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This Library is designed to cover the whole field of Christian Theology. Each 
volume is to be complete in itself, while, at the same time, it will form part of a 
carefully planned whole. It is intended to form a Series of Text-Books for 
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An Introduction to the Literature of By the late Canon S. R. DRIVER, D.D., 
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THE story of missions, which reaches back to the beginning 
of the Christian era, and embraces almost every country 
in the world, cannot be told within the limits of a single 
volume. The task which I have ventured to undertake 
is of a far less ambitious character, my object being to 
provide the intelligent reader with an outline sketch of 
Christian missions which may enable him to obtain a 
correct perspective, but which will need to be filled in for 
each several country and period of history by much careful 
study. This volume is not intended to serve as a diction- 
ary nor as a commentary upon missions, but as a text-book 
to encourage and facilitate their study. Those who have 
devoted the largest amount of time to such study will be 
most ready to forgive its imperfections and shortcomings. 
A well-known authority on the subject of Foreign Missions, 
to whom the task of writing this book was originally 
assigned, but who failed to respond to the invitation, 
wrote to its present author, " You have an almost impossible 
task ; I should absolutely quail at the work you are 

It would have been comparatively easy to fill the 
space allotted to me by the publishers with a discussion of 
the principles which have governed the activities of 
Christian missionaries, and it would have been still less 
difficult to compile a volume of statistics which would 
have shown, more or less accurately, the progress that has 
been made in bringing about the conversion of non- 
Christian lauds, but in neither case would the object witli 
which this volume was planned have been fulfilled. Of 


missionary statistics I have tried to avoid any extensive 
use, and have only given such when they appeared to be 
necessary in order to elucidate the relative progress that 
has been made in different sections of the mission field or 
at different epochs. 

In attempting to describe the work of hundreds of 
missionary societies it is obvious that no single individual, 
however good his opportunities for obtaining information 
may be, can estimate correctly the relative importance of 
that which has been done in each several country and 
by individual societies. If in some instances I have 
appeared to dwell at disproportionate length upon the 
work of Anglican missions, this has not been due to my 
ignorance of the relative insignificance of their results, if 
these are calculated on a numerical basis, but is due to the 
fact that I have tried to lay special emphasis upon the 
beginnings of missionary enterprises, and to the fact that 
in many countries, where a large amount of work is now 
being carried on by other societies, missionary enterprise 
was initiated by Anglican missionaries. I desire to tender 
my apologies in advance to the representatives of several 
American societies concerning whose work I have found 
it difficult to obtain adequate information. As the series 
of which this volume forms a part is published both in 
(Jreat lU'itain and in America, I venture to hope that 
those who live on either side of the Atlantic may be 
helped by its perusal to appreciate better than they have 
previously done how much good work is being accom- 
plished by those with whom they have not themselves 
been brought into contact. In order to render my task a 
little less " impossible " than it would otherwise have been, 
I have, albeit with reluctance, omitted any account of the 
conversion of Europe and of the methods which were 
adopted by its early missionaries. I had hoped to have 
included at least one or two chapters which would have 
served as an introduction to later missionary efforts, but 
the limits of my space have rendered this impossible. 

The list of those who have most kindly helped nie to 


obtain information for the purposes of this book in Europe 
and America, and who have read sections of it while it was 
passing through the press, is too long to give, but I desire 
to express rny special obligations to the three friends who 
have read the whole of the proofs and by doing so have 
prevented me from making a number of mistakes. These 
are Dr. Eugene Stock, formerly editorial secretary of the 
Church Missionary Society, Professor Cairns of Aberdeen 
University, and the Rev. B. Yeaxlee, formerly editorial 
secretary of the London Missionary Society, and now 
editor of the United Council for Missionary Education. 

I have given in various footnotes references to a few of 
the books which I have had occasion to consult, but it has 
not seemed desirable to attempt any kind of bibliography 
in view of the fact that the Board of Study for the Pre- 
paration of Missionaries has recently issued " A Bibliography 
for Missionary Students," edited by Dr. "Weitbrecht, which 
is much more complete than any which it would have been 
possible for me to include. 

Throughout this volume I have used the expressions 
Eoman Catholic, Anglican, and Protestant to designate re- 
spectively the Churches which are subject to the authority 
of the Pope, the Churches in Great Britain, America, and else- 
where which are in communion with the Church of England, 
and the non-Episcopal Churches. The title Catholic is some- 
times claimed as its exclusive possession by the Roman 
Church, but as the title officially used in the decrees of 
the Council of Trent is " the Catholic and Apostolic Roman 
Church," and as the title Catholic is universally claimed by 
the Anglican Church and is frequently claimed by other 
Churches, it would have been misleading to limit its use in 
the way suggested. A large section of the members of 
the Church of England and of Churches in communion 
with it are proud to designate themselves as Protestants, 
but inasmuch as many other members regard this desig- 
nation as inadequate, if not misleading, I have used the 
neutral word Anglican, which does not raise any contro- 
versial issue. I have avoided the use of the expression 


" Free Churches " as this would not have included several 
of the Protestant bodies in Great Britain or any of those 
in America. As the word " native " is much disliked by 
many of those to whom it has often been applied, and as 
there is no justification for its employment, I have avoided 
its use except in the case of quotations. 

In comparing the statistics issued annually by the 
Roman Catholic missions with those issued by Anglican 
and Protestant missions, it is necessary to bear in mind 
the custom observed by Eoman Catholic missionaries of 
baptizing infants and others who are at the point of death. 
These far exceed in number all other baptisms. Thus 
to quote the figures supplied in the Atlas Hierarchicus 
in 1913 the number of those baptized when in the 
act of dving in the three dioceses of North Manchuria, 

v <j f 

South-West Chihli, and East Sichuen during 1912 was 
48,339, whilst the number of adults and of children of 
Christian parents baptized was only 10,274. 

In using the statistics supplied by several of the 
Anglican, Protestant, and Eoman societies, it is necessary 
to bear in mind that they relate in some instances 
to work which is being carried on amongst Europeans 
or Americans who are living in foreign lands. The 
English Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, the 
American Methodist Episcopal Church, the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions and 
several other smaller societies devote a certain part 
of their annual incomes to the support of those who are 
engaged in ministering to the spiritual needs of European 
or American Christians. In dealing with the statistics 
supplied by the Eoman Catholic organizations a similar 
caution is needed. 

The test of the success of missionary enterprise is 
furnished by moral and not by numerical results, and 
inasmuch as these are slow to appear and difficult to 
appraise, the student of missions is often tempted to 
impatience. He needs to remember that the progress of 
Christian missions, if it is to be judged aright, must be 


measured by units which consist not of years, but of 
generations. In the beginning of the third century of 
the Christian era Dion Cassius, referring to the inhabitants 
of Britain, described them as an " idle, indolent, thievish, 
lying lot of scoundrels." As a result of Christian teach- 
ing extending over fifty generations, the proportion of the 
inhabitants of Britain to whom these epithets can justly be 
applied has perceptibly decreased. The epithets used by 
Dion Cassius are often applied to some of the peoples 
amongst whom Christian missionaries are now working, but 
before we institute any comparison between these peoples 
and ourselves to the detriment of the former, or to the 
disparagement of missionary efforts, we need to ascertain 
whether the progress which has been achieved within 
recent years does not compare favourably with that which 
occurred in our own land during any equal period of 
time. Few, if any, persons who have made a prolonged 
study of the work of Christian missions during the 
last two generations have failed to reach the conclusion 
that, as a direct result of the spread of missionary efforts, 
the prospects of the regeneration of the human race and 
of the establishment of the kingdom of God upon earth 
are brighter than they have been at any previous period 
in the world's history. 

C. H. K. 



PREFACE ....... v 






V. CEYLON ....... 145 

VI. BURMA ....... 151 



IX. COREA 247 

X. MALAYSIA ....... 256 


XII. AFRICA . . . . . . .277 


XIV. CANADA . .... 382 
XV. THE WEST INDIES . . . . .389 


XVII. SOUTH AMERICA . . . . . .409 

XVIII. AUSTRALIA . . . . . .430 

XIX. NEW ZEALAND . . . . . .4-40 








XXIV. THE OI-TLOOK . . . . . .493 


FIELD . . . . . .499 

INDEX . . . 507 


A.B.C.F.M. . American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 

A.B.F.M.U. or A.B.M.U. American Baptist Foreign Missionary 

A.M.E.C. . . American Methodist Episcopal Church. 

A.U.P.M. . . American United Presbyterian Mission. 

B. & F.B.S. . British and Foreign Bible Society. 

B.M.S. . . . Baptist Missionary Society. 

C.I.M. . . . China Inland Mission. 

C.E.Z.M S . . Church of England Zenana Missionary Society. 

C.L.S. . . . Christian Literature Society in India. 

D.U.M. . . . Dublin University Mission. 

E.P.M. . . . Presbyterian Church of England Mission. 

F.M.S. . . . Foreign Missionary Society. 

L.J.S. . . . London Society for Promoting Christianity among 
the Jews. 

L.M.S. . . . London Missionary Society. 

M.E.C. or A.M.E.C. American Methodist Episcopal Church. 

R.C Roman Catholic. 

S.A.M.S. . . South American Missionary Society. 
S.P.C.K. . . Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 



S.P.G. . . . Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 

S.V.M.U. . . Student Volunteer Missionary Union. 
U.F.C.S. or U.F.C. United Free Church of Scotland. 

U.M.C.A. . . Universities' Mission to Central Africa. 

U'.M.S. . . . Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society. 

V.M.C.A. . . Young Men's Christian Association. 

Y.W.C.A. . . Young Women's Christian Association. 

Z.B.M. . . . Zenana Baptist Mission. 

Z.M.S. . . . Zenana Bible and Medical Mission. 




THE missionary activities of the Christian Church have, 
since the Day of Pentecost, been one of its distinguishing 
characteristics. Nevertheless, there are some modern 
critics who maintain that its world- wide propaganda, which 
the apostles inaugurated and which subsequent Christian 
missionaries developed, was not founded upon any direct 
commands given by our Lord and did not form part of 
His original plan. Over against the command contained 
in St. Matthew (xxviii. 19) to go into all the world and 
make disciples of all the nations, they set the words, 
recorded in the same Gospel (xv. 24), " I was not sent 
but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel," and the 
fact that the original commission given to the Twelve con- 
tained no statement that they were to be pioneers of a world- 
wide mission. It is clear that the question " Did our 
Lord from the first intend that the religion which He 
taught should become a missionary religion throughout the 
whole world ? " cannot be answered by quoting individual 
texts, but that the answer must be deduced from a 
consideration of the essential character of His mission. 
The words in which He Himself defined that mission 
were : " The Son of Man is come to seek and to save that 
which was lost." The title which He here applies to 
Himself is, as all critics admit, one which He habitually 
used. If the assumption of this title be regarded, as all 


Christians have regarded it, as a claim to be the repre- 
sentative of the whole human race, its occurrence in this 
passage implies that the scope of our Lord's mission includes 
all human beings who stand in need of being saved, and 
the limitation of its scope to the lost sheep of the house 
of Israel must be regarded as having been merely 

In endeavouring to interpret the underlying meaning 
of our Lord's teaching, it is necessary to remember that 
inasmuch as it was addressed to the hearts as well as 
to the minds of men, he alone is qualified to understand 
its full significance in whose heart it has awakened a 
sympathetic response, and whose life has become in some 
degree a reflection of the life of Jesus Christ. If this 
be admitted, and if, therefore, we may appeal for the 
interpretation of His intention regarding the evangeliza- 
tion of the world from the intellectual student of 
Christianity to the man to whom " to live is Christ," there 
can be no doubt as to the reply that we shall receive. 
It is not too much to say that the more Christlike 
a man becomes the more ardent becomes his desire 
to bring the whole world to his Master's feet and the 
more certain does he feel that in seeking to accomplish 
this object he is rightly interpreting the mind of his 
Teacher. To know the mind of Christ we must appeal 
not only to the Gospel records, but to the beliefs and 
aspirations of the most Christlike persons in this and every 
other time. 

An appeal lies, moreover, not only to the subjective 
but to the objective experience of mankind. 

The unique claim of Christianity to be the uni- 
versal religion is not grounded upon the possession of a 
sacred book, nor upon the miracles which accompanied 
its introduction into the world, nor upon its revelation of 
a future life, nor, lastly, upon the testimony of the saints 
and heroes who have accepted its teachings. Other 
religions which do not attempt to appeal to all mankind 
have advanced similar claims. The unique claim whieh 


Christianity puts forward is grounded upon the fact, of 
which the whole history of Christian missions serves to sub- 
stantiate the truth, that it alone, of all religions, is capable 
of satisfying the needs of every member of the human race. 
The Chinese who said to Bishop Boone, whom he had 
helped to translate the New Testament into his own 
language, " Whoever made that book made me ; it knows 
all that is in my heart," was putting into language the 
response which the teaching of the Christian message 
has evoked from men of every race and of every stage 
of civilization or of savagery throughout the world. If 
we have read aright the story of Christian missions, we 
are justified in saying that the religion of the New 
Testament has been tested in every clime and amongst 
races of every degree of culture, and that its teachings 
have never been presented patiently and lovingly to any 
people whom they have failed to uplift and transform 
and whose deepest needs they have failed to supply. 
The Christian religion came into existence as the result 
of the manifestation of One who was at once the Son of 
God and the Son of man, and its claim to universal 
acceptance is founded on the fact that this divine-human 
Being can supply the whole world's needs. 

There is no race or people to which the gospel 
message, when once it has been apprehended, has appealed 
in vain. A savage Bechuana, on hearing the story of 
the Cross, was deeply moved, and exclaimed, "Jesus, 
away from there ! That is my place." The early Moravian 
missionaries in Greenland laboured for years to teach their 
hearers the principles of right and goodness, but without 
result. When, however, they read to them the Gospel 
account of the death of Christ, one of them exclaimed, 
" Why did you not tell us this before ? Tell us it again." l 
Its repetition was speedily followed by the conversion of 
many of their hearers. If Christian missions have done 
nothing else, they have proved that the earth contains no 
race so degraded but that the gospel story can appeal to it. 

1 See p. 52. 


In the course of our attempt to sketch the work of 
Christian missionaries we shall have occasion to point out 
some of the distinctive needs of the various races to which 
their appeal has been made, and the response that it has 
served to evoke, but before doing so it may be well to 
recall three fundamental needs of which every human 
being is conscious, and which Christianity can supply more 
completely than any other religion. 

1. Man, whether savage or civilized, needs a power 
greater than any that he is conscious of possessing w r hich 
can enable him to live up to his ow T n highest ideals. In 
studying the chief non-Christian religions we come across 
rules and maxims which, if they could be translated into 
action, would enable their possessors to rise high above 
the level on which their lives are being lived, but we 
search in vain in the sacred books of these religions for a 
power or source of inspiration that can enable them so 
to rise. In Christianity, on the other hand, we have a 
revelation of the highest ideals of conduct and we have at 
the same time offered to us the help of One who has Him- 
self lived the highest life and can live it over again in the 
lives of those who accept His help. The task of the 
Christian missionary is not to sweep away or undermine 
the teachings of non-Christian religions, but to reveal the 
source of the power which can enable men to fulfil the 
best teaching which these religions inculcate and to rise to 
higher ideals than any to which they point. 

The contrast between the helplessness of the great 
Oriental religions when confronted with failure to reach 
life's highest ideals and the helpfulness of Christianity is 
well illustrated by an allegory told by a Chinese catechist 
who was trying to explain to his fellow-countrymen the 
practical difference between the way of salvation as taught 
respectively by Confucius, Buddha, and Christ. He de- 
scribed man as a traveller who had fallen from the narrow 
path of rectitude into an abyss of evil and despair. 
Presently on the narrow path above him China's great 
teacher, Confucius, appears, and to him the fallen traveller 


appeals for help, but only to receive the reply uttered in 
tones of reproach, " Here is no place for prayer." When 
Confucius has gone on his way Buddha is seen ap- 
proaching, and in response to an agonized appeal for 
help he descends a few steps from the narrow path, and 
peering with sympathetic gaze into the abyss, he says, " If 
thou couldst rise a little higher, then could I deliver 
thee," but the weak and exhausted traveller sinks yet 
lower into the murky depth. Finally, the form of Jesus 
Christ is seen advancing along the same narrow path, and 
to Him is the traveller's final appeal addressed. No sooner 
has it been uttered than the divine Deliverer, clothed in 
light, descends to the bottom of the abyss, and raising the 
helpless traveller in His arms, carries him up to the 
narrow path, and having set his feet securely upon it, 
walks by his side supporting him ever and anon until the 
path emerges at last into the final light. The allegory 
helps us to understand how Christianity appealed to a 
Confucian Buddhist, and wherein the gospel message 
differs from the teachings of other religions. 

2. The second need of which man is conscious 
is sympathy. If his efforts to rise to a higher moral 
and spiritual level than that to which he has as yet 
attained are not to end in despair, he needs to know 
that there is a Being to whom his welfare is a matter of 
immediate concern, and who can both rejoice and sym- 
pathize, that is, " suffer together with " him. Divine 
sympathy is a concept that can hardly be said to exist 
outside the Christian revelation, but man has no greater 
need than that which these words express. Bishop Selwyn 
of New Zealand told how the knowledge that God suffered 
because of man's sin transformed the character of the 
cannibal savages of New Zealand. He wrote in 1840 : 

" I am in the midst of a sinful people, who have been 
accustomed to sin uncontrolled from their youth. If I 
speak to a native on murder, infanticide, cannibalism, and 
adultery, they laugh in my face, and tell me I may think 
these acts are bad, but they are very good for a native, and 


they cannot conceive any harm in them. But, on the con- 
trary, when I tell them that these and other sins brought 
the Son of God, the great Creator of the universe, from His 
eternal glory to this world, to be incarnate and to be made 
a curse and to die, then they open their eyes and ears and 
mouths, and wish to hear more, and presently they acknow- 
ledge themselves sinners, and say they will leave off their 


3. Lastly, if a man is to be sustained in his efforts to 
realize the highest ideals embodied in his own religion and 
to rise to those which are still higher, he needs to become 
the possessor of a hope which reaches out beyond his 
present horizon. The saddest feature of the religions of 
ancient Greece and Rome, and of the great religions of the 
East, is the absence of hope. Amongst the debris of an 
ancient house in Salonica (the Thessalomca of St. Paul's 
time) were found two funeral urns of apparently the same 
date : one bore the inscription, " No hope " ; the other, 
" Christ, my life." The contrast between the two is the 
contrast between man's destiny as interpreted by most of 
the chief religions of the world and man's destiny as inter- 
preted by the message which Christian missionaries have 
to proclaim. According to orthodox Hinduism, we have 
now reached the five thousandth year of the Kali Yuga, 
or "evil cycle," of which there are 427,000 more years to 
run. There will then be three other cycles extending 
over 4,000,000 years before this evil cycle again recurs, 
which is to happen many thousands of times. The possi- 
bility that after countless re-births, extending over unnum- 
bered millions of years, a man may at last escape from 
the miseries of human existence, furnishes no ground of 
hope that is worthy of the name. 

The conviction that in Christianity alone of all the 
religions of the world are to be found the revelation of the 
power, the sympathy, and the hope which the world needs, 
begets the assurance that it will one day fulfil what we 
believe to have been the purpose of its Founder and will 
1 Life of Bishop Selicyn, p. 72. 


become the religion of the whole world. Meanwhile, as 
the message carried by the Christian missionaries makes 
its appeal to one race after another, the fact that it con- 
tinues to meet the needs of all provides cumulative 
evidence that the source of the message is divine. The 
missionary, albeit unconsciously, becomes the Christian 
apologist. The only certain proof that the Christian 
Bible is inspired is that it continues to inspire, and this 
proof the missionary is in a position to furnish to a 
unique extent. It is impossible in the brief space at our 
disposal to follow out this line of thought, and to show 
otherwise than by incidental illustrations how the gospel 
message has inspired men of all races to lead new lives 
and to aim at higher and ever higher ideals, but the story 
of Christian missions will have been ill told if it does not 
serve to demonstrate this fact. 



ONE of the chief results which the careful student may 
hope to attain by a study of Christian missions is an 
intelligent appreciation of the methods that are likely to 
prove most successful in the mission field to-day. The 
materials for study are well-nigh inexhaustible. We may 
venture to assert that no new method of prosecuting 
Christian missions has been suggested within recent years 
which has not been tested in practice during the eighteen 
centuries that lie between us and the work of the first 
missionaries. It is much to be desired that those who 
speak, or write books, on Christian missions from the theo- 
retical standpoint would fit themselves more adequately 
for their task by a prolonged study of their subject carried 
on both in libraries at home and in the mission field. In 
attempting to discuss methods of missionary work, the first 
question that arises is, What guidance can we hope to 
obtain from the pages of the New Testament, and in 
particular, from the experience of the greatest of Christian 
missionaries, the Apostle St. Paul ? 

The task which he set himself to accomplish was to 
interpret, by word and action, his Master's purpose of love 
towards the whole world, and, supported by the belief that 
Jesus Christ was not only with him but in him, he trans- 
formed Christianity from a national into the universal 
religion, and laid the foundation of the missionary work 
which the Church of Christ has since accomplished. The 
chapters in the Acts of the Apostles which refer to his 
work when read in conjunction with the letters addressed 


to the churches which he helped to establish, help us to 
understand the principles which guided his missionary 
policy and the methods which he adopted in his endeavours 
to embody these principles in action. 

Every one who desires to promote the success of 
Christian missions to-day will admit that the records 
which have been preserved of St. Paul's missionary 
labours have a significance which transcends the limita- 
tions of time and place by which his work was 
originally conditioned, but when he proceeds to ask how 
far the methods adopted by St. Paul can or ought to be 
copied in any part of the mission field of to-day, he 
is confronted with a problem which he will find it hard 
to solve. 

Few Christians would deny that the principles on 
which St. Paul based his missionary methods are applicable 
to all times and to all lands, but any one who surveys the 
vast area of the modern mission field and who appreciates, 
as far as the limitations of his knowledge will allow, the 
differences which exist between the conditions which govern 
missionary development, say in Japan and West Africa, or 
in India and New Guinea, will realize that the exigencies 
of the modern mission field demand more numerous and 
more complex methods of action than any which can be 
deduced from the recorded experiences of St. Paul or his 

There are three questions which are constantly being 
discussed by the representatives of missionary societies at 
home and by those responsible for the supervision /of 
missionary work abroad. These concern (1) the diffusion 
of missionary influence over wide areas as contrasted with 
its concentration at strategic points ; (2) the qualifications 
to be required of those who are to be appointed as ministers 
of the Christian Church in the mission field ; (3) the stage 
in the development of a particular mission at which it is 
wise to attempt the establishment of an independent 
Christian Church or branch of the Christian Church in a 
non-Christian country. 


St. Paul's Missionary Methods. 

Before proceeding to illustrate from the history of 
missions the answers which have been given and are being 
given to these questions, let us ask how far we are justified 
in appealing to the experience of St. Paul in the hope of 
obtaining an authoritative solution to the problems which 
they raise. Those who have appealed to his example and 
experience and, on the strength of such an appeal, have 
condemned many of the practices of modern missionaries, 
have too often failed to realize how different were the 
conditions under which he worked from those which prevail 
in the greater part of the mission field to-day. 

1. The first of these questions may be expressed thus : 
Is it wiser as a general rule to diffuse missionary effort 
over a wide district in the hope of reaching all who may 
be found willing to listen to the Gospel message, or to 
concentrate the missionary forces at a few important 
centres, in the hope that the light of the Gospel may 
eventually radiate throughout the surrounding districts 
which are for the time being perforce neglected ? It is 
obvious that the conditions under which missionary 
work has been, and is being, carried on in different 
parts of the world differ so widely that no answer can be 
given to this question to which exceptions must not be 

To take a single illustration, which has a special 
bearing upon the problem raised by the first question. 

St. Paul's missionary activities were largely, if not 
entirely, confined to towns, whereas the chief sphere of 
the modern missionary may be said to lie in villages. 
The visitor to India or China who takes an interest in 
missionary work is naturally impressed with the crying 
needs of the vast centres of population which he sees, and 
is apt to forget that the population contained in the towns 
represents but the tiniest fragment of the total population. 
Nearly half the human race is to be found to-day in the 
villages of India and China. These villages are so small 


and so close together that it is often possible, where the 
ground rises by a few feet, to count twenty or thirty at 
one time. 

It is obvious, therefore, that the experiences of the 
modern missionary who tries to evangelize the villages which 
constitute the greater part of the modern mission fields are 
likely to differ widely from the experiences which St. Paul 
met with in his attempt to preach the Gospel in some of 
the great cities of the ancient world. 

Even when we compare missionary work in modern 
cities with that carried on by St. Paul, the conditions of 
the two will be found to be widely dissimilar. In nearly 
all the cities in which St. Paul worked, Greek or Latin 
was understood, and a Jewish community afforded him the 
opportunity to appeal through Jewish converts to the 
wider circle with which they were in touch. In one case 
only did he attempt to start missionary work and to bring 
into existence Christian Churches in a district where the 
prevailing conditions approximated to those which are found 
in the greater part of the mission field to-day. 

Bishop Mylne, who was formerly Bishop of Bombay, 
in his book entitled, Missions to Hindus, maintains (and 
there is much to be said for his contention) that St. Paul 
adopted a mistaken policy in attempting to do pere- 
grinating evangelistic work in Galatia, and urges that his 
letter to the Galatians and the fact that he never again 
attempted similar work prove that he had realized his 

"One great convincing experience," Bishop Mylne 
writes, " was to come to St. Paul which would serve with 
its disastrous shock to convince him of the falsity of his 
method the great Galatian apostasy. . . . The method 
which had prospered elsewhere had disastrously failed 
among them. The withdrawal of his personal presence from 
converts of a barbarous race with a poor reputation for 
stability, far removed from civilizing influences, had proved 
to be a shock to their faith against which they could not 
stand. They fell victims to the first false teachers, who 


offered them a plausible Judaism in place of the Gospel of 

Christ," ! 

With this one exception, it would appear from the 
accounts of St. Paul's missionary labours which have been 
preserved that he never attempted to preach in villages, 
but concentrated his efforts upon towns, and specially upon 
six or seven towns where he sought to establish Christian 
Churches, which should serve as strategic points in view 
of the eventual evangelization of the surrounding districts. 
On the one occasion on which he and his companions 
thought of attempting to evangelize the scattered country 
districts of Bithynia, " the Spirit of Jesus suffered them 
not," 2 and impelled them to extend their labours to the 
towns of southern Europe. 

It would appear, therefore, that in so far as St. Paul's 
experience affords any help towards the solution of the 
problem raised by the first question, it tells in favour of 
concentrated as opposed to diffused missionary work. At 
the same time the fact that his experience of a diffused 
mission appears to have been limited to a single instance, 
makes it impossible to regard this as affording unmistakable 

The lesson which we have ventured to deduce from 
the example of St. Paul is endorsed by the experience of 
later missionaries. 

Whilst examples might be obtained from many other 
countries, the history of Christian missions in India affords 
the most convincing illustrations of the comparative 
value of the two methods. In the judgment of Bishop 
M vine, whom we have already quoted, the three greatest 
missionaries who have laboured in India were the Jesuit, 

1 Pp. 86, 124. Bishop Mylne held with Bishop Lightfoot that " Galatia " 
was in the extreme north of Asia Minor, but if we accept Ramsay's theory 
that it was in the south, and included Phrygia and Lycaonia, it would still 
be the case that the majority of the inhabitants of Galatia to whom St. 
Pan! preached were less civilized than were those amongst whom the other 
Christian churches established by him were founded. 

2 Acts xvi. 7. 


Francis Xavier, the Lutheran, Schwartz, and the Baptist, 
Carey. As we shall see later on, 1 Xavier adopted the 
" diffusive " method as completely as it was possible for 
any one to adopt it. His aim was to spread a know- 
ledge of the Christian faith over the widest possible 
area, and in accordance with his principles of evangeliz- 
ation, he baptized tens of thousands of persons whose 
language he did not understand and whose knowledge of 
Christianity was limited to the verbal acceptance of a few 
dogmatic statements. He did this in the hope that some 
of them, or at any rate that some of their children, might 
eventually attain a fuller knowledge of the faith. His 
successors down to the present day have endorsed his 
action, and to a greater or less extent have followed in his 
steps. What, then, has been the result ? To quote the 
words of Bishop Mylne : 

"The result is that the conversion of the country to 
Christianity is no nearer than it was when he left it, for 
anything that his followers have done ; that they form but 
a Christian caste, unprogressive, incapable of evangelizing, 
observing distinctions of caste within the body of the 
Christian Church ; holding their own with a pathetic 
faithfulness among people of other creeds, but woefully low 
in their practice, and scandalously superstitious in their con- 
ceptions ; afraid of the Hindu gods ; and all but idolaters 
themselves in their veneration of saints and their images." 2 

The methods adopted by Schwartz, to whose work we 
shall have occasion to refer later on, differed in important 
respects from those of Xavier. He spent nearly fifty years 
in Southern India and was able to speak the language of 
the people to whom he appealed. He refused to baptize 
until the candidates for baptism had given clear proofs of 
repentance and faith. He traversed enormous areas, and 
at his death in 1798 his converts were reckoned by tens 
of thousands. When, however, several of the missions 
which he had founded were taken over by the S.P.G. in 
1825, villages and communities which had formerly been 
1 See pp. 70-74. 2 Missions to Hindus, p. 115 sq. 


Christian were found to have lost almost all knowledge of 
the Christian faith and to have relapsed into Hinduism. 
The collapse of the greater part of Schwartz's work is 
apparently to be attributed to the diffused methods of 
evangelization which he adopted and to his " reliance on 
the power of the gospel to develop spiritual independence 
in characters quite unprepared for it." 

The aim that Carey set before him was to create one 
" red-hot centre from which the light and influence of 
Christianity might radiate throughout a gradually widening 
circle." We shall have occasion later on to refer in 
greater detail to the methods adopted by Carey and to 
point out the lasting nature of the results which he 
achieved (see pp. 81-83). 

It would be easy to produce evidence of a similar 
character from other mission fields, though in no other 
country has sufficient time elapsed since missionary work 
was inaugurated to enable the results to be seen as clearly 
as they are to be seen to-day in India. 

2. The second problem to which we referred is raised 
by the question, What moral and intellectual qualifications 
ought to be required of those to be appointed as ministers 
of a newly established Christian Church in the foreign 
mission field ? There are some who have sought to find an 
answer to this question by referring to the example of St. 
Paul, who, in certain instances after a stay of a few months 
or even a few weeks in a city, felt able to appoint elders 
to carry on the work which he had begun and to guide 
and organize the infant Church. They ask, If St. Paul 
was able to act thus, how can it be necessary that a course 
of preparation extending over several years should be 
required before ministers are appointed or ordained in 
countries where Christian missionary work is being carried 
on to-day ? Before we can admit the relevance of this 
direct appeal to the example of St. Paul we need to know 
what were the moral and intellectual qualifications of the 
elders to whom he was accustomed to entrust the carry- 
ing on of the missionary work which he inaugurated. 


Outside Galatia it is doubtful whether St. Paul ever 
founded a Church in any place in which there did not 
already exist a Jewish synagogue and in which Jewish 
methods of church organization were not well understood. 
It is certain that in the great majority of the places in 
which he is reported to have preached the infant Church 
included Jews or Jewish proselytes who had accepted the 
teaching contained in the Old Testament before they 
became Christians, and who must have exerted a profound 
and lasting influence upon the converts who joined the 
Church from the ranks of heathenism. How widely 
scattered were the Jews may be inferred from the remark 
of Seneca, who wrote : " The customs of this most accursed 
race have prevailed to such an extent that they are every- 
where received. The conquered have imposed their laws 
on the conquerors." l Strabo wrote : " They have now got 
into every city, and it is hard to find a spot on earth 
which . . . has not come under their control." 2 Harnack 
calculates that the Jews and their converts formed 7 per 
cent, of the population of the Eoman Empire, which at the 
beginning of the Christian era was reckoned at 54 millions. 
He writes : 

" In order to comprehend the propaganda and diffusion 
of Christianity, it is essential to understand that the religion 
under whose ' shadow ' it made its way out into the world 
not merely contained elements of vital significance but had 
expanded till it embraced a considerable proportion of the 
world's population." 3 

It is hardly necessary to point out that the conditions 
under which Christian missionaries labour to-day are far 
removed from those which existed in the countries in 
which St. Paul established the earliest Christian Churches. 
It is clear, therefore, that his example affords no precedent 
for leaving newly established Christian Churches in charge 
of Christians who have had no preparation for the fulfil- 

1 Aug. dc Civ. Dei, vi. p. 11. 2 Josephus, Ant. xiv. 2. 7. 

3 Expansion of Christianity, vol. i. p. 11. 


ment of their task analogous to that which the Jewish 
elders had inherited and received. In the course of this 
volume we shall have occasion to refer to instances in 
several different lands and at different epochs in which 
those in charge of missions have sought to imitate the 
letter of St. Paul's example and to note the results which 
ensued. Christian missions have to a large extent passed 
out of the empirical stage, and one of the most certain 
lessons to be deduced from their history is that attempts 
to imitate literally the example of St. Paul, and to appoint 
as Christian ministers the best men who may be avail- 
able in a newly established Christian community, with- 
out insisting upon any long course of preparation, are 
destined to retard the establishment of the Christian 
Church. Many parts of the mission field contain ruins 
which represent attempts that have been made to build 
the Church of God by individuals who imagined that 
they were following primitive or Pauline methods, but 
who acted in ignorance or disregard of the lessons which 
have been taught by the long experience of Christian 

3. The third problem, which is an extension of the 
second, is raised by the question, At what stage in the 
evangelization of a non-Christian country ought the 
foreign missionaries to retire and to leave the entire 
control of the Church to the Christians of the district or 
country ? One of the most common charges brought 
against the representatives of foreign missionary societies 
is their alleged reluctance to hand over the government of 
a Church which they have helped to found to the members 
of that Church. Such charges are seldom if ever brought 
by careful students of missionary history, for whom the 
failures of the past act as a warning against the assumption 
that any uniform time limit can be suggested, at the 
expiration of which it can be assumed that an independent 
and self-governed Church ought to be established. Most 
students of missionary history will admit that the 
premature withdrawal of European supervision has not 


infrequently retarded the building up of a Christian com- 
munity and the establishment of a Christian Church 
that can be considered worthy of the name. As illustra- 
tions of the lamentable results which have followed the 
withdrawal of adequate European supervision we may 
point to the experience of the C.M.S. on the Niger, of the 
S.P.G. in parts of Southern India and Burma, of the W.M.S. 
in South Africa, and of the L.M.S. in British Guiana. 

Before we proceed to consider the development of 
Christian missions in later times, it is well that we should 
recall what was the spiritual condition at the close of the 
first century of seven of the Christian Churches in Asia 
Minor, one at least of which had been founded by St. 
Paul, and all of which must have been influenced by him. 
Nor is there any reason to doubt the ancient tradition that 
they had all been superintended during a considerable 
number of years by the Apostle St. John. The messages 
transmitted by the writer of the Apocalypse to these 
Churches suggest that their growth in the Christian life 
was as interrupted and as slow as that which we observe 
in the missionary Churches which have been founded 
within recent years. The Church at Ephesus, where St. 
Paul had laboured long, and where, according to tradi- 
tion, St. John had afterwards resided, " had left its ' first 
love,'" and was urged to repent on pain of having its 
candlestick removed. The Church at Sardis had a name 
to live but was in reality dead, and contained but few who 
had " not defiled their garments." The Church at Laodicea 
was lukewarm, and knew not that it was " wretched, and 
miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked." To two only 
of the Seven Churches is a message of encouragement sent 
unmixed with blame. 

The story of these Churches, which were cared for and 
superintended by the apostles and their immediate suc- 
cessors, should serve to encourage the missionary who 
is tempted to-day to suppose that because the lives of the 
Christians amongst whom he has laboured are un-Christlike, 
his work cannot have been carried on upon apostolic lines, 



Political methods of evangelization. 

We pass on now to consider a method of propagating 
the Christian religion which can claim no support from the 
example of St. Paul, but which has exercised a large in- 
fluence upon the development of Christian missions. We 
refer to the use of political influences for the purpose of 
facilitating conversions to the Christian faith. Under 
the term political influences we include all offers of 
material inducements and threats of punishments or loss, 
whether made by Governments or by individuals. The 
change of attitude on the part of most Christian people 
towards the employment of political methods for the 
spread of the Christian faith among non-Christian races 
has been so gradual and at the same time so complete that 
we do not easily appreciate how far we have travelled 
from the standpoint of our forefathers. From the days of 
Constantino down to a period well within the nineteenth 
century comparatively few Christians would have rejected 
the proposition that it was lawful, and in many cases 
advisable, that missionaries should avail themselves of 
political influences in order to facilitate the prosecution of 
their work. During the Middle Ages the writings of St. 
Augustine exercised a dominating influence over the 
missionary policy of Christendom. He was not himself 
distinguished for missionary zeal, and apparently made no 
attempt to organize any missionary enterprise amongst the 
heathen races in North-West Africa. His writings, how- 
ever, include several passages in which he urges that the 
pagans in Hippo and the surrounding district ought to be 
punished with death if they persisted in their refusal to 
embrace the Christian faith. 1 His interpretation, moreover, 
of the words in the Parable of the Great Supper, " compel 
them to come in," as affording authorization for the em- 
ployment of force to compel an acknowledgment of the 
Christian faith, wxs accepted by most of his readers. 

One or two voices were raised from time to time 
1 Epist. 93. 2, 185. 6. 


against the policy of forcible conversion, but their protests 
met with little response. Thus Raymond Lull, the first 
missionary to Mohammedans (d. 1315), wrote: 

" They think they can conquer by force of arms : it 
seems to me that the victory can be won in no other way 
than as Thou, Lord Christ, didst seek to win it, by love 
and prayer and self-sacrifice." 

Later on, in the sixteenth century, Las Casas, the 
" Apostle of Mexico," in his treatise De umco vocationis 
modo, urged that men ought to be brought to Christianity 
only by persuasion, and where no special injury had been 
received, it was not lawful for Christians to carry on 
war against infidels merely on the ground that they were 

It would be impossible to name any country in Europe 
apart from Great Britain and Ireland the conversion of 
which to Christianity was not to a large extent hastened 
by the employment of physical force. In the early days 
of Anglican and Protestant missions, whilst the employ- 
ment of force was usually discouraged, it was thought to 
be right to make use of material inducements in order to 
hasten the work of conversion. 

The following extract from a journal kept by Van 
Riebeek in 1658 at Cape Town might be paralleled in 
many other lands : 

" April 17. Began holding school for the young slaves, 
the chaplain being charged with the duty. To stimulate 
the slaves to attention while at school, and to induce them 
to learn the Christian prayers, they were promised each a 
glass of brandy and two inches of tobacco when they finish 
their task." i 

During the eighteenth century several missionaries 
wrote in defence of the slave trade, basing their justification 
of this trade upon the advantages which those captured 

1 A History of Christian, Missions in Houth Africa, by J. Du Plcssis, 
p. 30. 


and sold as slaves would eventually receive by being 
brought into contact with Christian masters. 1 

An example, on a large scale, of the disastrous results 
of employing political methods of spreading Christianity is 
afforded by the religious history of Ceylon. When the 
Dutch took over from the Portuguese the island of Ceylon 
in 1656, they attempted to force a Protestant form of 
Christianity upon its inhabitants by subjecting Buddhists, 
Hindus, and Romanists who were not prepared to embrace 
Protestantism, to heavy civil disabilities. The unsatisfactory 
nature of the conversions so obtained was made clear when, 
on the cession of the island to England in 1798, these 
disabilities were removed. In 1801, soon after this change 
took place, there were 342,000 Singalese and 136,000 
Tamils who professed Protestant Christianity ; but before 
ten years had elapsed more than half of thes6 had declared 
themselves Buddhists or had become devil-worshippers, and 
a large proportion of the " Government religion " churches 
were in ruins. The far-reaching effects of the policy 
adopted by the Dutch for spreading Christianity may be 
inferred from the statement of Bishop Copleston, formerly 
Bishop of Colombo, who wrote a few years ago : " Not till 
within the last twenty years has the Buddhist- Christian 
element been in the main got rid of." 

Although the principle of endeavouring to spread the 
Christian faith by the direct offer of material inducements 
is now rejected by nearly all other missions, it is still 
accepted by the representatives of many Roman Catholic 

To take a single illustration which has come under the 
notice of the writer : After the Lutheran and Anglican 
missions had obtained a widespread success in the Chota- 
Nagpur district in North-Eastern India, the Roman 
missionaries, who then appeared for the first time, adopted 
the policy of granting small loans to all who were willing 
to attend their churches, on the understanding that these 

1 See reference to pamphlet published by the Rev. T. Thompson, the 
first English missionary to Africa, on p. 291. 


loans would not be repayable as long as tbose who received 
them continued to attend. The recipients include a large 
number of those who were formerly attached to the 
Lutheran and Anglican missions, and the system is in 
working order at the present time. 

The country in which this principle has been most 
definitely adopted and in which it has produced results 
which have affected all Christian missions is China. In 
an elaborate work, 1 which has received the official sanction 
of the Eoman Church, lately issued by the Foreign Mission 
Press of Hong-Kong, the writer reviews in detail the 
different methods that have been adopted by missionaries 
in China. After explaining all that can be said for and 
against the adoption of political methods, he arrives at the 
conclusion that interference by European missionaries in 
Chinese lawsuits is a means designed by Providence " to 
draw to religion the simple country people." It is signifi- 
cant to find that the writer who approves this policy of 
offering material inducements to non-Christians in China 
goes on to deplore the fact that the present prospect of 
Eoman Catholic missions in that country is far from 

To Christian missionaries the two events of recent years 
in the Far East which will appear of greatest importance 
are the official announcement that the Japanese Govern- 
ment is prepared to recognize Christianity as one of the 
three religions of Japan, Shinto and Buddhism being the 
other two, and the appeal for prayer addressed by the 
Chinese Government to its Christian subjects. In both 
cases the change of attitude on the part of the Government 
concerned marks a new stage in the spread of the Christian 
faith over a large part of the non-Christian world, and in 
both cases political and religious motives appear to have 
been inextricably intermingled. The student of Christian 
missions who is familiar with the results which, in ancient, 
mediaeval, and modern times alike, have followed the 

1 Mtthode de I'Apostolat moderne en Chine,, par R. P. L. Kcrvyii, 
Hong-Kong. Imprimerie de la Soci6t des Missions-^trangeres, 1911. 


employment of political influences in support of the 
Christian faith, will regard with profound misgivings the 
possible exercise of such influences on a wide scale. Cases 
are to be found in all parts of the mission field in which 
converts have been induced to make a profession of their 
Christian faith in the hope that they might secure for 
themselves material advantages, and in some instances 
the responsibility for arousing this hope lies with the 
missionaries. The principle, however, of endeavouring to 
attract converts by the offer of such advantages is one 
which has now been abandoned by all uon-Eoman 
missionary societies. Experience shows conclusively that 
missionary work prospers most and that the best types of 
Christian character tend to be produced when the convert 
to the Christian faith has to face at least a mild form of 
persecution. The nominal spread of Christianity through- 
out Europe which, in the course of time, followed the 
Edict of Milan, ushered in the " dark ages," from which 
Europe as a whole can as yet hardly be said to have com- 
pletely emerged. No one would desire that the future 
history of China or Japan should afford any parallel to the 
experience of Europe. 

Educational Missions. 

During the last seventy years educational missions have 
gradually taken the place of the employment of political 
influences in a great part of the mission field. As will be 
shown later on in our references to Dr. Duff and others, 
the provision of colleges, schools, and industrial institutions 
has gradually become an important factor in the situation 
and has greatly affected the work of the evangelistic mis- 
sionary. Missionaries have not always or generally been 
educational experts, and it is not a matter for surprise that 
the success of the schools which they have established has 
been by no means uniform. 

Moreover, in view of the fact that they are endeavouring, 
by means of educational missions, to appeal to races which 


differ in culture and mental powers as much as do the 
Brahmans of India and the cannibals of the Pacific, it is 
obvious that the educational methods which they need to 
adopt must admit of wide variation. Methods of teaching 
which would be the best possible in West Africa or in 
New Guinea would be worse than useless in India, China, 
or Japan, and vice versa. 

But though the methods should vary, the principles 
which underlie them must remain the same. The object 
which the educational missionary needs to keep in view is 
to " educate " that is, to draw out and develop the latent 
capacities of his pupils in order that the additional know- 
ledge which he desires to impart to them may be correlated 
with their previous knowledge and with their methods of 
thinking. To accomplish this would be to accomplish one 
of the most difficult tasks which it is possible to attempt, 
and it is no cause for wonder that many failures have to 
be recorded. 

It would be easy to give illustrations of the disastrous 
results which have followed the attempt to provide a 
distinctively English education for converts to Christianity 
who were wholly unfitted to benefit thereby. The writer 
of this volume was sitting one day outside a mission school 
in the tropics -watching its pupils walking to and fro in 
the mission enclosure. Some of them had come from 
homes in which it had not been customary to wear clothes 
and in which cannibalism would not have been regarded 
with horror. These pupils of the mission school, however, 
wore immaculate shirt fronts and the smartest of English 
clothes, and carried gilt-headed walking canes and watch 
chains to correspond. It was with no feelings of surprise 
that he learnt that the principal English trading company of 
the district, which had for several years employed as clerks 
those who had been trained at this school, had recently 
issued an order that henceforth no one who had attended 
this school was to be employed in any capacity, and that 
Moslems or pagans were to be employed in their stead. 
Superficial investigators of missionary work abroad are 


never tired of asserting that missionary education tends to 
deprive converts of their hereditary virtues and to give 
them no others in their place, and it is impossible to deny 
that in the past there has been some foundation for such 
criticisms. A hopeful symptom is that missionaries them- 
selves have become the severest, and at the same time the 
most intelligent, critics of the methods which have satisfied 
their predecessors and which continue to satisfy some of 
their contemporaries. They have come to realize that the 
more anglicized in appearance and in methods of thought 
and action their pupils become the more complete has been 
their own failure. They have also come to realize that in 
dealing with backward races it is worse than useless to try 
to anticipate the results of education by allowing to their 
pupils a minimum of initiative and by providing continuous 
supervision. The temptation to impatience which besets 
the missionary may be described in words borrowed from 
Dr. Montessori, who writes : 

" Little children who are undertaking something for the 
first time are extremely slow. Their life is governed in 
this respect by laws especially different from ours. Little 
children accomplish slowly and perseveringly various com- 
plicated operations agreeable to them, such as dressing and 
undressing, setting the table, eating, etc. In all this they 
are extremely patient, overcoming all the difficulties pre- 
sented by an organism still in process of formation. But 
we, on the other hand, noticing that they are ' tiring them- 
selves out,' or ' wasting time,' in accomplishing something 
which we could do in a moment, and without the least 
effort, put ourselves in the child's place and do it our- 
selves. . . . What would become of us if we fell into the 
midst of a population of jugglers or of lightning-change 
impersonators of the variety hall ? What should we do if, 
as we continued to act in our usual way, we saw ourselves 
assailed by these sleight-of-hand performers, hustled into 
our clothes, fed so rapidly that we could scarcely swallow, 
if everything we tried to do was snatched from our hands 
and completed in a twinkling and we ourselves reduced to 
impotence and to a humiliating inertia ? Not knowing how 
else to express our confusion, we should defend ourselves 


with blows and yells from these madmen ; and they, having 
only the best will in the world to serve us, would call us 
haughty, rebellious, and incapable of doing anything." l 

These words of Montessori help to explain how extra- 
ordinarily difficult is the problem that confronts mis- 
sionaries, who are usually the first representatives of the 
more advanced races to attempt to impart to the members 
of the more backward races the education and culture 
which they have themselves inherited. It is not possible 
to attempt here any description of the various forms of 
educational missionary work which have been tried in 
different countries. For a description and criticism of the 
methods which have been tried in South Africa the student 
would do well to consult the books written by Mr. Dudley 
Kidd, also the striking testimony relating to the benefits 
resulting from missionary education contained in the report 
of the South African Government Commission (see p. 335). 

In India more than in any other part of the mission 
field the time and labour of missionaries have been devoted 
to educational work. In connection with this work the 
question has often been raised both by missionaries abroad 
and by missionary critics at home, Is it worth while to go 
on spending time and labour on the support of educational 
institutions in India and elsewhere when the labour spent 
on them produces hardly any visible result, and when men 
and women missionaries are urgently needed to evangelize 
the uneducated classes who are anxious to be taught the 
Christian faith ? To answer this question aright, we need 
to be endowed with long vision ; we need to look beyond 
the immediate present and to prepare for a future which 
perhaps none living may see but the advent of which is 

During a visit to the chief centres of missionary 
activity in India the writer had an opportunity of 
seeing most of the largest colleges which are affiliated 
to universities in India, and which belong to many 
different missionary societies. In response to inquiries 

1 See International Review of Missions, April 1913, p. 333. 


addressed to those now in charge of theiie colleges, he 

O O ' 

gathered that the conversion and baptism of a student in 
any one of them was an exceedingly rare event. The 
Principal of one of the largest colleges in North India was 
unable to tell of the occurrence of a single case during the 
sixteen years of his principalship. At another college 
belonging to a different society two conversions had taken 
place during the last ten years ; at another belonging to 
yet another society no conversion had occurred for at least 
twelve years. "When it is remembered that there are large 
districts in India where the missionaries in charge have 
had to discourage applications from the representatives of 
villages which desire to abandon Hinduism and to become 
Christian, on the ground that there are no Christian 
teachers, European or Indian, available, it is impossible not 
to sympathize with those who desire to divert from the 
educational missions a few of those missionaries whose work 
is attended with no visible result and whose presence else- 
where is urgently demanded. Nevertheless, we believe 
that no more fatal policy can be suggested than to weaken 
or circumscribe the appeal which the Church of Christ is 
making to the educated classes of India by means of its 
educational missions. The great need for men created by 
the success of the mass movements supplies an argument 
not for withdrawing men from educational work but for 
holding on to and strengthening this work. For it is 
certain that the day will come when Christianity, having 
overcome the opposition of caste, will spread throughout 
India like a flood. It will make all the difference when 
this movement occurs whether or no there is then in 
existence a body of experienced European educationalists 
and of highly educated Indian teachers to guide and direct 
the movement. We can only secure the provision of such 
a body of men at the critical moment if the various 
missionary societies are content for the time being to 
forgo counting the visible results of their educational 
work and hold on unhesitatingly to the schools and colleges 
which they possess. 


Our impatience at the small number of conversions 
which can be traced directly to the influence of missionary 
schools and colleges will be lessened in proportion as we 
realize that their primary object is not to impart informa- 
tion, or even to produce conversions, but to develop char- 
acter. Where the education of character is concerned, 
we should be content to count time not by years but by 

It need hardly be added that the principle which is 
illustrated by what is happening in India applies to all 
other non-Christian countries in which educational work on 
any large scale is being attempted. 

In China the results obtained in the missionary 
colleges (e.g. in the Tientsin College under Dr. Lavington 
Hart) have been encouraging, and the attitude of the 
student class towards the preaching of Christianity has 
become remarkably sympathetic (see p. 201). 

In dealing with the more backward races, experience 
has demonstrated the high value to be attached to all kinds 
of industrial schools. Amongst such races industrial 
training can best be imparted in conjunction with book 
learning. Thus the author of The Story of the Lovedale 
Mission writes : 

" It is a fact abundantly confirmed by experience that 
the greatest difficulties in the teaching of trades are to be 
met with in the case of those who are deficient, and just in 
proportion as they are deficient, in school education." 

Eeferring to the results of the training at Lovedale, which 
is the best known centre of industrial training in South 
Africa, Dr. Stewart, who was for a long period its Principal, 
was able to state that of 2000 who had been educated 
here, and whose subsequent history could be traced, from 
75 to 80 per cent, had led or were leading useful and 
industrious lives. 

We refer later on to the work of industrial missions in 
various parts of the mission field. 


Medical Missions. 

A further method by which Christian missionaries have 
sought to appeal to non- Christian races is represented by 
the establishment of medical missions. 

The aim of the medical missionary is twofold: (1) To 
alleviate suffering and to train those who in non-Christian 
lands are ignorant of the art of medicine in order that 
they may be enabled to alleviate the sufferings of their 
fellow-countrymen. (2) To co-operate with the Christian 
evangelist by interpreting the Divine compassion and 
breaking down the prejudices of those who would not other- 
wise be willing to listen to the gospel message. 

Some of those who have advocated the extension of 
medical missions have laid exclusive emphasis upon the 
latter objects, but have failed to grasp the importance of 
the former. The charge given by Christ Himself to His 
first missionaries was to preach the gospel and to heal the 
sick, but there is nothing in the context to suggest that in 
places where the preaching of the gospel was welcomed 
they might consider themselves absolved from the obliga- 
tion to heal those who were sick. It may with confidence 
be asserted that apart altogether from any consideration 
of the fact that medical missions have proved a power- 
ful evangelistic agency, it is the duty of the whole 
Christian Church to establish missions which have as their 
object the alleviation of bodily suffering, and that it is 
the duty of the individual missionary who possesses a 
knowledge of medicine that is not shared by any of those 
amongst whom he works to use his knowledge with 
the object of alleviating human suffering, and to continue 
his labours with this object in view until such time 
as the medical practitioners of the country are in a 
position to carry on the work which he has inaugurated. 
When such a time arrives, as it has arrived in Japan and 
in some other parts of the mission field, the need for 
medical missionaries will still remain in so far as their work 
may subserve the purpose of a direct missionary agency. 


1. Confining our attention for the moment to the first 
of the two objects which medical missionaries have in 
view, we may note the striking service which they were 
able to render to China on the occasion of the great out- 
break of plague in Manchuria in 1910-11. The virulence 
of the attack may be gathered from the fact that the 
number of patients attacked and the resultant deaths alike 
numbered 43, 942. l Had it not been for the medical 
missionaries, and the Chinese doctors and attendants who 
worked under their direction, the deaths would have been 
reckoned by millions. Amongst those who took part in 
fighting the plague should be mentioned Dr. Aspland of the 
Anglican mission in Peking, Dr. Dugald Christie of the 
United Presbyterian mission in Moukdeu, and Dr. A. F. 
Jackson, a new recruit belonging to the same mission, who 
himself died of the plague. On the occasion of the death 
of Dr. Jackson, the Chinese Viceroy, Hsi Liang, delivered a 
funeral oration at Moukden on February 2, 1911, in the 
course of which he said : 

" Our sorrow is beyond all measure, our grief too deep 
for words. spirit of Dr. Jackson, we pray you intercede 
for the 20,000,000 people in Manchuria, and ask the Lord of 
heaven to take away this pestilence, so that we may once 
more lay our heads in peace upon our pillows. In life you 
were brave, in death you are an exalted spirit. Noble spirit, 
who sacrificed your life for us, help us still and look down 
in kindness upon us all." 

To the list of the medical missionaries who have died 
whilst fighting the plague, albeit in a different country, 
may be added the name of Dr. Alice Marval of the S.P.G., 
who died at Cawnpore, January 4, 1904. 

By way of illustrating the efforts which medical 
missionaries are making to train men and women in non- 

1 For a description of the kind of work accomplished by medical 
missionaries during the outbreak of plague in Manchuria, see The Claim of 
Suffering, by E. K. Paget, pp. 79-84 ; also The Life of Arthur Jackson, by 
A. J. Costaiii. 


Christian lands to alleviate the physical sufferings of their 
fellow-countrymen, we may mention the central training 
colleges which have recently been established in China 
and elsewhere. 

At the triennial conference of the Medical Missionary 
Association held in Peking (January 1913), it was urged 
that combined efforts should be made to strengthen existing 
hospitals in which Chinese might be trained to become 
fully qualified medical missionaries. 

One of the most successful medical training colleges is 
the Union Medical College in Peking, which is supported 
jointly by the American Board (A.B.C.F.M.), the L.M.S. and 
the S.P.G. This hospital, besides ministering to the needs 
of Chinese patients, is turning out year by year a number 
of qualified Chinese doctors who will carry the fame of 
European medicine and a sympathetic report of the Christian 
faith far and wide throughout the Empire of China. A 
hospital on similar lines has been started in Shanghai. 

Another combined hospital and medical school, which 
is supported by missions connected with several different 
denominations, is the Severance hospital outside Seoul, the 
capital of Corea. This was started by the Presbyterian 
mission, but its staff includes representatives of the S.P.G. , 
the A.M.E.C., and other societies. Thirty fully qualified 
Coreau doctors have already been trained here. It is in 
fact due to the influence exerted by this hospital that 
vaccination has been introduced into almost every village 
in Corea, with the result that smallpox, which has been 
one of the greatest plagues of Corea, has been checked, and 
may ere long be exterminated. 

An important step towards the education of Indian 
women who may become medical missionaries was taken 
in 1894, when the North India School of Medicine for 
Christian Women was founded at Ludhiana in the Punjab, 
the two first teachers being Dr. Edith Brown and Miss 

2. It is hardly necessary to quote instances in which 
the medical missionaries have, by the exercise of their art, 


gained for themselves or for others the opportunity to 
explain and commend the Christian faith. In the case of 
Corea it was the work of a medical missionary which laid 
the foundation of Protestant missions in that land. 

"Up to 1884 no mission work had been possible, the 
rulers and people being determined to exclude all mission- 
aries. In the autumn of that year, however, Dr. Allen, an 
American medical missionary, was deputed to attempt an 
entry into Corea. He could only do so by becoming 
physician to the American Legation at Seoul. For some 
time no opportunity presented itself. Then one night there 
occurred a riot, during which the nephew of the king- 
Prince Min Yong Ik was seriously wounded. Dr. Allen 
was summoned to attend him, and when he arrived found 
about thirteen of the native doctors, who were trying to 
staunch the bleeding wounds by filling them with wax. 
They gazed in amazement as the medical missionary secured 
the bleeding vessels, and cleansed and sutured the wounds. 
Dr. Allen, by this successful application of medical skill, 
not only occasioned a revolution in the medical treatment 
of that country, but also obtained a marvellous vantage- 
ground for carrying on missionary work. The then Govern- 
ment of Corea subscribed for the building of a hospital for 
Dr. Allen, which was established under royal patronage, and 
where not only the healing of the sick was carried on, but 
also the preaching of the gospel. Other missionaries were 
allowed to settle in Corea ; the people showed confidence in 
them, and to-day this once-closed land has been the scene 
of some of the most splendid triumphs of the Cross, as the 
direct outcome of the work of medico-evangelism." 1 

One further illustration may be given of the influence 
which the medical missionary may exert in a non-Christian 
land. During the Boxer rebellion a small mission hospital 
was attacked by an infuriated niob crying, " Death to the 
foreign devils ! " The doctor and evangelist went out and 
faced the mob, requesting that the Chinese patients in the 
hospital might be spared. The leader of the mob said : 
" I have been told you can work miracles here ; if you can 
prove that, all your lives will be spared." A voice at 
1 The Appeal of Medical Missions, by R. F. Moorshead, p. 73 f. 


once replied from the mob : " They can. Six years ago I 
was blind ; that doctor there gave me back my sight." 
The leader at once drew off his followers, and left the 
mission hospital and its inmates in peace. 

" Who could doubt such love, or be unwilling to trust 
such a Saviour ? " was the exclamation of a poor Chinese 
woman whose body had been healed and whose soul had 
been won to Christ in a mission hospital. " We have been 
loved into heaven by the love and mercy of the doctors 
and nurses, and we have given our souls to Christ, who 
sent them here to save us," was the answer given by an 
Arab mother regarding her daughter and herself, who had 
formerly been Mohammedans, when asked by a Scottish 
doctor why they had become Christians. 

A Brahmin woman who had bitterly opposed the 
work of Christian missionaries, after being treated in a 
mission hospital, exclaimed, " I was against them once, but 
I know now what love means." 

Similar testimonies and results might be quoted from 
every land where medical missionaries have worked. The 
C.M.S. mission at Srinagar in Kashmir, which is now one 
of the most successful in India, was started by a medical 
missionary, Dr. Elmslie, in 186 5, after several unsuccessful 
attempts to preach the Christian faith had been made by 
other missionaries. The United Presbyterian mission at 
Jeypore in Eajputana was the result of a successful treat- 
ment by a medical missionary, Dr. Valentine, of the wife 
of the Maharajah. 

And if the results from the missionary standpoint 
which have been achieved by the work of men doctors 
have been great, greater far have been the results produced 
by the work of women doctors. No language can describe 
the appalling needs of India's zenanas, where women die 
in countless thousands or linger on in helpless misery for 
lack of medical assistance. To such, the woman missionary 
doctor comes as an angel from God, and the physical 
health which she brings is often the precursor of the 
spiritual health which she longs equally to impart. 


The results achieved by medical missionaries in all 
lands cannot be better described than in the words of a 
Brahman who addressed a meeting at Arcot which had 
been summoned by the American Arcot Mission : 

" I have watched the missionaries, and seen what they 
are. What have they come to this country for ? What 
tempts them to leave their parents, friends, and country, 
and come to this, to them, unhealthy clime ? Is it for gain 
or profit they come ? Some of us, country clerks in 
Government offices, receive larger salaries than they. Is it 
for an easy life ? See how they work, and then tell me. 
Look at this missionary ! He came here a few years ago, 
leaving all, and seeking only our good ! He was met with 
cold looks and suspicious glances, and was shunned and 
maligned. He sought to talk with us of what he told us 
was the matter of most importance in heaven and earth, 
but we would not listen. He was not discouraged : he 
opened a dispensary, and we said, ' Let the pariahs [lowest 
caste people] take his medicines, we won't ' ; but in the time 
of our sickness and distress and fear we were glad to go to 
him, and he welcomed us. We complained at first if he 
walked through our Brahmin streets, but ere long, when 
our wives and daughters were in sickness and anguish, we 
went and begged him to come, even into our inner apart- 
ments; and he came, and our wives and daughters now 
smile upon us in health ! Has he made money by it ? 
Even the cost of the medicine he has given us has not been 
returned to him. 

" Now what is it that makes him do all this for us ? It is 
his Bible ! I have looked into it a good deal, at one time or 
another, in the different languages I chance to know it is 
just the same in all languages. The Bible ! there is nothing 
to compare with it, in all our sacred books, for goodness, 
and purity, and holiness, and love, and for motives of action. 
Where did the English people get all their intelligence and 
energy, and cleverness and power ? It is their Bible that 
gives it to them. And now they bring it to us and say, 
' That is what raised us ; take it and raise yourselves.' 
They do not force it upon us, as did the Mohammedans 
with their Koran, but they bring it in love, and translate it 
into our languages, and lay it before us, and say, ' Look at it, 
read it, examine it, and see if it is not good.' Of one thing 
I am convinced : do what we will, oppose it as we may, it 


is the Christian's Bible that will, sooner or later, work the 
regeneration of our land." 1 

The Development of Medical Missions. 

Although it does not appear that the Jesuits sent out 
qualified doctors to act as medical missionaries, it often 
happened that some of their missionaries possessed a 
serviceable knowledge of medicine which they used to good 
effect. Thus Professor Okakura Yoshisaburo of Japan 
writes : 

" In 1568 Oda Nabunaga gave a plot of ground of about 
ten acres in Kyoto to build a Christian church. . . . Two 
Jesuit priests who served the church, being well versed in 
the practice of medicine, built wards on the premises, 
where poor patients were invited and treated free of charge. 
Nabunaga also gave them an area of about 1200 acres in the 
province of Omi, where three thousand kinds of medical 
plants were transplanted, the artemisia vulgaris still used in 
cauterization being supposed to be one of them." 2 

We have referred elsewhere to the presence at the 
court of Japan of a Christian physician during the first 
part of the eighth century. 

China. The first medical missionary to China of whom 
much is known was Bernard Khodes, who was born in 
1644 at Lyons. Having studied medicine and surgery, he 
entered a religious Order as a lay brother, and eventually 
went to China, where he lived for sixteen years and died 
near Peking in 1715. He attended all ranks of Chinese, 
from the Emperor downwards. Father Karenni in a letter 
written from Peking in 1715 gives a graphic account of 
the widespread influence that he exerted and of the 
affection with which the Chinese regarded him. 3 

In 1820 Dr. Livingstone, who was in the employ of 
the East India Company and was stationed at Macao, 

1 Medical Missions, their Place and Power, by J. Lowe, p. 115 f. 

2 The Life and Thought of Japan, 1913, p. 109. 

3 See Lcttres Edifiantes et Curieuses, vol. xiv. p. 431. 


opened a dispensary for the benefit of poor Chinese, in 
connection with which Dr. Morrison acted as inter- 
preter and endeavoured to preach the gospel to the 

The first medical missionary in modern times to reach 
China was the Eev. Peter Parker, M.D., who arrived 
in 1835 and was supported by the American Board of 
Missions. His hospital at Hong-Kong attracted patients 
from far and near. In 1839 Dr. Lockhart of the L.M.S. 
started work at Macao and was joined the same year by 
Dr. Hobson. Dr. Lockhart eventually undertook work at 
Shanghai and Dr. Hobson at Hong-Kong. 

Amongst the medical missionaries who reached China 
during the next thirty years were the Eev. Hudson Taylor 
(founder of the China Inland Mission), W. Gauld and 
James Maxwell of the Presbyterian Church of England, 
and F. Porter Smith of the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary 
Society. In 1890 the number of medical missionaries in 
China had risen to 125 and in 1913 to 435 (see p. 203). 

The S.P.G. may perhaps claim to have been the 
first missionary society or organization to attempt to 
train or send out medical missionaries. By his will, dated 
February 22, 1703, General Codringtou bequeathed to 
the S.P.G. his two plantations in Barbados, one of the 
conditions being that a convenient number of professors 
and scholars should be maintained there who should be 
" obliged to study and practise Phisick and Chirurgery as 
well as Divinity," so that they might " both endear them- 
selves to the people and have the better opportunities of 
doing good to men's souls whilst they were taking care of 
their bodys." : As soon as the society obtained possession 
of the estates (in 1712), superintendence of " the sick and 
maimed negroes and servants " was undertaken by a 
missionary (Eev. J. Holt) skilled " in physic and surgery," 
"a chest of medicines to the value of 30 being supplied 
him." As a result of the labours of Mr. Holt and his 
successors, the report for 1740 records that "some 
1 See p. 396, also Two Hundred Years of the. S.P.G., p. 816 a. 


hundreds of negroes have been brought to our Holy 
Religion, and there are now not less than seventy Christian 
negroes on those Plantations." 

This was, however, the only organized medical mission- 
ary work undertaken by the S.P.G. during the eighteenth 

The first medical missionary whom this society sent 
out in the nineteenth century was the Rev. (afterwards 
Bishop) F. T. McDougall, F.R.C.S., who began work in 
Borneo in 1848. Amongst other Anglican bishops who 
have been fully qualified medical missionaries may be 
mentioned Dr. H. Callaway, who began work in Kaffraria 
in 1855; Dr. Strachan, Bishop of Eangoon ; Dr. Smyth, 
Bishop of Lebombo ; and Dr. Hine, Bishop of Nyasa. 

The London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst 
the Jews may perhaps claim to have been the first society 
to send out medical missionaries with the intention that 
the missionaries should devote practically their whole time 
to the practice of medicine. This society sent out Dr. 
George Clarke to Gibraltar in 1823, and Dr. George Dalton 
in 1824 to Jerusalem. 

India. Medical missions in India, in the modern 
sense of the term, date from 1783, when John Thomas, 
a ship's surgeon, commenced missionary work in Bengal. 
After itinerating for three years in the Malda district, and 
translating part of the New Testament into Bengali, he 
returned to England in 1792, and having offered his 
services to the Baptist Missionary Society, was sent out 
as a companion to Carey in 1793. Though he was an 
eccentric person, and had to be confined for some time in 
an asylum, he laboured strenuously to promote the cause 
of Christian missions. He died in 1801, and had no 
successor till 1838, when Mr. Archibald Eamsay began 
medical work in Travancore. In 1852 the L.M.S. sent 
out Dr. Leitch, who was drowned two years later, but 
whose work inaugurated the large and successful medical 
mission which the L.M.S. has since developed at Neyoor 
in South India. About the same time the American Board 


of Missions sent out Dr. John Scuclder, who laboured first 
in Ceylon and afterwards in Madras. 

In 1856 the Free Church of Scotland sent its first 
medical missionary, Dr. David Paterson, to Madras. 

The Church of England Zenana Missionary Society 
sent the first woman doctor to India (Dr. Fanny Butler) 
in 1880. 

The S.P.G. began medical missionary work in 1870 at 
Nazareth in Tinnevelly, and Dr. Strachan, its first medical 
missionary, afterwards became Bishop of Eangoon. 

As a development of Mrs. Winter's work at Delhi, 
which was begun in 1863, the first hospital for women 
and children in India was established in connection with 
the S.P.G. mission to Delhi. The work grew steadily till 
the foundation of St. Stephen's Hospital in the central 
street of Delhi in 1884 In 1906 the new St. Stephen's 
Hospital was founded outside the walls. 

The Zenana Bible and Medical Mission (1852), which 
is an undenominational society, supports the Victoria 
Hospital at Benares, the Duchess of Teck Hospital at 
Patna, the Kinnaird Memorial Hospital at Lucknow, and 
a hospital at Nasik in Western India which was presented 
by local Brahmans. For further details in regard to the 
hospitals and medical missions which are scattered through- 
out India, see p. 131. The total number of qualified 
medical missionaries in India was 140 in 1895, 281 in 
1905,and 335 in 1912. 

Medical Missions to Moslems. 

It has been the well-nigh universal experience of 
missionaries who have worked amongst Moslems that the 
best, and often the only, way by which a successful appeal 
can be made is by means of medical missions. The 
experience of Dr. Pemicll on the borders of Afghanistan, 
Dr. W. Miller in Northern Nigeria, and many others, is 
the same, namely, that the prejudices of Moslems against 
the Christian faith can best be combated by the practical 


demonstration of the love of Jesus Christ which is em- 
bodied in a medical mission. 

One reason why medical missions appeal so strongly to 
Moslems is that in many cases their knowledge of medicine 
and surgery is so deficient that it can only be compared 
with that of heathen or pagans. Even in Moslem lands 
which have long been in touch with European influence 
and science the knowledge of medicine has lagged behind 
the knowledge of all other subjects. 1 

Four doctors and four nurses were sent out by the 
Dutch Church, twenty years ago, to the Dutch East Indies. 
One of the Scotch doctors who visited the scene of their 
work in 1912 wrote home as follows : 

" I find here over 30,000 converts from Islam, all the 
work of four doctors and four nurses. And these men and 
women are living better Christian lives than the vast bulk 
of our Christians at home." 

Women's Work in the Mission Field. 

Our failure to describe in detail the share which 
women have taken in the work of Christian missions is 
due to no want of appreciation of the supremely important 
part which they have played in the past and are destined 
to play in the future in all parts of the mission field. The 

1 An illustration of this may be found in a series of questions and 
answers which were published by the Lancet, July 16, 1898. The questions 
to which the answers were appended had been addressed by the French 
Statistical Department to the Pasha of Damascus. 

" Q. What is the death-rate per thousand in your principal city? 
A. In Damascus it is the will of Allah that all must die some die old, 
some young. Q. What is the annual number of births? A. We do not 
know ; God alone can say. Q. Are the supplies of drinking water sufficient 
and of good quality ? A. From the remotest period no one has ever died of 
thirst. Q. General remarks on the hygienic conditions of your city. 
A. Since Allah sent us Mohammed, His prophet, to purge the world with 
fire and sword, there has been a vast improvement. But there still remains 
much to do. And now, my lamb of the West, cease your questioning, which 
can do no good either to you or to anyone else. Man should not bother him- 
self about matters which concern only God. Salaam aleikum." 


future status of women for many years to come in non- 
Christian lands will depend to a very large extent upon the 
ability of missionary societies to send out into the mission 
field an increased staff of highly qualified Christian women. 
The suffragist and suffragette societies at home would be 
amongst the strongest supporters of missionary work 
could they but realize that the work accomplished by 
these has done more towards effecting the emancipation 
and uplifting of women than all other societies or political 
organizations in the world. To two-thirds of the women 
now living in the world Christian missions hold out the 
only immediate prospect of raising their social status. 
No religion other than Christianity inculcates the doctrine 
that women are the equals of men and should be accorded 
equal freedom and equal opportunities of education. Their 
future is therefore inseparably connected with the diffusion 
and acceptance of the teaching of Christianity. 

More than half the women now living in the British 
Empire are Hindus. This fact adds point to the words 
uttered by a well-known Brahman in India who said that 
among the countless divisions and sects of Hinduism the 
only two things on which all Hindus are agreed are the 
sanctity of the cow and the depravity of woman. We 
note with joy the isolated efforts which have so far been 
made by Hindus and Moslems to imitate the actions of the 
Christian missionaries and to agitate for the emancipation 
of their women, but without the support of Christian 
teaching and the inspiration of Christian love it is im- 
possible that these efforts should obtain their true fruition. 

To appreciate the nature of the problem which con- 
fronts those who desire to uplift India's women, we need to 
remind ourselves that there are 40,000,000 Indian women 
confined in zenanas, that there are 26,000,000 widows, 
335,000 of whom are under fifteen years of age and 
111,000 under ten, that not one woman in 100 in India 
can read, and that only one in 100 of girls of school- 
going age are at school. How difficult it is for the 
enlightened Hindus to win over their fellow-countrymen 


to the institution of any radical reforms may be gathered 
from the fact that the teaching of their sacred books 
strongly supports the treatment of women which is at 
present in vogue. Thus their great law-giver, Manu, whose 
teaching is accepted by nearly all orthodox Hindus, can be 
quoted by those opposed to reform as having said : " Day 
and night must women be kept in dependence by the male 
members of the family ; they are never fit for independence ; 
they are as impure as falsehood itself : that is a fixed 
rule." l 

The need for transforming the life of women by im- 
parting to them the teaching of Jesus Christ is as real in 
other countries as it is in India. 

Few, if any, English women outside the ranks of the 
missionaries have had so wide an experience of the con- 
ditions under which women in India and the Far East live 
as the famous traveller, Mrs. Bishop. Speaking of the 
influence which the religions of these countries exert upon 
women, she said : 

" Just one or two remarks as to what these false faiths 
do. They degrade women with an infinite degradation. I 
have lived in zenanas and harems, and have seen the daily 
life of the secluded women, and I can speak from bitter 
experience of what their lives are the intellect dwarfed, so 
that the woman of twenty or thirty years of age is more 
like a child of eight intellectually; while all the worst 
passions of human nature are stimulated and developed to 
a fearful degree ; jealousy, envy, murderous hate, intrigue, 
running to such an extent that in some countries I have 
hardly been in a woman's house or near a woman's tent 
without being asked for drugs with which to disfigure the 
favourite wife, to take away her life, or to take away the 
life of the favourite wife's infant son. This request has 
been made to me nearly two hundred times." 2 

The Indian zenana was first penetrated in the name of 
Christ by the wife of a missionary sixty years ago when 

1 Manu, ix. 2, 3, 18. 

2 Speech at Exeter Hall, November 1, 1893. 


asked to visit a Hindu woman who was dying, and who had 
been in secret a reader of the Christian Bible. The sequel 
of this visit was the establishment in London in 1852 of 
the Zenana Bible and Medical Mission, which supports 
more than 30 stations and a number of well-equipped 
hospitals for women (see p. 132). Miss Swain was 
apparently the first woman to become a qualified medical 
missionary (1870). The number of qualified women doctors 
in the mission field is now nearly 400. 

Another sphere of women's work in the mission field is 
afforded by the demand for qualified nurses. It is encourag- 
ing to know that during the last ten years 700 nurses have 
joined the Nurses' Missionary League, thereby declaring 
their intention, if God permit, to become missionaries, and 
that of this number 230 are already (1914) at work 

The number of unmarried women missionaries now 
at work is nearly 7000. Of these 2700 come from 
the U.S.A. and about the same number from Great Britain. 
The remainder are connected with continental societies. 

The work which women missionaries have accomplished 
in the mission field will be referred to again and again in 
the sections relating to different countries, but nothing 
which can be said will give the supporters of missions an 
adequate idea of the important part which women are 
playing in the spread of Christian missions and of the 
supreme importance of extending their work. 



DURING the two centuries preceding the Reformation 
hardly any attempt was made to evangelize the non- 
Christian world, and nearly two centuries elapsed after 
the Eeformation before the Churches of Europe which had 
the open Bible in their hands realized that it was their duty 
to impart the knowledge of its contents to the heathen. 
Some of the leaders in the Reformation movements were 
so far from initiating missionary work abroad that they 
regarded all such work as useless or even wrong. 

Thus Luther (1483-1 546) in his Table Talk says : " The 
arts are growing as if there was to be a new start and the 
world was to become young again. . . . Another hundred 
years and all will be over. God's Word will disappear for 
want of any to preach it. ... Asia and Africa have no 
gospel. In Europe, Greeks, Italians, Spaniards, Hungarians, 
French, English, Poles have no gospel." " The small 
Electorate of Saxony will not hinder the end," he replied 
to one who observed that when Christ came there would be 
no faith at all on the earth, and that the gospel was still 
believed in that part of Germany. 

Zwingli (14841531), whilst admitting that the gospel 
must continue to spread throughout the world, makes no 
suggestion that it is the duty of the Church to send out 

1 This chapter contains a brief sketch of missionary work other than that 
connected with the R.C. Church up to 1750. A further account of the work 
to which reference is made will be found under the headings of the various 
countries in which the work was attempted. 



missionaries. It is interesting to note that he maintained 
that pious heathens would be saved who died without a 
knowledge of the gospel. 

Calvin (15091564) held that any special agency for the 
conversion of the heathen is needless, for, as he wrote, " we 
are taught that the kingdom of Christ is neither to be 
advanced nor maintained by the industry of men, but this 
is the work of God alone." 

In 1535 Erasmus, who was not definitely associated 
with the Reformation movements, had urged in the 
strongest language the duty of evangelizing the whole 
world. 1 

The first theologian connected with the Reformation 
movements to maintain that " the command to preach the 
gospel to all nations binds the Church " for all time was 
Adrianus Saravia (15311613), a Dutchman, who, after 
being a Reformed pastor at Antwerp and Brussels, and a 
professor at Leyden, eventually became Dean of Westminster. 
In his treatise " concerning the different orders of the 
ministry of the gospel as they were instituted by the 
Lord," published in 1590, he urges the duty of the Church 
to carry on the task of the evangelization of the world, 
which had been begun by the apostles, and argues that 
the maintenance of the episcopal office is necessary to the 
fulfilment of this task. 

This treatise by Saravia drew from Theodore Bcza of 
Geneva a reply (1592) in the course of which he disputed 
the interpretation of the missionary command given by 
Saravia and maintained that its obligation did not extend 
beyond the first century. Later on, Johann Gerhard 
(d. 1637) wrote, opposing the views of Saravia and 
maintaining that the command to preach the gospel in 
the whole world ceased with the apostles (mandatum 
prcedicandi evangelium in toto terrarum orbc cum apostolis 
desiit). He gives as one reason for believing that this 

1 See his treatise, Ecclesiastcs, sivc de ratione concionandi. A quotation 
of some length is given by Dr. Geo. Smith in his Short History of Christian 
Missions, p. 116 f. 


was so, that St. Paul himself declared that this command 
had been already obeyed, and that the gospel had brought 
forth fruit in the whole world (Eom. x. 18, Col. i. 23). 
The arguments that he adduces reappear in an official 
document issued by the theological Faculty of Wittenberg 
which represented Lutheran orthodoxy, and which had been 
elicited by an inquiry addressed to the Faculty by Count 
Truchsess, who desired to have an explanation of the scope 
of the missionary command recorded by St. Matthew. 
The Faculty declared that the command to go into all the 
world was only a personal privilege (personate privilegium) 
of the apostles, and had already been fulfilled. They 
argued that if this were not so it would be the duty of 
every Christian to become a missionary a conclusion 
which was absurd. They further declared that inasmuch 
as all nations once possessed the knowledge of God, He 
is not bound to restore to their descendants what has 
been taken away crimine lessee majcstatis. Lastly, they 
suggested that where a Christian Government is established 
in a non-Christian land it behoves the civil authorities to 
build churches and establish schools for the benefit of the 
" sinners " whom they have brought under their sway. 

The first attempt at missionary work made by 
members of the Eeformed Churches was not followed by 
any permanent result. In 1555 Villegaignon, a French 
adventurer, who founded a colony in Brazil, asked Calvin 
to send Christian preachers, whether to minister to the 
French Protestants or to evangelize the heathen is not 
certain. Eichier, who was one of four clergymen sent, 
wrote shortly after his arrival in Brazil that they had 
purposed to win the native heathen for Christ, but that 
their barbarism, their cannibalism, and their spiritual 
dullness " extinguished all our hope." 

It would be interesting to watch the countenances of a 
missionary committee to-day which should receive a similar 
pessimistic report from one of its missionaries before he 
had even begun to learn the language of the country to 
which he had been sent ! 


George Fox (162491), who founded the Society of 
Friends, and who had himself visited America, wrote : 
" All friends everywhere, that have Indians or blacks, you 
are to preach the gospel to them and other servants if 
you be true Christians." In 1661 three of his followers 
set out as missionaries to China, but did not succeed in 
reaching that country. 

The first Lutheran to attempt definitely missionary 
work was an Austrian, Baron Justinian von Wcltz (b. 1621). 
After writing several treatises in which he maintained the 
missionary obligation attaching to all Christians, he laid 
aside his baronial title and sailed for Dutch Guiana, where 
he soon afterwards died. The change of attitude in favour 
of the recognition of the duty of prosecuting foreign 
missions that took place amongst the Lutheran Christians 
towards the end of the seventeenth century was due in 
part to the writings and example of Von Weltz. 

Thus Spener (16351705), who has been called the 
" Father of pietism," in the course of a sermon preached 
on the Feast of the Ascension said : 

" The obligation rests on the whole Church to have care 
as to how the gospel shall be preached in the whole world, 
. . . and to this end no diligence, labour, or cost be spared 
in such work on behalf of the poor heathen and unbelievers. 
That almost no thought even has been given to this . . . 
is evidence how little the honour of Christ and of humanity 

concerns us." 

At the close of the seventeenth century the cause of 
foreign missions found an earnest advocate in the well-known 
philosopher, Baron von Leibnitz, whose interest in them 
had been aroused by his conversations with Jesuit mis- 
sionaries from China whom he had met in Kome. One 
of those whom he influenced was Francke, who was 
associated with the sending out of the Danish Mission 
to India. 

In 1700 the Royal Society of Prussia was founded in 
Berlin, and in 1702 a collegium orientate was added in 


order that the society to quote the words of the royal 

" may also be a college for the propagation of the Christian 
faith, worship, and virtue, that upon occasion of their 
philosophical observations which they shall make in the 
northern part of Asia, they shall likewise diligently endeavour 
that among the barbarous people of those tracts of land as 
far as China, the light of the Christian faith and the purer 
gospel may be kindled, and even that China itself may be 
assisted by those Protestants who travel thither by land or 
sail to that country through the Northern Sea." 

Dr. Jablonski, the vice-president of the Eoyal Society, 
writing to a representative of the English S.P.G-. (on Jan- 
uary 20, 1711) stated that the formation of this "oriental 
college " was an act of " pious emulation " on the part of 
those in Prussia who had heard of the proposed formation 
of the S.P.G. 

Dutch Missions. The Dutch East India Company, 
which was founded in 1602, was bound by the charter 
granted by the State to care for the planting of the Church 
and the conversion of the heathen in the countries with 
which it traded. At its instigation was founded in 1622, 
at the University of Leyden, an institution called the 
Seminarium Indicum, which for twelve years helped 
to provide preachers and missionaries for the Company's 
service. These engaged for a period of five years only, 
and the majority of them returned to Holland without 
having mastered the languages of the peoples amongst 
whom they lived. 

The causes of the comparative failure of the Dutch 
missions are thus described by Dr. Warneck : l 

" At the best the preachers mastered the language of the 
Malays, but the motley population of the wide archipelago 
has many languages, and only in the case of Ceylon and 
Formosa can it be pretended that they attempted to learn 
other languages. No doubt there was a Malay and also a 
Singalese translation of the Bible : so also in Formosa some 

1 History of Protestant Missions, p. 45 f. 


books of the New Testament were translated into the 
language of the country . . . with honourable exceptions 
the mission work itself became very superficial. . . . The 
example of Portuguese sham-Christianization worked 
infectiously. Thousands were received into the Church by 
baptism without heed to inward preparedness. . . . When 
in 1674 one of the kings of Timor declared that he and his 
people were willing to become Christians, the preacher 
Rhymdyk was sent ' to see to what was necessary '- that is, to 
baptize the whole people off-hand. In the state of Amboina 
the chiefs simply received a command to have always at the 
time of the preacher's visit a number of natives ready for 
baptism ; and since for everyone who was baptized the 
preacher received a sum per head, it will be easily under- 
stood that he was not particular if, as often happened, he 
himself was not a man full of the Holy Ghost and of faith. 
. . . With such a method of conversion it can easily be 
understood how at the close of the seventeenth century the 
number of Christians should be given in Ceylon alone as 
from 300,000 to 400,000, in Java as 100,000, in Amboina 
as 40,000, and no less easily how the Christianity of these 
masses was inwardly worthless, and almost vanished when, 
as in Ceylon, the rule of the Dutch came to an end, or con- 
tinued to exist only as a dead nominal Christianity. . . . 
In Formosa alone had a better foundation been laid, but 
there, after the expulsion of the Dutch by the Chinese pirates 
in 1661, the nascent Christianity was forcibly extinguished." 

The Danish-Halle Mission. The Danish colonial pos- 
sessions date from 1620 in the East Indies, and from 
1672 in the West Indies and Gold Coast. In 1705 Dr. 
Liitkens, who had been appointed as a Danish court chaplain 
in the previous year, and who had lived for a time with 
Spener in Berlin, was commissioned by the king, Frederick 
iv., to seek out missionaries who might be sent to the 
Danish colonies. Having failed to find suitable men in 
Denmark, he applied to Francke at Halle in Germany, and 
through his assistance the first two missionaries, Bartholomew 
Ziegenbalg and Henry Pliitschau, were sent forth from 
Copenhagen by the Bishop of Zealand on November 29,1705. 
Whilst staying at the Cape of Good Hope, on their way 
out to Tranquebar, they sent home a deplorable account of 


the Hottentots who were under Dutch rule. This eventu- 
ally resulted in the commencement of a Moravian mission 
at the Cape. On arriving at Tranquebar (July 9, 1706) 
they experienced much hostility from the Danish officials, 
who regarded their enterprise as fanatical and quixotic. 
Their work, nevertheless, was soon attended by visible 
results. Ten months after their arrival they baptized five 
heathen slaves of Danish masters, and five months later 
they baptized nine adult Hindus. In the following year 
Ziegenbalg made a preaching tour through the kingdom of 
Tanjore, and the reports of this tour, and of his public 
conferences with Brahmans, were translated into English by 
the Eev. A. W. Boehm, formerly chaplain to Prince George 
of Denmark, and were dedicated to the S.P.G., and the 500 
copies purchased and distributed by this society " proved 
a motive to many charitable benefactions contributed by 
well-disposed persons for advancing this mission." The 
English East India Company offered to convey the books 
and letters belonging to the mission free of charge, and 
the S.P.C.K. undertook to receive funds on its behalf. 

In 1714 a college for promoting the spread of the 
gospel was founded as a state institution at Copenhagen, 
but, notwithstanding the existence of this college, the real 
direction and control of the mission remained at Halle 
in Germany. Pllitschau returned invalided in 1711, by 
which time the New Testament had been translated into 
Tamil and a Tamil dictionary was nearly completed. When 
Ziegenbalg returned in 1715, he was presented to George I., 
who wrote to him after he had returned to Tranquebar a 
letter (dated August 23, 1717) expressing satisfaction 
" not only because the work undertaken by you of con- 
verting the heathen to the Christian faith doth, by the 
grace of God, prosper, but also because that in this our 
kingdom such a laudable zeal for the promotion of the 
gospel prevails." 

When Ziegenbalg died in 1719, aged thirty-six, he 
left 355 converts and numerous catechumens, a complete 
Tamil Bible, a dictionary, a mission seminary and schools. 


Fraucke was the chief supporter in Germany of the 
Danish-Halle Mission and helped to train many of its 
earliest missionaries. 

We shall refer to this mission later on in describing 
missionary work in India. Meanwhile we may quote Dr. 
Warneck's statement : 

"As to the history of the Danish-Halle Mission, ... let 
it suffice to note that from Fraucke's institutions there have 
been sent out in the course of a century about sixty mission- 
aries, amongst whom, besides conspicuous men like 
Ziegenbalg, Fabricius, Janecke, Gericke, Christian Friedrich 
Schwartz was distinguished as a star of the first magnitude. 
Amid various little strifes and ample distress . . . this . . . 
on the whole solid and not unfruitful mission (about 
15,000 Christians) maintained itself until in the last quarter 
of the century and afterwards rationalism at home dug up 
its roots. Only when the universities, having fallen com- 
pletely under the sway of this withering movement, ceased 
to furnish theologians, was the first trial made in 1803 of 
a missionary who had not been a university student. 
Meanwhile a more living interest had been awakened in 
England, and so the connection which had already for some 
time existed with friends of missions there, and specially the 
alliance with the Church missionary societies, saved the 
Tamil Mission from ruin. Then later the Dresden-Leipsic 
Lutheran Missionary Society stepped into the old heritage 
of the fathers, after Halle had long ceased to be an active 
centre." l 

The college which had been founded at Copenhagen 
sent out Hans Egede, a Norwegian pastor, to start work in 
Greenland in 1721. The hardships and disappointments 
that he and his associates encountered resulted in an 
order from the King of Denmark to discontinue the work 
(see p. 51). 

Moravian Missions. The missionary activities of no 
other branch of the Christian Church can compare with 
those of the Moravian Church. Within twenty years of 
the commencement of their missionary work the Moravian 
Brethren had started more missions than Anglicans and 

1 History of Protestant Missions, p. 57 f. 


Protestants had started during the two preceding centuries. 
Their marvellous success was largely due to the fact that from 
the first they recognized that the evangelization of the world 
was the most pressing of all the obligations that rested 
upon the Christian Church, and that) the carrying out of 
this obligation was the " common affair " of the community. 
Up to the present time the Moravians have sent out nearly 
3000 missionaries, the proportion of missionaries to their 
communicant members being 1 in 12. Amongst English 
Christians generally the proportion is said to be 1 in 2000. 
To the Moravians it seemed impossible that any branch of 
the Christian Church could continue to exist which failed 
to recognize this common obligation. It would be little 
exaggeration to say that the continued existence and vitality 
of the Moravian Church are a result of its missionary 

The Moravian community or brotherhood (Unitas 
Fratrum) dates back to 1467. The Moravians who were 
expelled from Austria in 1722 settled atHerrnhut, not far 
from Dresden, where they were welcomed by Count von 
Zinzendorf (1700-60), who helped to inspire them with 
a zeal for foreign missions and was eventually consecrated 
(1737) as a Bishop of the Moravian Church. Their first 
mission l was to the negro slaves in the Danish island of 
St. Thomas in the West Indies. A negro from this island, 
who had been invited to Herrnhut by Count Zmzendorf, 
appealed to the Brethren for help. He said to them, " You 
cannot come unless you are willing to become slaves " ; and 
although this forecast was not literally fulfilled, the first 
missionaries who responded to this appeal were not dis- 
couraged by the terms proposed. On August 21, 1732, 
Leonard Dober, a potter, and David Nitschmann, a 
carpenter, left Herrnhut for Copenhagen on their way to 
the West Indies, being the advanced guard of an army of 
nearly 3000 missionaries which the Moravian Church has 
sent forth. 

1 For a sketch of Moravian missions see A Short, History of the Moravian 
Church, by J. E. Hutton. 


On reaching St. Thomas : 

"they won the hearts of the slaves and made them clap 
their hands for joy. They aroused the anger of the brutal 
slave-owners. . . . They caused the negroes to weep and 
pray in sugar-field and hut, and brought hundreds of con- 
verts to baptism. . . . They stood fearlessly before high 
officials . . . and by showing the slave-owners that they 
should no longer treat their slaves as beasts, prepared the 
way for negro emancipation." x 

In 1734 mission work was started in the island of 
St. Croix, and a little later in Jamaica and Antigua. 

The Mission to Greenland. When Count Zinzendorf 
visited the Danish Court at Copenhagen in 1731, he met 
two Eskimos, who had been baptized by the Danish 
missionary Egede. On hearing that it was proposed to 
discontinue the work in Greenland, two Moravian Brethren, 
Stack and Boemisk, who were by occupation grave-diggers, 
volunteered to undertake work there, and reached Green- 
land in 1733. 

" At first their outlook was gloomy. When they tried 
to earn their living by fishing, they found themselves unable 
to manage their boat, and had to live chiefly on seaweed. 
They had to learn two new languages first, the Danish, and 
then through the Danish the Eskimo and the Greenlauders 
took the opportunity to cheat them. . . . When the two 
cousins stood up to preach, the natives treated them shame- 
fully, danced around them, mimicked them, howled, 
drummed, pelted them with stones. ' As long as we have a 
sound body,' said these greasy Greenlanders . . . ' we have 
enough. Your people may have diseased souls; go back to 
those that need you.' When the first convert, Kajarnak, 
came forward with his family to be baptized, a plot was 
formed, and his father-in-law was murdered. To add to the 
missionaries' troubles, the small-pox broke out and carried 
off from two to three thousand of the people. . . . The 
Moravians were hated and despised by the people: they 
were looked upon as the cause of the small-pox ; they had 
to attend on two thousand ungrateful patients ; they were 

1 A Short History of the Moravian Church, p. 152. 


almost dying of hunger ; and as they lay in their snow huts 
at night, with the cold stars above them and the sounds of 
midnight revelry in their ears, they felt indeed that only by 
the strength of Christ could they win the hard-fought 
battle. At last, after years of waiting, the long night began 
to break . . . and from the moment when Kajaruak, as he 
listened with awe to the story of Gethsemane, came forward 
with his eager question, ' What is that ? Tell me that again,' 
the work began to flourish, the hope of the missionaries 
swelled to faith, and the Eose of Sharon began to bloom in 
the eternal snows of the ' Land of Desolation.' " 1 

In 1740 the Moravian missionaries made an important 
change in the methods of presenting the gospel to the Green- 
landers which they had hitherto adopted. In the Historical 
Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren? written by 
John Holmes and published in 1818, this change is thus 
described : 

" A great change took place in the mode adopted by our 
brethren in their endeavours to instruct the natives. The 
method hitherto pursued by them consisted principally in 
speaking to the heathen of the existence, the attributes, 
and perfection of God, and enforcing obedience to the divine 
law, hoping by this means gradually to prepare their minds 
for the reception of the subliiner and more mysterious truths 
of the gospel : and it must be allowed that, abstractly con- 
sidered, this method appears the most rational ; but when 
reduced to practice, it was found wholly ineffectual. For 
five years our missionaries had laboured in this way, and 
could scarce obtain a patient hearing from the savages. 
Now, therefore, they determined in the literal sense of the 
word to preach Christ and Him crucified without first ' lay- 
ing the foundation of repentance from dead works and faith 
towards God.' No sooner did they declare unto the Green- 
landers ' the word of reconciliation ' in its native simplicity 
than they beheld its converting and saving power. This 
reached the hearts of the audience and produced the most 
astonishing effects. An impression was made which opened 
a way to their consciences and illuminated their under- 
standings. They remained no longer the stupid and brutish, 

1 A Short History of the Moravian Church, p. 154 f. * P. 31 f. 


creatures they had once been ; they felt they were sinners, 
and trembled at their danger ; they rejoiced in the oiler of a 
Saviour, and were rendered capable of relishing sublimer 
pleasures than plenty of seals and the low gratifications of 
sensual appetites. A sure foundation being thus laid in the 
knowledge of a crucified Redeemer, our missionaries soon 
found that this supplied their young converts with a power- 
ful motive to the abhorrence of sin and the performance of 
every moral duty towards God and their neighbour. . . . 
In short, the happiest results have attended this practice, 
not only at first and in Greenland, but in every other 
country where our missionaries have since laboured for the 
conversion of the heathen." 

Within the territory occupied by the Moravians the 
work of evangelization has long since been completed. At 
their General Synod in 1899 the Moravians handed over 
their missions in Greenland to the Danish Church and 
quitted Greenland in the following year. 

The mission to Labrador, which was commenced soon 
after the middle of the eighteenth century, was attended 
by even greater difficulties than those which the mission- 
aries had to encounter in Greenland, but these were 
successfully surmounted, and nearly all the population of 
Labrador is now Christian. 

In 1738 a mission was established in Surinam or 
Dutch Guiana. On reaching the coast the missionaries 
made their way through three hundred miles of jungles and 
swamps and finally settled amongst the Accawois, the 
Warrows, the Arawaks, and the Caribs. George Da'hne, 
one of the missionaries, lived in a lonely hut in the forest 
for two years, " surrounded by wild beasts and wilder 
men." After six years of strenuous toil, the first convert, 
an old woman, was baptized. As the work began to attain 
visible success it was bitterly opposed by the Dutch traders, 
and the Dutch Government issued orders forbidding the 
Indians to join any Moravian settlement. 

In 1735 the Moravians undertook colonization in 
Georgia, and commenced missionary work amongst the 
American Indians. Their work, which met with a large 


amount of initial success, was so vehemently opposed by 
the other white settlers that they at length withdrew 

In 1742 the Moravian missionary Eauch developed 
a mission at Shckomeko in the state of New York, 
but the opposition of the white settlers compelled its 
abandonment. A missionary settlement established in 
1746 at Gnadenhiitten prospered for ten years, but was 
then destroyed during one of the innumerable wars waged 
against the Indians. 

In 1736 Huckoff, who belonged to an old Moravian 
family, attempted to start a school among the slaves on the 
Gold, Coast. 

In 1737 George Schmidt reached Cape Town, having 
been sent out by the Brethren at Herrnhut. By this 
time the Dutch had held Cape Town for nearly a century, 
but they had done nothing towards the evangelization of 
the Africans. Schmidt had been imprisoned for conscience' 
sake for six years in Bohemia before he set sail for South 
Africa. He worked for six years among the Hottentots at 
Bavianskloof, and won the hearts of many by his teaching 
and preaching. The Dutch Boers, who disliked and de- 
spised the Hottentots, were far from being pleased at his 
success. In 1742 Schmidt, having received an "act of 
ordination " from Zinzendorf, proceeded to baptize five 
Hottentots. His action gave umbrage to the regular 
Dutch ministers at Cape Town, and after fruitless attempts 
to arrive at an understanding with them he started in 
October 1743 on his return to Europe. He left behind 
49 adherents, 5 of whom had been baptized. For nearly 
fifty years after his departure no attempt was made to 
carry on the work which he had inaugurated. 

The principles and methods which characterized these 
early Moravian missions have been well summarized by a 
Moravian historian, who wrote : 

"No Moravian missionary worked alone. The whole 
Church threw its heart into the task. All missionaries went 
out with full instructions, and were followed by the prayers 


of the whole Church. No man was to go unless his mind 
was fully made up ; nay more, unless he could not help it. 
He must be a man, so ran the rules, who felt within him an 
irresistible call ; a man who loathed the lusts of the world, 
who burned with love to Christ, who was approved by all 
his brethren, and whose face shone with the light of a 
divine joy, which should enlighten the black hearts of the 
heathen. As for the work of the missionaries, it was 
thorough and deep and well organized. Everything was 
done according to a well-considered plan. When the 
missionaries arrived at their post they were to announce 
themselves to the people as messengers sent by Jesus 
Christ. ... As soon as possible after their arrival they 
translated portions of the gospels into the native language, 
and with this as their weapon spoke straight to the hearts of 
the people. Instead of puzzling the poor heathens' brains 
with shadowy notions of a great and good God, they went 
straight to the mark : ' Jesus Christ lived and died, and 
lives now, to save thee from thy sins.' ... As they never 
baptized till they were perfectly sure (as far as man can be 
sure) that the candidate was a genuine Christian, they often 
seemed to work but slowly ; but they found it better to do 
their work thoroughly than be content with a mere coating 
of sham religion. . . . Above all, with their teaching, they 
did not forget discipline. . . . But the iron hand had a 
silken glove . . . and by kindness and love and tenderness 
they won the hearts of the heathen. . . . ' It will not do,' 
said Zinzendorf, 'to measure everything by the Herrnhut 
yard." * 

The districts in which Moravian missionaries are at 
work to-day include Labrador, Alaska, California (amongst 
the Indians), Jamaica, eight of the West Indian Islands, 
Nicaragua, Demerara, Surinam, South Africa, East Central 
Africa, West Himalayas, and North Queensland. Their 
missionaries, who number altogether 367, include 38 theo- 
logians, 1 doctor, 26 tradesmen, 6 artisans, 6 deaconesses, 
12 brethren trained in London and 6 at Tubingen. Of the 
whole number 142 are ordained. In addition to these 
the native missionaries include 48 ordained and 25 un- 
ordained brethren. 

1 A Short History of the Moravian Church, p. 102 f. 


Anglican Missions. Of missionary societies now con- 
nected with the Anglican Church the oldest is the New 
Eivjland Company (formerly known as " The Corporation 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England "), which 
was founded by the Long Parliament in 1649. It was 
founded at the instigation of Cromwell after a petition 
had been presented to Parliament in 1641 by 70 English 
and Scottish ministers. The money necessary for its 
support was obtained by a collection directed by the 
same Parliament to be made throughout England in all 
parishes, which amounted to what was then the large 
sum of nearly 12,000. The money was invested in 
land, and the income forwarded from time to time 
through the Governors of the United Colonies to the 
Company's first missionary in New England, the Eev. John 
Eliot, and afterwards to his assistants. 

At the Eesto ration the Company was reconstituted, 
and incorporated by King Charles II. in 1661. The first 
Governor of the Company was the Hon. Eobert Boyle 1 
(later one of the founders of the Koyal Society). 

The Company continued its work in New England until 
the year 1775, when the War of Independence broke out. 

After the Declaration of Independence the Company 
transferred the scene of its labours to New Brunswick, and 
the work among the Indians there was carried on from 
1776 to 1822." 

In 1822 the Company transferred its operations from 
New Brunswick farther to the west. Since then its 
missionaries have been working among the six Indian 
nations on the Grand Eiver Eeserve, Ontario, which is 
the largest Indian reserve in Canada. The Company has 
built several churches on the reserve, and entirely main- 
tains three clergymen, several catechists, and a trained 
hospital nurse. 

1 Robert Boyle was for thirty years Governor of this Corporation. In 
addition to his labours on behalf of the American Indians, he published at 
his own expense the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles in the Malay 
language. These were printed at Oxford in 1677- 


The Company has also charge of the Mohawk Church 
(which is the oldest church belonging to the Anglican 
Communion in Canada), and has built and maintains the 
Mohawk Institution. This institution is considered by the 
Indian Department of the Canadian Government to be 
one of the most successful industrial schools for the 
children (boys and girls) of Indians in the Dominion. The 
Mohawk Church and Institution are in Brantford, Ontario. 
The church is the only chapel royal in Canada, being 
styled by the Crown " His Majesty's Chapel of the 
Mohawks," and possesses silver communion plate and a 
Bible presented by Queen Anne to " Her Chapel of the 
Mohawks," in the Mohawk Valley, Albany (now U.S.A.), in 
the year 1712. During the war the plate and Bible were 
buried, but were subsequently recovered by the Indians and 
by them brought to Canada. 

In 1901 the Company opened a new sphere of work 
and built (at the invitation of the bishop of New West- 
minster) a school for Indian boys at Lytton in British 
Columbia. The membership of the New England Com- 
pany has since its foundation consisted entirely of laymen 
and is limited to 25 members. 

The Company maintains its missionary work upon 
the annual income derived from its endowments, which 
have been obtained partly by the amount realized from 
the collection already referred to, and partly from 
the bequests of the Hon. Eobert Boyle and Dr. Daniel 

The Christian Faith Society, originally called the 
Society for the Conversion and Eeligious Instruction and 
Education of the Negro Slaves in the British West India 
Islands, was founded as a result of a bequest made in the 
will of Eobert Boyle, dated 1691. Its first achievement 
was the foundation of the College of William and Mary 
in Virginia for the instruction of Indian children. After 
the War of Independence the operations of the society 
were diverted to the West Indies. It has an income of 
2300 per annum, derived from investments, which is spent 


on the support of Anglican work for the benefit of the 
inhabitants of the West Indian Islands. 

The formation of English missionary societies for the 
promotion of missionary work throughout the world 
may be said to date from the opening of the eighteenth 
century. In 1698, the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge was formed, its chief object being to provide 
Christian literature and to promote Christian education 
both at home and abroad. When the Danish mission to 
South India was in danger of becoming extinct through 
lack of funds, the S.P.C.K. supported it financially for 
a hundred years. The missionaries were for the most 
part German Lutherans, of whom Schwartz was the most 
remarkable (see p. 79). 

The oldest missionary society now existing in England, 
which was founded with the object of sending out mission- 
aries, is the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts. It can claim to be the official representative 
of the Church of England, since it was brought into exist- 
ence as the result of a resolution passed by convocation 
(March 13, 1700), and all the diocesan bishops in England 
are ex officio members of its standing committee. 

