
Buffalo, N. Y. to St. Albans, W. Va. The 
product is shipped to all parts of the country. 
The finished product is sold in nearby counties 
in West Virginia. George Weimer, senior 
member of the firm, entered the lumber busi- 
ness in 1870 in Buffalo, N. Y. They operate 
mills in Fayette County, W. Va., and in Cal- 
houn County, Ga. Their yards and sales of- 
fice are in St. Albans, W. Va. 

The first M. E. Church erected in the vicin- 
ity of St. Albans was the little log church put 
up in 1820 by Mrs. Stephen Teays for the 
Methodists. This church was used by the 
Methodists and by the Episcopalians from 
1845-47 for worship after the Episcopal 
Church had been destroyed by fire. About 
1847 the log church of the Methodists, erected 
by Mrs. Stephen Teays, was replaced by the 
present brick structure or house of worship, 
St. Marks, of the Episcopalians. In 1857 on 
the seventh day of September, a deed was made 
by J. Franklin Johnson and Susan Johnson, 
his wife conveying one-tenth of one acre to 
Charles W. Hill, Elijah Rock, Milton Snyder, 
Samuel Gilliland and I. Grobe, trustees for the 
Southern Methodist Church of Coalsmouth 
part of Lot No. 17 in the plat of P. R. Thomp- 
son's Estate, which lies on the lane leading 
from the turnpike to the mouth of Cool 

river. The lot was conveyed to trustees 
in consideration of the payment of $40.00. 
The lot was conveyed to said Johnson by deed 
from the heirs of Birkett D. Thompson, de- 
ceased. The first house of worship erected 
on this site was a brick structure and was used 
as a place of worship until work was begun, 
April 11, 1910, to demolish the building to 
make room for the present structure which is 
a neat brick edifice, Gothic in architecture. The 
first services were held in the new church 
September 3, 191 1. This structure was 
erected at a cost of $7,000. The old church 
was used during the Civil war by Union sol- 
diers for stabling horses. The court of claims 
allowed the sum of $1,400 for damage to 
property. Deducting commissions, this will 
net over $1,100 to the church, but there has 
never been any appropriation made to cover 
the allowance. Rev. A. A. Hollister, who was 
the pastor, preached the first sermon in the 
new building. The present pastor is Rev. W : 
B. Corder. The trustees are : J. L. Kelly, 
Joseph Nurenberger, I. E. Johnson, Charles 
Cox, and L. W. Swindler. The membership 
numbers about 140. 

The Northern Methodist Church of St. Al- 
bans, W. Va. The lot on which this church 
stands was donated by ex-Gov. G. W. Atkin- 
son and the edifice, which was the old Pres- 
byterian church, was given by Grant Hall, the 
church being moved to its present location. 
The congregation has no regular pastor. 

The Episcopal Church of St. Albans. — 
Morris Hudson had come in 1808 from Penn- 
sylvania and bought up a large tract of land 
on the lower side of Two-and-three-quarter 
mile creek. His family were the first Episco- 
palians in the Kanawha Valley. They were 
joined in 181 6 by Col. Philip Root Thomp- 
son, from Culpeper County, Va., whose family 
were also Episcopalians. They occupied a part 
of the Washington Survey, as did also for a 
while the general's nephew, Samuel Washing- 
ton. A delightful community grew up and be- 
came decidedly, if not exclusively, devoted to 
the Episcopal Church. Although the first 
church erected was the log building put up in 
1820 by Mrs. Stephen Teays for the Metho- 



In 1825. Major Morris Hudson built of 
brick the little "Bangor" Episcopal Church, 
near where the pike crossed Two-and three- 
quarter-mile Creek. 

Of this church Rev. James Craik was rec- 
tor, and here his successor, Rev. T. B. Nash, 
of New England, maintained an old field school 
frequented by the Hudsons, Thompsons, 
Turners, Swindlers, Thorntons, Lasleys, Cape- 
harts, Lewises, etc. 

This church was burned in 1845 and the 
Episcopalians worshipped in the Methodist 
Church until they built St. Marks in 1847. 
Not much later the Episcopalians, Col. B. S. 
Thompson and Beverly Tompkins, were on the 
committee which replaced the log house of the 
Methodists with the present brick building, 
but the community remained decidedly Epis- 

During the Civil War the Federal troops 
took charge of the church and did much dam- 
age to the property. Port holes were made in 
the different approaches to the building for 
protection in the event of an attack. The 
court of claims have recently allowed the sum 
of $2,400 to cover the damage by troops to 
the Episcopal Church and $1,800 for the same 
purpose to the Methodist. 

There are at the present time forty-one com- 
municants. Rev. Arthur M. Lewis is rector. 
The rectory stands on the fine plot of ground 
owned by the church. 

The rectors of St. Mark's church, Bangor 
Parish, St. Albans, W. Va., since 1822, have 
been: Charles H. Page, Sept. 1822 to 1833; 
John Martin, Sept. 1833 to 1839; James Crark, 
1841 to 1845; Francis S. Nash, March, 1845 

to 1852; Robert T. Brown, to ; - 

Henderson, Jan., 1854 to Dec, 1856; 

1903 to 1906; John M. Hamilton, 1907 to 
Oct. 1, 1908; Arthur M. Lewis, Oct. 1, 1909 

Hershaw, 1856 to 1856; Alonzo J. M. Hud- 
son, April 10, 1859 to April, 1861 ; Wm. G. 
Stewart, July, 1867 to April, 1868; Horace E. 
Hayden, July 1, 1862 to Jan. 1, 1871 ; Charles 
B. Mee, Oct. 15, 1871 to Sept. 27, 1872; 
David Barr, June 1, 1873 to May 31, 1874; 
Pendleton Brooke, 1874 to 1875; John W. 
Sea, Oct. 1878 to May 15, 1884; J. B. Fitz- 
patrick, 1884 to 1887; Charles M. Campbell, 
1887 to 1892; Peter Wager, 1892 to 1894; 
John R. Joyner, 1894 to 1902; John Warnock, 

St. Albans Presbyterian Church — It is 
stated that Presbyterianism was first preached 
at Coalsmouth by the Rev. James M. Brown, 
D. D., who was the pastor of the church in 
Charleston for twenty-one years. He went to 
Greenbrier and buried his son, Samuel, and 
his daughter, and there he died, leaving Rev. 
John C. Brown, the only remaining one of the 

After the war, in 1868, the Rev. Mr. B. B. 
Blair, the Rev. J. C. Brown and the Rev. Mr. 
McClintic, of Kentucky, proceeded to organize 
the church and the first meeting of the ses- 
sion was held in September, 1868, the mem- 
bers numbering" seventeen. The presbytery 
was held in 1869 at St. Albans. Rev. Mr. 
Eells was next called. He died in 1897 and 
he left the church with about 113 members. 
In 1873 the trustees were elected but there 
was no church. They used the town hall, but 
the struggle was going on "all the same" and 
with about $1,750 in 1878 they had a small 

In 1 88 1 Mr. G. F. Hansford and his wife 
set out some trees around the little church and 
named the trees, viz : "Powers, Eells, Hill, 
Taylor, Hansford, Swindler and Mohler." 

In Memoriam — James F. Hansford died 
in 1889; Francis H. Taylor in 1891 ; Col. 
Joseph R. Hill in 1892; John T. Simmes, 
1901 ; Capt. S. C. Wheeler in 1904; Thomas 

A. Teays and Mrs. W. E. Mohler, 1905. 
After Rev. G. T. Lyle, who served the 

church from 1884 to 1894 came the Rev. M. 

B. Lambdin, 1904-1904, then Charles W. 
Sommerville, 1905-1907; Rev. G. W. Ship- 
ley, 1907-1911. 

Elders— William E. Mohler, T. S. P. 
Bowers, C. A. Zerkle and F. H. Sattes. 
Clerk of session, Elder W. E. Mohler; trus- 
tees, F. H. Sattes, W. S. Oxley and C. A. 
Specht, organist, Mrs. Nathan E. Grogan ; 
assistant organist, Miss Edith May Mohler; 
sexton, C. W. Bullington. 

The New Church — William E. Mohler says 
the new church was finished in 1910, at a cost 
of $24,000 and was dedicated October 15, 



1910. It has now a membership of 135 with 
five elders and seven deacons and a well- 
equipped Sunday-school. 

The stone church is a splendid piece of 
work, as architecture, and that this congrega- 
tion could erect such a building shows that 
they had many good men, with considerable 
means and a will to give largely to this work. 
May the Lord bless them all. 

Mr. William E. Mohler has been blessed and 
he has been able to devote his time and his 
energy and his means, to the church, and the 
congregation has been blessed in him. The 
thirty-seventh anniversary of the organization 
of the St. Albans Presbyterian Church was 
observed in 1905, and he had then served said 
church as Presiding" Elder for twenty years, 
and not only the local church, but the Presby- 
tery, the Synod and the General Assembly — 
all of which deserved recognition, which was 
gracefully tendered him in the publication of 
a commemorative pamphlet. 

This church has done much good for all the 
people of that community and all the country. 
May they all recognize the blessings they have 
enjoyed and may William E. Mohler enjoy 
the blessings of the congregation which he has 
served so faithfully. Col. Hill, Mr. Taylor 
and Mr. Hansford are sure to be remembered 
and now Mr. Mohler is to be added to the 
list of faithful good men. 

There is one hospital in St. Albans owned 
by Dr. W. H. Wilson, and two hotels, the 
Colonial and the Majestic. The Majestic is 
the older. There are about thirty mercantile 
establishments, large and small, four practic- 
ing physicians, two dentists, one funeral di- 
rector and one photographer, two or three in- 
surance offices, two liveries, and telephone 
and telegraph service. The churches in St. 
Albans are the Presbyterian, Episcopal, Bap- 
tist, M. E. Church (north), M. E. Church 
(south), and one Baptist Church (colored) — 
six in all. ' There are some fine business 
houses which have been erected since the fire 
in 1906. There are also many beautiful res- 
idences. There is much wealth and culture, 
more than is ordinarily found in towns of 
less than 2,000 population. 

A eood school is found there with fine brick 

building and large campus. The school build- 
ing was erected in 1900, an addition being 
built to it in 1.909. It contains eight rooms, 
and 250 pupils are enrolled, which are in 
charge of seven teachers. 

There is a board of trade in the town which 
was organized July 16, 1906, to advance the 
claims of St. Albans as a desirable location 
for those seeking manufacturing sites, homes 
or business location. This board of trade has 
sixty members and its officers are : J. V. R. 
Skinner, president; T. H. Mohler, treasurer; 
and William M. Wood, secretary. 

The shipping facilities of St. Albans are ex- 
ceptionally good, as the Chesapeake & Ohio 
Railroad, and the Coal River Railroad enter 
the place. The latter .was built as an inde- 
pendent line but has been purchased by the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad and operated as 
a part of that system. Just across the Kana- 
wha river from St. Albans is Sattes, named 
for the Sattes family, who owned the prop- 
erty on which the place was laid out, through 
which the Kanawha & Michigan Railroad 
passes, reached by a ferry. St. Albans has 
steam boat service daily. The new iron bridge 
across Coal river at St. Albans was erected in 

Coalsmouth High School was incoporated 
in 1872, the site procured and the building be- 
gun. It was an enterprise of the Baptist 
Church, and was expected to develop into a 
Baptist College. Dr. P. B. Reynolds of Rich- 
mond, was the principal; H. W. Hovery, A. 
M., assistant with primary assistant. The 
school was taught with St. Albans public 
schools for one year '72 and '73, there being 
a large enrollment from many parts of the 
state. In October, 1873, the building was first 
occupied with Dr. Reynolds and Baylus Cade 
as principal instructors. The name was 
changed to Shelton College in 1875 or 1876. 
Geo. Boreman Foster, of Chicago University, 
Congressman Joseph H. Gaines, Senator N. E. 
Chilton, Dr. C. E. Haworth of Marshall Col- 
lege and James H. Stewart of W. Va. Univer- 
sity and many of the leading men of the state 
received their academic training here. Lack of 
endowment and proper financial management 
caused the overthrow of one of the best educa- 



tional institutions of the state. The Baptists, 
gave it up in 1884. Rev. Lyle of the Presby- 
terian church conducted a school here for two 
years, and W. G. Miller for several terms. 

A dispensation for the institution of a Ma- 
sonic lodge at St. Albans was issued by the 
Grand Lodge of West Virginia on the first day 
of February, 1873, to be hailed and styled as 
Washington Lodge, A. F. & A. M. ; M. L. 
Mayo to act as W. M. ; M. W. Wilber as S. W. ; 
and J. H. McConaha as J. W. The first meet- 
ing was held on the 4th of June following, 
when the following named were present: W. 
L. Mayo, W. M.; W. F. Claughton, S. W. ; 
John H. McConaha, J. W. ; J. S. Cunningham, 
secretary ; Frederick A. Sattis, treasurer ; N. L. 
Carpenter, tyler; J. C. Raradan, S. D., and M. 
T. Bridwell, of Kanawha Lodge No. 20. Con- 
siderable work was done in the lodge before the 
granting of the charter, which bore date of No- 
vember 12, 1873. The lodge is now in a flour- 
ishing condition. 

The federal census gives a population of 
1209 to St. Albans, but according to the local 
census there are 1,400 within its corporate 

Amandaville, which is located just across the 
river from St. Albans, is not incorporated. It 
has about 1,200 people in about the same radius 
as the corporate limits of St. Albans. 


Washington district extends on the east side 
of Coal river from Jefferson up to Bull creek. 
It has Smith's creek, Alum creek, Little Brier 
and Big Brier creeks. Tornado is its largest 
town, but there will be others. It is noted for 
its excellence and varieties of coal, for its tim- 
ber and its transportation facilities. It ex- 
tends eastward to Loudon and has Boone 
county on its south, and Lincoln on its west. 
Possibly there is more room for development in 
Washington than in any other district, and it 
is being developed. It is near the Lincoln oil 
and gas field and has its own coal. 

Coal river washes its entire southwestern 
boundary. Smith creek, named in memory of 
Joseph Smith, the first settler upon its banks, 
Crooked creek, Alum creek, named from an 
alum rock about one mile from its mouth, Bear 

creek, and' Brier creek, named from the green 
briers that grow along it, all flow in a south- 
westerly direction and discharge their waters 
into Coal river. 

Joseph Thomas removed to the falls of Coal 
and erected the first cabin within the present 
limits of the district about the year 1800. Soon 
after him came James Thomas, Samuel Beach, 
Leonard Nicholas and Joseph Smith, and a few 
years later they were followed by Randall 
Auler, Thomas Nance, Joseph Brown, Joseph 
Smith, Thomas Maupin, Joseph Midkiff, Rich- 
ard Bryant, John Hill, Jacob Hill, John Tur- 
ley, and Allen M. Smith. All were actual set- 
tlers, and all found what they came to seek — 

The first grist-mill was erected by Joseph 
Thomas, at the falls of Coal river about the year 
1812; it was a round log structure, with one 
run of stone, a tub wheel, and ground nothing 
but corn. 

The first saw-mill was erected on Little Coal 
river by Allen M. Smith in 1845, an d some 
years later Edward Kenna erected one at the 
upper falls of Coal. It was a good substantial 
frame building, with old-fashioned sash saw. 
The capacity was 3,500 feet per day. 

Tradition says that the first school ever 
taught on Coal river above its mouth was four 
miles above the falls, by a man named Stanley, 
in the year 1816. About fifteen pupils were in 
attendance, receiving instruction under the old 
"Subscription Act." The house was a rude 
cabin with a "dirt" floor and a V-shaped chim- 
ney, which occupied one entire end of the 

The first church organization perfected was 
the Upper Falls Baptist congregation, in the 
year 1817. The second was the Baptist 
church at the forks of Coal, a few years later. 


Loudon district is on south side of Kanawha 
extending from Spring Hill up above Lens 
creek, running back to Boone county. It has 
Davis creek, and its branches and forks, Job- 
lins branch, Ferry branch, Hale's branch, Lick- 
branch, Rush creek and Lens creek. It has 
Brownstown (called Marmet for short) for a 
town and it has Kanawha City for a city, where 









Z M 








one of a hundred thousand people could live 
happily. The upper end of Charleston is oppo- 
site the lower end of Kanawha City, and it ex- 
tends up to Maiden, and from Charleston to 
Maiden is six miles. Davis creek spreads all 
over Loudon. There was discovered the Black 
Band coal which had iron in it, and they built 
a furnace for the coal and ore to work to- 
gether. They also built a railroad up Davis 
creek to Chilton. 

This district is noted for many things, among 
them its good people, its splendid views, its 
railroad facilities and its many townsites. 

The surface is much broken, and in the south 
is mountainous, and the river bottom (with the 
exception of the northwestern corner) is nar- 
row, while in many places, as opposite the city 
of Charleston, the hills rise abruptly from the 
river, the base, in some places, being cut away 
in the construction of the Chesapeake & Ohio 
Railway. Davis creek is the principal stream. 
It flows with and empties into the Kanawha. 

Leonard Morris, whose settlement in the val- 
ley is elsewhere noticed in this work, built the 
first cabin in the district. Other early settlers, 
nearly all of whom came before the beginning 
of present century, were Andrew Donnally, 
Charles Norris, Charles Venable, Charles 
Brooklin, Evan Price, John Lawrence, Benja- 
min Price, Henry Snodgrass, Luke Wilcox, 
John B. Crockett, Samuel Hensley, Robert 
Brown. Robert Berry, James Reynolds, Job 
English, Allicot Reynolds, Isaiah Curry, James 
Curry, Thomas Harris, Samuel L. Smith, 
Thomas Mathews, Fleming Cobb, John 
Young, Guy P. Mathews, Benjamin Eastwood 
and William Blaine. 

The first grist mill was built by a man named 
Estill, on Davis creek. AVe cannot ascertain 
date, but our informant says "it was built at an 
early day." Another mill was built at Blaine's 
island, by a man of the name of Blaine. The 
date of its erection cannot be ascertained, but 
it is known to have been running in the year 
1823. It was a log building, and the dam ex- 
tended from the south side of the river to the 
island. In 1869 a small water-mill, with one 
run of burrs, was built by a man named Jere- 
miah Authur. The oldest postofEce in the 
district is the Brownstown office. It was es- 

tablished many years ago, under the name of 
Lens creek, but in recent years it has been made 
to correspond with that of the town. 


The first apple trees brought over the Alle- 
ghenies and transplanted in the Kanawha Val- 
ley, were carried from Virginia by Fleming 
Cobb in a pair of leather bags, in the year 1780, 
and planted on the old Cobb homestead, near 
the mouth of Davis creek. At the same time 
he also brought two pear trees, which were 
planted on the farm known as the Blaine's 
island homestead. 

The first Sabbath school was organized in 
1875, by Luke Wilcox at Brownstown. It is 
in a prosperous condition, having a member- 
ship of ninety-seven. Rufus Workmen is the 
present superintendent. The second organized 
was the Lick Branch Union school by H. C. 
Welty, in 1877. The present attendance is 
sixty-four, with Mrs. Maria Allen superin- 
tendent. Besides these there is a Union school 
on Davis creek, a Baptist school at Piney 
Grove, and another at the same place in charge 
of the Methodist Episcopal church. 


Brownstown (or Marmet) grew up from a 
long time ago. It was begun and located when 
salt works were in feather, and it was on the 
south side of the Kanawha river just below the 
mouth of Lens creek, up which creek the road 
over to Boone and Logan counties led. On the 
upper side of the creek, near the river, was the 
salt furnace of Luke Wilcox, whose farm re- 
mained in the hands of his family and whose 
daughter, Mrs. Amelia Bradford has lately 
died. Below the creek was the furnace of 
Charles Brown, after whom the town took its 
name. Charles Brown came to Kanawha about 
1804, was a man of means, owned much real 
estate and was a son-in-law of Reuben Slaugh- 
ter, the surveyor in 1808. People and traders 
coming to Charleston from Logan or Boone 
or anywhere in such vicinity, for trade or busi- 
ness, came to the Kanawha river at this place. 
It was just ten miles above Charleston and it 
has always had much business in a small way. 



Luke Wilcox's furnace was run by him until 
1854, and Charles Brown died in 1849. With 
two furnaces near, and the trade and travel 
from the back counties, it was a lively point 
for business. This continued up to and during 
the war, then the opening of the C. & O. R. R. 
and the timber trade and coal trade and the 
branch railroad up Lens creek kept the place 
growing, and the construction of the lock and 
dam thereat, and its being a good healthy place 
to live in, also kept up the growth. Within 
the last few years some one wanted to change 
the name and by some means succeeded in hav- 
ing the postoffice department change the name 
of the office, and call it Marmet, but people 
call it Brownstown yet, except when it becomes 
essential to give its legal name. The Brown 
family departed many years ago and there are 
many that do not know for whom it was 
named. There was never any reason for calling 
it "Marmet" except to gratify some strange 
whim. It was named for Charles Brown, an 
old man that was here from 1808 to 1849. 

In the palmy days of salt making in the val- 
ley some of the largest and most productive 
furnaces were located within the present limits 
of this district, and here were some of the 
deepest borings ever made in the state of Vir- 
ginia. Of the. two wells on the Logan prop- 
erty, one was i860 feet in depth and the other 
1500. What was known as the Thompkins 
well was 1350, and that of the Dickinson 1200 
feet. All wells above Maiden are from 1000 
to 1500 feet deep, while all below that place are 
800 to 1200. The production of salt and gas 
from these wells is elsewhere noticed in this 

hale's spring 

At a point in this district just opposite 
Charleston, is a never failing spring of crystal 
water, the coldness of which is suggestive of 
the icy fountains of the north. For many years 
after the erection of Clendenin's fort it fur- 
nished water for the garrison, and many were 
the risks taken by some members of it in order 
to secure a supply of pure water. 

In the year 1789 — the same in which the 
county was formed — there came to the fort a 
young man named Hale, and Captain Clen- 

denin employed him as a common laborer. 
Soon after his arrival and one day after the 
house servant of Clendenin's had finished 
churning, she prepared to cross the river in 
order to dress the butter at the spring. Hale 
being near by remarked that it was not safe 
for her to go, he had seen several Indians 
prowling over the neighboring hills the day 
previous, and at the same time proposed that 
he and another man whose name cannot now 
be ascertained, would cross the river and bring 
two buckets of the water to the fort. Taking 
their rifles they jumped into the canoe and 
paddled to the opposite side ; arrived at which, 
Hale, leaving his companion in the canoe, as- 
cended the bank, filled the pails and started to 
return, but the report of a dozen rifles rang 
upon the air and Hale fell dead. The man in 
the canoe jumped into the river, and by rapid 
swimming and diving reached the fort amid a 
shower of balls. Soldiers from the fort the 
next day crossed the river and buried the 
scalped and otherwise mutilated remains of 
Hale, near the spot where he fell. No endur- 
ing marble marks the spot, but he left his name 
attached to the spring where he met his fate — 
and Hale's spring will be known to generations 
yet to come. 


Maiden District is next above Charleston 
on the north and east side of the Kanawha. It 
has Campbell's creek, at the mouth of which 
was the famous salt spring that brought the 
Ruffners to Kanawha. It has Maiden as its 
town, which once was larger than Charleston, 
had more business and more money, and was 
headquarters for the salt trust for years. It 
is called a "has-been," but there is more history 
in it than one book will hold. 

The principal streams are Campbell's creek, 
Burning Spring creek, and Simmons' creek, all 
flowing southwest and emptying into the Ka- 
nawha. The surface is rough, and may be said 
to consist of "mountains of coal," outrivaling 
both in quantity and quality any locality of 
similar extent in the state. 

It is said that the first cabin was erected by 
Abraham Baker in the year 1790. Among the 
earliest settlers were David and Joseph Ruffner, 



John Alderson and Samuel John Shrewsbury. 
The first settlement was made just above the 
mouth of Tinkersville, the oldest town in the 
district. The Ruffners were prominent men in 
developing the mining and salt manufacturing 
- interests of this locality, a notice of which has 
already appeared in this history. They built 
the first grist mill ever erected within the lim- 
its of the district, in he year 1803. It was a 
water-mill with one run of stone. An old pio- 
neer says it was a model "corn-cracker." 

The first school appears to have been taught 
about the year 1820, by a gentleman named 
Ezra Walker, of Athens, Ohio. His successor 
was George Taylor. The building was a one- 
story frame, erected by Gen. Lewis Ruffner, at 
his own expense. It was the first school build- 
ing in the district, which is now well provided 
with both white and colored schools. 

The old Kanawha Salines postoffice was one 
of the first in the valley. It has recently been 
discontinued, and Maiden is now the only one 
in the district. 

It is not recorded who preached the first ser- 
mon. The Methodists and Baptists appear to 
have held meetings contemporary with the first 
settlement, but no organization appears to have 
been perfected until 1816, when the Rev. Henry 
Ruffner organized the First Presbyterian 
church of Maiden. 


The town of Maiden, W. Va., was incorpo- 
rated in 1883, but in 1885 the charter was al- 
lowed to lapse after the marshal had been shot 
by an intoxicated man. The first mayor of 
Maiden was Mose Norton, the second, William 
Reynolds, and the third. Dr. Potts. The town 
has at different times had different names, they 
being in their order as follows : Terra Sallas, 
Kanawha Salines and Maiden. There are five 
general stores in the town, as follows: L. P. 
Oakes, J. E. White, W. H. Goodwin, AV. J. 
Krantz and W. E. Casper. E. Oakes has been 
postmaster since 1903. The only physician is 
Dr. W. F. Shirkey. The town has two hotels, 
and one two-room school which is taught by 
Miss Lorena Canterberry, principal, and Miss 
Florence Shamlin. The former has a class 
enrollment of 21 and the latter of 56. 

Masonic Lodge of Maiden has a membership 
of 130 and has its own lodge room. The lodge 
was organized in 1827, the present charter 
dating from 1865. The worshipful master is 
Lawrence A. Christy; senior warden, Woodson 
Blake ; junior warden, Lemuel Fauber ; treas- 
urer, Frank D. Jones; secretary, J. N. Scott: 
senior deacon, M. Chambers ; junior deacon. 
Preston Snowden ; tyler. Squire R. P. Shrews- 

Maiden Lodge No. JJ, I. O. O. F.. was insti- 
tuted September 15, 1875, with five charter 
members, as follows : C. S. Abbott, D. A. Cole, 
F. M. Atkins, J. J. Jacobs and J. J. Krantz. 
All of these are dead except J. J. Jacobs. The 
lodge building and fixtures were burned twice 
and were partly insured .each time. There are 
now 99 members and the worth of the lodge is 
about $3,000. 

Sultannas Lodge K. of P. No. 87 was insti- 
tuted Jan. 1, 1894, with 25 charter members. 
At present there are 185 members. 

Maiden Kickapoo Lodge, Improved Order of 
Red Men was instituted in October, 1893. It 
has at present a membership of 68. 

Harmony Council No. 16, Ancient Order 
American Mechanics, was instituted in 1883 
with about 40 members. The highest member- 
ship was 128. At the present time there are 65 
members. They own their lodge room and the 
property is valued at about $1,500. Mr. Oakes 
gave $200 to the building. 