The society was founded with the twofold aim of 
ministering to English settlers beyond the seas and of 
propagating the gospel amongst the heathen with whom 
the settlers might come into contact. The society 
recognized that it was as important to prevent English 
people from becoming heathen as it was to attempt 
the conversion of heathen to the Christian faith. One 
of its earliest missionaries, the Eev. Thorogood Moore, 
who was sent to New York in 1704 as a mission- 
ary to Indians, wrote home to the society : " To begin 
with the Indians is preposterous, for it is from the 
behaviour of the Christians that here they have had, and 
still have, their notion of Christianity, which, God knows, 
hath been generally such that it hath made the Indians to 
hate our religion." 

Although the chief efforts of the society were directed 


at first towards supplying and maintaining clergy for the 
colonies and dependencies of Great Britain, it soon began 
definite work amongst the Indians and negroes of North 

It has sometimes been stated that the founders of the 
S.P.G. did not regard its work as definitely missionary 
in character, but this is far from being the case. In the 
sermon preached at the first anniversary of the formation 
of the society in 1702, the preacher stated that it was part 
of the design of the society " to proceed in the best methods 
they can towards the conversion of the natives," and that 
it included " the breeding up of persons to understand the 
great variety of languages of those countries in order to be 
able to converse with the natives and preach the gospel 
to them." At a meeting of the society held on April 20, 
1710, the following resolutions were carried: 

" 1. That the design of propagating the gospel in foreign 
parts does chiefly and principally relate to the conversion 
of heathens and infidels, and therefore that branch of it 
ought to be prosecuted preferably to all others. 2. That, in 
consequence thereof, immediate care be taken to send 
itinerant missionaries to preach the gospel among the Six 
Nations of the Indians according to the primary intentions 
of the late King William of glorious memory." 

Bishop Seeker (who afterwards became Archbishop of 
Canterbury) said in 1741 : 

" In less than forty years, under many discouragements 
and with an income very disproportionate to the vastness 
of the undertaking, a great deal hath been done; though 
little notice may have been taken of it by persons unatten- 
tive to these things, or backward to acknowledge them . . . 
great multitudes upon the whole of negroes and Indians 
brought over to the Christian faith, many numerous 
congregations have been set up, which now support the 
worship of God at their own expense where it was not 
known before, and seventy persons are constantly employed 
at the expense of the society in the further service of 
the gospel." l 

1 See S.P.G. Anniversary Sermon, 1741, p. 11 f. 


The " seventy persons " to whom reference is here 
made included all those who were engaged in ministering 
to English-speaking congregations. Many of these would, 
however, be in touch with the Indians, as " the instruction 
of the negro and Indian slaves and (their preparation) for 
conversion, baptism, and communion was a primary charge 
to every missionary . . . and to all schoolmasters of the 
society in America." x 

Further references to the work undertaken by the 
S.P.G. for the benefit of Indians and negroes between 
1701 and 1750 in North America and the West Indies 
are given later on (p. 371-6). 

1 Two Hundred Years of the S.P.O., p. 63. 


BEFORE attempting to describe the beginnings of Christian 
missions in India it would be well to make a brief refer- 
ence to the connection which, it is often maintained, exists 
between the Baghavad Gita and other Hindu literature 
and the Christian Scriptures. The conclusion which seems 
to be best supported by evidence may be expressed in 
the words of Dr. E. W. Hopkins (U.S.A.). After con- 
sidering in detail the points of resemblance which have 
been suggested between the teaching of the Gospels, specially 
that of the Gospel of St. John, and the Gita and other 
Hindu scriptures, he writes : 

"The most reasonable explanation of the data as a 
whole appears to me to be that the Fourth Gospel, perhaps 
not uninfluenced by the Gnosticism of the time, but not 
necessarily influenced by a Buddhistic tradition or by any 
Sanskrit texts, was of a mystical tone that made it 
peculiarly suitable to influence the Hindu divines, who 
transferred from it such phrases and sentiments as best 
fitted in with the conception of Krishna as a god of love. 
For it must be remembered constantly that before Krishna's 
advent in his new role those characteristics of Krishna that 
bring him into closest likeness with Christ are entirely 
lacking in the conception of any previous Hindu divinity. 
Buddha never pretended to forgive sin. . . . But suddenly 
there appears this benign man-god, who proclaims that all 
sins are forgiven to him who believes in Krishna, and that 
those who believe in him are very few in number, yet this 
new religion of love and faith is better than the old 
Brahmanic religion of works and ceremonial purity." : 

1 India Old and X>ew, by Dr. E. W. Hopkins (New York, 1901), 
p. 158. 



When we come down to the writings of Tulsi Das (the 
Kamayana) in the sixteenth century the influence of 
Christian teaching becomes so apparent that it is im- 
possible to resist the conviction that his development of 
the doctrine of WiaHi which was hinted at in the 
Bhagavad Gita was the outcome of Christian influences. 
Keferring to this doctrine Dr. Grierson writes : 

" Suddenly in India there came this great revolution of 
Wiakti. Religion was no longer a matter of knowledge, it 
became one of emotion. Bhakti may be translated by 
' faith ' or ' devotion.' It requires a personal, not an im- 
personal, God. I do not myself doubt that this great 
step forward of the Hindu soul was due to the influence 
of the Christians who were then settled in the country. It 
was not openly an adoption of Christian principles by 
Hindu thinkers, who had been wasting their lives on a 
barren search for knowledge. In such a search, even with 
the brother-love of Buddhism added to it, the people could 
find no permanent happiness. The craving for expressing 
love towards the Infinite which exists in every heart was 
there, a spark was sufficient to set it in a flame, and that 
vital spark came from Christianity." l 

For a detailed discussion of the influence which 
Christianity has exerted upon the teachings of modern 
Hinduism the reader is referred to any of the standard 
books on Hinduism. A helpful account of the approxima- 
tions of modern Hindu writers to Christian thought will 
be found in The Crown of Hinduism, by J. N. Farquhar, 
and in The Renaissance in India, by C. F. Andrews. 

We pass on to consider the beginnings of actual mis- 
sionary work in India. 

The obscurity attaching to the first preaching of the 
Christian faith in Southern India is in part due to the fact 
that the word India was used during the early centuries of 

1 See "Hinduism and Early Christianity," by G. A. Grierson, The East 
and The West, April 1906, p. 142 f. As an incidental proof of the existence 
of intercourse between Rome and South India in the first century A.D. we 
may refer to the discovery in 1850 at Calicut of several hundred coins all of 
which were as early as the reign of Nero. 


the Christian era, in a number of different senses. The 
tradition that St. Thomas, whose tomb is shown to-day at 
Mylapore, a suburb of Madras, was the first to preach the 
gospel in Southern India is of comparatively late origin. 1 
On the other hand, Origen's statement that St. Thomas 
went as a missionary to Parthia is probably correct. The 
tradition that he was sold to a Parthian chief called 
Gondophares has been rendered credible by the discovery 
that a prince of this name 2 actually existed in Parthia at 
the period when St. Thomas might have been there. 
Heracleon, a Sicilian Gnostic who wrote about A.D. 170, 
says that St. Thomas ended his days in peace ; and 
St. Clement of Alexandria, who quotes this statement, 
does not deny it. It is by no means inconceivable that 
St. Thomas extended his missionary activities from Parthia 
into North -West India, but it seems certain that he never 
visited Southern India. Pantamus is said by Eusebius to 
have travelled from Alexandria to India about A.D. 190 in 
order to preach the gospel. The words of Eusebius are : 

" He (Pantsenus) is said to have found there among 
some of the inhabitants who were acquainted with 
Christ the Gospel of Matthew, which had reached that 
country before him. For Bartholomew is said to have 
preached to these people and to have left them a Hebrew 
version of Matthew's Gospel, which they had kept until the 
time of which I speak." 3 

It seems probable that by India is here meant either 
Southern Arabia or the India of Alexander the Great 
that is, the valley of the Indus. One of the bishops who 
attended the Council of Nicaea, A.D. 325, was described as 
"John of Persia, in all Persia and Great India," the 
latter word apparently being intended to denote the 
country which lay between Persia and the Indus. The 

1 See "St. Thomas and his Tomb at Mylapore," by James Kennedy, 
in The East and The West, April 1907. 

2 Undaphares of Arachosia. 

3 Historia Ecclesiastica, v. 10. 3. 


India visited by Frumentius early in the fourth century 
was apparently Abyssinia, and the India of Theophilus the 
Indian towards the end of the fourth century was Arabia 
Felix. A tradition which does not date back earlier than 
the seventh century assigns Calaraina, or Calamita, as the 
site of St. Thomas' martyrdom. Possibly this may be 
Kerman in Eastern Persia, or Calama in Beluchistan. 

The Church in Southern India, which claims to trace back 
its ancestry to St. Thomas, was an offshoot from the Church 
in Persia, which, at the time when the Church in India was 
established (that is, at the beginning of the sixth century), 
was part of the patriarchate of Babylon. 

Keferring to the missionary activities of this patriar- 
chate, Dr. Neale writes : 

they " pitched their tents in the camps of the wandering 
Tartar : the Lama of Thibet trembled at their words : they 
stood in the rice fields of the Panjab and taught the fisher- 
men by the Sea of Aral : they struggled through the vast 
deserts of Mongolia : the memorable inscription of Singanf u 
attests their victories in China : in India the Zamorin 
(the ruler of Calicut) himself respected their spiritual and 
courted their temporal authority. . . . The power of the 
Nestorian patriarch culminated in the beginning of the 
eleventh century, when he had 25 metropolitans, who ruled 
from China to the Tigris, from Lake Baikal to Cape 
Cornorin." x 

The identification of the founder of Christianity in 
Southern India with the Apostle is probably to be 
explained by the local tradition which asserts that in the 
year 345 there landed in Malabar, under the convoy of a 
Jerusalem merchant, a bishop from Edessa, named Thomas, 
who brought with him a large following, which included 
several priests and deacons. We know from other sources 
that in 343 a severe persecution of Christians occurred in 
the Persian Empire. 

The first definite authority for the existence of a 

1 A History of the Holy Eastern Church, vol. i. p. 3, 143. For a further 
reference to Nestorian Bishoprics in Asia, see p. 164 f. 


Christian Church in Southern India is Cosmas Indi- 
copleustes, who, about A.D. 535, found Christian churches 
and clergy in Ceylon, interior India and Male (Malabar), 
as well as a bishop at Kaliana (Kalyan) near Bombay. 

He states that the Bishop of Kaliana receives imposition 
of hands from Persia. 

In 1547 the so-called Thomas Cross was discovered at 
Milapur, Madras. On it and on two other similar crosses 
found at Cottayam, 500 miles away, there is an inscription 
in ancient Persian (or Pahlavi). In the case of the cross 
at Madras and of one of those at Cottayam the inscription 
proves that the cross must have been in existence at least 
as early as the seventh century. In 883 King Alfred of 
England sent two priests, Sighelm and Athelstan, to 
India via Eome to carry the votive offerings which he had 
promised to St. Thomas during the siege of London. 

Of what befell the Christians in South India during the 
next four centuries we know nothing. Marco Polo, who 
travelled in the East from 1270 to 1295, writes: 

"In the kingdom of Quilon (Travancore) dwell many 
Christians and Jews who still retain their own language." 

By this time the connection between the Apostle 
Thomas and Milapur had attained general acceptance. 
Marco Polo says that there lies 

"the body of the glorious martyr St. Thomas Apostle, 
who su tiered martyrdom there ... a great multitude of 
Christians and Saracens (Mohammedans) make pilgrimages 

John of Monte Corvino, who afterwards became 
Archbishop of Cambaluc (Peking), spent thirteen months 
in South India, 1292-93, on his way to China. He 
writes : 

"At different places in that province (which contains 
the Church of the Apostle St. Thomas) I baptized some 
hundred persons." 



Menentillus, a friar who visited India in 1310, writes: 

" Christians and Jews there are, but they are few and of 
no high standing. Christians and all who have Christian 
names are often persecuted." 

Sir John Mandeville, who visited South India early in 
the fourteenth century, states that round about the tomb of 
St. Thomas were fifteen houses inhabited by Nestorian 
monks, recreant Christians and schismatics. He states 
that the body of St. Thomas has been transported to Edessa 
in Syria, but had again been brought back to India. The 
papal nuncio John of Marignola on his way home from 
China spent nearly two years in India, 1348-50, but 
the information which he supplies adds little to our 
knowledge of the development of Christianity in South 

In 1503 the Nestorian Patriarch Mar Elia iv. sent 
three bishops to Southern India, and a letter received by 
his successor which announced their arrival stated that in 
one of the two districts in which Christians were found 
there were 30,000 "families of the faith." In 1599 the 
Portuguese representatives in India succeeded in forcing 
the Syrians into obedience to the See of Borne, but half 
a century later, when Portuguese political influence in India 
began to wane, the larger part of the Church renounced its 
connection with the E.G. Church. 

The Syrian Christians in South India are now divided 
into four sections : 

1. " Orthodox Syrians," or simply " Syrians." These live 
under their Matran, Mar Dionysius, and his four suffragans. 
They are Monophysite in confession, and subordinate to 
the Patriarch of that Church, who resides at Mardin in 
ChakUea. They are often called Jacobites because they 
use the Liturgy of St. James, in the form employed by the 
Church referred to. 

2. Bomo-Syrians. These of late years have been ruled 
by Indian bishops, guided by Eoman Catholic fathers 
of the Jesuit and Carmelite orders. While Eoman 


Catholic in confession, they use their own rite, which is an 
expurgated and amended version of the Liturgy of SS. 
Adai and Mari, though not identical with the version of the 
same liturgy used by the Chaldavans of Mosul. 

3. Eeformed Syrians, called by themselves the 
" Christians of St. Thomas." This is an independent 
Church, an offshoot from the Monophysite Syrians, having 
their own bishop, Mar Titus Thomas, with two suffragans. 
Their formal separation from the " Syrians " dates only 
from about the year 1880. The Church is in close accord 
with the English C.M.S. missionaries but is in no way under 
their control, and it uses an expurgated and amended 
version of the Liturgy of St. James, in the Malayalam 

4. The Syro-Chaldreans. This body, which is the 
smallest of the four, is an off-shoot from the Eomo-Syrians, 
from whom they separated in 1880. In theory they are 
Nestorian, and their bishop, Mar Timotheus, was con- 
secrated by the Nestorian Patriarch in 1907, but in 
practice they bear considerable traces of long subjection to 
Roman Catholic influences, and would better be described 
as " Old Catholics." The real reason for their separation 
was apparently the refusal of the Vatican to allow native 
bishops to the Eorno-Syrian Church ; but though that 
concession has been made since their departure, it has not 
brought about their reconciliation. They use the same 
liturgy as the Eomo-Syrians. 

(For the number of Christians belonging to each of 
these bodies see p. 121 f.) 

In 1816 the C.M.S. sent four clergy to try to revive 
the Syrian Church and to translate the Scriptures into the 
vernacular. This " mission of help " continued for twenty 
years, after which the C.M.S. undertook independent 
missionary work amongst non-Christians. 

The Syrian Christians during the long centuries of 
their history have never been inspired with missionary 
enthusiasm and have constituted a select community which 
corresponded closely to an Indian caste. During the last 


few years, however, there has been a revival amongst them, 
and the " Beforrned Christians " have sent four missionaries 
of their own race to work in connection with the National 
Missionary Society at Karwar in the Bombay Presidency. 

The only contemporary reference to Christianity in 
India during the fifteenth century is the statement of the 
Venetian Nicolo de Conti, who on his return to Eome 
stated that the body of St. Thomas " reposes honourably 
in a large and beautiful church, close to which dwell a 
number of Nestorian Christians, who are also found dis- 
seminated all over India, just as Jews are found in Europe.' 
We should greatly like to penetrate the darkness which 
conceals the fortunes and condition of these tiny Christian 
communities during this long period, but there seems little 
hope that we shall ever be enabled to do so. 

On May 9, 1498, Vasco da Gam a landed at Calicut 
after sailing round the Cape of Good Hope. His arrival 
in India inaugurated the establishment of missions, sup- 
ported by the kings of Portugal. The expedition under 
C.-ibral, which sailed in 1500, included several monks 
who were intended for missionary work, and their numbers 
were rapidly augmented. In 1534 Goa was constituted 
a bishopric, and in 1557 an archbishopric. The mission- 
aries belonged to the Franciscan and Dominican Orders. 
The Portuguese encouraged their soldiers and sailors to 
take native Indian wives, and as the offspring of these 
unions, which were often of a temporary nature, were 
baptized, the moral character of the Christian community 
tended to become more and more deplorable. During the 
first forty years of the sixteenth century the missionaries 
do not appear to have made any considerable number of 
converts, but before the middle of the century India was to 
receive a missionary whose arrival forms a landmark in the 
history of Christian missions in the East. 

In 1523 that is, eleven years before the institution of 
the " Company of Jesus " Ignatius Loyola had himself left 
Spain with the avowed object of converting the 
Mohammedans of Palestine to the Christian faith and 


of reconciling the Greek Church to the See of Eonie. 
Sailing from Barcelona to Gaeta, he visited Rome and 
thence begged his way by land to Venice. From here 
he sailed to Cyprus and eventually to Jaffa. On Sep- 
tember 4, 1523, in company with other pilgrims, he set foot 
inside the Holy City. Here, had he been allowed to do so, 
he would have spent the rest of his life. The Superior of 
the Franciscan convent in Jerusalem, who had been given by 
the Pope control over Christian pilgrims, refused, however, 
to allow him to stay, and when he lingered behind the 
pilgrim caravan he was forcibly conducted to Jaffa. Had 
he been able to carry out his purpose, there is little doubt 
that the Society of Jesus would not have been formed and 
that he would himself have met his death at the hands of 
the fanatical Moslems of Jerusalem. Despite the failure 
of his efforts in Jerusalem, he deserves to be remembered 
as one of the earliest missionaries who made a definite 
attempt to convert Mohammedans otherwise than by the 

By his personal activities and by his teaching Loyola 
was largely instrumental in arousing the whole Roman 
Church to a sense of missionary obligation. His society 
sent missionaries to India, Brazil, and North America, and 
his zeal was the indirect cause of the missions of the 
Dominicans to China, of the Franciscans to Tartary, of 
the Theatins to Armenia, Persia, and Sumatra, and of the 
Sulpicians in Montreal. He founded at Rome the first 
Jews' Society, the first Magdalene Asylum, and the first 
Orphan House on record. 

In the year that Columbus died (1506) Francis Xavier 
was born. The youngest of a large family in which all 
the other boys became soldiers, he entered the University 
of Paris at the age of eighteen, and became a teacher of 
philosophy in this university when he was little more than 
twenty. His conversion from a life of carelessness and 
selfishness to one of self-denial and devotion was the 
result of five years' close intercourse with Ignatius Loyola, 
who began by being his pupil, but whom he soon learned 


to regard as his master. On the Feast of the Assumption 
in the year 1534, Loyola and six companions, of whom 
Xavier was one, repaired to the subterranean chapel of 
Montmartre, and amid the darkness, at dead of night, 
dedicated themselves by solemn vows to become missionaries 
of the Church and to preach the gospel to every man 
whom they might meet. Two years later the members of 
the new Order placed themselves unreservedly at the dis- 
posal of the Pope, to be sent by him as missionaries to any 
part of the world. The seven years which passed before 
a definite plan was elaborated were spent by Xavier in 
visiting hospitals and tending the sick in some of the 
principal towns in Italy and in preaching to the poor 
wherever he could obtain an audience. After abstaining 
from interviewing his widowed mother and his much-loved 
sister, lest he should be tempted to draw back from his 
high call, he embarked, with a smiling face, on his thirty- 
fifth birthday, in a ship sailing for India. His first year 
there was spent in preaching, catechizing, and visiting the 
sick. At the time of his arrival a missionary college was 
in course of erection at Government expense to accommodate 
100 Indians who were to be trained as Christian 
missionaries. The Franciscan Principal ere long gave 
place to a member of the Jesuit Order, and the college 
became one of the chief centres of its work in India. 
Prior to the arrival of Xavier, 85 deputies had come to 
Goa to implore help on behalf of a community of low caste 
pearl-fishers (Paravas) who lived between Cape Comorin 
and Ramnad on the east coast and were oppressed 
by Mohammedan pirates. They offered, as the price of 
assistance, to become Christians and to acknowledge the 
sovereignty of Portugal, and as an earnest of the genuineness 
of their offer they all allowed themselves to be baptized in 
Goa. A fleet was dispatched to their aid, which drove off 
their enemies. The whole community, 20,000 in number, 
were baptized in the course of a few weeks, no teacher, 
however, being left behind to teach them the meaning of 
Christian baptism. 



After Xavicr had laboured for a year in Goa he spent 
fifteen months with these Paravas, living on rice and water 
and associating with them as one of themselves. After 
returning to Goa and obtaining the assistance of some of 
the students in the missionary college there, he returned 
to the Paravas and endeavoured to minister both to their 
material and spiritual wants. During this period he is 
said by his biographer to have spent twenty-one and a half 
hours each day in prayer and labour on their behalf, and 
his zeal begat a corresponding zeal in his companions. 

To those who are familiar with modern missionary 
methods, it may seem almost incredible that during the 
whole of Xavier's missionary activities in India and iii the 
Far East he made no attempt to learn any language 
understood by those to whom he preached and was 
dependent entirely upon interpreters. How unsatisfactory 
were the efforts of his interpreters may be gathered from 
his own words : 

" It is a difficult situation to find oneself in the midst 
of a people of strange language, without an interpreter. 
Eodriquez tries, it is true, to act in that capacity, but, he 
understands very little Portuguese. So you can imagine 
the life I lead here, and what my sermons are like, when 
neither the people can understand the interpreter nor the 
interpreter the preacher to wit, myself." 

Again he writes : 

"We could not understand one another, as I spoke 
Castilian and they Malabar, so I picked out the most 
intelligent and well-read of them and then sought out with 
the greatest diligence men who knew both languages. We 
held meetings for several days, and by our joint efforts 
and with infinite difficulty we translated the Catechism into 
the Malabar tongue. This I learnt by heart, and then I 
began to go through all the villages of the Malabar country, 
calling around me by the sound of a bell as many as I could, 
children and men. I assembled them twice a day and 
taught them the Christian doctrine, and thus in the space 
of a month the children had it well by heart. 

"Every Sunday I collected them all, men and women, 


boys and girls, in the church. They came with great 
readiness and with a great desire for instruction. Then, 
in the hearing of all, I began by calling on the name of the 
most Holy Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and I 
recited aloud the Lord's Prayer and the Creed in the 
language of the country, and they all followed me in the 
same words, and delighted at it wonderfully. Then I 
repeated the Creed by myself, dwelling upon each article 
singly . . . and asking them after each article whether they 
believed it. ... After explaining the Creed I go on to the 
Commandments, teaching them that the Christian law is 
contained in these ten precepts, and that everyone who 
observes them all faithfully is a good and true Christian. 
After this I recite our principal prayers, such as the Our 
Father and the Hail Mary, and they say them after me. 
Then we go back to the Creed, adding the Our Father after 
each article with a short hymn ; for as soon as I have 
recited the first article I sing in their language : ' Jesus, Son 
of the living God, grant us the grace to believe firmly this 
first article of Your faith, and that we may obtain this from 
You we offer You the prayer taught us by Yourself.' We 
do the same after all the other articles. 

" We teach them the Commandments in the following 
way. After we have sung the first, which enjoins the love 
of God, we pray thus : ' Jesus, Son of the living God, grant 
us the grace to love Thee above all things ' ; and then we 
say for this intention the Lord's Prayer. So we go on 
through the other nine, changing the words of our little 
invocation as occasion requires. Thus I accustom them to 
ask for these graces with the ordinary prayers of the Church, 
and I tell them at the same time that if they obtain 
them they will have all other things that they can wish 
for more abundantly than they would be able to ask for 

" I make them all, and especially those who are to be 
baptized, repeat the form of general confession. These last 
I question, after each article of the Creed as it is recited, 
whether they believe it, and after they have answered ' Yes,' 
I give them an instruction in their own language, explaining 
the chief heads of the Christian religion and other duties 
necessary to salvation. Last of all I admit them, thus 
prepared, to baptism. 

" As to the number who become Christians, you may 
understand from this that it often happens to me to be 


hardly able to use my hands from the fatigue of bapli/ing; 
often in a single day I have baptized whole villages. Some- 
times I have lost my voice and strength altogether with 
repeating again and again the Creed and the other forms." 

In a letter relating to a missionary tour which he had 
made through Travancore, he speaks of having baptized 
all the fishermen (Machhas) whom he could possibly meet 
with, but does not say whether these baptisms were 
preceded by any kind of instruction. 

In forming an opinion on the methods adopted by 
Xavier, it is only fair to him to remember that he was 
himself profoundly dissatisfied with the results which his 
labours produced. In a letter addressed to Ignatius 
Loyola in January 1549 he writes: 

" The natives [of India] are so terribly wicked that they 
can never be expected to embrace Christianity. It is so 
repellent to them in every w r ay that they have not even 
patience to listen when we address them on the subject ; in 
fact, one might just as well invite them to allow themselves 
to be put to death as to become Christians. We must now 
therefore limit ourselves to retaining those who are already 

From first to last Xavier did not scruple to invoke the 
aid of the secular powers in order to further his mission- 
ary projects. He obtained authority from the King of 
Portugal authorizing him to punish by death the makers 
of idols, and in 1543 he urged the Portuguese Viceroy in 
India to support the claims of a brother of the King of 
Jaffna, who offered to be baptized as a Christian if the 
Portuguese would establish him on his brother's throne. 
With reference to this proposal Xavier wrote : 

" In Jaffna and on the opposite coast I shall easily gain 
100,000 adherents for the Church of Christ." 

Two years later, in the course of a letter addressed to 
the King of Portugal, he wrote : 

" I have discovered a unique, but, as I assuredly believe, 
a sure means ... by which the number of Christians in 


this land may without doubt be greatly increased. ... I 
demand that your Majesty shall swear a solemn oath affirm- 
ing that every Governor who shall neglect to disseminate 
the knowledge of our most holy faith shall be punished on 
his return to Portugal by a long term of imprisonment and 
by confiscation of his goods. ... I will content myself with 
assuring you that if every Viceroy or Governor were con- 
vinced of the full seriousness of such an oath, the whole of 
Ceylon, many kings on the Malabar coast, and the whole of 
the Cape Comorin district would embrace Christianity 
within a year. As long, however, as the Viceroys and 
Governors are not forced by fear of disfavour to gain 
adherents to Christianity, your Majesty need not expect 
that any considerable success will attend the preaching of 
the gospel in India, or that many baptisms will take place." 

After the departure of Xavier the Jesuit missions 
continued to make rapid progress on the lines on which he 
had started them. So unsatisfactory have been the results 
that Bishop Caldwell, who spent a long lifetime in South 
India, and knew the people as few Europeans have learned 
to know them, could write concerning the converts con- 
nected with the Eoman missions in Tinnevelly : " In 
intellect and morals they do not differ from the heathen 
in the smallest degree." As the Jesuit missions spread 
they came into conflict with the Syrian Church in Travan- 
core, the metropolitan of which they burnt in 1654. 

There is no Christian missionary other than Xavier in 
whose case it is more necessary to separate his life and 
character from his methods of work, if we are to do justice 
to the former. Of his self-devotion, his prayerfulness, and 
his capacity for inspiring others with his own spirit it is 
hardly possible to speak too highly. The record of his 
life has sent many to the mission field, and has helped to 
sustain their faith there, and to support them in times of 
despondency and trouble. But whilst we thank God for 
the many virtues which he possessed and which have placed 
his name high in the roll of missionary heroes, we cannot 
blind our eyes to the fact that his work was so marred by 
the methods of missionary enterprise which were recog- 


nized by his contemporaries, and which he adopted as his 
own, that it is at least open to question whether the final 
conversion of India to the Christian faith has not been 
retarded by the work done by himself and by those who 
followed in his steps. 

In 1567 the Governor of Goa, at the suggestion of 
the Jesuit missionaries, issued a decree ordering that in 
those districts of Goa which yet remained heathen, the 
pagodas and mosques should be pulled down and that 
orphans under fourteen years of age should be baptized. 
Similar action was taken in the other Portuguese settle- 
ments in India. Dr. Eichter estimates the number of 
E.G. missionaries in India in 1590 as 500, and the 
number of converts connected with these missions as 
254,000 ; these representing the result of ninety years' 
work. He compares these results with those obtained 
up to 1870 by about the same number of Anglican and 
Protestant missionaries, after eighty years' work ; the 
number of converts connected with these missions being 
then 224,000. It is apparently true to say that the 
numerical results obtained by Anglican and Protestant 
missionaries in the face of frequent opposition on the part 
of Government authorities were approximately equal to 
those which the E.G. missionaries obtained when backed 
by the material forces of the Portuguese Government. 

The next great missionary to India was Robert Jl 
Nobili, an Italian, who reached India in 1605. His 
work is deserving of special attention inasmuch as the 
principle which he adopted of recognizing and accepting 
the Indian caste system has been accepted to a greater 
or less extent by nearly all the E.G. missionaries who have 
since laboured in India. He started his work at Madura, 1 
which was outside the region in which Portuguese political 
influence prevailed. Having determined to make himself 
an Indian, in order that he might win the Indians, he 
adopted the dress and the sacred thread of a Brahman, 
and painted the sandal-wood sign on his forehead. Jle 

1 See Lctlrcs Edifianlex, vol. x. pp. 46, 62. 


called himself a Eajah from Eome, and eventually pro- 
duced a new Veda, which he had himself forged, in support 
of his own teaching. He kept aloof from men belonging 
to the lower castes and only allowed Brahmans, or men of 
high caste, to have access to him. The principle which 
underlay his action was sanctioned by a Papal Bull in 
1623 which declared that "out of compassion for human 
weakness, Nobili's converts are permitted to retain the 
plait of hair, the Brahmanical thread, the sandal-wood 
sign on the forehead, and the customary ablutions of their 
caste." The hair and thread were, however, first to be 
sprinkled with holy water. After more than fifty years' 
work, Nobili died at Milapur in 1656. After his death 
the Jesuit missions in South India were carried on on the 
lines which he had inaugurated, and the missionaries who 
worked amongst the higher castes refrained from any 
intercourse with those who worked amongst the lower 
castes. In the eighteenth century, when it was found 
impossible to provide Jesuit missionaries for the lower 
castes, those who worked amongst the Brahmans were 
accustomed to administer the sacraments at dead of night 
outside the doors of the higher caste churches. 

From 1690 to 1750 the missionaries and converts 
were subject to constant persecutions, and one at least 
of the Jesuit missionaries suffered martyrdom. At the 
time of Nobili's death the Christians connected with 
this mission were reckoned at 100,000, but by 1815, 
according to Dubois, himself a Jesuit, these numbers had 
decreased to 33,000. 

In 1703 Pope Clement XL commissioned Tournon, the 
Patriarch of Antioch, to visit and report upon the methods 
which had been adopted by the Jesuits in this mission. 
On his suggestion the Pope published a decree which 
condemned several of the practices introduced by the 
Jesuits and contained the statement : " In future, refusal of 
the Holy Sacrament to Pariahs who may be sick will no 
longer be permitted." 

Unfortunately this decree, which was confirmed later 


on by several other decrees, failed to effect any funda- 
mental change in the methods which had been adopted 
and which are still to a large extent followed. The writer 
of this volume has himself seen three E.G. churches in a 
village not far from Madura which are used by Christians 
from three different castes. 

In considering the work accomplished, or attempted, 
by Robert di Nobili, we need, as in the case of Xavier, to 
distinguish between the man and the methods which he 
adopted. Of the missionaries who have laboured in India, 
few have lived lives of such continuous self-denial, or have 
been inspired with a more ardent passion to effect the 
conversion of the Indians. Whilst we deplore the super- 
ficial character of the results which his work produced, and 
the methods to which these results were due and which he 
bequeathed to his successors, we cannot withhold our ad- 
miration and respect for the Christ-like enthusiasm which 
was the motive power of his life. 

At the time that Nobili was living in Madura, the 
Jesuit missionaries at the Court of Akbar in North India 
were prosecuting their labours with a large amount of 
success. In 1610 three princes of the royal blood received 
baptism in Lahore at the hands of Geronimo Javier, a 
nephew of St. Francis Xavier. Akbar himself reverenced 
" the images of Jesus Christ and the Virgin when they 
were shown to him by the missionaries, and solicited 
permission, reluctantly accorded, to retain them in his 
palace for a single night." l 

Another name deserving of special mention is that of 
Juan de Urito, the son of a Viceroy of Brazil, and for a 
time one of the royal pages at Lisbon. He arrived in 
India in 1673, and in the course of a few years baptized 
with his own hands many thousands of converts, who had, 
however, received a far more careful preparation than many 
of those who had been baptized by his predecessors. On 

1 Elphinstone's History of India, vol. ii. p. 323. Many thousands were 
baptized, and it seemed for a time as though Christianity were about to 
supplant Islam and Hinduism in North India. 


several occasions he was imprisoned and tortured, and at 
length, on February 3, 1693, lie suffered death as a martyr. 

Another member of the Society of Jesus who was 
martyred a few years later, Xavier Boryhese, when bidden 
by his heathen judge to refrain from mentioning the Holy 
Name, replied, " Think you that I left my country and all 
that was dear to me on earth, and came here to preach the 
law of the true God, which I have preached for so many 
years, only to keep silence now ? I declare to you that, so 
far from obeying your command, I will employ all that 
remains to me of life and power to make new disciples 
to the God of heaven." l " We will see," said the judge, 
" whether your disciples have as much courage as yourself," 
and then he ordered his soldiers to break the bones of one 
of his catechists. When the catechist heard the command 
which had been given, he exclaimed, " Now I begin to be 
truly your disciple. Do not fear, my father, that I shall 
do anything unworthy of a Christian." 

Another E.G. missionary whose name is deserving 
of mention is the Abbe Diibois, who went to India on 
the outbreak of the French Revolution and remained 
there for thirty-two years, living a simple and self- 
denying life. He laboured amongst the E.G. Christians in 
South India, whom he describes in pessimistic language. 
" I must confess," he wrote, " with shame and humiliation, 
that there was not a single member of them of whom it 
could be said that he had accepted Christianity save for 
some objectionable secondary consideration." He returned 
to France in 1823, expressing the belief that missionary 
work in South India had been and was likely to be a 
complete failure. The book which he published on the 
manners and customs of India is a standard work of 

Anglican and Protestant Missions. 

Long before the advent of the first Anglican or 
Protestant missionaries Anglican chaplains were sent out 
1 Lcttrcs Edifiantes, vol. x. p. 210. 

INDIA 7 9 

by the East India Company, and especially in the early 
years were allowed or even encouraged by the Company 
to take an interest in the religious welfare of the Indians 
with whom they were brought into contact. Between 
1667 and 1700 eighteen chaplains were provided by the 
Company, the first being sent to Madras in 1667. 

The first Indian to become a Christian as a result of 
the missionary efforts of a representative of the Anglican 
Church was, perhaps, an Indian from Bengal, who was 
baptized in 1616. According to a minute contained in 
the Court Minute Book of the East India Company at 
Masulipatam, which is dated August 19, 1614, Captain 
Best took home a young Indian who was instructed by 
Mr. Patrick Copland, or Copeland, the preacher, one of 
the first chaplains to travel in the Company's ships to 
Masulipatam. On December 22, 1616, the lad was 
baptized, after consultation with the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, in the presence of some members of the Privy 
Council, Lord Mayor and Aldermen, and also the members 
of the East India Company, and the sister company of 
Virginia. He received the name of Peter, chosen by the 
King (James I.). Some Latin letters exist written by the 
lad signed " Peter Papa." He seems to have gone with 
Mr. Copeland to Virginia. It is not possible to determine 
the actual place of his birth, but it is certain that he 
came from the Bay of Bengal, that he was taught by 
a visiting chaplain to Masulipatam, and that he was taken 
home at the Company's expense. 


We have already referred to the work of the Danish 
and Moravian missions to India down to 1750. On 
July 16 of this year Christian Friedrich Schicartz 
landed at Cuddalore and continued to work in South 
India till his death in 1798 (aged seventy-two). After 
working at Tranquebar for ten years he moved to Trichin- 
opoly, where he laboured for sixteen years (1762-78). 


Trichinopoly then belonged to the Mohammedan Nawab 
of Arcot, who was an ally of the English. It contained 
an English garrison, and in 1767 Schwartz ceased to be 
connected with the Danish Mission and became an English 
chaplain and was in part supported by the S.P.C.K. He 
was a Lutheran and did not receive Anglican Orders. In 
1763 he visited Tanjore and, at the request of its Rajah, 
settled there in 1778 and made this the centre of his 
work till his death. His reputation for probity spread 
throughout South India and became a distinct asset to 
the English Government. Thus Colonel Fullerton, the 
Commander of the British army in South India, wrote in 
1783: "The knowledge and integrity of this irreproach- 
able missionary have retrieved the character of Europeans 
from imputations of general depravity." The Rajah of 
Tanjore before his death in 1787 desired to appoint 
Schwartz as the guardian of his heir and Regent of his 
kingdom. Two years after his death Schwartz was 
appointed to both these posts by the English authorities. 
He entrusted the care of the young Rajah to his colleague 
Gericke" at Madras till his accession to the throne in 
1796. The important political offices which Schwartz 
filled naturally affected his work as a missionary, and 
many accepted Christianity under the influence of the 
" royal priest of Tanjore " who were not Christians at 
heart. He travelled extensively throughout South India 
and established a considerable number of schools, and at 
the time of his death, in 1798, the total number of 
Christian adherents connected with the Danish Mission 
was about 20,000. Between 1706 and 1846, 57 mission- 
aries connected with this mission went out to India, 
of whom 20 died at Tranquebar, the chief educational 
centre of the mission. When the Tanjore Mission was 
handed over to the S.P.G. in 1825, there were about 
2000 persons in the congregations and 700 children in 
the schools. During the ten years which followed the 
adherents increased to 4300. 

It is interesting to note that Schwartz, together with 


his adopted son, J. C. Kohlhoff, and his son, J. B. V. 
Kohlhoff of Tranquebar, worked in South India for an 
aggregate period of 156 years. 

The permanent results of Schwartz's work were disap- 
pointing, but when we consider the conditions under which 
it was carried on, it is hard to see how a better foundation 
for subsequent work could have been laid. He deliber- 
ately refrained from using the political influence which he 
possessed as prime minister of the Eajah of Tanjore in 
order to increase the number of baptisms, and those whom 
he baptized had for the most part an intelligent knowledge 
of their new faith ; but the wide area over which his 
activities were spread, and the difficulty of sending efficient 
teachers to carry on the various mission centres which he 
created, gave to his work a superficial character which he 

would have been the first to deplore. 


Six years before his death there had landed in Bengal 
one who may be regarded as one of the greatest mission- 
aries who have set foot in India, William Carey, a cobbler 
who was sent out by the newly formed Baptist Missionary 
Society. He was so far from possessing the material and 
political support which Xavier enjoyed, and which in a 
lesser degree Schwartz obtained, that the East India 
Company refused him permission to work anywhere within 
the sphere of its influence, and he was compelled to retire 
to Serampore, a mission station which had been occupied but 
abandoned by Moravian missionaries, and which belonged 
to the kingdom of Denmark. Carey's first companions 
were Marshman, who had been a ragged-school teacher, and 
Ward, a printer a trio of missionary heroes and geniuses 
to which it would be impossible to suggest a parallel. By 
the beginning of 1800 Carey had translated the whole of 
the New Testament into Bengali. The style of Bengali 
writing which he created in doing this, and which was 
specially distinguished by his efforts to enrich its vocabu- 
lary by a liberal borrowing of Sanskrit words, has affected 
all Bengali prose literature which has since been published. 
In 1801 he was appointed by Lord Wellesley master of 


the new college in Calcutta which had been erected for the 
training of Anglo-Indian officials, and he subsequently filled 
the posts of Professor of Bengali, Sanskrit, and Marathi. 

Amongst many books which he published were a 
Sanskrit grammar and dictionary. He also edited three 
volumes of the Ramayana and other Sanskrit works, and 
before his death in 1834 he had translated the whole 
Bible into Bengali, Hindi, Marathi, and Sanskrit. These 
translations were imperfect, and were eventually replaced 
by completely new versions, but their production testifies 
to the marvellous enthusiasm and industry of their author. 
The Serampore Brotherhood sent out missionaries or 
missionary agents to places as far distant as Benares, Agra, 
Delhi, and Bombay in the one direction, and to Burma, the 
Moluccas, and Java in the opposite direction. They also 
started work at Barisal, Dacca, Chitagong, Dinajpur, and 
Katwa in Bengal, and among the Khasia tribes in Assam. 
Many of these stations were eventually handed over to 
other missionary societies. In 1816 the missionaries at 
Serampore separated from the Baptist Missionary Society, 
but on their death the greater part of their work passed 
into the hands of this society. In 1818 they commenced 
the foundation of a college which was intended to expand 
into a university with a view to the education and training of 
Indian missionaries. To this college the King of Denmark 
granted the right to confer degrees. 

After the death of the three missionary founders the 
college w r as carried on with decreasing effectiveness till 
1883, when it came to an end. After this date it became 
a Baptist seminary for preachers and teachers in Bengal, 
and has recently been reorganized as an arts college with 
a theological faculty on an undenominational basis. 

The distinguishing characteristic of Carey's work was 
his adoption of the principle of concentration. It is true 
that he sent agents to distribute his translations of the 
Bible and to attempt to found mission stations in places 
far distant from Serampore, but his life-work was the 
establishment of the training college at Serampore and of 


the group of schools in its neighbourhood. To a far 
greater extent than any of his predecessors he realized the 
comparative futility of diffused missions and the impossi- 
bility of converting India by means of European evangelists. 
By concentrating the greater part of his activities within a 
narrow circle, and by spending his time upon the education 
and training of Indian teachers, he inaugurated a new 
method of missionary work the importance of which it is 
impossible to exaggerate. 

Dr. Mylne, formerly Bishop of Bombay, writes : 

" If ever a heaven-sent genius wrought a conquest over 
obstacles and disabilities it was . . . this humbly-born 
Englishman. Not only was he born in low station . . . but 
he received hardly any education. . . . And this man before 
he died took part in translating the Bible into some forty 
languages or dialects, Chinese among the number! He 
started in life as a cobbler would never let anyone claim 
for him the more dignified title of shoemaker he died a 
professor of Sanskrit, the honoured friend and adviser of 
the Government whose earliest greeting, when he landed on 
the shores of the country, had been to prohibit him from 
preaching. He founded a notable college (Serampore) for 
the training of native missionaries. . . . But the one grand 
merit of Carey, without which his marvellous qualities had 
been lost like those of his predecessors, was that he, with 
the intuition of genius, set to work instinctively from the 
first on the lines of the concentrated mission. There was 
no diffusion of his energies over impossible tracts of country 
and impracticable numbers of converts. A few really 
Christianized people, with the means of future extension 
this he seems to have set before him as his object. He left 
no great body of converts, but he laid a solid foundation, to 
be built on by those who should succeed him. ... I should 
hardly be saying too much did I lay down that subsequent 
missions have proved to be successful, or the opposite, in a 
proportion fairly exact to their adoption of Carey's methods." 1 

In 1797 the S.P.C.K. sent the Eev. W. T. Ringeltaiibc 

as a missionary to Calcutta. He returned after two years, 

and was then sent out by the L.M.S. to Travancore. 

Between 1806 and 1815 lie was stationed at Myladi, 

1 Missions to Hindis, p. 129 f. 


where his work resulted in the conversion of more than 
1000 of the Shans. Of these, 677 were admitted to 
Holy Communion in 1812. 

Of the Anglican chaplains who did much to promote 
a missionary spirit in Calcutta in the early part of 
the nineteenth century the Eev. David Brown and the 
Kev. Claudius Buchanan deserve special mention. The 
Eev. T. Thomason and the Kev. Daniel Corrie, who 
acted as chaplains up the country, also contributed much 
to create interest in missions both at home and in 
India. Yet another chaplain whose name is still more 
widely known was the Eev. Henry Martyn (1781- 
1812). Landing in Calcutta in 1806, he commenced 
the study of Hindustani, Hindi, Persian, and Arabic, and 
within five years he had translated the New Testament 
and the Book of Common Prayer into the first of these 
languages. In 1811 he proceeded to Persia. After 
spending ten months in Shiraz, where he translated the 
greater part of the New Testament into Persian, he set out 
on his return to Europe via Asia Minor. Worn out by 
mental and physical strain, he died at Tokat at the age 
of thirty-one. Although he apparently made but one 
convert, and his translations needed much revision, 
his life and death did much to inaugurate a new 
interest in missionary work both in India and else- 
where. The romance connected with his scholarship 
he had graduated at Cambridge as senior wrangler and 
with his early death, far from the help of friends, helped 
to attract the attention of many who had taken no interest 
in missions to the cause to which he had given his life, 
and the ardent faith and piety which are reflected in the 
letters that were subsequently published inspired many 
who read them to become missionaries in their turn. His 
only convert, Abdul Masih, was ordained by Bishop Heber 
in 1826 and was the second Indian to receive Anglican 
Orders. The first was a Ceylon catechist, Christian David, 
who was ordained by Bishop Heber in 1824. 

The year 1813, in which the Charter of the East 


India Company was renewed and modified by Parliament, 
was a critical year in the history of Indian missions. A 
clause was then inserted in the Charter the effect of which 
would be to authorize and encourage the sending out of 
Christian missionaries. A similar clause had been suggested 
twenty years before, but was then vehemently opposed 
by some of the Directors, one of whom, Mr. Bensley, 
speaking at an assembly of the General Court held on 
May 23, 1793, at the East India House, said: "So 
far from approving the proposed clause or listening to it 
with patience, from the first moment I heard of it I con- 
sidered it the most wild, extravagant, expensive, and 
unjustifiable project that ever was suggested by the most 
visionary speculator." 

One of the clauses in the new Charter ordered the 
appointment of a bishop and three archdeacons for the 
oversight of work amongst Europeans in India. Bishop 
Middle ton, who was consecrated in 1814, founded Bishops' 
College, Calcutta, the object of which was to train Indian 
Christians to become preachers, catechists, and teachers, 
and to serve as a centre for translation and other literary 
work. The college, which was established at a cost of 
60,000, was placed under the supervision of the S.P.G. 
Its foundation-stone was laid in 1820, and the Eev. W. H. 
Mill, Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, was appointed 
as its first Principal. The Bishop of Calcutta reported in 
1837 that " the amount of good already effected by the 
College was really surprising," and in 1840 it was stated 
that there were 1800 Christians in the Barripore and 
Tollygunge missions as a result of the influence exerted by 
the College. But despite these and other encouraging 
reports of a later date, it cannot be maintained that the 
College has so far fulfilled the hopes of its founders. 
When, however, the new scheme for its removal from 
Calcutta and its reconstitution has been carried into effect, 
there is good reason to hope that it may do much to help 
forward the work of Anglican missions not merely in Bengal 
but throughout India, 


We have already referred to the work of Eingeltaube, 
which was begun in Travancore in 1806. By 1835 the 
total number of converts connected with his mission 
numbered 11,000. In certain districts of Tinnevelly not 
far removed from the scene of his labours the Eev. C. T. 
Ehenius, who was in Lutheran Orders but was employed 
by the C.M.S., began work in 1820, and was so successful 
that by 1835 there were nearly 12,000 baptized Christians 
living in 261 villages, and nearly 3000 children were under 
instruction in 107 schools. 

The work in Tinnevelly, which was at first supported 
by the S.P.C.K. and for which the S.P.G. a little later 
became responsible, was started by Schwartz, who dedicated 
the first church in Palamcottah in 1785. There were 
at that time 40 baptized Christians. In 1803 the 
Eev. C. W. Gericke, a colleague of Schwartz, visited this 
mission and took part in one of the " mass movements " 
towards Christianity for which Tinuevelly subsequently 
became famous. In a single tour he baptized 1300 people 
who had been carefully prepared, and an Indian missionary, 
Satthiauadhan, soon afterwards baptized 2700 more. By 
1835 the total number of Christians connected with the 
English and Danish missions in South Travancore and 
Tinuevelly was about 30,000. 

After the death of Schwartz, Janicke (1795), and 
Gericke (1803), the work of the Danish Mission rapidly 
dwindled. The enthusiasm of its missionaries in the 
field seemed to decline, and it became increasingly difficult 
to provide them with successors from Europe. By 1840 
the greater part of the mission stations had been transferred 
to the S.P.G. and nearly all were occupied by English 
missionaries in Anglican Orders. In 1835, Archdeacon 
Corrie was consecrated as the first Anglican Bishop of 

Caste in the Christian Church. 

We have already referred to the results produced by 
the recognition of caste within the Christian Church by 


E.G. missionaries in South India, 1 Their recognition of 
caste rendered it extremely difficult for the Danish and 
German missionaries to do otherwise than follow their 
example. With few exceptions, they permitted the Sudras 
and Pariahs to observe their caste distinctions, to sit 
apart in church, and to receive the Holy Communion on 
separate occasions. The Eev. C. T. Ehenius was one of 
the earliest missionaries to make a decided stand against 
the observance of caste. Bishop Wilson of Calcutta, who 
visited South India in 1833, issued a pastoral letter in 
which he said, " The distinction of caste must be abandoned, 
decidedly, immediately, and finally." He further described 
caste as " eating as doth a cancer into the vitals of our 
infant Churches." When his pastoral letter was read in 
Vepery Church, Madras, the Suclra Christians rose and left 
the church, and for the time being renounced their 
membership of the Christian Church. In Tanjore the 
reading of the pastoral caused a similar upheaval and 
produced but little permanent result. 

We have not space in which to discuss the significance 
of caste observances or the grounds on which they appear 
to be inconsistent with the spirit of Christianity. It is 
sufficient to say that an overwhelming majority of the 
most intelligent and the most successful missionaries who 
have laboured in India have agreed with the view 
expressed by Bishop Wilson. 

Nehemiah Goreh, himself a Brahmin convert and one 
of the most remarkable missionaries of Indian nationality, 
once said, " Christianity with caste would be no Christianity 
at all." 2 

The General Missionary Conference which met in India 
in 1902 passed this resolution: 

" The Conference would earnestly emphasize the deliver- 
ance of the South India Missionary Conference of 1900, 
namely, that caste, wherever it exists in the Church, be 
treated as a great evil to be discouraged and repressed. It 
is further of opinion that in no case should any person who 

1 See p. 76. - Life of Father Goreh, p. 7. 


breaks the law of Christ by observing caste hold any office 
in connection with the Church, and it earnestly appeals to 
all Indian Christians to use all lawful means to eradicate so 
unchristian a system." 

Ever since the establishment of Protestant missions 
in South India the Lutheran missionaries, and especially 
those connected with the Leipzig Missionary Society, 
have practically condoned the observance of caste by 
the Christian converts. The Anglican and the other 
Protestant missionaries have striven with varying, but 
on the whole with very incomplete, success to put an end 
to its observance. 

Alexander Duff and his work (183057). 

Of the pioneer missionaries whose labours have left a 
permanent impression upon missionary work in India and 
to whom we have already referred, four names stand out 
pre-eminent Xavier, Nobili, Schwartz, and Carey. To 
these we should now add that of Alexander Duff}- Dr. 
Duff, who landed at Calcutta in 1830, after being twice 
shipwrecked on his outward voyage, was the first missionary 
sent out by the Established Church of Scotland. He at 
once resolved to strike out what was then a new line of 
missionary policy and attempt to influence the higher 
castes of North India by providing schools in which, 
through the medium of the English language, a liberal 
education should be offered to all who were willing to 
receive Christian instruction at the hands of missionaries. 
In adopting the English language as the chief medium of 
instruction he did not desire to discountenance the use 
of the vernacular languages, but he was convinced that 
the use of these was incompatible with the imparting of 
a comprehensive education, and still more that they were 
inadequate to express the fundamental conceptions of 
Christian doctrines. In carrying out his scheme he 
obtained the assistance of Earn Mohan Roy, the founder 

1 See Life of Alexander Duff, Ly Geo. Smith. 


of the Brahmo Samaj. The first school which he opened 
in Calcutta in July 1830 proved so great a success and 
seemed likely to result in the conversion of so many of 
its scholars, that the Hindu newspapers announced that 
anyone continuing to send his son to school would be 
driven out of caste. The school thereupon emptied, but 
only to fill again to the very last place before the end of 
a week. With a few interruptions Duff continued his 
work in Calcutta till 1863. His converts were not 
numbered by thousands, or even by hundreds, but they 
included a large number of high caste Hindus whose 
brilliant mental gifts and whose strength of character 
have exercised an immense influence upon their fellow- 
countrymen in North India. 

Amongst the names widely known in India are Krishna 
Mohan Banerjea, Gopinath Nundy, Mohesh Chunder 
Ghose, and Anando Chunder Mozumdar. Not only in 
the schools started by Duff, but in other schools and 
colleges which were founded as an indirect result of his 
work, conversions from amongst members of the highest 
and most distinguished families took place during this 
period. Amongst the number of important colleges which 
were founded during Duff's time in India may be mentioned 
the Robert Noble College at Masulipatam (C.M.S.), 1841 ; 
St. John's College at Agra (C.M.S.), 1853 ; the General 
Assembly's school, afterwards known as " the Christian 
College," in Madras, 1837; St. Thomas' College, Colombo 
(S.P.G.), 1851; Almora College (L.M.S.), 1851; Trichinopoly 
College (S.P.G.), 1863; the Forman College, Lahore 
(A.U.P.M.), refounded in 1886. 

A colleague of Duff, Dr. John Wilson, founded the 
college in Bombay which now bears his name. 

The influence which Duff exerted upon the Government 
of India was at least as important as that which he 
exerted upon those who were responsible for the control of 
missions. The trend of its policy and the course of legisla- 
tion were profoundly affected by Duff, and had he done no 
direct missionary work he would still have left a permanent 


impress upon the development of education throughout 
India. No sooner had the success of Duff's initial efforts 
become apparent than the Government of India Lord 
Bentinck being then the Governor-General and Sir Charles 
Trevelyan one of his chief advisers issued a minute 
(1835) in which it was stated that it was the desire of 
the Government to naturalize European literature and 
science and to foster English culture. Later on, and after 
consultation with Duff, the Government announced the 
establishment of a department of Public Instruction in 
each of the Presidencies, and in 1857 founded universities 
in Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay. These were eventually 
supplemented by the foundation of one at Lahore in 1882 
and one at Allahabad in 1887. During this period the 
system of grant-in-aid was also established by which 
government grants could be claimed by missionary or 
other' schools which provided a secular education up to a 
given standard. This system has made it possible for 
missionary societies to establish and carry on mission 
schools at little or, in some instances, at no cost to their 
own funds. 

Indian Christians in 1851. 

In 1851 the first attempt was made to count the 
number of Christians connected with the Anglican and 
Protestant missionary societies in India. The statistics 
obtained, though incomplete and less accurate than those 
which were subsequently available, enable us to form some 
idea of the progress of these missions up to the middle of last 
century. The number of Christians in 1851 was 91,092, 
they formed 267 congregations, and 14,661 of them were 
communicants. Of these, 24,613 were connected with the 
C.M.S. Tinnevelly Mission, 10,315 with the S.P.G. Mission 
in the same district, and 16,427 with the L.M.S. Mission 
in South Travancore. These three missions claimed 
51,355 out of the 74,176 Christians in the Madras 
Presidency. The remaining number included those who 
had become converts in connection with the old Danish 


missions in the Cauvery districts. In the whole of the 
rest of India there were only 16,916 converts, of whom 
14,177 were in Bengal. Of these, 4417 were connected 
with the C.M.S., 3476 with the S.P.G., and 1600 with the 
Baptist mission. 

Of the 339 ordained missionaries in India at this time 
the C.M.S. had 64, the L.M.S. 49, the S.P.G. 35, the 
Baptists 30, the Basel Missionary Society 23, and the 
American Board 22. 

The advent of American missionaries. 

The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions (A.B.C.F.M.) sent their first missionaries to India 
in 1812, but, owing to the opposition of the East India 
Company, they were not allowed to remain in Calcutta. 
In 1813 they started work in Bombay, but little progress 
was made till 1833, when they crossed over from Ceylon, 
where they had been previously at work, and founded a 
series of mission stations at Madura and in the surrounding 
districts. Soon afterwards they began work in Madras 
and in the Arcot district. In 1831 they began work in 
Ahmadnagar, which subsequently developed into their 
Maratha Mission. 

The American Presbyterians started work in the United 
Provinces and subsequently in the Punjab. Their first 
station was opened at Ludhiana in 1834. Later on they 
opened stations at Allahabad (1836) and Fatehgarh 
(1838), and in the Punjab at Jullundur (1846), Ambala 
(1848), and Lahore (1849). They were the first Protestant 
missionaries to work in the Punjab. 

The American Baptists started their Telugu Mission 
in 1840 and their mission to Assam in 1841. For 
a long time neither of these societies made any great 

The American United Presbyterians started work at 
Sialkot in 1855. 


Lutheran Missionary Societies. 

We have already referred to the work of the German 
missionaries who went out to India in connection with 
the Danish-Halle missions. The Basel Missionary Society, 
which was founded in 1815, began work at Mangalore on 
the south-west coast in 1834, and a little later at 
Dharwar (1837) and Hubli (1839) in the South Maratha 

The Leipzig Missionary Society, which was founded in 
1836, took over the work amongst the Tamils in 1840 
which had been carried on by the Danish-Halle mission. 

Pastor Gossner, after severing his connection with the 
Berlin Missionary Society in 1836, sent out missionaries, 
who commenced work at Hadjipore (1839), and other- 
places on the river Ganges. Later on, in 1845, he began 
the work amongst the Kols of Chota Nagpur which was 
to develop into one of the most successful missions in 
North India. For a further reference to Lutheran societies 
in India, see pp. 121, 124. 

The Mutiny (1857). 

Exactly a century after the battle of Plassey, which 
gave India to England, North India was convulsed 
with war and massacre and many Indian Christians 
were murdered on the ground of their supposed 
sympathy with the English. On the capture of Delhi 
(May 11) by the mutineers, every missionary was killed. 
Their number included the Eev. A. R. Hubbard and two 
catechists, Sandys and Koch, of the S.P.G., the English 
chaplain, and Mr. J. Mackay of the Baptist mission, 
also an Indian Baptist preacher, Wilayat Ali. At Cawn- 
pore were killed the Eev. W. H. Haycock and the Rev. 
H. E. Cockey of the S.P.G., and the Revs. J. E. Freeman, 
D. E. Campbell, A. D. Johnson, and R. M. M'Mullen from 
the American Presbyterian mission at Fatehgarh. At 
Sialkot the Scotch Presbyterian missionary and his family 


were massacred. Including English chaplains and their 
families, about 36 connected with missionary work were 
murdered and 15 leading Indian Christians. Ghokal 
Parshad, the headmaster of the American Presbyterian 
mission at Farrukhabad, on being offered life and freedom 
for himself and his family if he would abjure his faith, 
replied, " What is my life that I should deny my Saviour ? 
I have never done that since the day I first believed on 
Him, and I never will." 

Throughout the Mutiny the Indian Christians re- 
mained loyal, and they assisted materially in holding the 
fort at Agra. 

The Mutiny helped Englishmen to realize the obliga- 
tion which rested upon them to spread the knowledge 
of their faith throughout India, and the years which 
immediately followed it witnessed a great expansion of 
missionary effort, more especially in the north-west. 
This development of missionary work was greatly aided 
by the whole-hearted support accorded by some of the 
officials who were responsible for the government 
of the north-west. Amongst these were Sir John 
Lawrence (Viceroy, 1864-69), Sir Robert Montgomery 
and Sir Donald M'Leod, Lieutenant-Governors of the 
Punjab ; Sir Herbert Edwardes, General Eeynell Taylor, 
and Sir Bartle Frere, Governor of Bombay. Without 
infringing the policy of religious neutrality, which was 
enunciated in the Queen's proclamation that followed the 
suppression of the Mutiny, they made no secret of their 
personal faith, and contributed largely out of their private 
incomes towards the establishment of new mission stations, 
especially those which were supported and controlled by 
the C.M.S. Amongst the important centres occupied in 
succession by this society in the Punjab were Amritsar 
(1852) and Peshawar (1854), Multan (1856), Lahore 
(1867), Dera Ismail Khan (1868), and Srinagar, the 
capital of Kashmir (1863). In Oudh it established centres 
of work at Lucknow (1858) and Fyzabad (1862). 

A few months before the Mutiny, the first representa- 


tive of the Methodist Episcopal Church of North America 
(A.M.E.C.), Dr. Butler, had landed in India. Immediately 
after the Mutiny this society started work at a number of 
centres in Oudh, and later on in the United Provinces, and 
it soon established single stations in almost every part of 
India. It has been the policy of this society to spread 
its operations over the widest possible area, rather than 
to establish a series of centres in any one province or 
district. During the first ten years of its operations in 
India, it devoted its attention (except in the United 
Provinces) to work amongst Europeans and Eurasians, but 
later on it developed its missionary activities in all the 
districts in which it was represented. Bishop Thoburn 
and his sister, Isabella Thoburn, exercised a large influence 
upon the development of its work. 

The distribution of mission workers. 

In order to gain some idea of the present condition of 
missionary enterprise in India, we will try to make a brief 
survey of the field from south to north. In this survey 
only the work of the larger societies can be mentioned. 
The total number of the societies at work exceeds a 
hundred. The distribution of the workers belonging to 
the E.G. missions will be referred to later on. 

In the Tamil-speaking country, which forms the eastern 
portion of South India to the south of Madras, the Anglican 
missions, i.e. the C.M.S. and the S.P.G., which latter took 
over many of the converts belonging to the old Lutheran 
missions, have about 100,000 converts. The bishop 
resides at Palamcottah, which is the chief centre of the 
C.M.S. mission. At Nazareth, which is the most important 
centre of the S.P.G. mission, there is a medical and an 
industrial mission. The mission workers include 13 
European and 80 Indian clergy. Amongst the mission- 
aries who have worked in these missions should be men- 
tioned Edward Sargent (C.M.S.) and Eobert Caldwell 
(S.P.G.), both of whom afterwards became bishops. Many 


thousands of Indian Christians belonging to the Anglican 
missions in Tiuuevelly have become Roman Catholics in 
order to avoid having to abandon their caste customs 
and ceremonial. In the district of Madura the American 
Board and the Leipzig Missionary Society are represented. 


We have already referred to the work of the L.M.S. 
missionary, Ringeltaube. The work which he began in 
South Travancore has developed till the number of con- 
verts is now over 80,000, the greater part of whom are 
ministered to by Indian teachers and pastors. The mission 
staff includes 1 6 Europeans, 1 7 ordained Indians, and over 
600 preachers and teachers. 

The C.M.S. began work amongst the Syrian Christians 
who were independent of Rome in 1816, in the hope of 
creating a revival amongst the members of this ancient 
Church. During the first twenty years encouraging results 
were attained ; but when this work was brought to a stand- 
still by the opposition of the metropolitan, the C.M.S. 
began to develop work amongst the Hindus. This mission 
has steadily developed. It is superintended by the 
Anglican Bishop of Travancore, but is largely self- 
supporting. Connected with the Anglican Church in 
Travancore there are 12 European and 40 Indian clergy. 
The bishop lives at Kottayam, where the C.M.S. has a 
college which is affiliated to the University of Madras. 
Part of the C.M.S. mission is in the State of Cochin, where 
missionary work is carried on amongst the Arayer, a hill 
tribe which had not become Hindus. The chief stations 
in Cochin are Trichur and Kunnankulam. 

The members of the ancient Syrian Church 1 under 
the Jacobite Patriarch of Antioch number 225,190, and 
those of the Reformed, or St. Thomas Syrian, Church 
under its own metropolitan about 75,000. Those owing 

1 The following figures include the members of the Syrian Church in 
Cochin and in other ^arts of South India. 


allegiance to the Church of Eome number, according to 
the Syrian or the Latin rite, 413,142. Those under the 
East Syrian Patriarch (the Catholicos of the East) number 
about 13,780. These Churches are supervised by 11 
Indians, 1 Chaldean, and 3 European bishops (see p. 66 f). 

Madras and the Telugu country. 

In the districts which include Trichinopoly and 
Tanjore, the chief agencies at work are the S.P.G., the 
Leipzig Mission, and the Wesleyans. The Trichinopoly 
college (S.P.G.)and schools attached to it have about 1600 
pupils. The college is affiliated to the University of Madras. 

In the city of Madras the best-known missionary 
institution is the Christian College (1837), belonging to 
the Scotch U.F.C.M., of which Dr. Miller was for many 
years Principal. As a direct missionary agency the college 
has attained little success, but it has helped to raise the 
ideals of education in Madras and throughout South India. 
One of the aims of the college is " to influence and mould 
the corporate thought of Hinduism," and to be a con- 
stant witness to the close bond that exists between Chris- 
tian faith and modern thought. Those who have been 
educated at the college and who now hold posts of re- 
sponsibility throughout South India are to be numbered 
by thousands. There are 800 students at the college, 
200 of whom live in hostels and 800 in the school 
attached to the college. The Anglican diocese of Madras 
includes the whole Presidency, with the exception of 
Tinnevelly and Madura, and the bishop also superintends 
the Anglican clergy in the native states of Hyderabad, 
Mysore, and the province of Coorg. In the area included in 
the diocese there are 38 European and 110 Indian clergy. 

To the west of Madras the Eeformed Dutch Church of 
America has a mission, including about 30 stations and 
about 10,000 Christians. Eight sons and two grandsons 
of the founder of this mission, Dr. Scudder, who died in 
1855, have worked in its service. 


The principal societies which are at work in the 
Telusru districts to the north of Madura are the C.M.S., 


the S.P.G., the L.M.S., and the American Baptists 
(A.B.M.U.). In these districts there has been within 
recent years a series of mass movements towards 
Christianity. If these should continue, as seems likely 
to be the case, there is every prospect that within the 
lifetime of this generation the greater part' of the 
20,000,000 people speaking the Telugu language who 
inhabit these districts will have become Christians. 
Up to the present the movements have been almost 
entirely confined to what is called the outcaste population, 
but applications for Christian instruction have recently 
been received from communities belonging to the Sudra 
class. The conversion of any large number of Sudras 
would pave the way to the acceptance of the Christian 
faith by the caste population throughout the whole of India. 

The L.M.S. began work in the Telugu country in 
1805, in which year they sent two missionaries to Vizaga- 
patam, but it was not till 1835 that their first converts 
were made. They opened a station at Cuddapah in 1822. 
By 1870 they had 23 stations, which five years later had 
increased to 80. After the famine of 1877 they, like the 
other societies working in this district, were wholly unable 
to cope with the applications which were received for 
Christian teachers. Their converts and adherents, which 
include a considerable number of Sudras, number about 
25,000. The society has an important medical mission 
at Jammalamadugu. 

The American Baptists began work in 1835. One of 
their first missionaries, Sewett, who was invalided home 
after twelve years of apparently unsuccessful work, when 
informed by his society that they wished to abandon this 
mission, said, " I know not what you will do, but for myself, 
if the Lord gives me my health, I will go back to live, and 
if need be to die, among the Telugu." " Then," was the 
answer, " we must surely send a man to give you a 
Christian burial." In 1869, at a new centre which had 



been opened at Ongole, the number of converts began rapidly 
to increase, and by 1879 they numbered over 10,000. 
The number at the present time exceeds 60,000. The 
mission supports five hospitals, three high schools (at Ongole, 
Xellore, and Kurnool), and a training school for teachers. 

The territory occupied by the C.M.S. mission lies 
between the rivers Krishna and Godavery, and stretches 
from the coast about 100 miles inland. Work was 
commenced in 1841, when R. T. Noble and H. W. Fox 
were sent to Masulipatam. From the high caste school 
which Noble started a number of Brahmin converts were 
obtained, especially during its early years. On the staff 
of the college there were in 1911 four Brahmin converts 
and five sons of Brahmin converts. A mission at Nellore 
was opened in 1854 and at Bezwada in 1858. In 1859, 
after eighteen years' work, the converts connected with the 
mission numbered about 200. In this year a remarkable 
man named Pagolu Venkayya was converted, and with his 
conversion the whole aspect of the mission changed. He 
belonged to the Mala caste, and had been the leader of a 
band of violent men. At the age of forty-seven, having 
been told by a companion that a Christian missionary had 
declared that idols were incapa.ble of helping their wor- 
shippers, he then and there determined to renounce the 
worship of idols. His friend also told him that the mis- 
sionary had spoken of one only God. From that time he 
began to use these words as a form of prayer : " Great 
God, who art Thou ? Where art Thou ? Show Thyself to 
me." Later on he came across a Christian tract which 
referred to God as the Saviour of the world. Thenceforth 
he prayed, " great God, the Saviour, show Thyself to 
me." For three years he continued to pray. In 1859, 
whilst attending a Hindu bathing festival at Bezwada, he 
met a Christian missionary, and having heard and eagerly 
accepted the Christian faith, he became a preacher of 
Christianity amongst his fellow-countrymen. Conversions 
soon followed, and when Venkayya died in 1891 the 
converts connected with the C.M.S. mission, who had 


numbered 200 at the time of his baptism, had increased to 
10,000. At the present time they number over 32,000. 
There are 28 Indian clergy connected with this mission. 
Hopeful work is also being carried on amongst the members 
of the Sudra caste. 

The territory occupied by the S.P.G. lies to the west 
of the C.M.S. mission, and comprises the collectorates of 
Cuddapah and Kurnool. In 1842 several of the L.M.S. 
missionaries, amongst whom was Dr. Caldwell, afterwards 
Bishop of Tinnevelly, became members of the Anglican 
Church. In 1854, in response to repeated requests, the 
S.P.G. undertook to support the Anglican mission at 
Cuddapah, which had been carried on by the Eev. V. 
Davies and by the Eev. J. Clay, who had been previously 
supported by the Additional Clergy Society. In 1855 
the centre of this mission was moved to Mutyalapad. By 
1859 the mission included 13 congregations, 619 baptized 
Christians, and 527 persons under instruction for baptism. 
A station which was opened at Kalasapad in 1861 soon 
became the centre of a large number of other stations. 

The S.P.G. Telugu Mission has from the start been 
greatly undermanned, with the result that its representatives 
have had to refuse a long succession of pressing requests 
from villages which asked, but asked in vain, to receive 
Christian instruction. Despite the fact that there had 
never been half a dozen European missionaries in the field, 
by 1879 the number of congregations had increased to 76, 
and the baptized Christians to 2377. Ten years later 
they had increased to 115 congregations and 5562 
baptized Christians. In 1913 the number of congrega- 
tions was 230, and of baptized Christians 13,541. The im- 
portant factor in this mission has been the 300 or more 
Christian teachers, most of whom have been trained at 
Nandyal, and who in most cases have had to act not 
only as teachers of village schools but as catechists or 
preachers. The general rule, in the case of the S.P.G. and 
C.M.S. missions, has been that when an application for 
Christian instruction has been received from a Hindu 


village, the inhabitants of the village have been asked to 
provide evidence of their sincerity by building a school 
and a house for a teacher, and by guaranteeing to supply 
him with food. Where these conditions have been ful- 
filled, and it has proved possible to supply a teacher, the 
teacher has taught the children of the village, and given 
daily religious instruction, and conducted daily worship for 
the inhabitants of the village for perhaps two years. The 
village has, meanwhile, been periodically visited by an 
Indian catechist, and at rarer intervals by a European 
missionary. After three, or in some cases four or five, 
years' continuous instruction, a third, or perhaps half of 
those who have become candidates for baptism, are baptized. 
A more or less similar course of procedure has been 
followed by the other missionary societies represented in 
the Telugu country. Experience has shown that a long 
course of instruction and period of probation is necessary 
if due precautions are to be taken to guard against moral 
relapses. In 1913 the Bishop of Dornakal ordained 1G 
Telugu Christians, 1 of whom belonged to the S.P.G. and 
G to the C.M.S. mission. In addition to the large 
number of day schools connected with its mission, the 
S.P.G. has 5 boarding schools, one at each of its principal 
centres of work. A beginning has been made of work 
amongst women, but there is urgent need of further 

In the district which comprises the estuary of the 
rivers Krishna and Godavery the Canadian Baptists and 
the American Lutherans have missions which have 
achieved considerable success. 

Before we leave the Telugu-speaking country, refer- 
ence should be made to a small but specially interesting 
mission which was founded and is maintained entirely by 
Indian Christians. At a meeting of Indian Christians 
connected with the Anglican Church which was held at 
Palamcottah in Tinnevelly in 1903, it was resolved to 
form the Indian Missionary Society of Tinnevelly. In 
1904 this society sent two Indian Christians to open a 

INDIA 101 

mission at Dornakal, 600 miles from Palamcottah, between 
Bezwada and Hyderabad, in Hyderabad State. In 1906 
the staff had grown to 3, in addition to 4 local workers. 
In that year the Bishop of Madras baptized 23 converts 
who had been won by this mission. The work, which is 
rapidly spreading, is carried on in over thirty villages. 
In 1912 the Eev. Vedanayakam Azariah was consecrated 
as Bishop of Dornakal and the surrounding district, and as 
an assistant bishop to the Bishop of Madras. 

The fact that this mission is entirely self-supporting, 
and that it has as its head the first Indian bishop in 
communion with the Anglican Church, will appeal to all 
who desire to see Indian churches self-supporting and 
governed by men of their own race. 

Farther north, in the Hyderabad State, the American 
Episcopal Methodists, the American Baptists, and the 
English Wesleyans have a considerable number of mission 


In Malabar, which lies to the north of Travancore and 
Cochin on the west coast, several societies are represented 
by one or two mission stations. The Basel Mission 
Society has a series of stations reaching from here north- 
wards to the South Mahratta country in the Bombay 
Presidency. A chief characteristic of this mission is its 
development of industrial training, especially of weaving, 
brick-making, and carpentry. These industries were 
started in order to give employment to those who had 
been left orphans by famine, and Indian Christians who 
had been deprived of any means of livelihood by their 
conversion to Christianity. These are carried on by an 
industrial committee in Basel, which is not connected 
financially with the Basel Missionary Society. 

From a commercial standpoint this mission has been 
a great success : 

"There arc dangers in such work, chiefly lest the 
mingling of business and evangelism shall hamper the 


spiritual influence of the mission, and lest the tendency 
shall be to induce individuals to profess Christianity for 
the sake of securing a lucrative position. Even those who 
for these reasons believe that only necessity will justify the 
starting of mission industries, have to admit, however, 
that this Basel work has made a real contribution to 
economic progress and to the dignifying of labour as worthy 
of a Christian." l 


In the native state of Mysore work is carried on by the 
L.M.S. from Bellary as a centre. The English Wesleyans 
have also been at work since 1838. The A.M.E. Church 
has mission stations at Bangalore and Kolar. The L.M.S. 
has an extensive mission of which Bangalore is the centre. 
This is also the site of an important United Missionary 

From the missionary standpoint, the educational policy 
which has been adopted by the native Hindu Government 
of Mysore is of special interest, as it may perhaps forecast 
what will be eventually adopted in other parts of India. 

The Times correspondent in Mysore, writing on 
October 3, 1908, said: 

" The tendency of the present system is purely secular 
in character and has not been satisfactory. For various 
reasons the homes of the pupils have ceased to impart 
religious education, and the influence of religious teachers 
and places of worship has almost disappeared. Irreverence 
and disrespect for authority have been on the increase ; 
modesty, self-restraint, and good sense have been largely 
at a discount, while presumption, vanity, and unrestrained 
aggressiveness appear to be increasing. In the circum- 
stances, the Maharajah's Government has decided that the 
readiest way of remedying this state of affairs is by impart- 
ing religious and moral instruction as a systematic part of 

In view of the widespread interest which was aroused 
by the regulations issued by the Mysore Government and 
the possibility that they may create a precedent in other 

1 Sociological Progress in Mission Lands, by E. W. Capen, p. 66 f. 

INDIA 103 

parts of India, it will be well to quote the actual wording 
of the regulations : 

" The time to be given to religious and moral instruction 
will be limited to five periods a week, the first thirty minutes 
after roll-call being devoted thereto. There will be a 
moral discourse on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
and religious instruction on Tuesdays and Thursdays. The 
moral discourse will be common to pupils of all persuasions, 
and be based on a text taken from some religious, moral, 
historical, or literary book. In addition, there will be 
specific religious teaching from books like the Sanatana 
Dharma Advanced Text- Book, the Koran and approved 
commentaries and essays on the Mohammedan religion, and 
the Bible. The question of extending the scheme to aided 
schools not under Government management is reserved for 
future consideration. 

" As Mysore is a Hindu State and the bulk of the 
population is Hindu, provision for imparting teaching in the 
Hindu religion will be made in all Government institutions 
other than those intended purely for the education of par- 
ticular classes of non-Hindus as, for instance, Hindustani 
schools. The classes will be open for Hindus of all de- 
nominations, but attendance will be optional in the case of 
other pupils. It will at the same time be laid down for 
the present that, when in any Government institution the 
number of Mohammedan or Christian pupils is not less 
than twenty, arrangements should be made, as far as may 
be possible, for imparting instruction to them in their 
respective religions. If, however, any private persons or 
bodies interested in either of these religions wish to make 
special arrangements at their own cost for teaching their 
respective religions in Government institutions, where the 
number of pupils of such religions is below twenty, every 
facility should be given for this being done." 

In the Native States of Mysore, Baroda, and Travan- 
core, primary education is now compulsory. 

Bombay District. 

In the Mahrathi-spealcing country which lies to the north 
of the Kanara country the societies represented by the 
largest number of Christians are the American Board, the 


S.P.G., and the United Free Church of Scotland. In 
Ahmadnagar and the neighbouring districts the S.P.G. has 
several hundreds of village schools and a large amount of 
work amongst women. There are also signs of special 
interest which may develop into a mass movement amongst 
some of the Sudra villages. In Poona the C.M.S. is 
represented, and there is also a strong mission which has 
heen worked by the Cowley Fathers since 1870. Closely 
associated with this mission, which also maintains work in 
Bombay, are the Wantage and All Saints' sisterhoods, 
which carry on work amongst Indian women. Khedgaon, 
near Poona, is also the centre of the remarkable work 
amongst high caste Indian orphans which has been carried 
on by Pandita Eamabai since 1899. 

Industrial work is being carried on by a large number 
of missionary societies and by several independent in- 
dustrial associations, e.g. the Scottish Mission Industries, 
which works in connection with the U.F.C. of Scotland 
at Ajmer and Poona, and the Industrial Mission Aid 
Society, which has a large carpet-weaving establishment at 
Ahmadnagar in connection with the A.B.C.F.M. 

In the city of Bombay a number of missionary societies 

-including the A.B.C.F.M., the C.M.S., the S.P.G., the 

U.F.C.S., and the A.M.E.C. are at work, but the visible 

results have been small. The Wilson College connected 

with the U.F.C.S. is doing good work. 

In Gujerat the Irish Presbyterians have been work- 
ing since 1841. In the province of Sindh, where the 
majority of the population is Mohammedan, the C.M.S. and 
American Episcopal Methodists have a few stations. 

The A.M.E. Church has resident missionaries at Ajmer 
and Phalera. 

The Punjab. 

We have already referred to the starting of missionary 
work in the Punjab (see pp. 91, 93). Of the population of 

INDIA 105 

the Punjab 10,955,721, i.e. rather more than half, are 
Moslems. The Sikhs in the Punjab number 2,093,804; 
in the whole of India they number 3,014,466. 

Eefereuce has been made to the rapid development of 
missionary work in the Punjab by the C.M.S. which 
followed the Mutiny, and to the active support given to 
this work by leading Government officials. It was alleged 
at the time, and the statement has frequently been made 
since, that for Government officials to display sympathy 
with Christian missions was to render the task of govern- 
ing Hindus and Moslems more difficult than it would 
otherwise be. This suggestion has been refuted again and 
again by the history of the missions which have been 
established in the North-West Provinces. Dr. Eichter, 
quoting one of many instances, writes : 

" No town was so notorious for its fanaticism as Pesha- 
war, near the Khyber Pass. An English Commissioner had 
declared that so long as he had anything to say in the 
matter, no missionary should cross the Indus. A short 
time afterwards this individual was stabbed by an Afghan 
on the veranda of his house. His successor, Sir Herbert 
Edwardes (in 1853), began his official activity in the very 
house, the veranda pillars of which were still splashed with 
the dead man's blood, by founding an evangelical mission for 
the town, and he established peace and quiet in the place." l 

The chief centres of the C.M.S. work in the Punjab 
are Lahore, Amritsar, and Mullan. At Clarkabad, and by 
other missions at other centres, attempts have been made 
to establish villages to be inhabited by Christian converts, 
but great difficulties have been experienced in regard to 
their organization and control. On one occasion 200 
nominal Christians, who imagined that they had a grievance, 
suddenly announced their conversion to Islam. Successful 
attempts have been made by the C.M.S. to create a 
series of representative church councils with a view to 
encourage self-government and self-support amongst the 
Christian converts. 

1 History oj Indian Missions, p. 210 f. 


Lahore is also an important centre of the American 
Presbyterian Mission, and its college, the Forman College, 
which has over 500 students, is one of the most important 
colleges in North India. The A.M.E.C. has mission 


stations in several parts of the Punjab, but the greater 
portion of its work is in the Patiala state, and specially 
in Patiala city. 

During the last few years the Central Punjab has been 
the scene of several movements towards Christianity 
similar to the " mass movements " that have taken place 
in South India. These have occurred in the American 
United Presbyterian missions and in the C.M.S. missions. 
There are over 60,000 Christians connected with the 

The great increase in the number of Christians in the 
Punjab may be seen from the fact that whereas thirty 
years ago their number was about 4000, in 1901 they 
had increased to 37,000 and in 1911 to 163,000. In 
the C.M.S. missions in the Chenab colony there were in 
1913 about 10,000 Christians, and the number is rapidly 
increasing. Both the C.M.S. and the A.U.P.M. are very 
inadequately staffed in view of the large number of 
Indians, mostly Chuhras, who are desirous of receiving 
instruction. The Bishop of Madras, who has had ex- 
perience of the " mass movements " in the Telugu country, 
after visiting (in 1913) the missions in the Punjab 
wrote : 

" One result of the scarcity of workers in the Punjab is 
that their whole system of education is far behind ours . . . 
but the fact that they have such an inadequate organization 
and such a great dearth of workers has obliged them to 
stimulate the Christians to take a larger share in the 
management of their own affairs than is the case in the 
South. Many congregations of the United Presbyterian 
Mission - - the strongest and in many ways the best 
organized mission among the outcastes of the Punjab are 
self-supporting and self-governing. One feature of the 
work in the Punjab which impressed me very much was 
their system of agricultural colonies and settlements. As 

INDIA 107 

I passed through the Chenab colony I visited five of these, 
each with a population of 1000 to 1500 Christians. . . . 
There are two classes of Christian villages and agricultural 
settlements in the Punjab. In one class the mission holds 
the land as the property of the Mission, and the Indian 
Christians are the tenants of the Mission. In the other 
class of Christian villages the people own their own land 
and are independent. It is an interesting fact that the 
first class of villages are nearly all a failure, and the other 
class, where the people are independent, are so far a 


The total number of Christians in the Punjab at the end 
of 1912 was reckoned at 167,413. Their rapid increase 
in number has been in part due to the policy adopted 
by certain missionary societies of baptizing those who 
desired to receive baptism without demanding any period 
of probation or any intelligent knowledge of the Christian 
faith. Most of the missionary societies which are at 
work in the Telugu country, where mass movements on 
a large scale have taken place, have found by experience 
that it is necessary to keep groups of inquirers under 
instruction for three or even four years before admitting 
them to Christian baptism. A contrary policy has been 
adopted in the Punjab by the American Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, the American Presbyterian missions, and the 
Salvation Army, which are working among the Chuhras, 
who occupy a position similar to that of the Lai Begis in 
the United Provinces, at the very bottom of the social 

Professor Griswold of the Forman (Presbyterian) 
College in Lahore, in defending the policy of these 
missions, writes : 

"The conditions laid down for baptism are not the 
same in all the missions. Earnestness of purpose is 
required by all. Sometimes considerable numbers are 
baptized with no other qualification than an apparently 
sincere desire to become Christians. But usually something 
is given in the way of instruction, e.g. at least the name of 
the Saviour, and the fact that He gave His life for sinners 


and that salvation is only through Him, and frequently the 
Lord's Prayer, Ten Commandments, and Apostles' Creed, 
either the whole or in part." l 

Replying to the objection that as a result of this 
policy the Christian Church will be crowded with those 
who are practically heathen, he urges that though this 
may be true as long as the adult members are concerned, 
there is hope that " their children may become very much 
better than their parents, and really enter the promised 
land of spiritual renovation." The same experiment has 
been made and the same argument has been urged in 
other parts of the mission field and in different periods 
of Christian history ; but few who have made a careful 
study of Christian missions from the earliest times down 
to the present day would venture to say that in any 
single case have the final results justified the adoption 
of the policy of " speedy baptism " for which Professor 
Griswold pleads. 

Amongst the C.M.S. stations on the North-West 
Frontier are Srinagar in Kashmir, Peshawar, Bannu, 
Dera Ismail Khan, and Dera Ghasi Khan. At Srinagar, 
where the work was started by Dr. Elmslie (see p. 
32), there is a large mission hospital under Drs. A. 
and E. Neve, and a boys' school under the Kev. C. Tyndale 
Biscoe. This school, which is chiefly attended by high 
caste Hindus and Moslems, is one of the most remarkable 
in India. By his personal influence and example the 
Principal has inspired his pupils with the desire to display 
many Christian virtues which are but seldom practised 
by those who are nominally Christians. The visitor to 
this school may see high caste boys engaged in rowing 
on the lake low caste women and other patients who are 
convalescents at the Srinagar Hospital, and performing, 
for the benefit of suffering people and animals, tasks 
which the ordinary high caste Hindu would regard as 
defiling. Although few of the scholars or ex-scholars 

o o 

1 Sec article "The Mass Movement in the Punjab," by H. D. Griswold, 
The East and The West, January 1915. 

INDIA 109 

have as yet been baptized, the Christian influence exerted 
by this school has been felt throughout a large part of 
North- West India, 

Delhi, the capital of India, is an imperial enclave 
within the Punjab province. We have already referred to 
the S.P.G. and Baptist missions which were established there 
prior to the Mutiny (see p. 92). As soon as the S.P.G. re- 
ceived the news of the massacre of its missionaries, it issued 
an appeal for fresh workers, which met with an immediate 
response. Before the arrival of the new workers, amongst 
whom the Eev. T. Skelton, Fellow of Queens' College, 
Cambridge, and the Eev. E. Winter deserve special 
mention, Earn Chuuder and another Indian had recom- 
menced the mission school, which by the end of 1859 
contained 300 boys. During the years that followed, the 
educational work carried on by this mission developed to 
a large extent. 

In 1877 the Cambridge University Mission was 
formed, its object being to co-operate with the S.P.G. in 
developing its educational and evangelistic work in Delhi. 
The Eev. E. Bickersteth, who afterwards became a Bishop 
in Japan, was the first Head. The next Head of this 
mission was the Eev. G. A. Lefroy, who afterwards 
became Bishop of Lahore (1899), and subsequently 
Bishop of Calcutta and Metropolitan of India (1913). 
St. Stephen's College, which is affiliated to the University 
of Lahore and has over 200 students, lias an Indian 
Principal, Professor Eudra, who is assisted by a staff of 
English University graduates. The college, which is now 
being rebuilt in the new city of Delhi on a site granted 
by the Government of India, has recently increased its 
staff of professors and has the prospect of a wide sphere 
of usefulness in the future. 

The S.P.G. also supports a large mission hospital for 
women and educational, industrial, and zenana work. The 
S.P.G. and Baptist missions work in complete harmony 
and have been able to co-operate in some of the educational 
work which they carry on. 


On the Indian border of Tibet to the north of the 
Punjab the Moravians have carried on a mission for over 
fifty years, and have translated the Bible into the Tibetan 

Central Provinces and Eajputana. 

The C.M.S. has mission stations at Jubbulpore and in 
the country of the Gonds in the Central Provinces, and 
at Bharatpur and in the Bhil country in the eastern part 
of Eajputana. The Scotch Episcopal Church has a mission 
to the Gonds at Chanda. The C.E.Z.M.S. has also work 
in these Provinces. The TJ.F.C. of Scotland has work at 
Nagpur, the Swedish Fatherland Institution at Sagar, and 
the German Evangelical Synod of North America at 
Bisrampur. The A.M.E.C., the Friends Foreign Missionary 
Association, and several other Bodies have also a number 
of mission stations in Eajputana. The A.M.E.C. has 
resident missionaries at Nagpur, Jubbulpore, Gondia, 
liaipur, Khandwa, and Jagdalpur. 

United Provinces. 

The United Provinces, i.e. Agra and Oudh, include the 
important towns of Agra, Cawnpore, Lucknow, Allahabad, 
and Benares. The Anglican Bishop of Lucknow, in whose 
diocese these provinces lie, resides at Allahabad. 

We have already referred to the development of 
missionary work in these provinces up to the time of 
the Mutiny, and to the missionaries who were killed in 
Cawnpore on the outbreak of the Mutiny. After the 
Mutiny the Government handed over the church which 
had been built for the use of Europeans, and which 
was not destroyed by the mutineers, to the S.P.G., which 
has made it the centre of its work in Cawnpore. It is 
interesting to record that the son of the man who was 
the direct instigator of the massacre at Cawnpore even- 
tually became a catechist in the S.P.G. Mission. In 1889 
George and Foss Westcott (who are now Bishops of 

INDIA 111 

Lucknow and Chota Nagpur) started a Brotherhood in 
connection with the S.P.G. Mission which has been the 
means of developing educational, industrial, and evangelistic 
work in the city and the surrounding country. 

The college which the Brotherhood helped to establish 
at Cawnpore is affiliated to the Allahabad University. 

Amongst the Indian clergy who have done good work 
in connection with the S.P.G. Mission should be mentioned 
Sita Earn, a Brahman convert, who died in 1878. 

In 1899 St. Catherine's Mission Hospital for Women 
was opened. One of its doctors, Alice Marval, and four 
of the hospital workers died as a result of nursing plague 
patients in 1904. Offshoots of the S.P.G. Cawnpore 
Mission have been established at Eoorkee (1861) and 
Banda (1873). 

Other missionary societies represented in Cawnpore are 
the A.M.E.C., 1 the American Presbyterian Mission, and the 
Women's Union Missionary Society of America. The 
A.M.E.C. Mission dates from 1871. Here as in many 
other places in India its representatives work not only 
amongst the Indians but amongst the Europeans and 

Agra. St. John's College, which is supported by the 
C.M.S., was established in 1853 and is now affiliated to 
the University of Allahabad. The daily attendance at 
the college and its branch schools in the city is over 
1200. The Queen Victoria Girls' High School (1904) 
has about 100 Christian scholars and exercises a laro-e 


influence amongst the Christian community throughout the 

Other missions represented in Agra are the A.M.E.C., 
the English Baptist Missionary Society, and the Edinburgh 
Medical Missionary Society. 

The C.M.S. and the A.M.E.C. began their work in 
Lucknow in 1858. The A.M.E.C. supports the Eeid 
Christian College for Boys and the Isabella Thoburn 

1 For a reference to the rapid development of the work of the American 
Methodist Episcopal Mission in the United Provinces, see pp. 124, 138. 


College for Girls. It also supports work at several stations 
in the Sitapur and Philibhit districts. 

In Allahabad the C.M.S. began work in 1813, when 
it placed there Abdul Masih, who was the first Indian 
to receive Anglican Orders. The American Presbyterians 
have an important college which is affiliated to the 
Allahabad University, and the C.M.S. has a hostel for 
students attending the University. The A.M. E.G. and the 
Z.B.M. are also represented. 

In Benares, which is in a sense the religious capital of 
India, work was begun by the C.M.S. in 1817, by the 
L.M.S. in 1820, by the Baptists in 1827, and later on by 
the Wesleyan Missionary Society and by the Zenana Bible 
and Medical Mission. This latter society supports a 
strong medical mission and hospital. The L.M.S. and the 
C.M.S. have large high and elementary schools. 

Clwta Naypur. 

Work amongst the aboriginal tribes in Chota Nagpur 
was inaugurated by the Rev. J. E. Gossner, a German who 
had received priest's Orders in the R.C. Church, and having 
separated from its Communion prepared and sent out 
evangelists to India. Four of these, who were sent to 
India in 1844, were instructed to start work in some 
district in which there were no other workers. Their 
attention was directed to Eanchi in Chota Nagpur by 
coming across some of the inhabitants of that district who 
were working as coolies in the streets of Calcutta and 
whom they followed to their homes. After they had 
laboured at Eanchi for four years, four men came to them 
asking that they might be allowed to see Jesus, and when 
told that this was impossible, they went away disappointed, 
believing that the missionaries had refused their request 
because they were not high caste people. As the result, 
however, of watching the missionaries at their devotions, they 
became the first converts to Christianity in that district. 

By 1851 thirty-one baptisms had taken place, and by 

INDIA 113 

the time of the Mutiny the converts had increased to 
900. At the close of the Mutiny Gossner proposed to 
transfer the mission and his funds to the C.M.S. This 
offer was refused, though the C.M.S. made a grant of 
1000 to the mission in 1858. On the death of Gossner 
in this year a committee was formed in Berlin to carry on 
the mission. When in 1868 this committee proposed to 
alter the constitution of the mission, the older Lutheran 
missionaries found themselves unable to accept the orders 
of the Home Committee, and were obliged to quit the 
churches and mission buildings which they had erected. 
At this time the number of Christian Kols was about 
9000. Application was made by the missionaries to 
Bishop Milman of Calcutta to receive them and their 
converts into the Anglican Church. The Bishop for a 
long time refused to take action and did his utmost to 
promote a reconciliation between the older Lutheran 
missionaries and the Berlin Committee. When it at 
length became apparent that no reconciliation could be 
effected, he applied to the S.P.G., and having received a 
promise of support from this society, he formally received 
7000 Kols into the Anglican Church and conferred 
Anglican Orders upon their three pastors. On the same 
occasion he ordained an Indian catechist. Daud Singh. 

' O 

It is scarcely necessary to point out that for one 
society to invite converts who had previously been attached 
to another society to join its mission would be wholly in- 
compatible with the principles of Christian comity and 
would be altogether deplorable. In this case, however, the 
Anglican Bishop had refused to recommend the S.P.G. to 
undertake work in Chota Nagpur till the representatives 
of the Lutheran Mission had declared that their separation 
from the Berlin Committee was irrevocable. The mission 
supported by the Berlin Committee was carried on with 
undiminished enthusiasm and increasing success. Satis- 
factory relations, moreover, were soon established with the 
S.P.G., and the two missions have since worked harmoniously 
side by side. 


In 1890 the Kev. S. G. Whitley was consecrated as 
the first Bishop of Chota Nagpur. 

Seventy miles to the north of Eanchi a Dublin 
University Mission was established at Hazaribagh in 1891. 
This mission maintains a college, several schools, and a 
hospital, and has done much to further the higher educa- 
tion of the people of Chota Nagpur. It has a number of 
women associates, who form part of the mission staff. 

Missionaries belonging to the E.C. Church first appeared 
in Chota Nagpur in 1880, when the Lutheran and S P.G. 
missions had already attained a large amount of success. 
In order to win the confidence of the people, the new 
missionaries started an extensive system of agricultural 
loans, offering to those whose wages did not exceed 2d. or 
3d. a day a loan of two or three rupees, which was not to 
be repayable as long as the borrowers continued to be 
" good Catholics." As the Lutheran and S.P.G. missionaries 
did not consider it to be right to offer similar advantages, 
the result was that a large number of the converts who 
had been baptized by them joined the Eoman Church. 
This method of conversion was not adopted on the initiative 
of individual missionaries, but was definitely sanctioned by 
the E.G. Jesuit authorities on the ground that to rely upon 
religious motives would be to forgo the possibility of 
extending their work. Thus the editor of the Government 
Census for 1911 writes: "A well-known E.G. missionary 
in Chota Nagpur writes to me as follows concerning the 
inducements to conversion : 

"'As a general rule religious motives are out of the 
question. They want protection against zamindars (farmers) 
and police extortions, and assistance in the endless litigation 
forced on them by zamindars. . . . Personally, 1 know of 
some cases where individuals came over from religious 
motives. But these cases are rare.' " l 

The Belgian Jesuit missionaries in Chota Nagpur 
have acted from the highest motives, and they have 

1 Census Report, vol. i. pt. i. p. 137. 

INDIA 115 

themselves lived self-denying and laborious lives, but 
it is much to be deplored that in Chota Nagpur, as in 
many other districts in India, the E.G. missionaries should 
have thought it to be their duty to proselytize those who 
were already Christians rather than to begin new work 
amongst non-Christians. 

So great was the success attained by the Jesuit 
missionaries in the districts round Eanchi that they were 
able to baptize, or re-baptize, 10,000 converts within the 
course of a few years. Their best work has been the 
establishment of village schools where a large number of 
children are in course of being educated. Moreover, as 
their work has extended they have gathered in many who 
had not been touched by other missions. In the Jashpur 
native state, which lies to the west of Chota Nagpur in 
the state of Berar, they had in 1911 33,000 adherents, 
chiefly aboriginal Oraons, nearly all of whom had been 
won since 1901. A considerable number were won from 
the ranks of the Lutheran Christians, who number about 


The Indian Christian community in Bengal l numbered 
43,784 in 1911. Of the total number of Christians in 
Bengal 35 per cent, are Eoman Catholics, 27 per cent. 
Baptists, and 22 per cent. Anglicans. Nearly two-fifths 
of the Eoman Catholics are found in the district of Dacca. 
The Baptists have obtained their greatest success amongst 
the Namasudras of Eastern Bengal, and half their con- 
verts are in the Dacca division. The great majority of 
the Indian members of the Anglican Communion are found 
in Nadia, the twenty-four Parganas, and Calcutta. 2 

A large number of missionary societies are represented 
in Calcutta, amongst which are the C.M.S., the S.P.G., 

1 These statistics relate to "Bengal proper." In Behar, Orissa, and 
Chota Nagpur which were also included in the Bengal census the Indian 
Christians numbered 19,893, 7110, and 197,168 respectively. 

2 See Census Report, 1911, vol. i. pt. i. p. 134. 


the Oxford University Mission, the Scotch Established 
and the U.F. Churches, and the Baptist and Wesleyan 

In Calcutta itself (as in the case of Bombay and 
Madras), the progress of missionary work has been slow 
and unsatisfactory compared with the progress achieved in 
some other parts of India. This is partly due to the very 
unsatisfactory moral atmosphere which prevails in these 
cities, and partly to the mixed and changing character of 
their populations. 

The work of the Oxford Mission to Calcutta amongst 
students attending the Calcutta University has been 
carried on for thirty-five years with a self-denying de- 
votion which has never been excelled in the history of 
modern missions, but the visible results are as yet in- 

The largest missionary college in Calcutta is that 
belonging to the Church of Scotland and the U.F.C., 
which has over 1000 students. The L.M.S. and the S.P.G. 
have also colleges, and the C.M.S. has a college and two 
high schools for boys, and a boarding school for girls. 

Throughout the greater part of Bengal, missionary 
work is being carried on, but a large proportion of the 
inhabitants are still unreached. The Anglican, Scottish, 
London, Baptist, and Wesleyan societies are all repre- 
sented. At Barisal, east of Calcutta, the Oxford Univer- 
sity Mission and the English Baptists are strongly 
represented. The C.M.S. has many stations in the Krish- 
nagar or Nadia district north of Calcutta. In this 
district there occurred a mass movement towards Christi- 
anity about sixty years ago, but the results were not 
altogether satisfactory. 

The C.M.S. began work at Taljhari in Western Bengal 
among the Santals, one of the aboriginal races which have 
not embraced Hinduism, in 1860, and soon covered the 
Santal districts with a network of mission stations. In 
1913 there were 24 European and 25 Indian clergy, and 
389 Christian lay agents connected with this mission ; the 

INDIA 117 

total number of Christians being about 6000. The Indian 
Home Mission, founded by two Scandinavians in 1867, 
lias also a considerable amount of work amongst the 
Santals, its chief station being Ebenezer. 

The U.F.C. of Scotland also began work amongst the 
Santals in 1871, and has several mission stations. 

The Church of Scotland has excellent work in the 
neighbourhood of Darjeeling and Kalimpong amongst the 
hill tribes of the Lepcha, Gurkha, and Bhutia. 


The Assamese people have for the most part become 
Hindus, but there are several hill tribes (Garos, Nagas, 
Khasis, Lushais, and Kacharis) which are still pagan. The 
largest number of converts have been won by the Welsh 
Calvinistic Methodists, who started work in 1841. Their 
chief work lies in the Khasi and Jaintia hills, their 
principal station being Shillong. The mission has also 
branches in Cachar, Sylhet, and the Lushai bills. In the 
latter district rapid progress has been attained. The heir 
to the throne of a small independent kingdom in the 
Khasi mountains who embraced Christianity when offered 
the choice of renouncing his new faith or of abandoning his 
claim to the throne, chose the latter alternative. During 
the decade the converts connected with the W.C. Mission 
have nearly doubled. They numbered 31,000 in 1911. 

The American Baptists, who started work in 1836, 
number over 21,000. The Christians connected with this 
mission are chiefly found in the Brahmaputra valley and 
in the Garo and Naga hills. This mission has also some 
work amongst the Assamese. 

Anglican Mission in Assam. In 1850, Captain Gordon, 
who was stationed at Tezpur, began a mission at this place, 
which was taken over by the S.P.G. in 1862. In 1851 
the S.P.G. started work at Dibrugarh, and later on opened 
several stations amongst the Kachari in the neighbourhood 
of Dibrugarh and Attabari. In this district there are 


about 3000 converts. Quite recently a E.G. mission has 
been started amongst the people to whom the S.P.G. is 

Apart from the work which is being done amongst the 
hill tribes and the Assamese, the S.P.G. and the German 
Lutherans minister to the needs of a large number of 
Christian Kols and Santals (numbering about 8000), who 
have come as immigrants to labour on the tea and other 

The recent creation of a diocese of Assam will 
probably lead to a considerable expansion of Anglican 
missions in this province. 

The total Christian population of Assam (apart from 
Europeans) is about 64,000 (1911). 

Indian Census Returns. 

Greater facilities exist for gaining a bird's-eye view of 
the progress of missions over a wide area and during a 
considerable number of years in India than in any other 
non-Christian country. These facilities are afforded by a 
careful study of the returns issued by the Indian Census 
Commissioners at intervals of ten years since 1871. 
The student of missions is warned that great care is needed 
in making comparisons supplied for the different decades, as 
the limits of the Indian Empire have undergone several 
important changes. Moreover, the returns do not include 
the Portuguese and French territories in India, in which a 
large proportion of the Christians attached to the E.C. 
Church reside. Many of the tables, moreover, which are 
contained in the returns include European and Eurasian 
Christians. It is obvious that the number of these must in 
every case be subtracted before any trustworthy estimate 
of the progress of Christian missions can be gained. 

During the decade 1901-11 the population of India as 
a whole increased by 6 '4 per cent., or, if we include the 
gain due to the addition of new areas, 7'1. The Indian 
Christians have increased during the same period from 

INDIA 119 

2,664,313 to 3,574,770 that is, 34'2 per cent., or live 
times as fast as the whole population (included in both the 
returns) has increased. 

The rate of increase of Indian Christians during the 
last four decades has been 22 per cent., 3 3 '9 per cent., 
30'8 per cent., and 34'2 per cent. Boughly speaking, it 
may be stated that the Indian Christians in the Indian 
Empire numbered 1 in 143 in 1891, 1 in 111 in 1901, 
and 1 in 86 in 1911. 

Those interested in the spread of Christianity in 
India have sometimes tried to forecast the future and to 
estimate the length of time which may be expected to 
elapse before India becomes a Christian country. Those 
who regard the future from a more hopeful standpoint 
are influenced by a consideration of the mass move- 
ments which are now in progress and by the anticipation 
that the caste system which is the chief obstacle to the 
spread of Christianity will probably ere long disappear as by 
a landslide. The fact that 24,000 Moslems in the Dutch 
East Indies have become Christians within recent years 
forbids them to despair of the conversion of the Indian 
Moslems, when they come to be surrounded by a Christian 
population of the same race and speaking the same 
languages as themselves. 

On the other hand, those who take a less hopeful view 
point to the comparatively small number of conversions 
which are taking place at the present time amongst the 
high caste peoples and the Mohammedans, and con- 
template the possibility that the present conditions may 
long continue to operate. It is obviously unwise to rely 
upon statistics relating to progress in the past in order to 
prognosticate what the future has in store, but this at 
least may be said : should the increase which has been 
taking place during the last 30 years be maintained, in 
50 years' time the Christians will number 1 in 21 of the 
population, in 100 years they will number 1 in 5, and in 
160 years the whole population of India will be Christian. 
If the relative rate at which the Koman and non -Roman 



missions are expanding be also maintained, in 160 years the 
Christians in India connected with the E.G. Church will 
form about 1 in 30 of the whole Christian community. 

The following table shows the number of Christians of 
Indian nationality according to the last three census 
returns : 





Madras .... 




Travancore and Cochin . 




Bengal and Assam 




Bombay . 




United Provinces 
















Total for all India l , 




As will be seen from the above table, the rate of 
increase has varied considerably in different parts of India. 
The most striking increase has been in the Punjab, where 
the rate has been 333 per cent. This has been due 
to the mass movements among the Chuhras, which have 
resulted from the work of the American Presbyterian and 
C.M.S. missions. More than half the Indian Christians in 
the Punjab are connected with the A.U.P.M. (see p. 106). 
The Salvation Army converts in the Punjab have increased 
during the decade from a few hundreds to 18,000. "A 
special feature of the activities of the Salvation Army is 
the attention which they pay to the criminal tribes and 
depressed classes generally. In several provinces they have 
entered into special arrangements with Government for 
the reclamation of tribes whose criminal proclivities it has 
been found impossible to curb by means of police surveil- 
lance. They endeavour to improve the moral and material 

1 These totals include the Christians in the Provinces as given above 
together with the Christians in the native states. 



condition of these people by sympathetic supervision and 
by teaching them various industries which will enable them 
to earn an honest livelihood." l 

In the Central Provinces and Central Provinces States 
the general increase of the population has been 18 per 
cent, while the Christian increase has been 162 per cent. 

The population of the Madras Presidency, including 
the Travancore and Cochin States, has increased by 
3 per cent., whilst the Christians have increased by 16'9 
per cent. In the case of Burma, the statistics revealed 
by the Government Census are much more encouraging 
than missionaries had anticipated. During the last ten 
years there has been an increase of 56,000 Christians, the 
ratio of increase being 44 per cent. 

The following table shows the comparative progress 
of Eoman and Anglican missions, and of the largest of the 
Protestant denominations during the decade 190111 : 

Total Number of Indian 





per 1000 




In 1911. 

In 1901. 


Eoman Catholics, ex- 

cluding Romo-Syriana 














213,273 i 




Baptists . 






SyrianChristians( Jacobite, 

Reformed, Chald'ean) 












Presbyterians . 




283-3 2 












259-7 3 


Salvationists . 






1 Omitting the 92,644 unclassified "Protestants" which were added to 
the Anglican totals in 1901, but which were omitted in 1911. 

- The greater part of this increase has been in the Punjab, where a mass 
movement has occurred. See p. 106. 

3 In 1901 nearly 60,000 Christians in Travancore connected with 
Congregationalist missions were classified as Protestant or un-sectarian. It 
these be added to the 1901 figures, the rate of increase would appear to have 
been about 38 per cent. 

1 See Census of India fieport, vol. i. pt. i. p. 133. 


The preceding table affords information which will enable 
us to appreciate the present strength and the rates of increase 
of the chief Churches or religious organizations in India. 

The Romo- Syrians who are found in Travancore 
acknowledge the authority of the Pope, but their services 
are in the Syrian language and they follow in part the 
Syrian ritual. If they are included in the E.G. returns, it 
appears that slightly over half the Indian Christians were 
connected with the E.G. Church when the census was 
taken in 1911. The rate of increase for the decade in 
the case of the Roman Catholic missions was only 25 per 
cent, as compared with 45 per cent, for the Anglican and 
Protestant missions taken together. If we suppose that the 
proportionate rates of increase have been maintained, the 
converts connected with the E.G. Church within the Indian 
Empire will now (1915) number about 1,980,000 as 
against rather more than 2,000,000 converts connected 
with non-Eoman missions. In addition to the E.G. Indian 
Christians within the Indian Empire there are, according 
to a return made by E.G. missionaries six months after the 
census was taken, 25,918 in French and 296,148 in 
Portuguese territory within the Indian Peninsula. Their 
rate of increase is probably less than that of the E.G. 
Christians within the Indian Empire. In the province of 
Madras, where the Eoman Catholics are most numerous, 
they have increased only by 8 per cent., the rate of increase 
being slightly in excess of that of the general population. 
In Behar and Orissa (chiefly in the Eanchi district and the 
state of Gangpur) they have gained 68 per cent., in Burma 
62 per cent., in Bombay 35 per cent., and in Bengal 
1 9 per cent. Their greatest progress has been attained in 
Jashpur State in the Central Provinces and Berar, where 
they have now 3 3,0 00 adherents, chiefly aboriginal Oraons, 
practically all of whom " have been gathered into the fold " 
since 1901. 

The rate of increase of the E.G. Church in the Indian 
Empire taken as a whole is slower than that of any other 
large body of Christians in India. 

INDIA 12., 

Anglican Missions. In interpreting the figures which 
are given for Christians connected with the Anglican Church 
it should be noted that in 1901 and in the earlier returns 
all Indians who called themselves Protestants, and did not 
claim to belong to any particular Church or body, were 
returned as Anglicans. In this way, 92,644 Christians 
were added to the Anglican total in 1901. In the census 
for 1911 all Protestants who did not claim to belong to 
any particular Church were entered in a separate column 
by themselves. In order, therefore, to compare the number 
of Christians connected with Anglican missions to-day 
with those which existed in 1901, we must deduct from 
the returns for 1901 92,644. We then discover that the 
number of these Christians has increased during the past 
ten years from 213,273 to 332,807 that is, an increase 
of 5 6' 2 per cent. 

The editor of the Government Census for 1901, 
referring to the 92,644 Christians who returned them- 
selves as belonging to no denomination and were 
wrongly added to the Anglican totals, says : " Of 
these 59,810 were returned in Travancore, where 
the majority were probably members of the London 
Mission." x 

The Anglican Church in India comes next in point of 
numbers to the E.G. Church, but it includes only one- 
eleventh of the Indian Christians. 

The principal centre of the Baptists is in the Madras 
Presidency, where about two-fifths of their converts are 
found, chiefly in the districts of Guntur, Nellore, Kurnool, 
and Kistna. In Burma, where there are 120,000 
converts, they have nearly doubled their number, but, 
according to the Census Eeport, " the increase is probably 
less than would appear from the figures, as in 1901 many 
failed to return their sect, and were thus not shown as 
Baptists." In Burma the Baptists have by far the largest 
number of Christians : thus the Baptists have 120,549, the 
Roman Catholics 50,770, and the Anglicans 9999. In 

1 Vol. i. pt. i. p. 387, note. 


Assam, where their numbers are much smaller, the pro- 
portional increase has been greater. 

The Syrians (excluding Eomo-Syrians) show an increase 
of 66,420, or 26'7 per cent. By far the largest number 
of Syrian Christians are in the Travancore State. Most of 
the rest are in Cochin. Madras contains over 20,000 
(see p. 66f). 

The Lutherans, whose actual increase in the decade has 
been 63,074 Indians, have increased at the rate of 
41 per cent.; 104,074 out of a total of 216,842 are in 
the Madras Presidency. Here their increase has been at 
the rate of 35 per cent. In the province of Bihar and 
Orissa, where their numbers are nearly 88,000, they have 
increased at the rate of 43 per cent. 

The Presbyterians show an actual increase of 121,270 
Indians, which is larger than any other Protestant denomi- 
nation. Their numbers for 1901 have been multiplied 
three and five-sixth times in the course of the decade. The 
most remarkable progress has been made in the Punjab, 
which now contains 95,000 Presbyterians, against only 
5000 in 1901; in the two districts of Sialkot and 
Gujranwala alone there are now 52,000, whereas in 1901 
there were only 500. Most of the converts belong to 
the Chuhra, Chamar, and other depressed castes. In the 
United Provinces there are 14,000 Presbyterians, or nearly 
three times as many as in 1901. 

In Assam there are 31,000 converts, chiefly connected 
with the Welsh Calviuistic Mission in the Khasi and 
Jaintia hills, where their number has risen from 16,000 
to 28,000. 

The Methodists (most of whom are connected with the 
A.M.E.C. missions) have doubled their numbers in the 
United Provinces in the course of the decade, and have a 
large absolute majority of Christians of all races taken 
together in these Provinces 104,148 out of a total of 
177,949. Three-fifths of the present strength of the 
Methodists are in the United Provinces. Their rate of 
increase has been higher in the Punjab, where they now 

INDIA 125 

number 11,582 Indians : in Bombay 11,609, Baroda 4833, 
and Hyderabad 8121. Their total of Indian Christians 
(162,367) is two and one-third times as large as in 1901. 
Their total increase of Indian Christians in the decade has 
been 93,878. 

The Conyreyationalists, according to the census figures, 
have gained 96,927, though in 1901 their numbers were 
only 37,313, an increase at the rate of 2597 per cent. 
This increase, however, is largely artificial, due mainly to 
Congregationalists in 1901 being put down as Protestant 
or Unsectarian. If (as is suggested by the editor of the 
Census returns) the figure 59,810 was added to 37,313, 
the actual increase in the decade would be reduced to 
37,117, or 38 per cent. The Cougregationalists number 
134,240 Indian Christians. Of these 81,499 are in 
Travancore, 36,565 in Madras, 11,519 in Bombay, and 
2336 in Bengal. 

The Salvationists have grown from 18,847 to 52,199, 
at the rate of 176'4 per cent. In the Punjab they have 
now 17,970, as against a few hundreds in 1901. In 
Travancore their present strength of 16,759 is five times 
what it was ten years ago. In Bombay they number 9924 
Indians, in Madras 4876, in Baroda 1540. 

Of the effect of conversion on the Indian Christians 
themselves, Mr. Blunt (one of the Provincial Superin- 
tendents of the Census), writes : 

" The missionaries all these years have been providing 
the corpus sanum (if one thing is noticeable about Indian 
Christians it is their greater cleanliness in dress and habits), 
and now they are being rewarded by the appearance of the 
mens sana. The new convert, maybe, is no better than his 
predecessors ; but a new generation of converts is now 
growing up. If the missionaries could and can get little out 
of that first generation, the second generation is in their 
hands from their earliest years. The children of the 
converts born in Christianity are very different from their 
parents ; their grandchildren will be better still. It is this 
which provides the other side to the black picture so often 
drawn of the inefficiency of Christian conversion. And this 


generation is now beginning to make its influence felt. The 
Hindu fellows of these converts have now to acknowledge 
not only that they are in many material ways better off 
than themselves, but that they are also better men." 

The Census Superintendent of the Mysore State, him- 
self a Hindu, says that the missionaries work mainly among 
the backward classes, and that 

" the enlightening influence of Christianity is patent in the 
higher standard of comfort of the converts, and their sober, 
disciplined, and busy lives. To take education, for instance : 
we find that among Indian Christians no less than 
11,523 persons, or 25 per cent., are returned as literate, while 
for the total population of the State the percentage is only 
6. ... The success in gaining converts is not now so marked 
as the spread of a knowledge of Christian tenets and 
standards of morality." 

The figures of the Indian census returns which we have 
been considering, whilst they afford mathematical demon- 
stration that the number of Christians is increasing in 
India, are but a skeleton outline. They need to be clothed 
with flesh and blood in order that their significance may 
be appreciated. It is instructive to learn that India is 
becoming Christian at a rate unprecedented in the history 
of the world, but to realize what this means one needs to 
go out to India and to walk through the districts where the 
Christian faith is being taught, and to note the changes 
which are taking place. A visitor will not need to ask as 
he enters any particular village whether its inhabitants are 
Christians. A glance at their faces, or even at the faces 
of their children, will show whether the spirit of fear, 
engendered by the debased form of Hinduism which is 
professed in the average Hindu village, has been exorcised, 
and whether Christian hope and freedom have taken its 
place. He may find many who call themselves Christians, 
but whose lives are unworthy of their profession ; but the 
proportion will not be as large as he will have been pre- 
pared to discover if he is acquainted with the history of 

INDIA 127 

Europe during the centuries which succeeded its nominal 
conversion to Christianity, nor will the superficial 
Christianity of a few greatly lessen the impression which 
will be produced upon him as he comes to understand the 
marvellous transformation which is taking place in the 
experience alike of individuals and communities. 

It is easy to criticize the mass movements which have 
taken place in South India and are beginning to take 
place in the north, and to call in question the motives 
which, in some instances, lie behind these movements. 
The nominal acceptance of Christianity on the part of a 
community is, obviously, no substitute for the conversion 
of heart and character which can alone enable individuals 
or communities to lead a Christian life, but in many 
instances the nominal and to some extent superficial con- 
version of a community may be regarded as the almost 
indispensable preparation for the conversion of its indi- 
vidual members. The atmosphere which caste has gener- 
ated is so unwholesome, and so completely destroys the 
recognition of individual responsibility, that until this 
atmosphere can be dispelled it is well-nigh impossible for 
individuals to appreciate the liberty wherewith Christ 
would set them free. The nominal conversion of a whole 
village may not be accompanied by many signs of spiritual 
life, but it brings every individual in the village within 
the reach of spiritual influences and renders possible the 
growth of the Christian character. It is not difficult for 
the critic of Christian missions to discover instances in 
which the desire for Christian instruction on the part of a 
village community has been strengthened, if not created, 
by the hope of material advancement, but the student of 
missions, who is familiar with the many unworthy motives 
which hastened the nominal conversion to Christianity of 
the peoples in Northern Europe, will not be unduly dis- 
heartened when he realizes that in the history of the 
evangelization of non-Christian countries to-day a limited 
number of cases are to be found which recall what might 
almost be termed the normal occurrences of the past. 


Missionary Education. 

The Government has come to realize that if elementary 
education is to be spread throughout India and is to bring 
any moral gain to its peoples, its efforts must be largely 
helped and supplemented by the missionaries. These 
alone are in a position to supply trained Indian teachers 
and to superintend the teaching if it is to be supplied on 
any large scale. In the province of Chota Nagpur, which 
is chiefly inhabited by races that have not embraced 
Hinduism, the Government has offered to place the whole 
school system of the province under the direction of the 
three missionary societies which are at work there, i.e. the 
S.P.G., the E.G. Mission, which is manned by Belgian 
Jesuits, and the German Gossner Mission. Here, and in 
many other parts of India, an unlimited opportunity is 
offered to the representatives of Christian missionary 
societies to exercise a decisive influence upon the whole 
moral and religious future of its peoples. 

Missionary Colleges. The Anglican and Protestant 
missionary societies have 38 colleges, of which 23 prepare 
for the B.A. degree, the other 15 having only a two years' 
course and finishing with the First Arts qualification. In 
these colleges there were (in 1912) 5447 students, includ- 
ing 61 women. Of these students 4481 were Hindus, 
530 Mohammedans, and 436 Christians. All the students 
receive daily instruction in the Christian Scriptures, and 
of those attending mission schools throughout India 92 

o O 

per cent, are non-Christians. There is a Christian 
college for women at Luckuow and one has recently been 
organized at Madras. This latter has received support 
from eleven British and American missionary societies. 
In South India at least 1000 Christians are university 

There are 1163 boarding and high schools belonging 
to missionary societies with 110,763 students. 

In the Christian elementary schools there are about 
450,000 pupils, of whom 146,000 are girls and 170,000 

INDIA 129 

are Christians. The 160 industrial schools have 9125 

The colleges connected with the Anglican Church in- 
clude St. Stephen's College, Delhi (S.P.G.) ; St. John's 
College, Agra (C.M.S.) ; Christ Church College, Cawnpore 
(S.P.G.) ; Hazaribagh College, Chota Nagpur (D.U.M.) ; 
Trichinopoly College (S.P.G.) ; the C.M.S. colleges, at 
Madras, Peshawar, Amritsar, Masulipatam, and Kottayam. 

Those connected with the Church of Scotland include 
the General Assembly's Institution, Calcutta, and the 
college at Sialkot. The principal colleges supported by 
the United Free Church of Scotland are the Christian 
College, Madras, the Wilson College, Bombay, and Nagpur 

Those connected with the L.M.S. include the Eamsay 
College at Alniora in the United Provinces, a college in 
Calcutta, and colleges at Bellary and Nagercoil in South 

Those connected with the American Presbyterian 
missions include Forrnan College, Lahore, and the Ewing 
Christian College, Allahabad. 

Those connected with the American Methodist Episcopal 
Church include the colleges at Lucknow (for men and 
women) and Allahabad. 

Amongst other colleges which deserve special notice 
may be mentioned the Canadian Presbyterian college at 
Indore, the Wesleyan colleges at Bankura and Manargudi, 
and the American Baptist college at Ongole. 

The total number of students attending colleges of 
university standing in India is about 25,000, and of these 
about 5500 are at missionary colleges. During recent 
years the Government of India has realized that the 
provision of university education to all who desired it has 
been anything but an unmixed blessing to its recipients, 
and that the moral atmosphere of many of the university 
towns was injuriously affecting the characters of a large 
number of university students. They have in consequence 
adopted the policy of contributing largely towards the cost 



of establishing residentiary hostels in which students may 
live under sympathetic supervision. By far the greater 
number of these hostels are in the hands of the missionary 
societies. At the two new universities of Patna and 
Dacca the Government desire that the majority of the 
students should live in such hostels. How great is the 
need of establishing university colleges or hostels may be 
gathered from a statement made by the Rev. W. E. S. 
Holland of Calcutta, who writes : 

" Seven thousand Bengali students congregate in Calcutta 
under conditions that are nothing less than appalling. The 
circumstance that determines everything else is their ex- 
treme poverty. A mere handful are in properly supervised 
hostels. A good many live at home. The remainder are 
huddled together in the cheapest lodgings they can find; 
so that the slums and student quarter are almost inter- 
changeable terms. Fancy Oxford transferred to lodgings 
in the slums of Whitechapel ; and picture an England with 
its leading classes educated thus ! The moral and sanitary 
environment is deplorable ... 80 per cent, [of the students] 
join no college societies, 90 per cent, play no games ; their 
only recreation a slack stroll up and down College Street, 
their only pabulum the gutter-press of Calcutta." 

At Dacca and Patna hostels to accommodate 200 
students are being built almost entirely at Government 
expense which are to be under the direction of the Oxford 
University Mission in the one case and of the C.M.S. in 
the other. 

Interest in education has been steadily increasing 
throughout India during recent years. According to the 
Government Quinquennial Review published in 1914, the 
number of boys in attendance at secondary schools in 
which English is taught went up from 473,000 to 667,000 
between 1907 and 1912. During the same period the 
number attending primary schools went up from 3,986,000 
to 4,998,000. Of these about a quarter were attending 
missionary schools. During the year 1912-13 the total 
increase of pupils attending all kinds of schools was nearly 

INDIA 131 

The backward condition of female education may be 
inferred from the fact that whilst nearly 30 per cent, of 
boys of school-going age were at school, the proportion of 
girls was only 5 per cent. Daring the period 190712 
the number of girls in primary schools increased from 
645,028 to 952,911. 

Seminaries. Of Anglican seminaries for the training 
of Indian clergy the S.P.G. and C.M.S. each have one in 
Madras ; the S.P.G. has also Bishop's College, Calcutta 
(which is being re-organized) ; the C.M.S. has also divinity 
schools at Lahore, Allahabad, Calcutta, Poona, and Kottayam. 
The American Board (A.B.C.F.M.) has seminaries at Madura 
and Ahmadnagar, the A.M.E.C. at Bareilly, the Lutheran 
Mission at Tranquebar, the A.P.M. at Saharampur, the 
A.U.P.M. at Ptawal Pindi, and the Baptists have the theo- 
logical college at Seraniporc, which has the standing of a 
university. In 1910 a United Theological College was 
established at Bangalore which is supported by the L.M.S., 
W.M.S., A.B.C.F.M., the American Eeformed Church, and 
the U.F.C. of Scotland. The largest theological seminary 
in the Indian Empire is that at Insein in Burma, which is 
supported by the A.B.M. and has 160 students. 

Medical Missions. 

Anglican. The C.M.S. has hospitals at Srinagar in 
Kashmir, Peshawar, Bannu, Quetta, Dera Ismail Khan, 
all on the North- West Frontier ; and at Amritsar and 
Multan in the Punjab. The S.P.G. has hospitals at Delhi, 
Cawnpore, Hazaribagh (D.U.M.), Murhu in Chota Nagpur, 
and at Nazareth and Eamnad in South India. The Church 
of England Zenana Missionary Society works to a large 
extent in conjunction with the C.M.S. and maintains 
hospitals at Peshawar, Quetta, Tarn Taran, Dera Ismail 
Khan, Amritsar, Bangalore, etc. 

The U.F.C. of Scotland maintains hospitals at Ajmer, 
Udaipur, Jodhpur, Nasirabad, Poona, Nagpur, Bhanclara, 
and Ward ha. In the Santal country it has three medical 


missions and in the Madras Presidency it has hospitals for 
women at Eoyapurani and Conjeveram. It also supports 
a medical mission at Aden in Arabia. The Church of 
Scotland has medical missions for women at Poona, Gujerat, 
and at Sholiu^hur in Madras. 


The Canadian Presbyterians maintain hospitals for 
women at Neemuch, Indore, and Dhar, and have several 
other general hospitals. The A.U.P.M. has hospitals for 
women at Jhelum and Sialkot. 

The A. Presbyterian Church has a large medical mission 
at Miraj in the South Maratha country. It has also 
stations at Kolhapur, Vengurla, and Kodoli in the same 
district, and at Sabathu, Arnbala, Ferozepore, Kasur, 
Allahabad, and Fategarh. The Irish Presbyterians have a 
hospital at Anand in Gujerat. 

The L.M.S. has a large medical mission at Neyoor in 
Travancore. It has also hospitals at Jammalamadugu in 
the Telugu country, and at Kachwa, Almora, and Jiagauj 
in North India. 

The A.B.C.F.M. has medical missions in the Marathi 
country, at Madura and in Ceylon. 

The A. Baptist F.M.S. has medical missions in Burma, 
Assam, and in the Telugu country. 

The W.M.S. carries on medical work chiefly amongst 
women in South India. It supports hospitals at Mysore, 
Hassan, Ikkadu, Medak, Nizamabad, Nagari, and Madras. 

The A.M.E.C. has hospitals at Bareilly, Bhot, Brindabun, 
Baroda, Kolar, and Bidar. 

The Zenana Bible and Medical Mission has hospitals at 
Benares, Patna, Lucknow, and Nasik. 

The Basel Mission has medical stations at Calicut and 

The Salvation Army has hospitals at Nagercoil, Anand, 
Moradabad, and Ani. 

In addition to these there are a large number of 
hospitals and medical missionaries connected with smaller 
missionary societies. In 1910 there were in mission 
hospitals about 50,000 in-patients, more than 1,000,000 

INDIA 133 

out-patients, and over 56,000 surgical operations. Train- 
ing institutions for Indian doctors and nurses have been 


founded at Ludhiana and Agra. 

The greatness of the need to which medical missionaries 


minister may be gathered from a recent statement made 
by the Inspector- General of Civil Hospitals in Bengal, to 
the effect that in order to supply the rural districts with 
dispensaries sufficient to bring the supply of medical aid up 
to the lowest standard that is considered necessary in 
England, the agencies would have to be multiplied by 40. 

Work amongst Indian Moslems. 

The first missionary to work amongst Moslems in India 
was Geronimo Xavier, who came to Lahore from Goa in 
1596. He wrote three books a Life of Christ, a Life of 
St. Peter, and a disquisition on the religion of Islam. It 
is known that he baptized several converts (see p. 77). 
Amongst those who worked amongst Indian Moslems in the 
nineteenth century should be mentioned Dr. C. G. Pfauder, 
Bishop French, Ptobert Clark, Kev. T. P. Hughes, Ptev. R 
Bateman, Dr. Imad-ud-din, and Safdar Ali. In 1856 the 
Harris school, which is under the charge of the C.M.S., was 
opened in Madras. The C.M.S. has also some work amongst 
Moslems in Hyderabad and Alleppey. The Church of 
England Zenana Missionary Society supports schools for 
Moslem girls in Madras, Bangalore, Mysore city, Ellore, 
Bezwada, Masulipatam, and Khammamett, the last four being 
in the Telugu country. 

The S.P.G. works amongst Moslems in Delhi, where a 
large proportion of the students attending St. Stephen's 
College are Moslems. 

The A.M.E.C. Mission has work at Hyderabad and Kolar. 

The U.F.C.S. has a mission at Conjeveram in the 
Tamil country, and the L.M.S. has a station at Trivaudrum 
in the Malayalam country. 

One or two small associations have work amongst 
Moslems in the Tamil and Telugu country. Industrial 


schools have been established in Madras, Bangalore, and 
Guntur to provide employment for destitute Mohammedan 
women. Most of the larger missionary societies carry on 
indirect mission work amongst Moslems in connection with 
their missions to Hindus. 

Missionary Societies in India. 

Of the 117 foreign and 19 indigenous missionary 
societies working in India and Ceylon, 41 are British, 41 
American, 12 from the continent of Europe, 8 from 
Australia, and 3 are international. The three societies 
which support the largest number of missionaries are the 
C.M.S., which supports (1913) 142 European clergy; the 
American Baptists, who support 136, and the A.M.E.C., 
which supports 124 American clergy. The tendency of 
the British and American societies is to leave the adminis- 
tration of affairs and the initiative to those in India, whilst 
the tendency of the continental missionary societies is to 
retain a larger measure of control in the hands of the home 

The following is a brief summary of the work of some 
of the chief missionary societies in India and Ceylon, with 
the date at which they began work. 

I. Anglican.- -The C.M.S. (1816) and the S.P.G. 
(1818) are at work in all the provinces of India. The 
total number of Indian Christians in India connected with 
the Anglican missions in 1914 was about 350,000. These 
include the converts connected with the C.M.S., the S.P.G., 
the Church of England Zenana Mission (1851), and several 
smaller Anglican societies or associations. 

In 1913 the C.M.S. had 142 European and 206 Indian 
clergy and 196,000 baptized Christians; the S.P.G. had 
104 European and 139 Indian clergy and 113,000 baptized 

The Church of England Zenana Missionary Society 
(C.E.Z.M.S.) is an offshoot formed in 1880 from the 
Indian Female Normal School and Instruction Society, an 

INDIA 135 

undenominational body which began work in Bengal in 
1851. It supports medical and evangelistic work among 
women in Bengal, the Central Provinces, the Punjab, Sinclh, 
and in several parts of South India. This society works 
in close association with the C.M.S., and occasionally the 
two societies interchange workers. (For a list of hospitals 
supported by the C.E.Z.M.S. see p. 131). 

The total number of missionaries supported by this 
society in India in 1913 was 145 Europeans and 256 

Of the twelve bishops in India who superintend the 
Anglican missions, seven are appointed by the English 
Government namely, those of Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, 
Lahore, Eangoon, Lucknow, and Nagpur. These occupy a 
somewhat anomalous position, as they are at once Govern- 
ment officials and in charge of the Government chaplains, 
and superintend the Anglican missions which have been 
established in their dioceses. The Bishops of Travancore, 
Tinnevelly, Chota Nagpur and Assam, are not appointed or 
paid by Government and are simply missionary bishops. 
The Bishop of Dornakal, who was appointed by the Bishop 
of Madras, has a small diocese of his own in the state of 
Hyderabad. He also acts as an assistant bishop in the 
diocese of Madras. 

As long as there is an English army in India and 
a large European population it will be necessary to 
have English chaplains and English bishops. It would, 
however, be an undoubted advantage from a missionary 
standpoint if the bishops who are responsible for the 
supervision and development of missionary work in 
India were no longer supported or appointed by the 

II. Baptist Missionary Societies. The English B.M.S. 
(1792) works chiefly in Bengal, Bihar, the United Pro- 
vinces, and the Punjab. Its " church members " number 
about 11,000 and its adherents 30,000. It has hostels 
for students at Calcutta and Dacca, and a university 
college at Serampore. In Ceylon, where it began work in 


1812, it has 1057 "members." The Baptist Zenana 
Mission has 70 missionaries and 100 girls' schools. 

The A.B.M.U. (1813) has 140 European and 425 
Indian clergy and 135,000 baptized adherents. Nearly 
half these are in Burma. In Assam it has 60 missionaries 
(including men and women) and about 11,000 communi- 
cant members. It has also work in Bengal and the Teluort 
country. The total number of Baptists in India in 1911 
was 332,000. 

III. The Lutheran Missions. Next to the Anglican 
and Baptist missions come, in point of numbers, the 
Lutheran missions, the largest of which are (1) the 
Gossner Mission of Berlin (1841), which has 71,000 
baptized adherents in Chota Nagpur, and a staff of 50 
European and 44 Indian missionaries and 400 Indian 
lay-workers (see p. 112). (2) The Evangelical National 
Missionary Society of Stockholm (1877) has 1500 baptized 
Christians and 23 European (men) missionaries in con- 
nection with its work in the Central Provinces. (3) The 
Schleswig - Holstein Evangelical Lutheran Mission (1883) 
works among the Telugus in the Vizagapatam district 
and amongst the Uriyas of the Jeypore Agency. The 
Christian community numbers about 15,000 and is 
ministered to by 24 European missionaries. 

The Basel Mission (founded in 1815) started work on 
the west coast of India in 1834. It has 26 principal 
stations in the districts of Kanara, Malabar, Coorg, the 
Nilgiris, and South Maratha. It has 60 European and 
26 Indian clergy, and its baptized Christians number 
20,000. Its constitution is Presbyterian in character. 
Industrial work forms a chief feature of the mission. 

The industrial mission work of this society has been 
criticized by many of the supporters of Indian missions, 
and not altogether without justification. A member of 
the Basel Mission, the Kev. A. Scheuer of Tellicherry, 
writes : 

"This system is not without its disadvantages. Most 
Christians look to the mission for everything ; the temporal 

INDIA 1 :; 7 

and the spiritual are too closely allied, and therefore often 
confounded. The factories attracted undesirable converts. 
In the minds of the people mission work became associated 
with providing a living. Well-to-do Hindus may not seldom 
have stood aloof from the Church because they needed no 
material help. . . . There can be no doubt that these 
industrials have been very helpful factors in building up a 
few strong congregations in the most caste-ridden parts of 
India. But it remains doubtful if without them a smaller 
and more efficient Church, better distributed, would not 
in the long-run have amply compensated for speedier 
numerical success." 1 

There are also two American Lutheran Missions, the 
General Synod (1842) with its headquarters at Guntur, 
and the General Council with its headquarters at Bajah- 
mundry. The former has over 40,000 adherents, which 
include over 1000 Sudra converts ; the latter, which 
started in 1869, has about 17,000 adherents. 

The Danish Evangelical Lutheran Missionary Society 
(1867) has 29 European missionaries, 5 Indian pastors, 
and about 1600 members connected with its work at 
Pattambakam in South Arcot. The total number of 
Christians connected with the Lutheran missions in 1911 
was 216,000. 

IV. Presbyterian Missions. (1) The Foreign Missions 
Committee of the Church of Scotland, which sent out 
Alexander Duff as its first missionary (1829), works in 
Calcutta, the Eastern Himalayas, the Punjab, Poona, and 
Madras. It has 77 European agents (32 men and 45 
women) and 16,000 baptized Christians. 

(2) The United Free Church of Scotland (U.F.C.S.) in- 
cludes three missions which existed before the time of the 
Disruption in Western India (1823), Calcutta (1829), and 
Madras (1837). Its other missions are in Eajputana, 
Santalia, and in the Central Provinces. The European 
workers which it supports include 56 ordained and 32 
unordained men and 117 women. Its Indian workers 
include 18 ordained men. There are about 12,000 
1 Year-Book of Indian Missions (1912), p. 507. 


persons "in fellowship with the Church." It supports 
16 medical stations. The Women's Foreign Mission 
in connection with the U.F.C. of Scotland supports 275 
schools with 15,000 scholars. The Christian College at 
Madras founded by this society also receives support from 
the C.M.S., the W.M.S., and the Church of Scotland 

(3) American Presbyterian Missions. The chief centres 
of work are in the Punjab (1846), Allahabad (1836), and 
in the state of Kolhapur (1852), which lies about 150 
miles south of Bombay. It supports university colleges 
at Lahore and Allahabad (see p. 91). 

(4) The Canadian Presbyterian Mission (1877) has 
eleven chief stations, mostly in Central India. It has an 
important college at Indore. It supports a good deal of 
medical work, including three hospitals for women. 

The total number of Indian Christians connected with 
Presbyterian missions in 1911 was 164,000. 

V. Methodist Missions. (1) The largest Methodist mis- 
sion is that of the A.M.E.C., which works in many different 
parts of India. This society has done excellent educa- 
tional, medical, and industrial work. In the carrying out 
of its evangelistic work it has been content to accept a 
low r er standard as a qualification for baptism than that 
accepted by other societies, and complaints, which have 
often been well grounded, have been made against its 
representatives that the society has established itself in 
areas already occupied by other societies, and has baptized 
large numbers of converts who were in course of being 
prepared for baptism by other missions. It is greatly to 
be hoped that those who are responsible for the direction of 
its policy will fall into line with that adopted by all other 
great societies with the exception of the representatives of 
the B.C. Church and of the Salvation Army. 

The A.M.E.C. also works to a considerable extent 
amongst Europeans and Eurasians in India. It has 112 
American and 264 Indian ministers. 

(2) The Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society (W.M.S.) 

INDIA 139 

supports work in Ceylon (1814), Madras, Negapatam, 
Hyderabad, and Mysore, and in North India in Bengal, 
Lucknow, Bombay, and Burma. A large part of its work 
is amongst Europeans and Eurasians. 

The total number of Indian Christians connected with 
Methodist missions in 1911 was 162,000. (In 1912 the 
A.M.E.C. claimed to have 185,000 "baptized adherents.") 

VI. Congregationalist Missions. (1) The London Mis- 
sionary Society (L.M.S.) occupies 10 centres in North 
India, 12 in South India, and 6 in Travancore. In connec- 
tion with its missions in North India it has about 4000, in 
South India about 33,000, and in Travancore about 81,000 
Christians. Its staff consists of 70 European men, 50 
European women, and 41 Indian clergy. 

(2) The missions of the American Board support 
29 American and 83 Indian clergy attached to three 
principal centres Ahmadnagar, the Jaffna peninsula in 
Ceylon, and the Madura district. It has about 40,000 
Christian adherents. It supports 6 mission hospitals. 

The total number of Christians connected with 
Congregational missions in 1911 was 134,000. 

VII. The Salvation Army employs 207 European and 
2285 Indian officers and teachers. Its work is carried on 
in 13 different districts and in 12 languages, its general 
headquarters being at Simla. The contributions raised in 
India and Ceylon equal in amount those sent from 
England. It supports 3 hospitals, 21 industrial boarding 
schools, 6 farm colonies, 1 7 weaving schools, and 1 1 settle- 
ments for criminal tribes accommodating 2300 persons 
(see p. 125). 

The Indian National Missionary Society. One of the 
most hopeful developments of missionary work in India 
during recent years has been the formation of the National 
Missionary Society of India, which was first organized on 
Christmas Day, 1905, and began its missionary operations 
in 1907. Mr. K. T. Paul, the Secretary, writes: 

" The society is strictly denominational in the evangel- 
istic work done in its fields. Each field is worked in a 


particular connection exclusively of others. For instance, 
the Punjab field is Anglican, to which only those candi- 
dates who are of that connection are sent. The first 
missionary to that field was ordained by the Bishop of 
Lahore in 1911. The field in the United Provinces is 
Presbyterian, to v/hich only those candidates who are of 
that connection are sent. One of the workers there was 
ordained by the Presbytery of Ludhiaua (in 1912). And 
so with the other fields, one of which is in connection with 
the ancient Syrian Church." l 

The " five fields of labour " which have so far been 
selected are the Montgomery district in the Punjab ; the 
Nakkar tahsil of the Saharaupur district in the United 
Provinces ; the Omaher taluk in the Salem district, 
Madras ; the district of North Kanara in the south of 
the Bombay Presidency ; and the Karjat-Karmala taluks 
near Ahmadnagar. In 1914 there were 26 agents 
employed by the society, of whom 12 had received a 
college education and of whom 2 were doctors. The 
converts numbered about 1000. 

Had we space, we should like to refer to some of the 
movements which owe their origin to the Christian ideals 
which missionaries have inculcated in India, such as the 
Society of the Servants of India, founded in 1906 by 
Mr. Gokhale ; the Seva Sadan or Sisters of India Society, 
founded in Bombay in 1908 by the Parsee philanthropist 
Mr. Malabari ; or the Ramakrishna Home of Service, in 
Benares. The Seva Sadan Society seeks to train Indian 
women for educational, medical, social, and philanthropic 
work. These and many others are supported by those who 
do not call themselves Christians but whose lives have been 
influenced by the spirit of Christ. 

Bible Societies. An important missionary agency is the 
British and Foreign Bible Society, which employs many 
hundreds of Biblewomen and colporteurs to read and dis- 
tribute the Bible. Since its foundation (1804) it has 
issued in the languages of India nearly 20,000,000 

1 Year-Bool: of Indian Missions, p. 431. 

INDIA 141 

portions of Scripture. The American Bible Society (1817) 
does similar work on a smaller scale. The National Bible 
Society of Scotland (1861) maintains 223 colporteurs in 
India and Ceylon, who sold in 1910 239,000 copies of 
the Scriptures. 

Roman Catholic Missions in India. 

We have already referred to the early missions of the 
E.C. Church in India and to the work which it is carrying on 
in special districts. In 1886 India and Ceylon were placed 
under a regularly constituted hierarchy with eight arch- 
bishoprics (Goa, Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Pondicherry, 
Verapoly, Agra, and Colombo). The total number of bishops 
and priests (1912) is 2653, of whom 1700 are indigenous 
to the country and 953 are Europeans. " Of these 
European missionaries a small percentage are of Irish and 
a still smaller percentage of English descent. The rest are 
members of various religious Orders from Italy, Spain, 
France, Holland, Belgium, and Germany, while the prelates, 
in every case except one, belong to these continental 
nationalities." l 

E.G. Colleges and Schools. The E.C. Church has 23 
seminaries containing 700 candidates for the priesthood, 
of which the most important are situated at Kancly in 
Ceylon, Shernbagamir near Trichinopoly, Eanchi, and 
Kurseong near Darjeeling. It has 1 1 colleges which prepare 
for university degrees with 1300 students, 65 high schools, 
248 middle schools, and 2438 elementary schools with 
98,000 pupils. It has also 47 industrial and 74 boarding 
schools with 5917 pupils, and 97 orphanages. For girls 
it has 59 high schools, 240 middle class schools, and 672 
elementary schools. The total number of pupils (1912) 
in E.C. schools is 143,000 boys and 73,000 girls, out of 
whom about 12,000 are orphans. The boys' schools are 
for the most part managed by members of religious Orders 
and the schools for girls by professed Sisters. 

1 See article by Father E. R. Hull in TJie Yearbook of Missions -in 
India, p. 160. 


Of the university colleges the most important are 
St. Xavier's College, Calcutta, under Belgian Jesuits (276 
students) ; St. Xavier's College, Bombay, under German 
Jesuits (350 students); St. Joseph's College, Trichinopoly, 
under French Jesuits (420 students). 

The educational establishments are to a large extent 
supported by Government grants-in-aid. They are in part 
maintained by the two European societies, the Association 
for the Propagation of the Faith and the Society for the 
Holy Childhood. 

Religious Unity in South India. 

In 1908 five separate missions in South India were 
organized as one body under the name of the South India 
United Church namely, the United Free Church of 
Scotland in and about Madras, the Arcot Mission of the 
Reformed Church of America, the American Madura 
Mission, and two London Missionary Society missions 
the Travancore Mission and the South Indian District 
Committee Mission. Its affairs are managed by a small 
committee elected by the General Assembly which meets 
once in two years. The Basel Evangelical Mission and 
one or two other missions are considering the possibility of 
joining the South India United Church. 

Proposals have also been made to incorporate in a 
" Federation of Christian Churches in India " all churches 
and societies that " accept the Word of God as contained 
in the Scriptures as the supreme rule of faith and practice, 
and whose teaching in regard to God, sin, and salvation 
is in general agreement with the great body of Chris- 
tian truth and fundamental doctrines of the Christian 

In December 1911 a Presbyterian Alliance was 
organized in Allahabad. As a result the General 
Assemblies of the Church of Scotland, the U.F.C. of 
Scotland, the Presbyterian Church in America, and the 
Canadian and Irish Presbyterian Churches approved the 

INDIA 141 

scheme and voted to allow their Indian Churches to join 
the Union. 

The member of missionaries in India. 

In 1912 there were 5200 Anglican and Protestant 
missionaries in India (compare China, 4299). Of the 
1442 ordained missionaries, 620 were from Great Britain, 
559 from the U.S.A., and 222 from the continent of 
Europe. There were 118 men and 217 women doctors. Of 
the total number of missionaries, 2076 were men and 
3124 women; of these latter, 1800 were unmarried 
women. Of Indian men and women there are about 40,000 
who devote their whole time to missionary work ; of these, 
1665 are ordained. Amongst the Indian workers there 
are about 250 university graduates, most of whom are 
teachers. Of the 40,000 Indian workers about 10,000 
are women. 

The difficulty of developing an educated ministry 
supported entirely by Indian contributions will be realized 
when it is remembered that the average income per capita 
of the people of India is 2 per annum. At the present 
time the average contribution towards the support of his 
Church made by each member of the Indian Christian 
Churches is 4s. per annum. 

The Young Men's Christian Association, which works 
chiefly amongst students in the larger towns, exercises a 
widespread influence. The Christian Literature Society 
(C.L.S.) translates and produces in various Indian lan- 
guages books bearing directly or indirectly upon the 
Christian faith, and thereby furnishes invaluable aid to the 
missionary societies. 

Philanthropic Work. 

Some idea may be obtained of the organized philan- 
thropic work, apart from that of medical missions, which 
is being done by missionary societies in India from the 


following statement. The figures in brackets denote the 
number of inmates in the various institutions. There 
are now in India in connection with missionary societies : 
orphanages, 181 (13,400); leper hospitals and asylums, 
59 (4815); institutions for blind and deaf mutes, 8 (340); 
rescue homes, 8 (360); industrial homes, 19 (1134); 
houses for widows, 15 (410). 


SOON after the arrival of the Portuguese, who effected 
a settlement in Ceylon early in the sixteenth century, 
some Franciscan monks reached Ceylon, and a bishopric of 
Colombo was established. In 1544 St. Francis Xavier 
preached among the Tamil fishermen of Manaar in the 
kingdom of Jaffna and baptized over 500 of them. These 
were massacred by the Kajah of Jaffna, whose kingdom 
was conquered by the Portuguese in 1548. The Portuguese 
used forcible methods of conversion, and a large proportion 
of the people, including the Brahmans, were baptized. In 
the south of the island less violent means were adopted, 
but even here " many became Christians for the sake 
of Portuguese gold." When the Dutch expelled the 
Portuguese in the middle of the seventeenth century, they 
strove hard to induce the Singalese to adopt the Pieformed 
faith. The E.G. priests were banished, E.G. rites were 
forbidden on pain of death, and the people were ordered to 
become Protestants. No unbaptized person was allowed to 
hold any office or to possess land. Before the end of the 
Dutch occupation it had been realized that the conversion 
of the people was merely nominal, and when pressure was 
relaxed the number of the Christians rapidly fell. When 
the English gained possession of the island in 1798, 
300,000 persons registered themselves as members of the 
Dutch Church. Of these a few were intelligent members, 
a large number were Eoman Catholics, but the majority were 
Buddhists or Hindus. The English Government proclaimed 
religious toleration, but did nothing to teach or evangelize 


the people. As a result of the religious liberty which they 
established, a number of the Singalese declared themselves 
to be Roman Catholics and a larger number claimed to be 
Hindus or Buddhists. 1 

The first Protestant missionary to establish work in 
Ceylon in the nineteenth century was James Chater of the 
Bapfixf Jf.S. After spending six years in Burma, he reached 
Colombo in 1812, where he laboured for sixteen years. 
His successor, the Eev. E. Daniel, did much to spread 
Christianity in the villages near Colombo. The B.M.S. 
has now 4 European missionaries and 1057 baptized 
Christians, its chief centres of work being Colombo, Kandy, 
and Ratnapura. 

In 1814 five Wcslcyan missionaries arrived and started 
work at Jaffna and Batticaloa for the Tamils, and at 
Matara and Galle for the Singalese. The mission proved 
discouraging in its early years, but afterwards maintained 
a steady growth. In 1842 work was started among the 
savage Veddahs. The W.M.S. has training colleges at 
Colombo and Galle and a large number of day and board- 
ing schools in various parts of Ceylon. In 1913 the 
number of European missionaries was 26 and of communi- 
cants 6186. 

In 1816 four missionaries belonging to the A. B.C. I. M. 
arrived, and in the following year started work at Jaffna. 
The work of this society, which has since been developed, 
has been concentrated in this district. A special feature 
of the mission, especially in its earlier days, has been the 
establishment of missionary schools. The greater part of 
its work has been handed over to Singalese, and but little 
evangelistic work is now being done. In 1912 it had 
a staff of 3 American missionaries, and its communicants 
numbered 2170. 

In 1818 four missionaries sent by the C.M.S. landed 
in Ceylon and, like their predecessors, received a warm 
welcome from the Governor, Sir Robert Brownrigg. They 

1 For a further reference to the relapse of the Protestant Christians in 
Ceylon, see p. 20. 


began work among the Tamils at Jaffna and among the 
Singalese at Kandy. The mission to the Tamil coolies in 
the north has for many years received a large amount of 
financial support from the English planters, who have 
learnt to appreciate its value. The college at Kandy, of 
which the Eev. A. G-. Fraser is the Principal, is a " red- 
hot centre " of missionary life and enthusiasm, and seems 
likely to exercise a far-reaching influence upon the prospects 
of Christianity in Ceylon. Another important college be- 
longing to the mission is situated at Jaffna. In 1913 it 
had 20 European missionaries and 5097 communicants. 

The first missionary supported by the S.P.Gr. was 
stationed at Colombo in 1840, and was transferred to 
Matara in the south in the following year. A large part 
of the work which this society has helped to develop has 
been done in close conjunction with Government chaplains 
or with the diocesan clergy. The centre of its educational 
work is St. Thomas' College, Colombo, which has recently 
been rebuilt on a new site. It is one of the leading 
educational institutions in Ceylon. 

In 1845 the first Anglican Bishop of Colombo (Dr. 
Chapman) was appointed. 

The words which one of the C.M.S. missionaries wrote 
in 1868, on the occasion of the jubilee commemoration of 
the C.M.S. Mission in Ceylon, apply to the work of all the 
existing societies. He wrote : 

" A more arduous task, a more trying field of labour, it 
would be difficult to imagine. . . . Pure Buddhists and 
Hindus are tenfold more accessible than are the thousands 
of relapsed and false professors of Christianity. . . . The 
tradition preserved in native families of the fact that their 
forefathers were once Christians and afterwards returned to 
Buddhism is naturally regarded by them as a proof of the 
superiority of the latter religion ; whilst the sight of churches, 
built by the Dutch but now gone to ruin, adds strength to 
the belief that Christianity is an upstart religion which has 
no vitality, and which, if unsupported by the ruling powers, 
cannot stand before their own venerated system." 1 

1 History of the C.M.S., i. 218. 



During the years which have elapsed since these words 
were written, Christianity has made considerable progress, 
but the missionaries have not yet got rid of the handicap 
created by the religious history of the past centuries. 

Other societies at work in Ceylon are the Salvation 
Army, which commenced work in 1882, and the Friends' 
Foreign Mission Association, which began in 1896. 

There are five E.G. dioceses in Ceylon Colombo, Kandy, 
Galle, Trincomalee, and Jaffna. The missions in the 
dioceses of Colombo and Jaffna are conducted by the 
Oblates of the Blessed Virgin Mary, those in Galle and 
Trincomalee by the Jesuits, and those in Kandy by the 
Silvestrine Benedictines. The staff includes 173 European 
and 67 native priests. The European priests are also 
engaged in ministering to European residents. The number 
of E.C. Christians, according to the latest K.C. returns, is 
345,628. These figures include about 1300 Europeans and 
12,500 Burghers (i.e. Dutch half-castes). 

The Jesuits are in charge of the seminary at Kandy, 
which was established in 1893 for the training of native 

The population of Ceylon (excluding the military), 
according to the census of 1911, is 4,105,535. The 
following table gives the religious profession of the inhabit- 
ants as shown by the last four census returns : 
















Hindus . 










Of the total Christian population of 409,000, 239,000 
were low-country Singalese, 6000 Kaudyan Siugalese, 


86,000 Ceylon Tamils, 41,000 Indian Tamils, 7470 
Europeans, and 26,454 Burghers. 

The Anglican Christians (who included 4983 Europeans 
and 7299 Burghers) numbered 41,095 ; the Wesleyans 
(who included 1977 Burghers and 310 Europeans) 
numbered 17,323; the Presbyterians (who included 663 
Europeans and 2684 Burghers) numbered 3546 ; Baptists, 
3306 ; Congregationalists, 2978; Salvation Army, 1042. 

The figures belonging to the different denominations 

O o o 

given in these census returns include adherents as well as 
baptized Christians. 

During the decade 190111 the percentage of increase 
in the Christian population was 16'8, whilst that of the 
total population was 16'5. In the Christian schools in 
Ceylon, 54,967 scholars are in charge of Roman Catholics, 
32,713 of Anglicans, and 29,192 of Wesleyans. The per- 
centage of literates i.e. of those who can read is much 
higher both in Ceylon and in Burma than it is in India, 
and there are therefore greater opportunities for extend- 
ing missionary influence by the circulation of Christian 

One result of the progress of Christian missions during 
recent years has been that the Buddhists, who include the 
majority of the inhabitants, have recently awakened to 
the fact that Christianity is a force to be feared, and 
therefore deserving of active opposition. In an article 
entitled "The Buddhist Revival in Ceylon," 1 Mr. 
Ekanayake, who is himself a Siugalese Christian, describes 
the remarkable efforts which have been made by the 
Buddhists in different parts of Ceylon to establish schools 
and to organize lectures and addresses in order to 
counteract the spread of Christian influences. He writes : 

" Work among children, which was entirely unknown in 
Buddhist circles, whether in the earliest or in the latest 
days of Buddhism, is being vigorously carried on. Catechism, 
Sunday schools, religious instruction in day schools, the 
teaching of Buddhist stanzas to school children, and their 

1 The East <md The West, July 1904, 


processions to temples on festival days, are noteworthy 
features of work amongst children." 

Unfortunately, it does not appear that this revival of 
Buddhism is accompanied by any serious effort to bring 
the debased form of this religion which is found in Ceylon 
up to its original standard or ideals. 

"What is most disappointing," writes Mr. Ekanayake, 
" is that in spite of all this activity there is no attempt 
made to purify Buddhism of its corruptions . . . the 
worship of trees, relics, and images still takes place . . . 
devil worship has not been denounced, but still goes on, 
though it is contrary to the principles of Buddhism. Caste, 
which the teaching of Buddhism denounces, is strongly 
upheld in Buddhist circles." 

From the missionary standpoint this attempt to 
revivify Buddhism is perhaps the most encouraging 
feature of the present situation. The fact that the re- 
vival itself is, so to speak, on the surface, and that it is 
doing little to raise the religious and moral standards of 
the people, suggests that it is not likely to interfere for 
long with the progress of Christian missions. 



IN 1603 Felipe de Brito, a Portuguese adventurer, estab- 
lished himself as Governor of Syriarn near Kangoon. He 
built a church at Syriam and began to destroy the 
Buddhist pagodas and to force the Buddhists to become 
Christians. After ten years he was killed by the king 
of Ava, and his wife and most of the Portuguese at 
Syriam were taken as slaves to Ava. Their descendants 
constitute the bulk of the E.G. population in that part of 
the country to-day. In 1692, the first missionary priests 
of the Society of Foreign Missions at Paris reached Pegu. 
In the following year they were arrested by order of the 
king, exposed naked to the bites of mosquitoes, and then 
sewn up in sacks and thrown into the Pegu Paver. In 
1721 two more priests arrived, who were followed by 

During the next forty years a bishop and several 
priests were murdered, including Father Angelo, who was 
"a skilled doctor," but the work continued. By 1800 
there were two E.G. churches in Eangoon and 3000 
Christians, but in 1824, on the outbreak of the first 
Burmese War, the two churches were destroyed. In 1857 
King Mindon helped the E.G. priests in Mandalay to 
build a church and a mission house. Soon after this the 
E.G. mission work in Burma was handed over to the 
Foreign Mission Society of Paris, and Father Bigandet, 
who had already been a missionary for fourteen years, was 
consecrated as bishop. He became one of the chief 
authorities on the language and religion of the Burmese. 

'5 1 


The Christian Brothers started work at Moulrnein in 1859 
and at Kangoon in 1861. In 1867 the Milan Society for 
Foreign Missions took charge of the work at Toungoo and 
in East Burma. The Eoman Catholics have virtually 
abandoned direct evangelistic work amongst the Burmese, 
the bulk of their adherents in Burma being Tamils, Pwo- 
Karens, and Eurasians. They have also done good work 
amongst the Chinese immigrants. During the decade 
1901-11 their increase in Burma was at the rate of 
62 per cent., and the total number of their converts in 
1911 was 50,770. They have 3 bishops and over 200 
European priests, monks, and nuns. The Eev. W. C. 
Purser of the S.P.G. Mission writes : 

"The Eoman priests have won the admiration of the 
European residents by the devotion of their lives. Few 
return to Europe after coming out to the East, and the 
missionary priests live right among the natives. The 
educational and social work of the Eoman Catholics is 
beyond praise. St. Paul's School, Eangoon, is one of the 
largest and best equipped boys' schools in the East, and is 
staffed by the ' Teaching Brothers,' who are trained lay 
teachers and give their labour free. It is the wonderful 
organization of the Eoman Church, as shown by this brother- 
hood of teachers, that enables it to compete successfully 
with other Christian bodies in India, with the result that 
many Anglican and Nonconformist children are being 
educated in E.C. schools." 1 

Baptist Missions. 

In 1806 five students sat beneath the shelter of a 
haystack in Williamstown, Massachusetts, discussing the 
possibility of evangelizing the world. Mills, ene of their 
number, suddenly cried out, " We can if we will," and the 
cry was taken up and repeated by his four companions. 
Five years later Adouiram Judson joined this company, 
each member of which was pledged to give up all and dare 
all in order that they might spread the Kingdom of Christ 
throughout the world. 

1 Missions in Burma, p. 93. 

BURMA 153 

In 1810 Judson, with three others, offered himself for 
missionary work to the General Association of the Congre- 
gational Church, and as a result the American Board for 
Foreign Missions was founded. After being ordained for 
the Congregational Church he and his companions eventu- 
ally reached Calcutta in 1812, where soon afterwards 
he became a Baptist. The East India Company having 
refused him permission to work in India, he arrived on 
July 13, 1813, at Eangoou, where one of the Careys had 
already (1807) begun missionary work. When the American 
Baptists heard of Judson's change of views, they determined 
to support him, and founded the society which is now 
known as the American Baptist Missionary Union. There- 
upon the English missionaries in Eangoon handed over 
their work to this society. At the end of seven years 
Judson had baptized 10 Burmese converts. 

On the outbreak of the Burmese war with England 
in 1823, he and his companion, a medical missionary 
named Price, were thrown into prison, and for twenty-one 
months endured the greatest hardships. When the war 
was over, and after the death of his first wife (he married 
three times), he lived the life of a hermit, and on one 
occasion fasted for forty days in the jungle. In 1828 
Mr. Boardman baptized the first convert among the 
Karens Ko Tha Byu who became an apostle to his 

Meanwhile Judson gave himself up to the task of 
translating the Bible into Burmese. He died in 1850. 
Judson believed in peregrinating as opposed to concentrated 
mission work, and was doubtful as to the value of mission- 
ary schools. His legacy to those who came after him was 
the inspiration of a devoted life and the translation of the 
Bible into Burmese. 

In 1852 there were 62 missionaries, male and female, 
and 267 Burmese and 7750 Karen Christians belonging 
to the A.B.M. The number of baptized members belong- 
ing to this mission in 1911 were: Burmese, 3182; 
Karens, 54,799; Kachius, 371; Chins, 1011; Slums, 


338 ; Takings, 308 ; Muhsos, 9343 ; Tamils, 465 ; others, 
579 making a total of 70,396. The total number of 
Christian adherents belonging to the mission was 120,549. 
There are about 200 American missionaries (including 
wives) and 2200 native workers, and the contributions of 
the native congregations amount to over 20,000 per 
annum. Of the 976 churches connected with this mission, 
717 are self-supporting. Two institutions connected with 
the mission deserve special notice : 

1. The Baptist College at Eangoon, which is affiliated 
to Calcutta University. Its new buildings were opened in 
1909 in memory of Dr. Gushing, a former Principal and 
the translator of the Bible into the Shan language. 

2. The theological seminary at Insein, established in 
1845, where Karens, Burmese, Chins, and others are 
trained to become evangelists. It has 150 students in 

The American Methodist Episcopal Mission has been 
represented in Lower Burma since 1878. For many years 
its missionaries confined themselves to work amongst 
Europeans, but they are now doing missionary work as 

In Upper Burma the English Wesleyan Methodists 
have been at work since 1885. They help to support a 
home for lepers which has accommodation for 250 lepers. 

The Y.M.C.A. has a large organization in Eangoon, but 
its work is chiefly amongst Europeans. 

Anglican Missions. 

At the close of the second Burmese war in 1853 the 
Anglican chaplain at Moulmein, supported by English 
civilians, began to organize missionary work. In 1854 
the S.P.Gr. sent a Eurasian from Calcutta to assist him, 
and in 1859 they sent the Eev. A. Shears from England. 
In 1860, Mr. J. E. Marks (now Eev. Dr. Marks), a trained 
schoolmaster, arrived, who enlarged and developed the 
school which had been started. In 1863 Mr. Marks was 

BURMA 155 

ordained and transferred to Eangoon, where he started a 
school which was afterwards known as St. John's College, 
which stands in 13 acres of laud and has now nearly 700 
boys, 190 of whom are boarders. 

In 1867 Mr. Marks visited Maudalay on the invitation 
of the king, and in 1869 he opened a school which had 
been built at the king's expense, and which included 
amongst its scholars nine of the royal princes. The king 
also built a church, to which Queen Victoria gave a font, 
and which was consecrated by the Bishop of Calcutta in 

In 1863 difficulties arose between some of the A.B.M. 
missionaries amongst the Karens and their converts, and 
in 1870 the wife of the founder of the Karen Mission 
suggested handing over to the Anglican Church 6000 
converts together with a number of mission schools and 
other property. The Eev. J. Trew, whom the Bishop of 
Calcutta deputed to make inquiries, advised that the offer 
should be refused and that the members of the A.B.M. 
should be left to settle the dispute among themselves. 
In 1873 a mission station for work amongst Burmese 
was opened at Toungoo. In 1875, the dispute among the 
members of the A.B.M. still continuing, and some of the 
Karen Christians having drifted back into heathenism, 
the Anglican Mission at Toungoo undertook the care of the 
Karen Christians who had finally separated themselves 
from the A.B.M. In 1877 the bishopric of Eangoon was 
constituted, and in the following year the first four Karen 
clergy were ordained. 

On the succession of KingThibaw in 1878, the mission 
at Mandalay was broken up, and the church was converted 
into a state lottery office. In 1885 the mission was 
re-started, after the annexation of Upper Burma by the 
English Government, by the Eev. James Colbeck, a most 
capable missionary and a man of saintly character. He 
died in 1888, after fifteen years of unbroken service in 
Burma. In 1895 Dr. Marks was compelled to return to 
England after thirty-five years of strenuous work in the 


cause of Burmese education. On the resignation of Bishop 
Strachan, after an episcopate of twenty years, the Eev. A. 
M. Knight was consecrated as third bishop of Rangoon in 
1903. During the six years which followed, before he 
was forced by ill-health to resign, he did much to 
strengthen and develop the work of the Anglican missions, 
and on his return to England he became the Warden of 
St. Augustine's Missionary College at Canterbury. 

A Missionary Brotherhood, supported by funds collected 
in the diocese of Winchester, started work amongst Burmese 
in Mandalay in 1904, and a community of women was 
organized in 1909. The first Head of the Brotherhood 


was the Eev. R. S. Fyffe, who became Bishop of Rangoon 
in 1910. 

The S.P.G., besides supporting work amongst the 
Burmese and Karens, carries on work amongst Tamil, 
Telugu, and Chinese immigrants at Rangoon, Moulmein, 
Toungoo, and Mandalay, and has a small mission amongst 
the Chins. Connected with the Anglican Mission there 
are 16 ordained native missionaries, of whom 10 are 
Karens, 3 Burmese, and 3 Tamils. 

Its most important institutions are St. John's College 
for boys, and St. Mary's High and Normal Schools for girls 
in Rangoon. It has also some work at Car Nicobar, one 
of the group of islands south of the Andamans, which are 
in the diocese of Rangoon. The total number of baptized 
Christians connected with the Anglican Mission is about 

Of the converts in Burma connected with all the 
Christian missions, by far the largest proportion have been 
won from amongst animists who had not previously 
embraced Buddhism. But although the profession of 
Buddhism renders the Burmese difficult for the Christian 
missionary to approach, the Burmese are far from being 
consistent Buddhists. 

No picture could be more ideal than that of Burmese 
Buddhism depicted in the book entitled The Soul of a 
People. We are loth to admit the truth, which is that 

BURMA 157 

the Buddhism described by Mr. Fielding Hall exists 
only in the imagination of the writer. Over against the 
poetical, but wholly misleading, descriptions of Mr. Hall 
we have to set the matter-of-fact, but true, description by 
Mr. C. Lowis in the official Census Eeport for India and 
Burma. He speaks of 

" the fact now largely recognized that the Buddhism 
of the people is of the lips only, and that inwardly 
in their hearts the bulk of them are still swayed by 
the ingrained tendencies of their Shamanistic forefathers 
in a word, are, at bottom, animists pure and simple. . . . 
The Burman has added to his animism just so much 
of Buddhism as suits him, and with infantile inconsequence 
draws solace from each of them in turn. I know of no 
better definition of the religion of the great bulk of the 
people of the province than that given by Mr. Eales in 
his 1891 Census Eeport : ' a thin veneer of philosophy laid 
over the main structure of Shamanistic belief.' The facts 
are here exactly expressed. Animism supplies the solid 
constituents that hold the faith together, Buddhism the 
superficial polish. Far be it from me to underrate the 
value of that philosophic veneer. It has done all that a 
polish can do to smooth, to beautify, and to brighten ; but 
to the end of time it will never be more than a polish. In 
the hour of great heart-searching it is profitless. It is then 
that the Burman falls back upon his primeval beliefs. Let 
but the veneer be scratched, the Burman stands forth an 
animist confessed." l 

A more hopeful view of the possible developments 
of Burmese Buddhism was expressed by Dr. Tilbe, an 
American missionary working in Burma. Speaking at a 
recent Conference in America of the change which has 
taken place during recent years in Burmese Buddhism, 
he said : 

"This whole country of Burma is absolutely different from 
what it was not so very long ago. The people are different, 
the religion is different. Twenty- five years ago the term 
' Buddhism ' meant the Buddhism of the books, the Buddhism 
of the priesthood. To-day, Buddhism is still a religious term, 

1 Census Eepcn-t, 1901, vol. i. p. 35. 


but the thing itself is vastly different from what it was twenty- 
five years ago. At that time, when I spoke of God, I had to 
prove the existence of God in a way that would satisfy those 
people. When I spoke then of man having a soul, almost 
every man in my congregation denied it. To-day, I preach 
everywhere, appealing to their own belief in God, appeal- 
ing to their own belief in the human soul : and I find 
unanimous assent. Christian teaching, Christian tracts, 
Christian schools have modified the belief in Buddhism 
until to-day it is not the Buddhism of the books, not the 
Buddhism of the priesthood." l 

One of the most remarkable of the Burmese converts 
to Christianity is a man named Mauug Tha Dun, who 
lived in the forest for thirteen years the life of a Buddhist 
hermit. Without having received any Christian instruc- 
tion, or having come into contact with a European 
missionary, he came to believe that much of the teach- 
ing of modern Buddhism was false and that there was 
a Supreme God who could be thought of as the great 
Father, and he began to preach this truth in the sur- 
rounding villages. He at length came into contact with 
the Kev. T. Ellis, an Anglican missionary at Kemmendine, 
and, after long and careful preparation, was baptized in 
1911. Since his baptism he has lived the life of an 
ascetic and has occupied his time partly in meditation and 
partly in travelling from village to village in districts 
where he was previously known, in order to preach the 
faith of Christ to his former disciples and followers. Of 
these, 150 have been baptized as the result of his efforts, 
and the number of those who have been influenced by 
him, but have not yet been baptized, may be counted by 
thousands. Of the hermit and his followers the Rev. 
G. Whitehead writes : 

" I am more and more struck with the self-denying life 
and the earnestness of the hermit, and with the beauty 
of character reflected in the face of him and of quite a 

1 Students and the World-wide Expansion of Christianity. Report of a 
Coufurence at Kansas City, 1914, p. 270. 

BURMA 159 

number of his followers. The hermit himself is so patient 
and unselfish, humble and pure-minded, earnest and devout, 
full of benevolence towards all men, anxious to lead his 
brethren into the right way, and unwearied in service, that 
it is a great joy to be with him." 

In the discovery and the conversion of men like 
Maung Tha Dun lies the hope of interpreting Christ to 
the Burmese. 


THE story of Christian Missions in China may be con- 
sidered under five heads: 1. The influence exerted by 
Christian teachers upon the development of Chinese 
Buddhism, prior to the arrival in China "of the Nestorian 
missionaries. 2. The Nestorian Missions of the fifth and 
following centuries. 3. The Franciscan Missions in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 4. The Jesuit and 
other Eoman Missions from the sixteenth to the end of 
the eighteenth century. 5. Modern Missions to China 
from the beginning of the nineteenth century. 

I. The influence of Christianity on Northern 


Any inquiry into the history of Christian Missions 
in China, if it is to take account of the conditions under 
which these missions have been carried on, must include 
a reference to the influence which Christian teaching 
may have exerted in China before the Christian faith was 
definitely preached there. Northern Buddhism, that is, 
roughly speaking, the Buddhism of China and Japan, 
differs so fundamentally from the southern Buddhism, 
which is now represented in Ceylon and Burma, that 
only by a stretch of language can the two be called 
one religion. The differences that exist between them 
are more fundamental than those that exist between 

Christianity and Islam. How then was Indian Buddhism 

1 60 


transformed, and under what influences ? One answer 
appears to be that northern Buddhism was indebted for 
part of its distinctive teaching first to Gnostic teachers of 
the first and second centuries, and, later on, to the teaching 
of Manicheism. 

Before we attempt to suggest how this debt may have 
been incurred, it is well to recall the essential difference 
between northern and southern Buddhism. The latter, 
as represented in Ceylon, Burma (and apparently in Tibet), 
knows nothing of a personal God, or of salvation to be 
gained as a gift from God or as the result of faith 
in Him. It teaches that without expecting to receive 
divine, or external, help man should aim at securing 
salvation by accumulating merit. The salvation which, 
after countless rebirths on this earth, he may hope to 
secure will result in his individual life and consciousness 
being merged in universal life and, in so far as the ex- 
pression has a definite meaning, in universal conscious- 

If by northern Buddhism we mean the Buddhism 
embodied in The Awakening of Faith and The Lotus 
Scripture^ which are accepted by Chinese Buddhists, and 
the Buddhism of the Amida sects and the Pure Land 
School in Japan, we may claim for northern Buddhism a 
belief in a personal God who is moved with love towards 
men, and in a salvation which includes personal immortality 
to be won not by the accumulation of merit but by faith 
in God. 

The teaching of the Amida sects and the Pure Land 
School, which include more than half the population of 
Japan, go far beyond this. 

1 The Awakening of Faith, the Chinese translation of which was made 
by the Buddhist missionary Paramartha during the first half of the sixth 
century, and which is about the size of the Gospel of St. Mark, is said to 
rank fifth amongst the religious books of the world which have the largest 
number of adherents, i.e. after the Bible, the Koran, the Confucian Classics 
and the Vedas. The Lotus Scripture, which is the most popular of all the 
Buddhist scriptures in Japan, existed before A.D. 250, and was translated 
into Chinese about the end of the third century. 


According to the doctrine accepted by the Amida and 
Pure Land sects, " Amida is without beginning and without 
end : all love, wisdom, benevolence and power. In ages 
incalculably remote he appeared in various forms among 
men, all his incarnations being to bring salvation to man- 
kind. In his last incarnation he registered a vow that, 
should the perfect consummation of the Buddhahood ever 
be in his power, he would not accept deliverance unless 
such deliverance should also mean the salvation of man- 
kind. ... To grasp the salvation wrought out for man by 
Amida . . . r nothing is needed but faith no works of the 
law, no austerities, penances, no repentance, nothing but 
faith." * V 

Whilst it is impossible to maintain that this teaching, 
or the teaching of those Buddhists in China to whom 
reference has been made, is a natural development of the 
teaching of southern Buddhism, it is hard to suggest 
any source from which the distinctive doctrines of this 
form of Buddhism could have been derived other than 
Christianity or the early heretical sects which had accepted 
part of the Christian faith. The two sects which were in 
touch with Christian thought, and which might have 
exerted influence upon Buddhist teachers in very early 
times, are the Gnostics and the Maniehees. A book en- 
titled Pistis Sophia, which is a Gnostic Gospel and pro- 
fesses to give in the words of Jesus an exposition of the 
chief doctrines of Gnosticism, was discovered by ^chwartze 
in 1851 among the Coptic MSS. contained in the British 
Museum. The original, which was apparently written in 
Greek, dates from the second century and may have been 
written by Valentinus. The resemblances which can be 
traced between the teaching of the Pistis Sophia and that 
of the Amida sects of Japan are so striking as to make it 
difficult to doubt that Egyptian Gnosticism either influenced, 
or was influenced by, Buddhism. The latter alternative 
is apparently quite inadmissible. Professor Lloyd has 
shown that it is far from being impossible that Gnostic 
1 The Creed of Half Japan, by Arthur Lloyd, pp 266-8. 

CHINA 163 

teaching may have reached Japan via Southern India at a 
very early date. 1 

We cannot give even a summary of the evidence which 
Professor Lloyd and others have adduced in proof of the 
theory that Chinese Buddhism was influenced by Chris- 
tianity, represented in a distorted form by early Gnostic and 
Manichee teachers, but no careful student can lightly 

>c" """ 

disregard such evidence. 

An interesting discovery was made in China m 1908 
which tends to support the theory that Manjxjlieism 
exerted a widespread influence in China in very early times. 
In 1908 there was found in a cave in Tunhuang in the 
province of Kansu, a large number of' MSS7which have 
been in part deciphered by MM. Chavannes and Pelliot. 2 
The cave had been sealed up for many centuries (from 
1035 A.D.). One of the MSS. is a Chinese translation 
of two short Manichean treatises. 3 The discovery of 
this book affords evidence that Manichean teaching was 
represented in China in or about the eighth century. 4 
Another MS. found in the same cave consists of a 
hymn addressed to the Holy Trinity entitled " A hymn 
by which to obtain salvation to the Three majestic Ones of 
the Illustrious Religion." The hymn consists of 309 words 
divided into eleven stanzas of four lines each, and includes a 
list of persons and books venerated by Christians. This 
recent discovery confir-ms and supplements the information 
supplied by the famous stone* discovered at Hsianfu, to 
which we shall have occasion to refer. 

'See "Gnosticism and Early Christianity in Egypt," by P. I. Scott- 
Moncrieff, Church Quarterly Review, October 1909 ; "Gnosticism in Japan," 
by A. Lloyd, in The East and The West, April 1910 ; and The New Testament 
of Higher Buddhism, by Timothy Richard. 

2 Cf. Un traite manichccn rctrome en Chine, traduit et annote par 
Chavannes et Pelliot, Paris, 1912 ; of. also "An Ancient Chinese Christian 
Document," in the Church Missionary Review for October 1912, by A. C. 

3 The actual title of the Chinese MS. is missing. 

4 In A.D. 981 the Chinese traveller Wang Yent? spoke of the existence 
of Manicheun temples in the neighbourhood of Tourfau. 


II. The Nestorian Mission. 

There is no certain proof that a mission connected 
with any branch of the Christian Church reached China 
prior to the arrival of the Nestorian missionaries. 

It is true that a fourteenth-century tradition mentioned 
by Nicholas Trigault (1615) states that St. Thomas, after 
preaching the gospel in South India, preached and founded 
Christian churches in China, but the tradition has no 
historic value.. The earliest reference of any value to the 

_j * ( 

existence of Christianity in China is that of Arnobius, who 
wrote about A.D. 300. He says : " The work done in India, 
among the Seres, Persians and Medes may be counted and 
come in for the purpose of reckoning." l 

If by Seres we are te^under&tand Chinese, the state- 
ment would show that (Arnobiusy believed that Christian 
missionary work amongs^Chinese was in existence 
there at the time when he wrote. It is difficult to say 
what value can be attached to this statement. We are on 
surer ground when we come to speak of the Nestoriau 

At the Council of Ephesus held in A.D. 431, Nestorius, 
who was then Patriarch of Constantinople, was condemned 
as a heretic and banished beyond the frontiers of the 
Eoman Empire. His banishment, which was apparently jthe 
result of a serious misunderstanding of hjs^leacliiiio^was the 
immediate ^ause or a great extension of Christian Missions 
throughout the Far Jiast. A~sch*ool was founded at Edessa 
(the modern Ourfa) which became a centre for missionary 
expansion, and owing to the activity of the followers of 
Nestorius the Christian faith was spread over a great part 
of Central Asia. * 

Many archbishoprics or metropolitical sees were eventu- 

1 Adversus Gentes, Leyden, 1651, lib. ii. p. 50, quoted in the Book of 
Governors, i. p. 115, note 2. The Book of Governors is the Historia 
MoiMstica of Thomas, Bishop of Marga, written in Syriac, c. 840, printed with 
English translation and notes by Dr. Budge, 1893. Bishop Thomas was 
secretary to Mar Abraham, the Patriarch, between 832 and 840. 

CHINA 165 

ally established, of which two were at Cabul and Can\baluc 
(Peking). Other metropolitical sees were at Elam, Nisibis, 
Bethg^rma, and Carach in Persia; at Haiti van^ or Hajach 
on the confines of Media ; at Mara in Ko^san ; at Kara 
in Caniboya ; at Da\j}en, Sam^cand, and Marav^lnabar ; 
and at TanUgt or Tanjgut the modern province of Kansu. 1 
The canon of Theodore, Bishop of Edessa in 800 A.D., 
refers to " Metropolitans of China. India, and Persia, of 
the MerWtes of Siam, of the Baziojjes, of the Haribps, of 
Samarcarld, which are distant, and which by reason of the 
infesteol mountains and turbulent sea are prevented from 
attending the four-yearly convocations with the catholicos, 
and who therefore are to send their reports every six 
years." 2 

Our chief source of information in regard to the work 
of this mission is the famous Nestorian Stone which was 
inscribed at Hsianfu in the eighth century, and was 
buried during the great persecution of A.D. 845, to be 
rediscovered by Chinese workmen in 1625, and roofed 
over by a patriotic Chinese in 1859. The inscription 
refers to the work accomplished by one or more Syrian 
monks who arrived at Hsianfu in A.D. 635. It throws so 
much interesting light upon the work of the Nestorian 
missionaries that it is worth while to describe it in some 
detail. The inscription is in Chinese, the names of the 
clergy being given for the most part in Chinese and Syriac. 
The inscription, which is entitled, " Monument commemor- 
ating the propagation of the noble law of Tach'in (the 
Eoman Empire) in the Middle Kingdom," states : It is 
handed down by Chingching, priest of the Tach'iu 
monastery (called in Syriac Adam, Priest and Chorepiscopos 
and Papas of China), that there is one Alaha, Three in 
One, the unoriginated true Lord. Then follows the story 
of creation, an account of Man, of Satan, and the rise of 

1 See Assemani, Bibliotheca Orientalis, vol. iii. This is a collection of 
Syriac and other MSS. published in Rome, 1719-28. The complete list of 
Nestorian dioceses given by Assemani (vol. iii. pt. ii.) occupies eighty 
folio pages. 

2 Quoted in The Greek and Eastern Churches, by W. F. Adeney, p. 534 f. 


idolatry. The Triune Alaha divided His Godhead, and 
Messiah appeared. Angels proclaimed Him ; a Virgin 
bore Him in Tach'in ; a bright star announced His birth ; 
Persians visited Him. He left twenty-seven books of a 
New Testament, and baptism. His ministers turn to the 
east at prayer and wear beards as a sign that they 
maintain outward relationships, shaving their crowns. 
They pray for the living and the dead ; they have the 
weekly offering ; they have no slaves, no wealth, but they 
promote harmony. In the days of T'ai Tsung (627650), 
Alop^n brought the Scriptures and translated them into 
Chinese. He built a monastery for twenty-one monks. 
Religion spread through ten provinces (650683). 
Monasteries .filled a hundred cities (6J)8-699). But 
Buddhists demded it. The Emperor Tai Tsung^GS-TSO) 
every year on the day of the ]\ativit^~ presented divine 
incense to proclaim the perfected work, and offered a royal 
feast to do honour to the Christian congregation. Chien- 
chuug (780-784) helps us. Priest Issu restored the old 
monasteries and doubled the size of the churches. Erected 
(781) in the days of Henan Ishu, the Catholicos (ob. 
780), by JazedWizid, Priest and Chorep\isopos of Knmdan 

.- j __^___^__ _ 

(Hsiau) by the disposition of our Saviour, and preaching 
of our fathers to the Kings of the Chinese. 

Then follow names, Lingpao, Adam, HsiftgJ/ung, 
Sabranisjiu, etc., of Kunldan and oa^ag (China). 1 

As suggestive of the possible influence exerted upon 
the development of Chinese Buddhism, we. may note that 
Chingcning, the author of this inscription, helped an 
Indian Buddhist missionary to translate a Buddhist sutra 
into Chinese. 

We have already referred to the references to the 
Nestorian Mission contained in the Christian MS. found 
in the cave at Tuuouang. The following references, which 
occur in the writings of contemporary Chinese writers, are 
deserving of special notice : 

1 A rubbing of the stone, the lettering of which is easily decipherable, 
can be seen at the S.P.G. Mission House, Westminster. 

CHINA 167 

"Allusions to the Nestorian Mission in Chinese Writings. 
In the seventh month (August 15 to September 12) 
of the twelfth of the Chcngkuan years (A.D. 0:38) a decree 
was made saying : Teaching has no immutable name, holy 
men have no unchanging method. Eeligions are founded 
to suit (respectively, different) lands, that all the masses 
of men may be saved. Alopen, a Persian monk, bringing 
the religion of the Scriptures irom far, has come to offer it 
at the chief metropolis. The meaning of his religion has 
been carefully examined : it is mysterious, wonderful, 
calm ; it fixes the essentials of life and perfection ; it is 
the salvation of living beings, it is the wealth of men. 
It is right that it should spread through the Empire. 
Therefore let the ministers build a monastery in the 
Iniug quarter, and let twenty-one men be duly admitted 
as monks. 1 

" In the ninth month (September 30 to October 29) 
of the fourth of the T'ienpao years (A.D. 745) a decree was 
made saying : It is long since (the teachers of) the religion 
of the Scriptures of Persia, starting from Syria, coming to 
preach and practise, spread through the Middle Kingdom. 
When they first built monasteries we gave them in conse- 
quence (of their supposed origin) the name (of Persian). 
In order that men may know their (real) origin, the 
Monasteries of Persia at the two capitals are to be changed 
to Monasteries of Syria. Let those (monasteries) also which 
are established in all the Prefectures and Districts observe 
this." 2 

The next decree suggests alike the widespread influence 
of the Nestoriau Mission and the development of official 
government opposition to its claims : 

" As to the monks and nuns who come under the head 
of aliens, making known the religious of other countries, 
we decree that over 3000 Syrians and Muhufu return to 
lay life and cease to confound our native customs." 3 

1 Tang hui yao (ed. 1884, first published A.D. 960), xlix. fol. 10. 
Chinese text in Varietis Sinolocjiqvcs, No. 12, p. 376. 

2 T'any hui yao, xlix. fol. 10, 11 ; Hsihsitsung, vii. fol. 22. Text in 
VariiUs Sinologiques, No. 12, p. 376 ; translation, p. 255. There seem to 
have been "Persian" if not "Syrian" monasteries of other creeds besides 
the Christian. 

3 Vartitts Sinologiques, No. 12, p. 378. The words come in a decree 
dated A.D. 845. 


"When Wu Tsung (A.D. 840-846) was on the throne, 
he suppressed the Buddhist religion, destroying in the 
Empire 4600 monasteries and 40,000 lesser establishments. 
Monks and nuns to the number of 265,000 were enrolled 
as ordinary subjects, with their slaves, 150,000 ; and many 
thousand myriad ctiing of land were confiscated ; Syrians 
(Tach'in) and Muhuyao over two thousand. In the chief 
metropolis and the eastern metropolis two monasteries 
were left in each main street, with thirty monks in each 
monastery. In the provinces, monks were left in (monas- 
teries of) three grades, with a limit of twenty men (in the 
largest houses). . . ." 1 

"Long ago some foreigners built a monastery here 
(Chengtu) for a Syrian monastery. The ten divisions of 
the gate-tower all had blinds made of strings of pearls and 
blue jade. Later it was destroyed and fell to the ground. 
To this day the foundations remain, and every time there 
is heavy rain, people (living) behind and in front (of the 
site) pick up quantities of pearls, sheshe, gold, blue jade and 
different things." 2 

" Among the different foreigners who have come there 
are the Moni (Manichees), the Tach'in (Nestorians) and the 
Hsienshen (Zoroastrians). All the monasteries of these 
three (sorts of) foreigners in the Empire are not enough to 
equal the number of the Buddhists in one small district." 3 

Of the subsequent development of the Nestoriau 
Mission in China hardly anything is known. 

Abou'l Faradj, writing in A.D. 987, speaks of having 
met a Christian who had travelled extensively in China, 
and who declared that "there was not a Christian then left 
in the country and that the Church buildings had been 
destroyed. 4 

Apart" from references to the existence of Syrian 
monasteries at Hsian in 1076 and at Chengtu at about 
the same date, Chinese contemporary writers make hardly 
a single allusion to Christianity between the decree of 

1 Vartttts Sinologiqucs, No. 12, p. 376 f. 

2 Chinese work quoted by A. C. Moule, to whom it was communicated 
by P. Pelliot. 

3 Varittte Sinoloyiqucs, No. 12, p. 394. 

4 See Les Influences Iraniennes en Asie centralc et en extreme-orient, par 
Paul Pelliot, Paris, 1912, p. 15. 

CHINA 160 

845 and the coming of the Franciscan Mission in the 
thirteenth century. The following is a quotation from 
Cathay and the Way Thither, translated from a book written 
in the fourteenth century : 

" Concerning the Schisn^atics or Nestorian Christians who 
dwell in that country. In the said city of Cambaluc 
there is a manner of schismatic Christians whom they 
call Nestorians. They follow the manner and fashion of 
the Greeks, and are not obedient to the Holy Church of 
Eome, but follow another sect, and bear great hate to 
all Catholic , Christians there who do loyally obey the holy 
Church aforesaid. And when the Archbishop .of/ whom 
we have been speaking was building those Abbiys of the 
Minor Friajjs aforesaid, these Nestorians by night went 
to destroy them, and did all the hurt that they were able. 
But they dared not do any evil to the said Archbishop, 
nor to his friars, nor to other faithful Christians in public 
or openly, for that the Emperor did love these and showed 
them tokens of his regard.,^ 

"These Nestorians" are more than 30,000, dwelling in 
the said Empire of Cathay, and are passing rich people, 
but stand in great fear and awe of the Christians. They 
have very handsome and devoutly ordered churches, with 
crosses and images in honour of God and the saints. They 
hold sundry offices under the said Emperor, and have 
great privileges from him ; so that it is believed that if 
they would agree and be at one with the Minor Friars 
and with the other good Christians who dwell in that 
country, they would convert the whole country and the 
Emperor likewise to the true faith." 1 

In 1725, what is supposed to be a relic of the 
Nestorian Christianity in China was discovered in the 
shape of a Syrian MS. which contained a large portion 
of the Old Testament and a collection of hymns. These 
were in the possession of a Chinese Mohammedan. 

1 Cathay cmd the Way Thither, vol. i. p. 238. The Latin original is 
not extant. The French version is found in the Bibliotheque Nationale at 
Paris, MSS. 7500 and 8392, and was printed in the Journal Asiatique, vi. 
pp. 57-72. Cf. Cathay, vol. i. pp. 189-190. Yule gives the original date 
as circa 1330. The author was John of Cora, who had served under John 
of Monte Corvino and was made Archbishop of Sultania in Persia in 1328. 
Cf. Ency. Brit., 1910, vol. vi. p. 190. 


III. The Franciscan Missions. 

At the Council of Lyons which was held in 1245, 
Pope Innocent iv. appealed for a spiritual army which 
should be the means of converting the Mongols to Christ. 
In j:esponse__to his appeal three Franciscan friars started 
on April 16, 1245, and succeeded in penetrating to the 
heart of the Mongol territory, but failed to reach China. 
A second attempt made a little later met with still less 
success. In 1271, Nicolo Polo and his more famous son 
Marco visited the Great . Khan, .and after his return in 
1295 Marco Polo dictated the well-known story of his travels 
in x the Far East. Meanwhile, in 1289, Pope Nicolas iv. 
sent forth John of Monte Corvino with letters addressed 
to Kublai, the ruler of Cambaluc 1 (Peking), who after 
many adventures in Persia and India reached Cambaluc 
in 1294. On his arrival he found the Nestorian Mission 
strongly established and bitterly opposed to his Mission. 
Thus he writes on January 8, 1305 : 

"The Nestorians, certain folk who profess the name 
of Christians but who devote sadly from the Christian 
religion, have grown so powerful in those parts that they 
will not allow a Christian of another rite to have ever 
so small a chapel, or "to proclaim any but the Nestorian 

A further extract from this letter will give in the 

'. . 

fewest words an idea of the work accomplished by Friar 
John during the twelve years which- followed his arrival in 
China : 

" I, indeed, was alone in this pilgrimage and without 
confession for eleven years, until there came to me brother 
Arnold, a German of the province of Cologne, who 
came to me last year. In the city of Khanbalig, where 
the king's chief residence is, I have built a church, syhich 
I completed six years ago, and I have built a campanile 
to it, in which I have put three bells. I have baptized 

1 Cambaluc does not appear to have become the capital of Northern 
China before the tenth century A.D. 

CHINA 171 

there up to this time as well as I can estimate about six 
thousand persons, and if there had not been those charges 
of which I have spoken above, I should have baptized more 
than thirty thousand; and I am still often engaged in 

" Also I have gradually bought forty boys, the children 
of pagan parents, between the age of seven and eleven, 
who up to that time had known no religion. These 
boys I have baptized, and have taught them Latin 
letters and our rite, and have written out thirty psalters 
for them, with hymnaries and two breviaries, by rde'ans 
of which eleven of the boys already Know our Office, 
and form a choir and take their weekly turn of duty 
as is done in convents, whether I am there or not ; and 
several of them are writing out the psalter and other 
necessary books ; and the Lord Emperor delights much in 
their singing. I have the bells rung for all the hours, and 
with my congregation of babes and sucklings I fulfil the 
Divine Office, and we sing by ear because we have no Office 
book with the music. I have a comp^etent knowledge of the 
language and character which is generally used by the 
Tartars ; and I have already translated into that language 
and character the whole New Testament and the Psalter, 
which I have caused to be written out in their most beauti- 
ful script. I understand the language and read and preach, 
openly and publicly, in testimony of the Law of Christ." x 

On receiving the news contained in this letter Pope 
Clement v. nominated John of Monte Corvino as Arch- 
bishop of Cambaluc and Primate of the .Far^Easfc, and 
dispatched seven friars whom he had consecrated as bishops 
with orders to consecrate Friar John as Archbishop. Appar- 
ently four of these Jblshops died before reaching China. The 
other three arrived and performed the act of consecration in 
1308. After this we have very little information in regard 
to the work of the Franciscan Mission. Archbishop John 
died soon after 1328 and his place was left unfilled for 
many years despite the dispatch of a message from the Great 
Khan himself, begging that more teachers might be sent. 

1 The original of this Latin letter is given in Annales Minorum, ed. 
Fonseca, vol. vi. p. 69, and in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, July 
1914. For an English translation see The East and The IFcst, April 1904. 


Mr. Marshall Broomhall writes : 

" One of the grandest opportunities that the Church of 
Christ has ever had presented to it is connected with the 
lifetime of Kublai Khan. There are letters still extant, 
preserved in the French archives, relating the remarkable 
fact that Kublai Khan actually requested the Pope to send 
one hundred missionaries to his country, ' to prove by force 
of argument to idolaters ._ ami-Other kinds' of folk thatltEe, 
law of Christ was best, and that all other religions were 
false and naught ; and that if they would prove this, he and 
all lender him would become Christians and the Church's 

" ' What might have been ' is a question that cannot but 
rise in the hearts of those who read this extract. The death 
of the Pope, however, and faction among the cartHnals, with 
the subsequent failure of the two missionaries sent they 
turned back because of the hardships of the way lost to 
Asia an opportunity such as the Church has seldom 
had." i 

The last authentic reference to the mission mentions 
the sending of a mission by Pope Urban v. in 1370, but it 
is doubtful whether any of its members reached China. 
Meanwhile the tolerant Tartar dynasty had given place to 
the intolerant and persecuting Ming dynasty. James jof 
Florence, fifth bishop of Zaituu, a" city on the coast three 
weeks' journey from Peking, was martyred, together 
with certain of his fellow Christians, in 1362, and his 
martyrdom is the last fact which we know concerning 
the Franciscan missions in China.' If the representation 
of Odoric on his tomb in the cathedral at Udiue is true 
to life, it would appear that the Franciscan missionaries 
were accustomed to wear the dress of the people amongst 
whom they worked and to shave their heads in the^Tartar 

1 The Chinese Empire, p. 8. The quotation made^j)j_Mr._Broomhall is 
from a summary of a letter given by Marco Polo, but Dr. George Smith, 
who is his authority For 'the statement quoted above (cf. The Conversion of 
India, p. 35), was mistaken >n supposing that the letters in the French 
archives referred to the request made~Dy~Kublai Khan, see The Book oj 
Ser Marco Polo (1903), Up. 13 

CHINA 173 

Before going on to refer to the establishment of the 
Jesuit missions in China it may be well to say a few 
words with regard to the failure of the Nestorian and 
Franciscan missions to letfve any permanent traces of 
work which was carried on for so long a period and with 
so many outward signs of success. Three special reasons 
may be suggested to account for the' eventuatTailure of 
these missions. 

1. In neither case was any serious attempt made to 
establish the missions 'on "a democratic basis. After they 


had been dispatched from their home base, no financial 
help was sent' to them, and" they were_therefore compelled 
to be self-supporting. In order to fulfil this requirement 
it was considered to be" necessary that they should obtain 
support from the_ rulers of the countries to which they 
went. " "They did not labour with their own hands, nor 
receive support as a rule from their converts, as far as we 
know. They went wlth~iettenr of recommendation from 
the Pope (or some other potentate), and received support 
from the Emperor as forming part of his retinue in some 
vague sense, or as the representatives of a friendly foreign 
Power. This applies atr~least to the early Nestorians 
(635-845) in part and to liEeTFranciscan Mission (1294- 
1350). The later Nestorians did engage in trade and 
agriculture, and there are" Imperial decrees extant which 
refuse exemption from taxes to Christian monks who were 
so engaged." l 

2. A second reason that may be assigned for the 
disappearance of the later Nestorian and Franciscan 
converts is to be found in their connection with the ruling 
dynasty, the overthrow of_which_involved the overthrow 
and persecution of the Christians. The Christians came 
to be regarded as foreigners and lost all power of influenc- 
ing those who were not already Christians. 

3. A third reason is the failure on the part of either 
mission to train an effective body of Chinese clergy. For 
the early Nestorian Period (635-845) there is no evidence 

1 A. C. Moule, The East and Tlie West, October 1914. 


to show whether the Nestorian missionaries included any 
Chinese priest, though it is at least possible that some of 
the "seventy names on the Hsian monument are those of 
Chinese clergy. In the accounts of the later Nestorians, 
though there is no mention of the ordination of Chinese, 

it is probable that some were ordained. The Franciscan 
Mission apparently " took no steps to found a Chinese 
ministry. There is only one case on record of a Chinese 
bishop, and he was a Chinese who had become a Dominican 
monk. Alu, subsequently called Gregory Lopez, came 
from the Province of Fukien. He followed the Dominican 
preachers to Peking and was imprisoned, and subsequently 
banished with them. At Manila he studied Spanish, Latin, 
and philosophy. In 1654 he was ordained, being the first 
Chinese priest of whom any record exists. In 1674 
Clement x. designated him as Bishop of Basilea and Vicar 
Apostolic over six provinces in China. He was, however,, 
too humble to accept the honour, and was not consecrated 
as a bishop till 1G86, when he was over seventy. He 
died at Nanking in 1687. iHe was the author of a 
pamphlet of twenty pages, in which he defended A the 
observance by Christians of the rites observed by Con- 
fucianists in the worship or commemoration of their 
ancestors. I The Bishop is reported to have been a man of 
great samuliness. 1 Had either the Franciscan or Nestoriau 
Mission succeeded in training a body of Chinese clergy, 
there is little doubt that their work would have continued. 
In regard to the translation of the Bible and of other 
books in connection with these missions, it is interesting 
to note that of 500 books which the early Nestorian 
missionaries possessed 35 were translated into Chinese. 
One of these, the Book of the Holy King David, was 
apparently the Psalter, and another was the hymn in 
praise of the Holy Trinity to which we have already 
referred. The later, and probably the earlier, Nestorian 

1 Further particulars in regard to Bishop Alu are given in Quttif (Echard) 
Scriplores Ord: Praedicatorum, Tome ii. (1721), p. 708, and in Hue's 
Christianismus, Tome iii. ch. 3. 

CHINA 175 

missions used Service books in Syriac. John of Monte 
Corvino translated into the " Tartaric tongue " the Psalms 
and the New Testament and part of the Missal. 

The Jesuits obtained leave in 1615 to celebrate 
Mass in Chinese, but there is no evidence to show that 
they actedyupon this permission, and it is most unlikely 
that either of the earlier missions translated the Mass 
into Chinese. 

By the time that the Jesuit Mission reached China few 
traces remained of the work of the Nestorian or Franciscan 
missionaries. According to Nicholas Trigault, 1 whp-wrote 

early in the seventeenth century, a Jew named(_ Ai ho 
had come from Kaifengfu told Piicci that the Chrfstians 
" had been very numerous, especially in the northern 
provinces, and had prospered so much both in civil and 
military careers that _they had made the Chinese suspect 
a revolution\ He thought the suspicion had been excited 
by the Saracens . . . not more than sixty years before. 
And it had reached such a pitch that they were afraid 
that the magistrates would lay hands upon them, and all 
fled in different directions and professed, from fear of 
death, to be Saracens or Jews or for the most part 
idolaters. Their churches were changed into idol shrines." 2 

IV. The Jesuit Mission. 

It had been the special ambition of S. Francis Xavier 
to preach the gospel to the Chinese. After spending 
two years in Japan, he landed on the island of Shangch'uan, 
near Macao, where he died of fever on December 2, 1552, 
aged forty-six, without having set foot on the mainland of 

1 De Christiana cxpcditione (Rome, 1615), pp. 119, 122 ff. Nicholas 
Trigault was a Jesuit who reached China just after Ricci's death and was 
entrusted with the editing of the latter's commentaries. 

- I arn indebted for this reference and for much help in obtaining in- 
formation concerning the Nestorian and Franciscan Missions to the Rev. 
A. C. Moule, who has done much original work relating to early Christian 
missions to China. See article, "The Failure of Early Christian Missions to 
China," in The East and The for October 1914, and article in the 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society for July 1914. 


China. Thirty years later an Italian missionary named 
Ricci, who was a member of the Society of Jesus, came to 
China as a member of an embassy from Macao. He had 
been preceded by Michael Rogers, who had arrived three 
years before. Ricci's methods, which were followed by all 
subsequent Jesuit missionaries in China, differed widely 
from those of Xavier. During the first seven years of his 
work he dressed as a Buddhist priest. He strove to over- 
come the prejudice of the Chinese and to ingratiate himself 
and his mission in their favour by assuring them that 
the faith which he came to teach was a development of 
Confucianism, and that they could embrace it without 
abandoning their ancestral beliefs or customs. His know- 
ledge of mathematics and of astronomy won their respect, 
and his preaching was ere long attended by widespread 

A mandarin of Shanghai, who on his baptism took the 
name of Paul, did much to commend the Christian faith to 
the educated classes. 

"His youngest daughter, Candida, was a remarkable 
woman. Having been left a widow at an early age she 
devoted herself to the promotion of the cause of Christianity, 
and, reserving enough for her eight children, she conse- 
crated the rest of her fortune to the founding of churches 
and the printing of Christian books, for the instruction of 
the surrounding heathen. Having heard that the pagans 
in several of the provinces were accustomed to abandon 
their children as soon as born, she established a foundling 
hospital for infants, and seeing many blind people telling 
idle stories in the streets for the sake of gain, she got them 
instructed and sent forth to relate the different events of 
Gospel history. A few years before her death the Emperor 
conferred on her the title of the ' virtuous woman ' and 
presented her with a rich dress covered with plates of 
silver, which she disposed of in order to apply the proceeds 
to acts of charity." l 

At the time of Ricci's death in 1610 it seemed likely 
that Christianity, or rather an amalgamation of Christianity 

1 China, its Mate and Prospects, by W. H. Medhurst, 1833, p. 227 sq. 

CHINA 177 

and Confucianism, would ere long become the religion of 
China. In 1622, Adam Schall, a German, whose policy 
was the same as that of Eicci, became the head of the 
mission in China. Keports of its success reached Europe 
and evoked the enthusiasm of the other great religious 
Orders, and in 1631 the first Dominican missionaries 
arrived. They were followed by the Franciscans, who 
re-entered China in 1633. Ere many years had elapsed 
the missionaries attached to these two Orders began 
to protest in vehement language against the methods 
employed by the Jesuits. The two special grounds on 
which they denounced the Jesuit missions were that 
they allowed their converts to continue " ancestor-worship " 
and that the words Tien and Shane/ Ti, which they had 
accepted as representing the Christian God, were inadequate 
and misleading. 1 For some years the three missions 
worked on side by side. 

In 1617 the number of Christians in China was 
reckoned at 13,000. These had increased in 1650 to 
150, OOO. 2 In 1669, according to a volume 3 which was 
published in Eome in 1 6 7 1 , the Dominicans had 2 1 churches, 
the Franciscans 3, and the Society of Jesus 159. 

The number of baptized Christians was then 308,780, 
of whom 3500 had been baptized by the Franciscan 

In 1692 the Emperor Kanghsi, who had been educated 
by Schall, one of the Jesuit missionaries, issued a decree 
in which he legalized the preaching of the Christian faith 
throughout the Empire. 4 

1 For a detailed account of the use of Tien and Shang Ti in Chinese 
literature see article by Stanley Smith in The East and The West, April 1913. 
In A.D. 1116 the latter title was given to a Taoist priest by an imperial decree. 

2 These are the figures given by Joannis Adam Schall in a book entitled 
Hlstorica relatio de ortu et progressu fidei orthodoxae in reyno Chimnsi 
(published at Ratisbon in 1672), p. 109. 

3 See Compendiosa narratio de statu Missionis Chinensis ab anno 1581 
usque et annum 1669, oblato Eminentissimis Cardinalibus sacrae Cougrega- 
tionis de propaganda fide. Romae, 1671. (Copy in the S.P.G. library.) 

4 See Leltres edifiantes et curieuses (published in Paris, 1781), vol. xvi, 
Preface, p. xiii. 



Pere Pelisson, writing from Canton on December 9, 
1700, states that the Emperor of China had given to 
the members of the Jesuit Mission a house in the Palace 
enclosure and had contributed towards the building of a 
Christian church in Peking. 1 

In 1645, Morales, a Dominican missionary, had ob- 
tained a bull from Pope Innocent x. which denounced as 
superstitious and abominable the rites connected with 
ancestor-worship which the Jesuits had approved. In 
1G56, however, the Jesuits induced Pope Alexander vn. to 
declare that they were merely political ceremonies, and 
that the toleration of them was both prudent and chari- 
table. In 1665, during a temporary persecution, the 
missionaries belonging to the different Orders made an 
unsuccessful attempt to arrive at an agreement. In 1693, 
Maigrot, the Apostolic Vicar of Fukien, decided that Tien 
signified nothing more than the material heavens and that 
the rites connected with ancestral worship were idolatrous, 
a decision which was endorsed by a papal decree of 
Clement XL in 1704. In 1707, Tournon, the papal legate 
who had been sent from Eome to China, promulgated 
this decree. The Emperor, Kanghsi, thereupon banished 
the legate to Macao, where he died under suspicious circum- 
stances in 1710. The Pope sent yet another legate, who 
arrived in 1720, and who granted "eight permissions" in 
connection with the points in dispute, which were, however, 
afterwards disallowed at Eome. 2 

The expression Tien Chu is used to-day by all the 
Chinese connected with the Eoman Missions, and the 
religion of these Chinese is everywhere spoken of as the 
Tien Chu religion. The same term is used by the 
members of the Greek Church, by the Anglican Mission 
in North China, and by the American Episcopal Mission 
in Mid-China. 

Shany Ti (supreme ruler), which was the original 

1 Lettrcs ddifiantcs et curieuses, vol. xvi. p. 409. 

2 See The Jesuits in China and the Legation of Cardinal de Tournon, by 
K. C. Jenkins, 1894, 

CHINA 179 

Jesuit term, is used by nearly all the Missions in Central 
and South China. It is also adopted as the rendering 
for God in the Anglican Prayer Book in use in North 

Some American missionaries have adopted the ex- 
pression Shen, a word which is used by the Chinese for 
spirit and is frequently applied by them to an idol. It is 
recognized by all that the Chinese language does not 
contain any satisfactory equivalent for the word God, and 
that every rendering which has been suggested is open to 
more or less serious objection. 

It is impossible for the impartial student of Missions 
to take sides either with the Jesuits or with the 
Franciscans and Dominicans in the long series of con- 
troversies which did much to discredit the work of 
Christian Missions in the eyes of the Chinese. Eicci and 
some of the earliest of the Jesuit missionaries in China 
honestly believed that they were following the example 
set by St. Paul at Athens when they tried to identify the 
God of the Christians with the Power or Powers held in 
reverence by the Chinese, and that they were further 
justified in putting for the time being into the background 
of their teaching the doctrine of the Atonement. They 
numbered amongst the members of their Order some of 
the most devoted and earnest missionaries who have ever 
visited China. Whilst most students of Christian Missions 
will agree that the methods which they adopted in China 
and in other non-Christian lands have been shown by the 
logic of history to have been unwise, if not actually 
wrong, they will not hastily condemn the motives that 
prompted the policy which the Jesuits adopted. The 
steady decline in the number of Chinese Christians during 
the eighteenth century was in part due to a decrease of 
missionary enthusiasm in Europe and in part to persecu- 
tions in China. In cases where Christian missionaries 
appeal for support to rulers of non-Christian countries, the 
success which they secure as the result of such an appeal 
is apt to be transitory. A new ruler, prompted by advisers 


who are not themselves Christians, is easily induced to 
suspect the Christians of political or revolutionary aims 
and to persecute them on this plea. So it was in China, and 
so it has been in many other countries where Christian 
missionaries have attained success under the friendly 
auspices of a ruler who has not himself become a Christian. 
Kanghsi, the Emperor who had done much for the 
Jesuit missionaries, died in 1721. His successor, Yung- 
cheng, was persuaded by the Chinese literati to persecute 
the Christians, and in the following year 300 churches 
were destroyed and 300,000 Christians were left without 
the ministrations of their Church. When Chienlung 
became Emperor in 1736 the persecution became more 
severe and was continued with occasional intermission for 
many years. In 1773 the Jesuit Mission was further 
weakened by the suppression of its Order by Clement xiv. 
(It was re-established by Pius, vn in 1814.) In 1815 a 
special persecution occurred in the province of Szechwan. 
In 1819 the imperial censor complained of the existence 
of Christians, but his suggestion that the existing laws 
against them should be rigorously enforced was rejected by 
the Emperor on the ground that to do this would create a 

In Tonking, where Christian missions were carried on by 
the Jesuits, 1 the persecutions were exceptionally severe, and 
continued with little intermission from 1720 down to the 
time of the French occupation in 1883. 

In 1840 the Vicariate Apostolic of Eastern Tonking, 
administered by the Spanish Dominicans, contained 40 
native priests and 120,000 "catholics," whilst the 
Vicariate of Western Tonkiug, the missionaries in which 
belonged to the French Society of Foreign Missions, 
contained 80 native priests and 180,000 "catholics." 

According to Marchini's map of Missions presented to 

1 The Head of the Jesuit Mission in Tonking during the first year of his 
work in the province of Tonking, 1692-93, states that he and one companion 
had baptized 1735 persons and had given the Holy Communion to 12,122. 

2 See Annals of the Propagation of the Faith (published in Paris, 1840), 
vol. i. p. 419. 

CHINA 181 

the Bishop of Maccao in 1810, the Christians in the 
Chinese Empire then numbered 215,000, the number of 
missionaries being 23 and of native agents 80. It is 
difficult to say what reliance can be placed upon these 
figures, which are at best very rough estimates. At this 
time the chief missionary agencies were the Propaganda 
and the Lazarites. 