The M. E. church at Maiden was built be- 
tween 1832 and 1840. About 1844 or 1846 
the church divided. There are about 60 or 75 
members. A new church edifice is now in the 
course of construction, which will be a brick 
structure 35x50 with an alcove, back choir, ves- 
tibule four feet extra and will cost $45,000. 
The present pastor is Rev. Rowe. The building 
committee is composed of H. J. Hervey, Au- 
brey Krantz, J. E. White and Dr. W. F. Shir- 
key. The church is practically on the same site 
as the old one except that it is about ten feet to 
the front of the old church. The church is in 
a prosperous condition. Maiden, Danaville and 
Putney constitute the charges of the pastor. 

The Southern Methodists took charge of the 
M. E. church now known as the Northern 
Methodist by reason of a majority in the voting. 



but after the Civil War the property was re- 
stored to the Methodist or what is known as 
the Northern branch of the church by the 
courts. The Southern Methodists erected a 
very neat structure but are not holding services 
in it. 

The Baptists have a strong membership at 

Kanawha Salines Presbyterian church, 
Charleston and Maiden or the "Licks" as it 
was afterwards called was organized by Dr. 
Henry RufTner. Dr. J. M. Brown was the first 
pastor of both Charleston and Maiden. After 
the separation Rev. Brown remained with the 
Charleston church and Rev. Stewart Robinson 
was the first regular pastor of the church at 
Maiden after the separation. The present pas- 
tor is Rev. J. W. Carpenter who came here in 

The first house of worship was called a 
meeting house, which was located on the Ruff- 
ner estate below Georges creek. This building 
was in use until about 1838 and could be used 
by all denominations for religious services. 
About 1839 or 1840 Col. David Ruffner erected 
the present house of worship with his own 
means and since that time this brick structure 
has been used as a house of worship by the 
Presbyterians. Kanawha Salines church was 
organized September 1, 1841, it having been 
known previously as the Kanawha Presbyterian 
church at Kanawha Salines and Charleston. 
W. Va. The present membership of the church 
is 72. 

At one time 42 salt furnaces were in opera- 
tion in and around Maiden. Now there is only 
' one furnace owned and operated by J. Q. Dick- 
inson & Co. 

J. O. Dickinson & Co. plant or furnaces 
were erected for the manufacture of salt in 
1832 by Dickinson and Shrewsbury or by 
Dr. Putney. The plant was destroyed by flood 
in 1 86 1 and rebuilt by J. 0. Dickinson 
early in the seventies. Capacity, 150 bar- 
rels, daily. Other products are calcium chloride 
and bromine. Five or six tons of calcium 
chloride are produced daily and 125 pounds of 

The brines found in the Kanawha valley are 
different from those discovered in other parts 

of the country. By analysis of the W. Va. 
Geological Survey, Vol. 5, they are found to be 
98.28 per cent pure, whereas the reports in the 
same volume of the product of one of the plants 
in the Ohio district is given as 91.31 per cent 
pure, and another of the Ohio plants, 95.32 per 
cent pure, both of which would indicate that 
the salt has 3.7 per cent less impurities than the 
salt in other districts. Owing to this purity 
this product has an exceptional value as a meat 
curer or preservative. With the exception of 
the Snow Hill plant this is the pargest plant 
ever operated in the valley. The last furnace 
to cease operations was the Brooks furnace two 
or three miles above Charleston. The next to 
the last was the Snow Hill furnace, operated 
by Dr. J. P. Hale. Mr. Charles Dickinson has 
been in charge of the plant since 1898. The 
furnace is run by gas piped thirteen miles from 
Boone county, W. Va. A combination of gas 
and coal is used for fuel. It is expected to 
increase the capacity of furnace to 175 barrels 

The stock breeders especially in the blue 
grass district use the salt manufactured in the 
Kanawha valley. 

The Campbell Creek Coal Co., located at 
Maiden or just below is a very old company and 
has operated and worked out several mines. 

Maiden has one saloon. 

the Campbell's creek bridge tragedy 

It was on the night of the 24th of Decem- 
ber, 1875, that Thomas Lee was waylaid and 
murderd by Rufus Estep and John Dawson, 
on the iron bridge spanning Campbell's creek 
at Maiden. On the next day (Christmas) 
the perpetrators were arrested by the officers, 
taken to Charleston, and lodged in jail, there 
to await trial on the charge of murder. The 
murder of Lee was so unprovoked that a mob 
was at once organized, resolved to avenge his 
death by lynching Estep and Dawson. Philip 
W. Morgan, high sheriff of the county, to- 
gether with John W. Lentz, John T. S. Perry 
and Silas Morgan, having learned of the in- 
tention of the mob, under cover of darkness 
removed the prisoners to Barboursville, and 
placed them in the Cabell county jail; but, 
fearing that the mob might learn of their 



whereabouts and follow on, they, two days 
later, removed them to the Wood county jail 
at Parkersburg. 

Here they remained until the convening of 
the circuit court of Kanawha county in Jan- 
uary, when the court and prosecuting attorney 
having concluded that there was no longer 
danger of mob violence, ordered the sheriff 
to return the prisoners to the jail at Charles- 
ton, that they might be ready for trial. But 
no sooner were they brought back than 
"Judge Lynch" announced himself ready for 
work, accordingly ordered the circuit court 
to at once try and convict the prisoners, else 
he would proceed to the execution himself. On 
the 24th of January, 1876, the prisoners were 
brought into court and arraigned upon the 
charge of murder. Their attorneys R. H. 
Freer and Abram Burlew, asked for a change 
of venue, and offered, as a reason for doing 
so, the fact that an armed mob existed, and ow- 
ing to its presence, it would be impossible to 
secure a fair trial for the accused. Their mo- 
tion was strongly opposed by John E. Kenna 
and James H. Ferguson, attorneys for the 
state. Judge Joseph Smith reserved his deci- 
sion until the next morning, and the prisoners 
were remanded to jail. 

Meanwhile, the matter was being discussed 
at the courthouse. Thomas Hines, a journey- 
man tailor of Charleston, walked into a shoe 
shop on Anderson street, and cut the throat 
of J. W. Dooley, a colored shoemaker, who 
died from the wound in twenty-five minutes. 
Hines was at once arrested and lodged in jail. 
Judge Smith never rendered his decision, for 
that night the mob surrounded the jail and 
took from it Estep and Dawson, and at the 
same time it was joined by about fifty colored 
men, who took out Hines. All marched to 
Campbell's creek bridge, and there the two 
former paid the penalty of their crime on the 
very spot on which they had committed it; 
and at the same time Hines expiated his by 
hanging to the limb of a honey-locust tree 
three hundred yards above the bridge. The 
mob dispersed, and the bodies were cut down 
and buried the next morning, under orders 
from the authorities. Thus met and adjourned 
the first and last court over which "Judge 
Lynch" has presided in Kanawha. 


Cabin Creek District lies on both sides of 
the Kanawha. On the south side of the river 
it extends from Loudon, below Field's creek, 
up to Fayette county at Montgomery and in- 
cludes the waters of Kanawha. This takes in 
Paint creek, Cabin creek, Slaughter's creek 
and Field's creek. On the north side of the 
Kanawha, it includes Witcher's creek, Kelly's 
creek and Buffalo fork of Simmons' creek. 

There is a corner on Rock Camp fork of 
Bell creek where Nicholas, Fayette and Ka- 
nawha join and the line runs from thence to 
the Kanawha river at the mouth of Simmons' 
creek at Cannelton ; thence down the middle 
of the river to lower end of Montgomery ; and 
thence to Raleigh county, crossing Paint at 
the mouth of Laurel branch. The old road 
came down to Gauley river at the mouth of 
Twenty-mile and then up Bell creek and 
thence down Hughes' creek, or Kelly's creek, 
their heads being" 1 near. 

The first white man who dared to attempt 
to settle in the Kanawha valley was Walter 
Kelly. In the early part of the year 1774 he 
removed his family to the mouth of the stream 
which has ever since borne his name now 
within the limits of this district. His settle- 
ment was eighty-five miles west of Donnally's 
fort in Greenbrier, and was at the time the 
most western English settlement in America. 
Its destruction by Indians and the tragic end 
of some members of the family have been al- 
ready narrated in this volume. 

The murder of one individual or a dozen 
families did not deter the sturdy pioneer from 
his onward .march in the conquest of the wil- 
derness, and accordingly, before a year has 
passed after the destruction of Kelly's settle- 
ment, we find Leonard and William Morris 
both residing almost in sight of the fatal spot. 
Their settlement is elsewhere noticed. Among 
those who here found homes and become actual 
settlers in the next few years were John Hans- 
ford, Sr., Thomas Foster, Ransom Gatewood, 
Robert Perry, John Jarrett, John D. Massey, . 
Gallatin G. Hansford, William Johnson, Johrf 
Wheeler, Shadrach Childers, Peter Likens, 
Spencer Hill, William Pryor, Barney Green, 
Thomas Trigg and Shadrach Hariman. The 



latter was an Englishman, who came to the 
Kanawha valley and married Susan Pryor; 
this was, most probably, the first marriage 
contracted on the banks of the Kanawha. 
They had to go to Fort Savannah (now Lew- 
isburg) for license. He was killed by a rov- 
ing band of savages, on the 7th day of March, 
1791, on what is now known as the Donnally 
farm, near Charleston. 

The same year in which Hariman was 
killed, there came to the valley a family of the 
name of Wheeler; they remained two years 
at the Kelly's creek settlement, and then re- 
moved eight miles farther down the river and 
began an improvement. Several months 
passed away, autumn came and brought with 
it the lurking band of Indians. One evening, 
when the family — six in number — were seated 
in front of the cabin engaged in roasting 
chestnuts, and all unconscious of their fate, a 
savage scream rent the air, the report of a 
dozen rifles resounded among the mountains, 
and, with the exception of one lad, nearly 
grown, every member of the family lay dead 
upon the ground. The boy ran and made his 
escape to Kelly's creek, where he related the 
bloody story. A company of soldiers went 
down the next morning, but only to find the 
charred remains of five human bodies among 
the smoking ruins of the cabin, into which the 
savages had carried them before applying the 

Staten's run is a small stream which emp- 
ties into the Kanawha a short distance below 
the town of Cannelton. It derives its name 
from the following incident. Soon after the 
formation of the county, in 1789, James 
Staten, Leonard Morris, William Morris, John 
Jones and John Young made a journey to 
Charleston, for the purpose of attending court. 
After having finished their business at the 
county seat, they set out on horseback to re- 
turn to their homes. When near the above 
mentioned stream they were fired upon by a 
number of Indians, and, although a perfect 
shower of balls whistled past them, but one 
took effect, and that caused the death of James 
Staten. The others put spurs to their horses 
and rode safely away. The stream has ever 
since been known as Staten's run. 


In 1777 — early in the quarter of a past cen- 
tury — was gathered the first Protestant congre- 
gation in the Kanawha valley. No minister 
proclaiming the glad tidings had yet lifted up 
his voice in this (then) wilderness land, but 
the old pioneers in obeyance of the scriptural 
injunction, "assemble yourselves together," 
met, and organized a congregation. Soon the 
Macedonian cry was heard east of the moun- 
tains, and Revs. John Alderson, Mathew Elli- 
son, James Johnson and John Lee responded 
to the call, came west of the mountain barrier 
and assisted in carrying on the good work 
already begun. 

Among the names of those who were mem- 
bers of this primitive church we find the fol- 
lowing: Leonard Morris (the first permanent 
settler), Levi Morris, Benjamin Morris, Will- 
iam Morris and wife, Katie Carroll, William 
Morris, Jr., John Jones, John Hansford, Jane 
Hansford, David Jarrett, William Huddlestone, 
Edward Hughs, Lewis Jones, Mary Malone, 
Susanna Malone, Leah Alderson, Thomas 
Trigg, Polly Ellison, Polly Winsor, Nancy 
Hariman, Richard Hughs, Matilda Winsor, 
and John Meadows. This was the beginning 
of the Kanawha Baptist church of today. 


Of towns, this district has Cannelton, which 
came into existence through the manufacture 
there of oil from cannel coal. It is opposite 
Montgomery, and this latter town is in Fayette. 
Handley is a railroad town, on the C. & O. 
railroad. There are also Clifton, called Dego, 
(now Pratt), Cedar Grove, East Bank, Coal- 
burg, Shrewsbury or North Coalburg, Chel- 
yan, Lczviston. 

On Cabin creek, it is town all the way up, 
and the places are not large as towns, but ex- 
tremely busy as coal properties. This district 
is noted for having seen the beginning of the 
settlement of Kanawha, at the mouth of Kel- 
ly's creek and at the mouth of Paint creek. 
Paint creek was an Indian thoroughfare for 
the upper New river, a cut-off, or short route, 
less difficult to follow than New river. 




Cedar Grove is located on the right bank of 
the Kanawha river on the line of the Kanawha 
and Michigan Railroad, at the mouth of Kelly's 
creek. The town was incorporated about 1902. 
The finest and oldest house in the place is the 
residence of the late H. P. Tompkins, which 
was erected by William Tompkins, father of the 
late H. P. Tompkins, about 1844. The house 
is constructed of brick and is near the mouth 
of Kelly's creek and is occupied by the family 
of Mr. Tompkins. H. P. Tomkins was the 
second mayor of Cedar Grove after its incor- 
poration. The following is a list of those who 
have served as mayors of the town : Joseph 
Luther, H. P. Tompkins, Dr. R. M. Hudnall, 
H. P. Tompkins (second term), Benjamin 
Hope, whose term was finished by Herbert 
Harold, who was the sixth mayor. Mr. Har- 
old was succeeded by Walter Campbell; he in 
turn by John Quick. The ninth mayor was 
Harold P. Tompkins, a son of H. P. Tompkins, 
the second mayor ; he was said to be the young- 
est mayor in the United States. The tenth 
mayor, the present incumbent, is Eli Dixon. 
The first mayor was appointed by the court 
until an election could be held. 

There are eight stores in the place, viz : The 
Sunday Creek Co. store (a general store), W. 
C. Shannon's general store; H. A. McClung 
& Son, grocers ; W. E. Lewis, general store ; 
Calderwood Bros., general store; M. S. Miller, 
general store and millinery; James Estep, gro- 
cer; and G. H. Spruce, grocery. M. F. 
Spruce is a funeral director. There are two 
butcher shops and three coal companies which 
operate in the vicinity. 

The Methodist Episcopal church is the old- 
est church in Cedar Grove. The building is a 
brick structure located at the mouth of Kelly's 
creek. It was erected for the Methodists by 
William Tompkins. After a lapse of eight or 
ten years without services, the church was re- 
organized in 1910. In this year some improve- 
ments were .made, among other things a new 
belfry being added. The church is in the Ce- 
dar Grove circuit. There are twenty members 
and Rev. J. E. Brown is the pastor. 

There are three churches in the Cedar Grove 

circuit, one at Maiden and one at Glen Ferris. 
The latter was organized in 19 10 and has 
twenty-three members. The structure is a 
frame building which was erected in 1903. 
Rev. J. E. Brown is the pastor. 

Brown Memorial Presbyterian church has a 
membership numbering thirty. The congrega- 
tion has no pastor. The last pastor was Rev. 
John Carpenter. The church, a frame struc- 
ture, was erected in 1903, and was dedicated 
in June, 1904. 

The Baptist church of Cedar Grove, a frame 
building, was erected in 1903. Its highest 
membership is about sixty-five. 

There is also a colored Baptist church in 
the town. 

William Calderwood is- postmaster of Cedar 

The Kelly's Creek Railroad, a branch road 
and also a coal road, runs five miles from 
Cedar Grove to Mammoth; also Kelly's Creek 
South Western Railroad, two and a half miles 
long, running from Cedar Grove to Ward. 
This is also a coal road. 

Kanawha Star Lodge No. 177, K. of P., 
with a mebership of forty-five, has the follow- 
ing officers: Ernest Derring, chancellor com- 
mander; Charles Rutledge, master finance; C. 
H. Malcolm, master exchequer; and Charles 
Rutledge, secretary. 

The town receives its chief support from the 
coal mines. 


The town of Pratt, W. Va., was originally 
laid out in 1850 under the name of Clifton and 
incorporated June 4, 1905. The railroad sta- 
tion is known as Paint Creek Junction. The 
early owner of the site was Dickinson Morris, 
who was a son of James Morris, original owner 
of the land on which Handley was laid out. 
The town is a third of a mile above the mouth 
of Paint creek, and the corporation extends to 
Paint creek. Part of the survey of 430 acres 
was granted by Virginia to John Jones in 1795, 
who was the first settler. The population ac- 
cording to the last census is 306. The oldest 
inhabitant in the point of residence is Julian 
M. Johnson. There are four stores in the town, 
as follows : J. A. B. Holt, a dry goods and a 



grocery — two stores; Walter Baughn, general 
store; and T. S. Chapman, general store. 

Pratt is the terminus of the Paint creek 
branch of the C. & O. Railroad, which extends 
up Paint creek twenty-two miles to Kingston. 
It is principally a coal road but has a passenger 
train. There are about fifteen mines on this 
railroad. Paint Creek Collieries Company 
has the greatest number of mines of any of 
the companies. Standard Splint & Gas Coal 
Company is located about six miles up the 
creek ; Imperial Colliery Company, at Burn- 
well, thirteen miles up the creek; Christian 
Colliery Company, at Mahan, fifteen miles up 
Paint creek, and one other company about 
nineteen miles up known as Milburn Coal 
Company. The nearest gas comes from 
Shrewsbury and is piped to Montgomery by 
the Montgomery Gas Company and is used at 
Pratt. The first mayor of the town was Oscar 
A. Veazey and the first recorder T. S. Chap- 
man. The present mayor is Charles B. Cole- 
man, and the present recorder, Oscar A. Vea- 
zey. Dr. John H. Hansford is the physician 
of the town. 

About 1870 there was a postoffice at this 
place known as Clifton and J. B. Johnson, 
the father of J. M. Johnson, was the post- 
master. The present postmistress of Pratt is 
Mrs. Cecil Dickinson, a sister of the post- 
master at Charleston. About 1878 the post- 
office was changed to Paint creek and later 
moved to Hansford. The postoffice was then 
named Dego from a town in the northern 
part of Italy selected by the postoffice depart- 
ment. After Charles Pratt & Co. purchased 
the large tract of land on Paint creek the post- 
office was changed to Pratt, this being about 

There was formerly an old Union church 
in the town but it was deeded to the town for 
a town hall. Mr. Veazey has a private chapel 
in his yard and it is used for church purposes, 
a priest holding services there once a month. 

The Baptist church known as the Kanawha 
Baptist church is a frame building put up 
about ten years ago. Rev. Ayare is the pastor. 
The church is over 100 years old; it has a 
membership of about 150. 

The Episcopal minister, Rev. Geo. P. Bent- 

ley, of Dublin, Ireland, resides in the town 
of, Pratt. His parish in in Montgomery. 

Paint Creek Lodge I. O. O. F. No. 135, 
was instituted first at Hansford (the Paint 
creek) and moved to Pratt about 15 years 
ago. The membership numbers no. Thomas 
Huddleston is noble grand; Nick Robson, vice 
grand; Solomon Mooney, secretary ; and J. 
A. B. Holt, treasurer. The lodge owns a 


Handley, W. Va., was laid out by the Wy- 
oming Manufacturing Company and was 
named for a Mr. Handley who was connected 
with the company. The company opened up 
coal mines, opening the Kanawha seam of coal. 
The depot was built about 1891 or 1892, be- 
fore that this being a flag station. The land 
originally belonged to James Morris. 

The oldest house in the place is the James 
Morris residence now used as a hotel. When 
the town was laid out there were only two 
houses and some cabins used by James Morris 
for slaves. The C. & O. Railway Company 
located yards and round house at Handley 
early in 1891. The town claims a population 
of about 1,000. There are two churches in 
Handley — a Baptist and a Methodist. The 
Methoidst church was erected about 1890 and 
the Baptist church in 1893. Handley Lodge, 
K. of P. (with 30 members) ; Arapahoe Lodge 
of Red Men; a lodge of American Mechanics; 
Handley Camp No. 14,986, Modern Woodmen 
(instituted Feb. 1, 191 1, has 25 members), 
and railway organizations make up the fra- 
ternal life of the town. 

Among the business enterprises in the town 
of Handley we find the following: Chesa- 
peake Mining Co. store; Harry Woodruff, 
general merchant; Hugh Pike, general store; 
G. W. Brady, general store; F. B. Irvin & 
Co., genral store; and Dalton & Harbour, 
general store. Joseph Robson is the post- 

The Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad Y. M. C. 
A. was built from 1894 to 1896. The build- 
ing contains lodging and dining rooms, large 
reading room, dining room and restaurant 
open day and night. 



The Morris House, a hotel and boarding 
house, is conducted by Wm. Arington, and the 
O'Mally House by Wm. O'Mally. 

The Baptist church, whose pastor is Rev. 
Howell, who resides in West Charleston, was 
erected about 1893 and is a frame structure. 
The membership is fifty. The funds were 
given and raised by the late J. B. Lewis. Mrs. 
Lewis put in a steel ceiling at a cost of $175 
and blinds to the church. The first pastor was 
Rev. Davids, who was succeeded by Rev. 
John W. Curnes and he in turn by Rev. Frank 
Howell. The church is in a healthy condition. 

The M. E. church was erected about 1890. 
The present membership is twenty-five and the 
present pastor is Rev. Grimes. The structure 
is a frame building costing $1,500, but more 
than $2,000 has been spent on it in all. The 
first pastor was Rev. Thomas Everhart; Rev. 
Waltz followed him; he was succeeded in turn 
by the following: Rev. Phillips, Rev. King, 
Rev. Woolf, Rev. Bias, Rev. Beresford, Rev. 
Leslie, Rev. Dickey, and Rev. A. W. Grimes. 
The postmaster is Joseph Robson. There is 
one physician in the town — Dr. J. E. Mus- 

The first coal work was by Frank Love, 
John Smith and J. B. Lewis in the gas and 
coal in 1875, about 400 feet above the Y. M. 
C. A. building. 


Charleston District extends from Tyler 
creek, Union district, along the Kanawha, up 
to Black Hawk Hollow, up to Baker's fork of 
Two-mile, including Two-mile of Elk and 
Two-mile of Kanawha, and the city of Charles- 
ton and some of Elk river. 

It is the capital of the state of West Vir- 
ginia and has the courthouse of the county, 
and a reputation. 

The town was founded by George Clen- 
denin and family and many friends, and is 
noted for landing the courthouse of the 
county while William Morris was busy about 
other things. 

It might be said that Charleston and Charles- 
ton district are about the" same, and it is gen- 
erally supposed to have a courthouse ring 
that runs things in Kanawha — sometimes. 

It includes almost all of the two Bullett sur- 
veys — the (1030) A. on upper side of Elk, 
surveyed in 1779, and the Bullett (1240) A. 
below Elk. It did not grow much until after 
the war was over. It has always been a ques- 
tion whether it were not preferable as a town 
rather than as a city, for the purposes of a 

See chapter entitled "Charleston — the Coun- 
ty Seat." 



Early Schools and Schoolmasters — Harsh Discipline — Biennial Report of the State Superintend- 
ent of Free Schools — Inter-District Contests — Introduction of Agriculture — Free Schools of 

Charleston and Their Teachers — Negro Education. 

The value of a good education, or at least 
one that is sound and practical, is so generally 
recognized at the present day in every civilized 
community that any discussion of the question 
would be out of place in the present volume. 
Among our pioneer ancestors, also, there were 
many who recognized its importance but who 
were unable to secure the advantage for their 
children owing to the lack of facilities — either 
of schools or schoolmasters. 

The first schoolhouses in this section were 
crude affairs. They were constructed of logs, 
usually unhewn. At one end of the building 
was a fireplace, the wood for fuel being cut 
and brought in from the surrounding forest 
by the elder male pupils, or supplied from 
an annual wood-cutting by the patrons of the 
school. There were . low benches for the 
smaller boys and high ones for the big boys. 
These benches were split from trees and had 
no backs, and sometimes the splinters were 
not always removed. Along the wall were the 
writing desks, above which a log had been 
left out. This opening, covered withjjreased 
paper served for a window. The pupils' caps 
were hung on wooden pegs driven into the 

At the opposite end of the room sat the 
teacher on a high chair before a high desk and 
behind him was a plentiful supply of hickory 
withes. The writing pens were of quills. The 
books used were not uniform; in fact any 
kind of a book might be used for a reader. 

The teacher's word was law and his rule 
was seldom tempered with mercy. For trivial 

offenses he inflicted corporal punishment, 
which was often too severe. Reading, writing 
and arithmetic were the principal and almost 
the only studies, and, indeed, it has been said 
that some of the teachers knew little else, 
though as communities before more settled 
and civilized, other studies, such as geography, 
grammar and singing were gradually intro- 

Notwithstanding his limitations, however, 
the early teacher did a good work. He labored 
under disadvantages that would have discour- 
aged a less purposeful people, and ofttimes, in 
spite of the severe discipline which was con- 
sidered necessary in those days, a gleam of 
kindly humor would break forth in a rough 
joke or a patient effort to help some backward 

"The master sleeps upon the hill 
All coated o'er with snow," 

but his method of training the youthful mind 
has not been forgotten, and the results of his 
hard and ill paid work were and have been 
manifested in the character and achievements 
of the generations that profited by them. 

To give a detailed history of all the various 
schools and institutions of learning that have 
been established in Kanawha county would 
occupy too much space and is not our present 
purpose. Mention of some of them may be 
found in other parts of this volume, as also 
of some of the early teachers. Suffice it to 
say that from the times we have thus briefly 
referred to, there has been a gradual but steady 




progress in the right direcion. The quality 
both of the schools and of the teachers has 
been lifted to a higher grade; the methods of 
instruction have been more systemized, the 
standard of scholarship raised very greatly, so 
that this county as a whole can bear compari- 
son with the most favored communities any- 

Kanawha county has been a strong free 
school county. There were some good schools 
at Charleston as early as 1818. About the 
year 1829, Colonel David Ruffner donated a 
lot in Charleston for a church and an academy, 
and contributed to the erection of suitable 

This county, along with other counties, was 
named in the special act passed February 25, 
1845, to establish free schools in certain coun- 
ties, and adopted the act in 1847. In obedi- 
ence to the strong free school sentiment pre- 
vailing in this county, its representative in the 
legislature, Dr. Spicer Patrick, took an active 
part in securing the passage of the act after- 
wards adopted by this county. 

Notwithstanding the fact that Kanawha 
county had taken a leading part in the move- 
ment for the establishment of free schools, and 
had adopted the act by more than two-thirds 
of the vote of all qualified voters in the county, 
before it could be put into operation, strong 
opposition by large property owners had to be 
met and overcome. In 1853 the firm of Dick- 
ison and Shrewsbury brought suit against 
James H. Fry the sheriff of the county, who 
had levied on the property belonging to this 
firm to secure the payment of school tax due 
from it to the amount of $350.82. The suit was 
decided in favor of the sheriff. 

The territory, which was laid off on the 
south side of Kanawha river opposite Charles- 
ton some time after the war for a magisterial 
and school district, is now Loudon district. 
In that territory there were, or had been, fine 
old log schoolhouses. At Brownstown, which 
is now Marmet, the old log schoolhouse had 
rotted down, and the first school taught there 
after the war was in the Southern Methodist 

In 1865 Washingon district had three log 
schoolhouses, two of them being 15 feet by 16 

feet by 7 feet high, built of round logs, a board 
roof held on with weight poles, chimney built of 
sticks and mud and a fireplace five feet wide. 
There was one writing-bench ten feet long, 
and a log sawed out of the side of the building 
to give light, the writing bench being used as 
a shutter for the opening in cold weather. 
One schoolhouse was built of hewn logs with 
two glass windows which was considered a 
model schoolhouse at that time. It was built 
in 1839, and is now occupied as a dwelling 

Steven Thomas Teays, of St. Albans, gave 
the following sketch showing how they did 
things in Jefferson district when he was a 
schoolboy. The people were almost all 
methoclists in that community, and built a 
beech log house 40x60 feet, and used it for a 
church and schoolhouse. Mr. Teays remem- 
bered seeing more than a hundred horses 
hitched near the old beech church on various 
occasions. The people came from Elk river, 
Coal river, and from up and down the Kana- 
wha river, and took part in old-fashioned 
Methodist meetings. 

Mrs. Joplin taught the first school in the 
old beech church in 1845, ana - a l so taught in 
1846 and 1847. A teacher, whose name was 
Kirkum taught in 1848. During that year, 
Teays, then a boy of ten years of age, full of 
fun. to vary the monotony of a dreary school 
day, blew the ashes off the top of the wood 
stove into the eyes of a boy schoolmate, who 
veiled considerably, and under the excitement, 
the teacher seized a piece of stovewood and 
struck Teays a blow on the head, which dis- 
abled him for some time. The teacher started 
for parts unknown, and has not yet returned. 

There have been great developments in Jef- 
ferson district since the days of the old 
church schoolhouse. The schoolhouses at this 
time are furnished with patent desk seats, 
charts, maps and globes and other modern fix- 
tures, which is also true of the other school 

The teachers of Poca district met at Sisson- 
ville, October 31, 1903, and organized a very 
interesting teachers' district institute. The 
school work of the district is progressing very 




The biennial report of the state superintend- 
ent of Free Schools of West Virginia, for the 
two years ending June 30, 1910, presents the 
following facts and figures with respect to 
Kanawha county, as considered by magisterial 
and independent districts. 

Number of Schools in District. 

Big Sandy 20 

Cabin Creek .,. 125 

Charleston 8 

Elk 40 

Jefferson 19 

Loudon 41 

Maiden 21 

Poca 24 

Union 31 

Washington 16 

St. Albans 2 

Total 347 

Number of White Pupils Enumerated. 

Big Sandy 1,368 

Cabin Creek 6,098 

Charleston 551 

Elk 2,103 

Jefferson 860 

Loudon 1,764 

Maiden 1,152 

Poca 1,401 

Union M97 

Washington 947 

St. Albans 336 

Total 1 7,yyy 

Number of Colored Pupils Enumerated. 

Big Sandy 

Cabin Creek 440 

Charleston 55 


Jefferson 96 

Loudon 98 

Maiden 32 

Poca 30 

Union 76 


St. Albans 46 

Total 873 

Number of White Pupils Enrolled 

Big Sandy 1,003 

Cabin Creek 4,426 

Charleston 358 

Elk 1,679 

Jefferson 656 

Loudon 1,225 

Maiden 770 

Poca 974 

Union 948 

Washington 719 

St. Albans 273 

Total 13,031 

Number of Colored Pupils Enrolled 

Big Sandy 

Cabin Creek 394 

Charleston 28 


Jefferson 67 

Loudon 67 


Poca 16 

Union 37 


St. Albans 35 

Total 644 

Total Value of All Taxable Property 

Big Sandy $ 1,400,700.00 

Cabin Creek 12,628,103.00 

Charleston . 1,031,564.00 

Elk 2,886,458.00 

Jefferson 1,904,180.00 

Loudon 4,914,887.00 

Maiden 1,490,052.00 

Poca 750,1 12.00 

Union 896,880.00 

Washington 527,230.00 

St. Albans 800,320.00 

Total $29,329,486.00 

The rate of levy for Building Fund is 12^ 



in each district; the rate of levy for Teachers' 
Fund 25 in each district. 

Total Amount of Building Fund 

Big Sandy $ 2,011.61 

Cabin Creek 17,064.05 

Charleston 3,434.58 

Elk 5-716.45 

Jefferson 3,920.84 

Loudon 10,635.72 

Maiden 2,720.05 

Poca 2,460.61 

Union 2,545.48 

Washington 3>5°5-73 

St. Albans 12,729.30 

Total $66,744.45 

Total Amount of Teachers' Fund 

Big Sandy $ 6,264.74 

Cabin Creek 46,91 1.83 

Charleston 3,724.58 

Elk 12,082.77 

Jefferson 10,130.22 

Loudon 18,917.29 

Maiden 6,719.58 

Poca 4,221.72 

Union 5,899.64 

Washington 4,603.74 

St. Albans 3,745.60 

Total $123,221.71 

The rural school work of Kanawha County 
for the year beginning July 1st, 1909, and clos- 
ing June 30th, 1910, opened with a concerted 
effort on the part of superintendent and teach- 
ers, with the following in mind : 

The importance of finishing the eighth grade 

The value of written composition. 

The study of agriculture emphasized. 

The value of pleasant acquaintance with the 

The value arising from completing the eighth 
grade work was held up before the schools by 
the writer, and with the co-operation of the 
splendid teaching force in the county the re- 
sult was gratifying, as is evidenced by the fact 

that seventy-three bright young people finished 
this work and received their diplomas in 19 10. 

It is very apparent to the superintendent that 
one of the real weaknesses of the schools of 
Kanawha County is a lack of ability on the 
part of our young people to command fit 
words and properly arrange them in sentences 
in an attempt to clearly express their "thought- 
life" in written work; hence a new movement 
was inaugurated known as Inter-district Con- 
tests in Composition, Spelling and Oratory. 
The winner in each instance was to be awarded 
twenty-five dollars in gold. Considerable in- 
terest was manifested in this work throughout 
the county and some good accomplished. 

The introduction of agriculture into the 
schools necessitated some. special reading on the 
part of our teachers, so as to be able to effi- 
ciently instruct in this subject. Thus a Kana- 
wha County Teachers' Reading Circle was or- 
ganized in the office of the county superintend- 
ent and Saturday meetings were held in the of- 
fice, to which the teachers of the county were 
invited. As a result of these meetings several 
books on agriculture were read prior to and 
after the campaign by Professor D. W. Work- 
ing and in this connection it gives the writer 
real pleasure to make mention of the splendid 
work done during the ten days' campaign by 
the above named representative of the State 

Knowing so fully the benefits of a more per- 
fect co-operation on the part of all educational 
forces, the teachers of our county were urged 
to come into friendly touch in every way pos- 
sible way with these forces in their respective 
districts; for it is a well-established fact that 
in most instances where the teachers come short 
of the mission, a lack of friendly relation with 
these forces is apparent. 


The free schools of Charleston were organ- 
ized in the fall of 1864, the year following the 
admission of the State into the Union. Mr. 
J. T. Brodt taught the first school for white 
children. In the same year a school for col- 
ored children was taught by Miss Olive Spar- 
row. These schools were small and poorly pat- 
ronized, and they were taught in buildings 



wholly unsuited to the purpose. The first 
school was taught in the basement of the Meth- 
odist church, while even as late as 1868 the 
best accommodation for schools was a rickety 
frame building, scarcely fit for a stable. 

In this year the Board of Education, com- 
posed of progressive men, determined to secure 
a better building. Although they met much 
opposition they were eventually successful in 
erecting the Union School, a two-story build- 
ing on State Street, then the center of the town. 
When completed the building could accommo- 
date three hundred pupils. All the white 
schools of the town were then consolidated in 
the new building. 

In 1 87 1 by an act of the Legislature the con- 
trol of the city schools was given to the city 
council, with whom it remained for ten years, 
when it was again transferred to a city board 
of education. Mr. S. H. Patrick was princi- 
pal of the schools from 1873 to 1878. During 
his term of office he drew up a course of study, 
— the first standard for grading the schools. 

Mr. George S. Laidley was appointed su- 
perintendent of Schools in 1878. With the ex- 
ception of the years 1881-1883 he has held 
this position continuously until the present 
time. From 1883 to 1895 there ,1s little to be 
said of the history of the schools except that 
they continued to grow in enrollment and in 
adaptation to the needs of the city. In these 
years several of the school buildings at pres- 
ent in use replaced the older structures, now 
grown inadequate for the increased population. 
The houses built at this time were brick, and 
furnished with modern appliances. Ample 
grounds around the school houses were secured 
at a time when land was comparatively cheap. 
As a result of this farseeing policy the schools 
now own valuable play-grounds. 

In 1895 the territory on the west side of Elk 
River was added to the City and the schools in 
that section were joined with the city schools. 
The limits of the City were further extended 
in 1897 by the addition of the territory for- 
merely known as Ruffner, southeast of Charles- 
ton. The school in this district was also in- 
corporated with the city system. 

The growth of the Charleston High School 
in the last thirty years has been substantial. 

In 1882 Mrs. Mary R. McGwigan was chosen 
principal, with Mrs. Coleman as assistant. For 
twenty-four years Mrs. McGwigan filled this 
position with credit. The High School now 
occupies a handsome building on Quarrier 
Street. Although it was erected in 1903 the 
growth of the school already necessitates an 
addition, which will be built 'this year. There 
are at present 375 pupils in the High School, 
and the teaching force numbers fifteen. 

The Alumni Association of the Charleston 
High School was organized in 1899. Yearly 
meetings since that time have brought the grad- 
uates in touch with each other and with the 
school, and have added to the interest of the 
community in the school. 

At the present time the Charleston schools 
occupy thirteen buildings and have an enroll- 
ment of 4,921 pupils. There are 137 teachers. 
• In the last four years four handsome new build- 
ings have been erected, one building has had 
an addition of four rooms, and at present two 
new additions are in process of construction. 

In addition to the ordinary school branches 
there are special teachers for music, drawing, 
and domestic science. In all respects the 
schools meet the present requirements. 

The schools are directed by a board of edu- 
cation consisting of nine members. Much of 
the present prosperity of the schools is to be 
attributed to the broad-minded attitude of this 
board, whose acts have been determined solely 
by the needs and best interests of the schools. 

The following is the present membership of 
the board of education : 

J. E. Chamberlain, president, 

A. T. Cabell 

J. F. Bedell 

D. T. Farley 

Val. Fruth 

M. Gilchrist 

A. G. Higginbotham 

L. L. Price 

W. W. Venable 

W. O. Daum, secretary. 

Mr. J. E. Chamberlain has served the board 
as President since 1903. He has held the posi- 
tion longer than any preceding president has 
done. His loyalty to the interests of the 
schools and his activity in their behalf has 






Jr 1 






r&fS O 



done much to give them the standing they now 


Geo. S. Laidley, Superintendent 

Mary B. Fontaine, Assistant Superintendent 

and Supervisor of English 

Nina M. Owen. Music in Grades 

Myrtle N. Stalnaker, Penmanship 

H. Madeleine Keely, Drawing in lower 


A. W. Croft, Drawing in upper grades and 

high school 

J. H. Francis, Music in High School 
Hallie B. Corsett, Domestic Science 
H. C. Lounsbery, Sanitary Inspector 
Anne L. Riggs, Clerical Assistant 

High School 

Morris K. Turner, Principal 
Mary R. McGwigan, Mathematics 
Mary Maud Patrick, English 
Bettie K. Starke, Algebra 
Paul E. Demmler, Science 
Nancy H. Powell, Latin 
Clara Hinz, French and German 
Minnie Lee Goff, English and French 
C. L. Smith, Algebra and Civics 
Mabel E. Belcher, Stenography and Book- 

Mary E. Reber, English 

Ellen M. Brown, History and English. 

The High School building, Ouarrier St., was 
erected in 1903. The cost of the building and 
grounds was $50,000. It contains 17 rooms, 
all of which are used at the present time. The 
office of the Board of Education and the Su- 
perintendent of Schools is in this building. 

Union School 

Ettie S. Walker, Principal 
Louise S.- Truxbury, Kindergarten 
Josephine R. Estill, Primary 
Elizabeth C. Keely, Primary 
Eunice Plunkett, First 
Mazie O. Walker, First 

Cora Hopkins, Second 
L. Belle Michaelson, Second 
Winifred Brown, Third 
Eunice P. Withrow, Third 
Lulu G. Stoffel, Third 
Carrie Holt, Fourth 
Mona Snyder, Fourth 
Delia D. Grass, Fourth 
Nellie E. Mason, Fifth 
M. Alice Martin, Fifth 
V. Rosa Shelton, Sixth 
Alice J. McChesney, Sixth 
Elberta Rogers, Seventh 
Russell R. Bell, Seventh 
Gertrude M. Reynolds, Eighth 
Jennie W. Hutchinson, Eighth 
Elsie Rippetoe, Assistant. 

The Union School was built in 1892. It is 
the largest building in the city, and cost, to- 
gether with the land, about $60,000. It is 
situated on State Street. Miss Walker has been 
principal of this building ever since it was 
erected. She has taught continuously in the 
Charleston schools for forty-four years, during 
which time she has exerted a wide and bene- 
ficent influence. 

Mercer School 

Miss Hattis Wilson, Principal 

L. Josephine Mathews, Primary 

Ella J. Spradling, Primary and First 

Erna E. Young, First 

Sybil M. Ball, Second 

H. Madeline Keely, Second 

Ida M. McGee, Third 

Katherine Blackwood, Third 

Ella Smoot, Fourth 

Gertrude Humphrey, Fourth 

Roberta Hopkins, Fifth 

M. Frances Arbuckle, Sixth 

Ethel Jackson, Seventh 

Mary Ella Craig, Seventh 

Mabel F. Gibbons, Eighth 

Mabel C. Spencer, Assistant. 

The Mercer School, facing on Washington 
and Lee Streets, contains fourteen rooms and 
an auditorium. It has a large yard, which is 
much enjoyed as a playground. The building 



was erected in 1889 at a cost of $60,000 for 
land and building. 

Kanawha School 

Minnie S. McWhorter, Principal 
Olive M. Wildman, Primary- 
Mabel C. Spencer, Assistant First 
Thelma F. Wallen, Second 
Minnie G. Slack, Third 
Carrie Hill, Fourth 
Grace D. LeMaster, Fifth and Sixth 
Flora Miles, Fifth 
A. Belle Dashiell, Fifth 
Florence E. Dick, Sixth 
Nan M. Grabill, Sixth 
Marion E. Jenks, Seventh 
Eleanor C. Hopper, Eighth. 

The Kanawha School, erected in 1907, is a 
twelve-room building. It is situated on Eliz- 
abeth Street, and the lot extends from Lee to 
Quarrier Street. It is in every respect a mod- 
ern building. The land and building cost about 

Lincoln School 

Mattie A. Rust, Principal 

Katie T. Farley, Primary 

E. Belle Cunningham, Primary 

Marion L. Board, First 

Myrtle N. Stalnaker, Second 

Nelle G. DeWees, Assistant Second 

Annie E. Finney, Third 

Pearl R. McGee, Third 

Myra Howard, Fourth 

Berenice Howard, Fifth 

Olive V. Thurston, Fifth 

Mary E. Hagerty, Sixth 

Katherine E. Joachim, Seventh 

Daisy B. LeMaster, Seventh 

May Jackson, Eighth. 

The Lincoln Building, erected in 1898, orig- 
inally contained ten recitation rooms, but in 
1910 the growth of the population necessitated 
the addition of four new rooms, while another 
addition of four rooms is now (1911) being 
built. The building is situated on Maryland 
and Delwood Avenues between Fayette and 
Roane. It has a very large yard. Miss Rust 

has been the efficient principal of this building 
ever since it was erected. The building and 
grounds cost $56,500. 

Bigley School 

Maggie P. Lette, Principal 
Mrs. Lette, Primary 
Ida S. Given, First 
Sarah C. Barber, Second 
Sallie Humphreys, Third 
Minnie Morris, Assistant 
Helen E. Cavender, Fourth 
Mary L. Branch, Fourth 
Elizabeth Whiteside, Fifth 
Eva L. Meeks, Fifth 
L. D. Smith, Sixth 
Leonora Hardway, Sixth. 

The Bigley School was built in 1907. It is 
a modern building of the same type as the Ka- 
nawha, but with fewer rooms. It is situated 
on Bigley Avenue and Glen. The building and 
grounds cost $41,000. 

Tiskelwah School 

Henry C. Robertson, Principal 

Ella Orth, Primary 

Annie C. Thornhill, Primary 

Lucy B. Barber, First 

Christina Orth, First 

Nellie Hastings, First 

Vernie M. Chase, Second 

Nellie M. Hard, Second 

Anna M. Popp, Third 

Maude E. Harmon, Third 

Pernae E. Stout, Fourth 

Virginia B. Cunningham, Fourth 

H. C. Robertson, Fifth 

Nelle G. DeWees, J4 day assistant 

M. O. Weems, Sixth * 

This modern twelve-room building was 
erected in 19 10. It is one of the handsomest 
buildings in the city. The house and lot cost 
about $54,500. 

It is situated on Florida Street. 

Elk School 

Muriel L. Porter, Principal 
Mrs. Porter, Primary 
Minnie M. Morris, Assistant 



Hallie M. Hall, First 
Mary Farley, Second 
Bessie Jordan, Third 
Kate N. Bower, Fourth 

Beech Hill School 

Lucy J. Javins, Primary and First 
Elsie Javins, Second and Third 

The Elk and the Beech Hill Schools are 
small frame buildings which the city took over 
when the west side was incorporated. An- 
other building of brick is now being built on 
the Elk lot. 


C. W. Boyd, Principal 
Annie E. Simpson, Primary 
Maud S. Viney, First 
Hattie E. Peters, Second 
Esther E. Fulks,- Third 
H. B. Rice, Fourth 
Naola M. Farrar, Fifth 
Estella B. Greene, Sixth 
Rhoda A. Wilson, Seventh & Eighth 
Beatrice Calhoun, Primary Assistant 

Garnett High School 
J. F. J. Clark, Principal 
L. C. Farrar 

Nina H. Clinton, English & Music 
Flora M. Webster, Commercial 
Helen M. D. Truxon, Domestic Science 

The Garnett School, built in 1889, and the 
Garnett High School, built in 1910, stand on 
the same lot on Jacobs Street. The Garnett 
School is an eight-room building. The High 
School is one of the finest buildings in the city. 
It contains a large auditorium, laboratories, 
and domestic science rooms in addition to reg- 
ular class rooms. The Garnett School and lot 
cost $20,000; the Garnett High School $25,000. 

Washington School 
M. J. Tyler, Principal 
Lizzie O. Hopkins, Primary 
Ammie Hutchinson, First & Second 
Amelia R. Wilcher, Second & Third 
Mrs. Tyler, Fourth & Fifth 

This is a four-room brick building on Don- 
nally Street. It is so constructed that an ad- 
dition may be made to it whenever the growth 
of the population makes it necessary. It was 
built in 1902. The house and lot cost $6,000. 

The Island School is a one-room frame build- 
ing, which was acquired when the west side 
was added to the city. I. C. Cabell teaches 
from the Primary through the Third inclusive. 


Revised Ed. 1907 

The problem of negro education is by no 
means a simple one. How to lift an ignorant 
and uneducated race to the plane of twentieth 
century requirements, fitting it for the compli- 
cated economic and moral duties of life, giving 
it the fibre to contend patiently for place amid 
the maddening competition of the business 
world; to lay bare the mistakes and follies of 
the first intoxication of long prayed-for free- 
dom and inspire with the real spirit of real lib- 
erty and true citizenship, millions of unfortu- 
nate but native born Americans, — challenges 
the sacrifice of the deepest thought and the 
truest patriotism. 

In studying the question, we must not elim- 
inate from our calculations the fact that we are 
dealing with the children of a race scarcely a 
generation removed from slavery and around 
whom still cling many of the sad results of 
their parents' unfortunate past. In the minds 
of most of these children education and labor 
are distinct and opposite concepts. Education 
is associated with luxury and idleness, labor 
with ignorance and drudgery. To teach the 
nobility of labor, and that the greatest useful- 
ness and the highest happiness are the hand- 
maids of diligence, is the mission of our school. 
In the work we must guard against unfair 
standards of comparison, and observe that the 
educational progress of a race cannot always 
be measured by a progress of things. Building 
and apparatus measure largely the progress of 
things, but time is a very important element in 
ascertaining definitely what has been the ul- 
timate progress of hand and mind. 

The West Virginia Colored Institute like 
other agricultural and mechanical schools for 
the colored race, is a child of the Morrill Bill. 



This bill was approved by Congress Aug. 30, 
1890 and entited "An act to apply a portion 
of the proceeds of the public lands to the more 
complete endowments and support of the col- 
leges for the benefit of agriculture and the 
mechanic arts established under the provisions 
of an Act of Congress approved July 2, 1862." 
By this act West Virginia was apportioned 
$18,000 and by act of the legislature (session 
of 1891), $15,000 was given to the West Vir- 
ginia University and $3,000 to the West Vir- 
ginia Colored Institute, established by the same 
act. By the conditions of the act these sums 
were to be augmented until the university 
should receive $20,000 and the institute $5,000 
annually, which sums would be the maximum. 

Mr. J. Edwin Campbell, the first principal 
of the West Virginia Colored Institute, gives 
the following account of its establishment : 

An appropriation of $10,000 was made by 
the legislature with which to purchase a farm 
of not more than fifty acres and to build a suit- 
able building for such an institution. As the 
act provided that the institution should be lo- 
cated in Kanawha County, it was first thought 
best -to purchase the property known as Shel- 
ton College, situated on the lofty hill over- 
looking the village of St. Albans. But the 
committee appointed after investigation re- 
ported adversely. It was then decided to 
erect a building at some suitable location. 

Finally thirty acres of level bottom land was 
purchased from Mrs. Elijah Hurt, near "Farm" 
on the Great Kanawha River. This land is 
a part of the estate left by Samuel Cabbell, 
deceased. Upon this farm the board of the 
school fund erected a building. Ground was 
broken August 25, 1891, and the corner stone 
laid Sunday, Oct. nth of that same year. The 
building was completed about the first of 
April, 1892, and was received by the board of 
the school fund on April 20th. The main or 
academic building, Fleming Hall, was the first 
erected, at a cost of about $10,000. It was 
carefully designed and planned to meet the 
needs of modern education. Since its erection 
the building has been considerably enlarged 
and is now 80 feet long, and 76 feet wide, and 
is modern in its appointments. Besides an ad- 
ditional purchase of 38 acres of land, a mod- 

ern barn and seven other buildings have been 
erected on the institute grounds. Five of these 
are built of stone and brick, the others are. 
frame buildings. 

MacCorkle Hall is a large and beautiful 
building, 106 feet long and 50 feet wide and 
accommodates 100 girls. Atkinson Hall, the 
young men's dormitory rivals MacCorkle Hall 
in convenience and beauty. The A. B. White 
Trade School is the most commodious and by 
far the largest building connected "with the 
school being 244 feet in its greatest width with 
ornamentations of stone and roofed with slate. 
It would be a credit to any institution. This 
building was erected at a cost of $35,000 and 
finished by the ' students of the 'school. It is 
intended to contain all the industries for boys. 
This is (with the exception of the Armstrong- 
Slater Trades School at Tuskegee) the larg- 
est building of its kind in the United States 
and without exception the best lighted and 
most convenient. 

Dawson Hall, the building for Domestic Arts 
and Sciences, now in course of construction 
(1907) when finished will be the most beau- 
tiful building on the campus. This hall, built 
of brick and stone, will contain all the girls' in- 
dustries, and the third story will be utilized 
as a Senior Girls' Home. These buildings to- 
gether with West Hall, a large frame build- 
ing containing the library and departments of 
agriculture and cooking and with the princi- 
pal's home, a large and convenient frame build- 
ing, constitute the buildings of the institution. 
All of them are heated by steam and lighted 
by electriciy. 

In all 161 students have graduated since 
1896. Of these 85 are engaged in teaching, 
three are pastors, two are machinists, one an 
attorney-at-law, sixteen are carpenters, six 
blacksmiths, and twelve dressmakers. The 
majority are teachers growing out of the de- 
mand for teachers. Many of these teachers 
follow their trades during vacation from school 
duties. The course of study is the same as 
pursued in other normal schools in the state. 
In addition to the book work every student is 
required to learn some useful trade before 
graduation. The six grades are divided into 
equal divisions, one half doing book work in 



the forenoon while the other half are in the 
shops and in the various departments and vice 
versa. In this way the pupils are given equal 
opportunities for mental and manual training. 
The school has six well equipped departments 
under the direction of twenty-two teachers : 
normal, agricultural, mechanical, domestic, com- 
mercial and musical. The normal department 
has been previously discussed. In the mechan- 
ical department, smithing, wheelwrighting, 
steamfitting, carpentry, woodwork, bricklaying, 
plastering, printing and mechanical drawing 
are taught. The agricultural department, be- 
sides giving a good course in scientific farm- 
ing, also offers to students entering it practical 
opportunities in dairying, poultry raising, stock 
judging and general farm work. The commer- 
cial course — designed to give the student a 
knowledge of business forms — besides a short 
course in bookkeeping, has an excellent course 
in shorthand and typewriting. The musical 
department, besides giving instruction in sight 
reading, voice culture, and ear training, offers 
an excellent opportunity for instructions on the 
pianoforte. Pupils pursue the course of study 
in this school at a very small cost and with no 
extra charges for the use of a piano for prac- 

Military Department — Besides the well or- 
ganized departments above mentioned, the 
state provides for the appointment of 60 cadets, 
who received their uniforms, room rent, books 
and stationery free of charge. The course in 
this department is both theoretical and practi- 

cal : the first includes recitations in drill regu- 
lations, supplemented by lectures on minor tac- 
tics, army organization, administration and dis- 
cipline ; small arms, firing regulations and oth- 
er military subjects. The practical course in- 
cludes military drill and gymnastics, target 
practice, military signaling, marching and cas- 
tramentation, numbers. 

The school at present (1907) has an en- 
rollment of 225 students, which is the largest 
in its history. This fills the dormitories too 
full for comfort. Students are in attendance 
from eight states. The number of graduates 
is 161 and a large number have gone forth to 
fill places of usefulness in life who have been 
students but are not graduates. 

The income of the school is derived from 
two sources : First, an annual amount of $5,000 
received from the Morrill Fund; Secondly, 
legislative appropriation. The money received 
from the United States Government can be ap- 
plied only to instruction in agriculture, the me- 
chanic arts, English language, and the various 
branches of mathematical, physical, natural and 
economic science, with special reference to their 
application in the industries of life, and to the 
facilities for such instruction. The state has 
dealt very generously with the West Virginia 
Colored Institute, as the following list of ap- 
propriations will show: 1891, $10,000; 1893, 
$14,000; 1895, $16,000; 1897, $29,000; 1899, 
$39,000; 1901, $66,000; 1903, $54,000; 1905, 
$64,000. Total state appropriation from 1891 
to 1905, is $35 2 705- 



Religious Creeds of the Early Settlers — Intolerance — The Distinction Between Religion and 
' Church — Early Kanawha Churches and Pastors — The Baptists, Presbyterians, Episco- 
palians, Catholics and Others — First Presbyterian Church of Charleston — Methodist 
Episcopal Church — United Brethren, and Others — Churches in Charleston in 1811 — Our 

The county of Kanawha was settled princi- 
pally by the people of Virginia, and from that 
part of Virginia known as the Valley of Vir- 
ginia, the country west of the Blue Ridge. 
This part of Virginia was settled principally 
by the Scotch-Irish and Germans. 