(For a further account of E.G. missions in China see 
p. 208.) 

V. Modern Missions. 

A Chinese politician who held one of the highest 
positions under the new republican government, in answer 
to the question, When did the Chinese revolutionary 
movement begin ? replied, On the day that Eobert Morrison 
the missionary landed in Canton. The start of Protestant 
missions in China, notwithstanding the fact that the 
earliest Protestant missionaries were wholly devoid of 
political aims, was, in fact, the introduction of a new factor 
into the political life of China, the far-reaching results of 
which can now be seen. 

Robert Morrison 1 reached China in 1807 as the 
representative of the London Missionary Society. 

Although he was not directly instrumental in winning 
many converts, his literary work and his skill and 
perseverance in overcoming what often seemed insuperable 
difficulties, justify us in regarding him as one of the 
greatest among Christian missionaries to China. 

Eobert Morrison was born near Morpeth in 1782 and 
his youth was spent at Newcastle, where his father was an 
elder of a Scotch church. After being accepted as a 
missionary he started for China via America and landed 
at Macao on September 7, 1807. At this time the 
dislike of foreigners was so strong that it was a capital 
offence to be found teaching Chinese to a foreigner, and in 

1 For a sketch of his life and work see Life of Robert Morrison, by 
W. J. Townsend. 


oiv. avoid exciting - - :ion he lived at first in 

tent. In 1SOS he oeased 1 : .ent 

upon the L.M.S., having accepted the | < - ; 

'onipany. lu 1S13 he was joined by 
M:\ and Mrs. Milne, who, however, were nor allowed to 
remain at Ma:ao. Mr. Mi'.:.-: V.MS the author of the 
des.' D of the - QguagG which h.> D often 

quoted. " To acquire Chinee 38 work for men with 
bodies of brass, lung? of steel, heads of oak, eyes of ea_ - 
he,--:- I apostles, memories of ar_ Ifi .:id lives of 

Morrison's ohifil work was of a lit ;..-.:% charac: 
In 1813 he published the whole Xew Testament in a 
colloquial a he priu: :he expense 

Sasl P au >"- h- s Chinese diet: nary, which 

was of immense - B -equcnt missionaries and 

ath in 1S34 he 

had tr - i nearly the whole of the Bible in: -.-.ese 

and had published in addition a large number of : : - :.ud 
bookie:- 1: may also be / .1 for him that he 
:-.-.: I medical D -- . work iu:o China, as he 

.shed a dispensary over which he placed a qualified 
Chinese practitioner. The first medical mi-- ay sent 
m ':" ,' to China was Pr. I . V ...-.rt, who was sent out 
by the L.M.S. in 1S39. The first Chinese to become 
a Chris :ian as the result of Pivtestant missions * - 
Tsai A'v . who was baptised by Morrison in 1S14 "at 
spring of - g :vom the foot of a lofty hill, by 

the - .- -\ awav from human observation." Durir._ 

* ^ 

twer.:v-: : .ve years which followed the arrival of Morrison 

in China ten I - - :ook place, two of the converte 
bei: g uese printei-s who had worked for Pr. Milne at 
the M Bga This college, which was start v 

Dr. Milne, was intended partly for the education of 
Chi- - md pa % .:'y for tra g Europe - - of 

Chines desired to work in China. 

For twenty-seven - with the exception of his 

furlough in IS 24, Morrison laboured on practically alone 

CHINA 183 

at Canton and in the face of almost every possible dis- 
couragement. At the time of his death there were only 
two Protestant missionaries in China, both of whom 
belonged to the American Board of Missions. 


We shall now refer very briefly to the new missions 
which were started in China during the next twenty-five 

The Church Missionary Society sent Mr. E. B. Squire, 
an officer in the Navy, on a tentative mission to Singapore 
and Macao in 1837. In 1844 the first two missionaries 
belonging to this society arrived in China, namely, the Kev. 
G. Smith (afterwards Bishop of Victoria, Hong-Kong), and 
the Eev. T. M'Clatchie. The latter started missionary 
work at Shanghai. In 1848 the Eev. W. A. Russell 
(afterwards Bishop of North China) and the Eev. E. Cobbold 
began work in Ningpo, which eventually became one of 
the centres of the C.M.S. Chekiang Mission (see p. 189). 

In 1845 the English General Baptists commenced work 
in Ningpo which was carried on for some years, but was 
eventually given up. 

In 1847 the English Presbyterian Church sent the 
Eev. W. C. Burns as their first missionary to China. He 
spent some time in Hong-Kong and Canton, and eventually 
started permanent work in Amoy (see p. 195). 

In 1836 the American Southern Baptist Mission sent 
the Eev. Jehu Shuck as a missionary to Macao. In 
1842 their mission was moved to Hong-Kong, and during 
the next six years work was started at Canton and 

In 1834 the American Baptist Missionary Union sent 
a missionary to work amongst Chinese in Siam, and in 
1842, the year in which Hong-Kong was ceded to England, 
started work in that town. 

In 1835 the American Protestant Episcopal Church 
sent two missionaries to Canton, who retired for a time 


to Batavia. In 1837 the Eev. W. J. Boone, M.D., joined 
the mission, which in 1842 was established at Amoy. In 
1845, Dr. Boone, who had been consecrated as a bishop, 
brought out from America a party of nine workers, where- 
upon the mission was removed to Shanghai. The first 
convert, who was baptized on Easter Day 1846, was after- 
wards ordained and was for many years an effective 

In 1842 the American Presbyterian Mission (North) 
sent a missionary to Macao, and during the following eight 
years opened missions at Ningpo, Amoy and Canton. 

In 1847 the American Methodist Episcopal Mission 
sent their first missionary to China, who started work at 

In 1848 the American Southern Methodist Mission 
sent two missionaries to China. 

In 1844 the American Presbyterian Dutch Reformed 
Church started work at Amoy, where, in 1846, a first 
convert was baptized. 

In 1846 the Rhenish Mission at Barmen sent out 
four missionaries, two of whom belonged to the Basel 
Mission. They reached Hong-Kong in 1847. 

It will be seen from the list of missionary societies 
given above that by the middle of the nineteenth century 
active interest had been aroused in the work of Chinese 
Missions in England, America and Germany. When King 
Frederick William of Prussia was informed by Bunsen 
that experienced men in England doubted the possibility 
of doing missionary work in China, he " wrote a letter of 
sixteen pages, urging Bunsen to arouse the Bishops and 
clergy of the Church of England to more vigorous action 
for the evangelization of China." l 

By 1850 there were at least a dozen Anglican and 
Protestant missionary societies at work in China. In 
most cases these societies had but recently commenced 
work, and it is doubtful whether the whole number of 

1 See "Private Journal," October 11, 1850, quoted in History of tht 
C.M.S., i. 468. 

CHINA 185 

Christian converts connected with these missions exceeded 
a hundred. Missionary work, moreover, hardly extended 
beyond the five treaty ports, Canton, Amoy, Shanghai, 
Ningpo and Foochow, which were declared open to 
foreigners by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. 


On Good Friday, 1850, the first English bishop (Dr. 
George Smith) arrived at Hong-Kong accompanied by a 
party of C.M.S. missionaries. Work was started Jby the 
C.M.S. in the great city of Foochow in May 1850, and 
in 1851 the first five converts in connection with the 
C.M.S. were baptized, two at Ningpo and three (blind men) 
at Shanghai. By the end of 1855 the number of converts 
at Ningpo had increased to sixty. While Bishop Smith was 
delivering his first charge, the church at Shanghai in which 
he was speaking was struck by a cannon ball fired by the 
Taipings, the rebellion raised by whom had a direct bearing 
upon the progress of the missions in China. 

No rebellion that has taken place for centuries has 
been so prolific in massacres and nameless atrocities ; 
nevertheless, as we look back, after an interval of sixty years, 
we are forced to admit that General Gordon's successful 
repression of the Taiping rebellion, and the continuance of 
the Manchu dynasty which it involved and on behalf of 
which he fought, put back the clock of China's progress 
for at least several decades. 

The instigator of the Taipiug revolt, Hung Hsiuch'iian, 
came under the influence of a Christian missionary (who 
was probably Morrison) at Canton in 1833. In 1837 
he declared that he had seen a vision in which he had 
received a divine command to destroy idolatry, and to put 
an end to the Manchu dynasty. In 1853 he and his 
followers stormed and captured the great city of Nanking. 
When the British Plenipotentiary went up to Nanking, 
his boat encountered " hundreds of colossal images of 


Buddha and various gods and goddesses, broken and defaced, 


floating down the river." It is not possible here to 
describe the course of the Taiping revolt. 1 Suffice it to 
say that the movement, the leaders of which were at first 
inspired by good motives, degenerated into a rebellion 
which devastated the fairest provinces of China and 
resulted in the massacre of millions of people. The 
rebellion, which began in 1850, ended with the capture 
of Nanking in 1864. 

After describing the course of the Taiping rebellion, 
Dr. Norris (now Bishop in North China) writes : 

" It is argued with much apparent reason that Christian 
missions may aim at the conversion of Chinese individuals, 
may found little Christian communities in every province 
of the Empire, may perhaps in time meet with such success 
that those communities will be mainly self-supporting and 
self -governing ; but that the idea of Christianity ever really 
permeating China, as much, for example, as it permeated 
Western Europe in the Middle Ages, or as it permeates 
European nations to-day, is a wild and impossible dream 
which will require the lapse of several centuries before it 
can approach fulfilment. . . . Surely the history of the 
Taiping movement has a warning for the critic, no less than 
a real encouragement for ourselves. Granted that it was 
not in the end successful, granted that it won its way by 
methods of which a truer Christianity would be ashamed, it 
remains true that a movement which took shape originally 
in the brain of a single man . . . which made no apparent 
stir for several years, ran like wildfire when once it started. 
Spreading from district to district, from province to pro- 
vince, it speedily established itself from Canton to Nanking, 
and from thence made a great effort, not far short of success, 
to reach Peking itself. . . . The Church of Christ, whatever 
her shortcomings, has something better to offer than the 
religion of the Taiping Wang ... it may be that for the 
present, and for years to come, she will make no apparent 
stir; but at least she is justified in claiming that in the 
light of history it is not incredible that Christianity should 
one day run like wildfire over China, until the whole nation 
has been won for Christ." 2 

1 For specimens of its proclamations and literature see History of the 
C.M.S., ii. 297 ff. 

" China, by F. L. Norris, pp. 48 sqq. 

CHINA 187 

In 1842 the total number of communicants unconnected 
with the Eoman Missions was 6, by 1855 these had increased 
to 5 00, and by 1860 to about 1000. In 1877 l the number 
of Christian converts was reckoned at 13, 000, and the total 
number of European missionaries at 473, of whom 228 were 
connected with British, and 212 with American societies. 
We have already mentioned the names of the societies 
which were represented in China prior to 1850. There 
are now over 100 missionary societies, large and small, at 
work in China. It may be well to note the dates at which 
some of the larger societies began their work there. The 
Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society entered China in 
1852, the United Presbyterian Mission (to Manchuria) in 
1872, the Church of Scotland Mission in 1877, the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel sent two men to Peking in 
1863, but did not commence regular work in China till 1874. 
The society which supports more missionaries in China 
than any other, i.e. The China Inland Mission, was founded in 
1865 by the Eev. Hudson Taylor, who himself began work 
in China in 1853. In 1875 the C.I.M. was carrying on work 
in fifty stations scattered over five provinces (see p. 192). 

In few other countries have the pioneer missionaries 
met with so many discouragements and waited so long to 
see visible results from their labours. This fact is specially 
significant, as the progress of Christianity in China during 
recent years bids fair to outdo the progress in any other 
large non-Christian country. The experience of the C.M.S. 
missionaries in Foochow may be quoted as typical of that 
which has been repeated in many other places. This 
society commenced work in the city of Foochow in 1850. 
After ten years had elapsed, " without a single conversion, 
or the prospect of such a thing," the committee at home 
discussed the desirability of withdrawing this mission. In 
the following year, that is after eleven years of earnest, 
devoted work, the first convert was baptized, who was the 
first-fruits of a mission which has since attained most 
encouraging results (see p. 189). 

1 We have not been able to secure the exact statistics for 1875. 



It is impossible to sketch in detail the work of the 
hundred and more European and American missionary 
societies which are now represented in China, but it will 
be worth while to give a very few statistics which will 
show how far the various denominations are represented. 
The figures relate to the year 1913. 



Communicants or 



Full Members. 

Anglican . 



28,317 6 

Presbvterian . 












Lutheran l 




Congregationalist 2 . 




China Inland Mission 3 




Miscellaneous . 




Total . 


17,879 * 


1 Under Lutheran are included most of the German, Swiss, Norwegian, 
Scandinavian and Swedish missions. 

2 Under Congregationalist are included the L.M.S. and the A.B.C.F.M. 

3 These returns include those of twelve continental societies which are 
affiliated to the C.I.M. 

4 These returns include school teachers as well as church workers. 

5 These statistics are for 1912. 

Anylican Missions. 

On April 26, 1912, the representatives of the eleven 
Anglican dioceses in China decided to form one united 
Church, the title of which should be Chung Hua Sheng 
Kung Hui (pronounced Joong Hwa Shung Goong Hway). 
Its constitution and organization correspond with those of 
the Nippon sei Kokwai of Japan. It is founded upon the 
recognition of the Lambeth quadrilateral, i.e. the historic 
episcopate, two sacraments, two creeds, and the acceptance 
of the Old and New Testaments. The first act of the 
synod of the new Church was to form a Board of Missions, 
which is to present at its next meeting, in 1915, a report 
proposing that the eleven united dioceses should combine 

CHINA 189 

to send a mission to some untouched part of China and 
that this mission should have a Chinese bishop as its 

The Anglican missions are supported by the C.M.S. 
in Central and Southern China, by the S.P.G. and the 
Canadian Church in North China, and by the Protestant 
Episcopal Church of America in Central China. 

The dioceses in which the missions of the Church 
Missionary Society are situated are those of Victoria (Hong- 
Kong), Chekiang, Western China, Fukien and Hunan. 

Hong -Kong (1849). Since 1900 the Chinese Christians 
have undertaken the entire pecuniary responsibility for the 
support of their pastors and the upkeep of their churches 
in the city of Hong-Kong. A church hostel for under- 
graduates at the new Hong-Kong University was opened 
at the same time as the university in 1912. The mission 
work of the Church on the mainland is carried on from 
Canton and Pakhoi. At Canton a training college was 
opened in 1912; at Pakhoi there are hospitals for lepers 
and other patients. 

Chekiang, formerly part of Mid-China (1872). The 
missionary work centres round Niugpo, Hangchow, 
Taichow, Chuki and Shaohing. There is a theological 
college and normal school at Ningpo, an Anglo- Chinese 
school at Shaohing, and a girls' high school at Hangchow. 
The C.M.S. supports three hospitals in this diocese. Its 
staff includes 24 Chinese clergy. 

The diocese of Western China (1895) is practically 
co-extensive with the province of Szechwan, and the work 
is chiefly of an evangelistic character. There is a diocesan 
training college at Paoning, a church hostel in connection 
with the new university at Chengtu and a medical mission 
at Mienchu. In this diocese several of the Anglican 
missionaries are supported by the C.I.M. The bishop and 
the missionaries wear Chinese dress. 

Fukien (1906). Foochow, which is the chief centre of 
work, was occupied in 1850, and eleven years passed before 
the first convert was baptized (see p. 187). The missionary 


institutions in Foochow include a hospital and a Union 
medical college and a school for the blind. The diocesan 
staff includes 1 8 Chinese clergy. Work amongst lepers is 
carried on at five centres. Dublin University supports a 
mission in this diocese in connection with the C.M.S. 

Kwangsi and Hunan (1909). Work is carried on at 
Siangtan, Kueilinfu, Yungchow and Hengchow. 

Amongst the missionaries who have worked in con- 
nection with the C.M.S. in China should specially be 
mentioned the Eev. George E. Moule, who went out to 
China in 1858 and was Bishop in Mid-China 1880-1907, 
and Archdeacon J. E. Wolfe, the pioneer of the Fukieu 

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel began work 
in China in 1863, but its work was interrupted and was 
not definitely started till 1874, when the Eev. C. P. Scott 
and a companion were sent to Chefoo. Mr. Scott became 
the Bishop of North China in 1880 and continued as 
bishop till his resignation in 1913. The present bishop, 
Dr. Frank Norris, by the influence which he exerted over 
the Chinese Christians in Peking, was largely instrumental 
in preserving the European Legations during the Boxer 
revolution in 1900, till they were relieved by the allied 
forces. With the help of the Pan- Anglican grant a large 
school has been opened in Peking. The society also 
shares in the work of the Union medical college. 

The diocese of Shantung (1903) includes the province 
of the same name. There is a college at Chefoo. Other 
centres are at Pingyin and Taianfu. The medical work 
of the university is at Chinaufu and the Arts College at 
Weihsien. It is proposed to remove the latter also to 
Chinanfu. A mission hospital has been established at 
Yenchowfu, near the birthplace of Confucius. 

Three missionaries in connection with the S.P.G. were 
martyred during the Boxer outbreak, namely, S. M. W. 
Brooks, C. Robinson and H. V. Norman. In 1912 the Eev. 
Frederick Day was murdered by Chinese soldiers near 

CHINA 191 

The Protestant Episcopal Church of America supports 
missions in the Yangtse Valley at Shanghai, and in the 
district of Hankow and Wuchang. This mission has from 
the first afforded an instructive object-lesson of the good 
results to be attained by concentrating on a few strategic 
positions instead of attempting to spread its influence over 
a wide area. In 1844 the Rev. W. S. Boone was con- 
secrated as bishop of the missionary district of Shanghai. 
No missionary colleges have exercised a wider influence 
in China than St. John's University College, which was 
founded by Bishop Schereschewsky in 1872 at Shanghai, 
and Boone University College at Wuchang, which was 
started (as a school) in 1871. At the latter college 
several of those who acted as leaders in the last Chinese 
revolution received their education. At Wuchang are 
situated also the Boone Medical and Divinity schools. 

The bishoprics, or rather missionary districts, supported 
by this mission are those of Shanghai (1844), Hankow 
(1901) and Anking (1911). In the missionary district 
of Shanghai, which consists of the province of Kiangsu, the 
chief centres of work, apart from Shanghai, are Soochow, 
Wusih, Kiating, Yangchow and Zangzok. In the missionary 
district of Hankow, which includes the provinces of Hupeh 
and Hunan, the chief centres are Hankow and Wuchang. 
In the missionary district of Anking (formerly Wuhu), 
which comprises the province of Anhwei and that part 
of Kiaugsi which lies north of lat. 28, the chief centres of 
work are Wuhu and Anking in the Anhwei province, and 
Kiukiang and Nanchang in the province of Kiangsi. 

Amongst the missionaries who have been members of 
this mission, the name of Bishop Schereschewsky is 
deserving of special mention. He was a Eussian Jew 
who was converted in America, and after working as a 
missionary in Peking for some years, was eventually 
consecrated as Bishop of Shanghai (1877). For the last 
twenty-five years of his life he was paralyzed and unable 
to speak distinctly, and used a typewriter which he worked 
with two fingers. He translated the whole Bible and 


the Prayer Book into literary Chinese (Wenli) and the 
Old Testament into Mandarin. After he became paralyzed 
he relinquished the duties of the bishopric in 1884, but 
he continued to work in the cause of missions till his 
death in 1906. 

In 1909 the Church of England in Canada undertook 
to support a bishop and a staff of missionaries in the 
province of Honan. The centre of the work, which is still 
in a pioneer stage, is at Kaifeng. 

Protestant Missions. 

The founder of the China Inland Mission, the Eev. J. 
Hudson Taylor, M.E.C.S., went to China in 1853 in con- 
nection with the Chinese Evangelization Society. Forced 
by ill-health to return in 1860, he spent several years in 
pleading the cause of China, and in 1865 he organized the 
China Inland Mission. One of its distinctive rules has 
been that its workers receive no fixed salaries and are 
not authorized to solicit funds on its behalf. In 1866 Dr. 
Taylor returned to China accompanied by the first fifteen 
members of the mission staff. For the first twenty years 
the work of this mission was largely of a pioneer character. 
In 1876 it started work in the provinces of Shansi, Shensi 
and Kansu, and in 1877 in Szechwan, Yunnan and 
Kweichow. Since then its field of operations has steadily 
expanded until it has now work at 227 centres situated 
in eighteen provinces of China and in Chinese Turkestan. 
In 1884 seven Cambridge graduates, who included amongst 
their number the captain of the cricket eleven (C. T. 
Studd) and the stroke of the university boat (Stanley 
Smith), joined the mission staff, and their departure for 
China helped to make known to a wide circle the needs 
of the Chinese and the good work which the C.I.M. had 
already accomplished on their behalf. In 1876 the 
mission began to send out unmarried women as missionaries, 
and by 1881 work amongst Chinese women had been 
started in six of the inland provinces. The income of the 


CHINA 19b 

mission in 1913 was 91,000, of which 51,000 was 
received in England. Its European and American stall 
in China is 988 (including wives), of whom 580 are 
women. Its list of martyrs contains 58 names. Its 
missionaries belong to various denominations, those attached 
to each denomination being grouped together. In Western 
China its members, who belong to the Church of England, 
are superintended by Bishop Cassels. 

Amongst the ranks of its workers have been many the 
record of whose lives, if it could be given, would add a 
new page to the story of missionary heroism. It is true 
that criticisms have from time to time been made that this 
society, in its anxiety to start new centres and occupy new 
provinces, has sent out men and women whose chief qualifi- 
cation was their intense desire to become missionaries, but 
who had given no evidence that they were able to act as 
Christian teachers under the extremely difficult conditions 
under which their work in China would have to be carried 
on. These criticisms, which have sometimes been made by 
those who knew China well and were anxious to promote 
missions to the Chinese, are to some extent justified, but 
the fact that enthusiasm has outrun knowledge and that 
the methods adopted have been proved by experience to 
be faulty, must not be allowed to diminish our appreciation 
of the great work which has been accomplished by this 
society. The mission has established training homes in 
China for men and women missionaries, where newly 
arrived recruits can study the Chinese language and receive 
training to prepare them for their future work. 

The work of the London Missionary Society (1807) is 
carried on in North China, Central China, Shanghai and 
district, Amoy and district, and in Canton province. Its 
European staff includes 43 missionaries, in addition to 25 
doctors who superintend twenty-six hospitals. The number 
of its full church members is about 10,000. In many 
cases its congregations have become entirely self-supporting 
and self-governed, and carry on missionary work on their 
own initiative. In Peking the L.M.S. has a large medical 


college in which teaching is given by members of all the 
missions in that city except the Koman Catholics. Its 
most famous institution is the Anglo-Chinese College at 
Tientsin, of which Dr. S. Lavington Hart was the founder 
and first Principal. Its list of missionaries includes the 
names of Morrison, Milne, Medhurst, Lockhart, Legge, 
Griffith John and Giluiour. We have already referred to 
the work done by the first three. Dr. James Legge (1815 
97) was appointed in 1840 to take charge of the Anglo- 
Chinese College at Malacca, which had been founded by 
Dr. Morrison and Dr. Milne, and was afterwards moved to 
Hong-Kong. In 1876 he was appointed Professor of 
Chinese Language and Literature at Oxford, and was 
the translator into English of all the Chinese Classics. 
Dr. Griffith John (1831-1912) spent the greater part 
of his life at Hankow. His writings in Chinese are known 
all over China. (For reference to the work of James 
Gilmour see p. 215.) 

Its first woman missionary was appointed to China in 

The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions (1847) supports work in the city and neighbour- 
hood of Foochow. In this city it has a theological 
seminary which is jointly supported by the C.M.S. 
and the A.M.E.C. It also helps to support a Union 
medical training college in conjunction with the C.M.S. 
and the Methodists. 

In Peking it helps to support a Union men and 
women's medical college, a Union women's college and a 
Union theological college. Its roll of missionaries includes 
the name of Dr. Peter Parker, who was the first regular 
medical missionary to China in modern times. 

The Government officials in the province of Shansi 
have offered to place all the Government schools in eight 
counties, containing a population of 4,000,000, under the 
superintendence of the A.B.C.F.M. missionaries, and the 
society has sent additional missionaries to take charge of 
the schools. 

CHINA 195 

The chief centres of the Presbyterian Church of Eng- 
land Mission (1847) are at Aruoy, Swatow and Tainan in 
Formosa. The mission supports 14 hospitals, 4 theo- 
logical colleges and a large number of schools. It has 
50 ordained Chinese ministers and about 12,000 com- 
municant members. Its most famous missionary was Kev. 
W. C. Burns (1815-68), who laboured chiefly at Arnoy 
and Swatow. He became a good Chinese scholar, and 
translated The Pilgrim's Progress and other books into 

The Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian 
Church in the U.S.A., which began work in China in 1844, 
has over 300 missionaries, of whom 9 are ordained clergy 
and 40 are medical missionaries. It has eight chief 
centres situated in the provinces of Chihli, Shantung, 
Kiangsu, Chekiaug, Anhwei, Hunan, Kwangtung and the 
island of Hainan. It has a staff of over 1000 Chinese 
preachers and teachers, 126 organized churches with more 
than 20,000 communicants. Its 69 hospitals and dis- 
pensaries treat about 200,000 cases each year. Its 
educational institutions include the Shantung Union Uni- 
versity, the University of Nanking, the college, medical 
school and theological seminary in Peking and the theo- 
logical seminary in Nanking, in all of which it works in 
co-operation with other missionary organizations. 

Amongst those who have served on its staff may be 
mentioned the names of John G. Kerr, M.D., John L. 
Nevius, C. W. Mateer and W. A. P. Martin. Dr. Nevius 
laboured in China from 1854 to 1893 and did much 
useful translation work. Dr. Martin, who is the author of 
a number of books in Chinese, wag President of the 
Imperial University. 

The various Presbyterian missions in China have taken 
steps in view of constituting an independent Chinese 
Presbyterian Church. The Churches represented at the 
Council which was held at Chinanfu in 1914 in view of 
organizing this Church were the English, Scotch, Irish, 
Canadian, Dutch Reformed, Northern and Southern (U.S.A.) 


Presbyterians. The converts connected with these missions 
number over 60,000 adult Church members. 

The Wesley an Methodist Missionary Society (1852) sup- 
ports work in the central portion of the Kwangtung province 
and in the adjoining Kwangsi province. It has hospitals at 
Fatshan and Wuchow and a home for lepers at the latter 
place. Farther north in the Wuchang district it has 4 
hospitals. At Wuchang itself it has a college, high school 
and theological institution. In the Hunan district it 
supports 2 hospitals and a theological school. Its roll of 
missionaries includes the name of the Rev. David Hill 
(184096). He worked chiefly at Hankow, and died 
of typhus whilst administering famine relief. He was 
instrumental in the conversion of Pastor Hsi, a well-known 
Chinese missionary connected with the C.I.M. 

The English Baptist Mission (1859) carries on work in 
the provinces of Shantung, Shansi and Shensi. It has a 
European staff of 52 men and 52 women who work at 
nineteen chief stations. Its communicant members number 
about 6000. The mission supports 12 medical mis- 
sionaries and 6 hospitals. 

In Shantung the mission has started a Christian Uni- 
versity, which is carried on partly by the B.M.S. and partly 
by the American Presbyterians. It consists of a theo- 
logical college and normal school at Chingchoufu with 200 
students, rather more than half of whom are Baptists ; 
an arts college at Weihsien with 350 students, and a 
medical college and hospital in Chinanfu, which is the 
capital of the province. The S.P.G-. has opened a hostel 
for its students at Weihsien who are attending the university. 
In the course of a revival which took place in November 
1909, 100 of the students joined the Volunteer Missionary 
Band and have since been actively engaged in evangelistic 

One of the missionaries belonging to the B.M.S. is Dr. 
Timothy Richard, who was the first Chancellor of the 
Imperial University established by the Chinese Govern- 
ment of Shansi after the Boxer rising in 1900. He has 

CHINA 197 

contributed more than any other missionary towards the 
creation of a Chinese Christian literature. 

The Baptist Foreign Mission Society (U.S.A.) (1836) 
supports work in South, West and East China. In con- 
junction with the Southern Baptist Convention Mission 
it supports a large college and seminary at Shanghai. It 
shares in the support of the universities of Nanking and 
Chengtu in West China. 

Other societies which support a large amount of work 
in China are (the numbers in brackets represent the foreign 
staff) The Irish Presbyterian Church Mission (44), The 
Canadian Presbyterian Mission (80), The Berlin (59), The 
Basel (72), and The Swedish Missionary Societies (51), 
The Christian and Missionary Alliance, U.S.A. (87), The 
Presbyterian Church, South, U.S.A. (129), and the Inter- 
national Y.M.C.A. (75). 

Amongst missionary organizations should be mentioned 
the Christian Literature Society for China, which by its 
translations and by its books composed in Chinese has 
done much to spread a knowledge of Christian literature 
throughout China. 

The Young Men's Christian Association is exerting 
a wide influence in many different parts of China, and 
several Chinese who have recently become prominent 
politicians have been associated with it. At its national 
convention held in Peking in 1912 requests were received 
from several provincial governors asking that branches of 
the Association might be formed in their provinces. The 
YM.C.A. is likely to exercise an increasing influence in 
the near future. 

In China, as in all other non-Christian countries, the 
work of missions has been greatly helped by the circula- 
tion of the Scriptures by the Bible Societies of England, 
Scotland and America. The B. and F. B. Society alone 
circulated in 1913 considerably over two million portions 
of the Bible in various Chinese versions. 

We do not propose to trace the statistical advance of 
the 104 missionary societies which are now working in 


China, nor to illustrate by tables the gradual spread of 
their work throughout the different provinces. In each of 
its twenty-one provinces mission stations are now to be 
found, but in several of them the proportion of missionaries 
to the population is less than 1 to 200,000. 

The increase in the number of Christians in China 
which has taken place since the beginning of this century 
has been proportionately more rapid than at any previous 
period within recent times. During the first ten years of 
this century the number of European missionaries (which 
is now 5186) increased 50 per cent., the number of 
Chinese missionaries still more rapidly, and the number of 
Christian adherents was more than doubled. 

The rapid increase during recent years is undoubtedly 
connected with the persecutions to which the Christians 
have been exposed. 

There are few, if any other, instances in Christian history 
in which an attempt to exterminate the Christians over a 
wide area has resulted in so immediate and large an increase 
in their number and in such a strengthening and expansion 
of the Christian Church. The movement organized by the 
Boxers in 1900 was directed against Europeans and against 
all Chinese Christians, inasmuch as these were supposed to 
be in sympathy with foreigners. The Chinese Christians 
were in many instances offered their lives if they would 
abjure their religion, but despite the cruel tortures to which 
they were subjected comparatively few recanted and about 
16,000 died a martyr's death. Of Europeans there were 
killed 135 Anglican and Protestant missionaries and 53 
children, 35 E.G. priests and 9 E.G. sisters. Had it not 
been for the efforts of Yiian Shihkai and some other 
Chinese viceroys the massacres might have spread over the 
whole Chinese Empire. 


The following table will give some idea of the rapidity 
with which the Anglican and Protestant missions developed 



during the ten years which followed the Boxer persecu- 
tion : 


o * 







33 .c u 


C co 

OJ I- 

O flj <fc * 



c ~ 

*- o 


c o 

?! o 

4* i* 



2 o 


~ f 

5 o" 

C .* 
. fc- 




rt' r- O 

^ o 



-^ O 


~3 Q 





1900 . . 









1910 . . 









1 Including wives of missionaries. 

The number of Christian adherents, apart from those 
connected with E.G. missions, were in 1860 about 1000 ; in 
1877, 13,000 ; in 1890, 37,000 ; in 1900, over 200,000 ; 
and in 1910, about 470,000. 

At the end of 1913 the number of full members of 
Christian Churches was returned as 235,303, the number 
under Christian instruction as 59,106, and the "total 
Christian constituency" as 356,209. The last figure does 
not include those who are merely " adherents." 

The following table illustrates the progress made by 
Anglican and Protestant missionary societies in China 
between 1876 and 1913 : 


ng wives. 





i 6 " 

~ a 

' CS 

or Full 



O 1 

^^ : oE 




S c 

^.l ?!l 


1 = g 
o " M 





o o 











No returns 

















178,251 1 












1 The returns for 1905 include some baptized children. 


Comparing the progress of Anglican and Protestant 
missions in India and China between 1900 and 1910, 
we note that whilst the increase in India was at the rate 
of 45 per cent, the increase in China was at the rate 
of 129 per cent. Within the memory of one or two 
missionaries still living the Christians connected with these 
missions increased from less than 200 (in I860) to 
nearly half a million (1912). During the same period 
(190010) the baptized Christians connected with the 
Roman Catholic missions increased from about 762,000 
to 1,363,000, the increase being at the rate of about 70 
per cent. As far as we can appraise the prospect of 
Christian missions in China by the use of missionary 
statistics, it appears to be singularly encouraging. In the 
case of China, however, more than in the case of other 
countries, we need to remember that the evangelistic work 
which is being done in different parts is very unequal in 
character. A considerable number of the missionaries now 
working in China have been sent there by small local 
associations in America and have received no training to 
prepare them for their work. The result has been that 
European visitors to China have had occasion to point out 
that their methods of work would admit of great improve- 
ment, and that there was reason to fear that some of those 
who had been moved to go forth as missionaries had 
mistaken their vocation. 

Nevertheless, after making all deductions in view of 
the inefficiency of some missionaries, and of some of the 
societies now working in China, there is no reasonable 
doubt that the Christianization of China is rapidly coming 
within the sphere of practical politics. The one thing 
certain in regard to its future is that within a very few 
years the greater part of its population will come under 
the influence of Western education. It depends upon the 
peoples of England and America whether the Western 
education, which is about to sweep the country, will tell 
for or against the spread of the Christian faith, and whether 
at the close of this century China will be mainly Christian 

CHINA 201 

or mainly agnostic. The peoples of China are not instinc- 
tively religious, as are the peoples of India, and if China 
does not become Christian it may long remain content 
without any form of vital religion. Very few of the 
Chinese Christians belong to the literary classes. This has 
been largely due to the fact that their contempt for 
Western knowledge has led them to despise what they 
regarded as a Western religion. But, as the reception 
which Dr. Mott received from tens of thousands of Chinese 
students in 1913 has shown, a great change has come over 
the attitude of the literary classes. 1 A unique opportunity 
now exists for establishing Christian universities and for 
developing higher education under Christian auspices, and 
upon the use which is made of this opportunity will depend 
the attitude of the learned classes towards the Christian 
faith. In six years, 1905-11, the number of students in 
the one province of Chihli rose from 8000 to 230,000, and 
what has happened in this province is happening through- 
out the length and breadth of China. A recent visitor to 
China saw in course of building the new normal school at 
Canton, which was rising in the very same compound in 
which stood the ruins of the stalls used for the old Chinese 
examinations. In this new school 800 teachers are now 
being trained. Yiian Shihkai, who is now President, bore 
emphatic testimony to the good work done by Christian 
missionaries at the time of the Boxer riots, and his sons 
were educated at a missionary school in China and after- 
wards at a school in England. 

University Colleges in China. 

Boone University, which was founded at Wuchang in 
1871 and was incorporated (in the U.S.A.) as a university 

1 An equally remarkable series of meetings was held by Mr. Sherwood 
Eddy in 1914 for Government students and officials. In seven cities, the 
meetings in which averaged an attendance of 3000, there were 7000 
"enquirers," who included many Government officials and scholars. A 
large number of women students have also been reached. 


iii 1909, had about 400 students previous to the Kevolution. 
It and St. John's College, Shanghai (see p. 191), are under 
the control of the American Church Mission. 

The University of flanking, which began work in 1910, 
represents the union of the educational work in Nanking 
of the Presbyterian Mission, the A.M.E.C. and the Foreign 
Christian Missionary Society. It is the property of a 
Board of Trustees elected by these societies. Its students 
number about 500. 

Shantung Christian University. This was formed by 
the English Baptist and American Presbyterian Missions. 
The Anglican Mission (S.P.G.) has also a representative on 
its teaching staff, and is building a hostel for its students 
in attendance at the university. The college of arts and 
science at Weihsien, the normal and theological college at 
Chingchowfu and the medical college at Chinanfu are to be 
united in the university buildings to be erected at Chinanfu. 
In the three colleges there are about 600 students. 

Peking University College belongs to the A.M.E.C. and 
has 81 students in the "collegiate department." The 
Union Medical College, which is supported by several 
missionary societies, is uniting with this college in order to 
form a university of Peking. 

Canton Christian College, which has about 200 students, 
represents the union of several American missionary agencies 
in the neighbourhood of Canton. 

As a result of the formation of the West China 
Christian Educational Union there has been created the West 
China Union University, in which five missionary societies 
participate. A site for this university was purchased out- 
side Chengtu in 1908. The various societies which it 
represents propose to establish colleges or hostels in which 
their students in attendance at the university will reside. 

A Foochow Christian University has been organized and 
a constitution adopted. It is supported by the following 
missionary societies : C.M.S., A.M.E.C., A.B.C.F.M., E.P.M. 
and L.M.S. 

The Shansi University, which was for ten years under 

CHINA 20., 

foreign supervision, has not been a help to the cause of 
missions. Until the recent Revolution it was rendered 
practically impossible for Christian students to enter it. 

An important step towards Christian unity in China 
was taken by the National Conference which met under 
the chairmanship of Dr. Mott in 1913. The following 
formed part of the resolutions passed by this Conference, 
which represented nearly all the chief Anglican and 
Protestant missions in China : 

A. " In order to do all that is possible to manifest the 
unity which already exists among all faithful Christians in 
China and to present ourselves in the face of the great mass 
of Chinese non-Christian people as one brotherhood with 
one common name, this Conference suggests as the most 
suitable name for this purpose . . . The Christian Church 
in China. 

B. " As steps towards unity this Conference urges upon 
the Churches : 1. The uniting of Churches of similar ecclesi- 
astical order planted in China by different missions. 2. The 
organic union of Churches which already enjoy inter- 
communication in any particular area, large or small. 

3. Federation, local and provincial, of all Churches willing 
to co-operate in the extension of the Kingdom of God. 

4. The formation of a National Council of the Churches." 

The constitution of the Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui 

o O O 

(see p. 188) in 1912 by the representatives of the Anglican 
missions anticipated, as far as these missions were con- 
cerned, the proposal B. 1. 

In no part of the great mission field have medical 
missions done so much to break down opposition and to 
commend the Christian faith as in China. At the end of 
1913 there were 300 men and 135 women doctors con- 
nected with missionary societies. In addition to these 
who are Europeans or Americans, there were 94 qualified 
Chinese doctors and over 10,000 Chinese medical students. 
There are about 264 mission hospitals in China, and the 
number of in-patients treated in 1913 was 126,788 and 
of out-patients 2,129,774. (For a further reference to 
the development of medical missions in China see p. 199.) 


Reference should be made to the Schools for the Blind 
which have been started by various missions. In Europe 
the proportion of blind to seeing is about 1 in 1500, in 
India it is about 1 in 500, and in China about 1 in 400. 
The total number of blind is about 1,000,000. Many of 
the blind have been taught to read by the system invented 
by the Rev. W. H. Murray of Peking, and industrial work 
has been taught in most of the schools. 

Work amongst Women. - - The various missionary 
societies have been gradually extending and developing 
their work amongst Chinese women, but there is still 
much to be accomplished in order to bring it up to the 
level of the work which has been done amongst men. 
The following are extracts from the " findings " of the 
National Conference over which Dr. Mott presided in 

" The present conditions present an unparalleled oppor- 
tunity for widespread and aggressive evangelization. . . . 
There are hundreds of walled cities and thousands of towns 
in China in which the women are absolutely unreached as 
yet. . . . The number of women missionaries is hopelessly 
inadequate. . . . We favour the speedy establishment of 
more and better primary schools for girls, especially in 
country districts. . . . We must increase our educational 
work in quantity, so that we can provide the teachers 
needed in missionary schools and respond to calls for help 
from non-Christian schools. We must increase it in quality, 
and fit our graduates for college and training schools to in- 
vestigate social and industrial problems, to study religious 
questions and in every way to be leaders of Chinese women 
in the regeneration of China." 

The general outlook is certainly more encouraging than 
it has been at any previous time. Thus a C.M.S. missionary 
in Mid-China writes : 

" One of the changes wrought in the country by the 
Revolution is said to be that while in the past it has always 
been difficult to get any one to look after the sick, quite a 
number of educated women are now desirous of undertaking 
the work. Five women, all belonging to literary families, 

CHINA 205 

were under training at Foochow, and four of them did well 
in an examination in elementary physiology and general 
nursing." l 

Early in 1914 two Chinese women received diplomas 
from the Union Medical College in Peking. They were 
the first women in North China to become qualified as 

The importance of the training of China's women, to 
which the " findings " of the Conference bear witness, is 
accentuated by the past history of Christian missions in 
this country. The failure of the Christian Church to 
establish permanent Christian communities in China may 
be traced, at least in part, to the failure of its missionaries 
to influence the lives of its women. Had the Nestorians, 
the Franciscans or the Jesuits been able to appeal to 
China's women and to create Christian homes, it is in- 
conceivable that the after results of their work, carried on 
during such long periods and with such apparent success, 
should now be so far to seek. 

A Student Volunteer Movement has been started, the 
members of which pledge themselves to prepare to enter 
the Christian Ministry. They are for the most part 
college students who have the prospect of good secular 
positions with large salaries on the completion of their 
college course. Six hundred members have already been 
enrolled and 100 have already begun their theological 
training. In fifteen of the chief theological training 
schools in China there are 450 Chinese who are preparing 
for ordination. 

The total number of Anglican and Protestant foreign 
missionary workers in China is about 5200. This represents 
one man or woman worker to each 75,000 of the Chinese. 

Although Christian mission centres are widely 
scattered throughout China, there are still large districts in 
which very little work is being carried on. The provinces 
of Yiinnau, Kwangsi. Kweichow and Kansu are largely 
unoccupied by representatives of any missionary society. 

1 China Mission Year Book, 1914, p. 193. 


In the provinces and dependencies of China there are 
552 centres from which missionary work over the sur- 
rounding district is organized, but in China proper, the 
population of the provinces and districts in which hardly 
any missionary work has as yet been attempted amounts 
to 40,000,000, and beyond these there lie Mongolia, 
Turkestan and Tibet. In one county in the province of 
Shensi, which includes 900 walled villages, the only non- 
Eoman missionaries are one man and his wife belonging 
to the C.I.M. 

An Appeal for Prayer. No event has served to impress 
the general public with the progress attained by mission- 
ary propaganda in China more than the official request 
which was made by the acting Chinese Government 
for the prayers of its Christian subjects on Sunday, 
April 27, 1913. A few days prior to this date tele- 
grams were sent to the leaders of Christian Churches 
asking that special prayers should be offered on behalf of 
the Chinese nation, and to provincial governors and other 
high officials directing them to attend the Christian 
services. The suggestion apparently originated with the 
Christians, of whom sixty were reported to have been 
members of the first Chinese parliament, and was perhaps 
adopted by the Government authorities partly in the hope 
of securing the goodwill of the nations of the West. 
The day of prayer was widely observed in England and in 
America as well as in China, and its observance helped to 
bring home to many the rapid progress which Christianity 
in China had made during recent years. 

It was a happy coincidence that within a fortnight 
of the day appointed for prayer by the Chinese Govern- 
ment, the House of Commons in England was officially 
informed that the exportation of Indian opium to China, 
which had done so much to retard missionary work in 
China, had finally ceased. 

We have not space to do more than allude to the 
discussions which have from time to time been raised in 
regard to the attitude which missionaries ought to take 

CHINA 207 

towards what is usually described as " ancestor- worship." 
In deciding what attitude he ought to adopt, the missionary 
cannot afford to forget the lesson taught by the experi- 
ence of the past. The policy adopted by the R.C. mission- 
aries in regard to the maintenance of ancestor-worship 
has been fraught with disaster, and has tended more than 
any other action on their part to produce a superficial 
conversion of character which must hinder rather than 
hasten the true evangelization of China. On the other 
hand, the missionary who knows anything of the early 
history of his religion cannot fail to remember how helpful 
and inspiring memorial services for the dead have been, 
especially in countries where Christians have formed a 
small minority of the population, and how incomplete is 
the presentation of Christianity which does not lay 
emphasis upon the indissoluble connection which exists 
between those who are striving to live the Christ-life 
here and those who are with Christ in the life into which 
they have passed. There is no problem raised by 
missionary work in the Far East on which it is more 
difficult to formulate a definite policy and which at the 
same time presses so urgently for a solution. 

In trying to appraise the prospect of the missionary 
appeal in China to-day we need to take into consideration 
the distinctive features of the Chinese character. 

The writer of the section of the Edinburgh Conference 
Reports which dealt with Christian Missions in China, after 
summarizing the contents of the reports from missionaries 
in the field, writes : 

" While they (the Chinese) possess certain traits which 
are inimical to the Gospel, those which promise most as 
allies to the propagation of truth are the following : love of 
peace and a high regard for law ; absence of all caste 
distinctions and the prevalence of a democratic spirit; 
respect for superiors, whether in age, position or intellect ; 
unusual docility and imitativeness ; domination by the 
historic instinct to such an extent that the past is not only 
reverenced but is a wholesome check upon ill-considered 
innovations in belief and practice ; a genius for labour, and 


thrift in making provision for the future ; a mental capacity 
and willingness to apply the mind unremittingly to study 
which may one day make them the greatest students in the 
world ; a perpetual emphasis of reason . . . ; a suavity and 
tact that will meet any hard situation and win unexpected 
victory from apparent defeat ; a talent for organization 
which has made the Chinese past-masters in combinations, 
guilds, and societies of all sorts ; a sense of responsibility 
which is based on a high ideal of the duties of kinship ; 
an economy which will one day make the most out of every 
Christian resource ; and great susceptibility to the influence 
of a strong personality, be it the missionary or the Master 
whom he is trying to imitate. Men of such traits have 
already made superb preachers and teachers, as well as 
most consistent Christians." 1 

The author of a recently published work entitled 
Methode dc I'Apostolat moderne en Chine, after a survey of 
the difficulties which missionaries encounter who work 
among the Chinese, sums up his impressions of the 
Chinese character in words that partly supplement and 
partly contradict the opinion which we have just quoted. 
He writes : 

" Les phenomenes bien caracteristiques de I'affaiblissement 
de la voloute chez les Chinois : manque de caractere, besoiu 
de solidarite, versatilite, pusillanimite, force de 1'inertie, 
absence d'initiative, suggestibility tels que nous venons de les 
etudier, presentent au missionaire justement preoccupe de 
la perseverance finale de ses Chretiens, un bien douloureux 
probleme. Car ce que nous avons surtout a reprocher dans 
nos fideles, n'est pas un manque de sincerite dans leur foi, 
mais cette absence d'energie de volonte qui est cause que 
leur conduite sera paieune ou chretienne, exacte ou relachee 
d'apres les circonstances." 2 

Roman Catholic Missions in China. 

Partly as a result of the suppression of the Jesuit 
Order and partly as the result of the closing of religious 

1 Edinburgh Conference Reports, i. p. 85. 

2 Par R. P. Louis Kervyn de la Congregation du occur imniacule de Marie, 
Hong-Kong, 1911, p. 359. 

CHINA 200 

houses and seminaries which followed the French Eevolu- 
tion, the Christians of China were almost entirely left to 
their own resources. In many provinces " the converts 
left without priests drifted back into paganism, or if they 
kept the faith, were ill-instructed and had no sacrament 
but baptism. The Vinceutian (Lazarist) Fathers, in the 
face of terrible trials, held on to Peking and a few 
other places, and the re-establishment of the famous Paris 
Seminary of Foreign Missions eventually supplied a re- 
inforcement for other districts. The Spanish Dominicans 
in the south-east, and the Portuguese priests at Macao, 
kept the faith alive in these places." l 

Tinikowski, a Russian official who visited Peking in 
1805, wrote: 

" A fresh persecution was commenced against the Chris- 
tians. They endeavoured to oblige them to trample upon 
the cross and to abjure their errors; they who refused were 
threatened with death. At Peking many thousand persons 
were discovered who had embraced the Christian religion, even 
among the members of the imperial family and mandarins." 2 

In 1815 Bishop Dufresse was led to execution at the 
head of 32 confessors. In 1818 many Christians were 
exiled to the wilds of Tartary. In 1 8 1 6 a Franciscan Father 
and 4 Chinese priests were martyred in Szechwan. Never- 
theless in the same province and at the same time a priest 
was able to report that he had baptized 1006 adults and 
given the Holy Communion to 79,000 persons in one year. 

In the Salle des Martyrs belonging to the Paris 
Seminary of Missions are preserved relics of the martyrs 
of China and Corea. One of these is the chalice belonging 
to the Bishop Boric, who was tied to a stake and slowly cut 
to pieces in Central China. Every priest trained in this 
seminary who is about to leave for China is allowed to 
say a Mass at which he uses this chalice. 

1 The Missions of China, by A. H. Atteridge, p. 12. Published by the 
Catholic Truth Society. 

2 See "Roman Catholic Missions," by R. Eubank, The East and The 
West, January 1905. 



The revival of Eoman Catholic missions in China 
dates from 1830. These missions are now to be found 
in every province in China and on the borders of Tibet, 
and in 1850 the number of baptized Christians was 
estimated at 330,000. In 1881 they numbered 470,000 ; 
thirty years later, i.e. in 1911, these had increased to 
1,363,000. (Eapid as this rate of increase has been, it 
has, however, been less rapid than the increase of the non- 
Eoman missions throughout China, see p. 200.) These were 
grouped in 47 dioceses or vicariates. There were 1365 
European and 721 Chinese priests and 1215 Chinese 
students for the priesthood. There were also 247 
European and 86 Chinese lay-Brothers in religious houses 
or in "teaching congregations," and 2172 nuns, of whom 
1429 were Chinese women. 

According to Die Katholischen Missionen of June 
1913, the total number of converts connected with 
RC. missions in China was 1,421,258, in addition to 
448,220 catechumens. The three tasks which are put 
forward as being most pressing are : the development of 
education ; the securing of a more powerful political unity 
and influence ; and the formation of strong religious or- 
ganizations within the Church. 

The E.G. missions have for many years supported 
orphanages in different parts of China for the care of 
destitute children. These number 260, and a considerable 
proportion of the baptisms which take place annually are 
of infant children in these homes. As a general rule the 
Chinese priests are members of families which have been 
Christian for at least three generations. 

The E.G. priests for the most part live simple, self- 
denying lives, and live and die amongst their converts. 
On the other hand, their bishops claimed the rank 
and dignity of mandarins. This claim, and the further 
claim to interfere in Chinese lawsuits wherever a E.C. 
Christian was concerned, often gave rise to hostility 
and persecution on the part of Chinese officials, and was 
one of the causes of the Boxer insurrection in 1900. 

CHINA 211 

When, in 1898, the claim to rank with a governor of a 
Chinese province and to travel in a green sedan chair 
with a retinue following was eventually allowed by the 
Chinese Government, the same honours were offered to 
the Anglican bishops, but were declined. 1 The right 
to assume this rank has been disallowed by the present 
Chinese Government. 

At the close of the Boxer riots, in which 54 E.C. 
missionaries lost their lives, the E.C. missionaries claimed 
1,500,000 from the Chinese Government as an 

The following Orders and foreign missionary societies 
are at work in China : Jesuits in Chihli and Kiangnan ; 
Lazarists in Chihli, Kiangsi and Chekiang ; Franciscans 
in Shensi, Shansi, Shantung, Hupei and Hunan ; Augus- 
tinians in Hunan ; Spanish Dominicans in Foochow and in 
Amoy ; Milan F.M.S. in Honan and in Hong-Kong ; Paris 
F.M.S. in Manchuria, Kweichow, Szechwan, Kienchang, 
Yunnan, Kwantuug, Kwangsi and Tibet ; Scheutvelt Belgian 
F.M.S. in Mongolia and Kansu ; Borne F.M.S. in Shensi ; 
Steyl German F.M.S. in Shantung; Parma F.M.S. in 
W. Honan ; and Spanish Augustinians in N. Hunan. 

In Tonking, where work was begun in 1678, the 
E.C. Church has 7 vicariates. The Christians, including 


Europeans, number 711,000. The work is carried on by 
230 priests and is supported by the Paris F.M. Society. 
In Cochin China, where the work dates from 1659, there 
are 3 vicariates, 164 priests and 180,000 Christians. In 
Cambodia, where work was begun in 1850, there are 
45,000 Christians and 48 priests. 

The Russian Mission. 

The Chinese Mission of the Eussian Orthodox Church 
was the result of the capture of some Eussians, one of 
whom was a priest, by a Chinese force at the end of the 

1 See " E.G. Mission Work in China," by Clement Allen, formerly Consul 
at Foochow, The East and The West, April 1905. 


seventeenth century. In 1716 a missionary party, in- 
cluding 2 priests, a deacon, and 7 students, reached 
Peking. Though the mission has remained small, its 
members have translated the Bible and other Christian 
books into Chinese. Of the 700 Christians attached to 
the mission in 1900, 400 are said to have been killed 
during the Boxer insurrection. The work has since been 
resumed and has a Russian Bishop as its head. 

Chinese Turkestan. 

Chinese Turkestan or Sinkiang contains over 550,000 
square miles, but a population of only 1,250,000. It 
is the meeting-point of many races, Kalmuks, Mongolians, 
Tangus, Tartars, Manchus, Chinese and Turkis. The 
majority of its inhabitants are Moslems. In the extreme 
west the Swedish mission have centres at Kashgar and 
Yarkand, and at the capital, Urumchi, the C.I.M. has 
had a station since 1905. 


The Presbyterian Church of Ireland began work at 
Newchwang in 1869. In 1872 the Eev. John Eoss 
arrived, as a pioneer of the United Free Clw.rch of Scotland 
Mission, and ten years later he and Dr. Christie established 
the medical mission at Moukden, which has exercised a 
far-reaching influence. 

In 1891 the two Presbyterian missions united in 
order to form a native Manchurian Church. 

The Danish Lutheran Mission, which began work in 
1895, has stations at Port Arthur and in the surrounding 

The missionaries belonging to the Scotch, Irish and 
Danish missions, together with the B. and F. B. S. and 
Y.M.C.A. representatives, number 153, including wives. 
These occupy 26 stations. The number of baptized 
Christians (1913) is 26,024 and of catechumens 7000. 

CHINA 2 1 3 

Though the more visible results of the great llevival which 
took place in 1908 have passed away, the spiritual impetus 
then received has been lasting, and " a new vision of sin 
and holiness remains as a ground of appeal." x 

There are 12 mission hospitals and 19 doctors in 
Manchuria, and the number of out-patients in 1913 was 
about 150,000. At the Moukden Medical College 
50 Chinese medical students are being trained. 

In Manchuria, to a greater extent than in almost any 
section of the mission field, the growth of the Church has 
resulted from the efforts made by the converts to influence 
their friends and neighbours. As an illustration of this 
statement we may quote a case described thus by Dr. Christie 
of the Moukden hospital : 

" A patient came to the Moukden hospital many years 
ago. When admitted he had never heard the gospel, but 
before he left he had a clear knowledge of Christian truth 
and showed an intense desire to make it known to others. 
For many years he witnessed for Christ, most of the time 
without salary of any kind and under no control but that of 
his heavenly Master. The missionary who had charge of 
the district where he laboured till his martyrdom by the 
Boxers, tells us that he was a direct means of leading at 
least 2000 souls into the fold of Christ." 2 

The Eeport of the U.F.C. of Scotland presented in 
1914, referring to the colleges supported by this mission 
at Moukden, says, these colleges " thrive amazingly and 
give promise of providing the whole of Manchuria with 
adequately trained teachers, pastors and doctors." 

The E.G. missions in Manchuria date from the seven- 
teenth century. When the first Bishop arrived in 1840 
he found a scattered Christian community of over 3000 
members, who were for the most part immigrants from 
China. By 1891 these had increased to 13,000. During 
the Boxer riots the Bishop of Moukden, his clergy and 
most of his congregation, GOO in all, were massacred. 

1 China Mission Year Book, 1914, p. 421. 

s ISdiriburgh Missionary Conference Report, i. 334 f. 



Mongolia, the largest dependency of China, is nearly 
as large as the eighteen provinces of China put together. 
Its population, however, hardly exceeds 3,000,000, the 
great majority of whom are Buddhists. 

The most extensive work is that done by the R.C. Church, 
which has a chain of stations near the Chinese border, at 
several of which attempts are made to reach Mongols. At 
Barin, north of Jehol, and at a station in the Ordos country, 
there are Mongol congregations under priests who speak 
Mongolian. The* converts number several hundreds in 
all. The E.G. Church has three bishops and reports 
69,000 converts in Mongolia. They have stations at 
Pakou, Tatzuk'ou, Hata, and a few other places, and in 
the far north at Maoshantung. Only a very small 
proportion of the converts are Mongols, the majority of 
the remainder being Chinese. In The, Catholic Church in 
China, by Father Wolferstan, the Christian community in 
Mongolia is returned as consisting of " Chinese Christians." 
J. Hedley, the author of Tramps in Dark Mongolia, 
writes : 

The devotion of the E.G. missionaries "is most praise- 
worthy, and so far as I could learn the conduct of their 
work of a fine character. . . . They have a practice of 
insisting on a whole family submitting to baptism, when 
a man seeks to enter their Church, with the twofold result 
of swelling numbers much faster than can be done by any 
Protestant mission, and of having within their Church a 
large percentage of uninformed adherents." l 

Eeferring to the difficulties which confront the 
Christian missionary in Mongolia the same author writes : 

" This colossal system of Lamaism is the most effective 
obstacle to the Christian missionary. . . . The attempt to 
evangelize Mongolia presents one of the greatest problems 
that faces Christian enterprise to-day. . . . Humanly 
speaking it is impossible, an absolute impossibility, for any 

1 P. 363. 

CHINA 215 

Mongol to avow himself a Christian and remain among his 
own people and clan. To an extent undreamed of in China 
the priest terrorizes over the layman, and a profession of 
adherence to any other faith would inevitably mean a 
system of persecution that would wear out the unfortunate 
man's nerves, if he did not sicken and die from some 
mysterious disease. . . . The only hope for the Mongol who 
wishes to attach himself to the Christian faith would be 
to remove far away from the influence and association of 
the people among whom he has been reared." : 

Mongolian Bible. In 1827 two Buriats reached St. 
Petersburg having been sent from the head Lama of 
Mongolia to request that part of the N.T. might be 
translated into Mongolian. They had seen a copy of a 
N.T. in Kalmuck. The L.M.S. sent two representatives 
to Irkutsk, and after many years of work the whole Bible 
was translated into Mongolian. No actual attempt to 
evangelize the Mongols was, however, made till the coming 
of James Gilmour in 1870. 

James Gilmour. Of the missionaries who worked in 
the Far East during the nineteenth century, he was one 
of the most remarkable. Although his work in Mongolia 
(1870-91) did not result in a single baptism, his life 
and labours have been an inspiration to very many. 
A reviewer of his book, Among the Mongols, in the 
Spectator has well expressed the difficulties under which 
his work was carried on. He wrote : 

" Mr. Gilmour . . . quitted Peking for Mongolia on an 
impulse to teach Christ to Tartars. He could not ride, he 
did not know Mongolian, he had an objection to carry arms 
and he had no special fitness . . . for the work. Neverthe- 
less he went and stayed years, living on half-frozen prairies 
and deserts under open tents on fat mutton, sheeps' tails 
particularly, tea and boiled millet, eating only once a 
day because Mongols do, and in all things, except lying, 
stealing and prurient talk, making himself a lama. As 
he could not ride, he rode for a month over 600 miles 
of dangerous desert, where the rats undermine the grass, 
and at the end found that the difficulty had disappeared 
1 Tramps in Dark Mongolia, p. 361 f. 


for ever. As he could not talk, he ' boarded out ' with a 
lama, listened and questioned, and questioned and listened, 
till he knew Mongolian as Mongols know it. ... If ever 
on earth there lived a man who kept the law of Christ 
and could give proofs of it, and be absolutely unconscious 
that he was giving them, it is this man whom the Mongols 
he lived among called ' our Gilmour.' He wanted, naturally 
enough, sometimes to meditate away from his hosts, and 
sometimes to take long walks, and sometimes to geologize, 
but he found all these things roused suspicion for why 
should a stranger want to be alone'; might it not be 'to 
steal away the luck of the land ' ? and as a suspected 
missionary is a useless missionary, Mr. Gilmour gave them 
all up, and sat endlessly in tents, among lamas. And he 
says incidentally that his fault is impatience, a dislike to 
be kept waiting." 1 

The work of which Gilmour laid the foundation was 
not eventually to be developed by the L.M.S., as in 1901 
it was handed over to the care of the Irish Presbyterian 
Mission. This Mission has mission stations at Siuminfu 
and Fakumen in Manchuria, from which some work 
amongst Mongols is carried on. The station where 
Gilmour worked during the latter part of his life in 
Mongolia, Ch'aoyang, has now been handed over to a 
mission supported by the " Brethren," who have stations 
in N.E. Chihli which are in touch with Mongols. The 
Scandinavian Alliance Mission has a small agricultural 
mission station at Patsibolong, where 40 or 50 Mongols 
are at work, several of whom have been baptized. There 
is a small Swedish Mongol mission at Hallong Osso, 85 
miles north of Kalgan. The Canadian Pentecostal Move- 
ment has sent six missionaries also to this place. 


It has often been pointed out that much of the ritual 
of the lamas of Tibet, including the use of the cross, the 
mitre, censers, the dalmatica, the cope, etc., is so closely 

1 The Story of the L.M.S., p. 384 f, 

CHINA 217 

similar to that which has long been in use in sections of 
the Catholic Church that it is practically certain that they 
have come from Christian sources. Father Hue conjectured 
that these are to be traced to the influence of Franciscan 
missionaries who were working in China in the fourteenth 
century. It is not inconceivable that some of the Nestorian 
missionaries of a much earlier date may have visited Tibet. 
In 1325 Friar Odoric made a journey from N.W. China 
through Tibet and resided for some time in Lhasa. In 
1661 Fathers Griiber and Dorville, and in 1716 Fathers 
Desideri and Freyre, made missionary tours in Tibet, and 
the latter resided in Lhasa for thirteen years. In 1719 a 
Capuchin Friar named Francisco della Penna, with twelve 
companions, began a mission in Lhasa which was continued 
till 1760. 1 

The Tibetans themselves have a tradition that a white 
lama from the far west visited Tibet long ago and in- 
structed the lamas of Tibet in the doctrines of the West. 
It is, however, more probable that to some of the mission- 
aries referred to above should be ascribed the resemblances 
which can be traced to-day between the Tibetan and 
Christian religious customs. 

No success has been attained in establishing mission 
stations in Tibet despite the many attempts which have 
been made. The Moravians have long had representatives 
at Leh in Kashmir, and have four stations in the Indian 
frontier states. The C. of S. Mission and the Scandinavian 
Alliance have several similar stations on the Indian side. 
On the Chinese side, the Christian and Missionary Alliance 
started work at Taochow in Kansu in 1895, the C.I.M. 
started at Tatsieulu in Szechwan in 1897, and later on the 
Foreign Christian Mission started in the same place. 
From these centres itinerations have been made, and many 
thousands of portions of Scripture have been distributed. 
About twenty Tibetans have been baptized. On the Chinese 
border there are nine missionaries who speak the Tibetan 

1 See With the Tibetans in Tent and Temple, by S. C. Rijnliart, p. 108. 


The R.C. Church has a mission at Tatsienlu at which 
a Bishop and 22 European priests are stationed. The 
baptized Christians, who number 2683, include a few 
Tibetans. The work is supported by the Paris F.M. 

There are also mission stations at Batang, Atuntsu, Tseku 
and Weihsi in the provinces of Szechwan and Yunnan, in 
connection with which efforts are made to reach Tibetans. 



WE have already referred to the influence which 
Christian teaching probably exerted upon the Buddhism 
which was introduced into China from India and from 
which Japanese Buddhism was derived. Professor Lloyd 
of Tokyo believed that there was so much in common 
between the Amida sects of Buddhists and Christians that 
Christian missionaries ought to be encouraged to study 
their writings, in the hope that a sympathetic understanding 
of their teaching might enable them to make an effective 
appeal on behalf of the Christian faith. In considering 
the rapid spread of Christianity at the time of its first 
introduction into Japan, it is well to bear in mind the fact 
that the teachings of the Amida sects had familiarized the 
Japanese with the doctrine of a divine saviour, through 
faith in whose name entrance into paradise could alone 
be obtained. The acceptance of this doctrine may partly 
account for the rapid spread of the Jesuit missions, and is 
likely to affect the future history of Christianity in Japan. 
The first Christian who is reported to have visited 
Japan was a Nestorian physician, whose Japanese name 
was Rimitsu and who was present at the court of the 
Emperor Shomu, 724-748 A.D. His consort, the Empress 
Komyo, bore the title " Light and Illumination," which was 
the official name by which the Christian faith was known 
in China at that time. She is described by Japanese 
writers as a great saint and as one by whom miracles of 
healing were wrought. It is possible to suppose that she 

had become a Christian under the influence of Rimitsu. 



There is no further trace of the existence of Christians 
in Japan till the day (August 15, 1549) when Francis 
Xavier and his two companions, Father Cosmo Torres and 
Brother Juan Fernandez, landed at Kagoshima in the 
province of Satsuma. The mission to Japan was under- 
taken at the suggestion of a Japanese named Anjiro, who 
had been converted to Christianity at Goa and who ac- 
companied the Jesuit missionaries to Japan and acted for 
awhile as their interpreter. When the missionaries left 
Kagoshima a year later they left Anjiro in charge of 150 
baptized Christians. The methods adopted for effecting 
the conversion of the Japanese were similar to those 
adopted by Xavier in India, to which reference has 
already been made. Baptism was administered as a 
general rule before those desirous of receiving it had gained 
any clear appreciation of the meaning of the Christian 
faith. Thus in a letter written by Xavier from Hirado, 
where he stayed for ten days after leaving Kagoshima, we 
read : " The lord of that country received us with much 
affection and kindness. In a few days about a hundred 
persons became Christians, thanks to what was preached 
to them by Brother Juan Fernandez, who already knew 
how to speak passably well, and to the book translated 
into the Japanese language, which we read to them." 

It is interesting to note, in view of the late Professor 
Lloyd's investigations, that some of the Buddhist priests 
belonging to the Shingon sect professed to find a great 
resemblance between the Jesuit teaching in regard to the 
Christian Trinity and their own beliefs. The feeling of 
the Buddhist priests was not, however, reciprocated by 
Xavier, as Father Froez wrote in 1586: " They should 
recognize that the teaching of the Shingon sect, like that 
of the others, was only an invention of devils and a tissue 
of falsehoods." The visit of the missionaries to Kyoto (in 
January 1551) where they had hoped to have obtained an 
audience with the Mikado, proved unsuccessful, and they 
then retired to Yamaguchi, from which Xavier wrote : " In 
two months at least 500 persons have become Christians, and 

JAPAN 221 

the number is daily increasing." After a stay of twenty- 
seven months in Japan, Xavier sailed on November 20, 1551, 
for India, whence he sailed again for China, off the coast of 
which (in the island of Sanchian) he died in November 1552. 

Although his name has been completely overshadowed 
by that of Xavier, to Juan Fernandez is due the chief 
credit for the initial successes of the Jesuit missionaries in 
Japan. " No one," says Dr. Otis Gary, " deserves so much 
as he to be called the founder of the early Japanese Church." 
Fernandez had been a rich silk merchant in Cordova, and 
on joining the Society of Jesus had refused the honour of 
the priesthood and had preferred to labour as a humble 
layman. Xavier never learned to speak Japanese and had 
to rely entirely upon interpreters, whereas Fernandez soon 
learned to speak and preach with fluency. Soon after the 
departure of Xavier, difficulties arose which tended to 
become more and more political. The Portuguese Jesuits 
were followed by Dominicans and Franciscans, who were for 
the most part Spaniards, and the Dutch and other traders, 
who began to increase in number and in influence, enter- 
tained no good feelings towards any of the missionaries. 
If the policy of the missionaries had been to establish a 
Japanese Church which could have been independent of 
foreign ecclesiastics or princes, all might have gone well 
and Japan might long since have been a Christian country, 
but to tell the Japanese that to become Christians was to 
profess allegiance to an Italian Pope, or to connect Chris- 
tianity in any way, however indirectly, with the encourage- 
ment of European trade, was to build a Church upon 
foundations which could not endure. 

The story of the Roman Catholic Church in Japan 
affords an object-lesson on the largest scale of the disastrous 
results which attend the adoption of political methods for 
spreading the Christian faith. Within thirty years of the 
departure of Xavier the number of Christians in Japan is 
said to have risen to GOO^OO, 1 who were mostly to be 

1 In a letter, however, written by Bishop Cerqueira in 1603 he asserts that 
the total number of Christians prior to 1600 \vasbetween 200,000 and 300,000. 


found in Nagasaki and the surrounding districts. Nagasaki 
had become simultaneously a Christian city and the centre 
of the Portuguese trade with Japan. The spread of 
Christianity had been in part due to the assistance of 
Nobunaga, a military dictator in Japan, who did not 
himself become a Christian, but who supported the Chris- 
tians against his personal enemies, who were Buddhists. 
He was killed in battle in 1582. After his death 
Hideyoshi, who became the real ruler of Japan, began to 
show disfavour towards the rapidly increasing Christian 
population, and in 1587 he issued an edict ordering all 
missionaries to leave Japan within twenty days. The edict 
was not strictly enforced, but for the next fourteen years 
the spread of Christianity was checked by intermittent 
persecutions. In 1596 the captain of a Spanish galleon 
which had been wrecked at Urado, in explaining to a 
Japanese official the significance of a map that he pro- 
duced, said: "The kings of Spain begin by sending out 
teachers of our religion, and when these have made 
sufficient progress in gaining the hearts of the people, 
troops are dispatched who unite with the new Christians 
in bringing about the conquest of the desired territory." 
These words were immediately reported to Hideyoshi and 
did much to confirm him in his hostility towards the 
missionaries. His dislike of the Christians was, moreover, 
confirmed by the accusations of perfidy and disloyalty 
which the Franciscans and Jesuits continued to make 
against each other. Early in 1597 he commenced to take 
active measures against the Christians, and on February 5 
there were crucified at Nagasaki 6 Franciscans, 3 Japanese 
who were members of the Jesuit Order, and 17 other 
converts. Early in 1598, 137 Christian churches were 
destroyed and a large proportion of the Jesuit missionaries 
were driven out of the country. Hideyoshi died in 
September 1598. During the civil war which followed 
his death three Christian Daimyos, who were leaders of the 
defeated party, were killed. leyasu, who now became the 
military ruler of Japan, was at first disposed to tolerate 

JAPAN 223 

the Christians, but in 1603 the persecution of them recom- 
menced. It did not, however, become at all severe till 
1613, when three prominent Christians together with 
their wives and families were burned to death at Arima. 
As illustrating the superb courage of Japanese Christian 
children, we may note that one of these who was con- 
demned to be burnt to death as a Christian, when the 
cords that bound him to the stake had burnt away, went 
to his mother, who said to him, " Look up to heaven." 
He died whilst still clinging to his mother. Truly the 
Japanese Christians of to-day have reason to thank God 
for their Christian martyrs. To them no less than to 
their sisters in the West could the words attributed by 
Browning to St. John be literally applied : 

" What little child, 

"What tender woman that had seen no least 
Of all my sights, but barely heard them told, 
Who did not clasp the cross with a light laugh, 
Or wrapt the burning robe round, thanking God ? " 

In 1614, 300 persons, including a large proportion of 
the foreign missionaries, were shipped out of Japan, and for 
the next twenty-four years the Christians were subjected to 
tortures and persecutions which throw into the shade all 
the cruelties practised against Christians under the Eoman 
Empire. On the capture of the castle of Shimabara, where 
the Christians had endeavoured to defend themselves in 
1638, 17,000 Christians were put to death. 

In the following year an Italian Jesuit (Porro) was 
burned alive together with all the inhabitants of the 
village in which he was found. Soon after this all visible 
signs of Christianity disappeared from Japan. As late as 
1666 some Japanese who had escaped to Siam reported 
that in the previous year 370 Christians had been put to 
death in Japan. In 1640, 4 Portuguese envoys, together 
with the 57 other persons who sailed with them in the 
same ship, were beheaded on their arrival in Japan. A 
notice-board which was erected near the spot where the 
heads were exposed bore the inscription : 


" Thus is it that hereafter shall be punished with death 
all those coming to this Empire from Portugal, whether 
they be ambassadors or common sailors, and even though 
it be through mistaking the way or because of a tempest 
that they come : yea, every such person shall perish, even 
though he be the King of Portugal, or Buddha, or a 
Japanese god, or the Christians' God Himself, yea all 
shall die." * 

Five Jesuit priests and three other companions who 
visited Japan in 1642 were put to death with torture, and 
five others who followed them a year later met the same 
fate. 2 

In 1708 Father Sidotti landed in Japan. He was 
imprisoned for seven years and died in 1715. During the 
next century and a half Japan was so closely barred 
against foreigners that few tidings reached the outer world. 
On two or three occasions Japanese who landed in the 
Philippine Islands, or at Macao, described certain Japanese 
families as continuing to preserve Christian traditions ; and 
in 1821, 17 Japanese who had been shipwrecked on the 
Philippine Islands and who were found to possess some 
Christian medals, asked for and received baptism. 

Modern Missions in Japan. 

The resurrection of the Christian Church in Japan dates 
from 1859. In the previous year, as the result of treaties 
made between America, England, France and Japan, 
foreigners were permitted to reside at certain selected 
Japanese ports. In the very year that these treaties were 
signed, 80 Japanese Christians were discovered at Nagasaki, 
10 of whom were tortured to death. The honour of send- 
ing the first missionaries to take advantage of the sign- 
ing of the treaties belongs to America. On May 2, 1859, 

1 For the form of this proclamation see A History of Christianity in 
Japan, by Otis Gary, i. p. 231. 

2 According to Japanese accounts, however, these recanted and became 

JAPAN 225 

before the treaties came into force, the Rev. J. Liggins, of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church, and, a month later, the 
Eev. C. M. Williams (afterwards Bishop of Yedo) arrived 
at Nagasaki. Within a year Dr. Hepburn of the American 
Presbyterian Board, Dr. Verbeck of the Dutch Reformed 
Church of America, and (in 1860) a representative of the 
American Baptists Society were settled at Nagasaki, or at 
other treaty ports. In September 1859, M. Girard, a 
Roman priest, arrived at Yedo, and two months later M. 
Mermet commenced active missionary work at Hakodate. 
During the next five years the Roman missionaries got 
into touch with a number of Christian communities, whose 
numbers were variously estimated at from twenty to fifty 
thousand, which still retained the sacrament of baptism 
and observed in secret Sundays and other Christian festivals. 
Dr. Gary writes : 

" The organization of the communities was nearly the 
same in all the villages. There were usually two leaders. 
When possible the first of these was a man who knew how 
to read and write. He presided at the prayers on Sunday 
and came to the beds of the dying. The second was the 
baptizer. He always had a pupil in training to be his 
successor. The baptizer did not hold office for longer than 
ten years, and the pupil as a rule studied the formula and 
assisted in administering the rite for at least five years 
before succeeding to the office. Sometimes the offices of 
baptizer and prayer-leader were held by the same person. 
The Christians had some books and religious emblems that 
had been handed down from generation to generation. One 
treatise on Contrition had been composed in 1603." : 

The open avowal of their Christian faith soon brought 
persecution upon the Japanese Christians. Between 1867 
and 1870, 4000 who had refused to recant were arrested 
in Nagasaki and its neighbourhood. These were deported 
from their native villages and were placed in different 
provinces, where they were subjected to very harsh treat- 
ment, under which many of them died. By the end of 
1872 these exiles began to be more kindl y treated, and in 

1 A History of Christianity in Japan, i. 286. 


the following year the persecution of Christians fell into 

Dr. H. Nagaoka, who was for a time an attach^ at 
the Japanese Legation in Paris, and who published in 
1905 a book entitled Histoire des relations du Japan avec 
V Europe aux xvi e et xvii e silcles, represents the Japanese 
official standpoint with reference to the Christian missions. 
According to him, the question of encouraging or dis- 
couraging the spread of the Christian faith was from first 
to last a political and not a religious question. The 
missionaries were encouraged at first by rulers of the 
semi-independent provinces of Japan, partly because they 
were regarded as the pioneers of profitable trade and partly 
because their presence in one district seemed to afford the 
ruler of that district moral if not material support in his 
disputes with the rulers of adjacent provinces. The final 
extirpation of the Christians was prompted by the convic- 
tion that by no other means could Japan retain her 
political independence. Whilst then those who suffered 
for their faith have every right to be regarded as martyrs, it 
is not possible to ascribe to their persecutors the religious 
bigotry or intolerance which in many other countries has 
brought about religious persecutions. 1 

The first Japanese unconnected with the Eoman 
Mission to receive baptism was Yano Eiuzan, who had 
for three years acted as language teacher to the Rev. J. H. 
Ballagh of the Reformed Church Mission, and had helped 
Mr. Ballagh to translate the Gospel of St. John into 
Japanese. His baptism took place in November 1864. 

In 1868 the revolution occurred in Japan which 
restored the supreme power to the Emperor and in- 
augurated the modern Japanese system of government. 
Although the change in the form of government was not 
immediately followed by a cessation of persecution, it 
facilitated the residence of foreigners in Japan and in- 
directly paved the way for the spread of Christian missions. 
The first English missionary to commence work in Japan 

1 P. 51. 

JAPAN 227 

was the Rev. George Ensor of the C.M.S., who reached 
Nagasaki in 1869. Up to this time the number of 
baptisms connected with missions other than those of the 
Roman Church had only amounted to nine. Soon after 
Mr. Ensor's arrival, a man named Futagawato feigned to 
be interested in Christianity in order that he might 
assassinate Mr. Ensor. The story of Christ's love, however, 
as he heard it from Mr. Ensor, so affected him that he 
became a Christian, and later on, when imprisoned on 
account of his faith, he preached Christ to the inmates of his 
prison, with the result that seventy of them began to study 
the Bible for themselves. For several years inquirers 
could only dare to visit Mr. Ensor at night, and interviews 
had to take place behind barred doors. 

Of the pioneer Protestant missionaries Dr. G. F. 
Verbeck (see p. 225) deserves special mention. He 
exercised a wide influence, especially amongst the Govern- 
ment officials, and the school which he organized became 
the first Imperial university. He died in 1898. 

The missions that were established in different parts 
of Japan continued to progress, despite considerable 
persecution, until the year 1873, when the attitude of the 
Japanese Government towards Christianity underwent a 
change. On February 19 the Government ordered the 
removal of the notice-boards which contained the prohibi- 
tion of Christianity. At this time some of the recognized 
leaders of Japanese thought began to suggest that the time 
had come for Japan to fall into line with the nations of 
the West by adopting Christianity as its national religion. 
Had their suggestion been adopted the results from the 
Christian standpoint would have been disastrous. This 
danger was happily averted, partly in consequence of the 
vehement opposition of the official representatives of 
Buddhism, and partly because the Christians in Japan were 
not disposed to accept an eclectic form of Christianity and 
other religions which found favour with the advocates of a new 
Japanese national religion. In 1873 the number of foreign 
missionaries in Japan, in addition to those connected with 


the E.G. and Greek missions, had risen to 87, of whom 79 
hailed from America or Canada. The only English societies 
then represented were the C.M.S. and the S.P.G. One of 
the missionaries wrote and his words would have been 
endorsed by nearly all his fellow-workers " the avalanche 
of opportunities that slides down upon us almost stuns us." 
So late as 1886 cases continued to be discovered in 
which the Christian faith had been secretly handed down 
from generation to generation. Thus Dr. Cary writes : 

" There were sections of the country where even fairly 
intelligent men knew nothing of the great changes that were 
coming upon their land. One of these persons, who lived 
among the mountains of Yamato, came on business to the 
town of Shingu in the province of Kii. In the evening he 
lodged at the house of a friend whom he had not seen for 
years. As the two sat talking together, the master of the 
house inquired : ' Have you ever heard anything about 
Christianity ? ' 

" His guest, with a frightened air, lowered his voice and 
said : ' Be cautious. If you talk of such things, you will 
surely be beheaded.' 

" ' What makes you think so ? ' 

" ' Why, are you so ignorant as not to know that Chris- 
tianity is strictly prohibited ? ' 

" ' Can it be,' said the host, ' that you are unaware of the 
great changes that have taken place ? We are now free to 
believe in Christianity. In this city there is a church of 
which I am a member, and it is constantly growing larger 
and larger.' 

" ' I never dreamed of such a thing. I myself am a 
Christian. For ten generations the religion has been handed 
down in our family from father to son. I supposed that 
the laws against it were still in force, and so I have never 
told others of my faith. God be praised if I am now at 
liberty to speak of it ! ' 

" He was instructed by his friend, and a few mouths later 
became a member of the Shingu Church." 

A special characteristic of the work done by Christian 
missionaries in Japan up to about 1888 was the successful 
appeal which it made to men of culture and education. 



In support of this statement we may quote the words of 
Dr. D. C. Greene, written in 1889 : 

" Not less than thirty students of the Imperial 
University are avowed Christians. Among the members of 
a single Congregational church are a judge of the Supreme 
Court of Japan, a professor in the Imperial University, three 
Government secretaries (holding a rank hardly, if any, 
inferior to Mr. Kaneko himself), members of at least two 
noble families ; while in a Presbyterian church are the three 
most prominent members of the Liberal party, one of them 
a count in the new peerage. Two influential members of the 
legislature of the prefecture of Tokyo, one of them the 
editor of the Kcizai Zasshi, the ablest financial journal in 
Japan, are also members of a Congregational church. In 
the prefectures of Kyoto and Ehime, the Christians have 
two representatives in each local legislature. In the pre- 
fecture of Guma the president and vice-president and three 
other members of the legislature are Christians, and in the 
Executive Committee, out of a total of five, three are 
Protestant Christians." 

The following figures illustrate the progress of Christian 
missions in Japan other than those connected with the 
Koman and Greek Churches. The numbers given refer to 
communicants or baptized members of Christian Churches : 








From these figures it will be seen that a period of rapid 
advance extending from 1879 to 1889 was followed by a 
period of retarded growth from 1889 to 1900, and that this 
has again been followed by a period of steady advance. It 
is interesting to note that whereas on the accession of the 
late Emperor in 1868 there were but 4 Christians in 
Japan connected with Anglican or Protestant missions, at 
the time of his death in 1912 their number was over 
83,000. The least satisfactory point in connection with 
the numerical progress of the Christians is the large 
number of persons in Japan who have for a time professed 
to be Christians and have since abandoned their profession. 


The number of self-supporting mission stations in Japan, 
which formed 14 per cent, of the whole number in 1882, 
had increased to 40 per cent, in 1913. 

Greater progress has been made in Japan than in any 
other non-Christian land in the formation of churches 
that are self-governed and are to a large extent indepen- 
dent of help received from foreign missionary societies. 
The total number of Christians in Japan is about 200,000, 
of whom half belong to the Konian and Eussian missions. 
Of the other half, at least three-quarters are members of 
one of the four Japanese Churches which have absorbed 
the converts connected with the various English and 
American missionary societies. These are the Nippon Sei 
Kokwai, the Kumiai Kyokwai, the Nihon Kirisuto Kyokwai 
and the Nippon Methodist Sei Kyokwai. The word Kokwai 
is usually rendered as " Catholic Church " by the members 
of the first Church and the word Kyokwai as " United 
Church," or " General Assembly," by the members of the 
other three Churches. 

The Nippon Sei Kokivai or " Holy Catholic Church of 
Japan," which was formed in 1887, includes all Christians 
connected with the missions of the Anglican Church. Its 
adherents number about 20,000, including 17,500 baptized 
Christians. In 1903, its baptized Christians numbered 
10,500, the increase during the past decade being at the 
rate of 66 per cent. 

The control of the Church is vested in the General 
Synod, which meets once in three years and in which the 
Japanese clergy and laity have a predominant share. The 
appointment of its bishops also rests with the diocesan 
synods. There are at the present time seven dioceses, all 
of which are presided over by European or American 
bishops. The S.P.G. helps to support the Bishops of South 
Tokyo [originally "Japan"] (1883) and Osaka (1896), the 
C.M.S. the Bishops of Kyu-shu (1894) and Hokkaido (1894), 
the American Episcopal Church the dioceses of North Tokyo 
[originally " Yedo "] (1871) and Kyoto (1900), and the 
Anglican Church in Canada the diocese of Mid- Japan (191 2). 

JAPAN 231 

At the end of 1913 the Sei Kokwai contained 7 
bishops, 64 European or American and 94 Japanese clergy, 
and 136 Japanese catechists. 

Kumiai Kyokwai (Congregational United Church), 
which was formed in 1883, includes the Christians con- 
nected with the missions established by the A.B.C.F M. 
Its total membership is about 20,000. In 1903 its 
members numbered 18,000, its rate of increase for the 
decade 1903-13 having been about 11 per cent. 

The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions, which is chiefly supported by Congregationalists, 
began work in 1869. The most famous convert connected 
with this mission was Dr. Neesima, the founder of the 
Doshisha College. In 1905 all the churches which were 
partly supported from America and partly supported by 
Japanese contributions were handed over to the Kumiai 
Kyokwai with a gift of money, which was paid in three 
annual instalments. The groups of Christians who are 
now ministered to by American missionaries connected 
with the A.B.C.F.M. are not integral parts of the Kumiai 
Kyokwai, but the desire of the American missionaries is 
that they should soon become constituent members of this 

The Nikon Kirisuto Kyokwai (i.e. United Church of 
Christ in Japan) was formed in 1877, and includes 
Christians connected with the American Presbyterian 
missions and with the Dutch and German Eeformed 
Churches in U.S.A. It has a total membership of about 
23,000. In 1903 it had 16,500 members; its rate of 
increase therefore during the decade 1903-13 was about 
40 per cent. It supports 146 ordained Japanese 
ministers. At Tokyo the Presbyterians have a well- 
equipped series of educational institutions known as the 
Meiji Gakuin (school of the enlightened rule). 

The Nij)pon Methodist Kyokwai, which was formed 
in 1907, includes the Christians connected with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church (U.S.A.) (North), the Methodist 
Episcopal Church (South), and the Methodist Church of 


Canada. It has a total membership of about 14,000, 
aud has a Japanese Methodist bishop. At Aoyama in 
Tokyo the M.E.C. (North) has a college and school with 
650 students. 

The Baptists number about 4000, and there are 
about 10,000 Christians connected with a large number 
of small societies, amongst which are two Lutheran 
societies from America and Finland and the Scandinavian 
Missionary Alliance, also a Unitarian Mission with 200 
members. The Kumiai Kyokwai has made less rapid 
progress than any other of the Christian Churches in 
Japan, a fact which is probably to be in part explained 
by the spread of Unitarian teachings amongst its members 
during recent years and a consequent slackening of their 
evangelistic zeal. 

The Protestant missions, with very few exceptions, 
have united in a general body called the Federated Missions 
of Japan, through which a large amount of good work has 
been done. The object of the Federation is to avoid 
unnecessary duplication of organization and to arrange 
joint efforts for the evangelization of Japan. One im- 
portant piece of work which the Federation has accom- 
plished is the formation of a Christian Literature Society 
for the production and distribution of Christian literature. 
A Union hymn-book has already obtained a circulation of 
250,000 copies. The Anglican missions have not become 
a corporate part of this Federation, but many of their 
representatives have given it their cordial support. A 
\vriter on missions in Japan says : 

" There is little wonder that the brotherly relationship 
of the different bodies of Christians becomes a source of 
surprise to the Japanese, who are accustomed to the con- 
tentions and quarrels so common between the different 
sects of Buddhists and Shintoists. The cordial relations 
which are maintained between the Christian peoples appear 
in very great contrast and greatly commend the Christian 
faith to the approval of the people." l 

1 Art. by the Rev. Dr. J. D. Bearing, in Missions Overseas, 1914, p. 22. 


Special mention should be made of the work that is 
being doue in many parts of Japan by the Y.M.C.A., which 
has 56 student associations. It arranges lectures for the 
benefit of the 50,000 "college men"; it supports hostels 
for business men in Dairen, Kobe and Nagasaki, and exerts 
a strong influence for good in Tokyo and other towns. 
The Y.W.C.A. is also doing excellent work amongst 
Japanese women. 

Amongst the philanthropic works which have been in- 
augurated by Christian Missions mention should be made 
of the four leper asylums that are supported by Christian 
Missions in Japan, namely, the Fukusei Kogama at 
Shizuoka and the Biwasaki Hospital near Kumamoto be- 
longing to the E.G. missions, the Eesurrection of Hope 
Hospital near Kumamoto connected with an Anglican 
Mission, and one at Tokyo belonging to the Mission to 
Lepers in India and the East. 

Educational Work. From the time that Japan was 
re-opened to Christian missionaries, special stress has been 
laid upon the educational side of mission work. Of the 
missionary colleges which have been established in Japan, 
the Doshisha College has perhaps exerted the widest in- 
fluence. Its founder was Joseph Neesima (or Niishima). 
In 1864, at a time when Japanese were forbidden under 
pain of death to leave their country, he made his way to 
America, where he became a Christian, and ten years later 
returned to Japan with funds wherewith to establish a 
Christian college. The site selected was Kyoto, which 
was the stronghold of Japanese Buddhism. For twenty 
years this college, which was in part supported by the 
American Board of Missions, accomplished a great work in 
training Japanese Christian students. In 1895, however, 
the character of the college underwent a considerable 
change. The Japanese trustees refused to co-operate with 
the American Board, which had been instrumental in 
building the college and encouraged the teaching of a 
Unitarian form of Christianity. After a long-protracted 
dispute the trustees resigned, and the college came again 


under direct Christian influence. Mr. Kataoka, who was 
four times chosen as Speaker of the Lower House of 
Parliament and was a member of the Presbyterian Church, 
became President of the Doshisha in 1902. 

In 1913 its professors and teachers numbered 44, of 
whom 3 2 were Japanese and 1 2 American. There were in 
addition 29 lecturers, most of whom were attached to the 
Kyoto Imperial University. In this year the college was 
raised to university rank. The students number about 700. 

In 1912 the Sei Kokwai and the Anglican mis- 
sionary societies acting together founded a central theo- 
logical college at Ikebukuro, near Tokyo, for the study of 
Christian theology. This college is a union of divinity 
schools which have hitherto been carried on in the different 
dioceses of Japan. It admits graduates from St. Paul's 
College (S.P.G.) in the department of philosophy. 

At the conference of Christian missionaries in Tokyo, 
over which Dr. Mott presided on April 7, 1913, it was 
decided to attempt the formation of a Christian university 
for Japan. 

One of the most serious problems which confront the 
missionary organizations in Japan is how to develop self- 
support in the Japanese Church, and to ensure a supply of 
properly educated clergy and ministers. Bishop Cecil of 
South Tokyo states the problem thus : 

" The conditions of Japan require men of education, and 
these men must have support for a family as well as for 
themselves. Who is to supply it ? Relatively to their 
degree of education the Japanese, especially the official, 
professional and student classes, ... in contrast to the 
business and farmer classes, are impecunious. Our missions 
began generally on the theory that a priest or catechist, put 
down in a station and supported by the mission, would in 
the course of time raise round him a self-supporting con- 
gregation. After a generation this theory is now stultified 
by general experience, and no one seems to have any other. 
The number of places in which a foreign mission can support 
the native pastorate on foreign funds is clearly very limited 
if indeed the whole theory be not vicious. Are we to 



return to the (apparent) New Testament way of a 'tent- 
making ministry,' of ordaining ' in every city ' presbyters 
who are not set apart from earning their own living ? . . . 
If so, how is the situation to be combined with their proper 
educational training ? " 

The experience of the Kumiai Kyokwai and the Nihon 
Kirisuto Kyokwai, to which we have already alluded, does 
not encourage the hope that in the near future the 
difficulty can be surmounted by the withdrawal of foreign 
help and by leaving the Japanese to solve the problem for 

Roman Catholic Missions. 

The following table illustrates the progress of the 
E.G. missions to Japan during the last forty years : 







Christians . 







European priests . 






Japanese priests . 




It will be noticed that during the decade 190010 
the rate of increase was only 10 per cent, (as compared 
with 92 per cent, increase of the Anglican and Protestant 
missions). During the three following years the rate of 
progress has been greater. The converts connected with 
the E.G. missions form about one-third of the Christians 
now in Japan. 

In 1891 Pope Leo xm. re-established the Catholic 
hierarchy in Japan, and constituted the archdiocese of 
Tokyo with three suffragan sees of Nagasaki, Osaka and 
Hakodate under the care of the Missionary Seminary at 
Paris. To these have since been added the prefectures of 
Shikoku and Niigata, under the care of the Dominicans 
and the Missionary Society of Steyl. 


The Jesuit College in Tokyo was recognized by the 
Japanese Government in 1913 as a university. 

The Russian Mission to Japan. 

The Mission of the " Orthodox " Church to Japan is 
one of the most romantic and most successful missions of 
modern times. Its founder, Pere Nicolai, began his work 
at Hakodate in 1861. For several years he served as a 
Consular chaplain whilst studying the Japanese language 
and waiting an opportunity to preach the Christian faith. 

" At last the opening came, and in a most dramatic and 
startling fashion. A certain Japanese knight (Samurai) 
named Sawabe, who had become the keeper of a Shinto 
shrine, and had long observed Nicolai with suspicion and 
horror, burst in upon him as he sat in his quarters and told 
him to prepare for instant death, rightly deserved by the 
professor of a corrupt religion, who, moreover, was bent 
upon handing over Japan to Paissia. Nicolai calmly asked 
him what he knew about Christianity, to which the knight 
replied that he knew it was an evil teaching, and that was 
enough. Whereupon Nicolai asked him to hear him for a 
little while, and then opened his Bible at Genesis and made 
known the doctrine of creation. Sawabe listened im- 
patiently, but soon became interested, put by his drawn 
sword, and asked for instruction. Little by little he learned 
the truth, then brought two friends, and after some months 
they were baptized. Eight long years had passed since 
Nicolai had come to Japan before he gained these first- 
fruits of his vocation. Before he died, early in 1912, 
over 30,000 Japanese looked up to him as their father-in- 
God. He took away the reproach of sterility from the 
Church of Eussia, for his example in Japan kindled a fresh 
zeal for missions in that Church, so that all over Siberia 
little groups of devoted Christians are working for the 
Master and preaching Christ in all that wide empire." x 

A special feature of the work of Pere Nicolai, or 
Archbishop Nicolai as he afterwards became, was his 
reliance upon Japanese workers for the conduct and 
1 Missions Overseas, 1914, pp. 16 f. 

JAPAN 237 

development of his mission. He never had six Europeans 
as members of his staff. During the Kusso-Japanese War 
the Archbishop, who had refused to leave Japan, bade the 
Christians connected with the Eussian mission pray for 
the success of their own countrymen. The mission is 
represented in many different parts of Japan, especially in 
the larger towns. Its cathedral at Tokyo occupies the 
finest site in the city, and its dome and spire can be seen 
for miles round. Before his death the Archbishop had the 
help of Bishop Sergius, who has proved a worthy successor 
to the great founder of the mission. Sawabe, who had 
desired to murder Archbishop Nicolai, was himself ordained 
as a priest and survived his master by a year. 

A new departure has recently been made by this 
mission in view of training boys who may hereafter serve 
as priests in Japan. Several Russian boys are being 
educated in the theological seminary of the mission along 
with Japanese boys. The Eussian boys share the life of 
the Japanese boys in every detail. Those who are respons- 
ible for the control of the policy of the mission believe 
that the effect will be to produce Eussian priests possessed 
of a better insight into Japanese character than any 
which Occidentals have hitherto obtained. The experi- 
ment that is being made is one of extraordinary interest. 

The total number of adherents of the Eussian mission 
is about 33,000 (1914). 


The year 1889 marked the beginning of a period of 
reaction, not only against Christianity but against the 
tendency which had been developed to imitate the customs 
and actions of Western nations. The reaction was due to 
political as well as to religious causes. At the time when 
the edict against Christianity was withdrawn, the Japanese 
were disposed to look with favour upon almost everything 
that reached them from the West, or from America, and the 
suggestion to which we have already referred, was seriously 


mooted that Japan ought to follow the example of Europe 
and America and accept Christianity as its national religion. 
Had it done so it is difficult to say for how long the 
Christiauization of Japan would have been delayed, but 
happily this was not to be. As the influence of Christianity 
continued to spread throughout Japan, those responsible 
for the government of the country realixed that it would 
be difficult, if not impossible, to maintain the traditional 
reverence for the Emperor's divinity if the teaching of 
Christianity were allowed free course. Moreover, in Japan, 
as in many other countries, liberal and socialistic move- 
ments began to develop which threatened the stability of 
the Government and of the imperial regime. 

Shintoism, which is sometimes called the national 
religion of the Japanese, had its origin in the primitive 
nature-worship of the earliest inhabitants of Japan, and an 
early type of it is found still amongst the Ainu in the 
north. It inculcated reverence for deceased ancestors, 
which developed into a reverence, almost amounting to 
worship, for the Mikado and the ancestors of his house. 
The fall of the Shogunate in 1868, and the revolution 
which accompanied it, were followed by a great revival of 
Shintoism as distinguished from Buddhism. The emphasis 
which was laid upon the cardinal doctrine of Shintoism, 
that is upon a belief in the Emperor's divine descent, was a 
chief factor in binding the Japanese nation together and 
preparing the way for their victory in their war with Russia. 
The Japanese realized that reverence for the Emperor's 
divinity was the pivot of the position, and that from a 
political point of view their best hope of maintaining the 
popular reverence for the Emperor was to encourage 
Shintoism as the State religion. Accordingly official 
encouragement was given to its supporters and Christianity 
became correspondingly unpopular. 

For twenty years Shintoism and Buddhism, but 
especially the former, received State patronage, and though 
Christians were never actively persecuted, it was generally 
understood that the acceptance of the Christian faith would 

JAPAN 239 

retard the advancement of any one employed by the State. 
Two causes have been acting within recent years which 
have brought about a change of attitude on the part of 
the Japanese Government. It has come to be recognized 
by the Japanese that whilst Shintoism can suggest noble 
ideals, it cannot supply the motive power necessary to the 
attainment of these ideals, nor can it become a moral force 
which can purify and uplift the life of the nation. For 
many years after the re-introduction of Christianity those 
who were responsible for the government of Japan believed 
that Shintoism, the profession of which involved an acknow- 
ledgment of the Emperor's divinity, provided the best 
means of inculcating patriotism and loyalty. They have, 
however, now come to realize that the belief in the divine 
prerogatives of the Emperor can no longer be maintained 
in its old form, and that Shintoism can no longer serve 
as the national religion of Japan. 

At the same time they have realized that Buddhism 
cannot take its place, and that the only alternative to 
Christianity must be a form of agnosticism, which would 
not help the nation either morally or politically. A step, 
which marked the beginning of an epoch in the history 
of religion in Japan, was taken on January 17, 1912, 
when Mr. Tokonami, Vice-Minister of Education, announced 
to a meeting of press representatives that the Government 
had decided to recognize Christianity as a religion which 
they were prepared to encourage. In his speech, which was 
in fact a formal declaration of the new Government policy, 
he began by saying : 

" In order to bring about an affiliation of the three 
religions it is necessary to connect religion with the State 
more closely, so as to give it additional dignity, and thus 
impress upon the public the necessity of attaching greater 
importance to religious matters. In the early years of the 
Eestoration the nation, too eager to reform all the traditional 
institutions, did not judiciously discriminate between what 
should be destroyed and what should be preserved intact. 
Many Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines were demolished, 


and the national sentiment towards religion was thereby 
greatly impaired. Christianity was then also held in 
abhorrence and distrust. Since the freedom of religious 
faith has been arrested, however, Christian teachers have 
been energetically engaged in the propaganda of their 
religion. Taking these circumstances into consideration, 
it is felt necessary to give religion an additional power and 
dignity. The culture of national ethics can be perfected 
by education combined with religion. At present moral 
doctrines are inculcated by education alone, but it is 
impossible to inculcate firmly, fair and upright ideas in the 
mind of the nation unless the people are brought into 
touch with the fundamental conception known as God, 
Buddha, or Heaven, as taught in religions. It is necessary 
that education and religion should go hand in hand to build 
up the basis of the national ethics, and it is therefore 
desirable that a scheme should be devised to bring education 
and religion into closer relations to enable them to promote 
the national welfare. This necessitates binding the State 
and religion by closer ties." 

He then went on to express the hope that Christianity 
would " step out of the narrow circle within which it is 
confined, and endeavour to conform to the national polity 
and adapt itself to the national sentiments and customs, 
in order to ensure greater achievements." 

One result of this action on the part of the Government 
was that a conference of certain representatives of " the 
three religions" was held (Feb. 25, 1912) which was 
attended by several members of the Japanese Cabinet. 
The resolutions which were subsequently passed began 
with the following statement (the translation into English 
is made by a Japanese) : 

"We acknowledge that the will of the Government 
authorities, which led us to hold the conference of the 
representatives of the three religions, is to respect the 
authority of religion, which each possesses, to promote 
national morality, and to improve public discipline, without 
spoiling our original creeds ; and the statesmen, religionists, 
and educationists, non-interfering with one another, and 
to maintain the honour of the Imperial Household and to 
contribute to the progress of the times." 

JAPAN 241 

The missionary prospect in Japan has been considerably 
modified by this change of attitude towards Christianity 
on the part of the Government of Japan, but whether or 
no Christian missionaries have reason to be thankful for 
the change remains yet to be seen. 

Count Shigenobu Okuma, who was one of the founders 
of New Japan and was Prime Minister in 1898, and 
again in 1914, describes the condition of things in 1909 
thus : 

" Japan at present may be likened to a sea into which 
a hundred currents of Oriental and Occidental thoughts have 
poured in, and not having yet effected a fusion, are raging 
wildly, tossing, warring, and roaring." " The old religions 
and old morals," he writes, " are steadily losing their hold, 
and nothing has yet arisen to take their place." " A portion 
of our people go neither by the old code of ethics and 
etiquette nor by those of modern days, while they are also 
disinclined to conform, to those of foreign countries, and such 
persons convey the impression of neither possessing or being 
governed by any ideas about morality, public or private." l 

We may compare this statement with a later state- 
ment by Count Okuma in 1912 : 

" Although Christianity has enrolled less than 200,000 
believers, yet the indirect influence of Christianity has 
poured into every realm of Japanese life. It has been 
borne to us on all the currents of European civilization ; 
most of all the English language and literature, so sur- 
charged with Christian ideas, has exerted a wide and deep 
influence over Japanese thought. 

" Christianity has affected us not only in such superficial 
ways as the legal observance of Sunday, but also in our 
ideals concerning political institutions, the family, and 
woman's station. Even our lighter literature, such as 
fiction and the newspapers, betrays the influence of Anglo- 
Saxon and German literature and personalities. Not a 
few ideals in Japan which are supposed to have been 
derived from Chinese literature are in reality due to 
European literature." 2 


1 Fifty Years of New Japan, London, vol. ii. p. 568. 

2 See International Review of Missions, vol. i. p. 654. 


In endeavouring to estimate the prospects of 
Christianity in Japan in the near future, it is necessary 
to take into account the low standards in regard to 
purity and truth which the religions of Japan have done 
little to raise. Polygamy in the ordinary sense of the 
term is not found, but prostitution and other forms of 
immorality are sadly common. Moreover, concubinage 
is sanctioned by custom and divorce is easy. In a 
country the language of which is said to contain no 
equivalent for " home," one of the chief tasks con- 
fronting those who would interpret Christianity to its 
people is to place before them the Christian ideal of 
family life. Until the average conception of home-life 
is raised far above the level at which it now stands, the 
opening words of the Lord's Prayer and the fundamental 
doctrines of the Faith which are inherent in them will 
wake but a weak response in the hearts of the Japanese 
nation. In regard to the question of truth, it is hard to 
convince a Japanese that, unless the telling of a lie 
involves cowardice or disrespect to authority, there can 
be anything in it to which objection can be taken. 
Commercial dishonesty is perhaps less common than it 
was, the change being partly due to the fact that within 
recent years the higher and better educated classes of 
society have taken part in commerce. The greatest of 
all the obstacles to the spread of the Christian faith is 
a widespread belief that the Japanese people have a divine 
descent and a divine mission which differentiate them from 
all other nations and races. To accept a religion which 
comes to Japan from Europe or America appears to many 
Japanese equivalent to the abandonment of this claim. 
Moreover, to suggest that their Emperor should kneel 
(albeit in the company of the Kings and Emperors of 
Europe) and acknowledge himself a " miserable sinner," 
is to suggest what to the average Japanese appears 
nothing short of blasphemy. Dr. Gary, in referring to 
the article published by Professor Iiioue Tetsujiro of the 
Imperial University in 1893, says: 

JAPAN 243 

" By quotations from Christ's words and by references to 
European history, he endeavoured to show that Christianity 
is destructive of patriotism. He closed by asserting that 
as Christ Himself had said, ' Every kingdom divided against 
itself is brought to desolation,' therefore the reception of 
Christianity would involve national destruction." x 

A leading monthly periodical published in Japan in 
1907, after referring to the progress of Christian missions 
in Japan, went on to remark : 

" Supposing that these movements should be successful, 
our Empire will be changed into a Christian country, our 
unique history extending over a period of 2500 years will 
be trampled on, and the spirit of Japan will be destroyed. 
Not only is the Christian spirit not sufficient to lead the 
new generation, but it will make the people weak and 
hypocritical, and destroy their character." 2 

There is probably no country in the world at the 
present time in which so large a proportion of the educated 
section of the population would call themselves " agnostics " 
as is the case in Japan. 