The people of England, Ireland and Scot- 
land were under the government of the Eng- 
lish King, or Queen, and the English Parlia- 
ment, and in so far as their churches were con- 
cerned, they were the English church, the Ro- 
man Catholic and the Presbyterian. The 
Scotch were Presbyterians and the Irish were 
chiefly Roman Catholics. Owing to the re- 
bellions in Ireland, the people were outlawed, 
the lands confiscated to the crown, and in the 
province of Ulster, alone, there were one-half 
million acres at the disposal of the King, and 
these lands were parceled out to the Scotch 
and English for services rendered or expected ; 
these Scotch in Ireland were called Scotch- 
Irish. It was said that the province of Ulster 
enjoyed peace, which was because the same 
was depopulated. 

Between these sets of people, English, Irish 
and Scotch, they made a very poor kind of a 
country. It was war, pestilence and famine, 
most of the time, and this was kept up until the 
Colony in America offered to them all a land 
of religious liberty, a healthy, hearty country, 
the only drawback being the Indians, who had 
no religion and altogether too much liberty. 

The Scotch-Irish were persecuted by the 
English and by the Irish, and the Irish by both 

the others, and it was a continuous fight, which 
seemed to be founded on their respective 

There is a wonderful difference between Re- 
ligion and Church, as was long ago discovered 
and the fact became almost established that in 
the churches there was no religion, each striv- 
ing to compel all others to conform to their 
own ideas of a church and to destroy them 
when they declined to do so. More people 
have been destroyed, more cruelty practiced, 
imposed and suffered in the name of the church 
than from all other causes known, not even 
excepting politics. 

The effect of these troubles in Europe, not 
only in England, Ireland and Scotland, but 
also in Germany and France was to drive the 
people to a country where they could live in 
peace, where they could enjoy liberty in all its 
forms and the country of America is still re- 
ceiving from the Old World the oppressed and 
distressed of all kinds. Along about 1729 the 
Scotch-Irish immigrated by thousands to Phila- 
delphia and many from Europe would sell their 
services for years, to pay their passage to 
America — made servants of themselves to get 
to America. 

To a great extent the Germans were glad to 
get away from all churches and when they 
settled in Pennsylvania, it was said they had 
less religion than the Indians; but the Scotch- 
Irish, that settled in Augusta County, Va., 
held on to their church and faith. It is hard- 




ly fair to call a cruel church organization a 

When the Revolution was over, Virginia 
by law did away with all church as connected 
with the State, and abolished all religious tests 
— so called — and the people of Kanawha county 
never had any church or religious trouble to 
contend with ; the people organized their 
churches and did in this respect as they chose. 

If the past history of any church should be 
called up to prove its orthodoxy, we fear none 
of them would be entitled to a certificate of the 
true faith; and at the same time we would 
certify that among them all are good people, 
in spite of their creed or church associations. 
This is because of their true religion. 


.The general supposition has always been, 
that the pioneers had neither time nor inclina- 
tion to attend to churches while engaged with 
the Indians, bears, snakes and such, but this 
was only true for a while as to time, for no 
sooner were they allowed time, than they all 
gave attention to church services and church 

The Morris family were the first settlers 
and they were Baptists and they began early to 
have both churches and services. 

Dr. Henry Ruffner was a pioneer Presby- 
terian, wrote of the Morris settlement and said 
at an "early day" there came to the Kanawha 
Valley a Presbyterian minister known as "Lit- 
tle Bobby Wilson" through the wilderness to 
Major William Morris's residence, and that 
the Major was rather dictatorial in manner, 
although really kind and generous at heart. 
That he was a Baptist wholly and exclusively 
and did not entertain any special liking for 
Presbyterians. Rev. Mr. Wilson reached the 
Major's on Saturday and desired on .the next 
day to have church services and began his in- 
quiry as to the subject and learned that the 
Morris family were of the Baptist persuasion 
and he learned that there would be no church 
services next day nearer than the mouth of 
Elk, so Mr. Wilson announced that he was a 
minister and if it was agreeable, he would like 
to preach to the people in the neighborhood. 
The Major asked of what profession he was 

and was told that the preacher was a Presby- 
terian and the Major promptly responded that 
he could not preach about here ; that they were 
all Baptists and did not have much of an opin- 
ion of "the preacher's sort of people." Mr. 
Wilson moved on and reached the village of 
Charleston and found a Mr. Johnson, a Bap- 
tist, preaching under the trees, who invited Mr. 
Wilson to preach, which he did, and he also 
preached the next day in the Court House. 

The "Early day" is rather indefinite as to 
time, but from the other facts something 
might be learned as to date. 

The court house had been built and this was 
soon after 1789. There had been erected a 
Baptist church at an early day at Kelly's creek, 
just when it is not stated,, but probably as early 
as when Mr. Wilson called, but the Morris 
family and the people were all Baptist, and 
they had been in that locality since 1774. 
There was a little village at the mouth of 
Elk; so we are disposed to assume that it 
was soon after the Clendenins had begun to 
make a county and a town at the mouth of 
Elk, and before they had ever made a church 
of any kind, and we will not be criticised for 
saying that it was "a long time ago" when the 
Morrisses would not tolerate a Presbyterian 
sermon. Now many of that family are mem- 
bers of other churches. 

Mr. Atkinson would date the first sermon in 
the Valley as that of the Rev. Steele, a Meth- 
odist minister in 1804, as will be seen by his 
History of Kanawha County, page 153, and 
mentions Jesse Spurlock and Thomas Buffing- 
ton, as Methodists in the County on the Ohio 
river, but not in Kanawha Valley. 

Mr. Atkinson speaks of the first Methodist 
sermon, under the head of "Religious History 
of the Kanawha Valley" and he mentions no 
other, sermon or services, he must have given 
this as the first; or else he intended us to take 
it as the only religious ceremony of that kind. 

It appears from Dr. Ruffner's statement 
that William Morris and George (or John) 
Alderson were the first delegates from Kan- 
awha county to the General Assembly, that 
Mr. Alderson was afflicted with a stammering 
tongue and often had to make three or four 
trials at a word. 



Dr. Hale gives the list of delegates for 1790 
as George Clendenin and for 1791 George 
Clendenin and Daniel Boone and William 
Morris for 1792, 1793 and 1794, etc., and Mr. 
Alderson is not given as a delegate from 1 Kan- 
awha; Hale's list of delegates was taken from 
the "Kanawha Republican" a newspaper in 
1847 an d supposed to be the only list in exist- 
ence. All this would have little to do with 
the church or first sermon but for the fact 
that Mr. Alderson was a missionary Baptist 
preacher, and no doubt he preached one of the 
first sermons, long before 1804, whether he 
was elected or not, or whether he stammered 
or not. 


Mr. V. P. Lewis says that Rev. John Aider- 
son was pastor of the Lynnville Baptist church, 
in Rockingham county; that in 1775 and 1777, 
he made no less than three visits to the Green- 
brier valley, and while on these visits baptized 
three persons, two of whom were John Griffith 
and Mrs. Keeney. These were the first per- 
sons ever baptized in the western waters of 
Virginia. He now resolved to remove to the 
west, and early in the year 1777 set out with 
his family. He was halted by Indian troubles 
at Jackson's river, but reached his destination 
in October. His first location was in Jarrett's 
Fort, on Wolf creek, now in Monroe, but 
after a short time he settled on the east bank 
of Greenbrier river, where Alderson now 
stands, and cleared a farm on which he after- 
ward followed the plow with his gun swung 
to his shoulder. In two years he succeeded in 
organizing a church of twelve members, him- 
self and wife included. T 1 hey considered 
themselves as a branch of the Lynnville church, 
but transacted business as a separate body. 
On the 24th of October, 1779, they were reg- 
ularly constituted a working body known as 
the "Greenbrier Baptist Church," and the fol- 
lowing year it was admitted into the Ketocton 
association of Loudoun county, Va. 

Notwithstanding the members were dis- 
persed over a wide area, measures were taken 
as early as 1783, to erect a house of worship, 
and in May of that year, the site on which the 
Greenbrier church has since stood, was fixed 
upon as a suitable location. In July, the fol- 

lowing year, the building was so nearly com- 
pleted that it was used for public worship. 
This is believed to have been the first church 
building erected on the western waters of the 
Kanawha. Mr. Alderson continued his la- 
bors here seven years before he met with a 
single Baptist preacher, but in 1785, Rev. 
James Johnson came over the mountains and 
was induced to settle on the Kanawha. The 
latter in 1793 organized the Kanawha Baptist 
church, one and one-half miles below the mouth 
of Paint creek, on Meeting House branch, the 
first in the valley west of the Kanawha Falls. 

From 1793 t0 l8o 7> a period of fourteen 
years, all the Baptist churches of the New 
River, Kanawha region, belonged to the New 
River association, but in the last named year, 
the Greenbrier association was organized, and 
comprised all the churches down the Kana- 
wha toward the Ohio." 

"In the year 1800 — three years before Rev. 
Johnston removed to Kentucky — Rev. John 
Lee came west of the mountains and halted in 
Teays Valley, now in Putnam county. He 
was born and reared in southwest Virginia, 
and when he entered the ministry he was very 
illiterate, but by constant application he not 
only learned to read but became well ac- 
quainted with the Scriptures. He was re- 
markably successful in the ministry, and in 
him was verified the Scriptural d sclaration that 
"God hath chosen the weak to confound the 
mighty." By the year 1806 he had organized 
the Teays Valley church, which, the next year, 
was admitted into the Greenbrier association, 
with a membership of fifty-two. Mr. Lee ex- 
tended his field of labor and continued to 
gather in the sheaves, and at the meeting of the 
association in the year 1808, the Mud River 
church, organized entirely by his own labor, 
was admitted into that body with twenty-two 
members. When we remember the sparsely 
settled condition of the country at that time 
we are struck with surprise at the success 
which crowned the labors of this lowly man. 
He remained with these churches until 1825, 
when he removed beyond Ohio, where he con- 
tinued his labors until he fell by the hand of 

"In the years that followed the churches of 



this denomination multiplied rapidly and 
spread throughout the valley. The Cole River 
church was organized in 1803; Upper Falls 
church (on Cole river), 181 7; Green Bottom 
church, now in Mason county, in 1820, from 
which time they have increased to perhaps 
seventy organizations in the valley. 

"In 1834, the church throughout the United 
States divided on the question of mission work, 
and from that time to the present the student 
of its history meets with missionary and anti- 
mission Baptists. The disaffection extended 
to the Kanawha valley, and in 1834 the Teays 
Valley association was rent asunder. Rev. 
William C. Ligon, then pastor of the old Kan- 
awha church, led the missionary movement, 
and in the same year the anti-mission members 
of the lower part of the valley met and organ- 
ized' the Pocatalico association, their champion 
being the Rev. William Martin. They are 
now styled by church historians, Primitive 
Baptists. The Pocatalico association has with- 
in its jurisdiction several churches, among 
which are Liberty and Hopewell, in Kanawha 
county; Zoar, in Putnam; Enon, in Mason, 
and Eliun and Little Flock, in Jackson." 

The Charleston Baptist church was organ- 
ized in the court house on the 30th day of Oc- 
tober, 1869, by the Rev. P. H. Murray. He 
has been preaching for some time before the 
organization was perfected and continued to 
do so after the organization was effected, until 
the calling of the Rev. J. B. Hardiwicke, in 
1870, who was then installed as the first reg- 
ular pastor of the Charleston church. The 
names of the first members were R. T. Oney, 
Mrs. A. J. Marsh, Rachel A. Smith, David 
Beaver, Sarah A. Beaver, Byron Holmes, 
Sarah A. Holmes, Martha J. Willimson, 
Sallie Goshorn, A. P. Sinnett, J. H. Wood- 
rum, Meredith Price and Almeda Price — thir- 
teen in all. The Rev. T. C. Johnson is the 
present pastor. In connection with the church 
is one of the most flourishing Sabbath schools 
in the city. 

coal's mouth baptist church 

In the spring of 1859 the Rev. Martin Bibb 
visited Coal's Mouth and preached to the very 
few Baptists then living in the vicinity. On 
the 29th of May, 1859, he baptized a young 

lady in Kanawha River at the mouth of Coal 
River. The banks of the river were literally 
lined with people, many of them witnessing 
baptism for the first time. This little begin- 
ning resulted in the organization of the Coal's 
Mouth Baptist Church. 

The church was regularly organized on the 
13th of April, i860. The council that organ- 
ized the church was composed of the following 
brethren : Rev. Martin Bibb, Rev. Ralph 
Swainburn, Rev. Thomas Hawkins, Rev. W. 
A. Wood, Rev. John Mitchell and Rev. Morris 
Reece. Although but five persons were ready 
to join the church, the council decided that the 
church should be organized. The five constit- 
uent members were: Jahn Hansford, Alvah 
Hansford, Mary A. Lewis, Eliza A. Rock and 
Victoria Hansford. 

Though few in numbers, this church began 
to work. A lot was secured, also lumber 
enough to build a meeting house. Subscrip- 
tions amounting to enough to complete the 
building were subscribed (but not paid in), and 
all seemed encouraged. But the Civil War 
came on and everything was demoralized. The 
lumber paid for was carried away in the flood 
of '61, and the subscriptions could not be paid. 
When the war closed the Baptists found it nec- 
essary to start anew. 

The church was reorganized in 1866, with 
the following members : John Hansford, Alvah 
Hansford, Victoria Hansford, Mrs. H. K. 
Chilton, Mary Allen, Eliza Swindler, Patty 
Wilkenson, Blanche Wilkenson, Ann Wilken- 
son, and two others whose names we could not 

In 1866 a small house of worship was built 
on the lower side of Coal River. This build- 
ing was afterward sold to the M. E. Church, 
and another meeting house was built, this time 
on the east side of Coal River (1882-83). 
This building was destroyed by fire February 
12, 1906. After the burning of the meeting 
house, services were held in halls until the pres- 
ent building was ready for use. The first serv- 
ice in the basement of the new building was 
conducted May 16, 1909. 

At a meeting held Thursday evening, May 
24th, 191 1, the name of the church was changed 
from the "Coal's Mouth Baptist Church" to 



"The First Baptist Church of Saint Albans." 
Dedicatory services were held on June 4, 191 1. 
The church has had many struggles, but she 
has triumphed over them all. Mrs. Victoria 
Hansford Teass, one of the constituent mem- 
bers ( (now deceased) , wrote of the church : "As 
I pause and look back over the forty years in- 
tervening between then and now, my heart goes 
out in thankfulness to Him who works in mys- 
terious ways and caused the 'feeble band' to 
grow into a flourishing church now numbering 
over three hundred, beside the great number 
that came into its doors and passed on to the 
Church Triumphant." 


Rev. T. B. Lawler, Pastor; T. H. Griffith, 

Deacons. — John Hollinsworth, Presley Mar- 
tin, E. H. Holstein, Dr. John Henderson, Chris 
Sattes, Charles Kerns, C. J. Pierson. 

Trustees. — John Martin, F. D. Burgess, C. 
D. Hereford. 

Finance Committee. — John Martin, T. H. 
Griffith, Mrs. K. L. Wilson. 

Music Director. — John Martin. 

Organist. — Mrs. K. L. Wilson. 

Ushers. — Charles Kerns, Walter Morrison, 
Chris Sattes, James Mallory, Clyde Coiner, 
Frank Holstein. 

Sunday School. — I. E. Handley, Supt., T. 
H. Griffith, Asst. Supt., Clyde Coiner, Treas- 
urer, Secretaries, Nellie Rock, Ora Hollins- 

Ladies' Aid. — Mrs. James A. Watson, Pres- 
ident, Mrs. Pendleton, Secretary, Mrs. John 
Hollinsworth, Treasurer. 


The first Presbyterian minister who visited 
that part of the valley below the Falls, was 
Rev. William Graham, who was for twenty- 
one years at the head of Liberty Hall academy, 
the first Virginia institution of learning west 
of the Blue Ridge. In 1798 he went on a 
missionary enterprise to Mason County on the 
Ohio river, where he sickened and died of a 
fever, January 8, 1799. The place of his set- 
tlement still bears the name of "Graham Sta- 

In the year 181 5 the Rev. William Gould, of 
Gallipolis, Ohio, began to preach at Point 
Pleasant and other points on the Kanawha. 
Almost contemporary with him, Rev. Henry 
Ruffner began preaching in the upper part 
of the valley, and it was due to his labors that 
the First Presbyterian church of Charleston 
was organized. 

First Presbyterian Church, Charleston. 
The Presbyterians of both Charleston and the 
Salines were formed into an organized church 
on May 14, 1819, and on that day the Rev. 
Henry Ruffner met the members from the two 
places and effected the organization, he having 
been appointed for this purpose. He became 
its pastor and preached alternately at Charles- 
ton and Kanawha Salines for one year and 
then resigned to accept the chair of ancient 
languages in Washington College, at Lexing- 
ton, Virginia. 

The name given was the "Kanawha Presby- 
terian Church," and this was selected as it 
embraced the Presbyterians residing in the two 
towns, and it would not have suited everybody 
to call the church after either place. It was 
therefore given a wider jurisdiction and in- 
cluded the church of the entire Valley of the 
Kanawha. From 1820 to 1836, this church 
had for its ministers the Rev. Calvin Chad- 
dock, the Rev. Nathaniel Calhoun, and the 
Rev. A. S. Morrison. In April 1837 the Rev. 
James M. Brown, D. D., was installed as pas- 
tor and so continued until his death, June 8, 
1862. He was the oldest of five Brown broth- 
ers, sons of Mary Moore, all of whom be- 
came eminent Presbyterian ministers. He 
wrote the famous little book "The Captives of 
Abbs Valley" while he was living in Charles- 
ton as the pastor of this church. He not only 
built up the Presbyterian church in Charleston, 
but did much for the cause of education and 
aided in securing competent teachers and good 
management for the school in Mercer Acad- 
emy in Charleston. 

After the death of Dr. Brown in 1862, this 
church was supplied by the Rev. J. W. C. 
Blaney and the Rev. J. C. Downing until 1867. 
In 1868 the Rev. J. Calvin Barr of Lewisburg, 
Greenbrier county, West Virginia, who for 
nearly ten years had served with the venerable 



Dr. McElhenny at the Lewisburg church, 
took charge of the Charleston Institute, a girls' 
school in Charleston, Kanawha county, West 
Virginia, which school was located on the lot 
on which the post office has been located for 
many years. 

At the beginning of the school year of 1869, 
he and his scholarly assistant the Rev. N. G. 
Geddes, took charge of the Presbyterian church 
in Charleston, preaching alternately. Both 
were graduates of Jefferson College, Pennsyl- 
vania, one a graduate of the Theological Sem- 
inary of Allegheny and the other of Princeton, 
N. J. Mr. Barr was a minister of the South- 
ern Presbyterian church and Mr. Geddes of the 
Northern church. Mr. Geddes found the work 
of teaching and preaching too onerous, and 
after a few months retired and left Mr. Barr 
in full charge of the pulpit until 1872. 

There had been a divided feeling in the con- 
gregation for some time. A large majority 
desired to be reinstated in their old relations 
with the Greenbrier Presbytery and the Synod 
of Virginia, while a minority preferred unit- 
ing with the Presbytery of West Virginia. 
had not sent a representative to either Pres- 
bytery since the death of Dr. Brown in 1862. 
One hundred and fifty members petitioned the 
session to represent them in their ecclesiastical 
courts. The session called a meeting of the 
On account of this divided feeling, the session 
congregation and presented them with two 
rolls that they might inscribe the same re- 
spectively according to their choice. One hun- 
dred and fifty enrolled themselves under the 
Greenbrier Presbytery and twenty-one under 
the Presbytery of West Virginia. The minor- 
ity took the name of "The Kanawha Presby- 
terian" and the larger congregation the name 
of the First Presbyterian church, and the prop- 
erty was amicably divided. The larger con- 
gregation took the old church, its furniture, 
books and records, and the smaller congrega- 
tion took the parsonage property. 

Dr. J. C. Barr was regularly installed pastor 
of the First Presbyterian church May 15, 1872. 
In 1885 this church, with its surrounding mis- 
sions, had reached a membership of about four 
hundred, and Rev. T. E. Booker of Staunton 
was called as assistant to Dr. Barr. After 

eighteen months Mr. Booker accepted a call to 
Hebron church in Lexington Presbytery and 
Dr. Barr was left alone. With the help of an 
active eldership and a student each summer 
from the Seminary, he kept up the work alone 
until May, 1899, when Rev. R. E. Vinson was 
called as assistant pastor, who was a graduate 
of Union Theological Seminary and a schol- 
arly, gifted young man. He accepted the chair 
of Hebrew in Austin Theological Seminary, 
May 1, 1903. 

Owing to Dr. Barr's advancing years, * he 
and the session decided that they should seek 
a co-pastor who could take the responsibility 
of the preaching and after six months' delib- 
eration and effort a call was extended to Dr. 
Ernest Thompson of Stuart Robinson Mem- 
orial church of Louisville, Ky. He accepted 
and was installed co-pastor Nov. 1, 1902 and 
has proved a faithful and efficient pastor. He 
generally preaches Sabbath morning and even- 
ing to a large congregation, and the congre- 
gation has increased and the> membership has 
reached about seven hundred. 

The stone church on the corner of Quarrier 
and Hale Streets was opened for service in 
June, 1889, and its total cost was about $35,- 
000. It seats seven hundred, and with lecture 
room it will seat fully one thousand persons. 
The parsonage on the church lot in which Dr. 
Barr lived was built in 1890 costing about 
$6,000.00 and the parsonage in which Dr. 
Thompson resides cost $11,000.00. Several 
flourishing missions have been maintained and 
four mission churches have been built. The 
Bream Memorial, Lick Branch and the Glen- 
wood, have become separate organizations and 
the Bream Memorial is self sustaining and has 
a membership of five hundred and forty-two 
and a Sunday school of over one thousand, and 
has its own pastor, the Rev. Chas. F. Myers. 
Dr. Thompson is a native of Georgia, a 
graduate of Drewry College, Mo., and of Mc- 
Cormack Theological Seminary and he took a 
post graduate course in the University of 

From the parent organizations at Charles- 
ton and Point Pleasant, have come numerous 

K Dr. Barr died Sept. 8, 191 1. 



others. From that at Charleston have grown 
those of Maiden, St. Albans and others, while 
from that at Point Pleasant have come that of 
Town Flats, in 1837; Upper Flats, in 1849; 
Buffalo, in i860; and Winfield and McLean 
chapel, of a later date. 

Among the men who have devotedly worked 
to spread the teachings of the church through- 
out the valley have been Rev. Robert Osborn, 
J. M. Brown, Stewart Robinson, Thomas N. 
Paxton, George S. Woodhull, John Rowe and 
John C. Brown. This is among the most ac- 
tive denominations of the valley. 


This denomination early began its work in 
the Kanawha valley; but, because of the neg- 
lect in keeping records, and the destruction and 
loss of the same during the late war, much of 
great interest has been irretrievably lost. Of 
the first ministers who traversed the country 
drained by the New River, Kanawha and their 
tributaries, we know but little, but as early as 
1796, they were so numerous in this region, that 
a conference — the first west of the Alleghenies 
— was held at Lewisburg, in Greenbrier coun- 
ty. Bishop Francis Asbury presiding. The 
work went on and was rapidly extended to the 
Ohio. On the 23d day of May, 1804, the 
general conference in session at Baltimore, de- 
clared that the Greenbrier district should be 
included in the Baltimore conference, while 
the Great Kanawha valley should be a part of 
the Western conference, which then included 
the states of Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, the 
Illinois country and the Natchez mission. 

"But owing to neglect in making and 
preserving records," says Mr. Lewis, "we 
know comparatively little of the introduction 
of Methodism into the valley. It is certain, 
however, that Rev. Asa Shinn was one among 
its earliest expounders here and probably the 
first, who visited this immediate region. 
Among those who were contemporary with 
him, or who came soon after him, were Jacob 
Truman, Samuel Brown, John Cord, Samuel 
Dement, William Pickett and the distinguished 
Henry Bascom, afterward a bishop in the 
Methodist Fpiscopal church, south, and, who, 
it is claimed, preached the first Methodist ser- 

mon ever delivered in the town of Charleston. 
This was in 1813, and two. years later another, 
destined to the bishopric — Rev. Thomas A. 
Morris — delivered a series of sermons in 
Charleston. In 181 5 Rev. Mr. Morris traveled 
the Kanawha Valley, and in 1816 joined the 
Ohio conference. For several years he traveled 
a circuit, then served as elder, and in 1836, was 
elected a bishop. He was the last of the Meth- 
odist bishops that made the rounds of his con- 
ferences on horseback. He died at Springfield, 
Ohio, September 2, 1874. 

"The church appears to have been organized 
in Charleston, as early as 18 16, and the congre- 
gation then worshipped in a log house which 
stood near the site on which the brick church 
was afterward built on Virginia street. From 
this time onward the names of Thomas Lowery, 
Burwell Spurlock, Stephen Spurlock, Francis 
Wilson, Alexander Cummins, Joseph Farrow, 
William McComas, William Herr. Henry S. 
Fernandus, David Kemper, Isaac C. Hunter 
and John H. Power, are remembered as among 
the early Methodist ministers of the valley. 

"Rev. Robert O. Spencer with a colleague, 
Joseph Deter, who died a few weeks after his 
arrival, came to the valley in 1833. The 
Charleston congregation then, as it had done 
for some years previously, worshipped in a 
frame building which stood on what is now 
Virginia street, but in the year 1834, Rev. 
Spencer W. Young, largely assisted by Charles 
R. Baldwin, a prominent and talented lawyer 
of Charleston, having at the time but recently 
become a member of the church, and the co-op- 
eration of the laity, among whom were Thomas 
C. Thomas, Luke Wilcox and Henry New, 
undertook and in the same year, completed a 
commodious brick edifice, which became known 
as "Asbury Chapel." It was dedicated by Rev. 
William Young. The renowned Henry Bas- 
com had been engaged for that purpose, but was 
unable to be present. The first trustees ap- 
pointed in 1833, were Thomas C. Thomas, 
William S. Hurt, John Trudgian, James S. 
Stark and Charles R. Baldwin." 

The Methodist Episcopal Church (South) 
was organized in the year 1866 by the Rev. J. 
F. Johnson, the present minister being Rev. 



Robert T. Webb. The first building erected by 
this denomination was destroyed by fire. 


The church had its representatives early in 
the history of Kanawha County and may have 
had them earlier than the record shows, as for 
several years after the settlement began there 
was little done towards establishing churches. 

The county was formed in 1788. Prior to 
1776, Virginia was a colony of England and 
the Established Church of England was the 
church in Virginia; all others were dissenters. 
The state government and the church were 
more or less the same in the colonies, and the 
vestries of the church participated in matters, 
and had duties to attend to, that are now a 
part of the county government. Every parish 
had its vestry and every county had one or 
more parishes, and parishes were formed by 
the Assembly. Henning's Statutes show that 
legislation concerning the church and parishes 
was a large part of the work of the General 

The legislation recorded in Chapter I, Oc- 
tober Session of 1776, was in relation to to- 
bacco, and the next, in relation to the church, 
repealing the act of parliament that imposed 
duties on the people or punishment for religious 
opinions, or as to any mode of worship, and 
exempting dissenters from paying taxes to sup- 
port churches, but the glebes were saved to 
the parishes and all donations held sacred; in 
short, all connection between church and state 
was repealed. 