According to a recent analysis of the religious beliefs 
of the students attending the Imperial University in Tokyo, 
3000 were agnostics, 1500 atheists, 450 Shintoists or 
Buddhists and 60 Christians. We may compare with 
this statement the fact that out of the 315,000,000 
people in India enumerated in the last census, only 
50 declared themselves as agnostics, and one as an atheist. 
Of the former apparently 45 were Chinese. 

The Japanese have not the religious instinct developed 
to anything like the same extent as it is developed 
amongst the majority of the peoples of India. European 
civilization and culture burst suddenly upon Japan, 
with the result that those who began to absorb Western 
literature and Western science rapidly lost faith in the 
religious sanctions which had exerted an influence upon 

1 A History of Christianity in Japan, vol. ii. p. 243. 
3 Reproduced in Japan Evangelist, June 1907. 


them in the past, and before they had had time to make 
any intelligent study of the Christian faith. 

We believe that Christianity will one day be the 
religion of Japan, but the Japanese Christianity of the 
future may be of a less emotional, and perhaps less 
devotional, and less dogmatic character than the Chris- 
tianity of many other countries. 

The Bible in Japan. In the sixteenth century the 
Jesuits translated the Decalogue, the Lord's Prayer and 
other extracts from the Bible which occurred in their 
liturgical services. They are also said to have printed a 
translation of the New Testament at Miyako (Kyoto) 
before 1613, but no copy of this translation appears to 
have survived. In 1831 three survivors of a Japanese 
junk which had been driven by a storm across the Pacific 
made their way across Canada to London, and eventually 
assisted the well-known missionary Gutzlaff, of the Nether- 
lands Missionary Society, who was stationed at Macao, to 
translate into Japanese the Gospel and Epistles of St. John. 
These were printed at Singapore in 1837. The earliest 
complete version of the New Testament was begun by 
Goble, an American Baptist missionary, in 1871, and was 
completed in 1879. In 1887 a complete edition of the 
Bible was issued, in the translation of which representatives 
of the principal missionary societies working in Japan had 
taken part. In 1895-97 the four Gospels and in 1911 
the whole of the N.T. were translated from the Vulgate by 
Ptoman Catholic missionaries, and in 1900 a version of the 
N.T. translated by Bishop Nicolai of the Greek Orthodox 
Church was issued. The following story illustrates the 
influence which a study of the New Testament exerted 
upon some of the Japanese who first saw it. In 1855, 
whilst a British fleet lay at anchor in Nagasaki Bay, 
Wakasa Murata, who was in command of the Japanese 
forces which had received orders to prevent any one from 
the British fleet landing on the shores of Japan, picked up 
a Dutch New Testament which was floating in the water 
and had apparently been dropped by one of the Dutch 

JAPAN 245 

merchantmen which were permitted to trade at Nagasaki. 
The officer's interpreter, who was a Dutchman, explained 
that this was the Holy Book of the Christians. The curi- 
osity of Wakasa was aroused, and having learned that a 
copy of the book could be obtained in classical Chinese, he 
had a copy sent to him from Shanghai. A study of the 
book resulted, after eight years, in the baptism of himself, 
his brother and several other members of his family. 

Notwithstanding the large number of missionary 
societies which are now represented in Japan, and the 
existence of four self-governed Japanese Churches, Christian 
missions have hardly yet touched more than the fringe of 
the country. At the Missionary Conference over which 
Dr. Mott presided in Japan in 1913, it was stated that 
whilst 80 per cent, of the Japanese people live in villages, 
96 per cent, of the village inhabitants of Japan are as 
yet unreached by Christian missions, or if we take the 
town and country population together, 80 per cent, of the 
entire population of Japan are out of reach of Christian 


Formosa, which is about half the size of Scotland, has 
a population of over 3,000,000. The mountains are in- 
habited by savages, the lower hills by civilized aborigines, 
and the level plains by Chinese interspersed with Japanese. 
From 1624 to 1662 the Dutch were in possession of 
the island, and idolatry was treated as a criminal offence 
(see p. 47). 

Despite the superficial character of the missionary 
work done by the Dutch in Formosa, some knowledge of 
the Christian faith lingered on for nearly a century. 
Long after the Chinese had driven the Dutch from the 
island (1683) the Jesuit, de Mailla, who was working as 
surveyor for the Imperial Government in 1715, found 
indications of the Dutch Mission, and even of the Dutch 
language. Many natives, abhorring idols, professed belief 
in one God, Father, Son and Holy Spirit ; knew the story 


of Adam and Eve's fall ; believed that baptism effaced the 
" stain " of that fall ; knew the baptismal formula ; were 
reported by the heathen Chinese to have the custom of 
pouring cold water on new-born infants. " Nevertheless," 
de Mailla continues, " we were unable to know certainly if 
they were baptized or not. ... It seemed that they have 
no idea of the rewards or punishments of the other life, so 
it is probable they do not take great care to baptize their 
children. We tried, as far as we could, to teach them the 
most necessary truths of our holy religion . . . and above 
all to baptize their children as soon as they were born, 
in case there might be some hope of instructing them when 
they were capable of receiving it. What grief for us to 
see ourselves in the midst of so fair a harvest, which would 
become very abundant if it had apostolic labourers to 
cultivate it, and yet to be obliged to abandon it without 
hope of help ! " 

When Formosa became part of the Chinese Empire 
in 1683, Christianity, or rather the nominal profession of 
Christianity, began to die out. In 1865 the English 
Presbyterian Church began missionary work, having been 
preceded by a few years by a E.C. mission. In 1872 the 
Canadian Presbyterian Church started a mission in North 
Formosa. The cession of the island to Japan in 1905 
has been followed by its opening up to Western civilization 
and has facilitated the extension of missionary enterprise. 

In 1912 a union was effected between the Canadian 
and English Presbyterian missions. The united synod 
represents a Christian community of over 30,000. 

The Japanese Church in Japan in connection with 
the Anglican missions started work among the Japanese 
residents in Formosa in 1897 at the suggestion of the 
Japanese authorities. 


THE story of Christian missions in Corea is full of romance 
and of inspiration. In no other country has the persecution 
of Christians been so intense, and in no other has Chris- 
tianity within recent years made such rapid advance. The 
country is one of which little has been known in Europe 
until comparatively lately. 

Many who are familiar only with its chequered history 
during recent years are ignorant of its great and, in 
some respects, glorious past. The Coreans can boast of 
having been the first people to print from metal type, of 
having invented an alphabet to take the place of the 
Chinese ideographs, and of having constructed the first 
ironclad ship. This last was used by them in their efforts 
to repel the Japanese invasion in the sixteenth century. 
At this period, when Corea was starting on her downward 
career, " she had made great advances in civilization and 
prosperity. Polite learning, as typified in the knowledge 
of the Chinese classics, was universal among the higher 
classes, while among the lower many of her artisans had 
attained a high degree of technical and artistic skill . . . her 
people, homogeneous, industrious, intelligent, and tranquil, 
lived in physical comfort and security." 1 The Japanese 
invasion of the country resulted in a determination on the 
part of its rulers rigidly to exclude from Corea all foreigners. 
By murdering almost every stranger who was shipwrecked 
on their coasts or who attempted to enter from the north, 
they succeeded in shutting themselves off from the outside 
world for three centuries and a half. 

1 The Story of Corea, by S. H. Longford, 1911. 


Before we describe the introduction of Christianity 
into Corea a few words must be said in regard to its earlier 

The Religion of Corea. Corea is a less religious country 
than either China or Japan. The people for the most part 
profess to be Confucianists and practise ancestral worship. 
Buddhism has even less influence than it has in China, 
The real religion of the people is a form of Shamanism, 
which peoples the world with spirits and demons who are 
believed to require constant propitiatory offerings. 

Hideyoshi, the Japanese commander who invaded 
Corea at the end of the sixteenth century, took back to 
Japan a number of Coreans, some of whom embraced the 
Christian faith and died as martyrs in Japan. In 1784 a 
son of a Corean ambassador to Peking was baptized by the 
Franciscan Mission in Peking. On his return to Corea he 
began to preach and to baptize, but persecution almost 
immediately broke out and the first convert was induced 
to renounce his new faith. Many, however, of those whom 
he had helped to convert were tortured to death rather 
than recant, and, despite increasing persecution, the 
number of Christians continued to grow. These elected 
from amongst themselves a bishop and priests, who ad- 
ministered the Christian sacraments, and after the lapse 
of two or three years they opened communication with the 
Eoman missionaries in Peking and asked to have a priest 
sent to them. The first sent was a Chinese named Tsiou, 
who lived in disguise for seven years, till 1801, when he 
was put to death by the authorities. 

In this year a systematic attempt was made to 
exterminate the Christians, who then numbered nearly 
10,000. Many thousands were put to death, including 
all their leaders, their books were destroyed or buried, 
and the survivors were scattered among the heathen 
without having opportunities for common worship or even 
for communication with each other. Although some 
recanted, the vast majority were content to suffer every 
form of torture or death rather than abjure their faith. It 

COREA 249 

is doubtful whether any Christians in the old Roman 
Empire suffered as did the Corean Christians during the 
first seventy years of the nineteenth century. Renewed 
efforts were made to exterminate the Christians in 1815, 
1819 and 1827. 

In 1832, Bishop Bruguiere, who had worked in Siam, 
was sent to Corea by the Society of Foreign Missions at 
Paris. After a journey which occupied three years he 
died just as he was reaching the borders of Corea. His 
place was taken by Maubant, who had previously been a 
missionary in Tartary, who reached Seoul in safety. In 
1837, Bishop Imbert also succeeded in reaching Seoul. 
At the close of 1838 the number of Christians was 
reckoned at 6000. In the following year another cruel 
persecution occurred. Many of the victims belonged to 
the upper classes in Corea, who sacrificed everything and 
shared with the common people the death from which 
their rank should legally have exempted them. Amongst 
the martyrs were the Bishop and the two European priests 
at Seoul, who were cruelly tortured before being killed. 
In 1845, Bishop Ferreol and a priest named Daveluy, 
both of French nationality, succeeded in crossing in a small 
boat from Shanghai to Corea, and were joined five years 
later by another priest named Maistre. 

Ferreol died in 1850 and Maistre in 1857, but the 
number of their successors began to increase rapidly. By 
1859 the number of Christians was reckoned at 16,700. 
In 1865 the anti-Christian party in the State persuaded 
the Regent to sanction the extermination of the Christians, 
and the Bishop and seven European missionaries were put 
to death with cruel tortures. In the course of a few 
weeks Christianity was well-nigh exterminated. A French 
fleet made an abortive attempt to obtain redress for the 
murder of the French missionaries. Between 1866 and 
1870 more than 8000 Coreans suffered death as Chris- 
tian martyrs, apart from the large number of those who 
perished of cold and hunger on the barren mountains to 
which they fled. 


In 1876 a few Coreau ports were opened to Japanese 
trade, but it was not till 1882 that, by a treaty made with 
the U.S.A., the country was practically opened to foreigners. 
Missionary work was commenced by American Presbyterians 
and by the American Episcopal Methodists in 1884. An 
Anglican Mission, with Bishop Corfe as its leader, started 
work in 1890. At this time the number of converts un- 
connected with the Roman missions did not exceed 100. 
During the following ten years they multiplied by 10. 

Protestant missionary pioneers. In 1832 Gutzlaff (see 
p. 244) landed and spent a month in Basil's Bay selling 
Chinese Bibles and other books. In 1866, Mr. Thomas 
of the L.M.S. sailed for Corea in an American schooner, 
but he and all the other members of the crew were 
apparently murdered by the Coreans. In 1877 the 
Rev. J. Ross of Moukden (of the U.F.C. of S. Mission) 
published an English-Corean primer, and he and Mr. 
M'Intyre translated the whole of the New Testament into 
Corean, their translation being published by the Presbyterian 
Press at Shanghai. The conversion of several Coreans is 
known to have resulted from this work. 

So rapidly did Christianity spread that when the 
annexation of the country was proclaimed by Japan in 
1910 there were in all 453 missionaries, of whom 50 
were French, 90 British and 306 hailed from America. 
Although the honour of having started the Christian 
Church in Corea and of ministering to it during nearly 
a century of continuous persecution belongs to the Roman 
missions, these do not at the present time minister to 
half the Christian population, and the proportion of 
R.C. converts is rapidly decreasing. As we take note of 
the rapid change which has come over this ancient land, we 
cannot but ask with anxiety whether the depth and 
stability of the work are in any degree proportionate to 
its speed. On the whole the answer to our question is 
less unsatisfactory than we might have feared. It is true 
that some of the missionaries, especially those who come 
from America, are prepared to baptize converts after a 

CORE A 251 

preparation which appears to be dangerously short, but 
even in these missions baptism has, as a general rule, 
been preceded by the confession of sins and by efforts to 
make restitution to those who have been wronged, which 
have afforded proof of the sincerity of the converts. 

General Statistics. In 1913 the number of baptized 
Christians connected with the Anglican and Protestant 
missions numbered 75,000 and the number of Christian 
adherents 185,000. Connected with these missions there 
were 10,000 churches and schools containing 13,250 boys 
and 5800 girls, 20 hospitals and 23 dispensaries. The 
American and European missionaries (including wives) 
number about 330. Of these 164 are connected with 
Presbyterian missions, 95 with Methodist, 32 with Anglican, 
16 with the Salvation Army and 24 with other societies. 

The number of Christians connected with E.G. missions 
in 1913 was 80,657. These were ministered to by 58 
European and 17 Corean priests. 

The statement made by Dr. A. M. Sharrocks with 
reference to the progress of the American Presbyterian 
Missions (North) in Corea applies with little modification 
to the other missions. He writes : 

" Those who have been following the missionary enter- 
prise in Corea will have noticed that the phenomenal 
growth took its start about the year 1904, the year of the 
Eusso- Japanese War. ... In the years 1904 and 1905 a new 
life seemed to take hold of the Church. The growth in 1906, 
1907 and 1908 became phenomenal. The 30,000 in 1905 
suddenly increased to nearly 110,000 in 1911. It seemed 
as though the whole nation were on the eve of bolting into 
the Kingdom. ... In the midst of this rapid growth, that 
is in the years 1906 and 1907, there broke out in the 
Church one of the most remarkable revivals that ever swept 
a mission field. The distinctive feature of the revival was 
that it was among the professing Christians rather than the 
non-converted. During the period of rapid growth . . . 
the year 1907 stands out conspicuously as the only one 
that shows a falling off in the increasing number of the 
baptisms. . . . The casual reader of mission reports will 
pronounce the years 1910-12 as years of decline. In some 


respects they were. The total adherentage (sic), which had 
been going up by leaps and bounds, not only failed to 
increase, but actually shrunk about 10 per cent, on its 
former number. . . . But the year 1912, when so many of 
the pastors and Church officers were in Seoul on trial in the 
' Conspiracy case,' turns out to be the banner year in the 
number of baptisms administered. ... In 1909 the total 
adherents numbered about 95,000 and the communicants 
25,000. At present (1914) they are 92,600 and 43,000 
respectively. . . . There have been far more baptisms 
administered in the last two years than in any previous 
two, and more than the total of any seven years prior to 

Eeferring to the training to which a convert is 
subjected prior to baptism, Dr. Sharrocks writes : 

" Our methods recognize three classifications of 
Christians ; new believers, catechumens and communicants. 
Any one who attends services and wishes his name recorded, 
is enrolled as a new believer. If he remains faithful and at 
the end of six months passes a satisfactory examination, he 
is received as a catechumen. He is then held on probation 
for one year, after which time he is again examined to 
ascertain the progress made, and if his examination and 
past conduct are satisfactory he is baptized and becomes a 
communicant. The sum of these three grades constitute 
what we call the total adherentage." l 

A similar period of probation is arranged by the other 
missions. In the case of the Anglican mission, the period 
is not less than three years. 

The Presbyterian Mission (American Church, North) 
began its work in 1884, when Dr. H. N. Allen (afterwards 
U.S.A. Minister to Corea) was put in charge of a Govern- 
ment hospital. 2 His medical work paved the way for direct 
evangelistic efforts, which were begun by the Eev. H. G. 
Underwood in the following year. Since then the work 
has spread rapidly throughout the central portion of the 
peninsula, from Kang-kei in the north to Fusan in the 
south. Sessions, Presbyteries and a General Assembly 

1 The Christian Movement in Japan, 1914, p. 378 f. 
3 See p. 31. 

CORE A 253 

have been established, and 43,000 members have been 
baptized. The doctrine of self-support has been so success- 
fully taught that during the year ending June 30, 1913, 
the Christians contributed 15,240 towards the support 
of this Church. A theological college, attended by 200 
students, has been established at Pyongyang, from which 
101 pastors have already been ordained. The total num- 
ber of Corean pastors is 219, all of whom are supported 
by the Corean congregations. 

At Phyong An, said to be " the most wicked city in 
Corea, the Presbyterian Church has a regular Sunday 
congregation of over 1500 converts, and its mid-week 
prayer meeting has an average attendance of 1100." 

The Severance Hospital at Seoul is supported by 
several missionary societies; see p. 30. 

In 1892 the Presbyterian Church, South (U.S.A.), com- 
menced missionary work in the southern part of Corea. 
In 1907 a united "Corean Presbyterian Church" was 
constituted, and at the same time 7 Coreans were ordained, 
being the first ordained ministers of the Presbyterian 
Corean Church. 

The Australian Presbyterian and the Canadian Presby- 
terian Churches have also missionaries in Corea ; the former 
began work in 1889 in the south Kyengsang province, 
the stations of the latter are in North-East Corea and in 

The Methodist Episcopal Mission (U.S.A.). The first 
Protestant missionary to enter Corea was the Eev. E. S. 
Maclay, who landed in Chemulpo on June 23, 1884. 
As a result of his favourable report two missionaries were 
appointed before the close of the year, and reached Corea 
in April 1885. This mission supports a hospital for 
women and two dispensaries in Seoul, and has more than 
100 churches in the district, which includes Seoul and 
Chemulpo. It has also a considerable amount of work in 
the district of Pyongyang. The mission has a joint- 
college with the Presbyterians in Pyongyang. It has made 
work among women a special feature of its programme. 


In 1895 the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, estab- 
lished a mission. It has stations at Seoul, Song Do and 
Won San. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church, North and South, 
have combined to form one Methodist Episcopal Church 
in Corea. 

Anglican Missions. Dr. Corfe, who had been a chaplain 
in the Navy, was consecrated as a Bishop for Corea on 
All Saints' Day, 1889, and with a small staff of clergy 
settled at Seoul. At the end of seven years, which were 
largely occupied in learning the languages required for 
missionary work in Corea, the first convert was baptized. 
This convert was ordained in 1914 as the first Corean 
deacon in connection with the Anglican Church. The 
missionary who prepared him for baptism is now the 
Bishop in Corea. The centres of the Anglican Mission 
are at Seoul, Chemulpo, Kanghwa, Suwon and Chinchun. 
It also supports work amongst the Japanese at Fusan and 
Chemulpo, and a mission hospital at Chemulpo, and takes 
its share in the work of the Severance Hospital at Seoul. 
The Anglican Mission is supported by the S.P.G. 

A small " Orthodox " Mission has been opened under the 
auspices of the Kussian Archimandrite, who resides on 
premises adjoining the Russian Consulate. There are in 
addition several other smaller Protestant missions. 

At the Continuation Committee held at Seoul in 
March 1913, four Presbyterian and two Methodist 
missions reported 11,700 baptisms as having taken place 
during the previous year. These four Presbyterian 
missions have had a united General Council since 1905. 

The Y.M.C.A. works in close touch with the various 
missionary societies. Bishop Turner (of the Anglican 
Mission) was president of its Board of Directors until his 
death, and his successor is a member of its Board. Prince 
Ito took part in laying the foundation-stone of its new 
buildings in Seoul in 1907. 

Medical Missions. The Presbyterian, Anglican and 
Methodist Missions have each of them several mission 

COREA 255 

hospitals, which have done much to further the spread of 
the Christian faith. The Severance Hospital in Seoul 
(which was founded by Mr. L. H. Severance) in connection 
with the Presbyterian Mission, North, has a medical train- 
ing college attached to it. The following missions con- 
tribute one or more workers to the teaching staff of the 
college : American Presbyterian Missions, N. and S., 
American Methodist Missions, N. and S., Australian 
Presbyterian Mission and the S.P.G. Over 30 qualified 
doctors have already been trained in this college, and the 
supply is likely to increase during the coming years. 

The students, who must be Christians well recom- 
mended by their clergy or pastors, take part in Sunday- 
school teaching and other work connected with the 
churches to which they are attached. 



The Malay Peninsula. 

IN 1813 the Rev. E. Milne, who was sent out by the 
L.M.S. to join Morrison in China, was refused permission 
to land at Macao and eventually settled at Malacca, where 
he established an Anglo-Chinese college for the training of 
Chinese and of European students of the Chinese language. 
Before his death in 1822 Dr. Milne had helped to train 
several European missionaries and had established schools 
for Malays and Chinese, besides accomplishing a large 
amount of translational work and printing. Attempts 
were also made to start missionary work at Singapore and 

The Straits Settlements are situated on the west and 
south coasts of the Malay Peninsula, and consist of the 
islands of Singapore, Penang, and Pankor, with the districts 
of Malacca, Province Wellesley, and the Bindings on the 
mainland. Besides these there are the protected states of 
Perak, Selangor, and Negri Sembilan. The total population 
of this area is about 52,000, 000, of whom about 8000 are 
Europeans. The Straits Settlements were included in the 
Anglican diocese of Calcutta till 1869, when they became 
part of the diocese of Labuan and Sarawak. In 1909 they 
became the diocese of Singapore. On the coast there are 
a large number of Chinese and Tamil immigrants. 

An Anglican mission was established by a local com- 
mittee in 1857 and was transferred to the S.P.G. in 1861. 
The Rev. W. H. Gomes, a Singalese who had been trained 

at Bishop's College, Calcutta, laboured for over fifty years 



as a missionary, first in Borneo and after 1872 in Singa- 
pore. He translated the Prayer Book and several other 
books into Malay and the colloquial Chinese spoken in 
Singapore. The S.P.G. started or supported work in 
Malacca (I860), Penang (1880), Province Wellesley 
(1879), Perak (1884), and Selangor (1887). Towards the 
support of the " missionary chaplain," whom the S.P.G. 
appointed for the Province Wellesley, a Presbyterian Com- 
mittee formed in Penang contributed 200 per annum 
from 1879 to 1890. 

In these missions, which are still in their infancy, 
missionary work has been carried on and schools established 
amongst the Malays, Chinese, and Tamils, \vith the assist- 
ance of Chinese and Tamil missionaries or catechists. 
There are about 8000 European and 1200 Asiatic 
members of the Anglican communion in the diocese of 

Work is also being carried on by the English 
Presbyterians and by the A.M.E. mission. The Methodist 
Anglo-Chinese school at Singapore has over 1000 pupils, 
amongst whom a number of conversions to Christianity 
have occurred. 

The English Presbyterian mission which is represented 
in Singapore carries on most of its work in China and 
Formosa. Its work in Singapore is among the Chinese 
immigrants, many of whom have become Christians in 
connection with this mission. 

The E.G. missions in the Malay Straits are in the 
diocese of Malacca, which contains 35,000 E.G. Christians, 
including Europeans. In Singapore there are churches for 
Europeans, Eurasians, Chinese, and Tamils, also a large 
Brothers' school with a staff of British and American 

In Malacca the Portuguese Church is over 300 years 
old, but the descendants of those who originally worshipped 
in it are Christians only in name. 

Siam. The population of Siam (6,686,000) contains 
a large intermixture of Chinese, Burmese, and immigrants 


from the Malay States. The Siamese, or Thai, who are 
the dominant race, number about 2,000,000, and have 
been Buddhists for many centuries. Closely related to the 
Siamese are the Laos, who occupy the tributary states in 
the north of the country. The Laos-speaking Thai number 
about 10,000,000, about 2,000,000 of whom live within 
the kingdom of Siam. The remainder live in Burma, 
French Indo- China, and Yunnan. A large proportion of 
them are not Buddhists. The Chinese population in Siam 
number nearly 2,000,000. 

There was apparently a Nestorian bishopric in Siam in 
early times (see p. 165), but of the Christianity which it 
represented no trace remains. 

The K.C. Church has Apostolic Vicariates of Siam 
(1662) and of Laos (1899). In the former there are 45 
priests and 23,000 Christians; in the latter there are 33 
priests and 12,000 Christians. The work is supported 
by the Paris F.M. Society. 

The American Presbyterians, who began missionary 
work in 1840, have two missions, one to the Siamese and 
the other to the Laos-speaking people in the north. In 
Siam they have a station at Bangkok, and at three or four 
other places, their work being chiefly of an educational 
character. They have also some medical missions. Their 
work amongst the Siamese has made very slow progress, 
and in 1909 the number of communicants was under 
1000. The great difficulty which has been experienced 
in finding native evangelists is attributed by their mission- 
aries to the teaching of Buddhism that religion is a 
personal matter and that no one is responsible for the 
religion of his neighbour. The mission to the Laos, 
which was commenced in 1867, has, after a period of 
severe persecution, attained considerable success, and 
what may almost be termed a mass movement towards 
Christianity has begun amongst them. In 1913 more 
than 3000 new converts were obtained. The central 
station of the mission is at Chieug Mai. 

French Indo-CMna, in which many of the Laos live, is 


closed by the French Government to the work of Protest- 
ant missionaries. Two Swiss " Brethren," who are the 
only Protestant workers there, report a great desire on the 
part of the Laos to receive Christian teaching. 

Dutch East Indies, etc. 

We have already referred to the work of the Dutch 
missions in the seventeenth and the first half of the 
eighteenth centuries (see p. 46). At the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, the total number of Christians through- 
out the Dutch East Indies was reduced to about 100,000. 
The great majority of the descendants of the old Christians 
belong to the Gevestigte Gemeenten, which, with the 
European congregations, form the Protestant Church, 
as recognized by the Government in the Dutch East 

The three chief missionary organizations in the Dutch 
archipelago, which includes Sumatra, Java, the North 
Celebes and Dutch Borneo, and a few small islands, are 
(a) The Established Church (Protestantsche Kerk) ; 
(6) the Khenish Mission ; and (c) the Dutch missionary 

(a) The Established Church includes about 300,000 
members, many of whom are the descendants of those who 
became Christians in the seventeenth and eighteenth 

(b) The Khenish Mission works amongst the Bataks 
of Sumatra, in the island of Nias, and in Borneo. It has 
72 principal stations and about 100 missionaries. 

(c) There are five large and three smaller Dutch 
missionary societies at work in the islands which form 
the Dutch East Indies. Of these societies, the Nether- 
lands Missionary Society carries on work in Java, the 
Celebes, and East Sumatra ; the Eeformed Church works 
in Java and Sumba ; the Utrecht Association works in 
Java and Dutch New Guinea. Its staff includes three 
medical missionaries. 


The number of converts from Islam throughout the 
Dutch archipelago, chiefly in Java and Sumatra, is about 
40,000. Most of these are the result of the work of the 
Ehenish Mission. 

Sumatra. Assemani quotes Cosrnas (Indicopleustes), 
who wrote about A.D. 535, as saying: 

" In the island of Taprobana (i.e. Sumatra), towards inner 
India, where the Indian Ocean is, there is a Church of 
Christians where clergy and believers are found. Whether 
(there are Christians) beyond (that is in Southern China) I 
do not know." 1 

There does not appear to exist any later reference to 
this early Christian Church in Sumatra. 

In 1861 the Ehenish Missionary Society, working in 
conjunction with a Dutch society, started work amongst the 
Bataks in the interior of Sumatra. The Batak Christian 
community now numbers 30,000, 14,000 having been 
baptized during 1913. Thirty Bataks have been ordained, 
and work is carried on at 41 centres and 500 out-stations. 
There are 55 European missionaries, and 27,500 Batak 
children are being educated in 500 schools. A training 
school for native evangelists and teachers and a hospital 
have been erected in the valley of Si Lidung, and on the 
shore of Lake Toba there is a leper asylum and a large 
industrial school. The majority of the population of 
Sumatra are Moslems, amongst whom the Ehenish Mission 
has most encouraging work. 

The A.M.E.C. has a missionary in East Sumatra, and 
the Ehenish Mission carries on work in Nias and in other 
islands along the western coast of Sumatra. 

There is a small E.C. mission manned by 5 priests, 
who are Capuchins. 

There are over 7000 Christian converts from Islam, 
but despite the number of conversions to Christianity 
which have taken place, Islam is making rapid progress 

1 Assemani, Bibliotheca Orientalis, iii. 2, 437. There is a copy in tho 
British Museum (see p. 165 n.). 


amongst the pagan population. Islam first appeared 
in Sumatra about A.D. 1200, and in Java about two 
centuries later. Thousands of pilgrims go annually from 
Java and Sumatra to Mecca, and on their return become 
active propagandists of their religion. 

Java contains a population of about 30,000,000. 
The Established Church ministers to the Europeans and 
to about 5000 native Christians. In addition to that 
done by the Dutch societies, missionary work is carried on 
by the German Neukirchen Mission in North Central Java, 
by the Salvation Army in Central Java, and by the A.M.E.C. 
in Batavia. The Neukirchen Mission has 11 principal 

The principal centre of missionary work in the island 
is Modjowaruo. 

The Dutch societies have appointed a joint " missionary 
consul " in Batavia to look after their common interests. 

The Jesuits have a mission in Batavia, connected with 
which there are 58 priests and 34,000 Christians. 

The vast majority of the Javanese are Moslems, but 
these are more approachable here and in Sumatra than in 
any other part of the world. A Moslem university has 
been established in Java, and an edition of the Koran in 
Javanese has been issued. The Hindu dynasty which 
formerly ruled in Java was overthrown by the Moslems in 
the fifteenth century, and the religion which now prevails 
has absorbed many of the tenets of both Hinduism and 


In British North Borneo, the sultanate of Brunei, 
Labuan, and Sarawak, which have a population of about 
550,000, the S.P.G., the A.M.E.C., and the Basel Society 
are at work. 

When James Brooke became Eajah of Sarawak in 1841, 
he appealed to the English universities to undertake 
missionary work, and as a result of his appeal the Borneo 
Church Mission was formed. Its work was taken over by 


the S.P.G. in 1854. The first missionary, who was also a 
doctor (Rev. E. T. McDougall), was consecrated as Bishop 
in 1855. Dr. McDougall, on his arrival in 1848, started 
work amongst the Europeans and Chinese at Kuching, and 
in 1851 the work was extended to the Sea Dyaks at 
Banting. By 1867 the Dyak converts in Sarawak 
numbered 1000. The Sea Dyaks are an uncivilized 
people, a whole community living under a single roof and 
practising cruel and barbarous customs. The acceptance 
of Christianity has effected marvellous changes in their 
habits of life and in many cases in their characters. The 
Anglican mission has always been undermanned, and some 
stations which had been opened have had to be abandoned 
through lack of workers. Nevertheless, much encouraging 
work has been accomplished. The number of baptized 
Christians is about 7000. 

In 1883 a Chinese catechist was sent by the S.P.G. 
from Kuching to North Borneo to work amongst his 
fellow-countrymen, and in 1888 the Rev. W. H. Elton 
opened a mission station at Sandakan as a centre of work 
among Europeans and natives. There is now a congrega- 
tion of 100 Chinese Christians at Sandakan, and in 1890 
a mission to Chinese was opened at Kudat, where there 
were 1000 Christians, of whom 600 were converts of the 
Basel, the Berlin, the Wesleyan, the Baptist, and other 
missions in China. The two Chinese congregations there 
are superintended by a Chinese priest. In 1896 a mission 
station at Kaningan was opened to work amongst the 
Muruts in the centre of North Borneo, but owing to lack 
of workers this work has not been developed. 

The island of Labuan, off the north coast of Borneo, 
was ceded to Great Britain in 1846. Its inhabitants are 
chiefly Malays from Borneo and Chinese. A church was 
opened in 1866, and some missionary work has been 
carried on amongst the Chinese. 

At Jesselton, on the west coast of Borneo, the mis- 
sionary chaplain ministers to the East Indian and Chinese 
Christians as well as to the Europeans. 


Roman Catholic Missions. lu 1687, Father Vcutimiglia 
was commissioned by Pope Innocent XL to preach 
Christianity in Borneo, but no trace of his labours has 
survived. In 1857, Father Cuarteron, who had been 
originally a sea-captain, landed as a missionary in Labuau, 
but he returned to Eome in 1879 and soon afterwards 
died. In 1881 a mission was undertaken by the Society 
for Foreign Missions of Mill Hill, England. The two 
centres of work are at Labuan and Kuching in Sarawak. 
There are 22 priests, 2 lay brothers, 15 sisters, and about 
3000 baptized Christians connected with this mission. 

Dutch Borneo. 

In 1835 the Ehenish Mission began work amongst the 
Dyaks, who were fierce savages and " head-hunters." The 
missionaries succeeded in establishing eight stations on 
the rivers, but in 1859, when the Mohammedan Malays 
rebelled against the Dutch, the Dyaks became involved, 
and all the inland mission stations were destroyed and 
seven of the mission staff were murdered. The work was 
started again in 1866 and is carried on now at nine 
stations, at which the number of Christians, who include 
some immigrant Chinese, is already considerable. 

The A.M.E.C. has two missionaries in Dutch Borneo, 
who are stationed at Pontianak. 

The E.G. Church has a mission manned by Capuchins 
which is served by 16 priests and has 876 Christian 
converts. The chief centres of its work are at Singkawang 
and Sedijiram. 

Celebes. The majority of the inhabitants in this island 
are Mohammedans. Amongst the Alifurs in the north- 
east of the island some remarkable missionary work has 
been accomplished by the Netherlands Missionary Society. 
When Hellendoorn, its first representative, began missionary 
work here in 1826, he found traces of Christianity, the 
results of some earlier mission. The work has developed 
in a marvellous way, and has transformed the conditions 


of life under which the people live. The native Christian 
Church which has been formed includes over 150,000 
Christian Alifurs. Owing to lack of funds the Netherlands 
Missionary Society has had to transfer this, its most suc- 
cessful mission in the Dutch archipelago, to the Dutch 
Colonial State Church, which took the missionaries into its 
service as assistant preachers and now appoints pastors. 
The Netherlands Missionary Society continues to support a 
small part of the work. 

Near to Celebes are the Sangir and Talaut Islands, 
where extensive missionary work has been done. Gossner 
missionaries from Germany, together with some Dutch 
assistants, resuscitated the Christian community which had 
survived from earlier days. The mission, which is now 
managed by a committee connected with a society in 
Batavia, reports 44,000 converts. Their moral condition 
appears to leave much to be desired. 

The Netherlands Missionary Society laboured success- 
fully in the Molucca group, especially in Ceram and Aiiibon. 
On the withdrawal of this society in 1865 the congrega- 
tions became attached to the Netherlands State Church. 
In the islands of Burn and Almaheira, where work is 
carried on by the Utrecht Missionary Union, there are 
about 2000 Christians. In the Lower Sunda Islands there 
are about 50,000 Christians belonging to the Dutch State 
Church. Missionary work is carried on in Sawu by the 
Netherlands Missionary Society and in Sumba by the 
Eeforrned Church, the number of Christians in the two 
islands being about 6000. 

The Philippine Islands number in all about 2500, the 
largest being Luzon and Mindanao. In the former is 
situated the town of Manila. The population, about 
8,000,000, consists of various Malay tribes who have 
driven the early population, the Negritos, into the more 
inaccessible parte of the islands. The non-Christian 
population, which includes many Chinese and Mohammedans, 
numbers about 700,000. Most of the non-Christians are 
to be found in the island of Luzon. 


The islands were discovered by Magellan in 1521. In 
1565 the Spaniards commenced their conquest and forcible 
Christianization, but owing to the good influence exerted by 
the Spanish missionaries, the conquest was effected with- 
out the massacres and depopulation of the country which 
accompanied the Spanish conquests in Mexico and South 

The first Spanish settlers included an Augustinian friar 
named Urdaneta, who formed one of the party of Spaniards. 
The friars soon became a political as well as a religious 
factor in the development of the islands, and in 1768 
Governor Anda addressed to the king a memorial charging 
the friars with " commercialism, neglect of their spiritual 
duties, oppression of the natives, opposition to teaching 
Spanish, and interference with civil officials and affairs." 
The Augustinians were followed by the Franciscans in 
1577, the Jesuits arrived in 1581, the Dominicans in 
1587, and the Recolletos in 1606. The Jesuits became 
the richest of the Orders, and their wealth was in part the 
cause of their expulsion in 1767. They were, however, 
allowed to return in 1852 on the condition that they 
would devote themselves to missions in Mindanao and to 
the higher education of the Filipinos. 

Of the present condition of the E.G. Church in the 
Philippines the American Bishop Brent writes : 

" The parishes are served, except in a few centres, by 
Filipino priests, many of whom I have met, some of them 
being worthy of respect as pastors, though the best are 
incompetent and ignorant according to our mode of reckon- 
ing. . . . But there is another less pleasing (aspect of 
Christian life) to contemplate. No ope but a blind partizan, 
afraid to recognize and face painful facts, seriously denies 
any longer the grave moral laxity that has grown up and 
still lives under the shadow of Church and convento 
(parsonage) in the Philippines. Inch by inch I have been 
forced back by the pressure of facts from the position I 
originally held that there was a minimum rather than a 
maximum of immorality. The cumulative testimony that 
has come to me has been chiefly incidental and unsought, 


containing in it the witness of Eoman Catholics of good 
standing. . . . No doubt the Church has in the past spasmodi- 
cally struggled with this besetting sin of the Filipino. But 
in spite of everything, by degrees its filthy stream trickled 
into the sanctuary, and apathetic acquiescence in a seemingly 
hopeless situation ensued. In my judgment the rift in the 
lute is in the ecclesiastical ordinance, which enforces celibacy 
upon the priesthood under such racial and climatic con- 
ditions as obtain here. . . . Wherever similar climatic and 
racial conditions obtain, we are confronted with a similar 
story of shame Mexico, Central America, South America, 
and the Azores." l 

Since the American occupation, an Independent Filipino 
Church, composed of Catholics who have seceded from 
Eome, has been formed under the leadership of Gregorio 
Aglipay, who is styled Obispo Maximo, or chief bishop 
of the movement. It claims to have about 3,000,000 

In 1898, when the Philippine Islands were annexed by 
the U.S.A., the country was for the first time opened to 
missionary work other than that connected with the K.C. 

In 1901 the Protestant Episcopal Church of America 
organized missionary work in the islands, and Dr. C. H. 
Brent was appointed as the first Anglican Bishop. The 
mission has started work amongst the Chinese in Manila, 
but its chief sphere of work is amongst the Bontoc 
Igorrotes, who number about 70,000 and who are pagans. 
The centre of the work is at Sagada. The confidence of 
many of this tribe has been gained, and there is a 
prospect of a considerable advance in the near future. 

An attempt is also being made to start work amongst 
the Moros, who number 275,000, and who have been 
Mohammedan from a date prior to the Spanish occupation 
of the Philippines. 

Work has also been begun amongst the Bagabos in the 
island of Mindanao. 

In 1901 there also arrived representatives of the 

1 Religious Conditions in the Philippine Islands. Published, 1904. 


American Methodist Episcopal Church, the Baptists, the 
United Brethren, the Congregationalists, and the Disciples 
of Christ. These missions, which work to a large extent 
amongst the R.C. Christians, arranged to start in different 
areas. Of these, the A.M. E.G., which has the largest 
amount of work, has 30 missionaries, about 30,000 
members, and 130 churches or chapels. Its sphere of 
work lies in Luzon, to the north and north-east of Manila. 




WE have not space in which to sketch the gradual spread 
of Christianity in Asia Minor. Dr. Harnack in his 
Expansion of Christianity suggests four categories in 
which the countries within or adjacent to the Eoman 
Empire might be placed in the early decades of the fourth 

" 1. Those in which Christianity numbered nearly one- 
half of the population and represented the most widely 
spread, or even the standard, religion. 2. Those in which 
Christianity formed a very material portion of the popula- 
tion, influencing the leading classes and the general culture 
of the people, and being capable of holding its own with 
other religions. 3. Those in which Christianity was 
sparsely scattered. 4. Those in which the spread of 
Christianity was extremely weak, or where it was hardly 
to be found at all." l 

Under 1 is placed the entire province of what is now 
known as Asia Minor, with the exception of some out-of- 
the-way districts ; also Armenia and the city of Edessa. 
Under 2 : Antioch, Coelo-Syria, and Cyprus. Under 3 : 
Palestine, Phoenicia, Arabia, parts of Mesopotamia, and 
perhaps Western Persia. Under 4 : the towns of ancient 
Philistia, Persia, India, and Scythia. 

By far the larger number of the Christians were 
dwellers in towns, and the strongest centre of the Chris- 

1 Vol. ii. p. 457. 


tian Church at this time was Antioch, where iu A.D. 320, 
of a population of 200,000 half were Christians. 1 The 
only known instance in which a whole district had 
become Christian is Armenia, where at the close of the 
third century Christianity had so far become the religion 
of the country that the King of Armenia proposed to 
make it the State religion. At the beginning of the fourth 
century the Christian population of the world was probably 
about 4,000,000. 

The capture of Damascus by the Arabs in A.D. 634 
was speedily followed by the subjugation of the greater 
part of Asia Minor. The lot of the Christian population, 
which was comparatively a mild one under the early 
Moslem rulers, was much worse when the Ottoman 
Turks became the dominant power in the eleventh century. 
Since then the Armenian and other Christians have been 
subjected to an almost unceasing persecution. We may 
well hope that the present century will see a great change 
in their condition, and will witness the final end of the 
religious persecution which has continued for a thousand 

As a result of the persecutions suffered by the Chris- 
tian population of Syria and Palestine, it is probable that 
at the time of the Crusades the whole Christian popula- 
tion did not exceed half a million in number. Since the 
wars of the Crusades the Christians have made little effort 
to convert their Mohammedan conquerors. 

In 1820 the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions (A.B.C.F.M.) began to send missionaries 
to various parts of the Turkish Empire, their primary 
object being to evangelize Moslems and Jews. In course 
of time the missionaries came to realize that the un- 
satisfactory lives of many of the Christians belonging to 
the Oriental Churches rendered their task of influencing 
Moslems a hopeless one, and they were led by the force 
of circumstances to devote a large portion of their time 
and attention to the education of the Greek and Armenian 

1 See The Missionary Prospect, pp. 61 ff. 


Christians, amongst whom they were living. The Robert 
Noble College, which they established in Constantinople, 
and the schools and colleges at Smyrna, Tarsus, Aintab, 
and other centres, have had a wide-reaching influence upon 
the pupils who have attended them, and who have included 
a considerable number of Moslems. Although the work of 
the A.B.C.F.M. has not resulted in the conversion of any 
appreciable number of Moslems, it has indirectly pre- 
pared the way for the missionary work which will become 
possible under the new political conditions that have lately 
arisen. The pioneers and many of the leaders of this 
mission have disclaimed any wish to proselytize or to form 
a Protestant Church in Turkey, and have as a general rule 
endeavoured to induce those whom they have influenced, 
or who have been educated in their schools, to continue 
as members of their own churches. Thus Dr. S. L. Barton, 
the Secretary of the A.B.C.F.M., writes : 

" The missionaries have never had any other purpose or 
expectation than that the Gregorian, Greek, and Syrian 
Churches, with their noble histories and splendid services, 
should be perpetuated . . . they hope to see the churches 
so reformed from within . . . that they would reach the 
point where they could present to the Moslems with whom 
they were in such close contact the beauty and attractive- 
ness of the religion of Jesus Christ and so win them as His 
followers." l 

In 1870 the Presbyterians of America organized a 
separate mission, and the A.B.C.F.M. left to them the work 
in Syria and in Persia, retaining under their own control 
the missions which had been started in Macedonia, Asia 
Minor, Armenia, Kurdistan, and Northern Syria. 

The chief educational centre in Syria is the Protestant 
College at Bey rout (1865), which, though not under the 
control of the Presbyterian mission, serves as its chief 
educational centre. 

The C.M.S. has stations at Mosul and Bagdad, which 
are worked in connection with its missionary work in Persia. 
1 The East and The West, April 1909. 


RC. missions are carried on in many parts of the 
Turkish Empire, but the efforts of the various Orders by 
which they are conducted are almost entirely devoted to 
winning over other Christians to the Eoman Church, and 
no attempts are made to convert Mohammedans. 

There are several missionary organizations, such as the 
British Syrian Schools and Bible Mission, which carry on 
good work amongst the Christian population of Asia 
Minor and Syria, but their work is not of a definitely 
missionary character. 


The C.M.S. began work in Palestine in 1851. The 
chief centres of its work are at Jerusalem, Nazareth, 
Nablous, Jaffa, Gaza, Haifa, and at Salt on the east of 
the Jordan. At all the stations special efforts are made 
by women missionaries to reach Mohammedan women in 
their homes. The staff includes six medical missionaries. 
In 1841 a bishopric in Jerusalem in connection with the 
Anglican Church was founded. The bishop, by the help of 
his diocesan fund, is endeavouring to develop missionary 
work amongst Mohammedans. 1 

The U.F.C. of Scotland has a Mission at Tiberias. 

Prior to the war the missionaries reported a change of 
attitude in favour of Christianity on the part of many of 
the common people, especially in the districts in which 
medical missions had been stationed. It seems likely that 
after the war the opportunities of the Christian mission- 
aries will be greatly increased. 


Missionary work in Arabia is still in an initial stage, 
and there is urgent need of additional missions and 
missionaries in this long-neglected land. 

In 1885 the Hon. Ion Keith-Falconer, who had been 

1 See art. "The Anglican Bishopric in Jerusalem" in The East and 
The West, October 1914. 


the Eeader in Arabic at Cambridge University, made a 
preliminary visit to Aden, and in 1887 he and his wife 
and Dr. B. S. Cowan settled at Sheikh-Othman, ten miles 
from Aden. Four months later Keith-Falconer died. 
The United Free Church of Scotland has since carried on 
the mission, and is endeavouring to promote medical and 
educational work amongst the Arabs and Somalis. 

In 1891 Bishop French, who had formerly been Bishop 
of Lahore, went to live in Muscat in the hope of getting 
into touch with the Arabs, but after four months' residence 
there he died. He was a great scholar, and was one of the 
greatest missionaries connected with the C.M.S. who had 
worked in India. 

In 1889 an undenominational mission was established 
in America to support work among Mohammedans in 
Arabia. This mission was taken over by the Eeformed 
(Dutch) Church in America in 1894. In addition to its 
work at Muscat and Bahrein (an island in the Persian 
Gulf), it has stations outside the Arabian peninsula at 
Bussorah and Koweyt. Its staff consists of 14 men and 
9 women. Five of its staff are doctors. Dr. S. M. Zwemer, 
who is one of its staff, is a well-known writer and speaker 
on missions to Mohammedans. 

The population of Arabia is reckoned at about 
8,000,000, of whom 6,000,000 are wholly unreached by 
Christian missions. 


By the end of the third century Christian missions had 
made considerable progress in Persia, chiefly as the result 
of efforts made by Syrian and Egyptian missionaries, 
although the Christians suffered grievous persecution under 
Shapur II. Oue of the bishops who attended the Council 
of Nicsea, A.D. 325, signed as John the Persian. After 
the separation between the Christians of the East and 
the West the Persian Church began to display considerable 
missionary activity in the regions which lay farther to the 
East. By 641 the Arabs had overrun the country and 


had enforced the acceptance of Islam. Christianity, 
however, lingered on for a long time. The last of the race 
of Christian kings was killed about 1202 by Genghis Khan, 
who married a daughter of this king, and was induced by 
her to show tolerance towards the Christians. A Nestorian 
patriarch ruled the Church during the reigns of seven 
Mogul kings, but after this Christianity almost disappeared. 
In 1811, Henry Marty n spent ten months in Shiraz and 
translated the New Testament into Persian. In 1829 the 
Eev. C. G. Pfander of the Basel Mission visited Persia, and 
wrote a book entitled Mizan-cl-Hakh (" The Balance of 
Truth "), in which he compared Christianity with Islam, and 
which has had a large circulation both in Persia and in 
other Mohammedan countries. As a result of the visit of 
Dr. Joseph Wolff (a converted Jew) in 1827, the A.B.C.F.M. 
opened a mission in 1834 amongst the Nestorian Chris- 
tians. This mission was transferred in 1871 to the Pres- 
byterian Board, which has also undertaken work amongst 
Kurds and Mohammedans in Northern and Western Persia. 
In 1869 the Kev. K. Bruce visited Ispahan and Julfa, 
and in 1875 the C.M.S. undertook to support and extend 
the work which Mr. Bruce had started. A medical 
missionary was sent out in 1879, and women were added 
to the staff in 1891. Kerman was occupied in 1897, 
Yezd in 1898, and Shiraz in 1900. A large proportion 
of the work centres in the men and women's hospitals 
at Ispahan, Yezd, and Kerman. In 1912 an Anglican 
bishop for Persia was appointed. A considerable and 
slowly increasing number of converts from Islam have been 
obtained, and there is good reason to hope that in the near 
future the work of Christian missions will make much more 
rapid progress than has been possible in the past. 


In Baluchistan, missionary work is represented by a 
single station belonging to the C.M.S. at Quetta. Con- 
nected with the hospital there are two dispensaries in the 


Kalat State. There are also out-stations in Baluchistan 
at Sibi and Chaman. According to the last C.M.S. report, 
" a small mass movement among the same class of people 
as is heing influenced so widely in the Punjab is in progress, 
and a willingness to learn was displayed such as had not 
been previously known." 


The earliest trace of Christianity in what now 
constitutes Afghanistan is the attendance of a bishop of 
Herat at the Council of Seleucia in 424. In the 
thirteenth century there was a Nestorian bishop of Kabul 
who was subject to the Patriarch, whose seat was suc- 
cessively situated at Seleucia, Ctesiphon, Bagdad, and 
Alkosh. The Christians at Kabul and other places in 
Central Asia were exterminated apparently by Tiniur 
(13361405). There were Armenian Christians who 
were expelled from Kabul as lately as 1880, but there 
is no evidence to show that these were descendants of the 
Afghan Christians of an earlier date. 

At the present time no direct missionary work is being 
attempted. On more than one occasion an Afghan who 
has become a Christian in India has attempted to preach 
the Christian faith to his fellow-countrymen, but in each 
case the missionary has been murdered or has disappeared. 
Dr. Pennell, whilst working at Bannu near the border of 
this country, came into touch with many Afghans, and 
through their instrumentality a knowledge of Christian 
teaching has penetrated into several parts of Afghanistan. 

The story of one of the few who have dared to preach the 
Gospel in Afghanistan is worth telling, as it illustrates at 
once the superb courage of an Afghan Christian and the 
difficulties which lie in the way of those who would 
undertake missionary work in that country. " Qazi Abdul 
Karim came of a good Afghan family and was a very 
learned man. He became a Christian at Quetta. In 1907 
he crossed over the frontier with the object of preaching 
the Gospel to his fellow-countrymen, and was seized by 


Afghan soldiers. These brought him before the Governor 
of Kandahar. He was offered rewards and honours if he 
would recant and accept Mohammedanism, and when he 
refused he was cast into prison, loaded with eighty pounds 
of chains. He was examined by the Amir . . . but 
remained firm in his confession of Christianity. Finally 
he was marched off to Kabul. . . . He had to walk loaded 
with chains and with a bit and bridle in his mouth from 
Kandahar to Kabul, while any Mohammedan who met him 
on the way was to smite him on the cheek and pull a hair 
from his beard. After reaching Kabul . . . (according to 
a report which purported to be that of an eye-witness) he 
was set at liberty, and set out alone for India." 

Missions of the Greek Church in Central Asia. 

Since the rise and spread of Islam very little missionary 
work has been accomplished by any of the churches of the 
East, except the Eussian Church, and in view of the 
continuous persecution by the Mohammedan Governments, 
missionary enterprise in Moslem countries has been 
practically impossible. By the Eussian branch of the 
Greek Church, however, a large amount of missionary work 
has been done, though, with two exceptions, this work has 
been done within the Eussian Empire. 1 Eussian missions 
may be said to have begun during the reign of the first 
Czar, John the Terrible (1533-84), who began to 
extend the Eussian Empire towards the East. The 
Mohammedan kingdom of Kazan was conquered in 1552, 
and that of Astrakhan in 1556, and the colonization and 
conversion of these territories went on together. The 
subjugation of Siberia, which was begun in 1580, was 
not completed till 1697. At the present time it has 
a population of about eight and a half millions, half 
a million of whom are still heathen. In Tartary and 
Turkestan the Eussian Church is making progress, although 

1 For an account of the missions of the Russian Church see article by R. 
Eubank in The East and The West, April 1904 ; also Russian Orthodox 
Missions, by E. Smirnoff, published by Rivington. 


the majority of their inhabitants are Mohammedans. 
Special mention should be made of two missionaries of 
recent times, John Veniaminoff and Macarius. Of the 
former, Mr. Smirnoff wrote that he was " the most famous 
missionary of the nineteenth century, and that not only of 
the Eussian Church but of the whole Christian world." 
He started missions in Siberia, then in Kamtchatka, and 
afterwards in several different districts of Eastern Siberia. 
In 1850 he was consecrated as bishop under the name 
of Innocent, and in 1867, after thirty-three years of work, 
in the prosecution of which he had endured almost every 
privation that can fall to the lot of a pioneer missionary, 
he was made metropolitan of Moscow. In 1870 he 
founded the Orthodox Missionary Society to assist in the 
conversion of the non-Christian peoples within the limits 
of Eussia, and in 1879 he died. 

The Empress of Eussia became patron of the Mission 
Society, and the metropolitan of Moscow became president. 
Its work is conducted on the same lines as those of the 
English Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Public 
interest is sustained by sermons and public meetings, and 
grants are made from its funds to various missions in 
accordance with their needs. The archimandrite Macarius 
founded the Altai Mission in Siberia in 1830, and helped 
to organize mission work, which has since been carried on 
with a large amount of success. 

Mention should also be made of the remarkable mission- 
ary work initiated by Nicholay Ivanowitch Ilminsky 
(1822-91) amongst the tribes in Eastern Eussia and in 
Siberia. During the first half of the nineteenth century 
Moslem propaganda had made great progress amongst these 
tribes, but by the labours of Ilminksy, who became Professor 
of Eastern languages at Kazan University, the Bible was 
translated into Tartar, and a most hopeful mission has 
been started amongst tribes who are hovering between 
Christianity and Islam. 1 

1 For a detailed account of this mission see article by Professor Alexev 
Yakovlev in The East and The West, July 1913. 


THE problem with which Christian missions is confronted 
in the continent of Africa differs materially from that 
which is presented in any other large section of the 
mission field. The majority of the inhabitants of this 
continent are more backward, and from a social and 
intellectual point of view less developed than are those of 
any other continent. Whilst it is true to say that many 
of the South Sea Islanders might vie with the worst of the 
West African cannibals in savagery and degradation, the 
campaign which Christian missionaries had there to wage 
was far less complex, consisting as it did of a series of 
isolated battles, whereas the missionary campaign in Africa 
has to be fought on a battle front which reaches for 
thousands of miles. 

If, as we believe, the physical features of the earth 
have been adapted by God with a view to promote the 
welfare of its inhabitants, there is no outstanding feature 
of its configuration for which we have more reason to be 
grateful than the great Sahara Desert. It is not often 
realized how important a part has been played by this 
desert in the evolution of human history. This desert has 
for decades of centuries prevented the establishment of 
free intercourse between the peoples of Europe and of 
Central Africa, and has kept them apart until the time 
should arrive when the white races had learned to recog- 
nize their obligation to bear the black man's burden. 
By the negative influence exerted by its existence it 
has affected the religious, moral, and social development of 
the nations of Europe and indirectly of the whole world. 



Had this desert not existed, the African races of the far 
interior would long ago have had free access to the shores 
of the Mediterranean, arid would have been brought into 
close contact with the stronger and more virile races which 
inhabited its northern shores. The inevitable result would 
have been the enslavement of large numbers of the 
African races, and a mixed coloured population would 
have come into existence, which might have delayed 
the progress of European and of the world's civilization 
for centuries. The desert, by interposing an impassable 
barrier, 1 deprived the races in the Equatorial regions of 
the stimulus which contact with the European races might 
have provided, but at the same time saved Europe from 
being confronted with a race problem immeasurably more 
difficult than that raised by the presence of the negroes in 
the United States. 

From the missionary standpoint we have reason to be 
grateful that the battle between Christianity and paganism 
which has now to be joined is not handicapped by the 
existence on any large scale of the pagan Christianity 
which is to be found in Abyssinia to-day, and which existed 
for a time on the Congo and on the Zambesi. Central 
Africa has had long to wait for the advent of Christian 
missionaries ; but in view of the past history of Christianity 
in Europe, and of the meagre success which attended the 
missions of the Dominicans and Jesuits on the west and 
east coasts in the sixteenth century, it is doubtful whether, 
if free intercourse between Europe and Central Africa had 
been established before the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, the prospects of Christian missions would be any 
brighter than they now are. 

The missionary problem in Africa is complicated by 
the fact that here, to a greater extent than in any other 
continent, Mohammedan missionaries are to be found side 
by side with those who represent the Christian faith. Up 
to the present time Islam has hardly penetrated south 

1 The writer of this volume spent the greater part of a year in a vain 
effort to cross from Tripoli to Lake Chad. 


of the equator, and it rests with the Christian Church to 
say whether in the near future the wave of Mohammedan 
propaganda shall be checked in its southward course, as it 
has been checked in Uganda, or whether the pagan tribes 
in Central Africa near and to the south of the equator are 
to become Moslems. 

From the Christian standpoint the least hopeful 
prospect at the present time is in West Central Africa. 
Here, as will appear iii our references to particular missions, 
partly in consequence of the enervating climate and partly 
owing to the degradation caused by centuries of intercourse 
with European slave-traders and gin-importers, the tribes 
who live on or near the coast are found to be appallingly 
deficient in moral stamina and strength of character. One 
result is that Christian missionaries are heavily handicapped 
when competing with the representatives of Islam, the 
demands made by which are much less exacting than are 
those of Christianity. If the Christian faith is ever to 
become the religion of West Africa and to stay the 
progress of Islam, this result will be achieved not so much 
by the development of the Christian communities which 
are now to be found on the coast, as by the conversion of 
the Hausas and of one or two other races in the interior, 
who possess a strength of character which is not to be 
discovered amongst the peoples in the coastal districts. 
If, as seems by no means impossible, a Christian Church 
can be established in Northern Nigeria in the compara- 
tively near future, it may well be that from the members 
of this Church African missionaries and evangelists will be 
forthcoming who will spread the knowledge of their new 
faith amongst the other weaker races, and will be able, by 
their example and influence, to impart to them the stability 
and strength of character which they now lack. No part 
of the world has been more grievously wronged by Europe 
than has West Africa. To no part of the world, therefore, 
are the Christians of Europe under a greater obligation to 
share with its peoples the blessings which their religion 
can bestow. 


In our survey of Christian missions in Africa we 
shall begin with Egypt, as being the country which was 
probably first influenced by Christian missionaries, and, 
travelling in the first instance westwards, shall proceed 
round the continent. 

Before beginning our survey it may be well to give 
here a rough estimate of the number of Christians 
throughout the continent of Africa. The following figures 
are taken from the Statistical Missionary Atlas, issued in 
connection with the Edinburgh Conference (1910), and 
include all Christian adherents other than Europeans : 

North-West Africa (Tripoli to Morocco) 

West Africa 

South- West Africa (Caineroons to German South 

West Africa) 

South Africa ..... 
South Central Africa .... 
East Africa . 







To the above should be added about 800,000 Coptic 
Christians in Egypt. 

According to the statistics supplied by this atlas, it 
appears that the Christian adherents in Africa increased 
from 576,530 in 1900 to 1,707,741 in 1910, that is 
at the rate of 196 per cent. 


It is probable that Christianity entered Africa by way 
of Egypt. Eusebius * records a tradition that St. Mark 
preached the gospel in Egypt and founded " churches 
first of all at Alexandria itself." This tradition appar- 
ently existed as early as the beginning of the third 
century, but there is no other confirmatory evidence. 
The Christian Church " emerged into daylight " in the 
episcopate of Demetrius, A.D. 183231. It was then 
firmly established and exercised a wide influence. By the 
end of the second century there were a large number of 
1 Hislorica Ecclesiastica, ii. p. 16. 


Christian centres in Egypt and the Thebais. Although in 
early times Egypt apparently had fewer bishops than 
other countries in proportion to the number of its 
Christians, Athanasius is able to state in A.D. 303 that there 
were nearly one hundred bishops in Egypt, the Thebais, 
Libya and Pentapolis. The last thirty years of the third 
century witnessed the development and spread of monasti- 
cisni for which Egypt afterwards became famous. 

One reason why the Church in Egypt increased more 
rapidly and developed on more stable foundations than it did 
in many other countries, was the fact that the Bible was 
translated into at least three Coptic dialects, of which 
the oldest, the Upper Egyptian, dates from the second half 
of the third century. The earliest monks in the Nitrian 
desert probably possessed copies of the Bible in their own 

It does not lie within the scope of this book to trace 
the history of Christianity in Egypt down to the time 
when Islam was introduced and promulgated by force of 
arms in the seventh century. We pass on to note the 
efforts which have been made in modern times to convert 
the Moslems of Egypt to the Christian faith. 

The American United Presbyterian Mission began work 
amongst Copts and Moslems in 1854. Although the 
work lies chiefly among Coptic Christians, the missionaries 
have by their medical, educational and colportage work 
exerted a Christian influence upon Moslems, especially 
in the Delta. 

The Church Missionary Society began work for Moslems 
in 1882, the year of the British occupation. The centre 
of their work is at Cairo, where the Rev. D. Thornton, who 
died in 1907, did much to interpret Christianity to Moslems, 
and to pave the way for further work on their behalf. 
In Old Cairo the C.M.S. has a self-supporting hospital 
and dispensary with two English and two native doctors. 
Closely associated with this is Dr. Harpur's itinerating 
medical mission, which is centred in a floating dispensary 
on the Nile. In Cairo and three out-stations the C.M.S, 


has a staff of clergy whose work lies amongst the more 
highly educated Moslems and amongst the students at the 
Al Azhar University. The Mission issues a newspaper in 
Arabic which has a considerable circulation. It has estab- 
lished friendly relations with the Coptic Church, which it is 
the desire of the C.M.S. clergy to strengthen and help. 

Other Protestant societies at work are the N. Africa 
Mission, the Egypt General Mission and the Sudan Pioneer 
Mission (German). 

The Roman Catholic missions in Egypt contain about 
G0,000 Christians (including Europeans). The missionaries 
are from the Lyons Society for African Missions and the 
Minor Franciscans of Rome. 

According to the census taken in 1907, there are 
10,466,000 Mohammedans and 881,000 Christians in 

The Egyptian Sudan. 

The Egyptian Sudan, which is under Anglo-Egyptian 
rule, contains about 1,000,000 square miles and a popu- 
lation of about 3,500,000. Of these about 2,500,000 
are Mohammedans and 990,000 pagans. Of the Christians, 
who number about 6000, 3000 belong to the Oriental 
Churches, 2000 to the E.G. Church and 1000 are 
Anglicans or Protestants. 

Connected with the R.C. missions, which are supported 
by the Algerian Missionary Society and the English Foreign 
Missionary Society (Mill Hill), there are 14 priests, 10 
schools and 4 orphanages. 

In the Northern Sudan, under Bishop Gwynne of 
Khartoum, the C.M.S. has a medical mission with an 
English doctor at Khartoum and schools under women- 
workers in and around that city. 

As we proceed south from Khartoum, the first mission 
station, which is 420 miles south, has recently been opened 
by the Sudan United Mission ; 100 miles farther south, 
the American United Presbyterians have a station manned 
by 7 missionaries at the junction of the Sobat and the 


Nile; 200 miles farther south, the C.M.S. has a station 
with 4 missionaries at Malek. The next station, which is 
300 miles farther south, is the C.M.S. station of Gulu in 
Uganda. West of the Nile, in the Bahr-el-Ghazal province 
of the Sudan, are two C.M.S. stations at Zan and Xambio. 
On the west bank of the Nile are three Austrian E.G. 

North-West Africa. 

Amongst those present in Jerusalem on the Day of 
Pentecost were Jews " from the parts of Libya about 
Gyrene." It is possible that some of these acted as the 
first Christian missionaries to North-West Africa. Before 
the end of the second century the Church of Carthage was 
firmly established and was apparently more vigorous than 
the Church of Rome or of Alexandria. In North-West 
Africa, as in Italy, the majority of the early converts were 
won from those who had come into contact with Greek or 
Roman culture. Their numerical increase may be roughly 
gauged by the increase in the number of Christian bishops. 
Haruack reckons the number of bishops in North-West 
Africa in A.D. 220 as from 70 to 90, in A.D. 250 as nearly 
150, in A.D. 300 as hardly less than 250, and in A.D. 400 
as about 600. When in the seventh century the forces 
of Islam spread over North-West Africa, they eventually 
swept out of existence this Church which had once been 
one of the largest Churches in Christendom. It has been 
suggested that the complete disappearance of this Church 
can best be explained by the fact that it had been 
conspicuously lacking in missionary zeal, and had failed 
to make any serious effort to commend its faith to 
the native tribes in the interior. In support of this 
suggestion it may be pointed out that the voluminous 
writings of the two great bishops of North-West Africa, 
Cyprian of Carthage and Augustine of Hippo, apparently 
contain no references to the duty of evangelizing these 
races. Whilst it is dangerous to rely upon negative 
evidence, and the traces of ancient Christianity found 


in the interior of Tunis and Algeria suggest at least a 
possibility of the former existence of churches recruited 
from the native tribes, it is impossible to deny that mis- 
sionary enthusiasm, especially during the fourth, fifth and 
sixth centuries, was at a low ebb, or to contest the state- 
ment that a Church which makes no effort to do missionary 
work is itself in danger of its life. Two other reasons 
which may be alleged to account for the disappearance of 
this Church are its failure to translate the Bible into the 
language spoken by the majority of the inhabitants of the 
country, and the internecine quarrels that long disgraced 
the Christians of North-West Africa prior to the destruction 
of their Church. Haruack writes : 

" Rapidly as Christianity struck down its roots into the 
soil of Africa and spread itself abroad, it was as rapidly 
swept away by Islam. The native Berber population was 
but superficially Christianized, so far as it was Christianized 
at all. The next stratum, that of the Punic inhabitants, 
appears to have been Christianized for the most part, but 
as the Punic language never got possession of the Bible, the 
Christianizing process was not permanent. The third 
stratum, that of the Greco-Eoman population, became in 
all likelihood entirely Christian by slow degrees. But it 
was too thin." 1 

There exists no parallel in the history of Christendom 
to the catastrophe which befel the Church in North Africa. 
In 411 there met at Carthage a conference of Christian 
bishops, numbering in all 565, nearly all of whom came 
from North-West Africa, and each of whom represented 
a considerable Christian community. The conference was 
summoned to discuss a dispute relating to details of Church 
discipline. Impossible as the assembled bishops found it 
to agree on the subject which they discussed, there was at 
least one point on which no variety of opinion existed. 
They all alike believed that the triumph of Christianity in 
North-West Africa was already assured. What a storm 
of indignation would have greeted the speaker who should 
1 Expansion of Christianity, vol. ii. p. 435, 


have dared to forecast the future and to suggest that 
before many centuries had elapsed the Faith represented 
by the 565 assembled bishops and by 300 other bishops 
in North-West Africa who were not present at the 
conference would have been swept away ! 

Amid much that is dark and discouraging in the later 
history of North- West Africa, one story has been preserved 
which reminds us of the heroic martyrs at Carthage at a 
still earlier date. An Arab boy named Geroninio, who 
had been baptized and taught the Christian faith, was 
captured together with his master and ordered to recant 
the profession of his faith. On his refusal to do so, twenty- 
four hours were allowed him in which to change his mind. 
He was then brought before the Sultan of Algiers, who 
was engaged in superintending the erection of a fort. In 
the wall of the fort was a space partly filled with cement. 
Geronimo was told that unless he would abandon his 
Christian faith he would be laid in the cement and built 
up in the wall. He replied that he would not deny his 
faith. He was accordingly placed face downwards in the 
cement with his hands and feet tied, and the builders 
proceeded with their work. The fort in which Geronimo 
was immured (in 15 69) was destroyed by the French in 
1853, and at the spot which was identified by tradition, a 
skeleton of a boy was found embedded in the cement, lying 
prostrate in the position described. 

Towards the end of the thirteenth century Eaymond 
Lull attempted to preach the Christian faith in Tunis and 
at Bougiah, but without any visible results. He died on 
board a Genoese ship in 1315 at the age of eighty, from 
injuries received whilst preaching at Bougiah. See p. 466. 

The population of North-West Africa, that is of Tripoli, 
Tunis, Algeria and Morocco, is about 14,000,000. 
Protestant missions, which are chiefly represented by the 
" North Africa Mission," were started about forty years ago, 
and a few isolated conversions of Moslems have occurred. 
The attitude of the French Government in Tunis and 
Algeria has been uniformly hostile alike to Protestant and 


to Eoman Catholic missions. The latter have, however, 
been allowed to care for and educate a number of Arab 
orphans and to establish the Order of the White Fathers 
in Algiers, from which missionaries have been sent out to 
the hinterland of Algeria and to other parts of Africa. 
In 1876 three priests who were sent to Timbuctoo were 
murdered before they reached their destination. In 1881 
three more priests were murdered by the Tuaregs at 
Ghadames. At a later date armed bands of mission- 
workers were sent by Cardinal Lavigerie, the Head of the 
Roman Mission in Algeria, with instructions to establish 
themselves at some of the wells in the interior and to 
endeavour to preach the Christian faith to those who 
frequented the wells. On the death of Cardinal Lavigerie 
this method of work was abandoned. 


In Morocco the North Africa Mission supports 2 5 mis- 
sionaries and 6 mission hospitals or dispensaries. There 
are 36 R. C. priests in Morocco, but these only minister to 
the resident European population. The Jews number 
about 150,000. 

In the Spanish possession of Eio DE ORO there are no 
Christian missions. To the south of this come the French 
possessions. On the SENEGAL RIVER there is a small 
Protestant mission of the Paris Society. In FRENCH GUINEA 
there is a small Anglican mission called the Rio Pongo 
Mission which is assisted by the S.P.Gf. It was started in 
1855 and is manned and organized by the Anglican Church 
in the West Indies. Connected with the R.C. mission (1897) 
there are 21 priests and 5680 Christians. In SENEGAMBIA 
and in the whole of the French territory as far south as 
Dahomey, which has a population of about 9,000,000, 
there are 17,000 Christians and 37 priests connected with 
the R.C. missions. In PORTUGUESE GUINEA, which has a 
population of about 1,000,000, there is a small R.C. mission. 


In the British colony of GAMBIA, which lies on both 
sides of the Gambia Eiver, there is a population of 91,000, 
of whom 35,000 are Mohammedans and 50,000 pagans. 
Of the Christians, who number 5600, 3800 are Roman 
Catholics and 1800 are Protestants. The W.M.S. has 9 
stations, 2 missionaries and 1500 professed Christians. 

Sierra Leone. 

Sierra Leone was bought by the African Company in 
1790, and was handed over to the British Government in 
1808 in order to form a settlement for negro soldiers who 
had fought on behalf of Great Britain in the War of 
Independence, and for the African slaves who had been 
liberated after the legal abolition of the slave-trade had 
been enacted. As early as 1792 Methodism had been 
introduced into this district by negro converts who came 
from Nova Scotia. As the result of their work a chapel 
to hold 400 people was erected, and in response to an 
appeal which was sent to England some Methodist preachers 
arrived in 1796. This mission, however, proved unsuc- 
cessful and was abandoned. In 1811 a preacher named 
George Warren, accompanied by three schoolmasters, sailed 
for Sierra Leone and, despite great loss of life on the part 
of the early pioneers, the mission was at length firmly 

In 1804 the C.M.S. began work by sending out, in 
the first instance, some German missionaries, amongst 
whom the names of Nylander and Jansen are worthy 
of notice. By 1846, 50,000 liberated slaves had been 
landed in the colony, who spoke, as it was stated, 117 
different dialects. As a result of the multiplicity of 
African tongues English was adopted as the language 
of the colony, and most of the inhabitants near the coast 
speak to-day no other language. The mortality amongst 
the early missionaries was appalling. In twenty-five 
years 109 men and women died. In 1852 an Anglican 
bishopric was established. The first three Bishops (Vidal, 


Weeks and Bowen) died at their posts before the end of 
ten years. 

The work of the English Methodists has been subject to 
great fluctuations, but the numbers of converts have 
steadily increased. The Girls' High School in Freetown, 
which is superintended by three English Methodist 
deaconesses, has recently been enlarged. Both the Angli- 
can and Methodist missions have developed into what are 
practically independent churches. The moral character of 
the Christians connected with all the missions leaves very 
much to be desired ; the tendency of the Christians is to 
imitate the dress and the social habits of Europeans, whilst 
making little attempt to imitate the character which they 
have acquired as a result of long centuries of Christian 
education. Their ancestors, who were said to have repre- 
sented 117 different tribes, were a " confused mass, destitute 
of the slightest feeling of community, (who) lived in a state 
of constant conflict among themselves, and were dull, lazy 
and in the last degree unchaste, besides being in bondage, 
without exception, to heathenish superstition." l It is not, 
therefore, to be wondered at that the development of 
Christian character has not kept pace with the material 
developments of the people. 

Until within the last few years no efforts have been 
made by the Christians of Sierra Leone to evangelize their 
heathen neighbours, but there is now reason to hope that 
the recent efforts which have been made to organize and 
support the Christian missions in the interior of the 
country will meet with success and will react beneficially 
upon the Christian population on and near the coast. 

Dr. Eugene Stock's reference to the state of the 
Church in Sierra Leone in 1872 is applicable to the state of 
the Anglican and Methodist missions at the present time : 

" The churches were filled, the Communions well 
attended, Sunday-schools fairly efficient, the collections 
large, but . . . while there were many godly and praying 
people, particularly among the poorer and older members 

1 Wavneck's Protestant Missions, p. 216. 


of the congregations, the younger and more opulent folk 
manifested for the most part little personal religion. The 
weaknesses of the African character, too, were very manifest : 
sensual indulgence and vain display were common, and 
dislike to hard work crowded the markets for clerks and 
shopmen, while handicrafts and agriculture were neglected. 
Together with an almost grotesque aping of the externals of 
European refinement and luxury, there was a growing spirit 
of rather petulant independence." 

The Fourah Bay College, which is carried on by the 
C.M.S., is a higher grade school or college at which a 
large proportion of the African clergy and schoolmasters 
employed throughout West Africa have been trained. 

Other missionary societies which are at work in the 
colony are the American United Brethren (15 of whose 
missionaries were massacred by the Tenin^ tribe in 1898) 
and the International Missionary Alliance. This latter 
society works in the Sherbro district, to the south of the 
colony, and has met with a large measure of success. 

The E.G. missionaries, who number 22, belong to 
the Order of the Holy Ghost and the Sacred Heart of 
Mary. The Christian population numbers about 60,000, 
of whom about 3250 are African Eoman Catholics. 


The colony, or state, of Liberia originated with the 
efforts made by the American Colonization Society (formed 
in 1817) to transplant free American negroes from 
America to West Africa. The total number of negroes 
who have come from America is about 20,000, all of 
whom were nominally Christian. In 1847 Liberia was 
declared an independent state, with the result that from a 
political and social standpoint hardly any progress has 
since been achieved. Included in its area are various 
tribes (Kroo, Bassa, Vey, etc.), which number about 
2,000,000. The Liberians have not attempted to evan- 
gelize their heathen fellow-countrymen, but some good 
missionary work has been done by the American Presby- 


terians, the Episcopal Methodists and the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of America. This last supports work in the Cape 
Palmas district, which is superintended by Bishop Ferguson, 
who is himself a Liberian. The total number of professing 
Christians is about 20,000. 

A Lutheran mission has attempted to open some 
stations in the interior. 

A R. C. mission was started in 1903, and there are 
70 Christians and 7 priests connected with it. 

Ivory Coast. 

The Ivory Coast, which is a French possession, has a 
population of about 2,000,000, of whom about 200,000 
are Mohammedans. The R.C. mission (1895), which is 
supported by the Lyons Society, has 19 priests and 2400 

Gold Coast. 

The first missionary to the Gold Coast, and perhaps the 
first Englishman to go as a missionary to any part of 
Africa, was the Rev. Thomas Thompson (b. 1707), who was 
Fellow and Dean of Christ's College, Cambridge, and 
resigned his position there (1744) in order to undertake 
missionary work in New Jersey. After labouring there 
for five years, he volunteered to the S.P.G. to go as a 
missionary to West Africa, if the Society would support 
him out of its " Negro Conversion Fund." In offering to 
go as a missionary, he urged that " if ever a church of 
Christ is founded among the negroes, somebody must lay 
the first stone, and should he be prevented in his intention, 
God only knew how long it might be again before any 
other person would take the same resolution." He was 
appointed as Missionary to the Gold Coast on Febru- 
ary 15, 1751. On reaching the coast he began at 
once to learn " the native language." The king frequently 
attended the services which he conducted, but continued 
"firm and unshaken in his superstition." He completed 


a vocabulary of above 1200 words and baptized some 
adult negroes "as well as others." In 1756, in con- 
sequence of a breakdown of health, he returned to 
England. He had meanwhile sent home three negro 

o o 

boys under twelve years of age to be trained at the 
Society's expense to become missionaries to their fellow- 
countrymen. On their arrival in London in 1754 they 
were placed under the charge of a " very diligent school- 
master," and after receiving instruction for four years, two 
of them, Quaque and Cudjo, were baptized (January 7, 
1759) in the Church of St. Mary, Islington. The third 
boy died of consumption in 1758, and Cudjo afterwards 
died of madness in Guy's Hospital. Philip Quaque was 
ordained as an Anglican clergyman, and in 1765 was 
appointed by the S.P.G. " missionary, schoolmaster and 
catechist to the negroes on the Gold Coast." 

During his stay in England he had to a large extent 
forgotten his own language and had, at least for some 
years, to instruct his fellow-countrymen by the aid of an 
interpreter. During the first nine years after his return 
to Africa he baptized 52 persons, some of whom were 
soldiers or mulattoes. 

After his return to England, Thompson published (in 
1772) a pamphlet entitled "The African Trade for Negro 
Slaves shown to be consistent with the principles of 
humanity and with the laws of revealed religion." l He 
had himself seen much of the operations of the slave-traders 
on the coast of Africa. The arguments contained in his 
pamphlet are for the most part drawn from Aristotle and 
his plea of justification from the Pentateuch. 

Quaque continued to work in different parts of the 
Gold Coast, both as a missionary and as a chaplain to the 
factory at Cape Coast Castle, till his death at the age of 
seventy-five in 1816. 

The S.P.G. helped to support two chaplains as " mission- 
aries to the natives," but in 1824 their connection with the 
Gold Coast was interrupted. In 1841 they voted salaries 
1 A copy of this pamphlet exists in the British Museum. 


for two clergy to be stationed at Cape Coast Castle, but 
men were not forthcoming. In 1904 the S.P.G. resumed 
its work on the Gold Coast and a bishop was appointed, first 
as a suffragan to the Bishop of W. Equatorial Africa and 
later on as Bishop of the diocese of Accra. The chief centres 
of work are at Accra, Cape Coast, Sekondi and Kumasi. 

Up to the present the S.P.G. missionaries have been 
able to do little more than minister to the European and 
African Christians who belong to the Anglican Church, but 
the Society hopes to take its share in the evangelization of 
the large population which has not yet come into touch 
with any Christian mission. 

The greater part of the missionary work in the Gold 
Coast is carried on by the English Weskyans in the 
western and the Basel Mission in the eastern districts 
of the colony. The Wesleyans, who work chiefly amongst 
the Fanti, began their work in 1835. 

The climatic difficulties, with which all missionary 
societies have had to contend in West Africa, may be 
illustrated by the sacrifice of life which accompanied the 
start of the Wesleyan mission. The first worker, who 
landed in 1835, died within six months. His two 
successors, who arrived in the following year, died within 
fourteen months. The next two workers died within a 
month of their arrival. At the present time the mission 
has 15 European and 27 African ministers and 63,000 
baptized Christians. 

The Basel Mission, which started in 1824, works 
amongst the Ga, Chi and Fanti peoples. One of its 
missionaries, Christaller, translated portions of the Bible 
into the Ga and Chi languages. The mission, which began 
on the coast, has now penetrated into the interior, and 
extends from Ashanti to the river Volta. In 1857, after 
thirty years' work, their converts numbered only 367. In 
1867 these had increased to 1500, and the present 
number of adherents is about 25,000. The mission has 
organized and developed on a considerable scale industrial 
missions, which are placed under the charge of a special 


missionary trading society. It has also devoted special 
attention to the development both of elementary and 
secondary schools. 

The R.C. missions (1879), which are connected with the 
Lyons Society for African Missions, support 2 1 missionaries 
at 8 mission stations, and 13 schools. The Christians 
connected with this mission number 10,800. The total 
number in the colony is 41,000. 


The North German (Bremen) Mission started work 
among the Evhe people, who number about 2,000,000, in 
1847, but owing to constant loss by death of its mission- 
aries and the small permanent staff which it has been able 
to maintain, its progress has been slow. After twenty- five 
years' work its church only numbered 93 members. The 
employment of missionary deaconesses has been a great 
help in the more recent development of its work. In 
1913 the mission reported 1535 baptisms. 

The Steyl Fathers of the R.C. Church began work in 
1894, and the Christian community attached to their 
mission numbers about 15,000. In 1912 they reported 
2000 baptisms. There are 44 priests attached to the 

The English Wesleyans have a station at Little Popo, 
and German Methodists have also started a mission. 


Dahomey, a French colony, contains a population of 
about 1,000,000, of whom about 700,000 are pagans and 
300,000 Moslems. The R.C. mission (1882) is connected 
with the Lyons Missionary Society. There are about 
11,500 converts and 34 priests connected with the 
missions. The Bishop in Dahomey reports a great opening 
for evangelistic work. 

The Wcsleyan Methodist Missionary Society has a station 
at Porto Novo on the coast. 



A number of slaves, who had been set free and 
had become Christians in Sierra Leone, began, in 1840, to 
return to the Yoruba country, from which they had been 
taken by Portuguese slave-raiders. In response to an 
appeal from these Christians the Rev. H. Townsend, the 
Rev. C. A. Gollmer and the Rev. Samuel Crowther, who 
were sent by the C.M.S., started work in Badagry and 
Abeokuta in 1846, and in 1852 work was begun at Lagos 
and Ibadan, at the latter place by the Rev. D. Hinderer. 
Within eighteen months of the starting of work at 
Abeokuta six converts were baptized, one of whom was 
the mother of Samuel Crowther, whom he had accidentally 
met in the street of Abeokuta. The mission soon prospered 
and extended, and by 1860 the number of Christians in 
the Yoruba mission, including the immigrants from Sierra 
Leone, numbered 2000. The extension of the work was 
interrupted by the invasions of the warlike people of 
Dahomey, and by the state of internal warfare, which 
continued to distract the country and to endanger the 
lives of the missionaries. Doherty, an African catechist, 
was captured by the king of Dahomey, who ordered him 
to read to him the Christian Scriptures. The king eventu- 
ally ordered him to be killed, with a portion of Scripture 
in one hand and a lamp in the other hand, in order that 
he might be lighted into the spirit world and might read 
the Scriptures to the last king. The executioner executed 
another man by mistake and Doherty eventually resumed 
his work as a catechist. 

A state of war existed in the neighbourhood of 
Abeokuta for five years, 186065, during which Mr. 
Hinderer and his wife were detained as prisoners in 
Ibadan. Towards the end of 1867 the Egba chiefs 
suddenly expelled all European missionaries from Abeokuta, 
and for the next thirteen years the Christians there were 
left in charge of African pastors. 

In 1871, Bishop Cheetham of Sierra Leone ordained 


four Yorubas as clergy, arid in 1876 he ordained three 
more. One of the latter was Phillips, who afterwards 
became assistant bishop. 

Soon after the English Government had taken posses- 
sion of Lagos (1861) it became the centre of the C.M.S. 
Yoruba Mission ; and the interior was left without a resident 
European missionary, from 1865 to 1883, when the 
Kev. J. B. Wood became the superintending missionary. 
In 1888 the C.M.S. obtained the approval of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury to the appointment of an African as 
Bishop of the Yoruba country, but owing to the opposition 
of the African Christians the proposal was abandoned. 

In 1864 the Kev. Samuel Crowther was appointed as 
Bishop of the Niger (see p. 297), and on his death in 1891 
Bishop Hill succeeded him in 1893 with the title of 
" Bishop in West Equatorial Africa," Lagos, which had 
formerly been supervised by the Bishop of Sierra Leone, 
being now incorporated in the same diocese as the Niger. 
At the same time two Africans, Kev. C. Phillips and Eev. I. 
Oluwole, were consecrated as assistant bishops for the 
Yoruba country. On the death of Bishop Hill, in the 
following January, Bishop Tugwell succeeded him. Bishop 
Phillips died in 1906. In 1900 another African, Eev. 
James Johnson, was consecrated as an assistant bishop. 
The Anglican mission has 40,000 adherents and 15,000 
school children. On the coast, and specially at Lagos, 
which is the centre of organization for the various missions, 
a large proportion of the Christians speak English and 
tend to imitate English customs. 

Many of the churches in Lagos are served by African 
clergy or pastors. The Anglican church at Breadfruit, 
which has a congregation of about 1400, and raises nearly 
1000 a year for religious objects, is built on the site of 
the old baracoon, the building in which slaves waiting to 
be shipped were formerly confined. The Anglican churches 
in Lagos and district are no longer connected with any 
missionary society, but are beginning to support missionary 
work en their own account. 


In the " Lagos District," which includes tho Yoruba 
country, the English Wcsleyans have 11 European and 21 
African ministers and 9000 baptized Christians. Missions 
are also carried on by the Southern Baptist and National 
Baptist Conventions, U.S.A. 

Belonging to the R.C. missions, which are supported 
by the Lyons Society, there are 27 priests, 24 schools and 
16 orphanages. 

The Niger Mission. 

The C.M.S. Niger Mission has a special interest for all 
students of Missions. It embodied a serious attempt, 
which was persevered in for nearly half a century, to 
establish a branch of the Christian Church in tropical 
Africa through the instrumentality of Africans and with a 
minimum of European supervision. The attempt was the 
outcome of the realization that the climate of the river 
Niger and surrounding districts was so unhealthy that 
white men could not hope to work there for more than a 
few months at a time. When the first British expedition, 
which was accompanied by Dr. Schon and Samuel 
Crowther, went up the Niger in 1841, 42 white men out 
of a total of 150 died within two months. After a 
second and more successful expedition had been made in 
1857, Samuel Crowther, who had been originally a slave 
and had been educated at Eourah Bay and ordained in 
London in 1843, was commissioned by the C.M.S. to 
open a Niger Mission to be staffed by Africans from Sierra 
Leone. In 1859 the C.M.S. sent out five Europeans to 
join the staff of the mission, but none of them succeeded 
in reaching Onitsha, which was the first mission station to 
be occupied. Until the cause of malarial fever was dis- 
covered to be the bite of the Anopheles mosquito, the river 
Niger deservedly possessed the reputation of having the 
most unhealthy climate that the world contained. When 
the writer of this volume was on the Niger in 1894 the 
average length of a white man's life was reckoned to be 
two years. Since the discovery of the cause of malaria the 


conditions have completely changed. When it was 
realized that white men could not live for any length of 
time on the Niger, the C.M.S. decided to apply to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury to consecrate Crowther as 
Bishop, and to place the whole of the mission under his 
charge. Amid scenes of great enthusiasm he was conse- 
crated in Canterbury Cathedral in 1864, and remained as 
Bishop of the Niger till his death in 1891. The only 
African who had been consecrated as a bishop before the 
time of Crowther was the Bishop of the Congo (see p. 302). 

The experiment of placing an African bishop to super- 
vise a mission where, as experience seemed to have shown, 
European missionaries could not work, was fully justified 
by the circumstances of that time, but it must regretfully 
be admitted that it proved an almost complete failure. 
Bishop Crowther was a humble and saintly man, but he 
lacked the qualities which were essential for the due 
performance of his duties as a bishop. When, as alas 
frequently happened, complaints were made to him that 
one of his missionaries had committed a serious moral 
offence, he was wont to reply, " I never hear evil spoken 
against my missionaries." The result was that when he 
died, after an episcopate of twenty-seven years, little 
progress had been made, and the reputation of the 
Christians at some of the mission stations was such that 
the reconstruction of the mission proved a more difficult 
task than would have been the founding of a completely 
new mission. 

During his long episcopate Bishop Crowther never 
learnt any language which could be understood on the 
Niger, and till his death he was dependent on the help 
of interpreters, who were in many cases quite incompetent. 
He habitually spoke English, but could also speak Yoruba, 
which he had learned as a boy, and which was available 
in parts of the Lagos district. 

Bishop Tugwell in the course of a speech in which he 
alluded to the jubilee of Bishop Crowther's consecration, 
referred thus to the failure of Bishop Crowther to infuse bis 


own spirit into his fellow-workers : " He suffered greatly by 
the hands of others. He suffered greatly because some men 
who should have been true . . . failed, and failed griev- 
ously. Under temptations which were great, cut off from 
the companionship of their fellow-Christians, some became 
drunken and immoral, others greedy of gain engaged in 
trade. In 1885 there was a grievous scandal at Onitsha 
. . . the blow fell mainly upon Bishop Crowther. The 
remainder of his life was spent under a cloud, and he 
carried his burden to the grave." l 

On the death of Bishop Crowther in 1891 the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury sent out the Kev. J. S. Hill to report 
to him on the condition of the mission. Mr. Hill was 
subsequently consecrated as Bishop, but died at Lagos on 
his return journey in 1894. 

Since 1894 much good work has been done and 
foundations have been laid on which there is every reason 
to believe that a Christian Church, worthy of the name, 
may eventually be built up. The two African bishops 
have given valuable assistance to Bishop Tugwell in the 
supervision of his widely extended diocese. In this diocese, 
which includes the Niger and Yoruba Missions, there are 
now (1915) 89 clergy, of whom 65 are Africans. Of 
these last 51 are supported by the local Church. Of the 
450 African lay agents the local Church supports 225. 
There are about 70,000 Christian adherents connected 
with the Anglican Church in the diocese. 

In the lower reaches of the Niger missionary work is 
carried on by the Niger Delta Pastorate, which is now 
practically independent of the C.M.S. Higher up the 
river, in Southern Nigeria, the chief centres of work are 
at Onitslia, Obusi and Asaba. There are 9 European 
clergy in this part of the mission and 2 European doctors. 

In 1890 the Rev. J. Alfred Robinson and Mr. G. 
Wilmot Brooke, accompanied by several others, attempted 
to start mission work amongst the Hausas in Northern 
Nigeria. Both the leaders of this mission died, however, 

1 Address to his diocesau synod at Lagos, May 1914. 


before any station in the Hausa country had been opened. 
Dr. Walter Miller, who went out to Nigeria in 1898, has 
carried on medical and other missionary work at Zaria 
under circumstances of special difficulty, and, besides 
gathering round him a number of converts from Islam, 
he has seen the building of a Christian village inhabited 
by ex-Moslem Christians or Christian inquirers. This 
mission has greater promise than perhaps any other in 
West Africa, as the Hausas, whose language is the lingua 
franca of the Western Sudan, and who travel as traders 
over the whole of North Africa, are possessed of more 
character than those belonging to any other race in West 
Africa. The majority of them are nominal Mohammedans, 
but there are signs that many are prepared to listen to 
Christian teaching. The conversion to the Christian faith 
of any large number of the Hausas would be the prelude 
to the conversion of a large part of Africa north of the 

By far the greater part of the missionary work on the 
Niger is in the hands of the C.M.S., which, in addition to 
the stations already referred to, has work amongst the 
pagans in the Bauchi district of Northern Nigeria. 

The United Free Church of Scotland has a mission at 
Old Calabar (1846). The success achieved by this mission 
is to be attributed to the fact that its work has been 
more carefully supervised by European missionaries than 
perhaps any other mission in West Africa. The Sudan 
United Mission, which works on undenominational lines, 
and was started in 1904, has several stations amongst the 
pagan tribes on the river Benue. Its aim is eventually to 
connect with other missions in the Nile basin. The R.C. 
missionaries belong to the Orders of the Holy Ghost and the 
Sacred Heart of Mary. In the Vicariate of Benin (1860) 
there are 8500 Christians and 28 priests; in the apostolic 
prefecture of Western Nigeria (1884) there are 17 priests 
and 2800 Christians; in that of Eastern Nigeria (1911) 
there are 5 priests; and in that of Lower Nigeria (1889) 
there are 4789 Christians and 18 priests. 


The Cameroons. 

In 1845, Saker, a representative of the English Baptists, 
coming from Fernando Po, began missionary work, but the 
visible progress attained was comparatively small. In 
1884, when the German Government occupied this 
territory, the Baptists handed over their work to the 
Basel Mission. Owing to difficulties which arose between 
the Africans and the European missionaries, several con- 
gregations declared themselves independent, while others 
are now superintended by German Baptist missionaries. 
The Basel Mission has since made good progress, and has 
established centres both amongst the Dualla-speaking 
peoples and in other parts of the territory. In 1913 the 
Basel Mission reported 1500 baptisms. The Gossner 
Mission has started work in the eastern districts. 

In the southern part of the Cameroons, in Batanga 
Land, the American Presbyterians, who began work in 
1875, have a number of stations. They have also 
stations in French territory on the Gaboon Kiver and 
Corisco Island. 

The R.C. mission, which began work in 1890, has been 
making rapid progress within recent years. During 1913 
it reported 6000 baptisms, bringing the total number of 
baptized Christians up to 20,000. There are 31 priests 
connected with the mission. 

Rio Muni 

Rio Muni, a Spanish possession, which lies to the 
south of the Cameroons, has a population of about 40,000. 
Off the coast lie the Spanish islands of Fernando Po, Corisco, 
and Anno Bon, containing a population of about 34,000. 
The E.G. missions, which are carried on by the Spanish 
Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Mary, report 6500 
converts. Work is carried on at fourteen stations by 
24 priests. The American Presbyterian Church has five 
stations and GOO Christians on the mainland. The 


Primitive Methodists have four stations and 100 Christians 
in Fernando Po. 

The Congo. 

In 1491 a band of Portuguese missionaries, who 
had come in response to a request sent by the king of 
the Congo, 1 landed near the mouth of that river. 
Shortly after their arrival the king of the Congo and 
many of his principal chiefs were baptized with great 
state and ceremonial and thousands of persons followed 
their example. To the capital of the Congo was given 
the new name of San Salvador. The second Christian 
king commanded all his subjects to abandon idolatry and 
receive baptism on pain of being burnt alive, and images 
of the saints were offered to them to replace their former 
idols. The European missionaries included representatives 
of the Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians and, later on, 
of the Jesuits. Dissensions occurred amongst the repre- 
sentatives of these Orders, and the king sent back some 
of the priests as prisoners to Portugal. In course of 
time the kingdom of Congo was declared " wholly Catholic." 
A large number of the slaves shipped abroad from West 
Africa were taken from the Congo districts, and a marble 
chair formerly existed on the pier at St. Paul de Loanda 
from which the bishops used to give their blessing to 
the slave-ships which were preparing to sail for the 
Portuguese possessions in Brazil or the West Indies. 

Some of the Jesuit missionaries preached earnestly 
against polygamy and unchastity, which the African clergy 
permitted, but they were not supported by the king or 
the court. After several alternations of revival and 
retrogression the profession of Christianity began to 
decrease. In 1640 the Capuchin friars arrived. At 
first they preached against the practice of polygamy, but 

1 For a detailed account of the earl}' Christian missions to the Congo see 
A Report of the Kingdom of the Congo, drawn out of the writings and 
discourses of the Portuguese Duarte Lopez, by Filippo Pigafetta, 1591. 
Translated by M. Hutchinson. 


they eventually agreed to its retention. In 1698 the 
missionary Zucchelli wrote, concerning the people amongst 
whom he was working : " Here is neither knowledge nor 
conscience, neither Word of God nor faith, neither state 
nor family, . . . neither discipline nor shame, . . . neither 
fear of God nor zeal for the welfare of souls. . . . You 
can say nothing of these people except that they are in 
fact nothing else than baptized heathen, who have nothing 
of Christianity about them but the bare name, without 
any works." A negro, who was a descendant of the 
royal house, after being educated in Portugal and at Borne, 
was appointed Bishop of San Salvador, but died before 
reaching his diocese. 

Several subsequent attempts were made by the 
Capuchins and Benedictines to raise the moral and 
religious tone of the people, but without success. 
Captain Tuckey, who was sent by the English Government 
in 1816 to explore the Congo, could find no trace of 
Christianity except crucifixes and relics, which were not 
distinguished by the people from their amulets and fetiches. 

It would seem that Christianity had at no time exerted 
more than a superficial influence upon the inhabitants, 
and had from the first failed to effect any real change 
in the characters of those who adopted its profession. 
It is, indeed, hard to see how a mission which not only 
condoned but engaged in slave-raiding, and which permitted 
polygamy in its most repulsive forms, could have obtained 
better or more permanent results than those which were 

The exploration of the Congo by Stanley (1876-77), 
which was followed by the establishment, under Belgian 
auspices, of the Congo Free State, prepared the way for 
the re-establishment of Christian missions. Eepresentatives 
of the English Baptists from the Cameroons began work 
in 1879, and in the course of a few years established 
nine stations extending up almost to the Stanley Falls. 
The eagerness of the missionaries, amongst whom Bentley 
deserves special notice, to cover too much ground led to 


the establishment of weak centres at great distances from 
one another, and the progress attained has been less than 
might have been expected in view of the number of 
agents who have been employed. The English Baptists 
have now opened two stations, Mabondo and Wayika, on 
the Lualaba Eiver, which are within 300 miles of Uganda. 

A little later a mission, entitled the Congo Inland 
Mission, was organized by Grattan Guinness, the founder 
of the East London Institute. His work was characterized 
by undue haste, and several stations had to be abandoned 
after having been opened. Partly in consequence of the 
lack of due care in the selection of missionaries at home, 
and partly in consequence of unskilful organization abroad, 
a large proportion of the missionaries, many of whom 
were women, died after a very brief period of service. 
The mission was eventually taken over by the American 
Baptist Missionary Union. 

In 1886, Grattan Guinness founded another mission 
amongst the Balolo tribe, which lives on the basin of the 
Lulongo, a tributary on the left of the Congo south of 
its great bend. 

In 1886, Arnot, an independent missionary, a member 
of the Plymouth Brethren, started a new mission in Garen- 
ganze or Katanga, in the far east of the Congo Free State. 
This mission, which has now a staff of 1 5 missionaries, has 
established fifteen stations between Bih and Lake Mweru. 

The American Methodist Episcopal Church (South) 
started a mission among the Batetela, north of the Lobefu 
River, in November 1913, under the superintendence of 
Bishop Lainbuth. The recently formed Societ6 Beige de 
Missions Protestantes au Congo is starting work at Chofa, 
on the Lomami. 

The American Presbyterian Church (South), which has 
a mission on the Kasai and Lulua Kivers, was strengthened 
in 1914 by the addition of 14 new missionaries, who 
are to be supported by funds provided as a result of the 
Laymen's Missionary Movement. 

Attempts are being made from three different bases 


to evangelize the Niam-Niam or Azandi people, who live 
at the meeting-point of the Belgian Congo, the French 
Congo and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. The C.M.S. are 
advancing from Malek on the river Nile, the Africa 
Inland Mission is advancing from Mahagi on the western 
shore of the Albert Nyanza, and a Roman Catholic mission, 
which started from Wau in the Bahr-el-Ghazal, has opened 
stations at Mupoi among the Niam-Niam and at Palaro 
and Gondokoro. 

Many who have had little personal experience of 
missionary work and profess to base their theory of 
missionary methods simply on the teaching of the New 
Testament, have from time to time suggested that a 
mission established amongst primitive or backward races 
ought to be self-supporting from the outset. The Congo 
lias been the scene of an experiment based upon this 
theory on a large and disastrous scale. 

The Eev. William Taylor was appointed by the 
American Methodist Episcopal Church in 1884 as "Bishop 
of all Africa." He created a great impression in America, 
by holding a series of meetings in which he declared that 
Africa could be converted to Christianity by the establish- 
ment of a chain of self-supporting missions, the members of 
which would earn their living as carpenters, agriculturists 
and traders. Within twelve years 140 men and women 
were sent out to West Africa, and having been deposited 
at stations selected by Bishop Taylor, were left to earn 
their own living and preach the gospel. At the end of 
ten years the vast majority of these had died, and only 
17 remained in the Congo district and in Liberia. 
A few near Stanley Pool had endeavoured to save them- 
selves from starvation by shooting hippopotami and sell- 
ing their flesh to the natives. Nothing had been accom- 
plished from a missionary standpoint, and the missionaries 
had apparently failed to learn any African language. 

It is difficult to insist too strongly upon the fact that 
there is to-day little place in the mission field for solitary 
missionaries independent of any missionary organization. 


Missionaries who have no experience to guide them, and 
who have no successors, can do little good and may do 
much harm. The writer came across one such in a lonely 
spot in Central Africa hundreds of miles from the nearest 
mission station. He had become impressed, whilst living 
in America, that it was his duty to attempt the conversion 
of the people of West Central Africa. Without making 
an effort to learn any language, or to gain a knowledge 
of the religion or customs of the people whom he hoped to 
influence, he and one companion sailed for West Africa. 
When the writer of this book came across him he was 
dying of dysentery, and his companion, whom he had left 
behind at a distant town, subsequently died also, before 
either of them had got into touch with the people whom 
they hoped to evangelize. 

Hundreds of similar cases have occurred, and it cannot 
be maintained that these missionaries have by their lives, 
or even by their deaths, helped forward the cause which 
they had at heart. 

Missionary work needs the very best men and women 
who can be found, and if there is any place for untrained 
missionaries it can only be at a mission station, where the 
untrained recruit can obtain the constant help and 
guidance of others. 

The E.G. missions are carried on by the Algerian 
M. Society, the Belgian KM. Society and the Order of 
the Sacred Heart of Jesus (Rome). There are about 
100 missionaries and 17,000 converts. 

The population of the Congo Free State is about 
30,000,000, of whom about 600,000 are Moslems. 

French Congo. 

In the French Congo the mission work of the 
American Presbyterians in Gaboon was handed over to 
the Paris Society on the establishment of a French 
Protectorate. There are four missions on the river Ogowe 
extending to a distance of 250 miles from the coast. 


The Swedish Missionary Society has three stations in 
the French Congo, one of which is at Brazzaville. 

A new and independent mission was begun in 1914 at 
Lambareue by Dr. Albert Schweitzer, who is widely known 
in Germany and in England both as a musician and as a 
learned theologian ; he is the author of The Quest of the 
Historical Jesus. 

The R.C. missions, which are connected with the 
Algerian Missionary Society, support 46 missionaries and 
26 schools. The total number of Christians connected 
with the E.G. missions is about 5000. 


In the Portuguese colony of Angola, which contains 
484,800 square miles and a population of about 4,200,000, 
there are 815,000 RC. Christians, including Europeans. 

The R.C. missions are in the diocese of St. Paul de 
Loanda. The Congregation of the Sacred Heart have their 
principal station at Huilla, where there is a large industrial 
institution in which 80 Africans are taught skilled trades, 
e.g. tanning, boot-making, tailoring and wagon-making. 
The missionaries are specially interested in botany and 
botanical researches. Of the 36 priests in charge of the 
missions 2 are Africans. 

The English Baptists are represented at San Salvador. 
A mission begun by Bishop Taylor (to whom we have 
already referred) in Loanda is now under the charge of 
the American Methodist Episcopalians, and industrial and 
evangelistic work is being carried on in the river region of 
the Kuansa. In 1881 the American Board (A. B.C. P.M.} 
began work in the kingdom of Bihc, where slow but 
satisfactory progress has been accomplished. 

German South- West Africa. 