Then the war came on to determine whether 
this act should stand or fall, and the church in 
Virginia continued to be so English that the 
loyaltv of the rebels in the churches of the col- 
ony was held doubtful. When the war was 
over, the church in Virginia was in a very weak 
condition, her ministry looked upon with dis- 
favor and as tories, her churches nearly all 
despoiled and her members unable to decide 
what to do ; their love of liberty seemed to take 
them one way 'and their church another. 

But the best people in Virginia were Epis- 
copalians and they passed that Act which made 
all religions and churches stand on an equal 
footing, and they did as much to sustain it as 

did any others. They sacrificed their church 
for their country, while others were fighting 
for their country and their churches. The 
Prayer Book was retained, though they could 
not use the Prayer for the King. In Virginia 
they had upwards of 160 churches and about 
100 ministers. At the end of the war there 
were about thirty ministers, and the church 
was well nigh extinct; but the members would 
not concede that they could not be loyal to the 
State and be Episcopalians, so they began to 
organize and they procured Rev. Dr. Madison 
to be consecrated as Bishop of Virginia, but 
he died in 1812. 

They called annual conventions or councils; 
Bishop Moore succeeded Bishop Madison; reg- 
ular clergy and lay delegates attended from 
the parishes and it was in 1823 that the church 
in Kanawha was represented in the annual con- 
vention held in Leesburg, when the Rev. 
Charles H. Page attended from Kanawha. Ac- 
cording to his report, the church had ten com- 
municants, and the church at Coalsmouth was 
in a flourishing condition and a church there 
was then being built; there were two Sunday 
schools in the parish, one at Coalsmouth and 
the other at Charleston, and Mr. Page was then 
rector. Edmond Berkely was the lay delegate 
at the convention in 1826; the church at Coals- 
mouth was built, principally through the Hud- 
son family; the congregations were from 100 
to 150 in number. In 1829, Bishop Meade was 
elected an assistant bishop and this shows that 
the church was growing throughout the state. 
In 1832, Rev. Mr. Goodwin was the Rector of 
Kanawha Parish. In 1836, Rev. John Martin 
was rector of Kanawha Parish and his report 
shows a church being built at Charleston and 
that he also preached at Coalsmouth. 

The reports from the churches are interest- 
ing and those who would like to read them can 
call on Dr. Roller and get Bishop Peterkin's 
Book. In 1840, Rev. James Clark was the 
rector of Kanawha Parish, and Rev. Mr. Mar- 
tin of Coalsmouth Parish. In 1841, $2,000 
had been collected to build a church in the Sa- 
lines. In 1842, the Bishop says, it was re- 
ported that the churches in Western Pennsyl- 
vania and Western Virginia were discussing a 
proposition to make a new diocese of their ter- 



ritory, but a motion looking to this subject was 
laid on the table ; the church in the Salines had 
been completed, costing $3,300. In 1844, says 
the Bishop, he consecrated the church in the 
Salines, and preached at St. John's in Teays 
Valley, which church was once a distillery and 
is now commonly called, "Still House Chapel." 
In that year, Rev. Mr. West was rector at 
Coalsmouth. In 1845, Rev. Mr. H. D. Ward 
was minister at Charleston and Rev. F. B. 
Nash at Coalsmouth. In 1846, Bishop Johns 
was assistant to Bishop Meade. In 1848, 
Francis M. Whittle was rector at Charleston 
and the Salines, and Rev. F. B. Nash at Coals- 
mouth and at Still House Chapel. In 1851, 
Rev. R. T. Beam was rector in Charleston, and 
Mr. Nash at Coalsmouth. In 1856, Rev. R. T. 
L. Smith was rector at Charleston and Maiden. 
In 1857, the Bishop visited Coalsmouth, Cedar 
Grove and Fields Creek. In i860, Mr. Smith 
was rector in Charleston. He reports that he 
had done preaching on missionary trips, and 
once at Clifton an old man promised he would 
prepare a room for preaching for any Evan- 
gelical minister to use ; it was not long before 
Rev. Mr. Smith was again at Clifton and found 
that the old man had done as he promised and 
the room was prepared; in this he preached, 
the old man and his wife and daughter attend- 
ing afternoon and evening and the church be- 
ing well filled. The old lady, who was over 
seventy, came up with her daughter, who had 
been brought to God by his preaching, and said 
she was so happy she wanted to shout like a 
Methodist, though she was a Baptist. In 
Coalsmouth, the church which had been vacant 
for several years, was in that year filled by 
Rev. Alonzo J. M. Hudson. 

Now comes on another war. There were 
visited in i860 by the bishops in Western Vir- 
ginia the churches at Bunker Hill, Martins- 
burg, Hedgesville, Shepperdstown, Middleway, 
Charlestown, then in Greenbrier and Monroe, 
Fairmont, Wheeling, Wellsburg, Moundsville, 
Parkersburg, Ravenswood, Point Pleasant; but 
failed to reach Weston, Mercers Bottom, 
Charleston, Coalsmouth, Morgantown. The 
reports show collections from all of them and 
also from Clarksburg, Pleasant County, etc., 
and show a healthy financial condition of the 

church, but there were no delegates to the An- 
nual Council from West Virginia. In 1862, 
when the war was going on, Bishop Meade 
died. In 1865, Rev. W. F. M. Jacobs came 
to Charleston, found the church much disor- 
ganized and the building desolated; he was 
taken sick and had to resign and Rev. Mr. 
Thompson of Gallipolis kindly officiated. In 
1867, Rev. Mr. Jacobs, who resigned because 
of ill health, died. In 1868, Rev. Joseph A. 
Nock came to Charleston; Rev. F. M. Whittle 
was elected assistant bishop of Virginia, with 
Bishop Johns; Maiden organized a separate 
parish; Coalsmouth had no minister, and had 
had none since 1861. In 1869, Rev. Mr. Nock 
resigned and Rev. C. M. Callaway was elected. 
In 1873, Rev. David Barr was minister at 
Coalsmouth. In 1875, Mission Chapel in West 
Charleston was under Supt. E. L. Bill ; Rev. 
Mr. C. M. Callaway resigned from St. John's 
at Charleston; Rev. Pendleton Burke resigned 
at St. Albans; Convocation held at Wellsburg 
resolved that a division of the diocese is de- 
manded by the interests of the church in West 
Virginia. Rev. R. A. Cobb was elected to St. 
John's, Charleston in 1875. In 1876, Bishop 
Johns died in April; Committee reports in 
favor of the division of the Diocese and of 
making the State of West Virginia a new dio- 
cese. This division had been agitated in 1821, 
in 185 1, in 1865, in 1872 and again in 1874. 

In 1877, there was held a primary conven- 
tion to take steps toward the formation of the 
new diocese; the vote for bishop of the new 
diocese did not select. In 1878, Council at 
Charlestown elected G. W. Peterkin bishop of 
West Virginia; at the Special Council at Mar- 
tinsburg. Bishop Peterkin presided and there 
were present eight clergy and seven laymen. 
In 1880, Rev. R. A. Cobb was elected secre- 
tary of Council; and Rev. Mr. Cobb and Maj. 
T. L. Brown were elected deputies. In 1883, 
Rev. R. A. Cobb and Maj. T. L. Brown were 
deputies to General Convention, which was at- 
tended by eighteen clergymen and sixteen lay- 
men. In 1886, R. A. Cobb and T. L. Brown 
were elected from Kanawha. In 1887, Rev. 
Dr. Cobb resigned as secretary of Council. In 
1888 occurred the death of Rev. Dr. R. A. 
Cobb, G. W. Thompson, Maj. F. C. Corill and 



General J. H. Oley; Sheltering Anns Hospi- 
tal, located at the mouth of Paint Creek, has 
collected $5,650.38; Rev. R. D. Roller was 
called to Charleston. In 1889, the deputies 
from Kanawha to the General Convention were 
Rev. R. D. Roller and W. S. Laidley, and 
changes in the Prayer Book was its work. In 
1890 the Council met in Charleston; St. John's 
Church was completed. In 1892, deputies 
from Kanawha to the Council were Dr. Roller 
and W. S. Laidley. In 1895, the deputies 
were the same as in 1892. In 1898, a Coad- 
juter Bishop was considered; the deputy from 
Kanawha was VV. S. Laidley; ninety places 
had been visited during the last year, and there 
had been 4,568 confirmations since organiza- 
tion. In 1899, Rev. W. L. Gravall was elected 
Co-Adjutor Bishop and consecrated November 
10. In 1 90 1, Council was held at Charleston; 
the delegates elected from Charleston were Dr. 
Roller and W. S. Laidley. Since this date 
there has been little chatlge except in a steady 
growth of confirmations. 

Bishop Meade said when he first came to 
Charleston there were two communicants, Mrs. 
Colonel Lovell and Mrs. Quarrier; there were 
others by birth and education attached to the 
church, and some gentlemen advocated it in 
preference to others. At Coalsmouth, the 
Thompsons, Hudsons, Lewises, Turners, 
Thorntons, Bradfords, Simmses, Rogerses and 
others have been vestrymen. Rev. Joseph Wil- 
lard came to Kanawha as a missionary, and 
was the first Episcopal minister to come here. 
He found but few communicants but several at- 
tached to the church and willing to contribute to 
its support, including the Slaughters, Ouarriers, 
Rogerses, McFarlands, Patricks, Drydens, 
Lovells, Welchs, Reynolds, Lewises and others. 
The deed to the lot for the church was re- 
corded in 1835 and the building was completed 
in 1837. The corner stone for the new church 
was laid in 1884, and the building finished in 
1888. A committee had been appointed to 
build a new church ; the Bishop informed the 
congregation they needed it by sending a con- 
tribution of $25 for that purpose. The com- 
mittee consisted of Mrs. A. J. Ryan, Mrs. C. 
I. Morgan, W. H. Hogeman, W. A. Quarrier 
and W. S. Laidley. Mrs. Ryan resigned and 

Rector Cobb was appointed in her place. Mrs. 
Morgan removed and Mrs. H. D. Ruffner was 
appointed in her place. Each of the committee 
except Laidley died before the church was 
finished. The church was consecrated June 9, 
1 90 1. The building, with the spire, is of 

The "House of Prayer" was built in 1874 
by a committee consisting of E. L. Bill, Lewis 
Summers and W. S. Laidley. Mr. Bill and Mr. 
J. D. Luckadoe conducted the Sunday School. 

St. Mathews Church on the South Side was 
started in 1892 by the Rector, Dr. Roller and 
Alexander W. Quarrier. After Mr. Quar- 
rier's death, Mr. W. W. Adams carried on the 
work until his death, and was succeeded by 
John Howe Peyton, wh© finished the handsome 
stone church. 

In Bishop Peterkin's Book, a "History of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in West Vir- 
ginia," will be found much fuller details of the 
Church in Kanawha, and this can be had of 
Rev. Dr. Roller of Charleston. 


This body of Christians began its work in 
what is now West Virginia, in the year 1836, 
and its first organization was perfected in Ma- 
son county. A conference west of the moun- 
tains was organized at Centreville, in Tyler 
county, in March, 1858, and the body thus 
created, has ever since been known as the Par- 
kersburg conference, in the bounds of which 
the great Kanawha valley is included. The ter- 
ritory embraced within the conference included 
a large portion of what is now West Virginia. 
From this beginning this denomination has 
spread its work over almost the entire state, in- 
cluding the counties of the Great Kanawha 
valley, where it has a large membership with 
valuable church property, especially in Mason 
and Putnam counties. 


The Rev. Father Bonnecamps, a Jesuit, was 
the first Catholic priest who saw the mouth of 
the Great Kanawha river. He was the chap- 
lain of the French expedition, which buried the 
leaden plates on the banks of the Ohio in 1749. 
The expedition reached the mouth of the Great 



Kanawha, August 18, 1749, where storms de- 
layed it for two days. Whether Father Bon- 
necamps performed any part of the church ser- 
vice here is not known, but it is to be presumed 
that he did. He was an able mathematician and 
from his observations on this journey, he drew 
the first map of the Ohio valley. It is still 
preserved, and is a model of accuracy. 

"Who the first Catholics were that settled in 
the Kanawha valley," says Mr. Lewis, "we do 
not know, but that there were some residing 
here at an early date is a matter of record. 
But no organizations were effected for a number 
of years. The first priest known to have vis- 
ited Charleston was Rev. Father Hitzelberger, 
who came on a visit to relatives or friends about 
the year 1836, when he preached in the court 
house. Subsequently he was pastor of the 
church at Norfolk, Va. ; he later joined the 
order of Jesuits and died there many years 

"Right Rev. Bishop Richard Vincent Whe- 
lan visited the Kanawha valley for the first time 
in 1842. He came from Richmond in a stage 
coach to Kanawha Falls, whence he went to 
Nicholas county to visit the Duffys- there re- 
siding. On a later visit to the valley he fell 
sick at a hotel in Charleston, but was removed 
to the residence of George Jeffries, where he 
was attended by Dr. Cotton. 

"Rev. John H. Walters visited Charleston 
previous to the Civil War, and baptized sev- 
eral persons there and at Valcoulon on Coal 
river. Fathers Joseph Heidencamp, Henry F. 
Parde, Patrick McKernan and Father Kellen- 
berg from Pomeroy, Ohio, visited Charleston 
and other points in the valley during the 
Civil War, but there was no stationed priest 
until the coming of Father Joseph W. Stenger, 
to whose energy and zeal is due the flourishing 
condition of the church in the valley at the 
present time. * * * He arrived at 
Charleston June 5, 1866, and in August of 
the same year, Bishop Whelan joined him and 
purchased property. A school was organized 
that year, and Father Stenger converted the 
office of the late Judge Dunbar into a chapel, 
where the congregation worshiped until De- 
cember, 1869, when the church building was 


Second Day Adventist; Randolph near 
Ohio avenue; Rev. Geo. Moore, pastor. 

Baptist Temple; Capitol and Washington; 
Rev. T. C. Johnston, pastor. 

Cavalry Baptist; 732 Indiana avenue, West- 
side; Rev. T. H. Binford, pastor.' 

Ebenezer Baptist; Stockton street; Rev. 
Judge W. Coleman, pastor. 

First Baptist (colored) ; Washington near 
Shrewsbury; Rev. B. R. Reed, pastor. 

Glenwood Baptist; 701 B. St.; Rev. Peter 
Moore, pastor. 

Magazine Missionary Baptist; Gardner 
near Crescent rd. ; Rev. Ira H. Bee, pastor. 

Church of Sacred Heart (R. Catholic); 
Broad bet. Va. and Ouarrier streets ; Rev. 
Father Lewis, pastor. 

Christian; Lee cor. Brooks; Rev. Samuel 
D. Moore, pastor. 

St. John's Episcopal; Broad and Ouarrier 
streets; Rev. R. D. Roller, pastor. 

St. Luke's Episcopal ; Randolph nr. Vir- 
ginia Ave. ; Rev. Arthur Lewis, pastor. 

St. Mathew's Mission ; Southside ; Rev. A. 
Lewis, pastor. 

Church of B'nai Jacob; Court and State; 
Rev. Samiel Fredman, pastor. 

Polish Jew Synagogue — Court nr. State 

Virginia Street Temple ; Virginia, bet. 
Broad and Brooks; Rev. Leon Volmer, pastor. 

St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran; Court, 
bet. State and Virginia; Rev. E. S. Wanna- 
got, pastor. 

Bowman Methodist Episcopal; Upper Big- 
ley Ave. ; Rev. C. C. Lanahan, pastor. 

'Elizabeth M. E. ; South Side; Rev. C. A. 
Powers, pastor. 

First M. E. (South) ; Washington near 
Dickinson; Rev. R. T. Webb, pastor. 

First (State Street) M. E. Church; Quarrier 
and Morris; Rev. O. D. King, pastor. 

Lawrence M. E. Church; Washington nr. 
Elizabeth ; Rev. W. A. Byus, pastor. 

Roane Street M. E. Church; 401 Roane 
(W. S.); Rev. R. T. Yoak, pastor. 

St. Paul M. E. Church; Court, bet. State 
and Virginia; Rev. R. P. Downs, pastor. 



Simpson M. E. Church (Colored) ; Quar- 
rier and Dickinson; Rev. T. S. Corroll, pas- 

Sixth Street M. E. Church; Sixth near Rus- 
sell; Rev. C. C. Graham, pastor. 

Bream Memorial Church ; Charleston St. ; 
Rev. C. F. Myers, pastor. (See sketch in 
chapter XVII.) 

First Presbyterian; Quarrier and Hale; 
Rev. Ernest Thompson, D. D., pastor. 

Glenwood Presbyterian, 1223 Seventh Ave. 

Good Will Mission, Young near Welch. 

Kanawha Presbyterian Church; 1007 Vir- 
ginia St. ; Rev. J. M. Waddell, pastor. 

Lick Branch Presbyterian Church ; South 

Piedmont St. Mission. 

Schwamb Memorial Presbyterian Church; 
Crescent Road. 

Second Presbyterian Church; Bigley Ave. 

South Side Presbyterian Mission. 

United Brethren Congregations ; Ort Hall ; 
Rev. W. M. Slaughter, pastor. 


The Sunday School Superintendents' Asso- 
ciation reports the following attendance of the 
Charleston Sunday schools on Sunday, October 


Calvary Baptist 402 

First M. E 336 

First Presbyterian 311 

Sixth Street M. E 230 

First M. E. South 317 

Baptist Temple 191 

Bowman M. E 176 

Kanawha Presbyterian 125 

Roane Street M. E 83 

Christian Church 78 

United Brethren 53 


Bream Memorial 728 

Union Mission 15° 

Schwamb Memorial 130 

Young Street 60 

Lick Branch 52 

This, of course, does not include all the schol- 
ars in the city, but only those so reported in the 


"If a man die, shall he live again?" 
The proposition is put in the form of a con- 
undrum or query, as if it were not a settled one 
— that man shall die. We have all our days 
been taught that life is uncertain and that 
death is sure — that death and taxes are of the 
sure things of this world. Paul says that "by 
'Adam, sin entered into the world and death by 
sin, so death passed upon all men, for that all 
have sinned." And by our experience, tradition, 
and by revelation we say, that all earthly things 
do die, and the proposition might be read, "As 
man must die, shall he live again?" 

Death is the cessation of life, as darkness is 
the absence of light; so death is the departure 
of life; it is the event which changes man from 
a living unto a deceased person, and this event 
comes to all living beings. Then we will ask, 
what is life? "Life is life," a vital force, that, 
being implanted in any one, or anything, makes 
him a living, moving, thinking person, or if in 
a thing, makes it a growing, changing, living 
thing. This definition is not very satisfactory. 
Life may be defined, perhaps, as a quickening, 
animating principle, and death is the absence 
thereof, yet there may be a suspension of this 
animation, but no death, as it may return; but 
when this principle is incapable of restoration, 
then it is death. When man was by God 
formed, he was made man out of the dust of 
the ground ; then the Creator breathed into his 
nostrils the breath of life, he became a living 
soul. In one instance his physical body was 
formed, in the other he was created a living 
soul. This made the whole man of a dual na- 
ture — this physical or earthly body with his 
soul or Spiritual nature added. 

But "life" is not comprehended and hence 
cannot be defined; it is of that spiritual nature 
which mortal man cannot comprehend and no 
philosophy can explain or make known. We 
may learn of its results, but life itself we are 
unable to comprehend. A preacher once said 
(and he spake with authority) "Then shall the 
dust return to the earth as it was and the 
spirit shall return unto God who gave it." 
Whenever the natural body is spoken of, it is 
always spoken of as mortal, and the spirit as 
immortal, and there has never been supposed 



to exist any man that was not of this dual na- 
ture ; otherwise he would be only as an animal, 
that has no soul. The separation of the soul 
and the body is at the time of his death, if not 
the cause of it. 

In so far as our observation goes, and so far 
as all learning in all ages, and all records show, 
it is the fate of all to die — that there is a time 
coming to each living person when his body and 
his spirit shall separate. This same preacher 
has said "There is no man that hath power 
over the spirit to retain the spirit, neither hath 
he power in the day of death," and we know of 
no contradiction having been made of this 
statement and of no tradition or record, nor of 
any observation to the contrary. 

If a man die, shall he live again? 

Having conceded to the first proposition, that 
he not only will die, but as a fact, must die, 
sometime, sooner or later, and that the time is 
not far off to many, what of the other part of 
the question, "Shall he live again." This is 
no new question; man has never desired to be 
annihilated, and it has been stated that he will 
live again because the desire to so live, has been 
thus implanted within him. Whether this is 
strong proof or no proof, we leave with you, 
and shall not undertake to determine. We ad- 
mit that we have no knowledge of any one who, 
having died, has returned to tell us of the here- ■ 
after life; neither do we know that his evi- 
dence would be convincing, if it depended only 
on his word. There are some persons called 
Spiritualists that claim to have had spiritual 
communications from persons who have de- 
parted this life, which, if true, would prove the 
fact that if a man die he shall live again; but 
even this testimony is not satisfactory and it 
does not furnish sufficient evidence to satisfy 
all persons that the communication is from the 
one from whom it purports to come. Besides 
Spiritualism has never been generally regarded 
as a proper medium of communication of the 
great facts, the answer to which is of such vast 
importance to all. 

Then on what must we base our conclusions? 
We answer, upon the Word of God, upon the 
Bible, upon Revelation, the inspired Written 
Word of God. We do not suppose that we 
need this inspiration to teach us that there is 

a God, for much of his power and knowledge 
and His attributes are known without it; but 
there is not much else that would satisfy the 
ordinary mind, that "man does live again." 
Paul wrote most convincingly on this subject 
and it is taught from the beginning to the end, 
most conclusively, that man shall live again; 
his dual nature can be explained on no other 
theory, and it is not as difficult a proposition 
to believe, perhaps, as it is to disbelieve it. 

There are insects that live in one state or 
condition for a time and then undergo a change 
of nature and, without ceasing to live, go on 
under a new life or a nature quite different. 
Insects that were made to and do live in the 
water as their natural element and are at 
home and happy under the water after a sea- 
son undergo a radical change into another form 
(metamorphosis) and come out, and stay out 
and live in the air ever after. Once they 
would swim, but now they fly; once they be- 
longed to the water but now to the atmosphere, 
which has become their natural element. If 
insects, bugs and worms are thus made to live 
again or to continue their life after such a 
change of nature, of which we have no manner 
of doubt, should it be considered incredible 
that man should be given a like ability to live 
again and experience a change of nature? 
That he should live on Earth as a physical 
natural man and afterwards live a spiritual life 
in another element, in another world; live as 
we believe both God and His angels live, with 
a better and more refined nature, and able to 
comprehend much that he is now unable to do? 
It seems to us that this almost convince^ us that 
it not only is true, but that it as a matter of 
course must be true that if a man die, he shall 
live again. 

Taking it to be answered in the affirmative, 
that hereafter he shall live again, that really he 
never wholly dies, that his spiritual nature has 
never died, but only his earthly natural body, 
he continues to live and will live in the Spirit- 
ual world. Then we may ask, what of it and 
what then? We are satisfield that a spiritual 
life is not similar to the life we here live, and 
that there must be a purpose in making the 
change, and that this change will not be an 
immaterial one — that we will not go along as 



we have been going. We know and we are 
taught that there is in this world a principle 
of right and of good, and of truth, as well as 
a principle of wrong, of wickedness, and of 
deception and fraud. God is the living princi- 
ple of all that is good, and Satan of the other 
and that they are opposed to each other. That 
in the future world the followers of the one 
and those of the other are to be separated, and 
that the good are to be blessed and the others 
will not be. 

You ask how we know all this? Through 
inspiration and revelation and by the force of 
necessity, — we must believe that God made a 
heaven and another place, and that there was a 
purpose in this preparation of two places or 
states of being. If all were to be treated alike, 
only one place would be required and if there 
were to be no discrimination, there would be 
no inducement to be good and obey God, but 
we could follow our own wicked inclinations, 
and make the future world as miserable as 
this world has been made to many; therefore 
as a matter of necessity, and of common sense 
there must be more than one future world and 
place and there must be a separation of the in- 
habitants of the earth, — they must be divided, 

If those that have tried to serve the Lord 
and do his will are to be blessed, and rewarded, 
they must be separated from those that caused 
them so much suffering on earth. Satan and 
his hosts and his followers have done all in 
their power while on earth to cause all the suf- 
fering possible, which was by no means to be 
endured longer, if it could be avoided; and it 
is taught that it can be and will be avoided in 
the next world, and that there will be a sep- 
aration of the sheep from the goats. There 
is no doubt of this proposition in the mind of 
any one who believes in God, in a future world, 
and in the fact that Man shall live again. It 
is asserted by some that they do not believe all 
this, that when a man dies that is the end of 
him, and they do not or pretend not to believe 

the Bible, and what it teaches as to the future; 
but the fact, as so taught, does not depend upon 
any one's belief, and whether you do or do not 
believe it, the fact remains the same, neverthe- 

He has commanded among other things that 
"thou shall not lie, nor steal, nor kill;" and the 
violation of one of these commands is as great 
a sin, as it was in Adam and Eve to eat the 
forbidden fruit, and mankind suffered the con- 
sequences as surely as the sin was committed, 
and "the Lord shall judge his people" and "it 
is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the 
living God." Then the most natural question 
that could be asked, is, what are we to do to 
avoid the future punishment. We are not a 
minister of the Gospel- nor authorized to in- 
terpret the Bible, nor to advise in such matters. 
But there are persons sent to teach, to warn 
and to advise. Seek of them, read the Book 
that professes to be God's inspired Word. Do 
that which your own conscience teaches you to 
do and leave off that which you know, already, 
is wrong, and do that which you know is right ; 
cease to do evil. Choose you this day whom 
you will serve, God or Satan. Do not deceive 
yourself with the belief that you can serve 
Satan all your life on Earth, and live hereafter 
in Heaven with God and his Holy Angels and 
mankind redeemed and saved. Life in this 
world dies not last long, death is the separa- 
tion of this body from the soul, and then will 
follow the separation of the good from the bad ; 
when you can no longer prevent your real na- 
ture from being known and your merits or de- 
merits from being rewarded. Your belief or 
your want of it, may be your worst sin. Per- 
haps it would be well for you to investigate and 
make enquiry, to learn what you should do, 
and then do it; for life is uncertain, and you 
may make it too late. Do not rely on our 
words, but consider and act. Read this over 
and let it have its weight, consider it and may 
you be blessed in your attempt to reach the 



Early Physicians — Drs. John Eoff, N. W. Thompson, Spicer Patrick, R. E. Putney, J. E. Put- 
ney, T. 0. Watkins, Daniel Smith, C. I. Lewis and Others — Character of the Profession 
in Kanaivha County — Charleston Doctors. 


As far back as either history or tradition 
will take us, we find that Kanawha has had 
good physicians, notwithstanding the fact, as 
stated by Mr. Thomas Mathews that "previous 
to the coming of doctors, the people were 
healthy." It was not considered healthy to 
have Indians lurking around and it was hardly 
considered correct that because the residents 
had nothing in particular, they would not have 
a chill. It has been said that the mistakes made 
by physicians are not exposed to the public but 
are covered up about four feet under ground, 
and that there is nothing more to be said. 