German South-West Africa, which, previous to the war, 
embraced an area of 322,000 square miles, had a population 


of about 200,000, of whom 5000 are Europeans. The 
Herero and Ovanibo tribes in the north are Bautus, while 
the Namaquas in the south are of Hottentot descent. The 
pagans number about 170,000 and the Christians 30,000. 
Of the latter 12,000 are Roman Catholics and 18,000 
Protestants. Connected with the R.C. missions, which 
form the ecclesiastical prefecture of Cinebabasia, there 
are 47 priests, 30 schools and 10,600 adherents. The 
Protestant missions are chiefly conducted by the Rhenish 
and the Finnish Missionary Societies. These report 72 
missionaries, 58 stations or out-stations and 12,700 pro- 
fessed Christians. 

South Africa. 1 

If by South Africa be meant Africa south of the 
river Zambesi, the honour of sending to it the first 
Christian missionary and the first Christian martyr belongs 
to the Portuguese. In 1560, twenty years after the 
formation of the Society of Jesus, Father Gonzalo da Silveira 
landed at Sofala, accompanied by two other members of 
this Order. His first visit was to a chief named Ganiba, 
not far from Inhambane. After a stay of seven weeks 
with this heathen chief he wrote : " Thanks be to God and 
to the Holy Virgin, the queen as well as the king's sons 
and daughters, his household, court and relations in a 
word, all the subjects of that kingdom are now Chris- 
tians." Leaving this chief and his Christian subjects, 
Father Silveira made his way up the Zambesi to the 
Portuguese settlement of Sena. During the two months 
which he spent here he baptized 500 slaves and servants 
of the Europeans. He then proceeded to visit the reigning 
Monomotapa (chief), whose country was probably situated 
near the modern Mount Darwin, about 150 miles from 

1 1 am indebted for a large amount of help in compiling this sketch of 
missionary work in South Africa to Christian Missions in South Africa, by 
J. Du Plessis. His book is by far the best which has been published 
dealing with his subject. 


Tete on the Zambesi. He was at first well received, and 
within a month he baptized the chief and 300 of his 
councillors and attendants. He baptized also a number 
of others, his custom being to present calico and beads 
to all who allowed themselves to be baptized. Soon, 
however, the chief became jealous of his influence, and 
on March 16, 1561, he was murdered by the chief's 

After a short time, and in obedience to orders received 
from Goa, his companions left the country. In 1577 the 
Dominicans began work in East Africa, and eventually 
established several missions on the river Zambesi, where 
they were followed by further representatives of the Jesuits. 
The most remarkable among the Dominican missionaries 
was Friar Nicolau do Kosario, who began as a missionary 
in India and who suffered death as a martyr in 1592. A 
son of the succeeding Monomotapa was sent to India and 
became a Dominican friar. Despite the fact that two 
Monomotapas in succession embraced Christianity, neither 
the Dominican nor the Jesuit mission made any real 
progress, and complaints, which were apparently not 
unfounded, were made to the Portuguese Government con- 
cerning the character of the missionaries themselves. At 
length, in 1760, the Portuguese Government expelled the 
Jesuits from South-East Africa, and in 1775 the Dominicans 
also were ordered to leave. Dr. Theal, the chief historian 
of South Africa, says that "within 100 years from the 
time when European teachers left them, they had lost all 
knowledge of what their ancestors had acquired during 
nearly two centuries of training." The story of the east 
coast is similar to that of the west coast. Missionaries 
belonging to different Orders began by quarrelling amongst 
themselves, and having lost their purity of aim they 
eventually lost their purity of character, and became 
incapable of inspiring the Africans to seek after an ideal at 
which they themselves had ceased to aim. 


Arrival of the Dutch. 

\ r an Eiebeek, who was commissioned by the Dutch 
East India Company to establish a victualling station at 
Capetown, arrived there on April 6, 1652. He was a 
religious man, and desired to spread the knowledge of the 
Christian faith amongst the native population. In 1662 
a Hottentot girl who had been servant to a Dutch master 
was baptized, but the efforts which were made by some of 
the Dutch settlers to teach the Hottentots were unsuccessful. 
Soon after the establishment of a settlement at the Cape, 
slaves who had been captured at sea were brought there, 
and ere long the slave population became of considerable 
size. During the first twenty-five years several efforts were 
made to evangelize these slaves as well as the Hottentots, 
but ere long these efforts were relaxed, and the irreligious 
lives of their master or employers rendered missionary 
work almost impossible. 

Eeference has already been made to the work of the 
Moravian, George Schmidt, who reached Capetown as 
the first Protestant missionary to South Africa in 1737 
(see p. 54), but was forced to return to Europe in 1743, 
after baptizing 5 Hottentots, in consequence of the 
opposition of the Dutch Ministers. 

In 1795 the rule of the Dutch East India Company 
came to an end and the English took possession of the Cape. 
In 1802 it was restored by treaty to the Dutch, but in 
1806 it was finally annexed by England. 

In 1792 three Moravian missionaries arrived in order 
to take up the work which Schmidt had been forced to 
leave at Bavianskloof. By 1806 the number of baptized, 
or candidates for baptism, had reached 464. By 1813 
this number had increased to 1157. 

(For a further reference to Moravian Missions in 
South Africa see p. 328.) 

We shall now proceed to sketch the development in 
different parts of South Africa of the missionary work 


supported by the principal European and American 
missionary societies. 

Anglican Missions. 

While the Dutch retained possession of the Cape no 
Anglican services were allowed to be held, but when in 
1819 immigrants from England arrived to settle in the 
eastern districts, the S.P.G. appointed a clergyman to 
minister alike to the Europeans and to the African natives. 
In 1821 the Eev. William Wright landed in Capetown. 
He opened a school for coloured children at Wynberg, 
and conducted services for the coloured people on Sundays. 
In 1822 he started and maintained at his own expense in 
Capetown a school for free and slave children. In 1835, 
Captain Allen F. Gardiner of the Royal Navy arrived at 
Port Natal (Durban) and endeavoured, though without 
success, to establish a mission station in Dingaan's territory. 
Later on, having obtained Diugaan's consent, he returned 
to England and pleaded with the C.M.S. to undertake this 
mission. In 1837 the Kev. Francis Owen, who was sent 
by the C.M.S., arrived in Capetown with Captain Gardiner 
and proceeded to Port Natal. It soon became clear that 
Dingaan would not allow missionary work to be carried 
on, and after suffering many hardships, Owen and his 
family returned to Capetown in 1838. After making 
another attempt to carry on missionary work at Mosega, he 
left South Africa in 1841. Captain Gardiner had already 
left in order to attempt to start a mission in New Guinea, on 
the failure of which he eventually sailed for South America. 
This was the only effort made by the C.M.S. to start a 
mission in South Africa. After the departure of Owen and 
Captain Gardiner the Anglican Church for several years 
did nothing towards the evangelization of South Africa 
beyond sending out a limited number of chaplains, whose 
primary duty was to minister to the European colonists. 

So slowly did the Anglican work develop that in 1847 
there were only 14 clergy and 11 churches in the colony. 

The first Anglican Bishop, Robert Gray, who was 


appointed Bishop of Capetown in 1847, was a man full 
of missionary zeal. He founded Zonnebloem College " for 
the education of sons of chiefs from all parts of Africa 
in the Christian faith," an institution which proved an 
immense help to the cause of Christian missions in South 
Africa. Before his death in 1872 he had done much to 
establish Anglican missions in many different parts of 
South Africa. 

The first mission station which he helped to establish 
was amongst the Xosa people in Kaffraria. His desire 
was to obtain from Government a series of locations where, 
under the direction of a missionary, the natives might be 
taught to become mechanics, carpenters and agriculturists. 
Between 1855 and 1857 the Home Government granted 
40,000 to subsidize educational and industrial work, and 
the portion of this grant which was entrusted to the 
Bishop of Grahamstown (Armstrong) was used by him 
to establish three stations in Kaffraria, in addition to the 
one that had been already started. These stations were 
named St. Luke's, situated among the Xosa people, 30 
miles east of King William's Town ; St. Matthew's, at 
Keiskama Hoek, among the Fingoes ; St. Mark's, among the 
Galekas ; and St. John's, among the Gaihas. 

When Dr. Cotterill, the second Bishop of Grahamstown, 
was appointed Bishop of Edinburgh, he succeeded in 
inducing the members of the Scotch Episcopal Church to 
take special interest in Kaffraria, with the result that a 
Bishop of Kaffraria (Dr. H. Callaway) was appointed 
in 1873. The first Bishop was a remarkable Bantu 
scholar and an enthusiastic missionary. 

In the diocese of Capetown (1847) the Cowley Fathers 
and the All Saints' Sisters of the Poor carry on work in 
Capetown amongst Bantus and amongst Malays, i.e. 
Mohammedan immigrants. The S.P.G. has given grants 
to the college at Zonnebloem, and many of the European 
clergy whom it helps to support carry on missionary 
work amongst the African population of the parishes in 
which they serve. 


In the diocese of Graliamstown (1853) the S.P.G. 
helps to support the training and industrial schools at 
Keiskarna Hoek, which have about 350 pupils. In this 
diocese is found the majority of the members of the 
Ethiopian Order, under the Rev. J. M. Dwane, who are in 
communion with the Anglican Church (see p. 338). 

In 1911 a new diocese of George was constituted to 
include part of the diocese of Capetown and of 

In the diocese of St. John's, Kaffraria (1873), which is 
almost entirely a missionary diocese, there are 6 3 clergy, of 
whom 28 are Africans. The educational establishments 
include a " Callaway Memorial " College at St. John's, St. 
Bede's Theological College and an industrial mission at 
Umtata, and a girls' training school at Engcobo. At the 
theological college a large number of African clergy have 
been trained. One of them, Canon Masiza, who was for 
more than fifty years a missionary, proved conclusively 
that it is possible for an African to minister to colonial 
(i.e. European) congregations, and to be loved and respected 
by those not of his own colour. 1 

The first bishop of the diocese of Natal (1853) was 
Dr. J. W. Colenso. Soon after his appointment he caused 
distress to many missionaries by urging that polyganiists 
should be allowed to be baptized. Later on, the book 
which he published on higher criticism applied to the 
O.T. resulted, after a long period of controversy, in his trial 
and deposition by Bishop Gray, who proceeded to appoint 
a successor in his place. Bishop Colenso, however, 
supported by the civil courts and by a section of his 
clergy, continued in Natal till his death in 1883. The 
unhappy division which had been created in the diocese 
was not finally healed till 1901. Despite the long-con- 
tinued ecclesiastical dispute a good deal of missionary 
work has been accomplished. 

St. Alban's native training college at Estcouri has 
educated and sent forth a considerable number of clergy, 

1 South Africa, by Bishop Baynes, p. 129. 


catechists and teachers, who are at work in Natal and 

Successful mission work has also been carried on 
amongst the large population of immigrants from India, 
especially in the neighbourhood of Durban. There is a 
boarding school for boys at Eiverdale and one for girls at 
Euhlouhlweni, and a home for girls at Maritzburg. There 
are about 8000 baptized African Christians in the diocese 
connected with the Anglican missions. 

The diocese of Zululand, which was formed in 1870, 
was the outcome of the Memorial Mission which was 
established in memory of Bishop Charles Mackenzie, who 
was a missionary in Natal and was afterwards appointed 
Bishop for the U.M.C.A. The diocese includes Zululand. 
Tongaland, Swaziland and the districts of Vryheicl, 
Utrecht and Piet Eetief. Its African population is about 

The chief centres of work are at Kwa Magwaza, where 
there is a training college for African teachers and cate- 
chists, also a mission hospital, and St. Augustine's, near 
Eorke's Drift, where Archdeacon Johnson superintends the 
work carried on at about seventy different centres. The first 
Anglican missionary was the Eev. E. Eobertson, who entered 
the country in 1860 and established himself with other 
workers at Kwa Magwaza in the days of King Panda. 
Later on a station was opened in Swaziland, near the 
river Usutu. After the death of Bishop Mackenzie 
(1862) a Mackenzie Memorial Mission to Zululand was 

There are 34 Anglican clergy at work in the diocese, 
of whom 14 are Africans. 

The diocese of Blocmfontein, which was formed in 
1863, now includes the Orange Free State and Basuto- 
land. It has been suggested that the Anglican Church 
ought not to have established a mission at Thaba Nchu in 
Basutoland, inasmuch as the Paris Mission was already 
represented there, but in view of the fact that this place 
was the centre of a wide district, the vast majority of the 


inhabitants of which were still heathens, it cannot be 
maintained that " effective occupation " had been established 
by this mission. 

The spirit in which the Anglican work was organized 
may best be described in the words of Canon Widdicombe, 
its chief organizer, who stated that the desire of the 
Anglican missionaries was, " to respect the labours of 
those missionaries already in the country, who, in the 
present divided state of Christendom, are unhappily not 
in communion with our branch of the Church catholic : not 
to receive into the communion of the (Anglican) Church, 
should they desire to enter it, Christians of other religious 
bodies under censure for evil conduct, or any whose motives 
for wishing to unite with us were not, as far as could be 
judged, pure and above reproach." 1 

The missionary activities in the diocese include St. 
Mary's Training College for Women Teachers at Thlotse 
Heights, Basutoland, St. Catherine's Industrial Girls' 
School at Maseru, the work of the Society of the Sacred 
Mission at Modderpoort, and of the Sisterhood of St. 
Michael and All Angels at Bloemfontein. 

In 1911 the diocese was divided and a new diocese of 
Kiiriberley and Kuruman was formed, which includes the 
whole of Bechuanalaud and Griqualand West, with 
Kimberley as its centre. The missionary work of the 
Anglican Church is chiefly carried on in South Bechuana- 
laud, the principal centre being Phokoane. The majority 
of the clergy are Africans. 

The diocese of Pretoria was formed in 187 7, but until 
after the Boer War comparatively little missionary work 
could be attempted. The chief centre of work is the Eand, 
near Johannesburg, which is a series of towns extending 
for fifty miles. An effort has been made to establish a 
strong centre at Johannesburg, with a school for catechists. 
The European missionaries pay sectional visits along the 
Eeef and African catechists are stationed at the large 
centres, whilst travelling catechists work in the intervening 

1 Fourteen Years in Basutoland, p. 76. 


country. The contributions received from the Africans are 
sufficient to pay the salaries of the catechists. The work 
is chiefly carried on by the Community of the Eesurrection 
in connection with the S.P.G. Work amongst women on 
the Eancl is also carried on. 

The diocese of Mashonaland l was formed in 1891, the 
headquarters of the missionary organization being at Fort 
Salisbury. The chief mission centres are at Penhalonga, 
where there are industrial schools for boys and girls (in 
which 240 boys and 80 girls are being trained), Salisbury, 
Buluwayo, Bembezi, Francistown, Wreningham, Victoria 
and Eusape. 

The moral and social improvement of the natives, 
which has been the visible outcome of the missionary work 
done amongst them, has done much in Mashonaland to enlist 
the sympathies of the European population, which through- 
out, South Africa has been frequently antagonistic to mis- 
sionary work. The change of opinion that has been effected 
in Mashonaland may be illustrated by a recent statement 
which occurred in the leading newspaper at Buluwayo : 
" He who scoffs or sneers at missions writes himself down 
as a fool or something worse." 

The baptized Christians connected with the Anglican 
missions number about 6000. 

The diocese of Lebonibo, which was formed in 1891, and 
of which the first bishop (Dr. Smyth) was consecrated in 
189 3, is in Portuguese territory, and includes Delagoa Bay 
and the country which lies between the Lebombo Mountains 
and the Indian Ocean. The total population is about 
700,000. At St. Christopher's College in the Lebombo 
Mountains, which was founded in 1901, African clergy and 
catechists are being trained, their training including a 

tJ O O 

course of manual labour. Other centres of work are at 
Louren^o Marques, Inhambane East and West, and in 
Chopiland. The population consists chiefly of Bantu tribes, 
who speak several different languages. 

1 The title of the diocese is about to be changed to Southern Rhodesia. 


The London Missionary Society. 

In 1799, during the first British occupation of the 
Cape, the " South African Society for Promoting the Exten- 
sion of Christ's Kingdom " was formed by Dr. Van der 
Kemp and the Kev. M. C. Vos. The former had recently 
arrived as a representative of the L.M.S., which was 
formed in 1795. The Dutch Government from 1802-6 
hindered the extension of their work, but on the restora- 
tion of British government it began to expand. Van 
der Kemp married a daughter of a slave " of Madagascar 
extraction," and three other of the L.M.S. missionaries 
married Hottentot wives, a fact which created great 
prejudice against them and their work amongst the Dutch 
settlers. Work was started amongst the Hottentots in 
Griqualand, amongst the Bechuanas, and amongst the 
Namaquas, but, partly in consequence of the difficult 
character of the peoples amongst whom they worked, and 
partly in consequence of the lack of wisdom and missionary 
enthusiasm on the part of the early missionaries, the 
progress made was slow and discouraging. Van der 
Kemp, after an unsuccessful attempt to work in Kafirland, 
settled first at Graaff Eeinet and afterwards at Bethelsdorp, 
near Algoa Bay, where he gathered a small society of 
Christian Hottentots. He died in 1811. In this year 
the work of the L.M.S. was separated from that of the 
" South African Society for Promoting the Extension of 
Christ's Kingdom " and was placed under the super- 
intendence of one of the L.M.S. missionaries in South 
Africa. From this time onwards the L.M.S. missionaries 
had occasion to make frequent complaints, both to the 
local authorities and to the Government at home, of the 
ill-treatment which the Hottentots and other African 
peoples received at the hands of the English and Dutch 
colonists. The missionaries were sometimes prejudiced 
or ill-informed, but in many cases their complaints were 
justified, and the Africans benefited by their interference. 

In 1859 the L.M.S. formed the congregations which it 


had helped to establish in Cape Colony into a Congrega- 
tional Union. In 18 So these congregations were received 
into the fellowship of the " Congregational Union of South 
Africa," and ceased to have any direct connection with the 
Society at home. 

In 1816, Robert Moffat (I. 1795), who had been an 
nnder-gardener in Scotland, was sent by the L.M.S. as 
a missionary to South Africa. After a period of waiting 
at Stellenbosch he reached Afrikaner's Kraal in Namaqua- 
land in 1818. In 1821, at the request of the L.M.S. 
superintendent in South Africa, he started work amongst 
the Bechuanas and settled on the banks of the Kuruman 
Eiver. In 1829 the mission work began to bear visible 
fruit and the first six converts were baptized. In 1837, 
Moffat visited England in order to arrange for the printing 
of his Sechuana version of the New Testament and was 
received with the greatest enthusiasm. 

In 1843 he returned to South Africa, and by 1857 he 
had completed the translation of the whole of the Bible 
into Sechuana. In 1870, after nearly fifty years spent in 
South Africa, he retired from active work and died in 
1883, aged eighty-seven. He and Dr. Livingstone, his 
son-in-law, have left an enduring impress upon missionary 
work in South Africa. 

After his death his son continued for a time in charge of 
the mission at Kuruman, which included the Moffat institu- 
tion for the training of African evangelists. This institution 
was subsequently removed to Tiger Kloof, near Vryburg. 

David Livingstone, who was born at Blantyre, 
March 19, 1813, began work in a factory at the age 
of ten, and worked from 6 a.m. to 8 p.m. Part of his 
first week's wages were spent on the purchase of a Latin 
grammar, and by attending a night school after his work 
in the mill he prepared himself for Glasgow University, 
where, supporting himself meanwhile, he took his medical 
degree. He then volunteered to the L.M.S. to go as a 
missionary to China, but was sent to Africa. When called 
upon as a student to preach a sermon he gave out a text 


and then said, " Friends, I have forgotten all I had to say," 
and forthwith left the chapel. In 1841, at the age of 
twenty-eight, he sailed for Africa. From 1841 to 1852 
he acted as a missionary, and from 1852 to 1873 as a 
missionary explorer. His first station was at Mabotsa, 
where he married a daughter of Dr. Moffat. The chief, 
Sechele, became a Christian, and Christian influence had 
begun to spread widely when the Boers attacked and 
plundered the town and carried off 200 of the mission 
children as slaves, after burning the mission-house and 
school. 1 It was, to a large extent, Livingstone's horror of 
slavery as he saw it in South Africa that turned him 
into an explorer. The ambition which he formed was to 
open up Central Africa in order that by the establishment 
of proper trade-routes and by the discovery of satisfactory 
outlets to the sea, the slave-trade might be rendered 
unnecessary and eventually be suppressed. 

It is not possible to do more than give the briefest 
outline of his travels. His first long journey of explora- 
tion was to Loauda on the west coast, in Portuguese 
Africa. By this journey he established the fact that much 
country which had been supposed to be desert was fertile 
land through which ran a magnificent waterway. Return- 
ing overland from Loanda in order to restore his twenty- 
seven Makololo companions to their homes, he turned 
east and, after discovering the Victoria Falls, reached the 
coast at Quilimane. Thence he returned to England, and 
at the historic meeting held in the Senate House at 
Cambridge in 1857, which resulted in the formation of 
the Universities' Mission to Central Africa, he ended his 
address with the words, " I know that in a few years I shall 
be cut off in that country which is now open : do not let 
it be shut again. I go back to Africa to try and make an 
open path for commerce and Christianity. Do you carry 
out the work which I have begun. I leave it with you." 

The direct result of this speech was the starting of the 

1 See Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa, by David 
Livingstone, p. 39. Published 1857. 


Universities' Mission to Central Africa, which now works 
in Zanzibar, German East Africa and Northern Rhodesia. 
On his return to Africa, Livingstone explored the Zambesi 
and the Shire, and discovered Lake Nyasa. Later on, he 
crossed the Indian Ocean in a small river steamer, navi- 
gated by himself, and after his return to Africa spent the 
last two years of his life searching for the sources of the Nile. 
Rescued by Stanley when in great distress at Ujiji in 1872, 
he refused to return to England, and died on his knees in 
prayer at Ilala to the south of Lake Bangweolo on May 1, 

The annals of missionary enterprise contain no more 
wonderful illustration of the love wherewith a missionary 
has inspired his followers than that afforded by the 
conduct of Susi and Chuma, the two Africans who, after 
embalming their teacher's body, carried it for hundreds of 
miles through hostile tribes, at the peril of their own 
lives, and delivered it at length to English officials on the 
coast. The inscription which is placed over the spot where 
the body now rests in Westminster Abbey, reads : 

" Brought by faithful hands over land and sea, here rests 
David Livingstone, missionary, traveller, philanthropist; 
born March 19, 1813, at Blantyre, Lanarkshire ; died May 4, 1 
1873, at Chitambo's village, Ilala. For thirty years his life 
was spent in an unwearied effort to evangelize the native 
races, to explore the undiscovered secrets, and abolish the 
desolating slave-trade of Central Africa, where with his last 
words he wrote : ' All I can say in my solitude is, may 
Heaven's rich blessing come down on every one American, 
English, Turk who will help to heal this open sore of the 

Livingstone's claim to fame as an explorer is a 
unique one. He travelled twenty-nine thousand miles in 
Africa, and added to the parts of the world known to 
civilized men nearly one million square miles. Although 
equipped with but third-rate instruments, he recorded 
his innumerable observations with scientih'c accuracy and 

1 This date should probably be May 1. 


contributed more towards the construction of the map of 
Africa than perhaps any three other explorers who could 
be named. It was not, however, as an explorer that he 
lived and died. He was primarily and above all else a 
missionary. He wrote of himself : " I am a missionary, 
heart and soul. God had an only Son and He was a 
missionary. A poor, poor imitation of Him I am or wish 
to be. Tn this service I hope to live, in it I wish to die." 
The primary task which he set before him was the 
abolition of the slave-trade, and his life and death hastened 
by many long years the accomplishment of this object. 
The writer of this volume has himself witnessed in West 
Africa many of the horrors of the slave-trade which 
Livingstone often described, but here, as well as in the wide 
districts which Livingstone traversed, slave-raiding is now 
no more. 

The secret of Livingstone's success, as of that of every 
other great missionary, was his capacity for sympathy. 
His Christlike sympathy we can use no other epithet 
enabled him to win the confidence of the African chiefs 
whom he visited, of their peoples amongst whom he stayed, 
and of the carriers who formed his travelling companions. 
Apart from the indomitable will and the unfaltering 
courage which he possessed he could not have attempted 
the task that he essayed, but without the loving sympathy, 
which was a divine gift, his task would have remained 

In 1856, on the occasion of Livingstone's visit to 
England, the L.M.S. arranged to start a mission among the 
Matabele in Southern Rhodesia. It would be difficult to 
name any mission field where so much heroic and self-denying 
labour has been expended with so little visible result. 
The pioneer, Thomas Sykes, died in 1887 without having 
baptized a single convert. Coillard, writing in 1878, 
said : " You ask me what influence the gospel has had up 
till now on this savage nation ? Alas ! apparently none 
whatever. I confess it is the most perplexing problem of 
modern missions. . . . (the missionaries) have laboured for 


twenty years in this country. In spite of all these efforts 
and sacrifices there is no school, no church, not a single 
convert. In fact, I do not know which ought most to 
astonish the Christian world, the barrenness of this mission 
field or the courage and perseverance of these noble 
servants of Christ, who have for so long ploughed and 
sown in tears." After the defeat and exile of Lobengula 
in 189-4 a little progress was made, but the mission con- 
tinues to be one of the most discouraging in South Africa. 

A much more encouraging mission was established 
in 1862 at Shoshong amongst the Bamaugwato tribe in 
Bechuanalaud. Kbama, the son of the chief, who had em- 
braced Christianity, established himself after some fighting 
as chief at Shoshong. From the first he showed his resolve 
to banish heathen customs and to govern according 
to Christian principles. His kingdom to-day affords a 
unique example of a country governed by an African 
chief whose conduct conforms to the teaching of Christi- 
anity. His capital was moved later on to Palapye, and 
again moved to Serowe. 

The L.M.S. stations in Bechuanaland include Kuruman, 
Tiger Kloof and Vryburg, and in the Bechuanaland Pro- 
tectorate Molopolole and Kanye. 

The total number of baptized Christians in connection 
with the L.M.S. missions in South Africa is about 22,000. 

Wesleyan Missions. 

In 1816 the Eev. B. Shaw, a Methodist minister who 
had been sent by the W.M.S., reached Capetown, and a few 
months later settled at Kaniiesbergeii in Namaqualand. 
His work lay chiefly amongst Naniaqua Hottentots, with 
whom were intermingled representatives of several other 
races. After ten years he was removed to Capetown to 
work amongst Europeans. 

In 1823 work was begun amongst the Kafirs in 
Kaffraria, six stations being established, forming a chain 
200 miles long. In 1822, Samuel Broadbent established 



a pioneer mission amongst the Baralong in Bechuanaland. 
In 1833 the people amongst whom the mission was work- 
ing migrated to Thaba Nchu in Basutoland, accompanied 
by their missionaries. Since 1832 the Wesleyan Church 
in South Africa has had an independent organization, and as 
the Wesleyan Methodist South African Missionary Society 
it carries on work independently of the W.M.S. in England. 

It is difficult to trace the subsequent development of 
Wesleyan missions, as in their reports work amongst 
Africans is not distinguished from that amongst Europeans. 
After making an encouraging start the various Wesleyan 
missions for many years made but slow progress, a fact 
which was partly due to the series of native wars, and to 
the " cattle-killing delusion " which impoverished the people 
in Kaffraria in 1857. After 1866, when a revival took 
place, there came a period of steady growth. In 1847 a 
new mission was started at Edendale in Swaziland which has 
developed considerably since. 

According to the returns of the Government census of 
the Union of South Africa for 1911, there are 396,797 
Wesleyans and 53,100 connected with the American 
Methodist Episcopal Church. These figures include 

The A.M.E.C. started work at Old Umtali in Southern 
Ehodesia in 1899 and at Inhambane and Beira on the east 
coast in 1901. The work in Southern Khodesia has made 
some progress and there are about 1200 baptized converts. 

The Free Methodist Church has a few stations in Natal 
and one at Germiston, near Johannesburg. 

French Missions. 

In 1829 three missionaries sent by the Paris Evan- 
gelical Missionary Society reached Capetown, one of whom 
began work amongst Hottentots at Wellington, whilst the 
other two went north and started work at Motito, near 
Kururnan. In 1834, at the invitation of Moshesh, the 
Basuto chief, work was begun near Thaba Bosiu (Bosigo). 

AFRICA (SOUTH) 32. 1> > 

In this district the work rapidly developed. From the 
beginning of the work at Thaba Bosiu the chief Moshesh, 
accompanied by 400 of his people, attended the Sunday 
services. By 1850 eleven stations had been occupied and 
1200 Christians had been baptized. In 1858 the mission 
staff was joined by Francois Coillard, one of the most devoted 
and successful of the missionaries who have worked in South 
Africa. During the wars and disputes of the next ten years 
between the Basutos and the Boers of the Free State the 
mission suffered considerably, and for a period of three years 
the 13 French missionaries were kept out of Basutoland 
by the Boers. In 1869, when Great Britain came to 
the assistance of the Basutos, the mission was resumed. 
During the absence of the missionaries a revival had taken 
place and 436 candidates for baptism were awaiting their 
return. Since then the mission has steadily progressed. 

In 1884 a number of Christians from Basutoland 
under the leadership of Coillard established a mission 
amongst the Barotsi people in the neighbourhood of the 
Zambesi. The Barotsi were a far more backward and 
degraded race than the Basutos, and, according to Coillard, 
it took twenty years " to bring the Barotsi up to the social 
level of the Basuto when mission work began among them 
in 1833." 1 

The climate proved very unhealthy, and in three years, 
1899-1901, 9 missionaries died. The last seven years of 
Coillard's life (he died in 1904) were clouded with sorrow 
and anxiety in regard to the future of his mission. In 
his will he had written : " I solemnly bequeath to the 
Churches of France, my native land, the responsibility of 
the Lord's work in Barotsiland, and I adjure them in His 
Holy name, never to give it up which would be to despise 
and renounce the rich harvest reserved to the sowing they 
have accomplished in suffering and tears." 

In 1910 there were in the Basutoland and Barotsiland 
Missions 15 head stations, with 43 European missionaries 
and 17,100 baptized members. 

1 Life of Franfois Coillard, p. 329. 


Scottish Missions. 

The Glasgow Missionary Society, which was formed in 
1796, and the work of which was eventually taken over 
by the United Free Church of Scotland, sent out in 1820 
the Eev. W. E. Thomson, who joined a representative 
of the L.M.S. who had settled amongst Gaika's people in 
Kaffraria. Two further representatives of the Glasgow 
Society founded the station of Lovedale in 1824. 

During the Kafir War, 1834-35, Lovedale and other 
mission stations were laid in ruins, and at the close of the 
war Lovedale was rebuilt on a new site on the west bank 
of the river Chumie. In 1840 the educational and 
industrial work at Lovedale was greatly enlarged, but in 
the war of 1846 it was again nearly destroyed. In 1850 
another war broke out which caused widespread destruction, 
but the progress which Christian missions had made was 
evinced by the fact that in this war 1500 African 
Christians refused to side with their fellow-countrymen. 
When the Free Church of Scotland was constituted in 
1843 the missionaries in South Africa became members 
of it, and the Glasgow Missionary Society was placed under 
the Free Church's Foreign Missions Committee. 

After the close of the Kafir War of 1851 the mission- 
aries rebuilt Lovedale with the aid of a Government grant, 
and it gradually became one of the most important 
missionary centres in South Africa. The wide influence 
which it has exerted throughout South Africa has been 
largely due to the work of Dr. James Stewart, who became 
Principal in 1867 and continued for nearly forty years. 
Carpentry, masonry, wagon-making, blacksmithing, and 
every kind of industrial work in addition to various 
branches of general education were started. Between 
1870 and 1874 the number of students rose from 92 to 
480, and the fees paid by them steadily increased. In 
1907 the fees received amounted to 5503. There are 
now (1914) 526 scholars. 

In 1877 Blythswood, in the Transkei, was founded in 


direct imitation of Lovedale, the Fingoes, for whose benefit 
it was started, having first contributed 1000 towards its 
cost. The United Free Church started work on the 
Erngwali River, and work at several other centres in close 
co-operation with the United Free Church missionaries has 
also been carried on by the Free Church of Scotland in 
East Griqualand, and in the Greytown district of Natal. 

" The real value of the Scottish missions in South Africa 
lies not so much in the extent of territory which they cover 
though this is by no means inconsiderable as in the 
widespread influence wielded by their educational establish- 
ments. Lovedale, Ely ths wood, Emgwali are names that 
stand out as landmarks in the history of educational 
mission work in South Africa. Of Lovedale this is true 
in an especial degree. Its students are found all over 
South Africa, filling various positions of trust and responsi- 
bility, as native ministers, catechists, teachers, tradesmen, 
farmers, interpreters, clerks, employees and servants. . . . 
We may sincerely echo the prayer that, under the hand of 
God, the promise of its future may be even greater than the 
performance of its past." 1 

German Missions. 

The Rhenisli Missionary Society, which began to send 
men to South Africa in 1829, supports work on the west 
coast between Capetown and the Orange River. Its 
chief centres are Worcester, Stellenbosch, Wupperthal, 
Sharon and Steinkop. It has also a station at Carnarvon. 
Part of its work in Namaqualand and Damaraland lies in 
German South-West Africa. The total number of baptized 
converts is about 16,000. 

The Berlin Missionary Society (Die Gesellschaft zur 
Beforderung der evangelischen Missioueu unter den Heiden), 
which was established in 1824, sent 5 missionaries to 
South Africa in 1834. They began work amongst the 
Korauna between the Orange and Vaal Rivers, and four 
years later joined with the South African Mission Society 

1 Christian Missions in South Africa, by Du Plessis, p. 364 f. 


in work which this society had started in Cape Colony, and 
eventually founded a number of stations in Kaffraria and 
in Griqualand East. Their work lay both amongst the 
Hottentots and the Kafirs. Up to 1853 their work was 
greatly interrupted by the various Kafir wars. In 1860 
pioneer missionaries went north to the Transvaal, and in 
1865 they established a mission at Botshabelo, near 
Middelburg, which soon prospered greatly. During the 
following ten years (1865-75) fourteen new stations were 
opened in the Transvaal, where the work has so greatly 
developed that it exceeds that of any other missionary 
society in the Transvaal. 

A mission to Mashonaland was organized in 1892, but 
after three stations had been opened the Society transferred 
them in 1907 to the Dutch Reformed Church. 

In addition to the centres already mentioned the 
Society has established missions at Ladysmith (1856), 
Eiversdale (1868), Herbertsdale (1872), Mossel Bay 
(1879), Laingsburg (1884), Capetown (1907), and has 
seven centres in Natal. The total number of baptized 
converts is about 24,000. Amongst its more notable 
missionaries have been Wuras, who worked at Bethany in 
Kaffraria for nearly fifty years, and Grlitzner, who worked 
as a missionary at Bethany and elsewhere for forty-nine 
years. Its staff of European workers is 160, including 67 
ordained ministers. It has also 21 ordained African 
ministers. Its work is carried on at 55 chief stations and 
nearly 1000 sub-stations. 

The Hermannsburg Mission. In 1854, Pastor Ludwig 
Harms of Hermannsburg in Hanover dispatched a boat 
containing 12 missionaries and 8 colonists to found a 
mission in South Africa. Their first centre was at a place 
to which they gave the name Hermannsburg, near Grey- 
town, in Natal. The attempts at colonization were not 
successful, but the mission succeeded in giving a large 
amount of useful industrial training to the natives amongst 
whom it was established. 

In 1857, on the invitation of Pretorius, President of 


the Orange Free State, work was established at Shoshong, 
where one of the missionaries baptized Khama (see account 
of L.M.S. mission to the Bechuanas, p. 321). 

A few years later several stations were opened in 
the Western Transvaal. 

The baptized Christians connected with the Hernianns- 
burg Mission number about 25,000. 

The Hanoverian Free Church Mission, which started in 
1878 as an offshoot of the Hermannsburg Mission, has 
8 stations, with 10 European missionaries and about 
6000 converts. 

The American Board Missions (A.B.C.F.M.). 

In 1834 the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions sent six missionaries to South Africa, 
hoping to start work amongst the Zulus. The missionaries 
were allowed by the chief Dingaan to settle at Port 
Natal, but in consequence of a war between him and 
the Boers they and the C.M.S. missionary, Owen, were 
forced to leave the country. One of their number, 
Lindley, was eventually appointed a minister by the Dutch 
Volksraad. Two others carried on missionary work at 
the Umgeui and Umlazi Elvers. By 1850 twelve stations 
had been established which were occupied by 14 
missionaries, and 123 baptized members were reported. 
By 1870 these had increased to 500. During recent 
years the mission has been steadily expanding, and after 
1894 the American Board was not called upon to make 
any grant towards the support of African congregations or 
African preachers in Natal. The majority of the present 
American staff are engaged in educational work, the most 
important educational centre being the Amanzimtote semi- 
nary and industrial school, which was established in 1853 
in the neighbourhood of Durban. Towards the support of 
the mission's educational work the Natal Government 
makes a grant of 7000 annually. 

The total number of baptized converts is about 5500. 


In 1906, as the result of a careful investigation of 
the records of the Amanzimtote seminary and industrial 
school, it was shown that out of 800 pupils whose record 
could be traced, only 1 1 had heen convicted of crime ; 
10 per cent, had turned out badly, 20 per cent, were 
good workmen but not Christians, while 70 per cent, 
were living lives which were a credit both to their school 
and to their religion. 

Members of the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions have produced the translation of the 
Bible into Zulu, which was completed in 1883, and is 
used by the other societies working amongst the Zulus. 

In 1894, after several unsuccessful attempts, the 
Society started work in Eastern Ehodesia at Mount Silinda, 
and at Chikore, near the Sabi Eiver. It has also a little 
work on the Rand at Johannesburg. 

Moravian Missions. 

Reference has already been made to the first attempts 
on the part of the Moravians to start missionary work 
in South Africa (see p. 54). In 1823 they undertook 
to minister to the leper settlement near Caledon, and in 
1846, when the lepers were moved to Robben Island, 
a Moravian missionary accompanied them. In 1826 
work construction was started at Shiloh amongst Tembus 
and Hottentots. By 1840 the Moravians had seven stations 
with a membership of 4500. Since then their work in 
the Cape province has largely developed. In South Africa 
they have now 65 European or American and 624 African 
workers, 23 mission chief stations, 7153 communicants 
and 21,133 baptized Christians (1914). 

Missions of the Dutch Reformed Church. 

It has sometimes been asserted that the Dutch have 
been the greatest opponents of Christian missions in South 
Africa. This statement has, unfortunately, a measure of 


truth in it, inasmuch as the Dutch opposed and interfered 
with the work of Dr. Moffat and Dr. Livingstone and 
many other early missionaries ; but it is by no means true 
to-day to say that the Dutch take no interest in missions. 
In the charter of their East India Company, which was 
formed in 1602, and which built the first fortress at the 
Cape in 1652, there was a clause inculcating the duty of 
instructing the children of the " natives," " in order that 
the Name of Christ may be extended," and during the 
next seventy-five years more than 1100 children and 
50 adult slaves were baptized. In 1799 was formed 
" The South African Society for Promoting the Extension 
of Christ's Kingdom." In 1861 this Society commenced 
a " foreign " mission in the Transvaal (with the aid of 
a Scotsman named M'Kidd and a Swiss named Gonin), 
in 1888 they began work in Nyasaland, and in 1891 in 

The Home Mission work of the Dutch Eeformed 
Church in the Cape province is carried on amongst the 
coloured population, entirely in the Dutch language. 
There are at present sixty-seven congregations, with 
17,500 members, while during the year 1913 over 1200 
were confirmed. 

The Foreign Missions of the Dutch Church may be 
divided into two classes namely, the older fields, south 
of the Limpopo River, started about fifty years ago, and 
the newer fields, north of this boundary, which were 
entered upon about twenty-five years ago. 

The former work is carried on in what are now the 
Zoutpansberg and Rustenberg districts. At present there 
are in connection with this older work 7 mission 
stations, with 8 ordained missionaries (one of whom is 
an African), and 78 outposts under African evangelists. 
On these stations and out-stations there are mission 
schools. The membership is now over 5000, and 300 
members were admitted during the past year. 

The other two fields of mission work of the Dutch 
Church lie farther north, in Mashonaland and Nyasaland. 


The work in Mashonaland is carried on among the 
Vakaranga or Banyai, a rather degraded race, who were 
the slaves of the Matabele, and very much oppressed by 
them. The headquarters of this mission are at Morgen- 
ster, three miles from the Zimbabwe ruins in the 
Victoria district. The Dutch Church has there 8 chief 
stations, 20 outposts and 35 mission schools. There 
are 28 European workers, of whom 12 are ordained 
missionaries. The total membership is 330, and the com- 
municants are about the same in number. 

The largest foreign field of the Dutch Church is in 

o O 

Nyasaland, in a district lying to the south-west of the 
lake, between the Blantyre Mission of the Established 
Church of Scotland and the Livingstonia Mission of the 
United Free Church. The population is about 400,000, 
and the people call themselves Achewa or Anyanja. 

To the west of this field, and adjoining it, in North- 
East Rhodesia, is the mission sphere of the Dutch Church 
of the Orange Free State, with 5 stations ; while to the 
south, in Portuguese territory, the Transvaal Dutch Church 
has started work at 3 stations. 

Altogether in these three sections of the work there 
are 16 chief stations, with about GO European mission- 
aries, and 600 outposts, under charge of evangelists and 
teachers trained at an institution at Myera, the present 
head station. 

There has been a great extension in this work during 
the past ten years. The Church counts over 4000 
members, while about 7000 are in the baptism or cate- 
chumen classes, and 60,000 children and adults are under 
daily instruction in the mission schools. There has been a 
great spiritual awakening among the people ; the Chris- 
tians are earnest and active, about one-fourth of them 
being workers for the spread of the gospel. The income 
for Foreign Missions in 1886 was 1700, and in 1913 
had risen to 25,000, an average of 4s. per member. 


Scandinavian Missionary Societies. 

In 1844 the Norwegian Missionary Society, which 
was founded by members of the Church of Norway in 
1826, sent Hans Schreuder as a missionary to Zululand. 
After a preliminary failure and a visit to China he and 
thirty others started a mission station in 1850 at Um- 
pumulo on the borders of Zululand. After twenty-five 
years' steady work the number of Christians was 245. In 
1913 the Society had 12 chief stations in Natal and 
Zululand, with 31 European workers and 3842 baptized 
Christians. Schreuder, its first missionary, founded in 
1872 an independent society which is called The Church 
of Norway Mission, of which Bishop Nils Astrup is the 
present head. There were 5 European and 3 African 
clergy attached to it in 1910. 

The Church of Sweden Mission. 

The Lutheran Church of Sweden conducts its mis- 
sionary work through a Board. Its fields of work are 
in India and South Africa. 

Its first missionary to South Africa arrived in 1876. 
Work was commenced in Natal, its chief centre being 
Dundee. Other centres are at Appelsbosch in the Um- 
voti country, Ekuhuleni in Zululand, and Johannesburg. 
It has also commenced a mission in Southern Ehodesia. 
The mission has 8 chief stations, 13 ordained European 
missionaries, 1 ordained African, and 3408 baptized 
converts (1910). 

In addition to the three Scandinavian societies men- 
tioned, there are several other small societies, e.g. the Mission 
of the Swedish Holiness Union, the Scandinavian Alliance 
Mission, the Scandinavian Independent Baptist Union. 

The Finnish Missionary Society sent representatives to 
Walfisch Bay in South Africa, in 1869, who began to 
work in Ovamboland. In the Ondonga district their work 
has specially prospered. The Society has 37 European 


and 35 African workers, and 8 chief stations. The 
number of baptized Christians is over 2000. 

Undenominational Missions. 

The South Africa General Mission, or the Cape General 
Mission as it was first called, was organized in 1889 to 
work amongst both the white and the coloured populations. 
Its missionary work is in Swaziland, Kaffraria, Tongaland, 
and amongst Indian immigrants in Natal. It is at present 
only a pioneer agency and has no form of Church 
government. It lias found it impossible to obtain a supply 
of educated or trained workers, and has in some instances 
had to rely upon the services of men and women who 
were ill- qualified for missionary work of any kind. 

The Salvation Army started work amongst Africans in 
1890 near Eshowe in Zululand. It has organized agri- 
cultural mission centres here, at King William's Town and 
other centres in Kaffraria, in the Transkei, on the Eand at 
Johannesburg, in Matabeleland and Mashonaland. The work 
has shown considerable advance during the last few years. 

Keference ought also to be made to the South African 
Baptist Missionary Society (1892) and the missions of the 
Presbyterian Church of South Africa (1904). 

Roman Catholic Missions. 

Eeference has already been made to the E.G. missions 
in East Africa in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. In 1685 six Jesuit priests paid a visit to 
Capetown on their way to Siam, but were not permitted 
by the Dutch to celebrate Mass. In 1805 two priests 
obtained the permission of the Dutch authorities to settle 
at the Cape in order to minister to their fellow-religionists, 
but on the reconquest of the Cape by the English they 
were ordered to leave. In 1820 a E.G. church was 
built and a priest was appointed. It was not, however, 
till many years later that any definitely missionary work 


was attempted. The missionary work which is now being 
carried on is so closely identified with the work amongst 
Europeans that it is difficult to ascertain its extent. 

In the eastern and western vicariates of the Cape no 
missionary work had been attempted before 1879. In 
that year Bishop Eicards bought a tract of land near 
Port Elizabeth and stationed on it thirty-one brethren 
belonging to the Trappist Order, but in 1882 these 
abandoned this site as unfruitful and built a monastery at 
Pinetown in Natal, between Durban and Maritzburg. 
Here have been erected a fine church, a hospital and an in- 
dustrial school. The work of the Trappists has developed, 
and there are now 22 chief centres of their work in 
Natal and East Griqualand. The schools under their 
charge exceed 100. 

In Basutoland, Dr. Allard established a mission station 
in 1862 near Thaba Bosiu, which is now called Koma. 
The work, which is carried on at 9 chief stations, is super- 
intended by 25 priests and lay brothers (Oblates of Mary 
Immaculate). There are 51 European and African nuns, 
and the African adherents number 11,000. 

The Orange Kiver vicariate, which was created in 1898, 
includes the mission station of Pella, which was occupied 
in 1870 by the Fathers of the African Mission of Lyons, 
but was transferred in 1882 to the Oblates of St. Francis 
of Sales. In the Kimberley and Transvaal vicariates no 
missionary work is at present being carried on. 

In Damaraland and Great Namaqualand the Oblates 
of St. Francis of Sales occupy 1 3 stations, but the converts 
only number about 200. 

In Barotsiland the Jesuits commenced mission work 
in 1879, but eventually withdrew. They have several 
stations in Matabeleland and Mashonaland, their most 
important stations being at Empandeni (near Plumtree) 
and at Chishwasha (near Salisbury). They have also a 
mission at Shupanga on the Zambesi, and at Chinkoni in 
North-West Ehodesia. 

In German South- West Africa 3 priests made an un- 



successful attempt in 1878 to start work amongst the 
Omaruru. In 1896 the Oblates of Mary Immaculate 
commenced a mission among the Herero. The E.G. 
missions in South Africa which minister both to Europeans 
and to Africans have 313 European priests, 445 lay 
brothers, 1667 sisters, 258 stations and out-stations, 269 
churches and chapels, and 58,548 adherents. 

General Outlook. 

There are over thirty missionary societies now at work 
in South Africa, and, according to the Government census 
for 1911 (which omits Hhodesia, Basutoland, the 
Bechuaualand Protectorate and Swaziland), the total 
number of African Christians is 1,053,706 ; of these the 
Anglicans number 170,704, Wesleyans 396,797, Lutherans 
113,125,Congregationalists 7 4, 6 3 7, Dutch Church 71,422, 
Presbyterians 68,211, American Methodist Episcopalians 
53,100. The Cape province has the largest number of 
African Christians, 472,304; Transvaal has 282,420; 
Orange Free State, 158,017; and Natal, 140,965. The 
total " native " population, according to the census, is 
4,061,082; in British territory outside the Union there 
are 1,367,483, and in German and Portuguese territory 
3,120,000, making a total "native" population of 8,506,489. 

The following statistics are taken from the Government 
census of 1911 : 





Cape of Good Hope 










Transvaal . 





Orange Free State . 





Total . 






The population of the Union of South Africa, which 
comprises these four States, increased from 5,175,824 in 
1907 to 5,958,490 in 1911. During this period the 
European population increased at the rate of 14*4 per cent, 
and the population other than European at 15 '3 per cent. 

It will be seen that the relation between the numbers 
of Europeans and Africans di tiers greatly in different 
districts. In Cape Colony the Africans outnumber the 
Europeans by nearly 4 to 1 ; in Basutoland they out- 
number them by 380 to 1. 

The experience of missionaries in all parts of Africa 
has been that where they have been enabled to carry on 
their work apart from the presence of European traders 
or settlers they have seen the most striking results. 
Such results are to be seen to-day in Uganda, Kaffraria, 
Zululand, and several other districts. Their complaints 
that the kind of civilization which results from the inter- 
course of Africans with other Europeans is frequently 
injurious to the African, is borne out by the Report of the 
Government Commission which was appointed to investi- 
gate the condition of the South African " natives." The 
Keport of this Commission may serve as an answer to the 
suggestion that the effect which Christian missions are 
producing upon the African races is of doubtful value. The 
following sentences form part of this official Eeport : l 

"For the moral improvement of the natives there is 
available no influence equal to that of religious belief. The 
vague superstitious of the heathen are entirely unconnected 
with any moral ideas, though upon sensuality, dishonesty 
and other vices there have always been certain tribal 
restraints which, while not based upon abstract morality, 
have been real, and so far as they go, effective. These 
removed, civilization, particularly in the larger towns, brings 
the native under the influence of a social system of which 
he too often sees and assimilates the worst side only. 

" The Commission considers that the restraints of the 
law furnish no adequate check upon this tendency towards 

1 Report of the South African Native Affairs Commission, 1903-5, pre- 
sented to both Houses of Parliament by command of His Majesty, p. 40 f. 


demoralization, and that no merely secular system of 
morality that might be applied would serve to raise the 
natives' ideals of conduct or to counteract the evil in- 
fluences which have been alluded to, and is of opinion that 
hope for the elevation of the native races must depend 
mainly on their acceptance of Christian faith and morals. 

"... To the Churches engaged in mission work must 
be given the greater measure of credit for placing syste- 
matically before the natives these higher standards of 
belief and conduct. It is true that the conduct of many 
converts to Christianity is not all that could be desired, and 
that the native Christian does not appear to escape at once 
and entirely from certain besetting sins of his nature ; but, 
nevertheless, the weight of evidence is in favour of the 
improved morality of the Christian section of the population, 
and to the effect that there appears to be in the native 
mind no inherent incapacity to apprehend the truths of 
Christian teaching or to adopt Christian morals as a 

The unequivocal testimony in favour of Christian 
missions contained in these and many other passages 
throughout this Report is of special interest in view of the 
opposition to missions which has frequently been dis- 
played by Europeans in South Africa. It cannot be 
denied that this opposition has sometimes had a measure 
of justification. The education supplied in some mission 
schools has not always been adapted to the real needs 
of the Africans, and, especially in cases in which 
Africans have received only a smattering of the educa- 
tion provided, they have often brought disgrace upon 
the mission with which they have been connected. 
Taught by the experience of the past the missionaries are, 
as a rule, providing an education which is likely to prove 
helpful in building up Christian character. 

Colour antipathy is a factor in the missionary question 
in South Africa to a greater extent than it is in any other 
part of the world. In many parts of South Africa " there 
is an absolute and almost bitter refusal on the part of 
white Christians to mingle in any kind of fellowship with 
black Christians. ... As regards individual natives, no 


amount of education or of culture or of that impress which 
the sacred ministry bestows avails in any appreciable degree 
to break through this attitude of reserve and aloofness. A 
native may have passed his Cape matriculation and wear 
clothes ordered from a London tailor and speak English 
faultlessly, or he may be a person of considerable wealth, 
yet there are very few houses where he would run the risk 
of entering by the front door or sitting down to tea with 
the hostess." 1 

Many causes combine to account for the existence of 
this antipathy. Its existence helps to explain why the 
most successful missionary work has been done where the 
Africans have not come into contact with Europeans other 
than missionaries. The contempt with which the African 
has too often been treated by European colonists in the 
past, and the sensitiveness and self-assertion which are in 
part the result of this treatment, greatly complicate the 
difficulties that lie in the way of the missionaries. 

In South Africa, and indeed in all parts of Africa, 
industrial missions have been of untold use in training 
Africans and developing their characters on the best lines. 
The Principal of the largest centre of industrial training in 
connection with Christian missions in South Africa (at 
Lovedale) was able to show that out of 2000 Africans who 
had been trained there, 80 per cent, could be proved to 
have led industrious and useful lives after leaving. In 
Central Africa, and in a lesser degree in South Africa, the 
future of Christian missions is bound up with the success- 
ful development of industrial missions. 

In South Africa the missionary problem has been made 
more difficult of solution by the rise of a movement which 
was more political than religious and which is known as 
the Ethiopian Movement. This Movement, which had its 
origin in America, represents an attempt to use the cry, 
Africa for the Africans, in order to discredit the motives 
of the European missionaries and to found a national 

1 Cf. article on "Colour Antipathies," by E. F. Callaway, in The East 
and The West, January 1910, p. 60. 


church in South Africa. Needless to say, it has made no 
attempt to undertake missionary work amongst the heathen. 
The more religious section of the Movement under its 
leader, Dwane, is now a part of the Anglican Church and 
is known as the Ethiopian Order. It does not appear 
likely, however, that the Ethiopian Order will greatly 
increase, or that the time has yet come when the construc- 
tion of a national church, which is a primary object of 
Christian missions, can usefully be attempted. 

Portuguese East Africa. 

Portuguese East Africa contains 301,000 square miles 
and a population of about 3,120,000, including 100,000 
Mohammedans, 3000 Hindus and about 20,000 Christians. 
Of these latter 4000 are (African) Roman Catholics. The 
KG. missions are in the ecclesiastical district of Mozam- 

Anglican missions are represented by the U.M.C.A. at 
Unangu and by the S.P.G. at Louren^o Marques, which is 
the centre of the diocese of Lebombo. Protestant missions 
are represented by the A.M.E.C. and the Free Methodists 
from the U.S.A., also by the "W.M.S. and the Swiss 
Romaude Mission. The A.B.C.F.M. has a station at Beira. 


Nyasaland, formerly known as British Central Africa, 
lies on the western shores of Lake Nyasa and in the Shire 
country to the south of this lake. It contains an area of 
40,000 square miles and a population of about 1,000,000, 
of whom about 300,000 are Mohammedans and about 
20,000 Christians. The U.M.C.A. (see p. 343) works 
amongst the Yao tribes east of the Shire River, south of 
Lake Nyasa, on Likoma Island and at several stations 
on the east shore of the lake, the U.F.C. of Scotland on the 
west shore of the lake, the S.A. Dutch Reformed Ministers' 
Union in the Angoni hills west of the lake, the Church of 


Scotland at Blantyre in the Shire district, and the Zambesi 
Industrial Mission west and north-west of Blantyre. 

The Anglican bishopric of Nyasaland, formerly called 
Likoma, was founded in 1892, though work had been 
begun on the shores of Lake Nyasa in 1881. Bishop 
Maples, who became bishop in 1895, was drowned in the 
lake the same year. The diocese includes territory belong- 
ing to Britain, Germany and Portugal, and extends along 
the coast for 300 miles. The centre of the mission is the 
island of Likoma, where there are 3000 baptized Christians. 
A chain of more than 40 mission stations extends from 
Amelia Bay in German territory to the south end of the 
lake. On the west side of the lake is the important 
station of Kota-Kota, with out-stations extending along a 
coast-line of twenty miles north and south. There has 
recently been a large increase of work in the Yao hill 
country and amongst the Yao and Nyasa tribes along the 
banks of the Upper Shire. 

The Living stonia Mission of the Scottish Free Church, 
which was organized in 1875, soon after the death of 
Livingstone, extends along the west shore of Lake Nyasa, 
the centre of its work being at Band awe. It has also 
stations in South Ngoni Land, which lies south of the lake 
and on the Tanganyika plateau to the north of the lake. 

The Livingstonia Institution, which was started in 
1895, is situated near Florence Bay, six miles from the 
lake shore. It provides industrial training on the lines 
of Lovedale in South Africa. Its first leader and super- 
intendent was Dr. Laws. This mission, which received 
sympathy and help from the African Lakes Corporation, 
has exercised a wide influence in behalf of religion and 
civilization. The number of scholars in the United Free 
Church schools is very large. 

Mr. Donald Fraser, who is a member of this mission, 
in his book Winning a Primitive People, gave an encourag- 
ing account of the check which Christian missions have 
offered to the progress of Islam in the Nyasa district, 
and specially amongst the Ngoni, Senga and Tembuka 


peoples. Whilst in 1894 there were no African Christians 
amongst these peoples, within twenty years the number of 
Christians has risen to 20,000 and the number of places 
of worship to 250. Preferring to the barrier which 
Christian missions have raised to the progress of Islam, 
he writes : 

"The Arabs were pressing down from three or four 
different points, and the whole of the lake regions were in 
danger of becoming a great Mohammedan slaving empire, 
threatening disaster to the defenceless tribes, and menacing 
the progress of civilization. By the timely occupation of 
strategic points and the final intervention of the British 
Government with armed forces, these perils were overcome. 
. . . To-day, Mohammedanism is scarcely a recognizable 
quantity in any of the tribes among which the Livingstonia 
Mission is stationed, while Christianity is rapidly becoming 
the nominal religion, at least, of the people. A large 
educational system has been developed, and although we 
have only eight European stations there are 787 schools 
and 52,000 pupils under our supervision. Thousands of 
the people are able to read and write. 

" A large institute at Livingstonia, under Dr. Laws, is 
training skilled native artizans, teachers and preachers, and 
these people, who, a generation ago, were utterly barbarous, 
to-day send forth scores of builders, carpenters, printers, 
clerks, and intelligent helpers to the Europeans who are 
rapidly raising these lands into commercial prosperity." 1 

Other important centres of the U.F.C. Mission are 
London (11,530), Baudawe (7038) and Ekwendeni (6614). 
The numbers in brackets represent the size of the 
Christian community in 1913. 

Blantyre Mission. 

The Blantyre Mission, founded by the Established 
Church of Scotland in 1876, is situated on the Shire 
highlands south of Lake Nyasa, within the British Pro- 
tectorate, though close to the Portuguese border. Its 
church is one of the most striking and dignified in Central 
1 Winning a Primitive Peo}>le, p. 9. 


Africa. The mission includes a large amount of industrial 
work, a hospital, in which a course of medical training is 
provided, and a theological seminary. There are 3 chief 
centres and 1 3 schools connected with the mission. 

The reunion of the Established Church and the Free 
Church of Scotland would naturally be followed by the 
amalgamation of the two Scotch missions which have 


done such good work in Nyasaland. It has recently 
been arranged to form a synod of the two Presbyteries of 
Livingstonia and Blautyre, and to give to the united 
body the title of " The Church of Central Africa, 

Two other industrial missions have been attempted in 
the neighbourhood of Blantyre, the Zambesi Industrial 
Mission and a Baptist Industrial Mission. The Z.I.M. has 
a staff of 32 European workers, 8 mission stations and 70 
schools. It cultivates coffee, cotton and rubber, and teaches 
various industries. The Christians connected with it 
number about 1000. 

The Christians in Nyasaland connected with the 
Protestant missions number about 17,000, and those 
connected with Anglican missions about 8000. 

Northern Rhodesia. 

The Anglican diocese of Northern Rhodesia was founded 
in 1910 by the U.M.C.A. The bishop resides for the 
present at Livingstone, Victoria Falls. Other centres of 
work are Mapauza (where work has been begun among the 
Baila and Bataliga tribes), Fort Jameson, and in the 
district south-west of Lake Bangweolo. The work is still 
in a pioneer stage, the total number of baptized Christians 
connected with the U.M.C.A. being about 300. 

The L.M.S. began work near the southern end of Lake 
Tanganyika in 1877. Its chief stations are at Kawirnbe, 
Kambole, Mbereshi and Mpolokoso. 

The Dutch Reformed Church has a strong mission near 
Fort Jameson, the Paris Missionary Society has stations at 


and near Livingstone. The A.M.E.C., the Primitive 
^}[ethodists, the American Adventists and the Brethren have 
also missions in Northern Rhodesia. There is also a small 
E.G. mission superintended by the White Fathers. 

The Mohammedan movement coming from the north 
has not yet begun to exercise much influence. 

British East Africa Protectorate. 

The B.E.A.P. includes 350,000 square miles and a popu- 
lation of about 4,000,000, of whom 25,000 are Asiatics. 
About 700,000 are Mohammedans. The chief missionary 
societies at work are the C.M.S., the Church of Scotland, the 
U.F.C.M., the Neukirchen Mission Institute, the Africa 
Inland Mission, the Scandinavian Alliance of the U.S.A., 
and the American Friends. 

The Christians connected with the Anglican and 
Protestant missions number about 12,000. The Anglican 
diocese of Mombasa, which was formed in 1899, includes 
nearly all British East Africa and German East Africa 
where the Anglican Church is represented, except the area 
in which the U.M.C.A. is working. The founders of the 
Anglican missions in British East Africa were Dr. Krapf 
(1837-56) and John Eebmann (1846-76). In 1875 
the C.M.S. undertook to superintend a colony of freed 
slaves which was established at Frere Town, near Mombasa. 
In 1883 work was begun among the Wasagalla tribe, and 
later on work was undertaken in Ukaguru and Ugogo. 
Within the last few years stations have been established at 
Nairobi (1906), Weithaga, and other centres in the Kenia 
province. In the diocese of Mombasa there are about 
5000 baptized Christians connected with the Anglican 
missions and 22 clergy. There are also 3 medical 
missionaries, who are stationed at Kahia and Embu in the 
Kenia province. 

The Church of Scotland Mission includes among its 
stations Kikuyu in the Kenia province, which has given a 
name to a recent ecclesiastical controversy. A medical, 


industrial and evangelistic mission has been established 
here which is exercising a wide influence in the surround- 
ing districts. Kikuyu lies on the Uganda railway, 340 
miles from the coast. 

The missions of the R.C. Church belong to the Con- 
gregations of the Holy Ghost and of the Sacred Heart of 
Mary. British East Africa, with the exception of a small 
area near Mount Kenia, is included in the E.G. diocese of 
Zanzibar. The total number of E.G. Christians in the 
diocese is 4050. 

Zanzibar and the U.M.C.A. 

We have already referred to the speech delivered by 
Dr. Livingstone in the Senate House at Cambridge, 
December 4, 1857 (p. 318). As a result of this speech 
and of a visit to Cambridge by the Bishop of Capetown 
in 1858, committees were formed to promote a Universities' 
Mission to Central Africa. Charles Frederick Mackenzie, 
who had been 2nd Wrangler and a tutor of Gains College 
and for a short time Archdeacon of Natal, was chosen as its 
leader. He sailed for Capetown with two clergy and 
three laymen, where he was consecrated as bishop on 
January 1, 1861. By the advice of Livingstone he 
settled at Magoniero near the river Shire. 

Livingstone did all that was in his power to help 
forward the work of the mission, and Bishop Mackenzie 
wrote most gratefully of the help and encouragement 
afforded by him. Moreover, the fact that he was a 
Congregationalist did not prevent him from sharing in a 
common act of worship with the Anglican missionaries. 
Thus he wrote : 

" Livingstone and his party came to our ordinary services. 
We have on board Morning Prayer and sermon. ... On 
Whitsunday I proposed having the Litany, and asked 
Livingstone whether he thought it would weary the sailors. 
He said, ' No ' ; he always used it himself. We have always 
had it since. They all attend Holy Communion." l 

1 ffistory of the Oversea? Mission, p. 17, 


Bishop Mackenzie died on January 31, 1862, and 
two of his companions died soon afterwards. Bishop 
Tozer, who succeeded him, moved the mission to the island 
of Zanzibar, hoping to make this the base for future work 
on the mainland. Bishop Steere, who became head of the 
mission in 1874, was one of the most striking and 
capable missionary bishops whom the Anglican Church has 
possessed. His attitude towards the problems with which 
he was confronted may be gathered from his words 
addressed to one of his ordination candidates. " Let me 
give you one word of advice. Never say, ' I can't.' ' 

Under his guidance the mission was re-established on 
the mainland. At his death in 1882 the mission had 
3 stations in Zanzibar, 5 in the Usambara country, 
3 in the Rovuma country and 8 in Nyasaland. Under 
Bishop Smythies, who succeeded him, great progress 
was made, and in 1892 the diocese of Likoma (subse- 
quently called Nyasaland) was formed. In 1909 a third 
diocese of Northern Rhodesia was constituted. The 
mission is staffed by unmarried men and women who 
receive no stipends beyond an allowance of 20 per annum 
for clothing and personal necessities. The cathedral at 
Zanzibar, of which Bishop Steere was the architect, is built 
on the site of the old slave market, the foundation-stone 
having been laid on Christmas Day, 1873. The mission in 
the island of Zanzibar has had to face special difficulties, 
as a large number of the inhabitants are Moslems and 
were formerly slave-raiders, whilst a considerable number 
of those for whom the mission has endeavoured to care 
have been rescued slaves. Of the people on the mainland 
amongst whom the mission works, Bishop Steere wrote : 

" The East Africans are not idolaters ; they all believe 
in God, but they think of Him as too great and too far-off 
to care individually for them. Their whole thoughts are 
full of evil spirits and malicious witchcraft. A man gropes 
his way through his life, peopling the darkness round him 
with fearful shapes, and on the continual look-out for some 
omen, or for some man who, as he supposes, knows more 


than he does of the invisible world to give him some 
faltering guidance. His life is dark, his death is darker 
still. His friends dare not even let it be known where his 
body is laid, lest some evil use should be made of it. No man 
in the whole world has more need of inward strengthening 
and comfort, and no man in the whole world has less of it." l 

Special features of the mission are the Kiuugani 
college for the training of released slaves and up-country 
boys, hospitals in Zanzibar and on the mainland, and St. 
Mark's College, Zanzibar, for the training of African 
candidates for ordination. A cathedral has been built on 
Likoma, an island in Lake Nyasa, and work is carried on at 
a large number of stations on the eastern shore of the lake 
(see p. 339). The Mission works in German East Africa, 
Portuguese East Africa and in British Central Africa. It 
has also a station in Pemba Island. For many years after 
the mission was started the conditions under which the 
missionaries lived were so unfavourable to health that, on 
the average, at least half of the men and women sent out 
died, or were invalided home within a year of their arrival 
in the mission field. Owing to the improvement in these 
conditions, and to the advance in medical knowledge, the 
loss of life has been reduced to a fraction of what it was 
during the earlier years. 

Besides the island of Zanzibar the diocese includes 
the island of Pemba and the Usambara, Zigua and Eovuma 
countries on the mainland. In Pemba the work is chiefly 
amongst released slaves, amongst whom the Friends have 
also a successful mission. 

At the end of 1913 the number of baptized Christians 
in the diocese of Zanzibar was about 9000 and the 
number of adherents about 20,000. Of the 39 clergy 
in the diocese 17 were Africans. In the three dioceses 
supported by the U.M.C.A. there are 71 clergy of whom 
24 are Africans. 

There is no English or American society other than the 
U.M.C.A., which supports work in the island of Zanzibar. 

1 History oj the Universities' Missions, by Morsheacl, p. 109 f. 


The small R.C. mission is under the charge of the 
Brothers of the Congregation of the Holy Ghost, which 
works both in the island of Zanzibar and in Pemba. Con- 
nected with this mission there are about 1400 Goanese 
Indian Christians and about 500 Swahili-speaking Africans. 
The mission is in charge of a small Government leper 
asylum, which is superintended by four " Sisters." 

German East Africa. 

The population of what was German East Africa, 
previous to the war, which was bounded by British East 
Africa on the north and the Portuguese province of Mozam- 
bique on the south, is about 10,000,000. According to 
the " Kolonial Adressbuch " for 1912, published in Berlin, 
the white population at the beginning of 1911 was 4227, 
of whom 3113 were Germans. 

Two Anglican, five Protestant and three Eoman 
Catholic missions are at work. The Universities' Mission 
to Central Africa carries on work at sixteen principal 
stations, most of which are within 150 miles of the coast. 
The Christians number about 5000. 

The Church Missionary Society has eight stations in 
Usagara and Ugogo, the Christians numbering about 1200. 
The newly-opened railway from Dar-es-Salaam to Lake 
Tanganyika passes through the district in which these 
stations are situated. 

The Evangelical Missionary Society, sometimes called 
the " Bielefeld Mission," has twelve central stations and a 
large number of out-stations. Its Christians number 
about 1700. 

The Berlin Missionary Society carries on work from 
three chief centres, Usaramo, Konde and Hehe, and has 
about 3000 Christians. 

The Moravians have work at six stations in Unyamwezi 
and Nyasa. The Christians number about 1500. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Mission in Leipzig works in 
four districts (Kilima Njaro, Meru, Pare-gebirge and 


Iramba) and has thirteen principal stations and about 2300 

The three R.C. societies working in German East 
Africa are 

1. The Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the 
Immaculate Heart of Mary, which carries on work at 
twenty-three stations in Bagamoyo and Kilinia Njaro. 
The Christians number about 10,000. 

2. The St. Benedictine Missionary Association carries 
on work at fourteen stations near Dar-es-Salaam. The 
Christians number about 8000. 

3. The Missionary Society of the White Fathers 
carries on work in the vicariates of S. Nyanza, Unyanyembe 
and Tanganyika. The Christians number about 30,000. 

Between 1908 and 1912 the number of baptized 
Christians connected with the E.G. missions increased from 
34,200 to 55,700. During the same period the baptized 
Christians connected with the Anglican and Protestant 
missions increased from 8500 to 13,500. 


In the annals of missionary enterprise there are few, 
if any, stories more romantic than that of the founding of 
the Uganda Christian Church. On April 5, 1875, the 
traveller Stanley interviewed Mtesa, the king of Uganda, 
who had made a profession of Islam. A few weeks later 
Stanley wrote : 

" Since the 5th of April I had enjoyed ten interviews 
with Mtesa, and during all I had taken occasion to intro- 
duce topics which would lead up to the subject of Christianity. 
Nothing occurred in my presence, but I contrived to turn 
it towards effecting that which had become an object with 
me, namely, his conversion." 

A little later Stanley dispatched a letter addressed to the 
Daily Telegraph which led to the sending out of the first 
Christian missionaries. In the course of the letter he wrote : 

"I have indeed undermined Islamism so much here that 



Mtesa has determined henceforth, until he is better in- 
formed, to observe the Christian Sabbath as well as the 
Mohammedan Friday. Oh that some pious, practical 
missionary would come here! What a field and harvest 
ripe for the sickle of civilization. . . . Such an one if he 
can be found would become the saviour of Africa. . . . Here, 
gentlemen, is your opportunity ; embrace it ! The people on 
the shores of the Nyanza call upon you. Obey your own 
generous instincts and listen to them; and I assure you 
that in one year you will have more converts to Christianity 
than all other missionaries united can number." 

This letter was entrusted by Stanley to a Belgian named 
Bellefonds, who was subsequently murdered by members of 
the Bari tribe. His skeleton was eventually discovered, on 
the legs of which had been left the high boots for which the 
Bari had no use. Stanley's letter was' found inside these boots 
and was forwarded to General Gordon, who was at Khartoum. 
On November 15, 1875, it was published in the Daily 
Telegraph, and within a week of its publication the Church 
Missionary Society had resolved to send a mission to 
Uganda. Within two years of their start two of the original 
party of eight had been massacred, two had died of disease 
and two had been invalided home. One of the remaining 
two, Alexander Mackay, an engineer, became the real 
founder of the Uganda Church. Mtesa at first received the 
missionaries in a friendly way, but when, two years later, 
some French B.C. priests arrived and assured him that 
the religion of the English missionaries was false, he 
vacillated in his opinions and ended by relapsing into his 
original heathenism. At his death in 1884 there were 
38 African Christians. On January 30, 1885, his successor, 
Mwanga, began to persecute the Christians with the object 
of exterminating them. A Celtic cross marks the spot 
where on this day six Waganda Christians were martyred. 
Their arms were cut off', and after they had been tied 
to a rough scaffolding a fire was kindled beneath them. 
While they were being slowly burnt to death their murderers 
bade them pray to Jesus Christ to save them. As the flames 
coiled around them they are reported to have sung the hymn 
beginning with the words, " Daily, daily, sing the praises." 


When the cross which stands upon this spot was 
erected in 1910, the number of Christians in Uganda had 
risen to 70,000. A few months after these martyrdoms 
Mwanga procured the murder of James Hauniugton, who 
had been appointed as the first Bishop of Uganda and was 
approaching Uganda through the Masai territory, by a 
route which had not previously been travelled by white 
men. Soon afterwards the king seized 46 more Christians 
and ordered them to be burnt. Mackay continued to 
support the Christians by his prayers and exhortations, 
and, despite the cruel persecutions to which they were 
subjected, their number continued to increase. The number 
of adherents of the C.M.S. and E.G. missions who were 
put to death at this time was at least 200, and many 
more suffered mutilation or banishment on account of 
their faith. When news of this persecution reached 
Tinnevelly, Indian Christians collected 80 and sent it for 
the relief of their fellow-Christians. 

The spirit and language of the letter which Mackay 
addressed to the Christians of Uganda at the height of the 
persecution bore a striking resemblance to those which 
characterized the letters of the Bishops or other Christian 
leaders during the earliest persecutions to which the Chris- 
tian Church was subjected. In the course of it he wrote : 

"We, your friends and teachers, write to you to send you 
words of cheer and comfort, which we have taken from the 
Epistle of Peter the apostle of Christ. Our beloved brothers, 
do not deny our Lord Jesus, and He will not deny you in 
that day when He shall come in glory. Eemember the 
words of our Saviour, how He told His disciples not to fear 
men who are able only to kill the body. . . . Do not cease 
to pray exceedingly, and to pray for our brethren who arc 
in affliction and for those who do not know God. May 
God give you His spirit and His blessings. May He deliver 
you out of all your afflictions. May He give you entrance 
to eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord." 

Mackay himself died on February 8, 1890, but by 
this time the religious crisis had passed and it had become 
evident that the spread of the Christian faith in Uganda 


could not be checked by material force. Bishop 
Hannington was succeeded by Bishop Parker, who had been 
a missionary in India. He was consecrated in September 
1886 and sailed soon afterwards for Africa, but died in 
the spring of 1888 before he had reached Uganda. A few 
months later Mwanga, having plotted unsuccessfully to 
kill all the Christian and Mohammedan teachers in the 
country, these combined against him, and having driven 
him from his throne, proclaimed religious liberty for all. 
On October 12, 1888, the Mohammedans, with the 
assistance of some Arab slave-raiders, gained control and 
placed Kalema, a son of Mtesa, on the throne, about a 
thousand Christians, together with all the Christian 
teachers, having been driven out of the country. In 1889, 
Mwanga, aided by the Christians whom he had driven away, 
regained his throne. 

The party supporting Mwanga now appealed for help 
to the Imperial East African Company. Their repre- 
sentative, Captain (now General Sir Frederick) Lugard, 
entered Uganda, but the Company soon found that the 
expense of maintaining their position there was greater 
than they could afford. When the Company announced 
its intention to withdraw, an appeal was made at a C.M.S. 
Meeting in Exeter Hall (October 30, 1891) and 8000 
was guaranteed on the spot, the sum being doubled in the 
course of a few days and handed over to the Company 
on the understanding that their withdrawal would be 
postponed for a year. 

In January 1892 the E.G. section, which was generally 
known as the French party, made an unsuccessful attack 
upon the converts connected with the English mission, and 
afterwards carried the king Mwanga with them to some 
islands in the lake. At Captain Lugard's suggestion, the 
province of Budu was then assigned as a sphere of work 
for the E.G. mission, and this arrangement proved satis- 
factory to all concerned. 

On January 1, 1894, an English protectorate of Uganda 
was declared by Sir Gerald Portal, who had been sent out 


as the representative of the British Government. During the 
years which immediately followed, the number of Christians 
steadily increased and thousands of persons placed themselves 
under instruction in order that they might learn to read 
the Bible. Mr. G. L. Pilkington, who reached Uganda at 
the end of 1890, was largely instrumental in translating 
the Bible into Luganda and in preparing catechisms and 
text-books for the instruction of converts. He was a man 
" full of the Holy Spirit " and exercised a marvellous influence 
upon the Baganda. He was killed in the mutiny of the 
Sudanese soldiers on December 11, 1897. On Trinity 
Sunday 1893, six Baganda were ordained as deacons and 
the foundation of an African self-supporting Church was 
laid. In 1897 Mwanga attempted to revolt, and appealed 
to the heathen Baganda to aid in exterminating the 
Christians. As a result he was banished and his infant 
son Daudi was proclaimed king in his place. 

When Bishop Tucker arrived in Uganda in 1890 the 
number of baptized Christians was scarcely 200. By 1913 
this number had risen to 90,000 and the Christian ad- 
herents (including the E.C. converts) were little short of 
half a million. It would be impossible to find a parallel 
in the history of the Christian Church during the last 
thousand years for the progress in the establishment and 
consolidation of a Christian Church in a heathen land to 
that which has been attained in Uganda in twenty-three 
years. The present Bishop of Uganda (Dr. Willis) has 
stated his conviction that the rapid progress must, under 
God, be largely attributed to the fact that the Church in 
Uganda has been to a greater extent than almost anywhere 
else in the mission field a united Church. 

The present organization of the Christian Church is 
thus described by the Bishop : 

" Episcopacy in Uganda is not an autocracy ; it is the 
unifying force in an organization scarcely less complex and 
far more widely extended than the native feudal system. 

" The Church in Uganda is self-governing, and its 
government is at once elastic, capable of adapting itself to 


a variety of local conditions, and strong, in that it binds the 
whole Church together in one organization. The unit of 
government is the ' Parish,' which consists of a central 
church, with six or eight little village churches which are 
grouped around it. This ' Parish ' has its own parochial 
Church Council, composed entirely of native members. 
This local Council conducts all the business of the ' Parish,' 
interviews candidates for baptism, inquires into cases of 
discipline, and manages parochial finance. Small and local 
as it is, it yet has executive power within its own limited 
area of a few square miles, and more perhaps than anything 
else, it has trained the native Christians to regard the 
Church as their own, and its welfare and progress as their 
own and not a European responsibility. 

" Similarly, but on a larger scale, there is the District 
Church Council, representative of a pastorate or missionary 
district, into which a number of ' Parishes ' are grouped. 
This has similar but enlarged powers, and among them the 
right of hearing an appeal from the smaller parochial 
Council. An English missionary or a native clergyman 
presides over this Council, to which every parochial Council 
within the district elects its representatives. The more 
important questions, concerning the district as a whole, are 
submitted to it, and local catechists are sent out by it to 
take charge of the village churches. This represents the 
second stage in the development of native self-government." 1 

The final stage in Church government is reached in 
the synod, composed of 300 representatives, which meets 
annually and which appoints an executive of 30 mem- 
bers, which is called the Diocesan Council. The Prime 
Minister of Uganda, Sir Apolo Kagwa, is a member of the 

Whether or not we agree with the Bishop of Uganda's 
suggestion that the phenomenal progress of Christianity in 
Uganda was chiefly due to the fact that the English 
missionaries to Uganda were members of a united Church, 
there can be no doubt that this was one of the most 
important factors in the situation and one which is 
deserving of clear recognition by the student of Missions. 

1 "A United Church in Uganda," by the Bishop of Uganda, The East 
and The West, April 1914. 


Had the Christian Church not been strong, and perhaps we 
may add, had it not been united, there can be little doubt 
that a large proportion of those who are Christians would 
now be Moslems. The sudden uprising of a Christian 
Church in the heart of Africa, right across the track of 
Mohammedan progress southwards, has to an appreciable 
extent served to stem the tide of the advance of Islam. 

Although there has been good reason for encourage- 
ment in the rapid development of the Christian Church of 
Uganda, there is also much cause for anxiety and sorrow. 
One of the missionaries stationed at Mityana wrote a few 
years ago, and his description still holds good : 

" We are constantly hearing of the sad state of immorality 
and indifference prevalent. For months past I do not 
remember a single Church Council meeting here without 
some case of a breach of the seventh commandment being 
brought forward. Important chiefs to whom I have spoken 
tell me that they never knew such widespread immorality 
in heathen days, as the punishment was too severe. Now 
there is practically no punishment, and we have to 
remember that, broadly speaking, the people are still 
children in self-control, yet men in evil with generations 
of heathenism behind them." l 

Educational work has formed a special feature of 
missionary enterprise in Uganda. The mission schools 
contain about 50,000 boys and about 40,000 girls. 
Uganda itself forms but a small part of the Uganda 
Protectorate, which includes the kingdoms of Toro, 
Bunyoro and Ankole, and other districts beyond. The 
country of Busoga had a resident missionary in 1891, 
Toro was occupied in 1896, Bunyoro in 1899, Kavirondo 
in 1900, Ankole in 1901, the Acholi country in 1904 
and the Teso country in 1908. In 1897 a separate 
bishopric of Mombasa was established. The missionary 
evangelistic work has from the first been mainly in the 
hands of African evangelists superintended by European 
missionaries. In 1913 the staff of the mission consisted 

1 The Wonderful Story of Uganda, p. 186. 


of a bishop, 33 European clergy, 4 doctors, 61 women 
missionaries (including wives of missionaries), 35 African 
clergy and over 3000 African agents. In 1914 the 
number of persons baptized in the diocese was 7899, of 
whom 6042 were adults. 

The first Roman Catholic missionaries to enter Uganda 
were sent by Cardinal Lavigerie and arrived on February 
23, 1879. It was most unfortunate that they were 
natives of France, the Government of which was at that 
time eager to extend its influence in Central Africa, as their 
national aspirations greatly increased the strength of their 
opposition to those whom on religious grounds they were 
bound to oppose. When at length the British Government 
established a protectorate over Uganda, it succeeded in 
arranging with the authorities of the Eoman Church that 

o o 

English missionaries belonging to the Eoman Church should 
be substituted for French missionaries. On Easter Day, 
1880, two E.C. catechumens were baptized. During the 
great persecution which occurred in 1886, 30 newly bap- 
tized E.G. converts were burnt to death on May 2 6th, and 
70 others were afterwards murdered. The first E.G. bishop 
to reach Uganda was Mgr. Hanlon, who arrived in 1895. 
In 1914 two natives of Uganda were ordained as priests. 

It is difficult to form an impartial opinion in regard 
to the relative condition of the Anglican and Eoman 
converts, who are about equal in number. One significant 
fact must be recorded. When in March 1893 forty 
Protestant chiefs voluntarily drew up and signed a petition 
asking Sir Gerald Portal to abolish slavery and to set 
free all slaves in Uganda, he was for some time unable 
to accede to the request owing to the opposition of the 
E.G. chiefs. 

Three E.G. missions are at work in different parts of 
the Uganda Protectorate. The eastern portion, that is 
Uganda proper, is occupied by the English mission from 
Mill Hill, the western by the White Fathers from Algeria, 
and the northern by the Austrian mission. The complete 
geographical separation of the Anglican and Eoman 


missions was productive of satisfactory results, but owing 
to the inevitable intermingling of the Christians the 
arrangement has now ceased to be operative. 

In a charge delivered to the missionaries in Uganda in 
1913, the Anglican Bishop of Uganda sums up in a few 
sentences the moral outlook. He says : 

" There is something most pathetic in the rushing of a 
quick, impressionable, intelligent people through all the 
stages of civilization within the lifetime of a single genera- 
tion. That momentous decision to build a railway into the 
heart of this continent has been followed with startling 
rapidity by consequences, logical, inevitable, necessary, but 
none the less pathetic. Within thirty years the whole 
fabric of this country, social and political, has been up- 
heaved ; perhaps never in any country has there been seen 
a more sudden and more complete reversal of the whole- 
national life within so short a time. No people, and 
certainly no African people, could stand the shock of such 
an upheaval without serious loss." 

Referring to the moral condition of the Christians of 
Uganda, the Bishop says : 

" Apart from the matter of the return to pagan habits of 
thought and action there are two dominant evils in the 
field, drunkenness and immorality. These are not new in 
the country or in the Church. But of late, within the last 
six years, there has been a recrudescence on an alarming 
scale . . . there seems no reason to question the statement, 
all but universally made, that a very large number of the 
Christians, at one time or another, fall under the power of 
one or other of those two evils. . . . The passing from a 
nominal paganism to a nominal Christianity will not at 
once produce morality, and we must not assume that the 
establishment of Christianity will, of itself, necessarily 
regenerate a country." l 

The reports received relating to the moral condition of 
the Roman Catholic Christians suggest that the condition 

1 A Charge to Missionaries of the Uganda Mission, by the Bishop of 
Uganda. Published by Longmans, 1914. 


of these is not better, if indeed it is not actually worse, 
than that of the other Christians. 

Despite, however, the prevalence of the serious evils to 
which the Bishop refers, there is solid ground for hope 
that the Church in Uganda which has had so bright a 
beginning may yet be purified and strengthened and act as 
the great missionary Church of Central Africa. 

Italian Somaliland. 

In Italian Somaliland, which contains about 250,000 
Mohammedans and about 50,000 pagans, there are 
apparently no Christian missions. 

British Somaliland. 

In British Somaliland, which has an area of about 
68,000 square miles, the population is about 500,000, all 
of whom are Mohammedans. 


Eritrea, an Italian colony on the Eed Sea.has a population 
of about 500,000. Of these 100,000 are Mohammedans 
and 320,000 are pagans. There are 2000 Europeans. 
Of the Christians 17,000 are Roman Catholics, 12,000 
belong to Eastern churches and 1000 are Protestants. 
There are 53 E.C. priests (Franciscans). The Swedish 
National Society has 34 missionaries, 10 mission stations 
and about 600 Christians. 


Abyssinia was converted to the Christian faith in the 
fourth century, its first bishop being Frumentius, who was 
consecrated by Athanasius. An Ethiopia translation of 
the Bible was apparently begun by Frumentius and com- 
pleted a little later. An Ethiopic king, at the instigation 


of Justinian, conquered part of Southern Arabia and 
placed a Christian king on the throne. At the end of the 
fifteenth century Jesuit missionaries, supported by Portu- 
guese soldiers, attempted to win over the Abyssinians to 
obedience to Eome, but after much fighting they withdrew. 
Another attempt was made in 1621 and a third in 1750, 
but without any permanent result. In 1830, Samuel 
Gobat (afterwards Bishop in Jerusalem) and Mr. Kugler 
were sent by the G.M.S. to Abyssinia, but Mr. Kugler died 
and Mr. Gobat retired through ill-health. About this time 
the Jesuits made a further attempt to work amongst the 
Abyssinians, but in 1859 they were expelled by King 
Theodore. In 1860 Dr. Stern arrived as a representative 
of the London Jews' Society. The king's suspicions having 
been excited against Dr. Stern and other Europeans who 
had been sent by Bishop Gobat, he detained them as 
prisoners. On his refusal to release them war with 
England followed in 1868. Abyssinian Christianity is a 
strange mixture of Christianity, Judaism and Moham- 
medanism, and it is hard to imagine how it can be re- 
formed from within. It is calculated that 1800 Jews 
have been baptized in Abyssinia since Dr. Stern began 
his work. 

Of the 3,000,000 nominal Christians 7000 belong 
to the Eoman Catholic Church and all the rest are 
members of a branch of the Coptic Church. The popula- 
tion of the country includes 50,000 Mohammedans, 
60,000 Jews and 300,000 pagans. The E.G. mission, 
supported by the Lazarists of Paris, has 12 European 
and 18 native priests. The Swedish National Missionary 
Society, which has a mission in Eritrea, supports native 
evangelists amongst the Gallas. 



Of the Christian missions established during the nine- 
teenth century none have been subjected to so long and 
severe a persecution as that which befel the mission which 
the London Missionary Society was instrumental in starting 
in Madagascar. A larger number of Christians were killed 
during the Boxer revolution in China, but in this case the 
trial was brief and none of the Christians were subjected 
to the long-protracted torments which the Malagasy 
Christians endured. Their sufferings were worthy to be 
compared with those of the Japanese Christians in the 
sixteenth and those of the Corean Christians in the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 

When the first L.M.S. missionaries landed in 1818 the 
king, Baclama, was well disposed to Europeans and desirous 
of encouraging the education of his subjects. Actual 
missionary work was begun by Mr. David Jones in 1820, 
and by 1828 32 schools had been opened containing 
4000 scholars. Eadama, who died in this year, was 
succeeded by Queen Ranavalona, one of the twelve wives 
of Eadama. She forbade all teaching and learning and dis- 
couraged the spread of the Christian faith. In May 1831 
28 converts were baptized, who formed the nucleus of a 
Malagasy Church. In 1835 the queen began an active 
persecution, and in 1839 she "issued an order that the 
soldiers should seize every Christian they could find, and 
without trial, bind them hand and foot, dig a pit on the 
spot, and then pour boiling water upon them and bury 
them." * 

After a temporary lull the persecutions broke out 
again in renewed force in 1849, when 18 persons were 
sentenced to death and over 2000 were condemned to 
slavery, public floggings and other degradations, and four 
nobles were burned alive. A spectator of their martyrdom 
wrote : " They prayed as long as they had life. Then they 
1 The Story of the L.M.S. , p. 197. 


died, but softly, gently. Indeed, gentle was the going 
forth of their life, and astonished were all the people around 
that beheld the burning of them." 

Meanwhile the missionaries had retired to Mauritius, 
as their presence served only to increase the fury of the 
persecutors. Though the mission stations were closed for 
twenty-six years, the number of the Christians tended steadily 
to increase. On the death of the queen in 1861 liberty 
of conscience was proclaimed by her successor. Of the 
scenes which were then enacted Mr. Silvester Home wrote : 

"Men and women were brought out of the land of exile 
who had been banished for many years. There were re- 
unions of those who had supposed each other to be dead 
long since. Out of the recesses of the forests there came 
men and women who had been wanderers and outcasts for 
years. They reappeared as if risen from the dead. Some 
bore the deep scars of chains and fetters ; some, worn 
almost to skeletons by prolonged sufferings from hunger or 
fever, could scarcely drag themselves along the roads that 
led to the capital. Their brethren from the city went out 
to meet them, and to help them, and ... as they saw 
their old loved city again, they sang the pilgrim song, 
' When the Lord turned again the captivity of Zion we 
were like them that dream. . . .' " l 

In 1836, when the persecution of the Christians began, 
the number of Christians in Madagascar was estimated at from 
1000 to 2000. During the twenty-six years of persecution 
it is reckoned that over 10,000 persons were sentenced to 
various punishments as Christians, and that 200 were put 
to death. Nevertheless, at the end of this period the 
Christians were four times as numerous as they were when 
the persecution began. Although the Christians were 
deprived of the help of their European teachers, they had 
the New Testament in their hands and large numbers of 
them had learned to read it. To this fact must to a great 
extent be attributed the continuance and extension of the 
Church during these years. Queen Eanavalona II. and her 

l The Story of the L.M.S., p. 353 f. 


Prime Minister were publicly baptized by a Malagasy 
preacher in 1868, and, Christianity having now become 
popular, the Christians rapidly increased in number. In 
1869 they were reckoned at 37,000 and in the following 
year at 250,000. Many of these were Christians only 
in name, and their new religion made little perceptible 
difference in their lives. In 1883 the French bombarded 
Tamatave and soon afterwards declared a French pro- 
tectorate over the whole island. One result of the French 
conquest was that a large number of those who were 
merely nominal Christians and who had become such 
because the profession of Christianity had become popular, 
ceased to call themselves Christians. Thus in 1904 the 
250,000 adherents connected with the L.M.S. had sunk to 

The anti-Christian policy of the French Governor- 
General, M. Augagneur, who was appointed in 1906, 
resulted in the closing of four-fifths of all the mission 
schools in the island. The L.M.S., which in 1888 had 
90,000 scholars in its schools, in 1910 had less than 
5000. The decree, which was issued in Paris in March 
1913, dealing with the regulation of Public Worship has 
removed some of the obstacles which had been placed by 
the local authorities in the way of the spread of Christianity, 
but missionary work is still carried on under exceptional 

In 1862 the S.P.G., after it "had ascertained that the 
L.M.S. would gladly see it taking part in the work of 
evangelizing the Malagasy," 1 requested the Bishop of 
Mauritius to visit Madagascar with a view to establishing 
a mission. In 1864 work was started at Tamatave. In 
the same year the C.M.S. started a mission at Vohimare 
in the north of the island, but in 1874 this Society with- 
drew its workers from Madagascar. 

Within a year of their arrival the S.P.G. missionaries 
were able to baptize 81 persons, and in 1866, in response 
to an invitation from the king, they opened a mission 
1 Two Hundred Years of the S.P.G., p. 374. 


station at the capital, Antananarivo (Tananarive). In 1874 
the Rev. E. K. Kestell Cornish was consecrated at Edinburgh 
as the first Bishop in Madagascar. 

The first woman to be sent out by the S.P.G. as a mis- 
sionary was Miss Emily Lawrence, who was sent in 1867 
to Mauritius and in 1874 to Madagascar, where she worked 
indefatigably for over twenty years. Three years after her 
arrival at Tananarive 43 girls were baptized and 10 con- 
firmed from her own school. 

In 1891 the Kev. E. 0. (afterwards Archdeacon) 
McMahon undertook the perilous task of starting a mission 
amongst the Sakalava in the west of Madagascar. Though 
the mission had to be abandoned for a time, it has been 
successfully restarted. 

Bishop King reached Madagascar in 1899, and since 
then the good work which had been accomplished by Bishop 
Cornish has steadily developed. After the annexation 
of the island the French Government insisted on French 
being taught in all mission schools, and by other regula- 
tions which they made seriously interfered with the work 
of all the Christian missions in the island. As the result 
of remonstrances addressed direct to the Government in 
Paris these regulations were modified in 1913, but the 
development of all branches of missionary work is still 
restricted and liable to be interfered with by the French 
officials in Madagascar. 

Archdeacon McMahon, who has been a missionary in 
Madagascar for over thirty years, writing of the times 
which followed the periods of persecution, says : 

" The want of catechists and evangelists made it practi- 
cally impossible to cope with the new state of things, and 
instead of being an advantage the numbers which professed 
to be Christians at this time were a decided drawback and 
set a low standard from which the Malagasy have not yet 
recovered, . . . the slackness in morality, honesty and 
truthfulness which troubles us now, is in a large degree 
owing to the looseness which resulted in the flooding of the 
churches by half-converted heathens at this time. The 
form of Christianity which they understood was too easy- 


going, and there was a great lack of definite teaching. 1 
think that there are signs of improvement . . . since the 
profession of Christianity brings no advantage to anyone, 
rather the reverse. ... It takes generations to make a race 
Christian, and the Malagasy have their strong as well as 
their weak traits ; for instance, they could give us points in 
patience, long-suffering, humility and like virtues." 1 

The E.C. Mission. French priests accompanied a 
French Government expedition to Madagascar in the 
seventeenth century and again in 1845, but it was 
not till 1861 that a French E.G. mission was established 
in Tamatave and in the capital. The mission was for a 
time encouraged and subsidized by the French Government, 
but in recent years it has been subjected to restrictions 
similar to those imposed upon the other missionary 
societies. The missionaries include Jesuits, Lazarists and 
Brothers of the Congregation of the Holy Ghost. There 
are 139 European and 2 Malagasy priests, and about 
200,000 baptized Christians. 

The Norwegian Lutheran Mission sent its first mission- 
aries in 1866, who began work amongst the Betsileo tribe. 
With the two affiliated American societies this mission has 
worked amongst the Bara, Sakalava and other tribes in the 
south, south-east and south-west. In 1913 it had 784 
churches and 83,727 baptized members, 5201 of whom 
had been baptized during the previous year. Before the 
French authorities stopped its schools they numbered 885; 
these are now reduced to 84. The mission has 96 native 
pastors and over 900 catechists. It includes two medical 
missions, and a leper asylum at Antsirabe. The work of the 
mission is well organized and thorough. 

The Friends Foreign Mission Association began work 
in 1867 and has co-operated with the L.M.S. at Imerina. 
It has now started work on the west coast. 

After the French occupation of Madagascar representa- 
tives of the Paris Missionary Society arrived in 1896 to 
help the other Protestant missions and to take over part 
1 Christian Missions in Madagascar, by E. 0. McMahon (1915), pp. 74 f. 


of the work of the L.M.S. The help which their mission- 
aries have afforded to the other missions has been specially 
welcome in view of the Government's requirement that 
all scholars in the mission schools should be taught 
French. The French missionaries have helped to get the 
Malagasy scholars through their brevet examination and 
so to keep open a few of the mission schools. Two of the 
French missionaries were assassinated by a band of rebels 
in 1897. The Paris Society has undertaken as its special 
sphere of work the coast from Taniatave to Diego Suarez. 

The total number of baptized Christians connected 
with the Anglican and Protestant missions is about 
130,000 and of Christian adherents about 250,000. Of 
the former, 29,800 belong to the L.M.S. and 14,200 to the 
Anglican Mission. 

Malagasy missionary societies. Several attempts have 
been made by Malagasy congregations to send out 
evangelists to preach to the non-Christian populations in 
their districts. No difficulty has been experienced in 
raising money for their support, but up to the present the 
results have not been encouraging. 

The Malagasy version of the Bible, which was issued 
in a revised form in 1887, has done much to create a 
standard of the written language. 

Mohammedan traders and others have effected a con- 
siderable number of conversions to Islam in the east of 
the island, and the Moslems number about 75,000. 
Islam is making rapid progress amongst the Sakalava race. 
Nearly all the population on the coast from Soalala to 
Mojanja is already Mohammedan. Many Indian Moslems 
have settled in the country. 

In answer to the question " Has Christianity made 
progress in Madagascar during the last twenty years, that 
is since the country has been under European rule ? " 
Archdeacon McMahon writes : 

" It is very difficult to say, but I think that there is not 
much doubt that the good Christians have become better, 
while there has been a falling off of the nominal Christians, 


as was to be expected. In the towns the churches are 
generally well attended, and there is as much interest taken 
in all that has to do with religion as was the case formerly. 
In the country there has been a falling off in the numbers 
found in Church on Sundays : this is largely due to the 
difficulty in finding catechists. . . . On the whole I think 
one may say that the Christian religion has taken deeper 
and firmer root in the hearts and minds of the Christians 
in Madagascar, but the difficulties during the last few years 
show how much there is yet to be done, even more than 
those who know the country best thought." l 


The Dutch, who gave the name to this island, found it 
uninhabited in 1598. From 1715 to 1810 it belonged 
to France, and at the latter date it was annexed by 
England. Of the present population (370,000) about 
two-thirds are East Indians by birth or descent, the rest 
are Creoles of various races. At the time of its capture 
by England there were four E.G. priests in the island, and 
the religion of the whole population was nominally R.C. 
On the abolition of slavery in 1834 the S.P.G. helped to 
establish schools for some of the 90,000 emancipated 
slaves. In 1854, when an English Bishop (Eyan) was 
consecrated for Mauritius, half the population, which was 
reckoned at 190,000, were "living in a state of heathen- 
ism." Since this time a large amount of successful work 
has been done, especially amongst the Indian coolies, who 
constitute a majority of the population and are likely to 
become the permanent inhabitants of the islands. 

Work is also being carried on with success amongst 
the Creoles in the Seychelles Islands. 

The C.M.S. started work amongst the Indian coolies in 
1856. Since then, 7000 converts have been baptized, 
many of whom have returned to India. The C.M.S. is 
1 Christian Missions in Madagascar, p. 104 f. 


now withdrawing its grant and handing its work over to 
the bishop and the diocesan representatives. 

The L.M.S. supported for many years a mission in 
Mauritius which was started in 1814. 

The R.C. clergy, who number about 50, include 6 
Jesuits and 11 from the Congregation of the Holy 
Spirit and the Sacred Heart of Mary. The rest are 
parish priests. 

The population of the island includes 41,000 Mo- 



Spanish Missions in America. 

PONCE DE LEON, who sailed for Florida about 1520, 
carried with hirn instructions from the king which required 
him to summon the natives to submit themselves to the 
Catholic faith and to the King of Spain under threat of the 
sword and slavery. His expedition was driven away by the 
natives whom he desired to convert. In 1565 Menendez 
founded the city of St. Augustine. The Floridas were 
eventually occupied by Dominicans, Jesuits, and Franciscans, 
and seventy years later the Christians were reckoned at 
30,000. For the 115 years during which Spain retained 
possession of Florida, the number of Christians continued 
to increase, but when in 1763 Florida was transferred to 
the British Crown, "no longer sustained by the terror of 
the Spanish arms and by subsidies from the Spanish 
treasury, the whole fabric of Spanish civilization and 
Christianization tumbled at once to complete ruin and 
extinction." l 

In New Mexico the first permanent occupation of 
territory took place in 1598, when the Spanish settlers 
were accompanied by Franciscan friars. In ten years 
8000 persons were baptized, and ere long the entire 
population was nominally Christian. When, however, 
eighty years later, a revolt occurred against the Spanish 
Government, within " a few weeks no Spaniard was in 
New Mexico north of El Paso. Christianity and civilization 
were swept away at one blow. The measures of compulsion 
1 A History of American Christianity, by L. W. Bacon, p. 11. 

AMERICA (U.S.A.) 367 

that had been used to stamp out every vestige of the old 
religion were put into use against the new." l 

Although the Spaniards returned, twenty years later, 
they never again succeeded in producing more than a 
sullen submission to the religion of their conquerors. In 
1845, 20,000 out of a total of 80,000 professed to be 
Christians. Spanish settlements and missions on the 
Pacific Coast date from 1769. By 1834 these missions 
had amassed much wealth, but the Indian Christians were 
in a condition of servitude. In this year the mission 
property was distributed, and as a result, " in eight years 
the more than thirty thousand Catholic Christians had 
dwindled to less than five thousand, the enormous estates 
of the missions were dissipated, the converts lapsed into 
savagery and paganism." 2 

Although the Spanish missions in North America 
produced such small spiritual results and ended so dis- 
astrously, it must not be forgotten that the early records 
of these missions contain many accounts of heroism and 
devotion which go far to redeem their story from the 
realm of mere secular history. 

Franciscan and Jesuit Missions. 

Between 1717 and 1833, 20 Franciscan missionaries 
laboured among the Indians of Texas, and in 1769 a 
Franciscan monk began a series of missions at San Diego 
in California. 

The northern part of what is now the U.S.A., stretching 
from the Atlantic to the Eocky Mountains, was formerly 
included in the two French provinces of Canada and 
Louisiana. As long as the French rule lasted the greater 
part of the missionary work amongst the Indians was 
carried on by French Jesuits. The first mission west of 
Huron county was begun in 1660 amongst the Chippewa 
and Ottawa Indians. Within the next few years mission 
stations were established at Sault St. Marie, Mackinaw, 

1 Ibid., p. 12. 2 Ibid., p. 14. 


Green Bay, and among the Foxes and Mascoutins. Pere 
Marquette, one of the greatest of the Jesuit pioneer 
missionaries, started work amongst the Illinois in 1674, 
which was carried on with such success that in 1725 the 
entire Illinois nation was civilized and Christianized. Here, 
however, as in many other districts, the missionary work 
was interrupted by wars, and in 1750 the whole Illinois 
nation was reduced to 1000 persons. 

In 1818 work was begun amongst the Chippewas on 
the Eed River inside the U.S.A. boundary. Missions were 
also started in East Minnesota in 1837, amongst the 
Menoniinees of Wisconsin in 1844, and among the 
Winnebagos in 1850. 

Anglican and Protestant Missions. 

The first charter for an English colony, which was 
granted to Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583, contained a 
reference to the " compassion " of God " for poor infidels, it 
seeming probable that God hath reserved these Gentiles 
to be introduced into Christian civility by the English 

The first attempt of a missionary character made by 
the English in North America was made by Thomas Heriot, 
the scientist and philosopher, who went out as one of a band 
of colonists to Virginia. During the stay of the colonists 
at Roanoke (1585-86), Heriot "many times and in every 
towne " where he " came," " made declaration of the contents 
of the Bible " and of the " chiefe points of religion " to the 
natives according as he " was able." One of the natives, 
who was called Manteo, returned to England with the 
English party in 1586, was appointed by Sir Walter 
Raleigh as Lord of Roanoke, and was baptized in that 
island (August 13, 1587). This is the first recorded 
baptism of a native of Virginia. 

'in 1588 Sir Walter ^Raleigh gave 100 to the 
Virginian Company " for the propagation of the Christian 
religion in that settlement." 

AMERICA (U.S.A.) 360 

In 1560 John Knox wrote in the first Confession: 
" This glaid tyclingis of the kyngdome sail be precheit 
through the haill warld for a witness unto all natiouns 
and then sail the end cum." More than a century later 
the Scottish General Assembly (1699) enjoined the 
ministers whom it sent forth with the Darien expedition 
to labour among the heathen. 

Pocahontas, the daughter of the Indian chief Powhatan, 
who in 1607 persuaded her father to save the life of 
Captain Smith, the President of Virginia, became a 
Christian, and having married an Englishman, came to 
England and was received by King James. 