The earlier physicians of the valley, says 
says Dr. A. L. Knight, were generally classi- 
cally educated, good anatomists and presum- 
ably skillful surgeons, but did not practice be- 
yond minor surgery prior to the introduction 
of chloroform, as an anesthetic about 1844. 
Since then, major operations have occasion- 
ally been done in the valley. The valley is now 
also provided with aurists, ophthalmologists and 
other specialists. Prior to the passage of the 
act regulating the practice of medicine in the 
state of West Virginia, there were scattered 
here and there, Thompsonian or root and 
"yarb" doctors, whose methods were a combina- 
tion of the obsolete ones of physicians and the 
ordinary domestic practice (from away back). 
These woods doctors were audacious in direct 
proportions to their ignorance of pathology, 
and would undertake to cure anything from 
scaties or itch, to caveinoma or cancer. Still 

they should have a niche at least on the pedes- 
tal of the fane to medical history. Their suc- 
cess, with their crude, but innoxious remedies 
furnished by' the bountiful hands of nature, 
gave many beneficial lessons to the regular 
physicians. Their harmless, but often efficient 
"teas," led the regulars to adopt more extracts 
and tinctures to the exclusion of harsher rem- 
edies. But the "firum ovea tea," given to make 
the measles break out, the "stercus vaccae," as 
a poultice in snake bite, and the blood of a 
black cat's tail, for erysipelas and shingles, 
were not adopted by the regulars. 

The difficulties and hardships of the pioneer 
physician were great indeed. First, he kept and 
dispensed his own medicines — an inconvenience 
only known to those who have filled the dou- 
ble office of practitioner and apothecary. Then 
he and his horse were burthened with the old 
fashioned, weather-beaten saddle-bags, called 
by our grandmothers "saddle-pockets," in 
which at best, a limited supply of the most or- 
dinary medicines and a few surgical instru- 
ments could be stowed away. As a matter of 
course, a circuitous ride of fifty, sixty, often 
100 miles, with perhaps thirty or more patients 
to provide for, would exhaust the largest pill- 
bags of all save the stronger medicines. Out 
of such a difficulty there was but one escape, 
to adopt the method of Dr. Bob Sawyer, of 
Dickens's "Pickwick" story, namely, to "give 
'em calomel all round," which would hold the 
fort till a new supply of medicinal ammunition 
could be sent on. Then there were but few 












public roads or highways ; in many sections not 
even a bridle path. All of the choice bottom 
and contiguous lands bordering on the Ohio 
and Kanawha rivers were in large military 
surveys, and in many instances owned by non- 
resident parties and therefore unimproved. 
The remaining portions were sparsely settled 
and hence three-fourths of the valley was a 
primitive wilderness. 

However, the undergrowth of small bushes, 
except in deep, loamy soils where the dog-weed, 
paw-paw and hazel flourished, were not nearly 
so dense as in after years, so that course could 
be followed by day or moonlight by means of 
blazed trees, ridges, streamlets, etc. But these 
Heaven-gifted courses of travel were from 
time to time obstructed by the settlers them- 
selves by newly made fields and clearings where 
the unwary traveler would often find himself 
confronted with heaps of logs and brush, or 
newly-made rail or brush fence lying directly 
across the faintly outlined bridle-path. In the 
latter case the hillside cow-trail around the field 
bordering on the inclined, stony, ragged edge 
of the hill, offered the only feasible way of 
continuing the tiresome ride. 

The reader will perceive by the foregoing 
that these laborious journeys could be made by 
the pedestrian or upon horseback only; and 
hence a physician having within his field of 
practice from one to two thousand inhabitants 
was compelled to keep in good condition from 
two to four good saddle horses, such as did not 
hesitate to climb the ragged hills or to swim the 
swollen streams when so required, and with 
stamina to endure his rounds of visits, which 
often required from one to two days and nights 
over just such roads and by-ways as above 
described. And all this labor of man and 
horse at the extortionate price of twenty-five 
cents per mile, measured by the crude guesses 
of the patrons ! 

What there is to regretted is that the life 
of the early physicians has not been recorded 
but left to tradition, and we know that tradi- 
tion fades out and leaves no coloring. There 
was a Doctor Caruthers in Kanawha at some 
time, but of him we find no record ; his asso- 
ciates have, as he has done, gone with no rec- 
ord left. 

It has been said that Dr. John Eoff was the 
first resident physician of Charleston and that 
he came in 1810. He was born in Shepherds- 
town, attended medical school in Philadelphia, 
went to Wheeling and then to Charleston and 
began to practice medicine. In 181 2 he mar- 
ried Helen Quarrier and in 1816 returned to 
Wheeling, where he remained the rest of his 
life and became eminently successful. 

The next mentioned physician was Dr. N. W. 
Thompson, who, it is said, was here in 18 14, 
and this seems to be all there is to tell of him. 
Whether he belonged to the Coalsmouth family 
or came before them, or what he did or tried 
to do, we know not. One thing we are satis- 
fied, about, he neglected to make a record, hence 
we can tell you no more. There was also a 
Dr. William Cobbs settled up Elk. about the 
mouth of Big Sandy, who practiced medicine 
for a long time and was said to be "lucky," 
if not learned. He had a large territory to 
serve and he killed himself riding about visit- 
ing the sick, — and last of all the Doctor died 

As to the date of the coming of Dr. Spicer 
Patrick, there has arisen a question whether it 
was in 18 16, or later. Here is a case where 
there should have been no question, where rec- 
ords should have been abundant; and we find 
the record to be 1816. Elsewhere we have 
given a sketch of this physician, and he is 
said to have been one of the best the country 
afforded. He aimed to discover the cause of 
the trouble — to make a correct diagnosis of the 
case, and to be as sure thereof as was possible, 
then to proceed with his remedy. 

Then there was Dr. Richard E. Putney who 
came from Buckingham county, Virginia, in 
181 5 or thereabouts. He was born in 1793, 
began to practice on his arrival and continued 
until his death in 1862. His wife was Ann E. 
Ruffner, and they settled in the vicinity of the 
salt wqrks. He was a highly educated man 
and an excellent physician. For nearly fifty 
years he went in and out before his people, 
helping them to get back to health and strength. 

Dr. James E. Putney, son of the old Dr. 
Richard, lived and practiced in Maiden for 
forty years. He was born in 18 16, attended 
school in Athens, Ohio, and at Lexington, Va., 



where he graduated in 1837. He afterwards 
attended lectures in Cincinnati and at Louis- 
ville, Ky., where he was graduated in 1846. 
He returned to Maiden and practiced through- 
out the Valley. He was quite popular and 
never failed to attend to those who called for 
his help. The latter part of his life he. suffered 
with ataxia, the result of exposure and hard- 
ship in the army from 1861 to 1865. He died 
at home in Maiden in 1876. 

Dr. T. O. Watkins came in 1836. He lost 
his life in 1840. He practiced medicine as 
long as he lived and his office was in "Virgin 
Row." His son, Joseph F. Watkins, was a 
physician also and they were both devoted to 
their patients' welfare. They were graduates 
of medical schools and noted for their success. 

Henry Rogers, M. D., died in 1837. 

Dr. Daniel Smith was a physician practicing 
at the upper end of the county and was faith- 
ful to the patient when it was dangerous to 
attend, as was the case when the cholera was 

There was also Dr. A. E. Summers, Dr. A. 
S. Patrick, Dr. John P. Hale, Dr. James Don- 
nally; Dr. J. Turner of Coalsmouth ; Dr. Tohn 
Parks of Maiden; Dr. William Mairs of Sis- 
sonville; and Dr. C. I. Lewis of Kanawha 

Charles Irwin Lewis, M. D. was born at 
Cedar Grove, Kanawha County, Virginia, in 
1836. His father was Thomas A. Lewis, son 
of Dr. Charles Lewis, son of William Lewis, 
of the Augusta County family of Lewises. His 
mother was Mary, a daughter of Aaron Stock- 
ton. He graduated at the Jefferson Medical 
College of Philadelphia in 1858 and began the 
practice in the fall of the same year at Cannel- 
ton in Kanawha, where they were manufac- 
turing oil from Cannel coal and working over 
200 men, and he remained there until 1861 
when he enlisted in the service of the Con- 
federate States and was commissioned Captain 
of Troop I of the 8th Virginia Reg. Cavalry. 
His company was enlisted in Fayette and Ka- 
nawha counties. He continued in this service 
until 1864 when he was captured at Shepherds- 
town on the Potomac, and remained in prison 
with the "Immortal Six Hundred" until the 
end came, when he returned to Cannelton and 

took up his practice anew. He was never mar- 
ried and has become almost too old to go far, 
and his eyesight is not so good. 

Dr. John T. Cotton was born in 1819, and 
was the son of Dr. Cotton of Boston and an 
eminent physician. He graduated at Marietta 
College, studied with his father, attended med- 
ical school in Cincinnati, began practice in 
Ravenswood, Va. ; and just after his marriage 
to Sarah Fitzhugh in 1845, settled in Charles- 
ton. He devoted his life to his profession and 
his practice was a varied one. At one time the 
cholera visited the Valley and the Doctor had 
a bad case in Charleston. The patient thought 
he had to die and the Doctor was of somewhat 
the same opinion as medicine seemed to have 
no effect. While alone at his home with his 
wife, who was preparing a meal and was cook- 
ing a pot of cabbage, the sick man concluded he 
would have one more square meal. While his 
wife was out he helped himself freely, and 
when the Doctor came he was told what had 
been done. The sick man was wonderfully 
improved, — it cured him. Dr. Cotton's daugh- 
ters were Mrs. Governor Wilson, Mrs. Frank 
Woodman and Mrs. W. B. Donnally. He 
had two 1 boys, John and Harry, both deceased. 
The Doctor took no special interest in politics, 
but was interested in the church and was a 
lifelong member of St. John's Episcopal 
Church. He was always a generous, kind- 
hearted, intelligent gentleman, and ranked with 
the best physicians of the State. He died in 

Dr. J. Parker was from New York and 
practiced surgery and was considered eminent 
in his profession, but he remained but a few 
years before the war. 

Dr. J. M. Stanton died in 1904. Dr. Wil- 
liam P. Hogue, Dr. William Dunbar, Dr. 
Daniel Mayer, Dr. E. W. Clarke, Dr. George 
P. Thompson, and Dr. F. H. Thomas were 
all practicing but a few years ago. 

Dr. T. L. Barber came to Kanawha and be- 
gan to practice, and seemed to be on the go 
all the time. He knew everybody and went 
about night and day. He erected the Barber 
Sanatorium and Hospital and took a great in- 
terest in electric therapeutics. He married 
the daughter of Judge J. H. Brown. He had 



not completed his hospital before he, himself, 
was taken down. He made a trip to England 
to consult a physician, and he had consulted 
eminent ones in Cincinnati, but the disease 
progressed and we had to give him up. He was 
buried in 1910. He was a very active, ener- 
getic man, and devoted to his work. 

The members of the medical profession in 
Kanawha county are an able body of men — 
in general earnest students and fully up-to- 
date, both as physicians and surgeons, and re- 
flecting in full measure the intelligence of the 
community of which they form an important 
part. They are members — all or most of them 
■ — of the Kanawha County Medical Society, 
which meets twice a month in the Hotel Ka- 
nawha Assembly Room, and no small number 
belong also to the state and national associa- 
tions of their profession. They have never 
been found wanting in an emergency and are 
among our best citizens. We append a list of 
those now practicing in Charleston and the en- 
virons and the reader may find more detailed 
mention of many — both of the city and out- 
lying districts — in the biographical part of this 

physicians, 191 1 

Albert L. Amick, Laomi L. Aultz, Otis 
L. Aultz, Geo. S. Bacus, Summers F. Beck- 
with, M. Henry Brooks, Dorse W. Brown, 
Irene B. Bullard, John E. Cannady, Gus- 
tave B. Capita, Lawrence Carr, Ira P. 
Champe, Vincent T. Churchman, Charles 
E. Copeland, Edwin A. Davis, Eugene Davis, 
Richard T. Davis, Ellis E. Edgell, Henry F. 
Gamble, Martin V. Godbey, Patrick L. Gor- 
don, Job L. Gregory, Peter A. Haley, Geo. M. 
Hamilton, W. R. Hughey, Robert L. Jones, 
Alex. Littlepage, Geo. Lounsbery, J. M. Mc- 
Conikay, Frank L. McGee, W. A. McMillan, 
Geo. A. McQueen, Adam T. Mairs, W. F. 
May, Joseph Mayer, John Milbee, John W. 
Moore, John S. Morris, Hugh G. Nicholson, 
Charles O'Grady, Benjamin S. Preston, James 
Putney, Chas. A. Ray, Henry L. Robertson, 
W. S. Robertson, Chas. W. Root, G. Clarence 
Schoolfield, John T. Sharp, Arthur A. Shaw- 
key, Earl J. Stahl, E. D. Stump, John L. 
Stump, Fred H. Thaxton, W. J. Thomas, W 
W. Tompkins, Harry H. Young. 



Brief Sketches of Geo. Goshom, I. B. & F. Noyes, Edmund Saunders, Ezra Walker, James 
Truslozv, Rev. John Snyder, John Slack, Greenbury Slack, John and Levi Welch, James 
Nevins, Col. James Atkinson, John McConihay, Adam Aidtz, Joseph Bibby, Mathews 
Family, Blackwell Chilton, Geo. Fisher, David Shirkey, Charles Brozvn Family, Col. 
Henry Fitzhugh, Maj. James Bream, Col Joseph Lovell, Bream Memorial Church — Whit- 
taker Family — The Van Bibbers — Andrew Donnally Jr. — Mathew P. Wyatt — Aaron 
Stockton — William W. Henning — Fry Family — Capt. S. C. Farley — Miller Family of Gau- 
ley Bridge — James Carlon's Memory — Col. Benj. H. Smith — Harrison B. Smith — Gen. 
Daniel Smith — Luke Wilcox — Dr. Spicer Patrick — Slvrewsbury Family — Capt. Sam 
Christy — and Mr. Truslow. 

George Goshorn was the ancestor of the 
Goshorns of Kanawha; he was born in 1789, in 
Pennsylvania, and died in Charleston in 1845. 
He came to Charleston in 1822, and by energy 
and integrity he and his sons accumulated a 
fortune and maintained their character as the 
most reliable merchants. His sons were John 
H., William F., Jacob, George Alvan and 
David A. They were Democrats and Presby- 
terians, and of course were faithful and con- 
scientious citizens. 

Noyes, Isaac, Bradford, and Franklin. — 
They came from Columbia County, New York, 
in 1785; Isaac came in 1804 and Bradford in 
1809. Isaac married Cynthia Morris in 1807. 
They engaged in salt making, selling goods and 
buying furs, and conducted a general mercan- 
tile business. Isaac retired with a handsome 
property in 1848. He was devoted to <:he 
Presbyterian church and as all the family of his 
name were good musicians, they always had 
a good choir and he was an elder in said church. 
He introduced the organ in the church services 
about 1830, which of course made some of the 
members groan, but it was continued and they 
used it and also had a base viol, but with a 
good man with good music, and a good 

preacher, what did the opposition amount to? 

Bradford Noyes was diligent in business 
and served the Lord, and was blessed with 
success. His family were Mary, Annie, James 
Bradford, and Emma. Mary, the wife of John 
C. Ruby, died in 1867. Mr. Bradford Noyes 
was born in 1788 and died in 1850. 

Franklin Noyes was born in 1793, came to 
Kanawha in 1826, was a merchant and salt 
maker. He died in 1856; his wife was Nancy 
Venable and her children were Bradford, 
Catherine, Isaac, Philip H., Franklin, William 
A., Charles, James B. and Benjamin. Who 
was it that ever missed these boys playing on 
all sorts of musical instruments, or the laugh 
of Jim B. ? 

Edmund Saunders came from Ireland in 
1845, where he was born in 1774, came to 
Charleston in 1863; he lived to be over one 
hundred years old. 

Ezra Walker was born in Vermont in 1802 ; 
he was graduated in the Ohio University at 
Athens, began to practice law, after having 
taught school in the Kanawha Salines, in 1832. 
He became superintendent of the James Run 
and Kanawha Company, which included the 
turnpike and river from Covington, Va., to the 




Ohio River. His first wife was Miss Mary 
Smith of Staunton, Va., who he married in 
1832 ; afterward in 1849 he married Julia 
Shepherd. He died in 1853, leaving his wife 
and two children, Ezra and Kate. He was a 
finished scholar, an elder of the Presbyterian 
church, and a close friend of Dr. J. M. Brown, 
pastor of said church in Charleston, and of 
Rev. Dr. McElhenny of Lewisburg, and of 
Judge Lewis and George W. Summers of 
Kanawha. He was known as a Christian gen- 

James Truslow was born in Fredericksburg, 

Va., in 1 


He married Agnes Mosby Finch 

in Fluvana in 1807, came to Kanawha in 181 1, 
and died in 1830. He was noted for his strict 
integrity and sincere piety and his good works 
in aid of religion. His children were: Mary, 
the wife of Geo. H. Patrick; Elizabeth, the 
wife of Rev. C. R. Baldwin; America, John, 
James, William and Charles Truslow. 

Rev. John Snyder was among the first set- 
tlers of Kanawha and lived at Queen Shoals 
on Elk, and died at the residence of his son, 
Daniel B. Snyder. 

John Slack came to Kanawha from Green- 
brier county at an early day. He had two 
sons, John and Greenbury. John was born in 
1810 and spent near all his life in Charleston; 
he had been a salt maker, farmer, constable, 
deputy sheriff, sheriff, merchant, clerk of the 
county court, and others too numerous to men- 
tion, and was given anything he desired. He 
was upright, efficient, kind hearted, and never 
offensive. His wife was Sarah Porter; their 
children were Fannie, who was the wife of 
John S. Cole, who were the parents of John 
Slack Cole; Edward B., on his farm on Elk; 
George Porter Slack, and Miss Tidee who 
married a minister. 

Greenbury Slack was born in 1807 in Ka- 
nawha, and was a man of great positiveness 
of character. He was a justice, a farmer and 
merchant, and always when not otherwise en- 
gaged was studying his books and getting in- 
formation from papers. He was well in- 
formed in history, mathematics and poetry, 
reading such authors as Milton, Young, Pol- 
iock, Shakespeare. In 1861 he took a very 
decided stand for the union of the states in 


opposition to secession. He was sent to the 
convention at Wheeling and aided in the re- 
organization of the state of Virginia in the 
Union, notwithstanding the action of the con- 
vention at Richmond. He was also in the 
convention of 1863 which organized the 
State of West Virginia; he was in the senate 
of the new state. Prior to the war he was a 
Whig, subsequent thereto a Republican, and 
more of a writer than a speaker. He died in 
1873 in his sixty-fifth year. His children 
were Major Hedgeman, Capt. John Slack, Jr., 
and Mary, wife of John W. Wingfield. 

John Slack, Jr., is now the oldest survivor 
of the name. He has been sheriff or deputy 
sheriff near all his life, a careful, thoughtful 
man of affairs and a good judge of humanity. 

Welch, John and Levi. — They came from 
Pennsylvania. Levi Welch was a merchant 
of Charleston, a man of sound business sense. 
He was educated, of great moral worth, and 
enjoyed the respect of all with whom he had 
any dealings. A resident of the Salines, lie 
was also a salt-maker, and was engaged as 
manager of the shipment and sale of salt. He 
died of cholera in 1849. He married in 1821, 
a daughter of Goodrich Slaughter, one of the 
early settlers, and was connected with other 
prominent families. John was, like bis 
brother Levi, a good clerk, bookkeeper and 
accountant,' was deputy sheriff and merchant, 
and was strictly honest and careful. His wife 
was a sister of James C. McFarland, the 
president of the Bank of Virginia. He died 
in 1856, aged sixty-seven. His widow re- 
sided on Summers street. His son, James, lost 
his life in the Civil War at the battle of 
Scary on the 17th of July, 1861. And there 
was George, his sister Miss Cornelia, and Levi. 

James Nevins, born in 1806, in Rockbridge, 
Va., was a blacksmith, who obtained a knowl- 
edge of the ordinary branches of an English 
education. He went to Greenbrier in 1840, 
and having been a mechanic all his life was a 
master of his trade. He married in Green- 
brier, Miss Jane McClelland, a woman of 
great worth and character. In 1843, he came 
to Kanawha and his shop was on Front street 
near the lower ferry. Then he went to Gos- 
horn street. He was of great physical strength 



and endurance and was an upright, reliable 
man and an excellent mechanic. He was a 
man of very positive convictions, did his own 
thinking, and acted on his own judgment. He 
was a consistent member of the Presbyterian 
church and always in his seat when the church 
was open each Sunday. His daughter was 
the wife of Mr. Edward Irwin, for years a 
member of the council of the city and one of 
the best hearted men that ever lived. Once 
a poor, hard-looking man applied to a good 
man on the street for some money to get his 
breakfast and the good man declined for fear 
he would spend it for drink. He then applied 
to Mr. Irwin and he gave it to him for fear, 
he said, that the poor fellow was hungry. 

Col. James Atkinson was born in Kanawha 
in 1811 and died in 1866. He was the son 
of George and Sarah Atkinson, and his par- 
ents were not wealthy, but they raised their 
family on a farm and of course there were 
no free schools; nor were there many of any 
other kind without being attended with con- 
siderable expense. James, like all other boys 
that wanted to learn, managed to secure a fair 
English education, which qualified him for the 
ordinary branches of business. After remain- 
ing at home on the farm until he was twenty- 
one years old, he was a hale and hearty, stout 
young man, with plenty of good sense and also 
what was another qualification, he was of 
good address, reasonable, fair and upright, 
and attentive to business. He was made a 
constable and was kept busy. He then learned 
the trade of a carpenter and was much more 
than a common one, for he was an architect 
and could handle large contracts. For several 
years he gave this business his exclusive at- 
tention. In 1840 he engaged in a little specu- 
lation and he with one or two others loaded 
a barge with poplar lumber and started for 
New Orleans. They took their own time and 
built houses, furnishing the material, and it 
was two years before he reached home again. 
He then married Miss Miriam Rader, daugh- 
ter of George Rader of Nicholas county. He 
then engaged in boat building, and then pur- 
chased a farm on Elk Run and went thereon 
in 1845. He was elected a justice of the 
peace and continued to be re-elected, for he 

held the confidence and respect of the people. 
He was a deputy sheriff under R. H. Early, 
under John Slack, Sr., and under John Slack, 
Jr., and was sheriff himself in 1861-62. He 
gave satisfaction in all relations of life. Dur- 
ing the * war he and Greenbury Slack did a 
mercantile business and it was a success, and 
he continued thereat until the fall of 1865. 
He was a quiet, generous, free-hearted man, 
and his home was always open to entertain 
ministers, and he was a liberal supporter of his 
own church, the Methodist church. He was 
well known throughout the entire county and 
was well received wherever he went. 

In the summer of 1864 he was riding down 
Elk run, going to Charleston, and he stopped 
at Mr. Duling's house and took dinner. Mrs. 
Duling, who was his daughter, prepared a 
good dinner for him, and he enjoyed a hearty 
meal. Before leaving, however, knowing that 
they had made some cider and had set it away 
in jugs in the cellar, he went down to get a 
glass of it, and near the cider there had been 
set a glass of caustic soda, or lye, and he helped 
himself to a glass and by mistake took a swal- 
low of this deadly soda, and the wonder was 
that it did not kill him at once. He was taken 
home and he lived, confined to his bed, for a 
long while, but never regained his health, 
although he was able to walk around. He 
was a fine, large, hale and hearty man of over 
two hundred and twenty pounds, he after- 
wards became but a living skeleton. After 
two years, in September, 1866, he finally had 
to yield and gave up the struggle, and the en- 
tire country mourned his sad loss. Mrs. At- 
kinson, his wife, was the most liberal, gen- 
erous, good-natured person that ever lived 
anywhere. If she had a fault, it was her over- 
generosity and kindness of heart. 

John McConihay was an early settler of the 
Kanawha valley, and his home was at the 
mouth of Field's creek, about fifteen miles 
from Charleston, on the south side of the run. 
He owned a large body of land, valuable for 
its coal as also for its timber and for farming 
purposes. He was an active, energetic busi- 
ness man and he became the owner of a large 
estate, and he was the head of a large and re- 
spectable family. 



Adam Aultz was an early settler of this 
county and settled on the Pocatalico run in the 
northwestern part of the county. He had a 
good farm on which he resided, a good citizen 
and an honest one, and a representative man 
of his part of the county, and he lived to be 
quite an old man, with a large and worthy 
family of well-to-do people. 

Joseph Bibby was born in England in 1805, 
and he became a miller by trade, and at twenty- 
six years of age, shortly after his marriage, 
he emigrated to the United States, reaching 
Norfolk in 1832. Afterward he made his 
way westward and located in Kanawha in No- 
vember, 1832. The Ruffners had built a large 
planing-mill on Elk river, in Charleston. Mr. 
Bibby succeeded in getting work immediately 
and after about five years he purchased the 
mill and owned it ever afterwards. It has 
been called Bibby's mill, and by most people 
it is supposed that he erected it himself. He 
also spent a few years in making salt, but mill- 
ing was his work for a lifetime. He also in- 
vested in real estate in Charleston, which 
proved a good investment. He and his wife 
made a trip to England in i860 and spent six 
months among his old associates at the home 
of his youth. There were no better people 
than the Bibbys, and their English customs 
and accent always made them interesting asso- 

Mathews Family. — In 1808 this family 
came from Buckingham county, Va., to Ka- 
nawha and settled near the mouth of Davis 
creek. Before they arrived in Virginia they 
had lived in Wales. Thomas had two broth- 
ers, and he came in his own ship with all his 
possessions and a large number of men with 
him to the Chesapeake bay. It seems that 
these brothers did not like the English and had 
incurred the enmity of some British officers, 
and hence they departed for the colonies with 
all they had. Thomas Mathews located in 
Buckingham and he had a son, Thomas, Sr., 
who came to Kanawha as aforesaid, and it 
was Thomas, Sr., who remarked that before 
the lawyers, doctors and preachers reached 
the Kanawha valley, there was as peaceful, 
healthy and good moral vicinity as could be 
found, but — ! Thomas Sedden Aximanda 

Mathews and Guy P. Mathews were the two 
sons, and Lucy the daughter, and she was 
Mrs. Swindler. Both sons were surveyors, 
and Thomas S. A. Mathews (called Sutton for 
Sedden)j was one of the commissioners of for- 
feited and delinquent land, with James M, 
Laidley the other commissioner; this was 
about 1840. 

Guy P. Mathews was a surveyor also; his 
wife was Jane 'Wilson (a sister of Alex. Wil- 
son). He has two sons : Thomas J. Mathews, 
a surveyor, and John, the steamboat captain. 
Thomas C. married Miss Wygall of Diblin, 
Va. Captain John married Miss Walker of 
Brownstown. Mary C, the oldest child of 
Guy P., married B. F. Porter, and her son 
was Guy A. Porter. Elizabeth married Mr. 
Burks of Cabell county. Lucy married George 
Morrison, whose son was Hale Morrison. 
Sarah and Mattie never married. Sutton was 
•born in 1800 and died in 1850. Guy P. lived 
on his farm and died thereon. It was the 
father, Thomas, who made the eight day 
clocks which were six or eight feet tall, show- 
ing the hours, days, weeks and the quarter of 
the moon, and various other inventions which 
showed him to be a most skillful mechanic. 
Sutton discovered cannel coal and also that 
oil could be made from this coal, which led 
to the coal operations at several places in 
the county. It was the father that at an early 
day got up the great race between the steam- 
boat, Daniel Webster (Captain Coleman), and 
a canoe manned by six men, to run from Mai- 
den down to Charleston, and everybody took 
sides and made bets, the people being about 
equally divided. Mr. Mathews was one of the 
principal men, and he bet on the canoe and 
lost $500. They prepared the canoe and had 
six good men, and at the start the canoe kept 
ahead for awhile, but the steamer finally 
passed it and won the race. Dr. Hale said 
that almost every man and woman had a bet 
and the banks were lined with spectators, and 
the whole community interested. 