The Pilgrim Fathers, who sailed for Massachusetts in 
the Mayflower (1620), were not unmindful of their 
obligation to Christianize the American Indians. Their 


pastor, John Ptobinson, wrote to the Governor of New 
Plymouth, " that you had converted some before you 
had killed any." One of their number was set apart " to 
promote the conversion of the Indians." In 1621 one of 
the Puritan Elders, Eobert Cushman, appealed to England 
on behalf of the Indians, and in 1636 the colony passed 
legislation in order to promote the " preaching of the 
gospel among them." In 1628 the charter granted by 
Charles I. to the colony of Massachusetts stated that 
" the principal end of the plantation " was that the 
colonists may "win and invite the natives of the country 
to the knowledge of the only true God and Saviour of 
mankind and the Christian faith." In 1646 the Colonial 
Legislature passed an Act for the propagation of the Gospel 
among the Indians. 

The formation of the Corporation for the Propagation 
of the Gospel in New England (see p. 56) was indirectly 
due to the reports which had reached England concerning 
the labours of John Eliot (1604-90), the "Apostle of the 
Indians." After taking his degree at Jesus College, 
Cambridge (1623), he acted for a time as an usher in a 
school near Chelmsford, and, sailing for America in 1631, 
was appointed as the Presbyterian pastor of Koxbury, 



near Boston, in 1632. When he began his missionary 
work there were about twenty tribes of Indians on the 
plantations adjoining Massachusetts Bay, and for many 
years Eliot combined the charge of the church at 
Roxbury witli pioneer evangelistic work amongst the 
Indians. His biographer remarks of him that his name 
written backwards spells " toilc," and few missionaries 
have toiled harder than he. His first attempt to 
evangelize the Indians was made at the Falls of the 
Grand River in 1646. His great desire was to establish 
Indian settlements which should realize the Jewish 
theocracy described in Exodus. His first baptisms were 
at Natick, near Boston, where a settlement of Indians 
was organized in 1651, in accordance with the directions 
given to the Israelites in Exodus xviii. His work was 
imitated by Mayhews, " a pious colonist," and others, and 
ere long there had arisen in New England fourteen 
"praying Indian villages," containing 3600 Christians. 
Everything went well till 1675, when the war between 
the English and the Indians brought about the destruction 
of nearly all their settlements and put back the work 
amongst Indians for many years. He was an indefatigable 
student and translator, and in 1661 he published the 
New Testament in the Indian (Mohican) language, and 
two years later the Old Testament was also issued. He 
published in addition Indian grammars and primers, and 
translations of several English theological books. He 
died at Roxbury at the age of eighty-six in 1690. 
After witnessing the destruction of his Christian settle- 
ments and the apparent ruin of his work, he wrote to 
Robert Boyle, shortly before his death, " My understanding 
leaves me, my memory fails me, my utterance fails me, 
but I thank God my charity holds out still." His dying 
words were, " Welcome joy." 

The Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian 
Knowledge, which was founded in Edinburgh in 1701, 
gave some occasional assistance to missionary work. It 
helped to support David Brainerd, who was born in 

AMERICA (U.S.A.) 371 

Connecticut in 1718. For nearly four years lie worked 
amongst Indians in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and 
gathered some converted Indians at a settlement which he 
named Bethel, where he attempted to teach them husbandry. 
He died before he was thirty in 1747. His Journal, 
which was published in 1746, and his Life, which was 
afterwards written by his friend President Edwards, in- 
fluenced many in later times to give their lives to the 
work of Christian missions. 

Anglican Missions to Indians and Negroes. 

New York. In 1704 Mr. Elias Neau, a Frenchman, 
was appointed by the S.P.G. as a catechist to work amongst 
negroes and in charge of a " catechising school," having 
received a licence from the Governor of New York " to 
catechize the negroes and Indians and the children of the 
town." In exercising his office he found reason to com- 
plain that " the generality " of the " inhabitants " were 
" strangely prejudiced with a horrid notion, thinking the 
Christian knowledge" would be "a means to make their 
slaves more cunning and apter to wickedness." Later on 
the Eev. S. Auchmuty (1747-64) reported that "not 
one single Black " who had been " admitted by him to the 
Holy Communion " had " turned out bad, or been in any 
shape a disgrace to our holy profession," and that the masters 
of the negroes had become " more desirous than they used 
to be of having them instructed." In 1707 the Rev. W. 
Barclay became minister at Albany and helped to prepare 
for publication in the Iroquois language translations of the 
Gospels and of the Book of Common Prayer which had 
been made by Mr. Freeman, "a devout minister of the 
Dutch Church." He and his successors started work 
amongst the Mohawks. Towards the furnishing of the 
first chapel for the Mohawks, Queen Anne contributed 
" altar plate and linen." 

In 1727 the S.P.G. appointed the Eev. J. Miln to 
minister to the Indians at Fort Hunter near Albany. The 


result of his labours was thus described by the officer 
commanding the Fort Hunter garrison in 1735 : 

" I have found the Mohawk Indians very much civilized, 
which I take to be owing to the industry and pains taken 
by the Rev. Mr. John Miln in teaching and instructing them 
in the Christian religion. The number of communicants 
increases daily. . . . The said Indians express the greatest 
satisfaction with Mr. Miln. . . . They are become as 
perempter in observing their rules as any society of 
Christians commonly are. . . . They are very observing of 
the Sabbath, conveneing by themselves and singing Psalms 
on that day, and frequently applying to me that Mr. Miln 
may be oftener among them." 1 

By 1742 a missionary was able to report that only 
two or three of the tribe remained unbaptized. 

A mission to the Oneidas was opened in 1816 which made 
good progress, but in 1823 the U.S.A. Government trans- 
ferred the Indians to a new reserve in Wisconsin. All the 
Indians on this new settlement are now baptized Christians. 

South Carolina. The first missionary sent out by the 
S.P.G. for work amongst the heathen was the Rev. 
S. Thomas. He was designed for a mission to the 
Yammonsees and on his appointment 10 was voted by 
the society " to be laid out in stuffs for the use of the 
wild Indians." Mr. Thomas was so ill during his voyage 
down the Channel that his life was despaired of at 
Plymouth, but after a voyage of three months he reached 
Charlestown on Christmas Day, 1702. As the Yam- 
monsees were engaged in fighting at the time of his 

o o o o 

arrival, he devoted his attention to the negro and Indian 
slaves in the Cooper Elver district, and at the same time 
ministered to the English settlers, who " were making near 
approach to that heathenism which is to be found among 
negroes and Indians." Returning to England in 1705 in 
the hope of securing additional fellow-workers, he died in 

1 See Reports and Letters of the Society's Missionaries in Wisconsin, vol. 
A., 26, p. 4. 

AMERICA (U.S.A.) 373 

In 1713 the Eev. G. Johnston of Charlestown brought 
to England a Yammonsee prince, at the request of his 
father and of the " Emperor of the Indians," in order that 
he might be instructed in the Christian religion and in 
English manners. He was " put to school and instructed 
at the charge of the society," and was baptized by the 
Bishop of London in the Eoyal Chapel of Somerset House 
on Quinquagesima Sunday, 1715, at the age of nineteen, 
Lord Carteret, one of the proprietors of South Carolina, 
being one of his sponsors. After his baptism he was 
presented to the King. On his return to America he 
continued his education under Mr. Johnston, to whose care 
the eldest son of the " Emperor of the Cherequois " was 
also entrusted. A few months later a war broke out in 
which the missionaries and the Indian Christians suffered 

In 1743, two negroes having been purchased and 
trained as teachers at the cost of the S.P.G., a school was 
opened at Charleston by Commissary Garden, with the 
object of training the negroes as instructors of their 
countrymen. The school was continued with success for 
more than twenty years, many adult slaves also attending 
in the evening for instruction. This school was maintained 
in the face of many difficulties and at a time when the 
Government had not one institution for the education of 
the 50,000 slaves in the colony. 1 

North Carolina. Attempts were made in several 
districts by missionaries of the S.P.G. to evangelize the 
negro slaves, but in many cases their efforts were frus- 
trated by the opposition of the slave-owners. 

Mr. Eainsford, who was stationed at Chowan in 1712, 
baptized " upwards of forty negroes " in one year. As 
the prejudices of the masters were overcome a missionary 
would baptize sometimes fifteen to twenty-four negroes in 
a month and as many as seventy in a year. The Eev. 
C. Hall reported having baptized 355 in eight years. 
Some of the missionaries received very little support from 
1 Two Hundred Years of the S.P.G., p. 18, 


the colonists, and suffered severe hardships in consequence. 
Thus the Rev. J. Urmston reported in 1711 that he and 
his family were " in manifest danger of perishing for want 
of food." " We have," he said, " liv'd many a day only on 
a dry crust and a draught of water out of the Sound." 

Georgia was established as a colony in 1733. On the 
return of Mr. Quincy, the society's first missionary in 
Georgia, the Rev. John Wesley was appointed as his 
successor. The meeting of the S.P.G. committee at which 
he was appointed was held on January 16, 1736. 
Amongst those who were present were the Bishops of 
London, Lichfield, Rochester, and Gloucester. Wesley 
sailed for Georgia in the hope that he might he able to 
evangelize the heathen, but the claims of the settlers at 
Savannah left him little time to preach to the Indians, 
though he made several attempts to do so. He returned 
to England after an absence of two years. During his 
stay in Georgia he got into trouble with some of the 
settlers owing to his refusal to read the Burial Service 
over a Nonconformist, and by others he was accused of 
being a Papist. The actual difficulty which caused his 
abrupt departure from the colony arose in connection witli 
his refusal to admit to Holy Communion a member of his 
congregation. A little later missionary work was started 
amongst the Chickasaw Indians and negroes. 

There appears to be no account of missionary work 
amongst the Indians and negroes in Pennsylvania sup- 
ported by the S.P.G. until 1756, when the society granted 
100 per annum for the training of native teachers in the 
college at Philadelphia under the Rev. Dr. Smith. 

In New England the efforts of the missionaries to 
evangelize the Indians and negroes were bitterly opposed 
by the colonists. In 1730 the Rev. J. Usher reported 
from Bristol that " sundry negroes " had made " applica- 
tion for baptism that were able to render a very good 
account of the hope that was in them," but he was 
" not permitted to comply with their requests . . . being 
forbid by their masters." In the same year, however, he 

AMERICA (U.S.A.) 375 

succeeded in baptizing three adult Indians, and later on 
the Bristol congregation included " about thirty negroes 
and Indians," most of whom joined " in the public service 
very decently." 

At Stratford Dr. Johnson " always had a catechetical 
lecture during the summer months, attended by many 
negroes and some Indians, as well as the whites, about 
70 or 80 in all." At Naragansett, Dr. Macsparrau had 
a class of 70 Indians and negroes, whom he frequently 
catechised and instructed before Divine Service, and the 
Rev. S. Honyman of Newport, Rhode Island, besides 
baptizing some Indians, numbered among his congregation 
"above 100 negroes who constantly attended the Publick 
Worship." Among the Naragansett tribe in Rhode Island 
Catechist Bennet of the Mohawk Mission, New York 
Province, laboured for a short time on the invitation of 
their king. 1 

New Jersey. Attempts were made in several parts of 
this province to do missionary work amongst negroes 
between 1701 and 1750. Towards the end of this period 
(1746-51) the Rev. Thomas Thompson laboured in New 
Jersey. In 1751 he left America in order to go as a 
missionary to the Gold Coast, being the first S.P.G. 
missionary and probably the first Englishman to work as 
a missionary in Africa. 

The difficulties which the missionaries connected with 
the S.P.G. had to face in America were the same as 
those which confronted John Eliot and the Moravian 
missionaries. These were created by the attitude of the 
colonists towards the Indians and by the reluctance of 
slave-owners to allow their slaves to receive any kind of 
education. Again and again a promising community of 
Christian Indians was established, only to be scattered or 
massacred in one of the intermittent wars which were 
waged between the non-Christian Indians and the colonists. 
Had these Christian communities been allowed to develop, 
it is inconceivable that the American people could have 
1 See Ttcu Hundred Years of the S.P.G., p. -17. 


incurred the disgrace of allowing the twentieth century to 
dawn upon their country whilst a large proportion of 
its Indian subjects still remained heathen. The diffi- 
culties raised by the slave-owners in regard to the 
evangelization of the negroes retarded but have not pre- 
vented the nominal Christianization of the race. In 
many cases these difficulties were not removed until the 
emancipation of the negroes in 1863. 

After the Declaration of Independence the Anglican 
Christians in the U.S.A. were comparatively few in 
number and were not in a position to develop mission 
work amongst the Indians, but by the middle of the 
nineteenth century the Protestant Episcopal Church 
began to organize such work. 

The first of a chain of Anglican missions was opened 
at Gull Lake, Minnesota, for the Chippewas in 1852. In 
1859 Henry Benjamin Whipple, who became the great 
champion of the Indians in their dealings with the U.S.A. 
Government, was consecrated as the first Bishop of 
Minnesota. In 1860 Bishop Whipple opened a mission 
amongst the Santee Sioux Indians. In 1872 William 
Hobart Hare was consecrated as a missionary bishop 
to the Indians. The Sioux Indians who lived in 
South Dakota were his special charge. For thirty -seven 
years Bishop Hare, who eventually became known 
throughout the U.S.A. as the Apostle to the Indians, 
shared the life and the privations of his beloved Indians, 
and before his death in 1909 he had the satisfaction 
of seeing a large Indian community which was Christian 
in something more than name. He was " God's chief 
human instrument in the transformation of a tribe of 
murderous savages into gentle, worshipful citizens of the 
Kingdom of Christ." 1 Of the 25,000 Christians in South 
Dakota 10,000 are baptized members of the Anglican 
Church. At the present time the Anglican Church has 
missions to Indians in twelve states and supports 23 
white and 25 Indian clergy. 

1 Handbook of the CJiurch's Mission to Indians, p. 139. 

AMERICA (U.S.A.) 377 

In the state of Oklahoma, which contains the largest 
number of Indians, there are about 120,000 Indians or 
people with Indian blood. 

The greater part of the missionary work in this state 
is carried on by the "Roman Catholics and the Presbyterians. 

We have already referred to the attempts made by 
the Moravians to work amongst Indians in Georgia and 
New York during the first half of the eighteenth century. 
Later on they started missions among the Delawares and 
associated tribes in Ohio, and still later, in Ontario and 
Kansas. Early in the nineteenth century the Friends 
established missions in Indiana, and, at a later period, 
in Oklahoma. 

" The Presbyterians began their work among the 
Wyandottes about the same time as the Friends, and later 
among the Cherokees, Osages, and Pawnees. To the Con- 
gregational missionaries we owe most of our knowledge of 
the Sioux language, their work being almost entirely in the 
Santee or Eastern dialect. . . . The Methodists were the 
first to minister to the Flatheads in the mountains at the 
head of the Missouri Eiver ; they also had missions among 
the Chippewas. The Baptists laboured for the Weas, a 
sub-tribe of the Miamis, in 1818-21. Later on missions 
were established for the Pottawatomie, near South Bend, 
Indiana, and among the Ottawas on Grand Eiver, Michigan. 
This is but passing mention of work divinely inspired and 
nobly done ; lack of space prevents more detailed description 
of these the earliest missions among the Indians of the 
Mississippi Eiver region." [ 

The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 


Missions, \vhich was organized in 1810 and is the oldest 
missionary society having its origin in the U.S.A., worked 
for many years amongst the Indians. Up to 1890 it had 
supported 1600 missionaries, of whom 512 had been sent 
to work amongst the Indians. The first missionary, the 
Eev. Cyrus Kingsbury, was sent in 1815 to start work 

1 A Handbook of the Church's Mission to the Indians (Christian Missions 
Publishing Co., U.S.A.), p. 103. 


amongst the Cherokees of Georgia. In 1818 a second 
station was opened amongst the Choctaws on the Yazoo 
Eiver. In 1825 a half-breed Cherokee invented the 
Cherokee alphabet, with the result that within four years 
half his nation had learned to read. The work of the 
A.B.C.F.M. made rapid progress for several years, but was 
eventually checked and interrupted by the ill-treatment 
of the Cherokee, Sioux, and other Indians by American 
settlers who took possession of their land. 

In 1834 the Dutch Reformed Church handed over to 
the A.B.C.F.M. their mission stations west of the Kocky 
Mountains, and this work was extended amongst the 
Spokanes and Cayuses. In 1848, in consequence of a 
massacre, the missionaries had to be withdrawn, but seven 
years later, when they were able to return, they found 
that a large proportion of their converts had " lived con- 
sistent Christian lives, having continued the reading of the 
Scriptures in their own languages and also kept up regular 
family worship." The Cayuses have now become extinct. 

In 1846 the American Missionary Association for the 
promotion of missionary work amongst the Indians was 
established, and in 1883 the A.B.C.F.M. transferred to 
this society the care of all its missions to American 

The Women's National Indian Association has done 
much to influence public opinion in favour of the Indians, 
and has started several missions amongst them which it 
afterwards transferred to the charge of various missionary 

The American Baptist Home Missionary Society, which 
began its work in 1807, and the A.M.E.C. have work 
amongst several different tribes. A missionary of the 
latter body, John Stewart, who was called the " Apostle 
to the Wyandottes," died in 1823. 

The total number of Anglican and Protestant mission- 
aries now at work amongst the American Indians is 
about 200. 

The societies which report the largest amount of 

AMERICA (U.S.A.) 379 

work amongst American Indians are the following (the 
figures indicate the number of Christian adherents) : 

The Presbyterian Church Board of Home Missions, 
18,108; the Protestant Episcopal Church, 12,900; 
American Baptist Home Mission Society, 8156 ; the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, 5000 ; the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, 5000. Twenty -five American 
societies report a total of 66,928 adherents and 28,092 
baptized Christians. These figures do not include the 
Indian Christians belonging to the E.G. Church. 

R.C. Missions to Indians. - - Of the Indians in the 
U.S.A. and Alaska 64,741 are attached to the E.G. 
missions. Of these 3200 are in the diocese of Alaska, 
9633 in the diocese of Santa Fe, 7344 in the diocese of 
Lead, 3664 in the diocese of Crookstone, 3643 in the 
diocese of Seattle, 4380 in the diocese of Helena, and 
3890 in the diocese of Great Falls. During 1912 the 
number of adults baptized was 1017. The number of 
priests attached to the E.G. missions is 163. In 1874 
the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, of which the E.G. 
Archbishop of Baltimore was president, was established. 
This Bureau helps to support the mission schools and 
to maintain and develop the various missions. The Society 
for the Preservation of the Faith among Indian children, 
established in 1901, collects from each of its members, who 
number about 50,000, an annual subscription of 25 cents 
for the benefit of the missions. 

The number of Indians in the U.S.A., according to 
the census of 1910, was 265,683, and in Alaska, 25,331. 
The largest number of Indians is found in Oklahoma, 
namely, 74,825 ; while Arizona has 29,201 ; New Mexico, 
20,573; South Dakota, 19,137; California, 16,371; 
Washington, 10,997; Montana, 10,745; Wisconsin, 10,142, 
etc. Indians are found in every state and territory, but 
their number in Delaware, Vermont, New Hampshire, 
and West Virginia is less than 50. 

It is satisfactory to note that, after several fluctuations, 
their number appears to be definitely increasing. Their 


total number was 278,000 in 1870, 244,000 in 1880, 
248,253 in 1890, and 237,196 in 1900. Thus, their 
number decreased from 1870 to 1900, but it increased 
considerably (28,487) during the decade between 1900 
and 1910. The number of Indians in Alaska is on the 
decrease, namely, from 32,996 in 1880 and 29,536 in 
1900 to 25,331 in 1910. 

The number of Indian tribes is large, but some have 
very few members, six tribes being represented by a single 
member each, and 30 having a membership under 10. The 
Cherokees have 31,489 members; the Navajo, 32,455; 
the Chippewa, 20,214; the Choctaw, 15,917; and the 
Teton Sioux, 14,284. Of the remaining continental 
United States tribes none has as many as 7000 members, 
but there are 74 tribes represented by not less than 
500 individuals. In Alaska the Kuswogmiut have 1480 
members and the Aleutt 1451, but none of the other 
tribes in the territory has as many as a thousand members. 


Alaska contains a population of 65,000, which 
includes about 15,000 Eskimo, 2000 Aleutians, 25,231 
Indians, 2000 Chinese, and a steadily increasing number 
of white immigrants and half-breeds. It was bought from 
Eussia by the U.S.A. in 1867. 

A mission was founded by the Eussian Orthodox 
Church in the Aleutian Islands between Kamtchatka and 
Alaska in 1793. We have referred elsewhere (see p. 276) 
to the good work accomplished here by John Veniammoff, 
afterwards Archbishop Innocent. The mission was 
extended to Alaska in 1834, and is now superintended by 
a bishop whose diocese is called " The Aleutian Islands 
and North America " and whose cathedral is at San 
Francisco. The members of the " orthodox " Church in his 
diocese number between 40,000 and 50,000 and include 
over 10,000 Indians, Aleutians, Creoles, and Eskimos. 

The U.S.A. Presbyterians started a mission at Forb 

AMERICA (U.S.A.) 381 

Wrangel in 1877. This mission has now 8 stations 
and 4000 Christians. The Moravians, who started in 
1885 amongst the Eskimos in the south-west, have about 
1400 baptized Christians attached to the mission. 

Missionary work in Alaska was begun by the 
Protestant Episcopal Church U.S.A. at Anvik in 1887, 
and Bishop Eowe was consecrated as its first bishop in 
1895. In addition to the bishop there are 12 clergy and 
6 lay readers. There are 2 industrial schools, 6 mission 
hospitals, 20 churches, and 20 mission rooms. At Point 
Hope there are 3 Eskimos who conduct services for their 
own people whom the bishop hopes to be able to ordain. 

Mr. Duncan, who founded the C.M.S. Mission of 
Metlakahtla, after separating from the C.M.S., migrated 
with a large number of Indians to Annetta Island, which 
is within the territory of Alaska. 

Orientals in the U.S.A. 

The Chinese number about 75,000, of whom the 
greater part are on the Pacific Slope, most of the 
remainder being in the Kocky Mountain districts. The 
number and location of the Japanese are about the same. 
The immigrants from India are probably fewer in number 
and are widely scattered. Attempts to evangelize these 
immigrants are being made by many local churches, and 
organized missionary work is being carried on on a small 
scale on the Pacific coast and in a few large cities in the 
east. It is estimated that about 7000 Chinese and 
about 5000 Japanese have been baptized. Very few 
attempts are being made to reach the Indians except by 
the agents of the American Bible Society. 


Canadian Indians. 

THE first missionary to set foot in Canada was Father 
Fleche, who in 1610 joined Champlain's settlement in the 
Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia. Within a year of his arrival 
the chief Membertou and all his tribe had become Chris- 
tians. In the following year two Jesuit priests arrived to 
assist in the missionary work which had been begun. 

In 1633 Jesuit missionaries started work amongst the 
Indian tribes in the neighbourhood of Quebec, but despite 
the devotion and activity of the missionaries the progress 
made during the first few years was slow. " On one 
occasion Brebeuf appeared before the chiefs and elders at a 
solemn national assembly council, described heaven and hell 
with images suited to their comprehension, asked to which 
they preferred to go after death, and then, in accordance 
with the invariable Huron custom in affairs of importance, 
presented a large and valuable belt of wampum, as an 
invitation to take the path to Paradise." l 

For forty years the Jesuits laboured hard, but in vain, 
to reclaim the Indians from their wandering life and to 
induce them to abandon their cruel customs. In individual 
cases they attained some success, but, partly as a result of 
fighting between them and the French, and partly as the 
result of quarrels among themselves, their efforts proved 
unavailing, and in 1675 the mission came to an end. 

Of the deeds of heroism accomplished by these Jesuit 
missionaries many instances might be given, but a single 

1 The Jesuits in North America, by F. Parkman, p. 151. 



illustration must suffice. In 1G60 Father Rene, who was 
then an old man, in response to an invitation brought by 
a party of Ottawas, left the St. Lawrence and travelled 
with them to their own district. After a while they left 
him to starve on the shores of a lake, but eventually they 
relented and carried him to the home of their tribe, a hundred 
miles west of Sault Stc. Marie, where, living in a miserable 
dug-out under a hollow tree, he began his missionary work. 
Driven out of this, he was compelled to spend his first 
winter in a little cabin built of fir-tree branches. The 
following summer, while trying to reach another Indian 
settlement, he was either murdered by hostile Indians, or 
died of exposure. This story aptly illustrates the diffi- 
culties under which the work of the Jesuit missionaries 
was carried on. Many of the missionaries and of their Indian 
converts suffered martyrdom, which was inflicted with the 
most barbarous cruelty. 

After the recall of the Jesuit missionaries in 1773 the 
care of the Indians fell upon the Sulpicians and upon those 
of the secular clergy who were able to assist them. 
Sporadic attempts were made to evangelize the Indians in 
different parts of Eastern Canada, and in 1842 Father 
Thibault began to preach to the Crees and Blackfeet in 
Alberta. In 1844 Jesuit missionaries inaugurated work 
on Walpole Island in Lake Superior, and at several other 

In 1860 Mr. J. G. Kohl, in a book describing his 
travels on the shores of Lake Superior, refers thus to the 
work of the K.C. missionaries : 

"Everything I heard here daily of the pious courage, 
patience, and self-devoting zeal of these missionaries on Lake 
Superior caused me to feel intense admiration. They live 
isolated and scattered in little log huts round the lake, often 
no better off than the natives." l 

Between 1850 and 1870 Oblates and other mission- 
aries started work amongst several tribes in the north- 
1 Wanderings round Lake Superior, xix. 306. 


west. In 1847 work was started in Vancouver Island. 
In 1875 Brother Alexis was killed and eaten by an 
Iroquois Indian. Within recent years the work has been 
developed and has been carried on with a fair amount of 
visible success. 

Anglican Missions. 

In 1820 the Rev. S. West, the first chaplain of the 
Hudson Bay Company, began work in the Red River 
Colony near the site of the present town of Winnipeg. 
He received a grant from the C.M.S. towards the education 
of Indian boys, and two of his earliest pupils, H. Budd and 
J. Settee, were eventually ordained. In 1831 an Indian 
settlement was attempted and an effort was made to reclaim 
the Indians from their wandering life ; but out of an encamp- 
ment of 200 Indians only seven could be induced to take 
part in cultivating the ground, and when the first harvest 
was reaped, four of these consumed the whole produce at 
a single feast, reserving nothing for the coming winter. 
One of those who helped to establish the settlement had 
previously eaten seven of his own relations. Notwith- 
standing, however, the initial difficulties which were 
experienced, the settlement proved a success, and a well- 
ordered Christian community eventually came into existence. 
A series of other stations were established, and in 1872 it 
was reported that no heathen Indians were to be found in 
this whole district. The work gradually spread towards the 
west and towards the north. Budd was ordained by the 
first Bishop of Rupertsland in 1850. In 1865 there were 
in Rupertsland and the North- West Territories 5000 Indian 
Christians and 1000 communicants. 

In 1851 work amongst Indians was begun in what is 
now the diocese of Moosonee, which includes the whole 
coast-line of Hudson Bay. In this year a schoolmaster 
named John Horden was sent out by the C.M.S. to Moose 
Fort. In the following year he was ordained, and in 1872 
he became the first Bishop of Moosonee. Before his death 


in 1893 he had seen successful missions established 
amongst all the Indian tribes within the limits of his vast 
diocese, and the beginnings of a Christian literature in the 
Cree, Ojibbeway, Chipewyan, and Eskimo languages. All 
the Crees, three-fourths of the Ojibbeways, and many of the 
Chipewyans in the diocese have now been baptized. There 
are several missionaries at work in connection with the 
Indian reserves in Saskatchewan and Alberta, but the 
results have not been as encouraging as they have been 
farther north. It seems well-nigh impossible to induce 
the Indians to work for more than a few weeks at a time, 
or to acquire habits of thrift. The most hopeful features 
of the work are the Indian boarding schools e.g. the school 
at Lytton, supported by the New England Company 
(see p. 56), or the school at Battleford, which is supported 
by the Government but is carried on under missionary 

In 1858 the C.M.S. began work amongst the Tukudh 
Indians at Fort Simpson and a little later at Fort 
MacPherson and across the Rocky Mountains at Fort Yukon. 
Archdeacon M'Donald began his work amongst the Tukudh 
Indians in 1862 and laboured for fifty years on their 
behalf. In 1865 he was joined by the Rev. W. C. Bompas, 
who afterwards became Bishop of Athabasca, and later on 
Bishop of Selkirk (Yukon). Within a few years of the 
opening of the mission these two missionaries baptized 
over 1000 Indians. 

In British Columbia and the islands on the Pacific 
coast are found Indians belonging to several distinct tribes. 
In 1856 William Duncan, a schoolmaster, was sent out by 
the C.M.S. to Fort Simpson on the Pacific coast, and in 
1862 he founded a settlement at Metlakahtla, seventeen 
miles south of Fort Simpson, which rapidly developed into 
a flourishing community. Difficulties arose between the 
C.M.S. and Mr. Duncan, who refused to allow the Holy 
Communion to be administered to Indians, and eventually, 
in consequence of a dispute between him and the Canadian 
Government, Mr. Duncan withdrew to American territory 



in Alaska. Metlakahtla became, under Bishop Ridley, the 
centre of a series of mission stations for work amongst 
Indians. Other stations have been opened on the Skeena 
River, on Queen Charlotte's Island, and in Vancouver Island. 
The Anglican missions to Indians and to the Eskimos, 
most of which were inaugurated and supported by the help 
of the C.M.S., are now supported by organizations belonging 
to the various dioceses in which they are situated, though 
the C.M.S. still provides some financial assistance. 

Distribution of the Indian population. 

The Indian population of the Dominion of Canada in 
1909 was 111,043, which represented an increase of 
3406 on the return for 1905. Their distribution accord- 
ing to provinces is as follows: Nova Scotia, 2103; New 
Brunswick, 1871; Prince Edward Island, 274; Quebec, 
11,523 ; Ontario, 23,898 ; Manitoba, 8327 ; Saskatchewan, 
7971; Alberta, 5541; North-West Territories, 21,362; 
British Columbia, 24,871; Yukon territory, 3302. 
The religious census was as follows : Roman Catholics, 
40,820; Anglicans, 16,590; Methodists, 16,776 ; other 
denominations, 3460; pagans, 9622. 

The largest number of converts connected with the R.C. 
missions are found in British Columbia (11,470), Ontario 
(6319), and Saskatchewan (2939). 

The Anglican missions are strongest in Ontario, British 
Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, the North-West, and 
in the Yukon territories ; the Methodists work chiefly 
in Alberta, Ontario, British Columbia, and Manitoba ; the 
Presbyterians in British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and 
Ontario ; and the Baptists in Ontario. 

The missions receive a considerable amount of help 
from the Canadian Government, especially in the upkeep 
of their schools. There are altogether 20 industrial 
schools, 57 boarding schools, and 231 day schools. Of 
the total number of schools 109 are Roman Catholic, 
86 Anglican, 44 Methodist, 16 Presbyterian, 51 un- 


denominational, and 2 belong to the Salvation Army. 
There are 5323 boys and 5156 girls in these schools, 
which contain about half the total number of Indian 
children of school age. 


The Eskimos. 


The word Eskimo is a corruption of an Indian word 
which means " eaters of raw meat." They number about 
40,000 and are scattered over 3200 miles. They live on 
the seacoast and are seldom found more than 20 miles 
inland. Their language has but few dialectical variations. 
Of the total number, 11,000 are found in Greenland and 
13,000 in Alaska and the Behring Straits. 

Greenland was discovered by Eed Erck and his Norse- 
men in A.D. 986. Soon after the Norsemen had effected a 
settlement, mention is made of twelve churches, several 
cloisters, and one nunnery. We have already referred to 
the good work done by the Moravians, which ended in 
1900, when they handed over the care of their converts to 
the Danish Government Mission. The Danish missionaries 
have a seminary for the training of mission workers, and 
the number of non-Christians is now small. 

In Labrador the Eskimos number about 2000, and 
mission work amongst them is chiefly carried on by the 
Moravians, who, in addition to their spiritual work, 
endeavour to organize trade. Dr. Grenfell's Labrador 
Medical Mission work, both amongst the white fishermen 
and amongst the Eskimos, and the hospitals which he has 
established, have been a great help to the latter. 

The first regular mission to Eskimos in the Canadian 
Dominion was undertaken by Edmund Peck, formerly a 
seaman in the Navy, who began at Little Whale Eiver on 
the south-east shore of Hudson's Bay in 1876. After 
fourteen years he started another mission among the 
Eskimos on Blacklead Island in Cumberland Bay. The 
church which he built at this station, and which was 
made of whale-bone and seal-skins, was eaten by 


dogs. His work, which was carried on under great 
difficulties, has been most encouraging. In 1892 he 
started work amongst Eskimos within the Arctic Circle to 
the north of Cumberland Sound. In 1882 the Eev. T. H. 
Canham started work in the Mackenzie Eiver district, and 
Archdeacon Lofthouse made extensive missi&nary journeys 
among the Eskimos on the western shores of Hudson 
Bay. In the far north-west the names of Bishop 
Bompas, Archdeacon Macdonald, and Bishop Stringer are 
associated with successful work which has been established 
amongst the widely scattered groups of Eskimos to be 
found between Alaska and the Hudson Bay districts. 

Orientals in Canada. Of those living in Canada in 
1909, who numbered in all 36,591, there were 21,122 
Chinese, 12,003 Japanese, and 3466 from India. Most of 
these are in British Columbia. A limited amount of 
missionary work is carried on by the Anglican, Methodist, 
and Presbyterian Churches. In Winnipeg, where there are 
1000 Chinese, the Presbyterians and Methodists have a joint 



THE spread of the Christian faith in the West Indies has 
been conditioned by their political history. The islands 
which have been long under the control of Spain or France 
have been chiefly influenced by E.G. missionaries, whilst 
those which have been under the control of England or 
Holland have been influenced by Anglican and Protestant 

Spain secured Cuba, Porto Eico, the eastern part 
of Hispaniola (San Domingo), and Trinidad. The French 
secured the western part of Hispaniola (Hayti) and other 
smaller islands, e.g. Martinique, Guadeloupe, Grenada, 
St. Vincent, and St. Lucia. Great Britain at first occupied 
Barbados, Antigua, St. Kitts, and Nevis, to which Cromwell 
added Jamaica, which was captured from Spain. By the 
close of the eighteenth century Great Britain had taken 
Trinidad from Spain, and Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Lucia, 
and Dominica from France. St. Vincent and Grenada, 
which were acquired earlier than the others, are more 
anglicized, but in Trinidad, Dominica, and St. Lucia Spanish 
and French patois prevail and most of the inhabitants 
belong to the E.G. Church. 

The Spaniards made little effort to evangelize the 
Caribs or other original inhabitants, and the massacres and 
deportation of these peoples to work on the mainland 
forms one of the blackest pages in history. The responsi- 
bility for their disappearance rests chiefly with the Spaniards, 
though the French and English are not free from blame. 
In a few islands some of their descendants are still to be 

found. Thus in St. Vincent there are about 200, in 



Dominica about 300, and there are a few in the Virgin 
Islands. In other islands there are a certain number of 
inhabitants of mixed Carib and negro descent. 

Practically the whole population of the West Indies, 
with the exception of the Chinese and East Indian 
labourers, is, and has for a long time been, nominally 

The work of evangelizing the negro slaves was slow. 
It was left almost entirely during the eighteenth century 
to the Anglican clergy, who were not as a rule conspicuous 
for missionary zeal : the Wesleyans and others who desired 
to share in the work were in many cases prevented from 
doing so by the opposition of the English colonists. 
Despite, however, the hindrances which were placed in 
the way of missionary enterprise, by the time that the 
emancipation of the negroes took place a large proportion 
of them had been deeply influenced by Christian teaching. 
Professor Caldecott writes : 

" It stands out as one of the most signal triumphs of 
religion in human history that Emancipation was regarded 
by the freed slaves themselves as a religious boon to be 
received with pious gratitude and celebrated with religious 
rites. The last hours of slavery and the first hours of 
freedom were spent in churches and chapels. And the new 
centres round which the emancipated rallied were neither 
ignorant agitators nor firebrand orators holding out plunder 
and rapine as now within reach, but the missionaries, 
pastors, deacons, and class-leaders of Christian congrega- 
tions." l 

It is difficult to prevent contrasting what happened in 
the islands in which English missionaries had been working 
with the occurrences which took place in Hayti, when in 
1791 the French ^Revolutionary Assembly decreed the 
emancipation of the slaves. When the news reached 
Hayti, 1000 plantations were wrecked by the slaves, and 
in the conflict which ensued 2000 whites and 10,000 
negroes were killed. 

1 The Church in the West Indies, p. 98. 


Reference has already been made to the work of the 
Moravians in the West Indies during the first half of the 
eighteenth century. Between 1732 and 1739 twenty-two 
Brethren died in St. Thomas and St. Croix. In 1754 they 
occupied St. Jan, and soon extended their work over the 
Danish islands. From 1764 onwards they opened stations 
in Jamaica, Antigua, St. Kitt's, Barbados, Tobago, and 
Trinidad. They are now also represented in the Leeward 
and Windward Islands. 

The Methodists began work in 1786, and by the time 
of Dr. Coke's death in 1813 they had obtained 11,000 
negro converts. 

English Baptists began work in Jamaica in 1831, and 
by 1842 their church members numbered 24,000. They 
have also missions in Trinidad, the Turk's Islands, San 
Domingo, and the Bahamas. 

The Scotch United Presbyterians took over in 1847 
a mission which had been started in Jamaica in 1824. 
They have also work in Trinidad. 

The relative strength of the chief denominations in the 
islands belonging to Great Britain may be gathered from 
the following estimate, which was made in 1897 but which 
may be taken as representing the relative numbers to-day 
(the figures given represent communicants or full members) : 
Anglicans, 127,000; Wesleyans, 52,000; Baptists, 42,000 ; 
Presbyterians, 19,000; Moravians, 19,000. 

It is not possible to do more than touch briefly upon 
the missionary work which has been done in a few of the 
more important islands. The story of one, however, is 
with a few exceptions the story of all. 

Jamaica was discovered by Columbus in 1494. 
During the 150 years in which it remained in the pos- 
session of the Spaniards they exterminated its native 
population, destroying altogether 1,200,000 Arawaks in 
it and the adjacent islands. When in 1655 it became a 
British possession it contained about 1500 whites and the 
same number of African negro slaves. That the E.G. 
Church had endeavoured to minister to the slave population 


is evidenced by the fact that when the English captured 
the island they found there several negro priests 
belonging to the II. C. Communion. By the end of 
the eighteenth century the slaves had increased in 
number to 300,000, and when slavery was abolished in 
1833 the number of slaves who were set free in Jamaica 
was 309,338. 

The Jamaica Expedition organized by Cromwell was 
provided with seven chaplains, whose instructions were 
drawn up by John Milton. The Slave Code of Jamaica 
(1696) contained the following injunctions, which, however, 
were seldom carried into effect : " All masters, mistresses, 
owners, and employers are to endeavour as much as 
possible the instruction of their slaves in the principles of 
the Christian religion, and to facilitate their conversion, 
and do their utmost to fit them for baptism, and as soon 
as convenient cause all such to be baptized as they can 
make sensible of a Deity and the Christian faith." 

In 1664 five parishes were constituted which were 
served by five ministers, two of whom were Swiss. In 
1703 the S.P.G. began to vote money for the support of 
clergy, and in 1825 Dr. C. Lipscomb was appointed as the 
first bishop. Prior to his appointment, the Anglican clergy, 
both in Jamaica and in other parts of the West Indies, 
had in many instances been men of unsatisfactory character, 
who had but little influence with the white settlers and 
were not interested in missionary work. 1 Until the 
negroes were set free obstacles were frequently placed 
in ttie way of their becoming Christians, but their 
emancipation was followed by the conversion of a large 
number. In 1840 the bishop confirmed nearly 9000. 
For many years the S.P.G. continued to support missionary 
work in Jamaica, and it did not withdraw till 1865, when 
practically the whole of the population had become nomin- 
ally Christian. 

In 1825 the C.M.S. sent out two catechists and their 
wives, and by 1840 it had work at 21 stations with a staff 

1 See The Church ill the West I-ndies, by Professor Caldecott, cli iii. 


of 7 clerical and 1 1 lay missionaries. It finally withdrew 
about 1848. 

Moravian missionaries were sent to Jamaica in 1754 
at the instigation of two absentee proprietors of estates, 
who desired to benefit their slaves. At the outset some 
success was attained, but during the first fifty years not 
more than 1000 persons were baptized. The Moravian 
missionaries themselves became the owners of slaves and 
supported themselves in part by their labours. 

The Wesleyan Methodists started work in 1789, but 
were bitterly opposed by the Planters. At the close of 
the eighteenth century they had 600 converts. 

Baptists from Virginia began work in Kingston in 
1814. This was transferred to the English Baptists in 
1831. A Jamaican Baptist missionary society has stations 
in Central America and in several of the West Indian 
Islands. The unjust disabilities under which the Non- 
conformist missionaries worked may be gathered from the 
Ordinance passed in 1807 by the Corporation of Kingston 
which provided that they were to conduct no services 
except in open daylight and that no persons were to lend 
their houses for worship. An Act passed at the same time 
forbidding them to instruct slaves was disallowed at home. 

The Bahama Islands are 500 in number and extend 
over a line 700 miles in length, but of the whole number 
only about 2 are inhabited. These include St. Salvador, the 
first land in the New World sighted by Columbus in 1492. 
Nearly the whole of the original inhabitants, i.e. about 
40,000, were transported by the Spaniards to Hayti or to 
the mines of Mexico and Peru, and the islands became 
depopulated. They were annexed by England in 1578, 
but were not settled by English immigrants till 1666. 
During the two following centuries missionary work was 
carried on amongst the negro slaves by the clergy who 
were sent out to minister to the English population. In 
1843 the Colonial Church Society (now the Colonial and 
Continental Church Society) sent a lay-agent to work in 
the Bahamas. It subsequently gave some assistance here 


and in Jamaica. In 1861 a bishop was appointed, the 
centre of the diocese being fixed at Nassau in the island 
of New Providence. The diocese includes the Bahama 
Islands, together with the Turk's and Caicos group. The 
other chief islands are Andros, Harbour Islands, and Long 

The Wesleyan Methodists began work in 1825 and 
eventually occupied five islands. The Baptists opened a 
mission in 1833. 

The Leeward Islands, which include Antigua, Mont- 
serrat, St. Kitt's (or St. Christopher's), Nevis, Dominica, 
Barbuda, Eedonda, and certain of the Virgin Islands, were 
constituted a Federal Colony in 1871. The Leeward 
Islands also include several islands belonging to France, 
Holland, and Denmark. The islands contain a number of 
Creoles, but 85 percent, of the population are descendants 
of the negro slaves. The description of the inhabitants of 
the Leeward Islands given by Bishop Mather, who was 
formerly Bishop of Antigua, is true of nearly all the islands 
in the West Indies. After referring to the people as 
intensely impulsive, easily moved by religious emotions, 
devoted to singing hymns, but deficient in their sense of 
the meaning of morality, truth, and honesty, he wrote : 

" This is only what their history leads us to expect . . . 
the heritage and taint of slavery will not be eradicated for 
many a generation yet to come. Marriage as a rule was 
forbidden to the slave ; what wonder then that his grand- 
children think lightly of that holy ordinance ? (Two-thirds 
of the children in this diocese were of illegitimate birth.) . . . 
It is a sad thought for Englishmen to remember that the 
vices and faults of the negro are the direct product of the 
slave trade. . . . We brought the negro to the West Indies, 
we ill-treated him and ground him down. Surely we have 
a long debt to make up to him if we do not wish him to rise 
up in the Judgment against us." 

The first serious attempts to evangelize the negroes in 
Antigua were made by the Methodists. The Speaker of 
the Assembly in Antigua having come into personal 


contact with John Wesley in England, on his return to 
Antigua began reading Wesley's sermons to his slaves. In 
1789 Dr. Coke visited Antigua, and by 1793 there were 
6570 Methodist members, most of whom were slaves. 

The Moravians began work in 1756, and by 1812 had 
reported 8994 members. The Anglican Church had 
chaplains in Antigua as early as 1634, but comparatively 
little was done by way of ministering to the spiritual wants 
of the slaves. Mr. W. Dawes, formerly Governor of Sierra 
Leone, acted as a catechist in connection with the C.M.S. 
from 1813. 

By the beginning of the nineteenth century efforts 
were being made by several bodies to reach and benefit 
the negroes. Thus between 1803 and 1815 the number 
of persons baptized by the parochial clergy was 2700 ; by 
Methodists, 2000; and by the Moravians, 1300. 

The Anglican diocese of Antigua (Leeward Islands) 
was formed in 1842. In 1844 a lay writer in Antigua 
spoke of there being then in the island " an enlightened 
and evangelical clergy." 

Barbados. The first batch of settlers in Barbados 
(1625) were of "such a temper" that their first chaplain 
is reported to have left them in despair. Later on it was 
reported that the clergy who endeavoured to instruct their 
negroes were exposed to " most barbarous usage " and the 
slaves to worse treatment than before. That the opposi- 
tion to teaching Christianity to the slaves was not 
universal is shown by the wording of one of the earliest 
Ordinances relating to the island, which reads : " That 
Almighty God be served and glorified, and that He give a 
blessing to our labours, it is hereby enacted that all masters 
and overseers of families have prayers openly every morning 
and evening with his family upon penalty of 40 Ib. of 
sugar, the one half to the informer, the other to the public 
treasury of the island." It is needless to say that the 
enactment of this Ordinance did not result in the spread of 
genuine religion in the island. An important date in the 
missionary history of Barbados, and in that of the greater 


part of the West Indies, is 1710, when, by the will of 
General Codrington, the S.P.G. was enabled to establish a 
missionary training college for the West Indies. The will, 
which was dated 1703, reads: 

" I give and bequeath my two plantations in the Island 
of Barbados to the Society for the Propagation of the 
Christian Keligion in foreign parts, erected and established 
by my late good master King William the third, and my 
desire is to have the plantations continued intire and 300 
negroes at least always kept thereon and a convenient 
number of Professors and scholars maintained there . . . 
who shall be obliged to study and practise Phisick and 
Chirurgery as well as Divinity, that by the apparent useful- 
ness of the former to all mankind they may both endeavour 
themselves to the people and have the better opportunities 
of doing good to men's souls whilst they are taking care of 
their bodys, but the particulars of the constitutions I leave 
to the Society composed of wise and good men." 

" The design of the Bequest," as explained in the 
funeral sermon preached on the death of General Codrington, 
" was the maintenance of ... missionaries to be employed 
in the conversion of negroes and Indians." 

Owing to insufficiency of funds, the first building to 
serve the purpose of a college was not erected till 1742. 

Meanwhile the society began a mission to the negroes 
in Barbados, and in 1712 they sent out the Eev. Joseph 
Holt, " who, being well approved of as to life and morals, 
and appearing with due testimonials of his skill in Physic 
and Surgery," was instructed to perform " the ordinary 
duties of a missionary " and " to instruct in the Christian 
religion the negroes and their children within the Society's 
plantations in Barbados and to supervise the sick and 
maimed negroes and servants." 

These instructions were so far carried out by Mr. Holt 
and his successors that the Pteport for 1740 states that 
through their labours " some hundreds of negroes have been 
brought to our Holy lieligion, and there are now not less 
than seventy Christian negroes on those Plantations." 
These last words imply that missionary work was by no 


means confined to the negroes who were employed on the 
Codrington Plantations. In the same year, 1740, the 
society ordered that some of the negroes should be trained 
to act as schoolmasters. 

The college subsequently became a most important 
centre for the training of missionaries, catechists, and 
schoolmasters for work throughout the West Indies. It 
has recently been expanded, and should exercise an 
increasing influence for good in the years to come. 

In 1824 William Hart Coleridge was consecrated as 
the first Bishop of Barbados, and the seventeen years of his 
episcopate witnessed a great advance of missionary work 
amongst the negroes. Preferring to the service which he 
conducted on the day of the emancipation of the slaves in 
Barbados (1838), he wrote: 

" It was my peculiar happiness on that memorable day 
to address a congregation of nearly 4000 persons of whom 
more than 3000 were negroes just emancipated. And such 
were the order, deep attention, and perfect silence, that you 
might have heard a pin drop. Among this mass were 
thousands of my African brethren joining with their 
European brothers in offering up their prayers and 
thanksgivings to the Father, Eedeemer, and Sanctifier of all." 

Preferring to the work of the S.P.G. in Barbados and 
elsewhere in the West Indies, he added : 

" It was chiefly owing to the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel that that day not only passed in peace, but 
was distinguished for the proper feeling that prevailed and 
its perfect order." 

The Moravians began work in Barbados in 1765, but 
after thirty years' work they had only 40 communicant 
members. Later on their work developed largely. 

The Wesleyan Methodists have also done good work 
amongst the negroes. According to the census return 
of 1901 the members of the different Churches were 
as follows: Anglicans, 156,000; Wesleyans, 14,400; 
Moravians, 7000; Roman Catholics, 800; others, 4182. 


The Windward Islands include St. Lucia, St. Vincent, 
Grenada, and the chain of islands which lie between St. 
Vincent and Grenada called the Grenadines. The total 
population is about 200,000. In St. Vincent and the 
Grenadines the majority of the population belong to the 
Anglican Church, whilst in St. Lucia and Grenada, where 
the population is largely French in descent and language, 
the majority are Roman Catholics. The S.P.G. has sup- 
ported missionary work in these islands since 1712. 

The Wesleyans have also worked amongst the negroes 
since the early part of the nineteenth century. The 
Anglican diocese of the Windward Islands is under the 
charge of the Bishop of Barbados. 

Trinidad, which was in the possession of Spain for 
300 years prior to its capture by England in 1797, 
contains the descendants of many Spanish and French 
settlers, and a large proportion of its inhabitants are 
members of the R.C. Church. The S.P.G. began work in 
1836, and a diocese of Trinidad was formed in 1872. The 
Moravians, the United Free Church of Scotland, and the 
Presbyterian Church of Canada have also work in the island. 

A new missionary problem has been created within 
recent years by the immigration of about 100,000 Hindus 
and other non-Christians to work on the cocoa and sugar 
plantations. In the Port of Spain and several other 
centres missionary work is being carried on amongst these 
immigrants with considerable success. The Anglican work 
amongst the Hindus is superintended by the Rev. C. 
Ragbir, himself a Hindu, who is assisted by others of his 

Tobago, which is included in the diocese of Trinidad, 
was the scene of Robinson Crusoe's adventures, and his 
cave is shown in the island. His man " Friday " was an 
Arawak, and his cannibal enemies were Caribs. Half the 
inhabitants are members of the Anglican Church and a 
large number of the remainder are Roman Catholics. 
The population (20,000) includes East Indians, Chinese, 
French-Creoles, and Spaniards. 


Apart from that of the S.P.G., the principal missionary 
work in the island is carried on by the Moravians, who 
began work in 1790. The Wesleyans and Baptists are 
also represented. 

Hayti (or Haiti), as it was called by its original inhabit- 
ants, was renamed Hispaniola by Columbus. Of its two 
republics the western is now called Hayti and the eastern 
San Domingo. At the time of its discovery it had a 
population of about 2,000,000, but few of their descendants 
remain, the population consisting chiefly of negroes. Of 
the total population of about 700,000, about 525,000 are 
of African descent. Of the mixed races about 125,000 are 
of Spanish and 50,000 of French descent. The Spaniards 
made little effort to convert either the original inhabitants 
or their own African slaves to the Christian faith and were 
content with a superficial profession of religion, the result 
being that the greater part of the population remains 
practically heathen. In 1861 an American negro, the 
Eev. J. T. Holly, went to Haiti with a colony of 111 
persons and established a centre of missionary work. A 
few years later Mr. Holly was consecrated as an Anglican 
bishop, and the work was placed under the Board of 
Missions of the American Episcopal Church. In connection 
with this mission there are 13 clergy and 22 organized 
mission stations. 

Cuba, at the time of its discovery by Columbus in 1492, 
contained a population of about 350,000. By 1560 the 
whole of this population had been killed or had disappeared. 
The negro slaves who were introduced became nominal 
Christians, but their Christianity has never been more than 

Bishop Whipple, who visited Havana in 1871, raised 
money for the support of an American clergyman whose 
primary duty was to hold services for Europeans. He, 
however, succeeded during the nine years in which he 
was in Cuba in establishing some missions to the negroes 
on the plantations. Other centres of work were established 
by refugees who had visited the U.S.A., and the American 



Bible Society soon began to send colporteurs through the 
island. In 1885 Bishop Young of Florida confirmed 325 
candidates at six mission centres. In 1904, after the 
Spanish government of the island had been overthrown, 
Bishop Knight was consecrated as Anglican Bishop of 
Cuba. The work which he superintends is carried on at 
57 mission centres, and the work is gradually becoming 
self-supporting. A new bishop was consecrated in 1915. 

Several other American missionary societies are be- 
ginning to organize work in the island. 

The original inhabitants of Porto Rico, which was 
discovered by Columbus in 1493, were soon exterminated 
by the Spaniards. Of the negroes who were introduced 
in their place, and who became nominal Christians, very 
many are still virtually pagans. In 1899, when the 
island was annexed by the U.S.A., a mission was started 
by the American Episcopal Church, and a bishop was 
consecrated in 1902. Work has already been started 
in thirteen centres. Several other American missionary 
societies have also begun to organize work in this island. 



AMONG the missionaries who have laboured in the West 
Indies and in Central America the Spanish missionary 
Las Casas stands pre-eminent. His English biographer 1 
writes of him : 

" At a period when brute force was universally appealed 
to in all matters, but more especially in those that pertained 
to religion, he contended before Juntas and royal Councils 
that missionary enterprise is a thing that should stand 
independent of all military support, that a missionary should 
go forth with his life in his hand, relying only on the pro- 
tection that God will vouchsafe him, and depending neither 
upon civil nor military assistance." 

The one great mistake of his life, which he acknow- 
ledged afterwards with tears of repentance, was the advice 
which he gave to the Spanish Government to introduce 
African negroes into the West Indies as slaves. His 
primary object was to secure the enfranchisement of the 
native populations in the West Indies, which were being 
reduced to slavery by the Spaniards ; but he soon realized 
that in order to redress one evil he had countenanced the 
perpetration of a far greater. 

Born in 1474, he sailed under Columbus to the West 
Indies in 1498. 

He was the first priest ordained in the West Indies, 
and worked at first amongst the Indians in the island of 
Hispaniola (Haiti). He accompanied the Spanish troops 
in their conquest of Cuba and laboured hard to protect 

1 See The Life of Las Casas, by Sir Arthur Helps, p. vi. 


the Indians from their cruelty. After the conquest he 
himself settled in Cuba with a friend, and became the 
possessor of Indians, whom he sent to work in the mines 
for his advantage. After a while he came to realize 
that the employment of Indians as slaves was wholly 
inconsistent with the principles of the Christian faith, 
and having set free his own Indians, he sailed for 
Spain in the hope of persuading King Ferdinand to alter 
the policy which he had adopted towards the Indians in 
the West Indies. As a result of his mission he was 
appointed " Protector of the Indians," and returned again 
to Cuba. After vain attempts to secure the enfranchise- 
ment of the Indians, he suggested, as a solution of what 
appeared to be the insuperable difficulties with which he 
was confronted, that each Spanish colonist should be 
allowed to have twelve negro slaves. Such slaves had 
already been imported by the Portuguese, but the sugges- 
tion of Las Casas resulted in a great extension of the 
slave trade. Owing to the incapacity of his fellow-workers, 
his efforts to organize a Spanish colony on Christian lines 
met with poor success. In 1522 he became a Dominican 
monk, and devoted his time for eight years to the study 
of literature in St. Domingo. 

In 1536 Las Casas arrived in Guatemala, after spend- 
ing some time in Nicaragua. He was invited by the 
Spanish Governor of Guatemala to attempt the Christian- 
ization of the neighbouring province of Tuzulutlan, the 
conquest of which had been thrice unsuccessfully attempted 
by Spanish troops. He agreed to do so on condition that 
no Spaniard should be allowed to enter the province for 
five years. As this missionary enterprise proved eminently 
successful, and as a trustworthy account of the methods 
which were followed has been preserved, it is worth while 
describing it in some detail. Sir A. Helps writes : 

"After the manner of pious men of those times, Las 
Casas and his monks did not fail to commence their under- 
taking by having recourse to the most fervent prayers, 
severe fasts, and other mortifications. . . . The first thing 


they did was to translate into verse in the Quichd language 
the great doctrines of the Church. In these verses they 
described the creation of the world, the fall of man, his 
banishment from Paradise, and the mediation prepared for 
him." 1 

As it appeared to be certain death for a Spaniard to 
enter Tuzulutlan, which was popularly known as the Land 
of War, they taught the poem which they had composed 
to four Indian merchants who were in the habit of trading 
in the country. Three months were spent in teaching the 
Indian merchants to chant their poem to the accompaniment 
of Indian musical instruments. When at length the 
merchants were received by the chief of the country, they 
were hailed by the assemblage to whom they chanted the 
poem as ambassadors from new gods. When asked to 
explain the meaning of the poem, they referred the chief 
to the Dominican monks, whereupon he sent an embassage 
to invite them to come to his country, having first made 
large sacrifices to his idols in the hope of securing their 
presence. The final result was that within a year the 
chief and a large portion of his people embraced the 
Christian faith. The story illustrates well the spirit in 
which Las Casas pursued his missionary task and the 
methods by which, when he could free himself from 
Government interference, he loved to attempt its ac- 

Eeturning again to Spain, Las Casas wrote, and 
eventually published, a treatise entitled The Destruction of 
the Inches, in which he denounced in vigorous language 
the treatment of the Indians by their Spanish conquerors. 
In 1544, much against his own wish, he was consecrated 
as Bishop of Chiapa, a province between Mexico and 
Honduras. His efforts to secure the enforcement of the 
new laws which had been promulgated in Spain in favour 
of the Indians made him so unpopular in his own diocese 
and in Mexico that in 1547 he returned to Spain, believing 
that his influence with the king would help the Indians 
1 Life of Las Casas, p. 19$f, 


more than his actual presence in their midst. Though 
residing in Spain, he continued to act as the protector of 
the Indians, and at the age of ninety-two he pleaded the 
cause of the people of Guatemala before the Ministers of 
Philip ii. There were others, both statesmen and mission- 
aries, who made repeated efforts to improve the lot of the 
Indians and to mitigate their oppression by the Spaniards, 
but the name of Las Casas occupies an unique position 
amongst them. He did and suffered more on their behalf 
than any others of his contemporaries, and his life helps 
to light up one of the darkest pages of history, which is 
filled with records of cruelty and crime. 

Indians in Central America. 

The population of the seven Central American States 
i.e. British Honduras, and the six republics : Honduras, 
Costa Kica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, and Salvador 
is estimated at 4,270,000, and of these 1,700,000 are said 
to be Indians. The RC. Church claims three-fourths of 
these as Christians, but this is apparently an overestimate. 
There are probably nearly 500,000 Indians who have not 
been touched by Christian missions. These include whole 
tribes amongst whom the RC. Church has no priests. 

The Central American Mission which in 1910 had 
28 missionaries, about 70 churches, and 1100 members 
is endeavouring to send two missionaries to each non- 
Christian tribe. The Moravians are working in Nicaragua 
and in the Moskito Eeservation. They have 32 mission- 
aries and about 1300 communicants. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society has 
work, chiefly amongst Eoman Catholics, in all the Central 
American States. 

The greater part of the missionary work which has 
been done in the past amongst the Indians in Central 
America other than that done by the early E.G. mission- 
aries has been done by the S.P.G., but the total amount is 
exceedingly small. 


The Mosldto Shore, on the Bay of Honduras, which was 
discovered by Columbus in 1502, was first settled by 
British adventurers in company with Belixe. In 1741 
George n. appointed English Commissioners for this 
district, but in 1786 England relinquished it to Spain. 
Before this latter event missionary work had been started 
by members of the Anglican Church amongst the Indians 
who lived on the Moskito Shore, and in 1742 the S.P.G. 
contributed towards establishing a mission in response to 
an appeal received from some of the Indians. The 
English Governor of Jamaica, in supporting their appeal, 
urged that " those Indians, besides the claim they have in 
common with other savages to the charity of the society, 
have a demand in justice upon the nation. As they have 
learned most of their vices, particularly cheating and 
drinking, from the English, they ought in recompense to 
receive some good and learn some virtue and religion too." 
In 1747 Nathan Price, a former Fellow of Harvard 
College, New England, having been ordained by the Bishop 
of London, began work amongst them, but he died in the 
following year. Mr. Warren, who began work in 1769, 
baptized about 100 Indians and Mestizos, who included 
the Moskito king and queen and three or four of their sons. 

Mr. Stanford, a few years later, baptized 120 Indians 
and negroes. The Spaniards eventually ousted the mission- 
aries and put an end to their work. In 1840 an applica- 
tion for missionaries was received by the S.P.G., but it 
proved impossible to make any response. In 1848 the 
young king of the Moskitos was confirmed by the Bishop 
of Jamaica. A large portion of the Moskito territory has 
now been absorbed in the republic of Nicaragua, and some 
missionary work has been done at Eama. The Anglican 
Church is also represented at Greytown. 

In British Honduras British adventurers from Jamaica 
settled about 1638. In 1862 Belize, as the settlement 
had hitherto been called, became the colony of British 
Honduras. In 1776 the Rev. R. Shaw, a representative 
of the S.P.G., started work amongst the English settlers, 


but very little was done for the Indians till 1836, when 
a school for their children was erected at Belize. In 1891 
an Anglican Bishop of Honduras was appointed. In 1894 
a mission to the Caribs was started at Stann Creek. 

In Panama a large number of West Indian labourers 
have been employed, who are all nominal Christians. 

Guatemala was annexed to the Crown of Spain in 1523. 
In 1536 Las Casas reached Guatemala from Nicaragua 
and helped to organize missionary work amongst the 

Its subsequent religious history has been similar to 
that of Mexico and of Central America. Protestant 
Missions are carried on by American Presbyterians, by the 
Central American Mission, and by the Pentecost Bauds. 

In Costa Rica Protestant Missions are represented by 
the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, the Central 
America Missionary Society, and the Jamaica Baptist 
Missionary Society. 


When Cortes, the conqueror of Mexico, interviewed the 
Mexican ruler Montezuma, he declared that his object, 
and that of his fellow-countrymen, was to spread the light 
of Christianity far abroad and to open to the people a full 
participation in the blessings which it would bring. 
Eef erring to the siege of the city of Mexico, which took 
place in 1521, his biographer writes: 

" There can be no doubt that Cortes, with every other 
man in his army, felt he was engaged in a holy crusade, and 
that, independently of personal considerations, he could not 
serve Heaven better than by planting the Cross on the 
blood-stained towers of the heathen metropolis." 1 

This belief, whilst it does not excuse the countless 
atrocities and massacres which accompanied the conquest 
and settlement of Mexico, enables us to acquit the con- 
querors of conscious hypocrisy. 

1 Conquest of Mexico, by W. H. Prescott, bk. vi. cli. iii. 


The judgment which Prescott passes upon Cortes 
might be passed upon many of the conquerors of South 
America and the West Indies. He writes : 

" When we see the hand red with the blood of the 
wretched native raised to invoke the blessing of Heaven on 
the cause which it maintains, we experience something like 
a sensation of disgust at the act, and a doubt of its sincerity. 
But this is unjust. We should throw ourselves back into 
the age the age of the Crusades. . . . Whoever has read 
the correspondence of Cortes . . . will hardly doubt that 
he would have been among the first to lay down his life for 
the faith. He more than once perilled life and fortune and 
the success of his whole enterprise by the premature and 
most impolitic manner in which he would have forced con- 
version on the natives. To the more rational spirit of the 
present day it may seem difficult to reconcile gross devia- 
tions from morals with such devotion to the cause of 
religion. But the religion taught in that day was one of 
form and elaborate ceremony." 1 

Throughout Mexico the work of conversion was as 
rapid as it was superficial. Twelve Franciscan friars 
arrived in 1524. Nine years later one of their number 
declared that nine million converts had been received into 
the Christian fold, a number which was probably in excess 
of the total population. 

Helps, referring to the success attained by the 
Franciscan missionaries as described by the Bishop of 
Mexico in 1531, wrote : 

"Five hundred temples have been thrown down, and 
20,000 idols broken in pieces or burnt. In place of these 
temples have arisen churches, oratories, and hermitages. 
But as the good bishop says, that which causes more 
admiration is that whereas they were accustomed each year 
in this city of Mexico to sacrifice to idols more than 20,000 
hearts of young men and young women, now all those 
hearts are offered up, with innumerable sacrifices of praise, 
not to the Devil but to the Most High God." 2 

1 Ibid. bk. vil ch. v. 

3 The Spanish Conquests in America, vol. iii. p. 300. 


The lapse of centuries has brought little or no im- 
provement in the religious ideals or practices of the 
Mexicans. Abbe Dominic, chaplain to the Emperor 
Maximilian, said that Mexican Christianity was, and had 
been from the beginning of the Spanish conquest, a baptized 

The Presbyterian Church U.S.A. North, the A.M.E.C., 
the A.B.C.F.M., and several smaller missionary bodies 
support work amongst people all of whom are nominally 

In 1869 the Eev. H. A. Kiley of the American Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church arrived in Mexico. About this 
time several Roman priests had seceded or been driven out 
from their Church, and these, with the help of Mr. Riley, 
formed a congregation and began to organize missionary 
work in different parts of Mexico. Mr. Eiley was conse- 
crated as Bishop in 1879, but resigned in 1884. The 
Rev. H. D. Aves was consecrated in 1904. Work is 
carried on at about 60 different centres, and the number 
of baptized Christians is about 3500. The work is carried 
on amongst English, Mexicans, and Indians. 


THE population of South America to-day is reckoned at 
about 50,000,000, of whom 30,000,000 are aboriginals 
or of mixed descent. The population of the several states 
is as follows : Brazil, 20,515,000 ; Argentine, 6,989,023 ; 
Peru, 4,500,000 ; Colombia, 4,320,000 ; Chili, 3,500,000 ; 
Venezuela, 2,685,606; Bolivia, 2,267,935; Ecuador, 
1,500,000 ; Uruguay, 1,112,000, and Paraguay, 800,000. 

It is not possible within the limits of our space to 
provide even an outline sketch of the conquest of South 
America by Spain and Portugal in the sixteenth century, 
nor to give in any detail an account of the nominal spread 
of the Christian faith throughout the continent. A few 
outstanding events connected with the latter will be 
found under the different provinces. 

To the student of missions the missionary work which 
was attempted in South America during the sixteenth 
century makes sad reading. Apart from that which was 
done by the Jesuits, who were expelled in 1760, it was, 
with few exceptions, founded upon physical force and of 
a wholly superficial character, the result being that after 
three centuries of nominal Christianity any conversion of 
its peoples which will involve the practice of the elementary 
teaching of Christianity lies still in the seemingly distant 
future. The religious conditions which prevail in the 
different states of South and Central America differ to a 
certain degree, but what is true of one state is as a 
general rule true of the country as a whole. 

We realize and we thank God for the good work 
which B.C. missions have done and are doing in many 



parts of the world, but our appreciation of this cannot 
blind our eyes to the fact that in Central and South 
America the missions of the E.G. Church have proved an 
almost complete failure. We will quote the words of a 
few RC. writers, all of whom would presumably be pre- 
judiced in favour of the work which is now being carried 
on by their Church. 

Cardinal Vaughan, after visiting South America, wrote 
thus of what he saw in New Granada : 

" The monks are in the lowest state of degradation, and 
the suppression of them would be an act of Divine favour. . . . 
Priests scandalize the people much by cock-fighting. I have 
been several times told of priests taking their cocks into the 
sacristy, hurrying disrespectfully through their mass, and 
going straight off from the altar to the cock-pit. They are 
great gamblers." L 

The Archbishop of Caracas and Venezuela, in a pastoral 
letter published in a leading newspaper of Caracas, writes : 

" The clergy have fallen into profound contempt because 
of events which have placed them on the declivity which 
leads to all manner of failure. There are no calls for the 
clergy, and this contempt for them, so general, is one cause 
for this lack. Impotence, sterility, decadence, moral and 
spiritual . . . these form the true and striking picture 
presented to all who deign for a moment to contemplate 
it. ... Why does ignorance of religion continue to brutalize 
and degrade more and more these people ? Why exist so 
many parishes which are true cemeteries of souls dead to 
God ? " 2 

Father Sherman, a RC. priest, sou of the famous 
General Sherman of the U.S.A., said, after visiting Porto 
Kico : 

"Religion is dead on the island. Whether it can be 
revived as a living influence is highly problematical. . . . 
The non-observance of the sanctity of Sunday, the number of 
illegitimate children exceeding that of the legitimate, the fact 

1 Life of Cardinal Herbert Vaughan, by Cox, p. 125. 

2 "El Constitucional," December 7, 1908, quoted in South American 
Problems, by Speer, p. 162. 


that concubinage is said to be common and is not sufficiently 
discountenanced, either legally or socially . . . the prevail- 
ing distrust of the priesthood, among whom concubinage is 
the rule and not the exception, the decreasing influence of 
religion, the ethical status of the Roman Church, sunk lower 
oftentimes than the atheism which surrounds it, such are 
the dark lines which portray the condition of that portion 
of America which is under undisputed Eoman sway." * 

To the above witnesses we will add one more, whose 
name will carry equal weight in England and America. 
Sir James (now Lord) Bryce writes of South America as 
a whole : 

" Another fact strikes the traveller with surprise. Both 
the intellectual and the ethical standards of conduct of these 
countries seem to be entirely divorced from religion. The 
women are almost universally the ' practising ' Catholics, and 
so are the peasantry, though the Christianity of the Indians 
bears only a distant resemblance to that of Europe. But 
men of the upper or educated class appear wholly indifferent 
to theology and to Christian worship. It has no interest for 
them. They are seldom actively hostile to Christianity, 
much less are they offensive when they speak of it, but they 
think it does not concern them, and may be left to women 
and peasants. ... In the more advanced parts of South 
America it seems to be regarded merely as a harmless Old 
World affair which belongs to a past order of things just 
as much as does the rule of Spain, but which may, so long 
as it does not interfere with politics, be treated with the 
respect which its antiquity commands. In both cases the 
undue stress laid upon the dogmatic side of theology and the 
formal or external side of worship has resulted in the loss of 
spiritual influence. In all the Spanish countries the Church 
had trodden down the laity and had taken freedom and 
responsibility from them more than befell anywhere else in 
Christendom, making devotion consist in absolute submission. 
Thus when at last her sway vanished, her moral influence 
vanished with it. This absence of a religious foundation for 
thought and conduct is a grave misfortune for Latin 
America." 2 

1 Quoted by Bishop Kinsolving in The East and The West, April 1903. 

2 South America, Observations and Impressions, by Sir James Bryce, p. 

582 f. 


It would be easy to quote many similar testimonies, 
but these will serve to indicate, what few who know South 
America would attempt to deny, that the RC. Church is 
less worthily represented there than it is in any other part 
of the world. Even in cases and thank God there are 
many such in which the priests are men of unblemished 
character, the teaching which they are authorized by their 
superiors to give to the people is far removed from the 
teaching of the early Christian Church. It has been 
said, and the statement is by no means unfounded, that 
Mariolatry is the practical religion of South America. In 
the wall of the ancient Jesuit church in Cuzco are cut the 
words, " Come unto Mary, all ye who are burdened and 
weary with your sins, and she will give you rest." 

Bishop Kinsolving of the American Episcopal Church 
in Brazil writes : 

" In the interests of Mariolatry, or at least without the 
protest of the dominant Church, there is in South America 
an ethical status more detrimental to pure morals and more 
dishonouring to Christ than is found in open paganism." 1 

Our object in referring to the failure of the E.G. 
Church in South America is in no sense controversial. We 
do so partly in order to appraise the missionary methods 
which were adopted three centuries ago and which to a 
large extent are still followed, and partly in order to justify 
the attempts which have been made within recent years 
by Anglican (i.e. American Episcopal) and Protestant 
missions to appeal to those who are already Christians in 
name. It is distressing to note how largely the European 
immigrants have drifted away from the E.G. Church of 
which they were at least nominal members before leaving 
Europe. The E.G. Church, moreover, appears to make but 
little effort to minister to their spiritual wants. In the 
whole of the Argentine there were in 1909 less than 
1000 priests for a population of 5,000,000. In Buenos 
Ayres one parish with a population of 130,000 had but 
one priest and two assistants. 

1 Missionary Review of the World, February 1914. 



The state of Bahia was first sighted by the Portuguese 
explorer P. A. Cabral in 1500, but for thirty years 
afterwards no attempt at settlement was made. In 1549 
John in. of Portugal dispatched six Jesuit missionaries 
who were the forerunners of the great army of Jesuits 
that were to follow. The early missionaries had to 
contend as much with the wickedness and immorality of 
the Portuguese adventurers in Brazil as with the ignorance 
and ferocity of the Indians. Amongst the hundreds, or 
rather thousands, of Jesuit missionaries who have laboured 
in Brazil have been very many who have lived heroic and 
apostolic lives and who were privileged to see as the 
results of their labours large tracts of country the degraded 
or even cannibal inhabitants of which had adopted the 
customs of civilized society and whose lives had been 
transformed by the Christian faith. 

Missionaries belonging to the Dominican and Fran- 
ciscan Orders arrived later and shared in the difficulties 
and perils which accompanied the prosecution of the 
Church's work in Brazil, but the chief credit for the good 
work which was accomplished belongs to the Jesuit Order. 
One of the greatest of these missionaries was Joseph 
Anchieta, who reached Brazil in 1553, and laboured for 
forty-four years as a pioneer missionary amidst difficulties 
aud hardships which have seldom been surpassed. At his 
death in 1597 there were in Brazil alone 120 Jesuit 
missionaries. The Jesuits were the only missionaries who 
uniformly opposed the tyranny of the Portuguese and 
strove to protect the Indians from their cruelty. They 
became in consequence extremely unpopular with the 
governing class, and after being twice previously expelled 
from Brazil, were in 1760 finally deported. 428 members 
of the Order were deported with every form of insult and 
indignity. The number expelled from all the Spanish 
Indies was 5677. This expulsion of the Jesuits was a 
blow to the well-being of the native population of Brazil 


from which it never recovered. Mr. Eobert Southey, in 
his History of Brazil, published in 1817, says : " Decay and 
desolation succeeded the prosperity which had prevailed 
in the time of the missionaries ; houses falling to pieces ; 
fields overgrown with wood ; grass in the market-places ; 
the limekilns, the potteries, the manufactories of calico 
introduced by the Jesuits in ruins." It was charged 
against the Jesuits in South America generally that they 
had been mining precious metals by slave labour without 
giving the Government its share. " In the neighbourhood 
of Lima alone, they owned 5000 negro slaves and property 
to the value of 2,000,000 dollars." 1 

The number of Indians now left in Brazil is between 
one and two million. A large number of these live in 
remote parts of Brazil which have never been explored 
by Europeans. The methods adopted by the Jesuits in 
Brazil and in other parts of South America, and the results 
which these methods produced, are well summarized by 
the writer from whom we have just quoted : 

" The Indians were easily induced to conform to the 
externals of the Christian cult. Wherever the Jesuits 
penetrated the aborigines soon adopted Christianity ; but to 
hold the Indians to Christianity, the Fathers were obliged 
to fix them to the soil. As soon as a tribe was converted, 
a rude church building was erected, and a Jesuit installed, 
who remained to teach agriculture and the arts as well as 
ritual and morals. His moral and intellectual superiority 
made him perforce an absolute ruler in miniature. Thus 
that strange theocracy came into being which, starting on 
the Brazilian coast, spread over most of Central South 
America. In the early part of the seventeenth century the 
theocratic seemed likely to become the dominant form of 
government south of the Amazon and east of the Andes. . . . 
The Jesuits gave the South American Indian the greatest 
measure of peace and justice he ever enjoyed, but they 
reduced him to blind obedience and made him a tenant and 
a servant." 2 

1 South American Republics, by T. C. Dawson, ii. 71, 
- Ibid. i. 326. 


Missionary work is now carried on amongst the 
Bororos, the most widely distributed tribe in Brazil, by 
E.G. Salesian priests. Bemuants of the Jesuit missions 
are found at Villa Eica and elsewhere in North-West 

During the last century and a half the moral and 
religious conditions prevailing generally in Brazil have 
become worse and worse. A recent writer on Brazil says : 

" Of the . . . educated only the smallest proportion ad- 
here to any form of religion whatever. Statesmen, lawyers, 
physicians, army and navy officials, have almost to a man 
rejected the historic Christ, and have turned to infidelity 
and Positivism. In one city with a population of 35,000, 
after careful investigation less than 200 could be found in 
full communion with the Eoman Church." 

He quotes the E.G. Bishop of Sao Paulo as saying in 
an official paper : 

"Brazil has no longer any faith. Eeligion is almost 
extinct here." l 

Father Currier, writing in the American Catholic 
Quarterly Review, after admitting the desolate condition 
into which religion had fallen in Brazil, expresses the 
belief that a revival of religion has already commenced. 2 

It is impossible to express in words how great is the 
need of such a revival. 

Protestant Missions in Brazil. 

An unsuccessful attempt was made from Geneva to 
start missionary work in Brazil in the middle of the 
sixteenth century. The Protestant missionaries were at first 
welcomed by a French adventurer, Nicholas Durand de 
Villegagnon, who, however, turned against them after their 
work had been begun. The missionaries were eventually 
expelled by the Portuguese in 1567 (see p. 44). 

1 " Rome in Many Lands," by Isaacson, p. 160. Quoted by R. E. Speer 
in South American Problems, p. 185. 
* July 1910. 


In 1624 the Dutch conquered Bahia and Dutch 
ministers commenced to do missionary work, which was 
interrupted by the capture of the Dutch settlement by the 
Portuguese in 1654. 

In 1835 the A.M.E.C. sent a representative to Eio de 
Janeiro and later on started a mission in the Amazon valley. 

The Presbyterian Church (North) of the U.S.A. sent a 
representative to Brazil in 1859. Its work is now carried 
on in seven of the Brazilian states, the most important 
centre being M'Kenzie College at Sao Paulo, which has 500 
students. The Presbyterian Church (South) of the U.S.A. 
started work in 1869. These two bodies amalgamated 
in 1888, and there are now about 7000 communicants 
attached to the United Mission. 

The A.M.E.C. South and the Southern Baptist Con- 
vention are also represented. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church of America began 
work in Eio Grande do Sul in 1889, and one of their first 
missionaries (the Kev. L. Kinsolving) was consecrated as 
Bishop in Brazil in 1898. 

The Church of England supports chaplains in several 
cities, but their chief duty is to minister to the English- 
speaking inhabitants of these cities. 

The total number of " Protestant communicants " in 
Brazil is about 30,000. 


In 1532 Francisco Pizarro, a Spanish adventurer, 
after several experimental expeditions, seized and eventually 
murdered the Inca of Peru, and in the six following years 
overran the whole country, seeking for gold and other 
treasures. No women came with the early Spanish 
settlers to South America, and a people of mixed blood 
soon arose who now constitute the greater part of the 
South American population. Priests accompanied and 
followed the Spanish conquerors, and the acceptance of 
Christianity was soon forced upon the inhabitants and 
towns were baptized en masse. The description given by 


the Mexican historian, General Vicente Riva Palacio, of 
the introduction of Christianity into Mexico applies 
exactly to its establishment in Peru, and, with but little 
modification, to its establishment in several other states of 
South America. He wrote : 

" The people conquered by the Spaniards in the Indies 
did not have even a remote idea of Christian doctrine or 
Catholic worship, but they looked upon their conversion to 
that doctrine and worship as a necessary consequence of 
their defeat in battle, as an indispensable requisite which 
affirmed their vassalage and slavery to the Spanish 
monarch." l 

There is but little cause for wonder that countries 
which were thus evangelized should remain, after the 
lapse of more than three centuries, in a state of paganism 
which is but partly concealed by a thin veneer of Christian 

The Inca population in Peru at the time of its conquest 
by the Spaniards has been reckoned at from 20 to 40 
millions. Fifty years after its conquest its population 
had been reduced to 8 millions. According to the last 
census taken before the declaration of independence by 
Peru in 1821, the Inca population was 608,999. The 
decrease of population affords smie indication of the 
cruelties practised by the Spaniards on the native popula- 
tion during the long centuries of their misrule. One name 
which shines out in the dark background of the conquest 
and subjugation of Peru is that of St. Francis Solano, who 
laboured as a missionary from 1589 to 1610. He is 
said by his biographer (Courtot) to have converted 9000 
persons in a single day, and was greatly beloved by the 
Peruvians. More than half the population of Peru is of 
pure aboriginal descent and retains the superstitions con- 
nected with its ancient sun-worship. 

The A.M.E.C. has work amongst the E.G. population 
of Peru and a few stations amongst the aboriginal Indians, 

1 Quoted in South American Problems, by Speer, p. 123. 


but there are few states in which so little missionary work 
is being attempted. 

The Regions Beyond Missionary Union supports work 
amongst Indians at Cuzco and an industrial farm in the 
same district. 

Until 1914 the Peruvian Government discountenanced 
the starting of any Protestant mission. When the news 
of the atrocities committed upon the Putumayo Indians 
on the borders of Peru and Brazil reached England in 
1912, an attempt was made by the Evangelical Union of 
South America to start a mission amongst them, but the 
attempt did not prove successful. A Franciscan mission 
has also been attempted. As a result of the barbarous 
treatment of the Putumayo Indians their numbers have 
decreased during the past century from 100,000 to 


Chili was subjugated to Spanish rule and Spanish 
Christianity by Valdivia, one of Pizarro's lieutenants, 
154045. Spanish priests accompanied Valdivia in his 
campaign of conquest, one of whom was appointed Vicar 
of Chili in 1546. 

Its former population of Araucanian Indians has almost 
become extinct, chiefly as a result of alcoholism, which 
is also the curse of the whole population, especially in 
the towns of Santiago and Valparaiso. 

The total number of the Indians is about 100,000. 
The American Presbyterian Church (North) and the 
A.M.E.C. have organized missions amongst the people of 
Chili, and the S.A.M.S. has stations at Cholchol and 
Quepe amongst the Araucanian Indians. The well-known 
Mapuche chief, Ambrosio Paillalef, is a strong supporter of 
the S.A.M.S. Mission. This society has also a medical 
mission at Temuco. At Quepe, which was opened as a 
mission station in 1898, the Indians have been success- 
fully taught farming and carpentering. 



Bolivia was conquered by Pizarro and placed in 
charge of his brother Hernando. According to the last 
census, 903,126 of its inhabitants are indigenous, or 
Indians; 485,293 Mestizos, or of mixed Indian and white 
blood; and 231,088 white. The Jesuits established a 
mission to the Indians on Lake Titicaca in 1577. They 
introduced the printing press in order to provide their con- 
verts with grammars and catechisms in their own language, 
and did much to civilize and raise the Indians. They were 
expelled from Bolivia, as from other parts of Soutli 
America, in 1760. Of the Indians in Bolivia to-day, 9 per 
cent, are " in a full state of barbarism," and cannibalism 
is reported as prevailing amongst them. The Indian 
population is steadily on the increase. 

Of the total population rather more than half profess 
to be Roman Catholics. The rest are pagans, with the 
exception of about 4000 Protestants. The Baptist Con- 
vention of Ontario and the Plymouth Brethren have 
small educational missions. 


The first Spanish settlement which was made in 1536 
was on the site of Asuncion, which is the present capital. 
Its people were regarded by the Spaniards as the most 
" irreclaimable " in South America. The most remarkable 
among the earliest missionaries was the Jesuit Manuel de 
Ortega, who died in 1622, after thirty years of laborious 
and self-denying toil. Another missionary, Christoval de 
Mendoza, who was martyred in 1632, was said to have 
himself baptized 95,000 Indians. Yet another martyr, 
Cyprian Baraza, is reported to have established fifteen 
colonies of Christian Moxos and to have baptized with his 
own hand 110,000 converts. To an Englishman, Father 
Falconer, belongs a share in the honour which is due to 
the pioneer missionaries in Paraguay. He was a Jesuit 


" of great skill in medicine," and founded a mission in 
the Pampas. 

The Franciscans shared with the Jesuits the perilous 
task of endeavouring to convert the Indians. Seldom did 
a year pass for many decades after the work had been begun 
without adding to the list of martyrdoms. One instance 
may suffice to illustrate the heroic courage and faith of 
these missionaries. 

" Gaspard de Monroy, baffled in one of his journeys by 
the obstinate ferocity of an Omagua chief, who not only 
rejected the gospel himself but threatened the most horrible 
death to the missionaries and to all who should embrace 
their doctrine, ... set out alone and entered the hut of the 
savage. ' You may kill me/ said the Father, with a tranquil 
air, as soon as he stood in the presence of the barbarian, 
' but you will gain little honour by slaying an unarmed 
man. If, contrary to my expectation, you give me a hearing, 
all the advantage will be for yourself. If I die by your 
hand, an immortal crown awaits me in heaven.' Astonish- 
ment disarmed the savage, and admiration kept him silent. 
Then, with a kind of reluctant awe, he offered to his unmoved 
visitor a drink from his own cup. A little later he and his 
whole tribe were converted." l 

The ruins of the buildings erected by the Jesuits and 
their converts are still to be seen in Paraguay. 

The Chaco Indians, amongst whom Anglican and 
Protestant missionaries are now working, have maintained 
their virtual independence ever since the first arrival of 
the Spaniards. 

The total Indian population of Paraguay is computed 
at 100,000. 

The Chaco Mission. 

The most successful mission now being carried on in 

South America is that to the Chaco Indians in Paraguay. 

In the region known as the Grand Chaco, which is 

situated in the republics of Argentina, Bolivia, and 

1 Christian Missions, by T. W. Marshall (1863), p. 196. 


Paraguay, there are a large number of Indians who have 
hardly as yet come into contact with Europeans. Captain 
Gardiner travelled in their country, but was not himself 
able to start a mission. In 1888 the South American 
Missionary Society undertook work amongst the Chaco 
Indians in Paraguay, and in the following year Mr. W. B. 
Grubb, who was one of the first missionaries, commenced 
a work amongst them which has been fruitful of mar- 
vellous results. After twenty-one years' work he wrote : 

"During these twenty -one years the average mission 
staff has not numbered five men actually in the field. 
Only four men have exceeded ten years' service, and yet, in 
spite of small numbers and limited means, and the immense 
and varied difficulties which had to be overcome, I leave 
the reader to judge, from the results which I give, whether 
or no we have laboured in vain, whether we were justified 
in our belief that this degraded people could be elevated 
and developed ; and (most important of all in our eyes) 
whether the Lenguas are not only capable of receiving 
Christianity, but of forming a Church which shall be self- 
supporting and, in its turn, missionary. 

" Where formerly it was dangerous for the white man to 
go without an armed party, anyone can now wander alone 
and unarmed, so far as any risk from the Indians may be 
apprehended, over a district rather larger than Ireland. In 
a country where fifteen years ago there weie no tracks other 
than Indian footpaths, resembling sheep-tracks at home, 
now about four hundred and fifty miles of cart-track have 
been made in order that the mission bullock-carts might 
readily traverse the country. Where formerly tribal war 
was common, peace has reigned for many years over a 
district as large as Ireland and Scotland combined. . . . 

" Lastly I come to the Christian Church as the crowning 
effort of all our work. From out of a chaotic mass of savage 
heathenism we have now, by the aid of the Divine power, 
the satisfaction of having admitted by baptism into the 
Church of Christ 149 Lenguas, and of this number there 
are no fewer than 38 communicants. There are, in addition, 
at least an equal number of probationers or inquirers. 
But these figures do not represent the total extent of 
Christian progress. Over a large area the whole tone of 
the people has been changed for a better, the gospel message 


has been clearly delivered, and we can afford to wait in 
patience until the Spirit of God moves them, as He has 
done others. Our business is to plant and water diligently 
and faithfully ; it is God who gives the increase. The 
Church of England Prayer Book almost complete, together 
with the four Gospels, portions of the Epistles and Genesis, 
have been translated and printed in Lengua, and also a 
small Hymnal set to familiar tunes." l 

This mission is now advancing westwards and north- 
wards from the river Paraguay and is starting work on 
the western frontier in the Argentine republic among the 
Tobas, Matacos, Chiriguanos, and other tribes who are 
employed on the sugar plantations. 


Upper Uruguay and the far interior of Southern 
Brazil were the scene of the best work accomplished by 
the Jesuit missionaries. Their work was of a less arduous 
nature than that which was accomplished in Paraguay, to 
which reference has already been made. 

The total population of the province is 1,112,000, of 
whom one-fifth are foreigners. In 1900 there were 
73,000 Italians and 38,000 Spaniards. 

The Anglican Church, the A.M.E.C., and the Lutheran 
Church minister to Europeans in Uruguay. 


In the eighteenth century Argentina formed parb of 
the Spanish viceroyalty which also included Paraguay and 
Bolivia. Its present population of nearly 7,000,000 
includes a large and increasing number of European 
immigrants. Argentina was the first of the Spanish 
colonies in South America to vindicate its independence. 

The A.M.E.C., in addition to its work amongst English- 
speaking people, has missions up the river Parana and in 
several other districts. There are about 30,000 Indians, 
1 See An Unknmvn People in an Unknown Land, by W. B. Gmbb, 1911. 


most of whom have come from Bolivia and the Paraguayan 
Chaco to work in the sugar factories. The South American 
Evangelical Mission and the Christian and Missionary 
Alliance of New York are also represented. 

A new mission has been started by the S.A.M.S. in the 
Argentine Chaco with its headquarters at San Pedro de 
Jujuy, a large sugar estate to which several thousands of 
Indians come annually for the sugar harvest. 

Tierra del Fueyo, which lies at the extreme south of 
Argentina, was the scene of the most romantic mission 
which has been established on the continent of South 
America. Captain Allen Gardiner, an English naval 
officer, in the course of a voyage in 1822 came into 
contact with some of the aborigines of South America, 
and after attempting missionary work in Zululand and 
New Guinea (see p. 310) he succeeded in establishing, 
in 1844, the " Patagonian Missionary Society," which 
afterwards became the South American Missionary Society. 
His two first attempts in Chili and Paraguay ended in 
failure, but, undeterred by the hardships which he had 
suffered, he and six companions sailed for Tierra del Fuego 
in 1850. The whole party were left to die of starvation 
by the hostile aborigines in the following year, and their 
bodies were found in Spaniard Harbour in a cavern, the 
search party having been directed to the spot by a hand 
painted on the rocks on which Ps. Ixii. 5-8 was written: 
" My soul, wait thou only upon God, for my expectation is 
from him." Almost immediately on the reception of the 
news in England a new missionary expedition started 
which established a station in the Falkland Islands. In 
1860, when the mission ship attempted to get into touch 
with the Tierra del Fuegians, the whole crew with one 
exception were murdered. 

In 1868 Bishop Stirling, who was in charge of the 
mission, succeeded in establishing a station at Ushuwaia 
on the mainland, and in 1872 36 Tierra del Fuegians 
were baptized. The station Tekenika, which was established 
in 1888, was for many years the centre of the mainland 


mission. This has now been moved to Douglas Kiver, 
Navarin Island. Charles Darwin, who had visited Tierra 
del Fuego and had tried to get into touch with its in- 
habitants, had expressed the confident opinion that its 
people were incapable of becoming civilized or of being 
Christianized. After interviewing some of the Christian 
converts, he wrote to the S.A.M.S. : " The success of the 
Tierra del Fuego Mission is most wonderful, and charms 
me, as I always prophesied utter failure. It is a grand 
success. I shall feel proud if your committee think fit to 
elect me an honorary member of your society." 

British Guiana. 

British Guiana was first colonized by the Dutch in 
1580, the first English settlement taking place in 1663. 
After being held in turn by Holland, France, and England, 
it was finally ceded to England in 1814. In 1831 the 
three counties named after the three rivers which traverse 
them Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice were united into 
the present British Guiana. Its total population is about 
300,000. In this total are included about 100,000 
Hindus, 10,000 Mohammedans, 40,000 pagans, and 
130,000 Christians, of whom about 40,000 are Eoman 
Catholics. The coast districts are inhabited chiefly by 
negroes, the descendants of slaves who were imported from 
Africa. There are also a large number of Indian and 
Chinese immigrants. 

In 1735 the Moravians began work amongst the 
negroes in Berbice, and later on amongst the Arawaks. 
Their mission was totally destroyed by revolted negroes in 
1763. Another mission amongst the Arawaks, begun in 
1757, was finally abandoned in 1812. 

In 1807 the L.M.S. began work among the plantation 
slaves on the invitation of a Dutch planter. The work 
rapidly spread, but the antagonism of the slave owners, 
which was accentuated by a rising of slaves that took 
place in 18 23, greatly interfered with its progress. Never- 


theless, by 1829 there had been established seven stations 
in Demerara and nine in Berbice, and in 1838 the number 
of the Christians was reckoned at 18,000. The L.M.S. 
eventually withdrew, and some of the Christians joined the 
Anglican Church, whilst others formed themselves into a 
Congregational Union. 

In 1815 the Wesleyans started work amongst the 
slaves and later on amongst the East Indian immigrants. 
The " Brethren " have also a mission amongst both negroes 
and East Indians which is carried on from Georgetown. 

In 1829 the C.M.S. began work amongst the Indians on 
the Essequibo and Potaro rivers. This work, which attained 
considerable success, was, however, given up in 1856. 

In 1835 the S.P.G. began work amongst the negroes, 
and the Colonial Government contributed towards the 
extension of the work, which was superintended by 
Dr. Coleridge, the first Bishop of Barbados. In 1840 
Mr. W. H. Brett, a young layman who had been sent out 
by the S.P.G., began work amongst the Arawaks at the 
junction of the rivers Pomeroon and Arapiaco. He was 
ordained in 1842. His work, which was carried on under 
great difficulties, proved at length most encouraging. 
Mr. Brett acted as a pioneer missionary, and drew up a 
grammar and vocabulary for four different languages 
Arawak, Acawaio, Caribi, and Warau. Owing to ill-health, 
he was compelled to return to England for awhile, but 
on his recovery he went back to Guiana, and after a long 
service, extending altogether over forty years, he died in 
1886. He was in a true sense the Apostle to the 
aboriginals of British Guiana. 

Bishop Austin, who was consecrated as the first 
Bishop of British Guiana in 1842, was Bishop for fifty 

The centres of work amongst the aboriginal Indians 
belonging to the Anglican Mission are at Mahaica Creek 
and Demerara Paver in Demerara, Cabacaburi on the 
Pomeroon River, Bartica and Kupununi in Essequibo, and 
Orealla in Berbice. 



The E.G. missions are in charge of the Jesuits. The 
number of " Catholics," including Europeans, is 22,000. 

Work amongst the Chinese has been carried on with 
such success that nearly all the Chinese immigrants have 
become Christians. The work is chiefly supported by the 
S.P.G. The Baptists have also two or three stations. 

Archdeacon Josa writes : 

" Ninety out of every hundred of our Chinese in British 
Guiana are now Christians. What kind of Christians do 
they make ? Not rice Christians. On the contrary, they 
are most liberal contributors to all Church funds. They are 
upright in their dealings, and a Chinese man's word is his 

French Guiana. 

In 1560 the Spanish missionary Sala, together with 
another Dominican Father, entered French Guiana, but 
both were immediately martyred. In 1643 French 
Capuchins repeated the attempt, with a similar result. In 
1639 the Jesuits entered the country at a different point 
and evangelized the Galibis tribe. In 1674, the tribes on 
the coast having been evangelized, three Jesuit missionaries 
started from Cayenne for the interior, and fifteen years 
later they erected a church on the river Kourou. In 1711 
it was stated that five other tribes had become Christian. 
When, however, the Jesuits were banished from South 
America these missions collapsed. In 1852 the Jesuits 
returned and recommenced their work near Cayenne. 

The population, which is about 35,000, includes 
10,000 French convicts. 

Dutch Guiana. 

In Dutch Guiana or Surinam there are about 17,000 
" bush negroes," or aboriginal Indians, about 50,000 negroes 
of African descent, and a number of imported Indian 
coolies. Dutch Guiana was acquired by the Netherlands 
in 1667 and its present population is about 86,000. The 


Moravians l began a mission in 1738 at the mouth of the 
river Berbice in what was then Dutch but is now British 
Guiana. By 1748, 41 Indians had been baptized; four 
years later, chiefly as the result of the labours of T. S. 
Schumann, " the Apostle of the Arawaks," the number had 
risen to 266. Several mission stations were opened, but, 
partly owing to the nomadic tendencies of the Indians, the 
work failed to progress. In 1754 the Moravians started 
work amongst the negro slaves in Paramaribo, which has 
since made slow, but steady, progress. In 1765 two 
missionaries left Paramaribo to start a mission in the 
interior amongst the Saramaccas. By 1818, 9 missionaries 
and 6 wives of missionaries had died at this station, and 
the mission was eventually abandoned. 

The Moravian Church at the present time has missions 
amongst the bush negroes along the Coppename, the 
Saramacca, the Surinam, and the Marowyne rivers. Work 
is carried on at 31 stations and 25 out-stations. There 
are 27 ordained European brethren, and 16 unordained, in 
addition to 8 ordained and 10 unordaiued native brethren. 
The Christian adherents number 30,000. 

Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. 

In 1545 the Spaniards began to establish permanent 
settlements in the interior of Venezuela. Ecuador was 
conquered by one of Pizarro's officers, Benalcazar, in 1534, 
soon after which Pizarro's brother Gonzalo was appointed 
Governor of the province of Quito. In the eighteenth 
century Venezuela formed part of the viceroyalty of New 
Granada, which included also Colombia and Ecuador. 
These three states were the first to assert their independence 
of Spain in 1819. In these states there has been less 
immigration from Europe than in most of the other 
states, and their peoples are more backward and more 
irreligious than any others. A former American Minister 
to Colombia thus describes the attitude of the E.G. Church 

1 See p. 53. 


throughout South America generally during the eighteenth 
century : 

" It had prohibited the teaching of the arts and sciences, 
restricted education to the Latin grammar and the catechism, 
and limited the public libraries to the writings of the Fathers 
and to works on civil and ecclesiastical jurisprudence. It 
had even prohibited the study of modern geography and 
astronomy and forbade the reading of books on travel . . . 
it had placed under the ban Robinson Crusoe, and there had 
never been a book or a magazine or a newspaper in the 
whole country that was not conformed to the strictest rule 
of the Eoman Index." 1 

There is no state in which the E.G. Church to-day 
has exercised, and still exercises, a more complete control 
than it does in Colombia. In the Inquisition at Carthagena 
it is stated that 400,000 have been condemned to death. 

" The moral conditions are the same as elsewhere in 
South America. The control of marriage by the E.G. Church, 
and the use of this control by the priests as a source of 
income to the Church, have resulted, as the priests themselves 
admit, in the failure on the part of great masses of the 
population to get married. Men and women live together 
with no marriage ceremony." 2 

In Colombia there are about 250,000 Indians. There 
is a small E.G. mission amongst the Indians on the Goajira 
peninsula between Colombia and Venezuela, which is under 
the charge of the Capuchin Fathers in Barranquilla. In 
Ecuador, the population of which is about 1,400,000, there 
are about 400,000 of mixed blood and about 200,000 
"civilized Indians." Amongst the remaining 800,000 
Indians the E.G. Church has a few missions, but the 
results are far from being encouraging. 

" The Blessed Peter Claver " is regarded by the E.G. 
Church as the Apostle of Carthageua and Colombia. He 
left Seville in 1610 and laboured in South America for 

1 The Colombian and Venezuela licjntblicfi, by AV. L. Scruggs, p. 128. 
- South American Problems, by Speer, p. 58. 


thirty-nine years. According to his biographers, his life 
was a constant succession of miracles. One of his reputed 
labours was the conversion of 600 Englishmen who were 
captured at sea and brought to Carthagena. 1 

American Presbyterians have started work amongst the 
E.G. population at Barrauquilla at the mouth of the 
Magdalena Eiver and several other centres. 

In Venezuela the U.S.A. Presbyterians and the 
" Brethren " have preaching centres and other work at 
Caracas. The Christian and Missionary Alliance and the 
South American Evangelical Mission are also represented. 
Of the total population of Venezuela, which is reckoned 
at 2,685,606, 90,000 are returned as pagans. 

1 Christian Missions, their Agents and their Results, by T. W. Maishall 
(1863), pp. 169-71. 


The Australian Aborigines. 

THE total number of Australian aborigines is reckoned 
by the Government authorities at 74,000. Of these, 
20,000 are found in Queensland, 27,000 in West 
Australia, 16,000 in the Northern Territory, 7370 in 
New South Wales, 3500 in South Australia, and 250 in 
Victoria. The appalling rate at which they have decreased 
may be gathered from the fact that less than one hundred 
years ago the number in Queensland alone was 200,000. 
In 1837 the number in Victoria was reckoned at 15,000. 
The total number of those who are " living in contiguity to 
the settlements of whites," according to the census of 1911, 
is 19,939. Hardly more than 6000 have as yet been 
reached by Christian missionaries. Efforts are now being 
made by the various states to safeguard the interests of the 
aboriginals, but it is doubtful whether a further decrease in 
their number can be prevented. In 1911 the Government 
grants amounted to 68,120, and in addition a distribu- 
tion of 5000 blankets was made to the aboriginals in 

Early in the nineteenth century, Samuel Marsden, 
a chaplain at Sydney, helped by Governor Macquarie, 
endeavoured to protect the aboriginals from the cruelties 
that were being practised upon them by the early settlers 
and convicts. 

In 1823 the S.P.G. signified to Mr. Hill, a chaplain 
at Sydney, its willingness to assist in establishing a mission 



to the aboriginals in New South Wales, but nothing was 
actually accomplished. In 1820 Archdeacon (afterwards 
Bishop) Broughton put before the clergy in Australia the 
" appalling consideration that after an intercourse of nearly 
half a century with a Christian people, these hapless 
human beings continue ... in their original benighted 
and degraded state." 

In 1825 some L.M.S. missionaries who came from 
Tahiti made several unsuccessful efforts to establish work 
amongst the aboriginals in the neighbourhood of Sydney. 
Mr. L. E. Threlkeld printed a spelling-book and translations 
of some selections from Scripture for some tribes near Lake 
Macquarie, but no permanent work resulted. 

In 1830, in response to a request from the Home 
Government, the C.M.S. sent out two clergy and a farmer, 
and a mission station was opened at Wellington Bay, a 
Government station 200 miles from Sydney. Some good 
work was done, though apparently no aborigines were 
baptized, and in 1842, in consequence of difficulties 
which arose between the C.M.S. and the Government 
authorities, the mission was discontinued. 

The first successful attempt to start mission work 
for their benefit was made, in connection with the 
S.P.G., by Archdeacon Hale of South Australia, who 
started an aboriginal settlement in 1851 at Poonindie 
near Port Lincoln on the Spencer Gulf. Two years 
later, when Bishop Short visited it, the settlement 
consisted of 54 natives, including 11 married couples. 
The Bishop during his visit baptized 10 men and 1 
woman. A period of sickness (1856-58), during which 21 
deaths occurred, was followed by financial difficulties, which 
for several years interfered with the development of the 
mission. By 1863 two natives were able to conduct the 
Sunday morning service. In 1872 Bishop Short reported 
that there was there "a well-ordered community of more than 
80 aboriginals and half-castes . . . living in quietness, 
sobriety, and godliness, employed in the various labours of 
a sheep station and a cultivated farm of 260 acres." 


Many efforts were made from time to time by Anglican, 
Presbyterian, and Wesleyan ministers working amongst 
white people to get into touch with the aboriginals, with 
varying success. Thus the Rev. G. King, whom the S.P.G. 
sent out to Frernantle in West Australia, reported the 
baptism of ten aboriginal children whom he had been 
teaching for some years. Later on four of his aboriginal 
girls were married by the Bishop of Adelaide to four 
aboriginals who had been trained in the Wesleyan school 
at Wonneroo. In 1850 the S.P.G. helped to establish an 
aboriginal school near Albany which was removed to Perth 
in 1859 and to the Swan Eiver in 1876. 

In 1859 the Moravians started a mission to aboriginals 
at Ebenezer in the Wimmera district of Victoria. The 
mission received encouragement and financial support from 
Bishop Perry of Melbourne, and in 1860 the first 
convert was baptized. Encouraged by the success of the 
mission, the Presbyterian Assembly of Australia offered to 
supply funds for another station, if the Moravians would 
supply the missionaries. A station was accordingly 
opened at Kamahyuk, on a native reserve near Lake 
Wellington. The first convert was baptized in 1866. 
Much good work was done at this station, which, in 
consequence of the steady decrease in the aboriginal 
population in Victoria, was eventually abandoned. 

The following are the principal mission stations now 
in existence : 

Yarrabah, 15 miles south of Cairns in North 
Queensland, founded in 1892; Trubanaman, or the 
Mitchell Eiver Mission, on the Gulf of Carpentaria, founded 
in 1905; the Roper River Mission, on the west coast of the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, founded in 1907; the Forrest River 
Mission, in North-West Australia, founded in 1913. 
These four missions belong to the Anglican Church. The 
New Norcia Mission in West Australia, 170 miles north- 
east of Perth, is managed by Trappists belonging to the 
K.C. Church. The Mapoon Mission, founded in 1891, is a 
joint station of the Moravians and the Presbyterians ; and 


the Cape Bedford Mission, north of Cooktown, is supported 
by the Lutherans. 