Blackwell Chilton came from Fauquier, Va., 
where he was born in 1783, landing in, Kana- 
wha in 1827, and was a farmer. He died in 
Charleston in 1872, in his ninetieth year. He 
was an industrious, honest, enterprising man 



of more than ordinary ability and enjoyed the 
respect of his fellowmen. 

George Fisher lived on his farm near Sis- 
sonville on the Poca river, and was about 
ninety years of age when he passed away. 
He was upright and industrious, took care of 
his property, a good farmer and accumulated 
a good estate. He was noted for letting alone 
other people's affairs. He left a large family, 
even to great grandchildren. 

David Shirkey was also in the Sissonville 
vicinity, one of the leading farmers of the 
county, a good reliable man, industrious, hon- 
orable, having a large family of respected 

Charles Brown Family. — Charles Brown 
was born in Amherst county, Va., in the year 
1770. He was the owner of land in Kanawha 
as early as 1804, and we also know that he 
married a daughter of Reuben Slaughter of 
Kanawha in 1808, and that he lived in Ka- 
nawha until his death in 1849. Col. Andrew 
Donnally's eldest daughter Mary, was the wife 
of Reuben Slaughter, and his daughter, 
Elizabeth Slaughter, was the wife of Charles 
Brown, and Charles Brown's children were : 
Taliyrand P., Christopher, William Pitt and 
Charles Porus. Charles Brown purchased 
land in Teay's valley, on Kanawha, on Third, 
on Guyandotte, Morris Spring branch, lots in 
Charleston, Peters Creek, Davis Creek and 
Elks Run. He patented land in 1818 on Ka- 
nawha, Hurricane, Elk, Big Sandy, Coal and 
Rocky fork, near 2,000 acres, besides pur- 
chasing much more. It is said that he was 
eccentric, that in after life he kept the ferry 
at the mouth of Elk across both Elk and Ka- 
nawha ; and he was so well known that most 
, of his friends called him "Charley." He had 
been in business with Mr. Whitteker and this 
is supposed to have been while he was en- 
gaged in making salt just below the mouth 
of Lewis creek. He lived in the vicinity of 
Maiden; on which side of the river we have 
not learned, but we know he owned land on 
Rush creek and made a lease for 99 years, 
which expired but a few years ago. Late in 
his life he lived in Charleston at the mouth 
of Elk. He evidently was a man of means 

and much real estate. His family connections 
were of the best. 

Taliyrand P. Brown was associated with 
Capt. James Payne in the boat business on 
the Kanawha. He was the founder of Win- 
field, in Putnam county, and afterwards 
moved to the West. He died in 1881 at sev- 
enty-two years of age. His wife was Sophia 
Forqueran and he had several children, one 
of whom was Anna Maria, who married 
Isaac Fulton of Massachusetts, who had a 
daughter Edith, and she married Harold 
Phelps, who died in 1901, whose widow lives 
in New York. Mrs. Phelps was in Charleston 
in 1910 looking up the graves of her ancestors 
in Kanawha. She says one of Mr. Brown's 
eccentricities was that he always voted just 
on the opposite side from that on which 
George Goshorn voted; which would indicate 
that he was a Whig for the Goshorns were 
all born Democrats. Christopher died in Mis- 
souri without children. 

William Pitt Brown died at the age of 
nineteen and was buried with his father. 
Charles Porus Brown was a physician. He 
married Amanda Roberts who was the sister 
of the wife of Napoleon Boyer, who recently 
died in Florida. Susan Brown, a daughter of 
Taliyrand, married Benjamin Harriman, a 
son of John, who was a son of Shadrack Har- 
riman. John Harriman married Nancy 

Col. Henry Fitzhugh. — Henry Fitzhugh, 
the youngest son of Henry and Henrietta S. 
Fitzhugh, was born at Bunker Hill, a country 
seat of the family near Warrentown, Va., 
January 10, 1830. His parents were descended 
from a long line of distinguished English an- 
cestors and he inherited from them many 
noble traits of character and graces of man- 
ner that adorned his life. He removed with 
his father's family in 1834 to Charleston, 
W. Va. In the fall of 1840 he entered Mer- 
cer Academy, then under the charge of Rev. 
Stuart Robinson, an accomplished scholar and 
successful educator. Under his tuition Henry 
was prepared in 1844 to enter the sophomore 
class of Marietta College. His record there, 
both as a student and as a young man of 
gentle, refined and polished manners, was 



most praiseworthy ; he was a great favorite 
with his classmates and much admired in the 
charming society of that delightful old town. 
Immediately after graduating in 1847, he com- 
menced the study of law and received his li- 
cense to practice his profession early in the 
year 1850, at Ravenswood, Jackson county, 
Va. (now W. Va.) 

After his father's death in 1855, he removed 
to Charleston and formed a partnership with 
his brother Nicholas Fitzhugh. In 1857 he 
was employed by the stockholders of the bank 
in Maiden, which had become involved in dif- 
ficulties, to search out the matter and place 
it on a sound financial basis. So successful 
was he that he won the admiration and con- 
fidence of the stockholders to the extent that 
they placed the entire management of the bank 
in his hands. It was then called the Bank of 
Charleston; he was made president and A. 
Spencer Nye was cashier. The institution be- 
came prosperous and so continued until the 
Civil War, when by the arbitrary rule of Gen- 
eral Wise, the funds of all the banks of 
Charleston were removed to Richmond and ap- 
propriated to public use. 

Henry Fitzhugh joined the Confederate 
army in 1861 as lieutenant colonel under Gen- 
eral A. G. Jenkins. In 1862 he entered the 
Kanawha valley with Adjutant General Lor- 
ing. Sent to Europe by the Confederate 
states government in 1864, to negotiate funds 
and to establish a series of blockade runners, 
he was captured on his outward bound pas- 
sage and made a prisoner in New York city, 
but through the influence of friends and a 
little gold he was released and was soon in 
London. He became acquainted with Lord 
Palmerston, Thomas Carlyle and others, who 
were exceedingly kind to him. He was em- 
ployed after the war was over to investigate 
for commercial purposes the mines of New 
Mexico and Central America, but these coun- 
tries were so unsettled that no legitimate busi- 
ness could be done. Going to New York 
where he had been a prisoner three years be- 
fore, he happened to meet Mr. Suiter of 
Fredericksburg, with whom he had become 
acquainted in the South during the war, and 
they went into the banking business under the 

firm name of Suiter & Co., and became quite 
successful. Subsequently Col. Fitzhugh went 
to Chicago and took a cold, which brought 
on pneumonia and caused his death. He died 
in New York April 10, 1890. The company 
and men with whom he did business spoke of 
him in the highest terms of respect and said 
that his name was a synonym of all that was 
good and beneficent. 

Maj. James Bream and Col. Joseph Lovell. 
— To these men also are the people much in- 
debted for the development of the country 
discovered and settled by the pioneers. 

Major James Bream was a London mer- 
chant who came to Virginia and settled in 
Richmond in 1798. His family consisted of 
his wife, who had been Mrs. Lovell, and the 
following named children : Leonora Caroline 
Lovell, who became the wife of Dr. Henry 
Rogers; Cassandra Lovell, who was after- 
ward Mrs. Lafong; Alfred Lovell, who died 
young; Joseph Lovell, subject of this sketch; 
Alethea Bream, who became Mrs. Brigham; 
and Lavinia Bream, who was the wife of Dr. 
Spicer Patrick. For years after Major Bream 
and family had settled in Richmond and he 
had established himself in business and was 
prospering, and his children being educated, 
things went on in a well ordered, quiet way. 
He was making money, teaching the children 
and living happily. 

By the time Joseph Lovell became twenty- 
one years old, in 1814, he had progressed in 
his studies, had read law and had obtained 
his license to practice in the courts of Vir- 
ginia. He then thought it best to make a 
trip westward to determine the best location 
for him in which to settle and go to work. It 
was in Maiden that we first hear of him. He 
had passed through the best part of the agri- 
cultural domain of the valley, where farms 
were being opened up, houses being improved 
and erected, fences and barns constructed, or- 
chards, fields, meadows all aglow, and he had 
reached the bustling locality of the salt makers. 
Here he let it be known that he was ready 
to do business as a lawyer and here we find 
him employed to settle a question of the right 
of title to a piece of land. This compelled 
him to visit the courthouse to examine the 



records, and he then became interested in the 
"town at the mouth of Elk," and in the lands 
surrounding the same. Mr. Lovell was pleased 
with the outlook, with the valley, the river 
with the prospective manufacture of salt, and 
its adequate facilities for transportation and 
connection with the outer world. He saw 
with prophetic eye the growth that was 
bound to come — factories, farms, fortune and 
fame. Not only did he settle at once, but he 
insisted on his step-father coming also, that 
there was not only room for the employment 
of his own energies, but all the opportunities 
for business and the accumulation of wealth 
that Major Bream could wish. He began to 
invest in real estate and salt property, while 
Major Bream began to dispose of his property 
and collect his assets preparatory to joining 
Mr. Lovell in Kanawha. 

It was in 1816 that Major Bream visited 
Mr. Lovell and it was not long after that he 
and his family were located here also. Mr. 
Joseph Lovell had business to attend to, he 
had money to loan and to invest, and he was 
engaged in salt making. He was a splendid 
talker and he knew what to say to please the 
people, and it was not long before he was one 
of the most popular of men. In February, 
1818, he met Miss Bettie Washington Lewis, 
a daughter of Mr. Howell Lewis of Mason 
county (son of Col. Fielding Lewis, whose 
wife was Bettie Washington, the sister of the 
General). Dr. Henry Ruffner officiated and 
they were married, and resided about half way 
between Maiden and Charleston. In 1819 he 
was elected to the House of Delegates and 
went to Richmond to the legislature. We 
said that Mr. Lovell was popular with the 
people. He was given by the county court 
every office that he desired; he was made an 
officer of the militia, and promoted in rapid 
succession until he was made a colonel of the 
Eighth regiment of the Thirteenth brigade of 
the First division of Virginia militia. He was 
sent to the Legislature until he declined to 
further attend ; so that he had all the civil and 
military honors that he could wish. He now 
turned his attention to the care of his wife 
and family. His children were : Alfred, born 
December, t8i8, who died in 1842; Richard 

Channing Moore, born in 1822, who married 
Mary Patrick; Howell Lewis, born in 1824, 
who married Miss Beuhring of Cabell county; 
Joseph, Jr., born in 1827, who married Miss 
Nye of Marietta ; and Fayette A., born in 
1830, who married Miss Shrewsbury of Mai- 
den. Colonel Lovell removed into Charleston, 
built his residence on Virginia street and his 
office adjoining, and his business house lot is 
now covered with the thirteen-story building 
of Alderson and Stephenson, at the corner of 
Kanawha and Capitol streets. 'He organized 
the first trust in Kanawha, and had all the salt 
factories under the control of one head, which 
directed all matters of the shipment and sale 
of salt, and he transformed the county from 
a Jeffersonian to a Whig county, and. Henry 
Clay was the salt-maker's idol. Col. Joseph 
Lovell died in 1835. 

Major James Bream lived a part of the 
time in the vicinity of his furnace, but re- 
moved to Charleston to spend the remainder of 
his days. He was a genial, good-natured old 
gentleman, and took a great interest in his 
family, and the Lovell children were the same 
to him as his own. It is told of him that he 
had a habit sometimes when excited of using 
rather strong language, but never failed, if 
he used a profane word to ask pardon for the 
same. This family, being English, were 
naturally Episcopalians, but there was no 
Episcopal church in Charleston for some time, 
and the Major said to his wife that they 
should be connected with one of the churches 
here and proposed that they should unite with 
Dr. Henry Ruffner's church. She did not ex- 
actly like the idea ; in fact, one of her descend- 
ants said, she was so much opposed to the 
proposition that she manifested her opposi- 
tion by giving the footstool she was using such 
a kick that it flew across the room, but she 
afterwards complied with the Major's sugges- 
tion. Even after their own church was or- 
ganized here, they made no change, although 
Mrs. Lovell was one of the prime movers in 
having the Episcopal church built here and 
was one of its supporters. There is a street 
in Charleston called Lovell street after the 
Colonel, and all of West Charleston belonged 
to Major Bream, in fact all the land from Elk 



river down to Two Mile creek and then some, 
besides some salt furnaces and other real es- 
tate. In fact he was quite a wealthy man in 
his day and time. He died in 1842, leaving 
his estate to his wife by his will. 

Bream Memorial Church. — It is said that 
Mrs. Mary Bream, who died in 1845, also 
made her will by which she disposed of the 
Bream estate among her children, treating the 
Lovell children the same as the Bream chil- 
dren. Also by her will she gave the sum of 
$500 "to the Bishop of the Presbyterian 
church of Charleston," upon certain terms 
and conditions, and it has been stated that 
there has not yet been found a Presbyterian 
minister here that for $500 was willing to 
sign a receipt as a bishop, agreeing to said 
conditions. The pictures of Mr. and Mrs. 
Bream are in the possession of Mr. Andrew 
S. Alexander, and they should be copied and 
enlarged and placed in the Session room of 
the Bream Memorial church on the west side 
of Elk, where a handsome stone church has 
been erected to their memory; and the Episco- 
pal church should have a window ; if not to 
Mr. and Mrs. Bream, then to the memory of 
Mrs. Lovell and her family. 

All of these families are buried in the 
Spring Hill cemetery of Charleston. Major 
Bream's life was more retired, reserved and 
exclusive than that of Col. Lovell's, who was 
a more public man in his affairs. The Major 
enjoyed the quiet private life of an English- 
man, while the Colonel loved to meet the 
people and enjoyed their manifestations of ap- 
plause, which they were always ready to give. 
Both of these men did much to build up the 
town and the county; they brought money and 
energy and made business, and should ever 
be remembered as helpers of the town. The 
Memorial church was a very proper mark of 
respect to their memory. They were good 
people who aided the church and helped the 
cause, to which all their descendants are de- 

Whittaker • Family. — There were four 
brothers who came to Kanawha from Massa- 
chusetts — William, Aaron, Thomas and Levi 
Whittaker. The children of William were: 
Norris S., Alfred, Henry, William and Phil- 

ena. The children of Aaron were : Charles, 
Elizabeth, William, Minnie, Keith, and Lydia. 
The children of Thomas were : Frank, William, 
John, Helen and Thomas. The children of 
Levi were : Maria, Salina and Wallace. 
William came to Kanawha in 1804 and Aaron 
came in 1810. All were engaged early in 
making salt and all were active busy people. 
All of them lived in Kanawha and most of 
the time in Charleston. 

Van Bibbers. — This family came from Hol- 
land. Jacobs Van Bibber came in 1684 and 
Isaac Jacobs, the father came in 1687, as also 
did Mathias. The colony was headed by Pas- 
torius, a very learned German and they were 
situated at or near Germantown, Pa., and in 
1 69 1 a charter was obtained for their town, 
and Jacobs Isaac was one of the committee 
men with power to hold court, impose fines, 
hold a market, etc. They manufactured fine 
linen ; printing was also done and the Bible 
was printed in German thirty-nine years be- 
fore it was in English. There were among 
them Mullenburg, Pennypacker, Rittenhousen, 
Wister, Cassell, Deidenstricker, Levering, 
Keppell and others. Mathias Van Bibber lo- 
cated 6,168 acres on the Skipeck and the lo- 
cality was known as Van Bibbers Township. 
Then he went to work to colonize his land 
and began 100 acres for a church which was 
built in 1725. The Van Bibbers were men of 
standing, ability, enterprise and means. The 
father went to Philadelphia as a merchant and 
did business on High Street and there died 
in 171 1. Mathias and others moved to Mary- 
land and the family has been distinguished both 
in War and in Court. 

At the falls of the Kanawha, Van Bibbers 
Rock, has been known and keeps in mind the 
daring Indian fighters . of the early days. 
There was Capt. John Van Bibber, who came 
to Kanawha in 1781 and he died in 182 1. 
Those that came were Isaac, Peter, John and 
Brigetta. Peter came to Greenbrier County 
and settled there. John was a surveyor and 
his wife was Chloe Standi ford and she was 
fair to look upon. John became a trader and 
took a boat and went as far south as Natchez. 
He. with some others, undertook to return 
across the country and was caught by the In- 




dians and after being robbed of all he had, 
was turned loose in the woods and left to 
wander promiscuously. After a long solitary 
wandering, he one day came across a cabin, 
which proved to be the home of Daniel Boone 
on the Holsetein, where he found help and pro- 

John and Peter and a Mr. Alderson came 
down the Kanawha Valley and they were said 
to have discovered the Burning Spring. They 
were at the Battle of Point Pleasant and John 
was made a captain at said battle. The Van 
Bibbers remained on the Border. 

Brigetta married Isaac Robinson and had 
her home on Crooked Creek in Mason County. 
Rhoda was a beautiful daughter and there was 
a son. Rhoda was killed and the boy was 
made a prisoner. Brigetta's husband was 
killed and she and her little boy were made 
captives. After several years she was pur- 
chased by a Frenchman and set at liberty and 
made her way back to Botetourt. 

After peace was made, and after she re- 
gained her health and strength, she went back 
to where the Indians were to secure her boy, 
arriving at a time when the small-pox had 
broken out among them. She took the disease 
and was laid up for some time, and when she 
found her boy, he was so well satisfied with 
his life of freedom that he refused to come 
away with her. After a long time she finally 
persuaded him to return with her to Point 
Pleasant. The boy did not long survive, but 
Brigetta lived to be ninety-five years old. 

Andrew Donnally, Jr., son of Col. Andrew 
Donnally, was born in Fort Donnally, and the 
wife of young Donnally was Majorie Van 
Bibber, daughter of Capt. John Van Bibber. 
They were married in 1802 and continued to 
live at the homestead of Col. Donnally, about 
five miles above the mouth of Elk, for nearly 
a half century. Andrew, Jr., had six sons 
and several daughters. One of the latter mar- 
ried James Henry Fry and another married 
Col. John Lewis. Daniel Boone was a near 
neighbor of Col. Donnally and Jesse Boone was 
a brother-in-law of Andrew Donnally. Jr., 
both of whom married Misses Van Bibber. 

Mathew P. Wyatt. — He was born at the 
mouth of Blue Stone river in T799 and his 

parents were Edward and Rachel (Burnside) 
Wyatt. He was one of a family of ten chil- 
dren and he came to Kanawha when he was 
eighteen years old. When he became twenty- 
two he was married to Caroline Lewis Tully, 
a daughter of James and Elizabeth (Starke) 
Tully. She was the first cousin of John L. 
Cole, the surveyor, lawyer, poet and humorist 
of the county. The children of Mathew P. 
Wyatt were Julia Ann, James Blackburn, 
Mark, Clark, Benjamin F., Amanda Jane, 
Lucy Joan, Dick Johnson and Leathia Maris, 
the latter being Mrs. Jack Bowles. Mathew P. 
lived just below the mouth of Cabin Creek, 
now known as Chelyan, but later he removed 
about four miles up Cabin Creek in the year 
1846. He was a farmer, engaged in the lum- 
ber and timber business. He was elected a 
constable and afterwards was elected a jus- 
tice of the peace, and continued to hold court 
for the people, and in fair weather he held 
his court in his front yard under a locust tree. 
He always desired to adjust and compromise 
rather than litigate. He was a Democrat be- 
fore and after the war and was opposed to 
secession all the time, but insisted in maintain- 
ing the union of the states. 

When the Wheeling government was or- 
ganized he continued as such. There was an 
election of some kind to be held and he was 
called on to act in some capacity as an officer 
in connection with said election. He knew 
that it was a dangerous piece of work and he 
thought it best to let it go by until more quiet 
times. The officials, however, were unwilling 
to consent to this, and he had to show his 
loyalty by doing the work ; otherwise he would 
have been regarded as disloyal to the state, 
and so, to get along without trouble, he did 
as he was desired. A short while afterwards, 
he was arrested for taking part in the Wheel- 
ing government and made a political prisoner. 
He was carried over to Richmond in October, 
1862 and held there in durance vile till June, 
1863. He said that part of the time he had 
a pretty tough time of it, that much of the 
time he was sick and did not have many delica- 
cies to eat, but that they treated him as well 
as tbey were able. His predicament was one 
in which he had not much choice. He had to 




act, or show favor* with the Confederates, 
which he had no disposition to do, as giving 
aid and comfort to the party which he op- 
posed and he had to make his selection of 
prisons, and with the hope of avoiding both, 
he acted as he did, and in fact, he had little 
or no choice. It was pretty hard on the old 
J. P. 

He was a great friend of Judge Brown's. 
They had much business together in litigating 
land titles and ejectment suits, and he had a 
great admiration for the judge's skill in man- 
aging such cases. The judge was a Democrat 
before the war, as was also the squire, and 
they were much together and the judge was 
glad to find him so loyal and safely Union 
in his sentiments, and he stated after it was 
all over that the judge was one of the best of 
men and he was disposed to go with him in 
almost everything except one, and in that he 
could not go — that was, that the Judge had 
gone into the Republican party and he just 
could not go that far, even to be in good com- 

Squire Wyatt survived his wife a number 
of years, he dying in 1874. His son, Ben- 
jamin F. Wyatt, was for many years a deputy 
sheriff of Kanawha County and he was elected 
to the legislature of West Virginia in 1874. 

Aaron Stockton was born in Princeton, N. 
J., in 1776 and was a cousin of Commodore 
Stockton. Aaron went first to Kentucky and 
L afterwards came to Kanawha and married 
Elizabeth, a sister of William Tompkins, whose 
wife was Rachel Grant, and Mr. Tompkins 
was one of the leading saltmakers. Mr. 
Stockton at one. time owned the "Burning 
Spring" — Cedar Grove, at the mouth of 
Kelly's Creek and the Kanawha Falls, where 
he lived when the war came on and into the 
rebellion he went and remained until it was 
over. He had two sons and four daughters : 
William was drowned in the New River; 
John died many years afterwards; Eliza mar- 
ried James Veasey, father Oscar; Jane mar- 
ried Mr. Shaw, then Mr. Hale and then Mr. 
Hawkins ; Rebecca married James Trimble ; 
Mary married Thomas A. Lewis and they 
were the parents of Dr. C. I. Lewis. 

William Waller Henning went from Spott- 

sylvania to Albemarle and settled in Charlottes- 
ville in 1793. He dealt in real estate and 
owned a distillery and it is said that he was 
not very successful. In 1805 he went to 
Richmond to engage in the collection and pub- 
lication of all the laws of Virginia, and he was 
aided and encouraged in the enterprise by 
Thomas Jefferson and by Mr. William Mun- 
ford in the publication of the Henning and 
Munford Reports of the decisions of the 
Courts. The Henning Statistics at Large, 
have become very valuable, both as History 
and Law, and all the lawyers and historians 
want them in their libraries. The wife of 
William Waller Henning was Agatha, the 
daughter of Henry Banks. He died in 1828. 


Joshua Fry was born in England, was edu- 
cated at Oxford, and came to Virginia. He 
was professor of Mathematics in "William and 
Mary," was present at the organization of Al- 
bemarle county and he was one of the magis- 
trates. He was the county lieutenant and was 
the surveyor of the county, and was possessed 
of several tracts of land. He was made the 
Colonel of the Virginia Regiment of which 
George Washington was Lieut. -Col. in 1754 — 
in the French and Indian A'Var. Col. Fry died 
and was buried at Fort Wills, now Cumber- 
land, Md., and Washington took command. 
His home in Albemarle was called "View- 
Mont" and his widow lived there until her 
death in 1773. She was Mrs. Mary Micon 
Hill when she married Col. Fry. His children 
were John Henry, Martha, the wife of John 
Nicholas, William, and Margaret the wife of 
John Scott. John married Sarah Adams. 
Henry married Susan, daughter of Dr. 
Thomas Walker, and they had nine children. 
Reuben Fry was the father of Joseph L. Fry, 
of Wheeling and the Kanawha Frys are de- 
scendants of this branch. J. H. Fry was born 
in December 1798, came to Kanawha in 18 18, 
read law in office of his brother, Joseph L. 
Fry, was a salt maker, was deputy sheriff and 
sheriff for four terms, was in the House of 
Delegates two terms and four times in the 
senate. He died June 26, 1863. He left 
Philip H. Fry, Jas. H. Fry, Joseph L. Fry, 



and his daughters were Mrs. Alvin Goshorn, 
Mrs. Lewis Wilson and Miss Sally Scott Fry, 
all of whom are deceased, except Joseph L. 


He was born in Kentucky in 1806, was 
brought to Kanawha in 18 13 and went to 
school at Mercer Academy in Charleston to 
Jacob Rand, and he was deputy sheriff under 
Col. Andrew Donnally. In 1844 he purchased 
an interest in the side wheel steamboat "Cum- 
berland Valley," and he was given command 
of her, and ran her from Charleston to Nash- 
ville and from this time on he was constantly 
on the river. His next boat was the "A. W. 
Quarrier," which ran to Cincinnati — next the 
"Allen Collier"— then the "Anvilla Wood," 
then the "Hermann," then the "Ellen Gray," 
"Kanawha Valley" No. 1 — then the No. 2. 
He built the "T. J. Pickett" and ran her from 
Cannelton to Louisville. He was Captain of 
the "Mollie Norton," a large side wheel boat, 
then the "Cottage No. 2" and his last was the 
"R. W. Skillinger." He was an excellent boat- 
man, and is said to have brought his boat up 
the Kanawha when there was insufficient water 
to float her over the bars when he would raise 
her bow and jump her over the bar. He was 
exceedingly popular, and he ran his boat for 
the comfort of his passengers, and it was a 
pleasure to travel with him. He was a safe 
man, and everybody knew Captain Farley, who 
never became loud nor rough but was always 
polite and gentle. 

He was on the "Kanawha Valley No. 2" 
when General Wise took charge and burned 
her. His home was on Kanawha Street on 
the corner of Clendenin Street. His wife was 
the daughter of Morris Harvey, and after he 
quit boating she kept a good boarding-house. 


In 1800 John Miller of Bath removed to 
Lick Creek of Greenbrier. He married Jean 
Hodge in 1803. and James Hodge Miller was 
born in 1805 near the Green Sulphur Springs 
of Greenbrier. 

A certain Miss Chapman was born in Frank- 
furt. Kentucky, in 1806 and she and James 
Hodge Miller were married in 183 1. Soon 
after 1831 they went to Gauley Bridge and set- 

tled and went into the general merchandizing 
business, kept the postoffice and a house for 
public entertainment. They were within sight 
and hearing of the Kanawha Falls, and there 
were many who stopped here to enjoy a fishing 
trial. The old fashioned stage coach with four 
horses ran from Charleston to the Allegheny 
Mineral Springs further East and on to Coving- 
ton, Virginia, and going west, they went to 
Charleston where they could get a steamboat ; 
or they could continue across the country to 
the Ohio river at Guyandotte, where boats could 
be had, at any time, of some kind. This line 
of travel continued from an early day until the 
opening of the Ches. & Ohio R. R. in 1873. 