In Victoria the Presbyterians have a station at 

The German Neuendettelsau Society has a station at 
Elim-Hopc in Queensland and another at Bethesda in 
South Australia. The Australian Imnmnuel Synod 
(German) has also a station in South Australia at New 

To the above list should be added the Moa Island 
Mission in the Torres Straits, belonging to the Anglican 
Church, which was founded in 1907. 

The inhabitants of Moa Island are of mixed aboriginal 
and South Sea Island origin. Another Anglican mission 
is in course of being established at Groot Island in the 
Gulf of Carpentaria. 

The mission at Yarrabah, which is in the diocese of 
North Queensland, was started by the Eev. J. E. Gribble, 
who had previously interested himself in the welfare of 
the natives in West Australia. When he had been three 
months at Yarrabah his health gave way, and his son 
undertook the charge of the mission. After passing 
through several vicissitudes, the mission is now firmly 
established. The Bishop of Carpentaria, after visiting the 
Mitchell Eiver Mission in 1913, wrote concerning it and 
the Yarrabah Mission : 

" There are practically no able-bodied men at the head 
station, which consists of the children of school age, the 
sick, and the aged. The rest are all living in one of the 
eight or nine settlements, from 2 to 12 miles distant, under 
the charge of a native teacher who holds daily service and 
superintends the life of the community. Each family 
cultivates an area of land of its own, planted with fruit 
trees or vegetables, or has a share in a fishing-boat provided 
by the mission on terms by which it becomes his own 
property. The superintendent reports that the amount of 
work done by the natives had enormously increased since 
they have been working for themselves ; while the cost of 
the mission has proportionally decreased. The same plan has 


been followed with even greater success at the Presbyterian 
mission at Mapoon, which was founded about the same time as 
Yarrabah ; and the two form an encouraging ideal towards 
which to work. Such results, however, are only possible 
when a whole generation has been trained up under mission 
influence; and that it should be possible even in a generation to 
convert the aboriginal savage into a working, self-supporting 
tiller of the soil is no small tribute to the missions. 

" If one who was a sceptic in the aboriginal capacity for 
regeneration really desired to be enlightened, a visit to 
Yarrabah would remove the scales from his eyes. Standing 
near a large tree quite close to the beach, he would see a 
rough wooden cross to mark the spot where more than 
twenty-one years ago the Kev. J. R Gribble landed with 
three Christian blacks. To-day he would find a community 
of about 300 Christian blacks, under the direction of six 
white missionaries. He could not remain many hours in 
the place without discovering that savage devil-worshipping 
nomads had been converted into industrious, intelligent, and 
reverent Christians. He would not find that one side of 
their nature had been developed to the exclusion of the 
others. He would acknowledge that the savage had been 
taught to work as he surveyed the crops of maize, taro, 
bananas, casava, and pineapple which he would see at the 
settlements, where neat matting and grass cottages, with 
bright gardens, well-swept paths, and decorated inside with 
gay pictures, show that they have learnt to care for their 
homes." : 

"Work on the plantations," says the Eeport for 1912, 
" has gone on steadily throughout the year. Bananas have 
been sent to Sydney and Brisbane, while sweet potatoes, 
mangrove bark, and fish were sold in Cairns. Quite an 
industry in native weapons and curios has been developed. 
An effort is being made to make the adult natives materially 
independent. Plots of land have been taken up by some, 
others are working on boats. Full market price is given to 
them for produce and fish. Only a few natives in Yarrabah 
itself are now paid wages and given rations. The remainder 
buy their rations and other necessaries by their own 

This description of the Yarrabah Mission applies with- 

1 Australia's Great Need, by C. Toinlin, p. 220 f. 


out any modification to that at Mapoon. This mission, 
which was started in 1890, was staffed by Moravian 
missionaries but is supported financially by the Federated 
Presbyterian Churches of Australia. It is situated on the 
west shore of the Cape York Peninsula in North 
Queensland. James Ward, the first missionary, went 
alone among the natives, knowing that during the previous 
two months they had killed and eaten two white men. 
Again and again he quelled fierce quarrels and restored 
peace in the native camp by fearlessly placing himself 
between the infuriated combatants, taking the spears from 
their hands, and reasoning with them in such English as 
they could understand. Before Ward died, in 1895, the 
mission had been securely established, and is now as 
successful as any aboriginal mission in Australia. The 
number of aboriginals reached by the mission is about 400. 
In the year 19056 the aboriginals at Mapoon con- 
tributed 4 towards the support of foreign missions. The 
Presbyterian Church also supports stations at Weipa 
(1898) and Aurukun (1903), which are chiefly staffed by 
Moravian missionaries, and are situated in the same 
native reserve as Mapoon. There are 3 " ordained 
brethren," 3 missionaries' wives, and 3 native helpers 
connected with the 3 stations. 1 

In the last annual report (1914) issued by the 
Moravian Church the writer deplores, in common with 
other authorities, the decrease in the aboriginal population. 
He writes : 

" In spite of all the care and medical aid of their mission- 
aries, the sad fact remains that the blacks of North Queens- 
land are a dying race. At our stations too the deaths out- 
numbered the births last year. Consumption is among the 
diseases formerly unknown but now brought in by contact 
with the whites. This has taken several of our most 
promising young people." 

The missions on the Mitchell River and the Roper River, 

1 For an account of the Mapoon Mission see The Romantic Story of 
Mapoon, by A. Ward. 


which were founded in 1905 and 1907, are still in the 
pioneer stage, but there seems every prospect that they 
will develop satisfactorily. A church has been built in 
the Mitchell Kiver Mission district and one aboriginal has 
been confirmed. The mission boat Francis Pritt is worked 
by a crew of Mitchell Eiver natives. The influence of 
the mission on the people is steadily growing. They 
are learning the dignity of work and learning also 
that Christianity means character and righteousness of 

The Archbishop of Brisbane, after visiting the Mitchell 
Eiver Mission in 1906, wrote and his words are applic- 
able to nearly all the missions to the Australian aboriginals : 

" These missions are refuting in fact and experience the 
oft-repeated formula that it is impossible to raise the 
Australian aboriginal. The moral of Yarrabah, of Mapoon, 
of Mitchell Eiver is that, given favourable circumstances 
(especially isolation from contact with the whites), the 
Queensland aboriginal is docile, law-abiding, and even quick 
to learn. . . . We wonder whether, if their natural habits 
and characteristics are wisely dealt with, and they are pre- 
served from the contamination of the white man's drink 
and the white man's lust, the extermination of the race is 
after all so near." l 

The Forrest River Mission, which is situated 70 miles 
down the west shore of Cambridge Gulf in the diocese of 
North-West Australia, was established in 1913. It was 
the renewal of an attempt made twelve years earlier to 
start a mission at this place. The staff consists of one 
clergyman and three laymen. It is hoped that it may 
prove possible to open several other stations in this part 
of North-West Australia. 

The mission on Moa Island, which is in the Torres 
Straits, 30 miles north of Thursday Island, was superin- 
tended and developed (190811) by the late Deaconess 
Buchanan, who, though crippled with illness, did a wonder- 

1 "A New Mission to Australian Aboriginals," The East and The West, 
April 1907. 


ful work both amongst the aboriginals and amongst the 
Japanese immigrants. 

" ' Teassher,' as the Moa natives called her, was the only 
white person in the South Sea Island community at Moa. 
There, in her two-roomed grass house, she carried on all 
her work as teacher, priestess, doctor, councillor, and friend. 
The Moa Island Mission will always remain the chief 
monument of her devoted life. In 1910 the Government 
showed their appreciation of the work which she initiated 
by giving a grant of 120 towards the educational work of 
the mission, and by extending the reserve in acknowledg- 
ment of the industry shown by the mission ' boys ' in 
planting gardens. A year or two ago a church, largely 
subscribed for by the contributions of the islanders, was 
opened, and the mission still nourishes under the able 
direction of the present superintendent." L 

The E.G. Church has a mission to aboriginals the 
centre of which is New Norcia, 82 miles from Perth. 
The Benedictine abbey of New Norcia was founded in 
1846 by a Spaniard, Eudesindus Salvado, for the purpose 
of evangelizing the Australian natives. For three years 
its founder lived a nomadic life and ate the same food as 
the savages whom he hoped to influence. In 1849 he 
started for Eome, where he was consecrated as Bishop of 
Port Victoria in North Australia ; but his destination was 
eventually altered, and having obtained forty volunteers 
in Spain, he reached New Norcia again in 1852. With 
their help he built a monastery, a school, and a village, in 
which many of the aboriginals were induced to live, some of 
whom became Christians. Bishop Salvado died in 19 00, in 
the eighty-seventh year of his age and the fifty-first of his 
episcopate. His successor, Abbot Torres, brought out many 
priests to minister both to the aboriginals and to the white 
settlers who had begun to settle in the neighbourhood. In 
1908 he opened a branch mission 2000 miles away in 
the extreme north-west of Australia, which is called the 
Drysdale River Aborigines Mission. This mission was 

1 See Australia's Greatest Need, p. 219 f. 


opened with a party of 15 in charge of 2 priests. 
In 1910 Abbot Torres was consecrated as a bishop. 

An inter-denoininational society called " The New 
South Wales Aborigines' Mission" employs 27 workers 
who labour chiefly in New South Wales but also work 
in West Australia and in the north-west. 

Other non-Christian peoples in Australia include, accord- 
ing to the census of 1 9 1 1 : Chinese, 2 3,000; Hindus, 3000; 
Japanese, 3000; Malays, 1000; and South Sea Islanders, 
2500. As these are widely scattered throughout the 
different states, missionary work amongst them is difficult 
to organize. Good work has been done amongst the 
Chinese immigrants by the Anglicans, Presbyterians, and 
Wesleyans. The writer of this volume was present on 
one occasion when eight Chinese who had been pre- 
pared by a Chinese catechist were baptized in Sydney 
Cathedral. As a result of the Immigration Restriction Act 
of 1901, the number of coloured aliens in Australia fell in 
the course of a decade from 55,000 to 38,000. 

A large amount of good work had been done amongst 
the Kanakas i.e. the immigrant labourers from the 
South Sea Islands before they were excluded by law from 
Australia. Many who have become Christians in Australia 
have returned as supporters of Christian missions to the 
islands from which they came. At the mission which the 
S.P.G. helped to support at Bundaberg in Queensland there 
were in 1891 10,000 men from fifty different islands 
under Christian instruction. 


It is a disgrace to the Christian Church that the 
aboriginal population of Tasmania was exterminated, or 
allowed to die out, before any missionary work had been 
started amongst them. After their numbers had been 
greatly reduced by fighting with the English immigrants, 
they were removed to Flinders Island in the Bass Straits 


in 1835. Here, despite the fact that they were kindly 
treated, they rapidly dwindled in numbers. When Bishop 
Nixon visited them in 1843 there were only 54, and 
four years later they were reduced to 16. The last died 
in 1876. 



THE first missionary to set foot on New Zealand was 
Mr. Wilson of the L.M.S., who spent one night on shore 
there, in 1800, on his way to the Society Islands. The 
Rev. Samuel Marsden, the senior Anglican chaplain at 
Sydney, having made friends with two chiefs who had 
come from New Zealand, appealed to the C.M.S. to start a 
mission there. In 1809 this society sent out a school- 
master, a carpenter, and a shoemaker ; but such was the 
evil reputation for cannibalism of the New Zealanders 
that they had to wait two years before they could get a 
boat to take them there. After a preliminary visit to the 
coast had been made, Mr. Marsden, accompanied by the 
C.M.S. missionaries and the New Zealand chiefs, sailed from 
Port Jackson in 1814, and on Christmas Day of this year 
the first Christian service was held at Rangihona (Bay of 
Islands). Mr. Marsden returned to his work in Sydney 
in the following March. In 1822 the C.M.S. sent out the 
Rev. Henry Williams, and in 1825 his brother William, 
who became the first Bishop of Waiapu. These two brothers 
did much to promote the evangelization of the Maoris in 
the early days of the mission. In 1825 the first convert was 
baptized. Nearly five years passed before a second baptism 
took place. In 1830 an industrial mission was started at 
Waimate, and from this date the mission made rapid 
progress. In 1837 Mr. Marsden paid his seventh and 
last visit to New Zealand, and in 1838 he died. During 
this year the New Testament and the Prayer Book were 
printed in Maori, and the mission was visited for the first 
time by Bishop Broughton of Sydney. In 1839 the New 



Zealand Land Company, which had been formed in 
England, having bought large tracts of land from the 
local chiefs, founded the town of Wellington. In 1840 
the islands became a British colony. 

In 1842 Bishop George Selwyn, the first Bishop of 
New Zealand, was able to say in a sermon preached at 
Paihia : " We see here a whole nation of pagans converted 
to the faith." 

Charles Darwin, after visiting the Anglican mission 
station at Waimate in 1835, wrote: "All this is very 
surprising when it is considered that five years ago nothing 
but the fern flourished here. . . . The lesson of the mis- 
sionary is the enchanter's wand." 

In the course, and as a result, of the second Maori 
war, which lasted with short intermissions from 1860 
to 1870, a great apostasy occurred. In 1864 the Pai 
Marire, or Hau Hau fanaticism, swept over the country. 
It originated in the delusions of a half-witted man who 
declared that the angel Gabriel and the Virgin Mary 
had appeared to him and had promised that the Maoris 
uttering a dog-like cry (Hau Hau) should drive the white 
man into the sea. The new religion was a strange medley 
of Christianity and paganism and contained many con- 

" The abiding presence of the Virgin Mary was promised, 
and the religion of England as taught by Scripture was 
declared to be false and the Scriptures were to be burnt. Yet 
the creed and form of worship adopted included not only 
Romanism but articles from Judaism and the Old Testament, 
to which were added a mixture of Mormoiiism, mesmerism, 
spiritualism, ventriloquism, and some of the worst features 
of the old Maori usage and the days of cannibalism. The 
rites which accompanied these doctrines were bloody, 
sensual, foul, and devilish." : 

During one of the outbreaks which accompanied the 
establishment of this new religion the Eev. C. S. Volkner, 
a C.M.S. missionary, was martyred in 1865. Two-thirds 

1 See Two Hundred Years of the S,P,G., p. 441 f. 


of the Maori Christians abandoned their faith and adopted 
the Hau Hau religion, but their number did not include 
any of the Maori clergy. 

In 1882 the C.M.S. began to withdraw from New 
Zealand and to hand over its work to a special Maori 
Board appointed by the Church of the Province of New 
Zealand. Its grants in support of the work ceased 
altogether in 1903. 

Wesleyan Missions. 

In 1822 the first Wesleyan missionary, the Rev. 
S. Leigh, arrived and started work at Kaeo in the Auckland 
district. Mr. Leigh had previously visited New Zealand 
in 1818 at the request of Mr. Marsden, who desired to 
interest him in missionary work amongst the Maoris. In 
1827 this mission station was destroyed by the chief 
Hongi Hika, and the missionaries retired to Australia. 
Returning in the course of a few months, they established 
a new station at Hokianga. In 1831 they obtained their 
first converts, and in 1834 81 converts were baptized in 
the mission chapel at Mangungu. By 1838 the wor- 
shippers at Mangungu had increased to 1000. In 1844 
a training college was established at Auckland. In 1855, 
when the Australian Wesleyan Conference undertook the 
charge of the mission, the Maori " members " numbered 
3070 and the adherents 7590. The churches used by 
the Maoris numbered 74. When the Hau Hau fanaticism 
spread, the Rev. John Whiteley, who had come out as a 
missionary in 1833, was murdered in 1869 by men on 
behalf of whom he had laboured for so many years. In 
1874 a New Zealand Conference was formed. The work 
amongst the Maoris, which had been seriously interrupted 
by the spread of the Hau Hau superstition, has gradually 
recovered, but the number of Maori Christians connected 
with the missions never attained to its former totals. 
There are now a considerable number of Maoris connected 
with Wesleyan congregations in different parts of New 


Zealand, but there appear to be no definite mission 

In 1844 the Rev. J. Duncan of the Reformed Church 
of Scotland started a Presbyterian Mission in the Manawatu 
district in the North Island. He lived to be ninety-four, 
and died in 1908. Since 1871 the Presbyterian Church 
of New Zealand has been carrying on this work amongst 
the Maoris. At its principal station, Turakina, in North 
Island, it had in 1910 53 Christian adherents and 13 

The total number of Maoris in New Zealand is about 
47,000. About half of these live in the north-west part 
of the North Island, which forms the diocese of Auckland. 
In this diocese there are 51 Maori churches and 221 
Maori lay-readers. Of the Maoris living in this area about 
8000 belong to the Anglican Church, about 3000 are 
Roman Catholics, 2000 or 3000 are Presbyterians or 
Wesleyans, and the rest are heathen or apostates. 

In the diocese of Waiapu, which occupies the eastern 
part of North Island and contains a population of 17,000 
Maoris, there is an Anglican college for Maoris at Gisborne. 
In this diocese there are 27 Maori and 4 English clergy 
working amongst Maoris. The Maori clergy receive 
stipends from funds which have been raised by their own 
people supplemented by grants from the Waiapu Maori 
Mission. The Maoris in this diocese belonging to the 
Anglican Church number about 8000. In the diocese 
of Wellington, which contains 6000 Maoris, 3500 belong 
to the Anglican Church. In the South Island there are 
2500 Maoris, the majority of whom belong to the Anglican 
Church. In the South Island the work amongst Maoris 
is carried on as a rule by the European clergy in con- 
junction with their ordinary parochial work amongst white 
people. There are 43 Maori clergy, who are members of 
the General Synod and have the same status as European 

The Mormons claim 5000 Maori adherents. 


Roman Catholic Missions to the Maoris. 

In 1836 seven members of the Marist Brothers 
landed in the north-west part of the North Island, and they 
aud their successors began work both amongst the 
colonists and the Maoris. By 1850 the number of Maori 
"neophytes" had risen to 5044. In 1853 there were about 
1000 native Christians in the diocese of Wellington. When 
the Hau Hau fanaticism spread in 1860 and the following 
years the R.C. missions were almost completely obliterated. 
The work has been re-started, and steady progress has been 
made within the last thirty years. In the dioceses of 
Wellino-ton and Christchurch there are 19 churches 


served by 7 priests and the number of Christians is about 
2000. In the diocese of Auckland there are about 4000 
Christians, 22 churches, and 16 priests. 

One of the most successful missions to the Maoris in 
New Zealand is that of the E.G. Church on the Wanganui 


The following figures will show the fluctuations of the 


Maori population (the figures include about 3000 half- 
caste Maoris) : 

1891 41,993 

1896 39,854 

1901 43,143 

1906 47,731 

1911 ... . 49,844 

The Government spends about 32,000 per annum 
on the education of the Maoris and its 99 schools are 
attended by 4735 children. 



THE Islands of the Pacific may be classified under three 
-heads : Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia}- Polynesia 
includes the islands south of the Sandwich Islands and 
east of 170 W. ; Melanesia includes most of the western 
islands of the South Pacific west of Fiji ; Micronesia 
lies to the north and north-east of Melanesia. The 
population of the South Pacific Islands is probably under 
2,000,000. The total Christian population is about 
400,000, of whom about 80,000 are connected with the 
K.C. Church. 

Ninety years ago the South Pacific Islands were almost 
entirely heathen and were the home of cannibalism and 
every form of cruelty. To-day, more than 350 are pro- 
fessedly Christian. 


The Hawaii or Sandwich Islands, which were the scene 
of Captain Cook's murder in 1779, contain a population of 
about 170,000. 

The capital of the islands is Honolulu, which is in 
Oahu, one of the four largest islands of the group. In 
1794 the king, Kamehameha, sent a request to England 
begging for Christian teachers, but no response was made. 
The A.B.C.F.M. began work in 1820, which received 
support from the local chiefs and attained such rapid 
success that within fifty years the Christianization of 
the islands was completed. This society, having helped 

1 The three words respectively denote many islands, black islands, and 
small islands. 



to constitute a local Church, withdrew its supervision 
prematurely, with the result that many of the converts 
lapsed and the moral tone of the Christians became 
very unsatisfactory. In 1827 some French RC. priests 
endeavoured to start a mission, but they were banished 
in 1831. In 1839 a E.G. mission was established. A 
large number of the Christians connected with the 
Hawaiian Evangelical Association, which the A.B.C.F.M. 
had established, eventually joined this mission. 

In 1861, as the result of a direct appeal of Kameha- 
meha IV. to Queen Victoria, an Anglican bishop and two 
missionaries supported by the S.P.G. were sent to Honolulu. 
The first person to receive baptism from the Anglican 
missionaries was the queen, who was baptized in 1862. 
At the time when the request for an Anglican mission 
was made by the king, there were 25,000 persons in 
the islands " unconnected with any creed." Work was 
also undertaken by this mission amongst the Chinese 

In 1902 the charge of the diocese and the mission was 
transferred to the American Protestant Episcopal Church. 

The Hawaiian group includes the island of MbloJcai, 
where the E.G. missionary Damien and a Protestant 
minister Hanaloa, after ministering to the lepers, both 
died of leprosy. 

The mixed character of the population of the Hawaiian 
Islands adds greatly to the difficulties with which the 
Christian missionary has to contend. The population 
includes 21,666 Chinese, 79,520 Japanese, 4500 Coreans, 
22,701 Portuguese, 2031 Spaniards, 4896 Porto Eicans, 
14,409 of American, British, and German birth, 26,108 
pure Hawaiians and 11,912 part Hawaiians. There are 
5000 Mormons and 44,000 Buddhists. 

The American Episcopal Mission, besides carrying on 
work amongst the Hawaiians in several of the islands, has 
missions to the Chinese, Japanese, and Corean immigrants. 
The mission to the Chinese, which was begun in 1887, has 
resulted in the ordination of several Chinese clergy, one 


of whom now ministers to the Chinese immigrants in 
Tonga. Japanese work is carried on at Hilo, and is super- 
intended by a Japanese missionary who has been ordained. 
As a result of work amongst the Coreans, over 100 have 
been baptized during the last few years. There are 20 
clergy belonging to the American Episcopal Mission who 
work at 27 centres. 

The missionary enthusiasm of the Hawaiian people 
may be illustrated by the fact that 30 per cent, of its 
native ministry are foreign missionaries and 22 per cent, 
of the Christian contributions in the islands are devoted to 
foreign missions. 

In the Marquesas and Paumotu islands, which lie to 
the south-east of Hawaii, Protestant missions are re- 
presented by the Paris Missionary Society and by the 
Hawaiian Evangelical Association. The E.G. mission, 
which began work in 1848, has 9 priests and about 
2500 Christians. 

The Society Islands. The Tahiti Archipelago, or Society 
Islands, consists of eleven islands, of which Tahiti is the 
largest. The total population is about 30,000. 

When the discovery of Tahiti by Captain Cook became 
known, the Viceroy of Peru sent two RC. priests to start 
a mission there. They remained only ten months, and 
returned to South America in the ship which brought them. 
In 1777, when Captain Cook revisited Tahiti, he saw the 
house which had been erected for them, with a cross 
bearing this inscription, " Christus vincit, et Carolus imperat. 
1776." After seeing this, he wrote in his journal : 

" It is very unlikely that any measure of this kind should 
ever be seriously thought of, as it can neither serve the 
purpose of public ambition nor private avarice, and without 
such inducements I may pronounce that it will never be 

Despite the pessimistic attitude of Captain Cook, the 
reading of his Voyages inspired several Englishmen to 
attempt missionary work in Polynesia and elsewhere. 


The first successful attempt to introduce Christianity 
was made in 1796 by the L.M.S. In this year the mission 
ship Duff landed 18 missionaries, most of whom were 
artisans or mechanics. After enduring many hardships, 
the majority of them retired to Sydney in 1798. Later 
on, when King Pomare, who favoured the Christians, gained 
a victory over his opponents, several of these returned, and 
rapid progress began to be made. 

In the early decades of the nineteenth century many of 
the supporters of missionary enterprise believed that it 
would be difficult, if not impossible, to evangelize savages 
until they had become to a considerable extent civilized. 
In accordance with this belief, the majority of the mission 
workers first sent out by the L.M.S. were mechanics. When 
the L.M.S. ship Duff sailed from London on its first voyage 
the mission party included 4 ministers, 6 carpenters, 

2 shoemakers, 2 bricklayers, 2 tailors, 2 smiths, 2 weavers, 
a surgeon, a hatter, a shopkeeper, a cotton manufacturer, 
a cabinetmaker, a draper, a harness maker, a gentleman's 
servant who had become a tinvvorker, a cooper, and a 
butcher. There were also 3 children. When the Duff 
first visited Tongatabu in the Friendly Islands, it dis- 
embarked 1 mechanics, to begin a " mission of civilization," 
and so prepare the way for missionary work. The C.M.S. 
also began their work in New Zealand by sending out 

3 mechanics (at the suggestion of Mr. Marsden), and several 
years were allowed to elapse before a missionary teacher was 
sent. Subsequent experience has shown that the Christian 
teacher is the best pioneer of civilization, and that civiliza- 
tion which is not the outcome of the acceptance of Christian 
teaching will seldom prepare the way for the latter. 

James Chalmers, who possessed unique experience of 
the iuiluence exerted by the advent of Western civilization 
apart from religious teaching and of the influence exerted 
by Christian missionaries in the South Sea Islands and 
afterwards in New Guinea, once said : " Nowhere have I 
seen our boasted civilization civilizing, but everywhere have 
I seen Christianity acting as the true civilizer." 


How great was the civilizing influence which was 
exerted by the L.M.S. missionaries in the early years of the 
nineteenth century may be gathered from the statement 
made by Commander Duperry, who wrote in 1823 : 

" The missionaries of the Society of London have entirely 
changed the manners and customs of the inhabitants. 
Idolatry no longer exists . . . the bloody wars in which the 
people engaged and human sacrifices have entirely ceased 
since 1816. All the natives can read and write." 

The most renowned missionary in the South Seas was 
John Williams, who began work at Raiatea and made this 
island the starting-point for his extensive missionary 

The E.G. Church started a mission in 1837, and 
partly in consequence of the difficulties which resulted 
from this mission the French Government proclaimed a 
protectorate over the islands in 1842, and finally annexed 
them in 1880. After the annexation the L.M.S. handed 
over its missionary work to the Paris Missionary Society. 

In French Polynesia, i.e. in the Society Islands, the 
Leeward Islands, the Paumotu Islands, the Austral Islands, 
the Ganibier Islands, and the Marquesas, the total 
population of which is about 30,000, there are about 
20,000 Roman Catholics and about 10,000 Protestants. 
The E.C. missionaries, who belong to the Order of the 
Sacred Heart of Jesus and Mary, number 18 and have 
52 schools. The Protestant missions are supported by 
the Paris Society, which has 58 stations, 10 European 
and 44 local workers. The Mormons are active in these 

The Cook Islands lie midway between Tahiti and Samoa. 
The largest, Raratonga, has a population of 7000. Niue, 
or Savage Island, which lies a little to the west, has 
a population of 4000. John Williams, helped by some 
Tahitian teachers, acted as a pioneer missionary in Raratonga. 
The whole group has been evangelized by L.M.S. missionaries 
and many converts from these islands have acted as 


evangelists to other islands. One instance, which is typical 
of many, deserves special mention. Pao, who was born in 
Earatonga, became a Christian as a result of his association 
with a sailor on an American whaler. Leaving Raratouga, 
he landed at Lifu in the Loyalty Islands, 3000 miles dis- 
tant, and springing ashore from a canoe amidst a crowd of 
cannibal savages he called out to them, " Go tell the king 
I am a friend, and have brought him a message from the 
Great Spirit." l When brought before the king, he was asked, 
" Have you seen the Great Spirit ? " " No," replied Pao, 
" you cannot see a spirit." " Then how did you get the 
message ? " inquired the king. " By letter," said Pao, " and 
here it is" producing his New Testament. The king 
received him kindly, but later on Pao was forced to flee 
from the island. However, he was eventually recalled by 
the people, and in the course of a few years the inhabitants 
of Lifu had become Christians. 

The population of the Cook Islands and Niue is 
12,000. In 1909 there were 4407 Church members, 
6885 other adherents, and 32 ordained teachers. Much, 
however, remains to be done, as the moral stamina of 
the population is low even by comparison with that of the 
inhabitants of other islands. Since 1823 the population 
of these islands has decreased by half. 

Tonga. The Tongan group, or Friendly Islands, con- 
sists of about 150 islands, most of which are very small. 
The population forty years ago was about 50,000 ; to-day 
it is about 22,000. In 1797 the L.M.S. ship Duff 
visited Tongatabu. The efforts of the mechanics which it 
disembarked proved unsuccessful, and in 1800 they with- 
drew to Sydney. In 1822 the Wesleyan Methodists 
established a mission which after several vicissitudes became 
firmly established. A great revival in 1834 resulted in the 
general acceptance of Christianity and led to the attempt 
to send the gospel to Fiji. The spread of the Christian 
faith was largely due to the support of the chief Taufaahau 
(afterwards known as King George), who died in 1893, 
1 "Pao, the Apostle of Lifu," The Pacific Islanders, pp. 29-54, 


aged 100. Eventually, however, a " Free Church of Tonga " 
under the patronage of the king was established as a 
rival to the Wesleyan Church, and the majority of the 
people now belong to this Church. 

The E.C. Mission, which was established in 1851, has 
about 2000 members. 

There is also a small Anglican mission which is under 
the charge of Bishop Willis, formerly Bishop of Honolulu. 

Of the Samoan group, three small islands, including 
Tutuila, form a protectorate of the U.S.A. ; the rest 
belonged to Germany until the war of 1914, when 
they were taken over by Great Britain. The population, 
which is now about 35,000, has been steadily decreasing. 
Christianity was first preached in the islands by some 
converted Tongans who had married into Samoan families. 
The first European missionary to visit the islands was 
the Eev. John Williams of the L.M.S., who in 1830 left 
8 Tahitian teachers. In 1836 European missionaries 
were introduced by the L.M.S., and the work rapidly 
developed. In 1835 the first Wesleyan missionaries 
arrived. For some years there was a certain amount of 
misunderstanding between the converts connected with the 
two missions, but the rivalry and disputes have practically 
died out. Samoa is now nominally Christian. The 
L.M.S. returns 8861 members and 28,000 attendants; 
the Wesleyans return 2359 members and 6500 " hearers." 

At the Malua school, which is under the charge of 
the L.M.S. Mission, 1300 men have been trained as 
preachers who have acted as mission agents over a wide 
area. The mission industrial schools are exerting a 
beneficial influence throughout the island. There are 
a large number of Chinese coolies, for whom but little 
has as yet been done by the Christian missionaries. Eobert 
Louis Stevenson is buried at Vailima in Samoa. " Since 
he died, the chiefs of the district have forbidden the use 
of firearms on the hillside, that the birds may sing un- 
disturbed the songs he so loved in life." l 

1 The Call of the Pacific, by J. W. Burton, p. 48. 


The E.G. Mission, which was begun in 1845 
and is under the charge of the Marist Fathers, returns 
7500 Catholics. There are 21 priests, of whom several 
are natives. The Mormons number 300. 

The Fiji Islands, 2 3 in number, have rapidly decreased 
in population since the people came in contact with 
Europeans. In 1850 the population, which is now about 
87,000, was reckoned at 200,000. The people "are of a 
lower grade than the Tongans, Samoans, Tahitians, and 
Maoris. They have not nearly the same intellectual 
development and their civilization is of a coarser order. 
They are in turn superior to the western peoples of New 
Hebrides, New Britain, and New Guinea. . . . Cannibalism 
was an integral part of Fijian life, and the worst forms 
of barbarity found constant expression. This has affected 
not only the mental and moral development of the people, 
but it has weakened and poisoned their physical strength." l 

Christianity was first introduced into Fiji by two 
islanders sent by John Williams from Tahiti. In 1834 
two English Wesleyan ministers from Tonga, together 
with a number of Tongan preachers, arrived. At first all 
went well, but " bloodshed, cannibalism, licentiousness, and 
cruelty were entrenched behind stubborn customs," and a 
series of persecutions followed. One of the first missionaries 
who set foot in Fiji began his work by burying the hands, 
feet, and heads of eighty victims whose bodies had been 
roasted and eaten at a cannibal feast. Gradually, however, 
the new faith spread from island to island, and before 1850 
at least a third of the population had been influenced by 
the teaching of the missionaries. 

At this period the work progressed so rapidly that it 
became almost necessarily superficial. Whole tribes re- 
nounced idolatry in a day, and so great was the number 
of those who became nominal Christians that it was im- 
possible to give them any adequate instruction. Churches 
and mission schools have now been built all over the 
islands, and the vast majority of the people attend church 

1 The Call of the Pacific, p. 8. 


on Sundays and have family worship in their own houses. 
The people are with few exceptions adherents of the 
Wesleyan or of the KG. Church. The adherents of the 
latter number 10,824, but this includes many Europeans, 
Indians, and other South Sea Islanders. 

The E.G. Mission, which was begun in 1863, is staffed 
by 33 priests. 

Many of the Fijian converts connected with the 
Wesleyan Mission have gone as Christian evangelists to 
New Guinea, New Britain, and the Solomon Islands. 

Indians in Fiji. The rapid increase of Indian coolies 
in Fiji, combined with the steady decrease in the native 
population, threatens to result in re-establishing heathenism 
in these islands. The Indians number over 40,000, and 
increase year by year. The immorality and drunkenness 
which in many instances prevail among these coolies render 
it most difficult to prosecute successful missionary work on 
their behalf. In 1897 the Wesleyans made a first attempt 
to work amongst the Indians in Suva, and the Methodist 
Missionary Society of Australasia now supports three 
missionaries amongst them. In 1902 the Eev. H. Lateward, 
who had worked for many years in India in connection 
with the S.P.G., began work amongst the Indians at Labasa. 
In 1908 an Anglican bishop was appointed to superintend 
work amongst the English settlers in Polynesia and to 
develop the mission to the Indian coolies in Fiji. This 
mission is supported by the S.P.G., and work is carried on 
at Labasa and Suva. 

The E.C. Church reaches some of the Indians who 
have settled in Fiji through its schools. 

The Tokelmi or Union Islands, which lie north-west of 
Samoa, were evangelized by L.M.S. missionaries. They 
include the islands of Fakaafo, Nukunono, and Atafu. 


Melanesia, which lies to the west of Polynesia and 
south and west of Micronesia, includes about 250 islands, 


of which the largest are in the Bismarck Archipelago and 
in the Solomon group. The population is reckoned at 
475,000, of whom 141,000 are Christians. Of these 
latter ahout 30,000 are Roman Catholics. 

The Anglican Melanesian Mission has as its sphere of 
work the western islands of the South Pacific from the 
northern New Hebrides to the Solomon Islands inclusive. 

Bishop Selwyn of New Zealand, having visited in 1848 
the islands which now form the diocese of Melanesia, 
decided to open a training school at Auckland, N.Z., and 
to bring to it boys from the various islands which he 
desired to evangelize, who after being taught the Christian 
faith might go back to their homes as evangelists and 
teachers. The method inaugurated by Selwyn has been 
followed by the mission ever since. The first five native 
scholars reached Auckland in 1849, and their number 
rapidly increased. By 1852 the bishop had visited fifty 
islands and had collected forty scholars who spoke ten 
different languages. The island of Mai in the New 
Hebrides sent its chief as one of the scholars. The 
school was for some years held at Auckland during 
the summer and at one of the Melanesian islands during 
the winter. In 1861 John Coleridge Patteson, a Fellow 
of Merton College, Oxford, who had joined the mission in 
1855, was consecrated as Bishop of Melanesia. In 1867 
the school and the centre of the mission were transferred 
to Norfolk Island, its situation rendering it possible to 
maintain the school throughout the whole year. In 1868 
George Sarawia was ordained as the first native deacon 
and stationed on Mota Island. In 1871 the mission 
suffered a serious loss by the murder of Bishop Patteson 
at Nukapu Island, cne of the Santa Cruz group. The 
bishop had visited the island before and had been well 
received, but previous to his last visit a " labour ship " 
had visited the island and had apparently carried off 
forcibly five of the inhabitants. When the bishop landed 
he was murdered and several islanders who accompanied 
him were wounded in revenge for the wrong which had 


been clone by the " labour ship." When his body was 
recovered, a palm frond with five knots tied in its foliage 
lay across the breast. 1 

On the reception of the news in England, great 
enthusiasm on behalf of the mission was called forth. The 
mission was referred to in the Queen's Speech at the open- 
ing of Parliament in 1872. Max Mliller, writing to the 
Times, said : " To have known such a man is one of life's 
greatest blessings " ; the name of Patteson will "live in 

O O * 

every cottage, in every school and church in Melanesia, 
not as the name of a fabulous saint or martyr, but as the 
never-to-be-forgotten name of a good, brave, God-fearing, 
and God-loving man. His bones will not work childish 
miracles, but his spirit will work signs and wonders by 
revealing even among the lowest of Melanesian savages the 
indelible God-like stamp of human nature, and by up- 
holding among future generations a true faith in God, 
founded on a true faith in man." 

Amongst other qualifications which Bishop Patteson 
possessed was a marvellous capacity for learning the 
Melanesian dialects. He was credited with being able to 
speak forty. The multiplicity of these dialects adds greatly 
to the difficulties with which the missionaries working in 
these islands are confronted. 

The S.P.G. issued an appeal for a memorial to Bishop 
Patteson which should endow the bishopric, build a church 
at Norfolk Island, and provide a new mission ship, in 
response to which more than 6000 was subscribed. 

In 1877 John Selwyn, a son of the first Bishop of 
New Zealand, was consecrated as successor to Patteson. 
In 1880 Bishop Selwyn was able to visit Santa Cruz, and 
eventually mission work was established at Nukapu. In 
consequence of ill-health, brought on by his arduous work, 
he was compelled to resign in 1890. 

In 1895, when Bishop Montgomery (then Bishop of 
Tasmania) visited the mission, there were 1 2 European and 

1 This palm frond is now preserved in the chapel of the S.P.G. Mission 


9 native clergy, 8929 baptized Christians, 12,183 scholars, 
122 schools, and 381 teachers. 

In 1912 one of the European missionaries, the Eev. 
C. C. Godclen, was murdered by a native at Opa in the 
New Hebrides. 

In addition to the school on Norfolk Island the 
Melanesian Mission has opened a training centre in the 
Solomon Islands. It is endeavouring to place a resident 
missionary on each of the islands within its sphere of 

The three islands in the Northern Hebrides which are 
under the charge of the mission have in them 2286 
baptized Christians and about 1000 more in the schools. 
In the Banks Islands, where there are but few heathen left, 
there are 3135 baptized and 600 hearers. The last of 
the four Torres Islands has lately accepted Christianity. 
In these islands there are 470 baptized and 100 hearers. 
In Santa Cruz and the Eeef Islands there are only 106 
baptized and 106 hearers. In the Solomon Islands great 
progress has been made, and there are 8415 baptized and 
3000 hearers. 

The present staff of the mission includes 20 European 
and 16 local clergy, 6 laymen and 12 women missionaries. 
There are 350 schools and 760 teachers. 

The population of English-speaking people in the 
islands which are included in the diocese is about 700, 
and the islanders number about 300,000. 

We have so far only referred to the work of the 
Anglican Mission to Melanesia, but the work done by other 
missions has been at least equally productive of results. 
In 1839 John Williams, the well-known L.M.S. missionary, 
to whose work we have already referred, landed in 
Erromanga in the New Hebrides, but he and his companion 
were almost immediately murdered. For many years the 
task of evangelizing these islands proved exceptionally 
difficult, and up to 1856 over 50 missionaries white or 
coloured had died or had been murdered by their in- 
habitants. In 1848 a Presbyterian missionary, the 


Kev. J. Geddie, succeeded in starting work at Aneityum, 
and within ten years this island had not only become 
Christian but had begun to send out native evangelists to 
other islands farther to the north. In 1858 the Eev. 
J. G. Paton of the United Presbyterian Mission started 
work at Tanna, from which he shortly afterwards moved 
to Aniwa, which he lived to see completely evangelized. 

His name is connected with some of the noblest and 
most heroic work that has been accomplished in the 
South Seas, and the record of his life's work has been 
an inspiration to many. In 1906 he wrote : 

"As the results of the missionary work in the New 
Hebrides our dear Lord has given our missionaries about 
20,000 converts, and the blessed work is extending among 
the other cannibals. ... In one year 1120 savages re- 
nounced idolatry and embraced the worship and service of 
Christ. . . . We never baptize and teach afterward, but 
educate and wait till they give real evidence of consecration 
to Jesus Christ, and then, at their desire, baptize and 
continue teaching them to observe in their life and conduct 
all things Jesus has commanded. . . . All of the converts 
attend church regularly. They contributed last year over 
1300 in money and arrowroot, and a number of the islands 
now support their own native teachers." l 

In addition to the islands in the New Hebrides to 
which we have already referred, Erromanga, Efatc Nguna, 
and Tongoa have now become entirely Christian, while 
Futuna, Epi, and Paama are fast becoming Christian. 
In Tanna, Ambrim, Malekula, and Santo the majority of 
the inhabitants are still heathen. 

A Eoman Catholic mission was begun in the French 
New Hebrides in 1887, and a bishop resides at Port-Vil;i. 
The staff of the mission consists of 26 priests and 3 lay 
brothers of the Lyons Society of Mary. The number of 
converts is about 1000. 

The Solomon Islands include several islands of consider- 
able size, namely, Malaita, Guadalcanar, San Cristoval, 
1 The Pacific Islanders, p. 138 f. 


Bougainville, and Bugotu. The first attempt to evangelize 
their inhabitants, who were notorious " head-hunters," was 
made by K.C. missionaries belonging to the Society of Mary. 

In 1845 eighteen missionaries under Bishop Epalle 
tried to evangelize the Solomon group. On December 12, 
the bishop, three priests, and some sailors landed on 
Ysabel, but were suddenly attacked. The bishop was 
killed and one priest and one seaman were dangerously 
wounded. Soon afterwards three priests were killed and 
eaten in San Cristoval, and the work was eventually 
abandoned. It was resumed in 1898, when three priests 
landed at Eua Sura, near Guadalcanal*. There are now 
17 priests and 10 sisters at work in the Solomon group. 

Later on the Solomon Islands became one of the chief 
spheres of work of the Anglican Melanesian Mission. The 
proposed transfer of the centre of this mission from Norfolk 
Island to the Solomon group should do much to strengthen 
and develop its work. The Methodist Missionary 
Society has had work in the island of New Georgia since 
1902, and the South Sea Evangelical Mission, which is 
chiefly supported by the " Brethren," has work amongst 
the Kanakas who have been repatriated from Australia. 
Comparatively little work, however, has been done in 
the Solomon group, and of the total population of about 
180,000 only 10,000 have as yet been influenced 
by Christian missionaries. In Mala, the most populous 
island, the majority of the inhabitants are still cannibals. 
Guadalcanal and San Cristoval are also heathen. Bugotu 
is mainly Christian and Gela is at least nominally Christian. 
Many of the Kanaka labourers who had been evangelized 
whilst working in Queensland have helped to spread the 
Christian faith in the islands to which they have returned. 


The principal groups of islands which are included in 
Micronesia are the Gilbert, Ellice, Marshall, Caroline, and 
Ladronc or Marianne Islands. The first two groups are 


British and the last three were German prior to 1914. 
Guam, in the last group, belongs to the U.S.A. 

The Protestant missions throughout Micronesia are 
carried on by the A.B.C.F.M. at 67 stations. This society 
employs 25 American and 200 native missionaries. 
There are altogether about 20,000 professed Christians, 
rather less than half being communicants. The L.M.S. 
has a station in the Ellice Islands. 

The E.G. missions are carried on by the Order of the 
Sacred Heart. 

Of the 30,000 Christians in Micronesia about 18,000 
are Protestants and 12,000 Eoman Catholics. 

Since 1852 missionary work has been carried on 
throughout a great part of Micronesia (with the exception 
of the Ladrones) by the Hawaiian Evangelical Association, 
which is under the superintendence of the American 
Board. The work is mainly conducted by local teachers, 
of whom about 30 are ordained. They are superintended 
by 9 American missionaries. 

The Gilbert Islands, which lie across the Equator, contain 
a population of 25,000. The islands north of the Equator 
were evangelized by the A.B.C.F.M., the first of whose mission- 
aries began work in 1857. Christianity was first preached 
in the Ellice Islands, which lie to the south of the Gilbert 
Islands, by a native, Elikana, in the employ of the L.M.S., 
who, after drifting in a canoe for eight weeks a distance of 
1800 miles from the Cook Islands, landed with four others 
at Nukulaelae. He was kindly received by the inhabitants, 
to whom he preached the Christian faith with great success. 

All the islands in these two groups have now been 
evangelized. On Ocean Island the A.B.C.F.M. has started 
a training school for native teachers. The Marshall 
Islands include 24 lagoon islands, of which the most 
important are Ebon and Joint, and have a population of 
about 15,000. The centre from which the missionary 
work in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands is superintended 
is Kusaie in the Carolines. 

The Caroline Islands number about 500 and contain a 


population of about 140,000. They were annexed by Spain 
in 1686, but practically abandoned by her until 188 5, when 
Protestant missionary work had been established in them. 
The first Protestant missionaries sent by the A.B.C.F.M. 
arrived in 1852. A large amount of good work had been 
accomplished in Kusaie, Ponape, and other islands, but on the 
arrival of the representatives of the Spanish Government 
the mission schools were closed, the church services were dis- 
continued, and the people were encouraged to manufacture 
intoxicating drinks. In 1890 the mission buildings were 
destroyed and the missionaries were banished. In 1900, 
when the islands were ceded to Germany, the Protestant 
missionaries were allowed to return, and since then the work 
has made good progress. 

In the Ladrone Islands, which contain a population of 
about 2000, the only missions are those of the K.C. 
Church, except in the island of Guam. 

In 1668 the Queen Regent of Spain sent missionaries 
to evangelize the Ladrones. The seven missionaries who 
reached Guam in 1669 " taught and baptized 6000 persons 
during the first year." Their leader was killed after three 
years for baptizing the chief's child without his consent. 
The Ladrone Islands eventually became nominally Christian, 
but the conversion of its peoples was of a superficial 
character, and many heathen superstitions survived. More- 
over, the acceptance of Christianity failed to effect any 
great improvement in the moral character of the people. 
On June 24, 1908, the U.S.A. took possession of Guam, and 
in 1900 missionaries sent by the A.B.C.F.M. arrived. The 
work which they have initiated has already met with 
considerable success, and although it has been bitterly 
opposed by the representatives of the E.G. Church, it has 
reacted beneficially upon the E.G. Mission. More instruc- 
tion is now being given to the people by the E.G. mission- 
aries and a higher standard of conduct is being inculcated. 
The population of Guam is about 10,000, of whom 7000 
live in the capital, Agana. A large number of the 
inhabitants are of mixed Spanish descent. 


New Caledonia, which is the largest island in the 
South Seas, with the exception of New Guinea, has for 
many years been used by the French as a convict settle- 
ment. Its population includes 16,000 aboriginal in- 
habitants and about 3000 Japanese. The French E.G. 
Mission is under the charge of the Marist Fathers. There 
are 48 missionary priests who minister to 11,500 non- 
European Catholics. 

There are also a French Protestant mission and a small 
Baptist mission. 

The Bismarck Archipelago, which lies to the east of 
New Guinea, became a German protectorate in 1884. 
The largest island in the archipelago is New Britain 
(re-named by the Germans New Pomerania), which has a 
population of about 190,000, of whom about 500 are 
Europeans. Since 1875 the Australian Wesleyans have 
carried on missions, chiefly staffed by evangelists from 
Fiji and Tonga, in the islands of New Pomerania, New 
Lauenburg, and New Mecklenburg. The pioneer of the 
mission was Dr. George Brown, who, with his baud of 
Christians, landed on the Duke of York Island, which 
was inhabited by cannibals. Three of the Fiji Christians 
were killed and eaten, but their places were immediately 
filled by eager volunteers. After less than forty years' 
work the mission was able to report 189 churches, 
200 catechists and teachers, 3600 full members, and 
21,000 adherents or hearers. The Christians, who are 
extremely poor, contribute nearly 2000 per annum 
towards the support of the mission work. At the George 
Brown College at Ulu 80 students are being trained 
to become preachers or teachers. In the mission schools 
instruction is also given in various forms of industrial 

A E.G. mission was started in 1889 and entrusted to 
the missionaries of the Sacred Heart of Issoudun. There 
are 28 missionaries, 40 brothers, 27 sisters, and about 
15,000 Roman Catholics. 

Of the total population of the archipelago, about 



210,000, only 40,000 are at present reached by the 
Wesleyan and E.G. missions. 

E.G. Missions. The following table shows the number 
of E.G. dioceses or bishoprics in the South Seas : 




Marianne and Caroline Islands 




Guam .... 




New Pomerania . 




North Soloinan Islands 




South Solomon Islands 




New Hebrides 




New Caledonia 




Marshall Islands . 




Gilbert Islands 




Fiji ... 




Oceania, Central . 


28 1 


Samoa ... 


24 1 


Sandwich Islands 




Marquesas Islands 




Tahiti ... 




Including four native priests. 


New Guinea, or Papua, as. it is now commonly called, 
was discovered by the Dutch in the fourteenth century. 
In 1848 they took possession of its western half. In 
1884 the eastern part was divided between Great Britain 
and Germany, and in 1906 the British portion was 
transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia. 

In British New Guinea missionary work was begun 
by the L.M.S. in 1871. In the first instance, native 
Christians who had volunteered for this hazardous enter- 
prise from Lifu, Samoa, Niue, and Earatonga were stationed 
at selected points. 

The heroic deeds done by the native Christians would 
take long to recount. When an invitation was given to 
the Christians in Lifu to take part in the mission, every 
student in the missionary college and every teacher in 


the island volunteered. During the first twenty years 
of the mission 120 Polynesian teachers died of fever, or 
were poisoned, or murdered. It would be hard to find a 
parallel to their self-sacrifice in the whole history of 
Christian missions. 

In 1874 the Rev. W. G. Lawes, the pioneer of the 
L.M.S. Mission, settled at Port Moresby, where he was 
joined by the Eev. James Chalmers in 1877. Chalmers, or 
" Tamate," as the islanders called him, had already worked 
for ten years on Raratonga Island before coming to New 
Guinea. Here he acted as a pioneer and organizer, and 
soon gained a marvellous influence over the fiercest and 
least approachable of the local tribes. "No white man 
had ever had a more wide and varied knowledge of the 
mainland of New Guinea, or visited more tribes, or made 
more friends, or endured more hardships, or faced more 
perils." : 

On April 7, 1901, he landed at the Aird River with 
a colleague, the Rev. Oliver Tomkius, and twelve students, 
when the whole party were killed and eaten by the in- 
habitants. R. L. Stevenson had written to Chalmers' 
mother : " I shall meet Tamate once more before he 
disappears up the Fly River, perhaps to be one of the 
unreturned brave : he is a man nobody can see and not 
love. He has plenty of faults like the rest of us, but he 
is as big as a church." 

In 1881 the first converts of the L.M.S. Mission were 
baptized, and since then steady progress has been main- 
tained. The sphere of the L.M.S. Mission is the south 
coast of British New Guinea. There are 15 English 
missionaries and 148 local preachers, 1355 church 
members, and about 7000 adherents. At Kwato a suc- 
cessful industrial mission has been established. 

An Anglican mission was established on the north 
coast in 1881, the pioneer missionaries being the Rev. 
A. A. Maclaren and the Rev. Copland King. The first 

1 "James Chalmers, the ' Greatheart ' of New Guinea," by George 
RobsoB, The Pacific Islanders, p. 292. 


station occupied was at Dogura in Bartle Bay. In 1891 
Maclaren died, worn out by his hard and unremitting 
labours. A bishop was appointed in 1897, and the work 
has since steadily expanded. There are 22 European 
missionaries and 29 Papuan teachers, 650 persons have 
been baptized, and there are about 5000 hearers or 
adherents. Two Papuans have been ordained. 

A Wesleyan mission was commenced in 1881 on the 
islands off the south-east coast, the first island to be 
occupied being Dobu. Several of the missionaries had 
already had experience of missionary work in Polynesia. 
The work has made steady progress, and there are now 
6 missionaries, 7 lay missionaries, 74 Papuan preachers, 
909 church members, and 22,000 attendants at public 

A E.G. mission was begun in New Guinea in 
1889, when a Vicar Apostolic was appointed. He was 
assisted by priests, brothers, and sisters belonging to the 
Order of the Sacred Heart of Issoudun. In British New 
Guinea there are 26 missionaries, 21 brothers, 38 sisters, 
and 1500 Catholics. 

In German New Guinea a mission which was started 
by the Lutheran Church in 1880 has a staff of 18 clergy 
and one medical missionary. It reports 850 members 
and 300 scholars in its nine schools. 

In Dutch New Guinea, the E.G. Mission, which was 
started in 1889, became a separate vicariate in 1902. Its 
staff consists of 20 Fathers and 15 lay brothers belonging 
to the Order of the Sacred Heart, and 10 sisters belonging 
to Our Lady of the Sacred Heart. The Eoman Catholics 
number about 3500. 

Some Dutch Protestant ministers have endeavoured to 
evangelize the inhabitants at three or four places on the 



REFERENCE has already been made to the missions to 
Moslems which are being carried on in different parts of 
the mission field, but it may be well to add a few notes 
dealing with these missions as a whole. 

Distribution of the Moslem population. 

According to the latest estimates made by Dr. S. M. 
Zwemer and Professor D. Westermann, the total population 
of the Moslem world is about 200,000,000, and is distri- 
buted as follows : 

In Europe there are 2,373,676, most of whom are to 
be found in Turkey, Austria-Hungary, and the Balkan 

In the Russian Empire there are about 20,000. 

In South America there are 159,511, principally in 
Brazil, British and Dutch Guiana, and Trinidad. 

In Africa there are 42,000,000. About half of these 
are north of the twentieth parallel of latitude, but Islam 
is encroaching upon the pagan tribes, and in South Africa 
has already 53,000 adherents. 

In Asia the following countries are wholly Moham- 
medan : Arabia, Persia, Afghanistan, Bokhara, Khiva, 

The number in China is uncertain, and is somewhere 
between 5,000,000 and 8,500,000. 

In India there are 66,577,247; in Malaysia, 


In Australia there are 19,500 ; and in the Philippine 
Islands, 277,547. 

Of the total Moslem population over 167,000,000 
were under Christian rule at the outbreak of the 
European War. The estimated total (200,000,000) is 
nearly 30,000,000 less than that given at the Cairo Con- 
ference, and is 100,000,000 less than that given by the 
Moslem press of Cairo, but it is based for the most part 
on official government statistics, and is a more accurate 
estimate than either of the latter. 1 

Early missionaries to Moslems. 

John Damascene (d. 754), who held office under the 
Caliph of Damascus, wrote a book entitled The Superstition 
of the Ishmaelitcs. Al Kindi wrote (circ. 830) an Apology 
for Christianity, which has often been translated and circu- 
lated by Christian missionaries. Petrus Yeuerabilis, a 
Benedictine abbot of Clugny (d. 1157), translated the 
Koran and pleaded for a translation of the Bible into 
Arabic. He condemned the Crusades, and wrote : " I come 
to win the Moslem, not as people oft do with arms, but 
with words ; not by force, but by reason ; not in hatred, 
but in love." 2 St. Francis d'Assisi (d. 1226) sailed to 
Egypt in 1219 and endeavoured to preach the Gospel to 
the Sultan, El Kamil, but with no apparent success. 
Eaymoud Lull, who was born in Majorca in 1235, was 
inspired by the example of Francis d'Assisi to become a 
missionary to Moslems. For many years he laboured in 
vain to persuade the representatives of the Church, the 
Pope included, that the policy of the Crusades was anti- 
Christian, and to interest them in schemes for developing 
missions to Moslems. Having purchased a Moslem slave, 
he studied Arabic with his assistance for nine years. He 
afterwards preached for two years in Tunis, where he was 
imprisoned, sentenced to death, and finally banished. 

1 See The Moslem World, April 1914. 

See The Reproach of Islam, by W. H. T. Gairdner, p. 224. 


Later on he spent a year and a half at Bugia in Algeria, 
where he made several converts. Here he was again 
imprisoned, and eventually deported to Italy. Returning 
again to Bugia when eighty years of age, he encouraged 
his converts for a year, but was eventually stoned to death 
by a mob in 1315. l 

We have already referred to the attempt made by 
Ignatius Loyola to preach to Moslems in Jerusalem (p. 69), 
and to the work of Geronimo Xavier at the court of Akbar 
in North India at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century (p. 77). 

Modern Missions to Moslems. 

Early in the nineteenth century Henry Martyn en- 
deavoured to preach to Moslems in India and in Persia 
(p. 84). His work in Persia was eventually taken up and 
continued by Pfander and others (p. 273). 

References to the missions to Moslems which are being 
carried on in Persia, Asia Minor, North, East, and West 
Africa, India, Arabia, and Malaysia will be found under 
these several countries. Judged by visible results, the 
missions in Java and Sumatra, where there are now over 
40,000 converts from Islam, have been the most successful. 
The most important mission from a strategic standpoint is 
perhaps the C.M.S. mission at Cairo. The missionaries 
here are brought into touch with Moslem students, who 
come from many lands to attend the great Al Azhar 
University. " There," writes Mr. Gairdner, " you see black 
Sudanese from Hausaland or the Gambia river, browny- 
yellow skinned Maghrabis from Morocco, fair piuk-and- 
white Turks from Stamboul, almond-eyed Mongoloids from 
far Russian Siberia and Turkestan, and many more. In the 
memory of living men no Christian could do so much as 
enter that place ; now they enter unmolested. Students 

1 For a sketch of his life and writings see Raymond Lull, First Missionanj 
to the Moslems, by S. M. Zwemer, 1902, and Raymond Lull, the Illuminated 
Doctor, by W. T. Barber, 1903. 


and ex-students have been converted to Christ, and not a 
few students have, as they paced or sat apart, studied there, 
not the Koran, but the Injil Yasu' al Masih." l 

The American United Presbyterian Mission has for 
some time past been trying to promote the establishment 
of a Christian university in Cairo, the establishment of 
which would be a great boon to the Christian community 
in Egypt and eventually to the cause of missions. 

An American professor who has made a special study 
of the religion of the Egyptian dervishes has maintained 
that Sufi mysticism, by which many of them have been 
deeply influenced, " has come to be really the ultimate, the 
final basis for all thoughtful religion in Islam." 2 Even if 
this statement be correct, it does not indicate that the 
task of the Christian missionary is likely on this account 
to become less arduous than it has been in the past. 

It has, indeed, been suggested that inasmuch as love 
occupies the central place in Sufi mysticism, this form of 
Mohammedan teaching may eventually serve as a bridge 
between Islam and Christianity. This might be the case 
were it not for the pantheistic tendencies of Sufi mysticism. 
The Sufi mystic seeks God within himself and finds Him 
everywhere, and God ceases to be a personality. Although 
he acknowledges an obligation to love his neighbour 
because God is present in him, he loves himself because he, 
too, is part of the divine being. The most unsatisfactory 
outcome of the teaching of Sufi mysticism is that the 
mystic regards himself as not only above all ceremonial but 
above all moral law. It is obvious, therefore, that although 
in individual cases the constant contemplation of the love 
of God may help to render intelligible the doctrine of the 
love of God revealed in Christ, it is not likely that the 
spread of Sufi doctrines, whether in Egypt or India, will 
pave the way for the spread of Christian missions. 

In view of the close connection between politics and 
religion which exists in the minds of Moslems, the loss of 

1 The Reproach of Islam, p. 268 f. 

3 Aspects of Islam, by D. B. Macdonald, 1911, p. 149. 


political power by Moslem rulers which has recently 
occurred is likely to have a profound influence upon the 
prestige of Islam. The French occupation of Morocco, 
the Italian conquest of Tripoli, the Anglo-Eussian agree- 
ment in regard to Persia, the defeat of Turkey by the 
Balkan States, and, lastly, its suicidal participation in the 
European War, followed by the dethronement of the Khe- 
dive, constitute a series of events without parallel in the 
history of Islam. The Amir of Afghanistan is now the 
only really independent Moslem ruler in the world, and 
the population over which he rules is probably less than 

During the greater part of the time which has elapsed 
since the establishment of modern Christian missions, 
India and the Dutch East Indies have been practically 
the only countries in which it has been possible for a 
Moslem to acknowledge himself a Christian without facing 

o o 

the almost certain prospect of being murdered. Even in 
India the converts from Islam have, as a general rule, had 
to submit to the loss of all their property and of their 
wives and children. The mere fact, therefore, that it is 
not possible to point to the conversion of large numbers of 
Moslems affords no argument that the contest between 
Christianity and Islam has been decided and that Chris- 
tianity has sustained a defeat. We should have much 
less respect for the Mohammedan faith than we now have 
if, with the slight knowledge of Christianity which most 
of its adherents at present possess, any number of them 
were prepared to forsake their ancestral faith in order to 
embrace its rival. That which is calculated to create 
surprise is the measure of success which Christian mission- 
aries have attained in India, and the encouraging prospect 
which is opened before them both there and elsewhere. 

Referring to the prospects of Moslem missions in 
India, Dr. Wherry writes : 

" The accessions from Islam, especially in Northern 
India, have been continuous during all the years since the 
death of Henry Martyn. One here and another there has 


been added to the Christian Church, so that now, as one 
looks over the rolls of Church membership, he is surprised 
to find so many converts from Islam, or the children and 
children's children of such converts. In the North, especially 
in the Punjab and the North-West Province, every congre- 
gation has a representative from the Moslem ranks. Some 
of the Churches have a majority of their membership 
gathered from amongst the Mussulmans. In a few cases 
there has been something like a movement towards Chris- 
tianity, and a considerable number have come out at one 
time. But perhaps the fact which tells most clearly the story 
of the advance of Christianity among Moslems in India, is 
this, that among the native pastors and Christian preachers 
and teachers in North India there are at least two hundred 
who were once followers of Islam." l 

From the returns of the last Indian census it appears 
that the increase in the Mohammedan population through- 
out the Indian Empire during the decade 190111 did 
not quite keep pace with the ordinary increase of the 
whole population. 

Dr. Imad-ud-din, in the course of a paper sent to be 
read at the religious conference held at Chicago, wrote : 
" There was a time when the conversion of a Mohammedan 
to Christianity was looked on as a wonder. Now they 
have come and are corning in their thousands." At the 
end of his paper he appended a list of 1 1 7 converts from 
Islam to Christianity who at that time were occupying 
influential positions in the State or in the Church in India. 2 

The prospect of commending the Christian faith to 
Moslems was never so bright as it is at the present time. 
Dr. Zweiner, one of the best known missionaries to 
Moslems, who is in touch with work amongst them in all 
parts of the world, recently wrote : 

" Without in any way underestimating the new anti- 
Christian attitude of some educated Moslems and the pan- 

1 India and Christianity in India and the Far East, by E. M. Wherry, 
p. 145 f. 

2 A reprint of this paper and of its appendix is given in the C.M.S. 
Intelligencer for August 1893. The author himself belonged to one of the 
most illustrious Mohammedan families in the world. 


Islamic efforts of others to oppose Christian missions by 
every modern method of attack or defence, it yet remains 
true that the whole situation is hopeful to the last degree. 
The light is breaking everywhere. There never was so 
much friendliness, such willingness to discuss the question 
at issue, such a large attendance of Moslems at Christian 
schools, hospitals, public meetings, and even preaching 
services as there is to-day. . . . What is true of Egypt is 
true, mutatis mutandis, of Turkey, Persia, India, Algeria, 
and Java, as abundant testimony and recent missionary 
correspondence could show. And what does it all mean ? 
It means that we should press forward with all our might 
plans for the immediate evangelization of these educated 
classes. They are adrift, and the Gospel alone can give 
them new anchorage. . . . They have lost faith in the old 
Islam and reach out to new ideals in ethics. Who can 
satisfy them but Christ ? This is the missionary's supreme 
opportunity. If we can win the leaders of Moslem thought 
now, ' reformed Islam will be Islam no longer,' but an open 
door into Christianity." l 

In support of the above statement, we may note that 
during the year preceding the outbreak of the European 
War, the increase in the number of Moslems attending 
American missionary colleges was 20 per cent, and of 
those attending high schools 40 per cent. 

If it be true, as Dr. Zwerner asserts, that the religious 
influence of Mohammedanism is on the decline, the inference 
is obvious. The declining power of Islam involves the 
increasing responsibility of Christendom. God forbid that 
any one should regard with satisfaction the waning power 
of Islam as a religious factor in the world, or should do 
anything to weaken the faith of a single Moslem in his 
Prophet, who is not himself prepared to offer him what he 
believes to be a truer faith in its place. The task of con- 
verting the Mohammedan world to Christ is indeed a hard 
task but it is not an impossible one. Eight centuries have 
passed since Pope Urban II. stood in the market-place at 
Clermont and explained to the vast assemblage there 
collected the proposal which was then under consideration 

1 See International Review of Missions, October 1914. 


for attempting to crush by force of arms the Mohammedan 
power of the East. As those present listened to his im- 
passioned appeal and to his demand to sacrifice, if need be, 
their lives in the campaign to which he invited them, the 
whole assemblage exclaimed with one voice, " It is the will 
of God." " It is indeed the will of God," said the Pope ; 
" take, then, this word as your battle-cry, and go forth to 
victory in the name of Christ." To those who have ears 
to hear, a call comes not unsimilar to that which shook 
Christendom eight centuries ago, but it is a call to a nobler 
and more difficult crusade than any which the Middle 
Ages conceived, to one, too, which requires no less courage 
and no less perseverance than those which the Crusaders 
displayed, but in the prosecution of which we too may take 
as our watchword with unfailing confidence, " It is the will 
of God." 

In responding to this call and in trying to preach the 
Gospel to Moslems and to explain the half truths of Islam 
in the light of the Christian revelation, we may claim to be 
following in the steps of their own Prophet and to be acting 
in accordance with the spirit by which, at any rate, the 
earlier part of his life was inspired. Voiced by the un- 
conscious needs of the Moslem world comes to the Christian 
Church the appeal to impart to it the knowledge of the 
Christian faith, whicli Mohammed himself never possessed, 
but which, had he possessed it, he would have spent his life 
in proclaiming. 



THE Jewish population of the world is approximately 
12,000,000. Of these over 9,000,000 live in Europe 
(5,000,000 in Eussia, 250,000 in Great Britain) and 
2,211,000 in America. Palestine contains 100,000, New 
York City 1,000,000, London 140,000, Berlin 100,000, 
Chicago 185,000. There are a certain number of Jews 
who are Jews by faith but not by race. The Beni-Israel 
who settled in India in the first century A.D. gained a 
number of converts the descendants of whom are the 
"Black Jews" of Cochin. There are 3000 Karaite Jews 
in the Crimea who are of Tartar origin and a number of 
negro Jews at Loango in West Africa. 

It has often been asserted that no missionary work 
has been less fruitful in result than that which has been 
carried on amongst the Jews. This statement is not, 
however, supported by statistics. Dr. E. Stock writes : 

" Eelatively to the numbers of the Jewish race the con- 
verts are as numerous as those from the heathen and much 
more than those from the Mohammedans. It is estimated 
that quite 250 Anglican clergymen are converted Jews 
or the sons of converted Jews. The London Jews Society 
alone has 93 on its missionary staff. . . . Professor Delitzsch 
estimated that 100,000 Jews had been baptized in the first 
three-quarters of the nineteenth century, and Dr. Dalman of 
Leipsic has remarked that 'if all the Jews who have 
embraced Christianity had remained a distinct people, 
instead of being absorbed by the nations among whom they 



dwelt, their descendants would now be counted by 
millions.' " l 

The chief British societies working amongst Jews are 
the London Society for promoting Christianity among the 
Jews (1809), which supports work in Great Britain, 
the continent of Europe, North Africa, Turkey, Syria, 
Palestine, and Persia ; the Parochial Mission to the Jews 
(18 7 5) and the Barbican Mission, working in East London; 
the Mildmay Mission to the Jews (1876), which works in 
London and abroad ; and the Jerusalem and the East Mission 
Fund (1890), which helps to support the work which is 
superintended by the Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem. The 
above are connected with the Anglican Church. The 
British Society for the Propagation of the Gospel among the 
Jews (1842) is undenominational. There are also four 
societies supported by English, Scotch, and Irish Presby- 
terians, besides a number of very small societies. Some of 
the most fruitful work which is being done amongst Jews 
in England is that carried on as part of the ordinary 
parochial machinery of the many parishes in East London 
which contain a large Jewish population. In the parish 
of Spitalfields, for example, which contains a population of 
19,000, 14,000 are Jews. In this parish and in a 
number of other parishes which contain a similar pro- 
portion of Jews, the " East London Fund for the Jews " 
supports assistant curates, lay workers, both men and 
women, and nurses, many of whom are converted Jews. 
Although the number of conversions is small, the agents 
employed in these parishes can point to a change of 
attitude towards Christianity and a willingness to read the 
New Testament and to attempts to practise its teaching 
which afford solid grounds for encouragement. In the 
U.S.A. and Canada there are 44 societies, but these only 
support 51 stations between them. There are 16 small 
continental societies. The total number of missionaries 
supported by 95 societies throughout the world are about 
500 men and .350 women. 

1 A Short Handbook of Missions, p. ]. r >f>. 


The work accomplished cannot be gauged by statistics. 
Very many Jews on the continent of Europe become con- 
vinced of the truth of Christianity after studying the New 
Testament or as the result of personal intercourse with 
Christian missionaries, but are not baptized until they have 
left their neighbourhood or country. Thus in six years 
(18951901) 582 Jews were baptized in various American 
churches who stated that they had been brought to believe 
in Christ as their Saviour as the result of their intercourse 
with Christian missionaries in Europe. 

Missionary work amongst the Jews is in urgent need 
of expansion. In Eussia and other countries there are 
millions of Jews for whom nothing has been done by 
Christian missionaries. 

Amongst the number of Christian Jews whose names 
have become more or less famous, we may notice Neauder, 
the German theologian and historian (his original name 
was Mende, but on the occasion of his baptism he adopted 
the name Neander, i.e. new man) ; Dr. Edersheim, the 
author of the Life and Times of the Messiah ; Bishop 
Schereschewsky, Bishop of Shanghai, a great missionary 
and translator of the Bible into Chinese ; Hellmuth, 
Bishop of Huron ; Alexander, Bishop in Jerusalem (1841- 
45) ; Eelix Mendelssohn ; Sir William Herschel, the 
astronomer; Sir Francis Palgrave, a poet; Benjamin 
Disraeli ; Sir Arthur Sullivan. 1 

How sadly the Christian Church has failed to recognize 
its responsibility towards the Jews may be inferred from 
the fact that nearly eighteen hundred years were allowed 
to pass before the New Testament was translated into their 
language. It was first published in Hebrew by the 
London Jews Society in 1817. 

Baptisms during the Nineteenth Century. During the 
nineteenth century the number of recorded baptisms was 
as follows : by the Eussian and Oriental Churches, 
74,500 ; by the Eomaii Church, 57,300 ; by the Anglican 
Church, 28,830 ; and by other Christian Churches, 72,740. 
* See Some Great Christian Jews, by Dr. Jas. Littell, Keene, U.S.A. 


The following figures are quoted in Missions to Jews, 1 by 
W. T. Gidney. They relate to baptisms in connection 
with Anglican or Protestant Churches : Germany, Jewish 
population, 560,000 baptisms, 17,520. Great Britain, 
population in 1800, 14,000; in 1900, 250,000 bap- 
tisms, 28,830. Holland, 98,00 baptisms, 1800. France, 
72,000 baptisms, 600. Austria and Hungary, 
1,800,000 -- baptisms, about 9000. Russia, baptisms, 
4136. North America: the Jewish population increased 
from 1000 in 1812 to 2,211,000 at the present time 
-baptisms, 12,000. 

Converts to the E.G. Church. In Germany, 5000; 
Austria and Hungary, 3 6, 200, apart from children of mixed 
marriages; Russia, 12,000; Italy, 300: estimated total 
number of converts, 57,300. 

Converts to the Greek Church In Russia, 69,400 ; 
Austria and Hungary, 200; Roumania, 1500; Turkey, 
3300 : total number of converts received into the Greek 
Church, 74,500. Of this total a very large proportion of 
the conversions were due to political and social pressure 
rather than to any direct religious influences. 

The number of conversions which have taken place as a 
result of Anglican and Protestant missions is much smaller, 
but nearly all have taken place as a result of deep religious 
conviction and in most instances the converts have been 
exposed to serious persecution at the hands of their fellow- 
countrymen. In connection with the work of the L.J.S. 
2150 baptisms have taken place in London between 1809 
and 1910. Over 700 Jews have been baptized in the L.J.S. 
church in Jerusalem. In Persia the rate of conversion 
has been steadily increasing : 1 3 baptisms occurred between 
1880 and 1889, 31 between 1890 and 1899, 55 between 
1900 and 1909. In Teheran 56 were prepared for 
baptism in 1910, of whom 12 were actually baptized. 
1 Tenth edition, pp. 143-46. 



IN the sketch that has been given of the missionary work 
which is being carried on in different countries, attention 
has been drawn to the work and organization of the chief 
missionary societies. In the present chapter we shall 
endeavour to give a list of the largest societies, together 
with a few notes relating to their origin and activities. 
For a further account of the work of any particular society, 
reference must be made to the index under the headings 
relating to the various societies. 

References to societies whose work is confined to a 
particular country, e.g. The China Inland Mission or The 
Universities' Mission to Central Africa, will be found in 
the chapters dealing with the countries in which they are 
at work. An account of the Moravian Missionary Society, 
the New England Company, and the early Danish and 
Dutch Missions is given in the chapter on the " Dawn of 
Modern Missions" (p. 42 ff). 

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts was founded by Eoyal Charter in 1701 with the 
twofold object of ministering to English colonists and of 
converting the heathen to the Christian faith (see p. 58). 
The following are some of its chief centres of work amongst 
non-Christian populations: West Indies (1710), West 
Africa (1751), British Guiana (1835), South Africa 
(1819), India (1820), Borneo (1848), Burma (1859), 
Madagascar (1864), Japan (1873), North China (1880). 

There are (1914) 1291 missionaries on the Society's 
list, of whom 941 (750 Europeans and 241 natives) are 



ordained. Of the ordained missionaries about 300 are 
engaged wholly or in part in ministering to Europeans. 
Its annual income is about 250,000. 

The Church Missionary Society, formerly called The 
Society for Missions to Africa and the East, was formed 
on April 12, 1799. Its first missionaries were sent to 
Eio Pongas in West Africa, the headquarters of this 
mission being subsequently moved to Sierra Leone. The 
following have been the chief centres of the society's work : 
New Zealand (1814), India (1814), Ceylon (1817), Mid- 
China (1844), South China (1862), Japan (1869), Persia 
(1875), West Africa (1845), Uganda (1876), Palestine 
(1851), Egypt (1882), North-West Canada (1822). 

Its medical missions are more extensive than those of 
any other society. Its staff includes 407 English and 
454 other ordained missionaries. Its income is about 
400,000, It has 65 men and 21 women medical 

The Baptist Missionary Society, which was founded on 
October 2, 1792, was the outcome of appeals made 
to his fellow Baptists by William Carey, the converted 
Northamptonshire cobbler, who became its first mission- 
ary. The twelve ministers who were present at its first 
meeting subscribed 13 and drew up its constitution. In 
his account of a subsequent meeting called to consider the 
question of starting missionary work in India, Andrew 
Fuller, its secretary, wrote : " We saw plainly that there 
was a gold mine in India, but it was as deep as the centre 
of the earth. Who would venture to explore it ? 'I will 
go down,' said Carey, ' but you must hold the ropes.' ' The 
chief centres of work are in India (1793), Ceylon (1812), 
China (1877), the Belgian Congo (1877), and the West 
Indies (18 13). 

Its staff includes 191 European and 41 other 
ordained missionaries. Its annual income is about 
90,000. To this should be added the income of the 
Baptist Zenana Society (18,000). 

The London Missionary Society was founded in 1795. 


Amongst its founders and early supporters were many 
Anglican and Presbyterian clergy, but it is now, and has 
for a long time been, chiefly supported by members of 
Congregational or Independent Churches. One of its 
earliest and best known missionaries was the Eev. Eobert 
Morrison, who sailed for Canton in January 1807, and was 
the inaugurator of modern missions in China. Its first 
sphere of work was in the islands of the South Seas (1797). 
Its other chief centres of work are in India (1798), South 
Africa (1799), Central Africa (1877), Madagascar (1818), 
and New Guinea (1871). 

Its staff includes 167 European and 966 other 
ordained missionaries. Its annual income (1914) is 

The Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society was founded 
in 1813. As early as 1760, Gilbert, a slave-owner in 
Antigua, had formed a Methodist society of West Indian 
slaves, which by 1786 had increased to 2000. The Eev. 
Thomas Coke, an Anglican clergyman who had joined the 
Methodists, organized and carried on missionary work in 
the West Indies, and helped to send missionaries to West 
Africa for thirty years before the formation of a mission- 
ary society. At the age of seventy-six he left England 
with 7 missionaries 3 for Ceylon, 2 for India, 1 for Java, 
and 1 for South Africa. He died, and was buried at sea 
on June 1, 1814. On October 6, 1813, the missionary 
society was organized at Leeds. In 1817 work was begun 
in Madras, in 1821 in Mysore, in 1860 in Bengal, in 
1822 in New Zealand, and in the Friendly Islands. In 
1836 was begun the work in Fiji which, after the conver- 
sion of King Thakombau, transformed the whole character 
and appearance of these islands (see p. 452). A number 
of missions have been originated by this society in different 
parts of the world which are now under the direction of 
local or colonial Methodist Conferences. In its missions in 
India and other countries where Europeans reside, the atten- 
tion of its missionaries is divided between the inhabitants 
of the country and the European population. The chief 


fields in which the society labours or has laboured are the 
West Indies, India (1817), Ceylon (1813), New Zealand 
(1818), South Sea Islands (1822), South Africa (1815), 
West Africa (1845), China (1852), and America. The 
affiliated Women's Auxiliary supports women missionaries 
in many of these fields. 

The society has 385 British missionaries (not including 
wives) and 94 unmarried women workers. The number of 
"members "is 129,000, and of baptized adults, 287,000. 
Its staff includes 319 European and 336 other ministers. 
Its annual income is about 160,000, to which should 
be added the income raised by the Women's Auxiliary, 
22,000. It has recently raised a centenary fund of 

Amongst other smaller British Societies the following 
should be mentioned. (In each case the income given in 
brackets is for 1913) : 

Presbyterian Church of England (43,025), Presbyterian 
Church in Ireland (31,782), Welsh Calvinistic Methodists 
(18,283), Primitive Methodist Missionary Society (26,610), 
United Methodist Church Missionary Society (13,519), 
Friends' Foreign Missionary Association (33,000), Sudan 
United Mission (12,223), and the North Africa Mission 

The total raised by British and Irish Societies in 1913 
was 2,046,126. Of this amount, 1,041,543 was 
contributed by the Church of England, 834,509 by 
the Free Churches, 29,205 by the Church of Scotland, 
and 140,869 by the supporters of interdenominational 

In considering the development of missionary work in 
recent times, special reference should be made to the help 
which has been afforded to nearly all missionary societies 
by the Student Volunteer Missionary Union. The British 
branch of this Union was founded in 1892, and afterwards 
became a department of the Student Christian Movement, 
the membership of which consists of about 10,000 students. 
The S.V.M.U. is not a missionary society, but aims at 


creating interest in missions amongst college and university 
students. Its members, who sign a declaration, " It is my 
purpose, if God permit, to become a foreign missionary," are 
encouraged to connect themselves with some existing 
society and to go abroad as its representatives. 

It is hard to estimate the help which this organization 
has afforded in promoting intelligent interest in Christian 
missions at home and in recruiting for the work abroad. 
The number of members of the British section of the 
S.V.M.U. who have already (December 1914) sailed for 
work abroad is 2048. 

The missionary societies in connection with which they 
are working are as follows: Anglican, 487; Wesleyan 
Methodist, 367 ; London Missionary Society, 181 ; United 
Free Church of Scotland, 174; Baptist, 148; Irish 
Presbyterian, 53; Church of Scotland, 55 ; other societies, 
583. A recent publication of the Student Christian 
Movement states : 

" The Movement is seeking to interest in foreign missions 
those who intend to work at home, as, e.g., clergy and 
ministers, business men, doctors, lawyers, engineers, school- 
masters, schoolmistresses, etc. This it does by having 
missionary addresses frequently delivered at its conferences 
and meetings of the Christian Unions, and also by the 
promotion of missionary study. The Movement was the 
pioneer of missionary study in Great Britain, being the first 
organization to appoint a missionary study secretary and to 
publish a missionary study text-book. Its example has now 
been followed by most of the larger missionary societies. 

" Last year there were over 356 missionary study circles 
in the colleges, with a membership of about 2345 students." 

Work of a similar character and on a still larger scale 
is being carried on by the same movement in America. 

Scottish Missionary Societies. 

We have already referred (p. 369) to the Confession 
of John Knox, in which he declared his belief that the 
3 1 


gospel should be preached throughout the whole world. No 
missionary enterprise, however, was attempted for upwards 
of a century. In 1647 the Scottish General Assembly 
recorded a desire for " a more firm consociation for pro- 
pagating it (the Gospel) to those who are without, especially 
the Jews," and in 1699 it counselled the ministers who 
went with the expedition to Darien to labour among the 
heathen. In 1796 the Scottish (afterwards called the 
Edinburgh) and the Glasgow Societies were organized. 
The former society sent out Peter Greig, a gardener, and a 
member of the Secession Church of Donibristle, who was 
murdered in the Fulah country in West Africa, and was 
perhaps the first Protestant missionary martyr. This society 
started missions in India and the West Indies. The Glasgow 
Society started a mission in Kaffraria in 1821. 

In 1825 the Church of Scotland Foreign Missions 
Committee was formed, which in 1829 sent Dr. Duff to 
India. In 1835 this Committee took over the mission 
in India which had been organized by the Edinburgh 
Society. Its chief centres of work are India (1829), 
Blantyre (1874), and China (1878). Its annual income 
is about 30,000. Its staff includes 32 foreign and 15 
other ordained missionaries. 

The Foreign Missions Committee of the United Free 
Church dates from 1843. At the Disruption, Dr. Duff and 
the other missionaries in India became members of the 
Free Church. The Disruption movement served to increase 
interest in foreign missions to such an extent, that in the 
year which followed it the contributions of the members of 
the Free Church alone exceeded those of the entire Church 
before the Disruption by 3600. The chief centres of work 
of this Church at the present time are India, Manchuria 
(1873), Calabar (1846), Kaffraria (1821), Livingstonia 
(1875), New Hebrides (1876), and West Indies. The 
work in the West Indies was taken over from the Edinburgh 
Society in 1847, and that in Kaffraria from the Glasgow 
Society in the same year. (For an account of the Lovedale 
Institution which forms part of this mission, see p. 324.) 


The annual income of this society is about 125,000. 
Its staff includes 117 foreign and 68 other ordained 

The Episcopal Church in Scotland supports missions in 
Kaffraria, and at Chanda in the diocese of Nagpur, North 
Central India. The work in Kaffraria was undertaken at 
the instigation of Bishop Cotterill, who was Bishop of 
St. John's, Kaffraria, and afterwards became Bishop of 
Edinburgh in 1872. 

Other Scottish societies include the Edinburgh Medical 
Missionary Society (1841), which supports work in India 
and Syria, and the Mission to Lepers in India and the East 
(1874), which endeavours to support missions in all lands 
where leprosy is found. 

American Missionary Societies. 

Missions supported in America may be said to date 
back to 1806, when three students Mills, Hall, and 
Eichards held the " Haystack prayer-meeting," and re- 
solved to form a society the object of which should be " to 
effect a mission to the heathen in the person of its 
members." 1 Their desire to be sent out as missionaries 
led to the formation of the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions in 1810, and, later on, to 
the American Baptist Missionary Union in 1814. 

The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions (A.B.C.F.M.) was organized in 1810 by the 
General Association of Congregational Churches of 
Massachusetts. In the following year Judson was sent to 
England to confer with the L.M.S. with regard to mutual 
co-operation, but this was not found to be feasible. In 
1812 its first five missionaries, of whom Judson was one, 
sailed for Calcutta. In 1812 the Presbyterians decided to 
support the A.B.C.F.M., and in 1826 they entrusted to the 
Board their work amongst American Indians. In 1837, 
however, they formed a separate organization for work 

1 See p. 377. 


amongst the Indians, but in 1870 a Board of Foreign 
Missions of the re-united Presbyterian Churches was formed, 
and the Board since then has represented Congregationalists 

Its chief centres of work are : The Marathi Mission 
(1812), the Mission to Tamils in Ceylon (1813), and 
Madura (1834), Micronesia (1852), Asiatic Turkey (1831), 
China (1847), Zululand (1835), Portuguese West Africa 
(1880), Japan (1869). It also supports a number of 
missionaries who work amongst those who are nominally 
Christians in South America, Mexico, Spain, and Austria. 

Its staff of ordained missionaries includes 165 
Americans and 322 others. Its annual income is about 

The American Baptist Missionary Union dates from 
May 18, 1814, and was founded in order to support 
Judson, who had sailed for India as a Congregationalist, 
but prior to starting work in Burma had become a Baptist. 
It received the general support of Baptists in America 
till 1845, when, in consequence of the refusal of the 
Northern Baptists to allow the appointment of slave- 
owning missionaries, the Southern Baptist Convention 
was formed. 

Its chief centres of work are Burma (1813). Assam 
(1836), the Telugu country (1836), China (1842), Japan 
(I860), Congo (1878). 

Its annual income is about 220,000, and its staff of 
ordained missionaries includes 211 American missionaries. 
The society also carries on work amongst Christians in 
Europe and in the Philippine Islands. 

The Southern Baptist Convention supports work in 
China, Africa, and Japan. Its income is about 117,000, 
and its staff of ordained missionaries includes 109 Americans 
and 112 others. 

The missionary organization of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in the United States dates from 1819, but its foreign 
work was only started in 1833. In all countries in which 
there is a Christian population its work is carried on 


simultaneously amongst the white and coloured population, 
and in its returns the two kinds of work are not dis- 
tinguished. Its principal work amongst non-Christians is 
in Liberia (1833), Angola and the Congo district (1885), 
East Central Africa (1901), China (1847), India (1856), 
Japan (1873), Corea(1884). 

A women's auxiliary was formed as early as 1819, but 
did not take any active part in the work of the society till 
1869. Its annual income is about 540,000, but this 
includes a large number of contributions towards the 
support of work amongst European Christians. 

A Board of Missions connected with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church (South) was organized in 1846. It started 
work in China in 1848. One of its missionaries has been 
Dr. A. P. Parker, afterwards President of the Anglo- 
Chinese College in Shanghai. It began work in Japan in 
1886 and in Corea in 1895. Its annual income is about 

The Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A. in 1817 
offered, through Bishop Griswold, to co-operate with the 
C.M.S. of England in sending out missionaries to the 
foreign field, but was urged by this society to organize 
independent work. In 1820 the Domestic and Foreign 
Missionary Society was formed, and in 1835 the Protestant 
Episcopal Church took over the work and became its 
own missionary society. In 1830 work was started in 
Liberia, and in 1850 a bishop of Cape Palmas was 
appointed. Its work was extended to Batavia in 1835, 
and to China in 1837, to Japan in 1859, and to the 
Philippines in 1901. 

Its annual expenditure on work outside the United 
States is about 130,000. It helps to support 11 bishops 
(Cape Palmas, Shanghai, Hankow, Anking, Tokyo, Kyoto, 
Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, Philippine Islands, and Porto 

Its missionary staff includes 60 American and 114 
other clergy. In its mission hospitals 250,000 cases were 
treated in 1913. 


The Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions (North) was 
constituted in 1837, but missionary work had been sup- 
ported by Presbyterians in America at a much earlier date. 
Thus in 1741 the Kev. Azariah Horton was appointed by 
the Presbytery of New York to labour among Indians in 
Long Island, and in 1744 David Brainerd was ordained 
by the same Presbytery (see p. 370). Several other efforts 
were also made to organize work amongst the Indians. In 
1818 the United Foreign Missionary Society was formed, 
the work of which was transferred to the A.B.C.F.M. in 
1826. When the Board was formed in 1837 it received 
support from the Presbyterians who belonged to the " old 
school," whilst the " new school " continued to support the 
A.B.C.F.M. till 1870, when the Board received the united 
support of both sections. The Board is a permanent com- 
mittee of the General Assembly, which supervises and 
controls the missions. It began its work in India, where 
it took over a mission at Ludhiana which had been started 
in 1833. Its chief centres of work at the present time 
are in the Punjab (1846), the United Provinces (1836), 
Western India (1870), Central China (1844), Canton 
(1845), Peking (1863), Shantung (1861), Siam (1847), 
Japan (1859), West Africa (1850), Persia (1870), and 
Corea (1884). 

Its annual income is about 470,000, and its staff 
of ordained missionaries includes 365 foreign and 277 
others. These figures include the support of work carried 
on amongst Christians in South America, Syria, etc. 

The Presbyterian Church in the Southern States formed 
a separate missionary organization on the outbreak of the 
war (1861). Its chief centres of work are in China (1867), 
Japan (1885), Congo (1890), and Corea (1892). Its 
annual income is about 100,000, and its staff of 
ordained missionaries includes 100 Americans and 35 

Amongst other smaller American societies should be 
mentioned the Dutch Reformed Church (1832), which 
supports work in China, Japan, India, and Arabia ; the 


American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions (1871), which 
supports work in Japan and China ; the General Missionary 
Board of the Church of the Brethren (1884), which supports 
work in China and India ; the United Brethren in Christ 
(1853), which supports work in West Africa, China, and 
Japan; the Swedish Missionary Covenant (1885), which 
supports work in China and Alaska ; and the Christian 
and Missionary Alliance, which supports work in West 
Africa, India, China, and Japan. 

Missionary Societies on the Continent of Europe. 

The Berlin Missionary Society, which was founded in 
1824, was the outcome of a missionary training school 
founded by Janicke in 1800. The appeal for funds 
wherewith to found the society was signed by Neander, 
Tholuck, and other well-known writers. It began by 
supporting the Moravian and Basel Missions, but in 1834 
sent out missionaries on its own account. This society 
has kept constantly in view the design of making its 
missions self-supporting by the opening of stores, mills, 
and other enterprises in connection with its mission 
stations. Its chief centres of work are South Africa (1834), 
German East Africa (1891), and China (1846). 

The Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Mission Society was 
founded in Dresden in 1836, but its centre of organization 
was removed to Leipzig in 1846. Its chief centres of 
work are in India (1840) and East Africa (1902). 

The Rhenish Missionary Society was the outcome of a 
missionary union organized by twelve laymen in Elberfeld 
in 1799. It was formed in 1828 at Barmen. Its chief 
centres of work are South Africa (1829), Dutch East 
Indies (1842), China (1846), and German New Guinea 

The Hermannsburg Missionary Society was founded by 
Louis Harms as a private society in 1849, but after his 
death in 1865 it came under the direction of the Lutheran 
" Free Church of Hanover." In the early days of this 


mission efforts were made to establish self-supporting farms 
in connection with the mission stations, but this policy has 
been gradually abandoned. Its chief centres of work are 
in South Africa (1857) and the Telugu country in India 

The Basel Evangelical Missionary Society. In 1730 
the German Christian Society was founded at Basel in 
order " to collect and impart information concerning the 
kingdom of God." Later on it corresponded with the 
L.M.S. In 1815 members of this society and others 
founded a missionary training home in Basel with the in- 
tention of supplying missionaries to some of the English 
missionary societies. In 1821 it sent out its first mis- 
sionaries. The society is undenominational and has re- 
lations with nearly all the Protestant Churches of Central 
Europe. Its chief centres of work are West Africa (1827), 
Western India (1834), and China (1846). 

The Paris Evangelical Mission Society was founded in 
November 1822. After the Eevolution in 1848 the 
support which it received became so small that it had for 
a time to close its missionary training institution, but soon 
afterwards' its work greatly expanded. Its chief centres of 
work are Basutoland (1833), Senegal (1862), the Zambesi 
(1877), French Congo (1887), Tahiti and French Poly- 
nesia (1845), and Madagascar (1902). 

Some particulars in regard to the above missions and 
in regard to the chief missionary societies supported in the 
Netherlands, Scandinavia, and Finland are given in the 
table on the opposite page : 










a 05 

Z2 -*- 1 


Field of Labour. 













China, East and 

South Africa 







South Africa, Dutch 

East Indies, China 














India, East Africa 

Hermaunsburg . 






South Africa, India, 



Paris Society 






Africa, Melanesia, 



Basel Society 






India, China, West 


Mission Romande 






South Africa, East 



Neth. Society 






Dutch East Indies 

Utrecht Union . 




Dutch East Indies, 

Dutch N. Guinea 


Danish Society . 






India, China 

Norwegian Mis- 






South Africa, Mada- 

sionary Society 

gascar, China 

Swedish Mission- 




> * 


Congo, China, Chin- 

ary Union 

ese Turkestan 

Church of Sweden 






South Africa, India, 



Swedish Evangeli- 






East Africa, India 

cal National 


Finnish Mission- 






German South- West 

ary Society 

Africa, China 

Total for all Continental \ 
Protestant Societies 1 j 





1 1914 Reports. 

Roman Catholic Missionary Societies and Associations. 

A considerable extension of the missions connected 
with the E.G. Church dates from the early years of the 
nineteenth century, the missionary activities of the Church 
having been practically dormant during a great part of the 
eighteenth century. The revival of interest in missions 
was greatly assisted by the formation of the Lyons 
Missionary Society. In 1822 "a few humble and obscure 


Catholics " (as they described themselves) founded at 
Lyons an Institution for the Propagation of the Faith, 
their object being not to send out missionaries but to 
collect money to hand to various religious Orders and 
societies. The earliest members of this society were some 
of the women engaged in the silk factories at Lyons. At 
its first meeting twelve persons were present, when a 
priest proposed a resolution to found an association to help 
Roman Catholic missions all over the world. In the 
recent report of the society it is stated : " that the root- 
idea of the organization is due to Pauline Marie Jaricot, 
who formed the girls working in the silk factories of that 
city into groups of apostolic workers for the missionary 
cause. Each group of ten was headed by a promoter who 
collected the halfpenny subscribed by each associate per 
week and in return circulated the news that came from 
the missionaries in response to their zeal and generosity. 

The society was founded by laity, and the administration 
of its funds is almost entirely in their hands. The Pope 
blessed the society in 1823, and by 1843 its income had 
reached 141,000. It then claimed to be assisting 130 
bishops and 4000 priests. The receipts of the society in 
1914 were 324,000. Of the sum received 30,000 was 
contributed towards the support of Jesuit missions. 

As the other societies and Orders which support foreign 
missions do not publish statements of accounts, it is 
difficult to form any estimate of the whole amount con- 
tributed annually by Roman Catholics towards the support 
of missionary work. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century the number 
of the Roman Catholic missionaries hardly amounted to 
1000. To-day there are in non-Christian countries 6000 
European priests, 2400 teaching brothers, and about 
8500 sisters, apart from native workers. 1 The Roman 
Catholic missions are carried on partly by missionary 
societies and partly by religious Orders, and have been, 

1 From these figures at least 10 per cent, ought apparently to be deducted 
(see p. 492). 


to a greater or less extent, under the supervision of the 
Congregation de propaganda Fide at Borne since its founda- 
tion in 1622. The congregation of Lazarists was founded 
by St. Vincent de Paul in 1632 and the Socie'te' des 
Missions Etrangeres in 1663. This latter, which is one 
of the most important of the E.G. missionary societies, 
supports work in Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Burma, and 
South India. The headquarters of both are at Paris. 
Other smaller societies have their headquarters in Italy, 
Belgium, England, and Ireland. Of the religious Orders 
the Anglican Benedictines work in several of the English 
colonies or dominions ; the Capuchins in the Levant, 
Western Asia, North Africa, and South America ; the 
Carmelites in India ; the Dominicans in Turkey and Indo- 
China ; the Lazarists in China, the Levant, Persia, 
Madagascar, and South America ; the Franciscans in 
China, in the Philippines, the Pacific Islands, Egypt, and 
North Africa ; and the Jesuits in all parts of the mission 
field. An English organization entitled St. Joseph's 
Foreign Missionary Society, established in 1870, works in 
Uganda, India, and Borneo. 

The Jesuit Order numbers altogether (1914) 16,735, 
of whom 3619 are serving in foreign missions. Of the 
720 members in the "English Provinces" 110 are serv- 
ing in British Guiana and Zambesiland. 

Among other smaller societies or associations should be 
mentioned the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the 
Immaculate Heart of Mary, the Oblates of Mary Immacu- 
late, the Society of Mary, the Oratorians and Oblates of 
St. Francis de Sales, the Eedemptionists, the Paulists, and 
the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. 

Roman Catholic Missionary Statistics. 

The following statistics relating to Roman Catholic 
missions in non-Christian countries have been condensed 
from the Atlas Hierarchichus issued in 1913 : 





f *<"*TT WFT3 TVQ 























Chinese Empire 







Further India . 







East India Islands 







Oceania . 







India and Ceylon 2 




2,000 ] 

2,146,854 s 


North Africa (East) 4 







North Africa (West) 







South Africa . 





50,000 i 


Central Africa 







African Islands 




467 l 



United States (Indians) 





Totals . 







1 These figures are not given in the Atlas Hierarchichus, but are estimates 
taken from other sources. 

2 The Christians in Ceylon connected with Roman Catholic missions 
number about 350,000. 

3 According to Indian Census Returns. 

4 Including work amongst Europeans in Egypt and Tripoli. 

The figures given above include many priests and other 
workers who are engaged in ministering to Europeans or 
Eurasians in India, South and North Africa, and Oceania. 
These workers constitute from 10 to 15 per cent, of the 
totals given. In the E.G. returns no distinction is made 
between these workers and those who are working amongst 

The amount contributed towards the support of 
E.G. missions in the U.S.A. has increased during the last 
ten years from 9000 to 88,000. During the same 
period the amount contributed in France has fallen from 
163,000 to 118,000. 


IN the preceding pages we have tried to avoid giving any 
missionary statistics which were not necessary in order to 
elucidate the progress of Christian missions. Students of 
missions have learnt by experience how easily statistics 
can mislead, and how poor a test they afford of the depth 
or stability of the work in any given place. Whilst, how- 
ever, the student has need to sift the missionary statistics 
which are available with the utmost care, he cannot afford 
to neglect them altogether, as in many cases they afford 
the only means of estimating the progress of missions over 
a wide area and within any given period. In order that 
we may form some estimate of the missionary prospect 
throughout the world at the present moment, it will be 
well to take note of the latest available statistics which 
relate to the mission field as a whole. Surveying the 
whole field of Anglican and Protestant missions, we note 
that the total sum raised by missionary societies in 
1914 was about 7,000,000. Of this amount, roughly 
speaking, 3,200,000 was contributed in the United 
States, 2,400,000 in Great Britain and Ireland, 900,000 
on the continent of Europe, 250,000 in Canada, 100,000 
in Australia, and the rest in Africa and Asia. To this 
total should be added about 1,500,000 raised in the 
mission field for the support of Christian Churches or for 
the evangelization of non-Christians. The most encourag- 
ing fact revealed by the statistics is the rapid expansion 
of Christian missionary organizations. During the twelve 
years between 1901 and 1913 the contributions more 
than doubled. The increase in the American coutribu- 



tions was greater than it has been in England, but in both 
countries it has been remarkable. Moreover, the increase 
during the five years 190914 has been much more rapid 
than during the earlier years of this period. During these 
five years the total increase was roughly from 5,100,000 
to 7,000,000, i.e. 37'2 per cent., or 7*4 per cent, per 

If we extend our survey of Protestant and Anglican 
missions and take in the whole of the century ending in 
1910, we should find that the contributions towards the 
support of foreign missions increased during this period 

During the period 1900-14 the number of European 
and American missionaries connected with the various 
societies increased from 16,218 to 24,871, and the 
number of local missionaries and mission helpers from 
62,366 to 129,527. Although the contributions raised 
in America exceed those raised in Great Britain by nearly 
50 per cent., the number of European missionaries 
supported by British societies is greater than the number 
of American (U.S.A.) missionaries, i.e. 10,871 as compared 
with 9000, the expenditure in connection with each 
missionary being considerably greater in America than it 
is in England. The following statistics relating to Foreign 
Missions supported in the United States and Canada were 
issued in January 1915 by the Committee on Home Base 
representing the Foreign Missions Conference of North 
America. The total income of American (U.S.A.) Foreign 
Mission Boards during 1914 was $15,449,990, and of 
Canadian missionary organizations $1,250,075. To these 
totals should be added $468,545 contributed for educa- 
tional and medical work in America, and $4,243,967 
contributed in the foreign mission field. In connection 
with the missions supported in the United States and 
Canada, 159,286 persons were baptized during 1914 as 
compared with 121,811 during 1913; there are 606 
colleges, theological seminaries, and training schools, and 
12,969 other schools, with a total attendance of 547,730. 


The foregoing statistics make it clear that, whatever 
criticism may be passed upon the work which is now 
being done by Christian missionaries, it can no longer be 
said that it is being carried on on such a small scale that 
the student of modern history can afford to pass it by. 
To the Christian who contemplates his obligations in the 
spirit of Christ's teaching, the work which is being done 
will appear pitifully minute, but if the influence which it 
is exerting be compared with the other influences which 
are shaping the destinies of nations, it will be seen to be 
both large and intense. 

If we include the missionaries of the Eoman and Greek 
communions, the number of European and American 
workers in the mission field to-day exceeds 50,000 ; 
whilst the number of communicants, or full members of 
the Christian Church, exceeds 7,000,000. Each year, 
moreover, sees the addition by baptism of more than half 
a million members, whilst the number of Christian ad- 
herents in the non- Christian countries which constitute 
the mission field is not far short of 10,000,000. We 
should be the first to deprecate the thought that the 
work of Christian missions can be estimated by figures, 
but in view of the comparative neglect with which such 
work has often been treated, it is helpful to recall the fact 
that if they are gauged by the standards of business life 
they cannot justly be described as devoid of visible results. 

It would be impossible to name any subject other 
than that of foreign missions which so few persons have 
carefully studied, but on which, nevertheless, so many are 
prepared to pass judgment. Careful study may be defined 
as study continued for a space of at least ten years. If 
it be objected that this is a long period to expect a student 
of foreign missions to devote to his subject before we are 
prepared to listen with respect to the conclusions which 
he has to report, we have only to consider the length of 
time which is regarded as necessary to qualify one who 
aspires to be an expert in any other branch of knowledge 
in order to establish the justice of our demand. We 


should listen with undisguised impatience to anyone who 
presumed to criticize and reject the conclusions of his 
predecessors if the subject with which he was dealing 
were the cure of disease, the motions of the stars, or the 
results of historical investigation, or metaphysical specula- 
tion, if he had spent any shorter period in preparing 
himself for his task ; but the globe-trotter, who has 
spent a few days or weeks in examining the methods and 
results of Christian missions, is usually sure of a sympa- 
thetic audience when, on returning from his travels, he 
communicates his discoveries to the world. With what a 
different reception would he meet if, after spending the same 
number of days in examining hospitals, in visiting observ- 
atories, in skimming historical works, or in studying 
metaphysics, he were to presume to speak with authority 
on the results of his investigations ! 

The majority of the missionaries who are in the field 
to-day would welcome an examination of their work at 
the hands of intelligent investigators who possessed some 
knowledge of the history of missions, but, conscious of 
the fact that their methods are the outcome of eighteen 
centuries of experience and that the task on which they 
are engaged, whether viewed from a spiritual, a moral, 
or an educational standpoint, is the greatest which men 
have ever essayed to undertake, they find it hard to be 
patient when the superficial critic presumes to pass judg- 
ment upon their methods or their results. 

What may be termed the sociological results which 
have been achieved by missionaries in non-Christian lands 
have been well summarized by Dr. Capen, a well-known 
student of missions in America. He writes : 

"Missionaries have done much to remove the evil of 
ignorance. They have introduced into the East modern 
medicine, and are treating yearly millions of patients who 
would otherwise be beyond the possibility of relief. Where 
the need is the greatest, they have undertaken to increase 
the industrial efficiency of the Christian community, and 
to prepare Christian leaders for the new industry. In 


various ways they have raised the standard of living among 
the native Christians and those who are under Christian 
influence. Under the impulse of Christianity, woman has 
been coming to her own. Education has provided for her, 
and in Christian homes the wife is becoming the companion 
and helpmeet of her husband, and the intelligent guide and 
teacher of her children. Christianity has emphasized the 
infinite worth of the individual before God, and the Christian 
has come to have a new sense of self-respect, and he stands 
before the community as a free man in Christ. The 
missionary has ever preached and exemplified new standards 
of justice, honour, truthfulness, and purity, and thus person- 
ally, and through those whom he has influenced and trained, 
he has helped to solve both the political and the ethical 
problems of the people among whom he has lived." 1 

In the course of this volume we have referred to 
and endeavoured to illustrate many different methods of 
missionary enterprise, but we can never allow ourselves 
to forget that the supremely important method of missionary 
work is the method of the Incarnation. As Jesus Chri