Mr. Jas. H. Miller did business for sixty 
years at this place and kept the post office for 
forty years. During the civil war, the place 
was frequently crowded with soldiers. Gen- 
erals Floyd and Wise held the place and Floyd 
fought the battle of Carnepex Ferry near this 
place. Wise fell back and destroyed the bridge 
across the mouth of Gauley, which perhaps 
made a mark indicating that he had been there, 
but did not delay any one long enough to write 
about it. General Floyd, they say, fought 
some, then in the night got away. He and Wise 
were not helping anybody and they did not 
harmonize worth a cent. General Cox and 
General Rosecrans, directed the Federal forces, ♦ 
and let General Floyd get away without incon- 

But in all this Mr. Miller held his own place, 
and after the war was over was sent to the 
West Virginia Legislature a couple of sessions. 
Neither the war nor the Legislature was the 
sort of entertainment exactly suitable to the 
taste of Mr. Miller. He was a very quiet, 
peaceful man, and preferred life without the 
excitement attendant upon war and killing peo- 
ple, or the peculiar excitement usually attendant 
upon the making laws or electing a LI. S. Sen- 
ator. The children of James Hodge Miller 
were Tames Henry Miller, Ann Eliza Miller 
and William who died in infancy. James 
Flenrv married Margaret Muncy in i860, and 
they had Fenton H. Miller, William A. and 
Robert H. Miller. Fenton is the cashier of 
the Bank of Gauley. He was born in 1865. 
James Hodge Miller died in 1893 and was 



buried near his home and his wife followed 
him in 1899 and was buried near her home. 
James Henry Miller continued the business of 
his father, and in 1906 he, too. went into the 
other world. His wife is still living. He was 
much the same kind of a man as was his 
father — an honorable, honest, upright, consci- 
entious, quiet, unobtrusive man, one of the 
kind that had the confidence and respect of all 

Gauley Bridge is within the sound of the 
Kanawha Falls, within sight of the Hawk's 
Nest and Cotton Hill — each about 1,000 feet 
high — which look down to see the gathering of 
the rivers to take a fresh start for the Ohio 
river. Here the surface of the country changes, 
as also the Geology, and Kanawha Falls is per- 
pendicular over twenty feet. This part of the 
country is greatly enjoyed and by some it is 
regarded as a suburb of Charleston, and noth- 
ing has added so much to the pleasure of the 
sojourn here as the Miller family. 


John Carlon came from Richmond and set- 
tled at the Kanawha Falls. He afterwards re- 
moved to Springfield, Ohio, and died during 
the Civil War. James Carlon was one of his 
slaves, who was born in 1840. Mr. Carlon 
had fifteen slaves, part of whom he sold and 
the others he hired out until the war. 

Jim remembers Major Montgomery's fam- 
ily, who kept the feny just below the Falls and 
who was the father of James, Michael and 
William Montgomery, and James Montgomery 
was the founder of the town of Montgomery. 
He also remembers Mr. James Miller, the 
postmaster, Mr. John Hill, James Muncy, sher- 
iff, Mr. Paddy Huddleston and his sons, and 
Colonel Aaron Stockton, who lived at the Falls, 
kept the hotel, had a mill and a boatyard, and 
all his men were colored men and Fielding 
Julins was their supervisor. The wife of Col. 
Stockton was the sister of William Tompkins, 
who lived at the mouth of Kelly's Creek, now 
Cedar Grove. His sons were John and William 
Stockton. William was drowned in his attempt 
to bring a raft down New River. John' died at 
his home during the war. Miss Eliza married 
Mr. James Veasey. father of Mr. Oscar Veasey. 

Miss Rebecca married James Trimble and she 
was the mother of Mrs. M. Levi and Mrs. S. 
M. Smith. Miss Babe married C. F. Stock- 
ton. Mrs. Aaron Stockton died in 1862 and 
the Colonel died about 1866. 

That the Colonel was a busy man, owned 
much land and the Falls; discovered cannel 
coal which he shipped to New Orleans. He 
took his daughter Jane with him to New Or- 
leans and she there married a Mr. Shaw and 
Jim's wife belonged to Mrs. Shaw. After the 
death of Mr. Shaw, she married Mr. Hale, and 
afterwards married Mr. Hawkins. Miss Mary 
Stockton married Thomas Lewis of Coal's 
Mouth, and Dr. Irvin Lewis was their son. 
The Doctor raised a company of cavalry and 
became their captain and -served the Confeder- 
acy till the end. 

Jim says that early in the war he was hired 
to bring over the river a canoe, and that night 
the men who hired him used the boat to cross 
over to meet Capt. Lewis, and that a black man 
reported Jim to the men belonging to a New 
York Regiment as being engaged in ferrying 
rebels, and his friends had to keep Jim out of 
the way. Later in 1862. Jim hired himself to 
Captain Fitch of the U. S. quarter-master's 
department and he remained in that depart- 
ment until the end of the war. Jim says that 
when the Confederate General Loring came 
down, they had a battle at Fayette and were 
fighting all along down the Valley and Jim 
took his battle ax and kept ahead of Col. 
Lightburn as he retreated, and went on to 
Gallipolis and remained until General Loring 
was satisfied with the Valley and retired, and 
then he came back to his post. Jim says the 
river was full of all sort of craft, full of col- 
ored people, and they were in Ohio called 

Tim says that his master John Carlon was a 
Southern sympathizer in Ohio and talked too 
freely and he had to get away from there. He 
came to Kanawha Falls and told. Jim he needed 
some money and Jim says he took all he had 
and he borrowed some and gave to him 
$100.00. and he gave Jim a paper saying that 
he could go where he pleased. Jim says he 
went to Springfield afterwards to see him and 
let him have $350.00 for which he gave Jim 



his note, and afterwards he was paid the note 
and five hundred besides and given his free pa- 
pers, in 1863-4. Jim says he bought his wife 
after President Lincoln's Proclamation, which 
he rather thinks he need not have done. After 
the war, Jim says he dug coal, teamed, helped 
build railroad on . the K. & M. under Col. 
Sharp as Receiver and was inspector of R. R. 
ties, and also was on the Kelly's Creek R. R., 
and of late years he has been engaged in remov- 
ing houses. Jim says he was raised by good 
people, who were always kind to him, was paid 
well for his work generally, that he never was 
able to collect all his dues from the govern- 
ment and sometimes lost for his work, but he 
learned to read and write after the War, and 
gets along better now. 


He was one of the strong men of Kanawha, 
strong physically, mentally and financially ; his 
life business was that of attorney, and he was 
strong as such. He was a student of the law 
and never ceased to study it; he took a great 
interest in the land law of Virginia and did 
much to help clear it up and make land titles 
more certain and less complicated. 

In Virginia and especially in the western 
part, where there was much speculation in 
lands, the mode of acquiring title to land was 
probably more loose and uncertain than else- 
where and the law of forfeiture of title for 
non-payment of tax, the law of possession un- 
der the statute of limitation, made the subject 

This has been set forth rather tersely by 
a dream. One of the greatest land litigants 
ever produced in Kanawha said that he dreamed 
that he died and went up to the gates and 
sought admission, where St. Peter sat to de- 
cide such questions as "the right of entry." — . 
That the latter questioned him and learned that 
the litigant was from Kanawha (which fact, 
he said, made St. Peter frown), and that the 
applicant had spent a long life principally in liti- 
gation of land-titles, and if he had not acquired 
much land, he had given an awful lot of trou- 
ble and expense, and the applicant being versed 
in the subject, set up the fact that he had al- 
ways been engaged in asserting his individual 
rights under the law. To this St. Peter was 

not advised so he referred the subject to St. 
Paul, and he stated that he had studied all the 
laws of science and other earthly subjects and 
had acquired some insight thereinto and that 
he had had occasion also to examine somewhat 
minutely the land law of Virginia, but that on 
account of its various complications he had 
been compelled to admit that he was totally un- 
able to understand it. This litigant was W. A. 
McMullin and his dream might be said to fairly 
give his idea of the situation. Such at least 
was the character of the land laws that Col. 
Smith made a study of during his entire life. 
There were at the Kanawha Bar several law- 
yers, who also worried over the same subject 
and made a suit for land a difficult subject and 
generally worth the land to try the case. So 
that in most land cases the attorneys were en- 
gaged with a contract to take part of the land 
for their fee, and hence, either the lawyer on 
one side or the one on the other, was encum- 
bered with a lot of land on which to pay taxes 
without even a prospect of receiving any com- 
pensation in a life time. 

Generally speaking, there was considerable 
litigation in this county in regard to titles of 
large tracts of land and generally the suits 
were with non-residents on one side or the 
other of the suit, and these suits were gener- 
ally in the U. S. Courts. Col. Smith was al- 
ways sought by one side or the other in most 
of the cases; and his work was extensive and 
his fees were not small, although not sufficient 
to pay for the work that he did. 

These lands were ordinarily what was called 
"wild lands," which means that they were not 
cultivated and generally without anyone resid- 
ing thereon. They were covered with fine tim- 
ber and underlaid with coal and lately have 
been found to contain oil or gas, or both, which 
has made them valuable, but which for so long 
paid no income to the owner, and only kept the 
owner poor by his holding and paying the 
taxes thereon. If he could do this, he left his 
grandchildren fortunes. Undeveloped lands 
were not an unmixed blessing. 

We have attempted to give an idea of the 
country and the kind of work that Col. Smith 
devoted his life to study and in which he en- 
gaged as an attorney. 



Besides this, Col. Smith through marriage 
became interested in salt making, and no busi- 
ness of the extent of the Kanawha Salt busi- 
ness, could get along without more or less liti- 
gation, and sometimes of very large cases, con- 
sequently he naturally had his hands full of 
clients and cases in courts, and whenever he had 
a case, he thoroughly studied it, for he knew 
that to win a fight in Kanawha, he had some- 
thing to work for. 

Col. Benjamin H. Smith was born in 1797, 
and he was named after his father, who was a 
son of Daniel Smith, who was a son of John 
Smith, all of whom lived in the Shenandoah 
Valley of Virginia, not far from Harrison- 
burg, once in Orange then in Augusta, and then 
in Rockingham County, Virginia. The orig- 
inal John Smith was supposed to have been an 
Englishmen, but this one is said to have been 
a Scotch-Irishman, but he was captain of the 
militia and held a commission under the Colo- 
nial Government of Virginia. Daniel Smith 
was quite a prominent man in war. He be- 
came a Colonel and aided Major Andrew Lewis, 
who came from the same neighborhood, in 
driving Governor Lord Dunmore from the col- 
ony of Virginia. Daniel had four sons, one 
of whom was Benjamin Harrison Smith, and 
the Harrison family and the Smiths lived in 
the same vicinity — for whom the town of Har- 
risonburg was named. 

Daniel Smith married Jane Harrison. Ben- 
jamin Harrison Smith married Elizabeth 
Cravens. Col. Benjamin Harrison Smith mar- 
ried Roxalana Noyes. 

It seems that the Smiths had their own no- 
tions concerning the subject of slavery, al- 
though they all, more or less, owned slaves. 
Col. Benjamin H. Smith's father, in 1810, re- 
moved to Ohio, and took his slaves with him 
and made them all free. 

Col. Smith then was educated at the Univer- 
sity of Ohio at Athens, then studied law in the 
office of Hon. Thomas Ewing, Sr. It is 
stated upon good authority that this selfsame 
Thomas Ewing was a poor young man finan- 
cially but he had more than the ordinary 
brain power and other good qualities. That 
to get an education and make himself a lawyer, 
he came to Kanawha and got work at the 

Salt furnaces, and while thus engaged, he also 
studied law and Latin. Of course such a man 
succeeded and became one of the great men 
of Ohio. 

Col. Smith as a young lawyer from Ohio 
came to Kanawha, and for some reason, he 
was not by some kindly welcomed, but this did 
not deter him in the least; probably made him 
more determined to continue right here. We 
do not know why he was not regarded with 
favor by some, but he was regarded with the 
greatest favor by others, and it was not long 
before he married the daughter of Isaac Noyes, 
one of the largest merchants and salt makers. 
Perhaps he, Col. Smith, expressed his opinion 
too freely on the subject of slavery, or on some 
political, or church question, for he never hes- 
itated to speak out, without using any tact or 
evasion, and as Mr. Noyes was from the North, 
such opinions on these questions did not offend 
him as easily as some others. 

As to his political views, he was a Whig of 
the first water, as long as there were any such 
party. During the civil war, he was an ardent 
Union man, and was the U. S. Dist. Attorney 
for some time when he resigned. After the 
war was over, and the government policy went 
to such extremes towards the South — after the 
death of Mr. Lincoln — he changed his polit- 
ical views and was a candidate for governor of 
West Virginia in 1868 on the Democratic 
ticket, but it was in the days of proscription 
and too early for him or anyone but a decided 
Republican to be elected in the new State. The 
Colonel repudiated the Republican policy and 
ever afterwards voted with the Democrats in 
West Virginia. 

In matters of church, he was in his faith a 
Methodist, so he always said, but he was not 
connected with any church and went with his 
wife and family who were all devoted Presby- 
terians, and when this church in Charleston di- 
vided, his family remained with the Northern 
Branch, while the large majority took the other, 
or Southern route. These matters will be ex- 
plained elsewhere. The Colonel was well dis- 
posed to all churches, when the left politics or 
business alone, and would aid in any good 
cause, but he had his own opinions on all sub- 



jects and never hesitated to express them when 
an expression was called for. 

The Colonel was chiefly an attorney all his 
life, but he was often called on to run for an 
office. He was elected to the State Senate in 
1833, and at two subsequent elections was re- 
elected to same office. In 1849, ' le was a P~ 
pointed U. S. Attorney for the Western Dis- 
trict of Virginia and remained in office dur- 
ing the terms of Taylor and Filmore. In 1850 
was elected to the Constitutional Convention of 
Virginia, and was also in the Convention which 
formed the State of West Virginia and was 
appointed U. S. Attorney by President Lin- 
coln and remained in this office for five years 
when he resigned. While the Colonel contin- 
ued at work, he turned over the principal part 
of his business to his son, Major Isaac Noyes 
Smith, and E. B. Knight who composed the 
law firm of Smith and Knight, and the Colonel 
aided them when it was thought they needed 
his assistance, and he gradually left the work 
to others. He died in 1887 at his home in 
Charleston, Kanawha County, age'd 90 years. 
His grave is in the Cemetery at Charleston, 
with the rest of his family, and is marked by a 
handsome monument. 

Colonel Benjamin H. Smith was all his life 
a hard worker and a great reader. In his young 
days, he said, he had no taste for books, but 
only for outdoor exercise, which gave to him 
a strong able body with a good constitution, 
and his mind was like his body, able and well 
trained for his business. He was an outspoken 
person and sometimes perhaps more so than 
was called for, and more than once involved 
himself in a personal encounter with some law- 
yer, when it might have been avoided, though 
he was ready and willing to maintain himself 
or his defence. There was no difficulty to get 
his ear and he was always ready to listen to 
any and every one. He was devoted to his 
wife and family. His manner was plain and 
unvarnished and he frequently ridiculed some 
things that he did not seem to appreciate, which 
the custom of the country called for. 

Major Isaac Noyes Smith, was the only son 
of Col. B. H. Smith. Isaac Noyes Smith, with 
whose education and training as a lawyer the 
Colonel took such pains. He always stood well 

at the bar, and was noted for the careful prepa- 
ration of his papers, and his cases. 

The Civil War came on, and the young men 
of Charleston went with the State of Virginia, 
and Isaac went with them, greatly to the re- 
gret of his father. He returned with the title 
of Major. After the war, Isaac and Mr. E. 
B. Knight, opened their law office under the 
firm name of Smith and Knight, and they were 
doing a large and profitable business when death 
came suddenly to Major Smith. 

He married Miss Caroline Quarrin, and left 
an interesting family which will be treated else- 

Harrison Brooks Smith. Major Smith left 
a son, Harrison Brooks Smith, who became an 
attorney and practices in all the courts, in the 
firm of Price, Smith, Spillman and Clay. Mr. 
Smith also has other interests that occupy his 
attention, one of which is the Southern States 
Mutual Life Insurance Company, and still other 
interests too many to mention, coal, oil and gas 
interests, saying nothing of real estate gener- 

Harry is a married man, full of business, full 
of music as was his father and as are all others 
whose name is Noyes, and he, like his father 
takes quite an interest in his church affairs, and 
all other affairs that are for the good of the 
town and the people thereof. In consequence 
he is not a strict party man but holds himself 
free to act as he sees best without being bound 
by any party precepts or promises. 

The three above-mentioned attorneys and 
business men, may be called three of Charles- 
ton's builders, and who have done and are do- 
ing much to make their city and county one of 
the best in their state, devoting their time and 
talent and taxes for this purpose and with this 
intention, and this has been the case since 1822 
and may it continue, on ad finitum. 


When we write of the big men of Kanawha, 
we must tell of General Smith, who died about 
1855. He was a brother of Col. Benj. H. 
Smith. He was a general of the Virginia mili- 
tia and he was also a celebrated physician, and 
a most extraordinary man in popular estima- 
tion. He was unusually large, near three feet 



across his breast and in proportion otherwise — 
a fine, large, hearty, good looking man — and 
was a general commanding a brigade of mili- 
tia, a physician, which enabled him to become 
acquainted with the suffering humanity and to 
relieve them, or to bury them; it was no won- 
der that he was popular and whenever he de- 
sired it, he was sent to the General Assembly. 

He married the widow of John Harriman, 
who was a son of Shadrick Harriman, who was 
one of the first settlers and the last white man 
killed by the Indians in Kanawha, (so said), 
and she was Nancy Morris of Cabell County, in 
Teays Valley. He lived at East Bank, and 
practiced medicine, and one season along in the 
upper part of the county there was (about 
1845), an epidemic of typhoid fever, and about 
one half of those that took it died. He was 
sent for and he went and it is said that there 
were but few of his patients that died and those 
were such as disregarded his instructions while 

Luke Wilcox was born in New York in 1795, 
and came to Kanawha in 181 6. His wife was 
Miss Pinkston Kenner. He was a salt maker. 
He died in 1854 and his residence was on his 
farm near Brownstown. His reputation for 
integrity and firmness of character in all busi- 
ness transactions was above question. His 
daughter Amelia was the wife of Major W. A. 
Bradford, both of whom have passed away, but 
leaving descendants. Dr. John Wilcox also 
is a descendant. Mr. Luke Wilcox was a prom- 
inent business man and respected by the en- 
tire community. It is stated that he contributed 
more largely to the erection of the Virginia 
Street M. E. Church than any other person. 
This was in 1834 and he presented to said 
church in 1836 a silver communion service; 
and when he died, he paid through his execu- 
tor, to the Rev. Mr. Bruce, a methodist clergy- 
man, $1,000 for his services and his sermon 
at his funeral. 


He was born in the state of New York, in 
1791. He was the son of Jacob Patrick who 
was born in 1761, and Sarah Spicer Patrick 
born in 1765, who were married in 1786, the 
father being of Scotch descent and the mother 
of English descent. He came to Kanawha as 

a practicing physician in 181 6, and seems to 
have met with a welcome from the very day of 
his arrival. During his entire life he held the 
respect of the community and his association 
was with honest and reliable people of the best 
class. As a physician he ranked among the 
best and gave his utmost care and attention to 
his patients. He went when called, especially 
to what might be called, bad cases. He was 
obliged to go long distances from home, and 
it was generally considered a desperate case 
when Dr. Patrick said that the patient had but 
little chance of recovery. His reputation among 
the other physicians was of the highest order, 
for his skill was recognized and his character 
as a gentleman was equally as good. He was 
interested in the welfare -of his county and his 
adopted state, and was frequently sent to the 
Legislature and to State Conventions, in both 
of which he took a prominent and interested 

When he first came to Kanawha he resided 
in Charleston and in 1822 he married Miss 
Lavinia V. M. Bream, a daughter of Major 
James Bream, and in 1848, he removed his 
residence to his farm, which had been a part of 
the Bream estate, near to the Two-mile creek, 
below Elk on the river — where he spent the 
remainder of his days. He generally drove 
daily to the town, and could usually be found at 
the drug store of Dr. J. H. Rogers. The 
Lovell and Bream families and their kindred 
were all related to him and he was called and 
consulted by them on all occasions. His first 
wife was Lavinia Bream and their children 
were May, the wife of R. C. M. Lovell ; Sally, 
the wife of Col. H. D. Ruffner ; Lavinia, the 
wife of Major William Gramm, U. S. A., and 
Dr. Alfred S., James B. and John Patrick. 
His second wife, whom he married in 1844, 
was ,the widow of Col. Robert M. Steele, and 
they had no children. In 1852, he married in 
Richmond, Miss Virginia Harps, a grand- 
daughter of Chief Justice Marshall, and to them 
were born one daughter, Miss Susie, and 
Harie, William and George Patrick. 

He sat as a member of the County Court of 
Kanawha, from 1839 until 1851 when officers 
became elective by the people. His decisions 
were always prompt and gave satisfaction, for 



he gave close attention to the proceedings, the 
evidence and the discussions, and his good sense 
and judgment generally brought him to a cor- 
rect conclusion. He was possessed of a strong 
will, a quick, intelligent mind, a generous heart 
and an open hand ; he had no fear and fol- 
lowed his own convictions, always courteous 
and kind, yet nevertheless was positive and de- 
cided, and as has been said of him "he was not 
lavish in his expression of fondness and did not 
depreciate friendship's currency by the exces- 
sive employment of its smaller coin." There 
was not pretences or sham about him; he was 
always sincere, a true friend and a frank enemy. 

He was a communicant of St. John's Epis- 
copal Church, a vestryman all his life and a 
warden of the vestry. He usually attended the 
councils of the diocese as a delegate from 
Charleston and gave close attention to all mat- 
ters relating thereto. 

It is said that he was a Mason, and from a 
communication in the papers it appears that his 
associates whose names were given were all 
members of the fraternity, to wit: Lewis Sum- 
mers, Joel Shrewsbury, James Wilson, Peter 
Scales, J. C. McFarland, J. F. Faure, Andrew 
Parks, Joseph Lovell, Mathew Dunbar, John 
Welch, Mason Campbell, A. W. Ouarrier, Dr. 
James Craik, John Laidley, John Samuels, W. 
S. Summers, Sr., G. W. Summers, H. H. Smith, 
Jas. A. Lewis, J. P. Turner, R. E. Putney and 
other prominent men in this part of the state. 

Deaths in the family: — Lavinia V. M., born 
in 1805, married in 1822, died in 1843; James 
B. Patrick, M. D., born in 1823, died in Mis- 
souri in 1849; Mrs. Sally Patrick Ruffner, born 
in 1838, married in i860, died in 1886; Mrs. 
Leonora C. Rovers, born in 1790, married in 
1818 and died in 1876 ; Major William Gramm, 
born in 1834, died in 1888: Dr. A. S. Patrick, 
born in 1832. died in 1906. 


Children of Samuel and Polly Dickinson 
Shrewsbury, married 1785 — 

John D. Shrewsbury, born 1786; married 
Nancy T. Morris; died 1845. 

Samuel, born 1789; died 1835. 

Martha Usher, born 1791; married Jacob 
Van Meter. 

William, born 1794; married Rhoda Shrews- 
bury 1823; died 1882. 

Elizabeth Dabney, born 1796; died 1829. 

Joel, born 1798; married Frances Ouarrier 
1828; died 1849. 

Nancy, born 1801 ; 

Charles Lewis, born 1804; married Eleanor 
Woodburn 1839. 

Adam D., born 1807; died 1808. 

Juliet, born 1809; married Rev. James 
Craik 1829. 

Children of Joel and Sally Dickinson Shrews- 
bury — 

Julia, born 1800; married M. J. Shrewsbury 
and J. Turner. 

Elizabeth, born 1807; married Lewis Ruff- 

William D., born 1808; married Martha 

Samuel, born 1810; died 1825. 

Sallie, born 1812; married John D. Lewis. 

Dickinson, born 181 6; married Mary Mc- 

Eliza, born 1817; married Benj. D. Smithers. 

Caroline ; married A. W. Quarrier. 

Children of John D. Shrewsbury and Nancy 
Morris Shrewsbury — 

Charles ; went to Missouri. 

Samuel, married Priscilla Worth ; went to 

Leonard ; went to California ; died 1907, aged 

Andrew ; never married. 

Parthenia ; married Robt. F. Hudson ; parents 
of Mrs. Emma H. Nye. 

Margaret, married Dr. E. H. C. Bailey. 


In Mercer's Bottom in 1819, there was born 
one, Sam Christy, whose training was that of 
moving boats in the water, and when near 
grown he made his way to the Kanawha salt 
works for Ruffner, Donnally & Co., who were 
engaged in making salt and shipping it in flat 
boats. Christy knew the Kanawha river as he 
knew his spelling book — by heart. He had 
hardly settled down before he married Miss 
Minerva Montgomery of Maiden, which had 
much to do toward locating this new pilot and 
steamboat man. They had four boys : Edgar, 
Lawrence, Millard and Albert. Then the war 



came along and stopped the shipping of salt. 
There were two men who did not wish to en- 
list in any army but did want work to do — 
something that would pay, something to do with 
a boat. Capt. Sam Christy was one and Mr. 
William H. Truslow was the other. Truslow 
did not want a boat without Christy and Christy 
wanted none without Truslow. The two, to- 
gether, had figured it out that, with each other, 
a boat and a river, they could make it. There 
were other good men they could get. Captain 
Martin was a pilot, Captain Caruthers was a 
captain's mate, and with a cook and a bar- 
tender the eating and drinking matter was fixed. 
They had some money and they knew what a 
boat was for. They began by buying the Vic- 
tor, then the Victress, and then the Leclaire, and 
soon they took the machinery of the last named 
and built the Kanawha Belle, a lighter boat 
than the Leclaire, with all the power they 
needed, thus making a new boat with a part 
of the old one — like the boy's shirt. Captain 
Christy had the boat on the way to the Ohio 
early in the morning and would reach Gallipolis 
before dark; early next morning, by breakfast 
time, they were well on their way up the river 
and would be at Charleston by dark. They 
carried both passengers and freight, taking on 
and putting off all the day. Here were a pair 
of captains, Christy and Truslow, who were 
most of the crew. They were making money, 
doing business, attending to the wants of the 
people. All was moving like clock-work ; the 
boat had its hours, a schedule like a train ; you 
would get on, pay your fare and get off where 
you pleased and no fool questions asked. When 
you left Gallipolis, you had to have a pass from 
the provost marshal to go up the Kanawha, but 
to go down, no questions were propounded. 

Once upon a time a young man from Kana- 
wha found himself wanting a pass to go to 

Charleston, and he went to the provost's office 
and made known his wants. A young lieuten- 
ant was in charge and comprehended the sit- 
uation, but he wanted some assurance of the 
loyalty of the traveler, and with an "all right" 
said : "You are a good Union man, I suppose?" 
The passenger did not feel that he had to make 
any pledges and submitted that he was not, per- 
haps, the best in the world, and as a result, 
was told by the lieutenant he could not have a 
pass. Then there was an appeal to the cap- 
tain of the provost, who did not see the mat- 
ter in the same light and gave the pass, say- 
ing nearly all the people in the valley were of 
doubtful loyalty, except the soldiers and they 
would take care of them all. The passenger 
then and there decided to- be all things to all 
men, anything you want so let me go along. 
Captains Christy and Truslow attended strictly 
to business. Whatever you wanted them to do, 
they were there to do if there were no military 
objections. They could not bring whiskey, it 
was contraband, but they did not open pack- 
ages to learn the contents and they never fed 
the passengers too highly. A splendid pair of 
captains — Christy and Truslow ! Kanawha 
Belle, on schedule time !